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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Spatial information display subsystem Witiuk, Sidney Wayne 1977

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A SPATIAL INFORMATION DISPLAY SUBSYSTEM by SIDNEY WAYNE WITIUK  B.Sc., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 M.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Computer  We a c c e p t t h i s  Science)  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  A p r i l 1977  Sidney Wayne Witiuk, 1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i f f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . f u r t h e r agree  representatives.  may  be granted by the Head of my  I t i s understood  Department or by h i s  t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Department o f Computer  Science  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  A p r i l 8,  I  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  s c h o l a r l y purposes  Date  for  1977  written  this permission.  i ABSTRACT  As our s o c i e t y becomes more and more complex, p l a n n e r s ,  politi-  c i a n s and o t h e r decision-makers  a r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r demands f o r r e l e v a n t ,  a c c u r a t e and t i m e l y s t a t i s t i c a l  i n f o r m a t i o n on a " t a i l o r - m a d e "  basis.  Government a g e n c i e s  data i n map form have found  spatial  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l approaches t o thematic  mapping a r e n o t a b l e t o cope w i t h these demands and a r e t h e r e f o r e t u r n i n g to  automated and semi-automated p r o d u c t i o n systems.  This t h e s i s deals  w i t h the d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s f o r an i n t e r a c t i v e s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y subsystem f o r Census data and r e p o r t s upon e f f o r t s t o i n t e g r a t e e x i s t i n g packages i n t o t h i s framework.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n to the f a c t o r s  i n f l u e n c i n g the c h o i c e between b u i l d i n g a s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e subsystem or adopting  e x i s t i n g packages w i t h s i m i l a r o r complementary o b j e c t i v e s .  F i n a l l y , a. .•'•'few  t y p i c a l r e s u l t s a r e appended t o demonstrate the c u r r e n t  l e v e l of operational capacity.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION Comments on the L i t e r a t u r e T h e s i s C o n t r i b u t i o n and Context Thesis  Structure  THEMATIC MAPPING D e f i n i t i o n s o f map  types  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Thematic Mapping Types o f Thematic Maps COMPONENTS OF A THEMATIC MAPPING SYSTEM T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to Thematic Mapping & Systems Design A Standard Model o f a Thematic Mapping System Problem Space D i s p l a y Space Correspondence Space A S t a t e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Model Approach to Systems D e s i DESIGN OBJECTIVES Human E n g i n e e r i n g Ease-of-use Hardware A e s t h e t i c s Back-up and E r r o r Recovery  PAGE Modular Components  39  Extendable F u n c t i o n s  40  Transferable  40  Software  Systems I n t e g r a t i o n  42  H i e r a r c h i c a l Bases  43  A c c u r a c y and A e s t h e t i c s  45  Speed and Cost  47  IMPLEMENTATION  CHARACTERISTICS  49  Design Trade-Offs  49  Hardware C o n f i g u r a t i o n  52  Software  56  Configuration  EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE Final  Product  Suitability  64 64  Software  Suitability  66  Hardware  Suitability  69  IMPROVEMENTS AND  ENHANCEMENTS  72  CONCLUSIONS  75  FOOTNOTES  77  BIBLIOGRAPHY  80  APPENDIX A. B.  Typical  Products  Contributors  INDEX TO ACRONYMS  84 123 124  IV  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE  I. IT. III. IV.  PAGE  A Classification  Schema f o r Thematic Maps  20  A Standard Model f o r Thematic Mapping Systems  25  A S t a t e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Model  31  A Classification  34  of Current C a p a c i t i e s  V LIST OF FIGURES AND  ILLUSTRATIONS  FIGURES  PAGE  1.  Choropleth,  I s o p l e t h and Proximal.Happing  2.  Dot Mapping  10  3.  P r o p o r t i o n a l Symbol Mapping  11  4.  Cartogram Reference Bases  12  5.  Stepped Surface Diagrams  13  6.  Smoothed (Trend) Surface Diagrams  14  7.  Flow Mapping  16  8.  I n t e r a c t i o n Mapping  17  9.  Network Diagrams  18  10.  S h o r t e s t Path Diagrams  19  11.  The CALCOMP 663 P l o t t e r  53  12.  The Gerber Hardware C o n f i g u r a t i o n  55  13.  C o l o r C h o r o p l e t h Mapping a t the US Census  58  14.  Color Choropleth  59  15.  C o l o r P o i n t Symbol  16.  Ecumene Mapping  Mapping u s i n g GIMMS ( P i l l a r s ) Mapping  9  62 65  vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  s p a t i a l information  d i s p l a y subsystem was c o n c e i v e d a t  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and has been designed and implemented a t Census under the ausplcesfof development program.  the S p a t i a l Systems S e c t i o n  The c u r r e n t  r e s e a r c h and  l e v e l o f thematic mapping c a p a c i t y can  be m a i n l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the power o f e x i s t i n g packages purchased from Gerber Scientific  Instruments Company L i m i t e d  charge from c o l l e a g u e s . and  and t o modules r e c e i v e d  free-of-  Among t h i s l a t t e r group, D a v i d Douglas, Tom Waugh  Gordon Deecker have c o n t r i b u t e d  greatly.  I wish a l s o to e x p r e s s my  thanks t o Dave P o l e y , J o e l Yan, C a r o l y n Weiss and K a r o l e Piamonte f o r their assistance appreciation required  during  the implementation s t a g e s .  f o r the number o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s  They share an  intimate  and enhancements t h a t a r e  t o adapt even " s t a b l e " packages t o a p r o d u c t i o n environment.  My own c o n t r i b u t i o n has centred,  upon the c o n c e p t u a l , d e s i g n and e v a l u a -  t i o n a s p e c t s o f the s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n co-ordinating  d i s p l a y subsystem as w e l l as  and documenting the a c q u i s i t i o n , implementation and i n t e g r a -  t i o n o f the s e l e c t e d  packages.  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o Census  Management f o r t h e i r support and t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e on a " l e a s t - c o s t " , "greatest-benefit,"  and " f a s t e s t - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " approach.  I would a l s o l i k e t o thank the many f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s t h a t contributed  t o the p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n and e d i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s .  Without t h e i r h e l p and the encouragement and p a t i e n c e o f my Dr.  advisors,  B. P o l l a c k , Dr. G. Schrack, and Dr. K. Denike t h i s t h e s i s would  have never reached  fruition.  1 INTRODUCTION  Comments on the L i t e r a t u r e  A forthcoming p u b l i c a t i o n by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c a l Union (IGU)  Commission on Geographic  t o g e t h e r f o r the f i r s t of  Data Sensing and P r o c e s s i n g (1) w i l l b r i n g  time a comprehensive l i s t  and e f f e c t i v e  description  a v a i l a b l e software f o r d a t a m a n i p u l a t i o n , management, a n a l y s i s and  representation.  As o f A p r i l 1977, over 500 "programs" r a n g i n g from  systems t o s p e c i a l i z e d r o u t i n e s had been compiled.  full  Recent p u b l i c a t i o n s by  the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups o f the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Computing Machinery most n o t a b l y SIGGRAPH  (2),  SIGPLAN,< (3),,  (ACM),  SIGDA ( 4 ) and SIGMOD (5) have  documented a h o s t o f h i t h e r - t o - f o r e u n p u b l i c i z e d i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s and computer-aided  d e s i g n systems.  Communications, ( 6 ) ,  Standard p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the ACM such as  Computing Surveys  ( 7 ) , and Computing Reviews (8)  t o g e t h e r w i t h a number o f r e c e n t textbooks developments i n t h i s f a s t growing f i e l d .  (9, 10, 11) have a l s o documented However we can s t i l l  b e i n g w r i t t e n on "Why computer g r a p h i c s i s s t i l l  find  articles  a year away!" ( 1 2 ) . On  the o t h e r hand many systems d e v e l o p e r s a r e c o n t i n u i n g t o ' r e - i n v e n t the wheel' each time a system i s r e q u i r e d .  The end r e s u l t  i s t h a t the s t r a i g h t  forward problems a r e b e i n g r e s o l v e d w h i l e the more d i f f i c u l t problems a r e left  unresolved.  D e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s and implementation  approaches have g e n e r a l l y  s t a b i l i z e d over the seven y e a r s t h a t the author has been i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s area.  1.  However, two a s p e c t s have n o t been g i v e n adequate  treatment:  a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r systems development and i n t e g r a t i o n , and  2 2.  a p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of systems d e s i g n  and  implementation  trade-  offs . These two  i s s u e s are most e v i d e n t  ment on b a s i c s t a n d a r d s and  T h e s i s C o n t r i b u t i o n and It  f i e l d ' s f a i l u r e to come to a g r e e -  i t s r e l a t i v e l y poor r e c o r d  i s u n l i k e l y t h a t these two  weighty t o p i c s w i l l be  of t h i s t h e s i s .  straight-forward  The  clients.  resolved  o b j e c t i v e i s to p r o v i d e  development framework and  implementation s t r a t e g y t h a t w i l l not o n l y a i d o t h e r s or d e s i g n  in satisfying  Context  c o m p l e t e l y i n the c o n t e x t u s e f u l and  i n the  s i m i l a r systems but w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e  a  a "menu"-oriented a t t e m p t i n g to mount  c l i e n t s with a c l e a r e r  view of the c o m p l e x i t y of such systems.  I t w i l l be referenced  s t a t i s t i c a l data p r o v i d e s  the d e s i g n e r  Thesis  of s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n  one  o f the g r e a t e s t  processing  spatially  challenges  to  systems.  Structure The  first.  shown t h a t e f f e c t i v e thematic mapping of  The  d e f i n i t i o n and  requirements of thematic mapping are  d e s c r i p t i o n of a straight-forward  work i s f o l l o w e d  by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d e s i g n  r e s u l t s of the f i r s t s p a t i a l information  but  e f f e c t i v e design  trade-offs.  attempt to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e and  Finally  integrate  recommendations f o r enhancements or improvements and  general  To demonstrate the l e v e l o f involvement, accomplishment, and  components.  a p p l i c a t i o n of the  the  with conclusions. co-operation,  l i s t of v a r i o u s major c o n t r i b u t o r s to the  i n t e g r a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , enhancement and  frame-  various  d i s p l a y c a p a c i t i e s i s documented together  appended i s an i t e m i z e d  treated  design,  subsystem  3 THEMATIC MAPPING  As has been s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  thematic  ( o r s t a t i s t i c a l ) mapping i s  viewed as p r o v i d i n g t h e " u l t i m a t e " requirements o f a s p a t i a l p r o c e s s i n g system. departure thematic  In adopting  from the s t a n d a r d  use,  information  t h i s perspective, there i s a c o i n c i d e n t i f n o t the standard  d e f i n i t i o n of a  map.  D e f i n i t i o n s o f map  types  In 1972 Tomlinson's IGU i n t e r n a t i o n a l working group on geographic data h a n d l i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between:  i)  Topographic maps - maps "whose p r i n c i p a l purpose i s t o p o r t r a y and i d e n t i f y t h e f e a t u r e s o f the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by s c a l e " , and  ii)  Thematic maps -  maps t h a t a r e "designed features or concepts. term e x c l u d e s  In a d d r e s s i n g  t o demonstrate p a r t i c u l a r I n c o n v e n t i o n a l use t h i s  topographic  maps".  (13)  the r e c e n t i n a u g u r a l meeting o f the Canadian  Carto-  g r a p h i c A s s o c i a t i o n , Mr. Jean-Paul D r o l e t , ADM i n the Department o f Energy, Mines and Resources, e l a b o r a t e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between map  on t h e d e f i n i t i o n s commonly used i n Canada  types:  Topographic Maps - a r e maps " p r i m a r i l y designed topographic  to describe  features",  G e n e r a l Maps - a r e " s m a l l - s c a l e maps and c h a r t s o f c e r t a i n l a r g e  a r e a s o f Canada... showing a l l o f Canada i n one, two or  t h r e e easy-to-assemble  H  sheets",  Thematic Maps - a r e " a l l maps d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i a l themes", N a v i g a t i o n C h a r t s - i n c l u d e "hydrographic and a e r o n a u t i c a l  charts",  S p e c i a l Maps - a r e "maps o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s , major g l a c i e r s and some maps of  large c i t i e s  (which) a r e semi-topographic i n n a t u r e ,  but a l s o r e l a t e d  to our thematic maps",  Photomaps - a r e " a c t u a l photograph(s)  o f the topography  r a t h e r than a  d e p i c t i o n o f the t e r r i t o r y by means o f l i n e s and contour intervals", H i s t o r i c a l Maps - a r e " c o p i e s from o r i g i n a l s kept i n the N a t i o n a l Archives", M i s c e l l a n e o u s Maps - " o t h e r maps a r e p r e p a r e d . . . to commemorate a h i s t o rical  event,... o r simply t o o u t l i n e new canoeing r o u t e s  and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s " ,  Thus i t i s e a s i l y seen t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n s commonly used t o c a t e g o r i z e map types a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  "map-use o r i e n t e d " .  These d e f i n i t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y from the viewp o i n t o f a computer s c i e n t i s t . as maps w i t h as many d i f f e r e n t  Semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s o f such t h i n g s  "meanings" as t h e r e a r e c l a s s e s o f map  u s e r s a r e n o t as u s e f u l a d e f i n i t i o n based upon t h e more c o n s t a n t syntax of  a map.  By comparing  Tomlinson's  (1972) d e f i n i t i o n o f a map as a  " c o n v e n t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , n o r m a l l y t o s c a l e and u s u a l l y on a f l a t medium, o f a s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l o r a b s t r a c t f e a t u r e s on o r i n r e l a t i o n  5 to the s u r f a c e o f the e a r t h or o f a heavenly body" (15) w i t h Nake's d e f i n i t i o n of a s i g n :  A s i g n i s an element of a t r i a d i c S = (m,o,i) & M x O x  relation;  I  Where: M = the s e t o f media 0 = the set of  objects  1 = the s e t o f i n t e r p r e t e r s Thus "a s i g n e s t a b l i s h e s a t r i a d i c r e l a t i o n of i t s medium to i t s object for i t s i n t e r p r e t e r " ; we  see  the advantages o f a more f o r m a l i z e d  (16)  definition.  J u s t as Nake r e s t r i c t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n to the s y n t a c t i c s ( o m i t t i n g semantics and a map  pragmatics) of graphic  s i g n s t h i s t h e s i s w i l l propose t h a t  i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l c o l l e c t i o n of g r a p h i c  dimensional  medium.  The  signs represented  on a  i n t e r p r e t e r i s assumed to be a planner  with  advanced t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d  of c a r t o g r a p h y .  While "whatever we  to be a s i g n , i s a s i g n " , (17) Nake's f o u r p r i m i t i v e s :  meaning i n cartography,  Since  i t w i l l be r e p l a c e d  declare  BLANK/DOT/LINE/AREA  w i l l be combined w i t h the t h r e e t e x t types LETTER/DIGIT/SYMBOL t o the seven b a s i c elements of any map.  two  give  the word "symbol" has s p e c i a l f o r the purposes o f  clarity  by the term " s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r " .  Thus any constructed primitives.  o f the map  types l i s t e d e a r l i e r can be  systematically  from groups o f s i g n s which are i n t u r n b u i l t from a s e t of However the concern of t h i s t h e s i s i s focused  on one  type  6 of map, the thematic map.  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Thematic Mapping  Expanding on the v e r y g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f thematic maps g i v e n earlier  ( b a s i c a l l y depiction of a s p e c i f i c  theme) we have H e s s d o r f e r ' s  definition: "A thematic map i s a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l  data  which i n d i c a t e s both the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y and the s p a t i a l distribution of a particular s t a t i s t i c a l set  of geographical areas".  attribute within a  (18)  Mention must be made a t t h i s time t h a t the term " g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a " i n t h i s c o n t e x t should be i n t e r p r e t e d as " g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n " thus e l i m i n a t i n g p o t e n t i a l c o n f u s i o n w i t h t h e s i g n p r i m i t i v e AREA, o r w i t h the s u r f a c e coverage or  and a l s o p e r m i t t i n g r e g i o n s t o be " c o l l a p s e d " t o p o i n t  segment spaces.  following  Thus t h e p r o c e s s , thematic mapping, i n v o l v e s the  procedures:  1.  Determining  t h e theme to be p r e s e n t e d ;  2.  D e l i m i t i n g the geographic  3.  C o l l e c t i n g and c o m p i l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l  4.  S e l e c t i n g the thematic mapping technique  5.  Choosing  6.  V e r i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l  7.  P r o d u c i n g the thematic map, and m o d i f y i n g parameters 1-6 as n e c e s s a r y .  space  the map a t t r i b u t e s  The i t e r a t i v e procedure  to be s t u d i e d ;  (scale,  data;  (type);  orientation, projection, etc); data v a l u e s ;  induced by the seventh step r e l a t e s t o  7 the attempt  t o ensure c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t i n g map  sign s e t ) .  The whole area o f map  p e r c e p t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y under  study and w i l l not be t r e a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . assumed t h a t the r e s u l t i n g map standards.  (or careful  (19, 20, 21, 22)  must o n l y conform  It is  to accepted c a r t o g r a p h i c  Indeed, w i t h the g r a d u a l acceptance o f automation  by  carto-  graphers even these standards a r e becoming more f l e x i b l e .  In g l o b a l terms the r e s u l t i n g map r e p r e s e n t the i n t e n d e d theme.  s h o u l d , above a l l e l s e ,  G e n e r a l l y speaking, f a i l u r e to use  clearly the  c o r r e c t c a r t o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s tends t o obscure the message i n the best case, and p r o v i d e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n i n the worst t h e presence o f a feedback  l i n k i n any t h e m a t i c map  t h i s i s s u e can, f o r the purpose requirement  case.  By simply e n s u r i n g  production  o f systems d e s i g n , be reduced  system, to the  o f an e f f e c t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n or i n t e r a c t i o n c a p a c i t y .  B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g o t h e r d e s i g n requirements  i n depth, c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n w i l l be g i v e n to the v a r i o u s types o f thematic maps and of a thematic mapping  Types of Thematic  the components  system.  Maps  Given the broad range o f p o s s i b l e maps capable o f conforming  to  the a f o r e s t a t e d d e f i n i t i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y to enumerate the v a r i o u s standard  1.  classes:  C h o r o p l e t h (conformal) Map  ( F i g u r e 1)  Shaded maps showing d i s c r e t e a r e a s such as p r o v i n c e s or c o u n t i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d u n i f o r m w i t h r e s p e c t to the s t a t i s t i c s w i t h i n them.  collected  8 2.  Isopleth  (Contour) Map  ( F i g u r e 1)  Maps showing c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a t i o n over a space by l i n e s o f e q u a l v a l u e known as i s a r i t h m s . 3.  P r o x i m a l Map  ( F i g u r e 1)  Shaded maps showing s t a t i s t i c a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n s by d i s c r e t e a r e a s  t h a t a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y generated from the data p o i n t 4.  Dot (Symbol) Map  distribution.  ( F i g u r e 2)  Maps showing continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n s by the placement o f p o i n t symbols o f c o n s t a n t v a r i e s with 5.  s i z e and shape but whose d e n s i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n  the a s s o c i a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l  P r o p o r t i o n a l Symbol Map  values.  ( F i g u r e 3)  Maps showing d i s c r e t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s by t h e placement o f p o i n t symbols o f c o n s t a n t size  density  or shape v a r i e s w i t h  ( i . e . , one per geographic u n i t ) b u t whose the associated s t a t i s t i c a l  A number o f new types o f maps should  a l s o be mentioned t h a t a r e not y e t  g e n e r a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g widespread use by  6.  Cartogram'  values.  cartographers:  ( F i g u r e 4)  S i m p l i f i e d o r a b s t r a c t e d maps f o r which t h e base i s n o t t r u e to s c a l e and i s u s u a l l y given 7.  statistical  Block Diagram"  transformed a c c o r d i n g  distribution.  ( F i g u r e 5)  Three-dimensional representations the h e i g h t  o f each f a c e  associated s t a t i s t i c a l 8.  t o the p r o p e r t i e s o f a  (statistical  o f d i s c r e t e s u r f a c e s where  region)  i s r e l a t e d to the  values.  Trend Diagram ( F i g u r e 6) Three-dimensional representations  o f continuous s u r f a c e s where  MALE/FEMALE RATIO FOR THE CITY OF SARNIA  i  (I) CONFORMAL  (2) PROXIMAL  (3) CONTOUR  MAPS ARE ALIGNED IN THE NORTH-SOUTH DIRECTION. BOUNDARIES FOR THE CONFORMAL MAP ARE FORMED BY CENSUS TRACTS. FOR THE OTHER TWO MAPS, BOUNDARIES ARE DFTFRMWCD FROM THE DATA. RATIO VALUES ARE DIVIDED INTO FIVE CLASS INTERVALS BETWEEN EXTREME VALUES OF 0 . 8 9 AND I 18. EACH HIGHER CLASS INTERVAL IS REPRESENTED BY A PROGRESSIVELY DARKER SHADE .  Figure  1  Source:  GRDSR: f a c t s by s m a l l a r e a s , STC, 1971  I  POPULATION BY SPECIFIED AGE G R O U P S , C A N A D A A N D PROVINCES, 1971 POPULATION SELON CERTAINS GROUPES D ' A G E , C A N A D A ET P R O V I N C E S , 1971  C E N S U S O F CANADA. 1971  Figure  3  Ocean P a c i l » q u «  Ocean  Atlantiqut  CARTE 13 10  EC HE LLE DE S U R F A C E  DEMOGRAPMIQUE  P O P U L A T I O N D ' O R l G l N E U K R A I N I E N N E , PAR DIVISION DE R E C E N S E M E N T , 1971 Plus de 15 0 %  5 0-14 9 %  Figure 4  Source:  P e r s p e c t i v e s Canada, FTC, 1976  [CARTE B A S E E SUR L E S D O N N E E S DU R E C E N S E M E N T DE 1966)  ho  TUMCTI0K1 NO. BrJC. TQnaNTO -  arrant:  ranc3noB<r.eKUM£*>  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f High Income German E t h n i c Group i n Toronto  VANCOUVER  TOPOGRAPH!  antu iM i . 3o •WIDTH •  10.00  . arrant >e»Esm»TEiinc640 points were digitized, interpolated to 10,19 1 Vancouver, View from SAV. Approximately grid-points, and then plotted. Programs: S Y M A P , S Y M V U ; data: D . Mark; production: W. D. Rase  Vancouver. This negative of a plot is an example of the signal means of cartographic representation. Program: S Y M V U ; data: D. M a r k : production: W . D . Rase  Figure  6  15 the h e i g h t  of each p o i n t i s r e l a t e d to a smoothing or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n - o f s t a t i s t i c a l 9.  Flow Map  (Figure  values.  7)  Maps showing l i n e a r movement by  symbolizing  frequency by means of a d i r e c t e d l i n e or l i n e s . e n t i a t e between the simple i n t e r a c t i o n map sophisticated  f l o w map  Network Diagram  I t i s u s e f u l to  ( F i g u r e 8) and  ( F i g u r e 7) where the d e s i g n  arrows or flows are r e l a t e d to the a s s o c i a t e d  10.  (Figure  the d i r e c t i o n and  and  differ-  the more  shape of  statistical  the  values.  9)  Network schematics where the l e n g t h of the l i n k s or the at the nodes are p r o p o r t i o n a l to some c o n s i s t a n t statistics.  Time d i s t a n c e v a l u e s  t o p o l o g i c a l l y transform  network-oriented  f o r each l i n k c o u l d be used  the network of l i n k v a l u e s  to  or c o u l d be used  determined the " t r a v e l - t i m e s " from a g i v e n node to a l l other  such path i s shown f o r a g i v e n o r i g i n and  then a s h o r t e s t p a t h diagram ( F i g u r e 10) oriented  recording  the  i s created.  of each l i n e segment. the p r o c e s s e s one  In segment-  s e t of t o p o l o g i c a l  i n t o the b a s i c d a t a s t r u c t u r e  i d e n t i f i e r s of the r e g i o n s  If  d e s t i n a t i o n set  systems such as the DIME package, a t h i r d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n c o r p o r a t e d  to  nodes  t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l s u r f a c e f o r isochrome mapping. o n l y one  values  on the l e f t and  by  r i g h t side  Programs such as the POLYVERT package take  step f u r t h e r and  permit segments to have  thereby forming what a r e commonly r e f e r r e d to as  "parts",  " c h a i n s " or  I t i s p o s s i b l e to s t r u c t u r e these somewhat  "snakes".  generalized  d e f i n i t i o n s to show the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Table I ) :  A portion of a flow map showing 1949 tonnage of barge and raft traffic in the United States. The legend has been moved. Note how direction of movement is indicated. (From Edward L . Ullman, American Commodity Flow, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1957.)  Part of a flow tonnage on class one railway copyrighted by H . H . Copel^ prepared and copyrighted b y man.  Figure  7  obinson  Sourc  __:ography, 3 r d ec Sons", 1969,  p.  L3.7,  a n d a l l D. Lon,  New New  Sale, Elements o f  Y ork: YorK  John W i l e y &  ~* Figure 8  Source: National Capital Commission  figure y  F i g u r e 10  •  TABLE SYMBOUZATIONJ  |_  DISCRETE  0  POINT  VALUES  .  1  X LINE  VALUES  A R E V A L U E S  PROPORTIOMAU  FLOW  CHOROPLETH  SVMBOL  MAPS  M A PS  MAPS  * DOT /  POINT  INTERACTION  STEPPED  UJ  a  A  CONTINUOUS  V"  o z  MAPS  CONTINUOUS  MAPS  PROX 1MAL  SHORTEST  MAPS  PATH DIAGRAMS  XSOLIME  NETWORK  MA P S  DIAGRAMS  DISCRETE  -  '  SYMBOL  SURFACE CART&5RAMS  H ( SMOLTHED SURFACE o  21 Symbolization  i s direct  i f the symbol or shading  w i t h i n the sign/map space.  Derived  can be  "located" directly  s y m b o l i z a t i o n o c c u r s when the p l a c e -  ment of the symbol v a r i e s w i t h the v a l u e o f the geographic  element.  T h i s diahotomy l e a d s n a t u r a l l y i n t o the q u e s t i o n o f the  optimal  l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the components o f a s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y system f o r symbol d e r i v a t i o n to take p l a c e .  The next  chapter  system components and b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r s t h i s and  i  other  deals with questions.  these  22 COMPONENTS OF A THEMATIC :MAPPING SYSTEM  P a r t I - T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to Thematic Mapping Systems D e s i g n  Traditionally, w i t h i n geographic i m p r e s s i v e way  thematic mapping systems have been i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n f o r m a t i o n systems almost as an a f t e r t h o u g h t - as  t o demonstrate the power of the system.  They have, as a  r e s u l t , g e n e r a l l y been p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d and expensive o r d i f f i c u l t The MAPPAK package of the G e o g r a p h i c a l l y Referenced Retrieval to  (GRDSR) System i s a c l a s s i c a l example.  provide a f l e x i b l e interface-  Data Storage  t o use.  and  The package was  intended  between the Census d a t a m a n i p u l a t i o n  package, STATPAK, the geographic c a r t o g r a p h i c package from Harvard  d a t a c r e a t i o n systerr ,GEOCODING, and  the  ;  U n i v e r s i t y , SYMAP.  For the p a s t three  y e a r s i t has been v i r t u a l l y unused, w i t h the s t a n d a r d i z e d and interface  an  p r o v i d e d w i t h SYMAP s u p e r c e d i n g  the continuous  inefficient  f l o w MAPPAK  interface.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n , w h i l e u n f o r t u n a t e , i s by no means unique. s i t u a t i o n s o c c u r f o r many o f the o p e r a t i o n a l geographic c e s s i n g systems i n the w o r l d . w i t h the f a i l u r e compilation.  Similar  information pro-  The problem o r i g i n a t e s a t the d e s i g n  to a p p r e c i a t e the e x a c t i n g requirements  stage  of thematic  map  The major elements o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n were g i v e n i n the  previous chapter.  C l e a r l y the thematic mapping p r o c e s s i s i t e r a t i v e  experimental... by n a t u r e and  t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s extremely  flexible  and  and  h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e systems and data base d e s i g n .  To c o m p l e t e l y a t t a i n t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y and the s p a t i a l d a t a h a n d l i n g p r o c e s s e s :  i n t e r a c t i v i t y , a l l of  23 1.  creation  2.  e d i t i n g and u p d a t i n g  3.  manipulation  4.  r e t r i e v a l and  5.  packaging,  must a l l be made e f f i c i e n t l y  a v a i l a b l e to the cartographer.  Waugh (23) and Nake and Peucker of  (24) have demonstrated  the u t i l i t y  the c o n c e p t s :  1.  " L o c a t i o n a l " o r " g e o g r a p h i c " d a t a , and  2.  "non-locational" or " s t a t i s t i c a l " data.  C l e a r l y t h i s dichotomy assumes a f i x e d time frame o r snapshot o f e v e n t s . Thus an o b s e r v a t i o n o r event can a l s o be expressed as a E =  triadic:  (0 x S x T)  where an event E i s m e a n i n g f u l o n l y i n t h e c o n t e x t of  a set of objects  ( 0 ) , a g e o g r a p h i c a l sub-space  (S) and a  time frame ( T ) .  I t i s very l i k e l y  that a sociologist-cartographer i n t e r e s t e d i n cohort  a n a l y s i s w i l l observe the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a f i x e d s e t o f o b j e c t s ( i n d i v i d u a l s ) as they move through time and through geographic  space.  A s p a t i a l a n a l y s t - c a r t o g r a p h e r w i l l be more i n t e r e s t e d i n o b s e r v i n g the v a r i a t i o n o f o b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over space f o r a f i x e d time p e r i o d and a r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i a n - c a r t o g r a p h e r w i l l want t o study changes i n o b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through time f o r a f i x e d s p a t i a l r e g i o n .  Thus  the r e l a t i v e importance  o f the o b j e c t - s p a c e - t i m e dimensions  mapping system i s e q u a l f o r c a r t o g r a p h e r s .  However the s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the past, when continuous and wide-spread (such as ERTS s a t e l l i t e data) was methodologies.  24 thematic  of a  data  collection  uncommon, has s t r o n g l y b i a s e d d a t a a n a l y s i s  The d e c i s i o n by the INTERMAP group  (24, 25)  t o adapt  a  LEAP o r i e n t e d s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . , A(0)=V or each a t t r i b u t e of an o b j e c t has a v a l u e or range of v a l u e s ) gave new s i n c e o b j e c t s i n t h i s case r e f e r r e d  prominence to the s p a t i a l to s p a t i a l u n i t s .  Spatial  dimension aggregations  were e a s i l y c o n s t r u c t e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n of a s e t t h e o r e t i c command language s t r u c t u r e t o s t a t i s t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s and v a l u e s .  The d e s i g n o f  GRDSR, on the other hand, g i v e s g r e a t e s t emphasis to the s t a t i s t i c a l dimens i o n s i n c e the time dimension  i s f r o z e n t o a f i x e d p o i n t and  component c u r r e n t l y s e r v e s o n l y as a sub-set s e l e c t i o n key.  the  spatial  Alternatively,  w a t e r - q u a l i t y d a t a base systems c o n c e n t r a t e on changing v a l u e s of a c o n s t a n t set  of i n d i c e s  for a fixed  s e t of  sites.  A Standard Model of a Thematic Mapping System  Over the y e a r s , concepts systems and  from geographic  information processing  i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s have g r a d u a l l y i n t e g r a t e d to p r o v i d e  a s i m p l i f i e d model of a t y p i c a l thematic mapping system. the standard components of such a model. Williams  (26).  Table  For o t h e r models r e f e r  If to  shows  25 Table I I  Problem Space  Locational Base  Time  Reference] Base  Statistical Base  Correspondence Space  Mapping functions  'Correspondence^ Base  71  ^  Symbolism Base  VN  D i s p l a y Space  Reference Maps & Graphics  Time S e r i e s Charts & Tables  J  Thematic Maps & Graphics  Problem Space (Input Space)  The  first  component of t h i s model i s the "problem space" which  i s d e f i n e d as those elements of the d a t a base t h a t r e l a t e to measurements of  r e a l phenomena.  common:  l o c a t i o n a l d a t a , time r e f e r e n c i n g d a t a and  system, u s e r s  all  s t a t i s t i c a l data.  must be aware of the s p a t i a l encoding  the r e s o l u t i o n and mapping.  As mentioned e a r l i e r t h r e e types of measurement are  schema, the u n i t s ,  the range of v a l u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r m o d e l l i n g and/or  F o r the purposes  o f s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i t w i l l be assumed t h a t  such data has a l r e a d y been e d i t e d and  transformed  The  i n t o the o p t i m a l  storage  The The  26  structure.  set of o b j e c t s i n t h i s space are both c r e a t e d and  d e r i v e d o b j e c t s can be new  o b j e c t s a t the same l e v e l or can  d e f i n e d as a c l a s s o f o r i g i n a l o b j e c t s . operations  i s w e l l known.  derived.  The  be  power of s e t - t h e o r e t i c  However, to be a b l e to a d e q u a t e l y model and/or  understand a l l elements of the problem space r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e  user  sophistication.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when under the d i r e c t i o n of  the c a r t o g r a p h e r  or data a n a l y s t , the data  transferred  Display  i n t o graphic  i s i n t e g r a t e d and  format.  Space  The  transformed and  i n t e g r a t e d data  i s no  longer  understood to the same l e v e l of completeness by the data V a r i a b l e s may  can be  are transformed i n t o a g r a p h i c  absolute  s t a t e which i s l i k e l y to be  system which i n t u r n must be r e p r e s e n t e d  co-ordinate  system of the hardware d e v i c e .  to the U n i v e r s a l T r a n s v e r s e then c o n v e r t e d  plotting.  in a different  i n terms of  (UTM)  System.  F i n a l l y the p l o t t i n g  system may  the s c r e e n .  The  geo-  relative  These b o u n d a r i e s system f o r  s c a l e , r o t a t e or t r a n s l a t e end  r e s u l t i s t h a t the  o n l y a mental model o f the t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  o b j e c t and  the  For example,  into a regular Cartesian co-ordinate  the image so t h a t i t f i t s user has  Mercator  boundaries  F i n a l l y the r e s u l t s  s t a t i s t i c a l r e g i o n b o u n d a r i e s of S t a t i s t i c s Canada are s t o r e d  are  be  analyst.  generated by o v e r l a y s of g e n e r a l i z e d  t r e n d s d e r i v e d from d a t a c o l l e c t e d through time.  co-ordinate  l i k e l y to  have been grouped i n t o complex s e t s by f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s ,  geographic r e g i o n s and  uniformly  the " r e a l " o b j e c t s t h a t were observed and  measured.  end graphic  27 Correspondence  Space  The t h i r d the s e t o f f i l e s  s t a n d a r d component  o f a thematic mapping system a r e  ( r e c o r d s ) t h a t e s t a b l i s h the correspondence between the  v a r i o u s spaces o r dimensions.  Nake and Peucker implemented  the concepts  "problem space", " d i s p l a y space" and used a "correspondence map" t o e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s p a t i a l o b j e c t  (e.g., a Census  T r a c t ) and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on a d i s p l a y d e v i c e (e.g., CRT o r P l o t t e r ) .  C l e a r l y , e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s correspondence i s n o n - t r i v i a l whenever object sets are overlayed, contain "not-areas", ( i . e . , a r e a l o r a r e p e r m i t t e d t o be i d e n t i f i e d  exclusions)  (addressed o r "picked") a r b i t r a r i l y .  Expanding on the l a t t e r case, t h e correspondence problem i s s i m p l i f i e d g r e a t l y by e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n v e n t i o n s on how t o i d e n t i f y o b j e c t s elements).  (or p i c t u r e  An example o f t h i s approach i s t h e use o f "head and t a i l "  p i c t u r e components d e f i n e d by Pfaultz/^  (27) .  However, i n the case o f thematic mapping, t h i s type o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s o n l y u s e f u l when h a n d l i n g map symbols  and i s f a r too r e s t r i c -  t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t to r e f e r e n c e base elements, many o f which w i l l be g e n e r a l i z e d o r generated from o t h e r elements  (e.g., g e n e r a l i z e d p r o v i n c e  b o u n d a r i e s " r o l l e d - u p " from f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s ) .  N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y and manipulate o b j e c t s i n the s p a t i a l dimension which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o r transformed i n d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n c e systems i s fundamental t o i n t e r a c t i v e d a t a base  communication.  28 A second  -correspondence  t h a t must u s u a l l y be e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t e s  to changes i n o b j e c t d e s c r i p t o r s such as names, codes, a d d r e s s e s , or encoding.  T y p i c a l l y these types of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  nor e a s i l y generated a u t o m a t i c a l l y .  are not as w e l l behaved  They must, however, be  types of a n a l y s i s performed r e q u i r e s a c l e a r a p p r e c i a t i o n of a s p e c t s or d i r e c t l i n k a g e relationship:  to a u x i l i a r y i n f o r m a t i o n .  Fort William + Port Arthur  i n terms of the a s s o c i a t e d  pondence,  created  = Thunder Bay must be  less frequently, a third  the "understood"  graphic  descriptors.  type of  corres-  ( w i t h i n the time dimension) o c c u r s whenever d i f f e r i n g time  must be made e q u i v a l e n t . v a r i a b l e f o r the 1970  For example, comparing r a t i o s on a  U.S.  Census and  i m p l i e s a correspondence has  The  r o l e and  mapping f u n c t i o n s  and  to implement i n the context  (e.g., o v e r l a y e d  shading;  of v a r i a b l e  inset operators)  i n the context  The  themselves).  implementation c o m p l e x i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s concepmore i n t e -  next p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h thematic mapping  of a new  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and  and  p r o p o r t i o n a l symbols such  t u a l i z a t i o n c l e a r l y demonstrates the need f o r a s i m p l i f i e d and approach.  implicitly  been e s t a b l i s h e d over a time range.  the numeric v a l u e s  Indeed, the  statistical  Canadian Census  ( s c a l e , p r o j e c t i o n , o v e r l a y and  symbolism t e c h n i q u e s as c i r c l e s and  the 1971  periods  s t r u c t u r e of the correspondence base becomes p a r t i -  c u l a r l y complex to d e s c r i b e  grated  i f the  historical  For example  codes, address range s e t s , and  Although i t i s r e q u i r e d  graphic  approach to s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n design.  processing  systems  29 P a r t I I - A S t a t e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Model Approach to Systems  Design  The b a s i c l i m i t a t i o n s i n the d e s i g n s o f most geographic  informa-  t i o n p r o c e s s i n g systems stem from the p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t t h a t they must respond f a i r l y  q u i c k l y to the c u r r e n t and near f u t u r e needs of an ongoing  p r o d u c t i o n requirement.  Without a f u l l and  l o n g e r term requirements  and p e r i p h e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , these systems tend  to  be designed  operations.  c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  as m i r r o r images of the w e l l understood  While t h i s i s not d i s a s t e r o u s unto i t s e l f  e x i s t i n g manual i t tends to  generate  a g r e a t d e a l of f r u s t r a t i o n as a s p e c i f i c purpose system i s a p p l i e d to the more g e n e r a l problems of groups s e r v i c e d by the s p o n s o r i n g p r o d u c t i o n Some e f f i c i e n c y i s generated a b l e to add  because d a t a p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t i e s a r e u s u a l l y  greater l o g i c , organization~and  volume t a s k s .  G e n e r a l l y speaking,  speed to r e p e t i t i v e ,  i s rushed  component of an e n t i r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s .  It  i s seldom the case  Encoding  or o v e r l y f o c u s e d .  on  .. . .  t h a t a s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n system d e s i g n  o  i s based on a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Incidence Map  high  much of the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t i s  e l i m i n a t e d i f the systems d e s i g n p r o c e s s j u s t one  units.  A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s the D u a l  (DIME) system of the U.S.  on p r i n c i p l e s from graph t h e o r y .  The  Census which i s based  framework t h a t i s proposed i n t h i s  t h e s i s i n v o l v e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of g e n e r a l methodology from p r o b a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s t o p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e f o r d e f i n i n g the e n t i r e p r o d u c t i o n at  a macro-level  t h a t i s h i g h l y amenable to implementation  c o n s t r u c t of modern management  techniques.  task  w i t h i n the  30 With t h i s approach a l l p r o c e d u r e s ,  o p e r a t i o n s and  analytical  models a r e viewed as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o p e r a t o r s on the range of p o s s i b l e data s t a t e s .  Each o p e r a t o r must be e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d and  the c a r t o g r a p h e r as a c o m p i l a t i o n t o o l . i n t o two a)  These o p e r a t o r s can be  to  classified  groups:  those which t r a n s f o r m an i n p u t from a g i v e n s t a t e to a d i f f e r e n t output  b)  available  state;  those which t r a n s f o r m an e n t i t y w i t h i n a g i v e n  By analogy  w i t h a t y p i c a l i n t e r - c i t y mileage  Markov m a t r i x , found  i t i s clear  state.  c h a r t or a mathematical  t h a t the second s e t of o p e r a t o r s w i l l  be  a l o n g the standard d i a g o n a l of T a b l e I I I .  The power of such an approach i s t h a t by s p e c i f y i n g a l l p o s s i b l e data s t a t e s , a menu of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n modules a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y defined.  While not a l l of these modules w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r a g i v e n  a p p l i c a t i o n and not a l l w i l l have the same p r i o r i t y i n terms of implementation  the  sequence, o p e r a t i o n s a r e e a s i l y d e f i n e d i n terms of  state transformations required. are more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d  As a r e s u l t , implementation  priorities  and development sequences a s s i g n e d .  example, the c r e a t i o n of an index of s t r e e t addresses  f o r an  the  For  arbitrary  region involves: 1.  d e l i n e a t i n g the d e s i r e d r e g i o n ( i e . d i g i t i z e  2.  c o n v e r t i n g the a r e a to a l i n e s e t by o v e r l a y i n g the boundary on corresponding  3.  s t r e e t network d e f i n i t i o n  c o n v e r t i n g the l i n e s e t to address  the boundary),  file,  range s e t s by matching  street  the  TABLE jU — ^ O U T P UTS  CODE  I N P U T S ^ ^ - ^ ^ TABLES  FILES  LINE PILES  REGION FILES  INPUT DOCUMENTS O R PORMS  INPTS  INLMS  INPOLV INTEXVT INCODE  STATISTICAL POINT  IN S T A T  TEXT  FILES  FILES  NAME  ADDRESS REFERENCE THEMATIC  PILES  DOCUMENTS DOCUMEMTS  INN/AME  IN A D D  DRAFTOPS CARTOPS  PILES  . i.  STATISTICAL  STATPAK fiENPTS  &ENLNS GENPOLS  POiWT DATA  PTSTAE)  PTSLNS  LINE  LNSTAB LWSPTS LNSPAK  DATA  DATA j . 1  ' l  PTSPAK  GENTEXT  ^ENCODES fiEN  NAMES fiENADDSFORMPAK  (SRAFPAK  PTSPOLS PTSTEXT PTS CODES PTSNAMES PTSftDbS PTS PLOT PTMAP LNSPOLS LNSTEXT  LNSCODES LNS NAMES  LNSADDS LNSPLOT LNHAP  REGION DATA  POLNTAB POLSPTS POLNLNS POLNPAK POLtfTEXT* POC/CODE POLVNAME P0LVADD5 POLMPLOT POUVMAP  TEXT  TEXTTAB TEXTPTS TEXTLNS TEXTPOLN TEXTPAK TEXTCODE TEXTNflME TEXTftDDS T E X T P L O T  CODE  CODETAB  TiATA  DATA  CO&EPTS C O D E L N S CODEPOL>f  CODETEXT CODEPAK CODENAME CODE ADDS CODEINDX CODE" MAP  NAME DATA;  NAMETA& NAMEPTS NANIELMS NAMEPOtf NAMETEXT NAMECODE NAMEPAK NAKtEHDDS NAME1NDX  ADDRESS DATA  flDDSTAbADDSPTS ADDSLNS  RDDSPOLW  TEKTPAK  UAMEMAP  ATJDSTEKT ADDSCODE ADDSN0ME RDDSPAK ADDSINDX ADDSMAP  U>  32 segments w i t h s t r e e t  address ranges (by segment).  A second major advantage of t h i s approach i s t h a t each r o u t i n e of each module i s e a s i l y d e f i n e d i n terms of i t s i n p u t s and  outputs  to be u s e f u l f o r a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g t h a t o p e r a t i o n the must be c o m p l e t e l y  it  and  i t does away w i t h the f a l s e  the u n j u s t i f i e d  hierarchy-  systems and  correspondence map  Table  which a r e so d i f f i c u l t  differentiations  of - dimensions. F i n a l l y ,  e x p l i c i t l y - d e f i n e s a l l the i n v e r s e o p e r a t o r s  interactive  algorithms  generalized.  More i m p o r t a n t l y , between spaces,  t h a t are so n e c e s s a r y  to handle u s i n g  approach.  I I I provides  developed by the author  an example of the k i n d of s t a t e s and  (tentatively  c a l l e d GENESIS).  It:'is not  assumed t h a t a l l of the s t a t e s have been i d e n t i f i e d , and how  module has  e a s i l y and  how  modules  completely  a new  s t a t e can be  system to  i t should  introduced.  be be Each  been g i v e n a g e n e r i c i d e n t i f i e r t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the .intended  s e t of o p e r a t i o n s .  The  acronym t h a t stands  for:  1.  for  the  t h a t w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the next major s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n  clear  and  overall  i d e n t i f i e r , GENESIS, i s a  bilingual  G e o g r a p h i c a l l y Encoded and N a t i o n a l l y Enumerated S p a t i a l  Information  System, or 2.  Geocodage Enonce-.Nationalement En un Systeme Informatique  et S p a t i a l e .  33 T h i s model i s a l s o u s e f u l as a management c o n t r o l t o o l as i t e a s i l y shows, which modules a r e u n s t a r t e d , operational.  As an example, t a b l e  IV  incomplete, u n t e s t e d or t o t a l l y  shows some of the c a p a c i t i e s and  d e f i c i e n c i e s of the e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n of s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n subsystem modules. analyzing  display  Thus the model a l s o s e r v e s as a u s e f u l t o o l f o r  and c l a s s i f y i n g s p a t i a l systems.  The model can a l s o be u s e f u l to the systems a n a l y s t of d a t a s t r u c t u r e  selection.  function  I t i s by no means a panacea, however, and  c e r t a i n l y does not a d e q u a t e l y address a l l a s p e c t s of systems d e s i g n . The next c h a p t e r t r e a t s a number of o t h e r d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s objectives.  and  TAB>LE nz: -STATISTICAL POINT PILES f N PUTS ^ ^ " ^ ^ TABLES IMPUT DOCUMEMTS GlMMS OR FcORrAS PIU-AR STATISTICAL DATA POl NTDAT^ • ' kINE DATA  REGION  DATA  TEXT DATA  &IMNVS STATPAK  U ES FI IM LE  PILES AUT6MAP SRDSR  TEXT  FILES  GRDSR &IMMS C 4 M F ftRDSR res; PlULAft GtMMS piuLAt? TTXI AuT&MftP P I L L A R  C6MF SIMMS  FQiDRESS REFERENCE THEMATIC A M E FILES N FILES F»L6S DOCUMENTS fiRDSR £Rt>SR CGMP ROSS REFDOCS GlMMS diMMS G  CODE  DOCUMENTS  FIELD ocs PU6MARS  PU6GRAES  VJEI6HTIM&  SIMMS  AREA  GEISHA.itssxr/rxr AMUST 6RDSR  RE&IOM  SVSTEMS THEISSEN GRDSR  AUTOMAP  LNGEU  SRbSR  dQAL^  <3Rb£R. rbsnrim XDSllllTX AUTOMAP RUTOMfiP PIPA GlMMS PAPB CMTRCRAV tDsa/m EXTRACT tSlMKS  I D S jr/nr  SRbSfc  AUTOMAP GlMMS  it>sa/m  AUT6MP P .  l  MflPMAKR.  CODE ATA  GlMHAS MAPPAK SVMAP SVMVU XDsn/m MAPPA* SVMVU  C&MF  15 NAME COT5E.  C6MF  i  DftTG  AuTOMftP fllMMS SWSPLOT AUTOMAP  t»tiXAft Gtf\MS G l M M S PlLt-AR AUTOMAP  rtsn/nr  AUTO MR P  MfiPPAK _ HWPPAK AUTOMAP GRDSR ,^ CS I6MMMFS C 6 M F GjMMS PtLLAR ibsir/trr MBPMAKR  PAAS  PAAS  PAAS  MfiPMAKR PAAS  PAAS.  PAAS  6R.&SR  CO  35  DESIGN OBJECTIVES The l a s t chapter established the need for a system design based in theory and offered as an example the model transformation matrix of GENESIS.  To be successful, however, any systems design must also have a  strong basis i n pragmatics and to a lesser degree aesthetics.  This chapter  treats many of the important issues to be considered when designing a production - (as opposed to research -) oriented system.  It i s d i f f i c u l t ,  i f not impossible, to organize these objectives h i e r a r c h i c a l l y to s u i t the purposes of a l l sectors of the economy.  An attempt w i l l be made i n the  next chapter to discuss commonly accepted design trade-offs i n the governmental sector.  For the present, these objectives w i l l be dealt with i n a  random sequence, with no consideration given to r e l a t i v e merit.  In so  doing, however, i t i s assumed that each objective would be a major cont r i b u t i n g factor i n establishing a figure of merit for the entire system.  Human Engineering  Often underrated, this objective plays an important r o l e i n systems adaption and acceptance.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y true wherever the  r a t i o between the marginal benefit and marginal cost i s not great. In this case, the "system" i s e a s i l y extended interface and even the working environment.  to include the man-machine While some developers (28)  have perhaps gone too far i n trying to reach this objective most systems designers give i n s u f f i c i e n t attention to considerations such as "ease-of-use", hardware aesthetics and automated "back-up and error recovery".  36  Ease-of-use  "Ease-of-use" is a difficult concerns  as a component of the f i g u r e o f m e r i t o f any system  concept  t o d e t a i l and measure.  Some examples o f a p p r o p r i a t e  (other than c o s t , speed and m o d u l a r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which w i l l  be d e a l t w i t h under a s e p a r a t e heading) i n c l u d e the p u r s u i t o f the f o l l o w i n g objectives:  1.  M i n i m i z i n g the number o f o p e r a t i o n s or steps ( i m p l i e s automated i n v o c a t i o n and c h a i n i n g o f procedures)  2.  M i n i m i z i n g the requirement  f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n advance  ( i m p l i e s prompting and r e c o v e r y procedures  and a command  language) 3.  M i n i m i z i n g complex d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  and human c a l c u l a t i o n  ( i m p l i e s d e f a u l t and computational c a p a c i t i e s ) 4.  M i n i m i z i n g impediments to i n p u t  facility  ( i m p l i e s such t h i n g s as a standard keyboard, push and a "free-arm"  buttons  c u r s o r as opposed t o t a b l e t s , d i a l s o r  thumb wheels) 5.  M i n i m i z i n g impediments to output ( i m p l i e s a l a r g e CRT, separate  flexibility  s c r e e n f o r prompting and a  r e f r e s h or "write-thru" capacity) 6.  Minimize  requirements  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e t e n t i o n by the o p e r a t o r  ( i m p l i e s d a t a management c a p a c i t i e s , a parameter s t r u c t u r e and 7.  status checking  procedures)  M i n i m i z i n g core s t o r a g e  (to make i t easy t o r u n the system  under c o n d i t i o n s o f s t r i n g e n t memory c o n t r o l ) ( i m p l i e s an o v e r l a y s t r u c t u r e )  8.  M i n i m i z e the requirement f o r s e q u e n t i a l ( i m p l i e s m o d u l a r i t y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  Hardware  routines)  i s evident  from the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , hardware a e s t h e t i c s  important r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the e a s e - o f - u s e .  aspects w i l l instead  37  of p r o c e d u r e s  aesthetics  As an  ordering  not  be  treated  further at t h i s point.  f o c u s on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such  1.  discussed  Consideration  will  as:  Ease of maintenance ( i m p l i e s hardware r e l i a b i l i t y ,  2.  Previously  play  Ease o f  r e p a i r a b i l i t y and  back-up)  interaction  ( i m p l i e s hardware i n t e g r a t i o n a t the macro - i n c l u d i n g appearance and  lay-out  - and  micro - i n c l u d i n g  flexibility  and s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y ) 3.  Ease of p h y s i c a l  operation  ( i m p l i e s e n g i n e e r i n g s i m p l i c i t y and  semi-automated  initia-  lization) 4.  Ease of upgrading ( i m p l i e s upward c o m p a t i b i l i t y which i s r e l a t e d to the b i l i t y of hardware t e c h n o l o g y and  l e v e l of  sta-  standardization)  C l e a r l y each of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , when c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of t h e i r absence, r e p r e s e n t a measure of what might be p r a c t i c a l l y termed a " c o e f f i c i e n t of p h y s i c a l r e s i s t a n c e " . index p l a y s  an  The  i n i t i a l impact of such  important r o l e i n systems acceptance and  adoption  i n the l o n g e r term c l e a r l y a f f e c t s e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n of degrees of freedom f o r expansion and  development.  and  an and  the number  38 Back-up and e r r o r  recovery  While b e i n g  one o f the most d i f f i c u l t a s p e c t s o f a c y b e r n e t i c  system t o f u l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e these f e a t u r e s utilized  and e f f i c i e n t l y  cannot be o v e r s t a t e d .  implement the importance o f  They a r e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t must be  a t a l l l e v e l s from t h e b a s i c hardware and o p e r a t i n g  system  design, through a p p l i c a t i o n program development, t o e s t a b l i s h i n g r o u t i n e operating  procedures.  As a g e n e r a l r u l e back-up i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o " e r r o r - r e c o v e r y " . That i s , t o be a b l e to r e c o v e r  from an e r r o r i n t h e system, d a t a o r f i n a l  output, the system's d e s i g n e r s  must have p r e v i o u s l y a n t i c i p a t e d t h e p o s s i -  b i l i t y o f e r r o r and must have i n c l u d e d a l g o r i t h m s  t h a t would both  or "back-up" s u f f i c i e n t data and systems s t a t u s i n f o r m a t i o n contingency a c t i o n .  store  t o permit  Whether o r n o t human i n t e r v e n t i o n i s r e q u i r e d  varies  w i t h the cause o f the e r r o r and the d e s i r e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f the s y s t e m ( s ) . The  need f o r back-up i s a f u n c t i o n o f the s t a b i l i t y o f the system  software and s u p p o r t i n g  operations),  (hardware,  the volume and d u r a t i o n o f the o p e r a -  t i o n ^ ) , and the r o l e o r c r i t i c a l n a t u r e o f the o p e r a t i o n .  Error recovery,  on the other hand, r e q u i r e s the d e t e r m i n i s t i c  a n a l y s i s of a l l l i k e l y sources of e r r o r . languages a l l o w tion.  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f e r r o r c o n d i t i o n a n a l y s i s and r e s o l u -  The need f o r t h i s f e a t u r e  processing  A l a r g e number o f programming  i n c r e a s e s as a p p l i c a t i o n s move from b a t c h  through i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s i n g  to on-line processing.  n a t e l y , however, the f a c i l i t y f o r e r r o r r e c o v e r y  Fortu-  i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e degree  of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e u s e r s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o query the u s e r f o r  39 further information before i n i t i a t i n g the appropriate recovery  procedure.  The degree and location of error recovery i s a function of the s o p h i s t i cation of the process, the number of degrees of freedom on the flow of processing and the number and types of sources of information.  In the most general terms, the o v e r a l l objective of "back-up" i s to ensure that the maximum benefit from pre-error condition processing can be conserved and the ultimate aim of "error recovery" i s to permit the continuance of the processing with the minimal loss of accuracy and completeness of f i n a l r e s u l t s .  A primary design objective, therefore, i s  to make these two processes - back-up and recovery - as transparent and inobtrusive to the user as i s possible.  Modular Components While "system modularity" has long been espoused as a desirable design objective f o r any cybernetic system, many developers  (e.g., the  CGIS, GRDSR) have f a i l e d to provide s u f f i c i e n t modular structure to s a t i s f y the needs of those responsible for the re-implementation, and/or maintenance of the system.  restructuring  I t i s clear that p r i o r to f i n a l i z i n g  the system design, a c a r e f u l analysis must be made to i d e n t i f y those procedures which should be l o c a l i z e d because they are:  of general interest,  of a machine-dependent nature, used frequently, form a l o g i c a l sub-unit, or are of s u f f i c i e n t length to be unmanageable i f extended further.  As  a general r u l e the number of macro-level modules ("runs" or "packages") should be minimized while the number of micro-level modules ("programs" or "routines") should be maximized.  40 Extendable  Functions  One  o f the most d e s i r a b l e d e s i g n  the p r o v i s i o n of a r e a s o n a b l e linkage with any  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of any  number of i n t e r f a c e p o i n t s  (or "hooks") f o r  e x i s t i n g systems and/or extended c a p a c i t i e s .  system i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i t s "room" ( f a c i l i t y )  example, the SYMAP r o u t i n e "USERIN" and a l l o w f o r user d e f i n e d  new  utility  the p r o c e s s i n g  One  major  For  obstacle  capacity i s that d e t a i l e d of s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n  system.  A second d e s i g n approach towards t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s the t i o n of p a r s e r s of boolean e x p r e s s i o n s language.  of  f o r "growth".  procedures.  knowledge i s r e q u i r e d of g l o b a l v a r i a b l e types and other p a r t s of the  The  the GIMMS command "USER" r e s p e c t i v e l y  i n t e r p o l a t i o n and  to t h i s approach to e x t e n d i n g  system i s  and  incorpora-  i n t e r p r e t e r s of a high  I f the extended system a l s o i n c l u d e s t h a t a b i l i t y  level  to a s s i g n  pseudonyms to v a r i a b l e s and  s e t s of v a r i a b l e s then the requirements f o r  d e t a i l e d knowledge of other  system s t r u c t u r e s i s reduced.  Finally it  the e x t e n d a b i l i t y o f the system i s g r e a t l y enhanced i f  i s programmed i n an e a s i l y extendable language such as ALGOL 68  where new  " o p e r a t o r s " and modes are e a s i l y added.  noted t h a t most g r a p h i c s  systems intended  However, i t should  f o r broad d i s t r i b u t i o n s use  FORTRAN language t h a t i s e i t h e r extended by a standard r o u t i n e s or that i s preprocessed  Transferable  The  or  s e t of  APL be the  graphics  by an i n t e r p r e t e r .  Software  field  of computer g r a p h i c s  has  evolved  to the p o i n t where much  41 more e f f o r t i s b e i n g expended  on e s t a b l i s h i n g g u i d e l i n e s and s t a n d a r d s  t h a t w i l l enable software to be exchanged more e a s i l y , of systems i n a v a r i e t y o f hardware reached a s u f f i c i e n t  and s o f t w a r e environments (29) have  s t a t e o f m a t u r i t y t h a t common elements b e g i n to appear.  To b e g i n with, the degree o f machine  independence i s i n c r e a s i n g as the l a r g e r  systems (e.g., DISSPLA) a r e d i s t r i b u t e d more w i d e l y . l e v e l languages a r e used they tend to be l o c a l i z e d s i m i l a r l y hardware  A l a r g e number  Whenever machine  to a s i n g l e module and  i n t e r f a c e r o u t i n e s a r e minimized i n number by h a n d l i n g  a l l but the most b a s i c o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n the system r o u t i n e s themselves.  A t r e n d t h a t i s perhaps not as c l e a r l y d e s i r a b l e i s the tendency to produce software i n one o f the more " u n i v e r s a l " languages.  Often,  FORTRAN i s chosen because o f i t s broad d i s t r i b u t i o n and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r mini-computer environments.  To a c h i e v e t h i s d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e some systems  have even gone to the p o i n t o f re-programming development work was  started  i n FORTRAN a f t e r  initial  i n another language (e.g., INTERMAP).  C l e a r l y the achievement o f a l l o f the d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y s i n c e a w e l l d e s i g n e d and implemented r e c e i v e wide c i r c u l a t i o n .  enhance  system w i l l  However, one o f the more important d e s i g n con-  s i d e r a t i o n s a l r e a d y mentioned i s system m o d u l a r i t y .  The importance o f  t h i s o b j e c t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t to t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y i s t h r e e - f o l d .  A modular  s t r u c t u r e a l l o w s f o r e a s i e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and implementation, f o r r e s t r u c t u r i n g and enhancement and f o r " r e s t r i c t i n g the t r a n s f e r to s p e c i a l i z e d sub-systems.  The s i n g l e most important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l  systems  42 t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y i s the s t r u c t u r e and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t i n g documentation. of  So important i s t h i s o b j e c t i v e t h a t f o r some systems a f u l l  documentation was completed b e f o r e the system i t s e l f  was  range  implemented.  To i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y o f p o s s i b l e t r a n s f e r , such documentation should include:  •1.  A G e n e r a l Overview D e s c r i p t i o n o f S t r u c t u r e and Statement of  Purpose,  2.  A S p e c i f i c C o n c e p t u a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f the R o l e o f Each Module,  3.  A Technical file  ( A l g o r i t h m i c ) D e s c r i p t i o n o f Each Module  (including  format),  4.  Documentation I n t e r n a l t o the Source Code,  5.  O p e r a t i o n a l and Maintenance  6.  User's Handbooks and Reference Cards and  7.  T e s t Data S e t s .  Documentation,  L a s t l y , a v i a b l e mechanism f o r e r r o r r e p o r t i n g and r e s o l u t i o n i s critical  t o s u c c e s s f u l systems a d o p t i o n and the maintenance o f i n t e r -  installation  compatibility.  Systems I n t e g r a t i o n  Two competing f o r c e s i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y development  o f any l a r g e  geographic i n f o r m a t i o n a r e the t e n d e n c i e s towards the g e n e r a t i o n o f a d i s o r g a n i z e d a g g l o m e r a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s and the movement towards a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s i m i l a r but s p e c i a l purpose and independent systems.  The  p r a c t i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f b o t h o f these phenomena a r e s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d .  The o b j e c t i v e o f "systems  integration"  43 does not it  espouse nor  degrade e i t h e r of these l i k e l y e v e n t u a l i t i e s .  c a l l s f o r a planned e v o l u t i o n aimed a t r e d u c i n g  while permitting performance.  measured and  tasks  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  to maximize algorithms  s e t of requirements i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e i f the q u a l i t y and  o f i d e n t i c a l p r o c e s s e s f o r d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s i s to controlled.  a r e a l s o of g r e a t  The  relevance.  system i n t e g r a t i o n i s f i l e the o p t i m a l  redundant development  p a r t i t i o n i n g of p r o c e s s i n g  R e p l i c a t i o n of procedures and  to meet a f u l l e r consistency  the o p t i m a l  Instead,  impact upon systems maintenance and C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to and  integration.  t r a d e - o f f between one  redundant i n f o r m a t i o n .  The  stability  e q u a l l y important  A g a i n the o b j e c t i v e i s to  l a r g e f i l e and  be  many s m a l l f i l e s  as  find with  consequence of t h i s a u x i l i a r y component of  systems i n t e g r a t i o n i s the requirement f o r i n t e g r a t e d systems modules t h a t permit the simultaneous update of a l l f i l e s w i t h redundant  data.  H i e r a r c h i c a l Bases  i n t o any and  The  general  purpose of i n c o r p o r a t i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e  EDP  system i s to i n c r e a s e  r e t r i e v a l operations.  The  the e f f i c i e n c y of s t o r a g e ,  u t i l i t y of t h i s k i n d of d a t a  i n c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y w i t h the s i z e of the d a t a base and inherent  n a t u r a l s t r u c t u r e of the phenomena being measured.  manipulation  organization with The  the degree  of the requirement i n the l a t t e r case stems from the n a t u r e of the t i g a t i v e methodology, namely t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s questions  r e q u i r i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l approach to p r o c e s s i n g  most g e o g r a p h i c a l l y complex m a t r i x tion.  are more l i k e l y to  oriented processing  (e.g.,  the MORTON m a t r i x ,  inves-  formulate  the d a t a .  Thus  systems have both simple t r e e (30))  s t r u c t u r e s f o r data  and  organiza-  44 As  soon as i n t e r a c t i v e c o m p i l a t i o n , m a n i p u l a t i o n  i s permitted, as the f u l l  and p r o c e s s i n g  the need f o r e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e d a t a l i n k a g e s t r u c t u r e s such  ring  s t r u c t u r e s of Sutherland  (31) and the d u a l i n c i d e n c e map  encoding s t r u c t u r e developed by the g r a p h - t h e o r i s t , James C o r b e t t U.S!  f o r the  Census DIME system i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d .  As a g e n e r a l r u l e , the g r e a t e r the s t r u c t u r i n g of the d a t a , the g r e a t e r the space requirements and the f a s t e r the p r o c e s s i n g . long standing  trade-off between space and CPU c y c l e s remains as one o f the  most d i f f i c u l t a n a l y t i c a l problems f o r t h e systems d e s i g n e r for  The  one or other must be made w i t h the f u l l understanding  and the c h o i c e  of cost  v i s - a - v i s hardware (CPU and memory), the l i k e l i h o o d o f i n c r e a s e d use and development and the probable  A final  trends system  i n c r e a s e s i n d a t a volumes.  f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the s e l e c t i o n of a h i e r a r c h i c a l  data  s t r u c t u r e i s the c h o i c e o f geographic r e f e r e n c e encoding s t r u c t u r e . GENESIS attempts t o p r o v i d e different all  i n p u t s t a t e s but a l s o the a b i l i t y  others.  only.  a framework t h a t n o t o n l y a l l o w s  Most o t h e r  to move from one s t a t e t o  systems a l l o w f o r one or two types o f h i e r a r c h y  The GRDSR system, f o r example, can r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n from the  d a t a base a c c o r d i n g  to a f i v e - l e v e l e d , eleven-valued  A l t e r n a t e l y , any other  standard  s e l e c t i o n process  code.  c o n s i s t e n t h i e r a r c h y can be s e l e c t e d through  r e s o l u t i o n of graphic d e s c r i p t i o n s of s p a t i a l regions.  first  f o r seven  Here a g a i n the  i s h i e r a r c h i c a l i n t h a t g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s i s performed  a t the l e v e l of the UTM zone, s e c o n d l y  a t the l e v e l o f the bounding  r e c t a n g l e of the query r e g i o n and f i n a l l y a t t h e l e v e l o f the r e g i o n  itself.  45  As a g e n e r a l r u l e , then, h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s should be o n l y when the n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the phenomena i s h i e r a r c h i c a l  used and  when the volume of the d a t a i s too g r e a t to a l l o w f o r t i m e l y p r o c e s s i n g u s i n g s i m p l e r and  Accuracy  less-space-consuming  structures.  arid A e s t h e t i c s  Common use of the word " a c c u r a c y " o f t e n i n c l u d e s both a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y and  the r e l a t e d concepts  o f r e s o l u t i o n and  each of which can v a r y i n t r u e importance.  For thematic mapping  opposed t o t o p o g r a p h i c mapping and h y d r o g r a p h i c of  repeatability,  c h a r t i n g ) the  (as  importance  the r e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y of the theme u s u a l l y exceeds the need f o r a b s o l u t e  a c c u r a c y of the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and f a r exceeds t h e need f o r a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y of the r e f e r e n c e background.  Indeed, s t a t i s t i c a l and c a r t o g r a p h i c  (e.g., l i n e ) g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of data a r e commonly employed to i n c r e a s e s i m p l i c i t y and  theme c l a r i t y .  Absolute accuracy of s t a t i s t i c a l  values  takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e when a c t u a l v a l u e s are i n c l u d e d i n the t a t i o n e i t h e r as l i s t s o r map of  the r e f e r e n c e base map  uses a r e pursued  symbols.  presen-  S i m i l a r l y , the a b s o l u t e  accuracy  becomes important when o t h e r than the  intended  (e.g., c a l c u l a t i o n of l a n d a r e a ) .  S i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n to thematic g r a p h i c ) mapping the term  " r e s o l u t i o n " has taken on new  (and  topo-  dimensions.  Even  b e f o r e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l a s e r - f e e d b a c k measurement, m e c h a n i c a l mentation  map  instru-  has p e r m i t t e d the modern c a r t o g r a p h e r to r e p r e s e n t c a r t o g r a p h i c  phenomena a t r e s o l u t i o n s f a r i n excess of the a b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e and  the human hand to d u p l i c a t e .  of the human eye  On the o t h e r hand,  new  46 developments i n photo-mechanical g r a p h i c r e d u c t i o n technology p h o t o - p l o t t e r s ) have imposed new and v e r y demanding standards systems.  (32) and can be s t a t e d a s : "wave l e n g t h s o f twice the  d i s t a n c e o r more".  Of s i m i l a r importance t o t h e c a r t o g r a p h e r ability.  on geographic  The s i m p l e s t r u l e f o r d e c i d i n g upon t h e o p t i m a l r e s o l u t i o n was  g i v e n by T o b l e r sampling  (such as  Standards o f p o s s i b l e a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y  as r e s o l u t i o n i s r e p e a t and r e s o l u t i o n can always  be g i v e n i n t h e legend as a q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f the map but r e p e a t a b i l i t y i s u s u a l l y assumed t o be 100 p e r c e n t . due  Such i s p r a c t i c a l l y never the case  to the i n s t a b i l i t y o f the g r a p h i c medium, the l i m i t s o f m e c h a n i c a l  p r e c i s i o n , the e f f e c t s o f changing speeds o f o p e r a t i o n and the m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s o f induced human e r r o r .  R e p e a t a b i l i t y i s most s i g n i f i c a n t whenever  comparisons such as photo r e p r o d u c t i o n , r e g i s t r a t i o n , o v e r l a y e d i t i n g and q u a l i t y assurance  o f volume map p r o d u c t i o n a r e made.  Thus f o r thematic  where the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i s the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a g e n e r a l i z e d mation complex, g r e a t e r  maps  infor-  (perhaps s u r p r i s i n g l y g r e a t e r ) emphasis i s p l a c e d  on a e s t h e t i c s than on t h e v a r i o u s components o f " a c c u r a c y " .  I n c l u d e d under the heading " a e s t h e t i c s " a r e the f u l l standards  set of  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l c a r t o g r a p h i c methods and the  f i n d i n g s o f much o f the r e c e n t work i n p e r c e p t i o n o f maps and psychophysics.  Controversy  c o n t i n u e s as t o these standards  of recent q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s .  and the v a l i d i t y  M i l e s t o n e works by Robinson, B e r t i n ,  Salich.tchev, e t c . ( 3 3 , 34, 35, 36) p r e s e n t examples o f both It i s s u f f i c i e n t  sets of goals.  t o s t a t e a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t one o f the most demanding  t a s k s f o r t h e d e s i g n e r o f a thematic  mapping system i s to choose amongst  47  competing  t e c h n i q u e s and s c h o o l s o f thought  and  to be a b l e t o produce  a  system c a p a b l e o f s e r v i n g the needs o f a s p e c i f i c c a r t o g r a p h i c t a s k i n a manner a c c e p t a b l e t o c a r t o g r a p h i c community.  Speed and  Cost  C l e a r l y the most important f a c t o r s to c o n s i d e r i n d e s i g n i n g a thematic mapping system cost.  are the c o n s t r a i n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h speed and  with  I n i t i a l development c o s t s i n the f i e l d o f automated c a r t o g r a p h y were  easily justified  i n terms o f i n c r e a s e d through-put  labour-intensive tasks.  speeds over monotonous  As these t a s k s were reduced  i n number and  as  economic c o n d i t i o n s became l e s s f a v o u r a b l e , g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y has been e x p e r i e n c e d i n showing c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n an age where h i g h investment  i s r e q u i r e d f o r hardware.  capital  U n l i k e most commodities i n an  infla-  t i o n a r y p e r i o d , the expense of equipment f o r automated c a r t o g r a p h y has an ever d e c r e a s i n g p e r / u n i t volume time i n t e r v a l  Rather unnecessary  cost.  than d w e l l on the myriad r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n terms o f the  e x p e n d i t u r e s and  software development a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p o o r l y -  timed development s t r a t e g y , i t i s important which must be examined i n any complete  1.  had  to focus on those c o s t  cost-effectiveness  elements  analysis:  Cost o f f e a s i b i l i t y work ( i n c l u d i n g c o n c e p t u a l development d a t a s e t s e l e c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n , f i g u r e of m e r i t  criteria,  etc.). 2.  Cost o f systems d e s i g n and development ( i n c l u d i n g r e s e a r c h , pilot and  s t u d i e s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , programming,  evaluation).  testing  48 3.  C o s t o f systems  implementation and maintenance  programming, documentation, 4.  Cost o f systems  back-up, t r o u b l e  (including  shooting).  o p e r a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g I/O, CPU, memory,  elapsed time). . 5.  Cost o f systems of  6.  enhancement and a d o p t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g a s p e c t s  a l l the above).  Cost o f systems  a p p l i c a t i o n s s t u d i e s , p u b l i c i t y and d i s t r i -  bution.  F i n a l l y t h e component element,  "speed", has taken on g r e a t e r  importance w i t h the advent and d i f f u s i o n o f i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s and c a r t o g r a p h y systems. exceeded  Indeed  system's  response time has i n many i n s t a n c e s  the importance o f minor d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o s t s .  Acceptable respon-  s i v e n e s s i s extremely s u b j e c t i v e and v a r i e s w i t h the types of o p e r a t i o n s b e i n g performed.  This variable i s therefore d i f f i c u l t  t o q u a n t i f y and  tends t o q u i c k l y r e f l e c t t h e i n c r e a s e d e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e improved  u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the system.  Thus, the comparative r o l e o f these two p r i n c i p a l elements i s changing as new a p p l i c a t i o n s , approaches, g r a p h i c s d e v i c e s and m i n i computer main frames a r e b e i n g e x p l o i t e d .  While on a r e l a t i v e b a s i s i t  i s e a s i e r to a n a l y z e the c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f these two elements, are  both h i g h l y dynamic system  attributes.  they  49 IMPLEMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS  The p r o c e s s e s o f a c q u i r i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g , d e v e l o p i n g and enhancing modules o f SIDS a r e i n a c o n t i n u i n g s t a t e o f e v o l u t i o n . S p a t i a l I n f o r m a t i o n D i s p l a y System, has been completed  Phase I o f the  and r e p r e s e n t s an  assemblage o f packages capable o f c o n v e r t i n g s p a t i a l d a t a i n t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. a r e demonstrated i n Appendix A.  Many o f the v a r i o u s forms o f packaging Enhancement to the i n d i v i d u a l packages t o  the end o f Phase I have been minor i n comparison w i t h t h e i n i t i a l expended by the o r i g i n a l d e v e l o p e r s .  efforts  P r o p o r t i o n a l l y g r e a t e r e f f o r t has  been expended on the p r o c e s s e s o f systems (hardware and software) t i o n , t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n .  acquisi-  T h i s chapter documents how  these p r o c e s s e s have l e a d t o the c h o i c e of hardware c o n f i g u r a t i o n , the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the l i n k a g e s between component packages and the n e c e s s a r y t r a d e - o f f s r e l a t i v e to the u l t i m a t e d e s i g n .  Design  Trade-Offs  While  the b a s i c elements o f GENESIS were c o n c e i v e d and/or  inte-  g r a t e d by t h e author d u r i n g h i s tenure a t UBC, the p r o c e s s e s and the pragmatics  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the implementation  o f the f i r s t  phase o f SIDS  were c o n d i t i o n e d by the needs and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e Census F i e l d o f S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  Thus, t h e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y behind  the implementation  s t r a t e g y was t h a t modules o f g r e a t e s t use to Census would r e c e i v e the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , no modules would be developed elsewhere  t h a t c o u l d be purchased  a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e , and t h a t no module would be purchased  t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r e e - o f - c h a r g e . a t t i t u d e , many o f the i d e a l s expressed  By a d o p t i n g such a  pragmatic  e a r l i e r as d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s a r e  immediately  compromised.  In terms of f u l f i l l i n g  those i d e a l s t h e r e a r e  c l e a r advantages t o s i m p l y d e v e l o p i n g a l l modules w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g  50  to  i n c o r p o r a t e the work of o t h e r s .  However, when f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n  to the magnitude of the t a s k and  t o the limited, r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r  i t s completion,  the need to take advantage of e x i s t i n g components a v a i l -  a b l e from other systems i s e v i d e n t . by which implementation b a s i s and  As i t turned out, o f t e n the  d e c i s i o n s were taken a r e as i n t e r e s t i n g as  the m e r i t of the d e c i s i o n s themselves.  f a r from the academic o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s , cant and  processes the  Without d i g r e s s i n g some of the more  too  signifi-  o f t e n p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l be i n c l u d e d to c l a r i f y  the  p r i o r i t y and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s .  Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t d e s i g n d e c i s i o n was  to amass and  a d d i t i v e l y i n c o r p o r a t e a l l of the a v a i l a b l e c a p a c i t i e s p r i o r to decomposing each package i n t o one  s t r e a m l i n e d and  T h i s d e c i s i o n was a)  based  t o t a l i t y i n t e g r a t e d system  on a combination  t i m i n g - p l a n s f o r the 1976  of  (GENESIS).  factors:  Census had a l r e a d y been s e t w i t h  p r i o r i t i e s and manpower assignments not f a v o r i n g a massive  b)  systems development  undertaking,  c r e d i t - by keeping  the i n t e g r i t y of the packages,  v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i n g sources would be more l i k e l y due c)  the to r e c e i v e  credit,  documentation - though r e l a t i v e l y s p a r s e , e x i s t i n g document a t i o n c o u l d be i n i t i a l l y used w i t h o u t major r e v i s i o n s ,  d)  e d u c a t i o n - the p r o c e s s of systems a d o p t i o n and c o u l d be handled  acceptance  as a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s g i v i n g the v a r i o u s  51  p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s the o p p o r t u n i t y to a s s i m i l a t e the technology e)  as a s e r i e s of r e a s o n a b l e  new  s t e p s , and  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - the "packages" c o u l d be more e a s i l y as a d d i t i o n s t o . e x i s t i n g subsystems s i n c e l i n e s of s i b i l i t y had  Thus i t was  accepted  respon-  a l r e a d y been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  necessary  to d e l a y c e r t a i n d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s and  systems enhancements u n t i l the "working environment" i s b e t t e r prepared to  a c c e p t s u b s t a n t i a l change, a f a c t o r not always f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d when  a l l of the work i s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the academic community.  There i s a t l e a s t one  other macro-level design t r a d e - o f f c o n s i -  d e r a t i o n t h a t should be mentioned a t t h i s p o i n t and  i t r e l a t e s to the  i n t e r p l a y of group dynamics, the power a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement and  the law .of r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . -  The  p r o v i s i o n of new  must be viewed i n terms of the s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e r o l e s and  interrelationships.  n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n , and i n a balanced  failing  to  service.  traditional  to d i s t r i b u t e both knowledge and  must be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d by any h i s work by h a v i n g  on  Moving too q u i c k l y , s k i p p i n g s t e p s i n a  f a s h i o n can d e s t r o y morale and  of  impact  technology  s e l f - e s t e e m and  capacities  this  d e s i g n e r wanting to ensure the  the c o - o p e r a t i o n and  support  factor success  of those he i s attempting  I f i t i s p o s s i b l e to reduce the amount of d u p l i c a t i o n to a  minimum, t h e r e i s g r e a t m e r i t i n the e x p r e s s i o n : i s worth doing t w i c e . "  The  the second time i t belongs  first  time  "Anything worth doing  the product belongs  to the d e s i g n e r ,  to the user even though the amount of i n v o l v e -  ment by the d e s i g n e r w i l l l i k e l y i n c r e a s e the second time around, i t w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g  " d i r e c t e d " by the end  user.  Hardware C o n f i g u r a t i o n  At the time o f the a u t h o r ' s b a s i c hardware a v a i l a b l e t o support mainframe w i t h o n l y the standard  a r r i v a l i n Ottawa i n 1973, the  SIDS c o n s i s t e d o f the IBM 370/165  h i g h speed l i n e p r i n t e r s  (with 6 and 8  l i n e s / i n c h r e s o l u t i o n s ) f o r v e r y crude r a s t b r drawings and a v e r y CALCOMP 663 drum p l o t t e r and  liquid  (see F i g u r e 11) capable  i n k pen l i n e drawings.  of t h a t year  During  of producing  slow  ball-point  the program f o r e c a s t e x e r c i s e  the r e s e a r c h and development group r e q u e s t e d  t h a t money  be s e t a s i d e f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s equipment i n 1977-78.  The e x p e n d i t u r e  of these funds would be c o n t i n g e n t upon r e s u l t s  o f f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s (1975-76) and bench-mark e v a l u a t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t i v e equipment  (1976-77).  Nine months l a t e r , however, i t became e v i d e n t  that  g r e a t e r p l o t t i n g c a p a c i t y than c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by the a g i n g CALCOMP 663 would be needed to support Census. and  the p r o d u c t i o n requirements  f o r the 1976  The d e c i s i o n was taken t o purchase a new p l o t t e r t o supplement  e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e the CALCOMP 663 and ( s i n c e the funds were a v a i l -  a b l e ) t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s equipment, as a second component o f a s i n g l e , i n t e g r a t e d package. of these events  The importance  and t h e i r impact upon the i d e a l hardware  requirements  f o r GENESIS r e s t s w i t h the speed i n which the equipment had t o be p u r chased and the f a c t t h a t the primary on the requirement  impetus and j u s t i f i c a t i o n was based  f o r a h i g h speed p l o t t i n g d e v i c e .  In short, only  vendors a b l e t o combine p l o t t i n g and i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s systems i n t o a s i n g l e package and a l s o a b l e t o meet the s t r i n g e n t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the p l o t t i n g d e v i c e w h i l e guaranteeing were c o n s i d e r e d .  short-term  f i n a l d e l i v e r y dates  S i n c e o n l y two vendors c o u l d meet these  "production-  53  54 o r i e n t e d " s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and the f i n a l d e c i s i o n was  based  s i n c e the c o s t q u o t a t i o n s were comparable, on the f a c t t h a t one of the two vendors  o n l y p r o v i d e d a s i n g l e - s o u r c e " b l a n k e t " maintenance agreement but o f f e r e d an e x i s t i n g i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s software package as a p o i n t f o r development. configuration.  F i g u r e 12 d e t a i l s the elements  also  starting-  o f t h i s hardware  The a c t u a l s e l e c t i o n of components f o r the i n i t i a l  ware c o n f i g u r a t i o n were based  hard-  on t h r e e primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s :  1.  the amount of funds  2.  the need f o r an a s s u r e d p l o t t i n g c a p a c i t y , and  3.  concern over the l o c a t i o n of the equipment facility  not  available,  ( i . e . , i f the  supported more than simple g r a p h i c d a t a h a n d l i n g  t h e r e was  a s t r o n g argument f o r l o c a t i n g i t i n a c e n t r a l i z e d  i n s t a l l a t i o n where s e c u r i t y and  s e r v i c e c o u l d be p r o v i d e d  24 hours per day; however we r e q u i r e d "hands-on" a c c e s s by production  staff.).  For a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i v e d i s p l a y system see  (IDS)  software  (37).  As Boyle  (38) p o i n t s out, one of the standard approaches  by many d e v e l o p e r s o f automated systems f o r c a r t o g r a p h y i s to s t a r t an e x i s t i n g g r a p h i c s system, a p p l i c a t i o n , and adapt The  IDS-2 system  developed  u s u a l l y designed  for a slightly  taken with  different  t h a t package to the s p e c i f i c c a r t o g r a p h i c t a s k .  (two-dimensional  g r a p h i c s ) , f o r example was  designed  and  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t board diagrams and  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to thematic and r e f e r e n c i n g mapping i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n the next  section.  56 Software C o n f i g u r a t i o n Two  o f the t h r e e major components of the l i n e g r a p h i c s  ware; the CALCOMP 663 l y compatible  p l o t t e r and  the IDS  w i t h a l l e x i s t i n g software  hard-  g r a p h i c s s t a t i o n were immediatet h a t generated  line  graphics  (see F i g u r e 12) by the simple s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a JCL parameter which i n s u r e d the s e l e c t i o n and  c o n c a t e n a t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e l i b r a r y o f  CALCOMP-compatible s u b r o u t i n e s .  I t was  necessary  mounted even b e f o r e the purchase of the new systems to be bench-marked. to  The  the f a c t t h a t the CALCOMP 663  28 i n c h e s by 200 42 p l o t t e r was inches.  feet  hardware to permit  important  p l o t t e r was  i n t e r f a c e problem r e l a t e d  capable of p l o t t i n g  restricted  s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e g r a t i o n a c t i v i t y was  the  T h i s s e c t i o n i n g c a p a c i t y was  - ^ f a c t t h a t the new one  specific-  3 feet  by  l a t e r to become an i n t e g r a t e d  subsystems (eg., GIMMS, PILLAR, e t c . ) .  p l o t t e r p r o v i d e d f o u r software r e f e r e n c a b l e pen  of the primary reasons  f o r r e w r i t i n g the polygon  p l o t t i n g subsystem (SYSPLOT) f o r the CGMF system.  selection  Although  The holders and  o n l y a minor  enhancement c o n c e p t u a l l y , the p r o v i s i o n of m u l t i c o l o r e d v e r i f i c a t i o n resulted process. file  i n a 3 to 5 f o l d  i n c r e a s e i n "thruput f o r the polygon  As a n a t u r a l consequence, the SYSPLOT package and  subsystems and  the f i r s t  stage of f i l e and  plots  editing  the a s s o c i a t e d  s t r u c t u r e r e p l a c e d the Query Area Boundary c r e a t i o n and  achieved.  48  development of a p o s t - p r o c e s s i n g " s e c t i o n i n g " r o u t i n e to  component of subsequent SID  was  strips  to a t o t a l p l o t t i n g s u r f a c e of 37 i n c h e s by  c o n v e r t the l i n e g r a p h i c s t r i p s i n t o r e c t a n g l e s not exceeding 4 feet.  the v a r i o u s  (the l e n g t h of a r o l l of paper) w h i l e the GERBER  Thus the f i r s t  a t i o n and  first  to have these r o u t i n e s  editing  systems i n t e g r a t i o n  To improve the f i n a l p l o t t e d product by d i s s o l v i n g  was unnecessary  57 i n t e r n a l b o u n d a r i e s , a g e n e r a l purpose a g g l o m e r a t i o n from polygon boundaries  a l g o r i t h m t h a t performs (PAPB),  p o i n t adjustment, and  c o n v e r t s t h e polygon boundaries i n t o a n e t w o r k - o r i e n t e d d a t a was  developed  and i n t e g r a t e d .  polygon  I t has been used t o "assemble"  structure polygon  p a r t s i n t o whole polygons and to " r o l l - u p " polygon s e t s i n t o m a c r o - l e v e l g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s by e x t r a c t i n g the e x t e r n a l boundaries o f a g i v e n subset.  The next l i n e g r a p h i c g e n e r a t i n g subsystem  t o be i n t e g r a t e d  was  t h e SYMVU package from the Harvard L a b o r a t o r y f o r Computer G r a p h i c s  and  Spatial Analysis  (see F i g u r e s 5 and 6) which produces  s i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e views of t o p o g r a p h i c or s t a t i s t i c a l  three-dimen-  surfaces.  Since  the SYMVU package i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d p o s t - p r o c e s s o r f o r the SYMAP program ( F i g u r e 1) which formed  t h e b a s i s o f t h e MAPPAK module of GRDSR, t h e  i n t e g r a t i o n e x e r c i s e was reduced  t o mounting t h e system w i t h the JCL  o p t i o n to s e l e c t t h e p l o t t i n g d e v i c e and to upgrading t h e CALCOMP compat a b l e s u b r o u t i n e l i b r a r y s u p p l i e d by Gerber an e n t r y p o i n t , t h e formula r e q u i r e d  Scientific  t o i n c l u d e , as  to a u t o m a t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e  offsets  (a f e a t u r e used e x t e n s i v e l y by SYMVU).  In response  to demands by t h e Census of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r c h o r o -  p l e t h maps i n c o l o r comparible w i t h those produced  by t h e US Bureau  (see F i g u r e s 13 and 14), t h e author o b t a i n e d the source code and the right  t o use and modify  the GIMMS (Geographic I n f o r m a t i o n M a n i p u l a t i o n  and Mapping System) package.  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n between  t h e author and t h e o r i g i n a l d e v e l o p e r , Mr. Thomas Waugh, t h e GIMMS package has been enhanced a c c o r d i n g t o t h e requirements o f t h e Census p l o t t i n g  POPULATION CHANGE BY CENSUS D I V I S I O N S 1971-1976  VARIATION DE LA POPULATION PAR D I V I S I O N S DE RECENSEMENT 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6  SOURCE I 1971 CENSUS if CANTOR. PTOOUCtO Bf STATISTICS CANADA  Figure  14  60 and p r o d u c t i o n environment.  Enhancements i n c l u d e d t h e a d d i t i o n o f new  commands (e.g., NEWSHEET which performs s e c t i o n i n g ) and the m o d i f i c a t i o n of o l d commands t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c r e a t i o n o f c o l o r s e p a r a t i o n o v e r l a y s . While t h e IDS-2 system w i t h i t s standard capacities  l i n e graphics  manipulation  (add, d e l e t e , change, move, window, t e s t , copy, save, e t c . )  was intended  t o be used to i n t e r a c t i v e l y enhance t h e thematic  produced by t h e GIMMS package, Mr.  Waugh d e c i d e d  to develop  module f o r i n t e r a c t i v e thematic map c o m p i l a t i o n .  graphics  a special  Thus some but not a l l  of t h e f e a t u r e s o f IDS-2 have been d i r e c t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the GIMMS package.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y u n t i l an i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s s t o r a g e tube i s  i n t e r f a c e d w i t h the AMDAHL 470 under TSO, to p e r m i t c u r s o r h i t s t o be recorded  f o r p o s i t i o n i n g map elements such as t e x t , legends,  e t c . , t h i s component w i l l n o t be implemented a t Census.  north-arrows,  (Note:  two  such d e v i c e s a r e c u r r e n t l y on o r d e r . )  However, t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f GIMMS have been mounted a t STC. The  s t a n d a r d v e r s i o n o p e r a t i n g under RJE:HASP and p r o d u c i n g  CALCOMP o r GERBER p l o t tapes.  either  T h i s v e r s i o n i s supplemented by a t e s t  v e r s i o n which a c t s as a command v e r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s o r and does n o t a c t u a l l y produce a p l o t around).  tape  (which would r e s u l t i n much slower  Thus s e v e r a l maps c a n be debugged and submitted  p l o t t i n g i n a s i n g l e r u n and p r o d u c i n g  for final  a single, multi-file plot  A t h i r d v e r s i o n o f GIMMS i s a l s o mounted a t STC and i t runs 180  K p a r t i t i o n under TSO.  turn  tape.  i n a single  To do so however, the o v e r l a y s t r u c t u r e i s  so i n t r i c a t e t h a t n o t a l l o f the o t h e r modules can be accessed w h i l e w i t h i n t h e domain o f any g i v e n module (which  directly  i s the u s u a l c a s e ) .  The power gained by b e i n g a b l e t o i n t e r a c t i v e l y " b u i l d " a thematic map  more than compensates  f o r t h e need f o r g r e a t e r  c i n g of t h e a c c e s s to major  system  61 s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e sequen-  modules.  F i n a l l y a s p e c i a l i n t e r f a c e was i n c l u d e d to l i n k t h e GlMMS package  t o t h e CARTLIB f i l e which c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l s e t s o f s t a n d a r d  g e o s t a t i s t i c a l region boundaries i n d i g i t i z e r co-ordinates. is the  c u r r e n t l y underway to e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between t h e GlMMS package and polygon base f i l e s  i n UTM c o - o r d i n a t e s w i t h i n the CGMF and QAL bases.  U n l i k e t h e b o u n d a r i e s s t o r e d w i t h i n t h e CARTLIB f i l e , are  Development  n o t r e f e r e n c e d t o a s i n g l e c o - o r d i n a t e system  these boundaries  (e.g., d i g i t i z e r c o -  o r d i n a t e s f o r a s i n g l e sheet) and p r i o r t o e s t a b l i s h i n g  the format  trans-  f o r m a t i o n i n t e r f a c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to perform a p r o j e c t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from UTM ( w i t h s e v e r a l (15) zones, o r s e p a r a t e o r i g i n s , f o r Canada) to  some o t h e r s i n g l e zone p r o j e c t i o n system such as the Lambert  Conic P r o j e c t i o n .  Two packages  t h a t a r e needed  t o perform such c o n v e r -  s i o n s have been o b t a i n e d ; one from t h e Surveys and Mapping and t h e o t h e r from t h e CIA i n t h e USA. and i n t e r f a c e d way  Conformal  Branch o f EMR  Both have been compiled, mounted,  t o t h e GRDSR and CGMF systems.  Tests are c u r r e n t l y  to e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f each component.  under-  As soon as the  e v a l u a t i o n has been made t h e i n t e r f a c e to GlMMS and SYMAP w i l l be i m p l e mented.  Another component o f t h e SIDS system i s t h e PILLAR mapping program of  (see F i g u r e 15) o b t a i n e d from P r o f . David Douglas o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y  Ottawa.  The d e v e l o p e r i s c u r r e n t l y under c o n t r a c t t o enhance  this  module a c c o r d i n g to t h e a u t h o r ' s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s so t h a t fewer s t e p s w i l l r e q u i r e manual i n t e r v e n t i o n and t h e f i n a l product w i l l be more  63  c o m p l e t e l y automated.  The  f i n a l component of the SIDS system i s the dot mapping sub-  system o b t a i n e d from the US Bureau of the Census. c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g  the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l u e of the r e g i o n by the v a l u e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d o t . limits  The number of dots i s  The dots are then p l a c e d randomly w i t h i n the  of the r e g i o n and weighted  a c c o r d i n g to a g r i d of l a n d use v a l u e s  ( i f they a r e s u p p l i e d ) .  A l l o f the p r o d u c t s i l l u s t r a t e d Census p e r s o n n e l and  i n Appendix A were produced  by  show t h a t the system components, w h i l e perhaps not  i n t e r f a c e d i n the most convenient  or e f f i c i e n t  f a s h i o n , are o p e r a b l e .  64 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE  F i n a l Product  Suitability  In a p e r i o d o f a l i t t l e v a s t l y improved  over two y e a r s , the Census F i e l d has  i t s a b i l i t y t o produce  a v a r i e t y of high q u a l i t y  refer-  ence and thematic g r a p h i c p r o d u c t s through the use o f automated and semiautomated systems.  From a base c a p a c i t y i n v o l v i n g the use o f the SYMAP  package t o generate r a s t e r g r a p h i c s on the standard IBM h i g h speed  printers  and manually d r a f t e d boundary o v e r l a y s and t i t l e s f o r 1971 Census d a t a , the system has e v o l v e d t o produce  p o i n t symbol maps and c h o r o p l e t h maps  not o n l y i n b l a c k and white but a l s o i n c o l o r w i t h a l l t e x t u a l and l i n e work produced  e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by s o f t w a r e or i n t e r a c t i v e l y u s i n g i n t e r -  a c t i v e graphics;: packages. improved  While  the q u a l i t y o f these p r o d u c t s i s v a s t l y  and w h i l e r e s u l t s a r e n o t as y e t c o m p l e t e l y comparible w i t h  s t a n d a r d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h manually produced  c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t s , the  minor d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more than compensated f o r by the f a c t t h a t w i t h o u t resorting produce  t o computerized  t e c h n i q u e s i t would be v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o  a r e a s o n a b l e number o f maps i n the s h o r t time p e r i o d  between the date the d a t a i s c e r t i f i e d  (2-3 weeks)  as a c c e p t a b l e by s u b j e c t matter  e x p e r t s and the date by which the maps have t o be submitted to the p r i n t e r f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the standard b u l l e t i n s and volume s e r i e s  publications.  A-.major improvement i n f i n a l product s u i t a b i l i t y r e l a t e s to the use o f p o p u l a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l ecumene (the a r e a covered by p o p u l a t i o n \ or a g r i c u l t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y ) boundaries  (see F i g u r e 16) i n s t e a d o f the  e n t i r e g e o s t a t i s t i c a l r e g i o n s used i n 1971 which gave the f a l s e s i o n o f v a s t and extreme d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n the l a r g e n o r t h e r l y  impres-  zones where the p a r t i c u l a r s t a t i s t i c a l phenomena was p r a c t i c a l l y nonexistent.  The use of e m p i r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  66  w i t h i n the  PILLAR program a l s o approaches t h i s problem by v i s u a l l y s t r e s s i n g the southern l a t i t u d e s .  The  j u d i c i o u s use o f c o l o r has not o n l y improved t h e a e s t h e t i c  v a l u e but i n g e n e r a l  has a l s o improved the r e a d a b i l i t y o f the maps.  h i g h degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y  f o r experimenting w i t h a l t e r n a t e formats and  l a y o u t s has a l s o improved the a p p e a l o f t h e p r o d u c t s ,  both f o r r e f e r e n c e  base maps and thematic maps s i n c e the time c o s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ments i s low enough t o permit h i g h e r  Software  standards t o be  improve-  enforced.  Suitability  G i v e n the m u l t i t u d e i n support o f these p r o d u c t s , lized  The  of systems t h a t a r e p r e s e n t l y b e i n g i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible  used  t o make genera-  statements and t h e r e f o r e each component must be t r e a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y .  MAPPAK  The  SYMAP base o f t h i s module o f the GRDSR system s t i l l has  the unique c a p a c i t y to produce i s o p l e t h maps t h a t i s not c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n other  components o f SIDS.  As a r e s u l t i t i s t h i s module t h a t i s  used to g e n e r a t e a l l i s o p l e t h maps and to perform t r e n d  surface a n a l y s i s .  F i n a l l y i t i s used t o generate the r e g u l a r g r i d of v a l u e s input  t o the SYMVU program.  r e q u i r e d as  67  SYMVU  While  t h e r e a r e numerous o t h e r t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l b l o c k diagram  g e n e r a t i n g programs a v a i l a b l e ,  none have been found  that  produce  better  quality graphics.  MAPMAKR  Although File  (AMF) c r e a t i o n  t h i s module i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e GRDSR urban Area Master and update p r o c e s s and c a n output AMF p l o t  i n v a r i o u s combinations  on e i t h e r  components  the CALCOMP 663 or the GERBER  i t has grown to be expensive and unmanageable.  stations,  The f i n a l product must be  upgraded t o permit f e a t u r e s a t m u l t i p l e l e v e l s , i n d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s and o r g a n i z e d i n l o g i c a l groups f o r i n t e r a c t i v e  editing.  SYSPLOT  While  t h i s subsystem i s f a r more f l e x i b l e  than i t s p r e d e c e s s o r ,  i t does n o t y e t p r o v i d e the complete s e t o f o p t i o n s needed t o s e l e c t and p l o t according to a r b i t r a r y  scales,  windows) and s e t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  that  partitions  (e.g., n o n - r e c t a n g u l a r  are either  pre-determined  or d e r i v e d .  GlMMS  The major l i m i t a t i o n s lack  o f t h i s component, a s i d e from the n o t a b l e  of dot and i s o p l e t h mapping c a p a c i t i e s ,  (as opposed t o 3 a r t o g r a p h i c ) o r i e n t a t i o n default  assumptions.  relate  t o the mathematical  c f the v a r i o u s command and  A complete e v a l u a t i o n has been prepared  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e author  (39) and i s a v a i l a b l e  under the  for distribution.  68  PILLAR I I  Most o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f PILLAR I w i l l be removed as the r e s u l t o f t h e c u r r e n t c o n t r a c t w i t h the systems o r i g i n a t o r . s i g n i f i c a n t remaining t h i s subsystem.  The most  l i m i t a t i o n w i l l be t h e b a t c h - o r i e n t e d  operation of  The next stage o f development w i l l i n v o l v e c o n v e r t i n g  the program t o r u n i n t e r a c t i v e l y and o n - l i n e so t h a t t h e c a r t o g r a p h e r can experiment w i t h v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e views and s c a l e s to e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e t h e most a p p e a l i n g  and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  graphic.  DOT MAPPING  While the techniques  employed i n the a l g o r i t h m p r o v i d e d  US Bureau o f the Census possess a s i m p l i s t i c elegance, t h a t assume i s o t r o p i c planes  or network-like  other  by the  approaches  d i s t r i b u t i o n s should be  provided.  IDS-2  The major l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s module has been the r e s i s t a n c e to  speedy enhancement due to the s p e c i a l i z e d (macro) a s s e m b l e r - l i k e  language, ICT, ( i n t e r a c t i v e command t a b l e language) t h a t must be used to g e n e r a t e new f u n c t i o n s .  Phase I o f our i n t e r n a l IDS development  program w i l l be l i m i t e d t o r e c o r d i n g o n l y simple add, d e l e t e and change commands f o r updating  s e t s o f polygons s t o r e d on t h e AMDAHL.  t h i s c a p a c i t y w i l l r e p r e s e n t not much more than a p r o t o - t y p e demonstrate t h e f e a s i b i l i t y " f r i e n d l y " system ( i . e . ,  Clearly system to  o f a d a p t i n g what i s both a powerful and  the program can f i l t e r and r e c o v e r  from f a u l t y  69 i n p u t s ) to the s p e c i f i c needs o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r i n t e r a c t i v e polygon and  updating.  edit  B e f o r e such a c a p a c i t y c o u l d be turned over t o p r o d u c t i o n  i t would be n e c e s s a r y  t o i n c o r p o r a t e modules t h a t monitor  p r o v i d e q u a l i t y assurance  functions.  (Note:  thruput and  Phase I I w i l l i n v o l v e the  p r o v i s i o n o f an i n t e r a c t i v e MAPMAKR c a p a c i t y , d e s c r i b e d above, and i s still  i n t h e systems a n a l y s i s stage.)  None-the-less  i t can be s t a t e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l modules l i s t e d  above r e p r e s e n t , unto themselves,  advanced s t a t e s on a development con-  tinuum and t h a t the needed enhancements w i l l r e p r e s e n t a m a r g i n a l investment  w i t h major b e n e f i t s i n u t i l i t y and ease o f use.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s u i t a b i l i t y provides further insight  Hardware  o f t h e hardware, the next  increased  Following a chapter  i n t o the p l a n s f o r f u t u r e development.  Suitability  Keeping i n mind the haste  i n which most o f the c u r r e n t  equip-  ment was a c q u i r e d , i t has performed e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l and has, i f one c o n s i d e r s the complete s e t o f hardware, exceeded the minimal for  requirements  p r o d u c t i o n t a s k s i n terms of speed, q u a l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y .  Excep-  t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d module by module.  CALCOMP 663  Relegated  t o the r o l e o f a back-up p l o t t i n g f a c i l i t y due t o  i t s low speed performance (3 i n c h e s per second), to  the CALCOMP c o n t i n u e s  serve, f a i t h f u l l y and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r those a p p l i c a t i o n s  requiring  J !  s t r i p " plots or l i q u i d  i n k on mylar.  70 GERBER 42  T h i s d e v i c e i s c u r r e n t l y h a n d l i n g 95% of a l l p l o t t i n g r e q u i r e ments on p r i m a r i l y a s i n g l e - s h i f t b a s i s and of i t s extremely  h i g h speed  (42 i n c h e s per second).  f l e x i b l y p r o v i d e f o r p l o t t i n g up operator i n t e r v e n t i o n .  i s a b l e to do so by  virtue  M u l t i p l e pen  to f o u r c o l o r s or pen  sizes  holders  without  Because the software w i t h i n the t e r m i n a l c o n t r o l l e r  of the d e v i c e i s a b l e to d e t e c t sharp or smooth changes i n d i r e c t i o n i n advance, the p l o t t e r can a l t e r  speed and  p r i a t e f o r the d e s i r e d l i n e b e h a v i o r .  a c c e l e r a t i o n i n a f a s h i o n appro-  While the vaccuum h o l e s  drilled  i n t o the drum a c c o r d i n g to a § i n c h g r i d p a t t e r n p r o v i d e f o r q u i c k seconds) and easy paper u n l o a d i n g and  l o a d i n g , they have degraded  q u a l i t y of the l i n e work f o r both i n k and have m o d i f i e d  for scribing.  the p a t t e r n of these h o l e s to reduce  problem and now  the  Scientific  ( i f not e l i m i n a t e ) the  p r o v i d e an improved pen head assembly f o r more f l e x i b l e  set-up and c a l i b r a t i o n .  Higher  q u a l i t y g r a p h i c s a r e c u r r e n t l y produced  by u n d e r l a y i n g mylar m a t e r i a l and  a t t a c h i n g s c r i b e or p l o t t i n g m a t e r i a l  w i t h masking tape and by r e d u c i n g the p l o t t i n g speed by  GERBER IDS  Gerber  (17  one-half.  STATION  Because t h i s component i s not as y e t f u l l y d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  t h a t are uncovered  h i g h volume usage have not as y e t been i d e n t i f i e d . l i m i t a t i o n s have a l r e a d y been i d e n t i f i e d .  integrated into  pro-  through  None-the-less,  The C a r t r a f i l e u n i t has  certain not  proven to be e f f e c t i v e nor r e l i a b l e as a d a t a s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l d e v i c e . The  s t a n d a r d Hewlett-Packard  computers and magnetic tape d r i v e s have  had minor amounts of down-time.  Once the o r i g i n a l tube was  replaced  the same can be s a i d o f t h e Tek.tronixs 4014 CRT repackaged wired f r e e - a r m c u r s o r by Gerber  Scientific.  While  with a hard-  the Burroughs 80  c h a r a c t e r LED d i s p l a y w i t h 80 f u n c t i o n buttons and standard keyboard has not shown the same l e v e l o f r e l i a b i l i t y as the ASR - 33 t e l e t y p e w r i t e r , i t has been f a r more convenient  to o p e r a t e .  In summary, the s u i t a b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s f i n a l p r o d u c t s , ware systems and hardware d e v i c e s w h i l e e s s e n t i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f a l l of the t r u e p o t e n t i a l and a n t i c i p a t e d b e n e f i t s . d e s c r i b e s many o f the proposed  enhancements.  Thus the next  softshort  chapter  72  IMPROVEMENTS AND ENHANCEMENTS  Plans a r e c u r r e n t l y underway to enhance a l l a s p e c t s o f the SIDS package.  By t h e end of June 1977, GENESIS Phase I I w i l l p r o v i d e o n - l i n e /  o f f - l i n e d i g i t i z i n g and p l o t t i n g ,  i n t e r a c t i v e program development c a p a c i -  t i e s and b u l k d a t a s t o r a g e c a p a c i t i e s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n to the p r o d u c t i o n process.  The o n - l i n e d i g i t i z i n g f u n c t i o n w i l l be p r o v i d e d by the AUTOMAP  system ( a c q u i r e d a t no charge  from the Lands D i r e c t o r a t e and the F o r e s t  Management I n s t i t u t e o f the Department o f F o r e s t r y and the Environment) which w i l l be r u n on an HP 1000 Model 31 mini-computer system and which will initially  support two i n t e r a c t i v e d i g i t i z i n g and e d i t i n g  stations.  The advantages o f moving from a b a t c h - o r i e n t e d to an i n t e r a c t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d s p a t i a l d a t a c a p t u r e p r o c e s s r e l a t e to the a b i l i t y  to s p o o l d a t a  locally  and perform o n - s i t e v i s u a l v e r i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e t r a n s f e r r i n g the d a t a t o the time-consuming b a t c h environment mean e l a p s e d time i s v e r y g r e a t ) .  ( i . e . , w i t h one day t u r n around the  I t i s expected,  f o r example, t h a t  p r o c e s s e s c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g 4-7 i t e r a t i o n s w i l l be reduced or l e s s and the minimal  e l a p s e d time f o r customized  to 2 i t e r a t i o n s  r e t r i e v a l w i l l be c u t  from weeks to days.  The upgrading  o f IDS-2 (based on the ICT language) t o IDS-3  (based on FORTRAN) and the p l a c i n g o f the Gerber model 42 p l o t t e r on l i n e to a HP 1000 Model 30 mini-computer  (upgrade to the HP 2100A) s h a r i n g a  s e t of- two 15 Megabyte d i s k s t o r a g e u n i t s w i l l p r o v i d e an environment where p r o d u c t i o n s t a f f w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r work through a l l phases from d i g i t i z i n g  to p l o t t i n g .  The c o n t r o l c o n s o l e and  the g r a p h i c s CRT components o f the AUTOMAP d i g i t i z i n g  stations w i l l  both  73 be a b l e t o access the i n t e r a c t i v e thematic map c o m p i l a t i o n module o f the GlMMS system to g r e a t l y enhance t h e map l a y o u t and c o m p i l a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . Not  t a k i n g advantage o f t h a t module has proven t o be v e r y l e n g t h y and  i n v o l v e s numerous manual c a l c u l a t i o n s and s e v e r a l time-consuming  trial  runs.  The  f a c t t h a t the new hardware can support numerous standard  programming languages,  100 megabytes of d a t a , and t h a t each CPU has the  c a p a c i t y to expand to a megabyte o f h i g h d e n s i t y c o r e s t o r a g e means t h a t changes to e x i s t i n g software  t o meet t h e needs o f p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be f a r  more s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d than was the case f o r IDS Phase I f o r example.  The  a c q u i s i t i o n of a r e a s o n a b l y l a r g e (22") h i g h speed, h i g h r e s o l u t i o n p r i n t e r / p l o t t e r hardcopy d e v i c e w i l l p r o v i d e f o r q u i c k v e r i f i c a t i o n of r e a s o n a b l e  plots  q u a l i t y l e a v i n g t h e Model 42 t o do the b u l k o f the h i g h  q u a l i t y l i n e g r a p h i c s work r e q u i r e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s .  To enhance the  q u a l i t y o f the Model 42, a photohead w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be a c q u i r e d t o produce the h i g h r e s o l u t i o n g r a p h i c p r o d u c t s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  light-emitting  photo-plotting devices  2800 i n c h e s  per  ( w h i l e doing  so a t speeds approaching  minute).  Software enhancements t o the thematic mapping subsystems a r e a l s o planned.  As mentioned e a r l i e r ,  the PILLAR mapping package i s b e i n g  extended by the o r i g i n a t o r and a subsequent c o n t r a c t t o c o n v e r t the program t o r u n i n i n t e r a c t i v e mode i s l i k e l y . extended t o p e r m i t  The GlMMS program w i l l be  t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f d o t maps w h i l e AUTOMAP w i l l be en-  hanced t o meet p r o d u c t i o n needs f o r network and polygon cities.  formation capa-  74 Finally, negotiations are currently under way to obtain various packages (at no charge for the software) that produce s t a t i s t i c a l graphics such as pie diagrams, histograms, standard mathematical graphs, CPM etc.  diagramS|  75  CONCLUSIONS  Since the l a t e 1960's, geographic have spread  throughout the world  decision-makers tion.  attempting  f o r r e l e v a n t , a c c u r a t e , and  The need to i n t e g r a t e , a n a l y s e and  information processing  systems  to s a t i s f y the demands of timely s t a t i s t i c a l  informa-  summarize l a r g e volumes of  data  from d i v e r s e s o u r c e s , a t v a r y i n g s c a l e s , w i t h v a r i a b l e c o e f f i c i e n t s of reliability graphy and  ( e t c . ) has p l a c e d heavy demands on the d i s c i p l i n e s of geocomputer s c i e n c e and  ment f o r g r a p h i c data  on the manufacturers of s p e c i a l i z e d  equip-  handling.  I n i t i a l e f f o r t s v a r i e d from the h i g h l y p r a c t i c a l approach of GRDSR, through the t h e o r e t i c a l approach of the DIME system to the approach of CGIS. own  E s s e n t i a l l y each group proceeded on t h e i r own  p e r s p e c t i v e s and  holistic with  their  t h e i r own d e s i r e s to produce the f i r s t e f f e c t i v e geo-  g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n system.  The  p r i n c i p a l developers  i n a l l of  these  (and many o t h e r ) systems can be proud of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e accomplishments. However, i t i s o n l y s i n c e they have moved on to new beginnings  of the e r a o f extremely  h o r i z o n s and  s i n c e the  t i g h t f i s c a l p o l i c y t h a t a t r e n d towards  c o - o p e r a t i v e development and h i g h l e v e l s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l exchange can firmly  identified.  The  r e c e n t f o r m a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s  Commission #8, TRRL, e t c . ) and  SORSA), n a t i o n a l and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l e a r i n g houses  l o c a l working groups (NCGIPG) and  formerly competitive agencies  (e.g.,  to share  workloads has p r o v i d e d c l e a r evidence  technology  IGU (GPE,  the w i l l i n g n e s s of and  actual production  of t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n .  The  end  be  r e s u l t has been t h a t each agency has been a b l e to q u i c k l y improve product l i n e and reduce  t o some degree t h e i r c o s t s by d e v e l o p i n g  software systems and d a t a exchange  their  76  compatable  standards.  Less and l e s s a r e systems d e s i g n e r s and d e v e l o p e r s o p t i m i z i n g on t h e i r own s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n and expending e x i s t i n g technology.  r e s o u r c e s on r e - i n v e n t i n g  I n c r e a s i n g l y t h e focus i s s h i f t i n g from the d e s i g n  of e l e g a n t a l g o r i t h m s t o the problems o f t h e machine t o machine and the program to program i n t e r f a c e problems. a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g p l a c e d on improving  At the same time  increasing  the man-machine i n t e r f a c e so t h a t  g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y can be  generated.  T h i s has been t r u e f o r SIDS ( l e , GENESIS I)  and w i l l  to be t h e case a s t h e system e v o l v e s towards m a t u r i t y and a f u l l capacities.  continue s e t of  77  FOOTNOTES  1.  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Ion, R. 1971,"GRDSR — G e o g r a p h i c a l l y Referenced Data Storage and R e t r i e v a l System", i n Geocoding '71 - Papers o f the Urban and R e g i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n Systems A s s o c i a t i o n Symposium, New O r l e a n s , ( r e p r i n t ) . Jones, K. 1971, "The Norwegian Geodata System", Presented a t the Urban Data Management Conference, Bonn, Germany, ( A p r i l ) . K e r r , A.J..~, E v a n g e l a t o s , T.V. and M a r s h a l l , D. 1969, "A System f o r P r o c e s s i n g Hydrographic Data", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Hydrographic Review. MacKay, J.R. 1969, "The P e r c e p t i o n o f C o n f o r m a l i t y o f Some Map P r o j e c t i o n s " , The G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, Volume 59, No. 3, pp.373-387. Marble, D.F. 1967, Some Computer Programs f o r Geographic Research, " =. Department of Geography, Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y , Evanston, 111., S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1, (August) Meyer, M.A., e t a l . , 1975, " C o l o r S t a t i s t i c a l Mapping by the U.S. of the Census", The American C a r t o g r a p h e r , Volume 2, No. pp. 100-117.  Bureau 2,  Mezei, L. 1968, "SPARTA, A P r o c e d u r e - O r i e n t e d Programming Language f o r the M a n i p u l a t i o n o f A r b i t r a r y L i n e Drawings", IFIP Conference Proceedings,.pp. C96-C102. r,  M i l l e r , W.F., and Shaw A.C. 1968, " L i n g u i s t i c Methods i n P i c t u r e P r o c e s s i n g A Survey", P r o c e e d i n g s o f the FJCC, Volume 33, P a r t 1, pp. 279-290.  82 M o n t a n a r i , U. 1970, "On L i m i t P r o p e r t i e s i n D i g i t i z a t i o n Schemes", J.A.CM., Volume 17, No. 2, pp. 348-360. M o r r i s o n , J . L . 1970, "A L i n k Between C a r t o g r a p h i c Theory and Mapping Practice: The N e a r e s t Neighbor S t a t i s t i c " , G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, Volume 60, No. 4, pp. 494-510. Muehrcke, P. 1972, Thematic Cartography, Resource Paper No. 19, Commission on C o l l e g e Geography, A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers. Newman, W.M. 1971, " D i s p l a y P r o c e d u r e s " , Communications o f t h e ACM, Volume 14, No. 10, pp. 651-660. Nordbeck,  S. and R y s t e d t , B. 1972, Computer Cartography, Student L i t t e r a t u r e , Lund.  Olson, J . " Q u a n t i t a t i v e Mapping: Some T h e o r e t i c a n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e American Congress on S u r v e y i n g and Mapping 31st Annual Meeting, 1971, pp. 1-8. Peucker, T.K. 1971, "Towards a G e o g r a p h i c a l Data S t r u c t u r e " , u n p u b l i s h e d mimeograph, Department o f Geography, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . Peucker, T.K. 1972, Computer Cartography, Resource Paper No. 17, Commission on C o l l e g e Geography, A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers. Peucker, T.K. 1972, Computer Cartography - A Working B i b l i o g r a p h y , D i s c u s s i o n Paper No. 12, Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . Peucker, T.K., and Chrisman, N. 1975, " C a r t o g r a p h i c Data S t r u c t u r e s " , The American C a r t o g r a p h e r , Volume 2, No. 1, pp. 55-69. P f a u l t z , J . L . , S n i v e l y , J.W. and R o s e n f e l d , A. 1968, " L o c a l and G l o b a l P i c t u r e P r o c e s s i n g by Computer", P i c t o r i a l P a t t e r n i . S e c q g n i t i o n , A.' R o s e n f e l d (Ed.), Thompson Book Co., pp. 353-371. Rhind, D.W. 1973, " G e n e r a l i z a t i o n and R e a l i s m W i t h i n Automated C a r t o g r a p h i c Systems", Canadian C a r t o g r a p h e r , Volume 10, No. 1, pp. 51-62. R o s e n f e l d , A. 1969, " P i c t u r e P r o c e s s i n g by Computer", Computing Surveys, Volume 1, No. 3, pp. 146-176. R o s e n f e l d , A. 1970, " C o n n e c t i v i t y i n D i g i t a l P i c t u r e s " , J.A.C.M., Volume 17, No. 1, pp. 146-160. Schmidt, W-..":;<1969, "The Automap System", S u r v e y i n g and Mapping, Volume XXIX, No. 1, (March), pp. 101-106.  83 S e l a n d e r , K. 1970, A S p a t i a l I n f o r m a t i o n System: A P i l o t StudyR e g i s t r a t i o n and S t o r i n g o f C o o r d i n a t e s , FRIS p u b l i c a t i o n C : l , Swedish C e n t r a l Board f o r R e a l E s t a t e Data, Sweden. Smith, C . C , and White, M.S. J r . 1971, "Geocoding Techniques by the Census Use Study", FJCC.  Developed  S t e i n e r , D. 1971,"GEOMAP" i n Environment I n f o r m a t i o n Systems R.F. Tomlinson ( E d . ) , IGU/COGDSP P u b l i c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan P r e s s , Saskatoon. T a y l o r , D.R.F. and Douglas, D. 1970, A Computer A t l a s o f Ottawa-Hull, Department o f Geography, C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , Ottawa. T o b l e r , W.R. 1973, " C h o r o p l e t h Maps Without C l a s s I n t e r v a l s ? " , G e o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s , Volume 5, No. 3, pp. 262-265. U.S. Bureau o f t h e Census 1970, The DIME Geocoding System, Census Use Study Report No. 4, Washington, D.C. W i t i u k , S.W. 1976, "The G e o g r a p h i c a l l y Referenced Data Storage and R e t r i e v a l System (GRDSR) o f S t a t i s t i c s Canada - Y e s t e r d a y and Today" i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f Symposium on Geographic I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g , D.R.F. T a y l o r ( E d . ) , C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Witiuk,  S.W. aridfPiamonte,VK., "Automated Cartography f o r the 1976 Census - P l a n s and P r o s p e c t s " , i n v i t e d paper f o r t h e F i r s t Annual M e t t i n g o f the Canadian C a r t o g r a p h i c A s s o c i a t i o n , May 1976, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , K i n g s t o n .  Van Dam, A. 1971, "Data and Storage S t r u c t u r e s f o r I n t e r a c t i v e G r a p h i c s " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f Symposium on Data S t r u c t u r e s , J.T. Tou and P. Wegner ( E d s . ) , SIGPLAN N o t i c e s , Volume 6, No. 2, pp. 237-267. Van Dam, A. and Evans, D. 1967, "A Compact Data S t r u c t u r e f o r S t o r i n g , R e t r i e v i n g , and M a n i p u l a t i n g L i n e Drawings", American F e d e r a t i o n of I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t i e s , SJCC, Volume 30 pp 601-610. Yan,  J . Z . 1973, GIDS - A G e o g r a p h i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n System, M.Sc. T h e s i s , Department o f Computer S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  APPENDIX A  TYPICAL PRODUCTS  FROM MODULES  OF THE  SIDS SUBSYSTEM  GlMMS Symbolism Chart  Base Mapping: Map  Size  00  Base Mapping: C e n t e r i n g  of Study A r e a w i t h i n Map  Frame  CO CO  oo  Base Mapping: Thicker Zone Boundaries  B a s e M a p p i n g : Map I n s e t s A  Base Mapping: Map  Insets B  Base Mapping: G r i d M a t r i x  SYSPLOT Output of Areas from an INTERFILE  95  COMPUTER-PLOTTED  STREET  MAP  OF  SASKATOON  (PORTION )  Sourc*: 1971 Cemui of Canoda  Source? R»c»memen* du Conodo et* 1971 MO, On  i  Inlet  -s:::::::::._.—  . • t.» » » . - - --» » »  ::::::::::  ::  -  •»«•* • » »i - . -<  mm••••«••••••»•••  ::-.:::::::::::  : ^ . r : « = ! H H E : : : : : : : : . . : : : . . . :  LP  V A N C O U V E R D E N S I T Y  O F  DENSITE DE  P O P U L A T I O N  L A  . I9 7I  P O P U L A T I O N  .  1971  Legend - Legende Persons per square mile Habitants par mille corre and more 12.000 0 et plus 11.999.9 9.000.0  Mile, <  .5  Sco le-cchelle 0 '  Kilometres 1 .5 0  3 Kilometres  Source • 1971 Census ot Conodo Produced by the Census Branch. Statistics Conodo  6.000.0  8.999.9  3.000.0  5.999.9  0.0  2.999.9  Source Recensemenl du Conodo de 1971 Elobl.e poi lo Direction du recensement Statist.que Conodc  98  iti alius .bib aaiaasesaBe tseeBaaaaaee.sissscccccc eeseeeKiiesseseeoctcc cc«<««  666ei8l6BeeissieeuciOijLC4»«<»» •«•••«• •••»•••• ^^.^ » fieBeBHBfl88B86Bij8GGl,'GUC***** + * •••• + ••• ******* **CCCCC SSSSKBSSSlcffi^ s6fiaeBfifiiaeeflCLCCOCGG+*«««•«••••+•*••••**••••*•••2*+**C0G8888©bBB86 lillieB&BeBeooGOOou^^ •  •• • +++• ••+•+  • •<+ !•*• + •  4  +  r  B B  GOOCCOOOOOCOCOOGGOCH•.••»4«»OCOaGaCCCGCOC*»*«*..•V  "  ee8B«ee8Bee6aoooooL»o»»»««»ccccoocoocGcocc*»*»"...i.  6B6eeeBeBBBBBBeOO00GOOOOOOCCGCC0UOC00CCCDCC*»»»«-  C[t*»»tt GUCCOGU aUGGOGGGGUC 6B8G0G00UCU feE6600 3UG<iE6 6@§SB88eSBtiE8 IU68B68HI8  !ll!fffnrniliiiiiiiSSfifll!  !..  <cccocoe|BBee6e8*s8Bii  illltlffSEEfffiSiSilSiill!  eaBeseeBeBBesaesBeccGuGoooocccGccuOOGJCCCOccG*"^^ Bee86eBBe8BBBBeBee6eoouooooQCOoGOoooGGCGCOccc»*«•••••••cccccccpoGBee|BeaB«  MffiHBSE--5wSffi  ••SHI • eeiaasaaaaaaasBS e 6686EBaMBjMaMB48UB •••••••I sBeeeEataa lgjj es s e e s e n — *••••••• eaeseBEEa ••••••• ••••••I 86S686S8EE8 IUI8e§ae88B8S800CG4eESi M  5  1  |  .«KKHSSKSIib11bbIoo3CCClc^ MMl«««l«««««««iBfeeBBe003CCCLCCCCC0CCC0CCLCJ00J0o H HaSKaHiffiffis^iM BHBSBSSBSOIIbbougccgm KKii»»Uii!3»iBeE8BooouccoccctcccGceeaeoouooajoc  l  juu«ii^§eei*ejcouccGCOLUGOcccccccccQUOL^ouaQCCCcccc + «*ccoajQ3uc  ..••••••••CCCCCCGO • •• •• •• •• •• •• • • +• C• C• C0 ••• • • CO  •BMMlMe6l*i«66660C0U0UCCCCCGCGCC0Gu0G0C0000U-l0«••••••••••+•••••+•••••••.... itiMM6ee©eaeeGGQ0000CCGGC0GGu0G0OCGGCG0QGOa •«••••••«•*••••••*•+•**••••••• •••..••••fueeeeecccGcoocccccccc*** ••••••••••••••••••+••• ••••••• ****** 2 «••••• u«*fceeeeeccccGocoocccGLO** •+••••• •••••••••+•••••••••• 1 •••••••••+•• eee*6eesGccoocoGi3CCGtJOc+++++++++++*++*+-^*++++*++** 1 -^* ....••••...... ofai*ieeGOGOCOGO JCOCCCCC ********************* ****** . ..••••••..1..• eee&cGLcoggoooqcccgg•••+••+2++•••••••••••••••••.• .••••••••..... eeOGGOGGCGGGGGGCXGC+*•+•*+••+••••••+•••••••••••. .•••••••••.... 0CG0O0dJ000CG0G CCC0C0CGCCCCC+ **+***••••••••«************************ • • •• •• •• •+ +• • • • • • • • • •••••+••• • CDuOOGCGG^+•+ •••••• ••••*+•• + • • • • +• •• •+ • • +• +•• ••+ ••••• l» ...***2****** *********** QiiLtCCCL* ********************* ********* ..•••••••••• GGCCG+* *••• • • • • • + • • • • • • • • • + • • • • • • • • . ..••••••••• ********************** 4** 4*m  '  •••••••••+••••+•2+••••••••• ••+••••••••••+••••••••••+•.. • •••••+••••••+• + ••••• ••••••t *•* ****************** •••+•••*•••••• •••+•••+••• •+•+••••• +++•••+  --..--.^.-.A  ..•••••+••• .••••••••••• .••••••+•••• •••••• • ••••  2***** ****** 4* *** ***** * * * *  ***** *****  SYMAP 0.C.J2C04 MNUltb (-CP. MAP  DATA VALUL LXTRtMES ARb 1  6071. OC  11811.00  ABSCLUTE VALUL RANGl APPLYING IC EACH LtVfcL t'MAXIMUM' IN hlChtSI CNLY* 1QJ97.60 HIM PUP 6071.00INCLUGcL) 7729.90 8548.40LLVLL 9508.80 MAXIMUM 7729.90 8548.4L 95C8.80 10357.60 libll.GG PEPCENTAGL OF TOTAL AbSGLUTfc VAL Ufc RANGt APPLYING Tu EACH LLVEl 28.90  14.26 16.73 .15.-.8  24.62  FP!:LULNCY DISTRIBUTION Of- DATA PC1NT VALUfcS IN tACH LtVtL Ll.VtL 1 2 3_ 4 _5 ********* c-ujlcgulig eegeseesB u i i i i i u •••••••• OC CC CO G3 OG CU CC U Ot,e8S4@SeS eetieefetotJdUIII II I5IUUUI I SYMBCLS . . . . 1 . . . . • ****2**** C 0 ••+•••••• gcoogoogo eeeeseeee ••••••••• CCOOLOuCO BfefceBBBUs* h r l c. I6" 9 IG 9 16 c  Source:  =  L a b o r a t o r y f o r Computer G r a p h i c s and S p a t i a l A n a l y s i s , SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5 t h e d i t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1975, p . V33.  I s a r i t h m i c Map (SYMAP)  XAXXA XXAXXXXXA AXX  0 99  *<ooae ... oGoeeaaaaaa . «uoc£wee»aaaaaaaaaa an .Gooeesecaaaaaaaaaaaaaia .cDoseeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaefeeeesseeeceettasdea • CQoeee»fcea»aaaa«aBa»8a6SBe«eeccuGooucijouuoojyBO()B*!iiiiiiiii .cccJBaasgaeeeaeeMfeaBeeOLOuuucoGGCuoGGOuuaLiijaoGCL^eiteiiaaaanaa GC0GieeeMsaaes8esaeasoc ea60CC00uc^G2 44*+«»4 444 44 »»»2 4t4»40uiJGGC66£<6iiaaBaaaBBa •GcooBeeaaeseaaeseaoooGccoGC******"** tucccccsgesttaaaaa OC*». GGcoooese«ea#aaaGocooooGC4+««4+«4+ «ccccc6666euB BCGC«» aa a •oGOOoooeeaeeeoooooooouo********. ••••••ccccoo6eeeai •688CGUC*" «jcooooo308eoooooooooooo* ••••••• <<««"Cccc4C6eee6aaaaaaaaai aaaaeeccoco ooooooooooogooooooooo20*+ ****** .GCGocGaaaeeaaaaaa • aaa aae666 3804Ci. GouaoGoooooooooooccouua** •••••» •<»*<«cccoujeeee<j&aaaaa aaaaa •aaeeuaaBeacG c o o o o o o 8 a e o o G o c o o G o o o o o + + • • + • • • • • « « « 4 * » « c c u c c u u a e b B e 8 a a a a a aaaaaa 888888686668 oooeeaaaeeeeoooGoooooooo* •«••+••••... i ++«*«*4 4CcccccLGeae£8'*aaiaa aasaaa a •••••seeeeeasbta a oeeeaaaeeaeeBeeooooooooooo*********** *••*«»«•»ccooccojus86e6eea«« •aaaaaaaaeaaaaaa4aaa aaaauaaaaaaaa^aa ee8eeeee©eeeeeeeeBOoooooooocc********3****+*****++********«*ccccccccu666eee6eaaB aaaaaaaaa aaaaaiHaaaaaaa eaeeseaeBBsaeeaeeeeeoooooQQGCCOG************************««cccccoococese66B6eeaaa ~aaaaaaa ••••••••••aaaaa a aesBBe©eeeeeeeeeeeeeeooooaocoGGCGG***************+****ococccccccGceB6eeeeeas8aa ••••••• aaaaaaaaiaaaaaaaa aBa»BBa»eaee8eeeeeeee§eBUGucccccGGoccGCGC»»»****»uujGUGGCCccccccocetetta666ttoesuia aaeEaeaaaeeeetCiaaaaa&a aataaani*|68ee8se8ee68sa8occcGGaaGGCOGGCGCCGGUoaoGGauaccocccccco6«6366ee6S6e8B66 a.a.a a.a a. _ 666B6666666666686666666BflUWaa „ 0CCG000C0GCC0CCCG0u0000CG3GCCCCCCC8eee§SBeee6e886ea6e68 eea6eeB886f66868886666 •aBee8a8e88ee6€66ccococGOCCGtCGCQOuuCGCGCGCCcccc6eiee6B6e68e6B6eiiB6888888 eseee886868868666 eees866e6868 eaee666666 ee6e6o6«a a« HiHaalaaaeaeaaeaBiaeccoGocGOGCOCCGcaocuGCcaGGCcccccEeieeeBaeaeBeBaeBB ^Maeaaeaeeeee6e86eeoGCCGCCGCGCG0UGOGGGGCGCCCCCi6668e6e68e6BaBea6aE6eeaeae6e8a468666686866686 4 a aaaaiaaiHaawaMeB8eaeaeee36ee68a6OCG0CCGCccG0OGU0GGGCGCccccc6E6e66BBa66aaaabeB68e84eee8e6Gcccacocccce66et:eaa aaBaBatwaaMHaaeaaaaeaeEeaaaaeBtcccGCOGcaoooGuoGCGcccccccccGcaeeaeaaaeaBeaaBEacGcoacccoccGcocooocGCceae 8a MMnMaMiueeaaaeaaaae666868eeOGOGC4GcccGGGOQOccccG':cc(ccccccGCGGUCGaaOGGauccccoooacccccGccciCQccccc66B • aaaaiBaa»ana68eaeaaaseea666e666uocGGGCGCccuGGuGuUGCGGCcccccccGCGGGGucouGooGuGCcccaooccoocGC«««acoGGccco68 a •aaHaauajeee8a8eeeeeeee6666GGGOuccGGCcccGGOOGUGccacGC3cccccccGocoGoccauGGuuGccooott<«««4<.<«<«««<<;ccoce6 aaaaiiaaBeeeseeBeeeeaeeessiCGCccGoccocCGCCGGJGujocGGGGCtccccccccGcoujGGcuGUG**<»<»•»•»<<»••<•.«•<••>tcGGCBBa aaaaaaeee66e666fe6ete6GuccccctGGcccGGG0GGGQjGQuujGuGGCcccrcc ************************ n** *....**** ****(.ccl%h aaaaajaee86ee6e668eeQGGGCCGGGG0GGCLCGG0GG«4' •+•+••+• *** **** I**********************........ aaaaBaeeBe6eeeee6GooooGcccGccGGGG++*••+•••+*+++ ********************.......................»+ 4*ccc68 ••aeee68eeeeeoGOUGOocccoLGG+•••••••• + • + • + * • + * * * * * * * * * * * * * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > 2 * + c c o e ••ai66eee8i6GOGGCCcccccc«*>* *********** i *<u:ig ••iaaBS886BB0C00GGCCG « • « • • • » • • » » » 1 ••4CCC IB6§8ee030GCC0C»» + «»»««« •••ccc •aeeeaeGG00G0G>*4»*«>2 i i <««c jiaaaaaeaaeccGacuo« ****** ** «rcc •aaaaaaaa666seoccoo.«• • » ....etc •BlBBBaa686eQ0GC0****t* •»«*»ooc aalBaaaaaaa6868GGGGG<*4<» i <<<«oco ••aaauaaaaaaBBBecuGGG* ** ** i •.. * cu cc •aaaaaa auiaaaaoojo ••»••» c c co§e aaaaaaaaaaoaDu •*«««»cccce« 1 8 8 8 8 0 JOG 2* » « » « < « C C CCC66S "laaaeeiouccc ****** i »«»««»ccccc6§«a 888CCCCC ****** «»CCCCCCC866I 68Ea 6€eccccc*»««*. a a a a a aaaaa*6€6ccc «* GC6f6 2«»CLT aaaaaaaaaaaaEECoc aaaaaaaaaiiB68 SCALt: iN MILES' •III XXXXX 200, 40C 6C0 aaaaa xxxxxxxx * •aaa XXX a -zl B  8 e a e e e 8 a a e e e 6 e  SYMAF 0.027C6E MNU1ES FCC Hf 6 IH ORDER TREN0, SURFACE OF .MEG I AN I AMI L Y INCOME FUR THE CONTERMINOUS UNIIEC SIATtS bY STATE: 1969 DATA VALUE EXTRIMES ARE  6C71.CC ' 11611.GO  AB SOL LIc VALUt RANGE APPLYING IC EACH LLVEL (•MAXIMUM' 1NCLULEG IN HIGHEST LtVtL CNLYI MINIMUM 6071.00 7729.90 t54E.40 95C8.80 10397.60 MAXIMUM 7729.90 8548.40 SbOU.bO 10397.60 1U11.00 PI RC L M AGE OF 101AL ABSOLUTE VALUE FANG! APPLYING 10 GACH LLVI.L 28.90  14.26  FR!CULNC» 1)1 SIRIBU: IGN IF UAIA LtVLL 1 2 *•«*••** ******** ******** .«••«»•• ********  Source:  16.73  . 15.48  24.62  FLINT VALUIS IN LAC H LEVEL . _ 3 _4_ D ccGLLOOoo B66B6B6BB aaaaaaaaa ccogcougo 88B88868B aaaaaaaaa CCGG300U0 686846889 ••••!>•• U ccqocgogo eeeeaaeBB aaaaaaaaa ccggccooo BeesBaeas aaaaaaaaa 10 ic  Laboratory  f o r Computer G r a p h i c s  SYMAP U s e r ' s R e f e r e n c e Manual, University,  1975,  p.  Trend  and  Spatial  5th e d i t i o n ,  V43.  S u r f a c e Map  (SYMAP)  Analysis, Harvard  100 •• •IU aiasae 1188000 4 4 44  •1688000000444444 4 e fe iococccooooc********** 400000008888 eeeeeauoOju i oo50+**+ccccccc*****.. . . 66eaooccGGuoou»<»»»»»*uccuGCGueBeeestaBtfeBeuuuuocGGGCcctcccccccco... uumoooo<tt> aaaaeea500044444  •eteccccoco**••+••. •••+•+••••+•4+++ iiseoccccccc••»••+•••« •*****++*cuoooooco+*+******.-............... 6886000000000444444444444440005U000CGCC00JJU444444444444444444  .44008  4400088 44444CCiG8£ 444444C0666 444444500566  6666G0a0C0G0GGCC444444CCCLCCC6eee6666686eeae86«0a0d000CCC6€€€6eiC0GG4444444  CCCGCOUC0086S ttcccccoocococoCGC*oaooococ8eeeaea»MW»B8eaa8eoooococctf 44lcC5GGuO00ei00 • 444CCCCCCCGee6GC54.. 4444CCCC0C0B685CC cccccccocccccococccoaooooccceaeeeeeeemnsssaooooosoooocccce i ceecoooocoo^ooooc cccLcccooGocccGLCCococaoocccoeBeseeeaeseaeesaeaoojooocoocccccccccccuGoccccooooo • 44 44 44CGC0OOOC 0 4444444444CCOOOOC UCCOCOCB GOCGOO0OG0GGG0GOG0CCCCG68eee656668666880OOGOGGCGCCCCCCCCCCCCOOOOCCCuGUGC CCCOCCCCCCCC4CCCC8050 oCCGGC000aC0C0G00000CG00GG0GC0G0000ee66e6S6€6uG000a0CQCG4444CCC:CCCCC444GC00UUG0o ccccciccoccccccoccccGCOOooccCGC8eeeeaaaeaeeed00ojoooaooc«ccccccoooouOoooouooouo €€««CCCC5CCCCCCCC««t»C0CCCCCC688e8eee»ili8aB8B8B800oC00CCff  i € 6 e e 5 f O O O O C » * » « » « n « » 4444 4 ccoccc «ge8efecoococ4»»<n C050CC C cccccococcccoccccccoaocooccceaeeseaaumeBaaesiioococcccccEi^eeeEieocccoooooaoc cccocccc cccoccccc cootcccc oooccco ccooccc  LcccouLGeeco  £ccccooocococccococ*Guoooccceeee8eeiameaassa§oooooococceif86eeEecoocoooo**4  44444444444GOOGuObC CCCGCCCCC0CCCCCC00CCaGGGU0CCGGGLOCOGOCO0GUCCC00GGJG004444444444444445444CGCOGU00C CCCCCCCO0OGGG000CC'CGC0OaGCCCCGGLG000000e686GCOUGuj0uuUO+444444  444444[ClGG0e6&  _  CC0CGCGCGCGCOG00GCG00GO44444GGCCCGGGGGOC0G0aoOUaO44444444444444444444G00OO8aaeae00C00COGCee5eCG44444CCCI^fi CCCC0C0C00GC050000o0u0000C0GCO000GO0C0O000UJuO0*444444444444444444 44GCCOU88e8C0CCCO0CCC0C0CCC444 4 44CCCeICO GO0 . C0CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOCO444r;44CCCOGC0OG0C0C0OOOOOa 44444444 4444 444444-440000 8 8BD8e€86C5GCCCCCCCCC444444CCCJ5iCC*0 C U C C C O O O O O O C O O U O G 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 G O O O C O O G C C O G G O C 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 G C C C e 8 8 8 i e § 8 8 8 8 0 G O C C C G C C 4 4 . . . . 4 4 C 6 6 a 6 00  GGOOCOOGOOGOCaGOOGCCOGOOGOOCGGGCOOGGaGGCOGCGi)dOOj0444544 4 4 44 4 444 4444444COOaOGOOCOOCOOOGOCOGCOC0 44 44 444CCCCOeCOG  4ccc€feic o 4CGCoGo0G0a8BBe66eeGC0GCCCCCCCC 444 44CCCCCtCC 0  CCCCCCCCCCCC00GCCCC0C0444 4G0G0000CGCCCCCCo0G00J0004«4  oaaoco5ocooocoooGGCoo0444444ccccGocccc5Gcccooaoj04444444444 4 44444ccocoooeeee88«eeecococcoocc444544 4 4444 4 4 44 OG000OOOO0O00OOa0O0OO0OOGGGGCO0O0CO0OOUOGGOJUOOO00OCCC5CCCCCGCC0COUOC0uBditSBaeeeCG0O0CGCOGGCG40GCC0  5C CO O CGLtCC0C0COtCO0COGC0O0UCCG00CCOOOO0GCCOCGe8aO0000CUCCCCCCCCC00GOOO0GO006e8eee«CCCC005CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCGC44 CCC00CCCC0CGGCCCC0C00OCCCGoGC00G00G0COtGG00J0OO00Lu lO00G00CC00000OL5 i0O0BBBBOB§e0000444CCCCCCtC0CCCS iC 60C CC CC44  CCCCCG CC CCCCCCC0C CC CCC0C C0 CO GG CC C0CO C00C 0C CO 00C0C0C0B C8C SB BG 88 8J0uCG 0C GC 0C GCCCC 00 000C C0oO 00 00CoO 00O 00 0C 0a 0C CC CG CO CC CQ CC C8C C5 CC tfC44 4. CO CG 00CG 0JG 00CC0CCCC0C 0C 8e 0C 00 CU CC C0CCCC C0O 0O OG CC CC BC S8 e6 ftCCtC CtC CC 44444.  G0CCOO00a000OOGa0OOJO00CC0CCCa0GCGCCCCC«6«6OOOCCCGCGCCCCCC:CCCCCO0GOCO0eeB8BCCOGGO00CCCCCCCCC0CCC0CCCC44  44  0O00GO000GG0C0G0C0CCtG0CG00GU00CGOGG08B<l8a83dd88CCCCCCCCCGCCu0OOCQOuOOO0C00005eBeeea8#Ee8aC0CCC4 44 4. 4444444444GC0CO00OCCCCC00000OoocoGOoa888a8ee8eae8E588COGOOoo0444GaooooococeeeeeEieie£e8E8coccc 444. 444444444444G05GGGGC0GGGC00CCCCaCCe8de8B8888888£Ci£iieCC0COO444GG00OOOCCCEe8SBE8eei8EeiOC0CC4 4 4.  444444CGGCCCGCCGGGCGbGCQbeae0B8aaeeeB8ea§e6eeaGaocoo4:>4GOQGuQGCGC«eeeetG6eiCE§foc5C4 4 4  4444444cocoooocGooGooceae8aeeeeee88Biie8CEeeoccooocccoooGoocccGieeefe«e<(C§cocc44 4 . 44 4 444444444GGGGOcceaaaaa8eiiue8EceiceeeccoooooGoooaoocaooeaeeEeEeeeeccoc4 44.  SCALE:  4444444CGCCceaaeeea8iuiiaii(ceseccooooQooooooocoooooooseee«Eccco444. 44444 oe es s8 ae ii aiiiiifiee8ecooooaoooG444caoooc5coooGcoooooG C5 Cc C4 44 4G 4c 4a 4 44 4. 40 40 4G Ua Qa Qe 0e 8e ea eeeeaceeeEEf£§EEe€eeEOGGOGOGG0444 4444 cccoGcccc cG cC cG cC 4c 4c4 44.. ••••ti  SEEeeeecoooooooj0 i45  IN P I L E S  44400C0GaEeiEEEE8EeGC000000UOQ44444440O000G04 44444..• u n a 444405000i8e€6880CCOOOC000000444444444444444444... •aaaa 4444CCCCCCGGCCC000GiO0O0Uj4 4 44444 4 4 44444 4 44.. aaaa 4444CCCCGCCCOOOOG0000004444 4 44444444.... aa ...................4 4 444 4 4 4 . ... ..44444400C GOCCJ 44... 44 B CCC 4 4 11666C  4400GG0GG00UOO 888  tco  zl  5  SYMAP 0.C34C01 MINUTES FOK M*P 6 IH CPUER RFS1UUALS SURFACE OF MLOIAN FAMILY INCOME FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UN1TE0 STATES BY STATE1969 1)01A VALOi cXIREMES ARE ABSOLUTfcVALUE RANGE APPLYING IC EACH LEVEL (•MAXIMUM' INCLUDED IN HIGHcST LEVEL CNLYI MINIMUM -2200.00 -1320.00 -"•".COG 440.00 440.00 1320.00 MAX I HUM - 1320.00 -440.00  1320.OC 2200.00  ABCVE 22CC.CO  PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE VALUE RANGE APPLYING TO EACH LEVEL 20.00  20.00  2C.00  20.00  20.00  FKtUUtNCY DISTRIBUTION LF DATA PC1NI VALUES IN EACH LcVEL LEVEL 1 2 3 4 5  ctoocGGOo ccoocoooo  H  ~^iiirrrr'444444444 ccGccGooo~ei 444444444 aeeaeseBB l y i m u aaaaaaaaa i . . . . 444424444 CC0G30GC0 ee8b4««8B I U I > U U i l a a s a i a a 444444444 GCOGCOOOO 686*86888 H i i u i i i aaaaaaaaa 444444444 ee66eee«8 u i j i u M ( a i i a i a a a s  SYMBOLS  = == == =S==SCSSS3 = BE BBS SSBBESSBS33BSBSEBSSBS SE SBSSSSSSasSSSSSBS FREC >  0  0  C  0  0  4€  Source: Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis, SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5th edition, Harvard University, 1975, p. V45.  Residuals Surface Map (SYMAP)  xxxxx XXXXXXXX) XXX  101  7-  1  cucououu  ucoL(jcccci££§e§geBeeeBBEiaegsti  OGGOOUUG uoououoccc6§egg§§§ese§Bfe6Eia§ea COGCCUaUuJObUOLOCOCCCiigiiigestiB§Bey§BBe OOOOUUO0QG UOUOOGOC C CC«€ Bts<5§eBsetie6§eeeB  ccccuuooouucucccccccciggigeieBBBBBaBBBse  oooouoooLiOiJODtxicccccggeeiegBgBgggiggBgti OCLOuJuOOOuOUCCCCCCCC J g § g e 6 B B B g B 9 B B B B 9 B UGCMJ00UQQ0tjUQGC0CCGCggegeg8gg66B6ggggg GCLOdUOGO JQCQGGCCCCCCiggggBBga4ggSBBS9cj ocouuuuoaoauuoococccrieegggBseeetiesgeBe GGGUaU0OOU0CGCGCCCCCCC6SBgfeBBegeg8BeSB o o G u a u o o j O Q 0 3ocoocccccgigee8geegggeggg OGCOUOOOO OOUOLOCCC CC CcggsggeeegBgegggg OGOOUOQOQO0Q0O000CCCCCgggggeBe6gBeBBBg GCGGOOUGUGGCuGCCCCCCCCCggggslBBgeBBBBeB GoajGOGojooGooococcrccogeggaegeBgeeggg GCCCUOGOiJGGGUGGCCCCCtCCggggeggegBBgBBB OOOUOGGaQGOOOGCGCCCCCng§ge8ggB§§6tjg+•••!•*•  I  1  CCGU0aGO00G0G0CCCCCCCCCC0C*»BeB8e44++44 4444 + 444 44  ++OOOO0OJ0OOO0G00CCCCCC0CCCUGO6++++++++++++++++44 4444 44. •••••••0UOJOCGO0OCCCCCCCG0OCCGCGG4+4+++++444444+4 4 44+44 4++  « . . . .••++4+++++++4Gaa00GC0CCCCCCCCCCaC00+44 44++4 « t * t « « t •««« . 4 4 + + + 4 4 + + + + +++++u"aUQGO000CGGOOa0GuOUG******** ***************** *****************•aajuGccccccccccccoooa••••»•»»+4 4+++*********** CGGCC....... ...*******************+oaaGoocccccccccccoGoo+++4+++++«4+++++44 4+4444 * OOGGaUGUGUQ. .****** *************** + »GGGGOGQCOCCGaOGCJjuOQ ttHttH ) » t n t n i t i t H i H 00CGGGJ0000GC4••+••+••+••++•+++•++ 4 4 U C G G C C C C C C C C C C C C C 0 0 G 4 + • + + + + • 4442+44444******* QCCCCOOOOOOGC ****** ******* ******** 4 + 0 0 0 0 0 0 CCCCCCGCCQjGUC+++ t t H t 44444444444444444 GOGCCGGuGCQGCCG+ ++++ + ++ + + + + + +++++++ + +GOC0CCCCC2CCCCCCGGaOU++ + ++ + ++ + 4+ + + + + 44 44 4 4 + + + OOGOCUOOOLlGGGCa + + + + + + +++t++++++ + +++ + + + GUOG0CCCCCCCCCCCC0GC+ + + + + + + ++4 + 44 + + « + 44 44 + + + OO0OO0C0ClGaCCCG0++++ + ++ + + + + + ++++ + ++ + + +CGGCGCCCCCCCCCCG0uCG+ + + + + + + + + ++++44 44 4 + 4 + + + + GO0CCCOGOUGOCC00+++++••••••+2•••++++++GGG00GGCCC00000UG0G0++444444444444444444444 0G0G0G0GUUGGCCGGC+++•*•+••+••++•++++++JCGCCCCCCCCCCCCG00GG+++++++ 4444444 4 4 4 44444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + + + +••••• + •••• + ••+••• + OUOCCCCCCOCCCCGOGGG+++ + + + +• + • + •••+ 4444 OOGGCGO0OGUOCCGCCC++  + ++ + + ++ + « + + ++ + + + + + * O « J G O C C C ' C C 0 G 0 0 C G Q  GO* 4 4 444  4 44 44 44 4 4 4  Q0QQOaGJO0aOGCGQCO44444-44+44 + 4 4 4 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 G C C C C C C C C C C C C C G O U C + + ++ + ++ 4444 CGCCCC0G0C0CCCGCCG044444444444 44444 4 44GGCCCCCCCCCCCC0GG G44+++ OOQOGCOOOGOJCGCGGCCO+4 4+44 4 + 4 4 + • + + + • + t + G C C C C C C C C C G C O J G O 0 0 G 0 G 0 0 3 0 0 0 G C C C 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 +4+44 +++++++++OCCCCCC 0GGCCOCOOOGCCCGCCOO++++++ 00Q0O0OO0OCCCGCO0GG++++ GGGOCGGGGGCGUG0GGU+++ 00C0CGGOGOGCCCCCG0O0O+ GOGOOGGGOOOOOCCO QOGOCOCCCGCCOOCC UGUUCGOCCGtOOOOU OOGOGGOOtiOOOOoOO 0 10 20 CCCGCCCOCCCCCCC OUULOGOOOOOO I - + ; + G C C C C Q G O G  G00G0G GGG  SCALc :  ****** ****** *» * ** * »*»*»** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * **** * . * * * * * * * * * * ****** ****** * ** * ** *******  * I I I  44  30 I  IN M I L E S  ****** ******* * ****** * * * * * * « . * *• *' • * *" * * * * * * * * ****** * . * ****** ******  « * * *  t, **** t * t * t  7 1 I • *  + 1 + 2. • SYMAP 0 . 0 2 6 0 6 9 MINUTES FOR MAP  3  -+  <•  +  5  +  t  •  7  •  8  •  PERCfc M A G t OF O C C U P I E D STRUCTURES B U I L T IN 1 9 5 0 OR L A T E R S T A T E CF CCNNECTICUT EY CUUN1Y: 1 9 6 0 DATA  VALUE EXTREMES ARE  19.4C  A B S C L U T E VALUE RANGE A P P L Y I N G TC EACH L E V E L (•MAXIMUM' INCLUDED I N h I G h E S I L E V E L GNLY1 MINIMUM MAXIMUM  19.40 23.72  2)1.05 32.37  3*:.37 36.70  P E R C E N T A G E OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE V A L L E RANGE  APPLYING  25.00  23.72 28.05  25.00  FREQUENCY D I S T R I B U T I O N CF DATA LEVEL 1 2  25.00  TO E A C H  LEVEL  25.00  PCINT VALUES 3  I N EACH 4  LEVEL  s s = s SKS = =K 3 3 t x s z x x 3 K s s s s==c=cc====c=======  SYMBGLS  ....1....  +++44++++ ccooooooo e e e e e s e M •++4++4 + 4 GCGQGOOOO . U i M t W ++++2++ + + CCCC3C0GG Sefifr+MM ••••••••• CCGGGOOOO eesf +4+++«++4 ccooooooo ess  *SB=a*as**SB*sss*ss*x  FRbQ.  Source;  2  2  = SSK**B* B SCB  3  *«*  >US1  1  Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis, SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5th edition, Harvard University, 1975, p. V13. Proximal Map (SYMAP)  9  •  1-  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD BY  CENSUS  TRACTS,  1971  37000 30800 24600 18400 s i  12200 6000  MKVUCEO BrSPQTIRL SYSTEMS SLCTIOH. ! statistics cmnvm. on***, cmtmo.  Choropleth Map  o  L o c a t i o n of P o i n t Symbols at Geoeraohir C.  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By  Census  Tracts.  1971  SnHH  /  Shadine  Vm"i  n n p c  S e p a r a t i o n of Legend  Boxes  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD BY  CENSUS  TRRCTS,  OTTAWA-HULL I  1971  S 6.000 - < 9.000 :  S  PRODUCED BY: statistics  SPfiTlftL  cmmrn.  -  <12.000 I  $12,000  -  <15.000  SI5.000  -  <25.000  S25.000  -  37.000  HH  6  r  SYSTEMS SECTION,  orrmm.  9.000  CAHM.  Reversed Tones i n the C h o r o p l e t h Map  D e f a u l t P o i n t Symbol Legend  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By  Census  Tracts,  1971  DOLLARS CIN  lOOO'SD 6 - <9 9 - <12 12 - <15  PRODUCED B>SPRTIRL SYSTEMS SECTION. STKT1STICS CRNROR. OTTRHR, CRNROR.  Value Rana»:  V e r t i c a l Arrangement o f P o i n t Symbols i n Legend  $6,636 - 36.695  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By  Census  Tracts,  1971  OTTRWfl-H  I  LEGEND  6-9 p*aouc£p BYt  spfiTim.  SYSTEMS SECTION,  9-12  12-15 15-25 25-37  Do I I or s C .n 1 0 0 0 ' s i  STATISTICS OMQf. OTTPH&, CWtfW.  H o r i z o n t a l Arrangement o f P o i n t Symbols i n Legend  O  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By  Census  Tracts,  OTTAWA-HULL  1971  DOLLARS CIN 1000'S3  2» - r? 19 - <23 12 - «IS 9 - «12 •- < »  Volue Range: rnauxxu  sr,  SPATIAL  SYSTEMS  SECTION.  STATISTICS CANADA. OTTAWA, CANADA.  Nested Arrangement o f P o i n t  Symbols i n Leeend  S6.636 - 36.695  RVERRGE RNNUflL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By  Census  Tracts, 1971  PRODUCED BY: SPRTIH. SYSTEMS SECTION, STATISTICS CRNftm. orrmm. c m m .  Volu* Rang*:  Rotated  Legend  S6.636 - 36.695  nWR-HULL OFFICIAL By  Census  LANGUAGE Tracts,  1971  (French B i I ingua I  NUMBER OF PEOPLE PRODUCED SPPT1HL SYSTEMS SECTION. STATISTICS CANADA. OTTAWA. CANADA.  Value Range:  0 - 8115  M,i1 f T -CnK^/mf \/  Ti  SPECIAL CHARACTERS!  CHRRRCTER SET  CfiBBlfiSE RETURN BACKSPACE  ! '#$'/.&' C / 0123456789:;<=>? &ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO  c\ ]  PQR'STUVWXYZ[\r_  a b c d e f g h i j k Imno"^ p qrs tuvwxyzC 0*~o J s  LOVER CASE  FACILITIES I T A L I C S O n = RBCDefgh HALF S I Z E O H 3 = ABCDEFQH . DOUBLE SIZEC®DD= ABCDEFUM 1 U SUPERSCRIPTOSD = A B C D SUBSCRIPTOTD = A B C D RESET ALL DEFAULTS = » R = <*U&V&F&N E F G H  E F G H  MIXTURES  OF  ABOVE  WCD^" I JKLmnop JJ\J QR  REPEAT FACILITY =  GIMMS Text Chart  1VX  YZ  GIMMS  AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD Bv  Census  Tracts.  PRODUCED BY: SPATIAL SYSTEMS SECTION. STATISTICS CANADA. OTTAWA. CANAOA.  1971  Map  O v e r l a y Techniq  Map  Overlay Techniq  119  Mao O v e r l a y Techniaue  !  Map Overlay Technique  AVE ANN INC PER HOU  •  RV'EnRGF ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD BY CENSUS T R A C T S ,  PRODUCED BY-  SPRTIRL SYSTEMS SECTION. CENSUS, STATISTICS CANADA  1971  123  APPENDIX  SNftTEM GIMMS  I D>SS J 2 / l L T  &  PPATML SWEMSlSVSTEM SECTIOM DEVEL. TOM SlD WITIUK- STAFF MEA  MEA  M  IMEA  MEA  IM  PAVE  D I M E A  BERBER  AUTOMAP •i  DIMEA  ME  ME  IMEA  IEA  f i  PIL  1  bIMEA blM£A  NGEN  IM  M  bIMEA  A  rue)  SVSPLGT  DIME bIMEA blME  D = DESIGN  I--IMPLEMENTATION M * MODIFICATION A= A P P L I C A T I O N J '  E  - EvAL-uAfiDM  124 INDEX TO ACRONYMS A. SYSTEMS AUTOMAP:  AUTOMATED MAPPING  BUDAK:  A PROJECTION TRANSFORMATION  CGIS:  CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC  CGMF  SYSTEM PACKAGE FROM THE CIA  INFORMATION  SYSTEM  CANADA GEOGRAPHIC MASTER F I L E SYSTEM  CNTRGRAV:  A CENTER OF GRAVITY MODULE  DA I , I I , I I I  DATA ASSIMILATION SYSTEMS  EXTRACT:  A POLYGON EXTRACTION SUBSYSTEM  FIELDOCS:  A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR PREPARING MAPS FOR FIELD WORK  GEISHA:  GENERALIZED EDIT AND IMPUTATION SYSTEM USING A HOT-DECK APPROACH  GENESIS:  GEOGRAPHICALLY ENCODED AND NATIONALLY ENUMERATED SPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM  GlMMS:  GEOGRAPHIC SYSTEM  GRDSR:  GEOGRAPHICALLY REFERENCED DATA STORAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  IDS  INTERACTIVE DISPLAY SYSTEMS FOR 2 AND 3 DIMENSIONS  II/III:  INFORMATION MAPPING AND  MANIPULATION  AND  LNGEN:  A PARALLEL"iL_INE GENERATING SUBSYSTEM  MAPMAKR:  THE AMF DISPLAY MODULE OF GRDSR  MAPMAK:  THE INTERFACED AND ENHANCED VERSION OF SYMAP  PAAS:  POSTAL ADDRESS ANALYSIS SYSTEM  PAPB:  POLYGON AGGLOMERATION  PILLAR:  A PILLAR POINT SYMBOL MAPPING  PIPA:  POINT IN POLYGON ALGORITHM  PUBGRAFS:  A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR DRWING GRAPHS  PUBMAPS:  A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING THEMATIC MAPS  FROM POLYGON BOUNDARIES SYSTEM  125 Q.A.L.:  QUERY AREA LIBRARY SUBSYSTEM  REFDOCS:  A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING REFERENCE DOCUMENTS  SIDS:  SPATIAL INFORMATION DISPLAY SUBSYSTEM  STATPAK:  A STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR STATISTICS CANADA  SYMAP:  SYNAGRAPHIC MAPPING SYSTEM  SYMVIEW:  SYNAGRAPHIC MAP VIEWS  SYSPLOT  A SYSTEM FOR PLOTTING INTERMEDIARY POLYGON FILES  THEISSEN:  A THEISSEN POLYGON GENERATION SUBSYSTEM  WAS:  WEIGHTING AREA SUBSYSTEM  ( a l s o SYMVU)  B. DATA SETS ABND:  AREA BOUNDARIES ON THE CGMF BASE  AMF:  AREA MASTER FILES IN GRDSR  ANAM:  AREA NAME F I L E ON THE CGMF BASE  AREAFILE  AREAS THAT HAVE BEEN EDITTED BY GIMMS  ARID  AREA  CARTLIB  CARTOGRAPHIC LIBRARY OF AREAS FOR SYMAP  CREATEFILE  SEGMENTS USED TO CREATE AREAFILES  INTERFILE:  INTERMEDIARY FILES USED TO TRANSFER AREAS BETWEEN SUBSYSTEMS  IDENTIFIERS ON THE CGMF BASE  IN GIMMS  C. OTHER, CIA:  CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY  EMR:  ENERGY MINES AND RESOURCES  GPE:  GEOGRAPHIC PROGRAM EXCHANGE  IGU:  INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHY UNION  MSUA:  MINISTRY OF STATE FOR URBAN AFFAIRS  DEPARTMENT  126 NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION GEOGRAPHIC PROCESSING GROUP  INFORMATION  SEGMENT ORIENTED REFERENCING SYSTEMS ASSOCIATION TRANSPORTATION ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY  

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