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An experimental study of plastic behavior of short lengths of wide flange steel columns Jewsbury, Frank Edward 1968

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF SHORT LENGTHS OF WIDE FLANGE STEEL COLUMNS by FRANK EDWARD JEWSBURY B. ENG. Royal M i l i t a r y College, 1963 AN ABSTRACT OF A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Applied Science i n the Department of . C i v i l Engineering We accept this abstract of a thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his represen-tatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C i v i l Engineering The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 3, 1968 ABSTRACT This i s an experimental study of the p l a s t i c y i e l d i n g bf s t e e l columns. I t consists of tests of four specimens; two tension coupons, a 12-inch stub column and a 21-inch stub column. The tension tests were used to determine the physical properties of the material while the stub columns demonstrated the e f f e c t s of r e s i d u a l stress upon the i n i t i a t i o n of y i e l d i n g and the propagation of the y i e l d i n g . The test procedure used i n both the tension tests and the compression tests was the same. The specimen was loaded i n increments up to a load just, below the y i e l d point. Beyond that point the specimen was strained at a constant rate i n order to n e u t r a l i z e the e f f e c t s of creep. This test procedure required that a l l the data for each set of readings be adjusted to give the s t r a i n at any gauge on the specimen at the same instant of time. This was done by considering the differences between consecutive sets of readings and adjusting a l l s t r a i n s to the s t r a i n at the gauge showing the greatest change during the set. This was done by means of a computor program. During the tests of the stub columns l o c a l buckling of the flanges and web was restrained by a system of bars and bracing frames. The system used i n the test of the 21-inch stub column proved to be p a r t i c u l a r l y successful. Data was c o l l e c t e d from s t r a i n gauges i n the tension tests and s t r a i n and d i a l gauges i n the compression t e s t . The d i a l gauges i n the compression test provided confirmation that the s t r a i n gauges accurately represented the state of s t r a i n i n the specimens and also r o t a t i o n of the upper end of the stub columns during the t e s t s . There are several general conclusions which, i t must be emphasized> are i v based upon a small number of test s . The y i e l d stress of the tension specimens was greater than of the compression specimens. Y i e l d i n g i n i t i a t e s at several independent f o c i rather than propagating from one single point. Y i e l d i n g , once commenced, generally continued without stopping well into the s t r a i n hardened region. Therefore, there are both unyielded material and s t r a i n hardened material i n the specimen at the same time. The i n i t i a t i o n and progress of p l a s t i c deformations i n the specimen are greatly affected by even small l o c a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . The e f f e c t of r e s i d u a l stresses upon the i n i t i a t i o n of y i e l d i n g i s not uniform. The s t r a i n hardening modulus of the specimens used has been found to be only about one-half of that expected. Wide v a r i a t i o n of t h i s property i s common. V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . 1 The Problem . . . . . . . . . 1 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 1 I I . TENSION TESTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Testing Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Method of Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Preparation of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Interpretation of the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Conclusions". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 I I I . COMPRESSION TEST OF A 12-INCH 5WF16 STUB COLUMN. . . . . . 12 . Purpose. . . . . ... .... ....... . . . . . . ...... ... . i • 12 . Testing Apparatus . . . . i . . . . . . . . » . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Method of Testing . . ..... . . . . ' . . , . . » . . . . . 14 Preparation of the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interpretation of the Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 C o n c l u s i o n s . . „ . „ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 IV, COMPRESSION TEST OF A .21-INCH 5WF16 STUB COLUMN. . . . . . 21 PUTTpOS£» • o • • • oo o o • o o o • • o • • o • 21 • Testing' Apparatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . • 21 Method of Testing. 23 Preparation of the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Interpretation of the Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 v i CHAPTER P A G E Conclusions • 27 V. SUMMARY . . . . » 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . 30 APPENDIX A. Tables 3 2 APPENDIX B. Figures 5 1 APPENDIX C. I l l u s t r a t i o n s 80 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Tension Test of Web Coupon Speciman Number 3 ° . . 33 I I , Tension Test of Flange Coupon Speciman Number 1 . . o . . 34 I I I . Compression Test of the 12-Inch 5 WF16 Column by the Olsen Mechanical Machine (Strain Gauge Data) . . 35 IV. Compression Test of the 12-Inch 5WF16 Column by the Baldwin Hydraulic Machine (Strain Gauge Data) . 38 V. Compression Test of the 12-Inch 5WF16 Column by the Olsen Mechanical Machine (Dial Cuage Data) 41 VI. Compression Test of the 12-Inch 5WF16 Column by the Baldwin Mechanical Machine (Dial Gauge Data) . . . 42 VII. Compression Test of the 21-Inch 5WF16 Column by the Baldwin Hydraulic Machine (Str a i n Gauge Data) . . . . „ 43 VIII. Compression Test of the 21-Inch 5WF16 Column by the Baldwin Hydraulic Machine (Dial Gauge Data) „ « , . . . . 50 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1<, S t r e s s - S t r a i n Curve for the Tension Test of Web Coupon Speciman Number 3 . 2. S t r e s s - S t r a i n Curve for the Tension Test of Flange Coupon Speciman Number 3 . . . . . . « 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains During Tension Test of . Web Coupon Speciman Number 3 . . . 4. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains During Tension Test of Flange Coupon Speciman Number 3 . . 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Across Section 1 of the 12-Inch Column During the Compression Test by the Olsen Machine „ . . 6. .'Distribution of Strains Across Section 2 of the 12-Inch Column During the Compression Test by the Olsen V; Machine . '." 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Across Section 3 of the 12-. Inch Column During the Compression Test by the Olsen Machine .' .. * . . . < > . . . » 8. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Across Section 1 of the 12-. Inch Column During the Compression Test by the . Baldwin Machine » . •> . 9. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Across Section 2 of the 12-Inch Column During the Compression Test by the Baldwin Machine . . . . . . FIGURE . 10. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Across Section 3 of the 12-Inch Column During the Compression Test by the Baldwin Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. S t r e s s - S t r a i n Curves for the Compression Test of the 12-Inch Column by the Olsen Machine . . . . . . . . 12. S t r e s s - S t r a i n Curves for the Compression Test of the 12-Inch Column by the Baldwin Machine 13. Rotation of the Spherical Head During the Compression Test of the 12-Inch Column by the Olsen Machine 14. Rotation of the Spherical Head During the Compression Test of the 12-Inch Column by the Baldwin Machine „ 15. S t r e s s - S t r a i n Curves for the Compression Test o f the 21-Inch Column 16. Rotation of the Spherical Head During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column 17. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Center of the Flange (p o s i t i o n 1) During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . . . . 18. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Edge of the Flange (p o s i t i o n 2) During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . . . . . . 19. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Center of the Web (p o s i t i o n 3) During the Compression Test o f the 21-Inch Column . . . I . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . X FIGURE PAGE 20. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Edge of the Flange (p o s i t i o n 4) During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . 71 21. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Center of the Flange ( p o s i t i o n 5) During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . . . . . . 72 22. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Edge of the Flange (p o s i t i o n 6) During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . . . . 73 23. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Center of the . Web (po s i t i o n 7) During the .Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . . . . . 74 24. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains Along the Edge of the Flange ( p o s i t i o n 8) During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column 75 25. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains i n the Web at the Load of 193.96 Kips During the Compression Test of the.21-Inch Column 76 26. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains i n the Web at the Load of 195.73 Kips During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column 77 27. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains i n the Web at the Load of 195.70 Kips During the Compression Test . of the 21-Inch Column 78 x i FIGURE ' PAGE 28. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Strains i n the Web at the Load of 197.29 Kips During the Compression Test of the 21-Inch Column . 79 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS • '" ILLUSTRATION PAGE 1. Location of the Tension Specimans on the Cross Section of the 5WF16 Member 81 2. Location of the S t r a i n Gauges on the Tension Specimans . . . 82 3. Bracing System and S t r a i n Gauge Location on the 12-Inch Column 83 4. S t r a i n Gauge and D i a l Gauge Location on the Cross Section of the 12-Inch Column . 84 5. Centering Apparatus, and D i a l Gauge Mounts Used on the Bottom Bearing Plate During the Compression Tests . . . . . 85 6. Photographs Taken Before Tests of the Equipment Used"'' During the Compression Tests. 86 7. Bracing System and S t r a i n Gauge Location on the 21-Inch Column . . . . 87 8. .Strain Gauge and D i a l Gauge Location on the Cross Section of the 21-Inch Column 88 9. Photographs Following Testing of the S t r a i n Gauges and D i a l Gauges on the 21-Inch. Column 89 10. Photographs Following Testing of the Bracing System on the 21-Inch Column 90 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author i s exceedingly g r a t e f u l for the sound advice and patience of Doctor A. H. Hrennikoff which made th i s thesis what i t i s . The author also wishes to thank the members of the technical s t a f f of the Department of C i v i l Engineering for t h e i r invaluable a i d . L a s t l y , the author expresses his appreciation to Mrs. Janet Frost without whom th i s thesis would not have been complete. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. THE PROBLEM During the l a s t ten years a method of s t r u c t u r a l design of s t e e l structures based upon the p l a s t i c theory has been used with increasing frequency. I t i s f e l t that the knowledge lacking i n some important areas of this theory, as i t applies to structures, i s s u f f i c i e n t to make the design method questionable. Consequently t h i s experimental study of the p l a s t i c y i e l d i n g of a s t e e l column was conducted. I t i s a lim i t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n involving tests on four coupons and two column specimens cut from the same 5WF16 grade ASTM-A7 beam. The tests conducted were; tension tests on flange and web coupons and compression tests on a 12-inch stub column and a 21-inch stub column. The tension tests were designed to determine the physical properties of the ASTM-A7 s t e e l . The compression tests were designed to show the e f f e c t s of residual stress and the propagation of y i e l d i n g through the column. II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The average physical properties of ASTM"A7 s t e e l obtained from coupon • tests are given by Thurlimann as follows: y i e l d s t r e s s , 36 k s i ; modulus i n the e l a s t i c range, 30,000 k s i ; modulus at the beginning of the s t r a i n hardening range, 900 k s i ; and the s t r a i n at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening, 14x10 i n / i n or about 1.4 percent.^ B. Thurlimann, "New Aspects Concerning I n e l a s t i c I n s t a b i l i t y of Steel Structures", Journal of the St r u c t u r a l D i v i s i o n ASCE, LXXXVI (January, 1960), pg. 101. 2 According to Thurlimann, y i e l d i n g occurs discontinuously i n a series of narrow bands. The material i n each band as i t y i e l d s passes almost instan-taneously through the en t i r e y i e l d i n g range to the beginning of the strain, hardening range. Subsequently, the adjacent bands of material then y i e l d i n a s i m i l a r manner. As a consequence of t h i s theory Thurlimann concludes the following: F i r s t l y , once y i e l d i n g has commenced a l l the material i n the specimen must be either i n the s t r a i n hardened state or in the e l a s t i c state. Secondly, once y i e l d i n g has i n i t i a t e d at a point i t i s propagated outward 2 from band to band u n t i l the e n t i r e specimen has yielded. During the manufacture of hot r o l l e d s t r u c t u r a l shapes the uneven cooling following the r o l l i n g process induces c e r t a i n r e s i d u a l stresses i n the shapes. For s t r u c t u r a l shapes having a depth to width r a t i o less than or equal to 1.5 3 these r e s i d u a l stresses have been measured at the following average values: flange t i p s - 13 k s i compression flange centers - 5 k s i tension web centers - 8 k s i tension Therefore, one would expect that during compression tests y i e l d i n g woul'd occur f i r s t at the flange t i p s and l a s t at the center of the web. 2 I b i d . , p. 110. L.S. Beedle, L. T a l l , "Basic Column Strength", Journal of the Structural D i v i s i o n ASCE, LXXXVI (July, 1960), p. 143. CHAPTER II TENSION TESTS I. TESTING APPARATUS The coupons f or the tension tests were cut from the same 5WF16 beam as the stub column specimens. I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 shows the l o c a t i o n of these coupons on the beam cross section. Nominally 0.5 inches i n width and of the same thickness as the web or flange respectively, the actual dimensions of the specimens are given i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 2. These dimensions were measured a f t e r the surface m i l l scale had been removed by sanding just p r i o r to gauge place-ment . Ten e l e c t r i c resistance s t r a i n gauges were placed lengthwise on the specimens, s i x on the center l i n e s of both 1/2 inch faces and four on the center l i n e s of the side edges, as indicated i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 2. The s t r a i n gauges used were P h i l l i p s PR 9814, 1/4 inch gauge length, having a resistance of 120.5 ohms _ 0.57o. The gauges were connected to an automatic switching and balancing unit which was i n turn connected to a Budd d i g i t a l readout instrument Model A - l l l . The d i g i t a l readout instrument reads d i r e c t l y i n micro inches per inch to three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s . The scale factors of 1, 2, 4, 10 and 100 thus have a r e a d a b i l i t y of 1, 2, 4, 10 and 100 micro inches per inch r e s p e c t i v e l y . The tension tests were conducted using a 60 kip, h y d r a u l i c a l l y operated, Baldwin Universal t e s t i n g machine. The specimens were held i n the te s t i n g machine by Tempiin grips f i t t e d with b a l l sockets. E c c e n t r i c loading of the specimens was prevented by c a r e f u l centering of the specimens i n the Templin gr i p s . Tests on specimens No. 4, a web specimen, and No. 2, a flange specimen, were unsuccessful due to the f a i l u r e of the TATNAL GA-1 contact cement used i n mounting the s t r a i n gauges. A f t e r a preliminary test on the ruined No. 4 specimen, Budd GA-5 cement, a heat and pressure cured epoxy r e s i n , was found to be s u i t a b l e . A l l subsequent tests were performed using t h i s adhesive to mount the s t r a i n gauges. II . METHOD OF TESTING During the test two d i s t i n c t test procedures are u t i l i z e d . In the period p r i o r to y i e l d i n g i n the specimen the load was held constant while readings were obtained for the ten s t r a i n gauges. Once y i e l d i n g has occurred i n the specimen creep s t r a i n i n g i s no longer n e g l i g i b l e . In order to minimize.the e f f e c t of creep the following procedure was u t i l i z e d f o r that portion of the t e s t during which the specimen was y i e l d i n g . The t e s t i n g machine was run at a constant rate of s t r a i n i n g of about 0.3 inches per hour. Sets of readings were taken at approximately five-minute i n t e r v a l s as follows. The load was noted at the beginning of the set of s t r a i n gauge readings. The s t r a i n at each gauge was read i n sequence with the sequence being repeated. The load was noted at 'the end of the set of s t r a i n gauge readings. Thus, each set consists of two s t r a i n readings for each s t r a i n gauge and two load readings. These readings can be reduced to a s t r a i n for each gauge and a load at the same instant of time. Assuming a y i e l d stress of 36,000 p s i the y i e l d load was calculated. The load was increased by 1,000 pound increments to the nearest load below the y i e l d load. Subsequently, the second procedure was employed u n t i l approximately 4 percent s t r a i n was attained. 5 I I I . PREPARATION OF THE DATA In order to make v a l i d comparisons i t i s necessary to reduce a l l s t r a i n gauge readings to readings at the same instant of time. The procedure used i s based on three assumptions; namely, that the load varies l i n e a r l y from beginning to end of each set of readings, that the time required for each gauge reading was constant, and that the rate of s t r a i n was constant. The reference point i n time to which a l l other readings are reduced i s the second reading for the s t r a i n gauge having the greatest change, that i s , the greatest diffe r e n c e betweeJn the readings during the set. The procedure i s best explained by the use of an example. Consider that there are ten s t r a i n gauges and that gauge No. 7 exhibits the greatest change during the set. The actual observed second reading for gauge No. 7 i s used. 16 , The adjusted load becomes f i r s t load + — (difference between l a s t and f i r s t load. For gauge No. 6 adjusted s t r a i n = l a s t reading + ^-JQ—^ (difference between l a s t and f i r s t readings) since the reference point occurred a f t e r the l a s t reading for gauge No. 6. S i m i l a r l y , for gauge No. 1, adjusted s t r a i n = l a s t reading + ^ ^ (difference between l a s t and f i r s t reading). (7-9) For gauge No. 9 adjusted s t r a i n = l a s t reading + — — (difference between l a s t and f i r s t readings). This adjustment i s negative because the reference point i n time occurred before the l a s t reading for gauge No. 9 and hence the proper s t r a i n i s between the f i r s t and the l a s t reading. These adjusted data are presented i n TABLE I and TABLE I I . Mean st r a i n s i n these tables were computed by averaging a l l a v a i l a b l e gauge readings corresponding to each p a r t i c u l a r value of the load. Mean stress versus mean s t r a i n curves, Figures 1 and 2 were prepared from the data i n TABLES I and II re s p e c t i v e l y . 6 These curves demonstrate the physical properties of the specimens. In order to show gr a p h i c a l l y the state of s t r a i n at d i f f e r e n t points at the same instant of time, Figures 3 and 4 were prepared. The v e r t i c a l scale represents s t r a i n . Each l i n e connecting the d i f f e r e n t s t r a i n gauge v e r t i c a l s represents a c e r t a i n load and point i n time. IV. INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA Specimen No. 3, the web specimen, was tested f i r s t . The test i s summarized by Figure 1. The values for the modulii i n the e l a s t i c and s t r a i n hardened regions were calculated from the straight l i n e portions of the graph. The value of the average y i e l d stress i s 43 ,232 p s i taken at the f i r s t drop in the load following a temporary peak. Continuation of the y i e l d i n g proceeds along a curve r i s i n g s l i g h t l y at f i r s t and more steeply l a t e r . The i r r e g u l a r shape of the y i e l d i n g s t r a i n hardening curve r e f l e c t s the composite nature of i t s s t r a i n s . The magnitudes of the s t r a i n hardening modulus and the. s t r a i n at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening are not too well defined. The l a t t e r i s taken at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the assumed str a i g h t s t r a i n hardening l i n e with the stress l e v e l of 43,282 p s i . The value for y i e l d stress i s the lowest point on the curve in the p l a s t i c plateau. The value for s t r a i n at the beginning of y i e l d i n g i s the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the s t r a i g h t l i n e e l a s t i c portion and the s t r a i g h t l i n e at the y i e l d stress l e v e l . The large load gap i n this region i s a consequence of adjusting the data. The maximum rate of s t r a i n at this time was observed at gauge No. 4 and hence a load near the l a s t reading was used r e s u l t i n g i n a large increase i n load. The values are as follows: e l a s t i c modulus 29.6 x 10^ p s i y i e l d stress 43.282 x IO 3 p s i -6 / y i e l d s t r a i n 1450 x 10 i n / i n s t r a i n hardening modulus .593 x 10^ p s i s t r a i n at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening 13.3 x 10 i n / i n The l a s t two parameters are somex^hat uncertain. It.may be observed that these p l a s t i c properties of the test specimen d i f f e r e d widely from the mean values given by Thurlimann. However, such or even a greater v a r i a t i o n of p l a s t i c parameters of the same grade of structure s t e e l i s common. The commentary on P l a s t i c Design, however, notes that while the basic y i e l d stress varies from 24.6 k s i to 43.0 k s i with a most probable value of 34.1 k s i , the most probable value for the usual acceptance-type test i s 42.6 k s i . ^ Also i n the Commentary i s a graph giving values for the modulus of 3 e l a s t i c i t y of 29.6 x 10 k s i and for the modulus of s t r a i n hardening of 2 700 k s i . Specimen No. 3 assumed a bent shape upon being cut from the 5WF16 beam. This curvature i s probably due to the release of residual stresses caused by the manufacturing process. The fact that the specimen was bent can be seen i n TABLE I. In the e l a s t i c range s t r a i n s at gauges 2, 4 and 6 are larger than s t r a i n s at gauges 1, 3 and 5. The differences at the load of 3,500 pounds for gauges 1 and 2, 3 and 4, and 4 and 5 are 250, 444 and 252 micro . ''"American Society of C i v i l Engineers, Commentary on P l a s t i c Design (ASCE Manuals of Engineering Practice No. 41, New York: American Society of C i v i l Engineers, 1961) p. 15. 2 I b i d . , p .. 22. inches per inch r e s p e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t i n g that the e c c e n t r i c i t y i s symmetrical with respect to the center of the specimen. These di f f e r e n c e s , as might be expected, increase with an increase i n load throughout the whole e l a s t i c range. E c c e n t r i c i t y of placement of the specimen i n the Templin grips would r e s u l t i n s i m i l a r differences between strains at gauges 7 and 8 and 9 and 10. These differences at the load of 3,500 pounds are only 36 and 42 micro inches per inch i n d i c a t i n g that the specimen was almost p e r f e c t l y centered. The a d d i t i o n a l stresses produced by these e c c e n t r i c i t i e s have probably caused y i e l d i n g to i n i t i a t e at the most heavily stressed points. 43.2 x 10 3 T h e o r e t i c a l l y y i e l d i n g f i r s t occurs at a s t r a i n of = 1460 x 29.6 x 10 6 10 i n / i n . In TABLE I i t can be seen that y i e l d i n g f i r s t occurred at gauge 4 followed by gauge 6 and then gauge 2. Y i e l d i n g at these points was followed by y i e l d i n g at gauges 7, 8, 9 and 10 and at a s t i l l l a t e r time by y i e l d i n g at gauges 1, 3 and 5. Once y i e l d i n g has taken place the e f f e c t s of i n i t i a l e c c e n t r i c i t i e s disappear and a l l s t r a i n gauges exhibit more or less the same s t r a i n by the time the specimen reaches the beginning of s t r a i n hardening. This i s c l e a r l y seen in Figure 3 where one l i n e represents a maximum value -3 -3 of 19 x 10 i n / i n and a minimum value of 16.5 x 10 i n / i n . The data from the test of specimen No„ 1 the flange specimen was prepared i n exactly the same manner as data from the f i r s t t e s t . From Figure 2 i t can be seen that the mechanical properties found i n this test are: elastic'modulus 29.6 x 10^ p s i s t r a i n hardening modulus .5 52 x 10^ p s i 3 y i e l d stress 41.3 x 10 p s i y i e l d s t r a i n 1400 x 10 ^ i n / i n s t r a i n at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening 13.5 x 10 J i n / i n Since no drop in load was observed i n the early stage of y i e l d i n g , the y i e l d stress had to be found i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from the one used on the previous specimen, namely by extending the s l i g h t l y sloping y i e l d l i n e back to the i n t e r s e c t i o n with the continuation of the steep e l a s t i c l i n e . The s t r a i n hardening curve proved to be reasonably s t r a i g h t . The abscissa of i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n with the hor i z o n t a l l i n e at the l e v e l of y i e l d stress was taken as the s t r a i n at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening. Although tests of single specimens are by. no means conclusive, the fact that the sample cut out from the web proved s l i g h t l y stronger than -the one taken from the flange corroborates what may reasonably be expected in view of the greater degree of r o l l i n g i n the web. During the test the h y d r a u l i c a l l y operated Baldwin Universal Machine l o s t pressure and hence load. This decrease i n load and subsequent reloading i s very evident i n Figure 4. This had the e f f e c t of d i s p l a c i n g the curve approximately 4,500 micro i n / i n to the r i g h t making the determination of the beginning of s t r a i n hardening most doubtful. This was taken as the point at which the y i e l d stress l i n e and the st r a i g h t l i n e for the s t r a i n hardening modulus would have intersected had the curve not been displaced. TABLE I I indicates that specimen No. 1 was q u i t e . s t r a i g h t since i n the e l a s t i c range the differences between gauges 1 and 2, 3 and 4, and 5 and 6 are very small. However, r e l a t i v e l y l a rger differences between gauges 7 and 8 and 9 and 10 indicate that the specimen was not quite so well centered as i n the f i r s t t e s t . 41 3 10"^  T h e o r e t i c a l l y y i e l d i n g occurs at a s t r a i n of : r = 1395 x 10"^ 29.6 x 10 6 i n / i n . From TABLE I I i t can be seen that y i e l d i n g took place f i r s t at gauge 3 followed by gauges 9, 1, 10 and 4 i n succession,, However, unlike the f i r s t t e s t , t h i s test showed some portions of the specimen well into the s t r a i n hardened range with other portions just commencing to y i e l d . This i s very evident i n Figure 4 where at one time a difference of 24,000 micro i n / i n existed between the strains at gauge 6 and gauge 10. Thus, contrary to the opinion of Thurlimann, s t r a i n i n g does not cease at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening u n t i l the remainder of the material has yielded. V. CONCLUSIONS The average mechanical properties i n tension of two specimens of 5WF16, ASTM-A7 beam taken are from the web and the other from the flange are as follows: modulus of e l a s t i c i t y 29.6 x 10^ p s i (P p s i modulus of s t r a i n hardening 5 7 3 x 1 3 y i e l d stress 42.3 x 10 p s i -6 y i e l d s t r a i n 1425 x 10 i n / i n s t r a i n at the beginning of -3 s t r a i n hardening 13.40 x 10 i n / i n The y i e l d stress of the web sample has been found to be about 2 percent higher than the y i e l d stress of the flange sample. Y i e l d i n g normally commences f i r s t at those points where stress i s concentrated e i t h e r by imperfections i n the specimen or eccentric loading. Y i e l d i n g does not propagate from the f i r s t point of i n i t i a t i o n but i n i t i a t e s at various random points almost simul-taneously. S t r a i n i n g may continue well into the s t r a i n hardening range i n 11 p o r t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l w h i l e remaining i n the e l a s t i c range or the begin-ning of the y i e l d i n g range i n other p o r t i o n s . CHAPTER III COMPRESSION TEST OF A 12-INCH 5WF16 STUB COLUMN I. PURPOSE This test had two purposes; to study the i n i t i a t i o n and propagation of y i e l d i n g while the specimen passed from an e l a s t i c state to a s t r a i n hardened state and to determine the e f f e c t of r e s i d u a l stresses upon the pattern of y i e l d i n g . I I . TESTING APPARATUS The test specimen was a 12-inch stub column of 5WF16. The specimen was prepared i n the following manner. F i r s t , the entire surface was sanded to remove m i l l scale and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s which might have acted as stress r a i s e r s and therefore might have i n i t i a t e d y i e l d i n g . Then both ends were machined perpendicular to the axis of the column to make the specimen 12 inches in length. Subsequently, the cross s e c t i o n a l area was determined by measuring a trace of the end with a planimeter. The area determined at 4.66 square inches agrees c l o s e l y with the handbook value of 4.70 square inches. Budd C6-141-B s t r a i n gauges of 1/4 inch gauge length were then mounted using the Budd GA-5 cement found successful i n the tension t e s t s . The arrange-ment of the 36 gauges on three cross sections of the column i s depicted i n i l l u s t r a t i o n 3 and I l l u s t r a t i o n 4. Two 12-inch diameter bearing plates were placed between the ends of the specimen and the heads of the testing machine. These plates of hardened s t e e l were tapped to permit d i a l gauges and centering plates to be'attached. The aluminum centering plates were machined to f i t between the flanges of the 13 specimen and then attached to the bearing plate. This arrangement i s depicted i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 5. It served to keep the specimen centered on the bearing plate so that when the bearing plates were centered i n the te s t i n g machine under the s p h e r i c a l upper head the specimen was subjected only to a x i a l load. The four d i a l gauges were mounted to the aluminum mounts on the lower bearing plate by means of four v e r t i c a l aluminum rods. They contacted aluminum plates attached to the upper bearing plate for t h i s purpose. This i s shown by I l l u s t r a t i o n 5 and I l l u s t r a t i o n 6 . The l o c a t i o n of the d i a l gauges with respect to the specimen i s given by I l l u s t r a t i o n 4. This arrange-ment of the four d i a l gauges and the two axes of the WF shape allowed the t o t a l shortening of the column equal to the mean of the four gauges, and the r o t a t i o n of the upper end of the specimen about both axes to be measured. The Commentary gives the following c r i t e r i a as s u f f i c i e n t to prevent l o c a l buckling of the web or flanges of a s t r u c t u r a l shape strained to the beginning of the s t r a i n hardening region — 17 and _ < 43 where b and t t w are the width and thickness of the flange r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i s the section depth and w i s the web thickness.^ The specimen has a .^ r a t i o of 13.8 and a — r a t i o of 20.8. However, as the test was to continue well into the s t r a i n w hardened region a d d i t i o n a l support for the web and flanges was provided. This support consisted of four s t e e l frames constructed as shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 3. The four frames were positioned an the specimen as depicted i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 being held i n p o s i t i o n by the f r i c t i o n of the points of the bol t s against the flange and web. Inward buckling of the flanges was prevented by bol t s between ''American Society of C i v i l Engineers, Commentary on P l a s t i c Design (ASCE Manuals of Engineering Practice No. 41, New York: American Society of C i v i l Engineers, 1961) p. 50. the flanges. A l l the b o l t s were hand tightened only so that the n e g l i g i b l e amount of stress exerted would not a f f e c t the t e s t . As the test progressed the bolts were frequently retightened to keep them i n place. The s t r a i n gauges were connected through the 40 channel switching and balancing unit to the Budd model A - l l l d i g i t a l s t r a i n i n d i c a t o r used i n the tension t e s t s . The d i g i t a l read but has a r e a d a b i l i t y varying from 1 to 100 micro inches per inch depending on the scale factor i n use. The d i a l gauge p a i r s , A and C and B and D have r e a d a b i l i t i e s of 0.0001 inches and 0.002 mm r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n i t i a l l y the specimen was tested using a 200 kip capacity Olsen Universal t e s t i n g machine. This machine i s mechanically driven and thus can be controlled to achieve a constant rate of head movement. The capacity of 'the machine proved to be i n s u f f i c i e n t to induce the required s t r a i n i n g i n the specimen •which was subsequently tested i n a 400 kip capacity Baldwin Universal t e s t i n g machine. This machine i s h y d r a u l i c a l l y operated making i t impossible to main-t a i n a constant rate of head movement at the low rates possible with the Olsen machine. II I . METHOD OF TESTING Since the e f f e c t of the r e s i d u a l stresses upon y i e l d i n g was unknown the specimen was loaded only to a stress of 25,000 p s i i n increments of 40 kips. Subsequently the specimen was loaded c o n t i n u a l l y . The Olsen machine was operated at a rate of head movement of approximately 0.075 inches per hour representing a s t r a i n i n g rate of 104 micro inches per inch per minute. After approximately three hours and a s t r a i n of 1.35 percent, the load capacity of the Olsen machine was reached. 15 The following day the specimen was tested i n the 400 kip capacity Baldwin machine i n the same manner. The t e s t i n g continued u n t i l an average stress of approximately 52,500 p s i was attained. This resulted i n an a d d i t i o n a l deformation of 0.239 inches accompanied by severe l o c a l buckling of the flanges and web. The t o t a l deformation was 0.441 inches or an average s t r a i n of 3.68 percent. In both tests during the continuous loading portion the s t r a i n gauges x^ere read continuously. Each set of readings required about f i v e minutes. Since the gauges were read continuously, two consecutive sets are equivalent to the two readings made i n each set during the tension tes t s . The system used i n the tension test was not p r a c t i c a l for the large number of s t r a i n gauges involved in the compression tests due to the r e l a t i v e l y long period of time required to read a l l the gauges i n the compression t e s t . IV. PREPARATION OF THE DATA The data from each set of s t r a i n gauge readings had to be reduced to simultaneous readings at d e f i n i t e instants of time. This was done i n a s i m i l a r process to that used i n the tension t e s t . However, in this case consecutive sets are equivalent to the two readings used i n each set i n the tension test. The adjustment was done with a computer. The computed re s u l t s are to f i v e figures but the o r i g i n a l data had only three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and therefore the data in TABLES III and IV should only be considered accurate to four figures. The data from TABLE III and TABLE IV were plotted in Figures 5, 6 and 7 and Figures 8, 9 and 10 r e s p e c t i v e l y to show the development of s t r a i n i n each cross section. These figures are arranged so that gauges on opposite sides of any portion of the WF shape are adjacent. Each l i n e connects strains 16 at the d i f f e r e n t gauges at the same instant of time. By placing opposite gauges adjacent i t was planned to emphasize the differences of s t r a i n on opposite sides of the flange or web. Also i t was planned that this would indic a t e l o c a l buckling since i n that case the gauge towards which the element buckled must show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller s t r a i n than the gauge on the opposite side of the element. Using the measured distance between the d i a l gauges the r o t a t i o n of the sph e r i c a l head was calculated by d i v i d i n g the difference i n reading between the two d i a l gauges by the distance. The mean deformation and mean s t r a i n were calculated using the average of a l l four d i a l gauges. In Figure 11 and Figure 12 the mean stress versus mean s t r a i n curves x^ere plotted for the tests i n both machines using the mean s t r a i n determined both by the s t r a i n gauges and the d i a l gauges. The ordinate scale was changed at 35,000 p s i i n order to show more c l e a r l y the point at which s t r a i n hardening commences. In Figure 11 the values are given based upon the curve f o r the s t r a i n gauges. The moduli! are calculated from the s t r a i g h t l i n e segments of the curve. The s t r a i n at which y i e l d i n g commences i s the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the two s t r a i g h t l i n e portions of the curve. The s t r a i n at the onset of s t r a i n hardening i s the point at which the l i n e corresponding- to the modulus of s t r a i n hardening i n t e r s e c t s the y i e l d s t r e s s . In Figure 12 the only value given i s the modulus of s t r a i n hardening i n the s t r a i n hardening range. Since t h i s i s not a test of a previously unstressed specimen the values of y i e l d stress and y i e l d s t r a i n are affected by the previous s t r e s s i n g . As i n Figure 11 the scale was changed to show more c l e a r l y the development of y i e l d i n g i n the s t r a i n hardened range. In Figures 13 and 14 the head r o t a t i o n i s plotted versus the mean deform-a t i o n o f the column. P o s i t i v e r o t a t i o n denotes a l a r g e r r e a d i n g a t gauge A th a n gauge C and a l a r g e r r e a d i n g a t gauge D t h a n gauge B. V. INTERPRETATION Of THE RESULTS The r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t a r e summarized i n F i g u r e s 11 and 12. W h i l e the c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g mean s t r a i n as g i v e n by the d i a l gauges and mean s t r a i n as g i v e n by the s t r a i n gauges a re s i m i l a r t he d i a l gauges show a g r e a t e r s t r a i n a t each l o a d . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the e l a s t i c range i s p r o b a b l y caused by i r r e g u l a r i t i e s r e s u l t i n g i n i m p e r f e c t c o n t a c t between the ends o f the specimen and the b e a r i n g p l a t e . The i n i t i a l l o a d i n g up t o a s t r e s s o f 10,000 p s i removes most o f th e s e r e l a t i v e l y c o u r s e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s as e v i d e n c e d by the i n i t i a l c u r v e d p o r t i o n o f the gra p h f o r the d i a l gauges. The e f f e c t o f t h e s e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s s t i l l p e r s i s t s t o a s m a l l e r degree up t o 40,000 p s i ( F i g u r e 11) and 46,000 p s i ( F i g u r e 12) as i s e v i d e n c e d by g r a d u a l d i v e r g e n c e o f t he s t e e p p o r t i o n s o f the two g r a p h s . The y i e l d i n g and s t r a i n h a r d e n i n g p a r t s o f b o t h t h e s e c u r v e s a r e , however, not l i k e l y t o be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the end i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n view o f the r e l a t i v e c o n s t a n c y o f the l o a d , and t h e y may be c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f the p l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f the m a t e r i a l p r o p e r . The f a c t t h a t they r u n s u b s t a n t i a l l y p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r s i g n i f i e s t h a t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e m e n t s o f mean s t r a i n s i n t h i s range r e c o r d e d by the d i a l gauges and the s t r a i n gauges a r c s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e l a t t e r occupy o n l y 3 x 1/4 - 3/4 i n c h o f the t o t a l 12-inch l e n g t h o f the member. The f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e i n i t i a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i s f u r t h e r shown by the head r o t a t i o n c u r v e s F i g u r e s 13 and 14. The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s cause l a r g e i n i t i a l r o t a t i o n s w h i c h then r e m a i n f a i r l y c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t h e re m a i n d e r o f the t e s t . I n F i g u r e 14 the sudden 18 changes i n r o t a t i o n at the end of the t e s t are caused by l o c a l b u c k l i n g i n the flange t i p between d i a l gauges C and D. The column as a whole y i e l d e d at a lower s t r e s s than e i t h e r of the two o coupons having a y i e l d s t r e s s of 39.6 x 10' p s i as determined by the lowest p o r t i o n of the curve i n the p l a s t i c p l a t e au compared to 43.2 x 10J p s i and 41.3 x 10"1 p s i f o r the web and flange coupon r e s p e c t i v e l y . As a r e s u l t the t h e o r e t i c a l s t r a i n at the beginning of y i e l d i n g of 1340 micro inches per inch i s lower than that achieved i n the tension t e s t s . Using t h i s f i g u r e for the beginning of y i e l d i n g i t can be seen i n s e c t i o n 1 of TABLE I I I that y i e l d i n g commenced f i r s t at gauge 104 and soon t h e r e a f t e r at gauge 109. F o l l o w i n g these y i e l d i n g commenced at gauges 102, 105, 106, 107, 10" and 111 at almost the same time. The l a s t gauges to show y i e l d i n g were gauges 101 and 112. Thus, f o r s e c t i o n 1 the f i r s t points to y i e l d were at the flange t i p s and the l a s t places to y i e l d were also at the flange t i p s . The gauges at which y i e l d i n g i n i t i a t e d continued w e l l i n t o the s t r a i n hardened range w h i l e other gauges obviously had not yet y i e l d e d . This i s c l e a r l y demon-s t r a t e d i n Figure 5 . In s e c t i o n 2 i t can be seen that y i e l d i n g commenced f i r s t at gauge 202 and then at gauge 204. Y i e l d i n g then commenced at gauges 207 and 208 followed by gauges 201, 212, 2.05, 209, 210, 211 and 206 i n sequence. F i n a l l y at a much l a t e r stage gauge 203 showed y i e l d i n g . In general i n t h i s s e c t i o n y i e l d i n g was much more even than i n e i t h e r s e c t i o n 1 or s e c t i o n 3, p o s s i b l y because e f f e c t s from end i r r e g u l a r i t i e s were not present to the same degree. Y i e l d i n g i n s e c t i o n 2 commenced near the beginning on one side of the flange t i p w h i le the opposite side was the l a s t gauge i n t h i s s e c t i o n to e x h i b i t y i e l d i n g . In s e c t i o n 3 y i e l d i n g commenced at gauge 311 c l o s e l y followed by gauges 307 and 308. Then y i e l d i n g commenced consecutively at gauges 306, 309, 310, 304, 302, 305, 301, 303 and f i n a l l y 312. As can be seen i n Figure 7 y i e l d i n g i s uneven with some gauges well into the s t r a i n hardened region and others in the y i e l d i n g region. Evidence of s t r a i n hardening i s given by a noticeable increase i n the load. This may be at a load of 185.27 kips and most c e r t a i n l y by a load of 188.28 kips. At the load of 188.28 kips gauge 207 exhibits a s t r a i n of 20,417 micro inches per inch while gauge 203 exhibits a s t r a i n of only 1781 micro inches per inch and gauge 101 a s t r a i n of 1189 micro inches per inch. Thus, some sections of the column are well into the s t r a i n hardened range while others have not yet yielded. It appears that y i e l d i n g i n i t i a t e s independently at several f o c i and does not spread from one point to encompass the e n t i r e specimen p r i o r to s t r a i n hardening. During the early portion of the test i n the Baldwin Universal testing machine i t i s obvious i n Figures 8, 9 and 10 that the previous s t r a i n i n g of the specimen had the e f f e c t of removing i r r e g u l a r i t i e s and causing the specimen to s t r a i n i n a much more uniform manner than during the test on the Olsen machine. However, at the l a t e r stages l o c a l buckling e f f e c t s are very much i n evidence. The buckling of an element towards a gauge causes i t to s t r a i n i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n or reduces the compression s t r a i n . At the same time the gauge on the opposite side of the element w i l l show an increased compres-sive s t r a i n . This i s shown i n Figures 8, 9 and 10 where i t i s obvious that the one flange t i p buckled towards gauge 101 and away from gauges 201 and 301 while the web buckled towards gauge 105 and 305 but remained 'straight at section 2. In fact the c l e a r l y v i s i b l e buckling of the web was such that 20 s t r a i n i n g v i r t u a l l y ceased at section 2 on the web. VI. CONCLUSIONS From the r e s u l t s of this test the following conclusions may be formed: 1. Thi-Scolumn as a whole y i e l d s at a lower stress than i n d i v i d u a l tension coupons cut from the same member. 2. Y i e l d i n g i n i t i a t e s at several independent f o c i rather than one single point. 3. The y i e l d i n g , once commenced, continues without stopping well into the s t r a i n hardened region. 4. It i s possible to have both unyielded material and highly s t r a i n hardened material i n the specimen at the same time. 5. Residual stresses do not appear to have a uniform e f f e c t upon the i n i t i a t i o n of y i e l d i n g . CHAPTER IV COMPRESSION TEST OF A 21-INCH 5WF16 STUB COLUMN I. PURPOSE This test was a continuation of the test upon the 12-inch specimen having the same purpose; i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the i n i t i a t i o n and propagation of y i e l d i n g the determination of the e f f e c t of residual stresses upon the pattern of y i e l d i n g . II. TESTING APPARATUS The test specimen was a 21-inch stub column cut from the same 5WF16 beam as the 12-inch specimen. It was prepared i n the same manner as the former specimen by sanding and machining. The cross sectional area measured in the same manner as before, by planimeter, resulted in the same area, 4.66 square inches. Two d i f f e r e n t types of s t r a i n gauges were used in this test, 40 P h i l l i p s PR-9S14 gauges and 16 3udd C6-141-B gauges. The l o c a t i o n of the s t r a i n gauges i n this test was s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that in the test of the 12-inch specimen, as may be seen from I l l u s t r a t i o n s 7, 8, and 9. The gauges were placed f a i r l y close together v e r t i c a l l y , namely 2, 3 and 3-1/2 inches, but i n view of the large number of sections i t was necessary to reduce the number of gauges i n each section from 12 to 8 by using only single gauges on the edges of the t i p s of the flanges. The same arrangement of bearing plat e s , aluminum centering plates and d i a l gauges used in the former test was also employed i n t h i s test as shown 22 i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 5 and I l l u s t r a t i o n 9. This arrangement enabled the o v e r a l l shortening of the specimen and the r o t a t i o n of spherical head of the t e s t i n g machine to be measured. The method of bracing employed i n the f i r s t test was modified to provide s t i l l greater r e s t r a i n t to prevent l o c a l buckling of the flanges of the specimen. This arrangement i s c l e a r l y shoxm i n I l l u s t r a t i o n s 7 and 10. In order to provide continuous r e s t r a i n t along the length of the flanges 3 " 3 " st e e l bars — x — were placed against the outside of the flanges and held 4 4 i n place by the f i v e bracing frames located as shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 7. The bars against the inside of the flanges were held i n place by the hand tightened b o l t s . It was conceivable that some load could be transferred from the flanges to the bars by the f r i c t i o n forces between the bars and the flanges. The f r i c t i o n forces are dependent upon two things, the c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n at the interface and the perpendicular force across the i n t e r f a c e . The c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n was reduced by gluing a s t r i p of Teflon to the fac-e of the bar i n contact with the flange. The c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n of Teflon on s t e e l i s 0.036, a very low f i g u r e . The perpendicular force across the interface i s also very small because a l l the bolts are hand tightened and thus cannot exert any great force. These two factors ensure that load transfer from the flanges to the bracing bars by f r i c t i o n while the specimen i s s t r a i n i n g i s n e g l i g i b l e . The s t r a i n gauges were connected to the Budd model A - l l l d i g i t a l s t r a i n i n d i c a t o r by means of a 40 channel and a 20 channel switching and balancing u n i t . This system has a r e a d a b i l i t y varying from 1 to 100 micro inches per inch depending on the scale factor used. The two pairs of d i a l gauges had r e a d a b i l i t i e s of 0.0001 inches and 0.002 mm r e s p e c t i v e l y . In order to progress 23 well into the s t r a i n hardened region the test was conducted on the 400 kip capacity Baldwin Universal testing machine. The test was planned to continue u n t i l a s t r a i n of approximately 4 percent i n the specimen was obtained. I I I . METHOD OF TESTING The test method used was s i m i l a r to that used for the 12-inch specimen. The specimen was loaded i n increments to a stress of about 25 k s i and there-a f t e r loaded continuously. During the continuous loading the machine was operated at a constant rate of head movement of about 0.12 inches per hour corresponding to a mean s t r a i n rate of 95 micro inches per inch per minute. This continued u n t i l at a s t r a i n of 3.5 percent one of the bracing bars came i n contact with bearing plates and began to take some load at which point the test was terminated. The t o t a l time involved for the test was six hours. IV. PREPARATION OF THE DATA The data were adjusted with the computer program used i n the former test to produce s t r a i n readings for a l l gauges at the same instant of time. These adjusted data are presented i n TABLE VII. These data are accurate to four figures since the o r i g i n a l data only had three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s . The d i a l gauge data are presented i n TABLE VIII. The general performance of the column i s shown i n Figure 15 by the mean stress versus mean s t r a i n curve plotted from TABLE VII and VIII. The value for the moduli.; and the y i e l d stress are determined from st r a i g h t l i n e s portions of the graph. The intersections of these l i n e s are used for the values of s t r a i n at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening. As in Figures 11 and 12 a 24 change o f ^ s c a l e was used to show more c l e a r l y the development of s t r a i n hardening.. The data for head r o t a t i o n i n TABLE VIII were obtained by d i v i d i n g the d i f f e r e n c e i n readings between two gauges by the measured distance between them. In Figure 16 these angles of r o t a t i o n were then plotted against the mean deformation of the column to show the r o t a t i o n of the sph e r i c a l head during the progress of the t e s t . In Figure 16 p o s i t i v e r o t a t i o n i s s i g n i f i e d by a greater reading at gauge A than at gauge C and a greater reading at gauge B than at gauge D. The data from TABLE VII ' were plotted i n Figures 17 to 24i These eight i figures show the development of s t r a i n along the specimen i n each element of the 5WF16 shape. Figures 25 to 28 represent contour maps of strain, on the .two faces of the web for four consecutive loads; 193.96, 195.73, 195.70, and 197.29 kips r e s p e c t i v e l y . These figures represent loads i n the y i e l d i n g range and cover a time span of approximately 15 minutes. The range covered by the loads extends from the early y i e l d i n g to the early s t r a i n hardening stage i n some l o c a t i o n s . *• In p l o t t i n g these graphs the mid-flange gauges are assumed to also represent the s t r a i n s i n the web along i t s junction with the flange.; In view of the r i g i d i t y o f . t h i s area^with regard to l o c a l bending, t h i s assumption appears reasonable. The rounded o f f s t r a i n s at the flange t i p s have been included as an easy reference. The numbers; at the top of the figure represent the numbers on the key diagram. Thus, the l e f t h a l f of the. f i g u r e i s for one face of -.the web and the r i g h t h a l f i s f o r the other. 25 V. INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS As expected the general performance of the specimen as shown i n Figure 15 i s very s i m i l a r to that of the former test as shown in Figure 11„ I n i t i a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s between the ends of the specimen and the bearing plates appear to be smaller i n this test as the difference between the curves for the d i a l gauges and the s t r a i n gauges i s less than i n Figure 11. This i s further shox^n in Figure 16 where i n i t i a l r o t a t i o n of the spherical head quickly s t a b i l i z e d and remained constant. The column as a whole yielded at a stress of 41,950 p s i determined by the lowest l e v e l of the y i e l d i n g portion of Figure 15. This i s lower than the y i e l d stress of the tension coupons but higher than that of the 12-inch specimen. It i s probable that the greater length of this specimen and smaller i n i t i a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s caused this r i s e i n y i e l d stress toward that obtained for the tension coupons. Furthermore, i t is possible that replacement of pairs of gauges by single gauges at the tips of the flanges concealed the i n i t i a t i o n of y i e l d i n g at these places caused by l o c a l i z e d i n i t i a l curvature or e c c e n t r i c i t y . The rate of head movement was fas t e r than i n the former test but the average s t r a i n rate was almost i d e n t i c a l ; therefore, this should not have affected the y i e l d s t r e s s . S t r a i n hardening i n Figure 15 has d e f i n i t e l y commenced by the time the column exhibits a mean sti"ain of 12,500 micro inches per inch corresponding to a stress of 43,200 p s i . From TABLE VII i t can be seen that at a load of 179.08 kips the mean s t r a i n i s 1329 micro inches per inch. Only two gauges, 403 and 505, exhibit strains i n excess bf 1400 micro inches per inch. Under the next load of 193.96 kips represented i n Figure 25 i t i s evident that several f o c i of y i e l d i n g have 26 formed notably at gauges 403, 405, and 601... The state of s t r a i n under the next load of 195.73 kips shown i n Figure 26 shows that while the i n i t i a l f o c i have expanded several new f o c i of y i e l d i n g have appeared at gauges 107, 205, and 505. Subsequently, as shoxm i n Figures 27 and 28, these f o c i of y i e l d i n g continue to expand and f i n a l l y merge. At the load 204.98 kips following the load 197.29 corresponding to Figure 28, the l a s t contour graph, s t r a i n hardening i s d e f i n i t e l y in evidence as s t r a i n s at some points reached as high as 20,815 micro inches per inch. This load corresponds to a mean s t r a i n at a l l gauges of 12,605 micro inches per inch. Under this same load some gauges also registered strains as low as 1521 micro inches per inch. Thus i t appears that portions of the specimen are well into the s t r a i n hardened range while other portions are just commencing to y i e l d . Thus i t i s clear that s t r a i n i n g of the portions of the specimen which y i e l d f i r s t does not stop at the beginning of the s t r a i n hardened range u n t i l the remainder of the specimen has y i e l d e d . Figures 25 to 28 show that the f o c i of y i e l d i n g are d i s t r i b u t e d over the entire specimen and do not occur p r i n c i p a l l y at the flange tips as would be expected i f t h e i r l o c a t i o n was l a r g e l y influenced by r e s i d u a l stresses. In fact i n Figure 25 only one of four points of high s t r a i n , gauge 708, i s at a flange t i p . However, i n Figure 24 i t i s noted that gauge 302 on the flange tip exhibits the largest s t r a i n in the specimen. At the end of the test one of the bars used to support the flanges came in contact with the bearing plates and commenced to carry some of the load causing large rotations of the spherical head. This occurred at a load of 246.8 kips as shown i n TABLE VIII, consequently, a l l the figures beyond that 27 point are i n v a l i d . S i m i l a r l y the l a s t v a l i d s t r a i n s i n TABLE VIII correspond to the load of 246.76 kips. VI. CONCLUSIONS The same conclusions are v a l i d here as the ones arrived at i n CHAPTER III with regard to the compression test of a 5WF16 stub column 12 inches long. CHAPTER V SUMMARY This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was conducted to determine the behaviour of s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l i n the p l a s t i c range both i n tension and compression, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n compression of short pieces of wide flange sections including the study of the e f f e c t of residual stresses upon the i n i t i a t i o n of y i e l d i n g . The conclusions reached i n some cases do not agree with the l i t e r a t u r e on the s ub j e c t. The deviation of tension specimens from t h e i r expected behaviour was less than of compression specimens and y i e l d i n g i n tension occurred at a s l i g h t l y higher stress than i n compression. S t r a i n hardening appeared at a s t r a i n of about 1.3 percent. The compression specimens behaved as expected with respect to the mean stress versus mean s t r a i n curves. However several things were at a variance with the expected r e s u l t s . Y i e l d i n g originated at several random points rathe than at one point as predicted by the l i t e r a t u r e . These several f o c i of y i e l d i n g then propagated i n random di r e c t i o n s u n t i l the entire specimen had yielded. The f i r s t f o c i of y i e l d i n g did not consistently appear at the flange tip s as a consideration of re s i d u a l stress would lead one to expect. Once started, s t r a i n i n g continued into the s t r a i n hardened region without stopping even though some portions of the specimens had not yet yielded. This 2,3 i s d i r e c t l y opposed to the view expressed by the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject which states that s t r a i n i n g w i l l cease at the beginning of s t r a i n hardening u n t i l the remainder of the specimen has yielded. / I* v 29 The conclusions reached during this study are as follows: 1. In these tension tests the material yields at a higher stress in .the web than in the flange. This appears natural in view of the greater degree of rolling in the thinner part, the web, of the section.. However, numerous tests would be necessary for experimental proof of the generality of this condition. 2. The average yield stress of the stub columns in compression was lower than the average of the yield stresses of the coupons in tension.. This result was influenced by the differences in testing arrangement. The two yield stresses are usually assumed equal but this can hardly be proven experimentally. 3. Yielding initiates at several independent foci rather than propagating from one single point. 4. Yielding, once commenced, sometimes stops but more often con-tinues well into the strain hardened region without stopping. 5. It i s possible to have both unyielded material and highly strain hardened material in the specimen at the same time. 6. Residual stresses do not appear to have a uniform effect upon the i n i t i a t i o n of yielding. 7. The strain hardening modulus of the specimens used has been found to be only about one-half of the average value mentioned by Thurlimann Wide variation of this property i s , however, common. 8. The i n i t i a t i o n and progress of plastic deformations are greatly affected by local irregularities, even quite minor. Once yielding commences!; in a compression region, i t produces curvature or accentuates the already existing one. This magnifies further the original irregularity and speeds, up the plastic deformation. BIBLIOCilAPI-rY 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Society of C i v i l Engineers. Commentary on P l a s t i c Design in S t e e l . Manuals of Engineering Practice Number 41. New York: American Society of C i v i l Engineers, .1961. Beedle L.S. and L. T a l l , "Basic Column Strength" Journal of the S t r u c t u r a l  D i v i s i o n , American Society of C i v i l Engineers, LXXXVI, January, 1961. Thurlimann B. "New Aspects Concerning I n e l a s t i c I n s t a b i l i t y of Steel Structures" Journal of the S true tur a l D i v i s i o n , American Society of C i v i l Engineers, LXXXVI, January, 1961. APPENDIX A TABLES TABLE I : TENSION TEST OF WEB COUPON SPECIMAN NUMBER 3 Load Stress Lbs. p s i Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro I n . / l n , 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. 10. Mean S t r a i n 1,000 8,503 235 338 204 374 222 351 302 261 313 256 286 -2,000 • 17,007 481 652 437 724 . 468 683 596 564 694 ' 557 586 3,000 25,510 • 742 974 . 676 1,074 710 1,014 880 844 876 832 862 3 /500 29,762 868 1,118 792 1,236 828 1,180 1 028 992 1,026 984 1,005 4,000 34,014 V 1,002 1,278 916 1,408 .956 1,354 1 180 1,136 1,168 1,128 1,153 4,740 40,306 1,212 1,520 1,108 1,712 .1,134 1,692 1, 394 1,368 1,370 1,352 1,386 4,995 . 42,474 • • 1,384 1,634 1,224 2,288 1,282 2,228 1 488 1,488 1,472 1,536 1,602 5,115 43,495 1,752 . 1,700 1,584 '•: 2,800 1,540 2,720 1 584 1,636 1,488 1,680 1,848 5,090 43,282 .. / \ 1,972 1,645 4,720 5,230 1,640 2,840 3 650 1,860 1,560 1,700 2,682. 5,120 43,537 2,120 1,670 8,500 9,840 1,780 3,050 7 030 3,380 1,6.10 1,730 4,071 5,140 • 43,707 ' 2,760 2,180 13,600 14,340 2,200 3,840 12 330 15,200 2,000 2,000 7,045 5,145 43,750 •:' 5,360 4,220 13,720 15,000 7,700 8,700 13 400 .18,400 3,580 2,200 9,228 5,200 • 44,218 7,310 6,100 14,'640 15,540 12,160 12,480 13 700 18,680 9,760 2,240 11,261 5,260 44,728 . 9,970 9,360 16,270 - 16,400 13,400 14,820 14 ,300 19,000 13,240 10,800 • 13,756 5,320 • 45,238 11,300 11,240 17,120 17,480 14,750 28,400 15 290 18,800 15,390 16,960 16,673 5,390 45,833 18,100 16,460 17,960 18,610 16,460 16 840 18,930 16,560 18,010 17,548 5,510 46,854 27,400 19,050 ,19,240 19,910 18,480 18 800 19,590 17,880 19,120 19,941 5,630 47,874 ' 20,940 20,900 . 21,580 19,980 20 580 21,190 20,800 20,530 20,813 5,770 49,065 . 23,000 23,040 23,680 21,180 23 000 23,240 21,780 22,300 22,653'^ 5,885 50,043 24,600 24,740 25,600 22,560 24 280 24,940 23,700 24,020 24,305 5,975 50,808 26,360 26,750 29,300 23,980 26 080 26,840 25,400 25,680 26,299 6,060 51,531 . 28,200 28,640 25,280 27 ,800 28,560 27,120 27,260 27,551 6,160 - 52,381 30,700 30,660 27,080 30 ,100 30,520 29,180 29,240 29,640 6,280 53,401 32,970 ' 33,100 29,080 32 ,160 32,650 31,300 31,220 31,783 6,356 54,048 ; 35,500 30,900 34 ,200 34,800 33,400 33,250 33,675 6,430 54,677 40,300 33,080 36 540 37,200 35,420 35,280 36,303 6,490 55,187 37,000 38 540 39,840 37,280 37,040 37,940 6,540 55,612 44,000 39 .940 43,860 38,620 38,360 40,956 6,585 55,995 41 500 40,000 39,700 , 40,400 6,640 56,463 43 j ,560 41,430 41,400 42,130 6,680 , i 56,803 46 ,260 .43,460 43,900 44,540 6,735 ' 57,270 48 600 45,400 .47,000 33 3 , 9 — _ / — = ~ ~=—\_ h i. • 34 TABLE II TENSION TEST OF FLANGE COUPON SPECIMAN NUMBER I St 4 6 ' . 7 9 • a IO Load Lbs. Stress p s i Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro In,/In. \r. ;:.-V T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean St r a i n 1,000 5,609 214 147 232 146 230 140 172 211. 196 204 189 !'* . : '. • • 2,000 11,217 .  '396 343 412 352 402 '• 340 412 . 348 412 c-;< 344 376 ' i •. - 3,000 16,826 578 531 599 546 579 531 614 523 616 . 516 . 563 % . 4,000 , 22,434 772 716 788 738 762 718 816 714 812. 708 754 '"• I . V - 5,000 ' 28,043 960 902 973 926 940 903 998 903 1,002 885 • 939 6„000 r 33,651, ' 1,146 1,092 1,210 1,310 1,116 1 096 1 ,180 1,092 1,250 i 1,078 1,157 -t? i - i ' . ^ ;108 •:' 39,865 • 1,604 1,330 2,248 1,468 1,299 ^ 1 ,338 1 346 1,362 1,738 1,498 1,523 r v ^.7,359 . 41,273 1,954 1,411 11,000 5,910 1,210 • ; . 1 400- 1 ,300 1,550 3,300 ; f 2,120 3,116 7,410 = 41,559 6,600 16,500 13,000 1/600 1 700 3 210 1,865 13,100 .";;( 9,000 7,397 t-^ -4"v. 7,524 . 42,198 18,010 17,840 16,890 1,600 1 700 21 ,600 16,550 16,880 4: ,18,480 14,394 . 7,705 I 43,213 24,000 19,330 19,820 6,000 1 800 23 380 23,340 18,900 -'I 27,300 18,208 i ' •. 'V-^'' .7,270 1 '< 40,774: . '• 23,800 19,500 19,800 14,100 3, 600 23, 600 . • 23,300 19,400 ,. 27,800 . 19,433 • :w 7,210 ' * 40,437 23,800 19,500 .19,800 3 600 23 600. 23,300 19,400 27,800 20,100 ' ' ", 7,330 41,110 23,800 19,500. 19,800 3 ,800 23 600 23,300 . 19,500 I 27,800 20,138 ; 7,532 i : 42,243 23,800 19,610 19,900 9 800 23 ,700 23,400 19,770 27,880 . 20,983 • •• : - , , ft 672 - :43,028, 24,470 20,210 20,310 18, 700 24 ,100 23,690 20,670 28,000 22,519 ' 7 , 6 9 0 , 43,129 . 25,000 20,500 : 20,590 21, 300 24 ,400 24,000 21,150 >Y: 28,050 23,124 7,770 , 43,578 24,200 20,690 20,730 22 980 24 ,400 24,500 21,200 : 28,200 23,488 . " ', , -'-7,8lL ;/ 43,808 25,530 21,000 21,100 23 ,770 24 770 25,160 21,500 28,300 23,891 1 7,835; 1 43,943' 26,100 21,390 . 21,400 24, 550 25 ,200 25,930 22,320 28,400 24,411 7,840- 43,971 ; 26,300 21,500 21,500 25 ,000 25 ,300 26,500 22,700 ?' 28,500 24,663 1 ,8,045 V 45,120, ' 27,200 22,870 23,200 26 ,390 26 ,400 28,440 24,100 i 28*870 25,934 , 8,128.; • 45,586 28,320 23,620 24,330 28 ,000 28 ,000 29,790 25,290 . I 29,450 27,100 ii • 8,1*0; 45,765 28,650 24,4.00 25,300 28 ,710 28 ,470 . 30,400 26,080 30,100 27,764 "V -I- ', 8,250; 46,270 29,300 24,980 25,670 1 29 ,300 29 ,270 31,270 26,920 30,510 28,403 8,280! > 46,438. 30,000 25,500 26,900 30 000 30 ,000 32,000 27,580 \ 31,070 • - 29,131 1' '.' 8,250j 46,270 30,200 25,800 27,200 ' 30, ,200 30 ,200 32,200 27,700 - 31,200 29,338 "T ! . 8,315/ 46,635 30,200 25,700 27,200 30, 300 30 ,290 32,210 28,000 31,400 29,413 8,350.. 46,831 30,600 26,200 27,790 30, 780 30 ,770 32,670 28,580 - 31,710 29,888 - ' 8,539, 47,891 31,950 28,300 30,170 32 ,230 32 ,640 34,620 30,280 , 33,260 31,681 8,537V 47,878. 33,500 29,600 33, ,580 33 ,770 36,000 31,300 % 34,260 33,144 ' "v • 8,650 I 48,514. 34,600 30,39.0 .... 34 ,180 34 ,480 36,730 31,960 .34,910 33,893 8,680 • . 48,682 38,500 33,270 35 ,200 35 ,500 37,900 32,960 • 35,770 35,586 8,680 V 48,682\ .41,140 39,200 35 ,710 36 ,000 38,580 33,340 .36,070 37,149 ; - ; ; ' . '• .-•''• 8,7,98 j 49,344. 36 720 37 ,020 39,800 34,290 37,040 36,974' " .': • :' 8,940 / 50,140 39 210 38 ,900 36,330 ,; 39,000 38,360 9,010 50,533 41 920 41. ,060 38,640 . 41,200 40,705 9,040 \ 50,701 • 43, 500 42 ,480 40,170 : 42,050 TABLE I I I COMPRESSION TEST OF THE 12-INCH 5WF16 COLUMN BY THE OLSEN MECHANICAL MACHINE IOI I t 1 lit I/O 1 'ii 1 /©« /o6\ i 109 I ioa 35 Load Mean Stress p s i 101 102 103 Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro I n . / i n . 104 105 106 107 108 for Section I 109 110 111 112 Mean S t r a i n 40.00 8,580 238 282 466 461 243 200 196 262 396 450 240 220 305 80.00 17,160 503 560 768 773 531 516 509 553 •664 724 525 486 593 ,120.00 : 25,740 . 770 840 1,064 1,040 826 828 810 836 948 996 804 756 877 135.49 29,063 . 890 970 1,179 1,170 960 968 959 971 1,051 1,112 936 • 853 1,002 ' • 147.51 31,641 955 1,061 1,220 1,356 1,054 1,067 1,061 1,098 1,202 1,133 1,040 951 1,100 'i 157.52 i 33,788 1,043 1,149 1,260 l s567 '1*,144 1,158 1,147 1,193 1,385 1,166 1,134 1,025 1,198 164.80 35,350 1,108 1,224 1,294 1,848 1,231 1,242 1,233 1,208 1,502 1,192 1,220 1,093 1,283 173.17 37,145 1,188 1,309 1,314 2,193 1,326 1,379 1,358 1,286 1,559 1,200 1,336 1,171 1,385 }181.57 38,947 1,275 1,353 1,316 2,782 1,484 1,558 1,511 1,570 1,604 1,198 1,498 1,255 1,534 186.86 40,081 1,242 1,374 1,366 3,831 1,619 1,660 1,797 2,001 1,656 1,187 1,707 1,355 1,733 185.64 39,820 1,278 1,389 1,415 5^ .519 1,625 1,744 2,482 2,208 2„023 1,172 • 1,695 1,328 lj'990 185.36 39,760 1,292 1,351 1,446 6,927 1,610 2,041 3,113 2,299 2,530 1,129 1,659 1,330 2,227 185,14 39,713 1,300 1,320 1,472 8,580 1,610 2,682 4,048 2,654 3,259 1,164 1,650 • 1,316 - 2,588 v 184.89 39,659 1,290 1,334 1,480 10,550 1,600 4,170 5,760 3,535 4,488 1,266 1,643 1,305 3,202 185.06 39,695 1,297 1,358 1,480 12,533 1,589 5,661 7,247 4,724 5,347 1,474 1,6;61 1,301 3,806 " 185.2.7 39,740 1,267 . 1,489 1,496 13,900'' 1,580 6,750 8,280 5,562 5,916 . 1,646 1,680 1,320 4,241 185.. 64 39,820 1,277 1,826 1,554 14,750 1,624 7,788 9,387 6,199 6,428 1,832 1,679 1,321 4,639 186.04 39,906 . 1,263 2,867 1,547 15,408 1,671 8,651 10,433 6,925 6,996 2,002 1,664 1,342 5,064 186,34 39,970 1,237 3,822 1,519 16,633 1,564 9,139 10,500 7,586 7,394 2,384 1*725 1,387 5,408 186.94 40,099 1,128 5,178 1,536 16,817 1,286 9,511 10,500 8,132 7,227 2,661 1,454 1,151 5,548 , 188.28 40,386 1,189 7,133 2,133 16,939 1,200 9,856 10,544 9,208 8,033 3,619 1,600 1,400 6,071 ; 188.79 40,495 1,200 8,025 2,556 17,000 1,200 10,383 10,689 10,042 8,478 3,758 1/633 1,400 6,365 ,189.48 40,643 1,200 8,650 3,400 17,347 1,200 10,728 10,889 10,550 8,678 4,078 1,933 1,400 6,671 190.02 40,759 1,200 9,117 3,833 17,594 1,289 11,0.92 11,067 10,356 8,900 4,391 2,563 1,400 6,900 "191.17 41,006 1,340 10,125 4,433 17,964 2,450 12,019 11,439 11,200 9,667 5,053 4,500 1,400 7,633 192.21 41,229 1,364 10,625 4,889 18,411 4,950 12,694 11,911 11,975 10,778 6,936 9,800 1,497 8,819 :192.88 41,373 1,376 11,150 5,433 18,706 8,500 12,735 12,311 12,600 11,556 8,231 12,800" 1,500 '•'9,743 194.13 41,641 1,411 11,450 6,178 19,117 11,600 13,172 12,683 13,075 12,211 9,319 15,000 1,306 10,544 196.49 42,147 1,607 12,400 7,122 19,664 13,900 14,597 13,233 13,875 12,867 .10,036 16,600 1,300 11,433 198.05 42,482 2,057 13,450 8,122 19,953 15,450 16,119 14,267 14,825 13,867 11,311 19,000 1,592 12,501 198.58 41^595 2,729 14,144 8,744 20,400 16,275 16,883 14,992 15,356 '14,244 11,817 19,711 1,800 . 13,091 200.06 42,913 3,547 14,522 9,422 20,600 16,656 17,369 15,433 15,661 14,500 12,425 20,411 2,606 13,596 199.73 42,842 3,981 14,711 9,800 20,600 16,703 17,700 15,487 15,769 14,500 12,578 20,511 2,703 13,754 t I TABLE I I I (Continued) Load Mean Kips ' Stress > • 1 ' •'"' ; ' • ' . ' •  p s i ^ Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro In./ln. f o r Section 2 > 20.1 202 203 204 205 206 • 207 208 209 210 211 '212 Mean S t r a i n 40.00 8,580 208 309 405 408 287 178 187 280 379 389 284 213 294 80.00 17,160 470 596 710 712 586 494 504 578 650 668 577 487 586 120^00 25,740 : 739 889 1,012 1,012 888 806 832 864 . 898 . 964 ;"892 772' 881 135.49 29,063 864 1,026 1,143 1,151 1,020 953 955 1,011 980 1,028 1V002 868 1,000 147.51 31,641 & -957 1,117 1,226 1,231 1,115 i,063 1,090 1,126 981 1,057 1,128 977 1,089 15^.52 33,788 , 1,040 1,208 1,293 1,298: 1,202 1,164 1,206 1,221 982 1,097 1,228 1,074 1,168 164.80 35,350 "l,124 1,306 1,354 1,371 1,295 1,288 1,267 1,315 979 1,122 1,322 1,153 1,241" 173.17 37,145 1,215 1,487 1,411 1,495 1,405 1,412 1,367 ' 1,411 .. 981 1,141 1,446 1,245 1*335 181.57 38,947 V 1,250 2,213 1,472 1,964 1,612 1,535 1,488 1,511 0 982 1,151 1,609 1,331 1;510 186.86 40,081 1,442 4,975 1,458 3,099 1,773 1,663 1,881 1,845 •\ 998 1,195 1,886 1,362 1,965 185.64 39,820 1,978 8,317 1,587 3,878 1,862 1,720 3,101 2,587 1,052 1,214 1,961 1,773 2,586 185.36 39,760 2,660 9,598 1,638 4,030 2,051 1,726 4,340 2,950 1,060 1,204 2,004 2,160 2,952 185.14 39,713 3,523 10,511 1,660 4,058 2,521 1,747 5,440 3,161 1,096 1,194 2,057 2 e528 3,291 184.89 • 39,659 5,782 11,356 1,660 4,112 4,136 1,771 6,998 • 3,445 1,737 . 1,505 2,199 3,397 4,008 185.06 39,695 . 8,195 12,250 1,660 4,095 5,648 1,816 . 8,375 3,980 3,376 3,280 2,725 4,684 5,007 -V 185.27 39,740 9,220 12,717 1,716 4,120. 6,973 1,967 9,410 4,549 4,973 , 6,140 3,226 5,134 5,845 185.64 39,820 9,710 13,1.61 1,712 4,140 8,389 •2,242 10,900 5,317 6,919 9,420 4,290 5,480 6,807 186.04 39,906 10,250 13,661 1,749 4,170 9,420 3,104 13,250 6,518 8/926 12,500 5,389' . 5,933 7,906 186.34 39,970 10,400 14,178 1,606 4,210 9,933 4,298 15,800 7,667 10,318 13,775 6 ,.03 2 6,091 8,692 .186.94 40,099 10,500 14,844 1,483 4,342 10,422 5,764 18,633 8,419 10,460 14 431 6j,292 6,148 9,312 188.28 40,386 11,044 15,650 1,781 5,167 11,033 8,556 20,417 9,667 10,800 15y000 7,050 * 6,328 10,205 188.79 40,495 11,358 16,200 2,444 6,378 11,375 9,444 21,017 10,267 10,861 15/033 7,617 6,833 10,736 189.48 40,643 11,572 16,633 3,325 7,733 11,908 10,189 21,472 11,133 11,000 15,311 7,850 8,324 7,444 11,298 190.02 40,759 12,047 17,189 4,025 8,744 12,344 10,800 21,656 11,900 11,042 15,390 8,074 11,795 191.17 41,006 13,203 18,033 5,742 10,667 12,975 11,672 22,078 12,950 11,611 15,558 8 r944 8,364 12,652 192.21 41,229 13,739 18,500 7,650 12,400 13,750 12,294 22,419 14,250 12,342 16,544 9,^12 • 9,463 13,605 192.88 41,373 14,217 18,800 9,386 13,522 14,350 12,639 22,519 14,550 12,642 16,975 10/451 9,851 14,159 .194.13 41,641 14,469 19,300 10,894 14,789 14,867 12,817 22,600 14,933 12,983 . 17,660 10,954 10,606 14,739 196.49 42,147 15,403 19,833 12,997 15,800 15,808 13,350 22,775 15,900 13,736 18,359 lli'455 ' 11,401 15,568 198,05 42,482 16,425 20,267 14,347 16,700 17,092 14,133 23,519 17,450 15,269 19,720 12,688 12,822 16,703 198.58 42,595 17,117 20,561 15,222 17,375 17,667 14,658 23,667 17,914 15,922 20,575 13,528 13,811 17,335 200.06 42,913 17,500 20.744 . 15,817 17,700 17,894 14,933 23,800 18,444 16,539 21,400 11,987 14,178 17,745 199.73 42,842 17,689 20,83.9 16,100 17,894 17,994 15,086 23,800 18,552 16,646 21,353 13,859 14,271 17,840 37 TABLE I I I (Continued) Load Mean Kips S t r a i n p s i Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro In./In. f o r Section 3 Mean O v e r a l l 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 S t r a i n Mean S t r a 40.00 8,580 283 292 401 420 278 199 193 266 353 405 282 224 300 300 80.00 17,160 548 565 701 729 566 522 498 550 621 684 568 483 586 588 120.00 25,740 818 849 996 1,048 852 852 822 820 902 972 872 778 882 880 135.49 29,063 ... 942 968 1,127 1,162 993 989 938 955 996 1,048 972 850 995 999 147. 51 $1,641 1,026 . 1,050 1,203 1,240 1,079 1,096 1,042 1,053 1,037 1,113 1,124 961 1,085 1,091 157.52 . 33,788 1,106 1,126 1,246 1,285 1,156 1,178 1,136 1,143 1,056 " . 1,156 l-,288 1,053 1,108 1,158 1.64.80 35,350 1,183 1,199 1,282 1,315 1,248 1,261 1,237 1,233 1,079 1,171 1,408 1,130 1,229 1,251 173.17 • 37,145 1,265 1,264 1,314 1,334 1,356 1,331 1,346 1,324 1,141 1,193 1,542 1,219 1,302 1,3,41-181.57 38,947 1,289 ' 1,322 1,335 1,363 1,564 1,395 1,527 1,585 1,184 1,232 ' 1,844 1,294 1,411 1,485 186.86 40,081 1,282 : 1,324 1,328 1,510 1,836 1,423 2,705 2 S 340 1,198 1,247 2,432 i ;331 1,663 1,787 185.64 39,820 1,233 1,268 1,292 1,548 1,940 1,527 5,525 3,041 1,194 y- r,201 5,080 1,38 3 2,186 2,254 185.36 39,760 1,220 1,246 1,280 1,380 1,926 1,716 6,538 3,405 1,199 : 1,227 5,521 1,381 2,366 2,515 ,185.14 39,713 1,220 1,241 1,281 1,380 1,953 2,061 7,227 3,813 1,189 1,231 5,692 1/386 2,473 2,784 '184.89 : 39,659 1,213 1,260 1,317 1,422 1,937 3,517 8,621 : 5,156 1,166 1,271 5,963 1,399 2,854 • 3,355 185.06 39,695 1,187 1,260 1,329 1,462 ' 1,880 5,297 9,850 6.931 1,171 1,316 6,298 1,400 3,282 4,032 185.27 •18 5-; 64 < 39,740 1,227 1,254 1,377 1,497 1,896 6,595 10,733 7,988 ' 1,281' • 1,347 6,415 . 1 , 3 6 6 3,581 . 4,556 39,820 1,283 : 1,250 1,420 1,528 1,904 7,815 v 11,567 8,781 1,493 1,441 6,597 .^i ;352 • 3,869 5,105 18 6,; 04 39,906 1,307 1,282 1,420 1,557 r 1,927 8,929 12,467 9,221 1,887 ' 1 ,642 6,226 1-479 4,112 5,694 186.34 39,970 1,181 1,611 1,232 2,433 •1,972 9,700. 12,772 9,558 2,208 1,974 7,136 1,413 4,433 6.178 186.94 40,099 1,300 2,656 1,017 6,700 . .1,805 10,456, ; 13,243 9,733 2,480 " 2,187 8,300 ,1,229 5,092 6,651 188.,28 40,386 3,133 5,950 1,572 10,528 3,900 11,442 13,528 10,450 3,878 , 3,408 12,600 -1,395 6,815 7,697 188.79 40,495 3,789 ,. 6,850 1,744 11,633 . 5,400 11,694 13,656 10,650 4,633 3,725 14,600 •1,78> 7,514 8,205 189.48 40,643 .3,900 8,050 2,089 12,517 7,500 12,083 13,911 10,900 5,833 ' 4,625 17,000 ,2,57.7 • 8,415 8,795 190„02 40,759 .4,067 i, , 8,558 2,350 13,075 8,933 12,550 14,211 11,211 8,400 5,330 18,167 2,894 9,146 9,280 191.17 41,006 4,567 9,400 2,667 14,097 10,400 13,519 14,511 11,675 7,278 6,079 19,361 3,141 9,725 10,003 192.21 41,229 4,922 10,308 3,078 15,053 11,867 15,006 15,433 12,525 8,639 . 7,647 20,560 . 3,511 10,712 11,045 192.88 41,373 5,428 11,183 3,411 15,572 :• 12,467 16,006 15,756 12,833 9,322 . 8,468 21,177 '• 3,744 11,280 11,727 194.13 41,641 6,372 12,183 3,722 16,133 12,867 17,250 16,244 13,250 9,739 .'• 9,184 21,529 3,950 11,869 12,384 196.49 42,147 8,328 13,183 4,344 17,514 13,733 19,264 16,644 13,892 10,522 9,542 22,255 4,313 12,795 13,265 198.05 42,482 9,544 13,950 5,089 18,744 14,467 21,214 . 17,067 14,942 12,617 11,228 23,792 : 5,027 13,973 14,392 ,198.58 42,595 10,225 14,778 5,678 19,300 14,694 22,011 17,650 15,467 13,056 12,500 24,480 5,474 14,609 15,012 200.06 42,913 10,867 15,447 6,167 19,683 14,956 22,400 17,800 15,714 13,733 13,142 24,676 5,755 15,028 15,447 "199.73 42,842 11,197 15,778 6,450 19,787 15,166 22,400 17,800 15,767 13,889 13,242 24,684 5,836 15,166 15,587 /0£ 3 02. TABLE IV COMPRESSION TEST OF THE 12-INCH 5WF16 COLUMN BY THE BALDWIN HYDRAULIC MACHINE 1 ot 1 10Z 1 /03 1 1 //a i/o\ /// 1 to* /06\ 1 to? I /OB y/o7 38. Load Mean Kips Stress p s i Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro In./in. f o r Section 1 101 102 , 103 : 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 Mean S t r a i n -~. 40.00 8,580 too 100 100 200 600 0 200 300 300 200 400 200 225 80.00 17,160 200 500 500 500 900 600 400 300 500 400 900 500 517 120.00 25,740 400 700 700 700 900 600 900 700 . 800 900 1,100 700 758 160.00 34,320 600 1,100 900 900 1,100 1,100 900 1,000 1,100 1,000 1,300 900 992 170.00 36,465 y 800 1,100 1,000 1,000 1,100 1,100 1,000 1,100 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,100 1,075 175.00 37,538 900 1,100 1,000 1,000 1,100 1,300 1,000 1,100 1,300 1,200 1,400 1,100 1,125 180.00 38,610 900 1,200 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,000 1,000 1,100 1,100 1,3'00: 1,600 1,200 1,142 190.00 40,755 1,000 1,300 1,200 1,200 1,600 1,300 1,200 1,300 1,300 1,400: 1,900 • 1,300 1,333 205.97 44,181 2,150 1,597 1,711 1,292 1,422 1,386 1,467 1,428 1,300 1,483 1,900 1,444 ., 1,548 • . :-k. 214.40 45,989 4,053 3,428 3,700 1,617 1,917 2,500 2,200 2,489 1,867 2,311 2,117 2,767 2,580 214.25. 45,957 5,039 3,708 4,200 1,700 2,144 2,658 2,289 3,217 2,133 2,689 2,573 3,531 2,990 215.90 46,311 .. 6,225 3,978 5,003 2,033 2,519 2,906 '2,600 2,933 2,444 • 3,233 2,769 4,067 3,393 219.02 46,980 9,658 5,917 7,356 2,872 3,283 3,656 ,'• 2,997 5,133 3,219 4,756 3,517 5,656 4,835 224.65; . 48,187 14,922 8,867 10,478 4,272 4,633 5,122 ' .4,189 7,633 4,944 7,989 7,533 10,472 7,588 228.30 48,970 16,328 10,189 11,850 5,144 5,417 6,350 5,106 9,217 5,800 9,694 10,253 13,400 9,062 231.43 . 49,642 17,733 -11,783 13,356 5,989 5,767 7,575 6,111 10,717 6,306 11,417 12,283 15,494 : 10,378 232.92 49,961 18,122 12,678 14,100 6,422 5,853 8,100 6,653 11,633 7,225 11,939 13,231 16,700 . 11,055 2 3 5-. 05 50,418 18 >956 • 14,000 15,100 7,086 5,833 8,747 ... 7,267 12,917 7,872 12,736 14,533 17 ,839 11,907 * . 235.68 50,553 19,387 14,833 15,644 7,396 5,800 9,319 ' 7,822 13,708 8,378 13,456 15,817 , 18,783 12,529 236.67 50,766 . 19,778 15,450 16,322 7,747 5,800 9,692 : '8,278 14,292 8,578 14,139 16,500 19,356 12,995 239.52 51,377 20,178 „ 16,233 16,933 8,178, 5,533 10,183 8; 633 15,033 8,856 14,397 17,233 19*881 14,158 240.28 51,540 20,767 17,217 17,800 = 8,578 5,400 10,719 ; • 9,111 15,917 9,294 14,994 18,633 21,056 ' 14,917 . 241.56 51,815 21,272 18,492 18,967 9,047 5,267 11,539 ' .9/811 16,708 9,794 15,878 20,017 21,567 15,736 \; 242.98 52,119 21,667 19,008 19,489 9,308 5,133 12,083 10,267 17,117 10,122 16,155 20,919 22,399 , 16,230 ' V , 244.53 • 52,452 22,278 20,767 20,867 9,917 4,867 13,075 11,200 19,067 10,733 17,375 22,233 23,253 17,342 18,80*2 246.64 52,904 -;23,056 23,558 22,867 10,794 4,200 14,167 12,500 21,292 11,411 18,372 24,450 24,353 ' 247.38 53,063 23,856 25,725 24,967 18,793 3,300 15,367 14,300 33,100 15,994 19,772 27,750 25,453. 22,280 39 TABLE IV (Continued) Load " Mean Kips Stress p s i Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro In. /In. for Section 2 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 Mean S t r a i n 40.00 8,580 100 300 200 500 400 200 300 200 200 200 400 100 •" 258 80.00 17,160 600 500 700 500 500 500 400 700 800 500 . 500 600 567 120.00 25,740 800 800 800 700 800 500 900 1,000 1,000 800 900 •••• 800 817 160.00 34,320 1,400 1,000 1,400 1,200 1,500 1,000 1,000 1,100 1,300 1,100 i;ioo; 1,100 1,183 170*00 36,465 1,600 1,100 1,200 1,200 1,300 1,200. 1,200 1,300 1,200 1,100 1,400' 1,200 1,250 175.00 37,538 1,600' 1,100 1,400 1,500 1,300 1,000 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,300 1,300 1,200 a , 200 1,275 180.00 38,610 1,600 1,100 1,400 1,300 1,700 1,100 ftipo 1,400 1,200; 1,300 1,200 1,300 1 9 0 . 0 0 40,755 1,800 1,400 1,600 1,300; 1,800 1,100 1,200 1,700 1,400 1,500 1,400 1,500 1,475 '205.97 44,181 2,000 1,422 1,706 1,467* 1,719 1,256 1,317 1,700 1,664 1,500 1,431 1,528 1,559 :'214;. 40 45,989 2,356 1,714 2,483 1,728 2,144 1,775 1,600 2,00'8 1,933 1,828 1,656 2,142 1,947 214.25 45,957 2,656 1,761 3,125 1,994 2,444 2,000 1,600 2,222 s 2,000 1,981 • 2,038 - 2,524 2,191 215,.: 90 219 ;.02 46,311 3,383' 2,042 4,511 2,883 3,811 2,517 1,533 2,858 2,333 2,308 2,872 3,264 2,860 46,980 4,978 4,275 6,533 3,986 6,200 3,933 1,539 4,500 4,133 3,603 5,800 5,438 4,577 224165 48,187 7,811 7,167 9,456 5,272 8,283 6,200 2,297 7,033 8,13-3 7,378 7,983 7,956 7,081 ;228.30 48,970 9,500 ...'8,781 11,000 6,125 9,100 7,542 3,222 8-, 733 10,033 .8,760 8,849 . .8,821 8,372 ;:231'43 ' 49,642 11,206 10,050 12,386 6,722 9,658 8,856 4,253 10,100 11,506 9,922 9,417 . 9,611 9,474 hi 3^.9 2 49,961 12,339: 10,825 13,267 6,989' 9,744 9,508 4,856 11,075 12,367 10,095 9,590 9,784 ,9,906 10,037 50,418 13^475 11,767 14,083 7,567 10,033 10,078 5,653 12,000 13,475 10,944 9,800 10,732 . 50,553 14;, 28 9: 12,067 14,683 7,861 10,200 10,578 6,244 12,600 14,192 11,333 9,800 10,006 10,094 11,15.4 . £23'&».67 50,766 Mm* 12,933 15,364 8,0831 10,200 11,123 6,608 13,100 14,614 • l i l , 644 9,800 11,554 K239v52 51,377 a 6^ ,0 6 i A T , 061 13,683 15,903 8,383 10,375 11,844 6,944 13,533 15,314 12,078 9,808 J L 0 , 0 U 11,995 ••"•CvS.'» 5 1 , 5 4 0 14,300 16,564 '8,928 10,500 12,644 7,417 14,267 16,014 12,767 9,900 10,206 12,547. 51,815 *18,492 15,233 17,586 9,322 10,442 13,556 7,908 16,133 16,653 ,13,400 9,900 1 0 , 2 8 3 13,242 98 52,119 19,175 15,650 18,178 9,483 10,425 14,111 8,106 18,800 16,990 • 14,022 9,900 16,079. 13,743 J244/53 52,452 ,20,542 16,817 19,325 10,189' 10,442 15,167 8,553 16,533 17,936 14,633 9,808 1(3,300 14,186 K24'6if 64 52,904 '22,681 124,981 18,583 21,272 Jl 1,172 10,225 16,867 9,397 17,833 19,097 15,878 9,900 10,300 15,267 "2.47^38 53,063 20,483 23,472 12,Z72 9,925 1 8 , 9 6 / 10,497 19,733 20,397 17,478 9,900 1 0 , 3 0 0 16,534 • TABLE IV (Continued) 40 Load Mean Kips Stress p s i Adjusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro In./In. f< >r Section 3 Mean O v e r a l l 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 3C >8 309 310 311 312 Sf-ra-fn Mean i i t r a i n : 40.00 8,580 100 0 +200 400 . 400 300 0 I .00 300 300 100 400 192 225 80.00 17,160 400 400 400 700 400 800 200 c 00 600 700 600 1,000 583 556 120.00 25,740 600 500 500 1,000 600 1,100 800 c 00 800 1,100 900 1,200 833 803 : 160.00 34,320 900 800 700 1,400 1,200 1,200 800 1 ] 00 1,000 1,300 1,100 1,400 1,075 1,083 170.00 36,465 1,100 1,000 700 1,400 1,200 1,300 800 1 ,100 1,400 1,300 1,400 1,700 1,200 1,175 175.00 37,538 1,000 1,000 800 1,400 1,000 1,300 900 1 r 100 1,400 . 1,400 1,400 : i,50o 1,200 1,200 . 180.00 38,610 1,000 1,000 800 1,500 1,100 1,400 900 1 loo 1,400 1,400 1,400 : ' 1,400 1,200 1,214 190.00 40,755 1,600 . 1,500 1,000 1,700 1,200 1,500 1,100 1 -1 r00 1,600 1,800 1,800 : .2,200 1,533 1,447 205.97 44,181 2,800 1,403 1,094 1,775 1,417 1,569 1,250 1 1,644 1,800 1,844 2,356 1,696 1,601 214.40 45,989 5,967 2,856 3,775 2,078 1,553 1,950 1,296 2 ,c I11 3,400 3,850 2,103 5,000 2,949 2,492 214.25 45,957 6,533 3,311 4,950 2,361 1,628 2,100 1,206 2 111 4,300 4,535 2,178 ' 5,525 3,412 2,864 215.90 46,311 7,775 4,294 7,683 2,950 1,794 2,233 1,325 2 ,6178 4,894 5,300 2,102 6,068 4,108 3,454 219.02 46,980 10,114 5,400 10,453 3,933 2,067 2,517 1,594 3 ,^ 133 5,964 6,717 2,192 7,074 5,163 4,858 224.65 48,187 .13,489 7,900 14,028 5,286 3,100 3,219 2,706 6 ,625 8,(322 9,053 8,200 10,113 7,645 7,438 ,228.. 30 48,970 15,286 9,394 15,992 6,172 4,225 4,133 3,597 8 167 9,583 • 10,695 9,750 12,519 9,143 8,859 231.43 49,642 16,756 10,725 17,494 6,917 4,950 5,083 4,367 9 50 10,589 11,925 12,200 : 12,889 10,312 10,055 232,92 49,961 17,511 11,367 18,208 7,317 5,172 5,600 4,883 10 ,3189 10,967 12,703 13,233 13,232 10,882 ' 10,658 235.05 50,418 .18,656 12,425 19,150 7,817 5,400 6,331 5,483 11 ,;(00 11,811 13,417 15,400 ' 13,784 11,748 11,462 235.68 50,553 19,211 13,150 19,833 8,153 5,550 6,889 . 5,756 12 ,000 12,311 14,014 16,800 14,091 12,313 11,999 236.67 50,766 19,689 13,600 20,289 8,464 5,600 7,194 6,039 12 ,450 12,789 14,506 17,500 14,197 12,69,3 12,414 239.52 51,377 20,267 14,225 20,833 8,753 5,600 7,583 6/456 13 , TiOO 13,144 14,728 18,600 14,492 13,148 13,100 240.28 51,540 20,944 15,000 21,650 9,169 5,600 8,136 6,767 13 ,850 13,478 15,717 20,300 14,989 13,800 13,755 .241.56 51,815 21,800 15,650 22,406 9,764 5,600 8,683 7,367 14 , ji00 14,189 16,319 22,200 15,097 14,465 14,481 242.98 52,119 22,178 16,092 22,911 10,078 5,600 9,042 7,776 15 ,()50 14,465 16,792 23,400 15,163 14,879 14,951 244.53 52,,452 23,178 17,175 23,978 10,664 5,650 9,536 8,139 14 'J)25 14,878 17,228 25,400 15,296 . 15,575 15,701 246.64 "52,904 24,567 18,750 25,211 11,481 5,500 10,414 8,806 17 15,700 18,231 28,400 15,786 16,656 16,908 247,38 53,063 26,067 20,550 26,611 12,581. 5,100 11,714 9,906 18 ,?25 16,600 19,325 33,100 15,994 18,024 18,946 NOTE: +; Indicates Tension S t r a i n ! . '" • '. . .' • I' ( TABLE V COMPRESSION TEST OF THE 12-INCH 5WF16 COLUMN BY THE OLSEN MECHANICAL MACHINE D ® 3 41 Load -'Kips Mean S t r e s s p s i Gauge A I N x l O " 3 Gauge C I N x l O " 3 : Gauge B MMxlO" 2 Gauge D -2 MMxlO z . Mean Deform^ I N x l O ' : Mean i t i o n S t r a i n ( M i c ro IN/IN D i f f . A " C -3 INxlO < R o t a t i o n About B-D AxfsRadxlD^ D i f f B-D MMxlO" 2 Rotation About A-C . Axis RadxlO" 40 .0 8,580 9.2 5.0 17.5 22.2 7.3 608 4.2. 3.0 -4.7 - l i 3 80 .0 17,160 12.0 9.5 31.5 31.2 11.5 958 2.5 i „8 1 0.3 0.1 120.0 25,740 16.0 13.8 44.9 40.5 15.9 1,325 2.2 1.6 4 .4 1.2 . 128.4 27,542 ^ : 17.9 14.1 '*':••. 48.2 44.9 17.2 1,433 3.8 2.7 , 3.3 0.9 137.2 29,409- 18.0 15.1 51.2 45.3 17.8 1,483 2.9 2,1 5.9 1.6 147.8 31,703 \>» 19.0 17.2 54.9 48; 2 19.2 1,600 1.8 1.3 , 6 . 7 1.8 157.8 33,848' •. 20.0 18.8 59.2 51.0 20.6 1,717 1.2 0.9 .8 .2 2.2 165.0 , 35,393 ' •• ' 21.9 20.0 62.5 53.8 21.9 1,825 1.9 1.4 8.7 2.3 •:.viv 173.4 37,194 . - . ' 22.2 21.0 67.0 56.0 22.9 1,908 1.2 0.9 11.0 . 3.0 181.8 38,996' 24.5 23.5 74.0 61.9 25.4 2,117 1.0 .0.7 12.1 3.3 l,-187.0 40,112 30.2 28.8 • 88 .2 76.0 '•' 31.0 2,583 1.4 1.0 12.2 3.3 185.6 39,811 38.2 36.2 107.9 95.9 38.7 3,225 2.0 1.4 12.0 3.3 185.2 39,725 44.0 42.0 122.0 109.0 44.3 3,692 2.0 1.4 13.0 3.5 185.0 39,683, . , 50.0 48.0 137.0 123.5 50.1 4,175 2.0 1.4 13.5 3.7 184.8 •. 39,640 [ 57.0 55.0 l 154.4 141.6 '•• 57.2 4,766 ".;':'":' . 2 . 0 1.4 12.8 3.5 185.1 39,704 ; 65.0 ;.63.0 175.1 162.2 65.2 5,433 •2-.0 1.4. 12.9 3.5- ;K-•185.3 . 39,747 70.9 68.8 189.0 175.5 70.8 5,900 •2'. 1 1.5 13.5 3.7 185.7 39,833 - 76.8 75.0 205.5 192.5 77.1 6,425 1.8 1.3 13.0 3.5 186.1 39,918 86.8 85.2 231.0 212.5 86.7 7,225 1.6 1.1 18.5 5.0 186.5 40,004 95.5 94.2 254.6 231.8 95.2 7,933 •1.3 0,9 12.8 3.5 187.5 40,219 107.5 106.2 284.8 , 271.5 108.1 9,008 1.3 0,9 13.3 3.6 188.3 40,390 112.9 116.5 310,8 297.0 117.2 9,766 -3.6 . -2.6 . 13.8 ' 3.8 188.8 40,498 124.0 122.8 327.2 313.0 124.7 10,391 1.2 0.9 14.2 3.9 189.5 40,648 . 132.2 ' 130.8 347.5 333.5 132.8 11,066 1.4 1.0 14.0 3.8 190.2 . 40,798 . 139.0 137.5 364.0 350.0 139.3 11,608 1.5 1.1 14.0 3.8 ,191.4 41,055 148.9 148.2 389.9 377.7 149.9 12,491 0.7 0.5 12.2 3.3 192.4 41,270 156.5 155.2 408.2 395.8 157.1 13,091 1.3 0.9 • 12.4 3.4 193.0 ,4l\399 162.5 161.7 423.8 410.3 163.1 13,591 0.8 0.6 '•' 13,5 3.7 194.4 41:, 699 170.8 170.0 445.8 430.8 171.5 14,291 0.8 0 .6 15.0 4;1 197.0 42,257 184.8 183.5 479.5 467.0 185.2 15,433 1.3 0.9 12,5 3.4 198.3 42,535 192.0 191.5 500.0 487.2 193.1 16,091 0.5 0.4 12.8 3,5 , 198.6 42,600 -•: 197.2 196.8 513.0 500.0 198.2 16,516 0.4 0.3 13."0 3,5 200.3 ,42 ,964 204.2 203.5 530.8 512.5 ' 204.7 17,058 0.7 0.5 18.3 5.0 TABLE VI COMPRESSION TEST OF THE 12-INCH 5WF16 COLUMN BY THE BALDWIN HYDRAULIC MACHINE ® 01 a 42 Load . Mean Gauge Gauge Gauge Gauge Mean Mean Dif f . Rotation D i f f . . Rotation Kips Stress A C -3 ' B -2 D „ Defamation Strain A-C About B-D B-D About A-C nsi INxlO"3 INxlO MMxlO MMxlO INxlO-3 Micro In/In InxlO" J AxisRadxlO"4 MMxtfT^ A-sds R^rl-^10 40 .0 8,580 9.0 8.0 45.0 2.0 8.9 755 1.0 0.7 43.0 11.7 80 .0 17,160 13.0 12.0 55.0 13.0 13.0 1,102 1.0 0.7 42.0 l r . 4 120.0 25,740 18.0 15.0 65.0 23.0 16.9 1,433 3.0 2.1 42.0 11 .4 , - 160.0 34,320 22.0 18.5 73.0 35.0 20.8 1,763 3.5 2.5 v 38.0 10.3 170.0 36,465 22.8 19.5 76.2 38.5 . 21.9 1,857 3.3 2.4 fV'."- 3*7.7 10 .2 ! 175.0 37,538 23.2 20.0 77.0 40.0 22.3 1,891 3.2 2.3 37.0 10.0 : 1 8 0 . 0 38,610 24.0 20.6 78.2 41.8 23.0 1,950 " 3.4 2.5 . 36.4 9.9 ' 190.0 40,755 25.5 22.0 81.3 47.0 24.6 2,086 3.5 2.5 ; 34.3 9.3 204.4 43,844 28.5 23.2 85.0 54.6 26.7 2,264 5.3 ' 3.8 : 30.4 8.2 212.5 45,581 32.5 26.8 92.5 67.2 30.5 2,586 5.7 4.1 25.3 6.9 •'5' . 2.14.4 45,989 42 .0 34.6 112.2 88 .0 38.9 3,298 7.4 • 5.3 24.2 6.6 214.2 45,946 46.0 39.1 124.5 100.0 43.4 3,679 6.9 4.9 24.5 6.7 216.0 46,332 50.0 44.5 136.5 115.0 48.3 4,095 5.5 3.9 " . 21.5 5.8 219.4 47,061 70.0 66.0 189.0 172.0 69.5 5,892 4.0 2.9 ..-„,,.. . 17.0 4. 6 224.8 . 48,220 103.0 98.0 272.0 250.0 101.1 8,571 5.0 3.6 VC- 22.0 6.o 229.0 ...... 49,121 122.0 117.0 322.0 300.0 120.9 10,250 5.0 3.6 22.0 6.0 ' 231.5 49,657 136.0 129.8 354.8 332.0 134.0 11,361 6.2 4.4 22.8 6.2 . - 233.2 50,021 145.5 138.9 377.0 355.2 143.1 12,132 6.6 4.7 24.8 5.9 235.1 50,429; 154.5 147.9 400.0 379.0 . 153.2 12,988 6.6 4.7 21.0 5.7 235.7 50,558 161.2 154.9 417.5 394.8 158.8 13,463 6.3 4.5 22,7 6.2 v ; V - 236.7 50,772 166.2 159.6 430.5 408c5 164.0 13,904 6.6 4.7 22.0 6.0 , . 239.6 51,394 173.5 167.0 448.9 429.0 171.5 14,540 6.5 4.6 „ 19.9 5.4 240.3 •: 51,544 182.5 176.2 . 471,0 451.2 180.0 15,260 6.3 4.5 19.8 ' ,5:-4 s 241.6 - 51,823 192.0 186.0 494.5 479.0 190.2 16,125 6.0 4.3 .'. .. 15.5 4.2 -.' .' 242.2 51,952 200.0 193.2 512.1 497.0 197.6 16,753 6.8 4.9 : 15.1 4.1 1'. 1 • V 244.5 52,445 208.8 202.8 536.8 521.0 206.9 17,541 6.0 4 .3 15.8 4.3 •'• .' • 246.7 52,917 230.0 223.8 589.0 574.8 227.9 19,321 6.2 4.4 14.2 3.9 247.4 53,067 243.0 235.0 621.0 598.0 239.2 20,279 8.0 5.7 23.0 -6.2 -4 TABLE V I I COMPRESSION TEST OF THE 21-INCH 5WF16 COLUMN BY THE BALDWIN HYDRAULIC MACHINE /OS / £ > / I /o'7 <0*> /Ob | /Of /Of 43 Load Mean St r e s s K ips p s i Ad lus ted S t r a i n Gauee Data i n M i c r o I n . / i n . f o r S e c t i o n 1 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 M p a n S t r a i n 40.00 8,580 280 226 328 276 305 245 .354 260 284 80.00 17,160 528 508 575 528 586 550 637 536 556 120.00 . 25,740 784 790 815 792 867 850 916 856 834 143.97 30,882 902 973 959 967 1,078 1,034 1,086 998 1,000 148.00 31,746 928 1,006 985 991 1,098. 1,067 1,109 1,022 1,026 158.50 33,998 995 1,081 1,053 1,079 1,185 1,156 1,178 1,100 1,104 165.60 35,521 1,039 1,151 1,102 1,132 1,213 1,209 1,192 1,156 " 1,149 175.31 37,604 1,140 1,246 1,160 1,219 1,246 1,307 1,206 1,244 1,221 179.08 38,413 1,220 1,287 1,171 1,250 1,255 1,363 1,210 1,296 1,257 193.96 41,604 2,044 1,531 1,252 1,414 : 1,320 3,035 2,002 1,525 1,765 195.73 41,984 2,717 1,639 4,080 1,412 1,329 4,414 6,924 1,907 3,053. 195.70 41,978 2,727 2,129 6,303 2,219 1,545 4,698 9,338 2,663 3,953 197.29 42,319 2,467 4,268 7,090 9,203 10,438 13,896 14,852 5,086 8,413 204.98 43,968 2,744 8,872 7,673 12,745 15,000 19,305 18,229 8,910 11,685 213.67 45,832 • ."3,624 11,300 8,823 14,650 15,600 21,157 18,580 11,350 13,136 212.09 45,493 5,060 13,029 10,198 16,225 15,700 22,211 18,500 12,879 14,225 214.82 46,079 6,616 13,904 11,125 17,593 16,086 23,186 18,539 13,982 . 15,129 217.83 46,725 7,580 14,407 11,712 18,300 16,587 23,889 18,623 14,471 15,696 " 223.63 47,967 8,408 15,075 12,236 18,800 17,123 24,661 18,816 14,943 16,258 207.14 44,432 8,423 15,064 12,400 18,939 17,300 25,000 19,030 15,500 , 16,457 206.61 44,318 8,475 15,214 12,400 19,079 17,273 25,036 18,727 16,400 16,576 222.50 47,726 8,973 15,400 12,532 19,457 17,393 25,318 . 19,061 16 ? 650 16,850 224.86 48,232 9,266 15,470 12,600 19,511 17,593 25,477 19,170 17,033 17,015 225.31 48,329 9,930 15,904 12,718 19,850 18,023 26,261 19,323 17,771 17,473 227.46 48,790 10,482 16,350 13,271 20,418 18,443 27,014 19,486 18,336 17,975 229.96 49,326 11,336 16,904 13,850 21,129 19,057 27,979' 19,796 18,843 18,612 231.59 49,676 12,091 17,407 14,354 21,600 19,564 28,921 20,216 19,457 19,201 233.73 50,135 12,530 17,736 14,836 22,100 20,046 29,857 • 20,646 19,843 19,699 237.39 50,920 13,421 18,312 15,707 22,898 20,818 30,888 21,057 20,277 20,922 239.54 51,381 14,125 18,566 16,271 23,541 21,418 32,004 2 i/807 21,063 21,099 241.37 51,774 15,007 18,879 17,007 24,318 21,943 33,277 22,300 21,629 21,795 243.77 52,289 15,500 19,264 17,857 25,089 22,596 34,704 22,729 22,338 22,510 246.76 52,930 16,757 19,575 18,986 26,305 23,325 36,177 23,371 23,007 23,438 255,36 65,775 17,491 19,736 19,671 27,250 24,011 37,479 23,832 23,943 24,177 262.65 56,338 18,030 19,914 20,193 28,507 25,632 39,321 24,575 24,843 25,127 266.75 57,218 17,429 20,000 20,129 30,661 29,650 42,586 28,371 26,371 26,900 . 269.10 57,722 23,214 19,079 25,700 33,639 31,850 45,479 ' 30,161 29,086 29,783 269.40 57,786 30,238 17,857 34,250 37,507 32,970 49,143 30,670 35,600 33,529 44 TABLE V I I (Continued) Load Mean K i p s S t r ess . n s i Ad-justed S t r a i n Gauee Data i n M i c r o I n , / i n . f o r S e c t i o n 2 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 ?0R M p f l n S f r a f n 40.00 8,580 245 251 307 278 285 255 312 260 274 80.00 17,160 498 547 555 544 560 547 599 542 549 120.00 25,740 745 829 796 . 810 846 826 893 839 823 143.97 30,882 876 1,008 939 981 1,012 994 1,053 991 982 148.00 31,746 904 1,036 963 1,007 1,034 1,024 1,076 1,019 1,008 158.50 33,998 976 1,125 1,029 1,095 1,113 1,111 1,155 1,106 . 1,089 165.60 35,521 1,031 1,181 1,076 1,143 1,151 1,152 1,183 1,155 1,134 175.31 37,604 1,131 1,262 1,151 1,222 1,211 1,238 1,209 1,216 1,205 179.08 38,413 1,181 1,299 1,172 1,250 1,230 1,284 '1,223 1,255 1,237 193.96 41,604 1,286 1,684 1,188 ' 1,443 1,585 1,478 l y 2 6 4 2,290 1,527 195.73 41,984 1,424 2,334 1,488 4,010 6.160 1,900 2,820 8,707 3,600 195.70 41,978 3,544 4,990 2,002 7,524 12,600 3,084 7,765 10,093 6,450 197.29 ; 42,319 8,076 12,405 4,543 14,364 15,300 12,285 10,935 11,839 9,968 204.98 43,968 10,448 16,500 13,068 15,725 16,711 15,800 15,555 14,309 14,772 213.67 45,832 : 11,900 18,225 15,564 16,646 18,321 17,348 18,461 15,054 16,440 212.09 45,493 13,727 19,500 17,589 17,771 19,430 18,654 19,382 15,814 17,733 214.82 46,079 15,093 20,539 18,932 18,714 20,277 19,-664 20,063 16,771 18,757 217.83 46,725 16,025 21,295 19,657 19,337 20,775 20/352 20,564 17,300 19,413 • 223.63 47,967 16,675 22,129 20,286 19,845 21,318 20,852 20,950 18,075 20,016 207.14 44,432 16,457 22,246 20,296 20,000 21,500 21,118 21,339 18,577 ., 20,192 206.61 44,318 16,461 22,304 20,286 20,000 21,500 21,032 21,014 18,501 20,137 222.50 47,726 16,829 22,620 20,529 20,277 21„546 21,275 21 ,.314 18,679 20,384 224.86 48,232 17,082 22,850 20,650 20,511 21,597 21,382 21,534 18,897 20,563 225.31 48,329 17,725 23,664 21,286 20,993 22,096 21,952 21,764 .19,450 21,116 227.46 48,790 18^,368 24,314 21,730 21,471 22,518 22,400 22,246 19,929 21 s 622 ' 229.96 49,326 19,037 25,057 22,386 22,243 22,932 22,732 22,938 ; 20,543 22,234 231.59 49,676. 19,400 25,795 23,057 22,889 23,554 23,182 23,607 21,475 22,870 233.73 50,135 19,875 26,562 23,686 23,586 24,296 23,721 24,107 22,063 23,487 237.39 50,920 20,562 27,800 24,400 24,429 24,957 24,250 24,741 22,714 24,232 239.54 51,381 -" 21,066 28,521 25,032 25,171 25,550 24,814 ' 25,518 23,786 24,932 241.37 51,774 21,814 29,379 25,712 26,000 26,293 25,261 26,279 24,614 25,669 243V77 52,289 22,293 30,086 26,277 26,679 . 27,225 25,600 27,279 25,396 26,354 246.76 52,930 23,441 31,329 27,345 27,950 28,248 25,800 28,052 26,521 27,336 255.36 54,775 24,250 32,095 28,229 28,882 29,093 26,121 28,936 27,375 28,123 262.65 56,338 24,436 33,175 28,746 30,150 30,757 26,479 30,111 * 28,625 29,060 266.75 57,218 23,729 34,550 28,668 32,200 35,039 26,800 33,550 30,321 30,607 269.10 57,722 : 23,936 36,225 32,036 36,114 38,632 26 s 564 36,714 32,721 32,868 269.40 57,786 24,343 38,159 37,329 42,018 42,500 25,954 40,786 38,523 36,202 < 45 TABLE VII (Continued) Load Mean Kips Stress p s i Ad lusted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n Micro I n . / i n . for Section 3 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 Mean S t r a i n 40.00 8,580 240 288 298 300 296 285 317 289 252 s 80.00 • 17,160 514 588 581 590 600 576 ' 642 578 ' 583 120.00 25,740 . 786 888 852 885 913 860 952 878 877-143.97 30,882 957 1,063 1,005 1,059 1,105 1,029 1,126 1,044 1,049 148.00 31,746 984 1,094 1,040 1,093 1,130 1,055 1,158 1,Q71 1,078 158.50 33,998 1,065 1,179 1,123 1,172 1,200 1,136 1,226 1,165 1,158 165.60 35,521 1,134 1,215 1,174 1,226 1,245 1,189 1,256 1,202 1,205 175.31 37,604 1,207 1,298 1,259 1,298 1,303 1,252 1,300 1,277 1,274 179.08 38,413 1,246 1,345 1,316 1,351 1,303 1,290 1,292' < 1,305 1,306 193.96 41,604 1,574 2,022 1,571 1,390 1,274 2,278 1,353 • 1,439 1,613 -195.73 41,984 5,744 16,200 6,469 5,671 1,172 9,411 1,927 ' 2,213 6,101 195.70 41,978 9,745 18,700 8,550 7,602 3,289 11,238 2,335 3,867 .8,166 .197.29 42,319 14,280 19,702 10,903 8,948 5,358 12,203 4,021 ,5,942 10,170 204.98 43,968- . 18,670 20,815 13,611 11,600 9,589 13,629 7,508 9,836 13,157 213.67 45,832 20,009 22,175 14,168 14,338 13,449 14,948 10,475 13,0.33 15,324 212.09 - 45,493 20,614 22,971 14,686 15,864 16,000 15,673 12,820 15,236 16,733 214.82 46,079 21,450 24,614 16,000 17,729 18,179 16,814 15,100 17,033 18,365 217.83 46,725 22,037 25,618 17,179 18,743 19,109 17,152 16,191 18,132 19,270 223.63 •. 47,967 22,743 26,612 18,378 19,649 19,920 17,806 17,374 18,990 20,184 207.14 44,432 23,436 27,238 18,800 20,189 20,396 18,193 18,345 19,546 20fi768 206.61 44,318 23,130 26,855 18,800 20,037 20,246 18,125 18,105 . '19,648 20,618 222.50 47,726 23,138 27,254 18,759 20,207 20,397 18,291 18,009 19,693 20,718 224.86 48,232 23,297 27,566 19,317 20,404 20,584 ' 18,423 18,320 19,803 20,964 225.31 48,329 23,827 28,512 20,381 21,157 21,327 18,753 19,226 20,443 21,703 227.46 48,790 24,500 29,329 21,307 21,686 21,854 19,229 19,829 21?400 22,392 229.96 49,326 25,250 30,050 22,000 22,307 22,364 19,625 20,600 21,882 . 23,010 231.59 49,676 25,854 31,221 23,179 23,152 23,125 20,216 21,439 22,780 23,871 233.73 50,135 26,843 32,421 24,280 24,333 23,922 20,639- 22,330 23,680 24,806 237.39 50,920 27,729 33,729 25,054 25,800 24,576 21,160 23,375 24,383 ' 25,726 239.54 51,381 28,829 35,400 26,448 25,986 25,847 21,537 24,463 25,418 26,741 :241.37 . • 51,774 29,657 36,668 27,700 27,157 26,639 21,950 25,438 26,389 27,708 .243.77 ' 52,289 30,414 38,500 28,954 28,125 27,676 22,336 26,310 27,655 28,746 246.76 . ' 52,930 31,150 39,950 29,886 28,971 28,339 22,629 27,150 28,700 29,59? 255.36 . . 54,775 ' 32,254 41,650 31,177 29,945 29,396 22,954 28,283 29,584 30,655 262.65 1 : 56,338*. 33,149 44,154 32,247 31,334 30,685 23,373 29,540 • 30,849 31,91* 266.75 !, 57,218 32,743 47,289 32,071 33,671 35;200 23,688 33,124 32,234 33,753 269.10 ' 57,722 32,829 50,611 32,036 35s850 38,800 23,989 36,259 33,900 35,534 269.40' 57,786 35,882 59,263 36,820 42,975 47,554 22,625 43,964 39,091 41>022 46 TABLE V I I (Continued) Mean,... Load S t r e s s K ips p s i ;. Ad jus ted S t r a i n Gauge Data i n M i c r o I n . / i n . f o r S e c t i o n 4 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 ' Mean S t r a i n 40 .00 8,580 236 270 286 278 300 258 295 258 273 80 .00 17 ,160 487 548 536 542 587 540 * 597. 542 547 120.00 25,740 744 815 784 815 873 808 • 890 805 817 143.97 30,882 913 978 926 979 1,039 973 1,062 950 978 148.00 31,746 942 1,006 954 1,006 1,065 998 1,097 966 1,004 158.50 33,998 1,017 1,089 1,037 1,087 1,129 1,087 , 1,146 1,033 1,078 V 165,60 35,521 1,066 1,136 1,089 1,132 1,157 1,122 1,161 1,071 1,117 175.31 37,604 1,146 1,207 1,493 1,212 1,178 1,202 1,167 1,137 1,218 •''•i'-' 179.08 38,413 1,167 1,238 1,712 1,241 1,167 1,239 '•, .1,163 • 1,170 1,762 .193.96 41,604 . 1,877 1,798 5,787 1,410 4,393 1,901 1,194 1,283 1,686 2,455 195.73 41,984 4,121 2,712 8,496 1,845 11,443 2,007 1,587 4,237 195.70 41,978 6,787 3,792 10,381 2,648 12,579 2,151 2,780 2,082 5,400 .197.29 42,319 12,473 6,775 13,125 7,646 13,167 5,073 2,580 7,319 8,520 204.98 43,968 17,743 11,439 13,921 11,259 15,929 8,430 4,119 : 12,506 11,918 213.67 45,832 18,300 14,111 13,800 13,686 19,075 10,950 8,116 14,864 - 14,113 ' " 212.09 45,493 18,382 15,652 13,800 15,375 20,557 12,300 9,750 15,916 15,217 214.82 46,079 18,400 16,723 13,943 16,625 21,521 13,336 11,036 17,014 16,075 217.83 46,725 18,546 17,479 14,332 17,464 22,100 14,143 12,157 17,696 16,740 223.63 47,967 19,259 18,186 14.,877 18 S 232 22,600 14,586 12,957 18,532 17,404 207.14 ; 44,432 19,332 18,250 14,836 18,443 22,552 14,800 13,600 18,757 17,571 '.. 206.61 44,318 . 19,359 18,300 14,864 18,400 22,523 14^800 13,595 18,606 17 ,556, ; 222.50 47,726 19,480 18,543 15,288 18,614 22,689 14,943 13,634 18,871 17,758 224.86 48,232 19,557 18,679 15,443 18,807 22,792 15,159 13,908 19,089 ' 17,929 225.31 48,329 19,773 19,257 15,911 19,386 23,125 15,529 • 14,598 19,621 18,400 227.46 . 48,790 20,357 19,820 16,450 19,996 23,557 15,889 15,157 ; 19,891 18,890 229.96 49,326 21,114 20,704 17,029 20,575 23,921 16,423 15,793 20,341 ' 19,488 231.59 - 49,676 - 21,566 21,350 17,587 21,171 24,388 16,900 16,598 21,086 20,081 233.73 50,135 22,212 22,114 18,177 21,879 24,813 17,514 17,118 21,864 20,711 237.39 50,920 23,029 22,957 18,825 22,614 25,300 18,004 17,850 22,545 21,391 239.54 51,381 23,629 23,638 19,368 23,357 25,950 18,480 18,707 23,362 22,061 241.37 51,774 24 o400 24,825 20,000 24,137 26,557 18,912 19,371 24,125 22,791 243.77 52,289 24,886 25,550 20,461 24,723 27,014 19,454 20,089 25,036 . 23,402 246.76 52,930 25,929 26,623 21,200 25,661 28,029 19,793 . 20,932 23,943 24,014 255.36 54,775 26,586 27,893 21,621 26,650 28,913 20,143 21,836 21,350 24,374 262.65 ,. 56,338 26,863 29,089 21,845 27,829 30,082 20,554 22,916 27,600 .25,847 266.75 .. 57,218 26,571 29,960 21,836 29,098 32,329 20,875 . 24,529 28,498 25,463 269.10 57,722 27,486 34,566 21,800 31^880 37,114 21,188 28,200 28,998 28,904 269.40 „ 57,786 28,707 40,775 21,800 36 s 257 45,257 21,696 34,427 29,507 32,303 TABLE VII (Continued) Mean Load Stress i • . • •' Kids p s i Adiusted S t r a i n Gauee Data i n Micro I n . / i n . for Section 5 501 5 0 2 503 504 505 506 ' 507 MPSTI R t - r a i n 4 0 . 0 0 8 , 5 8 0 • 235 2 9 0 284 284 3 1 7 2 8 0 3 3 4 2 7 6 • 288 8 0 . 0 0 1 7 , 1 6 0 497 577 5 3 3 5 3 0 630 585 6 5 3 • 5 7 4 . 572 1 2 0 . 0 0 2 5 , 7 4 0 774 8 6 8 8 0 6 7 8 6 9 3 9 8 6 6 9 6 7 : 8 7 0 . 8 6 0 1 4 3 . 9 7 3 0 , 8 8 2 945 1 , 0 3 8 9 7 5 942 1 , 1 7 2 1 , 0 3 8 1 , 1 3 1 1 , 0 1 8 1 4 8 . 0 0 3 1 , 7 4 6 966 1 , 0 7 3 1 , 0 0 2 • : 9 7 1 •'• 1 , 2 0 2 1 , 0 6 7 1 , 1 6 3 1,050 1 , 0 6 2 1 5 8 . 5 0 3 3 , 9 9 8 1 , 0 5 2 1 , 1 5 6 1 , 0 8 7 1 , 0 3 3 1 , 2 8 7 1 , 1 5 4 1 , 2 3 8 : • 1 , 1 4 8 1 , 1 4 4 • 1 6 5 . 6 0 3 5 , 5 2 1 1 , 1 0 9 1 , 1 9 6 1 , 1 3 3 1 , 0 8 3 1 , 3 3 8 1 , 1 9 7 1 , 2 7 2 1 , 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 0 1 7 5 . 3 1 3 7 , 6 0 4 1 , 1 8 8 1 , 2 8 3 1 , 2 1 8 1 , 3 5 0 1 , 3 9 0 1 , 2 6 5 1 , 3 0 8 1 , 2 7 1 1 , 2 8 4 1 7 9 . 0 8 3 8 , 4 1 3 . 1 , 2 2 1 1 , 3 2 3 1 , 2 4 0 1 , 3 0 6 1 , 4 2 2 1 , 2 9 9 1 , 3 1 4 1 , 3 0 0 1 , 3 0 3 . 1 9 3 . 9 6 4 1 , 6 0 4 1 , 3 7 0 1 , 6 2 5 1 , 2 1 9 1 , 3 0 4 2 , 6 5 2 1 , 6 6 9 1 , 6 3 4 2 , 7 7 7 1 , 7 8 1 1 9 5 . 7 3 4 1 , 9 8 4 1 , 4 3 3 1 , 6 6 3 1 , 3 2 2 1 , 4 5 7 1 5 , 0 3 2 1 , 8 8 0 5 , 8 1 7 7 , 4 9 4 4 , 5 1 2 1 9 5 . 7 0 4 1 , 9 7 8 1 , 4 6 8 1 , 9 1 1 1 , 2 6 6 1 , 9 7 5 1 6 , 2 1 6 3 , 2 1 7 7 , 8 6 7 9 , 3 4 3 5 , 4 0 8 1 9 7 . 2 9 4 2 , 3 1 9 1 , 9 7 9 3 , 7 7 3 1 , 2 2 0 3 , 8 9 8 1 6 , 5 8 0 6 , 1 2 4 1 0 , 8 2 6 1 1 , 1 4 9 6 , 9 4 4 2 0 4 , 9 8 4 3 , 9 6 8 9 , 1 7 2 8 , 0 2 6 2 , 8 7 5 8 , 1 2 3 1 6 , 7 4 1 9 , 9 3 8 1 4 , 0 4 6 1 4 , 1 8 1 10,388 : 2 1 3 . 6 7 4 5 , 8 3 2 1 5 , 2 0 0 1 1 , 0 8 7 5 , 9 8 1 1 0 , 5 1 3 1 6 , 9 6 3 1 2 , 7 8 2 1 6 , 1 3 1 1 6 , 1 4 5 13,' ,000 2 1 2 . 0 9 4 5 , 4 9 3 1 7 , 0 0 0 1 3 , 6 1 4 8 , 4 8 8 1 2 , 3 2 5 17 ,39 ,2 1 4 , 5 0 3 1 8 , 1 9 7 . 1 7 , 5 9 3 1 4 , 8 8 9 2 1 4 , 8 2 4 6 , 0 7 9 1 8 , 5 5 7 1 6 , 1 2 1 1 0 , 5 7 5 1 3 , 8 1 6 1 8 , 4 3 2 1 5 , 6 1 8 1 9 , 9 6 8 \ 1 8 , 8 3 0 1 6 , 4 9 0 2 1 7 . 8 3 4 6 , 7 2 5 1 9 , 2 3 9 1 7 , 8 0 0 1 1 , 7 5 6 1 4 , 9 1 5 1 9 , 1 0 9 1 7 , 1 5 2 2 0 , 9 8 0 1 9 , 5 9 2 1 7 , 5 6 8 V 2 2 3 . 6 3 4 7 , 9 6 7 2 0 , 3 1 8 1 9 , 6 0 0 1 3 , 1 4 8 1 5 , 5 5 1 •; 19 ,49 ,3 1 7 , 5 2 3 2 2 , 1 4 6 2 0 , 3 8 4 1 8 , 5 2 0 2 0 7 . 1 4 4 4 , 4 3 2 2 0 , 8 0 0 2 0 , 3 7 9 1 3 , 7 7 9 1 5 , 8 0 0 1 9 , 7 0 0 1 8 , 3 6 9 2 2 , 5 6 8 . i 2 0 , 6 6 6 1 9 , 0 0 8 ; 2 0 6 . 6 1 4 4 , 3 1 8 2 0 , 8 0 0 2 0 , 2 2 6 1 3 , 5 5 0 1 5 , 8 0 0 1 9 , 7 7 5 1 8 , 2 4 8 2 2 , 5 2 2 ' :?. 2 0 , 6 8 8 . ; 1 8 , 9 5 1 2 2 2 . 5 0 4 7 , 7 2 6 2 0 , 7 5 4 2 0 , 4 7 1 1 3 , 8 2 9 1 6 , 2 0 0 1 9 , 9 9 2 1 8 , 3 8 9 2 2 , 5 9 2 2 0 , 7 8 4 1 9 , 1 2 6 2 2 4 . 8 6 4 8 , 2 3 2 2 1 , 0 1 7 2 0 , 9 8 5 1 4 , 2 2 8 1 6 , 4 8 9 2 0 , 1 7 4 1 8 , 5 5 8 . 2 2 , 8 2 0 i- 2 0 , 9 9 3 1 9 F I 4 0 8 2 2 5 . 3 1 4 8 , 3 2 9 2 1 , 6 2 1 2 2 , 2 0 0 1 5 , 1 6 5 1 7 , 1 4 9 2 0 , 5 5 4 1 9 , 2 8 0 2 3 , 6 2 5 2 1 , 5 4 8 2 0 , 1 4 3 2 2 7 . 4 6 4 8 , 7 9 0 2 2 , 3 6 2 2 3 , 1 3 7 1 6 , 0 6 4 1 7 , 7 6 3 2 1 , 2 3 6 1 9 , 6 2 1 2 4 , 2 1 1 2 2 , 1 8 8 2 0 , 8 2 3 2 2 9 . 9 6 4 9 , 3 2 6 2 3 , 1 7 5 2 4 , 0 0 5 1 6 , 6 2 5 1 8 , 2 8 9 2 1 , 6 5 9 2 0 , 0 1 2 2 4 , 7 8 9 V 2 2 , 7 6 7 2 1 , 4 1 5 2 3 1 . 5 9 49 ,67 .6 2 4 , 3 2 5 2 5 , 6 0 0 1 8 , 1 4 4 1 9 , 1 3 5 2 2 , 5 8 8 2 0 , 6 0 2 2 5 , 6 2 0 . 2 3 , 5 0 0 2 2 , 4 3 9 2 3 3 . 7 3 5 0 , 1 3 5 2 5 , 0 2 9 2 7 , 0 0 0 1 9 , 1 6 2 1 9 , 6 6 0 2 3 , 4 0 2 2 1 , 2 8 6 2 6 , 6 7 1 2 4 , 2 8 6 2 3 , 3 1 2 . • 2 3 7 . 3 9 5 0 , 9 2 0 2 5 , 9 1 6 2 8 , 3 7 5 2 0 , 0 2 1 2 0 , 3 8 7 2 3 , 9 6 8 2 1 , 9 3 6 2 7 , 4 8 4 . 25^,305 2 4 , 1 7 4 2 3 9 . 5 4 5 1 , 3 8 1 ; 2 7 , 1 2 0 2 9 , 6 7 6 2 1 , 1 3 7 2 1 , 3 1 0 2 5 , 0 4 6 2 2 , 4 9 3 2 8 , 5 4 1 • 2 6 , 2 9 9 2 5 , 2 1 5 2 4 1 . 3 7 5 1 , 7 7 4 2 8 , 2 5 4 3 0 , 8 2 9 2 2 , 0 8 3 2 1 , 9 6 3 2 6 , 0 9 7 2 2 , 9 3 7 2 9 , 4 3 0 2 7 , 1 8 4 2 6 , 0 9 7 2 4 3 . 7 7 5 2 , 2 8 9 2 9 , 2 0 9 3 2 , 3 7 2 2 3 , 4 2 4 2 2 , 9 0 7 2 7 , 2 3 7 2 3 , 5 7 7 3 0 , 2 0 9 2 8 , 1 1 8 2 7 , 1 3 2 2 4 6 . 7 6 5 2 , 9 3 0 3 0 , 0 0 2 3 3 , 5 1 2 2 4 , 2 2 5 2 3 , 4 5 0 2 8 , 1 4 3 ' 2 4 , 0 3 7 . 3 1 , 0 2 5 2 8 , 7 8 8 2 7 , 8 9 8 / 2 5 5 . 3 6 5 4 , 7 7 5 3 1 , 0 3 9 3 5 , 2 0 0 2 5 , 3 5 8 2 4 , 4 2 5 2 9 , 4 4 4 • 2 4 , 6 0 5 3 2 , 1 5 4 2 9 , 7 4 0 2 8 , 9 9 6 262'. 65 5 6 , 3 3 8 3 2 , 0 2 4 3 7 , 2 5 4 2 6 , 5 9 4 2 5 , 5 5 4 3 0 , 9 0 2 2 4 , 7 5 1 3 3 , 7 5 8 3 1 , 0 0 2 3 0 , 2 3 0 2 6 6 . 7 5 5 7 , 2 1 8 3 2 , 2 2 5 3 8 , 6 8 0 2 8 , 5 7 0 2 6 , 8 1 6 3 2 , 0 7 9 2 5 , 1 7 6 3 4 , 8 8 9 3 1 , 8 7 5 3 1 , 2 8 9 2 6 9 . 1 0 5 7 , 7 2 2 3 2 , 9 7 5 4 0 , 5 4 5 3 0 , 0 0 9 2 7 , 8 1 6 3 2 , 4 9 2 • 2 5 , 3 8 8 3 5 , 9 9 2 \ 3 2 , 3 3 4 3 2 , 1 9 4 2 6 9 . 4 0 5 7 , 7 8 6 3 7 , 6 5 7 5 2 ; 4 5 4 3 3 , 9 7 9 3 4 , 4 3 2 4 4 , 0 0 0 2 5 , 6 8 9 4 4 , 7 2 8 3 9 , 5 3 6 3 9 , 0 5 9 48 TABLE VII (Continued) Mean Load Stress Kips p s i AcHusted S t r a i n Gauee Data i n Micro In./In . for Section 6 601 602 603 604 60 <S 606 607 608 Mean St r a i n 40.00 8,580 217 239 277 288 +65 236 302 245 217 80.00 17,160 472 506 . 517 557 230 516 613 530 493 120.00 25,740 726 794 756 830 522 794 ' ' 915 806 768 143.97 30,882 871 961 891 1,000 801 964 1,074 966 941 148.00 31,746 894 990 921 1,021 970 993 1,104 997 986 158.50 33,998 972 1,079 1,011 1,108 1,026 1,090 1,173 1,078 1,067 165.60 35,521 1,028 1,134 1,061 1,154 1,041 1,147 1,193 1,130 1,111 175.31 37,604 1,100 1,226 1,134 1,229 1,051 1,245 1,233 1,208 1,178 • 179.08 38,413 1,173 1,266 1,156 1,253 1,077 1,294 1,245 1,253 1,215 193.96 41,604 5,547 2,442 1,183 1,574 1,285 2,740 1,871 3,518 2,520 195.73 41,984 7,452 5,189 1,200 2,617 3,526 9,520 5,881 10,157 5,693 195.70 41,978 7,216 7,037 1,231 3,585 7,262 13,615 8,960 11,580 7,561 197.29 42,319 7,166 9,357 1,629 5,642 10,733 15,449 14,090 13,311 9,672 204.98 43,968 9,096 12,200 6,381 9,650 13,279 17,661 20,025 15,901 13,024 213,67 . 45,832 11,825 14,761 13,100 11,857 13,664 19,232 21,443 17,043 15,366 212.,09 45,493 14,027 17,071 16,050 13,657 14,023 20,429 21,914 17,996 16,896 214^82 46,079 15,100 18,721 17,636 15,068 14,455 21,500 22,602 19,075 18,020 217.83 46,725 16,057 19,875 18,429 15,902 14,886 22,087 22,907 19,671 18,727 223.63 47,967 17,043 21,025 19,229 16,623 15,507 22,600 23,436 20,418 19,485 207.14 44,432 17,300 21,254 19,536 16,900 15,654 22,600 23,571 20^580 19,674 SO 6.61 44,318 17,129 21,248 19,539 16,870 15,621 22,613 23,507 20,504 19,629 222.50 47,726 17,236 21,509 19,721 22,393 15,914 • 22,802 23,775 ... 20,748 20,512 224.86 48,232. 17,487 21,761 19,836 27,600 16,174 22,965 23,940 '20,910 21,334 ^-225.31 48,329 18,429 22,813 20,361 18,068 16,643 23,454 24,436 21,536 20,718 .227.46 48,790 19,329 23,657 20,866 18,721 17,177 23,600 24,713 21,986 21,256 229.-96 49,326 20,450 25,057 21,557 19,446 17,918 23,857 25,137 22,475 21,987 231,59 49,676 21,029 26,150 22,175 20,157 18,579 24,307 25,743 23,327 22,683 233.73 50,135 21,629 27 :163 22,661 20,868 18,186 24,716 26,489 23,671 23,298 237.39 50,920 22,952 28,654 23,448 21,800 20,070 25,329 27,109 - 24,543 24,238 239.54 51,381 23,648 29,625 24,055 22,657 20,804 25,650 2.7,896 25,457 24,974 '241.37 51,774 24,532 30,929 24,643 23,464 21,313 25,857 28,596 . 26,264 25,700 243.77 52,289 25,218 32,046 25,311 24,300 21,737 26,150 29,464 .26,857 26,385 246.76 52,930 26,493 34,043 26,259 25,279 22,643 26,786 30,175 27,857 27,317 255.36 54,775 27,386 25,150 27,143 26,404 23,857 27,107 31,014 28,607 28,334 262.65 56,338 28,246 36,429 28,429 27,807 25,475 27,416 32,036 29,680 29,440 266.75 57,218 29,484 37,700 30,150 29,029 25,655 27,536 32,473 '30,125 30,269 269.10 57,722 34,521 42,614 34,350 ' 32,668 28,234 27,350 33,552 31,611 33,113 269.40 57,78 6 40,629 49,332 40,457 38,877 34,239 26,638 27,929 36,802 38,113 NOTE: + Indicates Tension S t r a i n TABLE V I I (Continued) Mean Load Stress Kips p s i Ad iusted S t r a i n Gauee Data i n Micro I n . / i n . for Section 7 Mean ., Ove r a l l 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 70S S t r A - f n Mean S t r a i n 40.00 8,580 270 178 298 300 364 . 185 368 221 273 266 80.00 17,160 532 439 531 558 658 419* . 687 487 539 548 120.00 25,740 783 698 776 826 964 678 • 983 756 808 827 143.97 30,882 , 924 872 916 978 1,107 835 1 126 915 * - 959 . 992 148.00 31,746 950 908 941 1,005 : 1,135 864' 1 ] 144 950 ; i ; ; ; > 987 1,022 158.50 33,998 1,002 1,012 1,011 1,100 : 1,205 960 i ,187 1, 038 ¥ " 1,064 1,101 165.60 35,521 1,037 1,087 • 1,048 1,150 . 1,254 1,015 1 ,206 1 0 9 3 1,111 1,145 175.31 37,604 1,111 1,204 1,099 1,240 1,331 1,119 1. 227 1 180 • 1,189 1,224 ..' 179.08 38,413 1,149 1,250 1,112 1,275 1,354 1,171 1 232 1, 223 5-.-. 1,221 1,329 193.96 41,604 1,440 3,202 1,280 1,427 1,423 1,904 1 258 6, 700 2,329 - 1,999 195.73 41,984 1,532 5,723 1,804 2,136 1,558 5,196 1 ,417 13 043 4,048 ' 4,463 195.70 41,978 1,494 7,768 2,374 3,476 1,681 6,545 . 2 ,233 13, 557 4,891 5,976 197.29 42,319 1,398 13,064 ,2,889 15,800 6,753 11,847 . 8 ,798 14 613 • 9,395 9,012 204.98 43,968 1,521 15,602 17,841 , 9,737 14,545 17 ,200 16, 605 . 13,293 12,605 , 213.67 45,832 2,324 16,557 18,696 10,121 15,086 •. 18 ,400 18, 021 I;.. 12,886 15,038 ; 212.09 45,493 ' 3,791 17,805 19 ,,362 10,657 15,604 18 ,400 18 ,729 V 14,907 15,800 •:: ,214.82 46,079 5,231 18,814 19,995 11,400 16,370 18' ,464 19 ,493 15,681 16,931 217.83 46,725 6,353 19,486 20,457 12,071 16,975 • 18 ,616 19, 857- r'- 16,259 17,668 • 223.63 47,967 7,610 20,043 21,057 12,770 17,300. 18 700 20 600 16,869 18,391 207.14 44,432 7,819 20,057 21,293 12,966 17,636 18 727 20 618 •' 17,017 18,670 206.61 44,318 7,824 20,093 21,229 12,879 17,711 18 ,800 20 , 694 . 17,033 18,643 .; 222.50 47,726 8,367 20,336 21,450 13,446 17,800 18 ,846 20 ,971 17,317 "18,952 224.86 48,232 8,775 20,432 21,597 13,762 17,800 18 956 21 ,239 •'• 17,509 19,246 225.31 . 48,329 9,721 20,843 22,057 14,204 18,050 19 ,432 21 829 18,019 19,653 227.46 48,790 10,514 21,321 22,650 14,707 18,379 19 ,671 22 254 18,499 20,208 229.96 49,326 11,457 22,168 23,271 15,300 15,929 20 ,025 22 632 19,112 20,837 231.59 49,676 12,296 22,764 23,814 16,071 19,500 20 548 23 ,443 • 19,777 21,560 233.73 50,135 13,227 23,243 24,271 16,702 19,900- 20 ,896 24 029 ' 20,324 22,234 237.39 50,920 14,325 24,193 24,934 17,254 20,443 21, 486 24 ,525 21,023 23,101 239.54 51,381 15,143 25,071 25,523 17,993 21,093 • 21 ,886 25 ,432 21,734 23,822 ,241.37 51,774 15,900 25,838 26,102 18,721 21,614 22 507 26 054 . 22,391 24,594 243.77 52,289 16,575 26,454 26,887 . 19,396 22,246 23 ,071 26 654 i . 23,040 25,367 246.76 52,930 18,229 27,905 27,738 20,136 22,891 23, ,821 27 814 24,076 26,239 255.36 54,775 18,818 28,929 28,343 20,905 23,725 24, 496 28 464 24,811 27,067 262.65 56,338 20,237 29,900 29,089 21,523 24,514 25 ,021 29 ,270 25,651 28,182 266.75 57,218 22,593 31,236 30,062 21,514 25,404 25 ,500 30 ,361 26,667 29,278 269.10 57,722 28,264 34,246 32,886 22,343 26,954 25 ,900 31 762 28,908 31,615 269.40 57,786 35,084 38,114 37,771 24,582 30,414 26 307 35 325 32,514 36,106 TABLE VIII COMPRESSION TEST OF THE 21-INCH 5WF16 COLUMN BY THE BALDWIN HYDRAULIC MACHINE Rotation Rotation Mean Gauge Gauge Gauge Gauge Mean Mean D i f f About D i f f About Load Stress A C B D 9 Deformation S t r a i n A-C B-D Axis B-D A-C Axis Kips p s i IN.xlO-3 TN„x10" 3 MMxlO - 2 MMxlO _ / T N.vin-3 > H rm T N / T N T N v l f l - 3 R A D v i n - 4 . M M v i n - 2 R A r w ] n - 4 40.0 8,580 10.0 12.0 24.5 26.6 10.6 505 2.0 1.3 2.1 - 0.6 80.0 17,160 15.6 20.2 39.6 43.7 17.2 819 - . 4.6 3.1 4.1 - 1.2 120.0 25,740 21.0 28.0 55.1 61.0 23.7 1,129 • - 7.0 - 4.7 5.9 - 1.7 135.4 29,043 23.0 31.8 61.5 68.2 26.5 1,262 - 8.8 -•• 5.9 6.7 - 1.9' 145.0 31,103 24.6 33.5 65.0 72.0 28.0 1,333 - -8.9 6.0 7.0 - 2.0 152,0 32,604 25.4 35.2 68.0 74.5 29.2 1,390 9.8 6.6 6.5 - 1.8 158,5 33,998 26.2 36.9 71.2 77.5 30,4 1,448 - 10.7 7.2 6.3 - 1.8 168.2 36,079 2.7.4 39.5 75.2 81-. 8 "32.2 1,533 - 12.1 8,1 6.6 - 1.9 176.5 37,859 28.4 42.0 79.6 86.2 33,9 1,614 - 13.6 9.1 6.6 - 1.9 187.6 40,240 30.5 . 46.0 87.2 93.5 37.0 1,762 14.5 9.7 6.3 - 1.8 196.5 42,149 77.5 97.0 212.5 219.0 86.1 4,100 - 19.5 - 13.1 6.5 - 1.8 195.5 41,935 . 123.6 145.0 333.0 337.0 133.1 6,338 - 21.4 - 14.4 4.0 - 1.1 196.0 42,042 188.0 209.0 405.0 500.0 197.2 9,390 - 21.6' * 14.1 5.0 - 1.4 199.6 42,814 266.0 284.0 690.0 695.0 274.0 13,048 - 18.0 - 12.1 - 5.0 ' - 1.4 208.2 44,659 313.5 333.0 815.0 818.0 ..' 322.6. 15,362 - 19.5 - 13.1 3.0 - 0.8/. 215.5 46,225 348.2 367.0 901.0 903.0 356.3 16,967 - 18.8 - 12.6 2.0 - 0.6, 211.6 45,388 376.0 395.0 971.0 975.0 384.2 18,295 - 19.0 - 12.7 4.0 - 1.1 .215,0 46,118 398.0 417.0 1,029.0 1,031.0 406.8 19,371 - 19.0 - 12.7 2.0 - 0,6 218. 6 46,890 417.0 436.0 1,076.0 1,079.5 425.3 20,252 - 19.0 - 12.7 3.5 - 1.0 225.0 48,263 ' 438.0 455.0 1,126,0 1,131.0 .445.3 21,205 • - 17.0 - 11.4 5.0 - 1.4 205.0 43,973 441.0 458.0 1,136.0 1,141.0 448.-8 21,371 - 16.0 - 10.7 5.0 - 1.4 207, 5 44,509 442.0 459.0 1,138.0 1,142.0 449.8 21,419 - 17.0 - 11.4 4.0 - 1.1 22.5.0 48,263 446, 5 465.5 1,151.5 1,155.4 455.5 21,690 - 19.0 - 12.7 3.9 - 1.1 224.6 48,178 457.5 477.0 1,178.5 1,183.5 466.1 22,195 - 19.5 - 13.1 5.0 - 1.4 225.5 • 48,370 466.0 485.4 1,200.0 1,204.5 474.6 22,600 - 19.4 - 13.0 - 4.5 - 1.3 ,227.5 48,799 480.0 499.0 1,236.0 1,240.0 488.5 23,262 - 19.0 - 12.7 - 4.0 - 1.1 230.1 49,356 498.0 518.0 1,288.0 1,287.0 507.5 24,167 - 20.0 - 13.4 - l'-.O - 0.3 232.0 49,764 510.0 530.0 1,314.2 1,318.0 519.0 24,714 - 20.0 - 13.4 3.8 - 1.1 234,2 50,236 526.6 547.0 1,356.5 1,360.2 535.9 25,519 - 20.4 - 13,7 3.7 - 1.0 238.0 51,051 556.5 577.1 1,432.5 1,436.5 565.9 26,948 - 20.6 - 13.8 4.0 - 1.1 .240.0 51,480 568.2 589.4 1,463.0 1,467.0 577.9 27,519 - 21.2 - 14.2 ,' 4.0 - 1.1 •241.7 51,845 583.5 605.4 1,502.5 1,506.9 . 594.2 28,295 - 21.9 - 14.7 - 4 C3 - 1.2 244.4 52,424 604.4 626.0 1,554.2 1,558.2 614.1 29,243 . -'. 21.6 - 14.5 4.0 - 1.1 .246.8 52,939 621.5 644.0 1,600.0 1,603.5 631.9 30,090 - 22.5 - 15.1 - 3.5 - 1.0 2.57.7. 55,277 652.8 682.4 1,690.5 1,690.0 666.8 31,752 29.6 - 19.8 + .0.5 + 0.1 265.0 56,843 655.2 736.0 1,767.0 1,733.0 692.3 32,967 - 80.8 - 51.2 34.0 9.6 267.0 57,272 632.0 797.0 1,842.0 1,761.0 712.2 33,914 - 165.0 - 110.8 81.0 22.8 269.4 57,786 611.4 864.0 1,916.0 1,799.0 734.8 34,990 - 252.6 - 169.4 115.0 32.3 APPENDIX B FIGURES • • • U l . ' L O KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. * • STANDARD © . C K MADE IN U.S.A. _ . . " * . . "-• " fSPe='JOXIO TO THE tKH O N cnoN KEUFFEL & ESSER CQ M A D E I N U . S . A . KEUFFEL & ESSER CQ M A D E I N U.S.A. O N CI sO •vi-vo I T ! S O STANDARD © CROSS SECTION K>XK> TO THE -INCH ON KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. MADE IN U.S.A. KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. MADE IN U.S.A. C J L v^ STANDARD © CROSS SECTION ^ r i i = IOXIO TO THE INCH KEUFFEL & ESSER CO. MADE IN u . s . a . h 81 # 2 . / v . # / . ' • • II' / " • T * 1 f ?" -c3 — — 1»_ I l l u s t r a t i o n 1. Location of the tension specimans' on the cross section of th'e 5WF16 member. . • ' - . . . . /-z 3-4 5-<o y -5 7# 32 •5-7-3 Q-/Q j S PECIMEN c/ fn /nche.3 /". /n fnches / 0.4-98 " 0.3S8 z 0.4-3 6 O. 35/ 3 o.496 0.237 0.232 I l l u s t r a t i o n 2. Location of the s t r a i n gauges on the tension specimans. U:------7\ cz ^- BRACING h tames > L / l " ' J Strain (ra.u$5<ss I l l u s t r a t i o n 3. Bracing system and s t r a i n gauge l o c a t i o n on the 12-inch column. (Of / 103 HI 105 •TLJJD. all corners X ® I/O /OS 4-/OB iora I 107 Distance. A~C =14.0 in. .Distance B~D = I4-.5 in = 3G8.30mm I l l u s t r a t i o n 4. S t r a i n gauge and d i a l gauge l o c a t i o n on the cross section of the 12-inch column. I l l u s t r a t i o n 5. Centering apparatus and d i a l gauge mounts used on the bottom bearing plate during the compression t e s t s . Frames ^ 2 ? ; 3 i " 3" 4-" i " if Se.c.~hcr> 1 S e c t i o n 2. •Sec//on 3 L SecT*ion 3 sSecT/on ~J Phillips Phillips Phi I hps • Bu-cJJ Ph) lli'ps „ 'Philh'ps I l l u s t r a t i o n 7. Bracing system and s t r a i n gauge l o c a t i o n on the 21-inch column. /OS /OI /OZ © /<57 ^ c e /? - C Df'S-fcxna* 3-D JO do /OS ® in. I l l u s t r a t i o n 8. S t r a i n gauge and d i a l gauge location on the cross s e c t i o n of the 21-inch column. APPENDIX C ILLUSTRATIONS S t r a i n gauge readout equipment f o r the b. 12-inch column ready f o r the compression compression t e s t of the 21-inch column. t e s t . Note the manner i n which the d i a l gauges are mounted. I l l u s t r a t i o n 6. Photographs taken before t e s t s of the equipment used during the compression t e s t s . oo b. S t r a i n gauges on the 2 1 - i n c h s p e c i m a n . I l l u s t r a t i o n 9. Photographs f o l l o w i n g t e s t i n g o f the s t r a i n gauges and d i a l gauges on t h e 21-i n c h column. 

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