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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Using an analytic psychological method to aid dialogue understanding Moore, Wendy Elizebeth 1983

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NG AN ANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL METHOD TO A I D DIALOGUE UNDERSTANDING by WENDY E L I Z E B E T H MOORE B.Sc,  Simon F r a s e r  U n i v e r s i t y , 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f Computer  Science)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e required standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1983 Wendy E l i z e b e t h M o o r e , 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i np a r t i a l  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  theLibrary  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  agree that permission f o r extensive for  financial  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this  gain  shall  Department  of  C . Q y w ^  u  :  \ g j r  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  (2/79)  thesis  OctoUh  j^fidl  I t i s thesis  n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  DE-6  I further  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my  understood that  Date  make  copying o f t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  shall  S<U£^yCQ..  Columbia  11  Abstract  This  thesis  knowledge  of a dialogue  of a c o n v e r s a t i o n . Colby's  describes  Based  a  way  in  which  psychological  c a n be u s e d t o a i d i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g on  some  of  the  parsing  ideas  of  PARRY s y s t e m a n d e m p l o y i n g a c a s e s y s t e m f o r v e r b s , t h e  program a l s o  uses  Transactional  the  Analysis.  s t r u c t u r e of language related  to  traits.  In fact,  particular characterize  psychological  method  called  T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s t s argue that the  forms used i n  underlying  analysis  conversations  psychological motivations  is  strongly  and c h a r a c t e r  sometimes t h e e x a c t words used c a n i n d i c a t e  psychological  trait  further utterances  a  w h i c h c a n , i n t u r n , be u s e d t o i n a dialogue.  Table of Contents  Abstract  . ii  Table of Figures  v  CHAPTER 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  CHAPTER 2: L i n g u i s t i c  4  and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Background  2.1 The C o m p u t a t i o n a l L i n g u i s t i c A p p r o a c h 2.1.1  Syntax  4  and Semantics  4  2.1.2 P r a g m a t i c s  8  2.1.3  9  C o n v e r s a t i o n a s a S p e c i f i c Type o f D i s c o u r s e  2.1.4 D i a l o g u e S y s t e m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n s 2.1.5  Using Logic  14  f o r Representing Natural  L a n g u a g e ... 23  2.2 The P s y c h o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h 2.2.1  Cognitive  24  Psychology  24  2.2.2 A n a l y t i c P s y c h o l o g y  26  2.2.3  27  Some A n a l y t i c P s y c h o l o g y A p p r o a c h e s  2.2.4 T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s 2.3 C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h CHAPTER 3: The  28  Issues  Integration  34 of  Psychological  and  Linguistic  Knowledge i n a Language U n d e r s t a n d e r  36  3.1 Use o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s t o A i d P a r s i n g  36  3.2 P a t t e r n - b a s e d S e n t e n c e  41  3.2.1  Parsing  Eliza  41  3.2.2 P a r r y  42  3.3 U s i n g V e r b C a s e i n t h e S y n t a x - S e m a n t i c s 3.4 O u t l i n e o f S y s t e m CHAPTER 4: The S y s t e m  -  Interface  .... 47 50 55  iv 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n  55  4.1.1 PROLOG a s an I m p l e m e n t a t i o n L a n g u a g e  55  4.1.2 The T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s Game S t r u c t u r e  55  4.2 S y n t a c t i c Component 4.2.1  57  Input P r e p a r a t i o n  58  4.2.2 S c a n o f S e n t e n c e f o r Game P h r a s e s  59  4.2.3 C o n v e r s i o n o f I d i o m s  60  4.2.4 Ego S t a t e S c a n a n d M o r p h o l o g i c a l  Analysis  60  4.2.5 Noun P h r a s e B r a c k e t i n g  63  4.2.6 V e r b P h r a s e S i m p l i f i c a t i o n  64  4.3 S e m a n t i c Component  67  4.3.1 C l a u s e Form L o c a t i o n  67  4.3.2 Check o f C l a u s e T y p e s U s e d i n Games  71  4.4 U s e o f T.A. V a r i a b l e s t o A i d P a r s i n g CHAPTER 5: S y s t e m i n O p e r a t i o n :  Examples and D i s c u s s i o n  71 73  CHAPTER 6: C o n c l u s i o n  85  Bibliography  91  APPENDIX A: T.A.  Keyword D i c t i o n a r y  APPENDIX B: More A b o u t T.A. Games APPENDIX C: L i s t APPENDIX D:  T.A.  of Cases Game S t r u c t u r e s  96 99 102 108  APPENDIX E: V e r b T a b l e s  110  APPENDIX F: Sample C o n v e r s a t i o n s  113  APPENDIX G: More E x a m p l e s o f t h e S y s t e m i n O p e r a t i o n  115  Table of F i g u r e s  FIGURE 1 - S i m p l i f i e d Form o f S t r u c t u r a l D i a g r a m  30  FIGURE 2 - C o m p l e m e n t a r y A d u l t - A d u l t T r a n s a c t i o n s  31  FIGURE 3: Why D o n ' t You - Y e s B u t  40  FIGURE 4: G e n e r a l  51  System Diagram  FIGURE 5: S y n t a c t i c Component  58  FIGURE 6: S e m a n t i c Component  67  $SIGNOFF  vi  Acknowledgements  I would for  like  t o t h a n k my  s u p e r v i s o r Dr.  h i s p a t i e n c e and d i r e c t i o n  r e g a r d i n g my  Richard thesis.  t h a n k s go t o my  aunt Jean Jamieson  the  T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s from a f a m i l y  ideas  of  Rosenberg  f o r her i n s i g h t  Additional on  some  of  therapist's  p o i n t of view. I  appreciate  the  encouragement  and  f e l l o w graduate students  and  finally,  understanding  support  also  by my  complete t h i s  f a m i l y w h i c h was thesis.  the  nagging of  v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n a l l o w i n g me  my and to  1 CHAPTER 1  Introduct ion  A c u r r e n t problem the  necessity  t o use d i f f e r e n t  types of d i s c o u r s e . text  and  in  i n computational l i n g u i s t i c s  Narration  turn,  strategies to analyse is  written  research  different  discourse  differs  informative from  semantics  a l o n e but i n the harder problems of g e n e r a l d i s c o u r s e  semantics  or  conversational  conversational  unsuccessful,  sentence  natural  later were  for a d d i t i o n a l or  work  computer  s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a user  semantics  i n a natural language  systems added.  cognitive  aid  to  can  develop  communicate  Early,  were  based  success  when  science,  complex  understanding  largely m o s t l y on  sentential  a  and t h i s has r e s u l t e d  on r e s e a r c h  in  psychology,  to  ranging  such  single inin  areas  as  and p h i l o s o p h y of  from  the  primitive  k n o w l e d g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e human  need f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a s w e l l a s the l i s t  desire  language.  in  of sentences  morphemes  in  and  C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h acknowledges t h e need  L e v e l s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  included  sentence  pragmatics,  that  more  language.  the  the  systems  had  information to sequence  is  systems  the a d d i t i o n o f knowledge based linguistics,  semantics,  or  strategies.  motivation for this  syntax but  syntax  spoken  These d i f f e r e n c e s  intra-sentential  in  different  dialogue.  The  l i e not  than  is  real-world  knowledge  o f what i s n e e d e d t o u n d e r s t a n d  must  be  dialogue.  2  Although  machine-person c o n v e r s a t i o n  natural  language r e s e a r c h , a p r i o r  the nature  of p e r s o n t o p e r s o n  One field  of  of  the  study  things  i s t h a t the  that  (Grice  1967)  rules for conversation  dialogue  has  reasons. in  requirement  r o l e s of  use  on  ultimate  makes d i a l o g u e  they  goes  the  t o speak a r e n o t  the speaker/hearer  very  a therapeutic  p r o b l e m of  the  underlying  literal  for  meaning  as  said.  method c a l l e d T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s  such approach used i n  be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t .  help predict further utterances  and  an  aid  dialogue.  "parsing"  sentence at a extended as a  whole.  predictable  subsequent  psychological  m e a n i n g and Certain  level  aspects  different  is  (T.A.)  in  or  This  t h u s may  helps  so a d d s t o t h e  dialogue not  as  is  one  types  of  be  information important  as  Understanding  a  determining  known f a c t s of t h e  psychological  interactions  its  dialogue  develop  in  ways, w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g  o f t h e n e x t s e n t e n c e t o be p a r s e d literal  of  therapy.  can  to  Grice's  p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g o f what i s  In T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s , the a c t u a l words, u s e d can  the  understanding  example, p s y c h o l o g i s t s t r y t o a n a l y z e  important  words,  and  well understood.  The  s e t t i n g where t h e  difficult  reveal only a small part  in a conversation.  one  of  understand  such a  been a p p r o a c h e d f r o m many a r e a s and  As  The  i s to  goal  dialogue.  rules  what  is  meaning of the  and  can  psychological  linguistic  content  be p r e d i c t e d . meanings are  of the  sentence  Since  the  r e l a t e d , some can  also  be  antic ipated. Most c u r r e n t computer d i a l o g u e  understanding  systems  only  3  a n a l y z e t h e w o r d s o f one s p e a k e r .  The t y p i c a l  second speaker i s  t h e c o m p u t e r and i t s " p s y c h o l o g y " a n d r e s p o n s e s a r e known they  are  part  of  i t s programs.  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  b e t w e e n two p e o p l e i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n computational  point  not  studied  from  explores  the idea of adding p s y c h o l o g i c a l  linguistic  a  has of  been  view.  The thesis  particular  is  dialogue  Transactional forms  Analysis  analysis.  any  of  because  The i d e a l  introduction discourse  psychological analysis could  part to,  of t h i s and  thesis  Chapter  and Three  important areas of the research, verb  conversation.  the  number  of  be e a s i l y  the  a n a l y s i s but i n r e a l i t y ,  approach contains  used. a  more  more  detailed  o f , the f i e l d s of  psychological  gives  integrated  study  detail  of  namely T r a n s a c t i o n a l  of three  Analysis,  c a s e , and t h e PARRY s y s t e m ; t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e t a i l s a r e  described and  of  background information  understanding  conversation.  i n t e n t of t h e  s y s t e m w o u l d be d e s i g n e d so t h a t  much c a n d e p e n d on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l first  to  a n a l y s i s method u s e d i n t h i s  w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g much o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c  The  thesis  w h i c h have been i d e n t i f i e d a n d t h e d e p t h o f t h e  associated type  psychological  extensively  analysis  a n a l y s i s t o determine the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  s p e a k e r s and hence t o p r e d i c t t h e d i r e c t i o n of a  interplay  This  dialogue  since  i n Chapter Four.  examples and i s f o l l o w e d  The f i f t h  chapter gives  the  by a summary i n C h a p t e r S i x .  results  4 CHAPTER 2  Linguistic  It  and P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Background  i s i m p o r t a n t when s t u d y i n g a s p e c i f i c  explore  the  underlying  theories  on  which  model i s b a s e d on r e s e a r c h f r o m two d i f f e r e n t  d i a l o g u e model, t o i t i s based. fields,  This  those  of  c o m p u t a t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c s and t h e r a p e u t i c p s y c h o l o g y .  2_._1_  The C o m p u t a t i o n a l L i n q u i s t i c  Approach  2_._1_.J_ S y n t a x a n d S e m a n t i c s The  early  efforts  in natural  w i t h what h a s been c a l l e d by some, a this  approach  resulting One  such  the  sentence  was  l a n g u a g e u n d e r s t a n d i n g began linear first  parsed  Within  and  then the  s t r u c t u r e was i n t e r p r e t e d t o p r o d u c e a s e m a n t i c early  scheme  based  semantic  markers,  form.  on r e s e a r c h i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  grammar, u s e d a s y s t e m o f what were c a l l e d These  approach.  "semantic  markers".  s t o r e d as d i c t i o n a r y e n t r i e s ,  defined  and l i m i t e d t h e way i n w h i c h a word c o u l d be c o m b i n e d w i t h o t h e r words.  For  example,  t h e word " y e l l o w " c a n be c o m b i n e d w i t h a  PHYSICALOBJECT, a HUMAN, o r a FRUIT. the  I n t h e p h r a s e , " y e l l o w X",  X w o u l d be c h e c k e d t o s e e i n w h i c h c a t e g o r y i t b e l o n g e d a n d  would  thus d e f i n e t h e sense of " y e l l o w " .  this  method  when  more  than  one  A problem a r i s e s  category i s acceptable;  with for  5  example,  a noun may f a l l  for  adjective.  an  the p o s s i b l e  i n t o two o r more a c c e p t a b l e  categories  T h i s p r o b l e m may be s o l v e d by s a v i n g a l l o f  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s b u t t h e number o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s c a n  become l a r g e a n d u n w i e l d y . A later developed  s e m a n t i c a p p r o a c h , c a l l e d p r o c e d u r a l s e m a n t i c s , was  by  Woods  (Woods 1968) a n d W i n o g r a d  (Winograd  1971).  Woods' a i r l i n e - g u i d e q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r i n g s y s t e m w o r k s on an i n p u t sentence,  assumed  description  i s a syntactic  mapped  a  to  to  semantic  have  been  tree.  This syntactic  form  by  parsed;  breaking  i t s structural tree  the  s u b t r e e s , s u c h a s head noun a n d v e r b , a n d m a t c h i n g template The  part  rules  the  database.  functions  conceptual  primitives  in  that  of  would a  be  used  flight  later  FLIGHTNUMBER  returns to  the  i n t h e LUNAR  the  the  primitive  true;  flies  guide  commands,  predicate The  verb  i t returns  An  is CONNECT to  false.  is  determine  from CITY 1 t o CITY2, i n w h i c h  otherwise  case  Woods'  s e m a n t i c s o f q u e s t i o n a n s w e r i n g was a l s o  used  system.  W i n o g r a d ' s SHRDLU b a s e d on analyzing  that  airline  One o f t h e most w i d e l y known n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e  begins  against  procedures  r e p r e s e n t e d by a p r o c e d u r e t h a t s c a n s t h e d a t a b a s e  approach  into  i n the database query.  "CONNECT(FLIGHTNUMBER,CITY 1 , C I T Y 2 ) " .  CONNECT  t r e e down  T h e s e p r i m i t i v e s a r e any o f t h e p r e d i c a t e s ,  example  if  then  a s s o c i a t e d with the subtree elements.  semantic programs then b u i l d a query u s i n g  represent  or  of  is  the  the  user's  m e a n i n g f u l u n i t h a s been p a r s e d .  blocks sentence  world  processors i s  domain.  syntactically  Semantic  routines  SHRDLU until  a  a r e •then  6 called  t o a n a l y z e t h e u n i t a n d i f t h e r e a r e no o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e  u n i t on s e m a n t i c g r o u n d s the  syntactic  parse  ( i n f e r e n c i n g may  will  continue;  also  otherwise  parser  i s informed that there i s a problem  parse  s h o u l d be t r i e d .  are  specific  are  two  phrase. in  the s y n t a c t i c different  The s e m a n t i c p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e c a l l e d f o r example,  there  p r o c e d u r e s c a l l e d d u r i n g t h e p a r s e o f a noun  The d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e w o r d s i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y a r e a l s o  t h e form of procedures and c o n t a i n a type of semantic marker  list.  During the processing,  MICROPLANNER, assertions  However,  a  language  and  procedurally  in  are d i f f i c u l t  SHRDLU  Nevertheless,  is  is  that  cause  An  into  advantage  i t i s very  problems  valid criticism on  one  the  of  of  flexible.  because  of the  the  blocks  the  first  problems  references to previous discourse, problem  translated  the  t o modify w h i l e attempting t o m a i n t a i n  was  handle  are  database.  dependent  SHRDLU  simultaneously  a  can  Another  too  units  s t o r e s knowledge i n t h e form of  knowledge  flexibility  overall consistency.  the  that  theorems  encoded  this  procedures  that  necessary),  and t h a t a  t o the type of phrase parsed;  semantic  be  of  system  is  w o r l d domain. systems  parsing,  to  semantics,  knowledge r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  and  theories  are  solving.  Other examples of  semantic  1973),  linguistics  semantic  networks  (Fillmore  1968,  1969),  and  (Schank  1973).  I n s i m p l e terms, a semantic network i s  networks  (Simmons  in  Schank's  a l a b e l l e d d i r e c t e d graph w i t h t h e nodes and  the  arcs  representing  relations  Fillmore's  case  conceptual  representing between  the  system  dependancy  concepts concepts.  7  P r i m i t i v e c o n c e p t s a r e t h e word s e n s e m e a n i n g s a n d semantic  relations  are  those  that  w i t h i t s s u b j e c t and o b j e c t ( s ) . f o r m and  The  sentence  predicate  one  o f t h e many v a r i a t i o n s of n o t a t i o n .  of  semantic  helpful  primitive  the v e r b of a s e n t e n c e  to  is  first  is  that  representation  An a r g u m e n t  has  reduced  then t u r n e d i n t o a semantic network  networks  their pictorial  the  in  using favour  they are easy t o understand i n but  f o r programming purposes.  this  is  not  associated  with  s e m a n t i c n e t s a r e t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c s a r e p o o r l y d e f i n e d and  that  there are problems The  d e f i n i n g t h e nodes and  Briefly,  as  tense,  negation,  mood  p h r a s e s l a b e l l e d w i t h c a s e names. AGENTIVE,  INSTRUMENTAL,  verbs then c l a s s i f i e d i d e a of case w i l l The is  that  language a  proper  primitive  and  meaning concepts  cases  of  conceptual  underlying  of a sentence  is called a conceptualization.  deep  they  require.  i n Chapter  case  base  Schank  the The  Three.  c o n c e p t u a l dependency  representation, and  is  properties  OBJECTIVE w i t h  be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l  a  with  theory  i n t o which  u t t e r a n c e s a r e mapped d u r i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  representation  by one  verb  Some e x a m p l e s  by t h e s e t o f  exists  discussed  and a s p e c t , a n d a s e t o f noun  LOCATIVE  main i d e a b e h i n d Schank's there  be  F i l l m o r e d e s c r i b e d the i d e a of deep case  which a s i m p l e s e n t e n c e c o n s i s t s of a  such  are  properties.  next example of a semantic t h e o r y t o  t h a t of c a s e . in  Some p r o b l e m s  particularly  natural  To  obtain  i n t r o d u c e d a s e t of  canonical  forms.  i n terms of the p r i m i t i v e  The  concepts  Each of t h e v e r b s i s r e p r e s e n t e d  o f a s m a l l s e t o f p r i m i t i v e ACTs. -The  number o f ACTs has  v a r i e d o v e r the y e a r s but a r e e i t h e r p h y s i c a l ACTs, g l o b a l  ACTs,  8  i n s t r u m e n t a l ACTs, o r m e n t a l ACTs. deals only with the  individual  i d e a o f s c r i p t s was  Conceptual  sentences  dependency  so t o h a n d l e  larger  text,  developed.  Pragmatics  2.J_._2  Scripts sequence  are  of  structures  events  that  describe  pays  the b i l l ,  and l e a v e s .  This  s k e t c h o f what a c t u a l l y may Other  participants  cook,  and  the  i n a particular context.  r e s t a u r a n t a p e r s o n s i t s down, o r d e r s a  in  cashier.  For example, a t a  meal,  eats  the  A script  the s c r i p t  known  i s a predetermined  situation,  so  in a  typical  restaurant.  include the hostess,  script  represents  about  does h e l p  events  totally  events  Research there are  expectations  familiar  restaurant  seem  to  s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e  situations.  few  i n computer  Most s e n t e n c e s  occur  journal  situations  single  sentence  or  a  of a  discourse  dialogue.  Some o f t h e c u r r e n t n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h Considerable  work h a s been done and  where  i s i n t e r e s t i n g or important.  i n the context  article,  applictions  The  a n d u s u a l l y d o e s , d e p e n d on t h o s e  anthropologists  we  handled.  a s e n t e n c e i s q u i t e a d v a n c e d now  a  sentence can,  the  well  i n understanding  understanding  story,  and  the slots.  new s i t u a t i o n s c a n n o t be  i n a given  i n understanding  waiter,  sequence of a c t i o n s d e f i n i n g a  However, a s c r i p t does r e p r e s e n t hold  meal,  i s o b v i o u s l y only a bare-bones  happen  The  appropriate  p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h s l o t s a n d r u l e s a b o u t what may f i l l  but  theory  by  such  as  meaning  a  of a  surrounding i t .  i s in this  cognitive  area.  scientists,  l i n g u i s t s on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f s t o r i e s ,  9 especially  folk tales.  that  evolved  has  stories  t o make t h e i r  follow certain  readability.  (Rumelhart Studies  involving  Thorndyke  1977)  Another type sentences  model  knowledge  1975)  t a l e s have a type telling  conventions  One  multisentential  and  is  uses  a  have s u p p o r t e d  easier.  for  that  story  grammar  Abelson's s c r i p t s .  to  BORIS  (Lehnert  questions  An e x t e n s i o n  et about  al  1981),  stories.  f o r a n s w e r s , BORIS t r i e s  great a depth as p o s s i b l e i n  order  telling  and  form  "story  in stories  of t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t f o r  pattern  this  the  t h i s theory  of  Other types of of  describes  i n a s t o r y a r e M i n s k y ' s frames  sentences  ease  called  r e c a l l of events  and  answer  Most f o l k  of  schema"  to describe i t . (Rumelhart  f o r simple  organizing  (Minsky  1975,  stories. the  many  1975) o r Schank  of Schank's s c r i p t s has l e d a program t o understand  and  Instead  the  of  to understand to  answer  searching  t h e s t o r y t o as fairly  complex  questions. S t o r i e s h a v e been s t u d i e d b e c a u s e t h e y especially  compared  to  the seemingly  are well structured,  free-form oral  I n t e r m s o f a p p l i c a t i o n on t h e c o m p u t e r ,  however,  i s much more i n t e r e s t i n g , a s w e l l a s more  practical.  2.^.3  Conversation Conversation  of  view.  analysis  as a S p e c i f i c  parsing  The s i m p l e s t t y p e  f r o m many dialogues  different  points  d e p e n d on what t h e  of d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s i s  an  e x t e n s i o n of t h e type of a n a l y s i s used i n s e n t e n t i a l p a r s i n g .  A  theory  i s for.  of  conversation  Type o f D i s c o u r s e  h a s been a n a l y s e d  Theories  dialogue.  developed  as  an  extension  of  the  10 transformational-generative (Hurtig  1977)  has  problems since  knowledge  in  individual  sentences.  First rules. are  met  a l l , any  by  a string  according  most b a s i c  of  followed  of of  for  turn  be  brief  time.  many o t h e r  types  stated e x p l i c i t l y  of  in  the  seems t o f o l l o w a s e t  the  turn  first  current  Turn when t h e y  Firstly,  taking  begin and  must  every p a r t i c i p a n t talk  h e a r d and  the  gaps between  turns  be  I n most c o n v e r s a t i o n s , should  not  be  techniques for deciding person conversation, other.  the  When more  a  question  usually  p e r s o n t o speak g e t s the  the  order  fixed  ahead  who  Gruendel  should  turns  just  people  are  A  person  speaks  next.  next t u r n .  anyone e l s e  These b a s i c  If  speaks,  r u l e s seem t o  order  conversation.  i s one to  be  person should  next t u r n .  in a  taking  that  an  one  speaker resumes s p e a k i n g b e f o r e  then she/he g e t s the turn  rules  conversation.  t a k i n g becomes more c o m p l i c a t e d .  After  the  a  put  Also, only  speaker to the  or asked  that,  several  amount t h e y s a y ,  I n a two  called  utterances  turn t a k i n g , which c r e a t e s  s h e / h e can  the  the  i d e a of  for effiency.  f r o m one  such t h a t  of  that  are  There are  spoken t o d i r e c t l y  (Nelson  not  t a k i n g t o work.  when.  involved,  the  are  linguistics  rules,  T h e r e a l s o must be  and  alternate  the  are  have a chance t o t a l k .  s p e a k e r s , and  speak  there  utterances  r u l e i s the  a t a t i m e so t h a t should  sentence based  conversation  to the  orderly conversation.  should  that  of  These r u l e s or c o n v e n t i o n s a r e a s e t of c o n d i t i o n s  together, The  discourse  of  ideas  of t h e  talk. 1979)  first  Studies and  rules that children learn of  children's  dialogues  parent-child discourse  (Sachs  11 1979)  have  shown  some  conversation.  Children  but  not  this  does  Children  of  the  mean  that  a  have  been  dialogue  a  taking  both  place.  i n m o n o l o g u e s when  Other a s p e c t s of  studied  successful  t a k i n g e a r l y on  is  of t u r n t a k i n g  they are t a l k i n g t o themselves. and  of  l e a r n the idea of t u r n  can e x h i b i t the idea  important  elements  in  dialogue  child  are  and  adult  conversation. The  breakdown of c h i l d r e n ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n  something necessary need  i s missing  from the d i s c o u r s e .  take  I n any s u c c e s s f u l  into consideration  interests,  goals,  linguistic  knowledge.  conversation,  estimates  The  such  as  shared  children, knowledge  frequently  so  when  conversations more  real  dialogue  conversations  children.  important  interaction  at  a  the  shared  speakers,  more  To c o m p e n s a t e f o r will  use  fact, on  simpler for  equal  the conversation  to This  i n dialogues.  social  sociological  most  levels,  she/he can a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e .  level  i n t h e study of c o n v e r s a t i o n .  1974) have s t u d i e d  on  and  abandoned  In  tailor  i s one o f many r u l e s t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d The  be  adults  speaker w i l l  l i s t e n e r ' s l e v e l so t h a t  be  must  knowledge  depends  of a d u l t s .  where t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e n o t  knowledgable  will  a  the s i g n a l s of a l a c k of  will  sophistication, to  is  speaker  sophisticated  not r e c o g n i z e  talking  world also  Less  than the c o n v e r s a t i o n s  c h i l d ' s l a c k of  language  the  may  the  that  of the l i s t e n e r ' s c a p a c i t i e s ,  attentiveness,  assumptions and a shared t o p i c .  the  There  o f a common g r o u n d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r a d i a l o g u e  abandoned.  the  can i n d i c a t e  between  people  is  S o c i o l i n g u i s t s (Goffman  rules  of  interaction  in  12 conversation belief  and  have shown t h a t t h e y d e p e n d on t h e c u l t u r e o r  system of the speaker.  about the l i s t e n e r ,  and t h e i r  the choice of e x p r e s s i o n . here?"  speaker's  social  beliefs,  relationship help  beliefs determine  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p h r a s e "Can y o u come  means s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t when s p o k e n by a m o t h e r t o h e r  c h i l d who i s employee. important would  The  learning  The  to  social  have  than  by  an  employer  a  response.  different  The  previous  f r o m one s o c i a l  situation  l e v e l s of meaning t h a t e x i s t  "Can  listeners  you  pass  physical  words  used  the  different  For a question, the  m e a n i n g , s h o u l d be a n s w e r e d .  the  ability  is  i n a sentence.  t r u e meaning, n o t t h e l i t e r a l  question  to another.  Another aspect of understanding d i a l o g u e  question  an  a n s w e r s f o r t h e two s i t u a t i o n s .  The way i n w h i c h a t h o u g h t i s p h r a s e d o r t h e a c t u a l may a l s o v a r y  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e c o n v e r s a n t s i s a l s o  i n determining  probably  walk  salt?"  to  The  i s not a s k i n g about t h e  move  a  salt  shaker.  Such  u t t e r a n c e s may h a v e m u l t i p l e m e a n i n g s o r e f f e c t s . There  are  conversation  also  different  ( S c h a n k and L e h n e r t  levels 1979).  s u r f a c e q u e s t i o n o r answer l e v e l . corresponds Some o t h e r issues.  to  answering  levels There  of  i s an  of  meaning  in  a  The most o b v i o u s i s t h e  F o r t h e above  question  this  ' y e s ' o r 'no' a b o u t p a s s i n g t h e s a l t .  meaning  are  emotional  related  meaning  to  psychological  a s w e l l a s one t h a t  d e p e n d s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s p e a k e r s .  An e x a m p l e o f  " h i d d e n " c o m m u n i c a t i o n between e m o t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d p e o p l e i s t h e dialogue dominance  between games  husband level  and  meaning  wife. could  The  power-oriented  a l s o be p r e s e n t  or  in this  13 example.  There a r e a l s o  conversation.  the  person  responses  one  of  conversation.  to  these  a l l o f them.  a l l make  meanings  r u l e s that should  sense  and  script  dialogue.  i n general  (Nelson  A more f o r m a l  of a p l a n based t h e o r y  conversation  that  have  to  be  at  a  time  conceptual  breakdown  of  many  different  (Carbonell  consideration spontaneous  a the  terms o r as r u l e s and  a  sort  1979) u s e d t o g u i d e t h e Levesque  1980)  used.  there are s t r u c t u r a l aspects  be s t u d i e d .  of  How d o e s one f i n d t h e  P e o p l e do n o t  speak  only  one  so s i n g l e sentences a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y a  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l move. type  discourse  can  1978) t h a t t r y  I t may be a w o r d , p h r a s e , c l a u s e , o r a s e n t e n c e t h a t  considered  at the  These r u l e s  o f s p e e c h a c t s h a s a l s o been level,  implied  t h e s p e a k e r may n o t have  and G r u e n d e l  u n i t of a n a l y s i s i n a dialogue?  unit.  a  d e s c r i p t i o n (Cohen a n d  On a more p r a c t i c a l  be  r e l a t i o n s h i p s l e a d t o a s e t of  as c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p o s t u l a t e s  social  sentence  cause  but  social  i n the  A misunderstanding  be f o l l o w e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n .  to describe a dialogue of  can  F o r example, sometimes t h e r e a r e  considered  listed  can  trust  Many l e v e l s o f  i n one s e n t e n c e .  levels  that  be  and  b e l i e v e s o r does not b e l i e v e  what i s s a i d .  responses  These  truth  i s s a y i n g and t h i s b e l i e f  i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be g i v e n any  of  E i t h e r the l i s t e n e r  what t h e o t h e r by  levels  of  discourse  has a d i f f e r e n t  t h a t of planned d i s c o u r s e  (Ochs 1 9 7 9 ) .  One must a l s o t a k e  is  into  because  unplanned  or  linguistic  "syntax"  than  The u n p l a n n e d  i s c l o s e r i n form t o t h a t l e a r n e d as a c h i l d . t y p i n g on a c o m p u t e r t e r m i n a l  can  probably  discourse  For our purposes, closer  to  planned  14 di scourse. The sort  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l g o a l s or s u b g o a l s  of  schema  conversational can  then  or  plan.  In  are  turn,  guided  there  s t r a t e g i e s to achieve these goals.  be b r o k e n  into several  "movements".  by  are  some  various  The d i s c o u r s e  For example,  two  t y p e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l moves a r e s u b s t a n t i v e a n d  "housekeeping"  moves.  in beginning,  Housekeeping  ending or t o p i c One  moves  shifting  study  (Reichman  of u t t e r a n c e s about  called  "context spaces".  these context spaces.  speaker  and  the  The  as  The  has  first  thing to  conversations into issues  and  notice  roles  E a c h r o l e has  spaces as  broken  which  s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  c o n v e r s a n t s each  long  involved  r e l a t e d e v e n t s or She  the l i s t e n e r .  context  maintained  1978)  a l t e r n a t e b e t w e e n two  expectations. upon  those  in dialogues.  groups  participants  are  is  between  that  the  i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n , the certain  obligations  and  build a discourse structure  conversational  there  is  are  no c o n f l i c t  coherency  is  between t h e  two  roles. The  theories  ideas or computer  studies  mentioned of  to  conversation.  now The  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s and  2.J_.4 D i a l o g u e S y s t e m There interact systems  up  have with  the  been the user  other  following  just  are  some  the t h e o r y behind  them.  implementations  that  Implementations  have been o f t h e  dialogues,  have been m o s t l y  several  computer  in a dialogue situation. type  that  "speaker"  can  be  Most o f  these  called  one-sided  being the computer.  There i s ,  15 however, u s e f u l information, to be  obtained  analyses.  generally  The  systems  question-answering  are  from  the  dialogue  of  the  database  or user h e l p i n g type and are d i s c u s s e d i n the  f o l l o w i n g pages. Dialogue Games In 1976, Information  James L e v i n , James Moore and W i l l i a m Mann Sciences  C a l i f o r n i a began  working  h e l p i n g another,  was  Dialogue  on  specifically  computer system and model  Institute a  at  system  involving  one  person  i n t e r a c t i o n s of users of the TENEX  the system's o p e r a t o r s .  The  basis  of  the  g o a l - o r i e n t e d m u l t i - s e n t e n t i a l knowledge u n i t s c a l l e d  Games ( L e v i n and  Moore  the a c t u a l content  of these  were  party  all  1977).  two  interactions.  conversations  e l i m i n a t e d the need to c o n s i d e r other as  the  the U n i v e r s i t y of Southern  These  units  r u l e s for the kind of language i n t e r a c t i o n people  such  of  tone,  s t r e s s p a t t e r n s and  The over  aspects  contain  engage i n , not  dialogues studied terminals. of  other f a c t o r s of  This  conversation interaction  such as p h y s i c a l cues. They c o n c e n t r a t e d  on r e g u l a r i t i e s or r u l e s f o r the f u n c t i o n  of the d i a l o g u e  f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s as opposed  Studies  person  of two  i n t o s i x types of  to  its  topic.  n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g d i a l o g u e s were broken  interaction.  1. H e l p i n g : Person 1 wants to solve a problem, and i n t e r a c t s with Person 2 in an attempt to a r r i v e at a solut ion. 2. A c t i o n - s e e k i n g : Person 1 wants some a c t i o n performed i n t e r a c t s with Person 2 to get her/him to perform i t .  and  16 3. I n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g : P e r s o n 1 wants t o know some s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and i n t e r a c t s w i t h Person 2 i n o r d e r to learn i t . 4. I n f o r m a t i o n - p r o b i n g : P e r s o n 1 w a n t s t o know w h e t h e r P e r s o n 2 knows some p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d i n t e r a c t s with her/him t o f i n d out. 5. I n s t r u c t i o n g : P e r s o n 1 w a n t s P e r s o n 2 t o know some i n f o r m a t i o n , and i n t e r a c t s w i t h him/her t o impart t h e informat ion. 6. G r i p i n g : P e r s o n 1 i s unhappy a b o u t some s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , and i n t e r a c t s w i t h Person 2 t o convey t h a t unhappiness. An  example of t h e type  of c o n v e r s a t i o n that takes place i s :  L: Do y o u know t h a t t h e s y s t e m c l o c k i s an h o u r f a s t ? 0: T h a n k s . This  is  phrased  information The  I didn't reset i t . as  a  question  but  t o the o p e r a t o r , a type  Dialogue-Game  (DG)  parts.  The f i r s t  i s a set  values  f o r each d i a l o g u e  is  type.  fact  imparting  4 interaction.  structure  of  in  c o n s i s t s of three  Parameters  that  have  An e x a m p l e o f t h r e e  be d o n e .  apply This  Dialogue  i n c l u d e s the g o a l s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r  knowledge s t a t e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r and t h e Game.  participants  f o r t h e DG t o b e g i n  respond  the t e r m i n a t i o n s c o n d i t i o n s . Game  is  represent  a  task  partially  those  Game.  individual subject  of  These S p e c i f i c a t i o n s a c t l i k e a s e t o f r u l e s  t h a t must be s a t i s f i e d the  the  N e x t , t h e DG c o n t a i n s a s e t o f S p e c i f i c a t i o n s t h a t  t o t h e Parameters f o r the d u r a t i o n of t h e  the D i a l o g u e  specific Parameters  u s e d i n t h e H E L P i n g game a r e t h e two p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d to  main  aspects  to requests The f i n a l  ordered  and d e s c r i b e t h e  to begin part  a DG a s w e l l a s  of  s e t o f Components.  of a c o n v e r s a t i o n type  way  the  Dialogue  These r u l e s  t h a t change i n  a  17  particular  way.  For  e x a m p l e , t h e Components c a n  the p a r t i c i p a n t s s u b g o a l s , The  knowledge  structure  d i r e c t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r p a r s i n g was  i s used to a c h i e v e  analyze  at  Analysis  of  produced  the  a  train  dialogues  and  information  booth  structures  differ  as  followed. A  wants  s t a t e . q u e s t i o n and not  on  the  how  station these  of about  of  For example, the to  ask  listens  utter.  idea  system and  1977). dialogues  types  of  discourse  and  state.question  and  assert.  speech  These  acts.  The  ' a c t s ' i n t h a t they have a s t r u c t u r e or  R  a  'move'  question;  for a respond.state.q  I f R does not  t h e n A assumes t h a t R h e a r d list  (Horrigan  for  respond.state.reply  from the  ask(A,R):  a  u t t e r a n c e s were b r o k e n down i n t o  l o o s e l y based  utter a  the q u e s t i o n  Using  a  parsed  u s i n g a grammar made up o f t h e s e the  and  M u l t i p l e utterance  r e c o r d i n g s of a c t u a l t r a i n  The  such  r u l e s that are  enables  goals  between a c l e r k  ' a c t s ' s u c h as c o n f i r m . h e a r d . o k  'moves'  may  person  underlying  units called  or  the  use  the p a r t i c i p a n t s g o a l s .  two  tape  conversations.  'moves'  represent  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o w r o t e  simple  passengers  'acts' are  time.  Game model i s t h e  of d i a l o g u e .  of  Dialogues  Mary H o r r i g a n  and  type  to  in  done u s i n g common k n o w l e d g e a b o u t l a n g u a g e  Train Station  to  ordered  main c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e D i a l o g u e  of a f o r m a l  it  partially  be a l i s t  14 d i f f e r e n t  A  utters which R  may  respond.state.q,  correctly.  s u c h moves, t h e d i a l o g u e  system to p r e d i c t the next  a  moves.  The  is  grammar a l s o  type of u t t e r a n c e .  The  18 d i a l o g u e model t h e n s u c c e e d s i f e a c h u t t e r a n c e c a n be for  in this  accounted  manner.  Susie Software G r e t c h e n Brown's English  language  system.  The  MIT  thesis  interface  user typed i n the s o r t  from a computer  program  to these s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .  question-answering,  The  involved system  program  of  I n t e r a c t i o n was  description,  u s e d OWL  dialogue a c t i v i t i e s  followed example  acts. i f the  input/output  an  expert  behaviour  and t h e e x p e r t s y s t e m p r o d u c e d a  and  language  i n the form of  explanations.  "methods"  Methods a r e l i k e  a r e s t r u c t u r e s d e s c r i b i n g how  speech  described  Only  one  i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n at a time.  model of d i a l o g u e . they  1977)  f o r an a u t o m a t i c p r o g r a m m i n g  desired  human was  (Brown  The  are e x p l i c i t l y methods  exchange  (Martin  1974) a s a  frames or s c r i p t s  in  that  t o c a r r y on a d i a l o g u e .  The  s t a t e d and a r e a l s o b a s e d  on  a l s o c o n t a i n a r e c o v e r y p a t h t o be  goes  wrong.  The  following  is  an  of a q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r method.  ask-and-answer: o b j e c t : t h e q u e s t i o n t o be a s k e d ( n o t a how question) a g e n t : a p e r s o n or computer system c o - a g e n t : a p e r s o n or computer system  or  why  method: 1. The a g e n t a s k s t h e q u e s t i o n . 2. The c o - a g e n t now knows what t h e q u e s t i o n i s . 3. The c o - a g e n t f i n d s t h e a n s w e r . 4. The c o - a g e n t g i v e s t h e a n s w e r and t h e a g e n t g i v e s an (optional) acknowledgement. r e c o v e r y p a t h 1: i f a s t i p u l a t i o n i s f o u n d a l o n g w i t h answer R1.1. The c o - a g e n t s t a t e s t h e s t i p u l a t i o n . R1.2. The a g e n t a g r e e s t o i t .  the  19 r e c o v e r y p a t h 2: i f t h e a n s w e r i s unknown R2.1. The c o - a g e n t s a y s t h a t s/he d o e s n o t answer. It  is  assumed  that  each  t h r e e ways t o i n t e r p r e t recognize  the  s t e p i n t h e method w i l l steps are to  t h a t a s t e p has  know  carry  the  occur.  out  the  The step,  o c c u r r e d o r t o assume t h a t a s t e p  has  happened i f i t i s i m p l i c i t . The  system  has  t y p e of s p e e c h a c t .  "core d i a l o g u e methods" f o r each The  sentences  are  different  types  according to t h e i r  and  i n the  following  parsed  also  categorized  purpose i n the  of sentences  and  Task O r i e n t e d The  order:  user  some u s e f u l i d e a s on  et  by  al  1980,  answering  assembly process  International  Robinson The  method t o m a i n t a i n  1981)  computer  questions  continues.  s y s t e m i s t h e use  important  types  represent.  Dialogues  t o a s s e m b l e a pump.  helper  person)  the a n a l y s i s of  the speech a c t s t h a t they  S t a n f o r d Research  Robinson  into  conversation  ( 1 ) M e t a d i s c u s s i o n ( t a l k about the c o n v e r s a t i o n ) (2) s t a n d a r d p a t h s u c c e s s o r s t e p s ( n o r m a l l y e x p e c t e d sequence of e v e n t s ) (3) r e c o v e r y p a t h l e a d - i n s (due t o l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n by e i t h e r p e r s o n ) (4) i n i t i a t o r s ( r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n by e i t h e r (5) g e n e r a l f a i l u r e method l e a d - i n s ( f r o m c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and misunderstanding) T h i s s y s t e m has  different  The  and  r e c o r d the  for determining  (Grosz  1979,  i s a system t h a t helps a acts  giving  like  "focus  a  student  i n s t r u c t i o n s as  most i m p o r t a n t  of what a r e c a l l e d and  project  f e a t u r e of  spaces".  f o c u s of a  anaphora r e f e r e n t s .  dialogue  the this  They a r e and  a  are  20  The goal user  system i s q u i t e g o a l - o r i e n t e d .  of  the  computer  i s to build  structure through ordered detail  that  and t h e order in  a  The  other  i n mind.  i s going  a  detailed  data  These  tasks  are  spaces  depend  t o t a l k about, i n other being  on  words,  discussed.  of g o a l i n t h e system i s t h a t of d i a l o g u e the hearer  and t h e speaker  The p a r s i n g i s done w i t h two t y p e s o f g o a l s  These a r e e i t h e r  task s c r i p t  The f o c u s  The p e r s p e c t i v e o f b o t h  must be c o n s i d e r e d .  the  h i e r a r c h y " so t h a t t h e l e v e l of f o c u s  i s currently  type  terms,  t h e a c t i o n s t h e u s e r must go  i n w h i c h t h e y a r e done.  "focusing  of task  cooperation.  the a c t i o n  goals  of  following  the  1977)  at  the  attempt  by  or t h e dialogue goals of c o o p e r a t i o n .  PARRY S y s t e m The  PARRY s y s t e m  University  of  (Parkison,  California,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o understand a  i s quite  describes  what t h e p e r s o n  which l e v e l  The  There  i s resolved i n a referent.  knowing  simple  i s t o h e l p t h e user and t h e g o a l of t h e  t h e pump.  script  In  computer  behaviour. user  is  program  paranoid  Angeles  i s an  thought  processes  the  interviewer.  The  psychologist.  transcripts  Thus,  the  using  and  the  The i d e a i s t o s i m u l a t e a p a r a n o i d  psychologists  from those  by  theory of p a r a n o i d  The p r o g r a m t a k e s on t h e r o l e o f a p a t i e n t  indistinguishable  ability  Los  Faught  that implements Colby's  p a t i e n t and t o use r e a l program.  Colby,  of of  a  program  t o c a r r y on a c o n v e r s a t i o n .  as  the real  users  to  dialogues paranoid  test should  patient  must have e n o u g h  the be and  linguistic  21 One  of  the  a n a l y s i s and  main l i n g u i s t i c  parsing  colloquial  English  of  patterned  dialogue.  component o f PARRY i s b a s e d The  later.  psychological however,  It  was  aspect  is  much  concept phrases  the n a t u r a l  in  language patterns.  and w i l l  be  discussed  to  add.  The  PARRY  e n t r i e s and a  table  of  system,  about  l a r g e number o f i d i o m a t i c and  i n E n g l i s h e x p l a i n s t h e s i z e o f any  in the  w i t h a d i c t i o n a r y o f 3500 w o r d s ,  600  The  fact,  phrases  r o u g h l y f o l l o w s t h e PARRY s y s t e m i n  easy  larger  patterns.  idiomatic  the  f o u n d t o be a u s e f u l d e s i g n b e c a u s e  was  idiom tables t o t a l l i n g  be  In  method o f l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n  detail  or  on a few t h o u s a n d g e n e r a l  program f o r t h i s t h e s i s  the  e f f o r t s o f t h e s y s t e m was  two 2000  colloquial  system a t t e m p t i n g t o  complete.  FlexP ^ F l e x i b l e Hayes and developed FlexP,  a  to  dialogue  Parsing Mouradian  system handle  (Hayes  at  using some  Carnegie-Mellon what t h e y c a l l  of  the  and M o u r a d i a n  u n g r a m m a t i c a l i t i e s found  1981).  Some o f t h e e r r o r s  repeating  off  sentence  restarting,  conversation such  as  meaning  i s t y p e d on a  spelling  agreement.  and  using terminal,  mistakes  Human l i s t e n e r s  of ungrammatical  or  grammatical  words,  in  found  breaking  fragments.  additional  or  When  errors  occur  i n c o r r e c t noun and v e r b  phrase  seem t o be  determine  the  s e n t e n c e s so any c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m  that  i n t e r a c t s w i t h humans s h o u l d have slight  have  flexible parsing,  i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s are l e a v i n g out or and  University  deviations.  some  able  to  ability  to  understand  22 FlexP work  i s a bottom-up p a t t e r n matching  for  restricted  computer system. domain  must be  frequently. find  To  interjections,  and  interjections,  later the  on.  The  F l e x P has in  to  be  constraints,  such  as  the  would a r i s e  quite  idioms  and  helps  phrases  with  o f f and are  s u s p e n d e d and  patten  i n matching  number  a  restarting,  dealt  with  possibly  by  continued  i n t h a t some e l e m e n t s  matching  allow  using  are  optional.  relaxation  a g r e e m e n t , and  of  of  Other  consistency  allow  some o u t  of  care  of a l o t of  matches. The  FlexP  system  problems encountered a  terminations  f l e x i b l e matching  the  system,  in non-idiomatic  p r o b l e m s of b r e a k i n g  flexibilities  order  the  to  domain  sentence fragments recognized  impicit  parsing  patterns  to  ambiguities  substitutions  and  the  input  otherwise  r e s t a r t s , and  bottom-up p a r s i n g .  allowing  u n d e r s t a n d any  p a t t e r n matching part detects  ommisions  designed  n a t u r a l language input to a l i m i t e d  limited,  The  parser  terminal.  balance  c o r r e c t l y every  seem  to  in conversation,  However,  between  does  one  limiting  must the  sentence that  take  e s p e c i a l l y e r r o r s made  take care  domain  i s typed  too  t o f i n d the much  and  on  proper parsing  in.  Summary I n summary, we make  conversation  p r o b l e m s t o be conversation other  types  h a v e l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many t h i n g s a  solved. involves  unique Most  type of  at l e a s t  of d i s c o u r s e , t h e  of the  two  discourse problems  with arise  people e x p l i c i t l y  second person,  the  that  special because  while  reader,  for  i s only  23 implicitly  involved.  psychological of  rules  two o r more p e o p l e , t h e s o c i a l a n d  i n t e r a c t i o n s must be c o n s i d e r e d . or  conversation  conventions  to  consideration  that  continue,  of  conversational The  With  the  the  for  be  structure  spaces,  of dialogues  acts  a l s o present  The u t t e r a n c e s  o r moves, o r f o c u s and can  s u c h a s PARRY a n d F l e x P , with  Considering  with  task.  the  have  on  grouped  The o r d e r o f  rules  Parsing  been  in  such  as  systems f o r  designed  to  deal  a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t make a  However, s i n c e n a t u r a l i s very  important,  conversation  understanding  language  a  t o be a  communication  the e f f o r t  should  be made  dialogue.  2_.J_.5 U s i n g One  c a n be  dialogues.  computer  to analyze  other  a s e t of problems  follow  u n i q u e t y p e o f d i s c o u r s e , we f i n d d i a l o g u e difficult  taking, and  spaces.  t h o s e i n D i a l o g u e Games o r Brown's m e t h o d s .  exclusively  f o r any  turn  beliefs,  set  postulates.  sentences i s a l s o important  dialogue  followed  example,  participants  in analyzing a conversation. context  must  There a r e a  Logic  f o r Representing  current  predicate  represented predicate information  way o f r e p r e s e n t i n g  logic. with  representations.  The a  calculus from  Natural  semantic  logical form.  the  n a t u r a l language i s based  content  usually  Inferencing  or  logical  logic  of  clause,  form  notation.  a in  sentence first  extracting  i s e a s i e r than from  Systems f o r t r a n s l a t i n g  l o g i c use c o n v e n t i o n a l  Language  natural  is  order other other  language  to  T h e r e may be a s m a l l s e t  24 of  f u n c t i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n s t h a t c a n be u s e d f o r e x p r e s s i n g  most  common  (Sandewall  constructions  natural  development  in  logic  has  o f t h e programming  defininte  metamorphosis (Pereira language other  2.2  clause  into logic.  as a backward,  depth-first  backtracking.  1981), and  sentences  have  now  the in  search  Grammars  extraposition  Data base q u e r y systems w i t h  input  The p r o g r a m  1980),  grammars natural  English  been w r i t t e n  and using  f o r t h i s t h e s i s i n f a c t u s e s PROLOG.  Approach  o u r p u r p o s e s , t h e two main a r e a s o f p s y c h o l o g y t h a t a r e  concerned  with  natural  language  psychology.  Although t h i s  psychology,  the  be c o n s i d e r e d . areas  logic  (PROgramming  1981) have been d e v e l o p e d a n d u s e d f o r p a r s i n g  The P s y c h o l o g i c a l For  since  grammars ( P e r e i r a a n d W a r r e n  grammars ( D a h l  language  PROLOG.  easier  l a n g u a g e PROLOG  w h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d  as  in  become  strategy with automatic f a i l u r e - d r i v e n such  language  1971).  Programming  LOGic)  of  the  as  aquisition  are  cognitive  t h e s i s u t i l i z e s a theory  and a n a l y t i c of  analytic  c o n t r i b u t i o n s from c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y  We a r e n o t c o n s i d e r i n g  such  possibly  should  relevant  p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , developmental psychology, or c h i l d of language.  _2.2_.J_ C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y  the  Cognitive  s c i e n t i s t s do n o t seem t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by  theories  produced  by  their  colleagues  in  analytic  25 psychology. language can  They  are  more  interested  i s u n d e r s t o o d by humans.  be  described  as  the  s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s . are  proposed  this  ( C l a r k and L u c y  people  and  then  determine  unique  the  then  sentence.  questions  a  One  A's  such  One  sentence.  the  example of by The  conversational to  do  rule  T h i s r u l e would  be u s e d  listener  program  language  be  understanding  do  first  S A's  that  sentence  show t h a t a  should  "If  of  "Do  computer determine  meanings of s e n t e n c e s .  Other  results  by C l a r k and L u c y show t h a t s e n t e n c e s  coded  a n e g a t i v e form t a k e l o n g e r t o comprehend than t h o s e coded i n  a positive interpreted too  must  when i n f a c t  i n t h e sample  These r e s u l t s  in  found  is plausible in  might  something  you mind o p e n i n g the d o o r ? " .  literal  theory  r u l e s t o deduce t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  willingness  for  which  is  w i l l i n g n e s s i s not i n doubt, then S i s r e q u e s t i n g A t o something".  mental theories  m e a n i n g o f an u t t e r a n c e  If there i s a c o n f l i c t ,  use c e r t a i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l the  of  science  of  i s t h e s t u d y o f t h e method  meaning  i n which  linguistic  t h e l i s t e n e r c h e c k s t o see o f t h i s  given context.  way  identification  tested experimentally.  suggested i s t h a t the l i t e r a l first,  the  g o a l of c o g n i t i v e  T h i s means t h a t  1975) the  The  in  have  form.  P e r h a p s n e g a t i o n i s done a f t e r  i n a p o s i t i v e way. literal  n o n - i d i o m s and  S t u d y o f i d i o m s showed t h a t  they  meanings but a r e e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  from  so c a n be t r e a t e d  separately.  Besides language comprehension,  c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s are  c o n c e r n e d w i t h memory s t r u c t u r e s , b o t h l o n g t e r m perception  and  the sentence i s  problem s o l v i n g ,  and  episodic,  reasoning, question answering,  26 and  child  language  Another 1976, of  c o g n i t i v e model i s t h a t o f J o h n A n d e r s o n  A n d e r s o n and  his earlier  components. memory  Bower 1 9 7 3 ) .  m o d e l HAM  The  first  H i s ACT  (Anderson  s y s t e m i s an  extension  (Human A s s o c i a t i v e Memory) and  i s an a s s o c i a t i v e n e t w o r k  of  has  two  long  term  t h a t c o n t a i n s p r o p o s i t i o n a l knowledge of the w o r l d .  second part is  development.  i s a production  the network r e p r e s e n t  between the c o n c e p t s . episodic  and  system of network o p e r a t o r s .  c o n c e p t s and There  is  s e m a n t i c memory.  arcs are  a  distinction  made  permanent  of  memory  i s c o m p a r e d t o s h o r t t e r m memory w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d  idea  a f i x e d number ( t e n ) o f a c t i v e n o d e s of  short  term  memory  anaphora r e s o l u t i o n . done  by  2.2.2  scientists  dialogues,  be  in  a  episodic  list.  and  by This  u s e f u l i n t h e p r o b l e m of  while  completely  it  is  the  work  useful  for  from  the  different  psychology.  A n a l y t i c Psychology o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  methods  t o e x a m i n e human b e h a v i o u r  T h i s may  be  therapy.  on  a one  to  Analysts  one are  p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g of or  i t is  o f work done i n a n a l y t i c  One use  may  while  T h i s model i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  cognitive  understanding type  concepts  between  storage  having  and  Nodes  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  S e m a n t i c memory i s t h e  knowledge about words  The  literal  meaning.'  c o r r e s p o n d s more t o t h e  analytic  i s t h e a n a l y s i s of  basis more  or  the  interested  sentences r a t h e r than The  deep  speaker's  level goal  conversation.  setting in  of  the  of a  saying  group  deep  in their  meaning in  psychologists  or  surface sentence  something.  27 This  m e a n i n g g e n e r a l l y goes b e y o n d t h e words t h a t were It  i s t h r o u g h t h i s deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l  express t h e i r problems.  uttered.  meaning t h a t  patients  T h e s e p r o b l e m s c a n be t h o s e a n a l y s e d i n  psychotherapy such as psychoses or neuroses and a r e r e v e a l e d the  one  t o one d i a l o g u e  problems revealed studied  in  in  the  group  is  studies  to  one  family  person  Social  conversation  therapy.  i s thinking  There  are  Therefore,  and  expressing  a r e many p s y c h o l o g i c a l  theories  utterances.  Some A n a l y t i c P s y c h o l o g y Most  one  of  a  important.  about t h e meaning o f 2.2.3  or  field  u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e . way herself  between p a t i e n t and t h e r a p i s t .  in  of  Approaches  dialogue  from t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  point of  view a r e not very  formal.  Some t h e r a p i s t s ( T r o e m e l - P l o e t z 1977)  study  or  sentences  just  one  two  t h e r a p i s t c a n change a p a t i e n t s chosen phrases. if  past  the  dialogue.  thoughts  the by  A p a t i e n t c a n go f r o m b e i n g  t h e r i g h t words a r e u s e d .  as  and  episodes  a  few c a r e f u l l y  hostile to rational  Extralinguistic  i n the patient's l i f e  way i n w h i c h t h e  information  such  a r e used t o understand  However, t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n  i s not  always  known.  are  A n o t h e r t y p e o f method  ( H a r r i s 1980) d e p e n d s a l o t on  called  by  life  scripts  a c t u a l words u s e d a r e scripts  are personal  not life  Eric  important plans  in  the  1961) b u t t h e  analysis.  Life  d e c i d e d upon a t a n e a r l y a g e .  These a r e t h e elements  of  personality.  s c r i p t s a f f e c t the type of t h i n g that i s  The l i f e  the  Berne (Berne  what  basic  character  structure  or  28 discussed  and  the  r e s u l t s of  s a i d about s p e c i f i c s of Work has of  view  (Labov  various  s t a t u s of their all  and  the  the  little  Fanshel  1977).  This are  rules.  participants, their  rights  theory  divided  From  c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n term of  the  2.2.4  p s y c h o l o g i c a l methods o f  a c t u a l words used or  Transactional Transactional  both part what that  a  the  Analysis  the  (T.A.)  (theory)  and  s a y s t h a t e v e r y o n e i s "OK" are the  called  social side,  r e s u l t of  strokes.  may the  These  and  social  organizations  are  studying  and  is  "good"  show t h r o u g h . constant  "OK"  T.A.  The  desire  The  sentences.  reason f o r the for  reinforce  non-positive  the  belief  strokes  upon t h e  searching  the  more the  the  existence  means  rottenness  is  positive  verbal  people. other  for  of  so-called be  be  moments  of  and/or  Positive  person  a person gets that are  i d e a of  i t to  philosophical  though  " s t r o k e s " o r t r a n s a c t i o n s may  is built  depend  in t h i s context  even  that  problems.  the  i s constantly  transactions  of  dialogue  of  a technique.  or  i s the  conversation.  such method.  p h y s i c a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n two  It  the  obligations,  followers consider  "positive strokes".  b a s i c human c o r e  "rottenness"  according  and  semantics i s one  to  Analysis Analysis  philosophy  be  point  is close  up  i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the meaning of t h e few  can  social psychological  t y p e s of d i s c o u r s e  However, T r a n s a c t i o n a l  a  but  dialogue.  conversational  Very on  conversation,  a l s o been done f r o m t h e  l i n g u i s t i c s as to  the  the  is  the  three  OK.  cause  ego  29  states  in  a  person.  The  accumulation of a t t i t u d e s , received can  parent  to  data  processor  information,  state  state  weigh the p o s s i b l e  outcomes  of  actions  Child  and  siblings,  ego  states  be  when  one  of  ego  T.A.  represent the three  sensible  final  broken  into For  example,  by t h e m o t h e r , f a t h e r ,  is  literature  cut  is  ego  further  The d e t a i l s a r e n o t i m p o r t a n t  states  make  adults.  older here.  ego s t a t e s a r e s e p a r a t e  i s i n one o f t h e s t a t e s a t a t i m e . the  and  emotions, t h o u g h t s and  be  person, the three  is  relevant  The  such as i n f l u e n c e .  a c k n o w l e d g e d ) o r when an ego s t a t e (overlaps).  in.  of  may  influenced  or other a d u l t s .  a person  be  of c h i l d r e n or spontaneous  In a "normal, h e a l t h y " and  one t o  These  light  Needless to say, t h i s  consists  c o m p o n e n t s d e p e n d i n g on t h i n g s could  thoughts  I t i s also c a l l e d the organize  or statements.  i s an  or r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s .  to  three  Parent  the  supposed  behaviours t y p i c a l  the  and  i t is  the  These  t h e s t r e e t when  such as p o l i t i c a l  i s t h e most d e s i r o u s  is  Parent,  behaviours  i s c a l l e d the Adult.  as  logical decisions ego  the  f i g u r e s when t h e c h i l d was y o u n g .  complex ideas  s e c o n d ego s t a t e  called  feelings,  be a s s i m p l e a s "Don't c r o s s  red", The  from  first,  off  Problems  (never e n t e r e d or  contaminated  uses diagrams of three  ego s t a t e s a s i n F i g u r e  1.  occur  by  another  c i r c l e s to  30  Simplified  Form of  Structural  Diagram  Figure 1 Each c i r c l e the  represents  juxtaposition  states  of  the  person".  of  individual.  The  ego  circles  transactions, represented from one  side  or  the  figure  may  be  patient's  of  use  single  w i t h one the  o r d e r as  given  shows t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e  The  Communication between with  w i t h the  above  separate,  shows  a  and ego  "normal  overlap  or  have  between them d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n d i t i o n of  s t a t e s and t h e  represented.,  state  the c i r c l e s  communication cut o f f the  an ego  set  two  or  of  the  units of  communication going on.  of  transactions.  more  of  circles  diagram to  of  problem.  the  Figure  people  structural social for other  can  also  diagrams. discourse,  e a c h p e r s o n and representing  2 shows an A d u l t  be The are  vectors  the  to Adult  type set  31  Agent  Respondent  Complementary A d u l t - A d u l t Figure The P a r e n t , C  Adult,  and C h i l d ego  respectively.  both the  In  stimulus  and t h e  Transactions cross  in  the  this  appropriate.  Examples  critical,  gossip  break o f f . where  The f i r s t the  occur,  vectors  is  both  expected  transactions  followed  then e i t h e r  stimulus  by the is  a  When  are  "Do  crossed  crossed probably  you  Child-Parent  s w i t c h ego  and  (Adult-Adult),  communication w i l l  the A d u l t - A d u l t  not  complementary  or P a r e n t - C h i l d ) . the  do  know  response  transaction.  s t a t e s or  terminate  conversation. The  is  by P , A ,  state.produced  problem s o l v i n g  blame me f o r e v e r y t h i n g "  person w i l l  ego  called  complementary  (Child-Child  I put my g l a s s e s ? "  "You a l w a y s  are  response  of  For example,  the A d u l t  diagram the  or v e c t o r s ,  represented  stimulus-response  (Parent-Parent),  or p l a y i n g t o g e t h e r transactions,  is,  s t a t e s are  response.  structural that  2  example  i n which the  transactions;  Transactions  i m p o r t a n t t h i n g about  concerned  depending physical  is  that  what  ego  clues  a person state  can h e l p  the  ego  responds he or she  identify  the  s t a t e s as  f a r as  differently is  ego  in.  to  dialogue situations  C e r t a i n v e r b a l or  states.'  In some  cases  32  the  v e r b a l c l u e s a r e enough.  interesting  for dialogue  These a r e t h e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e  analysis.  The c l u e s c a n i n f a c t be s t a t e d as r u l e s t h a t a r e u s e f u l i n conversational analysis.  T h e s e r u l e s c a n be u s e d a s an  the  or  parsing  of  a  two  more  speakers are used i n the f o l l o w i n g Conversations of  can  and  pastimes remember fairly  classified  o r games. or  harmless  everyone party  a  the  b e t t e r t i m e s and p l a c e s .  someone  use  of  time  of  people. The  the a c t i v i t y  project.  with another  time  person  and  people. ways This  of  structuring  time  a c t i v i t y may  by  c a n be d o i n g t h e d i s h e s ,  t h e r e i s no need f o r i n v o l v e m e n t  A l t h o u g h t h e r e may  where  of  w r i t i n g a book, w a l k i n g t h e dog, o r o t h e r t y p e s of work. during  is  B o t h w i t h d r a w a l s and r i t u a l s a r e a  are comfortable  sort  T h i s i s a s a f e use  or involvement  of keeping a p a r t from o t h e r  some  or  Examples a r e g r e e t i n g r i t u a l s ,  rituals.  what happens i s p r e d i c t a b l e .  doing  and  This i s  time  programmed  same t h i n g .  r i t u a l s and w o r s h i p  Activities  activities,  happen when p e o p l e a r e b o r e d  socially  a s t h e r e i s no commitment  way  1961,  t o you.  is  does  rituals,  u n l e s s i t happens a l l t h e  talking directly A ritual  about  Several types  by E r i c B e r n e ( B e r n e  withdrawals,  Withdrawals  daydream  analysis.  identified as  in  d i a l o g u e b u t o n l y two  follow certain patterns.  i n t e r a c t i o n were f i r s t  1964)  person  aid  be i n v o l v e m e n t ,  Again,  with other  i t i s not n e c e s s a r y .  l e a d t o p r a i s e or p o s i t i v e  strokes after  i tis  done. Pastimes  a r e a way o f p a s s i n g t i m e .  S o c i a l pastimes,  such  33  as  the  know  small  t a l k at a c o c k t a i l p a r t y ,  people  without  acquaintances  and  relationships  that  will  not The  of  may do  lead not  a way  This to  of  getting  i s a way  of  selecting  friendships.  p r o g r e s s beyond the  to  However,  pastimes  level  survive. game i s by  interaction.  something  fun  The  f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t and word  'game' s h o u l d not  be  i n t e r e s t i n g form t a k e n as  b e c a u s e most games c a u s e t r o u b l e .  p e o p l e m i s e r a b l e and brief  commitment.  are  ruin relationships.  d e s c r i p t i o n of games by  E r i c Berne  The  meaning  They can  following  (Berne  make is  a  1964).  A game i s an o n g o i n g s e r i e s of c o m p l e m e n t a r y u l t e r i o r transactions progressing to a well-defined, predictable outcome. Descriptively it is a recurring set of transactions, often r e p e t i t i o u s , s u p e r f i c i a l l y plausible, with a concealed motivation; or, more c o l l o q u i a l l y , a s e r i e s of moves w i t h a s n a r e , or "gimmick." Games are clearly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from procedures, rituals, and p a s t i m e s by two c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) t h e i r ulterior q u a l i t y and (2) t h e p a y o f f . P r o c e d u r e s may be s u c c e s s f u l , r i t u a l s e f f e c t i v e , and p a s t i m e s p r o f i t a b l e , b u t a l l of them a r e by d e f i n i t i o n c a n d i d ; t h e y may i n v o l v e c o n t e s t , b u t n o t c o n f l i c t , and t h e e n d i n g may be sensational, but it i s not dramatic. E v e r y game, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s b a s i c a l l y d i s h o n e s t , and t h e outcome has a dramatic, as d i s t i n c t from merely e x c i t i n g , q u a l i t y . The  predictable  each  player  else. not  outcome o f  that  result  the  game  consists  in a discount  In o t h e r words, each p l a y e r  has  of  of the  proven  feelings self  that  or  for  someone  someone  is  OK. There are  studying  many d i f f e r e n t t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s methods f o r  games.  The  G o u l d i n g m o d e l was  i s easy to understand. G o u l d i n g ' s model.  There are  five  derived  from Berne's  essential  elements  and in  34 (1) T h e r e i s an open m e s s a g e , a s t i m u l u s o f some s o r t a t the s o c i a l l e v e l of communication. (2) T h e r e i s also a s e c r e t o r hidden message; t h i s i s a stimulus at the psychological l e v e l . (3) T h e r e i s a r e s p o n s e t o t h e hidden message; whether g i v e n a s a n open message o r h i d d e n message, t h e r e s p o n s e i s h e a r d a s an open m e s s a g e . (4) The p l a y e r c o l l e c t s a p a y o f f o f some f e e l i n g . (5) A p a r t f r o m t h e open m e s s a g e , t h e r e s t o f t h e d y n a m i c s occurs as though the persons A d u l t ego s t a t e i s out of touch with what he o r s h e h a s j u s t been d o i n g d o i n g ; i n other words, i t occurs o u t s i d e A d u l t awareness. T h i s model l a y s o u t , more f o r m a l l y  than Berne's d e s c r i p t i o n , the  e l e m e n t s o f a game.  I n f a c t , a n a l y s i s of c o n v e r s a t i o n s and  games  c a n s o m e t i m e s be s p e c i f i e d  behind  that  almost  them anyone  Transactional  can  Analysis  identify  them.  i n enough One  the  detail  aspect  of  i s that people i n therapy can understand  the ideas behind the theory e a s i l y and q u i c k l y . There  h a s been some work done w i t h T.A.  O s w a l d Summerton (Summerton a  computer  T.A.  He  1979) o r i g i n a l l y  and t h e computer. wanted t o c o n s t r u c t  program, t o s i m u l a t e human b e h a v i o u r a s m o d e l l e d by then  got  interested  in  Transactional  Analysis  m o d e l l i n g , however, and d i d not g e t back t o u s i n g t h e computer.  2.3 C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h Recent  Issues  natural  language  research  on  developing  purpose, user o r i e n t e d computer systems i s q u i t e system  implementations  restrict  are  tailored  general  varied.  Most  t o a p a r t i c u l a r domain t o  t h e amount o f g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e t h a t must be  included.  However, knowledge about o t h e r p e o p l e as w e l l as knowledge about linguistic important  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s f o r studying  dialogue.  of  conversation  is  also  35  T h e r e a r e many component  methods  for  of d i a l o g u e s and they  representing  include scripts,  s p a c e s , m e t h o d s , and D i a l o g u e Games. psychological far  and  sociological  the  Less  Part  psychology  of the problem  to deal  with  i s t h e l a c k of f o r m a l t h e o r i e s from  This t h e s i s attempts  i n t o a language understanding  are the  a s p e c t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n and s o  o r s o c i o l o g y t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d  linguistics.  schemas, f o c u s  understood  t h e r e a r e no w i d e l y a c c e p t e d m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d  them.  linguistic  to  computational  t o i n t e g r a t e one s u c h  system.  theory  36 CHAPTER 3  The  I n t e g r a t i o n of P s y c h o l o g i c a l  and  Linguistic  Knowledge i n a  Language U n d e r s t a n d e r  The the  object  of  theoretical  describes, using being  with  ideas  i s to review,  used i n t h i s  examples, the  type  system.  of  in  more  detail,  The  first  section  analysis  that  p s y c h o l o g i c a l methods, w i t h T r a n s a c t i o n a l the  sections  p a r t i c u l a r method describing  namely p a r s i n g case  t h i s chapter  to  section  the  chosen.  ideas  sentences with  determine  the  integrates  the  this  theories  sentences. with  an  and The  done (T.A.)  are  linguistic  a i d of p a t t e r n s  meanings of  these  Analysis  Following  used i n the  is  two  analysis, using  verb  concluding  outline  of  the  computer program.  3 . J _ Use  of T r a n s a c t i o n a l  Although  the  Analysis  system  to Aid  uses  Parsing  Transactional  A n a l y s i s as  p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l method t o a n a l y z e c o n v e r s a t i o n s , psychological had and  t h e o r i e s of d i a l o g u e  been s u f f i c i e n t l y phrases  conversation pattern  as and  detailed.  indicators so  could  T.A.  of  i s s u i t e d to  the other  have been u s e d i f t h e y  theory  uses a c t u a l  words  t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t of a  parsing  system  that  a  uses  matching.  According  t o T.A.,  particular  words or p h r a s e s i n d i c a t e  two  37  things,  the  m e a n i n g of ego  ego  the  ego  states  The  technical  appraisal  of  and  their  states  l e t t e r s d e n o t e an  ego  Adult, use  and  will  state  and  were f i x a t e d i n e a r l y  these  are  Child  be  and  three  figures,  reality,  archeopsychic, respectively.  terms P a r e n t ,  psychological  resembling parental  that  for  the  mentioned b e f o r e , there are  states  active  terms  n e o p s y c h i c , and  ego  those  childhood.  exteropsychic,  More commonly,  the  are  the  used  in  maintained here.  uncapitalized  words  Capital describe  people.  The  two  broken  ego  into  i d e a s and contains may  i n d i v i d u a l and  toward o b j e c t i v e  still  literature  the As  n a m e l y ego  states directed  actual  of  utterance.  states,  colloquial  state  be  states  two  Parent  subtypes.  The  methods t o p e r c e i v e  caring,  i n one  worrying,  c o n c e r n e d , and Patent  is  of  or d e a l  two  aggressive,  only  if  The  and  is  and  attitudes.  Nurturing  o t h e r hand,  punitive.  she/he  situations  be of so  These  Parent  protective,  opinionated,  d e m a n d i n g , p r i n c i p l e d , and state  the  themselves  in a person c o n s i s t s  values,  warmly  On  may  with  ways.  forgiving,  permissive.  Child  Parent  many j u d g m e n t s , o p i n i o n s ,  manifested  Parent  and  is  reassuring,  the  Controlling  strongly  protective,  A person w i l l replaying  one  be of  in  the  the  Parent  f igures. The or  the  Child  ego  Adapted C h i l d .  reactions  of  the  spontaneously.  The  a  s t a t e can The  function  either  F r e e C h i l d does not  parents  of  the  A d a p t e d C h i l d , on  p a r e n t were w a t c h i n g o r  as  listening,  world  the  care and  so  Free  Child  about  the  will  act  the  o t h e r hand, a c t s  and  therefore  as i f  i s much more  38  r e s t r a i n e d than a Free C h i l d . rebellious, will  compliant,  will  any  given  or  with  include  degrees  of  in a social  Child  ego  by  indicators will  states  S i n c e a l l but a c t u a l words a r e d i f f i c u l t  computer,  essentially  s o may g u i d e  absolute  the search  rules.  corresponding According  the  other  types  of  behavioural  be i g n o r e d .  The  f o r ego  dictionary  state  this  o f t e n by t h e P a r e n t  dictionary,  type  containing  s o c i a l ego s t a t e l e v e l s  to  is  or e x p r e s s i o n s ,  We must remember t h a t t h e s e v o c a l c l u e s a r e o n l y and  and  r e a d i n e s s , c h a n g e f r o m one ego  words used, type o f v o i c e , g e s t u r e s  observe  setting  I n d i c a t o r s o f t h e ego s t a t e t h a t a p e r s o n  p o s t u r e , and a t t i t u d e . to  that i s  any o t h e r a c t i o n t h a t  moment, e a c h i n d i v i d u a l  varying  state to another.  i n behaviour  figures.  be i n one o f t h e P a r e n t , A d u l t , o r  may,  in  industrious,  pay o f f w i t h p a r e n t At  This results  i s listed  but the  in  t h e word " s h o u l d "  but the f o l l o w i n g  indicators a r e not  words  and  Appendix  A.  i s u s e d most  e x a m p l e s show t h a t i t c a n  be u s e d f r o m a n y ego s t a t e . Parent:  "You s h o u l d do i t ! "  Adult:  "To go t o t h e new s t a d i u m ,  you should  Child:  " I s h o u l d do i t o r I ' l l g e t i n t r o u b l e . "  Most t i m e s , h o w e v e r , t h e w o r d s u s e d w i l l listed  take the bus."  come f r o m t h e ego s t a t e  i n the d i c t i o n a r y .  The analyzing  other the  Transactional  type  of  specific Analysis  information words  game  p l a y e d by t h e c o n v e r s a n t s ,  spoken  that  c a n be g a i n e d  i s whether  i s present.  or  from  not  a  I f a game i s b e i n g  then p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n  about  39 the  s p e a k e r s c a n be d e r i v e d . The  T.A.  f o l l o w i n g example o f t h e type o f a n a l y s i s  game i l l u s t r a t e s  game c a l l e d game  the s o r t of i n f o r m a t i o n  "Why Don't Y o u - Y e s B u t " o r  discovered  by  Eric  Berne.  WDYYB  involved  t o be f o u n d . was  follows  The  the  first  Since i t i sthe oldest  game,  WDYYB i s p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t u n d e r s t o o d o f t h e T.A. text that  in a  i s an e x a m p l e u s e d by E r i c  games.  Berne  The  (Berne  1964).  White: "My h u s b a n d always insists on d o i n g o u r own r e p a i r s , a n d he n e v e r b u i l d s a n y t h i n g r i g h t . " B l a c k : "Why d o e s n ' t he t a k e a c o u r s e i n c a r p e n t r y ? " W h i t e : " Y e s , b u t he d o e s n ' t have t i m e . " B l u e : "Why d o n ' t y o u buy h i m some good t o o l s ? " W h i t e : " Y e s , b u t he d o e s n ' t know how t o u s e them." Red: "Why d o n ' t y o u have your building done by a carpenter?" W h i t e : " Y e s , b u t t h a t w o u l d c o s t t o o much." B r o w n : "Why d o n ' t y o u j u s t a c c e p t what he d o e s t h e way he d o e s i t ? " White: The  typical  Green, to  "Yes, b u t t h e whole response  i s silence  s a y i n g something  p r o v e how e f f i c i e n t  t h i n g might  like  f a l l down."  f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r p e r s o n ,  " T h a t ' s men f o r y o u , a l w a y s  trying  they a r e . "  WDYYB c a n be p l a y e d by many p e o p l e w i t h t h e a g e n t , i n case  White,  possible such  presenting  solutions  t h e problem.  The o t h e r s r e s p o n d  w i t h a "Yes b u t " s e n t e n c e t h a t o b j e c t s t o  always  A  finding  Eventually  with  i n t h e f o r m o f s e n t e n c e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h words  a s "Why d o n ' t y o u " . To e a c h s u g g e s t i o n t h e a g e n t  solution.  this  good some  player fault  can  something  stand o f f others  with  the  proposed  the other player or players w i l l  p o i n t W h i t e w i n s t h e game. On the surface this  exchange  sounds  responds  about  the  indefinitely, solutions.  g i v e up a n d a t t h i s l i k e a request f o r  40  information rejected, purpose get are  or  solutions,  with  rare  but  exceptions,  f o r t h e game.  also,  because  that  under  the Adult  showed  that  psychological reassurance. is.  On  of  t h e word  i n Appendix actually  searching Child  hand,  Parents  be  to  give  the  A.  the  game.  ego  states Notice,  Psychological  analysis  ego s t a t e  at the  of gratification' or how  inadequate she  players  in  the  at the psychological  present  level  i s showing  other  The  t o be n o t t o  i n t h e ego s t a t e d i c t i o n a r y  f o r some s o r t  advice..  is  ulterior  sequence.  i n the C h i l d  i n White  b e some  seems  The s o c i a l  is listed  level,  as  interaction  'why'  suggestion  must  question-answer  is  playing  there  them.  White  the other  able  the  category  The  every  T h e i n t e n t o f t h e game  s o l u t i o n s , but. t o r e j e c t Adult  since  level  following  game  are  and a r e eager t o  diagram  shows  the  Psychological Level :  |Soc i a l iLevel  R:"Yes  but..." Why  S:" Why  Don't  stimulus solid  game  can  continue  (S) and r e s p o n s e  lines),  you...... "  You - Yes But  Figure  The  don't  3  because  (R) a r e A d u l t  and a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  at the social to level  Adult (shown  level  (shown with  both with  dotted  41 lines),  they  ("Yes  but...")  you..."). Parent  a r e a l s o complementary, w i t h C h i l d - P a r e n t a  Parent-Child  response  The message u n d e r n e a t h t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n  saying  responding As  and  stimulus  ("Why  don't  seems t o be a  " I c a n make y o u g r a t e f u l f o r my h e l p " a n d a C h i l d  with  "Go a h e a d a n d t r y " . .  w e l l as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l information obtained  above, a  c e r t a i n amount o f l i n g u i s t i c k n o w l e d g e c a n be a c q u i r e d .  People  playing  a  described  Transactional as  a  predetermined as  being  words  suggestions "Did  you  type.  be  The  the  follow utterances  In  the  above  psychological  the  responses  will  find  c o n t a i n t h e words "Yes, dialogue  dialogue  analysis  be  of  a  are  confirmed  consists The  of  program  sentences.  of  game  actual WDYYB,  o f t h e f o r m "Why d o n ' t y o u . . . " fault  an  the  other  or "I  interrogative  for this  thesis  game a n a l y s i s  Descriptions T.A.  or  with the  but..."  u s e s t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m T.A. parsing  can  of sentence and sometimes t h e  s e n t e n c e f o l l o w e d by a s t a t i v e .  in  what  once a game h a s been  predicted.  and  and l i k e l y  game  that  Therefore,  be s u b m i t t e d  try..."  but...".  in  the type  can will  suggestions did,  script  present, used  Analysis  of  the  games u s e d i n t h i s  t h e s i s c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B.  3.2 P a t t e r n - b a s e d  3.2.1  Sentence  Parsing  Eliza One  of  the  first  attempts  at  conversational  computer  42  systems ELIZA the  is  that  of  Weizenbaum  (Weizenbaum  system emulated a p s y c h i a t r i s t user  as p a t i e n t .  having  W h i l e the program  1966,  an  was  interview  successful  r e a s o n a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t , t h i s was accident  than a planned approach  computational l i n g u i s t i c restricted  w o r k s m o s t l y by p i c k i n g the  In  has  almost  no  r e a l w o r l d knowledge  (patterns)  i s by no means a r e a s o n a b l e model o f  the  works  well  few  The it  is  system does not r e a l l y i s t a l k i n g about.  study  of  setting.  from sentence t o sentence  about  know, i n any  In s p i t e of t h i s ,  conversation  accordingly.  i n the i n t e r v i e w  asked  from  conversation,  r e f e r e n c e s t o p r e v i o u s d i a l o g u e but the e r r o r s  become e v i d e n t when E L I Z A  semantics,  o r memory b u t  Although t h i s  seems t h a t many c o n v e r s a t i o n s go  i n that  to understanding dialogue.  o u t key w o r d s o r p h r a s e s  fairly  with  to  u s e r s i n p u t and r e s p o n d i n g w i t h p r e s e t p h r a s e s  program  His  more due  terms ELIZA  s y n t a x and l i t t l e  1976).  i n the  previous  It with  system  responses.  s e n s e o f t h e w o r d , what ELIZA  i s an  interesting  and what c a n be done w i t h a v e r y s i m p l e  system. 3.2.2  Parry The  natural Faught  next  major  l a n g u a g e was 1977).  system Colby's  to  use p a t t e r n - m a t c h i n g t o p a r s e  PARRY  system  Although the p s y c h i a t r i c  (Parkison,  interview  setting  Colby, i s the  same, t h e m o t i v e b e h i n d d e v e l o p i n g PARRY i s much d i f f e r e n t that  of  ELIZA.  As  previously  implement  a computer  system  paranoid  behaviour.  The  that  mentioned, would  model  p a r a n o i d model was  from  Colby  wished  to  his  theory  of  chosen  because  the  43 p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y of p a r a n o i a there  is  general  behaviour.  For  from those  what  the program responses  to  understood  c o n s t i t u t e s paranoid be  indistinguishable  thesis  amount  f o l l o w s t h e PARRY s y s t e m i n t h e  p a r s i n g p a r t of the language r e c o g n i t i o n  phase.  m a i n i d e a s u s e d i n PARRY's p a r s i n g a r e t h e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n input sentence  and  various stages.  first  t h e use  Consider  F i x e d Idiom The  and  competency.  program f o r t h i s  syntactic  about  well  o f a p a r a n o i d p a t i e n t , t h e r e must be a c e r t a i n  of l i n g u i s t i c The  agreement  is fairly  of a  set  of  the  language  patterns  at  sequences of  steps:  of  the f o l l o w i n g  Two  Replacement p a t t e r n s are used a f t e r  morphological  analysis  to  i n p u t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and  condense  what  idiomatic phrases.  These c o n s i s t of about  phrases  r e c o g n i z e d and  which  are  synonymous w o r d s .  The  t y p e s of  then  are 350  called set  rigid  multi-word  r e p l a c e d by more  idioms considered at t h i s  literal phase  include: IN S P I T E OF  ->  DESPITE  UNITED STATES OF  AMERICA ->  STRAIGHT JACKET ->  RESTRAINTS  AT  THE  ON  p o s s e s s i v e TOES ->  SEE  RED  HOW  DO  Either  MOMENT ->  -> YOU  USA  NOW ALERT  BECOME ANGRY DO?  ->  HELLO  e x a c t w o r d s o r w o r d c l a s s e s w h i c h m a t c h any  c l a s s a r e t h e e l e m e n t s w h i c h make up  the  idiom  word i n t h a t  patterns.  The  44  examples  include  formulaic  sentences.  in  colloquial  compound  words,  T h e s e p a r t s of  English  that  they  proper  nouns,  speech o c c u r must  be  idioms often  and  enough  considered  in  any  complete language a n a l y s i s system. 2.  Noun P h r a s e For  network  the  a  n e x t p a r t of t h e p a r s i n g , an a u g m e n t e d  i s used i n s t e a d of p a t t e r n s .  utterance as  Bracketing  are  l o c a t e d and  single  however,  unit  are  in  treated  bracketed  later  reasons  given  that r e l a t i v e clauses the  for  the  phrases  so t h a t t h e y may  patterns.  The  i s converted  occur  information  of  be  Relative form  into a  the  treated clauses,  of  a noun  single  treating relative clauses  noun.  t h i s way  infrequently in dialogues  model's i n t e r n a l b e l i e f  represent  noun  processing.  using  f o l l o w e d by a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e The  The  transition  and  are that  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n made i t d i f f i c u l t  contained  in  an  arbitrary  to  relative  clause. 3_.  Verb Phrase S i m p l i f i c a t i o n Following  are  t h e noun p h r a s e  u s e d more o f t e n .  v e r b p h r a s e s by modal  verbs,  information  r e m o v i n g most of t h e adverbs,  To  and  auxiliary  the  features  such  subject-auxiliary  invert subject  a r e m a t c h e d of  stage,  patterns  next phase i n v o l v e s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  from these f e a t u r e s  variables. patterns  The  identification  i s kept i n a and  as  tense,  inversion.  set  a u x i l i a r y verbs  The  of  adverbial  in  questions,  form:  n o u n - p h r a s e v e r b ->  of  noun-phrase a u x i l i a r y  verb  45 The  adverbial variable  Other  similar  convert 4.  passive  Flexible  The  works  rules  stage  in  same way as  identification  is  of  set  find  to  true.  tense  and  to  that  language  for  the  Some  processing  idioms.  rigid  This  i d i o m s but  examples  is  of  the  section the  the  idiom  type  of  verb  be  idioms  can  are:  Many i d i o m a t i c  (A HAND)  idiom.  u n d e r g o b r a c k e t i n g of phrases.  Again,  indicate  PICK-UP  the  noun-phrase  -> HELP n o u n - p h r a s e  verb constructions  embedded w i t h i n t h e  let  the  object  of  the  These p a r t i c u l a r f l e x i b l e  noun p h r a s e s  this  phase  and  depends  i d i o m and i t s  simplification heavily  of  on s t o r e d  verb  patterns  replacement.  Simple Clause L o c a t i o n  There are about the  also  active.  flexible  different.  LEND n o u n - p h r a s e  5.  to  PARRY's  PICK n o u n - p h r a s e UP ->  that  is  a r e employed to  constructions  and r e p l a c e m e n t  in the  idioms  pattern  interrogatives  Idiom Replacement  next  detection  for  next  stage to  fragments. pattern  and when one  broken off  for  further clause  The  segment t h e  type  clause  sentence  patterns into  The p a r s e r goes t h r o u g h t h e  is  general  20 g e n e r a l  is  and t h e  discovered, remainder of  patterns.  The  that the  that  simple  are used  in  clauses  or  sentence matching p o r t i o n of sentence  patterns  is  are  the  for a  sentence  then  checked  all  of  the  "(noun v e r b n o u n ) " .  resulting  clauses are  then m o d i f i e d  by  the  adverbial  46  variables.  This  negatives,  presuppositions  interrogative, 6.  information  or  just  which are  ordinary  clauses,  with  the  subordinate clause  indicated  remaining  clauses.  embedding  are  clausal  clauses  are  indicated  (e.g.  WHILE)  can  be  recognized  and  its  clausal  language  The t h r e e  or  of  by a n e g a t i v e  and  when the  (e.g.  relevance model  final to  knows a b o u t  EXPECT,  of  PARRY t r i e s sphere  own l i f e  to  of  situation  a similarity.  about  1000  conditions  E a c h of  the  i n t e r n a l concept of  the  psychological concept to  concept  match  of  objects an  object  known t o  permit  Interest  are  sentence's  talk  and  about  is  represented  and t h e  input  w i t h w h i c h one is  concept then  its  interpersonal  model  patterns  The  the  This p a r t i c u l a r  patterns  determine  names.  pattern  missing  and can  the  these patterns  is  Clausal  interest.  The memory of  matched a g a i n s t  subordinate  conjunctions  determine  relations.  2000 s t o r e d  require  adverbial  Sphere  hospitalization,  about  that  any  THINK).  background,  of  embeds  subordinate  50 v e r b c l a s s e s  KNOW,  simple  or  BECAUSE).  personal  a set  section  adverbial  (e.g.  to.Model's  model's its  The  preceding clause  a set  phase,  the  just  sentences  by m a r k e r s such as  verb belongs to  its  than  analysis  t y p e s of  objects.  or c o n j u n c t i o n s  objects  more  those with a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s ,  Determining Relevance In  is  presence  interrogatives.  sentences c o n t a i n i n g  clauses,  by  the  S u b o r d i n a t e C l a u s e Embedding  To d e a l  7.  indicates  tied  to  is  there one  of  name  and  any  passed  to  the  47  psychological modelling has  processes.  b e e n d e t e r m i n e d , an a p p r o p r i a t e The  that  is  little  so  self  centred  that  this  F o r more g e n e r a l  knowledge  necessary.  is  deal with sentence by  up  lack  would  One p o i n t or  with  up i n t h e more  i s that  world PARRY  ill-formed  and  why?"  of  The i d e a o f v e r b  case  is  information.  any  by a q u e s t i o n  how,  There  p a r t i t i o n i n g but only f o r  V e r b Case i n t h e S y n t a x - S e m a n t i c s  Associated  where,  show  however,  like  patient i s  syntactically  t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e c l a u s e  identified  script  The p r o g r a m f o r t h i s t h e s i s u s e s t h e i d e a s  u s e d t o g e t more s e m a n t i c  Using  not  i n i t s favour  s y n t a c t i c a n d some s e m a n t i c p a r s i n g .  3_.3  almost  thought processes.  purposes,  fragments  interest  u s i n g p a t t e r n s ; however t h e s e m a n t i c s p a r t o f t h e  p r o g r a m i s weak. PARRY  of  knowledge but perhaps a p a r a n o i d  conversation.  sentences  large  i s d r i v e n by t h e p a r a n o i d  r e a l world  area  response i s generated.  PARRY s y s t e m seems t o be a  system  can  Once t h e  action  are  Interface  many  types  s u c h a s "who d i d what There i s t y p i c a l l y  whom,  an a g e n t  (who) a n d  (whom), a n d t h e e v e n t  occurs  (when).  An  may be i n v o l v e d o r t h e r e , may be  movement various the  f r o m one p o i n t  (how)  t o another along  elements that a r e contained  verb,  phrases,  preposition  i n f r o n t of a phrase,  particular  a path  (where).  time  These  i n an e v e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a r e found i n the s u b j e c t , o b j e c t ,  associated  a  when,  recipient  instrument  at  to  of d e t a i l s  i n d i r e c t o b j e c t , and  p r e p o s i t i o n a l or otherwise.  I f there  i t c a n be one o f a s m a l l  isa set.  48 .For  example,  between but  a  t i m e p h r a s e can use i n , on, b e f o r e , a f t e r , and  not  components  of  above,  the  under,  event  are  or  without.  called  The  individual  c a s e s a n d a v e r b c a n be  d e s c r i b e d w i t h t h e k i n d s o f c a s e s t h a t may be a s s i c i a t e d w i t h i t (agent,  recipient,  optional,  some  characteristics example, Such  required,  and  descriptions  have  Some o f t h e c a s e s may be  there  that the case f i l l e r s  t h e v e r b " t a l k " h a s an  language  may  be  certain  a r e e x p e c t e d t o have.  agent  that  must  be  animate.  been u s e d t o d e s c r i b e v e r b s i n n a t u r a l  h a v e been many d e f i n i t i o n s  w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d by B e r t r a m B r u c e  known c a s e s y s t e m  i s that  first  his  paper  "The C a s e f o r C a s e "  of  case  have  of case f o r E n g l i s h , (Bruce 1975).  The  best  (Fillmore  1968).  His  definitions  been f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d a n d now c o n t a i n t h e e i g h t  G o a l and E x p e r i e n c e . p o s s i b l y Counter-Agent an  some  d e s c r i b e d by C h a r l e s F i l l m o r e i n  cases Agent, Counter-Agent, O b j e c t , R e s u l t , Instrument,  which  For  systems.  There of  instrument, e t c . ) .  action  Source,  Most o f t h e s e h a v e o b v i o u s m e a n i n g s e x c e p t which  i s t h e f o r c e of r e s i s t a n c e  i s carried  out  e n t i t y which r e c e i v e s or undergoes  against  and E x p e r i e n c e which i s t h e  t h e e f f e c t o f an a c t i o n .  O t h e r p e o p l e have u s e d v a r y i n g numbers o f c a s e s t o d e s c r i b e English, Grimes  from seven c a s e s  to  Simmons  system  to  thirteen  ( B r u c e 1975) a l l t h e way t o t w e n t y - f o u r by T a y l o r  and R o s e n b e r g not  in  claim  1975),  t o be c o m p l e t e , a t o t a l  be s u f f i c i e n t  addition  Although the system f o r t h i s  and  were  derived  by  (Taylor  thesis  does  o f t h i r t e e n c a s e s were f o u n d mostly  from  Taylor.  The  o r d e l e t i o n o f a n y c a s e s s h o u l d be a s i m p l e o p e r a t i o n .  49 In  Appendix  the  case  the  C is a list in  of the c a s e s used, w i t h examples  question underlined.  Most of t h e c a s e s l i s t e d  a p p e n d i x h a v e a s e t of p r e p o s i t i o n s  These  that  sentences  t h e t y p e of c a s e , as t h e  (1)  The  dog  sang w i t h i t s m a s t e r .  (2)  The  dog  opened t h e d o o r w i t h i t s n o s e .  first  sentence the co-agent  case  i s an  must be u s e d One it  case  instrument.  to determine  solution  animate,  the  s o c i e t i e s ) and computer  In t h i s  example,  i s to l i s t  according  program,  patient  this  cannot  verb  a l l verbs,  on t h e c a s e s .  to  to  i n f o r m a t i o n about cases  tables  often two  should  their  other  i s also listed  the  second,  information  The  The  almost  case the  cases  they  the  i s stored  in a  may  sufficient The  i n Appendix  will  to determine  actual C.  be be  of o c c u r r e n c e . and  program  must  In  p o t e n t i a l cases w i l l and  the verb  civilized  anything.  information  cases  agent  be a human ( i n most  probability  i n most s i t u a t i o n s .  i n the  For example,  the cases that verbs take be  in  w i t h every verb the p o s s i b l e  where t h e r e i s more t h a n one p o s s i b i l i t y  case,  so a r e  the a p p r o p r i a t e case.  t h e r e c i p i e n t c a n be  containing  conditions  the  case.  but  i s i n d i c a t e d and  c a n t a k e a n d c o n d i t i o n s on t h e c a s e s .  table  each  following  'with'  ' g i v e ' has a g e n t , r e c i p i e n t and p a t i e n t c a s e s . be  in  show.  B o t h o f t h e s e n t e n c e s use t h e p r e p o s i t i t i o n  the  flag  p r e p o s i t i o n s a r e not u n i q u e t o each c a s e and  n o t enough t o d e t e r m i n e  showing  take  and  in a  list  ordered  Using both  conditions  on  the a p p r o p r i a t e code  for  the  50  3_.4  O u t l i n e of System The  strategy  implemented  f r o m t h e PARRY s y s t e m t o d e r i v e then  to  apply  psychological theory  is  meaning and conversation  a  theory  in a  system of verb  structural  description  cases together  f o r the semantics.3  and  with the given  Transactional  Analysis  t h e p a r t of the system t h a t determines p s y c h o l o g i c a l predicts, i f a  i f possible,  T.A.  game  further  pattern  t e s t s a r e done d u r i n g v a r i o u s s t a g e s The  t h i s t h e s i s i s t o use i d e a s  sentences  i s present.  of the program  of  The T.A.  execution.  f o l l o w i n g i s a diagram d e s c r i b i n g the system.  a  51  1 E n g l i sh Sentence <  > <  pre-processing >  syntactic  component Linguistic  ^  Psychological  Simpli f ied Form  Database  Database  semantic  component  Clause Form psychological  analysis  Psychological, Interpretation  General  System Diagram Figure  The prefix and  linguistic and  case  suffix  database tables  tables.  The  Transactional  Analysis  structures  describe  data  that  structures  programs a r e a l s o  and  4  contains  the  . word  dictionary,  for morphological a n a l y s i s ,  psychological keyword  dictionary  the T . A .  games.  programs a r e  contained  in  database  the  contains and  In PROLOG,  represented  and v e r b  the  databases.  The  data  both  by axioms  the  so  the the  program  52 analysis  flows  along  the  solid  l i n e s and  d a t a b a s e s a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e d a s h e d The  first  part  simplification.  of  Initial  v a r i o u s s p e a k e r s and interrogative.  the  program  any  that  is  their  r e p l a c e m e n t s a r e u s e d t o do  fixed  idiom replacement.  particular tables are  any ego  along  43 o f  use  analysis removed.  to  T.A.  parse.  with  The  to  words the  in later parsing  and  or  16  social  and  syntactic and  or  is  idioms  be  s u f f i x e s and  endings,  derivational  the  indicate stored  a in  There  checked state  stage a  and  t o PARRY's  state types.  to  At t h i s  for.  i s stored  morphological  some p r e f i x e s endings,  are and  r e p l a c e d by a p p r o p r i a t e w o r d s o r  i n the d i c t i o n a r y ,  230  words and  about  A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e not i t is a  straightforward  needed.  component taken  colloquial  are  l e v e l o f t h e ego  stages.  m a t t e r t o add more words as  sentence  of  a  scanning  that  phrases  d i c t i o n a r y c o n s i s t s of around  many w o r d s c u r r e n t l y  by  phrases  phrases  i s done o f e a c h word a n d Inflectional  less  i n a manner s i m i l a r  50 s u f f i x e s and p r e f i x e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d .  The  a  t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g ego  about  The  indicate  Tables containing  words  c o n t r a c t i o n s a r e e l i m i n a t e d and markers.  sentences  that  on d a t a t a b l e s  keywords  state.  these  Information for  easier  next s t e p a l s o r e l i e s  for  phrases  i f located, are converted  form  input  the  A n a l y s i s game i s done t h e n , as w e l l a s a s c a n f o r  idioms, which  The  pre-processing i s input  the t y p e of s e n t e n c e such as d e c l a r a t i v e for  the  lines.  passes d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Testing  Transactional  interacts with  involves  almost  simplification  directly  f r o m t h e noun  of  the  phrase  53  b r a c k e t i n g and v e r b phrase s i m p l i f i c a t i o n system.  of  the  simple  definite  identified  clause  at t h i s  grammar.  and  Only  time and t h e remainder  a s i s . The s e c o n d s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  a r e d u c t i o n o f complex Once  the  bracketed  the of  has  the  sentence  of the sentence  sentence  clausal  To a c h i e v e t h i s t h e s e n t e n c e i s m a t c h e d  clause  location  p a r t o f PARRY.  F o r example,  system. form, as  i t remains t o c o n v e r t  20 s t o r e d g e n e r a l c l a u s e p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r l y  is  involves  been p u t i n t o s i m p l i f i e d the  a  noun p h r a s e s a r e  v e r b p h r a s e s a s done i n t h e PARRY  sentence  form.  entity  using  d e s c r i b e d above,  about  PARRY  S i n c e noun p h r a s e s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s a s i n g l e  in the p a r s i n g stage, they a r e l o c a t e d  left  stages  into i t s against  t o the  simple  the sentence "Did  y o u t r y t o w r i t e h i m a n o t e " becomes: ((you) t r y ((you) w r i t e  (him) ( n o t e ) ) )  N o t i c e t h a t some e m b e d d i n g o f s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s i s a l s o at  this  longer  time.  follows  After the  t h i s p a r t o f t h e program,  language  recognition  done  t h e a n a l y s i s no  done  in  the  PARRY  system. Before semantic  clause type  forms  checking  prepositions i n the text types,  the  are  system  employing as  checks  an verbs  p h r a s e s and f o r v e r b meanings. the  system,  The  case  indication  the  program  tables. of  Using  possible  does any case  b o t h f o r a g r e e m e n t w i t h noun  To r e d u c e t h e number o f v e r b s i n  s e m a n t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t v e r b s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by a  single verb s i m i l a r l y as c a n o n i c a l  finalized,  t o t h e way t h a t Schank u s e s p r i m i t i v e  ACTs  forms.  final  part  of  the  program  deals  with  locating  or  54  confirming ego  any  A n a l y s i s games.  s t a t e i n d i c a t o r s or p r e v i o u s l y  possible clausal  T.A.  games,  compares  form w i t h c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s  necessary  Either  found  no  or  psychological continuing,  game  the  the previous  importance  and  Using the s o c i a l as  once  p r e d i c t i o n s c a n be made  A l l of a  about  the steps  guide  to  sentence i n  f o r a game t o  these  game  a  the  game i s c o n t i n u e d ,  i s present.  f o l l o w i n g chapter describes  detail.  f o u n d games  system  present.  The  Transactional  is  further  be  a new game i s states  have  i d e n t i f i e d as utterances.  o f t h e p r o g r a m i n more  55  CHAPTER 4  The  4.J  Introduction  _4.J_.J_ PROLOG as  This  an I m p l e m e n t a t i o n  system  language  was  PROLOG. b e c a u s e as  to  logic  using  Logic  for  can be u s e d  mechanism  is  previously  Since  structures  that  The  i n L I S P but  detail. the used  often  reasons  for  there  PROLOG  is  are  programming choosing  are  advantages  natural  language.  easier  as  The p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g  several  for  dictionaries  frequently,  the  this  data  the  logic  features  of  parsing  much  and o t h e r  data  base  facility  useful. this  Special  appendixes  logic  and p r o c e s s i n g  in.  are accessed  of  the  p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g needed  there  also  rest  in  mentioned,  representing  PROLOG a l s o make t h e  PROLOG i s  implemented  already built  simpler.  Language  T h e r e were s e v e r a l  language  in  System  chapter  dictionaries  but  enough  one of that  will  and d a t a  these, is  describe  the  the  program i n  structures  T.A.  game  s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d  first.  4_.J_._2 The T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s Game S t r u c t u r e  are  some  listed  structure, i n some  in is  detail  56  Each  T.A.  game  distinguishing structure  is  stored  information.  as  The  a clause  following  with p a r t i c u l a r  is  the  general  f o r a game ( w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r v a r i a b l e s ) :  GAME(*name,*s1,*s2,*d1,*d2,*p1,  *p2,*d,*c2)  where: *name *s1 *s2 *d1 *d2 *pl *p2 *c1 *c2 The  game  = = = = = = = =  name o f t h e game a s a mnemonic s o c i a l l e v e l o f s p e a k e r one s o c i a l l e v e l o f s p e a k e r two d e e p p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f s p e a k e r one d e e p p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f s p e a k e r two a c t u a l words o r p h r a s e s u s e d by s p e a k e r one a c t u a l words o r p h r a s e s u s e d by s p e a k e r two c l a u s e t y p e s o r c o n d i t i o n s on what s p e a k e r one s a y s c l a u s e t y p e s o r c o n d i t i o n s on what s p e a k e r two s a y s  name i t s e l f  i s a mnemonic,  'Why d o n t y o u - y e s b u t ' , w i t h elsewhere  f o rprinting.  of P a r e n t , A d u l t , the in  speakers  f o r m o f t h e name  stored  The s o c i a l a n d d e e p l e v e l s must be one  or C h i l d .  The a c t u a l w o r d s o r p h r a s e s u s e d by  This pattern  of words i s u s u a l l y l o c a t e d a t t h e  o f t h e sentence but can occur anywhere.  WDYYB, t h e f i r s t second  the long  t h a t c a n d i s t i n g u i s h a p a r t i c u l a r game a r e s t o r e d  *p1 a n d * p 2 .  beginning  s u c h a s WDYYB f o r t h e game  s p e a k e r u s e s t h e w o r d s 'why d o n ' t  F o r t h e game you' and t h e  speaker uses t h e words 'yes b u t ' .  The  final  conditions  variables  contain  t h a t must be t r u e  a pattern  special  %,  =,  #,  sentence c o n d i t i o n checks. equality  and  sentence  variables  NEGATIVE,  WH,  is  are  ADVERB  matcher  and  @.  The f i r s t  indicated  by  use  CONJ  and  that There  is a  or  sentence  looks  for  match  TENSE, will  four  a r e two t y p e s o f of  variable  o f t h e s y m b o l "=".  INTERROGATIVE,  and  types  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r game t o e x i s t a n d  they a r e checked using symbols,  clause  MODAL,  be d e s c r i b e d  These AUX, later.  57  There are v a r i o u s values to  test  for  INTERROGATIVE=T. check  sentence  sentence  s y m b o l "%".  that  t h i s type  sentence c o n d i t i o n i s  The  could  clause  a  is  long.  For  "you"  symbol. example,  as t h e  together  the  in a l i s t  individual  any An  a list  form.  The  o r an  is usually  other  e x a m p l e of  of words t o  be  words  be  exact  only  may  word m a t c h ,  a  few  words  @you.#verb.NIL c h e c k s f o r a s e n t e n c e  s u b j e c t , f o l l o w e d by any  Finally,  by  shown by a "#", list  The  "%imperative".  indicated  The  or  sentences.  sentence i n clause  particular class,  shown by a "@"  stative,  distinguish  type  matched a g a i n s t the of  if  w h i c h i s i n d i c a t e d by  the  to  test  a sentence i s to  imperative,  is  way  s e c o n d method of c h e c k i n g  be  example,  One  The  may  for  take.  question,  designation of  v a r i a b l e s can  a  type  type  that these  sentence form i n  t e s t s i n the  and the  list  are  with  verb.  clause c o n d i t i o n t e s t s are variables separated  *c1 by  and  the  *c2.  put The  s y m b o l "|",  as  in: @you.#verb.NIL|INTERROGATIVE=F{%imperativeJNIL. T h i s example whose The  clause  form  a c t u a l T.A.  in Appendix  We  4._2  matches  will  a  noninterrogative  contains  imperative  t h e word "you"  sentence  f o l l o w e d by a  game s t r u c t u r e s u s e d i n t h e p r o g r a m a r e  verb. listed  D.  now  examine the v a r i o u s components of the  system.  S y n t a c t i c Component illustrate  the  various  parts  of  the  system,  the  58  following  more d e t a i l e d  flowchart  is  included:  English Sentence scan  for  game  <  Psych.  >  phrases  Database  scan - f o r  ego  <  >  state  prepare  input  convert  idioms  analyze  morphemes  bracket  noun  Linguistic Database  phrases  simplify  verb  phrases phrases  Simplified Form  S y n t a c t i c Component Figure  Notice  that  psychological  syntactic  processing  processing  described later.  program the  analysis  databases  as  flows  shown  5  processing  here As  a l o n g the  i n d i c a t e d by the  occurs  and a l s o  in  the  general  solid lines dashed  during  during the  the  semantic  diagram,  the  and i n t e r a c t s  with  lines.  4_.2.__ Input P r e p a r a t i o n  One  of  the  poor  features  of  the  particular version  of  59  PROLOG u s e d i s program  the  easier  and  entire conversation would  be  dialogue  limited  more  to  require  i s entered  natural  utterance  this  stage  by  locating  punctuation  facilities. less typing  as a s i n g l e  when  t r a n s c r i b e d from  At  input  using  To  the  f o r the user, the  clause.  the  make  This  form  program t o a n a l y z e a  tape.  the  program  the  determines  terminating  one  speaker's  punctuation.  The  i s removed a n d the. INTERROGATIVE v a r i a b l e i s s e t t o  T f o r true or F f o r f a l s e .  For  sentences a r e then converted  ease  of  into a l i s t  use  in  PROLOG,  the  of words.  4.2_.2 S c a n o f S e n t e n c e f o r Game P h r a s e s The that *p1  sentence i s f i r s t  can  checked f o r exact  i n d i c a t e a game.  i s found  i n the utterance,  i n d i c a t e t h a t a game h a s been f o u n d . either  a  new  discovered  game  or  i s found  If  such  i n the a  game  a global variable i s set to A message  i s printed  or contradictory  i f  information i s  a n d i n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e g l o b a l game v a r i a b l e  t h e new game.  phrases  These a r e t h e p h r a s e s s t o r e d  a n d *p2 v a r i a b l e s o f t h e game s t r u c t u r e .  phrase  to  words  i s set  When c o n t r a d i c t o r y p h r a s e s a r e f o u n d , t h e o l d  game h a s been a b a n d o n e d a n d a new one s t a r t e d . Finding strong  indication  uniquely players  the  identified  exact that  game a  by t h i s  w o r d s i n an u t t e r a n c e  game  exists.  information;  Most  i squite a  games  can  be  however, not a l l of t h e  i n a p a r t i c u l a r game u s e i d e n t i f i a b l e  phrases,  so t h e  g l o b a l game v a r i a b l e w o u l d n o t be s e t o r c h a n g e d i f no m a t c h c a n be  done f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s p e a k e r .  60 4 . 2 . J 3 C o n v e r s i o n of  There  are  many  have  the  idioms  that  cannot  be  words.  Since  English, way of with  Idioms  from t h e  these system  that  examples  this  is  a  more  compound words  meanings  are quite  s h o u l d be a b l e  has  illustrate  the  as  of  i n d i v i d u a l meanings  expressions  accomplishing one  such  property that  derived  the  expressions  to  to  replace  in  separate  colloquial The  entire  meaning.  easiest  expression  The  some compound words and t h e i r  phrase  the  them.  the  literal  of  common  handle  the  and  following  replacements:  HOW COME -> WHY HOW GOES IT -> The table  idioms  that  is  and  their  indexed  by t h e  conversion  is  is  since  complete  done  4.2._1 Ego S t a t e  The  ego  indicated do or ego  not  Controlling  games,  state  are  For there  of  use  of  dictionary  the  they  the  game p h r a s e  are  stored  Notice  that  identification the  game  in a idiom  process  phrase.  state  contains  but merely  The ego  Nurturing  purposes only  level  in a d i c t i o n a r y ,  typify.  Parent,  social  of  an u t t e r a n c e  c e r t a i n words o r p h r a s e s .  ego  stored  is  phrases  idiom phrase.  i d i o m s may be a p a r t , o f  c o n f i r m the  state  Child.  after  replacement  Scan and M o r p h o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s  by t h e  phrases  HOW ARE YOU  of  one the  determining  Child  and one  extra  PSYCHWORD,  states  Parent,  suggest  These it.  Child  further Parent  words  with  into and  i n f o r m a t i o n which  state is  the  Adult, Adapted  information ego  be  The words  along  are d i v i d e d  Free  can  about  but  printed  the as  61  p a r t of  the a n a l y s i s .  "possible"  For  example, words  o r p h r a s e s s u c h as level dialogue.  " i t i s my  Adult  ego  level  i n d i c a t o r f o r the p a r t i c u l a r The  next  step  identification word i s f i r s t  of  The  in  the  the  looked  program  later  parsing.  classification the v e r b s , If  the  focussed  up  the  s u f f i x e s are  "what"  and  present  sets  the  any  'Adult'. analysis  is  the  sentence.  Each  additional information  tense,  found  in  next word.  s t r i p p e d and  useful  plurals  and  v e r b f o r m s , and  features  for  parsing.  d i c t i o n a r y , a t t e n t i o n i s then  I f i t i s not the  the  i n c l u d e s word  gender f o r subsequent  the  in  social  i n the main d i c t i o n a r y t h a t c o n t a i n s  as w e l l as number and  on  speaker to  Such i n f o r m a t i o n  is  then  i n d i v i d u a l words of the  f o r nouns and  word  as  opinion" are  linguistic  w o r d , i t s s y n t a c t i c c l a s s , and for  such  f o u n d , any  prefixes  or  b a s i c morpheme i s r e c h e c k e d i n  the  diet ionary. The  semantic  effect  i n s e r t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e UNHAPPY ->  NOT  table  of  adverbs.  NOT  The word  irregular  example:  suffix  endings verb  i s f a r l a r g e r than that  endings,  and  adjective  m a i n r e a s o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g morphemes i s  morphemes and Many  the  for and  recognized.  dictionary  entry.  For  i s a p p r o x i m a t e d by  POSSIBLE  p r e f i x e s w i t h noun p l u r a l s , adverb endings  prefixes  HAPPY  IMPOSSIBLE -> The  of  any of  as  small  irregular the  inflections  as words  to  make  p o s s i b l e so t h a t o n l y have  a  separate  the  the basic  dictionary  most commonly u s e d v e r b s o f E n g l i s h h a v e so t h e s e s e p a r a t e  forms would  entered  in  62  the d i c t i o n a r y .  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e word WAS i s l i s t e d a s t h e p a s t  t e n s e o f t h e v e r b BE. plurals  so  they  Some nouns a n d p r o n o u n s  are also l i s t e d .  have  irregular  F o r e x a m p l e , b o t h WOMAN a n d  t h e p l u r a l WOMEN a r e e n t e r e d i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y . The  words  not i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y  morphological analysis. compared  t o t h e ending  with the ending dictionary  removed  entry  inflectional  o f t h e word i n q u e s t i o n . i s located  For example, a f t e r an  F o r many  words,  t h e ING e n d i n g  letters  i s removed  E h a s t o be a d d e d , g i v i n g  in the d i c t i o n a r y . dictionary  with  i s  I f t h e word  i n the dictionary,  have  t o t h e e n d o f t h e word b e f o r e t h e d i c t i o n a r y  WRITING,  endings  by  the  a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e morph t a b l e i s  returned t o the parser. added  The t a b l e o f  a r e determined  The  new  word  i t s relevant  t o be  i s searched.  from  t h e word  t h e v e r b WRITE, w h i c h i s  i s then  information  entered  into the  so that the longer  p r o c e s s o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s w o u l d n o t h a v e t o be  repeated  t h e n e x t t i m e t h e word i s e n c o u n t e r e d . Inflectional  e n d i n g s a r e removed f r o m p l u r a l a n d p o s s e s i v e  nouns, t h i r d p e r s o n verbs return  s i n g u l a r verbs and tensed verbs.  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e type o f tense  (-ED), p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p l e Another  ending that  contraction. information prevent  such  (-ING) o r p a s t p a r t i c i p l e  by  the uncontracted  i s kept t o p r e s e r v e t h e meaning o f t h e  as  i s  case  of  the  word b u t  ending.  To  word e n d i n g w i t h NT b e i n g a n a l y z e d a s c o n t r a c t e d  w o r d s , l i m i t s a r e s e t on w h i c h w o r d s may h a v e c o n t r a c t i o n s . the  past  (-EN).  i s t r e a t e d a s a form o f s u f f i x  I t i s replaced  every  The t e n s e d  NOT,  only  In  t h e v e r b s DO, BE, HAVE a n d t h e m o d a l  63  a u x i l i a r i e s allow contractions. The  final  suffix. of  type  ending  analyzed  When t h i s t y p e o f e n d i n g  word  are  transformed  another c l a s s . PRETTY forms  of  into  i s the derivational  i s r e m o v e d , w o r d s i n one c l a s s  into  semantically  r e l a t e d words i n  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e LY e n d i n g c h a n g e s t h e a d j e c t i v e the adverb  of adverbs  PRETTILY.  S u p e r l a t i v e and c o m p a r a t i v e  and a d j e c t i v e s a r e a l s o checked  When none o f t h e a b o v e a n a l y s i s d e t e r m i n e s  here. t h e word,  either  t h e morpheme i s n o t i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y o r t h e word i s m i s s p e l l e d . Since  the conversation  i s not  s h o u l d be no s p e l l i n g e r r o r s . the system  b u t one w o u l d  typed i n i n t e r a c t i v e l y ,  There  i s no s p e l l i n g  there  checker  in  be e a s y e n o u g h t o a d d i f n e c e s s a r y .  t h e c a s e o f new morphemes, t h e u s e r w i l l be g i v e n t h e o p t i o n  In of  e n t e r i n g t h e morpheme i n t o t h e d i c t i o n a r y . 4.2.5  Noun P h r a s e B r a c k e t i n g After  noun  t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o r d s h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d ,  phrases  are  l o c a t e d by a p a r t i a l d e f i n i t e c l a u s e grammar  ( P e r i e r a and Warren can  be  similar  treated  The noun  1980).  as  a  T h i s i s done s o t h a t t h e noun  single  unit  any t r a i l i n g  p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases.  p r o n o u n s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be processing follows:  augmented  network.  noun p h r a s e c o n s i s t s o f p r e m o d i f i e r s ,  and  group  i n l a t e r p r o c e s s i n g and i s  t o t h e PARRY s y s t e m e x c e p t t h a t PARRY u s e s an  transition  the simple  later  on.  noun  adjectives,  the  P r o p e r nouns a n d  phrases  f o r ease  of  The noun p h r a s e , NP, c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s  64 NP -> p r o n o u n | p r o p e r NP ->  noun  (determinerjquantifier)(adjective|ADJP)*(noun)(PP)*  where ADJP -> PP ->  (adverb)*(adjective)  (preposition)(NP)  T h i s noun p h r a s e grammar  i s very  simple  and  the  program  just  s c a n s t h r o u g h t h e s e n t e n c e s b r a c k e t i n g o f f any noun p h r a s e s are  located. Another  operation  c h e c k t h e number phrase.  that  must  be done a t t h i s  the  When t h e b e g i n n i n g  noun  plural. number.  o f a new  noun p h r a s e  group, Further  either elements  Matching  of  i s discovered,  of the f i r s t  singular, plural  number  is  important there  in  i n t h e noun p h r a s e  plural  s u b j e c t , w h i c h i n t u r n must m a t c h t h e number  phrase,  of  i n t h e noun p h r a s e must m a t c h t h i s  t h e number d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r  I f there  element  o r b o t h s i n g u l a r and  because  form.  stage i s to  a g r e e m e n t amongst t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e noun  a g l o b a l v a r i a b l e i s s e t t o t h e number  noun  that  is  a  singular  or  of the verb  i s d i s a g r e e m e n t amongst t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e t h e n a message  i s printed stating  o f t h e noun p h r a s e i s c h a n g e d t o t h e number  t h a t t h e number  of t h e l a s t  element  i n t h e noun p h r a s e , w h i c h i s t h e n o u n . £.2.6  Verb Phrase A verb  auxiliaries  Simplification  phrase that  is  indicate  adverbs and a p o s s i b l e The  defined  as  tense,  inversion  a  main  voice that  goal of t h i s part of the p r o c e s s i n g  verb,  and  signals  a  set  modality,  of  some  interrogation.  i s t o remove  everything  65  e x c e p t t h e m a i n v e r b a n d t o s a v e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e removed words  i n a s e t of a d v e r b i a l v a r i a b l e s .  INTERROGATIVE, TENSE, MODAL, mentioned  NEGATIVE,  WH,  adverbials.  pass  singled  of  the sentence  negative  out  word  for their  such  as  contraction) aredeleted NEGATIVE.  deletes  However, two common t y p e s o f  the meaning of t h e s e n t e n c e .  CONJ  a l l forms  The  variable  modal  auxiliaries  i n the  adverbials  T h e s e a r e NEGATIVE  and  have  WH.  NOT o r NEVER o r n e g a t i v e m o d a l and  t h e word  WH  contains  are also  i n t h e v a r i a b l e MODAL.  put  i n the  from  variable  sentence.  removed a t t h i s  stage and  i s treated  as  a  tense.  The n e x t s t e p i s s l i g h t l y more c o m p l i c a t e d a n d  i n v e r s i o n of q u e s t i o n sentences  (from a  the  The word WILL  the a u x i l i a r y phrases.  Any  q u e s t i o n s words such as  modal i n s t e a d o f a v e r b d e n o t i n g t h e f u t u r e  simplifying  of  frequency of use and importance t o  WHEN, WHERE, o r WHY t h a t have been d e l e t e d  placed  and  Most t y p e s o f a d v e r b s a r e d e l e t e d a n d s t o r e d  v a r i a b l e ADVERB.  Simple  ADVERB,  previously.  The f i r s t  been  These a r e t h e v a r i a b l e s  deals  with  The s u b j e c t - a u x i l i a r y  i s replaced using the  verb  following  type of p a t t e r n : auxiliary The  variable  n o u n - p h r a s e v e r b -> n o u n - p h r a s e a u x i l i a r y INTERROGATIVE i s a l s o  set to T f o r true  verb  i f i t has  n o t a l r e a d y been s e t . The verb,  TENSE  variable  i s s e t t o the tense of the a u x i l i a r y  i f a n y , o r o f t h e main v e r b .  deleted examples:  and  The a u x i l i a r y  p u t i n t o t h e v a r i a b l e AUX.  verb  is  also  The f o l l o w i n g a r e some  66  DO  v e r b ->  verb  v e r b - E D ->  verb  (TENSE=past)  HAVE v e r b - E N -> BE v e r b - I N G Sentences  ->  verb verb  combining  (TENSE=past) (TENSE=progressive)  auxiliaries  are  a p p l i c a t i o n s of the b a s i c a u x i l i a r y HAVE BEEN v e r b - I N G The  system  converts  next  them  to  ->  verb  checks an  rules.  ->  passive  sentences  construction.  BE v e r b - E N BY  noun-phrase2  verb  The  and  following  then two  usual positon.  noun-phrase2  noun-phrasel  n o u n - p h r a s e BE v e r b - E N -> The  repeated  Thus:  r u l e s move t h e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i n t o t h e i r noun-phrasel  by  (TENSE=past p r o g r e s s i v e )  for  active  simplified  SOMEBODY v e r b  v a r i a b l e TENSE i s a l s o s e t t o t h e  tense  noun-phrase of  the  auxiliary  "be". Finally, that  can  be  t h e r e are a group  of v e r b s c a l l e d  c o n v e r t e d i n t o modals.  These p h r a s e s a r e  somewhat l i k e  i d i o m s b e c a u s e o f t h e use o f  The  however,  modals,  variable.  The  HAD  BETTER ->  BE ABOUT TO BE ABLE TO The the  equivalent stored  treated phrases.  i n t h e MODAL  examples:  SHOULD  -> ->  SHALL CAN  m e t h o d o f trea-tment o f a d v e r b i a l v a r i a b l e s i s b a s e d  PARRY  no c l a i m s  a r e t h e n d e l e t e d and  f o l l o w i n g a r e some  semi-auxiliaries  system are  ( P a r k i s o n , C o l b y , and F a u g h t  made  for  similar  methods  1977).  in  grammar, p a r s i n g c l a u s e s i s made e a s i e r w i t h t h i s  formal  on  Although English  technique.  67  4_._3 S e m a n t i c  4.3.1  Clause  The the  Component  Form  Location  following diagram  illustrates  the semantic  component  of  system:  Simplified F o r m •'•  Psych. Database  Clause  check  verb  case  match  clause  patterns  Linguistic Database  Form  game types  \ Psychological Interpretation  Semantic  Component  Figure  This logical 17  clause  general  clause  next  stage form.  clause  patterns  in The  the  6  parsing  simplified  patterns  sentence  to determine  are of the general  puts  form  the sentence i s matched  the c l a u s e "(noun  verb  into  against  type. noun)"  These and  68  are  distinguished  verb types.  by  There  such t h i n g s as p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s and  are only a  couple  of  clause  i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s b u t more c o u l d e a s i l y V e r b s may be t r a n s i t i v e , can  be a d d e d .  i n t r a n s i t i v e , c o p u l a and/or  verbs  that  stored  i n the s y n t a c t i c d i c t i o n a r y entry f o r the verb.  Other  take  patterns for  sources  t a b l e and s e m a n t i c objects  an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t .  of i n f o r m a t i o n , about dictionaries.  The  those  This information i s  the verbs a r e the case  verb,  subject,  and  any  must now p a s s t h e s e m a n t i c c a s e c h e c k i n g s t a g e b e f o r e a  c l a u s e t y p e c a n be c o n f i r m e d . There  a r e four verb semantic  i n Appendix have  an  E ) , one f o r e a c h t y p e o f v e r b .  entry  illustrate  d i c t i o n a r i e s or t a b l e s  in  more  than  the table e n t r i e s  one  Any  table.  one  The  (listed  verb  best  may  way t o  i s w i t h an e x a m p l e :  INTRANS(go,move,agent:animate) The  verb  'go'  replacement  verb  of a replacement to  is  intransitive.  that  The  second  entry  i s semantically equivalent.  verb i s t o reduce  The  the  ideas  of  These r e p l a c e m e n t  t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t  Schank's  primitive  verbs are loosely ACTS (Schank  matching table  of  that  are  needed  d e s c r i b e d i n the next s e c t i o n . is  the  intransitive, animate.  verbs  case  information.  for  verbs may be  based  the  nuances  the c l a u s e type  The l a s t e n t r y i n  Since  the  on  1973) b u t more  v e r b s t h a t Schank's s m a l l s e t a r e needed t o convey meanings  a  purpose  a r e a s o n a b l e s i z e a n d f o r some v e r b s , t h e r e p l a c e m e n t  the verb i t s e l f .  of  is  verb  this  'go'  is  t h e r e i s o n l y one c a s e , an a g e n t , a n d i t must  be  69  The  other  verb needs. be  a list.  features  t a b l e s h a v e e n t r i e s f o r t h e number o f c a s e s  The i n d i v i d u a l e n t r y The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e  each  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r v e r b may  examples i l l u s t r a t e  the  also  various  of t h e semantic s p e c i f i c a t i o n t a b l e s :  INDOBJ ( g i v e , t r a n s f e r , a g e n t : a n i ma t e , r e c i p : T , pa t i e n t : -'human) TRANS(listen,listen,agent:animate,patient:human.music.T.NIL) TRANS(read,read,agent:human,recip:animate;patient:literature) The  verb  'give'  'transfers'  i s of the semantic c l a s s of verbs that  by an a n i m a t e a g e n t t o any r e c i p i e n t  classification).  The o n l y  limit  (T  describe  means  on t h e i n d i r e c t o b j e c t  c a n n o t be a human.  by  an a n i m a t e a g e n t done t o a p a t i e n t t h a t may be a human, m u s i c  by  else.  The t r a n s i t i v e v e r b  'read'  i s an a c t i o n  i s an a c t i o n  done  a human a g e n t t o e i t h e r an a n i m a t e r e c i p i e n t o r a p a t i e n t o f  type l i t e r a t u r e .  To d e t e r m i n e w h i c h t y p e o f c a s e i s  "to be c h e c k e d , t h e r e and  'listen'  i s that  it  or a n y t h i n g  The t r a n s i t i v e v e r b  any  the cases that  i s a case t a b l e with a l i s t  they  indicate.  This  is  the  first  of p r e p o s i t i o n s  usually  enough  to  disambiguate t h e p o s s i b l e v e r b case meanings. The in  objects  a r e now c o m p a r e d w i t h  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  t h e v e r b s e m a n t i c s t a b l e s t o make s u r e t h a t  Using  the  features  dictionary, against the  be  a list  features  the  program  the features  in  element  the  of  tests  list.  list,  nouns  classifications  to  be  from  possible  I f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  then there  on  the  can a l s o c o n t a i n  the  is  a "T"  features  which  contained T h e r e may  i n which case,  noun  main  classification  i s case agreement.  of p o s s i b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , has  t h e t y p e s match.  obtained  the  given  only list.  matches  one The  anything  70  and  a " X" w h i c h m a t c h e s a n y t h i n g  that  _,  are a l s o  special  animate".  These  classifications After the  word  the  is  rules  rules  define  of  the  type  subclasses  or  so t h a t c o r r e c t m a t c h i n g w i l l  subject-verb  each  matching  "a  agreement stored  i s tested.  in  the  human  the  h i e r a r c h i e s of  The number a n d g e n d e r  i s just a simple  adverbial  along  variables.  The  t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e c l a u s e b u t when t h e  a n d t h e INTERROGATIVE i s t r u e , t h i s  an  the  speaker's  a d v e r b s o r WH words a r e p l a c e d a  conjunction  more t h a n one c l a u s e contained "Why  o r one c l a u s e  i n t h e v a r i a b l e CONJ.  joined  by  the  i t w e r e n ' t f o r y o u I c o u l d be h a v i n g f u n " =>(not ( i f ( i t i s y o u ) ( i p o s s e s s ( f u n ) ) ) )  be  conjunction  s t a y home a n d w a t c h t h e h o u s e " (home)) ( y o u s e e ( h o u s e ) ) )  t h a t nouns a r e b r a c k e t e d  reasonable  I f there  F o r example:  "If  their  other  the r e s u l t w i l l  need t o d i s c u s s t h e r e p o r t " =>(we need (we t a l k ( r e p o r t ) ) )  Notice  Any  just  t o him" (you t a l k him))  =>(and ( y o u s t a y  you"  sentence,  "We  "You  to  presuppositions.  is  i n f r o n t of the c l a u s e .  i n the o r i g i n a l  don't you t a l k =>(lS-why?  match.  form  NEGATIVE i s p r e s e n t of  of  from the s y n t a c t i c  sentence i s p r i n t e d out i n c l a u s e  NEGATIVE f e a t u r e r e v e r s e s  was  is  occur.  information  w i t h any m o d i f i c a t i o n c a u s e d by t h e  indication  There  v a r i o u s o b j e c t s a r e checked f o r case agreement,  d i c t i o n a r y a n d morph t a b l e so t h e t e s t Finally,  i s n o t o f t y p e X.  semantic  a n d t h a t some v e r b s a r e  equivalents.  changed  T h e r e was a p r o b l e m f i n d i n g a  equivalent phrase f o r the idiom  "if  i t weren't  for  so t h i s program l e a v e s t h e phrase as i t i s f o r p r o c e s s i n g .  71 £.3.2  Check o f C l a u s e T y p e s Used i n Games T h i s phase o f t h e system compares t h e  form *c2  with the clause variables  described  at  of  types and c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d  the  the  Transactional  beginning  and  Analysis  listed  or  syntactic  all  o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t met, one o f  Partial  would s t i l l  word t y p e must a l s o be p r e s e n t  be no game p r e s e n t . present,  then  is  still  Analysis  The  i n the words  i n the clause.  two  I f , on t h e  form  sentence  actions  other  If  occurs.  yet i n the conversation,  a violation  s i g n a l s t h a t t h e game h a s been If  The c l a u s e  phrases c o n s i s t i n g of a c t u a l  no TA game h a d been d i s c o v e r e d  was  structure  a d v e r b i a l v a r i a b l e s must a g r e e w i t h a n y v a l u e s  or *c2 v a r i a b l e .  game  clause  i n t h e *c1 and  there.  *c1  If  in  game  of t h i s chapter.  must m a t c h a l l o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s type  sentence  there  hand,  a  TA  of the c l a u s a l c o n d i t i o n s  terminated.  a l l o f t h e c l a u s a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e met, t h e n t h e TA game in  progress.  game  had  some  games  In  the  previously  case  been  that  no  Transactional  indicated,  a new game i s  started. For the *p2  game f o u n d u s i n g  the c l a u s a l c o n d i t i o n checks j u s t  the exact  o f t h e TA game s t r u c t u r e .  words i n t h e However,  variables  meaning of t h e s e n t e n c e s t h a t  *p1  and  t h e r e a r e some games i n  w h i c h one o r b o t h s p e a k e r s do n o t u s e s p e c i f i c the  confirm  words b u t  i t is  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a game i s b e i n g  played.  i . ' ! Use o f T.A. V a r i a b l e s t o A i d P a r s i n g  72  The game  p l a y e r s or s p e a k e r s  sequence  f o l l o w a type of s c r i p t .  or the meaning of a phrase This  in a confirmed Transaction A n a l y s i s  and  parsing.  In  e i t h e r by stage),  so l i m i t s  specific or  by  type matching present, t h a t may  the  the be  next speaker  can  the  stage).  Using  T.A.  the  speakers.  to  game c a n  be be  done  An  in  i d i o m match  (done a t t h e c l a u s e  knowledge  i n the next u t t e r a n c e .  next  identified  that  a  p r o g r a m knows t h e e x a c t words o r t y p e s o f exception occurs  game  is  phrases if  the  d e c i d e s t o s t o p t h e game. game e x i s t s  in a  be s a i d a b o u t t h e s o c i a l  by  one  which  the  search  t y p e s of w o r d s o r s e n t e n c e s  s t a t e of the s p e a k e r s .  T.A.  of  words  t h e c o n t e n t of t h e  words (done a t t h e word m a t c h and  ego  ego  to predict  amount  program,  E v e n when no T.A. things  the exact  i s d e f i n e d f o r one.or both  i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be u s e d  sentence  Either  state  Certain  than another  Analysis  level  certain  of t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t y p e s of words a r e used  and  word p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i c t i o n a r y . Transactional  conversation,  games  more  are those c o n t a i n e d i n the Examples and  c o n v e r s a t i o n s a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  of  ego  chapter.  the  way  in  s t a t e s occur i n  73 CHAPTER 5  System i n O p e r a t i o n :  This  chapter  computer program. about the  shows  Analysis  of c o n v e r s a t i o n s  limited  number  games i n t h e  of  each  analysis  of  the r e s u l t s of t e s t s of the  the  mostly  There a r e o n l y a  of t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s  many  the  games  program  sentence  and  social  level  of  decidable.  The l i n g u i s t i c  are  a  produces  and so  i s recognized,  game  social  ego s t a t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  terminated  is  important  appropriate  information w i l l  c o m p l e t e , more i n f o r m a t i o n  linguistic analysis  line  stating  form.  When  any  i t s name i s p r i n t e d a s w e l l a s t h e i t . The f a c t t h a t a  psychologically; be p r i n t e d .  game  so i f t h a t  After  the  is  happens, parse  is  i s p r i n t e d a b o u t t h e name o f t h e game  a t t h e end o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n  of t h e s p e a k e r s a c c o r d i n g  a  found, the a d v e r b i a l and sentence  T.A.  test dialogues  by  ego s t a t e o f t h e s p e a k e r , i f  v a r i a b l e s , and a l i n e w i t h t h e r e s u l t i n g c l a u s e  The  signalled  psychological  a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s of a  verb and case information  present  texts  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  i n therapy.  types  from  by c o m p u t e r .  dialogue, each  taken  such as tone of v o i c e or g e s t u r e s  consisting  the  analyzed  because  clues  c a n n o t y e t be a n a l y z e d For  of  and a r e f a i r l y  different  examples  extralinguistic  some  The e x a m p l e s were  Transactional  type  Examples and D i s c u s s i o n  a n d t h e ego s t a t e  t o t h a t game.  include the following features:  levels  74  (1)  starting  and s t o p p i n g  (2)  no T.A.  game  (3)  c h a n g e i n game  of  when t h e u s e r  played  the  the dialogues types  dialogue  to  first  o r WDYYB b e i n g dialogue.  i s numbered s o t h e p r o g r a m  be t e s t e d .  starts  where X i s t h e number  of  F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t e s t  e x a m p l e shows t h e game "Why D o n ' t You - Y e s B u t " recognized  This  words a g a i n s t  game  those  t o be an A d u l t  during  the f i r s t  i s discovered  i n t h e game d a t a  game i s p r e s e n t .  The s o c i a l  social  Further  utterances being  ego  level  of  played  s o no e x t r a  t h e word confirms  for  t h e summary i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e e n d .  information  <-analyse(1). t o him.  * New Game = WDYYB with global social levels: speaker 1 = a d u l t speaker 2 = a d u l t  Verb:talk  Analysis  agent:you  recip:him  a  "why" this  and t h e t o be s o .  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e game WDYYB  still  Linguistic  indicate  l e v e l ego s t a t e i s s u g g e s t e d  is  dont you t a l k  of the  by m a t c h i n g t h e s p e a k e r ' s  WDYYB  by b o t h s p e a k e r s  sentence  structure that  because of t h e use of  global  why  stages  i n p u t , t u r n t o A p p e n d i x F.  The  T.A.  game a t v a r i o u s  i n "<-analyse(X)"  conversation  game  present  (4) r e c o g n i z i n g a T.A. Each  a T.A.  i s p r i n t e d except  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = T TENSE = p r e s e n t AUX = do NEGATIVE = n o t (IS-why?(you  t a l k him ))  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF P O S S I B L E TA KEYWORDS ADULT = why SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL L E V E L = a d u l t . y e s b u t he d o e s n t Linguistic Verb:listen  listen.  Analysis  agent:he  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t AUX = d o e s NEGATIVE = n o t (not  ( y e s (he l i s t e n ) ) )  Psychological  Analysis  SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No k e y w o r d i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e did  you t r y t o w r i t e him a note. Linguistic Analysis  Verbrwrite  agentryou  recip:him  patient:note  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = T TENSE = p a s t AUX = d i d (IS-?(you.try  (you w r i t e him (note )  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF P O S S I B L E TA KEYWORDS  )))  76  A CHILD = t r y SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t . yes  but he does not Linguistic  read  notes.  Analysis  Verb:read agent:he  patient:note  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t AUX = does NEGATIVE = not (not  (yes  (he  read  Psychological  (note  )  )))  Analysis  SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No keyword i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e PARSE  COMPLETE.  - - SPEAKER1 (TH) — why d o n t you t a l k t o him d i d you t r y t o w r i t e him a n o t e SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t DEEP LEVEL =• p a r e n t -yes yes  SPEAKER2 (P) - but he d o e s n t l i s t e n b u t he does not r e a d n o t e s  SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t DEEP LEVEL = c h i l d GAME WDYYB FOUND - Why d o n t you _ Yes b u t analyse(1)<-  The  above  occurring.  The  conversation matching.  and  example  shows t h e  same  game  is  the  game  is  The words  simplest  case of  maintained initially  "why d o n t you" a r e  a T.A.  throughout recognized  listed  i n the  game the  by word  WDYYB game  77  structure  a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e game "Why Dont You - Yes B u t "  b e i n g p l a y e d so t h e p r o g r a m p r i n t s o u t a s t a t e m e n t a  new  game  has  begun  and t h e s o c i a l  showing  is  that  l e v e l o f t h e ego s t a t e s  associated withi t . Linguistic him?"  of t h e sentence  begins with i d e n t i f y i n g  "you",  and  variables  the  show  interrogative The  analysis  recipient that  that  the verb as " t a l k " ,  as  the  as  a  contains  place  holder  "him".  you t a l k t o  t h e agent  is  a  present  tense  a n e g a t i v e a n d an a u x i l i a r y very  in  important  the  as  The a d v e r b i a l o r p a r s e  sentence  a u x i l i a r y v e r b "do" i s n o t  mostly  "Why d o n t  since  question.  verb.  i t acts  The n e g a t i v e ,  however, i s i m p o r t a n t because i t i n d i c a t e s a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n . I n t h i s case, the speaker tried  talking The  noun)"  that the l i s t e n e r  has not y e t  t o 'him'.  final  the c l a u s a l  i s assuming  step i n the l i n g u i s t i c  form of t h e s e n t e n c e .  was c h o s e n  analysis  i s t o p r i n t out  The g e n e r a l f o r m  o v e r t h e common c l a u s e f o r m  "(noun  " ( v e r b noun  b e c a u s e i t k e e p s more o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l and h e n c e i s e a s i e r t o r e a d . in  f r o n t of the  sentence  clause  as  Any a d v e r b s well  as  the  any  negatives  T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s ego s t a t e l e v e l stage, plus their  printed.  the f i r s t  For  "why" i s f o u n d . of  sentence  when  the  i s n o t an i n t e r r o g a t i v e .  such words d i s c o v e r e d a t t h i s  level  noun)"  o r WH-words a r e p l a c e d  P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s b e g i n s when t h e s e n t e n c e for  verb  example,  in  scanned  i n d i c a t o r s ; any states  are  sentence, the adult  word  The n e x t s t e p d e t e r m i n e s  the sentence.  is  the  ego  probable  I f a game i s p r e s e n t , t h e s o c i a l  social level  7 8  is  t h e one f o u n d i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  the s o c i a l  level  i s t h a t o f a n y k e y w o r d s f o u n d o r may i n f a c t be  unknown i f no s u c h k e y w o r d s e x i s t . associated global both  with  social  t h e T.A.  check  done  after  level  ego l e v e l s  sentence,  indicate Adult  linguistic  are also  t o be p a r t o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s .  Since the  sentence conformed t o t h e c l a u s e type  The  remaining  type  utterances  of a n a l y s i s .  r e p r i n t s t h e sentences social  and  Notice that could  deep  been  a t t h e end  exists.  i n the conversation  of  follow the  The summary a t t h e e n d o f t h e d i a l o g u e  of each  levels  r u l e s i n t h e WDYYB  were p r i n t e d .  of  speaker  and  the  corresponding  t h e e g o s t a t e s f o u n d i n a n y game.  i f no game h a d been f o u n d ,  n o t have  present  and the  analysis  game s t r u c t u r e , no e x c e p t i o n s  printed.  t h e deep ego s t a t e  Finally,  the conversation  levels  t h e name o f t h e game i s printed,  F o r t h i s e x a m p l e , t h e game WDYYB was p r e s e n t  i f one  throughout  dialogue. The  second  e x a m p l e shows what h a p p e n s when t h e c o n d i t i o n s  r e c o g n i z i n g two games a r e a l m o s t t h e same.  WDYYB  and  Both  t h e games  "Why d i d y o u - No b u t " o r YDNB h a v e t h e same t y p e o f  opening sentence. this  For the f i r s t  word m a t c h done t o f i n d games a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  considered  same  state  game s t r u c t u r e i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e  l e v e l by t h e p r o g r a m .  c l a u s e type  first  ego  level.  The  for  The s o c i a l  t h e k e y w o r d c h e c k a n d game s o c i a l  social  the  game s t r u c t u r e ; o t h e r w i s e ,  conflict  When t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e  i s resolved.  many o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s  To s i m p l i f y  i s read, reading  however,  the results,  t e s t e d were o n l y two s e n t e n c e s  long.  79  <-analyse(6) . why d o n t y o u g i v e h i m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . * New Game = WDYYB with global s o c i a l l e v e l s : speaker 1 = a d u l t speaker 2 = a d u l t Linguistic Verb:transfer  Analysis agent:you recip:him  patient:information  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = T TENSE = p r e s e n t AUX = do NEGATIVE = n o t (lS-why?(you t r a n s f e r  him ( i n f o r m a t i o n  ) ))  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS ADULT = why SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t . no b u t i was t a l k i n g **Conflict,  O l d Game = WDYYB New Game = YDNB with global s o c i a l levels: speaker 1 = a d u l t speaker 2 = a d u l t  Linguistic Verb:talk  t o him.  Analysis  agent:i  recip:him  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p a s t p r o g r e s s i v e AUX = was NEGATIVE = no (no ( i t a l k  him ))  80  Psychological  Analysis  SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No keyword i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e PARSE -why  COMPLETE.  SPEAKER1 (TH) ~ d o n t you g i v e him t h e  information  SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t DEEP LEVEL = p a r e n t — SPEAKER2 (P) no but i was t a l k i n g SOCIAL LEVEL DEEP LEVEL  t o him  = adult = child  GAME YDNB FOUND - Why d i d you _ No but analyse(6)<In  this  second  been  trying  fact,  may have been  trying  to  speaker  one,  confirms  to  start  enter  any  YDNB i s  first  the  game p r e s e n t .  chosen  axioms and  as  before be  i n the  either  the  games  the  of  have  first  of  speaker  may  YDNB o r WDYYB o r  A n a l y s i s game.  game t o  is  same way  i n t h a t WDYYB i s  U s i n g word m a t c h i n g , t h e  YDNB  as  the  order  i n which they  similar,  of  YDNB. it  is  Since  current  not  the  until  as  the  that  first  thought program  in  the  sentence  second  of  sentence  to  chose  database, entered  b o t h games is  be  could  game b u t PROLOG w i l l  are entered  first  the  of  be p l a y e d .  a n a l y s e d the  p r e v i o u s example  in  Following  shown i n A p p e n d i x D , t h e WDYYB game s t r u c t u r e i s that  have  s p e a k e r two r e s p o n d s w i t h a s e n t e n c e  sentence T.A.  the  Transactional  sentence  the  dialogue,  s i m p l y a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n w i t h no t h o u g h t  however,  that  The  test  tested  can that  81 the c o n f l i c t The  i s resolved.  third  termination  example  of a  conversation,  T.A.  in this  game  such  no game i s p r e s e n t .  ICBYSOB o r ' I Can B e a t You a t second u t t e r a n c e  Your  chapter that  Own  we need t o d i s c u s s  the report.  * New Game = ICBYSOB with global social levels: speaker 1 = a d u l t speaker 2 = a d u l t Analysis  agent:we  topic:report  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t (we.need  (we t a l k  (report  ) ))  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No k e y w o r d i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e i will  do my own work.  Linguistic  Game  the  of the  game f o u n d i s  You  SOB'.  The  o f s p e a k e r two i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e game i s t o be  <-analyse(7) .  Verb:talk  t h e end  The p a r t i c u l a r  d i scont inued.  Linguistic  at  illustrates  Analysis  Verb:do a g e n t : i  recip:work  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t  82  MODAL = w i l l (i  do (own work ) ) Psychological Analysis  SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No k e y w o r d i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e now we must t a l k a b o u t y o u r work. Linguistic  Analysis  V e r b r t a l k agentrwe  topicrwork  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t MODAL = must (now (we t a l k  (work  ) ))  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS C PARENT = must SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t . what do y o u want t o know. Linguistic Verbrknow  Analysis  agent:you  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = T TENSE = p r e s e n t AUX = do (IS-what?(you.want  ( y o u know ) ) )  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS ADULT = what F CHILD = want SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t .  83  **  TA GAME -  ICBYSOB  STOPPED  PARSE COMPLETE. - - SPEAKER1 ( B O S S ) - we need t o d i s c u s s t h e r e p o r t now we must t a l k a b o u t y o u r work SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t - - SPEAKER2 (Emp) ~ i w i l l do my own work what do you want t o know SOCIAL LEVEL = a d u l t NO GAME PRESENT analyse(7)<-  The discuss  employer  s o m e t h i n g and t h e  later  decides  game,  here  first  to  problem  ICBYSOB,  the  is  game  game i s  at  the  the  game  defiant  but  stopped.  Again,  the  last  show  sentences  ICBYSOB  sentence. that  words  structures.  show t h a t  is  present  two  t h e modal  and  sentence no game i s For  Appendix contain  more G. no  does not present  follow at  examples Included  games,  this  p a t t e r n , the  the  end of  of  the  there  are  conversations  the two  but a  type  rules  must  use  "will"  form @ i . # v e r b . N I L o r t h e word "I" f o l l o w e d by a v e r b . last  of  The n e x t  The c l a u s e  speaker  containing  to  first  d i s c o v e r e d by m a t c h i n g t h e  ICBYSOB  noninterrogative  game ICBYSOB by w a n t i n g  'Emp' i s  so t h e  rules that  with  the  employee  against  obey t h e occurs  begins  be o b e d i e n t  utterance  sentences  for  'Boss'  of  the  Since  the  game i s  stopped  the c o n v e r s a t i o n .  system  in o p e r a t i o n , turn  sample where t h e  conversations game  is  to  that  recognized  84  other  than  by word m a t c h i n g ,  or  various  combinations  of the  o t h e r games t h a t t h e s y s t e m knows a b o u t . In  general,  Transactional  the  Analysis  system model  seems  on  the  f o r w h i c h i t was d e s i g n e d .  The  m a i n t h i n g t o c o n s i d e r when t e s t i n g game  types  different  i s that  i n some  uniqueness  that  way  involved  the  from  every  chapter.  well  program  other  game.  i d e n t i f i e s e a c h game a n d p e r m i t s  in  sentences.  on  additional  It  is  this  the parser to  The more  the approach of understanding  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a s an a i d i n l i n g u i s t i c the next  work  t h e game s t r u c t u r e s f o r e a c h game must be  p r e d i c t t h e c o n t e n t s of a d d i t i o n a l problems  to  general  a dialogue  parsing are discussed i n  85 CHAPTER 6  Conclusion  One of natural  the  language  utterance. what  is,  type  of  dialogue  The l a c k  analysis can  of  of  has  of  including  a  such  psychological This  the  overall  psychological  is  can be done  an a t t e m p t could  when a d d i n g more l e v e l s  added.  of  analysis  One example  a d d i n g more a n a l y s i s  ego  the  state  games. idiomatic at  once.  in  program scans keyword  If  this  phrases,  the  then  done all  Some of words  that  and at  the  for  for  so  s t a g e s of  that  the  system  that  the  parsing. which  we must  there  system  or  upon  or  as  current  any  However,  in this  sentence  the  system  some  theory  said  program i n e f f i c i e n c y  indicators is  a  to  psychological  be c o n s t r u c t e d various  an  this  a sentence,  T h i s means  be  increase  where  actual  as  reason  psychological  build  corresponding of  of  at  i m p o r t of  one  meaning  to  to  is  since  both.  would have  analysis  meaning  include  understand  psychologists  in conversation.  or  to  However,  depend on t h e  theories  thesis  attempt  psychological  psychological  sentence  testing  the  missing.  theories  the  c o n s e n s u s amongst  sentence parsing  meaning  is  s h o u l d be made t o  psychological  in  been  affect  consideration  careful  neglected  or d e t e r m i n e s ,  content  part  areas  is  not  be a  complexity.  is  the  step  Transactional Analysis phrases  same  word and p h r a s e  time  particular as  scanning  the  scan  can be  to for done  86  An a r e a where f u r t h e r work c a n be done analysis  component  of  the  primitive  s e t of v e r b s .  The  verbs  chosen  Schanks's  primitive  themselves  are  of t h e T.A. and  the  would  an  ACTS  ad  the  currently hoc  could  in  be  of  choice  uses  manner b u t used.  linguistic  a  of a  set  ideas such  Schank's  ACTs  of as by  n o t a l a r g e e n o u g h number of v e r b s b e c a u s e some  generalized  ACTs  do  f o r the system verbs  grows,  t y p e s of  verbs  not c o n t a i n enough d e t a i l .  seem t o be  sufficient  the s e l e c t i o n  but  The  if  the  of a p r i m i t i v e v e r b s e t  p r o b a b l y have t o be made more f o r m a l . The  diversity  i n the system. incomplete phrase,  "If  i t  would  weren't  form  Hayes  ensure  addition parsing sentences  more  written  for  Currently  idiomatic  text.  you,"  is  of is  the system  directly  the c a p a b i l i t y  the  than  has a l s o c a u s e d  For  and  example,  the  idiomatic  just  w i t h o u t any  to process  but  it  t r a n s l a t e s the  attempt  at  phrase  simplifying. such  (Hayes a n d M o u r i d i a n  an  rules  easy  task  at  the and  clause would  t o be a c c e p t e d b u t t h e r e w o u l d  solve the a d d i t i o n a l  anaphora  reference  location  allow  more  The  s t e p of  the  incomplete  have t o be r o u t i n e s problems  as  1981),  t h a t more s e n t e n c e s c o u l d be p a r s e d c o r r e c t l y . more  is  t h a t means  incomplete sentences,  and M o u r i d i a n s y s t e m  problems  phrases  t o f i n d an e q u i v a l e n t n o n - i d i o m a t i c p h r a s e  clause  Adding  language  Dialogue contains  the- same t h i n g . into  of spoken  sentences  difficult  in  in  system  is  the  games a r e i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g s p e c i f i c  verbs chosen number  mostly  program  in  that  to  would  occur. One  o t h e r a r e a f o r p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n s i s b e t t e r use o f  the  87  Transactional  A n a l y s i s game s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s .  variables associated clause  form of the  are  met,  not  two  then the  conditions  has  type  imperative,  particular  been  means  features type  of  of  game four  called  that  the  o r d e c l a r a t i v e and  type  variable  of  the  that  won't  do  system limit  to on  games,  the  must  p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s and This  specific  presents  tone of the  a  good  meaning  in  a  conversation.  technique  to  captured  social  the This  include by  or  other  the For  clause example,  psychological same way.-  If a  someone e l s e r e s p o n d s  with,  is could  being be  petulant added  to  and the  There i s , however, a  existence  and  because they are  of  these  identified  by  o f w h e t h e r o r not  Transactional  for  psychological  T.A.  determining  i s a method t h a t ,  i n a p r o g r a m , i s not  a l l psychologist  by  voice.  question  is  easy to i n c o r p o r a t e  games i n  moment,  sentence type.  extended  person  eliminated  Analysis  Not  is  the  is a routine called  more t y p e s o f games.  be  something  interrogative,  necessarily  number of T.A.  some  and  sentence  t y p e of a n a l y s i s  identify  The  e x a c t word m a t c h e s ,  most p e o p l e w o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h e  This  conditions  At  be  that  the  present.  e x a c t words o r word c l a s s e s .  i t " , then  uncooperative.  not  on  has  sentence type.  p e r s o n a s k s a r e a s o n a b l e r e q u e s t and "I  I f the  equalities,  some p h r a s e s h a v e a s o r t o f r e a l w o r l d knowledge  is  types;  there  could  s e n t e n c e s not  conditions  conditions  speakers' utterances.  c o n d i t i o n matcher to i d e n t i f y sentence  describe  sentence v a r i a b l e  loosely  sentence  i t that  t o be m a t c h e d a r e  word c l a s s t y p e s , that  with  E a c h game  a l l that  believe that Transactional  although  i t should Analysis  is  be. the  88  a n s w e r and  at the  technique.  moment i t i s  out  of  I n s p i t e o f t h i s , T.A.  style  can  be,  as  and  an  analysis  i s , u s e d i n some  c i rcumstances. This  thesis  linguistic other  has  dialogue  o r seem t o be  described  formally  T.A.  has  some  validity,  the  result  so  is  are  the  form,  a d d i t i o n of t h e Just  as  by  the  the  and  another, psychological them.  Using  utterances The  wide  But", first  the  For  speaker's  suggestions. the  first  linguistic variation of  of  in  T.A.  but  conversational  to  realize  I n a c o m p u t e r s y s t e m where t h e  quite  be  dependant  means t h a t  can  be  that help  on  further  saying  i s important a  particular  Don't You  -  interested in hearing  just  one  predicted.  utterance  game "Why  the  easy.  d e p e n d a n t on  wants  When s u c h a s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s i n t h e  speaker should  have  p r o g r a m makes  are  also  an  really  suggestions  must  p r o b l e m s , some o f  the  parsing  reason for  i s not  Since  meaning.  s e t of c o n v e r s a t i o n s  second speaker  be  finding psychological  Analysis  example, i n the  well  cannot  it  u n d e r s t a n d i n g method  meaning  not  analysis  design  b e c a u s e i t s o m e t i m e s shows t h e sentence.  and  Most  a s an  m e a n i n g a l s o seems  psychological  method.  therapists,  semantic  Transactional  of a s m a l l  of  general  general  to a computer program.  a few  psychological  syntactic  analysis  a reasonable choice  s y s t e m has  caused  added t o  intuition  been u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y by  Although  sentence  of  enough t o add  and  be  a n a l y s i s techniques are  t e c h n i q u e t o d e m o n s t r a t e a way  which  can  a n a l y s i s as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  psychological  defined  shown t h a t T.A.  i s not  computer i s h e l p i n g  to  turn  Yes the down  conversation, really  wanted.  the u s e r ,  (as  89 in  Levin  user  and  wanting  another  Moore  1977), t h e computer s h o u l d r e a l i z e  t o p l a y t h e game WDYYB d o e s n o t want h e l p a n d  tactic  s h o u l d be t r i e d .  an u t t e r a n c e  i s known, t h e n  instead  the  of  literal  language i n t e r f a c e s psychological really  I f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning of  t h a t m e a n i n g s h o u l d be r e s p o n d e d meaning.  f o rdata bases,  c l u e s may be h e l p f u l  programming  language  a l s o p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t symbolic  In another  expert  logic,  has  role. been  systems,  i n determining  The  use  language  used f o r symbolic base  t h e system  PROLOG,  based  integration,  description  and  useful fornatural  choices  i n p a r s i n g so t h a t t h e o n l y worry i s t h e o r d e r are written.  chosen  should  useful,  be  entered  and  seems  c o n v e r s a t i o n analyses d i d not collection  i n MTS  u s i n g up t h e a v a i l a b l e been t e s t e d .  first  in  which  S i n c e PROLOG c h o o s e s c l a u s e s i n t h e o r d e r  first  space  to take  PROLOG until  likely  for efficiency  t h e l a n g u a g e PROLOG i s e a s y t o u s e ,  were  types  f a i l u r e driven backtracking directs the  w h i c h t h e y a r e e n t e r e d , t h e c l a u s e s t h a t a r e most  garbage  systems  The d e p t h  with  Overall,  query,  language  search  clauses  plan  p a t t e r n s and f o r m a t c h i n g e x a c t words o r c l a u s e  automatic  on  The p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g i n  a s done i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n .  that  some  what t h e u s e r  f o rdeveloping  and n a t u r a l language.  PROLOG makes i t e s p e c i a l l y  be  to  example, n a t u r a l  being able t o recognize  used  formation, compiler design, data  in  that  wants.  The  that  that a  run  contains  reasons. features  very e f f i c i e n t l y .  very  long  and  to  the  The poor  d i d n o t become a f a c t o r i n several  conversations  had  90 Many o f t h e c u r r e n t also  use  system, English  the  language  language  t o t h e program logic  queries  idea that forthis  1982),  s u c h grammar.  be  of  not  changing  t o a PROLOG l o g i c  that using  be i n c l u d e d .  that  One the  is in  queries, extension current  representation.  s p e c i a l i z e d grammars  parsing  just  such as that  specific  to  techniques developed  may be what h a s t o be done.  problems i n a n a l y z i n g d i a l o g u e s ,  extra analysis,  translate  answering  T h e r e a r e so many p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e  f o rdialogues  to  newest  R o b i n s o n ' s DIAGRAM ( R o b i n s o n 1982) i s one  analyzing conversations, solely  and  t o implement.  Some s y s t e m s a r e e v e n d e v e l o p i n g for parsing dialogue.  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" C o n v e r s a t i o n a l Coherency", S c i e n c e , V o l . 2, No. 4, O c t - P e c . 1978.  Cognitive  R o b i n s o n , Ann a n d A p p e l t , P o u g l a s a n d G r o s z , B a r b a r a a n d H e n d r i x , Gary and R o b i n s o n , Jane. I n t e r p r e t i n g N a t u r a l Language U t t e r a n c e s i n P i a l o g s A b o u t T a s k s , SRI TR-210, M a r c h 1980.  94 R o b i n s o n , Ann E. "Determining Verb Referents in D i a l o g s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of C o m p u t a t i o n a l L i n g u i s t i c s , V o l . 7, No. J a n - M a r . 1981. Robinson, Jane. DIAGRAM: A Grammar f o r D i a l o g u e s , C o m m u n i c a t i o n s o f t h e ACM, V o l . 25, No. 1, J a n u a r y  1,  1982.  R o s e n b e r g , R i c h a r d S. Approaching Discourse Computationally: A R e v i e w , D e p a r t m e n t of C o m p u t e r S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , TR 79-13, O c t o b e r 1979. R u m e l h a r t , D.E. " N o t e s on a Schema f o r S t o r i e s " , R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and U n d e r s t a n d i n g : S t u d i e s i n C o g n i t i v e S c i e n c e , D.G. Bobrow and A. C o l l i n s ( e d s . ) , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1975. Sachs, J a c q u e l i n e . "Topic S e l e c t i o n i n P a r e n t - C h i l d D i s c o u r s e P r o c e s s e s , V o l . 2, No. 2, A p r i l - J u n e 1979.  Discourse",  S a n d e w a l l , E. " R e p r e s e n t i n g N a t u r a l Language I n f o r m a t i o n i n P r e d i c a t e C a l c u l u s " , M a c h i n e I n t e l l i g e n c e , V o l . 6, B e r n a r d M e l t z e r and D o n a l d M i c h i e r e d . ) , A m e r i c a n E l s e v i e r P u b l . Co., New Y o r k , 1971. S c h a n k , R o g e r C. " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e " , Computer M o d e l s of T h o u g h t and L a n g u a g e , R. Schank and K. C o l b y ( e d s . ) , W.H. Freeman and Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 1973. S c h a n k , Roger and L e h n e r t , Wendy. The C o n c e p t u a l C o n t e n t o f C o n v e r s a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , D e p t . o f Computer S c i e n c e RR-160, Simmons, R.F. " S e m a n t i c N e t w o r k s : T h e i r C o m p u t a t i o n and Use f o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g E n g l i s h S e n t e n c e s " , C o m p u t e r M o d e l s o f T h o u g h t and L a n g u a g e , R. Schank and K. C o l b y ( e d s . ) , W.H. Freeman and Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 1973. S t e r n s , Bob. " I R e a l l y Know t h e A n s w e r , B u t " , T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s J o u r n a l , V o l . 3, No. 4, O c t o b e r 1973. Summerton, O s w a l d . T r a n s a c t i o n a l Game A n a l y s i s: Games E r i c B e r n e , Manohar P u b l i c a t i o n s , New D e l h i , 1979.  Since  T a y l o r , B r o c k H. and R o s e n b e r g , R i c h a r d S. A C a s e D r i v e n f o r N a t u r a l Language, AJCL M i c r o f i c h e 31, 1975. Tennent, Harry. I n c . , New Y o r k ,  N a t u r a l Language P r o c e s s i n g , 1981.  Petrocelli  Parser Books,  T h o r n d y k e , P.W. " C o g n i t i v e S t r u c t u r e s i n C o m p r e h e n s i o n and Memory o f N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e " , C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 9,  95 Troemel-Ploetz, Senta. "She i s J u s t Not an Open P e r s o n : A L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s of a R e s t r u c t u r i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n i n F a m i l y T h e r a p y " , F a m i l y P r o c e s s , New Y o r k , V o l . 16, No. 3, S e p t e m b e r V i n o v i c h , J o s e p h , " I Can B e a t You a t Your Own Game You S o n - o f - B i t c h ( I C B Y S O B ) " , T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s J o u r n a l , V o l . 3, No. 4, O c t o b e r , 1973. W a r r e n , D.H.D. and P e r e i r a , F.C.N. "An E f f i c i e n t E a s i l y A d a p t a b l e System f o r I n t e r p r e t i n g N a t u r a l Language Q u e r i e s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of C o m p u t a t i o n a l L i n g u i s t i c s , V o l . 8, No. 3-4, J u l y - D e c . 1982. W e i n e r , Susan and Goodenough, D o n a l d . "A Move Toward a P s y c h o l o g y o f C o n v e r s a t i o n " , D i s c o u r s e P r o d u c t i o n and C o m p r e h e n s i o n , Roy F r e e d l e ( e d . ) , A b l e x P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , J e r s e y , 1977.  New  Weizenbaum, J . "ELIZA - A Computer P r o g r a m f o r S t u d y o f N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e C o m m u n i c a t i o n Between Man and M a c h i n e " , Communications o f t h e ACM, V o l . 9, No. 1, 1966. Weizenbaum, J o s e p h . Computer Power and Human R e a s o n , Freeman a n d Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 1976.  W.H.  W i n o g r a d , T e r r y . P r o c e d u r e s as a R e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r D a t a Computer P r o g r a m f o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u r e o f T e c h n o l o g y , A l - T R 17, 1971.  in a  Woods, W. A. P r o c e d u r a l Semant i c s f o r a Q u e s t i o n - A n s w e r i n g M a c h i n e , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F a l l J o i n t Computer C o n f e r e n c e , M o n t v a l e , N. J . , A F I P S P r e s s , 1968. Woolams, S t a n a n d Brown, M i c h a e l . TA: The T o t a l Handbook o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , New J e r s e y , 1979.  96 APPENDIX A  T.A.  Keyword  Dictionary  MTS PROLOG A n o m a l i e s Some  aspects  when c o m p a r e d w i t h and  of  t h e MTS v e r s i o n o f P r o l o g  t h e more common v e r s i o n d e s c r i b e d  M e l l i s h ( C l o c k s i n and M e l l i s h 1981).  by a s t r i n g  with  "a.b.c.NIL",  and  the  elements  by  v a r i a b l e s are represented  have been i n t r o d u c e d  variable.  as operators  by C l o c k s i n  L i s t s are  separated  f r o n t a s i n "X", where X i s t h e symbols  are irregular  represented  periods  as i n  w i t h an a s t e r i s k i n Any  other  and w i l l  be  special described  later.  Transactional The  A n a l y s i s Key Words  Transactional  Analysis  keyword d i c t i o n a r y l i s t s  word o r w o r d s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e ego s t a t e ego Child  states ego  Nurturing  are states  Parent,  Parent, further  Adult,  and C h i l d w i t h  divided  into  levels.  The  t h e P a r e n t and  Controlling  Free C h i l d , and Adapted C h i l d .  t h e key  Parent,  97  /**********************^ /* T.A. k e y w o r d d i c t i o n a r y /* a d u l t c l u e s  */  */  PSYCHWORD(adult,what). PSYCHWORD(adult,why). PSYCHWORD(adult,where) . PSYCHWORD(adult,when). PSYCHWORD(adult,who) . PSYCHWORD(adult,how) . PSYCHWORD(adult,comparative). PSYCHWORD(adult,true) . PSYCHWORD(adult,false) . PSYCHWORD(adult,probable). PSYCHWORD(adult,possible). PSYCHWORD(adult,unknown). PSYCHWORD(adult,objective). PSYCHWORD(adult,correct). PSYCHWORD(adult,practical). PSYCHWORD(adult,quantity). PSYCHWORDS(adult,how.much.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(adult,in.what.way.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(adult,i.think.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(adult,i.see.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(adult,it.is.my.opinion.NIL). /* c o n t r o l l i n g  parent clues  */  PSYCHWORD(cparent,bad). PSYCHWORD(cparent,should). PSYCHWORD(cparent,ought). PSYCHWORD(cparent,must). PSYCHWORD(cparent,always). PSYCHWORD(cparent,never). PSYCHWORD(cparent,ridiculous). /* n u r t u r i n g p a r e n t c l u e s  */  PSYCHWORD(nparent,good). PSYCHWORD(nparent,nice). PSYCHWORD(nparent,cute). PSYCHWORD(nparent,splendid). PSYCHWORD(nparent,tender). PSYCHWORDS(nparent,i.love.you.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(nparent,now.always.remember.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(nparent,i.cannot.for.the.life.of.me.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(nparent,once.and.for.all.NIL).  /* f r e e c h i l d  clues  */  PSYCHWORD(fchild,wow). PSYCHWORD(fchild,fun). PSYCHWORDUchild,want) . PSYCHWORD(fchild,wont). PSYCHWORD(fchild,ouch). PSYCHWORD(fchild,hi). /* a d a p t e d c h i l d  clues  */  PSYCHWORD(achild,cannot). PSYCHWORD(achild,wish). PSYCHWORD(achild,try). PSYCHWORD(achild,hope). PSYCHWORD(achiId,please). PSYCHWORD(achild,big). PSYCHWORD(achild,bigger). PSYCHWORD(achild,better). PSYCHWORD(achild,best) . PSYCHWORDS(achiId,i.guess.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(achiId,thank.you.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(achild,when.i.grow.up.NI PSYCHWORDS(achiId,i.wish.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(achild,i.want.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(achiId,i.dunno.NIL). PSYCHWORDS(achiId,i.gonna.NIL).  99 APPENDIX B  More A b o u t T.A. Games  This in  appendix  lists  t h e t h e s i s program,  typifying  the  game.  detailed description game " A i n ' t  their The  analysis, game  and  WDYYB  sample  i s not  motive  dialogues  i n c l u d e d as a  o f i t i s c o n t a i n e d i n c h a p t e r 3.  i t Wonderful"  speaker has a  t h e T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s games u s e d  The  first  i s c o n s i d e r e d a "good" game b e c a u s e  of  "getting"  the  other  speaker.  no The  r e m a i n i n g games a r e c o n s i d e r e d b a d games.  Aint't The  It W o n d e r f u l  respondant  Ex.  (AIW)  f i n d s a good p o i n t  i nanything.  I f t h e l i g h t s go o u t , s a y s " A i n t ' t  i t w o n d e r f u l , now we c a n  r e s t our eyes." S o c i a l L e v e l : A -> A P s y c h o l o g i c a l L e v e l : C -> C  I_ Can B e a t You a t Y o u r Own Game, You SOB (ICBYSOB) The  respondant  speaker Ex  i s s e e k i n g r e a s s u r a n c e by s a y i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t  i s not better/tougher/smarter.  1.  I c a n do t h a t b e t t e r t h a n y o u .  2.  Envious spouse, peer  S o c i a l Paradigm:  group.  A -> A  A: We n e e d t o d i s c u s s what I ' v e w o r k e d o u t .  100 A:  Since  Psychological  i t i s r e l a t e d t o my . i n t e r e s t s ,  P a r a d i g m : C ->  C:  You're not  C:  Yes,  C  b e t t e r t h a n me,  you're r i g h t .  I'm  I_ R e a l l y Know t h e A n s w e r , But The all Ex  respondant the  i s seeking  I ' l l do i t .  ha-ha.  not b e t t e r than  you.  (IRKTAB)  reassurance  by  s a y i n g t h a t he/she  has  answers.  1.  I know where i t i s , b u t  2.  I can't  tell  you  S o c i a l P a r a d i g m : A -> A:  The  A:  Could  A  answer i s not a v a i l a b l e you  You  until...  p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e on  are  you.  until...  P s y c h o l o g i c a l P a r a d i g m : P -> P:  I won't t e l l  that.  C  unworthy  of  benefitting  f r o m my  superior  ability.  C:  Now  I've  I knew y o u  Got  You,  were g o i n g  SOB  and  says  something  way  "Now  until I've  f e e l i n g of p a y o f f  someone who  At  you...", this  or t r i u m p h .  ICBYSOB. S o c i a l L e v e l : A ->  i n t e r a c t s w i t h another  a moment o f c l i m a x when he got  similar.  down.  (NIGYSOB)  T h i s game i s p l a y e d by reasonable  t o l e t me  A  P s y c h o l o g i c a l L e v e l : P ->  A  "I  time  knew the  switches  in  tactics  you  would...",  player  collects  T h i s game i s c l o s e l y  a  related  or some to  101 It  it W e r e n ' t F o r You (IWFY)  The  aim  of  the  game i s  most commonly r e a s s u r a n c e but  is  vindication.  Ex  1.  It's  not  that  I'm a f r a i d ,  2.  It's  not  that  I ' m not a f r a i d ,  Social  The game p l a y e r s a r e u s u a l l y a m a r r i e d  Paradigm:  You s t a y  C:  If  Psychological C:  that it's  home and t a k e c a r e of  weren't  for you,  Paradigm:  You  it's  he w o n ' t that  let  couple. me g o .  he h o l d s me b a c k .  P -> C  P:  it  sometimes  the  house.  I c o u l d be h a v i n g f u n .  C -> C  must a l w a y s be h e r e when I get  of  desertion.  C:  I will  be  if  home.  you h e l p me a v o i d p h o b i c  I'm  afraid  situations.  Why D i d You - No But (YDNB) As t h e  name s u g g e s t s ,  Don't  You  eventually person ideas  -  Yes B u t " .  wins and t h e  receiving and i t  is  only  Level:  Psychological  who  suggestions when  that  is  A -> A Level:  closely  IN YDNB, Child  the  suggester perceives Social  YDNB i s  P -> C  he  is  r e l a t e d to  however,  it  retires  in  will  the  is  the  game  P a r e n t who  confusion.  immediately accept  deeply  involved  being turned against.  "Why  that  The the the  1 02 APPENDIX C  List  The showing  following i sa l i s t  of t h e cases  the case i n question  identified prepositions Caroll's  of Cases  by  particular listed.  "Alice  Some  underlined.  used,  the  examples  Those c a s e s which a r e  prepositions of  with  will  examples  have are  i n W o n d e r l a n d " o r i n s p i r e d by t h e  those  from Lewis  text  i n the  book.  Agent The  w i n d c a l l e d h i s name.  The  Queen o f H e a r t s ,  The  t a r t s were s t o l e n by t h e Knave o f H e a r t s .  s h e made some t a r t s .  "Why i s a r a v e n l i k e a w r i t i n g - d e s k ? " Tara i s the ancient  home o f I r i s h  kings.  Patient The  elegant  c a t t r i e d on a r h i n e s t o n e - s t u d d e d  collar.  The  e l v e s grew g i g a n t i c mushrooms i n t h e woods.  "Do c a t s e a t b a t s ? " The Preps:  leprechaun  a f t e r , on  by t h e f i r e  was r e a d i n g  t h e Book o f K e l l s •  1 03 Locat ion The  m a s t e r s a y s y o u ' v e t o go down t h e  Suddenly a White Rabbit  w i t h p i n k e y e s r a n c l o s e by_ h e r .  There i s a l o v e l y beach near the They  very  the Preps:  soon  chimney.  river.  came upon a G r y p h o n , l y i n g  fast asleep in  sun. at,  before,  b e s i d e , by,  down, i n , n e a r ,  on,  under,  up,  upon  Time The  Duchess took  " I wonder how said  h e r c h o i c e , and  many m i l e s I ' v e  was  fallen  gone in a moment. by_  this  time?"  she  aloud.  During  tea time, the c h i l d r e n played w i t h the  After  watching  i t a m i n u t e o r two,  dogs.  she made i t o u t  t o be  a  gr i n . Preps:  about,  after,  at,  b e f o r e , by,  d u r i n g , i n , near,  when,  whi l e  Recipient She  was  going  The  V i k i n g s gave I r e l a n d t h e  She  p i c k e d up a l i t t l e  puppy •  Preps:  f o r , to  t o g i v e the hedgehog a blow w i t h i t s head. i d e a of  coinage.  b i t o f s t i c k , and  h e l d i t out  to  the  1 04  Source She  took  down  a  jar  from  one  of  the  shelves  as  she  passed... An i n v i t a t i o n The s i l v e r Preps:  from the  ship  Queen t o  play  s h o t down from the  croquet.  sky.  from  Pest i n a t i o n ...the  next  thing  ...and  soon  found h e r s e l f  Alice Preps:  at,  is,  to  clambored onto the beside,  in,  into,  get  into  safe  that  beautiful  in a t h i c k  garden..  wood.  mushroom. on,  onto,  to,  with  Purat ion ...she wasn't  had grown so a bit  a f r a i d of  The r a i n b o w w a i t e d Preps:  for,  large  for  j_n t h e  last  few  minutes  that  she  i n t e r r u p t i n g him. an hour b e f o r e  leaving.  in  Instrument She opened  the  garden gate w i t h a l a r g e  You f i n d some c h i l d r e n d i g g i n g  in  the  golden  key.  sand  with  spades. The Queen s t r u c k Preps:  with  the  hedgehog  with a  flamingo.  wooden  1 05 Manner They l e f t j__n a The  tiger  hurry.  striped cat  lashed its  ...and t h e p o o r l i t t l e melancholy Preps:  by,  t h i n g was  tail  w i t h menace.  waving h i s t a i l  about i n a  way.  i n , with  Co-agent "The  reason  i s " , s a i d the Gryphon, " t h a t they  the  l o b s t e r s t o the  The  man  ...the  d o o r , had Preps:  hall,  vanished  with  dance."  w i t h h i s dog great  w o u l d go  ran around the  w i t h the  glass  seawall. table  and  the  little  completely.  with  Topic " T e l l her  s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e games  Last night  I d r e a m t of c a n d l e s t i c k s and  ...thinking  of  Adventures... Preps:  now."  about, o f ,  to  little  Alice  and  marshmallows. a l l  her  wonderful  1 06  Description  (A c a s e o f t h e noun)  T h e r e was  a t a b l e s e t out under a  tree  in  front  of  the  house. Read me  t h e s t o r y of A l i c e  i n Wonderland.  The C e l t s o f I r e l a n d were a h a r d y  race.  P r e p s : a f t e r , a t , b e f o r e , by, f r o m , i n , with  near,  of,  on,  under,  1 07  Case T a b l e U s e d i n P r o g r a m The c a s e cases  that  t a b l e c o n t a i n s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s and they  i n d i c a t e and i s used  the verb can t a k e . ordered  in  a  The c a s e  list  t h a t , on a v e r a g e ,  types  possible  i n d e t e r m i n i n g what  f o r each  w i t h t h e most l i k e l y  t h e t y p e s were o r d e r e d  '/* /* /* /*  :***********/ C a s e t a b l e i s a l i s t o f p r e p o s i t i o n s */ and t h e i r p o s s i b l e c a s e s . T h i s i s */ used t o d i s a m b i g u a t e p o s s i b l e */ verb case meanings. */  cases  preposition  types ordered  t h i s p a r t of the program w i l l  if  CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE CASETABLE  the  first  run f a s t e r  arbitrarily.  about,t ime.topic.NIL). after,time.desc.patient.NIL). at,loc.desc.time.destn.NIL). before,time.loc.desc.NIL). beside,loc.destn.NIL). by,loc.desc.time.agent.instr.manner.NIL). down,loc.NIL). during,time.NIL). for,recip.duration.NIL). from,source.desc.NIL). in,loc.time.desc.manner.destn.duration.NIL). into,destn.NIL). near,loc.desc.time.NIL). of,desc.topic.NIL). on,loc.desc.destn.pat ient.NIL). onto,destn.NIL). to,recip.destn.topic.NIL). under,loc.desc.NIL). up,loc.NIL). upon,loc.NIL). when,time.NIL). while,time.NIL). with,coagent.instr.with.manner.desc.destn.NIL)  are so  than  108  APPENDIX D  T.A.  Game  Structures  The f o l l o w i n g T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s game f o r m s a r e o f t h e type  discussed  in  Chapter  ego s t a t e l e v e l s a n d v a r i o u s f o r t h e two s p e a k e r s .  4.  The game s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s t h e  c o n d i t i o n s or c l u e s about the  The f u l l  game  names o f t h e games a r e l i s t e d i n  t h e GNAME v a r i a b l e s .  GAME(WDYYB,adult,adult,parent,child, why.dont.you.NIL,yes.but.NIL, @you.#verb.NILjINTERROGATIVE=Tj N I L , INTERROGATIVE=FjNEGATIVE=notJADVERB=yes|CONJ = b u t j N I L ) . GAME(IWFY,parent,chiId,chiId,child, NIL,if.it.werent.for.you.NIL,%imperat ive jNIL, @ i t . @is.@you.NIL|CONJ=if|INTERROGATIVE=F|NEGATIVE=notj N I L ) . GAME(YDNB,adult,adult,parent,chiId, why.did.you.NIL,no.but.NIL, @you.#verb.NILjINTERROGATIVE=T|NIL, INTERROGATIVE=Fj NEGATIVE=no|CONJ = b u t | N I L ) . GAME(NIGYSOB,adult,adult,adult,parent, NIL,i.knew.you.would.NILjnow.i.have.got.you.NIL, INTERROGATIVE=F|@i.#verb.NIL|NIL, INTERROGATIVE=F{ADVERB=now j @ i . # v e r b . @ y o u . N I L | N I L ) . GAME(IRKTAB,adult,adult,parent,chiId, the.answer.is.not.NILj i.cant.give.you.the.answer.NIL, could.you.please.NIL, NEGATIVE=not|INTERROGATIVE=f J@answer.NIL|NIL, INTERROGATIVE=T|MODAL=could|@you.#verb.NILj N I L ) .  109  GAME(ICBYSOB,adult,adult,child,child, we.need.to.discuss.NILj we.must.talk.about.NIL,i.will.do.NIL, INTERROGATEVE=F J @we.#verb.NIL|NIL, INTERROGATIVE=F J M O D A L = w i 1 1 1 @ i . # v e r b . N I L | N I L ) . /* A "good" game. */ GAME(AlW,adult,adult,child,child, NIL,now.we.can.NIL, INTERROGATIVE=F[fnoun.NILj N I L , INTERROGATIVE=F j@we.#verb.NILj MODAL=can|NIL). /* L o n g f o r m o f game names. */ GNAME(WDYYB,'Why d o n t y o u _ Y e s b u t ' ) . GNAME(IWFY,'If i t w e r e n t f o r y o u ' ) . GNAME(YDNB,'Why d i d y o u _ No b u t ' ) . GNAME(NIGYSOB,'Now I ' ' v e G o t Y o u SOB'). GNAME(AIW,'Ain''t i t W o n d e r f u l ' ) . GNAME(IRKTAB,'I R e a l l y Know t h e A n s w e r , B u t ' ) . GNAME(ICBYSOB,'I Can B e a t Y o u a t Y o u r Own Game Y o u SOB').  110 APPENDIX E  Verb  The  following  tables  list  m e a n i n g s , and p o s s i b l e c a s e s . intransitive, a  separate  o r t a k e an listing  Tables  the  verbs,  A v e r b may  their  semantic  be t r a n s i t i v e ,  copula,  i n d i r e c t o b j e c t and e a c h v e r b w i l l  under  the a p p r o p r i a t e t a b l e .  The  have  general  form of the e n t r i e s i s : INDOBJ(*verb,*rep,*c1,*c2,*c3)  where  INDOBJ = t h e t y p e o f v e r b , h e r e * v e r b = t h e v e r b t o be  indirect object  checked  *rep = the s e m a n t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t replacement *c1,*c2,*c3  = v a r i o u s cases of the  The  c a s e s a r e of the form  is  one  of  agent,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d may several  possible  type of l i s t that  the  be  verb  "casename:casetype"  patient, in  etc.  a  format.  list  case types which w i l l  casetype  can  where t h e casename  source,  s e p a r a t e d by t h e s y m b o l be o f any  and c a s e t y p e  of  verbs  as  in  the  object verbs take three cases.  There  The  symbol  classification.  is a  can  be o r d e r e d i n a  number o f c a s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number p o s s i b l e types  verb  be  special T  There  means are a  f o r the v a r i o u s  a b o v e e x a m p l e , where t h e  indirect  111  /*****************************^ /* S e m a n t i c d i c t i o n a r y f o r v e r b s . /***********************************  / */ /  /* I n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . */ INTRANS(be,exist,agent:T). INTRANS(exist,exist,agent:T). INTRANS(go,move,agent:animate). INTRANS(grow,grow,agent:animate). INTRANS(hope,want,agent:human). INTRANS(listen,listen,agent:animate). INTRANS(look,see,agentranimate). INTRANS(move,move,agent r a n i m a t e ) . INTRANS(read,read,agent:human). I N T R A N S ( r u n ,move , a g e n t '.animate) . INTRANS(see,see,agent:animate). INTRANS(stay,stay,agent:T). INTRANS(talk,talk,agent:human). INTRANS(think,think,agent:human). INTRANS(try,try,agent:animate). INTRANS(walk,move,agent:animate). INTRANS(wish,want,agent:human). INTRANS(write,write,agent:human). /* C o p u l a v e r b s . */ COPULA(be,is,agent:T,patient:T). /* T r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . */ TRANS(be,i s , a g e n t : T , s o u r c e : l o c ; r e c i p : a n i m a t e ; p a t i e n t : T ; duration:T;NIL). TRANS(come,move,agent:animate,destn:loc;source:loc;NIL). TRANS(discuss,talk,agent:human,topic:T). TRANS(do,do,agent:T,t i m e : t i m e ; l o c : l o c ; r e c i p : T ; t o p i c : T ; N I L ) . TRANS ( g e t , p o s s e s s , r e c i p : - - a b s t r a c t , p a t i e n t :T) . TRANS(give,transfer,agent:animate,patient:T). TRANS(go,move,agent:animate,source:loc;destn:loc;NIL). TRANS (grow, grow , a g e n t : human , p a t i e n t '.animal. v e g a t a b l e .NIL) . TRANS (have , p o s s e s s , a g e n t : - - a b s t r a c t , p a t i e n t :T) . TRANS(hope,want,agent:human,pat i e n t : T ) . TRANS(know,know,agent:animate,patient:T). TRANS(listen,listen,agent:animate,source:human.music.T.NIL). TRANS ( l o o k , s e e , a g e n t ' . a n i m a t e , p a t i e n t :T) . TRANS(move,move,agent:animate,loc:loc). TRANS(need,want,agent:animate,patient:T). TRANS ( p o s s e s s , p o s s e s s , a g e n t : - " a b s t r a c t , p a t i e n t : T ) . TRANS(read,read,agent:human,recip:animate; patient:literature.abstract.NIL;NIL).  TRANS(run,move,agent:animate,source:loc;destn:loc; coagent:animate;NIL). TRANS(see,see,agent:animate,pat i e n t : T ) . TRANS(stay,stay,agent:T,loc:loc). TRANS(talk,talk,agent:human,recip:animate;topic:T;NIL). TRANS(take,transfer,agent:human,source:loc;destn:loc;rec ip:T; patient:T;NIL). TRANS(thank,thank,agent:human,pat i e n t : a n i m a t e ) . TRANS(think,think,agent:human,topic:T). TRANS(transfer,transfer,agent:animate,patient:T). TRANS ( t r y , t r y , a g e n t : an i m a t e ,.pat i e n t : c l o t h i n g ) . TRANS(walk,move,agent:animate,source:loc;destn:loc; coagent:animate;NIL). TRANS(want,want,agent:animate,patient:T). TRANS(wi s h , w a n t , a g e n t : a n i m a t e , p a t i e n t : T ) . T R A N S ( w r i t e , w r i t e , a g e n t : h u m a n , p a t i e n t : l i t e r a t u r e ; r e c ip:human; instr:pen;NIL). /* I n d i r e c t  o b j e c t v e r b s . */  INDOBJ(di scuss,talk,agent:human,topic:T,coagent:human). INDOBJ ( g e t , p o s s e s s , r e c i p : - " a b s t r a c t , p a t i e n t : T, a g e n t : - - a b s t r a c t ) . INDOBJ ( g i v e , t r a n s f e r , a g e n t : an i m a t e , r e c i p : T , pa t i e n t : -"human) . INDOBJ(read,read,agent:human,rec i p : T , patient:literature.abstract.NIL). INDOBJ ( t r a n s f e r , t r a n s f e r , a g e n t : a n i m a t e , r e c i p : T , pa t i e n t : -'human) . INDOBJ(write,write,agent:human,rec ip:human;instr:pen;NIL, patient:literature).  113 APPENDIX F  Sample  The  Conversations  f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e sample c o n v e r s a t i o n s  system.  I t was f o u n d  a variable  t o be e a s i e r t o e n t e r  can  be a c c e s s e d  placed  before  surrounded MTS  reserved but  individually. the  used  unusable,  does not l i k e  there  they they i s  and t h e sentence i s the  t h e " ? " s y m b o l a n d t h e "." i s  elements.  sentence ending  conversation  that  To a d d t o t h e i n p u t p r o b l e m s ,  In place of the obvious,  s y m b o l s , t h e "!"  o f a q u e s t i o n mark a n d ";" r e p r e s e n t s a entire  a r e numbered s o t h a t  ":" a s i n a p l a y s c r i p t  f o rseparating l i s t  each time  E a c h s p e a k e r h a s a name  by s i n g l e q u o t e s .  Prolog  the c o n v e r s a t i o n s as  i n s t e a d of r e t y p i n g the conversations  were t o be t e s t e d s o t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s  used t o t e s t t h e  i s considered  period.  t o be a l i s t  takes the place Finally,  the  o f u t t e r a n c e s so  i s a NIL a t the end.  /***********************/ /* C o n v e r s a t i o n i n p u t . */ y***********************/ CONVERSATION!1,TH: why P:'yes THr'did P:'yes NIL). 1  dont you t a l k t o him'! b u t he d o e s n t l i s t e n ' ; you t r y t o w r i t e him a note'! b u t he d o e s n o t r e a d n o t e s ' ;  C O N V E R S A T I O N S , J : ' y o u s t a y home a n d l o o k a f t e r t h e h o u s e ' ; M : ' i f i t w e r e n t f o r y o u i c o u l d be h a v i n g f u n ' ; NIL) .  CONVERSATION 3 , J : ' y o u s t a y home and l o o k a f t e r M: ' i dont want t o s t a y home'; NIL) . CONVERSATION 4 , T H : ' w h y d o n t y o u r u n ' ! P : ' y e s but i d o n t want TH:'why dont you w a l k ' ! P: ' i w i l l ' ; NIL) .  the  house  to r u n ' ;  CONVERSATION(5,M:'why d i d you g i v e him t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ' ! F : ' n o but i was t a l k i n g t o h i m ' ; NIL) . CONVERSATION(6,M:'why d o n t F : ' n o but i NIL) .  y o u g i v e him t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ' was t a l k i n g t o h i m ' ;  C O N V E R S A T I O N ( 7 , B o s s : ' w e need t o d i s c u s s t h e r e p o r t ' ; E m p : ' i w i l l do my own w o r k ' ; B o s s : ' n o w we must t a l k a b o u t y o u r w o r k ' ; Emp:'what do y o u want t o know'! NIL) .  11 5 APPENDIX G  More E x a m p l e s o f t h e S y s t e m i n O p e r a t i o n  The of  following conversations  the  system.  The  A n a l y s i s game c a n be matching  on  identified condition You"  other  sentence.  t h e second  for identifying  more o f t h e f e a t u r e s  e x a m p l e shows t h a t a T r a n s a c t i o n a l  identified  the f i r s t  until  first  illustrate  than  by  In t h i s case,  sentence  has  a  the words " i f i t werent f o r y o u " .  <-analyse(2 ) . s t a y home a n d l o o k a f t e r Linguistic Verb:stay  t h e house.  Analysis  agentryou  Verb:see agent:you  loc:home patient:house  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t (and  (you stay  (home ) ) ( y o u  see (house  ) ))  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No k e y w o r d i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e if  pattern  t h e game i s n o t  been  read.  The  t h e game IWFY o r " I f i t W e r e n t F o r  i s t h a t t h e second speaker responds t o  you  word  i t werent f o r you i c o u l d  be . h a v i n g f u n .  suggestion  with  11 6  * New Game = IWFY with global social levels: speaker 1 = parent speaker 2 = c h i l d Linguistic  Analysis  Verb:is agent:it  recip:you  Verb:possess agent:i  patient:fun  SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p a s t . p r o g r e s s i v e MODAL = c o u l d AUX = be NEGATIVE = n o t (not  ( i f ( i t i s you ) ( i possess  (fun )  )))  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS F CHILD = f u n SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL LEVEL = c h i l d . PARSE COMPLETE. -- SPEAKER1 ( J ) — you s t a y home a n d l o o k a f t e r  t h e house  SOCIAL LEVEL = p a r e n t DEEP LEVEL = c h i l d -- SPEAKER2 (M) ~ i f i t w e r e n t f o r y o u i c o u l d be h a v i n g f u n SOCIAL LEVEL = c h i l d DEEP LEVEL = c h i l d GAME IWFY FOUND - I f i t w e r e n t f o r y o u analyse(2)<-  The n e x t c o n v e r s a t i o n  shows what h a p p e n s when  there  is  no  11 7  game  present  i n the conversation.  The c o n v e r s a t i o n b e g i n s a s  does t h e p r e v i o u s example, b u t t h e seond speaker to  begin  t h e game IWFY, t h e r e f o r e , o n l y a n a l y s i s o f t h e k e y w o r d  types present uses be  i s possible.  In this  case,  a word t h a t may i n d i c a t e a C h i l d  s a i d about t h e f i r s t <-analyse(3). you  Linguistic Verb:stay  the  t h e house.  Analysis  agent:you agentryou  loc:home patient:house  SUMMARY OF PARSE V A R I A B L E S INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t (and  ( y o u s t a y (home ) ) ( y o u s e e (house  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE TA KEYWORDS No k e y w o r d i n d i c a t o r s i n t h i s s e n t e n c e i d o n t want t o s t a y Linguistic  here.  Analysis  Verb:stay agent:i SUMMARY OF PARSE VARIABLES INTERROGATIVE = F TENSE = p r e s e n t AUX = do NEGATIVE = n o t (not  (here  (i.want  ( i stay ) ) ) )  Psychological Analysis SUMMARY OF P O S S I B L E TA KEYWORDS F CHILD = want  second  speaker  ego s t a t e a n d n o t h i n g c a n  speaker.  s t a y home a n d l o o k a f t e r  Verb:see  does n o t d e c i d e  ) ))  118  SENTENCE MAY HAVE SOCIAL LEVEL = c h i l d . PARSE COMPLETE. -- SPEAKER 1 ( J ) -y o u s t a y home a n d l o o k a f t e r NO TA EVIDENCE PRESENT - - SPEAKER2 (M) ~ i d o n t want t o s t a y h e r e SOCIAL LEVEL = c h i l d NO GAME PRESENT analyse(3)<-  t h e house  

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