Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Size-fractionated chlorophyll and primary productivity and nutrient distributions off the west coast.. 2001

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2002-0099.pdf [ 9.69MB ]
ubc_2002-0099.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0052377.json
JSON-LD: 1.0052377+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0052377.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0052377+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0052377+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0052377+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0052377.ris

Full Text

S I Z E - F R A C T I O N A T E D C H L O R O P H Y L L A N D P R I M A R Y P R O D U C T I V I T Y A N D NUTRIENT DISTRIBUTIONS O F F T H E W E S T C O A S T O F V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D by SHANNON L E E HARRIS B.Sc, University of Manitoba, 1997 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M A S T E R OF SCIENCE in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences) We accept this thesis as conforming to the r^qujrcd standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A December 2001 © Shannon Lee Harris, 2001 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ' E - a x V r v V O C L ^ C The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^D^C ^~e*TD\ DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Spatial and temporal variability of nutrients, chlorophyll and primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island are not well studied. This study examined how dissolved nutrients and size-fractionated biomass and primary productivity vary in time and space and evaluated the relative contribution of >5 um size fraction of phytoplankton to total biomass and primary productivity. Size-fractionated primary productivity, and physical, chemical, and biological characteristics were studied during spring, summer and fall cruises for 1997 and 1998. Studies were conducted at four transects extending across the continental shelf, perpendicular to the west coast of Vancouver Island. Transects were over the La Perouse Bank, over Barkley Canyon, off Estevan Point and off Brooks Peninsula. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of shelf regions were distinct from beyond shelf regions and showed a strong cross-shelf gradient. The shelf region was characterized by lower temperature and lower salinity. In addition, higher nitrate and silicic acid, and higher chlorophyll and primary productivity were observed in the shelf region compared to the beyond shelf region. Variability was very high off the west coast of Vancouver Island; often the mean and the standard deviation were similar. This study was conducted during a strong El Nino (1997/98) and La Nina (1998) event and interannual variation was evident. The mixed layer depth was shallower, nitrate, silicic acid and primary productivity were higher during El Nino. In contrast, phytoplankton biomass, diatom abundance and the relative contribution of >5 um sized phytoplankton were higher during La Nifia. The >5 um sized phytoplankton were dominated by the diatoms Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus danicus and contributed substantially to the biomass (62%) and primary productivity (57%) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The relative contribution was higher in shelf regions than in beyond shelf regions. This study clearly showed that the contribution of the >5 um size fraction was greatest at high biomass concentrations and high productivity rates supporting the idea that in order to reach high biomass and productivity, large cells are required. ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures x Acknowledgements xx G E N E R A L INTRODUCTION 1 Coastal Upwelling 2 The importance of cell size 5 ENSO-E1 Nino Southern Oscillation 7 The west coast of Vancouver Island 8 Physical oceanography 8 Ecological dynamics 15 Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Program (GLOBEC) 19 Thesis goals 19 Thesis organization 20 C H A P T E R 1: Variability of physical, chemical and biological parameters off the west 21 coast of Vancouver Island. Introduction 21 Materials and Methods 22 Physical measurements 22 Chemical and biological measurements 24 Statistical analysis of physical, chemical and biological data 26 Results 27 Physical characteristics 27 Incident Irradiance 27 Mixed layer parameters (Temperature, salinity and rjt) 27 Chemical parameters 35 Dissolved nutrient concentrations 36 Biological parameters 43 Total Chlorophyll 51 Phytoplankton assemblages 63 Discussion 63 West coast of Vancouver Island 65 Comparison with previous studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island 65 Comparison with other upwelling regions 66 Summary 67 iii CHAPTER 2: Size-fractionated biomass and primary productivity off the west coast 68 of Vancouver Island Introduction 68 Materials and Methods 69 Chemical and biological measurements 70 Statistical analysis of chemical and biological data 74 Results : 74 Biological parameters 74 Size-fractionated chlorophyll 74 Total primary productivity 84 Size-fractionated primary productivity 87 Carbon assimilation rates 97 Discussion 101 West coast of Vancouver Island 101 Comparison with previous studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island 106 Comparison with other upwelling regions 108 Summary 109 GENERAL DISCUSSION 110 FUTURE STUDIES 114 LITERATURE CITED 115 APPENDICES 125 A: Station details 125 B: 1999 raw data for disso lved nutrients 126 C: 1999 raw data for chlorophyll 142 D: 1999 raw data for primary productivity 150 E: Sampling stations 151 F: Cell volumes for conversion of cells L"1 to carbon L"1 161 G: Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements 164 H: Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and or 170 I: Vertical profiles of dissolved nutrients 177 J: Chlorophyll values 183 K: Vertical profiles of size-fractionated chlorophyll 184 L: Depth profiles of the contribution of >5 um fraction to chlorophyll and productivity 186 M : Primary productivity data 194 iv LIST O F T A B L E S Table 1.1 Mixed layer parameters for stations occupied during 1997 cruises. Monthly mean, yearly mean ± 1 S.D. and yearly coefficient of variation, (C.V.,%) are given for the shelf and beyond shelf region. Temperature (°C), salinity, and density for the mixed layer were calculated as the mean value from the surface to the calculated mixed layer depth. Dashed line indicates that data are not available Table 1.2 Mixed layer parameters for stations occupied during 1998 cruises. Monthly mean, yearly mean ± 1 S.D. and yearly coefficient of variation (C.V., %) are given for the shelf and beyond shelf region. Temperature (°C), salinity, and density for the mixed layer were calculated as the mean value from the surface to the calculated mixed layer depth. Table 1.3 Mean nutrient concentrations (0-10m) (pM) for WCVI during each cruise in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of all stations during each cruise. Yearly mean ±1 S.D. and coefficient of variation (C.V., %) are included Table 1.4. Mean surface (0-10 m) nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid concentrations (pM) in 1997 and 1998 for shelf and beyond shelf stations of La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point, Brooks Peninsula off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The mean ± 1S;D. and coefficient of variation for each year are given. The number of samples (n) for each transect is given. ND indicates nutrient concentration was not detectable. (-) indicates information not available. * indicates a significant difference between shelf and beyond shelf regions was found at p<0.05 level and a indicates a significant difference between region was found at p<0.01 level Mean chlorophyll (100-1% surface light) ± 1 S.D. (mg chl m"2) for WCVI during each cruise in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of all stations during each cruise. Yearly mean ±1 S.D. and coefficient of variation (CV, %) are included Mean integrated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. (Chl; mg chl m"2) and coefficient of variation (CV; %) for 1997 and 1998 for shelf and beyond shelf stations along La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Mean for each cruise and each year are given Table 1.7 List of diatoms identified from samples collected off the west coast of Vancouver Island from May 1997 to October 1998. X in 1997/1998 column signifies the diatom was observed in either April/May, July or October 33 34 36 42 Table 1.5 43 Table 1.6 50 58 v Table 1.8 Table 1.9 Table 1.10 Table 1.11 Table 2.1 List of autotrophic flagellates identified from samples collected off the west coast of Vancouver Island from May 1997 to October 1998. X signifies species was observed in either April/May, July or October. ... Abundance of diatoms, nanoflagellates, autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates during April, July and October 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. LP=La Perouse Bank BC=Barkley Canyon, EP=Estevan Point, BP=Brooks Peninsula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. (—) indicates no sample taken, * indicates the most abundant group Abundance of diatoms, nanoflagellates, autotrophic dinoflagellates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates at 55% surface light depth during May, July and October 1998 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. LP=La Perouse Bank BC=Barkley Canyon, EP=Estevan Point, BP=Brooks Peninsula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. * = most abundant group Summary of characteristics of shelf and beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Values are for 1997 and 1998. Units for parameters below are: M L , meters; temperature, °C, nitrate, uM; chlorophyll, mg chl i n 2 ; CV, %) Summary of characteristics of shelf and beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Values are for 1997 and 1998. Units for parameters below are: M L , meters; temperature, °C, nitrate, uM; chlorophyll, mg m"2; PP, mg C m"2 d"1; carbon assimilation rates, mgCmgchr 1 h _ , ; C V , % ) 59 60 61 62 100 Table A . l Cruise dates and season for 3 cruises during 1997, 1998 and 1999. Transition date is the date the prevailing wind shifted for the season and it was calculated using Thomson & Ware's wind velocity index (R. Thomson pers. comm.). Seasonal classification is based on the prevailing winds. (-) denotes information is not available Table B. 1 N03", HP0 4" and Si(OH)4 in May 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dashed line (-) indicates that data point is not available. (-) indicates information is not available; b-10 indicates water sample was collected at 10 m off the bottom Table B.2 N 0 3 \ HP0 4" and Si(OH)4 in July 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were collected and analyzed as outlined in methods section of Chapter 1. (-) indicates information is not available. 125 126 132 Table B.3 N03", HP0 4 2" and Si(OH)4 for October 1999 on the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were collected and analyzed as outlined in methods section of Chapter 1. Dashed line (-) indicates that information is not available 136 vi T a b l e d Table C.2 Table C.3 Table D . l Table E . l Table E.2 Table E.3. Table E.4 141 Chlorophyll a (mg m"3) in May 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were filtered onto 0.7 pm glass fiber filters unless otherwise indicated by * which were filtered onto 5.0 pm polycarbonate filters. (-) indicates data not available Chlorophyll a (mg m"3) in July 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were filtered onto 0.7 pm glass fiber filters unless otherwise indicated by ^ which were filtered onto a 5.0 pm polycarbonate filters Chlorophyll a (mg m"3) in July 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were filtered onto 0.7 pm glass fiber filters unless otherwise indicated by * which were filtered onto a 5.0 pm polycarbonate filters 147 Integrated (100-1% surface light) daily primary productivity (g C m"2 d"1) in 1999 for July and October off the west coast of Vancouver Island 145 Location and water depth of stations occupied during 08-24 April 1997 (Cruise ID#9707) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, BP indicates Brooks Peninsula and CS indicates Cape Scott transects. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects Location and water depth of stations occupied during 14-28 July 1997 (Cruise ID#9713) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, A indicates Juan de Fuca canyon, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point and BP indicates Brooks Peninsula transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects Location and water depth of stations occupied during 20-27 October 1997 (Cruise ID#9737) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates Line D, G indicates Estevan Point and BP indicates Brooks Peninsula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. ... Location and water depth of stations occupied during 11-25 May 1998 cruise (Cruise ID#9810) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point, H indicated H Line, J indicates J Line, BP indicates Brooks Peninsula and CS indicates Cape Scott transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects 150 152 153 154 155 vii Table E.5 Table E.6 Table E.7 Table E.8 Table E.9 Table F. l Table F.2 Table J.l Location and water depth of stations occupied during 14-26 July 1998 (Cruise ID#9823) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, A indicates Juan de Fuca canyon, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, BP indicates Brooks Peninsula and ER indicated Endeavor Ridge transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects 156 Table E.6 Location and water depth of stations occupied during the 05- 16 October 1998 cruise (Cruise ID#9836) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point, BP indicates Brooks Peninsula and CS indicated Cape Scott. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects 157 Location and water depth of stations occupied during May 1999 (Cruise ID#9911) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, J indicates J Line, BP indicates Brooks Peninsula and CS indicates Cape Scott. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects Location and water depth of stations occupied during July 1999 (Cruise ID#9928) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point and BP indicates Brooks Peninsula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects Location and water depth of stations occupied during October 1999 (Cruise ID#9935) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, J indicates J Line, BP indicates Brooks Peninsula and CS indicates Cape Scott transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects Cell volume and carbon per cell pf the diatom species observed off the west coast of Vancouver Island during 1997 and 1998. P indicates pennate diatoms and C indicates centric diatoms 158 159 160 162 Cell volume and carbon per cell for other phytoplankton species except diatoms) observed off the west coast of Vancouver Island during 1997 and 1998. P indicates autotrophic and H indicates heterotrophic nutrition 153 Size-fractionated chlorophyll (surface to 1% light depth +1 SD) and the relative contribution of the >5um fraction to total chlorophyll for: the west coast of Vancouver Island, the shelf regions and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island during 1997 and 1998. Means for the 1997, 1998 and all cruises are given along with the minimum and the maximum 183 viii Table M . l Total primary productivity ±1 S.D. (surface to 1% light depth) for the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI) and the shelf and beyond shelf region in 1997 and 1998. Means for 1997, 1998, and for all cruises are given along with the minimum and maximum for all cruises. Numbers in brackets are the number of stations sampled 194 Table M.2 Size-fractioned primary productivity ±1 S.D. and relative contribution of >5 pm fraction to total productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island, the shelf and beyond shelf regions in 1997 and 1998. Means for the 1997, 1998, and all cruises are given with the minimum and the maximum 195 ix LIST O F FIGURES Figure 1 Idealized cycle of nutrient and carbon phytoplankton processes in an upwelling region (adapted from Wilkerson and Dugdale, 1987). Solid arrows represent nutrient rich upwelling water mass and dashed arrows represent a nutrient deplete upwelling plume water mass. pN represents nitrate uptake rate and pC represents carbon uptake rates. Day # on top of each zone estimates the days since upwelling was initiated. The sun represents solar heating necessary for stabilization of water column 4 Figure 2 Surface circulation off the west coast of Vancouver Island in summer ^ (Thomson et al., 1989). Dashed line marks the 200 m contour Figure 1.1 Location of transects off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dashed line delineates the 200 m contour. A=Juan de fuca Canyon (Line A), B=La Perouse Bank (Line B), C=Barkley Canyon (Line C), D=D line, G=Estevan Point (Line G), H=H Line, J=J line, BP=Brooks Peninsula (BP Line) and CS=Cape Scott (CS Line). Transects with * will be discussed in this chapter 23 Figure 1.2 Incident surface irradiance for A) April 1997, B) July 1997, C) October 1997, D) May 1998 and E) July 1998. Station labels are placed on peak to day of primary productivity measurements. See Appendix E for location of stations. Irradiance data not available for 29 October 1998 Figure 1.3 Surface (0-10m) nitrate concentration for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents the shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases Figure 1.4 Surface (0-10m) phosphate concentration for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents the shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number 39 increases 38 x Figure 1.5 Surface (0-10m) phosphate concentration for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents the shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases 40 Figure 1.6 Total chlorophyll ±1S.D. off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise 44 Figure 1.7 Interannual mean and annual means of total chlorophyll ±1 S.D. of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations sampled. Numbers above each bar are the total number of stations for each mean 45 Figure 1.8 Seasonal variability of total chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise. Numbers above each bar=the total number of stations 6̂ Figure 1.9 Integrated chlorophyll (mg chl m"2) for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases. 47 Figure 1.10 Total chlorophyll of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions of the La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. A- April, M=May, J=July and 0=October 49 Figure 1.11 Interannual mean and annual means of total cell abundance and phytoplankton biomass ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf values are the mean of all shelf stations sampled and beyond shelf values are the mean of all beyond shelf stations 52 xi Figure 1.12 Seasonal variability of total cell abundance and phytoplankton biomass ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf means are the average of all shelf stations sampled during each cruise and beyond shelf values are the man of all beyond shelf stations during each cruise 53 Figure 1.13 Contribution of each phytoplankton group to A) total cell abundance, and B) total phytoplankton biomass (\xg L _ 1)of the shelf and beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island for 1997, 1998 and the 2 yr mean 54 Figure 1.14 Contribution of each phytoplankton group to total cell abundance and biomass of: A) shelf and B) beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Groups contributing <2% were not included 56 Figure 2.0 Location of study area off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dashed line is the 200 m contour. The box delineates the study area. CI, LC4, LG3, BP2 are shelf stations and LB16, LC9, LG9, BP7 are beyond shelf stations. CI and LB 16 =La Perouse Bank transect, LC4 and LC9 = Barkley Canyon transect, LG3 and LG6 = Estevan Point transect and BP2 and BP7 = Brooks Peninsula transect 70 Figure 2.1 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf values are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations, respectively. Numbers of the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the > 5 um fraction 76 Figure 2.2 Cruise means of <5 um and > 5 um chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction 77 Figure 2.3 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations sampled. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction 78 xii Figure 2.4 Mean of size-fractionated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in April (n=2), July (n=3) and October 1997 (n=4) and May (n=4), July (n=4) and October (n=4) 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf values are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations. Numbers on the top of each panel represents the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 pm fraction 80 Figure 2.5 Relative contribution of < 5.0 pm size fraction and > 5.0 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1997. Relative contribution of > 5.0 pm fraction to depth integrated chlorophyll is in right hand corner of each graph. Brooks Peninsula shelf and Barkley Canyon beyond shelf stations were not sampled 82 Figure 2.6 Relative contribution of < 5.0 pm size fraction and > 5.0 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1998. Relative contribution of > 5.0 pm fraction to depth integrated chlorophyll is in right hand corner of each graph. Brooks Peninsula shelf and Barkley Canyon beyond shelf stations were not sampled 83 Figure 2.7 Daily mean primary productivity ± 1 S.D. off the west coast of Vancouver Island for April, July and October 1997 and May, July and October 1998. Values are the mean of all stations sampled during each cruise 84 Figure 2.8 Mean primary productivity ± 1 S.D. (g C m"2 d"1) of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the average of all shelf and beyond shelf stations sampled 85 Figure 2.9 Total mean primary productivity of shelf and beyond shelf regions of the La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect off the west coast of Vancouver Island. One station was sampled for each of the shelf and the beyond shelf region of each transect. A/M=April and May, J=July and 0=October 87 Figure 2.10 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated primary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Number on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total primary productivity that was accounted for by the >5 pm fraction 88 xiii Figure 2.11 Cruise means of <5 jam and > 5 um primary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise. Numbers on the top of each panel represent thepercentage of the total primary productivity that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction 89 Figure 2.12 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated primary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations sampled. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total primary productivity that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction Figure 2.13 Mean of size-fractionated primary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in April (n=2), July (n=3) and October 1997 (n=4) and May (n=4), July (n=4) and October (n=4) 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf values are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations. Numbers on the top of each panel represents the percentage of the total primary productivity that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction 91 93 Figure 2.14 Percent contribution of >5 um size fraction relative to: A) total chlorophyll and B) total primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Values are for all stations in 1997 and 1998 in the shelf and the beyond shelf region 94 Figure 2.15 Relative contribution of < 5 um size fraction and > 5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1997. Relative contribution of > 5 um fraction to depth integrated primary productivity is in the right hand corner of each graph. Brooks Peninsula shelf and Barkley Canyon beyond shelf stations were not sampled Figure 2.16 Relative contribution of < 5 um size fraction and > 5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1998. Relative contribution of > 5 um fraction to depth integrated primary productivity is in the right hand corner of each graph. Brooks Peninsula shelf and Barkley Canyon beyond shelf stations were not sampled 95 96 Figure 2.17 Carbon assimilation rates ± 1 S.D. off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of all stations sampled during each cruise 97 Figure 2.18 Carbon assimilation rates ± 1 S.D. of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf means are the average of all shelf stations sampled during each cruise and beyond shelf values are the mean of all beyond shelf stations during each cruise 98 Figure 2.19 Carbon assimilation rates of the shelf and the beyond shelf region of La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond means are the average of all shelf and beyond shelf stations, respectively 99 Figure G. 1 Incident surface irradiance for primary productivity measurements during April 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Incubation period was 24 hours. Primary productivity was not measured at the beyond shelf station of the Brooks Peninsula transect. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects ^5 Figure G.2 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements in July 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Primary productivity was not measured at the shelf station of the Brooks Peninsula transect or the beyond shelf station of the Barkley Canyon transect. Number in the right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects Figure G.3 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements in October 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Primary productivity was not measured in the beyond shelf region of the Estevan Point and La Perouse Bank transects. Number in right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. Note scale change relative to Figure G. l and G.2. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects Figure G.4 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements in May 1998 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Number in the right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects 166 167 168 xv 171 172 Figure G.5 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements during July 1998 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Number in the right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the light during the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects ^ Figure H. l Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in April 1997 at a shelf and beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations only shown for 0 - 200 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Data not available for beyond shelf station on the Brooks Peninsula transect. B indicates beyond shelf region Figure H.2 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in July 1997 at a shelf and beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data set for deep stations only shown for 0-200 m depth. Data set not available for beyond shelf station on the Barkley Canyon transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region Figure H.3 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in October 1997 at a shelf and a beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Esteven Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations only shown for 0-200 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Data not available for the beyond shelf station of the La Perouse Bank transect. B indicates beyond shelf region Figure H.4 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in May 1998 at a shelf and a beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations only shown for 0-200 m. Beyond shelf stations for the Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect only sampled to 100 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region Figure H.5 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in July 1998 at a shelf and beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP), and Brook Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations shown for 0- 200 m depth. The beyond shelf station of La Perouse Bank was only sampled to 100 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region 173 174 175 xvi Figure H.6 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in October 1998 at a shelf and a beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data set for deep stations shown for 0-200 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region ^ Figure 1.1 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in April 1997 at all stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at bottom of each graph 1̂ 7 Figure 1.2 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid (uM) in July 1997 at all stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon, (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G), and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph 1 / 0 Figure 1.3 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in October 1997 at all stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph 1̂ 9 Figure 1.4 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in May 1998 at all stations along transects of Barkley Canyon (Line C), BEstevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. No data are available for the La Perouse Bank transect 180 Figure 1.5 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in July 1998 at all stations along transects of Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. No data are available for the La Perouse Bank transect 181 Figure 1.6 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in October 1998 at all stations along transects of Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. No data are available for the La Perouse Bank transect 182 xvii Figure K. 1 Vertical profiles of size-fractionated chlorophyll a for April, July, and October 1997 at shelf and beyond shelf stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data are not available for the > 5.0 pm fraction for station CI, BP2, B16 and BP7. Samples taken down to 1% surface irradiation. See Figure 2.1 for location of stations Figure K.2 Vertical profiles of size-fractionated chlorophyll a May, July, and October 1998 at shelf and beyond shelf stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Samples taken down to 1% light depth. See Figure 2.1 for location of stations 184 185 Figure L . l Relative contribution of <5 pm size fraction and >5 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during April 1997. The relative contribution of > 5 pm fraction to depth integrated chlorophyll is given in top right hand corner of each plot 186 Figure L.2 Relative contribution of <5 pm size fraction and >5 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct. 1997.Relative contribution of >5 pm fraction of depth integrated chlorophyll in right hand corner of each graph 187 Figure L.3 Relative contribution of <5 pm size fraction and >5 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during May 1998. Relative contribution of >5 pm fraction depth integrated chlorophyll in right hand corner of each graph 188 Figure L.4 Relative contribution of <5 pm size fraction and >5 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct. 1998. Relative contribution of >5 pm fraction depth integrated chlorophyll in right hand corner of each graph. ns=no sample 189 Figure L.5 Relative contribution of <5 pm size fraction and >5 pm size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during April 1997. Relative contribution of >5 pm fraction to depth integrated primary productivity is in the right hand corner of each graph 190 xviii Figure L.6 Relative contribution of < 5.0 um size fraction and > 5.0 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct. 1997. Relative contribution of > 5.0 um fraction to depth integrated primary productivity in right hand corner of each graph 191 Figure L.7 Relative contribution of < 5 um size fraction and > 5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during May 1998. Relative contribution of depth integrated primary productivity in right hand corner of each graph 1 ^ Figure L.8 Relative contribution of < 5 um size fraction and > 5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct. 1998. Relative contribution of > 5 um fraction to depth integrated primary productivity in right hand corner of each graph 1̂ 3 xix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to my research supervisor, Dr. Paul J. Harrison for many many things, too many to mention specifically. He was always supportive and incredibly positive at all stages of my degree. I especially value his assistance with pulling this thesis together. It was truly an honor to work with him. Thanks to Dr. Lewis for sharing your knowledge and enthusiasm of zooplankton ecology but also for always providing advice when needed. I thank my thesis committee of Dr. Lewis and Dr. Taylor for always being helpful and approachable. Many thanks to Dr. Susan Allen for your enthusiasm and support at UBC and at sea. My thanks to Dr. Ian Perry for his assistance in the field, for his encouragement at all stages of this thesis and his commitment to the GLOBEC program. I am indebted to Dr. Roger Pieters, without his incredible flexibility and I know this thesis would have never been completed. Without the field assistance of many people, this research would not have been possible. My thanks are extended to B. Beaith, E. Bornhold, B. Ferris, M . Henry, L. Lee, J. McKay, J. Needoba and Carine Vmdeirinho for your 'around the clock commitment'. My deepest gratitude to Hugh McLean who never missed a Globec adventure. The Oceanography department was lucky to have such a committed and happy sea-going technician-we will miss you. I owe my gratitude to many staff at the Institute of Ocean Sciences including B. Minkley, S. Romaine, D. Moore, D. Thule and D. Yelland for their assistance in the field. Special thanks to Doug Yelland for providing me with endless streams of data. My appreciation is extend to Janet Bardwell-Clarke who provided helpful advice and assistance concerning our troublesome technicon. Without Janet's assistance and wisdom, I am not sure if our technicon would ever have run again. Many thanks are extended to all the officers and crew of the C.S.S. "John P. TullyT. Members of the Paul Harrison Lab have been very helpful. Thanks to Ming Xin Guo and H. Toews for their help with analyzing the nutrient samples. Many thanks to Lauren Ross for her many encouraging e-mails. Special thanks to Robert Strzepek for the late night coffee and ice cream breaks. His company when the hallway was empty and the sky was dark was always appreciated and will be missed dearly. Many thanks are extended to D. Varela who provided helpful advice in the field and the lab. My gratitude is extended to Ramzi Mirshak, who not only was a kind friend but help me with GMT. I greatly appreciate the professionalism of Rowan Haigh who did the phytoplankton taxonomy analysis. Unfortunately, I do not have the skill and knowledge necessary for the fine art of taxonomic analysis. Rowan kindly analyzed all the taxonomy samples and provided the information necessary for data processing. Thanks for his patience with my never-ending questions. Financial support was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (through the Canadian Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Program) and by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Thanks to Tracy Laval for your friendship in this new city. Special thanks are extended to Russell Hobbs for your love and support. Your guidance and encouragement is always valued. Although my father has passed away, the lessons he taught me proved invaluable at every stage of this work. My love for you is forever stored deeply in my heart. I miss you dearly and I wish you could share this accomplishment of mine. Finally, I can not find the words to express my respect for my mother, Marg. Her strength, support, love, encouragement and advice were always a phone call away. Only 5 years ago I witnessed my Mom triumph when faced with adversity and what I learned from watching her is what allowed me to complete this thesis. She is incredibly strong and caring in the same breath, a quality I am striving for. I hope you are as proud of me as I am of you. xx GENERAL INTRODUCTION Traditionally the growth rate of phytoplankton in the ocean has been regarded to be limited by nitrogen, but this view has recently been challenged by evidence that indicates during particular periods and in certain regions other nutrients or trace metals may also limit growth. For example, the equatorial Pacific may be phosphorus limited (Smith, 1984; Harrison et al., 1990; Karl et al., 1997). New evidence suggests that silicate may regulate primary production in upwelling regions of the equatorial Pacific (Dugdale and Wilkerson, 1998), the Southern Ocean (Nelson and Truguer, 1992) and in the Gulf Stream (Nelson and Brzezninski, 1990). The growth of phytoplankton in certain areas called high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNCL) regions are now known to be limited by the availability of iron. Oceanic regions such as the equatorial Pacific (Cole et al, 1996), the Southern Ocean (Boyd et al, 2001), the N E subarctic Pacific (Martin and Fitzwater, 1988; Boyd et al, 1996) and California coastal upwelling regions such as Big Sur (Hutchins and Bruland, 1998) are now known to be iron limited. Carbon limitation of photosynthesis has been considered rare because of the high availability of inorganic carbon in the oceans, but some researchers suggest that carbon may control phytoplankton growth and phytoplankton community structure (Tortell, 2000). Vertical mixing of phytoplankton in the water column is very important as mixing controls the light and nutrient regimes to which the phytoplankton are exposed. Lack of mixing may cause photoinhibition of phytoplankton if the cells are exposed to very high irradiances (Neale, 1987). Conversely, phytoplankton may suffer an 'energy crisis' when mixed from high to low light (Falkowski and LaRoche, 1991). During this crisis the cell shifts its focus from the synthesis of molecules necessary for growth to the production of light harvesting complexes that allow for adaptation and growth to low light environments. This shift is called photoacclimation 1 and it causes a temporary decrease in phytoplankton growth rate. It is important that the depth of the mixed layer is no deeper than the critical depth. The critical depth is defined as the depth above which photosynthetic production for the water column equals the respiration of the water column per unit surface area. If mixing is deeper than the critical depth, phytoplankton respiration will exceed photosynthesis and there will be no growth. Deep mixed layers can cause a depression in photosynthesis (Huntsman and Barber, 1977) and nitrate uptake rates (Zimmerman et al., 1987) because the phytoplankton are maintained in light-limited conditions. Coastal Upwelling The aquatic environment accounts for approximately 40% of the total photosynthesis on earth (Falkowski, 1994) and much of this photosynthesis occurs in coastal upwelling regions which occupy only 0.1% of the total ocean area. 95% percent of the world's fisheries occurs within 320 km of the shore (Thurman and Trujillo, 1999). They are fertile regions relative to oceanic regions and they are characterized by relatively high levels of biomass and phytoplankton (Barber and Smith, 1981). Primary productivity rates >300 g C m"2 y"1 are common in upwelling regions compared to <50 g C mf2 y"1 in oceanic regions (Ryther, 1969). Coastal upwelling occurs along the western margins of continents in both the southern and northern hemispheres. When northwest winds transport water offshore in the Northern Hemisphere, cold nutrient-rich subsurface water is upwelled to the surface to replace the water advected offshore. In the absence of upwelling, nutrient-rich subsurface water is vertically separated from the nutrient-poor surface waters by a density gradient that prevents mixing. Upwelling is a physical process that provides an injection of new nutrients and a "seed" phytoplankton population to the euphotic zone and in the presence of light, rapid growth can 2 occur. Following an upwelling event, phytoplankton respond to high nutrients and light availability by a series of specific physiological transition stages that occur along the axis of the upwelling plume. Jones et al., (1983) characterized a series of 4 idealized zones that are summarized by Wilkerson and Dugdale (1987) as a 'conveyor belt' of nutrient and carbon phytoplankton processes in an upwelling zone. These zones are summarized in Figure 1. In Zone 1, upwelling occurs and phytoplankton nutrient and carbon uptake rates are "shifted down" because the cells are taking up nutrients and growing considerably slower than their maximal rates. This lag is due to cells becoming acclimated to both high nutrient concentrations and near-surface light intensities and/or a period of biological conditioning may be required because of inherent toxic factors (Barber and Huntsman, 1977). Zone 2 is downstream of the upwelling plume where cells have acclimated to the new conditions and uptake rates increase or are "shifted up". Initially, nitrogen uptake rates are elevated, but nitrogen uptake is quickly followed by increases in carbon uptake and growth rate. In Zone 3, phytoplankton rate processes are functioning at their maximal rates and nutrients will quickly be depleted and phytoplankton biomass will increase. Finally in Zone 4, nutrient concentrations are exhausted by the fast-growing "shifted-up" phytoplankton cells and consequently cells undergo a "shift down" in rate processes. Following nutrient exhaustion, phytoplankton rapidly sink out of the photic zone (Bienfang and Ziemann, 1992). The time and space domain where these sequences of physiological changes take place is only 8-10 days within 30-60 km of the coast (Maclsaac et al., 1985; Zimmerman et al., 1987). 3 Figure 1 Idealized cycle of nutrient and carbon phytoplankton processes in an upwelling region (adapted from Wilkerson and Dugdale, 1987). Solid arrows represent a nutrient rich upwelling water mass and all dashed arrows represent the nutrient deplete upwelled plume. pN represents nitrate uptake rate and pC represents carbon uptake rates. Day # on top of each zone estimates the days since upwelling was initiated. The sun represents solar heating necessary for stabilization of water column. 4 Globally, picoplankton (0.2-2.0 pm) account for more than 80% of primary productivity in oligotrophic waters (Stockner and Antia, 1986), but in upwelling regions Malone (1980) has shown that phytoplankton biomass is characterized by episodic production of chain-forming diatoms or large-celled diatoms or dinoflagellates. There is increasing evidence from 1 5 N tracer experiments that show that the larger size fractions primarily use new nitrogen sources (NO3") and nanoplankton and picoplankton primarily use regenerated sources such as ammonium and urea (Probyn, 1985; Probyn et al, 1990). Often diatoms develop in part due to the rapid uptake of nutrients and large vacuoles that allow for storage of nutrients (Turpin and Harrison, 1979) The importance of cell size The size of organisms at any trophic level can be a determining factor in the length of the food chain, the ecological efficiency of energy transfer, and the yield of organisms living at the highest trophic level (Ryther, 1969). Ryther (1969) showed that the yield of fish from a marine ecosystem dominated by large-celled phytoplankton was greater than from areas dominated by small-celled phytoplankton. Cushing (1989) suggested that food chains based on large phytoplankton are ecologically more efficient than those based on small phytoplankton because small phytoplankton can not be directly grazed by copepods. As a result, a greater proportion of the carbon fixed in small cells is lost through respiration and excretion because of the additional trophic level introduced by microzooplankton grazing on small phytoplankton, before being consumed by mesozooplankton. The size structure of phytoplankton assemblage affects the vertical flux of organic carbon in the oceans; only the production of large, rapidly sinking particles can result in a 5 significant transfer of anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the deep ocean (Joint et al., 1993). This flux of organic carbon is often called export production (Berger et al., 1989) and in nutrient replete regions it can account for up to 50% of the total carbon fixation (Bienfang and Ziemann, 1992). Export production derived from the uptake of inorganic carbon by phytoplankton results in the transfer of carbon out of the upper ocean to the deep ocean. Phytoplankton are an important component of this biological pump. Parsons and Takahashi (1973) suggested that phytoplankton cell size selectivity is determined on the basis of ecological and species specific physiological data such as: 1) the rate of nitrate or ammonium uptake by the cell, 2) the extinction coefficient of the water, 3) the mixed layer depth, 4) the light intensity, 5) the sinking rate of phytoplankton, and 6) the upwelling velocity of water. They suggested the physiological differences between Ditylum brightwelli (30 um) and Emiliania huxleyi (5 um) can account for different growth rates in different environments. Only in regions of high light intensity and high nutrient concentrations, is it possible for large cells to grow faster than small cells. The uptake of nitrogen follows Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics where VmaX is the maximum uptake rate and K s is the concentration supporting half the maximum rate of uptake (half-saturation constant) (Dugdale, 1967). Eppley et al. (1969) have shown that the large variation in Vmax and Ks of phytoplankton may account for competitive selection. Small cells with high surface area to volume ratios have a competitive advantage over large cells with respect to the acquisition of nutrients. Generally, small cells have a lower K s and consequently in a low nutrient environment, they should dominate (Dugdale, 1967). There is a general negative relationship between the size of phytoplankton cells and their ability to take up nutrients (Eppley et al., 1969). Conversely, large cells usually have a large storage capacity for nutrients and consequently in environments where 6 nutrients are delivered in pulses, large cells often rapidly acquire and store nutrients and sustain growth for longer periods than smaller cells (Turpin and Harrison, 1979). Often the composition and size structure of the autotrophic assemblage is a major determinant of the quantity of production that can occur. Upwelling regions generally support relatively large phytoplankton stocks typically dominated by large phytoplankton composed mainly of diatoms. ENSO - E l Nino Southern Oscillation Marine ecosystems undergo large interannual to decadal fluctuations that are beyond those attributable to direct harvest effects. There is increasing evidence that persistent and synchronous ecological changes have occurred that are linked to the variation in interdecadal climate (e.g. Venrick et al., 1987; Beamish, 1993; Beamish et al., 1999). The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a natural climatic process that causes significant variability in living resources. ENSO is an interannual climatic condition that results in sea-surface warming, and a deeper thermocline and nutricline in eastern boundary currents (Philander, 1983). A deep thermocline is usually correlated with a deeper mixed layer and hence a reduction in productivity due to a decrease in the average light. Because light decreases exponentially as a function of depth, the depth of the surface mixed layer in which phytoplankton are homogeneously distributed, determines the quantity and quality of light that can be harvested by the phytoplankton (Sverdrup, 1953). Often coastal winds do not weaken and in fact, they may intensify during an El Nino because of increased thermal differences between land and sea (Enfield, 1981). Coastal upwelling may still occur, but the thermocline and nutricline are depressed below the depth of entrainment (40-80 m). This effect was seen during the 1982-83 7 El Nino off the west coast of South Africa where coastal winds and locally forced winds continued through March 1983, but after November 1982, the surface water had significantly reduced nutrients and increased temperatures (Barber and Chavez, 1986) The effects of ENSO events such as those of 1982/1983 and 1991/1992 which enhanced the poleward movement of warmer water in winter and reduced summer upwelling along much of the west coast of North America, appears to have been responsible for altering the distribution of Pacific hake and salmon and for changing the predator-prey balance for many coastal species (Ware and Thomson, 1983). ENSO events may have a global geochemical impact also, since algal photosynthesis removes upwelled CO2 and reduces the pC02 gradient between the sea surface and the atmosphere. Gammon et al. (1985) found that the rate of increase of CO2 (pC02 anomaly) in the atmosphere fell to zero for a period during the 1982-1983 El Nino. The ENSO event of 1997/8 showed unual development, both in terms of scale and mode of development. Post 1976 ENSO events start to develop in approximately November to December with the largest sea surface temperature anomalies recorded January to March of the preceding year. The 1997/8 El Nino was different in that the first anomalies were seen along the equator in March and by June the anomalies had penetrated through the entire northeastern Pacific. This thesis will examine physical, chemical, and biological parameters during the 1997/8 ENSO event. The west coast of Vancouver Island Physical Oceanography Vancouver Island lies on the west coast of British Columbia (Canada) between approximately 48 to 51°N and 123 to 128.5°W. The western coastline of Vancouver Island has 8 numerous sounds and inlets that vary considerably in their dimensions (Pickard, 1963). Total precipitation varies along Vancouver Island, but generally a maximum occurs in December and a minimum in July (Dodimead, 1967). The river outflow volumes follow the annual cycle of precipitation except for the Gold and Stamp Rivers, which receive snow melt resulting in a second maximum outflow in May. Shelf width and bathymetric profiles vary considerably along the western margin of Vancouver Island. The continental margin gradually narrows northward of La Perouse Bank from 65 km wide to just 5 km in width off Brooks Peninsula. Near the southwest tip of Vancouver Island, westward of Juan de Fuca Strait, the continental margin is cut by a deep (>250 m) narrow («7 km wide) submarine canyon called the Juan de Fuca Canyon that extends seaward from the mouth of Juan de Fuca Strait. Northwest of this canyon is a series of isolated banks (z = 40-80 m), two additional submarine canyons, Nitinat and Barkley, and semi-enclosed basins (z >120 m). Bottom slopes along banks and basins are steep. The shelf break is approximately delineated at the 200 m isobath (Dodimead, 1985). The Juan de Fuca Strait shows typical estuarine circulation that has a direct forcing effect on the southern margin of Vancouver Island. Brackish water flows out of the strait at the surface and denser water flows into the Strait near the bottom. The strength of the flow is mainly controlled by runoff from the Fraser River. The flow out of the strait is maximum in early summer when discharge from the Fraser River is maximal. The Aleutian Low and the North Pacific High are two large scale pressure systems that govern the oceanic wind regimes off the coast of Vancouver Island (Favorite et al., 1976; Thomson, 1981). The location and intensities of these two pressure systems control the 9 prevailing wind patterns along the west coast. Generally, from August to December (Northern Hemisphere fall/early winter) the Aleutian Low intensifies and shifts southward from the Bering Sea to the Gulf of Alaska. Southeasterly to southwesterly winds persist from late August to early spring as air flows counterclockwise around the dominant Aleutian Low. The Aleutian Low then progressively weakens until it is no longer evident in July as the North Pacific High intensifies until it covers the entire Gulf of Alaska during May to August. The resulting pressure pattern of the intensified North Pacific High and the diminished Aleutian Low during May through September, results in northwesterly winds as the air flows clockwise around the dominant North Pacific High pressure cell. The study area for this thesis falls into the coastal upwelling domain described by Dodimead et al. (1963) and is subject to dynamic forcing from wind-induced upwelling. Continental shelf and slope waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island are at the northern end of an extensive Eastern Boundary Current system called the California Current that stretches from Baja California (25°N) to the northern tip of Vancouver Island (50.5° N) (Ware and McFarlane, 1989). Upwelling favorable winds are not as strong as those off the coast of California (Nelson, 1977) but are strong enough to induce classical wind-induced upwelling (Thomson, 1981). Conditions are favorable for upwelling in the summer, roughly from late March to the end of September, followed by a relatively abrupt reversal of the prevailing alongshore winds that produce winter downwelling favorable conditions. Summer wind- induced upwelling occurs during periods of persistent northwesterly (equatorward) coastal winds associated with the establishment of high pressure systems along the coast, while winter downwelling occurs during times of southeasterly (pole-directed) coastal winds associated with the passage of winter lows (Thomson et al., 1989). 10 There is considerable variability in the timing, duration and intensity of the summer upwelling and winter downwelling season. The summer season starts between early April and late June and lasts 146.4 ± 35.2 days, roughly three times longer than the winter downwelling season which starts in late September and runs until late November and lasts 53.7 ± 28.1 days (Thomson and Ware, 1996). A spring and a fall transition season separate the summer and the winter seasons. There is considerable interannual variability in the timing and duration of these two transitions. The spring transition can occur as early as January during 1995, or as late as mid-April during 1987, and usually lasts 79.2 ± 38.6 days. This variability in timing and duration is caused by changes in the prevailing winds, coastal runoff, alongshore pressure gradients, and other forcing mechanisms (Thomson and Ware, 1996). The fall transition can begin as early as August (1987) or as late as November and lasts 64.8 ± 27.4 days (Thomson and Ware, 1996). The fall transition variability is related to the degree of storm activity in the North Pacific and the positions of storm tracks relative to the coast of North America (Thomson and Ware, 1988). Wind-induced upwelling is dynamic but variable along the west coast of Vancouver Island. Thomson and Ware (1996) report dramatic interannual variations in the intensity of upwelling; for example the current velocity index (a measure of upwelling intensity) shows upwelling intensity during 1993 was approximately three times higher than the upwelling intensity during 1992. Examination of a 32 yr record (1965-1997) of the Bakun Upwelling Index, a measure of upwelling intensity, shows on average that coastal upwelling peaked in 1995 and 1996 and then steady declined to the lowest measurement recorded in 1997 (Robinson and Ware, 1999). Clearly, the relative forcing of wind-induced upwelling on environmental conditions off the west coast of Vancouver Island varies considerably. 11 The west coast of Vancouver Island is also subject to forcing from the Pacific Ocean. The surface circulation of the N E Pacific is dominated by the Subarctic Current that originates from the mixing of the Kuroshio and Oyashio currents (Dodimead et al., 1963; Tabata, 1975). The Subarctic Current flows eastward and divides into two streams about 300 km offshore at the latitude of Vancouver Island to form the northward-flowing Alaska Current and the southward flowing California Current (Dodimead et al., 1963; Tabata, 1975). In the winter, the northward flowing Alaskan Current intensifies and in response to the prevailing southeasterly winds, the surface flow along the shelf break is northward parallel to the shore (Manner, 1926; Freeland et al., 1984). This appears to be the northward extension of the Davidson Current that originates off California (Thomas and Emery, 1986). In the winter, the bottom current (up to 1 m s'1) flows to the northwest, and is strongest in the late autumn or winter. In the summer, the surface flow along the shelf break is reversed in response to the shift in the California Current towards Vancouver Island and a reversal in the prevailing winds. Persistent northwesterly winds cause southward surface flow along the shelf break (Figure 2) and surface current speeds are often >40 cm s"1 to depths of 50 m (Mackas, 1992). Beneath the shelf break current, the California Undercurrent flows northwest at 5-10 cm s'1 along the continental slope below 200 m and is characterized by high salinity (34) and low dissolved oxygen (0.5-2.0 ml l"1) (Hickey, 1979; Thomson, 1981). There is some evidence that suggests that the California Undercurrent extends as far north as Estevan Point (Freeland et al., 1984). The current pattern along the inner part of the shelf is different from that along the shelf break by the persistent northward flowing Vancouver Island Coastal Current (VICC) (See Figure 2). The VICC is a poleward flowing, buoyancy-driven surface current off the west coast of Vancouver Island (LeBlond et al. 1986; Thomson et al. 1989). It is a permanent feature of 12 the surface circulation that flows year-round from the entrance of Juan de Fuca Strait and can be found beyond Brooks Peninsula. It is generally confined to the innermost part of the shelf within about 25 km of the coast, but occasionally meanders seaward across the shelf (Freeland et al. 1984; Thomson et al. 1989). This current is driven by the flux of low density water onto the shelf from Juan de Fuca Strait (influenced by Fraser River discharge) and from freshwater runoff from coastal streams along the west coast of Vancouver Island. These two sources of freshwater differ in the timing of peak discharge and spatial distribution of discharge. Direct discharge from coastal streams peaks during the fall winter rainy season, while discharge from the Fraser River peaks in June. This current is characterized by low surface salinity (30-31.5). Maximal near surface speeds can reach 50 cm s"1 within the core of the current, but average longshore flow from October - March is « 25 cm s"1 and from April - September is « 10 cm s~\ Current speeds are reduced in the summer because strong northwesterly winds tend to retard the flow while during the winter southeasterly winds augment the northward flow. Summer and autumn circulation at the southern end of Vancouver Island is often dominated by the Tully eddy or alternatively called the Juan de Fuca eddy (Figure 2) This was first observed by Tully (1942) and it is situated over the southwest margin of Vancouver Island. Freeland and Denman (1982) found that this cyclonic eddy is controlled by the interaction between bathymetry and the local flows off the southwest margin of Vancouver Island. A shallow region called Finger Bank, deflects currents to the west and starts the eddy on its course (Freeland and Denman, 1982). The average residence time of water in the upper 40 m is 4.2 d, with a range of 1.2 to 17 d and water exits either north onto La Perouse Bank or south to Washington. (Freeland, 1988). Although this eddy is a local effect, it does dominate the productivity in this region during the summer months (Mackas and Sefton, 1982). 13 1 2 9 ° 1 2 8 ° 1 2 7 ° 1 2 6 ° 1 2 5 ° 1 2 4 ° W Figure 2 Surface circulation off the west coast of Vancouver Island in summer (redrawn from Thomson et al., 1989). Dashed line marks the 200 m contour. Vancouver Island coastal current =VICC. Long-term coastal temperature variability (Brainard and McLain, 1985) and long term variability in coastal sea levels (Enfield and Allen, 1980) has been studied for many years. Thomson et al. (1984) examined a 40 year sea-surface temperature data set of and found decadal scale cycles in the water temperature along the west coast. Current observations suggest the ocean climate has recently undergone a change during the 1990s. Sea-surface temperatures measured at Amphitrite Point lighthouse on the west coast of Vancouver Island show two large temperature anomalies during the 1990's, the 1992 and the 1997 El Niftos (Robinson and Ware, 1999). Relative to sea-surface temperatures dating back to 1000's, the 14 1990's were an unusually warm decade, which ended abruptly in 1999 with conditions typical of the 1960's and early 1970's (Mann et al, 1999). Ecological Dynamics The physical oceanography of the west coast of Vancouver Island has been studied much more extensively than the biological oceanography and generally studies of ecological dynamics have been restricted to the southern margin of Vancouver Island. Historically, several large research programs have been completed in this area including Coastal Oceanic Dynamic Experiment (CODE), La Perouse, and Marine Survival of Salmon Species (MASS) program. CODE was initiated to study the general circulation, the dominant physical mechanisms, and the resulting planktonic ecosystem dynamics on the continental shelf. The La Perouse project was initiated in 1985 following the major 1982/83 El Nino event in the Pacific Ocean to investigate the causes of annual and interannual recruitment variability in herring, sablefish, Dungeness crab and Pacific cod. The MASS program was initiated to investigate the interrelationships between biophysical events and salmon distribution and survival on an annual and interannual time scale. The surface waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island are characterized by high levels of dissolved nutrients (Mackas et al., 1980; Denman et al., 1981, 1982) supplied by wind mixing, episodic wind-driven upwelling, topographically controlled upwelling (Freeland and Denman, 1982) and the outflow from Juan de Fuca Strait where deep nutrient-rich water is advected to the surface by tidal mixing and estuarine circulation (Mackas et al., 1980). The outflow from Juan de Fuca is a potential source of nutrients for phytoplankton for both the shelf and offshelf regions due to cross-shelf transport of water to the outer shelf (Mackas and 15 Yelland, 1999; Crawford, 1989). Mackas et al, (1980) estimated the flux of nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite) out of Juan de Fuca Strait to be 30 kg s"1 depending on the rate of outflow of water from Juan de Fuca and the nitrogen concentration of this outflow water and estimates that wind- induced upwelling accounts for on average -20% of the estimated contribution from estuarine flow. The relative contribution of upwelling may increase 2-3 fold during periods of active upwelling, but on average the relative contribution of upwelling is less than Juan de Fuca. Crawford and Dewey (1989) estimated nitrogen flux rates for wind-driven upwelling at 15 kg s" wind mixing in the upper 20 m at 5 kg s"1 and turbulent mixing less than 2 kg s"1. In summary, the nutrient rich surface waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island are mainly derived from estuarine flow out of the Juan de Fuca, followed by upwelling, and tidal mixing (Crawford and Dewey, 1989). Surface nitrate is rarely depleted to undetectable levels. At the southern margin of Vancouver Island, shoreward of the shelf break current and extending into the Juan de Fuca Strait, near surface nitrate in excess of 20 uM is common. On average, the nitrate concentration of the inner part of the shelf is >10 uM, and at beyond shelf regions, nitrate concentrations are lower but generally between 1-5 uM. The shelf region off Vancouver Island is characterized by relatively high phytoplankton biomass. Maximum chlorophyll concentrations between 10-50 mg chl m"3 are frequently found (Mackas and Sefton, 1982), and generally there is a cross-shelf gradient. On average, nearshore surface layer chl a concentrations >5 mg chl m"3 are common compared to 1-3 mg m"3 for offshore regions (Mackas, 1992). Phytoplankton biomass is patchy in distribution. Denman et al (1981) found persistent regions of high surface chlorophyll (20 mg chl m"3) along a nearshore 20 km wide band and a zone of high biomass centered over the 80 m bathymetric contour. The seasonal cycles of the shelf and the beyond shelf are different. Phytoplankton 16 biomass on the inner shelf is persistently high in the spring, summer and fall; on average biomass peaks in August/September. In the offshore regions, biomass blooms in March/April, decreases in May and June coupled with depletion of nutrients and increases throughout the season as nutrients increase until October/November when phytoplankton are likely limited by light. The studies by Denman et al. (1981), Mackas and Sefton (1982), Forbes and Denman (1991), and Taylor and Haigh (1996) are among the few to analyze phytoplankton species composition off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most studies were limited to the southwest margin of Vancouver Island and limited to identification of the dominant species, except for the investigation of Taylor and Haigh (1996) who completed a systematic study of the microplankton community in Barkley Sound. Taylor and Haigh (1996) found and identified potentially harrnful phytoplankon species in B.C. coastal waters. Forbes and Denman (1991) focussed exclusively on the distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (formally Nitzschia pungens), a diatom known to produce domoic acid and shellfish poisoning (Subba Rao et al., 1988). Denman et al. (1981) found the diatoms, Rhizosolenia setegera (-300 um long) and Nitzchia spp. (-40 um long) dominated the phytoplankton assemblage when biomass was high. There have been no detailed taxonomic studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island that extend to the northern reaches of Vancouver Island, although Taylor and Waters (1982) have studied the subarctic Pacific beyond the continental shelf. Large diatom populations typically develop during late July and August (Mackas et al, 1980; Denman et al., 1981; Mackas and Sefton, 1982). Detailed studies examining temporal and spatial variability of primary productivity are limited on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most of the study spatially focussed on the 17 southern margin of Vancouver Island during short-time scales. Persistent zones of high primary productivity that last for several months have been measured on the southwestern coast of Vancouver Island (Denman et al., 1981). Primary productivity at the surface as high as 136 mg C m"3 h"1 was measured during May of 1981. During July and August, maximum primary productivity was 49.1 and 61.4 mg C m"3 h"1 respectively. The assimilation numbers measured were 3.92 and 3.75 mg C mg chl"1 h"1, while Forbes and Denman (1991) found assimilation numbers ranging from 3.5-17.5 mg C mg chl"1 h"1. The La Perouse Bank is one of the most productive fishing areas in the Northern Hemisphere and it generates a landed value to the British Columbia economy in excess of $40 million annually (Ware and Thomson, 1991). The west coast of Vancouver Island is an important feeding and breeding region for many pelagic fish species including Walleye pollock, Pacific cod, Pacific halibut, Pacific hake, Pacific sardine, Pacific herring, Pacific mackerel and northern anchovy. It is a migration corridor for returning salmon. When phytoplankton stocks are abundant, Pacific hake, sardine and mackerel migrate into Canadian waters in the summer to feed and return to southern Baja California where they spawn in the winter and spring (Ware and McFarlane, 1988). Recent changes in the pelagic fish community of species abundance and production dynamics have been observed during the 1990's off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Increased biomass of mackerel, a reappearance of Pacific sardine (Hargreaves et al. 1994), more abundant but smaller Pacific hake (Ware and McFarlane, 1995) and poorer growth of Pacific herring have been observed (Tanasichuk, 1997). 18 Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Program (GLOBEC) In 1997 the Canadian G L O B E C (Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics) program set out to understand how living marine resources are affected by variability in their physical environment. Previous work by the La Perouse Project, MASS (Marine Survival of Salmon), COPRA and salmon-index streams programs, focussed exclusively on the southern margin of the west coast of Vancouver Island and found strong upstream influences on water properties (Thomson et al., 1989). One objective of GLOBEC was to extend the study area to the northern region of Vancouver Island to provide good spatial and temporal coverage for the west coast of Vancouver Island. Despite extensive studies on the southern margin of Vancouver Island, little information is available for primary productivity. Previous studies have focussed extensively on nutrient and chlorophyll distributions and there has been limited study of primary productivity on isolated cruises covering small spatial and temporal scales. Very little is known about seasonal and interannual variability of primary productivity and the importance of different phytoplankton size fractions have not been investigated for the west coast of Vancouver Island. Thesis Goals Physical, chemical and biological parameters were investigated to document spatial and temporal variability in transects crossing the continental margin on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Specifically, during 1997 and 1998 the variability of physical, chemical and biological parameters was studied: a) for the shelf and beyond the shelf regions, b) for 4 distinct geographic regions of the west coast of Vancouver Island such as a region cut by a underwater 19 canyon, or strongly affected by strong estuarine flow, and c) over the spring, summer and fall growing seasons. This thesis also evaluates the size structure of primary productivity and phytoplankton biomass. Primary productivity was examined in the upper water column on horizontal transects across the continental margin to document the spatial and temporal variability in the size distribution of phytoplankton. Three specific questions were addressed by this research: (1) Do dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll concentrations and primary productivity vary seasonally, interannually and spatially? (2) Does the large size fraction (>5.0 pm) contribute substantially to the phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity during the upwelling season? (3) Was the primary productivity impacted during the strong ENSO event of 1997 and 1998? Field studies were conducted as part of the Canadian G L O B E C program aboard the C.S.S "John P. Tully". Cruises off the west coast of Vancouver Island were undertaken seasonally over a period of two years from 1997-1999. The data for the 1999 cruises are contained in Appendices B (chlorophyll), C (nutrients), and D (primary productivity). Thesis Organization Chapter one of this thesis examines seasonal variability of physical, chemical and biological parameters along the west coast of Vancouver Island. Four transects perpendicular to the coast were studied in detail and the results will be discussed in Chapter one. The four transects were: over La Perouse Bank, over Barkley Canyon, off Estevan Point, and off Brooks Peninsula. Chapter two examines size-fractionated biomass and primary productivity of the four study transects. At each transect, sampling stations were chosen in order to have one station on and one station off of the continental shelf. 20 C H A P T E R 1 VARIABILITY OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OFF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND INTRODUCTION The goal of GLOBEC was to determine how and why marine ecosystems change in response to variations in the physical oceanic environment. To quantify and interpret these changes on the continental margin of British Columbia, it is essential to expand upon existing time series observations, both temporally and spatially. Long-term time series data sets are necessary to achieve this goal because many of these changes are known to occur on interannual or decadal time scales (Dickson et al., 1988; Beamish and Bouillan, 1993; Steele, 1998) which can only be identified and understood using multi-year data sets. It is essential to expand the time base of existing time series by incorporating new observations to allow identification of low frequency variability important to both physical and biological processes. The southern margin of the west coast of Vancouver Island has been the focus of extensive studies but there has been little study of the northern coast of the Island. It is important to expand studies to the northern regions of Vancouver Island because previous studies have found strong upstream influences on water properties off the southwest coast of Vancouver Island (Thomson et al., 1989). In addition to the expansion of the time-series observations (this chapter), and process studies (Chapter 2), numerical ecosystem models are being developed that require boundary conditions and validation data and expansion of historical data sets will greatly increase confidence in the results of model predictions (Ianson et al., submitted). 21 The main objective of this chapter was to show the seasonal, interannual and spatial variability of physical, chemical and biological parameters in transects that cross the continental margin off the west coast of Vancouver Island. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six cruises aboard the C.S.S. John P. Tully were undertaken on the west coast of Vancouver Island as part of the Canadian Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program (GLOBEC). Studies were conducted during 3 cruises in 1997 and three in 1998, which correspond to the annual spring transition, the summer upwelling season and fall transition period. Cruise details are available in Table A. 1. Studies were also conducted during 3 cruises in 1999 and these data are in Appendix B (dissolved nutrients), Appendix C (chlorophyll), and Appendix D (primary productivity). Studies were conducted at several stations along transects extending perpendicular to the west coast of Vancouver Island from the southern to the northern tip of Vancouver Island (Figure 1.1). These transects bisected the continental shelf, and the shelf break and ended in deep water beyond the shelf. An attempt was made to occupy similar stations during each cruise, but sampling logistics and weather conditions prohibited complete replication. During the spring transition cruise in April 1997, several stations were sampled again one week after the initial occupation. Station details such as latitude, longitude and water depth for all stations sampled during each of the 3 cruises in 1997, 3 cruises in 1998 and 3 cruises in 1999 are presented in Appendices E. Physical Measurements Incident surface solar irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation - I 0 PAR) was continuously measured with a Licor Quantum Sensor Model LI-190SB calibrated for use in air 22 Figure 1.1 Location of transects off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dashed line delineates the 200 m contour. A=Juan de Fuca Canyon (Line A), B=La Perouse Bank (Line B), C=Barkley Canyon (Line C), D=D Line, G=Estevan Point (Line G), H=H Line, J=J Line, BP=Brooks Peninsula (BP Line) and CS=Cape Scott (CS Line). Transects with * will be discussed in this chapter. 23 and mounted in a shade-free area on the after-deck of the ship. The measurements were logged as 10 min averages using a Licor datalogger Model LI-1000. Light data were obtained for all cruises except the October 1998 cruise due to a datalogger failure; therefore for October 1998, primary productivity calculations the light data from October 1997 was used. In May 1998, the datalogger did not log continuously, and therefore for the days without continuous data, the data for a similar day was used. Vertical profiles of underwater irradiance were measured with a Biospherical QSP-200 L4S 4495 PAR sensor calibrated for use in water. When light profiles could not be measured due to weather conditions, pre-dawn sampling, or unfavorable sampling logistics, estimates based on previous casts were used. For these stations, actual and estimated light depths may have been slightly different. Due to a processing error, underwater irradiance is not available for most stations at the time of writing. Vertical profiles of conductivity, temperature, pressure, and chlorophyll fluorescence were obtained using a Seabird® Model SBE 911+ CTD Serial #0437 mounted with a SeaTech fluorometer. Personnel from the Institute of Ocean Sciences (Sidney, B.C.) provided all physical data. The raw data are stored at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. Vertical profiles of crt were derived from temperature and salinity data using the expression given by Millero and Poisson (1981). The mixed layer depth was identified as the depth where a 0.125 change in a t was first observed relative to a surface reference value (after Levitus, 1982). Chemical and Biological Measurements The time of the day when stations were occupied was variable among stations and between cruises and was dependent upon the time of arrival on station. Seawater was collected using acid-cleaned 10-L PVC Niskin bottles equipped with Teflon® coated springs and fittings 24 and silicone tubing mounted on an instrumented rosette sampler. Seawater samples for vertical profiles of chemical and biological parameters were taken at 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300, 500, 600, 700, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 m depending on the bottom depth. After collection of dissolved oxygen, water samples were immediately collected for dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton identification and primary productivity measurements (Chapter 2). Seawater was also collected for particulate nitrogen and carbon, ammonium and urea concentrations and nitrogen uptake rate experiments (Varela et al., in prep.). Water samples for nitrate + nitrite (NCV + NtV) , soluble reactive phosphate (HPO42"), and silicic acid (Si(OH)4) were filtered directly out of the Niskin bottles using an acid-cleaned 60 ml Nalgene® syringe fitted with 25 mm Millipore Swinnex® filter holder and a combusted (460°C for 4.5 h) 25 mm glass-fibre filter. In 1997, seawater was filtered through 25 mm Whatman™ GF/F glass-fibre filters (nominal pore size 0.7 (am) and in 1998, 25 mm AMD™ GF75 glass-fibre filters (nominal pore size 0.75 um) were used. Seawater was gently filtered into acid-cleaned Nalgene® bottles and stored at -20°C until analysis ashore. Gloves were used for all nutrient sampling to avoid contamination. All dissolved nutrients were processed using a Technicon® Autoanalyzer® II. Nitrate plus nitrite, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid were determined using the procedures of Wood et al. (1967), Hager et al. (1968), Armstrong et al. (1967), respectively. Combined nitrate and nitrite concentrations are reported as nitrate. Shelf region stations were east of the shelf break, as defined by the 200 m contour, and the beyond shelf stations were those beyond the shelf break. The number of stations varied at each transect and each cruise and are summarized in Appendix E. Chlorophyll corrected for phaeopigments was determined at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 50 m water depth by in vitro fluorometry (Yentsch and Menzel, 1963). A 500 ml water sample was 25 filtered onto 25 mm diameter glass-fibre filters using a vacuum pressure differential of <100 mm of Hg and stored at -20°C in a dark desiccator until analysis ashore. In 1997, seawater was filtered through 25 mm Whatman™ GF/F glass-fibre filters and in 1998, 25 mm AMD™ GF75 glass-fibre filters were used. All samples were analyzed within two weeks of collection. Chl a was extracted in 10 ml of 90% acetone by sonication in an ice bath for 10 min and then subsequently stored in the dark for 20-24 h at -20°C. The fluorescence of the acetone extract was measured before and after the addition of three drops of 10% HC1 to estimate phaeopigments in a Turner Designs™ Model 10-AU fluorometer calibrated with a solution of commercially available chlorophyll a obtained from Sigma Chemical Company. Chlorophyll a calculated using the equation of Parsons et al. (1984). Samples for phytoplankton identification were fixed with acidic Lugol's iodine solution during the 1997 sampling season and neutral Lugol's iodine solution during the 1998 sampling season (Throndsen, 1978; Parsons et al., 1984). The samples were stored in the dark until identification and enumeration was performed using inverted microscopy following Utermohl (1958) procedures. Depending on the biomass, 10 or 25 ml was settled in a counting chamber for at least 12 h. This methodology underestimated the heterotrophic crytomonads that would best be distinguished using an epifluorescence technique (Geider, 1988). The counts were then converted into cells l"1. Cell carbon was calculated according to the equations of Strathman (1967). Cell volumes specific to each species were required for the conversion of cells l"1 to carbon. Cell volume calculated using measurements of representative cells and equations for simple geometric shapes spheroids, cylinders, boxes, and cones were supplied by R. Haigh (unpubl. data). The cell volume for each species is given in Appendix F. 26 Statistical analysis of chemical and biological data Replicate casts were not completed due to time constraints in the cruise schedule and the labor-intensive nature of this study. Routinely a single water sample was collected from each depth for analysis of chemical and biological parameters. One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey test were used to examine spatial and temporal variation. For analysis of temporal variation, both interannual and seasonal, the physical, chemical and biological data were grouped according to mean values for the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI) and for shelf and beyond shelf regions. For analysis of spatial variation, the cross shelf and along shore direction, the data were grouped according to cruise and year. Contour plots were created using Wavemetric Igor Pro (v. 4.0) using 64x triangulation. RESULTS I. Physical Parameters A)Incident Irradiance The continuous recordings of incident surface irradiance are shown for April, July and October of 1997 and May and July 1998 in Figure 1.2. Irradiance data are not available for October 1998 due to a datalogger malfunction. For the two study years, the highest values were observed in July 1997 (Figure 1.2b) and the lowest values in October 1997 (Figure 1.2c). For July 1997, surface irradiance was consistently high, and during October 1997, surface irradiance was consistently low for the duration of the cruise. There was considerable variability in surface irradiance during May and July of 1998 (Figure 1.2 D & E) while incident surface irradiance in April and July of 1997 was more consistent. 27 The incident solar irradiance on the day of the primary productivity experiments (Chapter 2) is included in Appendix G. Included in the plots is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. B) Mixed Layer Parameters (Depth, temperature, salinity and at) Very high variability of mixed layer parameters was measured off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and frequently the standard deviation and mean were similar. Trends and patterns will be discussed, but the differences between regions, cruises or years are not statistically significant unless otherwise noted. Mixed layer (ML) depth and mixed layer parameters are shown in Table 1.1 for April, July and October 1997 and Table 1.2 for May, July and October 1998 for the primary productivity stations. BI) MIXED LAYER (ML) DEPTH The M L was consistently deeper at beyond shelf regions than those over the shelf. On average over the 2 years, the M L was 23 ±12 m in the beyond shelf region and 12 ±6 m in the shelf region. The M L was deeper in 1998 compared to 1997 for both the shelf and the beyond shelf region. The mean M L in the shelf region was 11 ±7 m in 1997 and was 13 ±5 m in 1998 and for the beyond shelf region was 22 ±19 m in 1997 and 24 ±6 m in 1998. There was a consistent seasonal pattern for the shelf region in 1997 and 1998. The M L was deepest in October and shallowest during July, the month of continuously high surface irradiance. There was no consistent seasonal pattern for the beyond shelf region in 1997 and 1998. In 1997 the deepest M L was in April, and in 1998 was in October. 28 2500 CD o -r^ CD CO T3 CM g 'E g g SS 3 o ci 2500 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2000 -E 1500 -E 1000 500 0 2500 BP2 BP7 G3 C9 C1 C4 22 23 24 25 26 27 2000 1500 1000 500 -_ 0 G7 C1 C4 BP2 BP7 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2500 2000 -_ 1500 1000 500 0 B16 h/UJUAf 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Day of the Month April 1997 July 1997 October 1997 May 1998 July 1998 Figure 1.2 Incident surface irradiance for A) April 1997, B) July 1997, C) October 1997, D) May 1998 and E) July 1998. Station labels on top of peaks indicate day primary productivity was measured. See Appendix E for location of stations. Irradiance data are not available for October 1998. No consistent south-north trend was observed in mixed layer depth at shelf or beyond shelf stations. Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and at for the primary productivity stations are provided in Appendix H . Variability was higher in 1997 than in 1998 for the shelf and the beyond shelf region (see coefficient of variation in Tables 1.2 and 1.3). Seasonal variability was highest in July for both the shelf and the beyond shelf region. B 2 ) ML TEMPERATURES M L temperatures were on average warmer (~ 1°C) at the beyond shelf region than at the shelf regions. On average over the 2 years, the M L temperature was 12.8 ±2.1°C in the beyond shelf region and 11.9 ±1.7°C in the shelf region. The M L temperature in the shelf region were similar in 1997 and in 1998, while in the beyond shelf region M L temperatures were on average warmer in 1998 than in 1997. In 1997, the spring cruise was approximately one month earlier than the spring cruise in 1998, this might explain the lower temperature measured in 1997. If spring cruise is not include in the seasonal mean, the is no significant difference between 1997 (14.1°C)and 1998 (13.9°C). There was a consistent seasonal pattern for the shelf region and the beyond shelf region in 1997 and 1998. The M L temperatures in the shelf region were warmest in July arid coolest in April. The water column was generally weakly stratified during April 1997 but was stratified by July. In July, the thermocline was -10 m, but by October it was depressed to ~40 m (Appendices, H1-H3). In 1998, the water column was generally strongly stratified for all cruises; the thermocline was -20-30 m in the beyond shelf region and -10-20 m for shelf regions (Appendices, H4-H6). In 1997, the seasonal variability in the M L temperature in the shelf region was significant (p<0.01), while in 1998 no significant seasonal variability was 30 found. The seasonal variability in the M L temperature of the beyond shelf region was significant during both study years (p<0.01). A consistent alongshore trend in M L temperature was not observed for the shelf region while a consistent trend was observed for the beyond shelf region. Beyond shelf stations of the southern transects La Perouse Bank or Barkley Canyon tended to be warmer than the northern transects, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula. The northern transects have shorter continental shelves so upwelled water has less distance and less time to warm before it is transported to the beyond shelf region. In contrast, by the time cold upwelled water arrives at the beyond shelf stations of the southern transects, solar irradiation has warmed it. Low M L temperatures corresponded to high salinity measurements, consistent with characteristics of an upwelling region. Similarly, at stations with high M L temperature, the lowest salinity was noted. Variability was higher in 1997 than in 1998 for the shelf and the beyond shelf region (see coefficient of variation in Tables 1.2 and 1.3). Variability was highest in October for both the shelf and the beyond shelf region in 1997 and 1998. M L temperatures ranged from 9.0- 17.5°C during 1997 and 10.3-14.6°C during 1998. B3) M L SALINITY A N D DENSITY The M L salinity and density were on average lower in shelf regions than at the beyond shelf regions. On average over the 2 years, the M L salinity was 31.5 ±0.7 in the beyond shelf region and 31.1 ±0.9 in the shelf region. The M L salinity and density in the shelf region and beyond shelf region were lower in 1997 than in 1998. The lowest M L salinity and density was measured in the shelf region in 1997. There was no consistent seasonal trend in M L salinity and density in the shelf region. Salinity and density tended to be lowest in April suggesting the VICC lowered the salinity, but 31 by July and October the salinity increased perhaps due to upwelling. There was no consistent seasonal trend for the beyond shelf regions. No consistent south-north (latitudinal) trend was observed at either shelf or beyond shelf stations during either 1997 or 1998. The transect that showed the highest and the lowest salinity and density, varied during each cruise. Variability in salinity and density was low during 1997 and 1998, but was higher in 1997 than in 1998 for both shelf and the beyond shelf regions (see coefficient of variation in Tables 1.2 and 1.3). Variability was similar during each cruise for both the shelf and the beyond shelf regions in 1997 and 1998. M L salinity ranged from 29.18-32.38 during 1997 and 30.99 - 32.35 during 1998. B4) SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS In summary, a strong seasonal cycle was noted for solar radiation, the highest flux was measured in July and the lowest during October. A shoaling in the mixed layer depth was noted in both regions in 1997 relative to 1998. Mixed layer temperature was similar in both years. Salinity and density were lower in 1997 than in 1998 for both regions. A strong cross-shelf gradient was observed in 1997 and 1998. The mixed layer depth was consistently deeper and temperature, salinity and density were all higher in the beyond shelf regions than in the shelf region. 32 Table 1.1 Mixed layer parameters for stations occupied during 1997 cruises off the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI). Monthly mean, yearly mean ± 1 S.D. and yearly coefficient of variation, (C.V.,%) are given for the shelf and beyond shelf region. Temperature (°C), salinity, and density for the mixed layer were calculated as the mean value from the surface to the calculated mixed layer depth. Dashed line indicates that data are not available. Transect Date Mixed Temp. Salinity Density Layer (m) Cc) (<*<) Shelf La Perouse Bank April 3 9.16 29.39 22.73 July 3 11.6 31.70 24.17 Oct. 25 10.9 31.45 24.07 Barkley Canyon April 17 9.70 29.18 22.48 July 10 14.3 30.81 22.92 Oct. 14 14.0 31.13 23.23 Estevan Point April 14 9.16 30.40 23.52 July 9 15.1 30.16 22.26 Oct. 16 14.0 30.59 22.84 Brooks Peninsula April 5 8.97 29.46 22.51 July 6 11.9 31.41 . 23.84 Oct. 7 13.5 29.98 22.44 WCVI April 10 9.2 29.6 22.8 WCVI July 7 13.2 31.0 23.3 WCVI Oct. 16 13.1 30.8 22.9 WCVI 1997 11 11.9 30.47 23.00 SD 1997 6.6 2.3 0.9 0.7 CV 1997 62 19 3 3 Beyond Shelf La Perouse Bank April 67 8.67 32.38 25.15 July 13 17.5 30.78 22.20 Oct. - - - - Barkley Canyon April 11 9.23 31.28 24.20 July - - - - Oct. 19 13.5 31.01 23.24 Estevan Point April 15 9.06 30.15 23.34 July 9 14.9 30.20 22.33 Oct. 38 12.9 31.92 24.04 Brooks Peninsula April - - - - July 14 13.0 31.10 23.40 Oct. 12 13.2 30.36 22.80 WCVI April 31 9 31.3 24.2 WCVI July 12 15.0 30.7 22.6 WCVI Oct. 23 13.2 31.1 23.4 WCVI 1997 22 12.4 31.0 23.4 SD 1997 19.0 2.9 0.8 0.9 CV 1997 86 24 2 4 Latitude, longitude and bottom depth are found in Appendix E. Table 1.2 Mixed layer parameters for stations occupied during 1998 cruises off the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI). Monthly mean, yearly mean ± 1 S.D. and yearly coefficient of variation (C.V., %) are given for the shelf and beyond shelf region. Temperature (°C), salinity, and density for the mixed layer were calculated as the mean value from the surface to the calculated mixed layer depth. Transect Date Mixed Temp. Salinity Density Layer (m) CQ Shelf La Perouse Bank April 19 10.3 30.99 23.81 July 8 11.9 32.27 " 24.51 Oct. 11 12.2 32.10 24.34 Barkley Canyon April 10 11.9 31.16 23.66 July 9 12.1 31.89 24.18 Oct. 19 11.5 32.30 24.61 Estevan Point April 19 12.4 31.49 23.83 July 15 13.4 31.27 23.46 Oct. 16 11.8 31.97 24.30 Brooks Peninsula April 8 11.0 31.79 24.31 July 11 12.9 31.44 23.68 Oct. 9 11.4 31.79 24.23 WCVI April 15 11.4 31.4 23.9 WCVI July 11 12.6 31.7 24.0 WCVI Oct. 14 11.7 32.0 24.4 WCVI 1997 13 11.9 31.7 24.1 SD 1997 5 0.8 0.4 0.4 CV 1997 35 7 1 2 Beyond Shelf La Perouse Bank April 23 11.6 31.91 24.34 July 26 14.6 32.35 24.04 Oct. 37 13.8 32.13 24.04 Barkley Canyon April 16 11.9 31.64 24.02 July 23 13.9 32.10 23.98 Oct. 31 14.5 32.22 23.96 Estevan Point April 22 11.4 31.97 24.37 July 31 14.4 32.05 23.86 Oct. 23 13.6 32.15 24.08 Brooks Peninsula April 21 10.6 31.90 24.45 July 25 13.6 31.94 23.93 Oct. 15 13.0 32.19 24.24 WCVI April 21 11.4 31.9 24.3 WCVI July 26 14.1 32.1 24.0 WCVI Oct. 27 13.7 32.2 24.1 WCVI 1997 24 13.1 32.0 24.1 SD 1997 6.3 1.3 0.2 0.2 CV 1997 26 10 1 1 Latitude, longitude and bottom depth are found in Appendix E. II. Chemical Parameters The following sections will examine the distribution of surface (0-10 m) nutrients in space and time. All values that will be discussed are 0-10 m surface concentrations. Vertical profiles of all three nutrients are provided in Appendix I. For the nutrient data, three spatial scales were examined: the mean of all stations sampled, including all shelf and the beyond shelf stations, will be referred to as the mean for the WCVI; a cross-shelf gradient (east/west) and for the nutrient data is referred to as N03~shdf, HP042-sheif, Si(OH)4shelfOr NCV beyond? HPO4 beyond or Si(OFf)4beyond for each transect; and in an alongshore gradient (latitudinal gradient) from the southern La Perouse transect to the northern Brooks Peninsula transect for the shelf and beyond shelf region. Three time scales will be examined for each spatial scale: a 2-yr mean (1997 and 1998); annual mean for 1997 and 1998; and season means. Very high variability was measured off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and frequently the standard deviation and mean were similar. Trends and patterns will be discussed, but the differences between regions, cruises or years are not statistically significant unless otherwise noted. A) DISSOL VED NUTRIENT CONCENTRA TIONS A l ) MEAN VALUES FOR THE WCVI The average W C V ^ ^ , WCVIphosphate, WCVI S i i i c i c a c i d are shown in Table 1.3. The 2-yr mean WCVIn i t r ate was 4.1 uM, WCVIph0sPhate was 0.59 and WCVI s i H c i c a c id was 10.5 uM. WCVInitrate in 1997 was 5.2 uM and in 1998 it was 2.9 uM, which was significantly lower than in 1997 (p<0.05). The WVCIphosphate in 1997 was 0.55 uM and in 1998 it was 0.63 uM. The WCVIsiHcic acid concentration in 1997 was 12.9 uM and in 1998 was 8.12 uM, which were significantly lower than in 1997 (p<0.01). 35 A seasonal trend was evident in 1997 for WCVInj^te and WCVISjijCiC acjd but not for WVCIphosphate. On average in 1997, WCVInitrate and WCVI s i | i c i C acid concentrations were highest in April and decreased as the season progressed to the lowest during October. In 1998, nutrients were consistently high in October and there was a significant difference in nitrate (p<0.05), phosphate (p<0.05), and silicic acid (p<0.01) concentration between cruises in 1998. In April 1997, surface (0-10 m) N03"ranged from 2.5-13.5 uM, HP042"ranged from 0.3- 1.0 uM, and Si(OH)4 ranged from 11.2-29.2 uM. Variability was consistently higher in 1998 than in 1997 for nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid. Table 1.3 Mean nutrient concentrations (0-10m) (uM) for WCVI during each cruise in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of all stations during each cruise. Yearly mean ±1 S.D. N03 HPO42" Si(OH)4 1997 April 6.6 ±2.1 0.5±0.1 15 ±3.4 July 6.4 ±5.4 0.6 ±0.4 13 ±9.8 Oct. 3.3 ±2.3 0.6 ±0.2 11 ±3.4 1997 Mean 5.4 ±4.0 0.6 ±0.3 13 ±6.8 1997 CV 47 28 28 1998 May 0.9 ±1.1 0.3 ±0.1 2.7 ±1.5 July 3.4 ±3.6 0.8 ±0.3 10 ±5.5 Oct. 5.1 ±2.8 0.8 ±0.4 9.8 ±6.0 1998 Mean 3.1 ±3.3 0.6 ±0.4 7.0 ±5.9 1998 CV 91 40 52 2 year 4.4 ±3.8 0.6 ±0.3 11 ±7.0 2 year CV 86 56 65 36 A2) CROSS-SHELF GRADIENT The mean nutrient concentrations are shown for each cruise in 1997 and 1998 in Table 1.4. Note that during 1998 there was no data available for La Perouse Bank. On average nutrient concentrations were all higher in the shelf region than in the beyond shelf region. In 1997, nutrient concentrations in the shelf region were all significantly higher than in the beyond shelf region. In 1998, phosphate and silicic acid were significantly higher, while nitrate was not (p>0.05). Nutrient concentrations were higher in 1997 than in 1998, but the differences were significant only for nitrate and silicic acid (p<0.05). Generally as the distance from shore increased, the nutrient concentrations decreased (Figure 1.3-1.5) and in many instances the decreasing concentrations are observed after the shelf break. In April 1997, nutient concentrations did not reach detection limits, while in July and October nutrient concentrations were observed at detection limits in the beyond shelf region. The most obvious feature in 1998 was that NO3" and HPO4 2" concentrations at many transects were generally at or below detection limits in the shelf and beyond shelf regions during the May cruise and these were the lowest concentrations that were measured for all three nutrients during the two study years. In July 1998, surface nutrients in the shelf region were higher than in May, but nutrient concentrations decreased to detection limits as the distance from shore increased. The same pattern was observed in October 1998. There was no consistent seasonal trend for nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid for shelf or beyond shelf regions in 1997 or 1998. The month during which maximum concentrations were measured, varied between region and between years. One consistent trend was clear; on average, the lowest nutrient concentration over the two years was in May 1998. 37 April/May July October 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20 Brooks Peninsula Brooks Peninsula f • 4 Brooks Peninsula 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Station Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - A - April 1997 • A - May 1998 July 1997 October 1997 • G - July 1998 October 1998 Figure 1.3 Surface (0-10m) nitrate concentration for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents the shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases. 38 c o 2 c fl) o c o o £ «J a (0 o sz a. April/May 3.0 "1 2.0 -4 1.5 1.0 -I 0.5- | 0.0 .La.P6rpu«JB.ank... 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 " ] 2.0 -I 1.5 1.0 —I 0.5- | 0.0 Barkley Canyon B £ A 1 2 3 4 7 8 9101112 3.0 2.5 H 2.0 1.5- 1.0 - 0 . 5 - 0.0 3.0 Estevan Point C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 . 5 - 2 . 0 - 1.5- 1.0- 0.5 0.0 Brooks Peninsula Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 July I ! _ ^..Perouse Bank t 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1011 Estevan Point Q \ L., 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brooks Peninsula H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Station Number October - I La Perouse Bank ] \ \ 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 Barkley Canyon 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1011C12 Brooks Peninsula i I L I I ! El m i \ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 April 1997 May 1998 -Q- July 1997 July 1998 -EH- October 1997 October 1998 Figure 1.4 Surface (0-1 Om) phosphate concentration for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents the shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases. 39 April/May July October 3 0 - 2 0 - 10 0 La Perouse Bank La Perouse Bank 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 Barkley Canyon £ M | Barkley.Canyon J 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1011C12 3 0 - 20 - 10 0 Estevan Point Q M Estevan Point j£ 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 0 - | 20 10 0 Brooks Peninsula Q M Brooks |_| PenJnsuia Q.-O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Station Number -A— April 1997 • A - May 1998 July 1997 October 1997 •o- July 1998 ••»- October 1998 Figure 1.5 Surface (0-10m) silicic acid concentration for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents the shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases. 40 Variability was high for all nutrient concentrations in both the shelf and beyond shelf region. In 1997, variability was highest in the beyond shelf region for all nutrients. In 1998 the region with the highest variability depended on the kind of nutrient. Nitrate was more variable in the beyond shelf region, while phosphate and silicic acid were more variable in the shelf region (Table 1.4). In general, variability was higher in 1998 than in 1997. A3) NORTH- SOUTH GRADIENT There was no consistent north/south gradient in nutrient concentrations in the shelf region or in the beyond shelf region for 1997 or for 1998. For shelf regions, the highest concentrations were generally measured over La Perouse Bank in 1997 while in 1998, the location of peak concentrations was variable for each cruise and for each nutrient. For 1997, there was a weak trend for nitrate to decrease north from La Perouse Bank to Estevan Point, then increase again at Brooks Peninsula. A4) SUMMARY OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS In summary, significantly higher nitrate and silicic acid concentrations were measured in 1997 than in 1998, but phosphate concentrations were similar for both years. Nutrient concentrations were higher in shelf regions than beyond shelf regions for both years. Generally, the highest nutrient concentrations were measured on La Perouse Bank but on occasion, higher concentrations were measured at Brooks Peninsula. In May and July 1998, surface nitrate concentrations were frequently at or near detection limits suggesting either a lower nutrient supply rate or greater nitrate utilization in 1998 compared to 1997. 41 Table 1.4. Mean surface (0-10 m) nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid concentrations (pM) in 1997 and 1998 for shelf and beyond shelf stations of La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point, Brooks Peninsula off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The mean ± 1 S.D. and coefficient of variation (CV, %) for each year and for the 2 year average are given. The number of samples (n) for each transect is given. ND indicates nutrient concentration was not detectable. (-) indicates information not available. * indicates a significant difference between shelf and beyond shelf regions was found at p<0.05 level and w indicates a significant difference between region was found at p<0.01 level. Region Nitrate Phosphate Silicic Acid n Shelf Beyond Shelf Beyond Shelf Beyond Shelf Beyond April 1997 La Perouse Bank 9.5 5.7 0.8 0.7 22 14 3 4 Barkley Canyon 6.1 6.5 0.4 0.6 18 14 3 3 Estevan Point 5.4 3.3 0.5 0.3 15 16 3 3 Brooks Peninsula 8.8 4.1 0.5 0.5 14 11 2 4 April WCVI mean 7.5 4.9 0.6 0.5 18 13.0 111 114 July 1997 La Perouse Bank 14.7 0.3 1.1 0.1 31 3 3 4 Barkley Canyon 6.9 0.5 0.9 0.1 18 3 3 4 Estevan Point 5.0 1.6 0.5 0.2 9 4 2 2 Brooks Peninsula 14.2 7.8 1.3 0.6 23 45 3 4 July WCVI mean 10.2 2.6 0.6 0.3 20.2 6.0 111 114 October 1997 La Perouse Bank 7.1 ND 0.7 0.7 15 12 3 2 Barkley Canyon 5.3 3.4 0.7 0.5 13 10 2 4 Estevan Point 2.5 0.1 0.5 0.2 10 3.0 3 4 Brooks Peninsula 4.2 3.8 0.6 0.5 14 12 3 3 Oct. WCVI mean 4.8 1.8 0.6 0.5 13.1 9.2 111 113 1997 Mean n7.5±3.8 H3.1 ±2.7 n0.7 ±0.3 n0.4 ±0.2 H17±6.2 n9.4 ±4.8 33 41 1997 CV 50 56 39 54 36 51 May 1998 Barkley Canyon 3.2 0.8 0.3 0.4 5.08 3.4 4 4 Estevan Point ND 1.1 0.1 0.4 0.27 2.0 3 4 Brooks Peninsula 0.3 0.05 0.5 0.3 2.6 3.0 1 6 WCVI mean 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.3 2.7 2.8 18 114 July 1998 Barkley Canyon 10 0.1 1.3 0.5 18 2.8 4 4 Estevan Point 2.3 0.1 0.8 0.6 12 5.6 3 4 Brooks Peninsula 5.2 2.2 1.1 0.5 16 7.5 3 4 WCVI mean 6.0 0.8 1.1 0.5 15 5.3 no 112 October 1998 Barkley Canyon 3.3 0.8 1.1 0.4 16 3.8 4 4 Estevan Point 9.5 5.1 1.5 0.2 - - 2 3 Brooks Peninsula 7.1 4.5 1.0 0.6 - - 3 4 WCVI mean 6.6 3.5 1.2 0.4 16 3.8 19 111 1998 Mean 4.6±3.8 1.6+1.9 *0.9±0.5 *0.4±0.1 *10±7.4 *4.0±1.9 27 37 1998 CV 82 117 55 31 72 47 2 year Mean *6.1±2.7 *2.4±1.5 0.8 ±0.3 0.4 ±0.1 14 ±5.5 6.6 ±3.5 2 year CV 45 62 47 22 39 52 42 III. Biological Parameters (Chlorophyll and phytoplankton species composition) A) CHLOROPHYLL For all cruises in 1998, no data are available for the La Perouse transect due to time constraints and sampling logistics. A l ) MEAN VALUE FOR WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND The 2 yr average off the west coast of Vancouver Island was 77.2 ±55.4 mg chl m"2 (Table 1.5). On average, biomass was significantly higher in 1998 than in 1997 (p<0.05). In 1998, biomass was 1.6-fold higher than biomass measured for 1997. There was a consistent seasonal peak in July in 1997 and 1998 but the increase in July was more obvious in 1998 than in 1997 (Figure 1.6). Variability was high off the west coast of Vancouver Island but was lower for 1997 than for 1998 (see coefficient of variation in Table 1.5); during both years the highest variability was measured in July. Table 1.5 Mean chlorophyll (100-1% surface light) ±1 S.D. (mg chl m"2) for WCVI during each cruise in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of all stations during each cruise. Yearly mean ±1 S.D. and coefficient of variation (CV, %) are included. Chlorophyll 1997 April 56.3 ±26.4 (23) July 77.1+55.2(24) Oct. 47.4 ±17.7(26) 1997 Mean 60.2 ±37.4 (73) 1997 CV 62 1998 May 67.6 ±32.8 (24) July 149 ±87.1 (19) Oct. 82.9 ±48.9 (21) 1998 Mean 99.9 ±67.6 (65) 1998 CV 68 97/98 Mean 77.2 ±55.4 72 43 250 200 H 150 H ^ 100 H 50 H April 1997 n=24 n=26 n=19 n=24 Julv October May 1997 1997 1998 July October 1998 1998 Figure 1.6 Total chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise. A2) CROSS-SHELF GRADIENT 2 yr and annual means The biomass in shelf regions was on average 2-fold higher than in the beyond shelf regions (Figure 1.7). These plots clearly show higher chlorophyll in the shelf region. The 2 yr average chlorophyll concentration was 101 ±62.9 and 54.0 ±34.7 mg chl m'2 for shelf and beyond shelf regions, respectively (Table 1.6). On average, chlorophyll was significantly higher in the shelf than in the beyond shelf region in 1997 (p<0.05) and in 1998 (p<0.05). The biomass in the shelf region was significantly higher in 1998 compared to the biomass in the shelf region in 1997 (p<0.05). In the beyond shelf region there was little difference between years. 44 n=33 200 H E n=74 o O) 150 H E n=32 2-yr mean 1997 mean 1998 mean \Z2 Shelf m Beyond Shelf Figure 1.7 Interannual mean and annual means of total chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations sampled. Numbers above each bar are the total number of stations for each mean. Seasonal variation Generally, a consistent seasonal pattern was observed in the shelf regions in 1997 and 1998 (Figure 1.8). Biomass was consistently high in July during each year, but the increase in 1998 (2.0-fold) was larger than in 1997 (1.4-fold). Very high increases in biomass in the shelf region from April to July were observed. For example, at one station in 1998 biomass at Barkley Canyon increased almost 500% from April to July. In 1998, the biomass in July was significantly higher than May and October (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between May and October (Tukey test, p>0.05). The seasonal dynamics of biomass in the beyond shelf region were different relative to the shelf region. Biomass in the beyond shelf region showed little seasonal change during 45 cruises in 1997, while in 1998 considerable seasonal variation was observed. In 1998, biomass peaked in July. 300 - , ; — i 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 122 Shelf Beyond Shelf Figure 1.8 Seasonal variability of total chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf station during each cruise. Numbers above each bar = the total number of station. Transects Figure 1.9 shows how integrated chlorophyll varies as distance from shore increases. Generally, biomass decreases as the distance from shore increases. A striking feature noteworthy in Figure 1.9 was that peaks in biomass were generally observed in 1998 rather than in 1997, specifically for July 1998. In addition, the maximum biomass measured in 1998 was higher than in 1997. For 1998 the maximum Chl a was 428 mg chl m'2 in the shelf region of Estevan Point (Figure 1.9 G), whereas in 1997, the maximum biomass was 380 mg chl m"2 for the shelf region of La Perouse Bank (Figure 1.9 E). It should be noted that the July 1998 cruise 46 April/May July October o O) E Q. O v-O SZ O iS o 400- 300 • 200- 100- 0- 400 300 200 100- 0- 400 300 200 100 0 400 300 200 100 0 La.P.erouse.Bank _ La Perouse Bank A A '• E / \ • La Perouse. Bank. 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1011 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 2 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 Barkley Canyon B * !»_. Estevan Point c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brooks Peninsula D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Barkley Canyon Barkley Canyon F J Q a \ r-,.J3 • *. ® G 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 1011 |- « Estevan Point Estevan Point ' . \ • . • j- -":V ''.V1 ' ' * . - | G Q K » a. i . b. i * b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brooks Peninsula Brooks Peninsula I i " L I o I H a fa' 3 - 0 . \ 1 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Station Number —A— April 1997 July 1997 -m- October 1997 —A— May 1998 - o - July 1998 October 1998 Figure 1.9 Integrated chlorophyll (mg chl m"2) for all cruises in 1997 and 1998 along transects on La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Shaded area represents shelf region; solid lines and closed symbols are for 1997 and dashed lines and open symbols are for 1998. No data are available for La Perouse Bank in 1998. The distance offshore increases as the station number increases. 47 was the only cruise in the two year sampling program that had consistent northwesterly winds (R. Thomson, pers. comm.). This may explain the elevated biomass during the July 1998 cruise. Both regions showed high variability but on average, variability was higher in the shelf region than the beyond shelf region. A3) ALONG-SHORE GRADIENT There was no consistent alongshore trend for the shelf or beyond shelf region in 1997 or 1998 (Figure 1.10). The transect where the highest biomass was measured was different during each cruise. In fact, during one cruise the maximum may be at one particular transect whereas for the next cruise the minimum may be at the same transect. For example, a north-south trend in the shelf region was observed during April 1997 (Figure 1.1 OA). Biomass tended to increase north of La Perouse Bank but then for July 1997, biomass decreased from the southern transect to the northern transect. For October 1997, the difference in biomass between Estevan Point and Barkley Canyon in the shelf region was signifiantly different (Tukey test, p<0.05). The result of an A N O V A test indicates highly significant differences between the transects during July 1998 (pO.Ol). A Tukey test showed a significant difference between Estevan Point and both Barkley Canyon and Brooks Peninsula (p<0.05), but no significant difference between Barkley Canyon and Brook Peninsula (p>0.05). A4) SUMMARY OF CHLORPHYLL CONCENTRATIONS In summary, chlorophyll was significantly higher in 1998 compared to 1997. A cross- shelf gradient was observed where chlorophyll was significantly higher in the shelf regions than in the beyond the shelf regions. There was no north-south gradient in the shelf or the beyond shelf region for 1997 or 1998. Chlorophyll was consistently higher in July relative to April/May or October for both study regions. Maximum biomass measured for the 2 study years was <20.0 48 mg chl m"3, or 428 mg chl m"2. During this study period, the highest biomass was measured in July 1998, which was the only cruise during the two year study that had conditions favorable for upwelling. o £ O o ta J? o £ 300 H beyond Shelf 1997 MM Beyond Shelf 1998 A/M Jy LZ] La Perouse Bank E3 Barkley Canyon Z3 Estevan Point • Brooks Peninsula Figure 1.10 Total chlorophyll of the shelf and the beyond shelf region of the La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. A=April, M=May, J=July and 0=October. 49 Table 1.6 Mean integrated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. (mg chl m"2) and coefficient of variation (CV; %) for 1997 and 1998 for shelf and beyond shelf stations along La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Mean for each cruise and each year are given. Date Region Chlorophyll Shelf Beyond Shelf CV Beyond Shelf n Beyond April 1997 La Perouse Bank 38.8 ±0.80 32.2+12.3 2.2 38 2 3 Barkley Canyon 61.0 ±13.5 18.9+11.3 22 60 4 3 Estevan Point 90.4+61.3 59.6 ±22.6 67 38 4 3 Brooks Peninsula 93.9 +63.6 55.2 ±20.3 68 37 2 2 WCVI Mean 71.0 ±34.8 41.4 ±16.6 38 43 112 111 July 1997 La Perouse Bank 187+122 36.6 ±15.8 65 43 5 2 Barkley Canyon 130+60.5 68.4 ±22.9 46 33 3 4 Estevan Point 80.4 ±25.7 30.1 32 - 3 1 Brooks Peninsula 38.8 ±7.3 45.2 ±38.2 19 85 3 3 WCVI Mean 109+53.9 45.1 ±28.2 41 40 114 110 Oct. 1997 La Perouse Bank 54.4 ±24.2 27.7 45 - 5 1 Barkley Canyon 29.6 ±6.0 38.3+6.80 20 18 3 3 Estevan Point 78.8+13.3 58.8+47.1 17 80 4 3 Brooks Peninsula 35.1 ±8.3 56.6+36.8 24 65 3 4 WCVI Mean 49.5 ±13.0 45.4+22.7 26 54 115 111 1997 WCVI Mean 76.5 ±45.8 43.9+15.5 60 35 41 32 May 1998 La Perouse Bank _ _ _ _ _ _ Barkley Canyon 113 +91.5 29.8 ±11.0 81 37 6 4 Estevan Point 61.5+22.3 34.8 ±12.1 36 35 4 3 Brooks Peninsula 95.4 71.2 ±16.0 - 23 1 6 WCVI Mean 89.8 ±37.9 45.3 ±13.0 39 31 111 113 July 1998 La Perouse Bank - - - - - - Barkley Canyon 94.1 ±28.4 54.6 ±11.1 30 20 4 4 Estevan Point 306 ±88.0 172 ±103.8 29 60 3 3 Brooks Peninsula 147 ±66.6 121 ±49.0 45 40 3 4 WCVI Mean 182+61.0 116 ±54.6 36 40 110 19 Oct. 1998 La Perouse Bank - - - - - - Barkley Canyon 103 ±53.8 37.2 +14.7 55 40 4 4 Estevan Point 120+64.2 48.1 ±10.4 54 22 3 2 Brooks Peninsula 152+62.5 37.0 ±6.80 41 18 3 4 WCVI Mean 125.0 ±60.2 40.8+10.6 50 27 111 H O 1998 Mean WCVI Mean 132+70.7 67.4 ±48.3 53 39 33 32 2 yr Mean WCVI 101 ±62.9 54 ±34.7 63 64 74 64 50 B) PHYTOPLANKTON ASSEMBLAGES Phytoplankton taxonomic analysis was completed at the same stations that primary productivity were measured. At a single station in each of the shelf and beyond shelf regions was two samples collected, one at each of the 55% and 1% surface light level. A list of all species found during 1997 and 1998 are listed in Tables 1.7 and 1.8. The category 'diatoms' includes all species listed in Table 1.7 and photosynthetic flagellates refers to all species listed in Table 1.8. Abundances of diatoms, nanoflagellates, and dinoflagellates for 1997 and 1998 are included in Table 1.9 and 1.20. Bl) TOTAL ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS On average, the total cell abundance was higher in 1997 (6.1 xlO 6 cells L"1) compared to 1998 (4.7 xlO 6 cells L"1), in contrast to higher biomass in 1998 compared to 1997 (Figure 1.11). The decrease in cell abundance in 1998 was due to fewer nanoflagellates and the increase in biomass in 1998 was due to increased presence of diatoms. Total cell abundance and total biomass were consistently higher in shelf regions than beyond shelf regions (Figure 1.11). For 1998, the difference in cell abundance and biomass between the two regions was significantly different (p<0.05). A seasonal trend was evident for total cell abundance for 1997 and 1998 (Figure 1.12). Generally total abundance peaked in July. For total biomass, a consistent seasonal trend was not observed for 1997 and 1998. In 1997, biomass peaked in July while in 1998 biomass peaked in May. 51 8-1 ¥2 Shelf m Beyond Shelf Figure 1.11 Interannual mean and annual means of total cell abundance and phytoplankton biomass ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf values are the mean of all shelf stations sampled and beyond shelf values are the mean of all beyond shelf stations. 52 0> o ^ c at < ° = o O 12 H 10 H 8 H 6H 4 H 2 H n=4 n=3 n=3 n=4 April July ' Oct. ' May ' July Oct a) (/> n E o m c S " 800 H 1400 1200 ^ 1000 c Q. O O 2 600 400 200 n=3 n=4 n=3 n=4 n=2 April 1997 July 1997 Oct 1997 May 1998 July 1998 Oct 1998 22 Shelf Beyond Shelf Figure 1.12 Seasonal variability of total cell abundance and phytoplankton biomass ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf meansare the average of all shelf stations sampled during each cruise and beyond shelf values are the mean of all beyond shelf stations during each cruise. B2) COMMUNITY STRUCTURE The phytoplankton community of shelf and beyond shelf regions were generally numerically dominated by nanoflagellates during the study period (Figure 1.13A). Generally nanoplankton were mainly composed of unidentified miscellaneous flagellates, but peaks of 53 Mantoniella squamata, Micromonas pusilla and coccolithophores were observed. Chrysochromulina spp. and Crypotomonas spp. were observed but they never dominated the nanoflagellate assemblage. B) Total Phytoplankton Biomass ES) Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates • Photosynthetic Dinoflagellates ZZi Diatoms E3 Nanoflagellates Figure 1.13 Contribution of each phytoplankton group to: A) total cell abundance, and B) total phytoplankton biomass (ug L"1) of the shelf and beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island for 1997, 1998 and the 2 yr mean. 54 Despite their numerical dominance, they contributed substantially less to total biomass due to their small size (Figure 1.13B). For 1998, a change in community structure was observed. The contribution of diatoms to total abundance and biomass increased significantly in 1998 from 1997 (p<0.05) (Figure 1.13). The increase was particularly notable for May and July 1998 (Figure 1.14). The diatom assemblage was frequently composed of Pseudo-nitzschia spp Chaetoceros spp., Skeletonema costatum, Leptocylindrus danicus, Detonula pumila, Asterionella glacialis. The contribution of diatoms to abundance and biomass was less in the beyond shelf region. The relative contribution of diatom to total biomass for the October 1998 cruise was low, which was expected since the cruise occurred after the fall transition had occurred. Three obvious features of the relative contribution of the different phytoplankton groups are: 1) diatoms tend to account for a high proportion of total biomass in April/May and July, particularly for the shelf region, 2) the contribution by photosynthetic dinoflagellates, dominated by Gymnodinium spp. tends to increase in the fall (Figure 1.14) and 3) heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominated by Gyrodinium spp., contributed the least to total cell abundance during the study period. The variability in cell abundance was higher for diatoms than for nanoflagellate during both study years. The variability of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates abundance was high. The variability in biomass was higher in diatoms than nanoflagellates during 1997, while for 1998 the variability was higher for nano flagellates. Mesodinium rubrum is a ciliate that contains chloroplasts (Taylor et al, 1971) and commonly blooms in upwelling regions. Generally the abundance was higher in the shelf region compared to the beyond shelf region; 4% of the total biomass was accounted for by Mesodinium rubrum in the shelf region compared to 1 % in the beyond shelf region. Abundance 55 and biomass were higher in 1997 relative to 1998. On average, they accounted for 5% of the biomass for 1997 and 1% for 1998. Generally, the contribution of Mesodinium rubrum to abundance and biomass was low during the study period. A) Shelf B) Beyond Shelf 1997 1998 1997 1998 EiSl Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates H i Photosynthetic Dinoflagellates Diatoms t-V'-Vl Nanoflagellates Figure 1.14 Contribution of each phytoplankton group to total cell abundance and biomass of: A) shelf and B) beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Groups contributing <2% were not included. 56 B3) SUMMARY OF PHYTOPLANKTON ASSEMBLAGES In summary, phytoplankton biomass was higher in 1998 due to increased abundance of diatoms. Diatom blooms in 1998 were mainly composed of Chaetoceros debilis and Leptocylindrus danicus. The phytoplankton biomass was higher in shelf regions than beyond shelf regions for all cruises and all transects. The biomass of diatom species dominated the shelf regions during the spring and summer cruises and autotrophic flagellates dominated the biomass during October. The contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates was generally low, but particularly during the fall, the relative contribution to abundance and biomass increased. A change in community structure was observed in 1998, with blooms of diatoms that were not observed during the 1997 season. 57 Table 1.7 List of diatoms identified from samples collected off the west coast of Vancouver Island from May 1997 to October 1998. X in 1997/1998 column signifies the diatom was observed in either April/May, July or October. Bacillariophyceae Species 1997 1998 Centric Diatoms Chaetoceros spp.* X X Chaetoceros compressus X X Chaetoceros convolutus X X Chaetoceros debilis X X Chaetoceros eibenii X Chaetoceros radicans X X Chaetoceros socialis X Detonula pumila X Leptocylindrus danicus X X Leptocylindrus minimus X X Proboscia alata (formally Rhizosolenia alata) X X Dactyliosolen fragilissimus (formally X X Rhizosolenia fragilissima) Rhizosolenia setigera X Guinardia striata X X (formally Rhizosolenia stolterfothii) Pennate Diatoms Asterionella glacialis X Cylindrotheca closterium X X Fragilaria spp. X Navicula spp. X X Nitzschia spp. X X Pseudo-nitzschia spp.* X X Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima * X X Pseudo-nitzschia pungens X Thalassionema nitzschoides X X Thalassiosira aestivalis X X Thalassiosira spp. * X X Thalassiosira rotula X Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii X X Skeletonema costatum* X X Synedra spp. X * Most abundant species Table 1.8 List of autotrophic flagellates identified from samples collected off the west coast of Vancouver Island from May 1997 to October 1998. X signifies species was observed in either April/May, July or October. Species 1997 1998 Dinophyceae Alexandrium tamarense X Ceratium kofoidii X Gymnodinium spp. X X Gyrodinium fusiforme X Gyrodinium spp. X X Katodinium rotundatum X X Prorocentrum balticum X Prorocentrum gracile X X Protoperidinium rhomboidalis X Protoperidinium spp. X Prymnesiophyceae Chrysochromulina spp.* X X Coccol ithophores X X Chrysophyceae Dictyocha speculum X Prasinophysceae Micromonas pusilla X X Mantoniella squamata X X Cryptophyceae Leucocryptos marina X Cryptomonad spp. X Ciliate Mesodinium rubrum X X * Most abundant species Table 1.9. Abundance of diatoms, nanoflagellates, autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates during April, July and October 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. LP=La Perouse Bank BC=Barkley Canyon, EP=Estevan Point, BP=Brooks Peninsula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. (—) indicates no sample taken, * indicates the most abundant group. Region Diatoms Nanoflagellates Autotrophic Heterotrophic 10s Cells I1 Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates 10s Cells 11 10s Cells r1 10s Cells r1 April 1997 LP-Shelf 0.96 46.1 * 0.16 0.08 LP-Beyond Shelf 0.23 12.2 * 0.08 0.09 BC-Shelf 1.52 96.6* 0.76 0.41 BC-Beyond Shelf 0.02 85.4* 0.02 0.14 EP-Shelf 14.2 33.3 * 0.25 0.16 EP-Beyond Shelf 2.67 75.4* 0.49 0.24 BP-Shelf 13.4 67.1 * 0.17 0.43 BP-Beyond Shelf 5.13 24.6* 0.78 0.15 Mean-Shelf 7.5 60.8 * 0.34 0.27 Mean-beyond 2.0 49.4* 0.34 0.16 July 1997 LP-Shelf 52.8* 37.2 0.23 0.19 LP-Beyond Shelf 0.01 4.58* 0.02 0.02 BC-Shelf 15.7 86.0* 0.22 0.16 BC-Beyond Shelf - - - - EP-Shelf 8.36 33.2 * 0.52 0.51 EP-Beyond Shelf 0.38 81.4* 0.10 0.13 BP-Shelf - - - - BP-Beyond Shelf 2.38 40.4* 0.34 0.28 Mean-Shelf 25.6 52.2* 0.32 0.29 Mean-beyond 0.92 42.1 * 0.15 0.14 October 1997 LP-Shelf 1.80 28.4* 0.20 0.19 LP-Beyond Shelf - - - - BC-Shelf 0.72 7.67* 0.05 0.12 BC-Beyond Shelf 0.31 16.4* 0.06 0.11 EP-Shelf 10.2 35.8 * 0.49 0.34 EP-Beyond Shelf - - - - BP-Shelf 0.32 64.3 * 0.32 0.34 BP-Beyond Shelf 1.68 47.8* 0.21 0.77 Mean-Shelf 3.26 34.1 * 0.26 0.24 Mean-Beyond 1.0 32.1 * 0.13 0.43 1997 Mean-Shelf 12.1 49.0* 0.31 0.27 1997 Mean-Beyond 1.3 41.0* 0.20 0.25 Table 1.10 Abundance of diatoms, nano flagellates, autotrophic dinoflagellates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates at 55% surface light depth during May, July and October 1998 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. LP=La Perouse Bank BC=Barkley Canyon, EP=Estevan Point, BP=Brooks Peninsula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. * = most abundant group. Region Diatoms Nanoflagellates Autotrophic Heterotrophic 10s Cells I1 Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates 105 Cells r1 10s Cells r1 10s Cells r1 May 1998 LP-Shelf 46.8* 3.32 0.52 0.44 LP-Beyond Shelf 0.01 43.6* 0.13 0.06 BC-Shelf 6.99 8.34 * 0.04 0.03 BC-Beyond Shelf 0.003 6.21* 0.01 0.02 EP-Shelf 1.20 30.3 * 0.07 0.64 EP-Beyond Shelf 74.4* 34.7 1.62 1.69 BP-Shelf 15.2 15.6* 0.02 0.06 BP-Beyond Shelf 8.55 11.5 * 0.02 0.12 Cruise Mean-shelf 17.5 * 11.7 0.16 0.29 Cruise Mean-beyond 20.7* 10.0 0.41 0.47 July 1998 LP-Shelf 8.19* 3.32 0.04 0.10 LP-Beyond Shelf 0.02 2.81 * 0.01 0.18 BC-Shelf 102 * 43.9 0.05 0.58 BC-Beyond Shelf 0.01 0.21 0.02 0.04 EP-Shelf 74.4 26.9* 1.62 1.68 EP-Beyond Shelf 0.01 8.29* 0.02 0.04 BP-Shelf 81.2 12.5 0.91 1.08 BP-Beyond Shelf 7.44 33.0 * 0.15 0.23 Cruise mean-shelf 66.4* 21.7 0.78 0.86 Cruise mean-beyond 1.86 9.06* 0.05 0.12 October 1998 LP-Shelf 0.55 4.55 * 1.45 0.34 LP-Beyond Shelf 0.39 37.7* 0.09 0.28 BC-Shelf 19.0* 15.0 0.12 0.35 BC-Beyond Shelf 0.09 1.18* 0.01 0.05 EP-Shelf 1.91 25.4* 5.87 0.57 EP-Beyond Shelf 0.18 17.0 0.48 0.17 BP-Shelf 1.18 9.15* 5.46 0.38 BP-Beyond Shelf 0.34 3.54 * 0.06 0.05 Cruise mean-shelf 5.66 13.5 * 3.22 0.41 Cruise mean-beyond 0.24 14.9* 0.16 0.13 1998 mean-shelf 29.9* 15.6 1.40 0.52 1998 mean-beyond 7.6 11.3 * 0.20 0.24 61 Table 1.11 Siurirnary of characteristics of shelf and beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Values are for 1997 and 1998. Units for parameters below are: M L , meters; temperature, °C, nitrate, uM; chlorophyll, mg chl m"2; CV, %) Shelf Beyond Mixed layer depth 11.8 23.2 Mixed layer temperature 11.9 12.8 Mixed layer salinity 31.1 31.5 N 0 3 1997 7.5 3.1 1998 4.6 1.6 2 yr mean 6.1 2.4 HP04 1997 0.7 0.4 1998 0.9 0.4 2 yr mean 0.8 0.4 Si(OH)4 1997 16.9 9.4 1998 10.3 4.0 2 yr mean 13.8 6.6 Total Chl surface range 0.21-19.7 0.12-12.7 1997 76.5 43.9 1998 132 67.4 2 yr mean 104 55.7 C V 63 64 % 1997 33 41 1998 2 32 2 yr mean 18 37 CV 75 14 % Diatoms 1997 38 24 1998 65 40 2 yr mean 52 32 C V 8 7 DISCUSSION West coast of Vancouver Island Variability was very high off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and often the standard deviation was similar to the mean. This makes it difficult of determine the significance of differences between regions and between years and therefore this thesis also contains comments on trends or patterns. Landry et al. (1989) have also shown that means of temperatures, salinities, winds, currents, nitrate and chlorophyll are only known within large limits of uncertainty. They also pointed out that the variability of these parameters was an important ecological parameter in its own right. Nutrients and biomass off the west coast of Vancouver Island were generally high but on several occasions and at several locations nutrient concentrations were at or near detection limits. Surface nitrate up to 14-15 p M was observed but on average nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid concentrations for the west coast of Vancouver Island were 4.1, 0.7 and 12 pM respectively for the study period. A maximum of 306 mg chl m"2 was observed and on average chlorophyll was 77.2 mg chl m"2 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Generally, the mixed layer depth was deeper and more saline in 1998 for both the shelf and the beyond shelf regions. This is reasonable considering more intense upwelling was observed in 1998, which would inject high salinity water into the surface layers. The mixed layer temperatures were on average similar for both years. On average, biomass was lower in 1997 than in 1998 while on average nutrients were higher in 1997 than in 1998. It is likely that the high phytoplankton biomass observed in 1998 was responsible for drawing down nutrient concentrations. This scenario is even more plausible considering the high intensity of upwelling and high flux of nutrients to the surface. Upwelling as a nutrient source should be higher in 1998 than in 1997. Depletion of surface NO3" in 1998 suggests primary productivity may have 63 been nutrient limited during periods. The seasonality of nutrient concentrations varied between years. In 1997, nitrate and silicic acid were highest in April and lowest in October, whereas in 1998 concentrations were the lowest in April and the highest in October. A distinct change in phytoplankton community structure occurred in 1998. During the 1997 cruises, the relative contribution of diatoms was low, but during the 1998 season the diatoms returned and contributed significantly to total biomass. This suggests that during periods of intense upwelling the fast growing diatoms outcompete other species. The various physical, chemical and biological parameters off the west coast of Vancouver Island varied considerably in the cross-shelf direction (E/W). For a summary of shelf and beyond shelf parameters see Table 1.11. The mean mixed layer depth was deeper, warmer and more saline beyond the shelf than in the shelf region. Nutrient concentrations and biomass were higher in the shelf region than in the beyond shelf region. The phytoplankton community structure of shelf and beyond shelf regions was distinct from each another. The diatoms had a greater contribution to total biomass in the shelf region than in the beyond shelf region. Generally the diatom assemblage was composed of Pseudonitzschia spp., Chaetoceros debilis, Skeletonema costatum, Asterionella glacialis, Dactyliosolen fragillissimus, but was dominated by Chaetoceros debtiis and Leptocylindrus danicus. The phytoplankton assemblage in the beyond shelf regions were composed of Chrysochromulina spp., and cryptomonads, but it was generally dominated by miscellaneous unidentified flagellates. In addition to cross shelf differences, physical, chemical and biological parameters varied considerably in the along shore directions (N/S). There was no consistent trend along the length of Vancouver Island for the shelf region or the beyond shelf region. The high variability in the cross-shore direction and along shore direction suggests environmental conditions vary considerably off the west coast of Vancouver Island. 64 The distribution of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass off the west coast of Vancouver Island showed considerable variation in time. Seasonality of biomass was similar in 1997 and 1998. The seasonal peak in biomass and diatom abundance for each year was seen in July for 1997 and 1998, while the highest biomass during the study period were measured in July 1998. During May and July 1998 the relative contribution of the diatoms reached 91 and 86% of total cell biomass. It is interesting to note that during the entire study, the July cruise was the only cruise that occurred during upwelling favorable conditions. Comparison with previous studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island A distinct cross-shelf gradient was observed during this study. This finding confirms previous results (Mackas, 1992) which showed a general cross-shelf gradient in physical, chemical and biological properties. The shelf was characterized by cooler temperature, lower salinity, higher dissolved nutrients, and higher biomass than the beyond shelf region. The lower salinity reflects the strong regional influence of the Vancouver Island Coastal Current (Freeland et al. 1984; Thomson et al. 1989). The results of this study are consistent with those reported by Mackas (1992). Denman et al. (1989) found that continental shelf waters are generally retained along the continental margin which may in part, explain the distinct characteristics of shelf regions and beyond shelf regions observed during this study. Nitrate concentrations reported by Mackas (1992) were similar to those found in this study. One different feature observed during this study was for May and July 1998 nitrate concentrations were frequently at or near detection limits, whereas Mackas (1992) found surface nitrate was very rarely depleted to undetectable levels. This difference may be explained by low upwelling during the strong El Nino. Chlorophyll concentrations reported by this study were similar to those reported by Mackas (1992), both in mean concentration and seasonality. 65 Comparison of the taxonomy data with other studies is limited since there have been no detailed taxonomic studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island, although Taylor and Haigh (1996) have examined the microplankton community structure of Barkley Sound. They found that the summer community was dominated by diatoms, typical of coastal waters. These observations are similar to results presented in this thesis and similar to results reported by Mackas et al. 1980; Perry et al. 1999. Taylor and Haigh (1996) reported over 14 harmful phytoplankton species in Barkley Sound. This study did not examine the distribution of harmful algal species specifically, but Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros convolutus, and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Gymnodinium auratum, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens were all observed during the study period. In addition, Taylor and Haigh (1996) suggested that strong dinoflagellate blooms are more common in the fall. This study has shown that the contribution of dinoflagellates was the highest in the fall of 1998. Comparison with other upwelling regions The nutrient and biomass distribution off the west coast of Vancouver Island are similar to the coastal upwelling areas off Washington and Oregon (Landry et al. 1989) and off California (Wilkerson et al. 2000). In general, nutrient and biomass concentrations were high (>5 uM) and a sharp cross-shelf distribution of nutrients and biomass were observed. Small and Menzies (1981) have shown that the highest biomass developed within 20 km of the shore. This is consistent with the results of this study. Landry et al. (1989) reported that concentrations of nitrate are replenished in the summer after the seasonal low in April caused by the spring bloom. During 1998, the year of intensive upwelling, this study has shown that nitrate was replenished after low concentrations found in May. 66 Low or undetectable levels of nutrients were found during 1998 which differs from previous studies (e.g. Mackas, 1992) that found detection limits were rarely observed off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Lower nutrient concentrations during the El Nino year compared to non-El Nino years are reported by Barber and Chavez, 1983; Barber and Chavez, 1986; and Wilkerson et al. 1987). It is possible that the strong El Nino during 1997/98 may have reduced the winter and summer nutrient supply to the shelf region allowing for rapid depletion of a smaller nitrate pool resulting in undetectable nitrate concentrations. Off the coast of Washington and Oregon depletion of nitrate was common, particularly after the spring bloom in April (Landry et al. 1989). The higher contribution of diatoms to the abundance and biomass during May and July 1998 is consistent with results found by Chavez (1996). Generally during upwelling conditions, he found high diatom abundance that dominated the phytoplankton biomass. S U M M A R Y O F C H A P T E R O N E In general, the physical, chemical and biological parameters showed interannual variability. Differences between the two sampling years include: shallower mixed layer in 1997; lower salinity and density in 1997; higher nitrate and silicic acid concentration in 1997; lower chlorophyll in 1997; higher phytoplankton abundance in 1997, lower phytoplankton biomass and lower diatom abundance and biomass in 1997. There was no difference between mixed layer temperature between 1997 and 1998. During 1997 nanoplankton dominated the community structure while in 1998, diatoms dominated. This suggests that the 1997 oceanic environment was not favorable for large cells, and was perhaps due to El Nino conditions. 67 CHAPTER 2 SIZE-FRACTIONATED BIOMASS AND PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY OFF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND Introduction There is increasing evidence of synchronous changes in the climate and the ocean environment in the Pacific Ocean (Beamish et al., 1999). Large fluctuations of Pacific salmon stocks, shifts in mesozooplankton abundance (Brodeur and Ware, 1992; Sugimoto and Tadokora, 1997), chlorophyll (Venrick et al. 1987) and nutrient distribution (Whitney et al. 1998) in this century are linked to changed in the climate and to physical changes in the ocean. It is reasonable to assume that if trends in climate match trends in fish, zooplankton and chlorophyll, then primary productivity may be impacted as well. A persistent trend in climate/ocean conditions is called a regime (Beamish et al. 1999b). It is important to recognize that physical and biological mechanisms may change when regimes shift. The regime shifts are important in fisheries management because the natural shifts may be large and sudden, requiring that these natural impacts be incorporated into management plans. In order to assess the possible climatic impact on ecosystem productivity, long term data bases are necessary because it is difficult to assess decadal trends when the database is less than 20 years. Often observations fail to examine critically important environmental disturbances such as ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events. The measurement of size-fractionated biomass and primary productivity is important to understand the response of the phytoplankton assemblage to fluctuating environmental conditions. A better understanding of the community response will further aid our understanding of the functioning of the pelagic foodweb. This is the first study of size- 68 fractionated biomass and primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island. In addition, this study examines a large fluctuation in the ocean regime and its impact on phytoplankton communities during 1997 (strong El Nino) and 1998 (strong La Nina). The goals of this study were to: (1) investigate the size structure of the phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity along the west coast of Vancouver Island, (2) determine if increases in biomass and primary productivity are due to the larger size fraction, and (3) determine if the size structure or total primary productivity was impacted during the strong ENSO event of 1997 and 1998. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total and size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity in the euphotic zone were investigated on 4 transects over the continental margin off the west coast of Vancouver Island. At each of the four transects, sampling stations were chosen in order to have one station on and one station off the continental margin, making a total of 8 stations (Figure 2.1). The transects were off La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula. Size-fractionated chlorophyll and size-fractionated primary productivity were measured on water samples collected at 6 depths corresponding to 100, 55, 30, 10, 3.5, and 1% of the surface light intensity (I0). 69 Chemical and biological measurements Water samples for nitrate + nitrite (NO3" + NCV), soluble reactive phosphate (HPO4 '), and silicic acid (Si(OFf)4) were collected at 6 depths in the euphotic zone and processed as outlined and discussed in Chapter 1. Figure 2.0 Location of study area off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dashed line is the 200 m contour. The box delineates the study area. CI, LC4, LG3, BP2 are shelf stations and LB 16, LC9, LG9, BP7 are beyond shelf stations. CI and LB 16 =La Perouse Bank transect, LC4 and LC9 = Barkley Canyon transect, LG3 and LG6 = Estevan Point transect and BP2 and BP7 = Brooks Peninsula transect. 70 Duplicate samples (0.5 L) for size-fractionated chlorophyll concentration (corrected for phaeopigments) were collected at 6 water depths in the euphotic zone and processed using parallel filtration. Water samples were filtered through 25 mm 0.7 pm glass-fiber filters (Whatman GF/F or A M D GF75) for total chlorophyll and through a 47 mm Nuclepore® 5 pm polycarbonate filter for the >5 pm fraction. Samples were extracted for chlorophyll and calculations were made according to the methods outlined in Chapter 1. The <5 pm size fraction was calculated as the difference between total chlorophyll and the >5 pm chlorophyll sample. To evaluate the contribution of the >5 pm sized cells to the phytoplankton biomass, the >5 pm size fraction values were calculated as percentages of the total phytoplankton biomass. Primary productivity During each cruise, an attempt was made to occupy process stations before dawn but sampling logistics and weather conditions sometimes prohibited this plan. Water was sampled using 10 L acid-cleaned PVC Niskin bottles fitted with silicone O-rings and Teflon-covered closure springs mounted on an instrumented rosette equipped with a Biospherical Instruments 4 7t light sensor. The PAR sensor trace was examined on the downcast to identify the six water depths corresponding to 100, 55, 30, 10, 3, 1% of incident surface photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Samples were transferred directly from the Niskin bottle to 70 ml acid- cleaned polycarbonate (Nalgene®) incubation bottles without using a siphon tube to prevent contamination (Price et al. 1986). The samples were maintained under low light conditions during all manipulations until the start of the incubation, usually within 1 h of sampling. Triplicate samples were taken for all depths except for the April 1997 samples where duplicates 71 were only taken at two depths. Triplicate dark bottles were collected at the surface and incubated with the 100% I 0 samples. A time zero sample was collected from the surface and filtered immediately after inoculation with NaH14CC»3 onto each of a 0.7 um and 5.0 um filter. The N a H 1 4 C 0 3 stock was stored refrigerated (5°C) but allowed to come to ambient temperature before inoculation of the samples. Samples were inoculated with 0.37 MBq (10 uCi) of N a H 1 4 C 0 3 New England Nuclear (NEC-086H) and incubated under natural light conditions in on-deck Plexiglas® incubators using neutral density screening to simulate the light levels from which the water was taken. The 100% I 0 incubation bottles were placed in clear polycarbonate bags. No attempt was made to correct for spectral properties of incident light. Recirculating surface water controlled temperature within ±2°C. All incubations were ~6 h in duration except during May 1997 when incubations were 24 h in length. A 100 ul sample of isotope stock was taken and added directly to scintillation vials containing 100 ul of ethanoalamine (Sigma Chemical Co.) which prevents H 1 4 C 0 3 from escaping to the atmosphere. This subsample was used to determine the total activity of 1 4 C added (DPM t ot). The incubations were terminated by gravity filtration through a cascade of a 47 mm, 5 um Nuclepore® polycarbonate filter and then filtered through a 25 mm, Whatman® GF/F 0.7 um filter using <100 mm Hg vacuum differential (Joint and Pomroy, 1983). The filters were gently sucked dry, rinsed with 15 ml of filtered seawater, folded and placed in a 20 ml scintillation vial. 250 ul of 0.5 N HC1 was added to each vial to eliminate the unincorporated inorganic N a H 1 4 C 0 3 and the vials were placed uncapped in the fumehood until the filters were dry (approx. 24 h). The samples were stored in the dark until processing ashore. 72 At the onshore laboratory, 10 ml of Readysafe scintillation fluor was added to the vials containing the filters. The vials were capped and stored in the dark for >24 h before the samples were counted on a Beckman® LS 6000 series liquid scintillation counterl Primary productivity was determined from the amount of 1 4 C incorporated into i particulate organic carbon and retained on a filter (Steemann-Nielsen, 1952; Parsons et al. 1984). Rates were calculated according to Parsons et al. (1984) to obtain mg C m"3 h"1. A time zero blank correction was used for all calculations to correct for 1 4 C adsorption to the filters. Hourly primary productivity rates were converted to daily productivity by dividing the primary productivity by the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. Light data were not available in October 1998 due to a datalogger failure. For conversion of October 1998 hourly primary productivity to daily primary productivity, the light data from October 1997 were used. Vertically integrated primary productivity was calculated by averaging the measured productivity between two depths and multiplying by the depth difference (Ichimura et al. 1980). The sum of these measurements yielded the hourly production integrated over depth and expressed as mg C m"2 h"1. To evaluate the contribution of the >5 pm cells to the primary productivity, the >5 pm size fraction values were calculated as percentages i of the total primary productivity. Dark bottles productivity rates were calculated but no dark bottle corrections were applied to the productivity values reported (Banse, 1993). The carbon assimilation rate is the photosynthetic rate per unit of chlorophyll and was calculated by dividing the hourly productivity rates (mg C m"3 h"1) by the chlorophyll concentration (mg chl m"3). The integrated assimilation number was calculated by dividing integrated hourly productivity (mg C m"2 h"1) by integrated chl concentration (mg chl m"2). 73 Statistical analysis of chemical and biological data j Replicate casts were not completed due to time constraints in the cruise schedule and the labor-intensive nature of this study. Replicate (and sometimes triplicate)! s a m p l e s w e r e routinely collected from each depth (i.e. from the same water sample) for analysis of size- fractionated chlorophyll and primary productivity. Replicate samples were oniy collected on glass fiber filters during April and July 1997. For the remainder of the cruises, replicate samples were collected on glass fiber filters and polycarbonate filters. The mean of the replicates is reported in this chapter. j i One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey test were used to examine ! spatial and temporal variation. For analysis of temporal variation, interannual and seasonal, the physical, chemical and biological data were grouped according to mean values} for the WCVI i and shelf and beyond shelf regions. For analysis of spatial variation, (i.e. the cross shelf and along shore direction), the data were grouped according to cruise and year. i j I RESULTS | The following sections will examine the distribution of biomass and productivity in j space and time. Three spatial scales will be examined: the mean of all stations will be referred to as the mean for the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI); how biomass and productivity | varies in a cross-shelf manner (West/East fashion) and how shelf and beyond shelf stations j vary in an alongshore manner (from the southern La Perouse transect to the northern Brooks i Peninsula transect). Three time scales will also be examined for each spatial scale: a 2-yr mean (1997 and 1998); annual mean for 1997 and 1998; and a cruise mean. I Very high variability was observed for chlorophyll and primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Trends and patterns will be discussed but the differences 74 between regions, cruises, or years were not statistically significant unless otherwise noted. A) Size-fractionated chlorophyll Size-fractionated chlorophyll analysis allows one to determine which size fraction of i phytoplankton was responsible for the measured changes in total chlorophyll. Integrated data ±1 S.D. from all stations sampled during 1997 and 1998 for size-fractionated chlorophyll were averaged for each cruise and for all 6 cruises and are given in Appendix J. The data are also stored in the Institute of Ocean Sciences Sidney, BC database. Vertical profiles of size- fractionated biomass are included in Appendix K. \ A1) MEAN VALUES FOR WCVI Annual and interannual means (WCVI) The >5.0 pm size fraction contributed substantially to biomass on the WCVI (Figure 2.1). On average over the two year study period, the >5 pm fraction accounted i for 46% of the I 2 i total chlorophyll. The 2-yr mean biomass for all cruises was 31.0 mg chl m jfor the <5 pm i fraction and 39.8 mg chl m"2 for the >5 pm fraction. In 1997, biomass was higher in the <5 pm fraction than the >5 pm fraction (Figure 2.1). The mean chlorophyll concentration for 1997 was 34.9 ±19.9 for the <5 pm fraction and was 30.6 ±35.7 mg chl m"2 for the >5 pm fraction. The relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction was greater in 1998 than in 1997. The mean chlorophyll concentration for 1998 was 27.1 i ±15.7 in the <5 pm fraction relative to the 48.9 ±58.8 mg chl m for the >5 pm fraction. In • i 1997, the >5 pm fraction accounted for 41% of the total chlorophyll, while in j 1998 the large i cells accounted for 50% of the total chlorophyll. j 75 140 H 120 H 100 80 60 H 40 20 H 2-yr mean " 1997 mean " 1998 mean E2 < 5 u m E53 > 5 um Figure 2.1 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf values are the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations, respectively. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction. 76 Seasonal means (WCVI) The contribution of the >5 um fraction was highest in April for 1997, while for 1998 the contribution of the >5 (am fraction was highest in July (Figure 2.2). The increase contribution seen in July 1998 was due to an increase in phytoplankton >5 um since there was no seasonal change in biomass in the <5 (am size fraction. 48% 44% , 32% , 41% „ 61% 48% 160 £ 140 o. S O 120 O p •o _ 100 Si -= « o | f> 80 o 2 60 T a> N W 40 n=4 20 H n=4 n=6 n=6 1 n=8 'A n=8 n=8 n=8 n=8 n=8 n=8 n=8 April 1997 July 1997 Oct. 1997 May 1998 July 1998 Oct. 1998 £2 < 5 fim HSI < 5 um Figure 22 Cruise means of <5 um and > 5 Mm chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction. 77 A2) CROSS-SHELF GRADIENT Annual and 2 yr means-cross-shelf The size structure and the relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction was different in the shelf and beyond shelf regions. Phytoplankton biomass in the shelf region was dominated by the >5 pm fraction, whereas at the beyond shelf region, the <5 pm fraction accounted for the highest proportion of biomass (Figure 2.3). For the 2 year study period, large cells accounted for 62% (range between 23 and 82%) of total chlorophyll of the shelf regions while in the beyond shelf region they account for only 29% (range between 5 and 71%). The observed difference in the relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction between the two regions was significant (p<0.01). 140 H Q- 120 o 100 H "g E 80 +J — CO .C C CJ O c, 60 o E ro — £z 40 0) N 55 20 o-̂ [23 < 5 pm m >5um Figure 2.3 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of all shelfand betond shelf stations sampled. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 pm fraction. 78 In the shelf region, the difference between the two size fractions was not significant whereas in the beyond shelf region, biomass was significantly higher in the <5 pm fraction (p<0.01). The biomass in the <5 pm fraction showed little cross shelf variation while the >5 pm fraction showed significantly higher biomass in the shelf region than in the beyond shelf region (p<0.01). Seasonal means-cross-shelf In 1998, in the shelf region, the contribution of the >5 pm fraction increased relative to 1997. In 1998, chlorophyll in >5 pm fraction increased 1.7-fold relative to 1997, whereas the chlorophyll in <5 pm fraction remained the same (Figure 2.4). The general pattern of higher biomass of the >5 pm fraction in shelf regions was evident during each cruise with the exception of the October 1997 cruise, when the small cells accounted for over 60% of the total chlorophyll (Figure 2.4). During all other cruises in 1997 and 1998, the >5 pm fraction accounted for the majority of the total biomass of shelf region whereas the <5 pm accounted for the majority of total biomass in beyond shelf regions. There was no consistent seasonal pattern for the relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction. For 1997, the relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction was similar in April and July, while for 1998 the relative contribution was highest in July . Seasonal changes in biomass and the lack of a consistent seasonal pattern in the relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction, suggest variable environmental conditions over the course of the season. The highest contribution of the >5 pm fraction during the two study years was in July 1998. 79 Percentage accounted for by > 5 um fraction £ 3 < 5 um E7H > 5 um Figure 2.4 Mean of size-fractionated chlorophyll ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in April (n=2), July (n=3) and October 1997 (n=4) and May (n=4), July (n=4) and October (n=4) 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf valuesare the mean of all shelf and beyond shelf stations. Numbers on the top of each pannel represents the precentage of the total chlorophyll that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction. 80 Transects-cross shelf The highest biomass for the >5 um fraction was measured in July 1997 at Barkley Canyon. In 1998 the highest biomass was measured in July at Brooks Peninsula but high biomass was also observed at La Perouse Bank and Estevan Point (Appendix K). In 1998, high biomass was measured in the shelf region of most transects suggesting all transects have the potential of favorable conditions for phytoplankton growth. The minimum for both size fractions was observed in 1997 whereas the maximum concentration for both fractions was observed in 1998. This fact coupled with a slightly higher contribution of large cells suggests that 1998 was a better growing year than 1997. Variability Size-fractionated biomass on the WCVI showed high variability on average, with a range of 8.7-80.0 mg chl m'2 for the <5 pm fraction and 1.8-213.1 mg chl m"2 for the >5 pm fraction. The relative contribution of the large size fraction also varied widely from a low of 5% to a high of 82% of the total chlorophyll. A3) DEPTH PROFILES OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED CHLOROPHYLL The relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction varied with depth in the water column in both the shelf and the beyond shelf regions (Figure 2.5 and 2.6). Only the values for July 1997 and 1998 are shown; the values for the remaining cruises are shown in Appendix L. The trends were clearer in 1998 than in 1997, but they showed that generally the contribution of the >5 pm fraction decreases with depth. 81 Q. P 5 Q C 0) o Q. 120 100 - 80 - 60 -_ 40 -j 20 - 0 La Perouse Bank Shelf 57% 120 La Perouse Bank Beyond Shelf 25% 100 - 80 - 60 - 40- 20 Barkley Canyon Shelf 82% 120 100 80 - 60 40 ~_ 20- Barkley Canyon Beyond Shelf no data are available 0 120 Estevan Point Shelf 49% Estevan Point Beyond Shelf 28% 100 - 80 60- 40 20 - I Brooks Peninsula Shelf no data are available 100 ' 55 ' 30 ' 10 ' 3 ' 1 ' Brooks Peninsula Beyond Shelf 24% 100 55 30 10 3 1 Percent of Surface Irradiance 123 < 5 urn fraction EZ3 > 5 Lim fraction Figure 2.5 Relative contribution of < 5.0 um size fraction and > 5.0 um size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1997. Relative contribution of > 5.0 um fraction to depth integrated chlorophyll is in right hand comer of each graph. Brooks Peninsula shelf and Barkley Canyon beyond shelf stations were not sampled. 82 120 - 100 - 80 - 60 - 40 - 20 - 0 • 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 120 100 80 60 40- 20 0 • 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 La Perouse Bank Shelf 70% La Perouse Bank Beyond Shelf 23% m Barkley Canyon Shelf 62% Barkley Canyon Beyond Shelf 7 1 % I 1 Ifv" i r Estevan Point Shelf 85% i l l Estevan Point Beyond Shelf 32% m i — r Brooks Peninsula Shelf i r 95% 100 55 30 10 ML WW Brooks Peninsula Beyond Shelf 26% (if* 3 ' 1 ' 100 55 30 10 Percent of Surface Irradiance E3 < 5 um fraction n > 5.0 um fraction Figure 2.6 Relative contribution of <5 um size fraction and >5 um size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1998. Relative contribution of >5 um fraction to depth integrated chlorophyll is in the right hand comer of each graph. 83 B) Total Primary Productivity Integrated primary productivity data for all stations during 1997 and 1998 averaged for each cruise, each year and for all 6 cruises (2 yr mean) are given in Appendix M . For this section, total and size-fractionated primary productivity will be discussed separately. Bl) WCVI-TOTAL PRODUCTIVITY The 2 yr mean primary productivity for the WCVI was 4.0 ±0.8 g C m"2 d"1 (range between 0.8 and 5.7 g C m"2 d*1). In 1997, primary productivity was on average higher (4.3 g C m"2 d"1) than in 1998 (3.4 g C m"2 d"1). There was no consistent seasonal pattern in primary productivity during the two years except during both study years the lowest productivity was measured always in October (Figure 2.7). In 1997, primary productivity was highest in April, while in 1998 primary productivity was highest in July. A/M 1997 A/M 1998 J 1 0 ~ ^ 1998 1998 Figure 2.7 Daily mean primary productivity ± 1 S.D. off the west coast of Vancouver Island for April, July and October 1997 and May, July and October 1998. Values are the mean of all stations sampled during each cruise. 84 B2) CROSS-SHELF GRADIENT 2 yr mean and annual means Primary productivity was generally higher in the shelf than the beyond shelf region (Figure 2.8). The 2 yr mean primary productivity was 5.1 ±2.7 and 2.0 ±0.1 g C m"2 d"1 in the shelf and beyond shelf region. On average over the study period, primary productivity was 2.6-fold higher in shelf regions than beyond shelf regions. During 1997, the difference between shelf and beyond shelf regions was less clear than in 1998. Primary productivity was on average 1.8-fold higher in shelf regions in 1997, whereas in 1998 primary productivity was 4.0-fold higher. 25- 20 > u 8 xi 15 £ E i « , J . S 10-I re 5 n=4 n=3 n=4 n=4 n=3 n=1 n=4 n=4 n=4 ii n=4 n=4 n = 4 Apr 1997 July 1997 Oct. 1997 May 1998 July 1998 Oct 1998 [22 Shelf H I Beyond Shelf Figure 2.8 Mean primary productivity ± 1 S.D. (g C m"2d"1)ofthe shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the average of all shelf and beyond shelf stations sampled. 85 Seasonal means The general trend of higher primary productivity in the shelf region was not observed during October 1997 or July 1998 when the primary productivity was slightly higher in the beyond shelf region of the Brooks Peninsula transect (Figure 2.9). The maximum difference between the two regions occurred in July 1998 when productivity was 6.5-fold higher in the shelf. No consistent seasonal pattern was observed in either the shelf or the beyond shelf region. For 1997, primary productivity in the shelf region was highest during April, while in 1998 the seasonal peak occurred in July. Variability Both regions showed high variability on average, with a range between 0.6 and 26.1 g C mf2 h"1 for the shelf region and 0.3 and 6.3 g C m"2 h"1 for the beyond shelf region. The variability in primary productivity during both years was similar in the shelf and the beyond shelf regions. B3) ALONGSHORE DIRECTION There was no consistent pattern along the length of Vancouver Island in shelf or beyond shelf regions for 1997 or for 1998 (Figure 2.9). The transect where biomass was the highest varied with each cruise. No alongshore gradient in primary productivity was observed for 1997 and 1998. 86 o 3 CM D_ 43 O I- 28 26 H 24 1 0 - 8 - 6 - 4 - 2 - 0 La Perouse Ba nk Barkley Canyon Estevan Point Brooks Peninsula A/M ' A/M ' 0 s in Hk II > > A/M A/M EZ3 Shelf 1997 ESI Beyond 1997 [31 Shelf 1998 • Beyond 1998 Figure 2.9 Total mean primary productivity of shelf and beyond shelf regions of the La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect off the west coast of Vancouver Island. One station wassampled for each of the shelf and the beyond shelf region of each transect. A/M=April and May, J=July and OOctober. C) Size-fractionated primary productivity Integrated data ±1 S.D. from all stations sampled during 1997 and 1998 for size- fractionated primary productivity were averaged for each cruise and for all 6 cruises and are given in Appendix M . CI) WCVI-SIZE-FRACTIONATED 2 year means Productivity was consistently higher in the >5 um fraction than in the <5 pm fraction for 1997 and 1998 (Figure 2.10). The 2 yr mean primary productivity was 1.1 ±0.6 and 2.8 ±0.7 g C m"2 d"1 for the <5.0 pm and >5.0 pm fraction, respectively. On average, primary productivity in the >5.0 pm fraction was 2.5-fold higher than productivity in the <5.0 pm fraction. On average, the >5 pm fraction accounted for 54% of the total primary productivity 87 of the W C V I . Primary productivity o f both size fractions was on average higher in 1997 than in 1998 (Figure 2.10). Size-fractionated primary productivity on the W C V I showed high variability on average, with a range o f 0.3-1.8 g C m"2 d"1 for the <5.0 pm fraction and 0.4-5.4 g C m"2 d"1 for the >5.0 pm fraction. Variability was higher in 1998 than 1997 for both size fractions (coefficient o f variation = 26 and 73% for <5 pm fraction for 1997 and 1998, respectively and 26 and 93% for the >5 pm fraction for 1997 and 1998, respectively). The relative contribution o f the >5 pm fraction varied widely from a low o f 44% to a high o f 62% o f the total primary productivity. Clearly the >5.0 pm fraction contributed substantially to primary productivity on the W C V I . S <5|jm ^ >5(jm Figure 2.10 Interannual mean and annua l m e a n s o f s ize-fract ionated pr imary product iv i ty ± 1 S.D. for the west coast o f Vancouver Island in 1997 a n d 1998. Number on the top o f each panel represent the percentage o f the tota l pr imary product iv i ty that w a s accounted for by the >5 pm fract ion. 88 Seasonal means There was no consistent seasonal trend in primary productivity for either fraction. For 1997, productivity was highest in April and for 1998, it was the highest in July (Figure 2.11). The highest productivity of the two years was measured in the >5 pm fraction in July 1998. There was no consistent seasonal pattern of the relative contribution of the >5.0 pm size fraction during 1997 and 1998. The relative contribution of the > 5 pm fraction was similar in 1997 and 1998, but was more variable in 1998 than 1997 (coefficient of variation in 1997 was 3% and in 1998 was 18%). > o 3 •o s Q. £• I "° & O c -2 o I 0) N V) 14 H 12 H 10 -\ 8 H 6 H 4 H 2 H 55% 55% 53% 62% n=8 n=8 n=6 n=6 April July 1997 1997 n=5 n=5 61% n 44% n=8 n=8 n=8 n=8 m n=8 n=8 Oct. 1997 May 1998 July 1998 Oct. 1998 IZ3 <5pm <5um Figure 2.11 Cruise means of <5 pm and > 5 pm primary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of shelf and beyond shelf stations during each cruise. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total primary productivity that was accounted for by the >5 pm fraction. 89 C2) CROSS-SHELF GRADIENT 2 year means Generally, the size structure of primary productivity of the two regions was different. In the shelf regions, primary productivity was dominated by >5 pm phytoplankton while at the beyond shelf region <5 pm phytoplankton accounted for the highest proportion of productivity (Figure 2.12). The >5 pm phytoplankton accounted for on average 72% (range between 67 and 86%) of total primary productivity of the shelf regions and only 36% (range between 23 and 75%) for the beyond shelf regions. Shelf region primary productivity of the >5 pm fraction was significantly greater than the productivity of the <5 pm fraction (p<0.05). Productivity in the >5 pm fraction was significantly higher in the shelf than in the beyond shelf region (Figure 2.12) There was no consistent trend in productivity for the <5 pm fraction and on average productivity was similar in both regions. Variability The variability in the shelf region was higher in the <5 pm fraction than the >5 pm fraction, in contrast to higher variability in the >5 um fraction than the <5 pm fraction in beyond shelf regions (see coefficient of variation in Appendix M) The variability of the >5 pm fraction was similar in both regions. For the <5 pm fraction variability was higher in the shelf than beyond the shelf. This implies that primary productivity in the small cells in the beyond shelf region is static while in the shelf region it undergoes changes and is dynamic. On average, variability was higher in 1998 than 1997 for both fractions and both regions. 9 0 > O 3 TJ s Q. |? I - c « £ E •o O CB c o u 2 T CD N tf) 12-T 10 8 H 6 H 4 H 72% JL 36% 69% 38% 78% 34% 2-yr mean n=21 2 A n=21 0 4 * Shelf n=19 n = =19 1997 mean n=11 n=11 1 Beyond 11 Shelf n=15 ~ T n=15 mm 1 B e y o n d 1998 mean n=12 n=12 Shelf E2 <5um E 3 >5 u m n=12 n=12 V2ZZML Beyond Figure 2.12 Interannual mean and annual means of size-fractionated primary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond shelf means are the mean of al l shelfand betond shelf stations sampled. Numbers on the top of each panel represent the percentage of the total pr imary productivity that was accounted for by the >5 um fraction. Seasonal Means The general pattern o f higher contribution o f the >5 um fraction relative to the <5 um fraction was not always observed; in October 1997, the <5.0 um fraction accounted for 59% o f the primary productivity at La Perouse Bank. The relative contribution o f the >5.0 um fraction in the shelf region was lowest in October in 1997 and 1998. This suggests that environmental conditions were not favorable for >5 um phytoplankton in the fall. There was no consistent seasonal trend in the beyond shelf region o f the relative contribution o f the >5 um fraction during 1997 and 1998 (Figure 2.13). A trend may be obscured by the fact that in October 1997 only one beyond shelf station (Brooks Peninsula) was sampled and during May 1998 the 91 phytoplankton community at Brooks Peninsula beyond the shelf was more typical of a shelf region. The highest productivity of the two years was measured in the shelf region in the >5 pm fraction in July 1998. Variability In 1997, the variability was greater in the >5 pm fraction than the <5- pm fraction in contrast to higher variability in the <5 pm fraction in 1998. In 1997, the coefficient of variation was 79% for the >5 pm fraction and 66% for the <5 pm fraction. In 1998, the coefficient of variation was 138% for the >5 pm fraction and 201% for the <5 pm fraction. The pooled data clearly show that the contribution of the >5 pm size fraction was greater at high biomass concentrations and high productivity rates, supporting the idea that in order to reach high biomass and productivity, large cells are required (Figure 2.14). The lack of data points in the bottom right hand corner show that high rates of primary productivity were not measured if large phytoplankton were not abundant. The pooled data also clearly shows the distinct characteristics of shelf and the beyond shelf regions. Generally, beyond shelf stations are grouped at the bottom left hand quadrant and are characterized by low total chlorophyll composed mainly of small cells and by lower productivity, also accounted for by the smaller cells. During the two years of this study, beyond shelf stations were never found in the top right hand quadrant. C3) DEPTH PROFILES OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF >5 pm FRACTION In the shelf region, the relative contribution of the >5 pm fraction was highest at the top of the euphotic zone and then decreased as the depth increased (Figure 2.15 and 2.16). The relative contribution of the <5 pm fraction generally increased as depth. At the beyond shelf region, the <5 pm fraction was generally high at all depths with a slight increase at the bottom of the euphotic zone. 9 2 Percentage accounted for by > 5 um fraction 20 - | 15 10 H 5 H 73% JL 73% 54% 38% 43% 48% 1997 Shelf 0 J ^ 1997 Beyond Shelf wAh f T i ^ r ^ vzmm; 20 - | 15 H 10 H 5 H May July Oct. May E2 <5um E 3 >5um July Oct Figure 2.13 Mean o f size-fractionated pr imary productivity ± 1 S.D. for the shelf and the beyond shelf region off the west coast of Vancouver Island in Apri l (n=2), July (n=3) and October 1997 (n=4) and May (n=4), July (n=4) and October (n=4) 1998. Shel f and beyond shelf values are the mean of al l shelf and beyond shelf stat ions Numbers on the top of each pannel represents the precentage of the total pr imary productivity that w a s accounted for by the >5 pm fract ion. 93 a 2 o sz u is p c o o co m A 100 -f 80 H 60 40 H 20 H o - l o o 0 • 0 o o o o o %o , 0 A o o • m m m m m 50 100 150 200 250 300 Total Chlorophyll (mg chl m"2) > 3 •o o Q. £• CO E B Q C o u CO m A 100 80 H 60 H 40 20 o - l o € o 0 0° o o o ° o ° o " B o ° o 0 0 * • • • 6 10 12 14 2 Total Primary Productivity (g C m ' d' ) o Shelf • Beyond Figure 2.14 Percent contribution of >5 um size fraction relative to: A) total chlorophyll and B) total primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Values are for all stations in 1997 and 1998 in the shelf and the beyond shelf region. 94 > o 3 •a o Q . CO E o c CD H Q. ' 100 ' 55 ' 30 ' 10 ' 3 ' 1 100 ' 55 ' 30 ' 10 ' 3 ' 1 Percent o f Surface I r radiance E3 < 5 um fraction E l > 5 pm fraction Figure 2.15 Relat ive contr ibut ion o f < 5 um size f ract ion and > 5 um size fract ion to pr imary product iv i ty at each l ight depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station o f each t ransect dur ing July 1997. Relat ive contr ibut ion o f > 5 pm fract ion to depth integrated pr imary product iv i ty is inthe right hand corner o f each graph. Brooks Peninsula shelf and Barkley Canyon beyond shelf stations w e r e not sampled. 95 100 55 30 10 3 ' 1 100 55 30 Percent of Surface Irradiance 10 E3 < 5 Mm fraction H) > 5.0 Mm fraction Figure 2.16 Relative contribution of < 5 Mm size fraction and > 5 Mm size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during July 1998. Relative contribution of > 5 Mm fraction to depth integrated primary productivity is in the right hand corner of each graph. 96 D) CARBON ASSIMILATION RATES Dl) MEAN VALUES FOR WCVI The 2 yr mean carbon assimilation rates for the WCVI were 4.0 ±0.8 g C mg chl"1 d"1 (range between 1.8 and 4.9). Carbon assimilation rates were on average similar in 1997 (4.4 g C mg chl"1 d"1) and 1998 (3.8 g C mg chl"1 d"1). There was no consistent seasonal pattern in carbon assimilation rates during the two years except during both study years the highest rates were measured in July (Figure 2.17). Variability was higher in 1998 than in 1997 (coefficient of variation in 1998=46% and in 1997=6%). (A CD co i_ c o re £ w CA CO O ° c € S CO O o O) E October 1998 Figure 2.17 Carbon assimilation rates ± 1 S.D. off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Values are the mean of all stations sampled during each cruise. 97 D2) CROSS-SHELF G R A D I E N T Carbon assimilation rates were on average higher in the shelf region than beyond the shelf (Figure 2.18). The 2 yr assimilation rates were 4.1 +0.8 and 3.8 ±1.1 g C mg chl"1 d"1 in the shelf and beyond shelf regions, respectively. No consistent seasonal pattern was observed for the shelf or the beyond shelf regions. Carbon assimilation rates in the shelf region were higher in 1997 than in 1998, while in the beyond shelf region rates were similar in both years. The differences between values in the shelf region were not significantly different from each other. During 1997 and 1998, the variability was higher in the beyond shelf region than the shelf region. April 1997 July ~" O c t "~ May 1997 1997 1998 July 1998 O c t . 1998 E3 Shelf ESI Beyond Shelf Figure 2.18 Carbon assimilation r a t e s ! 1 S.D. of the shelf and the beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf means are the average of all shelf stations sampled during each cruise and beyond shelf values are the mean of all beyond shelf stations during each cruise. 98 D3) ALONGSHORE GRADIENT There was no trend along the length of Vancouver Island for the shelf region for the 2 yr mean. Carbon assimilation rates were on average highest at Barkley Canyon and lowest at Estevan Point, but the differences between transects were not significant. The location of the peak carbon assimilation rate during each of the three cruises in 1997 and 1998 did not show a consistent pattern (Figure 2.19) and varied during each cruise and each year. In the beyond shelf region, there was a trend for assimilation rates to increase progressively from La Perouse Bank to Brooks Peninsula during each cruise in 1997 and 1998. </> CU 14 H 12 H 10 -\ =2 £ E ° •5) g> <n c co 0 O CD co O 8 H 6 H 4H 2 H PZl Shelf 1997 ES Beyond Shelf 1997 • Shelf 1998 E 3 Beyond Shelf 1998 Figure 2.19 Carbon assimilation rates of the shelf and the beyond shelf region of La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect off the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1997 and 1998. Shelf and beyond meansare the average of all shelf and beyond shelf stations, respectively. 99 Table 2.1 Summary of characteristics of shelf and beyond shelf regions off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Values are for 1997 and 1998. Units for parameters below are: M L , meters; temperature, °C, nitrate, uM; chlorophyll, mg m"2; PP, mg C m"2 d"1; carbon assimilation rates, m g C m g c h r 1 h ^ C V / Z o ) Shelf Beyond Shelf Mixed Layer depth 11.8 23.2 Mixed layer temperature 11.85 12.75 Mixed layer salinity 31.1 31.5 N 0 3 6.1 2.4 Total Chlorophyll range 24.3-226.7 11.9-147.8 97/98 Mean 95.6 49 Median 84.1 36.7 <5 um chlorophyll range 10.4-73.9 8.7-48.8 97/98 Mean 32.2 26.7 >5 um chlorophyll range 12.3-213.1 3.0-44.5 97/98 Mean 59.8 13.5 % contribution range 23-92 5-71 97/98 Mean 62 29 Total PP range 0.3-26.1 0.3-5.1 97/98 Mean 5.1 2.0 Median 2.8 0.9 CV. 52 4 <5 um PP range 0.1-3.2 0.2-3.8 97/98 Mean 1.0 1.1 >5 urn PP range 0.2-22.9 * 0.1-4.6 97/98 Mean 4.1 0.9 % contribution range 41-93 14-91 97/98 Mean 72 36 AN range 1.0-10.7 0.2-13.8 97/98 Mean 4.2 3.8 * 0-9.7 when one station was excluded DISCUSSION Distribution of biomass and primary productivity Total phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver were high. Surface biomass reached 13.4 mg chl m"3 and mean integrated chlorophyll biomass up to 227 mg chl m'2 was measured. Total chlorophyll greater than 100 mg chl m"2 and primary productivity >5 g C m'2 d"1 was frequently measured during all cruises. During most cruises primary productivity > 3 g C m"2 d"1 was common. On average, primary productivity was 4.0 g C m"2 d'1 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. On average, biomass was higher in 1998 than in 1997, while on average primary productivity was lower in 1998 than in 1997, mainly due to differences in the beyond shelf region. Whitney et al. (1998) have shown a shoaling and warming of the mixed layer depth in the 1990's and consequently reduced NO3" concentrations in the surface layer. Strong vertical stratification of the water column would effectively block the vertical flux of nutrients to the surface. Chapter one showed surface depletion of NO3" and a deeper mixed in 1998 layer suggesting nutrient availability may have accounted for some of the difference in primary productivity between the two years. Alternately, the role of solar radiation can not be ruled out since we do not have solar radiation for the full growing season. Solar radiation was only collected during the duration of the cruise and consequently no corrections for mean monthly solar radiation was made. Total solar radiation has a strong seasonal signal at mid-latitudes. Phytoplankton at mid-latitudes show a strong relationship to solar radiation (Perry et al. 1989) and therefore measurement of primary productivity during periods of cloud cover (below average daily solar radiation) will cause a reduction in primary productivity. 101 The distribution of phytoplankton biomass and productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island varied considerably in the cross-shelf gradient (E-W direction). During the two study years, phytoplankton biomass showed a 13-fold variability, ranging between 17.3 and 227 mg chl m'2. The surface biomass in the shelf region, ranged from 1.48 -13.4 mg chl m'3 while in the beyond shelf region, chlorophyll ranged between 0.17-6.35 mg chl m'3. Similarly, primary productivity varied considerably, ranging from 0.3-26.1 g C m"2 d"1. Biomass and productivity were generally higher in the shelf region, with the exception of Brooks Peninsula. It is important to note that in regions of generally high productivity, low rates are also measured, highlighting the variability in the region. Primary productivity variability was greater in the shelf region than the beyond shelf region. In addition to cross-shelf patchiness, the distribution of phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the long shore directions (N/S) was patchy and varied considerably. The location along Vancouver Island (i.e. La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula) where biomass was the highest varied during each cruise. At least once during the two year study period, the highest biomass was measured at each of the four transects. A weak trend of higher biomass at the northern end of Vancouver Island was observed for both the shelf and the beyond shelf regions. The high variability in the cross-shelf and alongshore directions suggests a wide range of environmental conditions exist off the west coast of Vancouver Island. It is likely that the alongshore and the cross-shelf currents play an important role in maintaining the patchy distribution of biomass and productivity. The distribution of phytoplankton biomass and productivity showed considerable variation in time. In April 1997, we had the opportunity to resample 4 stations within one week. During the second week, the chlorophyll biomass was often higher and NCV was lower 102 than the previous week. During the second week, nutrient depletion of the surface water was also evident to greater depths. No opportunity was available to resample on a shorter time scale. Seasonal variability was observed for biomass and productivity, but the seasonal patterns were not similar in 1997 and 1998. The seasonal peak was seen in April 1997 and in July 1998 for both biomass and primary productivity. Over the two year study period, the highest biomass and primary productivity were measured in July 1998. As was noted earlier, the July cruise was during a period of upwelling favorable winds. The July cruise was the only cruise during the study period that occurred during upwelling favorable conditions. The intensity of upwelling was higher in 1998 than 1997 (R. Thomson, pers. comm.) which may explain high biomass and productivity in July 1998. In July 1998, the phytoplankton community was composed of Pseud-nitzschia delicatissima, Chaetoceros debilis, Skeletonema costatum, Asterionella glacialis, and Dactyliosolen fragillissimus, but was it dominated by Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus danicus. Generally coastal environments are characterized by episodic pulses in biomass caused by chain forming diatoms and occasionally dinoflagellates (Malone, 1980). The phytoplankton assemblage off the west coast of Vancouver Island was consistent with this generalization. The high supply of nutrients during the spring/summer when solar radiation was high was responsible for the persistently high biomass and primary productivity that are characteristic of this upwelling region. Lower productivity measured during October of 1997 and 1998 was likely due to light limitation. Results from chapter one show light availability was lower during October relative to July and April. Nitrate concentrations were surprisingly low in October, with on average concentrations of 3.7 uM in 1997 and 4.7 uM in October 1998. Therefore, nutrient limitation can not account for the low October productivity rates. Variability was generally the highest during July (high 103 C V . relative to other cruises.) It is likely that the variance is due to the intermittent nature of upwelling during the summer. This thesis has shown the importance and substantial contribution of the >5 pm phytoplankton to biomass and primary productivity. The relative contribution of the >5 pm sized phytoplankton tended to increase as biomass and primary productivity increased. For example, during July 1998 when high biomass and productivity was measured, 73% of the phytoplankton community was composed of diatoms, mainly Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus danicus. We have also shown that in order to obtain high biomass and primary productivity large cells are required. This is consistent with modeling results obtained by Tremblay and Legendre (1994). The dynamics of phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity of shelf and beyond shelf regions were distinct in regard to community size structure and seasonality. The shelf regions tend to be dominated by >5 pm sized phytoplankton while the beyond shelf region was dominated by the <5 pm fraction, mainly various flagellates. This is consistent with previous observations that large phytoplankton cells tend to dominate in nutrient-rich coastal waters while small cells are characteristic of nutrient-poor waters (Malone, 1971). Primary productivity in the shelf region was higher than primary productivity in the beyond shelf region. The higher rates measured in the shelf region were due to >5 pm sized phytoplankton since the rates measured for the <5 pm fraction were similar in both regions. Beyond shelf regions are generally characterized by the dominance of the smaller fraction as shown in Figure 2.14 where beyond shelf stations are generally clustered in the bottom left hand corner of the plot. Frequently, the beyond shelf region of Brooks Peninsula showed characteristics more similar to the shelf region. This is not surprising considering the narrow width of the shelf at 104 Brooks Peninsula. There is a high probability that freshly upwelled water and biomass can quickly be transported beyond the 200 m contour. In addition, wind-driven upwelling filaments (jets) recurrently develop off Brooks Peninsula, and transport a substantial proportion of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass from the shelf to the deep ocean (Forbes etal. 1991). 105 Comparison with previous studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island Previous studies off the west coast of Vancouver Island by Denman et al. (1981) have focused on the southern margin of Vancouver Island. Their region of study overlaps with my measurements on the La Perouse Bank and Barkley Canyon. Denman et al. (1981) found 2 persistent areas of high biomass and high productivity located parallel to the coast, one near the outer edge of the shelf region and the other <20 km offshore. During July 1998, this study found two regions of high biomass that closely match the area described by Denman et al. (1981). On average (mean of maximum values for the three cruises), the maximum biomass and productivity found by Denman et al. (1981) were higher than those reported in this thesis. Their maximum biomass reached 38.5 mg chl m'3, while the maximum measured during this thesis was 20.4 mg m'3. Lower measurements of biomass is reasonable considering Venrick et al. (1987) has shown chlorophyll was higher and sea surface temperature was lower in the early 1980's, the period of Denman et al.'s (1981) study, compared to the early 1970's. Considering that above average sea surface temperatures were observed during the 1990's, leads one to hypothesis that chlorophyll levels would be lower in the 1990's compared to the 1980's. Denman et al. (1981) also found that on average maximum productivity reached 82 mg C m'3 h"1 whereas in this study on average, the maximum was 40.4 mg C m'3 h"1. The carbon assimilation numbers that were reported by Denman et al. (1981) were similar. The primary productivity rates measured in this study are similar to those found by Whitney et al. (1999). They reported primary productivity values of 2.4 g C m"2 d"1, which is lower than values found in this thesis, but considering the more offshore nature of their station (P4) relative to the regions in this thesis, lower values for their station would be expected. 106 The high spatial and temporal heterogeneity is in close agreement with Boyd et al., (1999). Boyd et al. (1999) reported marked seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity at an offshore P4 station (depth 1300 m). The present study found beyond shelf regions were dominated by <5 pm sized phytoplankton which is similar to the community structure found by Boyd et al. (1999). A general cross-shelf gradient in phytoplankton biomass has been reported by Mackas, (1992) and Perry et al. (1999). Generally, the shelf region was characterized by higher chlorophyll concentrations than beyond the shelf region. Mackas (1992) found that for zooplankton biomass the outer shelf had the least seasonal variability, which is similar to the low variability I found for chlorophyll and primary productivity in the beyond shelf region. The elevated biomass and primary productivity and the carbon assimilation rates for the beyond shelf region off Brooks Peninsula are consistent with results by Forbes et al. (1986). A comparison of size-fractionated biomass and primary productivity with previous studies in the area is not possible since this is the first study to examine size-fractionated biomass and primary productivity. However, a comparison with results of a one-dimensional simulation model of plankton and fish production was made. Robinson and Ware (1999) found annual diatom production was lower in 1997 than 1998 which agrees with observations from this study that the >5 pm biomass and productivity were lower in 1997 than in 1998 and the relative contribution to biomass by the large fraction was lower in 1997. Primary productivity for the southern margin was 3.5 mg C m'2 d"1 in 1997, lower than 4.0 mg C m"2 d"1 in 1998. The results of this study agree well with model simulation results. Robinson and Ware (1998) found diatom production has steadily declined since the mid-1980s, largely due to a decrease in 107 upwelling intensity. This observation may help explain lower biomass and primary productivity in this study compared to values found by Denman et al. (1981). Comparison with other upwelling regions Phytoplankton dynamics found for coastal upwelling regions off Washington are similar to results obtained in this thesis off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Coastal Zone Color Scanner images off the Washington coast showed patchy distribution of biomass and features such as jets were common (Perry et al. 1989). High phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity in the coastal upwelling areas off Washington were reported by Perry et al. (1989). In the shelf region, biomass ranged from 1-11.0 mg chl m"3, while the range for the beyond shelf region was 0.3-8.5 mg chl m'3. Perry et al. (1981) found a general cross-shelf gradient in biomass and productivity, which agrees with the results of this study. Generally, the primary productivity off Washington was 4 g C m"2 d"1 in the shelf region, higher than 1.5 g C m'2 d"1 in the beyond shelf region. These rates are close to those found in this study, which was 5.1 g C m"2 d"1 in the shelf region and 2.0 g C m'2 d"1 in the beyond shelf region. Generally, primary productivity off the coast of Washington was highest in the spring, but Perry et al. (1989) also found equally high rates in the summer. This is consistent with the results of this study that found the highest primary productivity in the spring of 1997 and in the summer of 1998. Phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity was on average higher off the west coast of Vancouver Island than found for Monterey Bay, CA. (Wilkerson et al. 1999), but the results of this study agree closely with the relative contribution by the >5 um size fraction reported by Wilkerson et al. (1999). Wilkerson et al. (1999) found that the larger sized phytoplankton (>5 um fraction) contributed significantly to biomass and productivity in 108 Monterey Bay. On average, the >5 um fraction accounted for 50% of the total chlorophyll and 56% of the primary productivity (Wilkerson et al. 1999) compared to 49% of total chlorophyll and 57% of primary productivity found off the west coast of Vancouver Island. S U M M A R Y Primary productivity and biomass were high off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The >5 pm phytoplankton contributed significantly to biomass and primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island and the relative contribution of the >5 pm cells increased as the phytoplankton biomass or productivity increased. This study has shown that high phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity develop due to the presence of large cells, which were predominately diatoms. Phytoplankton in the beyond shelf region tended to be dominated by the <5 pm size fraction, while in the shelf region the >5 pm size fraction dominated. The phytoplankton assemblage in the beyond shelf region was composed of various flagellates, while diatoms dominated by Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus danicus, were common in the shelf region. On average, the relative contribution of the >5 pm size to total chlorophyll was 62% in the shelf region compared to 29% in the beyond shelf region. Similarly, the relative contribution of the >5 pm size fraction to primary productivity was 72% in the shelf region, while only 36% in the beyond shelf region. Clearly, the size structure of biomass and primary productivity were different for the shelf and the beyond shelf regions. 109 G E N E R A L DISCUSSION This study was conducted during an extreme ENSO event. One of the strongest ever recorded El Nino event occurred during 1997/98, the first year of this sampling program. Conversely, a strong La Nina event was recorded during 1998/99, the second year of this sampling program. The 1997/98 El Nino event peaked in February 1998 and ended abruptly in May of 1998 but sea surface temperatures in the coastal regions remained slightly higher than average until December 1998 (Freeland, 1998). The April 1997 cruise occurred before temperature anomalies were observed off the west coat of Vancouver Island, while the July and October 1997 cruises occurred during the 1997/98 El Nino event. The May, July and October 1998 cruises occurred during the 1998-99 La Nina event. One would expect interannual variability in the ocean climate given the magnitude of this most recent climatic oscillation. This study has shown the mixed layer was shallower and less saline in 1997. This suggests that the level of upwelling was lower in 1997 than 1998. Examination of a 30 year record of upwelling intensity revealed that the lowest index of upwelling occurred during 1997 (I. Perry, pers. comm.). Despite lower upwelling in 1997 relative to 1998, nitrate and silicic acid concentrations were higher in 1997, the year of less intense upwelling. Nutrient concentration is a non-conservative tracer and is influenced by the biological community. Lower nutrient concentrations in 1998 are not surprising considering phytoplankton biomass, particularly diatom biomass was higher in 1998 which would allow for rapid depletion of the nutrient pools. In fact, nitrate concentrations near or at detection limits were frequently measured. Lower nutrient concentrations observed in this study agree with Whitney et al. (1998) who found that nitrate during 1998 was lower than the 1969-1981 average nitrate concentration. 110 The dominant time scale of variability off the west coast of the biology and physics such as ocean currents, is the annual cycle (Denman et al. 1989). On a shorter time scale, current flucuatations have time scales of the order of 10 days and winds events occur on the order of days. Turnover times for phytoplankton are typically days therefore during the course of each cruise the phytoplankton are exposed to flucuating physical conditions. The arrival time at stations during the cruises was random, therefore the chance to arrival at at station before or after a wind event is equal. Denman et al. (1989) suggest that if data was collected frequently enough, on the order of days to weeks, interannual and interdecadal anomalies can be clearly shown. The 1997 annual mean averaged results for 2 cruises during the El Nino while the 1998 annual mean averages results for 3 cruises during the La Nina. Given the random arrival time at the stations, the near equal time scale for biological and physical events and the equal distribution of cruises between El Nino and La Nina events the annual means presented in this study are valid. This study has also shown that the shelf and beyond shelf regions showed distinct physical, chemical and biological parameters. Temperature, salinity, density, chlorophyll, phytoplankton abundance, total phytoplankton biomass and diatom biomass all showed a strong cross-shelf gradient. Generally, the shelf region tended to be more productive than the beyond shelf region. The cross-shelf gradient is influenced by the Vancouver Island Coastal Current, which acts as a barrier to exchange between the shelf and the beyond shelf regions (Thomson et al. 1989). Thomson et al. (1989) also suggested that the current might act as a conduit for alongshore transport. This study did not find a consistent pattern of long shore distribution of nutrients, biomass or productivity. This does not exclude the possibility that a latitudinal gradient exists or that the VICC does not influence the distribution of chemical and i l l biological parameters. Although this study was extensive both in time and space, the cruises were only for 2-3 weeks, three times per year and only provided a snapshot of conditions. Satellite images could expand the time series and fill in gaps between cruises. The VJ.CC is a physical feature that acts as a barrier to exchange across the shelf break, while spatially localized jet-like currents that transport shelf water offshore act as a conduit for exchange Denman et al. (1989). This study found evidence of this at the Brooks Peninsula transect, since biomass and productivity in the beyond shelf region were frequently similar to that found in the shelf region. This study has shown the substantial contribution that the >5 pm sized phytoplankton make to biomass and productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The relative importance was higher in the shelf region as was the abundance of diatoms. This study has shown that large cells (>5 pm) are largely composed of diatoms. Frequently, Chaetoceros spp. and Leptocylindrus danicus dominated the assemblage when high chlorophyll concentrations and high primary productivity were measured. In the beyond shelf region, various flagellates dominated the assemblage, resulting in a lower contribution of >5 pm phytoplankton. In addition, high biomass and productivity were measured when the assemblage was dominated by large cells, not small cells. This implies that in order to obtain high biomass or productivity, large cells must be present. The dominance of large cells has important ramifications for the local food chain. Larger cells tend to support a shorter food chain leading to more efficient transfer of energy to upper trophic levels (Ryther, 1969). The dominance of large cells perhaps explains why the La Perouse Bank has historically supported a diverse and highly productive fishery (Ware and Thomson, 1991). The size structure of the phytoplankton community has important implications for the downward flux to sediments, since the 112 magnitude of the downward flux is dependent on the assemblage structure (Michaels and Silver, 1988). It is more likely that larger phytoplankton will contribute more significantly to the vertical flux than smaller sized phytoplankton. This study has shown that there is variability in the size structure of the phytoplankton community that must be considered in modeling efforts. This study described the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of four transects off the west coast of Vancouver Island. This was the first study to investigate: 1) size-fractionated biomass and rates of size-fractionated primary production along transects off the west coast of Vancouver Island; b) phytoplankton species composition from the southern to the northern margin of Vancouver Island; and c) the relative contribution of small and large cells to biomass and primary productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island. 113 F U T U R E R E S E A R C H The results of this study have suggested additional studies that warrant further examination. Suggestions for future research include: a) Further studies on size-fractionated biomass and productivity in the beyond shelf region to determination the relative contribution of picoplankton, particularly during periods of surface nutrient depletion. The beyond shelf region had low biomass, low nutrients and was dominated by the <5 um size fraction and it is likely that small picoplankton cells which have favorable nutrient uptake rates, contributed to the biomass and productivity. The relative contribution of picoplankton in the shelf region is likely to be much less important. The shelf region is generally nutrient rich and therefore the competitive advantage of the small cells would be outweighed by diatoms rapid nutrient uptake rates. b) Compare rates of nitrogen uptake to rates of primary productivity to examine if uptake rates approach Redfield ratios. c) Examine primary productivity in an upwelling jet to determine physiological changes that occur as water is advected offshore. Does the sequence of changes conform to the "conveyor belt" proposed by Dugdale and Wilkerson (1985)? d) Determination of primary productivity on the shelf break. High biomass is often found at the frontal edge between the shelf and the beyond shelf region. 114 L I T E R A T U R E CITED Armstrong, F.A.J., C R . Stearns and J.D.H. Strickland. 1967. The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment. Deep-Sea Res. 14: 381-389. Brainard, R E . and D.R. Mclain. 1985. Seasonal and interannual subsurface temperature variability off Peru, 1952-1984. In: D. Pauly and I. Tsukayama. (eds.) The Peruvian anchoveta and its upwelling ecosystem: three decades of change. Instituto del mar del, Peru, Callao, Peru, pp 14-45. Banse, K. 1993. On the dark bottle in the I 4 C method for measuring marine phytoplankton production. In: W.K.W. Li . and S.Y. Maestrini (eds.) Measurement of primary production from the molecular to the global scale. ICES mar. Sci. Symp. 197: 132- 140. Barber, R.T. and F.P. Chavez. 1983. Biological consequesnces of El Nino. Science. 222: 1203-1210. Barber, R.T. and F.P. Chavez. 1986. Ocean variability in relation to living resources during the 1982-83 El Nino. Nature 319: 279-285. Barber, R.T. and S.A. Huntsman. 1977. Copper ion activity: the inherent toxic factor in natural deep ocean sea water. Eos. 58: 116. Barber, R.T. and R.L. Smith. 1981 Coastal upwelling ecosystems. In: Analysis of marine ecosystems. AR.Longhurst (ed.) Academic Press, New York, pp. 31-68. Beamish, R.J. 1993. Climate and exceptional fish production off the west coast of North America. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50: 2270-2291. Beamish, R.J. and D.R. Bouillon. 1993. Pacific Salmon production trends in relation to climate. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50: 1002-1016. Beamish, R.J., G.A. McFarlane and R E . Thomson. 1999. Recent declines in the recreational catch of coho salmon {Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Strait of Georgia are related to climate. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 506-515. Beamish, R.J., D.J. Noakes, G.A McFarlane, L. Klyashtorin, V .V. Ivanov and V. Kurashov. 1999b. The regime concept and natural trends in the production of Pacific salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 516-526. Berger, W.H., V.S. Smetacek and G. Wefer. 1989. Ocean productivity and paleoproductivity- An overview. In: W.H. Berger, V.S. Smetacek. and G.W. Wefer (eds.), Productivity of the Ocean: Present and Past. J. Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 1-34. 115 Bienfang, P.K. and D.A. Ziemann. 1992. The role of coastal high latitude ecosystems in global export production. In P.G. Falkowski and A.D. Woodhead (eds.) Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea. Plenum, NY, pp. 285-297. Boyd, P.W. and P.J. Harrison. 1999. Phytoplankton dynamics in the N E subarctic Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II 46(11-12): 2405-2432. Boyd, P.W., D.L. Muggli, D E . Varela, R.H. Goldblatt, R.Chretien, K.J. Orians and P.J. Harrison 1996. In vitro iron enrichment experiments in the N E subarctic Pacific. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.136: 179-193. Boyd, P.W. and C S . Laws. 2001. The Southern Ocean iron release experiment (Soiree)-and introduction and summary. Deep-Sea Res. II48: 2425-2438, Brink, K .H. , B.H. Jones, J . C Van Leer, C.N.K. Mooers, D.W. Stuart, M R . Stevenson, R . C Dugdale, G.W. Heburn. 1997. Physical and biological structure and variability in an upwelling center off Peru near 15°S during March, 1977. In: Upwelling and Biological Systems, F. A. Richards (ed.), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. pp.473-495. Brodeur, R.D. and. D.M. Ware. 1992. Long-term variability in zooplankton biomass in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Fish. Oceanogr.l: 32-38. Chavez, F.P. 1996. Forcing and biological impact of onset of the 1992 El Nino in central California. Geophy. Res. Letters 23: 265-268. Coale, K .H. , K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Gordon, S. Tanner, F.P Chavez, L . Ferioli, C. Sakamoto, P. Rogers, F. Millero, P. Steinberg, P. Nightingale, D. Cooper, W.P. Cochland, M R . Landry, J. Constantinou, G. Rollwagen, A. Trasvina and R. Kudela 1996. A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific ocean. Nature 383: 495-501. Crawford, W.R. and R.K. Dewey. 1989. Turbulence and mixing: sources of nutrients on the Vancouver Island continental shelf. Atmos-Ocean 27: 428-442. Cushing, D.H. 1989. A difference in structure between ecosystems in strongly stratified waters and in those that are only weakly stratified. J. Plank. Res. 1-13. Denman, K . L . , H.J. Freeland and D.L. Mackas. 1982. An upwelling gyre off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Lighthouse. 7-9. Denman, K . L . , H J. Freeland and D.L Mackas. 1989. Comparisons of time scales of biomass transfer up the marine food web, and coastal transport processes. In: R.J Beamish and G. A. McFarlane (eds.) Effects of ocean variability on recruitment and an evaluation of parameters used in stock assessment models. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., pp. 108, Ottawa. 116 Denman, K . L . , D.L. Mackas, H.J. Freeland, M.J. Austin and S.H. Hill. 1981. Persistent upwelling and mesoscale zones of high productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. In F. A. Richards (ed.) Coastal upwelling. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. pp. 514-521. Dickson, R.R., J. Meincke, S.A. Malmberg and A J . Lee. 1988. The "Great Salinity Anomaly" in the northern North Atlantic 1968-1982. Progr. Oceangr. 20: 2003-151 Dodimead, A.J., F. Favorite, T. Hirano. 1963. Review of the oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region. Int. North Pac. Fish. Comm. Bull. 13: 195p. Dugdale, R.C. 1967. Nutrient limitation in the sea: dynamics, identification and significance. Limnol. Oceanogr.12: 685-695. Dugdale, R.C. and F.P. Wilkerson. 1998. Silicate regulation of new production in the equatorial Pacific upwelling. Nature 391: 270-273. Enfield, D.B., 1981. Thermally driven wind variability in the planetary boundary layer above Lima, Peru. J. Geophys. Res. 86: 2005-2016. Enfield, D.B. and J.S. Allen. 1980. On the structure and dynamics of monthly mean sea-level anomalies along the Pacific coast of North and South America. J. Phys. Oceangr. 10(4): 557-578. Eppley, R.W., J.N. Rogers and J.J. McCarthy. 1969. Half-saturation constants for uptake of nitrate and ammonium by marine phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr.14: 912-920. Falkowski, P.G. 1994. The role of phytoplankton photosynthesis in global biogeochemical cycles. Photosyn. Res. 39: 235-258. Falkowski, P.G. and J. LaRoche. 1991. Acclimation to spectral irradiance in algae. J. Phycol. 27: 8-14. Favorite, F., A.J. Dodimead and K. Nasu 1976. Oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region, 1960-71. Int. North Pac. Fish. Com. Bull. 33: 1-187. Forbes, J.R. and K.L . Denman. 1991. Distribution of Nitzschia pungens in coastal waters of British Columbia. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 960-967. Forbes, JR. , K .L . Denman and D.L. Mackas. 1986. Determination of photosynthetic capacity in coastal marine phytoplankton: effects of assay irradiance and variability of photosynthetic parameters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 32: 181-191. Forbes, JR., K . L Denman and R E Thomson. 1992. Losses of continental shelf production to the deep ocean off Brooks Peninsula. In: R E . Thomson and D M . Ware (eds.), La Perouse project-seventh annual progress report 1991. Fisheries and Oceans, pp.52-57 117 Freeland, H.J. 1988. Langrangian statistics on the Vancouver Island shelf. J. Mar. Res. 40: 1069-1093. Freeland, H.J., W.R. Crawford and R.E. Thomson. 1984. Currents along the Pacific Coast of Canada. Atmos.-Ocean 22: 151-172. Freeland, H.J. and K . L . Denman. 1982. A topographically controlled upwelling center off southern Vancouver Island. J. Mar. Res. 40: 1069-1093. Gammon, R.H., E.T. Sundquist and P.J. Fraser. 1985. History of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the carbon cycle. J.R. Trabalks (ed.), U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C. pp. 25-63. Geider, R.J. 1988. Abundances of autotrophic and heterotrophic nanoplankton and the size distribution of microbial biomass in the southwestern North Sea in October 1986. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 123: 127-145. Hager, S.W. L.I. Gordon and P.K. Park. 1968. A practical manual for the use of the Technicon Autoanalyzer in seawater nutrient analysis. Tech. Rep. 68-33, Dept. of Oceanogr., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, pp. 31. Hargreaves, N.B., D M . Ware and G. A McFarlane. 1984. Return of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) to the British Columbia coast in 1992. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 460-463. Harrison, P.J., M.H. Hu, Y.P. Yang and X. Lu. 1990. Phosphate limitation in estuarine and coastal waters of China. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 140: 79-87. Hickey, B .M. 1979. The California current system-hypothesis and facts. Prog, in Oceanogr. 8: 191-279. Huntsman, S.A. and R.T. Barber. 1977. Primary production off northwest Africa: the relationship to wind and nutrient conditions. Deep-Sea Res. 24: 25-33. Hutchins, D.A. and K.W. Bruland. 1998. Iron-limited diatom growth and Si:N uptake ratios in a coastal upwelling regime. Nature 393: 561-564. Ichimura, S., T.R. Parsons, M . Takahashi and H. Seki. 1980. A comparison of four methods for integrating 14C-primary productivity per unit area. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jap. 36: 259- 262. Joint, I.R. and A.J. Pomroy. 1983. Production of picoplankton and small nanoplankton in the Celtic sea. Mar. Biol.77: 19-27. Joint, I.R, A. Pomroy, G. Savidge, P. Boyd. 1993. Size-fractionated primary productivity in 118 the Northeast Atlantic in May-June 1989. Deep-Sea Res. 40: 423-440. Jones, B.H. , A. Pomroy, G. Savidge, and P. Boyd. 1983. Observations of a persistent upwelling center off Point Conception, California. In. E . Suess and J. Thiede (eds.) Coastal Upwelling: Its sediment record. Plenum, pp. 37-60. Karl, D.R.L., L . Tupas, J. Dore, J. Christians, and D. Habel 1997. The role of nitrogen fixation in biogeochemical cycling in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature 388: 533-538. Landry, M R . , J.R. Postel, W.K. Peterson and J. Newman 1989. Broad-scale distributional patterns of hydrographic variables on the Washington/Oregon Shelf. In: Coastal oceanography of Washington and Oregon, Vol. 47 M.R. Landry and B . M . Hickey (eds.) Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 1-40. LeBlond, P.H., B .M. Hickey, R.E. Thomson. 1986. Runoff driven coastal flow off British Columbia. In: S. Skreslet (ed.) The role of freshwater outflow in coastal marine ecosystems. Vol. G7 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 309-317. Levitus, S. 1982. Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, BC. pp.180. Maclsaac, J.J., R.C. Dugdale, R T . Barber, D. Blasco and T.T. Packard. 1985. Primary production cycle in an upwelling center. Deep-Sea Res. 32: 503-529. Mackas, D.L. 1992. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton off southwestern British Columbia: 1979-1989. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 903-921. Mackas, D.L. and M.Galbraith. 1992. Zooplankton on the west coast of Vancouver Island: distribution and availability to marine birds. K. Vermeer, R.W Butler, and K . H . Morgan (eds.) In: The ecology, status, and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Canadian Wildlife Service Occassional paper No. 75, Ottawa. Mackas, D.L. , G.C. Loutitt and M.J. Austin. 1980. Spatial distribution of zooplankton and phytoplankton in British Columbia coastal waters. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: 1476- 1487. Mackas, D.L. and H.A. Sefton. 1982. Plankton species assemblages off southern Vancouver Island: Geographic pattern and temporal variability. J. Mar. Res. 40: 1173-1200. Mackas, D.L. , L . Washburn and S.L. Smith. 1991. Zooplankton community patterns associated with a California current cold filament. J. Geophysical Res .96: 14781- 14797. Mackas, D.L. and D.R. Yelland. 1999. Horizontal flux of nutrients and plankton across and 119 along the British Columbia continental margin. Deep-Sea Res. 46: 2941-2967. Malone, T.C. 1971. The relative importance of nanoplankton and net plankton as primary producers in the California Current system. Fish. Bull. 69: 799-820. Malone, T.C. 1980. Size-fractionated primary productivity of marine phytoplankton In: Primary productivity in the sea, P.G. Falkowski (ed.) Vol. 31 Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp. 301-319. Mann, M E . R.S. Bradley, and M.K. Hughes. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperature during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Res. Letters. 26(6): 759. Marmer, H.A. 1926. Coastal currents along the Pacific coast of the United States. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Spec. Publ. No. 121. Dept. Commerce, Washington, D.C. , pp.80. Martin, J.H. and S.E. Fitzswater. 1988. Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic. Nature 331: 341-343. Micheals, A.F. and M.W. Silver. 1988. Primary production, sinking fluxes and the microbial food web. Deep-Sea Res. 35: 473-490. Millero, F.J. and A. Poisson. 1981. International one-atmosphere equation of state of seawater. Deep-Sea Res. 28: 625-629. Neale, P.J. 1987. Algal photoinhibition and photosynthesis in the aquatic environment. In: D.J. Kyle, C.B. Osmond, and C.J. Arntzen (eds.) Photoinhibition. New York: Elsevier, pp. 39-65. Nelson,C.S. 1977. Wind stress and wind stress curl over the California Current. N O A A Technical Report. NMFS SSRF-714, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 89 pp. Nelson, D .M. and M.A. Brzeninski. 1990. Kinetics of silicic acid uptake by natural diatom assemblages in two Gulf Stream warm-core rings. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 62: 283-292. Nelson, D . M . and P. Trequer. 1992. Role of silicon as a limiting nutrient to Antarctic diatoms: evidence from kinetic studies in the Ross Sea ice-edge zone. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 80: 255-264. Parsons, T.R., Y. Maita and C M . Lalli. 1984 A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis, Pergammon Press, Oxford, pp.173. Parsons, T.R. and M . Takahashi. 1973. Environmental control of phytoplankton cell size. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 511-515. 120 Perry, M.J., J.P. Bolger and D.C. English. 1989. Primary production in Washington coastal waters In: M R . Landry and B.M. Hickey (eds.) Coastal Oceanography of Washington and Oregon. Vol. 47 Elsevier Oceanography Series, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 117-138. Perry, R.I., P A Thompson, D.L. Mackas, P.J. Harrison and D.R. Yelland. 1999. Stable carbon isotopes as pelagic food web tracers in adjacent shelf and slope regions off British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 2477-2486. Pichard, G.L. 1963. Oceanographic characteristics of inlets of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 20: 1109-1114. Philander, S.G.H. 1983. Anomalous El Nino of 1982-1983. Nature. 302: 295-301. Price, N.M. , P.J. Harrison, M.R. Landry, F. Azam and K.J.F. Hall. 1986. Toxic effects of latex and Tygon tubing on marine phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 34: 41-49. Probyn, T.A. 1985. Nitrogen uptake by size-fractionated phytoplankton in the southern Benguela upwelling system. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 22: 249-258. Probyn, T.A., H.N. Waldron and A.G. James. 1990. Size-fractionated measurements of nitrogen uptake in aged upwelled waters: implications for pelagic food webs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35: 202-210. Robinson, C.L.K. and D.W. Ware. 1999. Simulated and observed response of the southwest Vancouver Island pelagic ecosystem to oceanic condition in the 1990s. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 2433-2443. Ryther, J. H. 1969. Photosynthesis and fish production in the sea. Sciencel68: 72-76. Small, L.F. and D.W. Menzies. 1981. Patterns of primary productivity and biomass in a coastal upwelling region. Deep Sea Res. 28: 123-149. Smith, S.V. 1984. Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 799-801. Steeman-Nielsen, E. 1952. The use of radioactive carbon ( 1 4C) for measuring organic production in the sea. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer.18: 117-140. Steele, J.H. 1998. Regime shift in marine ecosystems. Ecol. Appl. 8: 533-536. Stockner, J.G. and. N. J. Antia. 1986. Algal picoplankton from marine and freshwater ecosystems: a multidisciplinary perspective. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 2472-2503. 121 Strathmann, R.R. 1967. Estimating the organic carbon content of phytoplankton from cell volume or plasma volume. Limnol. Ogeanogr. 12: 411-418. Subba Rao, D. V., M . A. Quilliam and R. Pocklington. 1988. Domoic acid-a neurotoxic amino acid produced by the marine diatom Nitzschiapungens in culture. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: 41-51. Sugimoto, T. and K. Tadokoro. 1997. Interannual-interdecadal variations in zooplankton biomass, chlorophyll concentration and physical environment in the subarctic Pacific and Bering Sea. Fish. Oceanogr. 6: 74-93. Sverdup, H.U. 1953. On conditions for the vernal blooming of phytoplankton. J. Cons. Explor. Mer.1953: 287-295. Tabata, S. 1975. The general circulation of the Pacific Ocean and a brief account of the oceanographic structure of the North Pacific Ocean. Part n-Thermal regime and influence on the climate. Atmos-Ocean 14: 1-27. Tanasichuk, R.W. 1997. Influence of biomass and ocean climate on the growth of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) from the southwestern coast of Vancouver Island. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 2782-2788. Taylor, F.J.R., D.J. Blackbourn and J. Blackbourn. 1971. infrastructure of the chloroplasts and associated structures within the marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (Lohmann). Nature 224: 819-821. Taylor, F.J.R. and R. Haigh. 1996. Spatial and temporal distribution of microplankton during summers of 1992-1993 in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, with emphasis on harmful species. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 2310-2322. Taylor, F.J.R. and R.E. Waters. 1982. Spring phytoplankton in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 67: 323-335. Thomas, A.C. and W.J. Emery. 1986. Winter hydrography and plankton distribution on the southern British Columbia continental shelf. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 1249-1258. Thomson, R.E. 1981. Oceanography of the British Columbia coast. Can. Spec. Pub. Fish. Aquat. Sci.56: 291 p. Thomson, R.E., H.J. Freeland and L.F. Giovando. 1984. Long-term sea surface temperature records for the British Columbia coast. Atmos. Newsl. 26: 9-11. Thomson, R.E. H.J. Freeland and L.F. Giovando. 1984. Long-term sea surface temperature records for the British Columbia coast. Trop. Ocean-Atmos. Newsl. 26: 9-11. Thomson, R.E., B .M. Hickey, and P H . LeBlond. 1989. The Vancouver Island coastal 122 current: Fisheries barrier and conduit. In: R.J. Beamish (ed.) Effects of ocean variability on recruitment and an evaluation of parameters used in stock assessment models, Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. pp. 265-296. Thomson, R E . and T.R Papadakis. 1987. Upwelling filaments and motion of a satellite- tracked drifter along the west coast of North America. Journal of Geophys. Res. 92: 6445-6461. Thomson, R E . and. D.M. Ware. 1988 Oceanic factors affecting the distribution and recruitment of west coast fisheries. Report #26. Canadian Technical report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Fisheries Research Branch, Ottawa, Ontario. Thomson, R.E. and D.M. Ware. 1996. A current velocity index of ocean variability. J. Geophys. Res. 101: 14297-12310. Throndsen, J. 1978. Preservation and storage. In: A.Sournis (ed.) Phytoplankton manual. UNESCO, Paris, pp. 69-74. Thurman, H.J. and A.P. Trujillo. 1999 Essentials of Oceanography, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey, pp. 526. Tortell, P. 2000. Inorganic carbon acquisition in coastal Pacific plankton communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 1485-1500. Tremblay, J.E. and L. Legendre. 1994. A model for the size-fractionated biomass and production of marine phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 2004-2014. Tully, J.P. 1942. Surface non-tidal currents in the approaches to Juan de Fuca Strait. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 5: 398-409. Turpin, D.H. and P.J. Harrison. 1979. Limiting nutrient patchiness and its role in phytoplankton ecology. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 39: 151-166. Utermohl, H. 1958. Zur vervollkommung der quantitativen phytoplankton methodik. Mitt. Int. Ver. Limnol. 9: 38 pp. Venrick, E .L . , J . A McGowan, D.R. Cayan, T.L. Hayward. 1987. Climate and chlorophyll a: Long-term trends in the central North Pacific ocean. Science. 238: 70-72. Ware, D.W. and G.A. McFarlane. 1989. Fisheries production domains in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. In: R.J. Beamish, and G.A. McFarlane (eds.) Effects of ocean variability on recruitment and an evaluation of parameters used in stock assessment models. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. pp. 108. Ware, D .M. and. R.E. Thomson 1991. Link between long-term variability in upwelling and fish production in the northeast Pacific ocean. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: 2296- 123 2306. Whitney, F.A., C S . Wong and P.W. Boyd. 1998: Interannual variability in nitrate supply to surface waters of the Northeast Pacific ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 170: 15-23. Wilkerson, F.P. and R . C Dugdale. 1987. The use of large shipboard barrels and drifters to study the effects of coastal upwelling on phytoplankton dynamics. Limnol. Oceanogr.32: 368-382. Wilkerson, F.P., R.C. Dugdale, and R.M. Kudela. 2000. Biomass and productivity in Monterey Bay, California: Contribution of the large phytoplankton. Deep-Sea Res. II 47: 1003-1022. Wood, E.D., F.A.J. Armstrong and F.A. Richards. 1967. Determination of nitrate in seawater by cadmium-copper reduction to nitrite. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 47: 23-31. Yentsch, C S . and D.W. Menzel. 1963. A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and phaeophytin by fluorescence. Deep-Sea Res. 10: 221-231. Zimmerman, R.C., J. N. Kremer and R.C. Dugdale. 1987. Acceleration of nutrient uptake by phytoplankton in a coastal upwelling ecosystem: A modeling analysis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32: 359-367. 124 APPENDIX A CRUISE DETAILS Table A . l Cruise dates and season for 3 cruises during 1997, 1998 and 1999. Transition date is the date the prevailing wind shifted for the season and it was calculated using Thomson & Ware's wind velocity index (R. Thomson pers. comm.). Seasonal classification is based on the Cruise I.D. Date Season Transition Date Northwesterly Winds 1997 Cruises 9707 07-14 April Spring Jan. 30 No 9707 21-28 April Spring Jan. 30 No 9713 14-28 July Fall May 16 No 9737 20 - 27 Oct. Fall June 12 No 1998 Cruises 9810 11-25 May Spring/Summer Feb. 25 Yes 9823 13 -27 July Summer May 7 Yes 9836 05-13 Oct. Fall Oct. 23 No 1999 Cruises 9911 04-12 May Spring Jan 30 No 9928 30 June-06 July Summer 02 June Yes 9935 23-30 Sept. Fall 30 Aug. No 125 A P P E N D I X B 1999 DISSOLVED NUTRIENT RAW DATA SET Table B . l N03", HP0 4" and Si(OH)4 in May 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dashed line (-) indicates that data point is not available. (-) indicates information is not available; b-10 indicates water sample was collected at 10 m off the bottom. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N03" HP<V' Si(OH)4 # # (m) uM uM uM B2 04-May-99 4 5 0 18.5 1.7 29.9 B2 4 4 10 19.1 1.8 29.3 B2 4 3 20 22.0 2.0 33.0 B2 4 2 30 23.7 2.1 34.6 B2 4 1 50 14.2 1.3 29.4 B4 04-May-99 6 7 0 1.7 0.6 19.3 B4 6 6 10 12.5 1.2 25.3 B4 6 5 20 12.6 1.3 25.8 B4 6 4 30 10.2 0.8 19.6 B4 6 3 50 19.5 1.3 27.8 B4 6 2 75 13.2 0.9 22.1 B4 6 1 100 32.9 2.6 50.2 B6 05-May-99 8 7 0 0.0 0.4 12.9 B6 8 6 10 1.9 0.0 7.9 B6 8 5 20 11.1 1.1 20.4 B6 8 4 30 8.0 0.5 14.1 B6 8 3 50 16.2 1.5 29.1 B6 8 2 75 12.4 1.0 22.1 B6 8 1 100 25.1 2.2 44.8 B8 05-May-99 14 4 50 15.6 1.5 23.7 B8 14 3 75 16.9 1.4 24.3 B8 14 2 100 22.0 1.8 60.7 B8 14 1 130 33.9 3.0 82.1 B10 06-May-99 46 9 0 0.4 0.4 12.7 B10 46 8 10 0.5 0.4 11.4 B10 46 7 20 4.7 0.8 14.9 B10 46 6 30 4.8 0.6 13.9 B10 46 5 50 5.3 0.5 12.7 B10 46 4 75 7.6 0.5 13.5 B10 46 3 100 23.1 2.0 30.9 B10 46 2 125 33.6 2.6 47.5 B12 06-May-99 44 11 50 4.8 0.3 9.8 B12 44 10 75 10.0 1.2 15.3 B12 44 9 100 24.1 2.1 29.7 B12 44 8 125 28.7 2.4 37.0 B12 44 7 150 33.2 2.4 41.3 B12 44 6 175 35.2 2.7 47.0 B12 44 5 200 17.2 1.4 29.8 B12 44 4 250 36.9 2.8 54.1 B12 44 3 300 35.8 2.6 58.1 B12 44 2 400 36.8 2.7 55.2 B12 44 1 495 28.2 2.0 37.6 B16 06-May-99 43 8 40 8.1 1.1 15.5 B16 43 7 50 4.6 0.3 10.9 B16 43 6 75 12.0 1.3 29.9 B16 43 5 100 30.4 2.4 82.0 B16 43 4 125 32.1 2.5 80.1 B16 43 3 150 27.0 2.1 78.0 B16 43 2 175 34.4 2.6 83.2 B16 43 1 200 35.8 2.7 47.7 APPENDIX B Table B . l continued. Dissolved nutrients in May 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N03" HPCV Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM B16 05-May-99 42 500 32.2 2.6 51.0 B16 42 600 52.9 4.0 72.2 B16 42 700 46.7 3.7 47.7 B16 42 800 46.8 3.7 48.5 B16 42 _ 1000 25.9 2.2 37.9 B16 42 1200 46.5 3.7 49.7 B16 42 1500 46.3 3.6 59.6 B16 42 1669 22.9 1.7 54.9 B16 42 - 1778 45.6 3.5 75.0 C1 05-May-99 9 8 15 6.6 0.6 23.7 C1 9 7 20 16.3 1.6 32.2 C1 9 6 30 19.6 2.0 33.6 C1 9 5 50 18.0 1.7 32.8 C1 9 4 75 15.8 1.6 26.6 C1 9 3 100 30.1 2.8 52.6 C1 9 2 125 29.1 2.4 58.7 C1 9 1 b-10 33.0 2.9 68.1 C2 05-May-99 21 7 0 2.9 0.5 6.5 C2 21 6 10 0.7 0.0 3.4 C2 21 5 20 3.3 0.3 6.8 C2 21 4 30 13.1 1.5 20.3 C2 21 3 50 11.4 1.0 19.1 C2 21 2 75 12.6 1.0 20.1 C2 21 1 100 12.1 0.7 21.7 C4 05-May-99 23 7 20 6.8 0.9 12.1 C4 23 6 31 13.5 1.5 23.5 C4 23 5 50 16.0 1.6 23.0 C4 23 4 75 16.1 1.6 21.8 C4 23 3 100 21.0 1.8 24.8 C4 23 2 125 18.4 1.8 26.1 C4 23 1 154 18.5 1.7 25.9 C7 05-May-99 27 6 20 1.2 0.1 8.7 C7 27 5 30 8.3 1.1 15.1 C7 27 4 50 7.6 0.8 11.3 C7 27 3 75 11.8 1.4 15.7 C7 27 2 100 20.8 2.3 35.3 C7 27 1 120 28.7 2.8 49.5 C8 05-May-99 28 8 50 5.0 0.6 10.1 C8 28 7 75 10.9 1.3 14.9 C8 28 5 100 11.6 0.9 17.0 C8 28 4 125 27.2 2.1 28.0 C8 28 3 150 33.4 2.4 37.7 C8 28 2 175 37.6 2.9 51.3 C8 28 1 190 38.1 3.0 54.3 C9 05-May-99 30 13 25 5.0 0.9 15.7 C9 30 12 30 4.1 0.4 14.4 C9 30 11 50 10.6 1.2 54.1 C9 30 10 75 24.3 2.1 63.6 C9 30 9 100 16.4 1.3 52.1 C9 30 8 125 33.5 2.4 64.5 C9 30 7 150 25.4 1.6 55.2 C9 30 6 175 35.4 2.7 89.2 C9 30 5 200 37.6 2.8 48.6 C9 30 4 250 30.9 2.3 43.8 C9 30 3 300 31.1 2.0 46.5 C9 30 2 400 32.1 2.4 44.6 C9 30 1 500 44.6 3.4 55.9 C11 05-May-99 36 13 75 17.2 1.6 22.5 C11 36 12 100 25.6 2.0 37.7 C11 36 11 125 22.9 1.8 37.5 C11 36 10 150 23.7 1.8 39.2 C11 36 9 176 34.4 2.6 48.3 C11 36 8 200 35.8 2.8 52.2 APPENDIX B Table B . l continued. Dissolved nutrients in May 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 HPCV Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM C11 05-May-99 36 7 300 39.4 3.0 57.0 C11 36 6 400 27.8 1.9 46.4 C11 36 5 500 26.5 1.9 37.8 C11 36 4 750 45.4 3.6 48.0 C11 36 3 1000 43.8 3.6 89.4 C11 36 2 1250 45.3 3.6 81.7 C11 36 1 1445 45.3 3.6 98.7 C14 06-May-99 40 - 0 1.1 0.6 12.1 C14 40 - 10 1.1 0.6 11.4 C14 40 - 20 1.1 0.5 10.5 C14 40 - 30 5.9 1.0 13.5 C14 40 - 50 8.5 1.0 13.6 C14 40 - 75 15.3 1.3 19.3 C14 40 - 100 16.0 0.9 21.6 C14 40 - 120 30.7 2.3 37.8 C14 40 - 150 31.5 2.4 40.7 C14 40 - 175 35.0 2.5 45.2 C14 40 - 200 34.0 2.6 48.2 C14 40 250 29.1 2.2 51.7 C14 40 - 300 18.1 1.6 37.1 C14 40 - 400 40.4 3.1 48.9 C14 40 - 500 25.7 2.0 36.0 C14 40 - 750 42.2 3.6 51.9 C14 40 - 1000 38.6 3.3 51.8 C14 40 - b-10 37.2 3.1 58.8 D4 06-May-99 50 7 0 5.5 0.7 11.0 D4 50 6 10 9.4 0.9 16.0 D4 50 4 30 10.7 1.3 16.3 D4 50 3 40 7.8 0.5 13.7 D4 50 2 50 15.2 1.6 22.9 G1 07-May-99 52 5 0 0.4 0.0 4.3 G1 52 4 10 3.0 0.5 9.2 G1 52 3 20 3.1 0.7 9.0 G1 52 2 30 3.5 0.7 9.2 G1 52 1 50 3.4 0.4 10.3 G2 07-May-99 52 7 0 0.4 0.1 7.4 G2 52 6 10 0.5 0.0 5.2 G2 52 5 20 2.5 0.6 8.0 G2 52 4 30 7.7 1.0 15.4 G2 52 3 50 5.2 0.3 12.0 G2 52 2 75 14.2 1.4 20.1 G2 52 1 100 18.4 1.4 31.8 G3 07-May-99 65 8 15 2.1 0.6 14.3 G3 65 7 20 1.6 0.1 13.0 G3 65 6 30 3.9 0.4 10.7 G3 65 5 40 4.9 0.4 10.3 G3 65 4 50 11.1 1.3 14.3 G3 65 3. 75 9.7 0.6 38.2 G3 65 2 100 31.5 2.4 80.3 G3 65 1 b-10 25.2 1.8 72.1 G4 07-May-99 56 6 30 26.1 2.1 34.5 G4 56 5 50 18.8 1.7 26.2 G4 56 3 100 27.7 .2.0 35.0 G4 56 2 125 24.8 1.3 39.3 G4 56 1 141 25.2 1.5 40.8 G7 06-May-99 59 12 30 3.1 0.7 12.6 G7 59 11 40 6.6 1.0 14.2 G7 59 10 50 . 8.0 1.1 16.8 G7 59 9 75 8.5 0.9 47.3 G7 59 8 100 17.0 1.5 30.5 G7 59 7 125 28.9 2.2 37.8 G7 59 6 175 24.3 1.9 43.2 G7 59 5 200 34.8 2.7 49.0 APPENDIX B Table B . l continued. Dissolved nutrients in May 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 HP<V" Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM G7 06-May-99 59 4 250 25.8 1.6 50.4 G7 59 3 300 40.4 3.1 63.1 G7 59 2 400 27.2 1.6 55.7 G7 59 1 500 45.1 3.5 72.0 G7 63 12 500 35.9 2.5 43.6 G7 63 11 600 50.4 3.9 75.7 G7 63 9 800 32.1 2.5 57.3 G7 63 7 1000 51.8 4.0 137.7 G9 07-May-99 64 16 0 o:8 0.6 10.3 G9 64 15 10 0.5 0.6 9.2 G9 64 14 20 0.2 0.0 6.4 G9 64 13 30 1.1 0.1 7.1 G9 64 12 50 7.7 1.1 14.5 G9 64 11 75 14.2 1.4 18.9 G9 64 10 100 19.7 1.3 30.6 G9 64 9 125 22.2 1.6 35.1 G9 64 8 150 19.1 1.3 32.9 G9 64 7 175 32.7 2.5 48.7 G9 64 6 200 13.2 0.7 22.9 G9 64 5 300 28.5 2.0 55.6 G9 64 4 400 45.1 3.3 51.7 G9 64 3 500 26.0 2.0 39.4 G9 64 2 750 46.7 3.5 86.9 G9 64 1 1000 38.6 3.0 104.7 J2 11-May-99 125 6 0 0.7 0.1 - J2 125 5 10 0.9 0.1 - J2 125 4 20 2.4 0.2 - J2 125 3 30 5.7 0.3 - J2 125 2 50 10.8 0.4 - J2 125 1 56 13.8 0.5 - J3 11-May-99 - 6 0 0.6 0.8 2.3 J3 - 5 10 0.6 0.8 2.3 J3 - 4 20 2.9 0.7 2.3 J3 - 3 30 5.4 1.4 4.2 J3 - 2 50 8.2 1.6 9.3 J3 - 1 72 8.8 1.5 8.6 J4 11-May-99 128 5 50 13.4 1.5 22.6 J4 128 4 75 22.1 2.1 34.8 J4 128 3 100 22.4 1.6 36.5 J4 128 2 125 36.9 2.8 49.2 J4 128 1 150 34.8 2.4 41.6 J8 11-May-99 134 17 0 0.5 0.4 2.3 J8 134 16 10 0.3 0.7 2.3 J8 134 15 20 1.4 1.0 2.3 J8 134 14 30 2.6 1.1 2.5 J8 134 13 50 6.3 1.3 4.1 J8 134 12 75 10.7 1.6 7.6 J8 134 11 100 14.1 1.0 25.3 J8 134 10 125 30.5 2.5 44.6 J8 134 9 150 33.6 2.6 47.1 J8 134 8 175 34.9 2.6 50.2 J8 134 7 200 37.6 2.8 55.0 J8 134 6 300 30.7 2.2 50.0 J8 134 5 400 23.8 1.6 42.1 J8 134 4 500 29.5 2.1 44.1 J8 134 3 600 45.3 3.4 58.7 J8 134 2 800 41.6 3.2 66.0 J8 134 1 1000 43.6 3.8 144.5 J6 11-May-99 131 17 20 0.5 0.5 2.3 J6 131 16 30 0.6 0.6 2.3 J6 131 15 50 1.2 0.4 2.3 J6 131 14 75 1.3 0.3 2.3 J6 131 13 100 3.4 0.7 2.3 APPENDIX B Table B . l continued. Dissolved nutrients in May 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 H P O / Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM J6 11-May-99 131 12 125 12.9 1.3 9.4 J6 131 11 150 18.0 1.2 28.1 J6 131 10 175 20.0 1.6 29.7 J6 131 9 200 30.1 2.4 39.9 J6 131 8 250 35.6 2.7 38.9 J6 131 7 300 18.7 1.3 28.7 J6 131 6 400 38.3 2.6 31.3 J6 131 5 500 43.6 3.3 54.7 J6 131 4 600 45.6 3.5 44.2 J6 131 3 800 22.0 1.7 25.9 J6 131 2 1000 32.1 2.5 35.2 J6 131 1 1099 28.7 2.0 26.2 BP4 10-May-99 117 17 0 1.1 0.1 - BP4 117 16 10 2.1 0.2 - BP4 117 15 20 2.0 0.1 - BP4 117 14 30 3.4 0.1 - BP4 117 13 50 6.6 0.3 - BP4 117 12 75 6.9 0.2 - BP4 117 11 100 5.5 0.9 11.0 BP4 117 10 125 32.6 2.5 41.1 BP4 117 9 150 35.3 2.7 46.0 BP4 117 8 175 36.2 2.7 46.8 BP4 117 7 200 38.4 2.8 50.6 BP4 117 6 300 39.9 3.1 52.0 BP4 117 5 400 42.0 3.3 43.2 BP4 117 4 500 18.9 1.5 23.7 BP4 117 3 750 45.1. 3.6 44.4 BP4 117 2 800 45.6 3.6 48.1 BP4 117 1 910 24.9 2.0 36.2 BP7 10-May-99 123 16 0 2.8 0.1 - BP7 123 15 5 2.7 0.0 - BP7 123 14 10 3.7 0.2 - BP7 123 13 20 3.9 0.3 - BP7 123 12 30 6.8 0.3 - BP7 123 11 50 7.0 0.3 - BP7 123 10 75 10.6 0.4 - BP7 123 9 100 12.3 1.5 17.5 BP7 123 8 125 25.1 2.3 34.0 BP7 123 7 150 27.2 2.4 39.3 BP7 123 6 175 28.1 2.4 42.8 BP7 123 5 200 29.9 2.5 48.4 BP7 123 4 250 42.5 3.8 32.9 BP7 123 3 300 35.8 2.9 64.1 BP7 123 2 400 39.3 3.2 54.0 BP7 123 1 500 42.7 3.5 56.0 BP8 10-May-99 110 21 0 0.7 0.5 8.8 BP8 110 20 10 1.1 0.6 9.4 BP8 110 19 20 1.8 0.6 9.3 BP8 110 18 30 3.4 0.7 10.0 BP8 110 17 50 6.9 0.7 17.3 BP8 110 16 75 12.3 1.3 18.7 BP8 110 15 100 8.3 0.5 14.8 BP8 110 14 125 21.7 1.9 29.1 BP8 110 13 150 21.5 1.6 35.7 BP8 110 12 175 21.4 1.6 36.7 BP8 110 11 200 32.7 2.6 46.8 BP8 110 10 250 34.0 2.7 53.9 BP8 110 9 300 36.9 2.9 61.2 BP8 110 8 400 40.7 3.2 66.0 BP8 110 7 500 45.2 3.3 76.7 BP8 110 6 600 46.6 3.5 66.0 130 APPENDIX B Table B . l continued. Dissolved nutrients in May 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 HP04 z" Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM BP8 10-May-99 110 5 800 24.7 2.0 37.7 BP8 110 4 1000 47.1 3.6 71.9 BP8 110 3 1200 47.3 3.5 64.1 BP8 110 2 1500 42.2 3.2 51.6 BP8 110 1 2000 44.6 3.4 60.1 MP8 11-May-99 137 17 0 2.9 1.1 2.3 MP8 137 16 10 1.5 0.5 2.3 MP8 137 15 20 3.9 1.2 3.0 MP8 137 14 30 5.2 0.8 2.8 MP8 137 13 50 10.1 1.6 2.3 MP8 137 12 75 8.9 1.1 2.3 MP8 137 11 100 24.7 2.2 71.8 MP8 137 10 125 23.0 1.8 65.6 MP8 137 9 150 21.5 1.8 60.0 MP8 137 8 175 27.7 2.0 58.7 MP8 137 7 200 33.1 2.3 46.2 MP8 137 6 300 26.8 2.0 44.2 MP8 137 5 400 20.2 1.3 25.3 MP8 137 4 500 47.5 3.5 48.7 MP8 137 3 600 38.3 3.4 46.3 MP8 137 2 800 23.9 2.3 29.2 MP8 137 1 1000 26.9 2.4 34.1 CPE2 09-May-99 107 8 0 0.1 0.4 4.7 CPE2 107 7 10 0.3 0.3 7.5 CPE2 107 6 20 2.3 1.0 8.6 CPE2 107 5 30 2.9 0.4 5.9 CPE2 107 4 50 4.4 1.2 12.3 CPE2 107 3 75 8.1 0.8 16.7 CPE2 107 2 100 23.7 2.0 31.1 CPE2 107 1 117 44.7 3.4 58.3 CS3B 09-May-99 95 11 0 5.5 0.6 12.0 CS3B 95 10 10 2.6 0.0 7.6 CS3B 95 9 20 6.7 0.8 12.5 CS3B 95 8 30 7.0 0.7 12.9 CS3B 95 7 50 5.3 0.3 13.1 CS3B 95 6 75 8.7 1.0 16.0 CS3B 95 5 100 11.1 1.1 17.3 CS3B 95 4 125 10.5 1.1 16.5 CS3B 95 3 150 18.6 1.6 25.4 CS3B 95 1 175 19.5 1.3 33.7 CS3B 95 1 221 35.5 2.7 55.8 CS1 08-May-99 67 10 50 8.2 1.1 14.9 CS1 67 9 75 6.8 0.6 13.0 CS1 67 8 100 18.2 1.8 60.5 CS1 67 7 125 25.1 2.2 71.3 CS1 67 6 150 30.4 2.6 80.8 CS1 67 5 175 17.9 1.2 69.4 CS1 67 4 200 32.4 2.6 84.2 CS1 67 3 300 36.4 3.0 93.2 CS1 67 2 400 29.9 2.5 83.4 CS1 67 1 500 29.8 2.0 70.1 CS3 08-May-99 73 11 0 2.6 0.9 2.3 CS3 73 10 10 2.8 1.0 2.3 CS3 73 9 20 4.0 1.0 2.3 CS3 73 8 30 4.0 0.8 2.3 CS3 73 7 50 8.5 1.4 5.7 CS3 73 6 75 9.6 1.5 8.5 CS3 73 5 100 8.3 0.6 58.0 CS3 73 4 120 32.4 2.5 88.0 CS3 73 3 150 30.6 2.7 85.8 CS3 73 2 175 33.9 2.9 89.6 CS3 73 1 200 39.5 3.0 86.6 APPENDIX B Table B . l continued. Dissolved nutrients in May 1999 Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 HPCV Si(OH)4 # # (m) uM uM uM CS5 08-May-99 77 3 30 5.6 0.4 12.8 CS5 77 2 50 10.4 1.0 17.4 CS5 77 1 57 8.0 0.5 16.1 CS7 08-May-99 82 6 0 5.6 0.8 13.0 CS7 82 5 10 6.0 0.9 13.5 CS7 82 4 20 4.6 0.4 10.3 CS7 82 3 30 5.6 0.3 12.8 CS7 82 1 56 10.8 1.1 20.5 CS9 08-May-99 88 11 0 3.6 0.9 2.3 CS9 88 9 10 5.3 1.1 2.7 CS9 88 10 20 3.4 0.8 2.3 CS9 88 8 30 5.8 1.1 3.6 CS9 88 7 50 8.8 1.4 2.3 CS9 88 6 75 6.0 0.8 2.3 CS9 88 5 100 10.2 0.9 60.8 CS9 88 4 125 24.7 2.1 35.8 CS9 88 3 150 32.1 2.6 47.9 CS9 88 2 175 37.1 2.9 50.3 CS9 88 1 179 37.7 2.9 53.7 A P P E N D I X B 1999 DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS R A W DATA SET Table B.2 N 0 3 \ HP0 4" and Si(OH)4 in July 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were collected and analyzed as outlined in methods section of Chapter 1. (-) indicates information is not available. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 H P O / Si(OH)4 # # m u M u M u M B6 30-Jun-99 6 9 0 4.6 0.2 8.1 B6 6 8 5 7.1 0.4 9.7 B6 6 7 10 15.7 1.1 16.4 B6 6 6 20 32.5 1.8 53.5 B6 6 5 30 22.5 1.3 44.6 B6 6 4 50 29.5 1.7 49.7 B8 30-Jun-99 8 9 0 2.1 0.5 9.5 B8 8 8 10 19.9 1.2 17.9 B8 8 7 20 15.9 1.4 18.3 B8 8 5 50 28.4 1.6 11.1 B8 8 4 75 22.0 1.7 21.8 B8 8 3 100 24.7 2.2 46.5 B8 8 2 125 34.5 3.0 63.5 B8 8 1 144 20.7 1.8 45.6 B16 1-Jul-99 18 6 20 0.7 0.0 26.1 B16 18 5 25 2.1 0.3 28.5 B16 18 4 30 6.0 0.7 30.8 B16 18 3 45 10.3 0.9 30.5 B16 18 2 55 9.5 0.6 25.2 B16 18 1 100 20.0 1.3 31.3 C1 1-Jul-99 33 7 0 1.7 0.0 6.9 C1 33 6 10 8.5 0.3 13.0 C1 33 5 20 33.8 2.0 37.8 C1 33 4 30 36.3 2.2 42.2 C1 33 3 50 38.5 2.3 44.5 C1 33 2 75 41.5 2.5 46.4 C1 33 1 90 42.1 2.4 70.4 C2 1-Jul-99 34 7 0 3.3 0.6 15.2 C2 34 6 10 14.1 1.2 - C2 34 5 20 25.0 2.0 29.6 C2 34 4 30 29.9 2.3 34.7 C2 34 3 50 33.0 2.4 42.5 C2 34 2 75 27.6 2.1 40.7 C2 34 1 95 35.4 2.6 46.0 C4 1-Jul-99 36 14 0 12.3 1.1 18.7 C4 36 13 5 4.9 0.3 9.7 C4 36 12 6 12.4 1.1 15.8 C4 36 11 5 13.3 1.2 17.3 C4 36 10 8 11.1 0.9 14.4 C4 36 9 18 32.0 2.3 35.6 C4 36 8 34 22.5 2.0 37.0 C4 36 7 41 12.2 1.2 24.4 C4 36 6 50 26.5 2.4 37.2 C4 36 5 75 26.6 2.4 41.6 CA 36 4 100 20.4 1.9 39.5 CA 36 3 125 27.7 2.5 40.1 CA 36 2 150 21.9 2.1 42.1 CA 36 1 164 28.8 2.7 35.1 C5 2-Jul-99 38 6 0 3.4 0.2 9.3 C5 38 5 10 7.6 0.8 14.8 C5 38 4 20 35.3 2.2 32.7 C5 38 3 30 36.6 2.3 35.0 C5 38 2 50 40.2 2.7 42.0 C5 38 1 60 40.1 2.7 25.5 APPENDIX B Table B.2 continued. Dissolved nutrients in July 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 ' HPCV" Si(OH)4 # # m u M u M u M C6 2-Jul-99 3 9 6 10 0.0 0.3 3.6 C6 3 9 5 2 0 6.5 0.7 8.1 C6 3 9 4 30 20.8 1.5 20.0 C6 3 9 3 50 29.3 1.9 26.3 C6 3 9 2 75 41.3 2.4 38.1 C6 3 9 1 86 38.1 2.4 51.4 C7 2-Jul-99 40 8 0 0.0 0.4 5.5 C7 40 7 10 0.2 0.1 4.7 C7 40 6 20 4.7 • 0.8 12.4 C7 40 5 30 11.0 0.9 13.9 C7 40 4 50 11.5 0.7 12.2 C7 40 3 75 15.5 0.7 13.1 C7 40 2 100 21.7 1.7 32.4 C7 40 1 122 30.1 2.5 42.9 C8 2-Jul-99 41 11 0 1.0 0.0 28.8 C8 41 10 10 0.1 0.5 30.1 C8 41 9 20 4.3 0.3 30.1 C8 41 8 30 10.2 0.7 31.3 C8 41 7 50 35.1 1.8 50.1 C8 41 6 75 45.2 2.6 62.7 C9 2-Jul-99 42 16 0 0.9 0.0 17.1 C9 42 5 250 34.0 2.9 61.4 C9 42 4 300 36.3 3.0 66.8 C9 42 3 400 39.2 3.2 75.7 C9 42 2 400 39.9 3.4 87.7 C9 42 1 612 40.9 3.4 96.6 C11 2-Jul-99 46 20 0 1.6 0.4 5.3 C11 46 19 10 1.6 0.4 5.0 C11 46 18 20 2.3 0.7 7.5 C 1 1 46 17 30 7.4 0.3 5.5 C11 46 16 50 11.2 1.0 10.7 C11 46 15 75 12.5 1.0 10.3 C11 46 14 100 20.1 1.5 23.4 C11 46 13 125 29.3 2.1 33.8 C11 46 12 150 31.3 2.3 39.9 C11 46 11 175 25.4 1.9 40.4 C11 46 10 200 34.7 2.4 46.9 C11 46 9 250 19.1 1.2 34.2 C11 46 8 300 40.3 2.9 60.2 C11 46 7 400 44.3 3.1 74.3 C11 46 6 500 46.1 3.3 84.9 C11 46 5 600 49.3 3.4 96.1 C11 46 4 800 50.7 3.5 121.3 C11 46 3 1000 51.0 3.6 134.1 C11 46 2 1200 50.9 3.6 130.0 C11 46 1 1446 42.8 3.1 121.4 G1 3-Jul-99 61 5 0 0.6 0.0 6.7 G1 61 4 10 1.9 0.0 7.1 G1 61 3 20 22.6 1.7 29.2 G1 61 2 30 29.1 2.0 37.3 G1 61 1 50 22.3 1.3 25.8 G2 3-Jul-99 63 7 0 0.6 0.3 10.1 G2 63 6 10 3.6 0.3 10.3 G2 63 5 20 22.5 1.8 33.3 G2 63 4 30 24.8 1.9 34.3 G2 63 3 50 14.3 1.0 17.4 G3 3-Jul-99 65 8 0 0.2 0.0 7.0 G3 65 7 5 0.2 0.3 9.0 G3 65 6 10 0.1 0.4 8.4 G3 65 5 20 9.9 1.2 16.9 G3 65 4 30 19.7 1.6 24.0 G3 65 3 50 36.9 2.2 41.8 G3 65 2 75 26.4 1.6 32.0 G3 65 1 100 52.2 3.0 65.9 APPENDIX B Table B.2 continued. Dissolved nutrients in July 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 HPCV Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM UM G6 3-Jul-99 70 17 0 1.1 0.4 3.4 G6 70 16 10 0.4 0.4 3.7 G6 70 15 20 3.7 0.8 6.7 G6 70 14 30 15.1 1.4 11.4 G6 70 13 50 12.7 1.2 12.8 G6 70 12 75 29.9 1.9 15.6 G6 70 11 100 18.8 1.4 13.0 G6 70 10 125 29.0 2.3 38.1 G6 70 9 150 24.3 2.2 41.5 G6 70 8 175 32.8 2.8 52.5 G6 70 7 200 33.5 2.8 54.2 G6 70 6 250 26.7 2.4 53.1 G6 70 5 300 37.1 3.2 67.7 G6 70 4 400 38.9 3.3 75.2 G6 70 3 500 33.4 2.9 73.2 G6 70 2 600 28.4 2.6 90.1 G6 70 1 800 42.9 3.6 109.3 G7 3-Jul-99 71 22 0 0.2 0.0 3.9 G7 71 21 5 0.2 0.2 4.8 G7 71 20 10 0.3 0.3 5.4 G7 71 19 20 0.3 0.4 7.9 G7 71 18 30 1.9 0.1 5.7 G7 71 17 50 8.9 0.9 13.3 G7 71 16 75 16.7 1.5 21.8 G7 71 15 100 22.0 1.7 32.3 G7 71 14 125 32.9 2.4 38.9 G7 71 13 150 34.2 2.5 43.1 G7 71 12 175 30.9 2.3 42.6 G7 71 11 200 16.1 1.0 28.6 G7 71 10 250 39.1 2.8 56.0 G7 71 9 300 40.8 2.9 62.5 G7 71 8 400 19.9 1.5 48.2 G7 71 7 500 45.6 3.3 85.5 G7 71 6 600 22.6 2.2 62.9 G7 71 5 800 47.6 3.5 137.7 G7 f 71 4 1000 47.8 3.5 136.9 G7 71 3 1200 47.8 3.5 154.7 G7 71 2 1500 28.4 2.2 111.5 G7 71 1 1769 45.9 3.4 185.9 BP2 6-Jul-99 94 9 4 1.0 0.1 4.5 BP2 94 8 6 0.4 0.1 4.1 BP2 94 7 10 0.4 0.4 5.1 BP2 94 6 15 1.7 0.4 5.3 BP2 94 5 18 4.9 0.4 7.4 BP2 94 4 30 20.5 1.7 15.5 BP2 94 3 50 21.9 2.0 29.4 BP2 94 2 75 17.5 1.4 27.6 BP2 94 1 96 31.5 2.5 45.5 BP3 6-Jul-99 91 10 0 0.8 0.3 3.4 BP3 91 9 10 0.8 0.2 5.9 BP3 91 8 20 4.4 0.0 7.3 BP3 91 7 30 14.7 1.1 16.6 BP3 91 6 50 26.4 1.9 26.4 BP3 91 5 75 35.9 2.0 33.3 BP3 91 4 100 26.8 2.4 42.7 BP3 91 3 125 26.4 2.3 45.2 BP3 91 2 150 18.7 1.5 36.8 BP3 91 1 161 32.5 2.8 47.4 BP4 6-Jul-99 90 19 0 3.5 0.1 4.4 BP4 90 18 10 0.6 0.3 5.1 BP4 90 17 20 10.4 1.2 14.7 BP4 90 16 30 20.0 1.7 21.8 BP4 90 15 50 15.7 1.3 12.4 APPENDIX B Table B.2 continued. Dissolved nutrient in July 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 HP0 4 z Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM BP4 6-Jul-99 90 14 75 30.3 1.8 29.9 BP4 90 13 100 30.7 2.6 47.5 BP4 90 12 125 16.8 1.6 45.4 BP4 90 11 150 17.5 1.4 29.1 BP4 90 10 175 34.1 2.8 53.6 BP4 90 9 200 33.4 2.8 46.4 BP4 90 8 250 21.3 2.0 42.6 BP4 90 7 300 29.2 2.3 52.2 BP4 90 6 400 39.9 3.3 76.4 BP4 90 5 500 29.3 2.4 79.4 BP4 90 4 600 29.8 2.7 84.3 BP4 90 3 800 33.1 2.7 91.5 BP4 90 2 1000 29.7 2.7 95.7 BP4 90 1 1080 30.9 2.4 82.1 BP6 5-Jul-99 89 17 0 0.4 0.6 8.1 BP6 89 16 10 0.4 0.6 7.4 BP6 89 15 20 0.4 0.2 4.2 BP6 89 14 30 6.6 0.8 9.4 BP6 89 13 50 9.5 0.9 11.2 BP6 89 12 75 25.8 1.6 19.7 BP6 89 11 100 17.2 1.0 28.6 BP6 89 10 125 33.4 2.3 38.3 BP6 89 9 150 25.8 1.7 44.9 BP6 89 8 175 28.7 1.9 37.0 BP6 89 7 200 26.2 1.7 39.6 BP6 89 6 250 40.2 2.9 54.8 BP6 89 5 300 40.9 2.9 44.3 BP6 89 4 400 45.0 3.2 60.5 BP6 89 3 500 45.7 3.1 83.1 BP6 89 2 600 25.5 1.7 50.0 BP6 89 1 900 20.6 1.5 33.2 BP7 5-Jul-99 86 14 125 23.3 1.7 9.8 BP7 86 13 150 45.0 2.6 24.7 BP7 86 12 175 44.7 2.7 20.7 BP7 86 11 200 45.5 2.9 32.1 BP7 86 9 300 45.4 3.1 33.6 BP7 86 8 500 22.0 1.7 66.3 BP7 86 7 700 35.2 3.1 100.9 BP7 86 6 750 45.6 3.6 112.9 BP7 86 5 800 36.5 3.1 102.5 BP7 86 4 1000 19.3 1.7 113.4 BP7 86 3 1200 29.4 2.2 97.5 BP7 86 2 1500 45.8 3.5 113.4 BP7 86 1 2250 43.5 3.4 113.4 BP7 87 6 10 0.4 0.2 9.2 BP7 87 5 11 0.7 0.5 11.5 BP7 87 4 15 0.9 0.5 11.6 BP7 87 3 22 1.7 0.6 9.5 BP7 87 2 31 9.4 1.3 16.7 BP7 87 1 37 8.1 0.9 17.7 A P P E N D I X B 1999 DISSOLVED NUTRIENT R A W DATA SET Table B.3 N03", HP0 4 2~ and Si(OH)4 for October 1999 on the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were collected and analyzed as outlined in methods section of Chapter 1. Dashed line (-) indicates that informaton is not available. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth NOj" HP0 4 z Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM B4 30-Sep-99 132 7 0 20.3 2.0 35.4 B4 132 6 10 11.3 1.7 29.3 B4 132 5 20 32.5 2.9 40.8 B4 132 4 30 27.2 3.0 40.3 B4 132 3 50 33.4 3.1 41.3 B4 132 2 75 39.3 3.3 46.4 B4 132 1 105 37.3 2.9 47.5 B6 1-Oct-99 130 8 0 9.2 1.0 25.4 B6 130 7 10 11.4 1.1 24.8 B6 130 6 20 8.4 1.4 28.0 B6 130 5 30 19.1 1.7 31.4 B6 130 4 50 19.8 1.7 31.6 B6 130 3 75 34.9 2.9 47.7 B6 130 2 100 30.4 2.6 45.1 B7 27-Sep-99 78 10 250 11.9 0.7 15.6 B7 78 9 300 29.6 2.3 32.7 B7 78 8 400 32.2 2.4 37.4 B7 78 7 500 12.5 1.0 19.3 B7 78 6 600 34.8 2.5 38.3 B7 78 5 800 39.7 2.9 36.3 B7 78 4 1000 41.5 3.0 40.4 B7 78 3 1200 40.4 2.9 27.9 B7 78 2 1500 47.3 3.5 48.6 B7 78 1 2000 47.4 3.7 49.0 C1 30-Sep-99 119 14 0 3.0 0.4 8.7 C1 119 11 10 25.1 1.8 37.7 C1 119 10 15 26.0 1.8 36.1 C1 119 6 40 26.9 2.1 33.7 C1 119 5 50 28.7 1.7 37.2 C1 119 4 75 23.5 1.8 31.4 C1 119 3 100 27.3 1.6 39.4 C1 119 2 125 25.5 1.8 38.6 C1 119 1 150 30.6 1.5 48.4 C4 115 12 0 17.5 1.9 31.4 C4 115 11 2 16.3 1.8 32.3 CA 115 10 5 17.7 1.8 29.8 CA 115 9 10 19.4 2.1 34.8 CA 115 8 20 13.9 1.7 28.2 CA 115 7 30 24.2 2.2 34.8 CA 115 6 50 24.6 2.1 37.1 CA 115 5 75 22.9 2.3 38.7 CA 115 4 100 30.2 2.5 49.8 CA 115 3 125 19.9 1.7 40.0 CA 115 2 150 32.7 2.8 55.4 CA 115 1 161 28.0 2.2 44.6 CI 29-Sep-99 110 9 0 9.0 0.6 17.3 C7 110 8 10 21.4 0.6 20.2 C7 110 7 20 100.7 2.3 61.3 C7 110 6 30 31.6 2.5 55.0 C7 110 5 50 28.4 2.1 - C7 110 4 75 60.7 4.4 78.8 C7 110 3 100 27.2 2.4 46.4 C7 110 2 125 22.8 1.8 37.9 C7 110 1 bot 38.4 3.1 53.2 APPENDIX B Table B.3 continued. Dissolved nutrients in October 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth NCV HP(V Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM C8 29-Sep-99 108 11 0 25.5 1.9 39.9 C8 108 10 10 13.3 0.7 26.6 C8 108 9 20 28.6 2.0 40.7 C8 108 8 30 10.4 1.1 19.4 C8 108 7 50 18.7 1.6 20.7 C8 108 6 75 26.6 1.6 26.8 C8 108 5 100 43.5 2.6 39.1 C8 108 3 150 51.4 3.1 61.8 C8 108 2 175 52.5 3.2 63.1 C8 108 1 188 43.7 2.9 52.7 C9 29-Sep-99 106 22 0 12.4 1.2 23.2 C9 106 21 2 18.7 1.7 22.1 C9 106 20 5 18.4 1.6 26.1 C9 106 19 10 12.3 1.2 22.2 C9 106 18 15 8.3 1.2 19.7 C9 106 17 20 7.2 4.7 16.3 C9 106 16 25 7.0 0.9 13.7 C9 106 15 30 6.5 0.9 11.3 C9 106 14 40 6.6 0.7 11.0 C9 106 13 50 11.9 1.4 13.3 C9 106 12 75 24.9 1.8 22.1 C9 106 11 100 28.8 1.7 26.7 C9 106 10 125 44.3 2.7 40.8 C9 106 8 175 46.2 3.1 52.6 C9 106 7 200 41.6 2.8 51.0 C9 106 6 250 25.9 2.1 48.4 C9 106 5 300 37.7 3.0 62.7 C9 106 4 400 41.4 3.3 72.9 C9 106 3 500 35.2 2.9 70.1 C9 106 2 600 45.0 3.6 . 91.0 C9 106 1 613 45.4 3.6 92.0 C 1 1 29-Sep-99 104 20 0 7.7 0.9 57.1 C11 104 19 10 8.3 0.9 22.0 C11 104 18 20 24.3 0.5 21.0 C 1 1 104 17 30 9.4 0.9 14.1 C11 104 16 50 13.7 1.2 12.1 C 1 1 104 15 75 12.3 1.1 11.2 C11 104 13 125 34.6 2.2 37.2 C11 104 12 150 28.3 1.8 32.7 C11 104 11 175 38.1 2.4 43.1 C 1 1 104 10 200 24.2 1.6 33.0 C11 104 9 250 48.8 2.9 66.1 C11 104 8 300 25.9 2.1 41.1 C11 104 7 400 27.9 2.0 49.7 C11 104 6 500 30.7 2.1 50.9 C11 104 5 600 43.3 3.5 80.2 C11 104 4 800 28.7 2.4 110.3 C11 104 3 1000 37.8 3.3 113.2 C11 104 2 1200 49.0 4.1 121.3 C 1 1 104 1 1540 45.2 3.6 113.2 D1 23-Sep-99 21 4 0 6.6 1.0 29.2 D 1 21 3 10 3.5 0.9 25.7 D 1 21 2 20 21.5 2.1 36.4 D 1 21 1 30 26.6 2.5 41.2 D2 23-Sep-99 22 5 0 4.8 0.5 26.9 D2 22 4 10 8.1 0.8 31.9 D2 22 3 20 17.7 1.7 35.7 D2 22 2 30 23.8 2.2 37.6 D2 22 1 40 26.3 2.7 47.7 D4 23-Sep-99 25 6 0 23.2 1.7 - D4 25 5 10 32.8 2.3 41.4 D4 25 4 20 39.5 2.4 - D4 25 3 30 40.1 2.6 - D4 25 2 50 43.0 2.7 105.7 Table B.3 continued. Dissolved nutrients in October 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N03" H P O / Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM D8 23-Sep-99 30 17 0 4.0 0.6 26.8 D8 30 16 10 6.2 0.8 24.7 D8 30 15 20 8.3 1.1 13.8 D8 30 14 30 19.4 1.5 20.2 D8 30 13 50 31.3 2.6 37.5 D8 30 12 75 98.8 6.5 91.7 D8 30 11 100 17.6 0.7 13.7 D8 30 10 ,125 33.1 2.4 34.7 D8 30 9 150 35.2 2.6 42.9 D8 30 8 175 38.5 2.8 50.3 D8 30 7 200 28.5 2.0 45.4 D8 30 6 250 27.9 1.9 48.1 D8 30 5 300 25.5 1.7 45.1 D8 30 4 400 28.8 1.9 52.6 D8 30 3 500 103.7 6.8 154.1 D8 30 2 600 31.9 2.5 66.0 D8 30 1 782 49.4 3.6 107.6 D10 24-Sep-99 32 20 0 1.1 0.2 16.7 D10 32 19 10 1.3 0.3 17.3 D10 32 18 20 2.7 0.3 9.4 D10 32 17 30 6.5 0.5 10.9 D10 32 16 50 6.4 0.6 10.0 D10 32 15 75 6.4 0.6 9.9 D10 32 14 100 18.1 1.5 18.7 D10 32 13 125 20.7 1.6 20.0 D10 32 12 150 19.7 1.4 23.9 D10 32 11 175 43.5 2.7 44.9 D10 32 10 200 25.0 2.0 27.8 D10 32 9 250 33.0 2.3 40.1 D10 32 8 300 20.5 1.5 38.4 D10 32 7 400 36.3 3.0 72.1 D10 32 6 500 22.6 1.6 57.9 D10 32 5 600 26.9 2.2 77.6 D10 32 4 800 29.0 2.6 99.1 D10 32 3 1000 46.0 3.7 113.5 D10 32 2 1200 45.9 3.6 113.5 D10 32 1 1475 32.7 2.7 113.6 G1 28-Sep-99 88 6 0 15.7 1.7 30.5 G1 88 5 10 16.1 1.8 30.5 G1 88 4 20 14.8 1.6 25.3 G1 88 3 30 25.3 2.7 38.4 G1 88 2 50 25.1 2.9 37.3 G1 88 1 55 26.3 2.9 38.5 G3 28-Sep-99 92 13 0 12.8 1.3 30.2 G3 92 12 2 13.7 1.5 31.2 G3 92 11 5 14.1 1.5 30.3 G3 92 10 10 8.7 0.9 - G3 92 9 15 13.1 1.3 28.3 G3 92 8 20 17.5 1.8 40.3 G3 92 7 25 17.7 1.8 23.9 G3 92 6 30 18.3 1.7 - G3 92 5 40 17.6 1.7 24.9 G3 92 4 50 23.8 2.3 30.6 G3 92 3 75 35.8 3.4 57.7 G3 92 2 100 37.5 3.1 52.3 G3 92 1 125 33.1 2.9 47.9 G7 28-Sep-99 98 24 0 4.2 0.7 15.3 G7 98 23 5 5.0 0.7 15.0 G7 98 22 10 5.6 0.8 16.1 G7 98 21 15 6.0 0.8 16.2 G7 98 20 20 7.4 0.9 15.2 G7 98 19 25 7.5 1.0 15.2 G7 98 18 30 7.9 1.0 - G7 98 17 40 12.1 1.2 13.4 G7 98 16 50 9.7 1.1 23.9 G7 98 15 75 18.9 1.4 19.4 G7 98 14 100 36.1 2.3 33.9 G7 98 13 150 41.7 2.7 45.7 Table B.3 continued. Dissolved nutrients in October 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 ' H P f V Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM G7 28-Sep-99 98 12 175 41.7 2.8 47.0 G7 98 11 200 45.8 2.9 58.6 G7 98 10 250 30.1 1.9 50.9 G7 98 9 300 24.1 1.9 53.3 G7 98 8 400 40.8 3.3 75.5 G7 98 7 500 34.6 2.9 90.7 G7 98 6 600 35.3 2.7 89.6 G7 98 5 800 44.1 3.5 113.3 G7 98 4 1000 33.1 2.6 110.9 G7 98 3 1200 31.1 2.5 113.4 G7 98 2 1500 21.8 1.9 113.5 G7 98 1 1800 25.8 1.9 108.2 J6 27-Sept-99 84 19 0 8.1 0.5 13.6 J6 84 18 10 15.5 1.6 22.9 J6 84 17 20 15.5 0.0 17.9 J6 84 16 30 13.9 1.3 18.2 J6 84 15 50 12.6 1.2 13.0 J6 84 14 75 9.4 0.5 9.4 J6 84 13 100 30.9 1.3 25.5 J8 28-Sep-99 81 20 0 5.1 1.1 14.1 J8 81 19 10 4.9 1.1 14.4 J8 81 17 30 10.0 1.4 18.6 J8 81 16 50 7.8 1.2 12.4 J8 81 15 75 15.3 1.8 19.8 J8 81 14 100 23.8 1.5 27.2 J8 81 13 125 20.4 1.2 24.1 J8 81 12 150 28.6 1.9 36.5 J8 81 11 175 38.3 2.4 45.9 J8 81 10 200 33.7 2.2 45.8 J8 81 9 250 35.4 2.4 55.2 J8 81 8 300 32.2 2.5 52.1 J8 81 7 400 23.3 1.9 58.1 J8 81 6 500 15.8 1.5 71.4 J8 81 5 600 28.0 2.4 77.1 J8 81 4 800 43.6 3.7 112.7 J8 81 3 1000 43.6 3.7 112.8 J8 81 2 1200 41.5 3.5 112.9 J8 81 1 1500 25.2 2.2 112.8 BP2 27-Sep-99 70 12 0 16.3 1.4 33.6 BP2 70 11 2 15.8 1.4 33.5 BP2 70 10 5 16.0 1.4 33.9 BP2 70 8 15 19.5 1.5 33.3 BP2 70 7 20 20.0 1.6 - BP2 70 6 25 24.7 2.0 - BP2 70 5 3 20.2 1.4 26.8 BP2 70 4 40 31.0 2.0 33.3 BP2 70 3 50 33.7 2.4 49.1 BP2 70 2 75 31.4 2.0 35.4 BP2 70 1 100 31.2 2.5 41.5 BP5 27-Sep-99 75 20 0 10.0 1.2 29.8 BP5 75 19 10 3.9 0.3 15.4 BP5 75 18 20 13.2 1.3 26.3 BP5 75 17 30 11.7 1.1 20.2 BP5 75 16 50 21.0 1.7 25.5 BP5 75 15 75 13.4 1.1 22.5 BP5 75 14 100 14.9 1.3 24.9 BP5 75 13 125 24.8 2.0 36.3 BP7 27-Sep-99 78 22 0 7.7 0.9 23.3 BP7 78 21 2 10.2 1.3 23.8 BP7 78 20 5 9.2 1.3 27.2 BP7 78 19 15 11.1 1.4 25.4 BP7 78 18 25 18.8 2.2 31.0 BP7 78 17 40 20.2 2.3 31.3 BP7 78 16 50 25.0 2.2 27.9 BP7 78 15 75 33.6 2.1 39.2 BP7 78 14 100 39.0 2.4 59.8 BP7 78 13 125 32.1 2.1 44.7 Table B.3 continued. Dissolved nutrients in October 1999. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth N0 3 H P f V Si(OH)4 # # m uM uM uM BP7 27-Sep-99 78 12 150 41.7 2.9 54.3 BP7 78 11 175 41.7 2.9 58.4 BP7 78 10 200 53.5 3.3 65.4 BP7 78 9 250 28.1 2.1 48.8 BP7 78 8 300 42.5 3.3 72.5 BP7 78 7 400 44.4 3.5 72.7 BP7 78 6 500 34.4 2.8 73.1 BP7 78 5 600 32.6 2.8 88.3 BP7 78 3 800 27.5 2.1 88.5 BP7 78 2 1000 43.4 3.6 112.9 BP7 78 1 b-10 38.6 3.2 109.9 CPE2 26-Sep-99 66 9 0 13.0 1.4 24.3 CPE2 66 8 10 6.6 0.8 17.9 CPE2 66 7 20 11.5 1.3 22.4 CPE2 66 6 30 16.6 1.7 27.0 CPE2 66 5 50 19.1 2.0 28.1 CPE2 66 4 75 21.2 2.0 30.0 CPE2 66 3 100 28.7 2.8 41.2 CPE2 66 2 100 30.2 2.7 39.8 CPE2 66 1 121 31.4 2.9 49.1 CS7 26-Sep-99 42 6 0 8.9 0.8 19.9 CS7 42 5 10 7.8 0.8 18.8 CS7 42 4 20 10.2 1.0 22.1 CS7 42 3 30 23.5 1.6 29.2 CS7 42 2 50 73.3 4.6 93.2 CS7 42 1 60 72.6 4.6 91.8 CS3B 26-Sep-99 49 12 0 4.4 0.7 16.7 CS3B 49 11 10 2.8 0.7 13.2 CS3B 49 10 20 3.0 0.6 12.6 CS3B 49 9 30 3.9 1.0 15.6 CS3B 49 8 50 15.3 1.7 23.5 CS3B 49 7 75 25.3 2.8 32.3 CS3B 49 6 100 23.2 1.4 26.8 CS3B 49 5 125 41.7 2.7 48.3 CS3B 49 4 150 41.7 2.9 50.3 CS3B 49 3 175 31.6 2.0 40.5 CS3B 49 2 200 33.2 2.0 40.8 CS3B 49 1 210 38.3 2.5 50.0 Q3 26-Sep-99 63 17 0 2.5 0.6 49.0 Q3 63 16 10 6.6 1.0 15.4 Q3 63 15 25 4.1 0.3 7.7 Q3 63 14 35 3.6 0.1 5.9 Q3 63 13 45 11.9 1.5 16.0 Q3 63 12 48 13.4 1.5 17.8 Q3 63 11 50 14.2 1.5 18.2 Q3 63 10 75 28.1 2.1 32.3 Q3 63 9 100 38.4 2.2 35.9 Q3 63 8 125 41.6 2.6 46.4 Q3 63 7 150 43.8 2.9 52.3 Q3 63 6 175 52.1 3.0 61.4 Q3 63 5 200 52.4 3.0 62.6 Q3 63 4 250 23.4 1.9 41.7 Q3 63 3 300 40.7 3.2 68.8 Q3 63 2 400 23.3 2.0 69.2 Q3 63 1 500 42.9 3.4 84.0 APPENDIX C 1999 R A W D A T A SET Table C.l Chlorophyll a (mg m"3) in May 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were filtered onto 0.7 pm glass fiber filters unless otherwise indicated., by * which were filtered onto 5.0 pm polycarbonate filters. (-) indicates data not available. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m"3) B2 4-May-99 4 5 0 4.4 4 10 4.9 3 20 2.1 1 50 1.0 B4 4-May-99 6 7 0 14.5 6 10 8.2 5 20 6.0 4 30 2.6 B6 5-May-99 8 7 0 8.3 6 10 12.9 5 20 6.3 4 30 2.5 3 50 0.6 B8 5-May-99 14 5 0 0.9 4 10 1.3 3 20 2.6 2 30 4.7 1 50 1.7 BIO 6-May-99 46 9 0 1.0 8 10 1.1 7 20 0.6 6 30 0.6 5 50 0.5 B12 6-May-99 44 15 0 0.6 14 10 0.7 13 20 0.5 11 50 0.8 B14 6-May-99 40 18 0 0.5 17 10 0.6 16 20 0.7 15 30 0.6 14 50 0.7 B16 6-May-99 43 12 0 0.4 11 10 0.4 10 20 0.5 9 30 0.4 8 40 0.5 7 50 1.1 B16* 6-May-99 43 12 0 0.7 CI 5-May-99 9 12 0 2.9 11 2 5.5 10 5 8.3 8 15 11.5 7 2 6.1 CI* 5-May-99 9 12 0 3.7 C2 5-May-99 21 7 0 2.6 6 10 3.2 5 20 3.3 4 30 0.5 3 50 0.3 Table C. 1 continued Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m 3) C4 5-May-99 23 11 0 2.9 10 5 1.1 9 10 0.6 8 15 1.3 7 20 3.6 6 30 0.4 C 4 * 5-May-99 23 11 0 0.1 C7 5-May-99 27 10 0 2.0 8 10 0.6 6 20 0.9 5 30 0.7 4 50 0.7 C8 5-May-99 28 12 0 1.3 11 10 1.2 10 20 0.6 9 30 0.6 8 50 0.8 C9 5-May-99 30 16 0 1.0 15 5 1.0 14 10 1.2 14 20 0.4 13 25 0.3 12 30 0.6 C l l 5-May-99 36 18 0 0.5 17 10 0.5 16 20 0.9 15 30 0.8 14 50 1.4 D2 6-May-99 48 5 0 4.6 4 10 4.3 3 20 4.6 2 30 1.2 1 41 1.6 D4 6-May-99 50 7 0 3.5 6 10 3.8 5 20 0.3 4 30 0.2 3 50 0.3 G l 7-May-99 52 5 0 3.8 4 10 2.1 3 20 1.7 2 30 1.8 1 50 1.2 G2 7-May-99 53 7 0 1.2 6 10 1.6 5 20 1.9 4 30 0.3 3 50 0.2 G3 7-May-99 65 12 0 0.8 11 5 0.8 10 10 0.9 9 20 0.9 7 30 0.9 6 40 0.6 G 3 * 7-May-99 65 12 0 0.1 G4 7-May-99 56 0 0.9 10 1.2 20 1.0 30 0.7 50 0.1 G7 6-May-99 59 16 0 0.6 15 5 0.6 14 10 0.4 13 20 0.3 12 30 0.5 11 40 0.8 G 7 * 6-May-99 59 16 0 0.1 Table C. 1 continued Station Date Event Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m"3) G 9 7-May-99 64 16 0 0.2 15 10 0.2 14 20 0.3 13 30 0.4 12 50 2.7 Jl 10-May-99 124 . 6 0 8.4 5 10 8.2 4 20 7.6 3 30 1.8 2 50 0.4 J 2 10-May-99 125 6 0 7.5 5 10 7.9 4 20 2.2 3 30 0.7 2 50 0.4 J4 11-May-99 128 9 0 3.2 8 10 3.0 7 20 2.4 6 30 0.9 5 50 0.3 J6 11-May-99 131 17 0 2.5 16 10 2.5 15 20 1.6 14 30 0.6 13 50 0.4 J8 11-May-99 134 17 0 3.2 16 10 3.4 15 20 1.1 14 30 0.8 13 50 0.2 B P 2 10-May-99 118 10 0 3.8 9 2.5 4.0 8 5 3.9 7 10 4.1 6 15 3.7 5 20 4.2 B P 2 * 10-May-99 118 10 0 2.8 B P 4 7-May-99 117 17 0 3.7 16 10 4.3 15 20 5.7 14 30 1.6 13 50 1.0 B P 6 10-May-99 114 16 0 3.8 15 10 3.3 14 20 13 30 1.2 > 12 50 0.4 B P 7 10-May-99 123 16 0 0.8 15 2.5 0.8 14 5 0.8 13 10 0.8 12 15 0.6 11 20 0.6 8 100 0.1 B P 7 * 10-May-99 123 16 0 0.1 B P 8 10-May-99 110 21 0 0.6 20 10 0.6 19 20 0.4 18 30 0.5 17 50 0.3 J I 2 2 9-May-99 101 15 0 3.3 14 10 5.1 13 20 7.3 12 30 2.7 11 50 1.1 Table C. 1 continued Station Date Event Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m~3) CSl 8-May-99 67 14 0 8.0 13 10 7.8 12 20 8.3 11 30 6.9 10 50 0.7 CS3 8-May-99 73 11 0 3.3 10 10 3.2 9 20 1.8 8 30 9.8 7 50 0.4 CS3B 9-May-99 95 11 0 1.9 10 10 1.6 9 20 1.4 8 30 0.9 7 50 0.5 7 50 0.4 CS3B* 9-May-99 95 11 0 1.1 CS5 8-May-99 77 6 0 5.7 5 10 5.1 4 20 5.9 3 30 4.2 2 50 5.0 CS7 8-May-99 82 6 0 5.2 5 10 5.4 4 20 5.0 3 30 4.2 2 50 2.3 CS9 8-May-99 88 11 0 5.1 10 10 6.5 9 20 6.1 8 30 5.0 7 50 2.2 CPE2 9-May-99 107 8 0 5.0 7 10 5.9 6 20 2.5 5 30 0.4 4 50 0.3 CS1B 9-May-99 93 6 0 5.7 5 10 4.6 4 20 5.7 3 30 2.9 2 50 2.3 MP8 12-May-99 137 17 0 0.7 16 10 0.7 15 20 0.6 14 30 0.2 13 50 0.3 P4 12-May-99 142 16 0 0.6 15 10 0.6 14 20 0.6 13 30 0.4 12 50 0.3 P6 12-May-99 142 16 0 0.6 15 10 0.5 14 20 0.6 13 30 0.3 12 50 0.3 APPENDIX C Table C.2 Chlorophyll a (mg m"3) in July 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were filtered onto 0.7 um glass fiber filters unless otherwise indicated by * which were filtered onto a 5.0 um polycarbonate filters. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m 3) B6 30-Jun-99 6 9 0 2.50 8 5 2.45 7 10 2.27 6 20 1.80 5 30 0.94 4 50 0.34 3 75 0.17 B8 30-Jun-99 8 9 0 8.32 8 10 4.81 7 20 0.94 6 30 0.79 5 50 0.35 B16 1-Jul-99 18 5 0 0.85 4 10 0.87 3 20 0.90 2 30 0.42 1 40 0.05 CI 30-Jun-99 33 7 0 6.47 6 10 4.20 5 20 1.02 4 30 1.06 3 50 0.19 C4 1-Jul-99 36 14 0 4.16 12 6 3.77 11 5 4.27 9 18 0.54 8 34 0.18 7 41 0.22 C 4 * 1-Jul-99 36 13 5 3.45 C5 2-Jul-99 38 6 0 3.47 5 10 2.93 4 20 1.22 3 30 0.70 2 50 0.32 C6 2-Jul-99 39 7 0 0.70 6 10 0.74 5 20 2.07 4 30 0.98 3 50 0.23 C7 2-Jul-99 40 8 0 0.56 7 10 0.74 6 20 1.46 5 30 0.83 4 50 0.16 C8 2-Jul-99 41 11 0 0.44 10 10 0.41 9 20 1.08 8 30 0.97- 7 50 0.19 C9 2-Jul-99 42 16 0 0.46 15 10 0.41 14 20 0.55 13 30 0.60 12 50 0.52 C 9 * 2-Jul-99 42 16 0 0.12 C l l 2-Jul-99 46 20 0 0.43 19 10 0.29 18 20 0.34 17 30 0.38 16 50 0.74 Table C.2. continued Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m"3) Gl 3-Jul-99 61 5 0 6.66 4 10 6.24 3 20 0.60 2 30 0.27 1 50 0.12 G2 3-Jul-99 63 7 0 7.82 6 10 4.81 5 20 0.40 4 30 0.09 3 50 0.15 G3 3-Jul-99 65 8 0 1.82 7 5 2.01 6 10 2.02 5 20 0.81 4 30 0.32 3 40 0.05 G3* 3-Jul-99 65 8 0 1.34 G6 3-Jul-99 70 17 0 1.98 16 10 2.00 15 20 1.73 14 30 0.87 13 50 0.27 G7 3-Jul-99 71 22 0 1.07 21 5 0.89 20 10 0.92 19 20 0.68 18 30 1.34 17 40 0.32 BP2 6-Jul-99 94 9 3.5 1.60 8 6 3.13 7 10 3.43 6 15 3.31 5 18 2.51 5 18 2.07 BP3 6-Jul-99 91 10 0 1.90 9 10 4.70 8 20 3.93 7 30 1.59 6 50 0.20 BP4 6-JUI-99 90 19 0 2.93 18 10 3.70 17 20 3.05 15 50 0.34 16 30 0.82 BP6 5-Jul-99 89 17 0 2.80 16 10 2.64 15 20 1.49 14 30 1.21 13 50 0.31 BP7 5-Jul-99 86 6 10 3.93 5 11 4.24 4 15 3.47 3 22 2.34 2 31 0.64 1 37 0.39 BP7* 5-Jul-99 86 6 0 1.34 APPENDIX C Table C.3. Chlorophyll a (mg m"J) in October 1999 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. All samples were filtered onto 0.7 um glass fiber filtes unless otherwise indicated by * which were filtered onto a 5.0 um polycarbonate filters. Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m"3) B4 30-Sep-99 131 7 0 2.66 5 20 1.08 4 30 0.75 3 50 0.39 B6 30-Sep-99 130 8 0 3.12 7 10 2.91 6 20 1.76 5 30 0.72 4 50 0.29 C1 30-Sep-99 119 14 0 4.51 13 2 4.58 12 5 4.70 10 15 2.89 8 25 1.08 6 40 0.32 C 1 * 30-Sep-99 14 0 1.92 C4 30-Sep-99 115 12 0 4.89 11 2 5.31 10 5 4.93 8 20 1.01 7 30 1.15 6 50 0.46 C 4 * 30-Sep-99 12 0 3.67 C7 29-Sep-99 110 9 0 6.85 8 10 7.16 7 20 2.71 6 30 1.56 5 50 0.31 C8 29-Sep-99 108 11 0 4.85 10 10 4.77 9 20 2.93 8 30 1.96 7 50 0.35 C9 29-Sep-99 106 22 0 4.97 21 2 5.47 20 5 6.12 18 15 3.31 16 25 0.50 14 40 0.17 C 9 * 29-Sep-99 106 22 0 3.54 C11 29-Sep-99 104 20 0 5.20 19 10 4.77 18 20 1.88 17 30 0.89 16 50 0.23 D1 23-Sep-99 21 4 0 9.55 3 5 8.90 2 10 0.93 1 30 0.42 D2 23-Sep-99 22 5 0 6.62 4 10 6.51 3 20 1.58 2 30 0.42 D4 23-Sep-99 25 6 0 5.93 5 10 1.90 4 20 1.42 3 30 0.83 2 50 0.31 Table C .3. continued Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m 3) D8 23-Sep-99 30 17 0 7.62 16 10 3.85 15 20 0.48 14 30 0.16 13 50 0.12 D10 24-Sep-99 32 20 0 6.89 19 10 7.66 18 20 1.76 17 30 0.25 16 50 0.12 Gl 28-Sep-99 88 6 0 7.43 5 10 7.20 4 20 2.56 3 30 0.11 2 50 0.13 G3 28-Sep-99 92 13 0 8.16 12 2 7.66 11 5 8.74 9 15 4.69 7 25 0.40 5 40 0.13 G3* 28-Sep-99 13 0 5.35 G7 28-Sep-99 98 24 0 0.78 24 0 1.90 23 5 1.94 21 10 1.72 19 25 1.62 17 40 0.54 G7* 28-Sep-99 24 0 1.50 J6 27-Sep-99 84 19 0 2.76 18 10 3.00 17 20 2.53 16 30 1.72 15 50 0.13 J8 27-Sep-99 81 20 0 1.79 19 10 1.94 18 20 2.69 17 30 2.83 16 50 0.28 BP2 26-Sep-99 70 12 0 6.08 11 2 6.08 10 5 5.97 8 15 3.89 6 25 1.47 4 40 0.37 BP2* 26-Sep-99 12 0 4.66 BP5 27-Sep-99 75 20 0 8.74 19 10 7.28 18 20 3.20 17 30 1.32 16 50 0.13 BP7 27-Sep-99 78 22 0 9.40 21 2 10.01 20 5 9.70 19 15 1.90 18 25 0.32 17 40 0.26 BP7* 27-Sep-99 22 0 3.24 CS7 25-Sep-99 42 6 0 1.95 5 10 2.30 4 20 2.09 3 30 0.25 2 50 0.05 Table C.3. continued Station Date Cast Niskin Depth Chl a # # (m) (mg m 3) CPE2 26-Sep-99 66 9 0 4.51 8 10 4.20 7 20 2.08 6 30 1.73 5 50 0.67 CS3B 26-Sep-99 49 12 0 1.50 11 10 1.57 10 20 1.69 9 30 1.36 8 50 0.07 Q3 26-Sep-99 63 17 0 1.38 15 25 0.37 14 35 0.16 13 45 0.28 12 48 0.10 11 50 0.09 Q 3 * 26-Sep-99 63 17 0 0.80 APPENDIX D PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY F O R 1999 Table D. l Integrated (100-1% surface light) daily primary productivity (g C m"2 d"1) in 1999 for July and October off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Date Station Daily Production 29 June CI 0.2 30 June C4 2.0 07 July G3 0.8 01 July C9 0.4 03 July G7 0.9 05 July BP7 1.9 30 Sept. CI 0.6 30 Sept. C4 0.7 38 Sept. G3 1.6 26 Sept. BP2 0.6 29 Sept. C9 0.6 28 Sept. G7 0.3 27 Sept. BP7 0.8 APPENDIX E Sampling Stations In addition to specific time series and process study stations, water samples were taken at additional stations along transects off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Tables E.1-E.6 show latitude, longitude and water depth for all stations sampled during cruises in 1997 and 1998. In this thesis data are presented for 1997 and 1998 for La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and the Brooks Peninsula transects only. Physical, chemical, and biological data are presented in Chapter 1 and size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity in Chapter 2. All raw data for the above transects and the additional stations sampled during each cruise are archived in the Institute of Ocean Science's database. During three cruises in 1999 a reduced number of stations were sampled. Tables E.7-E.9 show latitude, longitude and water depth data of all stations sampled in 1999. Data for 1999 are presented in Appendices B, C and D and also archived in the database at the Institute of Ocean Science (Sidney, BC). 151 APPENDIX E Table E . l Location and water depth of stations occupied during 08-24 April 1997 (Cruise ID#9707) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, BP indicates Brooks Peninula and CS indicates Cape Scott transects. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Bottom Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank B2 48° 39' 00" 125° 02' 24" 56 B8 48° 25' 18" 125° 28' 39" 135 B9 48° 22' 00" 125° 34' 48" 153 Bll 48° 15' 12" 125° 47' 45" 219 B12 48° 12' 55" 125° 51' 54" 450 B14 48° 08' 29" 126° 00' 00" 966 B16 48° 00' 32" 126° 17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 28' 59" 125° 15' 14" 156 C2 48° 48' 41" 125° 30' 57" 111 C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 166 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 CIO 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 Cl l 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 D Line D2 48° 58' 21" 125° 47' 03" 45 D4 48° 53' 10" 125° 57' 00" 60 D7 48° 42; 40" 126° 16' 48" 463 D9 48° 35' 41" 126° 30' 00" 1100 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G4 49° 11' 18" 126° 49' 24" 150 G5 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 250 G6 49° 03' 30" 127° 01' 12" 972 G7 48° 59' 24" 127° 07' 12" 1750 Brooks Peninsula BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP3 50° 03' 12" 127° 55' 18" 139 BP4 50° 04'24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 1730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 Cape Scott J023 50° 39' 48" 129° 01' 54" 1967 CS2B 50° 55' 59" 128° 59' 52" 64 CPE1 51° 00' 00" 127° 50' 00" 158 CPE2 50° 43' 00" 128° 40' 00" 123 152 APPENDIX E Table E.2 Location and water depth of stations occupied during 14-28 July 1997 (Cruise ID#9713) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, A indicates Juan de Fuca canyon, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point and BP indicates Brooks Peninula transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) Juan de Fuca Canyon Al 48° 29' 14" 124°43'39" 264 A4 48° 19' 22" 125° 04' 07" 175 A6 48° 12' 38" 125° 17' 12" 112 A10 47° 59' 01" 125°43'24" 950 La Perouse Bank B2 48° 39' 00" 125° 02' 24" 56 B8 48° 25' 18" 125°28'39" 135 B9 48° 22' 00" 125° 34' 48" 153 BIO 48° 18' 34" 125° 41'21" 151 B12 48° 12' 55" 125°51'54" 450 B14 48° 08' 29" 126° 00' 00" 966 B16 48° 00' 32" 126°17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 28' 59" 125° 15' 14" 156 C2 48° 48' 41" 125° 30'57" 111 C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 166 C7 48° 32' 58" 126°00'30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 CIO 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 Cll 48° 18' 57" 126° 26'42" 1330 D Line D2 48° 58' 21" 125° 47' 03" 45 D4 48° 53' 10" 125°57'00" 60 D7 48° 42' 40" 126° 16' 48" 463 D9 48° 35' 41" 126° 30' 00" 1100 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43' 42" 126 G4 49° 11' 18" 126° 49' 24" 150 G5 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 250 Brooks Peninsula BP1 50° 04' 48" 127° 52' 48" 32 BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP3 50° 03' 12" 127° 55'18" 139 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 153 APPENDIX E Table E.3 Location and water depth of stations occupied during 20-27 October 1997 (Cruise ID#9737) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates Line D, G indicates Estevan Point and BP indicates Brooks Peninula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg°min' sec" N deg°min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank B2 48° 39' 36" 125° 02' 28" 145 B8 48° 25' 17" 125° 28' 43" 145 B9 48° 22' 00" 125° 34' 49" 151 BIO 48° 18' 35" 125° 41' 13" 153 B14 48° 08' 27" 125° 00' 07" 1185 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 28' 59" 125° 15' 14" 156 C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 166 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 656 CIO 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 Cl l 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 D Line Dl 49° 00" 06" 125° 43' 48" 33 D2 48° 58' 21" 125° 47' 03" 45 D4 48° 53' 10" 125° 57' 00" 60 D6 48° 46' 11" 126° 10' 12" 137 D7 48° 42' 40" 126° 16' 48" 463 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G2 49° 18' 42" 126° 38' 06" 102 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G4 49° 11' 18" 126° 49' 24" 150 G5 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 250 G6 49° 03' 30" 127° 01' 12" 972 G7 48° 59' 24" 127° 07' 12" 1750 Brooks Peninsula BP1 50° 04' 48" 127° 52' 48" 32 BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP3 50° 03' 12" 127° 55' 18" 139 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 1730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 154 APPENDIX E Table E.4 Location and water depth of stations occupied during 11-25 May 1998 cruise (Cruise ID# 9810) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point, H indicated H Line, J indicates J Line, BP indicates Brooks Peninula and CS indicates Cape Scott transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank B7 48° 25' 41" 125° 28'06" 160 B8 48° 25' 18" 125° 28' 39" 145 B16 48° 00' 32" 126° 17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 50' 26" 125° 27' 44" 156 C2 48° 48' 41" 125° 30' 57" 111 C3 48° 46' 57" 125° 34' 14" 120 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 Cl l 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 C12 48° 15' 00" 126° 40' 00" 1000 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G2 49° 18' 42" 126° 38' 06" 105 G3 49° 15' 00" 126°43'42" 126 G6 49° 03' 30" 127° 01' 12" 972 G7 48° 59' 24" 127° 07' 12" 1750 G9 48° 51' 10" 127° 19' 21" 2081 H Line H2 49° 32' 15" 126° 47' 17" 41 H3 49° 28' 37" 126° 52' 54" 97 H5 49° 21' 16" 126° 04' 45" 151 H7 49° 13' 38" 126° 16' 07" 1001 H9 49° 05' 31" 126° 28' 44" 2079 J Line J2 49° 42' 40" 126° 05' 18" 150 14 49° 35' 25" 126° 16' 46" 150 J6 49° 27' 29 " 126° 28' 35" 1001 Brooks Peninsula BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 1730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 BP8 49° 48' 36" 128° 16' 48" >2200 BP9 49° 44' 47" 128° 22' 48" >2200 Cape Scott CS3B 51° 00' 00" 128° 50' 48" 150 APPENDIX E Table E.5 Location and water depth of stations occupied during 14-26 July 1998 (Cruise ID#9823) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, A indicates Juan de Fuca canyon, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, BP indicates Brooks Peninula and ER indicated Endeavor Ridge transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) Juan de Fuca Canyon Al 48° 29' 14" 124° 43' 39" 264 A2 48° 26' 15" 124° 51" 19" 312 A4 48° 19' 22" 125° 04' 07" 175 A6 48° 12' 38" 125° 17' 12" 112 A8 48° 05' 47" 125° 30' 24" 142 La Perouse Bank CI 48° 28' 59" 125° 15' 14" 156 B16 48° 00' 32" 126° 17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 50" 26" 125° 27' 44" 94 C2 48° 48' 41" 125° 30' 57" 111 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 CIO 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 Cll 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 D Line Dl 48° 49' 06" 125° 43" 48" 33 D2 48° 58' 21" 125° 47' 03" 45 D4 48° 53' 10" 125° 57' 00" 60 D7 48° 42' 40" 126° 16' 48" 463 D9 48° 35' 41" 126° 30' 00" 1100 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G2 49° 18' 42" 126° 38' 06" 105 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G4 49° 11' 18" 126° 49' 24" 150 G5 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 258 G7 48° 59' 24" 127° 07' 12" 1800 Brooks Peninsula BP1 50° 04' 48" 127° 52' 48" 32 BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP3 50° 03' 12" 127° 55' 18" 139 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 1730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 Endeavor Ridge ER01 47° 57' 29" 129° 05' 03" 2200 M3 50° 05' 23" 128° 10' 12" 1180 156 APPENDIX E Table E.6 Location and water depth of stations occupied during the 05-16 October 1998 cruise (Cruise ID#9836) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point, BP indicates Brooks Peninula and CS indicated Cape Scott. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank CI 48° 28' 59" 125° 15' 14" 156 B16 48° 00' 32" 126° 17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 50' 26" 125° 27' 44" 94 C2 48° 48' 41" 125° 30' 57" 111 C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 167 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 CIO 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 Cl l 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G4 49° 11' 18" 126° 49' 24" 150 G5 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 257 G7 48° 59' 24" 127° 07' 12" 1800 Brooks Peninsula BP1 50° 04' 48" 127° 52' 48" 32 BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP3 50° 03' 12" 127° 55' 18" 139 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 1730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 Cape Scott CS1 50° 34' 54" 129° 41' 30" >2000 CS3 50° 45' 36" 129° 20' 00" 200 CS6 51° 00' 00" 128° 50' 00" 65 CPE1 51° 00'00" 127° 50' 00" 150 CPE2 50° 43'00" 128° 40' 00" 140 157 APPENDIX E Table E.7 Location and water depth of stations occupied during May 1999 (Cruise ID#9911) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, J indicates J Line, BP indicates Brooks Peninula and CS indicates Cape Scott. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank CI 48° 50' 26" 125° 27' 44" 94 B2 48° 39' 00" 125° 02' 24" 56 B4 48° 35' 40" 125° 08'43" 105 B6 48° 32' 40" 125° 15' 31" 110 B8 48° 25' 18" 125° 28' 39" 135 BIO 48° 18' 34" 125° 41' 21" 151 B12 48° 12' 55" 125° 51' 54" 450 B14 48° 08' 29" 126° 00' 00" 966 B16 48° 00' 32" 126° 17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon C2 48° 48' 41" 125° 30' 57" 111 C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 166 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13'42" 659 Cl l 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 C12 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 D Line D2 48° 58' 21" 125° 47' 03" 45 D4 48° 53' 10" 125° 57' 00" 60 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G2 49° 18' 42" 126° 38' 06" 105 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G4 49° 11' 18" 126° 49' 24" 150 G7 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 250 G8 48° 51' 10" 127° 19' 21" 2081 J Line Jl 49° 44' 18" 127° 02' 30" 63 J2 49° 42' 40" 126° 05' 18" 79 14 49° 35' 25" 126° 16' 46" 150 36 49° 27' 29 " 126° 28' 35" 1001 J8 49° 20' 07 " 126° 40' 58" >2000 Brooks Peninsula BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05'30" 730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" >2200 BP8 49° 48' 36" 128° 16' 48" >2200 Cape Scott J122 50° 39' 48" 129° 17' 36" >2200 CS1 50° 34' 54" 129°41'30" >2200 158 APPENDIX E Table E.8 Location and water depth of stations occupied during July 1999 (Cruise ID#9928) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, G indicates Estevan Point and BP indicates Brooks Peninula. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank B6 48° 32' 40" 125° 15' 31" 110 B8 48° 25' 18" 125° 28' 39" 135 B16 48° 00' 32" 126° 17' 00" 1530 Barkley Canyon CI 48° 50' 26" 125° 27' 44" 90 C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 162 C5 48° 39' 56" 125° 47' 24" 90 C6 48° 36' 28" 125° 54' 00" 95 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C9 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 Cl l 48° 22' 24" 126° 20' 12" 1115 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G2 49° 18' 42" 126° 38' 06" 105 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G6 49° 03' 30" 127° 07' 12" 866 G7 49° 07' 24" 126° 55' 18" 250 Brooks Peninsula BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP3 50° 03' 12" 127° 55' 18" 172 BP4 50° 04' 24" 127° 58' 06" 1090 BP6 49° 56' 12" 128° 05' 30" 1730 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 159 APPENDIX E Table E.9 Location and water depth of stations occupied during October 1999 (Cruise ID#9935) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Under the station column, B indicates La Perouse Bank, C indicates Barkley Canyon, D indicates D Line, G indicates Estevan Point, J indicates J Line, BP indicates Brooks Periinula and CS indicates Cape Scott transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Transect Station Latitude Longitude Depth deg° min' sec" N deg° min' sec" W (m) La Perouse Bank CI 48° 28' 59" 125° 15' 14" 156 B4 48° 35' 40" 125° 08' 43" 105 B6 48° 32' 40" 125° 15' 31" 110 Barkley Canyon C4 48° 43' 28" 125° 40' 48" 162 C7 48° 32' 58" 126° 00' 30" 129 C8 48° 29' 27" 126° 07' 06" 201 C8 48° 25' 24" 126° 13' 42" 659 Cl l 48° 18' 57" 126° 26' 42" 1330 Line D Dl 48° 49' 06" 125° 43" 48" 33 D2 48° 58' 21" 125° 47' 03" 45 D4 48° 53' 10" 125° 57' 00" 60 D8 48° 39' 10" 126° 23' 24" 760 D10 48° 32' 12" 126° 36' 36" 1475 Estevan Point Gl 49° 20' 30" 126° 35' 00" 60 G3 49° 15' 00" 126° 43'42" 126 G7 48° 59' 24" 127° 07' 12" 1800 Line J J6 49° 27' 29" 126° 28' 35" 1001 J8 49° 20' 07" 126° 40' 58" >2000 Brooks Peninsula BP2 50° 04' 00" 127° 54' 12" 99 BP5 50° 00' 00" 128° 00' 00" 1230 BP7 49° 52' 24" 128° 11' 12" 2200 Cape Scott CS7 51° 04' 30" 128° 44' 00" 65 CPE2 50° 43' 00" 128° 40' 00" 140 CS3B 51° 00' 00" 129° 27' 00" Q3 50° 39' 48" 129° 01' 54" 750 160 APPENDIX F CONVERSION OF C E L L S I / 1 TO CARBON L For the analysis o f the taxonomy data conversion from cell L" 1 to carbon L" 1 is necessary. The equations given by Strathman (1967) were used for all species and are listed below: L o g Carbon = (-0.422) + 0.758 (Log Volume) Diatoms only L o g Carbon = (-0.460) + 0.866 (Log Volume) Other than Diatoms Cel l volumes specific to each species were required for the conversion o f cells L" 1 to carbon. Cel l volume calculated using measurements o f representative cells and equations for simple geometric shapes: spheroids, cylinders, boxes, and cones were supplied by R. Haigh (unpubl. data). Collection o f this information is a time consuming task and the author greatly appreciated the efforts o f R. Haigh. Cel l specific volumes for diatoms are listed in Tables F . l and F.2 for other phytoplankton species. 161 Table F . l Cell volume and carbon per cell of the diatom species observed off the west coast of Vancouver Island during 1997 and 1998. P indicates pennate diatoms and C indicates centric diatoms. Diatom Type Shape Volume (10 3 pm 3) C/cell (10"4 pg/cell) Asterionella glacialis P Triangle box 1.92 1.17 Centric spp. c Cylinder 1.40 0.92 Chaetoceros compressus c Cylinder 1.53 0.98 Chaetoceros convolutus c Cylinder 5.20 2.48 Chaetoceros debilis c Cylinder 1.55 0.99 Chaetoceros eibenii c Cylinder 13.2 5.02 Chaetoceros radicans c Cylinder 0.67 0.52 Chaetoceros socialis c Cylinder 0.37 0.34 Chaetoceros socialis, spore c Cylinder 0.12 0.15 Chaetoceros spp. c Cylinder 1.87 1.14 Cylindrotheca closterium c Ellipsoid 0.26 0.26 Detonela pumila c Cylinder 9.19 3.82 Fragilaria spp. P Rect. Box 6.21 2.84 Leptocylindrus danicus c Cylinder 2.88 1.59 Leptocylindrus minimus c Cylinder 0.20 0.21 Navicula spp. P Cylinder 1.07 0.75 Nitzschia spp. P Cylinder 0.03 0.05 Pennates (> 50 um) P Box 9.92 4.05 Pennates (25-50 um) P Box 2.94 1.61 Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima P Cylinder 0.29 0.28 Pseudo-nitzschia pungens P Cylinder 2.22 1.30 Pseudo-nitzschia spp. P Cylinder 0.14 0.16 Proboscia alata c Cylinder 10.9 4.35 Dactyliosolen fragilissimus c Cylinder 7.0 3.11 Rhizosolenia setigera c Cylinder 32.9 10.1 Rhizosolenia stolterfothii c Cylinder 2.77 1.54 Skeletonema costatum P Cylinder 0.60 0.48 Synedra spp. P Elliptic Cylinder 1.92 1.16 Thalassionema nitzschioides P Rect. box 0.99 0.70 Thalassiosira aestivalis c Cylinder 32.1 9.86 Thalassiosira spp. (< 5 um) c Cylinder 0.03 0.05 Thalassiosira spp. (< 10 um) c Cylinder 0.23 0.24 Thalassiosira spp. c Cylinder 0.77 0.58 Thalassiosira cotula c Cylinder 3.94 2.01 Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii c Cylinder 14.5 0.39 Thalassiosira rotula c Cylinder 16.8 6.05 162 Table F.2 Cell volume and carbon per cell for other phytoplankton species (except diatoms) observed off the west coast of Vancouver Island during 1997 and 1998. P indicates autotrophic and H indicates heterotrophic nutrition. Species Type Shape Volume C/cell (10 3 pm3) (10-4 pg/cell) Dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense P Ellipsoid 26.4 23.4 Ceratium furca p Cone 96.3 71.8 Ceratium kofoidii P Ellipsoid 8.89 9.12 Dinophysis spp. P Ellipsoid 23.8 2.36 Alexandrium pseudogoniaulax P Ellipsoid 47.0 38.6 Gymnodinium auratum P EHipsoid 1.56 2.02 Gymnodinium spp. Small P Ellipsoid 1.56 2.02 Gymnodinium spp. P Ellipsoid 26.3 23.3 Gyrodinium fusiforme P Cone 9.07 9.28 Gyrodinium spp. small H Ellipsoid 0.42 0.64 Gyrodinium spp. Avg. H Ellipsoid 17.0 16.0 Katodinium rotundatum P Ellipsoid 0.29 0.48 Prorocentrum balticum P Ellipsoid 0.68 0.99 Prorocentrum gracile P Ellipsoid 3.65 4.22 Protoperidinium rhomboidalis H Spherical 149 106 Protoperidinium spp. H Ellipsoid 6.53 6.97 Unidentified-autotroph P Ellipsoid 7.09 7.5 Unidentified-heterotroph H Ellipsoid 3.33 3.89 Nanoflagellates (2-20 um) Choanoflagellate spp. (< 5 um) P Ellipsoid 0.02 0.04 Choanoflagellate spp. (<10 pm) P Ellipsoid 0.04 0.09 Choanoflagellate spp. P Ellipsoid 0.03 0.07 Chrysochromulina spp. (< 5 um) P Spheroid 0.03 0.06 Chrysochromulina spp. (avg) P Spheroid 0.24 0.41 Coccolithophores P Spheroid 0.06 0.13 Cryptomonad spp. P Ellipsoid 0.47 0.72 Dictyocha speculum-silicoflagellate P Spheroid 4.88 5.42 Flagellates, misc P Ellipsoid 0.01 0.03 Leucocryptos marina P Spheroid 0.91 1.26 Mantoniella squamata P Spheroid 0.01 0.02 Micromonas pusilla P Spheroid 0.002 0.01 Others Ciliates, misc H Ellipsoid 0.86 1.20 Hetersigma carterae P Ellipsoid 0.45 0.69 Mesodinium rubrum P Ellipsoid 9.35 9.52 Mesodinium rubrum, small P Ellipsoid 0.01 0.02 APPENDIX G INCIDENT SURFACE IRRADIANCE DURING PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS The incident surface solar irradiance during primary productivity measurements presented in Chapter 2 is shown in Figures G1-G.6. Data are not available for October 1998 due to a datalogger malfunction. During April 1997 (Figure G.l) primary productivity incubation length was 24 hours. For the rest of the study period, primary productivity incubation length was 6 hours and the incubation period is indicated by the shaded region in each plot. 164 s c _ n o> E « w t o 5 1 o = c a. 2000- 1500 - 1000- 5 0 0 - 0 - 2000 - 1500- 1000 - 500 - 0 - 2000- 1500- 1000 - 500 - 0 - 2000 La Perouse Bank Shelf •3? Barkley Canyon Shelf .«»• Estevan Point Shelf 1500 H 1000 H 500 H o - l ] — ' — 1 — 1 — I ' I Brooks Peninsula Shelf T La Perouse Bank Beyond Shelf ' A Barkley Canyon Beyond Shelf "V: Estevan Point Beyond Shelf \ — 1 — i — 1 — i — 1 — r 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 _ . . . Time of Day (h) Figure G.1 Incident surface irradiance for primary productivity measurements during April 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Incubation period was 24 hours. Primary productivity was not measured at the beyond shelf station of the Brooks Peninsula transect. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects. 165 8~ S '* CS ^ E 8 in «5 S t o co a. ** — t= o 5 3 c 2000- 1500- 1000 - 500 - 0 • 2000 La Perouse Bank Shelf 56% r 1 — ' — i — i — r T La Perouse Bank Beyond Shelf *5| \ 50% K:% ; A 9 1 $ \ i Barkley Canyon Shelf Estevan Point Beyond Shelf ^pl 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 2000 H 1500 1000 - \ 500 H 0 - 1 Brooks Peninsula* Beyond Shelf 61% " i — 1 — i — 1 — r 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 Time of Day (h) Figure G.2 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements in July 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Primary productivity was not measured at the shelf station of the Brooks Peninsula transect or the beyond shelf station of the Barkley Canyon transect Number in the right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects. 166 0) o c ra ^ TS tfl S - E s g i f S i T3 E 1000 H 800 H 200 H 0 4 La Perouse Bank , 64% Shelf 1000 - 8 0 0 - 600 4 0 0 - 200 - 0 - 1000 • 800 - 600- 400 200 0 1000 800 600 400 200 O - l Barkley Canyon. Shelf 73% Barkley Canyon Beyond Shelf Estevan Point Shelf • • 89% Brooks Peninsula Shelf 72% T T T T 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 nr»:r»o 06:00 12:00 18:00 Time of Day (h) Figure G.3 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements in October 1997 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Primary productivity was not measured in the beyond shelf region of the Estevan Point and La Perouse Bank transects. Number in right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. Note scale change relative to Figure G.1 and G.2. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects. 167 1 0 0 0 - 8 0 0 - 6 0 0 - j 400 - 2 0 0 - 0 - La Perouse B a n k ^ ^ * Shelf ' 77% • i • J k 1000 - \ 800 H 600 400 - 2 0 0 - j 0 - 1000 - 800 - 600 - 400 - 200 - 0 - I I Barkley Canyon ^Sf Shelf ' • t 79% I ' I T Estevan Point 72% Shelf ' ' • t t T T 1000 _ B r o o k s Peninsula : Shelf | • 8 0 0 - j 6 0 0 - j 400 - 200 - 0 - It 85% J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 Time La Perouse BankiV* 49% Beyond Shelf i X • • • • ••• • • • • •• * Barkley Canyon ^!t* 78% Beyond Shelf • % • • • r • • • * • • • • * Estevan Point Beyond Shelf 72% T T Brooks Peninsula Beyond Shelf I • 80% i t 1 1 I 1 I ' I 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 of Day (h) Figure G.4 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements in May 1998 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Number in the right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects. 168 1500 H 1000 H 500 La Perouse Bank Shelf I * T - i — r La Perouse Bank 51% Beyond Shelf / # :# • •* • •** • Jt • £ 1500 H 1000 H 500 o- l Barkley Canyon Shelf " Barkley Canyon 35% - Beyond Shelf y 4 - i i " • v . ' •" * Q. - Estevan Point 47% - S h e l f E 1500 - 1 0 0 0 - i 5 0 0 - - _ i 0 - 1500 H 1000 H 500 o- l I • I 1 — r Estevan Point Beyond Shelf 71% Brooks Peninsula Shelf 88% T r At Brooks Peninsula 64% Beyond Shelf t • * f . r • i # • • J ; ! • • 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 Time of the Day (h) Figure C.5 Incident surface irradiance during primary productivity measurements during July 1998 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The shaded region demarcates the incubation period. Number in the right hand corner of each plot is the percentage that the light during the incubation period represented of the total daily irradiance. See Figure 2.1 for location of transects. 169 APPENDIX H V E R T I C A L PROFILES O F T E M P E R A T U R E , SALINITY AND C T T Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and crt for the upper 200 m at a shelf and a beyond shelf station of each transect of La Perouse Bank, Barkley Canyon, Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula are presented for April 1997 (Figure H.l), July 1997 (Figure H.2), October 1997 (Figure H.3), May 1998 (Figure H.4), July 1998 (Figure H.5) and October 1998 (Figure H.6). The cruise dates when these profiles were measured are specified in Table A. 1. For the deep stations, data set only shown for 0-200 m. 170 —•— Density 22 24 26 2822 24 26 2822 24 26 2822 24 26 28 , l , l i I 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 I , 1 , I I i I i I i I Temperature (°C) 4 8 12 4 8 12 4 8 12 4 8 12 30 32 34 30 32 34 3 0 32 34 Salinity Figure H.1 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in April 1997 at a shelf and beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations only shown for 0 - 200 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Data not available for beyond shelf station on the Brooks Peninsula transect. B indicates beyond shelf region. —•— Density Salinity Figure H.2 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in July 1997 at a shelf and beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data set for deep stations only shown for 0-200 m depth. Data set not available for beyond shelf station on the Barkley Canyon transect. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region. 2 D Graph 1 2 D Graph 1 —•— Density Salinity Figure H.3 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in October 1997 at a shelf and a beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Esteven Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations only shown for 0-200 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. Data not available for the beyond shelf station of the La Perouse Bank transect. B indicates beyond shelf region. 173 —•— Density Salinity Figure H.4 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in May 1998 at a shelf and a beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations only shown for 0-200 m. Beyond shelf stations for the Estevan Point and Brooks Peninsula transect only sampled to 100 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region. —•— Density Salinity Figure H.5 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in July 1998 at a shelf and beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP), and Brook Peninsula (BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data for deep stations shown for 0-200 m depth. The beyond shelf station of La Perouse Bank was only sampled to 100 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region. Density 22 24 26 2822 24 26 2822 24 26 2822 24 26 28 i . i . i . I L _ _ i I i I i I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 Salinity Figure H.6 Vertical profiles of density, salinity and temperature in October 1998 at a shelf and a beyond shelf station along La Perouse Bank (LPB), Barkley Canyon (BC), Estevan Point (EP) and Brooks Peninsula (BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data set for deep stations shown for 0-200 m depth. See Figure 1.1 for location of transects. B indicates beyond shelf region. Silicic Acid (uM) 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 o 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 1 • I • I I • I • I I i I i I I . I . I I . I . I I . I . I - • - Nitrate (uM) 25 o 25 0 25 0 • • • I • .1 I I I I I I J - BP2MBP3 I 1 I • I 0.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 2.00.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 - A - Phosphate (uM) Figure 1.1 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (pM) in April 1997 at all stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at bottom of each graph. 177 - » - Silicic Acid (pM) 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . i i i i r Nitrate (pM) 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 it • 1 ' i l l B2. M m A i* 7 * \ . B8 4 E ' . 'V ' . ' i V I ' i it • A • A C2 C4 J I I I I I I I ' I ' ' ' ' I 1 1 I I I I I I I I " I I I I I I I I • 1 1 1 1 1 • Am \ BP4 f>> BPS* 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 —A- Phosphate [\M) Figure 1.2 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid (uM) in July 1997 at all stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon, (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G), and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of ea^h graph. 178 Silicic Acid (uM) 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 I . I . I I . I . 0 1 , . • 25 • 1 i V • A1 \J t A \ B9 ' .V. '. 'I : A m I* i • 1 5 C8 Nitrate (uM) 0 25 o 1 • • • • i • 0 1 1 1 25 • • 1 • \ \ B14 25 • • I 0.0 2.5 o.O 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 —A- Phosphate (uM) Figure 1.3 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (pM) in October 1997 at all stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. 179 - » - Silicic Acid (pM) 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 I . I . I I . I . I I . I . I I . I . I I • I • I I • I i I ' • I • ' 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 00 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.5 —A— Phosphate (\M) Figure 1.4 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in May 1998 at all stations along transects of Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. No are data available for the La Perouse Bank transect. 180 - » - Silicic Acid (\M) 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 —A— Phosphate (pM) Figure 1.5 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in July 1998 at all stations along transects of Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. No data are available for the La Perouse Bank transect. 181 * Silicic Acid (pM) 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 0 20 40 I . I . I l . l . l L I . I . I L_i_L - e - Nitrate (pM) 25 0 25 0 _LL. I • • • • I • J -A- Phosphate (uM) Figure 1.6 Vertical profiles of nitrate, phosphate and silicic acid (uM) in October 1998 at all stations along transects of Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Station name is located at the bottom of each graph. No data are available for the La Perouse Bank transect 182 -3 -2 +-» CH O S3 ~ To o >-1 > .2 3 +-• o * .3 fl «4H 3. O 03 o o a -7! S 0 g c fl , -fl rS ^ £ •a fl fl 23 e8 O fl - H ° .2 B > 2 •S £ j .a a fl i-i - f l " on a) 1 ° I S 4> 5 s CO ^ ~ H C „ +1 CO JO § '3 OH . O H_, '-1 CO • ^ 3 1 CO *-H H-* S3 o «i3 g 3 3 ~ 2> <E > - 3 ^ >> O ON ^ S 1 - 1 2 > ^ O «g ^ J3 o T 3 4) c o S a 13 S > 2° C-> ON * •£ — ^ 'el'"', H o -5 IK C *5JD "a* J3 t/5 O >» PQ £ 3. © A 55 uirl B C h >5 .0  00 s * B V c E © A o '3D 5 8 "a* U 3. J - O od <r, fl1 A e =»• 6 IT) fl V e "O — e x: s o w « C — « _ E o A •c o A =«• s <3 so V +1 II • ' II oo fl £ „ +1 co CN fl CN +1 i/o c o C N h C N ^ fT} c o +j CN + l IL H * IL ^ H fl X fl + i ON oo m CN fl CN C N m ^ f . ( N + 1 II +1 II N£) fl lO A r-̂  oo CN oo + 1 CN oo 7 1 w + 1 t fl ^ flP fl NO \J~i 0 0 o CN NO +1 CN NO m CN fl NO CO oo "Njf. CO oo m + 1 o fl fl OO oo .8  ± 21 , CN fl ,7  ± 21 , r o fl .8  ± 21 , n= 4 IT ) CN NO m m o °. fl oo oo fl ON CN CN * - i + 1 NO + | NO ON •rr CN ^ q NO +j NO ^ flq c +1 CO CN CO ON ON fl CO NO fl CN CN CO ON ON CN O ON ON NO h "3 ° ^ o c o + 1 ? ^ 1 h C i d C CN +i ^ Z. II CN NO CO + i ON O •sf fl v o A ON ON 0 0 ON ^ 1 ^ fl CO CN WO CO NO + 1 II c + 1 r i -ll CO + 1 CN NO h o oo' 1—1 CN CN CN o oo + i uo uo 2 TJ- J.1 TJ- r -! II 71 II + 1 fl C ON ^ NO uo CN uo ô' NO <—i ^ + i 5i i fl ^ fl ^ fl uo NO fl o oo CO uo + i ON NO CO ON CO 0 0 CN +1 r̂ ^ ' II c fl oo fl oo fl oo o NO A O 0 0 r t ^-1 CO NO CO oo CO CN OO oo oo II CO + 1 +1 II + 1 + 1 NO ^ O fl ON fl CO o CO CN oo CO 0 0 II c CN fl°° NO c o CN •71 oo fl oo + 1 II J " II <N C CO CN II ' i i C NO A O 0 oo OO 2̂  ON ON ON ON ON ^—i '—i t % « S £ o fl i—i ON + 1 ON h C N uo + i 2 o o - i C N CO ^ ON O 0 || CO +1 C N CO CN ZA IL ^ 0 0 C N NO ^1- 5 5 ^ c * i | O fl^cNl NO ^ - o + 1 CN 0 0 ON CO c o fl NO uo + 1 o rf uo CN oo fl ON CO ^ O + 1 q c o CO <u CO •3 kH O CO CN OO O 0 0 B e 183 APPENDIX K VERTICAL PROFILES OF SIZE-FRACTIONATED CHLOROPHYLL Chlorophyll a (mg m" ) 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0  4 1 I I 6 8 I I I -^afc'fj fflP * I m C1 Shelf I J i i B16 beyond shelf • b C4 Shelf I I I 3 a® T / G3 Shelf p C9 beyond shelf J I I L -in BP2 Shelf G5 beyond shelf J I L cm a® al 1 I I BP7 J ^ beyond shelf -•- < 5 um April - B - > 5 u m April ~o~ < 5 um July - - • -> 5 pm July - © - < 5 um October - E l - > 5 pm October Figure K.1 Vertical profiles of size-fractionated chlorophyll a for April, July, and October 1997 at shelf and beyond shelf stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data are not available for the > 5.0 um fraction for station C1, BP2, B16 and BP7. Samples taken down to 1%sutface irradiation. See Figure 2.1 for location of stations 184 Chlorophyll a (mg m"3) < 5 pm May - « - > 5.0 pm May • o - <5pmJuly • - 0 - - > 5.0 pm July - ® - < 5 pm Oct. - E - > 5.0 pm Oct. Figure K.2 Vertical profiles of size-fractionated chlorophyll a May, July, and October 1998 at shelf and beyond shelf stations along transects of La Perouse Bank (Line B), Barkley Canyon (Line C), Estevan Point (Line G) and Brooks Peninsula (Line BP) off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Samples taken down to 1 % light depth. See Figure 2.1 for location of stations. 185 120 - 100 - 80 - 60 - 40 - 20 - 0 - 120 - 100 - 80 • 60 - 40 20 0 120 - 100 • 80 60 • 40 20 0 120 100 • 80 60 40 20 La Perouse Bank Shelf \ La Perouse Bank Beyond Shelf no data are available no data are available T ~ I — i — i — i — r Barkley Canyon Shelf 23% Barkley Canyon Beyond Shelf 8% r r Estevan Point Shelf 97% 1 r I I Estevan Point Beyond Shelf 55% r — T — T — 7 1 l i i r Brooks Peninsula Shelf no data are available Brooks Peninsula Beyond Sheff no data are available 0 i i , i „ i „ i , i „ i i „ „ i i „ i i „ T - " t 100 55 30 10 3 1 100 55 30 10 3 1 Percent of Surface Irradiance E23 < 5 um fraction S > 5 um fraction Figure L.1 Relative contribution of <5 um size fraction and >5 um size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during April 1997. The relative contribution of > 5 pm fraction to depth integrated chlorophyll is given in top right hand corner of each plot 186 100 80 60 - 40 -j 20 - Estevan Point Shelf 29% 120 -A'-.'il 100 - 80 ~_ 60 ~_ 40 20 - -| Brooks Peninsula Shelf 25% UP ' Brooks Peninsula Beyond Shelf 27% 100 55 30 10 3 1 100 55 30 10 Percent of Surface Irradiance E3 <5 um fraction >5 um fraction Figure L.2 Relative contribution of <5 um size fraction and >5 pm size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct 1997. Relative contribution of >5 pm fraction of depth integrated chlorophyll in right hand corner of each graph. 187 1 100 ' 55 ' 30 ' 10 1 10 1 3 1 1 ' Percent of Surface Irradiance E3 < 5 um fraction 03 > 5.0 um fraction Figure L.3 Relative contribution of <5 um size fraction and >5 um size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during May 1998. Relative contribution of >5 um fraction depth integrated chlorophyll in right hand corner of each graph. 188 Q. Q 2 o c u 0) 100 55 ' 30 10 ' 3 ' 1 100 55 ' 30 10 Percent of Surface Irradiance E 3 < 5 um fraction HH > 5 um fraction Figure L.4 Relative contribution of <5 um size fraction and >5 um size fraction to chlorophyll at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct 1998. Relative contribution of >5 pm fraction depth integrated chlorophyll in right hand corner of each graph. ns=no sample is available. 189 > o 3 •a o o. E S o c u a. Percent of Surface Irradiance E3 < 5 um fraction S > 5 um fraction Figure L.5 Relative contribution of <5 um size fraction and >5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during April 1997. Relative contribution of >5 um fraction to depth integrated primary productivity is in the right hand vomer of each graph. 190 120 > o 3 •o o l_ Q. re E •c a $ o o ot a. 100 - 80 - 60 - 40 20 Estevan Point Shelf 74% Brooks Peninsula Beyond Shelf 47% I 100 ' 55 ' 30 ' 10 3 1 100 55 30 10 Percent of Surface Irradiance E3 < 5 um fraction • > 5.0 um fraction Figure L.6 Relative contribution of < 5.0 u m size fraction and > 5.0 u m size fraction to primary productivity ateach light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct 1997. Relative contribution of > 5.0 u m fraction to depth integrated primary productivity in right hand corner of each graph. 191 Percent o f Surface Irradiance E3 < 5 um fraction E3 > 5.0 um fraction Figure L.7 Relative contribution of < 5 um size fraction and > 5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each l ight depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during May 1998. Relative contribution of depth integrated primary productivity in right hand corner of each graph. 192 120 ioo H > o 3 T3 O i_ Q. co E 'C Q. O c (J) Q. Brooks Peninsula Beyond Shelf 100 55 30 10 3 1 100 55 30 10 3 Percent of Surface Irradiance E3 < 5 um fraction H > 5.0 um fraction Figure L8 Relative contribution of < 5 um size fraction and > 5 um size fraction to primary productivity at each light depth for the shelf and the beyond shelf station of each transect during Oct 1998. Relative contribution of > 5 um traction to depth integrated primary productivity in right hand corner of each graph. 193 Table M . l Total primary productivitiy ±1 S.D. (surface to 1% light depth) for the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI) and the shelf and beyond shelf region in 1997 and 1998. Means for 1997, 1998 and for all cruises are given along with the minimum and maximum for all cruises. Numbers in brackets are the number of stations sampled. Total Primary Productivity ( g C m - ' d 1 ) Date W C V I Shelf Beyond Shelf 1997 April 5.2 ± 2 . 4 (8) 6.9 ±4.9 (4) 3.4 ±2.2 (4) July 3.5 ±2.8 (6) 5.3 ±2.9 (3) 1.7 ±1.2 (3) Oct. 3.2 ±3.4 (5) 3.1 ± 4 . 0 ( 4 ) 3.3 (1) 1997 cruises 4.3 ±1.1 (19) 5.1 ±3 .4 (11 ) 2.8 ±1.8 (8) 1998 May 2.8 ±2.5 (8) 3.9 ±2.4 (4) 1.7 ±2.3 (4) July 6.7 ±8.6 (8) 11.7 ±10.2 (4) 1.8 ±1.3 (4) Oct. 0.6 ±0.4 (8) 1.1 ± 0 . 4 ( 4 ) 0.5 ±0.2 (4) 1998 cruises 3.4 ±3.0 (24) 5.2 ±7.2 (12) 1.3 ± 1 . 7 ( 1 2 ) All cruises 4.0 ± 0.8 (43) 5.1 ± 2 . 7 ( 4 4 ) 2.0 ± 0 . 1 (44) Minimum 0.6 0.3 0.3 Maximum 6.7 26.1 6.3 a A O c o I 00 O N 1 fl o o > O N g .s § .2 - I ;fl c °: w s I _ 2 x! 3 + 1 T o £f l »- o C ° S a O > o o 3 Ef „ 91 r l Q* g g > > c3 a "oa| a "5 <L> " O 91 < > C O T3 o tS ^ N ctf O O $ o & C N O ' i l H fl o O N O N I PH O o DC 0) MM is 13 -e 02 T3 e o >> v M PH PH PH V Ii PM « PM V3 A 60 e _o '53D Pi PH "3 X! C O II q A PM q V Ii S PM O 3 PM a A I- N J CU ~ > 2 e > PM q O A 0 0 C S O U so PM PM Ii q IT) V O 00 fl CO +1 fl o + l P* CO fl O co + L IL o 2 1 o + 1 * 00 * N O * O O C N 1-1 o co C N O + L IL N O « 10 5 I IT) fl A T co fl r- (N co + L IL C N 3 C N 2 fl o A ? + 1 II O C C N O N 2 ^ + 1 II H C o <T> 00 + L IL i n fl q cj j 00 i n » co O N O L i n fl fl^ fl o + 1 co i n N O C N N O +' I i n w C N ST O N C 1̂- 00 c> +1 00 00 0 + 1 c 0 + 1 C N T—1 O N O N O N O N O N O N O O LT) C N \ ° o x 00 CO 1 C N + 1 + 1 + 1 00 CO m O CO O N C N N O O + 1 N ° O N C N +1 CO h ,7 ±0 . 1—1 0 4-1 0 N O N O o o x C N O N CO N O fl CO + 1 O N CO o + 1 N O C N N O + 1 £ 00 o + 1 q co + 1 £ C N co <U CO '3 S-H O r~ O N O N fl O N + 1 CO C N O TT + 1 II ^-1 C n ^ o o ĵ- + 1 II fl o fl C N + 1 C N CO r t fl i n +1 N O IL 00 fl o ON" + 1 o Hi o o +1 N O CO O ^3- + 1 II r- e ^ o N O r~~ fl o CO A T r- fl o + 1 II co fl o + L IL C N A N O C N 00 + 1 II CO C N N O q 00 + L IL r- fl o 00 O N O N 1—1 >. o <N 00 I1 h N O r>; 00 + L IL i n + ' PH N O A 00 O N O N 3 N O fl 00 ^ e o 00 + 1 II c o 00 + 1 II co C O 00 O N O N o O o CO + 1 CO N O + 1 CO * : C N o ^ . s o 00 _ O N m o \ +| 00 + 1 ~ 2 x ° vo ?i i n i n fl r- C N N O + 1 £ 00 o co <U C O g O 00 O N O N + 1 ° : C N i n O N O N ^ CO +1 ^ C N 2 ^ C N ^ + 1 O N NO O +1 O NO N ° Q N C N O o + 1 m C N O O O O C N N O +1 O N ^ 1 co co o > 1̂- r - H M̂ O N M̂ N O C N O O O CO M̂ CO "sT O N C N O C N c> co O N N O T-H CO C N O N i l 195 fl o c o i t o

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 21 0
United States 7 6
Japan 3 0
France 2 0
City Views Downloads
Beijing 20 0
Unknown 5 2
Tokyo 3 0
Buffalo 2 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Shenzhen 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items