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Geology, alteration and origin of hydrothermal breccias at the Mount Polley alkalic porphyry copper-gold… Fraser, Theresa M. 1994

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GEOLOGY, ALTERATION AND ORIGIN OF HYDROTHERMAL BRECCIAS AT T H E MOUNT POLLEY ALKALIC PORPHYRY COPPER-GOLD DEPOSIT, SOUTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by T H E R E S A M. FRASER B . S c H , Queen's University, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF SCIENCE in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES D E P A R T M E N T OF G E O L O G I C A L SCIENCES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1994 © Theresa M . Fraser, 1994 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Mount Polley is an alkalic porphyry copper-gold deposit of Lower Jurassic age within the Quesnel terrane in south-central British Columbia. The Mount Polley intrusive complex is assumed to be coeval with the regional Nicola Group volcanic rocks in which it is emplaced. Some volcanic rocks are silica undersaturated, contain feldspathoids and are chemically similar to the plutonic rocks. The Nicola Group rocks have trace and rare earth signatures of a volcanic island arc environment. The Mount Polley deposit is characterized by multiple intrusions that compositionally vary from diorite to crowded plagioclase porphyry to monzonite. Minor intrusion and abundant hydrothermal breccias are emplaced in a northerly trending diorite host. Hydrothermal breccias are the main host to mineralization and are associated with the highest concentrations of copper and gold. Hydrothermal breccias are subdivided into four distinct types based on the dominant hydrothermal mineral in the matrix. Actinolite breccia is developed in an elongate zone within the core of the system; it is parallel and lies east of a north-northwest trending structure, the Polley fault. Actinolite breccia grades laterally and vertically into biotite breccia in the southeastern part of the deposit. Magnetite breccia is irregularly distributed and is relatively sparse. West of the Polley fault, albite breccia is dominant. Pervasive and vein-related alteration correlates with the breccia types. A zonal distribution of alteration minerals has been mapped. The core of the hydrothermal system at Mount Polley is subdivided into three zones: actinolite, biotite and potassium feldspar-albite. The actinolite zone is typified by development of actinolite-pyroxene-magnetite-sulfide veins with potassium feldspar envelopes. A biotite alteration zone is characterized by the formation of secondary, coarse grained biotite within open spaces of the hydrothermal breccias. Arcuate around these two zones is a region of pervasive potassium feldspar and locally intense albitic alteration, generally spatially related to hydrothermal breccias. The margins of the potassic zone are overprinted by a discontinuous zone of calc-silicate minerals. A complicated assemblage of garnet, epidote, albite, potassium feldspar, chlorite, magnetite and sulfides is present. This intermediate zone passes outwards into propylitic alteration. Mineralization is most prominent within hydrothermal breccias and is generally present as disseminations, blebs within the matrix and in abundant veins. Metals are outwardly zoned from a core of chalcopyrite-magnetite-bornite to magnetite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Constant copper-gold ratios indicate that chalcopyrite and gold are probably co-precipitating from the same fluids; the pyrite-dominated assemblage forming at lower temperature. Hydrothermal breccias are genetically related to the emplacement of the crowded plagioclase porphyry melt. Crystallization of the melt was probably accompanied by volatile/aqueous exsolution, foiming a water saturated carapace. Decompression of the chamber in response to magma withdrawal, fracture propagation and possible fault movement may have allowed hydrothermal brecciation to occur at the apex and margins of the intrusion. Alteration and mineralization appears to be controlled by fluids migrating away from the plagioclase porphyry. IV T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii T A B L E OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES viii LIST OF PLATES xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Location, Access and Reserve 3 1.2 Exploration History 5 1.3 Previous Work 6 1.4 Objectives and Methodology 7 2.0 REGIONAL SETTING 9 2.1 Tectonic Setting 9 2.2 Regional Geology..... 12 2.2.1 Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks 12 2.2.2 Intrusive Rocks 14 2.2.3 Structure and Metamorphism 15 2.3 Geochronology 16 3.0 DEPOSIT GEOLOGY 19 3.1 Introduction 19 3.2 Lithologies 19 Volcanic Rocks 22 Pyroxenite 22 Diorite 23 Plagioclase Porphyry 23 Magnetite-Garnet Rock 28 Hydrothermal Breccias 28 Porphyritic Augite Monzodiorite 29 Potassium Feldspar Phyric Monzonite 29 Augite Porphyry Dikes 31 Biotite Lamprophyre Dikes 34 3.3 Whole-Rock Geochemistry 34 3.3.1 Major Element Analyses 35 3.3.2 Trace Element Analyses 42 3.3.3 Pearce Element Ratio Analysis 46 3.4 Mineral Chemistry 57 3.4.1 Pyroxenes 57 3.4.2 Feldspars 62 3.4.3 Amphiboles 66 3.5 Summary and Discussion ...69 V 4.0 HYDROTHERMAL BRECCIAS AND ALTERATION 75 4.1 Introduction 75 4.2 Hydrothermal Breccias 76 Actinolite Breccia 76 Biotite Breccia 79 Magnetite Breccia 81 Albite Breccia 81 4.3 Distribution of Alteration 81 4.3.1 Vein Types 81 4.3.2 Alteration Zones 89 4.3.2.1 Core Zone 91 4.3.2.2 Intermediate Zone 92 4.3.2.3 Peripheral Zone 100 4.4 Metasomatism 101 4.5 Mineral Chemistry 104 Amphiboles 104 Pyroxenes 106 Feldspars 109 Biotites I l l Epidote 112 Garnet 112 Zeolites 116 4.6 Summary and Discussion 119 5.0 MINERALIZATION ...125 5.1 Distribution and Character 125 5.2 Supergene Effects ...128 5.3 Copper-Gold Plots and Ratios 131 5.4 Implications for Mineralization 138 6.0 MODEL DEVELOPMENT 142 6.1 Introduction 142 6.2 Characteristics of Breccias at Mount Polley 142 6.3 Genetic Model of Breccia Development and Alteration 147 7.0 CONCLUSIONS 154 REFERENCES 157 APPENDICES A. GEOCHEMISTRY ANALYSES..... 163 B. E L E C T R O N MICROPROBE ANALYSES 197 C. DETAILED CROSS-SECTION DATA 225 D. MISCELLANEOUS PLOTS AND CALCULATIONS 256 vi LIST O F T A B L E S Table 3.1 Representative microprobe analyses of primary pyroxenes from Mount Polley intrusive rocks 58 Table 3.2 Representative microprobe analyses of primary feldspars from Mount Polley intrusive rocks 63 Table 3.3 Microprobe analyses of primary and secondary amphiboles from the pyroxenite unit 67 Table 4.1 Typical hydrothermal breccia features 77 Table 4.2 Summary of vein assemblages at Mount Polley ..88 Table 4.3 Representative microprobe analyses of vein and breccia amphiboles 105 Table 4.4 Representative microprobe analyses of secondary pyroxenes 107 Table 4.5 Representative microprobe analyses of secondary feldspar and biotite from hydrothermal breccias 110 Table 4.6 Representative microprobe analyses of vein and disseminated epidote 114 Table 4.7 Microprobe analyses of zeolites from Mount Polley 118 Table 6.1 Summary of breccia characteristics and distribution at Mount Polley 143 Table A . 1 Location of geochemistry samples 166 Table A.2 Whole rock chemistry of Mount Polley intrusive and volcanic rocks 168 Table A.3 Analytical standards and summary statistical data 187 Table A.4 Normalization factors for spiderdiagrams 196 Table B . l Summary of minerals analyzed by electron microprobe 200 Table B.2 Microprobe analyses of primary pyroxenes from Mount Polley intrusive rocks 201 Table B.3 Microprobe analyses of primary feldspars from Mount Polley intrusive rocks 207 Table B.4 Microprobe analyses of vein and breccia amphiboles 210 Table B.5 Microprobe analyses of secondary pyroxenes 214 Table B.6 Microprobe analyses of secondary feldspar from hydrothermal breccia 219 Table B.7 Microprobe analyses of biotite from hydrothermal breccia 220 Table B.8 Microprobe analyses of vein and disseminated epidote 221 vii Table B.9 Microprobe analyses of vein and skarn garnets from Mount Polley 222 Table C . l Detailed geology and data for Section 3460 N , Mount Polley 227 Table D . l Variables determined and used in the least squares calculations 257 viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Distribution of alkalic porphyry copper-gold deposits with respect to the accreted terranes of Quesnellia and Stikinia 2 Figure 1.2 Location of the Mount Polley alkalic copper-gold deposit 4 Figure 2.1 Geology of the Hydraulic map area 13 Figure 3.1 Surface geology of Mount Polley 20 Figure 3.2 Detailed geology on cross-section 3460 N..' 21 Figure 3.3 Data from plutonic and volcanic units at Mount Polley plotted on Harker diagrams, showing whole rock major element variation with respect to silica content 36 Figure 3.4 Classification of major intrusive rocks from Mount Polley on alkaline affinity and Na20 versus K 2 O diagrams 40 Figure 3.5A Classification for unaltered volcanic, pyroxenite and augite porphyry dike samples on an alkaline affinity diagram 41 Figure 3.5B Tectonic affinity diagram for the major intrusive units at Mount Polley 41 Figure 3.6 Spiderdiagrams for the major intrusive units at Mount Polley 44 Figure 3.7 Spiderdiagrams for mafic dikes and fresh volcanic samples 45 Figure 3.8 X-Y scatterplots testing for conserved elements in diorite, augite monzodiorite and plagioclase porphyry 49 Figure 3.9 X-Y scatterplots testing for conserved elements in potassium feldspar phytic monzonite '. 50 Figure 3.10 Pearce element ratio diagrams for diorite, augite monzodiorite and plagioclase porphyry samples 52 Figure 3.11 Pearce element ratio diagrams for potassium feldspar phyric monzonite samples 54 Figure 3.12 Comparison of oxide chemistry from the potassium feldspar phyric monzonites 55 Figure 3.13 Compositional zoning in two primary pyroxene grains from a sample of augite porphyry 60 Figure 3.14 Primary pyroxene compositions depicted in the system enstatite-ferrosilite-wollastonite and in the ternary diagram Na20-Ai203-MnO 61 Figure 3.15 Compositional variation across primary feldspar grains from the diorite unit 64 Figure 3.16 Distribution of primary feldspar compositions in the ternary diagram albite-anorthite-orthoclase 65 Figure 3.17 Chemical variation of the calcium-rich amphiboles at Mount Polley expressed as the numbers of (Na+K) atoms in the "A" site versus Al atoms per formula unit . . . . . . IX 68 Figure 3.18 Chemical compositions of primary and secondary amphiboles expressed as the number of Mg atoms relative to Fe versus the number of Si atoms per formula unit 70 Figure 3.19 Schematic diagram of the characteristics of an intrusion breccia located in drill hole 89-125 on Section 3460 N 72 Figure 4.1 Outcrop map illustrating cross-cutting relationships between a pegmatitic magnetite-pyroxene vein and several late dikes 87 Figure 4.2 Alteration zones at Mount Polley 90 Figure 4.3 Bubble plots of the distribution of silicate alteration minerals on the representative plan level and cross-section 3460 N 93 Figure 4.4 Outcrop scale map of the massive magnetite-garnet skarn located in the southeastern portion of the deposit 97 Figure 4.5 Pearce element ratio diagrams for diorite and plagioclase porphyry showing the effects of metasomatism 102 Figure 4.6 Secondary pyroxene compositions in the enstatite-ferrosilite-wollastonite system and in the ternary diagram Na20-Ai203-MnO. 108 Figure 4.7A Secondary feldspars from albite breccia are plotted on the ternary diagram albite-anorthite-orthoclase 113 Figure 4.7B Composition of hydrothermal micas from the biotite breccia 113 Figure 4.8 Binary diagram of epidote compositions in FeO-Al203 space 115 Figure 4.9 Variations in oxide concentrations across euhedral, zoned brown garnet from a vein sample 117 Figure 4.10 Schematic diagram of hydrothermal breccia illustrating the main clast and matrix characteristics 120 Figure 4.11 Schematic diagram relating vein mineralogy to chemical transfers on a local and deposit scale , 122 Figure 5.1 Bubble plots of the distribution of mineralization on the 1109 m elevation plan level and 3460 N cross-section 129 Figure 5.2 Copper-gold plots for zones and major lithologies at Mount Polley 134 Figure 5.3 Temperature-activity diagram showing hypogene mineral zonation from core to margin of the hydrothermal system 141 X Figure 6.1 Deposit scale model of the intrusive history, development of hydrothermal breccias and alteration zoning at Mount Polley 148 Figure A . l Location of regional geochemistry samples ...165 Figure A.2 Accepted concentration versus measured concentration for major and trace element determinations for reference material 192 Figure A.3 Comparison of XRF and INAA analytical techniques 195 Figure D . l Copper-gold plots for several lithologies and alteration zones 259 LIST OF PLATES Plate 3.1A Fine grained equigranular diorite .24 Plate 3.IB Photomicrograph of diorite 24 Plate 3.2A A cut slab of plagioclase porphyry illustrating a crowded nature and seriate texture 26 Plate 3.2B Photomicrograph of the plagioclase porphyry unit 26 Plate 3.3 A A typical sample of intrusion breccia 27 Plate 3.3B A cut slab of porphyritic augite monzodiorite to monzonite 27 Plate 3.4 A Drill core samples of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, unit 7a 30 Plate 3.4B Photomicrograph of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, unit 7a 30 Plate 3.5A Photomicrograph of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, unit 7b, illustrating trachytic texture of groundmass plagioclase grains 32 Plate 3.5B Drill core sample near the base of an intrusion breccia with a potassium feldspar phyric monzonite matrix 32 Plate 3.6A Drill core sample of a post-mineral augite porphyry dike 33 Plate 3.6B Photomicrograph of an augite porphyry dike 33 Plate 4.1 A Outcrop texture of actinolite breccia in the north-central part of the deposit 78 Plate 4.1B Characteristic surface weathering of biotite breccia from the south-central region 78 Plate 4.2A Drill core sample of fresh biotite breccia 80 Plate 4.2B Outcrop of magnetite breccia 80 Plate 4.3A Cut slab of magnetite breccia; .82 Plate 4.3B Albite breccia in the west zone is characterized by potassium feldspar altered clasts and albite alteration within the matrix 82 Plate 4.4A Albite breccia weathers distinctively, having a recessive matrix mineralogy and triangular vugs partially filled with albite 83 Plate 4.4B Photomicrograph of albite breccia 83 Plate 4.5A Drill core sample of actinolitic alteration 85 Plate 4.5B Potassium feldspar-albite alteration in diorite 85 xii Plate 4.6A Typical calc-silicate alteration from the western margin of the potassic zone 95 Plate 4.6B Photomicrograph of euhedral, growth zoned garnet from a vug in hydrothermal breccia in the west zone 95 Plate 4.7A Surface exposure of massive magnetite and garnet replacement zone in the south-eastern part of the deposit 98 Plate 4.7B Sharp, undulating contact of the magnetite-garnet skarn with plagioclase porphyry 98 Plate 4.8A Photomicrograph of light brown, massive garnet from the magnetite-garnet zone 99 Plate 4.8B Photomicrograph of radiating epidote in a dilatant vein 99 Plate 5.1 A An example of high grade mineralization near the contact of the magnetite-garnet zone with plagioclase porphyry 126 Plate 5.IB Photomicrograph of a sulfide vein cutting hydrothermal breccia in the core of the Mount Polley deposit 126 Plate 5.2A Photomicrograph of the matrix of magnetite breccia 127 Plate 5.2B Photomicrograph of a sulfide vein cutting diorite from the periphery of the deposit 127 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S Xll l John Thompson is thanked for his supervision and guidance over the last two years. Valuable discussions on alteration processes and editorial comments from John greatly improved this thesis. Cliff Stanley is gratefully acknowledged for his guidance with the Pearce element approach and for invaluable help with copper-gold ratios. Mati Raudsepp is particularly thanked for his instruction on the electron microprobe. Imperial Metals Corporation Ltd. supplied drill core logs and assay data. Arne Toma, Paul Metcalfe and Peter Lewis provided expert AutoCad advice. Arne Toma crushed and prepared all rock samples. David Summers has provided moral support and many laughs over the course of my study. GO C A N U C K S GO!!!!!! Theta is thanked for endless amusement and for well, just being a cat. "He's drinking the water!". My family is acknowledged for their support over the last six years. This thesis is dedicated to my grandmother Margaret Flaro, who provided much inspiration and encouragement and will be sadly missed. Research has been supported by the Mineral Deposit Research Unit at the Department of Geological Sciences, The University of British Columbia, through the Collaborative Industry - SCBC - N S E R C research project, "Copper-Gold Porphyry Systems of British Columbia". 1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N Copper-gold porphyry deposits are associated with alkalic and calc-alkaline suites within British Columbia. Alkalic porphyries occur along the entire length of the Canadian Cordillera, dominantly in two accreted tectonic terranes, Quesnellia and Stikinia of the Intermontane Belt (McMillan, 1991 and Figure 1.1). Porphyry deposits associated with alkaline volcanism and intrusion appear to have developed during a very narrow range of time, 185 to 210 Ma, Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (Ney et al., 1976; Mortensen, in press). The alkaline suite of porphyry deposits are genetically related to the host Nicola-Takla and Stuhini volcanic assemblages and comagmatic plutons (Barr et al., 1976). Compared to calc-alkaline deposits, alkaline porphyry deposits lack substantial amounts of molybdenite and tend to be enriched in gold and silver (Barr et al., 1976 and McMillan, 1991). The alkaline deposits in British Columbia form a continuous line from south to north, including the following deposits: Copper Mountain, Afton, Ajax, Rayfield River, Mount Polley, Mt. Milligan and Lorraine (Figure 1.1). Alkalic porphyry copper-gold deposits are generally related to epizonal porphyritic stocks, on average 1-2 kilometres across (McMillan, 1991). Typical rock host suites are diorite to monzonite and diorite to syenite (with lesser pyroxenite). Intrusive centers may be localized by well defined tectonic features. For example, a cross-structure in the Quesnel belt intersects the Afton deposit (Carr et al., 1976). Multiple intrusions, dike swarms and breccias are characteristic. The majority of porphyry copper mineralization is related to plutons emplaced at relatively shallow depths (Sutherland Brown, 1976). The classic silicate and hypogene mineral zoning patterns displayed by calc-alkaline deposits and described by Lowell et al. (1970) and Guilbert et al. (1974) do not usually apply to alkaline systems. The phyllic and argillic zones are absent or poorly developed (Barr et al., 1976). A central potassic alteration zone is 2 Figure 1.1 Distribution of alkalic porphyry copper-gold deposits with respect to the accreted terranes of Quesnellia and Stikinia. Division into silica-saturated and undersaturated types is based on Lang et al. (in press). 3 defined by potassium feldspar, biotite and actinolite (at Mount Polley) and is directly associated with hypogene copper sulfides. Where intense alkali metasomatism has occurred, Ajax for example, albitization rather than potassium feldspar may be produced (Ross, 1993). An extensive propylitic margin is characterized by an assemblage of albite, epidote, chlorite, carbonates and zeolites. Certain deposits contain significant quantities of garnet, Galore Creek (Thompson, pers. comm.) and Mount Polley (Hodgson et al., 1976), whereas scapolite is more common in others, Ingerbelle and Afton-Ajax (Drummond and Godwin, 1976; Ross, 1993). Copper-gold-silver zoning is common in alkaline settings, with core zones carrying chalcopyrite, bornite, magnetite and gold, often flanked by a pyrite shell (Lowell etal, 1970). 1.1 Location, Access and Reserves The Mount Polley alkalic copper-gold deposit is located 56 kilometres northeast of Williams Lake and approximately 8 kilometres southwest of the village of Likely, on the west side of Quesnel Lake in south-central British Columbia (Figure 1.2). The deposit is on map sheet 93A/12E at 52o30"N latitude and \2\°'35rW longitude (Hodgson et al., 1976). Topography between Bootjack and Polley Lakes consists of moderate hills with a maximum elevation of 1262 metres above sea level at Mt. Polley. The property is accessible via 76 kilometres of paved road from Highway 97 at 150 Mile House to Morehead Lake and then 14 kilometres of logging road. The Mount Polley property is currently owned by Imperial Metals Corporation based in Vancouver, B.C. A feasibility study completed by Wright Engineers Limited in 1990 proposed a plan to develop Mount Polley based on mining of an open pit (S-19) with probable mining ore reserves of 48.8 million tonnes grading 0.383% copper and 0.556 grams gold/tonne, using a copper equivalent cut-off grade of 0.39% (Gore et al., 1992). This estimation has been up-graded from previous indicated reserves of 25 million tonnes grading 0.49% copper and 0.56 grams gold/tonne (Hodgson et al., 1976). Figure 1.2 Location of the Mount Polley alkalic porphyry copper-gold deposit, south-central British Columbia. 5 Imperial Metals Corporation received a mine development certificate from the B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources in October 1992 although no date for production has been set. Pit S-19 is expected to be mined over ten years with an annual mill output of 5 million tonnes. Annual production is projected to be approximately 29 million pounds of copper and 100,000 ounces of gold for the first three years, and over a 10 year mine life, production from pit S-19 will average 30 million pounds of copper and 68,000 ounces of gold annually (Gore et al., 1992). 1.2 Exploration History The first joint Federal-Provincial aeromagnetic map sheet published for the Mount Polley area was Hydraulic Sheet 93A/12, issued in 1963. An aeromagnetic anomaly over Mount Polley was noted and the locality was jointly ground checked in the summer of 1964 by Mastodon Highland Bell Mines Ltd. and Leitch Gold Mines. Silt samples from the creeks draining the anomaly were collected and analyzed for copper. Claims were staked, but mineralized outcrops were not found. Later that year, the first geological map of the area was completed (Stephen, 1993). During 1966 to 1972, a new company was formed to continue exploration, Cariboo-Bell Copper Mines Limited, and drilling was commissioned in 1966. Ground surveys (trenching, mapping, geochemistry) and geophysical surveys (airborne magnetics, seismic and induced polarization) were conducted and a total of 215 diamond drill and percussion holes were drilled on a property-wide basis (Imperial Metals Corporation, 1989). Drilling outlined three blocks of copper and gold mineralization with approximately 37 million tonnes of ore grading 0.5% copper and 0.45 grams gold/t (Sutherland Brown, 1966). The majority of mineralization occurs as chalcopyrite and minor bornite and is distributed in the matrix of breccias. In late 1966 Cariboo-Bell Copper Mines was joined by a number of Japanese companies who later withdrew on recognition of metallurgical difficulties due to the high degree of oxidation of surface material (Hodgson et al., 1976). 6 In 1978, Highland Crow Resources Ltd. acquired Cariboo-Bell Copper Mines and drilled 5 percussion holes in the northeast end of the property (Imperial Metals Corporation, 1989 and Gore et al., 1992). In 1979, Teck Corporation drilled 6 percussion holes in the proposed pit area. Once again, Mount Polley changed hands and E & B Explorations Inc. (who later amalgamated with Corona Corporation in 1988), completed 24 diamond drill holes and 18 rotary holes in the pit area during 1981 - 1982 (Imperial Metals Corporation, 1989 and Gore et al., 1992). An extensive tonnage of low-grade Cu-Au material was confirmed and expanded by drilling, ground surveys and soil geochemistry. During 1982 to 1987, E & B was joined by Imperial Metals Corporation as a joint venture partner. The joint venture conducted ground surveys (soil geochemistry, mapping, magnetometer), IP and V L F , and drilled 22 rotary holes on a property-wide basis (Imperial Metals Corporation, 1989). In 1988, Imperial Metals Corporation carried out a program which included IP surveys, trenching and 99 NQ diamond drill holes. This was followed in 1989 by the collection of 6 bulk samples (130 tonnes) from surface trenches and completion of 139 NQ diamond drill holes. Drill core composites were used in metallurgical testing. Geotechnical and environmental studies were completed, focussing on preliminary open-pit design, tailings disposal, groundwater quality and acid generation potential (Imperial Metals Corporation, 1990). As of 1992, Imperial Metals Corporation holds 21 contiguous claims of 8500 hectares (Gore et al., 1992). Drilling on the property since 1966 now totals 528 holes for 61,302 metres (Gore etal, 1992). 1.3 Previous Work The alkaline composition of volcanic rocks in the Central Quesnel belt was first documented by Fox (1975). The general geology of the Morehead Lake and Horsefly areas, which includes the Mount Polley (formerly Cariboo-Bell) property, was mapped and described by Bailey (1975, 1978) and Morton (1976). The authors concentrated on subdividing the volcanic stratigraphy and geochemical analysis supported the 7 supposition that the volcanic and intrusive rocks are alkalic and highly undersaturated with respect to silica. The rock chemistry was shown to be nepheline and olivine normative (Morton, 1976). The first detailed geology map (Preliminary Map 20) was published in 1976 by Bailey. Recent geological investigations in the Morehead region by Bailey (1988, 1989), Bloodgood (1987, 1988) to the east and Panteleyev (1987, 1988, 1989) in the Horsefly area resulted in a re-interpretation of the stratigraphy determined by Morton (1976). An up-dated map for NTS 93A/12 (Preliminary Map 67) was published by Bailey in 1987. Mineralization and alteration zonation patterns at the Mount Polley property were documented by Bailes (1977), Hodgson et al. (1976) and Bailey and Hodgson (1979). In general, porphyry copper mineralization was shown to be associated with a potassically altered core, surrounded by an extensive propylitic alteration. Barr et al. (1976) and Morton (1976) argued that intrusive complexes are syn-volcanic and alkalic volcanism and plutonism have a close temporal relationship with copper mineralization. This conclusion was supported by Hodgson et al. (1976) and Bailey and Hodgson (1979). 1.4 Objectives and Methodology The Mount Polley deposit is one of the alkaline suite of porphyry copper-gold deposits under investigation by the Mineral Deposit Research Unit project, "Porphyry Copper-Gold Systems of British Columbia". Mount Polley was chosen for study due to its established mineral resource and the extensive database available. Three months of fieldwork were spent on the Mount Polley property, during which time, a detailed surface geology map (1:2000) was produced for a 1.5 by 1.2 kilometre area on the west slope of Mt. Polley. Several "spot" maps were also made within this area at a scale of 1:100 to constrain cross-cutting relationships and critical breccia features. The particular focus of this project was to document data 8 important to aspects of the genesis of the Mount Polley deposit. Emphasis was given to breccia distribution, refining breccia types, identifying distinctive matrix minerals and associated alteration. Special attention was also directed toward magnetite-rich areas. The main objective was to examine and describe in detail eleven drill holes on an east-west cross-section through the center of the mineralized regions where outcrop was abundant, and to record 10 metre intervals of 105 diamond drill holes at piercing points through the 1109-metre elevation (plan) level. Approximately 3325 metres of core was re-logged on 1.5-metre intervals that coincided with assay intervals to record the lithologies, alteration, breccia characteristics and spatial variation within the deposit. Visual estimates of alteration minerals and sulfides were recorded on a consistent basis to determine the large-scale mineral zonation. Analytical work and data evaluation has included: • Thin and polished section examination to characterize rock units and alteration suites. A subset of 28 polished sections was used for electron microprobe analyses of a variety of primary and secondary minerals in order to document lithological and geographical variation in mineral compositions, and to relate these to igneous and hydrothermal processes. • Geochemical analysis of a suite of igneous samples to determine petrological affinity of the units at Mount Polley and their potential relationship. These samples were compared to volcanic rocks of a regional nature to test a general cogenetic hypothesis. • Statistical evaluation of alteration mineral proportions and zonation. • Investigation of the distribution of copper and gold mineralization among different zones and lithologies using assay data provided by Imperial Metals Corporation. • Interpretation of geologic, petrographic and geochemical information to develop a model for the formation of contained breccias and associated mineralization at Mount Polley. Preliminary descriptions of aspects of this study were published in two papers, Fraser et al. (1993) and Fraser (1994). 9 C H A P T E R 2 R E G I O N A L S E T T I N G 2.1 Tectonic Setting The Canadian Cordillera consists of 5 distinct geological, linear belts and from east to west are the: Foreland Belt, Omineca Crystalline Belt, Intermontane Belt, Coast Plutonic Complex and the Insular Belt (Figure 1.2). All Paleozoic rocks west of the Ominica Belt are allochthonous with respect to the North American craton (Monger et al., 1972). The Cariboo gold-belt of south-central British Columbia is divided into four fault-bounded, stratigraphically and structurally distinct packages (terranes), and from east to west are represented by the Cariboo, Barkerville, Slide Mountain and Quesnel terranes (Struik, 1986). Struik (1986) summarized the geology of these terranes as follows: The Cariboo terrane consists of olive-grey grit and pelite, black pelite, limestone, siltstone and conglomerate. The thickness of strata is approximately 2.5 to 3 kilometres. The Barkerville terrane consists of micaceous, poorly sorted feldspathic quartzite, pelite, marble, mafic tuff, conglomerate and minor limestone. The terrane is bounded by the Quesnel and Cariboo terranes to the west and east, respectively. This terrane is structurally the lowest package and is overlain by the other three, Quesnel, Slide Mountain and Cariboo terranes, separated by thrust faults. The Slide Mountain terrane comprises mainly basalt, diabase and chert with subordinate amounts of ultramafic rocks and pillow basalts. The Quesnel terrane consists of black shale, basaltic and andesitic volcaniclastics and flows, sandstone and minor limestone and conglomerate. This terrane is the youngest of the four and is Triassic to Jurassic in age (Struik, 1986). Total thickness of the rocks within the terrane is likely greater than 1.5 kilometres. Black pelite predominates at the base of the terrane, with a mid to late Triassic age confined by conodonts (Struik, 1986). The lower contact of the Quesnel terrane is marked by an abrupt change from locally 10 deformed sediments to the sheared serpentinite and amphibolite rocks of the Crooked Amphibolite (Struik, 1986; 1988). The base of the Crooked Amphibolite unit is truncated by the Eureka Thrust (Struik, 1988). The sequence of terrane accretion as interpreted by Struik (1986) is outlined as follows: The Cariboo terrane was thrust to the west sometime between mid-Permian and Late Cretaceous by the moderate to low angle, east-dipping Pleasant Valley Thrust and places the terrane over Barkerville. Slide Mountain was thrust over both Cariboo and Barkerville terranes during the same time period by the flat-lying, warped and locally folded Pundata Thrust. The Quesnel terrane was thrust onto the Barkerville terrane between early Jurassic and Late Cretaceous by the Eureka Thrust, a west-dipping, regionally folded and ductile basal thrust of the Crooked Amphibolite and Quesnellia. The Intermontane Belt is comprised of dominantly un-metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic strata that are interpreted as island arc and oceanic crust assemblages (Monger et al., 1972 and Preto, 1977). Monger et al. (1972) suggests that the minor amount of coarse clastic material present in the belt indicates that the rocks were deposited at some distance from the North American craton. A large episode of volcanic activity in the Cordillera corresponds to the areally extensive, and complex assemblages of the Nicola, Takla and Hazelton Groups, comprising basaltic andesites, basalts, pyroclastic rocks, marine clastic rock and carbonates. These volcanic belts are interpreted to form approximately 100 kilometres above the subduction of crustal plates (Hamilton, 1988) and represent a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic island arc assemblage (Mortimer, 1987). Quesnellia is fault-bounded on the west by Paleozoic rocks of the Cache Creek Group and on the east by older Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian strata, the Barkerville and Slide Mountain Terranes (Saleken and Simpson, 1984). The Central Quesnel Belt (CQB), comprising part of Quesnellia, extends along the western margin of the Omineca Crystalline Belt and is underlain by an Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic arc assemblage (Bailey, 1990). The volcanic arc formed due to a subduction of an oceanic plate (Bailey, 1990). The main period of felsic volcanism began during the Sinemurian stage, 11 along with synvolcanic plutonism, hydrothermal activity and porphyry copper-gold deposition (Bailey, 1990). The end of volcanism in the CQB was caused by the obduction of the volcanic arc onto the western margin of North America by 181 Ma, in the Middle Jurassic (Nelson and Mihalynuk, 1993). The CQB volcanics are comprised of subaerial and submarine assemblages, including pyroxene and plagioclase phyric andesitic and basaltic flows, breccias, conglomerates and lahars (Preto et al., 1975). Intrusive rocks, comagmatic with the extrusive strata, are mostly diorite with subordinate syenite (Preto et al., 1975). The Nicola Group comprises a diverse assemblage of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic submarine and subaerial volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks that underlies much of the Intermontane Belt (Mortimer, 1987). These rocks have been interpreted as the product of a Late Triassic volcanic arc that formed eastward of a subduction-accretion complex (Mortimer, 1987 and Nelson and Mihalynuk, 1993). Hypotheses involving a rift setting have also been suggested, on the basis of local structural controls on mineralization, pluton emplacement and alkaline chemistry (Barr et al., 1976 and Preto, 1977 and Preto et al, 1975). Most stocks in the CQB are elongated in a northerly direction and occur along northerly-trending faults. The plutons commonly are porphyritic and range in composition from diorite to monzonite. The similarity in chemistry between the intrusive and volcanic rocks supports the interpretation that the plutons were emplaced in volcanic centers and may be related to a common alkaline lineage. Saleken and Simpson (1984) suggest that there were several volcanic centers in the Lower Jurassic on the basis of subaerial volcanic flows and coarse clastic sedimentary deposits. They imply that early NW-trending fault structures may have controlled the location of mid-Jurassic plutons which were emplaced at volcanic centers, and suggest that Mount Polley was such a center. Struik (1988) notes that coarse grained volcanic debris is present at and near volcanic vents and grades progressively to finer grained material deposited further from the vent. 12 2.2 Regional Geology The rocks in the area of Mount Polley are from the Nicola group (Bailey, 1988) and comprise a basal, Upper Triassic assemblage of fine grained sedimentary rocks overlain by a dominantly mafic to felsic volcanic package with abundant breccias. Although the author has not mapped the volcanic rocks regionally, lithogeochemical samples collected in 1992 from volcanic and intrusive rocks adjacent to the Mount Polley deposit were provided by C. Stanley of the Mineral Deposit Research Unit. Whole rock chemistry of volcanic and intrusive rocks are compared in a later section. The stratigraphic units within the Hydraulic map area have a bisymmetric distribution, having been folded into a broad syncline (Figure 2.1). The following summary of lithologies is based on work by Bailey (1975, 1988 and 1989). 2.2.1 Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks Unit 1 comprises the lower-most member of the volcano-sedimentary assemblage and dominantly consists of black phyllite grading up into siltstone, minor limestone, sandstone and greywacke. At the top of the unit, mafic volcanic debris within the sedimentary rocks is common, suggesting that early volcanism was contemporaneous with late sedimentation (Bailey, 1975, 1988). Bloodgood (1987) described the eastern sedimentary assemblage of black phyllites in the Eureka Peak area as having a fault contact with the overlying volcanic flows and breccias (Figure 2.1). The age of Unit 1 has been determined from conodonts and ranges from Middle Triassic to Late Triassic (Struik, 1986 and Bloodgood, 1988). Unit 2 consists of the products of mafic volcanism. The bulk of the unit is green to grey alkali olivine basalt, locally pillowed (2a) with overlying maroon to grey alkali basalt flows and breccia (2b): Mafic polylithic breccias (2c) formed by laharic activity outcrop in the central portion of the map area. Within subunit 2a, hornblende-bearing pyroxene-phyric alkali basalt (2d) and porphyritic analcite-bearing 13 14 pyroxene basalt (2e) occur locally. The unit is entirely Late Triassic on the basis of fossil evidence in the Hydraulic area (Bailey, 1988 and Panteleyev, 1988). Unit 3 dominantly consists of polylithic breccias (3a), possibly formed by submarine slumping downslope (Bailey, 1988). The composition is mainly trachyandesite and trachyte, with feldspar-rich fragments. Monolithic breccias (3b) are interpreted to lie close to vent areas (Bailey, 1988). Poorly to well bedded sedimentary lenses (3c) are fossiliferous and indicate an Early Jurassic age (Bailey, 1978). Unit 4 occurs in the central part of the Hydraulic map area and consists of maroon alkali olivine basalt with pink analcite grains present as groundmass and phenocrystic phase. The unit is highly amygdaloidal and was probably erupted subaerially, representing the last stage of volcanism. Units 5 and 6 comprise dark to medium grey calcareous sandstone to siltstone and clast-supported conglomerate, respectively. The phases represent a basin sedimentary assemblage deposited after volcanism had ceased (Bailey, 1988). 2.2.2 Intrusive Rocks Unit 7 comprises syenite, monzonite, monzodiorite and diorite of the Polley Stock (including the lithologies of the Mount Polley deposit) and several smaller plugs and dikes (Figure 2.1). Almost all of these stocks have associated pyrite-chalcopyrite mineralization and are accompanied by propylitic alteration (Bailey, 1989). Radiometric dates from diorite-monzonite plutons intruding Unit 2 volcanic rocks range from 186 to 204 Ma (Panteleyev, 1987 and 1988 and Mortensen, pers. comm. 1994). Unit 8 consists of several silica undersaturated syenite plutons. For example, the Bootjack Stock (Figure 2.1) has been described by Hodgson et al. (1976), Stanley et al. (1993) and Fraser et al. (1993). It is elongated in a northwest direction (in contrast to the dominantly north-trending breccias and dike swarms of the Mount Polley intrusive complex) and contains xenoliths of diorite suggesting that it is younger than 15 Unit 7. Later quartz syenite dikes cut the pluton. The stock is layered on a gross scale, grading from pseudoleucite syenite porphyry in the west to crowded orbicular syenite to a coarse grained, equigranular granophyric syenite in the east. The pseudoleucite syenite is coarse grained with 20% pseudoleucite phenocrysts, 2 centimetres in diametre, in a groundmass of potassium feldspar, nepheline, albite, pyroxene, hornblende and magnetite. Mafic minerals form 15 to 25% by volume. Orbicular syenite has less than 5% mafics and contains 30 - 90% orbicules of pseudoleucite up to 4 centimetres in diametre. The orbicules contain pseudoleucite cores and have concentric overgrowths of potassium feldspar. Orbicular syenite has been texturally destroyed and recrystallized into granophyric syenite by deuteric reaction with hydrothermal fluids and contains abundant biotite and fluorite. 2.2.3 Structure and Metamorphism Deformation in the area is related to the accretion of Quesnellia onto the western margin of North America. The earliest deformation of the rocks is recorded in the sedimentary sequence of Unit 1, east of Mount Polley (Bailey, 1989). Folding is most prominent in the eastern-most sedimentary units and is especially strong at deeper structural levels (Bloodgood, 1987 and Bailey, 1988). The metapelites (black phyllite) of Unit 1 are deformed into northeast verging folds with well developed penetrative axial planar fabric dipping moderately to the southwest (Bloodgood, 1987; 1988). These first phase folds have been overprinted and refolded, giving rise to fold interference geometry, with crenulation cleavages dipping to the northeast and southwest (Bloodgood, 1988). The overlying volcanic rocks of Units 2, 3 and 4 display little or no folding, instead forming thick, poorly stratified panels that have behaved as competent blocks. The panels have been extensively block faulted by a series of northeast trending faults (Bailey, 1975; Bailey, 1988; Panteleyev et al, 1989 and see also Figure 2.1). The 35 kilometre wide Central Quesnel Belt (CQB) in the vicinity of the Mount Polley deposit has been folded into a broad northwest-trending open syncline of regional extent; the trough is bounded on the west by the Quesnel Fault and by the Eureka thrust to the east. Five kilometres west of the property the 16 sequence of volcanic rocks dip east to northeast and dip to the west or southwest 4 kilometres to the east (on the east side of Polley Lake) (Bailey, 1987). Within the map areas of Bailey (1988; 1989) and Bloodgood (1987; 1988), there have been three recognized periods of faulting. The early faults are low-angle reverse faults that strike northwest, and are only found in the eastern part of the map area. These are probably related to the collision of Quesnellia with the Omineca terrane (Bailey, 1988) and are Middle to Late Jurassic in age (Panteleyev et al., 1989). The Eureka thrust is a member of this fault set, is southwest-dipping and lies at the base of the Quesnel Terrane (Bloodgood, 1988). Later faults strike dominantly to the northeast and have mainly sinistral displacement. A fault from this period is interpreted to cut the Polley Stock (north-northwest trending) which is in alignment with a series of alkaline intrusions from Canim Lake to Prince George (Bailey, 1975). A third fault set, mainly dextral and north-striking are probably related to the Pinchi fault system to the west and has displaced the Central Quesnel Belt about seven kilometres (Bailey, 1988). For the most part, primary textures have been preserved except where the rocks have been extensively hydrothermally altered. The metamorphic grade is sub-greenschist facies and is characterized by zeolites in mafic volcanic rocks. In the underlying sedimentary rocks and to the east of Mount Polley, metamorphism is somewhat higher and is associated with thrusting and deformation that accompanied the emplacement of Quesnellia. 2.3 Geochronology Several samples of the Bootjack Stock have been dated by a variety of methods. Bailey and Archibald (1990) separated hornblende from a coarse-grained porphyritic phase taken from the syenite. The sample yielded a well-defined age of 203.1±2.0 Ma using the 40Ar/39Ar technique. This date is comparable to two recently determined ages by J. Mortensen at the University of British Columbia in 1993. Samples of orbicular syenite and pseudoleucite syenite (collected by C. Stanley, 1992) yielded ages of 202.7±7.1 Ma 17 (U-Pb, zircon) and 200.8±1.8 Ma (Pb-Pb, titanite isochron) respectively (J. Mortensen, pers. comm. 1994). These three well constrained ages of the undersaturated pluton invalidate a K-Ar whole-rock date of 117.3± 2.7 Ma by Bailey (1978). The sample collected by Bailey (1978) was of the fine-grained margin of the stock and contained a high proportion of biotite and feldspar. It is possible that a thermal event in the Cretaceous reset the date. Regionally, a series of biotite lamprophyre dikes cuts Nicola Group volcanics as well as all of the lithologies present at Mount Polley. These lamprophyre dikes east of Cache Creek have been dated at 129+ 5 Ma (K-Ar, biotite) (Mortimer et al., 1990). Mineralization has occurred sometime between the intrusion of the Bootjack Stock and lamprophyre dikes. A better upper constraint on mineralization could be achieved by dating potassium feldspar phyric monzonite and augite porphyry dikes. The chemical similarity between Polley Stock units and the pseudoleucite syenite suggests the two intrusive complexes may be genetically related. It is possible that emplacement of the Bootjack Stock may have accompanied mineralization at Mount Polley. To investigate the temporal relationship between these stocks, two new geochronology samples from lithologies at Mount Polley were collected jointly by T. Fraser, C. Godwin and J. Thompson in 1992. The two most volumetrically important intrusive units at Mount Polley are diorite and plagioclase porphyry. A sample of fresh, grey, fine-grained diorite contained as a block within hydrothermal breccia was dated as 201.610.5 Ma (U-Pb, zircon; J. Mortensen, pers. comm. 1994). Clasts within breccias at Mount Polley are undigested and are assumed to be representative of the original composition. A buff to pink, weakly altered sample of plagioclase porphyry was collected in the core of the Mount Polley deposit, and yielded a slightly older age of 203.8±0.6 Ma (U-Pb, zircon; J. Mortensen, pers. comm. 1994). Cross-cutting relationships as determined in the field suggest that the diorite is older. These new dates indicate several important conclusions: 18 1. The absolute ages of diorite and plagioclase porphyry are very similar. These intrusive units may be genetically related based on similarities in petrography, chemistry and textural relationships. 2. Hydrothermal brecciation and alteration is younger than approximately 201 Ma, as given by the diorite age. The upper limit on brecciation is constrained by cross-cutting lamprophyre dikes and is approximately 130 Ma. A K/Ar date of coarsely crystalline hydrothermal biotite from biotite breccia of the Central Zone of Mount Polley gave an age of 184±7 Ma (Hodgson et al., 1976). In the past this date was considered to be a median age of the deposit since the period of hydrothermal biotite development is bracketed by intrusive phases, but it is unlikely that deposition of alteration minerals occurred significantly after the emplacement of diorite and plagioclase porphyry intrusions. This date is unreliable and may represent a reset or cooling age. 3. Identical ages of the Bootjack and Polley Stocks cannot resolve their intrusive history. However, xenoliths of diorite are contained within the pseudoleucite syenite and orbicular syenite, indicating a relatively younger age than the rocks present at Mount Polley. It is still unclear if the Bootjack Stock is in any way related to porphyry copper mineralization, although temporal and petrological data suggest that it may have played some role. 19 C H A P T E R 3 DEPOSIT G E O L O G Y 3.1 Introduction The Mount Polley copper-gold deposit is hosted within a 5.5 by 4 kilometre diorite intrusion elongated in a northerly direction (Figure 2.1). It has been cross-cut by a number of later intrusions and breccias of both intrusion and hydrothermal type. The majority of ore is contained within the matrix of hydrothermal breccias. The prominent north-northwest striking Polley Fault has been inferred by geophysical and topographical differences and divides the deposit into two zones, the west and central (Figure 3.1). Each zone is characterized by different degrees of mineralization, alteration and distinct breccia types. The west zone is a circular body composed dominantly of albite breccia. An east-west striking fault transects the west zone. The central zone is elongated in a north-south direction, and is located east and parallel to the Polley fault; it contains a high proportion of actinolite and biotite-rich breccias (Figures 3.1 and 3.2). The breccias are intruded by a variety of late to post-mineral dikes, the most notable being potassium feldspar phyric monzonite and augite phyric dikes. 3.2 Lithologies The distribution and character of lithologies are based on surface mapping and drill core logging (Figure 3.1). In addition to detailed logging of eleven holes on section 3460 N (Figure 3.2), 10-metre intervals at the 1109 metre level were logged in 105 drill holes and allowed a comparison of the lithological distribution at this level relative to surface. A suite of least altered samples was collected for each unit to analyze textural relationships and investigate penological differences. Lithologies are described from oldest to youngest, based on cross-cutting relationships: 9 I Biotite Lamprophyre Dike 8 | Augite Porphyry Dike Potassium Feldspar Phyric Monzonite Mt. Polley Monzonite Porphyritic Augite Monzodiorite Magnetite—Garnet Zone Plagioclase Porphyry Intrusion Breccia Diorite Vo Iconics Actinolite Breccia Biotite Breccia Magnetite Breccia Albite Breccia Outcrop Geological Contacts approximate interpreted Fault, inferred Figure 3.1 Surface geology of Mount Polley. The deposit is characterized by multiple intrusions elongated northerly and a series of hydrothermal breccias superimposed on diorite and plagioclase porphyry. 21 22 Volcanic Rocks Regionally, volcanic rocks consist of diverse polymictic volcanic breccias, tuffs and locally pillowed augite phyric basalts. Although volcanic rocks (unit 1) do not outcrop in the area mapped, they host the Mount Polley intrusive complex and are commonly found as xenoliths within diorite. Drill-hole logging on cross-section 3460 N identified a block of green crystal lapilli tuff at depth. The block has a vertical thickness of 10 to 15 metres and is contained within a plagioclase porphyry intrusion breccia (Figure 3.2). These volcanic rocks are fine grained, with no remnant layering to indicate the orientation of the block. Small sections of dark coloured volcanic breccia are common within the block. The contact between the volcanic block and plagioclase porphyry is gradational, having been heavily obscured by potassic alteration. Smaller xenoliths of volcanic rocks occur in diorite and plagioclase porphyry. The identification of clast composition is difficult due to their fine grained nature and small fragment size (typically less than two centimetres), but appear to be subalkaline to alkaline. Pyroxenite Although pyroxenite does not outcrop on the property, it has been intersected in several percussion holes and one diamond drill hole collared near the east side of Bootjack Lake. Its aerial extent has been inferred by a ground magnetic survey and reaches a minimum drilled depth of 250 metres beneath the lake (Hodgson et al, 1976). Pyroxenite has been found as angular clasts within the base of an intrusion breccia located on section 3460 N (drill hole 89-125) and as sparse xenoliths within diorite. The dark green, equigranular clasts appear to be unaltered macroscopically, but are cross-cut by calcite veins. In thin section, the unit has a composition of hornblende pyroxenite. It is composed of approximately 75% rounded, subhedral green clinopyroxene grains, 15% subhedral magnetite grains with abundant ilmenite exsolution laths, and 7-10% interstitial hornblende which encloses the earlier pyroxene and magnetite phases. Minor biotite alteration is present along clast boundaries and occasionally rims hornblende. The lack of mineralization and alteration in these clasts suggests that pyroxenite crystallized early (pre-mineral) at some distance from the hydrothermal system and was later transported in the diorite and plagioclase porphyry magmas. 23 Diorite Diorite (unit 2) forms a stock-like intrusion into volcanic stratigraphy, with an areal extent considerably larger than the mapped area (Figure 3.1), in contact with the Bootjack Stock to the southwest (Figure A. 1). The intrusion lies between Bootjack and Polley Lakes and is elongated in a northwesterly direction, approximately 5.5 kilometres in length by 4 kilometres in width (Figures 2.1 and A. 1). Diorite is the dominant host for the mineralized breccia bodies. In hand sample, diorite is fine grained and equigranular (Plate 3.1 A) but in thin section, it tends to have a weakly porphyritic texture with plagioclase and minor pyroxene phenocrysts. Colour of the fresh rock varies from medium to dark grey. Euhedral plagioclase laths form up to 60 - 70% of the rock by volume. Feldspars have moderately sericitized interiors exhibiting remnant albite and Carlsbad twinning (Plate 3. IB). Several samples show evidence of weak alignment of plagioclase laths. The most prominent mafic minerals are disseminated, subhedral, pale green clinopyroxene (15 vol. %) with magnetite inclusions and brown, poikiolitic biotite (5 - 10 vol. %) which encloses plagioclase, pyroxene and magnetite grains. Commonly, pyroxene grains have hydrated rims altered to green hornblende. Accessory minerals include subhedral grains of magnetite, sphene and apatite. Potassium feldspar is present as a minor interstitial phase in some samples, but may have been introduced as a secondary alteration mineral rather than having a primary origin due to its cloudy nature. Because of this ambiguity, the unit tends to have a monzodiorite affinity in thin section. The diorite is relatively fresh away from the breccias but the intensity of alteration increases towards the core the system. Marginally, alteration consists of diffuse veins of albite and potassium feldspar. Adjacent to the S-19 pit (which encompasses the main mineralized area and all hydrothermal breccias), the proportion of potassium feldspar veining increases to a stockwork with the addition of mineralized veins. Plagioclase Porphyry Plagioclase porphyry (unit 3) has intruded diorite and appears to be localized at the intersection of the Polley Fault and western offshoot, occupying the center of the proposed pit area. Plagioclase porphyry is located dominantly in the northern half of the west zone. The unit forms a massive intrusion and also forms Plate 3.1A Fine grained equigranular diorite (88-68, 107 m). Mafics include green pyroxene, magnetite and biotite. Weak interstitial potassium feldspar alteration is indicated by the light salmon pink coloured areas. Plate 3.1B Photomicrograph (crossed nichols) of diorite (88-84, 50 m). Moderately sericitized plagioclase has remnant albite twins. Mafics include subhedral clinopyroxene and biotite. Opaques are magnetite. There is no indication of primary potassium feldspar. Field of view is 5 mm. 25 the matrix to intrusion breccias. The relationship between porphyry and breccia is complex and gradational, and is difficult to differentiate at the scale of mapping. Therefore, for mapping purposes, the two textural types have been grouped together and are identified on Figures 3.1 and 3.2 as unit 3a (plagioclase porphyry) and unit 3b (intrusion breccia with a matrix of plagioclase porphyry). The crowded plagioclase porphyry is seriate textured with fine plagioclase phenocrysts (up to 70%), up to 5 millimetres in length (Plate 3.2A). In apparently fresh to weakly altered samples, beige to grey in colour, the phenocrysts are euhedral, with remnant albite twinning visible in some grains. Almost all samples collected have undergone moderate to intense sericitization of feldspars (Plate 3.2B). Some feldspar grains show a vague overgrowth or zonation, but an indication of composition could not be made by optical means. Occasional tabular potassium feldspar phenocrysts (3-5%), normally less than one centimetre and as much as 3 centimetres in length, float in the plagioclase-rich matrix. Subhedral magnetite is finely disseminated in the matrix. Twinned hornblende with abundant magnetite inclusions is present in trace amounts and is usually rimmed with fine-grained felted brown biotite. Primary brown biotite is common and partially chloritized. Accessory phases include clinopyroxene and apatite disseminated in the groundmass. The groundmass although exhibiting varying intensities of potassium feldspar alteration, appears to be largely composed of fine grained plagioclase. Plagioclase porphyry forms the matrix of the intrusion breccia that is dominated by subangular fragments of diorite (Plate 3.3 A). Clasts vary considerably in size, with the largest block being roughly twelve metres in diameter and the average size being three centimetres. Fine grained, dark coloured volcaniclastic fragments are rare, but the large volcanic block on cross-section 3460 N (Figure 3.2) occurs in a matrix of plagioclase porphyry. The breccia is consistently matrix supported but locally contains areas having up to 35% clasts. Unfortunately the distribution of exotic fragments floating within the breccia appears to be random and displays no concentration towards the margin of the plagioclase porphyry intrusion. All samples of intrusion breccia collected from the pit area are intensely altered. Plagioclase phenocrysts are 26 Plate 3.2A A cut slab of plagioclase porphyry (88-51, 105 m), illustrating the crowded nature and seriate texture of this unit. The left sample has been stained for potassium feldspar, most of which is contained in the groundmass and probably due to hydrothermal alteration. Plate 3.2B Photomicrograph (plane polarized light) of the plagioclase porphyry unit (MTP-92-0048). Euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts are strongly sericitized while the cloudiness of the groundmass indicates potassium feldspar alteration. Primary brown biotite and subhedral magnetite are less abundant than within diorite. Field of view is 5 mm. 27 Plate 3.3A A typical sample of intrusion breccia (89-125, 75 m). Angular diorite clasts floating in a plagioclase porphyry matrix indicate that there has been limited transportation of fragments. Plate 3.3B A cut slab of porphyritic augite monzodiorite to monzonite (MTP-92-0047). The left sample has been stained for potassium feldspar. Potassium feldspar is contained within the groundmass and may have an igneous origin. "Phenocrysts" of clinopyroxene may be composed of single crystals or aggregates. 28 strongly sericitized and secondary potassium feldspar alteration has texturally destroyed areas, giving the unit a salmon-pink syenitic appearance. Magnetite-Garnet Rock A small magnetite-garnet (unit 4) replacement zone has been mapped in the southeastern portion of the proposed S-19 pit (Figure 3.1). Covering an aerial extent roughly 100 by 100 metres, the zone lies at the contact between diorite to the north and plagioclase porphyry to the south. The margin of the zone is poorly exposed but seems to interfinger and have sharp contacts with the plagioclase porphyry unit. Macroscopically, the plagioclase porphyry has a narrow (1 centimetre) bleached alteration envelope adjacent to the contact. In thin section, the envelope results from the complete destruction of plagioclase and groundmass to fine grained sericite. The magnetite-garnet unit has been brecciated at the northwestern contact with plagioclase porphyry. Open spaces have been partially infilled with a mixture of calcite, zeolites and epidote. The magnetite-garnet alteration assemblage forms a mappable unit of unknown protolith and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. Hydrothermal Breccias Hydrothermal breccias (unit 5) are prominent on the property but have not been previously recognized and mapped. In the past, all breccias were classified as intrusion breccias (Hodgson et al., 1976 and Gore et al., 1992). Although intrusion breccias are present the most important type of breccia is hydrothermal in origin. Hydrothermal breccias are superimposed on other lithologies that are defined by the dominant clast-type, and as such do not represent primary map units. Their distinctive character and mineralogy, however, allows classification and mapping of distinctive types (Figures 3.1 and 3.2) that are described in detail in Chapter 4. In general, the breccias consist of zones of intense fracturing, containing secondary minerals in their matrix and clasts. Four hydrothermal breccia types have been identified, and are subdivided on the basis of matrix mineralogy: actinolite breccia, biotite breccia, magnetite breccia and albite breccia. Clasts are dominated by the host country rock and consist of diorite, occasional plagioclase porphyry and rare 29 volcanic rocks. Cross-cutting relationships between the various hydrothermal breccias are difficult to identify due to poor exposure and surface weathering. Porphyritic Augite Monzodiorite Porphyritic augite monzodiorite (unit 6) has only been mapped in the west zone, where several small outcrops appear to cross-cut plagioclase porphyry (Figure 3.1). The unit is also present at depth, about 185 metres below the surface, on cross-section 3460 N (Figure 3.2), where it cuts biotite breccia (5b) and is truncated by potassium feldspar phyric monzonite (clasts of monzodiorite float near the contact). Generally this unit forms dike-like bodies with a northerly strike and a moderate to shallow easterly dip. Macroscopically, the unit is very distinctive, having 10 vol.% prominent rounded green clinopyroxene phenocrysts causing a higher mafic index than plagioclase porphyry (Plate 3.3B). Petrography indicates that the phenocrysts occur as individual grains or aggregates and are sub- to euhedral, zoned and contain inclusions of magnetite. Tabular plagioclase grains form the majority of groundmass (75 vol.%) and are weakly to moderately aligned. Most feldspars are strongly sericitized. Subhedral magnetite is disseminated in the groundmass and contains exsolution lamellae of ilmenite. Accessory phases include apatite and biotite. Although no potassium feldspar was visible microscopically, a sodium cobaltinitrite stain indicates its presence, mostly as an interstitial phase. The dike-like bodies are unmineralized and do not exhibit the strong potassium feldspar overprint characteristic of pre- to syn-mineral units present within the pit area. Potassium Feldspar Phyric Monzonite Potassium feldspar phyric monzonite (unit 7) occurs in two locations, within the core of the deposit and at the summit of Mount Polley (Figure 3.1). The unit has been divided into two similar types, that differ in intrusive characteristics, alteration and possible timing. Xenoliths of host diorite are quite prominent and vary in size from centimetres to metres (Plate 3.5B). The monzonite unit (7a) occurs as dikes and small pods in the centre of the deposit and extends to undefined vertical depths. Euhedral, zoned potassium feldspar phenocrysts (20%) form a trachytic texture, 30 Plate 3.4A Dr i l l core samples of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, unit 7a (MTP-92-0051). Euhedral, zoned potassium feldspar phenocrysts have a weakly trachytic texture and average one centimetre in length. The groundmass is composed of seriate textured plagioclase, pyroxene and magnetite. Plate 3.4B Photomicrograph (plane polarized light) of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, unit 7a (MTP-92-0045). A deuterically altered potassium feldspar phenocryst poikiolitically encloses plagioclase grains, indicating simultaneous growth. The groundmass consists of plagioclase, with accessory pyroxene, sphene and apatite. Field of view is 5 mm. 31 with individual phenocrysts up to 2 centimetres long (Plate 3.4A). Most of the groundmass (70 vol.%) consists of weakly to moderately aligned plagioclase laths. Feldspars have both albite and Carlsbad twins. Plagioclase laths are incorporated into the margins of potassium feldspar phenocrysts (Plate 3.4B), indicating simultaneous crystallization. Subhedral to euhedral clinopyroxene is disseminated in the matrix and is weakly altered to hornblende. Accessory phases include sphene, apatite and magnetite with ilmenite exsolution. Minor alteration of the rock consists of a 'pinking' of the feldspars and may represent restricted deuteric alteration. The Mount Polley summit monzonite (unit 7b) is an extensive stock-like body. The unit forms extensive outcrops on the summit of Mt. Polley and covers the western slope with scree. It has been previously described by Hodgson et al. (1976) as an intrusion breccia, but xenoliths of fragments constitute less than 5% of the unit. Petrographically, the rock resembles unit 7a, having a moderate alignment of strongly sericitized plagioclase (Plate 3.5 A) and containing 5% megacrysts (2 cm x 1 cm) of potassium feldspar. The megacrysts have altered margins and fresher interiors. Plagioclase laths have been incorporated into the margins. The unit also contains minor amounts of primary biotite, magnetite, altered pyroxene and subhedral apatite. The vertical and areal extent are poorly constrained, and it is possible that most of the topographic high of Mount Polley is underlain by this unit. The monzonite is unmineralized but displays disseminated epidote, albite and fine grained disseminated pyrite alteration. This suggests that it was emplaced late during active hydrothermal alteration. Augite Porphyry Dikes Augite porphyry dikes (unit 8) occur as swarms throughout the deposit, cross-cutting all igneous and breccia units, striking northerly and dipping moderately to the east (Figure 3.2). Dikes are continuous along strike for more than 100 metres and have an average thickness of 4 metres. Dark red-brown to grey aphanitic chilled margins have occasional plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts. Clinopyroxene (35 -55%) forms optically zoned, euhedral phenocrysts while the bulk of the groundmass consists of euhedral plagioclase laths with remnant albite twinning (Plates 3.6A and B). Feldspars are slightly altered to 32 Plate 3.5A Photomicrograph (crossed nichols) of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, unit 7b (MTP-93-0076) illustrating the trachytic texture of groundmass plagioclase grains. Plagioclase is weakly sericitized. Accessory minerals include subhedral magnetite, apatite, pyroxene and biotite. Plate 3.5B Dr i l l core sample near the base of an intrusion breccia with a potassium feldspar phyric monzonite matrix (MTP-92-0050). The angular fragments are fine grained, dark green hornblende pyroxenite. Pyroxenite content increases with depth to a clast-supported breccia. Plate 3.6A Dri l l core sample of a post-mineral augite porphyry dike (MTP-92-0064). Abundant euhedral clinopyroxene phenocrysts float in a felsic groundmass consisting primarily of plagioclase and potassium feldspar. Plate 3.6B Photomicrograph (crossed nichols) of an augite porphyry dike (MTP-92-0049). Euhedral clinopyroxene phenocrysts have oscillatory and sector zoning. The groundmass is extremely fine grained feldspar and subhedral magnetite. Field of view is 5 mm. 34 sericite. Sub to euhedral magnetite with ulvospinel exsolution is disseminated in the groundmass and is included in clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The groundmass varies in coarseness and submicroscopic potassium feldspar may be present. These dikes are unaltered and are clearly post-mineral. Biotite Lamprophyre Dikes Biotite lamprophyre dikes (unit 9) cross-cut all rock types and are possibly Tertiary in age. They have been mapped throughout the deposit, are oriented roughly north-south, similar to the other post-mineral dikes, and have a maximum thickness of 2 metres. The dikes are fine grained, friable and weather rapidly on surface to an olive green sand. Euhedral biotite forms 40% of the unit, imparting a foliation, with moderately to weakly aligned plagioclase laths (50%) and sparse pyroxene phenocrysts. Most dikes are vesiculated and some contain amygdules fdled with calcite. The lamprophyre (or minette) dikes are found regionally and therefore are most likely unrelated to the intrusive complex present at Mount Polley. 3.3 Whole-Rock Geochemistry During the 1992-93 field seasons, 36 samples were collected for a lithogeochemical study. The samples comprised the intrusive units at Mount Polley, including pyroxenite, diorite, plagioclase porphyry, augite monzodiorite, potassium feldspar phyric monzonite and augite porphyry dikes. Breccia samples could not be collected due to their polylithic, heterogeneous nature. Fresh and altered samples of each lithology type were collected to analyze material transfer during metasomatism. Four samples of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite (unit 7b) from the summit of Mt. Polley were collected in June, 1993 to compare with the chemistry of dikes found within the pit area. Additional samples of the regional volcanic units were provided by C. Stanley of the Mineral Deposit Research Unit, in order to compare the chemistry of volcanic and intrusive units. C. Stanley is currently carrying out an investigation of the chemical affinity and fractionation of samples obtained from the Bootjack Stock (pseudoleucite syenite). Precision and accuracy of geochemical analyses is discussed in Appendix A. 35 3.3.1 Major Element Analyses Major element chemistry of least altered samples (Appendix A) outlines the general petrological character of individual units and relationships among units. A series of major oxide analyses plotted against SiC<2 gives a rough indication of differentiation among the intrusive and extrusive units sampled at Mount Polley (Figure 3.3). The most highly differentiated units are represented by plagioclase porphyry and the potassium feldspar phyric monzonite, which tend to cluster together. The two units are chemically indistinguishable, having relatively high SiC>2 and low total Fe, MnO, MgO and P2O5. One altered plagioclase porphyry sample has significantly higher MnO but the sample was collected from the surface and numerous fractures coated with manganese oxide were noted in outcrop. Plagioclase porphyry and potassium feldspar phyric monzonite generally contain higher Na20 and lower CaO concentrations compared with the volcanic and other plutonic samples, suggesting the crystallization of more calcic plagioclase and/or pyroxene early in the intrusive history of the complex. The diorite, augite monzodiorite, augite porphyry and volcanic samples can be broadly grouped together. Although the samples differ significantly in terms of petrography, they have a similar bulk chemistry. This group is separated from the more felsic rocks by a SiC«2 gap of approximately 5-8% and contain the highest total Fe, MgO, MnO, CaO and P2O5 concentrations. Pyroxenite chemistry could only be determined from one sample that was collected by separating clasts of hornblende pyroxenite from its potassium feldspar phyric monzonite matrix, crushing and picking out contaminants (i.e. small wedges of matrix adhering to clast margins or vein material). Pyroxenite is the most primitive (Figure 3.3), with the lowest silica and aluminum content (42.4 wt.% Si02 and 9.53 wt.% AI2O3). The sample also contains the highest Fe203 (19.8 wt.%) and Ti02 (1.3 wt.%). These oxide contents are very high due to the large proportion of titaniferous magnetite present in the modal mineralogy. As well, this individual sample contained the largest amount of CaO and MgO, 12.9 and 8.73 wt.% respectively. These oxides can also be linked with the mineralogy, and are due to the high proportion of hornblende and pyroxene. 36 Figure 3.3 Data from plutonic and volcanic units at Mount Polley plotted on Harker diagrams, showing whole rock major element variation with respect to silica content. The most differentiated units are represented by plagioclase porphyry and potasssium feldspar phyric monzonite. Diorite, augite monzodiorite, augite porphyry dikes and volcanics have similar chemistry and are separated from the more felsic units by a silica gap of approximately 5%. 37 1 1 * 1 1 . 1 1 8 i i i i i i i 7 V ° • * • • 1 , 1 . 1 , 6 s 4 3 2 1 0 V ,1 .° X 0 * * * o e o • D T X • • V . 1 . 1 t 1 . 30 35 40 45 50 55 S 0 2 (wt%) 60 65 70 30 35 40 45 50 55 S102 (wt%) o 0 o + 30 35 40 45 50 55 Si02 (wt%) 30 35 40 45 50 55 Si02 (wt%) 60 65 60 65 70 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 SI02 (wt%) Si02 (wt%) 70 INTRUSIONS + Augite Monzodiorite o • KF Phyric Monzonite (fresh, weakly altered) a • Plagioclase Porphyry (fresh, weakly altered) o • Diorite (fresh, weakly altered) * Pyroxenite VOLCANIC LITHOLOGIES * Massive Basalt ' Augite-Hornblende Phyric Basalt x Augite Porphyry Dike T Auglte-KF Phyric Basalt 38 Diorite compositions have a fairly narrow range of SiC«2 (49.5 - 55.6 wt.%). The freshest samples have the lowest SiC»2 and moderate CaO concentrations. More altered samples have lower CaO, Na20 and higher Si02 and K 2 O abundances. Some altered samples have a higher iron concentration. Plagioclase porphyry samples also have a very narrow range of silica, 55 - 62.9 wt.% S1O2. The unit contains significantly less CaO and Fe203 concentrations compared to pyroxenite, augite porphyry, diorite and augite monzodiorite. In general, the unit has higher MgO and K 2 O concentrations than other lithologies. On the basis of whole rock chemistry alone, altered samples are difficult to distinguish from fresh rocks. Augite monzodiorite has a very limited range of silica concentration, from 48.5 to 52.2 wt.% Si02- All analyses are of relatively fresh samples and the chemical compositions are almost identical. The concentration of iron and magnesium (~ 15%) is comparable to the other mafic samples, augite porphyry and diorite, and is probably due to the high magnetite and pyroxene content. Augite porphyry dike samples were probably the next most primitive compared with the pyroxenite (Figure 3.3). The unit has a relatively narrow range of Si02 concentration (47.9 to 48.2 wt.%), except for a fine grained dike which was assumed to be a chilled equivalent of the augite porphyry. The dikes are augite and magnetite phyric with a plagioclase-rich matrix and are notably higher in Fe203, MgO and CaO than the chilled dike. The aphanitic dike is clearly different in chemistry and is not representative of the bulk composition of the augite porphyry. The sample (MTP-92-0063) differs considerably in the major oxide contents: lower Fe 2 03, MgO, CaO and higher K 2 0 , N a 2 0 , AI2O3 and S i 0 2 (56.9 wt.%). These differences can be explained by the mineralogy and texture of the sample, having a reddish brown matrix colouration indicative of potassium feldspar, and fine phenocrysts of plagioclase and sparse pyroxene. Since sample 92-0063 differs so remarkably in whole-rock chemistry and petrography, it is interpreted to belong to a group of volumetrically less important dike intrusions, the distribution of which have not been mapped at Mount Polley. 39 Lang (1993) has subdivided alkalic porphyry deposits into two distinctive types, (i) a silica-saturated type related to alkalic rocks that have modal or normative quartz, for example, Afton-Ajax, Copper Mountain and Mt. Milligan, and (ii) a silica-undersaturated type associated with igneous rocks that have feldspathoids in their modal or normative mineral assemblage, for example, Galore Creek rocks contain pseudoleucite. Regional volcanic rocks near Mount Polley are weakly nepheline-normative (Table A.2). Some intrusive phases within the Polley Stock are also weakly undersaturated (nepheline-normative, see Table A.2); these include pre-mineral diorite and late augite monzodiorite and augite porphyry dikes. Plagioclase porphyry and potassium feldspar phyric dikes are both weakly nepheline-saturated and quartz-saturated. Mount Polley has been classed as a silica-saturated deposit (Lang et al., in press) although it displays both types of normative mineralogies, and it is spatially related to a clearly undersaturated intrusion, the Bootjack Stock. To investigate the alkalic nature of the lithologies at Mount Polley, a series of alkaline affinity diagrams were constructed and description is given below. On an alkalis versus silica plot (Irvine and Baragar, 1971) for the plutonic rocks, all samples are decidedly alkaline in chemistry (Figure 3.4A). The compositions of diorite, plagioclase porphyry, augite monzodiorite, potassium feldspar phyric monzonite and their weakly altered equivalents are plotted. Silica concentration ranges from 48.5 to 62.9 wt.% Si02 and (Na20 + K2O wt.%) ranges from approximately 6 - 12%. Generally, all intrusive samples have a higher silica concentration compared to regional volcanics. The diorite and monzodiorite samples cluster tightly together, with the more felsic units (monzonite and plagioclase porphyry) plotting in a separate group at higher silica and alkali contents. Each group is similar petrographically but differs in whole rock chemistry. The alkaline plot of Na20 versus K2O (Middlemost, 1985) subdivides the plutonic alkaline suite into High-potassic, Potassic and Sodic Series. With the exception of two samples (one diorite and a weakly altered plagioclase porphyry), all samples lie in the potassic-series (Figure 3.4B). Similarly, the samples appear to separate into felsic and mafic groups. 20 I 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 r 18 16 " ^ 1 4 -35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Si02 (wt%) + Augite Monzodiorite D • Plagioclase Porphyry o • KF Phyric Monzonite (fresh, weakly altered) o • Diorite Na20 (wt%) Figure 3.4 A Classification of major intrusive rocks from Mount Polley on an alkaline affinity diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971). Fresh samples (open symbols) and only weakly altered sampli (filled symbols) are plotted. Al l units are strongly alkaline in nature. B Classification of alkaline intrusive rocks on aNa20 versus K20 diagram (Middlemost, 1975). Mount Polley rocks fall into the potassium-series. 41 + o 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 "i r ~i ' r Alkaline Subalkaline 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 S i 0 2 (wt%) A Massive Basalt ° Hornblende Phyric Basalt v Augite Phyric Basalt * Augite Porphyry Dike • Pyroxenite * Augite Phyric Trachyte 0 Augite-KF Phyric Basalt • Augite-Pseudoleucite-KF Phyric Breccia 2000 1000 E Q. CL -Q DC 100 10 ~i 1—i—i i i i i | 1 1—i—i i i i i I 1 ~r^?T i i i i i | syn-COLG i i i i I 10 100 Y + Nb (ppm) 1000 2000 Figure 3.5 A Classification for unaltered volcanic, pyroxenite and augite porphyry dike samples on an alkaline affinity diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971). Al l rock types are clearly alkaline in chemistry. B Tectonic affinity diagram (Pearce et al., 1984) for the major intrusive units at Mount Polley. Samples plot within the volcanic arc granite field (VAG). The remaining fields are: ocean ridge granites (ORG), within plate granites (WPG) and syn-collisional granites (syn-COLG). The legend is given in Figure 3.4. 42 On an alkalis versus silica diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971) for volcanic rocks, all samples plot in the alkaline field (Figure 3.5A), ranging from 42.4 to 56.9 wt.% Si02 and approximately 3 to 12 wt.% (Na20 + K2O). All samples are plotted by rock type and the following units have been graphed together: massive basalt, augite and potassium feldspar phyric basalts, pseudoleucite phyric basalts and the mafic intrusives, including augite porphyry dikes and the single pyroxenite sample. The major intrusive samples are plotted on an tectonic affinity diagram (Pearce et al., 1984, Figure 3.5B)) which plots (Y + Nb) versus Rb. The samples are tightly clustered in the volcanic island arc granite field, suggesting that the Mount Polley intrusives were generated in an arc setting. In conclusion, the intrusive rocks at Mount Polley are clearly alkaline in chemistry and display both a silica-saturated and undersaturated nature. Alkaline porphyry deposits within British Columbia show variation between these two normative mineralogies and have been represented on Figure 1.1. 3.3.2 Trace Element Analyses Genetic relationships among lithologies can sometimes be derived by examination of trace elements present in each unit. Rocks which come from a common parent may tend to have very similar trace and rare earth concentrations. Data for the Mount Polley intrusive units and the surrounding volcanics were compared to M O R B and Sun's (1982) normalization values (Table A.4) to observe trace element differences and similarities. If the porphyritic rocks of the Polley Stock are related to the undersaturated volcanics the stock is intrusive into, then all lithologies should have a similar or related R E E pattern. Unfortunately, these highly alkaline rocks are compared to chemically different mid-ocean ridge basalts, but an overall pattern of large ion lithophile element (LILE) enrichment can be observed. Although ideally one would like to normalize chemistry to a similar rock type, no suitable values were found for comparison. Instead the spiderdiagrams presented in this section are intended to compare elemental values within rock suites to observe variations in the pattern and postulate on similarities or differences. Low concentrations of certain elements, for example Ti , Ta and Nb, are diagnostic of an arc signature (Barrie, 1993). 43 It is expected that feldspar phyric units such as those sampled at Mount Polley will show LILE enrichment, as well as high concentrations of trace elements such as Rb, Sr and Ba that partition into the feldspar structure during fractionation. However, some of the enrichment observed may relate to alteration. Metasomatism of the Mount Polley rocks has resulted in significant potassium feldspar addition and possible mobility of other LIL elements. Lithologies having chemical and petrographical similarities were grouped together. Fresh and least altered diorite and augite monzodiorite are grouped together. All samples have identical R E E signatures (Figure 3.6A), with large positive anomalies in the large ion lithophile (LIL) elements (Ba, K and Sr). Strong positive anomalies in these elements were not unexpected since these elements are incorporated into feldspars. Also, the elements tend to be quite mobile during metasomatism. These intrusives have a minor negative Y anomaly, with the exception of two diorite samples that have strong negative Y and Zr anomalies. Normalization to Sun's (1982) values is similar to other intrusive units, but Eu, Yb and Lu are not as tightly clustered. Similarly, the plagioclase porphyry and potassium feldspar phyric monzonite samples have been grouped together, with one average diorite composition for comparison. Again, the intrusives show an identical R E E trend, having a large ion lithophile enrichment, with Ba, K, Sr positive anomalies and Y depletion (Figure 3.6 B). The augite porphyry dikes and pyroxenite sample were plotted on one diagram (Figure 3.7A). The pyroxenite shows a strong negative anomaly in Y and strong enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (Ba, K, Sr). The dikes are similarly enriched. Basalt samples, including an average augite porphyry dike for comparison, are normalized to M O R B and Sun's data (1982) (Figure 3.7B). The dike composition plots in the mid-range of the volcanic samples. 46 Volcanic rocks have a moderate negative anomaly in Y , minor depletion in Nb and Zr relative to M O R B and strong enrichments in Ba, K and Sr. All intrusive (pyroxenite to potassium feldspar phyric monzonite) and volcanic R E E patterns are almost identical. These chemical similarities support a genetic relationship between the Mount Polley intrusive complex and its volcanic pile. The spiderdiagram patterns are indicative of arc magmatism (Barrie, 1993). 3.3.3 Pearce Element Ratio Analysis In an effort to investigate the chemical diversity and possible relationships among the intrusive units at Mount Polley, the Pearce element ratio technique (Pearce, 1968; Russell and Nicholls, 1988) was utilized. The Pearce element ratio (PER) approach tests the "comagmatic hypothesis" and may also illustrate chemical diversity through fractionation within a suite of samples. PER's express geochemical, weight percent data in molar terms, using a conserved element in the denominator. A conserved element is one which is incompatible during fractionation and immobile during metasomatism. Conserved elements can be compatible as long as the minerals containing the element do not undergo differential sorting. Elements in the numerator of the ratio have participated in the material transfer process by fractionation and/or metasomatism and contribute to variation in PER diagrams (Stanley, 1993a). PER analysis is superior to Harker diagrams for three reasons: firstly, it avoids the closure problem, where a rock composition must sum to 100%, which artificially enhances elemental participation and leads to apparent effects of material transfer; secondly, use of molar concentrations rather than mass allows material transfer processes to be directly attributed to the stoichiometry of rninerals, allowing solid solution mineral composition variations to be accommodated in linear combinations of PER's (Stanley, 1993a); and, lastly, material transfer by fractionation can be distinguished from the effects of metasomatism. 47 The formation of PER's is an easy conversion of weight percent (or ppm) concentrations into molar concentrations (referred to as a Pearce element number, PEN), followed by a ratio of two PEN's, where the denominator is a conserved constituent. The Pearce element ratio of element x is: PERx = PENx/PENz where x = a non-conserved element z = a conserved constituent The Pearce element number for each constituent is calculated as follows (from Russell and Nicholls, 1988): PENx = WxAx/Mx where Wx = the weight percentages or ppm concentration of element x Ax = the number of cations in the oxide formula of element x Mx = the molecular weight of the oxide. The first step prior to use of the PER approach is to plot the chemical data for the suite of rocks on a series of X - Y scatterplots. If a suite of rocks is related and has a common parental composition, then on an X - Y plot of two conserved elements (elements that have neither participated in fractionation or metasomatism), the effect of material transfer is to dilute or concentrate the conserved elements by net addition or subtraction of other elements. Therefore, plotted compositions of a related suite will move along a line of constant slope through the origin. If the data is scattered and does not lie on such a line, one or both of the elements is not conserved, or the suite is unrelated. When the diorite, augite monzodiorite, plagioclase porphyry and potassium feldspar phyric monzonites (KF Monzonite) were plotted on Zr versus TiC»2, Nb, Th, Y and AI2O3 diagrams, the following points were noted: 1) Nb is at detection and is not useful as a discriminating element, 2) not surprisingly, AI2O3 is not conserved due to the fractionation of feldspar, so can not be used as a denominator constituent in the PER's, and 3) the four rock types are not obviously comagmatic since one line through the origin can not be drawn. On a Zr-Ti02 plot, however, three lines of different slope can be passed from the origin through diorite (+ augite monzodiorite), plagioclase porphyry and K F phyric monzonite. This indicates that although the rocks are not necessarily related by a common parent, within each of the three groups, Zr and Ti02 are conserved. The chemical diversity among the three groups was thus investigated separately. 48 Zr-TiC>2 scatterplots for diorite (and augite monzodiorite, Figure 3.8A) show that within analytical error, a line can be drawn through the origin, indicating that Zr and TiC>2 are the best candidates for conserved elements. A Zr-Th plot (Figure 3.8B) indicates that although Th may be conserved, the data is considerably more scattered and a Th-TiC>2 (Figure 3.8C) plot conclusively shows that Th is participating during metasomatism, as illustrated by the negative slope. Zr will be used as the conserved element for the PER denominator since it appears to be immobile, incompatible and according to MacLean (1990), is relatively abundant and accurately analyzed by x-ray fluorescence. Similarly, scatterplots for plagioclase porphyry indicate a possibility that Zr, T i and Th are conserved (Figure 3.8 D, E, F) but the data contains several notable outliers. Because of its large relative analytical error relative to Zr and TiC>2, thorium is not useful. Zr is used as a conserved element for this group. The K F phyric monzonite unit illustrates different elemental behaviors. X - Y scatterplots of TiC>2 versus Zr and Th (Figure 3.9 A, B) show the data have negative slope, indicating that one or both of the elements is participating in fractionation or metasomatism. It is likely that the TiC>2 is behaving compatibly during fractionation of titanomagnetite and possibly as small amounts in clinopyroxene rather than Th or Zr. X - Y plots of Zr versus Th (Figure 3.9C) indicate that these two elements are probably conserved. Two lines may be drawn through the data, one line containing all the samples collected from the core of the deposit from dikes and small pods (unit 7a) and the other line containing four samples, within analytical error, from the stock at the summit of Mt. Polley (unit 7b). Therefore, these two potassium feldspar phyric phases appear to be unrelated to a single parental melt. Zr will be used as the PER denominator rather than Th because it has the smallest relative error. The chemical variation among the two potassium feldspar phyric units will be modelled on the same PER diagrams for comparison. A series of PER diagrams were constructed to model fractionating minerals in each of the three units. In diorite and augite monzodiorite rocks, plagioclase and more commonly clinopyroxene are recognized as fine phenocrystic phases and represent the first phases to crystallize. A 2Ca+Na versus Al (with Zr in the 49 Th (ppm) Th (ppm) Figure 3.8 X - Y scatterplots testing for conserved elements in diorite (open squares), plus three samples of augite monzodiorite (checks: A, B, C), and plagioclase porphyry (filled circles: D, E , F). Material transfer within each intrusive unit causes conserved elements to move towards or away from the origin along a straight line. Zr appears to be the best conserved element for these intrusive rocks. T i or Th may be behaving compatibly in diorite, causing a negative slope. Analytical uncertainty is shown by two standard deviation error bars (see Appendix A for discussion of analytical precision and accuracy). 50 0.7-r 0.6-0.5-^ 0.4-% CM O 0.3-F 0.2-0.1-0- 20 40 ~o~W 60 80 Zr (ppm) 2 St. Dev. 100 120 140 0.7-j 0.6-0.5-* 0.4-^  I CM O 0.3H 0.2-\ 0.1 -0-1 0.5 • v 2 St. Dev. 1.5 2 Th (ppm) 2.5 3.5 Zr (ppm) Figure 3.9 X - Y scatterplots testing for conserved elements in potassium feldspar phyric monzonite (filled squares=7a, open circles=7b). The negative trends observed in TiU2-Zr and TiO^-Th plots suggest that titanium is behaving compatibly. Zr and possibly Th represent the best conserved elements. Zr-Th ratios are different for units 7a and 7b, indicating that the two rock types came from separate magma batches that may not be related. Error bars as in Figure 3.8. 51 denominator) PER diagram (Figure 3.1 OA) tests the hypothesis that plagioclase is participating in crystallization; diorite samples related through plagioclase separation or accumulation will lie along a line with slope of 1.0 on this diagram. The majority of samples appear to lie in a trend somewhat steeper than one, indicating the participation of clinopyroxene and the rejection of the hypothesis that plagioclase alone accounts for the observed diversity. 2Ca+3Na versus Si (Figure 3.10B) tests the fractionation of plagioclase and clinopyroxene (m=l). Within error, all samples but two fall on the line. The two outliers were investigated by creating bubble plots, where the bubble represents the proportion of various oxides. These two samples contain higher K 2 O , P2O5, MgO, MnO and slightly higher Fe203 that is probably due to alteration rather than phenocryst sorting. Plagioclase porphyry samples contain abundant fine phenocrysts of plagioclase and occasionally potassium feldspar (<5%). On a 2Ca+Na versus Al PER diagram (Figure 3.10C), the data is somewhat scattered and some samples fall outside the error envelope around the line. When the effects of potassium feldspar sorting is considered (2Ca+Na+K versus Al , Figure 3.10D), most samples lie on or close (within error) to a line of slope one. The one notable outlier was collected from surface, is highly altered and contains manganese oxide coatings on fractures. The potassium feldspar phyric monzonites (units 7a and 7b) presented the most interesting chemical variation and were analyzed in greater detail. A PER diagram testing the hypothesis that the rocks are linked by plagioclase sorting (2Ca+Na versus Al , Figure 3.11 A) indicates that the 10 unaltered samples collected from the core of the system (unit 7a) come from a different batch of magma, with a slightly different initial composition, than the 4 samples collected from the summit of Mt. Polley (unit 7b) since two separate lines may be drawn through each grouping. The lines are slightly steeper than one, indicating the participation of another fractionating phase. A better diagram, testing all feldspar composition (2Ca+Na+K versus Al , Figure 3.1 IB) sorting, illustrates that all unit 7a rocks fit on a line of slope 1.37 and the remaining 4 samples (all of unit 7b) plot on a line of slope 1.73 (see Appendix D for least squares technique for the calculation of these slopes). A steeper slope than one probably indicates clinopyroxene 52 JZ/BN+E02 s s "o JZ/BN+BOS 53 fractionation, and hence unit 7b samples may reflect a greater participation of clinopyroxene relative to feldspar. To roughly test this hypothesis, the samples were first plotted on a Al-Na versus Na PER diagram (Figure 3.11C). This particular diagram illustrates the effects of albite and anorthite fractionations, with solid solution compositions falling on a line of intermediate slope. Unit 7a rocks have a plagioclase composition given by slope of 1.52 and 7b rocks have a slope of 1.06. The anorthite component of the feldspars involved in fractionation are calculated by the following equation (Stanley, pers. comm., 1994): y = m/(m+l) where m = the calculated slope on the Al-Na versus Na diagram y = the mole fraction of anorthite Unit 7a rocks have a calculated plagioclase composition of AngQ and Unit 7b samples are slightly more sodic, with a composition of An^\. Once the An compositions have been determined, the rough fractionation of plagioclase versus clinopyroxene can be estimated by the following equation (Stanley, pers. comm., 1994): x = 2/(my+m-y+l) where m = the calculated slope from 2Ca+Na+K versus Al PER diagram (Figure 3.1 IB) y = the mole fraction of anorthite in plagioclase x = the mole fraction of plagioclase versus clinopyroxene fractionating Therefore, returning to the 2Ca+Na+K versus Al diagram (Figure 3.1 IB), the slope of unit 7a rocks (m = 1.37) corresponds to 77% plagioclase and 23% clinopyroxene fractionating and unit 7b rocks (m = 1.73) correspond to 64% plagioclase and 36% clinopyroxene, supporting the hypothesis that the two groups of K-spar phyric monzonites have undergone similar magmatic processes but the summit rocks have a stronger degree of mafic sorting. To further lend support to the hypothesis that the two rocks of unit 7a and 7b are derived from slightly different parental magmas, bubble plots of simple PER's were created on the 2Ca+Na+K versus Al diagram (Figure 3.12). Unit 7b rocks contain higher concentrations of P/Zr, Mn/Zr, Ti/Zr, Fe/Zr, H/Zr, 54 55 56 57 LOI/Zr and Mg/Zr, and contain significantly lower C/Zr. A higher mafic content (generally clinopyroxene and magnetite) can explain the Ti02, Fe and MgO increases and the higher P2O5 and MnO contents may be attributed to other primary differences in initial magma compositions. Although concentrations of H2O, CO2 and LOI probably do not reflect magmatic differences, they may indicate varying intensities of alteration. 3.4 Mineral Chemistry The primary (igneous) assemblage of the intrusive units at Mount Polley has mineral groups common to hydrothermal minerals found on the property. The chemistry of pyroxene, amphiboles and feldspars was determined and compared to secondary compositions. If the hydrothermal fluids responsible for alteration are similar to magmatic fluids, then mineral chemistry may be identical. Primary minerals from all of the intrusive phases were chosen for analyses. Only fresh samples were selected so that hydrothermal and deuteric alteration could be avoided; most polished sections were probed from the geochemistry sample suite. The analytical technique used is described in Appendix B. 3.4.1 Pyroxenes A total of 7 polished thin sections from various igneous units were analyzed for the chemical compositions of primary disseminated pyroxene (Tables 3.1 and B.2), two samples each of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite and augite porphyry, and one sample each of augite monzodiorite, pyroxenite and diorite. Pyroxenes in the diorite, augite monzodiorite and potassium feldspar phyric monzonite are most commonly subhedral to euhedral (bladed morphology), pale green and disseminated in the groundmass. The grains tend to have abundant subhedral magnetite and apatite inclusions and prominent cleavage traces. Altered samples still show relatively pristine pyroxene grains, with minor hornblende and biotite alteration along their margins. The average grain size is 0.5 - 2 mm, with pyroxenes in the augite monzodiorite reaching up to 7 mm in diameter. Pyroxenite has coarse grained pale green clinopyroxene with magnetite inclusions. 58 Table 3.1 Representative microprobe analyses of primary pyroxenes from Mount Polley intrusive rocks. Sample No. MTP-0044-2 MTP-0050-3 MTP-0046-1 MTP-0064-2 MTP-0064-2 MTP-0064-2 MTP-0064-2 MTP-0062-1 p t l Pt-l pt3 p t l pt 2 pt3 pt 4 pt 2 Type KFMONZ Pyroxenite AGMONZ AGPP AGPP AGPP AGPP DIOR M n O 0.8 0.2 0.28 0.14 0.15 0.23 0.26 0.63 Si02 52.58 48.32 49.05 51.93 51.72 48.32 47.27 50.31 CaO 22.81 22.9 22.18 23.09 22.64 22.89 23.04 22.1 FeO 8.09 7.76 8.36 4.88 5.39 7.85 8.09 9.45 Ti02 0.22 0.8 0.83 0.18 0.21 0.52 0.77 0.47 A1203 0.78 5.48 4.53 1.64 1.49 4.99 6.21 2.71 Na20 0.58 0.3 0.36 0.2 0.25 0.35 0.34 0.53 M g O 13.96 13.5 14.07 16.61 16.58 13.49 13.08 13.01 Cr203 nd nd nd 0.28 0.26 nd 0.06 0.02 Total 99.82 99.26 99.66 98.95 98.69 98.64 99.12 99.23 Ion Numbers based on 6 oxygens Si 1.9568 1.8017 1.8221 1.9179 1.9168 1.8121 1.7664 1.8912 Al(IV) 0.0296 0.1762 0.155 0.0672 0.0651 0.1627 0.2047 0.0906 Sum 1.9864 1.9779 1.9772 1.9852 1.9819 1.9748 1.9711 1.9818 Ca 0.9095 0.9148 0.8828 0.9137 0.899 0.9197 0.9225 0.8901 M g 0.7744 0.7503 0.7791 0.9144 0.9159 0.754 0.7285 0.729 Fe2 0.1702 0.1093 0.1228 0.0618 0.0671 0.0948 0.0796 0.1881 Al(VI) 0.0047 0.0646 0.0433 0.0041 - 0.0579 0.0688 0.0294 Mn2 0.0252 0.0063 0.0088 0.0044 0.0047 0.0073 0.0082 0.0201 Na 0.0419 0.0217 0.0259 0.0143 0.018 0.0254 0.0246 0.0386 Cr - - - 0.0082 0.0076 - 0.0018 0.0006 T i 0.0062 0.0224 0.0232 0.005 0.0059 0.0147 0.0216 0.0133 Fe3 0.0816 0.1327 0.1369 0.0889 0.0999 0.1514 0.1733 0.109 Sum 2.0136 2.0221 2.0228 2.0148 2.0181 2.0252 2.0289 2.0182 Total 10.0274 10.0447 10.0462 10.0298 10.0336 10.0511 10.0586 10 Endmember Proportions Mg(2)Si(2)0(6) 0.3872 0.3751 0.3895 0.4572 0.4579 0.377 0.3643 0.3645 Fe(2) Si(2) 0(6) 0.0851 0.0546 0.0614 0.0309 0.0336 0.0474 0.0398 0.0941 Ca(2) Si(2) 0(6) 0.4548 0.4574 0.4414 0.4568 0.4495 0.4599 0.4612 0.4451 Sum 0.927 0.8872 0.8923 0.945 0.941 0.8843 0.8653 0.9036 M n Fe T i A l 0.0798 0.1239 0.1191 0.0624 0.068 0.1284 0.1492 0.1055 59 The augite porphyry unit has euhedral pyroxene in the range of 0.5 to 4 mm, with optically visible oscillatory and sector zoning and magnetite inclusions. The spectacularly developed optical zoning in pyroxenes from augite porphyry was barely visible using backscattered electron imaging, suggesting that little chemical difference or similar atomic numbers exists from core to rim. Zones varied from less than 10 to 100 microns in width. Due to the difficulty in seeing zonation with the electron microprobe, only four points were analyzed from core to rim. The oxide weight percents of elements above detection limit were plotted verses an arbitrary distance, indicating traverses across the grain (Figure 3.13). Once again, only very slight differences can be noted; these include (i) a decrease in Si02 and corresponding increase in AI2O3 at the rim of the grain and (ii) a depletion in MgO and enrichment in FeO at the margin (Figure 3.13). Primary pyroxene analyses were recalculated into the three endmembers, wollastonite (CaSi03) - enstatite (MgSi03) - ferrosilite (FeSi03) (Table 3.1), and plotted in the pyroxene quadrilateral diagram (Deer et al, 1966; Figure 3.14A), including the nomenclature for the clinopyroxene series of pyroxenes. The results show that the primary pyroxenes probed from the 5 lithologies are indistinguishable in this chemical space. All analyses are tightly clustered in the diopside and salite fields. Plotting oxide weight percents in the ternary diagram Na20-Al203-MnO results in a linear distribution of analyses (Figure 3.14B). The augite porphyry and pyroxenite pyroxenes are slightly less sodic and have less MnO, whereas pyroxene from the potassium feldspar phyric monzonite is fairly distinct. The monzonite typically has higher MnO contents and is slightly more sodic than the others. The following compositions are representative of the pyroxenes probed within each lithology (Table 3.1): Potassium Feldspar Phyric Monzonite (MTP-92-0044-2 pt. 1): Ca0.9 lNa0.04(M80.77Fe2+0.17Fe3+0.08Mn0.03>(Si 1.96A 10.03)°6 Pyroxenite (MTP-92-0050-3 pt. 1): Cao.92Nao.02( M g0.75 F e 2 + 0.11 F e 3 + 0.13 M n 0.01 T i 0.02 A I 0.06)( S i 1.8 A , 0.2)°6 1 2 3 C o r e to R i m T r a v e r s e 2 3 C o r e to R i m T r a v e r s e Figure 3.13 Compositional zoning in two primary pyroxene grains from a sample of augite porphyry (MTP-92-0064, A and B) showing subde differences in chemistry from core to rim. 61 Wo CaSiO, • KF Phyric Monzonite • Pyroxenite n Augite Monzodiorite * Augite Porphyry • Diorite En MgSi03 Augite Hedenbergite Salite Subcalcic Augite Ferrosalite Ferroaugite iKMagnesium/ lnterrnedlate\Ferriferous^JJ ' Pigeonite/ Pigeonlte \Plgeonite \ Subcalcic Ferroaugite Mol. percent Fs FeSiOc Figure 3.14 A. Primary pyroxene compositions depicted in the system enstatite-ferrosilite-wollastonite. All lithologies overplap in composition. Diagram from Deer et al. (1966). B. Primary pyroxene compositions differentiated within the ternary diagram Na20-A1203-MnO. Most analyses cluster tightly at low MnO and Na20 contents but the K F phyric monzonites have substantially higher MnO and Na20 levels. The linear trend may be related to fractionation. 62 Augite Monzodiorite (MTP-92-0046-1 pt. 3): C a o . 8 8 N a 0 . 0 3 ( M g 0 . 7 8 F e 2 + 0 . 1 2 F e 3 + 0 . 1 4 T i 0 . 0 2 A , 0 . 0 4 ) ( S i 1 . 8 2 A 1 0 . 1 6 ) ° 6 Augite Porphyry (core, MTP-92-0064-2 pt. 1): Ca 0 . 9 iNao .o i (Mgo.9 iFe 2 + o .o6 F e 3 + 0 .09 T i 0 .01 C r O.Ol) ( S i 1 .92 A 1 0 .07)°6 (rim, MTP-92-0064-2 pt. 4): C a 0 . 9 2 N a 0 . 0 2 ( M g 0 . 7 3 F e 2 + 0 . 0 8 F e 3 + 0 . 1 7 T i 0 . 0 2 A 1 0 . 0 7 ) ( S i 1 . 7 7 A 1 0 . 2 l ) ° 6 Diorite (MTP-92-0062-1 pt. 2): Cao.89N a0.04(Mg0.73F e 2 +0.1 l F e 3 + 0 .19 M n 0 .02 T i 0 .01 Alo.03)(Si 1.89^0.09)06 3.4.2 Feldspars Samples from three lithologies, one each from diorite, plagioclase porphyry and augite monzodiorite, were analyzed (Tables 3.2 and B.3). Primary plagioclase grains from the diorite are prismatic, euhedral with remnant albite twinning and rare Carlsbad twinning. Grain size varies form 0.5 to 4 mm. Plagioclase grains vary from minimally to intensely sericitized in the core. The grains are not optically zoned, but when using the backscattered electron technique and adjusting the contrast and difference of the image, moderate oscillatory zoning is visible. The core is lighter coloured than the rim, indicating a higher atomic number. A very dark rim surrounds each grain, approximately 25 microns in width. Feldspars from the plagioclase porphyry unit are large blocky (equant) to subhedral grains. Centers of grains are intensely sericitized, and most twinning has been destroyed. There are small remnant patches in the core with more calcic compositions than the rims. Similarly, feldspars from the augite monzodiorite have strongly sericitized interiors, few relict albite twins and very sparse, small regions in the core of more calcic composition. Good electron microprobe analyses representative of the central chemistry were difficult to obtain from these two samples due to their highly altered nature; most analyses had to be discarded. Diorite grains were probed from core to rim, and when major oxides were plotted versus an arbitrary distance along the grain, it can be observed that the feldspars are more calcium and aluminum-rich in the Table 3.2 Representative microprobe analyses of primary feldspars from intrusive rocks. Sample MTP-0062-1 MTP-0062-1 MTP-0062-1 MTP-0048-4 MTP-0048-4 MTP-0047-7 MTP-0047-1 pt 2 pt 3 pL 5 pt 3 pt 4 pt 1 pt 7 Type DIOR DIOR DIOR PLPP PLPP AGMONZ AGMONZ K 2 0 0.31 0.33 0.06 1.85 0.76 0.74 0.55 Na20 7.27 5.88 2.06 7.53 10.29 10 10.57 Si02 59.45 55.86 47.18 60.6 66.15 65.79 66.82 BaO nd 0.05 0.03 0.13 0.02 0.01 nd CaO 7.19 9.66 16.61 3.81 0.93 1.34 0.9 MgO 0.01 nd nd 0.14 0.06 0.03 0.03 A1203 25.59 27.61 33.48 24.86 21.91 21.57 21.06 Fe203 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.52 0.25 0.21 0.16 Total 100 99.59 99.64 99.44 100.37 99.69 100.09 Ion Numbers based on 8 oxygens Si 2.6524 2.5242 2.1737 2.7151 2.8939 2.8982 2.9266 A l 1.3456 1.4705 1.818 1.3127 1.1297 1.1199 1.0871 Fe3 0.006 0.0068 0.0076 0.0175 0.0082 0.007 0.0053 Sum 4.0041 4.0015 3.9993 4.0453 4.0317 4.0251 4.0189 K 0.0176 0.019 0.0035 0.1057 0.0424 0.0416 0.0307 Na 0.6289 0.5152 0.184 0.6541 0.8728 0.8541 0.8976 Ca 0.3437 0.4677 0.8199 0.1829 0.0436 0.0632 0.0422 Ba - 0.0009 0.0005 0.0023 0.0003 0.0002 -M g 0.0007 - - 0.0093 0.0039 0.002 0.002 Sum 0.9909 1.0028 1.008 0.9544 0.9631 0.9611 0.9725 Total 12.995 13.0043 13.0073 12.9997 12.9948 12.9862 12.9914 Endmember Proportions K A l Si(3) 0(8) 0.0176 0.019 0.0035 0.1057 0.0424 0.0416 0.0307 NaAlSi(3)0(8) 0.6289 0.5152 0.184 0.6541 0.8728 0.8541 0.8976 CaAl(2) Si(2)0(8) 0.3437 0.4677 0.8199 0.1829 0.0436 0.0632 0.0422 BaAl(2)Si(2) 0(8) - 0.0009 0.0005 0.0023 0.0003 0.0002 -Sum 0.9902 1.0028 1.008 0.945 0.9591 0.9591 0.9705 M g Fe Sr 0.0067 0.0068 0.0076 0.0269 0.0121 0.0089 0.0072 2 3 4 5 C o r e to R i m T r a v e r s e - N a 2 0 - * - S i 0 2 - e - C a O -AI203 2 3 4 C o r e to R i m T r a v e r s e Figure 3.15 Compositional variation across primary feldspar grains from the diorite unit (MTP-92-0062). In both cases the outer margin of the grains are more sodic than the core. A shows a more pronounced zonation from core to rim. Grain 65 Or KAISigO NaAISi308 0aAI2Si2O8 Figure 3.16 Distribution of primary feldspar compositions in the ternary diagram Ab-An-Or. Grains consistently have a more calcic core, andesine to labradorite in composition, and rims which are more sodic. 66 core, having sodic rims (Figure 3.15). Plotting feldspar compositions in the ternary diagram albite-anorthite-orthoclase (Figure 3.16), show that the majority of the core is labradorite, from A1147 - A n ^ , while rims are andesine in composition (AJ134 - A1142). Plagioclase in the plagioclase porphyry unit also show a similar variation in composition from A1130 -A1150 (andesine to labradorite) for the core and approximately Anrj5 for the more sodic rims. The few good analyses of primary feldspar cores from augite monzodiorite are Anjg having AnQ5 - Anno composition for their rims. The albite rims are not secondary in the augite monzodiorite since the unit intruded late into the hydrothermal system and has not been albitically altered. 3.4.3 Amphiboles One sample of primary amphibole was probed from the hornblende pyroxenite (MTP-92-0050) to classify the chemical composition (Table 3.3). Other lithologies lacked the amphibole constituent as a mafic mineral, and contain pyroxene and biotite instead. The amphibole is strongly pleochroic from yellow-green to dark green and shows the typical oblique cleavage of the amphibole group. It generally is an interstitial phase and includes pyroxene and magnetite grains. Backscattered electron imaging distinguished an alteration mineral along fractures and margins of amphibole grains, having a lower atomic number (darker). It is generally more calcic and has less iron and magnesium. To generally classify the chemical compositions of these two minerals, four good analyses were obtained from each variety and then were plotted on a diagram of the number of ions of (Na + K) in the A-site versus tetrahedral aluminum (Figure 3.17). The four primary amphibole analyses cluster near the pargasite endmember, while the four alteration mineral analyses are considerably different in composition and cluster at a lower (Na + K) and Al value, between the tremolite and hornblende fields. The amphibole group of minerals show a wide range in chemical compositions due to a flexibility in ionic replacement (Deer et al., 1966). The general formula is given by Ao_iB2C5Tg022(OH,F,Cl)2 where the Table 3.3 Microprobe analyses of primary and secondary amphiboles from the pyroxenite unit. 67 Sample No. MTP-0050-2 MTP-0050-4 MTP-0050-4 MTP-0050-5 MTP-0050-2 MTP-0050-4 MTP-OO50-5 MTP-0050-5 pt 3 pt 2 pt 3 pt 2 pt 2 pt 1 pt 1 pt 3 Type Pyroxenite Pyroxenite • Pyroxenite Pyroxenite Pyroxenite Pyroxenite Pyroxenite Pyroxenite Primary Primary Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Ti02 2.24 2.31 2.31 2.16 0.77 0.67 0.79 0.66 M n O 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.19 0.2 0.18 Cr203 0.02 bd 0.01 bd bd bd bd 0.01 A1203 13.79 14.07 13.48 14.05 4.81 4.55 5.75 4.48 MgO 13.23 12.89 13.22 13.01 13.13 13.25 13.28 13.62 Si02 40.13 39.51 39.97 39.18 48.56 48.87 47.8 49.19 FeO 12.29 12.35 12.17 12.53 8.3 8.02 8.02 7.99 Na20 1.96 2 1.98 2.03 0.37 0.4 0.33 0.39 K 2 0 1.71 1.68 1.7 1.61 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 CaO 12.01 12.15 12.03 12.15 23.03 22.95 23.07 23.08 F 0.22 0.23 0.2 0.29 bd 0.03 bd bd C L 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.01 bd Total 97.84 97.41 97.27 97.24 99.19 98.99 99.26 99.62 Cations normalized to 15 (excluding Na and K from the B-site). Fe3+ is calculated. Si 5.953 5.894 5.964 5.853 6.861 6.919 6.728 6.906 A l 2.047 2.106 2.036 2.147 0.802 0.76 0.955 0.742 Fe3+ 0 0 0 0 0.338 0.321 0.317 0.352 T i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sum 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 A l 0.366 0.37 0.337 0.328 0 0 0 0 Cr 0.002 - 0.001 - - - - 0.001 Fe3+ 0.291 0.319 0.282 0.439 0.643 0.628 0.627 0.586 T i 0.25 0.259 0.259 0.243 0.082 0.071 0.084 0.07 M g 2.925 2.866 2.94 2.896 2.765 2.796 2.786 2.85 Fe2+ 1.166 1.186 1.18 1.094 0 0 0 0 M n 0 0 0 0 0.024 0.023 0.024 0.021 Ca 0 0 0 0 1.486 1.482 1.48 1.472 S u m C 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Fe2+ 0.068 0.036 0.056 0.033 0 0 0 0 M n 0.023 0.021 0.02 0.023 0 0 0 0 Ca 1.909 1.942 1.924 1.945 2 2 2 2 Na 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SumB 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Na 0.564 0.579 0.573 0.588 0.101 0.11 0.09 0.106 K 0.324 0.32 0.324 0.307 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.004 Sum A 0.887 0.898 0.897 0.895 0.103 0.115 0.092 0.11 CI 0.015 0.013 0.01 0.013 0.002 0.007 0.002 F 0.103 0.109 0.094 0.137 - 0.013 - -Sum Cat 15.887 15.898 15.897 15.895 15.103 15.115 15.092 15.11 Sum Oxy 23 23 23 23 22.885 22.903 22.807 22.871 Mg/(Mg+Fe) 0.703 0.701 0.704 0.720 1 1 1 1 Na+K 0.888 0.899 0.897 0.895 0.103 0.115 0.092 0.11 Al(IV) 2.047 2.106 2.036 2.147 0.802 0.76 0.955 0.742 68 Tschermakite (Pargasite Hornble nde ( (Edenite A + Tremolite + * 1 1-4  • r i^ " 1 1 1 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 ( N a + K ) a t o m s p . f . u . • Brxx A C o Pyroxenite (primary) + Vein A C A Pyroxenite (secondary) Figure 3.17 Chemical variation of the calcium-rich amphiboles at Mount Polley expressed as the numbers of (Na+K) atoms in the "A" site versus A l atoms per formula unit. The primary amphiboles from pyroxenite split into two very different compositions, pargasite and an alteration amphibole neartremolite-actinolite. The secondary amphiboles from vein and breccia samples overlap in chemistry, the majority falling near the tremolite-actinolite endmember. The diagram is modified from Deer et al. (1966). 69 site occupancies are as follows, A = Na, K; B = Na, L i , Ca, Mn, ¥e^+, Mg; octahedral C = Mg, Fe^+, Mn, Al , Fe^ + , T i and the tetrahedral T site is filled by Si and Al (Hawthorne, 1981). Mount Polley amphiboles were normalized to 15 cations while excluding Na and K from the B site. The sum of oxygens must be less than 23 and 2 molecules of (OH,F,Cl) are assumed in the amphibole formula. When the data is recalculated into ion numbers, the amphiboles can be divided into four principal groups on the basis of the B site occupancy (Leake, 1978 and Hawthorne, 1981). The Mount Polley amphiboles can be classified into the Calcic Amphibole Group, and are defined by Leake (1978) to be those amphiboles with (Ca+Na)g > 1.34 and Nag < 0.67. Detailed nomenclature of calcic amphiboles is discussed by Leake 2+ (1978) and is outlined in the diagrams of Si ions versus Mg/(Mg+Fe ) (Figure 3.18). To refine the compositions further, the four primary amphiboles were plotted on another diagram of the 2+ numbers of Si ions versus Mg/(Mg+Fe ) (Figure 3.18) for the conditions determined by Leake (1978). The composition borders on Ferroan Pargasite and Pargasite where ((Ca+Na)g > 1.34, Nag < 0.67, 2+ (Na+K)A > 0.50, Si < 6.25 and (Mg/Mg+Fe ) is between 0.30 and 1.00). A representative formula is Cai.9l(Nao 5 6K 0.32)(Mg2.93Fei.46 T i0.25Al 0.37)(Si5.95A ,2.05)O22(OH,Cl,F) 2 (MTP-92-0050-2 pt. 3, Table 3.3). The alteration amphiboles are plotted on a similar diagram and may be classed as Magnesio-Hornblende ((Ca+Na)B > 1.34, Nag < 0.67, (Na+K)A < 0.50, Si between 6.5 and 7.25, (Mg/Mg+Fe 2 +) is between 0.5 and 1.00), with a representative formula of Ca2(Nao.iiKo.oi)(Mg2.8Feo.63Cai.48)(Si6.92Alo.76Feo.32)022(OH,Cl,F)2 (MTP-92-0050-4 pt. 1). 3.5 Summary and Discussion Radiometric age dating of two units at Mount Polley have yielded similar ages, roughly around 202 Ma. The diorite and plagioclase porphyry have similar ages, but on the basis of cross-cutting relationships and the presence of diorite clasts in the plagioclase porphyry intrusion breccia, diorite is clearly the older lithology. The diorite sample was collected from a large, fresh block within hydrothermal breccia, providing a maximum age for brecciation and mineralization of 202 Ma. The single undersaturated pluton 1.0 0.9 ^ 0.8 + $ 0.7 • i 0.6 J O) 0.5 CD 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1-I 0 4-CM CD L L + CD 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 Pargasite Ferroan Pargasite Ferro-Pargasite <D *= £ ' » -§ nj-O E>E <o o 0 . X £ I l Q_ _$ I E 5 o L L X <D T) O LUX o <D ^ "° £ *1 o o LL X Edenite Ferro-Edenite Silicic Edenite Silicic Ferro-Edenite 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 Si (p.f.u.) o Pyroxenite (primary) Tremolitic Tschermakite Tschermakitic Hornblende *—a* Magnesio-Hornblende ~f Tremolite Tschermakitic Hornblende Actinolitic + Hornblende +++ Actinolite Ferro-Tschermakite Fe rro-Tsche rmakitic Hornblende Ferro-Hornblende Ferro-Actinolitic Hornblende Ferro-Actinolite 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 Si (p.f.u.) 7.5 8.0 8.5 ° Brxx AC + Vein AC * Pyroxenite (secondary) Figure 3.18 Chemical compositions of primary and secondary amphiboles expressed as the number of Mg atoms relative to Fe2+ versus the number of Si atoms per formula unit. Both diagrams are modified from Leake (1978). A . Amphibole present in the pyroxenite borders pargasite and ferroan pargasite composition and is plotted on a diagram where (Na+K) in the "A" site is >0.5, Ti<0.5 and Fe<Al. B . Secondary (vein and breccia) amphiboles are actinolite in composition while alteration amphibole in the pyroxenite is magnesio-hornblende. Analyses plotted on this diagram must have total (Na+K)<0.5 and Ti<0.5 per formula unit. 71 (Bootjack Stock) to the southwest of Mount Polley has a similar radiometric date, given error, suggesting contemporaneity. However, the Bootjack stock appears to have a somewhat younger age on the basis of cross-cutting relationships. Diorite generally forms a large stock-like intrusion of considerable areal extent, with possible volcanic screens. It is cut by at least five breccia types, including intrusion and hydrothermal breccias, and by numerous mineralized veins. Plagioclase porphyry also forms a major intrusive unit that locally carries up to 35% clasts. In the majority of cases, the resultant intrusion breccia is monolithic, dominantly containing diorite fragments. This fact suggests that most fragments in the breccia have come from the adjacent wall-rock and have not travelled great distances. Xenoliths tend to be concentrated near the base or margins of the intrusion. A second type of intrusion breccia was discovered in diamond drill hole MP-89-125 on cross-section 3460 N. A 13-metre interval of intrusion breccia was encountered at a depth of 89 metres (Figure 3.19). The igneous matrix of this breccia is potassium feldspar phyric monzonite (unit 7a) instead of the more prominent plagioclase porphyry. The vertical drill core exposes the upper and lower contacts of the intrusion breccia as well as the internal characteristics of the breccia (Figure 3.19). Fresh diorite above the breccia becomes increasingly fractured and veined with potassium feldspar (or feldspar-rich magmatic injections) near the top of the intrusion. At the potassium feldspar phyric monzonite contact, fragments of diorite can be reassembled. Massive potassium feldspar phyric monzonite at the top of the breccia grades downwards into a matrix-supported breccia locally containing 30% fragments and then into a more clast supported breccia containing up to 70% fragments. The majority of clasts are rounded to subangular diorite with angular hornblende pyroxenite clasts present at the base of the intrusion. Pyroxenite clasts are undigested but some diorite fragments have undergone fracturing and partial assimilation. Pyroxenite is not known to outcrop on the Mount Polley property but has been intersected in drill core under Bootjack Lake, suggesting fragments of wall rock were incorporated and transported for some distance within the magma. The well defined vertical zonation by clast composition, size and angularity suggests density 72 Volume % Clasts Pyroxenite O CO CO CO 05 ^ $2 £ Volume % Clasts Diorite m-i-oocvjTfino T - T - CO CO CD -<t CO Round. c o c o r - c o T - T - i o c o Sorting i n i n i n co OJ co CJ CM O J C O L O C O K C O S ^ 05 05 05 05 05 05^1^1 From (m) 05 CM CO i n CO £-05 S 00 05 05 05 05 05 05^1 CO o TJ CC TJ CD C "cO O) CD c LL CD O o i c kw ICO da o _} c o CD ZJ To TJ ab k C CO CO c CL Ids 05 CO CD C E nzon E TJ reasi o CD o 'co C _c 05 "cO o 3 od hyr E las >* 0_ O JQ LL ed CD -^ -* E O O CD ive o TJ rds CD O CO CO upw - Dio - Ma Fin - era upw c "w CO CD O CD TJ CO ^—• CO _CC o CD -4—' "c CD X o 1— CO CO TJ CO 3 O) c CO CD o c CO TJ . c CO -Q CO « O r-O . -O o TJ C i— o o o CO CO CL co TJ CD E 'co co CO » o 0_ TJ CD CD "CO c 3 o TJ TJ CD C 'CO u O) CD c 05 0 0 CM O •4-» c CO, c S2 SF2 Ire G * U E ^ c o o VO N £ O c S .2 o § a a 2s § o si .22 3 O 2'5 o - j § £ •"c o .S c > 7*.S-2 o «2 'o -a "o a«c o J3 y co .2 to 2 l i s 00 (/) o 3 • 3 6 2 ° ° s 4> « S 3 * If : c i o c o 73 '•3 c 'S .. c C/5 W O " ° C ON T3 o « -55 CL O D-E r S 8 a> -u o a 73 stratification. Dikes of the monzonite intrusive cut diorite, plagioclase porphyry and augite monzodiorite, indicating a significant age difference. Potassium feldspar phyric monzonite breccias are considerably younger than the more prominent plagioclase porphyry intrusion breccias. Samples of all units were analyzed for major and trace elements with the results being evaluated by conventional Harker plots, trace element and R E E spider plots, and PER plots. Results do not support the theory that the intrusive units at Mount Polley are related to one common parent. Samples of diorite and late porphyritic augite monzodiorite are very similar in composition, clustering together on major oxides versus SiC<2 plots. Both units have conserved elements of Zr and Ti and appear to be comagmatic. The PER approach has confirmed that both lithologies are related by the fractionation of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Chemistry suggests that the two units are fairly primitive and contain some of the highest Fe203, FeO, CaO and MgO concentrations of the entire intrusive suite. Chemical variation among the plagioclase porphyry is related to the sorting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The samples of potassium feldspar phyric monzonite have two distinct populations derived from two, probably similar magma batches. The majority of samples collected from post-mineral dikes within the pit location are related by plagioclase, potassium feldspar and clinopyroxene fractionation, whereas the four Mt. Polley summit samples, although related by the same process, have under gone a greater degree of clinopyroxene sorting. All of the intrusive and volcanic samples are clearly alkaline in composition and suggest formation in a volcanic arc setting. This is confirmed with trace element data, which indicate that all units have nearly identical R E E patterns, with steep LREE's enriched in K, Ba and Sr, and with flat H R E E having a slight to moderate negative anomaly in Y . Spiderdiagrams for typical subduction-related lavas have low normalized HFSE (high field strength elements: Ti , Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) concentrations with troughs at Nb, Zr and high concentrations of LILE (peaks at K at Sr) (Mortimer, 1987), similar to the pattern observed at Mount 74 Polley. On the Pearce et al. (1984) diagram for tectonic setting, samples lie well within the field of arc lavas and similar to that for the formation of the Nicola Group (Mortimer, 1987). Barrie (1993) defines shoshonitic rocks as highly potassic intrusive and extrusive rocks with characteristic low HFSE. Low Ti , Ta and Nb contents in mantle-derived rocks is a diagnostic signature of arc magmatism. The entire Mount Polley suite has petrochemical characteristics of a shoshonitic arc suite, with relatively high alkalis (6 - 12 wt.%) over intermediate Si02 concentrations (49 - 63 wt.%), low Ti02 (less than 0.87 wt.%) and low Nb (most under detection of 10 ppm, the highest is 20 ppm). Intrusive and extrusive rocks have nearly identical R E E patterns with relatively steep L R E E and low, flat H R E E . In conclusion, the units at Mount Polley are clearly alkaline in nature. Lithologies generally have a weak to strongly porphyritic texture (dominantly plagioclase and clinopyroxene phenocrystic), suggesting epizonal depth of intrusion. Emplacement along a tectonic weakness is indicated by elongation of intrusive units parallel to the Polley fault. All plutonic rocks have similar mineral chemistry, with diopsidic pyroxene and moderately zoned plagioclase grains. Chemically, the intrusive and surrounding volcanics are identical, with the same trace and R E E pattern. Enrichment of LILE elements and low concentrations of HFSE suggest an arc environment, with Mount Polley lithologies intrusive into a volcanic pile of similar igneous affinity. 75 C H A P T E R 4 H Y D R O T H E R M A L B R E C C I A S A N D A L T E R A T I O N 4.1 Introduction Intrusive units at Mount Polley have undergone significant hydrothermal alteration. Typically mineralization of porphyry copper deposits is associated with intense potassic alteration in the central part of the hydrothermal system while the periphery has a well developed propylitic assemblage. Observations of mineralogy and textures will determine the character and style of hydrothermal activity, including spatial variation of silicate minerals and evolution of the hydrothermal system at Mount Polley. To adequately and systematically record lithologies, distinctive features of breccias (such as clast size, roundness, sphericity, and proportion of matrix) and the presence of alteration minerals, the Geolog format (Blanchet and Godwin, 1972) was adopted. These logging sheets were designed specifically for computer data entry, allowing easy statistical analysis. Visual estimates of the percentages of hydrothermal alteration minerals were made during the re-logging of split drill core of 1.5 metre assay intervals on the 1109-metre elevation plan level and the 3460 N section. An average of 10 metres was logged for each of 105 holes penetrating the plan level, and these estimates were averaged to one number, plotted at the piercing point to display as bubble plots. Alteration mineralogy in drill core from the cross-section was also visually estimated to display down-hole variations in mineral concentrations. Previous authors, Hodgson et al. (1976) and Bailey and Hodgson (1979), identified three concentrically zoned alteration assemblages: a potassic core surrounded by a garnet-epidote zone, and an outer propylitic rim. An extensive pyrite halo was mapped on the eastern portion of the Mount Polley deposit. A combination of detailed mapping and core logging during the past two field seasons generally supports this interpretation of a central copper-gold bearing alteration zone and peripheral propylitic zone with low levels 76 of copper and gold. In addition, the potassic core of the hydrothermal system has been further divided into three distinct units based on the dominant mineral assemblage. 4.2 Hydrothermal Breccias Field observations were used to distinguish and identify the various hydrothermal breccia types and classify them on the basis of the dominant mineral (or assemblage) present in the matrix. Features of each breccia type were recorded using the Geolog system to adequately describe clast size, composition, matrix minerals, and proportion of matrix to fragments. Table 4.1 summarizes the most important characteristics of the hydrothermal breccias. Due to poor outcrop exposure and the lack of critical drill holes or preserved core, the relationships between each breccia type were difficult to ascertain. The existence of the breccias in outcrop is usually indicated by triangular vugs partially occluded by the growth of hydrothermal minerals. These indicate a minimum degree of clast rotation and the development of porosity during brecciation. Four hydrothermal breccias are recognized on the property and are distinguished from intrusion breccias which have an igneous matrix; the distribution of the hydrothermal breccias is shown in Figures 3.1 and 3.2. Actinollte Breccia The actinolite breccia (unit 5a) can only be mapped in the central zone, where it outcrops in a north-south elongate zone roughly 500 by 200 metres. This breccia is only present east of the fault; no actinolite has been identified in the west zone. The majority of the breccia is hosted by diorite (Plate 4.1 A). Clasts consist of diorite and plagioclase porphyry. Fragments are subangular and 2 to 3 centimetres in diameter on average. The larger diorite blocks show some minor rotation, illustrated by small triangular vugs between blocks. Clasts commonly have unaltered interiors but are increasingly potassium feldspar altered toward their margins, where primary texture is often destroyed. The matrix is readily distinguished by the high percentage of fibrous dark green actinolite, surrounded by potassically altered material. Accessory minerals in the matrix include pyroxene, magnetite, calcite and finely disseminated chalcopyrite. The tu s <u cj CJ eu I-PQ 13 & u CU JS o -a >> X "3 cj '5. >> H CU S o o ^ to u es tu Vi « § en e o • JS s 3 .H tu N >• E to A 0 <u i - g n. to B H ^ to K to r .a "3 03 o tu tu O. u >> pa H CJ oo o o CN 60 cj o a B '& u < OH u u o CJ O N CN o o o co o .9 £ 2 s 10 CP weak weak inten o s u CQ o PQ O N O O N © O CN t" a fe .9 * 1 g tu s DC O N c-© tu > 2 <3 w u & .1 a. >-OH CQ 0-u o" s cC U Q Q PQ." < 77 CD CU c S « '3 •§ E 2 c CO) I § <D O H O CD •(-> E S © E M <D •3 «a •3 <L> s y T 'to V-•a li I „ o <? -3 r . to § a o " CD ^ < 8 .2 I « CJ CD T3 CD E o " to -^i CN c5 ' C to 2 E 2 o = 2 I •n O w M to "G • § 8 t3 a. o ^ s CD N cn — a 2 CD a U CD 6 0 ° • S . S to CN a • o t! « o o 00 *= T 3 CD E « is cj to 'S « S3 O co C 2 " a. >, to b CD « t o > U O 5 • E cj — on ll -a CD "3 v. •3 § | O cj CU "o S .S S I CJ CD a. to - O N 2 3 ' S o . — o CD O O •sJU o -a o « u & 6 0 " O & , a S 3 ? § T a 2 « 2 ^ T3 CD 2 CD .9 e s » a £ £ £ J § § i -p jo a >« 3 o -C to +3 78 Plate 4.1A Outcrop texture of actinolite breccia in the north-central part of the deposit (near 89-145). The clast-supported hydrothermal breccia is hosted by moderately potassic altered diorite. The matrix consists of dark green, fibrous actinolite, accessory magnetite and calcite. Sulfides have been oxidized to chrysocolla (blue-green). Plate 4.1B Characteristic surface weathering of biotite breccia from the south-central region (near 89-117). Clasts are composed of subrounded, intensely potassium feldspar altered diorite (?). Matrix mineralogy consists of coarse grained biotite and chrysocolla (related to supergene processes). 79 breccia is often cut by actinolite ± pyroxene-chalcopyrite veins having potassium feldspar envelopes, which are common throughout the central zone at Mount Polley. A gradational boundary appears to exist between the actinolite and biotite breccias. Small quantities of hydrothermal biotite were noticed at about grid line 3300 N and increased in abundance approaching the biotite breccia to the south, with a corresponding decrease in actinolite. To the north, the actinolite breccia is overprinted by albite breccia. Superimposed on the breccia are small 1 to 3 centimetre vugs which have been partially infilled by prismatic albite crystals (3x3x 10 mm). The margins of the vugs are albitically altered and locally overprint potassium feldspar alteration. Biotite Breccia The biotite breccia (unit 5b) is only exposed on surface in the southern part of the central zone, where it is extensively oxidized and outcrops are weathered and friable (Plate 4. IB). Clasts are pervasively altered to potassium feldspar and the precursor rock type is difficult to identify; remnant textures suggest that the clasts are dominantly diorite and plagioclase porphyry. The majority of clasts are in the 2-centimetre range, but are locally up to one metre across. The breccia is largely clast supported but locally there are zones of matrix-supported material. The fresher breccia samples located at depth on section 3460 N (Figure 3.2 and Plate 4.2A), show a matrix composed of coarse-grained hydrothermal black biotite flakes (up to 2 centimetres), disseminated sulfides and occasional pale albite crystals. More commonly, biotite of the surface material has been patchily altered to chlorite. The matrix assemblage of the breccia on surface has an average composition of 60% biotite, 25% chrysocolla (with trace malachite) and 15% white radiating zeolites. Secondary chrysocolla is intimately intergrown with biotite and also has impregnated clasts, suggesting extensive mobility during the oxidation of sulfides. Zeolites have been deposited considerably later in the formation of the breccia and have filled void space around biotite and chrysocolla. 80 Plate 4.2A Dr i l l core sample of fresh biotite breccia (89-127, 190 m). Angular diorite clasts are weakly potassium feldspar altered. Coarse hydrothermal biotite and hypogene sulfides are present in the matrix. Plate 4.2B Outcrop of magnetite breccia (89-105). Clasts are moderately to intensely altered to potassium feldspar. The clast-supported breccia has a matrix mineralogy dominated by magnetite, pyroxene and sulfides. 81 Magnetite Breccia Magnetite breccia (unit 5c) is not abundant, but is locally developed throughout the Mount Polley deposit; it rarely forms areas large enough to illustrate at the scale of mapping. Diorite and plagioclase porphyry host zones of magnetite breccia. Clasts are predominantly 2 to 3 centimetres across and are pervasively altered to potassium feldspar (Plate 4.3A). The matrix consists of massive to euhedral grains of magnetite (2 to 3 mm) accompanied by accessory sulfides and pyroxene. This variety of breccia is always clast-supported, with an average of 10% matrix. Albite Breccia Albite breccia (unit 5d) is a distinctive variety found predominantly in the west zone. It is typified by variably altered clasts with interiors that retain some primary texture, including albitic twinning in plagioclase, and margins that have remnant sericitized plagioclase and relict primary clinopyroxene (Plates 4.3B and 4.4A). Fragment boundaries are irregular and undulating. Albite alteration has caused extensive recrystallization and replacement along margins of clasts, clouding the distinction between fragments and matrix. In many cases the matrix can be identified on the basis of secondary biotite in small vugs. The unit is largely clast-supported, containing small vugs partially filled with pristine, prismatic albite crystals (Plate 4.4B) or alternatively the matrix may consist of fine grained albite with accessory biotite, clinopyroxene, magnetite and disseminated sulfides. 4.3 Distribution of Alteration 4.3.1 Vein Types Numerous mineralized vein types with associated alteration, fill fractures in the hydrothermal and intrusion breccias. To constrain the timing of these veins, cross-cutting relationships among vein sets were identified. Most of the data were collected from re-logging of split drill core, with lesser amounts from available outcrop. Several problems were immediately recognized; veins are almost always weathered at surface to such an extent that positive identification of minerals is difficult and much ambiguity results, and Plate 4.3A Cut slab of magnetite breccia (88-48, 52 m). Typically clast-supported, fragments are composed of diorite with potassium feldspar altered margins. Matrix mineralogy includes magnetite, albite, pyroxene, minor zeolites and chalcopyrite. Chalcopyrite veins cut both matrix and clasts. Plate 4.3B Albite breccia in the west zone is characterized by potassium feldspar altered clasts and albite alteration within the matrix (89-105). This breccia typically contains coarse prismatic albite crystals within a vuggy matrix. Plate 4.4A Albite breccia weathers distinctively, having a recessive matrix mineralogy and triangular vugs partially filled with albite. Fragments are subangular potassium feldspar altered diorite (89-109). Plate 4.4B Photomicrograph (crossed nichols) of albite breccia (88-48, 24 m). There is a distinct boundary between clast and matrix. Matrix material (left) is composed of coarse grained, fresh albite and subhedral magnetite. Clast material is identified by its grungy appearance, indicating potassium feldspar alteration. Field of view is 3 mm. 84 the examination of split drill core alone rarely provides recognizable cross-cutting relationships for sparse veins. Vein assemblages, the location, and relative timing of distinct veins are summarized in Table 4.2. Vein assemblages will be referred to hereafter by using the name of the most abundant mineral present (given in the table). Distribution of assemblages is noted, as well as an estimate of the timing of vein formation. Although the core contains mineralized veins, the weakly or unmineralized peripheral veins are interpreted to have been deposited contemporaneously. Field relationships suggest the following: • Actinolite veins occur only to the east of the north-south trending fault, and are spatially related to the actinolite breccia. All veins are present in a narrow zone elongated N-S and partially superimposed on the actinolite breccia zone but also present in adjacent breccias and in massive diorite. Veins are well mineralized with chalcopyrite, and locally with accessory pyroxene (Plate 4.5A). Occasionally, mineralized pyroxene veins occur without actinolite, but these are interpreted as an end-member vein assemblage, related temporally and spatially to actinolite veins. Although less abundant, pyroxene-only veins are more widespread than actinolite-dominant veins, occurring both east and west of the Polley fault. Potassium feldspar envelopes are present around all veins, appearing as a salmon-pink halo up to 1 centimetre in width. The mineralogy within actinolite and pyroxene veins represents a continuum. Potassium feldspar alteration occurs around microfractures with no associated vein-fill. These fractures occur throughout the deposit and are interpreted to be contemporaneous with the actinolite-pyroxene filled veins. • Magnetite veins are widespread throughout the deposit but the majority occur within the core of the system. They sometimes occur as magnetite-only stringers and horse-tails, cutting pervasive potassium 85 Plate 4.5A Dr i l l core sample of actinolitic alteration (MTP-92-0067). Fine grained diorite is cut by actinolite-bearing veinlets with potassium feldspar envelopes. The veinlets are cut by a pyroxene-actinolite-calcite vein with a potassium feldspar envelope. Plate 4.5B Potassium feldspar - albite alteration in diorite (89-127, 154 m). Actinolite and albite veins are sinuous, and ambiguous cross-cutting relationships indicate that albite veins in the core of the hydrothermal system are associated and may be coincident with potassic alteration. 86 feldspar alteration. Most veins contain chalcopyrite and trace amounts of diopside and pyrite. Locally, narrow potassium feldspar envelopes are developed, similar to those around actinolite veins. • Chalcopyrite-bornite-magnetite veins and veinlets (3a) occur only in the core of the system, cross-cutting various lithologies. Veins tend to be planar, rather than sinuous. Although these veins are generally associated with some pervasive potassium feldspar alteration, no discrete alteration envelopes were observed. The assemblage grades outward to pyrite-magnetite-chalcopyrite (3b). • One large pegmatitic magnetite-pyroxene vein was found on the property in the southwestern region of the central zone, immediately east of the Polley fault (Figure 4.1). The vein outcrops in a 18 metre by 6 metre trench and is approximately 2.5 metres in width on surface. Moderately to steeply dipping contacts taper downwards to give a wedge-shaped appearance. The vein has sharp contacts with biotite breccia (5b) superimposed on diorite. The southern contact with diorite is sheared; where the diorite has sheeted fractures parallel to the contact. Since outcrop is not abundant, it is difficult to follow the strike length of the vein. The vein is cross-cut by augite porphyry and lamprophyre dikes, constraining its timing. The vein contains 30% coarse-grained (up to 8 centimetre in length) prismatic, euhedral pale green pyroxenes which have a random orientation Thin exsolution lamellae are present in the pyroxenes and occasional twinning was noted. Roughly 70% massive magnetite with equant grains (0.5 centimetre) and interlocking texture comprise the remainder. Magnetite is interstitial to the pyroxene blades. The assemblage is similar to mineralized veinlets of magnetite widespread throughout the deposit, and may be related temporally. These veins are interpreted to be syn-mineral. • Albite veins cut pre-existing potassium feldspar envelopes and actinolite veins (Plate 4.5B). Almost all veins examined were strongly weathered, obscuring the presence of other silicate minerals. The association of albite alteration with hydrothermal breccias in the west zone may indicate the possibility that the veins are related to mineralization, so are interpreted to have a syn-mineral timing. 87 ^ o g o g o g o g o * ^ C O I L L L L L L L I / ; < o_* KAI_L1_L1_LL w o w o w ( 1 ^iSiio si! ' 0 0 X ° ° ° ° & c t>3- * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * + + V~S • N ^ + + + + + + + + + + + • + + + + + + + + A^y + + + I I . o is „ (^,89-159 • 11 o o metres I I I I I I I I I I r- + • + I I I I I l__L_—l-t--*T + + + + + + £_ I j^J * * * * * * * * * * • * + l + + + • + + 1!$. 2 0 9 3 E g 1 ° , 1 •• + •• + • • • • + + + + + J > + + + f -f t t - t t t t t f f f - t f f T r / • + + * + + •* V~ + • + • + •Z^— + • + • + * • • + + * * * * * * * * * * ' ' < + + / <_ \* • + .+ 4- * * * * * * ^ ^-^ /-\ * \ + + + + •»• + + + + + "t^-' y—v ~^ •\*\* • • + • + + • + •• \ ) + + + + + + • + +/ f—\ — A V . V , V O U O • • • V 2n \ / v o o w LEGEND LITHOLOGY Biotite Lamprophyre Dike (9) Augite Porphyry Dike (8) Biotite Brecc ia (5b) Diorite (2) ALTERATION |_j] Pegmat i t ic Magnet i te -Pyroxene Vein SYMBOLS Outcrop ^- ^ Geological Contact Orientation of Contac t • Diamond Drill Hole Locat ion 70 Figure 4.1 Outcrop map illustrating cross-cutting relationships between a pegmatitic magnetite-pyroxene vein and several late dikes. Although the vein is unmineralized, it appears to be representative of the main alteration assemblages and may be related to magnetite veinlets. 88 e 'i OS .-2.1 I £.3 l-S | AJ O > 2 in a. l l ° s v, cr O O A U .3 |r a « 7 2 e •r a s •2, SD J-E E g CJ 3 O 3 .3 U H O o P H CJ < o *•£> o < E E ^ • •3 J3 <3 <1 — 3 T 3 SJ) o oo 2 S 2 fc o .5 OH B O c O QQ OH CJ o s CJ i3 >^  u I s O u CJ s E E ral ts ral u <L> CJ CJ Ph tf •K eri We We OH o c OH CJ z z z z i c/i t/i c/l c/l * 0 c CJ cJ cJ J J a. a. c o •o X OH .a o « •fi» * i -K u •r 2 a x 1 M l OH S OH E .s E CJ J Q. <L> c o c CQ < E u E a S c] Cj CJ k* k> 4> <D <o J= J3 o. 0. a. •c •c c to <u OH OH OH CJ u OH OH w o T J w VO 1 a s o I ^ ^ - 2 § CJ 1 I C U OH 2 S W c o c CJ J OH N N cJ 3 a s u o OH T3 2 S MI o. -3 0 ) a o 3 N CJ CJ o "3 CJ cl OH B CO 1 ft-OH U ^ II •6 N ii cj rt 3 cJ s g. 2 II ^ e 0J cJ ^ H° & ? .2 O T J „ II «J Q £ .13 II « u 3 •S if 2 u .3 O • 1 CJ !2 < OH if S OH | a c2 O cJ O i f OH I .a If 89 • Epidote veins are found on the fringe of the breccia complex and define the propylitic zone (Plate 4.8B). Most veins contain considerable coarse-grained sub to euhedral pyrite and accessory calcite. • Planar brown garnet veins cut the massive magnetite-garnet replacement zone and are present as sinuous veins in the albite breccia in the West Zone (within the Intermediate Zone, see Section 4.3.2.2 for more detailed description). • Rare, late quartz veins cut the plagioclase porphyry unit in drill hole and on surface east of the fault in the core of the system. These veins truncate actinolite and chalcopyrite-bearing veinlets. The unmineralized quartz veins appear to be unrelated to the Mount Polley system. • Calcite and zeolite veins cut all lifhologies and vein types. They are widespread throughout the deposit and occur in all alteration zones. These are post-mineral, open-space fdling veins, and like quartz may be unrelated to the main mineralizing event. 4.3.2 Alteration Zones The small-scale zonation pattern observed outwards from the center of a vein is predominantly a reflection of the bulk zonation from core to periphery commonly observed in copper porphyry deposits. Detailed core logging on the 1109-metre plan level (Appendix C) and surface mapping allowed a comparison of the distribution of alteration minerals. The core of the system has been divided into three zones: biotite, actinolite and potassium feldspar-albite. The intermediate and peripheral zones are defined by garnet-epidote-albite-potassium feldspar and epidote-pyrite-albite-calcite respectively. As is so typical of the alkaline porphyry systems, the argillic and phyllic alteration zones are absent. The distribution of the following alteration zones is outlined in Figure 4.2. LEGEND Potossic Alteration Biotite (BI.KF.MG.ZE) Actinolite (ACT.KF.DI.ZE.CP.MG) Potossic (KF.AB.MG.DI) Propylitic Alteration Propylitic (EP.AB.CA.KF) Pyrite (PY.EP.KF.AB) Calc—si l icate Alteration Garnet (GN.EP.KF.AB.CA.ZE.CHL) Garnet-Magnetite (MG.GN.EP.ZE) Outline of hydrothermal breccias Fault Figure 4.2 Alteration zones at Mount Polley. A core of actinolite and biotite alteration is surrounded by intensely potassic altered material, grading out into calc-silicate and propylitic alteration. 91 4.3.2.1 Core Zone A potassic core coincident with the hydrothermal and intrusion breccias and copper-gold mineralization is concentrated within the proposed pit area. It is characterized by pervasive potassium feldspar, vein pyroxene, actinolite, chalcopyrite, magnetite and coarse, secondary biotite east of the north-south trending fault. West of the fault there is a notable increase in albite and lack of actinolite. The potassic core can be subdivided into three major subtypes: (1) A biotite zone characterized by the development of coarse, secondary black biotite within vugs of the hydrothermal breccia (unit 5b) in the central zone. It averages 5-10% by volume, with flakes ranging from 1 mm to 1 cm in diameter. The visible secondary biotite within hydrothermal breccias is illustrated in Figure 4.3 and tends to be elongated in a north-south direction. Secondary, felted biotite has developed to a lesser degree within the plagioclase porphyry intrusion breccia. Hydrothermal biotite is also noted within the matrix of albite breccia, especially in the west zone; however, it is much less abundant. The highest biotite concentrations are found around the apex and margins of the plagioclase porphyry intrusion on section 3460 N (Figure 3.2). The zone is also typified by pervasive potassium feldspar altered clasts and intrusive material (diorite). Mineralized magnetite veins, as mentioned earlier, cross-cut the biotite zone, along with blebs of chalcopyrite within vugs of the breccia. (2) An actinolite zone is characterized by abundant actinolite-chalcopyrite-pyroxene-magnetite veins that cut breccias, diorite and plagioclase porphyry (Plate 4.5A). Although actinolite is the major constituent mineral of one of the hydrothermal breccias (unit 5a), that map unit was not used to determine the extent of the alteration zone, instead the distribution of veins was mapped (Figure 4.3). The zone is elongate in a north-south direction within the core of the system on the east side of the Polley fault. Associated with the veins are extensive potassium feldspar envelopes which tend to obliterate primary textures adjacent to 92 veins. The zone is also typified by weak to moderate pervasive potassium feldspar alteration of host rocks and cross-cutting chalcopyrite and magnetite veins. Actinolite veins and breccias have not been noted in the west zone. (3) A broad potassium feldspar - albite zone is arcuate around the biotite and actinolite zones. The majority of lithologies have suffered moderate to intense (15-70%) pervasive potassium feldspar alteration, which has destroyed primary igneous textures and imparts a salmon-pink colouration. Stockworks of veinlets and fractures containing potassium feldspar are abundant (Plate 4.5B) along with magnetite veins and fine grained disseminations within breccias. In the western part of the deposit, albite occurs as envelopes around microfractures and vuggy regions of the hydrothermal breccia, in addition to or in place of potassium feldspar. It is particularly abundant in the west zone where it causes pervasive bleaching (Figure 4.3). Magnetite occurs as fine-grained disseminations, up to 5%, and in veinlets throughout the deposit, as well as forming the matrix to some breccias (unit 5c). The distribution of vein magnetite is erratic, and is less specific to rock type than biotite. Diopside is a ubiquitous alteration mineral and occurs as fine grained disseminations within hydrothermal breccias (units 5a,c and d). It is also abundant within actinolite and magnetite veins, usually always with potassium feldspar envelopes. 4.3.2.2 Intermediate Zone Garnet alteration occurs in two areas (Figure 4.2), and does not have a uniformly concentric distribution as previously described (Hodgson et al., 1976). Its occurrence is confined to the perimeter of the S-19 starter pit, generally in areas of intense albitic and potassic alteration. It appears to have a limited lateral extent and may represent areas of propylitic overlapping potassic assemblage. It is divided into two types that are also spatially distinct: 93 — < D (D& • 0(<£?D I < o o o o o o s (UJ) UO!}EA8 |3 Biotite « • 1 9 • r •• • "\" * • \ a • • l • « • / \ 1 < i V • / | o o CO o 8 CO o o in CO o o ot o <N Albite b ... g , , • • 1 i , ,. m • \ • • \ • • • , f • • • J \ < ^ \ • • • • • • • • • \ } 1 CQ • r. • 1/ [• A i ^ s \ \ i ; ; o o CO o 8 CO o o (LU) 6u|mJON co (LU) SumiJON o o CO o o CM 94 95 Plate 4.6A Typical calc-silicate alteration from the western margin of the potassic zone (89-114, 149 m). Intensely potassium feldspar and albite altered material is cut by numerous garnet veins with envelope and disseminated epidote. See the text for a discussion other accessory minerals. Plate 4.6B Photomicrograph (plane polarized light) of euhedral, growth zoned garnet from a vug in hydrothermal breccia in the west zone (89-114, 115 m). Fibrous and radiating zeolites have filled the majority of open space. Field of view is 3 mm. 96 1. Western Margin of the West Zone Two drill holes on section 3460 N contain a small amount of zoned, euhedral to massive hydrothermal garnet in veins or vugs within the albite breccia at the 150 to 180-metre level (Plates 4.6A and B). Primary textures of the clasts have been overprinted by secondary potassium feldspar and interfragmental space is partially or wholly filled with a complicated assemblage of dominantly albite with garnet, calcite, epidote, zeolites, magnetite, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Epidote and trace amounts of chlorite are strongly associated with garnet and are disseminated in the matrix and as diffuse vein envelopes. Calcite and fibrous, radiating zeolites appear to be paragenetically late, and are coarse grained, filling open spaces. 2. Southeast Margin of the Central Zone The surface area of the skam (Figure 3.1) consists of a massive replacement of wall-rock by early brown garnet (± magnetite and diopside) with cross-cutting veins and zones of magnetite (Plate 4.7A). The skarn has a sharp, undulating contact with plagioclase porphyry and diorite. Figure 4.4 and Plate 4.7B illustrate the nature of the skarn contact and the patchiness of the garnet alteration. The amount of magnetite ranges from 40-70%. Garnet-rich areas form irregular elongate patches with diffuse margins (Figure 4.4). Microscopically, the gamet areas are fine grained aggregates and individual grains have a uniform colour and exhibit no zoning (Plate 4.8A). Magnetite also forms subhedral replacements and veins. Incomplete replacement has resulted in textureless zones that are interpreted to be remains of the host rock. The original composition of the wall rock is impossible to estimate, but may have been calcite-altered volcanics. Abundant epidote and relatively few dark brown garnet veins cross-cut the assemblage. Drill holes where garnet-rich rock was expected to be found were unavailable for logging. Several holes on the fringe between magnetite-garnet and plagioclase porphyry did not contain garnet, but had a massive magnetite-sulfide assemblage. Although this replacement zone is associated with high copper and gold grades (indicated by assay data), the sulfide distribution among altered rock is irregular. Samples collected from drill holes have an assemblage of magnetite, chalcopyrite, potassium feldspar, actinolite, chlorite, with accessory apatite and pyroxene. Magnetite varies in grain size from a coarse grained variety to small, 97 metres LEGEND LITHOLOGY J P lag ioc lase Porphyry (3a) and Intrusion Brecc ia (3b) ALTERATION (SKARN) x\ Magnet i te Z o n e (mass ive magnet i te, minor garnet) g G a r n e t - r i c h Rep lacemen t Areas VEIN TYPES " - N . Albite Vein ^ — Magneti te Vein SYMBOLS CP Ou tc rop — G e o l o g i c a l C o n t a c t / Or ien ta t ion of SWarn ^ a 5 C o n t a c t Figure 4.4 Outcrop scale map of the massive magnetite-garnet skarn located in the south-eastern portion of the deposit (see also Figure 3.1). Garnet forms irregular patches of complete wall-rock alteration, cut by later magnetite alteration and replacement. The skarn contact with plagioclase porphyry is sharp and undulating. Plate 4.7A Surface exposure of massive magnetite and garnet replacement zone in the southeastern part of the deposit (near 88-9). Some of the magnetite is clearly late and cuts pre-existing garnet (± magnetite) alteration. Primary texture of the protolith has been destroyed. Plate 4.8A Photomicrograph (plane polarized light) of light brown, massive garnet from the magnetite-garnet zone (88-6C). Garnet from this area has a uniform composition and contains apatite inclusions. The opaques are subhedral magnetite grains. Field of view is 1.25 mm. Plate 4.8B Photomicrograph (plane polarized light) of radiating epidote in a dilatant vein (89-212, 77 m). The majority of veins also contain accessory calcite and pyrite. Field of view is 5 mm. 100 rounded grains. Where sulfides are present, chalcopyrite and minor bornite form blebs, stringers and have a poikiolitic texture, enclosing magnetite grains. All petrography indicates that the sulfides have been introduced at a somewhat later stage than magnetite. Pockets of remnant wall-rock are recrystallized, having irregular feldspar grain boundaries. There can be up to 10 vol.% of unaltered potassium feldspar laths floating within magnetite. Actinolite forms fibrous masses and is found in the silicate pockets, along with trace amounts of pyroxene, chlorite and apatite. The distinct calc-silicate mineralogy of the rock and associated high magnetite content suggests that the region be referred to as a skarn zone. The timing of this replacement body is ambiguous and may precede the garnet-epidote assemblage found elsewhere in the deposit. 4.3.2.3 Peripheral Zone A peripheral propylitic zone is generally developed outside or on the margin of the proposed pit. On the whole, the rock units are weakly altered and commonly contain epidote-pyrite ± calcite veins (Plate 4.8B) and disseminated epidote that may replace mafic minerals and plagioclase. The highest epidote concentrations are located at the margins of the hydrothermal system, especially to the northeast (Figure 4.3). Albite veining is diffuse and sinuous, cross-cutting all lithologies and is significantly different than the pervasive sodic metasomatism present in the potassium feldspar-albite zone associated with mineralization. Calcite-zeolite veins are prominent but are post-mineral. A pyrite zone is present in the north-east section of the Mount Polley property. It is characterized by abundant fracture-controlled pyrite, up to 0.5 cm wide, and cross-cutting the margin of the actinolite breccia and diorite. Veins sometimes contain accessory magnetite and chalcopyrite and comprise 1-4 volume percent of the rock. The highest concentration of pyrite is on the northeast and southwest margins of the potassic alteration zone (Figure 5.1), suggesting the development of a pyrite 'halo' within the peripheral propylitic alteration zone. Previous mapping has defined the pyrite-rich zone as a broad band extending 4.5 km by 1 km (Imperial Metals Corporation, 1989 and Hodgson et al., 1976). Mapping in 101 1992-93 did not define the extent of the zone. Most of the lithologies to the northeast are moderately altered to potassium feldspar and are cross-cut by later pyrite, epidote, albite and potassium feldspar veins, possibly indicating a collapse of the hydrothermal system. 4.4 Metasomatism To investigate elements involved in metasomatism and material transfer process, a number of altered diorite and plagioclase porphyry rocks were collected. Alteration varied from weak potassium feldspar envelopes and magnetite veinlets to intensely altered, with actinolite (± diopside + calcite ± magnetite) veins and pervasive potassium feldspar alteration displayed in diorite and plagioclase porphyry. Alteration among other intrusive units was not considered because the majority of the units were post-mineral and probably only suffered localized deuteric alteration (for example, the pinking of feldspars in the KF-phyric monzonites). Intensely albite altered samples, always associated with the albite breccia in the West Zone, were not collected due to the presence of clasts. Pearce element diagrams of Si/Zr versus 1/Zr for diorite and plagioclase porphyry (Figure 4.5A, B) illustrates roughly the fractionation of Si during crystallization. This diagram illustrates that all fresh and altered rocks at Mount Polley lie somewhere along a line with constant slope passing through the origin, indicating that Si has not participated in metasomatism. It must be noted that since diorite and plagioclase porphyry units could not by related to a common parent (see previous section 3.3.3), the two rock types were not plotted on the same diagram and have trends through the origin of slightly different slope. Chemical diversity attributed to fractionation results in the dilution or concentration of the element along that line. It is predicted that alteration will shift samples off the lines passing through the origin. Net addition of elements through metasomatism will shift samples above the line and net loss of elements will shift samples below the line. Metasomatism of diorite samples was investigated by plotting a series of PER diagrams of Na, Ca, K and Fe versus 1/Zr (Figure 4.5 C, D, E and G). Fresh and weakly altered 102 103 fe 104 samples lie along a line through the origin, with altered samples shifted away. Alteration has been accompanied by moderate loss of Ca and very weak loss of Na. This may be explained by the destruction of plagioclase in the diorite and removal by hydrothermal fluids. Most lithologies near the hydrothermal breccias are moderately to intensely altered to potassium feldspar, and destruction of plagioclase is accompanied by replacement of Na and Ca by K in the feldspar structure, however, material transfer involved in this process was not evident in the K/Zr plot (Figure 4.5). Potassium concentration (as well as Fe) displayed little to no increase in more altered samples. One must conclude that known elemental participation in material transfer within diorites is not obvious and cannot be distinguished on some of these diagrams. Similarly, fresh samples of plagioclase porphyry lie on a line penetrating the origin on a PER diagram of K/Zr versus 1/Zr (Figure 4.5F), with altered samples shifted above the line. The majority of samples show significant K addition in the groundmass and is probably also related to plagioclase destruction. Variable Fe behaviour may be related to the presence of actinolite and magnetite-bearing veinlets, representing addition or loss of Fe by hydrothermal fluids. 4.5 Mineral Chemistry The objectives of studying alteration minerals were to: i) compare secondary alteration minerals with primary igneous mineral chemistry ii) characterize key hydrothermal minerals: pyroxene, feldspar, biotite, epidote, garnet and amphibole and to iii) determine if there is any geographical variability in the composition of vein pyroxenes and actinolites within the central zone (see sample locations in Appendix B). Amphiboles Four samples of secondary (vein) amphibole, and one sample of actinolite breccia were probed to determine amphibole chemistry and evaluate the possibility of spatial variation in composition (Tables 4.3 and B.4). Veins contain coarse grained, fibrous and radiating pale to medium green amphibole that is associated with Table 4.3 Representative microprobe analyses of vein and breccia amphiboles Sample Type 89-197-150-1 pt 3 Vein AC 89-127-13-2 p t l Vein AC 89-153-2-1 pt3 Vein AC 89-138-370-4 pt3 Vein AC 89-197-UO-l pt 3 B R X X A C 89-197-110-3 p t l B R X X A C 89-197-110-2 pt3 B R X X A C 89-197-110-4 pt 6 B R X X A C Ti02 0.61 0.27 0.34 0.19 0.23 0.54 0.23 0.2 MnO 0.27 0.3 0.31 0.24 0.23 0.2 0.17 0.24 Cr203 - 0.01 0.01 - 0.04 bd bd 0.02 A1203 3.11 0.75 2.02 1.17 1.99 2.34 1.74 1.21 MgO 18.22 18.46 18.39 17.92 19.05 18.91 19.7 19.91 Si02 52.66 54.95 53.72 53.12 53.26 51.93 54.26 54.24 FeO 9.91 11.46 9.61 10.99 9.42 9.49 8.77 8.64 Na20 1 1.23 0.92 0.66 0.99 1.01 0.84 0.65 K20 0.38 0.4 0.26 0.24 0.28 0.34 0.22 0.2 CaO 11.98 9.81 11.84 11.81 11.51 11.61 11.77 11.85 F 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.67 0.8 0.9 0.98 0.81 CL 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.03 Total 99.05 98.52 98.32 97.03 97.85 97.34 98.73 98 Cations normalized to 15 (excluding Na and K from the B-site). Fe3+ is calculated. Si 7.502 7.933 7.692 7.706 7.637 7.503 7.683 7.702 Al 0.498 0.067 0.308 0.2 0.337 0.399 0.291 0.203 Fe3+ 0 0 0 0.094 0.009 0.099 0.024 0.095 Ti 0 0 0 0 0.025 0 0.024 0 Sum 8 8 8 8 8.007 8 8.022 8 Al 0.024 0.06 0.033 0 0 0 0 0 Cr - 0.001 0.001 - 0.005 . - - 0.002 Fe3+ 0 0 0 0.022 0 0.034 0 0.038 Ti 0.065 0.029 0.037 0.021 0 0.059 0 0.021 Mg 3.868 3.972 3.924 3.874 4.071 4.072 4.157 4.214 Fe2+ 1.042 0.938 1.005 1.083 0.924 0.835 0.843 0.725 Mn 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ca 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sum 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Fe2+ 0.139 0.446 0.146 0.135 0.196 0.178 0.172 0.168 Mn 0.033 0.037 0.038 0.029 0.028 0.024 0.02 0.029 Ca 1.829 1.517 1.817 1.836 1.768 1.797 1.786 1.803 Na 0 0 0 0 0.007 0 0.022 0 Sum 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Na 0.276 0.344 0.255 0.186 0.268 0.283 0.209 0.179 K 0.069 0.074 0.047 0.044 0.051 0.063 0.04 0.036 Sum 0.345 0.418 0.303 0.23 0.319 0.346 0.248 0.215 CI 0.01 0.005 0.012 0.005 0.012 0.017 0.012 0.007 F 0.392 0.393 0.385 0.307 0.363 0.411 0.439 0.364 Sum Cat 15.345 15.418 15.303 15.23 15.326 15.346 15.27 15.215 Sum Oxy 23.001 23.235 23.051 23 23 23 23 23 Mg/(Mg+Fe) 0.766 0.742 0.773 0.761 0.784 0.801 0.804 0.825 Na+K 0.345 0.418 0.302 0.23 0.319 0.346 0.249 0.215 Al(IV) 0.498 0.067 0.308 0.2 0.337 0.399 0.291 0.203 106 pyroxene, disseminated magnetite, minor mineralization and trace amounts of calcite. All veins have extensive potassium feldspar alteration envelopes. The breccia matrix consists of physically and optically similar amphibole and pyroxene and is well mineralized. Backscattered electron images showed very little or no differences in atomic numbers across grains. Since the fibers appeared to be chemically homogeneous, they were not probed from core to rim. Generally the amphibole compositions plot in the tremolite field with some minor scatter, on the diagram (Na + K ) ^ versus tetrahedral aluminum (Figure 3.17). Several vein amphibole analyses lie at higher Al content but there is not enough variation in chemistry to suggest any geographical compositional 2+ differences. Similarly, on the second diagram, Si versus Mg/(Mg+Fe ) (Figure 3.18B), all analyses cluster in the more accurately named Actinolite field ((Ca+Na)3 > 1.34, Nag < 0.67, (Na+K)^ < 0.50, Si 2+ > 7.50, (Mg/Mg+Fe ) is between 0.5 and 0.89). The vein and breccia compositions overlap significantly and have similar compositions (Table 4.3): Vein Ca i.8 3(Nao.28 K0.07)(Mg3.87Fei.04)(Si7.5Al0.5)O22(OH,F,Cl)2 (89-197-150-1 pt. 3) Breccia Ca, 8(Nao 2 8 K0.06)(Mg4.iFeo.84)(Si7 5 Al 0 .04)O22(OH,F,Cl) 2 (89-197-110-3 pt. 1). Pyroxenes Six samples were probed; most pyroxene was contained in veins from 1 mm to 2 cm in width, cross-cutting various lithologies (Tables 4.4 and B.5). In three samples, the veins contained pyroxene-magnetite(-calcite-chalcopyrite) and two veins had an assemblage of pyroxene-actinolite-magnetite-chalcopyrite(-calcite). One sample of pyroxene from a pegmatitic vein is light green-brown, having lamellar exsolutions and blades on average 4 centimetre in length. Pyroxenes are rounded to subhedral and grain size ranges from very fine grained aggregates to 1 mm. Pyroxenes are pale to light green and some simple twinning is present. The veins are surrounded by intense potassium feldspar alteration envelopes. The pyroxenes from actinolite-bearing veins tend to show minor, patchy compositional variations within grains, as indicated by backscattered electron imaging. The areas of higher atomic number are probably Table 4.4 Representative microprobe analyses of secondary pyroxenes. 107 Sample No. Type 89-197-150-4 pt 3 VeinPX 88-67-90-1 pt4 VeinPX 89-126-14-1 pt3 VeinPX 89-138-370-2 pt4 VeinPX 89-143-690-1 PL 5 VeinPX 89-159-C-2 p t l eg. PX 89-159-C-2 pt6 c.g.PX 89-159-C-pt 3 eg. PX Ti02 0.08 0.06 0.24 0.06 0.69 0.03 0.03 nd M n O 0.43 0.5 0.46 0.4 0.27 0.38 0.37 0.35 Cr203 nd nd nd nd 0.01 nd nd 0.01 A1203 0.26 0.46 1.31 0.21 0.74 0.88 0.67 0.52 MgO 13.52 13.52 12.41 13.21 12.07 14.75 14.5 14.24 Si02 52.19 53.23 52.26 53.65 52.85 53.04 53.2 52.65 FeO 8.92 9.38 10.21 9.27 10.16 6.55 7.16 7.63 Na20 0.71 0.8 0.72 1.55 1.46 0.57 0.57 0.62 K 2 0 na na na na na nd 0.02 0.01 CaO 23.22 22.12 22.44 21.84 21.71 23.71 23.49 23.61 F na na na na na nd nd 0.01 C L na na na na na 0.01 0.02 0.02 Total 99.33 100.07 100.05 100.19 99.96 99.92 100.03 99.67 Ion Numbers based on 6 oxygens Si 1.9549 1.9809 1.9564 1.9847 1.9747 1.9714 1.979 1.9735 Al(IV) 0.0115 0.0071 0.0322 - 0.0112 0.0286 0.021 0.023 Sum 1.9664 1.9879 1.9886 1.9847 1.9859 2 2 1.9965 Fe3 0.1258 0.0724 0.0681 0.1293 0.0848 na na na Ca 0.9319 0.882 0.9001 0.8656 0.8691 0.9442 0.9362 0.9482 M g 0.7548 0.7499 0.6925 0.7284 0.6722 0.8171 0.804 0.7956 Fe2 0.1537 0.2195 0.2515 0.1574 0.2327 0.2036 0.2227 0.2392 Al(VI) - 0.0131 0.0256 0.0092 0.0214 0.0099 0.0084 -Mn2 0.0136 0.0158 0.0146 0.0125 0.0085 0.012 0.0117 0.0111 Na 0.0516 0.0577 0.0523 0.1112 0.1058 0.0411 0.0411 0.0451 Cr - - - - 0.0003 - - 0.0003 T i 0.0023 0.0017 0.0068 0.0017 0.0194 0.0008 0.0008 -Sum 2.0336 2.0121 2.0114 2.0153 2.0141 2.0287 2.0249 2.0394 Total 10.0424 10.0243 10.0228 10.0436 10.0001 10.0287 10.0259 10.0364 Endmember Proportions Mg(2)Si(2)0(6) 0.3774 0.375 0.3462 0.3642 0.3361 0.4086 0.402 0.3978 Fe(2) Si(2) 0<6) 0.0768 0.1097 0.1258 0.0787 0.1163 0.1018 0.1114 0.1196 Ca(2) Si(2) 0(6) 0.4659 0.441 0.45 0.4328 0.4345 0.4721 0.4681 0.4741 Sum 0.9202 0.9257 0.922 0.8757 0.887 0.9825 0.9815 0.9915 M n Fe T i A l 0.0966 0.0804 0.0836 0.1319 0.1201 0.0319 0.031 0.0282 108 Wo CaSi0 3 Na20 AI203 Figure 4.6 A . Secondary pyroxene compositions in the enstatite-ferrosilite- wollastonite system. A l l vein samples are clustered tightly in the diopside-salite fields. Analyses from the pegmatitic magnetite-pyroxene vein plot exclusively in the salite domain but overlap with the other analyses. Diagram from Deeretal. (1966). B. Secondary pyroxene compositions plotted in the Na20-A1203-MnO system. The analyses form a broad zone, but are significantly less aluminous compared to primary pyroxenes. 109 slightly more iron-rich, but when probed, these differences were far to subtle to be detected. However, grains within other vein types showed absolutely no chemical variation. Recalculation of secondary pyroxene analyses into the CaSiC>3 (Wo) - MgSiC>3 (En) - FeSi(>3 (Fs) endmembers and plotting schematically (Figure 4.6A), shows almost all of the analyses are diopside in composition, with a few falling into the salite field. The pyroxene from the pegmatitic vein lies almost exclusively in the salite field and borders on augite in composition. The ternary diagram Na20-Al203-MnO (Figure 4.6B) indicates that the pyroxene compositions are somewhat scattered (this might reflect the very small quantities of these three oxides), but compared to primary pyroxenes, have significantly less Al. A representative chemical formula of vein pyroxene is Cao 9 3Nao 05(Mgo.75Fe2+o.l5Fe3+0.13Mno.oi)(Sii.96Alo.Ol)06 (89-197-150-4 pt. 3, Table 4.4). The secondary pyroxenes show no chemical zoning and little variation among grains. Compositions are almost exclusively diopsidic, overlapping with some primary pyroxene. The average formula is pure diopside, with minor substitution of iron for magnesium in the octahedral (Y) site. Due to the tight clustering of data in the pyroxene quadrilateral, there would appear to be negligible variation in pyroxene composition from north to south in the central zone of Mount Polley. Examining the oxide weight percents of analyses, most pyroxenes from different veins have a fairly consistent range but do have slight differences in FeO, Na20 and AI2O3 contents. However, there is no systematic change in chemistry that can be linked with spatial location, rock or alteration type or mineralogy of the veins. Feldspars One sample of albite breccia was chosen in which to probe secondary (hydrothermal) feldspars growing into vugs (Tables 4.5 and B.6). Secondary feldspar appears fresh; invariably primary feldspars are cloudy. They are not sericitized and albite twinning is prominent. There was no compositional zoning observed on backscattered electron images. Analyses were almost pure endmember albite with compositions of Angi to Ano2 (Figure 4.7A). 110 Table 4.5 Representative microprobe analyses of secondary feldspar and biotite from hydrothermal breccias. Sample No. 89-199-640-1 89-199-640-3 89-199-640-1 Sample No. 89-128-625-1 89-128-625-1 89-128-625-3 89-128-625-1 pt4 pL3 pt3 pL4 pt.3 pt2 pL5 Type AB BRXX AB BRXX AB BRXX Type BIOT BIOT BIOT BIOT K20 0.05 0.07 0.06 CaO 0.04 0.07 nd 0.06 Na20 11.56 11.65 11.63 BaO 0.05 0.08 0.1 0.05 Si02 68.61 68.9 68.78 Na20 0.31 0.33 0.48 0.25 BaO nd nd nd Ti02 2.86 3.16 3.46 2.93 CaO 0.08 0.06 0.05 FeO 11.69 12.47 12.93 12.07 MgO nd nd 0.01 MgO 19.1 18.34 17.59 18.8 A1203 19.69 19.75 19.8 K20 9.4 9.3 9.6 9.32 Fe203 0.06 nd 0.02 Si02 40.2 39.45 37.88 37.88 Total 100.05 100.43 100.35 Cr203 0.01 0.04 nd nd A1203 11.93 12.25 13.79 11.93 Ion Numbers based on 8 oxygens MnO 0.14 0.11 0.07 0.15 Si 2.9925 2.9937 2.991 F 2.52 2.29 2.03 2.63 Al 1.0122 1.0114 1.0148 Total 98.25 97.89 97.93 96.07 Fe3 0.002 - 0.0007 Sum 4.0066 4.0051 4.0064 Ion Numbers based on 24 oxygens (+F) Si 6.2442 6.1804 5.9704 6.0636 K 0.0028 0.0039 0.0033 Al(IV) 1.7558 1.8196 2.0296 1.9364 Na 0.9776 0.9815 0.9806 Sum 8 8 8 8 Ca 0.0037 0.0028 0.0023 Ba - - - Al(VI) 0.4282 0.4423 0.532 0.3144 Mg - - 0.0006 Mg 4.422 4.2826 4.1323 4.4856 Sum 0.9841 0.9881 0.9869 Fe2 1.5185 1.6338 1.7043 1.6158 Ti 0.3341 0.3723 0.4101 0.3527 Total 12.9907 12.9932 12.9933 Cr 0.0012 0.005 - -Mn2 0.0184 0.0146 0.0093 0.0203 Endmember Proportions Sum 6.7225 6.7505 6.7881 6.7888 K Al Si(3) 0(8) 0.0028 0.0039 0.0033 Na Al Si(3) 0(8) 0.9776 0.9815 0.9806 K 1.8625 1.8586 1.9302 1.9031 Ca Al(2) Si(2) 0( 0.0037 0.0028 0.0023 Na 0.0934 0.1002 0.1467 0.0776 Ba Al(2) Si(2) 0( - - - Ca 0.0067 0.0117 - 0.0103 Sum 0.9841 0.9881 0.9862 Sum 1.9626 1.9706 2.0768 1.991 Mg Fe Sr 0.002 - 0.0013 F 1.2379 1.1346 1.0119 1.3315 Total 40.6881 40.726 40.8712 40.7829 Fe:Mg Ratio 1:2.91 1:2.62 1:2.42 1:2.78 Fe/(Fe+Mg) 0.2556 0.2761 0.2920 0.2648 Al(IV) 1.7558 1.8196 2.0296 1.9364 Ill Biotites Two samples were chosen from the biotite breccia in which coarse grained hydrothermal biotite was present within open spaces between clasts associated with magnetite and chalcopyrite. Optically, the micas were highly pleochroic yellow-brown with one direction of cleavage. Grains were probed from core to rim, but there was no systematic variation in composition (Tables 4.5 and B.7). A representative composition of mica is K 0 ;93(Mg2.14 F e0.82T i0.19)( S i3.09^0.8 l)Oio(OH,F) 2 (89-128-625-1 pt. 3), assuming 2 molecules of water. Lower totals of some analyses may reflect more water molecules incorporated into the mica structure. Deer et al. (1966) suggest that micas may have approximately 4-5 wt.% water, except if fluorine-bearing. Mount Polley micas contain 1-2.5 wt.% fluorine which corresponds to approximately one ion per formula unit. The chlorine content was not analyzed. Hydroxyl groups are formed in the center of each 6-fold ring, where fluorine may replace some of the OH" ions (Bailey, 1984). The presence of fluorine within the biotite, and hence, the biotite breccia, indicate deposition from a volatile-bearing phase. Titanium substitution into the structure causes a change in colour to deeper shades of brown. Mica compositions were plotted in the field of phlogopite-annite-siderophyllite-eastonite (Figure 4.7B). The composition of biotite is similar to phlogopite, except that biotite has a substitution of Fe for Mg and Al for some of the tetrahedral Si. The diagram has a line plotted representing an Fe:Mg ratio of 1:2. Deer et al. (1966) uses this arbitrary value to differentiate biotites (Fe-rich) from phlogopites, which are members of a continuous chemical series. Mount Polley micas are close to this cut-off value, falling slightly below the line, into the phlogopite field. The ideal formula for phlogopite is KMg3(Si3Al)Oio(OH,F)2 and K(MgQ g.i gFe2 4 . I 2)(Si3Al)Oio(OH,F)2 for biotites as defined by Bailey (1984). Mount Polley micas have slightly more Mg and less Fe than expected for a true endmember biotite. As well, five mica analyses have slightly lower tetrahedral aluminum than expected (ideally Al = 2 on the left side of the diagram). This is not wholly surprising since there may have been only partial filling of the site with Al and the rest with Si. Since phlogopites and biotites are very closely related structurally and chemically, it is impossible to arbitrarily 112 choose a 1:2 iron-magnesium ratio as the dividing line between the two fields such as that given by Deer et al. (1966). Since the Mount Polley micas cluster very tightly, and have a borderline composition, and optically appear to be biotite, the micas will be named 'biotite' in succeeding chapters. Epidote Two thin section samples of epidote were probed (Tables 4.6 and B.8). Vein epidote was analysed from both, and disseminated epidote only in sample 89-212-250. Veins are several millimetres to >2 cm, where open space fractures are filled with radiating and bladed epidote crystals (4-5 mm in length) having occasional euhedral cross-sections. All veins had subhedral pyrite and interstitial calcite. There were no compositional variations within grains observed in backscattered electron imaging. The 'disseminated' epidote occurs as a patchy replacement of the interiors of plagioclase grains. The majority of mafic minerals have also been altered. There appeared to be minor chemical differences 5-20 microns in width within areas of replacement epidote but these zones were too small to be investigated thoroughly. Replacement and vein epidote had similar compositions and appears to be almost pure endmember epidote. A binary diagram of FeO versus AI2O3 (Figure 4.8) of all epidote samples illustrates the inverse relationship of the two cations. A representative chemical formula is Ca2.l(Fe 0. 6Al 0.4)Al2.36Si3.lOl2(OH) (89-212-250-1 pt. 2). Garnet One sample of skarn garnet (88-6A) from the southeastern part of the Central Zone and one sample of vein garnet (89-114-9) from the western margin of the West Zone were probed (Table B.9) to determine garnet composition and zonation. Skarn garnet is a massive aggregate of medium to dark brown, isotropic variety. Most garnet is cloudy and appears somewhat altered. No compositional zoning was observed optically or with backscattered electron imaging. The garnet is associated with abundant replacement 113 Or K A I S i 3 0 8 Albite Breccia Ab NaAIS i 3 0 8 mol. percent An C a A I 2 S i 2 0 8 B 1.0 -j 0.9 -0.8 -0.7 • O) 0.6 -+ o 0.5 -LL 0.4 -<D LL. 0.3 • 0.2 • 0.1 -0 -Annite K2Fe6[Si6AI2O2 0](OH)4 Siderophyllite K2Fe5AJ[Si5AI302o](OH)4 Biot i tes P h l o g o p i t e s 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 Phlogopite j V K2Mg6ISi6AI2O20](OH)4 [Al] 2.6 — i — 2.8 3.0 Eastonite K2Mg5AI[SI5AI3O20](OH)4 Figure 4.7 A . Secondary feldspars from albite breccia are plotted on the ternary diagram Ab-An-Or. A l l analyses are essentially pure endmember albite. B . Composition of hydrothermal micas from the biotite breccia at Mount Polley. The horizontal line indicates an Fe:Mg ratio of 1:2. Micas have a borderline chemical composition between phlogopite and bioite. The diagram is modified from Speer (1984) and Deeretal. (1966). Table 4.6 Representative microprobe analyses of vein and disseminated epidote. 114 Sample No. 89-228-370-1 89-228-370-2 89-212-250-3 89-212-250-1 89-212-250-2 pt. 1 pt. 4 pt. 1 pt. 2 pt. 4 Type Vein EP Vein EP Vein EP Diss. EP Diss. EP MnO 0.17 0.4 0.08 0.25 0.24 Si02 37.6 36.88 36.96 36.56 36.25 CaO 23.66 23.17 23.25 22.81 23.12 FeO 9.04 12.15 9.53 8.57 11.19 Ti02 0.11 0.27 0.05 0.03 0.1 A1203 26.94 23.9 27.01 27.75 24.79 Na20 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 nd MgO 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.11 Cr203 0.04 nd nd nd nd Total 97.59 96.85 96.9 96.01 95.8 Ion Numbers based on 13 oxygens Si 3.1307 3.1572 3.1055 3.0843 3.1214 Al(IV) - - - - -Sum 3.1307 3.1572 3.1055 3.0843 3.1214 Al(VI) 2.6437 2.4114 2.6748 2.7591 2.5158 Fe2 0.6295 0.8699 0.6697 0.6046 0.8058 Ti 0.0069 0.0174 0.0032 0.0019 0.0065 Sum 3.28 3.2986 3.3476 3.3657 3.3281 Ca 2.1107 2.1252 2.0931 2.0618 2.133 Mn2 0.012 0.029 0.0057 0.0179 0.0175 Sum 2.1227 2.1542 2.0988 2.0796 2.1505 Total 21.5401 21.6206 21.5548 21.535 21.6142 115 16 " 14 -12 -• 10 -8 -o <D 6 -LL 4 -2 -0 -23 24 25 26 2 7 28 29 A l 2 0 3 (Wt. %) 3 0 Diss. EP A Vein EP Figure 4.8 Binary diagram of epidote composition in FeO-A1203 space. The negative trend indicates that iron is substituting for aluminum in the atomic structure of the mineral. Disseminated epidote appears to overlap in composition with vein material. No spatial variation in chemistry was detected. 116 magnetite. Vein garnets are sub to euhedral and also protrude into the matrix of breccia. These garnets are strongly oscillatory zoned, having a pale brown core, dark brown bands and medium brown rims. Three grains were chosen and points across the grain from core to rim were analyzed. In all analyses, chromium is at the detection limit, so there is no appreciable amount of the uvarovite endmember; therefore it was not recalculated. As well, there is virtually no pyrope or spessartine component. Analyses were recalculated to andradite and grossular endmembers. Skarn garnets vary over a narrow range, from AdgiGqo. to Ad72Gr2g, with an average composition of A d y y G ^ . The oxides of two grains of vein garnets were plotted relative to an arbitrary distance from core to rim (Figure 4.9). Grains showed constant SiC>2 and CaO values, but the rims had markedly lower FeO and increased AI2O3 and minor enrichment in MnO and Ti02- Recalculating garnet analyses into endmembers shows that there is a compositional trend from pure andradite in the core (Adi 00) to an andradite-grossular solid solution near the margin (Adgrj to Ang5). Zeolites One thin section (89-199-640) containing zeolites was probed (Table 4.7). Pale yellow to white zeolites are present as late fibrous and radiating infdlings in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias. Zeolites are also found in most of the open space, post-mineral veins associated with calcite but vein material was not analyzed due to is identical physical and optical properties. Grains consistently had high SrO and BaO contents. Low totals correlate to approximately 15 wt% water. Recalculation on an anhydrous basis to 24 oxygens and reduction to 16 oxygens yields an almost perfect stoichiometry of a heulandite group mineral called brewsterite. The 15 wt% water indicates roughly 5 molecules of water may be present in the zeolite structure. A representative chemical composition is as follows: (Ca,Ba,Sr,Na,KMg)o.98Al2.03Si6.30l6-5H20. 40-1 35-30-25-i 20-•a 'x 15-O 10-5-0--*—m—*—m ~~~»«—m—m—m m. w. -+—*-Grain A —m—m -A— 6 8 10 12 14 C o r e to R i m T r a v e r s e Si02 Ti02 FeO CaO AI203 MnO Figure 4.9 Variations in oxide concentrations across euhedral, zoned brown garnet from a vein sample in the Intermediate Zone (drill hole 89-114). The two different grains show a similar chemical pattern with rims having a higher concentration of A l , M n and Ti and cores having a higher Fe content. The garnet samples are zoned from a pure andradite core to a grossular-andradite solid solution near the margin. Table 4.7 Microprobe analyses of zeolites from Mount Polley. Sample No. 89-199-640-1 89-199-640-1 89-199-640-3 89-199-640-3 89-199-640-3 pt. 1 pt. 2 pt. 1 pt. 2 pt. 3 Type B R X X B R X X B R X X B R X X B R X X K 2 0 0.62 0.59 0.49 0.47 0.38 Na20 0.31 0.27 0.2 0.26 0.16 Si02 58.03 59.67 57.68 56.23 57.82 BaO 2.84 0.91 2.54 3.37 2.87 CaO 5.52 6.21 5.51 5.34 4.87 SrO 1.4 0.98 0.78 1.15 0.47 MgO 0.11 0.11 0.33 0.24 0.88 A1203 16.14 15.8 15.73 15.99 15.47 Fe203 0.15 0.02 0.02 0.01 nd Total 85.12 84.56 83.28 83.06 82.92 Ion Numbers based on 24 oxygens Si 9.0754 9.1991 9.135 9.0355 9.1709 A l 2.9749 2.8708 2.9361 3.0282 2.8919 Fe3 0.0177 0.0023 0.0024 0.0012 -Sum 2.9926 2.8732 2.9385 3.0295 2.8919 M g 0.0256 0.0253 0.0779 0.0575 0.208 Ca 0.9249 1.0258 0.935 0.9194 0.8276 Ba 0.174 0.055 0.1576 0.2122 0.1784 Sr 0.127 0.0876 0.0716 0.1072 0.0432 Na 0.094 0.0807 0.0614 0.081 0.0492 K 0.1237 0.116 0.099 0.0963 0.0769 Sum 1.4692 1.3904 1.4025 1.4736 1.3833 Total 37.5372 37.4626 37.476 37.5385 37.4462 119 4.6 Summary and Discussion Hydrothermal breccias across the property are syn-mineral. The matrix is partially fdled with various secondary minerals; chalcopyrite is ubiquitous along with minor amounts of pyrite and bornite. The majority of outcrops and drill core samples are clast-supported, with the occasional localized region of matrix-supported biotite breccia. Breccias are dominantly monolithic with clasts of diorite, but also carry a number of plagioclase porphyry fragments. Clasts are variably potassium feldspar altered, ranging from pervasive in the albite breccia to altered rims in the actinolite and biotite breccias. As a general rule, clasts are subrounded to angular and show minor rotation. It is difficult to estimate the displacement of fragments vertically or laterally due to the lack of marker units. The size and angularity of clasts suggests that minimal movement has occurred. A schematic diagram of the characteristics of hydrothermal breccias is given in Figure 4.10 and displays most of the features observed in drill core (89-126, -127 and -128). The base of the breccia contains rounded to subrounded fragments of diorite in a clast-supported breccia with local pockets of matrix-supported breccia. Fragments have potassium feldspar altered margins. The matrix material is composed of coarse grained hydrothermal biotite, along with accessory magnetite and sulfides. Biotite concentration generally decreases upwards and corresponds to an increase in actinolite. Actinolite breccia is entirely clast-supported and contains angular diorite fragments that can be reassembled. The matrix consists of small triangular pockets filled with fibrous, dark green actinolite, diopside, magnetite, sulfides and minor calcite. Originating from the breccia roof are numerous actinolite-bearing veins and fractures with potassium feldspar envelopes. Gradually the veins pinch out into fresh, unbroken diorite. It is probable that the albite breccia may have similar features but the breccia pipe in the West Zone has been eroded and roof rocks removed. Similar to other alkalic porphyry deposits, Mount Polley lacks phyllic and argillic alteration zones. The core of the hydrothermal system is represented by a broad area of potassic alteration which is coincident with the intrusion and orthomagmatic breccias. The central region has been subdivided into three types on Fresh fine grained, dark grey diorite Stockwork of actinolite (-magnetite-chalcopyrite) with KF envelopes Angular clasts of diorite Clast supported hydrothermal breccia with matrix minerals including actinolite, magnetite, sulfides, pyroxene and calcite Variably altered diorite fragments (KF altered) Local pockets of matrix-supported biotite breccia Clast-supported hydrothermal biotite breccia with matrix minerals including biotite, magnetite and sulfides Figure 4.10 Schematic diagram o f hydrothermal breccia illustrating the main clast and matrix characteristics. Hydrothermal minerals in the breccia matrix are gradational from dominant ly biotite breccia to actinolite breccia. The zonation is observed vertically for 100 metres on cross-section 3460 N (in diamond d r i l l holes 89-126, 89-127 and 89-128). 121 the basis of dominant secondary minerals. An elongate zone of actinolite alteration, characterized by actinolite-diopside-sulfide veins, is superimposed on hydrothermal breccias and diorite. Biotite alteration is typified by the development of secondary biotite in vugs of the breccia and is accompanied by pervasive potassium feldspar alteration. Lastly, a potassium feldspar-albite zone is characterized by intense sodium metasomatism in the west and varying degrees of potassium feldspar alteration. Bulk chemical transfers on a local scale are reflected on the deposit scale mineral zonation. Mass chemical movement is described in Figure 4.11. Metasomatism in the core of the system is represented by significant additions of K, Ca, Mg and Fe in the form of actinolite, biotite and potassium feldspar. Locally plagioclase-rich rocks have experienced destruction of primary feldspar, releasing aqueous Ca and Na to magmatic-hydrothermal fluids percolating through microfractures while accompanied by the formation of potassium feldspar in the wall-rock. Moderate to high Ca activities within the hydrothermal fluid serves to precipitate actinolite when combined with aqueous iron and magnesium species. Figure 4.11 depicts the relative abundance of these species (the size of the elemental symbol) in the fluid over distance, time and possibly temperature as chemistry changes with rock interaction. High temperature magmatic-hydrothermal fluids have deposited potassium feldspar along microfractures by K addition and deposits actinolite-diopside-magnetite-sulfides as vein-fill material. As the relative Ca, Mg and Fe concentrations decrease, the relative abundance of Na increases so that albite may be precipitated as vein-fill. Intense sodic metasomatism related to the albite breccia generally overprints potassium feldspar altered clasts, indicating that although ambiguity of timing between albite and potassium feldspar veins exists, the albite within breccia-fill appears somewhat later and maybe due to a significant chemical change in the fluid. Pervasive potassium feldspar alteration was due to a high K activity fluid interacting with the diorite followed by deposition of albite in the breccia matrix from a fluid having high Na relative to K activity. Albite has been interpreted to occur at deeper structural levels and higher temperatures by Einaudi (1993). An extensive outer propylitic zone is developed in the intrusive rocks. It is identified by a standard mineral assemblage of epidote-pyrite-albite-calcite. High concentrations of fracture controlled pyrite (and minor 122 Calc-silicate Zone (Gn-Ep-Kf-Ab-Cp-Mg-Py) / / / / / / / / \ / / / / / / / , , . . Ep-Py vein / / / / / / / / / / \ / / / ' • ^ ~~y~^~t / / / / / / / \ / /// / / / / / / / / / Aw / / / / / / / Actinolite vein (Ac-Di-Cp-Mg-Cc) ^  ^ ^j^LAr^ envelope K ^ <? cS <^  <? J> O ^ S N K1 / / / / / / y / / ////// ~o / / / / /I/ / / / ^ / / / 0 0 / / / / / / ' ' Ab vein / / / / / / / •Propylitic Alteration (Ep-Py-Ab-Cc) / / / / / ' • High temp. magmatic -hydrothermal fluid Interaction of lower temperature meteoric water with high temperature magmatic-hydrotherrnal fluid Figure 4.11 Schematic diagram relating vein mineralogy to chemical transfers on a local and deposit scale. A high temperature magmatic-hydrotherrnal fluid percolating through microfractures causes local wall-rock alteration to potassium feldspar while depositing actinolite-diopside-magnetite-sulfides as vein-fill. The fluid is represented by high Ca, Mg, Fe and K activity proximal to the causative intrusion, while Na activity may increase distally, hence, controlling deposition of albite as vein-fill material. Weak pervasive and vein propylitic alteration (epidote-pyrite-albite) may be due to addition of elements derived from circulating meteoric waters. 123 amounts of magnetite) are located to the northeast of the deposit and has an undefined lateral extent. Minerals deposited in this zone may be caused by addition of elements from circulating low temperature meteoric waters that are in contact with high temperature magmatic-hydrothermal fluids (Figure 4.11). Irregular, discontinuous zones of calc-silicate alteration are located at the areas of overlap between the central potassic and outer propylitic. The mineral assemblage is complicated and consists of garnet veins and breccia-fill with epidote envelopes, disseminated chlorite, magnetite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite, and vugs that are partially filled with calcite and zeolites. Albite and potassium feldspar form patchy alteration. Although calc-silicate alteration is not observed around veins, mineral zoning on a large scale generally reflects that occurring on local scales and so can be represented on Figure 4.11. Deposition of garnet and epidote is due to a high Ca activity fluid which may be the result of redistribution of wall-rock elements rather than significant chemical additions by hydrothermal fluid. Skarn garnet differs considerably from the vein garnet on the western margin of the West Zone. It is not compositionally zoned and generally has a higher aluminum and lower iron content (more grossular in composition). Vein garnets are strongly zoned from a pure andradite core to an AngQ-85 rim. Distinct compositional zoning is not uncommon in the ugrandite series (Deer et al., 1966). Galore Creek garnets are also strongly zoned, dominantly andradite in composition, and growth zones present in the garnets are probably related to the evolution of hydrothermal fluids during alteration and mineralization (Dunne et al., 1993). Fluid inclusions in Galore Creek garnets indicate that high temperature, saline magmatic waters play a dominant role in the formation of alteration minerals (Dunne et al., 1993). Meagher (1980) and Dunne et al. (1993) suggest that the oscillatory zonation results from cyclical variations in the hydrothermal fluid composition and possibly temperature during crystal growth. It is possible that the growth zoning observed in the vein garnets at Mount Polley is formed by a similar process of cyclicity in fluid composition. However, since growth zoning in the skarn garnets at Mount Polley is not present they are unlikely to have derived from the same process; perhaps the hydrothermal fluids maintained a relatively constant composition or temperature through deposition. 124 Hydrothermal breccia compositions at Mount Polley vary laterally and vertically. Titley and Beane (1981) suggest that the alteration minerals and assemblages present in porphyry systems depend on the mineralogy of the host rock, the composition of the hydrothermal fluid which reacted with the rock, and the temperature and pressure. Since the wall rock in all four hydrothermal breccia types (actinolite, biotite, magnetite and albite) is dominantly diorite, the variation in secondary mineral compositions can not be explained by differences in host rock chemistry. The deposition of hydrothermal minerals may have occurred at relatively constant pressure, and therefore changes in the temperature or aqueous chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid would control the mineralogy in each breccia type. The biotite breccia contains a common or "standard" potassic assemblage of biotite-potassium feldspar-magnetite and is stable with solutions having a relatively high value of a(K +)/a(H +) (Titley and Beane, 1981). Actinolite breccia, characterized by deposition of tremolite-actinolite and potassium feldspar, probably formed at higher calcium activities than biotite (Titley and Beane, 1981). A variation in fluid chemistry to higher calcium activities (Einaudi, 1993) would inhibit biotite crystallization and stabilize pyroxene. This mineralogical change is observed from south to north as pyroxene concentrations increase away from biotite breccia. Vein and breccia actinolites have almost identical chemical compositions; there appears to be no spatial variation. As a result, it is proposed that the vein and breccia actinolites were deposited from a chemically similar hydrothermal fluid, perhaps crystallizing synchronously. It is possible that deposition of actinolite, biotite and albite is synchronous, with mineralogy dependent upon fluid chemistry and temperature. The presence of fluorine and chlorine-bearing mineral phases in breccias and veins suggests derivation from volatile-rich fluids. 125 C H A P T E R 5 M I N E R A L I Z A T I O N 5.1 Distribution and Character Within the Mount Polley Stock, copper-gold mineralization is concentrated in two main areas. The West Zone of mineralization is roughly coincident with the hydrothermal breccia west of the Polley fault. The region forms a circular, subvertical body 400 metres in diameter. Mineralization extends to a drilled depth of approximately 275 metres. Copper and gold mineralization to the east of the Polley fault, within the Central Zone, is contained within an eastward dipping breccia body which has a northerly strike. The zone is approximately 200-300 metres in width by 1000 metres along strike. The majority of mineralization has a close spatial relationship with hydrothermal and intrusion breccias. Mount Polley is extensively mineralized with chalcopyrite, particularly within breccia zones (Figure 5.1). Hypogene ore minerals generally occur on fractures, veins, disseminations and as blebs within the matrix of hydrothermal breccias (Plate 5. IB). Typical sulfides are chalcopyrite, pyrite and lesser bornite. Similar to most other alkalic deposits, Mount Polley lacks molybdenite. A large scale metal zonation is present across the deposit which is a characteristic feature of porphyry deposits. The core zone typically carries a considerable amount of chalcopyrite in a variety of forms, fine grained disseminated, fracture-controlled and distributed as blebs in the matrix of all hydrothermal breccias (Plates 5. IB and 5.2A). Very high copper values are present in the southeast part of the deposit, and lesser copper is located near the fringe of the hydrothermal system and within diorite (Figure 5.1) Copper is rarely in the form of bornite but is often associated with high chalcopyrite concentrations, most often as small blebs within breccia-fill. Copper and gold assay values are closely correlated and are highest in the hydrothermal and intrusion breccias. Copper distribution on the plan level are shown in Figure 5.1. The highest grades occur in the southern part of the central zone. 126 Plate 5.1 A A n example of high grade mineralization near the contact of the magnetite-garnet zone with plagioclase porphyry (88-89, 8 m). The rock contains remnant patches of unaltered material. Chalcopyrite is interstitial and poikiolitically enclosed subhedral magnetite grains. Plate 5. I B Photomicrograph (reflected light) of a sulfide vein cutting hydrothermal breccia in the core of the Mount Polley deposit (88-48, 55 m). The vein mineralogy consists of subhedral magnetite and interstitial chalcopyrite and bornite. Exsolution textures are prominent within the copper sulfides. Field of view is 5 mm. 127 Plate 5.2A Photomicrograph (reflected light) of the matrix of magnetite breccia (89-111, 131 m). Interstitial areas between coarse grained magnetite and subhedral pyroxene grains are filled with chalcopyrite and bornite. Bornite is present only within the core of the hydrothermal system. Field of view is 1.25 mm. * - msa ^  v Plate 5.2B Photomicrograph (reflected light) of a sulfide vein cutting diorite from the periphery of the deposit (89-192, 171 m). Pyrite in the vein was deposited contemporaneously with epidote (dark grey gangue). Chalcopyrite appears to be somewhat later than pyrite. Peripheral veins contain no bornite but commonly contain magnetite and calcite. Field of view is 1.25 mm. 128 Magnetite is quite abundant at Mount Polley and is present as vein-fill (Figure 5.1), some disseminations and as massive wall-rock replacement. Generally high magnetite concentrations are correlated with high copper and gold assay values (Figure 5.1). Hydrothermally introduced magnetite is widely distributed across the property but increased levels are found in the S-19 pit. High magnetite concentrations within the potassic altered core is a ubiquitous feature among alkaline porphyry deposits, with contents at Mount Polley on average 5-10%. High copper in the form of chalcopyrite is present near the contact of magnetite-garnet with plagioclase porphyry (Plate 5.1A). Gold is introduced with the calc-silicate alteration in the core and is associated with potassium feldspar, biotite and actinolite. Gold is not macroscopically visible but is found as inclusions 5-40 microns in diameter as native gold in chalcopyrite (Nikic et al., in press). Generally high gold assays are correlated to a high copper content, with the largest anomaly present in the southeast part of the S-19 pit (Figure 5.1). Spotty gold concentrations exist within albite breccia west of the Polley fault and hydrothermal breccias east of the Polley fault. Pyrite is most abundant peripheral to the main mineralized region (Figure 5.1 and Plate 5.2B) and is gradational with the potassically altered margin. It forms an elongated zone to the northeast of the ore zone and contains locally up to 4-6% fracture controlled pyrite (Simpson and Saleken, 1990). Fracture controlled pyrite has an antithetic relationship with copper and gold; highest concentrations are on the fringe of pit S-19 to the northeast and the western part of the albite breccia (Figure 5.1). 5.2 Supergene Effects Supergene minerals formed by the weathering process are not economically important at most porphyry deposits of the Canadian Cordillera, either having been removed by glaciation or are very thin zones due to a number of factors (climate, low sulfide content) (McMillan, 1991). At Mount Polley, the copper oxides account for roughly 25% of the total copper content (Barr et al., 1976). The majority of the deposit to the 129 i < O o co •wtiTin(t[?af«»»w'Mi'i>ii > CL CL O O ro *-> o r-(0 LU O 8 r § o o o2 o CO CL o I CO o o CO (LU) uonEAeig (UJ) uor4BAe|3 o 8 CO Co* <r» 0) CL .& „ / = ^ i i • 1 • • • • • \ \ * * .T....\.» • • • • •J \ • • • • < o o LO co (0 LU o o o o o f-(qdd) • J / • •o / a / • \ * * • • i •• • •••• •r> • - • •J \ • 4* • • • i CQ A . o o co •a o 8 o o IT) CO 8-11 (ai) BULLION (UJ) BUIMVJON agnetite /. -• / • s- -/ * • •• • A • • _i JV.. . —1 -»"w-»— -- — I T • \ i " • «i . \ - ! • i J \ 4 • y \ • \ . • • w • • 8 p 130 ra LU o o co o 8 co o o in co o o o o 8^ (LU) UO|}EA8|3 (LU) BUIMHON 0 ^ Oxide • Copperj ( ••" • • *• • • y \ \ • * • • A. • • • y D § g CO LU co (LU) Bui.nyoN o o CO •<J-o o in co o o O-r-o (LU) BumyoN o D C C o in o s-s 131 north and west is relatively unoxidized, having minor quantities of malachite and azurite along fracture surfaces. The depth of oxidation is normally less than 100 metres. The largest area of deep, strong oxidation is in the south-eastern region of the biotite breccia (Figure 5.1). Fluids probably easily migrated through the porous biotite breccia causing extensive copper oxidation and potential remobilization. All primary sulfides in the matrix of the breccia have been replaced in-situ by chrysocolla and malachite. Some remobilized copper is evident by the high concentration of chrysocolla in the matrix of the breccia as well as its impregnation into potassium feldspar altered clasts. In most cases, hypogene sulfides have been destroyed, but are replaced with supergene hydroxides. A minor amount of oxidation is associated with the albite breccia in the west zone and is also due to the vuggy nature of the breccia. Intrusive material and actinolite breccia are more compact and show very little oxidation. The grade of the deposit has not been significantly enhanced and no enrichment blanket has formed. Trace azurite and native copper have been noted on fracture surfaces cutting the breccias. The large outcrop of magnetite-garnet has also undergone relatively minor supergene processes. Chalcopyrite is altered to a combination of chalcocite and covellite on fractures. There is minor hematite alteration of magnetite grains. 5.3 Copper-Gold Plots and Ratios At Mount Polley, it was noted that the central region of the deposit has coincident copper and gold zones, as illustrated by bubble plots of the plan level and cross-section (Figure 5.1). This observation is consistent with other alkalic porphyry systems in the Canadian Cordillera, where copper and gold rich cores are flanked by low grade outer zones. The relatively constant Cu-Au ratio in these deposits suggests that chalcopyrite and gold are precipitating jointly (Stanley, 1993b). To investigate this relationship further, a series of scatterplots of copper and gold concentrations were constructed by zone, lithology and alteration type. 132 The Mount Polley deposit was arbitrarily divided into four zones: the "north zone" lies east of the Polley fault and defines the northeast quadrant of the deposit, the "south zone" also lies east of the fault and represents the southeast quadrant, the "west zone" lies entirely west of the Polley fault and the "peripheral zone" generally flanks the proposed S-19 open pit. Copper-gold plots were constructed for the previously mentioned zones and the relevant pre- and syn-mineral lithologies including diorite, plagioclase porphyry, and associated breccias: actinolite, biotite and albite. Due to a severely limited data set, magnetite breccia samples have not be plotted. Copper-gold ratios were also determined for four alteration zones (actinolite, biotite, potassium feldspar-albite and propylitic) as outlined by surface mapping . The assay data and drill hole locations of more than 238 holes was obtained from Imperial Metals Corporation and grouped according to lithology and alteration on the basis of surface mapping and drill-hole logging in 1993. Only the first 8-12 assay intervals, which corresponds to approximately 10-15 metres down-hole from the collar position, were taken to be representative of lithologies and alteration expressed on surface. Normally, the effects of oxidation must be avoided to obtain meaningful trends in the hypogene copper and gold data, but the plan level map was not suitable to subdivide into some lithologies and alteration due to extremely limited data, and the fact that several important units were missing or were not constrained at this level. Therefore, surface data was used, with the recognition that copper assays may show considerable scatter in the southeastern quadrant of the deposit (most highly oxidized). The remainder of the deposit has undergone little oxidation or copper remobilization and Cu-Au plots should reflect primary hypogene metal variations. The data were graphed with copper (percent) versus gold (ppm) concentration, where each data point was representative of one assay measurement. An arbitrary best-fit line was constructed to pass through the origin and most of the data. All samples falling on this line had the same Cu-Au ratio, given by a constant slope. Regression lines are skewed by anomalously high gold values, and therefore the resulting line is not representative of the bulk of these data. In order to attempt a more representative evaluation of the data, a turbo-pascal program was written by C. Stanley in 1994. This routine superimposes a grid pattern on the 133 scatterplot and counts the number of samples within each square. This information was then used to construct bubble plots of the data (Figure 5.2). The smallest bubble represents one sample within the grid square and the largest represents 100 samples. By this method, one can visualize exactly where the majority of the samples plot, without overlapping symbols that obscure the data trend. Naturally most of the data plots at low copper and gold values, creating a cluster of samples near the origin. In order to avoid arbitrarily drawn lines, several straight lines of constant copper to gold ratio (m = 2000, 5000, 10000, 15000 and 20000) were drawn through the origin to compare the data. A number of interesting variations in the copper to gold ratio were observed within zones and lithologies. The four diagrams plotted by zone: north, south, west and peripheral (Figure 5.2) all have well defined Cu-Au trends. In each case there is a large cluster of data, with a wide dispersion of points at higher, more anomalous gold values. The samples plotting below or to the right of the cluster indicate a higher copper value than expected. The south zone has higher gold values than the north and west zones and illustrates considerable scatter at high gold values. The data have an approximate ratio of 5000 when compared to the reference slopes. This trend is similar to the ratio of 7000 that is observed in the north zone, however, the value is slightly higher than in the south, indicating gold enrichment in the southern part of the deposit. Data from the west zone lies between lines having ratios of 10,000 to 15,000 and shows that rocks west of the Polley fault have a lower gold concentration relative to copper. Extreme scatter of the south zone data may be explained by copper enrichment due to oxidation and copper remobilization near surface. Although copper is a mobile element, an enrichment blanket has not formed at this deposit and likely transport of copper has been minor. High gold values may have resulted from a combination of two processes: firstly, gold could originally have been deposited in local high concentrations, or secondly, with the local remobilization and removal of copper, gold content is enhanced relative to copper. Cu (%) Figure 5.2 Copper-gold plots for zones and major lithologies at Mount Polley. Data was divided into lithologies and alteration zones on the basis of surface mapping, while north, south, west and periphery zones are arbitrary. Entire drill hole assay information was used for the four zones but only the first 10 metres of assay intervals were used to correlate with lithologies and alteration since these values are the most representative. Bubbles represent the number of data points within a grid pattern superimposed on the diagram. The largest bubble represents the highest concentration of data points. Five lines of varying copper to gold ratio (m) are given for reference. The alteration copper-gold plots are given in Appendix D. 3 m=2000 Cu (%) Figure 5.2 (continued) 3 m=2000 Cu (%) Figure 5.2 (continued) Figure 5.2 (continued) 138 Copper-gold plots for diorite and the hydrothermal breccias (Figure 5.2) indicates that pre-mineral intrusives appear to have a low gold content but some scatter among data still exists, possibly reflecting a nugget effect during gold deposition. Syn-mineral actinolite and biotite breccias have similar copper to gold ratios of approximately 7000. Data for actinolite breccia is extremely well-defined and lies within the larger population outlined for the north zone. Biotite breccia data is considerably scattered, and generally mimics that of the south zone and biotite alteration zone (see Figures 5.2 and D. 1). Spread in the biotite breccia data relative to actinolite breccia may be a reflection of secondary processes where the latter breccia is compact and less oxidized. All remaining lithology plots of copper-gold ratios are somewhat scattered, however, the albite breccia shows very low gold concentrations. Copper to gold ratios of the alteration zones (Figure D. 1) largely reflects what was observed at a smaller scale (especially in the actinolite and biotite breccias). The potassium feldspar-albite zone has heavily scattered data at high gold values. Generally, the propylitic zone has a low gold concentration relative to copper. In conclusion, there are fundamental differences between the copper to gold ratios of the core of the deposit, dominated by actinolite and biotite breccias, and the marginal phases. The potassically altered central part of the deposit, including the north and south zones, is relatively enriched in gold. The west and propylitic alteration zones indicate low gold concentrations relative to copper. However, based on the consistency of all data, deposition of copper and gold in the core of the system across these lithologies appears to be related to fluids of similar composition. 5.4 Implications for Mineralization The fact that copper and gold distribution is positively correlated and has a relatively constant Cu-Au ratio suggest that copper and gold were precipitated simultaneously. At high temperature solubility contours of copper and gold chloride complexes are parallel. At low temperature, copper and gold solubility contours are not parallel, indicating that deposition of these metals will not maintain a constant Cu-Au ratio. At 139 high temperatures (>300°C), copper and gold could precipitate from chloride complexes by the following reactions (Stanley pers. comm., 1994 and Stanley, 1993b): It is likely that significant amounts of iron were transported in the hydrothermal solutions at Mount Polley. Iron alteration is common as vein, disseminations and matrix fill within hydrothermal breccias. Mount Polley also contains a replacement area dominated by massive magnetite. Therefore iron must be abundant and readily available for deposition. McPhail (1991) has conducted a series of experiments to model the iron species in aqueous solution at high temperature (500°C). In order to explain the solubility data, he concludes that iron is transported as an iron-tetrachloride species (FeClj^)- If this is the case, upon cooling of the hydrothermal solution, the solubility of Fe is decreased, leading to the precipitation of significant amounts of iron-bearing minerals (Stanley, 1993b). Temperature and oxygen fugacity do not control the observed Cu-Au ratio since in f(C>2) space the solubility lines of copper and gold are parallel. Other factors must be contributing to the relatively constant ratio. Stanley (pers. comm., 1994) has suggested that the solubility product equations for the two reactions listed above influence variations in the Cu-Au ratio as a function of different fluid parameters, including pH, eH and the activities of aqueous iron and sulphide ( F e 2 + and H2S respectively). To test the theory that considerable data scatter and high concentrations of gold relative to copper on copper-gold plots are due to secondary processes (refer to the biotite and actinolite breccia plots, Figure 5.2), the assay data of copper oxides from the plan level were plotted on a bubble diagram. The resulting plot (Figure 5.2) indicates that outlier and copper-gold dispersion is related to high copper oxide concentrations. Observed data scatter that cannot be explained by oxidation may reflect a nugget effect. The fact that mineralization is generally associated with chloride-bearing mineral species (actinolite and biotite) probably indicates that copper and gold transport is by chloride complexes at relatively high C u C l ' 2 + F e 2 + + 2H 2 S < = > CuFeS 2 + 2C1" + 4H+ + e" AuCl" 2 + e" < = > Au° + 2C1" (1) (2) 140 temperatures. In general, Sillitoe (1989) has noted that in porphyry copper-gold deposits, gold is precipitated early (along with copper) from chloride-rich fluids from temperatures in the range of 400 -600°C. Similar to other alkaline systems, Mount Polley has a metal zonation across the deposit. The central part of the hydrothermal system at Mount Polley is characterized by numerous veins, veinlets and breccia fill of chalcopyrite and magnetite with trace amounts of bornite (vein 3a). Bornite is correlated with high copper values and its concentration decreases outwards, having an antithetic relationship with pyrite. The periphery of the hydrothermally altered area (propylitic zone) contains abundant fracture controlled pyrite and accessory magnetite and chalcopyrite (vein 3b). The presence of bornite only in the core and pyrite dominantly in the fringe suggests different conditions of deposition. Initially, the potassic altered area is proximal to a causative intrusion with mineralization deposited by high temperature fluids. The pyrite fringe is interpreted to be deposited synchronously at a lower temperature, with fluids possibly interacting with meteoric water. The hypogene mineral zonation observed at Mount Polley can be represented on an activity-temperature diagram (Figure 5.3). Veins 3a and 3b (see section 4.3.1) may have been precipitated by the same hydrothermal fluid, but the diagram supports the hypothesis that pyrite was deposited due to a temperature decrease or increased sulfur fugacity (Figure 5.3). A temperature decrease of the outer margin is supported by the silicate mineralogy as well. Pyrite deposition is accompanied by epidote, albite and calcite, generally flanking the deposit and increasing in abundance outwards. These silicate minerals are assumed to have been deposited from low temperatures. However, silicate minerals located in the core of the hydrothermal system consist of actinolite, pyroxene, potassium feldspar, biotite and albite, reflecting formation at higher temperatures. Copper-gold ratios for the potassic and actinolitic alteration zones support deposition from high temperatures since the core of the system is enriched in gold and the copper-to-gold ratio compared to the propylitic zone markedly lower. Assay samples from the propylitic zone consistently have lower gold and copper levels, probably due to its distal nature to the main mineralizing phase and possible lower temperature (and hence ability to carry copper and gold in solution). 141 o o CD + Ji Ji "Ti +Q_ + " I I Q - O n n i - cvi co -^ ud co E (D -f-» CO CO 0 CO 1 (D L L • o c o N O CD -•—» cd •4—* c o o co CM I CO CO O (0 I LO I 5 o <° ed.S 3 — . CO o CD I— "S ca -a a co <U g +3 W T 3 P - „ .5 4H cd on « i J 3 ** i - cu " ** •S-g * fi * O B i £.3 ' cd - fl O DH O s u n o 6 4) Cd * § g ed •H 2 fl T3 o J, R — _ s£ 2 »-* ,2 b.2 S «*H O H — * J ^ a o.S « a O ' + J w N « X « + ' — .t! <0 P° cd cd •*•* i3 i i 2 g-o.3.8 u C u H s 3 S O 3=3 2 S m a-2 PH <D,fi <u fl a.-3.s * U O ti *J 60 oi efl >» cd C « 2 pu, C * § • « >,° cd j> * J * ; •fl o fl<« » o cd 5 w cd H in •So •rj —i *ri _ H — 1 J 3 • i O. 2 ed «>T3 O A -M PH fl o ° cd ^ ^ . t n - O PH * i cd « 2 >>2^"« V fir 00-i 1 0 .H U ~ n n 142 C H A P T E R 6 M O D E L D E V E L O P M E N T 6.1 Introduction Mineralization and alteration zoning appear to be closely associated with brecciation at Mount Polley. Two genetically different types of breccias have been recognized: (i) intrusion breccias having an igneous matrix and (ii) hydrothermal (orthomagmatic) breccias containing a variety of secondary minerals in triangular vugs. The four types of hydrothermal breccia (actinolite, biotite, magnetite and albite) are well mineralized and contain higher copper and gold values than intrusion breccia and diorite. Hydrothermal breccias are strongly altered and are distributed at the margins or apex of plagioclase porphyry intrusions. Secondary silicate mineral assemblages are also zoned outward from the plagioclase porphyry from potassium feldspar-biotite-actinolite to propylitic alteration. It is postulated that the abundant hydrothermal breccias developed at Mount Polley are the result of magmatic-hydrothermal processes involving the release of hydrothermal fluids from a shallowly emplaced plagioclase porphyry magma during second boiling and subsequent decompression. The aim of this chapter is to develop a deposit scale model to describe the intrusive history at Mount Polley as well as the evolution of breccia bodies and associated alteration. 6.2 Characteristics of Breccias at Mount Polley A review of hydrothermal and intrusion breccia types and their distribution at Mount Polley is summarized in Table 6.1. The Mount Polley diorite is located at the intersection of two major fault structures. East of the fault, a massive body of plagioclase porphyry intrudes diorite and the apex and margins of the body are hydrothermally brecciated. The dominant matrix mineral zones outwards and upwards from biotite to actinolite. Similarly, in the West Zone, a large intrusion of plagioclase porphyry is localized along the fault, with extreme brecciation on the western margin. The north-northwest striking fault, along which the 143 Table 6.1 Summary of breccia characteristics and distribution at Mount Polley. Abbreviations are given in Table 4.2. Intrusion Breccias Hydrothermal Breccias Matrix Composition Mineralization Distribution and Extent Clasts Composition Angularity Alteration Clast vs Matrix-supported Associated Alteration and Style 2 types: i) plagioclase porphyry ii) K F phyric monzonite i) disseminated and vein chalcopyrite-magnetite ii) none i) massive intrusion possibly structurally controlled, along strike of Polley fault and north of E-W offshoot ii) pods of various orientation and size i) diorite (and minor volcanics) ii) diorite and pyroxenite i) angular to subrounded ii) subangular to angular none matrix i) pervasive K F alteration ii) local deuteric alteration 4 types: i) actinolite ii) biotite iii) magnetite iv) albite vein CP, M G , CP-MG-BO, and disseminated and blebs ofCP-MG±BO±PY i) elongate N-S, east of Polley fault ii) south-central, east of Polley fault iii) scattered throughout deposit iv) dominantly in the West Zone, minor overprint of actinolite breccia to north diorite, plagioclase porphyry / breccia angular to subrounded varies from none to weak K F at clast margins to pervasive K F (in albite breccia) clast, locally matrix-supported hydrothermal minerals in matrix and alteration of clasts: i) AC-PX-KF±CC ii) BI±AB-KF iii) DI -KF iv) AB±BI±DI 144 The Mount Polley intrusive complex is elongated parallel to strike and to the Polley fault. The Polley fault is interpreted to dip steeply to the east and has a normal displacement of unknown magnitude. This structure may have controlled the location of the Polley Stock by providing a conduit for intrusion and related brecciation. Evidence for the Polley fault and related displacement include: • topographic differences between the West and Central Zones; • fault gouge in drill holes; • mineralogical differences in alteration; • West zone breccias marginal to plagioclase porphyry whereas Central zone breccias are apical; and • pyrite-rich propylitic alteration restricted to the east side of the Central zone. None of the differences across the fault provide an unambiguous sense of displacement. The location of the West zone adjacent to plagioclase porphyry, however, suggests that this breccia may have formed in a deeper marginal location relative to the Central zone breccias. If correct, the exposure of the deeper West zone may have resulted from a combination of post-mineral rotation and faulting on the Polley fault. Rotation to the east might also explain the restriction of pyrite-rich propylitic alteration, which may have formed at high levels, to the east side of the complex. Locally, plagioclase porphyry contains abundant clasts of diorite and forms a matrix-supported intrusion breccia. Volcanic fragments are rare. Clasts are undigested and are subrounded to angular. Distance of transport is unknown since fragments are derived locally from diorite and volcanic screens; it is assumed that little upward movement has taken place. Diorite fragments commonly have potassium feldspar altered margins but are unmineralized. A second type of intrusion breccia was identified hosted by potassium feldspar phyric monzonite. The unit is found as massive pods and dike-like bodies, generally carrying sparse diorite xenoliths. However, in drill hole MP89-125 an intrusion breccia was intersected showing variation in clast type and size vertically. Abundant angular pyroxenite and diorite fragments occur at the base of the breccia (see Section 3.5 for a more detailed description). Pyroxenite does not outcrop on the property and the only known location lies 145 under Bootjack Lake (Hodgson et al, 1976), suggesting that clasts may have been transported for up to one kilometre. Since this intrusion/breccia is only locally deuterically altered, is not cut by mineralized veins, and cross-cuts late augite monzodiorite, it is unlikely to have contributed to the evolution of any mineralized hydrothermal breccias or zonal alteration patterns. Hydrothermal breccias at Mount Polley are complex and show a wide range of alteration mineral assemblages. These breccias occur as moderately steep and possibly upward-flaring lenses (truncated by erosion) of limited vertical and lateral extent (400 metre diameter in the West Zone and an area of 900 x 250 metres in the Central Zone). In contrast, breccia pipes present in other porphyry deposits, for example Braden and Toquepala (Chile) and Casino (Yukon), are polylithic, have considerable vertical extent and show evidence for transportation of clasts vertically (Hollister, 1978). Clasts at Mount Polley vary from subrounded to angular and typically show potassium feldspar altered margins or complete textural destruction (as in the albite breccia). The majority of ore minerals, including chalcopyrite, bornite, gold and minor pyrite are disseminated within the matrix. Numerous mineralized veins cut the breccias and have similar mineral assemblages and compositions to matrix material in the hydrothermal breccias. Cross-section 3460 N illustrates that biotite breccia is located at the apex or marginal to plagioclase porphyry and is gradational outwards to actinolite breccia. Magnetite breccias are sparse and scattered throughout the deposit. The random distribution and small size, typically 0.25 to 1 metre intervals, of this breccia type probably indicates localized conditions resulting in the precipitation of magnetite-diopside-sulfide from the hydrothermal fluid. This variety of breccia is not significant to the overall genesis of the Mount Polley breccia bodies. The three hydrothermal breccias discussed above are associated with pervasive and vein potassium feldspar alteration as well as secondary actinolite and biotite. Alteration assemblages are present within the core of the deposit and may represent higher temperature deposition than the propylitic alteration flanking the breccia bodies. Mineral assemblages in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias are zoned outward from a 146 biotite core to an intermediate actinolite zone and an outer zone of potassium feldspar and albite. Gradational changes between zones suggest that the hydrothermal breccias are one cohesive body which is zoned mineralogically. Albite breccia is largely restricted to the area west of the Polley fault and is associated with intense sodium and potassium metasomatism. The breccia is typically vuggy and contains euhedral, prismatic albite crystals within the matrix. Although clast boundaries are obscured and composition is difficult to distinguish due to intense pervasive potassium feldspar alteration, clasts of local country rock are suspected. Albite breccia is localized near the intersection of two structural features and is marginal to a massive plagioclase porphyry intrusion/breccia. Although the matrix carries considerable fine grained, disseminated chalcopyrite and pyrite, there are far fewer veins cutting breccias west of the Polley fault. This breccia shows potassic-albitic alteration on its eastern margin adjacent to plagioclase porphyry and contains a garnet-epidote-chlorite overprint, grading outward into propylitic alteration on the western side. The following evidence is given in support of the plagioclase porphyry being the causative intrusion: • biotite and actinolite breccias are located at the apex and marginal to plagioclase porphyry, with mineral zonation away from the intrusion; • plagioclase porphyry is pervasively potassium feldspar altered and is cut by mineralized actinolite-diopside- magnetite veins, consistent with the style of alteration found in the core of the hydrothermal systems; • albite breccia is also marginal to plagioclase porphyry; and • mineral assemblages within veins cutting the intrusion and secondary minerals within hydrothermal breccias are similar or identical, indicating a close temporal and spatial relationship between brecciation, alteration and mineralization. In summary, the spatial and temporal relationship of hydrothermal breccias with plagioclase porphyry suggests magmatic-hydrothermal derivation of fluids from the intrusion due to cooling and crystallization. 147 Fluid flow through breccias and fractured rock has caused alteration and deposition of secondary actinolite, biotite, albite, diopside, magnetite and ore minerals within the breccia matrices. Zoning of minerals is due to fluid-wall rock interaction and changing chemistry away from the intrusion. A possible mechanism of hydrothermal breccia development is given in the following section. 6.3 Genetic Model of Breccia Development and Alteration Previously the Mount Polley breccias have been described as a cross-cutting feeder pipe in the West Zone and an east-dipping laccolithic structure in the Central Zone, conformable with the regional volcanic strata (Hodgson et al., 1976; Simpson and Saleken, 1990; Gore et al., 1992). A re-interpretation of the breccias is proposed, based on detailed drill core logging on an east-west section line. The hydrothermal breccias at Mount Polley appear to be upwardly flaring, subvertical to vertical bodies cross-cutting wall-rock. Brecciation, alteration, mineralization and mineral zonation at Mount Polley is part of a complex sequence of magmatic and magmatic-hydrothermal events summarized as follows and shown schematically in Figure 6.1. 1. Intrusion of diorite along a pre-existing tectonic weakness at or near a volcanic vent. The plutonic complex of Mount Polley appears to be shallowly emplaced within a thick wedge of volcanic strata including large volumes of breccias interpreted to be proximal to a vent (Bailey and Hodgson, 1979). 2. Intrusion of plagioclase porphyry and formation of intrusion breccia (Stage IA, Figure 6.1). The Polley fault may have provided the conduit for intrusion and brecciation as indicated by the elongation of intrusive units along strike. 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(0 > CD N E 15 CD 0-+ T + CD HU« CO •s o •c o CD CD E C D C H - i J O 3 O o T3 .•sa Hi l l T3 It o o •2.52 o *»> o i i ; e a o Q >>X5 X ) ™ o o - 2 M & > <u 1:1 O f t ™ .2 . o o § frg-g Sri OH O <_» -9 o co /"v O , D.Q3 60 4> .2 P a- > & K co g 00 P - f l n § Jj o , i tg 8,1 Jill i f 111 a o o 150 3. Emplacement of the high-level plagioclase porphyry intrusion is accompanied by heat loss to the surrounding diorite as crystallization proceeds inwards from the outer margin. Anhydrous crystallization (plagioclase and pyroxene) during cooling serves to enrich the residual melt in water and other volatile phases, eventually leading to volatile saturation. This mechanism of concentrating volatiles while a melt undergoes crystallization is called second boiling (Candela, 1989; Norton and Cathles, 1973; Burnham and Ohmoto, 1980; Burnham, 1967). Metals (Cu, Fe and Au) and aqueous chloride species partition into the volatile phase upon separation. During the formation of a volatile-rich carapace in the plagioclase porphyry intrusions, the core of the system undergoes potassic alteration causing pervasive potassium feldspar alteration of diorite and plagioclase porphyry. Expansion and intensity of alteration is interpreted to occur during breccia formation. Interaction of magmatic-hydrothermal water with circulating meteoric fluids peripherally causes a thin outer propylitic alteration assemblage to develop and is characterized by low temperature albite, epidote, pyrite and calcite. Burnham and Ohmoto (1980) predicted that a melt of granodiorite composition having an initial water content of 2.7 wt.% would undergo 50% volume expansion at a depth of 2 kilometres as a result of second boiling. Although Mount Polley rocks have slightly different chemistry and the depth of emplacement is unknown, it is clear that significant amounts of mechanical energy must have been available for fragmentation. Since melts containing <2 wt.% water are too dry to undergo second boiling and those containing » 4 wt.% solidify rapidly at depth, Burnham (1985) suggested that second boiling would take place at intermediate water contents. Based on the previous statements, it is probable that the plagioclase porphyry intrusion initially contained between 2 and 4 wt.% water, consistent with the predominance of pyroxene rather than hornblende. As well, brittle failure of wall rocks is more likely at depths of less than 3 kilometres; at very deep levels, the confining pressure is too great to allow the vesiculation of magma (Burnham, 1985). The abundance of magmatic-hydrothermal breccias at Mount Polley generally supports a shallow level of emplacement for the complex. 151 4. Hydrothermal brecciation is initiated by magma withdrawal, overpressuring of the magma chamber or movement on the Polley fault. Overpressuring of the plagioclase porphyry magma chamber would cause fractures to propagate towards areas of lower pressure. As pressure decreases from lithostatic to hydrostatic, rapid decompression of the melt results in quenching while vesiculation and brecciation is promoted. At this stage, advanced second boiling would lead to a volume increase of the chamber, accommodated by either brittle failure at shallow crustal depths or magma withdrawal from below (Stage IIA, Figure 6.1). The style of hydrothermal brecciation does not suggest vast energy release, but instead formation could be triggered by collapse due to magma withdrawal prior to volatile release. Hence, the morphology and shape of breccia bodies at Mount Polley does not conform to a typical diatreme-pipe. Venting to surface may not have occurred since the plagioclase porphyry pulsations (Kents, 1964) could have provided a low pressure cavity into which wall rock collapse and fragmentation would have taken place, leaving relatively unfragmented cap rocks. This mechanism would account for the majority of clasts being derived from local country rock (diorite) with limited vertical movement and rotation. 5. Release of hydrothermal fluid accompanies brecciation in response to decompression of the plagioclase porphyry chamber. Hydrothermal fluid migrates away from the plagioclase porphyry along microfractures, veins and through vugs created in the permeable breccias. Fluid flow away from the plagioclase porphyry is indicated by potassium feldspar and actinolite-diopside stockworks in diorite wall-rock immediately above the sub-surface roof of the breccia body in the Central Zone. Elements partitioned into the magmatic-hydrotherrnal chloride brine include metal ions (Cu, Fe, Au, S), aqueous species (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and volatiles (CO2, F). Reaction with wall rocks and precipitation of minerals derived from the hydrothermal fluid results in deposition of actinolite and biotite in veins/vugs and the formation of potassium feldspar envelopes (see Section 4.6 for a detailed description). Cooling and changing fluid composition (increasing Ca relative to K activity) distally from plagioclase porphyry has caused mineral zonation in breccias and veins from biotite to actinolite-dominant zones to outer propylitic mineral assemblages (Stage IIB, Figure 6.1). The core of the hydrothermal system represents a higher temperature environment than the periphery and is represented by biotite-actinolite-potassium feldspar alteration. It is 152 likely that during cooling of the hydrothermal system, the potassic alteration zone collapsed inwards allowing a local overprint of propylitic alteration. These regions are indicated by the development of a complex calc-silicate assemblage including andradite garnet, epidote, potassium feldspar, albite, magnetite, sulfides, chlorite, zeolites and calcite. Metals are also outwardly zoned from a high copper-gold core to a low copper-gold margin. Hypogene minerals are represented by magnetite, chalcopyrite, bornite and minor pyrite and are precipitated from the chloride brine. The propylitic alteration zone contains high pyrite and minor amounts of chalcopyrite; metal zonation is probably due to decreasing temperature outwards (see Section 5.4). The development of strong albite breccia is restricted to the West Zone. Albite fills open spaces in vugs as well as overprinting potassium feldspar alteration of diorite clasts. Albite is also present as veins in the propylitic zone. Based on petrography, deposition of albite in the breccia appears to be later than potassium feldspar and is likely due to changing fluid composition (increasing Na activity relative to Ca and K). Sodium-rich alteration has been noted in other porphyry deposits of the alkaline suite, for example the Ajax deposit (Ross, 1993). At Mount Polley and in other alkaline deposits, this alteration is associated with mineralization and there is no evidence to suggest that sodium enrichment resulted from the ingress of non-magmatic fluids as proposed by Einaudi (1993) and Dilles et al. (in press). 6. Following brecciation, alteration and mineralization related to the plagioclase porphyry, a variety of post-mineral intrusions, largely dikes with northerly strike and easterly dip, were emplaced. The eastern portion of the deposit appears to have been down-dropped and reflects a higher structural level than the albite breccia in the West Zone. Finally, Mount Polley has undergone erosion to the present level and minor supergene alteration (Stages IIIA and B, Figure 6.1). 153 In conclusion, the Mount Polley intrusive complex is petrologically diverse, varying from diorite (± pyroxenite) to plagioclase porphyry to potassium feldspar phyric monzonite to late augite porphyry dikes. The plagioclase porphyry intrusion is interpreted to be the mineralizer and is involved in a complex event of brecciation, alteration and mineralization related to volatile saturation, magma withdrawal and faulting during emplacement. 154 C H A P T E R 7 C O N C L U S I O N S The Mount Polley porphyry copper-gold deposit is one of a number of alkaline deposits within Quesnellia. Mount Polley is characterized by multiple intrusions emplaced coevally within Nicola Group volcanic rocks. Volcanic rocks are petrologically diverse, silica-undersaturated and locally feldspathoid-bearing. A single undersaturated pseudoleucite syenite and orbicular syenite (Bootjack Stock) located to the southwest of the deposit is temporally related to the emplacement of Mount Polley rocks, but is compositionally distinct. Intrusions include pre-mineral diorite elongated in a northwesterly direction and a syn-mineral plagioclase porphyry phase that locally constitutes intrusion breccias. Post-mineral dikes and pods dip moderately to the east and strike northerly; each is compositionally distinct and range from augite monzodiorite, potassium feldspar phyric monzonite and augite porphyry. A series of biotite lamprophyre dikes are noted regionally and are unrelated to the evolution of the Polley Stock lithologies. Superimposed upon these lithologies are a wide range of hydrothermal breccias and lesser intrusion breccias. Hydrothermal breccias have been subdivided on the basis of matrix mineralogy. Four types are recognized: actinolite, biotite, magnetite and albite. Breccias are dominantly monolithic, clast-supported and have triangular vugs partially filled with secondary minerals. Biotite and actinolite breccias have a gradational relationship laterally and vertically in the Central Zone. The albite breccia is separated from the actinolite and biotite breccia to the east by the Polley fault, so its timing or relationship to the other breccia types is not well constrained. Alteration is zonal, with the central part of the hydrothermal system represented by intense potassic and sodic alteration followed by an outer propylitic zone. The potassic zone is coincident with hydrothermal and intrusion breccias and is divided into three sub-types: 155 (i) actinolite alteration, elongate in a northerly direction, partly superimposed on actinolite breccia and characterized by abundant actinolite-pyroxene-magnetite-sulfide veins with potassium feldspar envelopes. The mineralogy of the veins is identical to the assemblage present in the hydrothermal breccia open spaces, indicating that veining and hydrothermal brecciation is intimately related and probably deposited synchronously from a similar fluid. (ii) biotite alteration, typified by coarse grained secondary biotite deposited in open spaces in hydrothermal breccia. (iii) potassium feldspar-albite alteration, arcuate around the other potassic alteration facies. Alteration varies from locally intense pervasive potassium feldspar metasomatism of intrusive rocks to intensely developed albitic alteration west of the Polley fault. It is possible that albite alteration is related to a more central part of the hydrothermal system, structurally deeper and at higher temperatures. Surrounding the potassic alteration zone is an intermediate zone characterized by the presence of minor amounts of andraditic garnet, disseminated epidote and variable amounts of chlorite, magnetite, albite, potassium feldspar, calcite, zeolites and sulfides. An outer propylitic zone consists of an albite-epidote-pyrite-calcite-magnetite assemblage. The temporal relationship between these three alteration zones is not well constrained. Potassic alteration may be contemporaneous with the propylitic altered fringe. Metals also show a zonation from core to margin. Central porphyry mineralization consists of fracture-controlled, disseminated and vug-fill chalcopyrite, magnetite and minor amounts of bornite. Gold concentrations correlate well with copper within different zones and lithologies, however, each zone displays different absolute copper-gold ratios. The mineralogy grades outwards into a more pyrite-dominated assemblage. Bornite has an antithetic relationship with pyrite. Metal zonation may reflect a temperature variation across the Mount Polley deposit. 156 Alteration and mineralization is directly related to emplacement of the plagioclase porphyry intrusion. A possible sequence of events representing the evolution of the Mount Polley hydrothermal system and brecciation are as follows: (1) Shallow emplacement of the plagioclase porphyry magma within a diorite host is possibly controlled by a north-northwest trending structure. Assimilation of material is unlikely since locally developed intrusion breccias do not show significant digestion of diorite clasts. (2) Cooling and crystallization of the plagioclase porphyry melt results in exsolution and concentration of volatile and metal-rich fluids in a carapace. (3) Lithologies proximal to the intrusion are potassically altered by fluids having a dominant magmatic component, while propylitic altered material may form by the interaction of magmatic and meteoric waters. 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(1993): Geology of the Ajax East and West Copper-Gold Porphyry Deposits, Kamloops, South-Central British Columbia; Unpublished MSc. thesis, The University of British Columbia, 211 pages. Russell, J.K. and Nicholls, J. (1988): Analysis of Petrologic Hypotheses with Pearce Element Ratios; Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 99, 25 -35. Sillitoe, R.H. (1989): Gold Deposits in Western Pacific Island Arcs: The Magmatic Connection in The Geology of Gold Deposits: The Perspective in 1988 (R.R. Keays, W.R.H. Ramsay and D.I. Groves eds.), Economic Geology, Monograph 6, 274 - 291. Saleken, L.W. and Simpson, R.G. (1984): Cariboo-Quesnel Gold Belt: A Geological Overview; Western Miner, April, 15 - 20. Simpson, R. and Saleken, L.W. (1990): Cariboo-Bell Deposit; GAC-MAC - Canadian Geophysical Union, Joint Annual Meeting, Vol. 1, Trips 1-8, 13-21. Speer, J.A. (1984): Micas in Igneous Rocks in Reviews in Mineralogy (P.H. Ribbe editor), Mineralogical Society of America, Vol. 13, 299 - 356. Stanley, C.R. (1993a): Lithogeochemical Exploration for Metasomatic Zones Associated with Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits; Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU) Annual Technical Report for "Copper-Gold Porphyry Systems of British Columbia", Year 2. 162 Stanley, C R . (1993b): A Thermodynamic Geochemical Model for the Co-precipitation of Gold and Chalcopyrite in Alkalic Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits; Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU) Annual Technical Report for "Copper-Gold Porphyry Systems of British Columbia", Year 2. Stanley, C.R., Thompson, J.F.H. and Fraser, T. (1993): The Mt. Polley Intrusive Complex: A Petrologically Diverse Suite of Alkalic and Undersaturated Igneous Rocks; GAC-MAC, Joint Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, Vol. 18, page A99. Stephen, J . C (1993): Letters to the Editor; Mining Review Fall 1993, page 6. In response to "New Mine on the Horizon", Mining Review, Winter 1992, page 23. Struik, L . C (1986): Imbricated Terranes of the Cariboo Gold Belt with Correlations and Implications for Tectonics in Southeastern British Columbia; Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 23, 1047 -1061. Struik, L . C . (1988): Regional Imbrication within Quesnel Terrane, Central British Columbia, as Suggested by Conodont Ages; Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 25, 1608 - 1617. Sun, S-S. (1982): Chemical Composition and Origin of the Earth's Primitive Mantle; Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 46, 179 - 192. Sutherland Brown, A. (1966): Cariboo-Bell; B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Annual Report 1966, 126- 131. Sutherland Brown, A. (1976): Morphology and Classification; in Porphyry Deposits of the Canadian Cordillera (A. Sutherland Brown editor), Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 15, 44-51. Titley, S.R. and Beane, R.E. (1981): Porphyry Copper Deposits; Economic Geology, 75th Anniversary Volume, 214-269. Thirugnanam, U., Mader, U. and Russell, J.K. (1989): Formula-I, Version 1.5, a data reduction computer program. APPENDIX A G E O C H E M I S T R Y A N A L Y S E S 164 Sample Collection and Geochemical Analyses Geochemical samples from representative Mount Polley and regional volcanic lithologies were collected by the author and C. Stanley respectively. Fresh, petrologically diverse volcanic samples were collected to characterize the chemical affinity of the units and to compare with the Mount Polley rocks. The spatial distribution of samples collected by C. Stanley in 1992 is shown in Figure A. 1. A variety of fresh intrusive units were sampled from Mount Polley, along with a number of least and intensely altered specimens for material transfer study. Locations of samples collected by the author are given in Table A. 1. The following procedure was used to collect and prepare samples: • A suite of unaltered or least altered samples was collected from each major intrusive and volcanic unit. Intrusive rock samples with varying intensities of potassic and actinolitic alteration were collected for evaluation of elemental mobility during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. • Approximately 2 to 4 kilograms of representative material, dependent upon grain size and amount of surface alteration along fractures. • Staining of handsamples with sodium cobalti-nitrate (to show primary (igneous) and secondary potassium feldspar alteration that is associated with fractures and veins) and photography of all slabs to document textures and staining characteristics. • Preparation of polished sections for all samples. • Entire samples were crushed in a jaw crusher, cleaning with a wire brush and compressed air after each sample was processed. • Recovered sample was ground to -200 mesh in a chrome ring mill; equipment was washed with water and compressed air after each sample. • 50 grams of material was sent to X-Ray Assay Laboratories (XRAL) for analysis. • Reminder of crushed sample is archived. 165 Table A . l Location of geochemistry samples collected by T. Fraser. The northing and easting grid adopted from Imperial Metals Corporation Ltd. Sample Number Drill Hole Depth (m) Northing (m) Easting (m) MTP-92-0044 89-128 198 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0045 89-128 194 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0046 89-128 189 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0047 89-104 17 3413.4 1861 MTP-92-0048 89-127 102 3528.3 2194 MTP-92-0049 89-127 147 3528.3 2194 MTP-92-0050 89-125 99 3514.4 2050.2 MTP-92-0051 89-125 92 3514.4 2050.2 MTP-92-0052 88-95 54 3334.5 2508.1 MTP-92-0053 88-84 50 3518.3 2386.2 MTP-92-0054 88-84 111 3518.3 2386.2 MTP-92-0055 88-64 75 3558.2 2090.1 MTP-92-0056 88-64 82 3558.2 2090.1 MTP-92-0057 88-68 79 3903.2 2046 MTP-92-0058 surface 3420 1920 MTP-92-0059 surface 3415 1900 MTP-92-0060 surface 3374 1819.9 MTP-92-0061 89-127 197 3528.3 2194 MTP-92-0062 89-109 84 3599.9 1682.8 MTP-92-0063 89-127 17 3528.3 2194 MTP-92-0064 89-126 116 3521.8 2132.3 MTP-92-0065 89-191 23 3883.6 2145.4 MTP-92-0066 89-128 72 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0067 89-128 22 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0068 88-52 32 3154.6 2049.7 MTP-92-0069 88-51 105 3145.5 2084.4 MTP-92-0070 88-77 36 2801.7 2213.4 MTP-92-0071 89-128 111 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0072 89-128 136 3528.8 2238.5 MTP-92-0073 surface 3558 2072 MTP-92-0074 surface 3559 2078 MTP-92-0075 surface 3558 2085 MTP-92-0076 surface 3890 2620 MTP-92-0077 surface 3880 2630 MTP-92-0078 surface 3885 2625 MTP-92-0079 surface 3890 2635 Abbreviations used in the compilation of geochemistry analyses (Tables A.2 and A.3) are: Headers Sample Units Method D.L. Batch Rock. Alter. Descriptions Sample, indicating Location-Year-Number (i.e. MTP-92-0044) Measurement units Analytical Technique: Wet I N A A XRFP; X R F F DCP Grav Wet Chemistry Induced Neutron Activation Analysis X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (pressed pellet; fused disc) Direct Coupled Plasma Spectrometry Gravimetric Dectection limit determined by X R A L Batch numbers Lithology: DI=diorite AM=augite monzodiorite AD=augite porphyry dike PP=plagioclase porphyry KF=KF phyric monzonite (Unit 7a) KF7b=KF phyric monzonite (Unit 7b) PX=pyroxenite MB=massive basalt HB=hornblende phyric basalt AB=augite phyric basalt AK=augite-KF phyric basalt TR=augite phyric trachyte APK=augite-pseudoleucite-KF phyric breccia F=fresh WA=weakly altered A=altered ( 168 Table A3. Whole rock chemistry of Mount Polley intrusive and volcanic rocks analyzed at X - R A L . Units Method D.L. MTP92-046 MTP92-047 MTP-047 MTP92-059 MTP-059 MTP92-026 MTP92-044 MTP92-045 Rock. AM AM Dup AM Dup KM KM KM Alter. F F F F F F F WA Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Si02 % XRFF 0.01 52.20 48.50 48.90 48.80 48.90 57.30 57.60 57.90 A1203 % XRFF 0.01 17.90 17.90 18.10 18.10 18.20 18.10 18.30 18.10 Ti02 % XRFF 0.01 0.758 0.858 0.858 0.849 0.851 0.526 0.533 0.519 FeO % Wet 0.1 3.2 3.3 - 3.1 - 1.5 1.8 1.8 Fe203 % XRFF 0.01 8.33 10.20 10.30 9.95 10.10 4.66 5.26 5.16 MnO % XRFF 0.01 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.16 0.09 0.09 MgO % XRFF 0.01 3.25 3.92 3.93 3.85 3.88 1.70 1.67 1.62 CaO % XRFF 0.01 7.82 8.06 8.14 8.27 8.39 3.10 4.42 4.69 Na20 % XRFF 0.01 4.01 3.08 3.14 2.93 2.93 4.54 5.14 5.27 K20 % XRFF 0.01 3.43 3.49 3.54 3.66 3.70 6.49 4.91 4.66 P205 % XRFF 0.01 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.24 0.22 0.22 Cr203 ppm % XRFF 0.01 35 17 20 18 22 33 35 39 H20+ Grav 0.1 1.8 2.5 - 2.4 - 1.0 1.0 1.3 H20- % Grav 0.1 0.1 0.2 - 0.2 - 0.2 0.1 0.1 C02 % Grav 0.01 0.06 0.18 - 0.04 - 0.59 0.06 0.13 SUM % Lab 100.5 99.6 100.5 99.7 100.5 98.7 99.7 100.1 LOI % Grav 1.95 2.80 2.85 2.50 2.70 1.50 1.15 1.50 Ba ppm XRFF 20 2270 1760 1760 2130 2170 1860 2410 2670 Ba ppm INAA 100 2500 2000 - 2200 - 1800 2400 2700 Rb ppm INAA 20 50 90 - 80 - 130 100 80 Rb ppm XRFF 2 69 97 89 90 114 145 89 69 Sr ppm INAA 500 900 600 - 1000 - 1200 700 bd Sr ppm XRFF 2 673 515 533 619 628 1270 842 539 Nb ppm XRFP 2 5 6 - 5 - 6 5 8 Nb ppm XRFF 10 11 11 10 20 bd 11 bd 13 Zr ppm XRFF 3 71 55 55 63 70 101 101 112 Y ppm XRFP 2 5 9 - 7 - 12 12 15 Y ppm XRFF 10 11 bd 14 bd bd 11 13 bd As ppm INAA 2 10 18 - 15 - 6 8 7 Au ppb INAA 5 bd 8 - bd - bd bd 39 Ag ppm AcidDCP 0.5 bd bd - bd - 0.5 bd bd Ag ppm INAA 5 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Ni ppm XRFP 2 6 5 - 6 - 4 bd 3 Ni ppm INAA 200 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Cr ppm INAA 2 42 23 - 22 - 28 38 40 V ppm FusDCP 2 219 242 - 275 - 133 113 131 S ppm XRFP 50 bd bd - bd - bd bd 180 Sc ppm INAA 0.1 20.2 25.1 - 24.9 - 6.2 8.6 8.6 Th ppm INAA 0.5 1.2 0.7 - 0.8 - 2.8 2.3 2.3 U ppm INAA 0.5 0.6 0.9 - 0.6 - 1.5 1.2 1.4 Pb ppm XRFP 2 bd bd - 6 - 7 bd 2 Hf ppm INAA 0.5 2.0 1.6 - 2.1 - 2.8 3.0 2.4 Cl ppm XRFP 50 258 256 - 351 - 129 173 179 Co ppm INAA 1 24 28 - 28 - 12 12 13 F ppm Wet 20 629 817 - 588 - 214 479 350 Br ppm INAA 1 2 3 - 3 - 3 2 2 Zn ppm XRFP 2 51 61 - 65 - 90 47 44 Zn ppm INAA 40 40 60 - 60 - 90 bd bd Na ppm INAA 100 30000 23000 - 21000 - 32000 36000 37000 Ca % INAA 0.5 5.4 5.7 - 5.1 - 2.5 3.1 2.8 Cu ppm XRFP 2 73 199 - 173 - 219 42 104 Fe % INAA 0.05 5.60 6.68 - 6.48 - 3.08 3.48 3.49 Mo ppm XRFP 2 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Mo ppm INAA 5 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Cs ppm INAA 1 2 2 - 2 - 2 2 bd La ppm INAA 0.5 8.1 7.7 - 7.0 - 15.0 11.7 11.3 Ce ppm INAA 3 18 19 - 16 - 30 26 27 Nd ppm INAA 5 10 10 - 9 - 16 13 14 Sm ppm INAA 0.1 2.3 2.3 - 2.3 - 3.2 2.9 3.5 Eu ppm INAA 0.2 0.9 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.7 0.8 0.7 Tb ppm INAA 0.5 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Yb ppm INAA 0.2 2.0 2.0 - 1.8 - 2.2 2.4 3.0 Lu ppm INAA 0.05 0.36 0.29 - 0.27 - 0.35 0.36 0.47 Ta ppm INAA 1 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Se ppm INAA 3 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd Sb ppm INAA 0.2 0.5 0.6 - 0.6 - 0.4 0.5 0.4 W ppm INAA 3 7 5 - 5 - 3 9 7 Ir ppm INAA 20 bd bd - bd - bd bd bd 169 Table A.2 (continued) MTP92-046 MTP92-047 MTP-047 MTP92-059 MTP-059 MTP92-026 MTP92-044 MTP92-0 Rock. AM AM Dup AM Dup KM KM KM Alter. F F F F F F F WA Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - - - - - -Cor - - - - - - - -Or 20.27 20.63 20.92 21.63 21.87 38.36 29.02 27.54 Ab 32.3 25.42 26.57 23.87 24.79 38.41 43.08 44.59 An 20.72 24.71 24.84 25.43 25.59 9.85 12.37 11.97 Lc - . - - - - . Ne 0.88 0.35 - 0.5 - - 0.22 -Di 12.3 9.43 8.72 10.37 9.21 0.18 6.03 7.03 Hy - - - - - 1.52 - 0.34 Ol 1.67 3.78 4.03 3.35 3.78 1.84 0.96 0.3 Mg 8.64 8.7 - 8.15 - 3.83 4.55 4.59 Hm 2.37 4.2 10.3 4.33 10.1 2.02 2.12 1.99 II 1.44 1.63 0.36 1.61 0.43 1 1.01 0.99 Ap 0.69 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.57 0.52 0.52 Ca 0.14 0.41 - 0.09 - 1.34 0.14 0.3 Total 101.42 99.98 97.61 100.07 97.56 98.92 100.01 100.17 Table A J (continued) Units MTP92-051 MTP92-055 MTP-055 MTP92-056 MTP92-061 MTP92-073 MTP92-074 MTP92-075 MTP93-0 Rock. KM KM Dup KM KM KM KM KM KM 7b Alter. F F F F F F A WA WA Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Si02 * 57.70 60.00 60.00 59.76 59.16 66.36 61.70 62.46 52.7 A1203 % 18.30 18.30 18.30 18.20 18.30 17.90 17.60 17.30 18 Ti02 % 0.515 0.466 0.471 0.446 6.488 6.455 0.428 6.399 0.671 FeO % 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 2.2 Fe203 % 4.84 4.43 4.37 4.61 4.71 3.96 3.53 3.50 8.25 MnO % 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.10 6.16 0.07 0.08 0.29 MgO % 1.63 1.27 1.26 1.32 1.47 1.23 1.15 1.04 2.3 CaO % 5.29 3.40 3.38 3.44 4.65 3.64 2.25 2.16 5.04 Na20 % 5.20 5.91 5.93 5.89 5.25 5.39 6.15 5.69 3.04 K20 % 4.93 5.27 5.26 5.09 4.67 5.28 5.89 5.75 6.04 P205 % 0.22 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.20 0.16 0.14 0.13 0.34 Cr203 ppm 33 34 28 40 48 50 32 60 -H20+ % 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.4 2.1 H20- % 0.1 0.1 bd 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 C02 % 0.12 0.19 0.17 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.24 0.08 0.02 SUM % 100.3 100.6 100.5 100.2 100.4 99.7 100.3 100.1 99.2 LOI % 1.25 0.95 0.90 0.90 1.05 0.90 1.05 0.80 2.1 Ba ppm 2210 2550 2500 2630 2740 2600 2350 2190 2410 Ba ppm 2300 2500 2700 2500 2900 2700 2400 2200 3200 Rb ppm 60 50 100 60 100 no 70 120 160 Rb ppm 78 94 84 91 89 102 104 122 141 Sr ppm bd bd bd bd 800 900 bd bd 1100 Sr ppm 611 522 532 526 794 716 345 549 778 Nb ppm 6 7 7 8 7 8 7 7 4 Nb ppm bd 13 bd bd bd bd 11 14 12 Zr ppm 76 108 107 88 101 115 129 139 58 Y ppm 3 3 7 4 7 4 8 9 35 Y ppm bd 10 17 21 bd 24 bd bd 18 As ppm 11 8 8 6 4 8 7 6 35 Au ppb 17 26 71 41 21 bd bd bd bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ni ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ni ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Cr ppm 38 30 38 40 46 50 34 56 30 V ppm 135 107 118 116 83 112 101 96 193 S ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Sc ppm 8.5 6.4 6.9 6.4 7.5 6.3 5.3 4.9 11.2 Th ppm 1.5 1.9 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.2 3.3 3.0 1.4 U ppm 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.7 2.1 Pb ppm 3 3 bd bd 3 bd bd 4 4 Hf ppm 2.0 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.6 3.4 3.9 1.8 CI ppm 114 118 109 104 162 126 64 65 154 Co ppm 11 9 10 10 10 9 8 7 21 F ppm 210 391 296 450 456 340 225 324 661 Br ppm 2 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 3 Zn ppm 60 45 43 45 45 46 55 60 142 Zn ppm bd 40 40 bd 46 bd 50 60 220 Na ppm 38000 40000 42000 40000 36000 37000 43000 38000 24000 Ca % 4.0 2.7 2.9 1.8 2.3 2.2 1.5 1.5 3.3 Cu ppm 73 113 114 139 67 32 86 40 -2 Fe % 3.35 2.83 2.98 2.88 3.09 2.67 2.37 2.29 5.59 Mo ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Mo ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Cs ppm 1 1 bd 1 1 1 1 1 1 La ppm 10.6 10.5 11.4 10.4 10.6 10.9 10.2 11.2 16.5 Ce ppm 23 21 23 22 22 23 20 22 33 Nd ppm 11 10 11 10 10 10 9 10 15 Sm ppm 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.0 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.8 3.4 Eu ppm 1.1 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.6 1.3 Tb ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Yb ppm 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.4 Lu ppm 0.28 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.39 Ta ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Se ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Sb ppm 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 1.5 W ppm bd 3 bd 4 3 5 bd 4 bd Ir ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd 171 Table A J (continued) MTP92-051 MTP92-055 MTP-055 MTP92-056 MTP92-061 MTP92-073 MTP92-074 MTP92-075 MTP93-076 Rock. KM KM Dup KM KM KM KM KM KM 7b Alter. F F F F F F A WA WA Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - - 1.2 1.4 - 3.21 Cor - - - - - - . -Or 29.14 31.15 31.09 30.08 27.6 31.21 34.81 33.99 35.7 Ab 40.42 47.7 47.71 47.83 44.42 45.6 50.66 48.14 25.72 An 12.04 7.85 7.79 8.19 12.58 9.06 3.03 4.69 17.63 Lc - - - - - . • Ne 1.94 1.25 1.34 1.08 • 0.74 . Di 8.76 5.22 5.29 5.65 6.71 5.75 4.44 3.64 3.91 Hy - - - - 0.55 0.4 . 0.9 3.14 Ol - 0.52 0.48 0.47 - - 0.56 . 0.55 Mg 3.67 3.42 3.41 4.16 4.07 2.87 2.21 2.33 6.09 Hm 2.31 2.07 2.02 1.74 1.9 1.98 2.01 1.89 4.05 11 0.98 0.88 0.89 0.85 0.93 0.86 0.81 0.76 1.27 Ap 0.52 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.47 0.38 0.33 0.31 0.81 Ca 0.27 0.43 0.39 0.18 0.2 0.2 0.55 0.18 0.05 Total 100.36 100.89 100.8 100.64 100.64 99.71 100.16 100.04 98.91 172 Table A.2 (continued) Units MTP93-077 MTP93-078 MTP93-079 MTP92-048 MTP-048 MTP92-052 MTP-052 MTP92-058 MTP92-060 Rock. KM 7b KM 7b KM 7b PP Dup PP Dup PP PP Alter. A A WA F F WA WA F WA Batch 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 Si02 % 52.6 52.6 58.7 57.96 - 59.50 - 59.10 58.26 A1203 % 18.3 18 18.9 18.50 - 18.80 - 17.30 15.80 Ti02 % 0.682 0.672 0.336 0.648 - 0.464 - 0.530 0.447 FeO % 2.2 2.1 1 2.3 2.3 1.5 - 1.6 1.8 Fe203 % 8.62 7.76 4.27 5.82 - 4.27 - 5.57 6.12 MnO % 0.27 0.29 0.17 0.07 - 0.05 - 0.09 0.25 MgO % 2.27 2.3 0.91 2.10 - 1.06 - 1.77 2.77 CaO % 4.62 5.89 2.53 3.08 - 2.97 - 3.98 4.37 Na20 % 2.8 3.2 4.63 5.03 - 5.54 - 5.71 5.38 K20 % 6.35 5.48 6.63 4.33 - 6.09 - 4.25 4.60 P205 % 0.35 0.35 0.11 0.27 - 0.16 - 0.19 0.20 Cr203 ppm - - - 44 - 37 - 45 102 H20+ % 2 1.9 1.2 1.8 1.7 0.8 - 0.9 0.8 H20- % 3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 - 0.2 0.2 C02 % 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.07 0.44 - 0.03 0.63 SUM % 99.7 99.2 99.1 100.2 - 100.4 - 99.9 99.3 LOI % 2.5 2.25 1.55 2.05 - 1.20 - 1.00 0.80 Ba ppm 2410 2030 1710 2280 _ 2120 _ 2660 2140 Ba ppm 3000 2500 2200 2100 2100 2200 . - 2900 2400 Rb ppm 170 130 190 80 100 80 - 90 80 Rb ppm 165 120 159 97 - 94 - 90 88 Sr ppm 1100 1100 1600 1500 1300 bd - bd bd Sr ppm 721 851 1250 1270 - 677 - 798 450 Nb ppm 6 4 6 7 - 7 8 6 6 Nb ppm 18 17 17 bd - bd - bd 12 Zr ppm 58 52 73 104 - 83 - 93 65 Y ppm 34 30 30 11 - 8 6 4 3 Y ppm 20 29 10 bd - 14 - bd 13 As ppm 32 39 37 10 11 7 - 8 16 Au ppb 14 bd 130 33 27 55 - 12 54 Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Ni ppm 2 4 bd bd - bd bd 4 14 Ni ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Cr ppm 26 45 43 37 36 37 - 46 110 V ppm 197 194 114 130 115 134 - 109 101 S ppm bd bd bd 418 - 163 140 bd bd Sc ppm 11.6 11 2.6 10.4 10.5 4.8 - 9.0 14.0 Th ppm 2 1.4 3 1.7 1.9 2.1 - 1.3 1.1 U ppm 2.9 2.2 2.8 1.8 1.9 1.0 - 0.5 1.0 Pb ppm bd 10 10 bd - bd bd 7 5 Hf ppm 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.6 - 2.8 1.9 Cl ppm 127 114 62 394 - 143 133 171 132 Co ppm 22 20 11 14 15 9 - 11 15 F ppm 826 699 276 1030 1000 250 - 573 246 Br ppm 3 3 3 3 2 2 - 3 2 Zn ppm 94 142 101 52 - 50 50 61 84 Zn ppm 80 160 110 60 60 60 - 40 90 Na ppm 23000 25000 36000 33000 34000 40000 - 41000 40000 Ca % 3.5 4.2 2.7 1.7 2.2 2.5 - 2.4 3.4 Cu ppm 109 43 1320 493 - 262 263 148 207 Fe % 6 5.2 2.96 3.60 3.68 2.86 - 3.87 4.32 Mo ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Mo ppm bd bd 12 bd 6 bd - bd bd Cs ppm 1 1 1 1 2 bd - 1 1 La ppm 19 16.7 15.2 9.8 9.8 12.7 - 8.2 8.3 Ce ppm 38 34 30 21 21 27 - 19 19 Nd ppm 17 16 13 11 12 13 - 9 9 Sm ppm 3.8 3.3 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.5 - 2.1 2.0 Eu ppm 0.8 0.6 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.0 - 1.0 0.9 Tb ppm 0.6 0.5 bd bd bd bd - bd bd Yb ppm 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.0 - 1.8 1.8 Lu ppm 0.42 0.4 0.37 0.33 0.36 0.30 - 0.29 0.30 Ta ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Se ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Sb ppm 0.9 2.1 1.9 0.5 0.5 0.3 - 0.7 6.5 W ppm bd bd 4 3 3 3 - 3 6 Ir ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd 173 Table A.2 (continued) MTP93-077 MTP93-078 MTP93-079 MTP92-048 MTP-048 MTP92-052 MTP-052 MTP92-058 MTP92-O60 Rock. KM 7b KM 7b KM 7b PP Dup PP Dup PP PP Alter. A A WA F F WA WA F WA Batch 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 Normative Mineralogy Qz 0.24 - 0.08 3.32 - - - 1.08 -Cor - - - 0.77 - - - - -Or 37.53 32.39 39.19 25.59 - 35.99 - 25.12 27.19 Ab 23.69 27.07 39.17 42.56 - 44.1 - 48.31 45.52 An 18.61 18.57 11.21 13.01 - 8.45 - 9.03 5.38 Lc • - . - -Ne • - 1.5 -Di 1.23 6.27 0.39 - - 1.91 - 7.23 11.52 Hy 5.08 2.23 2.09 5.23 - - - 1.06 0.38 Ol - 0.42 - - - 1.23 - • 0.82 Mg 5.99 5.76 2.8 5.76 3.65 - 3.91 5.32 Hm 4.49 3.78 2.34 1.85 - 1.75 - 2.87 2.45 11 1.29 1.28 0.64 1.23 - 0.88 1.01 0.85 Ap 0.83 0.83 0.26 0.64 - 0.38 - 0.45 0.47 Ca 0.16 0.11 0.05 0.18 - 1 - 0.07 0.07 Total 99.15 98.71 98.21 100.14 - 100.85 - 100.13 99.98 Table A3. (continued) Units MTP-060 MTP92-068 MTP92-069 MTP92-070 MTP-070 MTP92-071 MTP-071 MTP92-072 MTP-07 Rock. Dup PP PP PP Dup PP Dup PP Dup Alter. WA A WA WA WA A A A A Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Si02 * 58.50 61.00 59.86 55.66 55.16 62.90 62.40 60.60 -A1203 % 15.90 18.40 17.50 18.30 18.50 16.90 16.90 17.40 -Ti02 % 0.445 0.393 0.515 0.683 0.679 0.379 0.384 0.388 -FeO % 1.8 0.8 2.0 2.2 2.1 1.1 . 1.4 Fe203 % 6.11 3.74 4.04 6.37 6.51 2.44 2.44 3.38 -MnO % 0.25 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.07 -MgO % 2.79 0.95 1.54 1.70 1.74 1.50 1.48 1.50 -CaO % 4.39 2.14 4.35 3.59 3.63 3.09 3.10 3.64 Na20 % 5.40 6.31 6.23 3.40 3.39 5.28 5.31 5.81 _ K20 % 4.60 5.50 4.15 7.27 7.33 5.95 5.97 5.15 _ P205 % 0.20 0.12 0.18 0.26 0.27 0.16 0.16 0.17 Cr203 ppm 101 34 43 31 23 80 73 60 -H20+ % 0.8 0.8 0.7 1.6 1.6 0.6 - 0.9 -H20- % 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 - 0.1 -C02 % 0.02 0.05 0.20 0.57 0.55 0.43 - 0.40 -SUM % 99.9 100.2 99.7 99.2 100.0 100.1 99.7 99.8 _ LOI % 1.00 1.20 1.00 2.20 2.35 1.10 1.20 1.40 -Ba ppm 2180 2180 1540 1790 1810 2100 2010 2210 _ Ba ppm 2400 2200 1700 1900 2100 2000 - 2100 2300 Rb ppm 90 60 70 150 150 90 - 70 100 Rb ppm 89 99 67 137 135 96 92 81 -Sr ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Sr ppm 448 445 607 742 743 556 556 561 -Nb ppm 6 6 6 6 7 6 - 6 Nb ppm bd bd 10 11 18 16 bd bd -Zr ppm 88 130 100 94 99 82 80 82 -Y ppm 5 7 8 13 19 7 - 2 -Y ppm 16 bd 23 15 10 17 13 bd _ As ppm 17 12 8 15 16 7 - 5 7 Au ppb 8 140 150 13 11 67 - 130 83 Ag ppm 0.5 bd bd bd bd bd - bd -Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Ni ppm 17 bd 3 bd 2 bd - bd -Ni ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Cr ppm 100 35 42 27 26 68 59 64 V ppm 119 60 82 141 156 165 - 133 S ppm bd bd 1220 bd bd 308 - 785 -Sc ppm 13.8 4.0 7.7 8.8 9.5 7.8 - 7.2 7.7 Th ppm 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.6 - 1.4 1.3 U ppm 0.6 1.5 1.2 1.4 2.0 0.7 - -0.5 1.1 Pb ppm 2 bd bd bd bd 4 - 2 _ Hf ppm 2.4 3.3 2.7 2.3 2.2 1.9 - 2.7 3.0 CI ppm 130 85 108 167 189 136 127 _ Co ppm 14 7 10 13 14 6 - 8 8 F ppm 195 198 178 601 543 241 - 275 _ Br ppm 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 Zn ppm 86 71 64 56 54 45 - 45 _ Zn ppm 100 70 50 40 80 60 - 40 bd Na ppm 39000 43000 45000 24000 26000 36000 - 38000 40000 Ca % 3.4 1.9 3.3 1.8 2.8 1.3 - 1.8 2.0 Cu ppm 209 915 1230 152 152 312 655 _ Fe % 4.20 2.46 2.77 4.13 4.42 1.53 2.12 2.24 Mo ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - 11 _ Mo ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - 15 16 Cs ppm 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 bd La ppm 8.2 7.7 10.0 13.4 13.8 6.4 - 6.9 7.5 Ce ppm 18 17 23 29 30 15 - 14 16 Nd ppm 9 9 11 14 16 8 - 8 8 Sm ppm 2.1 2.2 2.4 3.2 3.5 2.1 - 1.7 1.9 Eu ppm 0.7 1.0 0.7 1.2 1.3 0.6 - 0.5 0.6 Tb ppm bd bd bd 0.5 0.6 bd - bd bd Yb ppm 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.0 1.5 1.7 Lu ppm 0.28 0.37 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.32 - 0.27 0.28 Ta ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd _ bd bd Se ppm bd bd bd bd bd ' bd bd bd Sb ppm 0.4 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.6 - 0.5 0.6 W ppm bd 9 6 5 bd 5 - 3 5 Ir ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd - bd bd Table A.2 (continued) MTP-060 MTP92-068 MTP92-069 MTP92-070 MTP-070 MTP92-071 MTP-071 MTP92-072 MTP-072 Rock. Dup PP PP PP Dup PP Dup PP Dup Alter. WA A WA WA WA A A A A Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - - - 3.63 2.36 0.41 -Cor - - - 0.25 0.31 . -Or 27.19 32.51 24.53 42.97 43.32 35.17 35.29 30.44 Ab 45.69 50.87 51.89 28.77 28.68 44.67 44.93 49.16 -An 5.57 5.64 7.54 12.51 12.77 4.84 4.65 6.19 -Lc • . . . Ne 1.37 0.45 • - -Di 11.51 3.01 8.27 5.23 6.68 6.4 -Hy 0.71 - - 2.42 2.04 1.31 0.59 0.77 -Ol 0.64 0.68 - 1.27 1.61 . -Mg 5.32 1.67 5.25 5.44 5.13 2.67 - 3.62 -Hm 2.44 2.59 0.42 2.62 2.97 0.59 2.44 0.89 -11 0.84 0.75 0.98 1.3 1.29 0.72 0.13 0.74 Ap 0.47 0.28 0.43 0.62 0.64 0.38 0.38 0.4 -Ca 0.05 0.11 0.45 1.3 1.25 0.98 . 0.91 -Total 100.42 99.48 100.6 99.46 100.01 100.21 98.21 99.92 -176 Table A J (continued) Units MTP92-024 MTP-024 MTP92-025 MTP92-027 MTP92-029 MTP92-030 MTP-030 MTP92-033 MTP92-053 Rock. DI Dup DI DI DI DI Dup DI DI Alter. F F F F F F F F WA Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Si02 * 48.76 48.80 56.26 56.56 47.76 47.96 48.16 48.46 50.36 A1203 % 18.26 18.40 16.80 17.90 13.70 15.40 15.66 17.96 17.26 Ti02 % 0.728 0.726 6.818 6.819 0.583 6.541 6.542 6.826 6.833 FeO % 2.7 2.8 2.6 3.0 3.8 3.3 3.3 4.4 4.1 Fe203 % 8.64 8.56 8.26 8.08 10.80 9.71 9.73 16.76 9.81 MnO % 0.24 0.24 6.17 0.24 0.21 6.23 6.23 0.20 0.14 MgO % 3.29 3.24 3.18 2.80 5.82 4.66 4.66 4.34 3.69 CaO % 9.64 9.73 8.12 6.87 9.98 8.84 8.88 10.10 7.16 Na20 % 2.67 2.70 3.93 4.02 2.34 2.13 2.19 2.96 3.49 K20 % 4.26 4.32 3.81 3.67 4.99 5.92 6.04 2.67 3.79 P205 % 0.48 0.49 0.29 0.44 0.48 0.56 0.56 0.33 0.43 Cr203 ppm 23 20 33 20 96 75 48 40 35 H20+ % 2.3 2.2 2.4 1.9 1.6 2.2 2.1 1.3 2.0 H20- % 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 C02 % 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.46 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.13 SUM % 99.9 100.4 98.5 98.2 98.5 98.6 99.4 100.3 99.5 LOI % 2.70 2.85 2.65 2.50 1.55 2.30 2.45 1.15 2.35 Ba ppm 1540 1520 1680 1640 1440 1540 1540 1200 1880 Ba ppm 1700 1600 1900 1600 1600 1600 1800 1300 2100 Rb ppm 100 70 80 60 90 110 110 30 90 Rb ppm 96 95 78 59 93 94 93 68 82 Sr ppm 1300 1200 bd 1700 1800 2600 2600 bd 1300 Sr ppm 1150 1180 784 1540 1590 2460 2460 620 901 Nb ppm 7 5 9 8 6 7 6 6 5 Nb ppm bd 11 bd bd bd bd 17 11 bd Zr ppm 65 48 88 57 26 19 19 52 56 Y ppm 6 5 9 12 2 bd bd 2 8 Y ppm 16 14 14 19 16 17 bd 15 12 As ppm 8 8 7 7 3 4 4 2 8 Au ppb 20 26 54 bd bd bd bd bd 340 Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ni ppm 3 4 3 3 29 15 17 7 6 Ni ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Cr ppm 25 24 42 21 100 54 64 39 39 V ppm 284 265 175 230 240 194 223 282 271 S ppm 290 335 bd 255 303 199 148 bd 3350 Sc ppm 12.5 12.5 19.5 13.8 25.5 16.9 19.5 25.6 22.0 Th ppm 2.0 1.7 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.7 0.8 1.6 U ppm 1.5 1.6 6.7 1.2 0.9 0.7 1.0 6.9 1.0 Pb ppm 11 10 4 5 bd 9 6 2 8 Hf ppm 1.6 1.8 2.1 , 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.9 Cl ppm 165 171 779 156 346 383 406 177 347 Co ppm 23 22 21 18 38 36 34 31 28 F ppm 859 867 485 913 552 655 665 264 956 Br ppm 3 4 7 2 5 3 3 3 3 Zn ppm 110 113 81 84 84 90 94 86 63 Zn ppm 160 150 90 50 100 80 130 76 40 Na ppm 19000 19000 29000 27000 18666 15000 18000 22000 27666 Ca % 7.0 6.4 5.8 4.3 7.2 5.0 5.3 6.5 4.9 Cu ppm 258 266 51 44 122 115 117 88 795 Fe % 5.46 5.33 5.53 4.89 7.14 5.77 6.63 6.92 6.79 Mo ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Mo ppm 8 bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Cs ppm 10 10 6 5 2 1 1 2 1 La ppm 14.6 14.5 7.6 12.2 9.3 10.4 12.2 7.2 12.5 Ce ppm 30 28 20 27 19 20 25 17 27 Nd ppm 15 13 10 14 10 10 13 10 14 Sm ppm 3.6 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.4 3.2 Eu ppm 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.1 Tb ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd 0.5 Yb ppm 1.9 1.8 2.2 1.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 2.0 2.1 Lu ppm 0.33 0.29 0.37 6.31 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.28 0.32 Ta ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Se ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Sb ppm 1.4 1.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 6.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 W ppm 5 4 9 3 6 4 3 6 bd Ir ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Table A 2 (continued) MTP92-024 MTP-024 MTP92-025 MTP92-027 MTP92-029 MTP92-030 MTP-030 MTP92-033 MTP92-Rock. DI Dup DI DI DI DI Dup DI DI Alter. F F F F F F F F WA Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - - - - - - -Cor - - - - - - - - -Or 25.18 25.53 22.52 21.69 29.49 34.99 35.7 15.78 22.4 Ab 16.66 15.96 25.01 33.27 7.53 6.72 5.73 24.49 29.53 An 25.1 25.33 16.95 19.96 12.14 14.98 14.9 27.67 20.08 Lc - - - - - - - - -Ne 3.21 3.73 4.47 0.4 6.65 6.12 6.93 0.3 Di 15.1 15.27 16.44 6.49 26.5 19.54 19.8 15.69 9.2 Hy . - - - - - - - 0.81 Ol 0.83 0.69 0.21 2.78 1.55 1.68 1.6 2.48 2.88 Mg 7.37 7.7 6.56 8.08 11.24 9.82 9.81 12.45 11.25 Hm 3.55 3.25 3.73 2.51 3.05 2.94 2.96 2.11 2.05 11 1.38 1.38 1.55 1.55 1.11 1.03 1.03 1.56 1.58 Ap 1.14 1.16 0.69 1.04 1.14 1.33 1.33 0.78 1.02 Ca 0.07 0.05 0.11 1.05 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.3 Total 99.6 100.05 98.24 98.82 100.46 99.18 99.81 103.36 101.1 Table A.2 (continued) Units MTP92-054 MTP92-057 MTP92-062 MTP92-066 MTP-066 MTP92-067 MTP92-050 MTP92-028 MTP92-0 Rock. DI DI DI DI Dup DI PX MB MB Alter. F F WA A A A F F F Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Si02 * 50.60 56.46 49.56 55.60 - 54.06 42.40 47.56 49.90 A1203 % 17.20 17.50 17.66 17.40 - 17.10 9.53 17.90 18.10 Ti02 % 0.847 0.861 0.867 0.775 - 0.778 1.300 1.020 0.752 FeO % 3.9 4.8 4.7 3.1 - 3.1 6.6 3.2 4.2 Fe203 % 9.44 10.30 10.70 7.36 - 8.07 19.80 8.70 9.57 MnO % 0.15 0.23 0.22 0.10 - 0.13 0.31 0.23 0.21 MgO % 3.76 3.82 3.97 2.73 - 3.21 8.73 3.90 3.95 CaO % 7.58 9.33 9.10 4.05 - 7.01 12.90 4.43 8.63 Na20 % 3.37 3.30 3.17 4.57 - 4.37 1.62 6.70 3.21 K20 % 3.86 3.17 3.24 4.97 - 3.50 0.98 2.46 3.04 P205 % 0.43 0.46 0.44 0.34 - 0.31 0.36 0.54 0.33 Cr203 ppm 35 26 34 50 - 63 166 27 23 H20+ % 1.7 1.0 1.0 1.3 - 1.4 1.8 5.6 2.1 H20- % 0.1 bd bd 0.1 - 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 C02 % 0.15 0.04 0.04 0.11 - 0.16 0.06 0.21 0.17 SUM % 99.7 100.5 99.4 99.8 _ 100.6 99.8 99.4 100.1 LOI % 2.05 0.70 0.85 1.55 - 1.80 1.70 5.85 2.10 Ba ppm 1940 2410 2120 1680 1470 587 659 1430 Ba ppm 2100 2500 2500 1700 - 1500 600 700 1500 Rb ppm 70 60 60 80 - 90 20 50 50 Rb ppm 92 42 56 104 - 75 48 58 80 Sr ppm 1300 900 1000 bd - 1300 bd bd bd Sr ppm 1150 868 880 733 - 801 349 272 655 Nb ppm 4 4 5 5 6 7 4 13 6 Nb ppm 18 bd 16 bd - bd 20 14 10 Zr ppm 50 70 72 80 - 82 42 107 51 Y ppm 9 10 10 9 10 9 2 8 7 Y ppm 18 19 16 20 - 29 bd bd 14 As ppm 7 3 4 11 - 6 8 2 6 Au ppb 86 bd 11 64 - 60 36 bd bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Ni ppm 6 2 5 4 - 7 30 4 3 Ni ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Cr ppm 42 34 43 36 - 44 150 10 22 V ppm 243 251 218 192 - 189 620 216 257 S ppm 2350 bd bd 879 963 407 bd bd bd Sc ppm 22.4 26.3 31.2 15.6 - 16.5 63.9 9.8 19.3 Th ppm 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.4 - 1.1 0.7 1.9 1.1 U ppm 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.7 - 1.0 0.5 1.1 0.6 Pb ppm bd 9 6 bd bd bd bd 6 5 Hf ppm 1.6 1.6 2.2 2.1 - 2.1 1.6 1.9 1.2 CI ppm 400 613 449 293 296 337 336 60 270 Co ppm 26 27 31 18 - 20 55 25 25 F ppm 980 692 721 846 - 681 1130 697 214 Br ppm 3 2 3 2 - 3 2 1 3 Zn ppm 66 86 93 46 48 51 113 82 82 Zn ppm 80 90 110 bd - 50 130 90 60 Na ppm 25000 23000 26066 33000 - 31000 13000 47000 23000 Ca % 5.2 6.1 6.9 2.6 - 4.8 8.5 3.6 5.0 Cu ppm 422 126 166 882 898 556 307 106 84 Fe % 6.37 6.50 7.51 4.76 - 5.23 12.50 5.52 6.02 Mo ppm bd bd bd 16 16 2 bd bd bd Mo ppm bd bd bd 24 - bd bd bd bd Cs ppm 2 1 2 3 - 3 3 5 1 La ppm 11.5 9.8 11.3 11.3 - 11.3 6.9 15.5 7.0 Ce ppm 26 21 26 23 - 24 17 32 17 Nd ppm 13 14 14 12 - 12 9 15 9 Sm ppm 2.9 3.2 3.6 2.7 - 2.7 2.4 3.4 2.3 Eu ppm 0.9 1.6 1.3 0.7 - 1.1 0.8 1.5 0.9 Tb ppm 0.5 0.5 0.7 bd - bd bd bd bd Yb ppm 2.0 2.3 2.6 1.9 - 2.3 1.6 1.7 1.7 Lu ppm 0.32 0.37 0.39 0.32 - 0.34 0.25 6.36 0.32 Ta ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Se ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Sb ppm 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 - 0.4 0.8 bd 1.7 W ppm 3 6 3 6 - bd bd 4 5 Ir ppm bd bd bd bd - bd bd bd bd Table A.2 (continued) ' MTP92-054 MTP92-057 MTP92-062 MTP92-066 MTP-066 MTP92-067 MTP92-050 MTP92-028 MTP92-032 Rock. DI DI DI DI Dup DI PX MB MB Alter. F F WA A A A F F F Batch 2 2 2 2 2 2 _ 2 2 2 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - -Cor - - - -Or 22.81 18.74 19.15 29.38 Ab 28.51 27.35 26.05 38.67 An 20.41 23.58 22.59 12.29 Lc . -Ne - 0.31 0.42 . Di 10.46 15.14 15.12 3.8 Hy 0.84 - - 3.57 Ol 2.58 1.75 2.02 1.03 Mg 10.6 13.72 13.35 8.07 Hm 2.13 0.83 1.49 1.79 II 1.61 1.63 1.65 1.47 Ap 1.02 1.09 1.04 0.81 Ca 0.34 0.09 0.09 0.25 Total 101.31 104.23 102.97 101.12 * * _ 20.69 5.79 14.54 17.97 - 36.97 13.71 33.6 27.16 16.71 15.84 11.51 26.01 _ . _ 12.51 _ - 11.7 35.36 4.37 10.57 - 2.35 3.87 - 3.39 - 0.15 1.03 5.39 1.08 - 8.16 18.51 8.11 12.04 - 2.44 7.03 3.11 1.26 - 1.48 2.47 1.94 1.43 - 0.73 0.85 1.28 0.78 - 0.36 0.14 0.48 0.39 - 101.75 104.61 96.82 102.08 Table A.2 (continued) Units MTP92-036 MTP-036 MTP92-002 MTP92-O04 MTP-O04 MTP92-O07 MTP92-O08 MTP92-009 MTP92-0 Rock. HB Dup AB AB Dup AB AB AB AB Alter. F F F F F F F F F Batch 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Si02 * 46.46 - 43.30 47.40 - 47.60 44.76 47.26 47.16 A1203 % 13.60 - 15.10 15.60 - 12.10 11.50 12.96 13.46 Ti02 % 0.776 - 0.805 0.722 - 0.601 0.579 6.633 6.863 FeO % 4.7 4.7 0.8 3.5 3.5 4.9 3.3 4.7 5.2 Fe203 % 11.20 - 9.82 10.90 - 10.40 9.91 10.60 13.60 MnO % 0.19 - 0.21 0.20 - 0.18 0.17 0.20 0.20 MgO % 7.43 - 3.27 4.68 - 8.25 5.84 8.66 6.98 CaO % 10.90 - 9.27 9.34 - 11.30 15.10 9.87 11.30 Na20 % 3.49 - 3.51 3.60 - 2.33 1.88 1.65 2.97 K20 % 1.78 - 5.16 3.38 2.70 3.85 3.67 2.11 P205 % 0.56 - 0.55 0.61 - 0.32 0.32 0.35 0.51 Cr203 ppm 130 - 26 43 - 318 299 311 121 H20+ % 2.0 2.0 3.4 2.5 2.6 2.2 1.3 2.5 1.3 H20- % 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 bd C02 % 1.59 1.62 5.02 1.20 1.13 1.48 5.14 0.96 0.06 SUM % 99.9 100.0 100.3 98.7 100.3 99.3 100.3 LOI % 3.40 - 8.75 3.55 - 3.35 6.25 3.30 0.95 Ba ppm 231 - 1070 1170 _ 645 564 833 552 Ba ppm 200 - 1300 1300 - 800 800 1000 666 Rb ppm 40 - 70 50 - 30 60 80 30 Rb ppm 69 - 80 46 - 61 55 82 56 Sr ppm bd - bd 1400 - bd bd 1200 1000 Sr ppm 550 - 627 983 - 627 581 877 786 Nb ppm 7 - 7 7 - 6 3 5 5 Nb ppm bd - 19 17 - 27 bd bd 20 Zr ppm 56 - 55 47 - 26 27 31 46 Y ppm 3 - 3 3 - bd bd bd bd Y ppm bd - bd 24 - bd bd 13 11 As ppm 19 - 12 4 - bd 3 bd 5 Au ppb bd - bd 5 - bd bd 6 8 Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ag ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Ni ppm 32 - 10 12 - 87 68 81 30 Ni ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Cr ppm 130 - 17 36 - 310 310 320 110 V ppm 289 285 223 321 355 277 291 294 297 S ppm bd - bd 58 - bd bd bd bd Sc ppm 34.4 - 18.7 23.6 - 33.8 33.4 34.1 41.7 Th ppm 1.5 - 1.9 2.4 - bd bd 0.6 1.3 U ppm 0.7 - 1.0 1.8 - bd bd 0.5 0.9 Pb ppm 6 - bd bd - bd bd 3 bd Hf ppm 1.3 - 1.6 1.6 - 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.1 CI ppm 78 - 73 76 - -50 72 83 210 Co ppm 43 - 31 35 - 40 36 44 44 F ppm 565 567 482 443 435 366 388 352 614 Br ppm 3 - 2 2 - 1 2 2 2 Zn ppm 82 - 103 86 - 80 70 89 90 Zn ppm 90 - 70 80 - 80 60 100 60 Na ppm 27000 - 26000 26000 - 16000 14066 13000 21000 Ca % 7.1 - 5.2 6.8 - 6.6 9.7 5.6 7.5 Cu ppm 2 - 134 135 - 114 71 166 166 Fe % 7.43 - 6.37 7.02 - 6.56 6.23 7.05 8.02 Mo ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Mo ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Cs ppm 1 - 5 2 - bd 1 1 7 La ppm 11.9 - 14.0 16.1 - 5.7 5.7 6.4 11.7 Ce ppm 26 - 30 33 - 14 14 15 25 Nd ppm 12 - 14 14 - 7 7 8 12 Sm ppm 2.9 - 2.8 2.8 - 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.6 Eu ppm 1.3 - 1.0 1.1 - 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.9 Tb ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Yb ppm 1.4 - 1.5 1.6 - 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 Lu ppm 0.28 - 0.23 0.27 - 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.22 Ta ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Se ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Sb ppm 0.3 - 0.2 0.3 - bd bd bd 1.0 W ppm 9 - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Ir ppm bd - bd bd - bd bd bd bd Table A.2 (continued) MTP92-036 MTP-036 MTP92-O02 MTP92-O04 MTP-004 MTP92-007 MTP92-008 MTP92-009 MTP92-010 Rock. HB Dup AB AB Dup AB AB AB AB Alter. F F F F F F F F F Batch 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - - - - - - -Cor - - - - - - - - -Or 10.52 - 30.5 19.98 - 15.96 22.76 21.69 12.47 Ab 27.18 - 21.27 23.91 - 19.71 15.91 13.96 20.44 An 16.19 - 10.21 16.43 - 14.59 11.57 16.96 17 Lc . - - - - - - - -Ne 1.27 - 4.56 3.55 - - - - 2.54 Di 18.82 - 0.35 14.28 - 23.38 22.39 18.42 27.52 Hy . . . 3.12 1.2 7.06 -Ol 6.85 - 5.59 3.53 - 4.62 2.08 4.19 3.24 Mg 13.52 - 0.93 9.84 - 14.63 9.51 13.96 14.91 Hm 1.88 - 9.18 4.11 - 0.3 3.35 0.97 3.32 11 1.47 - 1.53 1.37 1.14 1.1 1.2 1.64 Ap 1.33 - 1.3 1.44 - 0.76 0.76 0.83 1.21 Ca 3.62 - 11.42 2.73 - 3.37 11.69 2.18 0.14 Total 102.64 - 96.84 101.16 - 101.58 102.31 101.41 104.42 Table A2 (continued) Units MTP92-016 MTP-016 MTP92-001 MTP92-049 MTP92-063 MTP92-664 MTP92-065 MTP92-020 MTP-020 Rock. AB Dup AD AD AD AD AD TR Dup Alter. F F F F F F F F F Batch 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 Si02 % 49.26 - 48.00 48.26 56.46 48.66 47.96 49.10 48.50 A1203 % 17.30 - 14.90 14.90 19.00 15.00 14.90 16.70 16.50 Ti02 % 0.724 - 0.617 0.660 0.424 6.640 0.629 0.811 0.794 FeO % 3.2 3.2 3.8 4.1 2.0 4.0 4.4 3.7 3.7 Fe203 % 9.55 - 10.50 10.96 5.18 10.90 10.70 10.50 10.40 MnO % 0.20 - 0.22 6.22 6.68 0.22 0.21 0.20 0.20 MgO % 4.78 - 5.12 5.37 1.51 5.19 5.25 4.60 4.57 CaO % 8.75 - 9.36 16.56 2.24 11.06 10.90 8.83 8.64 Na20 % 2.95 - 1.81 2.34 3.74 1.16 1.33 2.48 2.50 K20 % 3.60 - 5.08 4.68 8.29 5.54 5.18 4.51 4.46 P205 % 0.32 - 0.45 0.46 0.28 0.46 0.45 0.34 0.33 Cr203 ppm 103 - 79 89 22 66 72 51 64 H20+ % 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.9 2.0 1.1 0.9 H20- % 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 bd 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 C02 % 0.03 0.02 0.49 0.06 0.80 0.09 0.17 0.02 0.03 SUM % 100.0 98.7 100.1 100.4 100.3 99.9 99.4 98.2 LOI % 2.35 - 2.30 1.55 2.00 1.90 2.10 1.05 1.00 Ba ppm 1460 - 2260 1840 5410 1990 2030 1880 1830 Ba ppm 1900 - 2500 2100 5200 2200 2400 2600 2300 Rb ppm 90 - 80 90 130 110 90 70 90 Rb ppm 74 - 95 90 134 88 81 74 73 Sr ppm 900 - bd 1000 800 900 1000 bd bd Sr ppm 932 - 705 946 726 707 812 729 713 Nb ppm 6 - 5 5 7 5 6 5 5 Nb ppm 19 - bd 19 bd bd 10 bd 20 Zr ppm 37 - 45 35 55 40 34 56 53 Y ppm bd - bd bd 6 6 bd 5 5 Y ppm 21 - 12 bd 13 bd bd 12 bd As ppm 10 - 17 3 17 11 15 9 7 Au ppb bd - 7 10 bd bd bd 11 9 Ag ppm bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ag ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Ni ppm 22 - 22 18 bd 19 19 10 9 Ni ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Cr ppm 110 - 76 94 25 77 83 62 63 V ppm 272 257 194 218 135 288 248 369 319 S ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Sc ppm 25.9 - 24.2 26.4 3.0 24.4 25.6 36.0 34.3 Th ppm 1.1 - 1.0 1.4 2.0 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.3 U ppm 0.5 - 0.6 0.6 1.4 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 Pb ppm bd - 12 bd 2 12 bd 16 20 Hf ppm 1.7 - 0.8 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.1 Cl ppm 148 - 90 268 144 162 178 152 143 Co ppm 33 - 35 37 13 35 36 35 34 F ppm 390 390 478 445 570 589 490 1140 1120 Br ppm 3 - 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 Zn ppm 78 - 117 70 47 121 85 69 69 Zn ppm 120 - 140 110 60 160 120 90 90 Na ppm 24000 - 13000 18000 27600 8900 10000 21000 20000 Ca % 6.0 - 6.3 6.7 1.4 6.5 7.2 4.1 6.1 Cu ppm 83 - 149 142 20 129 133 39 37 Fe % 6.88 - 6.72 7.19 3.37 6.78 7.08 7.61 7.26 Mo ppm bd - bd bd 2 bd bd bd bd Mo ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Cs ppm 2 - 12 3 1 9 13 2 2 La ppm 8.7 - 8.5 8.3 11.6 8.1 8.2 8.9 8.2 Ce ppm 18 - 19 19 23 17 18 21 20 Nd ppm 10 - 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 Sm ppm 2.4 - 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.5 Eu ppm 0.8 - 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.9 Tb ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Yb ppm 1.7 - 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.7 Lu ppm 0.27 - 0.22 0.20 0.25 0.21 0.28 0.36 0.26 Ta ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Se ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd Sb ppm 0.2 - 0.7 0.6 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.4 6.4 W ppm bd - bd 6 5 5 4 bd bd Ir ppm bd - bd bd bd bd bd bd bd 183 Table A .2 (continued) MTP92-016 MTP-016 MTP92-001 MTP92-049 MTP92-063 MTP92-064 MTP92-065 MTP92-020 MTP-020 Rock. AB Dup AD AD AD AD AD TR Dup Alter. F F F F F F F F F Batch 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - - - - - -Cor - - - 2.33 - - - • Or 21.28 30.03 27.66 49 32.74 30.62 26.66 26.36 Ab 22.46 13.63 9.17 31.64 4.5 7.13 17.21 17.06 An 23.33 17.53 16.33 4.23 19.36 19.39 21.12 20.63 Lc - - - - - - . -Ne 1.36 0.91 5.76 2.88 2.24 2.04 2.22 Di 13.85 17.8 25.2 - 24.63 23.88 15.83 15.48 Hy - - - 1.54 - - - -Ol 3.84 3.15 1.18 1.55 1.06 1.4 2.88 2.95 Mg 8.87 11.17 12.02 5.48 11.75 13.04 10.22 10.27 Hm 3.43 2.79 2.61 1.4 2.79 1.7 3.45 3.31 11 1.37 1.17 1.25 0.81 1.22 1.19 1.54 1.51 Ap 0.76 1.07 1.09 0.66 1.09 1.07 0.81 0.78 Ca 0.07 1.11 0.14 1.82 0.2 0.39 0.05 0.07 Total 100.62 100.37 102.41 100.46 102.22 102.04 101.81 100.64 Table A J (continued) Units MTP92-003 MTP92-006 MTP-006 MTP92-005 Rock. AK AK Dup AK Alter. F F F F Batch 1 1 1 1 Si02 % 46.70 45.86 - 46.46 A1203 % 15.80 10.40 - 15.40 Ti02 % 0.790 0.610 - 0.543 FeO % 0.5 2.0 - 1.5 Fe203 % 10.00 10.70 - 8.39 MnO % 0.40 0.18 - 0.15 MgO % 3.56 10.10 - 4.48 CaO % 9.60 12.30 - 9.41 Na20 % 2.74 2.64 - 5.20 K20 % 4.66 1.33 - 2.47 P205 % 0.54 0.61 - 0.61 Cr203 ppm 30 422 - 131 H20+ % 1.9 2.9 - 3.8 H20- % 0.3 1.1 - 0.4 C02 % 2.81 0.46 - 3.03 SUM % 99.9 99.2 100.2 LOI % 4.95 4.30 - 6.95 Ba ppm 969 583 _ 910 Ba ppm 1200 800 800 1000 Rb ppm 30 bd bd 50 Rb ppm 40 21 - 57 Sr ppm bd 1106 900 bd Sr ppm 380 677 - 889 Nb ppm 5 4 - 7 Nb ppm bd 19 - 27 Zr ppm 61 33 - 39 Y ppm 5 bd - bd Y ppm 13 bd - bd As ppm 28 2 2 7 Au ppb bd bd bd 13 Ag ppm bd bd - bd Ag ppm bd bd bd bd Ni ppm 9 76 - 22 Ni ppm bd bd bd bd Cr ppm 30 420 460 100 V ppm 265 281 - 181 S ppm bd bd - bd Sc ppm 19.2 36.2 39.9 15.2 Th ppm 2.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 U ppm 1.6 0.5 0.7 1.5 Pb ppm 15 bd - 5 Hf ppm 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.3 Cl ppm 127 97 - 81 Co ppm 32 46 50 24 F ppm 534 474 - 477 Br ppm 2 1 3 2 Zn ppm 207 77 - 58 Zn ppm 240 50 60 80 Na ppm 21000 20000 22000 38000 Ca % 6.2 9.0 9.2 6.3 Cu ppm 108 71 - 52 Fe % 6.49 6.95 7.62 5.30 Mo ppm bd bd - bd Mo ppm bd bd bd bd Cs ppm bd 2 3 2 La ppm 14.9 11.2 12.3 14.1 Ce ppm 30 24 25 26 Nd ppm 13 10 11 11 Sm ppm 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.1 Eu ppm 1.3 0.6 0.6 1.1 Tb ppm bd bd bd bd Yb ppm 1.5 1.0 1.2 1.0 Lu ppm 0.24 0.16 0.17 0.20 Ta ppm bd bd bd bd Se ppm bd bd bd bd Sb ppm 0.4 bd bd 0.3 W ppm bd bd bd bd Ir ppm bd bd bd bd Table A J, (continued) MTP92-O03 MTP92-006 MTP-006 MTP92-O05 Rock. AK AK Dup AK Alter. F F F F Batch 1 1 1 1 Normative Mineralogy Qz - - - -Cor - - - -Or 27.54 7.86 - 14.6 Ab 22.96 20 - 32 An 17.05 12.6 - 11.39 Lc - - - -Ne 0.12 1.27 - 6.5 Di 7.23 32.33 - 9.46 Hy - - - -Ol 3.87 7.12 - 4.74 Mg 0.63 5.26 - 3.75 Hm 9.57 7.07 - 5.8 11 1.5 1.16 - 1.03 Ap 1.28 1.44 - 1.44 Ca 6.39 1.05 - 6.89 Total 98.13 97.16 - 97.61 186 Estimates of Precision and Accuracy on Whole Rock Analyses Precision of whole rock chemical analyses of Mount Polley rocks can not be estimated since multiple analyses on a given sample were not performed. Random lab duplicates are available for most units; these values are given in Table A.2. Statistical analyses were not done on duplicates. However, accuracy of the geochemical samples can be estimated by the statistical analysis of reference materials analysed in the three batches. Seven standards were analysed, including SY-2, an International Standard used by X R A L with accepted values from Govindaraju (1984) and six in-house M D R U references (WP-1: Watts Point dacite; P-l: Porteau Cove granodiorite; MBX-1: Mt. Milligan diorite; ALB-1: Ajax albitite; QGRM-100: gabbro and QGRM-101: syenite). Accepted values for the M D R U reference materials was compiled by Arne Toma. The mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance were calculated for reference materials used in this thesis (Table A.3). Three reference materials, SY-2 and two samples having similar composition to Mount Polley rocks (MBX-1 and QGRM-100) were chosed to represent on diagrams testing accuracy. Most measured major and minor element concentrations (wt.%) fall within one standard deviation analytical error of the accepted concentration (Figure A.2). The measured Mg and Na20 concentrations for SY-2 are slightly higher than accepted values. Analytical accuracy of trace elements (ppm) generally lies within analytical error. The only exception are Rb and Ba determined by X R F for the SY-2 standard. It was noted that for elements determined by two different methods (XRF and neutron activation) neutron activation consistently produced higher concentrations (Figure A.2). A comparison of the two analytical techniques is presented in Figure A.3. Ba and Sr analyses are fairly well correlated but have slightly higher INAA values. Rb and Zn values are scattered so it is not clear which method yields the more accurate analyses. Table A.3 Analytical standards and summary statistical data. Element Units Method D.L. SY-2 Accepted Value Mean SY-2 Measured 1 St. Dev. CV% n Mean QGRM-100 Accepted 1 St Dev. CV% n Si02 % 0.01 60.10 59.95 6.6i i.bi i i 48.63 0.26 0.53 11 A1203 % XRFF 0.01 12.12 12 0.08 0.67 11 15.51 0.23 1.47 11 Ti02 % XRFF 0.01 0.14 0.17 0.02 9.68 11 1.98 0.03 1.33 11 FeO % Wet 0.1 10.93 0.10 0.92 11 Fe203T % XRFF 0.01 6.3 5.41 0.09 1.43 11 15.04 0.22 1.46 11 MnO % XRFF 0.01 0.32 0.32 0 0.94 11 0.19 0.00 2.35 11 MgO % XRFF 0.01 2.23 6.56 0.02 0.68 11 5.60 0.14 2.58 11 CaO % XRFF 0.01 7.98 7.99 0.14 1.71 11 8.51 0.10 1.14 11 Na20 % XRFF 0.01 2.99 4.35 0.03 0.71 11 2.83 0.07 2.58 11 K20 % XRFF 0.01 4.52 2.88 0.09 2.08 11 1.07 0.05 4.42 11 P205 % XRFF 0.01 0.43 0.43 0.01 1.94 11 0.20 0.00 2.29 11 Cr203 % XRFF 0.01 0.01 0 0 4 0.00 11 H20+ % Grav 0.1 0.48 0.10 21.31 11 H20- % Grav 0.1 0.07 0.05 64.23 11 C02 % Grav 0.01 0.37 0.12 31.03 11 SUM % Lab 99.38 1.28 1.29 11 99.72 0.53 0.53 11 LOI % Grav 0.44 0.61 138.74 11 0.11 0.06 58.36 11 Ba ppm XRFF 20 460 422.36 33.75 7.99 11 225.27 41.66 18.49 11 Ba ppm INAA 100 460 290.91 30.15 10.36 11 Rb ppm INAA 20 220 22.73 10.09 44.40 11 Rb ppm XRFF 2 220 207.91 9.4 4.52 11 35.55 10.57 29.73 11 Sr ppm INAA 500 275 250.00 0.00 0.00 11 Sr ppm XRFF 2 275 272.45 8.43 3.09 11 232.18 8.86 3.82 11 Nb ppm XRFP 2 23 6.14 2.44 39.80 11 Nb ppm XRFF 10 5 0 0 11 17.36 8.83 50.88 11 Zr ppm XRFF 3 280 284.27 7.32 2.58 11 153.18 10.45 6.82 11 Y ppm XRFP 2 130 21.07 7.01 33.27 11 Y ppm XRFF 10 110.45 5.77 5.22 11 25.91 8.46 32.63 11 As ppm INAA 2 1.27 0.47 36.70 11 Au ppb INAA 5 16.73 4.67 27.92 11 Ag ppm AcidDCP 0.5 0.00 11 Ag ppm INAA 5 0.00 11 Ni ppm XRFP 2 43.33 2.50 5.77 11 Ni ppm INAA 200 0.00 11 Cr ppm INAA 2 85.91 8.83 10.27 11 Cr ppm XRFF 10 12 19.86 14.54 73.23 7 82.80 14.09 17.01 11 V ppm FusDCP 2 49.56 4.3 8.69 9 235.55 25.90 11.00 11 s ppm XRFP 50 1476.67 155.82 10.55 11 Sc ppm INAA 0.1 29.29 1.43 4.87 11 Th ppm INAA 0.5 1.94 0.20 10.14 11 U ppm INAA 0.5 0.86 0.29 33.67 11 Pb ppm XRFP 2 2.33 2.10 90.15 11 Hf ppm INAA 0.5 4.25 0.49 11.51 11 CI ppm XRFP 50 331.42 32.99 9.95 11 Co ppm INAA 1 56.91 2.84 5.00 11 F ppm Wet 20 331.92 45.47 13.70 11 Br ppm INAA 1 2.73 0.47 17.13 11 Zn ppm XRFP 2 107.67 5.82 5.41 11 Zn ppm INAA 40 148.18 31.88 21.51 11 Na ppm INAA 100 22909.09 1300.35 5.68 11 Ca % INAA 0.5 5.06 1.73 34.08 11 Cu ppm XRFP 2 91.50 8.03 8.77 11 Fe % INAA 0.05 10.23 0.67 6.50 11 Mo ppm XRFP 2 1.00 0.00 0.00 11 Mo ppm INAA 5 80.06 11 Cs ppm INAA 1 0.82 0.46 56.49 11 La ppm INAA 0.5 13.15 0.91 6.90 11 Ce ppm INAA 3 30.73 2.28 7.43 11 Nd ppm INAA 5 17.82 1.66 9.33 11 Sm ppm INAA 0.1 4.60 0.48 10.52 11 Eu ppm INAA 0.2 1.65 0.25 15.14 11 Tb ppm INAA 0.5 0.83 0.13 15.38 11 Yb ppm INAA 0.2 3.28 0.18 5.59 11 Lu ppm INAA 0.05 0.49 0.02 4.44 11 Ta ppm INAA 1 0.50 0.00 0.00 11 Se ppm INAA 3 0.00 11 Sb ppm INAA 0.2 0.36 0.16 44.81 11 W ppm INAA 3 2.00 1.95 97.47 11 Ir ppb INAA 20 0.00 11 Table A.3 (continued) Element Units Mean QGRM-100 Measured 1 St Dev. C V % n Mean QGRM-101 Accepted 1 St Dev. C V % n Mean QGRM-101 Measured 1 St Dev. C V % n Si02 % 48.54 0.24 0.53 1 66.50 0.31 0.47 13 66.60 0.32 0.48 1 A1203 % 15.59 0.24 1.55 7 14.85 0.19 1.25 13 14.89 0.18 1.19 7 TiC-2 % 1.99 0.03 1.32 7 0.50 0.02 4.18 13 0.51 0.02 4.42 7 FeO % 10.89 0.09 0.83 7 1.78 0.06 3.37 13 1.77 0.05 2.75 7 Fe203T % 14.93 0.21 1.43 7 3.78 0.08 2.23 13 3.77 0.05 1.35 7 MnO % 0.19 0.00 1.97 7 0.05 0.00 7.29 13 0.05 0.00 9.23 7 MgO % 5.50 0.07 1.22 7 0.97 0.04 3.93 13 0.95 0.01 1.42 7 CaO % 8.51 0.12 1.36 7 2.13 0.08 3.80 13 2.12 0.03 1.55 7 Na20 % 2.85 0.07 2.30 7 4.27 0.09 2.06 13 4.30 0.10 2.35 7 K20 % 1.08 0.02 1.69 7 5.07 0.16 3.08 13 5.15 0.11 2.17 7 P205 % 0.20 0.00 1.90 7 0.15 0.00 0.00 13 0.15 0.00 0.00 7 Cr203 % 0.01 0.00 0.00 2 31.49 13 0.03 0.00 0.00 2 H20+ % 0.46 0.08 17.21 7 0.62 0.10 16.25 13 0.59 0.07 11.78 7 H20- % 0.08 0.06 72.16 7 0.10 0.05 50.00 13 0.09 0.05 57.56 7 C02 % 0.35 0.15 43.11 7 0.78 0.74 94.91 13 0.91 1.03 113.01 7 SUM % 99.51 0.50 0.50 7 99.79 0.60 0.60 13 99.93 0.43 0.43 7 LOI % 0.09 0.05 57.56 7 1.21 0.15 12.73 13 1.15 0.16 14.20 7 Ba ppm 204.86 33.72 16.46 7 1086.69 83.21 7.66 13 1064.29 46.50 4.37 7 Ba ppm 300.00 0.00 0.00 7 1107.69 103.77 9.37 13 1157.14 97.59 8.43 7 Rb ppm 21.43 9.00 41.99 7 125.38 13.91 11.10 13 128.57 13.45 10.46 7 Rb ppm 33.86 12.92 38.15 7 128.77 7.35 5.71 13 128.71 7.36 5.72 7 Sr ppm 250.00 0.00 0.00 7 303.85 131.44 43.26 13 350.00 170.78 48.80 7 Sr ppm 229.43 7.32 3.19 7 539.77 28.26 5.23 13 532.57 11.80 2.22 7 Nb ppm 7.00 1.53 21.82 7 14.36 2.06 14.35 13 15.14 1.46 9.67 7 Nb ppm 14.00 8.74 62.41 7 21.31 9.11 42.77 13 20.57 11.15 54.19 7 Zr ppm 148.43 8.72 5.87 7 436.23 14.33 3.29 13 428.29 7.04 1.64 7 Y ppm 22.00 7.46 33.91 7 41.50 7.34 17.68 13 42.57 7.32 17.20 7 Y ppm 24.29 8.38 34.51 7 45.00 6.49 14.43 13 42.00 5.10 12.14 7 As ppm 1.14 0.38 33.07 7 1.00 0.00 0.00 13 1.00 0.00 0.00 7 Au ppb 19.86 2.12 10.65 7 2.00 0.00 0.00 13 2.00 0.00 0.00 7 Ag ppm 0.20 0.00 0.00 7 0.00 13 0.20 0.00 0.00 7 Ag ppm 2.00 0.00 0.00 7 0.00 13 2.00 0.00 0.00 7 Ni ppm 43.71 2.93 6.70 7 4.08 1.66 40.63 13 4.43 1.99 44.89 7 Ni ppm 100.00 0.00 0.00 7 0.00 13 100.00 0.00 0.00 7 Cr ppm 91.86 3.67 4.00 7 245;38 18.54 7.55 13 254.29 20.70 8.14 7 Cr ppm 80.40 6.19 7.70 5 264.80 7.02 2.65 13 265.80 7.79 2.93 5 V ppm 230.86 26.53 11.49 7 34.38 3.57 10.39 13 34.71 3.86 11.12 7 s ppm 1375.71 63.47 4.61 7 421.38 44.54 10.57 13 417.43 39.72 9.52 7 Sc ppm 29.59 1.59 5.38 7 3.51 0.19 5.39 13 3.54 0.22 6.28 7 Th ppm 2.00 0.21 10.41 7 10.06 0.81 8.05 13 10.51 0.85 8.06 7 U ppm 0.83 0.32 38.62 7 1.71 0.20 11.58 13 1.83 0.17 9.32 7 Pb ppm 2.71 2.36 86.96 7 2.92 1.80 61.61 13 2.57 1.62 62.94 7 Hf ppm 4.36 0.54 12.49 7 10.40 0.90 8.66 13 10.30 0.88 8.56 7 Cl ppm 331.14 12.72 3.84 7 400.08 34.11 8.53 13 393.57 32.62 8.29 7 Co ppm 57.71 2.69 4.66 7 6.38 0.65 10.19 13 6.43 0.53 8.31 7 F ppm 340.43 44.95 13.20 7 949.46 117.36 12.36 13 966.00 158.72 16.43 7 Br ppm 2.86 0.38 13.23 7 3.85 0.69 17.91 13 4.00 0.58 14.43 7 Zn ppm 105.57 6.63 6.28 7 45.46 2.22 4.89 13 46.00 2.31 5.02 7 Zn ppm 144.29 32.59 22.58 7 35.00 20.00 57.14 13 20.00 0.00 0.00 7 Na ppm 23571.43 1133.89 4.81 7 28923.08 1605.28 5.55 13 29000.00 2081.67 7.18 7 Ca % 5.53 0.57 10.27 7 1.67 0.86 51.50 13 1.51 0.51 33.77 7 Cu ppm 93.14 10.16 10.90 7 21.69 8.91 41.08 13 19.14 11.05 57.73 7 Fe % 10.54 0.61 5.79 7 2.45 0.14 5.89 13 2.45 0.19 7.72 7 Mo ppm 1.00 0.00 0.00 7 1.00 0.00 0.00 13 1.00 0.00 0.00 7 Mo ppm 3.00 2.65 88.19 7 0.00 13 2.00 0.00 0.00 7 Cs ppm 0.93 0.53 57.56 7 0.69 0.43 62.81 13 0.57 0.19 33.07 7 La ppm 13.41 0.75 5.57 7 76.55 4.75 6.20 13 77.76 6.23 8.02 7 Ce ppm 32.00 1.41 4.42 7 144.00 7.97 5.53 13 145.86 10.76 7.38 7 Nd ppm 18.86 1.07 5.67 7 59.54 4.31 7.24 13 61.43 4.43 7.21 7 Sm ppm 4.90 0.15 3.12 7 10.74 1.10 10.24 13 11.20 0.92 8.25 7 Eu ppm 1.76 0.25 14.27 7 1.52 0.38 25.25 13 1.57 0.46 29.10 7 Tb ppm 0.90 0.08 9.07 7 1.44 0.34 23.32 13 1.49 0.42 28.40 7 Yb ppm 3.37 0.15 4.44 7 4.02 0.29 7.33 13 4.01 0.39 9.80 7 Lu ppm 0.50 0.03 5.16 7 0.57 0.04 7.21 13 0.57 0.05 9.60 7 Ta ppm 0.50 0.00 0.00 7 0.65 0.24 36.74 13 0.57 0.19 33.07 7 Se ppm 1.00 0.00 0.00 7 0.00 13 1.00 0.00 0.00 7 Sb ppm 0.47 0.05 10.35 7 0.15 0.05 35.50 13 0.16 0.05 34.02 7 W ppm 2.14 2.27 105.83 7 1.15 0.55 48.07 13 1.29 0.76 58.79 7 Ir ppb 10.00 0.00 0.00 7 0.00 13 10.00 0.00 0.00 7 Table A.3 (continued) Element Units Mean ALB-1 Accepted 1 St. Dev. C V % n Mean ALB-1 Measured 1 St. Dev. C V % n Mean MBX-1 Accepted 1 St Dev. C V % n Si02 */. 55.65 6.25 6.45 14 55.16 6.65 0.10 5 57.71 0.56 6.86 15 A1203 % 18.92 0.28 1.50 14 18.80 0.31 1.64 5 17.65 0.26 1.48 15 Ti02 % 0.61 0.01 1.63 14 0.61 0.01 1.84 5 0.50 0.02 3.91 15 FeO % 1.09 0.07 6.11 14 1.06 0.05 5.17 5 1.90 0.06 2.92 15 Fe203T % 1.62 0.12 7.14 14 1.67 0.11 6.88 5 4.00 0.04 0.94 15 MnO % 0.04 0.00 8.77 14 0.04 0.01 12.45 5 0.08 0.00 3.20 15 MgO % 2.83 0.04 1.42 14 2.84 0.04 1.26 5 2.06 0.04 2.14 15 CaO % 10.42 0.13 1.20 14 10.42 0.13 1.25 5 3.81 0.07 1.76 15 Na20 % 5.77 0.08 1.41 14 5.80 0.08 1.31 5 5.18 0.10 1.91 15 K20 % 0.83 0.06 6.88 14 0.81 0.02 2.20 5 4.67 0.16 3.52 15 P205 % 0.30 0.00 1.22 14 0.30 0.00 1.50 5 0.25 0.00 1.03 15 Cr203 % 86.60 14 0.01 0.00 0.00 2 86.60 15 H20+ % 1.50 0.20 13.33 14 1.58 0.08 5.30 5 1.09 0.07 6.84 15 H20- % 0.22 0.06 25.75 14 0.18 0.04 24.85 5 0.11 0.06 52.69 15 C02 % 1.61 0.02 1.43 14 1.62 0.02 1.01 5 2.81 0.03 1.05 15 SUM % 99.53 0.58 0.58 14 99.64 0.58 0.58 5 99.57 0.75 0.75 15 LOI % 2.99 0.21 6.90 14 3.07 0.13 4.25 5 3.47 0.24 6.97 15 Ba ppm 260.08 48.61 18.69 14 237.20 32.75 13.81 5 796.29 57.51 7.22 15 Ba ppm 292.86 47.46 16.21 14 320.00 44.72 13.98 5 806.67 96.12 11.92 15 Rb ppm 17.14 10.69 62.36 14 20.00 10.00 50.00 5 82.00 22.74 27.73 15 Rb ppm 27.31 9.72 35.58 14 23.00 9.57 41.59 5 85.00 9.84 11.58 15 Sr ppm 485.71 313.44 64.53 14 420.00 380.13 90.51 5 333.33 177.95 53.39 15 Sr ppm 990.38 38.04 3.84 14 955.60 15.31 1.60 5 621.21 31.52 5.07 15 Nb ppm 4.69 2.12 45.23 14 6.20 1.30 21.03 5 11.31 1.70 15.04 15 Nb ppm 10.77 6.80 63.11 14 10.00 7.28 72.80 5 18.00 7.18 39.88 15 Zr ppm 60.00 12.33 20.55 14 58.80 18.83 32.03 5 91.50 7.69 8.41 15 Y ppm 9.56 7.47 78.16 14 10.20 9.09 89.16 5 8.50 8.26 97.20 15 Y ppm 18.08 8.25 45.64 14 18.80 8.96 47.64 5 16.00 11.43 71.43 15 As ppm 5.50 0.76 13.81 14 5.60 0.55 9.78 5 5.27 0.70 13.36 15 Au ppb 108.71 51.06 46.97 14 98.20 36.16 36.82 5 59.00 18.49 31.34 15 Ag ppm 37.30 14 0.20 0.00 0.00 5 36.21 15 Ag ppm 0.00 14 2.00 0.00 0.00 5 0.00 15 Ni ppm 44.00 2.10 4.78 14 43.00 2.92 6.78 5 5.27 2.05 38.96 15 Ni ppm 0.00 14 100.00 0.00 0.00 5 0.00 15 Cr ppm 30.79 2.52 8.18 14 32.20 2.68 8.33 5 44.93 4.95 11.01 15 Cr ppm 30.18 12.75 42.24 14 39.67 6.03 15.20 3 48.67 11.67 23.98 15 V ppm 183.23 12.22 6.67 14 177.00 5.79 3.27 5 170.86 14.52 8.50 15 S ppm 1934.29 129.72 6.71 14 1864.00 113.93 6.11 5 918.93 165.99 18.06 15 Sc ppm 12.76 0.71 5.56 14 12.80 0.70 5.50 5 7.07 0.29 4.13 15 Th ppm 1.16 0.18 15.66 14 1.24 0.21 16.72 5 2.91 0.20 6.72 15 U ppm 1.04 0.22 21.51 14 1.08 0.18 16.56 5 0.71 0.18 24.78 15 Pb ppm 1.29 0.83 64.20 14 1.80 1.30 72.44 5 1.47 0.99 67.53 15 Hf ppm 1.84 0.38 20.49 14 1.82 0.30 16.67 5 2.36 0.34 14.22 15 CI ppm 212.21 23.52 11.09 14 217.40 12.30 5.66 5 160.93 27.59 17.15 15 Co ppm 12.14 1.17 9.61 14 12.40 0.55 4.42 5 8.27 0.96 11.63 15 F ppm 74.79 36.06 48.21 14 75.40 40.78 54.08 5 396.93 57.00 14.36 15 Br ppm 3.21 1.05 32.69 14 3.00 1.00 33.33 5 1.80 0.68 37.56 15 Zn ppm 27.36 2.27 8.31 14 26.80 0.84 3.12 5 40.33 3.81 9.45 15 Zn ppm 26.79 14.36 53.61 14 20.00 0.00 0.00 5 42.00 23.28 55.44 15 Na ppm 41714.29 2367.36 5.68 14 42200.00 2588.44 6.13 5 36733.33 1222.80 3.33 15 Ca % 7.19 0.47 6.48 14 7.02 0.22 3.09 5 2.41 0.89 36.76 15 Cu ppm 1293.57 29.77 2.30 14 1294.00 35.78 2.76 5 326.07 5.52 1.69 15 Fe % 1.07 0.07 6.11 14 1.07 0.06 5.61 5 2.64 0.13 4.90 15 Mo ppm 1.43 0.85 59.61 14 1.00 0.00 0.00 5 2.33 1.59 68.09 15 Mo ppm 0.00 14 2.00 0.00 0.00 5 64.69 15 Cs ppm 0.82 0.54 65.85 14 0.90 0.65 72.44 5 3.00 0.76 25.20 15 La ppm 7.12 0.55 7.67 14 7.10 0.31 4.34 5 13.93 0.70 5.04 15 Ce ppm 16.29 1.64 10.05 14 17.20 1.30 7.58 5 25.73 2.22 8.62 15 Nd ppm 9.86 0.95 9.63 14 10.20 0.45 4.38 5 11.13 1.06 9.52 15 Sm ppm 2.51 0.33 13.04 14 2.72 0.18 6.58 5 2.13 0.24 11.17 15 Eu ppm 0.98 0.29 29.50 14 1.04 0.18 17.47 5 0.85 0.16 18.72 15 Tb ppm 0.34 0.15 43.88 14 0.38 0.16 43.24 5 0.23 0.07 31.05 15 Yb ppm 1.83 0.15 8.15 14 1.88 0.15 7.89 5 1.55 0.11 6.85 15 Lu ppm 0.29 0.02 7.49 14 0.29 0.03 9.64 5 0.24 0.03 10.72 15 Ta ppm 0.50 0.00 0.00 14 0.50 0.00 0.00 5 0.57 0.18 31.05 15 Se ppm 0.00 14 1.00 0.00 0.00 5 0.00 15 Sb ppm 0.21 0.06 29.72 14 0.20 0.07 35.36 5 3.40 0.24 7.20 15 W ppm 1.57 0.94 59.67 14 2.20 1.10 49.79 5 3.20 2.37 73.95 15 Ir ppb 0.00 14 10.00 0.00 0.00 5 0.00 15 Table A.3 (continued) Element Units Mean MBX-1 Measured 1 St Dev. C V % n Mean P-l Accepted 1 St. Dev. C V % n Mean P-l Measured 1 St Dev. C V % n S.02 »/o 57.60 6.26 6.35 6 49.65 6.35 6.56 15 69.72 0.34 6.49 6 A1203 % 17.57 0.29 1.64 6 14.42 0.17 1.21 15 14.37 0.19 1.30 6 Ti02 % 0.50 0.03 5.29 6 0.41 0.02 4.19 15 0.41 0.02 5.68 6 FeO % 1.88 0.04 2.17 6 2.01 0.06 2.96 15 1.98 0.04 2.06 6 Fe203T % 3.98 0.03 0.75 6 3.79 0.07 1.88 15 3.81 0.08 1.97 6 MnO % 0.08 0.00 5.00 6 0.09 0.00 4.73 15 0.09 0.01 5.53 6 MgO % 2.04 0.03 1.33 6 1.10 0.02 2.04 15 1.09 0.02 1.38 6 CaO % 3.80 0.08 2.05 6 3.59 0.08 2.09 15 3.59 0.07 1.81 6 Na20 % 5.20 0.14 2.78 6 4.03 0.09 2.25 15 4.05 0.10 2.44 6 K20 % 4.82 0.09 1.95 6 2.05 0.07 3.31 15 2.08 0.04 1.87 6 P205 % 0.25 0.00 0.00 6 0.09 0.00 2.71 15 0.09 0.00 4.62 6 Cr203 % 0.01 0.00 0.00 2 70.13 15 0.01 0.00 47.14 2 H20+ % 1.05 0.05 5.22 6 0.53 0.08 16.03 15 0.52 0.04 7.90 6 H20- % 0.07 0.03 38.73 6 0.06 0.02 36.14 15 0.06 0.02 34.99 6 C02 % 2.81 0.03 1.08 6 0.02 0.01 72.44 15 0.01 0.01 64.76 6 SUM % 99.63 0.75 0.75 6 99.84 0.56 0.56 15 99.97 0.58 0.58 6 LOI % 3.61 0.10 2.69 6 0.47 0.09 18.56 15 0.47 0.07 14.64 6 Ba ppm 765.17 40.68 5.32 6 834.00 60.00 7.19 15 809.83 14.62 1.81 6 Ba ppm 833.33 103.28 12.39 6 853.33 83.38 9.77 15 900.00 0.00 0.00 6 Rb ppm 75.00 16.43 21.91 6 40.00 17.73 44.32 15 46.67 13.66 29.28 6 Rb ppm 83.17 10.03 12.06 6 53.87 8.43 15.66 15 49.50 8.26 16.70 6 Sr ppm 250.00 0.00 0.00 6 250.00 0.00 0.00 15 250.00 0.00 0.00 6 Sr ppm 605.83 38.88 6.42 6 266.60 12.90 4.84 15 258.50 9.22 3.57 6 Nb ppm 11.83 0.75 6.36 6 5.88 2.32 39.36 15 7.00 1.10 15.65 6 Nb ppm 18.50 8.26 44.67 6 11.07 5.64 50.94 15 11.00 4.77 43.41 6 Zr ppm 88.17 9.20 10.43 6 137.47 11.66 8.48 15 134.00 11.31 8.44 6 Y ppm 8.00 9.42 117.79 6 10.29 7.43 72.19 15 11.00 8.41 76.49 6 Y ppm 10.83 5.95 54.90 6 21.53 7.41 34.39 15 20.83 10.30 49.46 6 As ppm 5.50 0.84 15.21 6 1.00 0.00 0.00 15 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 Au ppb 70.00 14.93 21.32 6 2.20 0.77 35.21 15 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 Ag ppm 0.25 0.12 48.99 6 27.66 15 0.20 0.00 0.00 6 Ag ppm 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 0.00 15 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 Ni ppm 5.17 1.72 33.34 6 1.47 0.87 59.46 15 1.33 0.52 38.73 6 Ni ppm 100.00 0.00 0.00 6 0.00 15 100.00 0.00 0.00 6 Cr ppm 48.00 3.79 7.91 6 131.33 11.25 8.57 15 138.33 11.69 8.45 6 Cr ppm 53.50 9.54 17.83 4 133.77 9.65 7.22 15 139.00 12.65 9.10 4 V ppm 161.83 11.92 7.37 6 58.27 5.01 8.59 15 56.67 4.68 8.25 6 S ppm 997.00 67.86 6.81 6 20.00 0.00 0.00 15 20.00 0.00 0.00 6 Sc ppm 7.02 0.34 4.89 6 10.81 0.48 4.42 15 11.12 0.54 4.87 6 Th ppm 3.00 0.24 8.16 6 3.99 0.34 8.42 15 4.27 0.14 3.20 6 U ppm 0.85 0.18 20.71 6 1.53 0.20 12.98 15 1.65 0.10 6.36 6 Pb ppm 2.17 1.33 61.35 6 5.41 2.27 41.86 15 5.50 1.76 32.01 6 Hf ppm 2.55 0.27 10.74 6 3.55 0.42 11.72 15 3.70 0.24 6.40 6 Cl ppm 173.00 10.79 6.24 6 93.29 45.45 48.71 15 105.00 19.41 18.49 6 Co ppm 8.17 0.75 9.22 6 8.73 0.96 11.01 15 8.67 1.21 13.97 6 F ppm 378.00 76.70 20.29 6 215.12 40.49 18.82 15 196.50 48.62 24.74 6 Br ppm 2.00 0.63 31.62 6 1.87 0.64 34.28 15 1.83 0.75 41.06 6 Zn ppm 39.83 2.04 5.12 6 49.76 2.54 5.10 15 49.33 3.56 7.21 6 Zn ppm 38.33 20.41 53.25 6 71.33 56.93 79.81 15 48.33 22.29 46.11 6 Na ppm 36666.67 1366.26 3.73 6 28266.67 1334.52 4.72 15 29166.67 1602.08 5.49 6 Ca % 2.65 0.87 32.96 6 2.42 0.52 21.37 15 2.15 0.67 30.96 6 Cu ppm 322.83 6.68 2.07 6 2.35 2.40 101.85 15 1.33 0.82 61.24 6 Fe % 2.61 0.14 5.22 6 2.63 0.11 4.28 15 2.68 0.11 4.04 6 Mo ppm 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 1.00 0.00 0.00 15 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 Mo ppm 3.50 2.51 71.71 6 0.00 15 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 Cs ppm 3.00 0.63 21.08 6 1.30 0.53 40.60 15 1.25 0.61 48.99 6 La ppm 14.00 0.55 3.91 6 13.63 0.92 6.73 15 14.15 0.65 4.60 6 Ce ppm 27.17 1.47 5.42 6 27.47 2.26 8.24 15 29.17 1.94 6.65 6 Nd ppm 11.67 0.82 7.00 6 11.60 1.30 11.19 15 12.83 0.41 3.18 6 Sm ppm 2.28 0.13 5.82 6 2.46 0.31 12.56 15 2.72 0.17 6.34 6 Eu ppm 0.80 0.14 17.68 6 0.83 0.13 15.48 15 0.82 0.15 18.02 6 Tb ppm 0.20 0.00 0.00 6 0.31 0.17 53.77 15 0.32 0.18 57.94 6 Yb ppm 1.48 0.12 7.88 6 2.18 0.15 6.98 15 2.25 0.21 9.22 6 Lu ppm 0.24 0.03 13.70 6 0.36 0.03 9.32 15 0.39 0.03 6.99 6 Ta ppm 0.58 0.20 34.99 6 0.50 0.00 0.00 15 0.50 0.00 0.00 6 Se ppm 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 0.00 15 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 Sb ppm 3.50 0.32 9.04 6 0.23 0.06 26.19 15 0.25 0.05 21.91 6 W ppm 4.33 2.80 64.73 6 1.87 1.60 85.59 15 3.17 1.94 61.29 6 Ir ppb 10.00 0.00 0.00 6 0.00 15 10.00 0.00 0.00 6 Table A.3 (continued) Element Units Mean WP-1 Accepted 1 St Dev. C V % n Mean WP-1 Measured 1 St Dev. C V % n SiOl */o 63.98 6.37 6.58 16 63.85 6.3d 0.57 6 A1203 % 16.57 0.19 1.14 16 16.53 0.23 1.41 6 Ti02 % 0.52 0.02 3.35 16 0.52 0.02 3.32 6 FeO % 2.31 0.06 2.77 16 2.30 0.06 2.75 6 Fe203T % 4.39 0.10 2.18 16 4.40 0.06 1.30 6 MnO % 0.09 0.00 3.74 16 0.09 0.01 5.53 6 MgO % 2.64 0.07 2.54 16 2.60 0.04 1.65 6 CaO % 5.12 0.07 1.28 16 5.12 0.08 1.64 6 Na20 % 4.40 0.10 2.31 16 4.40 0.14 3.12 6 K20 % 1.60 0.06 3.60 16 1.62 0.04 2.56 6 P205 % 0.18 0.00 1.38 16 0.18 0.00 0.00 6 Cr203 % 86.60 16 0.01 0.00 0.00 2 H20+ % 0.28 0.10 37.22 16 0.27 0.05 19.36 6 H20- % 0.07 0.03 36.22 16 0.07 0.03 38.73 6 C02 % 0.02 0.01 81.98 16 0.01 0.01 72.66 6 SUM % 99.96 0.51 0.51 16 99.77 0.56 0.56 6 LOI % 0.29 0.08 27.15 16 0.28 0.06 22.27 6 Ba ppm 643.33 51.22 7.96 16 617.17 20.05 3.25 6 Ba ppm 693.75 92.87 13.39 16 733.33 81.65 11.13 6 Rb ppm 20.63 13.89 67.34 16 15.00 8.37 55.78 6 Rb ppm 30.27 6.51 21.50 16 29.50 5.72 19.38 6 Sr ppm 575.00 286.94 49.90 16 633.33 299.44 47.28 6 Sr ppm 860.53 48.42 5.63 16 830.00 29.00 3.49 6 Nb ppm 6.35 1.84 28.89 16 7.00 1.10 15.65 6 Nb ppm 10.93 7.91 72.31 16 10.00 7.77 77.72 6 Zr ppm 118.80 14.22 11.97 16 109.83 7.78 7.09 6 Y ppm 5.53 5.86 106.06 16 5.83 7.49 128.48 6 Y ppm 13.73 7.07 51.45 16 11.17 7.65 68.53 6 As ppm 1.00 0.00 0.00 16 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 Au ppb 2.00 0.00 0.00 16 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 Ag ppm 27.66 16 0.20 0.00 0.00 6 Ag ppm 0.00 16 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 Ni ppm 34.44 1.90 5.51 16 35.00 2.19 6.26 6 Ni ppm 0.00 16 100.00 0.00 0.00 6 Cr ppm 63.25 5.18 8.19 16 63.83 5.91 9.26 6 Cr ppm 69.54 9.79 14.07 16 74.00 9.31 12.58 4 V ppm 82.87 7.19 8.68 16 79.83 4.96 6.21 6 s ppm 20.00 0.00 0.00 16 20.00 0.00 0.00 6 Sc ppm 9.47 0.49 5.20 16 9.37 0.48 5.17 6 Th ppm 1.87 0.24 12.62 16 2.03 0.27 13.44 6 U ppm 0.85 0.18 21.05 16 0.78 0.17 21.99 6 Pb ppm 4.69 3.14 66.88 16 4.33 4.13 95.33 6 Hf ppm 3.14 0.37 11.73 16 3.12 0.39 12.41 6 CI ppm 249.31 32.42 13.00 16 252.17 26.57 10.54 6 Co ppm 14.19 1.22 8.62 16 13.67 1.03 7.56 6 F ppm 291.50 49.67 17.04 16 287.17 80.50 28.03 6 Br ppm 2.44 0.96 39.55 16 2.50 1.05 41.95 6 Zn ppm 59.50 6.60 11.10 16 57.50 2.26 3.93 6 Zn ppm 62.81 25.69 40.90 16 56.67 32.66 57.64 6 Na ppm 30562.50 1364.73 4.47 16 30333.33 1211.06 3.99 6 Ca % 3.51 0.72 20.58 16 3.37 0.47 13.89 6 Cu ppm 6.75 4.09 60.60 16 5.17 3.97 76.85 6 Fe % 2.90 0.17 5.77 16 2.86 0.19 6.67 6 Mo ppm 1.00 0.00 0.00 16 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 Mo ppm 0.00 16 2.00 0.00 0.00 6 Cs ppm 0.91 0.49 54.13 16 1.08 0.49 45.38 6 La ppm 13.75 0.90 6.51 16 13.73 0.62 4.53 6 Ce ppm 27.81 2.46 8.83 16 29.00 1.10 3.78 6 Nd ppm 12.56 1.21 9.63 16 12.83 0.75 5.87 6 Sm ppm 2.62 0.35 13.32 16 2.77 0.21 7.47 6 Eu ppm 0.95 0.20 21.05 16 0.98 0.23 23.56 6 Tb ppm 0.22 0.05 24.86 16 0.20 0.00 0.00 6 Yb ppm 1.21 0.11 9.46 16 1.23 0.12 9.82 6 Lu ppm 0.19 0.02 12.20 16 0.20 0.03 13.89 6 Ta ppm 0.50 0.00 0.00 16 0.50 0.00 0.00 6 Se ppm 0.00 16 1.00 0.00 0.00 6 Sb ppm 0.13 0.04 35.78 16 0.13 0.05 38.73 6 W ppm 1.13 0.50 44.44 16 1.33 0.82 61.24 6 Ir ppb 0.00 16 10.00 0.00 0.00 6 192 SY-2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Accepted Concentration Accepted Concentration Figure A.2 Accepted concentration versus measured concentration for major and trace element determinations for International Standard SY-2. Error bars are one standard deviation (Table A.3). Accepted values were obtained from Govindaraju (1984). 193 MBX-1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Accepted Concentration 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Accepted Concentration Figure A . 2 (continued) Accepted concentration versus measured concentration for major and trace element determinations for M D R U in-house reference MBX-1 . Error bars are one standard deviation (Table A .3) . Accepted values were compiled by Ame Toma. 194 QGRM-100 0 10 20 30 40 50 Accepted Concentration 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Accepted Concentration Figure A.2 (continued) Accepted concentration versus measured concentration for major and trace element determinations for M D R U in-house reference QGRM-100. Error bars are one standard deviation (Table A.3). Accepted values were compiled by Arne Toma. WNI WNI Table A.4 Normalization factors for spiderdiagrams (Figures 3.6 and 3.7). Element M O R B (Clarke, 1987: Newpef) Sun (1982) Sr 122 -K 955 -Rb 1.12 -Ba 14.3 -Th 0.185 -Nb 3.58 -Ce 11.97 0.865 Zr 90 -H f 2.87 -Sm 3.62 0.203 Ti 9000 -Y 34.2 -Yb 3.73 0.22 La 3.96 0.329 Pr - 0.13 Nd 10.96 0.63 Eu 1.31 0.077 Gd - 0.276 Tb - 0.0498 Dy 5.98 0.343 Ho - 0.077 Er 3.99 0.225 Tm - 0.0352 Lu 0.56 0.339 APPENDIX B E L E C T R O N M I C R O P R O B E A N A L Y S E S 198 Operating Conditions, Standards and Sample Locations Quantitative mineral analyses were carried out by the author at the University of British Columbia with a fully automated Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe. Standard operating conditions were used, with an accelerating voltage of 15 kV, beam current of 20 nA, beam diameter of 5 microns, peak counting time of 20 seconds (40 seconds for fluorine and chlorine) and background count time of 20 seconds. See below for the standards and crystals used for the peak analyses. Data was reduced by inputting oxide weight percents into the computer program Formula-I (Thirugnanam et al., 1989), designed to calculate mineral stuctural formulas and end-member proportions where available. The following list outlines the microprobe standards and crystals that were used to analyze peaks of the elements present in various minerals. Different crystal structures of minerals required the use of several standards and crystals; these are indicated below: Na Albite (S430, TAP) K F-phlogopite (S453, PET) for amphibole and biodte Orthoclase (S438, PET) for feldspar M g Diopside (S439, TAP) for amphibole, feldspar, pyroxene, epidote and garnet F-phlogopite (S453, TAP) for biodte Fe Fayalite (T104, LIF) A l Chromite (S441, TAP) for amphibole, pyroxene and epidote Anorthite (T101, PET) for feldspar Grossularite (S007, TAP) for garnet and biotite Ca Diopside (S439, PET) for amphibole, pyroxene, epidote and biodte Anorthite (T101, PET) for feldspar Grossularite (S007, PET) for garnet Cr Chromite (S441, LIF) Si Diopside (S439, TAP) for amphibole, pyroxene and epidote Orthoclase (S438, TAP) for feldspar Grossularite (S007, TAP) for garnet F-phlogopite (S433, TAP) for biodte T i Rudle (S442, PET) M n Spessartine (S440, LIF) F F-phlogopite (S453, TAP) C l Halite (S285, PET) Sr SrTi03 (S446, TAP) Ba Barite (S448, PET) V Grossularite (S007, LIF) 199 Mineral compositions were re-calculated by Formula-I (Thirugnanam et al., 1989) on the following basis: Actinolite: General Amphibole, A(0-l)B+C(7)T(8)O(24), fixed anion sum Biotite Trioctahedral Mica, Int(2)Oct(6)Tet(8)(0, OH, F)24, fixed anion sum Epidote Standard Epidote, X(2)Y(3)Z(3)(0, OH, F) 13, fixed anion sum Feldspar Standard Feldspar, Oct(l)Tet(4)0(8), fixed anion sum Garnet Standard Garnet, X(3)Y(2)Z(3)0(12) Hornblende Sodic-Calcic Amphibole, A( 1 )B(2)C(5)T(8)(6, OH, F)24, fixed anion sum Pyroxene Fe2+Fe3+ ratio adjusted, Oct(2)Tet(2)0(6), fixed anion sum Zeolites Unknown Silicate, based on 24 oxygens Discussion of Precision Error bars for mineral compositions plotted on ternary, binary and quadrilateral diagrams in Chapters 3 and 4 are not shown. The errors associated with oxide values obtained from the electron microprobe are probably insignificant when compared to the error in plotting the symbols used on each diagram. Normally, variation of major oxide data is assumed to be approximately ± 5 wt.%. The actual precision of the data is difficult to determine since minerals were probed on different days and required the use of different standards. The error experienced over time varies. However, effort was taken to achieve the best results possible and standards were calibrated each time before running the automated program. Sigma ratios for peak counts were unacceptable if above 1.0 and were repeatedly analyzed until good results were achieved; therefore, peak counts were within a reasonable range when compared to accepted values. It is difficult to measure precision of data due to inhomogeneity within mineral grains; this would require repeated analysis on one point. The electron beam could not be placed on the same spot for some minerals since feldspars could experience sodium migration and holes may be burnt into hydrous or volatile-bearing minerals species. 200 Table B.l Summary of minerals analyzed by the Electron Microprobe, including sample numbers and rock types. Mineral Analyzed Sample Numbers Northing Easting Depth Lithology/Character (m) (m) (m) Primary Pyroxene MTP-92-0046 3528.8 2238.5 189 Augite Monzodiorite MTP-92-0050 3514.4 2050.2 99 Pyroxenite MTP-92-0049 3528.3 2194 147 Augite Porphyry Dike MTP-92-0064 3521.8 2132.3 116 MTP-92-0044 3528.8 2238.5 198 K F Phyric Monzonite MTP-92-0045 3528.8 2238.5 194 MTP-92-0062 3599.9 1682.8 84 Diorite Secondary Pyroxene 88-67-90 3800.9 2063.7 90 Vein 89-126-14 3521.8 2132.3 390 89-143-690 3231.9 2206.1 690 89-138-370 3845.1 2202.9 370 Actinolite-Pyroxene Vein 89-197-150 3636.3 2211.1 150 89-159C 3179 2088 surface Pegmatitic Magnetite-Pyrox. Vein Primary Amphibole MTP-92-0050 3514.4 2050.2 99 Pyroxenite Secondary Amphibole 89-197-150 3636.3 2211.1 150 Actinolite-Pyroxene Vein 89-138-370 3845.1 2202.9 370 89-197-110 3636.3 2211.1 110 Actinolite Breccia Epidote 89-212-250 2950 2455 250 Vein and Disseminated 89-228-370 3830 1790 370 Vein Biotite 89-128-625 3528.8 2238.5 625 Biotite Breccia 89-127-8 3528.3 2194 562 Garnet 89-114-9 3411 1590.9 375 Intermed. Zone I, Vein 88-6A 3211.7 2385.7 surface Intermed. Zone II, Massive Gn-M g Primary Feldspar MTP-92-0062 3599.9 1682.8 84 Diorite MTP-92-0048 3528.3 2194 102 Plagioclase Porphyry MTP-92-0047 3413.4 1861 17 Augite Monzodiorite Secondary Feldspar 88-48-150 3190.8 2366.2 150 Albite Breccia Zeolites 89-199-640 3330 1780 640 Vug in breccia 201 9 a, H 2 9 OH 9 PH 4 1 t i ; « O - „ S IB * 9 OH H S O 9 CL, H s O 9 OH H ? o 9 O s SO z o 1 1 s ©$j { 3 r-'©d© 2 o s a © — d 2 <»> — — cs cs vo oo » o o o "2^ © 8 cs •n t- ~ 2 — o o => * -00 * ^  ON ~ o ov SO so cs r- o o o ^ © ci ci . d d d 2 oo — oo in oo O W N *o cs 00 o o ON Cl VO N (S h fN ri x vo cs o o o ^ o od d © ° 2 S w O l i H ^ Z S o H ci ci »n VO r~ OS r- vo e\ r-o\ •o- VO r~ cs ci t o ci Ov VO ci 00 cs 00 1- o CM ci o o o ON Ov r- o O o o o 9 o d -H d d d d d d d d o cs r~ r~ HT o> ci n n T oo OV O Ov — d — Ov VO vo -^ © r- — ov Ov © Ov T CS t-Ov © OS ~ d z c OV Ov •>* cs Ov o r- OV VO 00 cs 00 •>* o 00 Ov VO "T VO o rs  © Ov © © o o o o d d © d o d d d cs -H oo vo m vo CA 00 O W - n © ON oo © cs ci ov r> — o © © d d d d d d T CS f © »o o © © © d d cs vo o\ J£ " © d CS ci ci r- 00 cs cs cs f-CS 00 o vo 00 00 VO VO VO o 00 Ov r*- Ov o 00 © cs CO o © VO o ON © Ov Ov © o © © © © ©  -H d -H © © d d d d d © cs ci VO Ov CJ cs cs r- cs r- VO vo VO Cl Ov ov o 00 00 VO 00 00 ci Cl © Ov © Ov Ov o © © ' o o d d © d d d © © d cs •» — cs cs IT Cl Ov 2 Ov t- . © d ° cs © Cl © o © cs © o © — © d d d d CS cs cs Os VO 00 so ci f-00 cs © OS Os oo •—< d —- d d d cs H o ~ © VO CS ~ 00 © cs cs ~ © © VO — © © o o o 00 VO vo t cs cs OV cs vo VO VO o\ VO Ov •* © vn vo Cl vo CS 00 o t- f- © cs 1 © 00 Ov o OV Ov r~ r— o © © © o © © —< d d d © © © © d cs VO ON vri VO VO Ov vo o Ov o vn 00 Cl vo © Ov VO 00 Cl © © o Ov o Ov OV r- o o © © O *"H d -H © © d d d © © d CS cs cs T cs vo cs Cl Cl VO cs t- Ov Ov o cs Cl Ov o VO f~ Cl VO t- • © Ov cs Ov o Ov Ov r- o o © o o -H d d © d d d d © cs 60 CS O S £ 2i ^ Z U h i i © d o o © o cs s Cl o ci ON ov ov Cl Cl © I— ON o\ f- vo cs r~ ci © ^  ov © d © d © d *n ^ cs ^  cs vf H h (f) « oo *o ON co © ^  ov © d d d d d t n V5 n t Cs O -rT TT O ON ON vo vo Cl © OS © d o © © © d d ° d so so cs m r-o »n r^ - n os so »n os m o -^ t os o d d d d d n vt n os so so »o so r- so OS so SO CS 00 m o os o d d d d d oo Os oo - H so oo m oo f-o so ^ «o o os o d d d d d M ^  00 K 00 h «n TJ- >: o\ oo oo m t** co o °i o Cl 00 *o 00 VO cs Cl o ON © © © © 7] ci — vo „ ci 5J vo vo Ov Ov £ t- oo vo g; t-t: tr> o t °: o Co* vo C3 C3 I " w « CJ- cT r? s 2 u. 202 N •* Z 0 — 0 H " I o 9 cu H ts] Z 2 tt a P b "* ~ z o cs 0 z 19 w S * ~ z o co o ts) o rs § 9 «-> *5 2 2 N _ Z ts) § ^ O 2 * S o o OH H ts] Z - o •<»• O E; 00 vo °S 9 p O « N « O S - S N C ^ ^ • o • - 6 2 0 » VO cs 0 12 r- co vi . . 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" o d N O P " cs CS «CN o o 00 TT — O N • C N »CN cs rs O N N O A O N cn cn cs O N cs r~ o O N o o — — CS >CN N O CS cs r- T T tf-wn CS O N o o — —  cn © cs © O N cn o — p cs © cn © cn o NO cn o  d o © cn O N O N • t f —< •tf N O cn 00 C N •tf ^4 r~-cn cn cs 00 cn N O N O r- N O O N © • © cn N O o © cn cn C N N O o cn o o o O N cn o •— o cs cn cn d © d © cs © cn © cn • t f r- PH cn ON pp cn cn © cs © •tf NO o •tf • t f © • © © tf- © ON cs C N © © o C N C N © C S o cn © d d C S C S d cn d cn oo r*- oo co cs os cs vo o os cs cs O CS O CO d co" d co' d vo d 00 cs Ov O r- cs 00 —< Tf VO rs 00 ^ NO NO CN cn r- ON •o 00 •CN •o •CN CS CN •tf cn 00 cs 00 © NO •CN NO cn ON 1 ON cn © . -tf ON CN cn NO cs NO •tf o P cn © 00 CS o o cs d cs 00 cn cn © d d —• cs © cn d cn d © 00 © d oo —-© © 00 © d • C N «CN cn N O • C N -tf 00 — C S 00 00 O N O I i cs cs CO ro 1 >e3' 'eij'l O O i APPENDIX C D E T A I L E D C R O S S - S E C T I O N D A T A 226 Cross-section 3460 N Data Appendix C contains the volume percentages of alteration minerals that were visually estimated from diamond drill core on Section 3460 N . Assay information was provided by Imperial Metals Corporation Ltd. The compiled data was used to construct bubble plots (Figures 4.3 and 5.1) of the silicate and hypogene minerals to determine spatial variability and potential correlations. Abbreviations used in the alteration study (Table C l ) are: Headers Descriptions North. Northing (from Imperial Metals Corporation grid) East. Easting (as above) Rock Type LAMP=biotite lamprophyre AGPP=augite porphyry dike MONZ=potassium feldspar phyric monzonite AGMZ=augite monzodiorite ACBR=actinolite breccia BIBR=biotite breccia MGBR=magnetite breccia ABBR=albite breccia INBR=intrusion breccia (PLPP matrix) PLPP=plagioclase porphyry DIOR=diorite VOLC=volcanic rock Srt. Degree of sorting of clasts in breccia Rnd. Roundness of clasts in breccia Sph. Sphericity of clasts in breccia Max. Maximum fragment size in breccia O/C Open (matrix-supported breccia) versus Closed (clast-supported breccia) Mineral abbreviations are: QZ=quartz, KF=potassium feldspar, Bl-biotite, AB=albite, EP=epidote, GN=garnet, DI=diopside, AC=actinolite, ZE=zeolites, CA=calcite, MG=magnetite, BO=bornite, CP=chalcopyrite, PY=pyrite, CuOx=copper oxides (assay, %), Au=gold (assay, ppm), Cu=copper (assay, %). 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TT 2 — O O CN CN O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o O U O O U O O O O U U O O O O «n ^ ~-0^ W ^ »-« I^« W WW VJ uu oo oo' VO VO oo* oo' £ co so o o VO f-t^ - r- os f*-v o r ^ ^ r ^ v o v o v n c o f n - - ^ n h h C N C N ( N C N C N » T » C N O C N C N C N Cl f l (S f l ^ p - ^ P p C N O p C N j p p p p O O p O O O O o o o o o ' d o d d o d o d d o d d d o ' d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ^ ^ ^ P ^ ^ ^ c ? r 1 ^ ' ^ ! 0 . P 0 . * ^ i r i , , o p f i O O o ' d o o o o o d o o d d d o d o ' d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e r ) ' i S r * v i p « i n _ i o c o T f o o — o ~ N h x . 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— <-• —• -i p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p p o o p VO VO VO VD r ^ t ^ i > r ^ r ^ t ^ r ^ r ^ r ^ r ^ r ^ r ^ r ^ oooooooo vDvOVO'vo'vo'vovdvOvo'vOvd CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO i-H»-Nt^ t-N T r T t T f T t T f T f T r T r T f ^ T r T f T f T ^ Tf Tf TT Tf C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O C O CO CO CO CO v n v o v o v o v o v o v o v ^ v ^ v ^ w ^ i k o v o v o v n Tf Tf Tf Tf o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O N O v O v O v O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O s O N O N O s O s O s O s O s O s O N O v O s O s O v O s O s O s ON ON ON ON o © o p o © c » o p o p o p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o oooooooo 9 J I P ^ ! ^ P h ! ^ ^ ^ 0 H C U 0 H 0 H 0 H C ^ 0 ^ C U 0 ^ & ^ b 2 2 2 2 S 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 236 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O _ _ vn o o o — cs d d cs — d d o o o o o o o o o o o o vn — d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c s c i T f T f v n v n T f c s c s c s c s c s c o v n T f o — N n o c i N - o o o «n — — © c o o c s o o o c s © T T O O T f O O O O O O O O vn o o cs c s o c s o o c o c o o o o o o o o o © — o o o c s o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c s c s T f r ~ t - o o o v ' r ; 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MM *5 a. 2 CM 2 CM 2 CM 2 CM 2 CM MM CM MM <5 CM CM 2 2 CM 2 C M C M C M C M P M P H C M C M C M C M C M C M C M © © © © © © © o o o o o T f T f T f Tf Tf Tf Tf Tf Tf C l C l C l d C O C l C l C i C l Tf Tf Tf Tf -tf Tf Tf Tf Tf Tf Tf © © O O © © © © © © © © C M O N C M C M C M O H C M C M C M C M C M C M 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 238 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o •ci «ci «ci »ci «c. o o o o o r~ «ci en cs es cs «c, »n T f cn T f en o cn o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Tf«cswiocsooen«c.cs o o o o «c. en o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o T f T f C O T f T f T f T f T f T f T f o *n oo C A *n vo N O P I • - H - H — T f T f T f O T t T f o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e s o o o o o o o o o o o o — : cs o — cs o o o o O — — O P — — P — — o o o o o o o o o o o o o •Cl vn T f vo OV 00 5 r- -n o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o V O 00 — ci o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o — — o o o — —< o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d o ' d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o f ' - o v v o » n v o > n ' t f r - - o v . — c n c s e s — — T f T f T f v o r * - o v v o « n r ~ -o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ' o ' o ' o o o ' o ' o ' o ' o o o o o ' o ' o ' o o o o o o o o o T f e s e n — cs — c s « n c s c n c s e s c S T f c s e s o o o — o o o o — O O O P P P P o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O T f v O T f m v O V O — T f C S — — C S c n C S C S C n T f C v o o o o o o e n o o o o o o o o o o o o d d o o o o d o ' d o o d o ' c i o o d o d e n o o e n > n e s e s e n v o - l e n e s — — es — en O C S O m O O O O ' l O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0. 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PL . pi. CL* CU MP-C L . C L . P L . C L . C L . C L . C L . • V t T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f O O O O O O T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f T f P P O O P P O O O O v O v O v O v O V O v O V O V O v O V O V O v O v O v O V O V O V O V O V O V O v O V O v O v O V o o o p o o o p o p o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 239 S i 0 . o g o 2 < o w 3 0 . P J CQ O* 11 co 3 E •3 & IS E o p J E o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o — — — — — — — : — — — — — — — vn vn d d vn o o o — — cs cs o o o o o o — o o — o o o o o o o o o o o o — o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o — — m. o o o o o o o o o o o o o ' o — — o o o o o o o — o — o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o r * " C i « i n t f p . f P l o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o — — — o — — o o o o o o o o o o o 2 ° o o o o o o cs vn vn vn d d vn vn d d : — _ j o o — o o o o o cs cs o n n u *^ ,— o o o o o o o o o 2 = o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cs — cs — co — — — co oo vn vo f- — ON _ _ f - o o v o r ~ v n T f o o c s — — » oo _ Tfvof- — cs — — — — — cs — — O O O O O O O O O O O O O — 0 " " 0 0 — O O O O — — — O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * - > 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 — — — — — co oo vn T f TT ro r o _ v o o o v D r o v n r o v o v n r o T r r - r - - o v r o o o f " - c s - — — — — — — — o o o o o o o o o o o o o — . — . O O C O O O O O C S C S C S O O - O O O O O O O O O O O O O o d d d o o o o o o o 0 o 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 5 VO T f o o T f VO 00 O cs VO vn ON vo CO cs r-CO vn 00. 00 CO cs ON VO T f o o T f vn 00 p CS VO vn OV VO CO cs a CO vn 00 00 CO CS ON o o T f vn 00 p cs vo vn Ov VO CO cs CO vn 00 00 CO cs ON VO T f o p T f vn 00 p od cn d T f T f CO T f ? i t> T f Ov T f d vn cs vn ro* vn vn* vn vd vn od vn o* VO vo CO* VO Tf* VO vd vo tS vo ON VO o r- cs* f - CO* r- vn* r- vd r- 00 r- d 00 00 CO 00 T f 00 vd 00 00 ON 00 d ON cs* Ov CO Ov vn* ov vd ON 00 OV d o o CO o cs CN vo T f o o T f vn 00 p cs vo vn ON VO CO cs t~ ro vn 00. 00 CO cs OV VO T f o o T f vn 00 p cs VO vn Ov vo co cs r~ co vn 00 00 ro cs Ov VO T f o o T f vn 00 p cs vo vn Ov VO CO cs r-CO vn 00 00 CO cs Ov VO T f o p T f vn vd co 00 CO d T f T f CO T f T f vd T f f-* T f ON T f d vn cs* vn ro vn vn" vn vd vn 00 vn d vo VO CO vo Tf* VO vd vo t-^ VO ON NO d cs* r- CO t-vn t- vd t- 00 o d 00 00 CO 00 T f 00 vd 00 f-" 00 Ov* 00 d Ov cs* Ov CO ON vn* ON vd ON 00 ON d o o ON CO 00 CO t> cs VO _ VO o vn p T f ov CO 00 CO r- CS VO __ NO o vn p T f Ov co 00 CO f-; cs VO _ vo o vn O T f OV CO 00 CO Ov CS 00* cs vd cs vn cs CO* cs rs' cs d rs Ov* r-" vd Tf" ro ov o 00* o VO* o vn* o co o CS* o o* o OV Ov o r~* Ov o vd OV o Tf* ov o CO OV o OV o Ov* 00 o 00 00 o vd 00 o vn* 00 o ro 00 o cs 00 o o* 00 o ON f-o t> t-o vd r~ o T f r-o CO t-o o OV vo o 00 VO O vd vo o vn VO o r~ r- r- l> r- r- l> l> t> t- l> r- f - r- r- r- t> r- c- r- t> t> r- t> r- t- t- r- r-d d o d d d o* d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o rs o cs o cs o cs o cs o rs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs o cs ro CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO ro ro CO CO ro ro ro ro CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO •o-CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f ro T f CO T f CO T f CO T f ro T f ro T f ro T f CO T f CO T f ro T f ro T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO T f CO r- f - r- f~ t- 1- t~ r- r- c- r- t> t> (-. t> t> r- f~ f~ r- r~ r- r- f. r- r- r- f - t~ f. f~ f - r- r- C - t- f - r- r- r~ r- r-Ov 00 Ov 00 ON 00 Ov 00 ov 00 Ov 00 ON 00 i ON 00 ov 00 Ov 00 Ov 00 Ov 00 o\ 00 Ov 00 Ov 00 Ov 00 o\ 00 1 Ov 00 o> 00 ON 00 ON 00 ov 00 OV 00 1 OV 00 ov 00 o\ 00 Ov 00 ON 00 ON 00 Ov 00 1 OV 00 1 Ov 00 o> 00 i ON 00 ON 00 OV 00 OV 00 Ov 00 ov 00 Ov 00 OV 00 Ov 00 i Ov 00 OMOHOHOHOHOMQHOH OH 2 OH 2 OH 2 ci, cLi 2 2 2 ci, TH «s OH 2 OH » J OH OH OH OH OH OH QH 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 OH 2 OH — OH OH 2 2 On 2 d. 2 OH OH 2 2 OH 2 O H O H O H O H O H O H O H O H O H O H 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I I I X 1 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 240 o o o o o a. o o CQ a < CJ w O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o in »n o d « n « o d d o o o o o o o o o m *n d o o m vn d d o o o o o o o o — — vn o o o o o o es : — — o o o o — o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o CN rs m in o o o o o o o o o o o o 3 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o JG a. 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