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The mesoszoic plant bearing formations of Canada Graham, Roy 1931

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THE MESOZOIC PLANT BEARING FORMATIONS OF CANADA  by  Roy Graham  A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the Department of GEOLOGY  The University of British Columbia April - 1931.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  I.  INTRODUCTION  Foreword Acknowledgements CHAPTER  II.  page  1 2  CONCLUSIONS  Character of the periods indicated by the distribution and character of the formations.  3  Climate conditions indicated by the fossil floras.  6  Evolution of the floras  7  CHAPTER  III.  PLANT BEARING FORMATIONS  Jurassic Hazelton series Tantalus conglomerate  11 12  Cretaceous Mattagami series Spence*s Bridge Volcanics Skeena series Kootenay formation Blairmore formation Lower Upper Bullhead Mountain formation Haida formation Pasayten series Dunvegan formation Upper Cretaceous of the Stikine River Belly River formation Allison formation Nanaimo series A Discussion on the Cretaceous-Eocene Boundary Edmonton formation St. Mary River formation  13 15 17 19 26 26 29 33 35 37 39 43 44 47 48 54 57 61  II  page Dawson's "Lignite Tertiary series Estevan White Mud Ravenscrag DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES  62 67 68 68 73  BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY TO THE DIVISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN TIME SCALE. INDEX MAP  10-A  GENERAL CORRELATION TABLE  10-B  DETAILED CORRELATION TABLE OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS  10-C  DIAGRAMATIC SECTION OF THE UPPER CRETACEOUS OF ALBERTA  10-D  THE MESOZOIC PLANT BEARING FORMATIONS OF CANADA.  Chapter I INTRODUCTION  Foreword The following paper was prepared by the author with the view of synopsising the stratigraphic relations of the Mesozoio plant bearing formations of Canada,and of listing and making oritical comparisons of their floras. The data for this study has been obtained from the geological literature contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Canada, of the United States Geologioal Survey, and of various learned societies. In this paper the formations are dealt with approximately in chronological order.  Each is treated under the following  topioB:1.  Stratigraphic and lithologic character.  2.  The fossil flora.  3.  The age of the formation as indicated by palaeobotany, palaeontology,and stratigraphic relationships. An analytical table showing the distribution of the  plants has been prepared.  The plants have been arranged in  their natural order of families, as listed in Knowlton's Catalogue.  The genera and species within each family have  2  been arranged alphabetically.  The formations are listed  across the top of the table in order of age.  This arrangement  makes it possible to see at a glance the distribution of the various families of plants in the geologic column. Stratigraphic correlation tables, and a map showing the geographic distribution of the formations have also been prepared. Numbers throughout the text and those following the discussion of each formation refer to the numbers of the bibliography.  A separate short bibliography of the European  time scale is also given. Acknowledgments The author is very much indebted to Dr. M.Y. Williams for helpful advise and criticism in the preparation of this paper.  Chapter II SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Character of the Periods as Indicated "by the Distribution and Character of the Formation.  No record of plants from the Triassic of Canada has been found in the study of the literature.  The Triassic is however  extensively developed in British Columbia where it consists mainly of volcanic rooks, including trachytes, breccias, agglomerates and tuffs, with interbedded zones of marine sediments.  The land apparently stood high elsewhere in  Canada during Triassic time which was a marked period of volcanic activity. The Jurassic plant bearing formations are represented by the Hazelton series,and probably also by the Tantalus conglomerate.  Marine conditions prevailed in the Rocky  Mountain geosyncline and over the western portion of the Great Plains as shown by the distribution of the Fernie shale.  The thickness of volcanic materials in the Hazelton  series shows that the volcanic activity of the Triassio continued on into the Jurassic.  Land plants indicate  continental conditions, but the presence of marine invertebrates at one horizon shows that marine conditions prevailed for a  short time in central British Columbia.  The Tantalus  conglomerate points to an area of rather high relief in northern British Columbia and the Yukon, which supplied the large amount of coarse sediment contained in this widespread and thick formation. The Cretaceous period has left us an excellent record, contrasted with the rather meagre one left by the Triassic and Jurassic.  Cretaceous rocks are well distributed over  western Canada and are most completely developed in Alberta, where rocks from early Lower to uppermost Cretaceous are known. The Mattagami, Skeena, Kootenay and Bullhead Mountain formations all contain coal, indicating low lying marshy areas of wide extent.  The flora from these formations, consists  largely of ferns and cycads which give us additional evidence of prevailing moist conditions.  In the Cordilleran region the  coarse sediments (largely sandstones and grits), their great thickness in the Rocky Mountain geosyncline, and their thinning towards the east, point to a region of elevation somewhere in the vicinity of the Selkirks which supplied these caarse grained sediments. In the Lower Cretaceous or early Upper Cretaceous time, the coal measures of the Haida formation of the Q,ueen Charlotte Islands were laid down under estuarine conditions. remainder of the Haida formation is marine.  The  At a later time  (equivalent to the Pierre-Fox Hills of the Great Plains) alternating marine and estuarine conditions prevailed during the deposition of the Nanaimo series of Vancouver Island.  In the western part of the Great Plains, the most striking feature of Upper Cretaceous time is the alternation of marine and fresh water (continental) deposits.  The section of the  Cretaoeous in south-western Saskatchewan is as follows g ® u S • "5 ^ fc p o  Ravenscrag ) White Mud Est evan 1 Pox Hills Bearpaw Belly River Pakowki Milk River Colorado  Continental  (Pale beds ) (Foremost beds) »  Brackish waters Marine Continental Marine Continental Marine Continental.  Kootenay-Bla^rmore  In the foothills region to the west, a continuous-series of sandstones, the Allison formation replaces the Milk River, Pakowkl, Belly River and possibly also the Bearpaw formation. To the east, the continental formations thin out and disappear. (See sketch section, pagelOD). This distribution of sediments was brought about by the fluctuations of an epeiric sea.  In Colorado time, the sea  extended westward into the Rocky Mountain geosyncline depositing marine sediments.  Due to a rise of the continent, the sea  retreated and the continental Milk River formation was deposited along its western edge by  regressive overlap.  The sea again  advanced but with less extent than before^nd the Pakowki shales were deposited by progressive overlap.  On the next  retreat of the sea, the Belly River continental formation was laid down.  In the west, continuous continental deposition  6  took place from Milk River to Belly River, and perhaps into Bearpaw time.  This series of sandstones is called the  Allison formation.  A great submergence took place after  Belly River time when the Bearpaw shales were deposited.  The  continent which had been gradually rising now fully emerged. The sediments deposited in the brackish water of the disappearing Bearpaw sea are known as the Fox Hills formation.  In  the succeeding time continental deposits only were laid down. These included the Estevan, White Mud and Ravenscrag formations of southern Saskatchewan; the St. Mary's River, Willow Creek (in part Tertiary) and the Porcupine Hills (Tertiary) formations of southern Alberta; and the Edmonton (Cret.) and Paskapoo (Tertiary) formations of central Alberta.  These latest  Cretaceous and Early Tertiary deposits are absent from the foothills region.  Climatic Conditions Indioated by the Floras. Of the Triassic we have no record in Canada, and of the Jurassic only a scanty one.  The presence of ctycads in the  Hazelton series and in the Tantalus conglomerate indicate that during Jurassic time a warm temperate equable climate prevailed as far north as northern British Columbia and the Yukon. In the lower Cretaceous, a widespread equable climate i» indicated by the Mattagomi, Kootenay, Blairmore, Bullhead Mountain and Skeena floras which consist largely of ferns and  7  oycads.  The great similarity between these floras indicates  that the conditions in the interior of the continent were not much different from those nearer the sea coast.  That  similar equable conditions prevailed as far north as Greenland, is indicated by the flora of the Kome beds. In the late Lower and early Upper Cretaceous, warm temperate,or subtropical conditions are indicated by cycads, figs (Ficue),Magnolias, Ginnamomums and Diospyros found in the Upper Blairmore, Dunvegan and Nanaimo formations. The floras of the Edmonton,Estevan, and fiavenscrag foimations at the close of the Cretaceous indicate a somewhat oooler climate than in earlier Cretaceous time, though a much milder one than that which prevails in those regions today.  The flora at the close of the Cretaceous is similar  to that existing in Virginia today. Catalpa, walnuts  Chestnuts (Castanea),  (Juglans), plane trees (Platanus), poplars  (Populus) oaks (Querous), Sassafras, and elms (Ulmus) are characteristic.  The cooling of the climate was probably due  to the elevation of the land with consequent closing of the seaways and withdrawing of the epieric seas.  Development of the Floras The analytical table brings out the distribution of the various families, genera, and species in geologic time.  One  thing must be remembered however - the genera to vfaich fossil plants are referred are form genera and may not in all cases  8  show the correct relationships of the plants.  For instance,  classification of fossil angiosperms must necessarily depend on the shape of the leaves, which is less reliable than the character of the floral parts upon which the classification of modern plants largely depends.  On the whole, however,  the form genera correspond to the true genera. The distribution in time, of the various families will now be considered. The ferns are very abundant and diversified in early lower Cretaceous.  Six families are represented; namely,—  Cyatheaceae, Polypodiaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Schizeaceae, Marattiaceae and Hydropteraceae.  With the exception of a  few members of the family Polypodiaceae, none continued into the Laramie.  The large genus Cladophlebis is well represented  in Kootenay and Lower Blairmore age but is poorly represented in later floras.  The genus Sagenopteus is apparently confined  to the Lower Cretaceous. The gymnosperms are much more evenly distributed in time.  The cycads however do not occur in Laramie time.  The  species Pseudocycas un.liga ocours in the Upper Blairmore, Pasayten and Dunvegan and appears to range from Albian to Turonian time.  The Ginkgos  occur throughout the Cretaceous,  though they are reduced in Laramie time.  The genus Nageiopsls  is confined to the Kootenay and Lower Blairmore.  Pines  (Pinus) make their first appearance in the Upper Jurassic (Tantalus conglomerate)and continue to the present.  The  Sequoias appear in the Kootenay and pass into the Laramie  with unfliminished numbers.  The sub-family Taxoideae appears  first in the Dunvegan. The most notable feature in regard to the angiosperms is their sudden appearance and dominance in late Lower and early Upper Cretaceous time.  Angiosperms first appear in  the Lower Blairmore and the Bullhead mountain formations, in each of Which they are represented by a single species. None are known from the Xootenay, though Berry (12) considers that angiosperms existed then in drier upland environments, the Kootenay environment being moist, lowland and palustrine. This supposition is supported by the following facts: (l), the one other a two species,Aa Sape'ndopsis from the Blairmore formation and the/ Liquidambar from the Bullhead mountain both belong to the Oalyclflorae, a comparatively advanced and specialized division of the flowering plants; (2), the sudden appearance of many diverse modern genera in Upper Blairmore time.  Both  of these faots indicate that the angiosperms had already undergone a great deal of evolution before we have any record of them preserved in the rocks. Cinnamomums, Magnolias, and Dryophyllums are not known from the Laramie.  The genus Viburnum is found only in the  Laramie or closing stage of the Cretaceous. Monocotyledons are poorly represented in the floras, but this is no doubt due in great measure to the accidents of preservation.  Most monocotyledons are herbaceous and  the leaves usually wither persistent.  They therefore do  not have the same chance of being preserved as the deoiduous  10  leaves of dicotyledon trees,whose leaves may he carried readily by wind or water. grasses and sedges  In Laramie time we have records of  which means that pasturage was then  available, paving the way for the rapid evolution of the Mammalia. In reviewing the data,we see that the Cretaceous commenced with a flora consisting of Ferns, Cycads, Ginkgos and Conifers.  Two great changes in the flora took place  during Cretaoeous time.  The first was the sudden appearance  and dominanoe of Ange'osperms at the end of Lower Cretaceous time.  The second great change took place before the commence-  ment of the Laramie, in the interval between Belly River and Edmonton when a great many genera disappeared.  Several  families of ferns and all the cycads had gone before the commencement of the Edmonton.  Even the conifers and ang#os-  perms experienced a considerable change in their genera.  The  flora of the closing epoch of the Cretaceous bears a much closer resemblance to the early Tertiary floras than to those of the earlier part of the Cretaceous.  These floras consist  dominantly of a mixture of angiosperms and conifers.  Prepared by J. Paul Goode.  Published by the Universty of Chicago Prew, Chicago. 111.  INDEX MAP of MESOZOIC  PLANT .BEARING FORMATIONS 9 say ten Lot* Upper Cretaceous Z ~7a/t/a/us Cony lont*rate /0. JPano^aan (Lrnrmm.m)3. /lastt Aoami // fy/vr Cr*t oj /Ae Upper Cretaceous f/renees^r/dye &/ca»<cs a 1?*l/y 7?ioer. 5. Sdr/es /3 LCrtta O u>« r /3a.A///son Nanaimo 6 Koohnay S^^irrrjore <*ous ^d/nanla/r &//h*ad Mt Jurasf/'f f.7. f/atda /S Jf Mary's 'ffver , Mite/rzod & Tia oe/\scra«  s  V  I  1  «  {  §  '//"/-""/J I-  i I | * is1, \I VS J; \ r>  s * 4 1  '  ^  LU  I  CO £  1 > "» «| ^ N  M 1\  V 5 tV 3 *  * J*  1  1 1  ^  h <  \  LU  1  I  Dz  DC  O O  I DC  Ld 2  3 /  v?jacr/v I4  U  V ^  i il  N  1  r 1  11  ouvjvp  v ,  *  LJ O  I  a  V7U/P-t//) pUVf/'-'PU  -fHPJ » •"9  1  *<  *  * S/H  Q *  J Vi  1  * 1  •1vj  £  «;  c  . « 0  \  1 I ^  T  *§  £  K < *< ^> << $ 1 if u/y Utf7UOJrf/_ $ W7VOU&S- » <f* *y77 t J*  4 •s  •v §i s  *»  1  *  *  * c •S <5  >? s  V.  %  *  «  « «  c « i 1  /  ?0t Correlations of the Formations of the Plains '("After Williams)  Sra  blairmore Alberta  Period  Central Alberta  Southern Plains of Alberta  Mesozoic  CO 8 w o < EH s U « P fc {3 Lower Cretaceous Upper Jurassic  Palaeo- Generally zoic Mississippian i  Cypress Formation  Central 4 E. Montana  Ao  Wyoming White R i v e r Formation  +»  Ao  m Sentinel | Butte  a) Clark Fork  Paskapoo  Porcupine Hills Willow Creek  Edmonton  St. Mary River  Ravenscrag White Mud iistevan  Fort Union Lalrice (Hell Creek)  Fort Union  Fox Hills  Fox Hills  Fox Hills  Fox Hills  Fox Hills  Fox Hills  Allison •  Bearpaw Belly R Lea Park Absent  Bearpaw Belly R Pakowki Milk River  Bearpaw Belly R Pakowki Milk Kiver  Bearpaw Judith ft Clagett Eagle  Bearpaw  Colorado  Colorado  Colorado  Colorado  Blairmore Kootenay  PreColorado  Colorado Blairmore Kootenay  Kootenay?  Fernie  CJp» Jur  Up. Jur.  Up. Jur.  Palaeozoic  Palaeozoic  Madison  Palaeozoic (MacLison?)  Eocene Lara mte  Cenozoic  Oligocene  Southwestern Saskatchewan  m a)  Lance  Pierre Niobrara Benton Cloverly morrison  Ellis ?  Sunburst Palaeozoic  D/AGKAriAT/c Cross OF THE UppEP Cretaceous  Section Alberta  ( sJiou)iny interJmjer//tj of Cont/nenta/  mar/ne -format 'on s )  Post-tfj/s 17  rhtk  -  — : .V*  Co I or ado continentat  marine  Chapter III PtANT BEARING FORMATIONS  Hazelton Series.  The Hazelton series is exposed over large areas of country in the Skeena River basin in British Columbia.  It  consists of lava flows, tuffs and tufaceous sandstones, interbedded with black bituminous shales.  There is a marine  horizon near the base of the upper third.  The thickness has  not been accurately measured, but it amounts to several thousand feet. Plant remains are abundant throughout the formation, but in the majority of cases consist of casts of tree trunks and branches, although delicate leaves have sometimes been preserved in the interbedded shales.  Fossils have been  collected by Dr. G.S. Malloch and identified by Mr. W.J. Wilson and Dr. F.H. KnoWLton.  Baiera multinervis Nathorst  and Podozamites lanceolatus L. and H. have been collected from the lower part of the series; and from near the top, Glelohenla sp? and Nllsonia sp? the statement, "Fossils  Dowling (49,page 191) makes  collected in 1911 go to show that  12  the formation is of Jurassic age." Reference - Dowling, 49, Malloch, 73. Tantalus Conglomerate This formation consists chiefly of massive conglomerate composed of quartz chert and slate,but the formation also contains beds of sandstone, shales and some coal seams.  It  occurs as scattered areas in the southern Yukon and northern British Columbia.  Some of the more important areas are  located on the Lewes River, in the vicinity of Lake Laberge, in the Wheaton district, Yukon Territory, and in the Atlin district, British Columbia.  The formation attains a thickness  of 1,800 feet in the Wheaton district, but in many areas only a small thickness remains, the top having been eroded away. A number of plant remains were collected from Mt. Bush, Yukon Territory, and sent to W.J. Wilson of the Geological Survey,who identified the following species: Ferae Clado-phlebls  vaccensis Ward.  Dicksonia closipes  Heex.  Thyrsopteris murrayana  Heer.  Ginkgos Ginkgo lepida Cycads Ctenophyllum sp? nearest C augustlfolium Font. Pterophyllum Nathorstl Schenk Zamltes arcticus Goepp  Conifers Pagiophyllum sp. Wilson. Pinus nordenskioldi Heer. In regard to the age of this collection Wilson (96e) saysj "In my opinion this material is Jurassic in age.  While  two or three of the species have "been found in - or at least reported from the Kootenay, and they have all "been found in the Upper Jurassio, and a majority are known only from the Jurassic." The Tantalus conglomerate has been for a long time regarded as Lower Cretaceous since it overlies the Laberge series, whose age was determined as either Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous on the basis of a meagre marine fauna. (17).  It  would seem therefore that more detailed stratigraphic work and larger collections will be required to definitely fix the age of the Tantalus conglomerate. References - Cairnes, 17, Cockfield, 21, Dowling, 49, Wilson, 96e. Mattagami Series. The Mattagami series consists of fireclay exposed at various points along the Mattagami and Missinaibi rivers in the James Bay watershed of northern Ontario.  Although  it is distributed over a wide area, it is exposed at only a few localities, for in most places boulder clay and other Pleistocene deposits whioh cover it extend down to river level.  14  There are two phases of the Mattagami series, a mottled clay,and a grey clay or lignitic facies.  The two facies  were nowhere found in the same section or locality and therefore their relations to each other are unknown.  The  mottled clay facies consists of beds of sand and light coloured clay, some of which is mottled by brownish or reddish patches.  No fossils were found in this facies.  The grey  clay or lignitic facies consists of dark grey, dark brown, or black carbonaoeous d a y s containing fragments of lignitized wood.  The first report of these deposits of clay was that  of Dr. Robert Bell 1877 and 1878.  In 1910 Professor Baker  investigated the lignite and iron deposits ai Mattagami River. He thought the clays were Pleistocene. N\r.  In 1919 and 1920  Br. Keele made expeditions to examine these fire clay deposits from vfoich he oolleoted some fragmentary fossils.  These  were sent to the United States Geological Survey whose palaeobotanists appeared stated that from the fragmentary fossils the age of the beds^to be not.younger than Kootenay nor older than Permian.  From the Taenopteroid aspect of the leaves  Zeele was inclined to place the age tentatively as Lower Cretaceous. The following fossil plants were collected by F.H. MacLearn and identified by W.A. Bell:Ferns OladophlebiB cf C.albertsil Onyoheopsis sp Bell  Dunker  Cycads. Nilsonia cf. N. densenerve Conifers. Brachyphyllum Maclearni Bell Pltyophyllum graminaefolium Knowlton "The age of the deposit as inferred from this assemblage is considered to "be either Upper Jurassic or early Lower Cretaceous, with preference towards the latter on account of the presence of the species Pityophyllum graminaefolium which is abundant and widespread in the Kootenay." (Bell 8). References - Baker, M.B. (4), Bell, Robert, (6), Bell, W.A. (8) Eeele, J. (55) (56), MacLearn, (70).  Spence's Bridge Volcanio Group. The Spence's Bridge Volcanic group occurs along the Thompson River between the Canadian National Railway stations Toketic and Thompson River Siding.  The Spence's Bridge  volcanics occupy a synclinorum about fourteen miles wide which runs in a north-west south-east direction.  The bottom  of the synclinorum has not been exposed by the Thompson River channel. The group consists of more than 5,000 feet of volcanic materials, of both flow and fragmental type.  The rocks are  chiefly andesitic and liparitic lavas with amygdaloidal and vesicular types.  Interbedded with the lavas are  agglomerates, breccias and tuffs, the latter containing .J » " . ...... *.  plant remains. A oolleotion of these plants was made by Dr. C.W. Drysdale and was referred to W.J. Wilson and Dr. F.H. Knowlton who identified the following species? Ferns OladophleblB  cf  C. brownlana  Dunker  C. cf. C. faloata var montanensis Font. Cladophlebis sp. Oleandra sp. Sagenopteris cf. S. paucifolla (Phill) Ward. Taeniopteris of. T. orovlllensis Font. Taeniopteris  or Oleandra.  Equisitae Bqulsitua? Cyoads Mlsonla cf K. schaiimbergens$s (Danker) Podozamites cf P. gramlnaefolia P. lanceolatxis L and H. Podozamites sp. Conifers Sequoia Belchenbachii Hees. Sphenolepldium sp. In regard to age Wilson says* "These plants are probably Kootenay, but some of them have a Jurassic aspect.  As the  rocks in which they were found have been mapped as Miocene,  17  a change to the Lower Cretaceous was of such Importance that it was thought advisable to send the fossils to Dr. F.H. Knowlton, Washington,for examination.  Dr. Knowlton made  some minor alterations and confirmed my opinion that the Pimianus hills are Kootenay with decided Jurassio affinities. The above list of plants is from the corrected list returned by Dr. Knowlton." (96C). References - Wilson, 96C, Drysdale (51, page 137). Skeena Series The Skeena series occurs as isolated basins in the Skeena River drainage area.  The more important of these  areas of Skeena series are the Skeena River, Bulkley River, Telkwa River, Morice River and Groundhog coal basins. The strata consist of rather thin-bedded shales and sandstones, the former in some localities carrying many clay ironstones.  The series also holds a number of coal seams.  At the base of the weries there is usually found a bed of coarse crumbly conglomerate. Owing to the disconnected nature of the exposures and a seeming lack of continuity of the beds, a complete section of the series has never been obtained.  It is, however,  probable that their total thickness is in the neighborhood of 600 to 800 feet. Collections of fossil plants from the Groundhog coal basin were made by G.S. Mallooh and determined by W.J. Wilson and F.H. Knowlton.  The list of plants is as follows:  Perns Aorostichopteris -pluripartita (Pont) Berry Cladophlebis faloata Font. C. iflscheri Knowlton. C. virgin!ensis Font. Oleandra gramlnaefolla Knowlton. Thyrsopterls sp. Knowlton. Equisitae Equisitum flhilllpsii? Dunker Brongn. Cycads Nllsonia medlana leek. N. nigracollensis Wieland N. paryqla Heer. N. sohaumbergensis (Bunker) Nathorst Nilsonia sp Knowlton Podozamites lanceolatus (I and H). Zamltes montana Dawson Ginkgos Ginkgo siblrloa Heer Conifers Cephalotaxopsls ramosa Font Dr. Knowlton (73) makes the following remarks:  "One  specimen is absolutely indistinguishable from Acrostichopteris pluripartita (Font) Berry.  .  It has hitherto been  19  known only from the Patuxent formation of Maryland and Virginia.  Three specimens are not to "be distinguished, at  least from the fragments present, from Nilsonia medlana (Lec.) a well known Jurassic species.  This is the first time as  far as I know that it has been reported from higher "beds. The other forms are the ordinary species usually associated with the Kootenay,  and there can be no reasonable doubt  as to the correctness of referring them all to the Kootenay." A small invertebrate fauna collected by Malloch contained no species of stratigraphic importance. References - Malloch, 73, Wilson, 96a and b. Kootenay Formation. The Kootenay formation consists of prevailingly coarse grained clastic sediments of continental origin with beds of shale and seams of coal.  It is exposed in the Foothill  and Rocky Mountain regions of Alberta, British Columbia and Montana.  The thickness in the Crowsnest Coal field was  measured by McEvoy as about 3,600 feet, but the formation thins rapidly to the east and south.  In the Fran^k coal field  it is probably no more than 700 feet in thickness. The Kootenay was first recognized by G.M. Dawson in 1884 , and plants collected by him were described by Sir William Dawson in 1885.  The region of the Kootenay Pass may be  considered the type locality.  Subsequent additions were made  to the flora by Dawson, Newberry, Fontaine, and Knowlton, these last three on material of this age from Montana .  Ward  gave an elaborate account of the history of the Kootenay in 1885, accompanied "by a list of seventy-seven species.  Berry  discussed the Kootenay in 1911 and listed ninety-two species in his "Lower Cretaceous Floras." The following is a list of plants recorded from the Kootenay; those marked with an (x) have been reoorded from Canada; Ferns. Acrostlchopteris fimbriata  Knowlton  Adiantum montanense  Knowlton  x  Angiopteridlum canmorense  Dawson  X  Asplenium Dicksonianum  Heer  X.  A. Martinlanum  Dawson  Chiropteris spatulata  Newberry  C. Wllllamsii  Newberry  x  Oladophlebis albertsii var montanesls (Fon¥J Enowlton" C. augustlfolla Newberry x.  BrownianafDunker) C. constriota  Font  x.  distans  Font  x.  falcata C. Fischer!  Seward  Knowlton  v  x. C. heterophylla Font C. montanensis C. parva C. ungerl  Font Danker  x. C. virginiensis Font Note - The author's name should have been typed in immediately after the specific name in this and succeeding lists.  x.  Cladophlebls sp?  Dawson  Dloksonia montanensls  Font  D. pachyphylla x.  Dloksonia sp.  Dawson  Dryopteris? kootaniensis  Knowlton  Dryopteris momocarpa (Font) Knowlton  x.  Oleandra aretlca  Heer  0. graminaefolia  Knowlton  Onychlopsis brevifolia?  x.  0. Qoeppert$ (Schenk)  Berry  0. latiloba  Berry  (Font)  0. -psllotoldes (Stokes and Webb) Ward. Osmunda Dlcksonioldes Font,  x.  Peoopterls Browniana P. montanensls  Dunker  Font  Protorhipis flscheri  Knowlton  Equisitae x.  Equisltum Lyelli  Mantell  E Phlllipsl  Brongn  (Dunker)  lycopods Lycopodules montanensls Cycadales x.  Anomozamltes acutiloba?  Heer  x.  Anomozamltes sp?  Dawson  Oycadeospermum montanense Font C. rotundaturn x.  Cycadolepls sp.  Font Dawson  22  x.  Dioonites borealis  x.  Nilsonia schaumbergensls (Dunker) Nathorst  Dawson  Podozamltes inaeq trilateral is (Font) Berry x.  P. lanceolatus (lindlay and Hutton) F.Braun P. latlpennls  Heer  P. nervosa x.  Pterophyllum acntlpennis P. montanense (Font)  Knowlton  Sagenopteris elliptlca Font x.  Sphenozamites sp  Dawson  x.  Williamsonia? sp  Dawson  x.  Zamltes acutipennis  Heer  Z. apterus  Newberry  Z. aroticus  Goeppert  Z. borealis  Heer  Z. montana  Dawson  x. Ginkgos  Baiera brevifolia  Newberry  B. longlfolla (Pomel)  Heer  Baieropsis sp.  Dawson  Ginkgo arctlca  Heer  G. Algifata  Heer  G. leplda  (Heer)  Heer  G. nana  (Dawson)  Knowlton  G. sibirica (Heer)  Heer  Conifers Abietes follosus (Font) Berry Athrotaxopsis grandls Font, x.  Cephalotaxopsls sp. Dawson  x.  Cyparlssldlum graclle Herr.  x.  Czekanowskla sp. Dawson Olyptostrobus groenlandlcus Heer Larlcopsls longlfolla var latlfolla Font  x.  Nagelopsis augustIfolia N. longlfolla  x.  Nageiopsls zamoides  x.  Paglophyllum sp  x.  Plnus anthracltlcus Dawson  x.  P. susquanensls  Dawson  Sequoia acutlfolla Newberry S. ambigua Heer x.  S. cuneata (Newberry) Hewberry  x.  S. gracilis S. reglda Heer  x.  S. smlttlana Heer  x.  Sphenonlepldlum pachyphyllun Font  x.  S. kurrianum Heer  x.  Sphenolepldlum sp Dawson Sphenolepis kurrlana (Dunker) Schenk Wlddringtonites ramosus (Font) Berry  24  Incertae x.  Antholithes horrldus (Dawson)  Dawson  x.  Carpollthes sp.  Dawson  Carpolithus virginiensis  Fontaine  Berry (12) states that his 1911 list comprised 1 Lycopod, 2 Equisitae, 34 ferns, 19 cycadophytes, 25 coniferophytes, and 1 supposed monocotyledon, which really represents a parallel veined gymnosperm, - either a Czekanowskia or a Podozamites.  No representatives of the angiosperms are known  from the Kootenay flora, though Berry considers it probable that they existed at that time in drier upland environments, the Kootenay environment being moist, lowland and palustrine. The absence of angiosperms and the presence of Oleandra gramlnaefolia and Cladophlebls heterophylla are the best field guides for recognizing the Kootenay and differentiating it from the Lower Blairmore. Dawson (40) discussed the age of the Kootenay flora and stated that the age was Jura-Cretaceous, and that he correlated it with the Urogonian or Necomian of Europe, and that it was at least no younger than the Shasta group of the United States. Later (45) he concluded that the Kootenay belonged to the Lowest Cretaceous and was Necomian in age. The latest work has been done by Berry, #io says:  (12)  "Although it is not to be expected that its limits are exactly the same, I regard the Kootenay as in the main  25  Synchronous with the Barremian stage of the European time scale. — — »  The lower limit of the Kootenay appears to  "be slightly older than the Dakota formation of the Black Hills in Eastern Wyoming,(see note) although the two are partly equivalent.  No part of the Kootenay appears to be  as young as the Fuson formation of the Black Hills; and the Kome beds of Greenland, which may be in part as old as the Kootenay,are in part younger, and their flora is more nearly comparable with that found in the Lower Blairmore." Note:The Dakota of the Black Hills in Eastern Wyoming is a considerably older formation than the true Dakota. The Cretaceous in the Black Hills was divided by Jenny (54).  The uppermost division he designated as Cretaceous No.l  or Dakota.  This was later found to comprise not only the beds  containing the Upper Cretaceous Dakota flora, but also floras of Lower Cretaceous age. This has since (Darton 23 and 24) been divided into: 1. Uppper Sandstones - (True Dakota) I/. Cret. 2. Shales and thin bedded sandstones (Fuson) L. Cret. 3. Lower Sandstones - for which the name "Dakota of the Black Hills" has unfortunately been retained.  /« uiAieA  It is these lower sandstones the^fe Berry made reference,W References  -  Allan, (2); Berry (9), (11), (12); Dawson, J.W., (40), (45); Dowling, (48), (49); Knowlton. (604; Leach, (62); Stewart, (87); Willis, (95); Wilson, (96f).  26  Blairmore The Blairmore formation is a well defined lithologic -unit of prevailingly coarse grained continental deposits.  It occurs  in the foothills region of Southern Alberta and overlies the Kootenay wherever the latter is known to exist.  There is no  apparent stratigraphic break in the 2,000 to 3,000 feet of the Blairmore formation, other than numerous local unconformities which characterize continental deposits.  There are,however,  two clearly defined floras, - a Lower Cretaceous flora in the lower five-aixths and what Berry considers an TJ-oper Cretaceous flora in the upper 200 to 400 feet. Lower Blairmore. From a collection made by Dr. F.H. McLearn in the Crowsnest region, Berry (12) has identified the following species: Liverworts Marchantites blairmorensis  Berry  Cladophlebis distans  Fontaine  C. montanense  Berry  Ferns  (Font.)  C. parva  Fontaine  C. virginiensis  Fontaine  C. Ungerl (Dunker)  Ward  Coniopteris pachyphylla (Font.  Berry  Onychiopsis Goeppertl fSchenk)  Berry  27  Ward  0. psilotoides (Stokes and Webb) Sagenopteris canadensis S. elliptlca  Fontaine  S. McLearnl  Berry  Cycads DlQonites buchianus var arbietinus (Goeppert)  Ward  Ullsonia densinerve (Pont.)  Berry  Pterophyllum acutipennis (Heer)  Berry  Stenorachis canadensis  Berry  Ginkgos Heer  Ginkgo arotioa Coniferae Athrotaxopsis grand is  Fontaine  Brachyphyllum sp  Berry  Cephalotaxopsis magnlfolia  Fontaine  Gelnitzia sp  Berry  Nageiopsls august if olia R./Vageiopsls sp.  Berry  Sequoia Smittlana  Heer  Sphenolepls Stembergiana (Dunker)  Schenk  Angiosperms Sapendopsis brevifolla  Fontaine?  Berry (12) states that collections from the lower Blairmore have yielded twenty-eight different species.  These include a  liverwort, four so-called Sagenopterls believed to represent an extinct genus of the Hydropterideae, eight additional members of the fern phylum, four cycads, one ginkyo, nine conifers, and one dicotyledon.  The flora is especially charact  erized by the Merchantites. Sagenopteris. species of Cladophlebis. Dioonltes buchlanus arbietinus. the abundance of conifers and the presence of dicotyledons.  The most  obvious distinction between the Kootenay and Lower Blairmore floras is the sparing representation of dicotyledons in the latter and their absence in the former. After a careful consideration of the Lower Blairmore flora, Berry (12) came to the following conclusions: "The floral evidence is, therefore, conclusive in proving the Lower Blairmore flora to be Lower Cretaceous in age.  Its exaot correlation is limited below by the  supposed Barremian age of the Kootenay — - and above by ' the Cenomanian age of the Upper Blairmore flora which succeeds it." "I would be inclined to consider the Lower Blairmore as representing the later part of Aptian time and all of Albian time.  My conclusion regarding the age of the  Lower Blairmore, with due reservation because of the limited floras with which I have had to deal, is that it is more or less synchronous with the Patapsco formation of Maryland and Virginia, possibly reaching to a somewhat References -  Berry, (11)(12), Dawson J.W., (40). Leach (62), McLearn (69), Stewart, (87).  earlier horizon in its lower limits; that it represents a part of the Dakota and all the Fuson formation of the Black Hills in eastern Wyoming and a large part of the Kome "beds of western Greenland.H References to Lower Blairmore see page 28. Upper Blairmore. From a collection "by F.H. McLearn in the Crowsnest region Berry (13) has identified the following species: Ferns Asplenium Dicksonianum  Heer  Athrotacopsis or Widdrlngtonites sp  Berry  Cladophlebis albertsll  Heer  Cycads Pseudocycas un.1 iga  (Dawson)  Podozamites latlpennis  Heer  P. stenopus (Lesq) Conifers Gelnltzia .lenneyl  Ward?  Sequoia condita  Lesq?  Pinus susquaensls  Dawson  Angeosperms Populus cf P. bergreni  Heer  Ficus ovalifolla  Berry?  Magnolia alternans  Heer?  Menispermltes renlformis  Dawson?  <Daphnophyllum dakotense  Lesq  Sassafras mudgii  Lesq.?  Paliurus ovalis  Dawson ?  Saplndopsis magnifolla  Fontaine  S. belviderensls  Berry ?  One of the most characteristic and abundant fossils is Pseudocycas un.1 iga. The Upper Blairmore flora is decidedly of a younger age and is quite distinct from the L ower Blairmore flora with which it has no species in common, and from which it differs also in having an abundance of dicotyledon leaves. Berry (13) regards the Upper Blairmore flora as "unquestionably of Upper Cretaceous age, but somewhat older than the true Dakota sandstone.  In terms of the standard European time  scale, the upper part of the Blairmore formation would be Cenomanian in age, as is also the Cheyenne sandstone, whereas the true Dakota is Turonian in age." (See also note page 25). In regard to the age of the Blairmore Mclearn (69) says: "It has been pointed out however that the Cheyenne may be of Albian age (86a) provided the zone of Pervinquiera inflate is Albian.  This being so, not only would all  of the Blairmore be pre-Dakota but would also be of lower Cretaceous age providing that the Cenomanian be taken as the base of the Upper Cretaceous." Later McLearn correlated the somewhat youngefi Dunvegan flora with the Cenomanian and assigned an Albian age to the Upper Blairmore (72a).  The Mill Creek flora described by Dawson (40) is referred  31  by Stewart (87,p.29) to the Upper Blairmore on stratigraphical grounds.  He also believed that the flora of Dakota age from  Moose Mountain should also be included in the heading Upper Blairmore (See note on Dakota undor tho bonding Kootonay). From Mill Creek, tributary to the south branch of the Old Man River, the following plants were collected by G.M. Dawson and identified by J.W. Dawson. Ferns Asplinium albertum  Dawson  Dloksonia munda  Dawson  Olelchenia gracilis  Heer  G. kurrlana  Heer  Cycads Williamsonia recentoir  Dawson  Dicotyledons Alnites insignis  Dawson  Aralia rotundata  Dawson  A. westonl  Dawson  Aralla sp.  Dawson  Clnnamomum canadense  Dawson  Cissltes afflnis  Lesq.  (Lesq)  C.. affinis var ampla (Dawson)  Knowlton  Ficus daphnogenoldes (Heer)  Berry  Juglandltes cretacea  Dawson  Laurus crassinervis Maccllntochia cretacea  Heer  Magnolia magnlflea  Dawson  Platanus Heerl  Lesq.  P. affinis  Lesq.  Paliurus ovalis Dawson "believed it to be of Dakota age. The flora from Moose Mountain (18) collected by Cairnes and identified by Penhallow included the following species: Pteridophyta Thyrsopteris brevlpennls  Fontaine  Cycadophyta Nllsonia oalifornica  Fontaine  Ooniferophyta Ginkgo Huttoni  Heer  G. leplda  Heer  G. slbirlca  Heer  Athrotazopsls tenulcaulls  Heer  Sphenolepid Itun sternbergianum var lenslfl orum  Heer  Incertae Corpolithus ternatus Penhallow believed it to be of Dakota age. The age of the Mill Creek formation and the "Dakota" from Moose Mountain is probably the same as the Upper Blairmore, but as their correlations are not very detailed they should again be checked. References^Upper. Blairmore - Berry (11) (13), Cairnes (18), Dawson,G.M., (31), Dawson, J.W., (40) (45), Knowlton (60), Leach (62), Stewart (87).  33  Bullhead Mountain Sandstone  T  This formation is developed in the Peace river valley.  It is exposed in the Peace River canyon, along the valley of the Pine river and in the foothills to the west. The Bullhead Mountain consists of strata of fresh water origin lying "between the Triassic shale "below and the St.John shale above.  It is divided into two members.  The lower  member is made up of coarse crossbedded sandstones, grits, and conglomerates.  No fossils have been collected from the  Lower Bullhead Mountain.  The upper or Gething member consists  of finer sandstones, shales and coal seams.  The absence of  marine fossils and the presence of plant remains and dinosaur tracks in the Peace Canyon point to a non-marine origin.  The  thickness of the lower member of the Bullhead is about 3,000 feet, that of the upper member 1,400 feet, making the total thickness 4,400 feet. The following plants identified by Berry have been collected from the upper member: Perns Oladophlebis sp  Berry  Dlcksoniopsis sp  Berry  Oleandra gramlnaefolla  Knowlton  Onyohio-psis psilotoldes fS.and W. )Ward. Cycads Nllsonia nigracollensis  Wieland  34  Nllsonla sp  Berry  Podozamites lanceolatus (1.& H.)  Braxm  Pterophyllum ocutipennis  Heer  Ginkgos Balera palmata  Heer  ginkgo arotica  Heer  Conifers Athrotaxopsis grand is  Fontaine  Inolepis embricata  Heer  Sequoia Smittiana  Heer  Sphenolepis sp  Berry  Torreya Dicksoniana  Heer  Angiosperms Liquidambar europeum  Braum.  The age. Berry (ll) regards as undoubtedly lower Cretaceous, and that it is either equivalent to the upper part of the Kootenay or the lower part of the Blairmore, the latter age being the more probable. Mclearn (65) correlates the Bullhead Mountain formation stratigraphically with the Peace River and possibly the loon River formations to the east.  The Peace River formation  has been determined as equivalent to the Albian and Aptian of Europe on the basis of marine invertebrates.  The lower  Blairmore has also been correlated with Albian and Aptian time.  The latest work is that of McLearn (72A).  He correlates  the Lower member of the Bullhead with the Kootenay and the Upper or Gething member, which contains the flora, with the greater part of the Lower Blairmore.  In terms of the European  time scale the Bullhead Mountain formation is equivalent to Barremian and Aptian time.  The Queen Charlotte Series  //a  Fit r/rf a //'ff /t,  The Queen Charlotte series is developed along Skidegate Inlet at the southern end of Graham island.  This series  consists of shales, sandstones, and conglomerates with a single seam of coal in member C, or the Haida member.  Dawson  (29) following Richardson divided this series into the following members. A.  Upper shales and sandstones  1,500 feet  B.  Coarse conglomerates  C. D.  Lower shales with coal (Haida formation)1,800 - 5,000 " to which he added Agglomerates of volcanic origin 3,500 "  E.  Lower sandstone  2,000 - 3,000  "  1,000 "  These lower members have since been considered preCretaceous (46) (53), leaving the Haida formation as the lowest member of the series. The series is formed of sediments rapidly accumulated in shallow water.  Fossils found throughout the series are  marine except for the coal found at a single horizon in the 1. References - Berry (11), MiLearn (65) (66) (67) (72A).  36  Haida member.  This coal was probably laid down at a time  when shallow estuarine or lagoonal conditions prevailed over considerable portions of the area subject to sedimentation. Well preserved fossil plants are rare, the majority of plant remains being fossil wood.  It appears to be drift wood  beoause of its association with marine fossils.  The following  plant remains have been collected: Ferns Osmundltes skidegatensis  Penhallow  Heuropterls heterophylla  Brongn  Sagenopteris Mlsoniana (Brongn)  Ward  S. oblongifolia  Dawson  3. elllptica  Fontaine  Taeniopteris plumosa  Dawson  Cycads Cycadites sp  Dawson  Dioonites columblanus (Dawson)  Dawson  Nilsonla polymorpha var cretacea (Sch.) Zamites tenuinervls  Fontaine  Zamit es crassinervis  Fontaine  Ginkgos Ginkgo pusllla  Dawson  Conifers Sequoia Langsdorfil Coniferous woods Identifications were by Dawson and Penhallow.  37  There has "been a great deal of controversy over the age of this series.  On the "basis of the rather meagre flora.  Dr. J.W. Dawson considered the series as somewhat older than the Nanaimo series and probably the equivalent of the Kootenay. Whiteaves, working on marine invertebrate fossils from Dawson's subdivision "C",or Haida formation,concluded that it was of Middle Cretaceous age and equivalent to the Gault of Europe.  Stanton, working on faunal material collected  by Mackenaie, states (64) that most of the fossils, judged by European standards are not older than Gault, although a single species of Inoceramus cf I.labiatus Scholthein suggests a higher horizon, equivalent to the Benton shale of the Rocky Mountains and the Turonian of Europe.  Mclearn (68) who  studied the section in 1921 places the Haida and Honna in the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous.  It seems evident then, that  on the basis of the most reliable evidence, that of marine invertebrates, the Haida formation of the Queen Charlotte series is either early Upper Cretaceous or late Lower Cretaceous and is therefore somewhat older than the coal fields of 1 Vancouver Island. •  Pasayten Series. The Pasayten series is exposed along the International Boundary over a distance of twenty miles between the dlotcmoe and Skagit rivers in the Similkameen district, B.C. consists of argillites, sandstones and conglomerates.  According to  References - Dawson,G.M.(29), Dawson,J.W.(35), Ells (52), Goranson (53). Mackenzie (64) McLearn (68), Penhallow (75), Whiteaves (93).  Daly the thickness of the series is 30,000 to 40,000 feet. The following plants were identified "by Penhallow from collections made by Daly: Prom 5,000 feet above the base. Gleichenia Gilbert-Thompsonl  Pontaine  Glyptostrobus europaeus? (Brongn)  Heer  Pinus sp.  Penhallow  Sallx perplexa  Knowlton  Prom 13,000 feet above the base. Gleichenia sp.  Penhallow  Cladophlebis skagitensis  Penhallow  Aspidium fredricksburgens1s  Fontaine  Nllsonia pasaytensls  Penhallow  Pseudocycas unjiga (Dawson) Myrica serrata  Penhallow  Populus cyclophylla  Heer  Quercus coracea  Newberry  flexulosa  Newberry  Sassafras cretaceum  Newberry  According to Penhallow these collections point to a Middle Cretaceous age. the Shasta series.  The lower horizon is Cretaceous of  The collection from the upper horizon  contains three definitely Lower Cretaceous forms,and six definitely Upper Cretaceous forms.  On account of the  conflicting evidence,and the smallness of the collection, nbthing more could be stated than that it represents an  39  horifon in the Shasta-Chico series. • small poorly preserved marine fauna, collected from El,000 feet above the base was stated by Stanton to fall "apparently within the limits of the Horsetown formation."  (22). Dunvegan. The Dunvegan is a tongue of littoral sediments in the Peace River area extending south eastward into the marine shales of the Colorado group.  The rocks are mainly cross-  bedded sandstones with some shaly interbeds. The earlier collections from the Dunvegan were made by Dr. G.M. Dawson and Dr. Selwyn. identified by Dr. J.W. Dawson.  These collections were Dowllng (48) gives the  following list of fossils recorded from the Dunvegan up to the year 1914. Perns SphenopteriB ?  Dawson  Asplenlum nlobrara  Dawson  Cycads Dawson  Pseudocycas unjlga Conifers Sequoia gracilllma  (Lesq.)  Dawson  Sequoia cf S. Langsdorffi j|. Relchenbachl ?  Heer  Torreya Dlcksonoldes Baeurman (3). Daly (22), Dawson (28), Goranson (53), Penhallow (81).  40  Dawson (32) considered that the age of this flora was somewhat later than the Dakota group and nearer the horizon of the Niobrara and represents lower or middle senonian of Europe.  Berry considers that the floras consist of elements  surviving from Dakota time, the Dakota itself being Turonian and not Cenomanian. In 1930 Dr. M.Y. Williams and the writer made collections from near the base of the formation, at East Pine and on Coldstream Creek.  The following plants were identified by  Dr. W. A. Bell: Perns Cladophlebis arctica  (Heer)  Seward  C. friglda (Heer)  Seward  Sphenopteris (Anemia?) stricta  Newberry  Sphenopteris (Onychiopsis?) sp.  Bell  Tapeindium? undulatum (Hall)  Knowlton  Ginkgos Ginkgo sp. Cycads Podozamites sp. Pseudocycas un.1 iga  (Dawson)  Conifers Blatocladus (Sequoia?) Smittiana? Sequoltes concinna  (Heer)  (Heer)  Widdringtonites Reichii (Ettingshausen)(Heer)  41  Angiosperms Andromeda sp. noy.  Bell  Aralia sp. nov.  Bell  Celastrophyllum? sp.  Bell  Dryophyllum sp. nor.  Bell  Pious sp. nov.  Bell  S£6dneria sp.  Bell  Grewia sp. nov.  Bell  Srewiopsis ? sp.  Bell  Laurophyllum sp. nov.  Bell  Magnolia amplifolia  Heer  M. Holllckl ?  Berry  Magnolia sp. nov.  Bell  Magnolia sp. nov.  Bell  Nymphaeites exemplaris  Hollick.  P11atanus latiloba  Hewherry  Platanus sp. nov.  Bell  Platanus sp. nov.  Bell  Platanus sp. #ov.  Bell  Platanus sp.  Bell  Pseudoprotophyllum undulatum ?  Lesq.  Pseudoprotophyllum sp.  Bell  Sapindopsis sp. nov.  Bell  Sassafras sp.  Bell  Dr. Belli in a personal communication,states that of the thirty-four species represented thirteen are new and hitherto  42  undesoribed speoies, and eight are not specifically determinable.  Of the thirteen previously known species nine occur  in the Antane-Patoot series of Greenland, - five in the Antane and four in the Patoot. In regard to age Bell says: "It is not permissable at the present time to make too precise correlation of the Dunvegan formation on the basis of this florule with stages of the European section.  One may state with confidence that  a Cenomanian or a Turonian age is indicated with preference towards a late Cenomanian or rather early Turonean age. Certainly the Dunvegan appears to be definitely younger than the Upper Blairmore flora which Berry has correlated with that of the pre-Dakota Cheyenne sandstone,and which he regards as of Cenomanian age, but which some others consider as Albian." McLearn (72A) on the basis of marine faunas dates the underlying St. John shale as Albian. dated as Cenomanian.  The Dunvegan is tentatively  He states also that the Dunvegan can  hardly be correlated with any part of the Blairmore formation of Blairmore, none of which at that locality is likely younger than Albian or late Lower Cretaceous. If McLearn's correlations are correct either the Dunvegan is not younger than the Dakota as Berry (41) believes, or else the Dakota is not as young as Turonian.  A detailed  discussion of this problem, however, lies outside the scope of this paper. References to the Dunvegan - Berry (ll), Dawson (40) (43), DoWLing (48), McLearn (65) (66) (67) (72A).  43  s^th^rvO'  §. -rv^; ' ." J* Upper Cretaceous from the Stikine River.  -  -  "Prom the First South Pork (Inhini) River to the Pourmile (Cataline) Creek, there are exposures of a series that rests unconformably on the older complex.  Conglomerates  with pebbles up to one inch diameter predominate.  Interredded  with these are thin beds of sandstone.  Both of these types  of material are light grey (Kerr, 57).  The series seems to  have been waterlain." The thickness on a mountain opposite the mouth of Coldwater Creek exceeds 2,000 feet whereas on the First South Fork river there is not much more than 100 feet exposed. The strata are everywhere practically horizontal, which is in marked  contrast to the underlying rocks.  The following leaves were collected from this series by Dr. F.A. Kerr in 1926 and identified by W.A. Bell: Asplenium Dicksonioides  Heer  Aspldlophyllum trilobatum  Lesq.  Prot ophyllum stlckinensis  Bell  Platanus uniformis  Bell  Populus Kerri  Bell  Myrlca sp.  Bell  In regard to age, Bell (7) says: "Asplenium Dicksonioides. when used as a name for sterile shoots such as those from this looality, is a form genus with a long vertical range.  Aspldlophyllum trilobatum has  44  hitherto "been reported from the Dakota group of Kansas, and from the Raritan of the Atlantic coastal plain.  As the  remaining species are new, nothing may be said about their range in time.  On the whole, the assemblage of plants, though  meagre, suggests an Upper Cretaceous age and more probably a 1 Cenomanian or Turonian, than a later age."  Belly River. The Belly River is a continental formation of fresh water shales and sandstones with some coal seams.  It was defined  by Dawson as the continental sediments lying between the Lower dark shales (Pakowki)and the Pierre shales (Bearpaw). "The period of time represented by the Belly River formation 4r increases markedly from east to west as a natural outcome of the history of the plains in Montana time.  The Pierre sea  of Montana time twice invaded southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. The first invasion is represented by the Pakowki shales and the second by the Bearpaw shales.  The continental Belly River  formation lies like a wedge between the Pakowki and the Bearpaw with its thin edge toward the east; it is absent in Manitoba and thin in Saskatchewan but thickens markedly in Alberta at the expense of the underlying Pakowki shales.  In  the foothills it is replaced by the Allison formation, 3,000 feet thick and whose lower part ocoupies the place of the References -  Bell (7), Kerr (57), (58).  45 Pakowki shales and most of the Milk River sandstone." (94). The follov/ing plants have "been recorded from the BellyRiver formation: Perns Angeopteridium striotlnerve ? (pro! [probably Taeniopteris or Nllsonla) Asplenlum Dicksonlanum  Heer  A. nlobrara  Dawson  Sphenopteris Johnstrupl  Heer  Thyrsopterls pecopteroides  Fontaine  Cycads Dioonlte8 sp. Ginkgos Dawson  Ginkgo bayneslana Ginkgo sibirlca  (Heer)  Heer  Conifers Abletites Tyrellli  Dawson  Athrotaxopsls teulcaulls  Fontaine  Cunnlnghamltes pulchellus  Knowlton  Dammarla aclcularls  Knowlton  Elatocladus albertensls  Bell  Gelnltzla formosa ?  Heer  Pagiophyllum sp. Sequoia ambigua  Heer  3. cuneata  Newberry  3. Relchenbachl  Heer  3. Smittiana  Heer  46  Also wood of Sequoia. Taxites. Ginkgo Thuga and Pinus or Abies. Monocotyledons Heer  Trapa borealls Dicotyledons Alnites grandifolla  Newberry  Betulites sp. Brasenia ant1qua  Dawson  Castalia Stantonl  Knowlton  Cissltes sp. JuglanB crasslpes ?  Heer  Juglans sp. Paliurus cretaoeus  Lesq.  P. oralis  Dawson  Populus cretaceae  Knowlton  P. elllptica  Newberry  Protophyllum Haydenil  Lesq.  Quereus rhamnoides  Lesq.  Salix sp. Saplndus sp. Incertae Carpltes Judlthae * Salisburla sp. The age of the Belly River is fixed by its stratigraphic position as early Montana and is approximately equivalent to the Senonian of Europe.  It is correlated on its dinosaur  content as approximately equivalent to the Judith River of  54  the United States.  The Allison Formation. In the Blairmore area a series of continental sediments, the Allison formation,replaces the Milk River sandstone, Pakoviki shales, Belly River sandstone, and possibly also the Bearpaw shale. (94).  It consists of a series of coarse  sandstones about 1,900 feet in thickness. The following plants have "been described by Berry from material collected by McLearn. Ferns Asplenium ? coloradense  Knowlton  Fern - undeterminable. Cycads Zamites albertensis  Berry  Conifers Brachyphyllum macrocarpon  Newberry  Geinetzia formosa  Heer  3equoia heterophylla  Velenovsky  Taxodium ? sp.  Knowlton  Angeosperms PIatanus sp.  Berry  ViVurnum sp.  Berry  References -  Allan (2), Cairnes (18), Dawson,G.M. (31), Dawson, J.W. (40)(41)(42), Dowling (48)(50), Knowlton (60), Williams and Dyer (94).  48  Berry (14) states that the Allison flora is clearly younger than the Colorado and just as surely older than the Laramie flora.  He favours an early Montana age for this flora.  McLearn (69) on the basis of faunas from above and below the plant bearing horizon correlates the Allison with the Eagle-Clagett of the United States and the Milk River, Pakowki, and Belly River formations of southern Alberta. References - Berry (14), Leach (63), McLearn (69), Williams and Dyer (94). Upper Cretaceous of Vancouver Island. Upper Cretaoeous rocks are developed along the east coast of Vancouver Island more or less continuously from Saanioh to Campbell River and also at Port McNeil at the northern end of the island. The series consists of conglomerates, sandstones and shales with sane coaly streaks and coal seams.  The series,  as shown by its fauna, is partly of marine origin, doubtless estuarine since it was deposited on a surface of considerable relief, and under varying conditions as shown by the rapid vertical and lateral gradations of the sediments.  The series  contains coal and land plants, most probably fresh water accumulations.  Hence, conditions of fresh,or at least brackish  water, that is, terrestrial conditions alternated with marine conditions. At Nanaimo,the series has been divided into eleven members, all but the upper one being fossiliferous. Identical species have been collected throughout the series.  The number and character of the members vary  considerably from place to place.  Glapp (20) has shown that  the series deposited in the Duncan area was contemporaneous with that in the Nanaimo area. The following fossils have been recorded from the Uanaimo series.  The list in Knowlton*s Catalogue formed the  basis of the present list: Perns AdSantltes praelongus  Dawson  Anemia elongate (Hewb.)  Knowlton  Cladophlebis Columbiana  Dawson  Davailites Richardson!  Dawson  Dryopteris Kennerlyi (Newb.)  Knowlton  Macrotaeniopterls vaneouverensis  Dawson  "Neuopteris castor"  Dawson  Pecopteris sp.  Dawson  Pteris glosaopteroldes  Dawson  ? Taeniopteris •fllumosa  Dawson  Taeniopteus orovlllensis Ginkgos Ginkgo baynesiana (Dawson)  Knowlton  G. Dawson!  Knowlton  Cycads Ctenopterls columbiensls  Penhallow  Nllsonia lata  Dawson  Conifers Cupressinoxylon  Dawson  Dammarltes dubius  Dawson  Glyptostrobus sp.  Dawson  50  Noeggerathlopsis Bobins1  Dawson  Sequoia cuneata  Newberry  (Newb.)  S. Langsdorfil  Heer  Taxites sp.  Dawson  Taxodium sp.  Dawson  Tomlon densifolium (Dawson)  Knowlton  Monocotyledons Greonomites sp. Phragmites cordaiformus  Dawson  Sabal imperlalis  Dawson  Dicotyledons Alnites insignls  Dawson  Anisophyllum sp.  Dawson  Artocarpophyllum ocoidentale  Dawson  Betula praeantlqua  Dawson  Ceanothus cretaceus  Dawson  C. Heerl  Lesq.  Cornus obesus  Dawson  Diospyros emiens  Dawson  D. vancouverensis  Dawson  Diospyros (calyx of)  Dawson  Dryophyllum elongatum  Dawson  D. neillianum  Dawson  D. nervosum  Dawson  D. occidentale  Dawson  Dryphyllum sp.  Dawson  J  Pagophyllum nervosum  Dawson  P. retrosum  Dawson  Pious contorts  Dawson  P. magnoliaefolia  Lesq.  P. rotundata  Dawson  p. wellingtoniae  Dawson  Jutlandites fallax  Dawson  Jutlandites ? sp.  Dawson  Juglans harwoodensis  Dawson  Laurophyllum insigne  Dawson  Liriodendron succedens  Dawson  L. praetulipiferum  Dawson  Macctlntockia trinervis  Dawson  Magnolia capellinii  Heer  M. occidentalis  Dawson  Menispermites sp.  Dawson  Paluirus neillii  Dawson  Persea Lecontiana  Lesq.  Platanus latoir (Lesq)  Knowlton  Populites probalsamifera  Dawson  Populus longoir  Dawson  P. protozaddachi  Dawson  P. rectinervata  Dawson  P. rhomboidea  Dawson  P. trinervis  Dawson  Populus sp.  Dawson  Proteoides ma^or  Dawson  52  Proteoi&es nelllll  Daws on  Proteoides sp.  Dawson  Protophyllum nanaimo  Dawson  Protophyllum sp.  Daws on  Quercus Holmesii (Lesq)  Lesq.  multlnervls  Lesq.  platinervis  Lesq.  vaneouveriana  Trelease  vlctorlae  Dawson  Quercus sp.  Daws on  Salix paclflea  Dawson  Sassafras sp.  Dawson  Ulmophyllum priscum  Daws oil  Ulmus dubia  Dawson  Incertae Carpolithes meridionalis  Dawson  Carpolithes sp.  Dawson  Phyllltes sp.  Dawson  Phyllltes sp.  Dawson  Salisburla pusllla  Dawson  Taenanurus lnoertus  Dawson  For the most part, this list represents collections made by Richardson, G.M. Dawson, and others, and identified by Sir William Dawson.  A few species were later added by  Penhallow. Dawson (39) plaoed the Nanaimo series in the Upper Cretaeeous and considered it equivalent to the Chico and Tejon  formations of California, ana to the Upper Senonian or Danian of France.  He believed the Port McNeil beds were  slightly younger than the Nanaimo series and the Baynes Sound collection to be slightly older.  Clapp (20) correlated the  rocks of the Nanaimo series with the sediments in the Duncan map-area, both on stratigraphical and lithological grounds and considers the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Vancouver Island as all of approximately the same age. On the basis of marine fossils collected from the series, Whiteaves (93) says: "All the fossils — - from the Nanaimo group, which as now understood, would appear to be not only the equivalent of the Chico group of California but also of the Pierre-Fox Hills or Montana formation of Manitoba, the North West Territories and adjacent states, but also in a general way of the Upper Chalk of England and the Senonian of France. Dr. Kossmatt correlates it with the Upper Senonian." The correlations based on the more reliable marine invertebrates thus supports the correlations made on the fossil floras.  References  -  Bancroft (5), Clapp (19)(20), Dawson,G.M. (32), Dawson,J.W. (34)(35)(39)(43)(45)(46), Dowling (49), Goranson (53), Knowlton (60), Penhallow (75), Richardson (83), Whiteaves (93).  54  The Cretaceous Eocene Boundary.  In order to understand the literature dealing with the uppermost Cretaceous (Laramie) i.e., the Edmonton, St.Mary^ River, Willow Creek, Estevan, White  Mud  and Ravenscrag  formations, it is necessary to review in brief the problem of the Cretaceous-Eocene boundary. The following series in South Dakota was used as the type section in making correlations: White River  = Wasatch  Port Union Lance Pox Hills Pierre. The White River was correlated with the Wasatch and was definitely known to be Eocene. were as definitely Cretaceous.  The Pox Hills and Pierre  The trouble arose in placing  the Lance and Port Union,which were transitional in character. As there was no succession of marine beds on which to base correlations, it was necessary to determine,if possible, where the major diastrophic break lay in these continental deposits which show the many local unconformities common to continental deposits. Dr. Knowlton (61) gives an excellent historical sketch of the problem up to 1922 and also of the use of the term  55  Laramie, a term applied to the uppermost members of the conformable Cretaceous succession. The term Laramie was originally established by Zing in 1875 as that series of beds which conformably overlay the I*ox Hills in the Denver basin.  It was thought by King to be  Cretaoeous, by Hayden to be Tertiary. "The term Laramie, as originally established by King, seemed to have a very definite signification and delimitation, but during the forty years after it was first defined it had come through faulty interpretation, mistaken stratigraphic identification and general looseness of application to have a somewhat varying and vicareous usage.  As an instance  of this latitude in the usage of the term mention may be made of a recent textbook of geology, in which "Laramie series" is applied to all the beds between the Montana and the Fort Union, while "Upper Laramie," and "Lower Laramie" or "Laramie proper" are applied, respectively to the beds above and below the unconformity first shown by Cross to exist in the Denver Basin.  In the Canadian provinces  Laramie is used practically as it was established by Dawson, Tyrrell and others, namely, as a group including the Bdmonton(Cretaceous) and the Paskapoo (Tertiary).  The  Edmonton is sometimes called the "Lower Laramie" and the Paskapoo the "Upper Laramie." (61). The term Laramie is thus seen to be in hopeless confusion in the geologic literature.  56  Prom early times, the Port Union was accepted as Eocene.  Palaeobotanists wished to draw the Cretaceous-Eocene  "boundary line between the Pox Hills and the Lance; vertebrate and invertebrate palaeontologists, on the other hand, wished to draw the line between the Lance and Port Union.  However,  the Lance and Port Union have since been shown to be conformable (90). Evidence relating to the position of the boundary between the Cretaceous and Eocene is summarized by Thom and Dobbin (88). "The absence of any great diastraphic break (in the Northern Plains section) between the Pox Hills and the Wasatch is indicated by (l), by the uninterrupted rythm of earth movements (11) by the apparent survival of a restricted Pox Hills fauna in a relic sea in the Williston basin at least as late as Cannonball time, and (ill) by the essential identity of the Lance, Port Union and Wasatch floras, and by the presence of plants identified as Lance species in the Colgate member of the Pox Hills, or below the previously supposed Cretaceous-Eocene unconformity." "The assignment of the Lance and Port Union transition beds to the Cretaceous or Eocene will depend on the type section against which a comparison is made.  On the basis of  diastrophic and other natural relationships found in eastern Montana and Northern Wyoming, a worker in the region would select the Tongue River - Sentinel Butte contact, or base of the Kingsbury conglomerate as, the local Cretaceous-Eocene  57  contact, i.e., the top of the Port Union." Most American geologists and palaeontologists now accept the top of the Port Union as the Cretaceous-Eocene boundary. Knowlton and Cross on palaeobotanical evidence still held to the Pox Hills-Lance boundary as the top of the Cretaceous. The great difference of opinion lay in the fact that the floras were of Eocene aspect, whereas the vertebrates were Cretaceous.  "This can best be explained by assuming that these  two forms of life evolved at different rates.  Under this  assumption, the plants passed through the greatest evolutionary change in the time between Belly Eiver and Edmonton, whereas from Edmonton on, they were more or less stationary. The vertebrates on the other hand, were steadily and rather rapidly changing until the end of Lance time when the primitive forms disappeared.  It would seem therefore that the greatest  reliance should be placed on the vertebrates to differentiate between the ages of Upper Cretaceous formations." (94 page 52). The Edmonton Formation. The Edmonton formation was first described by Tyrrell in 1886 (89) as the coal bearing series lying above the marine Pox Hills and Bearpaw formations and below the fresh water Paskapoo series. References -  Allan (2), Brown (16), Knowlton (59)(61), Matthew (74), Schuchert (85 p. ). Stanton (86), Thom and Dobbin (88), Ward (90), Williams and Dyer (94).  1.  58  The formation is distributed over the western two-thirds of Alberta and is known to occur at least as far north as lesser Slave Lake.  The most southerly point at which undoubted  Edmonton beds have been recognized is on the Little Bow river. South of the Little Bow the Edmonton formation is represented by the approximately equivalent St. Mary's formation which extends southward across the International Boundary into Montana.  The Edmonton occupies a broad trough shaped structure  with a north-west trend, so that the lower members of the formation outcrop on either side of the structure. The Edmonton formation consists largely of sediments deposited under fresh and brackish water conditions, in shallow fresh water basins, or in estuaries and deltas or in littoral zones along the border of an advancing or retreating sea.  The composition of the beds varies greatly both  laterally and vertically.  The formation consists of thin  alternating beds of white and pale grey argillaceous sands, grey and brown clay, arenaceous shales, black carbonaceous' shales, and coal. to south.  The thickness varies greatly from north  On the Little Bow Eiver it is about 400 feet thick  but on the Bow and Red Deer rivers it is about 1,000 feet. Invertebrate fossils are not abundant, though fresh and brackish water fossils have been collected at various horizons.  Dinosaurs and other vertebrate remains are  abundant at several horizons.  Fossilized tree trunks are  abundant though leaf impressions are rare. plants have been collected:  The following  59  Ginkgos Ginkgo laramlensls  Ward  Conifers Abietes Tyrrellif  Dawson  Glyptostrobus sp. Sequoia Langsdorf11 (Brongn)  Heer  Sequoia nordemhioldll  Heer  S. Beichenbaohll (Geinity)  Heer  Taxodlum ocoldentalo  Newberry  Tacites Olriki  Heer  Angiospermae Aesculus antiquus  Dawson  Castanea sp. Lemna (Splrodela) scutata  Dawson  Platanus Newberryana  Heer  P. nobilis Populus amblyrhynoha P. cyclomorpha  Ward Knowlton and Cockerell  P. Newberryl  Cockerell  Sapendus afflnls  Newberry  Trapa borealis T. mlcrophylla Tyrrell (89) p.138 E), mainly on vertebrate evidence placed the Edmonton as the close of the Cretaceous and the overlying Paskapoo as Tertiary.  60  Prom the fossils collected in 1911 Dr. Knowlton reported that "the species indicate beyond all manner of doubt that the age is Fort Union. (16 p.367), additional and better material secured from the same spot in 1912 was reported on by Dr. Hollick who says that "the specimens from the Edmonton formation  indicate unquestionably the Fort Union age of  the horizon." (16 p.367). The vertebrate fossils as determined by Sternberg are intermediate in age between the Belly River and Lance, but closer to the latter (94 p.50).  The evidence is well  summarized in the following paragraph (94 p.52). "The apparently conflicting evidence of the age of the Edmonton, the flora indicating a Fort Union age, and the vertebrates suggesting an age between Belly River and Lance, can best be explained by assuming that these two forms of life evolved at different rates.  Under this assumption, the  plants passed through the greatest evolutionary change in the time between Belly River and Edmonton, whereas from Edmonton on they were more or less stationary.  The vertebrates, on  the other hand, were steadily and rather rapidly changing until the end of Lance time when the primitive forms disappeared. It would seem, therefore, that greatest reliance should be placed on the vertebrates to differentiate between the ages of Upper Cretaceous formations, and accordingly the Edmonton should be considered pre-Lance, or as Sternberg states "intermediate in age between the Belly River and the Lance  61  formations but closer the latter."  Perhaps at least the  upper part of the Edmonton is of Lance age." References - Allan (1)(2), Brown (16), Tyrrell (89), Williams and Dyer (94), Wilson (964). The St. Mary's River Formation. This formation was named by Dawson in 1884 from the St. Mary's river on which the formation is well exposed. There Dawson recognized the Fox Hills and separated it from the St. Mary's River formation but on the Old Man river, due to a change in lithology he failed to recognize the Fox Hills which he included in the St. Mary's River formation.  Stewart (87)  also included the Fox Hills in the St. Mary's River.  The St.  Mary's River formation was redefined by Williams and Dyer (94) as that series of continental rocks lying between and making transitional contacts with the brackish water Fox Hills below and the Willow Creek fresh water formation above.  It is exposed  on two limbs of a rather narrow syncline in southern Alberta. On account of a change in the lithology it is replaced by the approximately equivalent Edmonton formation to the north. The St. Mary's River formation consists largely of hard grey and dun coloured sandstones, with soft grey and brown shales and sandy shales.  At the base it carries a coal seam.  Fossils are scarce in this formation.  They consist of a  few plants, fresh water molluscs and vertebrates.  The  following aquatic plants were identified "by Dr. Bell: Pistia sp.  Sell  Trapa mlcrophylla  Lesq.  Trapa sp.  Bell  Age: Fresh water invertebrates indicate that the St. Mary's River formation should be placed nearly as high as the Fort Union (94 page 55).  The dinosaurs are Edmonton in age.  It is  however known to be the stratigraphic equivalent of the Edmonton in which more evidence is found, and therefore its 1 age is intermediate between Belly River and Lance.  i  Dawson's "Lignite Tertiary" The term "Lignite Tertiary" was applied by Dawson to the lignite bearing series which overlay the Fox Hills formation in southern Saskatchewan.  He believed it was  equivalent to the Fort Union which was at that time regarded as Tertiary.  The "Lignite Tertiary" of Dawson has since been  divided, in ascending order, into the Estevan, White Mud and Ravenscrag formations. This group will first be treated as a whole; its subdivisions will be treated separately later. The "Lignite Tertiary" has wide distribution over the southern part of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. older maps it is plotted as Palaeocene or Eocene. 1* References  -  On the  It is  Dawson,G.M. (31), Dawson,J.W.(41)(44), Stewart (87), Williams and Dyer (94).  63  exposed in section at Roche Perce along the Souris river in its easterly course along the International Boundary between o ' longitudes 103 30 W. and 102o 00' W. Other exposures occur along gorges descending from the plains of the Missouri coteau to the "Bad Lands" of the Upper Missouri.  The most  notable of these gorges are the Great Valley, and Porcupine Creek, which cross the International Boundary at about longitudes 105° oo' W. and 105° 45' W.  respectively.  Other  seotions occur on Wood Mountain and the Cypress Hills. The series consists of sandwtones, clays, and shales, wii2i some lignite seams.  It has a thickness of about 210 feet  in the Great Valley. Dr. G.M. Dawson made collections of the fossil plants from Roche Perce, the Great Valley and Porcupine Creek.  The  collections were first studied by Sir William Dawson in 1875 and the list was extended and published in 1886.  Penhallow  (82) revised the collection, determined doubtful species and listed complete collections to 1906.  The revised list  follows: Perns Davailia tenuifolia  Sw  Onoclea sensibelis  Newberry  Equisetae Equis it urn  parlatorii (Heei) Knowlton  Ginkgos Ginkgo cf. G. adlantoides  Conifers Cupresslnoxylon Dawsonl Penhallow Glyptostrobus europaeus (Brongn) Heer Pseudotsuga miocena Penhallow Sequoia Burgessll Penhallow S. Langsdorfll (Brongn) Heer S. nordenskioldl Heer Taxites Olrlki Taxodium distichum Richardson T. occidentale Thuja sp. Thuja Interrupta Newberry Monocotyledons Lomna scutata Dawson Phragmltes sp. Sclrpus sp. Sclrpus sp. Dicotyledons Aescuius antlquus Dawson Carya sp. Castanea sp. Catalpa crassifolla Newberry Corylus amerlcana Walt Macquarrll Heer £. rostrata Alt. Diospyros sp. Juglans clnerea?  J. rhamnoides  Lesq.  J. rugosa  Lesq.  J. schimperi  Lesq.  Paliurus oolombi  Heer  Platanus Haydenli  Newberry  P. heterophyllus  Newberry  P. nohilis  Newberry  P. Raynoldsii  Newberry  Populus aoerifolia  Newberry  P. arctica  Heer  P. genetrix  Newberry  P. Richardsoni  Heer  Quercus sp. Rhamnus sp. The age of the Lignite Tertiary was until recent years a controversial subject "being intimately "bound up with the Laramie problem.  Various workers assigned the "Lignite  Tertiary" to the Cretaoeous or the Eocene. Dr. Gr.M. Dawson (27 p.103-106) divided this series as studied at Wood Mountain into two groups, a lower argillaceous group, and an upper more arenaceous division.  In the lower  division were found reptilian remains of Upper Cretaceous types associated with fish of Eocene aspect. MoConnell (63 p.26c-31o) recognized that the Laramie ("Lignite Tertiary") conformably overlay the Fox Hills sandstone and was overlain unconformably by the conglomerates of the Cypress Hills.  The Fox Hills was recognized as Upper  66  Cretaoeous and the Cypress Hills conglomerate was referred to the Lower Miocene (Oligocene).  The age of the Lignite  Tertiary was thus shown to he no older than Upper Cretaceous, and no younger than Oligocene. Dr. J.W. Dawson (41) correlated the lower division of the Lignite Tertiary with the St. Mary's River formation to the west, and the upper divisinn with the Porcupine Hills division which correlations are in part erroneous.  On reviewing the evidence  as to the age of the Lignite Tertiary he concludes that the Upper Laramie (including the upper division of the Lignite Tertiary is Eocene; and the lower division is either Cretaceous or Cretaceous-Eocene transition.  The fossil plants were  similar to the American Fort Union and "bore some resemblance to the Miocene flora of Europe, but the association with Cretaceous vertebrates caused him to conclude that the age of these beds was Lower Eocene.  He said that more work would  need to be done in order to come to a definite conclusion as regards age and relations of Laramie floras.  The next year  (42 p.37) he stated that a great break between the Cretaceous and Eocene did not exist and agreed with Ward (_36 p.37) who believed that this break was so small that the assignment of the Laramie to the Cretaceous or Eocene was merely a question of name.  Penhallow (_82 p. 151/ believed the Lignite Tertiary  was Eocene. The most reoent work done on the "Lignite Tertiary" group and the latest conclusions in regard to its age will be taken up under its subdivisions, namely, - the Estevan,  llltra 67  White Mud, and Ravenscrag formations. Estevan Formation. Davis named the Estevan formation from the occurrence in the Souris valley as that coal bearing formation which lay between the Fox Hills and the White Mud.  The formation  consists of sandstone, sandy shales, fire clay and lignite. Besides its occurrence in the Souris valley the Estevan outcrops also in the Cypress Hills and other plateaus along the international boundary. The following plants were collected by Williams and identified by Professor Berry: (15). Bryophytes Marchantites sp. Berry Pteriodophytes Equlsitum (rhizome of) Gymnosperms Ginkgo adlantoides (Unger) Heer Ginkgo (stones) Berry Angiosperms Ficus viburnifolla Ward Paliurus? sp. Berry Trapa? mlcrophylla Lesq. Trochodendroldes sp. Berry Berry says: "Eight species are recorded for the EsteVan, and of these, only two, represented by rather indefinite material have been recognized in the Ravenscrag.  This at  68  first sight might be thought to indicate a floral difference, but all the Estevan plants except the Marchantites and Trochodendroides sp., both of which are obscure are found in the Lance and Fort Union of the United States  , so that  the Estevan plants thus far discovered lack precise stratigraphic significance. Reptilian remains, however, show the Estevan to be of Lance age. White Mud Formation. This is a white weathering formation of semi-refractory clay containing sand lenses.  McLearn (71) includes within  this formation some beds hitherto classed as Ravenscrag, as he finds at the top of these beds a local unconformity. According to his definition the White Mud has a thickness of about seventy-five feet.  As the White Mud overlies the  Estevan (Lance in age) and is in turn overlain by the Ravenscrag, the lower beds of which are also Lance in age the White Mud is therefore of Lance age. Ravenscrag Formation. The term Ravenscrag was first used by Davis for that part of the Fort Union, as interpreted by him, which lay between the White Mud and the Cypress Hills conglomerate.  It is a  non-marine formation consisting of silts, sands, intraformational conglomerates and lignite seams. McLearn divides the Ravenscrag into an upper and a Lower  69  division.  The basal part of the Ravenscrag (below the  No.l coal seam of the Cypress Hills) contains dinosaurs of Lance age.  Above the coal Beams,fossils are rare but consist  chiefly of plants and non-marine invertebrates.  The few  vertebrate remains are not diagnostic. The following plants have been identified by Bell: Perns Newberry  Onoclea sensibilis Equisitae Equlsitum sp  Berry  Ginkgos ' Ginkgo (?) (stones)  Berry  Conifers Sequoia nordenskioldi  Newberry  Taxodium dubium Sternberg (heer) Monocotyledons Lemna (?) scutata (?)  Bell  Dicotyledons Apocynophyllum sp.  Bell  Aristolochia crassifolia  Cockerill  Celastrus tauriensis  Ward  Celastrus Wardii  Knowlton and Cock.  Cercocarpus ravenscragensis  Berry  Cocoulus Haydenianus Ward. Enonymus splendens  Berry  Juglans nlgella  Heer  Leguminosites Willjamsi  Berry  70  Planera sp. Populus of.  Bell atanolithensls  Knowlton /  Bhamnites Knowltonl  Berry  Sapendus sp.  Bell  Trochodendroides cuneata (Newb.)  Berry  T. speolosa (Ward)  Berry  Viburnum finale  Ward  V. limpldum  Ward  Incertae Apeibopsls discolor  Lesq.  Phyllltes aquatlcus  Berry  The plants identified "by Berry and Bell were stated to be Port Union in aspect though most of the forms are rather widespread types common to the Lance, Port Union and Paskapoo. Presh water invertebrates colleoted by McLearn were identified by Dr. Stanton "as a Port Union assemblage though practically all the species are known to range down into the Lance, where, however they are associated with a number of distinctive forms which are not known to range above the Lance.  In the  absence of such forms he refers the Ravenscrag to the Port Union. MacLearn (72 p.40) working on the basis of vertebrate remains places the Lower Ravenscrag in the Lance and considers that vertebrate evidenoe is required to definitely fix the age of the upper portion.  r t 71  Correlation of the "Lignite Tertiary Group." Prom the foregoing evidence it will "be seen that Dawson's "Lignite Tertiary" group is Lance in age except for the uppermost part which is probably Port Union.  The Lance  and Port Union are now definitely accepted as Cretaceous. In regard to the correlation of these uppermost Cretaceous formations with the Standard European section, Dr. Matthew (74 p.394) says: "The dividing line between the Cretaceous and Tertiary in England is drawn between the uppermost beds of the Chalk and the littoral and fresh water beds which overly it, the Thanet sands and the London clay.  This gap is partly  filled on the continent by various intermediate formations, the highest stage of the Chalk, the Danian, being absent in the English succession. While this is generally recognized as Cretaceous, there appears to be a difference of opinion as to the position of the Montian of Belgium and its equivalents  Into the  place of these disputed formations it will not be necessary to go.  It is sufficient to state that the latest unquestioned  Cretaceous stage is Danian and the earliest unquestioned Eocene stage is Thanetian. "There are no European formations of corresponding ^  facies /fto the Lance in the late Cretaceous.  Dinosaurs are  found in the later Cretaoie of Europe at least as late as Maestrichtian ( = Upper Senonian or Daniaan) but not sufficiently  abundant or complete to afford correlation data.  The Goseau  formation is of similar facies to the Lance but is much older (Lower Senonian).  Thus the Lance and Port Union are younger 1 than Lower Senonian, i.e., either Upper Senonian or Danian.  Analysis of the Floras.  A table of distribution of the floras follows.  The  plants are arranged in their natural order of families as given in KnoWlton's Catalogue.  The formations are listed across  the top of the page in approximately chronological order. The occurrence of a plant is marked by an "x".  Where the  specific determination is doubtful it is recorded by a question mark.  The table shows at a glance the time relations of the  various families, genera and species of plants.  The summary  and conclusions have already been given.  References  -  Berry (15), Davis (25), Dawson, G.M.(30), Dawson, J.W.(36)(37)(39)(41)(42), McConnell (63), McLearn (71)(72), Penhallow (82), Rose (84), Williams and Dyer (94).  4 •v  PHYLUM  BRYOPHYTA  Class Hepaticae Order ttarehantia, Family lltarehantlaeeae Marchantltes blairmorensls. B sp.__ PHYLUM PTERIDOPHYTA Class Flliees Order Flllealea Family Cyatheaoeae Coniopteris pachyphylla. Dloksonia closlpes " munda sp*(Dawson) Dioksoniopsis sp.(Berry) Thyrsopteris brevipennis^ " Morrayana_ pecopteroides sp. (Knowlton) Family Polyodlaceae Adlantltes praelongus_ Asplenium albertum.  5 »  V,  5  J  N  1  4Vj $  V  5  ll 1  I  i1  I I 4  H  4  t  . .V-vf1 - i A ' * ' -  -  te'Vt-/.  - v^.t."• * -  v>  *  4  •a I J  Aaplenitun ? coloradense_ Asplenium Bieksonianum. n Dicksonoides_ " Martinianum M Kfcbrara " fredricksburgensis Cladophlebis albertsii arctlea Browniana e olumb i ana distans falcata faleata var montanesis Fiseheri frigida _ heterophylla montanense parva skagitensis ungeri vaccen8is virginiensis sp.(Dawson) sp.(Berry) sp.(WilsonT^ Davallites Richardsonii Davallia tenuifolia Dryopteris Kennerlyi Oleandra graminaefolia sp.(Wilson) O&oclea sensibilis  r  I  a  ** 5?  K X  t  A  ^8-5 «  I £ V n  I*  •'  44  is-  'mm**  J  •J  I  n! V?  ?!»>  1  J5 HI  5k|  4  I  »  'a 4  «  <k r i 4 A %  I  «  «s •5  Vl  .9  Onychiopsis ©oepperti psilotoides_ sp. (Berry)_ sp.(Bell) Pteris glossopteroides Tapeindium ? undulatum Family Glelchenlaceae Gleichenia Gilbert-Thompsoni_ gracilis Eurriana sp sp. (P6nh) Family Sehizaeaceae Acrostichopteris fimbriate pluripartita __ Anemia elongata Osmundites skidegatenfcis Order Marattiales Family Marattlaceae Angiopteridium canmorense_ Taeniopteris orovillensis^ plumosa  -a CJl  >5 OJ  Family Hydropteraceae  M  i  4  VI  5  as  I  I  t  3 »  <J  4  *  I  I  i %  Sagenopteris canadensis. elliptica_ McLearni Hantelli Nllsoniana__ oblongifolia paucifolia? Ferns of Uncertain Affinity llacrotaeniopteris vancouverensis Heuropteris castor. heterophylla Pecopteris Browniana sp.(Dawson) Sphenopteris Johnstrupl stricta Spenopteris sp. Order Equisitales Family Sqnlsltacae Equisitum Lyelli  parlatorii_ $hillipsii sp. (Dawson) sp.(Berry)  sp. (WilsoiiT -a  a*  PHYLUM SPERMAT OPHYTA Class Gymnospermae Order Cyeadales Family Cyeadaceae Anomozamltes acutiloba? sp(Dawson) Ctenophyllum augustifolium? Ctenopterls columbiensis Cycadolepls sp.(Dawson) Di oonlt e s fbuchianus /var.arbie t inus boreal!s columbianus sp. Hilsonia californica_ denslnerve ? lata mediana nigracollensis parvula Family Cyeadaceae Nilsonia pasaytensis polymorphs var. cretacea schaumbergensis sp.(Berry) sp. (Knowlton^  Nilsonis, sp.(Wilson) Podozamites gr aminaefolia.? lanoedlatus latlpennis_ stenopus sp.(WilsonT sp. Pseudoeyeas unjiga Pterophyllua acutlpenhls Nathorsti Stenorachis canadensis Williamsonia peeentoir sp. Dawson Zamites aeutipennls albertensis arcticus erassinervi s montana t enuinervis Order Ginkgogales Family Sinkgegaceae Baiera longifolia multinervis palmata? Baieropsis sp.(Dawson) ©inkge adiantoides arctica baynesiana_ Dawsoni digitata  «  * Ginkgo Huttoni latamiensi a. lepida nana pusilla _ sibirica (wood) (sp.) sp. (stones! Order Conifera Family Taacaeae Sub Family Podooarpeae Napelopsis augustifolia^ montanensis_ eamoides sp. Sub-Family Taxeae cephalotaxopsis magnlfolia ramosa sp. (Dawson). Taxltes olriki sp.(Dawson) sp' Tumion (Torreyaf Pleksoniana densifolium  1  f  J  $  4 .1 4 4 I a •5  4  fcs  1T II  » \  %1 tt *1 its j *I 1 1 fc 1 a 1 1 J*< 1 $ * t i \ 1 1 i V*  *  family Pinaceae  5* r I  *  Sub-Family Abietineae Abietites Tyrrelli Pinus anthraciticus nordenskioldi i susquaensis_ sp.(PGnh) Pityophyllum graminaefolium Pseudotsuga miocena Sub Family Taxoideae Athrotaxon sis grandis tenuicanlis Cunningham!tes pulchellus Cyparfessedium gracile Elatocladus Smittiana? albertensis (xdinitzia formosa Jennefi sp (Dawson)_ sp • Inolepis imbricata Sequoia ambigua Surgessii condita euneata gracilis heterophylla Langsdorfii Nordenskioldi  k  X  X  X X  J!  A  X  X x  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X ?  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  V  X  X  X  X X  >L X  X A  X 09 O  \ 1H •3  Sequoia Reichenfcachi Smittlana (wood) Sub Family Taxoidiae Sequoites oonoinna Sphenolepidium Kurrianum pachyphyllum St ernbergfeamum) var.densiflorum) sp. Sphenopteris sp. (Bell) Taxodium distichum dubium oeeidentale Eip. (Dawson) sp. Sub Family Cupressineae Cupresslnoxylon Dawsoni sp. Thuja interrupta sp. (wood). Viddringtonites Reichii  X  *  3  }  <t i%* * i  J0  X  X  i  $ *  * § 1 t  t  X  %  1  to  Vi  X  X X X  X  X  X v X  X  X  Y x  x X  x  X X  Family Arauoariaoeae Dammar® aoleUlariS . Dammarites dubiua  X X  Family Brachyphyllaoeae Braohyphyllum MaoLearni macro caufrpon sp.  •\v 1 I  X  X y. X  $  X  i—  X  Coniferae of ITnoertain Affinity Czokanowakia sp.(Dawson) Hoeggerathiop si s Robins! Pagiophyllum sp.(Dawson) sp. (Wilson) sp •  !  i«J L 1 h §<s *  *  4 * J * * « s 1 1 AS 1 * «*  t  X  n >5 ^  <5  X  X  % N  .1  t 4 S  X  X X  CLASS AHGrlOSPERMAE Sub Class Monoeotyledones Order GHum&lefcoc Family Oramineae Phragmites cordaiformis sp.  X X  Family Cyperaceae Scirpus sp. sp.  X  X  Order Arecales Family Arecaeeae Oeonomites sp. Sabal"- imperial!s  X X  00 to  I H 4 I*  i&  K  v .1 H«M  i  I  Order Arales Family Araeeae Plstia sp.(Bell) Family lemnaceae Lemna scut at a  —  Sub Class Dlcotyledones Order Salicales Family Salleaceae Populus acerifolia amblyrhyneha arctica Bergreni? eretacea cyclomorphaeyclophylla elliptica genetrix Kerri longoirNewberryi protozaddachi rectindrwata rhomboidea — RichardBoni —  X A  X  i j  Populus trinervis xanolithensis?— sp. (Dawson) — Populites probalsamifera Salix laramiana pacifica perplexa Raeana sp(Dawson) sp « sp <  *  i V*  K Ki i*  4 U 4  4  Si «  i*  I  «s> I I J I  *  OS  TV 1  I £ ft  ft  5.  <5  X X  Order Myrieales Family Myricaceae Myrica serrata sp.(Bell) Order Juglandales Family Juglandaceae Carya sp. Carya sp. Juglandites cretacea fallax sp Juglans clnerea? — Juglans orasslpes? harwoodensis nigella JShamnoides  X X  2  Juglsns Order Fagales  rugosa Ifbimperi sp  Family Betulaceae U n i t e s grand!folia insignis Betula praeantiqua sp.(Dawson) Betulites sp Corylus amerloana Macquarrii rostrata Family Fagaoeae Castanea sp. sp. Dryophyllum elongatum lanceoliatum neillianum nervosumoccident^le sp.(Dawson) sp.(Bell) Fagophyllum nervosum retorsum Querous coracea flexulosa  I  V\ *  5 «  <i f*  Holmefil multinervis rhamnoid.es vancouveriana •ictoriae sp.(Dawson) — sp •  4 k* f m  1  1I  w r1 4  I  AI  i  I£ ^  •sH.  I *  I  X  x  X X X  Order TJrticales Family Ulmaoeae Planera sp.Bell — Ulmophyirum priscum Ulmus diibia precursor  • -  X X  Family Moraeeae Artocarpophyllum Occidentale Fiens contorta daphnogenoides magnoliaefolia oTalifolia rotundata •ilrarnifolia Willingtoniae sp. (Bell)  X X X X  CD  o>  4  1  J  H  i. Order Platanales  !4A  «  f si  I v| I <5  i*  *  §  I  I I  !  Family Platanaceae Aarpidiophyllum trllobatum Grednerla sp.(Bell) Platanus affin!8 Haydenil Heerl heterophylla latlfolia latolr Hewberryananobllls Raynoldsll uniformis— sp.(Bell)— sp.(Bell) — sp. (Bell) — sp.(Bell) — sp.(Berry) Protophyllum nana! mo Haydenll rugosum stliklnensls sp.(Dawson) sp •  X  X A  X  X  A  a> -a  Order Proteales Family Proteaceae Macclinlookia eretaeea— trinervis Proteoides major neillii — sp. (Dawson) Order Aristolochiales Family Arlstoloehlaceae Aristoloohia erassifolia Order Thymelales Family Lauraeeae Oinnamomum oanadense — Heeri Hewberryi Daphnophyllum dakotense Lauras crassineriis Laurophyllum fcnsigne — reticulatum sp.(Bell) Persea Lecontiana Sassafras Burpeana cretaceum  * i I-, *Is $ %s 1 -s % 1 * * 4 * % 11 si « * % * * * 1 X  ** *> *  <  <  <J  *  %  *x  I «  r* 4  A X X X X  -  X  X X X —  X X  •  X  t X  X ....  V  X  _  00  V "t Sassafras  Mudgii Selwynii—sp. (Bell) — sp. (Dawson)  v«  » -c' i i VT)  i  J  «  r  4  \  iI  J5  Order lanales Family Nympheaoeae Brasenia antiqua Castalia Stantonl Jyaphaeltes exemplaris Family Menlspermaceae C oo cull ties .Haydeni anus — Menespermites renlformis sp • (Dawson) sp • (Dawson) Family Magnollaceae Itlrlodendron praetullplfeorum Llrlodendron succedens Magnolia alternans amplifolia— eapellinii — Hollloki? — magnifiea — oceldentalis sp.(Bell) sp.(Bell) 00  Order Bosale8 Family Hamamelidaceae Liquldambar europeum Family Bosaceae Cercocarpus ravenseragensis Family Legumlnosae Leguminosites Williams!  —  Order Sapindales Family Celastraeeae Celastrophyllum? sp.(Bell) Celastrus tauriensis Wardii Family Hippocastlnaceae Aescuius antiquus Family Sapindaceae Sapindopsis belviderensis brevifolia magnifolia sp.(Bell)  V  I y  v*  * j« l I t §  U IS  4I  r «  N  t  •y  §  s *  >2 *  4IV  I  "a M  Sapindus affinis sp.(Bell) sp • Order Hhamnales Family Rhamnaceae Ceanothus cretaceus Paliurus colombi cretaceus nelllll — ovalis ?sp.(Berry) Tsp.(Berry) Rhamnaclnlum porcupinianum tyiseriatum Shamnites inowltoni Rhamnus concinnus sp.  X X X A  Family Yltaeeae Clssites affinis affinis var ampla Clssites sp.  X  X  Q  M t  \  Order Malvales Family Tlllaeeae arewia 8p.(Bell) Orewiopsis sp.(Bell) Order Myrtales Family Hydroearyaoeae Trapa borealis mi orophylla sp. (Bell) Order Umbellales Family Arallaoeae Aralia rotundata Westoni — sp.(Dawson) sp.(Bell) Family Oornaoeae Cornus obesus  —  *  1  <0 1<J * *  is **  1 n * K \>  *  J >»  4  5$  *  -5 <3 il 4 * * J* 4  * 1  V $< K  tN.  *  1  C $  a £  * *  X  — -  •  X *  X  * X X X  X X  X  X  X  «o w  4  ft I <J  V  s!  £  I  i  *s t  N»  5  I N$1  •J  t  4  I  r  a s* 4  *$ X V.  *  i  I V  rV J  S  v5  Order Xrioalea Family Brleaoeae Andromeda sp.(Bell) Order Ebenalee Family Bbenaceae Diospyros anceps? emlens •anc ouverensis sp •  X X X  Order dentianale8 Family Apocynaoeae Apoeynophyllum sp.— Order Folemoniales Family Blgnonlaoeae Catalpa crassifolia Order Rubiales Family Caprifoliaceae Viburnum asperum  —  W  \H sSr  1  )  v,  «  i  H>5  I  i 4  k  4  S  »»  *»  1  1  §  i  I  i  A  3  Family Caprlfollaccae (Cont'd.) •Itmrnum flnalt limpiduB oxycoccoides pubescens sp. DICOTYLEDONAS OF UNCERTAIN POSIT I OH Anisophyllum sp.(Dawson) Phyllltes aquaticus oaparlnoldes •enosus sp.(Dawson) sp.(Dawson} sp. Trochodendroides sp.(Berry  x  K X  X  GEffERA BASED ON FRUITS OF UNCERTAIN  amhht.  Carpites Judithae Carpolithes meridionalis sp.Dawson sp.Dawson sp • sp < Carpolithus ternatus •irginiensis — Symphoro carpophyHum alberturn linnaeforme sp.  X X  X  PLANTS OF UNCERTAIN POSITION Antholithes horridus Apeibopsis discolor Enonymus splendens Salisburia pusilla sp« Taenanurus incertue Trochodendroides cuneata speoiosa sp.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  Allan, J.A.,  "Geology of Drumheller Coal Field, Alberta." 3rd Annual Report on the Mineral Resources of Alberta (1921).  2.  "Some Problems Relating to the Cretaceous and Jurassic Stratigraphy in Alberta." Royal Society Canada, Pr.Tr. 1923,  3.  Baeurman, H.,  4.  Baker, M.B.,  Report of Progress Geological Survey Canada, 1882-3-4, p. B.14. "Iron and Lignite in the Mattagami Basin," Ontario Bureau of Mines, vol.20 part I, p.214-246.  5.  Bancroft, J.A.,  "Geology of the Coast and Islands between the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C." Geological Survey Canada, Memoir 23, (1913).  6.  Bell, Robert,  7.  Bell, W.A.  Geological Survey Canada Rep.Prog. 1877-78, p. 4C.  "Upper Cretaceous Plants from the Stikine River, Cassiar District, B.C." Geological Survey Canada Mus.Bull.49.  8.  "Mesozoic Plants from the Mattagami Series, Ontario." Geological Survey Can.Mue.Bull.49,p.27-30.  II  9.  Berry, E.W., "The Lower Cretaceous Floras of the World," Maryland Geol. Surv. (1911).  10.  "The Upper Cretaceous Floras of the World," Maryland Geol. Surv. (1916).  11.  "The Age of in Certain Mesozoic Geological Formations Western Canada," Roy.Soc.Can.Pr.Tr. 3rd series vol.XX p.201-206 (1926).  12.  "The Kootenay and lower Blairmore Floras," Geol.Surv.Can.Mus.Bull.58 p.28-55.  13.  "The Upper Blairmore Flora," Geol.Surv.Can.Mus.Bull.58 p.55-66.  14.  "The Allison Flora," Geol.Surv.Can.Mus.Bull.58 p.66-73.  15.  "Fossil Plants from the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewan," Geol.Surv.Can.Mus.Bull.63 p.15-29,(1930).  16. Brown, Barnum,  "Cretaceous-Eocene Correlation in New Mexico, Wyoming, Montana and Alberta," Geol.Soc.Am.Vol.XXV, p.355-380 (1914).  17. Cairnes, D.D.,  "Geology of the Wheaton District, Yukon Territory," Geol.Surv.Canada Mem.31, p.58.  18.  "Moose Mountain District, Southern Alberta," Geol.Surv.Can.Mem.61.  Ill  19. Clapp, C.H., "Geology of the Nanaimo Map-Area," Geol.Surv.Can.Mem.51. 20.  "Sooke and Duncan Map Areas, Vancouver Island," Geol.Surv.Can.Mem.96.  21. Cockfield.W.E., ^Explorations between Atlin and Telegraph Creek, B.C." Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Rept.1925, part A, p.28-29. 22. Daly, R.A.,  Geological Surv.Can.Mem.38, p.479-489.  23. Darton, N.H.,  "Geology and Water Resources of the Southern half of the Black Hills," U.S.G.S. Ann.Rept.21, pt.4, p.489-599, (1901).  24.  "Geology and Water Resources of the Northern half of the Black Hills," U.S.G.S. Prof.Paper 65.  25. Davis, N.B.,  "Report on the Clay Resources of Southern Saskatchewan," Mines Branch, Dept.of Mines (Canada), 1918.  26. Dawson, G.M.,  "Report on the Tertiary Lignite Formations in the Vicinity of the 49th Parallel." Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1873.  27.  "Geology of the 49th Parallel" British North American Boundary Commission (1875).  IV  28. Dawson, G.M., Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1877-8, p.B.105. 29.  "Queen Charlotte Islands," Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1878-79.  30.  "On theRiver lignite from Souris to Tertiary the 108thFormation Meridian," Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1879-80, p.A, 12-49.  31.  "Report on the Region in the Vicinity of the Bow and Belly Rivers, N.W. Terr." Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1882-84 Sec.C.  32.  "On a Geological Examination of the Northern Part of Vancouver Island and Adjacent Coasts," Geol.Surv.Can.Ann.Rept.1886.  33. 34. Dawson, J.W.,  Bull.Geol.Soc.Am.vol.12 p.75 (1901).  "Report on the Coal Fields of Vancouver Island by J. Richardson with notes on Fossil Plants by J.W. Dawson," Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1871-72, p.98.  35.  "Note on Fossil Plants from British Columbia," Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1872-73, p.66-71.  36.  "Notes on the Plants Collected by Mr. G.M. Dawson from the Lignite Tertiary Deposits along the 49th Parallel." British North American Boundary Commission, p.327-331.  37.  "Notes on Fossil Plants Collected in the Lignite Tertiary Formations of Roche Perce, Souris River" Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Progr.1879-80, A 51-56.  V  38.Dawson,J.W.,  "Note on Cretaceous Fossil Plants from the Peace River." Geol.Surv.Can.Rept.Prog.1879-80, B.120-122.  39.  "On the Cretaceous and the Tertiary Floras of British Columbia and North-West Territory," Royal Soc.Can.Pr.Tr., 1883, part IV, pages 15-34.  40.  "On the Mesozoic Floras of the Rocky Mountain Region of Canada" Royal Soc.Can.Pr.Tr.Ill (1886) see IV, page 1-22.  41.  "Fossil Plants of the Laramie Formation of Canada" Royal Soc.Can.Pr.Tr.Ill, (1886) p.19-34.  42.  "Note Woodsand and Laramie Other Plant Remains from on theFossil Cretaceous Formations" Roy.Soc.Can. Pr.Tr. V (1887), Sec.IV, p.31-37.  43.  "On Cretaceous Plants from Port MacNeill, Vancouver Island." Roy.Soc.Can.Pr.Tr.VI part IV, p.71-72, (1888).  44.  "On Fossil Plants Collected on Mackenzie River and on Bow River" Roy.Soc.Can.Pr.Tr. VII Pt.4, p.67-74.  45.  "On the Correlation of the Early Cretaceous Floras in Canada and United States." Roy.Soc.Can. Pr.Tr. Vol.10 (1893), sec.IV, p.79-93.  46.  "On New Species of Cretaceous Plants from Vancouver Island" Roy.Soc.Can.Pr.Tr.Vol.il (1893) IV, 53-73.  VI  47.Dowling, D.B.,  46.  Bull.Geol.Soc.Am. Vol.17,(1906), pages 298-299. "Coal Fields of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Eastern British Columbia," Geol.Surv.Can. Mem.53, p.34-38.  49.  "Coal Fields of British Columbia," Geol.Surv.Can. Mem.93.  50.  "The Southern Plains of Alberta," Geol.Surv.Can. Mem.93.  51.Drysdale, C.W.,  "Geology of the Thompson River," Geol.Surv.Can.Summary Report, 1912, pages 115-131.  52.Ells, R.W.,  53.Goranson, R.W.,  Geol. Surv. Can. Amn. Report, Vol.16, (1904), page 1-46 B. "Correlations of the Mesozoic Formations of the Pacific Coast," Am. Jour. Science, 5th series, vol.7, (1924)pages 61-78 and 159-182.  54.Jenny, W.J.,  "Field Observations in the Hay Creek Coal Field, Wyoming," U.S. Geol. Surv. Ann.Report, vol.19, part 2, pages 568-593 (1899).  55.Keele, J.,  "Mesozoic Clays in Northern Ontario," Geol.Surv. Can. Summ. sec. G.pages 13-19.  Report, 1919,  VII  e, J., ,y  ' f>, Tif  "i >  57. Kerr, P.A.,  "Mesozoic Clays and Sands," Roy. Soc. Can. 3rd Ser. Vol.If. sec.iv., page 25-45 (1921).  "Preliminary Report on the Stikine River Area." Geol. Surv. Can. Summ. part A. p.14-35.  58.  "Second Preliminary Report on the Stikine River Area," Geol. Surv. Can. Summ. part A,pages 11-27.  59. Knowlton, P.A.,  Report, 1926,  Report, 1928,  "The Cretaceous-Eocene Boundary in the Rocky Mountain Region," Bull.Geol.Soc.Am.vol.25,pages 325-340, 1914.  60.  "Catalogue of the Mesozoic and Tertiary Plants of North America," U.S. Geol.Survey Bull.696.  61.  "The laramie Flora of the Denver Basin," U.S. Geol.Survey, Prof. Paper 130.  62. leach, W. W.,  "Geology of Blairmore Map-Area, Alberta," Geol.Surv. Can. Summ. pages 192-200.  63. McConnell, E.G.,  Report 1911,  "Report on the Cypress Hills, Wood Mountain, and Adjacent Country," Geol. Surv. Can. Ann. Report 1885, part C.  "Geology of Graham Island," Geol.Surv.Can.Mem.88. "Peace River Section," Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Report, 1917, part C, p.14-81. "Peace River Canyon Coal Area," Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Report 1922, part B.p.1-47. "Mesozoic of Upper Peace River B.C.," Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Rept.1920, part B, p.1-5. Geol.Surv.Can.Mem.132, p.17. "Stratigraphic Palaeontology," Geol.Surv.Can.Mus.Bull.58 p.80-108, (1929 ). "The Mesozoic and Pleistocene Deposits of the Lower Missinaibi, Opazatica and Mattagami Rivers, Ontario." Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Rept.1926,part C p.16-48. "Stratigraphy, Structure and Clay Deposits of the East-end Area, Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan," Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Rept.1927, part B, p.21-53. "Southern Saskatchewan," Geol.Surv.Can.Summ.Rept.1928, part B p.30-45. "The Gastroplites and other Lower Cretaceous Faunas of the Northern Great Plains," Roy.Soc.Can.Pr.Tr. 3rd series, Vol.XXV, Section IV, p.1-7 (1931).  IX  73. Malloch, G.S.,  "Groundhog Coal-Field, B. C.," Can. Summ. • Report, 1912, page 86.  74. Matthew, W.D.,  "Evidence of the Palaeocene Vertebrate Fauna oh the Cretaceous-Tertiary Problem," Bull. Geol.Soc.Am.vol.25 (1914), pages 381-402.  75. Penhallow, D.P.,  "Notes on the Cretaceous and Tertiary Plants of Canada," Roy.Soc.Can. Pr.Tr., series 2, vol.8 part IV, pages31-91, (1902).  79.  "Notes on Tertiary (laramie) Plants," Roy.Soc.Can. Pr.Tr. series 2, vol.9, part IV, pages33-95 (1903).  80.  "Notes on Tertiary (laramie) Plants from Canada and the United States," Roy.Soc.Can.Pr.Tr., series 2, vol.10, part IV, pages57-76, (1904).  81.  "A Report on Fossil Plants from the International Boundary Survey for 1902-05. Collected by Dr.R.A. Daly," Geol.Surv.Can. Mem.38, Appendix B, and Roy.Soc.Can. Pr.Tr. 3rd series, Vol.1, (1907), part IV, pages287-353.  82.  "Report on Tertiary Plants of British Columbia collected by Lawrence M.Lambe together with a Discussion of Previously Recorded Tertiary (and Laramie) Floras." Geol.Surv.Can. #1013, (1908).  83.  Richardson, J.,  "Report on the Coal Fields of Vancouver Island with Notes on Fossil Plants by J.W. Dawson," Geol.Surv. Can. Report, Prog. 1871-72, pages73-97.  XI  91.  Ward, L.F.,  "The Status of the Mesozoic Floras of the United States," U.S. G.S. Monograph 48.  92.  Warren, P.S.,  "A New Cycad from the Kootenay Coal Measures of Alberta," Roy.Soc.Can. Pr.Tr. 1927, part IV, pages47-50.  93.  Whiteaves, J.F.,  "Mesozoic Fossils," Vol.1, part 5, p.312, Geol.3urv.Can.  94.  Williams, M.Y., and Dyer, W.S.,  "Geology of Southern Alberta and Southwestern Saskatchewan," Geol.Surv.Can.Mem.163, (1930).  95.  Willis, Bayley,  Index to the Stratigraphy of North America. U.S.G.S., Prof.Paper 71.  96.  Wilson, W.J.,  "Report of Palaeobotanist" Geol.Surv.Canada, Summer Reports. Collections of Fossils plants from a. b. c. d. e. f.  Groundhog Coal Basin 1911 p.358-359 " " " 1912 p.407-410 N. Thompson River 1912 p.407-410 Edmonton & Belly R.Formations, 1913 p.322-324. Mt.Bush, Y.T. 1915 p.205-209 Kootenay Formation 1916 p.300-302.  XII  BIBLIOGRAPHY TO THE DIVISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN TIME SCALE.  Cole, A.J. and Hallissy, T.  "Handbook of the Geology of Ireland," Thos. Murby & Company, London, England.  De Launay, L.,  "Geologie de la France," Libraire Armand Colin, Paris, France.  Geikie, A.,  "Scenery and Geology of Scotland, The MacMillan Company, London, England.  Heim, A., "Geologie der Schweiz," Leipzig 1922, Cr. Herm Tauchnitz. Jukes-Browne, A.J.,  "The Students Handbook of Stratigraphical Geology," Edward Stanford, London, England.  Stamp, L.D.,  "An Introduction to Stratigraphy," Thos. Murby & Company, London, England.  Steinmann, G. and Wilckens, 0.,  "Handbuch der Regionalen Geologie," fHeidelberg Universitatsbuchhandlung)  Walther, J.,  "Geologie Deutchlands," Verlag von Quelle and Meyer in Leipsig.  69  division.  The basal part of the Ravenscrag (below the  No.l coal seam of the Cypress Hills) contains dinosaurs of Lance age.  Above the coal seams,fossils are rare but consist  chiefly of plants and non-marine invertebrates.  The few  vertebrate remains are not diagnostic. The following plants have been identified by Bell: Perns Newberry  Onoclea sensibilis Equisitae Equlsitum sp  Berry  Ginkgos ' Ginkgo (?) (stones)  Berry  Conifers Sequoia nordenskioldi  Newberry  Taxodium dubium Sternberg (heer) Monocotyledons Lemna (?) scutata (?)  Bell  Dicotyledons Apocynophyllum sp.  Bell  Aristolochia crassifolia  Cockerill  Celastrus tauriensis  Ward  Celastrus Wardii  Knowlton and Cock.  Cercocarpus ravenscragensis  Berry  Cocoulus Haydenianus Ward. Bnonymus splendens  Berry  Juglans nigella  Heer  Leguminosites Willjamsi  Berry  70  Planera sp.  Bell  Populus cf. P_;_ ganollthensis  Znowlton *  Bhamnites Knowltonl  Berry  Sapendus sp.  Bell  Trochodendroides cuneata (Newb.)  Berry  T. speciosa (Ward)  Berry  Viburnum finale  Ward  V. llmpldum  Ward  Incertae Apelbopsls discolor  lesq.  Phyllltes aquaticus  Berry  The plants Identified by Berry and Bell were stated to be Port Union in aspect though most of the forms are rather widespread types common to the Lance, Port Union and Paskapoo. Presh water invertebrates collected by McLearn were identified by Dr. Stanton "as a Port Union assemblage though practically all the species are known to range down into the Lance, where, however they are associated with a number of distinctive forms which are not known to range above the Lance.  In the  absence of such forms he refers the Ravenscrag to the Port Union. MacLearn (72 p.40) working on the basis of vertebrate remains places the Lower Ravenscrag in the Lance and considers that vertebrate evidence is required to definitely fix the age of the upper portion.  71  Correlation of the "Lignite Tertiary Group." Prom the foregoing evidence it will be seen that Dawson's "Lignite Tertiary" group is Lance in age except for the uppermost part which is probably Fort Union.  The Lance  and Fort Union are now definitely accepted as Cretaceous. In regard to the correlation of these uppermost Cretaceous formations with the Standard European section, Dr. Matthew (74 p.394) says: "The dividing line between the Cretaceous and Tertiary in England is drawn between the uppermost beds of the Chalk and the littoral and fresh water beds which overly it, the Thanet sands and the London clay.  This gap is partly  filled on the continent by various intermediate formations, the highest stage of the Chalk, the Danian, being absent in the English succession. While this is generally recognized as Cretaceous, there appears to be a difference of opinion as to the position of the Montian of Belgium and its equivalents  Into the  place of these disputed formations it will not be necessary to go.  It is sufficient to state that the latest unquestioned  Cretaceous stage is Danian and the earliest unquestioned Eocene stage is Thanetian. "There are no European formations of corresponding facies/fto the Lance in the late Cretaceous.  Dinosaurs are  found in the later Cretacie of Europe at least as late as Maestrichtian ( = Upper Senonian or Danian) but not sufficiently  abundant or complete to afford correlation data.  The Goseau  formation is of similar facies to the Lance but is much older (Lower Senonian).  Thus the Lance and Port Union are younger 1 than Lower Senonian, i.e., either Upper Senonian or Danian.  Analysis of the Floras.  A table of distribution of the floras follows.  The  plants are arranged in their natural order of families as given in KnoWlton's Catalogue.  The formations are listed across  the top of the page in approximately chronological order. The occurrence of a plant is marked by an "x".  Where the  specific determination is doubtful it is recorded by a question mark.  The table shows at a glance the time relations of the  various families, genera and species of plants.  The summary  and conclusions have already been given.  1- References  -  Berry (15), Davis (25), Dawson, G.M.(30), Dawson, J.W.(36)(37)(39)(41)(42), McConnell (63), McLearn (71)(72), Penhallow (82), Rose (84), Williams and Dyer (94).  

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