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Stratigraphy, diagenesis and petroleum reservoir potential of the Cretaceous Haida, Skidegate and Honna… Fogarassy, Josef Anthony Steve 1989

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STRATIGRAPHY, DIAGENESIS AND PETROLEUM RESERVOIR POTENTIAL OF THE CRETACEOUS HAIDA, SKIDEGATE AND HONNA FORMATIONS, QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, BRITISH COLUMBIA by JOSEF ANTHONY STEVE FOGARASSY B.Sc. (Hons), The University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Geological Sciences) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1989 ©Josef Anthony Steve Fogarassy, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of GygOA-oG, lc/VL_ $Cl&feg5 The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date /Hft/L^ £ g f ( 7/H DE-6 (2/88) ii ABSTRACT The middle to Upper Cretaceous Queen Charlotte Group is composed of mainly marine shales, sandstones and conglomerates which are subdivided into the Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations. Total stratigraphic thickness of the Queen Charlotte Group is up to 1700 m. Sandstone and conglomerate dominate the succession and offer some petroleum reservoir potential. The Haida Formation (Albian) is a fining upwards, transgressive succession, which rests unconformably on older rocks. It consists of a.basal planar and trough cross-stratified, pebbly sandstone to granule conglomerate unit up to 190 m thick interpreted as fluvial deposits, overlain by 700 m or more of fine to very fine sandstone beds, individually 0.5 to 3 m thick, exhibiting bioturbation and hummocky cross-stratification. The Haida Formation grades upward into at least 200 m of concretionary shale of the Skidegate Formation (Cenomanian-Santonian). The Honna Formation (Coniacian-Santonian), which succeeds unconformably and probably also interfingers with the Skidegate Formation, is locally thicker than 800 m, and is dominated by clast supported pebble to cobble and occasionally boulder conglomerate. Conglomerate beds are sharp based, variably graded, and up to 5 m thick. The depositional environment of the Honna Formation was a marine fan-delta or submarine canyon and fan system passing upward to Cretaceous mudstones and rare subaerial volcanics. Primary grain composition, together with diagenesis, determine the reservoir potential of the Queen Charlotte Group. The pebbly basal part of the Haida Formation has the best reservoir potential, due to high quartz framework grain content which restricts precipitation of authigenic phases. Diagenesis of Queen Charlotte Group sandstones involved carbonate precipitation and dissolution, and the growth of iron-rich chlorite, trioctahedral smectite and mixed-layer phyllosilicates, creating a complex paragenetic sequence. Appreciable secondary porosity development, combined with preservation of intergranular primary porosity, results in visual porosity locally exceeding 15% in the basal Haida. Younger sandstones and conglomerates of the Queen Charlotte Group exhibit iii uniform diagenetic trends throughout all major outcrops on the Islands, and are generally considered poor reservoir prospects. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Synopsis 1 1.2. Previous work 1 1.3. Geologic setting 2 1.4. Methods of study 6 2. STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLOGY 2.1. Synopsis 10 2.2. Haida Formation 15 2.2.1. Basal Haida lithofacies 15 2.2.2. Lower Haida sandstone lithofacies 21 2.2.3. Upper Haida lithofacies 27 2.3. Skidegate Formation 28 2.3.1. Skidegate shale lithofacies 28 2.3.2. Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies 31 2.4. Honna Formation 35 2.4.1. Basal Honna lithofacies 35 2.4.2. Middle Honna lithofacies 38 2.4.3. Upper Honna lithofacies 43 2.5. Discussion: stratigraphy and petrology 46 3. DIAGENESIS 3.1. Synopsis 52 3.2. Clay minerals 53 3.2.1. Chlorite 53 3.2.2. Smectite 65 3.2.3. Illite 67 3.2.4. Interstratified clays 67 3.2.5. Other clay minerals 71 3.3. Opaques and other diagenetic minerals 78 3.4. Discussion: diagenesis 83 3.4.1. Diagenetic history 83 3.4.2. Reservoir aspects 95 4. PETROLEUM RESERVOIR POTENTIAL 4.1. Synopsis 97 4.2. Basal Haida and lower Haida sandstone lithofacies 99 4.3. Prospects 112 4.4. Discussion: petroleum reservoir potential 118 1 5. CONCLUSIONS 120 6. REFERENCES 122 7. APPENDICES 133 Appendix 1. Textural and compositional point counts of the Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations - raw data 134 Appendix 2. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes - raw data 162 Appendix 3. Queen Charlotte Group lithofacies outcrop thicknesses 164 Appendix 4. Outcrop sample data 165 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Location of study area 3 2. Stratigraphic column for the Queen Charlotte Islands 4 3. Middle to Upper Cretaceous outcrops 7 4. Stratigraphic nomenclature for the Queen Charlotte Group 11 5. Middle to Upper Cretaceous lithofacies chart 12 6. Isopach: Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations 14 7A. Basal Haida: cross-bedding 16 7B. Basal Haida: cross-bedding 16 7C. Basal Haida: coalified wood fragments 16 7D. Basal Haida: trace fossils 16 8A. Basal Haida: well preserved radiolarian 19 8B. Basal Haida: bimodal grain size distribution 19 8C. Basal Haida: graphic texture 19 8D. Basal Haida: polycrystalline quartz 19 9A. Lower Haida sandstone: coalified log 22 9B. Lower Haida sandstone: offshore bar 22 9C. Lower Haida sandstone: Ophiomorpha nodosa 22 9D. Lower Haida sandstone: Ophiomorpha nodosa 22 10A. Lower Haida sandstone: hummocky cross-stratification 25 10B. Upper Haida: interbedding 25 IOC. Skidegate shale: concretions 25 10D. Skidegate shale: septarian concretions 25 IIA. Skidegate shale: slump structures 29 IIB. Skidegate shale: slump structures 29 IIC. Skidegate shale: refracted cleavage 29 12A. Primary porosity 33 12B. K-feldspar dissolution and chloritized biotite 33 13A. Basal Honna: conglomerate 36 13B. Basal Honna: lenticular sandstone 36 14A. Middle Honna: trachytic volcanic rock fragment 39 14B. Middle Honna: partially chloritized biotite 39 15A. Middle Honna: turbidite 41 15B. Middle Honna: trace fossils 41 15C. Middle Honna: trace fossils 41 16A. Middle Honna: hornblende dissolution 44 16B. Upper Honna: imbrication 44 17. Schematic stratigraphic cross-section 47 18. Sandstone classification; Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations 51 19. Chamosite, X-ray diffractograms 54 20. Mixed-layer assemblages, corrensite and illite/smectite 55 21A. Chamosite (iron-rich chlorite) 57 21B. Pore-fill chlorite 57 21C. Smectite 57 21D. Smectite overgrowth on quartz 57 22. Chamosite (iron-rich chlorite) 59 23A. Ferroan calcite cement 60 23B. Kinked biotite 60 24. Composite diagenetic sequence 64 25. Smectite - saponite sub-group 66 26A. Utilization of smectite 68 vii 26B. Illite fibres and chlorite platelets 68 26C. Illite fibres 68 26D. Corrensite 68 27A. Displacive intergrowths 72 27B. Laumontite 72 27C. Squashed and deformed biotite 72 27D. Calcium zeolite and authigenic quartz 72 28. Laumontite peak shift 75 29A. Unidentified calcium aluminosilicate 76 29B. Unidentified calcium aluminosilicate (close-up) 76 29C. Spherical glauconite 76 29D. Framboidal pyrite 76 30A. Glauconitization 79 30B. Displacive exfoliation texture 79 30C. Carbonate microstalactitic cement 79 30D. Leached orthoclase 79 31A. Authigenic barite 81 31B. Diagenetic sequence 81 31C. Selectively leached plutonic rock fragment 81 31D. Fabric selective dissolution of plagioclase 81 32. Graph of 1 3C P D B versus O P D B 85 33. Basal Haida oxygen isotope values 86 34. Basal Haida lithofacies carbon isotope values 87 35A. Aluminosilicate leaching 90 35B. Skidegate sandstone-siltstone: poor visual porosity 90 35C. Skidegate sandstone-siltstone: excellent secondary porosity 90 36A. Late stage calcite cement 92 36B. Pore-lining smectite 92 36C. K-feldspar cement 92 37. Outcrop porosity, basal Haida lithofacies 100 38A. Authigenic pore-filling calcite 101 38B. Authigenic pore-filling calcite 101 38C. Authigenic pore-filling calcite 101 39. Van Krevelen diagram 104 40. Schematic diagram of kerogen structure 105 41. Gibbsite solubility curve at 100°C 107 42. Decarboxylation of acetic acid 108 43. Gas yields from organic matter 109 44. Aluminum complexation 110 45. Surface maturation trends 114 46. Regional distribution of the mean TOC content for the Haida Formation 115 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks is given to Dr. Bill Barnes for acting as thesis supervisor. This work benefited greatly from technical and administrative expertise of Dr. Barnes. Thanks are extended to Drs. Marc Bustin, John Ross and Paul Smith of the Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, for direction during their tenure on the author's research guiding committee. Ms. Stanya Horsky (X-ray diffractometry), Mr. John Knight (scanning electron microscopy), and Ms. Bente Nielsen (carbon/oxygen stable isotope ratio spectrometry), all from the Department of Geological Sciences and Dr. Les Lavkulich (discussions on clay separates procedures) from the Department of Soil Science, are thanked for their technical talents. Mr. Gord Hodge, of the Department of Geological Sciences, is thanked for his exceptionally prompt and high quality drafting and photographic skills. The majority of this work was funded by the Geological Survey of Canada's Frontier Geoscience Program for the Queen Charlotte Islands; Dr. Bob Thompson, Party Chief, is thanked expressly. Research grants from Texaco Canada Resources Ltd., Chevron Canada Resources Ltd. and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists are kindly acknowledged. Financial support for the author was provided by a University of British Columbia Graduate Teaching Assistantship and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Postgraduate Scholarship. Finally, a great big husbandly thank you to the best wife in the world, Blair Lockhart (B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. and 2/3 LL.B.), for all her encouragement and for superb chocolate chip cookies for Tuesday morning coffees. 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Synopsis Middle to Upper Cretaceous strata of the Queen Charlotte Islands and adjacent offshore areas may have petroleum reservoir potential. Eight separate and regionally correlatable lithofacies have been defined in this study in the Queen Charlotte Group, providing the stratigraphic framework for petrographic and diagenetic analyses. The development and distribution of potential petroleum reservoir units in the middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence is controlled by diagenesis, involving both porosity enhancement and reduction. Lithofacies with significant visual porosity appear to be related to deformation events coincident with sedimentation. This study documents stratigraphic and diagenetic characteristics of potential petroleum reservoir units in the Queen Charlotte Group. Mesozoic sediments underlying the Tertiary Queen Charlotte Basin have traditionally been considered to possess poor reservoir potential (Shouldice, 1971). The texturally and compositionally immature strata, with abundant labile components, have discouraged exploration. In this study porosity trends have been determined from outcrops and may be extrapolated to offshore areas. Discovery of porous intervals has raised the status of the middle to Upper Cretaceous to the level of a possible secondary objective in petroleum exploration of Hecate Strait. 12. Previous work Geologic study of the Queen Charlotte Islands, and more particularly the Queen Charlotte Group, has been sporadic. Richardson (1873), Dawson (1880), Ells (1906), Clapp (1914) and MacKenzie (1916) conducted early lithostratigraphic studies. With the potential of hydrocarbon deposits, as indicated by scattered oil seeps, and iron ore production established, Sutherland Brown (1968) produced the first comprehensive maps and report on the geology of the Islands. The 2 Geological Survey of Canada's Frontier Geoscience Program for the Queen Charlotte Islands is presently remapping major areas onshore and geophysically investigating the geology offshore. The middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence has received recent study. McLearn (1972) and Riccardi (1981) described the ammonoid and inoceramid faunas of the Haida and Honna Formations. Yagashita (1985a) studied sedimentation patterns in relation to plate tectonic theory as formulated by Yorath and Chase (1981) and Yorath and Hyndman (1983). Haggart (1986; 1987), using ammonoid faunas, and Cameron and Hamilton (1988), employing foraminiferal biostratigraphy, have refined the stratigraphy in the Queen Charlotte Group. Fogarassy and Barnes (1988a) divided the sequence into eight lithostratigraphic units which correlate well with these biostratigraphic divisions. Yagashita (1985a) conducted a preliminary diagenetic study of the Haida-Skidegate-Honna sequence. Fogarassy and Barnes (1988a; 1988b; 1989) examined all major Queen Charlotte Group outcrop sections on the Islands and have documented diagenetic controls on petroleum reservoir development in sandstones and conglomerates of the Queen Charlotte Group. They rated the Haida Formation, based on porosity development, as a secondary objective after the Tertiary Skonun Formation, in the Queen Charlotte Basin. 13. Geologic setting The Queen Charlotte Islands lie approximately 800 km northwest of Vancouver and 140 km off the British Columbia mainland; the islands are approximately 300 km in length and 50 km in width. Of the 152 islands that comprise the archipelago, Graham Island in the north and Moresby Island in the south are the largest. The Queen Charlotte Islands comprise the northern part of the Insular belt of British Columbia, which includes Vancouver Island to the south (Fig. 1). Strata exposed on the Queen Charlotte Islands range from metamorphosed Upper Triassic tholeiitic basalts of the Karmutsen Formation to Miocene-Pliocene arkosic sandstones of the Skonun Formation (Fig. 2). Current knowledge of the structure, tectonics and depositional setting of the FIGURE 1. Location of study area (adapted from Wheeler and Gabrielse, 1972). QUATERNARY z (U P L I O C E N E U - r — U 10-NEOGI M M I O P F M F NEOGI L 20-IARV O L I G O C E N E U j 30-r -cc Ul z L L U r -Ul o U 40-o Ul < E O C E N E M 50-PAL L P A L E O C E N E M A A S T R I C H T I A N -PPER C A M P A N I A N SANTONlANy -, CONIACIAN TURONIAN us C E N O M A N I A N :EO ETAC A L B I A N _ CR OC Ul A P T I A N s o B A R R E M I A N _ i H A U T E R I V I A N V A L A N G I N I A N B E R R I A S I A N -TITHONIAN/ UPPER OC Ul VOLGIAN LOWER -0. K I M M E R I D G I A N O X F O R D I A N -O C A L L O V I A N URASS MIDDLE B A T H O N I A N URASS MIDDLE B A J O C I A N -- a A A L E N I A N cc Ul 5 T O A R C I A N -P L I E N S B A C H I A N O - i S I N E M U R I A N 200-H E T T A N G I A N O -1 TRIASS UPPER N O R I A N -1 TRIASS C A R N I A N UNCONSOLIDATED, S K O N U N S K I D E G A T E ^ s— H A I D A ™ ™ L O N G A R M SHALLOW \ BATHYAL K A R M U T S E N L I T H O L O G Y SEDIMENTS VOLCANICS PLUTONICS H NO RECORD C O N T A C T R E L A T I O N S CONFORMABLE DIACHRONOUS NOT OBSERVED DISTAL EQUIVALENCY FIGURE 2. Stratigraphic column for the Queen Charlotte Islands (modified from Cameron and Hamilton, 1988). Queen Charlotte Islands (Sutherland Brown, 1968; Yorath and Chase, 1981; Yorath and Hyndman, 1983) has received intense scrutiny (Thompson, 1989). It is anticipated that the regional geology for the Islands and adjacent offshore areas will be re-interpreted in conflict with former studies. As the compilation of Yorath and Chase (1981) is the only recent published work on the regional geology of the Queen Charlottes Islands, the following summary is based on Yorath and Chase (1981) and Sutherland Brown (1968). Yorath and Chase (1981) defined four lithologic assemblages associated with discrete stages in the tectonic history of the Islands. The Triassic Karmutsen Formation and the Jurassic Kunga, Maude, Yakoun and Moresby Groups form the lowermost sequence known as the Wrangellia Terrane. Wrangellian sediments are a mixture of oceanic basalts and aquagene tuffs, at the base, overlain by intercalated shales and limestones and capped by calc-alkaline volcanic strata, representing deposition in a volcanic island arc setting. This sequence is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cretaceous Longarm Formation. The Longarm Formation is postulated (Yorath and Chase, 1981) to represent the product of the collision of Wrangellia and the Paleozoic Alexander Terrane, and is called a suture assemblage by Yorath and Chase (1981). The exact location of the Wrangellian-Alexander Terrane boundary is problematical; Yorath and Chase (1981) describe the suture as bisecting Graham Island whereas Woodsworth (1988) claims the boundary may lie on the east side of Hecate Strait. The Longarm Formation is a lithologically variable, siliciclastic unit composed of proximal conglomerates and coarse grained sandstones, and distal fine grained turbiditic sandstones and mudstones. The stitching of these two terranes, with resultant Longarm deposition, was followed by deposition of the middle to Upper Cretaceous conglomerates, sandstones and shales of the Queen Charlotte Group. The Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations of the Queen Charlotte Group represent a post-suture assemblage, antecedent to the collision of the Alexander Terrane with Wrangellia. Deposition of the Haida and Skidegate Formations was in a passive, transgressive marine setting whereas the Honna Formation is believed to have been derived in part from the emergence and unroofing of the Coast Plutonic Complex (Yagashita, 1985b). The Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group of Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands has a somewhat similar style of sedimentation and compositional and textural maturity to the Queen Charlotte Group (Pacht, 1984). Unconformably overlying this post-suture assemblage are the Cenozoic units of the Masset and Skonun Formations. The Tertiary Masset volcanics and the Skonun sandstones form the uppermost tectonostratigraphic sequence in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Yorath and Chase (1981) indicate each unit forms a component of a rift assemblage. Alkalic basalts and sodic rhyolites of the Masset Formation (Sutherland Brown, 1968) were extruded as flows and pyroclastics (Hickson, 1989) coincident with the development of a mantle plume and resultant crustal thinning, in southern portion of the Queen Charlotte Basin (Yorath and Chase, 1981). The Skonun Formation is the uppermost member of the rift assemblage. It was derived from middle Miocene rifting and late Pliocene uplift related to a triple junction migration (Barrash and Venkatakrishnan, 1982) involving oblique subduction of the Pacific and Explorer plates beneath the continental margin (North American plate). 1.4. Methods of study During the 1987 and 1988 field seasons the author measured and sampled stratigraphic sections of middle to Upper Cretaceous strata, in four separate areas of exposure (Fig. 3). Helicopter supported camps were used in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region, whereas a four wheel drive vehicle and Zodiac inflatable boat were employed for reaching southerly outcrops in Skidegate, Cumshewa, Sewell and Logan Inlets. Study of stratigraphic sections was generally limited to shoreline outcrops. Inland outcrops are discontinuous and only found in isolated quarries and logging roadcuts and thus were not extensively sampled. Two hundred and fifteen thin sections of conglomerates and sandstones were cut from selected hand samples. All thin sections were stained with sodium cobaltinitrite, using the technique of Houghton (1980), for potassium feldspar and clay determination. Sixty-two thin sections were vacuum impregnated with blue dyed epoxy resin to aid in visual porosity estimates (Yanguas and Paxton, 1986). 7 FIGURE 3. Middle to Upper Cretaceous outcrops (modified from Sutherland Brown, 1968). 8 Selected sections were stained with alizarin red S (sodium alizarin sulphonate) and potassium ferricyanide for identification of calcite and ferroan carbonates respectively (Dickson, 1965). Thin section analysis identified lithofacies of petrographic and diagenetic interest. These units were examined with a Nanolab® 7 Scanning Electron Microscope (S.E.M.) and a Kevex® Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (E.D.S.). Rough and polished sections were coated with 50 nm and 25 nm of carbon respectively and analyzed with 30 KeV accelerating voltage using 50 nm and 100 nm beam diameters. Secondary electron images and back scattered electron images were recorded on black and white Polaroid type 53 film. Clay mineralogy was studied with a Philips® X-ray diffractometer (X.R.D.) equipped with a Cu Koc tube and Ni filter. Outcrop samples were from selected recent beach exposures so that weathering artifacts were minimized. To obtain preferred orientation of the (001) series of basal reflection for the phyllosilicates, samples were crushed and ground in an agate mortar and/or ring grinder and dispersed with sodium hydroxide in distilled water at pH 8.5. Following settling curves of Jackson (1956), the supernatant suspension of phyllosilicates and other clay sized particles (<2 urn) was transferred to a 500 ml beaker holding two glass microscope slides. Phyllosilicates were allowed to settle for 48 hours; the slides were then air dried. Three separate X-ray diffractograms were obtained for each sample. Upon gathering an initial pattern, from 3-650 20, the slide was heated in a furnace for 12 hours at 550°C, then transferred to a desiccator to avoid rehydration of expandable clays before loading into the diffractometer for a second run from 3-350 29. A third diffractogram, to aid in the identification of mixed-layer clay assemblages, was run from 3-350 29 on a duplicate oriented clay slide which was treated for 48 hours with ethylene glycol vapour to determine the presence or absence of swelling clays and mixed-layer assemblages containing 9 swelling clays. Selected samples were re-run to aid in the semi-quantitative determination of Fe, Mg and Al content of clays, primarily the chlorite and smectite groups. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios on carbonate cements were determined by a V G ® Isogas Ltd. isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Sample preparation involved heating a minimum of 2 mg of sample at 430OC for 1/2 hour to volatize organic components. Samples were reacted with 100% H3PO4 at 90OC, to generate CO2 gas, and run on autocarbonate mode to facilitate the running of a large number of samples. All isotope values presented are referenced to Belemnitella americana from the Peedee Formation (PDB). Reference gas was derived from foraminifera prepared identically to study samples. The laboratory standard used was a single crystal of calcite from Mexico with 8l3c = 2.8%0 and 8180 = -9.5%0. Aspects of porosity geometry and distribution were studied with pore casts and numerical values were obtained visually by thin section estimates. Two pore casts of selected basal Haida sandstones were prepared by impregnation with Epotech 301 epoxy low viscosity resin (Wardlaw, 1976). Samples were etched for 24 hours with 10% HCl acid solution to remove carbonates followed by HF treatment to remove silicates. The cast of the pore system stands in relief above the surrounding silicate host and, after gold sputter coating, was examined with the S.E.M.. 2. STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLOGY 2.1. Synopsis The middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence of the Queen Charlotte Islands is composed of a tripartite sedimentary package of conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones. The Albian Haida Formation, the Cenomanian-Santonian Skidegate Formation and the Coniacian-Santonian Honna Formation collectively form the Queen Charlotte Group. Cameron and Hamilton (1988) restructured the original stratigraphic nomenclature suggested by Sutherland Brown (1968) for the middle to Upper Cretaceous (Fig. 4). Employing foraminiferal evidence, they equated Sutherland Brown's Upper Haida shale member to the Skidegate Formation. These coeval units were recognized as older than the Honna Formation. Haggart (1986) had previously demonstrated equivalence of the upper Haida shale member and the Skidegate Formation with ammonoid faunas. The Queen Charlotte Group sits with marked unconformity on Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Upper Triassic strata and is overlain unconformably by volcanics of the Tertiary Masset Formation. The Haida-Skidegate-Honna sequence represents an overall fining upwards package deposited during a marine transgression (Yagashita, 1985a). The Haida Formation is a nonmarine, probably fluvial deposit at its base and quickly grades upward into nearshore, shallow marine deposits. Gradual deepening of waters is seen in the deposition of mudstones of the Skidegate Formation. Abruptly overlying the relatively passive deposits of the Haida and Skidegate Formations is the Honna Formation. These coarse grained elastics may represent submarine channel and turbidite deposition (Yagashita, 1985a) or a fan-delta deposit (Higgs, 1988). The Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations are divided into eight regionally mappable lithofacies (Fig. 5). The Haida Formation is composed of medium to coarse grained sandstones with granule to pebble conglomerates at its base. The Skidegate Formation is a concretionary mudstone unit and the Honna Formation is a variably thick sequence of pebble to boulder conglomerates and 11 SUTHERLAND BROWN (1968) SKIDEGATE < FM. I c u c r— HONNA FORMATION SHALE MEMBER SANDSTONE MEMBER Triasslc-Lower Cret. sed. & vole, rocks HAGGART (1987) CAMERON & HAMILTON (1988) Z CL in i HONNA OTTE GROI TURONIAN FORMATION CHARL CENOM. SKIDEGATE FORMATION Z Ul ) ALBIAN QUE ) ALBIAN HAIDA FORMATION Trlasslc-Lower Cret. sed. & vole, rocks THIS STUDY HONNA F SKIDEGATE FORMATION HAIDA FORMATION ? Trlasslc-Lower Cret. sed. & vole, rocks FIGURE 4. Stratigraphic nomenclature for the Queen Charlotte Group (modified from Haggart, 1987). 12 UPPER HONNA Clast supported pebble to cobble conglomerate interbedded with lenticular coarse grained sandstone. HONNA FM — — — ^ S ^ g o J J i i — — MIDDLE HONNA Turbiditic sandstones, siltstones and shales with occasional conglomerate interbeds and massive coarse grained sandstones. HONNA FM BASAL HONNA Clast supported pebble to cobble conglomerate interbedded with lenticular coarse grained sandstone. HONNA FM SKIDEGATE SANDSTONE-SILTSTONE Weil bedded fine grained sandstone, siltstone and shale. SKIDEGATE FM. SKIDEGATE SHALE Silty, concretionary shale. SKIDEGATE FM. UPPER HAIDA Interbedded sandstones, siltstones and silty shales. HAIDA FM. LOWER HAIDA SANDSTONE Fine to medium grained carbonaceous sandstones. HAIDA FM. BASAL HAIDA Granule conglomerate interbedded with medium to coarse grained pebbly sandstones. HAIDA FM. FIGURE 5. Middle to Upper Cretaceous lithofacies chart (adapted from Yagashita, 1985a and Haggart, 1986). turbiditic sandstones. The source for all middle to Upper Cretaceous sediments appears to be the same local underlying sedimentary, volcanic and plutonic units now exposed on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Fault repetition complicates measurement of the true stratigraphic thicknesses of the units, but the middle to Upper Cretaceous section is inferred to thin in a southerly direction from the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region to Cumshewa and Sewell Inlets (Fig. 6). Petrographically, the Queen Charlotte Group exhibits a number of major similarities and differences to sedimentary strata of neighbouring northeast Pacific rim geologic provinces. High percentages of potassium feldspar appear to indicate a major contribution from a plutonic provenance (Folk, 1974), particularly for the Haida Formation. The Haida Formation contains a mixture of clast types at its base and grades upward into arkosic and lithic sandstones and siltstones before shaling out in the Skidegate Formation (Fig. 4). The Honna Formation is rich in trachytic volcanic rock fragments and slightly weathered plagioclase. The following sections of this chapter detail stratigraphic and petrologic observations and discuss interpretations, dealing with provenance of sediments and depositional environments, drawn from these observations. Ik FIGURE 6. Isopach: Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations. Note southeasterly thinning. Circles represent studied regions; as outcrops are generally shallow dipping (<25°) their exposure covers long stretches of coastline. Dashed contours represent possible isopach extrapolations. 22. Haida Formation The lowermost unit of the Queen Charlotte Group is the Haida Formation subdivided into three lithofacies: 1) basal Haida; 2) lower Haida sandstone; and 3) upper Haida. Each lithofacies progressively fines and increases in argillaceous content upwards. 2.2.1. Basal Haida lithofacies Stratigraphy The basal Haida is the coarsest of the Haida Formation lithofacies and has a variable thickness throughout the Islands. It has a measured outcrop thickness ranging from a postulated pinchout on Louise Island in the south, to 190 m in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region of northwestern Graham Island (Appendix 3). The unit is typified by well developed low and high angle planar cross-lamination and by local herringbone cross-lamination (Figs. 7A, 7B). Coalified wood and plant fragments and fine grained terrigenous carbonaceous organic debris are locally abundant (Figs. 7C, 7D). A paucity of ichnofossils characterizes this lithofacies, possibly indicating freshwater conditions or rapid deposition rates. The basal Haida lithofacies is suggested to be a fluvial deposit. Yagashita (1985a) recognized possible fluvial indicators (well developed crossbeds, lack of fossils, coarse grain size) in strata exposed in Cumshewa Inlet. Freshwater conditions are inferred in Beresford Bay-Langara Island and Skidegate Inlet regions based on fluvial sedimentary structures similar to those documented by Yagashita (1985a) and nonmarine early diagenetic assemblages (see chapter 3). The basal Haida lithofacies grades vertically over a few metres into the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies. Petrology The basal Haida lithofacies is the most petrographically distinct of the eight lithofacies present in the Queen Charlotte Group. The lithofacies is composed of granule to pebble, matrix to clast FIGURE 7 (following page) FIGURE 7A. Basal Haida: cross-bedding. Herringbone cross lamination may be diagnostic of tidal deposition. Opposed laminae may indicate ebb and flood tidal currents. FIGURE 7B. Basal Haida: cross-bedding. Irregular, unidirectional, medium to coarse grained planar cross lamination suggests fluvial conditions. FIGURE 7C. Basal Haida: coalified wood fragments. Imbrication and orientation of coalified wood fragments indicates unidirectional, current dominated environment, probably a fluvial channel. FIGURE 7D. Basal Haida: trace fossils. Silicified Teredolites trace fossils, created by boring bivalves ("ship worms") (Kelly, 1988), preserved in situ. 18 supported conglomerates and medium to coarse grained arkosic and feldspathic sandstones. The unit V has a bimodal grain size distribution with very well rounded, polycrystalline and strained quartz and plutonic rock fragments and medium grained, subangular to subrounded feldspars, monocrystalline quartz and sedimentary rock fragments (Fig. 8B). Polycrystalline and highly strained quartz dominates the framework with an average grain size of greater than 2 mm that comprises up to 30% of total framework; subordinate monocrystalline quartz, feldspar and rock fragments account for the remaining 70% and have an average grain size of 500^ an. Matrix is negligible, but a pseudomatrix of deformed sedimentary and volcanic rock fragments occurs (Dickinson, 1970). Cement is restricted to patchy, occasionally poikilitic, calcite and minor amounts of interstratified clays forming at the expense of orthoclase and plagioclase. The basal Haida is classified as an arkosic arenite (Williams et al., 1954). Compositional variability characterizes the framework grains of the basal Haida lithofacies. Undeformed trachytic volcanic rock fragments, myrmekitic and graphic intergrowths of potassium feldspar and quartz (Fig. 8C), and strained quartz grains (Fig. 8D) indicate multiple sediment sources. The provenance of the coarser fractions of the basal Haida lithofacies appears to be Late Jurassic plutons. Thin sections from samples from the margins of Late Jurassic intrusions on Lyell Island display strain textures identical to those present in basal Haida sandstones. Moderate to highly strained "ribbon" grains characterize polycrystalline quartz. Mineralogy of strained grains is predominantly quartz (60-100%) but includes albite twinned plagioclase, orthoclase and fine grained sericite paralleling foliation. Though a plutonic source is postulated, a ductilely deformed quartz-rich siltstone and sandstone is a possibility. The high degree of rounding and sphericity seen in the majority of coarser framework grains suggests sediment recycling, possibly from the Moresby Group or the Longarm Formation, or a long transport distance as the basal Haida lithofacies appears to be fluvial. Initial denudation of Late Jurassic plutons may have caused the deposition of quartz-rich Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary strata which in turn were the source of the basal Haida lithofacies. Such a compositionally and texturally mature sedimentary basal Haida protolith, if it has escaped erosion, might be an attractive hydrocarbon exploration target. 19 FIGURE 8 (following page) FIGURE 8A. Basal Haida: well preserved radiolarian (R) in Triassic shale fragment. Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 8B. Basal Haida: bimodal grain size distribution. Large, spherical, rounded strained quartz (Q) and finer grained, more angular feldspar (F) and quartz framework grains typify the basal Haida lithofacies. Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 8C. Basal Haida: graphic texture; intergrowth of potassium feldspar and quartz. Thin section photomicrograph, crossed nicols. FIGURE 8D. Basal Haida: polycrystalline quartz. These large grains readily distinguish the basal Haida lithofacies from the rest of the Queen Charlotte Group. Highly strained "ribbon" quartz, increases in abundance in southerly outcrops. Thin section photomicrograph, crossed nicols. The abundance of strained quartz grains suggests a source to the south. A likely protolith, muscovitic trondhjemite of the Burnaby Island Plutonic Suite crosscuts quartz monzodiorite and monzodiorite of the San Christoval Plutonic Suite (R.G. Anderson, Geological Survey of Canada, pers. comm., 1989; Anderson and Greig, 1989). Detrital muscovite, observed only in the basal Haida lithofacies, may be correlative to the felsic muscovitic trondhjemite. The areal distribution of the strained quartz grains is generally restricted mainly to Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets; however, small percentages are observed in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. The origin of basal Haida sediments deposited in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region appears mainly to be nearby Triassic and Jurassic cherty radiolarian mudstones (Fig. 8A) and volcaniclastics. 222. Lower Haida sandstone lithofacies Stratigraphy The sandstones of the Lower Haida are generally texturally and compositionally immature. They are locally stained with dead oil and contain carbonized wood fragments, including logs exceeding two metres in length (Fig. 9A). The unit is characterized by abundant ammonites, the mollusc Trigonia and locally intense bioturbation. It ranges from 200 to 700 m in thickness. Argillaceous content and buff-brown weathering calcite concretions increase upsection. Concretions occasionally coalesce to form "beds" up to one metre thick, preserving original sedimentary textures and structures. Yagashita (1985a) described desiccation crack/casts in many outcrops; however, these were not recognized during the present study. Cameron and Hamilton (1988) also indicated the absence of desiccation structures. Discrete offshore bar build-ups are recognized in this transgressive sandstone. Low and high angle planar cross-stratification and distinctive coarsening upward sequences, 2 to 6 m thick, punctuate the section (Fig. 9B). Recognized trace fossils include Ophiomorpha and Planolites. Ophiomorpha is a FIGURE 9 (following page) FIGURE 9A. Lower Haida sandstone: coalified log. Organic material is very abundant in the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies. FIGURE 9B. Lower Haida sandstone: offshore bar. Discrete fine to coarse grained build-ups, usually two to six metres thick, are recognized by coarsening upward deposits and well developed, low and high angle, planar cross-bedding. The build-ups are confined to the basal part of the lithofacies, coincident with the initiation of the regional marine transgression during middle to Late Cretaceous time. FIGURE 9C. Lower Haida sandstone: Ophiomorpha nodosa. Bedding parallel branching maze. FIGURE 9D. Lower Haida sandstone: Ophiomorpha nodosa. Perpendicular to bedding burrow. Note pelleted exterior of trace fossil (left of lens cap). 2k common, shallow water, nearshore marine ichnofossil characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies (Figs. 9C, 9D) (Chamberlain, 1978; Frey and Pemberton, 1985). The upward fining trend and increased clay content may represent deposition in a transgressive marine environment (Yagashita, 1985a). In the upper part of the unit, hummocky and swaley cross-stratification suggests reworking below fair weather wavebase (Walker, 1979a; Fig. 10A). The lower Haida sandstone grades, over tens of metres, into the upper Haida lithofacies. Petrology The sandstones of the lower Haida lithofacies are poorly to moderately sorted, subangular to subrounded, fine to medium grained, arkosic to lithic wackes and arenites. The offshore bar build-ups which punctuate the sequence are characteristically more mature and occasionally exhibit visible porosity. Abundant coalified, woody organic matter may contribute to porosity development (see chapter 4). Abundant orthoclase, plagioclase, quartz, fragments of Triassic-Jurassic carbonaceous ' shales, and minor biotite, glauconite, sphene, epidote, and pyrite typify mineral assemblages. Although Yagashita (1985a) described plagioclase to potassium feldspar ratios in excess of 50:1 for this lithofacies, point counting of stained thin sections in the present study indicates ratios of 3:2 to be the norm (Appendix le). These ratios are more consistent with the approximately 4:1 ratios described by Sutherland Brown (1968). E.D.S. analysis of a series of polished sections confirmed subequal amounts of alkali and sodic/calcic feldspars. The more alkali-rich sandstones suggest major contributions from Jurassic plutons rather than, for example, the more plagioclase-rich Karmutsen Formation. 25 FIGURE 10 (following page) FIGURE 10A. Lower Haida sandstone: hummocky cross-stratification. FIGURE 10B. Upper Haida: interbedding. Typical intercalation of very fine grained sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. The upper Haida lithofacies is variable in thickness (0 -200 m) but is widely distributed. FIGURE 10C. Skidegate shale: concretions. These early diagenetic calcite features locally coalesce to form discontinuous beds. FIGURE 10D. Skidegate shale: septarian concretions. Near the top of the lithofacies in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. Concretions are often cored by organic debris such as ammonite or other mollusc shells and wood fragments. 223. Upper Haida lithofacies Stratigraphy The upper Haida lithofacies is an interbedded very fine grained sandstone, siltstone and mudstone unit (Fig. 10B). The unit represents a thick transition between the sandstones of the underlying lower Haida lithofacies to the shales and mudstones of the overlying Skidegate Formation. The upper Haida is typified by abundant, occasionally pyritized, ammonoid faunas and a suite of other molluscs including the bivalve Trigonia. Calcareous concretions exceeding one metre in diameter locally form resistant marker "beds". Coalified and silicified wood fragments decrease in abundance near the Skidegate Formation contact. The unit ranges from 0 to 200 m thick, and is found chiefly in the area of Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets. It grades, over tens of metres, into the Skidegate Formation. Petrology The sandstones of the upper Haida lithofacies are similar petrographically to the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies, but are generally finer grained, more angular and poorly sorted, and more argillaceous than the remainder of the Haida sandstones. The upper Haida lithofacies is classified as lithic wacke. 23. Skidegate Formation The Skidegate Formation is a dark grey marine mudstone (Haggart, 1986). It is subdivided into two lithofacies: 1) Skidegate shale; and 2) Skidegate sandstone-siltstone. 23.1. Skidegate shale lithofacies Stratigraphy The Skidegate shale lithofacies is 100 to 300 m thick, consisting of mudstone and shale with rare calcareous sandstone and siltstone interbeds less than 30 cm thick. Accurate thickness measurement is difficult due to abundant folds and faults. Ammonites and calcific concretions (Fig. 10C) are common in the mudstones. Complex septarian concretions (Fig. 10D) occur in the upper portion of the lithofacies in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region where they may be used as a stratigraphic marker. Slump structures (Figs. 11A, 11B) increase in abundance to the northwest and may be related to growth faulting. Thickness of section (Appendix 3), slump and shallow water sedimentary structures may indicate syn-sedimentary faulting. Load, ball and pillow, and flame structures and syn-sedimentary microfaults are abundant in coarser sandstone interbeds. Large and small scale folding in the lithofacies is pronounced throughout the section, much more so than in the underlying Haida and overlying Honna Formations. Refracted cleavage is pervasive and may be related to the amount of silt present in the mudstone (Fig. 11C). This unit grades rapidly over a few tens of metres into the overlying Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies. FIGURE 11 (following page) FIGURE 11A. Skidegate shale: slump structures. The lithofacies is characterized by syn-sedimentary deformation structures. Slump and convolute lamination is pronounced in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. Northerly shallowing of waters is interpreted on the basis of increased sandstone and siltstone content and slump structures. FIGURE 11B. Skidegate shale: slump structures. Distal slumps are typified by beds composed of chaotic rip-up clasts derived from immediately underlying strata. FIGURE 11C. Skidegate shale: refracted cleavage. The incompetency of this lithofacies is demonstrated by its closely spaced faults and broad folds. Spaced cleavage is probably controlled by the amount of silt present in the shale. .31 Petrology Sandstones layers, 1 to 10 cm thick, punctuate the Skidegate shale lithofacies. They are argillaceous, very poorly sorted, with angular grains and generally grade upward from very fine grained sandstone to siltstone. They are classified as lithic wackes. Visual porosity is rare and does not exceed 3% in any sample studied. Iron-rich chlorite and illite are the dominant phyllosilicates in the mudstone and shale. 232. Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies Stratigraphy The Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies is a fine grained sandstone with thin pebble conglomerate lenses at its top and intercalated mudstones and siltstones near its base. Yagashita (1985a) informally designated the Skidegate sandstone-siltstone unit as a member in the Queen Charlotte Group. The sandstones show poorly developed A and B divisions of the Bouma sequence, with accompanying basal scour and normal grading. Turbidite sedimentation appears to herald Honna deposition in some outcrops. Yagashita (1985a) and Haggart (1986) believe the coarser grained elastics of the Skidegate Formation may presage deposition of the Honna Formation. Although thin (usually less than 30 m), the lithofacies is recognized at scattered localities throughout the Islands and is seen to underlie conglomerates of the Honna Formation. Petrology Petrologically the Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies is similar to the overlying Honna Formation. Plagioclase, volcanic rock fragments, biotite, and detrital and authigenic clays, such as chlorite, occur in greater percentages than in the underlying Haida Formation sandstones and conglomerates. The unit is moderately sorted, subrounded to subangular, fine grained sandstone and siltstone and is classified as a lithic and arkosic wacke or arenite. FIGURE 12 (following page) FIGURE 12A.<?Primary porosity preserved in moderately sorted, fine to medium grained Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies. Scanning electron microscope '• '^ photomicrograph. FIGURE 12B. K-feldspar dissolution (K) and chloritized biotite (B). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. 3 * 35 2.4. Honna Formation The Honna Formation is a thick sequence of conglomerate and sandstone which erosionally overlies the Skidegate and Haida Formations as well as Jurassic and Triassic strata. The formation is informally subdivided into three lithofacies: 1) basal Honna; 2) middle Honna; and 3) upper Honna. 2.4.1. Basal Honna lithofacies Stratigraphy The basal Honna lithofacies is a clast supported pebble to boulder conglomerate (Fig. 13A) containing plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary clasts derived from underlying Cretaceous and older strata (Sutherland Brown, 1968) with a matrix of medium to very coarse grained argillaceous arkosic to lithic sandstone. Conglomerate beds are sharp based, variably graded, and up to 5 m thick. Massive medium to very coarse grained sandstone lenses, usually less than 30 m long and 3 m thick, are present throughout the lithofacies (Fig. 13B). Yagashita (1985a) provides an analysis of sedimentary structures within the conglomerate; interpreting source directions based on clast imbrication. However, imbrication of basal Honna clasts is almost non-existent in virtually all outcrops except in northwest Graham Island. The occurrence of massive sandstone lenses and interfingering with the overlying middle Honna turbiditic sandstones suggests the basal Honna lithofacies is a submarine channel deposit. Deposition of the lithofacies appears to be controlled by channeling processes which typify gravelly submarine fans; similar controls of deposition are described by Yagashita (1985b). Petrology Sandstones of the basal Honna lithofacies are characterized by plagioclase, trachytic volcanic rock fragments and a suite of heavy minerals including biotite, hornblende, epidote, sphene, ilmenite FIGURE 13 (following page) FIGURE 13A. Basal Honna: conglomerate. Clast types include plutonic, volcanic and <• sedimentary rocks; poor sorting and lack of imbrication typify the basal Honna . \.. '.lithofacies. FIGURE 13B. Basal Honna: lenticular sandstone. Massive, medium to very coarse grained sandstones are devoid of visible sedimentary structures. Paucity of structures may indicate the sandstone was deposited from a mass flow. and garnet, in order of decreasing abundance (Fig. 14A). Angular and poorly sorted, the Honna sandstones are classified, with the rest of the Honna Formation, as lithic wackes. Increased abundance of volcanic rock fragments, the presence of hornblende and the lower proportions of quartz serve to distinguish the Honna sandstones from those in the Haida and Skidegate Formations. Decreased compositional maturity is accompanied by decreased textural maturity. Sphericity and roundness are much lower than in the Skidegate and Haida Formations. 2.42. Middle Honna lithofacies Stratigraphy The middle Honna lithofacies is a sequence of interbedded conglomerates and sandstones. The unit is divisible into two parts: 1) lower conglomerate and sandstone; and 2) upper turbiditic sandstones and shales. The lower part is a clast supported pebble to cobble conglomerate intercalated with massive, well sorted fine to medium grained sandstones. The sandstones are 0.5 to 2 m thick and may represent grain flow deposition within the confines of submarine channels. The upper part of the middle Honna lithofacies is composed of turbiditic sandstones and mudstones. Well developed B-C and B-C-D repeats of the Bouma sequence (Fig. 15A) may represent deposition on the margins of a submarine fan (Walker, 1979b). Trace fossils are abundant in more argillaceous portions of this sub-unit, but have not been found to be diagnostic in terms of water depth (Figs. 15B, 15C). Conglomerates and sandstones of the middle Honna are overlain abruptly by conglomerates of the upper Honna lithofacies. FIGURE 14 (following page) FIGURE 14A. Basal Honna: trachytic volcanic rock fragment (V). Volcanic rock fragments ..; \commonly display well developed trachytic texture. Thin section 1"^ ;' f photomicrograph, crossed nicols. FIGURE 14B. Basal Honna: partially chloritized biotite sheaf (B). Thin section photomicrograph, 1/2 crossed nicols. fo FIGURE 15 (following page) FIGURE 15A. Middle Honna: turbidite. Well developed B-C and B-C-D division repeats of the Bouma sequence. FIGURE 15B. Middle Honna: trace fossils. Trace fossils occur in argillaceous portions of the lithofacies. Possible arthropod tracks are plentiful. FIGURE 15C. Middle Honna: trace fossils. Spiral Asterosoma(1) is rare. Eurytopic ichnofossils (e.g. Planolites) dominate assemblages, thus salinity and water depth are indeterminate. Petrology The sandstones are petrographically similar to underlying lenticular sandstones of the basal Honna lithofacies. They are composed of plagioclase, volcanic rock fragments, orthoclase, monocrystalline quartz and a variety of ferromagnesian constituents including biotite and hornblende. The unit is classified as a lithic wacke or a lithic arenite. Middle Honna sandstones are distinctive in that hornblende abundance can locally reach 10% of the framework grain assemblage. It is generally very fresh, and is usually the largest framework grain in thin section, has red-green-brown colour and shows well developed 56° cleavages. Diagenetically, hornblende contributes significantly to porosity observed in the lithofacies (see chapter 4). 2.4.3. Upper Honna lithofacies Stratigraphy and petrology The upper Honna lithofacies is a clast supported pebble to cobble conglomerate containing an angular, poorly sorted medium to coarse grained lithic sandstone matrix. The unit is very similar petrologically and sedimentologically to the basal Honna lithofacies. It is composed of a variety of clast types and has massive, lenticular sandstones scattered throughout the section. Differences include locally well developed bedding and clast imbrication (Fig. 16B). The unit averages 40 m thick, about one-fifth the thickness of the basal Honna conglomerates. kh FIGURE 16 (following page) FIGURE 16A. Middle Honna: hornblende dissolution creating intragranular secondary porosity (P). Thin section photomicrograph, 1/2 crossed nicols. %.: • . ' FIGURE 16B. Upper Honna: imbrication. In the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region imbrication and bedding is locally well developed. Clast framework and matrix compositions are similar to the basal Honna lithofacies. H-5" 2.5. Discussion: stratigraphy and petrology Stratigraphy Deposition of the Queen Charlotte Group can be subdivided into two separate periods: 1) Haida-Skidegate deposition with a south-southwest provenance; and 2) Honna and continued Skidegate deposition with a north-northeast provenance (Fig. 17). Deposition is postulated to have been the greatest in two sub-basins; one in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region, which has pronounced petrographic and diagenetic characteristics which distinguish it from the areally larger southern sub-basin extending from Logan Inlet to north of Skidegate Inlet. Yagashita (1985a) proposed four contemporaneous sedimentary basins for the Queen Charlotte Group based on a tectonic interpretation heavily reliant upon postulated large scale strike-slip fault offsets. Lewis and Ross (1988) and Thompson and Thorkelson (1989) indicate little or no right-lateral strike-slip offset exists along presumed regional faults such as the Rennell Sound fault system (Sutherland Brown, 1968). In Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets, Cretaceous sedimentation may be related to block faulting episodes (Thompson and Thorkelson, 1989). Haida-Skidegate deposition represents a major marine transgression (Yagashita, 1985a). Haida sandstones and conglomerates are presently found only northeast of the Rennell Sound fold belt; a southerly depositional edge appears to occur in the area of Cumshewa Inlet. A structural cross section by Lewis and Ross (1988) also infers a southerly pinchout of the Haida Formation. Regional condensation of section in all formations of the Queen Charlotte Group infers stratigraphic thinning in a southerly direction. Increase of high density detrital components, including zircon (S.G. = 4.68) and epidote (S.G. = 3.35-3.45), in south Cumshewa Inlet outcrops may indicate a southerly provenance. All these data contradict Yagashita's (1985b) suggestion of an easterly source for Haida sediments. Inoceramus assemblages indicate the basal Haida lithofacies in Cumshewa Inlet to be correlative with the Lower Cretaceous Longarm Formation (J.W. Haggart and R.I. Thompson, Geological Survey of Canada, pers. comm., 1989). The possibility of the Haida Formation conformably I J U Y 'J \l 'J Y V U J U V J , ( W v » J ^ V H » » u u m ^ » n i m i n . . . . . . . . . . . v . , , v .v. v v v /_. •• . , >, / v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v ^ v v v v v v « v V V V V V V V * % V V \/ \/ y 7 './ w ^ i - ^ - l ^ i J ^ J J ^ ^ C ^ S S o ^ SOUTHEAST LOGAN INLET NORTHWEST •15km • S EWELL " INLET 20km • CUMSHEWA " INLET ^3°k m-NO VERTICAL S C A L E IMPLIED Late Cretaceous Volcanics 1^3 Skidegate Fm. ESJ Honna Fm. FTil Haida Fm. Triassic,Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments FIGURE 17. Schematic stratigraphic cross-section, Queen Charlotte Group. Modified from Yagashita (1985a); Haggart and Higgs (1989); and B.E.B. Cameron, J.W. Haggart and R. Higgs, Geological Survey of Canada (pers. comm., 1988). Dashed lines indicate inferred contacts. overlying the Longarm Formation and the suggested equivalence of some basal Haida sediments to the Longarm Formation may indicate continuous deposition throughout the Cretaceous and not the discontinuous deposition postulated by Sutherland Brown (1968) (J.W. Haggart and R.I. Thompson, Geological Survey of Canada, pers. comm., 1989). Uniqueness of the basal Haida lithofacies demands a re-evaluation of Cretaceous stratigraphic nomenclature. It is suggested the basal Haida lithofacies be informally recognized as a formation in the Queen Charlotte Group or as a member of the Haida Formation. The Skidegate Formation may be a correlative facies of the Haida and Honna Formations and may be younger, in places, than the other formations in the Queen Charlotte Group (B.E.B. Cameron, J.W. Haggart and R. Higgs, Geological Survey of Canada, pers. comm., 1988; Haggart and Higgs, 1989; see Fig. 17). Intercalations of Skidegate mudstones and shales in the Haida and more particularly the Honna Formations may indicate sporadic transgressive pulses. The Honna Formation has received concentrated study recently, particularly in the Skidegate Inlet area. Yagashita (1985a) and Higgs (1988) both conclude an eastern provenance based on poor imbrication and regional tectonic interpretations. The depositional environment appears to be either a submarine channel and fan system (Yagashita, 1985a) or a fan-delta (Higgs, 1988). Stratigraphic observations of Haggart et al. (1989) indicate subaerial volcanic debris flows conformably overlying and interfingering with a conglomeratic facies thought to be part of the Honna Formation in northwestern Skidegate Inlet (Long Inlet). Friable, green silty shale beds, 10 to 15 cm thick, locally occur in the Skidegate shale lithofacies on the north shore of Skidegate Inlet and in the upper Haida lithofacies on the north shore of Cumshewa Inlet. X-ray diffractograms indicate a distinctive clay mineralogy dominated by interstratified illite/smectite and iron-rich chlorite. These beds may be aquagene tuffs, possibly related to Late Cretaceous subaerial volcanism described by Haggart et al. (1989). h9 Petrology Queen Charlotte Group is petrologically similar to other siliciclastic units in the northeast Pacific Rim area (Dickinson and Suczek, 1979) and the Queen Charlotte Islands (Yagashita, 1985a; Sutherland Brown, 1968). The Haida Formation and the Honna-Skidegate Formations are petrologically distinct. Appendices la to li list the framework, matrix and cement compositions for sixty-two thin sections cut from samples taken in all eight lithofacies and in all major geographic areas of study. Framework grain compositions for the Queen Charlotte Group, with the exceptions of the basal Haida lithofacies and the Honna Formation, are composed of variable amounts of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and lithic fragments. The basal Haida lithofacies is a feldspathic/arkosic arenite, whereas the Honna Formation contains abundant plagioclase, volcanic rock fragments and mafic components, including epidote and hornblende. The basal Haida lithofacies is unique petrologically in the Queen Charlotte Group. It is composed of a distinctive suite of framework and cementing minerals. Sutherland Brown (1968) briefly describes the basal deposits of the Haida as "...exceptional in being relatively mature..." (p. 87). Fogarassy and Barnes (1989) relate petroleum reservoir potential in the basal Haida lithofacies to increased mineralogical and textural maturity. The amount and composition of matrix is variable throughout the Queen Charlotte Group. Matrix in many sandstones is really a pseudomatrix (Dickinson, 1970) of deformed micas, sedimentary rock fragments and, to a lesser extent, volcanic rock fragments which have been forced during compaction into the interstices between more rigid framework grains. Variation of matrix amount creates a broad spectrum of rock types ranging from "clean" arenites to "dirty" immature wackes. As a result the classification (Appendix la) of individual samples does not exhibit discernible trends. An exception is the basal Haida lithofacies which almost uniformly contains less than 10% matrix. Identification of matrix and pseudomatrix constituents beyond micas, glauconite and organic material is difficult in thin section. Unidentified clays may be authigenic and thus classified as cement. Differentiating clay matrix from clay cement can only be done reliably in a few thin sections. Determination of sediment provenance for each lithofacies was not possible due to insufficient data; however provenance can be ascertained for each of the three formations. Using the framework grain ternary plots of Dickinson and Suczek (1979), sediments of the Haida Formation are derived, in part, from a recycled orogen while the Honna and Skidegate Formations are derived from a magmatic arc (Fig. 18). Sandstone composition data presented in Figure 18 are similar to those of Sutherland Brown (1968) except for the increased maturity observed in the Haida Formation. The distinctive petrologic and diagenetic make-up of the Haida Formation, particularly the basal Haida lithofacies, indicates potential sediment sources: 1) from deformed and subduction zone sequences; and/or 2) along collision orogens; and/or 3) within foreland fold-thrust belts (Dickinson and Suczek, 1979). The coarse grained and varied petrologic character of the Haida Formation supports a collision orogen provenance, particularly for the basal Haida lithofacies. The Honna-Skidegate Formations, with their high percentage of volcanic and ferromagnesian framework grains, and association with intercalated volcanics and aquagene tuffs, are interpreted as being derived from an active island arc or active continental margin. 51 Quartz (mono- and polycrystalline) and Chert FIGURE 18. Sandstone classification; Haida, Skidegate and Honna Formations. Ternary diagram; framework grain compositions. Classification scheme modified from Williams et al. (1954). A = sediments sourced from a continental block provenance, B = sediments sourced from a recycled orogen provenance, and C = sediments sourced from a magmatic arc provenance (Dickinson and Suczek, 1979). 3. DIAGENESIS 3.1. Synopsis Diagenetic history of the Queen Charlotte Group and the rest of the geologic section is extremely complex due to the labile and reactive composition of the strata (Galloway, 1974; Fogarassy and Barnes, 1988a; 1988b). Of the eight lithofacies studied, the basal Haida exhibits the greatest diagenetic variability, involving precipitation and dissolution of carbonate and aluminosilicate components. The remainder of the Queen Charlotte Group, although compositionally immature, exhibits generally uniform diagenetic trends throughout the Islands. 53 32. Clay minerals Chlorite, smectite and interstratified chlorite/smectite (corrensite) and interstratified chlorite/smectite/illite group minerals dominate clay assemblages in the sandstone and conglomerate petrofacies of the Queen Charlotte Group. Authigenic laumontite and glauconite, and allogenic biotite and muscovite occur in lesser, but locally significant, amounts. The clay mineralogy of shale units, primarily the Skidegate shale lithofacies, varies significantly from sandstone and conglomerate units in that iron-rich chlorite and illite are the major phyllosilicate phases. Smectite and illite/smectite occur locally but in minor amounts. 32.1. Chlorite Chlorite is the most abundant phyllosilicate in the Queen Charlotte Group. It is easily recognized in virtually all thin sections by its distinctive green hue, pore-lining and pore-filling habit and its characteristic (001), (002), (003), (004) and (005) basal reflections present in all X-ray diffractograms. The abundance of chlorite in the middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence may have important implications in terms of hydrocarbon production and siliciclastic reservoir management. Chamosite (variety ripidolite (ASTM 7-0076)), an iron-rich member of the chlorite group, is the dominant species. Diffractograms (Fig. 19) show strong (002) and (004) reflections and correspondingly weak (001), (003) and (005) peaks. Relative intensity ratios of even versus odd basal reflections indicate iron-rich chlorites (Eslinger and Pevear, 1988). Iron-poor chlorite (clinochlore or magnesium chamosite) exists in mixed-layer assemblages. This chlorite species is regularly interleaved with smectite (corrensite) and possibly illite/smectite and has a strong shifted (001) peak with the remaining basal reflections having lower, approximately equal, intensities (Fig. 20). Heat treatment resulted in the expected strengthening of the (001) peak and the weakening of higher order basal reflections (Brindley and Ali, 1950). Glycolation had no effect on chlorite peak intensity or distribution. 5h C=Chlorite Q=Quartz F=Feldspar A. 24 Hours @ 550° C °2& Cu KOC F I G U R E 19. Chamosite, X-ray diffractograms. Characteristic patterns for iron-rich chlorite (B). Note partial to complete loss of (002), (003), (004) and (005) peaks after heat treatment (A); (001) peak is sharpened and intensified with a small decrease in the c unit cell length. Glycolation of chamosite has no effect on basal spacings (C). CO A. 24 Hours 550° C C=Chlprite l/SHIIite/Smectite Q=Quartz F=Feldspar Cor=Corrensite Cal=Calcite B. Air- q o to Dried 2 2 » -. • <o in oo oo CM eg o O © O 09 C. Glycolated 32 28 24 2C 16 ° 2 6 - Cu K OC FIGURE 20. Mixed-layer assemblages, corrensite and illite/smectite (I/S) X-ray dirfractograms. High background values and discrete peaks from 30 to 5° 26 indicate superlattice structures of interstratified clays (B). Heat treatment (A) and glycolation (B) confirm presence of the regularly interstratified clay corrensite, (1:1 chlorite/smectite). Incomplete collapse of I/S indicates large amounts of illite; interstratification is nearly regular in this example as well ordered, but slightly broad peaks form an integral series. I/S is generally irregularly interleaved in the Queen Charlotte Group. Iron-rich chlorites deduced from X.R.D. patterns were confirmed with S.E.M./E.D.S. (Figs. 21A and 22). Wilson and Pittman (1977) described four authigenic chlorite S.E.M. morphologies: plate, rosette, honeycomb and cabbagehead, corresponding to decreasing iron concentrations. Plate-type chlorite is the dominant form seen in the Queen Charlotte Group. When chlorite occurs in a monomineralic form and not as part of a mixed-layer clay assemblage, it is always iron-rich. When found interstratified with smectite, chlorite tends be be iron-poor. Chlorite of the Honna Formation is generally more iron-rich and tends to form thicker platelets than chlorite of the Haida and Skidegate Formations (Fig. 21B). This probably reflects the more mafic composition of the Honna Formation protolith, as is also shown by an abundance volcanic rock fragments. The chlorites of the sandstones and conglomerates are entirely diagenetic. Textural observations indicate chlorite formation occurred at an intermediate stage of diagenesis at temperatures 75-150°C (Hoffman and Hower, 1979), after concretionary calcite and ferroan calcite cementation episodes. Iron-rich chlorite formed at temperatures less than 100°C, probably at the expense of mafic framework grain components such as iron bearing volcanic lithic fragments. Yagashita (1985a) concluded precipitation of chlorite cement was an early diagenetic event. Occurrence of iron-poor chlorites (magnesium-rich aluminous chlorites) indicates a later stage of formation. The highly varied and complex nature of isomorphous substitution in chlorites may reflect illitization of smectites in mixed-layer groups. Burial and concomitant illitization of smectite may have mobilized octahedral magnesium from smectite at temperatures of 100-150°C (Boles and Franks, 1979) to octahedral positions in the talc and brucite layers of chlorite, formerly occupied by iron. Release of iron and calcium during smectite illitization (equation 1) may also have resulted in the precipitation of the later stage ferroan calcite cement, at temperatures greater than 120°C (Boles and Franks, 1979), filling secondary porosity produced by the leaching of feldspars and other aluminosilicates (Fig. 23A). Such a diagenetic sequence is observable in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region where smectite abundance is much higher than elsewhere in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Potassium and aluminum ions for the smectite to illite conversion are supplied, in part, from the partial FIGURE 2 1 (following page) FIGURE 2 1 A . Chamosite (iron-rich chlorite). Thick, large authigenic platelets are characteristic of the iron-rich chlorite (C) common in the Honna Formation. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 2 1 B . Pore-fill chlorite. Thick, large authigenic platelets of iron-rich chlorite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 2 1 C . Smectite. Note typical webby, crenulated morphology. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 2 1 D . Smectite overgrowth on quartz (Q). "Bald" area is a grain contact surface exposed during sample preparation. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. Si CHAMOSITE IRON CHLORITE FIGURE 22. Chamosite (iron-rich chlorite), energy dispersive spectrometer elemental spectra. FIGURE 23 (following page) FIGURE.23A. Ferroan calcite cement (Ca) infilling secondary fabric selective porosity in feldsp; 8* '*£ (F). Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 23B. Kinked biotite sheaf at an early stage of pseudomatrix formation. Thin section photomicrograph, 1/2 crossed nicols. to complete leaching of potassium feldspars (Boles and Franks, 1979; Altaner, 1986) and potassium bearing volcanic rock fragments, possibly during secondary porosity enhancement. Thus a diagenetic sequence of mineral precipitation and dissolution can be constructed spatially and temporally for the middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence (Fig. 24). Textural and mineralogical data indicate the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region to be much more complex diagenetically than other areas of outcropping Cretaceous sandstones and conglomerates. The abundance of iron-poor chlorite and interstratified clay assemblages in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island area may be associated to the abundance of smectite, which in turn may be related to a volcanic-rich sedimentary or igneous source. Lack of appreciable amounts of smectite elsewhere in the Islands appears to correlate with an abundance of iron-rich chlorites. 4.5K+ + 8A13+ + KNaCa2Mg4Fe4Al14Si38O100(OH)20* 10H2O (smectite) = K5 5MS2F el 5A122Si35O100(OH)20 + N a + + 2 C & 2 + + 2.5Fe3+ +2Mg2+ + 3Si4 + + 10H2O (1) Boles and Franks (1979) The temperature range of illitization is 70-200°C (Hoffman and Hower, 1979). Chlorites of the Queen Charlotte Group indicate growth in a diagenetic environment. Euhedral crystals and pore-lining or pore-filling habit rule out a detrital or metamorphic origin. Brown and Bailey (1962) identified four polytypes, based on a study of 303 chlorites of diverse origin, la, Ib(b = 97°), Ib(b = 90°) and Ha; types la, Ib(97°) and Ib(90°) are indicative of diagenetic environments whereas type Ha is formed at low metamorphic temperatures, approximately 150-200°C (Hayes, 1970). These polytypes reflect different stacking arrangements of the talc and brucite (hydroxide) layers in the 2:1:1 chlorite structure. Hayes (1970), using X.R.D. data and thin section textural criteria of chlorite in sedimentary rocks, concluded each polytype reflects specific temperatures of formation; hence each polytype can be employed as a broad geothermometer. Also recognizing the utility of chlorite polytypism, Hoffman and Hower (1979) employed chlorite and corrensite as geothermometers in TIME GROWTH Calcite Fe Calcite Chlorite Smectite lllite/Smectite Corrensite Laumontite Opaques K-Feldspar DISSOLUTION Volcanic Rock Fragments Feldspars Calcite Fe Calcite EARLY STAGE 1 LATE STAGE 2 STAGE 3 FIGURE 24. Composite diagenetic sequence of Queen Charlotte Group sandstones as determined by S.E.M./E.D.S., X.R.D., thin section inspection and oxygen/carbon stable isotope ratios. sandstones. Chlorites of the Queen Charlotte Group fall into the type la or lb (diagenetic) categories based on textures derived from the S.E.M. and from thin section observations. Theoretical considerations Unit cell dimensions, including the b unit cell length, c unit cell length d(001), and iron and aluminum content of chlorites can be estimated with X.R.D. data (Brown and Brindley, 1980). The attraction of the talc layer and the brucite layer is due to ionic substitution of Al for Si in the tetrahedral sheet which creates a charge deficiency X. Increased Al (increased X), the number of atoms replacing tetrahedral Si in the formula (Si, Al)4, decreases the (001) spacing (Brindley and Gillery, 1956). d(001)=14.50A-0.31X (2) Brown and Brindley (1980) The (060) peak reflects the b unit cell length which is influenced by the ionic substitution of Mg2+ by Fe2+. The heavy atom content, including Mn, Cr and Ti, reflects the octahedral iron content of chlorites 0?etruk, 1964). Fe2+ easily proxies for Mg2+ because of their similar ionic radii and is the most abundant heavy atom in the chlorite structure. Substitution of iron is correlated with the intensities and ratio of basal diffraction peaks based on the known atomic scattering (eventually X-ray intensity) properties of Fe, Mn, Ti and Cr, which have similar ionic radii, much larger than Si, Mg and Al. Such a correlation is termed the structure factor (Schoen, 1962). I = /F/2(L.P.) (3) Schoen (1962) I = integrated intensity F = structure factor L.P. = Lorentz-polarization factor (a combined factor derived for random powder samples and single crystal X-ray diffraction). The iron content of chlorites and basal reflection angles and intensities exhibit a strong relationship (Brindley and Gillery, 1956; Schoen, 1962; Petruk, 1964). The ratio 1(002) + I(004)/I(003) is related to the number of iron atoms in the octahedral layers. Queen Charlotte Group diffractograms indicate varying, but generally large, amounts of iron in chlorite. b = 9.210 A + 0.37(Fe2+, Mn2+) (4) Brown and Brindley (1980) With expressions to determine the basal (001) spacing (c unit cell length) and b unit cell length (equation 4), and aluminum and iron content, approximate structural formulae can be constructed for the chlorite group where: (Mg, Al) i2-X(Fe, Mn, Cr, Ti)x(Si8-Y. A1Y)O20(OH) I 6 Schoen (1962) or; [(R32+-Y, RY3+)(Si4-X. Alx)Ol0(OH)2]+Y-X talc layer [R32+-Z, Rz3+)OH<5]+Z brucite layer where Y + Z-X = 0 Eslinger and Pevear (1988) 3.2.2. Smectite Authigenic smectite is ubiquitous throughout the sandstone and conglomerate units of the Queen Charlotte Group. Abundant amounts of this 2:1 layer silicate occur in the Honna Formation and the Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies of the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region (Figs. 21C, 21D). Smectite was confirmed to be trioctahedral by the lattice spacing of the (060) reflection which placed it in the saponite sub-group (Fig. 25). Saponite forms in magnesium-rich environments associated with mafic volcanics at temperatures generally less than 70OC (Hoffman and Hower, 1979; Chang et al., 1986). The analyses of Post (1984), Suquet et al. (1975) and Faust and Murata (1953) 66 tn o 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 °26- Cu K OC FIGURE 25. Smectite - saponite sub-group, X-ray dfxxactograms. (060) reflection, (at 59.80° 28 but not depicted in this figure), indicates a trioctahedral smectite or saponite. Large peak shifts occur under heat treatment (A), causing collapse to 9.0° 29, and glycolation (C), causing expansion to 5.30 26. These shifts are diagnostic of the smectite group. Collapse during heat treatment is not quite complete; inspection of the untreated pattern (B), indicates minor amounts of corrensite may be present. suggest observed first-order basal spacings of smectite in the Queen Charlotte Group to be indicative of calcium bearing (versus sodium) saponite. In the majority of samples, saponite is partly illitized. Discrete saponite ilhtization is easily identified by morphological transformation of honeycomb, web-like crystals to fine, ribbon fibres (Keller et al., 1986) (Fig. 26A). Neoformation of quartz, although rarely observed in the Queen Charlotte Group, may be related to the illitization process (Boles and Franks, 1979). 3.2.3. IUite Illite is found mainly in mudstone and shale units. X.R.D patterns indicate illite, in all sampled mudstones, forms mixed-layer assemblages with smectite. The presence of interstratified illite/smectite indicate an authigenic, rather than allogenic origin for illite as this mixed-layer clay is observed growing on framework grains (Figs. 26B, 26C). 3.2.4. Interstratified clays Minor amounts of mixed-layer chlorite/smectite (corrensite), illite/smectite, and perhaps chlorite/smectite/illite, occur throughout the middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence in all outcrops. The presence of smectite and the smectite to illite conversion has a large impact on the chemistry of interstratified chlorite and the precipitation of iron-carbonate cements. Interstratified assemblages containing chlorite and smectite are recognized on X-ray diffractograms by high background at low 20 angles and by small, but observable, shifts in peak position of the chlorite basal reflections. Peaks positions of 13.5-10 A (6.55-8.840 20) forming upon heat treatment and expanding up to 17 A (5.20 20) with ethylene glycol interlayer saturation are indicative of mixed-layer assemblages, particularly chlorite/smectite QEslinger and Pevear, 1988). Superlattice peaks at 25-30 A (3.53-2.94° 20) is strong evidence of chlorite/smectite interstratification FIGURE 26 (following page) FIGURE 26A. Illitization of smectite. Note delicate fibres forming atop webby smectite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 26B. Illite fibres and chlorite platelets. Crystal morphologies are characteristic of these phyllosilicates. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 26C. Illite fibres. Note wispy, filamentous habit. Illite is much more common in shales of the Queen Charlotte Group; in sandstones it is often found interstratified with smectite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 26D. Corrensite forming at expense of a volcanic rock fragment. Webby morphology is not a diagnostic criterion for identification of this mixed-layer clay; confirmation is made with the X.R.D.. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. (Eslinger and Pevear, 1988). X.R.D. patterns reflect calculated 1:1 ordered interstratified chlorite/smectite diffraction profiles of Hower (1981). Brigatti and Poppi (1984) provide the most comprehensive review of corrensite to date. Corrensite is defined as a regular 1:1 interstratification of trioctahedral chlorite and trioctahedral smectite or vermiculite (Bailey et al., 1982). Untreated corrensite has a (001) reflection at 29-31 A (2.85-3.04O 29) which expands to 31-33 A and collapses to 23-28 A (3.15-3.840 20) upon heating to 550°C (Bailey et al., 1982). The best examples of corrensite were found in samples of the Haida Formation from Cumshewa Inlet and in the Honna Formation from the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. Corrensite may be a transformation product from magnesium saturated chlorite (Brigatti and Poppi, 1984), with the smectite to illite conversion providing magnesium ions for incorporation into the chlorite structure. Formation of trioctahedral smectite (saponite) may, in part, be related to iron oxidation of chlorite (Brigatti and Poppi, 1984). Conversely, the transformation of saponite to chlorite via corrensite, due to the formation of intermicell hydroxide sheets resulting from aluminum substitution of silicon in tetrahedral layers, may explain the authigenic clay make-up observed in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island strata (Chang et al., 1986). The volcanic-rich nature of siliciclastic framework grains in this region favours the formation of corrensite (Eslinger and Pevear, 1988). Corrensite forms at diagenetic temperatures of 85-950C in argillaceous Cretaceous siliciclastics of the Cassipore Basin, Brazil (Chang et al., 1986). Tompkins (1981) characterized corrensite by complementary study of X.R.D. and S.E.M. data. Honeycomb chlorite/smectite interlayering, similar to smectite, is seen in the Queen Charlotte Group, primarily in the Honna Formation (Fig. 26D). Reliable identification of corrensite is only possible with X-ray diffractometer methods. Recognition of mixed-layer illite/smectite was based upon a comparison of X-ray diffractograms to computer calculated illite/smectite X-ray patterns of Reynolds and Hower (1970) and S.E.M. observations (Fig. 26A). Illite/smectite of Queen Charlotte Group sandstones is irregularly interstratified with non-expandable illite comprising up to an approximate maximum of 30% of the illite/smectite assemblage. Similar mixed-layer illite/smectite percentages were deduced by inspection of valley-to-peak ratios of the (001) smectite reflection, which are empirically related to the percentage of illite in a mixed-layer illite/smectite assemblage (Hoffman, 1976; Schoonmaker, 1986). Illite/smectite ratio estimates were confirmed with complementary examination of crystal morphology with the S.E.M. in the manner of Keller et al. (1986). Other mixed-layer clay minerals probably exist in the Queen Charlotte Group. Hetrogeneous, mafic framework grain and matrix assemblages may give rise to the growth of three component mixed-layer minerals. The complex nature of fine fraction (< 2um) X-ray diffractograms where numerous reflections remain unidentified suggests such interstratifications. Chlorite/smectite/illite may be one such assemblage as the dual occurrence of corrensite and illite/smectite in samples is not unusual, particularly in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. Glycolation and heat treatment of samples aid in the qualitative determination of the presence or absence of interstratified clays (Hower, 1981), but quantitative analysis of the degree and nature of interstratification is not possible with the X-ray diffraction methods used in this study and the compositional heterogeneity of the clay assemblage. The reader is referred to Reynolds (1980) for a comprehensive discussion of the quantitative analyses of mixed-layer assemblages. 3.2.5. Other clay minerals Biotite, laumontite, muscovite and glauconite make up the remainder of the clay-size (<2um) fraction of Queen Charlotte Group sediments. Biotite is the major detrital phyllosilicate constituent in the sequence. It displays strong red-brown pleochroism, is partially to completely chloritized and contains displacive intergrowths of pyrite and other unidentified iron sulphides (Fig. 27 A). Samples rich in biotite often have exhibit discrete laminations and partings associated with the mica. Loading and tectonism locally produced distinctive kink structures (Fig. 27C). 72 FIGURE 27 (following page) FIGURE 27A. Displacive intergrowths of pyrite (P) and other unidentified iron sulphides ( U ) in biotite sheaf (B). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 27B. Laumontite (L). Typical blocky, pore-fill habit. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 27C. Squashed and deformed biotite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 27D. Calcium zeolite (Z) and authigenic quartz (Q). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. Diagenetically altered biotite has received attention in sandstone studies (AlDahan and Morad, 1986). Increasing iron content of chlorites has been suggested to correlate with increased P-T conditions in metagreywacke sequences (White et al., 1985), which is contrary to the observations of Boles and Franks (1979) who suggested iron-rich chlorite in sedimentary strata is an early diagenetic indicator. Laumontite is patchy in the Haida-Skidegate-Honna package, and is difficult to identify in the S.E.M. and in thin section (Fig. 27B). Confirmation of laumontite was made by X-ray diffractometry. Heat treatment of laumontite produces a characteristic peak shift from 9.310 20 to 10.4° 20 (Fig. 28). This peak shift may be the dehydration phenomenon commonly observed in other zeolites (Coombs, 1952; Boles, 1972). Mordenite has been suggested to occur in the Queen Charlotte Group (Yagashita, 1985a) but is rare. Traces of unidentified calcium aluminosilicates, possibly wairakite, occur throughout the section (Figs. 27D and 29A, 29B) and may be related to thermal effects of nearby intrusions (Peter Read, consulting geologist, pers. comm., 1989). The geochemistry and stability of laumontite in sedimentary sequences has been discussed by Crossey et al. (1984) with emphasis on the influences of organic maturation on precipitation and dissolution. Although occurring in trace amounts to 2%, muscovite is an important provenance indicator. It is most abundant in the basal Haida lithofacies where it generally is fresh and unaltered and occurs mainly in association with schistose and plutonic rock fragments containing potassium feldspar and quartz. The presence of muscovite indicates a more alkalic source, possibly related to that of the strained quartz grains. Glauconite is apple green in plane- and cross-polarized light. It is well rounded and is often seen filling microfossils, primarily foraminifera and radiolaria (Figs. 29C and 30A). Although scattered throughout the Queen Charlotte Group, glauconite is concentrated in the lower Haida sandstone and upper Haida lithofacies. Glauconite comprises more than 40% of some sandstones in the Duval Rocks area of Cumshewa Inlet. L=Laumontite 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 ° 2 - 9 - Cu KOC FIGURE 28. Laumontite peak shift, X-ray diffractograms. Peak shifts due to dehydration have been documented in the zeolite group, particularly heulandite (Boles, 1972) and the transformation of laumontite to leonhardite (Coombs, 1952). Untreated (B) and glycolated (C) samples reveal an intense peak at 9.310 20 with minor peaks at 12.80°, 21.300 and 29.300 29 confirming the presence of laumontite. Heat treatment (A) shifts the 9.310 peak to 10.420 20, possibly due to dehydration. The other minor peaks are not affected. This sample also displays irregularly interstratified I/S and chlorite (variety chamosite). 76 FIGURE 29 (following page) FIGURE 29A. Unidentified calcium aluminosilicate. Such striking crystal development is rare in the Queen Charlotte Group. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 29B. Unidentified calcium aluminosilicate, close-up of Figure 29A. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 29C. Spherical glauconite (G). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 29D. Framboidal pyrite (P) growing on quartz (Q) followed by smectite (S) precipitation. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. 33. Opaques and other diagenetic minerals Opaque minerals account for a small fraction of cement observed in the Queen Charlotte Group. Pyrite is the dominant phase but other iron sulphides (marcasite?) and iron oxides (hematite) make up a significant proportion of the diagenetic fraction. Yagashita (1985a) discussed the diagenetic aspects of pyrite formation, noted its occurrence with plant fragments and inferred an early diagenetic origin. In the present study, textural evidence indicates pyrite to be an early diagenetic precipitate (Fig. 29D). Trace amounts of other diagenetic phases, identified with S.E.M. back scattered electron imaging and the E.D.S., include barite (Fig. 31A) and leucoxene. Leucoxene is an alteration product of detrital titanium bearing minerals such as biotite, ilmenite and sphene. 79 FIGURE 30 (following page) FIGURE 30A. Glauconitization of microfossil (F). Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 30B. Displacive exfoliation texture of calcite and ferroan calcite (Ca) in quartz (Q). Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 30C. Carbonate microstalactitic cement (Ca) indicating precipitation under vadose conditions. Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light, basal Haida lithofacies. FIGURE 30D. Leached orthoclase producing significant amounts of secondary porosity (P). Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 31 (following page) FIGURE 31A. Authigenic barite (B) growing on quartz (Q). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 31B. Diagenetic sequence: clays (C) precipitated on detrital quartz grain (Q) followed by calcite (Ca) growth and finally calcite dissolution to create void space. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 31C. Selectively leached plutonic rock fragment; note dissolution of plagioclase (P) whereas quartz (Q) is untouched. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 31D. Fabric selective dissolution (P) of plagioclase. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. 83 3.4. Discussion: diagenesis 3.4.1. Diagenetic history Basal Haida lithofacies Diagenetic evidence supports the concept of varied source areas and environments of deposition in the basal Haida lithofacies. The sediment source in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region appears to contain a higher proportion of ferromagnesian minerals, probably Jurassic volcanic rocks, than southern exposures in Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets where protoliths appear to be Jurassic and Early Cretaceous plutonic and sedimentary strata. Sediments of the Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets indicate initial cementation episodes well after deposition, whereas sediments in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region were cemented very early. The diagenesis of the basal Haida lithofacies in Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets involved the precipitation of carbonate cements with subsequent dissolution followed by aluminosilicate framework grain dissolution. Calcite is the dominant carbonate observed, but ferroan calcite is present in subordinate amounts and may be abundant locally. The content of detrital and authigenic clays is low for an arc derived greywacke assemblage; point count analysis of the basal Haida lithofacies (Appendix la) indicates an arenite and not a wacke. Chlorite, smectite, illite and their interstratified combinations were identified. Dissolution textures observed in carbonates contribute to the majority of secondary porosity development (Fig. 31B). Although proportionately less, aluminosilicate dissolution involving the leaching of orthoclase, plagioclase and lithic rock fragments created appreciable amounts of secondary porosity. Carbonate cements In the basal Haida sandstones of the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region, early diagenetic cements include complexly zoned calcite and ferroan calcite, indicating a variable diagenetic environment. Ferroan calcite is the most abundant carbonate cement observed. "Floating" framework grains are often seen in calcareous beds and concretions indicating early diagenesis. Growth of fibrous carbonate cements creates exfoliation textures in outcrop (Fig. 30B). Such growth has effectively fractured and separated framework grains. Typical of the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region, this displacive texture indicates an initial cementation episode under vadose conditions (Buczynski and Chafetz, 1987). Well developed calcite and ferroan calcite microstalactitic cement confirm formation in the vadose zone (Fig. 30C). Iron-free calcite is seen to frequently rim framework grains and thus predates ferroan calcite cementation. This observation is supported by the fact that the vadose zone is 2+ an oxidizing environment and ferric iron cannot substitute for Ca (James, 1984). Subsequent iron-rich calcite cement precipitation, which occludes all pore space, suggests progressively freshwater to saline phreatic zone cementation (James, 1984), that is, the pore water salinity increased during phreatic zone cementation. Southerly outcrops in Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets exhibit less pervasive carbonate cementation, with non-ferroan calcite dominating the carbonate assemblage. Vadose zone textural indicators are absent. Large compositional variations within intergranular calcite cements were observed in Cumshewa Inlet. The strata of the north shore of Cumshewa Inlet have very pure calcite cements whereas the south shore, on Louise Island east of Girard Point, contains iron-rich, sparry calcite cements. Stable isotopes Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios are variable in the basal Haida lithofacies, particularly in the Cumshewa Inlet region (Appendix 2). Carbon isotope ratios are lighter on the north shore of Cumshewa Inlet than on the south shore. An analogous but more subdued trend exists for oxygen isotope ratios (Figs. 32, 33, 34). The large variance in isotopic carbon and oxygen compositions may be related to the presence of iron and magnesium. To date no studies exist on the correlation of iron to isotopic composition (Dickinson, 1988). Assuming the ferroan content of calcite to be 1 I I 1 I I I I I L_ -30 -26 -22 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 0 2 4 CARBON, 6 1 3 C P D B (%o) F I G U R E 32. Graph of 813CPDB versus 8l80prj>B of carbonate cements, basal Haida lithofacies. 1 = Beresford Bay-Langara Island; 2 = Skidegate Inlet; 3 = Cumshewa Inlet-north shore; 4 = Cumshewa Inlet-south shore. Anomalous light isotopic ratio compositions of Cumshewa Inlet-north shore may be related to higher plant (C3) matter. Presence of higher plants agrees well with fluvial sedimentological indicators seen in outcrop such as herringbone cross-bedding, absence of trace fossils and coarse grain size. Outcrops with light 5I3C values exhibit the best visual porosity and reservoir characteristics. Contouring of carbon isotope data may be useful in delineating prospective, potentially porous fluvial sedimentary environments. F I G U R E 33. Basal Haida lithofacies oxygen isotope values become slightly lighter in a northeasterly direction (SlSOpDg isotope contour map, C X = 4%o). F I G U R E 34. Basal Haida lithofacies carbon isotope values become slightly lighter in a northeasterly direction (5l3Cprj>B isotope contour map, C.I. = 5%o). 88 negligible, isotope variations may be related to depth of precipitation of the cements. Dickinson (1988) attributes heavier carbon isotope ratio values in nonmarine sandstones of the Green River Basin to the 19 \f\ decrease of C input from soil CO2 and similarly decreased O contributions from meteoric waters 1-5 10 and more C and O carbonate diagenesis occurring at depth. Large carbon isotope data variations observed in the rocks of Cumshewa Inlet may be related 0 13 to C3 higher plants which commonly have -25 to -30 /QQ C values (DeNiro, 1983; Schidlowski, 1986). Sedimentological indicators from outcrops of sandstones with anomalously light carbon isotope values suggest fluvial deposition. Light carbon isotope values documented from strata of the north shore of Cumshewa correlate to the best visual porosity development. The wide range of isotope values, in the Queen Charlotte Group, appears to be correlative with porosity development. Though conjectural, folding and fault displacement of the basal Haida package, creating rapid burial and uplift, may contribute to the variations observed (i.e. the Rennell Sound fold belt (Thompson, 1988; Thompson and Thorkelson, 1989)). Structural influences on the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Queen Charlotte Group is discussed in detail in chapter 4. Aluminosilicates Aluminosilicate framework grains of the basal Haida lithofacies were partly or completely dissolved during diagenesis. Textures such as fabric selective dissolution are abundant, particularly in the Cumshewa Inlet region. Orthoclase, plagioclase and volcanic rock fragments are highly leached in sandstones with little carbonate cement (Figs. 30D and 31D). Thin section and S.E.M. studies indicate the former presence of interstitial carbonates (Schmidt and McDonald, 1979a and 1979b; Burley and Kantorowicz, 1986). Angular pores, corroded and embayed framework grains and enlarged pore throats occur throughout the basal Haida lithofacies. A diagenetic similarity exists between outcrops of basal Haida lithofacies in the Queen Charlotte Islands, however, framework grain compositions are different. The basal Haida lithofacies of the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region had a similar diagenetic history despite having a volcanic provenance whereas the southerly sections were dominated by plutonic and sedimentary sources. All areas have coarse framework grain sizes, sometimes reaching cobble dimensions, a high degree of rounding and sphericity, and a bimodal grain size distribution. Lower Haida sandstone and upper Haida lithofacies Feldspars and volcanic rock fragments are preferentially dissolved in specific facies of the stratigraphic sequence. Aluminosilicates leached in the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies are observed mainly in units interpreted as offshore bars (Fig. 35A). Minor amounts of primary porosity apparently remained after burial and compaction due to the good sorting in bar deposits. Subsequent maturation of in situ organic matter released acids which migrated through the primary pores, chelating and dissolving early cements and detrital grains. Thus, to create porosity a formation must first have porosity (Surdam et al, 1984). The vast majority of sandstones in the Queen Charlotte Group, however, have very low porosity, due to large amounts of detrital and authigenic clay minerals; they show little secondary porosity enhancement. Skidegate Formation Chlorite is the dominant diagenetic mineral in the Skidegate Formation. Chloritization of biotite and the precipitation of authigenic pore-filling and pore-lining chlorite is similar to that in the overlying Honna Formation. Numerous chloritized biotite flakes contain displacive opaque minerals, including pyrite and possibly magnetite and hematite as indicated by E.D.S. spectra. Plagioclase grains are generally very fresh with little or no effects of weathering or diagenetic alteration; orthoclase, on the other hand, is generally weathered. The susceptibility of orthoclase to dissolution and alteration has created sporadic zones of secondary porosity development (Figs. 35B, 35C). Fabric selective dissolution creating oversized pores is a strong indicator of secondary porosity (Schmidt and McDonald, 1979b). Detrital (molluscan shell fragments) and authigenic calcite remnants in porous samples may indicate large scale carbonate dissolution (Fig. 36A). Organic matter is very . ' y. 90 FIGURE 35 (following page) FIGURE 35A. Aluminosilicate leaching (P) in probable offshore bar build-ups of the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies. Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 35B. Skidegate sandstone-siltstone: poor visual porosity. Compare the dramatic variance in porosity in Figure 35C. Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 35C. Skidegate sandstone-siltstone: excellent secondary porosity (P). Thin section photomicrograph, plane polarized light. FIGURE 36 (following page) FIGURE 36A. Late stage calcite cement (Ca). Note indentations of pre-existing smectite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 36B. Pore-lining smectite (S). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 36C. K-feldspar cement (K) between detrital quartz grains (Q). Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. 9^ abundant in the lithofacies and may have contributed to porosity enhancement in the same manner postulated for the basal Haida and lower Haida sandstone lithofacies. The paucity of pore-filling carbonate in porous samples may indicate significant leaching. Although textural evidence for explaining the observed zones of porosity development is lacking, an important prerequisite for porosity enhancement, the existence of primary porosity (Siebert et al, 1984) appears to be fulfilled; a qualitative correlation between initial porosity development and subsequent secondary porosity formation is observed in the lithofacies. Honna Formation The diagenetic mineralogy of the Honna Formation is dominated by the chlorite group. Pore-lining and pore-filling authigenic chlorite and smectite impart green hues on outcrops. Chloritization of ferromagnesian grains, primarily biotite, is pervasive (Fig. 14B). Dissolution of hornblende and orthoclase creates substantial porosity locally exceeding 12% (Fig. 16A). Much of this porosity is effective. Porosity development is of significance in the middle Honna lithofacies as, except for the basal Haida lithofacies, it is the only lithofacies to contain substantial thicknesses of porous units. Good secondary porosity enhancement is confined to the Cumshewa Inlet area and may be related to a combination of a hornblende-rich source and structural effects which result in deposition of middle Honna sandstones on Kunga Group paleotopographic highs (Thompson and Thorkelson, 1989). K-feldspar cement occurs mainly in the Honna Formation, although it occurs in trace amounts throughout the Queen Charlotte Group (Fig. 36C) particularly the basal Haida lithofacies of Cumshewa Inlet. i Diagenetic indicator of block faulting A diagenetic fingerprint of Late Jurassic through Tertiary block faulting (Thompson and Thorkelson, 1989), and implied multiple events of concomitant uplift and subsidence, is documented in terms of carbonate cementation/decementation episodes (Fig. 24). The preservation of carbonate at increased burial depths decreases substantially, particularly in argillaceous sediments (Hower et al., 1976). Stage 1 and stage 2 of the composite Queen Charlotte Group diagenetic sequence (Fig. 24) depict an expected pattern of progressively greater burial with the early precipitation and later dissolution of carbonate cements. However, a repeat of carbonate growth and dissolution (Fig. 24, stage 3) may reflect rapid tectonic uplift and repeated burial. Petrologic evidence indicates that a carbonate precipitation/dissolution cycle may have occurred two times in some areas, principally in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island and Cumshewa Inlet regions. Such diagenetic observations may corroborate the suggestion of Thompson and Thorkelson (1989) that steeply dipping (extension?) faults were active throughout the Cretaceous, creating block uplift and subsidence in the area of Cumshewa Inlet. 3.4.2. Reservoir aspects Qualitative and, if possible, quantitative assessment of the iron content of clays such as chlorite is vital to the description of reservoir properties of a potential hydrocarbon bearing unit (Almon and Davies, 1981). Chlorites are highly sensitive to reservoir enhancement acid treatments (HCl and HF) and oxygenated fluids and may create production difficulties as a result of their alteration. Iron-rich chlorites are particularly sensitive as iron is easily leached and reprecipitates as a ferric hydroxide gel if additives functioning as oxygen scavengers and iron chelaters are not included in acidic drilling fluids (Smith et al., 1969). Ferric hydroxide, due to its gelatinous nature, can drastically reduce porosity and permeability (Crowe, 1985). The abundance of iron-rich chlorite cement in the Queen Charlotte Group will be important in the design of drill stem and production testing programs of future Queen Charlotte Basin wells which penetrate the Cretaceous. Petrophysical analysis of chlorite-rich zones must take into account its presence. Gamma ray and spectral wire-line logs may produce misleading Vgn calculations, as chlorite has little potassium. Calibration of downhole geophysical tools with respect to clay groups present is a prerequisite to successful formation evaluation. Management of future oil and gas fields must include a full understanding of the temporal and spatial distribution of iron-rich chlorite. Although relatively rare, interstratified clays composed of chlorite, smectite and illite are important; if locally concentrated they may influence reservoir completion techniques. Mixed-layer assemblages in the Queen Charlotte Group are water sensitive (smectite), acid sensitive (chlorite) and may impede hydrocarbon production (illite). The general lack of authigenic and detrital clays in the basal Haida lithofacies increases the attractiveness of this unit. The abundance of clays in the remaining lithofacies of the Queen Charlotte Group however, reduces their reservoir potential. 4. PETROLEUM RESERVOIR POTENTIAL 4.1. Synopsis The middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence of the Queen Charlotte Basin was first suggested as a potential hydrocarbon target by Yorath and Cameron (1982). Lying below Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary Masset volcanics and resting upon Mesozoic basalts, limestones and immature siliciclastics, these volcaniclastic sandstones and conglomerates hold good reservoir potential if the underlying probable source beds, organic-rich Jurassic shales of the Kunga and Maude Groups, are not overmature as a result of burial or Jurassic igneous activity (Thompson, 1988). Haimila and Procter (1982) infer the middle to Upper Cretaceous to hold reservoir potential in Dixon Entrance, Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound. Souther (1988) indicates Yakoun volcanism may have created overmaturation in Jurassic Kunga Group source rocks, particularly in southerly areas of the Queen Charlotte Islands; Masset volcanics appear to be localized and have little thermal effect on hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. Vellutini (1988) concludes Mesozoic strata on Moresby Island hold poor hydrocarbon source potential due to high heat flows associated with plutonism, whereas Mesozoic strata of Graham Island are immature to mature and hold fair to good oil and gas source potential. Stacy (1975) suggests sediments of pre-Tertiary age may be found under Masset volcanics in Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound. Clowes and Gens-Lenartowicz (1985) inferred the Masset to be widely deposited in Queen Charlotte Sound; they traced a Mesozoic sedimentary package, up to one kilometre thick, in a sonobuoy refraction study. Fogarassy and Barnes (1988a, 1988b; 1989) and McWhae (1988) have upgraded the prospectiveness of the Cretaceous to the level of a strong secondary objective, following the primary hydrocarbon objective in the Queen Charlotte Basin, the Miocene-Pliocene Skonun Formation (Shouldice, 1971). Of the eight lithofacies defined in the Queen Charlotte Group, the basal Haida holds good petroleum reservoir potential and the lower Haida sandstone holds marginal potential. The remaining six lithofacies are considered, at this time, non-prospective for hydrocarbon accumulation. 42. Basal Haida and lower Haida sandstone lithofacies Porosity in the basal Haida lithofacies increases in a southeasterly direction (Fig. 37). Maximum porosity development is preserved in outcrops on the north and south shores of Cumshewa Inlet. Visual porosity may exceed 15% (Figs. 38A, 38B, 38C). The majority of porosity is regarded as effective as the presence of well rounded framework grains and the lack of clay minerals contribute to fair observed permeabilities which would significantly increase recoverable reserves of oil and gas. Attractiveness of the basal Haida lithofacies may in part may related to high energy fluvial sedimentation processes, which have probably winnowed labile fractions, mainly detrital clays and finer grained feldspar, and created a potential reservoir. Dead oil staining occurs locally in sporadic outcrops throughout the Islands, most notably near the mouth of the south shore of Cumshewa Inlet. Live oil and bitumen staining was not recognized (no fluorescence of samples under ultraviolet light). The thickness of the basal Haida is about 40 m in southern sections and approaches 200 m on northwest Graham Island. Thickness is variable and is probably related to discontinuous deposition in a fluvial environment. Porosity is variable; approximately 30% of the basal Haida lithofacies in Skidegate and Cumshewa Inlets exceeds a 10% effective porosity cut-off, the minimum believed required to generate economic recoveries of hydrocarbons. Visual porosity in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region is less than 2%. The sandstones of the lower Haida lithofacies may hold marginal potential, despite exhibiting low porosity values (less than 5%) and composed chiefly of feldspars, lithic fragments and clays. The thickness of the lower Haida sandstone averages 500 m. Large amounts of in situ terrestrial organic matter upon thermal maturation may produce organic acids capable of leaching framework grains and early formed cements, enhancing porosity over thick intervals. Porosity development is limited, with a 10% porosity cut-off applicable to 10% of the lithofacies. Porosity occurrences, however, correlate well FIGURE 37. Outcrop porosity, basal Haida lithofacies. Average porosity values expressed as percent, estimated from visual inspection of blue dyed epoxy impregnated thin sections. Although data are limited a porosity increase is seen as the Haida Formation depositional edge is approached. FIGURE 38 (following page) FIGURE 38A. Authigenic pore-filling calcite (Ca). Note blocky, symmetrical pore-fill habit. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 38B. Authigenic pore-fill calcite (Ca). Solution channel (centre of photo) demarcates boundary between lithic fragment and calcite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. FIGURE 38C. Authigenic pore-fill calcite (Ca). Solution channel demarcates boundary between lithic fragment and calcite. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph. 103 with observed offshore bar build-ups which developed during the middle to Upper Cretaceous marine transgression in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Surdam et al. (1984) have demonstrated aluminosilicate and carbonate dissolution due to carbon dioxide and water soluble organic acids expelled during the thermal maturation of kerogen. Secondary porosity of active margin sediments, such as those deposited in the middle to Upper Cretaceous of the Queen Charlotte Islands, developed by dissolution of feldspars and other aluminosilicates as well as carbonate cements. Secondary porosity chemistry Thermal maturation level and kerogen type are important variables in the production of organic acids, primarily carboxylates and phenols, and carbon dioxide (Cooles et al, 1987; Eglinton et al, 1987). Kerogen classification (Fig. 39) is defined on H/C and O/C atomic ratios (Tissot and Welte, 1984). The core structure of the kerogen molecule is undefined but is known to be enveloped by unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (unbranched monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids; Fig. 40), and aliphatic and isoprenoid hydrocarbon groups. The carboxylic acids are not tightly bound to the kerogen core and hence may be released during early stages of organic diagenesis (Vitorovic, 1980). Surdam and Crossey (1985) and Surdam et al (1989) have suggested the cleavage of phenolic functional groups as well as carboxylic acids from kerogen cores occurs during maturation, prior to hydrocarbon generation; expulsion of organic acids may thus modify reservoir properties just prior to petroleum migration. Experiments of Surdam et al. (1984) suggest a greater generation of dicarboxylic acids from type III kerogen than from type I kerogen. Dicarboxylic acids are more highly reactive than the monocarboxylic acids because of their chelating properties. Oxalic acid, for example, can increase the 2 maturation path < o • 1 ' ' ' 1 1 1 0 .1 .2 .3 Atomic O/C FIGURE 39. Van Krevelen diagram. Note oxygen-rich composition of type III kerogen (adapted from Surdam and Crossey, 1985). 105 F I G U R E 40. Schematic diagram of kerogen structure (adapted from Vitorovic, 1980). aluminum solubility of gibbsite by two to three orders of magnitude relative to acetic acid at pH 4-5 (Fig. 41). The generation of carbon dioxide is a significant product of later kerogen maturation (Al-Shaieb and Shelton, 1981). Carbon dioxide may result from the breakdown of methoxyl, carbonyl, phenolic hydroxyl and other oxygen-containing functional groups (Hunt, 1979). Figure 42 illustrates the decarboxylation of acetic acid and the resultant generation of carbon dioxide. Type III kerogen produces the greatest amount of carbon dioxide during the thermal maturation process due to the increased content of oxygen-containing functional groups compared to the sapropelic type I and type II kerogens (Fig. 43; Franks and Forester, 1984). Aluminosilicate dissolution is related to aluminum mobility. Surdam et al. (1984) recognized dissolution textures in plagioclase grains in the subsurface to be similar to those observed in soil profiles. Plagioclase is dissolved in horizon A in podsolic soils and released aluminum is transported to horizon C in solution (Holdren et al., 1977). Graustein et al. (1977) attributes aluminum ion movement to the presence of calcium oxalate minerals observed in soil profiles. Small amounts of oxalate in solution will increase aluminum (and iron) solubilities by many orders of magnitude (Lind and Hem, 1975). Equation (5) illustrates the transport of aluminum as an organic complex (Fig. 44). 3H + (aq) + Al(OH)3(s) + 2CaC2O4-H20(s) = Al(C204)2"(aq) + 2Ca+2(aq) + 3H20 (5) Surdam et al. (1984) The concentration of the complexed aluminum ion depends on pH and the activity of the calcium ion in solution. This transport mechanism observed in soils may explain dissolution textures seen in feldspathic and lithic sandstones, particularly in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. In carbonate bearing strata, such as the conglomerates and coarse grained sandstones of the basal Haida lithofacies, carbon dioxide production may have significantly enhanced porosity. In arkosic and lithic sandstones and conglomerates, such as the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies and the Honna 107 ALUMINUM SOLUBILITY i i i I I I l I 1 1 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 PH F I G U R E 41. Gibbsite solubility curve at 100°C. Ox= and Ac" are the concentrations of oxalate and acetate in solution in ppm. Note the increased aluminum solubility at pH 4-5 for the more corrosive difunctional oxalic acid versus monofunctional acetic acid (adapted from Surdam et al, 1984). 108 ACETIC CARBON M E T U A M C ACID DIOXIDE METHANE H ,0 H H - C - C — 0=C=0 + H - C - H • * i H O-H H FIGURE 42. Decarboxylation of acetic acid (adapted from Surdam et al., 1984). Sapropelic Humic Source Source Relative Yield of Gas from Organic Matter in Fine-Grained Sediments FIGURE 43. Gas yields from organic matter. Humic material (type in kerogen) generates much more C O 2 than sapropelic material (types I and II kerogen) (adapted from Hunt, 1979). 110 I * C N -o o Complexation 2 H 2 C 2 0 4 + 5H 2 0 + A l 2 0 3 + 2 H + 2(AIC 2 0 4 -4H 2 0) + c -.C - rr o: G H H 0 H i . 0 .+3' Al H H 0 I H H H FIGURE 44. Aluminum complexation. Difunctional oxauc acid chelates A l . NotepH dependance (see Fig. 42) (adapted from Surdam et al., 1984). Formation, leaching of aluminosilicates may be enhanced by the production of carboxylic acids liberated during kerogen maturation. However, strong arguments for inorganic carbon dioxide production have been proposed. Metamorphic processes involving limestones (Bjorlykke, 1984) and carbonate/clay reactions (Hutcheon et al., 1980), as well as volumetric considerations (Giles and Marshall, 1986; Giles, 1987) may be important factors in secondary porosity processes. 43. Prospects Analogies Analogies which may be of use in hydrocarbon exploration of the Queen Charlotte Basin include developed plays in Cook Inlet, Alaska (Magoon and Claypool, 1981) and western Washington and Oregon (Armentrout and Suek, 1985). These two areas have established production in strata initially considered non-prospective. Cook Inlet is similar, both structurally and stratigraphically, to the Queen Charlotte Basin. Trapping of hydrocarbons there appears to be related, at least in part, to secondary porosity development in Tertiary strata which unconformably overlie marine Middle Jurassic source rocks (Magoon and Claypool, 1981). Reservoir quality sandstones may also exist in Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata. These sandstones may hold petroleum potential if intraformational organic matter is of sufficient maturity or if they lie upon or are connected, by faults, to Jurassic source rocks. Similar geology occurs in Cumshewa Inlet where basal Haida sandstones and conglomerates rest upon petroliferous Triassic and Jurassic shales. In the volcaniclastic Tertiary sediments of western Washington and Oregon, understanding the nature and origin of the producing sandstones is important in hydrocarbon exploration (Armentrout and Suek, 1985). Reservoir sandstones of the Mist gas field were predicted by the use of paleogeographic models which may pinpoint areas of compositional maturity. Productive traps are dependent on paleogeography, distribution of facies and unconformities. Oil and gas production in Cook Inlet, Washington and Oregon exists in geologic settings similar to the Queen Charlotte Basin. Application of these field analogies may be used for defining exploration strategies in the middle to Upper Cretaceous section of the Queen Charlotte Islands. 113 Structure Thompson (1988) and Lewis and Ross (1988) have documented a prominent fold belt trending through Cumshewa Inlet and possibly southeastward into Hecate Strait. Active Late Jurassic through Tertiary extensional block faulting, in the vicinity of the Rennell Sound fold belt, appears to have influenced sedimentation patterns in the middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence (Thompson, 1988; Thompson and Thorkelson, 1989). Porous zones observed in the basal Haida lithofacies may be related to specific depositional environments localized near the fold belt. Extensional structural events may have also influenced sedimentation patterns in the lower Haida sandstone where observed marginal porosity development is confined to probable offshore bar build-ups. Folding and faulting of pre-Cretaceous strata may also have occurred in the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region. As in Cumshewa Inlet, basal Haida conglomerates and coarse grained sandstones rest on Late Triassic Monotis beds of the unnamed black limestone member of the Kunga Group. Investigations indicate a northwesterly structural trend (Lewis and Ross, 1988). Organic petrology The organic maturation data of Vellutini (1988) outline broad areas of interest with respect to secondary porosity development in the Queen Charlotte Group. Areas in which aluminosilicate dissolution textures were observed are coincident with areas of mature and overmature Jurassic strata (Figs. 45, 46). Thus, a positive correlation exists, on a regional scale, between the organic and inorganic diagenetic histories of Cretaceous rocks of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Vellutini (1988) suggests total organic carbon in the Haida Formation increases from east to west (Fig. 46) reflecting a decreased basinward transportation of type III organics from west to east. This observation corresponds well with the southwestward stratigraphic thinning of the Haida Formation, particularly in the vicinity of Cumshewa Inlet. SURFACE MATURATION MAP FOR MESOZOIC AND TERTIARY STRATA 132° 131' FIGURE 45. Surface maturation trends for Mesozoic and Tertiary strata derived from vitrinite reflectance data. Immature = 0.00-030 %Rorgtn$1, mature = 0.50-1.35 %Ror a n d and overmature = greater than 135 %R°r a n (j (adapted from Vellutini, 1988). 1 132" MEAN TOTAL ORGANIC C A R B O N ( T O O HAIDA FORMATION FIGURE 46. Regional distribution of the mean TOC content for the Haida Formation. Values are mean TOC calculated across the thickness of the formation at each outcrop location. Dashed line represents an inferred contour (adapted from Vellutini, 1988). 116 Unconformities Formation of secondary porosity in the basal Haida sandstones and conglomerates may be related to the circulation of post-Cretaceous meteoric groundwaters via the pre-Albian unconformity upon which the Queen Charlotte Group is deposited. Similarly, porosity development seen in the lower Haida sandstone lithofacies and the Honna Formation appear to be linked to nearby unconformities separating the Queen Charlotte Group from Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Upper Triassic strata. Shanmugam (1985) documents dissolution porosity forming beneath an unconformity but cautions percolating waters will gradually become saturated and lose their corrosive nature. Lateral increases in porosity and permeability, due to chert dissolution, are seen when approaching the Neocomian unconformity in the Ivishak Formation, Prudhoe Bay field, Alaska (Shanmugam and Higgins, 1988). A similar situation may occur where sediments of the basal Haida lithofacies, with enhanced porosity, rest upon a Queen Charlotte Islands wide pre-middle Cretaceous unconformity; however, groundwaters reaching lower Haida sandstones may be saturated and thus retarded in terms of dissolution. Areas of interest Combining aspects of structural and regional geology, organic petrology and petrographic data, areas of potential reservoir development occur in the vicinity of Cumshewa Inlet, Beresford Bay-Langara Island and north of Skidegate Inlet, near Yakoun Lake. Cumshewa Inlet has many positive geological factors in terms of reservoir development including: 1) primary and secondary porosity development; 2) proximity to the Rennell Sound fold belt which, during extensional block faulting episodes has influenced sedimentation and reservoir development patterns; 3) organic maturation data indicate in situ organic material (kerogen) has undergone sufficient diagenesis in terms of carbon dioxide and organic acid production; and 4) 117 potential for conduction of aluminosilicate and carbonate leaching fluids along multiple unconformity surfaces, occurring at the base of the Queen Charlotte Group and potentially elsewhere throughout the sequence due to reactivation of bounding extensional block faults. This greatly enhances porosity of all units, particularly the basal Haida lithofacies. The Beresford Bay-Langara Island region is less prospective. A structural trend similar to the Rennell Sound fold belt exists; however organic maturation data indicate insufficient heat for carbon dioxide and organic acid production. Tertiary intrusions, creating maturation anomalies, may have contributed to local secondary porosity development. Intrusions or thermal solution effects of regional faults cutting Honna Formation sandstones at Pillar Bay, near Langara Island, may have produced anomalous visual porosity values approaching 30% (T.S. Hamilton, Geological Survey of Canada, pers. comm., 1987). A Triassic window is exposed in the vicinity of Yakoun Lake, north of Skidegate Inlet. Organic-rich Cretaceous sandstones possibly overlie the Kunga Group. Structures subparallel to those seen in Cumshewa Inlet and the Beresford Bay-Langara Island region (Sutherland Brown, 1968; Hesthammer et al.,1989), may also provide a locale for reservoir development. 4.4. Discussion: petroleum reservoir potential Structural highs and/or basin margins may provide the best areas of interest for secondary porosity development. Subaerial exposure and development of an unconformity surface overlain by porous fluvial conglomerates and sandstones, which may eventually conduct groundwaters capable of leaching secondary porosity, are seen in Cumshewa Inlet, near the Rennell Sound fold belt. Other areas in the Islands which may hold similar potential are Beresford Bay-Langara Island region, and north of Skidegate Inlet, near Yakoun Lake. These areas of interest may be extrapolated to adjacent offshore regions. Results of seismic surveys, initiated within the Frontier Geoscience Program, may indicate the continuation of onshore structural features to the offshore (Thompson and Thorkelson, 1989). A caveat in the form of permeability must be recognized and considered in the overall assessment of petroleum reservoir potential. The heterogeneous nature of porosity distribution and the compositionally varied clay groups observed in the middle to Upper Cretaceous sequence combine to make prediction of permeability trends impossible at this time. The basal Haida sandstones and conglomerates can be regarded as a potential secondary hydrocarbon exploration objective in the Queen Charlotte Basin. Outcrop assessment of this siliciclastic sequence indicates the presence of potential reservoir strata. Inoceramus assemblages collected in Cumshewa Inlet indicate correlation to the basal Haida lithofacies and the Longarm Formation (J.W. Haggart and R.I. Thompson, Geological Survey of Canada, pers. comm., 1989). If these units are coeval then the Longarm Formation (or basal Haida lithofacies) may hold reservoir potential in southerly areas of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Petrologic examination of southerly Longarm outcrops may confirm the Lower Cretaceous as a hydrocarbon objective. With the exception of isolated porous zones in outcrop, the remainder of the Haida Formation and the Skidegate and Honna Formations hold minor reservoir potential. Poor reservoir quality in the Honna Formation may, in part, be related to mode of deposition. Fan-delta deposits generally have little or no porosity development due to poor sorting, matrix abundance and polymictic and heterolithic make-up (McPherson et al., 1987). Wedge shaped fan-delta deposits, formed in active tectonic settings, are usually only a few tens of square kilometres, unlike passive braid delta deposits which have a sheet geometry (McPherson et al., 1987). Future, more detailed studies integrating structural geology, organic petrology, and petrography will define additional prospective areas, perhaps under Hecate Strait, related to prominent onshore structural trends. 120 5. CONCLUSIONS The major conclusions and contributions to the understanding of the stratigraphy, diagenesis and petroleum reservoir potential of the Queen Charlotte Group are: 1) The basal Haida lithofacies is a separate and distinct unit from the rest of the Queen Charlotte Group. High quartz framework grain percentages and lack of abundant phyllosilicate cement combined with nonmarine sedimentological indicators provide a strong basis for formalization of this lithofacies as a separate member or formation in the Queen Charlotte Group. 2) The Haida Formation has a southwesterly source area with a probable pinchout occurring south of Cumshewa Inlet; Honna Formation sediments are sourced from the northeast and probably interfinger with the Skidegate Formation which pre- and post-dates the Honna. The Skidegate Formation is also likely to be a basinward, deeper water equivalent for some parts of the Haida and Honna Formations. 3) Clay mineralogy is much more complex than previously documented. Mixed-layer clays, illite/smectite, corrensite, and ilhte/smectite/chlorite, along with iron-rich chlorite, dominate sandstone phyllosilicate assemblages. 4) A composite tripartite paragenetic sequence, involving the growth and dissolution of clays, carbonates and aluminosilicates best describes the diagenetic history. 5) Petroleum reservoir potential exists in the basal Haida lithofacies. 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Sample # = author's hand sample number Area # = 1 - Beresford Bay-Langara Island 2 - Skidegate Inlet 3 - Cumshewa Inlet, north shore (Moresby Island) 4 - Cumshewa Inlet, south shore (Louise Island) 5 - Sewell Inlet 6 - Logan Inlet (See Figure 3 for Area # locations) Facies # = 1 - basal Haida lithofacies 2 - lower Haida sandstone lithofacies 3 - upper Haida lithofacies 4 - Skidegate shale lithofacies 5 - Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies 6 - basal Honna lithofacies 7 - middle Honna lithofacies 8 - upper Honna lithofacies (See Figure 5 for Facies # descriptions) 135 Appendix la. Point counts converted to percent Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Quartz = Monocrystalline Quartz + Polycrystalline Quartz + Chert. Feldspar = Plagioclase + K-feldspar. Lithics = Sedimentary + Volcanic + Plutonic + Metamorphic rock fragments. Framework = Quartz + Feldspar + Lithics. Matrix (and other minor components spatially associated with matrix - i.e. pseudomatrix) = Muscovite + Biotite + Glauconite + Organic Material + Opaques + Unidentifiable Clays (illite, smectite, mixed-layer assemblages and laumontite). Cement = Chlorite + Calcite + Ferroan Calcite + Opaques + Unidentifiable Clays (illite, smectite and mixed-layer assemblages) + K-feldspar. Lithology Classification Arenite < 10% argillaceous matrix Wacke > 10% argillaceous matrix After Williams et al. (1954). Appendix l a . Point counts converted to percent Saaple i Area # Facies # Quart: Feldspar Lithics Framework Matrix Cenent Lithology Classification 4 2 2 33 49 18 52 35 13 arkosic wacke 10 2 1 67 8 25 88 3 9 l i t h i c arenite 11 2 1 37 59 5 73 19 8 arkosic wacke 14 2 2 44 46 10 73 16 11 arkosic wacke 15 2 2 55 30 15 51 28 21 l i t h i c wacke 19 2 2 45 24 32 42 42 16 l i t h i c wacke 24 2 2 43 21 36 42 25 33 l i t h i c wacke 59 2 5 37 39 24 51 26 23 arkosic wacke 65 2 1 54 20 27 75 10 15 l i t h i c wacke 71 2 6 21 54 25 79 4 17 arkosic arenite 74 2 6 21 51 28 71 3 26 arkosic arenite 87 2 8 26 25 49 57 4 39 l i t h i c arenite 92 2 5 31 52 17 65 15 20 arkosic wacke 96 1 1 55 1 44 62 5 32 l i t h i c arenite 98 1 1 44 0 56 48 7 44 l i t h i c arenite 100 1 t L. 46 23 31 32 26 43 l i t h i c wacke 103 1 2 18 29 53 80 10 10 l i t h i c wacke 109 1 2 24 18 59 66 7 28 l i t h i c arenite 115 1 2 21 6 73 59 11 31 l i t h i c arenite 116 1 1 10 3 87 74 13 13 l i t h i c wacke 119 1 5 46 34 19 75 12 12 arkosic wacke 123 1 6 35 41 23 81 6 13 arkosic arenite 129 1 6 32 27 40 76 5 19 l i t h i c arenite 134 1 7 34 32 35 74 9 17 l i t h i c arenite 147 1 8 33 15 52 50 9 42 l i t h i c arenite 178 1 4 36 30 35 39 9 53 l i t h i c arenite 193 1 5 31 30 39 59 4 37 l i t h i c arenite 196 1 6 34 30 36 77 3 20 l i t h i c arenite 203 3 2 39 11 50 49 38 13 l i t h i c wacke 207 3 2 32 23 50 37 16 47 l i t h i c wacke 218 3 7 41 39 20 68 6 27 l i t h i c arenite 221 3 7 26 18 56 86 4 10 l i t h i c arenite 229 3 2 48 26 26 42 46 12 arkosic wacke 234 3 3 25 26 49 59 15 26 l i t h i c wacke 237 4 1 46 16 38 94 2 4 l i t h i c arenite 238 4 1 51 29 20 44 4 52 arkosic arenite 239 4 1 41 24 35 59 5 36 l i t h i c arenite 240 4 1 40 27 34 75 7 17 l i t h i c arenite 242 4 1 52 20 28 77 4 19 l i t h i c arenite 265 3 15 23 62 89 4 7 l i t h i c arenite 269 3 1 58 18 25 81 3 13 l i t h i c arenite 270 3 1 73 13 14 93 3 5 l i t h i c arenite 271 3 1 54 11 35 67 0 34 l i t h i c arenite 275 3 1 72 9 19 89 1 13 l i t h i c arenite 287 5 7 38 26 36 81 5 13 l i t h i c arenite 290 5 7 34 28 38 81 2 13 l i t h i c arenite 306 2 2 40 26 33 37 15 48 l i t h i c wacke 309 2 2 48 19 33 67 8 29 l i t h i c arenite 311 2 2 38 24 39 63 6 32 l i t h i c arenite 313 2 1 31 16 53 80 4 15 l i t h i c arenite Appendix l a . Point counts converted to percent S a i p l e t Area I F a c i e s S Quartz Feldspar L i t h i c s Fraaevork Matrix Ceaent L i t h o l o g y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 403 4 1 50 26 24 75 11 14 a r k o s i c a r e n i t e 405 4 1 45 24 31 80 6 14 l i t h i c a r e n i t e 406 4 1 53 22 25 77 10 12 l i t h i c wacke 417 4 1 75 4 21 77 2 22 l i t h i c a r e n i t e 420 4 1 59 17 23 68 13 19 l i t h i c wacke 422 4 1 58 19 22 70 5 25 l i t h i c a r e n i t e 424 4 1 52 27 21 68 6 25 a r k o s i c a r e n i t e 425 4 1 54 33 13 63 7 31 a r k o s i c a r e n i t e 4251 4 1 57 25 19 71 2 27 f e l d s p a t h i c a r e n i t e 426 4 1 65 22 13 67 8 25 f e l d s p a t h i c a r e n i t e 428 5 7 26 32 42 70 5 25 l i t h i c a r e n i t e 432 6 7 65 22 12 82 1 17 f e l d s p a t h i c a r e n i t e Appendix lb. Total point counts: framework, matrix and cement Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Quartz = Monocrystalline Quartz + Polycrystalline Quartz + Chert. Feldspar = Plagioclase + K-feldspar. Lithics = Sedimentary + Volcanic + Plutonic + Metamorphic rock fragments. Framework = Quartz + Feldspar + Lithics. Matrix = Muscovite + Biotite + Glauconite + Organic Material + Opaques + Unidentifiable Clays (illite, smectite, mixed-layer assemblages and laumontite). Cement = Chlorite + Calcite + Ferroan Calcite + Opaques + Unidentified assemblages of illite, smectite and mixed-layer clays + K-feldspar. Total counts = Framework + Matrix + Cement. Appendix lb. Total point counts: framework, matrix and cement Sample I Area f Facies t Quartz Feldspar Lithics Framework Matrix Cement Total Counts 4 *-* L 1 53 79 28 160 109 39 308 10 2 1 150 18 55 223 7 24 254 11 2 1 83 133 11 227 59 24 310 14 2 2 99 103 21 223 50 34 307 15 2 i. 81 44 23 148 80 60 288 19 2 2 57 30 40 127 127 48 302 24 2 2 56 28 47 131 78 104 313 59 2 C J 56 60 37 153 79 68 300 65 2 1 137 50 68 255 34 51 340 71 2 6 56 144 65 265 14 56 335 74 2 6 45 107 58 210 9 76 295 87 2 8 50 49 96 195 13 !33 341 92 2 5 63 108 35 206 47 62 315 96 1 1 119 95 216 18 112 346 98 1 < 77 0 98 175 i J 161 362 100 1 L 44 22 29 95 78 128 301 103 1 2 44 69 126 239 30 30 299 109 1 2 45 34 112 191 19 81 291 115 1 2 38 10 130 178 32 93 303 116 1 1 22 7 201 230 40 39 309 119 1 5 96 71 40 207 34 34 275 123 1 6 84 99 56 239 18 39 296 129 1 6 77 65 95 237 15 59 311 134 1 7 74 70 76 220 26 51 297 147 1 8 50 22 78 150 26 128 302 178 1 4 41 34 40 115 26 157 298 193 1 5 55 52 69 176 12 112 300 196 1 6 82 73 89 244 9 65 318 203 3 2 57 16 72 145 111 38 294 207 3 i. 35 25 51 111 49 140 300 218 3 1 88 84 42 214 18 85 317 221 3 7 70 47 150 267 11 31 309 229 3 2 64 34 34 132 143 36 311 234 3 3 46 47 89 182 45 81 308 237 4 1 130 46 107 283 7 11 301 238 4 1 72 41 29 142 14 167 323 239 4 1 80 47 68 195 16 119 330 240 4 1 97 67 82 244 24 57 327 242 4 1 134 51 73 258 14 63 335 265 3 7 39 61 164 264 12 22 298 269 3 1 163 50 70 283 10 44 337 270 3 1 209 38 41 288 6 17 311 271 3 1 119 23 77 219 1 113 329 275 3 1 211 25 57 293 3 43 339 287 5 7 94 63 90 247 16 41 304 290 5 7 89 73 99 261 8 43 322 306 2 2 46 30 38 114 45 146 305 309 2 2 97 38 67 202 23 88 303 311 2 2 69 43 71 183 16 92 291 Appendix lb. Total point counts: framework, matrix and cement Sample § Area # Facies i Quartz Feldspar Lithics Framework Matrix Cement Total Counts 313 2 1 80 41 136 257 14 49 320 403 4 1 118 60 57 235 35 43 313 405 4 1 117 62 80 259 20 46 325 406 4 1 131 55 63 249 33 40 322 417 4 1 186 10 53 249 5 71 325 420 4 1 136 40 53 229 44 64 337 422 4 1 135 45 52 232 16 84 332 424 4 1 113 58 46 217 20 80 317 425 4 1 103 64 25 192 20 95 307 4251 4 1 129 57 42 227 8 86 321 426 4 1 135 45 27 207 24 79 310 428 5 7 57 68 89 214 14 77 305 432 6 7 158 54 30 242 4 49 295 Appendix lc. Textural data Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Size (urn) = mean framework grain size. Sorting = 1 - very well sorted 2 - well sorted 3 - moderately sorted 4 - poorly sorted 5 - very poorly sorted Sphericity ranges from 0.45 - (very low sphericity) to 0.97 (very high sphericity). After Rittenhouse (1943). Roundness = 0.0 - 0.1; angular 0.1 - 0.3; subangular 0.3 - 0.6; subangular to subrounded 0.6 - 0.7; subrounded 0.7 - 0.9; rounded Numerical scale after Krumbein (1941), pebble images for visual estimation of roundness; descriptors by author. Contact type = 1 - sutured 2 - concavo-convex 3 - long 4 - point 5 - floating After Adams (1964), Table 1. Vis. Poros. (%) = visual porosity estimated from thin section analysis. Appendix lc. Textural data Saaple t Area I Facies * Size (ua) Sorting Sphericity Roundness Contact Type Vis. Poros (I) 4 0 i. 2 200 4 0.53 0.30 i X. 0 10 0 1 1500 3 0.67 0.70 9 9 11 2 1 350 3 0.77 0.40 2 4 14 2 t L 300 3 0.71 0.30 L 3 15 2 2 100 4 0.61 0.40 2 0 19 2 2 150 3 0.61 0.30 3 3 24 2 2 130 3 0.77 0.20 3 2 59 2 5 300 3 0.55 0.20 2 0 65 2 1 400 3 0.77 0.40 3 5 71 2 6 1000 5 0.73 0.10 1 74 2 6 600 5 0.75 0.10 3 6 87 2 8 750 4 0.75 0.10 3 2 92 0 5 175 3 0.59 0.20 3 0 96 1 1 2500 3 0.87 0.70 C J 3 98 \ i 1 3000 2 0.87 0.70 5 0 100 1 2 150 n J 0.55 0.10 c 0 103 1 2 300 3 0.75 0.40 •j 10 109 1 2 400 3 0.85 0.40 3 2 115 1 2 350 3 0.85 0.50 3 0 116 1 1 2000 3 0.89 0.60 3 2 119 1 5 200 3 0.77 0.20 3 30 123 1 6 1000 1 0.73 0.40 3 4 129 1 6 1000 4 0.61 0.10 3 4 134 1 7 500 4 0.77 0.30 3 4 147 1 8 100 3 0.69 0.10 3 3 178 1 4 100 3 0.59 0.10 3 1 193 1 5 150 4 0.65 0.10 3 1 196 1 6 750 4 0.61 0.20 3 2 203 3 2 150 3 0.57 0.50 3 6 207 3 0 i. 75 4 0.77 0.20 3 6 218 3 7 150 3 0.73 0.10 3 6 221 1 J 7 600 4 0.71 0.10 3 15 229 3 2 400 3 0.83 0.60 3 0 234 3 3 100 4 0.63 0.10 3 0 237 4 1 1600 3 0.77 0.60 4 15 238 4 1 375 3 0.71 0.40 c J 0 239 4 1 1000 3 0.87 0.70 3 0 240 4 1 300 3 0.71 0.40 3 12 242 4 1 400 3 0.87 0.50 3 1 265 3 400 4 0.65 0.10 4 12 269 3 1 1000 3 0.77 0.40 4 12 270 3 1 500 3 0.79 0.50 3 10 271 3 1 1200 3 0.77 0.60 5 2 275 3 1 1500 3 0.81 0.60 3 7 287 5 7 600 4 0.71 0.20 3 3 290 5 7 400 3 0.63 0.10 3 2 306 2 2 150 3 0.73 0.20 3 0 309 2 2 200 3 0.73 0.20 3 1 311 2 2 250 3 0.71 0.20 3 4 313 2 1 2000 3 0.75 0.40 3 4 Appendix ic. Textural data Sample I Area # Facies I Size <u«) Sorting Sphericity Roundness Contact Type Vis. Poros (I) 403 4 1 600 3 0.79 0.60 3 5 405 4 1 800 3 0.85 0.70 2 20 406 4 1 500 4 0.83 0.70 3 23 417 4 1 1000 2 0.87 0.70 2 10 420 4 1 400 4 0.71 0.30 2 2 422 4 1 900 2 0.83 0.70 2 4 424 4 1 350 3 0.71 0.30 2 4 425 4 1 350 4 0.65 0.30 3 5 4251 4 4 300 2 0.73 0.30 3 12 426 4 1 300 3 0.71 0.30 3 2 428 5 7 300 5 0.63 0.20 3 0 432 6 7 175 2 0.79 0.40 2 5 ihh Appendix Id. Quartz Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Monocrystalline Quartz = mainly straight extinction, generally clear, minor vacuoles; local plutonic and/or volcanic sources and pre-existing Mesozoic sedimentary strata. Polycrystalline Quartz = well rounded, large diameter quartz grains exhibiting strong penetrative fabric. Probable sources are Jurassic plutons now exposed on Moresby Island or sedimentary strata fed by these or similar Jurassic plutonic sources. Chert = origin uncertain with possible additional contributions from nodular cherty horizons of the Grey Limestone member of the Kunga Group. Total Quartz = Monocrystalline Quartz + Polycrystalline Quartz + Chert. Appendix Id. Quartz Saaple I Area I Facies I Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Chert Total Quartz Quartz Quartz 4 2 2 41 5 7 53 10 2 1 81 61 8 150 11 2 1 68 15 0 83 14 2 2 94 3 99 15 2 2 75 5 1 81 19 2 2 53 0 4 57 24 2 2 55 0 1 56 59 2 5 56 0 0 56 65 2 1 127 6 4 137 71 2 6 53 3 0 56 74 ^ 6 45 0 0 45 87 2 8 50 0 0 50 92 0 i. C J 63 0 0 63 96 1 1 40 21 58 119 98 1 1 43 14 20 77 100 1 i i. 44 0 0 44 103 1 2 40 0 4 44 109 1 2 42 0 3 45 115 1 2 35 0 3 38 116 1 1 12 0 10 22 119 1 5 92 3 1 96 123 1 6 84 0 0 84 129 1 6 77 0 0 77 134 1 7 74 0 0 74 147 1 8 50 0 0 50 178 1 4 41 0 0 41 193 1 5 53 0 2 55 196 1 6 78 3 1 82 203 3 2 55 0 0 i. 57 207 3 2 33 0 2 35 218 3 7 88 0 0 88 221 3 7 68 0 2 70 229 3 2 54 6 4 64 234 3 3 46 0 0 46 237 4 1 45 85 0 130 238 4 1 67 5 0 72 239 4 1 67 10 3 80 240 4 1 93 4 0 97 242 4 1 129 4 1 134 265 3 35 1 3 39 269 3 1 128 35 0 163 270 3 1 184 25 0 209 271 3 1 109 10 0 119 275 3 1 196 13 2 211 287 5 7 80 0 14 94 290 5 7 88 1 0 89 306 2 2 46 0 0 46 309 2 2 97 0 0 97 311 2 2 69 0 0 69 Appendix Id. Quartz Saaple I Area i F a c i e s # M o n o c r y s t a l l i n e P o l y c r y s t a l l i n e Chert Total Quartz Quartz Quartz 313 2 1 67 0 13 80 403 4 1 108 10 0 118 405 4 1 99 19 0 118 406 4 1 109 20 2 131 417 4 1 151 29 6 186 420 4 1 125 10 1 136 422 4 1 112 18 5 135 424 4 1 109 4 0 113 425 4 1 98 C J 0 103 4251 4 1 121 5 3 129 426 4 1 129 6 0 135 428 5 7 57 0 0 57 432 6 7 158 0 0 158 Appendix le. Feldspars Explanation of column headings and abbreviations K-Feldspar = mainly orthoclase with minor sanidine and microcline; highly weathered and heavily altered to phyllosilicates and laumontite; occasional syntaxial overgrowths; abundant leaching and secondary porosity development. Plagioclase = albite twinning; highly weathered and heavily altered to phyllosilicates and laumontite; abundant leaching and secondary porosity development. Total Feldspar = K-Feldspar + Plagioclase. Appendix le. Feldspars Saaple § Area I Facies # K-Feldspar Plagioclase Total Feldspar 4 2 2 13 66 79 10 2 1 10 8 18 11 0 L 1 52 81 133 14 2 2 40 63 103 15 2 2 18 26 44 19 2 2 21 9 30 24 2 i u 15 13 28 59 2 5 40 20 60 65 2 1 24 26 50 71 2 6 38 106 144 74 ? 6 64 43 107 87 1 L 8 21 28 49 92 2 5 60 48 108 96 1 1 2 0 2 98 1 1 0 0 0 100 1 2 3 19 22 103 1 2 55 14 69 109 1 L 19 15 34 115 1 2 4 6 10 116 1 1 1 6 7 119 1 5 25 46 71 123 1 6 60 39 99 129 1 6 27 38 65 134 1 7 40 30 70 147 1 8 14 8 22 178 1 4 8 26 34 193 1 5 21 31 52 196 1 6 30 43 73 203 3 2 11 5 16 207 3 2 11 14 25 218 3 7 41 43 84 221 3 7 25 22 47 229 3 2 14 20 34 234 3 i 13 34 47 237 4 1 39 7 46 238 4 1 20 21 41 239 4 1 32 15 47 240 4 1 40 27 67 242 4 1 21 30 51 265 3 7 28 33 61 269 3 1 38 12 50 270 3 1 28 10 38 271 3 1 14 9 23 275 3 1 20 5 25 287 5 7 31 32 63 290 5 7 33 40 73 306 2 2 16 14 30 309 2 2 24 14 38 311 2 2 29 14 43 313 2 1 27 14 41 Appendix le. Feldspars Sasple f Area § Facies # K-Feldspar Plagioclase Total Feldspar 403 4 1 36 24 60 405 4 1 32 30 62 406 4 1 28 27 55 417 4 1 5 5 10 420 4 1 15 25 40 422 4 1 21 24 45 424 4 1 21 37 58 425 4 1 35 29 64 4251 4 1 25 32 57 426 4 1 21 24 45 428 5 7 23 45 68 432 6 7 25 29 54 150 Appendix If. Lithics Explanation of column headings and abbreviations S.R.F. = Sedimentary rock fragments. Mainly rounded sandstone, siltstone and radiolarian bearing mudstone grains. V.R.F. = Volcanic rock fragments. Contains plagioclase; mainly trachytic texture, occasionally leached producing secondary porosity. P.R.F. = Plutonic rock fragments. Equigranular, subhedral quartz and feldspar with minor biotite and muscovite. Large, moderately to well rounded framework grains. M.R.F. = Metamorphic rock fragments. Pelitic, schistose grains. Rare in the Queen Charlotte Group. Total Lithics = S.R.F. + V.R.F. + P.R.F. + M.R.F.. Appendix If. Lithics Saaple t Area I Facies i S.R.F. V 4 2 2 9 10 2 1 14 11 2 1 2 14 2 i. 3 15 2 2 14 19 2 2 23 24 2 0 <L 38 59 2 5 32 65 2 1 42 71 2 6 19 74 2 6 21 87 2 8 47 92 2 5 13 96 1 1 65 98 1 1 83 100 1 2 25 103 1 2 26 109 1 2 66 115 1 2 76 116 1 1 108 119 1 5 26 123 1 6 14 129 1 6 19 134 1 7 15 147 1 8 74 178 1 4 38 193 1 5 41 196 1 6 33 203 3 2 55 207 3 2 15 218 3 7 19 221 3 7 34 229 3 2 13 234 3 3 55 237 4 1 45 238 4 1 21 239 4 1 40 240 4 1 38 242 4 1 38 265 3 41 269 3 1 20 270 3 1 15 271 3 1 38 275 3 1 23 287 5 7 16 290 5 7 37 306 2 2 32 309 2 2 49 311 2 2 1 313 2 1 25 .F. P.R.F. H.R.F. Total Lithics 13 3 0 25 11 30 0 55 3 3 0 8 3 4 0 10 4 2 0 20 12 2 0 37 5 1 0 36 5 0 0 37 8 12 1 63 35 8 0 62 33 3 0 57 43 5 0 93 20 0 1 34 10 15 4 94 5 9 0 97 1 0 0 26 100 0 0 126 55 1 0 112 49 1 0 130 93 0 0 201 11 0 0 37 14 8 8 38 52 7 3 81 25 7 14 61 1 0 0 73 0 0 0 38 24 0 3 68 33 22 0 88 16 0 0 71 33 2 0 50 14 0 i. 0 35 100 11 0 145 15 4 2 34 31 0 0 86 21 23 13 102 5 2 1 29 14 11 0 65 30 14 0 82 21 13 0 72 85 14 0 140 6 26 15 67 7 18 1 41 10 28 0 76 9 24 1 57 59 4 1 80 49 4 0 90 5 0 0 37 6 0 0 55 58 1 2 64 69 22 19 135 Appendix I f . L i t h i c s .152 Saaple I Area # F a c i e s f S.R.F. V.R.F. P.R.F. M.R.F. Total L i t h i c s 403 4 1 30 10 24 0 54 405 4 1 45 6 27 0 78 406 4 1 36 8 15 0 59 417 4 1 26 11 16 0 53 420 4 1 25 9 18 0 52 422 4 1 33 3 15 0 51 424 4 1 33 5 7 0 45 425 4 1 13 5 6 0 24 4251 4 1 25 4 7 1 37 426 4 1 10 7 9 0 26 428 5 7 25 50 4 0 79 432 6 7 21 3 0 0 23 153 Appendix lg. Accessory minerals Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Garnet = Isotropic, high relief. Hnbl = Hornblende. Green, pleochroic, 124°/56° cleavages. Good dissolution features, exclusively found in the Honna Formation. Epidote = Faint straw yellow pleochroism. Locally abundant in the Honna Formation. Sphene = Wedge shaped and light brown under plane polarized light and crossed nicols. Occurs in trace amounts throughout the Queen Charlotte Group. Calcite = Fossil fragments; motluscan shell fragments and foraminiferal tests and other unidentifiable fauna. Zircon = Rare, subhedral, high relief and colourless. Total Accessory minerals = Garnet + Hnbl + Epidote + Sphene + Calcite + Zircon. Appendix i g . Accessory ainerals Saaple i Area i Facies t Garnet Hnbl Epidote Sphene Calcite Zircon Total Accessory ainerals 4 2 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 3 10 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 • 0 3 14 2 2 1 2 3 5 0 0 11 15 2 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 19 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 24 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 59 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65 2 1 2 0 2 1 0 0 5 71 2 6 0 1 2 0 0 0 3 74 2 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 87 2 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 92 2 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 96 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 98 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 100 1 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 103 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 109 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 115 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 1 5 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 123 1 6 0 7 4 1 0 0 12 129 1 6 0 6 5 3 0 0 14 134 1 7 0 7 6 2 0 0 15 147 1 8 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 178 1 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 193 1 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 196 1 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 203 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 207 3 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 218 3 7 1 0 4 2 0 0 7 221 3 7 0 2 3 0 0 0 5 229 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 234 3 3 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 237 4 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 238 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 239 4 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 240 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 242 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 265 3 1 17 5 1 . 0 0 24 269 3 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 270 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 271 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 275 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 287 5 7 0 0 10 0 0 0 10 290 5 7 2 0 5 1 0 1 9 306 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 309 2 2 0 0 9 3 0 0 12 311 2 2 2 0 5 2 0 0 7 313 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Appendix l g . Accessory minerals Sample I Area t Facies I Garnet Hnbl Epidote Sphene Calcite Zircon Total Accessory minerals 403 4 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 405 4 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 406 4 1 1 0 2. 0 1 0 4 417 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 420 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 422 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 424 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 425 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 4251 4 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 4 426 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 428 5 7 1 0 8 1 0 0 10 432 6 7 0 0 6 1 0 0 7 156 Appendix lh. Matrix Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Muscovite = Strong second order birefringence, colourless in plane polarized light. Generally rare, but increases in abundance in southerly sections of the Haida Formation. Possible indicator of alkalic igneous provenance. Biotite = Abundant accessory throughout the Queen Charlotte Group. Dark brown in plane polarized light, often warped due to compaction, often chloritized. Defines laminae in hand specimens and thin sections. Glauconite = Deep green colour, authigenic, well rounded. Abundant in the Haida Formation, indicative of marine deposition. Often found within and surrounding foraminifera. Organics = Dark brown amorphous habit. Abundant cellular wood fragments in the Haida Formation. Rare samples with pore-lining and pore-filling bitumen. Opaques = Mainly abraded pyrite and magnetite. Unknown Clays = Unidentifiable sheet silicates, amorphous, variable birefringence. Total Matrix (and other minor components spatially associated with matrix - i.e. pseudomatrix) = Muscovite + Biotite + Glauconite + Organics + Opaques + Unknown Clays. Appendix l h . Matrix 157 Saaple t Area # Facies t Muscovite B i o t i t e G lauconite Organics Opaques Unknown Clays Total Matrix 4 2 2 0 9 10 11 14 65 109 10 2 1 0 2 0 4 1 0 7 11 2 1 1 19 0 24 3 12 59 14 2 2 2 12 0 10 9 17 50 15 2 2 1 11 9 33 8 28 80 19 2 2 0 2 17 88 2 18 127 24 1 X 2 3 9 17 46 3 0 78 59 2 5 0 12 2 28 4 33 79 65 i JL 1 3 24 0 5 1 1 34 71 2 6 0 4 0 5 0 5 14 74 2 6 0 2 0 4 3 0 9 87 0 4. 8 0 1 0 10 0 2 13 92 0 4. 5 1 5 0 14 0 27 47 96 1 1 0 0 0 5 1 12 18 9B 1 1 0 2 2 14 4 3 25 100 1 2 0 20 39 19 0 0 78 103 1 2 0 0 1 6 3 20 30 109 1 2 0 1 4 8 6 0 19 115 1 2 0 1 0 23 3 5 32 116 1 1 0 1 0 30 0 9 40 119 1 5 1 21 0 9 0 3 34 123 1 6 2 10 0 3 1 2 18 129 1 6 0 10 0 1 1 3 15 134 1 7 2 12 0 4 4 4 26 147 1 8 1 4 2 5 8 6 26 178 1 4 0 4 1 17 2 2 26 193 1 5 0 5 0 6 1 0 12 196 1 6 0 4 0 4 1 0 9 203 3 2 6 10 18 42 3 32 111 207 3 2 1 3 1 23 19 2 49 218 3 7 0 3 0 0 3 12 18 221 3 7 2 4 0 5 0 0 11 229 3 2 0 2 82 23 2 34 143 234 3 3 0 13 1 19 0 12 45 237 4 1 2 3 0 2 0 0 7 238 4 1 0 10 0 4 0 0 14 239 4 1 2 12 0 1 0 1 16 240 4 1 2 13 0 3 0 5 24 242 4 1 0 10 0 4 0 0 14 265 3 0 7 0 1 2 2 12 269 3 1 4 1 0 1 0 3 10 270 3 1 3 1 0 2 0 0 6 271 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 275 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 3 287 5 7 0 4 0 5 1 6 16 290 5 7 0 5 0 2 1 0 8 306 2 2 1 6 1 12 0 25 45 309 2 2 1 2 0 17 0 3 23 311 2 2 0 7 1 7 1 0 16 313 2 1 0 2 0 9 3 0 14 Appendix l h . Matrix Saople t Area # F a c i e s § Muscovite B i o t i t e Glauconite Qrganics Opaques Unknown Clays Total Matrix 403 4 1 5 24 0 6 0 0 35 405 4 1 3 13 0 4 0 0 20 406 4 1 4 22 0 4 1 2 33 417 4 1 1 1 0 3 0 0 5 420 4 1 7 27 0 8 2 0 44 422 4 1 0 0 0 13 0 0 16 424 4 1 1 8 0 11 0 0 20 425 4 1 3 12 0 5 0 0 20 4251 4 1 2 2 0 4 0 0 8 426 4 1 4 12 1 7 0 0 24 428 5 7 0 12 0 2 0 0 14 432 6 7 0 1 0 3 0 0 4 Appendix l i . Cements Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Chlorite = Green pore-lining or pore-filling, platy and iron-rich. Ubiquitous throughout the Queen Charlotte Group. Calcite = Stains red with alizarin red-S. Concretionary, poikilitic; seen mainly in the Haida and Skidegate Formations. Sparry calcite abundant in the basal Haida lithofacies. Fe Calcite = Ferroan calcite, stains blue with potassium ferricyanide. Occurs as both an early and a late diagenetic precipitate. Opaques = Mainly pyrite; generally as cubes. Unknown Clays = Unidentifiable clays in thin section; X.R.D. and S.E.M. examination indicate higher birefringence clays (first and second order red-brown-orange) may be smectite and illite/smectite. Mixed-layer species, such as corrensite, were identified with the X.R.D. Laumontite, although not a phyllosilicate, can only identified with the X.R.D. and S.E.M./E.D.S. Laumontite is locally abundant in southerly sections of the Haida Formation and northerly outcrops of the Honna Formation. K-Feldspar = Patchy distribution and difficult to recognize. K-Feldspar overgrowths are rare but occur locally in southerly outcrops of the Haida and Honna Formations. Total Cement = Chlorite + Calcite + Fe Calcite + Opaques + Unknown Clays + K-Feldspar. Appendix l i . Ceaents Sample I Area I Facies t C h l o r i t e C a l c i t e Fe C a l c i t e Opaques Unknown Clays K-Feldspar T o t a l Cement 4 2 2 4 16 0 5 14 0 39 10 2 1 0 17 0 1 4 0 22 11 2 1 0 0 0 0 24 0 24 14 2 2 20 1 0 0 13 0 34 15 2 2 3 13 0 3 41 0 60 19 2 2 3 23 10 1 11 0 48 24 2 2 6 1 0 10 87 0 104 59 2 5 29 11 1 5 22 0 68 £5 2 1 12 4 0 1 34 0 51 71 2 6 47 7 0 1 1 0 56 74 6 63 10 0 0 3 0 76 87 2 8 29 18 40 1 45 0 133 92 5 5 24 3 6 24 0 62 98 1 1 0 27 92 1 2 0 112 98 1 1 0 138 23 0 0 0 161 100 1 2 0 25 98 4 1 0 128 103 1 2 8 2 0 0 20 0 30 109 1 2 15 36 15 2 13 0 81 115 1 2 3 57 26 2 5 0 93 116 1 1 6 7 0 15 11 0 39 119 1 5 7 1 0 9 17 0 34 123 1 6 34 1 0 1 3 0 39 129 1 6 42 0 0 3 14 0 59 134 1 7 40 4 0 3 4 0 51 147 1 8 10 97 0 1 20 0 128 178 1 4 12 130 0 12 3 0 157 193 1 5 8 14 16 4 70 0 112 196 1 6 10 19 25 2 9 0 65 203 3 2 20 1 0 3 14 0 38 207 3 2 5 105 25 0 5 0 140 218 3 7 42 2 0 3 38 0 85 221 3 7 8 0 0 4 19 0 31 229 3 2 2 11 4 2 17 0 36 234 3 3 11 1 0 9 60 0 81 237 4 1 1 1 0 0 9 0 11 238 4 1 1 49 117 0 0 0 167 239 4 1 2 36 71 0 10 0 119 240 4 1 15 0 0 0 42 0 57 242 4 1 5 21 0 0 37 0 63 265 3 16 0 0 0 6 0 22 269 3 1 0 40 0 3 1 0 44 270 3 1 1 2 0 0 14 0 17 271 3 1 0 110 0 3 0 0 113 275 3 1 7 29 1 2 4 0 43 287 5 7 29 1 0 2 9 0 41 290 5 7 16 0 0 5 22 0 43 306 2 2 66 25 0 20 35 0 146 309 2 2 63 16 0 0 9 0 88 311 2 2 84 0 0 3 5 0 92 313 2 1 30 0 0 5 14 0 49 Appendix l i . Cements Sample I Area t F a c i e s t C h l o r i t e C a l c i t e Fe C a l c i t e Opaques Unknown Clays K-Feldspar Total Cement 403 4 1 20 1 0 0 22 0 43 405 4 1 16 0 0 0 19 11 46 406 4 1 10 0 0 0 30 0 40 417 4 1 8 11 13 2 37 0 71 420 4 1 18 6 10 4 26 0 64 422 4 1 0 71 3 4 9 0 84 424 4 1 2 5 0 0 47 26 80 425 4 1 12 25 0 4 54 4 95 4251 4 1 12 49 0 1 24 0 86 426 4 1 25 17 0 5 32 0 79 428 5 7 ; 54 1 0 2 18 2 77 432 6 7 33 0 0 11 5 0 49 Appendix 2. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes - raw data Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Sample # = author's hand sample number. Area # = 1 - Beresford Bay-Langara Island 2 - Skidegate Inlet 3 - Cumshewa Inlet, north shore (Moresby Island) 4 - Cumshewa Inlet, south shore (Louise Island) 5 - Sewell Inlet 6 - Logan Inlet (See Figure 3 for Area # locations). Facies # = 1 - basal Haida lithofacies 2 - lower Haida sandstone lithofacies 3 - upper Haida lithofacies 4 - Skidegate shale lithofacies 5 - Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies 6 - basal Honna lithofacies 7 - middle Honna lithofacies 8 - upper Honna lithofacies (See Figure 5 for Facies # descriptions). Appendix 2. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes Sample t Area I Facies I Delta 13C Precision 13C Delta 180 Precision 180 Notes 4 2 2 -5.905 0.008 -13.663 0.012 10 2 1 -7.396 0.005 -13.858 0.005 15 2 2 -12.374 0.004 -13.816 0.017 19 2 2 -13.909 0.006 -14.758 0.019 59 2 5 -7.718 0.002 -14.160 0.002 71 2 6 -5.368 0.006 -14.806 0.012 74 2 6 -7.545 0.004 -14.381 0.006 87 2 8 -5.350 0.004 -12.270 0.005 92 2 5 -10.B38 0.004 -13.707 0.011 96 1 1 -6.604 0.007 -11.805 0.009 98 1 1 -6.175 0.008 -11.483 0.015 100 1 2 -19.683 0.002 -11.899 0.014 109 1 2 -10.382 0.007 -10.991 0.023 115 1 1 -6.653 0.004 -13.423 0.007 147 1 B -5.779 0.004 -9.787 0.009 152 1 4 -10.865 0.027 -11.829 0.034 178 1 4 -11.694 0.007 -9.092 0.011 193 1 5 -5.787 0.003 -13.774 0.004 196 1 6 -5.489 0.004 -19.929 0.006 201 1 4 -21.488 0.008 -13.538 0.010 207 3 2 -5.051 0.002 -10.377 0.009 238 4 1 4.629 0.008 -9.745 0.005 239 4 1 -4.336 0.006 -7.050 0.012 242 4 1 -15.171 0.005 -13.708 0.005 249 3 4 -12.579 0.004 -8.986 0.009 269 1 3 -27.079 0.008 -12.932 0.006 271 3 1 -25.228 0.006 -11.999 0.008 275 3 1 -30.642 0.009 -15.888 0.004 275 3 1 -29.738 0.004 -14.298 0.004 306 2 2 -11.952 0.006 -17.600 0.014 309 2 2 -2.616 0.008 -6.817 0.010 417 4 1 -10.775 0.007 -14.835 0.008 420 4 1 -3.330 0.009 -13.996 0.005 422 4 1 -0.224 0.009 -12.994 0.009 425 4 1 -5.904 0.006 -15.150 0.005 426 4 1 -5.931 0.006 -14.700 0.005 Appendix 3. Queen Charlotte Group lithofacies outcrop thicknesses (metres) Beresford Bay- Skidegate Cumshewa Sewell Logan Langara Island Inlet Inlet Inlet Inlet Upper Honna 35( + ) 21( + ) 50( + ) * unk Middle Honna 415 329 20(+) * unk Basal Honna 393 84(+) 50(+) * unk Honna Total: 843(+) 414(+) 120(+) 150(+) unk Skidegate SS-SLT 30 16 2(+) * unk Skidegate Shale 142( + ) 100 44 * unk Skidegate Total: 172(+) 116 46(+) 150(+) unk Upper Haida 10(+) 200 70(+) 0 0 Lower Haida SS 522 390 30(+) 0 0 Basal Haida 190 16 30 0 0 Haida Total: 722(+) 606 130(+) 0 0 Queen Charlotte Group Total: 1737(+) 1336(+) 296(+) 300(+) unk Note: 50( + ) = more than 50 m * = Skidegate Formation interfingers with Honna Formation unk = unknown thickness Appendix 4. Outcrop sample data Explanation of column headings and abbreviations Sample # = author's hand sample number. m = height in metres above section base, "x" denotes sample not placed in measured section, rock type congl = conglomerate ss = sandstone slst = siltstone sh = shale lithofacies # = 1 - basal Haida lithofacies 2 - lower Haida sandstone lithofacies 3 - upper Haida lithofacies 4 - Skidegate shale lithofacies 5 - Skidegate sandstone-siltstone lithofacies 6 - basal Honna lithofacies 7 - middle Honna lithofacies 8 - upper Honna lithofacies (See Figure 5 for lithofacies descriptions). 166 (1) Unnamed island section (Skidegate Inlet; Skidegate Channel, 4 km southwest of Sandilands Island) UTM: PP 688100/5893150 LAT/LONG: 53o14'40"/132oll'00" Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 1 4 ss 2 2 36 ss 2 3 80 ss 2 4 89 congl 2 5 139 ss 2 6 158 ss 2 7 198 ss 2 (2) Haida Formation type section (Skidegate Inlet; Queen Charlotte City) UTM: PQ 699150/5903150 LAT/LONG: 53°14'407l32o00'50" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 8 1 congl 1 9 1 congl 1 10 4 congl 1 11 9 ss 1 12 15 ss 1 13 15 ss 1 14 60 ss 2 15 105 ss 2 16 179 ss 2 17 179 ss 2 18 196 ss 2 19 220 ss 2 20 250 ss 2 21 270 ss 2 22 280 ss 2 23 278 ss 2 24 320 ss 2 25 332 ss 2 26 411 ss 2 27 435 ss 2 28 480 ss 2 29 495 ss 2 30 496 ss 2 31 500 fossil 2 32 600 ss 2 33 660 fossil 2 34 677 ss 2 35 684 ss 2 36 730 ss 3 37 750 ss 3 38 840 ss 3 39 850 ss 3 40 851 ss 3 41 898 ss 3 42 899 slst 3 42A 974 ss 3 43 1020 ss 4 44 1022 ss 4 45 1025 sh 4 46 1140 sh 4 47 1200 slst 4 48 1279 ss 4 49 1298 ss 4 50 1333 ss 4 51 1380 ss 5 52 1380 ss 5 53 1382 ss 5 54 1385 ss 5 55 1393 ss 5 56 1379 ss 5 57 1381 ss 5 58 1382 ss 5 59 1383 ss 5 60 1384 ss 5 61 1385 ss 5 62 1386 ss 5 63 1390 ss 5 64 1391 ss 5 65A 1391 fossil 5 65 0 congl 1 66 9 ss 1 67 9 congl 1 68 12 ss 1 (3) Honna Formation type section (Skidegate Inlet; Lina Narrows) UTM: PQ 691000/5902750 LAT/LONG: 53°14'307l32o08,15' Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 69 -1 ss 5 70 1 congl 6 71 4 ss 6 72 31 ss 6 73 83 ss 6 74 84 ss 6 75 82 congl 6 76 82 congl 6 77 230 ss 6 78 230 ss 6 79 230 ss 6 80 350 ss 7 81 351 ss 7 82 376 ss 7 83 376 ss 7 84 377 ss 7 85 400 ss 7 86 413 ss 7 87 428 congl 8 88 432 ss 8 89 433 ss 8 (4) Skidegate Formation type section (Skidegate Inlet; Kagan Bay) UTM: PQ 689975/5902750 LAT/LONG: 53o14'307l32°09'15" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 90 X ss 5 91 X ss 5 92 X ss 5 93 X ss 5 94 X ss . 5 95 X ss 5 (5) South Newcombe Hill section (Beresford Bay-Langara Island) UTM: PQ 624050/5998500 LAT/LONG: 54°07'307l33°06'00" Sample # m rocktvne lithofacies # 101 39 ss 2 102 41 ss 2 103 44 ss 2 104 47 ss 2 ' 105 160 fossil 2 106 160 ss 2 107 170 fossil 2 108 170 fossil 2 109 245 ss 2 110 247 ' ss 2 111 316 ss 2 112 400 fossil 2 113 400 ss 2 114 400 ss 2 115 0 ss 1 116 0 ss 1 (6) Pillar Bay section (Beresford Bay-Langara Island) UTM: PR 634050/6003950 LAT/LONG: 54o10'00"/132o56'30' Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 117 -2 ss 5 118 -2 ss 5 119 -2 ss 5 120 16 ss 6 121 55 ss 6 122 81 ss 6 123 147 ss 6 124 177 ss 6 125 238 ss 6 126 250 ss 6 127 272 ss 6 128 361 ss 6 129 368 ss 6 130 408 sh 7 131 407 ss 7 132 409 ss 7 133 432 ss 7 134 470 ss 7 135 548 ss 7 136 548 ss 7 137 530 ss 7 138 540 ss 7 139 580 ss 7 140 686 ss 7 141 728 ss 7 142 758 ss 7 143 394 sh 7 144 400 ss 7 145 760 ss 7 146 808 congl 8 147 810 ss 8 (7) North Newcombe Hill section (Beresford Bay-Langara Island) UTM: PR 626300/6000900 LAT/LONG: 54°08'307133o04,00" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 148 29 sh 4 149 29 sh 4 150 1 sh 4 151 2 ss 4 152 4 sh 4 153 9 ss 4 154 X ss 4 155 36 ss 4 156 37 ss 4 157 40 ss 4 158 14 ss 4 159 15 ss 4 160 18 sh 4 161 20 fossil 4 162 36 ss 4 163 82 ss 4 164 91 ss 4 165 97 ss 4 166 114 ss 4 167 142 ss 4 (8) Caswell Point section (Beresford Bay-Langara Island) UTM: PQ 627500/5990400 LAT/LONG: 54°02'507133°03'00" Sample # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 96 20 ss 1 97 181 fossil 1 98 178 ss 1 99 300 ss 2 100 300 ss 2 168 20 ss 1 169 65 ss 1 170 162 ss 1 171 177 congl 1 172 192 ss 2 173 182 congl 1 184 175 congl 1 185 175 congl 1 186 60 ss 1 (9) Beresford Creek section (Beresford Bay-Langara Island) UTM: PQ 628050/5988300 LAT/LONG: 54°01'457l33o02'45" SamDle # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 174 34 ss 4 175 51 ss 4 176 51 ss 4 177 52 ss 4 178 52 ss 4 179 X ss 4 180 X ss 4 181 52 ss 4 182 38 ss 4 183 X sh 4 (10) Langara Island section (Beresford Bay-Langara Island) UTM: PR 630050/6009100 LAT/LONG: 54°13'007l33°00'15" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 187 8 ss 4 188 1 ss 4 189 12 ss 4 190 20 ss 4 191 4 ss 4 192 22 sh 4 193 30 ss 4 194 30 sh 4 195 28 ss 4 196 34 ss 6 197 38 ss 6 198 61 ss 6 199 46 ss 6 200 36 ss 6 201 X fossil 4 (11) West Conglomerate Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 308600/5882500 LAT/LONG: 53°03'307131°51'00" Samnle # m rock tvne lithofacies # 202 6 ss 2 203 10 ss 2 204 10 ss 2 205 1 ss 2 206 5 ss 2 207 3 ss 2 208 0 fossil 2 209 0 congl 2 210 5 ss 2 436 X sh 2 (12) West Conglomerate Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 308050/5882850 LAT/LONG: 53o03'457l31°51'30" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 211 1 ss 6 212 2 congl 6 213 2 congl 6 214 -1 ss 5 215 1 congl 6 268 1 fossil 6 (13) Conglomerate Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 309350/5882500 LAT/LONG: 53°03'307131°50'30' Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 216 4 congl 6 217 4 congl 6 218 32 ss 7 219 32 ss 7 220 32 ss 7 221 51 ss 7 222 60 congl 8 223 60 congl 8 224 60 ss 8 434 32 ss 7 435 50 ss 7 (14) McLellan Island section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 316600/5880700 LAT/LONG: 53o03'00"/131o44'00" Samnle # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 225 X ss 2 226 X ss 2 227 X ss 2 228 X ss 2 (15) Dawson Cove section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 305800/5882000 LAT/LONG: 53°0y00r/131°54'0(y Samnle # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 229 10 ss 2 230 7 fossil 2 231 4 ss 2 232 30 ss 2 233 92 ss 3 234 80 ss 3 235 80 fossil 3 437 35 sh 3 (16) East Girard Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 322500/5874050 LAT/LONG: 52°59'307l31°37'30" Samnle # m rock rvpe lithofacies # 236 3 ss 1 237 4 ss 1 238 5 ss 1 239 5 ss 1 240 6 ss 1 241 10 ss 1 242 15 ss 1 243 18 ss 1 244 18 ss 1 408 8 ss 1 409 8 ss 1 410 8 ss 1 411 6 ss 1 412 0 ss 1 413 16 ss 1 (17) West Girard Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 318500/5876050 LAT/LONG: 53°00'307131°42'15" Sample # m rock tvne lithofacies # 245 10 ss 4 246 10 sh 4 (18) East Conglomerate Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 311250/5883000 LAT/LONG: 53°04,007l31°49'00" PART A Sample # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 247 9 sh 4 248 12 sh 4 249 11 sh 4 250 21 ss 4 251 20 sh 4 UTM: UJ 310950/5883050 LAT/LONG: 53°04'007l31°49'00" PART B Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 252 7 ss 4 253 8 sh 4 254 16 ss 4 255 18 ss 4 256A 12 sh 4 256B 12 sh 4 (19) Duval Rocks section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 306150/5882600 LAT/LONG: 53°03'157131°54'30" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 257 X ss 7 258 X congl 7 259 X congl 7 260 X ss 7 261 X ss 7 262 X congl 7 263 X congl 7 264 X congl 7 265 X ss 7 266 X ss 7 267 X fossil 7 (20A) East McLellan Island section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 317250/5880700 LAT/LONG: 53°02'307131°43'30" Sample # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 269 8 ss 1 270 10 ss 1 271 16 ss 1 272 20 ss 1 273 25 ss 1 274 30 ss 1 275 23 ss 1 276 0 ss 1 277 0 ss 1 278 16 ss 1 (20B) West of East McLellan Island section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 316700/5881000 LAT/LONG: 53°02'407131°44'00" Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 414 10 ss 1 415 8 ss 1 416 12 ss 1 417 3 ss 1 418 3 ss 1 419A 3 ss 1 419B 3 ss 1 175 (21) Conglomerate Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 308700/5882700 LAT/LONG: 53°03'30"/131o51,00" Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # 279 8 sh 4 280 4 sh 4 (22) Sewell Inlet section (Sewell Inlet; spot samples north and south shores) UTM: see below LAT/LONG: see below Sample # m rock tvpe lithofacies # UTM 281 X sh 7 TJ 301900/5862600 282 X sh 7 TJ 301500/5862200 283 X ss 7 TJ 300400/5862650 284 X sh 7 285 X congl 7 TJ 300050/5863650 286 X congl 7 il It 287 X ss 7 II 288 X ss 7 li 289 X ss 7 II 290 X ss 7 ll 291 X ss 7 TJ 301100/5863950 292 X ss 7 II 293 X sh 7 II 294 X sh 7 TJ 301500/5863950 295 X ss 7 TJ 300400/5862650 296 X ss 7 TJ 302300/5860350 297 X ss 7 TJ 301750/5860400 298 X congl 7 II 299 X ss 7 TJ 301700/5861500 427 X ss 7 TJ 300500/5864100 428 X ss 7 TJ 300900/5864250 429 X ss 7 TJ 300900/5864400 430 X congl 7 " 431 X ss 7 TJ 302250/5865500 (23A) Kitson Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 313700/5878800 LAT/LONG: 53°01*307l31°46'45" Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 300 x ss 8 301 x ss 8 302 x congl 8 303 x congl 8 LAT/LONG 52°52'307131°56'15" 52°52'157l31o56'30" 52°52'307131°57'30" II 52°53'157131°58'00" 52°53'307l31o57'00" 52°53'307131°56'30" 52°52'307131°57'30" 52°51'307131°56'00" 52°51'307131o56'30" II 52°52'007131°56'30" 52°53'307131°57'30" 52°53'307131°57'15" 52053'457131057'15" 52°54'157131°56'00" 176 (23B) West Kitson Point section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 310800/5880000 LAT/LONG: 53°02'15"/131°49'15" Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 304 x ss 2 305 x ss 2 (24A) Sandspit section (Skidegate Inlet; Hans Creek) UTM: UK 308600/5902400 LAT/LONG: 53°14'157l31°52,00" Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 306 9 ss 2 307 11 ss 2 308 25 ss 2 (24B) Sandspit section (Skidegate Inlet; Onward Point) UTM: UK 305250/5902600 LAT/LONG: 53°14'157131°55'00" Sample # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 309 14 ss 2 310 25 fossil 2 311 78 ss 2 312 85 ss 2 313 85 ss 2 319 x ss 2 320 20 congl 2 321 15 ss 2 322 x sh 4 323 X sh 4 (25) Skedans Bay section (Cumshewa Inlet) UTM: UJ 324600/5871000 LAT/LONG: 52°57'457131043'15" Sample # m rock tvne lithofacies # 400 x ss 1 401 X ss 1 402 X ss 1 403 X ss 1 404 X ss 1 405 X ss 1 406 X ss 1 407 X ss 1 (26) Unnamed island (Cumshewa Inlet; 0.5 km east of Skedans Point) UTM: UJ 325300/5870750 LAT/LONG: 52o57'30"/131o36'15" Sample # m rock tvoe lithofacies # 20 3 ss 1 421 11 ss 1 422 14 ss 1 423 25 ss 1 424 31 ss 1 425 38 ss 1 425A 38 ss 1 426 38 ss 1 (27) Crescent Inlet section (Logan Inlet) UTM: UJ 309150/5850100 LAT/LONG: 52o46'007l31o49'45" Sample # m rock type lithofacies # 432 x ss 7 433 x ss 7 Josef Anthony (Tony) Steve Fogarassy Awards: 1988 Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (N.S.E.R.C.) Postgraduate Award. 1988 University Graduate Fellowship, University of British Columbia. 1988 Texaco Resources Geological Research Grant. 1988 American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AA.P.G.) Grant-In-Aid. 1988 Runner-up, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists (C.S.P.G.) John B. Webb Memorial Trophy. 1986 C.S.P.G. Service Award. 1983 Dr. Aaro E. Aho Memorial Scholarship and Gold Medal (head of graduating class), University of British Columbia. 1982 Chevron Standard Ltd. Undergraduate Scholarship, University of British Columbia. 1982 C.S.P.G. Undergraduate Award. 1982 Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists (S.E.P.M.) Undergraduate Award. 1982 C.S.P.G. Student-Industry Field Trip Award. 1982 Dr. A.C. Skerl Memorial Scholarship, University of British Columbia. 1982 George E. Winkler Memorial Scholarship, University of British Columbia. 1981 J.M. Carr Memorial Scholarship, University of British Columbia. Publications: Fogarassy, JA.S. and Barnes, W.C. In Press: Petroleum reservoir aspects of Cretaceous sandstones and conglomerates, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; Geological Survey of Canada. Fogarassy, JA.S . 1989: Penological controls on petroleum reservoir potential of the Cretaceous Queen Charlotte Group, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; Abstract, Geological Association of Canada Pacific Section Technical Talk, February 15,1989, Victoria, British Columbia. Fogarassy, JA.S . and Barnes, W.C. 1989: The middle Cretaceous Haida Formation: a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; in Current Research, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 89-1H, p. 47-52. Fogarassy, J.A.S. 1988: Lithostratigraphy of the middle to Upper Cretaceous Haida and Honna Formations of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; Abstract, Western Inter-University Geological Conference, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Josef Anthony Steve Fogarassy / page 2 Fogarassy, J.A.S. and Barnes, W.C. 1988: Stratigraphy, diagenesis and petroleum reservoir potential of the mid- to Upper Cretaceous Haida and Honna Formations of the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C., Canada; in Abstracts with Programs, v. 20, no. 3, Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada. Fogarassy, J.A.S. and Barnes, W.C. 1988: Stratigraphy, diagenesis and petroleum reservoir potential of the mid- to Upper Cretaceous Haida and Honna Formations of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; in Current Research, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 88-1E, p. 265-268. Fogarassy, J.A.S. and Barnes, W.C. 1988: Petroleum reservoir aspects of middle to Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; in Some Aspects of the Petroleum Geology of the Queen Charlotte Islands, R. Higgs (compiler); Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists field trip guide book. 

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