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Modeling of rocks and ornamental garden stones Ellefson, Christopher J. 1997

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Modeling of Rocks and Ornamental Garden Stones by Christopher J. Ellefson B.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Science in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Computer Science) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of British Columbia April 1997 © Christopher J. Ellefson, 1997 In p resent ing this thesis in partial fu l f i lment of t h e requ i remen ts f o r an advanced d e g r e e at the Universi ty of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall make it f reely available f o r re ference and study. I fu r ther agree that permiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g of this thesis f o r scholar ly pu rposes may be g ran ted by t h e head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t or by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f this thesis fo r f inancial gain shall n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n permiss ion . D e p a r t m e n t of XyO^f^ ^Vncg The Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a Vancouver , Canada D a t e . /4W 1>0, lH°n DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t Objects in nature are irregular in shape and the human eye is good at identifying regularities and symmetries when it does not expect them. Mod-eling these natural objects to make them look realistic can often be difficult and time-consuming. An example of these objects are rocks from a Chinese garden. These rocks have many large holes in them. Traditional modeling techniques do not lend themselves well to creating objects with complex and irregular shape. The holes in these rocks are also too large to be handled with bump or displacement maps. This thesis discusses a technique to model ornamental rocks and objects with many large holes in them. A 3D material comprised of holes is made using an appropriate distribution for the holes. A stochastic process is used in creating the holes. Information gathered from pictures of real ornamental rocks is used for the distributions of the random variables used to create the holes This is combined with the base shape of the object using constructive solid geometry. The result is a new object resembling the base shape but with many holes in it. The new shape created is converted to a format which ii is usable by most rendering systems, in this case a series of triangles. This is done using a three-dimensional grid as an intermediate structure and then outputting triangles.The new object can than be imported into a rendering program. We produced models and images from an implementation and they show that the method results in realistic looking images. These models are used in a virtual reconstruction of the Yuan Ming Yuan, a former imperial garden in China. iii C o n t e n t s Abstract ii Contents iv List of Tables vii List of Figures viii Acknowledgements x 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Modeling of Natural Phenomena 1 1.2 Rocks 2 1.3 The Garden Project 4 1.4 Objectives 7 2 Related Work 8 2.1 Modeling of Natural Phenomena 8 2.2 2D stone textures 9 i v 2.3 Texturing 12 2.4 Constructive Solid Geometry 13 3 Methodology 15 3.1 Overview 15 3.2 Base Shape 16 3.3 3D Material 16 3.4 Combining Base Shape with Material 17 3.4.1 Why not traditional CSG 17 3.4.2 Voxelization 19 3.4.3 Implementation 19 3.4.4 Optimizations 21 3.5 Polygonalization 24 3.5.1 Marching Cubes 24 3.5.2 Implementation 25 3.5.3 Modifications 27 3.6 Output Format 29 3.6.1 Implementation 29 4 Distribution of holes 30 4.1 Irregularities in Natural Phenomena 30 4.2 Stochastic Processes 31 4.3 Acquiring Distributions 32 4.4 Chi-Squared Test 32 4.5 Location of holes 36 v 4.6 Diameter 37 5 Results 44 5.1 Overview 44 5.2 Basic CSG operations 44 5.3 More than just a bump map 45 5.4 Distribution of holes 49 5.5 Level of detail 49 5.6 Speed and Size 56 5.7 Realistic looking rocks 56 5.8 Incorporating the Rocks into the Garden 59 6 Conclusion 61 6.1 Future work 61 Bibliography 63 vi L i s t o f T a b l e s 4.1 Distribution and density data for rock 1 41 4.2 Chi squared values for the diameters 41 5.1 Size and resolution of a modeled rock 52 5.2 Time depending on the number of holes 57 5.3 Time depending on the number of surfaces in the base shape . 57 5.4 Time depending on the size of the voxel set 57 vii L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1.1 Photographs of ornamental rocks from a Chinese garden . . . 3 1.2 A painting of one of the views of Yuan Ming Yuan 5 1.3 A painting of an ornamental rock 6 2.1 Previous rock models 11 2.2 A CSG tree 14 3.1 Combining base shape with 3D material 18 3.2 A voxel 20 3.3 Testing for inside or outside 22 3.4 Special cases for ray intersection 23 3.5 A voxelized hole 23 3.6 14 basic patterns of cubes 26 3.7 Marching Cubes problem 28 3.8 New triangles 28 4.1 Sampled rock 1 33 4.2 Sampled rock 2 34 viii 4.3 Sampled rock 3 34 4.4 Bins for centers of holes 36 4.5 Locations of holes 38 4.6 Holes projected onto a plane 39 4.7 Diameters, f3(D) 42 4.8 Distribution functions, F3{D) 43 5.1 A sphere subtracted from a cube 45 5.2 A sphere subtracted from a face 46 5.3 A dodecahedron subtracted from a cube 46 5.4 Many spheres subtract from a cube 47 5.5 No texturing 48 5.6 Texturing 50 5.7 Distribution of holes 51 5.8 Different resolutions of same rock 53 5.9 Different resolutions of same rock 54 5.10 Different resolutions of same rock with texturing 55 5.11 Comparison of real rock and virtual rock 58 5.12 A face rock 59 5.13 Another rock 60 5.14 A rock in the Yuan Ming Yuan 60 ix A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I would first like to thank my advisor Alain Forunier for all his invalubale help, inspirational talks, and the freedom he gave me. I could not have done it without him. I would like to thank my second reader, Jack Snoeyink, for his useful commnets and being so flexable with his time secdual. I wouldd like to thank Lifeng Wang and David Botta who are working on the Garden Project. Their work on the garden project provided a lot of the inspiration toward my thesis topic. Their help with obtaining photographs, and working with Alias was invaluable. I would like to thank Marcelo Walter, for proof reading my thesis and helping with all sorts of stuff. I'd also like thank to other the Imager Lab members, Paul Lalonde, Kevin Coughlan, Gene Lee, Roger Tarn, and Rob Walker for helping out with LaTeX, Matlab and other random things. I would like to thank my parents, for the strong foundation they gave me and the help my Dad gave me with proof reading. I would like to thank all people in non-CS activities I have been involved with which have helped relieve stress and made my two years at UBC such a x wonderful experience. These include the Phi Delts of BC Alpha, the Grizzlies Bearkeepers, the Japan Exchange Club, and Kogido. Last but certainly not least I would like to thank Ruth Lim, my girl-friend who has given me support, put up with a long distance relationship and have given me modeavation to finish on time. CHRISTOPHER J . ELLEFSON The University of British Columbia April 1991 xi C h a p t e r 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.1 Modeling of Natural Phenomena With computer modeling, objects produced by natural phenomena are some of the most difficult types of objects to model. These are objects which are not man-made or artificially produced. They are things one finds in nature, such as trees, water, animals, and rocks. Computer modeling generally uses geometric shapes, or mathematical equations to represent objects. These shapes are usu-ally somewhat regular or symmetrical. Objects such as tables and chairs can easily be represented with simple geometric shapes, such as spheres, cylinders or planes, but natural phenomena are much more difficult to model. They have many more irregularities in them, lack of symmetry, and have non-repeating patterns. The human eye is good at detecting regularities, symmetries and repeating patterns. When looking an artificial or man-made objects such as a chair it expects to see symmetry and patterns. When looking at natural phe-1 nomena the human eye does not expect to see such patterns. These patterns and symmetries are quickly picked out and make the object not look natural. Because of this the human eye is more critical when it comes to looking at things from nature. This makes the task of modeling natural phenomena more difficult. Natural phenomena encompass a wide variety of things which may be very different from each other. A tree is different from a rock, which is different from snow. Different types of things need to be approached with completely different ways of modeling because they are so different. At the same time the approach taken cannot be too specific. It would be inefficient to use a different modeling approach for every different object modeled. The model-ing approach must be applicable to different natural phenomena which share certain common characteristics. Clouds and fire, for example, are dissimi-lar but they share certain characteristics such as they are both gaseous and semi-transparent, thus allowing the use of similar techniques to model them. 1.2 Rocks In Chinese gardens, landscape architects have used rocks and stones with large irregular holes. The rocks are used as natural sculptures or are placed together to form embankments. Examples of such rocks can be seen in Figure 1.1. These stones and rocks are natural objects that can be interesting to model. What makes them particularly interesting is the fact they have so many large holes in them. These holes are not just surface features they exist throughout 2 the volume of the whole stone and often go all the way through. Surface modeling techniques cannot be applied because of the three dimensional nature of the holes. These holes produce extremely irregular shapes and do not have repeating patterns. Since holes may go all the way through the object, they produce complex topologies. These topologies add to the difficulty of the modeling task. There are also some simplifying factors that make rocks easier to model. A rock can be represented as one unit and it does not have separate pieces or any moving parts. The computer modeling of stones and rocks can take advantage of this simplicity. Figure 1.1: Photographs of ornamental rocks from a Chinese garden [muse93] There are different ways to make these shapes using traditional com-puter graphics modeling techniques. One could start out with a simple base 3 shape, such as an ellipsoid, and then deform it as if it were clay, until a good rock shape is arrived at. This technique may well end up taking a great deal of time and often requires a person with a great deal of artistic ability. Other techniques often used to produce irregularities in an image are bump or dis-placement maps. However the holes in the ornamental rocks found in a Chinese garden are too large to be handled by bump or displacement maps. These are surface techniques, which do not deal with the whole volume. The holes of the rocks in a Chinese garden can be large and often have a significant impact on the over all shape of the rock. This characteristic suggests that the modeling of these holes in a rock should be done at the modeling stage and not at the rendering stage when many other techniques such as bump maps or 3D textures are often applied. The approach for the modeling of the rocks discussed in this thesis uses a 3D material comprised of holes that is applied to a base shape of a rock. When combined together they will produce a new object: the rock with holes in it. 1.3 The Garden Project The rocks and stones created with this method are being used in the Garden Project [wang97]. whose goal is to make a virtual reconstruction of the Yuan Ming Yuan (Garden of Centered Wisdom). This was the garden of the Em-peror of China, and is considered to be one of the greatest gardens to ever exist. Covering 780 acres the garden consisted of hills, trees, lakes, buildings, and filled with imperial art and treasures collected from throughout China. In 4 1860 Yuan Ming Yuan was destroyed by being burnt to the ground by British and French troops at the end of the Second Opium War. What we have left are paintings, maps, and stories that show and tell us what the garden used to appear. Examples of these paintings can be seen in Figure 1.2 and Figure 1.3. Figure 1.2: A painting of one of the views of Yuan Ming Yuan One type of object which is found frequently in these gardens is rocks and stones. In Chinese gardens stones are often set as miniature mountains 5 separating various parts of the garden or along the banks of ponds or lakes. These rocks are usually hand-picked and placed to enhance the feel of the garden. Some of the most beautiful rocks which are found are placed on pedestals and used as natural sculptures. The most prized rocks are found in lakes and made of a soft material with large holes eroded away. These are the rocks whose modeling is described in this thesis. 1.4 Objectives The main goal of this thesis is to present, from a computer graphics point of view, a modeling technique which can be used to model rocks and stones from a Chinese garden. This technique should ideally be extendible to the modeling of other objects with holes in them. The end result is a model which can be used to produce a realistic-looking picture of a rock. The geological properties of the rock, such as what minerals it is made of and how it was formed are not of concern here unless they have direct relevance to the rock's appearance. The modeling technique must also be designed so that the rocks can be used with the rest of the Garden Project. The ornamental rocks will be placed in garden scenes along with many other objects such as trees and buildings. The representation of the final object must fairly universal so it can be incorporated into a standard rendering package. The desired property is the ability to control the level of detail. A rock, as with any natural phenomena, might need an arbitrary level of display detail depending on how close to the virtual viewer it is in the picture. 7 C h a p t e r 2 R e l a t e d W o r k 2.1 Modeling of Natural Phenomena There has been much work done on modeling of natural phenomena [four89]. Natural phenomena encompass a wide variety of modeling techniques. Some modeling techniques are specific to a given area and some are general modeling techniques which can be applied to different areas. Plants and trees is one catagory where a great deal of work has been done where many different techniques have been used. These techniques in-clude Oppenheimer's use of fractals, [oppe86], Prusinkiewicz's work with L-systems, [prus86, prus88, prus93] Reeves and Blau's use of particle systems [reev83], De Reffye's botanical model [reff88], and Weber and Penn's work using statistics of trees[webe95]. Modeling of gaseous phenomena such as clouds, fire, steam or fog is another area in which a lot of work has been done. Some of the earliest work 8 on clouds was done by Reeves [reev83] with the use of particle systems. Volume models can be seen in the work of Kajiya and Van Herzen [kaji84], Ebert and Parent [eber90], and Rushmeier [rush95]. Various lighting models include work by Max [max86], Rushmeier [rush87] and Nishita [nish96]. Work in specific areas of gaseous phenomena, such as flames, has been done by Chiba [chib94] and Cerimele [ceri91]. Recently, hybrid of previous methods have been use by Stam and Fiume which produce some good results [stam93]. Work has been done with the modeling of other natural phenomena. This includes water and waves, with work from Fournier and Reeves [four86] and Peachey [peac86]. Optical effects of water has be done by Watt [watt90], and Nishita and Nakamae [nish94]. Visualization of lightning has been been done by Reed and Wyvill [reed94]. Seashells have been modeled by Pickover [pick89] and Fowler etc al. [fowl92]. An essential characteristic of plants is that they have obvious structure, an essential characteristic of fluids is that they move. Stones neither have obvious structure nor do they move. What can be learned from these vari-ous modeling techniques is the use of random elements and some rendering methods. 2.2 2D stone textures Most of the previous work in the modeling of rocks and stones used 2D texture maps. Early work on stone walls includes Yessios' work for Architectural presentation drawings[yess79]. He used stochastic processes for generating 9 patterns for stone walls and pavements. He used algorithms called stone-by-stone, joint-by-joint and, stone-and-joint. These algorithms position stone shapes on a surface producing 2D, black and white drawings of stone walls. Figure 2.1 (a) shows one of Yessios' rock walls. Since then many techniques have been added to texturing to improve the appearance of 3D images. Color and depth have been added to textur-ing, producing more realistic effects such as shadows and the appearance of roughness of the surface. Yessios' work on stone walls was expanded by Miy-ata many years later [miya90]. Miyata adds color, height, and roughness to the stones surface. A basic joint pattern, which is the shape of an individual stone, is created using a node and link representation. For each stone, a stone texture is created and then clipped to fit inside the area of the stone. The stone texture is created using a fractal subdivision of triangles. This process results in a reasonably realistic image of a stone wall. Figure 2.1 (b) shows one of Miyaya's rock walls. These methods for generating stones are not applicable for the stones from a Chinese garden because they place 2D textures upon the surface of an object. Even though the use of bump or displacement maps adds a third dimension, they are still mapped to a surface which might result in stretching and deformation of the texture. The unique characteristic of the Chinese garden rocks is the large holes which requires a technique that takes into account the 3D characteristics of the rocks. 10 (a) stone wall by Yessios . . „ . . . , [yess79] ^ ' s t o n e w a ^ by M l v a t a [miya90] Figure 2.1: Previous rock models 11 2.3 Texturing The previous methods discussed for modeling rocks and stones are designed to deal with stone walls and a 2D texture or bump-map pasted on a 3D surface. One problem with this is the deformation of a texture when it is mapped to a different space. There are methods which get around this problem, such as the cellular textures described by Fleischer [flei95]. These cellular textures are designed to deal with surfaces that are composed of small pieces such as thorns or scales and thus are not applicable to such rocks. Advanced displacement map models, such as Pedersen's work on flow fields for displacement mapping [pede96], can produce holes on the surface of the object but cannot produce large holes which go all the way through the objects, such as the ones seen in the ornamental rocks in a Chinese garden. Three dimensional texture maps is an area in which a reasonable amount of research has been done. Some of the earliest work with 3D textures was from Gardner who used them for the modeling of clouds [gard84]. Peachey used 3D textures as a way of removing some of the parameterization prob-lems associated with 2D texturing. These 3D textures are mainly based on a band-limited noise function [peac85]. The same year Perlin used solid textures as part of his rendering package [perl85]. More advanced three dimensional texturing methods have been developed which require texturing throughout a region, not just at the surface. Perlin uses hyper-textures which used density functions to describe the three dimensional objects [perl89]. Work on solid noise synthesis was done also by Lewis [lewi89]. Solid textures have been 12 used in modeling of natural phenomena such as fur, by Kaijya [kaji89], and gaseous phenomenon by Ebert and Parent [eber90]. Filtering these textures is a challenge and Buchanan described some filtering methods for three dimen-sional textures [buch91]. Worley uses a cellular texture basis function for 3D texturing [worl96]. Some of these texturing techniques will be used to enhance the final appearance of the rock but do not suffice as the main modeling technique. Some of these methods can produce objects with complex shape and topology but do not give enough control over the final appearance of the object. These texturing techniques handle the finer detail but not detail as large as some of the holes in the ornamental rocks. 2.4 Constructive Solid Geometry Constructive solid geometry (CSG) is an area of modeling that has been around for many years and can describe some objects efficiently [ricc73, fole90]. CSG represents objects by taking simple primitives and combining them through the use of boolean expressions such as union and intersection. It then produces a tree with the primitives as the leaves and the boolean operations as the nodes. The new object represented by the tree structure is then generally ray traced. An Example of a CSG tree can be seen in Figure 2.4. Work has been done with more advanced ways to combine objects other than simple boolean expressions, such as union and intersection, and work has also been done to deal with more complicated shapes. Wyvill incorporates free-form deformation 13 Figure 2.2: A CSG tree [laid86] into CSG trees [wyvi97]. Methods have been developed for doing CSG operations with surfaces instead of solids, which is the representation usually used[laid86]. The problem with surface CSG methods is that the number of polygons needed to represent the final object can become large. The combination of just a small number of polygonal objects can result in the creation of an object with many polygons. Therefore it does not lend itself well to large CSG trees such as would result with the Chinese rocks. CSG operations in general lend themselves well for the modeling of the Chinese rocks and will be used with the method described in this thesis. The method will not use the traditional CSG representation but rather a voxel format. This will be explained in Chapter 3 14 C h a p t e r 3 M e t h o d o l o g y 3.1 Overview This section discusses a modeling technique to deal with objects with many large holes. The modeling technique starts with a base shape of the object without holes. The method will then create a 3D material, which will consist of a distribution of holes throughout a region of 3D space. The base shape will be combined with the material. This combination will occur while the objects are in a voxel representation. The result of the combination will be a new object which has the shape of the base shape with the holes in it. This new object will be converted to be represented by a set of polygons, and can then be used by any renderer. 15 3.2 Base Shape The base shape is the basic shape of the object before the holes are applied. This shape can be any closed object. A closed object is one where given a point in 3D space it is not ambiguous wether the point is inside or outside of the object. In the implementation of this thesis, objects are represented by polygons in Inventor file format [wern94]. Polygons were chosen because they can represent a wide variety of shapes and are relatively simple to implement. Inventor file format was used because it is a fairly standard format on the SGI platform. The program could be easily extended to handle other object representations or file formats. The base shape of the rocks was created in Alias by deforming a sphere. This object is then polygonalised, and then saved in Inventor file format. 3.3 3D Material A 3D material comprised of many holes is used the creation of the virtual rocks. This material is represented as a group of objects which have location, shape and size. Each one of these objects is a hole. A hole can be any closed object that can be ray traced, just like the base shape. In practice spheres are most often used. They are quick, simple and are quite similar to the shape of the holes in the real rocks. The program can also use polygonal objects as holes which can be imported the same way as the base shape. It could easily be expanded to handle other shapes or representations, such as parametric 16 surfaces. These holes can be placed at random throughout the material. Pa-rameters such as number of holes, average size, and different distribution func-tions can be given to create different material. Different distribution curves can be used to produce varied effects on the appearance of the rocks. The holes can also be individually placed in the material with a specific location and size. Different distribution curves can be used to produce varied effects on the appearance of the rocks. The distribution functions will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. 3.4 Combining Base Shape with Material Once both the base shape and the material are created they are combined together to produce a new object. This new object will be in the shape of what the final stone will look like. 3.4.1 Why not traditional CSG A rock could be represented with Constructive Solid Geometry tree. CSG takes simple objects and combines them through the use of boolean expressions. It then produces a tree with the simple objects as the leaves and the boolean operations as the nodes. There are problems with this for the modeling of the rocks. The tree which would subtract the union of the holes from the base shape. This combination would be one layer deep and would be very wide. However, this would be a large and inefficient data structure. The main problem with traditional CSG is that the object is implicit and can not be 17 Figure 3.1: Combining base shape with 3D material 18 used by all types of Tenderers. The object needs to be an explicit form which is universal to different types of Tenderers. 3.4.2 Voxelization Voxelization was the method that was chosen to handle the CSG operations. There are many reasons voxels were chosen. First, a voxel set will have con-stant size regardless of the complexity of the object. It would not mater then how many holes there were in a given object. Second, voxelization is simple, only local information for each voxel is required. It does not have to deal with all the different possible combinations of surfaces. Another approach which could have been used to get surfaces would be to do CSG operations on the surfaces themselves [laid86] but this would require many special cases, would be order dependent, and could require unnecessarily high resolution in some cases. Voxelization also has the feature which allows the resolution to vary. When viewing an object up close, more detail is required to get a good looking picture. If the object is in the distance, higher resolution will require more rendering time. The resolution or size of the final object will vary depending on the size of the voxel set. 3.4.3 Implementation The voxels are stored in a 3D array, and are evenly sized and spaced. Each voxel contains a bit called inside which is true if the center of the voxel is inside 19 the object and false if it is outside. There is also a three-dimensional vector whose range is between 0 and 1 in each direction, X Y and Z. This is the scaled distance that the closest surface is to the center of the voxel. The distance of 1 means the surface is at least one voxel length away. Figure 3.2 shows a two-dimensional example with four voxels. The arrows show the distance vectors of the voxels inside the object. The voxels are all initialized to be inside with Figure 3.2: A voxel distance 1 in every direction. Each voxel is tested with its position compared to all the holes and the base shape. This is order-independent for both the voxels and the objects. For each voxel, the algorithm tests if the voxel is inside the base shape, and set the inside bit accordingly. The test for inside is done by shooting a ray from the center of the voxel and counting the number of intersections with the base shape. If the number of intersections is even, it is outside. If odd then it is inside. Figure 3.3 shows the inside/outside test. 20 Special cases where the ray hits the edge a surface are checked for. If a ray has two hits in the same location, as seen in Figure 3.4, the test will be redone with the ray moved slightly. The distances to the closest surface in the X, Y and Z directions are computed. If the distance is within one voxel width then the distance vector is set accordingly. A similar process is done on the voxels with all the holes, except that the test for being inside or outside for each object is reversed. Inside the hole is outside the object therefore setting inside is reversed. A hole can only be subtracted away from the voxels.Therefore a voxel can only be changed from inside to outside and not the other way around. The distance vector of a voxel can only be decreased, because the closest surface is sought. If the distance of a new hole is greater than the current distance, the new hole already outside the object. After these operations have been performed the voxels will represent the shape of the final object. For references to the techniques used here see Graphics Gems [glas90, arvo91, heck94]. 3.4.4 Optimizations There are operations which can be done to speed up the voxelization process. With the method described in the previous subsection, each voxel performs an inside test and three ray distance tests for every surface on the base shape and all the holes. Many of these are unnecessary. The distances only need to be checked if there is a surface within a voxel width. There is only a surface close to a voxel if its inside bit has the opposite value as the voxel next to 21 (a) 3 intersections, inside (b) 2 intersections, outside Figure 3.3: Testing for inside or outside 22 Figure 3.4: Special cases for ray intersection Figure 3.5: A voxelized hole 23 it. Once a voxel is outside it can not change to become an inside voxel again. To take advantage of these conditions the inside testing is done with all the voxels before the distance testing is done. Once a voxel has switched to become an outside voxel it is not tested with any of the other objects. The distance testing on the voxels are only done if the adjacent voxel in the direction of testing has the opposite inside value [jone96]. These improvements speed up the code by a factor of two to three. 3.5 Poly gonalizat ion After the object is created in voxel representation it needs to be converted into a representation which is more universal. Polygons were chosen. They can be handled by any Tenderer and most graphics hardware is designed for polygons. With the modeling of rocks there is no need to have information regarding animation because rocks don't move. Often when more complicated representations are used for modeling it is for the movement of the object. Rocks can be represented simply without any additional information. There is also an efficient method for converting from volume data to polygons, which we describe next. 3.5.1 Marching Cubes Marching Cubes [bloo87, lore87] is the algorithm used to convert the object from voxels to polygons. Marching Cubes uses groups of eight voxels which form a cube to produce polygons describing the surface within that volume. 24 This is done for each cube of voxels in the volume. There are 8 voxels in a cube and each voxel can be inside or outside. Therefore, for each cube of voxels, there are 256 configurations possible. This number can be reduced dramatically using symmetries. One is the complementary case, where all the voxel inside values are reversed. The triangles will be the same with only the front side reversed. The other reduction can be made when cubes can be the same with a rotation so they have the same configuration. These symmetries will reduce the number of configurations to 14 basic patterns as seen in Figure 3.6. One or more triangles will be created, in correspondence to the base pattern and the rotation. 3.5.2 Implementation The voxels are stored in a 3D array. A cube of voxels can by formed by taking all combinations of x or x+1, y or y+1, and z or z+1, where the position of the voxel in the array is (x,y,z). The configuration is stored as a one byte number where each bit is the inside value of a voxel in the cube. This configuration number is used in comparison with the 14 base patterns and their inverses. Rotations are done by passing the configuration number through a rotation function. This is a pre-computed table for the new location of each bit for the 24 different possible rotations. The configuration is tested against the base patterns, and their inverse for all rotations until a match is found. Once a matching pattern is found triangles are created. The three points of a triangle will always lie on the edge of the cube, directly between two adjacent voxels. 25 26 The location of the point is calculated by taking the location of the lower voxel and an offset being one direction of the scaled distance vector stored in the voxel. These points are calculated before any rotation happens, then a rotation function is applied to them. This function is also a pre-computed table for the 12 edges and the 24 rotations. After this algorithm is run on the whole voxel set, the result will be a set of triangles. These triangles are independent of each other and do not have any connection information, or specific order. 3.5.3 Modifications There were a few modifications made to the original Marching Cubes algo-rithm. There are a few combinations of configurations which resulted in holes in the surface, as in Figure 3.7. This is because the Marching Cubes algorithm only deals with local information. It is ambiguous wether the two triangles formed from pattern 3 come from the same surface or two diffrent surfaces. Two triangles have been added to the base patterns 3 and 6 from Figure 3.6. Theses new triangles can be seen in Figure 3.8. This solves the problem of a hole appearing but causes a problem if they are supposed to be two diffrent surfaces. The added triangles from a thin bridge between the two surfaces which is not supposed to be there. The flaw caused by a hole in the surface is also visually more apparent than the flaw caused by a bridge. 27 Figure 3.7: Marching Cubes problem 28 3.6 Output Format Inventor File format [wern94] was the format chosen for the output the objects. All the vertices are stored in an indexed list. The triangles are represented as a set of three index numbers corresponding to a list of vertices. The normal to the triangles are also stored in an indexed list and the vertices index to the normal. 3.6.1 Implementation The vertices of the triangles are indexed using hashing. The coordinates of the vertices are used as the key for the hashing function. The number stored in the hash table is the index number, which is the order in which the vertices are inserted. The vertices is put into an array with the array index corresponding to the one in the hash table. The normal to the triangle associated with the vertices is also stored in an array. When a vertice is added more than once, which happens with adjacent triangles, the normals are summed, then averaged at the end. Triangles are also tested to determine if their three vertices are co-linear. If they are co-linear they are discarded. 29 C h a p t e r 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f holes 4.1 Irregularities in Natural Phenomena One of the most difficult aspects of modeling natural phenomena is that they contain irregularities. If one has a chair (or some other manufactured object) another chair could look exactly like the first one. When making ten chairs, making nine copies of the original chair will suffice. With natural phenomena this does not work. If one wants ten maple trees one cannot just make one tree and copy it. No two trees are exactly alike. Each tree has a slightly different location, length, and width for each branch, etc. While each tree must be different they must also have a degree of similarity. If the differences are too great they won't look like the same type of tree or even a tree at all. Stochastic modeling must be used in circumstances such as these [four80]. Stochastic modeling is just the use of randomness in the modeling. With the ornamental rocks from a Chinese garden the primary distinguishing character-30 istic of the rocks are their holes. The size, frequency and location of the holes in the rock are the primary aspect of what make each rock unique. Therefore we purpose to model these characteristics with stochastic processes. 4.2 Stochastic Processes The three aspects of the holes in the rocks which are going to vary are the diameter of a hole, location of the center of a hole, and the number of holes per unit volume. These holes are assumed to be spherical. The number of holes and a scaling factor for the diameters are set by the user. This control lets the user determine how large the rock is. This leaves the location and the diameter of the holes as the random variables in the modeling. When using random variables, their distribution must be taken into account. A distribution function for a random variable describes how that variable behaves. Each random variable X has a cumulative distribution function F where for each sample x: F(x) = P(X<x). This function lies in the interval [0,1] and is non-decreasing. An example of a simple distribution function is the uniform distribution F(x) = x where 0<x<l. A uniform random variable has an equal probability of being located anywhere in the range 0 to 1. For the parameters of the holes of the rocks, distribution 31 functions will be determined and then used to produce the modeled rocks. 4.3 Acquiring Distributions Real rocks from a Chinese garden and their holes are three dimensional and ideally three dimensional data would be gathered. This is not realistic to do because it would be too expensive requiring a CAT scan, MRI or some other similar process. Another way to collect data would be to cut a plane into a real stone and measure the holes. Ornamental stones are not available to be cut up. What is more easily available are pictures that are two dimensional. Pictures of rocks from a Chinese garden are used to collect statistical data on the characteristics of the holes. The location and size of the holes, are determined by a user from the picture. The user draws lines segments on the picture with an interactive program as estimates of the holes major axis. These lines are used to determine the center and the diameter of the holes. Data was collected from rocks 1, 2, and 3 which can be seen in Figure 4.1, Figure 4.2, and Figure 4.3. 4.4 Chi-Squared Test The chi-squared test is used to help determine similarities between distribu-tions. The test compares the probability density functions of two distributions. A probability density function of a random variable X shows its frequency of occurrence. The density function f(x) is the derivative of the distribution 32 33 Figure 4.2: Sampled rock 2 function F(X). f(x) = dF/dx F{X) = P(x!<X<x2) = / X l f{t)dt JX2 A discrete density function is calculated for the sampled data by dividing the data into k bins and keeping track of frequency of occurrence for each bin. The expected values of X at the location of the bins are then calculated. These come from the density function of the random variable that the collected data is being compared to [alle90]. The chi-squared value is calculated by taking the sum of the scaled square of the difference of the observed elements Oi in bin i and the expected values Ei given by Ei = N f(t)dt where x\ and x2 are the bounds for bin i and N is the total number of elements. 2 _ (Oj ~ Ei)2 X 2-*/ t? t=l hi X2 is then compared to the critical value Xm.a? where a is the probability that a chi-squared variable with m degrees of freedom will be greater than Xm,a- The degrees of freedom, m , is found from the number of independent parameters, p, used to generate the expected values Ei where m = k — 1 — p. If X2 < Xm,a then we cannot reject the hypothesis that the two sets of data come from the same distribution. 35 4.5 Location of holes The location of the center of holes can be found by taking the midpoints of all the lines collected. The distribution of these centers is tested to determine a distribution to be used for the location of the generated holes. This two-dimensional data can be extended to apply in three dimensions. The picture from which the data was collected is just a projection of a 3D rock onto a 2D surface. The two axes, X and Y, that were chosen are arbitrary depending on the camera position. The centers of the holes are tested using the chi squared test to show whether they are positioned uniformly. The centers are placed in six bins of equal area as seen in Figure 4.4. Figure 4.4: Bins for centers of holes 36 The values of the bins are compared to the average value of all the buckets. The chi squared values are 3.229, 5.0, and 1.323 respectively for the three sampled rocks. These values are all less than xt .05 = 9.4877 which means it is reasonable to assume they are uniformly distributed. The distribution of the buckets are shown in Figure 4.5. The distribution of the third axis Z in 3D space is assumed to be the same as that of X and Y. When creating the holes, a uniform distribution is used for generating the random locations. The uniform distribution is the standard distribution for the pseudo-random number generator, drand48, given with the C++ compiler. 4.6 Diameter An approximation to the diameter of the holes can be found by taking the distance between the two end points of the line segment. The real holes and the generated holes are both three-dimensional but the data collected has only two dimensions. These two-dimensional holes are the projection of the intersection of the three-dimensional holes with the surface of the rock. A 2D illustration can be seen in figure 4.6. There is a relationship between the distributions of the center and size of holes in two and three dimensions [serr82]. Given a distribution of disjoint balls whose centers appear in R3 according to a stationary random process, let N3 be the number of balls per unit volume, and F$(D) be the distribution of their diameters. Then JV3 x (1 - Fs{D)) 37 (a) Rock 1 x = 3.229 (b) Rock 2 x2 = 5.0 (c) Rock 3 x2 = 1-323 Figure 4.5: Locations of holes 38 Figure 4.6: Holes projected onto a plane is the number of centers of balls with diameters >_ D per unit volume. Let N2 be the number of circles per unit area on a plane which cuts through R3 and F2(D) the distribution of the diameters of circles. The density function of the diameters is /2(d), which is equal to F2(d). Then we have the relationships: N2 f°° F^(h) TV, 7T io h No rc N3(l - F3(D)) = -1 / 7T JD -dh These two equations can be combined to produce: roo Fj(h) dh F3(D) = 1 -roo JD Vh2-D2 dh rex Jo dh The distribution function of diameters, F3(D), can thus be derived from F2(D). 39 When the circles from an intersecting plane are projected to another plane, the projected circles will become ellipses if the two planes are not par-allel. The length of the diameter of a circle will be preserved as the major axis of the projected ellipse. Multiple planes can be used, all of which are projected onto a single plane. Ellipses projected from different planes would have different orientations, but the diameter of the original circle would still be the major axis. If the surface of the rocks in the photographs can be ap-proximated as a collection of planes, then the statistics collected in 2D from the photographs will be valid. This is true if the curvature of the surface is low compared to the diameter of the holes intersected. The discrete density function, /2(d), for the sampled diameters is calcu-lated and used to produce its three dimensional counterpart. /2(d) is obtained by placing the sampled diameters into bins. The diameters have been scaled so the greatest diameter is 1. The integrals are approximated with summations. f°° Fn(h) „ ^ 1 num in bin x AD 0 all bins ^center of bin F3(D) is calculated with the formulas given and differentiated to produce fz{D). The numbers calculated from the sample rock 1 can be seen in Table 4.1. The probability density functions given here have been multiplied by N x 5D. This is so that the numbers in the table correspond to the actual number of holes per bin. The density function, fz(D) is compared to the uniform, normal, Pois-son and exponential random distribution using the chi-squared test. The first bin or bins were not used in the chi-squared test because they were smaller than 40 Bin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 D .05 .15 .25 .35 .45 .55 .65 .75 .85 .95 F2(D) 0 0.26 0.56 0.69 0.78 0.87 0.96 0.98 0.98 1 F^{D) xNxSD 0 12 14 6 4 4 4 1 0 1 F3(D) 0 0.35 0.70 0.81 0.86 0.92 0.98 0.99 0.99 1 F£(D) xN x5 0 16.33 16.09 4.92 2.45 2.39 2.76 0.62 0 0.61 Table 4.1: Distribution and density data for rock 1 any of the sampled data. The chi-squared values for the three rocks can be seen in Table 4.2. The only chi-squared value which are below xl,m = 12-592 for rock 1 and rock 3 and x| 0 5 = 11.071 for rock 2 is the exponential distri-bution. In Rock 2 the first two bins are empty. It is likely the distribution function used to generate the distribution of holes is exponential. Distribution Rock 1 Rock 2 Rock 3 Uniform 72.911 52.816 57.588 Normal 115.276 62.039 125.924 Poisson 55.989 34.346 258.785 exponential 5.714 7.462 10.872 Table 4.2: Chi squared values for the diameters The distribution function of the collected data, F3(D) can be used to generate the diameter of the holes. The output from the standard uniform pseudo-random number generator is passed to the inverse of the new distribu-tion resulting in random numbers of that distribution. The inverse function is calculated by intersecting horizontal lines with the distribution function, which is represented as a series of lines. The distribution functions F3(D) from the sampled data can be seen in Figure 4.8. 41 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 (a) Rock 1 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 (b) Rock 2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Data Bar Uniform + Normal 0 Poisson * exponential x (c) Rock 3 Figure 4.7: Diameters, h(D) (d) Key 42 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.B 0.9 1 (c) Rock 3 Figure 4.8: Distribution functions, F3(D) 43 C h a p t e r 5 R e s u l t s 5.1 Overview Now we will describe the results of these methods. The algorithm described in Chapter 3 is able to place holes in arbitrary shaped objects, which generate a surface representation, for the final object.The use of stochastic processes, as described in chapter 4 allowed us to generate distribution of holes from photographs of real rocks. 5.2 Basic CSG operations The operation of placing holes in an object is done through CSG operations while the object is stored in a voxel representation. The volumetric object is then converted into a surface representation. The implementation of this method can handle any closed polygonal object for the base shape and the 44 holes. A simple example of the CSG operation can be seen in Figure 5.1 where a sphere is subtracted from a cube. Figure 5.2 shows a more complex shape for the base shape and figure 5.3 shows a more complex shape for a hole. The jagged edges seen in Figure 5.2 are are due to the Marching Cubes algorithm only taking into account local information. In some case it is ambiguous where the triangles should be placed. Cases 11 and 14, seen in Figure 3.6, are where these problems occur. The holes can also be randomly distributed throughout the space as seen in figure 5.4 where many holes are placed in a cube. 5.3 More than just a bump map One of the reasons a new technique for modeling holes was created is the fact that current texturing techniques by themselves are not adequate for handling the large holes of ornamental Chinese rocks. Bump maps and displacement Figure 5.1: A sphere subtracted from a cube 45 Figure 5.2: A sphere subtracted from a face Figure 5.4: Many spheres subtract from a cube maps can only affect the appearance near the surface. Figure 5.5(a) shows the base shape of a rock. Figure 5.5(b) shows a rock into which holes have been placed. There is a substantial difference in the appearance of these two rocks, but these pictures only show the geometric properties of the two objects. Texturing techniques have not been used yet. Figure 5.6(a) shows the base shape with a complex texture on it. A similar texture is applied to the rock with holes, which is seen in Figure 5.6(b). The textured pictures were rendered in Alias. The texture applied to the base has a solid fractal color map, a solid bump map and a solid displacement map. The bump map is Alias solid marble texture with fractal intensity parameters. The displacement map is Alias solid rock texture. The texture applied to the rock with holes is the same without the displacement map. These textures 47 (a) Base shape (b) Rock with holes Figure 5.5: No texturing 48 were created by David Botta. The texturing does make a substantial difference, however the texturing alone cannot produce the desired results. 5.4 Distribution of holes The use of random variables for placement of the holes was an important part of producing the realistic looking pictures of ornamental rocks. The use of data collected from pictures of real rocks was valuable for obtaining distribution functions to produce natural looking rocks. Figure 5.7(a) shows a rock with many holes where the placement of the holes was not random. The uniformity of the holes stand out and help make the image look unnatural. In figure 5.7(b) a uniform random variable is added for the location of the holes, but the size of the holes is still kept constant. This helps the appearance of the rock but uniformity in the size of the holes is still noticeable. In Figure 5.7(c) a uniform random variable, between 0 and the max hole size, is also used to choose diameter of the holes. This again enhances the appearance of the rock. The rock in Figure 5.7(d) uses the distribution function obtained from the sampled data from rock 1 for the diameter of the holes. 5.5 Level of detail Being able to control the level of detail of an object is often a desired feature in modeling natural phenomena as well as other types of models. The modeling method described in this thesis has the capability of creating objects with 49 (a) Base shape (b) Rock with holes Figure 5.6: Texturing 50 (a) No randomness in the holes (c) uniform distribution for lo-cation and diameter (b) uniform distribution for location, constant diameter (d) diameter distribution from collected data Figure 5.7: Distribution of holes 51 different levels of resolution. The number and size of the triangles in the final object is dependent on the number of voxels. An example of this can be seen in Table 5.1, Figure 5.8, Figure 5.9, and Figure 5.10. Figure 5.8 shows how the quality of a generated rock can vary depending on the resolution of the voxel set. The rock is not recognizable with only a voxel set of size 10 cubed. Aliasing effects from the course sampling are so pronounced that even the basic shape is lost. The basic shape of the rock can be seen starting with a voxel set of 15 cubed. As the size of the voxel set increases so does the quality of the image. For this size of picture the increase in quality starts to level off between 30 and 40 for the voxel set size. The pictures from figure 5.8(d) and figure 5.8(e) look almost the same even though the rock in figure 5.8(e) has almost twice as many triangles. Figure 5.9 shows different resolutions of the same rock in proportion to the screen size. This shows how various levels of detail could be used with the same object. The use of texturing makes a difference in determining the optimal resolution. In Figure 5.10, despite the fact that the picture size is larger than in Figure 5.8, there is little noticeable difference between the 20 voxel cubed and the 30 voxel cubed pictures. The texturing covers up the lack of high frequencies in the lower resolution rocks. Figure 5.8 a b c d e Number of Voxels cubed 10 15 20 30 40 Number of Triangles 261 777 1385 3315 5956 Table 5.1: Size and resolution of a modeled rock 52 (a) 10 voxels cubed (b) 15 voxels cubed (c) 20 voxels cubed (d) 30 voxels cubed (e) 40 voxels cubed Figure 5.8: Different resolutions of same rock 53 (a) 40 voxels cubed (b) 20 voxels cubed (c) 15 voxels cubed 66 pixels high 34 pixels high 19 pixels high (d) All three Figure 5.9: Different resolutions of same rock 54 (a) 15 voxels cubed (b) 20 voxels cubed (c) 30 voxels cubed (d) 40 voxels cubed Figure 5.10: Different resolutions of same rock with texturing 55 5.6 Speed and Size The amount of time it takes to produce a realistic image is an important factor in determining how useful a modeling technique is. The time for making an image of an ornamental rock can be broken into two parts, modeling and rendering. The rendering for the rocks is handled by a commercial rendering package, Alias. As far as the method described in this thesis is concerned, the time for rendering is dependent only on the number of triangles from which the rock is made. The amount of time the modeling stage takes is dependent on the size of the voxel set, the number of surfaces in the base shape, the number of holes, and the number of surfaces in each hole. The time complexity is 0(Vox x (Num Base Surfaces + Num Hole Surfaces x NumHoles)). When spheres are used as the holes, the number of surfaces in each hole is just one. Speed tests were done with different parameters for the variables listed above. They were run on a SGI Indigo2, with a 200Mhz, MIPS R4400. All the holes used were spheres. The results can be seen in Table 5.2 Table 5.3 and Table 5.4. The number of holes and the size of the base shape independently contribute to the processing time. A rock similar to the one in Figure 5.13 will take 3-5 minutes to produce. 5.7 Realistic looking rocks The realistic appearance of computer generated images can be determined by comparing them with pictures of the real object. Figure 5.11 shows a 56 Number of Number of Number of Time Voxels Base Surfaces Hole Surfaces in seconds 203 1 0 1 203 1 100 10 203 1 250 22 203 1 500 47 203 1 1000 93 203 1 2000 182 Table 5.2: Time depending on the number of holes Number of Number of Number of Time Voxels Base Surfaces Hole Surfaces in seconds 203 1 0 1 203 36 0 7 203 224 0 46 203 2588 0 597 203 1 250 22 203 36 250 27 203 224 250 59 203 2588 250 616 Table 5.3: Time depending on the number of surfaces in the base shape Number of Number of Number of Time Voxels Base Surfaces Hole Surfaces in seconds 203 1 0 1 303 1 0 3 403 1 0 21 203 1 250 22 303 1 250 85 403 1 250 216 203 224 0 46 303 224 0 162 403 224 0 362 203 224 250 59 303 224 250 205 403 224 250 490 Table 5.4: Time depending on the size of the voxel set 57 photograph of an ornamental garden stone with a computer generated one. Figures 5.13 and 5.12 show some stones using different base shapes. Since the base shape is arbitrary one can use "non-rock" shape. Figure 5.12 shows an example with a face as the base shape. The method described in this thesis is concerned with the larger scale holes and the general structure in the rocks. The finer detail is handled by standard texturing. This texturing has an effect on the appearance of the image but is not part of the method describes in this thesis. Generating realistic looking textures is a issue. There can and should be obtained directly from the real rock, ether from photograph and texture mapping or from a statistical analysis of the texture. This should be taken into consideration when comparing the images from Figure 5.11 (a) Real Rock (b) Virtual Rock Figure 5.11: Comparison of real rock and virtual rock 58 Figure 5.12: A face rock 5.8 Incorporating the Rocks into the Garden Rocks created with the method described in this thesis are used in the Garden Project. Figures 5.14 shows a rock placed in a garden scene. 59 60 Chapter 6 Conclusion This thesis described a technique used to model ornamental rocks from a Chinese garden. This technique is successful in being able to place holes in objects. Rocks have been created in this manner and imported into Alias for rendering. In Alias a texture is applied to improve the appearance of the color and finer details. This produces realistic looking ornamental rocks. The generation of one of these rocks can be done in a reasonable amount of time and the technique allows for control of the level of detail at which they are generated. These rocks are being used in scenes for the Yuan Ming Yuan garden project [wang97]. 6.1 Future work There are ways this work could be improved and expanded. One problem is that the resolution of the triangles is constant throughout the object. Some 61 areas of an object might need many small polygons to show the detail and other areas might only need a few large polygons. With the current method, in order to get a same level of detail in one area of an object, the high level of detail must be used throughout the object. Therefore in some case many more triangles are used than are necessary. It would be useful to address the problem of having different levels of detail on different areas of an object depending on the local curvature of the object or other parameters. With the current method only one type of CSG operation at one level of depth can be performed. There is one base shape and from this shape objects can only be subtracted. The CSG operation could be extended. More complex rocks could then be modeled. There could be a large rock with holes with smaller rocks embedded into it. This sort of rock could be modeled by extending the current method with more CSG operations. Developing realistic looking-rock textures will enhance the final image Work could be done on extracting texturing data from pictures of real rocks. 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