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Anaerobic treatment analysis of concentrated hog wastes Nemeth, Les 1972

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ANAEROBIC TREATMENT A N A L Y S I S OF CONCENTRATED  HOG  WASTES  by  LES B.A.Sc,  A THESIS  University  NEMETH  of  British  Columbia,  SUBMITTED IN  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER  in  OF A P P L I E D  the  1969  OF  OF  SCIENCE  Department of  Civil  Engineering  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  as  conforming  to  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  April,  1972  the  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  be  It  financial  of  of  Columbia,  for  by  of  shall  JAJ6>  < C < I > ' 1 L  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  the  understood  gain  Columbia  for  extensive  permission.  Department  British  available  granted  is  fulfilment  Head  be  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  that  not  the  of  of  for  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  or  allowed  without  or  publication my  A B S T R A C T  Due  to  the  development  of  namely,  high-density  confinement  upon as  "natural"  "background"  restrictions, treatment reduce more  of  the  as  regards  amount  is  of  for  one  has  solids  in  on t h e  this  study  such waste position degree  was  All relation attempted  to  of  as  oxygen  The f i n a l the  guidelines  this  portion  of  outcome  to  of  waste  this are  results study.  i i  would  the  liquid  re-use.  effects  was  portion  Anaerobic  of  and  wastes.  various  undertaken.  p r o g r a m was  para-  Included  temperatures  nutrients  treatment  specific  and  same  t r e a t m e n t methods  times  this  based  the  waste  the  solids, of  As  to  looked  concentrated animal  waste  demand,  presented  the  hog  for of  detention  anaerobic  related  recommendations  of  subject  -  a result  a n d make or  traditionally  wastes.  Such  treatment  varied  between l a b o r a t o r y - s c a l e in  courses  decomposition  characteristics  improved design  a r e now b e i n g  disposal  waste  p r o d u c t i o n methods  wastes  industrial  to water  the e f f e c t  optimization  as  animal  on a l a b o r a t o r y - s c a l e  and p r o d u c t i o n .  of  wastes,  requiring  such method of  anaerobic  -  livestock  become n e c e s s a r y .  disposal  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n meters  feeding  disposal,^  some n a t u r e  acceptable  lagooning  or  intensive  on  and  gas  com-  to  add  some  method and  to  develop  field.  on l a b o r a t o r y  field-scale  findings.  results  was  Cornot  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  LIST  OF T A B L E S  vi  L I S T OF FIGURES  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i i  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  General Discussion  1  1.2  Design  1.3  Fundamentals  1.4  Comparison of  and L a y o u t of  of  Treatment F a c i l i t i e s  3  A n a e r o b i c Lagoons  Field  Lagoon  and  5  Laboratory  Digester 1.5  CHAPTER I I  Need f o r  6  Improved  LITERATURE  Design  Criteria  8  REVIEW  11  2.1  General Discussion  11  2.2  Solids  12  2.3  Temperature  14  2.4  pH and N u i s a n c e  2.5  Gas  2.6  D e t e n t i o n Time  2.7  Successful  CHAPTER I I I  Odours  15  P r o d u c t i o n and C o m p o s i t i o n  17  Lagoon D e s i g n  EXPERIMENTAL  15  and O p e r a t i o n  17  PROCEDURE  3.1  General Discussion  3.2  Establishing  20 .  and O p e r a t i n g  the Model  .  .  .  .  Digester  Units 3.3  Digester  3.4  Testing  20  • Temperatures Procedure for  22 23  the i i i  Influent  and E f f l u e n t  . . .  24  3.5  Testing  3.6  Summary  CHAPTER IV  Procedure f o r  E v o l v e d Gas  25 28  THE E F F E C T OF DETENTION  4.1  Introduction  4.2  General Discussion  4.3  Average  4.4  Discussion  4.5  Gas  CHAPTER V  the  29 29  Raw W a s t e of  TIME  .  .  .  .  .  29  Characteristics  31  Results  31  P r o d u c t i o n and C o m p o s i t i o n  39  THE E F F E C T OF TEMPERATURE  46  5.1  Introduction  46  5.2  General Discussion  46  5.3  Discussion  47  5.4  Stability  5.5  Gas  CHAPTER V I  of of  Results the D i g e s t e r s  49  P r o d u c t i o n and C o m p o s i t i o n  SETTLING  -  VS  -  50  B I O L O G I C A L DEGRADATION  54  6.1  Introduction  54  6.2  General Discussion  55  6.3  Methane VS  6.4  CHAPTER V I I  Production Related  to.COD,  BOD  and  Reduction  Discussion  of  57 Results  • •  66  NUTRIENTS  70  7.1  Introduction  70  7.2  Average  7.3  Ammonia-N T o x i c i t y  Raw W a s t e  and  Effluent  Characteristics  . . . .  71 71  7.4  E f f e c t of  T e m p e r a t u r e on T o t a l P h o s p h a t e  and  Ammonia-N R e m o v a l 7.5  E f f e c t of  74  D e t e n t i o n Time on T o t a l P h o s p h a t e  Ammonia-N R e m o v a l 7.6  Nitrogenous  CHAPTER V I I I  and .  O x y g e n Demand  76 78  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  80  8.1  Introduction  80  8.2  Conclusions  8.3  Recommendations  for Design  83  8.4  Recommendations  for  84  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  Future Studies  .  86  APPENDIX A  LABORATORY R E S U L T S  APPENDIX B  E F F E C T OF DETENTION SOLIDS REMOVAL  APPENDIX C  80  89 TIME ON COD,  B0D  5  AND 105  E F F E C T OF TEMPERATURE ON COD,  BOD5 AND  SOLIDS REMOVAL APPENDIX D  E F F E C T OF DETENTION  110 T I M E AND TEMPERATURE ON  AMMONIA-N AND T O T A L PHOSPHATE REMOVAL APPENDIX E  SAMPLE  CALCULATIONS  115 120  LIST  OF T A B L E S  Table I  Page FIELD  STUDY DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ANAEROBIC LAGOONS  TREATING HOG WASTES II III IV V VI VII  13  AVERAGE RAW WASTE C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S  32  AVERAGE E F F L U E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S  33  P E R CENT REMOVAL OF COD, B O D , 5  T S AND VS  " . . . 34  E F F L U E N T p H AND A L K A L I N I T Y  38  DAILY  40  GAS PRODUCTION AS RELATED TO DETENTION T I M E  GAS COMPOSITION  FOR 3 0 ° , 2 5 ° AND 1 8 - 2 3 ° C  DIGESTERS  (RAW WASTE ADDED D A I L Y ) VIII  GAS COMPOSITION  43  FOR 3 0 ° , 2 5 ° AND 1 8 - 2 3 ° C  DIGESTERS  (NO RAW WASTE A D D I T I O N ) IX X XI XII  43  P E R CENT REMOVAL OF COD, B O D , 5  DAILY  T S AND VS  48  GAS PRODUCTION AS R E L A T E D TO TEMPERATURE  52  P E R CENT COD REDUCED BY B I O L O G I C A L A C T I O N  60  P E R CENT B O D  61  5  REDUCED BY B I O L O G I C A L A C T I O N  XIII  PER CENT VS REDUCED BY B I O L O G I C A L  XIV  AVERAGE RAW WASTE C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S  72  AVERAGE E F F L U E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S  73  XV XVI  ACTION  P E R CENT REMOVAL OF TOTAL PHOSPHATE AND  62  AMMONIA-N  AS A F F E C T E D BY TEMPERATURE XVII  PER CENT REMOVAL OF TOTAL PHOSPHATE AND AS A F F E C T E D  BY DETENTION T I M E  vi  75 AMMONIA-N 77  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1-1  PLAN AND E L E V A T I O N VIEWS OF THE LAGOON F A C I L I T I E S  4  1-2  SECTION OF F I E L D  7  1-3  S E C T I O N OF LABORATORY ANAEROBIC  1-4  AERIAL  1-5  LABORATORY ANAEROBIC  3- 1  CHROMATOGRAM OF D I G E S T E R  4- 1  TOTAL DAILY  ANAEROBIC  VIEW OF HOG BARNS  LAGOON DIGESTER  AND ANAEROBIC  7  LAGOONS  9  DIGESTER  9  GAS  27  GAS PRODUCTION AS RELATED TO RAW  WASTE ADDITION 6-1  41  PER CENT OF COD REMOVED BY B I O L O G I C A L  REDUCTION AS  COMPARED  TO THE OVERALL COD REMOVAL OVER A RANGE OF L D T s 6-2  PER CENT OF BODg  REMOVED BY B I O L O G I C A L  TO THE OVERALL B O D 6- 3  5  REDUCTION AS  COMPARED  REMOVAL OVER A RANGE OF L D T s  PER CENT OF VS REMOVED BY B I O L O G I C A L  REDUCTION AS  TO THE OVERALL VS REMOVAL OVER A RANGE OF L D T s 7- 1  63  LONG TERM BOD CURVE FOR RAW P I G  vii  WASTE  64 COMPARED 65 79  A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T  The his  guidance  study. his  author  a n d Bob  wife,  grateful  is  also  during  grateful  Eija-Riitta  and  to h i s  the p r e p a r a t i o n  for  the h e l p  f r o m Bob  investigation  was  supported  Welfare.  Vancouver, April,  supervisor,  and  Cameron,  Dr.  and  W.K.  Oldham  completion of  assistance  this  received  L i z a McDonald,  for  Adrian  from Duncan  Warman. This  and  deeply  and encouragement  The a u t h o r  loving  is  1972  B.C. viii  by  the Department  of  National  Health  C H A P T E R  I  INTRODUCTION  1.1  General  Discussion In  found  it  the past  necessary  decade,  to  the  farmers  are  resulting  solution.  But  confinement  areas  (i)  land  land  disposal  a r e no  longer  a  to  this  disposal  methods  the d i m i n i s h e d as  (ii)  numbers  Along with  Previous  traditional  farms  [l].  reasons,  for  of  of  farmers  one o f  of a  to:  r e l a t i v e value  wastes  animal  farming, of  land  suitable  developing high  a c c e p t a b l e due p r i m a r i l y  animals  disposal  areas  a n i m a l w a s t e s was  of  of  which i s  when l a r g e  the newly  have  agricultural  t h e new c o n c e p t s  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h new p r o b l e m s ,  animal wastes.  were a v a i l a b l e ,  a number o f  concentrate greater  o n t o more c o n f i n e d l a n d these  for  density,  fertilizer;  the q u a n t i t y direct  land  of  raw w a s t e  disposal  being  without  too  great  creating  for  nuisance  conditions; (iii)  the p o l l u t i o n problems surrounding  As  a result,  essential by  the need f o r waste  [2],  During  t r a d i t i o n a l manure  waste  water  treatment  the p a s t spreading  schemes  c r e a t e d by w a s t e s  courses  management ten years has  or  ground  activated  sludge  the a l t e r n a t i v e  been b i o l o g i c a l  (2)  oxidation  ditches  systems  1  waters.  by a l t e r n a t e methods  which have been u t i l i z e d  (1)  reaching  waste  has  to waste  become disposal  treatment.  successfully  are:  Those  2  Field  (3)  aerated  (4)  anaerobic  studies  on a l l  of  effluent  p r o d u c e d can  It  then  seems  outlined. tory of  that  In  agency,  in  biological  cases  The scale  high  Valley. born,  sq.  industry Fraser  ft.  is  waste  load  or not  sulting  f i r m which  Centre  As  was  treatment  characteristics, outlay  treatment  by  that  at  this  regulatory  agencies.  of  no  "factory-farms"  is  the  regula-  appropriate  longer  adequate,  and  whose  is  to  Control  the  degree  schemes  treatment both  took  the into  well  some  form  land  lagoons. aeration  in  the  Fraser  year w i l l  floor  waste  area  be  is  from such  an  Branch  stipulated  of  (PPCB)  knowledge treatment Centre and  The  The o v e r a l l  area  c o u l d be  t o be  waste  provided  Hog.  conworking The  anticipated requirements,  final plans  the  derived a  consideration land  of  the  retained a  PPCB a n d N a t i o n a l  devices  large-  into  schemes  values.  first  be d i s c h a r g e d  Hog  efficiencies,  and p r e s e n t  of  the  per  total  because  The N a t i o n a l  to  is  hogs  strength  However,  numerous  B.C.  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  waste  lacking,  mechanical  by most  marketable  Pollution  anaerobic  is  buildings  volume  treatment  the  Abbotsford,  22,000  agreeable  shown t h a t  future  standards  facility  stipulated.  studied  have  necessary.  be p r o v i d e d .  w h i c h was  so  is  set  for  disposal  finished within  specifically  versatility  Hog  the P r o v i n c i a l  capital  the  land  The r e s u l t i n g  of  design  installation  characteristics  study  initial volved  where  processes  standards  to  treatment  treatment  arrangement firm's  comply  considerable.  River,  that  waste  and  treatment  hog-raising  From t h i s  100,000  was  density  weaned,  these  National  aeration)  lagoons.  trend in  to  waste  (mechanical  conform to  the  order  lagoons  proposal included  installed  inbuilt-in if  3  treatment  1.2  e f f i c i e n c y had  D e s i g n and L a y o u t  t o be  of  (a)  Design  The  treatment  system.  The f i r s t  two  capacity  each with  a water  settling  ponds  During one  routine  "resting"  lated  with  years. suitable  for  land The  capacity  with  continually third in  cell  that  cell  Anaerobic in  this and  mechanical  efficiency (b)  is  lagoons,  feet. of  cells  anaerobic  are  Removal  estimated  be w e l l  of  a  three-cell  300,000  to  used  degraded,  ft.  act  as  activity. alternately  frequency  be e v e r y  cu.  to  biological  ponds  service.  was  are  of  These were b u i l t  two p r i m a r y in  consisted  of  three  accumuto  five  reduced i n volume  of  the  is  system  11 f e e t . in  use  was It  of  the  The o v e r f l o w  discharged aeration  becomes  accepts  and p r o v i d e s  decomposition cell.  designed  to  the  devices  for  the  liquid  further  and  Fraser be  and  final  River. added  cu.  if  for  colloidal cell  is  It  is  to  an  increase  necessary.  Figure  and e l e v a t i o n 1-1.  views  of  the  lagoon  ft.  overflow  detention  dissolved  from t h i s  will  100,000  Layout  The p l a n in  the  depth of  chlorinated  treatment  illustrated  cell  primary  continues  15  PPCB,  disposal.  third  supernatant.  organics  depth of  other  the  primary  sludge would  a water  from whichever the  the  removed  or  added b e n e f i t  from a l t e r n a t e  This  Facilities  a c c e p t e d by  farm o p e r a t i o n while  sludge  Treatment  cells,  the  increased.  facilities  are  this  4  PRIMARY  S E C T I O N  O F  FIGURE  LAGOONS  L A G O O N  1-1  PLAN fie E L E V A T I O N VIEWS OF T H E LAGOON  FACILITIES  1.3  Fundamentals  of  Anaerobic  The o b j e c t stabilize  to  biological  some  in  degree  lagooning the  Hydrolysis  (ii)  c o n c e n t r a t e d animal wastes organics  may b e g e n e r a l l y of  in  by b i o l o g i c a l d e s c r i b e d as  is  to  means.  The  three-phase  complex m a t e r i a l ;  Acid production organics  of  incoming  anaerobic process (i)  Lagoons  conversion of  t h e raw w a s t e  intermediate-products  by  complex  to mostly  acid  acid-forming  bacteria; (iii)  Gas  production -  c o n v e r s i o n of  intermediate-products dioxide In have  a high  bacteria.  order  for  food value  is  measured by  (BOD)  t h e more  p o r t i o n of  provide water  the  food  containing  and s e r v e s  to  substrate  it  has  for  and  is  in  in  the  are  the primary settled  l a g o o n and  the  solids  in  oxygen  these  digestion.  suspension  lagoon.  and  However,  solids,  the  accumulated  the  prevents  a as  settled solids  The o v e r l y i n g  blankets  demand w h i c h  the  The h i g h e r  functions: a high  of  must  biochemical  anaerobic  a n a e r o b i c breakdown.  colloidal  activity  (VSS).  for  animal wastes out  the. raw w a s t e  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  solids  source  carbon  bacteria.  successful,  and r e m o v a l o f  accumulate  dissolved  in  settle  separation  two i m p o r t a n t (i)  solids  solids  usual  a suitable  the  and  forming  the  suitable  the  acid  the m e t a b o l i c  suspended  the  allowed  sustain  and v o l a t i l e  Initially  are  t o be  The f o o d v a l u e  are  solids  system to  values  to  by methane  as  demand  opposed  this  t o methane  so  oxygen  large  largely  the  settled  waste solid  6  (ii)  diffusion  of  deposits,  and;  it  provides  dilution  free  oxygen  to  the  bottom  a b u f f e r i n g mechanism  and d i s p e r s i o n  for  shock  through waste  loadings. Under  these  degrade  the  conditions organic  carbon dioxide surface  (C0 )  and  2  and f i n a l l y  solids  solids  gas  cross-section  1.4  trace  is  of  still  of  Field  to  the primary  field  step  relate  lab-scale  the  the  the work  it  w o u l d be  achieve  criteria  a given  field  in  the  that  treatment  and  be n o t e d  that  due i n p a r t  in  (2)  and  (CH^,  to  the  studies  laboratory be u s e d  efficiency.  test  the  organics.  A  Digester  If the  were b u i l t lab  successful anaerobic  full-scale  A cross-section  to  digesters  conducted to  and d e t e r m i n e w i t h on  of  1-2.  w h i c h w o u l d be  to  re-  resulting  the  the work w i t h  results.  of  resuspension  reaction vessels  Following  process  organics  the  to  Figure  and L a b o r a t o r y  full-scale  must  settling  shown  w o u l d become p o s s i b l e  animal wastes design  and  is  anaerobic  lagoon.  methane  a combined two-part  should  lagoon  lagoons  bubbles  i n c o m p l e t e breakdown of  Lagoon  the  atmosphere.  considerable  and  a typical  subsequent  most  The e v o l v e d gas  then i s  It  Laboratory-scale  of  the  lagooning  agitation  Comparison  late  gases.  to  means.  in  consequent p r o d u c t i o n of  r e m o v a l and c o n c e n t r a t i o n by  strength  by  with  diffuses  d u c t i o n by b i o l o g i c a l effluent  anaerobic b a c t e r i a thrive  solids  Anaerobic (1)  the  in  this  the  corarea  treatability  acceptable  the  of  accuracy  installations of  simu-  to  laboratory  7 RAINFALL  RAW  EVAPORATION  WASTE  ^  EVOLVED  GAS  A T M O S P H E RE  AGITATED  SUPERNATANT /  ,  /  /  SLU D G E  Sludge — Consists Agitated  /  SUPERNATANT  of  settled solids  plus  S u p e r n a t a n t — I n c l u d e s d i s s o l v e d and c o l l o i d a l s o l i d s ; re-suspended s o l i d s due to gas a g i t a t i o n ; plus anaerobes  Crust — Consists of v o l a t i l e matter plus h a i r , a n d wood f i b r e s Evolved  anaerobes  Gas — C o n s i s t s  Atmosphere — 0 , 2  N  2  of  plus  C H ^ , C0 trace  FIGURE SECTION  OF F I E L D  2  trace  hulls, gases  gases  1-2  ANAEROBIC  EVAPORATION  plus  grain  LAGOON  EVOLVED  GAS  ATMOSPHERE  '////X. R U S I////, SUPERNATANT  RAW  WASTE  Atmosphere — C H 4 ,  C 0 plus 2  FIGURE SECTION  trace  gases  1-3  OF LABORATORY ANAEROBIC  DIGESTER  digester  is  shown  illustrated the  in  Figure  in  Figure  1-2.  laboratory  set-up  are  1.5  Need  for  Improved  Hog  efficiencies  of  guidelines lagoons.  With  anaerobic  of  definite to  for  operating  t h e many  lagoons design  develop  given  to  (as  set  by  similar  for  not  facilities  the  1-4  to  for  design  flow  of  in  the  and  anaerobic  the U n i t e d  the years  lagoons,  raw w a s t e ,  agency)  Considering Essential  this  a lagoon  of  can  of  (ii)  and  the  States  and  in  the  design  use  from  at  laboratory  design  these  and  and b e c a u s e  the  operation of  study  a  was  items  the  "in"  which  build-up  the  r e q u i r e d frequency of  the  rate  organic  bacteria;  of  study  and  data lagoon  "out"  are missing  solids  solids  no  lack under-  consideration  given  the  required effluent  determine a workable only  if  The d e s i g n e r ,  field  rate  anaerobic  of  treatment  c a n be s i m p l e  lagoon.  the  of  in  from e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  involved  the  of  facility  guidelines.  of  the  lagoons  in  and  sludge  hence  removal;  destruction  volume  by  such  average  quality  collected  waste  are: (i)  field  1-5.  from knowledge  within  facilities  the  farm and a p h o t o g r a p h  concentrated animal wastes  regulatory  adequate.  of  Figures  design  improved design  treatment.  wholly  method  the  compared  view  determined  parameters  and  existing  adequate  in  uncertainties  the workings  characteristics  c a n be  Criteria  the  C e n t r e were  The g e n e r a l is  shown  which had e v o l v e d over  of  taken  and  An a e r i a l  Design  Guidelines the N a t i o n a l  1-3  for  values a  on  is  design  A E R I A L VIEW OF HOG BARNS AND ANAEROBIC LAGOONS FIGURE  1-4  LABORATORY ANAEROBIC FIGURE  1-5  DIGESTER  10  (iii)  the e f f e c t of s o l i d s build-up on treatment efficiencies;  (iv)  the e f f e c t of temperature  on the waste  treatment operation; (v)  the e f f e c t of gas evolution i n mixing the lagoon contents and on the quality of the lagoon  effluent.  These then were some of the s p e c i f i c points which t h i s research study centered on.  Included with the study and related  were the e f f e c t s of such parameters concentration.  to the above points  as raw waste loading rate and nutrient  In the f i n a l analysis the purpose of this study was to  provide information which would a s s i s t i n optimizing c r i t e r i a f o r the design of anaerobic treatment for concentrated animal wastes.  C H A P T E R LITERATURE  2.1  General  istics  lagoons or  the  literature  without  lagoons  should so  were o f t e n m i s t a k e n l y  due c o n s i d e r a t i o n  principles  relationships As  manure  on d e s i g n  pond d e s i g n  REVIEW  Discussion Early  aerobic  II  involved  criteria  be b a s e d  in  for  lagoons  to  area requirements need not  ment d e s i g n .  Consequently,  a volumetric basis. designing  lagoon  Some o f  e v e n be  waste nor  (i)  cu.  ft.  lagoon/lb.  (ii)  lb.  BOD/cu.  (iii)  lb.  volatile  ft.  of  of  states  ponds  oxygen  methods  the parameters are:  water  for this  have  which have  after  character-  Recent  rather  considered in  design  facilities of  such wastes.  considerations  design  present  animal waste  specifically  a n a e r o b i c b a c t e r i a need n e i t h e r s u n l i g h t  face  the  treating  on volume  commonly u s e d  to  patterned  that  manure  t h a n on  surface  [3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. survival,  sur-  scheme  treat-  of  been developed been quoted  on  for  animal;  lagoon/day;  solids  (VS)/cu.  ft.  of  lagoon/day. In lagoon  volume  second  and  the is  first  the  characteristics  three  design  is  due  to  the  procedures  and  parameters, fact  all  t o t a l weight  t h i r d design  waste  case,  that  that of  first  livestock  r e q u i r e d to  animals  t o be  determine  of  waste  two a r e manures 11  of  produced per  gaining usually  the  accommodated w h i l e  r e q u i r e some k n o w l e d g e  t h e amount the  is  wider contain  the  day.  animal Of  acceptance. large  the  these This  quantities  12  of  hay  stems,  matter.  Thus  reliable  in  from f i e l d Table  grain the  hulls  lb.  VS/cu.  determining research  and  similar ft.  of  adequate  non-biodegradable  lagoon/day  lagoon  and w h i c h have  is  sizes.  been used  but  inappropriate  Some o f  for  volatile and  the v a l u e s  design are  less obtained  outlined  in  I. Removal  these  efficiencies  same r e s e a r c h e r s 75-80%  60-70% It one m u s t n o t primary  lose  BOD  (TS)  lagoons  by  chemical  removal,  oxygen  be n o t e d however  for  above  demand  (COD)  removal,  removal.  sight  treatment  solids  and  should  the  show:  total  8 5 - 9 0 % VS  r e p o r t e d on a few o f  of  the  the  fact  incoming  that  that  these  values  lagooning  waste  and  the  are misleading  essentially  effluent  is  and  affords  still  rather  potent.  2.2  Solids Related  animal  wastes  l a g o o n due found ical  to  to  be a  is  waste  of  will  Two a l t e r n a t i v e  high per in  VS  of  both  solutions  some  population  reached to  removal  and  (i.e. this  The  loading  to  end-products be  [9].  the  and a l s o  cent  of  e f f e c t i v e waste  accumulation  microbial  gaseous  lagoons  the  decrease  function  even a balanced to  the  solids  degradation  material  to  extent  will  not  solids  VS,  capacity  the  rate rate  the washout  reduce a  concentrated  build-up  of to  inevitably  for  retention  sludge rate  VS  all  finite  build-up  will  the  has of  of  the  been biolog-  VS.  But  organic  service become  p r o b l e m o f f e r e d by p r e s e n t  of  life a  for  problem).  design  13  TABLE FIELD  R e f e r e n c e //  I  STUDY DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING HOG WASTES  Researcher  Hart  & Turner  R e q u i r e d Lagoon  2.5-5.0  475  Clark Dornbush  VS/1000  3  ft /hog 3  130-170  & Anderson  ft /day  ft /hog 3  124  ft /animal  Ricketts  0.3  ft /lb  animal  Willrich  1.6  ft /lb  animal  Anon  0.9  ft /lb  animal  Willrich  1.8  ft /lb  animal  Hart  & Turner  Eby Willrich  5  Curtis  8  White  9  lb  Volume  Dornbush Dornbush  & Anderson  3  3  3  3  3  0.4-1.4  ft /lb  animal  1.0-2.0  ft /lb  animal  3  3  75-100  ft /hog 3  10-20  lb  BOD/1000  ft /day  15-20  lb  BOD/1000  ft /day  5-10  lb  VS/1000  3  3  ft /day 3  14  procedure  are: (1)  p e r i o d i c dredging sludge  (2)  a given  lagoons  sludge and  rate  determined  This  is  a rough  pond i t design  2.3  estimate  estimate  of  ft.  animal/year degradation. the  for  as  less  the  [3], From  on a p r e build-up.  concentration for  sludge  space.  of  lagoon  f o r maximum s o l i d s solids  into  This  accumulates would  alter  the  sludge.  within any  the  original  frequency.  Temperature Biological  temperature  sensitive  verified  by  field  perature  conditions  conditions  occur  activity  under a n a e r o b i c  [3,5,8,9].  studies,  As  anaerobic  (25-35°C)  with  conditions  is  extremely  r e p o r t e d from l a b o r a t o r y  studies  action  summer  little  is  vigorous  activity  under  under w i n t e r  and tem-  temperature  (0-10°C). Of  of  life  cu.  c a l c u l a t e d based  only,  cleanout  the  frequency of  a constant  and o c c u p i e s for  solids  level  assumes  estimate  compacts  of  t h e n be  storage  estimating  a dredging  could  The s e c o n d  by  sludge  produced/100 l b .  the  this  consideration  depth;  designing the  without  within  equal  the  treatment  t e m p e r a t u r e change  new c o n d i t i o n s  concern i s  and  to  the  system.  allows  rate It  at  has  which  fluctuations  been determined that  anaerobic bacteria  continue b i o l o g i c a l  temperature  to  activity.  adjust  a slow  somewhat  On t h e o t h e r  to  rate the  hand,  15  rapid  temperature  obic, action rapid  2.4  [l2J.  temperature  exposed  fluctuations  surface  In  changes,  to  During  to  completely  arrest  p r o t e c t i o n and i n s u l a t i o n  lagoon design  criteria  should  include  anaer-  against minimizing  depth.  Odours  the o p e r a t i o n  maintained  near  neutral with  from these  conditions  activity.  been found  provide  a r e a and m a x i m i z i n g  pH and N u i s a n c e  logical  order  have  result  Dornbush  of  a successful  an optimum r a n g e i n malodourous [9]  describes  lagoon  from 6 . 8 - 7 . 2 .  conditions  this  t h e pH s h o u l d  be  Variances  and d e c r e a s e d  bio-  situation:  " M e a g e r i n f o r m a t i o n seems t o p o i n t t h e a c c u s i n g f i n g e r a t s l u d g e a c c u m u l a t i o n s on t h e b o t t o m o f l a g o o n s as b e i n g a m a j o r s o u r c e o f n u i s a n c e o d o r s . W i t h low t e m p e r a t u r e s o r an i n a d e q u a t e p o p u l a t i o n o f methane f o r m e r s , the f i r s t s t a g e of d i g e s t i o n , that of a c i d f o r m a t i o n , w i l l proceed w i t h i n the sludge accumulations. The r e s u l t i n g o r g a n i c a c i d s w o u l d q u i c k l y exceed the l i m i t e d b u f f e r i n g w i t h i n the s l u d g e d e p o s i t s and t h e pH w o u l d b e g i n t o d r o p t o f u r t h e r l i m i t the p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e methane f o r m e r s . O r g a n i c a c i d s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o a c c u m u l a t e and an a c i d s l u d g e bank o r " p o c k e t " w o u l d d e v e l o p . It i s h y p o t h e s i z e d that these a c i d s l u d g e banks are a major source of odors i n lagoons. Odors w i l l be produced i n the a c i d s l u d g e u n t i l t h i s l o c a l i z e d " p i c k l i n g " environment i s a l t e r e d e i t h e r through d i s p e r s i o n by m i x i n g , pH a d j u s t m e n t , o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a d e q u a t e p o p u l a t i o n of methane f o r m e r s t o b r e a k down t h e a c i d s . "  2.5  Gas  Production McCarty  zation  and methane  and  Composition  [ll] gas  outlines  formation  the as:  relationship  between waste  stabili-  16  From t h i s methane  equation  it  is  theoretically possible  produced from a knowledge  complete breakdown  of  the  The u l t i m a t e  of  the waste  to p r e d i c t chemical  the q u a n t i t y  composition  of  during  waste. oxygen  demand o f  methane  gas  may b e  described  as  follows: CH, + 2C> 4 2  Equation stabilization shows  oxygen or  of  methane  shows  that  utilized.  and  the  to  close  duction  organic  material  sist  is  p r e d i c t i o n of  of  methane  equivalent cu.  ft.  values a wide  CH^  for  have  to  it  COD o r  BOD  (STP)  of  L  This  two m o l e s  methane  shown  (2)  produced.  variety  with which  agitation  lagoon  action  for  will  of  (ultimate chemical  oxygen.  production per  wastes  c a n be u s e d  BOD)  equation Further  be p r o d u c e d p e r  from pure  the v a l i d i t y  is  also  by  redistributing  bacterial  therefore usually  be m a i n t a i n e d .  not  important.  utilization necessary  if  Gas  mixing  within  the  of  bottom  sludge  to  lagoon  With  regard  to  composition,  methane,  carbon  dioxide  raising  of  + 2H 0 2  2  to  of  this  lb.  pound o f  of COD  laboratory relationship  p r e d i c t methane  pro-  [10,11].  the  stant  for  accuracy  improve  can  5.62  complex wastes  Gas  mixing  is  Measured  BOD^ s t a b i l i z a t i o n  substrates  allows  from the volume  one mole  calculation  (2)  CC-  gas  the  and  trace  Gas  agitation  and making [3,4,5].  lagoon  is  surface the  gases.  available Design  vigorous  appears  for  biological  i n d i c a t e d by  to  undigested mechanical activity the  con-  end-products  con-  [7],  gaseous  Taiginides  [6],  studying  17  anaerobic  digestion  anaerobic  treatment of  carbon  2.6  of  hog wastes swine  at  wastes  35°C,  reported that  59% o f  the  gas  was  during  successful  methane  and  40%  dioxide.  Detention  Time  In mentioned  in  addition  section  consideration.  to  2.1,  the o r g a n i c the waste  Eckenfelder [lO]  loading  to  the  lagooning  r e t e n t i o n t i m e must  states  also  system  be  given  that:  " . . . s u f f i c i e n t t i m e m u s t be a v a i l a b l e i n the r e a c t o r to p e r m i t growth of the organisms o r t h e y w i l l be washed o u t o f t h e s y s t e m . " It governs  has  and t h a t  will  begin  2.7  Successful  been determined t h a t  for  d e t e n t i o n times  t o be washed  Lagoon  out  of  the  D e s i g n and  of  the methane b a c t e r i a growth less  treatment  as  are  summarized  7 days  some  system.  from the  f o r hog waste  available  literature  lagoon  Design (i)  -  volume 3  /4-l%  requirements cu.  BOD/1000 VS/1000 for  cu. cu.  sludge  ft./lOO  ft./lb.  lb.  should animal;  ft./day ft./day  volume  or with  10-20  on  lb. lb.  consideration  build-up  hog/year);  be b a s e d  3.5-7.0  design  [5,8,9,10]  follows: (a)  organisms  Operation  Recommended g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s operation  than  rate  (15-20  cu.  and  and are  18  (ii)  rapid  temperature  adversely bacteria  affect should  fluctuations methane  (iii)  area to  (iv)  the  order  of  biological  activity  in  the  should  in  lagoon  order  minimum to  tamination the  soil  the  lagoon  regard table  avoid  severe  prevent of  not  below  the p o s s i b l e  con-  water and  supplies  location  be c o n s i d e r e d  infiltration,  a  20°C);  characteristics  to  depth;  temperature  drop  surrounding  should  the  retardation  the  (i.e.  the  exposed  and m a x i m i z i n g  in  specified  producing  be m i n i m i z e d i n  l a g o o n by m i n i m i z i n g surface  which  ground  and u n c o n t r o l l e d r u n o f f  of  with water  due  to  storms; (v)  the  r e t e n t i o n banks  be s l o p e d  of  adequately  the  lagoon  to  ensure  be  discharged  should  soil  stability; (vi)  the  raw w a s t e  the  central  submerged provided  a fence lagoon  area of  inlets. at  possibility (vii)  the of  should as  should  the  lagoon  Baffles  outlets  to  into  through  should  be  decrease  the  short-circuiting; be p r o v i d e d  a safety  around  precaution.  the  Operation (i)  if  -  possible  should  commence i n  summer  to  warming viable (ii)  (iii)  the o p e r a t i o n of  take  trend  7.4  since  at  neutral  all  to  so  times  aid  in  of  lagoon  or  the  early  natural  establishing  a  culture;  s h o u l d b e b e t w e e n 6.8  the b a c t e r i a a r e most  and  active  pH;  the design tained  spring  advantage  bacteria  t h e pH r a n g e  late  the  water that  the  and n o t  atmospheric  level  solids in  oxygen.  and c o n t i n u o u s  s h o u l d be are  direct This  anaerobic  main-  covered  contact  allows  at  with  immediate  digestion  of  solids.  C H A P T E R  I I I  EXPERIMENTAL  3.1  General  Discussion All  advance  of  the  investigation the  field  necessary starting  for  on hog w a s t e  the a n a l y s i s  explained in  preparations capacity  gas  a gas  type  of  the  30°C). the of  and  raw w a s t e  for  Sanitary of  included a  treatment, a  tentative  Standard  set  [16],  f o u r model d i g e s t e r s acrylic plastic  of  exThe  [15]  and  Additional of  (Figure  design of  for  samples.  Methods  Engineers  and the  literature  a program  and e f f l u e n t  outlined in  assembly  digester  Since  the  cooling  water  to m a i n t a i n  unit  was  two o f  laboratory was  25  litre  1-5),  a suitable  the  method  temperature c o n t r o l l e d  allowed  this  case  c i r c u l a t i o n pump a s  this  however  tapes  the  digester  unit the  was  while  ambient  r e g u l a t e d by  a  thermo-  temperatures continually  internal cooling  required.  20  to maintain  t e m p e r a t u r e was  c o o l e d by  mechanism used w i t h In  were  External heating  ambient  10°C d i g e s t e r  thermostat  units  fourth digester  (18°-23°C).  the h e a t e d d i g e s t e r s . a  the  mechanism were u s e d  18°C,  both  Chemistry  This  in  analysis.  room t e m p e r a t u r e  and  of  had been completed  and d e s i g n o f  c o l l e c t i o n apparatus  temperature of  stat  study.  characteristics  used are  i n c l u d e d the  Three the  this  c o n s t r u c t e d from t r a n s p a r e n t  design of for  for  raw w a s t e s  experimental procedures further  i n i t i a l preparations  time  c o l l e c t i o n of  periments  PROCEDURE  coils.  identical  thermostat  to  simply  (25°C above  The that  in  activated  21  With some  range  of  50 d a y s was the  field  tention manner at  each  litre  capacity  detention  times  had  lagoons  to  tention  25  chosen because  times  which  the  at  were  some  treatment time  be  represented a daily  and  satisfactory This  experiments  in  changes  a realistic from  this  a period  lower  limit  rate  figure  in  months  in  a  expected  to  be  % litre  with,  limit  of  terms  of  limit,  reduced.  of  t o work  An u p p e r  upper  of  was  be m a r k e d l y  feeding  daily  and  data  triplicate,  discrepancies  in  was  anticipated  that  settling,  the  a i m t h e n was  through  and weekly  or  effects  digestion  outline  experimental  duplicate  It  of  this  represented  occurred.  the  de-  stepwise the  point  The i n i t i a l of  raw w a s t e  deto  temperature,  the  this and  sampling,  re-running  raw w a s t e testing  detention  collect  the v a r i o u s  waste  and  to  or  detention completing  experiments  effluent  where  characteristics  program  would  time  the  on  suffi-  determine  anaerobic  process. For  major  units  digester.  periods.  large  over  e f f i c i e n c y would  Equipped with cient  This  digester  decided upon.  Working  decreased  limit.  be  the  represented  Abbotsford.  to  lower  it  to  of  clarity  the  experimental  procedure  is  divided  into  headings: (i)  establishing  and  operating  the model  digester  units; (ii)  digester  temperatures;  (iii)  testing  procedure  for  the  effluent  and  (iv)  testing  procedure  for  the  evolved  gas.  influent;  four  the  22  3.2  Establishing  and O p e r a t i n g  A number o f of  anaerobic  posed  bacteria in  loadings.  During  characteristics culturing In  order  tors  and w i t h  to  rectify  anaerobes feeding  p r o g r a m was  feeding  r a t e was  cessfully  at  Feeding  was  oxygen off  to  months,  situation  again.  begun.  attempted at the  Initially  effluent  l i n e was  of  this  with  positive  pressure  This  within  the  simulate  field  The s o l i d s  feeding or  sampling  with  The f i r s t  of  the  the  raw w a s t e  waste  rate.  until  the  themselves  a  The  operated  no  at  diges-  used.  digesters  T h e r e was  the  feeding  r a t e was  im-  attempt  chemicals  of  to  suc-  comprehensive  time. test  period that  the e x c e p t i o n of for  was  the  lack  of  during  followed,  double  feeding of  the  on F r i d a y s  and  on the  excluded entry  weekends. of  atmospheric  simultaneously  an e q u a l volume this  doses  feeding  a c c o m p l i s h e d by  of  operation in  draining  raw w a s t e . order  to  The  maintain  digester.  Since mechanical mixing  the  until  digester/day.  and a d d i n g  closed  aid  feeding  a manner w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y  gas  noticeable.  a low  in  of  gained  raw w a s t e  further addition  done  digester  to  the  compensate  a volume  order  an e x c e s s i v e  to  digester.  was  culture  predictably  techniques.  order  the  act  a viable  Once t h e b a c t e r i a r e - e s t a b l i s h e d  intensive  done d a i l y  establish  familiarity  without  w i t h no  5  was  in  those  Units  which would  increased progressively  During  Mondays  digesters  400 mg B 0 D / l i t r e  gathering  digesters  the  "sit"  were a c t i v e  were r e q u i r e d to  f a i l e d due t o  this  to  Digester  the r e q u i r e d lab  the anaerobes  were a l l o w e d  data  months  the Model  conditions,  was  not  the  solids  a c c u m u l a t i o n however procedure.  Any  u s e d on any  of  the  units  a c c u m u l a t i o n was  gave  attempts  little to  trouble  in  quite during  d i r e c t l y measure  solids  23  build-up and  proved  lifted  liquid  3.3  the  fruitless sludge  because  continually,  perature  the  three  c o n t r o l l e d by  digester  thermostat  arrangement  for  temperature  sensitivity  for  those  two  The  third  unit  control.  For  testing  the  average  creased  and  then  this  17°C and  lines was  other  the  stirred.  the  at  between  crust  which  separated  formations  at  the  was  Summer  of  unit  and  temperature 30±1°C.  Fall  and  Summer m o n t h s  contents  months  no  of  gradually  slowly  recorded during  fell  this  ther-  inoff.  period  were  18-23°C. was  cooling  digester.  and  tem-  described  room t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h Spring  temperatures range  25±1°C  digester  and  two w e r e  the p r e v i o u s l y  temperature  the  the  on-line,  completed l a t e r ,  coils  Cooling  of  water  c o n t r o l l e d pump.  copper was  a n d was  tubing  forced  identical  lined  through  The c o n t r o l l e d  the these  temperature  10±1°C.  one d i f f i c u l t y the bottom  caused  remedy  units  through  that  a thermostatically  p r o b l e m was to  usual  the  Using  operated at  fqurth digester  The layering  was  late  three except  maintained  order  of  initially  units.  digester  digester  p e r i m e t e r of by  units  control,  unit,  through  25°C w i t h The  inside  formations  and b e c a u s e  temperature of  T h e minimum-maximum  the  lens  Temperatures  Of  to  gas  surface.  Digester  most  of  by p o o r  this  encountered with  sludge  and  the  overlying  vertical positioning  situation,  the  this  digester  of  unit  liquid  the  contents  was  layer.  cooling were  thermal This  coils.  occasionally  In  24  D u r i n g the s t a r t - u p of the f o u r t h d i g e s t e r , s e e d i n g m a t e r i a l from the o t h e r t h r e e d i g e s t e r s was  u t i l i z e d w i t h a supplement  waste.  g r a d u a l l y lowered from 20°C to  The  liquid  temperature was  over a one month p e r i o d .  U s i n g the p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d f e e d i n g  a b a c t e r i a l c u l t u r e a c c l i m a t e d to 10°C was t e s t i n g and  established.  more pronounced  10°C  procedure  the same as  With t h i s u n i t , however, s l u d g e b u i l d - u p was  than i n the h e a t e d d i g e s t e r s .  By e a r l y F a l l  had i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the sampling and f e e d i n g p r o c e d u r e . some s l u d g e was  raw  From then on the  f e e d i n g procedure used on t h i s d i g e s t e r was  f o r the o t h e r t h r e e .  of  d r a i n e d and d i s c a r d e d .  T h i s was  that even  the b u i l d - u p  At t h i s  point  done o n l y once w i t h  this  digester.  3.4  T e s t i n g Procedure  f o r the I n f l u e n t and  Effluent  As r e q u i r e d d u r i n g the s t u d y , e i g h t - h o u r composite raw waste were o b t a i n e d from the o u t f a l l sewer a t the hog to 150  litres  ( F i g u r e 1-1).  were d e l i v e r e d to a r e f r i g e r a t e d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t y  About  Sampling  The  a t UBC.  filled  carboys of raw waste were then used i n d i v i d u a l l y  f o r f e e d i n g and  For the a n a l y s i s of the raw waste samples,  mixed raw waste was The  100 was to  carboys  Refrigeration  n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to minimize b a c t e r i a l growth and a c t i v i t y .  purposes.  of  l e a d i n g from the barns a t the manhole c l o s e s t  the p o i n t o f d i s c h a r g e i n t o the lagoons  was  farm.  of raw waste were c o l l e c t e d on each o c c a s i o n .  done from the sewer l i n e  samples  The testing  a grab sample of  taken from each carboy b e i n g used.  samples  taken f o r t e s t i n g o f the s e t t l e d  of the d i g e s t e r s were a l s o grab samples.  liquid  portion  T h i s sampling however, was  done  25  regularly delayed were  during  for  one  the middle o r more  immediately  in  digester the  twelfth  test  waste  and O r g a n i c  (page  402  pH V a l u e  (6)  Total  (7)  Chemical  accurate  through  with  system  with  performed. the mixed  procedures  Kjeldahl  The  followed tests  raw are  waste outlined  performed  were:  Nitrogen  all and  the  (COD)  to  (page  415)  trials  the  Evolved  feed,  the  (page  the were  (page  423)  510)  dilution  strength, factors  determined.  subsequent  testing  w e r e made  using  to  for  dilute the  These  values  period.  For  raw  appropriate  water.  Gas  anaerobic  other  & VS)  the h i g h waste  distilled  some  a uniform  (TS  dilutions  functioning of  Solids  digester  throughout  for  (BOD)  due  repeated  from each  flasks  Demand  Demand  necessary  traces  samples  422)  Oxygen  control  Procedure  the  was  369)  and V o l a t i l e  constant  was  [15].  testing  effluent,  p e r f o r m e d on b o t h  Methods  Oxygen  (page  Through  effluent  or  that  & 404)  (5)  also  event  231)  (page  Biochemical  A properly  2  (page  (4)  volumetric  C0 ,  Standard  Total  of  and  of  the  analysis  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  (3)  was  In  raw w a s t e  the  were  Alkalinity  purposes  CH4  until  (2)  the  Testing  either  Phosphate  fairly  pipettes,  for  (1)  samples.  and  e a c h week.  triplicate  edition  remained  3.5  in  supernatant.  It the  days  refrigerated  Tests and  of  gases.  digester In  the  two p r i m a r y  evolves  primarily  case  a  of  gases would  flowbe  evolved  26  in  a relatively  mination  of  constant  this  ratio  (1)  any  (2)  ratio  during  upset  or  After  ing  finally  the  gas  the  evolved  analysis  of  some  details  Model  -  Column Packing  Gas fitted syringe done  with  for  a gas  gas  of  16'  the  in  times  temperature  gave  but  by  of a  the  e v o l v e d gas  thermal  was  conductivity  programmed.  CH^,  columns  CO2, H S  and  and N H .  2  it  shown  columns  peaks in  for  Figure  packings The  3  s e p a r a t e d most  distinguishable is  of  pack-  effectively these  gas  3-1.  are:  5752B  8'  Poropack  Q 5 0 - 8 0 Mesh  8'  Poropack  R 50-80  of  analysis  was  port.  as  showing  <{> SS  Column -  gas  in  composition  a series  chromatogram  the purpose  weekly  of  t h e model and  sampling  the  with  chosen because  1  digester  constituents  samples  * /8"  aid  Deter-  gas.  Hewlett-Packard  The s a m p l e s  the  study  Mesh  collected in  were  chromatograph.  +  chamber  then e x t r a c t e d with  Testing  progressed  a glass  at  the  a weekly  start  analysis  a  was was  sufficient. Measurement  of  gas  and a n a l y z e d on t h e  three  deemed  gas  and a l s o  A typical  The  the  conditions.  ratio,  l i t e r a t u r e review,  standard  constituents  gas  chromatograph  d e c i d e d u p o n was  constituents.  in  t e m p e r a t u r e on  of  T h e d e t e c t o r was  tested with  would p o s s i b l y  inbalance the  operating  the e f f e c t  c o m p l e t e d on a r e s e a r c h gas  were  testing  given  in  Actual  unit.  the  the v a r i a t i o n  of  detector  for  during  of  the  rate  a 24 h o u r p e r i o d was  of  gas  p r o d u c t i o n and  accomplished  through  total  production  a water-gas  displace-  27  8  -1 G A S A N A L Y S I S FOR DIGESTER *3-l8°-23°C  7 -  INJECTION PORT TC DETECTOR INITIAL T E M R PTGC GAS P R E S S U R E CHART SPEED  6 -  5-  I39°C I80°C 5 0°C IO°C/MIN. 4 8 psi 0.5 IN./MIN.  4 C0  2  3-  2-  I N/  1 3  1 4  5  TIME  T~  6  9  (MIN.)  FIGURE CHROMATOGRAM  A  3-1  OF  DIGESTER  GAS  -1 10  28  ment m e c h a n i s m been i n  (see  contact  dissolved evolved, plastic  with  digester  t u b e was  gas,  was  cylinder  and  gas  By  this  in  order  contained i n  of  w a t e r was  d e s i g n e d ' so  system.)  to  1-5).  digester  an e q u a l volume  digester  quired  Figure  that  determinations  for  During  of  (The  be s a t u r a t e d tube.  As  pressure  a c t e d on  also kept enabling  of  a  with  gas  configuration  then c o l l e c t e d i n  water,  previously  of  the  the  graduated  the  time  periodic  rate  re-  production.  e a c h 24 h o u r  room t e m p e r a t u r e a n d  plastic  displaced.  A r e c o r d was  a s p e c i f i c volume  which had  the water  a rigid  The d i s p l a c e d w a t e r was  gas  that  a minimal back  the volume measured.  displace  method, water  local  test  period a  atmospheric  r e c o r d was  pressure  so  that  kept  of  the  conversion  average  to  STP  c o u l d be made. Due primarily absolute  3.6  to  the  crudeness  valuable  for  comparison  gas  production.  values  of  of of  this  equipment  digester  the  results  operation rather  obtained than  for  during  the  Summary Minor  study  but  none  of  the  program.  and  conclusions  sequent  difficulties these  were e n c o u n t e r e d i n  adversely  a f f e c t e d or  The e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a with  chapters.  regard  to  these  is  changed  shown i n  results  all  are  areas  the o b j e c t i v e s  A p p e n d i x A. presented in  of  Discussion the  sub-  were  C H A P T E R  IV  THE E F F E C T OF DETENTION T I M E  4.1  Introduction The n e e d  waste  is  twofold. (i)  for  determining  an optimum  The r e q u i r e d d e t e n t i o n provide  detention  times  adequate  settling  time  intimate  biological  for  the  must be s u f f i c i e n t  to:  for  time  raw  particulate  matter; (ii)  provide order of  In and e f f l u e n t or  changes  by  the  4;2  in  and  50  lation  order  to  study  necessary  times  for  these  to  various  were i n v e s t i g a t e d : waste  characteristics;  was  lower  of  of  degradation  place.  three areas  it  d a y s was  order  take  in  (3)  parameters; gas  (1) (2)  composition  influent fluctuations  as  affected  rate.  chosen limit  Solids in  can  bacterial  time  Discussion  wastes  the  regard  effluent  In  of  organics  this  loading  detention  substantial  concentrations  General  swine  that  contact  solids,  were  the  to  the  effects  to  As  the  field  liquid  to  different holding  a broad yet  previously  approximate  be d e t e r m i n e d  allowed  of  determine  tests.  to match  was  simulate  the  settle  lagoons.  detention 29  practical  mentioned, field  periods range  an u p p e r  lagoon  on of  limit  detention  time  experimentally. and a c c u m u l a t e Due  time  to  the  (LDT)  in  constant  was  not  the  digesters  daily  constant  accumu(i.e.  30  the LDT  c a l c u l a t e d at the s t a r t of a s p e c i f i c  f e e d i n g r a t e was  reduced  over  a p e r i o d of time because an i n c r e a s i n g p o r t i o n of the t o t a l volume was c u p i e d by  the accumulated s o l i d s ,  r e s t r i c t i o n however was ( s o l i d s d e t e n t i o n time  p l a c e d on (SDT)  >>  measuring the g r a d u a l b u i l d - u p no  adjustment f a c t o r was  thereby  reducing  the l i q u i d volume).  the d e t e n t i o n time f o r the s e t t l e d  LDT).  As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , attempts a t  of s e t t l e d s o l i d s were u n s u c c e s s f u l .  t h a t SDT  i s an important  biological activity.  measurements of the sludge b u i l d - u p  and  erage sludge  to continuous  the s l u d g e  and  Thus  i m p o s s i b l e due  However,  any  subsequent c a l c u l a t i o n of the  o v e r t u r n i n g of the s l u d g e .  p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on a n a e r o b i c  LDT.  parameter to be  c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e g a r d to a n a e r o b i c  age was  No  solids  determined to c a l c u l a t e the a c t u a l average  I t s h o u l d be noted  oc-  gas  lens formations  In t h i s study  d i g e s t i o n of sludge  av-  age was  therefore  in  the  not f u r t h e r  pursued. In the f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s the t h e o r e t i c a l LDT t o t a l d i g e s t e r volume and opposite  c i e s at the s t a t e d d e t e n t i o n time  The  of removal  (e.g. I f the t h e o r e t i c a l LDT  because of s o l i d s b u i l d - u p would be  removal e f f i c i e n c i e s  probably  the t r u e or a c t u a l LDT.  at the l e a s t a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e  the t r u e average LDT  on  the volume of raw waste added d a i l y ) i s t a b l e d  the removal e f f i c i e n c i e s r a t h e r than  however, p r o v i d e d  (based  t a b l e d f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l LDT  be e q u a l to or l e s s than  less  This  efficien-  i s 50  days,  than 50  days.  of 50 days would  the removal at a t r u e average LDT  of  50  days.) During and  the  testing  e f f l u e n t were m o n i t o r e d :  two  primary  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the raw  waste  31  (i)  COD a n d  (ii) and  two  TS  secondary  pletion of  in  total  and o r g a n i c  (iv)  total  phosphate.  policy  nutrient  after  the  feed-rate  (i.e.  4.4  are  reducing  requirements to  for  the  of  primary  importance  particulate  discharge  Items  and  (iii)  anaerobic  receiving waters.  Raw W a s t e  (iv)  digestion  Nutrients  in  standard  into, are  and  will  oxygen  important  process be  waste de-  because  and b e c a u s e  further  of  discussed  those  phase.  in  of  values  were  presented i n  Table  results IV.  of  per  cent  These  results  Table  IV  from  the  are  also  and  recorded  start  removal based  II  on  of  a  graphically  illus-  Results  Solids results  in  the  following  comments  made: excluding  the  results  for  LDT = 6  days,  given  theoretical  B.  From t h e  (i)  Tables  c o n s i d e r e d w h i c h were  t h e o r e t i c a l LDT h a d e l a p s e d  The f i n a l  i n Appendix  (a)  the average  experimental results  appropriate  Discussion  Characteristics  calculating  LDT a r e p r e s e n t e d trated  (ii)  nitrogen,  VII.  Average  only  and  receiving waters).  In III  (i)  addition  Chapter  4.3  VS  (iii)  in,  nutrient  5  characteristics:  Items treatment  and  BOD ,  can  be  32  TABLE • AVERAGE RAW WASTE  Theoretical LDT  BOD  II CHARACTERISTICS*  COD  5  (mg/A)  Og/iO  TS  VS  (mg/A)  (mg/4)  (Days)  9175  29550  25  9760  29900  28195  20800  12.5  9950  32770  27150  19020  9950  49100**  39700  31800  6  *Values  for  -  -  50  raw waste  used  in  the  calculations  for  the  results  in  Table  IV.  * * T h e h i g h COD v a l u e i s due t o t h e h i g h v o l a t i l e s o l i d s c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l raw w a s t e s a m p l e s . I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s o l i d s w e r e f e e d c h i p s a n d s a w d u s t w h i c h r a p i d l y s e t t l e d o u t when a s a m p l e was l e f t to stand. The B 0 D v a l u e d i d n o t c h a n g e t o s u c h an e x t e n t as d i d t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n d i c a t i n g that a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the v o l a t i l e s o l i d s was e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - b i o d e g r a d a b l e . 5  TABLE  III  AVERAGE E F F L U E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S *  Temp,  of  Digester (°C)  30  Theoretical  10  7470 7060  4265 3995  6630  1095  6350  3660  5615 5390 7375 5645  1100  6 50  50 25 12.5 6  5760 5500 7210 5890  50 25 12.5  10665 15730  average values  BOD  5  1010  1170 1690 1195  11295  for  _ 7470 7330 5560  1465 1940 1790  7330 7060 5560  _ 5515 7265 5820  t h e 6 d a y LDT w e r e  _ 4160 3995 3020  _  1190  _  6  *The  1170 1590  5025 5275 7540  (Days)  25 12.5 6 18-23  VS (mg/A)  (mg/A)  50 25 12.5  25  TS (mg/A)  COD (mg/A)  LDT  3950 3710 3020 —  7610 8280  4370 4850  5560  3180  obtained from 2 samples.  TABLE  IV  PER CENT REMOVAL OF COD,  Temp,  of  Digester  Theoretical (Days)  30  18-23  10  T S AND  5  Average  VS  Removal  (%)*  LDT  (°C)  25  BOD ,  COD  BOD  50  83.0  89.0  25 12.5 6  82.5 77.0 86.5  88.0 84.0 89.0  50 25 12.5 6  81.0 82.0 77.5 88.5  88.0 88.0 83.0 88.0  ' 73.5 73.0 86.0  80.0 79.0 90.5  50 25 12.5 6  80.5 81.5 78.0 88.0  87.0 85.0 80.5  74.0 74.0  81.0 80.5  82.0  86.0  90.5  50 25 12.5 6  5  TS  VS  -  •  -  73.5  79.5  74.0 84.0  79.0 88.5  _  _  _ 64.5 52.0 77.0  43.5 27.0 41.5  73.0 69.5 86.0  * T h e v a l u e s f o r p e r c e n t r e m o v a l f o r t h e 6 d a y LDT a r e due t o t h e u n u s u a l l y h i g h s o l i d s c o n t e n t s i n t h e l a s t samples u s e d .  79.0 74.5 90.0  questionable two raw w a s t e  35  increasing the  (ii)  four  the  digesters  improve  solids  for  6 day  the  LDT f r o m  LDT i n  and  for  TS was  VS  and  TS  As  due  to  concentrations Oxygen  Results COD and (i)  for  the  84-86%.  6 day  the  final  18-23°C  for  VS  was  Comparable  occurred in  to  those  the  LDT  10°C  these were  high  solids  raw w a s t e  obtained  (see  Table  increasing  t h e LDT f r o m  30,  18-23°C  25 a n d  over  removal  the u n u s u a l l y in  removal  5  removal (ii)  in  samples,  Demand  similar B0D  25 a n d  explained previously  results  probably  25 d a y s  significantly  30,  88.5-90.5%  unusual  for  the  cent  of  to  removal;  the p e r  digester.  corded  d i d not  digesters,  removals  (b)  12.5  3.5-6%  a range  digester,  and  of  IV).  12.5  B0D  days  B0D  5  in  the  r e m o v a l were  50 d a y s  only  removal  5  solids  Observations to  digesters  12.5-25  COD a n d  for  in  the  improved  COD  5-6.5%;  LDT f o r  removal  to note  the  10°C  significantly  improved; (iii)  for  the  per  cent  probably final  6 day  LDT  removals to  are  the h i g h  raw w a s t e  four  digesters,  unusually solids  samples.  high  content  the  due in  the  rewere:  36  From t h e s e characteristics  of  this  high  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  have  adverse  and of  effects  development waste,  should  be  reduce  the  provide  where  of  waste  important  settleable  VS  in  of  load  process  the  are  feature. in  the  for  of  the  to note  by  as  of  solids  oxygen  VS  of  by  With  could  this  type  settling only  would  degradation.  anaerobic  also This  means.  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  results  are: (i)  for  oxygen  more  critical  compared (ii)  for  the  cent  to  the  low  removal  temperatures  solids  the as  longer  improved  settling  conditions  vigorous  gas  agitation;  r e d u c t i o n of  increased  contact  Alkalinity  Two q u a l i t y  parameters  characteristics.  time  is  (10°C)  as  (20-30°C) ;  increase  t h e LDT i s  to  pH a n d  effluent  temperatures  digesters, of  detention  may b e a t t r i b u t e d  of  in  at  higher  four  biological  (c)  demand r e m o v a l  and  settling due to  to  in  per  extended time  and  less  further  suspended  VS  because  time.  were m o n i t o r e d  to  These parameters,  the  depletion  would not  removed s o l i d s  shown by  settling  discharges  treatment  further biological  c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d  Two f u r t h e r p o i n t s  for  rapid  treatment.  form of  removal  The r e m o v a l but  in  the  untreated  the  organic,  effluent  food source  in  Consequently,  TS  that  factor  the waste,  upon r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s  design  an a d e q u a t e  apparent  an  sludge banks.  organic  is  is  65-70%  a prime  degradation  observations,. i t  help pH a n d  detect  changes  alkalinity,  37  also  aided  in  charting  Results graphically  possible  for  changes  pH a n d a l k a l i n i t y  i n Appendix  A.  As  Table V  shown i n  (i)  increasing 6  to  (ii)  t h e LDT  50 d a y s ,  only  in  .2-.3  are  all  resulted in  units.  daily  for  in  the  as  LDT d e c r e a s e d ;  bacterial  changes  increase  in variability  the  digester  effluents  the  A p p e n d i x A) total  daily  by  of  during  contents  raw w a s t e .  variability noticeable  t h e pH  for  t h e 6 day  being  ranging  LDT  16%  of  displaced  Random t e s t i n g  pH g a v e v a l u e s  shown  pH  can be a t t r i b u t e d t o  digester  raw w a s t e  the  T a b l e V and  from  of  w e r e more  the  (see  shown i n  digesters  However,  pH r e a d i n g s  activity.  of  from  the 6.5-  7.5; (iii)  with  regard  the  effluent  results volume waste  detention  alkalinity  during  clearly of  (the  the  for  the  is  four  concentration  6 day  show t h a t  alkalinity  much l o w e r )  time  the  digester  was  From t h e s e for  to  LDT,  the  displacing  contents  with  16% b y raw  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  markedly  of  a f f e c t e d the  which results  digesters.  observations primarily  for  pH a n d a l k a l i n i t y ,  d e t e r m i n e d by  the p e r  the  lower  c e n t by volume  limit of  the  TABLE V EFFLUENT  Temp,  of  pH AND A L K A L I N I T Y  Theoretical LDT  (°C)  (Days)  30  50 25  7.4 7.4  12.5  7.5 7.3  6 25  50 25 12.5 6  18-23  50 25 12.5 6  10  50 25 12.5 6  Alkalinity  pH  Digester  7.3 7.4  -  (mg/A)  7.5 7.6 7.6 7.4  6800 7000 5700  --  8100 7600 6100  _  7.4 7.5 7.5 7.4  6800 6900 5500  -  7900 7600 6000  7.3 _ 7.4 7.3 - 7.4 7 . 3 - 7.5 7 . 2 -• 7 . 3  6800 6800 4900  -  7700 7400 5700  -  5200 5000 3600  -  5700 3800  7.4 7.3  6.8 6.6 6.6  —  -  -  6.9 6.9 6.8  -  6100  39  d i g e s t e r c o n t e n t s t h a t the o f the  raw  raw  waste d i s p l a c e s .  waste c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Because of the  the q u a n t i t y  of raw  the d i g e s t e r c o n t e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d d u r i n g waste  ( i . e . the pH  a b l e as  the raw  of e v e n t s .  and  and  alkalinity).  A g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f the  from the system; the optimum pH  against  low  raw  4.5  Gas  waste pH  range f o r the b a c t e r i a i s not  i s reduced.  i n the d i g e s t i o n  As  and  i n gas  vari-  by  daily  consistently  the d i g e s t e r  contents  a r e s u l t the b i o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e of p o t e n t i a l l y causing  upset  Composition  c o m p o s i t i o n were r e c o r d e d . and  raw  process.  For each d e t e n t i o n  constituents  a d d i t i o n of  a n a e r o b i c b a c t e r i a are washed out  the b u f f e r i n g mechanism p r o v i d e d  Production  the  daily,  T h i s i n t u r n i n i t i a t e s a sequence  anaerobic b a c t e r i a i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y destroyed, conditions  waste added  a l k a l i n i t y of the d i g e s t e r c o n t e n t s becomes as  waste pH  m a i n t a i n e d ; and,  variability  The  time, t o t a l gas volume produced and o b j e c t here was  volumes i n o r d e r  gas  to m o n i t o r changes i n  to i n d i c a t e the  l e v e l of  gas  biological  activity. (a)  Volume  The  t o t a l gas  digesters increased VI and  Figure  4-1).  t e r i a l population the  as  per  day  from the  30,  r a t e was  increased  the  raw  waste l o a d i n g  Since  the  t o t a l gas  and  r e s u l t i s then as D u r i n g the  production  production  to the q u a n t i t y  25  and  18-23°C (see  produced i s r e l a t e d to the  of s u b s t r a t e  added per  unit  Table bac-  time,  expected. 4 A/day l o a d i n g r a t e  (based on l i n e a r e x t r a p o l a t i o n s  (6 days LDT), of the  the  daily  r e s u l t s from lower  gas  TABLE D A I L Y GAS  PRODUCTION AS  VI  RELATED TO DETENTION T I M E  Gas Temp,  of  Digester (°C)  30  Theoretical LDT (Days)  50 25 12.5  18-23  (m£/day  (2) (mi,/day @ STP)  @ STP)  6250 12000 24700  t o Raw Addition  4430 9260  Gas P r o d u c e d f r o m Raw W a s t e Added  Daily  (1-2) (m£/day  @ STP)  1820 2740 5200  19500 20900  50 25 12.5 6  6600 9800 19500 25000  4890 7350 15600 18800  1710 2450 3900 6200  50  5600 9600 17250 22750  4100 7700 14300 17750  1500 1900 2950 5000  25 12.5 6 10  Prior Waste  28000  6 25  Production  T o t a l D a i l y Gas P r o d u c t i o n (1)  50 25 12.5 6  _ 500 1250 —  7100  _ 250  250  600  650  _  _  42  feeding total  rates)  volume  of  was  never achieved  gas  (i)  Figure  produced i n d i c a t e d  the b i o l o g i c a l the  (ii)  (see  increased  such a l a r g e was  that  s y s t e m was  4-1).  at  this  unable  The f a l l i n g high  to  off  loading  of  the  rate:  manage  load; p o r t i o n of  displaced  daily  the  that  digester  contents  b a c t e r i a wash-out  was  occurring; (iii)  the  increased v a r i a b i l i t y  c a u s e d by digester  t h e raw w a s t e contents  biological The r e s u l t s production At the  this  and  the  was  in  pH a n d  displacing  adversely  16% o f  the  affecting  the  system.  to note  for  the  10°C d i g e s t e r  were  of  gas  p r o d u c t i o n to  all  insensitivity  t e m p e r a t u r e the methane b a c t e r i a b a r e l y  loading  alkalinity  the  lack  loading  of  gas  rates.  function irrespective  of  rate. (b)  Composition i  The gas the  test  p e r i o d did not  increased  four  for  digesters  these  analysis  times  vary  are  any  biological  upset  pH,  alkalinity  a n d gas  substrate  to  (i.e.  the  the  shown i n  for  for  30,  the  the h i g h  specific  Table  though  loading  of  the  through  digesters loading the  test  during rate  was  period  VII.  constituents  e v o l v e d gas species  18-23°C  The r e s u l t s  production did  total  25 a n d  a p p r e c i a b l y even  (Appendix A).  The a n a l y s i s  a n d CO2 g a s  for  rates  point is  of  to  the even  this.  gas  d i d not  though  the  indicate results  The p e r c e n t a g e  therefore c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  b a c t e r i a once e s t a b l i s h e d  in  the  of the  for CHi+  43  TABLE GAS  VII  COMPOSITION FOR 3 0 ° , 2 5 ° AND  18-23°C  DIGESTERS (RAW WASTE ADDED D A I L Y )  Gas Composition*  % Extreme L i m i t s  CH^  66-71  68  C0  28-32  30  N  2  2  0.4-1.0  0.8  H S 2  0.2-0.5  0.3  H 0  0.4-1.5  0.9  2  TABLE GAS  VIII  COMPOSITION FOR 3 0 ° , 2 5 ° AND 18-- 2 3 ° C DIGESTERS (RAW WASTE A D D I T I O N TERMINATED)  Gas Composition *  %  Extreme  combined percentage  Limits  CH^  49-55  co  2  42-49  N  2  0.5-1.5  H S 2  N/D  H 0  0.5-1.5  2  *The  Average  of  CH^ a n d C 0  2  gas  through  this  p e r i o d was  97-99%.  44  digesters cific  at  these  nature  necessarily  because  the  least  percentage under  results  the  of  The  the  gas  gas  tually Table  upset  composition  It by  appears  within  the  loading  results  in  added)  the  and  this does  10°C d i g e s t e r , variable  cent  of  spenot  A).  and  It  the v a r i a b i l i t y  t h e CO2  appears  of  CO2 o f  which  the  the  that  gas  gas  com-  are  digester.  was  terminated,  during the  during  substantiated  specific  from  this  the b a c t e r i a had  intermediate in  (In  of  that  changed  this,  order  products this  the  following  first this  records  twenty  five  days  p e r i o d of  were  months.  but  the  kept  even-  study  see  a gas  of  the  does the  not  digestion  this  that  necessarily  organics different  gas-formers  to v e r i f y  theory  characteristic  (i.e.  produce  the  would have  indicate  substrate  intermediate CHi+ a n d  however, to  ratio  C0  of  CH^  biological being  w h i c h w e r e more  produce  theory,  the  uti-  difficult  products  2  in  further  be u n d e r t a k e n .  and  different analysis This  of  was  study.)  (NOTE:35°C showed  and  The a c i d - f o r m e r s  because  percentages.  done  results  substrate  degrade).  possibly  not  the  in  gas  increased.  the per  and p r o d u c t i o n  For  for  were h i g h l y  increase  raw w a s t e  being  Appendix  had n o t i c e a b l y  in  produce  VIII.  upset.  to  (see  analyses  increase  to  raw w a s t e  changed markedly  stabilized.  CO2 i s  lized  gas  conditions  composition  of  continue  digesters,  the  the  the  These and  the  e v o l v e d gas  After of  type  the  circumstances  will  conditions  of  of  coupled with  indicators  the  upset  active  of  these  position  of  indicate The  was  temperatures  Taiginides  analysis  of  [6]  reporting  59% C H  4  and  on d i g e s t i o n  40% C 0  2  plus  of  trace  hog  wastes  gases.  at  Since  vigorous this  anaerobic  study,  differences or  "good"  the in  a c t i o n was  different the  anaerobic  noted  ratio  raw w a s t e  of  in  Taiginides'  CHi+ t o  composition  digestion.)  study  and  similarly  C O 2 c a n be a t t r i b u t e d and  is  not  an  indicator  to of  in  the "poor  1  C H A P T E R THE E F F E C T OF  5.1  the  the  anaerobic  rate  ature  at  whether  the  the waste  Because range  anaerobic In  methane  and  degradation  this  regard  and  gas  and  production  General  for  chosen,  previously  digester  that  the  lagoons  varied  effects  in  periments  also  to  critical  very  sensitive  the to  fluctuations  affects  the  temper-  anaerobic  temperature determines  maintained. will  waste  be d i s c u s s e d ,  parameters;  (1)  (2)  influent  digester  and  stability;  composition.  for and  the  d e c i d e d upon  the the  from of  Fraser  18-23°C.  small and  raw w a s t e  analytical  for  expected range Valley.  m e n t i o n e d , were  The h e a t i n g techniques  Besides  are  considered  temperature  and r e d u c e d .  temperature  items  various  covered  conditions  ature  of  c a n be  temperatures  temperatures  as  are  The  be  Discussion The  these  temperature.  bacteria  three  of  w h i c h must n e c e s s a r i l y  assimilated  frequency  concentrations  5.2  is  is  fluctuations  effluent (3)  parameter  process  temperature  [12].  changes,  important  digestion  which  itself,  process  ter  TEMPERATURE  Introduction Another  in  V  and  It  was  low  on  have  46  30°C.  the  room  fluctuations for  the  effluent, previously  were  and h i g h  The s p e c i f i c  apparatus  digester  techniques  of  digesters  1 0 ° , 2 5 ° and  temperature  cooling  the  that  temperature  temperatures The  room  temper-  temperature were  to  be  digesters,  and  such  the  diges-  studied. sampling  chemical  been d e s c r i b e d  in  ex-  47  Chapter  III  and  IV.  The following  Table  calculations Chapter  5.3  final IX  for  and  these  of  (a)  10°C t o VS was  solids  temperature  are presented  graphically  illustrated  in  were  With  settle  improve  For removal  c a r r i e d out  Table  the  both  in  Appendix  the manner  in  C.  the The  described  in  IX,  per of  through  cent  removal  waste,  the  where  digester  quality  the  range for  of  TS was  1-4.5%  the m a j o r i t y  temperature  with  temperatures  regards  to  of  does  the  not  solids  the  from 6 to B0D  5  50  was  days  LDT,  markedly  the e f f e c t  similar.  of  (See  temperature Table  noted:  t h e LDT  is  increased  from  effect  of  increased  temperature  18-23°C  digester  the .heated d i g e s t e r s the (iii)  10°C  bacterial  12.5  days  to  50  becomes  days, more  functioned nearly  as  and  better  significantly  well  as than  digester; activity  appears  to  be a s t e p  temperature: (a)  sig-  removal.  significant; (ii)  and  Demand  COD a n d  were  the  type  varying  results  as  in  supernatant  Oxygen  of  in  this  out,  the  observations (i)  results  the v a r i a t i o n  2-5.5%.  (b)  These  results  to  Solids  30°C,  readily  nificantly  on t h e  also  related  Results  From the  for  are  as  IV.  Discussion  from  results  10°C o r  less  minimum  activity  function  of  IX.)  TABLE  IX  PER CENT REMOVAL OF COD,  Theoretical LDT (Days)  50  Temp, o f Digester (°C)  30 25 18-23 10  25  30 25 18-23 10  12.5  30 25 18-23 10  6  30 25 18-23 10  BOD , 5  TS AND  VS  Average Removal COD  BOD  83.0 81.0  89.0  80.5  87.0  82.5 82.0  5  88.0  88.0 88.0 85.0  (%)  TS  VS  -  -  -  73.5  79.5  73.5  80.0  74.0 73.0  81.0  81.5 64.5  43.5  77.0 77.5 78.0  84.0 83.0 80.5  74.0  79.0  73.0 74.0  52.0  27.0  69.5  79.0 80.5 74.5  86.5 88.5  89.0 88.0 82.0 41.5  84.0 86.0  88.5 90.5  86.0 86.0  90.5 90.0  88.0 77.0  * T h e v a l u e s f o r p e r c e n t r e m o v a l f o r t h e 6 d a y LDT a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e due to the u n u s u a l l y h i g h s o l i d s c o n t e n t i n t h e l a s t two raw w a s t e s a m p l e s u s e d .  79.0  49  (b)  10-20°C  transition  bacterial (c)  20-30°C  activity  levelling  the b a c t e r i a l The e x t e n t treatment ity  of  of  the b a c t e r i a .  population forming  appears  and  In  removal  the  low  sequence For  depends In  to  function  However, of  either  of  the  most o n e - t e n t h the methane  total  that  is  range  acid-formation  example,  off  oxygen  of  actively  daily  produced  b a c t e r i a which  gas gas  than  of  with  in  the  to  it  is for  three  that  longer  the  in  activbacterial  of  the  carried  10°C d i g e s t e r  digesters  acid-  respective the  10°C a change  appears  no  the  their drop  the  the  population  the n o t i c e a b l e  10°C),  and  from 20-30°C  b e t w e e n 20 a n d  other  the  organics  reduce organics  production  from the  reduced during  a balanced  production  convert  plateau  demand i s  from  COD t h a t  (less  the  increases  temperatures  apparent  to  or  on t h e n a t u r e  BOD5 o r  temperature  rapidly  b a c t e r i a which  it  where  activity.  the  the range  gas-producing  end-products. cent  to which  the waste  range  per  occurs..  biological through. was  at  indicating  intermediate-products  to  the  that  gaseous  end-  4  products ters.  no  It  longer  should  consistently gesters  5.4  also  lower  and o f  digestion  function  with  Stability  be n o t e d  than  the  the  the  the  total  digesters  daily (i.e.  the  same d e g r e e  that  the  alkalinity samples,  volatile  as  alkalinity of  the  the  of  build-up  other  the  effluent  indicating  acid  in  the  diges-  10°C d i g e s t e r  from the  incomplete  in  three  other  was  di-  anaerobic  digester  contents.  Digesters  Considering with  the  raw w a s t e  probable  of  to  gas  t h e pH a n d  alkalinity  production  active  anaerobic  as  being  values measures  degradation),  of of  the  effluent,  the  changes  in  stability  along of  temperature  50  must  be  found  recognized  as  an i m p o r t a n t  t h e pH v a l u e between  (ii)  of  the  (iii)  was  the  alkalinity  was  significantly  From the  above  mentioned  of  the  the  three.  It  the highest  p r o d u c t i o n was  20-30°C  range  it  was  compared  waste  alkalinity  due  these  conditions  indicated  Gas  Production  and  the  is  Since  produced  the in  from each d i g e s t e r For position  were  to  the  the  for  an a n a e r o b i c  each  also  daily  other  vigorous. Table  gas  V and A p p e n d i x  under the  t h e most test  production  never  greater  three  digesters,  repeatedly of  lower  excess  10°C d i g e s t e r  bacteria  to  than  organic was  the  a  and  A)  stable  period  than  the  7,  the  main-  and  the the  incoming  acids.  All  biologically  in  gas  total  volume  function  governs  be a f u n c t i o n  total  mentioned  is  bacteria  digester,  anticipated  As  of  methane  temperature,  recorded.  waste;  throughout  t h e pH was  activity  activity  was  alkalinity  operating  that  accumulation that  the  effluent  gas efraw of  unstable.  Composition  The m e t a b o l i c [ll,18].  was  the  7.4-7.6.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n was to  consistently  always  (see  the h i g h e s t  10°C d i g e s t e r  minimal  data  found  e f f l u e n t pH a t  the  alkalinity  p r o d u c t i o n was  was  had  than  incoming  30°C d i g e s t e r  consistently  For  fluent  the  gas  30°C d i g e s t e r tained  greater  daily  that  e f f l u e n t was  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  the  concluded  conditions  gas  the  7.3-7.6;  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  5.5  In  that: (i)  it  variable.  daily of  of  the  rate  gas  production  at  which  temperature.  p r o d u c e d and  the p r e v i o u s  temperature  chapter  gas  the  com-  object  51  of  this  was  to monitor (a)  the  level  of  biological  Volume  From the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s definitely  affects (b) As  the  daily  previously  through  the  consistent.  Through  this  b a c t e r i a are The  to  the  this for of  very  the  digester  tration  between  of  mentioned  in  Chapter  temperature  C0  digesters.  the  alkalinity  bicarbonate H  shifted  to  the If  provides gas.  temperature  also  this  as  (Appendix  A).  measured  +  + HCO3 t  Figure  T a b l e VII  4-1.)  and  composition  and  specific  to  releasing dynamic for  The a n a l y s i s  42-49% as  the gas  compared  c a n be r e l a t e d the  drop  in  and  the  the  digester  2  t  3  equilibria  the  in  C0 (aq.)  t  to  +  2  the  with  was types  regards  of  gas  to  28-32% C 0  was  in  the  digester  in  pH  concen-  (Appendix the  from  drop  alkalinity  effluent  A).  form  of  resulting  as H 0 2  C0 (gas) 2  the d i g e s t e r , consequently  additional  C0  2  a greater the  increased composition  portion  chemical  of  the  equilibria  gas.  equilibrium applied the  consistent  may b e r e p r e s e n t e d H C0  u t i l i z e d and  in  in  The c h e m i c a l  alkalinity  an e x p l a n a t i o n  The v a r i a t i o n  gas  not  raw w a s t e  t h e pH d r o p p e d i n  right  the  see  was  increase  2  was  (also  activity  increased  2  C0 (aq.)  capacity  (See  the  combined w i t h  incoming  alkalinity.  buffer  IV  20-30°C  range  however,  This  effluent,  bicarbonate  As  produced.  range  temperature  that  all  this  gas  e v o l v e d gas  Essentially  from  of  T a b l e X,  similar.  showed  t h e warmer  volume  10°C d i g e s t e r ,  composition  digester  recorded in  Composition  Appendix A),  of  activity.  to  the  percentage (i.e.  of  10°C d i g e s t e r , C0  2  in  fluctuations  the in  it  evolved  the  per  2  52  TABLE X D A I L Y GAS  Theoretical LDT  Temp. (°C)  PRODUCTION AS  Total  Daily  (Days)  @ STP)  (1)  50  30 25 18-23 10  Gas  Production (A/day  R E L A T E D TO TEMPERATURE  Gas  Production  P r i o r t o Raw Waste A d d i t i o n ( m £ / d a y @ STP) (2)  Gas  Produced  f r o m Raw Added  Waste  Daily  (1-2) (mA/day @ S T P )  6250  4430  1820  6600  4890  1710  5600  4100  1500  25  30 25 18-23 10  12000 9800 9600 500  9260 7350 7700 250  2740 2450. 1900 250  12.5  30 25 18-23 10  24700 19500 17250 1250  19500 15600 14300 600  5200 3900 2950 650  30 25 18-23 10  28000 25000 22750  20900 18800 17750  7100 6200 5000  53  cent of C 0  2  gas) could conceivably have been caused by the v a r i a t i o n i n the  a l k a l i n i t y of the raw waste. McCarty [ll]  states that the i n d i c a t o r s of unbalanced treatment  i n a digester are: (i)  increased v o l a t i l e acids concentration and C0  (ii)  2  percentage i n gas;  decreased  pH, t o t a l gas production and waste  stabilization. These i n d i c a t o r s were present i n the 10°C digester but not i n the other three.  C H A P T E R SETTLING -  6.1  -  B I O L O G I C A L DEGRADATION  Introduction Removal  gesters  was  found  degradation. organics  is  of  is  of,  but  to  gaseous  depends  by  merely  two  raw w a s t e  factors  (1)  a physical  separation.  added  settling  daily and  (2)  phenomena and  any  Hence  the  to  the  di-  biological removal  organic  load  has  load  converting  of  not  concentrated.  degradation  end-products  to varying  (i)  to  from the  strictly  achieved only  Anaerobic organics  organics  t o be due  Settling  been d i s p o s e d  waste  VS  V I  degrees  reduces  the waste  [ll,18,19,20].  by  Biological  reduction  of  on:  temperature, which  affects  the  biological  activity; (ii)  (iii)  characteristics  of  organics,  toxic  substances,  determine  the ease  or  stabilize  contact  time between  determines  organics anaerobic  (i.e. etc.),  the  the waste  the per  (ii) (iii)  cent  and  can  of  bacteria,  the  total  t r e a t m e n t may b e d e s c r i b e d a s  of  complex  production  methane  which  reduced.  hydrolysis acid  of  waste;  involving (i)  types  with which b a c t e r i a  degrade  which  The  the waste  fermentation.  54  material  a  three-step  process  55  In plex  soluble  these  the  organic  hydrolysis  dominanatly bacteria organic  first  volatile  materials  end-products organics  taken  In  resistant removal  6.2  this  build-up  ferent  the  maximum b e n e f i t  lagoons  is  of  not  of  is  achieved  events,  the  "methane  The r e s u l t through  some  Hence  conversion  practically  all  organics  for  that  by  for  the  a c t u a l waste  solution the  from the  treatment (i)  then  to  the  and  gaseous  some  can  end-  be  raw w a s t e treatment,  are total  possible.  solids is  to  rate  raw w a s t e  from the  control of  anaerobic  to  solids  daily some  in  controlling  of  concentrated animal  an e x t e n d e d h o l d i n g percentage reduced,  of  and  the the  degree, and  system.  rate  of  remaining  are  of  raw w a s t e  thereby  These large  are  held  on  are:  three in  is  dif-  receive  build-up  biologically  solids  treatment,  There are  wastes. a  its  depending  solids  p e r i o d where  organics  and  addition  build-up  lagooning the  studied  of  organic  gaseous  organics  in  simple  a group  Thus  to  (pre-  the  protoplasm is  step,  anaerobic  step,  formers".  com-  second  and  dioxide  to b a c t e r i a l  less  compounds  third  carbon  to  the  facultative  p r a c t i c e , not as  In  organic  In  and  gases.  treatment  of  settled  alternatives for  a group  called  breakdown.  regard  circumstances,  possible  trace  removal  converted  Discussion With  inevitable,  simple  "acid-formers".  and  2  chain  organics  General  since  C0  to b i o l o g i c a l  of  by  anaerobes  a c t u a l waste  through  fermented to  converted e f f e c t i v e l y  CH^,  are  enzymatic h y d r o l y s i s .  f e r m e n t e d to methane  strict  an a b s o l u t e  products.  by  acids)  called  are  are  of  are  fatty  collectively compounds  complex o r g a n i c s  compounds  products  substrate-specific waste  step,  56  "indefinitely"  in  ment  this  for of (ii)  system the  lagoons  brief  a small  f r a c t i o n of  trucking  a compromise  and a  are  for land  above  storage  land  two q u e s t i o n s of was  the  an  disposal  by  (i.e.  of  digestion,  the  suit  a  a  accumulated  of the  the  sludge  require-  farms.  concentrated animal wastes  cent  of  accumulated  disposal  surrounding  What p e r  in  Also,  capacity with  ments studying  the  anaerobic  c o u l d be c o - o r d i n a t e d t o  of  organics  treatment  two e x t r e m e s  active  an e x a m p l e ,  and  solids),  the p e r i o d i c d i s p o s a l  As  removed  be r e q u i r e d .  produced  three a l t e r n a t i v e s , (1)  on t h e  essentially  further  (e.g.  the  system w i t h  for  sludge).  above  of  l i m i t e d sludge  program  In  and  disposal  w o u l d be n e e d e d  lagooning  construction  The s l u d g e b u i l d - u p  e f f l u e n t would p r o b a b l y  frequent  cost  the degradable  c a s e w o u l d be r a p i d  a d d i t i o n a l method of  (iii)  materials  r e d u c e d by b a c t e r i a .  solids  the  d e t e n t i o n p e r i o d where  only  the  a r e a and o f  treat-  c o u l d be p r o h i b i t i v e .  s e t t l e a b l e waste  this  For a  t y p e , however  only  are  lagoon.  required land  these  a very  of  the  were  total  the  raw w a s t e  per  c e n t by b i o l o g i c a l  raised COD,  r e m o v e d by  and  which r e q u i r e d  BOD a n d VS  settling  activity?  considering  and  of what  the answers:  (2)  What t e m p e r a t u r e s  and  provide  b e t w e e n r e m o v a l by  and by  6.3  Methane  Production  a balance biological  Related  From p r e v i o u s  work  a maximum o f  COD o r the  ultimate  following  5.62  cu.  ft.  to  COD,  done  BOD r e d u c e d  formula  the  of  LDT  BOD a n d VS  on a n a e r o b i c supported  methane  (0.35  of  would settling  degradation?  shown f r o m t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that  length  ml.  of  reduction of  gas  treatment by  will  methane/mg  COD o r  Reduction  B0D  L  McCarty  experimental  [ll]  has  evidence  be p r o d u c e d p e r p o u n d of  COD o r  B0D ).  t o methane  can be  L  From cal-  culated: Cm = 5 . 6 2 F  (1)  where F = pounds Cm = c u b i c For  VS  of  B0D  feet  of  reduction Eckenfelder  [lO]  or  L  COD r e d u c e d p e r  CH1+ p r o d u c e d p e r reports  the  day  day  following:  " . . . T h e r e p o r t e d gas p r o d u c t i o n f o r v o l a t i l e solids (VS) r e d u c t i o n i n a w e l l o p e r a t i n g a n a e r o b i c digestion t a n k i s 17 t o 20 f t / l b o f VS d e s t r o y e d w i t h a m e t h a n e c o n t e n t o f a b o u t 65 p e r c e n t . This i s e q u i v a l e n t to 5 to 7 f t o f COD d e s t r o y e d w h i c h i s c l o s e t o t h e v a l u e r e p o r t e d by L a w r e n c e a n d M c C a r t y . It i s significant a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s a r e a maximum, a s s u m i n g complete c o n v e r s i o n of the s o l i d s to methane. Volatile s o l i d s r e d u c t i o n can o c c u r by l i q u e f a c t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n t o v o l a t i l e a c i d s w i t h o u t a n y COD r e d u c t i o n . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , the methane y i e l d p e r u n i t of v o l a t i l e solids r e d u c t i o n may b e v e r y l o w . " 3  3  From t h e  following  formula  the  r e d u c t i o n of C  fc  =  KP  VS  c a n be  of  calculated: (2)  where P  pounds  k  =  order  to  VS  cubic  feet  17-22  ft  or In  of  use  formulae  (i)  weekly  reduced per  of  gas  produced per  gas/lb  3  day  VS  reduced  1 . 0 6 - 1 . 3 7 m l g a s / m g VS 1 and 2,  analysis  chromatograph  the of  in  following  reduced information  the e v o l v e d gas  order  day  to  on a  determine  the  was  necessary  gas CH  4  percentage; (ii)  measurement  of  each of  specific  the  measurements  the  daily  gas  production  LDT's.  a r e c o r d was  During  kept  room t e m p e r a t u r e and a v e r a g e  (iii)  pressure.  This  version  the  of  measurement  every  into  of  daily  From the  above  a  gas  -  sludge,  addition  of  of  VS  for  each  LDT.  data  and  assuming  equivalent  so  as  at  run. With  and  the  that  to  data  con-  STP; gas  was  were the  t h e n be  protaken  daily separated  produced from the  and  that  raw  waste;  average  that  atmospheric  Readings this  average  to e n a b l e  which  produced could  measurement  o x y g e n demand a r e  rate  test  components  cumulated  (iv)  the  15 m i n u t e s .  volume  done  the  the  local  c o l l e c t e d data  of  duced d u r i n g  was  of  for  produced  daily  measured  from  acthe  addition  c h e m i c a l and  interchangeable,  of  biochemical  experimental values  of  59  F  a n d P c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d .  comparison  between the p e r  end-products  and the p e r  6-1,  Appendix  6-2  an example  for  I the  end-products removed by  be  BOD^ a n d VS  Tables  to  a  gaseous  XI,  using  XII,  and X I I I  equations  and  1 and 2,  see  obtained  for  l£/day  waste)  of  raw  the measured  t h e raw w a s t e -  BOD  same  raw w a s t e was  of  e n d - p r o d u c t s was  the  Figures  6-1,  6-2  and  6-3,  COD results  II  for  given.  (in  this  given  case  raw w a s t e  conditions  a loading  of  COD l o a d  that  approximately was  removed by  of  was  biologically  18.5% and 6 3 . 5 % o f  the  settling.  5  given  BOD  5  conditions  load  approximately  that  was  as  Case  I,  t h e maximum amount  biologically  51% a n d 27% o f  reduced to  the measured  BOD  5  of  gaseous  load  was  settling.  For  III the  -  VS  same  given  c o r r e c t , approximately  of  rationale  LDT = 25 d a y s  Case  logically  the  (2)  gaseous  measured  all  in  calculations  25°C  For  For  the  COD,  t h e n make p o s s i b l e  settling.  given  Temperature =  Case  be  are  (1)  maximum amount to  -  m e a s u r e d COD l o a d o f  to  For  to e x p l a i n  each w i l l  For  the  results  and 6 - 3 .  order  Case  reduced  r e d u c t i o n of  would  E. In  the  cent  results  c e n t removed by  Experimental Figures  The f i n a l  r e d u c e d a n d 65% o f the  above  cases,  conditions  15% o f  as  the measured  t h e m e a s u r e d VS the  Case  sum o f  the  I,  assuming  raw w a s t e  l o a d was  VS  the  l o a d was  removed by  two p e r c e n t a g e s  constant  totals  bio-  settling. the  k  TABLE  XI  PER CENT" COD REDUCED BY BIOLOGICAL A C T I O N  Temp.  Loading  (°C)  Rate (£/day)  30  25  1/2 1 2 4  10  1 2  C  (mg/day)  0  Waste D  Loading  1225  3490  24  5200  5330 9815  200000  7100  68  1870 3445 4830  21  32400 50000  68 66.5  13765  7  29350 25450  14675 25450  1700  67.5 68  1145 1665  3265 4745  22  32400 50000  64800  2450 3900  2620  7475  200000  6200  67.5 68  4215  12015  18.5 11.5 6  14675 25450 64800  1500  71  1900  1060 1315  3015 3750  20.5 14.5  2950  69.5 68  5000  69  2005 3450  5715  200000  9835  9 5  125 270  355 760  29350 25450 32400 50000 25450  25450  250  51  32400  64800  650  43  **  This  the a d j u s t e d v a l u e which  accumulated d i g e s t e r = 2.85  % o f Raw  66.5  Raw Waste COD a d d e d d u r i n g  k  4  ***  , . V.-kjCm;  2750  Average  ***  Cm (mil/day)  Added** (mA/day)  Loading (mg/day)  *  is  % CH  1850  25450  4  F  o f Gas P r o d u c e d f r o m Raw W a s t e  14675 25450 64800  29350  1 2  1/2 1 2  18-23  Cone. (mg/£)  1/2  4  Average V o l .  Average Raw W a s t e COD*  sludge  this  takes  (see T a b l e  part into  of  the  15  1.5 1  testing.  consideration  t h e gas  produced from  the  VI)  mg COD/mj! CH^  o  TABLE PER CENT B O D  Average Temp.  Loading  (°C)  Rate (A/day)  30  25  18-23  10  Raw W a s t e Cone. (mg/£)  5  Loading (mg/day)  Added** (nU/day)  (mil/day)  ft** max (=k Cm)  % of  1  (mg/day)  9200  4600  1850  66.5  9300  9300  2750  68  4  10850 10700  21700 42800  5200 7100  68  1/2 1 2  9200 9300 10850  4600 9300 21700  1700 2450 3900  4  10700  42800  6200  Raw W a s t e BOD, Loading  1225  3490  76  , 1870  5330  57  3445 4830  9815 13765  45 32  68  1145 1665  3265 4745  67.5 68  2620 4215  7475 12015  66.5  67.5  71 51 34.5 28  1/2 1 2  9200  4600  1500  3015  65.5  9300 21700  1900 2950  71 69.5  1060  9300 10850  1315  68  2005  3750 5715  40.5 26.5  4  10700  42800  5000  69  3450  9835  23  1 2  9300  9300  250  51  4  21700  650  43  125 270  355  10850  760  3.5  **  This  the a d j u s t e d v a l u e which  accumulated d i g e s t e r ±  CH  1 2  Raw W a s t e BOD^ a d d e d d u r i n g  k  p Cm  %  1/2  Average  ***  REDUCED BY BIOLOGICAL ACTION  Average V o l . o f Gas P r o d u c e d f r o m Raw W a s t e  B0D *  *  is  c  XII  = 2.85  sludge  mg BOD/mA C H  4  this  takes  (see T a b l e  part  into VI)  of  the  testing.  consideration  the  gas  produced from  the  TABLE PER CENT VS  REDUCED BY BIOLOGICAL ACTION  c **  Average Temp,  Loading (A/day)  30  Cone. (mg/£)  18-23  Loading (mg/day)  45000 140000  5200 7100  3800  35000  1240 1790  _  4900  1 2  15300 22500  15300  1700 2450  45000  3900  2850  4  35000  140000  6200  4530  1500  1100  _  -  --  15300 45000  1900 2950  1390 2150  4  35000  140000  5000  3650  1 2  15300  15300  250  185 _  22500  45000  650  475  -  sludge  takes  (see T a b l e  0 . 9 4 mg VS/mA g a s  produced  into  Avg.  4900  8.5  6700  3.5  -—  --  15  - 11 5  10  -  4  _  _  - 15 8  13  4  3  2310  11.5  3680  6.5  -  5850  3  _  1790 2780  9 5  4710  2.5  235 615  consideration  70%  CH.)  t h e gas  -  17  7  _ 11.5  10  6  5  3.5  3  1  1.5  =1  1  1.5  = 1  -  testing.  VI) (65 -  13.2  1415  .15300 22500  the a d j u s t e d v a l u e which  1740 2600  1600  1 2  t h i s part of  Waste  Reduced  Range  22500  accumulated d i g e s t e r = 0,73  added)  4  This  VS  (ml/day)  2  added d u r i n g  o f Raw  t  (mg/day)  1  Raw W a s t e VS  9  Raw W a s t e  from  1350 2010  Average is  Produced  1850 2750  1/2  10  Gas  of  2  15300  1/2  k  (Average V o l .  %  (=k c )  15300  1/2  25  ***  t  VS*  Rate  (°C)  **  Raw W a s t e  XIII  produced from  the  63  • c—  •  A 100  -i  PERCENT AS A  OF  COMPARED RANGE  COD TO  OF L D T s .  REMOVED THE  3 0 °C  DIGESTER  o  25 °C  DIGESTER  4  18-23 ° C  DIGESTER  - — - A 10 ° C  A  FIGURE  •  DIGESTER  6-1  BY  OVERALL  BIOLOGICAL COD  REDUCTION  REMOVAL  OVER  64  100 i  •  •  3 0 °C  DIGESTER  o  o  2 5 °C  DIGESTER  A  A  I8-23°C  DIGESTER  0  DIGESTER  *  LDT  AS  OF  COMPARED  RANGE  OF  B0D  °C  5  6-2 REMOVED  TO T H E  LDTs.  1  (DAYS)  FIGURE PERCENT  —  BY  OVERALL  BIOLOGICAL BOD5  REDUCTION  REMOVAL OVER  A  65  100  •  •  3 0 °C  DIGESTER  o  o  25 °C  DIGESTER  A  •  18-23°C  DIGESTER  10 ° C  DIGESTER  n  PERCENT AS  OF  VS  COMPARED  RANGE  OF  REMOVED  TO T H E  LDTs.  BY  BIOLOGICAL  OVERALL  VS  REDUCTION  REMOVED  OVER  A  66  measured  6 .4  overall  Discussion  removal.  of  These (a)  Results results  were  noted:  Temperature (i)  For  the  range  sequential  of  temperatures  drops  in  removal  efficiency  temperature  decreased.  resulted  as  the  This  as  expected,  was  of  biological  at  elevated  portion  of  since  activity  is  temperatures the  studied,  organic  fore metabolized  the  more and  intense  a  matter  during  level  greater is  there-  a specified  time  period. (ii)  The r a p i d bacteria  drop  in  between  significance.  the 20°C  It  activity to  10°C i s  appears  the moderate  temperatures  fermentation  is  complete sarily  altering the  anaerobic  cease.  organic  severely  acid the  of  digester  can  the of  even  at  10°C methane  retarded. does  The h y d r o l y s i s  temperature  fermentation  that  activity  production  of  However,  not  neces-  process  and  still  continues,  contents.  Thus  finally  does  continue.  increase, This  when methane  observation  was  noted with  production days  was  disconnected  of  after  the  biological the  pared this  average  10°C  (i)  waste  COD,  of  is  it  is  t h e VS  not  25 d a y s  the  This  fluctuate  adversely  affect  A smaller  per  cent  as  com-  30°C  digester of  the  The p e r  results  for  but  lower  cent  removal  obtained  COD  for  a  load  reduction  that  a  large  of  the  raw  to b i o l o g i c a l levelling  LDT a n d  also  reduction.  apparent  amenable  detention  would  biological  and  COD r e d u c t i o n ,  after  VS  the  results  and  portion  in  to  Time  VS  For  temperature  digester.  From t h e of  tem-  were m e t a b o l i z e d  temperature.  the Detention  lab  expected because  much a b o v e  unit  20°C.  25°C and  was  within  digester  the  activity.  the  was  to  did not  organics to  the  temperature  18°-23°C  Gas  refrigeration  and  approximately  from  of  the  increased  Allowing  10°C d i g e s t e r .  increased markedly  2-3  perature  (iii)  the  time appear  any is to  off  further of be  occurs increase  little the  action  benefit  case  for  (ii)  Extending markedly  the b i o l o g i c a l affects  duction of above (iii)  the  the b i o l o g i c a l  BOD  load  5  to  temperatures  contact  10°C o r  in  chips, grain  wood  at  hulls  which  from  the  in  that  sludge  for  VS  digesters  hence w i l l Reduction perature reduced  portion  are  accumulate of  organics  sensitive at  The r a p i d  of  this  in  temperatures  duction  of  the  contact  time  BOD  in  5  con-  indication  the  organics and  digester, is  tem-  significantly  below  20°C.  the b i o l o g i c a l  load  indicates  are  nature  the  is  separable  layers.  by b a c t e r i a  and  increase  and  the  of  and  non-  scum  removal  feed  seeds  readily  and  are as  essentially  supernatant  a significant  the  such  hairs,  These are  the  From t h e d a t a  swine  are  digester  centrated  composition  organics  fibres,  biodegradable.  (iii)  time  for  less.  the waste  aggregated complex  (ii)  benefit  Removal  Included  in  re-  temperatures  be l i t t l e  extended b i o l o g i c a l  (i)  at  time  20°C.  There appears  Organics  contact  by  that  extending the  rethe  measured  BOD  5  load  readily  of  the  available  bacteria.  raw w a s t e food  provides  source  for  a  the  C H A P T E R  V I I  NUTRIENTS  7.1  Introduction It  is  generally  agreed  pounds  are  primary  and a t  the  same t i m e a r e n e c e s s a r y  During  this  in  light  study  of  the  monia-nitrogen of  contributors  the p o s s i b l e  above  today  to  phosphates  and n i t r o g e n  eutrophication in natural in  any b i o l o g i c a l  effects  two p o i n t s .  and p h o s p h a t e  that  of  those  treatment  two n u t r i e n t s  The " i n " and  were m o n i t o r e d i n  bodies  "out"  of  to  water  schemes. were  considered  concentrations  an a t t e m p t  com-  answer  of  am-  a number  questions. (1)  Will  the ammonia-nitrogen  digester  contents  and  concentration in  raw w a s t e  affect  the  anaerobic  treatment? (2)  (3)  What e f f e c t s have  on t h e e f f l u e n t  are  ammonia-nitrogen?  What p e r  cent  demand w i l l In two n u t r i e n t s , tests  are  order  (ii) (iii)  of  the  c h e m i c a l and gas  total  Standard  and  temperature  concentrations  total  concentrations  analyses Methods  Kjeldahl-N  phosphate  70  were  [15]  of  biological  to nitrogeneous  Kjeldahl-N  organic total  the  b e due  to measure  outlined in (i)  do d e t e n t i o n t i m e  phosphate  oxygen  oxygen  and e f f e c t s  c a r r i e d out.  and  demand?  were:  The  of  the  above  chemical  (NOTE  -  the  arithmetic  concentrations  7.2  Average  determines  Raw W a s t e The d a t a  as  mentioned  results  were  recorded  7.3  Ammonia-N  in in  ammonia  Effluent  presented  considered the  the  and  previously,  after  in  Kjeldahl-N  appropriate  and  organic  Kjeldahl-N  concentration.)  Characteristics  Tables  calculating the  total  XIV  a n d XV  these  calculation  of  are  average  values  average  values  only  average  values  which  t h e o r e t i c a l LDT h a d  those were  elapsed.  Toxicity  McCarty Fundamentals  d i f f e r e n c e between  [ll]  in  his  paper  e n t i t l e d Anaerobic  Waste  Treatment  states:  " A m m o n i a may b e p r e s e n t d u r i n g t r e a t m e n t e i t h e r i n t h e f o r m o f t h e ammonium i o n ( N H ^ ) o r as dissolved ammonia g a s ( N H ) . T h e s e two f o r m s a r e i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h each o t h e r , the r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of each d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e pH o r h y d r o g e n i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u i l i b r i u m e q u a t i o n : 3  %  NH  3  +  H  +  When t h e h y d r o g e n i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s sufficiently h i g h (pH o f 7.2 o r l o w e r ) , t h e e q u i l i b r i u m i s shifted t o t h e l e f t s o t h a t i n h i b i t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o ammonium ion concentration. A t h i g h e r pH l e v e l s , t h e e q u i l i b r i u m s h i f t s t o t h e r i g h t a n d t h e ammonia g a s c o n c e n t r a t i o n may become i n h i b i t o r y . T h e ammonia g a s i s i n h i b i t o r y a t a much l o w e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n t h a n t h e ammonium i o n . " This  summary i s Ammonia  g i v e n by M c C a r t y Nitrogen  Concentration  (mg/A)  50-200 200-1000 1500-3000 A b o v e 3000  o n ammonia  toxicity: E f f e c t on Anaerobic Treatment Beneficial No A d v e r s e  Inhibitory  at  Effect  Higher  Toxic  pH  Levels  72  TABLE AVERAGE  Theoretical LDT (Days)  Total Phosphate (mg/A)  Organic Kjeldahl-N (mg/A)  Total Kjeldahl-N (mg/A)  Ammonia Kjeldahl-N (mg/A)  2195  660  2435  1775  25  2040  750  2740  1990  12.5  2060  705  2285  1580  3000  920  2310  1390  *Values  high  CHARACTERISTICS*  50  6**  **The  RAW WASTE  XIV  for  raw w a s t e  unusually solids  high  used  values  in for  concentration in  calculations the the  6 day final  for  the  results  LDT a p p e a r e d raw w a s t e  in  Table  t o be due  samples.  to  XVI. the  73  T A B L E XV AVERAGE E F F L U E N T C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S  Temp,  Total  Organic  Total  Ammonia  Digester (°C)  LDT (Days)  Phosphate (mg/A)  K-N (mg/A)  K-N (mg/A)  K-N (mg/A)  30  50 25  800 730  200 255  1810 2190  1610 1935  12.5 6  670 680  265 240  2130 1740  1865 1500  25  50 25 12.5 6  740 810 690 550  210 265 255 220  1850 2155 2095 1600  1640 1890 1840 1380  18-23  50 25 12.5 6  660 700 620 530  220 260 255 210  1850 2100 2070 1500  1630 1840 1815 1310  50 25 12.5 6  670 790 750  265 315 195  ~ 2030 2070 1360  " 1765 1755 1165  10  of  Theoretical  74  For  all  four  centration  digesters  of  ammonia  between  1300-2000  ammonia  in  adverse  effects.  were  over  this  encountered  nitrogen  mg/A  case  (with  terms  entire in  the  according  From a l l in  the  the  duration raw w a s t e  pH a l w a y s  to  the  ammonia  the  toxicity  lab  study,  effluent  than  chart  during  the  and  less  above  indications of  of  The e f f e c t  would  be  study  no  to  cause  Effect  of  Temperature  From the following  results  observations (i)  were  Total  in  of  Phosphate  Table XVI,  complications  normal  anaerobic  a n d Ammonia-N  (see  also  Removal  Appendix  D)  the  noted:  phosphate  removal by  on T o t a l  removal  phosphate  temperature.  from  10-30°C,  phate  varied  6-7% as  the  appears  Through  the  on t e m p e r a t u r e  -  not  the  average  average  range  per  and d i d n o t was  the  percent  t o be  cent  of  affected temperatures  removal  indicate  case  for  any  COD a n d  of  phos-  dependency B0D  5  re-  moval. (ii)  Ammonia-N to per  removal  determine cent  to n o t e  removal is  that  approximately is  if  primarily  -  data  obtained  temperature of  does  ammonia-N.  t h e maximum p e r  15% w h i c h dissolved  insufficient  affect  the  average  However  the  point  cent  indicates and n o t  is  removal  that  the  removable  of  little  digestion.  7.4  con-  fluctuated  7.6).  upsetting  the  by  was ammonia-N settling.  TABLE PER  CENT REMOVAL  XVI  OF TOTAL PHOSPHATE AND  AMMONIA-N AS A F F E C T E D BY  Theoretical LDT (Days)  Temperature (°C)  TEMPERATURE  Average Total Phosphate  Removal  (%)  Ammonia-N  50  30 25 18-23 10  63.5 66.5 70  9.5 7.5 8  25  30 25 18-23 10  64 60.5 65.5  3 5 7.5 11.5  30 25 18-23 10  67.5 66.5 70 61.5  0 0 0 0  30 25 18-23 10  77.5 81.5 82.5  0 0.5 5.5 16  12.5  67  75  Therefore removed  7.5  through  Effect  two  15% o f  ammonia-N  biological  uptake  (ii)  adsorption  of  of  ammonia-N  results  in  in  Table XVII  Phosphate  removal -  the  is  The r e m a i n i n g  phosphate  chemical Ammonia-N  in  collected  sludge  and Ammonia-N also  R e m o v a l ••  Appendix D),  of  the  removed by is  present  removal would  the  raw w a s t e  form of  the  phosphate  settling. in  likely  dissolved require  ammonia n i t r o g e n and  ammonium i o n  (NH3),  settling.  detention  rapidly  removal -  ammonia g a s by  probably  treatment,  incoming the  (see  two-thirds  concentration  the  removed i s  were n o t e d :  form and f u r t h e r  (ii)  is  D e t e n t i o n Time on T o t a l P h o s p h a t e  observations (i)  that  mechanisms:  (i)  From t h e following  the  Based  and on  the e f f l u e n t (NH^)  cannot this  or  as  in is  present dissolved  t h e r e f o r e be  then extending  period is  not  the  solution  mentioned,  the  small  biological  both  removed the  to  ammonia-N  degree  of  removal  uptake  and  removal. As ammonia-N in  the  previously  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o  digester  sludge.  (1)  (2)  of  adsorption  TABLE  XVII  PER CENT REMOVAL OF TOTAL PHOSPHATE AND AMMONIA-N AS A F F E C T E D BY DETENTION T I M E  Temp,  of  Theoretical  Digester  Average  (°C)  LDT (Days)  30  50  63.5  25 12.5 6  64 67.5 77.5  50 25  66.5 60.5 66.5 81.5  25  Total Phosphate  12.5 6 18-23  50 25 12.5 6  10  *These to  results  the  results  of  unusually are  based  per high  cent VS  on o n l y  9.5 3 0 0 7.5 5 0 0.5  70  8 7.5 0 5.5  82.5  _  _ 67  12.5 6  61.5 75  removal content  for of  test  the  the  6 day  11.5 0 6  LDT a r e  raw w a s t e  samples.  (%)*  Ammonia-N  65.5 70  50 25  two  Removal  questionable  samples  used.  The  due  78  7.6  Nitrogenous The  raw w a s t e  Figure (i)  Oxygen  Demand  results 7-1  from the  indicated  carbonaceous  (ii)  the  BOD o f  the  mg/A.  During measurably 15%  (i.e.  the the  reduced but little  oxygen  treatment  t e r m BOD  long  test  results  c o u l d be e x p e c t e d :  to  (ii)  oxygen  demand  is  other  25-30%  digesters  the  carbonaceous  BOD.  ammonia-N BOD).  on t h e  This  would  BOD  concentration  Consequently,  digester  t h e e f f l u e n t w o u l d be  BOD r e d u c e d o n l y  3 5 0 0 - 4 0 0 0 mg/A  This  the  account  effluent  was  was  if  a  these  reduced  for  approx-  20-30%;  nitrogenous  the  70-75%  up  c a r r i e d out  BOD o f  the  making  the  1000-1500 mg/A.  imately  the  between  was  the n i t r o g e n o u s  was  carbonaceous  c o m p l e t e d on  raw w a s t e  maximum r e d u c t i o n f o r  similar  (i)  in  was  accounted f o r  demand o f  t o t a l measured  r e d u c t i o n of  test  BOD;  b e t w e e n 4 0 0 0 - 4 5 0 0 mg/A of  t e r m BOD  raw w a s t e  This  t o t a l measured  nitrogenous  long  that:  10,000-10,500 of  single  w o u l d now a c c o u n t  t o t a l measurable a significant  the e f f l u e n t w i l l  to  approximately for  70-80%  of  BOD.  result  in  e x e r t on any  terms  of  the p o t e n t i a l  receiving  water.  added  LONG  TERM  BOD C U R V E FOR RAW FIGURE  7-1  PIG  WASTE  C H A P T E R CONCLUSIONS AND  8.1  V I I I RECOMMENDATIONS  Introduction The a n a e r o b i c . d e c o m p o s i t i o n  affected  by v a r i o u s (i)  reaction  (ii)  waste  The of  these  This mechanics  of  therefore  that  to  be u s e d  in  results  8.2  lab  study  obtained  has  provide  following through  the  of  waste  treat-  following: of  nutrients,  composition. some v a l u a b l e  of  insight  concentrated animal  design engineers waste  conclusions lab  on hog  solids;  provided  design  this  of  the e f f e c t s  concentrations  and  digestion  the o p t i m a l  The  assessed  demand a n d  production  will  as:  by m e a s u r e m e n t s  gas  anaerobic it  program  and o u t l e t  oxygen (ii)  and  with  treatment  into  wastes.  It  additional  the is  facilities.  recommendations  stem  from  the  study.  Temperature -  the  contents  regard  with  the p r i m a r y efficiency  factor of  temperature  in  to  of  the  the waste  determining  anaerobic  digestion.  digester  studied the  is  operating  The  hoped  information  Conclusions (A)  is  characteristics.  parameters inlet  wastes  time,  laboratory  (i)  such  concentrated animal  temperature,  detention  (iii)  ment  parameters  of  fermentation  kinetics long  as  the  However 10°C,  will  in  the  markedly  continue  temperature decreasing  activity  the methane  operate  is  the  of  r e d u c e d and  does  to  little  above  temperature  the- methane for  drop  satisfactorily  maintained  zero.  else  act  to  is  10°C and  below,  consequent  gas  When t h i s  than  20°C.  organisms  and  as  from 20°C  temperatures  fermentation process  production w i l l digester  to  as  a  occurs,  the  settling  basin. Detention time, With 20°  is  to  30°C,  above,  vs  waste,  a  protion  biological  at  in of  accumulation  of  temperatures  organic  problem.  It  to  the  matter is  thus  solids In  this  end-products.  add  time  and demand.  reduceable  -  than with  this  inert  obvious to  regard  the  organics  10°C.)  inorganic is  is  sufficient  oxygen  less  from  reduceable  settling  in  Degradation  addition  the  detention  reduction of  organic  of  r e m o v a l by  temperatures  contact  temperature.  providing  reductions  reduction.  non-reduceable  biological  stable  20°C,  terms  Biological  ticular large  in  solids  ceases  for  portion  than  significant  mentioned  Settling  less  maximum  virtually  time  converted to  critical  achieving (As  is  or  when r e l a t e d w i t h  contact  temperatures  for  time,  an i n c r e a s i n g  matter  e v e n more time  detention  significant  increasing  organic For  Time -  par-  matter, to  that solids  adequate  the  solids  storage  in  cell  dredging  of  Nutrient  Concentration  nutrient  load  dissolved by  the  the  of  and  effluent  to  achieve  quality  (this  is  stituents  indicate Organic  1000  per  cent  the  increasing range  of  In  is  removed does  this  not regard  in  the  anaerobic  treatment  -  with  fact  process  and/or  regard  of  the  temperature);  carbon gas  added and  the  digestion  dioxide. is  to  this  temperature  that  anaerobic  and  -  with  the  of  biological gas  con-  should  The r a t i o  characteristic  does  total  10-20  not  this to  digester  load  load. lb  to  10.4  induce  organic  from  regard  loads  d i d not  the  the  of  of  necessarily  conditions.  organic  3  also  the  of  phosphate  further  a function  of  active  being  Loading  ft /day  values  is  carbon dioxide  upset  treatment,  to  f r o m t h e known  substrate  be  chemical  a function  and  total  improvement  Composition  97-99% methane  methane the  and  during  necessary.  denitrification).  production  follows  activity  test  and  Production gas  (i.e.  be  reduction.  further  periodic  percentage  process  an a d d i t i o n  be r e q u i r e d  waste,  and  The d i g e s t i o n  nitrification Gas  ammonia-N  and  will  a large  further nutrient  therefore,  will  -  cells  t h e r e f o r e cannot  settling.  achieve  anaerobic  design  specific  82.4  lb  waste  BOD5/  upset.  However  reduced decreased Conventional  recommended  BOD5/IOOO f t / d a y , 3  with  and  83  comparing  this  conventional  with  the  experimental  design practise  is  at  data,  least  conservative.  8.3  Recommendations These  correlation are  to  presented  for  Design  recommendations  full-scale for  (i)  results,  treatment in  based  of  designing  an a n a e r o b i c to  (e.g.  For  climates  cold  d u c e d and more  the  anaerobic  is  climatic  conditions;  where  t h e mean  maximum  does  not  be  for  a  solids  be  drop  below  oxygen  demand c a n b e  20°C,  re-  °  continuous of  a  compared  will  the  active  anaerobic  digester  unless  contents  a higher  tolerated during  the  effluent  colder  period ;  r e q u i r e d pH r a n g e  should  preferably  be  between  7.2-7.6 ; (iv)  due  to  would  the n a t u r e probably  t h a n one cell  cell  would  of  the waste,  provide of  the  provide  a better  same  primary  total  two  cells  in  treatment volume.  settling  and  series  system The  initial  vigorous  any out,  digestion:  given  exceed 20°C,  r e q u i r e d as  less  temperature  not  the  by  been c a r r i e d  accumulated.) ;  should  operating  not  without  system  because  to maintain  digestion  have  study  cell  l a g o o n volume w i l l  order  date  consider  frequently  t o warm c l i m a t e s  in  to  laboratory  c o n c e n t r a t e d hog waste  a factor  larger  (iii)  which  area,  temperature  (ii)  on t h e  84  d i g e s t i o n of the s o l i d s , and  the second  cell  w i t h l e s s v i g o r o u s o v e r t u r n i n g of the s l u d g e would p r o v i d e q u i e s c e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r removal  of s o l i d s by s e t t l i n g p l u s a d d i t i o n a l  anaerobic (v)  treatment;  enough volume s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r s l u d g e accumulation  to ensure  t h a t the LDT  does not  become so s h o r t t h a t r e q u i r e d b a c t e r i a are washed out  8.4  ( i . e . because of the r e l a t i v e  growth  r a t e o f methane organisms  some methane b a c t e r i a  will  drops below 7 d a y s ) .  be washed out i f LDT  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e S t u d i e s (A)  S e p a r a t i o n o f S e t t l e d S o l i d s and  T h i s study would determine  Supernatant  i f s e p a r a t i o n o f the s u p e r n a t a n t  the s e t t l e d s o l i d s d u r i n g the d i g e s t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l the e f f l u e n t .  T h i s would e n t a i l h a v i n g two  cells  improve the q u a l i t y o f  i n series with a  total  volume e q u i v a l e n t to the volume of the s i n g l e c e l l used i n t h i s study. primary cell  c e l l would c o n t a i n the accumulated  the s u p e r n a t a n t .  improved  s o l i d s and  (B)  s l u d g e ; the  By p r o v i d i n g q u i e s c e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r the  e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y through s o l i d s s e t t l i n g  and  c o u l d be  The  secondary supernatant,  achieved.  D e t e r m i n a t i o n of the Rate and Degree of B i o l o g i c a l R e d u c t i o n o f the C o n c e n t r a t e d Animal Waste Oxygen Demand and V o l a t i l e S o l i d s  T h i s study would c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f b a t c h a n a e r o b i c v e s s e l s r e g u l a t e d a t v a r i o u s temperatures.  An i n i t i a l measurement of the COD,  and VS of the c o m p l e t e l y mixed d i g e s t e r c o n t e n t s would be r e q u i r e d .  BOD  85  Following plus  this,  weekly  measurement  determination a waste  and  c o u l d be  of  second  Ammonia-N this  would  cell to  achieve  eventual  in  the more  animal  reduction  rate  of  contents  and e v o l v e d  c a r r i e d out.  that  From t h i s  c a n be e x p e c t e d w i t h  r e d u c t i o n as  related  to  such  a  gas a  such waste  Sludge  sludge,  effect fully wastes.  of  a study  from the a two  ammonia-N  disposal,  of  Removal related specifically  digester cell  supernatant  system  incorporate mechanical  Because  and  of  respect,  include  would  (D)  istics  the d i g e s t e r  p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d be  degree  demand r e m o v a l  study  order  the  of  accomplished.  In  This  gas  the b i o l o g i c a l  (C)  oxygen  of  analysis  as  would  to  nitrogenous  be  worthwhile.  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  aeration  or  chemical  The  treatment  in  removal.  Characteristics  accumulation a study  related  the e x t e n t detention  understanding  of  sludge  poses  a problem i n  terms  to  the  c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l  to which  the  sludge  on r e d u c i n g the  the  character-  c a n be b i o l o g i c a l l y  sludge  overall picture  of  for  volume  w o u l d be  treatment  of  reduced  worthwhile  concentrated  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  T o w n s h e n d , A . R.,  Rechert,  K. A . , a n d N o d w e l l ,  J . H.  Status  Report  on  Water P o l l u t i o n Control F a c i l i t i e s for Farm Animal Wastes in the Province of Ontario, A n i m a l W a s t e Management ( 1 9 6 9 ) , C o r n e l l University,  Loehr,  Raymond  131-149.  The Challenge  C.  Management  Hart,  pp.  (1969),  of Animal  Cornell  Waste Management,  University,  pp.  Animal  Waste  17-22.  T u r n e r , M a r v i n E. Waste S t a b i l i s a t i o n Ponds for A d v a n c e s i n Water Q u a l i t y Improvement I ( 1 9 6 8 ) , E d i t e d by G l o y n a a n d E c k e n f e l d e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s P r e s s , pp. 457-463.  Samuel  A.,  and  A g r i c u l t u r a l Wastes,  Willrich,  T.  Primary  L.  Symposium State  Curtis,  White,  University,  of Swine  Wastes by Lagooning,  W a s t e s Management  pp.  (1966),  National  Proceedings,  Michigan  70-74.  D a v i d R. Design C r i t e r i a for Anaerobic Lagoons for Swine Manure Disposal, N a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m o n A n i m a l W a s t e Management (1966), Proceedings, Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y , pp. 75-80.  Taiginides,  Hart,  Treatment  on A n i m a l  E.  P.,  Baumann,  Anaerobic  Digestion  Research  (British),  Samuel A. Animal 2nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l pp. 320-325.  James  Dornbush,  James  N.  Symposium  Eckenfelder,  for  W. W.  (1970),  Design  State Waste  Water  Barnes  R.,  J o h n s o n , H. P . , a n d H a z e n , T . E . J o u r n a l of Agr. Engineering  8,  No.  Lagoons,  Symposium  Waste  for  Vol.  Manure  Current  E.  Symposium  E.  of Hog Wastes,  (1963),  Quality  Lagoons  Lagoons  New  Waste Treatment 1964). 86  Treatment  Lagoons, (1970),  Lagoons  2nd  pp.  Lagoons, (1970),  Engineering  Inc.,  327-333.  Treatment  of the Art-Anaerobic Treatment  pp.  A Questionable Waste  for Anaerobic  Treatment  & Noble,  M c C a r t y , P. L. Anaerobic (September-December  for  4  for  pp.  System, (1970),  International  360-363.  2nd  International  382-387.  Practising  Engineers  York.  Fundamentals,  Public  Works  87  [12]  Buswell,  A.  Discussion  M.  and E n g i n e e r i n g  [13]  Taiginides,  E.  P.,  Schmid,  of  Lawrence A . ,  and Anaerobic University,  [15]  APHA,  AWWA, WPCF  Chemistry,  and H a z e n , T .  Transactions  [14]  - B i o l o g i c a l Formation 48,  Vol.  9,  and L i p p e r , R a l p h  Digestion,  No.  Properties  E.  the ASAE,  No.  9  (1956),  page  1443.  of Farm Animal 3  (1966),  pp.  Management  Excreta,  374-376.  Swine Wastes,  I.  A n i m a l Waste  Industrial  Characterization, (1969),  Cornell  pp.-50-57.  Standard  Wastewater  Vol.  of Methane,  (1965),  Methods  for  the  American P u b l i c  Examination  of  Water  Health Association,  and  Inc.,  12th  Edition.  [16]  Sawyer,  C l a i r N., and M c C a r t y , P e r r y L. Chemistry ( 1 9 6 7 ) , M c G r a w - H i l l , 2 n d E d i t i o n , New Y o r k .  [17]  R i c h , L i n v i l G., Unit and  Sons  Inc.,  [18]  M c K i n n e y , R o s s E. New Y o r k .  [19]  Barker,  [20]  Pfeffer,  Processes New  of  Sanitary  for  Engineering  Sanitary  (1963),  John  for  Sanitary  Engineers  (1962),  McGraw-Hill,  H. A . B i o l o g i c a l Formation of Methane, I n d u s t r i a l C h e m i s t r y , V o l . 4 8 , No. 9 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 1 4 3 8 - 1 4 4 2 .  John T.  Anaerobic  Wiley  York.  Microbiology  International  Engineers  Lagoons  Symposium  for  - Theoretical Waste  and  Engineering  Considerations,  Treatment Lagoons  (1970),  2nd pp.  320.  [21]  E c k e n f e l d e r , W. W., a n d O ' C o n n o r , D. J . P e r g a m o n P r e s s ( 1 9 6 1 ) , New Y o r k .  Biological  Waste  Treatment,  310-  A P P E N D I C E S  a  APPENDIX A LABORATORY  89  RESULTS  pH OF THE E F F L U E N T AS TO T H E FEEDING  RELATED RATE.  O  pH OF T H E E F F L U E N T AS  RELATED  TO THE FEEDING R A T E .  pH OF T H E E F F L U E N T AS TO THE FEEDING  RELATED  RATE .  VO  r-2 71  bo  6  70  PH  Digester  6 9  o  HI*  *4-IO°C  o >  co  6 6 81  la CO  od  o  Y ?  6-7  <?  . . (  6  6':  VS n  •O  6":  6-6  1 I /Day  6-5  2 I/Day  4 I/Day  JL 10  20  30  40  SO  60  70  80  90  100  110  120  130  140  ISO  160  Time ( Days)  pH O F E F F L U E N T A S R E L A T E D  T O FEEDING  RATE .  170  160  190  u Digester*l - 3 0 ° C 40  35  25°C  —II—  #2 -  — n —  #3 _• I 8 ° C -  —II—  #4 --  R.W. COD  I0°C  30  V  2  1 I/Day  I/Day  21/Day  ..o  I 0  I 10  I  1  I  20  30  40  I 50  1  i  i  i  i  i  60  70  80  90  100  110  i 120  «••  i 130  •o  i 140  i ISO  <  4J/Day  o-  i  i  >60  170  i 180 1 9 0  Time ( Days)  COD OF RAW  WASTE  8 E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO THE FEEDING R A T E .  V O  16  V l/Day  11/Day  2  2 I/Day  41/Day  Time ( Days)  BOD  5  OF RAW W A S T E  a  E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO T H E FEEDING  RATE  VO v/i  so  45  Digester* I 40  3  — II—  * 2 - 25°C  — "—  *3 -  Total Solids Raw Waste  I8°C-23°C  — H — * 4 - I 0 °C  35  b  30°C  °  25  E  IA ? 2 0  o  <n 2  1 I/Day  V2 I/Day  , j*y S  2 l/Doy  D  y  o  10  10  20  J 30  L 40  50  J 60  I 70  I 80  L 90  100  ' 110  ' 120  I 130  L 140  ISO  160  170  Time(Days)  TS  OF RAW  W A S T E S E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D  TO T H E  FEEDING  RATE .  180  190  40  "  35  O M  -  Digester* I -  30°C  —  25°C  II — *  30  -  Solids  Raw  Waste  :4b  o» E •o  2  Volatile  —  II —  3 " I 8 °C " 23°C * 4  II  25  -  I  0°C  o  in 2 0 o o  >5  V  10  10  20  30  2  1/ Day  40  50  60  70  80  Time  VS OF RAW WASTE  21/Day  1 I/Day  8  90  100  110  120  130  140  ISO  160  170  ( Days)  E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO THE FEEDING R A T E .  180  190  I 200 0  10  20  30  40  SO  60  60  90  Time  100  (Days)  110  120  130  140  ISO  160  170  180  190  L K J E L D A H L N OF RAW WASTE 8 E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO T H E FEEDING R A T E .  IOOOI  Digester * l -  900  • n-  2 - 25°C  II  800  Raw Waste Organic Kjeldahl Nitrogen  30°C  3  - i e ° C - 23°C  Ln  * 4 - 10 ° C  II  ~ 700| E  "ce o o l <B t> O  ~Z SOOl  z  JC O400|  y  300[  c o w200| O  o o-  V  100  2  1/ Day  _L  •0  20  30  40  50  1 I/Day  J  L  60  70  80  90  100  2 I/Day  110  120  130  140  ISO  160  4 I/Day  170  180  190  Time ( Days)  ORGANIC K.N OF RAW WASTE 8 E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO T H E FEEDING R A T E .  -  7T  3000  2750  2 500  Digester * I -  30°C  —  I I — *2 -  25°C  —  I I — * 3  II  2250  "  Total Phosphate Raw Waste  I8°C-23°C  .*4 -  I0°C  g 2000 <p  jj 1750 a CO  o  a.  isoo V2  o 1250  1/ Doy  1 1/ Day  2 l/Doy  4 l/Daj  1000  750  500 10  TOTAL  20  30  40  50  60  70  P H O S P H A T E OF RAW WASTE 8 E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO THE FEEDING R A T E . S  T i me ( Days)  A L K A L I N I T Y OF RAW WASTE 8 E F F L U E N T AS R E L A T E D TO T H E FEEDING R A T E .  0  20  40  60  80  100  120  140  160  Time  180  200  220  240  260  280  300  320  (Days ) i—  o  TOTAL  GAS P R O D U C E D FEEDING  FOR  RATE .  SPECIFIC  100  90  V  2  1/  1 I /Day  Day  .  2 I/Day  0 I / Day  41/Day  80  70  £  60  °  50  o  w 40 u Q> a . 30  Digester =#= I - 3 0 ° C  20  »  #  "  *  „  ^  2-25°C 3 - I8-23°C4  _  |  0  o  c  I0  20  40  60  80  100  120  140  160  180  200  220  240  260  280  300  320  T i m e ( Days) o  %  METHANE  G A S OF T O T A L  G A S COMPOSITION .  100  r  i  90  V  2  I/  T  Day  1 I/Day  21/Doy  1  1  41/Day  T  0 1 / Day  80  _  70  a  60  H -  o  50  c a>  o 40 i_  a.  Digester # i - 3 0 ° C  30  „ 2 0  -  4^ 2 - 2 5 ° C  — «  #  3-l8-23°C  ••  #  4-IO°C  I 0  20  40  60  80  100  120  140  160  Time  180  200  220  240  260  280  300  320  (Days) o -F-  %  CARBON  D I O X I D E OF T O T A L G A S  COMPOSITION.  APPENDIX B E F F E C T OF DETENTION TD1E ON COD, BOD  5  AND SOLIDS  105  REMOVAL  %  COD  AND BOD5 R E M O V E D  (AVG)  b COD AND O _L_  o  O  _i  BOD5 REMOVED cn O  cn  o  O  _J  (AVG) o  L_  o o  10 o  00  o  1  I_  ro-  O  -1  I  m  r~ 0 -1  m  -r\  O  -n  m  rn  CO  >-<  m aj  .e>_  CO  0  0  -1  0  0 —1  >  0 0  OJ  0  O O  z P  CD  O O  U>  DET  ro cn_  z  <  r£ cn  O  m  TIO  0  t  0  cn_ 0  z -1  ME  O  0  z  %  0 0  p  0 0 - -  CD  O O  O  ro O 1  TS AND 01 o  o  I  VS  REMOVED cn O  cn  o  I  1  cn  o~  CP CO 0  r~  ro_  O  0  CO  -1  OJ_  0  -<  CO  —t m  vo 0  cn_  O  cn O" ->i O  ZOT  o  m  co  DA  VAO  REM r~  rO  z p ro ro cn o  o  (AVG) O I  00  o  _J_  10 o 1  o o  % o  COD AND BOD5 REMOVED OJ  ro  o  0 4 -  I  o  m -n m o -1  cn o  (AVG) CO  3  o  1  I  O  VO  o  o  CD  f-  1 m  cn o  m co —i m JO  OJ  O H  O  z p CO  OJ  cn O  o rn —t m  CO  I ro OJ  o o  cn. O  o  2 m  % o P  P  p  ro  TS cu P  L_  AND VS 4>  _2_  REMOVED cn  _2_  CO  p o cn  CP  ro P  CO  p  CD  o  CO  m  D H  OJ  P  —i  m  3)  2  z p 01  P  %  m co  CO  cn P  CO I  ro  Oi cn P  P 801  o o  cn  (AVG)  5 1  00  _2_  CO  _9_  LDT  THE  (DAYS)  EFFECT  LDT  OF DETENTION  TIME  ON  COD,  BOD  5  S  SOLIDS  (DAYS)  REMOVAL  o  APPENDIX C EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON COD, BOD  5  AND SOLIDS REMOVAL  110  100  100 1  901  90-  o 80-  80  > <  ~ 70" o UJ  leo-  0  > o  cc LDT = 5 0  tn  Q 50-  1  DAYS  o m  CO  £ 40<  > Q  Q  z < to  O  €0  UJ  UJ  30"  (SAMPLES  10  10  20 TEMP  —T—  —  .10  30  (°C)  THE  EFFECT  NOT  i  —  20  TEMP ( ° C )  OF T E M P E R A T U R E  ON  TAKEN)  30 20  —\— 10  DAYS  40H  20-  0  L D T =50  50-  COD, B 0 D  5  AND  SOLIDS  REMOVAL  30  3TT  APPENDIX EFFECT  OF D E T E N T I O N  D  T I M E AND  ON A M M O N I A - N AND T O T A L  115  TEMPERATURE  PHOSPHATE  REMOVAL  9TT  8TT  6IT  APPENDIX E SAMPLE CALCULATIONS  120  121  CASE  I  -  COD Cm = ml k F for  x  of  = 2.85  CH  produced per  mg COD/mA  = mg o f  Temp. =  4  LDT = 50  days  COD r e d u c e d : F  = k =  of  Cm  2.85(1225)  =  Loading  x  3490  COD =  14675  % COD b i o l o g i c a l l y  X  1  0  0  =  2  4  mg/day  mg/day  reduced:  3490 14675  %  .  Ci\  COD r e d u c e d p e r  30°C  day  day  122  CASE  II  -  BOD  5  Cm = ml k  = 2.85  x  F for  of  mg B O D / m £  = mg o f  Temp. =  5  B0D  5  30°C  LDT = 5 0  B0D  CH^ p r o d u c e d p e r  days  reduced:  5  F  Loading  % B0D  5  of  = k  B0D  5  Cm  x  =  2.85(1225)  =  3490 m g / d a y  = 4600 m g / d a y  biologically  reduced:  3490 4600  *  1  0  0  =  7  6  %  day  CH^  reduced per  day  123  CASE  III  -  VS C  fc  = ml  k  2  = 0.73-0.94  P for  of  = mg o f  Temp. =  VS  produced per mg  VS/ml  gas  reduced per  day produced  day  30°C  LDT = 25  VS  gas  day  reduced: P (i)  for  = k k  P  (ii)  for P  Loading  of  VS  k  2  =  t  0.73  =  0.73(2750)  =  2010  2  »  0.94  =  0.94(2750)  =  2600  =  15300 m g / d a y  % VS b i o l o g i c a l l y  2600 15300  C  2  reduced:  x 100 =  13.2%  (for  k  2  =  0.73)  x 100 =  17%  (for  k  ?  =  0.94)  (65-70%  CH^)  

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