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Computer simulation of fecal coliforms in the fraser estuary. Rusch, William Charles 1972

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Cl A COMPUTER SIMULATION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN THE FRASER ESTUARY by WILLIAM C. RUSCH B.Ap.Sc., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n the Department o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f . t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Civil Engineering The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e September 12, 1972 ABSTRACT D i s t r e s s over p o l l u t i o n of n a t u r a l water courses by i n d u s t r i a l and domestic wastes i s c a u s i n g n a t i o n a l concern However, wastes must be d i s p o s e d of by some method and these n a t u r a l water courses have been and s t i l l are obvious sources f o r d i s p o s a l . By c a r e f u l study of the n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y of r i v e r s and streams f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n of wastes, they can be used f o r d i s p o s a l as long as t h i s c a p a c i t y i s not exceeded. One method of d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s c a p a c i t y without d e s t r o y i n g the water course i s by modeling the system mathematically to determine l i m i t s of p o l l u t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s c o n t a i n s the r e s u l t s of a p r e l i m i n a r y study on the e f f e c t of the new A n n a c i s I s l a n d Treatment P l a n t on c o l i f o r m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r E s t u a r y from Barnston I s l a n d t o Garry P o i n t . Mathematical formulas p r e d i c t i n g c o l i f o r m con-c e n t r a t i o n s were used to computer s i m u l a t e c o l i f o r m p r o f i l e s on the r i v e r . These r e s u l t s were then compared to p r e s e n t measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the E s t u a r y . Once a c o r r e l a t i o n between measured and s i m u l a t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s was e s t a b l i s h e d the e f f e c t of f u t u r e d i s c h a r g e s t o the system c o u l d be s i m u l a t e d on the computer. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. LIST OF TABLES i v LIST OF FIGURES v CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 CHAPTER 2 A D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e F r a s e r E s t u a r y 6 CHAPTER 3 C o l i f o r m B a c t e r i a 15 CHAPTER 4 Model Methodology 27 CHAPTER 5 R e s u l t s 49 CHAPTER 6 C o n c l u s i o n s 61 REFERENCES 63 APPENDICES 66 - i v -L I S T OF TABLES TABLE T I T L E PAGE NO. 1 C u b a t u r e Computed D i s c h a r g e 30 V e r s u s M e t e r e d D i s c h a r g e 2 R i v e r S e c t i o n A r e a s and W i d t h s 39 3 C o l i f o r m A d d i t i o n s t o F r a s e r 45 - V -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO. 1 Mean Monthly Flows at Hope 7 2 Spring Tides at Point Atkinson 8 3 Neap Tides at Point Atkinson 8 4 Arrested Saline Wedge 9 5 V e l o c i t y P r o f i l e s f o r S t r a t i f i e d Estuary 9 6 Sampling Stations f o r Study Conducted by P a c i f i c Oceanographic Group 10 7 S a l i n i t y Temperature P r o f i l e of P a c i f i c Oceanographic Group No. 1-A 11 8 S a l i n i t y Temperature P r o f i l e of P a c i f i c Oceanographic Group No. 2 12 9 S a l i n i t y Temperature P r o f i l e of P a c i f i c Oceanographic Group No. 3 13 10 Flow D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Lower Fraser River 14 • 11 Diagrammatic Sketch f o r Describing T i d a l Discharge Computations 28 12 Model Area 31 13 Approximate Locations of G.V.S. & D.D. Sampling Points and Gauge Stations used by N.R.C. of Canada 34 14 Discharge and T i d a l Fluctuations for Garry Point Gauge Station 35 15 Reaches of River as Defined by Model 36 16 Approximate Location of Area Cross-Sections 38 - v i -LIST OF FIGURES (Cont.) TITLE PAGE NO. Model Methodology River Cross-Section Area as Calculated by Model Simulation Coliform Concentration Versus Distance as Measured by G.V.S. & D.D. Coliform Concentration Versus Distance - Computed Average Values Compared to Measured Actual Values Range of Observed Coliform Concentrations Versus Range of Predicted Coliform Concentrations fo r Present Conditions 54 Flushing C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Point Discharges made at Annacis Island at Various Stages of Tide at Garry Point 57 Range of Predicted Coliform Concentrations at Present Versus Range of Predicted Coliform Concentrations i n 1975 ( l o u t f a l l ) 59 Range of Predicted Coliform Concentrations at Present Versus Range of Predicted Coliform Concentrations i n 1975 (3 o u t f a l l s ) 60 40 42 50 53 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to thank Dr. W.K. Oldham and Dr. A. Benedict f o r t h e i r assistance in the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . S pecial thanks i s also given to the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t f o r access to the sampling data which they have c o l l e c t e d on the Fraser River. Acknowledgement i s also given to Environment Canada, Inland Waters Branch f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l support i n carrying out t h i s research. - 1 -CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION The Fraser River i s the largest and most important r i v e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Its basin, an area of 90,000 square miles, a quarter of the province, occupies most of the southern portion situated between the Coast Mountains and the Rocky Mountains, l y i n g between the 49th and 56th northern p a r a l l e l s of l a t i t u d e (1). The r i v e r originates near Beacon Peak i n the Rocky Mountains i n the v i c i n i t y of Yellowhead Pass. Af t e r the f i r s t 70 miles i t descends into the Rocky Mountain Trench at Tete Jaune and pursues a northwesterly course along the trench f o r some 250 miles. Here the Columbia Mountains merge with the I n t e r i o r Plateau and the r i v e r turns out from the trench and flows almost due south f o r some 400 miles, crossing the I n t e r i o r Plateau from i t s northeastern to i t s southwestern extremities. At Lytton the Fraser River cuts through the Coast Mountains i n a spectacular canyon. At Hope, almost 100 miles from i t s mouth, i t turns westward and emerges at the head of an a l l u v i a l v a l l e y which i t follows to the sea. From i t s source to i t s mouth the t o t a l length of the r i v e r i s approximately 850 miles. For centuries r i v e r s and streams have been used f o r the disposal of man's wastes so that i t was i n e v i t a b l e that -2-the Fraser would also become a receptacle for such wastes. From Prince George i n the north to Vancouver i n the south, domestic and i n d u s t r i a l wastes are discharged into the Fraser, most of them with l i t t l e or no treatment. Centres of population are few and f a r between f o r most of the r i v e r ' s journey to the sea. However, near the mouth of the r i v e r , Vancouver and i t s metropolitan areas give r i s e to a population of over 1,000,000 persons. Here the land along the r i v e r has been zoned f o r i n d u s t r i a l dev-elopment and untreated wastes are discharged to the r i v e r i n t h i s area. Due to increased urbanization, the population i n the lower mainland has been growing r a p i d l y . From 1921 to 1966 the population rose from 250,000 to over a 1,000,000 persons and the projected population f o r the year 2000 i s 2,400,000, almost ten times the 1921 t o t a l (2). It i s expected that a majority of these people w i l l be concentrated i n the c i t y of Vancouver and i t s immediate outlying areas. P o l l u t i o n l e v e l s i n the Fraser River estuary are of p a r t i c u l a r concern f o r a number of reasons. Tides i n Georgia S t r a i t of up to 14-foot amplitude cause t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the Fraser as f a r inland as Chilliwack, but such upstream f l u c t u a t i o n s are purely backwater e f f e c t s . Flow reversal i s reported .as f a r as Albion or Whonock (See Figure 12), but these flows are e n t i r e l y fresh water (3). P i t t Lake i s subject to t i d a l v a r i a t i o n s i n depth of up to 4 feet and because of reverse flows at high t i d e i n the Fraser, p o l l u t a n t s entering the r i v e r below the mouth of - 3 -the P i t t River could enter P i t t Lake on the reverse flow and upset the b i o l o g i c a l balance of the lake. The Fraser River i s now the largest salmon producing r i v e r system i n North America ( l ) . The spawning salmon deposit the eggs i n the gravel of freshwater streams and the eggs incubate during the f a l l and winter months and hatch i n the spring. Pink and Chum salmon f r y then migrate d i r e c t l y to the ocean. Other species return to the Ocean af t e r one or two years i n fresh water. When the young salmon reach the mouth of the r i v e r , they pause for several weeks to several months i n the estuary to become acclimated to the s a l t water and to gorge themselves on the abundant food supply i n the estuary before moving out into the ocean. The adult salmon, returning to the r i v e r to spawn, pause i n the estuary f o r these same reasons before making t h e i r upstream journey to the spawning grounds. Any noxious wastes and wastes which would lower the dissolved oxygen l e v e l s or i n any way diminish the food supply i n the estuary, would be harmful to both young and adult salmon. Due to t i d a l e f f e c t s and coastal currents i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, Fraser River water i s swept northward and enters English Bay. There are numerous bathing beaches i n t h i s area, and i f f e c a l contamination i n the water becomes too high, the beaches must be closed to the pu b l i c . S h e l l -f i s h harvesting on the coastal banks at the mouth of the r i v e r could be damaged by toxic wastes from industry or banned because of high l e v e l s of f e c a l contamination i n the water. To maintain or improve the present q u a l i t y of the receiving waters i n the face of increasing population and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i t w i l l be necessary to keep p o l l -ution at a l e v e l which i s below the natural capacity of the r i v e r f or a s s i m i l a t i o n of wastes. One method f o r determining t h i s capacity i s to model the r i v e r system, either p h y s i c a l l y or mathematically. A new waste treatment plant i s proposed f o r Annacis Island which w i l l combine wastes from several e x i s t i n g sewage o u t f a l l s along the r i v e r into one large o u t f a l l entering the South Arm at Annacis Island (See Appendix I ) . It was proposed that model studies be done on the South Arm f o r dissolved oxygen and coliform b a c t e r i a concentrations as they occur now. By making suitable changes i n the model, the conditions which w i l l occur i n the r i v e r a f t e r the treatment plant i s constructed can be simulated and compared to present conditions. This thesis contains the r e s u l t s of a d i g i t a l computer model f o r coliform con-centrations i n the main arm of the Fraser from the Port Mann bridge to Garry Point (See Figure 13 ). Concentrations of ba c t e r i a are l i k e l y to be highest at low r i v e r flows so that the t h e s i s i s concerned only with winter flow conditions. Simulation of coliform concentrations i n the estuary involved two main problems. F i r s t , a method had to be selected which would predict flow v a r i a t i o n s i n the estuary over a t i d a l cycle with some degree of accuracy. Before such a method could be selected, i t was necessary to study the -5-various conditions ocurring i n the r i v e r and i t s estuary. Secondly, processes contributing to the decrease of coliform b a c t e r i a i n a t i d a l estuary had to be established and described mathematically. To solve these problems, the Fraser River Estuary f i r s t had to be studied to determine flow conditions and mechanisms of s a l t water i n t r u s i o n . Factors a f f e c t i n g coliform b acteria s u r v i v a l i n an estuary also had to be studied. Once these f a c t o r s were established, a model which would mathematically predict the flow conditions and coliform s u r v i v a l rate i n the Fraser Estuary had to be determined. The model v a l i d i t y was checked by comparing predicted model co l i f o r m concentrations to actual measurements taken on the r i v e r over a period of time by the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t (G.V.S. & D.D.). The e f f e c t of the proposed Annacis Island Treatment Plant on the Fraser Estuary was then predicted using estimated sewage flows from the plant at the proposed beginning of operation i n 1975. - 6 -CHAPTER 2  A DESCRIPTION OF THE FRASER ESTUARY T i d a l Influence An estuary may be defined as a p a r t i a l l y enclosed body of water which receives an inflow of fresh water from land drainage and which has a free connection with the open sea ( l ) . As a r e s u l t of t h i s free connection with the open sea, the estuary i s subjected to t i d a l influence. In the Fraser estuary the t i d a l influence v aries considerably f o r two reasons. F i r s t , r i v e r flow rates vary from winter to summer, the peak summer discharge being almost 10 times the average winter discharge. Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the monthly flow v a r i a t i o n s f o r several years as recorded at Hope by the Water Survey of Canada. The freshet s t a r t s somewhere between the l a s t part of A p r i l and early May and the r i v e r r i s e s very r a p i d l y to a maximum, usually sometime i n June. A f t e r the peak i s reached, flows gradually drop to winter l e v e l s i n October. The second reason f o r varying t i d a l influence i n the estuary i s the diu r n a l i n e q u a l i t y of the tides which alternate from spring to neap ranges i n a biweekly cycle. During the week of springs (Figure 2) the t i d e f a l l s very low on one ebb and r i s e s high on the following f l o o d . There i s then a r e l a t i v e l y quiescent period when i t remains high with only a very minor f a l l and r i s e . The cycle repeats with the st a r t of the next strong ebb. -7-0 I i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 — JAN., FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT. NOV. DEC. FIG. I : - MEAN MONTHLY FLOWS AT HOPE FOR Y E A R S 1952,1968,1969, 1970 ( WATER SURVEY OF CANADA) - 8 -SATURDAY JAN. 17 1970 SUNDAY JAN. 18 1970 MONDAY JAN. 19 1 970 24 6 12 18 24 6 12 18 24 6 12 18 24 FIG. 2 SPRING TIDES AT POINT ATKINSON ( R E F E R E N C E 4) In the neap tide week (Figure 3) there are two si m i l a r t i d e s of smaller amplitude each day. 15 5 MONDAY JAN. 12 1970 TUESDAY JAN. 13 1970 WEDNESDAY JAN. 14 1970 24 6 12 18 24 6 12 18 24 6 12 18 24 FIG. 3 N E A P T I D E S A T P O I N T A T K I N S O N ( R E F E R E N C E 4 ) Sea Water Intrusion Sea water i n t r u s i o n i n the Fraser estuary i s also related to the ti d e height and r i v e r flow. During the low flow winter months, the s a l t water intrudes i n the r i v e r - 9 -mouth i n the form of a wedge u n d e r l y i n g the f r e s h water. As the t i d e r i s e s sea water f l o w s up the r i v e r mouth l i f t i n g the f r e s h water and c a r r y i n g i t backwards u n t i l opposing f o r c e s are equ a l , as shown i n F i g u r e 4. SEA / RIVER MOUTH RIVER FIG.4 A R R E S T E D S A L I N E W E D G E ( A F T E R K E U L E G A N ) The r i v e r water accumulates i n trie e s t u a r y and the r i v e r l e v e l r i s e s . I t c o n t i n u e s t o r i s e a f t e r h i g h t i d e i n G e o r g i a S t r a i t w h i l e the l e v e l o f the sea i s dropping (4). The upstream v e l o c i t y v a n i s h e s a t the s t a r t of the ebb and the upper l a y e r o f f r e s h water moves seaward at an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e , urged on by the v e l o c i t y head of the r i v e r and the p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e between the e s t u a r y and the sea. ( F i g u r e 5) FIG. 5 V E L O C I T Y P R O F I L E S F O R S T R A T I F I E D E S T U A R Y ( R E F E R E N C E 3 ) 777777777 777 FLOODTIDE / / / / / EBBTIDE //////// -10-Calculations (3) based on a v a i l a b l e data suggested that under the most extreme conditions the s a l t wedge w i l l not extend past Annacis Island and that s a l t water w i l l not be present i n the r i v e r bed above Steveston j e t t y (see Figure 6 ) f o r flows exceeding 200,000 c f s . However, even at high flows, the rate of discharge of r i v e r water to the Georgia S t r a i t s t i l l v aries with the t i d e . Measurements taken by the P a c i f i c Oceanographic Group (5) on February 13, 1962 confirmed the presence of a highly s t r a t i f i e d condition i n the lower reaches of the estuary. S a l i n i t y and temperature measurements were taken at standard oceanographic depths at f i v e stations i n the estuary. Figure 6 shows the approximate l o c a t i o n of these stations and Figures 7, 8 & 9 show s a l i n i t y and temperature p r o f i l e s f o r the f i r s t three stations. No s i g n i f i c a n t measurements have been taken f o r other low flow months so that no c o r r e l a t i o n between r i v e r flow and sea-water penetration can be made. FIG. 6 SAMPLING STATIONS FOR STUDY CONDUCTED BY PACIFIC OCEANOGRAPHIC GROUP FIG. 7 SALINITY AND T E M P E R A T U R E PROFILE OF PACIFIC OCEANOGRAPHIC GROUP STATION N ° . I-A V o o 20 30 TEMPERATURE ( uc) 4 5 6 fi FIG. 8 SALINITY a TEMPERATURE PROFILE OF PACIFIC OCEANOGRAPHIC GROUP STATION N°. 2 FIG. 9 S A L I N I T Y A N D T E M P E R A T U R E P R O F I L E O F PACIFIC O C E A N O G R A P H I C G R O U P STAT ION NO. 3 -14-Flow D i s t r i b u t i o n The only continuous record of Fraser River discharge i s made at Hope, B.C. and i s maintained by the Water Resources D i v i s i o n , Federal Department of Resources and Development. However, i t i s estimated that 90% of the t o t a l Lower Fraser River flow originates upstream from Hope (6). The estimates of flow in'the various branches of the Fraser r i v e r which occur i n the d e l t a region at the mouth during the low flow winter months are given i n Figure 10. i n nature, varying seasonally because of run-off and d a i l y because of t i d a l influence. The v a r i a t i o n s i n the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of the flow as well as the i n t r u s i o n of s a l t water i n the estuary have a marked e f f e c t on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of b a c t e r i a l concentrations i n the Fraser Estuary. The following chapter discusses f a c t o r s influencing the growth and d i e - o f f of b a c t e r i a i n an estuary such as that of the Fraser River System. In summary, the Fraser River estuary i s complex 5 % PITT LAKE (TIDAL) N HOPE FIG. 10 FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN LOWER FRASER RIVER ( REF. 6 ) -15-CHAPTER 3  COLIFORM BACTERIA Coliforms as Indicators of Water Quality Use of the presence of bac t e r i a as an indi c a t o r of the sanitary q u a l i t y of water originated i n 1880 with the d e s c r i p t i o n by von F r i t s h of K l e b s i e l l a pneumonias and K. rhinoscleromatis as organisms of human contamination (7). A short time l a t e r Escherich added h i s B a c i l l u s C o l i as an indicator of f e c a l p o l l u t i o n (7). A study of t h e i r writings shows that they considered human feces, but not feces of other warm blooded animals as being hazardous to human health. Apparently t h i s was the obscure o r i g i n of the science of sanitary water bacteriology, and from t h i s source the current use of the coliform group as an indicator of p o t e n t i a l contamination has developed. Standard Methods describes coliforms as "comprising a l l of the aerobic and f a c u l t a t i v e anaerobic, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped b a c t e r i a which ferment lactose with gas formation within 48 hours at 35°C." (8). Coliform b a c t e r i a are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and include the genera Escherichia and Aerobacter. Aerobacter and c e r t a i n Escherichia are widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n nature, and are normally found on plants and grains, i n the s o i l and to a varying degree i n the feces of man and animals. Escherichia c o l i , however, which normally inhabit the i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t of man and animals and are excreted with -16-th e feces, are thought to be e n t i r e l y of f e c a l o r i g i n (7). The coliform group was selected as an indicator organism f o r mammalian water contamination p r i m a r i l y because of the simple and r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e laboratory procedures avai l a b l e for i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and enumeration (7). The standard test for the coliform group may be c a r r i e d out either by the multiple-tube fermentation (M.P.N.) technique or by the membrane f i l t e r technique, both of which are described i n Standard Methods. Further but more complicated tests can be employed to d i s t i n g u i s h between the f e c a l and non-fecal b a c t e r i a i n the coliform group. The Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t carry out a f a i r l y extensive water sampling program on the Fraser River including tests f o r t o t a l coliform concentrations. This information was used to p l o t ranges and averages of t o t a l coliform concentrations on the r i v e r during low flow winter periods. Although the model predictions are based on f e c a l coliform concentrations, i t was assumed that within the l i m i t s of the model study, f e c a l coliforms present from sewage d i s -charges would govern t o t a l coliform patterns on the r i v e r . Decline of Coliforms i n an Estuary A comprehensive l i t e r a t u r e review revealed four fac t o r s which are the probable main causes f o r the natural decline of coliform concentrations i n a receiving water. - 1 7 -I. D i l u t i o n Gainey and Lord (9) stated that d i l u t i o n undoubt-edly has a marked apparent but probable l i t t l e absolute e f f e c t upon b a c t e r i a l numbers. The constant addition of water which i s r e l a t i v e l y free of bacteria w i l l r e s u l t i n a gradual reduction i n the number of bacteria per unit volume. S i m i l a r l y , the addition of streams which are heavily con-taminated with bacteria, such as sewer discharges to a large r i v e r such as the Fraser, containing r e l a t i v e l y low contam-ination, w i l l r e s u l t i n large scale d i l u t i o n of the sewer discharge and consequent lowering of b a c t e r i a per unit volume. II. M o r t a l i t y As early as 1936, Zobell noted that natural seawater had a b a c t e r i c i d a l action on non-marine b a c t e r i a (10). Ketchum, Ayers and Vaccaro, i n 1952, concluded that a b i o l o g i c a l l y produced " a n t i b i o t i c " was involved i n the decline of coliform b a c t e r i a numbers, although they had no s c i e n t i f i c proof f o r t h i s (11). In 1956, Greenberg (12), a f t e r reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject, came to the conclusion that the disappearance of f e c a l b a c t e r i a from marine estuaries was due to a number of things, one of which was the production by marine ba c t e r i a of u n i d e n t i f i e d heat l a b i l e a n t i b i o t i c substances. Orlab (1956) presented data i n d i c a t i n g that the b a c t e r i c i d a l agent in seawater was b i o l o g i c a l and heat l a b i l e -18-(13). He also showed that a t y p i c a l growth curve of E. c o l i i n seawater had a lag phase, a phase of rapid decline, a phase i n which r e s i s t a n t organisms developed, and ultimately a phase in which the coliforms grew back again. E. c o l i i n seawater had a mortality of 90% i n 3-5 days. Nakamura, Stone, Krubsack and Pauls (1964) found that S h i g e l l a decreased more i n natural than i n autoclaved or f i l t e r s t e r i l i z e d seawater and expressed b e l i e f that t h i s increased k i l l resulted from the production of b i o l o g i c a l toxins (14). Jones (1963) used a number of d i f f e r e n t non-marine ba c t e r i a to demonstrate that natural seawater was more i n h i b i t o r y than a r t i f i c i a l seawater (15). C a r l u c c i and Pramer (1960) presented data i n d i c a t i n g that a n t i b i o t i c s were not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the decline of E. c o l i i n seawater. They tested 200 i s o l a t e s of marine bac t e r i a f o r a n t i b i o t i c a c t i v i t y against either E. c o l i or B a c i l l u s s u b t i l u s , without detecting any s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y (16). C a r l u c c i , Scapino and Pramer (1961) suggested that perhaps a heat l a b i l e toxin was present i n seawater. In 1963 these same three men provided evidence f o r a physicochemical k i l l i n g process i n the sea (17). Rosenfeld and Zobell (1947) tested 58 species of marine micro-organisms and found that nine of them were antagonistic to non-marine micro-organisms and they assumed that the antagonistic material was an a n t i b i o t i c (18). Krassniknikova (1962) detected a n t i b i o t i c production by large numbers of micro-organisms i s o l a t e d from the ocean. -19-Despite the large number of antagonists i s o l a t e d , c u l t i v a t i o n of these marine organisms i n natural seawater resulted i n l i t t l e , i f any, antimicrobial a c t i v i t y (19). Some evidence has been produced which may indicate that toxins produced by plankton may be responsible f o r the b a c t e r i c i d a l e f f e c t of seawater on sewage. Aubert et a l . (1964) found that the antagonistic materials produced by plankton were thermolabile. Jorgensen (1962) found evidence i n d i c a t i n g that substances produced by algae play a part i n the i n h i b i t i o n of b a c t e r i a i n natural waters (19). Sieburth (i960) i s o l a t e d and characterized an " a n t i b i o t i c " produced by the mucilagenous algae Phaeocystis. He i d e n t i f i e d the material as a c r y l i c acid and demonstrated that concentrates of t h i s algae gathered from the sea i n h i b i t e d a wide range of pathogenic b a c t e r i a (19). Sieburth and Pratt (1962) found that samples of seawater containing the algae Skeletonema costatum i n h i b i t e d E. c o l i . They were of the opinion that phytoplankton may have widespread s i g n i f i c a n c e i n k i l l i n g non-marine b a c t e r i a i n the sea (19). Saz et a l . (1963) studied the b a c t e r i c i d a l e f f e c t of seawater against Staphylococcus and demonstrated that the active f a c t o r i s a large non-dialyzable heat l a b i l e molecule. They speculate that the production of t h i s antagonistic material may be associated with phytoplankton blooms. It i s apparent that algae p r o l i f e r a t e i n the presence of the nutrients provided by sewage. Some of these algae have the -20-capacity of excreting a n t i b a c t e r i a l toxins, and under cert a i n circumstances algae may be implicated i n the decline of i n t e s t i n a l b a c t e r i a i n the sea (19). In 1960, C a r l u c c i and Pramer also showed that E. c o l i was not able to compete e f f e c t i v e l y f o r a v a i l a b l e organic matter i n seawater (16). Jannasch (1968) also showed that when the concentration of carbon and energy sources was l i m i t i n g at low d i l u t i o n rates, the native marine microflora competitively displaced E. c o l i from seawater (19). C a r l u c c i and Pramer (i960) showed s u r v i v a l of E. c o l i was decreased i n de-ionized water containing greater than 25% seawater (16). Hanes and Fragala (1967) showed that i n 33% seawater coliforms showed a growth phase of two days before logarithmic death but at 67% seawater they went d i r e c t l y i n t o logarithmic death (19). From the above l i t e r a t u r e review i t i s apparent that something i s responsible f o r the higher death rate of Escherichia c o l i i n increasing concentrations of seawater, although the exact mechanisms are not known. However, i n the South Arm of the r i v e r during the low flow winter months, the estuary i s s t r a t i f i e d so that fresh water flows over the intruding s a l t water and l i t t l e mixing occurs u n t i l well out i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. The s p e c i f i c gravity of sewage ef f l u e n t s i s generally low and close to that of fresh water so that e f f e c t s of s a l t water on coliforms i n the estuary proper should be minimal. -21-The amount of algae present in the estuary i s unknown and l i t t l e information was ava i l a b l e . However, algae concentrations would be expected to be r e l a t i v e l y low i n winter months because of cooler water temperatures. In order to model the die-away of coliforms i n a receiving water such as the Fraser River system, a modified form of Chick's Law (20) was used: C+=C e " K t t o where C = o r i g i n a l count, C.= count a f t e r time t and K= o t c o e f f i c i e n t of death rate. Two d i f f e r e n t K values were used i n the model. For concentrations of coliforms below 4000 per 100 ml., a c o e f f i c i e n t -1 -1 . . . . of 1.0 days or 0.042 hr. was used. This i s a si m i l a r value used by Ketchum, Ayers and Vaccaro i n t h e i r study of processes contributing to the decrease of coliform bacteria i n a t i d a l estuary (11). When concentrations rose above 4000 per 100 ml. a K value of 15.0 days ^ or 0.63 hr. was used. This value was arr i v e d at a r b i t r a r i l y based on the factor that when streams are f a i r l y heavily polluted, t h e i r i n i t i a l K or rate of die-away i s high (20). As a r e s u l t , heavy p o l l u t i o n i s quickly succeeded by a cleaner environment with poorer p u r i f i c a t i o n powers. As a re s u l t of t h i s , the die-away of the f i n a l 10% of coliform organisms may endure f o r a long time (20). I I I . Predation A l l a r t i c l e s on t h i s subject seem to agree that predation i s one of the causes of coliform die-away. Ketchum, Ayers and Vaccaro (1952) used predation as one of several cumulative fac t o r s which approximated the observed d i s t r i b u t i o n of coliform bacteria i n the Raritan River. They used F u l l e r ' s equation f o r the consumption of bacteria by zooplankton, which states that the expected number of c e l l s remaining i n a given sample of water at the end of time t can be expressed by the equation: C+=C e " ^ t o i n which w i s the volume of water f i l t e r e d per predator per unit time, and p i s the number of predators per unit volume ( l l ) . Previous to t h i s , i n 1937, Waksman and Hotchkiss (21) concluded from t h e i r r e s u l t s : 1. b a c t e r i a were consumed by protozoa and other small animal organisms 2. The presence of bacteriophage i n the water r e s u l t s i n low numbers of enteric bacteria 3. the antagonistic reactions of other micro-organisms cause decreases i n b a c t e r i a Greenberg i n 1956, a f t e r reviewing previous data to t h i s date, pointed out that too l i t t l e information was avail a b l e to draw sound conclusions on the r o l e by bacter-iophages i n l i m i t i n g the s u r v i v a l of enteric b a c t e r i a i n seawater. He concluded that indi c a t i o n s were that phages are not of the f i r s t order of importance i n the destruction -23-of enteric bacteria (12). Stryszak believed that the e f f e c t of low temperatures on the increased s u r v i v a l of Salmonella e n t e r i d i t u s , S. typhosa, and S. paratyphi B was due to the thermal i n a c t i v a t i o n of predatory protozoa rather than to any more d i r e c t temperature e f f e c t (19). In 1960, C a r l u c c i and Pramer showed that marine bacteriophages had no e f f e c t on the s u r v i v a l of Escherichia  c o l i i n the sea. However, they found that i n t e s t i n a l bacterium survived better i n f i l t e r e d than i n natural water and concluded that predators and competitors had been removed by f i l t r a t i o n (16). M i t c h e l l and Nevo i s o l a t e d b a c t e r i a from the sea which were capable of k i l l i n g E. c o l i i n a r t i f i c i a l seawater by enzymatically degrading the c e l l walls. In 1967, M i t c h e l l , Yankofsky and Jannasch studied the e f f e c t of the native marine microflora on the k i l l i n g of E. c o l i i n natural seawater. They found that the rate of k i l l of E. c o l i i n natural seawater was proportional to the size of the marine microflora, and provided evidence for a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a c t i v i t i e s of micro-organisms i n the sea and the rate of death of E. c o l i i n that environment. Two groups of micro-organisms were associated with the k i l l : (a.) c e l l wall l y s i n g b a c t e r i a (b.) a group of marine p a r a s i t i c bacteria s i m i l a r to B d e l l o v i b r i o bacteriovorus (19). In 1968, M i t c h e l l also found that protozoa were involved i n k i l l i n g E. c o l i and in 1969 with Yankofsky, he implicated a marine ameba i n the decline of E. c o l i i n seawater (19). As a r e s u l t of t h i s research, predators appear to play some part i n the decline of coliforms and although they may not be a major cause of decrease i n numbers i n estuaries, they should be included i n any l i s t of fa c t o r s which cause a decrease i n coliform numbers. F u l l e r ' s formula used previously by other invest-igators ( l l ) was the only method found i n the l i t e r a t u r e to predict decreases i n coliforms due to the presence of predators. Concentrations of zooplankton were obtained from a report by Parsons, Le Brasseur and Barraclough (22). Herbivorous zooplankton, which are f i l t e r feeders, are found i n varying concentrations throughout the year i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. Plankton tows i n the S t r a i t near the mouth of the estuary gave concentrations of 10-25 per cubic meter i n January and February r i s i n g to a peak of 1000-3000 i n May. Dr. Parsons from the Department of Oceanography at the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, suggested that these concentrations would diminish f a i r l y r a p i d l y upstream from the mouth. Ketchum, Ayers and Vaccaro (11) i n t h e i r work, found that a single zooplankton might be expected to f i l t e r 12-192 ml. of water per day. With forms as small as coliform b a c t e r i a i t might be reasoned that the e f f e c t i v e f i l t r a t i o n would be clo s e r to the lower value. However, even using the maximum -25-f i l t r a t i o n rate, the e f f e c t on coliform counts during the winter i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t because of the small number of predators which are present. For t h i s reason predation was not taken into account i n the actual simulation of coliform concentrations during the low flow winter period investigated. In May, when the concentration of zooplankton i s much higher, the e f f e c t s of predation may be more s i g n i f i c a n t . IV. Sedimentation Various a r t i c l e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e indicate that sedimentation could play an important part i n the removal of coliform b a c t e r i a from estuaries. The only report on actual experimental work on the subject that could be found was by CM. Weiss (23). His report outlines the removal rates of Escherichia c o l i from s i l t supensions of d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c l e s i z e . The largest p a r t i c l e s that Weiss worked with were i n the range of .078 - .035 mm. i n diameter and high removal rates were obtained at t u r b i d i t i e s over 500 ppm. At a t u r b i d i t y of 100 ppm the removal rate was very much lower. A sediment survey at Port Mann conducted by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources indicated that f o r January and February only 6% of sediment f i n e r than 0.125 mm. i n diameter s e t t l e d out. This f a c t , coupled with low sediment loads i n the r i v e r at t h i s time of year indicated that perhaps sedimentation i s not a major cause of coliform rem-oval i n the estuary during low flow periods. -26-In summary, although there are many fa c t o r s which may contribute to the decline of coliform bacteria i n the Fraser estuary, only d i l u t i o n and natural die-away were considered as contributing f a c t o r s for t h i s model. Having established these f a c t o r s , i t was then necessary to simulate flow conditions i n the estuary over a t i d a l cycle i n order to complete the model. -27-CHAPTER 4  MODEL METHODOLOGY In order t o p r e d i c t c o l i f o r m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the e s t u a r y i t was f i r s t n e cessary t o si m u l a t e f l o w v a r i a t i o n s over a t i d a l c y c l e . There were two approaches which were c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h i s problem: a ma t h e m a t i c a l l y w e l l founded and complex th e o r y which accounted f o r the v a r i o u s mixing p r o c e s s e s i n the e s t u a r y c o u l d be used, assuming v a l u e s e i t h e r from the l i t e r a t u r e or the l i t t l e d a t a which was a v a i l a b l e f o r unknown q u a n t i t i e s and d e s c r i p t i v e parameters; or a r e l a t i v e l y simple theory c o u l d be used and c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s i n s e r t e d t o account f o r those c o n d i t i o n s t h a t might e f f e c t c o l i f o r m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the r i v e r . Because t h i s was t o be a p r e l i m i n a r y study f o r f u t u r e work c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the second approach was s e l e c t e d and the method of cubature was used f o r p r e d i c t i n g f l o w v a r i a t i o n s . Cubature F i g u r e 11 i s a diagrammatic sketch of a s e c t i o n of r i v e r i n f l u e n c e d by t i d e s , f o r which t h e r e are t i d e gauges l o c a t e d at s t a t i o n s 1, 2 and 3. The upstream l i m i t of t i d a l i n f l u e n c e on the r i v e r i s taken as s t a t i o n 1 and the water s u r f a c e p r o f i l e s f o r two times, t ^ and ± are shown. The q u a n t i t i e s A 2 and A 3 r e p r e s e n t the co r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n the gauge r e a d i n g s noted a t s t a t i o n s 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s u r f a c e a r e a of the r i v e r between each s t a t i o n i s denoted by the symbol A and the i n f l o w from -28-ELEVAT ION FIG. II D IAGRAMMATIC S K E T C H FOR DESCRIBING TIDAL DISCHARGE COMPUTATIONS -29-the t r i b u t a r i e s between any two s t a t i o n s by Q 1 which i s assumed t o be con s t a n t over the p e r i o d s of time i n q u e s t i o n . C o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between , the f r e s h water i n f l o w t o the reach 1-2, and Q 2 , the t o t a l combined ou t f l o w from the reach 1-2. Between times t ^ and t 2 , the volume of water between s t a t i o n s 1 and 2 i n c r e a s e s by an amount equal t o A 2 v . 2 X A l - 2 T h i s q u a n t i t y i s the volume of the p r i s m of water on top of the volume o r i g i n a l l y t h e r e at time t ^ . T h i s e x t r a volume then r e p r e s e n t s an i n c r e a s e i n the t i d a l s t o r a g e t h a t must have taken p l a c e by i n f l o w p a s t s t a t i o n 2 t o the reach 1-2. The r a t e of t h i s t i d a l d i s c h a r g e p a s t s t a t i o n 2 w i l l then be: A 2 x A1 2 2 ( t 2 - t 1 ) T h i s i s the average i n f l o w t o reach 1-2 between t ^ and t 2 and can be assumed t o be the v a l u e o c c u r r i n g a t a time h a l f way between t ^ and t ^ . Thus the t o t a l combined o u t f l o w Q 2 w i l l have the average v a l u e , g i v e n by: Q 2 = Q l + Q ' l - 2 + A 2xA-L_ 2 ( t 2 - t 1 ) (1) C o n s i d e r i n g s t a t i o n s 2 and 3 i t can be r e a d i l y seen t h a t the d i s c h a r g e s f o r t h i s reach are r e l a t e d by the e q u a t i o n : A, 2 X T V t 1 ) (2) Examination of e q u a t i o n (2) shows t h a t i n order t o compute the t o t a l combined outflow, o n l y the changes i n t i d e at each s t a t i o n a re r e q u i r e d i f s u r f a c e areas between s t a t i o n s and t r i b u t a r y d i s c h a r g e s are known. Q 3 = Q 2 + Q ' 2 _ 3 + ( A 2 + A 3) x A 2 - 3 -30-The method of cubature gives f a i r l y accurate r e s u l t s for high flow periods as indicated i n a report by J.C.B. Keane (24). This report describes a study undertaken to compare discharges at various points i n the r i v e r below the mouth of the Harrison River using cubature. The computed r e s u l t s were compared with the measured discharges f o r Port Mann on three occasions and are tabulated i n Table 1.. No comparisons were a v a i l a b l e f o r the low flow winter months. TABLE I CUBATURE COMPUTED DISCHARGE VERSUS METERED DISCHARGE (from report by J.C.B. Keane) Date Time Metered Disch. Computed Disch. Percent (c.f.s.) (c.f.s.) Difference May 15, 1954 12:48-13:03 214,000 218,500 + 1.6% 14:07-14:22 196,000 193,000 -1.5 June 19, 1954 10:39-10:54 400,000 359,000 -10.0 12:20-12:35 438,000 372,000 -15.0 Aug. 7, 1954 10:15-10:30 237,000 226,000 -4.7 11:57-12:12 216,000 201,000 -7.0 -31-Model Limits The map shown i n Figure 12 i l l u s t r a t e s the area of the South Arm which was considered i n the model study-described i n t h i s report. FIG. 12 MODEL AREA The lower boundary of the model was located s l i g h t l y below Garry Point since discharge curves and coliform counts f o r the r i v e r were not a v a i l a b l e beyond t h i s point. The upper l i m i t of the r i v e r considered was the western t i p of Barnston Island. The primary concern f o r t h i s study was to determine the fat e of sewage discharged from the proposed Annacis Island treatment plant and i t was assumed that the reverse flow i n the r i v e r would not carry these discharges upstream beyond t h i s point, based on i n f o r -mation taken from a report by Baines (25) on t i d a l discharges -32-i n the Fraser River. No attempts were made to determine coliform p r o f i l e s i n the North Arm or Canoe Pass and no allowances were made for coliform contributions to the Main Arm from these sources during the reverse flow period. Flows i n both cases are approximately 10% of Main Arm flow and assuming coliform concentrations per volume s i m i l a r to those i n the Main Arm, e f f e c t s on coliform concentrations should be minimal. When flow i s seaward, water entering these two branches w i l l contain s i m i l a r coliform concentrations to water i n the Main Arm. Concentrations of sewage discharged to the North Arm and Canoe Pass are not high enough to increase coliform concentrations to a point such that on reverse flow, concentrations i n the Main Arm w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by flow from these sources. S i m i l a r l y , c o l i f o r m die-away would not be expected to be great enough to cause s i g n i f i c a n t decreases i n Main Arm concentrations on reverse flow. The e f f e c t of Annacis Channel (Figure 12) was not considered f o r the same reasons. The flows from these three sources were, however, considered i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of the discharge curves so that the e f f e c t of d i l u t i o n of sewage by these flows was incorporated i n the model study. Discharge and Tide Height No actual measurements to obtain t i d a l v a r i a t i o n s -33-or c a l c u l a t i o n s to compute discharges were made f o r t h i s t h e s i s . Instead, the r e s u l t s of a survey of water surface elevations i n the Fraser estuary over the spring t i d a l cycle, of January 23 and 24, 1952 were used (25). In t h i s survey, a number of t i d a l gauge stations were set up i n the estuary as shown i n Figure 13 and readings were taken every 30 minutes continuously over the t i d a l c ycle. By obtaining surface areas from maps prepared by the Federal Department of Publ i c Works and estimating t r i b u t a r y contributions as percentages of the flow at Hope, discharges at each gauge sta t i o n over the en t i r e t i d a l cycle could be calcula t e d using the method of cubature. Figure 14 shows the measured change i n tide height and the computed discharge curve over the t i d a l cycle f o r the Garry Point gauge s t a t i o n . S i m i l a r curves were a v a i l a b l e f o r other stati o n s . Segmentation of the South Arm For purposes of t h i s study, the South Arm was divided i n t o t h i r t e e n reaches with each reach of the r i v e r containing a t i d a l gauge s t a t i o n . Figure 15 i l l u s t r a t e s the approximate locations of each reach with respect to i t s associated t i d a l gauge s t a t i o n . In addition, the reaches were divided i n t o segments 1000 feet i n length beginning at the upstream l i m i t of the model located at the western t i p of Barnston Island. Although t i d a l influence does not end here, t h i s point was chosen as the upstream l i m i t a t i o n because FIG. 13 A P P R O X I M A T E L O C A T I O N S O F G.V.S.D.D. S A M P L I N G P O I N T S A N D G A U G E S T A T I O N S U S E D BY N.R.C. O F C A N A D A -35-as mentioned previously, information from other work done on the Fraser seemed to indicate that discharges made at Annacis Island would not be c a r r i e d upstream past t h i s point. I 0 1 22 M 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 M 2 FIG. 14 D I S C H A R G E A N D T I D A L F L U C T U A T I O N S F O R G A R R Y P O I N T G A U G E STAT ION The v a r i a t i o n s i n discharge and t i d e height over the t i d a l cycle at a gauge sta t i o n were assumed to be rep-resentative of a l l segments within that reach. Reaches begin and end midway between adjacent stations so that gauge stations are not always located i n the center of a reach. -37-V e l o c i t y If the discharge at a point i s known, a l l that i s required i s a measurement of the cross-sectional area to obtain the mean channel v e l o c i t y . Local low water cross-sections were drawn fo r the mid-points of various segments along the r i v e r from sounding charts prepared by the Federal Public Works Department (see Appendix I I ) . Figure 16 shows approximate locations of these cross-sections and Table 2 gives the section areas which were obtained by planimetry. Cross-sectional areas f o r i n t e r -mediate segments were interpolated. River widths f o r the midpoints of a l l segments were obtained from the same sounding charts as the cross-sectional areas. It was assumed that the low water cross-sectional area and the r i v e r width remained constant over the e n t i r e segment length. Th e . t i d a l prism area was calculated simply by multiplying the tide height at the time i n question by the r i v e r width, assuming the r i v e r width remains constant with r i s i n g t i d e . The v e l o c i t y through a segment at any time could be obtained by d i v i d i n g the discharge at that time by the t o t a l average cross-sectional area (low water area + t i d a l prism area) of that segment. Model Mechanics The ultimate purpose of the model was to determine the e f f e c t of sewage discharges on coliform concentrations i n the estuary. The model e s s e n t i a l l y operates on a "plug" flow basis. That i s , i t s t a r t s with a volume of water with FIG. 16 APPROXIMATE LOCATION OF AREA CROSS-SECTIONS - 3 9 -TABLE 2 RIVER SECTION AREAS AND WIDTHS Distance Between Section Area Section Width Section Sections (Ft.) (Ft. ) (Ft.) A-A 0 45,910 2,200 B-B 4,600 56,520 2,780 C-C 6,100 47,760 2,000 D-D 3,150 49,620 1,720 E-E 4,000 43,620 1,370 F-F 3,950 48,050 2,100 G-G 5,050 50,380 2,320 H-H 5,500 50,890 1,780 I-I 3,550 59,760 2,440 J- J 3,600 65,110 3,630 K-K 3,750 61,490 2,630 L-L 4,800 58,500 1,710 M-M 2,050 58,190 1,410 N-N 3,600 52,240 2,980 O-O 5,850 50,160 2,070 P-P 6,150 59,840 2,250 Q-Q 4,650 44,010 1,440 R-R 10,100 48,150 1,930 S-S 4,450 52,950 2,320 X-T 5,100 69,490 1,620 U-U 2,900 76,210 2,910 V-V 2,400 69,010 2,860 W-W 4,650 70,010 3,240 x-x 5,500 62,930 2,000 Y-Y 6,650 69,000 2,900 -40-a known concentration of coliforms and follows i t s progress u n t i l i t i s flushed from the estuary. Coliforms decrease i n numbers i n the segment i n accordance with those f a c t o r s discussed i n Chapter 3, and add i t i o n a l coliforms are added to the segment volume as i t passes sewage o u t f a l l s located along the estuary. A d e t a i l e d explanation of the programming routine i s given i n Appendix I I I . With reference to Figure 17, a b r i e f explanation of the program follows. FIG. 17 MODEL METHODOLOGY -41-The model operation i n essence, can begin at any point on the r i v e r , providing that conditions f o r the beginning segment are known. For example, assume the sequence of model operations was to begin at Segment 1 located at the western t i p of Barnston Island. Segment 1 i s located i n Reach 1 and a l l t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s and discharges f o r segments located i n t h i s Reach are represented by conditions occurring at the f i r s t t i d a l gauge sta t i o n located at the Port Mann Bridge (see Figure 15). The t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n and discharge curves over a t i d a l cycle f o r gauge stations, obtained from Baines' (25) observations on the r i v e r , were assumed to be representative f o r the estuary over the e n t i r e low flow winter period. Figure 14 shows these f l u c t u a t i o n s f o r a t y p i c a l gauge s t a t i o n . A value f o r discharge and t i d a l gauge height f o r each hour over the t i d a l cycle were taken from the graphs and f i l e d i n the computer. Using an i n t e r p o l a t i o n program (see Appendix IV), values f o r every l / l O hour were i n t e r -polated and also f i l e d i n the computer so that readings f o r every 0.1 hours were a v a i l a b l e . This was done f o r a l l gauge stations on the section of r i v e r under consideration. If the concentration of coliforms per volume i s known f o r Segment 1 at some time during the t i d a l cycle, f o r example midnight (marked (M) on Figure 14), the fate of t h i s volume of water can be traced u n t i l i t i s flushed from the estuary. From the graph, a discharge (D) and t i d e height (H) are obtained at time (M) and these are assumed to represent a l l -42-water within Segment 1. Average low water cross-sectional areas and widths f o r segments were obtained by planimetry from sounding charts prepared by the Federal Public Works Department. The t i d a l prism area (see Figure 18) could be calculated by multiplying the average segment width by the a d d i t i o n a l t i d e height above low water r i v e r l e v e l s . W = TIDE WIDTH FIG. 18 - RIVER CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA AS CALCULATED BY MODEL SIMULATION -43-By knowing the t o t a l c r o ss-sectional area (A) of the segment and discharge (D) through the segment at time (M), the average v e l o c i t y (V) of water through the segment at that p a r t i c u l a r moment i n time i s simply ^ ^ / ^ \ « Selecting an a r b i t r a r y time i n t e r v a l of 0.1 hours, the distance (s) that the segment of water t r a v e l s during t h i s time i s 0.1 (V). The lo c a t i o n of the new po s i t i o n of t h i s volume from the s t a r t i n g segment, set by (S), determines which segment the midpoint of the "plug" volume i s now located. The gauge st a t i o n readings which represent conditions i n t h i s new segment containing the mid-point of the s t a r t i n g volume are now considered to be rep-resentative of the r i v e r at t h i s point. A new (D) and (H) fo r the time [(M) + O.l] hours can be obtained and the process repeated. Conditions i n the volume of water have changed, however, as i t progressed through the estuary. Coliforms have been reduced i n numbers because of natural mortality —Kt rates i n accordance with the equation C = C e discussed o previously i n Chapter 3. Assuming an i n i t i a l concentration of coliforms from G.V.S. & D.D. data, a K value from the l i t e r a t u r e , and setting t =0.1 hours, a new concentration of coliforms can be calculated. However, coliform concentrations i n the volume of water under consideration may also have increased during t h i s time. Untreated sewage i s discharged to the r i v e r at -44-various points i n the South Arm. The location of o u t f a l l s and the quantities of sewage entering the r i v e r were obtained from the report " P o l l u t i o n and the Fraser" (26), and from discharge permits registered with the P o l l u t i o n Control Branch O f f i c e i n New Westminster. Estimates of coliforms i n e f f l u e n t s were obtained by two methods: ( i ) When the population of an area serviced by an o u t f a l l was given, the number of coliforms per day i n the eff l u e n t was obtained by 9 multiplying by 4.1 x 10 . The average number of coliforms excreted per person per day i s 8 9 i n the range of 4.1 x 10 to 4.1 x 10 (27). The average value of 4.1 x 10^ coliforms/ person/day was assumed to be representative of a given population. ( i i ) When only discharge figures f o r an o u t f a l l were given, population was calculated assuming that the average rate of sewage flow was 100 gal./day/person. Coliform numbers could then be obtained as i n method ( i ) . A l l o u t f a l l s along each 1000 foot segment were grouped together to form one main discharge at the midpoint of the segment. Table 3 l i s t s segment numbers and calculated coliform additions per day fo r present conditions on the Main Arm. -45-T A B L E 3 - COLIFORM ADDITIONS TO FRASER  (FROM REPORT "POLLUTION AND T H E FRASER" AND  POLLUTION CONTROL PERMITS) PREDICTED FUTURE REACH N PRESENT COLIFORMS/DAY COLIFORMS/DAY (SEGMENT) PER SEGMENT PER SEGMENT 13 13 12 14 13 13 14 10 11 13 11 13 12 13 13 13 11 4 2.46 X 10 5 • 4.50 X 10 • 15 16 • 1.64 X 10 • 18 1.25 X 10 19 1.82 X 10 20 • 1.40 X 10 « 23 8.70 X 10 • 25 8.20 X 10 26 1.23 X 10 27 28 2.05 X 10 • 29 2.05 X 10 30 1.14 X 10 31 8.55 X 10 32 2.22 X 10 33 1.09 X 10 34 1.51 X 10 35 6.15 X 10 36 37 • • 41 2.66 X 10 42 1.85 X 10 43 1.64 X 10 44 1.02 X 10 45 • 50 2.46 X 10 51 6.35 X 10 11 13 11 11 10 „ _ ,^14 13 2.94 x 10 -46-TABLE 3 - Cont. PREDICTED FUTURE REACH N PRESENT COLIFORMS/DAY COLIFORMS/DAY (SEGMENT) • PER SEGMENT PER SEGMENT 7 57 71 8 72 3.28 x 1 0 1 2 3.28 x l O 1 2 77 82 83 10 11 12 13 87 8.20 X 10 • 89 4.55 X 10 90 3.20 X 10 91 1.64 X 10 95 6.10 X 10 • 98 • 102 9.20 X 10 103 1.60 X 10 • 105 • 107 9.10 X 10 • 109 6.10 X 10 110 4.10 X 10 111 2.54 X 10 112 7.38 X 10 113 114 2.02 X 10 115 4.90 X 10 116 3.68 X 10 10 12 13 11 12 11 12 12 11 10 12 11 12 11 11 8. 20 X 10 4. 55 X 10 3. 20 X 10 1. 64 X 10 6. 10 X 10 9. 20 X 10 1. 60 X 10 9. 10 X 10 6. 10 X 10 4. 10 X 10 2. 54 X 10 7. 38 X 10 2. 05 X 10 4. 90 X 10 3. 68 X 10 10 12 13 11 12 11 12 12 11 10 12 11 12 11 11 -47-The proposed Annacis Island treatment plant w i l l be i n operation i n 1975 and w i l l discharge approximately 129,000,000 gal./day of primary treated and chlorinated sewage into the South Arm of the Fraser River. According to G.V.S.&D.D. o f f i c i a l s , estimated coliform concentrations i n the chlorinated e f f l u e n t w i l l be 50,000 coliforms/lOO ml. of e f f l u e n t from the plant. The proposed Plant w i l l reduce the number of o u t f a l l s along the r i v e r between Port Mann and the western end of Annacis Island since sewage from t h i s area w i l l a l l be treated at the new Annacis plant as shown i n Appendix I. Table 3 gives predicted coliform additions i n each r i v e r segment i n 1975 including predicted discharges from the new plant. Coliform additions below the proposed o u t f a l l were assumed to remain constant since only the ef f e c t s of the Annacis treatment plant were to be considered. However, i t i s expected that concentrations downriver w i l l change under future conditions because of increasing pop-u l a t i o n and also since primary treatment and c h l o r i n a t i o n w i l l soon be required f o r a l l sewage o u t f a l l s along the r i v e r . The increase i n coliforms i n the volume was approximated by t o t a l l i n g the coliforms per day discharged i n each segment passed i n the 0.1 hour i n t e r v a l and d i v i d i n g by the discharge (D) i n cubic feet per second. This gave an increase i n coliforms per volume equal to C^. Beginning the process over again, the new s t a r t i n g concentration of coliforms i n the segment w i l l be the t o t a l -48-of C + C, which becomes C f o r the next 0.1 hour i n t e r v a l . 1 o Flow may not always be seaward because of t i d a l e f f e c t s on the r i v e r . As a r e s u l t , the "plug" volume of water may t r a v e l upstream, downstream or may even remain stationary as i s the case during the pause between ebb and fl o o d t i d e conditions. Thus, the volume of water under consideration may pass one sewage o u t f a l l several times before i t i s flushed from the estuary, depending of course on the stage of the t i d e that i t i s released on. The following Chapter 5 discusses r e s u l t s obtained using t h i s model method, and compares them to actual measurements taken on the r i v e r . -49-CHAPTER 5  RESULTS Program Checkout The most important requirement with any computer program i s to check the v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s . In t h i s case the r e s u l t s obtained i n the program were compared with actual measurements taken by the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t . Actual data on r i v e r coliform concentrations were obtained from the G.V.S. & D.D. which c a r r i e s out an ex-tensive sampling program i n the estuary f o r a number of water q u a l i t y parameters. Locations of sampling points i n the South Arm are shown i n Figure 13. Those points located i n the middle of the r i v e r are sampled at the surface and at a depth of 15 f e e t . Points located near either the l e f t or r i g h t banks of the r i v e r are sampled only at the surface. Surveys are done approximately twice a month during low flow periods. Samples taken by the G.V.S. & D.D. indicated a large difference i n coliform concentrations between surface and subsurface samples. Surface concentrations were on the average, several times larger than subsurface concentrations (see Figure 19). -50-FIG. 19 C O L I F O R M C O N C E N T R A T I O N V E R S U S D I S T A N C E A S M E A S U R E D B Y G . V . S . & D. D. LEGEND MEASURED SURFACE MEASURED @ 15'DEPTH 1000 0 I BARNSTON ISLAND 7 8 9 10 II 12 DISTANCE (MILES) 15 16 17 18 19 20 6ARRY POINT This can possibly be explained by the f a c t that the s p e c i f i c gravity of sewage i s si m i l a r to that of fresh water and that the warmer discharge may r i s e to the surface, overlying the colder, more dense, fresh water. For the purpose of t h i s model i t was assumed that a l l sewage discharged to the r i v e r became uniformly d i s -t r i b u t e d i n the top ha l f of the r i v e r cross-section. Since concentrations at d i f f e r e n t sampling points varied quite markedly at various stages of the ti d e i n both actual and simulated conditions, i t was decided to make two -51-d i f f e r e n t comparisons of the r e s u l t s : i ) Average actual coliform concentrations measured by the G.V.S. & D.D. at sample locations f o r the low flow winter months over the three year period 1968, 1969 and 1970 were compared to average coliform concentrations over a t i d a l cycle f o r the low flow month of January, 1952, simulated by the computer model. G.V.S. & D.D. samples are taken on the average twice a month so that a three year period was used to obtain a representative sample at each of the sampling locations. The only data on flow measurements av a i l a b l e f o r low flow periods was f o r January 23 and 24, 1952 taken by Baines (25). For the purposes of t h i s study, these measurements were assumed to be representative of the low flow winter period, i i ) Ranges of actual coliform concentrations obtained by the G.V.S. & D.D. over low flow winter months at sample points f o r the same three year period were compared to ranges of coliform concentrations computed f o r the month of January 1952. In both cases, model concentrations were pl o t t e d at one mile i n t e r v a l s while actual coliform concentrations were av a i l a b l e at only a l i m i t e d number of points i n the r i v e r . -52-Comparison of Actual and Simulated Coliform Concentrations Since there i s l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between time and frequency of actual samples and those simulated by the model, the only values that can r e a l l y be compared are the average values. Figure 20 compares average surface samples and average samples at a depth of 15 feet obtained by G.V.S. & D.D. i n January 1968, 1969 and 1970 to the computed values. Since model r e s u l t s represent a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of coliforms i n the upper h a l f of the r i v e r , i t would be expected that the r e s u l t s should l i e between the actual surface concentrations and those concentrations occurring at a 15 foot depth. From Figure 20 i t can be seen that except fo r the displaced peak areas, computed r e s u l t s do l i e between these two values. Despite c e r t a i n discrepancies, then, the model does seem to represent actual conditions. Figure 21 shows the ranges of actual surface concentrations on the r i v e r compared to ranges of con-centrations obtained with the model. P r o f i l e s f o r maximum concentrations that occur on the r i v e r are s i m i l a r , although the peaks are somewhat displaced. The minimum concentration p r o f i l e s show very l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y . However, d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s could be explained by any or a l l of the following reasons: 1. O u t f a l l Location a.) V a r i a t i o n s i n peak coliform concentrations could be the r e s u l t of a misplaced o u t f a l l i n the program due to f a u l t y information. FIG. 2 0 C O L I F O R M C O N C . V E R S U S D I S T A N C E -C O M P U T E D A V E R A G E V A L U E S C O M P A R E D TO M E A S U R E D A C T U A L V A L U E S LEGEND MEASURED SURFACE MEASURED @ 15' DEPTH COMPUTED I OJ I o I 8ARNST0N ISL.ANO DISTANCE (MILES) FIG. 21 RANGE OF OBSERVED COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS VERSUS RANGE OF PREDICTED COUFORM CONCENTRATIONS FOR PRESENT CONDITIONS 10,000 -55-b.) Sewage discharged from an o u t f a l l located at the bottom of the r i v e r might not surface immediately and therefore would not be detected at the exact location of discharge i n the actual case as i t i s i n the model. 2. Sample Location There i s a considerable distance between G.V.S. & D.D. sampling points, and therefore i t i s possible that peaks could occur between them. 3. Sampling Frequency G.V.S. & D.D. sample approximately twice a month and t h i s may not be frequent enough to adequately rep-resent average conditions. 4. The e f f e c t s of the North Arm, Annacis Channel and Canoe Pass were neglected i n the model study. 5. The model assumes immediate l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l mixing to the depth of the s a l t water i n t e r f a c e . 6. Only a spring t i d a l cycle was considered i n the model study whereas i n actual conditions both spring and neap t i d a l cycles e x i s t . 7. Flows under actual conditions vary quite s i g n i f i c a n t l y over the low flow period which would undoubtedly a f f e c t c oliform concentrations because of the d i l u t i o n f a c t o r . The model, however, was concerned only with a single r i v e r flow over the two days i n which t i d a l heights and r i v e r discharges were measured i n January, 1952. -56-PIow Reversal Figure 22 represents the paths that a pollutant discharged into the volume of water at the proposed Annacis Island treatment plant would t r a v e l i f "plug" flow represented actual conditions i n the r i v e r . The maximum flus h i n g time f o r a pollutant discharged i n t o the r i v e r at the proposed s i t e of the treatment plant occurred when discharges were made at a time corresponding to a low tid e condition at Garry Point. When discharges were made midway through an ebb t i d e at Garry Point, simulated discharges at Annacis Island were flushed d i r e c t l y from the estuary. From Figure 22 i t i s possible to understand how wide discrepancies can e x i s t i n actual and simulated coliform concentrations at s i m i l a r locations i n the r i v e r . Peak coliform concentrations shown i n Figure 19 occurred at large o u t f a l l s during the period of slack water on the r i v e r which occurs during the minor f a l l and r i s e of the t i d e which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the spring t i d a l cycle. In some cases the same "plug" of water passes a single o u t f a l l on the r i v e r four times before i t i s discharged from the estuary. Simulated discharges at the proposed Annacis Island treatment plant were c a r r i e d upstream to the v i c i n i t y of Barnston Island. According to the model, then, discharges at Annacis Island would not be c a r r i e d into the P i t t River system regardless of the stage of the t i d e discharges are released on, at least at r i v e r flows used i n the model. -58-Comparison of Present and Future Conditions Figure 23 gives a comparison between present conditions on the r i v e r as predicted by the model compared to conditions i n 1975, assuming a single o u t f a l l f o r the proposed Annacis Plant. As would be expected, concentrations are lowered considerably i n the stretch of r i v e r between Port Mann Bridge and the proposed o u t f a l l . A large peak does occur at the Annacis o u t f a l l , but i t i s smaller i n magnitude than a peak presently located around segments 18 and 23. Although the new o u t f a l l w i l l be larger than any occurring presently, the sewage w i l l be treated and chlorinated whereas raw sewage i s presently discharged to the r i v e r . I f the discharges at the new Annacis Plant were discharged at three d i f f e r e n t locations over a two mile stretch the peak which occurs f o r a single o u t f a l l could be reduced. Figure 24 shows the r e s u l t s i f the discharge i s s p l i t into three equal portions entering the r i v e r at 6000 foot i n t e r v a l s . During slack t i d e , flows from sewer o u t f a l l s are draining into e s s e n t i a l l y a quiescent body of water. As a r e s u l t , c o l i f o r m concentrations increase s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n numbers compared to discharges made into a moving receiving water. By d i v i d i n g a large o u t f a l l into three separate o u t f a l l s over a substantial length of r i v e r , such as a two mile stretch as i l l u s t r a t e d , the large peak can be reduced. FIG. 23 RANGE OF PREDICTED COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS AT PRESENT VERSUS RANGE OF PREDICTED COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS IN 1975 { I OUTFALL) LEGEND ~ PRESENT SIMULATED CONCENTRATIONS MAXIMUM » MINIMUM PREDICTED 1975 CONCENTRATIONS MAXIMUM 6 MINIMUM I I 9 10 DISTANCE O I BARNSTON ISLAND It 12 ( MILES) IS 21 CARRY POINT FIG. 24 RANGE OF PREDICTED COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS tAT PRESENT VERSUS RANGE OF PREDICTED COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS IN 1975 (3 OUTFALLS) LEGEND -SIMULATED PRESENT CONCENTRATIONS* MAXIMUM & MINIMUM — — — — — — SIMULATED FUTURE CONCENTRATIONS -MAXIMUM S MINIMUM . O I BARNSTON ISLAND 10 II 12 DISTANCE ( MILES) 19 20 21 CARRY POINT -61-CHAPTER 6  CONCLUSIONS Although the model i t s e l f i s a s i m p l i f i e d one and although information on the Fraser River Estuary i s li m i t e d , the model does serve some usefulness. From the r e s u l t s i t i s possible to draw several conclusions which could be of some s i g n i f i c a n c e . Based on the model r e s u l t s and actual data a v a i l a b l e , the general water q u a l i t y of the South Arm w i l l be improved as fa r as b a c t e r i a l contamination i s concerned when the Annacis Plant begins operation i n 1975. Although concentrations w i l l increase at the Annacis Island discharge over present conditions, they w i l l not reach the magnitude of present concentrations occurring at various points i n the r i v e r . The magnitude of coliform concentrations i n the estuary as a whole w i l l be decreased s l i g h t l y (see Figure 23 ), at the assumed r i v e r flow. The b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l q u a l i t y of water i n the North Arm w i l l be improved f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , sewage presently discharged into the North Arm w i l l be diverted i n t o the South Arm and secondly, South Arm water entering the North Arm at New Westminster w i l l be improved i n qual i t y as a r e s u l t of the Annacis Treatment plant. Model r e s u l t s i n d icate that sewage discharged at the s i t e of the proposed o u t f a l l w i l l not be c a r r i e d much further upstream than Port Mann on the reverse t i d a l flow and that even under extreme conditions would not enter P i t t Lake. In a l l -62-l i k e l i h o o d , the water entering the P i t t River system w i l l be improved i n q u a l i t y because of the elimination of large out-f a l l s around and above the Port Mann Bridge. F i n a l l y , the study has i l l u s t r a t e d one major conclusion and that i s that information on the Fraser River Estuary i s extremely l i m i t e d . Very l i t t l e usable data on the mechanics of how the estuary a c t u a l l y works or on marine l i f e i n the estuary i s i n existence. Areas of study on the Fraser Estuary are unlimited, both p h y s i c a l l y and mathematically and i t i s hoped that t h i s study may provide some basis f o r future studies on the estuary. -63-REFERENCES (1) Fraser River Board, "Preliminary Report on Flood Control and Hydro-Electric Power i n the . Fraser River Basin", V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1958. (2) B r i t i s h Columbia Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, "Population Trends i n the Lower Mainland, 1921-1986; technical report", New Westminster, B.C., 1968. (3) M. C. Quick, "Dispersion and Mixing Processes i n Bodies of Water", Department of C i v i l Engineering, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. (4) Sewerage and Drainage of the Greater Vancouver Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, "Summary of Major P o l l u t i o n Control Schemes", January 1969. (5) F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada Manuscript Report Series No. 939, "Fraser River Estuary, Burrard I n l e t , Howe Sound and Malaspina S t r a i t Physical and Chemical Ocean-ographic Data", 1957-1966. (6) Sediment Survey Section, Water Survey of Canada Inland Waters Branch, "Hydrometric and Sediment Survey Lower Fraser River", Progress Report 1965-68, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Canada 1970. (7) U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Federal Water P o l l u t i o n Control Administration, P u b l i c a t i o n WP-20-3, Nov. 66, "Sanitary S i g n i f i c a n c e of Fecal Coliforms i n the Environment", Water P o l l u t i o n Control Series. (8) Standard Methods f o r the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th E d i t i o n , 1971, A.P.H.A., A.W.W.A., W.P.C.F. (9) Gainey and Lord, "Microbiology of Water and Sewage", Prent i c e - H a l l Inc., New York 1952. (10) Z o b e l l , C. (1936), " B a c t e r i c i d a l Action of Seawater", Proc. Soc. exp. B i o l . Med. 34, 113-116. (11) Ketchum, B.H., Ayres, J.C. and Vaccaro, R.F. (1952), "Processes Contributing to the Decrease of Coliform Bacteria i n a T i d a l Estuary", Ecology 33, 247-258. -64-REFERENCES Cont. (12) Greenberg, A.E., (1956) "Survival of E n t e r i c Organisms", Publ. Health Rept. (U.S.) 71, 77-86. (13) Orlab, G.T. (1956), " V i a b i l i t y of Sewage Bacteria i n Seawater", Sewage and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes 28, 1147-1167. (14) Nakamura, M., Stone, R.L., Krubsack, J.E. and Pauls, F.P. (1964), "Survival of S h i g e l l a i n Seawater", Nature, Lond. 213, 213-214. (15) Jones, G.E. (1963), "Suppression of B a c t e r i a l Growth by Seawater", Symposium on Marine Micro-biology, Charles G. Thomas, S p r i n g f i e l d , 111. (16) C a r l u c c i , A.F. and Pramer, D. (i960), "Evaluation of Factors A f f e c t i n g S u r v i v a l of E. c o l i i n seawater", Appl. Mi c r o b i o l . 8, 251-254. (17) C a r l u c c i , A.F., Scarpino, P.V. and Pramer, D. (1961), "Evaluation of Factors a f f e c t i n g S u r v i v a l of E. c o l i i n Seawater", Appl. Mi c r o b i o l . 9, 400-404. (18) Rosenfeld, W.D. and Z o b e l l , C.E. (1947), " A n t i b i o t i c Production by Marine Microorganisms", J . Bact. 54, 393-398. (19) M i t c h e l l , R., "Factors A f f e c t i n g the Decline of Non-Marine Micro-Organisms i n Seawater", Water Research, Pergamon Press 1968, Vol. 2, pp. 535-543. (20) F a i r , Geyer and Okun, "Water and Wastewater Engineering", Vol. 2, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. (21) Waksman, S.A. and Hotchkiss, M. (1937), " V i a b i l i t y of Bacteria i n Sea Water", J . B a c t e r i o l . 33, 389-400. (22) Parsons, T.R., R.J. LeBrasseur and W.E. Barraclough, "Levels of Production i n the Pelagic Environment of the S t r a i t of Georgia, B r i t i s h Columbia: a review", Journal of the F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, V o l . 27, No. 7, July 1970. -65-REFERENCES. . . .Cont. (23) Weiss, CM., (1951), "Adsorption of Escherichia C o l i on River and Estuarine S i l t s " , Sewage and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes, 23, 227-237. (24) Keane, J.CB., "Report on the Hydrometric Surveys and Discharge Computations f o r the Fraser River Estuary f o r May, June, August, 1954, Fraser River Board, February 1957. (25) Baines, W. Douglas, MH-32, "Water Surface Elevations and T i d a l Discharges i n the Fraser River Estuary, January 23 and 24, 1952", National Research Council, Ottawa, A p r i l 8, 1952. (26) Goldie, C.A., " P o l l u t i o n and the Fraser", P o l l u t i o n Control Board, V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l 1967. (27) S t e e l , E.W., "Water Supply and Sewerage", McGraw H i l l Book Company Inc., New York, Toronto, London 1960. 4th E d i t i o n . I APPENDICES APPENDIX I G.V.S. & D.D. - PROPOSED SEWERAGE WORKS EXISTING G . V - S . & O.D. FACILITIES: LEGEND PROPOSED G . V . S . & D.D. FACILITIES: PROPOSED MUNICIPAL FACILITIES: • » • • - Sewer Jf Pumping Station [TJ Lagoon 7 T " , Outl ine ol Sewerage Area jr r . 5 7 Int. FM Outfall Treatment Plant Pumping Station Stwtr and Designation Interceptor Force Main Sewer jy Pumping Station APPENDIX II  RIVER CROSS-SECTIONS 50 S E C T I O N A - A : G A R R Y P O I N T S E C T I O N C - C : S A M P L I N G P O I N T S 25, 26,27. APPENDIX I I I PROGRAM OF MODEL SIMULATION PROGRAM OF MODEL SIMULATION $ RUN * WATFIV 7=FRASER Defines f i l e containing discharge and t i d a l variations over a t i d a l cycle for a l l gauge stations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 7 20 8 9 7 10 11 8 12 13 9 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 21 22 23 24 25 26 COMPILE DIMENSION D(14,261),H(14,261) DIMENSION A(135), AREA(l35),W(135) DIMENSION P(1000),X(1000) L=14 DO 10 1=1,L READ (7,20) (D(I,J),H(I,J),J=1,261) FORMAT(2X,F9.0,F6.2) READ(5,7) (A(N).N=l,135) FORMAT(1P7E10.2) READ(5,8)(AREA(N),N=1,135) FORMAT(8F10.0) READ(5,9)(W(N),N=1,135) FORMAT(8F10.0) Dimension statements. Read i n values for discharges and tide heights at six minute i n t e r v a l s for 14 gauge stations. S=50000. TIME=-.10 K=9 1=7.0 F=6.0 C=2000. IF(J.EQ.261)K=1 Read i n average widths and cross-sections for every segment on r i v e r . Sets i n i t i a l distance downriver - i . e . starting segment on r i v e r (50). Sets starting time for run=o. Sets i n i t i a l conditions, 1 stage of tide discharge occurs at, 2 reach of the ri v e r , 3 elevation of reach and 4 starti n g concentration of coliforms/lOO ml. -1 depending on density of p o l l u t i o n . IF(C.GT.4000)R=0.63 Sets K value i n sec IF(C.LE.4000)R=.042 j l ^ 0 * Sets segment number and stage. r ^ s i - D ( T , j ! / ( A R E A ( N ) + ( H ( I > J ) - F ) * W ( N ) ) Defines v e l o c i t y and discharge at starting ^ ' ' time for beginning segment. PROGRAM OF MODEL SIMULATION (Cont.) 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 31 42 43 32 44 45 34 46 35 47 48 49 40 50 550 51 86 52 53 54 55 56 *5 ^ +^~ Increments t i d a l stage by .1 hr. VEL2=D(I,J)/(AREA(N) + (H(l,J)-F)*W(N)) Defines v e l o c i t y & discharge at beginning DIS2=D(I,J) segment at starting time +0.1 hr. VELAV=(VELl+VEL2)/2. Calculates average v e l o c i t y at segment over 0.1 hr. in t e r v a l . S1=VELAV*360. Calculates distance p a r t i c l e travels at VELAV. N=(Sl+S)/l000. Defines segment i n which midpoint of star t i n g volume now located. TIME=TIME+0.1 Sets new value of time. DISAV=(DISl+DIS2)/2. Average discharge over 0.1 hr. inter v a l . . IF(DISAV.LT.0)DISAV=-1.0*DISAV IF(DISAV.GT.0.AND.DISAV.LT.100000)DISAV=10000. IF(S1.GT.1000)GO TO 31 Gives DISAV=10,000 i f a zero rdg. i s IF(S1.LT.-1000)G0 TO 32 obtained. GO TO 34 P(N) = (A(N)+A(N-1) )/(DISAV*2.44*(lO.**7)) GO TO 35 G O N T S ( 3 1 N ) + A ( N + 1 ) ) / ( D I S A V * 2 ' 4 ^ ( 1 0 , * * 7 ) ) G i V G S d i l ^ i o n f a c t o r o f coliforms P(N)=(A(N)*2.)/(DISAV*2.44*(10.**7)) introduced into stream. X(N)=C*EXP(-.10*R) Calculates die-away i n 0.1 hr. for st a r t i n g volume. C=P(N)+X(N) Gives new starting concentration. S=S+S1 Defines distance on r i v e r . WRITE(6,550)N,S,TIME,VELAV,A(N),P(N),X(N),C W r i + e _ _ u + v a l u e t -F0RMAT(2X,1I4,1F8.0,2F6.2,1P4E12.2) Writes out values. IF (N .LT. 15) GO TO 50 IF (N .GE. 15 .AND. N .LT. 27) GO TO 60 IF (N .GE. 27 .AND. N .LT. 32) GO TO 70 IF (N .GE. 32 .AND. N .LT. 37) GO TO 80 IF (N .GE. 37 .AND. N .LT. 45) GO TO 90 IF (N .GE. 45 .AND. N .LT. 57) GO TO 100 \ PROGRAM OF MODEL SIMULATION (Cont.) 57 IF (N .GE. 57 .AND. N .LT. 72) GO TO 110 58 IF (N .GE. 72 .AND. N .LT. 83) GO TO 120 59 IF (N .GE. 83 .AND. N .LT. 89) GO TO 130 60 IF (N .GE. 89 .AND. N .LT. 98) GO TO 140 61 IF (N .GE. 98 .AND. N .LT. 105) GO TO 150 62 IF (N .GE. 105 „AND. N .LT. 113) GO TO 160 63 IF (N .GE. 113 .AND. N .LT. 135) GO TO 170 64 IF (N .GE. 135) GO TO 660 65 50 1=2 66 F=7.5 67 GO TO 30 68 60 1=3 69 F=7.0 70 GO TO 30 71 70 1=4 72 F=7.0 73 GO TO 30 74 80 1=5 75 F=6.75 76 GO TO 30 77 90 1=6 78 F=6.25 79 GO TO 30 80 100 1=7 81 F=6.0 82 GO TO 30 83 110 1=8 84 F=5.5 85 GO TO 30 86 120 1=9 87 F=4.75 88 GO TO 30 PROGRAM OF MODEL SIMULATION (Cont.) 89 130 1=10 90 F=4.5 91 GO TO 30 92 140 1=11 93 F=4.5 94 GO TO 30 95 150 1=12 96 F=3.75 97 GO TO 30 Defines reach of r i v e r and gauge station values 98 160 1=13 t o b e used. 99 F=3.25 100 GO TO 30 101 170 1=14 102 F=2.5 103 GO TO 30 104 660 STOP 105 END $DATA 50 50856. 0.00 2.38 2.46E 10 1.63E-02 1.99E 03 1.99E 03 51 51693. 0.10 2.33 6.35E 13 4.29E 01 1.98E 03 2.03E 03 APPENDIX IV  CUBIC SPLINE INTERPOLATION CUBIC SPLINE INTERPOLATION TYPE OF ROUTINE: SPLINE i s a FORTRAN IV SUBROUTINE subprogram. AVAILABILITY: SPLINE i s located on the General and Watfiv L i b r a r i e s . PURPOSE: For n given data points (x x, y1), x 2, y 2 ) , . . . , ( x n > y n ) t h i s subroutine c a l c u l a t e s the second de r i v a t i v e s at the abscissas x^, i = l , 2,...,n that characterize the natural spl i n e function of degree three through the given data points. Also, f o r c e r t a i n other given abscissas t ^ , i = l , 2,...,m the interpolated values and the f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e s are calculated. NOTE: A cubic spline function i s a piecewise cubic poly-nomial with both a continuous f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e and a continuous second d e r i v a t i v e . Normally, however, there i s a jump d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n i t s t h i r d d e r i v a t i v e at the junction points. ACCURACY: Single p r e c i s i o n f l o a t i n g point arithmetic i s used. Results agree to about f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s with the r e s u l t s observed from other routines. CUBIC SPLINE INTERPOLATION (Cont.) HOW TO USE: SPLINE i s entered by: CALL SPLINE(X,Y,S2,N,T,S,S1,M, & nn) where X, Y, and S2 are one dimensional arrays of at least s i z e N, while T, S, and SI are one dimensional arrays of at l east s i z e M (or 1 i f M=0). A l l arrays are single p r e c i s i o n (REAL*4). Description of parameters: X should contain the N given abscissas of the points through which the approximating spline function w i l l pass. Note that the X ( l ) must be d i s t i n c t and i n a l g e b r a i c a l l y increasing sequence. should contain the N corresponding given ordinates. on e x i t from SPLINE, S2(l) w i l l contain the second d e r i v a t i v e of the approximating spline function at the abscissa X ( l ) . N i s the number of given points ( X ( l ) , Y ( l ) ) . 3 N 200. T should contain the M abscissas f o r which the i n t e r -polated values and/or the f i r s t d e r i vatives of the approximating spli n e function are required. Note that T ( l ) must be greater than or equal to X ( l ) and T(M) must be less than or equal to X(N). Also, the T ( l ) must be i n a l g e b r a i c a l l y increasing sequence. S on e x i t from SPLINE, S l ( l ) w i l l contain the value of the approximating spline function at the abscissa T ( l ) . S.I On e x i t from SPLINE, S l ( l ) w i l l contain the f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e of the approximating spline function at the abscissa T ( l ) . Y S2 CUBIC SPLINE INTERPOLATION (Cont.) M i s the number of abscissas T ( l ) . I f neither the interpolated values nor the f i r s t d e r i v a t i v e s are required set M=0. nn i s the FORTRAN statement to which control w i l l be sent i n the event that a r e s t r i c t i o n i s v i o l a t e d . 

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