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A visualization of an experiment on a shake table Penn, Michael 1991

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A V i s u a l i z a t i o n o f an Experiment  on a Shake  Table  by Michael B.Sc, B.Sc,  Penn  The Hebrew U n i v e r s i t y Technion, Haifa  A THESIS THE  SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L  of  Jerusalem  FULFILLMENT  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF MASTER  OF  SCIENCE  in THE  FACULTY  O F GRADUATE  COMPUTER  We  accept to  THE  this  SCIENCE  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  as  JANUARY  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  © Michael  STUDIES  COLOMBIA  1991  Penn,  1991  OF  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia,  of  the  I agree  requirements  for  an  advanced  that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of  department  this or  thesis by  for scholarly  his  publication of this thesis  or  her  purposes  representatives.  C^gw/>ur£<  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  J>V  \%  It  be is  granted  by the head  understood  that  for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  Department of  may  17*/.  Sctgrf<£  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  A  model  to  experiment  enable  a  graphics  presentation  h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d . T h e m o d e l was  specifically earthquake  f o r experiments  simulating  tests  r u n on a shake but could  of  an  developed table f o r  be used  f o r any  e x p e r i m e n t t h a t i n v o l v e s movement a n d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . By  integrating  the  instruments  used  to  on  display,  a  during  a  screen,  a graphical  t h e instruments being used  picture  of the entire  the motion  i i  the  of the  techniques  representation of  and t h e r e b y  experiment.  from  i t i s possible  By u s e o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n  i s possible to obtain  all  obtained  an experiment  computer  model b e i n g t e s t e d . it  results  producing  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  INTRODUCTION  1  SCIENTIFIC  7  VISUALIZATION  D E F I N I T I O N OF T H E P R O J E C T D E F I N I T I O N O F A D I S P L A Y A B L E MODEL  11 11  THE  14 15 16 21 24  SCRIPT F I L E THE HEADER D E S C R I P T I O N T H E NODES D E S C R I P T I O N T H E SEGMENT D E S C R I P T I O N A N E X A M P L E OF A S T R U C T U R E AND I T S  SCRIPT  FILE  . . .  CODE D E S C R I P T I O N A B R I E F D E S C R I P T I O N OF T H E MODULES THE USER I N T E R F A C E C A L C U L A T I O N S AND DRAWING R O U T I N E S THE DATA STRUCTURES  35 35 38 40 45  CONCLUSIONS  50  BIBLIOGRAPHY  58  i i i  INTRODUCTION  The  use  enabled an  experiment.  120  instrument  the  also  of  is  the  During  the  involved,  to  data  involved.  eye  on  cameras.  number  cameras number  in of  experiment. angles  a  of  cameras This  an  must  be  simultaneously. video  of  during  thirty  for a  two  period  samples  of per  altogether.  day.  work.  data  with  Vast The  during  the  The  amounts  next  analysis.  be  model  being  tested.  usually  are  not  stage  There  are  experiment  rapid  a  and  of in a and  picture  to  and  also  Another  see  equipment  1  seeing  movement of  is  detecting  displacements are  able to reproduce  the  t o use to of  several video  the an  different  use  is  needed  to to  of  video  experiment. angles  i t is difficult  problem  of  accelerations  connected  used  If  when t h e  method c o u l d be are  problem  capable  arises  overall  is costly  The  of  a  data  has  stage.  problems  obtaining  measurements.  systems  60,000  samples  i s a n e e d t o be  s c r e e n . One  Hz  produce  days  This problem  of  500  could  is  there  of  there  the  movements  experiment A  amounts  times  a  dealt  analysis  human  Therefore,  many  months  be  of  rate  during  experiment  the  a  2,000,000  usually  displacements. small,  acquisition  enormous  would  repeated  picture  the  at  system  about be  during  exact  a  problems  overall  data  collect  accumulated  research  number  are  Such  may be  as  I t i s q u i t e common t o h a v e a s y s t e m  and  experiment can  to  a c q u i r i n g data  seconds.  data  computers  researchers  instruments  the  of  to  of  A the  view a l l  obtain  exact  measure  small  displacements, movements, actual  i s very  data  from  graphically proposes  .5  of  the  a  mm  for  expensive. the  to  and  to  measure  A n o t h e r method c o u l d be  instruments  overall  model  example,  in  picture  enable  a  of  an  attempt  the  t o use  to  the  reproduce,  experiment.  graphical  rapid  This  representation  paper of  the  experiment. Another involved  problem  is  functioning  to  that  determine  correctly.  instrument  other  check  that  is  function of  to  by  of time  the  experiment,  instrument.  of  model  screen  the  experiment. a l l the By  be  too  time  of  graph  the the  proposed of  glance  are  the  instruments  are  late data  by  to  discover  analysis.  conventional  of  consuming and  computer  the  there  the  On  also inaccurate. A actual  data  detection of  a  the  as  a  replay  from  the  malfunctioning  paper  enables  a l l the  instruments  i t i s possible to  a  methods,  instrument  in this  is a  other  parts  could  help  graphics  focus may  researcher  i s the  unknown  there  a  output  instruments  a l l  instrument  enable  I n one  enabling  were  the  many  see  a  view  on  involved  in  the r e a c t i o n  instruments.  experiment that  the  at  using  would  The  the  of  the  i s time  instrumentation,  would  each  viewing  when  whether  It  malfunctioning hand  arises  or  an  possibility  unexpected.  on  a certain  be  neglected.  i n d e t e c t i n g new representation  of  of the overall  phenomena. since  2  view  of  the  phenomena b e i n g  Usually,  area An  overall  the  during  an  model b e i n g  detected  experiment tested  p i c t u r e of  This  entire  the  model  i s obtainable  whole  model  and  can  from be  displayed. The being the  motivation  done  Civil  An  The  table  and  could  be  or  any  attached  usually  to  instruments two  at  The  size  maximum  acceleration kind  of  mass. A  of  the  the  presents  problem  The  of  is  and  model  of  of  corners  proposed  involves  an cm.  in  of  up  the  to  on  be  table  g.  at  the  average  what  paper  than  will  3 x 3  model human  are  s i z e of  of  maximum and  this  vision  It i s also  actually  of  be  meters.  The  recorder  is  could  table  cm.  table.  the  the  experiment.  for  instant  from  There  shake  video  are  microcomputer  data  sized  addition,  3  The  ±7  difficult  file  Instruments  an  is  This  recorded  Hz.  the  on  object,  c o m p u t e r . The  the 500  an  shake  larger  2.5  this  British  the  wave.  during  table  every  in  hydraulic  placing  earthquake  the  In  of  MTS  structure,  sine  determining at  a  placed  i t very  work  Laboratory  an  shake t a b l e .  could  of  by  of  microcomputer.  sampled  being  .5  a  a  result  University  acquires  rate  model  aid  less than  a l l sides  as  the  being  makes  the  actual  table  table  movements o f  at  an  i s a c t u a l l y happening  with  the  by  a  Earthquake  control  to  displacement  movement  o b s e r v e what difficult  and  models  of  as  controlled  such  sampling  the  and  by to  shake  a  the  simulating  table  instruments  Some o f large  model  model  the  is  came  laboratory  waveform  the  at  i s driven  according  other  controlling  thirty  table  moving the moved  table  i n the a  paper  Department  which  experiment  is  this  shake  shake  system  which  by  the  Engineering  Colombia. feedback  on  for  to the  to  very  detect model  happening  time.  allow  an  experiment  to  be  d i s p l a y e d on  developed and  to  to  file  enable  allow  using data  the  be  types  written to  are  various  represented  by  actually  screen.  Data  from  the  thermometers, color  or  of  length an  by a  Data  ways  be  language has  a model  instruments  the  on  to  the  be  and  been  screen  displayed  experiment. A  model  the  a  of  could  bar,  in a  script  instruments  by  any  advantages  a  physical  script  of  can  manipulated  the  screen.  certain allows files  Data  aspects data  and  capability  could the  be  manipulations  also allows allows  gages, use  of  brightness  or The  instrument  the  user  to  instrument  of  on  the  such  design can  levels.  The  before  being  scaled to  enable  an  being  such  as  f o r adding  screen  manipulating  filtered  model  the  on  measurement.  Each  data  at different be  measured  by  The  can  be  methods.  capabilities  could  of  experiment.  screen  strain  an  enables  representing  The  experiment  represent  file  above  from  the  could  being  represented  represent  arise be  be  the  instrument  as  charts.  computer data  such  bar  the  the  object  vertical  The  of  the  could  on  measuring  instruments  representation of the  Many  from  moving  chart,  accelerometer.  own  representing data  from a displacement  use  color  of  of  accelerometers  the  represented  on  of  describe  a computer.  his  simple  been a c q u i r e d d u r i n g an  of  as  A  used. There  hue  screen.  representation of  different  t h a t has  must  being  a computer  tested.  scaling,  the  certain  4  parts  represented  script  adding  of  data  e a s i e r view  The  a  data.  actual  or subtracting f i l e s .  for isolating  of  the  offsets This model.  of  file to last For  example,  i f t h e model  direction, simply clear  i t i s possible to isolate  view  of the vertical  detailed  attainable  by  interest.  In  capabilities During  to  i n a  necessary speed  up  view  adding this  motion  of  any  more way  instruments accuracy  movement  by  by s c a l i n g ,  a  of  the  structure  i n the specific obtainable  up  i s  area to  of the  of the instrumentation. t h e d i s p l a y o f t h e model t o allow the  user  display,  slow  I t i s possible  any  measurements b e i n g  time  and  screen, i t  I t i s u s e f u l t o be  i t down  a n d r e v e r s e modes. The u s e r at  on t h e computer  interaction.  forward  display  i s  Then,  vertical  obtained.  section  the data.  or  even  single  t o d i s p l a y the data  be  should able  be a l l o w e d to  view  able step  i n  both  to freeze  the  actual  d i s p l a y e d . Zooming p a r t s o f t h e p i c t u r e c o u l d  a l s o be advantageous. A l l these by  the vertical  c a n be  through  the  h o r i z o n t a l and  s u b t r a c t i n g t h e h o r i z o n t a l movement.  A  is  i s moving  features are easily  a g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e s c r e e n  5  of a  accommodated computer.  An  example  of  t h e screen  during  experiment can be seen i n f i g u r e 1.  the d i s p l a y  o f an  The window on t h e t o p l e f t  s i d e o f t h e screen c o n t a i n s t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e shake  table.  The window on t h e bottom l e f t s i d e c o n t a i n s a zoomed area o f t h e f i r s t window. The windows on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e screen a r e , s t a r t i n g from t h e t o p o f t h e screen, t h e ARROW window, t h e BAR COLOR window, t h e GRAPH window and t h e window o f t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t s which can be c r e a t e d by u s i n g t h e HOLD f u n c t i o n . These windows and t h i s experiment w i l l  be d e s c r i b e d below.  F i g u r e 1 The windows a v a i l a b l e f o r viewing t h e r e s u l t s o f an experiment.  6  SCIENTIFIC  Scientific  visualization  Visualization  is  symbolic  the  their  into  a  of  seeing  scientific  has of  geometric,  simulations  method  method  VISUALIZATION  been d e f i n e d computing.  enabling  and  computations.  the  unseen.  discovery  and  as  It  follows  transforms  researchers  to  Visualization  It  enriches  fosters  profound  [1]  the  the  observe offers  process  and  :  a of  unexpected  insights. This d e f i n i t i o n should of  data  that  scientific into  the  example,  has  expanded t o  been a c q u i r e d  visualization  geometric, color  be  but  blobs,  from  does  not  into  other  where  the  an  include  visualization  experiment.  only  In  transform  visual color  the  forms  as  defines  addition, symbolic well.  the  For  measured  value.  deal  Most  articles  with  the  problem  power  of  today's  data  increases.  scientific visualize a  short  developed  AVS software  on  the of  subject  increase,  major  visualization acquired  list  of  for this  [2]  data  goal  is  with  software  to a  data.  so  the  of  packages  As  the  amount  software  enable  minimum  visualization  of  that  the  acquired  packages  in  researcher  to  effort. have  of  computing  Following  been  is  recently  purpose.  Application  system  scientific  huge amounts o f  computers The  of  for  Visualization  developing  7  System.  interactive  This  is  a  scientific  visualization can  be  interconnected  main purpose to  a p p l i c a t i o n s . AVS  focus  o f AVS  1)  Voxel  2)  high  quality  order  a  thus  but allows  high  tiling.  A  quality  threshold  net of  used  apE  advection,  to track  data,  i s like frames  without  voxel  the  based  by t h e use o f  perspective  at  Ohio  as p l o t s ,  i s chosen  surface,  i n  and  solid  which  State  and various  histograms,  surface  i s approximated  by  i n a s i m i l a r manner t o a dye  of a  tracers  toolkit  back.  Scientific  a n d 3D o b j e c t s .  manipulation Provided  detection,  data  apE i s a  can  topologies.  Time  are tools  generation  be  dataflow  color plotting,  utilities.  also  terrain  8  moved  for visualization  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f complex flow  data  are  fluid.  University.  c o l o r images  played  scalar  domain  Among t h e t o o l s a v a i l a b l e a r e c o n t o u r i n g ,  c a n be  3D  passive  2.0 i s a s o f t w a r e  environment t h a t allows  plotting  for a  which  the flow  [3] V e r s i o n  developed  data  Among t h e  polygons.  throughout t h e computational  viewed  3D  which  antialiasing,  d e f i n i n g a contour  Particle  being  work".  mapping.  connected  4)  the researcher  are :  t o view  rendering,  interpolation,  Iso surface  field  the "real  i n AVS  rendering  volume  rendering  texture 3)  volume  used  a p p l i c a t i o n s . The  tools t o allow  does  that  representation.  High  volume  that  techniques  based  geometric  code  around modules  visualization  i s t o provide  on w r i t i n g  visualization  t o form  i s designed  carpet variant  such  as  and forms  : of  rendering  PV  like  Wave  interactive data.  scan  line  [4]  i s  software  Provided  a  i n PV  application  development.  array  compete  processing  software  above  direct  provides  analyzing  technical  3D  graphics,  file  dynamic  and  user  of routines  manipulation  express  to  displacement,  packages  between  and  which  instruments. of  they  do  model  transducers  There  The problem  with  on t h e s t r u c t u r e .  obtained  the side  use  by  defining  In addition a  a  finite  there  structure  number  i s no d i r e c t  together  9  with  of the  t o enable t h e directly  There  of displaying  a  and t h e d i s p l a y  i s no l a n g u a g e to  with  not provide  t h e measurements  measurements  positions  not  I t might be p o s s i b l e  tools.  i s that  i n u s i n g t h e above packages,  structure  does  one o f t h e above ones t o g a i n t h e  t h e experiment  experiment.  paper  which measurements t o u s e as i n t e r p o l a t i o n  obtain other  movement  i n this  t h e above packages.  two o r more d i s p l a c e m e n t  user  a  which  manipulation,  described  I t i s not possible to relate  under  way,  and  graphics,  package with  mentioned  structure  to  and  sophisticated visualization  connection  screen. from  package  P V Wave i n c l u d e s a l i b r a r y  package  i n a n y way w i t h  of their  the  and  functions,  integrate this  use  a r e 2D  and r a y t r a c i n g .  manipulations.  The  to  commercial  Wave  image  mathematical  techniques  for visualizing  graphics,  for  polygonal  i s no  for  points obvious  t h e movement o f of  displacement  way t o d i s p l a y t h e the  changing  of  instrumentation There the  a r e CAD/CAM  display  obtained  mainly  of a  by  connected  with  very  to  model  element  instruments.  The l e a r n i n g  do  curve,  and a r e n o t always  the qualitative  of the results  just  to  that  would  allow  t h e measurements  They  are  problems  were  designed  therefore i n order  n o t have  t o t h e above,  the researcher  a qualitative  tools,  accelerometers.  There  packages.  must have  special  utilities for  to get started, packages  to  knowledge  like  c o u l d be IDEAS a r e  available.  package d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s obtain  a  visual  paper i s  picture  of the  and a l s o t o be a b l e t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  readings  I t i s not t h e purpose of t h i s  analysis  using  of the structure the user They  and [5]  a s IDEAS  analysis  s t r u c t u r e under experiment  used.  gages  the screen,  goal of the software  enable  observe  such  on  In addition  expensive The  packages  subjects.  visualization. many m o n t h s .  as s t r a i n  the use of these  a display  unrelated  such  the displacement  as f i n i t e  achieve in  values  of a l l the instruments package t o enable  o f t h e experiments  a  being  detailed  but rather t o provide  i m p r e s s i o n o f what's a c t u a l l y happening d u r i n g t h e  experiment.  10  DEFINITION  DEFINITION  OF  This  There  namely,  connected  of  a  are  A  instrument.  example,  to represent  system  etc.)  The  two  See  (LVDT), could  inner  i s  an  By  edge  line.  the  of a  connected  four  nodes  the  to  the  n o d e s , t h e w h o l e e d g e may A  segment  of  length.  11  a point  on  points,  available  i s usually  developed.  ( such two  defined. end  and  as  a  as  For wall,  displacement The  of  the  first  instruments.  end  this  and  segment.  nodes  be r e p r e s e n t e d u s i n g such  the  measuring  i t  first  a  each point i n  could define the displacement defining  of  define  these  been  and  an  a  structure  the beginning  to  of  output  be  screen  Ideally,  has  may  obtaining  i s simply  collection  has  measuring instruments.  fixed  a  of  blocks  node  interpolation  define  nodes 2.  figure  interpolated two  of  which  instruments nodes  nodes. A  on  S i n c e t h e number o f i n s t r u m e n t s  a  last  building  represent  limited  beam  and  method  structure  or polynomial  should  PROJECT  simple  main  segment  by a l i n e a r  segment  a  two  THE  MODEL  solid  segments  structure.  the  suggests  outline  computer.  the  DISPLAYABLE  paper  abstract  model,  A  OF  would  as only  have  a  END NODE  ->  LVDT 2  ->  LVDT 1  ->  FIRST NODE  ->  Figure 2 nodes  To  describe  A  segment  be  a measuring  types o f structures representable  described  four  a segment o f c h a n g i n g l e n g t h ,  o f t h e e n d n o d e s must r e p r e s e n t The  and  below  are typically  either  ( o r both)  instrument. under t h e system t o  structures  that  would  be  mounted o n a s h a k e t a b l e . E x a m p l e s o f d i s p l a y a b l e s t r u c t u r e s a r e walls  o f b u i l d i n g s , beams a n d c o l u m n s o f b u i l d i n g s , b o x e s e t c . There  are various  ways t o d e f i n e  m o d e l e x p e r i m e n t on t h e s c r e e n . This  file  composed  i s written of a  structure,  list  One way i s t o u s e a s c r i p t  by t h e u s e r  o f commands.  t h e instruments  the representation  i n an ASCII The s c r i p t  and a l l t h e v i s u a l  editor  file  t o have a f u l l  user  features  i n t e r f a c e i n which t h e user  12  file.  and i s  defines the  d i s p l a y . A s e c o n d way t o go a b o u t d e f i n i n g t h e m o d e l is  of a  ofthe  experiment i s prompted  for  a l l the  must have objects  details  full  and  and  on  follows  the  defines  of  also  display  or  because a  of  segments  on  demand  described  the  a  ability  The  data  The  screen  in this  user  to  on  the  third  to user  package  paper.  13  on  a  way  is  a  script  third develop  in  but  method,  much  this  the  and  larger  has  redefine  direction  the  the  which  user  namely  with  a  paper  file  cannot  this  friendly  change  script  display,  interaction user  A  a  screen  user  selecting  described  composes  the  screen,  to  for pursuing The  method  interactively  During  i s more  software  the  user  program  reason  limitations.  on  this  specifications.  experiment.  the  In  drawing  allowing the  in addition the  of  choice, the  with  time  two,  screen.  entire  file  experiment.  command  have  segments.  script  would  to  first  interaction nodes  the  the  the  the  capabilities  writing  combination file  of  was  allowing nodes  and  flexible  but  scale  than  is  THE  The  first  task  computer s c r e e n model  being The  nodes  screen. axis.  A  node  point  A  measuring  would  be  -  of  would  ( A  i s a  the  method  segment  enables  represented physical  with by  on  the  and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  node, a  of  first  components,  the  of  Voltage  type  of  node.  The  type  on  of  the  A  a graph,  the X  the  A  segment are  f o r the  second  type  o f t h e nodes  of  within  the  type  level  of  segment  allows  for  the use of c o l o r s .  The  of brightness  the plotting i s  Each  four  of the arrow represents  allows  14  a  i s  a  axis  of  of  allows  chart.  o f t h e nodes w i t h  o f segment  of  node  third  i s d i s p l a y e d by  measured  sides  There  segment  bar  the length  the  Differential  type  nodes.  the nodes.  a  on  z  node.  nodes, the  A  or  position  of  the  the x y  a node.  i e . , a  a  on  positions  intersection by  namely,  points  along  by  Linear  connecting  use  by  special  describe  o f t h e node.  o f t h e node  t h e nodes  by  the values  last  at  represented  to  two  directions  a as  point  an arrow,  value  of  experiment  representing physical values  value  representing  by  such  The  o f t h e model  by  represented  collection  segments.  segment  be  described  drawing  the  an  represented  defined  a l s o be  segment  are  i n three  be  LVDT).  would  determines types  move  instrument  Transducer  A  Nodes  corner  would  structure  i s represented  may  node  structure.  representing  tested.  segments.  A  FILE  i s to describe the position  structure  and  in  SCRIPT  time.  of the  of  the  values  A  segment  structure. it  definition  o f a segment  description  node  a r e type  and type  addition the  coordinates"  shapes  o f segment,  which  Included  color  and a  of  a  by t h e nodes would i n the  o f segment,  o f t h e segment.  must  script  the  nodes  THE  HEADER  t h e nodes  state  the  i s ,therepresentation  world.  f o r helping  In  user  I t i s also  i n t h e drawing, j u s t  The  useful  A  segment  will  i norientating file  parts.  and t h e segment  full be  of  t o have  a  with  ofthe  the  "world  i n units  few l i n e s and a background  i t s surroundings.  The header  description,  description.  DESCRIPTION  t h e header t h e user  defines  the following  xO y O zO  LINE  width  GRAPH  Number_of_points { l i s t  world  size  of t h e screen  t h e model  has three  description  and segments  f o r t h e sake o f making  WORLD_COORD  color  coordinates  i s needed  around  :  x ly l z l xO y O zO  allow  dimensions t o t h e screen. room  side  a n d a n e n d node  o f a node  t o describing  that  the real  The  i s defined  of coloring  o f t h e components  structure  and  o f t h e segment  a  below. In  of  represents  a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e segment.  o f segment  given  type  There i s a f i r s t  t h e length  width  the first  The p o s i t i o n  contains.  define  of  x ly l z l of colors}  t h e program  I fthestructure  the structure,  15  to relate  real  size  i s 3 00cm x 300cm, a n d  the user  would  specify  WORLD_COORD o f 0 left 400  0 0  400  400  400. I n t h i s  case  t h e bottom  s i d e o f t h e s c r e e n would be 0 0 0 and t h e t o p r i g h t  side i s  400 4 0 0 .  LINE  -  t h e program  beyond There  "color" may  specifies GRAPH  with as  a line  many  connects  LINE  one p i e c e w i s e  t h e window  brackets  to  commands  linear  are a list  colors  are  be  the coordinates  of the specified  - t h e number o f p o i n t s  within  Legal  be  simply  line  as  RED  and  necessary  connecting  -  displayed  at  GREEN  BLUE  one  time.  each  LINE  BLACK  of a  graph  Within  i n drawing  WHITE  color.  the coordinates.  i s t h e number o f s a m p l e s  o f c o l o r s t o be used :  width  specified  the  CYAN  the  graphs. MAGENTA  YELLOW.  THE Each  NODES node  DESCRIPTION i s described within a block  consists  o f t h e name,  and  end  the  brackets per  line.  of  the  t h e second block  has  line a  a r e t h e command d e f i n i t i o n s The l e n g t h  16  must  bracket  be a b r a c k e t :  1  }  o f t h e node,  o f t h e name m u s t  letters.  s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t  not exceed  1  .  line  : {',  Within  1  the  one d e f i n i t i o n 3  alphanumeric  Example  NODE N2 {  commands  }  "N2  1  i s t h e name o f t h e node.  A node i s d e f i n e d  by any c o m b i n a t i o n  of the following  commands  •  POSITION TYPE FILE_NAME RUN_TRANSL ADD_NODE INTERP_FROM COLOR_FROM GAGE_DEFINITION  Following  i s a description  o f e a c h command  i n t h e node b l o c k :  POSITION XO yO zO This  i s the i n i t i a l  this  position  position  t h e node  o f t h e node  on t h e s c r e e n .  c a n be moved b y s p e c i f y i n g 17  From  offsets i n  data are  files  which  thereal  TYPE  are defined  world  Any  ! j  COLOR  ]  POSITION  This  node  the  i s t o b e moved  files  as specified  TYPE  COLOR c o l o r _ p  This  node  files  legal  EXTRAPOLATED_END  J  may b e u s e d .  i n space  according  t o t h edata i n  i n FILE_NAME.  color_n  nodes  block  a r e parameters. : WHITE,  j  ARROW  i st o be represented  i n this  color_n  The coordinates  INTERPOLATED.  one o f t h e above d e f i n i t i o n s  TYPE  FILE_NAME.  coordinates.  POSITION STATIC  under  BLACK,  by a c o l o r .  specifies  The data  color.  Color_p  Any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g RED, GREEN,  BLUE,  i n the and  colors are  CYAN,  MAGENTA,  YELLOW.  TYPE The  ARROW data  arrow  i nt h ef i l e s  or bar that  of this  will  node s p e c i f y  represent  t h elength o fan  thephysical size  of the  instrument.  TYPE This  EXTRAPOLATED_END signifies  below).  t h e end o f  The a c t u a l p o s i t i o n  18  a  segment  ( t o be  explained  o f t h enode i s t o be d e r i v e d by  an  extrapolation.  defined  The nodes t o u s e i n t h e e x t r a p o l a t i o n a r e  i n INTERP_FROM  TYPE  STATIC  This  type  o f node  as described  has  an  initial  below.  position  which  remains  unchanged.  TYPE INTERPOLATED The  position  using  of this  t h e nodes  NAME  as s p e c i f i e d  scale  node  may  measured data may  be  have from  parameters  on  the  allow  t h e memory  angle  up  by  to  a  type  data  three  in  node.  t o be  the  i s  measurement.  19  The  changed  o f t h e computer.  instrument  A  file  i n position,  F o r a n LVDT, f o r e x a m p l e ,  which  plane  i n an experiment.  change of  files.  angle represent the d i r e c t i o n that taken.  i n xy  plane  an instrument  represented  depending  into  i n xz  interpolation  i n INTERP_FROM.  offset  angle Each  node i s t o be d e r i v e d by  scale  before  The  two  pointing  The data  color  or bar  and  offset  being  loaded  parameters  t h e measurement  i twould  contains  for  i s being  be t h e d i r e c t i o n at  the  time  of  RUN  TRANSL  x  offset  x  scale  z  offset  z  allow the data  at  Two  n o d e s may  u s e t h e same  could  be s c a l e d  independently.  r u n time. data  NODE This  parameter  f o r each  scale  name allows  node t o be s c a l e d file  t h e name  addition  one. of  o f another  The second  t h e node  taken  as i s without  INTERP_FROM  node  and  subtraction of  { nodel  a r e used  ( the data  with  node3  name,  the present  to scale  o f t h e node  t h e n o d e s RUN_TRANSL  node2  other  parameter,  t o combine  two p a r a m e t e r s  t o combine  o f data, but  offset  nodes t o t h e node b e i n g d e f i n e d . The f i r s t is  offset_y  scale_y  These parameters  their  ADD  scale  the data t o add i s  parameter).  ...}  The nodes t o u s e f o r i n t e r p o l a t i o n must be w i t h i n b r a c k e t s . This  i s t o allow  linear  f o r a n y number  interpolation  nodes w i l l  COLOR_FROM  be  { nodel  node2  of  a  i s used node.  then  only the f i r s t  two  }  a t present  f o r a node w i t h i n a  GAGE_DEFINITION This  i s t o be used,  t o b e named. I f  taken.  Two n o d e s may b e u s e d color  o f nodes  t o d e f i n e how t o d e r i v e a  segment.  name xO yO zO f o rdefining The  name  a name  i s a  20  title  and p o s i t i o n that  will  o f t h e name  appear  at the  specified name  THE  the  nodes  i sa collection  command  a line,  simulation  structure. the  of  segments node  of  A  as  segment  a  section  arrows,  i s given  A  of  the  would of  be t h e  a  name  and  a segment  how  could  which would behave as  display an  properties.  determines  outline  description  below. The segment  i t has  definition,  screen,  the length full  various  The nodes w i t h i n  on t h e computer  t h e node.  i n that  brackets  t h e segment  T Y P E ARROW command  segment  value  within  o f nodes with  a r e t o be d i s p l a y e d .  reproduce a  usually  DESCRIPTION  A segment TYPE  I t would  o f t h e node.  SEGMENT  The  p o s i t i o n on t h e s c r e e n .  of  within  simulates  a l lthe  i sdefined  modelled  t h e nodes  arrow of  a  types  similarly  a l l t h e commands  the  are  of  to the within  : S3  { • • •*  commands  } There  c a n be  characteristic list  of  the  explanation  one  command  of the line available  p e r row. segment  commands  o f each one.  21  Each  command  t o be drawn. for a  line  represents Following  segment  a  i s a  and  an  NODES_LIST TYPE INIT_COLOR WIDTH_SEG POSITION  NODES_LIST  { nO  This  segment.  line.  The  first  TYPE  a  line.  j  types  above parameters.  TYPE The  o f t h e nodes i n t h e the order  i n the l i s t  will  node w i l l  be  list  of drawing the  be  the  beginning  a t t h e end  of the  t o t h e number o f n o d e s , i f t h e r e i s of the script  There  must  file,  be  name. T h e r e m u s t  at  also  just  proceed  least be  one  a space  on  space between  LINEAR  j  j  CUBIC  J  QUADRATIC  COLOR  ARROW  various  which  o f n o d e s t o be  bracket.  RECTANGLE !  define  and t h e l a s t  e a c h node  name a n d  node  limit  of a l i s t  The o r d e r  will  i n the line  following  between  The  this  T h e r e i s no  overflow  the  a  as  t h e segment  an  }  i n t h e segment.  important  of  n3  command a l l o w s t h e d e f i n i t i o n  included is  n l n2  way  of  segments  are  defined  Each parameter w i l l  to represent  the  by  direct  one  of  the  the program i n  data.  RECTANGLE segment  i s a  rectangle.  22  There  should  be  two  nodes  in  the  nodes l i s t .  T h e s e two n o d e s w i l l  l e f t hand c o r n e r to  represent  and t h e t o p r i g h t c o r n e r  t h e bottom  of the  rectangle  be drawn.  TYPE  LINEAR  The segment w i l l nodes  by r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e NODE_LIST  lines.  Linear  will  by a l i n e a r  be  interpolation will  connected  line. with  A l l the straight  be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o d e s o f t y p e INTERPOLATED o r EXTRAPOLATED.  TYPE  CUBIC  The segment w i l l be drawn u s i n g a c u b i c p o l y n o m i a l to  function  c o n n e c t t h e n o d e s . The i n t e r p o l a t e d n o d e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d  using  the polynomial  function.  TYPE QUADRATIC The  same  as  LINEAR  and  CUBIC  but  using  a  quadratic  function.  TYPE ARROW This type the  o f segment i s n o t p a r t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e drawn on  screen,  NODE_LIST.  but w i l l The  length  be  a chart  o f a l l t h e nodes  o f a b a r on t h e c h a r t  p h y s i c a l measurement o f t h e node.  23  i n the  represents  a  TYPE  COLOR  This  type  i s similar  ARROW. I n s t e a d will  be  of having  a bar with  INIT_COLOR  RED  |  initial  file.  display type  o f nodes  width  being  of  EXAMPLE  This  drawn,  OF  described  described concrete of  A  cm.  The  world  j  BLUE  the color  the values  segment number  length,  TYPE there  |  BLACK  |-  MAGENTA  |  i s specified at rest.  will  i n the  During  a  script dynamic  change a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  measured  at the  nodes.  specified.  determines  of building  i n figure  bottom  be  Any  the width  number  of  the  i s  line  in pixels.  together  239  may  S T R U C T U R E AND  columns  length  changing  in  color.  i s f o r t h e model  the  As an example be  described  xxxx  acceptable.  AN  a bar with  o f t h e segment  and  chart  CYAN  o f t h e model  WIDTH_SEG The  color  bar  changing  |  This color  the  GREEN  YELLOW The  to  with  3.  The  of length  cm.  The  left  coordinates.  ITS  SCRIPT  FILE  the script  file,  i t s script  The  The  structure i s  structure consists of 290  cm  thickness  corner  file.  a structure will  and  two  structure  24  and  vertical  h o r i z o n t a l beams  o f t h e columns  of the figure  two  and  i s point  the  results  beams  0,0,0 are  of  i s 20  in  real  from  an  actual  experiment  laboratory of  on  i n the Civil  British  defined  run  Colombia.  Al  shake  table  i n the  E n g i n e e r i n g Department Figure  by t h e s c r i p t  A2  the  1  shows  earthquake  of theUniversity  the resulting  screen  as  file.  -s3 .  H4  -sl2-  sll  H3  -s8—  -sl6-  sl5  H2  -s6—  -sl4-  sl3  HI  VL4 L2 VL3  -si-  s9 - — s l O -  VL2 Ll VL1  s7s5-  -s4-  -s2-  VRO Tl  VLO LO AO  shake  table  TO Figure 3 The shake t a b l e and a c o n c r e t e the shake t a b l e . In table,  the  script  two v e r t i c a l  horizontal  beam  the  gages  strain  letter  "A"  strain  and  names  are user  L2,  'L'  segments,  two  segments  Node  names  represents table  because  which  letter  the  shake  "S  1  (which  i s described  by nodes  Each  o f t h e way  start  LVDT  i n SEGMENT 0 a s a R E C T A N G U L A R  with  the  represents measures TO  SEGMENT  and T l  ( a l l the  defined).  s e c o n d segment S5,  into  accelerometers,  The shake  are defined  a r e seven  and f o u r h o r i z o n t a l segments.  are aligned.  which  Ll,  segments  represent  displacement).  there  i s split  gages  The  file  s t r u c t u r e mounted t o  S7,  S9  and  i n c l u d e s nodes S I . L l and  L2  VLO, V L 1 , V L 2 , V L 3 , V L 4 , a r e LVDTS  which  give  a  displacement  i n the X direction.  is  connected  t o t h e shake t a b l e . T h i s  as  node  VL4  TO,  are  but i t s i n i t i a l  a l l interpolated  derived  from  to  These  VLO.  constant the  nodes  segments.  movement  i s the  n o d e s H I , H2, and  VL4.  therefore to  use  in  H3  There  VRO  same  a r e no  L2  (strain  the respective  of  displacement  nodes  the  to  VL1  positions  relative  to are  distances  t o VLO)  are  i s no s t r e t c h i n g o f the  table.  table  The  and  i t s  positions  from t h e nodes V L I , VL2, instruments  t h e V L i nodes  o f t h e beams.  i s derived  by  with  The  along  16 0  0 0 4 0 0 30  */  { 76.2  }  26  0  an  of VL3  t h e beams,  offset  0  0  0  which  position of the S i  i n t e r p o l a t i o n from  segments.  P O S I T I O N 47 10 0 FILE_NAME b r / t l 0 2 . d 0 2 TYPE POSITION  Nodes  f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e nodes i s  WORLD_COORD 0 0 0 6004000 L I N E 10 B L U E 0 30 0 16 30 0 L I N E 10 B L U E 384 0 0 384 30 GRAPH 100 { RED G R E E N B L U E } /* t a b l e NODE TO  and t h e r e  which  i s t h e same  (of t h e V L i nodes  are derived  length  dynamic  their  connected  that  estimation  gages)  from  i s rigid  t h e same p o s i t i o n a s to the  and  i s  as  a n d H4  the best  corresponds nodes  Node  n o d e s movement  Their  distances  as the s t r u c t u r e  i s a POSITIONAL node  position i s different. nodes.  L I and  relative  VLO  the  nodes  NODE T l {  P O S I T I O N 3 5 3 30 0 FILE_NAME b r / t l 0 2 . d 0 2 TYPE POSITION  76.2 0  0 0  } /* t a b l e NODE A l  accelerometer  */  { P O S I T I O N 10 150 0 T Y P E ARROW FILE_NAME b r / t l 0 0 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E A l 24 2 0 0 } /* a c c e l e r o m e t e r */ NODE A2 { P O S I T I O N 15 1 5 0 0 T Y P E ARROW FILE_NAME b r / t l 0 3 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E A2 6 314 0 } /* s t r a i n NODE S I  gage */  { P O S I T I O N 62 3 2 2 0 T Y P E COLOR G R E E N R E D INTERPOLATE_FROM { L I L2 } FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 2 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E S I 32 3 2 6 0 } /* s t r a i n NODE S 9  g a g e */  { P O S I T I O N 62 3 0 2 0 T Y P E COLOR G R E E N R E D FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 0 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 INTERPOLATE_FROM { L I L2 } G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E S 9 32 3 0 0 0 }  27  /* s t r a i n NODE S7  g a g e */  {  /* }  P O S I T I O N 62 1 8 5 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E RED FILE_NAME b r / t l l 8 . d 0 2 1 0 GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE  /* s t r a i n NODE S 5  0 0 S7 32 1 8 5 0  g a g e */  {  /* }  P O S I T I O N 62 1 6 5 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E R E D FILE_NAME b r / t l l 6 . d 0 2 1 0 GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE  0 0 S 5 32 1 6 5 0  NODE V L O { P O S I T I O N 62 4 5 0 TYPE POSITION FILE_NAME b r / t l 0 2 . d 0 2 76.2 0 0 0 RUN_TRANSL 1 0 1 0 1 0 } /* t h i s n o d e NODE V L 1  i s used  t o define  the horizontal  { P O S I T I O N 62 1 6 6 0 INTERPOLATE_FROM { VLO L l } TYPE INTERPOLATED } /* d i s p l a c e m e n t NODE L l  t r a n s d u c e r */  { P O S I T I O N 62 178 0 TYPE POSITION FILE_NAME b r / t l l 5 . d 0 2 76.2 0 0 0 RUN_TRANSL 1 0 1 0 1 0 G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E L l 32 1 8 0 0 } /* t o d e f i n e NODE V L 2  t o p o f lower  beam */  { P O S I T I O N 62 1 8 6 0 INTERPOLATE_FROM { L l L2 } TYPE INTERPOLATED }  28  beam  /* t o d e f i n e NODE V L 3  a horizontal  beam */  { P O S I T I O N 62 304 0 TYPE INTERPOLATED INTERPOLATE_FROM { L I L2 } } NODE L 2 { P O S I T I O N 62 3 1 0 0 TYPE POSITION FILE_NAME b r / t l l 3 . d 0 2 76.2 0 0 0 RUN_TRANSL 1 0 1 0 1 0 G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E L 2 32 3 1 4 0 } /* t o d e f i n e NODE V L 4  a horizontal  beam */  { P O S I T I O N 62 324 0 TYPE EXTRAPOLATED_END INTERPOLATE_FROM { L I L2 } } /* n o t e , NODE H I  only  one p o s i t i o n p o i n t  { P O S I T I O N 341 166 0 TYPE EXTRAPOLATED_END INTERPOLATE_FROM { V L I } } NODE H2 { P O S I T I O N 341 186 0 TYPE EXTRAPOLATED_END INTERPOLATE_FROM { VL2 } } NODE H3 { P O S I T I O N 3 4 1 304 0 TYPE EXTRAPOLATED_END INTERPOLATE_FROM { VL3 }  }  29  i s defined  */  NODE H4 { POSITION 341 324 0 TYPE EXTRAPOLATED_END INTERPOLATE_FROM { VL4 } } NODE S2 { POSITION 82 322 0 TYPE COLOR GREEN RED INTERPOLATE_FROM { VL4 } FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 3 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0, GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S2 82 }  340  NODE S4 { POSITION 321 322 0 TYPE COLOR BLUE RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 7 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 /* GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S4 311  0  352  0  }  NODE S10 { POSITION 82 302 0 TYPE COLOR BLUE RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 1 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 /* GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S10 92  3 02 0  }  NODE S12 { POSITION 321 302 0 TYPE COLOR BLUE RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 5 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 /* GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S12  311  302  }  NODE S8 { POSITION 82 185 0 TYPE COLOR BLUE RED FILE_NAME b r / t l l 9 . d 0 2 10 0 0 /* GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S8 92 }  30  215  0  0  NODE S 1 6 {  P O S I T I O N 3 2 1 185 0 T Y P E COLOR G R E E N RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 3 1 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 INTERPOLATE_FROM { VL2 } GAGE D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E S 1 6 3 1 1 2 0 4  NODE S6 P O S I T I O N 82 1 6 5 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E R E D FILE_NAME b r / t l l 7 . d 0 2 1 0 GAGE D E F I N I T I O N RECTANGLE  0 0 S6 92 1 6 5  NODE S 1 4 P O S I T I O N 321 165 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 9 . d 0 2 1 0 GAGE D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E  0 0 S14 3 1 1 165  NODE VRO P O S I T I O N 3 4 1 45 0 TYPE POSITION FILE_NAME b r / t l 0 2 . d 0 2 76.2 0 0 0 RUN T R A N S L 1 0 1 0 1 0  NODE V R 1 P O S I T I O N 3 4 1 324 0 TYPE EXTRAPOLATED_END I N T E R P O L A T E FROM { VRO }  * strain NODE S3  g a g e */  P O S I T I O N 3 4 1 322 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 6 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 GAGE D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E S3 3 6 1 332  31  /* s t r a i n NODE S l l  gage  */  {  /*  P O S I T I O N 3 4 1 302 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 4 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S l l 361  292  0  361  195  0  361  155  0  } /* s t r a i n NODE S 1 5  gage  */  {  /* }  P O S I T I O N 341 185 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 3 0 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 GAGE_DEFINITION RECTANGLE S15  /* s t r a i n NODE S13  gage  */  {  /* }  P O S I T I O N 3 4 1 165 0 T Y P E COLOR B L U E RED FILE_NAME b r / t l 2 8 . d 0 2 1 0 0 0 G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N RECTANGLE S13  /* t o p beam NODE NO  of north  structure,  first  point  { P O S I T I O N 62 3 5 0 0 FILE_NAME b r / t l l 4 . d 0 2 76.2 0 0 0 TYPE POSITION G A G E _ D E F I N I T I O N R E C T A N G L E N I 32 3 5 6  } NODE  NI  { P O S I T I O N 341 370 0 FILE_NAME b r / t l l 4 . d 0 2 TYPE POSITION  76.2  } /* t h e s h a k e SEGMENT TO  table  */  {  }  N O D E S _ L I S T { TO T l } TYPE RECTANGLE I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW  32  0  0  0  0  of  rectangle  /* l e f t SEGMENT  side 1  o f t h e m o d e l */  { N O D E S _ L I S T { v l O v l l 11 v l 2 s 9 v l 3 12 s i v l 4 TYPE LINEAR I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW COLOR_TYPE LOCAL WIDTH_SEG 1  }  } /* t o p o f u p p e r SEGMENT 2  horizontal  beam */  { N O D E S _ L I S T { V l 4 s2 h4 TYPE LINEAR I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW COLORJTYPE LOCAL WIDTH_SEG 2  }  } /* /* /* /*  notes  :  1) T h e u s e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d r a w i n g s e g m e n t 1 b e f o r e segment 2 a s segment 2 needs v l 4 2) T h e p r o g r a m i s a b l e t o d e t e c t t h a t o n l y t w o end p o i n t s w i l l d e s i g n a t e t h e segment  /* b o t t o m o f u p p e r h o r i z o n t a l beam */ /*h2 a n d v l 3 a r e s p e c i a l l y d e f i n e d f o r t h i s SEGMENT 3 { N O D E S _ L I S T { V l 3 h3 TYPE LINEAR I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW COLORJTYPE LINEAR WIDTH_SEG 2  }  } /* u p p e r s i d e SEGMENT 4  o f bottom  horizontal  { NODES_LIST { V l 2 S l 6 TYPE LINEAR I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW COLORJTYPE LINEAR WIDTH_SEG 2  h2  }  }  33  beam */  s e g m e n t */  /* b e l o w b o t t o m SEGMENT 5  horizontal  beam o f t h e m o d e l */  { NODES_LIST { v l l h i } TYPE LINEAR I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW COLOR_TYPE LINEAR WIDTH_SEG 2 } /* r i g h t v e r t i c a l SEGMENT 6  side  o f t h e m o d e l */  { N O D E S _ L I S T { VRO H I H2 TYPE LINEAR I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW COLOR_TYPE LINEAR WIDTH_SEG 1  H3 H4  }  } SEGMENT  7  { T Y P E VARROW N O D E S _ L I S T { A l A2 } P O S I T I O N 380 360 0 I N I T _ C O L O R CYAN W I D T H _ S E G 10 } SEGMENT 8 { T Y P E B A R _ C L R G R E E N RED S2 S 1 6 N O D E S _ L I S T { 59 S I P O S I T I O N 3 8 0 60 0 W I D T H _ S E G 15 } SEGMENT  }  9  { T Y P E GRAPH N O D E S _ L I S T { S9 S I WIDTH_SEG 1  S2  }  } /* t h e n o r t h beam */ SEGMENT NO { N O D E S J L I S T { NO N I } TYPE RECTANGLE I N I T _ C O L O R YELLOW }  34  CODE A  BRIEF  DESCRIPTION  The  program  initially further  developed  [6].  SEE05.C. to  a l l the  file and  on  on  The  There  code  are  a  modules.  i n the  an  the  the  data  that  Silicon  number These  structures  addition  the  messages  follows  Graphics five  data  machine  files  are  that  of  It  using  named  defined  is a description  program  machine.  structures  structures  a l l the  are  in  the  was was  the  GL  SEE01.C  to  are  common  an  include  main  modules  various  file to  i n i t i a l i z a t i o n s o f t w a r e where a l l  i n i t i a l i z e d . It also stages  contains  the  i n the  some  screen.  A  i s the  running  utilities  main  of  the  such  brief  flowchart  and  variables.  decodes  the  script  controls  the  display  program program.  as  of  sending  the  module  :  1)  Initiate  a l l data  2)  Call  the  module  3)  Call  the  module t h a t  4)  Exit  program  SEE02.C script  compatible  of  of  L a n g u a g e . The  structures.  i n i t i a t e s the  error  'C  AT/IBM  consists  SEE01.C c o n t a i n s  In  MODULES  named SEE.H. F o l l o w i n g of  the  THE  i s written  developed  Library  OF  DESCRIPTION  file  are  four  the  header  is and  the  coordinates  and  decoding of  the  free  module  puts real  main phases of  that  and  the  structures  that  values  i n the  file  a l l allocated does  i s decoded.  some b a c k g r o u n d  of  The  lines.  data the  the  experiment  header The  decoding  from  structures.  script  file.  defines  second  NODES. E a c h n o d e i s d e t e c t e d ,  35  of  memory.  a l l the  i n t o the  decoding  file.  the  the  phase  Node  the  There First, world is  the  Structure  is  given  file. that  values  according  In addition contains  to the specifications  t h e name o f t h e n o d e  t h e same p r o c e d u r e  The  consists  then  last  phase  over  a l lthe  initialize example  i s entered  t h e names o f t h e n o d e s .  been d e t e c t e d ,  those  nodes  INTERPOLATION  After  i s followed  that  The  second  or  nodes  command. T h e s e c o n d p a s s i s n e c e s s a r y be d e f i n e d a 1)  brief  b e f o r e t h e node t h a t  flowchart  Read  coordinate  Get  pass  the  initiate  on a l l t h e d e f i n e d  a  then  an  ADD_NODE may  structure  the  for  world  drawing  that  structure.  Make  a  I f t h e node  has an  was n o t i n i t i a t e d  i nt h e  I f t h e node defines  i s not defined,  i s of  which  then  type  nodes  to  initiate the  now. t h e segments,  second  pass  calculate  over  initiate a l lt h e  the initial  i n the  between  i t now.  and t h e v a r i a b l e  i n the interpolation  node  nodes, f o r  Initiate  nodes.  initiate  pass  Get a l l  have  t h e node  first  INTERPOLATE  3)  and  and t h e v a r i a b l e  variable  other  to  a dependent node  file.  ADD_NODE command  use  i s needed  lines.  a l l t h e nodes,  second  t h e nodes and  :  the script  structure  background 2)  of  that  have  i t i s dependent on. F o l l o w i n g i s  o f t h e module  t h e header  all  on  since  the table  f o r t h e SEGMENTS.  phase  a r e dependent  nodes  into  script  a l l t h e nodes  of a second pass over  segments.  i n the  a  distance  segment.  measured  There  node  and  36  t h e segment segments.  For  o f each node i s an an  structure. each  segment  from t h e  important  interpolated  Make  first  difference node.  The  length  o f an i n t e r p o l a t e d node  segment  i sconstant.  of  position) t o thefirst  type  constant. is  from  displacement  SEE03.C, graphics includes  a  node  segment. the  length  and  control  window most  This  graphical  t o determine  i ss p l i t  into  (MODEL  t h ewindows.  - s e e below)  of the routines  that  ARROW, COLOR B A R a n d GRAPH  three  i s not  and t h e  initiates This  nodes  files  module  HOLD a n d ZOOM  o f t h e same  mainly  because o f  of the calculations  The r o u t i n e s t o d i s p l a y t h e f i r s t  are i n this control  file.  the other  SEE04.C  contains  windows  (see below f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n  functions. Following  this  module  1)  Initiate  2)  Open  3)  Initiate  devices  4)  Get user  input.  namely o fa l l  i sa brief  with  flowchart of  : variables  f o u r windows  button  the  and color  t h e d i s p l a y a b l e windows). SEE05.C c o n t a i n s r o u t i n e s t o d e a l the  the  a l l  theposition  does most  (node  position)  routines,  and t o connect  o f t h e module. SEE03.C over  module  display  the  measures.  a l l t h e d i s p l a y windows.  t h e screen  The module  (type  o f t h e instrument  t h e instrument  SEE05.C  calculations  on  i n  i n t h e segment  o f a measured node  that  opens  a l l the  computational of  SEE04.C,  terminal,  node  the coordinates  values  node  The d i s t a n c e o f a measured node  The p o s i t i o n  obtained  to the first  : MODEL, ARROW,  This  o f t h e mouse  module  polls  i spressed  37  COLOR B A R a n d GRAPH.  t h e mouse.  a menu  I f the right  i sproduced  and t h e  user of  selects  the  display  routine does and  one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s . menus  (Play,  Reverse,  display_dynamic_model()  a l l the calculations also  I f the user  draw_model(). controlling  This  module  window  Single  i s called.  switching,  the  routine  node  by c a l l i n g  contains  colors  the routine  a l l the functions  buffer  one  Step)  This  o f node p o s i t i o n s ,  starts the display process  chooses  switching  and  for  mouse  buttons.  THE USER  INTERFACE  Four first  windows  a r e opened  when  t h e program  w i n d o w , MODEL, d i s p l a y s t h e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g  screen.  The u s e r s  menu  i s activated  when  minimum  within  the  respective has  o f a l l t h e nodes being  window.  names  arrows  being  table  along  a color  node  displayed.  are  axis  beneath the c o l o r bars.  Maximum  displayed  along  The f o u r t h  the  minimum  and  t h e sample  can  be c o n v e r t e d The  menu,  depressing functions  a n d maximum  table.  values  into which  the right  time  button  selected  38  on  below  the  COLOR  BAR,  The sample  rate  are  GRAPH,  the vertical  i n the  o f t h e mouse,  :  window,  axis.  i f the sampling  c a n be  displayed  a n d minimum v a l u e s  displayed  number o n t h e h o r i z o n t a l  window,  with  a n d t h e n o d e names a r e  displayed  the color  axis  displayed  The t h i r d  the vertical  i s i n this  a vertical  a n d maximum v a l u e s The  The  modeled on t h e  the cursor  w i n d o w . T h e s e c o n d w i n d o w , ARROW, c o n t a i n s the  i s started.  has axis  number  i s known. first  allows  the  window  by  following  PLAY  This  i s the  redrawn  normal  f o r each  display  sample  as  mode.  The  defined  by  structure i s t h e nodes  and  segments. REVERSE  This  SPEED  The  i s t h e same a s PLAY b u t i n t h e r e v e r s e user  i s prompted  number t h e s l o w e r  HOLD  as a d e l a y ) . A f t e r  must  press  This  window  values  and t e n nodes  name,  the  value  of the instrument  I f there  the  must  user  blown  may  up.  button zoomed. created  10  A l l t h e windows  choose After  With  After  area  use  the  of  the user  selection  toggle  step  an  the  which w i l l  :  first  i f relevant, represented nodes  A  then  by t h e  the user To  may  abort,  are cleared  of  of  the structure to  ZOOM  a  rectangle  t h e mouse  and  may  an area  select  the  area,  contain the selected mode  function to allow  display  39  and t h e  rest.  selecting  o f t h e mouse  i s a  single  displayed.  t h e ESC k e y .  i s displayed at  displayed.  This  press  a l l the  are displayed  being  than  the user  of  being  i t sposition  a r e more  function.  structure The  i s actually  u p o r down b y u s e o f t h e F o r B k e y s .  user  Reset  then  the  continue.  presentation  nodes  scroll  STEP  the  to  o f a l lt h e nodes  i s opened  higher  ( t h e number  f o r t h e program  allows  The  e n t e r i n g t h e number,  the  node.  ZOOM  ENTER  function  number.  the display  used  physical  INIT  for a  direction.  of  the  a  be i s  the  left t o be  window  i s  area. the user  structure.  to  When  selected, cause  each  the  positive button  press  of the middle  structure  (time  causes  -  to  move  sample)  the  by  mouse b u t t o n one  direction.  structure  to  sample The  move  will  i n the  left  mouse  backwards ( i n  time). TRACE  This  i s a toggle  not  clear  instead the  screen.  To e x i t  CALCULATIONS  AND  Following  This  DRAWING  brief  p o s i t i o n and c o l o r two  i s done  the buffer  buffer  description made  o f each  main  uses the double buffer  ready  command chart  of the structure  function  i s  useful  display, remain  to  see  on the  structure.  i s given  brief  flow  model  i s displayed.  that  and  control  of the Silicon  the The  Graphics  buffer.  When  the trace  o f t h e two r o u t i n e s  i s given  are repeated  command  program machine.  a clear  i s on). A  to explain  f o reach  drawing,  the data i s  Before writing t o a buffer  (unless  The steps  t o determine  draw_model().  t o an undisplayed  i s switched.  sample,  routines  node.  routines  facility  o f the drawing  f o r every  display_dynamic_model()  writing  sample  does  ROUTINES  the  All  each  t h e program  t h e program.  the c a l c u l a t i o n s being  namely  after  o f t h e movement o f a  i s a  are  mode  screen  and  There  In this  a l l t h e drawings  envelope QUIT  the  mode.  how t h e  sample t o be  displayed. 1)  Clear  a l l windows. T h i s  i s done t o t h e b u f f e r s  40  that  a r enot  being not 2)  d i s p l a y e d . I f t h e TRACE mode i s o n  color  f o r the  given  below.  Calculate  4)  nodes.  values  A  f o r t h e nodes.  more  for  detailed  the  will  be  Reconstruct  the  background  of  and w r i t e  node  Draw the  step i s  lines  given  a l l t h e windows nodes  and  A  will  be  more  detailed  That  i s , draw  below.  using  segments.  Calculate the  explanation  segments.  description  background 5)  this  executed.  Calculate a l l the coordinates  3)  then  the  screen.  names.  t h e newly  This  calculated  i s done  in  the  values  of  background  buffer. 6)  Switch  7)  Delay the  All  buffers. according  SPEED  and  routines absolute file  the  what  the  of  specified  to  of  This value  use  type  given  of  the  the  done  and  calc_coords_seg().  from  node  (or  under  two  at  sources.  rest  relative  to  i s  the  sum  of  the  i s  :  the  A  nodes  the  script  given  in  world  position  absolute  The i s  position  init_position  +  factors involved).  e x t r a p o l a t i o n and  41  in  init_position.  The  ( t h e r e c o u l d a l s o be s c a l i n g  interpolation,  In  i t s initial  two  connect  initiated)  i s stored i n a vector  node  to  are  i n the vector dynamic_position. node  number  t o p l a c e t h e n o d e s , how  i s obtained  position  dynamic_position Nodes  o f where  color  position  displacement  of  user  calc_coords_node()  coordinates.  described  the  menu.  the calculations  them  to  color  have  an  a d d i t i o n a l v e c t o r named p o s i t i o n _ f r o m [ ] w h i c h c o n t a i n s a l i s t nodes t o use i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n detailed routine  explanation flow  Following For 1)  of  data  i s a brief  flow  chart  there  i s a  there  file  i s a  file  =  there  i s a  file  sample  =  sample  t h e maximum  defined  f o r the  Translate if  the  =  color 0.9  and  = /  script  sample  COLOR  minimum  sample  init_colorl maximum).  init  +  * scale  offset then  +  * scale  :  :  offset then  +  :  offset  : values  of  the  data  file  :  i s positive  file  * scale  then  node.  the data  t h e sample  :  i n the Z direction  I f i t i s a COLOR n o d e get  node  i n the Y direction  dynamic_position[2] b.  follow  calc_coords_node()  i n the X direction  dynamic_position[1] if  for  o r ARROW t y p e  dynamic_position[0] if  will  more  :  I f i t i s a POSITION if  structures  A  charts.  a l ld e f i n e d nodes a.  the  of the absolute position.  of  (or zero) *  (1 -  (maximum  Init_color  i n the definition colorl  42  init  :  i s  -  sample)  defined  o f t h e node  color2.  in  *  the  : TYPE  if  The  value  black 2)  t h e sample  of  i s negative  color  =  0.9  minimum).  0.9  /  :  init_color2  i s chosen  *  arbitrarily  F i x a l l nodes t h a t initiated  have  n o t been  fully  not  ready) then  an  stage,  defined  (that  e r r o r message  INTERPOLATION, routine  EXTRAPOLATION  Following I f only  i s a brief  one  position Calculate vector  node  *  completely  of the  i s given  program  and  the  i s  the  linear  in  nodes the  and  calls  position  of  the the  for linear_interpolate()  i n the vector  distance  of  to the f i r s t between  Calculate the  position_from[],  to obtain the  absolute  the node  t h e two  first  node  i n the nodes  in  of  the  i n the  vector  slope.  calculated i n step  interpolated  dynamic_position.  43  the  segment  o f t h e i n t e r p o l a t e d node t o t h e f i r s t  and t h e s l o p e  displacement  result  chart  i s defined  position_from  t h e segment  COLOR  i n e a c h segment f o r  node.  Use t h e d i s t a n c e  the  added  data  calculate  flow  Calculate the distance  in  t o be  not  i s , i f t h e nodes  nodes d y n a m i c _ p o s i t i o n  position_from. 4)  a  i f t h e node  searches  and  linear_interpolate to  then use t h i s  3)  avoid  sample)  abort.  The f u n c t i o n c a l c _ c o o r d s _ s e g ( )  2)  to  -  a n ADD_NODE p a r a m e t e r a n d h a v e  yet. At this  has  will  1)  (minimum  color.  been  node.  (1 -  The  node  and  distance  3 to  node  obtain  store  the  of  the  interpolated  node t o t h e f i r s t  node i n t h e segment i s a  c o n s t a n t and i s c a l c u l a t e d a t t h e s t a r t of t h e program.  For c l a r i t y , a s h o r t example i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 4 :  . j-j  . j-j  node3  interp  • •  node2 •  .  |-|  j-| nodel  nodeO  F i g u r e 4 C a l c u l a t i o n of an i n t e r p o l a t e d node.  The  NODES_LIST command i n t h e segment i s  { nodeO nodel node2  i n t e r p node3 } The  i n t e r p node has t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n :  NODE i n t e r p {  POSITION_FROM { node2 node3 }  }  To c a l c u l a t e t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e i n t e r p node: 44  Calculate  the distance  of nodel  t o nodeO  dlO  Calculate  the distance  o f node2  t o nodel  d21  The  distances  absolute  dlO  and  are  o f i n t e r p t o node2  Length_interp The  slope  The  absolute  i s a known  o f node2  THE  DATA  STRUCTURES  The  data  structures  since  the  presentation  segment  and  node  i s c a l c u l a t e d by  are defined of  the  structures  of these  structures  normal  from  (dlO +  d21)  geometry.  the slope  include  are  given  i s  i n  file  given  and t h e  detail  are  listed  with  a  short  because  segment  { int seg_type; i n t num_nodes_in_seg; int nodes_list[MAX_NO_NODES_PER_SEG]; float nodes_len[MAX_NO_NODES_PER_SEG]; float init_color_p[3]; float init_color_n[3]; int color_type; short seg_width;  45  see.h. The  needed  screen.  };  paper.  description. A  i n the f i l e  a l lthe information  see.h. here.  structures are related to i n this  contains  on t h e  i n the  structures  c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n c a n be f o u n d structure  length_interp -  node2.  partial  variables  i s  p o s i t i o n of i n t e r p i s found  to  struct  calculated  constant.  t o node3  distance  segment  easily  p o s i t i o n s o f t h e n o d e s a r e known.  The d i s t a n c e  other  d21  A  The the The more  segment  to reproduce  the  Seg_type  defines  the  type  of  segment  to  be  displayed  :  RECTANGLE, LINEAR, CUBIC, ARROW, BARCLR, GRAPH. Num_nodes_in_seg d e f i n e s the number of nodes t o be drawn i n the segment. The l i s t i s g i v e n i n NODES_LIST command. Nodes_len i s t h e d i s t a n c e of the node t o the f i r s t segment.  This  calculation  i s made d u r i n g  the  node i n the  initiation  of  v a r i a b l e s and remains constant. T h i s v a l u e i s used f o r nodes of type  INTERPOLATION  and  COLOR  to  determine  their  absolute  p o s i t i o n on t h e s c r e e n . Init_color_p  and  init_color_n  a r e the i n i t i a l  segment d e f i n e d i n the s c r i p t f i l e by the u s e r . is  c o l o r s f o r the I f t h e segment  of type LINEAR or RECTANGLE then o n l y i n i t _ c o l o r _ p  as t h e c o l o r of t h e segment remains constant. type  BARCLR both c o l o r s a r e used. The f i r s t  i s used,  In a segment of  c o l o r i s used f o r  p o s i t i v e v a l u e s of the node, the second f o r n e g a t i v e  values.  C o l o r _ t y p e d e f i n e s how t o use the c o l o r nodes. LOCAL means t h a t the node w i l l be d i s p l a y e d l o c a l l y u s i n g a square; the c o l o r of the square r e p r e s e n t s the v a l u e of the node. LINEAR  causes the  whole  color.  segmented  to  be  given  an  interpolated  An  i n t e r p o l a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s used f o r a l l t h e c o l o r nodes and the e n t i r e segment i s drawn u s i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . Seg_width d e f i n e s the t h i c k n e s s of the l i n e b e i n g  46  drawn.  struct  node  { c h a r *node_name; float init_position[3]; float dynamic_position[3]; float dynaraic_color[3]; int type; float init_color_p[3]; float init_color_n[3]; int ready_flag; int position_from[4]; int color_from[2]; int dof_x; int dof_y; int dof_z; float *ptr_to_sample_x; float *ptr_to_sample_y; float *ptr_to_sample_z; int index_sample_x; int index_sample_z; int incr_index_x; int incr_index_y; int incr_index_z; int entry_file_x; int entry_file_y; int entry_file_z; float run_scale_x; float run_offset_x; float run_scale_y; float run_offset_y; float run_scale_z; float run_offset_z; i n t add_node_no; float add_node_scale; float add_node_offset; s t r u c t g a g e _ d e f i n i t i o n gage_def;  }; Init_position[] world  contains  coordinates  change  during  to  rest.  This  i s a  o f t h e node constant  i n  and  absolute does  not  t h e r u n o f t h e program.  Dynamic_position[] respect  at  the position  the  init_position.  contains node's  The v a l u e  the displacement  original  position  i n dynamic_position  47  of as  t h e node described  f o r a node o f  with i n type  POSITION script  i s obtained  file  and pointed  (or  _y or _ z ) .  The  absolute  run_scale use by  from  position  +  of type  t h e sample  pointer_to_sample_x  i s : init_position  +  dynamic_position  COLOR. T h e c o l o r  =  t h e sample  colors  i s negative  :  to  (1 -  (max - s a m p l e )  *  *  (1 -  (min - sample)  *  Add_node_no, dynamic  o f t h e sample  file  f o r t h e node i n  are arrays  nodes  i s  t o use  chosen  that  contain  values  node  f o r interpolation  arbitrarily  to  avoid  a  color.  add_node_scale position  and add_node_offset  o f a node.  Add_node_no  a r e used  contains  t h e node t o add. A d d _ n o d e _ s c a l e and a d d _ n o d e _ o f f s e t  nodes  are the  color_p color_n".  which 0.9  values  and i n i t _ c o l o r _ n  i n the script  and color_from[]  color.  black  a n d minimum  Init_color_p  " T Y P E COLOR  determine  or  completely  of  *  :  init_color_n  by t h e user  Position_from[]  the  =  f o r t h e node.  command  position  i s obtained  / min.  defined  indexes  f o r t h e node  to  :  init_color_p  a n d m i n a r e t h e maximum used  the color  / max.  0.9  file  contains  *  :  i s positive  dynamic_color[]  Max  i nt h e  :  dynamic_color[]  If  b y FILE_NAME  t o by t h e p o i n t e r  the following equation  0.9  defined  r u n _ o f f s e t . Dynamic_color[]  f o r a node  If  the  the f i l e  t o be t r a n s l a t e d . The e q u a t i o n  dynamic_position_i  = dynamic_position_i  48  used +  i s :  t o add  the  index  allow the  dynamic_position_j letter  i  represents  the  t h e node  t o add.  represents  Gage_definition define the  the text  screen.  position  i s a  struct  screen_def  struct  files  struct  tables  struct  graph_t.  Structures  screen_def  t h e header drawing  files  t h e nodes.  nodes. minimum  I t also  name  the  t h e node  of the text  The  letter  structure  near  the  j  to  t o u s e f o r t h e node  i s placed  on  initial  information Structure  of  This  contain  the script  a pointer  structure  contains  information  file.  lines  These  defined  structures  on t h e screen  and  also  allows  information  contains  sharing  being  of files  of the files  pointers  names,  contains  t h e graphs.  t o a l lt h e f i l e s  such  used  by t h e as t h e  values.  on t h e node  graph_t  are :  coordinates.  contains  tables  see.h  and draw_line  o f t h e background  a n d maximum  Structure  display  defined,  within  i n the f i l e  section  the world  Structure for  structure  t h e nodes  structures  draw_line  contain  being  + add_node_offset.  o f t h e node.  struct  enable  node  and p o s i t i o n  Usually  Additional  in  * add_node_scale  segment  information  to  tables  that  names a n d f i l e  contain names.  f o r the functions  that  CONCLUSIONS  There experiment The  main  the  with  structure  this  being  structure.  c a n be  gained  contains  A l l the  to display  to obtain a detailed can include other  and s t r a i n  gages. The complete  movement,  i ti s possible instruments  forward  and backward.  to obtain a visual which  move  with  paper.  outline  of  displacement  picture  i n  of the  instruments  such  movement o f t h e  In addition  qualitative  the  an  the structure  The p i c t u r e  c a n be p l a y e d  displaying  an a b s t r a c t  on.  used  by  as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s  experimented  structure  other  be  utilities  I t i s possible  accelerometers  the  to  o f t h e program  instruments  window.  whole  advantages  graphical  window  measuring  as  a r e many  to the  image o f  structure  on  the  screen. The length;  second the  window  length  of  contains the  arrows  arrow  (or bars)  being  of  changing  proportional  to  the  i n s t r u m e n t s v a l u e . T h i s window e n a b l e s  t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o compare  values  From  this  window  of  the  behaviour  gain  o f groups qualitative  instruments; have of  of instruments.  f o r example,  low, w h i c h  which  which  are constant  the instruments  changing  impressions  that  he  desires  of the instruments  window o f c o l o r  bars  with  window.  may  of  values,  display  user  may the  which  a s many  can view  the actual  I t i s also  i n this  i s similar  50  high  t o . The  together  a malfunctioning instrument  The  have  e t c . The u s e r  i s displayed i n the f i r s t  detect  ones  the user  the  structure  q u i t e easy  to  window.  i n i t s use t o t h e arrow  window. easy the of  Since  t o read color  color  actual values  bars  i s to help  instruments  twenty, Or  i s used,  [8,13].  from  for  positive  possible the  too will and  color,  s t r u c t u r e . Or  negative  values  absolute  value  stand  of  a  the  t h e same to  color  to the  different  color i t i s  t o t h e movement  color  to  groups  noticeable.  instruments  relate,  instruments  of  out of, say  be v e r y  of instruments  assigning  the  will  bars  assigning  values  i t i s possible of  The purpose  i n identifying  i f four  this  o u t . By  polarities by  bars.  i t i s not so  always has a d i f f e r e n t  negative  to relate  length,  the color  F o r example,  are of a different  this  of  the researcher  i f one o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s  rest,  instead  of  to positive  and  qualitatively,  the  the  movement  of  the  structure. The the it  instruments i s meant  nodes a  f o u r t h window  for a  the user  addition, samples expanded window,  color,  the user  t o be  like  to  an  to  happen.  is  very  of  may  define,  the  prior  movement  to relate  graphs  Each  o f any o f  t h e above  of  the behaviour graph  of  i s assigned  file, This  The  displayed  graphs  allow the user to the present of the graphs  allows  f o r an i n  this  t o s e e what h a s happened sample  and what  i n this  the a c t u a l graphs  of the s t r u c t u r e , which  In  t h e number o f  t h e window.  51  windows  c a n be d i s p l a y e d t o g e t h e r .  i n the script  graphs.  The advantage  easy  Like  impression  s o many g r a p h s  a l l graphs,  instrument  wish.  i n the experiment.  displayed within  view  conventional  may  qualitative  or instruments  different  the  that  contains  form  i s about  i s that i t  of the instruments  i s displayed  at the  to same  time  i n the  first  Features stepping  user  a  be  useful,  data  displayed  one and  this,  time  data  display,  actual  change be  values  position An  of  i s n o t meant t o be  used  a  program  software  i s found package  The  element  be  to  need  to  ideal  added be  to  the  developed  being  pick  any  that point  the  nodes,  where  any  on  script  on  the  given file  the  time  i t i n completely  different  machines.  scaled  and  the  program  a b i n a r y format.  the  maximum  52  i n ASCII  and  In a d d i t i o n , the  useful.  for  files.  i s loaded,  minimum  to the  i t s development  using  time  can  screen.  c o u l d be  especially  are  user  during  i s useful  data  more  structure  file  sampled  A  the  The  s i n c e each  this  package  file.  consuming,  that  a  program.  displayed point  at  f o r the  script  to  package  analysis,  define  i s displayed together with  into  the  once.  model  interpreter  translated  of  full  i f the  finite  could  the  able  single  for  analysis.  would  could  a l l the  is  the  a l l necessary  paper  f o r data  At present  m u s t be  are  Rather,  only  interface  i s , the model  of  the  integrated into  attributes  should  script  of  data.  researcher  user  the  ability  having  time  contains  additions  experiment.  the  be  that  interactively  That  the  speed  a post p r o c e s s i n g a n a l y s i s program. Using  and  elaborate  obtain  any  developed  the  Many  user  the  and  package.  i t could  be  segments  The  at  with  analysis  specifically  program, like  changing  program d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s  as  would  as  directions  interaction The  was  such  i n both  instruments  window.  in the  This i s the  the  data  loaded  values  are  detected.  A l l this  formatted  file.  More  could  development  different  types  be  done  once  i s necessary to  of  instruments.  transducers.  Other  i n s t r u m e n t s have not been  This Instead, picture  program i t can  o f what  addition, may  by  obtain  as  he  so  does  not  augment  the  as  as d e t a i l e d  desires.  The  seconds  f o r very  fast  f o r extremely slow  two  described  made.  Both  Suppose the 5  left  to  10  Figures  show  moving  from the  the  shake  into  the  of  a  normal  of  the  video. complete  the experiment. necessary, the  computers  The  usage  a  sampling rate or  user  would  as  slow  could  as  on  capturing be  in  minutes  or  f o r the program  comparison  simulations  involve  allows  In  structures.  the  like  of  in this  structure to  the  compare  that  results case,  from  will  described the  has  be  above.  behaviour  of  of the structure during both experiments.Figures real  data  acquired  5 t o 7 are from the f i r s t  are  displacement  introduced  during  movements,  earthquake  researcher  column  speed.  paper,  experiments  the  rotational  to  view  i n s t r u m e n t s as  of a possible  in this  experiments,  of  modern  nano  been  use  researchers  of  any  example  integration  use  at almost  an  binary  of t h e model b e i n g experimented  samples  As  way  a  a view  data  hours  the  happening  many  the  in  of these instruments.  replace  i s actually  adding  similar  availability  saved  example,  be  of  a  For  could  for lack  in  allow  transducers  program  used  and  second table  one.  Figures  versus  time.  during  the  experiment 5 and  two  and  experiments.  figures  8 to  10  8 are the displacement of  Figures  6  and  9  are  the  displacement 10  o f t h e t o p o f t h e column v e r s u s time. F i g u r e s  a r e measurements  The  point  graphs  t o be  from  made  to relate  a  strain  i s that  t h e shape  o f t h e column  t h e a c t u a l movement o f t h e s h a k e  of  the strain  during the  t h e second  script  file  and then  f o r each  column d u r i n g  t h e experiment.  the actual  movement  and  could  be d i s p l a y e d  changes  final  color  picture  experiments such  as  instruments instruments intention For  and  i n detail  easier  to  representation model  i n this  during  which  time,  allows  with  the use of  to describe  used.  In  the  In  represents the  allow the user t o both  experiments  gage. The  to belittle the graph  t h e measurements at  the  i n t h e form paper  user  able  this  of color  researcher.  54  strain  gage. The view  to relate  three  thirty  two  t h e r e i s no  t h e u s e o f common i s a  values  only  experiment, that  both  fundamental  graphs. tool.  To  o f two i n s t r u m e n t s , i t would  graphs  i s suggested  to  example  I t s h o u l d b e made c l e a r  paper  look  the  actual  two  moves w i t h t h e column  and t o be  displacement.  were used.  i n this  will  value of the strain  screen  a l l stages of analysis  compare be  the  a t t h e same  are  easy above  The program  as a square  o f time  i s happening  according to the value of the strain  on  strain  t o what  segment  o f t h e column  together with a qualitative gage  this  The  these  and t o t h e measurement  I t i s very  experiment.  from  a t any i n s t a n t  i n t h e example  segments,one  see  difficult  table  compare  experiment.  developed  a t t a c h e d t o t h e column.  i t i s very  to  gage,  gage  7 and  than  to  use  o r movement.  as an  a  graphical  The  graphical  additional  tool  to the  Figure column  6  Figure 7 column.  Displacement  Strain  55  gage  o f t o po f  at topof  F i g u r e 8 T a b l e displacement  Surprising described and  has  result noticed used of of  in this  not  been  by  paper.  result  Although  extensively  the video picture example  the program,  graphical  the  used  use  an e x p e r i m e n t  in this  paper,  during but  of results  in displaying  57  of  the  f o r experiments,  during  significance  methods  the  o r b y t h e human e y e .  described  sort  in  i t i s in a preliminary  t o have been bent  research  demonstrating of  may  d e t e c t e d by t h e program  i n the  no  results  that  i s  was  a test.  be  experiments.  stage,  t h e r e was t h a t was  The  This  a  not  structure,  found,  brought  could  package  by  result forth  o b t a i n e d by  use i s for use  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1  B.H 6,  M c C o r m i c k , T.A Nov  1987,  Defanti.  special  Computer G r a p h i c s ,  AVS.  Computer  Graphics  3  apE.  D.  Computer g r a p h i c s  4  PV  5  IDEAS  6  GL,  7  S.  Wave V e r s i o n by  Ellis,  M.  K.  P.  Solid  I  Apllications 10  C.  U p s o n , T.  J.  Vroom,  11  R.  R.  12  K.  P.  E.  D.  90.  Inc.  Corporation.  SPIE, V o l  Issues  1083,  An  1083,  18-20  Object  Aids 18-20  Jan  Computer  1989,  9  5.  K a m i n s , D.  System  A.  :  A  van  Scientific  Approach  Data.  D.  1989.  1989.  Oriented  No.  Design,  Jan  in  Empirical Vol  :  Laidlaw, Dam,  The  Computational  to  the  Graphics  and  D.  Schlegel,  Application  Environment  for  Visualization.  Sept  Direction  1987,  Frenkel.  Communications 13  July  1989  applications.  Visualization  Gurwitz,  P a r s l o w . A New  Bulletin,  Vol  Faulhaber,  Visualization Scientific  of  Carlbom,  Sept.  July  Visuals,  Perceptual  of  No.  Inc.  SPIE,  Modeling  and  Research  Observation.  Kaiser,  Sabella,  applications,  Dynamic  Visions  Visualization. 9.  and  Precision  Graphics  P h i l o s o p h y and 8.  by  Structural  Silicon R.  3  21,  issue.  2  Dyer,  Vol  The of  Hoadley.  Communications  of  f o r Computer G r a p h i c s .  Computer  (22-31). Art  the  and  ACM,  Science Vol  31,  Investigating the  ACM,  Vol  58  of  No. the  33,  No.  Visualizing 2,  Feb  Effects 2,  Feb  Data.  1988. of 1990.  Color.  

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