UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Examples of the use of a computer as a planning aid Thom, Jane Elizabeth 1973

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c / • EXAMPLES OF THE USE OP A COMPUTER AS A PLANNING AID by JANE ELIZABETH THOM B.Sc. ( A e r o n a u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g ) U n i v e r s i t y of B a t h , E n g l a n d , 1 9 6 4 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n the Department of CIVIL ENGINEERING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1 9 7 3 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s I n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Of//*- Z^A/(s> fAj f/)/6 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada //guy A /<?Y3 £7^ ABSTRACT The growing amount of data a v a i l a b l e to the planners today and the n e c e s s i t y t o e a s i l y order, d i s p l a y , and a s s i m i l a t e t h i s data, has t h r u s t the computer i n t o the foreground of planning t o o l s . Computers are unequalled i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o handle, reorganize and manipulate large volumes of data. Computer techniques are developed here t o handle and d i s p l a y data f o r the planner so that he can more e f f e c t i v e l y spend h i s time on the e v a l u a t i o n and decision-making aspects of planning. Thus a minimum amount of time need be spent i n a s s i m i l a t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r a d e c i s i o n ; t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l i n the p r e l i m i n a r y phase of planning. Three computer techniques t o s i m p l i f y data handling and v i s u a l l y d i s p l a y data are described i n t h i s r e p o r t . One generates simple three-dimensional drawings on a graphics d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l . A second technique v i s u a l l y and dynamically d i s p l a y s growth and change by simulating the e v o l u t i o n of a c i t y s c a p e . The t h i r d technique extends McHarg's space a l l o c a t i o n map overlay technique. I t u t i l i z e s s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d data, and allows i n t e r a c t i v e manipulation of t h i s data t o i n d i c a t e areas of " s u i t a b i l i t y " f o r a p a r t i c u l a r use. i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i LIST OF FIGURES i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I . STATIC GRAPHICS DISPLAY TECHNIQUE 5 The Computer: Advantages & Disadvantages Computer Graphics Computer Graphics at U.B.C. S t a t i c Graphics D i s p l a y I I . DYNAMIC GRAPHICS DISPLAY TECHNIQUE 17 General D e s c r i p t i o n of the Dynamic Model D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of Model I I I . COMPUTERIZED MAP OVERLAY TECHNIQUE 30 Background Computerized Map Overlay The M e r r i t t Example D e t a i l s of the Method Result s IV. CONCLUSIONS 56 REFERENCES 59 i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. S y s t e m d i a g r a m o f A d a g e - 3 6 0 l i n k 10 2. P h o t o g r a p h o f s t a t i c d i s p l a y m o d el 13 2 11 11 " " 14 4^ 0 II II II II 15 Cj II II II II II . , . , . . 16 6. Z o n e s and s u b - r e g i o n s , d y n a m i c model -19 7. B u i l d i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o u t p u t 22 8. Dynamic d i s p l a y i m a g e s 24 9. F l o w c h a r t o f d y n a m i c d i s p l a y p r o g r a m . . . . 25 1 0 . P h o t o g r a p h o f d y n a m i c d i s p l a y model 26 1 1 . " " " » " 27 1 2 . " " 11 " " 28 1 3 . " " " " 11 29 14 . G r i d " s m o o t h i n g " f o r map o v e r l a y o u t p u t . . . 36 1 5 . The M e r r i t t a r e a map 37 1 6 . E l e v a t i o n map 43 1 7 . Road a c c e s s i b i l i t y map 44 1 8 . F a m i l y r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s map 4 9 1 9 . W i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s map 50 2 0 . H o u s i n g l o c a t i o n s - w i t h s e r v i c e s 51 2 1 . " " - w i t h o u t r o a d 52 i i i F i g u r e Page 2 2 . H o u s i n g l o c a t i o n s - w i t h o u t s e r v i c e s , . . . 53 2 3 . " " - w i t h o u t r o a d , and w i t h f l o o d i n g 54 2 4 . F l o w c h a r t o f map o v e r l a y programme . . . . 55 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The a u t h o r would l i k e t o thank her s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r D e n i s R u s s e l l , f o r h i s c o n s t a n t encouragement, c o n s t r u c t i v e a d v i c e , and i n v a l u a b l e guidance t h r o u g h o u t t h e development of t h i s t h e s i s . v INTRODUCTION I n c r e a s i n g l y e n g i n e e r s and p l a n n e r s a r e f a c i n g problems of growing c o m p l e x i t y . F r e q u e n t l y t h e s e problems demand l a r g e s c a l e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h have.an enormous impact on the e n v i r o n -ment. Water r e s o u r c e p r o j e c t s such as r e s e r v o i r s and dams, l a r g e urban s t r u c t u r e s such as b u i l d i n g s and b r i d g e s , urban s e r v i c e s such as sewage d i s p o s a l systems and highway p r o j e c t s , and so on, are b e f o r e us d a i l y . W i t h the a b i l i t y t o amass and s t o r e l a r g e volumes of d a t a , we f i n d an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r sim p l e t e c h n i q u e s t o m a n i p u l a t e and m e a n i n g f u l l y d i s p l a y such d a t a so t h a t i t may be e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e d . The i t e r a t i v e n a t u r e of t h e d e s i g n and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and the e n o r m i t y of the problems t o be s o l v e d , demand t h a t t h e maximum amount of time be spent on c h o i c e among a l t e r n a t i v e s , and the minimum amount of time on r e p e t i t i v e c a l c u l a t i o n s or m a n i p u l a t i o n s of v a s t q u a n t i -t i e s of d a t a . W h i l s t t h e f a c t of t h e e x p o n e n t i a l growth of p o p u l a t i o n , r e s o u r c e consumption, energy demands, and so on, i s g i v e n l i p s e r v i c e by an i n c r e a s i n g number of p e o p l e , t h e e x i s t e n t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s f a c t and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s , l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s , and l o n g term p l a n n i n g , i s s t i l l l i m i t e d t o a few. Of growing importance i s the need t o a l l o w f o r maximum f l e x i b i l i t y and minimum c o n s t r a i n t s i n 2 d e s i g n t o g e t h e r w i t h an awareness of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of f u t u r e o p t i o n s b e i n g c l o s e d by p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n s . Computers appear t o have g r e a t p o t e n t i a l t o a s s i s t i n the p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n . N o r m a l l y the f i r s t t e m p t a t i o n would be t o t r y t o d e v e l o p an e l a b o r a t e s i m u l a t i o n model but s i n c e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e a l l the s u b t l e t i e s and i n t a n g i b l e s w h i c h a good p l a n n e r would t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t , such a t t e m p t s u s u a l l y end up b e i n g v e r y a r t i f i c i a l and hence of l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y and u s e f u l n e s s . The a b i l i t y of the computer t o " d i g e s t " enormous amounts of d a t a and t o d i s p l a y i t t o the p l a n n e r i n a way w h i c h i s u s e f u l t o him i s examined h e r e . The emphasis has been, t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y , t o d e v e l o p t e c h n i q u e s f o r u s i n g t h e computer as a t o o l t o m a n i p u l a t e and p r e s e n t d a t a t o t h e d e s i g n e r i n a m e a n i n g f u l way, i . e . , t o complement t h e d e s i g n e r not s u p p l a n t him. Three t e c h n i q u e s have been d e v e l o p e d — o n e d e s i g n e d t o h e l p v i s u a l i z e proposed p r o j e c t s i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , one t o g i v e him a sense of t i m e , and one t o h e l p him l o c a t e p r o m i s i n g a r e a s f o r f u t u r e development of f a c i l i t i e s such as s u b d i v i s i o n s , p a r k s , e t c . A l l t h r e e have been made as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e t o minimize programming d i f f i -c u l t i e s and t o not d i s t r a c t the d e s i g n e r from h i s r e a l problems by computer c o m p l i c a t i o n s . The f i r s t t e c h n i q u e d e s c r i b e d i s the g e n e r a t i o n on t h e g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l of a v e r y simple " w i r e - f r a m e " drawing 3 w h i c h , t h r o u g h an a v a i l a b l e s o f t w a r e package, can be r o t a t e d i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . A " w i r e - f r a m e " drawing i s one i n which o n l y t h e edges of a s o l i d a r e shown. The s p e c i f i c example chosen t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s t e c h n i q u e was a t w e l v e b l o c k a r e a of downtown Vancouver around the s i t e of a proposed seven hundred f o o t , f i f t y - f i v e s t o r e y b u i l d i n g . The second t e c h n i q u e v i s u a l l y and d y n a m i c a l l y d i s p l a y s growth and change by showing a changing " p i c t u r e " of a c i t y s c a p e on the g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l d i s p l a y s c r e e n , w i t h t h e aim of g i v i n g the d e s i g n e r a " f e e l " f o r t h e e f f e c t of t i m e . The example chosen was of a t h e o r e t i c a l c i t y where th e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e was r e f l e c t e d i n the spread and growth of t h e v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g s n e c e s s a r y t o s e r v i c e t h e i n c r e a s e . P r o v i s i o n i s made t o "zone" v a r i o u s a r e a s , t o r e s e r v e b l o c k s f o r p a r k s , and t o l i m i t the h e i g h t of h i g h - r i s e b u i l d i n g s t o a l l o w t h e p l a n n e r t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e model, t o t r y out h i s i d e a s , and so on. The t h i r d t e c h n i q u e d i s p l a y s s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d d a t a and a l l o w s easy c o m b i n a t i o n and d i s p l a y of t h i s d a t a t o i n d i c a t e a r e a s of " s u i t a b i l i t y " f o r a p a r t i c u l a r use. I t s uses range f r o m an i n d i c a t i o n of the most d e s i r a b l e r o u t e f o r a highway, or the most s u i t a b l e a r e a s f o r e x t e n s i o n of a sewage d i s p o s a l network, t o t h e most d e s i r a b l e a r e a s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development or f o r r e s e r v a t i o n of a r e a s f o r w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s . I n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g es of computers and t h e s t a t e of t h e a r t of computer g r a p h i c s 4 are r e v i e w e d and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t UBC i s g i v e n . The t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s are d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r some c o n c l u s i o n s a re drawn about p o s s i b l e uses of t h e methods d e s c r i b e d , and d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e work a r e s u g g e s t e d . CHAPTER I STATIC GRAPHICS DISPLAY TECHNIQUE The Computer: Advantages and D i s a d v a n t a g e s I n t h e d e s i g n c o n t e x t , the advantages of u s i n g d i g i t a l computers are w e l l known. The speed of c a l c u l a t i o n , and t h e a b i l i t y t o s t o r e and ma n i p u l a t e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of d a t a make the t e s t i n g of many d e s i g n a l t e r n a t i v e s f e a s i b l e . The c r e a t i v e , i n t u i t i v e stage of the d e s i g n p r o c e s s can be f r e e d from r e p e t i t i v e r o u t i n e c a l c u l a t i o n s . Some more s u b t l e advantages i n c l u d e t h e need f o r the d e s i g n e r t o make e x p l i c i t t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s ( e x t e r n a l i z e i t ) i n o r d e r t o determine how t h e s e p a r t s are t o be s o l v e d i n l o g i c a l , d e f i n a b l e s t e p s ; and, o c c a s i o n a l l y , t h e use of t h e computer t o show a p e r s p e c t i v e on a problem not o b t a i n a b l e i n any o t h e r way. Sometimes, i n t h e e n t h u s i a s m t o use a new t o o l , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s of u s i n g a computer are o v e r l o o k e d or f o r g o t t e n . The c o s t of d e v e l o p i n g even a simple program can be v e r y l a r g e . The p o t e n t i a l l o s s of i n f o r m a t i o n i s h i g h i f t h e d e s i g n e r has t o communicate h i s w i s h e s t o a programmer, the n e c e s s a r y i n t e r -mediary between t h e problem and t h e machine. A l s o , when computer r e s u l t s appear simple and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h e r e i s a g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e c o m p l e x i t y of the a l g o r i t h m . 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i f t h i s i s done, the d e s i g n e r may not c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d how t h e r e s u l t s were a c h i e v e d , due t o the i n t r i c a c i e s of t h e problem s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s , and hence he may have no . i n t u i t i v e " f e e l " f o r t h e i r c o r r e c t n e s s . I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the computer can be used most e f f e c t i v e l y f o r : c a l c u l a t i o n s w i t h much r e p e t i t i o n , and/or w i t h much d a t a ; problems where i t can be used t o s i m p l i f y a l a r g e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t o make i t e a s i l y a s s i m i l a b l e ; f o r complex, y e t d e f i n i t i v e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s e s ; or where the p e n a l t y f o r an i n c o r r e c t s o l u t i o n i s e x c e s s i v e . I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s the computer can be a c o n v e n i e n c e , but s h o u l d be c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e s . W i t h the advent of t i m e - s h a r i n g , a l l o w i n g s e v e r a l people t o use the computer a t once, th e i n t e r a c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of man and machine has been g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d . I n computer g r a p h i c s , g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i s p l a y e d on a cathode r a y t u b e . I n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s a l l o w s t h e u s e r t o i n t e r a c t d y n a m i c a l l y w i t h t h e d i s p l a y . The a b i l i t y t o a l t e r t h e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s as i t p r o g r e s s e s , — t o h a l t i t , d i v e r t i t , or modify i t , — h a s a l l o w e d a speed of man-machine i n t e r a c t i o n w hich was not p o s s i b l e w i t h p r e v i o u s c a l c u l a t i o n methods. T h i s i s one a s p e c t of t h e computer w h i c h i s pursued by computer s c i e n t i s t s t o c r e a t e a new u n i o n between man and t h e computer i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . I t i s seen as an e s p e c i a l l y p o w e r f u l concept i n the w o r l d of computer g r a p h i c s . I n i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s , however, the aim i s t o produce something w h i c h was not a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e , not merely t o speed up a known p r o c e s s . 7 Computer G r a p h i c s One of t h e p i o n e e r s of i n t e r a c t i v e computer g r a p h i c s has w r i t t e n : The s c i e n t i s t of t o d a y i s l i m i t e d by h i s p e n c i l and paper and mind. He can draw a b s t r a c t i o n s , or he can t h i n k about them. I f he draws them, t h e y w i l l be s t a t i c , and i f he v i s u a l i z e s them t h e y won't have v e r y good mathematic-a l p r o p e r t i e s and w i l l f ade out . . . We c o u l d g i v e him C w i t h a computer!] drawings t h a t move, . . . and r o t a t e , . . . and w i t h g r e a t m a t h e m a t i c a l a c c u r a c y . We c o u l d l e t him r e p r e s e n t a l l k i n d s of complex and v e r y a b s t r a c t n o t i o n s , and we c o u l d l e t him work w i t h them i n a way t h a t he has never been a b l e t o b e f o r e . ' I n c o n t r a s t t o S u t h e r l a n d ' s e n t h u s i a s m we can f i n d words of c a u t i o n f rom Cancro and S l o t n i c k : ( l 9 7 0 ) The enormous i n t e r e s t t h a t g r a p h i c s has g e n e r a t e d . . . i s a l l out of p r o p o r t i o n t o any p o s i t i v e y i e l d i t has y e t r e t u r n e d . They s t a t e t h a t g r a p h i c s merely r e p e a t our o l d ways of d e a l i n g w i t h d a t a i n a new medium. As w i t h most c o n t r o v e r s i e s the answer l i e s somewhere between the s e extremes. Computer g r a p h i c s has g r e a t p o t e n t i a l but needs t o be used w i t h d i s c r e t i o n , t o supplement the j u d g e -ment of the u s e r , not s u p p l a n t i t . Most d e s i g n p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e a g r e a t d e a l of g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n whether i t t a k e s t h e form of rough s k e t c h e s of a p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n or the many d e t a i l e d d r a w i n g s of the f i n a l d e s i g n , of maps showing the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of v a r i o u s p a r a m e t e r s , or of diagrams of d e t a i l s i n c l u d e d i n a complex machine. Computer g r a p h i c s can be used f o r d i s p l a y , s i m u l a t i o n , 8 or i n t e r a c t i v e d e s i g n . D i s p l a y uses i n c l u d e highway p l a n n i n g , e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t d e s i g n , a u t o m o b i l e and a i r c r a f t d e s i g n , t o p o g r a p h i c a l mapping, and a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o d e l l i n g . G r a p h i c s s i m u l a t i o n i s used t o encourage a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a s i t u a t i o n or problem t h a n i s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o t h e r m e t h o d s — o r g a n i c c h e m i s t s s y n t h e s i z e m o l e c u l e s , p i l o t s s i m u l a t e l a n d i n g and t a k i n g - o f f . B e n e f i t s of computer g r a p h i c s i n c l u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s p l a y and r o t a t e complex images i n t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n s (on a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s c r e e n ) . Advantages over s o l i d m o d e l l i n g are i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of p e r s p e c t i v e t o an o r t h o g o n a l d r a w i n g , i n s t a n t r e s c a l i n g of the image t o a l l o w s i m p l e o v e r a l l v i e w s w i t h v e r y d e t a i l e d sub-views, and the a b i l i t y t o do c a l c u l a t i o n s d i r e c t l y f r om t h e image a t any s t a g e , a l l o w i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , q u a n t i t i e s t o be measured and c o s t e d as the d e s i g n p r o g r e s s e s . M o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e image and r e p e t i t i o n of d e t a i l can be e a s i l y and q u i c k l y c a r r i e d o u t . The major d i s a d v a n t a g e s c o n c e r n the r e a l i s m of the image and the ease w i t h which t h e u s e r can i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e system. V a r i o u s a t t e m p t s have been made w i t h some s u c c e s s t o improve the r e a l i s m of the image. These i n c l u d e c r e a t i n g s t e r e o images, removing h i d d e n l i n e s f r om " w i r e - f r a m e " d r a w i n g s , a d d i n g i l l u m i n a t i o n and s h a d i n g , c r e a t i n g h a l f - t o n e and c o l o u r e d image s. 9 I n t e r a c t i o n u s u a l l y t a k e s p l a c e by means of a l i g h t pen, d i a l s , s w i t c h e s , or b u t t o n s . I n 1963 I v a n S u t h e r l a n d and Timothy Johnson announced t h e i r SKETCHPAD package. With the use of s w i t c h e s , l i g h t p e n , knobs and "draw" b u t t o n s , t h e package a l l o w e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l images on a d i s p l a y s c r e e n . From the p o i n t of v i e w of the u s e r , v e r y few r e a l advances have been made s i n c e t h e n . The p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d i n t e r a c t i v e d e s i g n i s t h a t t h e man-machine i n t e r a c t i o n s h ould be speeded up t o t h e pace of t h i n k i n g and c o n v e r s a t i o n . W h i l s t t h i s has been p o s s i b l e i n the p r i n t e d medium, p r o g r e s s towards i t i n g r a p h i c s has not been g r e a t . Computer G r a p h i c s a t U»B.C. A t U.B.C. an Adage g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l and an IBM 360/67 computer are a v a i l a b l e . A system d i a gram of t h e Adage-360 l i n k i s shown i n F i g u r e 1. The Adage g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l used i s an Adage C o r p o r a t i o n Model 10. I t i s a t t a c h e d t o a s m a l l g e n e r a l purpose g r a p h i c s computer w h i c h s t o r e s images t o be d i s p l a y e d on the cathode r a y tube (CRT), and c o - o r d i n a t e s communication w i t h t h e 360/67. An IBM 2260 d i s p l a y s t a t i o n a l l ows the use r t o communicate w i t h t h e 360. I n the s p e c i f i c uses d e s c r i b e d f o l l o w i n g , programs i n the 360/67 g e n e r a t e d a t a w h i c h i s d i s p l a y e d on t h e CRT v i a two s u p e r v i s o r y programs, GRAPH and G. GRAPH can be l o a d e d i n t o the g r a p h i c s computer, and a l l o w s t h e u s e r t o i n t e r a c t i v e l y communicate w i t h t h e images d i s p l a y e d on 10 S Y S T E M DIAGRAM OF A D A G E - 360 LINK. F I G U R E I t h e s c r e e n . The G package was used t o r o t a t e , i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , t h e images produced on t h e CRT, and t o add p e r s p e c -t i v e . S t a t i c G r a p h i c s D i s p l a y The purpose of the s t a t i c d i s p l a y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l of the g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l t o g i v e the d e s i g n e r a q u i c k and immediate p i c t u r e w i t h t h e f l e x i b i l i t y of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l r o t a t i o n . The a r e a chosen f o r d i s p l a y was a p o r t i o n of downtown Vancouver. A t the time t h e r e was some c o n t r o v e r s y about a proposed B.C. Government b u i l d i n g t o be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s b u i l d i n g was t o be almost t w i c e t h e h e i g h t of any of t h e b u i l d i n g s near t o i t . I t was d e c i d e d t o d i s p l a y t h i s b u i l d i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the s u r r o u n d i n g b u i l d i n g s . The a r e a d i s p l a y e d i s f o u r b l o c k s by t h r e e b l o c k s , bounded by West G e o r g i a , Seymour, N e l s o n , and B u r r a r d s t r e e t s . The d a t a on the b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h i s a rea was s u p p l i e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t s i n charge of the d e s i g n of the proposed b u i l d i n g , M c C a r t e r N a i r n e and P a r t n e r s . Most b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h e s e b l o c k s are shown as " w i r e - f r a m e " r e g u l a r hexahedrons, where the edges of t h e b u i l d i n g s are r e p r e s e n t e d by s t r a i g h t l i n e s . H i d d e n l i n e s are not removed. The l e n g t h , w i d t h , and h e i g h t of each b u i l d i n g were r e c o r d e d , and i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e d i s p l a y a r e a was n o t e d . Three b u i l d i n g s are r e p r e s e n t e d by a c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l f l o o r s . S e v e r a l v i e w s of the d i s p l a y are shown 1 2 i n F i g u r e s 2, 3, 4 and 5. T h i s example, though c r u d e , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e ease w i t h w h i c h simple t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l d i s p l a y s can be c r e a t e d . The d a t a r e q u i r e d i s m i n i m a l , and e a s i l y e n t e r e d . The removal of h i d d e n l i n e s , and the a b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t t o change th e d i s p l a y are not t r i v i a l problems, but t h e s e c a p a b i l i t i e s would be n e c e s s a r y f o r f u r t h e r use of t h i s s p e c i f i c example beyond i t s use as a d i s p l a y . The advantages of t h i s t y pe of d i s p l a y over s t y r o f o a m models l i e m a i n l y i n the a b i l i t y t o e a s i l y a l t e r t h e d i s p l a y , f o r example, t h e f i n a l p i c t u r e can be " c l i p p e d " i m p o s i n g a r t i f i c i a l l i m i t s on the d i s p l a y so t h a t the v i e w f r o m v a r i o u s s t r e e t s can be o b t a i n e d , e x c l u d i n g d a t a from o u t s i d e of the new l i m i t s . O b v i o u s e x t e n s i o n s of the p r e s e n t d i s p l a y example would be t o i n c r e a s e or decrease the number of f l o o r s i n any b u i l d i n g by t h e use of a l i g h t pen, or t o i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e the w i d t h or d e p t h of any b u i l d i n g by l i g h t pen or codes. I t would be p o s s i b l e t o compute volumes, w e i g h t s , c o s t s , and so on s t r a i g h t f r om the image a l t h o u g h the program would l o s e f l e x i b i l i t y as t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o p t i o n s e n l a r g e d . The w i r e - f r a m e s t a t i c d i s p l a y t e c h n i q u e c o u l d , of c o u r s e , be adapted t o d i s p l a y any a r e a or phenomenon. Once accustomed t o t h e g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y s o f t w a r e , e i g h t t o t e n h o u r s i s not an u n r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e of the time r e q u i r e d t o program, and c o l l e c t and e n t e r d a t a t o d i s p l a y an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a r e a . 13 STATIC DISPLAY MODEL FIGURE 2 14 STATIC DISPLAY MODEL FIGURE 3 15 STATIC DISPLAY MODEL FIGURE 4 16 STATIC DISPLAY MODEL FIGURE 5 CHAPTER I I DYNAMIC GRAPHICS D I S P L A Y TECHNIQUE G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n p f t h e D y n a m i c Moo^el The p u r p o s e o f t h e c i t y s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l i s t o g i v e a d y n a m i c v i s u a l d i s p l a y o f g r o w t h u s i n g t h e g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l , g i v i n g t h e d e s i g n e r a " f e e l " f o r c h a n g e . O t h e r t e c h n i q u e s f o r d i s p l a y i n g g r o w t h i n c l u d e t i m e s t a g e by t i m e s t a g e maps, and g r a p h s w h i c h c h a n g e a s t i m e p r o g r e s s e s . By s h o w i n g t h e s p r e a d and g r o w t h o f b u i l d i n g s o v e r a t h e o r e t i c a l c i t y s c a p e , a s e n s e o f c h a n g e o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e i s c r e a t e d w h i c h h a s a g r e a t e r v i s u a l i m p a c t t h a n t h e more u s u a l d i s p l a y t e c h n i q u e s . The m o d e l u s e s b u i l d i n g s t o show t h e e f f e c t o f p o p u l a -t i o n i n c r e a s e w i t h i n a l i m i t e d a r e a by d y n a m i c a l l y d i s p l a y i n g g r o w t h o v e r a s p e c i f i c number o f t i m e p e r i o d s . F o r e a c h p e r i o d t h e i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n o v e r t h a t o f t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d i s c a l c u l a t e d , t h e n t r a n s f o r m e d t o t h e number o f b u i l d i n g s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s , e . g . o f f i c e h i g h - r i s e s , h o u s e s , r e q u i r e d t o s e r v i c e t h i s i n c r e a s e . The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s i s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e shown on t h e d i s p l a y s c r e e n . S i m u l a t i o n i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l one of t h e g r o w t h l i m i t s o r t h e s p e c i f i e d number o f t i m e p e r i o d s i s e x c e e d e d . A t t h i s p o i n t a new s i m u l a t i o n c a n be i n i t i a t e d . 18 D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of Model The a r e a over w h i c h growth i s shown i s s p l i t i n t o e i g h t y - o n e s u b - r e g i o n s . These r e g i o n s a re grouped i n t o n i n e major zones, as shown i n F i g u r e 6. Three shapes of b u i l d i n g s are r e p r e s e n t e d : houses, shown as s m a l l cubes, h i g h - r i s e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and o f f i c e use, shown as a group of f l o o r s , and warehouses, f o r i n d u s t r i a l and commercial use, shown as l a r g e cubes. V a r i o u s parameters g o v e r n i n g the b e h a v i o u r of the model may be s p e c i f i e d by t h e u s e r . These a r e : z o n i n g r u l e s c o n t r o l -l i n g t he major zones 1 t h r o u g h 9, p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e and upper l i m i t , a minimum open space r e q u i r e m e n t , t h e maximum h i g h -r i s e h e i g h t , and t h e number of time p e r i o d s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . The a b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e c e r t a i n s u b - r e g i o n s w i t h i n zones as open space, t o use as p a r k l a n d f o r example, i s a l l o w e d . For each t i m e p e r i o d an i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n i s c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s : P = P ,e9 t t - 1 ^ P = P t ~ P t - 1 where: P = p o p u l a t i o n , t = t i m e p e r i o d , and g = growth r a t e . The growth r a t e i s an i n p u t v a r i a b l e . I f t h e c a l c u l a t e d new p o p u l a t i o n exceeds the s p e c i f i e d upper l i m i t an e r r o r message i s p r i n t e d and s i m u l a t i o n c e a s e s . For an i n c r e a s e I n p o p u l a t i o n of A P, o f f i c e space, warehouse/shopping f a c i l i t i e s , and r e s i d e n t i a l space are c a l c u l a t e d . I t i s assumed t h a t 40% of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e j o i n t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n and t h a t h a l f 1 9 ZONES AND SUB-REGIONS FOR DYNAMIC MODEL. FIGURE 6 20 of t h e s e r e q u i r e warehouse space and h a l f o f f i c e s p a c e . ^ As o n l y a l i m i t e d amount of d e t a i l can be shown on t h e g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o use a s c a l i n g f a c t o r of t w e n t y f o r t h e c a p a c i t i e s of t h e v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d : t h u s a warehouse i s " b u i l t " f o r e v e r y f i v e hundred p e o p l e , a h i g h - r i s e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h s i x hundred peop l e per f l o o r , and a house f o r e v e r y one hundred p e o p l e . The number of f l o o r s f o r a h i g h - r i s e i s d e t e r m i n e d f rom a random number g e n e r a t o r ( w i t h e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y ) w h i c h s e l e c t s a h e i g h t of f r o m t h r e e f l o o r s t o the s p e c i f i e d maximum. A c o n d i t i o n of p e r p e t u a l crowding i s assumed i n t h e case where the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n a g i v e n t i m e p e r i o d exceeds th e c a p a c i t y of b u i l d i n g s c r e a t e d f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e , but by an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount t o f i l l a new b u i l d i n g . T h i s " e x c e s s " p o p u l a t i o n i s c a r r i e d over t o t h e next time p e r i o d . Two s e p a r a t e p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s are used f o r the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of b u i l d i n g s ; f o r houses and warehouses a l i n e a r d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e d on t h e mid s u b - r e g i o n i s used, and f o r h i g h - r i s e s a s t a n d a r d normal c u r v e , a l s o c e n t r e d on the mid s u b - r e g i o n , i s used. The s t a n d a r d normal c u r v e demonstrates b e t t e r t h a n t h e l i n e a r d i s t r i b u t i o n the tendency f o r h i g h - r i s e c l u s t e r i n g . To f i n d a p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n f o r a b u i l d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s used t o f i n d the x and y c o - o r d i n a t e s . These c o - o r d i n a t e s i n d i c a t e a p o t e n t i a l s u b - r e g i o n s i t e . The p r o b a b i l i t y of l o c a t i n g a t t h e extreme edges of t h e t o t a l a r e a d i s p l a y e d i s much l e s s t h a n of f i n d i n g a l o c a t i o n 21 c l o s e t o the c e n t r e . The l o c a t i o n chosen i s checked t o ensure t h a t the s i t e i s v a c a n t and i s zoned t o a l l o w t h e t y p e of b u i l d i n g r e q u i r e d . I f e i t h e r of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s are not met a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e s i t e i s found u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o b a b i l i t y c u r v e . A f t e r each b u i l d i n g has been " c o n s t r u c t e d " t h e amount of open space r e m a i n i n g i s checked, and c o m p u t a t i o n ceases i f t h e amount I s below th e minimum a l l o w e d . I f t h e b u i l t - i n l i m i t t o t h e p o s s i b l e number of houses (one hundred) i s r e a c h e d , h i g h - r i s e accommodation w i l l r e p l a c e some of the houses. The houses b u i l t i n the e a r l i e s t t i me p e r i o d s w i l l be r e p l a c e d f i r s t . A l s o i f l e s s t h a n s i x t y of t h e e i g h t y - o n e s u b - r e g i o n s r e m a i n f r e e , t h e n h i g h - r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation w i l l be t r i g g e r e d . A t t h e end of each t i m e p e r i o d t h e t o t a l " p i c t u r e " i s d i s p l a y e d . Subsequent s i m u l a t i o n s can be c a r r i e d out v a r y i n g a l l or any of t h e i n p u t p a r a m e t e r s . The o p t i o n f o r p r i n t e d output i s a v a i l a b l e . I t c o n s i s t s of t h r e e p a r t s : i n i t i a l v a r i a b l e s , two a r r a y s l a b e l l e d "Time P e r i o d n" showing the type of b u i l d i n g i n each s u b - r e g i o n and the time p e r i o d i n w h i c h the b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d , and an a r r a y of l e t t e r s d i s p l a y i n g b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d t o t h i s t i me p e r i o d : ! o ' r e p r e s e n t s houses, f o u r a s t e r i s k s r e p r e s e n t s an apartment, and f o u r 'c's r e p r e s e n t a warehouse (see F i g u r e 7 ) . E r r o r messages appear i f l i m i t s are exceeded, and c o m p u t a t i o n s t o p s , i r r e t r i e v a b l y , a t t h i s p o i n t . F i g u r e 8 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s p l a y images, and a f l o w c h a r t of the model i s shown i n F i g u r e 9. F i g u r e s 10, 11, 12 and 13 g i v e examples of the g r a p h i c s d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l output of t h i s model. EXAMPLE OF BUILDING DISTRIBUTION OUTPUT 0 CC 0 CC **0 0 0 **000 O O 0 00 0 0 0 0 00 00 **00 ** 0 0 **0 ** 0 ** H i g h - r i s e G C Warehouse 0 House ** CC FIGURE 7 2 3 The aim of the dynamic model was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l of t h e computer t o g i v e t h e d e s i g n e r a sense of ti m e - - s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t but d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . S t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , such as gr a p h s , a re m e a n i n g f u l t o some people but not t o a l l . Whether t h e computer output of t h i s model i s m e a n i n g f u l or not i s p r o b a b l y a l s o q u i t e p e r s o n a l - - t h e w r i t e r c e r t a i n l y found i t e a s i e r t o v i s u a l i z e t h e growth and spread of b u i l d i n g s w h i l e w a t c h i n g the changing d i s p l a y of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l "cubes" on t h e d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l t h a n from g r a p h s . F o r d e s i g n e r s f o r whom th e cubes a re m e a n i n g f u l , i t would be a r e l a t i v e l y simple method t o a l t e r t h e c i t y t o approximate t h e r e a l a r e a t h e y were p l a n n i n g f o r . The proba-b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n used i n d e c i d i n g where t o b u i l d t h e next b u i l d i n g would need more a t t e n t i o n f o r a r e a l s i t u a t i o n . T h i s a g a i n c o u l d e a s i l y be done. 24 DYNAMIC DISPLAY IMAGES Four types of images are d i s p l a y e d on the graphics t e r m i n a l f o r the dynamic model. These ares a) Square: t h i s a cts as a boundary f o r the whole p i c t u r e , 9" x 9" b) House; represented by a sma l l cube, 0.3" x 0.3" x 0.3" c) Warehouse: represented by a l a r g e cube, 0.6" x 0.6" x 0.6" d) H i g h - r i s e : represented by a s e r i e s of f l o o r s , 0.75" x 0.75", separated by a gap of 0.125" FIGURE 8 25 FLOW CHART OF DYNAMIC DISPLAY PROGRAM . ( START I READ IN INITIAL VARIABLES ^ - T I M E PERIOD L O O P — ^ . / i CALCULATE INCREASE IN POPULATION AP CALCULATE BUILDINGS REQUIRED FOR A P \ \ \ \ \ \ YES KNOCK DOWN OLDEST HOUSES, BUILD HIRISES LOCATE POSITION.BUILD HOUSES, HIRISES AND WAREHOUSES \ \ S I / DISPLAY PICTURE 7 / END OF TIME LOOP YES F I G U R E 9 26 FIGURE 10 27 DYNAMIC DISPLAY MODEL - WITH FEW BUILDINGS FIGURE 11 26 DYNAMIC DISPLAY MODEL - WITH MANY BUILDINGS FIGURE 12 29 DYNAMIC DISPLAY MODEL - HI-RISES REPLACING HOUSES FIGURE 13 CHAPTER I I I COMPUTERIZED MAP OVERLAY TECHNIQUE The t h i r d t e c h n i q u e d i s c u s s e d was deve l o p e d t o s i m p l i f y the s i f t i n g , h a n d l i n g , and d i s p l a y of s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d d a t a . Where a g r e a t d e a l of d a t a i s i n v o l v e d t h e r e i s a need f o r t e c h n i q u e s t o ma n i p u l a t e and d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n i n an e a s i l y a s s i m i l a b l e f orm. V a r i o u s l i s t i n g methods are a v a i l a b l e a l l o w i n g d a t a t o be s o r t e d and p a r t i a l l y l i s t e d . G r a p h i c a l t e c h n i q u e s , such as a e r i a l photography, mapping, e t c . o f f e r advantages when d e a l i n g w i t h s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d d a t a . Background 4 I n 1969 I a n McHarg p u b l i s h e d D e s i g n w i t h N ature i n wh i c h he o u t l i n e d h i s p h i l o s o p h y of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m and d e s c r i b e d a space a l l o c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e w h i c h he had developed u s i n g map o v e r l a y s . The t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l mapping on t r a n s p a r e n t f i l m of v a r i o u s parameters w h i c h a r e g i v e n shaded " v a l u e s " depending on t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y and u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . These t r a n s p a r e n c i e s a re t h e n o v e r l a i d u s i n g a l i g h t t a b l e t o f i n d a r e a s of composite d e s i r a b i l i t y . B e n e f i t s of t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n c l u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o handle and d i s p l a y l a r g e amounts o f d a t a , the easy c r e a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t combina-t i o n s of p a r a m e t e r s , and the v i s u a l impact of l i g h t and dark 31 a r e a s of d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t y . T h i s t e c h n i q u e a l l o w s the d e s i g n e r t o s e l e c t a r e a s s u i t a b l e f o r v a r i o u s u s e s , such as p a r k s , f r e e w a y s , e t c . , something not o b v i o u s f r o m o r d i n a r y maps. I t i s a v e r y u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g and has been used i n l o c a t i n g f r e e w a y s , such as t h e Richmond Parkway i n New York'* and i n p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l l e d development such as t h e p l a n f o r t h e V a l l e y s i n M a r y l a n d . 4 There a r e s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e method however. For example: any change i n any of the parameters almost i n e v i t a b l y would r e q u i r e i t s s p e c i f i c map t o be redrawn; v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s may a s s e s s non-commensurable v a r i a b l e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways and t h u s each would r e q u i r e h i s own map of d e s i r a b i l i t y ; the f i n a l o v e r l a y d i s p l a y i t s e l f i s not e a s i l y r e p r o d u c a b l e , — f o r i n s t a n c e , most of t h e examples g i v e n i n t h e paperback e d i t i o n of D e s i g n w i t h N a t u r e a r e b a r e l y l e g i b l e compared w i t h the h a r d -back e d i t i o n ' s p l a t e s ; and t h e d a t a m a n i p u l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o a s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e p r o c e s s . 3 I n 1970 G r a n t and Thompson c o m p u t e r i z e d t h e t e c h n i q u e , s u b s t i t u t i n g a n u m e r i c a l m a t r i x f o r each map and a l l o w i n g t h e v a r i o u s parameters t o be w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o u s e r s ' s p e c i f i c a -t i o n s . B o t h improvements a l l o w many p o i n t s of v i e w t o be s i m u l a t e d , and changes i n d a t a t o be e a s i l y accommodated, t h u s many d e s i g n a l t e r n a t i v e s can be s t u d i e d w i t h r e l a t i v e ease and speed. V a r y i n g v i e w p o i n t s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y made e x p l i c i t w h i c h o t h e r w i s e might have remained as nebulous i n t u i t i v e judgements. 3 2 The drawbacks of t h i s m o d i f i e d t e c h n i q u e a r e t w o f o l d . The d i s p l a y method, though e a s i l y r e p r o d u c a b l e , l a c k s the v i s u a l impact of McHarg's r e s u l t s . Because t h e numbers are used as a code, what t h e y r e p r e s e n t i s not i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . Numbers can appear almost m e a n i n g l e s s i n a g r a p h i c c o n t e x t and o though a l a t e r development of t h e t e c h n i q u e (Ward and G r a n t ) a l l o w s output of s p e c i f i c numbers w h i c h i n e f f e c t s p e c i f i e s a r e a s of i n t e n s i t y , t h e s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n . o f composite d e s i r a b i l i t y i s v i r t u a l l y l o s t . The o t h e r drawback of t h e method i s t h a t d a t a m a n i p u l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o a d d i t i o n , as i n the McHarg t e c h n i q u e , and though w e i g h t i n g a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l s t o b i a s the e f f e c t of a v a r i a b l e , no e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t or r e v e r s e e f f e c t can be accommodated. Co m p u t e r i z e d Map O v e r l a y The development of t h e space a l l o c a t i o n map o v e r l a y t e c h n i q u e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s l a r g e l y overcomes th e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d drawbacks. The f i n a l d i s p l a y becomes v i s u a l l y m e a n i n g f u l t h r o u g h t h e use of symbols w h i c h g i v e t h e e f f e c t of s h a d i n g . One i s a b l e t o e a s i l y v i s u a l i z e t h e a r e a d i s p l a y e d and o r i e n t o n e s e l f by t h e s e sparse and dense p a t t e r n s . M a t r i c e s are used t o s t o r e the s p a t i a l l y v a r y i n g d a t a . The ease w i t h w h i c h m a t r i c e s can be m a n i p u l a t e d by computer has been e x p l o i t e d , t o a l l o w b o t h w e i g h t i n g of parameters and parameters t o have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . Each parameter m a t r i x can be e a s i l y " r e v e r s e d " t o e n a b l e i t s v a l u e s t o be accorded h i g h or low 33 i m p o r t a n c e . The c o n v e r s i o n f rom a c t u a l d a t a v a l u e s t o numbers w i t h i n the range of 0 t o 9 can be done a c c o r d i n g t o b i n a r y , u n i f o r m , or normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The d i s p l a y method chosen can be e i t h e r d i g i t a l or w i t h symbols. Numeric a r r a y s a r e p r i n t e d w i t h t h e major r i v e r v a l l e y s of the a r e a shown w i t h a s t e r i s k s , f o r o r i e n t a t i o n . The numbers r e p r e s e n t composite w e i g h t e d t o t a l s f o r each m a t r i x c e l l . These t o t a l s a re n o r m a l i z e d t o f i t a 0 t o 9 range. The numeric a r r a y s have, however, t h e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e of b e i n g almost m e a n i n g l e s s i n a g r a p h i c c o n t e x t . To overcome t h i s , symbols a r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e numbers t o make t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t s e a s i l y g r a s p a b l e . S y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d i g i t a l v a l u e s i s a method borrowed from t h e e x t e n s i v e work done on computer mapping. Maps produced on a l i n e p r i n t e r , w h i c h was not d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s t a s k , w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y l a c k c o n t i n u o u s l i n e s , w i l l use a l p h a m e r i c c h a r a c t e r s and symbols, and each symbol w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e a v a i l a b l e p r i n t p o s i t i o n s . W i t h t h e p r i n t e r a v a i l a b l e a t U.B.C. t h i s i m p l i e s a 132 c h a r a c t e r l i n e w i t h l / l O " s p a c i n g between c h a r a c t e r s , 6 l i n e s t o an i n c h , and 66 t o a page. The map output i s s u i t a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s though not f o r f i n a l d i s p l a y . However, s i n c e i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o f o r c e t h e d a t a t o f i t a square g r i d , t h e t r a n s i t i o n of t h i s d i s c r e t e d a t a t o a c o n t i n u o u s form can g i v e an i l l u s i o n of p r e c i s i o n t h a t i s not r e a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e . 34 The symbols used as a s u b s t i t u t e f o x numeric v a l u e s i n t h e m a t r i c e s are shown below. Each v a l u e i n t h e m a t r i x i s r e p r e s e n t e d by n i n e p r i n t p o s i t i o n s . For low numeric v a l u e s , 0 t o 4, o n l y t h e c e n t r e p o s i t i o n i s used; f o r v a l u e s 5 t o 9 a l l p o s i t i o n s a r e used. The symbols chosen i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y , t h a t i s , the e x t e n t t o which t h e symbols f i l l t h e p r i n t space, as t h e numeric v a l u e s t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t i n c r e a s e . ... +++ ff* ( b l a n k ) • + * $ tit ttl • • • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 For o r i e n t a t i o n i n the symbol a r r a y s , r i v e r v a l l e y s are shown as a s e r i e s of s h o r t l i n e s . S e v e r a l programming " r e f i n e m e n t s " were n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e t h e v i s u a l c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of the symbol maps. These r e f i n e m e n t s were concerned w i t h : a d j u s t i n g t h e average d e n s i t y of the composite map, "smoothing" where a b r u p t t r a n s i t i o n between g r i d squares o c c u r s , and a d j u s t i n g t h e c o n t r a s t at h i g h l e v e l s of symbol d e n s i t y . The average d e n s i t y of t h e composite map i s a d j u s t e d i n c a s e s where t h e map, i f not a l t e r e d , would appear predominant l y dense. For example i f most v a l u e s f a l l between 7 and 9 the o v e r a l l map would l o o k d e n s e l y p r i n t e d , and c o n t r a s t between d i s s i m i l a r a r e a s would not be i m m e d i a t e l y e v i d e n t . The a c t u a l symbol used t o r e p r e s e n t each numeric v a l u e i s changed i f the 35 n u m e r i c a l average of the whole m a t r i x exceeds 4.5 (median of the numeric range.) By s h i f t i n g the average v a l u e f rom say 8 t o 4.5, a square w i t h a v a l u e of 7 would be r e p r e s e n t e d as i f i t had a v a l u e of 4, t h a t i s , w i t h one d o l l a r s i g n ($) i n t h e c e n t r e of n i n e p r i n t spaces i n s t e a d of an a s t e r i s k (*) i n e v e r y one of n i n e p r i n t spaces. To a i d v i s u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e - t o t a l symbol a r r a y a "smoothing" t e c h n i q u e was employed where g r i d squares met; t h i s a v o i d s a " g r i d d e d " appearance on t h e f i n a l o u t p u t . Each c o r n e r of each nine-symbol c l u s t e r was examined and r e p l a c e d by a symbol r e p r e s e n t i n g an average of s u r r o u n d i n g symbols. An example i s shown i n F i g u r e 14. The t h i r d r e f i n e m e n t was n e c e s s a r y as t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between th e symbols f o r the h i g h l y dense a r e a s , 8 and 9. To maximize th e v i s u a l impact of t h e c l u s t e r of ampersands (&) r e p r e s e n t i n g 9 o v e r p r i n t i n g of t h e s e symbols was employed whenever t h e y o c c u r r e d , t h u s d a r k e n i n g them t o make them more prominent. The M e r r i t t Example The t e c h n i q u e was d e v e l o p e d t o a i d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p a r t of t h e N i c o l a - K a m l o o p s r e g i o n of B.C. The s t u d y a r e a chosen was c e n t r e d on M e r r i t t , a s m a l l town of about 5,300 people on t h e f l o o d p l a i n a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e of t h e N i c o l a and C o l d w a t e r R i v e r s , and i n t h e h e a r t of a r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped r e g i o n (See F i g u r e 1 5 ) . 3b GRID "SMOOTHING" FOR MAP OVERLAY OUTPUT Be f o r e : +4 +++ -H-. $ . • .$4© © oo o $ $ * • » • $ $ $ $ $ $ # + c i r c l e d symbols are changed t o g i v e smoother b l e n d i n g A f t e r : +++ +++ $ + ....+.' • . . I I I . . . $ . . . . . . $ & . . I I I . . . . . . # $ $ $ $ $ $ * + FIGURE 14 37 THE MERRITT AREA. U.S .A . S C A L E : 2 0 1 0 0 2 0 M i l e s FIGURE 15 38 The development of t h i s r e g i o n i s l i m i t e d l a r g e l y by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of w a t e r . C o n f l i c t s i n demand f o r water 5 n e c e s s i t a t e s a comprehensive, a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g approach. T h i s computer t e c h n i q u e was used t o a l l o w d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of v i e w , w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e g i o n a l development aims, t o be e x t e r n a l i z e d and compared, and composite d e s i r a b i l i t y maps t o be c r e a t e d . A l t h o u g h the st u d y a r e a was s m a l l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13 m i l e s s q uare, s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l was r e c o r d e d t o show the e f f e c t of w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t development aims. The topography of t h e ar e a chosen v a r i e s f r o m h i g h p l a t e a u , w i t h one major peak, I r o n Mountain ( 5 5 5 6 ' ) , t o the r i v e r v a l l e y s of t h e N i c o l a , C o l d w a t e r , and G u i c h o n R i v e r s , around 2,000'. The s u r f a c e g e o l o g y v a r i e s f r o m s o f t a l l u v i u m , c o n g l o m e r a t e s , and sa n d s t o n e s , t o hard g r a n i t e s , b a s a l t s , and a g g l o m e r a t e s . N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e r i v e r v a l l e y s but t h e v a l l e y s i d e s are g e n e r a l l y s p a r s e l y c o v e r e d or b a r e . The p l a t e a u i s e i t h e r g r a s s or f o r e s t c o v e r e d . The c l i m a t e i s f a i r l y m i l d and d r y , w i t h warm summers, and c o l d w i n t e r s ; t h e average p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t M e r r i t t i s about n i n e i n c h e s . The economy of t h e r e g i o n i s based m a i n l y on a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . C a t t l e r a n c h i n g i s of major l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , and i s l i m i t e d by the amount of w i n t e r f o d d e r a v a i l a b l e . To s e r v i c e t h e l o c a l l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y t h e r e a re f i v e o p e r a t i n g s a w m i l l s and a r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d veneer p l a n t i n the M e r r i t t a r e a . M i n i n g has a h i g h 39 p o t e n t i a l i n t h e r e g i o n . Craigmont copper mine i s j u s t o u t s i d e of the n o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r of t h e s t u d y a r e a . I t employs about f i v e hundred peop l e and has an e s t i m a t e d mine l i f e of a t l e a s t e i g h t y e a r s . I t s development p o t e n t i a l i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by t h e p r i c e of copper i n the w o r l d market. F u r t h e r development i n the M e r r i t t a r e a w i l l depend t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on proposed m i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n i n the H i g h l a n d V a l l e y . The s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s p r o v i d e the l a r g e s t number of j o b s i n t h e town of M e r r i t t . F u t u r e e x p a n s i o n of f o r e s t r y - b a s e d , and r e s o u r c e - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s , p l u s an i n c r e a s e i n t o u r i s m w i l l ensure the development of the s e r v i c e p o r t i o n of t h e l o c a l economy. R e c r e a t i o n i s of growing i m p o r t a n c e . F r e s h water f i s h a r e a v a i l a b l e y e a r round i n the streams and l a k e s ; t h e c l i m a t e i s d r y and not v e r y h o t ; dude ra n c h e s are p l e n t i f u l . W i t h a proposed highway f r o m Hope t o Kamloops t h r o u g h C o q u i h a l l a Pass t o M e r r i t t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l of t h e a r e a i s enormous. The l i m i t s t o t h e growth of t h i s a r e a are t w o - f o l d , namely: th e s h o r t a g e of low, f l a t l a n d , and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of water s u p p l y . The danger of a r e c r e a t i o n boom c a u s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s p r a w l and d e t e r i o r a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s w h i c h a t t r a c t e d t o u r i s t s o r i g i n a l l y , such as water q u a l i t y , can be l e s s e n e d by a l l o w i n g development o n l y i n c e r t a i n a r e a s where i t i s most d e s i r a b l e , and c o n t r o l l i n g i t t h r o u g h , f o r example, the i s s u a n c e of water l i c e n s e s . 4 0 D e t a i l s of the Method In d i v i d i n g up t h e a r e a , one k i l o m e t e r g r i d showing an a r e a twenty k i l o m e t e r s square was used, t h e g r i d s i z e b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d by t h e need t o show l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s t o an a c c e p t a b l e degree of a c c u r a c y and the need t o keep the volume of d a t a r e q u i r e d r e a s o n a b l y manageable. E l e v e n parameters were chosen t o d e s c r i b e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of t h e l a n d and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s , b o t h key a r e a s of c o n c e r n i n r e g i o n a l development. The parameters were: s l o p e , e l e v a t i o n above sea l e v e l , bedrock e r o d a b i l i t y , f l o o d p o t e n t i a l , ground c o v e r , n a t u r a l water a v a i l a b i l i t y , w ater s u p p l y , sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s , g e n e r a l r o a d a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p r e s e n t l e v e l of development, and power a v a i l a b i l i t y . F o r each g r i d square average s l o p e s and e l e v a t i o n s were measured. From a g e o l o g i c a l map of the a r e a r o c k t y p e s were r e c o r d e d , t h e n c l a s s i f i e d as 'hard,' 'medium,' or ' s o f t ' w i t h r e s p e c t t o bedrock e r o d a b i l i t y . F l o o d p o t e n t i a l was e s t i m a t e d as e i t h e r g r e a t or n e g l i g i b l e and was r e c o r d e d as a b i n a r y v a r i a b l e . S i m i l a r l y ground c o v e r was measured as e i t h e r p r e s e n t ( i . e . f o r e s t e d ) or a b s e n t . A more d e t a i l e d breakdown fr o m , f o r example, a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s , was not c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s s t a g e . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of n a t u r a l water a v a i l a b i l i t y was: s u r f a c e , groundwater, or not a v a i l a b l e . Water s u p p l y and sewage l i n e s were r e c o r d e d as e i t h e r p r e s e n t or a b s e n t . Road a c c e s s i b i l i t y was c l a s s i f i e d as hard s u r f a c e 4 1 r o a d , l o o s e a l l weather r o a d , dry-weather o n l y r o a d , and not a c c e s s i b l e . The presence or absence of the t y p e of r o a d i n a g r i d square was r e c o r d e d . P r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development l e v e l was r e c o r d e d from a t o p o g r a p h i c map of t h e a r e a and was coded i n a range f r o m d e n s e l y d e v e l o p e d t o un d e r d e v e l o p e d . Power l i n e s were used t o determine power a v a i l a b i l i t y . R e s u l t s Maps of two of the e l e v e n parameters chosen a r e shown i n F i g u r e s 16 and 17. The map of e l e v a t i o n shows c l e a r l y t h e low l e v e l r i v e r v a l l e y s (where no symbols o c c u r ) and the mountains t o t h e n o r t h of M e r r i t t and t o t h e e a s t and west of the C o l d w a t e r R i v e r . The road a c c e s s i b i l i t y map shows the l o c a t i o n of t h e major highways and l e s s e r r o a d s . Composite maps were c r e a t e d f o r v a r i o u s h y p o t h e t i c a l p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The composite maps are c r e a t e d f rom t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n : a.S + b.E + c.B + d.F + e.C + f.N + g.W + h.SW + i . A + j.D + k.P = COMP 1 where: - a t o k a r e " w e i g h t s " a p p l i e d t o t h e p a r a m e t e r s , and can be s e t by each i n d i v i d u a l u s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s e s t i m a t e of the importance he w i s h e s t o a s s i g n t o each parameter i n t h e f i n a l composite map. 42 1 i s t h e sum of the w e i g h t s ( i . e . a + b + k) 1 i s c a l c u l a t e d by the program and i s used t o n o r m a l i z e t h e f i n a l r e s u l t . upper case l e t t e r s denote the parameter m a t r i c e s , e.g. S = s l o p e , E = e l e v a t i o n , B = bedrock e r o d a b i l i t y , F = f l o o d p o t e n t i a l , C = ground c o v e r , N = n a t u r a l water a v a i l a b i l i t y , W = wat e r s u p p l y , SW = sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s , A = r o a d a c c e s s i b i l i t y , D = p r e s e n t development l e v e l , P = power l i n e , CQMP = t h e composite m a t r i x , c a l c u l a t e d by the program. F i g u r e s 18 and 19 show d e s i r a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . The " f a m i l y t y p e " r e c r e a t i o n map c o n s i d e r s low l e v e l , e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , near n a t u r a l w a t e r a r e a s . The e q u a t i o n used was: 5.S + 7.E + 5.N + 9.A = COMP 1 The s l o p e and e l e v a t i o n a r r a y s were " r e v e r s e d , " f o r example, an e l e v a t i o n w h i c h had a v a l u e of 8 ( h i g h l a n d ) was g i v e n a v a l u e of 9-8 = 1. T h i s i n e f f e c t makes h i g h l a n d , w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y had a h i g h i n d e x , u n d e s i r a b l e by g i v i n g i t a low i n d e x . As s t a t e d above t h e w e i g h t i n g chosen i s a p e r s o n a l c h o i c e and i n t h i s case r e f l e c t s t he emphasis t h e w r i t e r w i shed t o p l a c e on t h e chosen p a r a m e t e r s . Weights of z e r o were a s s i g n e d t o a l l p a r a -meters not shown i n t h e above e q u a t i o n . The r e s u l t a n t map, ( F i g u r e 1 8 ) , shows a r e a s a l o n g G u i c h o n Creek ( a ) , around M e r r i t t ( b ) , and on t h e n o r t h - e a s t arm of the N i c o l a R i v e r (c) as b e i n g most d e s i r a b l e . A r e a s i n the mountains n o r t h of M e r r i t t , 43 ELEVATION MAP + $ +<•+ $ * ...•....••.•++...... ..••-*'••••. * ...+*+... s $ * . ..+++.. • • • . SYMBOL ARRAY FOR E L E V NUMBER ARKAY FOR E L E V * ... $ i i * * $ $ * $ *• + + J • + + 4 + + . . . (• •* + 4- . . + 4+ + *4-++*+++ ++++++ + 4- * 4- * + + + ^ - + + + + 4-44-4-4-. . + + 4 * . . . 4+ + . + + 4- * * + $ « + $ * « * « * . * * $ i / I 1 +'...++++++ . . *#4-**-4- + 4-t s f ^ t v * * * . . . . . . ***t$Cl Ji-n-+ + i $ i * t i i t + + * > i * . . $ . . . . . . $ * + 4-**£S£$*a*<+4- + + ***«:S-S«.*-** + 4-+. .... + * + •• + + 1 5 . * * - + + + . . . . . . + + + +•+••»• ++ + + 4- ++* + . ..*&+** + + + + + +... . . , . + *-.. * . . .+ + + -4+4**4 2 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 <i 3 3 4 3 3 <. 3 3 2 1 2 0 3 4 3 4 <4 'i 3 1 I 0 0 5 5 5 <. '4 3 2 3 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 4 0 * 0 0 0 1 2 2 5 4 7 6 e 7 e 5 6 3 1 I 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * « 0 0 * 0 L 0 1 3 0 1 3 1 2 1 1 5 5 FIGURE 16 44 ROAD ACCESSIBILITY MAP SYMBOL ARRAY FOR A C C S f. + + + £ ++*• + + + <.££££££££££££££ <- + + + £!.£££££££££££££ + + + cr.r.r.£f.£££C£i*K££ •++• 6£f.s t++tt£Stt£++ + C,tf,tf4C+*4 Cf. •+I + + I ££Et-if.£ . . I C£C6££ I £££££ + + + + + £,£££${££ ££££!.££— ,'£!".£££££/££ ££££££ / . £ S £ C ££S£I £ E C E S / C ££££6l ££££££! . mess ! . £ £ £ £ £ £ / £ £ £ £ £ £ / £ £ £ £ £ £ / £ £ £ £ £ £ / C £ £ C C £ * + » - C £ E £ £ S £ E G £ £ C £ / £CC£C£ + + + £l".£f.£!'.££££GC / I £ £ £ . H . « . + $ i . £ £ S £ £ £ £ £ E £ / I ccc;.!,ci:.cc£ I -£|E£GS£CE E.) C££££££S££ . £-£££££££££& c s l r.£ct5vn.r.£ ! £-i"t^t££££££SC&£S£££££ + «•* I + + *£!.!,££££££££££!'.££££ + I + + l.tC6.t£££££££C£S££t£ I + + 5$S.ECE££££E£S£S££ . . I +++E££CECEr.t£££f.£E / +++4£EE£EE£££££S£E ££ Cf.£ EGSE ££££££ C£££EC £££££ ££££ £££ £££ £££ . £££ t£ NUMBER ARRAY FOR A C C S 1 1 6 t> 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 I I 0 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 0 6 t 1 0 0 6 0 6 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 0 I 0 9 9 ft I 0 1 6 0 6 s 0 0 0 0 L 0 1' 1 1 rt * ft 0 9 9 9 9 ') 0 6 0 0 0 0 •o 0 1 1 y it I I 0 ft ft * ft 9 9 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 o ft 1 0 n 1 L 0 0 ft 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 u o 9 0 \ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ft * 9 9 6 9 9 9 9 ft 0 0 1 '0 0 0. 0 1 1 1 1 I ft ft * ft ft ft ft fl 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 ft 9 9 9 0 0 c, 0 I 1 I 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6 « 6 9 9 9 9 9 9 I 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 4 6 9 9 9 o 9 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 ft 6 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 9 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 ft 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 9 1 0 I 1 0 0 1 1 ft 6 0 U 0 0 0 1' 1 1 I 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 ft 6 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ft ft 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ' 0 (J 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 6 0 1 0 0 I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ft 6 1 1 1 1 1 L 0 0 1 i 1 I 1 0 FIGURE 17 45 and i n the mountains to the west and east of the Coldwater River are least suitable. In contrast to these, areas suitable for "wilderness type" recreation were mapped. High elevation and natural water supply, and low a c c e s s i b i l i t y and low c i t y services were the parameters chosen to t y p i f y wilderness recreation requirements. The equation used was: 9.E + 3.B + 4.C + 8.N = COMP I No reversing was used. Figure 19 shows two suitable areas, one i n the mountains north of the Nicola/Coldwater junction (a), and one i n the mountains to the west of the Coldwater River (b). Various small areas of one square kilometer, i . e . at Iron Mountain (c), have high 'scores' also. Least desirable are areas to the north of Merritt on the Nicola River. It i s clear that the contrast i n location between heavily shaded (desirable) areas on maps 18 and 19 makes the selection of multiple purpose recreational areas suitable for both family and wilderness use impossible under the c r i t e r i a used here. Composite maps for housing locations were created, see Figures 20, 21, and 22. Figure 20 shows desirable locations for houses with emphasis on land with minimum slope, low elevation, firm bedrock, low flood potential and f u l l services, water, sewers and roads. The equation used was: 46 9.S + 7.E + 9.B + 6.F + 9.W + 9.SW + 9 .A + 5.D + 5.P = COMP 1 R e v e r s i n g was a p p l i e d t o S, E, and F. A s was t o be e x p e c t e d t h e l a n d a r o u n d M e r r i t t , t h e most h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d l a n d i n t h e a r e a , shows a s most s u i t a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e N i c o l a R i v e r . A n a r e a a r o u n d t h e end o f N i c o l a L a k e , i n t h e n o r t h - e a s t o f t h e map i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e . W i t h a l l o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s w e i g h t e d a s b e f o r e , a map o f t h e r e g i o n w i t h o u t r o a d a c c e s s i b i l i t y was c r e a t e d ( F i g u r e 2 l ) , u s i n g t h e e q u a t i o n : 9.S + 7.E + 9.B + 6.F + 9.W + 9.SW + O.A + 5.D + 5.P = COMP 1 R e v e r s i n g was a p p l i e d t o S, E., and F. N o t e t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y was w e i g h t e d w i t h a z e r o v a l u e , t h a t i s , i t was n o t added i n t o t h e c o m p o s i t e . Two new a r e a s a r e shown t o be d e s i r a b l e f o r h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n , one t o t h e w e s t o f t h e C o l d w a t e r R i v e r , s o u t h -w e s t o f M e r r i t t ( a ) , and t h e o t h e r t o t h e s o u t h - e a s t o f t h e n o r t h arm o f t h e N i c o l a R i v e r ( b ) . O b v i o u s l y i f one were c o n s i d e r i n g b u i l d i n g r o a d s t o open up new a r e a s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t r o a d a c c e s s i b i l i t y w o u l d make t h e s e two a r e a s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e same c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be r e a c h e d f o r w a t e r and sewage s e r v i c e s . A map o f d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g ( e . g . w e i g h t i n g ) r o a d a c c e s s o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s was c r e a t e d ( F i g u r e 22), and shows t h a t t h e new a r e a s ( a ) and (b) on F i g u r e 21 c a n be a g a i n s i n g l e d o u t a s s u i t a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . The e q u a t i o n u s e d was t h e same 4 7 a s f o r F i g u r e 21 a b o v e w i t h w e i g h t s o f z e r o f o r W and SW. O n l y t h e w e i g h t s w h i c h h a v e c h a n g e d f r o m one e q u a t i o n t o t h e n e x t n e e d be e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p r o g r a m , a b l a n k i n p u t i n e a c h w e i g h t i n p u t f i e l d i n d i c a t e s no c h a n g e f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s c o m p o s i t e map g e n e r a t i o n . To e n s u r e t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f a h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e i s n o t m i n i m i z e d by o t h e r d e s i r a b l e p a r a m e t e r s , a n o p t i o n a l s e t o f u p p e r and l o w e r l i m i t s c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e a c h p a r a m e t e r . F o r e x a m p l e , i f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were b e i n g s o u g h t w i t h v a r i o u s d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s , s u c h a s m i n i m u m - s l o p e l a n d , l o w e l e v a t i o n , f i r m b e d r o c k , b u t w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n o f no l i k e l i h o o d o f f l o o d , two a p p r o a c h e s c o u l d be u s e d . I n t h e f i r s t t h e u n d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s ( f l o o d p o t e n t i a l ) c o u l d be h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d , t h a t i s , e m p h a s i z e d a s i m p o r t a n t , w h i l s t t h e d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s c o u l d be g i v e n l o w w e i g h t s . T h i s c o u l d , t h o u g h w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y , r e s u l t i n a n " a v e r a g i n g " t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n o f d e s i r a b i l i t y and u n d e s i r a b i l i t y t o r e v e a l a r e a s w here t h e d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s w e re so g r e a t t h a t t h e y o u t w e i g h e d t h e u n d e s i r a b l e one, e . g . , l a n d t h a t was e m i n e n t l y s u i t a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t e x c e p t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t i t o c c a s i o n a l l y f l o o d e d ! The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h , one w h i c h w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y a v o i d t h e c h a n c e o f o t h e r w i s e d e s i r a b l e a r e a s b e i n g c h o s e n , w o u l d be t o s e t a n u p p e r l i m i t o f 1 f o r f l o o d p o t e n t i a l . T h e n , when e a c h g r i d s q u a r e i s c o n s i d e r e d , i f t h e v a l u e o f f l o o d p o t e n t i a l i s g r e a t e r t h a n one ( e . g . , i f t h e l a n d f l o o d s ) t h e sum o f a l l p a r a m e t e r s and t h e i r w e i g h t s f o r t h a t s q u a r e i s s e t t o z e r o . The 4 8 f i n a l composite map w i l l show v a l u e s of z e r o ( b l a n k s ) or i f p r e f e r r e d a l e s s - t h a n s i g n ( < ) f o r a l l a r e a s where the l i m i t was exceeded. O b v i o u s l y t h e s e a r e a s would t h e n be e x c l u d e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n of d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s . Any of a l l of the parameters can be r e s t r i c t e d by upper and lower l i m i t s a t one t i m e . F i g u r e 23 shows an example of imp o s i n g a f l o o d p o t e n t i a l c o n s t r a i n t on t h e e q u a t i o n used f o r F i g u r e 21. A r e a s which exceed the c o n s t r a i n t , e.g., have a h i g h f l o o d p o t e n t i a l , a re shown w i t h C s i g n s . A f l o w c h a r t of t h e programme f o r t h e map o v e r l a y t e c h n i q u e i s shown i n F i g u r e 24. 49 FAMILY RECREATION AREAS MAP • + + + + ••+...*** $ + + + , + -*•**. SVMBOL ARRAY FDR COMPOSITE MAP » . . $ t * * « . . . * * * S . . . . . **+ + ,+ + **<* . . . **+•.++*+*»* J * S , . * A * * * * , , . * * * * « 9 * * * * * * * e A t M j'ti'v) **•)> 1 * * * * «* *«*• Xf. j: t * * * * £ f. * * +• * * f * * (J*11 p C -f # « * • «. X-^£ . t V^*+ J . . • • • / t i : / * . . . t S i / . • A * * i • * • * 1 / I K l W ! » . * • f t i i , t \ . J / . ' . . Y C C t K t i i + ^ * * * * * * « * * « t . * . / . j. +-t^x. i"iTMnrv^ \ * *.+•+ S t > r. i>s c t s + u . . . t s i]c-\r.t-tt>«iVJ i $ » L££ | 'iC t \ * S\» <=<•.->* .*<=. + • . . . A H i . \ » W V »r«*t*<m»t> »«•.. • < / \ * * K t t » « * * + + + + 4+i« l i t * . /x'H t («ViT s . . . • i f s . / \ i . r . i . . . « * * { ! « + ...» • • **» . * t * * ...++* . . * * * WEIGHTINGS ASSIGNED: SLOPE 1 5 ELEVA2 7 BEORK3 0 WATER? 0 SSWGEQ 0 ACCSS9 9 INPUT REVERSING CODE - Y ( 1 I A 1 REVERSING ASSIGNED! Y V • ARRAYS REVERSED 1, Z, FLOOOs 0 OEVLIO 0 RECREATION FAMILY-TYPE NUMBER ARRAY FOR COMP 3 4 4 4 4 4 * 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 3 4 3 4 5 5 ' 4 3 3 3 6 . 7 3 4 3 • * 6 4 4 4 4 . 9 5 3 3 f. * e a 5 5 e 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 COVERS 0 >IAT>76 POUR I I 0 FIGURE 18 50 WILDERNESS RECREATION AREAS MAP • • » t t . .* • f i » » • i * • + .... * i t t i » * • J t * » . . . • I / I * * I 1 I • * * SYMBOL ARRAY FOR C O M P O S I T E MAP WEICHTINGS ASSIGNED: SlOPEl 0 FI.EVA2 t KAIER7 0 SfcwSEB 0 A C C S ^ 0 FL0OU« Of.'1.10 INPUT REVERSING CODE - Y I1U1I REVERSING ASSIGNED: WILDERNESS-TYPE C0VE?.5 * P C M U 0 * +— ..I » » • J * 1 NUMBER ARRAY FOR COMP 4 3 2 4 7 6 6 " 0 3 5 7 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 2 3 4 3 5 4 4 2 5 5 5 5 5 6 3 4 2 . 2 2 4 . * * * • 5 0 0 5 3.4 3 * 3 2 3 4 4 3 4 * * 3 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 2 * * 1 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 2 * 2 0 2 4 3 3 3 4 2 * 3 3 2 0 0 0 * 1 2 5 4 3 4 4 4 1 * 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 1 * 1 2 3 1 2 3 6 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 1 6 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 5 4 2 3 5 3 2 2 6 4 4 4 4 4 6 « 4 3 3 3 3 5 4 2 2 4 4 3 4 4 * 5 4 2 5 3 * * 3 3 4 6 * 5 3 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 6 • 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 4 t . . . FIGURE 19 51 HOUSING LOCATIONS - WITH SERVICES * * $ J j « t » * SYMBOL ARRAY FOR COMPOSITE MAP * * * * * J * * * » * i * S 1 I 1 * t $ * * » $ S • * * t i I 1 s * $ J J * J * > * J J J $ i s s t J t » » S 1 • * * * * * * * * + !$ — I •. / * * • • * * * • * * $ / * I I * » * * « * • * . . . * I J / / * • « . * * * s ... i / » » / * / — » i * *** * * s / * i « l **** / ! ***** | * . 4 j » | t * * * * *a I.****** * * 4 .-.****** * * * * '* * .|***** s t * J ' I * * . . . . * . i .i'.'.'.. I I * * * t I • * * * $ * / I . . * * * / * . . . « * * • * » I I * * $ ] « * * * * * * « / / * * / * * * * * * * * * / / * / * * + * * « « * * * / / -/ * $ * + * * * * * ' * • WEIGHTINGS ASSIGNED: SL0PE1 1 ELEVA2 7 BECRK3 <> FLOOD* 6 COVF.R.5 0 NATW6 0 WATER 7 1 SCWGtB 9 ACC SS9 9 CEVLIO 5 POWRU 5 INPUT REVERSING CODE - Y t l l A l ) RCVERSINC ASSIGNED: ARRAYS REVERSED RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT - WITH ALL SERVjcr-s NUMBER ARRAY FOR COMP * * * A A A 3 3 3 « 4 A 3 3 4 5 4 * 4 3 3 4 4 4 7 4 4 4 4 A 4 3 * * * * * 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 7 7 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 4 3 * 4 3 * * 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 * *4 4 4 4 * 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 * 5 4 4 $ * * I % * * * * * * * * * * * * * * FIGURE 20 52 HOUSING LOCATIONS - WITHOUT ROAD « * S I t I a * S S i S Y M B O L A R R A Y F O R C O M P O S I T E M A P • * s t s * S I » • * t i i a $ S i i t I l W E I G H T I N G S A S S I G N E D : S L C P E l 9 E L C V A 2 7 O E D R K 3 9 F L O O O A t, C O V E R S 0 N A T K T 6 0 W A T E R 7 9 S E W G E 6 9 A C C S S 9 0 D E V H O 5 P O V R 1 1 5 $ a a a 5 i i « I i I N P U T R E V E R S I N G C O D S R E V E K S I N C ' A S S I G N E D : Y Y I I / i s * » « • //. ..\s 1 * *** $ $ * • ««« I . . J *"**a * * S 1 . . . - » * * « * « * a s s I * * a a I J > t S ! s a $ S J I I • 1 1 i i I S J « S J / / i I » » t « S I { { * « • / $ .5 i $ t a l i s t s * a * * $ * * * t i * * * $ $ A R R A Y S R E V E R S E D R E S I D E N T I A L D E V E L O P M E N T W I T H O U T R O A D A C C E S S N U M B E R A R R A Y F O R C O M P 3 A 5 5 A A 3 3 A A A A 3 3 3 3 3 A A A 3 A 5 5 A A A 3 4 A' A A A 3 3 3 A A A 3 * a A A A 5 A A A 3 3 A A A A 3 3 3 A A 5 A A A A A 3 A A A A A' A A A 3 3 3 A A A a A A A A 3 3 A 3 3 3 3 A A A 3 A A a a A t s A 2 3 3 3 3 3 A 3 A A A 3 A A A a 3 3' A * a * A 3 3 3 3 3 A 3 3 3 A A 3 a A 3 A 3 A 3 A « 3 3 3 3 A A A A A 3 a 5 A 3 3 t t A A A 3 A a a 3 3 A 7 A A 3 * ti 5 3 3 A 3 A A A 5 A A a a a a a a a A 5 A 3 A 3 A A A A A A A A 5 a 7 7 3 3 A A A A A A i I A A A A A A A A A A a A 3 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A a A A A A A A. A A A A A A A A A A 5 A a" A A A A A A A A A A $ I A A A A A A A 5 A a A A 3 3 3 A 3 A A A A A A A A A 5 5 a A 3 3 3 3 3 A 3 A A A A A A A A A A a A A 3 A 3 3 3 A A A A A s * A A A A 3 a a A A 3 2 3 3 3 A 4 A A A A A A A A * A A A A 3 3 3 3 3 A A A A A A A A A A * A A A A 3 3 3 3 3 A A A A A A FIGURE 21 53 HOUSING LOCATIONS - WITHOUT ROAD OR SERVICES +• *+* » t n t t 5 S S t + * . . i i 1 s s * * * 1 * - + + * 1 S »»• i S • S S S S S S ... $ « * . . . « « » 1 1 S 1 i 1 5 <• * » » « l S t » S » t — » » 4 I i » $ » t " S $ t S t S ... J I S S i » 1 s i I I * I • 1 i ... I i I * / * / *++++* / ++(.*«• i j » * s i I S S ' S J J . / . i $ S J 1 1 *.•+•+ / ... * . . I... I ... i I ... i » i » s s s j s s ... s s s s s t s s s i s s s t '. t s s i s i i s s j i ' S Y M B O L ARR AY FOR C O M P O S I T E NAP W E I G H T I N G S A S S I G N E D : S L O P E I 1 E L E V A 2 7 B E D R K 3 9 WATER7 0 S E W C E 8 0 A C C S S 9 0 I N P U T R E V E R S I N G CODE - Y U 1 A 1 R E V E R S I N G A S S I G N E D : Y Y A R R A Y S R E V E R S E D 1 . 2 , 4 , R E S I D E N T I A L D E V E L O P M E N T F L O O D * 6 O E V L i O 5 C O V E R S 0 P D X ' R U 5 WITHOUT ROAD OR S C K V I C F S NUMBER A R R A Y FOR COMP *+*++* 5 6 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 5 6 6 5 *••+.. 5 6 7 7 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 4 4 4 5 6 6 5 *++... i I s L 4 6 7 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 4 4 4 S 5 7 5 +*.. b 6 6 5 4 5 5 5 J5 s 5 6 5 4 4 4 5 6 6 * .. 6 6 6 6 4 4 5 5 5 s 5 5 5 5 4 • * 6 1 t s s ... 6 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 l i S 5 5 5 6 5 » 4 4 5 * * a * 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 4 6 4 5 « 5 5 5 5 • 5 5 5 4 5 5 s t> 6 4 * 7 6 4 5 *. i 5 6 5 * . 4 5 5 6 5 5 4 * 7 7 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 5 * * .» * * * « 5 7 6 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 * 6 6 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 i t s . . . t 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 * 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 . 6 5 6 f> 6 6 6 6 6 « 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 fc 6 6 5 6 5 b 5 5 5 5 ... s s 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 4 5 5 5 b 5 5 •6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 * /. 4 4 4 5 6 5 5 5 . 6 e. 6 6 5 6 5 * <> :i 4 5 4 5 5 5 i 6 i i s . . . 4 6 6 b 6 4 « a 6 6 s 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 • 6 6 6 6 V 6 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 • 6 6 f> 5 * 6 6 5 5 S 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 A V E R A G E V A L U E • 5 . 3 O I S P L A Y S Y M E O L S A D J U S T E D . FIGURE 22 54 HOUSING LOCATIONS - WITHOUT ROAD, WITH FLOOD I I S J « » • I S * SYI1SOI J83AI FOR COMPOSITE NA? S S £ S I £ J $ . . . $ I S $ S $ S $ < < S $ S J £ S $ J » 3 < < < $ 1 S ... J < — 5 < < < < < < i * i S i * S J < / < I $ » . * $ < < | J * J j < s s s s s < / £ < < < < / S . J » VETGIITIKOS ASSIGNED: SLOPS 1 9 ELEVA2 7 BSEHK3 9 FLOODS 6 SATEB7 9 SEVGEU 9 ACCSS9 0 PEVL10 5 INPUT 5EVESSING.CODE - i (11A1) JBVEBSISG ASSICaEO: V Y Y ASSAYS B 2VEI15ED I, 2, ft, LIHITS IMPOSED: 1 2 3 H 5 6 LOWES: > UPPEH: 1 EXCEED SIC!.': '<' COVEH5 0 USSICEliTIAL D.EVELOPflEtlT - WITHOUT SOAD ACCESS NUSBER ABBAI POP. CCP.P J i i S < < < < S $ * J $ S S i £ $ S | < < S $ S S $ i S I S 5 I i * ... » ' S | < $ S S S S S J / S S J S S J S S S J I s i s $ / / / s * * i 5 t S 5 S S $ J £ J £ s s s s « • J « S J s * * $ * £ $ £ S i J S J / t $ * S / s t i t i S S I s » I J I J s s j s * * $ $ ! $ £ $ 3 ll 3 <l 5 5 U 5 5 0 14 Ii ft 5 1} 14 ft 14 14 14 11 14 11 0-9-9 ft ft-9-9-9 « 9-9-9-9-9-9 * * »-9_9-q 14 3 14 *-9-9 0 ft 3 U * * ft II 4 4 11 11 14 3 n 3 11 14 1) ft ft 11 0 ft ft ft u 3 ftftftll*ftftftft 3 3 3 3 3 3 J 3 3 ft-11 11 (4 3 14 14-9 3 0 3 3 3 3-3 0 ft 0 0 0-3 '4-9-9-9-9 ft 0 0 0 0 ft 0 0 0 ft * ftftftftftftftftftff* ft01}ft!4ft05ft4ft t: ft U ft ft ft ft 5 ft - ft ftftft0l4ft55»ft3 9-9-9-9 9-9 0 9 ft ft ft ft ft ft 3 3 3 3 3 ft 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 5 li-9-9 9 * * • -9 3 ft ft ft ft 0 14 ft ft 0 0 ft 0 0 ft ft ft 11 ft 3 ft 3 ft ft ft 3 ft 3 ft 0 ft 3 ft ft ft ft ft ft 0 ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft 0 ft ft 0 11 ft FIGURE 23 FLOW CHART OF MAP OVERLAY PROGRAM . C S T A R T ) ( R E A D PARAMETER A R R A Y S ^ TYPE OF DISPLAY ? PRINT PARAMETERS ? NO ^ Y E S WHICH PARAMETERS ? ^ SPECIFIC INPUT P A R A M E T E R WEIGHTS PRINT PRINT WEIGHTS AND REVERSING ASSIGNED INPUT REVERSING CODES AND LIMITS, PRINT INPUT T I T L E FOR FINAL ARRAY input I for numbers only '2' for symbols only 3 for both input 'YES' or 'NO' input 'ALL'or names of specific ones input Y E S or NO input weights, blank if unchanged from last run input Y for re versi ng blank if not, and upper and lower limits if requi red input up to 80 characters for title C A L C U L A T E C O M P O S I T E ARRAY, PRINT WITH NUMBERS. SYMBOLS OR B O T H YES [BU I n , T • A N O T H E R R U N ? J j N O ( E N D ) F I G U R E 24 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS A l l of t h e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d here succeed i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e — t o s i m p l i f y and g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y d a t a t o g i v e an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e u n o b t a i n a b l e by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods. The s t a t i c d i s p l a y of a p a r t of a c i t y l a n d s c a p e i s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e way of showing a group of b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . By r o t a t i n g the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l image the assembly of b u i l d i n g s can be viewed from any a n g l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , as i f seen from ground l e v e l or from an a i r p l a n e c i r c l i n g above t h e c i t y . B u i l d i n g - f r e e c o r r i d o r s can be d i s c o v e r e d by r o t a t i n g the e l e v a t i o n view around t h e y - a x i s . The computer programme t o d i s p l a y t h e s e b u i l d i n g s was s h o r t and s i m p l e t o w r i t e and easy t o a l t e r once the r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t computer g r a p h i c s t e c h n i q u e s were overcome. Input t o the d i s p l a y programme i s q u i c k and easy, and m o d i f i c a t i o n of the f i n a l image, by s c a l i n g and c l i p p i n g i s now p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h a r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d s o f t w a r e package. The d i s a d v a n t a g e of t h e t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t the " w i r e - f r a m e " image l a c k s the c o n c e p t u a l r e a l i s m of a " s o l i d " image. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o overcome t h i s drawback and t h i s s h o u l d be done i f t h e t e c h n i q u e i s t o be f u r t h e r used. 57 The dynamic c i t y s i m u l a t i o n model i s a unique way t o d i s p l a y t h e growth of a system. I t i s d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r systems, such as b i o l o g i c a l ones, and t h e c o n s t r a i n t s and l i m i t s can be e a s i l y m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w a v a r i a t i o n i n growth p a t t e r n s t o be s i m u l a t e d . As i t e x i s t s t h e example used i s h i g h l y e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l , and t h e r e i s room f o r more work i n t h i s a r e a , f o r example, by t r y i n g d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n growth e q u a t i o n s , by o b t a i n i n g r e c e n t w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o s and.so on. The l a c k of r e a l i s m i n t h e w i r e - f r a m e images can be overcome as f o r the p r e v i o u s t e c h n i q u e . The advantages of t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d space a l l o c a t i o n map o v e r l a y t e c h n i q u e over t h e McHarg maps are many. The a b i l i t y t o i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y "redraw" maps a t v e r y l i t t l e c o s t can never be a c h i e v e d w i t h hand-drawn maps. The l i m i t a t i o n s of t r a n s p a r e n t o v e r l a y s t o d i s p l a y s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s i n d e n s i t y are overcome, the number of m a t r i c e s which can be " o v e r l a y e d " by t h e computer w h i l s t s t i l l r e t a i n i n g o p t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e output i s l i m i t l e s s . The a b i l i t y t o s h i f t the average v a l u e of the composite map on t h e computer t o ensure a wide range of p r i n t d e n s i t y i n the r e s u l t s , t h e easy r e p r o d u c a b i l i t y of t h e o u t p u t , t h e power of i n d i v i d u a l w e i g h t i n g t o r e p r e s e n t v a r y i n g v i e w p o i n t s , p l u s t h e s e p a r a t e advantage of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and s t o r a g e — n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s t e c h n i q u e but a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r u s e s - - f a r outweigh th e l i m i t a t i o n s of r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h are somewhat o v e r -come by hand-mapping. There i s a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g i n t ime and c o s t i n v o l v e d i n r e d r a w i n g maps when the b a s i c d a t a changes or i s made more p r e c i s e . 58 When compared w i t h e x i s t i n g c o m p u t e r i z e d map o v e r l a y t e c h n i q u e s ( G r a n t and Thompson, 1970; Ward and G r a n t , 1971), th e output of t h i s m o d i f i e d method i s b e l i e v e d t o be v i s u a l l y s u p e r i o r i n t h a t i t more c l o s e l y approximates map s h a d i n g , w i t h d e n s e l y packed p r i n t a r e a s f o r h i g h v a l u e s and s p a r s e l y packed a r e a s f o r low v a l u e s , w h i l s t t h e computer programme deve l o p e d here r e t a i n s t h e o p t i o n of numeric o u t p u t . The power and speed of m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e m a t r i c e s , and of i n i t i a t i n g many d i f f e r -ent r u n s t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e o f f e r s s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . The a b i l i t y t o " r e v e r s e " m a t r i x v a l u e s between d i f f e r e n t cases-so t h a t , f o r example, a h i g h e l e v a t i o n can t a k e on a h i g h v a l u e i n t h e 0-9 range o r , by r e v e r s i n g , a low v a l u e , i n c r e a s e s the f l e x i b i l i t y enormously. By o m i t t i n g or i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s parameters t h e e f f e c t can be seen o f , f o r example, adding a highway, or d e c r e a s i n g t h e f l o o d p o t e n t i a l by d y k i n g or r e - r o u t i n g . The p o t e n t i a l f o r development of t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s v e r y g r e a t . I t c o u l d be made i n t o a g e n e r a l package w i t h v a r y i n g g r i d s i z e s , p a r a m e t e r s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and m a t r i x m a n i p u l a t i o n s . The d i s p l a y t e c h n i q u e c o u l d i n c l u d e computer g r a p h i c s — r e g u l a r hexahedrons on each g r i d square, t h e h e i g h t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e composite d e s i r a b i l i t y v a l u e ; or t o p o g r a p h i c a l mapping w i t h s u i t a b l e t e c h n i q u e s t o c o n v e r t d i s c r e t e t o c o n t i n u o u s d a t a . 59. REFERENCES 1. Cancro, R. and D. L. S l o t n i c k , "Computer G r a p h i c s and R e s i s t a n c e t o Technology," A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l , o f P s y c h o t h e r a p y , V o l 24, No. 3, J u l y 1970, pp. 461-469. 2. Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, Government of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L i l l p o e t - N i c o l a  R e g i o n a l Economic S t u d y . 1972. 3. G r a n t , D.P., and B. Thompson, " S i m u l a t i n g C o n f l i c t s of I n t e r e s t Over the L o c a t i o n of P u b l i c Housing w i t h t h e A i d of a Computed-Aided Space A l l o c a t i o n Technique," ACM 6 t h Annual Urban Symposium, 1971, pp. 80-93. 4. McHarg, I a n L. D e s i g n w i t h N a t u r e , 1969, N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s , New Y o r k . 5. Q u i c k , M., S.O. R u s s e l l , and W. L. F i n n , Water Resources Of t h e N i c o l a - K a m l o o p s A r e a . R e p o r t No. 1 - P r e l i m i n a r y A p p r a i s a l . Dept. of C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , Water Resource S e r i e s No 1, UBC, 1969. 6. S j o b e r g , G i d e o n . "The O r i g i n and E v o l u t i o n of C i t i e s , " C i t i e s , - A S c i e n t i f i c - A m e r i c a n Book, 1970, Knopf, New Y o r k . 7. S u t h e r l a n d , I v a n E. "Computer G r a p h i c s , " Datamation. May 1966, pp. 22-27. 8. Ward, W. S., and D.P. G r a n t , "A Computer-Aided Space A l l o c a t i o n Technique," P r o c e e d i n g s of Kentucky  Workshop on Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s to, E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n , 1971, pp. 180-185. 

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