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Palynostratigraphic investigation of upper maastrichtlan and paleocene strata near Tate Lake, N.W.T. Bihl, Gerhard 1973

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PALYNOSTRATIGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF UPPER MAASTRICHTIAN AND PALEOCENE STRATA NEAR TATE LAKE, N.W.T..  by  \  Gerhard B i h l B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1967 M.Sc, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ,  1968  . A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree o f doctor of philosophy i n the Department of •  Geology  V/e accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October  » 1973  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and  study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  *  1  ABSTRACT Sedimentary s t r a t a near Tate Lake, south of Norman Wells, N.W.T., were investigated using palynomorph analysis indicating the presence of Upper Maastrichtian and Paleocene beds. The Upper Maastrichtian sections contain tv/o l o c a l palynostratigraphic zones c o r r e l a t i v e with Srivastava's Wodehousea spinata and Mancicorpus gibbus zones of the Edmonton and Battle Formations of A l berta, and other Maastrichtian formations  i n western North America.  The Paleocene strata compare l i t h o l o g i c a l l y and p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y with the Lower Fort Union Group of Montana and Wyoming, the postBrazeau beds of the Alberta F o o t h i l l s , the upper part of the Bonnet Plume Formation, N.W.T., and T e r t i a r y coal deposits i n Spitzbergen. A progressive cooling i n climate from subtropical to warm temperate during Upper Maastrichtian times i s indicated by the decrease i n the number of angiosperm species and greater i n f l u x of gymnosperms and pteridophytes, A marked change i n microflora and l i t h o l o g y at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary indicates temperate conditions and increased rates of sedimentation  i n the Tate  Lake area. Major l i g n i t e seams c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Paleocene s t r a t a probably were produced i n freshwater  swamps i n one of the  subsiding sedimentary basins formed along the east side of the Mackenzie Mountains during the Laramide orogeny. The Tate Lake strata appear to be part of the H e l l Creek-Fort Union type formational sequences straddling the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary i n d i c a t i n g that climatic and sedimentary conditions were very s i m i l a r a l l along the Rocky Mountains. On t h i s basis corresponding  changes are predicted  f o r the Monster, Reindeer and Moose Channel Formations.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Text Figures L i s t of M i c r o f o s s i l Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Purpose of the study Previous work done Present f i e l d and laboratory work Stratigraphy Results Assemblages and zonation Reworked  palynoassenblages  Correlation Paleoecology Absolute age of the Tate Lake l i g n i t e s Summary and Conclusions References  iii  PAGE Appendix I  38  Appendix II  4-3  M i c r o f o s s i l Figures  47  iv-  TEXT FIGURES  TEXT FIGURES '  PAGE  1 , Map of Tate Lake area  3  2a. Badlands developed i n Lower Paleocene sediments near 4  Tate Lake, N.W.T 2b. Volcanic  ash marker i n Lower Paleocene beds of the 4  Tate Lake Formation 3o Tate Lake Formation type s e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8  4 . Tate Lake composite s e c t i o n . . . . . .  9  5. Correlation chart of Upper Cretaceous and Lower T e r t i a r y formations along the east flank of the .  17  f o r western U.S.A. and Colombia, S. America.,.....,.  23  Rocky Mountains 6. Schematic temperature curve of the early T e r t i a r y  7. Schematic diagram of c l i m a t i c and f l o r a l changes i n Central Europe during the early T e r t i a r y . . . . . . 8.  '. 23  Relationship•between plant growth, decomposition, and rate of plant debris accumulation...,.,,..,...,. 25  9 . Present day d i s t r i b u t i o n of peat bogs................ 25  MICROFOSSIL FIGURES  Figures  Facing Page  1 - 12  47  13 - ,24  48  26 - 43  49  44  50  -62  63 -  78  51  vi  > ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am most g r a t e f u l to Dr. G.E. Rouse, under whose d i r e c t i o n t h i s t h e s i s was prepared, and who gave generously of h i s time for discussions, provided continual encouragement and proved an ever-present source of s t i m u l a t i o n . I also wish to extend my thanks.to my assistant Mr. Ross H i l l f o r help i n the f i e l d beyond the c a l l of dutyj Dr. F.R. Clarke, P.Gordy, C.Bruce and A.Audretsch of S h e l l Exploration, Calgary, for organizational support before and during the fieldwork; Drs. C. Yorath and W. Brideaux from the Geological Survey of Canada and Mr. D, Mclntyre, Chevron Standard, Calgary, f o r h e l p f u l discussions. Support f o r the thesis work was provided by National Research Council and Union O i l Company grants plus S h e l l Exploration f i e l d and laboratory assistance. Dr. L. Bayrock and Mr. T. Reimchen assisted e d i t o r i a l l y .  1  INTRODUCTION The purpose of the present study i s a palynostratigraphic zonation of a series of interbedded l i g n i t e s , shale:;s, s i l t s t o n e s , sandstones and chert conglomerates exposed i n badlands west of Tate Lake near the headwaters o f the East Fork of L i t t l e River (Fig,1,2) and to compare the obtained palynomorph  Bear assemblages  with those of s i m i l a r age from other regions of western North America, The resultant b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework should a s s i s t o i l exploration e f f o r t s being conducted i n the Mackenzie lowlands. The badlands appear to be part of a series of e r o s i o n a l T e r t i a r y remnants that extend a.long the eastern flank of the Rockie Mountains from Wyoming to the Mackenzie D e l t a . Except f o r a windswept t r e e l e s s dissected platea.u at elevations between 800 to 1000 meters above sea l e v e l , the area i s covered by dense t a i g a and muskeg, v/ith many lakes poorly drained by small meandering  streams.  Outcrops between a l t i t u d e s of 800 to about 600 meters occur only as mudslide scars and cutbanks along the major streams. In 1768 Alexander Mackenzie observed, burning coal seams along the Mackenzie River near Fort Norman, which are very s i m i l a r to the coal seams exposed i n the Tate Lake badlands. J.W. Dawson (I889) correlated plant macrofossils c o l l e c t e d from the banks of the Mackenzie south-west of Fort Norman with the Fort Union f l o r a of the Great P l a i n s , and Williams (1922) described i n d e t a i l the l i t h o l o g i e s from which the f o s s i l s v/ere c o l l e c t e d . B e l l (19^9) i d e n t i f i e d the f l o r a as c o r r e l a t i v e v/ith the post-Brazeau beds of the Coalspur Saunders area, A l b s r t a , assigning to i t a Lower Paleocene age. No work was c a r r i e d out i n the Tate Lake area  2  u n t i l the Second'World War  (the Canol p r o j e c t ) , during which  Hart ( 1 9 ^ 4 ) , probably on sediraentologic and s t r a t i g r a p h i c evidence assigned the .lignites and conglomerates of the badlands to the T e r t i a r y , describing them as r e s t i n g .conformably upon the Upper Cretaceous East Fork Formation. To obtain palynologic evidence of the age of the Tate Lake deposits, several sections i n the badlands were measured and sampled by the writer to ensure as much h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l coverage as possible ( F i g . 3 , 4 ) . Nearly a l l shales, s i l t s t o n e s and l i g n i t e s were sampled to obtain maximum information on the sedimentation and contemporaneous paleoecological conditions. Badland exposures on the east side of. Summit Lake were also i n - ; vestigated, a.nd descending the East Fork of L i t t l e  Bear River by  rubber r a f t more information about the s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n ships between the Tate Lake beds and underlying s t r a t a was obtained. Standard p a l y n o l o g i c a l techniques using HF, HNQ^,  and KgCO^  were employed to prepare the organic residue from the rock matrices; the mounting medium i s g l y c e r i n j e l l y .  Photomicrographs  v/ere obtained with a L e i t z Orthomat on L e i t z Ortholux microscope #  634136.  3  F i g . l - M a p of Tate Lake a r e a . L e t t e r s cross-hatched  A-E  d e n o t e sections  a r e a . T d e n o t e s p r o b a b l e extent of  Tertiary  in the strata.  4f F i g . 2a.  Badlands developed i n Lower Paleocene sediments near Tate Lake, N.W.T.. View from the B-section due east towards the A-section indicated by an arrow.  F i g . 2b.  Volcanic ash marker surrounding charred tree ( ? Metasequoia ) above a massive l i g n i t e seam, B-section. The measuring s t i c k to the r i g h t of the tree stump i s 5 feet long.  4  Fig- 2 b  5  STRATIGRAPHY Two d i s t i n c t l i t h o l o g i c a l units were recognized i n the Tate Lake badlands. The lower unit consists of soft grey and brown shales with minor beds of fine grained sandstone. The upper unit i s characterized, by thick conglomerates and series of closely spaced l i g n i t e s interbedded with s i l t s t o n e s , shales, many volcanic ash layers and minor sandstones. From the contact with the upper unit at the headwaters of the East Fork River, no major l i t h o l o g i c a l changes were recognized by the writer when descending the River.to the junction with the L i t t l e Bear River. Near t h i s junction (N 64°47'; W 126°02') i s the type section of the East Fork Formation  currently being redefined  by Dr. C. Yorath of the Geological Survey (pers.comm.) which i s Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian i n age. Since there appears to be a uniform l i t h o l o g y between the type section and the contact with the overlying conglomerates at the headwaters of the East Fork River the lower unit i s here t e n t a t i v e l y referred to the East Fork Formation. Palynoassemblages recovered reach from Upper Campanian-Lower Maastrichtian to Upper Maastrichtian which makes the East Fork Formation c o r r e l a t i v e with the Edmonton Formation. I f sedimentation throughout the Maastrichtian was continuous i n t h i s area palynostratigraphic zones s i m i l a r to those described by Srivastavafrom Alberta can be expected.  6  The upper unit i s described i n Hume (1954): "On the L i t t l e Bear River and t r i b u t a r i e s , Hart (10) reports 1,600 feet (484.8 meters) of Tertiary beds. These consist of coarse, carbonaceous sands, gravels, conglomera t e s , shales, and l i g n i t e s . At the headwaters of the East Fork River there are l i g n i t e s 8 to 10 feet t h i c k . For 18 miles along the East Fork River, near i t s headwaters, the high h i l l s on both sides are made up of Tertiary beds with a measured thickness of over 1,200 feet (363.6 meters)". This entire unit i s characterized by rapid l a t e r a l change i n l i t h o f a c i e s . For purposes of correlation with time equivalent rock units i n the N.W.T. and adjacent area's of western North America the 1200  approximately 400 meters of T e r t i a r y strata covering close to spuare kilometers are here informally designated the Tate Lake  conglomerates. The Tate Lake conglomerates extend from near Red Dog Mountain on the Keefce River i n the south (N 64°l5'j W 125°30') along the upper Summit Creek to the v i n c i n i t y of the junction of Ration Creek and the L i t t l e Bear River (N 64°35'; W 126°10'). Eastward the Tate Lake conglomerates can be traced to the headwaters of the East Fork River and Tate Lake (approx. N 64°35'» W 125°10') and from there south along Steward Lake to the Keele River. The Tate Lake conglomerates may be continuous v/ith the Tertiary s t r a t a on both sides of MacKay Mountains and around Fort Norrnan from where they extend about 50 kilometers up the Big Bear River to the Franklin Range and up the Mackenzie River beyond old Fort Point (Williams 1922, Hart 1944, Hume 1954, Yorath pers. comm.). Good outcrops occur around Tate Lake, Summit Lake and the MacKay Mountains. However most of the surface overlying the Tate Lake conglomerates i s muskeg and exact boundary relationships are unc e r t a i n . In general the Tertiary strata are bounded by Cretaceous  7  rocks to the north and south, and by Devonian rocks to the east and west. Where observed the Tate Lake conglomerates o v e r l i e conformably the East Fork Format ion (Hart 1944, B i h l t h i s reoort) and are overlain by g l a c i a l d r i f t (Tassonyi 1 9 6 9 ) . The sampled sections are located at the headwaters of the East Fork River, in a treeless badland t e r r a i n between about 6?0 and 1170 meters above sea l e v e l ( F i g . l ) . The general l i t h o l o g y ( F i g . 3 and 4) from the contact with the East Fork Formation 33 meters of rusty weathering  i s approximately  conglomerates with sand and coal  stringers and one major coal seam near the bottom; t h i s i s followed by 177 meters of grey weathering chert conglomerate v/ith sand, s i l t s t o n e and shale stringers; then 126 meters of interbedded  lig-  nites (seams up to 2.6 meters t h i c k ) , shales, s i l t s t o n e s and numerous volcanic ash beds of which very few exceed JO centimeters; and on the top there are about 40 meters of chert conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstones with minor shales and occasional coal s t r i n g e r s . As a r e s u l t of l o c a l l i g n i t e combustion the surrounding shales and s i l t s t o n e s are baked a brick red and associated v o l canic ash layers are fused to a grey or jasper coloured "glass" occasionally f i l l e d , with leaf impressions of Metasequoia occidentalis (Rouse pers. comm.).  B <~ \4-.  o<> o 0 O 0 „  00  -  I 2 1 1 -  OO ZZZ2Z  225  1? _  7 - 6  o O  o  o  O O  8  to  }•  in  are the  sample referred  text.  sr t f l  10.1 I  12  numbers  7  7ZZZZZ  - J 3-  p a I y n o Io g i c a I  °  Oo  —1 i  O .  o-o'  • 5 •  volcanic  20  2  2 2  I  •0 .  VERTICAL ir 0  •°o  o  O Oo  ,  zzzzzzz  V7777) 26  •  56x10  years  SCALE  '. • o  o o o o 24  ash  20  0" 00 •  0 •»  0",  TJLZJJLl  o :o SILTSTONE  SANDSTONE  o o  CONGLOMERATE  rvWlM  VOLCANIC  Fig.3  Laterally Paleocene  ASH  related strata  sections near  Tote  of Lak<  0° 0  o °  O .  0  . ; S ! . ; ' i . § 0=  HI  •nil:  o  1#  7  STRAHORAPHIC  I  OCCURRENCE Aqwilopollenitat  X  I  Manclcorput Aq.radvclui Roui«o  t r i o la t v *  t«nonicum group  rubtitii  liburniiporitei Proteocidifct Cranwil Ito  ddnocut ongulo tut  • I ti o to  Mane icor put  gibbut  M . rotlralut PulcK«ripoll«nif « t loranthacit«i Cronwallia  krcmpli  pilatui cf  rumt*f*ntit  Son t o l u m i d i l e l  tp.  Aq.(onolui Aq,  ditpotitut  P r o t « o c i d i t « t occalfo tut Scoltardio  normancntii  Wodehouteo on I y  raworked  Bacu Io t i i por i t « s  and  Tiggapof t e n i t « i  S e q u o i a pof len i f • • pgl«at«nicoi I n t a t o p a r l u r o p . cf. moo, AUS  O l l t m b l o g l l  in  Myricacsae-  thole  TATE  IAKE  COMPOSITE  CHARACTERISTIC  SECTION  INDEX  complex ip.  A q . dolium  Itniti  A q . odamas Fro x i no i p .  variabilis  Tricolpifet  hiont  riworVod  T.  common  Typhoceo* - Ericoceao  r o r »  A I nut  •T.l.MI  OF  ip.  Porolnipollenitet  LEGEND:  —  «p.  ilviiformtt  M I S S ISS I PP I A N  . p f « i • n t  —  »p.  Vorirugotiiporiftl  AlBI A N  X * X W  s p i n a to  Tourocutporit«i  WITH  tOCAL  P A l Y N O M O R PHS.  STRATIGRAPHtC  RANGES  Scat* t  8  onguloluminoiwt t p.  10 RESULTS For  c o r r e l a t i o n purposes a composite section was compiled  to encompass both the Paleocene and Maastrichtian beds ( F i g . 4 ) , The Paleocene sediments, dominated by poorly sorted coarse e l a s t i c s , showed good recovery of palynomorphs  from s i l t s t o n e s and shales  interbedded with the l i g n i t e s . The l i g n i t e s themselves are generally very woody with low palynomorph  content. Shale stringers  in the conglomerates usually yielded a high proportion of Lower Cretaceous and M i s s i s s i p p i a n palynomorphs. The best recovery from the  underlying Maastrichtian beds v/as obtained from dark grey  shales. Assemblages and Zonationi Analyses of samples show three well-defined palynomorph assemblage zones present i n the composite Tate Lake s e c t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c index species only are l i s t e d here. Complete l i s t i n g s of palynomorphs  f o r the three assemblage  zones are given i n Appendix I I . The zones denoted T.L.I and T.L.II are Maastrichtian i n age while T.L.III i s of Paleocene age. The lowest zone (T.L.I) shows the greatest species d i v e r s i t y and i s characterized by the following (see Plate I ) : Mancicorpus gibbus Srivastava M, rostratus Srivastava 5!» pulcher (Funkhouser) Srivastava A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s reductus Norton A, r e t i c u l a t u s Norton  11-  Proteacidites angulatus Samoilovitch P. crispus Samoilovitch P. c f thalmannii Anderson Callistopollenites radiostriatus Mtchedlishvili Rousea s u b t i l i s Srivastava L i b u m i s p o r i t e s adnacus Srivastava This zone strongly resembles the Maneicorpus gibbus subzone of the S c o l l a r d i a trapaformis zone of the Edmonton Formation and Battle Formation of A l b e r t a (Srivastava 1970). The middle zone (T.L.II) i s the equivalent of the Wodehousea spinata zone of the Edmonton Formation (Srivastava 1970)» with the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c palynomorphs  (see Plate II & III)1  Wodehousea spinata Stanley A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s conatus Norton A. dispositus M t c h e d l i s h v i l i S c o l l a r d i a normanensis n.sp. Cranwellia c f C. rumseyensis S r i v a s t a v a Proteacidites occalatus  Samoilovitch  P u l c h e r i p o l l e n i t e s krempii S r i v a s t a v a Loranthacites c f L_. ' p i l a t u s M t c h e d l i s h v i l i Santalumidites sp. The upper zone (T.L.III) i s Paleocene i n age, generally c o r r e l a t i v e with e a r l y T e r t i a r y palynomorph assemblages from the Great P l a i n s , Spitzbergen and Siberia.There appear to be two sub-assemblages i n t h i s zone. The f o l l o w i n g are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and/or dominant of the lower part of zone T . L . I I I i  12  a/ Lower sub-assemblage J Interaperturopollenites c.f I_. magnus (Potonie) Thomson••>.& P f l u g Sequoiapollenites paleocenicus Stanley c f Metasequoia o c c i d e n t a l i s Tsugaepollenites sp. Triporopoll.enites mullensis (Simpson) Rouse & Srivastava M y r i c i p i t e s dubius Wodehouse B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s comauensis (Cookson) Potonie B, i l e x i f o r m i s n.sp. Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover  .  V a r i r u g o s i s p o r i t e s c f _V. tolmanensis Srivastava Palynomorphs that are common or r e s t r i c t e d to the upper part of zone T.L.III are«  .  b/ Upper sub-assemblagei F r a x i n o i p o l l e n i t e s v a r i a b i l i s Stanley T r i c o l p i t e s hians Stanley _T. l i l l e i Couper T. anguloluminosus Anderson Aquillapolenites dolium  (Samoilovitch) Srivastava  A, adamas n.sp. C a p r i f o l i i p i t e s sp. A l n i p o l l e n i t e s sp, B e t u l a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s infrequens (Stanley) Rouse & Srivastava Taxodiaceaepollenites h i a t u s . - c f Glyptostrobus sp. P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp. P i n u s p o l l e n i t e s sp.  13 Reworked Palynoassemblages:  Perhaps the greatest source o f  error i n p a l y n o s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l work i s introduced  by the  rev/orking  of older m i c r o f l o r a s . In a r a p i d l y s h i f t i n g sedimentary environment t h i s may even lead to.the mixing o f contemporaneous f l o r a s and o b l i t e r a t e f a c i e s d i f f e r e n c e s . Stanley '(19^9) states that "These secondary grains u s u a l l y are present i n l a r g e r number i n both marine and non-marine sediments than most workers would l i k e to admit. Any attempt at c l i m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n necessitates subtraction of the reworked grains i n order to reach accurate conclusions." Palynomorphs o f M i s s i s s i p p i a n , Permian and Albian age were noted throughout the composite Tate Lake section (Plate V ) , The following i s a l i s t o f samples showing the type o f mixed assemblages; the letter-numeral designates r e f e r to sections and samples as shown i n Figure 3 purely M i s s i s s i p p i a n - A l b i a n assemblages} A19;B12,14;C2,3,11;D23 •mixed Miss.-Alb. & Paleocene'  "  J B1,11;C5,6,9;D17-20  mixed Maastricht  "•  i A10;B9,11;C13,l6;Dl4  & Paleocene  purely Paleocene a s s . i  A3-5»13i15-17iB3,10,13;C?jDIO,11,24,25.  The pureD.y M i s s i s s i p p i a n - A l b i a n assemblage was also encountered i n Albian rocks by Rouse (pers. comm.) i n the Peel River area, Audretsch (pers, comm.) i n the Mt. Goodenough section o f the Richardson Mounta i n s , and by the w r i t e r i n o i l w e l l cuttings from the Eagle P l a i n s and the Mackenzie D e l t a . I t i s quite possible that u p l i f t and erosion during Albian times produced the mixture of mainly lower M i s s i s s i p p i a n spores and Middle Albian dinof l a g e H a t e s . These were then reworked together i n Maastrichtian and  Paleocene times. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n appears more l i k e l y  than d e r i v i n g M i s s i s s i p p i a n and Albian palynomorphs from separate  14  outcrops, because of the areal extent of the mixing throughout the lower Mackenzie v a l l e y and eastern Yukon. An 83 meter i n t e r v a l of conglomerates and sandstones i n the lower C-section contained some shale lenses y i e l d i n g only Mississippian-Albian assemblages ( F i g . 4 ) . Similar assemblages were also recovered from the extensive outcrop of rusty and crossbedded white sandstone on the east side of Summit Lake, which i s barren except f o r a few stringers of coaly shale no more than 1 to 5 centimeters thick (showing up as moist springlines on the h i l l s i d e s ) . From t h e i r stratigraphic p o s i t i o n and l i t h o l o g i c a l appearance these sandstones are most l i k e l y Ter-' t i a r y (Hart 1 9 4 4 , Hume 1 9 5 4 , Yorath 1 9 ? 0 ) . Reworked Maastrichtian palynomorphs affects the dating of rock units based on index markers e.g. based on their occurrence i n the Tate Lake conglomerate, the ranges of the Maastrichtian Wodehousea spinata, Maneicorpus r o s t r a t u s, M. senonicum, Aquilapollenites d i s positus, A_. r e t i c u l a t u s and Cranwellia s t r i a t a would extend into the Paleocene. The rare occurrence of the mainly Santonian-Campanian JL_. t r i a l a t u s i n both Upper Maastrichtian and Lower Paleocene sediments seems to indicate that the above species i s reworked i n the Tate Lake conglomerates rather than part of the contemporaneous Paleocene m i c r o f l o r a . State of preservation i s usually not a good, c r i t e r i o n i n the interpretation since many samples i n the Tate Lake conglomerates yielded also poorly preserved Paleocene palynomorphs. However the reworked specimens of V/odehousea spinata can be quite c l e a r l y distinguished from the excellently preserved and abundant specimens of T.L.II zone in the Upper East Fork Formation.  15  Only the smaller Maastrichtian species of Aquilapollenites are well preserved i n the Tate Lake conglomerates. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s dolium and A., adamas v/ere found i n excellent condition and are probably part of the contemporaneous Paleocene m i c r o f l o r a . Taurocusporites  sp. considered by Eliuk  (1969)  to be a contami-  nant i n h i s Lower Paleocene assemblage i s herein considered  to be  a Paleocene contemporary on the basis of consistent occurrence and good preservation i n a l l four sections of the Tate Lake l o c a l i t y . Taurocusporites  segmentatus ranges together with Baculatisporites  comauensis, Varirugosisporites c f . V_. tomanensis, Erd tmanipollis procumbentiformis and other forms from the Maastrichtian into the Paleocene. As more data become available i t w i l l be possible to eliminate reworked species on a s t a t i s t i c a l basis as well as to extend the ranges of species that do carry on into the T e r t i a r y . The f a c t that most thick conglomerates and sandstones with thin shale stringers i n the Tate Lake sections contained a very high percentage of reworked palynomorphs, while thick s i l t s t o n e s and shales contained  only a small percentage, might be worthwhile  to investigate i n neighbouring areas. I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between percentage of reworked palynomorphs and coarseness of sediment :  can be proven to.be"consistent  i n other areas of the N.W.T. e.g.  the Mackenzie Delta, then the percentage of reworked microflora might be useful i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of subsurface s t r a t a penetrated by o i l w e l l s to complete the data i n ferred from well-logs.  16  PALYNOSTRATIGRAPHIC CORRELATION Of the three l o c a l assemblage zones established i n the studyarea the lowest one T.L.I  ( F i g . 4) i s c o r r e l a t i v e with the Manci-  corpus gibbus subzone of the S c o l l a r d i a trapaformis by Srivastava (1968, 1970)  zone established  in the Red Deer and Cypress H i l l s areas  of Alberta. Srivastava's argument that t h i s assemblage zone i s of stratigraphic s i g n i f i c a n c e i s supported by the 1500  kilometer  dis-  tance separating Tate Lake and the Red Deer V a l l e y . The T.L.I i s also characterized by the presence of Maneicorpus rostratus and the abundant occurrence of small r e t i c u l a t e a q u i l o i d grains  e.g.  Aquilapollenites reductus, and Liburnisporites adnacus. The  latter  has been described by Srivastava (197?) but i t s s t r a t i g r a p h i c ' '• occurrence within the Edmonton Formation i s not s p e c i f i e d . Another palynomorph assemblage that appears to be c o r r e l a t i v e with the M. gibbus subzone and T.L.I  i s the one described by Eliuk (1969)  from Hardisty Creek, western Alberta. E l i u k features Protepidites thalmannii which i s rare in the T.L.I. In comparison with the good yields and excellent preservation obtained by Srivastava (1968) both the Hardisty Creek and Tate Lake l o c a l i t i e s yielded  smaller  numbers of formspecies and a somewhat poorer preservation which may  be i n d i c a t i v e of higher energy sedimentary environment closer  to the Rocky mountains. Local assemblage zone T.L.II, characterized by Wodehousea spinata, Aquilapollenites conatus, _A. dispositus and S c o l l a r d i a normanensis, i s equivalent to Srivastava's _W. spinata zone and zone 2 of the Bonnet Plume Formation (Rouse & Srivastava 1972).  r~  m  n  0  0  T>  3 o  n  x-  3"  •o a <  9  9  -n  o  a.  3  3 o  o  3  a. c  .a TJ  O *  a a a o c  3 n 3"  3 a 3  OL  9 r— 0  i 9  1  Ravenscrog  1  C •o •o <»  1  o  8 ro:e a J  3 (0  3 0 3 rt 4  o  o  7C  o  •o o o  o  IM  jr  o  1  T> 0 0  ° x-  9  o  o a  Og i 1  O  Fort  Fork  —  Mountains  East  0  •o a  TJ  t— —H  Bear  a — -" o  a  Area  a.  1 OJ 1 aH ! ao c 1 1  — 9 <r 3  V*  3  |  > n  "O  0  4  1  m  little  3*  1  I  A  -o -o  o  3  !. a 3 3 to O  ]  t»  •O Ov •O  C  o  X O  Norman  9  -  a a n  •  3"  3  -n a  Edm o n t o n  OJ  O  3  3  0 3  3  0  CL  73  0  0  jr  <  | Western  VI 3  along  9  <  3  m  r>  rt cr o  Alberta  a  [ions  o  a  0  -o  a>  a o  K n e e h i 1 1 $ '•  0  O  X" X*  Park  19 6 7 ) .  3  c •o •o a  O  Lea  -~  ~n T)  0)  i—  Sou th -  3  i  a  Unio n  eoitern  c  9  70  0  X  Alberta  —1  0  TJ  A •  Battle  M oo n t j c  0 i 9  3*.  01 d m a n  O rt x-  o r r e lot ion <  n d -<  rTO  a  For t  O  OJ  Q-  Tullock  Q  ia  o a  c  1 ag ge t t  a  jj Ul  TERTIARY  CRETACEOUS  UPPER  1  1 1  s  o  o  3 M 9  Caribou  1  -0  1 1 EOCENE  PALEOCENE  MAASTRICHT.  TON.  CAM PAN.  SAN  >  o  m to  West e r n  C ha n n e 1  Pee 1  e  R e i n de e r  Mackenzie Delto  t  9  1 1 1 1  Hills  1  Moo  OJ 0 3 i 3  1  -o  O  •o c 3 a  1 1  River  1  3 a  Bonnet  C  Area  1  yie  1  M o n s I e r  0  18  Most species of t h i s assemblage have been reported by Leffingwell ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Norton & H a l l ( 1 ° 6 9 ) .  Srivastava ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Stanley  (1965).  and Tschudy ( 1 9 6 6 ) as being r e s t r i c t e d to the uppermost Cretaceous. Wodehouse fimbriata which may  be i n d i c a t i v e of a t r a n s i t i o n zone  straddling the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (Srivastava 1 9 7 0 ) , was not found i n the Tate Lake succession, neither was recorded by Leffingwell ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Tschudy ( 1 9 6 6 ) ,  i t s presence  Snead ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Eliuk  ( 1 9 6 9 ) nor Rouse & Srivastava ( 1 9 7 2 ) from e s s e n t i a l l y contemporaneous s t r a t a . However, the writer recovered Polycolpites p o c o c k i i , Tetracolpites r e t i c u l a t u s , Cardioangulina  diaphana, Leptolepidites  tenuis and other palynomorphs that have been recorded in association with W_. fimbriata by Stanley  ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Norton & H a l l ( 1 9 6 9 ) ,  and Srivastava ( 1 9 7 0 ) . These are from the L-section (N 64°38"; W 1 2 5 ° 5 4 ' ) on a t r i b u t a r y of the East Fork River to the north of the E-section. The  change i n the microflora from T.L.II to T.L.III substanti-  ates the observation of Tschudy ( 1 9 6 6 ) that: "  a marked palynological change occurs at the l e v e l  of the f i r s t d e f i n i t e l i g n i t e . " In the Maastrichtian East Fork Formation no coal seams exceeding one foot in thickness were seen by Dr. C. Yorath (pers. comm.). In the E-section the only coal noted was  a 1.5 meter seam with shale  partings above which the change in palynomorph assemblage takes place. Here most of the a q u i l o i d and a l l of the proteaceaeous species disappear together with the bulk of the Maastrichtian assemblage. However, most fern spores and gymnospermous pollen  19  continue. Taurocusporites segmentatus, Bacu.latisporites comauensis, B_. i l e x i f o r m i s , Osmundacidites wellmanii and Varirugosisporites cf V. tolmanensis l o c a l l y abundant i n the Upper East Fork Formation are  common throughout the lower Tate Lake conglomerates and dis-  appear above a diagnostic ash horizon ( F i g . 4 ) . Sequoiapollenites paleocenicus, S. polyformus, Interaperturopollenites c f . _I_. magnus, and Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus, which make t h e i r f i r s t  appearance  above the coal also disappear together with this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c fern assemblabe. The increase i n bisaccate gyrnnosperm pollen i s (1970),  noticable from T.L.I to T.L.II, also documented by Srivastava but very s t r i k i n g between T.L.II and T.L.III. Norton & H a l l  (1969)  state 1 "The abundance of vesciculate types such as Abietineaepo11enites microalatus forma microalatus and Podocarpus otagoensis i s i n direct contrast to the s i t u a t i o n i n the Upper Cretaceous assemblage where these types are v i r t u a l l y absent." The bisaccate pollen are dominant i n the upper part of the Tate Lake conglomerates where they are i n common association with Paraalnipollenites confusus, Betulaceoipollenites & A l n i p o l l e n i t e s spp. , T r i c o l p i t e s l i l l e i and T_. hians. Pollen tetrads of probably typhaceaeous-ericaceaeous a f f i n i t y occur here f o r the f i r s t time, which seems comparable to the m i c r o f l o r a l changes i n the Upper Tullock Formation (Fort Union Group) recorded by Leffingwell The T.L.III  (1966).  assemblage zone seems most c o r r e l a t i v e with the  assemblages of the Tullock Formation (Leffingwell 1 9 6 6 , Tschudy 1966,  Norton & H a l l 1 9 6 9 ) , the post-Brazeau beds (Eliuk 1 9 6 9 ) ,  zone 3 of the Bonnet Plume Formation (Rouse & Srivastava 1 9 7 2 ) and  20  Tertiary deposits of Spitzbergen reported by Manum ( 1 9 6 2 ) . The closest palynomorph c o r r e l a t i o n i s noted with Manum's Spitzbergen assemblage derived from beds containing leaf impressions  identical  to those described by Dawson ( 1 8 8 9 ) from the Mackenzie River exposures near Fort Norman, which B e l l (19^9) compares with h i s postBrazeau leaves from A l b e r t a i "Those (species) i d e n t i f i e d comprises Chladophlebis groenlandica, Elatocladus (Taxites?) o l r i k i , Trochodendroides a r c t i c a , PterosT)ermites w h i t e i , Acer arcticum, Nordenskioldia b o r e a l i s . Two of these species, namely Cladonhlebis groenlandica and Elatocladus o l r i k i are present i n the Paleocene post-Brazeau beds of central A l b e r t a . Pterospermites whitei and Acer arcticum are both members of the Fort Union f l o r a and Nordenskioldia. borealis occurs in the A r c t i c T e r t i a r y . The f l o r a , accordingly, i s considered d e f i n i t e l y Paleocene, although i t may be somewhat older than the Paskapoo f l o r a . " Closely related to, and possibly synonymous with whitei i s Pterospermites  Pterospermites  s p e c t a b i l i s reported from the Mackenzie  leaf f l o r a by Dawson (1889) also cited by Manum (1962) from Spitzbergen and described as Credneria s p e c t a b i l i s by Koch ( 1 9 6 3 ) from the Lov/er Paleocene of Greenland. Dawson ( 1 8 8 9 ) and Manum ( 1 9 6 2 ) also l i s t Glyptostrobus ungeri, Sequoites l a n g s d o r f f i and Taxodium distichum cf Metasequoia o c c i d e n t a l i s to which the palynomorph species Taxodiaceaepollenites h i a t u s , Sequoiapollenites polyformus and S. paleocenicus are r e l a t e d . Metasequoia o c c i d e n t a l i s leaves occur abundantly i n the Tate Lake conglomerates and the palynomorph assemblage i s c o r r e l a t i v e with the assemblage from the leafbearing strata near Fort Norman (Rouse & Brideaux pers. comm.).and the Spitzbergen assemblage (Manum 1 9 6 2 ) 5 p a r t i c u l a r l y with the l a t t e r i n that  21  t i l i a c e o u s , juglandaceous and ulmaceous pollen are absent, Metasequoia and taxodiaceaeous pollen are very common, and spores l o c a l l y exceedingly abundant. An i n f l u x of juglandaceous, ulmaceous and e r i ceceous pollen i s recorded by Leffingwell ( 1 ° 6 6 ) and Norton & Hall ( 1 9 6 9 ) from the upper part of the Fort Union Group. I f there i s a continuous sedimentary record as the persistence of the Taurocuspor i t e s - B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s - V a r i r u g o s i s p o ri t e s assemblage from the T.L.II into the T.L.III seems to indicate then the equivalent to the Upper Fort Union i n the Tate Lake conglomerates probably has been removed by erosion. Manum argues that Tsugaepollenites sp., occurring at Forlandsundet but not i n the main T e r t i a r y basin of Spitsbergen 80 kilometers away, indicates a difference i n age between the two rock s e r i e s . In the Tate Lake l o c a l i t y , Tsugaepollenites sp. occurs only in the C-section ( F i g . 3 ) . but i s absent i n the other sections a l l within a radius of 5 kilometers, which i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case at least suggests a facies v a r i a t i o n rather than any marked difference in geological age.  22  PALEOECOLOGY Any assessment of the paleoecology of the Tate Lake s t r a t a i s dependent on the recognition of the main c l i m a t i c , physiographic,' and water-to-land r a t i o factors that prevailed during the time of t h e i r emplacement. The separation of the continents i n Lower Cretaceous time i s well documented by paleomagnetic data and sedimentological evidence  (Smith 1 9 7 1 ) . I f during the greater  part "of the Cretaceous three or more i s o l a t e d c o n t i n e n t a l blocks were present, then three or more f l o r a l groups could have evolved independently of each other. Relative to t h i s , Krutzsch has suggested that a f t e r the Laramide* and early  (1967)  Alpine-Himalayan  orogenies re-established landbridges at the end of the Cretaceous there were three broad f l o r a l groups i n Europe i n a state of competitive i n t e r a c t i o n during the e a r l y T e r t i a r y  (Fig.7):  I.  An Upper Cretaceous Normapollis group i n Europe, whose western North American equivalent i s the a q u i l o i d and proteaceous element found i n T.L.I & T.L.II. At that time S i b e r i a and western North America formed one continental block separated from Europe and eastern North America by epicontinental seas.  II.  An A r c t o t e r t i a r y group, present i n the North (unspecified) already during Upper Cretaceous times, advancing during cold phases and r e t r e a t i n g during warm phases (Krutzsch favors c y c l i c a l c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n rather than a uniformly slow warming up or cooling down). It i s t h i s group which constitutes the major angiosperm f l o r a l element of T.L.III i . e . the deciduous t r e e s ,  III.  An Eocene-paleotropical group, which i n Europe during the middle and upper Paleocene crowded out the Normapollis group completely. This group, characterized by t i l i o i d and caryoid types, does not appear i n e i t h e r the Tate Lake or Bonnet Plume Formations, However, t h i s group has been reported i n western North America from Upper Paleocene and Eocene deposits.  23*  Fig. 6 .  Schematic temperature curve of the e a r l y Tertiary  "the western United States and  Colombia, South America ( a f t e r van der Hammen, 1961, and Dorf, 1969 ).  Fig. 7 ,  Schematic diagram of c l i m a t i c and changes i n Central Europe  floral  ( a f t e r Krutzsch, 1 9 6 7 ) .  (23  Generalized curve of M medius group,Colombia, redrawn fo fit the original scale of the temperature curve for the western United States  %  0-j  Monocolpiles 20medius group 304050  J  TROPICAL  Temperature curve for the western United States (after Dorf)  SUBTROPICAI WARM TEMP.  ^  TFMPFRATF  UPPER PALEOCENE CRETACEOUS  EOCENE  ( Adopted from von der Hammen, 1961) Fig. 6  •  •  Normapollei  Group  — — — —  Arcfo-Tertiary  II  +  Paleotropic  11  +  +  rrr*r*r F i g . 7. ~  probable  Schematic in  Central  position  diagram Europe  of  of  Tate  climatic  after  Lake and  Krutzsch  palynomorph floral  1967.  assemb.  changes  24 According to Krutzsch a l l three groups formed a c e r t a i n proport i o n of the t o t a l f l o r a during each time i n t e r v a l , i . e . Arctot e r t i a r y elements were present but r e l a t i v e l y rare during Maastrichtian "times ( c f . T.L.I), but increased r a p i d l y near the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. This i s i n complete agreement with the findings i n T.L.II and T.L.III and the r e s u l t s of a l l workers mentioned, above. Comparable r e s u l t s were obtained by Axelrod (1966),  Dorf ( 1 9 6 9 )  and Lebedev (in Zaklinskaya 1 9 6 7 ) working  with l e a f assemblages.(see F i g . 6 ) , Krutzsch*s f i r s t minimum f l o r a (Fig.7) shov/s optimum conditions for A r c t o t e r t i a r y immigrants, i n which a l n o i d , ulmoid, betuloid and bisaccate p o l l e n were more abundant than e i t h e r before or a f t e r . V/ith the exception of the ulmoid types, t h i s i s the s i t u a t i o n i n zone 3 of the Bonnet Plume Formation (Rouse and Srivastava 1 9 7 2 ) ,  T.L.III at Tate Lake ( t h i s r e p o r t ) , and  Spitzbergen palynoassemblages, r e f l e c t i n g a c l i m a t i c  the  depression  that probably affected most of the Northern Hemisphere at that time. A l l of these minimum f l o r a s are intimately associated with coal seams. Many hypotheses about coal formation have been proposed i n the past, an excellent summary i s given by Francis ( 1 9 6 1 ) Jansa ( 1 9 7 2 ) discusses a model which may Tate Lake c o a l s .  and  be applicable to the  According to Schwarz bach (19^3) the  greatest  accumulation of organic material of continental o r i g i n today occurs in regions where the rate of plant growth exceeds the rate of decomposition of plant materials i n s o i l s and  swamps (Fig,3)  ISf  Fig. 8 .  Relationship between plant growth, decomposition and rate of accumulation of plant d e b r i s . A = rate of plant growth (maximum at temperature of about 25 C); B1 = decomposition of plant material i n s o i l s , Bg, i n swamps. The shaded area indicates where growth i s f a s t e r than decomposition, i . e . where organic matter can accumulate ( a f t e r Mohr, and van Baren, 195^ ).  Fig. 9 .  Present d i s t r i b u t i o n o f peat bogs ( a f t e r Frueh and Schroeter, s i m p l i f i e d from von Buelow's "Moorkunde", 1925, i n Schwarzbach's "Climates of the Past", 1963 77  Fig - 8  26  i . e . most peat bogs at present are forming i n temperate or cooler climates, or i n high mountain ranges of the tropics e.g. the Ruwenzoris and Andes. S i m i l a r l y black humic s o i l s (chernozem) are not common to the t r o p i c s . Although Sphagnum-type spores occur throughout the Tate Lake strata they, are not very abundant and do not support an interpretation that the l i g n i t e s are derived mainly from peat bogs. The abundant taxodiaceaeous pollen and fern spores associated with the Tate Lake l i g n i t e s seems to r e f l e c t present day conditions i n e.g. Dismal Swamp, North Carolina, where Taxodium, Juniperus and a l l i e d species occupy the swamp, while Pinaceae are r e s t r i c t e d to the higher areas (Moore 1950)» which i s indicated by the abundance of bisaccate grains i n the shale stringers of the thick Tate Lake conglomerates. The rate of plant decomposition can be further retarded by rapid b u r i a l i n the form of intermittent but progressive subsidence of the substratum on which the coal swamp forest grew coupled with an increased rate of sedimentation. The subsiding sedimentary basins where these coal forests grew have been postulated by Mountjoy ( 1 9 6 7 ) who holds that: "The Bonnet Plume Formation post dates most of the f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g of the Richardson Mountains and are together with the Moose Channel Formation and Monster Formation products of t h i s late Cretaceous (Laramide) orogeny . . . The Bonnet Plume, Monster and Moose Channel Formations were deposited at approximately the same time as the Edmonton and Paskapoo Formations of western and central Alberta." Since the Upper East Fork Formation and the Tate Lake conglomerates correlate p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y with the Bonnet Plume Formation i t seems they v/ere deposited i n a subsiding basin similar to that of the Bonnet Plume, Monster and Moose Channel Formation at about the same  27  geological time. The increase of l i g n i t e s i n the Paleocene recorded by many workers  (Leffingwell 1966, Tschudy 1966, Norton & H a l l 1969.  Rouse & Srivastava 1972 ) can be explained by t h i s coincidence of increase i n plant productivity and preservation under optimum climatic conditions and increased subsidence of sedimentary basins. On the basis of a r i c h and varied coniferous record i n association with betulaceous pollen and the apparent absence of Fagaceae, Juglandaceae and T i l i a Manum (1962) concludes that the climate was temper a t e . His suggestion thatt" Alnus was r e l a t i v e l y less important i n the vegetation, i n , and around, the former swamp than the representatives ' of Betulaceae and. probably Myricaceae which contributed the t r i p o r a t e grains." i s supported by the Tate Lake data showing a d e f i n i t e increase of myricaceous pollen close to the coal seams and a decrease away from them. In general, thinner and less numerous l i g n i t e beds y i e l d smaller numbers of myricaceaeous and taxodiaceaeous pollen and larger numbers of Alnipollenit.es sp. , T r i c o l p i t e s sp. , and bisaccate grains. M y r i c i p i t e s dubius and Triporopollenites mullensis associated with the Tate Lake l i g n i t e s were also reported from the Bonnet Plume Formation by Rouse & Srivastava.(1972). The coal seams exhibit a tendency to occur i n close v e r t i c a l proximity separated from another such series by thick conglomerates. Jansa (1972) a t t r i butes t h i s "grouping" to the l a t e r a l s h i f t i n g of sedimentary lobes in a f l u v i a t i l e environment. Towards the top of the Tate Lake succession the number of coal seams decreases perhaps i n d i c a t i n g that u p l i f t and consequent sedimentary changes created unfavourable conditions f o r the formation of coal beds. Possibly a l l u v i a l fans of the  r i s i n g Mackenzie Mountains prograded over the whole area and  28  terminated coal formatiosi.  According to Moore (1950) t  "The coal-forming processes ended with the elevation of the Rocky Mountains as i t d i d i n the east with the r i s e of the Appalachians." It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that many of the above features are also associated with the Permian Karoo coals and the Glossopt e r i s f l o r a of Gondwanaland (Schwarz bach 19^3)• During fieldwork in Tanzania (East A f r i c a ) the w r i t e r observed many coarse immature c l a s t i c sequences between Karoo coal seams with shale stringers from which abundant Permian bisaccate grains were extracted (Hart 1 9 6 3 ) , probably i n d i c a t i n g upland vegetation. The feldspars i n these e l a s t i c s were well preserved which i s uncommon f o r sediments deposited under t r o p i c a l conditions. G l a c i a l t i l l and s t r i a t i o n s associated v/ith the Karoo both i n South and East A f r i c a , and often quoted as evidence of continental g l a c i a t i o n of the Southern Hemisphere, seem to support a temperate rather than t r o p i c a l climate during the formation of the Karoo coal beds. A combination of worldwide cooling, at least in the Northern Hemisphere, and l o c a l mountain u p l i f t may account f o r the Tate Lake minimum f l o r a sensu Krutzsch and the associated l i g n i t e seams. Leopold and MacGinitie ( 1 9 7 2 ) state thats "Sgme 5,000 feet of regional u p l i f t , equivalent to an 18 C lowering of the average annual temperature using the average lapse rate probably alone could have caused regional cooling that shaped, the trend toward a simplified. C o r d i l l e r a n f l o r a . " The Tate Lake Formation i n the study area at present occurs between 2000 and 30°0 feet above sea l e v e l . The environment of deposition could have been higher during the Paleocene i f subsidence continued a f t e r that time, but i t seems u n l i k e l y that mountain u p l i f t  29  alone caused the cooling of climate which so d r a s t i c a l l y affected the contemporaneous f l o r a . In summary, the p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l conditions i n the Tate Lake area during the Upper Maastrichtian wore very s i m i l a r to those described by Rouse & Srivastava (1972) f o r the Peel River area. The orogenic pulse which brought the Cretaceous to a close  was  just beginning, with the whole area r e l a t i v e l y stable and of low r e l i e f judging from the fine grained sediments and abundant palynomorphs. The great species d i v e r s i t y i n the M a a s t r i c h t i a n ir.di-* cates warm temperate to subtropical c o n d i t i o n s . When orogenic a c t i v i t y began or became more intense, as evidenced by many volcanic ash beds and an increase of coarse e l a s t i c s , the climate deteriorated markedly i n the Tate Lake area,accompanied b/a temperate f l o r a characterized by very low species d i v e r s i t y . It appears that Metasequoia, Taxodium, Glyptostrobus and l o c a l l y Tsuga were associated i n coal swamps with an abundant understorage  of f e r n s ,  whereas Pinus, Picea and Cedrus dominated the surrounding uplands. Of the angio'sperms present, the Myricaceae  appear to be the only  group that competed s u c c e s s f u l l y with the c o n i f e r s i n the swamp environment. The v e r t i c a l succession of l i g n i t e s interbedded with c l a s t i c units suggests frequent b u r i a l of c o a l swamps i n i n t e r montane basins with continuous subsidence and sedimentation u n t i l u p l i f t exceeded viable conditions f o r coal swamp vegetation and ' terminated coal formation i n the area.  30  ABSOLUTE AGE CONSIDERATIONS The s i g n i f i c a n t f l o r a l changes between the Late  Cretaceous  and Early T e r t i a r y noted by Axelrod (1966), B e l l ( 1 9 ^ 9 ) .  Dorf  ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Leffingwell (1966), Norton & H a l l (1969). Rouse & Srivastava ( 1 9 7 2 ) ,  Stanley ( 1 9 6 5 ) and Tschudy ( 1 9 6 6 ) were also  observed  in the Tate Lake succession and seem to r e f l e c t an e s s e n t i a l l y synchronous cooling of climate i n the period around 6O-3 m i l l i o n years ago. Most workers agree that sedimentation was  essentially  continuous during that time and apparent unconformities are l o c a l i n nature e.g. channeling and cross-bedding (Tschudy 1 9 6 6 ) . Major orogenic a c t i v i t y during t h i s time i s reported by many workers and r e f l e c t e d by the widespread occurence of volcanic ash horizons, many of which have been dated. K-Ar dates of 6 1 . 7 to 6 3 . 6 m i l l i o n years have been reported f o r the "Z" coal seam at the boundary of the H e l l Creek and Tullock Formations, above which a major change i n microflora takes place i n Montana and Wyoming (Folinsbee et a l i n Norton & H a l l 1969 and Folinsbee et a l 1 9 7 0 ) . i  The Ardley seam above the Nevis coal from which Srivastava reports a change i n microflora i n Alberta i s dated as 6 2 . 6 m i l l i o n years (Folinsbee et a l 1 9 7 0 ) . A volcanic ash layer which occurs 225 meters above the .coal seam at which the major change i n microflora occurs at the Upper East Fork Formation-Tate  Lake conglomerate boundary  has been dated as 56-1.7 m i l l i o n years (UBC #  C-1*0.  What i s  apparently the same volcanic ash horizon 2 kilometers east of the Tate Lake l o c a l i t y was  sampled by Rouse and dated i n two runs as  5^ and 5 6 - 3 m i l l i o n years (UBC # R - 6 8 - l ) . A minor ash layer about  31  34 meters higher up was dated by K-Ar as 5 1 - 1 . 6 m i l l i o n years ( F i g . 3 ) - Not considering the p o s s i b i l i t y of Argon leakage, which would give a younger date f o r the ash horizons, I conclude that the l i g n i t e just above which the marked change in palynoassemblages takes place i s somewhat older than 56 m i l l i o n years, based on the 225 meters of strata separating i t v e r t i c a l l y from the measured, and dated ash horizon. Since the sedimentation rates i n the Tate Lake conglomerates are not known at present no exact date can be given. However the evidence from palynostratigraphic studies of the Upper East Fork Formation and the Tate Lake conglomerates seems to suggest that these strataare part of the H e l l Creek-Fort Union type formational sequences ( F i g . 5) that have been studied along the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains from Wyoming to the Peel River. In most of these formational sequences the T e r t i a r y Cretaceous boundary can be placed near the f i r s t major l i g n i t e series where a r e l a t i v e l y sudden change from warm-temperate Maastrichtian to temperate Paleocene microflora and leaf f l o r a takes place.The numerous coal seams in the Fort Union type strata to which the Tate Lake conglomerates belong seems to suggest that sedimentation was continuous. Since the Monster, Reindeer and . Moose Channel Formations to the north and west of the Bonnet Plume area were l a i d down under similar environmental conditions at about the same geological time (Mountjoy 1 9 6 ? ) c o r r e l a t i v e changes in palynoassemblages with the Bonnet Plume and Tate Lake strata could be expected.  32  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Sedimentary strata near Tate Lake at the headwaters of the East Fork River, south of Norman Wells, N.W.T., contain two dist i n c t l i t h o l o g i c a l u n i t s . The lower one i s characterized by soft brown and grey s i l t s t o n e s and shales and on the basis of palynol o g i c a l evidence referrable to the Upper Maastrichtian of the East Fork Formation. The upper u n i t , characterized by thick conglomerates and c l o s e l y spaced l i g n i t e s interbedded with s i l t s t o n e s , shales, many volcanic ash layers and minor sandstones, contains a Paleocene palynoassemblage and i s informally described as the Tate Lake conglomerates. Palynological data from the Upper East Fork Formation show that the Mancicorpus gibbus (T.L.I) and Wodehousea spinata (T.L.II) palynostratigraphic zones of Alberta are present at Tate Lake, N.W.T.. These two zones are also c o r r e l a t i v e with the palynoassemblages contained i n the type Lancian (Hell Creek Formation) of Montana and Wyoming as well as part of the.Bonnet Plume Formation (zone 2 ) , N.W.T.. The palynoassemblage  of the Paleocene Tate Lake conglomerates  (T.L.III) i s c o r r e l a t i v e with the microflora of the Upper Bonnet Plume Formation (zone 3 ) i N.W.T., the post-Brazeau beds of the Alberta F o o t h i l l s , and the Lower Fort Union Group of Montana and Wyoming. Reworking of a Mississippian-Albian microflora i s very noticable i n the Paleocene strata but very uncommon i n the Upper East Fork examined. Its occurrence may be useful i n helping to i d e n t i f y the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary i n subsurface o i l ex-  33  ploration i n the Mackenzie lowlands. The East Fork-Tate Lake palynoassemblages are c o r r e l a t i v e with most H e l l Creek-Fort Union type f l o r a l sequences ranging from Wyoming to the Peel River area. They r e f l e c t a major l o c a l and possibly worldwide climatic change at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, associated with major mountain u p l i f t towards the end of the Cretaceous which resulted i n : l / the establishment of landbridges, with the development of a uniform f l o r a over most of the Northern Hemisphere, and the extinction of endemic Maastrichtian f l o r a l elements; 2/ the formation, of subsiding basins with optimum conditions for. coal accumulation during Paleocene  times.  The l i g n i t e s of the Tate Lake conglomerates were formed under temperate climatic conditions probably i n close proximity to the mountains during periods of volcanic a c t i v i t y . Sedimentation  was  continuous without major unconformities except l o c a l channelling and cross-bedding. The palynostratigraphic data from the Upper East Fork Format i o n and the Tate Lake conglomerates suggests that they are time equivalent with the H e l l Creek-Fort Union type formational sequences. K-Ar dates from the upper part of the Tate Lake conglomerates suggest a younger data but no conclusions can be reached u n t i l the c r i t i c a l horizons can be radiometrically dated.  34  REFERENCES Axelrod, D.I. 1 9 6 6 . A method f o r determining the a l t i t u d e s of T e r t i a r y f l o r a s . Paleobotanist v o l . 1*4-, pp. 1 4 4 - 1 7 1 . B e l l , W.A. 1949« Uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene f l o r a s of western A l b e r t a . Geol.Surv.Can.Bull. 1 3 , pp.21-28 Dawson, J.W. 1 8 8 9 , On f o s s i l plants collected by Mr. R.A. McConnel, ort Mackenzie River, and by Mr. T.C.Weston, on Bow River. Roy.Soc.Can.Trans, v o l 7» sec.4, pp. 6 9 - 7 4 . Dorf, E. 1 9 6 9 . Paleobotanical evidence of Mesozoic and Cenozoic climatic changes. Proc.N.Am. Paleont. Convention: 3 2 3 - 3 4 6 . E l i u k , L.S. 1969<> Correlation of the Entrance conglomerate, Alberta by palynology. M.Sc, t h e s i s , Univ. of Alberta, 143 pages, unpubl. Francis, V/. 1 9 6 1 . Coal, i t s formation and composition. Edward Arnold Publ. Ltd.. London, Ch. 1 . Hart, G.F. 1 9 6 3 . Microflora from the Ketewaka-Mchuchuma c o a l f i e l d , Tanganyika(Tanzania). Geol.Surv.Tanz.Bull. 3 6 , 27 pages. Hart, R.M. 1 9 4 4 . F i n a l geological report on Gravel River and. East Fork of L i t t l e Bear River, Kay Mountains and Summit A n t i c l i n e . Canol # 10 Report, unpublished. Hume, G.S. 1 9 5 4 . The Lower Mackenzie River area, N.W.T. and Yukon. Geol.Surv.Can.Mem. 1 7 3 , pp. 3 - 5 , 4 5 - 5 5 . Jansa, L. 1 9 7 2 . Depositional history of the coal-bearing UpperJurassic-Lov/er Cretaceous Kootenay Formation, southern Rocky Mountains, Canada. Geol.Soc.Am.Bui. v o l . 8 3 . pp. 3 1 9 9 - 3 2 2 2 . Koch, B.E. 1 9 6 3 . F o s s i l plants from the Lower Paleocene, Northwest Greenland. Meddelelser om Groenland, Bd. 1 7 2 , Nr. 5» Krutzsch, W. 1 9 5 9 - Mikropalaeontologische Untersuchungen i n der Braunkohle des G e i s e l t a l e s . Geol.Bein. 2 1 , 2 2 , pp. 1 3 8 - 1 4 3 . 1 9 6 7 . Der Florenwechsel im A l t t e r t i a e r Mitteleuropas auf Grund von sporenpalaeontologischen Untersuchungen. Abh.zentr.geol.Inst., H. 1 0 , pp. 1 7 - 3 7 . L e f f i n g w e l l , H.A. 1 9 6 6 . Palynology of the Lance (Late Cretaceous) and Fort Union (Paleocene) Formations of the type Lance area, Wyoming. Geol.Soc.Am.Spec.Paper 1 2 7 , pp. 1-64. Leopold, E.B. & MacGinitie, H.D., 1 9 7 2 . Development & A f f i n i t i e s of T e r t i a r y Floras i n the Rocky Mountains. Ch. 1 2 , pp. 1 6 4 , i n " F l o r i s t i c s & P a l e o f l o r i s t i c s of Asia & Eastern North America", A. Graham, E l s e v i e r Publ. Co., Amsterdam. Manum, S. 1 9 6 2 . Studies i n the T e r t i a r y f l o r a of Spitzbergen, with notes on the T e r t i a r y f l o r a of Ellesmere Island, Greenland and Iceland. Norsk P o l a r i n s t . S k r i f t e r 1 2 5 , 127 pages. Moore, E.S. 1 9 5 0 . Coal. Wiley & Sons Publ., New York. pp. 1 5 2 .  35  Mountjoy, E.V/. t°67. Upper Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y stratigraphy, northern Yukon T e r r i t o r y and northwestern d i s t r i c t o f Mackenzie. Geol,Surv.Can.Pap. 66-16, 69 pages. Norton, N.J. & Hal]., J.W, 1969. Palynology of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower T e r t i a r y i n the type l o c a l i t y of the H e l l Creek Formation, Montana, U.S.A., Palaeontographica 125, Abt. B, 6 4 pages. Potonie, R. 1956« Synopsis der Gattungen der Sporae dispersae, Beih.Geol. Jb.,H. 23, pp. 33.3^. Robinson, P. 19?2. Geological Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region, U.S.A.. Rocky Mnt, Assoc.Geol.HirschfeId Press, Denver,Colo,, Rouse, G.E. & Srivastava, S.K, 1970. Systematic r e v i s i o n of A q u i l a n o l l e n i t e s Rouse. Can.Jour.Bot. 48, no, 9» PP«  1591-1601.  "  1972. Palynological zonation of Cretaceous and E a r l y T e r t i a r y rocks of the Bonnet Plume Formation, Northeastern •Yukon, Canada, Can. Journ.Ear• S c i . 9* no. Q> PP. ll63~H79o Samoilovich, S.R. & M t c h e d l i s h v i l i , N.D. I 9 6 I . (Pollen and spores of western S i b e r i a , J u r a s s i c to Paleocene). Trudy Vses.Neft.Nauk.-Issled G e o l „ - R a z v , I n s t , , Leningrad 177, 657 pages. Samoilovich, S.R. 1967. Tentative botanico-geographical subd i v i s i o n of northern Asia i n Late Cretaceous time. Rev. Palaeobot.Palynol. 2, pp. 127-139. Schwarzbach, M. 1963. Climates of the Past. pp,60-6l. T r a n s l . by Muir, R.O., D, Van Nostrand Co., London. S h a f i q u l l a h , M. I963. Geochronology o f the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, A l b e r t a , Canada. M.Sc. t h e s i s , Univ. of A l b e r t a , 65 pages, unpublished. Singh, C. I 9 6 3 . Palynology of the Mannville Group (Lower Cretaceous), c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . PhD. t h e s i s , Univ. of A l b e r t a , 4 l 4 pages, unpublished. Smith, A.G. 1971. Continental D r i f t , i n "Understanding the Earth", 6h. 15, pp. 2 1 3 - 2 3 2 , . M . I . T . Press. Snead, R.G. 1969. M i c r o f l o r a ^ diagnosis of the CretaceousT e r t i a r y boundary, c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . Research Council of Alberta B u l l . 25, 147 pages.  36 Srivastava, S.K, 1. ? 6 8 , Angiosperm m i c r o f l o r a of the Edmonton Formation, Alberta,' Canada. Ph.D. t h e s i s , Univ. of A l b e r t a , 343 pages unpublished. 1 9 7 0 . Pol.len biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Edmonton Formation (Maastrichtian), A l b e r t a , Canada, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. and Palaeocol. 7 , pp, 2 2 1 - 2 7 6 . 1 9 7 2 . Systematic d e s c r i p t i o n of some spores from the Edmonton Formation (Maastrichtian), A l b e r t a , Canada, Palaeontographica 1 3 9 B , pp. 1 - 4 6 . Stanley, E.A. 196*51 Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene plant micro. f o s s i l s and Paleocene d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and hystrichosphaerids from northwestern South Dakota. BULL. AM. Paleont. 4 9 , no. 2 2 2 , PP.. 1 - 3 7 8 . 1 9 6 9 . The occurrence and d i s t r i b u t i o n of pollen and spores i n marine sediments. P r o c . F i r s t Inter,Conf, on planktonic m i c r o f o s s i l s , v o l . I I , pp. 641-643, I 9 7 O . The s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l , biogeographical, -paleoautecolog i c a l & evolutionary s i g n i f i c a n c e • .of the f o s s i l group . T r i p r o i o c t a t e s . Bull,Georgia, A c a d . S c i . 2 8 , pp. 1-44. S t a p l i n , F.L. i 9 6 0 . Upper M i s s i s s i p p i a n plant spores from the Golata Formation, A l b e r t a , Canada, Palaeontographica 107B, 40 : pages, Tassonyi, E.J. 19.69. Subsurface geology, Lower Mackenzie River and Anderson River area, d i s t r i c t of Mackenzie. C-eol.Surv. Cara.Pap. 6 8 - 2 5 . Tschudy, R.H. 1966. Palynology of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Northern Rocky Mountains and. M i s s i s s i p p i enbayment regions, Geol.Soc .Am,Pap. 1.27, pp. 64-89. Williams, M.Y. 1922. Reconaissar.ee across northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia, and the geology of the northern extention of the Franklin Mountains., N T W . T , Geol.Surv.Can.Sum.Rept. 1922B, pp.  65-87.  Zaklinskaja, E.D. I 9 6 7 . The early-Paleocene f l o r a of the Northern Hemisphere and p a l a e o f l o r i s t i c provinces of t h i s age. Abh. zent.geol.Inst. 1.0, pp. 183-18?.  37  APPENDICES AND PHOTOMICROGRAPH PLATES  38 APPENDIX I TAXONOMIC PALYNOLOGY Most palynomorphs recovered from the three assemblage zones of the East Fork and Tate Lake Formations are well known from previous studies, and generally long ranging. However several new  species have been discovered which are p o t e n t i a l l y important  as index palynomorphs; these are described formally here. l / S c o l l a r d i a normanensis  n.sp.  Form Genus S c o l l a r d i a Srivastava 1966 emend. 1968 emend. 1966 S c o l l a r d i a Srivastava; Pollen et Spores, vol.8,no.3» v . p. 5 ^ . 19^8 S c o l l a r d i a Srivastava; Ph.D.  t h e s i s , p.  l6l  Form Genotype: S c o l l a r d i a trapaformis Srivastava 1966 Emended diagnosis 1 Heteropolar grains with three well developed equatorial projections showing sexinal outgrov/th on both the margins of the c o l p i and having a convex t r i a n g u l a r contour are herewith included i n the form genus S c o l l a r d i a sensu S r i v a s t a v a . S c o l l a r d i a normanensis  n.sp.  Plate I I , F i g . 19-21,23 Holotype dimensions: Equatorial diameter 58 microns, polar axis 65 microns Holotype preparation: E l ( 3 0 ) ; 100.5/46; P l . I I F i g . 19 L o c a l i t y : Zone T.L.I & I I , sections E & E2, near headwaters of the East Fork of the L i t t l e Bear River. Descriptionfbased  on 30 specimens): Heteropolar;  tricolpate,  short c o l p i meridional across apices of e q u a t o r i a l projections; sexine along the margins of c o l p i ending i n a t h i n membranous' frill;  equatorial contour t r i a n g u l a r , sides s l i g h t l y convex;  39 equatorial projections well developed and pointed at the t i p s ( t i p s are broken o f f i n many specimens); sexine ornamentation s t r i a t e , s t r i a t i o n s discontinuous,  tectate,baculate; often teardrop  shaped more or l e s s p a r a l l e l to each other and arranged perpend i c u l a r to the margins of the e q u a t o r i a l p r o j e c t i o n s . Size rangei Equatorial diameter 58 to 76 microns; polar axis 45 to 60 microns. Remarks« S c o l l a r d i a normanensis seems to f i l l  stratigraphically  and p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l l y the niche o f S c o l l a r d i a trapaformis  from  which i t d i f f e r s i n size and the development o f polar projec-:. t i o n s . Although S c o l l a r d i a normanensis i s l o c a l l y more abundant i n the W. spinata zone the M. gibbus zone  (T.L.II)  i t i s also a common component o f  (T.L.I).  S p e c i f i c epithet« normanensis r e f e r s to the Fort Norman area. 2/ B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s i l e x i f o r m i s n . s p . Form Genus B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s Thomson & P f l u g 1953 1953 B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s Thomson & Pflug; Paleontographica, v o l . 94 Form GenotypeJ B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s (as Sporites) primarius (Wolff) Thomson & Pflug 1953 B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s i l e x i f o r m i s n.sp. Plate I V ,  F i g . 45,46  Holotype dimensionsJ  E q u a t o r i a l diameter 45 microns  Holotype preparation! D25(30)j 117.8/50.2; Plate  I V ,  Fig.45, '1  L o c a l i t y i Zone  T.L.III,  section D.  Description 1 E q u a t o r i a l outline s u b c i r c u l a r ; diameter 35 to 50 microns; exine 0.8 to 1.0 microns; sculptured with clavae and  40  bacula spaced at i n t e r v a l s approximately equal to t h e i r diameter as seen from surface view; clavae 2.5 microns high, 0,8 microns i n diameter at the> top end which i s usually flattened squarely, base of clavae'somewhat c o n s t r i c t e d ; bacula towards the proximal surface become smaller i n size and tend to fuse v/ith each other at the bottom; t r i l e t e scar covers nearly the f u l l radius of the spore and i s elevated as a small ridge on the proximal surface; area around the t r i l e t e scar i s p s i l a t e without ornamentation. Grains are usually folded; i n expanded grains the d i s t a l surface hemispherical, and the proximal surface plane to s l i g h t l y concave with the t r i l e t e scar extending as a ridge to the equator i a l rim. Remarks. Both Potonie (1956) and Krutzsch (1959) note that small e r echinate and baculate osmundaceaeous spores are common i n the upper Neogene, whereas l a r g e r spores with verrucate, gemmate to clavate ornamentation have only been observed i n the lowest T e r t i e a r y . The occurrence i n theTate' Lake Formation of B a c u l a t i sporites i l e x i f o r m i s together with both B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s comauensis (Cookson) Potonie, and B_. gemmatus Krutzsch, described from the Paleocene of the USSR (Zaklinskaja 1953) and the lower T e r t i a r y o f Spitzbergen (Manum 195*0 » appears to conform v/ith t h i s observation, and hence supports a Paleocene age. B. i l e x i formis ranges down into the Upper Maastrichtian as does B. comauensis. B. i l e x i f o r m i s i s very d i s t i n c t from other species of t h i s genus i n having clavae very s i m i l a r to those of I l e x . Specific epithetJ Ilex.  i l e x i f o r m i s r e f e r s to the ornamentation of  41 3 / A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s adamas n.sp. Form Genus A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s Rouse emend. Rouse & Srivastava 1970 Form Genotype A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s quadrilobus 1957 Remarks? The taxonomy of t h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y important group of index f o s s i l s i s i n a state of f l u x . The magnitude of the problems can be ascertained by reference  to Rouse & Srivastava  (1970), Tschudy & Leopold (1971) and Stanley  ( - : ) . The writer  follows the system proposed by Rouse & Srivastava. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s adamas n.sp. Plate I I I , F i g . 37, 43 Holotype dimensions* Polar axis 27 microns; equatorial axis 12 microns; distance from centre of polar axis to the t i p s of equatorial projections 15 microns; maximum breadth of equatorial projections 4 microns. Holotype preparation: A8(20-0-X): 100/41.9; Plate I I I , Fig.43 L o c a l i t y : Zone T.L.III, section A, type section of the Tate Lake Formation. Description(based  on 7 specimens): Pollengrains with three  e q u a t o r i a l l y situated projections; i s o p o l a r with w e l l developed polar extensions;  poles c o n i c a l unles folded or flattened by  preservation; equatorial projections moderately long; t r i c o l p a t e , c o l p i meridional across equatorial p r o j e c t i o n s , long, almost reaching polar regions; sexine bastionate;ornamentation micror e t i c u l a t e , mesh size v a r i a b l e , l a r g e r on the body and smaller on poles and equatorial p r o j e c t i o n s . Size range: Polar axis 27 to 28 microns. S p e c i f i c epthet: adamas r e f e r s to the diamond-shaped o u t l i n e .  42 4 / General remarks about size v a r i a t i o n i n A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s dispositus M t c h e d l i s h v i l i : The  writer counted i n excess of 30  specimens and noted a bimodal size d i s t r i b u t i o n v/ith relativelysharp peaks around 65 and 90 microns. The been recorded before, and may Electronmicroscopy may  larger forms have never  well belong to a'.different  species.  e s t a b l i s h morphological differences  observable under the light-microscope.  not  Size d i f f e r e n c alone does  not seem to be a v a l i d c r i t e r i a f o r species d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  43  APPENDIX II l/  L i s t of species r e s t r i c t e d to the T.L.I  zone of the  East Fork Formation t L i b u r h i s p o r i t e s adnacus Srivastava Styx minor Norton A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s c f . A. amicus Srivastava A, argutus Srivastava A. c f . A. paplionis Srivastava _A, polar i s Funkhouser A_. reductus Norton A. r e t i c u l a t u s  Stanley  C a l l i s t o p o l l e n i t e s tumidiporus Srivastava Extratriporopollenites.sp. Mancicorpus gibbus Srivastava M. rostratus Srivastava Proteacidites angulatus  Samoilovich  P. thalmannii Anderson 2/  L i s t of species of T.L.I, and T.L.II zones:  Ceratosporites masculus Norris Hamulatisporites  hamulatis Krutzsch  R e t i t r i l a t e s austroclavatides (Cookson) Krutzsch Schizosporis complexus Stanley Zlivisporites  sp.  A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s conatus Norton , r e s t r i c t e d to T.L.II A. d i s p o s i t u s M t c h e d l i s h v i l i Callistopollenites radiostriatus Mtchedlishvili  44 Cranwcllia c f , C_. rumseyensis Srivastava L i l i a c i d i t e s mirus Srivastava Loranthacites p i l a t u s M t c h e d l i s h v i l i Mancicorpus pulchor  (Funkhouser) Srivastava  M. senonicum M t c h e d l i s h v i l i Profleacidites asper P. crispus  Samoilovich  Samoilovich  P. o c c a l l a t u s  Samoilovich  P u l c h e r i p o l l e n i t e s krempii Srivastava R e t i t r i c o l p i t e s foveoloides Pierce Santalumidites  sp.  S c o l l a r d i a normanensis  n.sp.  T r i c o l p i t e s matauraensis Couper Wodehousea c f . W, g r a c i l e  Samoilovich  W. spinata Stanley 3/  L i s t of longiranging species occurring i n a l l zones of  the Tate Lake composite section: A c a n t h t r i l e t e s sp. B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s comauensis (Cookson) Potonie B. gemmatus Krutzsch B. i l e x i f o r m i s n. Concavisporites Deltoidospora  sp.  sp.  sp.  F o v e o t r i l e t e s sp. G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s senonicus Rouse Hazaria s h e o p i a r i i Srivastava  '  45  Laevigatosporites adiscordatus Krutzsch L. ovatus Wilson & Webster L e i o t r i l e t e s sp. Leptolepidites bullatus. van Hoeken-Klinkenberg L. tenuis Stanley Lycopodiumsporites sp. Osmundacidites wellmannii Couper S t e r e i s p o r i t e s antiquasporites (Wilson & Webster) Dettman Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover V a r i r u g o s i s p o r i t e s c f . V. tolmanensis Srivastava gymnospermous pollen u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , i n c l u d i n g Podocarpites, Abietineaepollenites and Taxodiaceaepollenites spp.. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s dolium Samoilovich Erdtmanipollis pachysandroides E. procumbentiformis  k/  Krutzsch  (Samoilovich) Krutzsch  L i s t o f species r e s t r i c t e d to the T.L.III zone of the  Tate Lake Formation« Phragmothyrites  eocaenicus Edwards  C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s dorogensis Potonie & G e l l e t i c h Cedripites c f . C. parvus Norton P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s g r a n d i v e s c i p i t e s Wodehouse Podocarpites marwickii Couper P. maximus (Stanley) Norton Sequoiapollenites palaeocenicus Stanley S. polyformus Stanley • S, s p .  .  46  Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus Tsugaepollonites sp. Interaperturopollenites  c f . I. magnus (Potonie) Thomson & Pflug  A l n i p o l l e n i t e s sp. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s adamas n. sp. Betulaceoipollenites  infrequens (Stanley) Rouse & Srivastava  Carpinites c f . C. ancipites Wodehouse F r a x i n o i p o l l e n i t e s v a r i a b i l i s Stanley Liquidambar sp. M y r i c i p i t e s dubius V/odehouse P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s confusus (Zaklinskaja) H i l l s & Wallace T r i c o l p i t e s anguloluminosus Anderson T. l i l l e i Couper T. hians Stanley T r i c o l p o p o l l e n i t e s c f . T. sinosus Norton T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s mullensis (Simpson) Rouse & Srivastava  47 f PHOTOMICROGRAPHY Note: a l l figures magnified X 1000 unless otherwise mentioned. Plate I i F i g . 1 , Mancicorpus ro s t r a p s  Srivastava  F i g . 2 , 3 . Mancicorpus gibbus Srivastava F i g , 4. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s reductus Norton F i g . 5« A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s Stanley F i g . 6. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s p o l a r i s Funkhouser F i g , 7. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s dolium Samoilovitch F i g . 8, A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s c f A, p a p l i o n i s  Srivastava  F i g , 9. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s argutus Srivastava Fig, 10. Libumisporites  adnacus Srivastava  F i g . l l . Rousea s u b t i l i s  Srivastava  F i g . 1 2 . Proteacidites angulatus Samoilovitch  47  PLATE  I.  4&f Plate II i F i g . 1 3 . Wodehousea spinata Stanley Fig.14. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s d i s p o s i t u s M t c h e d l i s h v i l i , shov/ing the l a r g e r v a r i e t y . ( X 440 ) F i g . l 5 i l 8 . Aquilapollenites dispositus Mtchedlishvili , showing the smaller v a r i e t y . ( X 440 ) Fig.16. Santalumidites sp. Fig.19-21. S c o l l a r d i a normanensis n, sp. ( X 440 ) , 19. polar view, 20. equatorial view, 21. grain with t i p s o f e q u a t o r i a l projections removed, common occurrence. Fig.22. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s conatus Norton F i g . 2 3 . S c o l l a r d i a normanensis .n,. sp. , showing tear drop ornamentation. Fig.24. Proteacidites o c c a l l a t u s Samoilovich  48  PLATE  II  45 f  Plate I I I i Fig.2.6. P u l c h e r i p o l l e n i t e s krempii Fig,27. P o l i c o l p i t e s pocockii  Srivastava  Srivastava  Fig.28. Tetracolpites r e t i c u l a t u s Srivastava Fig.29. T r i c o l p i t e s matauraensis Couper Fig.30. Proteacidites crispus Samoilovich Fig.31. Proteacidites sp. Fig.32. E x t r a t r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. Pig.33. Wodehousea c f W. g r a c i l e Samoilovich Fig.34. E rd tman i p o 1 1 i s procumbentiformis (Samoilovich) Krutzsch , common appearance. Fig.35. c f Gothanipollis Fig.36. Cranwellia  c f C. rumseyensis Srivastava  Fig.37• A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s adamas n.sp. Fig.38. Loranthacites p i l a t u s M t c h e d l i s h v i l i Fig.38,40. C a l l i s t o p o l l e n i t e s radiostr.iatus M t c h e d l i s h v i l i , showing d i f f e r e n t f o c i . Fig.4l. Aquilapollenites catenireticulatus  Srivastava  Fig.42. L i l i a c i d i t e s mirus Srivastava Fig.43. A q u i l a p o l l e n i t e s adamas n . sp. ( X 2000 )  50f  Plate IV t Fig.44, Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover Fig.45,46. B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s i l e x i f o r m i s n.sp. Fig.47. Sequoiapollenites sp. Fig.48. Sequoiapollenites paleocenicus Stanley c f Metasequoia. Fig.49,50»  V a r i r u g o s i s p o r i t e s c f V, tolmanensis Srivastava  Fig.51. Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus c f Glyptostrobus Fig.52,53. Tsugaepollenites sp. Fig.54. C e d r i p i t e s sp. Fig.55»  typhaceaeous p o l l e n tetrads  Fig.56.. T r i c o l p i t e s angu 1 oluminosus Anderson Fig* 57*  Tricolpites l i l l e i  Couper  Fig.58. M y r i c i p i t e s dubius V/odehouse Fig.59. T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s mullensis (Simpson) Rouse & Srivastava Fig.60. P a r a a l n i p o l l e! n i t e s confusus (Zaklinskaja) H i l l s & Wallace F i g . 6 l , T r i c o l p i t e s hians Stanley Fig.62. F r a x i h p i p o l l e n i t e s v a r i a b i l i s Stanley  50  51 f Plate V J Note« a l l figures magnified X 440 unless otherwise s t a t e d . Fig.63. Appendicisporites perplexus Singh, X  1000  F i g . 6 4 . A. c f . A. trichacanthus , F i g . 6 4 and 65  X  1000  Fig.65. C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s d o r s o s t r i a t u s (Bolkhovitina) Singh Fig,66. Hystrichosphaeridium i r r e g u l a r e Pocock Fig.67. Cyclonephelium c f . C. distinctum Fig.68. Palaeoperidinium cretaceum Pocock Fig.69. Odontochitina sp. Fig,70. Spiridinium sp. Fig.71. Deflandrea sp. Fig.72. Baltisphaeridium neptuni Eisenack Fig.73. Ascodinium sp. Fig.74. Baltisphaeridium multispinosum Singh Fig.75. V i t t a t i n a sp. Fig.76, T r i p a r t i t e s golatensis S t a p l i n Fig.77. T r i p a r t i t e s i n c i s o - t r i l o b u s Waltz Fig.78. Hymenozonotriletes c f . H_. lepidophytes N.B. M i c r o f o s s i l s from F i g . 63 to 74 are of Albian, F i g . 75 of Permian, and F i g . 76 to 78 of Mississippian age.  

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