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Spatial information display subsystem Witiuk, Sidney Wayne 1977

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A SPATIAL INFORMATION DISPLAY SUBSYSTEM by SIDNEY WAYNE WITIUK B.Sc., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 M.A., Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Computer Science) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1977 Sidney Wayne Witiuk, 1977 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i f f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for sc h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Computer Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 8, 1977 ABSTRACT i As our society becomes more and more complex, planners, p o l i t i -cians and other decision-makers are increasing t h e i r demands for relevant, accurate and timely s t a t i s t i c a l information on a "tailor-made" s p a t i a l b a s i s . Government agencies responsible for the pr o v i s i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l data i n map form have found that conventional approaches to thematic mapping are not able to cope with these demands and are therefore turning to automated and semi-automated production systems. This thesis deals with the design objectives f o r an i n t e r a c t i v e s p a t i a l information display subsystem f o r Census data and reports upon e f f o r t s to integrate e x i s t i n g packages into t h i s framework. Consideration i s also given to the factors i n f l u e n c i n g the choice between b u i l d i n g a special-purpose subsystem or adopting e x i s t i n g packages with s i m i l a r or complementary objectives. F i n a l l y , a. .•'•'few t y p i c a l r e s u l t s are appended to demonstrate the current l e v e l of operational capacity. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION Comments on the L i t e r a t u r e Thesis Contribution and Context Thesis Structure THEMATIC MAPPING D e f i n i t i o n s of map types Introduction to Thematic Mapping Types of Thematic Maps COMPONENTS OF A THEMATIC MAPPING SYSTEM T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to Thematic Mapping & Systems Design A Standard Model of a Thematic Mapping System Problem Space Display Space Correspondence Space A State Transformation Model Approach to Systems Desi DESIGN OBJECTIVES Human Engineering Ease-of-use Hardware Aesthetics Back-up and Error Recovery PAGE Modular Components 39 Extendable Functions 40 Transferable Software 40 Systems Integration 42 H i e r a r c h i c a l Bases 43 Accuracy and Aesthetics 45 Speed and Cost 47 IMPLEMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS 49 Design Trade-Offs 49 Hardware Configuration 52 Software Configuration 56 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE 64 F i n a l Product S u i t a b i l i t y 64 Software S u i t a b i l i t y 66 Hardware S u i t a b i l i t y 69 IMPROVEMENTS AND ENHANCEMENTS 72 CONCLUSIONS 75 FOOTNOTES 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 APPENDIX A. Ty p i c a l Products 84 B. Contributors 123 INDEX TO ACRONYMS 124 IV LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schema for Thematic Maps 20 IT. A Standard Model for Thematic Mapping Systems 25 I I I . A State Transformation Model 31 IV. A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Current Capacities 34 V LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURES PAGE 1. Choropleth, Isopleth and Proximal.Happing 9 2. Dot Mapping 10 3. Proportional Symbol Mapping 11 4. Cartogram Reference Bases 12 5. Stepped Surface Diagrams 13 6. Smoothed (Trend) Surface Diagrams 14 7. Flow Mapping 16 8. Interaction Mapping 17 9. Network Diagrams 18 10. Shortest Path Diagrams 19 11. The CALCOMP 663 P l o t t e r 53 12. The Gerber Hardware Configuration 55 13. Color Choropleth Mapping at the US Census 58 14. Color Choropleth Mapping using GIMMS 59 15. Color Point Symbol ( P i l l a r s ) Mapping 62 16. Ecumene Mapping 65 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The s p a t i a l information display subsystem was conceived at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and has been designed and implemented at Census under the ausplcesfof the S p a t i a l Systems Section research and development program. The current l e v e l of thematic mapping capacity can be mainly a t t r i b u t e d to the power of e x i s t i n g packages purchased from Gerber S c i e n t i f i c Instruments Company Limited and to modules received f r e e - o f -charge from colleagues. Among t h i s l a t t e r group, David Douglas, Tom Waugh and Gordon Deecker have contributed g r e a t l y . I wish also to express my thanks to Dave Poley, Joel Yan, Carolyn Weiss and Karole Piamonte for t h e i r assistance during the implementation stages. They share an intimate appreciation for the number of modifications and enhancements that are required to adapt even "stable" packages to a production environment. My own contr i b u t i o n has centred, upon the conceptual, design and evalua-t i o n aspects of the s p a t i a l information display subsystem as well as co-ordinating and documenting the a c q u i s i t i o n , implementation and int e g r a -t i o n of the selected packages. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to Census Management for t h e i r support and t h e i r insistence on a "l e a s t - c o s t " , "greatest-benefit," and "fastest-implementation" approach. I would also l i k e to thank the many friends and r e l a t i v e s that contributed to the physi c a l production and e d i t i n g of th i s t h e s i s . Without t h e i r help and the encouragement and patience of my advisors, Dr. B. Pollack, Dr. G. Schrack, and Dr. K. Denike t h i s thesis would have never reached f r u i t i o n . 1 INTRODUCTION Comments on the L i t e r a t u r e A forthcoming p u b l i c a t i o n by the International Geographical Union (IGU) Commission on Geographic Data Sensing and Processing (1) w i l l bring together f o r the f i r s t time a comprehensive l i s t and e f f e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a v a i l a b l e software for data manipulation, management, analysis and representation. As of A p r i l 1977, over 500 "programs" ranging from f u l l systems to s p e c i a l i z e d routines had been compiled. Recent publications by the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups of the Association f o r Computing Machinery (ACM), most notably SIGGRAPH ( 2 ) , SIGPLAN,< (3),, SIGDA ( 4 ) and SIGMOD (5) have documented a host of h i t h e r - t o - f o r e unpublicized i n t e r a c t i v e graphics and computer-aided design systems. Standard publications of the ACM such as Communications, ( 6 ) , Computing Surveys (7), and Computing Reviews (8) together with a number of recent textbooks (9, 10, 11) have also documented developments i n t h i s f a s t growing f i e l d . However we can s t i l l f i n d a r t i c l e s being written on "Why computer graphics i s s t i l l a year away!" (12). On the other hand many systems developers are continuing to 're-invent the wheel' each time a system i s required. The end r e s u l t i s that the str a i g h t forward problems are being resolved while the more d i f f i c u l t problems are l e f t unresolved. Design objectives and implementation approaches have generally s t a b i l i z e d over the seven years that the author has been in t e r e s t e d i n t h i s area. However, two aspects have not been given adequate treatment: 1. a conceptual framework for systems development and in t e g r a t i o n , and 2 2. a p r a c t i c a l consideration of systems design and implementation trade-o f f s . These two issues are most evident i n the f i e l d ' s f a i l u r e to come to agree-ment on basic standards and i t s r e l a t i v e l y poor record i n s a t i s f y i n g c l i e n t s . Thesis Contribution and Context It i s u n l i k e l y that these two weighty topics w i l l be resolved completely i n the context of t h i s t h e s i s . The objective i s to provide a useful and straight-forward development framework and a "menu"-oriented implementation strategy that w i l l not only a i d others attempting to mount or design s i m i l a r systems but w i l l also provide c l i e n t s with a c l e a r e r view of the complexity of such systems. It w i l l be shown that e f f e c t i v e thematic mapping of s p a t i a l l y referenced s t a t i s t i c a l data provides one of the greatest challenges to the designer of s p a t i a l information processing systems. Thesis Structure The d e f i n i t i o n and requirements of thematic mapping are treated f i r s t . The d e s c r i p t i o n of a straight-forward but e f f e c t i v e design frame-work i s followed by a consideration of design trade-offs. F i n a l l y the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t attempt to operationalize and integrate various s p a t i a l information d i s p l a y c a p a c i t i e s i s documented together with recommendations f o r enhancements or improvements and general conclusions. To demonstrate the l e v e l of involvement, accomplishment, and co-operation, appended i s an itemized l i s t of various major contributors to the design, i n t e g r a t i o n , evaluation, enhancement and a p p l i c a t i o n of the subsystem components. 3 THEMATIC MAPPING As has been stated e a r l i e r , thematic (or s t a t i s t i c a l ) mapping i s viewed as providing the "ultimate" requirements of a s p a t i a l information processing system. In adopting t h i s perspective, there i s a coincident departure from the standard use, i f not the standard d e f i n i t i o n of a thematic map. D e f i n i t i o n s of map types In 1972 Tomlinson's IGU i n t e r n a t i o n a l working group on geographic data handling d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between: i ) Topographic maps - maps "whose p r i n c i p a l purpose i s to portray and i d e n t i f y the features of the earth's surface as f a i t h f u l l y as possible within the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by scale", and i i ) Thematic maps - maps that are "designed to demonstrate p a r t i c u l a r features or concepts. In conventional use t h i s term excludes topographic maps". (13) In addressing the recent inaugural meeting of the Canadian Carto-graphic Association, Mr. Jean-Paul Drolet, ADM i n the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, elaborated on the d e f i n i t i o n s commonly used i n Canada to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between map types: Topographic Maps - are maps "primarily designed to describe topographic features", General Maps - are "small-scale maps and charts of c e r t a i n large areas of Canada... showing a l l of Canada i n one, two H or three easy-to-assemble sheets", Thematic Maps - are " a l l maps dealing with s p e c i a l themes", Navigation Charts - include "hydrographic and aeronautical charts", Special Maps - are "maps of nationa l parks, major g l a c i e r s and some maps of large c i t i e s (which) are semi-topographic i n nature, but also related to our thematic maps", Photomaps - are "actual photograph(s) of the topography rather than a depiction of the t e r r i t o r y by means of l i n e s and contour i n t e r v a l s " , H i s t o r i c a l Maps - are "copies from o r i g i n a l s kept i n the National Archives", Miscellaneous Maps - "other maps are prepared... to commemorate a h i s t o -r i c a l event,... or simply to out l i n e new canoeing routes and recreation areas", Thus i t i s e a s i l y seen that the d e f i n i t i o n s commonly used to categorize map types are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y "map-use oriented". These d e f i n i t i o n s are ne c e s s a r i l y u n s a t i s factory from the view-point of a computer s c i e n t i s t . Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s of such things as maps with as many d i f f e r e n t "meanings" as there are classes of map users are not as us e f u l a d e f i n i t i o n based upon the more constant syntax of a map. By comparing Tomlinson's (1972) d e f i n i t i o n of a map as a "conventional representation, normally to scale and usually on a f l a t medium, of a s e l e c t i o n of material or abstract features on or i n r e l a t i o n 5 to the surface of the earth or of a heavenly body" (15) with Nake's d e f i n i -t i o n of a sign: A sign i s an element of a t r i a d i c r e l a t i o n ; S = (m,o,i) & M x Ox I Where: M = the set of media 0 = the set of objects 1 = the set of i n t e r p r e t e r s Thus "a sign establishes a t r i a d i c r e l a t i o n of i t s medium to i t s object for i t s i n t e r p r e t e r " ; (16) we see the advantages of a more formalized d e f i n i t i o n . Just as Nake r e s t r i c t e d h i s attention to the syntactics (omitting semantics and pragmatics) of graphic signs t h i s thesis w i l l propose that a map i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l c o l l e c t i o n of graphic signs represented on a two  dimensional medium. The i n t e r p r e t e r i s assumed to be a planner with advanced t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d of cartography. While "whatever we declare to be a sign, i s a sign", (17) Nake's four p r i m i t i v e s : BLANK/DOT/LINE/AREA w i l l be combined with the three text types LETTER/DIGIT/SYMBOL to give the seven basic elements of any map. Since the word "symbol" has s p e c i a l meaning i n cartography, i t w i l l be replaced for the purposes of c l a r i t y by the term " s p e c i a l character". Thus any of the map types l i s t e d e a r l i e r can be systematically constructed from groups of signs which are i n turn b u i l t from a set of p r i m i t i v e s . However the concern of t h i s thesis i s focused on one type of map, the thematic map. 6 Introduction to Thematic Mapping Expanding on the very general d e f i n i t i o n of thematic maps given e a r l i e r ( b a s i c a l l y d e piction of a s p e c i f i c theme) we have Hessdorfer's d e f i n i t i o n : "A thematic map i s a graphic representation of s t a t i s t i c a l data which indicates both the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t i s t i c a l a t t r i b u t e within a set of geographical areas". (18) Mention must be made at t h i s time that the term "geographical area" i n t h i s context should be interpreted as "geographical region" thus eliminating p o t e n t i a l confusion with the sign p r i m i t i v e AREA, or with the surface coverage and also permitting regions to be "collapsed" to point or segment spaces. Thus the process, thematic mapping, involves the following procedures: 1. Determining the theme to be presented; 2. Delimiting the geographic space to be studied; 3. C o l l e c t i n g and compiling the appropriate s t a t i s t i c a l data; 4. Selecting the thematic mapping technique (type); 5. Choosing the map a t t r i b u t e s (scale, o r i e n t a t i o n , p r o j e c t i o n , e t c ) ; 6. V e r i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l data values; 7. Producing the thematic map, and modifying parameters 1-6 as necessary. The i t e r a t i v e procedure induced by the seventh step r e l a t e s to 7 the attempt to ensure correct i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t i n g map (or sign s e t ) . The whole area of map perception i s currently under c a r e f u l study and w i l l not be treated i n t h i s t h e s i s . (19, 20, 21, 22) I t i s assumed that the r e s u l t i n g map must only conform to accepted cartographic standards. Indeed, with the gradual acceptance of automation by carto-graphers even these standards are becoming more f l e x i b l e . In global terms the r e s u l t i n g map should, above a l l e l s e , c l e a r l y represent the intended theme. Generally speaking, f a i l u r e to use the correct cartographic techniques tends to obscure the message i n the best case, and provide a f a l s e impression i n the worst case. By simply ensuring the presence of a feedback l i n k i n any thematic map production system, t h i s issue can, f o r the purpose of systems design, be reduced to the requirement of an e f f e c t i v e experimentation or i n t e r a c t i o n capacity. Before discussing other design requirements i n depth, considera-t i o n w i l l be given to the various types of thematic maps and the components of a thematic mapping system. Types of Thematic Maps Given the broad range of possible maps capable of conforming to the aforestated d e f i n i t i o n s i t i s necessary to enumerate the various standard cl a s s e s : 1. Choropleth (conformal) Map (Figure 1) Shaded maps showing d i s c r e t e areas such as provinces or counties that are considered uniform with respect to the s t a t i s t i c s c o l l e c t e d within them. 8 2. Isopleth (Contour) Map (Figure 1) Maps showing continuous v a r i a t i o n over a space by l i n e s of equal value known as isarithms. 3. Proximal Map (Figure 1) Shaded maps showing s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s by d i s c r e t e areas that are automatically generated from the data point d i s t r i b u t i o n . 4. Dot (Symbol) Map (Figure 2) Maps showing continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n s by the placement of point symbols of constant s i z e and shape but whose density and d i s t r i b u t i o n v a r i e s with the associated s t a t i s t i c a l values. 5. Proportional Symbol Map (Figure 3) Maps showing d i s c r e t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s by the placement of point symbols of constant density ( i . e . , one per geographic unit) but whose size or shape v a r i e s with the associated s t a t i s t i c a l values. A number of new types of maps should also be mentioned that are not yet generally experiencing widespread use by cartographers: 6. Cartogram' (Figure 4) Sim p l i f i e d or abstracted maps for which the base i s not true to scale and i s usually transformed according to the properties of a given s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . 7. Block Diagram" (Figure 5) Three-dimensional representations of discre t e surfaces where the height of each face ( s t a t i s t i c a l region) i s r e l a t e d to the associated s t a t i s t i c a l values. 8. Trend Diagram (Figure 6) Three-dimensional representations of continuous surfaces where i (I) CONFORMAL MALE/FEMALE RATIO FOR THE CITY OF SARNIA (2) PROXIMAL (3) CONTOUR MAPS ARE ALIGNED IN THE NORTH-SOUTH DIRECTION. BOUNDARIES FOR THE CONFORMAL MAP ARE FORMED BY CENSUS TRACTS. FOR THE OTHER TWO MAPS, BOUNDARIES ARE DFTFRMWCD FROM THE DATA. RATIO VALUES ARE DIVIDED INTO FIVE CLASS INTERVALS BETWEEN EXTREME VALUES OF 0 .89 AND I 18. EACH HIGHER CLASS INTERVAL IS REPRESENTED BY A PROGRESSIVELY DARKER SHADE . Figure 1 Source: GRDSR: facts by small areas, STC, 1971 I POPULATION BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, C A N A D A A N D PROVINCES, 1971 POPULATION SELON CERTAINS GROUPES D'AGE, C A N A D A ET PROVINCES, 1971 C E N S U S O F CANADA. 1971 Figure 3 Ocean P a c i l » q u « Ocean At lant iqut Figure 4 Source: Perspectives Canada, FTC, 1976 CARTE 13 10 EC HE LLE DE SURFACE DEMOGRAPMIQUE POPULATION D 'ORlG lNE U K R A I N I E N N E , PAR DIVISION DE R E C E N S E M E N T , 1971 Plus de 15 0 % 5 0-14 9 % [CARTE BASEE SUR LES DONNEES DU RECENSEMENT DE 1966) ho TUMCTI0K1 NO. BrJC. TQnaNTO - a r r a n t : ranc3noB<r .eKUM£*> D i s t r i b u t i o n of High Income German Ethnic Group i n Toronto VANCOUVER TOPOGRAPH! antiuiM . 3o •WIDTH • 10.00 . arrant >e»Esm»TEiinc Vancouver, View from SAV. Approximately 640 points were digitized, interpolated to 10,19 1 grid-points, and then plotted. Programs: S Y M A P , S Y M V U ; data: D . Mark; production: W. D. Rase Vancouver. This negative of a plot is an example of the signal means of cartographic representation. Program: S Y M V U ; data: D. Mark : production: W.D. Rase Figure 6 15 the height of each point i s r e l a t e d to a smoothing or ge n e r a l i z a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n - o f s t a t i s t i c a l values. 9. Flow Map (Figure 7) Maps showing l i n e a r movement by symbolizing the d i r e c t i o n and frequency by means of a directed l i n e or l i n e s . It i s useful to d i f f e r -entiate between the simple i n t e r a c t i o n map (Figure 8) and the more sophisticated flow map (Figure 7) where the design and shape of the arrows or flows are r e l a t e d to the associated s t a t i s t i c a l values. 10. Network Diagram (Figure 9) Network schematics where the length of the l i n k s or the values at the nodes are proportional to some consistant network-oriented s t a t i s t i c s . Time distance values for each l i n k could be used to t o p o l o g i c a l l y transform the network of l i n k values or could be used to determined the "travel-times" from a given node to a l l other nodes thereby creating a s t a t i s t i c a l surface for isochrome mapping. If only one such path i s shown for a given o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n set then a shortest path diagram (Figure 10) i s created. In segment-oriented systems such as the DIME package, a t h i r d set of topological r e l a t i o n s h i p s are incorporated into the basic data structure by recording the i d e n t i f i e r s of the regions on the l e f t and r i g h t side of each l i n e segment. Programs such as the POLYVERT package take the processes one step further and permit segments to have "parts", thereby forming what are commonly referred to as "chains" or "snakes". It i s possible to structure these somewhat generalized d e f i n i t i o n s to show the following r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Table I ) : A portion of a flow map showing 1949 tonnage of barge and raft traffic in the United States. The legend has been moved. Note how direction of movement is indicated. (From Edward L . Ullman, American Commod-ity Flow, University of Washington Press, Se-attle, 1957.) Figure 7 Sourc obinson __:ography, 3 r d ec Sons", 1969, p. L3.7, Part of a flow tonnage on class one railway copyrighted by H . H . Copel^ prepared and copyrighted b y man. a n d a l l D. Sale, Elements of New York: John Wiley & Lon, New YorK ~* Figure 8 Source: National Capital Commission figure y F i g u r e 10 • . 1 T A B L E X SYMBOUZATIONJ POINT V A L U E S L I N E V A L U E S A R E V A L U E S |_ DISCRETE 0 UJ a A CONTINUOUS PROPORTIOMAU SVMBOL MAPS F L O W M A P S C H O R O P L E T H M A P S * DOT / P O I N T SYMBOL M A P S INTERACTION M A P S S T E P P E D S U R F A C E DISCRETE V"-o P R O X 1 M A L M A P S S H O R T E S T P A T H D I A G R A M S C A R T & 5 R A M S H ( ' z CONTINUOUS X S O L I M E M A P S N E T W O R K D I A G R A M S S M O L T H E D S U R F A C E o 21 Symbolization i s d i r e c t i f the symbol or shading can be "located" d i r e c t l y within the sign/map space. Derived symbolization occurs when the place-ment of the symbol v a r i e s with the value of the geographic element. This diahotomy leads n a t u r a l l y into the question of the optimal l o c a t i o n within the components of a s p a t i a l information d i s p l a y system for symbol d e r i v a t i o n to take place. The next chapter deals with these system components and b r i e f l y considers t h i s and other questions. i 22 COMPONENTS OF A THEMATIC :MAPPING SYSTEM Part I - T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to Thematic Mapping Systems Design T r a d i t i o n a l l y , thematic mapping systems have been incorporated within geographic information systems almost as an afterthought - as an impressive way to demonstrate the power of the system. They have, as a r e s u l t , generally been poorly integrated and expensive or d i f f i c u l t to use. The MAPPAK package of the Geographically Referenced Data Storage and R e t r i e v a l (GRDSR) System i s a c l a s s i c a l example. The package was intended to provide a f l e x i b l e interface- between the Census data manipulation package, STATPAK, the geographic data creation systerr;,GEOCODING, and the cartographic package from Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , SYMAP. For the past three years i t has been v i r t u a l l y unused, with the standardized and i n e f f i c i e n t i n t e r f a c e provided with SYMAP superceding the continuous flow MAPPAK in t e r f a c e . This s i t u a t i o n , while unfortunate, i s by no means unique. Similar s i t u a t i o n s occur for many of the operational geographic information pro-cessing systems i n the world. The problem o r i g i n a t e s at the design stage with the f a i l u r e to appreciate the exacting requirements of thematic map compilation. The major elements of t h i s operation were given i n the previous chapter. C l e a r l y the thematic mapping process i s i t e r a t i v e and experimental... by nature and therefore requires extremely f l e x i b l e and highly i n t e r a c t i v e systems and data base design. To completely a t t a i n t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y and i n t e r a c t i v i t y , a l l of the s p a t i a l data handling processes: 23 1. creation 2. e d i t i n g and updating 3. manipulation 4. r e t r i e v a l and 5. packaging, must a l l be made e f f i c i e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to the cartographer. Waugh (23) and Nake and Peucker (24) have demonstrated the u t i l i t y of the concepts: 1. "Locational" or "geographic" data, and 2. "non-locational" or " s t a t i s t i c a l " data. C l e a r l y t h i s dichotomy assumes a f i x e d time frame or snapshot of events. Thus an observation or event can also be expressed as a t r i a d i c : E = (0 x S x T) where an event E i s meaningful only i n the context of a set of objects (0), a geographical sub-space (S) and a time frame (T). It i s very l i k e l y that a sociologist-cartographer interested i n cohort analysis w i l l observe the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a fi x e d set of objects (i n d i v i d u a l s ) as they move through time and through geographic space. A s p a t i a l analyst-cartographer w i l l be more interested i n observing the v a r i a t i o n of object c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over space for a f i x e d time period and a regional historian-cartographer w i l l want to study changes i n object c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through time for a fi x e d s p a t i a l region. Thus 24 the r e l a t i v e importance of the object-space-time dimensions of a thematic mapping system i s equal for cartographers. However the strong t r a d i t i o n established i n the past, when continuous and wide-spread data c o l l e c t i o n (such as ERTS s a t e l l i t e data) was uncommon, has strongly biased data analysis methodologies. The d e c i s i o n by the INTERMAP group (24, 25) to adapt a LEAP oriented structure ( i . e . , A(0)=V or each a t t r i b u t e of an object has a value or range of values) gave new prominence to the s p a t i a l dimension since objects i n t h i s case referred to s p a t i a l u n i t s . S p a t i a l aggregations were e a s i l y constructed by the a p p l i c a t i o n of a set theoretic command language structure to s t a t i s t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s and values. The design of GRDSR, on the other hand, gives greatest emphasis to the s t a t i s t i c a l dimen-sion since the time dimension i s frozen to a fixed point and the s p a t i a l component cur r e n t l y serves only as a sub-set s e l e c t i o n key. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , water-quality data base systems concentrate on changing values of a constant set of indices for a fixed set of s i t e s . A Standard Model of a Thematic Mapping System Over the years, concepts from geographic information processing systems and i n t e r a c t i v e graphics have gradually integrated to provide a s i m p l i f i e d model of a t y p i c a l thematic mapping system. Table I f shows the standard components of such a model. For other models r e f e r to Williams (26). 25 Table II Problem Space Locational Base Time Reference] Base S t a t i s t i c a l Base Correspondence Space Mapping functions 'Correspondence^ Base Symbolism Base 71 ^ VN Display Space Reference Maps & Graphics J Time Series Charts & Tables Thematic Maps & Graphics Problem Space (Input Space) The f i r s t component of t h i s model i s the "problem space" which i s defined as those elements of the data base that r e l a t e to measurements of r e a l phenomena. As mentioned e a r l i e r three types of measurement are common: l o c a t i o n a l data, time referencing data and s t a t i s t i c a l data. The system, users must be aware of the s p a t i a l encoding schema, the u n i t s , the r e s o l u t i o n and the range of values a v a i l a b l e for modelling and/or mapping. For the purposes of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i t w i l l be assumed that a l l such data has already been edited and transformed into the optimal storage structure. 26 The set of objects i n t h i s space are both created and derived. The derived objects can be new objects at the same l e v e l or can be defined as a c l a s s of o r i g i n a l objects. The power of set-theoretic operations i s well known. However, to be able to adequately model and/or understand a l l elements of the problem space requires considerable user s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true when under the d i r e c t i o n of the cartographer or data analyst, the data i s integrated and uniformly transferred into graphic format. Display Space The transformed and integrated data i s no longer l i k e l y to be understood to the same l e v e l of completeness by the data analyst. Variables may have been grouped into complex sets by f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s , geographic regions can be generated by overlays of generalized boundaries and trends derived from data c o l l e c t e d through time. F i n a l l y the r e s u l t s are transformed into a graphic state which i s l i k e l y to be i n a d i f f e r e n t co-ordinate system which i n turn must be represented i n terms of the absolute co-ordinate system of the hardware device. For example, geo-s t a t i s t i c a l region boundaries of S t a t i s t i c s Canada are stored r e l a t i v e to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) System. These boundaries are then converted into a regular Cartesian co-ordinate system for p l o t t i n g . F i n a l l y the p l o t t i n g system may scale, rotate or t r a n s l a t e the image so that i t f i t s the screen. The end r e s u l t i s that the end user has only a mental model of the true r e l a t i o n s h i p between the graphic object and the " r e a l " objects that were observed and measured. 27 Correspondence Space The t h i r d standard component of a thematic mapping system are the set of f i l e s (records) that e s t a b l i s h the correspondence between the various spaces or dimensions. Nake and Peucker implemented the concepts "problem space", "display space" and used a "correspondence map" to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s p a t i a l object (e.g., a Census Tract) and i t s representation on a dis p l a y device (e.g., CRT or P l o t t e r ) . Clearly, e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s correspondence i s n o n - t r i v i a l whenever object sets are overlayed, contain "not-areas", ( i . e . , a r e a l exclusions) or are permitted to be i d e n t i f i e d (addressed or "picked") a r b i t r a r i l y . Expanding on the l a t t e r case, the correspondence problem i s s i m p l i f i e d greatly by e s t a b l i s h i n g conventions on how to i d e n t i f y objects (or picture elements). An example of t h i s approach i s the use of "head and t a i l " p i c t u r e components defined by Pfaultz/^ (27) . However, i n the case of thematic mapping, t h i s type of standar-d i z a t i o n i s only u s e f u l when handling map symbols and i s f a r too r e s t r i c -t i v e with respect to reference base elements, many of which w i l l be generalized or generated from other elements (e.g., generalized province boundaries "rolled-up" from fe d e r a l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t boundaries). Nevertheless the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y and manipulate objects i n the s p a t i a l dimension which are represented or transformed i n d i f f e r e n t reference systems i s fundamental to i n t e r a c t i v e data base communication. 28 A second -correspondence that must usually be established r e l a t e s to changes i n object descriptors such as names, codes, addresses, or graphic encoding. T y p i c a l l y these types of transformations are not as well behaved nor e a s i l y generated automatically. They must, however, be created i f the types of analysis performed requires a c l e a r appreciation of h i s t o r i c a l aspects or d i r e c t linkage to a u x i l i a r y information. For example the r e l a t i o n s h i p : Fort William + Port Arthur = Thunder Bay must be "understood" i n terms of the associated codes, address range sets, and graphic d e s c r i p t o r s . Although i t i s required l e s s frequently, a t h i r d type of corres-pondence, (within the time dimension) occurs whenever d i f f e r i n g time periods must be made equivalent. For example, comparing r a t i o s on a s t a t i s t i c a l v a r i a b l e for the 1970 U.S. Census and the 1971 Canadian Census i m p l i c i t l y implies a correspondence has been established over a time range. The r o l e and structure of the correspondence base becomes p a r t i -c u l a r l y complex to describe and to implement i n the context of v a r i a b l e mapping functions (scale, p r o j e c t i o n , overlay and inset operators) and symbolism techniques (e.g., overlayed shading; proportional symbols such as c i r c l e s and the numeric values themselves). Indeed, the implementation complexity associated with t h i s concep-t u a l i z a t i o n c l e a r l y demonstrates the need for a s i m p l i f i e d and more i n t e -grated approach. The next part of t h i s chapter deals with thematic mapping i n the context of a new approach to s p a t i a l information processing systems conceptualization and design. 29 Part II - A State Transformation Model Approach to Systems Design The basic l i m i t a t i o n s i n the designs of most geographic informa-t i o n processing systems stem from the p r a c t i c a l constraint that they must respond f a i r l y quickly to the current and near future needs of an ongoing production requirement. Without a f u l l and c a r e f u l consideration of longer term requirements and p e r i p h e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , these systems tend to be designed as mirror images of the well understood e x i s t i n g manual operations. While t h i s i s not disasterous unto i t s e l f i t tends to generate a great deal of f r u s t r a t i o n as a s p e c i f i c purpose system i s applied to the more general problems of groups serviced by the sponsoring production u n i t s . Some e f f i c i e n c y i s generated because data processing c a p a c i t i e s are usually able to add greater l o g i c , organization~and speed to r e p e t i t i v e , high volume tasks. Generally speaking, much of the p o t e n t i a l benefit i s eliminated i f the systems design process i s rushed or overly focused on j u s t one component of an e n t i r e production process. . .. . . It i s seldom the case that a s p a t i a l information system design o i s based on a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. A notable exception i s the Dual Incidence Map Encoding (DIME) system of the U.S. Census which i s based on p r i n c i p l e s from graph theory. The framework that i s proposed i n t h i s thesis involves the a p p l i c a t i o n of general methodology from p r o b a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s to provide a structure for d e f i n i n g the e n t i r e production task at a macro-level that i s highly amenable to implementation within the construct of modern management techniques. 30 With t h i s approach a l l procedures, operations and a n a l y t i c a l models are viewed as transformation operators on the range of possible data states. Each operator must be e x p l i c i t l y defined and a v a i l a b l e to the cartographer as a compilation t o o l . These operators can be c l a s s i f i e d into two groups: a) those which transform an input from a given state to a d i f f e r e n t output state; b) those which transform an e n t i t y within a given state. By analogy with a t y p i c a l i n t e r - c i t y mileage chart or a mathematical Markov matrix, i t i s c l e a r that the second set of operators w i l l be found along the standard diagonal of Table I I I . The power of such an approach i s that by s p e c i f y i n g a l l possible data states, a menu of transformation modules are automatically defined. While not a l l of these modules w i l l be required for a given a p p l i c a t i o n and not a l l w i l l have the same p r i o r i t y i n terms of the implementation sequence, operations are e a s i l y defined i n terms of the state transformations required. As a r e s u l t , implementation p r i o r i t i e s are more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and development sequences assigned. For example, the creation of an index of st r e e t addresses for an a r b i t r a r y region involves: 1. d e l i n e a t i n g the desired region ( i e . d i g i t i z e the boundary), 2. converting the area to a l i n e set by overlaying the boundary on the corresponding st r e e t network d e f i n i t i o n f i l e , 3. converting the l i n e set to address range sets by matching street TABLE jU —^OUT P UTS I N P U T S ^ ^ - ^ ^ STATISTICAL TABLES POINT FILES LINE PILES REGION FILES TEXT FILES CODE FILES NAME PILES ADDRESS PILES REFERENCE DOCUMENTS THEMATIC DOCUMEMTS INPUT DOCUMENTS O R PORMS IN STAT INPTS INLMS INPOLV INTEXVT INCODE INN/AME IN ADD DRAFTOPS CARTOPS . i. STATISTICAL D A T A STATPAK fiENPTS &ENLNS GENPOLS GENTEXT E^NCODES fiEN NAMES fiENADDS FORMPAK (SRAFPAK POiWT DATA PTSTAE) PTSPAK PTSLNS PTSPOLS PTSTEXT PTS CODES PTSNAMES PTSftDbS PTS PLOT PTMAP LINE DATA j . LNSTAB LWSPTS LNSPAK LNSPOLS LNSTEXT LNSCODES LNS NAMES LNSADDS LNSPLOT LNHAP 1 ' l REGION DATA POLNTAB POLSPTS POLNLNS POLNPAK POLtfTEXT* POC/CODE POLVNAME P0LVADD5 POLMPLOT POUVMAP T E X T TiATA TEXTTAB TEXTPTS TEXTLNS TEXTPOLN TEXTPAK TEXTCODE TEXTNflME TEXTftDDS T E X T P L O T T E K T P A K CODE D A T A CODETAB CO&EPTS C O D E L N S CODEPOL>f CODETEXT CODEPAK CODENAME CODE ADDS CODEINDX CODE" MAP NAME DATA; NAMETA& NAMEPTS NANIELMS NAMEPOtf NAMETEXT NAMECODE NAMEPAK NAKtEHDDS NAME1NDX UAMEMAP ADDRESS DATA flDDSTAb ADDSPTS ADDSLNS RDDSPOLW ATJDSTEKT ADDSCODE ADDSN0ME RDDSPAK ADDSINDX ADDSMAP U> 32 segments with st r e e t address ranges (by segment). A second major advantage of t h i s approach i s that each routine of each module i s e a s i l y defined i n terms of i t s inputs and outputs and to be useful for a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g that operation the algorithms must be completely generalized. More importantly, i t does away with the f a l s e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between spaces, and the u n j u s t i f i e d hierarchy- of - dimensions. F i n a l l y , i t e x p l i c i t l y - defines a l l the inverse operators that are so necessary for i n t e r a c t i v e systems and which are so d i f f i c u l t to handle using the correspondence map approach. Table III provides an example of the kind of states and modules that w i l l be incorporated i n t o the next major s p a t i a l information system developed by the author ( t e n t a t i v e l y c a l l e d GENESIS). It:'is not to be assumed that a l l of the states have been i d e n t i f i e d , and i t should be clear how e a s i l y and how completely a new state can be introduced. Each module has been given a generic i d e n t i f i e r that characterizes the .intended set of operations. The o v e r a l l i d e n t i f i e r , GENESIS, i s a b i l i n g u a l acronym that stands f o r : 1. Geographically Encoded and N a t i o n a l l y Enumerated S p a t i a l Information System, or 2. Geocodage Enonce-.Nationalement En un Systeme Informatique et Spatiale. 33 This model i s also useful as a management co n t r o l t o o l as i t e a s i l y shows, which modules are unstarted, incomplete, untested or t o t a l l y operational. As an example, table IV shows some of the c a p a c i t i e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s of the e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n of s p a t i a l information d i s p l a y subsystem modules. Thus the model also serves as a useful t o o l for analyzing and c l a s s i f y i n g s p a t i a l systems. The model can also be us e f u l to the systems analyst function of data structure s e l e c t i o n . I t i s by no means a panacea, however, and c e r t a i n l y does not adequately address a l l aspects of systems design. The next chapter treats a number of other design considerations and objectives. TAB>LE nz: f N PUTS ^ ^ " ^ ^ -STATISTICAL TABLES POINT PILES UIME FILES RE&IOM PILES TEXT FILES CODE FILES NAME FILES FQiDRESS F»L6S REFERENCE DOCUMENTS THEMATIC DOCUMENTS IMPUT DOCUMEMTS OR FcORrAS GlMMS PIU-AR C6MF SIMMS ftRDSR res; piuLAt? TTXI GRDSR &IMMS P l U L A f t AuT&MftP AUT6MAP SRDSR C 4 M F GtMMS P I L L A R fiRDSR CGMP GlMMS £Rt>SR diMMS GROSS FIELD ocs REFDOCS PU6MARS PU6GRAES STATISTICAL DATA &IMNVS STATPAK GEISHA. VJEI6HTIM& AREA SVSTEMS SIMMS POl NT-DAT^ 6RDSR AMUST itssxr/rxr AUTOMAP THEISSEN GRDSR dQAL^  SRbSR MfiPPAK _ A U T O M A P GRDSR ,^  C 6 M F GjMMS ibsir/trr HWPPAK C 6 M F S I M M S PtLLAR • ' kINE DATA <3Rb£R. rbsnrim AUTOMAP LNGEU RUTOMfiP XDSllllTX MBPMAKR AuTOMftP REGION DATA PIPA CMTRCRAV t S l M K S I D S jr/nr AUTO MR P GlMMS tDsa/m AUTOMAP PAPB EXTRACT GlMMS SRbSfc fllMMS SWSPLOT AUTOMAP GlMHAS MAPPAK SVMAP SVMVU TEXT DATA rtsn/nr AUT6MP.  t»tiXAft Gtf\MS AUTOMAP it>sa/m MflPMAKR. G l M M S P l L t - A R XDsn/m MAPPA* SVMVU l CODE 15 ATA C&MF NAME COT5E. C6MF i DftTG PAAS PAAS PAAS MfiPMAKR PAAS PAAS. PAAS 6R.&SR CO 35 DESIGN OBJECTIVES The last chapter established the need for a system design based in theory and offered as an example the model transformation matrix of GENESIS. To be successful, however, any systems design must also have a strong basis in pragmatics and to a lesser degree aesthetics. This chapter treats many of the important issues to be considered when designing a production - (as opposed to research -) oriented system. It i s d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to organize these objectives hierarchically to suit the purposes of a l l sectors of the economy. An attempt w i l l be made in the next chapter to discuss commonly accepted design trade-offs in the govern-mental sector. For the present, these objectives w i l l be dealt with in a random sequence, with no consideration given to relative merit. In so doing, however, i t i s assumed that each objective would be a major con-tributing factor in establishing a figure of merit for the entire system. Human Engineering Often underrated, this objective plays an important role in systems adaption and acceptance. This i s especially true wherever the ratio between the marginal benefit and marginal cost is not great. In this case, the "system" is easily extended to include the man-machine interface and even the working environment. While some developers (28) have perhaps gone too far in trying to reach this objective most systems designers give insufficient attention to considerations such as "ease-of-use", hardware aesthetics and automated "back-up and error recovery". Ease-of-use 36 "Ease-of-use" as a component of the figu r e of merit of any system i s a d i f f i c u l t concept to d e t a i l and measure. Some examples of appropriate concerns (other than cost, speed and modularity considerations which w i l l be dealt with under a separate heading) include the pursuit of the following objectives: 1. Minimizing the number of operations or steps (implies automated invocation and chaining of procedures) 2. Minimizing the requirement for s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n advance (implies prompting and recovery procedures and a command language) 3. Minimizing complex decision-making and human c a l c u l a t i o n (implies default and computational capacities) 4. Minimizing impediments to input f a c i l i t y (implies such things as a standard keyboard, push buttons and a "free-arm" cursor as opposed to ta b l e t s , d i a l s or thumb wheels) 5. Minimizing impediments to output f l e x i b i l i t y (implies a large CRT, separate screen for prompting and a ref r e s h or "write-thru" capacity) 6. Minimize requirements for information retention by the operator (implies data management c a p a c i t i e s , a parameter structure and status checking procedures) 7. Minimizing core storage (to make i t easy to run the system under conditions of stringent memory control) (implies an overlay structure) 8. Minimize the requirement for sequential ordering of procedures (implies modularity gener a l i z a t i o n of routines) 37 Hardware aesthetics As i s evident from the previous section, hardware aesthetics play an important r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the ease-of-use. Previously discussed aspects w i l l not be treated further at t h i s point. Consideration w i l l instead focus on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as: 1. Ease of maintenance (implies hardware r e l i a b i l i t y , r e p a i r a b i l i t y and back-up) 2. Ease of i n t e r a c t i o n (implies hardware in t e g r a t i o n at the macro - including appearance and lay-out - and micro - including f l e x i b i l i t y and s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y ) 3. Ease of p h y s i c a l operation (implies engineering s i m p l i c i t y and semi-automated i n i t i a -l i z a t i o n ) 4. Ease of upgrading (implies upward compa t i b i l i t y which i s r e l a t e d to the s t a -b i l i t y of hardware technology and l e v e l of standardization) C l e a r l y each of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , when considered i n terms of t h e i r absence, represent a measure of what might be p r a c t i c a l l y termed a " c o e f f i c i e n t of p h y s i c a l r e s i s t a n c e " . The i n i t i a l impact of such an index plays an important r o l e i n systems acceptance and adoption and i n the longer term c l e a r l y a f f e c t s e f f i c i e n c y of operation and the number of degrees of freedom for expansion and development. 38 Back-up and erro r recovery While being one of the most d i f f i c u l t aspects of a cybernetic system to f u l l y conceptualize and e f f i c i e n t l y implement the importance of these features cannot be overstated. They are techniques that must be u t i l i z e d at a l l l e v e l s from the basic hardware and operating system design, through a p p l i c a t i o n program development, to es t a b l i s h i n g routine operating procedures. As a general r u l e back-up i s a pr e r e q u i s i t e to "error-recovery". That i s , to be able to recover from an error i n the system, data or f i n a l output, the system's designers must have previously anticipated the p o s s i -b i l i t y of error and must have included algorithms that would both store or "back-up" s u f f i c i e n t data and systems status information to permit contingency a c t i o n . Whether or not human intervention i s required varies with the cause of the error and the desired s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the system(s). The need for back-up i s a function of the s t a b i l i t y of the system (hardware, software and supporting operations), the volume and duration of the opera-t i o n ^ ) , and the r o l e or c r i t i c a l nature of the operation. Error recovery, on the other hand, requires the deterministic analysis of a l l l i k e l y sources of er r o r . A large number of programming languages allow the incorporation of error condition analysis and r e s o l u -t i o n . The need for t h i s feature increases as app l i c a t i o n s move from batch processing through i n t e r a c t i v e processing to on-line processing. Fortu-nately, however, the f a c i l i t y f o r e r r o r recovery increases with the degree of i n t e r a c t i o n with the user since i t i s possible to query the user f o r 39 further information before i n i t i a t i n g the appropriate recovery procedure. The degree and location of error recovery is a function of the sophisti-cation of the process, the number of degrees of freedom on the flow of processing and the number and types of sources of information. In the most general terms, the overall objective of "back-up" i s to ensure that the maximum benefit from pre-error condition processing can be conserved and the ultimate aim of "error recovery" is to permit the continuance of the processing with the minimal loss of accuracy and completeness of f i n a l results. A primary design objective, therefore, is to make these two processes - back-up and recovery - as transparent and inobtrusive to the user as is possible. Modular Components While "system modularity" has long been espoused as a desirable design objective for any cybernetic system, many developers (e.g., the CGIS, GRDSR) have failed to provide sufficient modular structure to satisfy the needs of those responsible for the re-implementation, restructuring and/or maintenance of the system. It is clear that prior to finalizing the system design, a careful analysis must be made to identify those procedures which should be localized because they are: of general interest, of a machine-dependent nature, used frequently, form a logical sub-unit, or are of sufficient length to be unmanageable i f extended further. As a general rule the number of macro-level modules ("runs" or "packages") should be minimized while the number of micro-level modules ("programs" or "routines") should be maximized. 40 Extendable Functions One of the most desirable design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of any system i s the provision of a reasonable number of i n t e r f a c e points (or "hooks") for linkage with e x i s t i n g systems and/or extended c a p a c i t i e s . The u t i l i t y of any system i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i t s "room" ( f a c i l i t y ) f o r "growth". For example, the SYMAP routine "USERIN" and the GIMMS command "USER" re s p e c t i v e l y allow for user defined i n t e r p o l a t i o n and new procedures. One major obstacle to t h i s approach to extending the processing capacity i s that d e t a i l e d knowledge i s required of global v a r i a b l e types and of structures within other parts of the system. A second design approach towards t h i s objective i s the incorpora-t i o n of parsers of boolean expressions and i n t e r p r e t e r s of a high l e v e l language. If the extended system also includes that a b i l i t y to assign pseudonyms to v a r i a b l e s and sets of variables then the requirements for d e t a i l e d knowledge of other system structures i s reduced. F i n a l l y the e x t e n d a b i l i t y of the system i s greatly enhanced i f i t i s programmed i n an e a s i l y extendable language such as ALGOL 68 or APL where new "operators" and modes are e a s i l y added. However, i t should be noted that most graphics systems intended for broad d i s t r i b u t i o n s use the FORTRAN language that i s e i t h e r extended by a standard set of graphics routines or that i s preprocessed by an i n t e r p r e t e r . Transferable Software The f i e l d of computer graphics has evolved to the point where much 41 more e f f o r t i s being expended on e s t a b l i s h i n g guidelines and standards that w i l l enable software to be exchanged more e a s i l y , A large number of systems i n a v a r i e t y of hardware and software environments (29) have reached a s u f f i c i e n t state of maturity that common elements begin to appear. To begin with, the degree of machine independence i s increasing as the larger systems (e.g., DISSPLA) are d i s t r i b u t e d more widely. Whenever machine l e v e l languages are used they tend to be l o c a l i z e d to a s i n g l e module and s i m i l a r l y hardware in t e r f a c e routines are minimized i n number by handling a l l but the most basic operations within the system routines themselves. A trend that i s perhaps not as c l e a r l y desirable i s the tendency to produce software i n one of the more "u n i v e r s a l " languages. Often, FORTRAN i s chosen because of i t s broad d i s t r i b u t i o n and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r mini-computer environments. To achieve t h i s design objective some systems have even gone to the point of re-programming i n FORTRAN a f t e r i n i t i a l development work was started i n another language (e.g., INTERMAP). C l e a r l y the achievement of a l l of the design objectives enhance the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y since a w e l l designed and implemented system w i l l receive wide c i r c u l a t i o n . However, one of the more important design con-siderations already mentioned i s system modularity. The importance of t h i s objective with respect to t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y i s thr e e - f o l d . A modular structure allows for easier understanding and implementation, for r e s t r u c -turing and enhancement and for " r e s t r i c t i n g the transfer to s p e c i a l i z e d sub-systems. The single most important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g successful systems 42 t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y i s the structure and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of supporting documen-t a t i o n . So important i s t h i s objective that for some systems a f u l l range of documentation was completed before the system i t s e l f was implemented. To increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of possible transfer, such documentation should include: •1. A General Overview Description of Structure and Statement of Purpose, 2. A S p e c i f i c Conceptual Description of the Role of Each Module, 3. A Technical (Algorithmic) Description of Each Module (including f i l e format), 4. Documentation Internal to the Source Code, 5. Operational and Maintenance Documentation, 6. User's Handbooks and Reference Cards and 7. Test Data Sets. L a s t l y , a v i a b l e mechanism f or error reporting and r e s o l u t i o n i s c r i t i c a l to successful systems adoption and the maintenance of i n t e r -i n s t a l l a t i o n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Systems Integration Two competing forces i n the evolutionary development of any large geographic information are the tendencies towards the generation of a disorganized agglomeration of procedures and the movement towards a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s i m i l a r but s p e c i a l purpose and independent systems. The p r a c t i c a l and conceptual advantages and disadvantages of both of these phenomena are straight-forward. The objective of "systems i n t e g r a t i o n " 43 does not espouse nor degrade e i t h e r of these l i k e l y e v e n t u a l i t i e s . Instead, i t c a l l s for a planned evolution aimed at reducing redundant development while permitting the optimal p a r t i t i o n i n g of processing tasks to maximize performance. R e p l i c a t i o n of procedures and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of algorithms to meet a f u l l e r set of requirements i s highly desirable i f the q u a l i t y and consistency of i d e n t i c a l processes for d i f f e r e n t applications i s to be measured and c o n t r o l l e d . The impact upon systems maintenance and s t a b i l i t y are also of great relevance. Closely r e l a t e d to and equally important as system i n t e g r a t i o n i s f i l e i n t e g r a t i o n . Again the objective i s to f i n d the optimal trade-off between one large f i l e and many small f i l e s with redundant information. The consequence of t h i s a u x i l i a r y component of systems i n t e g r a t i o n i s the requirement for integrated systems modules that permit the simultaneous update of a l l f i l e s with redundant data. H i e r a r c h i c a l Bases The general purpose of incorporating a h i e r a r c h i c a l structure into any EDP system i s to increase the e f f i c i e n c y of storage, manipulation and r e t r i e v a l operations. The u t i l i t y of t h i s kind of data organization increases p r o p o r t i o n a l l y with the s i z e of the data base and with the inherent natural structure of the phenomena being measured. The degree of the requirement i n the l a t t e r case stems from the nature of the inves-t i g a t i v e methodology, namely that researchers are more l i k e l y to formulate questions r e q u i r i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l approach to processing the data. Thus most geographically oriented processing systems have both simple tree and complex matrix (e.g., the MORTON matrix, (30)) structures for data organiza-t i o n . 44 As soon as i n t e r a c t i v e compilation, manipulation and processing i s permitted, the need for e f f e c t i v e multiple data linkage structures such as the f u l l r i n g structures of Sutherland (31) and the dual incidence map encoding structure developed by the graph-theorist, James Corbett for the U.S! Census DIME system i s greatly increased. As a general r u l e , the greater the structuring of the data, the greater the space requirements and the fast e r the processing. The long standing trade-off between space and CPU cycles remains as one of the most d i f f i c u l t a n a l y t i c a l problems for the systems designer and the choice for one or other must be made with the f u l l understanding of cost trends v i s - a - v i s hardware (CPU and memory), the l i k e l i h o o d of increased system use and development and the probable increases i n data volumes. A f i n a l factor a f f e c t i n g the s e l e c t i o n of a h i e r a r c h i c a l data structure i s the choice of geographic reference encoding structure. GENESIS attempts to provide a framework that not only allows for seven d i f f e r e n t input states but also the a b i l i t y to move from one state to a l l others. Most other systems allow for one or two types of hierarchy only. The GRDSR system, for example, can r e t r i e v e information from the data base according to a f i v e - l e v e l e d , eleven-valued standard code. A l t e r n a t e l y , any other consistent hierarchy can be selected through r e s o l u t i o n of graphic descriptions of s p a t i a l regions. Here again the se l e c t i o n process i s h i e r a r c h i c a l i n that graphic analysis i s performed f i r s t at the l e v e l of the UTM zone, secondly at the l e v e l of the bounding rectangle of the query region and f i n a l l y at the l e v e l of the region i t s e l f . 45 As a general r u l e , then, h i e r a r c h i c a l structures should be used only when the natural organization of the phenomena i s h i e r a r c h i c a l and when the volume of the data i s too great to allow for timely processing using simpler and less-space-consuming structures. Accuracy arid Aesthetics Common use of the word "accuracy" often includes both absolute accuracy and the r e l a t e d concepts of r e s o l u t i o n and r e p e a t a b i l i t y , each of which can vary i n true importance. For thematic mapping (as opposed to topographic mapping and hydrographic charting) the importance of the r e l a t i v e accuracy of the theme usually exceeds the need for absolute accuracy of the s t a t i s t i c a l data and f a r exceeds the need for absolute accuracy of the reference background. Indeed, s t a t i s t i c a l and cartographic (e.g., l i n e ) g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of data are commonly employed to increase map s i m p l i c i t y and theme c l a r i t y . Absolute accuracy of s t a t i s t i c a l values takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e when actu a l values are included i n the presen-t a t i o n either as l i s t s or map symbols. S i m i l a r l y , the absolute accuracy of the reference base map becomes important when other than the intended uses are pursued (e.g., c a l c u l a t i o n of land area). Since the introduction of computerization to thematic (and topo-graphic) mapping the term " r e s o l u t i o n " has taken on new dimensions. Even before the introduction of laser-feedback measurement, mechanical i n s t r u -mentation has permitted the modern cartographer to represent cartographic phenomena at resolutions far i n excess of the a b i l i t y of the human eye to d i f f e r e n t i a t e and the human hand to duplicate. On the other hand, new 46 developments i n photo-mechanical graphic reduction technology (such as photo-plotters) have imposed new and very demanding standards on geographic systems. The simplest r u l e for deciding upon the optimal r e s o l u t i o n was given by Tobler (32) and can be stated as: "wave lengths of twice the sampling distance or more". Of s i m i l a r importance to the cartographer as r e s o l u t i o n i s repeat-a b i l i t y . Standards of possible absolute accuracy and r e s o l u t i o n can always be given i n the legend as a q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the map but r e p e a t a b i l i t y i s usually assumed to be 100 percent. Such i s p r a c t i c a l l y never the case due to the i n s t a b i l i t y of the graphic medium, the l i m i t s of mechanical p r e c i s i o n , the e f f e c t s of changing speeds of operation and the m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s of induced human er r o r . Repeatability i s most s i g n i f i c a n t whenever comparisons such as photo reproduction, r e g i s t r a t i o n , overlay e d i t i n g and qu a l i t y assurance of volume map production are made. Thus f or thematic maps where the p r i n c i p a l objective i s the transmission of a generalized i n f o r -mation complex, greater (perhaps s u r p r i s i n g l y greater) emphasis i s placed on aesthetics than on the various components of "accuracy". Included under the heading "aesthetics" are the f u l l set of standards associated with t r a d i t i o n a l cartographic methods and the findings of much of the recent work i n perception of maps and psycho-physics. Controversy continues as to these standards and the v a l i d i t y of recent quantitative f i n d i n g s . Milestone works by Robinson, B e r t i n , Salich.tchev, etc.(33, 34, 35, 36) present examples of both sets of goals. It i s s u f f i c i e n t to state at t h i s point that one of the most demanding tasks f o r the designer of a thematic mapping system i s to choose amongst 47 competing techniques and schools of thought and to be able to produce a system capable of serving the needs of a s p e c i f i c cartographic task i n a manner acceptable to cartographic community. Speed and Cost C l e a r l y the most important factors to consider i n designing a thematic mapping system are the constraints associated with speed and with cost. I n i t i a l development costs i n the f i e l d of automated cartography were e a s i l y j u s t i f i e d i n terms of increased through-put speeds over monotonous labour-intensive tasks. As these tasks were reduced i n number and as economic conditions became les s favourable, greater d i f f i c u l t y has been experienced i n showing cost-effectiveness i n an age where high c a p i t a l investment i s required f o r hardware. Unlike most commodities i n an i n f l a -tionary period, the expense of equipment for automated cartography has had an ever decreasing per/unit volume time i n t e r v a l cost. Rather than dwell on the myriad r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n terms of the unnecessary expenditures and software development associated with a poorly-timed development strategy, i t i s important to focus on those cost elements which must be examined i n any complete cost-effectiveness a n a l y s i s : 1. Cost of f e a s i b i l i t y work (including conceptual development data set s e l e c t i o n and production, figure of merit c r i t e r i a , e t c . ) . 2. Cost of systems design and development (including research, p i l o t studies, s p e c i f i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , programming, te s t i n g and evaluation). 48 3. Cost of systems implementation and maintenance (including programming, documentation, back-up, trouble shooting). 4. Cost of systems operation (including I/O, CPU, memory, elapsed time). . 5. Cost of systems enhancement and adoption (including aspects of a l l the above). 6. Cost of systems applications studies, p u b l i c i t y and d i s t r i -bution. F i n a l l y the component element, "speed", has taken on greater importance with the advent and d i f f u s i o n of i n t e r a c t i v e graphics and cartography systems. Indeed system's response time has i n many instances exceeded the importance of minor differences i n costs. Acceptable respon-siveness i s extremely subjective and va r i e s with the types of operations being performed. This v a r i a b l e i s therefore d i f f i c u l t to quantify and tends to quickly r e f l e c t the increased expectations associated with the improved user s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and f a m i l i a r i t y with the system. Thus, the comparative r o l e of these two p r i n c i p a l elements i s changing as new ap p l i c a t i o n s , approaches, graphics devices and mini-computer main frames are being exploited. While on a r e l a t i v e basis i t i s easier to analyze the cost-effectiveness of these two elements, they are both highly dynamic system a t t r i b u t e s . 49 IMPLEMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS The processes of acquiring, i n t e g r a t i n g , developing and enhancing modules of SIDS are i n a continuing state of evolution. Phase I of the Sp a t i a l Information Display System, has been completed and represents an assemblage of packages capable of converting s p a t i a l data into graphic information i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Many of the various forms of packaging are demonstrated i n Appendix A. Enhancement to the i n d i v i d u a l packages to the end of Phase I have been minor i n comparison with the i n i t i a l e f f o r t s expended by the o r i g i n a l developers. P r o p o r t i o n a l l y greater e f f o r t has been expended on the processes of systems (hardware and software) a c q u i s i -t i o n , t e s t i n g and evaluation and in t e g r a t i o n . This chapter documents how these processes have lead to the choice of hardware configuration, the str u c t u r i n g of the linkages between component packages and the necessary trade-offs r e l a t i v e to the ultimate design. Design Trade-Offs While the basic elements of GENESIS were conceived and/or i n t e -grated by the author during h i s tenure at UBC, the processes and the pragmatics associated with the implementation of the f i r s t phase of SIDS were conditioned by the needs and resources of the Census F i e l d of S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Thus, the basic philosophy behind the implementation strategy was that modules of greatest use to Census would receive the highest p r i o r i t y , no modules would be developed that could be purchased elsewhere at a reasonable p r i c e , and that no module would be purchased that could be obtained free-of-charge. By adopting such a pragmatic a t t i t u d e , many of the ideals expressed e a r l i e r as design objectives are 50 immediately compromised. In terms of f u l f i l l i n g those i d e a l s there are clear advantages to simply developing a l l modules without attempting to incorporate the work of others. However, when f u l l consideration i s given to the magnitude of the task and to the limited, resources a v a i l a b l e for i t s completion, the need to take advantage of e x i s t i n g components a v a i l -able from other systems i s evident. As i t turned out, often the processes by which implementation decisions were taken are as i n t e r e s t i n g as the basis and the merit of the decisions themselves. Without digressing too far from the academic objectives of t h i s thesis, some of the more s i g n i f i -cant and often p o l i t i c a l considerations w i l l be included to c l a r i f y the p r i o r i t y and configuration s e l e c t i o n decisions. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t design d e c i s i o n was to amass and a d d i t i v e l y incorporate a l l of the a v a i l a b l e c a p a c i t i e s p r i o r to decomposing each package into one streamlined and t o t a l i t y integrated system (GENESIS). This d e c i s i o n was based on a combination of f a c t o r s : a) timing - plans for the 1976 Census had already been set with p r i o r i t i e s and manpower assignments not favoring a massive systems development undertaking, b) c r e d i t - by keeping the i n t e g r i t y of the packages, the various contributing sources would be more l i k e l y to receive due c r e d i t , c) documentation - though r e l a t i v e l y sparse, e x i s t i n g documen-ta t i o n could be i n i t i a l l y used without major r e v i s i o n s , d) education - the process of systems adoption and acceptance could be handled as a gradual process giving the various 5 1 production units the opportunity to a s s i m i l a t e the new technology as a s e r i e s of reasonable steps, and e) organizational - the "packages" could be more e a s i l y accepted as additions t o . e x i s t i n g subsystems since l i n e s of respon-s i b i l i t y had already been f i r m l y established. Thus i t was necessary to delay c e r t a i n design objectives and systems enhancements u n t i l the "working environment" i s better prepared to accept substantial change, a factor not always f u l l y appreciated when a l l of the work i s c a r r i e d out within the confines of the academic community. There i s at l e a s t one other macro-level design trade-off c o n s i -deration that should be mentioned at t h i s point and i t r e l a t e s to the in t e r p l a y of group dynamics, the power associated with technological advance-ment and the- law .of r i s i n g expectations. The p r o v i s i o n of new technology must be viewed i n terms of the stimulus-response impact on t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Moving too quickly, skipping steps i n a natural evolution, and f a i l i n g to d i s t r i b u t e both knowledge and c a p a c i t i e s i n a balanced fashion can destroy morale and self-esteem and t h i s factor must be c a r e f u l l y considered by any designer wanting to ensure the success of h i s work by having the co-operation and support of those he i s attempting to service. If i t i s possible to reduce the amount of d u p l i c a t i o n to a minimum, there i s great merit i n the expression: "Anything worth doing i s worth doing twice." The f i r s t time the product belongs to the designer, the second time i t belongs to the user even though the amount of involve-ment by the designer w i l l l i k e l y increase the second time around, i t w i l l be perceived as being " d i r e c t e d " by the end user. Hardware Configuration At the time of the author's a r r i v a l i n Ottawa i n 1973, the basic hardware a v a i l a b l e to support SIDS consisted of the IBM 370/165 mainframe with only the standard high speed l i n e p r i n t e r s (with 6 and 8 l i n e s / i n c h resolutions) for very crude rastbr drawings and a very slow CALCOMP 663 drum p l o t t e r (see Figure 11) capable of producing b a l l - p o i n t and l i q u i d ink pen l i n e drawings. During the program forecast exercise of that year the research and development group requested that money be set aside f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of i n t e r a c t i v e graphics equipment i n 1977-78. The expenditure of these funds would be contingent upon r e s u l t s of f e a s i b i l i t y studies (1975-76) and bench-mark evaluations of a l t e r n a t i v e equipment (1976-77). Nine months l a t e r , however, i t became evident that greater p l o t t i n g capacity than could be provided by the aging CALCOMP 663 would be needed to support the production requirements for the 1976 Census. The de c i s i o n was taken to purchase a new p l o t t e r to supplement and eventually replace the CALCOMP 663 and (since the funds were a v a i l -able) to accelerate the a c q u i s i t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i v e graphics equipment, as a second component of a si n g l e , integrated package. The importance of these events and t h e i r impact upon the i d e a l hardware requirements for GENESIS r e s t s with the speed i n which the equipment had to be pur-chased and the fac t that the primary impetus and j u s t i f i c a t i o n was based on the requirement for a high speed p l o t t i n g device. In short, only vendors able to combine p l o t t i n g and i n t e r a c t i v e graphics systems into a s i n g l e package and also able to meet the stringent s p e c i f i c a t i o n s for the p l o t t i n g device while guaranteeing short-term f i n a l d e l i v e r y dates were considered. Since only two vendors could meet these "production-53 54 oriented" s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and since the cost quotations were comparable, the f i n a l d e c i s i o n was based on the fact that one of the two vendors not only provided a single-source "blanket" maintenance agreement but also offered an e x i s t i n g i n t e r a c t i v e graphics software package as a s t a r t i n g -point f or development. Figure 12 d e t a i l s the elements of t h i s hardware configuration. The actual s e l e c t i o n of components for the i n i t i a l hard-ware configuration were based on three primary considerations: 1. the amount of funds a v a i l a b l e , 2. the need for an assured p l o t t i n g capacity, and 3. concern over the l o c a t i o n of the equipment ( i . e . , i f the f a c i l i t y supported more than simple graphic data handling there was a strong argument for l o c a t i n g i t i n a c e n t r a l i z e d i n s t a l l a t i o n where se c u r i t y and service could be provided 24 hours per day; however we required "hands-on" access by production s t a f f . ) . For a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i v e d i s p l a y system (IDS) software see (37). As Boyle (38) points out, one of the standard approaches taken by many developers of automated systems for cartography i s to s t a r t with an e x i s t i n g graphics system, usually designed for a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n , and adapt that package to the s p e c i f i c cartographic task. The IDS-2 system (two-dimensional graphics), for example was designed and developed for the production of integrated c i r c u i t board diagrams and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to thematic and referencing mapping i s b r i e f l y described i n the next section. 56 Software Configuration Two of the three major components of the l i n e graphics hard-ware; the CALCOMP 663 p l o t t e r and the IDS graphics s t a t i o n were immediate-l y compatible with a l l e x i s t i n g software that generated l i n e graphics (see Figure 12) by the simple s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a JCL parameter which insured the s e l e c t i o n and concatenation of the appropriate l i b r a r y of CALCOMP-compatible subroutines. I t was necessary to have these routines mounted even before the purchase of the new hardware to permit the various systems to be bench-marked. The f i r s t important i n t e r f a c e problem r e l a t e d to the f a c t that the CALCOMP 663 p l o t t e r was capable of p l o t t i n g s t r i p s 28 inches by 200 feet (the length of a r o l l of paper) while the GERBER 42 p l o t t e r was r e s t r i c t e d to a t o t a l p l o t t i n g surface of 37 inches by 48 inches. Thus the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e g r a t i o n a c t i v i t y was the s p e c i f i c -ation and development of a post-processing "sectioning" routine to convert the l i n e graphic s t r i p s into rectangles not exceeding 3 feet by 4 fe e t . This sectioning capacity was l a t e r to become an integrated component of subsequent SID subsystems (eg., GIMMS, PILLAR, e t c . ) . The -^fact that the new p l o t t e r provided four software referencable pen holders was one of the primary reasons for rewriting the polygon s e l e c t i o n and p l o t t i n g subsystem (SYSPLOT) for the CGMF system. Although only a minor enhancement conceptually, the p r o v i s i o n of multicolored v e r i f i c a t i o n p l o t s resulted i n a 3 to 5 f o l d increase i n "thruput for the polygon e d i t i n g process. As a natural consequence, the SYSPLOT package and the associated f i l e structure replaced the Query Area Boundary cr e a t i o n and e d i t i n g subsystems and the f i r s t stage of f i l e and systems in t e g r a t i o n was achieved. To improve the f i n a l plotted product by d i s s o l v i n g unnecessary 57 i n t e r n a l boundaries, a general purpose algorithm that performs polygon agglomeration from polygon boundaries (PAPB), point adjustment, and converts the polygon boundaries into a network-oriented data structure was developed and integrated. I t has been used to "assemble" polygon parts into whole polygons and to " r o l l - u p " polygon sets into macro-level geographical regions by extr a c t i n g the external boundaries of a given subset. The next l i n e graphic generating subsystem to be integrated was the SYMVU package from the Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and S p a t i a l Analysis (see Figures 5 and 6) which produces three-dimen-s i o n a l perspective views of topographic or s t a t i s t i c a l surfaces. Since the SYMVU package i s a self-contained post-processor for the SYMAP program (Figure 1) which formed the basis of the MAPPAK module of GRDSR, the int e g r a t i o n exercise was reduced to mounting the system with the JCL option to se l e c t the p l o t t i n g device and to upgrading the CALCOMP compa-table subroutine l i b r a r y supplied by Gerber S c i e n t i f i c to include, as an entry point, the formula required to automatically c a l c u l a t e o f f s e t s (a feature used extensively by SYMVU). In response to demands by the Census of Agri c u l t u r e for choro-pleth maps i n color comparible with those produced by the US Bureau (see Figures 13 and 14), the author obtained the source code and the ri g h t to use and modify the GIMMS (Geographic Information Manipulation and Mapping System) package. As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n between the author and the o r i g i n a l developer, Mr. Thomas Waugh, the GIMMS package has been enhanced according to the requirements of the Census p l o t t i n g POPULATION CHANGE BY CENSUS DIVISIONS 1971-1976 VARIATION DE LA POPULATION PAR DIVISIONS DE RECENSEMENT 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 SOURCE I 1971 CENSUS if CANTOR. PTOOUCtO Bf STATISTICS CANADA Figure 14 60 and production environment. Enhancements included the addi t i o n of new commands (e.g., NEWSHEET which performs sectioning) and the modification of o l d commands to f a c i l i t a t e the cre a t i o n of color separation overlays. While the IDS-2 system with i t s standard l i n e graphics manipulation ca p a c i t i e s (add, delete, change, move, window, tes t , copy, save, etc.) was intended to be used to i n t e r a c t i v e l y enhance the thematic graphics produced by the GIMMS package, Mr. Waugh decided to develop a s p e c i a l module f or i n t e r a c t i v e thematic map compilation. Thus some but not a l l of the features of IDS-2 have been d i r e c t l y incorporated into the GIMMS package. Unfortunately u n t i l an i n t e r a c t i v e graphics storage tube i s interfaced with the AMDAHL 470 under TSO, to permit cursor h i t s to be recorded f o r p o s i t i o n i n g map elements such as text, legends, north-arrows, etc., t h i s component w i l l not be implemented at Census. (Note: two such devices are curr e n t l y on order.) However, three versions of GIMMS have been mounted at STC. The standard version operating under RJE:HASP and producing e i t h e r CALCOMP or GERBER plo t tapes. This version i s supplemented by a test version which acts as a command v e r i f i c a t i o n processor and does not a c t u a l l y produce a p l o t tape (which would r e s u l t i n much slower turn around). Thus several maps can be debugged and submitted for f i n a l p l o t t i n g i n a sing l e run and producing a si n g l e , m u l t i - f i l e p l o t tape. A t h i r d version of GIMMS i s also mounted at STC and i t runs i n a sing l e 180 K p a r t i t i o n under TSO. To do so however, the overlay structure i s so i n t r i c a t e that not a l l of the other modules can be accessed d i r e c t l y while within the domain of any given module (which i s the usual case). The power gained by being able to i n t e r a c t i v e l y " b u i l d " a thematic map 61 more than compensates for the need for greater s t r u c t u r i n g of the sequen-cing of the access to major system modules. F i n a l l y a s p e c i a l i n t e r f a c e was included to l i n k the GlMMS package to the CARTLIB f i l e which contains several sets of standard g e o s t a t i s t i c a l region boundaries i n d i g i t i z e r co-ordinates. Development i s c urrently underway to e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between the GlMMS package and the polygon base f i l e s i n UTM co-ordinates within the CGMF and QAL bases. Unlike the boundaries stored within the CARTLIB f i l e , these boundaries are not referenced to a sing l e co-ordinate system (e.g., d i g i t i z e r co-ordinates f or a sing l e sheet) and p r i o r to e s t a b l i s h i n g the format trans-formation i n t e r f a c e , i t i s necessary to perform a pr o j e c t i o n transforma-t i o n from UTM (with several (15) zones, or separate o r i g i n s , f o r Canada) to some other sin g l e zone p r o j e c t i o n system such as the Lambert Conformal Conic Projection. Two packages that are needed to perform such conver-sions have been obtained; one from the Surveys and Mapping Branch of EMR and the other from the CIA i n the USA. Both have been compiled, mounted, and interfaced to the GRDSR and CGMF systems. Tests are curr e n t l y under-way to evaluate the effectiveness of each component. As soon as the evaluation has been made the in t e r f a c e to GlMMS and SYMAP w i l l be imple-mented. Another component of the SIDS system i s the PILLAR mapping program (see Figure 15) obtained from Prof. David Douglas of the University of Ottawa. The developer i s cu r r e n t l y under contract to enhance t h i s module according to the author's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s so that fewer steps w i l l require manual intervention and the f i n a l product w i l l be more completely automated. 63 The f i n a l component of the SIDS system i s the dot mapping sub-system obtained from the US Bureau of the Census. The number of dots i s calculated by d i v i d i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l value of the region by the value associated with the dot. The dots are then placed randomly within the l i m i t s of the region and weighted according to a grid of land use values ( i f they are supplied). A l l of the products i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix A were produced by Census personnel and show that the system components, while perhaps not interfaced i n the most convenient or e f f i c i e n t fashion, are operable. 64 EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE F i n a l Product S u i t a b i l i t y In a period of a l i t t l e over two years, the Census F i e l d has v a s t l y improved i t s a b i l i t y to produce a v a r i e t y of high q u a l i t y r e f e r -ence and thematic graphic products through the use of automated and semi-automated systems. From a base capacity involving the use of the SYMAP package to generate r a s t e r graphics on the standard IBM high speed p r i n t e r s and manually drafted boundary overlays and t i t l e s for 1971 Census data, the system has evolved to produce point symbol maps and choropleth maps not only i n black and white but also i n color with a l l textual and l i n e work produced either d i r e c t l y by software or i n t e r a c t i v e l y using i n t e r -a c t i v e graphics;: packages. While the q u a l i t y of these products i s v a s t l y improved and while r e s u l t s are not as yet completely comparible with standards associated with manually produced cartographic products, the minor differences are more than compensated f o r by the f a c t that without r e s o r t i n g to computerized techniques i t would be v i r t u a l l y impossible to produce a reasonable number of maps i n the short time period (2-3 weeks) between the date the data i s c e r t i f i e d as acceptable by subject matter experts and the date by which the maps have to be submitted to the p r i n t e r for i n c l u s i o n i n the standard b u l l e t i n s and volume serie s p u b l i c a t i o n s . A-.major improvement i n f i n a l product s u i t a b i l i t y r e l a t e s to the use of population and a g r i c u l t u r a l ecumene (the area covered by population \ or a g r i c u l t u r e r e s p e c t i v e l y ) boundaries (see Figure 16) instead of the ent i r e g e o s t a t i s t i c a l regions used i n 1971 which gave the f a l s e impres-sion of vast and extreme d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n the large northerly 66 zones where the p a r t i c u l a r s t a t i s t i c a l phenomena was p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent. The use of empirical p r o j e c t i o n transformations within the PILLAR program also approaches t h i s problem by v i s u a l l y s t r e s s i n g the southern l a t i t u d e s . The judicious use of color has not only improved the aesthetic value but i n general has also improved the r e a d a b i l i t y of the maps. The high degree of f l e x i b i l i t y for experimenting with alternate formats and layouts has also improved the appeal of the products, both for reference base maps and thematic maps since the time cost associated with improve-ments i s low enough to permit higher standards to be enforced. Software S u i t a b i l i t y Given the multitude of systems that are presently being used i n support of these products, i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible to make genera-l i z e d statements and therefore each component must be treated i n d i v i d u a l l y . MAPPAK The SYMAP base of th i s module of the GRDSR system s t i l l has the unique capacity to produce i s o p l e t h maps that i s not cu r r e n t l y a v a i l -able i n other components of SIDS. As a r e s u l t i t i s t h i s module that i s used to generate a l l i s o p l e t h maps and to perform trend surface a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y i t i s used to generate the regular gri d of values required as input to the SYMVU program. SYMVU 67 While there are numerous other three dimensional block diagram generating programs a v a i l a b l e , none have been found that produce better q u a l i t y graphics. MAPMAKR Although t h i s module i s the heart of the GRDSR urban Area Master F i l e (AMF) creation and update process and can output AMF p l o t components i n various combinations on eit h e r the CALCOMP 663 or the GERBER sta t i o n s , i t has grown to be expensive and unmanageable. The f i n a l product must be upgraded to permit features at multiple l e v e l s , i n d i f f e r e n t colors and organized i n l o g i c a l groups for i n t e r a c t i v e e d i t i n g . SYSPLOT While t h i s subsystem i s f a r more f l e x i b l e than i t s predecessor, i t does not yet provide the complete set of options needed to sele c t and plot according to a r b i t r a r y scales, p a r t i t i o n s (e.g., non-rectangular windows) and set r e l a t i o n s h i p s that are eit h e r pre-determined or derived. GlMMS The major l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s component, aside from the notable lack of dot and i s o p l e t h mapping c a p a c i t i e s , r e l a t e to the mathematical (as opposed to 3artographic) o r i e n t a t i o n cf the various command and default assumptions. A complete evaluation has been prepared under the d i r e c t i o n of the author (39) and i s a v a i l a b l e for d i s t r i b u t i o n . PILLAR II 68 Most of the l i m i t a t i o n s of PILLAR I w i l l be removed as the r e s u l t of the current contract with the systems o r i g i n a t o r . The most s i g n i f i c a n t remaining l i m i t a t i o n w i l l be the batch-oriented operation of t h i s subsystem. The next stage of development w i l l involve converting the program to run i n t e r a c t i v e l y and on-line so that the cartographer can experiment with various perspective views and scales to e m p i r i c a l l y derive the most appealing and representative graphic. DOT MAPPING While the techniques employed i n the algorithm provided by the US Bureau of the Census possess a s i m p l i s t i c elegance, other approaches that assume i s o t r o p i c planes or network-like d i s t r i b u t i o n s should be provided. IDS -2 The major l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s module has been the resistance to speedy enhancement due to the s p e c i a l i z e d (macro) assembler-like language, ICT, ( i n t e r a c t i v e command table language) that must be used to generate new functions. Phase I of our i n t e r n a l IDS development program w i l l be l i m i t e d to recording only simple add, delete and change commands for updating sets of polygons stored on the AMDAHL. C l e a r l y t h i s capacity w i l l represent not much more than a proto-type system to demonstrate the f e a s i b i l i t y of adapting what i s both a powerful and " f r i e n d l y " system ( i . e . , the program can f i l t e r and recover from f a u l t y 69 inputs) to the s p e c i f i c needs of production for i n t e r a c t i v e polygon e d i t and updating. Before such a capacity could be turned over to production i t would be necessary to incorporate modules that monitor thruput and provide q u a l i t y assurance functions. (Note: Phase II w i l l involve the prov i s i o n of an i n t e r a c t i v e MAPMAKR capacity, described above, and i s s t i l l i n the systems analysis stage.) None-the-less i t can be stated that the i n d i v i d u a l modules l i s t e d above represent, unto themselves, advanced states on a development con-tinuum and that the needed enhancements w i l l represent a marginal increased investment with major benefits i n u t i l i t y and ease of use. Following a consideration of the s u i t a b i l i t y of the hardware, the next chapter provides further ins i g h t into the plans for future development. Hardware S u i t a b i l i t y Keeping i n mind the haste i n which most of the current equip-ment was acquired, i t has performed exceedingly well and has, i f one considers the complete set of hardware, exceeded the minimal requirements for production tasks i n terms of speed, q u a l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . Excep-tions to t h i s general observation must be considered module by module. CALCOMP 663 Relegated to the r o l e of a back-up p l o t t i n g f a c i l i t y due to i t s low speed performance (3 inches per second), the CALCOMP continues to serve, f a i t h f u l l y and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l for those a p p l i c a t i o n s re q u i r i n g J ! s t r i p " p l o t s or l i q u i d ink on mylar. 70 GERBER 42 This device i s currently handling 95% of a l l p l o t t i n g r e q u i r e -ments on p r i m a r i l y a s i n g l e - s h i f t basis and i s able to do so by v i r t u e of i t s extremely high speed (42 inches per second). Multiple pen holders f l e x i b l y provide for p l o t t i n g up to four colors or pen sizes without operator intervention. Because the software within the terminal c o n t r o l l e r of the device i s able to detect sharp or smooth changes i n d i r e c t i o n i n advance, the p l o t t e r can a l t e r speed and a c c e l e r a t i o n i n a fashion appro-p r i a t e f or the desired l i n e behavior. While the vaccuum holes d r i l l e d into the drum according to a § inch gri d pattern provide for quick (17 seconds) and easy paper unloading and loading, they have degraded the q u a l i t y of the l i n e work for both ink and for s c r i b i n g . Gerber S c i e n t i f i c have modified the pattern of these holes to reduce ( i f not eliminate) the problem and now provide an improved pen head assembly for more f l e x i b l e set-up and c a l i b r a t i o n . Higher q u a l i t y graphics are c u r r e n t l y produced by underlaying mylar material and attaching scribe or p l o t t i n g material with masking tape and by reducing the p l o t t i n g speed by one-half. GERBER IDS STATION Because t h i s component i s not as yet f u l l y integrated into pro-duction processes, many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that are uncovered through high volume usage have not as yet been i d e n t i f i e d . None-the-less, c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s have already been i d e n t i f i e d . The C a r t r a f i l e unit has not proven to be e f f e c t i v e nor r e l i a b l e as a data storage and r e t r i e v a l device. The standard Hewlett-Packard computers and magnetic tape drives have had minor amounts of down-time. Once the o r i g i n a l tube was replaced the same can be said of the Tek.tronixs 4014 CRT repackaged with a hard-wired free-arm cursor by Gerber S c i e n t i f i c . While the Burroughs 80 character LED display with 80 function buttons and standard keyboard has not shown the same l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y as the ASR - 33 teletypewriter, i t has been far more convenient to operate. In summary, the s u i t a b i l i t y of the various f i n a l products, s o f t -ware systems and hardware devices while e s s e n t i a l l y acceptable f a l l short of the true p o t e n t i a l and anticipated b e n e f i t s . Thus the next chapter describes many of the proposed enhancements. 72 IMPROVEMENTS AND ENHANCEMENTS Plans are curr e n t l y underway to enhance a l l aspects of the SIDS package. By the end of June 1977, GENESIS Phase II w i l l provide on-line/ o f f - l i n e d i g i t i z i n g and p l o t t i n g , i n t e r a c t i v e program development capaci-t i e s and bulk data storage c a p a c i t i e s for int e g r a t i o n to the production process. The on-line d i g i t i z i n g function w i l l be provided by the AUTOMAP system (acquired at no charge from the Lands Directorate and the Forest Management I n s t i t u t e of the Department of Forestry and the Environment) which w i l l be run on an HP 1000 Model 31 mini-computer system and which w i l l i n i t i a l l y support two i n t e r a c t i v e d i g i t i z i n g and e d i t i n g s t a t i o n s . The advantages of moving from a batch-oriented to an i n t e r a c t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d s p a t i a l data capture process r e l a t e to the a b i l i t y to spool data l o c a l l y and perform on-site v i s u a l v e r i f i c a t i o n before t r a n s f e r r i n g the data to the time-consuming batch environment ( i . e . , with one day turn around the mean elapsed time i s very great). I t i s expected, f o r example, that processes c u r r e n t l y taking 4-7 i t e r a t i o n s w i l l be reduced to 2 i t e r a t i o n s or l e s s and the minimal elapsed time for customized r e t r i e v a l w i l l be cut from weeks to days. The upgrading of IDS-2 (based on the ICT language) to IDS-3 (based on FORTRAN) and the placing of the Gerber model 42 p l o t t e r on l i n e to a HP 1000 Model 30 mini-computer (upgrade to the HP 2100A) sharing a set of- two 15 Megabyte disk storage units w i l l provide an environment where production s t a f f w i l l have the opportunity to cont r o l t h e i r work through a l l phases from d i g i t i z i n g to p l o t t i n g . The cont r o l console and the graphics CRT components of the AUTOMAP d i g i t i z i n g stations w i l l both 73 be able to access the i n t e r a c t i v e thematic map compilation module of the GlMMS system to greatly enhance the map layout and compilation processes. Not taking advantage of that module has proven to be very lengthy and involves numerous manual c a l c u l a t i o n s and several time-consuming t r i a l runs. The fa c t that the new hardware can support numerous standard programming languages, 100 megabytes of data, and that each CPU has the capacity to expand to a megabyte of high density core storage means that changes to e x i s t i n g software to meet the needs of production w i l l be far more straight-forward than was the case for IDS Phase I for example. The a c q u i s i t i o n of a reasonably large (22") high speed, high r e s o l u t i o n p r i n t e r / p l o t t e r hardcopy device w i l l provide for quick v e r i f i c a t i o n p l o t s of reasonable q u a l i t y leaving the Model 42 to do the bulk of the high q u a l i t y l i n e graphics work required for pu b l i c a t i o n s . To enhance the qu a l i t y of the Model 42, a photohead w i l l eventually be acquired to produce the high r e s o l u t i o n graphic products usually associated with l i g h t - e m i t t i n g photo-plotting devices (while doing so at speeds approaching 2800 inches per minute). Software enhancements to the thematic mapping subsystems are also planned. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the PILLAR mapping package i s being extended by the or i g i n a t o r and a subsequent contract to convert the program to run i n i n t e r a c t i v e mode i s l i k e l y . The GlMMS program w i l l be extended to permit the production of dot maps while AUTOMAP w i l l be en-hanced to meet production needs for network and polygon formation capa-c i t i e s . 74 Finally, negotiations are currently under way to obtain various packages (at no charge for the software) that produce s t a t i s t i c a l graphics such as pie diagrams, histograms, standard mathematical graphs, CPM diagramS| etc. CONCLUSIONS 75 Since the l a t e 1960's, geographic information processing systems have spread throughout the world attempting to s a t i s f y the demands of decision-makers for relevant, accurate, and timely s t a t i s t i c a l informa-t i o n . The need to integrate, analyse and summarize large volumes of data from diverse sources, at varying scales, with v a r i a b l e c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y (etc.) has placed heavy demands on the d i s c i p l i n e s of geo-graphy and computer science and on the manufacturers of s p e c i a l i z e d equip-ment for graphic data handling. I n i t i a l e f f o r t s varied from the highly p r a c t i c a l approach of GRDSR, through the t h e o r e t i c a l approach of the DIME system to the h o l i s t i c approach of CGIS. E s s e n t i a l l y each group proceeded on t h e i r own with t h e i r own perspectives and t h e i r own desires to produce the f i r s t e f f e c t i v e geo-graphic information system. The p r i n c i p a l developers i n a l l of these (and many other) systems can be proud of t h e i r respective accomplishments. However, i t i s only since they have moved on to new horizons and since the beginnings of the era of extremely t i g h t f i s c a l p o l i c y that a trend towards co-operative development and high l e v e l s of technological exchange can be f i r m l y i d e n t i f i e d . The recent formation of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s (e.g., IGU Commission #8, SORSA), na t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l e a r i n g houses (GPE, TRRL, etc.) and l o c a l working groups (NCGIPG) and the willingness of formerly competitive agencies to share technology and actual production workloads has provided c l e a r evidence of t h i s co-operation. The end 76 r e s u l t has been that each agency has been able to quickly improve t h e i r product l i n e and reduce to some degree t h e i r costs by developing compatable software systems and data exchange standards. Less and les s are systems designers and developers optimizing on t h e i r own s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n and expending resources on re-inventing e x i s t i n g technology. Increasingly the focus i s s h i f t i n g from the design of elegant algorithms to the problems of the machine to machine and the program to program i n t e r f a c e problems. At the same time increasing a t t e n t i o n i s being placed on improving the man-machine i n t e r f a c e so that greater e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y can be generated. This has been true f o r SIDS ( l e , GENESIS I) and w i l l continue to be the case as the system evolves towards maturity and a f u l l set of ca p a c i t i e s . FOOTNOTES 77 1. Tomlinson, Marble, et a l , Software for S p a t i a l Data Handling f o r t h -coming p u b l i c a t i o n by the I.G.U. Commission No. 8 cu r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on microfilm. 2. SIGGRAPH-ACM, Computer Graphics, Volumes 1-10, e s p e c i a l l y proceedings of the annual conferences on Computer Graphics. 3. SIGPLAN-ACM, SIGPLAN Notices, Volumes 1-2, e s p e c i a l l y proceedings of symposia on Graphics Languages. 4. SIGDA-ACM, Design Automation Newsletter, Volumes 1-6, e s p e c i a l l y proceedings of Workshops for Interactive Design. 5. SIGMOD-ACM, FDT B u l l e t i n , Volumes 1-8, e s p e c i a l l y proceedings of Workshops for Interactive Design. 6. ACM, Communications, Volumes 1-20, e s p e c i a l l y topics i n Graphics and Image Processing, S c i e n t i f i c A pplications, and Algorithms. 7. ACM, Computing Surveys, Volumes 1-8, e s p e c i a l l y , March 1971, March 1974, and June 1975 issues. 8. ACM, Computing Reviews, Volumes 1-10, especially,under section 8, Functions - Graphics. 9. Nake, F., and Rosenfeld A. (eds.) Graphic Languages, North-Holland Publishing Co. 10. Peucker, T.K. Computer Cartography, Commission on College Geography Resource Paper No. 17, American Association of Geographers, 1972. 11. Martin, J . Design of Man-Computer Dialogues, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New Jersey, 1973. 12. Evans, "Why Is Computer Graphics Always A Year Away?" Computer  Graphics, SIGGRAPH-ACM, Volume 8, No. 1, A Special Issue Featuring the Proceedings of the B a t t e l l e Computer Graphics Conference, pages 5-11, 1973. 13. Tomlinson, R.F., (ed.) Geographic Data Handling, (Volume 2) IGU Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing (#8), Proceedings of the 2nd TJNESCO/IGU Symposium on Geographical Information Systems, Ottawa, August 1972, page 1343. 14. Drolet, J.P., "Map Lore", Opening address of the Inaugural Meeting of the Canadian Cartographic Association, Ottawa, October 18, 1975. 15. Tomlinson, R.F. (ed.), 1972, i b i d . , page 1342. 78 16. Nake, F., "A Proposed Language for the D e f i n i t i o n of A r b i t r a r y Two Dimensional Signs", i i i Pattern Recognition i n B i o l o g i c a l and Technical  Systems, Giruesser, O.J. and Klinke, R. (eds.), New York, 1971 page 396. 17. Nake, F. 1971, i b i d . 18. Hessdorfer, R., "On CAMS: A Computer Graphics System f o r the Production of Thematic Maps", a paper prepared for the Second Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, June 25-27, 1976, Bowling Green, Ohio, page 2. 19. Castner, H.W., "Dot Area Symbols i n Cartography: The Influence of Pattern on Their Perception", ACSM Monographs i n Cartography, No. 1, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Washington, D.C. 1969. 20. Flannery, J . J . , "The Relative Effectiveness of some Common Graduated Point Symbols i n the Presentation of Quantitative Data", The  Canadian Cartographer, V o l . 8, No. 2, 1971, pp. 96-109. 21. 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Thesis, Department of Computer Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. APPENDIX A TYPICAL PRODUCTS FROM MODULES OF THE SIDS SUBSYSTEM GlMMS Symbolism Chart Base Mapping: Map Size 00 Base Mapping: Centering of Study Area within Map Frame CO CO oo Base Mapping: Thicker Zone Boundaries Base M a p p i n g : Map I n s e t s A Base Mapping: Map Insets B Base Mapping: Grid Matrix SYSPLOT Output of Areas from an INTERFILE 95 C O M P U T E R - P L O T T E D S T R E E T MAP OF S A S K A T O O N (PORTION ) Sourc*: 1971 Cemui of Canoda Source? R»c»memen* du Conodo et* 1971 MO, On i Inlet -s:::::::::._.— :::::::::: :: : ^ . r : « = ! H H E : : : : : : : : . : . : : : . . . . - - - - - - -< . • t.» » » •»«•* • » »i - . » » » mm••••«••••••»••• : : - . : : : : : : : : : : : LP V A N C O U V E R D E N S I T Y O F P O P U L A T I O N . I 9 7 I DENSITE DE L A P O P U L A T I O N . 1971 Legend - Legende Persons per square mile Habitants par mille corre and more Mile, < Sco le-cchelle .5 0 ' Kilometres 1 .5 0 3 Kilometres 12.000 0 9.000.0 6.000.0 3.000.0 0.0 et plus 11.999.9 8.999.9 5.999.9 2.999.9 Source • 1971 Census ot Conodo Produced by the Census Branch. Statistics Conodo Source Recensemenl du Conodo de 1971 Elobl.e poi lo Direction du recensement Statist.que Conodc 98 iti a l ius .bib aaiaasesaBe t s e e B a a a a a e e . s i s s s c c c c c c e e s e e e K i i e s s e s e e o c t c c c c « < « « 666ei8l6BeeissieeuciOijLC4»«<»» •«•••«• •••»•••• ^ ^ . ^ » fieBeBHBfl88B86Bij8GGl,'GUC***** + * •••• + ••• *******4**CCCCC SSSSKBSSSlcffi^ s6fiaeBfifiiaeeflCLCCOCGG+*«««•«••••+•*••••**••••*•••2*+*+*Cr0G8888©bBB86 lillieB&BeBeooGOOou^^ B B • ! . . GOOCCOOOOOCOCOOGGOCH•.••»4«»OCOaGaCCCGCOC*»*«*..•V " !ll!fffnrniliiiiiiiSSfifll! e e 8 B « e e 8 B e e 6 a o o o o o L » o » » » « « » c c c c o o c o o c G c o c c * » * » " . . . i . <cccocoe|BBee6e8*s8Bii 6B6eeeBeBBBBBBeOO00GOOOOOOCCGCC0UOC00CCCDCC*»»»«- i l l l t l f f S E E f f f i S i S i l S i i l l ! eaBeseeBeBBesaesBeccGuGoooocccGccuOOGJCCCOccG*"^^ B e e 8 6 e B B e 8 B B B B e B e e 6 e o o u o o o o Q C O o G O o o o G G C G C O c c c » * « • • • • • • • c c c c c c c p o G B e e | B e a B « Mff iHBSE - -5wSf f i .«KKHSSKSIib11bbIoo3CCClc^ HHaSKaHif f i f f is^ iM BHBSBSSBSOIIbbougccgm l ••SHI • •••••••I *••••••• ••••••• ••••••I I U I 8 e § a e 8 8 B 8 S 8 0 0 C G 4 e E S i • • • +++• ••+•+ • •<!+•*• + • C [ t * » » t t GUCCOGU aUGGOGGGGUC 6B8G0G00UCU feE6600 3UG<iE6 6@§SB88eSBtiE8 I U 6 8 B 6 8 H I 8 eeiaasaaaaaaasBS e 6686EBaMBjMaMB48UB l g j j M 5 1 | sBeeeE taa es s e e s e n — eaeseBEEa 86S686S8EE8 MMl«««l«««««««iBfeeBBe003CCCLCCCCC0CCC0CCLCJ00J0o KKii»»Uii!3»iBeE8Booouc occctcccGceeaeoouooajoc ..••••••••CCCCCCGO ••••••••••+CCC0 • ••••••••••••CO juu « i i^§eei*ejcouccGCOLUGOcccccccccQUOL^ouaQCCCcccc + «*ccoajQ3uc •BMMlMe6l*i«66660C0U0UCCCCCGCGCC0Gu0G0C0000U-l0«••••••••••+•••••+•••••••.... itiMM6ee©eaeeGGQ0000CCGGC0GGu0G0OCGGCG0QGOa •«••••••«•*••••••*•+•**••••••• •••..-••••fueeeeecccGcoocccccccc*** ••••••••••••••••••+••• ••••••• ****** 2 «••••• u«*fceeeeeccccGocoocccGLO** •+••••• •••••••••+•••••••••• 1 •••••••••+•• eee*6eesGccoocoGi3CCGtJOc+++++++++++*++*+-^ *++++*++** 1 - ^  * ofai*ieeGOGOCOGO JCOCCCCC ********************* ****** . eee&cGLcoggoooqcccgg•••+••+2++•••••••••••••••••.• eeOGGOGGCGGGGGGCXGC+*•+•*+••+••••••+•••••••••••. 0CCCC0C0CGCCCCC+**** ************************ G0O0dJ000CG0G + ++* ••••••••«-*• ••••••••+••••• + • •••••••+•• CDuOOGCGG^  ••••••• •••• + •+••••+••••++ •••••• l» ...***2****** QiiLtCCCL* ********************* ********* ' -.-.^.-.A GGCCG+* *••••••••+•••••••••+••••••••. ********************** 4** 4*m •••••••••+••••+•2+••••••••• ....••••...... ..••••••..1..• .••••••••..... .•••••••••.... • • •••••+••• + +•• •• ••••+••••• +•.. • •••••+••••••+• + ••••• ••••••t *•* ****************** •••+•••*•••••• •••+•••+••• •+•+••••• +++•••+ ***** ***** *********** ..•••••••••• ..••••••••• ..•••••+••• .••••••••••• .••••••+•••• •••••• • •••• 2***** ****** 4* *** ***** * * * * XAXXA XXAXXXXXA AXX SYMAP 0.C.J2C04 MNUltb (-CP. MAP DATA VALUL1 LXTRtMES ARb 6071. OC 11811.00 ABSCLUTE VALUL RANGl APPLYING IC EACH LtVfcL t'MAXIMUM' INCLUGcL) IN hlChtSI LLVLL CNLY* HIM PUP 6071.00 7729.90 8548.40 9508.80 1QJ97.60 MAXIMUM 7729.90 8548.4L 95C8.80 10357.60 libll.GG PEPCENTAGL OF TOTAL AbSGLUTfc VAL Ufc RANGt APPLYING Tu EACH LLVEl 28.90 14.26 16.73 .15.-.8 24.62 FP!:LULNCY DISTRIBUTION Of- DATA PC1NT VALUfcS IN tACH LtVtL Ll.VtL 1 2 3_ 4 _5 ********* c-ujlcgulig eegeseesB u i i i i i u ••••••••• CCGOCCCUO eetieefetotJd I I I I I U I I SYMBCLS . . . . 1 . . . . ****2**** OCCO3GUC0 t,e8S4@SeS UII5UU ••+•••••• gcoogoogo eeeeseeee ••••••••• CCOOLOuCO BfefceBBBUs* h r l c. c I6" = 9 IG 9 16 Source: Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spa t i a l Analysis, SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5th e d i t i o n , Harvard University, 1975, p. V33. Isarithmic Map (SYMAP) 0 99 *<ooae ... oGoeeaaaaaa . «uoc£wee»aaaaaaaaaa an .Gooeesecaaaaaaaaaaaaaia .cDoseeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaefeeeesseeeceettasdea • CQoeee»fcea»aaaa«aBa»8a6SBe«eeccuGooucijouuoojyBO()B*!iiiiiiiii .cccJBaasgaeeeaeeMfeaBeeOLOuuucoGGCuoGGOuuaLiijaoGCL^ eiteiiaaaanaa easoc GC0GieeeMsaaes8esa 60CC00uc^G2 44*+«»4 444 44 4t4»40uiJGGC66£<6iiaaBaaaBBa •GcooBeeaaeseaaeseaoooGccoGC******"** »»»2 tucccccsgesttaaaaa GGcoooese«ea#aaaGocooooGC4+««4+«4+ «ccccc6666euB •oGOOoooeeaeeeoooooooouo********. ••••••ccccoo6eeeai «jcooooo308eoooooooooooo* ••••••• <<««"Cccc4C6eee6aaaaaaaaai aa a OC*». aaa aaaaa aaaaaa aasaaa a ooooooooooogooooooooo20*+ ****** .GCGocGaaaeeaaaaaa • GouaoGoooooooooooccouua** •••••» •<»*<«cccoujeeee<j&aaaaa coooooo8aeooGoc-ooGooooo++ ••+•••• • «««4*-»«ccuccuuaebBe8aaaaa oooeeaaaeeeeoooGoooooooo* •«••+••••... i ++«*«*4 4CcccccLGeae£8'*aaiaa oeeeaaaeeaeeBeeooooooooooo*********** *••*«»«•»ccooccojus86e6eea«« ee8eeeee©eeeeeeeeBOoooooooocc********3****+*****++********«*ccccccccu666eee6eaaB eaeeseaeBBsaeeaeeeeeoooooQQGCCOG************************««cccccoococese66B6eeaaa aesBBe©eeeeeeeeeeeeeeooooaocoGGCGG***************+****ococccccccGceB6eeeeeas8aa aBa»BBa»eaee8eeeeeeee§eBUGucccccGGoccGCGC»»»****»uujGUGGCCccccccocetetta666ttoesuia aataaani*|68ee8se8ee68sa8occcGGaaGGCOGGCGCCGGUoaoGGauaccocccccco6«6366ee6S6e8B66 .. . . B „ 8 e a e e e 8 a a e e e 6 e 0 C C G 0 0 0 C 0 G C C 0 C C C G 0 u 0 0 0 0 C G 3 G C C C C C C C 8 e e e § S B e e e 6 e 8 8 6 e a 6 e 6 8 e e a 6 e e B 8 8 6 f 6 6 8 6 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 HiHaalaaaeaeaaeaBiaeccoGocGOGCOCCGcaocuGCcaGGCcccccEeieeeBaeaeBeBaeBB 6888888 6 68868666 6868 666666 aaaaaaaaa ~aaaaaaa BCGC«» •688CGUC*" aaaaeeccoco aae666 3804Ci. •aaeeuaaBeacG 888888686668 •••••seeeeeasbta a •aaaaaaaaeaaaaaa4aaa aaaauaaaaaaaa^ aa aaaaaiHaaaaaaa ••••••••••aaaaa a ••••••• aaaaaaaaiaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaeEaeaaaeeeetC iaaaaa&a _ 666B 66666 6 68666 6BflUWaa •aBee8a8e88ee6€66ccococGOCCGtCGCQOuuCGCGCGCCcccc6eiee6B6e68e6B6eiiBeseee888eees866eeaeeee6e6o6«aa« ^Maeaaeaeeeee6e86eeoGCCGCCGCGCG0UGOGGGGCGCCCCCi6668e6e68e6BaBea6aE6eeaeae6e8a468666686866686 4 a aaaaiaaiHaawaMeB8eaeaeee36ee68a6OCG0CCGCccG0OGU0GGGCGCccccc6E6e66BBa66aaaabeB68e84eee8e6Gcccacocccce66et:eaa aaBaBatwaaMHaaeaaaaeaeEeaaaaeBtcccGCOGcaoooGuoGCGcccccccccGcaeeaeaaaeaBeaaBEacGcoacccoccGcocooocGCceae 8a MMnMaMiueeaaaeaaaae666868eeOGOGC4GcccGGGOQOccccG':cc(ccccccGCGGUCGaaOGGauccccoooacccccGccciCQccccc66B • aaaaiBaa»ana68eaeaaaseea666e666uocGGGCGCccuGGuGuUGCGGCcccccccGCGGGGucouGooGuGCcccaooccoocGC«««acoGGccco68 a •aaHaauajeee8a8eeeeeeee6666GGGOuccGGCcccGGOOGUGccacGC3cccccccGocoGoccauGGuuGccooott<«««4<.<«<«««<<;ccoce6 aaaaiiaaBeeeseeBeeeeaeeessiCGCccGoccocCGCCGGJGujocGGGGCtccccccccGcoujGGcuGUG**<»<»•»•»<<»••<•.«•<••>tcGGCBBa aaaaaaeee66e666fe6ete6GuccccctGGcccGGG0GGGQjGQuujGuGGCcccrcc ************************ n** *....**** ****(.ccl%h aaaaajaee86ee6e668eeQGGGCCGGGG0GGCLCGG0GG«4' •+•+••+• *** **** I**********************................ «**ccGaa aaaaBaeeBe6eeeee6GooooGcccGccGGGG++*••+•••+*+++ ********************.......................»+ 4*ccc68 ••aeee68eeeeeoGOUGOocccoLGG+•••••••• + • + • + * • + ************* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > 2 * + c c o e ••ai66eee8i6GOGGCCcccccc«*>* *********** i *<u:ig ••iaaBS886BB0C00GGCCG « • « • • • » • • » » » 1 ••4CCC IB6§8ee030GCC0C»» + «»»««« •••ccc •aeeeaeGG00G0G>*4»*«>2 i i <««c jiaaaaaeaaeccGacuo« ****** ** «rcc •aaaaaaaa666seoccoo.«• • » .. . . e t c •BlBBBaa686eQ0GC0****t* •»«*»ooc aalBaaaaaaa6868GGGGG<*4<» i <<<«oco ••aaauaaaaaaBBBecuGGG* ** ** i •.. * cu cc •aaaaaa auiaaaaoojo ••»••» c c co§e aaaaaaaaaaoaDu •*«««»cccce« 188880 JOG 2* »«»«<«CCCCC66S "laaaeeiouccc ****** i »«»««»ccccc6§«a 888CCCCC ****** «»CCCCC68Ea 6€eccccc*»««*. aaaaa aaaaa*6€6ccc «* aaaaaaaaaaaaEECoc aaaaaaaaaiiB68 CC866I GC6f6 2«»CLT SCALt: iN MILES' 200, 40C 6C0 -zl •III aaaaa •aaa a XXXXX xxxxxxxx * XXX SYMAF 0.027C6E MNU1ES FCC Hf 6 IH ORDER TREN0, SURFACE OF .MEG I AN I AMI L Y INCOME FUR THE CONTERMINOUS UNIIEC SIATtS bY STATE: 1969 DATA VALUE EXTRIMES ARE 6C71.CC ' 11611.GO AB SOL LIc VALUt RANGE APPLYING IC EACH LLVEL (•MAXIMUM' 1NCLULEG IN HIGHEST LtVtL CNLYI MINIMUM 6071.00 7729.90 t54E.40 95C8.80 10397.60 MAXIMUM 7729.90 8548.40 SbOU.bO 10397.60 1U11.00 PI RC L M AGE OF 101AL ABSOLUTE VALUE FANG! APPLYING 10 GACH LLVI.L 28.90 14.26 16.73 . 15.48 24.62 FR!CULNC» 1)1 SIRIBU: IGN IF UAIA FLINT VALUIS IN LAC H LEVEL . LtVLL 1 2 _ 3 _4_ D *•«*••** ccGLLOOoo B66B6B6BB aaaaaaaaa ******** ccogcougo 88B88868B aaaaaaaaa ******** CCGG300U0 686846889 ••••!>•• U .«••«»•• ccqocgogo eeeeaaeBB aaaaaaaaa ******** ccggccooo BeesBaeas aaaaaaaaa ic 10 Source: Laboratory for Computer Graphics and S p a t i a l Analysis, SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5th e d i t i o n , Harvard University, 1975, p. V43. Trend Surface Map (SYMAP) 100 4444 4 ccoccc C050CC C cccocccc cccoccccc cootcccc oooccco ccooccc .44008 4400088 44444CCiG8£ 444444C0666 444444500566 CCCGCOUC0086S LcccouLGeeco 44lcC5GGuO00ei00 • 444CCCCCCCGee6GC54.. 4444CCCC0C0B685CC 444444[ClGG0e6& • 44 44 44CGC0OOOC 0 4444444444CCOOOOC CCCOCCCCCCCC4CCCC8050 •• aiasae •IU 1188000 4 4 44 u u m o o o o < t t > aaaaeea500044444 •1688000000444444 4 •eteccccoco**••+••. •••+•+••••+•4+++ iiseoccccccc••»••+•••« •*****++*cuoooooco+*+******.-............... 6886000000000444444444444440005U000CGCC00JJU444444444444444444 efieococccooooc********** 400000008888 eeeeeauoOijuoo50+**+ccccccc*****. 66eaooccGGuoou»<»»»»»*uccuGCGueBeeestaBtfeBeuuuuocGGGCcctcccccccco... . . . 6666G0a0C0G0GGCC444444CCCLCCC6eee6666686eeae86«0a0d000CCC6€€€6eiC0GG4444444 €€««CCCC5CCCCCCCC««t»C0CCCCCC688e8eee»ili8aB8B8B800oC00CCff i€6ee5fOOOOC»*»«»«n«» ttcccccoocococoCGC*oaooococ8eeeaea»MW»B8eaa8eoooococctf « g e 8 e f e c o o c o c 4»»<n £ccccooocococccococ*Guoooccceeee8eeiameaassa§oooooococceif86eeEecoocoooo**4 cccccococcccoccccccoaocooccceaeeseaaumeBaaes i ioococcccccE i^eeeE ieocccoooooaoc cccccccocccccococccoaooooccceaeeeeeeemnsssaooooosooooccccieceecoooocoo^ ooooc cccLcccooGocccGLCCococaoocccoeBeseeeaeseaeesaeaoojooocoocccccccccccuGoccccooooo UCCOCOCB GOCGOO0OG0GGG0GOG0CCCCG68ee656668666880OOGOGGCGCCCCCCCCCCCCOOOOCCCuGUGC occccicccoccccccoccccGCOOooccCGC8eeeeaaaeaeeed00ojoooaooc«ccccccoooouOoooouooouo CCGGC000aC0C0G00000CG00GG0GC0G0000ee66e6S6€6uG000a0CQCG4444CCC:CCCCC444GC00UUG0o CCCCCCCO0OGGG000CC'CGC0OaGCCCCGGLG000000e686GCOUGuj0uuUO+444444 44444444444GOOGuObC CCCGCCCCC0CCCCCC00CCaGGGU0CCGGGLOCOGOCO0GUCCC00GGJG004444444444444445444CGCOGU00C _ GGOOCOOGOOGOCaGOOGCCOGOOGOOCGGGCOOGGaGGCOGCGi)dOOj0444544 4 4 44 4 444 4444444COOaOGOOCOOCOOOGOCOGCOC0 44 44 444CCCCOeCOG CCCCCC0C0C00GC050000o0u0000C0GCO000GO0C0O000UJuO0*444444444444444444 44GCCOU88e8C0CCCO0CCC0C0CCC444 4 44CCCeCOGO0 . 0CGCGCGCGCOG00GCG00GO44444GGCCCGGGGGOC0G0aoOUaO44444444444444444444G00OO8aaeae00C00COGCee5eCG44444CCCI^fi I * C0CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOCO444r;44CCCOGC0OG0C0C0OOOOOa 44444444 4444 444444-440000 88BD8e€86C5GCCCCCCCCC444444CCCJi5CC0 CUCCCOOOOOOCOOUOG000044444444GOOOCOOGCCOGGOC000044444444444444444400GCCCe888ie§88880GOCCCGCC44....44C66a6 00 oaaoco5ocooocoooGGCoo0444444ccccGocccc5Gcccooaoj04444444444 4 44444ccocoooeeee88«eeecococcoocc444544 4ccc€feic o CCCCCCCCCCCC00GCCCC0C0444 4 4G0G0000CGCCCCCCo0G00J0004«4 4444 4 4 44 4CGCoGo0G0a8BBe66eeGC0GCCCCCCCC444 44CCCCCtCC 0 OG000OOOO0O00OOa0O0OO0OOGGGGCO0O0CO0OOUOGGOJUOOO00OCCC5CCCCCGCC0COUOC0uBditSBaeeeCG0O0CGCOGGCG40GCC0 5CC0COO CCCC00CCCC0CGGCCCC0C00OCCCGoGC00G00G0COtGG00J0OO00LluO00G00CC00000OLi50O0BBBBOB§e0000444CCCCCCtC0CCCSi6CCCCC4 GLtCC0C0COtCO0COGC0O0UCCG00CCOOOO0GCCOCGe8aO0000CUCCCCCCCCC00GOOO0GO006e8eee«CCCC005CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCGC44 4 G0CCOO00a000OOGa0OOJO00CC0CCCa0GCGCCCCC«6«6OOOCCCGCGCCCCCC:CCCCCO0GOCO0eeB8BCCOGGO00CCCCCCCCC0CCC0CCCC44 44 CCCCCCCCCCCCGCCCCGC0CCCCCGCCCC00C00000CCSB888JuG0U0G0GCC0CC0000Co0000o000000CCCCCGCCCCCCCtCtCtCCCtfC4444. CGCCCC0COC00GC00J00CCC00C0OGC0O0CCOCCCB88eBG0C0C0CCCCCCCCCCCCO00C0O0OCOO0CaCCGOOCCCQBS88ef6CCCC5C44 44. 0O00GO000GG0C0G0C0CCtG0CG00GU00CGOGG08B<l8a83dd88CCCCCCCCCGCCu0OOCQOuOOO0C00005eBeeea8#Ee8aC0CCC4 44 4. 4444444444GC0CO00OCCCCC00000OoocoGOoa888a8ee8eae8E588COGOOoo0444GaooooococeeeeeEieie£e8E8coccc 444. 444444444444G05GGGGC0GGGC00CCCCaCCe8de8B8888888£Ci£iieCC0COO444GG00OOOCCCEe8SBE8eei8EeiOC0CC4 4 4. 444444CGGCCCGCCGGGCGbGCQbeae0B8aaeeeB8ea§e6eeaGaocoo4:>4GOQGuQGCGC«eeeetG6eiCE§foc5C4 4 4 4444444cocoooocGooGooceae8aeeeeee88Biie8CEeeoccooocccoooGoocccGieeefe«e<(C§cocc44 4 . 44 4 444444444GGGGOcceaaaaa8eiiue8EceiceeeccoooooGoooaoocaooeaeeEeEeeeeccoc4 44. 4444444CGCCceaaeeea8iuiiaii(ceseccooooQooooooocoooooooseee«Eccco444. 44444Gcaoeess8aeiiaiiiiifiee8ecooooaoooG444caooo5oocooGC5CcC4 44 444400GaaeeeaeeceEf SEEeeeecoooooooij045 4 4ccoGooocGCGCcc444 4. 444UQQ08eeeaeeE£§EEe€eeEOGGOGOGG0444 44cccoGccccccc44 44.. 44400C0GaEeiEEEE8EeGC000000UOQ44444440O000G04 44444.. 444405000i8e€6880CCOOOC000000444444444444444444... 4444CCCCCCGGCCC000GiO0O0Uj4 4 44444 4 4 44444 4 44.. 4444CCCCGCCCOOOOG0000004444 4 44444444.... ...................4 4 444 4400GG0GG00UOO 4 4 4 . . . . . .44444400C GOCCJ 44... 44 888 B 5 CCC 4 4 11666C SCALE: IN PILES tco zl • • • • t i • u n a •aaaa aaaa aa xxxxx XXXXXXXX) XXX SYMAP 0.C34C01 MINUTES FOK M*P 6 IH CPUER RFS1UUALS SURFACE OF MLOIAN FAMILY INCOME FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UN1TE0 STATES BY STATE1969 1)01A VALOi cXIREMES ARE ABSOLUT fc VALUE RANGE APPLYING IC EACH LEVEL (•MAXIMUM' INCLUDED IN HIGHcST LEVEL CNLYI ABCVE -"•".COG 440.00 1320.OC 22CC.CO 440.00 1320.00 2200.00 MINIMUM -2200.00 -1320.00 MAX I HUM - 1320.00 -440.00 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE VALUE RANGE APPLYING TO EACH LEVEL 20.00 20.00 2C.00 20.00 20.00 FKtUUtNCY DISTRIBUTION LF DATA PC1NI VALUES IN EACH LcVEL LEVEL 1 2 3 4 5 H ~^iiirrrr'444444444 sccGccGooo~ei 444444444 ctoocGGOo aeeaeseBB l y i m u aaaaaaaaa SYMBOLS i . . . . 444424444 CC0G30GC0 ee8b4««8B I U I > U U i l a a s a i a a 444444444 GCOGCOOOO 686*86888 H i i u i i i aaaaaaaaa 444444444 ccoocoooo ee66eee«8 u i j i u M (ai iaiaaa = =  =  =S==SCSSS3 = BE BBS SSBBESSBS33BSBSEBSSBS SE SBSSSSSSasSSSSSBS FREC > 0 0 C 0 0 4€ Source: Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis, SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5th edition, Harvard University, 1975, p. V45. Residuals Surface Map (SYMAP) 1 7-101 cucououu ucoL(jcccci££§e§geBeeeBBEiaegsti OGGOOUUG uoououoccc6§egg§§§ese§Bfe6Eia§ea COGCCUaUuJObUOLOCOCCCiigiiigestiB§ B e y § B B e OOOOUUO0QG UOUOOGOC C CC«€ Bts<5§eBsetie6§eeeB ccccuuooouucucccccccciggigeieBBBBBaBBBse oooouoooLiOiJODtxicccccggeeiegBgBgggiggBgti OCLOuJuOOOuOUCCCCCCCC Jg§ge6BBBgB9BBBB9B UGCMJ00UQQ0tjUQGC0CCGCggegeg8gg66B6ggggg GCLOdUOGO JQCQGGCCCCCCiggggBBga4ggSBBS9cj 1 ocouuuuoaoauuoococccrieegggBseeetiesgeBe GGGUaU0OOU0CGCGCCCCCCC6SBgfeBBegeg8BeSB ooGuauoojOQ0 3ocoocccccgigee8geegggeggg I OGCOUOOOO OOUOLOCCC CC CcggsggeeegBgegggg OGOOUOQOQO0Q0O000CCCCCgggggeBe6gBeBBBg GCGGOOUGUGGCuGCCCCCCCCCggggslBBgeBBBBeB G o a j G O G o j o o G o o o c o c c r c c o g e g g a e g e B g e e g g g GCCCUOGOiJGGGUGGCCCCCtCCggggeggegBBgBBB OOOUOGGaQGOOOGCGCCCCCng§ge8ggB§§6tjg+•••!•*• CCGU0aGO00G0G0CCCCCCCCCC0C*»BeB8e44++44 4444 + 444 44 ++OOOO0OJ0OOO0G00CCCCCC0CCCUGO6++++++++++++++++44 4444 44. •••••••0UOJOCGO0OCCCCCCCG0OCCGCGG4+4+++++444444+4 4 44+44 4++ « . . . .••++4+++++++4Gaa00GC0CCCCCCCCCCaC00+44 44++4 « t * t « « t •««« . 4 4 + + + 4 4 + + + + +++++u"aUQGO000CGGOOa0GuOUG******** ***************** *****************•aajuGccccccccccccoooa••••»•»»+4 4+++*********** CGGCC....... ...*******************+oaaGoocccccccccccoGoo+++4+++++«4+++++44 4+4444 * OOGGaUGUGUQ. .****** *************** + »GGGGOGQCOCCGaOGCJjuOQ ttHttH ) » t n t n i t i t H i H 00CGGGJ0000GC4••+••+••+••++•+++•++ 4 4 U C G G C C C C C C C C C C C C C 0 0 G 4 + • + + + + • 4442+44444******* QCCCCOOOOOOGC ****** ******* ******** 4 + 000000 CCCCCCGCCQjGUC+++ t tHt 44444444444444444 GOGCCGGuGCQGCCG+ ++++ + ++ + + + + + +++++++ + +GOC0CCCCC2CCCCCCGGaOU++ + ++ + ++ + 4+ + + + + 44 44 4 4 + + + OOGOCUOOOLlGGGCa + + + + + + +++t++++++ + +++ + + + GUOG0CCCCCCCCCCCC0GC+ + + + + + + ++4 + 44 + + « + 44 44 + + + OO0OO0C0ClGaCCCG0++++ + ++ + + + + + ++++ + ++ + + +CGGCGCCCCCCCCCCG0uCG+ + + + + + + + + ++++44 44 4 + 4 + + + + GO0CCCOGOUGOCC00+++++••••••+2•••++++++GGG00GGCCC00000UG0G0++444444444444444444444 0G0G0G0GUUGGCCGGC+++•*•+••+••++•++++++JCGCCCCCCCCCCCCG00GG+++++++ 4444444 4 4 4 44444 00000000000000000+ + + +••••• + •••• + ••+••• + OUOCCCCCCOCCCCGOGGG+++ + + + +• + • + •••+ 4444 44 O O G G C G O 0 O G U O C C G C C C + + + + + + + + + + « + + + + + + + + + * O « J G O C C C ' C C 0 G 0 0 C G Q GO* 4 4 444 4 44 44 44 4 4 4 Q0QQOaGJO0aOGCGQCO44444-44+44 + 4 4 4 - 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 G C C C C C C C C C C C C C G O U C + + ++ + ++ 4444 CGCCCC0G0C0CCCGCCG044444444444 44444 4 44GGCCCCCCCCCCCC0GG G 4 4 + + + OOQOGCOOOGOJCGCGGCCO+4 4+44 4 + 4 4 + • + + + • + t + G C C C C C C C C C G C O J G O 00G0G003000GCCC00000444 +4+44 +++++++++OCCCCCC 0GGCCOCOOOGCCCGCCOO++++++ 00Q0O0OO0OCCCGCO0GG++++ GGGOCGGGGGCGUG0GGU+++ 00C0CGGOGOGCCCCCG0O0O+ GOGOOGGGOOOOOCCO QOGOCOCCCGCCOOCC UGUUCGOCCGtOOOOU OOGOGGOOtiOOOOoOO 0 10 20 30 CCCGCCCOCCCCCCC OUULOGOOOOOO I - - + ; + I G C C C C Q G O G G00G0G SCALc : IN MILES GGG ****** ****** *» * ** * »*»*»** ****** ******* * ****** * « t,t**** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * « . * * t I * * * * * * * * * **** * • *' • * *" * * * I * . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - * * * t I ****** ****** * ** * ** ******* ****** * . * ****** ****** * 7 1 I • * + 1 + 2. • 3 -+ <• + 5 + t • 7 • 8 • 9 • 1-SYMAP 0.026069 MINUTES FOR MAP PERCfc M A G t OF OCCUPIED STRUCTURES BUILT IN 1950 OR LATER STATE CF CCNNECTICUT EY CUUN1Y: 1960 DATA VALUE EXTREMES ARE 19.4C ABSCLUTE VALUE RANGE APPLYING TC EACH LEVEL (•MAXIMUM' INCLUDED IN hIGhESI LEVEL GNLY1 MINIMUM 19.40 23.72 2)1.05 3*:.37 MAXIMUM 23.72 28.05 32.37 36.70 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE VALLE RANGE APPLYING TO EACH LEVEL 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION CF DATA PCINT VALUES IN EACH LEVEL LEVEL 1 2 3 4 s s = s S K S = = K 3 3 t x s z x x 3 K s s s s = = c = c c = = = = c = = = = = = = +++44++++ ccooooooo e e e e e s e M •++4++4 + 4 GCGQGOOOO . U i M t W SYMBGLS . . . . 1 . . . . ++++2++ + + CCCC3C0GG Sefifr+MM ••••••••• CCGGGOOOO eesf +4+++«++4 ccooooooo ess * S B = a * a s * * S B * s s s * s s * x = SSK**B* B SCB *«* >US1 FRbQ. 2 2 3 1 Source; Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis, SYMAP User's Reference Manual, 5th edition, Harvard University, 1975, p. V13. Proximal Map (SYMAP) AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD BY CENSUS TRACTS, 1971 MKVUCEO Br- SPQTIRL SYSTEMS SLCTIOH. ! statistics cmnvm. on***, cmtmo. 37000 30800 24600 s i 18400 12200 6000 o Choropleth Map Location of Point Symbols at Geoeraohir C. AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By C e n s u s T r a c t s . 1971 / SnHH Shadine V m " i n n p c Separation of Legend Boxes AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD BY CENSUS TRRCTS, 1971 OTTAWA-HULL I PRODUCED BY: SPfiTlftL SYSTEMS SECTION, statistics cmmrn. orrmm. CAHM. S 6.000 - < 9.000 : S 9 . 0 0 0 - < 1 2 . 0 0 0 I $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 - < 1 5 . 0 0 0 S I 5 . 0 0 0 - < 2 5 . 0 0 0 S 2 5 . 0 0 0 - 3 7 . 0 0 0 HH 6 r Reversed Tones i n the Choropleth Map Default Point Symbol Legend AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By Census T r a c t s , 1971 PRODUCED B>- SPRTIRL SYSTEMS SECTION. STKT1STICS CRNROR. OTTRHR, CRNROR. DOLLARS C I N l O O O ' S D 6 - < 9 9 - <12 12 - <15 Value Rana»: $6,636 - 36.695 V e r t i c a l Arrangement of Point Symbols i n Legend AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By Census T r a c t s , 1971 I OTTRWfl-H p*aouc£p BYt spfiTim. SYSTEMS SECTION, STATISTICS OMQf. OTTPH&, CWtfW. LEGEND 6-9 9-12 12-15 15-25 25-37 O Do I I or s C .n 1000' s i Horizontal Arrangement of Point Symbols i n Legend AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD By Census T r a c t s , 1971 OTTAWA-HULL DOLLARS CIN 1000'S3 2» - r? 19 - <23 12 - «IS 9 - «12 • - < » rnauxxu sr, SPATIAL SYSTEMS SECTION. STATISTICS CANADA. OTTAWA, CANADA. Volue Range: S6.636 - 36.695 Nested Arrangement of Point Symbols i n Leeend RVERRGE RNNUflL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD B y C e n s u s T r a c t s , 1 9 7 1 PRODUCED BY: SPRTIH. SYSTEMS SECTION, STATISTICS CRNftm. orrmm. c m m . R o t a t e d Legend Volu* Rang*: S6.636 - 36.695 nWR-HULL O F F I C I A L L A N G U A G E By Census T r a c t s , 1971 PRODUCED SPPT1HL SYSTEMS SECTION. STATISTICS CANADA. OTTAWA. CANADA. (French B i I ingua I NUMBER OF PEOPLE Value Range: 0 - 8115 M,i1 f T -CnK^/mf \/ Ti CHRRRCTER SET ! '#$'/.&' C / 0123456789: ;<=>? &ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO PQR'STUVWXYZ[\r_ s a b c d e f g h i j k Imno"^ p qrs tuvwxyzC 0*~o J LOVER CASE SPECIAL CHARACTERS! CfiBBlfiSE RETURN BACKSPACE c \ ] FACILITIES ITALICSOn = RBCDefgh HALF S I Z E O H 3 = ABCDEFQH . DOUBLE SIZEC®DD= ABCDEFUM 1 U SUPERSCRIPTOSD = ABCD E F G H SUBSCRIPTOTD = ABCD E F G H RESET ALL DEFAULTS = » R = <*U&V&F&N MIXTURES OF ABOVE WCD^" I JKLmnopQRJJ\J 1VXYZ REPEAT FACILITY = GIMMS GIMMS Text Chart AVERAGE ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD Bv Census T r a c t s . 1971 PRODUCED BY: SPATIAL SYSTEMS SECTION. STATISTICS CANADA. OTTAWA. CANAOA. Map Overlay Techniq Map Overlay Techniq 119 Mao Overlay Techniaue ! Map Overlay Technique AVE ANN INC PER HOU • RV'EnRGF ANNUAL INCOME PER HOUSEHOLD BY CENSUS TRACTS, 1971 PRODUCED BY- SPRTIRL SYSTEMS SECTION. CENSUS, STATISTICS CANADA 123 A P P E N D I X & SNftTEM S l D PPATML SWEMSlSVSTEM WITIUK- STAFF SECTIOM DEVEL. TOM PAVE GIMMS MEA MEA M I D S >SJ2/ lLT IMEA MEA I M D I M E A BERBER AUTOMAP • i f i ME ME DIMEA PIL IMEA I E A 1 bIMEA I M M NGEN bIMEA A blM£A rue) S V S P L G T DIME bIMEA blME D = D E S I G N I--IMPLEMENTATION M * MODIFICATION E - E v A L - u A f i D M A= A P P L I C A T I O N J ' A. SYSTEMS AUTOMAP: BUDAK: CGIS: CGMF CNTRGRAV: DA I, I I , I I I EXTRACT: FIELDOCS: GEISHA: GENESIS: GlMMS: GRDSR: IDS I I / I I I : LNGEN: MAPMAKR: MAPMAK: PAAS: PAPB: PILLAR: PIPA: PUBGRAFS: PUBMAPS: 124 INDEX TO ACRONYMS AUTOMATED MAPPING SYSTEM A PROJECTION TRANSFORMATION PACKAGE FROM THE CIA CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM CANADA GEOGRAPHIC MASTER FILE SYSTEM A CENTER OF GRAVITY MODULE DATA ASSIMILATION SYSTEMS A POLYGON EXTRACTION SUBSYSTEM A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR PREPARING MAPS FOR FIELD WORK GENERALIZED EDIT AND IMPUTATION SYSTEM USING A HOT-DECK APPROACH GEOGRAPHICALLY ENCODED AND NATIONALLY ENUMERATED SPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION MAPPING AND MANIPULATION SYSTEM GEOGRAPHICALLY REFERENCED DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM INTERACTIVE DISPLAY SYSTEMS FOR 2 AND 3 DIMENSIONS A PARALLEL"iL_INE GENERATING SUBSYSTEM THE AMF DISPLAY MODULE OF GRDSR THE INTERFACED AND ENHANCED VERSION OF SYMAP POSTAL ADDRESS ANALYSIS SYSTEM POLYGON AGGLOMERATION FROM POLYGON BOUNDARIES A PILLAR POINT SYMBOL MAPPING SYSTEM POINT IN POLYGON ALGORITHM A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR DRWING GRAPHS A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING THEMATIC MAPS Q.A.L.: REFDOCS: SIDS: STATPAK: SYMAP: SYMVIEW: SYSPLOT THEISSEN: WAS: B. DATA SETS ABND: AMF: ANAM: AREAFILE ARID CARTLIB CREATEFILE INTERFILE: C. OTHER, CIA: EMR: GPE: IGU: MSUA: 125 QUERY AREA LIBRARY SUBSYSTEM A MANUAL SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING REFERENCE DOCUMENTS SPATIAL INFORMATION DISPLAY SUBSYSTEM A STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR STATISTICS CANADA SYNAGRAPHIC MAPPING SYSTEM SYNAGRAPHIC MAP VIEWS (also SYMVU) A SYSTEM FOR PLOTTING INTERMEDIARY POLYGON FILES A THEISSEN POLYGON GENERATION SUBSYSTEM WEIGHTING AREA SUBSYSTEM AREA BOUNDARIES ON THE CGMF BASE AREA MASTER FILES IN GRDSR AREA NAME FILE ON THE CGMF BASE AREAS THAT HAVE BEEN EDITTED BY GIMMS AREA IDENTIFIERS ON THE CGMF BASE CARTOGRAPHIC LIBRARY OF AREAS FOR SYMAP SEGMENTS USED TO CREATE AREAFILES IN GIMMS INTERMEDIARY FILES USED TO TRANSFER AREAS BETWEEN SUBSYSTEMS CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENERGY MINES AND RESOURCES DEPARTMENT GEOGRAPHIC PROGRAM EXCHANGE INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHY UNION MINISTRY OF STATE FOR URBAN AFFAIRS 126 NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION PROCESSING GROUP SEGMENT ORIENTED REFERENCING SYSTEMS ASSOCIATION TRANSPORTATION ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY 

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