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Through bolt connections for composite columns McLellan, Andrew Bruce 1992

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T H R O U G H BOLT CONNECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE COLUMNS BY A N D R E W B R U C E M c L E L L A N B.A.SC., The University of Toronto, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITFED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in T H E F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A November 1992 (c) Andrew Bruce McLellan, 1992 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C i V i j B.ricyr\e.€.f^\y\ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The use of concrete filled hollow structural sections as columns in buildings and bridges has many advantages and is steadily becoming more popular. The coimection of steel beams to such columns has been a controversial issue, mainly because the transfer of the beam shear to an axial load in the concrete core is not well understood. Friction is often relied upon to transfer loads although some design codes require direct bearing on the concrete. The development of an inexpensive connection which bears directly against the concrete was embarked upon to improve the versatility and cost-effectiveness of composite columns in buildings. Connections typically used in steel construction were studied. From this study, the concept of "through bolt connections" evolved, resulting in a system with great versatility that can be used for many different configurations of connections and structural types. An experimental study was undertaken to examine the shear load transfer to the concrete core. Square hollow sections, 305x305x12 mm and 1500 mm long, were filled with 30 MPa concrete, to which W460x61 beams were attached with 25 mm high strength steel bolts using a standard end plate connection. A l l tests were conducted in a cruciform configuration with monotonically applied load, varying the moment-to-shear ratio, the bolt tensioning and the bolt embedment conditions. From the experimental results two types of transfer mechanism were identified: bearing of the bolt on the concrete and friction between the concrete core and the steel shell. The friction capacity, without post-tensioning of the bolts, was found to be substantial for the particular specimens tested. This was further increased proportionally as bolt tensioning was applied. Yielding of the bolts during advanced load stages, however, caused relaxation of the applied bolt tension, thus reducing the benefits of enhanced friction. On the other hand, relatively small beam end moments applied to the connection were found ii to increase the friction capacity by a substantial amount. The major load transfer, however, occurred through direct bearing of the bolts on the concrete. This bearing capacity was found to be much higher than anticipated with the result that bolt shear at the beam-to-column interface became the governing failure mode. Based on the observed behaviour of the connections, several design philosophies are proposed. Several quantitative parameters have been identified to require further research. This study indicates that the through bolt connection provides a practical and reliable load transfer mechanism, while also being adaptable and easy to fabricate. From the results presented here, it will be possible to focus further research on the development of simplified code formulations which represent a realistic estimate of the connection capacity. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT m T A B L E OF CONTENTS w U S T O F H G U R E S y i i U S T OF TABLES ix A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 CONNECTING BEAMS TO COMPOSITE COLUMNS 1 1.2 B E H A V I O U R OF B E A M TO C O L U M N CONNECTIONS 2 1.2.1 H E A D E R P L A T E CONNECTION 4 1.2.2 F L U S H E N D P L A T E CONNECTION 6 1.2.3 E X T E N D E D E N D P L A T E CONNECTION 7 1.2.4 TOP A N D SEAT A N G L E S 8 1.2.5 BOTTOM F L A N G E A N D WEB A N G L E CONNECTION 10 1.2.6 D O U B L E WEB A N G L E CONNECTION 10 1.2.7 SINGLE WEB A N G L E CONNECTION 12 1.2.8 WEB SIDE P L A T E CONNECTION 12 1.2.9 CONCRETE FILLED RHS C O L U M N TO H - B E A M CONNECTIONS 14 1.2.10 SEMI RIGID COMPOSITE CONNECTIONS 15 1.2.11 STRAP A N G L E CONNECTIONS 16 1.3 T H E T H R O U G H BOLT CONNECTION 17 1.3.1 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH T H E POST-TENSIONING OF T H E BOLTS 18 1.3.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH L O A D TRANSFER F R O M B E A M SHEAR TO AXDVL L O A D OF T H E CONCRETE 19 1.3.3 POSSIBLE F A I L U R E MODES OF CONNECTION 21 1.4 R E S E A R C H OBJECTIVES 23 2 L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW 25 2.1 SHEAR TRANSFER TO T H E CONCRETE C O R E 25 2.2 NONBEARING CONNECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE COLUMNS 26 3 E X P E R I M E N T A L P R O G R A M 28 3.1 CONNECTION DESIGN 28 3.2 LOADING CONFIGURATION 35 3.3 DEFINITION OF NON-BEARING A N D B E A R I N G SPECIMENS 39 3.4 A S S E M B L A G E OF SPECIMENS 39 3.5 DEFINITION OF TEST DESCRIPTION C O D E 40 3.6 INSTRUMENTATION 44 3.6.1 CONNECTION ROTATION M E A S U R E M E N T 46 3.6.2 SLIP M E A S U R E M E N T 48 3.6.3 STRAIN G A U G E S 48 3.6.4 L O A D CELLS 49 3.6.5 D A T A ACQUISITION 49 3.7 L O A D I N G D E V I C E 50 3.8 RELATIONSHIPS OF SPECIMENS 54 3.8.1 DETERIORATION OF SLIP L O A D 57 3.8.2 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING RELATIONSHIP 58 3.8.3 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING VERSUS E N D M O M E N T RELATIONSHIP 58 3.8.4 ESTABLISHING U N A C C E P T A B L E SHEAR L E V E L S 58 fv 3.8.5 FACTORS AFFECTING B E A R I N G RESPONSE 59 3.8.5.1 PRESTRESSING L E V E L 59 3.8.5.2 E N D - M O M E N T 60 3.8.6 FACTORS AFFECTING MOMENT-ROTATION 60 3.8.6.1 BEARING ON BOLTS 60 3.8.6.2 PRESTRESSING OF BOLTS 61 3.8.6.3 H I G H SHEAR L E V E L S 61 3.9 PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN 62 4 E X P E R I M E N T A L P R O C E D U R E A N D RESULTS 65 4.1 A U X I L I A R Y TESTS 65 4.1.1 CONCRETE CYLINDER TESTS 65 4.1.2 BOLT TESTS 73 4.2 PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN 78 4.3PSB000 83 4.4PSN0001 86 4.5PSN0002 88 4.6PSN100 90 4.7PSN050 93 4.8PSB050 95 4.9PSB100 97 4.10M2N000 99 4.11 M3N000 102 4.12M5N100 104 4.13M5B100 106 5 DISCUSSION OF E X P E R I M E N T A L RESULTS 110 5.1 PROBLEMS WITH T H E B-SLIP M E A S U R E M E N T 110 5.2 DETERIORATION OF SLIP L O A D 110 5.3 SLIP L O A D B E H A V I O U R I l l 5.4 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING 112 5.5 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING A N D B E A M E N D MOMENT 114 5.6 BENDING OF T H E BOLTS 116 5.7 CHANGES IN BEARING RESPONSE WITH V A R Y I N G PRESTRESSING 122 5.8 BEARING FORCES O N T H E BOLTS 124 5.8.1 C A L C U L A T I O N OF BOLT M O M E N T 128 5.8.2 BEARING FORCES A N D STRESSES ESTIMATION 130 5.9 DESIGN P R O C E D U R E 131 5.9.1 BEARING A N D FRICTION RESISTANCE OF T H E BOLT 132 5.9.2 P U R E B E A R I N G RESISTANCE OF T H E BOLT 133 5.10 FACTORS AFFECTING MOMENT-ROTATION STIFFNESS 134 5.10.1 PRESTRESSING 134 5.10.2 BEARING A N D NON-BEARING CASES 134 5.11 INITL\L STIFFNESS OF T H E M O M E N T ROTATION RELATIONSHIP 135 5.12 C A L C U L A T E D MOMENT-ROTATION INITIAL STIFFNESSES VERSUS E X P E R I M E N T A L V A L U E S 142 6 CONCLUSIONS 144 7 RECOMMENDATIONS A N D F U T U R E R E S E A R C H 146 7.1 END P L A T E THICKNESS 146 7.2 B E A M SIZE 146 7.3 POST-TENSIONING V A L U E 146 7 4 BEARING CAPACITIES 147 7^ 5 L O A D CAPACITY PERPENDICuE^JR TO TO "Z 149 7.6 BEARING B E H A V I O U R OF BOLTS 151 7.7 CONNECTIONS TO C I R C U L A R COLUMNS 153 8 REFERENCES 154 9 APPENDIX A: CONNECTION DESIGN 158 9.1 SELECTED B E A M SIZE-W460x61: 158 9.2 TYPICAL SHEAR FORCES O N TOE B E A M 158 9.3 BOLT SIZE 159 9.4 PLATE SIZE 160 9.5 OUT OF P L A N E SHEAR RESISTANCE OF E N D PLATE 161 10 APPENDIX B: C O N C R E T E CYLINDER TEST RESULTS 163 11 APPENDIX C: BOLT TENSION TEST RESULTS 167 12 APPENDIX D: PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN TEST RESULTS 170 13 APPENDIX E: SPECIMEN PSBOOO TEST RESULTS 172 14 APPENDIX F: SPECIMEN PSNOOOl TEST RESULTS 173 15 APPENDIX G: SPECIMEN PSN0002 TEST RESULTS 176 16 APPENDIX H : SPECIMEN PSNIOO TEST RESULTS 177 17 APPENDIX I: SPECIMEN PSN050 TEST RESULTS 179 18 APPENDIX J: SPECIMEN PSB050 TEST RESULTS 181 19 APPENDIX K: SPECIMEN PSBIOO TEST RESULTS 182 20 APPENDIX L: SPECIMEN M2N000 TEST RESULTS 184 21 APPENDIX M : SPECIMEN M3N000 TEST RESULTS 185 22 APPENDIX N: SPECIMEN M5N100 TEST RESULTS 186 23 APPENDIX O: SPECIMEN M5B100 TEST RESULTS 187 U S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: Typical and experimental connection types 3 F IGURE 2: Bearing configuration 20 F I G U R E 3: Failure modes 22 F I G U R E 4: Connection assembly 30 F I G U R E 5: Hss details 31 F I G U R E 6: Plate details 32 F I G U R E 7: Beam details 33 F I G U R E 8: Bolt details 34 F I G U R E 9: Test set-up: Loading arrangement 37 F I G U R E 10: Reaction box: Used for pure shear case 38 F I G U R E 11: Instrumentation for rotation measurement : 47 F I G U R E 12: Loading device 51 F I G U R E 13: South view of loading device 52 F I G U R E 14: North view of loading device 53 F I G U R E 15: Preliminary Specimen 64 F I G U R E 16: Concrete cylinder test set-up 67 F I G U R E 17: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 76 -1) 68 F I G U R E 18: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 76 - 2) 68 F I G U R E 19: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 102 -1) 69 F I G U R E 17: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 102-2) 69 F I G U R E 21: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 137 -1) 70 F I G U R E 22: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 137 - 2) 70 F I G U R E 23: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 150 -1 ) 71 F I G U R E 24: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 150 - 2) 71 F I G U R E 25: Concrete strength versus time 72 F I G U R E 26: Bolt testing configuration 74 F I G U R E 27: Bolt stress-strain (non-marked - double nutted) 75 F I G U R E 28: BoU stress-strain (non-marked - single nutted) 75 F I G U R E 29: Bolt load-defl. (non-marked - single nutted) 76 F I G U R E 30: Bolt stress-strain (red-marked - single nutted) 76 F I G U R E 31: Bolt load-defl. (red-marked - single nutted) 77 F I G U R E 32: Preliminary specimen -16 tight bolts - 4 plates 79 F I G U R E 33: Preliminary specimen - 8 tight bolts - 2 plates 79 F I G U R E 34: Preliminary specimen - 8 lose bolts - 4 plates 80 F I G U R E 35: Preliminary specimen - 4 tight bolts - 2 plates 80 F I G U R E 36: Preliminary specimen - 4 lose bolts - 2 plates 81 F I G U R E 37: Preliminary specimen - no plates - first test 81 F I G U R E 38: PreHminary specimen - no plates - second test 82 F I G U R E 39: PSBOOO: B-end slip vs. load 84 F I G U R E 40: PSBOOO: T-end slip vs. load 85 F I G U R E 41: PSBOOO: Bolt strains vs. load 85 F I G U R E 42: PSNOOOl: B-end slip vs. load 86 F I G U R E 43: PSNOOOl: T-end slip vs. load 87 F I G U R E 44: PSNOOOl: Bolt strains vs. load 87 H G U R E 45: PSN0002: B-end slip vs. load 88 F I G U R E 46: PSN0002: T-end slip vs. load 89 F I G U R E 47: PSN0002: Bolt strains vs. load 89 F I G U R E 48: PSNIOO: B-end slip vs. load 91 F I G U R E 49: PSN100: T-end slip vs. load 91 F I G U R E 50: PSNIOO: Bolt strains vs. load 92 vt i nGURE51:PSN050:B-endslipvs. load 93 F I G U R E 52: PSN050: T-end slip vs. load 94 F I G U R E 53: PSN050: Bolt strains vs. load 94 F IGURE 54: PSB050: B-end slip vs. load 95 F I G U R E 55: PSB050: T-end slip vs. load 96 F I G U R E 56: PSB050: Bolt strains vs. load 96 F IGURE 57: PSBIOO: B-end slip vs. load 97 H G U R E 58: PSBIOO: T-end slip vs. load 98 F I G U R E 59: PSBIOO: Bolt strains vs. load 98 F I G U R E 60: M2N000: Moment-rotation curve 100 F I G U R E 61: M2N000: B-end slip vs. load 100 H G U R E 62: M2N000: T-end slip vs. load 101 F IGURE 63: M2N000: Bolt strains vs. load 101 F I G U R E 64: M3N000: Moment-rotation curve 103 F I G U R E 65: M3N000: Bolt strains vs. load 103 F I G U R E 66: M5N100: Moment-rotation curve 105 F I G U R E 67: M5N100: Bolt strains vs. load 105 F I G U R E 68: Endplate damage 107 F I G U R E 69: M5B100: Moment-rotation curve 108 F I G U R E 70: M5B100: Bolt strains (T-end) vs. load 108 F I G U R E 71: M5B100: Bolt strains (B-end) vs. load 109 F I G U R E 72: Slip load vs. orthogonal load 113 F I G U R E 73: Slip load vs. end-moment & post-tensioning 115 F I G U R E 74: T-side strain of bolt 4 (pure shear, 100% PT) 117 F I G U R E 75: T-side strain of boh 3 (pure shear, 100% PT) 117 F I G U R E 76: T-side strain of bolt 2 (pure shear, 100% PT) 118 F I G U R E 77: T-side strain of boh 4 (pure shear, 50% PT) 118 F I G U R E 78: T-side strain of bolt 2 (pure shear, 50% PT) 119 F I G U R E 79: T-side strain of bolt 1 (pure shear, 50% PT) 119 F I G U R E 80: T-side strain of boh 4 (pure shear, 0% PT) 120 F I G U R E 81: T-side strain of bolt 3 (pure shear, 0% PT) 120 F I G U R E 82: T-side strain of bolt 2 (pure shear, 0% PT) 121 F I G U R E 83: T-side strain of bolt 1 (pure shear, 0% PT) 121 F I G U R E 84: Relative bearing response 125 F I G U R E 85: BoU tension of pure shear bearing specimens 126 F I G U R E 85: Assumed bearing force configuration & FBD of bolt 127 F I G U R E 87: Rotational stiffness parameters 141 F I G U R E 88: Future research: Maximum bearing stress 148 F IGURE 89: Future research: Load perpendicular to HSS 150 F IGURE 90: future research: Bearing behaviour of bolt 152 F I G U R E 91: Future research: Circular columns 153 vi i i U S T OF TABLES T A B L E 1: Test descriptions 42 T A B L E 2: Instrumentation 45 T A B L E 3: Test relationships 54 A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T The guidance and encouragement provided by Professor H.G.L. Prion is gratefully acknowledeged. The author is also indebted to Bemie Merkli, Guy Kirsch, Max Nazar, Harold Schrempp, Paul Symons, John Wong, Ronald Dolling, Richard Postgate and Howard Nichol for all their help and expertise in the laboratory. TTie author would also like to thank Steve Kuan for his patience in the Laboratory and his help with the data acquisition system. Jim Greig and Thomas Wong provided invaluable help in the Graphics laboratory. The author is indebted to the staff at Inter Library Loans who were instrumental in retrieving an extensive quantity of research material. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 CONNECTING BEAMS TO COMPOSITE COLUMNS The idea of fiUing steel tubes with concrete is not new. Concrete-filled hollow structural sections (composite columns) are widely accepted in China and Japan and are becoming steadily more popular in both Europe and North America. The composite section provides a much higher axial load resistance, moment capacity and longer fire resistance time than a plain hollow structural section (HSS). Composite columns generally have a smaller cross-section and thus use less floor space than typical reinforced concrete columns. There are also construction benefits: there is no form work and fewer iron workers are required than for a reinforced concrete structure. There are also disadvantages to using composite columns. The placement of the structural frame becomes crucial and more accurate surveying is required. It is uncertain whether the HSS-concrete interface can effectively transfer axial load from the HSS to the concrete core of the column. Some design codes require a means of bearing on the concrete at the location of connections. Such connections are typically complex and expensive. In general, however, codes do not address this issue and leave it to the engineer to devise a sufficient load transfer mechanism. The complexity and expense of such coimections is a major drawback to the use of composite columns. It is thus important to develop a coimection which provides direct bearing on the concrete yet still be inexpensive and simple to construct. To this end several steel connections, joints in reinforced concrete structures, and connections to composite colunms and to composite floor systems were studied. From these studies, a concept for a connection to a composite column was developed and tested. 1.2 BEHAVIOUR OF BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTIONS There has been very Httle research regarding the connection of beams to composite columns. Ansorian [ANS074] studied connections that did not provide direct bearing on the concrete and were complex in nature. Roik and Breit [ROIK81] studied web side plates which penetrated and went straight through the HSS. Although such connections provide effective bearing, they are expensive to produce and are too rigid to be considered flexible [WHIT65]. Dunberry, Leblanc, and Redwood [DUNB87] studied flexible connections to composite columns. These connections did not provide direct bearing onto the concrete. It was decided to develop a new concept of connecting beams to composite columns because of the problems with the connections studied sofar. This required, a general background of typical connections which would be helpful to identify desirable features for designers and fabricators. Several characteristics must be considered when designing a connection. Those which immediately come to mind are the cost, strength, stiffness, ductility, design assumptions, hysteretic behaviour and ease of design. Several researchers have examined the basic behavioural characteristics of typical connections. For the sake of gaining a thorough insight of connections, typical connections in steel frames and composite columns are examined. These connection types are shovra in Figure 1, which is followed by a detailed description of each connection and a discussion. In these descriptions, the moment-rotation behaviour of the different connections types are examined and the parameters which tend to control the behaviour are identified. Detailing problems associated with fabrication, construction, transportation and susceptibility to damage are also investigated. header plate flush end plate extended end plate top and seat angels bottom flange and web angle single web angle concrete filled RHS column to H-beam end plate type double web angle web side plate 1 concrete filled RHS column to H-beam T-section type FIGURE 1: Typical and experimental connection types 1.2.1 HEADER PLATE CONNECTION The header plate connection utilizes a flexible end plate which is fillet welded to the web only and typically extends over forty to eighty percent of the beam depth. It is very popular for the following reasons: very few pieces need to be handled; modern technology allows beams to be cut more accurately to length and with square ends; most fabricators prefer to shop weld instead of using a completely bolted coimection; it is easy to fabricate a header plate cormection where a beam intersects another beam or column at a skewed angle; fabricators have the choice of punching or drilling holes into thin header plates and; damage to the header plate during transportation tends to be minimal. If standardization of the connection parameters is employed as suggested by several reasearchers [BENN78] [HOGA83] [MANS81], the result would be the most cost-effective design-construction of joints in steel structures. The intial portion of the moment-rotation curve is rounded. It eventually flattens to a near plateau. Once the lower beam flange, contacts the column face, the stiffness of the curve increases instantaneously and dramatically. Shear on the connection appears not to affect the moment-rotation characteristics. It was found, however, that the shear capacity is influenced significantly by end-rotations. Some test results showed failures at 35% of the calculated shear capacity of the connection [KRIV85]. This was found to be the result of secondary stresses caused by end moments. It is particularly important to take note of these test results since header plate connections are typically designed to resist shear forces only while the moment transferred at the connection is ignored by the designer. This problem can be overcome by considering the end stiffness, which is available from analytical curves describing the moment-rotation behaviour for header plates [ANG84]. Many structural analysis packages also include the option to model non-linear semi-rigid connections. A computer program for designing the connection, taking into account the secondary stresses, was developed by Kriviak and Kennedy [KRIV85]. The tools are available to analyze and design the connection for both the shear force and secondary effects. Somner (1969) [KENN84] examined the effect of varying the geometric parameters of the connection. The connection stiffness and strength were found to be affected primarily by the plate thickness, plate depth, and the gauge distance of the column flange bolts [MORR87]. Mansell and Pham reported considerable variations in slip response in seven different tests [MANS81]. The slip load appeared to be independent of the number of bolts and it was thus concluded that the resistance resulted mainly from bearing which depended on the initial position of the bolts in the holes and also by a possible difference in pretensioning of the bolts. Mansell and Pham also reported that the beam web appeared to be the most distressed element of the connection. The test results indicated that the connection attracted very little moment. Pillinger [PILL88] summarized the design assumptions, principal design checks, and also described some of the practical problems with the connection. Designers usually make the following assumptions: Only shear is transferred at the face of the header plate; all local deformation occurs at the top row of bolts; the center of rotation is located at the bottom edge of the header plate. No study could be found to confirm the validity of the design assumptions of the header plate connection or any other flexible connection. Designers should allow for flexibility by using a sufficiently thin plate, while at the same time providing sufficient clearance between the beam flange and column flange to allow for the anticipated rotation at yield. Other design checks include: strength of the bolt groups; strength of the fillet welds; local shear strength of the beam web; bending and shear strength of the notched beam [PILL88]. Pillinger describes a "rule of thumb",stipulating that the thickness of a plate should be 8mm for beam sizes up to 457x191 UBS (Universal Beam Section) and 10mm for beams 533x210 UBS and over. Pillinger also mentions that the plate height should be limited to assist flexibility, although shorter plate heights tend to be impractical for beams shallower than about 200mm. Typically, plates must run the full length of the web height for smaller beams, to accommodate the required number of bolts and length of weld to develop the connection capacity. If the header plate is too thin, it may warp during the welding process which may result in gaps between the connecting surfaces. Another consideration for connection design is the possible presence of a tensile load from the beam. The beam web and weld seem to be more critical under tension loads than the bolts. The plate thickness should also be checked for tension. If the header plate is connected to the column web instead of the column flange, the column web should also be checked for a tension or compression force transmitted by the beam. 1.2.2 FLUSH END PLATE CONNECTION Flush end plate connections are considered to be semi-rigid with high moment capacity, yet they are cheaper to fabricate and construct than other full moment cormections. A l l welds are shop welded. As mentioned for the header plate connection, the required length and squareness tolerances can be accommodated by modern cutting technology. A further advantage is that relatively few pieces have to be handled. Typically, moments as high as the yield moment, and some times the plastic moment, can be transferred through this connection, while maintaining its capacity through large rotations. The simplicity and ductile response make this connection a popular choice for many applications. Experiments have shown that the moment-rotation curve is normally linear up to 60% of the ultimate capacity followed by a rounded knee and a second linear portion with about l/40th of the initial stiffness. The extent of the rounded portion was found to depend mainly on joint detailing such as the endplate thickness and the existence of column stiffening. The inital stiffness can be enhanced by using a thicker plate, by placing bolts as close as possible to the tension flange, or by minimizing the gauge distance. The capacity is largely influenced by end plate thickness and column web stiffening. In some cases, the designers can use short backing plates instead of conventional full web stiffeners. Often the full design moment cannot be developed by bolts within the depth of the beam and it is necessary to extend the endplate beyond the flange to accomodate additional bolts. 1.2.3 EXTENDED END PLATE CONNECTION The extend end plate connection has a very similar moment-rotation behaviour as the flush end plate and has many of the same advantages. In many cases the plastic moment of the beam can be resisted and sustained through large rotations [NETH85a]. The extended end plate helps to increase both the initial stiffness and the strength of the connection. The moment-rotation behaviour is dependent on many different parameters and is one of the most heavily researched connections. Extensions on either or both sides of the connection have been studied and tested. Nethercot examined a total of 106 tests carried out in 17 different studies [NETHSSa]. Increases in both plate and column flange thicknesses tend to increase the stiffness and ultimate capacity of the connection. Beyond a certain point, however, a further increase in the plate thickness does not affect the connection behaviour. Axial loads of up to about 30 to 40 percent of the column yield appear not to affect the moment-rotation characteristics of the joint. Column web stiffeners usually enhance the stiffness of the connection but do not affect the strength. Other factors which affect joint stiffness are: preload of bolts, full depth column web doubler plates and deeper haunches. Factors that have been shown not to affect joint stiffness significantly include: an endplate with a higher yield strength, column stiffness (as long as failure of the column does not occur), presence of flange backing plates, column web doubler plates in the compression zone only. High strength end plates and column stiffening beyond what is required to prevent premature failure of the colunm, usually does not affect the strength of the connection [NETH85a]. The influence of detailing of the connection on the beam moment-rotation characteristics (especially at moment levels where a significant loss in rotational stiffness is experienced) has not yet been investigated [NETH85a]. 1.2.4 TOP AND SEAT ANGLES This coimection provides good torsional end restraint and would typically be used for eccentrically loaded beams. This may occur when the beam line is slightly offset from the column line and the beam web is thus a small distance from the column web. Erection and alignment of the bolt holes is easier since the beam is supported by the seat angle. This connection type is only used in cases of relatively low shear because of the small effective bearing area. The moment-rotation relationship is smooth and nonlinear. Ang and Morris have developed analytical relationships for these connections [ANG84]. The connection can typically reach 50% of the beam moment capacity. The unloading stiffness is approximately equal to the initial tangent stiffness. Deformations in the connection are primarily caused by cleat distortion and the beam-flange bolt slip. Cleat deformation can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the top angle and by decreasing the distance between the heel of the top angle and the column-flange bolts. This will also help to increase the moment capacity of the connection. Torquing the bolts on the tension flange of the beam will increase the slip load and help increase the stiffness of the connection. Increasing the length of the top angle and also increasing the number of bolts attaching the top angle to the column, have a small to insignificant effect on the rotational stiffness and strength of the connection. Studies of this connection also showed that the amount of shear on the connection had relatively little effect on the moment-rotation characteristics. The use of welds instead of bolts and the use of untorqued bolts on the beam flange to further increase the flexibility, have still not been examined. White conducted tests on numerous framing connections to square and rectangular HSS sections [WHIT65]. In this study, one of these connections was the top and seat angle connection. White's results seem to vary considerably from other top and seat angle connection tests. A cruciform test configuration was used. HSS sections 6 x 6 x 3 / a n d 6x6x1/2 were tested for this particular type of connection. Moments achieved were only 6.6 and 8.0% of the calculated moment for a perfectly rigid connection. Out of all the connections White tested, the top and seat angle coimection had the highest factor of safety of 4.15 and 3.5. Shear capacities were comparable to other shear connections tested by White even though this type of connection is usually associated with connections with low shear loads. White also claims that the connection behaviour seems to be independent of the column size and thickness and produces no undesirable deformations on the column face. Shear on the connection is assumed to be carried by the bottom cleat, while the top cleat stabilizes the beam laterally. The beam is assumed to rotate about the bottom cleat and all deformation and yielding occurs in the top cleat. Additional flexibility is achieved by using a relatively thin top cleat. Pillinger [PILL88] suggests the same "rule of thumb" as for the header plate connection. A 8mm top cleat should be used for beams up to and including 457x191 UBS and 10mm for beams 533x210 UBS and over. The suggested maximum end beam clearance should be 3mm. Pillinger recommends a 15mm thick seating angle which will usually assure reasonable capacity for the beam shear [PILL88]. The seating angle thickness is frequently too thick for punching. Pillinger [PILL88] suggests the following design checks for the shear force: strength of angle seat bolt group, bearing strength of the seat angle, bearing strength of the beam web and buckling of the beam web. Pillinger also points out that the tension forces on the connection may govern the size of the top cleat and the design of the fasteners. 1.2.5 BOTTOM FLANGE AND WEB ANGLE CONNECTION Nethercot [NETH85a] found no experimental data on this connection despite the fact that 80% of respondents in a small survey conducted in the U.K. claimed to have used this connection. The web angle is designed to resist twist while the bottom angle is designed for vertical shear. 1.2.6 DOUBLE WEB ANGLE CONNECTION The double web angle connections may be more desirable for fabricators who have numerically controlled drilling lines or may have other facilities which make drilling or punching holes favourable over welding. The connection also has greater erection tolerances than for a header plate connection. Bolt hole alignment of the cleats and beam can overlap by several millimeters. The ends of the beam do not have to be perfectly square with the columns as is necessary for a header plate connection. Cleats can be fabricated separately and this can help to increase the fabricators output since they can have two lines working on one connection. This connection is not suitable for torsional loads. The moment-rotation characteristics are very similar to that of the header plate connection. The initial stiffness tends to be smaller and the moment capacity is lower. The connection exhibits excellent ductility. Morris and Packer [MORR87] examined a total of 33 tests. The minimum rotational capacity out of those tests was 0.08 radians. Connections can typically reach capacities of 5 to 15% of the beam plastic moment. Maximum moment capacities are reached when the angles are welded to the beam web and bolted to the column flange. The moment-rotation behaviour of the connection is dependent on the thickness and depth of the angle, bolt gauge, and column flange thickness. The stiffness of the connection seems to be proportional to the square of the angle thickness. It decreases with an increase in bolt gauge and increases with an increase in connection depth. Bergquist [BERG77] found that welding the cleats (the heel of the angle is not welded) to the column instead of bolting, will help make the connection much more flexible. The distance from the weld to the heel of the outstanding leg is longer in a welded coimection than in a typical bolted connection. Shear on the connection does not affect the moment-rotation characteristics. Ang and Morris have developed an analytical moment-rotation curve for the connection [ANG84]. The design of these connections is simple. No moment is assumed to be transferred at the face of the outstanding legs of the angles. The cleats are presumed to be an extension of the beam. Web bolts must be designed for both shear and moment. The flexibility of the connection is achieved through limiting the cleat depth and thickness. Pillinger points out the same "rule of thumb" for the cleat thickness in this connection as was used for the thickness of the header plate in the header plate connection [PILL88]. Other design checks which Pillinger mentions are: "strength of the outstanding leg bolt group", "bending and shear strength of the angle cleat" and "bending and shear strength of [a] notched beam". The cleat strength is typically critical if the connection is in tension. The minimum suggested angle cleat projection is 10mm. It is difficult to achieve recommended angle depths for smaller beams of depths of 203mm and less. Usually the full depth of the web must be used to accommodate the required number of bolts. 1.2.7 SINGLE WEB ANGLE CONNECTION This connection has many of the same advantages as the double web angle connection. It is very ductile with maximum rotations in tests consistently exceeding .025 radians. The connection is very flexible if it is shallow (containing fewer than six bolts), but the stiffness sharply increases for an increase in angle depth and number of bolts. Parameters which affect the moment-rotation characteristics are: angle thickness, angle depth, column flange thickness, number and size of beam web bolts. Most of the deformation is due to angle deformation and slip of bolts. Moment capacities can be as high as 10% of the plastic capacity of the beam. It has been found that welding the toe of the angle to the column instead of the heel leads to premature failure. 1.2.8 WEB SIDE PLATE CONNECTION This connection is commonly used for HSS sections, where bolting may be impossible or very difficult. Large tension or torsion forces may prohibit the use of this connection. Special consideration must be given to the transportation of the column since a higher shipping volume is required and care must be taken to avoid damage of the web plate. As pointed out by White [WHIT65], this connection can exhibit undesirable deformations of the HSS wall if the web side plate is welded to the flat section of the HSS. These deformations reduced column capacities by as much as 40%. White suggests to only use this connection for hghtly loaded secondary connections or if the column load immediately below the connection is less than 60% of the column capacity. Columns should also be laterally braced at the location of the connection. White also conducted tests on web side plates where the plate was welded to the corner of the HSS section. This helped to reduce column deformations and it is believed that this variation of the connection has some potential as a practical flexible connection. One obvious objection to the connection is the necessity to rotate the column orientation 450. Tests were also conducted by White where the web plate penetrated all the way through the HSS column. This was done primarily to reduce the deformations of the column face but also stiffened the connection to the extent that it cannot be considered flexible anymore. The cormection did, however, exhibit great vertical and rotational ductility. The web side plate connection has a similar behaviour to the single web angle connection although it tends to be stiffer, stronger and has less rotational capacity. Transfer moments as high as 37% of the elastic end moment have been recorded [RICH80]. Factors which tend to affect the moment rotation characteristics are: depth and thickness of plate, thickness of beam web, bolt configuration, number, size and method for tightening bolts, flexibility of supporting structure. Rotational behaviour seems to depend on the thinner of the beam web and the web plate. Even though the design of this connection type tends to be straight forward, its behaviour is not well understood and the adequacy of the design assumptions has not been proven or disproven. No moment is assumed to be transferred at the centroid of the bolts. Strength of the bolt group, bending and shear of the plate, combined shear and moment of the weld and strength of the beam web must be checked in the design of the connection. The designer should attempt to keep the centroid of the bolt group within 100mm of the column face. Additional checks for local bending on the column may be necessary. The beam should be kept a minimum of 15mm away from the column face to prevent the bottom flange from bearing against the column. FlexibiHty is assumed to come from the 2mm bolt hole tolerance and bearing deformations of the bolt hole. This, however, is contradictory to experimental observations reported by Mansell and Pham [MANS81] where the plate yielded in combined shear and moment and only the bolt holes closest to the column yielded. Experiments also showed that there was virtually no difference in the behaviour of connections with slotted holes versus round holes as long as the connection bolts are torqued [RICH80]. These experiments are an indication that plate depth should be minimized to assist in the flexibility of the connection. 1.2.9 CONCRETE FILLED RHS COLUMN TO H-BEAM CONNECTIONS Some research has been performed in Japan on connections between H-beams (W-sections) and RHS columns [KANA87]. The researchers wanted to develop a full moment coimection where field welds were not required and local deformations in the RHS wall were prevented. This was accomplished by filling the RHS with concrete just at the connection and attaching endplates or cast steel split tees with long high strength prestressed bolts. No reports were found where the column was completely filled with concrete. The prestressing of the bohs helps to increase the initial rotational stiffness of the connection. The concrete effectively acts like a diaphragm to transfer flange forces from the beams and helps to transfer joint panel shear. These connections were found to be stiffer and stronger than other connections that are typically considered to be full moment connections. The coimections also exhibited excellent ductiHty and hysteretic behaviour after losing some capacity after the maximum strength was reached in the first cycle. In tests performed, the reduced capacity was still higher than the maximum strength of common full moment connections connecting similar members. The end plate connection does, however, require greater accuracy for construction. Beam ends must be parallel and the length of the beam must be cut within 1/32 of inch. Underrun and overrun of columns can not exceed V l 6 of an inch. This makes the placing of columns crucial. However, the concept of end plates is not new and the problems encountered with such connections can be overcome. Using a bolted split tee connection avoids the tolerance problems but more parts must be handled and the fabrication may take longer. 1.2.10 SEMI RIGID COMPOSITE CONNECTIONS Composite floor systems are a common construction method used today. The additional strength and stiffness gained at the coimection is ignored in the design of these buildings. Cruciform tests performed by Dalen and Godoy [DALE82] showed that the moment capacity of the composite beam could be reached for connections typically assumed to be flexible. The rotational capacity of tested composite connections was greater than tested non-composite connections typically assumed to be rigid. Leon tested full scale frames with both gravity and lateral loads. There were two bays with pins at mid-column height to represent assumed inflection points [LEON88]. Again these tests showed that using semi-rigid design made economical sense. Little changes would have to be incorporated into the design. However, the major drawback to these connections is the development of a model for the connection behaviour. As pointed out by Leon, there are many parameters involved and it would be unlikely that a single feasible model could be established. This ultimately means that extensive research would have to be performed before these connections become a viable option. 1.2.11 STRAP ANGLE CONNECTIONS The HSS has become very popular over the years since it was introduced. These sections are sensitive to forces perpendicular to the relatively flexible member walls, which makes it difficult to construct practical moment connections. Strap angle coimections introduce the beam forces into the side walls of the HSS instead of the "flanges" of the HSS. This helps to alleviate problems of the flanges buckling. Picard and Gioux examined strap angle connections between wide flange beams and square tubular columns [PICA76]. This connection type still has some problems such as its semi-rigid behaviour. An extra side web plate is needed during construction so the strap angles can be aligned during the field welding process. For connections where the beam flanges are about the same width as the column, the web side plate is not required. Shear is carried by the bottom strap angles, which can be shop welded to the colunm and used to support the beam while the top strap angles are field welded. This is not an appropriate solution where the beam flange width is considerably less than the column width. Shear forces from the beam cause local torsion and bending in the strap angles, in which case a web side plate is required. 1.3 THE THROUGH BOLT CONNECTION A design similar to the end plate connection described by Kanatani et al. [KANA87] was chosen to be investigated further. For convenience, the configuration will be referred to as a "through bolt" coimection. Details of the connection are described in section 3.1. The connection was also discussed in section 1.2.9 " CONCRETE FILLED RHS TO H - B E A M CONNECTIONS". The columns investigated in this report are completely filled with concrete. The fundemental difference from the previously tested connections [KANA87] is that in those tests the columns were only filled with concrete at the location of the connection to prevent local buckling or crushing of the hollow section. In a composite column the concrete core carries a large proportion of the axial load and the transfer of the vertical shear from the beam loads to the concrete core is thus a major concern. However, this was not a consideration for the previously studied connections. The connection was chosen since previous experimental programs demonstrated that the joint showed favourable behaviour. The joint's moment rotation behaviour was stiffer than others which were considered to be full moment connections and which joined the same member sizes. The connection also had a higher moment capacity than other typically used configurations. A connection which bares on the concrete was also desirable. This is especially important for thin walled steel sections since non-bearing connections can lead to premature failure of the tube walls. The only way to accomplish bearing on the concrete is by penetrating the HSS wall, the cheapest method of doing so is by drilling holes. The cost of drilling holes in the column is already associated with a typical steel structure. The only extra cost over a typical steel connections would be the cost of the extra long bolts. These economic factors make the configuration advantageous. The concept of through bolts can also be used for flexible connections. Bolts going through the HSS can attach double angles, single angles, top and seat angles, or header plates. Any configuration which can normally be bolted to the column can be used as a through bolt connection. This gives the possibility of using the concept of the coimection for a wide variety of structural types. There are still problems associated with the connection which require further investigation. Some problems are associated with the post-tensioning of the bolts. Other problems of concern are associated with the beam shear load transfer to the axial load of the concrete. 1.3.1 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE POST-TENSIONING OF THE BOLTS In seismic design, to prevent a possible brittle failure at the joint during an earthquake, the moment connection should be able to withstand 1.2 times the unfactored plastic moment capacity of the beam. This is a very stringent requirement that generally results in an extended endplate connection to accommodate the large number of bolts required. The bolts in the connection transfer the tension flange forces across to the opposite side of the column and this generally requires large bolts, depending on the capacity of the beams. The bolts are prestressed to enhance the moment rotation stiffness of the connection. Post-tensioning of the bolts has to be done to a fairly high strain so that creep and shrinkage of the concrete will not cause too much relaxation of the steel. Since the required bolt diameter is large, a high post-tensioning load will be applied. which subjects the concrete to very high stresses. There are several different solutions to the problem. The flexibility of the bolts can be increased by adding collapsible washers which could have a linear load deflection behaviour or a non-linear buckling behaviour. The more expensive buckling washers would allow a more accurate post-tensioning value to be maintained. For either type of washer, large displacements from creep and shrinkage could occur before the post-tensioning of the bolts would be released. Another solution would be to use a concrete with a very high compressive strength so the bolts could be tightened by turn of the nut method without over stressing the concrete. The advantage to this solution is the increased column strength. The calculated stresses on the concrete core induced by post-tensioning have been found to be very close to the uniaxial cylinder compressive strengths. The concrete in the column, however, is very well confined and the stresses that are achievable at the collapse of the section may be much higher than the cylinder strength. 1.3.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH LOAD TRANSFER FROM BEAM SHEAR TO AXIAL LOAD OF THE CONCRETE For the composite section to be effective, the gravity shear loads from the beams must be transferred to axial load on the column's concrete core. There are two possible load transfer mechanisms. The bolts going through the concrete will bear on the concrete as shown in Figure 2, which may have a deleterious effect on the behaviour of the connection. This is especially true for the moment connection where bolts would be loaded in combined moment and tension. The second load transfer mechanism is friction. For the bolts to bear on the concrete, there must first be slip between the HSS and the concrete core. This makes the slip load an important factor and it is a value the designer should known. In past research, however, the slip load was shown to be a highly variable value [VIRD75]. Bearing applied to the bolts is suspected to effect the rotational behaviour of the connection which implies a moment-shear interaction at the connection. It is important to find the additional load above the slip load which will start to significantly effect the rotational behaviour of the connection. P load on concrete bolts B-end end plate FIGURE 2: Bearing configuration 1.3.3 POSSIBLE FAILURE MODES OF CONNECTION There are primarily three possible failure modes; the simplest to analyze is a shear failure through the shank of the bolts. This failure mode is very well understood and is no different than for common bolted connections. The failure mode is shown in figure 3. A more general failure of the concrete is also possible. The concrete develops a diagonal crack and a tension field across the HSS, transverse to the longitudinal axis, is developed. This failure mode was observed in specimens tested at the University of Toronto [McLE89]. The failure mode is shown in Figure 3. This mode of failure is still not well understood. A splitting action of the concrete may also occur and the bolts may bend from bearing on the concrete. For the bolts to bend, concrete must be displaced, which is possible only by pushing the concrete and HSS walls outward. The shape and thickness of the HSS obviously play an important role here. Bending on the bolts is important in the case of the moment connection since the bolt will be loaded in combined tension and bending. The failure mode is shown in Figure 3. typical bolt shear failure general concrete failure bearing-bending failure FIGURE 3: Failure modes 1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES A research project was initiated to examine some of the problems associated with through bolt connections. The program encompasses both flexible and moment connections with the following objectives: - Examine previous research on the load transfer from the HSS to the concrete core of the column. - Establish an optimal post-tensioning value to avoid premature slippage, separation between the tension side of the endplate and HSS (early separation causes a significant reduction of rotational stiffness), or early crushing of the concrete. - Establish the shear level at which bearing on the bolts begins to effect the overall behaviour of the connection. - Determine the effects on the bearing response associated with different post-tensioning values. - Examine the effect of end-moment from a beam on the bearing response. - Find the relationship between slip load, post-tensioning, and end-moment of the beam. - Determine the overall feasibihty of through bolt connections and to establish which future research should be performed. - Develop an analytical method for determining the initial stiffness of the moment-rotation relationship. -Although it is not expected that a design procedure can fully be developed within the confines of this research project, a strategy for design can be suggested based upon the observed behaviour. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Although connections have always been the major difficulty in composite construction, very little research has been reported in this area, especially in the field of concrete-filled HSS. The research which has been performed, however, has provided important guidlines for further research. 2.1 SHEAR TRANSFER TO THE CONCRETE CORE Several experimental programs have investigated the axial load transfer to the concrete core of composite columns. From these investigations different load transfer mechanisms have been identified. Included in these mechanisms are chemical bonding, mechanical bonding and capillary action. It has been determined that mechanical bonding plays the most significant roll in bond stiffness and strength. Virdi and Dowling [VIRD75] conducted push out test on a series of circular seamless mild steel tubes filled with concrete. They suggested that mechanical bonding be divided into two categories: microlocking and macrolocking. Microlocking is developed from the smaller irregularities or surface roughness between the steel tube and the concrete surface. Macrolocking is developed from the undulating irregularities and out of straightness of the steel tube walls. Microlocking appears to determine the initial stiffness and resistance of the slip between steel and concrete at small relative deflections between the two materials whereas macrolocking determines the behaviour at larg deflections. Macrolocking is activated at an advanced loading stage, along the flat section on the load-deflection curve. Virdi and Dowling [VIRD75] investigated different factors which could have significant effects on the strength and behaviour of the bond between the two surfaces. The parameters investigated include: the influence of concrete age, concrete strength, concrete-steel interface length, tube size and diameter to wall thickness ratio, compaction, and steel surface treatment. Even though specimens with similar conditions had greatly variable strengths, definite trends were observed. Longer concrete-steel interface lengths slightly but not significantly increased the bond strength (per unit area). Tube size and diameter-to-wall thickness ratio, concrete strength and age, were found not to have a significant effect on the load deflection curves. Varying degrees of compaction of the concrete and surface treatment of the steel tubes had the most significant effect on the load deflection curves. Specimens with more compacted concrete had stronger bond strengths. Machined surfaces had very much reduced strengths with almost nonexistent macrolocking resistance. 2.2 NONBEARING CONNECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE COLUMNS Most codes require the concrete to be loaded directly in bearing for connections to composite columns. However, connections which do load the concrete directly in bearing tend to be more complicated and expensive. For this reason, Dunberry, Leblanc, and Redwood [DUNB87] investigated flexible connections for composite columns without loading the concrete directly in bearing. Web plate type coimections and tee section type connections were tested for various geometric and loading parameters. While geometric parameters and connection type did play a minimal role in the amount of load transferred to the concrete, loading parameters played a more significant role. The column capacity was reduced in cases where a significant proportion of the load was carried at a single tier level. Redwood et al. developed an empirical method to account for the reduction in strength. Load transfer depends on micro and macro bonding and also on the connection rotation [ANS074] [VIRD75] [DUNB87], which causes a pinching action on the concrete. Even though the column failure loads were never less than 92% of the squash load of the columns, the bond strength between the steel and concrete can be quite variable as demonstrated by Virdi and Dowling [VIRD75]. The effect of concrete shrinkage, the amount of concrete compaction, and surface treatment of the inside of the tube were not studied. These factors may deter some engineers from utilizing these connection types. Ansourian [ANS074] studied rigid-frame connections to concrete-filled tubular steel columns. The columns were partially loaded from a beam which extended on one side of the column, inducing shear and moments. Additional axial loading in the column was concentric. The connections had no bearing mechanism and load was transferred by friction. Normal forces on the concrete induced by the applied moment, enhanced the friction capacity. Load was also transferred by curvature interlock, micro and macro interlocking. The columns appeared to behave compositely since the deflections and capacities of the tested columns were close to predicted values. However, no sensitivity analysis was presented to study the change in the analytical results if some slip between the steel and the concrete were to occur. The ratio between the applied beam load at failure and the predicted squash load was never more than 11%. This is an indication that any slip which may have occurred between the two materials may not have significantly changed the predicted deflections and capacities. 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM An experimental program was designed to answer some of the fundamental questions about the behaviour of the through-bolt connection. The shear transfer mechanism to the concrete core was identified to be the most pressing problem which and the focus of the experimental program. In the case of the moment connection, the factors affecting the rotational stiffness and behaviour were studied. A total of eight connections were built as part of the experimental program. One preliminary specimen was used to determine the bearing and slip capacities that could be anticipated. As a result of higher than anticipated capacities, some of the planned tests described in the experimental program could not be performed. The beam shear and moment capacities of the loading beam were not sufficient to fail the connections as planned. 3.1 CONNECTION DESIGN Design drawings for specimens are shown in Figures 4,5,6,7 and 8. Columns were 304.8 X 304.8 x 12.7 mm (12 x 12 x 1/2 in.) HSS. The need for access to the insides of the steel sections to apply protective covering material on strain gauges, dictated colunm dimensions. The HSS wall thickness was chosen to be I/2 in. to avoid local buckling of the HSS wall which would have added an unnecessary degree of complexity to the behaviour of the connection. A W460x61 (W18x41) section was chosen for the beam. Availability and weight were important considerations to avoid delays and ease handling in the laboratory. For the case of an endplate connection, the flange width of the beam had to be smaller than the flat portion of the HSS face. The bolt configuration and end plate size were designed for 1.2 times the plastic moment of the beam. Design calculations are shown in appendix A. A reduction of the bolt capacity was expected in the presence of significant beam shear. For this reason, it was not expected that the beam's plastic moment could be reached during testing. (Preliminary tests showed that the bearing and slip load capacities were higher than expected. To help alleviate the problem, only four bolts were used in the connection design instead of eight, as indicated in Figures 4 and 5). The mechanism of shear transfer to the concrete core of the column was still largely an unknown. To avoid excessive deformations in the beam, its shear capacity had to be higher than the transfer capacity. In the case of overload, it was decided that doubler plates could be added later to the beam webs. Unfortunately, localized buckling of the beam web and time constraints prevented the use of doubler plates. Although a 1 in. end plate thickness would have been adequate for design purposes, a 1 V2 iïi- plate was used. This was done since V4 x V4 in- conduits (required for strain gauge wires) were bored into the back surface of one of the plates. The end plates were reused from test to test and significant plastic deformations of the plates were undesired. (despite these precautions, slight plastic deformations of both end plates were observed) T-end These holes were never drilled since a preliminary test indicated that the capacity of an eight bolt connection was too high for testing B-end layout for holes on east and west sides of HSS -there are no holes on north and south sides T-side 27 B-side (1-1/16 in.) - - 27 — (1/4 in.) - * ^ . 4 ^ details of HSS hole on east side of column details of HSS hole on west side of column FIGURE 5: HSS details T I 62.5 (©) <©) -250 (1/4 in.) 6.4 i T stiffener plates 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) detail of west plate hole detail of west plate (1-1/16 in.) 27 -there are two sets of plates -one set of plates do NOT have beams attached -there is only one set of beams -symm. about center line unless otherwise noted -east plate has same center line dimensions as west plate -note difference in east there are no grooves or plate hole detailing over-drilling on east plate detail of east plate hole grade 8 nuts 6 mm fillet welds—r B-side U1 u Ol o 0> o -ABS tubing extends through the length of the HSS. The bolt does not thouch the concrete concrete concrete T-side section a-a as placed in the non-bearing specimen -Foam rubber is placed over a 75 mm length along the bolt. The foam rubber is centred over the h'i strain gages concrete —-duct tape concrete Plastic o 3 3 section a-a as placed in the bearing specimen strain gage B-Side ( only on the^ bearing case) 0.127mm machined down surface 25.4mm (1 In.) diameter rod 4340 steel T-side section a-a 3.2 LOADING CONFIGURATION A cruciform loading arrangement was used as shown in Figure 9 and 10. Only the concrete core of the column was loaded for all tests. This was done to clearly determine the total amount of load transferred to the concrete core. For convenience, the test specimens were loaded in an upside-down position. The following conventions were adapted for the report: - T-end: Top end of the connection or column as it would be orientated in a building. (Bottom end as oriented in the test) - B-end: Bottom end of the connection or column as it would be orientated in a building. (Top end as oriented in the test) - T-side: Top side of a bolt or endplate as it would be orientated in a building. (Bottom side as oriented in the test) - B-side: Bottom side of a bolt or endplate as it would be orientated in a building. (Top side as oriented in the test) - T-flange: Top flange of the beam as it would be orientated in a building. (Bottom flange as oriented in the test) - B-flange: Bottom Flange of the beam as it would be orientated in a building. (Top flange as oriented in the test) - T-slip: Slip between the concrete core and the HSS at the T-end of the column. - B-slip: Slip between the concrete core and the HSS at the B-end of the column. The locations of the beam loads were varied from test to test. A l l loading arrangements were symmetrical. Moment arms were measured from the HSS-concrete interface to the centre of the beam load. The moment at the interface of the two materials affect the transfer of shear to the concrete core. The test specimens were divided into two categories. Half the specimens were loaded on the T-side of the endplates, which are referred to as the "pure shear case" tests and best represent the behaviour of flexible connections. The moment arm resulting from the geometric eccentricity was estimated to be 38mm (1 I/2 in.). The other category of tests are referred to as the "moment cases". Moment arms varied from test to test for these cases. only the concrete is loaded 1500 mm beam B-end LVDT to B-slip loading head _B-side of end plate B-flange HSS T-side I of endplate-i _ T-end T-flange LVDT 1 T-slip load cell / / / / / / / T I clearance ^epoxied to concrete variable distance load cell en o 3 3 V//// F I G U R E 9: Test set-up: Loading arrangement 914 mm 838 mm - steel Is 25.4 mm stock - all seams are fillet welded - welds between plates are 13 mm - angles are tack welded FIGURE 10: Reaction box: Used for the pure shear case 3.3 DEFINITION OF NON-BEARING AND BEARING SPECIMENS To isolate the individual load transfer mechanisms it was important to determine the pure slip load. To eliminate bearing of the bolts on the concrete, two of the specimens were made with ABS tubes, forming concentric sleeves for the bolts as shown in Figure 8. The tubes had an inside diameter of 44.5mm (1-^/4 in.) and an outside diameter of 50mm (2 in.). This allowed the concrete core to move relative to the HSS without bearing on the bolts. These specimens are referred to as "non-bearing" whereas specimens without tubes are referred to as "bearing". One non-bearing specimen was used for the moment case while another was used for the pure shear case. The tests were nondestructive for the non-bearing specimens to allow for a variation of post-tensioning and moment arm. Four tests were conducted in the pure shear case with varying bolt post-tensioning. Nine tests were planned as moment cases with three different post-tensionings and three different moment arms. (Not all tests were performed for the moment case since the shear and moment capacities of the beams were too low to achieve the slip load. See Table 1.). 3.4 ASSEMBLAGE OF SPECIMENS End plates and beams were assembled after pouring the concrete. This allowed for the use of only one set of endplates for the pure shear case and one set of endplates and beams for the moment case. Bolts used for bearing specimens were positoned with snuggly fitting templates and the bolts were cast in place. In the non-bearing specimens, bohs were inserted after the curing of concrete. Strain gauge wires were routed along the bolts, through slots in the HSS (provided for avove the bolt holes) and then along conduits provided in the backside of one of the endplates. Bearing specimens were wired in a similar way. To avoid damage to the strain gauges and wires that could occur due to rotation of the rods in the concrete, the nuts on one side of the specimen were welded to the rods and endplate. The bolts were then tightened from the opposite side of the cormection. Snug fitting plywood (^/^ in.) templates were used as dummy endplates to hold bolts in place during pouring of the concrete. Correct placement of the bolts was crucial since misalignment could necessitate further machining of the endplates. 3.5 DEFINITION OF TEST DESCRIPTION CODE A code description for the different tests was developed and it consists of a series of letters and numbers as follows: M or PS: The first letter(s) indicate the moment or pure shear case respectively. 05, 10 or 15: The first number(s) (only for the moment case) indicate nominal moment arms of 500, 1000, and 1500 mm respectively. N or B: The second letter indicates a nonbearing or bearing specimen respectively. 000, 050 or 100: The second group of numbers indicate a nominal percentage of full post-tensioning of 0%, 50%, and 100% respectively. 1, 2 or nothing: The last number indicates the first or second of two identical tests. Test descriptions are summarized in Table 1. (It should be noted that not all tests were performed since the beam shear and moment capacity was too low to attain a slip and/or bearing failure of some connections). T A B L E 1: Test description TEST B E A R I N G POST TENSIONING MOMENT ARM {mn) PERFORMED REMARKS PSNOOOl NO 0% 38 mm * YES The first of two identical tests PSN0002 NO 0% 38 * YES The second of two identical tests PSN050 NO 50% 38 * YES PSNIOO NO 100% 38 * YES 100%) post-tensioning constituted 180kN per bolt. PSBOOO YES 0% 38 * YES PSB050 YES 50% 38 * YES PSBIOO YES 100% 38 * YES M05N000 (M2N000) NO 0% 500 (178) A L I E R E D ** Test designation was changed to M2N000 MIONOOO (M3N000) NO 0% 1000 (254) A L I E R E D * * M15N000 NO 0% 1500 NO *** T A B L E 1: Test description (continued) TEST B E A R I N G JPOST T E N S I O N I N G MOHENT ARM (mm) jPERFORMED jREMARKS M05N050 NO 50% 500 NO *** M10N050 NO 50% 1000 NO *** M15N050 NO 50% 1500 NO *** M05N100 NO 100% 500 YES MIONIOO NO 100% 1000 NO *** M15N100 NO 100% 1500 NO *** M05B000 YES 0% 500 NO *** M05B050 YES 50% 1000 NO *** M05B100 YES 100% 1500 YES *All "pure shear" tests had a moment arm of 38 mm (see Figure 10) **moment arm was shortened from 500 mm to 178 mm and 254 mm in order to lower the slip capacity since beam shear and moment capacities were too low. Altered designations are shown in brackets. ***tests could not be performed since slip and/or bearing failure of the specimen exceeded the beam shear and bending capacities. 3.6 INSTRUMENTATION Instrumentation was chosen for measuring the following quantities: (a) bolt strains (T-side and B-side at vertical centre line of connection) (b) moment-rotation of the connection (c) applied load (for all specimens) (d) slip between the concrete core and the HSS (for all specimens) Instrumentation used for each test is shown in Table 2. T A B L E 2: Instrumentation TEST ROTATIONAL MEASUREMENT S T R A I N MESUREMENT OF B - S I D E OF BOLT S T R A I N MESUREMENT OF T - S I D E OF BOLT T - E N D AND B-END S L I P PSNOOOl NO NO YES YES PSN0002 NO NO YES YES PSN050 NO NO YES YES PSNIOO NO NO YES YES PSBOOO NO YES YES YES PSB050 NO YES YES YES PSBIOO NO YES YES YES M05N000 YES NO YES YES MIONOOO YES NO YES YES M15N000 YES NO YES YES M05N050 YES NO YES YES M10N050 YES NO YES YES M15N050 YES NO YES YES M05N100 YES NO YES YES M ION 100 YES NO YES YES T A B L E 2: Instrumentation (continued) TEST ROTATIONAL MEASUREMENT S T R A I N HESUREMENT OF B - S I D E OF BOLT S T R A I N MESUREMENT OF T - S I D E OF BOLT T - E N D AND B-ENO S L I P M15N100 YES NO YES YES M05B000 YES YES YES YES M05B050 YES YES YES YES M05B100 YES YES YES YES 3.6.1 CONNECTION ROTATION MEASUREMENT Four 6.4 mm (V4 in.) Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) attached to the HSS with magnetic bases were used to measure the connection rotation. The instrument set-up is shown in Figure IL 19 mm west B-flange • ~ N AL rt A A beam stand d o o west T-flange O O o o o M S magnetic ^ bases O O b o LVDT H S S east B-flange east T-flange centre line of LVDT is aligned with centre line of flange FIGURE 11: Instrumentation for rotation measurement 3.6.2 SLIP MEASUREMENT Two 12.5 mm (V2 in.) LVDT's attached to the HSS with magnetic bases were used for measuring T-shp and B-shp. The instrument set-up is shown in Figure 9. 3.6.3 STRAIN GAUGES A l l bolts of all specimens were instrumented with strain gauges. Dimensions and detailing for both the bearing and non-bearing cases are shown in Figure 8. Al l tests were conducted at room temperature. The strain gauges were manufactured by Micro-Measurements Division of the Measurements Group, Inc. and had the following characteristics: type: CEA-06-125UN-350 resistance: 350 ohms ± 0.3 % at 240C gauge factor: 2.090 ± 0.5% at 240C Kt: +0.5 ± 0.2 % excitation: 4.8 mA Non-bearing specimens had a single strain gauge attached in the middle on the T-side of the boh. Bolts of the bearing specimens were suspected to bend substantially and two strain gauges on opposite sides, were attached to measure the combined bending and tension strains. The strain gauges were attached to the middle of the B-side and T-side. All strain gauges had three layers of "M-coat A" applied for water proofing. A layer of "five minute epoxy" was applied to protect the strain gauges against small impacts due to installation. Strain gauges and wires were wrapped with one layer of Duct tape to avoid abrasions. Since normal pressure on the strain gauges could cause false readings, 75 ,mm long strips of 12 mm (1/2 in.) foam padding was wrapped around the bolt. Plastic was then wrapped around the padding and all seams were covered with Duct tape. It was relized that the presence of the padding would influence the behaviour of the bolt and it's bearing response to some extent. The bolt strains were considered important enough to warrant the inclusion of this extra protection. The surrounding concrete in the middle would invariably help to restrain the bolt from bending, while bearing was expected to be concentrated at the ends of the bolt (closer to the inside edges of the HSS). For this reason, it was assumed that bolt strain measurements in the presence of the foam would be slightly increased. 3.6.4 LOAD CELLS Two 2220 kN (500 Kip) load cells were used for measuring the reaction loads. Load cells are shown in Figure 9 and 10. The east and west load cells had excitation inputs of 10 and 15 volts respectively. 3.6.5 DATA ACQUISITION A 16 bit computer controlled automatic data acquisition system (Optilog) was used for collecting data. The Optilog has 9 different modes for data collection. Mode 1 is the slowest but it compensates for wire resistance. Since the tests were quasi-static and high speeds were not required, mode 1 was used . The Optilog has high and low speed data collection. High speed collection stores information in a buffer and periodically sends the information to the computer. While the system sends information to the computer, the data logging operation is interrupted, resulting in gaps in the dataset. During low speed operation, information is sent to the computer on a continual basis. Although no data is lost, this process is much slower than the high speed data collection. The low speed operation was considered to be the most appropriate option for these experiments. 3.7 LOADING DEVICE A 1780 kN (400 Kip) servo-controlled actuator, combined with a cantilever arrangement for mechanical advantage was used for loading the specimens. The cantilever, salvaged from a previous research program, was modified to accommodate the specimen as proposed. The orientation and assembly of the frame are shown in Figures 12, 13 and 14. TTie entire loading frame was found to be relatively flexible. This was not a concern since tests were static in nature, all measurements were taken relative to fixed points on the specimens, and the actuator was displacement-controlled. The rotation of the cantilever caused the specimens to lean during testing, which was compensated for by providing the cantilever with a rotating loading head. The load cell bearing plates were also able to rotate to some degree. These precautions helped to maintain a concentric load relative to the longitudinal axis of the specimen. actuator supporting beam \ , plate n O threaded rod o o o o o o channel o o o o o o o o mechano set VIEW FROM SOUTH F I G U R E 13: South view of loading device 52 plate diagonal support VIEW FROM EAST F I G U R E 14: North view of loading device 3.8 RELATIONSHIPS OF SPECIMENS Eight different specimens with differing post-tensioning, bearing and non-bearing conditions, and different moment to shear ratios were chosen to study the responses. Table 3 summarizes the relationships and purposes of the different tests. (It should be noted that not all the tests were performed. See Table 1) T A B L E 3: Test relationships TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP PSNOOOl To examine the change in slip load from test to test. PSN0002 PSNOOOl To determine the relationship between slip load and PSN0002 post-tensioning PSN050 PSNIOO M05N000 * To determine the relationship between slip load, post-tensioning MIONOOO * and end-moment. M15N000 ** M05N050 ** M10N050 ** M15N050 ** M05N100 MIONIOO ** M15N100 ** T A B L E 3: Test relationships (continued) TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP PSNOOOl PSN0002 PSBOOO Bolt strains compared to establish unacceptable shear levels. PSN050 PSB050 PSNIOO PSBIOO PSBOOO PSB050 PSBIOO Comparison of bearing responses for different post-tensionings. M05B000 ** M05B050 ** .M05B100 PSBOOO M05B000 ** Comparison of bearing responses of the pure shear case relative to the moment case. PSB050 M05B050 ** PSBIOO M05B100 T A B L E 3: Test relationships (continued) TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP M05N000 * M05N050 ** M05N100 Examine the change in moment-rotation behaviour for different post-tensionings. MIONOOO * M10N050 ** MIONIOO ** M15N000 ** M15N050 ** M15N100 ** M05B000 ** M05B050 ** M05B100 M05N000 * M05B000 ** Bolt strains compared to estabHsh unacceptable shear levels. To examine changes in moment-rotation behaviour from bearing and non-bearing specimens. M05N050 ** M05B050 ** M05N100 M05B100 T A B L E 3: Test relationships (continue) TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP M05N000 * MIONOOO * M15N000 ** Moment-rotation behaviour compared for varying moment-to-shear ratios. M05N050 ** M10N050 ** M15N050 ** M05N100 MIONIOO ** M15N100 ** A L L M O M E N T CASES The calculated initial stiffnesses of the moment rotation relationships will be compared to calculated values. *moment arm was hortened to lower slip capacity since beam shear and moment capacities were too low (see table 1). **tests could not be performed since slip and/or bearing failure of the specimen exceeded the beam shear and bending capacities. 3.8.1 DETERIORATION OF SLIP LOAD Tests PSNOOOl and PSN0002 were performed with a single specimen under identical conditions to determine the change in slip load from test to test. Both tests were non-bearing and loaded in "pure shear" with no post-tensioning. 3.8.2 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING RELATIONSHIP Three different non-bearing pure shear tests (PSNOOO, PSN050, PSNIOO) were performed with a single specimen to determine the relationship between shp load and post-tensioning. 3.8.3 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING VERSUS ENDMOMENT RELATIONSHIP Nine different non-bearing moment tests (M5N000, M5N050, M5N100, MIONOO, M10N050, MIONIOO, M15N000, M15N050, M15N100) were planned on a single specimen to determine the relationship between slip load, post-tensioning and end-moment. However, the end-moment was suspected not to have a significant influence on the slip load unless the precompression of the concrete had been relieved. Figure 74 shows the anticipated relationship to be achieved. (The relationship could not be established experimentally, since all the tests could not be performed.) 3.8.4 ESTABLISHING UNACCEPTABLE SHEAR LEVELS Endplate and flexible connections are widely used in typical steel construction. Bolts are generally designed for combined tension and shear and moments on the bolts caused by eccentricities between connecting plates are usually ignored. The non-bearing connections in the experimental program were similar to those used in routine construction and could be designed in the same way as common connections. The bearing connection added complexity to the design and it was felt that moments on the bolts could not be ignored. In the bearing case, the bolt is restrained from bending by the surrounding concrete while the bearing stresses exerted by the concrete in turn cause bending in the bolt. The concrete is highly confined and has a non-linear behaviour. A detailed analysis would be formidable. Therefore, it was decided to extract this information by comparing the behaviour of the bearing connection relative to the non-bearing connection. Unacceptable loads for the bearing case could be established by comparing longitudinal bolt strains of the bearing case relative to the non-bearing case. If strains were significantly higher than those of the non-bearing case, bending of the bolts would have to be considered in the design process. 3.8.5 FACTORS AFFECTING BEARING RESPONSE The bearing response is defined as the behaviour of the connection at loads beyond the slip load. This study measured bearing response in terms of T-end slip and bolt strains. The bearing strength is defined as the load at bearing failure minus the slip load. This additional resistance could be seen as a backup in case of slippage and thus bearing is of interest to study the behaviour. The following factors were anticipated to affect the bearing response: concrete strength, steel wall thickness, column dimensions and shape, steel strength of bolt, diameter of bolt, steel strength of HSS, post-tensioning of bolt, end-moment on the coimection. This study concentrated on the effects of prestressing level and end-moment on bearing response. In these cases, the bolts were loaded in combined tension, bending and shear. 3.8.5.1 PRESTRESSING LEVEL It was not expected that the prestressing alone would affect the ultimate bearing strength since yielding of the bolts would relieve the prestressing. However, the initial bearing response might be changed. The bearing responses of specimens PSBOOO, PSB050 and PSBIOO would be compared to identify any significant trends. 3.8.5.2 END-MOMENT A moment applied to the connection was anticipated to cause a change in bearing response. For this reason, the bearing responses of specimens PSBOOO and M5B000 would be compared. The two specimen groups PSB050, M5B050 and PSBIOO, M5B100 would also be compared. 3.8.6 FACTORS AFFECTING MOMENT-ROTATION There are conceivably many factors which could affect the moment-rotation behaviour of connections. This is especially true for endplate connections which have many contributing parameters. In the case of concrete-filled HSS, the bending of the bolts caused by bearing may tend to complicate the moment-rotation behaviour. On the other hand, the behaviour is also simplified since the deformations of a column flange no longer have to be considered. In this experimental program, three factors which could potentionally affect the moment rotation were studied: bearing on the bolts, prestressing of the bolts, and moment-to-shear ratio. 3.8.6.1 BEARING ON BOLTS If the bolts are loaded beyond the elastic range in combined tension and bending in the bearing case, the moment-rotation behaviour would be affected. A comparison of specimen groups M5N000-M5B000, M5N050-M5B050, and M5N100-M5B100 would indicate any significant changes. 3.8.6.2 PRESTRESSING OF BOLTS The level of prestressing was not expected to affect the intial part of the moment-rotation curve. However, the load at which the prestressing would be relieved depended on the level of prestressing. The following four different groups of varying prestressing levels were to be studied independently: (not all tests were completed) M5N000 MIONOOO M15N000 M5B000 M5N050 M10N050 M15N050 M5B050 M5N100 MIONIOO M15N100 M5B100 3.8.6.3 HIGH SHEAR LEVELS High shear levels might affect the moment-rotation behaviour, which would be especially true for the bearing case. The higher shear levels would increase the bearing on the bolts, causing them to bend, which in turn would affect their tension capacity and general longitudinal deformation behaviour. Although the behaviour of the bolt plays a fundamental role in the moment-rotation characteristics of a joint, no bearing tests with different moment to shear ratios were planned. However, several non-bearing cases with varying moment-to-shear ratios were plaimed. The tests were not specifically planned to address the different moment-rotation responses for varying moment to shear ratios. Since this information was available, it was another variation which could be examined. Any differences in moment-rotation behaviour for the non-bearing cases would likely also appear for the bearing cases. The following tests were intended for comparison: M5N000 M5N050 M5N100 MIONOOO M10N050 MIONIOO M15N000 M15N050 M15N100 3.9 PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN The bearing response and slip load values were difficult to predict. A salvaged specimen from a previous test program presented an opportunity to investigate the expected behaviour. The specimen is shown in Figure 15. Bolts were tightened to approximately 180 kN each, which represents 33% of the ultimate bolt capacity. Subsequently the specimen was loaded in a 1780 kN (400 Kip) universal testing machine by pushing the concrete through the HSS. The load and B-slip were recorded. The bolts were manufactured from 4340 steel rod with a 25 mm (1 in.) diameter. 100x200mm (4x8 in.) concrete cylinders yielded an approximate compressive strength of 35 MPa. The results were recorded on an X Y plotter: B-slip was measured with a 1/2 in. stroke LVDT, while the load was measured with a L V D T attached to a dial mechanism on the Baldwin testing device. The preliminary specimen was tested under the following conditions: - Two perpendicular sets of endplates with 8 bolts per set of endplates (a total of 16 bolts). The bolts were tightened. -One set of endplates with 8 tightened bolts. -One set of endplates with 8 finger tightened bolts -One set of endplates with 4 tightened bolts. -One set of endplates with 4 untightened bolts -Two identical tests with no plates or bolts. B-end plates bolts T-end FIGURE 15: Preliminary specimen 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND RESULTS In this chapter all the tests are briefly described and results are given. As mentioned in the previous chapter, not all the tests were carried out. Besides the main experiments, tests were also carried out on the bolts and concrete. Furthermore, a preliminary specimen was tested to give an estimate of the actuator forces that would be required for the main tests. 4.1 AUXILIARY TESTS Material tests were performed on the bolts and concrete only. The HSS material was not tested as it was not expected to have a significant effect on the results. Removing of the HSS material would have been a difficult task since the concrete made it virtually impossible to use a cutting torch or saw. 4.1.1 CONCRETE CYLINDER TESTS Concrete test cyhnders were crushed throughout the period of the experimental program to establish the variations of strength and elastic modulus with time. A total of twelve cylinders were cast, two of which were saved for possible future testing together with the untested specimens. Four inch diameter by 8 in. long brass moulds were used instead of the usual 6 X 12 moulds. The concrete was poured in three layers and prodded 25 times per layer. Cylinders were cured in a moist room and were not removed until the day of testing. Two cylinders were crushed on each day of concrete testing. Testing as shown in Figure 16, was done on the 1780 kN (400 kip) Baldwin universal testing machine. The load was measured by a L V D T connected to the mechanical dial of the testing machine to an accuracy of 4kN or better. Displacements were not measured on the the first two cylinders. For later tests, data was recorded on a X Y plotter and subsequently digitized. Results are shown in Figures 17-24, and Appendix B. Even though there was a clear correlation between age and elastic modulus, the average modulus of 22200 MPa was used for calculation purposes. The stress-strain relationship was calculated from the displacement and load readings. The relatively ductile behaviour was found to be quite different from that of typical concrete. The post-ultimate segment of the curve was unusually long at relatively high load levels for concretes with added fibres. The loading rate after post-ultimate was rapid yet slow enough for an analogue X Y plotter to record the information. Unlike most concrete cylinders, the cylinders remained intact after testing but could be broken apart by a slight twisting action. Some suspicions were raised regarding the testing procedure. During the same time, a set of 6 X 12 cylinders from another experimental program were tested with the same set-up, and these behaved in the usual brittle manner. For this reason, it is believed that the unusual post-ultimate behaviour recorded is a real characteristic of the concrete that was used in this study. FIGURE 16: Concrete cylinder test set-up 30 20 h 10 —I—. l _ J 4 6 8 10 MICRO STRAIN (xio") 12 14 F I G U R E 17: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 76 - Cylinder 1) 10 0 MICRO STRAIN (xlO") F I G U R E 19: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 102 - Cylinder 1) (0 Q. CO CO 111 CO 4 6 8 MICRO STRAIN (xio') 10 12 14 FIGURE 21: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 137 - Cylinder 1) 50 40 h 30 w CO m ce 20 10 6 8 MICRO STRAIN 10 12 14 (x10') 40 h 30 h 0 MICRO STRAIN (xio") F I G U R E 23: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 150 - Cylinder 1) 51 50 TIME (DAYS) F I G U R E 25: Concrete strength versus time 4.1.2 BOLT TESTS Upon close inspection of the bolt material, it was found that two different stocks of rod were used for the manufacturing of the bolts. One batch was marked with red paint while the other was unmarked. Test results showed, however, that the two different batches were virtually identical. Three bolts were tested to failure under uniaxial tension in the 400 Kip Baldwin universal testing machine. They were tested with both single and double nuts. Instrumentation for the two different cases is shown in Figure 26. Data was collected with the Optilog data aquisition system. One red stock bolt was tested with a single nut. The non-marked stock bolts were tested with both a single and double nut. The single nut tests provided information of how a bolt may deform (including the thread deformations) in the specimen. The double nut specimen was used to develop the full stress-strain curve of the material. Results of the tests are shown in Figures 27 to 31 and appendix C. The red stock bolt threads failed in shear (stripped). The non-marked bolts both failed in tension. L V D T readings over the 2 inch gauge length gave strain results that cosely approximated the strain gauge readings. The modulus of the steel was calculated to be 180 000 MPa for all three bolts. Tangent slopes were varied on the stress-strain curve to establish the sensitivity of the measured modulus. Lines with slopes of 185 000 MPa and 175 000 MPa were clearly not tangent to any part of the "linear" portion of the stress-strain curve. to grips on * Baldwin - LVDTs and bolt gripping devices were secured with ropes to avoid collapse after rupture of the bolt pin LVDT was not used tor the red marked bolt stock Double Nutted Case Single Nutted Case F I G U R E 26: Bolt testing configuration CO 1 1 1 1 L — I 1 1 I I [ I I I I r I I I 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 MICRO STRAIN (xio') F I G U R E 27: Bolt stress-strain curve (non-marked stock - double nutted) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 MICRO STRAIN (xlO') F I G U R E 28: Bolt stress-strain curve (non-marked stock - single nutted) 600 r F I G U R E 29: Bolt Load-deflection curve (non-marked stock - single nutted) 600 DISPLACEMENT (mm) F I G U R E 31: Bolt Load-deflection curve (red-marked stock - single nutted) 4.2 PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN The load versus B-slip relationships are shown in Figures 32 to 38. Results from the X Y plotter were digitized and reported in appendix D. Due to limited load capacity of the Baldwin testing machine, the bolts could not be failed in bearing. The load resistances obtained from the preliminary tests were significantly higher than initially anticipated. This lead to capacity problems for the beams in later tests, and it was decided to perform the experimental program with four bolts instead of eight to simulate a flush endplate instead of an extended endplate connection. TTie changes to the connection design are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Repeated tests without bolts showed slip loads of 512 kN and 516 kN respectively. This was an indication that repeated testing on non-bearing specimens could be done without significant deterioration of the pure slip capacity. 1.8 B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 32: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (16 tightened bolts - 4 plates) 0 1 2 3 4 B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 33: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (8 tightened bolts - 2 plates) F I G U R E 34: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (8 lose bolts - 2 plates) F I G U R E 35: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (4 tightened bolts - 2 plates) B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 36: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (4 lose bolts - 2 plates) 600 B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 37: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (no plates - first test) 600 B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 38: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (no plates - second test) PSBOOO was the first specimen of the program to be tested. Data was scanned every 5 seconds. The actuator displacement rate was set at 2 inches per hour. It was found that the majority of the displacement originated from the deformation of the testing device, which resulted in a longer testing period than anticipated. The resulting quantity of data collected was overwhelming and it was decided to scan future tests at 10 second intervals and change the displacement rate of the actuator to 4 inches per hour for loading and 16 inches per hour for unloading. The configuration of the testing device was such that the supporting beam for the actuator could deflect toward the north, which produced an undesireable P-delta effect. The threaded rods securing the supporting beam were permitted to deflect to equilibrate horizontal forces the actuator may have produced. Horizontal forces would then be transferred to the bracing of the testing device. As the applied load was increased, the deflections increased, causing a higher horizontal force, which in turn increased the deflections. At failure of the specimen, the beam abruptly returned towards its original position. Before testing the next specimen, it was thus necessary to realign the plates, supporting beam and actuator. Also, one of four supporting brackets of the actuator failed and minor modifications were made to avoid problems with later tests. The base of the actuator was secured directly to the bracing of the testing device and the supporting system was changed to avoid future failures. The specimen reached its maximum capacity when the bolts abruptly failed in shear at 2980 kN. This load was slightly higher than the predicted value: Results are shown in Figures 39 to 41 and data is presented in appendix E. F I G U R E 39: PSBOOO: B-end slip vs. load i Q < O 3.2 3 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 -0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 T-END SLIP (mm) 1.2 1.4 FIGURE 40: PSBOOO: T-end slip vs. load 3.2 3 2.8 2.6 -2.4 -• £ 2.2 -5. 2 — 1.8 i ,.6 •J 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0,4 0.2 I-0 B-side strains -2 0 2 4 MICROSTRAIN (xltf) Assembly and testing of the specimen went as planned. Bolts were finger tightened only. Slip load was measured at 947 kN. Results are shown in Figures 42 to 44 and data is presented in appendix F. B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 42: PSNOOOl: B-end slip vs. load F I G U R E 43: PSNOOOl: T-end slip vs. load 4.5 PSN0002 When setting up, it was found that some residual tension was present in the bolts after the previous test (PSNOOOl). It was therefore necessary to remove the specimen from the testing device to loosen the bolts. The bolts were then finger tightened and the specimen was placed back in the testing device. Results are shown in Figures 45 to 47 and data is presented in appendix G . 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 45: PSN0002: B-end slip vs. load 1.1 0.8 h • £ 0.7 -0.6 -0.5 Q O 0.4 -_i 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 T-END SLIP (mm) FIGURE 46: PSN0002: T-end slip vs. load 1.1 MICROSTRAIN (xltf) FIGURE 47: PSN0002: Boit strains vs. load Test PSNIOO was performed before PSN050 to estimate the maximum post-tensioning possible with the available torquing devices. This value was approximately 180 kN, which was much lower than desired. Bolts were tightened with the specimen removed from the testing device. The specimen was placed on its side and the strain gauges were connected to the data acquisition system. Longitudinal tension strains of the bolts were measured during the tightening process. The specimen was then placed back in the testing device and the strain gauges were reconnected to the data acquisition system. Slight changes in the strain readings were observed which were possibly due to handling and shifting of the specimen. The initial strain readings presented in the data are those obtained after the specimen was placed back into the testing device. The procedure as described above was used for all the prestressed specimens. Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 48 to 50 and appendix H. The occurrence of slip was audible. The jolt upon slipping caused the L V D T magnetic base to shift. This offset was taken into account in the data by comparing with measurements of the total deflected amount with a ruler after testing. It may be noted that the measured quantity does not significantly affect the shape of the T-slip versus load curve, since the unknown deflection occured on a relatively flat portion of the curve (between scan 835 and 836). 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 B-END SLIP (mm) FIGURE 48: PSNIOO: B-end slip vs. load 1.9 r-1.8 MICROSTRAIN (xlCf) FIGURE 50: PSNIOO: Bolt strains vs. load Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 51 to 53 and appendix I. Each occurance of slip was audible. -> -I r 1 \ 1 1 \ I I I I I I -Ji I I 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 B-END SLIP (mm) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 T-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 52: PSN050: T-end slip vs. load 1.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 MICROSTRAIN (xltf) Experimental results and data are shwon in Figures 54 to 56 and appendix J. 2.8 0 1 2 3 4 B-END SLIP (mm) F I G U R E 54: PSB050: B-end slip vs. load 0.6 0.4 -0.2 -0 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 T-END SLIP (mm) 0.9 1.1 F I G U R E 55: PSB050: T-end slip vs. load 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 -1.6 1.4 -1.2 1 -0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 -0 B-side strains T-slde strains -2 0 2 MICROSTRAIN (xltf) Experimental results and data are shwon in Figures 57 to 59 and appendix K. 2.8 r-2.6 2.4 -B-END SUP (mm) F I G U R E 57: PSBIOO: B-end slip vs. load 0.6 h 0.4 -0.2 -Q I I I I I I I I I I 1_ 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 T-END SLIP (mm) FIGURE 58: PSBIOO: T-end slip vs. load MICROSTRAIN (xltf) 4.10 M2N000 The slip loads were higher than anticipated. To reduce this load, the moment arm of the beam reactions was reduced to within the region of the first shear panel. No extra stiffeners could be placed in the first shear panel since this would have been too close to the bolts and would have made the tightening procedure impossible. Fortunately, slip occured befor failure of the beam web. The moment arm for this test was 178mm. Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 60 to 63 and Appendix L. The slip load and maximum moment were 1366 kN and 122 kNm respectively. The intial moment-rotation stiffness was 42000 kNm/rad. 160 -i-ROTATION (RADIANS x10E-3) FIGURE 60: M2N000: Moment-rotation curve B-END SLIP (mm) 0.2 -0.1 -Q i 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I i I 1 I I i \ Li 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1,6 T-END SLIP (mm) FIGURE 62: M2N000: T-end slip vs. load 1.5 MICROSTRAIN (xio') 4.11 M3N000 The rotation of the cantilever of the loading device caused a slight tilt of the specimen. The bearing plates on the load cell did not rotate adequately to compensate for the lean. Furthermore, the out-of-plane bending capacity of the beam web was inadequate. The combined bearing and bending caused the web of the beam to buckle leading to premature plastic deformations. The slip load could thus not be reached. The moment arm of the beam loads was 254mm. Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 64 and 65 and appendix M . The maximum load and moment were 1336 kN and 170 kNm respectively. The intial moment-rotation stiffness was 49000 kNm/rad. At this stage it was decided to eliminate some of the tests from the experimental program since the beams were clearly inadequate. It was felt, however, that the difference in moment rotation behaviour for the bearing and non-bearing specimens could still be studied. Therefore, tests M5N100 and M5B100 were conducted as planned. ROTATION (RADIANS x10E-3) FIGURE 64: M3N000: Moment-rotation curve 1.5 -1.4 -MICROSTRAIN (x^d) 4.12 M5N100 The beam webs and T-flange were sHghtly damaged from test M3N000. However, the damage was thought not to effect the moment-rotation behaviour. Experimental results and data are shown in figures 66 and 67 and Appendix N . The maximum load and moment were 1352 kN and 369 kNm respectively. The initial moment-rotation stiffness was 109000 kNm/rad. ROTATION (RADIANS x10E-3) F I G U R E 66: M5N100: Moment-rotation curve MICROSTRAIN (xlO^ 4.13 M5B100 After assembly of the specimen, it became apparent that the endplate had been bent on the T-flange side during test M5N100. The damage was not obvious and could not be seen unless a straight-edge was placed against the endplate. A schematic of the damage is shown in Figure 68. While the damage appeared to be minor, it could have a significant effect on the moment-rotation behaviour. Improper mating of the endplate and column surface could significantly reduce the initial moment-rotation stiffness. Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 69 to 71 and Appendix O. The maximum load and moment were 1439 kN and 392 kNm respectively. The intial moment-rotation stiffness was 55000 kNm/rad. column M beam M •0.5 mm FIGURE 68: Endplate damage FIGURE 69: M5B100: Moment-rotation curve _ J I I I I I I I L I I I L_ 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 MICROSTRAIN {x^d) FIGURE 71: M5B100: Strains of bolts 3 and 4 (B-end) vs. load 5 DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In this chapter, the results of the experimental program are summarized and discussed in general. During the course of the study, various unknown quantities influenced the progression of the project leading to a shift in emphasis from the originally set goals. These matters are discussed, followed by design recommendations based on the observed behaviour. From the tests which could be performed, some unexpected results were obtained, the most surprising being the high load carrying capacity of the connections. The confinment of the concrete prevented the centre of the bolt from bending significantly and also geneated an extremely high concrete bearing stress capacity. Slip loads were higher than expected. 5.1 PROBLEMS WITH THE B-SLIP MEASUREMENT T-slip was chosen as the most appropriate parameter for the comparison between specimens. The B-slip would often appear to decrease as the load increased as shown in Figure 51. This was likely caused by a slight rotation of the bearing plate on the concrete. This lead to inconsistent B-slip readings since only one L V D T attached to one side of the HSS was used for this measurement. The concrete core did not rotate relative to the HSS at the T-end of the specimen, which made the T-slip measurements more consistent. The B-slip was also compHcated by relatively large elastic deformations of the concrete core and bearing plates. 5.2 DETERIORATION OF SLIP LOAD Tests PSNOOOl and PSN0002 showed little variation in slip load. T-slip versus load relationships for the tests are shown in Figures 43 and 46. Similar results were obtained from the prehminary tests (Figure 37 and 38). There was no obvious damage to the columns or deterioration of slip capacity from test to test. It was thus concluded that no significant change in results were to be expected by reusing specimens for several tests. The only significant difference between the two tests was the initial section of the T-slip versus load ^prve. The maximum slip load in test PSNOOOl was reached after an initial T-slip of approximately 0.7 mm. For test PSN0002, however, no measurable T-slip occurred before the slip load was reached. 5.3 SLIP LOAD BEHAVIOUR The following bearing and Non-bearing tests are used for comparison: PSBOOO, PSB050, PSBIOO, PSNOOOl, PSN0002, PSN050, PSNIOO. For the bearing cases, slip between the HSS and the concrete core was continuous with no sudden changes in load or slip deflection (Figures 40, 55 and 58). In the case of non-bearing specimens, slip between the concrete core and the HSS occurred abruptly. Once the slip load was reached, there was a sudden movement between the concrete and the HSS, accompanied by a decrease in load. The load then increased again until another occurrence of slip took place, with each successive occurrence of slip taking place at a higher load. This behaviour is illustrated in Figures 49 and 52. The increase in slip load is believed to be a result of an increase in bolt tension. The undulating deformities of the wall surfaces of the HSS are pushed outward as the concrete core travels through the HSS, causing an increase of the bolt tension. The occurrence of slip was audible during tests PSN050 and PSNIOO. The higher the prestressing, the louder was the occurrence of slip. Ill 5.4 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING The relationship between slip resistance and orthogonal load was established with tests PSNOOOl, PSN0002, PSN050, and PSNIOO, which were all conducted on the same specimen. The slip load was taken at the first occurrence of slip. The relationship, as shown in Figure 72, indicates a constant ratio between pretensioning and slip load. For the purpose of clarity, the following definitions are used: -Orthogonal load (F The compression load on the exterior of the specimen perpendicular to the centroidal axis of the concrete core. In the pure shear case, the orthogonal load is: -Base slip load ( B ^i) Is the slip load value with no prestressing of the bolts. -Friction coefficient ( C^;) Is the increase in slip load per unit increase in orthogonal load. Previous research showed the base slip load to be a highly variable parameter [VIRD 75] and to establish a reasonable design value would be difficult to accomplish. The friction coefficient itself may, however, prove to be less variable (more research is needed to establish the variabiHty of the friction coefficent). For design purposes, the base slip load is ignored and the design slip load could be determined by using the friction coefficient alone. 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 SLIP 1.4 LOAD (kNX10=) 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.53 X 2 surfaces X 4 bolts _l I I I 1 1 L. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 BOLT FORCE (kN) FIGURE 72: Slip load vs. orthogonal load 5.5 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING AND BEAM END MOMENT Although initially intended, the influence of the beam end moment and bolt prestressing could not be established experimentally. The beams that were used in the experimental program were not able to carry the high loads required to induce slip. The relationship can, however, be estimated by using the friction coefficient obtained from the pure shear case as follows, assuming a symmetrical cruciform loading arrangement. First, the orthogonal load is calculated: Without prestressing: ( 2 M J where d = depth of beam M e = beam endmoment With prestressing: F, = 2ne E^A, where e p , = prestressing strain £ " 6 = elastic modulons of bolt material Ah= cross-sectional area of bolt Then, the slip load: P si ^ P si This relationship is shown in Figure 73. 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 ^ 1400 D 1200 < o 1000 ^ 800 -600 -400 200 A = A , R = 4000 kN Fo = 3000 kN F = 2000 kN F = 1000 kN different levels of post tensioning 200 400 600 BEAM END MOMENT (kNm) 800 F I G U R E 73: Slip load vs. end-moment and post-tensioning (Predicted) 5.6 BENDING OF THE BOLTS Bending of the bohs is a concern when combined with shear and tension. Strain gauges on the bohs were used to give an indication of the stress levels experienced for embedded bolts and those in clearance sleeves. The non-bearing specimens were instrumented with single gauges, measuring the strain on the T-side of the bolt. The bolts were, however, strained from both bending and axial tension which would have required gauges on both the T-side and B-side of the bolt. Without measuring bending directly, a comparison between the bearing and non-bearing specimens can, however, be demonstrated by examining the strain on the T-side, which was the side with the highest tension strain. In Figures 74 to 83, T-side strains of bolts during tests PSNOOOl, PSN050 and PSNIOO are compared to those of PSBOOO, PSB050 and PSBIOO respectively. At equal load levels, the strain of the bearing specimen was less than that of the non-bearing specimen. The embedded bolts bent considerably less at the mid-section of the bolt which, however, does not necessarily imply that the maximum bending forces of the bearing case are less than those of the non-bearing specimen. In the case of the bearing specimen, the maximum bending forces would probably occur at a location away from the mid-section of the bolt, since confinement by the concrete would reduce the curvature near the mid-section. Additional research is needed to determine the bending strain distribution along the length of the bolts. From the results presented here, it is evident, however, that the critical region for bolt failure seems to be at or near the interface of the concrete and steel casing. If this is the case, it may be stated that bending at the centre of the bolts is not a contentious issue for the design of flexible connections. • t o MICROSTRAIN (xlrf) FIGURE 74: T-side strain of bolt 4 (100% post-tensioning) 5. z Q MICROSTRAIN (xicf) F I G U R E 76: T-side strain of bolt 2 (100% post-tensioning) "to T -2 a < o MICROSTRAIN (xicf) FIGURE 78: T-side strain of bolt 2 (50% post-tensioning) 2 Q MICROSTRAIN (xl(f) MICROSTRAIN (xltf) FIGURE 80: T-side strain of bolt 4 (0% post-tensioning) MICROSTRAIN (xltf) FIGURE 82: T-side strain of bolt 2 (0% post-tensioning) 5.7 CHANGES IN BEARING RESPONSE WITH VARYING PRESTRESSING By defintion, the bearing response is the total response minus the slip load. Therefore, to compare the bearing responses of specimens PSBOOO, PSB050 and PSBIOO it was necessary to subtract the slip load from the total load. For test PSBOOO, the load versus T-slip curve clearly indicated the onset of slip (Figure 40) which, unfortunately, was not evident in tests PSB050 and PSBIOO. Some other means are thus required for a comparison between the three bearing responses. It was decided to compare the specimen T-slip responses with respect to a point of a common tangent slope. The bearing response of specimen PSBOOO begins with a linear portion with a slope of 8200 kN/mm which is the logical choice for a common tangent slope. The load and T-slip at the last point of tangency of the common slope, are subtracted from the total response to produce "the relative bearing response" which was done with the test results of the three specimens. Even though the relative bearing response is defined differently from the bearing response, some conclusions can be drawn about the bearing response by comparing the relative bearing response of the different specimens. The new load and slip values of the relative bearing response will be referred to as relative bearing load and relative T-slip respectively. The relative bearing responses are shown in Figure 84. If the bearing responses of the three different specimens were similar in shape then the relative bearing responses must also be similar. In this case, the relative bearing responses are not similar and it may be concluded that the bearing responses are also not similar. As shown in Figure 84, there is a decrease in relative bearing load at common relative T-slip values with an increase in post-tensioning. Therefore, the bearing responses must also decrease. The decrease is believed to be caused by a reduction of bolt tension as loading progressed and hence a decrease in slip resistance at larger slip displacements. This has been confirmed by examining the strains of the boUs. The increase in strain readings on the T-sides of the bolts of specimen PSBOOO was more than the decrease in strains on the B-side, indicating an increase in overall tension in the bolts. The converse is true for specimen PSBIOO which exhibits a decrease in overall bolt tesion. Bolt tension did not change significantly for the case of test PSB050. Relative bolt strains are shown in Figure 85. Two opposing factors seem to contribute to this phenomenon. As the concrete core is pushed through the HSS, the walls of the HSS are pushed outward which, in turn, increases the tension on the bolts. At the same time, the bolts are subjected to extremely high shear and bending stresses, causing them to deform plastically and to release some of the post-tensioning. this decreases the slip resistance. PSBIOO was most affected by the plastic deformations, since initial slip coincided with a relatively high shear level. The bolts of specimen PSBIOO were only post-tensioned to 2000 microstrain which is less than the more typical pre-loads applied in construction. The relaxation of bolt tension due to plastic deformations is expected to be significantly more for connections post-tensioned to higher (more typical) levels. This expected relaxation will affect design procedures since the ultimate capacity of the connection is the sum of the slip load and bearing capacity. Either the reduced slip load capacity has to be considered or some means of maintaining the initial tension has to be introduced. Using cone shaped washers may help maintain the tension on bolts. These are essentially flexible springs that allow the bolts to undergo larger deformations before all the post-tensioning is released. Cone shaped washers would also help maintain post-tensioning levels when the concrete shrinks and creeps. 5.8 BEARING FORCES ON THE BOLTS The exact distribution of bearing forces on the tested bohs is unknown. By comparing the bearing and non-bearing cases, however, one can make some inferences, leading to a rational model. It is also known that bearing forces consist of both confining and load carrying components. The bearing capacity of the test connections was much higher than predictions from typical code bearing equations. The maximum experimental bearing resistance can be calculated by subtracting the slip load from the failure load. For specimen PSBOOO, the load at slip was easily determined as 800 kN and the failure load as 2980kN (Figure 40). Therefore, the bearing load achieved at failure was 2180 kN (failure was the result of bolt shear). A rough estimate of the bearing forces and stresses at failure of specimen PSBOOO can be calculated by making some of the following assumptions: - Bearing force configuration was assumed to take the form shown in Figure 86. -The moments on the bolt are approximated from the strain readings at the failure load. -The eccentricity between the HSS wall and end plate is assumed to be 13 mm. The value was estimated by examining the yielding pattern produced by the bearing of the bolt on the endplate. -The increased slip load caused by the additional tension on the bolts (during loading) is ignored. FIGURE 84: Relative Bearing Response PSBOOO z Q < O 3.2 3 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 A N A V E R A G E INCREASE IN TENSION 0 2 PSBIOO MICROSTRAIN (X 1C?) FIGURE 85: Boit tensions of pure shear bearing specimens p s 75 mm \ foam rubber - M :TTtT.T.Î t. : i un 100 mm 8 13 mm y — * I l s 8 Free Body Diagram of Left Half of Bolt h M , FIGURE 86: Assumed bearing force configuration & FBD of bolt 5.8.1 CALCULATION OF BOLT MOMENT The moments on bolts 1 and 3 are calculated and averaged by using strain measurements. (Strain readings at failure could not be obtained from strain gauges on bolts 2 and 4.) Bolt cross-section is shown in Figure 8. It was found that strains on the bolts were in the elastic range at the failure load, leading to the following calculations: For bolt 1: M , ; = E S S = section modulus at location of strain gauges = 1 6 1 7 m m ^ E b = elastic modulus of bolt material = ISOOOOMPa (from bolt tests) G ( = strain on T-side of bolt = 2 7 0 6 x 1 0 " * = strain on B-side of bolt = - 2 6 1 x 1 0 " " ' ' M j,^ =0A32kNm For bolt 3: M b3 = — ^ E= ISOOOOMPa e, = 3460X 10 ' ' ' G(, = - 1810X 10 "* M = 0.767kNm Average for bolts 1 and 3: (Mb, + A ^ b 3 ) Mb = Mfc = O.ÔOOkNm M y - l.ôkNm 5.8.2 BEARING FORCES AND STRESSES ESTIMATION A free body diagram of the boh is shown in Figure 86. There are three unknowns and three equations: X + Y = lOOmm ( F , / 8 ) ( 1 3 m m ) + ( / ^ b X ) ( . r / 2 + \9mn\)-{F ^X){X/2 + Y + 1 9 m m ) - ^ ^ = 0 F,y-F,X^P,/Q = P,/Q X = unknown distance y = unknown distance F b = unknown bearing load (line load) P s = slip load = 300kN P, = total load = 2930kN X = 3 4 . 3 m m r = 6 5 . 7 = 8 .66 / c A / / m m The unknown values were recalculated with the parameter M ^ set to zero: X = 3 4 . 7 m m Y = 6 5 . 4 f J, = 8 . 8 8 A : A ^ / m m The assumption that the bolt carries no moment at mid-section makes little difference to the calculated bearing forces on the bolt. This may thus be a reasonable assumption to simplify calculations for future purposes. It is also apparent that bearing forces on the bolt are extremely high. In considering only the vertical component of bearing stresses over a 25 mm width, the bearing stress is approximately 340 MPa. This bearing stress is a much higher value than the uniaxial concrete cylinder strength, which was approximately 40 MPa. It should be noted that the specimen did not fail in bearing and the bearing stresses at failure could be much higher than those calculated. The initial assumption of the bearing stress pattern (see Figure 86) can now be evaluated. The calculated internal moment of the bolt cannot exceed the plastic moment capacity of the bolt, in this case 2.73 kNm. If it is assumed that the nut of the bolt does not develop an end moment, the maximum internal moment (calculated from equilibrium) of the bolt would be 10.6 kNm. If it is assumed that the nut develops the plastic moment capacity of the bolt, then the maximum calculated internal moment of the bolt would be 7.9 kNm. The assumed bearing stress pattern can thus not be correct. However, the error is conservative in nature. Close to the HSS wall, a higher bearing stress is required with lower levels towards the centre. Future research may include developing a more realistic bearing stress pattern. 5.9 DESIGN PROCEDURE In this section a design procedure is being proposed based on the observations and results of this experimental study. The most rational approach to establish such a procedure for connections would be to adopt a limit states philosophy and assess the prescribed behavioural constraints on an individual basis. The main criterion is to ensure that the appropriate portion of the load is being transferred from the beams to the concrete core. A transfer is necessary to insure the column to behave compositely and maintain strain compatibility between the concrete and HSS. The lack of capability to transfer the total load to the core does not necessarily imply a catastrophic failure of the connection. The shear load is initially transferred to the concrete through shear and bending action of the bolt. After large deformations, the tension resistance of the bolts, caused by second order effects contribute significantly to the load transfer [MCLE89]. A few possible design procedures are developed henceforth, based on the transfer of load through the bending action of the bolt. Some of the parameters that are required for the procedures have not been established as yet and are to be investigated in future research. The feasibility of these procedures will have to be verified through future testing. 5.9.1 BEARING AND FRICTION RESISTANCE OF THE BOLT One possible design procedure relies on the bearing and friction resistance of the connection. The maximum bearing stress is a key parameter and must be established. Then a simplified bearing stress pattern, similar to the one assumed earlier, must also be established. Subsequently, the maximum internal moment of the bolt can be calculated. The slip load capacity can be calculated by using the prestressed bolt tension and appropriate friction coefficient. The moment-tension strength interaction requirements of the bolt have to be satisfied. Additional slip load can be calculated from the lesser of the maximum permissible tension on the bolt and the prestressed value. The calculated bearing resistance can then be added to the slip load to determine the total resistance. A similar procedure can also be developed for moment connections. 5.9.2 PURE BEARING RESISTANCE OF THE BOLT An alternative design procedure which can be developed which is based on the pure bearing resistance of the bolt. It is assumed that the bearing stresses can be redistributed since the bolts are typically ductile and are able to achieve relatively high curvatures, e.g. rupture strains obtained from the auxiliary bolt tests were approximately 20000 to 30000 microstrain. These bolts were 25 mm in diameter resulting in a rupture radius of approximately 400 to 600 mm (a relatively tight curvature). The inherent ductility permits the use of a lowerbound type of design procedure where the load paths are chosen by the designer. This is convenient since the designer can assign certain bolts to resist the bearing force and can also choose the bearing stress pattern. This is important for moment carrying flush and extended endplate connections. The bolts on the compression side of the connection can be assumed to resist all the bearing force, while the tension bolts are assumed to yield under axial stresses. It can be assumed that they will not be weakened by internal moments and hence the calculated moment capacity of the connection is not reduced. This may not be so unrealistic since a bolt plastified in tension will have no moment resistance even if subjected to a curvature. The nut is assumed to provide adequate fixity to develop the plastic capacity of the bolt. This helps to raise the drape of the moment diagram of the bolt. Furthermore, The maximum permissible bearing stresses are assumed to act on the bolt in a uniform pattern at the edges of the concrete core. This bearing stress pattern is chosen to minimize the bending moment applied to the bolt. The bearing stresses can be extended further toward the centre of the column until the limit of the bolt's moment capacity is reached. The total bearing resistance is then simply the maximum permissible bearing stress multiplied by the area over which the bearing stresses act. It should be noted that the internal bending stresses of the bohs seemed to have no effect on the shear resistances of specimens PSBOOO, PSB050, and PSBIOO. If this is true in general, the shear and bearing capacities of the bolt may be treated independently in the design process. 5.10 FACTORS AFFECTING MOMENT-ROTATION STIFFNESS Although many tests that were aimed at obtaining the M - 9 response could not be performed, some interesting results were observed. As expected, the non-prestressed connections were more flexible than the prestressed ones. Furthermore, the proper mating of the endplate surfaces to those of the column proved to be a very important factor affecting the stiffness of the connection. 5.10.1 PRESTRESSING Prestressing the connection resulted in a dramatic increase of intial moment-rotational stiffness. Tests M2N000 and M3N000 (finger-tight bolts) had stiffnesses of 42000 kNm/rad and 49000 kNm/rad respectively while specimen M5N100 (post-tensioned) had a stiffness of 109000 kNm/rad. Even though these specimens had different moment to shear ratios, this is believed not to have a negligible influence on the stiffness. 5.10.2 BEARING AND NON-BEARING CASES When comparing the bearing and non-bearing specimens a significant difference in rotational stiffness was observed. For example, specimens M5N100 and M5B100 which had similar pretensioning applied, had intial stiffnesses of 109000 kNm/rad and 55000 kNm/rad respectively. This, however, is unlikely to be caused by the bearing on the bolts. The difference is attributed to improper mating between the endplate and column surfaces. When assembling specimen M5B100 it was apparent that the endplates had plastically deformed during the previous test (M5N100). The nature of the damage (Figure 68) was not visible unless a straight edge was laid across the surface of the endplate. It is concluded that the mating of the beam endplate to the column surface is extremely important to ensure a stiff connection. The mating of the surfaces is affected by the perpendicular fit, any warps in the plate and by the post-tensioning of the bolts. Other researchers have also reported great difficulties in predicting the moment-rotation behaviour of endplate connections [GOVE83]. Fabrication errors and distortions are unavoidable, resulting in improper mating of the surfaces, which make the connection behaviour highly variable between specimens with identical loadings, materials and geometric parameters. 5.11 INITIAL STIFFNESS OF THE MOMENT ROTATION RELATIONSHIP The initial moment-rotation stiffness of both a moment and flexible coimection is an important design parameter for approximating the distribution of forces within a structure. These values also effect the rotational restraint of columns at the joint location, which is important for estimating stability loads. A simplified process of calculation is being proposed here to approximate the initial stiffness of moment connections based on the following assumptions: -Behaviour is linear elastic. -The out of plane bending deformations of the plates is ignored' since they can be complex and difficult to predict [GOVE83]. The significance of this extra flexibility can be interpreted by comparing the experimental values with the calculated values. -The surfaces of the endplates completely mate with the surface of the HSS since improper mating can drastically reduce the intial stiffness of the connection. -Bending moments across the column and connection are constant. -An effective height of the connection is assumed for the present calculations and is shown in Figure 87. This value is somewhat arbitrary and can be verified by correlating it with experimental results. -Plane sections of the beams, endplates and over the effective height of the concrete core are assumed to remain plane. An equivalent sectional stiffness (£"/cc) is calculated from the assumed sectional properties and geometry through the width of the column. The effective width of the column (Wc as shown in Figure 87) is taken as the distance between the inside surfaces of the HSS. The moment-rotational flexibihty of the concrete core can then be taken as UJ 7-7—. However, deformations of the beam and endplate also have to be taken into account. ^ c' cc The flexibihty of the plates and beams is added to that of the column portion of the connection. The sum of the flexibilities can be inverted to find the rotational stiffness of the connection. Calculations are presented for the particular connection used in the experimental program: Where: / ce = effective moment of interia of concrete core = 3.47X lO'^mm* = column width H eff = effective height = 530 mm / ,„„ = 2 « , „ , 2 / l , / i ^ Where: I bou = effective moment of interia of bolts = 0.39X l O ' m m ^ h = half the vertical distance between bolts = I64mm A b = area of a single bolt = 506.7mm^ E bolt nboll = —p. 1 ^ c = 7 . 1 E e = elastic modulus of concrete = Z2200MPa E bo„ = elastic modulus of bolt = ISOOOOMPa Where: I HSS = effective moment of inertia of HSS walls = 2 . 5 2 x l 0 ' m / 7 i * t = thickness of HSS wall = 1 2 . 7 m m Es , = 8.0 E s = elastic modulons of beams, plates and HSS = 2 0 0 0 0 0 M / ^ a ^ cc Where: a: ec = rotational stiffness of concrete core = Z.VoxlO^ kNm/rad A. , HSS Where: K HSS = rotational stiffness of HSS wall = 2 . 0 0 X 10^/cA^m/rad _ FçIboU ^ boit Where: ^^ bo); = rotational stiffness of bolts = 0.31 X 10^/cA'm/rad ^c"" ^cc~^ ^ HSS'^ ^bolt Where: K c = rotational stiffness of column portion of connection = 5.06X lO^/c/v'/n/rad Where: F c = rotational flexibility of column portion of connection = l.98xlO'6rad/kNm " 12 Where: / p = effective moment of inertia of plate = 3.10x l O ' m m ^ w p = width of end plates = 250mm Where: F p = rotational flexibility of plates and HSS walls = 0.184x 10 "Vad/A;AAm t s = thickness of end plates = 38.1 mm Where: F 6 = rotational flexibility of beams = 0 . 7 3 4 x l 0 ' 6 r a d / / c A / m / 6 = moment of inertia of beam = 0.259X lO^'mm* I b = length of the beam which is included in the moment rotation measurement. = 19 mm f A^_e =E,+ F p ^ F , Where: F M - e = calculated rotational flexibihty of coimection over measured dimensions. = 2.90x lO'6rad/kNm K - ^ M - 9 r-r M-e Where: K M-Q = calculated intial stiffness of the moment-rotation relationship = 3.45x lO^fcA/m/rad length over which rotation is measured HSS I F I G U R E 87: Rotational stiffness parameters 5.12 CALCULATED MOMENT-ROTATION INITIAL STIFFNESSES VERSUS EXPERIMENTAL VALUES The calculated stiffness of 345000 kNm/rad is significantly higher than the experimental value of 109000 kNm/rad which, in a way, is not surprising. Bending of the endplate is not included in the calculations; plane sections of the beam near the end plate do not remain plane; the HSS walls contributed significantly to the calculated stiffness, however, the bending loads may not be effectively transferred to the walls of the HSS of the prototype. Al l these factors reduce the stiffness of the connection. The effective height is a significant parameter and the value used in the calculations was only approximated. Obviously, a great deal of work still must be done before reliable means of predicting the rotational stiffness of the connection are developed. Despite the flaws with the proposed method, the bending within the column perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, is still a contributing factor to the flexibility of the connection. The other flexibilities of the connection can then be added to that of the bending perpendicular to the column axis. Reliable methods for calculating the other flexibihties within the connection still do not exist. Many individuals have tried to establish a means of estimating the moment-rotation behaviour of end plate cormections with relatively little success [GOVE83]. The interaction between the end plate and the beam is complex; even computatively exhaustive finite element models have failed to adequately predict the initial stiffness of end plate connections. Parameters such as the size of weld and bolt heads have been found to influence results. As shown in this study, any gaps left between the column and end plate can significantly change the initial stiffness of the connection. Much work still needs to be done in this area although end plate connections have been in common use for a long time. Methods for predicting the moment-rotation behaviour of all types of connections have been sought for many decades. End plate connections are not the only contentious ones in use. Most engineers simply ignore the rotational behaviour, although it effects column stability, member force distributions and the extent of the P - A effect. There also does not exist a standardized method for measuring moment-rotation which makes it very difficult to compare analytical results with previous experimental results. The through-bolt end plate connections that were investigated showed very promising behaviour and are deserving of future research. Several positive conclusions can be drawn from the research program: -The confined concrete can sustain high bearing stresses apphed by the bolts. -Slip resistance between the concrete and the steel tube contribute significantly to the transfer of shear from the beam to the concrete core. -High shear loads will relieve the post-tensioning and therefore reduce shp capacities. -Bolt tension increases as the concrete core slips through the HSS. This behaviour increases the slip capacities. -Bending at the centre section of bolts is reduced by the confinement of the surrounding concrete. -Shear failure of the bolts was induced before bearing and bending failure. -Small gaps between the end plate and mating surfaces of the HSS significantly reduce the rotational stiffness of the connection. -Post-tensioning the bolts significantly increases the rotational stiffness of the connection. -For the suggested bearing force distribution on the bolt, the bearing stresses on the bolt were not significantly effected by the internal or applied moments on the bolts. From this conclusion, a possible design procedure was suggested. -The moment-rotation behaviour for the moment connection is extremely difficult to predict. The proposed method of calculating the initial moment-rotation stiffness did not compare well with experimental results. However, this method of calculation could be combined with future means of calculating the other flexibilities of the connection. The experimental program showed positive results for both the moment and flexible type connections. Research should continue for both types of configurations. The non-bearing specimens were not destroyed during testing and can be used for future research. Two bearing specimens were also left untested. 7.1 END PLATE THICKNESS If moment cormections are to be tested in the future and the end plates are to be reused, it is suggested to increase the thickness, use stronger steel or machine the surface of the end plate flat between tests. Any plastic deformation of the end plates will have a pronounced influenced on the initial portion of the moment-rotation relationship for subsequent tests. 7.2 BEAM SIZE Now that more is known about the slip load capacities, it will be easier to size beams for any future experiments. An estimated slip load, end moment and post-tensioning relationship was presented earlier. The relationship could not be confirmed by experiment since the capacity of the beams was too low. Higher capacity beams could be used to estabHsh the relationship. 7.3 POST-TENSIONING VALUE It is also suggested to carry out future tests at higher bolt post-tensioning. The values used in this program were relatively low because of the limitations of the torqueing device. Higher post-tensionings are required to ensure proper mating of the end plate with the face of the column and to prevent premature separation of the end plate from the column early in the moment-rotation relationship. Higher post-tensioning strains are required to reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage of the concrete. 7.4 BEARING CAPACITIES The ultimate bearing stress capacity is an important value to obtain. The value is likely to be affected by the following factors: -cross-sectional shape of tube (circular, square, rectangular) -tube wall thickness -outer dimension of column -concrete cylinder strength -steel strength of tube -bolt diameter -compression load perpendicular to the axis of the column A steel plate with a rounded edge (to simulate the shape of a bolt) across the length of the tube could be used to determine the ultimate bearing capacity. The plate would ensure a more even distribution of bearing forces. The proposed experimental set-up is shown in Figure 88. case with one plate rounded tip to simulate shape of the bolt side view plate ±± HSS - B «2B case with two plates B - BA ratio is varied -concrete strength is varied -round and square HSS are used -HSS steel strength is varied Experiments will help to determine the maximum bearing stresses applied to the bolts front view FIGURE 88: Future research: Maximum bearing stress ;48 7.5 LOAD CAPACITY PERPENDICULAR TO THE COLUMN AXIS It is important to know the compressive capacity perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the column to determine the maximum post-tensioning value possible. It is also a determining factor for the moment capacity of the connection. The proposed set-up is shown in Figure 89. The capacity could be affected by the following parameters: -concrete cylinder strength -tube strength -tube wall thickness -outer dimension of tube -cross sectional shape of tube (circular, square, rectangular) -axial load in the column p 4 side view end plates 4 front view -Experiments can be conducted with varying concrete cylinder strengths -B/t ratio can also be varied -Experiment can be conducted with different cross sectional shapes FIGURE 89: Future research: Load perpendicular to HSS 7.6 BEARING BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTS More tests are required for determining the bearing behaviour of the bolts. The bearing force configuration on the bolts suggested earlier could be changed to suit the results of a wide varity of tests with varing parameters. Specimens could be shorter than the ones used for this experimental program. To reduce the capacities, either a single bolt or two bolts could be tested per specimen. The suggested configuration is shown in Figure 90. The capacities could be affected by the following factors: -cross-sectional shape of tube (circular, square, rectangular) -tube wall thickness -outer dimension of column -concrete cylinder strength -steel strength of tube -bolt diameter -post-tensioning level -applied tension on bolt -compression load perpendicular to the axis of the column -axial load of the column p -load is applied to only concrete I concrete core bolts H S S -To better understand the bearing distribution a series of tests with varing parameters can be performed gap FIGURE 90: Future research: Bearing behaviour of bolts Circular columns provide an additional challenge for detailing. Some details are suggested m Figures 91. Future research should also include the possibility of a circular column. HSS bent plate ^ \angle witti heel machined to round shape top view bent plate wedge washer side view F I G U R E 91: Future research: Circular columns 8 REFERENCES [AISC86] A M E R I C A N INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Manual of Steel Construction: Load & Resistance Resistance Factor Design, pp. 5-143 - 5-151. 1986. [ANG84] A N G , K.M. , And MORRIS,G.A. 1984. Analysis of three-dimensional frames with flexible beam-column connections. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 11, pp. 245-254 [ANS074] ANSOURIAN, P. 1974. Rigid-frame connections to concrete-filled tubular steel columns. Report MT86, Centre des récherches scientifiques et techniques de l'industrie des fabrications métalliques, Brussels, Belgium. [BATH34] BATHO, C , And ROWAN, H.C. 1934. Investigation on beam and stanchion connections. 2nd report of the Steel Structures Research Committee. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England. [BENN78] BENNETTS, I.D., THOMAS, I.R., And G R U N D Y , P. 1978. Shear coimections for beams to columns. Proceedings of The Metals Structures Conference, Perth, Australia, November-December, pp. 70-74. [BERG77] BERGQUIST, D.J. 1977. Tests on columns restrained by beams with simple connections. Report no.l, American Iron and Steel Institute Project no. 189, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX. [CRAN82] C R A N , J.A. 1982. Hollow structural sections: Warren and Prat truss connections weld gap and overlap joints using rectangular chord members. Technical Bulletin 22. Stelco Inc. [CRAN89] C R A N , J.A. 1989. The engineer's guide to hollow sections. The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering 1989 Annual Conference. [DALE82] D A L E N , K.V., and GODOY,H. , 1982. Strength and rotational behaviour of composite beam-column connections. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 9, pp. 313-322. [DISQ62] DISQUE, R.O. 1962. End plate connections. Proceeding of National Engineering Conference, AISC, April 12, Thursday afternoon session, pp. 30-37. [DRIS76] DRISCOLL, G.C. 1976. Effective length of columns with semi-rigid connections. Engineering Journal, AISC, 13(4), pp. 108-115. [DUNB87] D U N B E R R Y , E., L E B L A N C , D., And REDWOOD, R.G. 1987. Cross-section strength of concrete-filled HSS columns at simple beam connections. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 14, pp. 408-417. [EL-G85] E L - G H A Z A L Y , H.A., and SHERBOURNE, A .N . 1985. Plastic behaviour of unstiffened symmetrical beam-to-column flange connections. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 12, pp. 821-837. [FLEM80] FLEMINGTON, R.A. 1980. Fire protection of hollow structural sections. Technical Bulletin 21, Stelco Inc. [FURL67] FURLONG, R.W. 1967. Strength of steel-encased concrete beams columns. Journal of the structural division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. ST5, Oct. [GARF84] G A R F , E.F., NOVIKOV, V.I., LITVINENKO, A.F., And Y U R K O , L.Y. 1984. Study of Strength and design of cylindrical tubular welded connections at static loading. Proceedings of I.I.W. International Conference on Welding of Tubular Structures. Boston, pp. 359-372. [GIOU76] GIOUX, Y., And PICARD, A. 1976. Rigid framing connections for tubular columns. Proceedings from The Canadian Structural Engineering Conference. [GOVE83] G O V E R D H A N , A R V I N D VASANT. A collection of experimental moment-rotation curves and evaluation of prediction equations. IVIaster's thesis. Graduate School of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1983. [HOGA83] H O G A N , T.J., And FIRKINS, A. 1983. Standardized structural connections - five years on. Steel Construction: Journal of The Australian Institute of Steel Construction, 17(2), pp. 2-10. [JI87] JI, HSIAO-LIEN, KANATANI , H., TABUCHI, M. , K A M B A , T., And ISHIKAWA, M. , 1987. Behaviour of concrete filled RHS-column to H-beam connections fabricated with HT-bolts. Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Japan. Sekisusi House, Ltd., Nakanoshima, Kita, Osaka, Japan. [KAMB84] K A M B A , T., KANATANI , H., FUJIWARA, K., TABUCHI, M. , WAKIDA, T., And TORIGOE, T. 1984. On the welded connections of the centrifugally cast steel tubular columns. Proceedings of I.I.W. International Conference on Welding of Tubular Structures. Boston, pp. 159-166. [KANA87] KANATANI , H. , TABUCHI, M. , K A M B A , T., JI, HSIAO-LIEN, and ISHIKAWA,M. 1987. A study on concrete filled RHS column to H-beam connections fabricated with HT bolts in rigid frames. Proceedings of an Engineering Foundation Conference on Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete. Henniker, NH. pp. 614-635. [KENN83] K E N N E D Y , D.J.L., And H A F E Z , M.A. 1983. A study of end plate connections for steel beams. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 11, pp. 139-149. [KENN84] K E N N E D Y , S.J., And MacGREGOR, J.G. 1984. End connection effects on the strength of concrete-filled HSS beam-columns. Structural Engineering Report No. 115, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. [KIVI85] [KNOW69] [KRIS76] [KRIS79] [LEON87] [MANS81] [MORR87] [NAIR74] [NETH85a] [NETH85b] [PACK87] [PICA76] [PILL88] KRIVIAK, G.J., And K E N N E D Y , DJ .L . 1985. Standardized flexible end plate connections for steel beams. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 12, pp. 745-766. KNOWLES, R.B. And PARK, R. 1969. Srength of concrete filled steel tubular columns. Journal of the structural division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. ST12, Dec. KRISHNAMURTHY, N., And G R A D D Y , E. 1976. Correlation between 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis of steel bolted end-plate connections. Computers & Structures, 6, pp. 381-389. Pergamon Press. Printed in Great Britain. KRISHNAMURTHY, N., H U A N G , H.T., JEFFREY, P.K., And A V E R Y , L.K. 1979. Analytical M-(p curves for end plate connections. ASCE Journal Os the Structural Division, lOS(STl), pp. 133-145. LEON, R.T. 1987. Semi-rigid composite construction. Proceedings of an Engineering Foundation Conference on Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete. Henniker, NH. pp. 585-597. MANSELL, D.S., And P H A M , L. 1981. Testing of standardized connections. Preprints of The Proceedings of The Metals Structures Conference. Newcasfle, Australia, May. pp. 107-112. MORRIS, G.A., And PACKER, J.A. 1987. Beam-to-column connections in steel frames. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 14, pp. 68-76. NAIR, R.S., BIRKEMOE, P.C., And MUNSE, W.H. 1974. High strength bolts subject to tension and prying. Journal of The Structural Division, ASCE, 100, No. ST2, February, pp. 351-371. NETHERCOT, D.A. 1985. Steel beam to column connections - a review of data. Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London, England. NETHERCOT, D.A. 1985. Joint action and the design of steel frames. The Structural Engineer, 63A(12), pp. 371-379. PACKER, J.A., And FRATER, G.S. 1987. Weldment Design For Hollow Section Joints. University of Toronto, Cidet report No 5AN-87/1-E. PICARD, A., And GIROUX, Y . M . 1976. Moment connections between wide flange beams and square tubular columns. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineerifig, 3, pp. 174-185. PILLINGER, A . H . 1988. Structural steelwork: a flexible approach to the design of joints in simple construction. The Structural Engineer, 66(19), pp. 316-321. [POP085] POPOV, E.P. 1985. Flexibility of steel moment connections. ASCE conference, Detroit, October. [RICH80] RICHARD, R.M. , GILLETT, P.E., KRIEGH, J.D., And LEWIS, B.A. 1980. The analysis and design of single plate framing connections. Engineering Journal, AISC, 17(2), pp. 38-52. [ROIK81] ROIK, K., And BREIT, M . 1981. Momentenfreier anschlub an betongfullte hohlprofilsutzen, Experimentelle Entersuchungen, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany. Projekt 52. [STEL81a] STELCO. 1981. HoUow structural sections: Design manual for concrete-filled HSS columns. Cidet Monograph #5 - Canadian edition. [STEL81b] STELCO. 1981. Hollow structural sections: Design manual for connections. [STEL77] STELPIPE. 1977 (Revised 1989). Implications of C A N / C S A standard G40.20 on the manufacture of hollow structural sections. Technical Bulletin 15, Stelpipe. [STEL81C] STELPIPE. 1981 (Revised 1990). Concept: Beam to HSS column connections. [TABU84] TABUCHI, M. , KANATANI , M., FUJIWARA, K., And K A M B A , T. 1984. On the local failure of welded RHS-column to H-beam connection. Proceedings of I.I.W. International Conference on Welding of Tubular Structures. Boston, pp. 167-174. [TOMI79] TOMII, MASAHIDE, And SAKINO, KENJI. 1979. Experimental studies on the ultimate moment of concrete filled square steel tubular beam-columns. Translation of The Archeitectural Institute of Japan. No. 275. pp. 55-63. [VIRD75] VIRDI, P.J., And DOWLING, K.S. 1975. Bond strength in concrete-filled circular steel tubes. Enginering Structures Laboratories, Civil Engineering Department, CESLIC Report CCII, Imperial College, London, England. [WHIT65] WHITE, R.N. 1965. Framing connections for square and rectangular structural tubing. AISC Engineering Journal, July, pp. 94-102. The connection is designed according to the beam size. This is common practice for earthquake design. The connection should be able to withstand 1.2 times the unfactored moment resistance of the beam. In this particular case, it is not expected that the connection will achieve the designed moment capacity since the bearing of the concrete will cause the bolts to bend. The connection is an extended end plate and design drawings are shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6. The selected beam was chosen to be a W460x61. The beam was light enough to be manipulated in the lab. The width was also small enough so a moment connection could be fitted to a one foot wide HSS section. The bearing and slip load capacities of the connection were unknown. Therefore, it was difficult to approximate the required shear resistance of the beam. It should be noted that the final connection design only utilized four bolt to simulate a flush end plate design. The calculations presented here are for the original design: an extended end plate with eight bolts. 9.1 SELECTED BEAM SIZE - W460x61: M r = factored moment resistance of beam \.2Mp = 1 .2(393kNm) = 472kNm M 0 = nominal moment resistance of beam M p = plastic moment resistance of beam 9.2 TYPICAL SHEAR FORCES ON THE BEAM Calculation of approximate shear forces: d = depth of beam L = beam length d- 1/25 A - 2 5 x d « 25x450mm - 11m For a uniformly distributed load on the beam: Shear _ wl/2. Moment wL^/12 = 6 / 1 Let the end moment = M, Vf = M , 6 / 1 6 X 354 k N m 1 1 m = \ 9Ç)kN applied to one side of the connection V f = factored beam shear The typical shear for this sort of connection is relatively low. 9.3 BOLT SIZE Flange forces: F / = M / / ( d - ^ , ) I, = flange thickness M f = applied factored moment For the case of earthquake design, the factored moment will be taken as the nominal moment resistance. F f = 472/cA^m/( 4 5 0 m m - 10 .8mm) = 1075/cN T, = Ff/4 = l075kN/4 =270kN T f = factored tension on bolt Try a one inch diameter bolt: 7 , = 0.75(1)/I, = 0.75(0 . 6 7 ) ( 507mm2) ( I OOOMPa) = 255/c/V T r = tension resistance of bolt At, = cross sectional area of bolt F u = ultimate strength of bolt material = 0 .6 (0 .67) ( 1)( 1 ) ( 5 0 7 m m ' ' ) ( lOOOM/^a) = 204/cA/ n = number of bolts m = number of shear planes V r = factored shear resistance V f/V r = 24kN/204kN = 0.12 A one inch diameter bolt is inadequate. However, the connection is only used for experimental purposes and the size is still realistic. The machine shop does not have the facilities to thread a 1 l / s inch diameter bolt. The typical beam shear apphed to the bolts will not significantly effect the tensile resistance of the bolts. 9.4 PLATE SIZE The L R F D edition of the AISC steel design manual was used for sizing the plate thickness. The design procedure is only intended for static loading but here the cormection is sized according to earthquake requirements. However, only realistic sizes are required for the prototype. Therefore, the design procedure was utilized. F f = l075kN âs, calculated previously P, = P f-(d^/4)-0.707w = 40 m m P e = effective span P, = 50mm distance from center line of bolts to the closest surface of the tension flange w = fillet weld size or reinforcement of groove weld = 6 . 4 m m dfc = nominal bolt diameter = 2 5 . 4 m m = \0.6kNm M e = out of plane moment applied to end plate. = 0.982 C a = constant, see table A of AISC handbook. = 1.14 = 0.932 b f = width of beam flange = 189mm b ^  = width of end plate or effective width, in. = 2 1 7 m m 6,< 1.156^ < 2 1 7 m m AI = area of flange A^ = area of web /1^//1^ = 0 .555 i , = ( (4MJ / (6 , ( t ) f -y ) ) = 27 mm = end plate thickness F y = end plate steel strength = 3 0 0 M P a ({> = material factor = 0.9 A 27 mm endplate is required to resist the apphed end moment of the beam. For this particular case, the endplates are being reused from test to test. Any permanent deformations in the end plates will effect the results of subsequent tests. There will also be grooves in the plates to accomodate strain gauge wires. For these reasons the plates will be made from 38.1 mm stock instead of 27 mm stock. 9.5 OUT OF PLANE SHEAR RESISTANCE OF END PLATE V f = 0.'3F, = 0 . 5 x 1075/cA/ = 540/cN V , = factored shear force = 0(5/6)b,<,O.66f y = 0.9x (5 /6 ) x 2 17m/nx38.1 mm A'0.66x300 M P a = 1230/cA/ .4^ = (5 /6 )6 , Auj= shear area of plate F , = 0.66fy F s = shear yield strength of plate F y = axial yield strength of plate V r = factored shear resistance 10 APPENDIX B: CONCRETE CYLINDER TEST RESULTS DAY 7 6 CYLINDER 1 DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS (mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa) 0 0 0 0 0.0635 13.92224 312.8079 1.717245 0.127 50.04 625,6158 6.172205 0.1905 97. 32224 938.4236 12.00425 0.254 152.9222 1251.232 18.86226 0.381 266.88 1876.847 32 . 91843 0.4445 319.7222 2189.655 39.43628 0.508 358.6422 2502.463 44.23688 0.5334 369.7622 2627.586 45.60848 0.5588 373.632 2752.709 46.0858 0.5842 372.52 2877.833 45.94864 0.6096 369.7622 3002.956 45.60848 0. 635 368.6502 3128.079 45.47132 1.8669 339.16 9196.552 41.83384 1.8669 0 9196.552 0 DAY 76 CYLINDER 2 DISPLACEMENT (mm) 0 0.0635 0.08255 0.08255 0.127 0.254 0.381 0.508 0.5334 0.5588 0.5842 0.61722 0.6731 2.286 2.286 LOAD (kN) 0 6.672 12.232 20.016 38.92 117.872 225.736 329.708 355.84 369.184 373.632 378.08 375.856 322.48 0 MICRO STRAIN 0 312.8079 406.6502 406.6502 625.6158 1251.232 1876.847 2502.463 2627.586 2752.709 2877.833 3040.493 3315.764 11261.08 11261.08 STRESS (MPa) 0 0.822961 1.508761 2.468882 4.800604 14.53897 27.8435 40.66798 43.89124 45.53716 46.0858 46.63444 46.36012 39.77643 0 DAY 102 CYLINDER 1 DISPLACEMENT LOAD (mm) (kN) 0 0 0.0635 2.224 0.127 14.456 0.1905 35.584 0.254 66.72 0.3175 108.976 0.508 264.656 0.5715 306.912 0.6096 320.256 0.6223 324.704 0.635 320.256 0.6985 306.0224 0.8255 280.224 1.397 261.5424 1.4605 257.984 1.524 249.088 1.5494 242.416 1.5748 224.624 1.5875 200.16 1.59512 177.92 1.6129 24.464 1.524 12.4544 1.397 4.448 1.27 0 DAY 102 CYLINDER 2 DISPLACEMENT LOAD (mm) (kN) 0 0 0.127 2,6688 0.254 8.896 0.3175 19.1264 0.381 33.36 0.4445 60.048 0.508 100.08 0.762 315.808 0.8255 335.824 0.8763 342.496 0.889 341.6064 0.9017 340.272 0.9398 338.048 1.016 324.704 1.9431 298.016 1.9812 282.448 2.032 275.776 2.0828 260.208 2.1082 231.296 2.1082 0 MICRO STRAIN 0 312.8079 625.6158 938.4236 1251.232 1564.039 2502.463 2815.271 3002.956 3065.517 3128.079 3440.887 4066.502 6881.773 7194.581 7507.389 7632.512 7757.635 7820.197 7857.734 7945.32 7507.389 6881.773 6256.158 MICRO STRAIN 0 625.6158 1251.232 1564.039 1876.847 2189.655 2502.463 3753.695 4066.502 4316.749 4379.31 4441.872 4629.557 5004.926 9571.921 9759.606 10009.85 10260.1 10385.22 10385.22 STRESS (MPa) 0 0.27432 1. 783082 4.389124 8.229607 13.44169 32.64411 37.85619 39.50211 40.05076 39.50211 37.74647 34.56435 32 . 26006 31.82115 30.72387 29.90091 27.70634 24.68882 21.94562 3.017523 1.536193 0.54864 0 STRESS (MPa) 0 0.329184 1.097281 2.359154 4.114804 7.406646 12.34441 38.95347 41.42236 42.24532 42.13559 41.971 41.69668 40.05076 36.75891 34.83867 34.01571 32.09547 28.5293 0 DAY 137 CYLINDER 1 DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS (mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa) 0 0 0 0 0. 127 26.688 625.6158 3 . 291843 0.1905 59.1584 938.4236 7.296918 0.3048 133.44 1501.478 16.45921 0.508 311.36 2502.463 38.40483 0.5842 366.96 2877.833 45.26284 0.5969 369.184 2940.394 45.53716 0.6096 366.96 3002.956 45.26284 0.635 360.288 3128.079 44.43988 0.762 346.944 3753.695 42.79396 1.7526 322.48 8633.498 39.77643 1.8161 309.136 8946.305 38.13051 1.8288 302.464 9008.867 37 . 30755 1.8288 298.016 9008.867 36.75891 1.778 278 8758.621 34.29003 1.7018 266.88 8383.251 32 . 91843 1.7399 177.92 8570.936 21.94562 1.7399 0 8570.936 0 DAY 137 CYLINDER 2 LOAD MICRO STRESS (kN) STRAIN (MPa) 0 0 0 20.016 625.6158 2.468882 46.704 875.8621 5.760725 91.184 1188.67 11.24713 155.68 1564.039 19.20242 333.6 2502.463 41.14804 380.304 2815.271 46.90876 386.976 2940.394 47.73172 380.304 3128.079 46.90876 358.064 3628.571 44.16556 313.584 11135.96 38.67915 298.016 11323.65 36.75891 222.4 11423.74 27.43202 0 11323.65 0 DISPLACEMENT (mm) 0 0.127 0.1778 0.2413 0.3175 0.508 0.5715 0.5969 0.635 0.7366 2.2606 2.2987 2.31902 2.2987 DAY 150 CYLINDER 1 DISPLACEMENT (mm) 0 0.0635 0.127 0.1905 0.4445 0. 508 0.5461 0.5842 0.5969 0. 635 1.905 2.032 2.0955 2.159 2.1717 2.17932 2.17932 LOAD (kN) 0 4.448 35.584 86.736 315.808 364.736 386.976 395.872 395.872 393.648 360.288 351.392 344.72 326.928 311.36 266.88 0 MICRO STRAIN 0 312.8079 625.6158 938.4236 2189.655 2502.463 2690.148 2877.833 2940.394 3128.079 9384.236 10009.85 10322.66 10635.47 10698.03 10735.57 10735.57 STRESS (MPa) 0 0.54864 4.389124 10.69849 38.95347 44.98852 47.73172 48.829 48.829 48.55468 44.43988 43.3426 42.51964 40.32508 38.40483 32.91843 0 DAY 150 CYLINDER 2 DISPLACEMENT (mm) 0 0.0635 0.127 0.254 0.3175 0.4699 0.5334 0.5715 0.5969 0.6223 2.54 2.603 5 2.667 2.6924 2.7051 2.7051 LOAD (kN) 0 6. 672 28.912 117.872 175.696 322.48 373.632 398.096 404.768 400.32 353.616 346.0544 333 . 6 311.36 266.88 0 MICRO STRAIN 0 312.8079 625.6158 1251.232 1564.039 2314.778 2627.586 2815.271 2940.394 3065.517 12512.32 12825.12 13137.93 13263.05 13325.62 13325.62 STRESS (MPa) 0 0.822961 3.566163 14.53897 21.6713 39.77643 46.0858 49.10332 49.92628 49.37764 43.61692 42.68423 41.14804 38.40483 32.91843 0 NON-MARKED STOCK AREA AT STRAIN GAGE= 506.6 SINGLE NUTTED FAILURE THROUGH SHANK TOTAL BOLT STRAIN C A L C . STRESS BOLT ELONG. FROM AT STRAIN ELONG. OVER BOLT LOAD GAGE MICRO- (mm) 2 INCHES ELONG. (kN) (MPa) SCAN STRAIN 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 523 . 795 0. 50292 0. 02794 550 40.57179 80.08644 20 1367. 211 1. 24206 0. 07112 1400 116. 6995 230. 3584 30 2097. 089 1. 83388 0. 10922 2150 187. 3685 369. 8548 40 2342 .29 2. 02692 0. 11938 2350 211. 4164 417. 3242 50 2512 . 118 2. 16662 0. 12954 2550 228 . 6778 451. 3971 60 2659. 048 2. 29362 0 .1397 2750 244 . 4641 482. 5583 70 2820. 289 2 . 42316 0. 14986 2950 259 '.955 513. 1366 80 2994. 888 2 . 57048 0. 15494 3050 277. 6594 548 . 084 90 3135. 139 2. 69748 0. 16256 3200 292 . 1174 576. 6234 100 3288. 747 2 . 83464 0. 16764 3300 308 i.494 608. 9498 110 3418. 504 2 . 95656 0 .1778 3500 321. 7719 635. 1597 120 3517 . 729 3 . 05308 0. 18288 3600 331. 5091 654. 3803 130 3572. 112 3. 10642 0. 18288 3600 337. 7055 666. 6116 140 3699 .96 3 .2258 0. 19304 3800 350. 6885 692. 2394 150 3839. 258 3 . 36042 0. 19812 3900 364 . 9993 720. 4882 160 3916. 539 3 .4417 0 .2032 4000 372 . 5239 735. 3413 170 4052. 019 3 .5687 0. 21336 4200 385. 8019 761. 5512 180 4294. 358 3. 80238 0. 22352 4400 409. 4072 808. 1469 190 4542 . 422 4. 05892 0. 23368 4600 433. 6029 855. 9078 200 4723 . 699 4. 25196 0. 24384 4800 449. 6841 887. 6512 210 4799. 072 4 . 3434 0. 24638 4850 456. 0282 900 .174 220 4904. 022 4 . 46024 0. 25146 4950 465 ..175 918. 2295 230 5037. 594 4. 60756 0. 25654 5050 475. 2076 938. 0331 240 5211. 239 4. 82092 0 .2667 5250 490. 1087 967 .447 250 5407. 781 5 . 1308 0. 27178 5350 503. 3866 993 . 6569 260 5591 .92 5 . 5118 0 .2794 5500 514. 4516 1015 .499 270 5821. 856 6. 12902 0. 28956 5700 525. 9591 1038 .214 280 6128. 119 7. 38632 0 . 3048 6000 536. 7291 1059 .473 281 6150. 063 7. 53872 0 .3048 6000 537. 0245 1060 .056 284 6183. 456 8. 04926 0. 30734 6050 535. 4013 1056 .852 287 6118. 578 8 .7122 0. 30734 6050 528. 0249 1042 .291 289 6045. 113 9. 11606 0 . 3048 6000 520. 9433 1028 .313 NON-MARKED STOCK DOUBLE NUTTED FAILURE THROUGH SHANK AREA AT STRAIN GAGE= 524.55 BOLT STRAIN CALC. STRESS ELONG. FROM AT STRAIN MICRO OVER BOLT LOAD GAGE SCAN STRAIN 2 INCHES ELONG. (kN) (MPa) 27 0 0 0 0 0 30 56, 291 0 0 4.131064 7.875386 40 661. 184 0. 03048 600 59.16135 112. 7841 50 1217, 419 0. 05842 1150 114. 7815 218. 8174 60 1876. 695 0 .0889 1750 178. 8114 340. 8829 70 2435. 792 0. 11938 2350 234 . 5797 447 . 1985 80 2670 . 497 0. 12954 2550 257. 5948 491. 0741 90 2795. 483 0. 13716 2700 269. 8403 514. 4187 100 2868 . 948 0. 13716 2700 276. 3316 526. 7936 110 2953 . 862 0. 14224 2800 284 .446 542 . 2628 120 3059. 767 0. 14732 2900 293. 7406 559. 9818 130 3124 . 644 0. 14986 2950 299. 3471 570.67 140 3206. 696 0 M 5 2 4 3000 306. 4287 584. 1702 150 3262 . 034 0. 15748 3100 311. 2973 593 . 4515 160 3325. 003 0. 16002 3150 316. 7561 603 . 8582 170 3385. 111 0. 16256 3200 321. 7719 613 . 4203 180 3431. 861 0. 16764 3300 326. 1984 621. 8587 190 3527 .27 0. 16764 3300 334 . 3124 637. 3271 200 3554. 939 0. 17018 3350 335. 7878 640. 1399 210 3612 . 184 0. 17272 3400 340. 8041 649. 7028 220 3694. 236 0 M 7 7 8 3500 348. 4759 664 . 3283 230 3839. 258 0. 18542 3650 360. 8687 687. 9536 240 4004 . 315 0 M 9 0 5 3750 373 . 9994 712. 9858 250 4181. 776 0. 20066 3950 388. 1625 739. 9861 260 4261. 919 0. 20574 4050 394. 6538 752 . 361 270 4348 . 742 0. 21082 4150 401. 1456 764 . 7367 280 4527. 157 0 1.2159 4250 415. 3087 791. 7371 290 4707. 479 0. 22606 4450 428 .882 817 .613 300 4902 . 114 0. 23368 4600 443. 4877 845. 4571 310 5128. 233 0. 24892 4900 460. 3069 877. 5209 320 5309 .51 0. 25908 5100 472 .552 900. 8647 330 5462. 164 0. 26416 5200 482 . 4368 919. 7089 340 5652. 982 0. 27432 5400 492 . 4693 938. 8348 350 5887. 688 0. 28194 5550 501. 9116 956. 8353 360 6245. 472 0. 29464 5800 512. 0913 976. 2418 370 6584 . 174 0. 30734 6050 519. 7632 990. 8673 380 7852 . 159 0. 33782 6650 532 . 7462 1015 .618 390 9746. 986 0. 38608 7600 543. 2209 1035 .587 400 12437 .52 0. 44958 8850 550 .745 1049 .931 410 17332 .95 0. 55372 10900 559. 7447 1067 . 087 420 14451.6 5. 40512 347 . 2954 662 . 0777 427 14445 i . 88 5. 40766 1.918073 3.656581 RED MARKED STOCK AREA AT STRAIN GAGE= SINGLE NUTTED BOLT FAILURE THROUGH THE THREADS SCAN BOLT MICRO LVDT STRAIN (mm) 1 0 0 10 174. 251 0. 135795 20 388. 494 0. 236852 30 563. 698 0. 317909 40 682. 722 0. 372648 50 796. 032 0. 429492 60 931. 244 0. 495811 70 1086. 451 0. 570551 80 1248. 323 C 1. 65266 90 1435. 905 0. 746348 100 1630. 152 0. 849511 110 1786. 311 c 1.93162 120 1942 .47 1. 015834 130 2102. 439 1. 104259 140 2237 .65 1. 177946 150 2372 . 861 1. 253739 160 2526. 164 1. 337953 170 2719. 458 1. 447432 180 2915 i . 61 1. 567437 190 3117 . 474 1. 693758 200 3310. 769 1. 828501 210 3487. 877 1 .95377 220 3644. 988 2 . 082196 230 3787. 817 2. 202202 240 3923 . 028 2. 324312 250 4055. 383 2. 451686 260 4184. 881 2. 573797 270 4305. 809 2. 700118 280 4423. 881 2. 833808 290 4536. 239 2. 967498 300 4660. 976 3 . 110662 310 4828. 562 3 . 310671 320 4993. 291 3 . 520154 330 5151. 355 3 . 763322 340 5300. 848 4. 066494 350 5429. 394 4 . 440194 352 5448. 438 4. 534935 353 12 .84161 LOAD LVDT (kN) 0 15.08572 34.09786 50.83681 61.78946 73.15542 85.96795 100.847 116.966 135.3582 154.9903 170.696 185.9883 202.314 215.7465 229.179 244.4713 263.4835 283.3222 302.541 320.9332 336,8456 351.3113 363.9172 375.6965 387.2691 398.2217 408.3477 418.2671 427.7732 438.3125 452.5716 466.6241 480.0566 492.0425 501.3419 502.3752 401.9415 STRESS AT STRAIN GAGE (MPa) 0 29.75487 67.25417 100.2699 121.8727 144.2908 169.562 198.9093 230.7022 266.9787 305.7008 336.6784 366.8409 399.0414 425.5355 452.0295 482.192 519.6913 558.821 596.7279 633.0044 664.3897 692.9217 717.7854 741.0187 763.8443 785.4472 805.4196 824.9845 843.7341 864.5218 892.6462 920.3631 946.8572 970.498 988.8401 990.8781 792.784 2 PLATES 2 PLATES 4 PLATES 8 BOLTS 8 BOLTS 16 BOLTS BOLTS WERE UNTIGHT BOLTS WERE TIGHTEN BOLTS WERE TIGHTEN B-END LOAD B-END LOAD B-END LOAD SLIP SLIP SLIP (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) 0 24.71234 0 24.71234 0 0 0.254 34.59728 0.254 44.48222 0. 127 9.884938 0. 381 54.36716 0.508 79.0795 0. 381 54.36716 0.5207 84.02197 0. 635 128.5042 0.5588 93.90691 0.762 187.8138 0.7493 197.6988 0.7112 153.2165 1.2192 444.8222 0.8509 296.5481 0.7874 217.4686 1.9812 790.795 0.9144 395.3975 0. 889 345.9728 2.5781 1087.343 1.0414 593.0963 1.7018 1779.289 3.1115 1383.891 1.4732 1482.741 1.6256 1383.891 3.683 1734.807 1.6764 1779.289 1.4859 889.6444 3.7338 1764.461 1.6256 1482.741 1.3462 593.0963 3.7719 1779.289 1.5494 1186.193 1.2446 395.3975 3.7719 1690.324 1. 397 790.795 1.0922 197.6988 3.81 1779.289 1.2319 494.2469 0.9652 98.84938 3.8989 1779.289 1.0795 296.5481 0.889 69.19456 3.7846 1285.042 0.9398 158.159 0. 635 39.53975 3.6068 790.795 0.8255 98.84938 0.381 19.76988 3 .429 504.1318 0.6858 54.36716 0 0 3.2385 296.5481 0.508 34.59728 3.0734 172.9864 0 4.942469 2.921 103.7918 2.794 69.19456 2.667 44.48222 2.413 24.71234 2.032 0 SHEAR SPECIMEN PSBOOO S C A N EVERY 5 SEC . BEARING P O S T - T E N S lONED TO 0000 MICROSTRAIN S C A N S T R I A — " B O L T I * * * * * * SOUTH B - E N D T - S I D E B - S I D E I G A G • • • • • B O L T 2 * * * — NORTH B - E N D T - S I D E B - S I D E * * * " B O L T 3 * * " " • " " B O L T 4 * * * * * * S O U T H T - E N D N O R T H T - E N D T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E B - E N D T - E N D SLIP S U P mm mm M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 6 0 0 0 0 0 10 2.863 0 7.632 -4 .7704 6.679 20 18.128 - 2 . 8 6 2 41.98 -14 .3113 21.944 30 40O72 -0 .954 84.914 -18.1277 39.118 40 60.108 4.771 125,94 -19.0817 57246 50 91.593 15266 185.093 -18.1277 81 .098 60 133.573 20.036 261,42 -26,7144 111.629 70 186.048 27.669 356.829 -36.2554 151.7 80 267.146 45.797 512,346 -55.3371 215.624 90 320.575 57246 614.434 -79.1894 260.467 100 370.187 72.5112 711.751 -102.088 307217 106 401.672 81.098 776.629 -118.307 338.702 107 409.305 83.9602 789.986 -121 ,160 346.335 120 486.586 107.8126 944.549 -162.196 430.295 130 571.5 134.5271 1101019 -211.808 522.842 140 628.746 141.2057 1207 878 -257,604 590,582 150 680.266 147.8843 1298.516 -292.906 653.552 160 730.833 149.7925 1377.706 - 3 2 7 2 5 3 713.659 170 788.079 155.517 1463.574 -359.692 787.124 180 843,416 153.6088 1546.579 -391.177 868.222 190 919.743 161.2416 1654.392 -419.799 981.759 200 990.346 157.4252 1745.984 -457.009 1083.848 210 1058.086 149.7925 1826.128 -486.586 1180209 220 1120.102 141.2057 1894.822 -518.071 1267.986 230 1183.072 137.3894 1964.471 -538,107 1357.67 240 1246.996 133.5729 2033.165 -561.005 1453.079 250 1316.644 127.8484 2104.722 -589,627 1553 259 260 1390.109 124.0321 2175.325 -615.388 1659.162 273 1487.426 116.3994 2275,504 - 6 4 6 ^73 1799.414 280 1537.993 107.8126 - 6 5 9 276 1871.925 290 1608.596 973176 -685.036 1973.058 300 1687.785 90.6389 -710.797 2084.887 310 176125 76 3276 -740.374 2194.407 320 1832.807 62.9703 - 7 6 8 042 2298.403 330 1899.593 47.705 -796.665 2398 582 340 1968288 33393 -821.471 2494.945 350 2035.074 1622 -850.094 2593217 360 2101^6 - 0 . 9 5 4 -877.763 2689.579 370 2166.738 -21 .944 -905.431 2777356 380 2228.754 -41 .98 - 9 2 9 283 2861316 390 2288.862 -66 .786 -955.044 2943368 400 2339.429 -94 .455 -984.621 3011.108 410 2402399 -109 .72 -997,024 3090 297 420 2454 £74 -135 .48 -1016.11 3158.037 430 2506 394 - 1 6 0 2 8 7 - 1 0 3 3 28 .•V??fl16 440 2551 237 -185 .093 -1051.41 3283 B77 450 2596.079 -206 .083 -1064.76 .1339315 456 2621.839 -216.578 -1069 ,53 3370B 457 2624.702 -219 .44 -1070.49 3376524 458 2630.426 - 2 2 1 3 4 9 - 1 0 7 1 44 r m ' 2 4 9 470 2684.809 - 2 4 4 247 - 1 0 9 2 43 3448.081 473 2697 212 -250 .925 -1093.39 344331 476 2705.799 - 261 42 -1110.56 3460.484 477 0 -1 .9082 -15 .2655 -45.7964 -65.8323 - 8 8 7304 - 1 2 0 2 1 5 -146 .93 -187.956 -206.083 - 2 2 2 3 0 3 -234.706 -239.477 -278.584 -317.712 -355.876 - 3 8 9 2 6 9 -423.616 -457.963 -495.173 -541.923 -587.719 -629.699 -669.771 -708.889 -748.961 -794.757 -840.553 -902.569 - 9 3 7 87 -984.621 - 1 0 3 3 28 -1087.66 -1139.18 - 1 189.75 - 1 2 4 0 3 2 -1293 .75 - 1 3 4 6 2 2 -1396.79 -1445 .45 -1497.92 -1548.49 - 1 5 8 9 S 1 - 1 6 3 7 2 2 - 1 6 7 9 2 - 1 7 1 9 2 7 -1751.71 - 1 7 6 7 ^ 3 -1770.79 -1772 .7 -1801.32 -1808.95 -1809.91 0 1.9082 3.8164 9.5409 152654 30 5309 45.7963 62 9699 B2flS17 992254 118.3071 131.6644 136.4349 180.323 234.7061 279,5483 332.9774 390.2227 476.0909 573.408 722.246 853.9104 983.6664 1100.065 1222.189 134622 1479 793 1613.366 1804.183 1902.455 2040.798 219536 2348 369 2494 S45 2638.058 2785 S42 2937.642 3092205 3237 226 3378.432 3517.729 3633.174 3763 B84 3885.054 3992 566 4086366 4170326 4222 501 4231388 4239.021 4334.43 4359 236 4378318 0 0.04064 0.17526 0.25654 0.35052 0.40894 0.47244 0.52832 0.61468 0.67056 0.72644 0.74422 0.75438 0.83058 0.9271 0.97536 1.03378 1.08458 1,143 1.20904 1.29032 1,36906 1.43784 1.49352 1.57226 1.63576 1,70434 1.77292 1.88468 1.9304 2.00406 2.08026 2.159 2.23266 2.29362 2.3749 2.44348 2.5273 2.5908 2.65938 2.73304 2.794 2.86766 2.92608 2.98196 3.04546 3 09626 3.12928 3.1242 3.13182 3.19786 321564 3.21564 0 0.01016 0.01778 0.01778 0.01524 0.01524 0,01778 0.0127 0.01524 0.01524 0,0127 0.0127 0.0254 0.0381 0.05588 0,06604 0.07366 0,08128 0.09398 0.11176 0.1397 0.16002 0.1905 0.2159 0.24638 0.27432 0.31242 0.35052 0.40386 0.43434 0.47498 0.52324 0.5715 0.61468 0.6604 0.7112 0.75946 0.81026 0.86106 0.90932 0.96012 0.99822 1.05156 1.0G474 1.14046 1.17856 121666 1.23698 1.24206 1.2446 1.2954 1.30556 1.31826 TOTAL LOAD (kN) 0 12.1214 49 33479 112.2433 185.82 272.3677 345.9449 430.1889 565.2209 649.4653 727.6491 785.3474 799.7721 923.5332 1046.841 1127.179 1205 363 1270.822 1359.673 1441011 1554.955 1649.867 1727.448 1795514 1864.18 1930 243 1997.156 2066 fl75 2148313 2187.83 2247 532 2312.442 2367.836 2421.778 2471.963 2519.843 2571.482 2617.059 2660333 2708215 2743 B75 2781.188 2824.462 2860222 2886.768 2914.164 2946.77 2963.498 2961.195 1503 947 3000.711 3010.529 3001 315 - 1 8 1817 14 APPENDIX F: SPECIMEN PSN0001 TEST RESULTS SHEAR SPECIMEN PSNOOOl S C A N EVERY 10 S E C . N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0000 MICROSTRAIN FIRST TEST S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS SOLTTH NORTH SOUTH B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 3 0 0 0 10 249.971 308.171 1 66.786 20 256.65 317.7121 70.603 30 264.2B3 328.2071 75 373 40 273.823 338.7021 80.143 50 282.41 349.1971 82 052 60 298.63 365.4161 92547 70 312.941 386.4061 99225 80 332.023 407.3961 107.812 90 351.105 427.4321 116.399 100 384.498 470.3661 133.573 110 422.662 514.2541 152.654 120 459.871 557.1881 171.736 130 500.897 602.9851 190.818 140 540.969 652.5971 21 1.808 150 581.041 702.2101 234.706 160 819.204 758.5011 257.604 170 653.551 810.0221 278 594 180 686.944 866.3131 302.446 190 7232 924.5131 326.299 200 764.226 980.8041 353.967 210 820.517 1049.499 386.406 220 880.625 1122.01 420.754 230 948.365 1202.153 463.688 240 1000.84 1260.353 494.218 250 1063.81 1333.818 534.29 260 1125.826 1402.512 573.406 270 1180209 1468.344 607.755 280 1245.087 1543.717 650.689 290 1312.827 1619.09 695.532 300 1383.43 1698 2 8 741.328 310 1454.033 1777.469 788.078 320 1521.773 1849.026 828.15 330 1604.779 1938.711 880.625 340 1696.372 2037.936 941.687 350 1759341 2105.676 983.667 360 1835.669 2182.003 1031.371 370 1912.95 2265.009 1082.892 380 1988323 2342 291 1131.551 390 2071.329 2426 2 5 1186.888 400 2158.151 2514S81 1246.041 410 2245 527 2600.849 1304 241 420 2327.979 2683.855 1367211 430 2402.398 2755.411 1423 502 440 2482.542 2838.417 1489.334 450 2572226 2925 239 1566.616 480 2647 599 3003.475 1636264 470 2722.018 3076.94 1710.683 480 2802.162 3152313 1787.964 490 2882 305 323U548 1870.97 500 2948.137 3295.426 1941573 510 3034.96 3378.432 2043.66 520 3130369 34643 2149 564 530 3190.476 3523.454 2219213 540 3271 574 3595.965 2309.851 550 3348 855 3667 521 2395.72 560 3418.504 3732.4 2475B63 570 3495.785 3fla3.002 2560.777 580 3572.112 3870.742 2646.645 590 3644 823 3934.667 2725 835 600 3709 501 .39aq.049 2794 529 610 3761.976 4035B 2854.637 620 3816.359 4077.78 2914.745 630 3870 742 4124.53 2981531 640 3931 804 4174.143 3049271 650 3978 554 4211.353 3103.654 659 4011.947 4239.021 3141.818 660 4018718 4241 883 3145.634 BOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL NORTH SLIP S U P LOAD - E N D mm mm (kN) 0 0 0 0 -20 .036 0.18796 0.00508 49 33479 -20 .036 0.18542 0.00254 49.33479 -20 .036 0.18288 0.00508 51.83807 -21 .944 0.18034 O.U01?54 55 39504 -22 .898 0.17526 0.00254 55 39504 -24 .806 0.17272 O.on.508 81.45575 -26 .714 0.17018 0.00508 63.75948 - 2 7 669 0.1651 0 69.81929 - 2 6 . 7 1 4 0.1651 0.00508 69.81929 -22 .898 0.16256 0.00508 79.63696 -22 .898 0.1651 0.00508 91.75792 -20 .036 0.1651 0.00506 100.1224 -18 .128 0.1651 0.00508 103.8793 -15 .265 0.17018 0.00508 116.0003 -13 .357 0.17526 0.00508 123.5142 - 4 . 7 7 0.1778 0.00508 125.818 0 0.18796 0.00762 140.2422 5.725 0.19558 0.00762 154.6669 10.495 0.21082 0.01016 163.0313 1622 0.2286 00127 169.0916 23.852 0.24384 0.0127 183.5163 30.531 0.26162 0.01524 200.2443 39.118 0.28702 0.01778 212.3652 43.888 0.29718 0.02032 222.1829 54.383 0.32004 0.02286 238.9113 60.106 0.33528 0.0254 255.6393 67.74 0.35306 0.03048 264.0038 77281 0.3683 0.03556 276.1247 88.73 0.381 0.0381 296.6101 103.042 0.39878 0.04826 308.7311 130.71 0.41656 0.05334 331.5193 161.241 0.42926 0.05588 339.8837 203.221 0.43942 0.06096 362.6724 254.742 0.46228 0.06604 383.1578 287.181 0.4699 0.06604 392.9751 328.207 0.48768 0.06858 412.0072 371.141 0.50038 0.07366 426.4319 414.075 0.51816 0.0762 444.6136 459.871 0.5334 0.08128 461.3416 510.438 0.54864 0.08636 479.5228 563.867 0.56642 0.09144 497.7044 615.388 0.57912 0.09652 515.8861 664.047 0.59944 0.09906 531.1613 721.292 0.61976 0.10414 549.343 783.308 0.64008 0.11176 572.1316 838.645 0.6604 0.11684 590.3129 894.936 0.68072 0.12446 609.3446 950.274 o.Rsas 0.13208 625.223 1012289 0.7239 0.1397 650.3154 1059.04 0.74422 0.14986 664.7401 1125fl26 0.77724 O.IWXW 683.7718 1194521 0.80772 0.1778 708.8642 1240317 0.83312 0.18796 720.9852 1302.333 0.86614 0 20066 743.7734 1363395 0.90678 0.22098 766.5625 1417.778 0.94234 0.23876 783.2905 1481.702 0.98298 0.26416 80 1 4722 1546.58 1.03124 0.28702 825.1114 1606.687 1.07442 0.32004 839.5361 1660.117 1.12014 0.34798 851.667 1707.821 1 17348 868.3855 1759 342 1.2319 0.42418 885.1139 1818.495 1.31064 0.48006 904.1452 1882.419 1.39446 0.54356 922.3268 1934.894 1.50622 0.635 936.7515 1973 058 1.59258 0.70158 947.4192 1974.966 1.6002 0.71374 945.1155 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSNOOOl S C A N EVERY 1 0 S E C N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0 0 0 0 MICROSTRAIN FIRST TEST S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLT3 S O U T H NORTH SOUTH B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 661 4017.672 4243.792 3149.451 862 4020.534 4243.792 3151.359 663 4022.443 4246.654 3154 221 664 4025.305 4248.562 3158.992 665 4031 029 4253 333 3161.854 666 4031.984 4254 287 3165.67 667 40355 4256.196 3169.486 666 4036.754 4258.103 3171394 669 4038.662 4260011 3173.303 670 4041525 4260.965 3175211 671 4043.433 4260.965 3177,119 672 4044.387 4263.827 3179.981 673 4048 203 4265.736 3183,798 674 4052O19 4269.552 3186.66 675 4053.927 4270.506 3189.522 676 4055.836 4272.414 3193 339 677 4056.79 4272.414 3193 339 678 4058.698 4273.368 3196201 679 4061.56 4275 277 3197.155 680 4064.423 4279.093 3202 58 681 4064.423 4279.093 3203.834 682 4067 285 4280.047 3204.788 683 4068 239 4281 ,001 3206.696 686 4073.009 4284518 3211.466 687 4073.009 4285.772 3213374 688 4074.918 4287.68 3216237 689 4078.734 4288.634 3217.191 690 4078.734 4288.634 3218.145 691 4080.642 4290.542 3219.099 692 4082.55 4290,542 3222.915 693 4081.596 4292.45 3224.824 694 4064.459 4292.45 3224 524 695 4082.55 4292.45 3223 57 697 4084.459 4293.404 3225.778 698 4069 229 4296 267 3229 594 699 4090.183 4298.175 3233.411 700 4090.183 4298.175 3233.41 1 701 4090.183 4297 221 3232.456 702 4090.183 4295313 3232.456 703 4092.091 4298.175 3233.411 704 4094.953 4300.083 3236273 705 4095.907 4301.991 3239.135 706 4098.77 4304.853 3241.043 707 4099.724 4304553 3243.906 706 4097516 4302,945 3239.136 709 4097516 4302,945 3240.089 710 4098.77 4301 j991 3242.952 711 4099.724 4304 553 3245513 712 4103 54 4306.761 3246.768 713 4104.494 4309.624 3250.584 714 4108311 4310578 3251 538 715 4109265 4312.486 3253.446 716 4109265 4312.486 3253 446 717 4106.403 4308 57 3249.63 718 4106.403 4306.761 3249.63 719 4107 357 4309.624 3250584 720 4109265 4310578 3254.4 721 4113.081 4314394 3257 263 722 4114.035 4316302 3261 079 723 4114.989 4314394 3261 079 724 4108311 4310578 3253.446 725 4110219 4312.486 3256 309 726 4114.035 4314394 3261.079 727 4115.944 4317257 3263.941 728 4119 76 4320.119 3265.85 729 4122.622 4320 119 3269 666 730 4112.127 4312.486 3259 171 731 41 16.898 4315.348 3262 033 732 4116598 4316302 3263.941 733 41 18.806 4317257 3265.85 BOLT4 B - E N O T - E N D TOTAL NORTH SLIP S U P LOAD T - E N D mm mm (kN) 1978.783 1 6129 0.72644 945.1 ^55 1981 .645 1.62306 0.73406 947.4192 1984507 i . a - w ? 0.74422 947.4192 1988.323 1.64338 0.75184 947.4192 1992.14 1.65354 0.75946 947.4192 1995SS6 1.66116 0,76708 947.4192 1996.91 1.67386 0.77724 947.4192 2000.726 1.68656 0 7874 949.723 2002.635 1.70434 0.8001 955.7832 2004.543 1.71958 051788 952.0263 2005.497 1.73736 0.83058 949.723 2009313 1.7526 0 84582 952 0263 2011222 1.76276 0.85598 953.4799 2015.038 1.77546 0.8636 958.067 2017.9 1.7907 0.87376 953.4799 2019.808 1.80086 0.88646 958.087 1.81102 0.89408 958,087 2025.533 1.81864 0.90424 955 7832 2027.441 1.83134 0.91894 955 7832 2029349 1.8415 0.92456 960,3907 2032212 1,8542 0.93218 960 3907 2032212 1.86436 0.9398 964.1477 2034,12 1.87706 0.94996 960.3907 203859 1.89484 0.97282 960.3907 2041.752 1 90754 0.9779 964,1477 2042.706 1.91516 0.98044 962.694 2044515 1.92024 0.9906 964,1477 2046.523 1.92786 0.99822 964,1477 2048.431 1.93548 1.00584 966,451 2049.385 1 94564 1.01092 961,8439 2051293 1.95834 1.02362 964,1477 2052247 1.97866 1.04394 961,8439 2050.339 2.01422 1.07188 960.3907 2053 201 2.04216 1.10236 960.3907 2057.018 2.0574 1.11506 966,451 205958 2.07772 1.12776 966.451 2058.926 2.10058 1.14808 964,1477 2057 S72 2.13106 1.17856 962.694 205958 2.14884 1.1938 960,3907 2061.788 2.16408 1.20396 962 694 2063.696 2.17424 1.21666 964.1477 2066.559 2.1844 1.22428 968.7547 2070375 2.19456 1.23444 966.451 2071.329 2.21742 1.25222 968.7547 2068.467 2.2606 1,2954 961.8439 2068.467 2.28346 1.31318 964,1477 2069.421 2.29362 1.3208 964.1477 2071329 2.29616 1.32842 968,7547 2074.191 2.30632 1.3335 968.7547 2076.1 2.31394 1.34112 966.451 2078 S62 2.32156 1.3462 971.0584 2081524 2.33426 1.35636 968.7547 2080.87 2.36474 1.3843 966.451 2076,1 2.413 1.4351 960.3907 2076.1 2.42824 1.44526 960.3907 2078.962 2.43586 1.45034 966.451 2081.824 2.43586 1.45542 968 7547 2084.686 2 44602 1.4605 968 7547 2088503 2.45618 1.46812 971.0584 2086595 2.50444 1 51638 964 1477 2081.824 2.55778 1.56972 958 087 2083 732 25654 1.5748 966.451 2086 595 257302 1.57988 968.7547 2089.457 2 58064 1.56496 971 Û684 2095,181 258826 1.59004 968.7547 2095.181 2 60604 1.60528 968.7547 2085 64 2.70002 1 . ^ 1 8 954.33 2089.457 2 7051 1.69926 960.3907 2091.365 2.71272 1.70434 968.7547 2094 227 2.71526 1 70688 966,451 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSNiDOOl S C A N EVERY 10 S E C . N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0000 MICROSTRAIN FIRST TEST S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLT3 BOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL S O U T H NORTH SOUTH NORTH SLIP S U P LOAD B - E N D B - E N D T - E N O T - E N D mm mm (kN) W C R O S T R A 1 N 734 4121 .668 4319.165 3267 758 2095.181 2.72034 1.70942 971.Œ84 735 412453 4321 073 3269.666 2098 S98 2.72542 1.71196 971.0584 736 4125.485 4322.981 3273.482 2099.952 2.73304 1.71704 973.3617 737 4126.439 4324.889 3275391 210156 2.73812 1.72212 973.3617 738 4128346 4325 B43 3277299 2104.722 2.74828 1.72974 973.3617 739 4125.485 4322.027 3273.482 2099SS2 2.80416 1.79324 966.451 740 4119.76 4317257 3264.895 2094 227 2.85496 1.83642 956.6337 741 4122.622 4317257 3267.758 2094 227 2.86004 1 83896 960.3907 742 3822.084 4009.086 2869.902 1667.749 2.83464 1.8415 551.0431 743 931.191 848.1861 371.141 69.649 2.44602 1.8288 0 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSN0002 N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0000 MICROSTRAIN S E C O N D TEST S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS S O U T H NORTH SOLTTH B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D M 1 [ C R O S T R A 1 N 2 0 0 0 10 69.648 86.822 45.796 20 103.042 128.802 67.74 30 163.149 209.899 108.766 40 228.027 296.722 153.608 50 297.676 385.452 201.313 60 369.233 477.999 252.834 70 445.56 573.408 303.4 80 521.887 672.633 353 967 go 599.169 769.95 406.442 100 673.587 863.451 457.963 110 749.915 955.044 508.53 120 824.334 1044.728 562.913 130 906.385 1137 275 617 296 140 983.667 1223.143 672.633 150 1058086 1309O11 722.246 160 1138229 1399.649 780.445 170 1214556 1478.839 847.232 180 1289.93 1556.12 914.972 190 1363.394 1635.309 986.529 200 1433.997 1706.775 1055 223 210 1500.783 1775.561 1120,101 220 1572 34 1847.118 1193.566 230 1651529 1923.445 1272.756 240 171927 1991.185 1342.404 250 1816.587 2085.64 1446.4 260 1886 236 2150518 1517.957 270 1960.654 2219213 1594 284 280 2027.441 2282.183 1667.749 290 2095.181 2349.923 1745.03 300 2161.967 2408.122 1814.679 310 2228.754 2470.138 1887.19 320 2297.448 2535.016 1967.333 330 2371 567 2599.894 2048.431 340 2426251 2648.553 2110.447 350 2493.037 2710.569 2187.728 360 2557B15 2768.768 2258.331 370 2B2«51 2828.876 2338.474 380 2687.671 2881.351 2409 077 390 2758 274 2943367 2491.129 400 2822.196 2995 542 2565 548 410 2896517 3058512 2652.37 420 2955.77 3111286 2722018 430 3028281 3174257 2807.886 440 30ai518 3219.099 2871 fil 450 3149.45 3276.344 2948.137 460 3206.696 3324.049 3015578 469 3252.492 3361 258 .•V)fi9307 470 3230548 333836 3036568 473 3243 fl05 3348555 3050225 474 3230548 3033.051 482 3250584 3354.579 3056 504 483 3235319 3339314 3038.776 492 3260.125 3360.304 3067399 493 3243 fl05 3344.085 3045.455 501 3262.033 3362212 3070261 502 3262 fl87 3365.075 3072.169 503 3262.033 3360304 .3062.629 508 3261 079 ."WW 3 5 3066.445 509 3262 587 3364.12 ,3068.353 510 3264 596 3366.029 3071215 511 3266504 3366.029 3074.077 514 3272528 3370.799 3077.894 515 3257 263 3354579 ,3a5fl512 521 3273.482 3371.753 3079 502 522 3259.171 XWl.396 3061 675 528 327539 3371.753 3080.756 529 2440 562 2513.073 2015.038 530 67.74 26.714 52.475 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C . BOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL NORTH S U P SLIP LOAD T - E N D mm mm (kN) 0 0 0 0 20.036 0.1016 0 12.12096 22.899 0.10414 0.00254 20.4854 31.485 0.11176 0.00254 26 54565 43589 0.11684 0 32.60636 62016 0,12192 0 40.97035 83.96 0.13208 0 4933479 108,767 0,14224 0.00254 59,15201 139.298 0.1524 0 6951929 172.691 0.16002 0.UO254 79.63696 216.579 0.17272 O.Ua2b4 94,06186 261.421 0.18542 0 108.4864 310.06 0.2032 0 118.304 359.692 0.21844 0 137.3357 403.581 0.231 14 0.00254 149.4567 447.469 0.24384 0 166.1851 496.127 0,254 0.00254 191.2775 540.015 0.2667 0.0O254 203.3981 584.857 0,27432 0.00254 222.4298 627.792 0.28448 0.00254 236,8545 668.817 0,29464 0.00254 257.3399 706.027 0.29972 0 282.4323 748.961 0,3048 0.UO254 295.4038 791.895 0,3175 0 318.1924 831.967 0,32512 0.00254 337,2242 888.258 0,33528 0.00254 366.0731 928.33 0,33782 0 393.4693 970.31 0,34798 0.00254 416 2579 1008.474 0.3SFV, 0.00254 441.3504 105427 0,36322 0.00254 464.1395 1107.699 0,37084 0.00254 491.5352 1165.896 0,36354 0.00254 516.6276 1227.914 0,3937 0.00254 545.4766 1293.746 0.40386 0.00254 581.2367 1343359 0,41656 0 597.9651 1408237 0.42418 0.00254 631.4216 1469299 0,43688 0 862.5747 1538.947 0.44958 0 693.7269 1600.009 0,4572 0 720.273 1678 245 0.4699 0 749.9725 1746 539 0.4826 0 776.5181 1829.945 0.49276 0 817.4885 1894523 0.5na3fl 0 644.8842 1976575 0.51308 0.00254 883.5512 2036 582 0.52324 0.00264 904.8867 2111.401 0.53594 0.0U2b4 839.7968 2160.096 0.54864 0 964.a3«? 2236387 0.56896 0.0O254 986.8274 2201.086 0.74168 0.18542 947.3107 2216351 0.76708 0.20066 965.4919 2198224 0.8763 0.31242 949514 2224538 0.92202 0 3429 970.uy«y 2205556 1 03124 0.45466 949.614 2234 479 1 06426 0.47244 978 4629 2212535 1.18872 0.5969 953.3705 2239249 1.21412 0.6096 984.5236 2241.158 1.22174 0.61722 978.4629 2226546 1.3081 0.7112 955.6743 2236387 1.36398 0.75184 976.1596 2238295 1.36652 0.75438 973.a5,'J9 2241.158 1.36906 0 75946 980.7667 2244.02 1.36906 0 75946 976 1596 2248.79 1.38938 0.7747 984.5236 2226.846 1.5113 089662 961.735 2249.744 1.54686 0 . 9 1 ^ 982.2198 2230 662 1.66624 1.0414 961.735 2250.698 1.69164 1.0541 982.2189 1231.731 1 60528 1 05664 3029177 28 623 0 9906 1.0,^664 0 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSNIOO S C A N EVERY 10 S E C N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 2000 MICROSTRAIN S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS BOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH S U P S U P LOAD B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D T - E N D mm mm (KN) M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 33 1866 1924 1882 2083 0 0 0 40 1866 1924 1882 2083.954 0,1778 0 16.72843 50 1866 1923.046 1882 2083 354 O19558 0 22.78869 60 1866.954 1924 1882 2083.954 0.20574 0 26.54565 70 1866 1924.955 1882 2064.908 0.22352 0 28B4939 80 1867.908 1924 1882 2083.954 02413 0 3721338 90 1867.908 1923.046 1882 2084 308 0.25654 0 45 57782 100 1868.862 1925.909 1882.954 2085.862 0.27686 0 57.69878 110 1868562 1924 1882.954 2088517 0.29718 0 70.66979 120 1869517 1924.955 1882.954 2085.862 0,3175 0 8739778 130 1870.771 1925 309 1882 354 2086517 0.33528 0 105.5794 140 1871.724 1924.955 1884.862 2087.771 0.35306 0 126.9149 ISO 1874.587 1925.909 1883.908 2087.771 0.37084 0 147.4003 180 1874 587 1926.863 1886.77 2089.679 0.38608 0 162.675 170 1874.587 1926.863 1886.77 2088.725 0.40386 0 184.0106 180 1877.449 1924.955 1886.77 2088.725 0.42672 0 206.7992 190 1877.449 1925.909 1888 579 2088.725 0.43942 0 230.4384 200 1877.449 1924S55 1888.679 2087.771 0.45466 0 255.5.101 210 1879.357 1924.955 1888.679 2087.771 0.4899 0 282.9265 220 1878.403 1922.092 1887.725 2083354 0.4826 0.00254 308.0189 230 1880311 1921.136 1889.633 2075.368 0.4826 0 00254 320.1399 240 1883 174 1920.184 1889.633 2069.643 0.48514 0 336.8683 250 1885.082 1922.092 1892.495 2065.827 0.48514 0 346 6855 260 1890.806 1924.955 1896311 2063318 0.48514 0 364.8672 270 1896 531 1926.863 1899.174 2060.IQZ 0.48006 0.00254 386.8054 280 1902 255 1930.679 1903,944 2057 24 0,47498 0.00254 402.6837 290 1909.888 1942.128 1909.668 2051515 0.4699 0.00254 423.1687 300 1918.475 1972.659 1927,796 2049.607 0.46482 0.00254 443.6541 310 1925.154 2000.328 1941.154 2047.699 0.46482 0.00254 459.532 320 1934.694 2037.537 1974.547 2045.791 0.46228 0.00254 481.4707 330 1946.144 2077.609 2012.71 2041 375 0.4622B 0.00254 508.0163 340 1958.547 2114.818 2051.828 2039,112 0.45466 0.00254 540.6227 350 1972.858 2153 S36 2097.624 2035296 0.45466 0.00254 581.1076 360 1999.573 2200.686 2153316 2034.342 045212 0.00254 580.743 370 2054.91 2249 345 2216.885 2039.112 0.45212 0.00254 607.2882 380 2139.824 2309.453 2295.121 2052.469 0.45212 0.00254 636.1378 390 2213289 2362.882 2359.045 2078 2 3 0.45212 0.00254 645.9552 400 2301.065 2433.484 2441.097 2162.19 0.4572 0.00254 671.0477 410 2390.75 2503.133 2514.562 2254.737 0.45974 000506 677.1079 420 2469.939 2561332 2585.164 2338.696 0.46736 0.00254 705.9573 430 2581531 2630381 2664.354 2433.151 0.46736 0.00254 726.4427 440 2641.675 2690.134 2733.048 2513295 0.4699 0.00254 750.6842 450 2736.13 2756 S21 2814.146 2604 587 0.47244 0.00508 774.9265 460 2801.962 2804.625 2876.162 2665.949 0.47498 o.na'iOfl 797.71S2 470 2891.647 2864.733 2953.443 2746.093 0.47498 onasofl 815.8969 480 2984.194 2925.795 3031.678 2819558 0.47244 o.oosnn 843.8962 490 3058513 2976361 3094.648 2875.849 , 0.47244 0.00508 862.0774 500 3110.134 3014.525 3142 353 2916575 0.47244 0.00508 884.0161 510 3179.782 .1060321 3198.644 2967.441 04699 0.00508 904.5015 520 3284.732 3126.154 3262.568 3028 503 0.46736 0.00508 924.9864 530 3347.702 3186261 3299.777 3057.126 0.46736 o.nosofl 945.4718 540 3408.763 3246369 3331262 3082.887 0.47244 0.0O5O8 968.260b 550 3466.009 .1102.66 3361.794 3106.739 0.47752 0.00508 987.2927 560 3531541 .^VW.493 3399.003 3134.407 0.4826 0.00508 1016.142 570 3627 2 5 3456269 3448515 3176 387 0 49276 O.OOSOfl 1047294 580 3695.945 3519239 3481.055 3201.194 0.50038 0.00508 1066326 590 3759568 3576.484 351731 3230.771 0.51054 0.00508 1091.419 600 3aT3333 3642316 ,1S.'J929 3261.301 0.5207 0.00508 1120268 610 3894395 3697.653 3597 454 3288.97 0.5334 000508 114536 620 .1963.09 3757.761 3649.928 3324 271 0.5461 0.00508 118027 630 4021289 3809282 3696.679 3349.078 0.5588 0.00508 1209.97 640 4075.672 .ia'i9.849 3744 383 3377.7 0.57658 0.0OSO8 1238515 650 4131 964 3910.418 3796.859 3410.139 0.59436 0.00508 1274579 660 4174 598 3949.533 .iai633 3431.129 O6096 0.00508 1299.671 670 4216.878 3986.743 3877.002 3456.89 0.62092 0.00508 1329.974 680 4260 766 4030.631 3921.844 3486.466 O.R5024 0.00508 1359.673 690 4295.113 4060 208 3955 237 3506.503 0.66802 OOO'iOH 1387.069 700 4331.368 4092.647 3989.585 3530.355 0.68326 0.00508 1409 858 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSNIOO S C A N EVERY 10 S E C N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 2000 MICROSTRAIN S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLT3 S O U T H NORTH SOUTH B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 710 4375 257 4129.856 4031565 720 4406.741 4159,433 4064.958 730 4450.63 4195.689 4108546 740 4490.701 4230,99 4151.78 750 4523.14 4261521 4185.173 760 4571.799 4304.455 4236.694 770 4615.687 4344.526 4285,352 780 4658.621 4383.644 4331,149 790 4692 368 4410358 4367.404 800 4739.718 4452.338 4417971 810 4786.469 4492.41 4469.492 820 4822.724 4523 595 4512.426 830 4845.485 4546.794 4541.046 835 4858 38 4556 335 4554.406 836 4841506 4543.931 4527.691 840 4842.76 4542 377 4527.691 850 4841.806 4541.069 4527.691 860 4839.898 4542.023 4527.691 870 4841.806 4542.023 4526.737 880 4842.76 4541.069 4527.691 890 4843.715 4544.885 4528.645 900 4840 552 4542.023 4527.691 910 4837.99 4538 207 4525.783 920 4836.082 4537 252 4523 575 930 4833219 4533 436 4521.012 940 4831311 4529.62 4516242 950 4828.449 4526.757 4514334 960 4823 578 4522.941 4511.472 970 4818.908 4517217 4505.747 980 481223 4509.584 4497.16 990 4806505 4503.659 449239 1000 4792.194 4490.502 4479.986 1010 4777.882 4474 283 4464.721 1020 4750214 4447 568 4434.191 1030 4671 378 4387.461 4.1'W.955 1040 462332 4347.389 4298.71 1050 4558.442 4293.005 4224 291 1060 4477344 4222.403 4137.468 1070 4402325 4144.168 4057.325 1080 4325.644 4062.116 3973 365 1090 4276.031 4011549 3918.982 1091 4272215 4005.825 3914212 1092 4270306 4002,962 3912303 BOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL NORTH SLIP SLIP LOAD - E N D mm mm (kN) ,1^50586 0.7rtV)8 O0050F. 1438.707 3581 576 0.72136 0.0050B 1466.103 3613.36 0.74168 0.00508 1492549 3643591 0.762 o.nnsoH 1515.438 .•Wifl.698 0 . / / / 2 4 0.00508 1539.077 3708.77 0.80264 0.00508 1567 326 3745379 0.82296 O.OO-SOfi 1593018 3783.189 0,84582 0.00508 1615507 3814.673 0.86.36 0.00762 1638.596 3867.140 O 89154 0.01018 1660749 3917.715 0.9271 0.02032 1691.084 3957 787 0.9652 0.03556 1713573 3986.41 0.99314 004826 1722 237 4002.629 1.01092 0.06096 1732 305 3979.731 2.1463 2.91846 1483.079 3978.777 2.14122 2.91846 1532.413 3978777 2.1463 2.91592 1546538 3978.777 2.15138 2.91846 1575.687 3978777 2.159 2.91646 1618.961 3977 523 2.16662 2.91592 1653571 3980.685 2.17678 231592 1687 327 3978.777 2.18186 2.91592 1657.628 3976.869 2.18186 231592 16123 3974.006 2.17932 2.91592 157133 3971.144 2.17424 2.91592 1530.11 3967328 2.17424 2.91592 1486336 3964.465 2.16916 2.91592 1443562 3959.695 2.15646 2.91592 1350.953 3954 325 2.14376 2.91592 1266.709 3945.384 2.12598 2.91592 1163.433 3938.705 2.11836 2.91592 1095.066 3918.669 2.08788 291592 913.607 3893.863 2.05994 2.91592 777.724 3857.607 2.032 2.91592 628.8709 3774.602 2.00152 2.91846 441.3604 3724.035 1.9812 2.91846 351.6484 3659.157 1.9558 2.91846 247.5222 3581576 1.89738 2.91846 154.0637 3510319 1.79832 2.91846 81 090? 3440.67 1.a>vl54 2.91846 3030262 3392.966 1.397 2.91S46 3.756968 3390.104 1.37922 2.91846 3 756968 3388.196 1.36906 2.91846 0 SHEAH SPECIMEN PSN050 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C . N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 1000 MICROSTRAIN S T R I A N G A Q E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS SOUTH NORTH SOUTH B - E N O B - E N D T - E N D M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 30 1455 1000 1048 40 1455.955 999.046 1047.046 50 1455.955 998 092 1047.046 60 1455 1000 1047.046 70 1455 999.046 1046.092 80 1456.909 999.046 1048 90 1455555 999.046 1045.136 100 1455.955 1000.954 1046.092 110 1455 S55 999.046 104323 120 1455.955 1000.954 1041.322 130 1456.909 1000 554 1042 276 140 1457.863 1003516 1039.414 150 1458.617 1005.724 1039.414 160 1459.771 1006.678 1039.414 170 1461.679 1007.633 1037.505 180 1467.404 1012.403 1036.551 190 1475.99 1026.714 1037.505 200 1487.439 1043.888 1042 276 210 1496,026 1066.786 1045.138 220 1505 567 1086.822 1048 230 1517016 11 14.49 1053.725 240 1529,419 1148 838 1062312 250 1550.409 118851 1075.669 260 1591.435 1236614 1115.741 270 1642.956 1285273 1166.308 280 1697 339 1335.839 1220,691 290 1759.355 1376.865 1270.303 300 1828.05 1415.029 1323.732 310 1905331 1454.146 1380.978 320 1959.714 1482.769 1419.141 330 2039557 1522.841 1478295 340 2108552 1562513 1528.862 350 2186.787 1602.985 1586.107 360 2280288 1656.414 1667205 370 2367.11 170221 1761.66 380 2420.54 1732.741 1826.538 390 2486 372 1770.904 1903.819 400 2544571 1809.068 1974.422 410 2620598 1850.094 2066568 420 2709.629 1905.431 2178.597 430 2785002 1963.631 2279.73 440 2874.686 2039.004 2387 542 450 2958.645 2143 554 2461.962 460 3070275 2263215 2535.427 470 3166.638 2357 5 7 2595534 480 3256322 2450216 2654.688 490 3367.961 2562.799 2731569 500 3454.773 2651529 2788 26 510 3584 529 2786.056 2888.44 520 3656.086 2859 521 2944.731 530 3707.607 2914.858 2989 573 540 3782.026 2993.093 3055 406 550 3862.169 3079516 3132.687 560 3941359 3167 692 3209 O l 4 570 3986 201 3214.442 3252.902 580 4049.171 3284.091 3314518 590 4097 829 3336566 3362.622 600 4152213 3395.719 3417 006 610 4213274 3458.69 3474 251 620 4245.713 3492 083 .3505.736 630 4281015 3531 2 3541 .037 iOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL gORTH SLIP SLIP LOAD - E N D mm mm (kN) 1062 0 0 0 1061 .045 0.11938 0 3.756968 1062.954 0.23114 0 7.513937 1062 0.29718 0 9.817226 1061.045 0.34544 , 0 8.817226 1062.954 0.39624 0.00254 12.12086 1062.954 0.42672 0.00254 18.18186 1062.954 0.45212 0.00254 26.54565 1063.908 0.47498 0.0O2S4 3721338 1063508 0.4953 0.00508 5539504 1064 562 0.51308 0.00508 66.06277 1066.77 0.53O86 0.00508 82.79075 1066.77 0.54356 0.00762 9451171 1066.77 0.55372 0,00762 115.3967 1066.77 0.56134 0.00762 128.8214 1067.724 0.55118 0,00508 138.1858 1068.678 0.52578 0.00508 150.3068 1073.449 0.4953 0 00508 160.8745 1075.357 0.4699 0,00508 168.4884 1078219 0.45212 0 00506 176.3061 108259 0.44196 0.00508 192.7308 1087.76 0 43668 0,00508 202.5476 1095393 0.4318 0.00508 216.1222 1112.566 0.42926 0.00508 226.7899 1140.235 0.42926 0.00508 234.3039 1175.536 0.42672 0.00508 246.4248 1211.792 0.42926 0.00508 256.2425 1251.863 0.42926 0.00508 264.60a5 1294.797 0.42672 0.00508 274.4242 1324 374 0.42672 0.00508 280.4849 1394577 0.42418 0.00.508 292.8058 1475.12 042418 0.00254 304.7268 1565.759 0.42164 0.00508 316.8477 1673.571 0.4191 0.00508 332.7257 1769.934 0.41402 0.00506 347.1504 1834512 0.41402 0.00508 360.725 1910.185 0,41402 0.00506 371.3827 1978.88 0.41148 o.oa5n8 389.5744 2015.135 0.41148 0.00254 401.6954 2071.427 0.40894 0.00508 423.634 2127.718 0.4064 0.00508 447.8758 2196.412 0.40132 0.00506 471.3678 2255 566 0.40386 0.00508 494.a565 2315.673 0.4191 0.00508 531.2703 2368.149 0.43434 o.nosofl 557.8155 2414599 0.44958 0.00508 592.7256 2475.961 0.46736 0.0a5O8 632.2427 2519B49 0.48514 0.00S08 664.8491 2593314 0.51054 0.00,508 733.2151 2629.569 0.53086 0.00508 762.0641 2659.146 0.5461 0.00508 793.2172 2703.968 056896 0.00508 832.7338 2750.739 0.59436 0.00508 886.6757 2792.718 0.61976 o.oreiofi 928.9487 2814.662 064262 0.00508 865.7098 284901 0.67818 0.00508 1021.855 2871.908 0.7a\58 0.00508 1057.715 2912.934 0.7366 0 00508 1110203 2962 546 0.77216 0.00508 1155.781 2993.077 0.79248 0.00508 1188237 3026.47 081788 0.00506 1224 997 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSN050 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C . N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 1000 MICROSTRAIN S T R I A N G A G E S BOLT1 8 0 L T 2 BOLTS SOLTTH NORTH SOUTH S C A N B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D M I C R O S T R A I N BOLT4 B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL NORTH SLIP SLIP LOAD T - E N D mm mm (kN) 840 4328 719 3579.859 3585.879 651 4380 24 3628517 3634538 652 4385 01 3636.15 .•WW .308 660 4399 322 .Tfi.50.462 3651 712 670 4431.761 3684,809 S6R1.ia7 674 4447.026 3699.12 3699.416 675 4379286 3684,809 3696.554 676 4377378 3685.763 3696.554 680 4372.607 3687.671 3697.508 690 4362.112 3690.533 3700.37 700 4366.882 3695 304 3702 278 710 4375.469 3704.844 3708.957 721 4424.128 3749.687 3761.432 722 4411.725 3730.605 3745212 723 4414587 3732513 3748.075 730 4410.771 3724 58 3744 258 740 4404.092 3706753 3731 555 750 4360 204 3660 957 3690.629 760 4295 326 3594.17 3623.089 770 4211366 3511.164 a w 542 780 4092.105 3393511 3391245 790 3972 543 3276.458 3251 348 800 3841.179 3136207 3104.064 810 3707.607 3004 S43 2966.675 820 3,56831 2877.649 2847.414 830 3449.048 2762 204 2735.786 840 3347 B15 2665.841 2632.744 850 323724 2563 753 2522.069 3073221 0.84836 0.00508 1266518 3119371 0 889 0.01778 1314.890 3125.696 1,12268 0.19812 1265 365 3141315 1.1557 0.2032 1333 73 3174 355 1.17602 0.20828 1360 277 3191528 1.19126 0.20828 1370 344 3175 309 2.14376 0.53848 1194.091 3177217 2.15138 0.54102 1216.03 3179.12S 2.15646 0.54102 1237.365 3180.079 2,16408 0.54102 1266215 3183595 2,17932 0.54356 1309.488 3191528 2.20472 0.54356 1367.187 3244 357 2.24282 0.54664 1417,372 3226529 334772 1.0795 1206212 3228 737 3.35026 1.0795 1233.609 3224321 3 34518 1.0795 1173.606 3207.748 3.3147 1.0795 1014.935 3160.043 3.2766 1.0795 843.293 .3080554 3.23088 1.0795 689.832 2986399 3.17754 1.0795 540.9785 2672.862 3.10896 1.0795 393.5782 2768 866 3.04546 1.0795 287.1483 2654375 2.99212 1.07696 193.6894 2534.16 2.921 1.07696 126.1738 2403.45 2.83972 1.07442 76 53903 2291521 2.79654 1.07442 43.6295 2196.412 2.77114 1.06934 14.17737 2006233 2.56032 1.0668 0.603179 SHEAR SPECIMEN PSB050 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C BEARING P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 1000 MICROSTRAIN STRAIN G * G E 5 A P P E A R S NOT TO HAVE WORKED S T R A I N G A G E S • — * B O L T l — * * * • • • * * B O L T 2 " * * ' * • • • • • B O L T 3 * " * " B O L T 4 " * * * * B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N D SOUTH T - E N D NORTH T - E N D SLIP SLIP LOAD S C A N T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E mm mm (kN) M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 1 846 1359 1622 882 1031 947 1018 0 0 0 10 848.862 1360.909 1623,908 882 1031 .954 947.954 1015.138 0 59944 -0.00254 28 54939 20 848.862 1357.092 1624.862 879.138 1031 947.954 1014,184 0.96012 -0.00508 57.69878 30 851.724 1358.046 1626,771 880.092 1031 949.863 1010.367 1.23698 -0 .00508 98.66868 40 855.54 1357.092 1628578 878.184 1032 308 953.679 1009,413 1.38176 -0.00254 145.6997 50 861.255 135423 1633,449 875.322 1033.862 958.449 1008.459 1.46304 0 210.3088 60 867.944 1346.597 1641 .082 870.551 1029.092 963 22 1006.551 1 52654 -0.00254 276.3716 70 918.51 1296.031 1672.566 824.755 995.699 992.797 965.525 1.56972 -0.00254 324.2531 80 985.297 1235.923 1731.72 778.959 957.535 1023 328 931.178 1.60782 0 380.4976 90 1017.736 1213.025 1788011 741.749 934.637 1041.455 921.637 1.64592 0 440 5003 100 1046.359 1194.897 1854.798 703.586 917.463 1054512 915.913 1.68402 0 508.8664 110 1074381 1172.953 1924.446 665 422 894.565 1066 261 907.326 1,71704 0 566.5651 120 11 10283 1145 284 1997311 628.212 872.621 1079519 902.555 1.75514 0.00254 642.4451 130 1147.492 1118.57 2069.468 591.003 847.815 1091.068 896.831 1,79578 0.00508 709.358 140 1187.564 1088 039 2136254 550.931 823.009 1100.609 889.198 1.6288 0.01016 776.874 150 1240 393 1048.921 2201.132 519.446 790.569 1113366 881.565 1.87198 0.0127 852.7544 160 1299.192 1002.171 2263.148 463.191 758.13 1125.415 867.254 1.91008 0.01524 922 5737 170 1362.162 957 329 2324 21 452.66 719.013 1140.881 853,897 1.95072 0.02286 993.2439 180 1432.765 90 1 037 2386226 420.221 673.216 1160717 838.631 2.00406 0.03302 1077.488 190 1500.505 849.517 2448242 388.736 633.145 1182.661 821,458 2.04978 0.04064 1143.551 200 1574.924 788.455 2510257 353.435 583.532 1203.65 802.376 2.10058 o.reïVH 1215.674 210 1650297 725.485 2575.136 320.996 535.828 1228.457 777 57 2 15392 0.06604 1286.344 220 1729.487 658.698 2642576 283.786 489.077 1258.034 753,717 2.20726 0.08382 135471 228 1798.181 605.27 2703.936 254.209 448.051 1278.07 729.865 2 .25 .W 0.09652 1404.045 229 1805514 595.729 2708.708 251.347 442 327 1279.024 727,003 2.2fi.'i6R 0.09906 1410.1Œ 237 1876.416 537.529 2767.862 223.678 399.393 1309.554 704.105 2,31648 0.11684 1468 654 250 1989.954 444.028 2852.776 180.744 326.882 1364592 665,941 2,4003 0.14732 1553.748 260 2079.638 367.701 2920516 147.351 266.774 1415.458 630.64 2,4Rflfifl 0.1778 1619511 270 2169.322 293.282 2985.394 113.958 202 8501 1471.75 592.476 2.54254 0.20574 1684.421 280 2262.823 217.909 3047.41 84381 138.9261 1539.49 552.404 2.62382 0.2413 1751334 292 2374.452 128.225 3127554 43 355 565743 1621.542 502.792 2.72542 0.28702 1829517 300 2447317 71 .933 3183.845 20.457 -0 .371 1680.695 2 78511 0.31496 1882.005 306 2500.392 26.137 3218.192 -1 .487 - 4 3 305 1721.721 440.776 2.8448 0.33782 1915.462 310 2542372 - 6 .302 3248.723 -14.844 -75.7441 1760539 2.9083 0.,^556 1944311 320 2634 318 - 7 9 767 3312 647 -48.237 -152.071 1846.707 388 301 2.9718 0.39878 1996.799 333 2745.455 - 1 7 3 2 6 8 3390.882 -86.401 - 2 5 2 251 1955.473 332.009 3.08864 0.45466 2075.833 337 2784711 -200.936 3413.78 - 1 0 0 7 1 2 -283.736 1987312 312.928 3.12166 0.47244 2098.622 351 2908742 - 2 9 6 3 4 5 3492.97 -139.83 - 3 9 0 5 9 4 2112598 249.958 3.25628 0.54102 2182263 360 2984.115 -358.361 3544.491 -169.407 -463 .105 2193.042 207.024 3.34264 0.5842 222b 538 370 3062351 -424 .193 3595.058 -198 .983 - 5 3 5 5 1 5 2277356 161.227 3.4417 0.63246 2281.783 380 3143.448 -492.888 3644.67 -223 .79 - 6 0 6 2 1 8 2367.64 120.202 3.53822 0.6a5fl 2323.603 390 .3222.638 -558 .72 3694283 -251.458 -678.729 2453 508 78222 3.6322 0.73914 2375242 400 3298.965 - 6 3 1 2 3 1 3740.079 - 2 7 6 265 -755.056 2540 331 45 783 3.73126 0.78994 2420518 410 3365.751 -706.604 3773.472 -303.933 -823.751 261952 3 8989 0.84328 2456 579 420 3429.675 - 7 6 6 7 1 2 3816406 -329.694 - 8 9 3 399 2697 755 3 97256 0.89662 2502.156 430 3499.324 -823.003 3862203 - 3 4 6 567 -960.185 2782.669 4,056,18 0.9525 2549.187 440 356.>i.156 -884 .065 3908.953 -365.949 - 1 0 3 2 7 2869.491 4,1529 1.01092 2594.764 450 3631342 -935.586 3961 428 -383.123 - 1 1 0 2 34 2954 405 4.23164 1 06426 2635 735 456 3663 427 -979.474 3974.785 - 4 0 2 205 - 1 141,46 2996.385 4 26974 1.09474 2647.856 460 3674 576 -1008.1 3979 556 - 4 2 1 2 8 6 - 1 168.18 3014513 4.2799 1.10744 2616.703 470 36 SHEAR SPECIMEN PSB100 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C BEARING P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 2000 MICROSTRAIN STRAIN GAGE 1 A P P E A R S NOT TO HAVE WORKED S T R A I N G A G E S * * * " B O L T l ' * * * * ' • • • • • B O L T 2 ' * " * * • • • • •BOLT3****** • • • • • B O L T 4 * * * ' * * B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N O SOUTH T - E N D NORTH T - E N O SLIP SLIP LOAD S C A N T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E mm mm (kN) M I C R O S T R A 1 N 8 1860 2587 1826 1872 1788 1992 1855 0 0 0 10 1862.863 2590.816 1827.908 1871.046 1789.908 1993.908 1857.862 0.09144 0 6.060258 20 1860.954 2588 508 1827.908 1873.909 1790.862 1993.908 1855.954 0.09398 0 9.817226 30 1864.771 2592.724 1829516 1873.909 1791516 1995516 1857562 0.13716 0 18.18166 40 1860.954 2588.908 1827.908 1873.909 1788.954 1992 554 1854.046 0.18288 0 27.99889 50 1862.863 2592.724 1826.954 1874.863 1789.908 1994562 1856.908 0.22098 0 46.18055 60 1860 2589 862 1824.092 1873.909 1789.908 1993.908 1863.092 0.25654 0 70 42292 70 1860.954 2589 862 1824.092 1875517 1788.954 1994562 1854.046 0 28194 0 104.4821 80 1862.863 2590B16 1821 229 1876.771 1788 1997.724 1855.954 0.30734 0 146.9061 90 1861.908 2588 508 1816.459 1876.771 1785.138 1997.724 1852.138 0.33782 0 181.8162 100 1852 367 2584.138 1808.826 1875517 1779.413 1995516 1843.551 0 227.9963 110 1847.597 2582 229 1800 239 1879.633 1775.597 1999.633 1841.643 0.381 0 275.0273 120 1839.964 2583.184 1787.836 1881541 1764.148 2007265 1832.102 0.41402 0 324.3621 130 1835.194 2587 1773.525 188822 1751.744 201259 1819.699 0.45974 0 365.332 140 1834 24 2595.587 1765.892 1894 599 1745.066 2020.622 1813574 0.50292 0 406.3024 150 1829.469 2601311 1751.581 1897.761 1738.387 2023.485 1801571 0.5461 0 456.4872 160 1B31.377 2612.76 1740.132 1902 531 1734.571 2028 255 1793.936 0 58928 0 504.36a3 170 1822.791 2617531 1727 728 1905.394 17295 2031.118 1779.627 0.62484 0 553.7027 ISO 1818.02 2626.118 1714.371 1910.164 1725.984 2035588 176627 0.65786 0 596.9767 190 1802.755 2639.475 1693.381 1916543 1719.305 2046 383 1743.372 0.69088 0 644 8579 200 1776B94 2655.694 1667.621 1924.475 1710.718 2059.74 1714.749 0.71374 0 696.4959 210 1748372 2674.776 1648.539 1934 016 1697361 2076514 1684218 0.73914 0 743.527 218 1710208 2689.087 1630.411 1946.419 1686.866 2089317 1652.733 0.762 0 804.9823 219 1706.392 2690.996 1626 595 1949282 1684.004 2092.179 1648517 0.76454 0.00254 809.5893 230 1662.504 2713.894 1597.972 1964.547 1664.922 2107.445 1613515 0.80518 0.00254 884.0166 240 1626 248 2736.792 1570.304 1978 558 1649.657 2119548 1585.947 0.84074 0.00254 957.5928 250 1608.12 2777518 1540.727 1993.17 1631.529 2139.884 1578314 0.88138 0.00254 1030.566 256 1578.544 2794.037 1520.691 1999.848 1620.08 2142.746 1558 278 0.90424 0.00254 1073 84 257 1573.773 27965 1519.737 2000503 1617218 2143.7 1554.462 0.90932 0.00508 1076.144 260 1557.554 2803.578 1509.242 2004.619 1612.447 2147516 1545 575 0.92456 0.00508 1106.446 270 1479318 2831 247 1467262 2017.022 1583.825 2150.379 1509.62 0.97028 0.00508 1181.724 280 1423,027 2853.191 1435.777 2025.609 1566.651 2153241 1487.675 1.00584 o.oa5oa 1231 .058 281 1412.532 2851283 1432515 2026563 1566.651 2153241 1480.997 1.00838 0.00762 1239.422 290 1341.929 2872 273 1398.568 2031333 1549.477 2153241 1459.053 1.04902 0.00762 1288 757 300 1253.199 2899.941 1356.588 2041528 1527.533 2157.057 14352 1.09728 0.00762 1365.487 306 1175.918 2917.115 1323.194 2049.461 1511314 2158.012 1414211 1.1303 0.01016 1401247 307 1161.606 2916.161 1316516 2050.415 1507.497 2158.012 1409.44 1.1.35.18 0.01016 1401 247 310 1140.616 2926.656 1306.021 2055.186 1503.681 2158566 1404.67 1.14808 0.01016 1414218 311 1133,938 2927.61 130125 2058.048 1500519 215952 1401 .807 1.1506? 0.0127 1420 279 320 1061.427 2944.783 1266503 2069.497 1484.599 2162.782 1385.588 1.18364 0.0127 1465.856 323 1027.08 2950508 1253546 2076.176 1477.92 2163.736 1376.047 1.20396 0.0127 1490.948 324 1015.631 2955 278 1247 521 2078.084 1475.058 2165.644 1376.047 1.21412 0.01524 1505 373 330 948.845 2965.774 121729 2(J91.441 1457 585 2168.507 1361.736 1.23952 0.01524 1528.182 332 928.809 296959 1207.75 2093 349 1455 022 2169.461 1357519 1.24968 0.01524 1540283 333 914.497 2968.636 1202579 2095257 1451206 2168507 1352.195 1.25476 0,01778 1549.497 337 67 1 563 2979.131 1182.943 2107.661 1441.665 2171369 1345516 1.27508 0.01778 1570.833 338 857.252 2978.176 1178.173 2107.661 1437 549 2169.461 1341.7 1.28016 0.02032 1576.893 343 810.501 2989.626 1157.183 2121 572 1423 537 2175.186 1335.021 1.30556 0.02032 1599.682 344 796.19 2987.718 1151.458 2122.926 1420.675 2175.185 1328 342 1.31064 0.02286 1605.743 349 726.542 2987.718 1131.422 2136283 1407318 2174231 1314.985 l.a.'WSS 0.02286 1641.502 350 714 138 2987.718 1125.698 2137237 1403.502 2175.185 1309261 1.34366 0.0254 1647.563 360 607.26 3001.075 1071315 2167.768 1367 246 2183.772 1278.73 1.40208 0.03048 1701.505 370 532.861 301634 1030289 2195.437 1338.623 2195221 1255.831 1.450,34 0.0381 1762 358 380 450.81 3029.698 985.447 2227 576 1301.414 2209533 1224 347 1.50876 0.04064 1826.116 390 376.39 3043.055 940.604 2265.085 1258 48 2228514 1187.137 1.5748 0.05334 1890.726 400 298.155 3059 274 891.946 2306.111 1208.867 2245.788 1148019 1.63576 0.06604 1955335 401 287.66 3063.091 886.221 2313.744 1205.051 2248.65 1144203 1.64064 0.066O4 1955.335 410 220.874 3077.402 844.241 1173.566 2269.64 1106.039 1.69926 0.07874 201158 420 145.501 3089505 798.445 1126516 2294.446 1061.197 1.7653 0.09398 2071.582 430 75.852 3113.658 752.649 1076 249 2324.023 1010.631 1.83134 0.1143 2129281 440 -3 .337 3141.326 703.036 1019.003 2366.003 940.982 15177 0.14224 2204.558 450 -80 .619 3168.995 651.515 963.666 2404.167 871.333 1.98374 016764 2252 439 451 - 8 7 297 3171.857 648.653 961.758 2407 583 865.609 1.96882 0.17018 2256.196 460 -137.864 3201.434 613.352 2446.147 803.593 2 04978 0.19304 2304.077 SHEAR S P E C I M E N PSBIOO S C A N EVERY 10 S E C . BEARING P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 2000 MICROSTRAIN STRAIN G^GE 1 A P P E A R S NOT TO HAVE W/ORKED S T R A I N G A G E S . . . . . g O L T I " * * " • • • * * B O L T 2 ' * * * ' * " • • • B O L T 3 ' " * * * SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N D SOUTH T - E N D S C A N T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S I D E B - S I D E T - S l O E B - S I D E M I C R O S T R A I N 470 -205.604 3237 689 571.372 480 - 2 7 5 2 5 3 3271.082 519.851 490 - 3 4 2 993 3316 879 471.192 500 -425 .045 3355.996 406.314 501 -435 .54 3356 3 5 399.635 510 -494.694 3361.721 342.39 520 -540 .49 3355 S96 301.364 530 -568.150 3352.18 268.925 540 - 6 0 0 5 9 8 3340.731 237.44 550 - 6 2 1 5 8 8 3329282 202.139 560 -652.118 3307 338 164.929 570 -874 .063 3293 36 127 72 580 - 6 9 6 f l 6 1 3276.807 9051 590 -727.492 3256.771 50.439 600 - 7 5 5 . 1 6 3240.552 7.504 610 -790.462 3217.653 -41.154 620 -841.028 3187 122 -113 .665 630 -892.549 3146.096 - 1 8 7 . 1 3 640 -925.942 3111749 - 2 3 4 834 643 -921.172 3109541 -235.788 • • ' " B O L T 4 * " * " B - E N D T - E N D TOTAL NORTH T - E N D S U P S U P LOAD T - S I D E B - S I D E mm mm (kN) 2496713 728.22 2.13106 0.2286 23S8019 2549.188 651.»3 2.20218 0.26162 2409.657 2619.791 558.392 2.30378 0.31242 2486 387 2683715 462.029 2.37998 0.35306 2533.418 2686577 448.672 2.39014 0.355R 2535.721 2703751 411.462 2.39014 0.36576 2354262 2702.797 386.656 2.33934 0.36576 2130361 2702 797 377.115 2.2987 O.Sflai 1916^65 2692302 361.849 2.25552 0.36576 1702 502 2688.485 352.308 2.20726 0.36578 1482.475 2676.082 330.364 2.15392 0.36576 1256591 2667.495 309.374 2.09804 0.36576 1061.007 2653.184 275.027 2.02692 0 36576 855.9082 2635.056 239.726 1.95326 0.36576 668.3881 2621.699 207.287 1.87452 0.36576 492.1384 2603 572 176.756 1.79324 0.36576 345.5881 2577511 136.684 1.651 0.36578 187.5201 2532.969 88.98 1.3843 0.36576 6375903 2480.494 59.403 1 36652 0.36576 3.756968 2482.402 62265 1.40208 0.36576 1.453234 BgNCXNG SPEOMEN M02NOOO SCAN EVfflY 1 0 S6C NON-B6AR1NO P08T-TENSONED TO 00)0 MICFOSTRAIN MO^€NTARM OÊTWEEN 1ÛAD AND CONCRETE-STEEL INTERF/CE) = 1 7 6 m m S T R A 1 N 0 A 0 E S BOLT1 BOLT2 BOUTS BOLT4 SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH B-ENO B-END T -END T-END M I C R O S T R A I N 24 -2B6 ! 0 2,862 3.817 27 -2862 0,954 2,862 3.817 37 -3817 0 3,817 4.771 47 -8 587 3,817 22,898 12,404 57 -15268 31-485 65.832 39.118 67 42.904 111,629 107812 107813 77 119261 216,579 16782 2099 67 210854 325 345 254.742 311988 87 300538 424.57 366,371 408851 107 389288 513.301 482 77 500898 117 «79907 596507 603539 59249 127 584BS7 685 037 732741 688853 137 oee.3»4 7814 875855 792849 147 614,793 679671 1017,06 902569 157 938824 97985 1162082 1017.06 167 1079,075 1083846 1317598 1143 177 1224097 1187842 148739 1271.802 187 1360532 1284 205 1604.779 1391.063 197 1522727 1396 788 1761.25 1527.498 207 1695,417 1521,774 1923.445 1668704 217 1860,475 1639,127 2077054 1802276 227 2024579 1757434 2229708 1937757 237 2200,131 1888236 2389.995 2081.824 247 235851 2004,543 2538634 2213489 257 2525476 2130483 26933S6 234897 267 2729,651 2284,091 2884,214 2516889 277 2854,637 2379,501 3001,567 2617069 267 2999659 2495699 314468 2738238 297 3121,782 2596.079 3266,804 2844.142 307 3241,997 2697212 3397514 2956.725 317 3342177 2782126 3502464 3046318 327 3441.402 2868949 3614093 3145834 337 3520592 2934.781 3698144 3217192 347 3605.505 3009.2 3797278 3305922 346 3610.276 3011.108 3789.845 3297335 357 3670384 3061.675 3864 064 3368964 358 3678016 3068354 3872651 3375571 359 3678971 3069.308 3857385 3357443 365 3706.639 3090297 3904.136 3404.193 366 3708547 3092206 3889825 3385111 375 3740986 3120828 3943 254 343854 376 3741 94 3121,782 3923216 3419.458 380 3750,527 3125 599 3950 886 3447127 381 3745757 3121,782 3921,31 3411.826 391 3727 629 3104,609 3803,003 3279207 401 3689,465 3067399 3671 338 3133.232 411 3427091 2841,28 3262987 2685763 421 2540741 20781 2377592 1780.332 431 1150,632 960769 1041,866 714814 441 538,106 306263 408J51 224212 CONNECTION ROTATION DISPLACEMENTS WEST EAST WEST EAST B-END B-END B-END T-END T-END SLIP WEST LOAD T-END CELL SLIP LARQE m m ( k N ) 0 0.00854 0,00508 0,02)32 0.10414 0,18256 0.17272 0,18288 0,19658 0,20674 0,21644 0 22606 0.23366 0,24384 0,24892 0,254 0,25908 0,2667 0,27432 0 28194 0 28702 0,2321 0.29464 029972 0 30734 0.31242 0,31496 0.32004 0,32512 0,3302 0,33274 0,33528 0.33782 0,33528 0 33528 0 33628 0,34036 0,33782 0,34036 0 34036 0 34036 0 34036 0,14036 0,34036 0,33528 0,3302 0,31496 0,27432 0,20828 0,15748 0 0 0 0 0,00608 0 -00127 -00127 -0,0127 -000762 0,01016 0,0127 0,02286 0,03302 0,04672 0,05334 0,0635 007112 0,0762 0,08128 0,08382 0,08636 01»)e2 013716 0,1397 0,14224 0,14478 014478 0,14732 0,14732 014886 014986 014986 0,1778 01778 0,1776 0.18034 0,16034 0.1778 0.1778 0,18034 0.1778 01778 0.1778 01778 017526 015494 0,1016 0,06858 0 11938 0 0 -0.00254 -0,00762 -0.03046 -0,0869 -0,08128 -0,07112 -0,06096 -0.0506 -0,04064 -003302 -0,02794 -0,02032 -001778 -0.00762 0 -001524 -001778 -0O254 -002794 -003556 -0.04318 -0,06604 -007874 -0,06382 -0-1016 -010668 -0,11938 -0,14224 -016256 -0,1905 -021336 -025146 -024892 -02794 -028194 -027686 -029718 -02921 -03175 -031496 -0,32766 -031496 -028956 -025908 -0,17272 008362 0.1 &M6 -0.03302 0 0 0 0 0 -0 06604 -0,13716 -0,18542 -02286 -027432 -0 32258 -0,3683 -041402 -045466 -0 50292 -0 55372 -0 59944 -0 63754 -067564 -07112 -0,75184 -077978 -08128 -063312 -0 84836 -089408 -09144 -094996 -088552 -102362 -1,06426 -11049 -1,1684 -121666 -121412 -12446 -124714 -124206 -1 25984 -1 25222 -127254 -1 26238 -127762 -1 26492 -1 20396 -1 15062 -1,06426 -093472 -085532 - 0 » 5 4 4 0 0.07112 0,13716 0.28702 0,57912 0.65786 0,72898 0.8128 0,90424 1,00684 1 11506 1,20396 1,29266 1,38176 1,4605 1,5494 1,6X68 1,69164 1,75006 1,6161 1.87198 1,9304 1,98882 2,04724 2,1082 2,1844 2.23266 2,30876 2 36982 2,47142 2,58064 2,72286 28702 306832 3,20648 3,2512 3,25628 3,43662 34798 3,65252 3,71602 3,93954 399796 4.20624 4,20116 4.17322 4,0767 3.8354 3,57124 25M76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00254 0 0.00254 0.00254 0.00508 0.01016 0,02032 0.0254 0.03556 0.04318 0.05334 0.06096 0,07366 0.08636 0,1016 0,12192 0.14732 0,1851 0,20066 0 23368 02821 0,35814 0.45212 0,55626 0.70104 0,81026 0.8362 0,84328 0.98806 1,00638 1,15316 1,18872 1,37414 1-40716 1,58242 1.58496 1 58496 1 58496 1.58496 1,58496 1.58496 0 0 0 2303734 2.303734 11,51776 20.73227 34,55379 52.96233 73,7146 99 ,«39 122,0899 152,0367 181883 2142336 246,4835 281,0373 3132674 3465379 380,0912 414,645 444,5918 4791456 509,0923 534,4316 5689654 592,0214 617 J607 6403963 661,1286 684,1646 7025931 714.1113 7348436 721.0221 7394506 7440577 7279328 748,6651 7279328 7532721 7302361 7555759 725 6291 619,6645 5183064 324 8056 115,1791 18,42854 0 EAST LOAD CELL SMALL (KM) 0 3,756968 0 3756966 3.756968 11,2709 15.02787 22,54181 30 05575 45.08362 56 35452 75.13892 80.16679 1088516 127.7365 154.0348 1728197 195,3615 2254168 251,7155 281,7708 308,0696 341,6823 371 9376 3982364 4395626 4583475 488,4032 514.7015 541 0003 5635417 589.8405 604.8683 631.1667 6198962 646.1945 646.1945 631,1667 657.4654 6349236 6649794 642 4376 6649794 6349236 529 7294 439 5626 2628864 90.16679 1 5.02767 0 TOTAL LOAD m 0 3,756968 0 6060702 6,060702 22.78869 35,76015 57.0956 83.03807 116.7982 155.4084 1972288 2422035 2909346 34197 4005184 453857 508.6488 5709546 6318068 6964159 752.6614 8210279 881,03 932.668 1008548 1050,369 110S764 1155098 1202129 1247706 1282434 131898 136601 1340918 1385645 1390,252 1359,1 1406131 1362856 1418252 1372674 1420,555 1360.553 1149,394 957869 587.7921 205,3459 33.45641 0 ROTATDN MOMENT RADIAN k N - m ) x10e-3 0 0,00578 0,017341 0,063584 0317919 0,722543 0861272 0,971098 1,075145 1,190751 1,346821 1,456647 1,689595 1,710983 1,855491 1,976879 2,098266 2,254335 2,375723 2,50288 2,618497 2716763 2,924855 3,040462 3,127168 3 260116 3,356362 3462428 3589595 3,736884 3.890173 4.052023 4.254335 4506671 4,49711 4.635838 4,66474 4,635638 4.722543 4,693642 4,803468 4,768766 4,83237 4,774566 4.566474 4,358382 3,884393 2791908 1,83815 1,491329 0 0,33437 0 0.539403 05394O3 2,028193 3 182653 5,081508 7 390389 10,57304 13,83135 17,55337 21,56811 25,80318 30,43533 35 64613 40.39327 45 26975 50.81496 56.2308 61,98101 66,96686 73 07148 78,41167 83,00746 63 76078 93 48283 96 41299 102,8037 1069895 111,0459 115,0266 117,3892 1215749 1193417 1235224 1237324 1209599 1251456 1212942 126 2244 122168 1264294 121,0692 1022961 85 25034 52 31349 16 27579 2 977621 0 B E N D I N Q S P E O M E N M 0 3 N 000 S C A N E V B 1 Y 1 0 S E C N O N - B E A R I N Q P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0 0 0 0 M I C F O S T R A I N M O M E N T A R M ( B E T W E E N L O A D A N D C O N C R E T E - S T C E L I N T E H F A : E ) = 2 5 4 m m S T R A I N Q A a E S B O L T 1 B O L T 2 B O L T S B O L T 4 S O U T H N O R T H S O U T H N O R T H B - E N O B - E N O T - E N D T - E N O M I C R O S T R A I N 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 9 0 8 1 9 0 8 1 ,908 1 .908 2 2 9 ,541 1 1 , 4 4 9 1 1 . 4 4 9 7 . 8 3 2 3 2 3 9 118 5 0 , 5 8 7 4 2 . 9 3 4 4 1 . 9 6 4 2 8 2 , 0 5 2 1 0 2 , 0 8 8 9 5 . 4 0 9 1 0 3 . 0 4 1 5 2 1 4 8 5 3 1 7 4 , 5 9 8 1 6 9 8 2 8 1 9 2 7 2 8 8 2 2 2 0 , 3 9 5 2 8 0 4 8 7 2 5 5 . 6 9 6 2 8 8 , 1 3 5 7 2 3 0 9 1 2 5 3 7 1 , 1 4 1 3 6 8 2 7 8 3 9 7 8 5 5 8 2 4 0 1 - 6 7 2 4 9 8 , 0 3 5 4 9 1 3 5 6 5 1 8 0 7 9 2 4 9 7 , 0 6 1 6 2 2 0 6 7 6 2 2 0 6 6 6 4 4 3 6 4 1 0 2 5 9 3 , 4 4 4 7 4 3 2 3 6 7 4 8 9 8 7 6 8 3 9 6 i 1 2 6 8 4 0 8 3 8 5 0 0 9 4 8 8 5 3 5 9 8 8 2 5 3 3 1 2 2 7 7 6 6 2 9 9 4 5 , 5 0 3 9 7 8 . 8 9 6 9 9 3 2 0 7 1 3 2 6 7 8 7 1 7 1 0 3 2 3 2 5 1 0 8 9 5 7 1 1 0 0 0 6 5 1 4 2 9 9 0 , 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 . 1 9 9 1 2 0 9 , 7 8 6 1 5 2 1 1 2 1 0 5 6 1 2 1 8 3 7 3 1 3 3 5 7 2 5 1 3 3 3 8 1 7 1 6 2 1 2 3 0 7 7 6 1 3 0 1 , 3 7 9 1 4 4 9 2 6 2 1 4 3 9 , 7 2 1 1 7 2 1 3 3 8 5 8 8 1 3 8 3 4 3 1 5 6 7 , 5 6 9 1 5 4 5 6 2 5 1 9 2 1 4 4 8 3 0 8 1 4 6 6 4 3 6 1 6 9 1 , 6 0 1 1 6 5 9 , 1 6 2 1 9 2 1555 1 6 7 1 5 4 6 , 5 8 1 8 1 4 , 6 7 8 1 7 6 8 8 8 2 2 0 2 1 6 6 3 9 3 3 1 6 3 2 4 4 8 1 9 4 3 , 4 6 1 1 8 6 6 2 3 5 2 1 2 1 7 4 7 8 9 3 1 8 9 4 , 4 6 4 2 0 3 9 8 4 4 1 9 7 3 0 5 7 2 2 2 1 8 3 8 5 3 1 1 7 6 7 9 2 9 2 1 5 0 5 1 8 2 0 7 6 0 9 9 2 3 2 1 9 3 1 , 0 7 8 1 8 4 3 3 0 2 2 2 8 7 8 7 1 2 1 8 2 0 0 3 2 4 2 2 0 2 1 , 7 1 6 1 9 1 2 9 5 2 3 8 0 , 4 5 4 2 2 8 5 9 9 9 2 5 2 2 1 0 8 , 4 9 3 1 9 8 3 , 5 5 3 2 4 9 1 , 1 2 6 2 3 8 7 1 3 2 2 5 3 2 1 1 9 0 3 4 1 9 9 0 , 2 3 2 2 5 0 4 , 4 8 6 2 4 0 0 4 9 2 6 2 2 1 6 7 7 2 8 2 0 4 4 , 8 1 5 2 5 8 9 4 2 4 7 7 7 7 1 2 7 2 2 2 6 9 7 8 2 1 0 9 , 4 9 3 2 6 9 7 2 1 2 2 5 7 5 0 8 8 2 8 2 2 3 4 8 1 0 7 2 1 8 8 6 4 8 2 7 9 9 . 7 5 8 2 8 6 1 91 2 9 1 2 4 0 7 1 6 9 2 2 1 8 2 5 9 2 8 7 5 6 2 6 2 7 4 0 1 4 8 3 0 2 2 4 9 5 8 9 9 2 2 8 4 , 0 9 1 2 9 9 1 . 0 7 1 2 8 4 7 0 0 4 3 1 2 2 5 5 9 8 2 3 2 3 3 1 7 9 6 3 0 7 5 9 8 5 2 9 2 8 1 0 2 3 2 2 2 6 1 7 0 8 9 2 3 7 2 8 2 2 3 1 6 0 8 9 9 3 0 0 7 2 9 1 3 3 2 2 8 7 8 1 3 1 2 4 1 & 7 1 3 2 4 3 9 0 5 3 0 8 9 3 4 2 3 4 2 2 7 3 3 4 6 7 2 4 5 2 0 1 1 3 3 2 4 0 4 9 3 1 6 8 5 3 2 3 5 2 2 7 9 5 4 8 4 2 4 9 2 0 8 3 3 4 0 8 9 8 3 3 2 5 3 4 4 6 3 6 2 2 8 4 0 3 2 5 2 5 1 7 8 4 3 3 4 6 7 1 6 2 3 3 1 4 5 0 8 3 7 2 2 8 8 2 3 0 5 2 5 4 6 , 4 8 6 3 5 2 8 2 2 4 3 3 7 8 5 2 4 3 8 2 2 9 1 7 6 0 7 2 5 6 7 4 5 6 3 5 7 3 0 6 6 3 4 2 4 2 2 9 3 9 2 2 9 5 6 7 2 4 2 5 9 2 2 6 2 3 6 2 7 4 4 9 3 4 8 1 , 4 7 4 4 0 2 2 9 8 6 , 3 0 1 2 6 0 8 4 8 2 3 8 8 2 7 5 3 5 1 9 6 3 7 4 1 2 3 0 1 4 , 9 2 4 2 6 2 4 , 7 0 1 3 6 9 4 . 2 3 8 3 5 5 2 0 7 6 4 2 2 3 0 4 2 5 9 2 2 8 4 0 , 9 2 1 3 7 2 3 8 1 2 3 5 8 3 5 6 1 4 3 2 3 0 6 5 4 9 1 2 6 5 7 1 4 1 3 7 5 0 5 2 7 3 6 1 2 1 8 4 4 4 2 3 0 8 9 3 4 3 2 8 7 0 4 9 8 3 7 7 0 5 6 3 3 8 3 6 0 3 6 4 5 2 3 0 7 7 8 9 4 2 6 5 9 , 0 4 9 3 8 0 0 . 7 3 5 3 4 1 8 5 0 4 4 6 2 3 0 5 6 , 9 0 4 2 6 3 9 9 6 7 3 4 0 6 . 1 3 2 0 5 7 4 2 4 7 2 3 0 0 3 , 4 7 5 2 5 8 9 4 3 1 8 9 4 8 8 2 9 5 8 7 2 4 4 8 2 2 6 5 7 4 9 9 2 4 6 4 , 4 1 4 2 8 9 7 5 7 1 2 6 8 6 . 6 8 1 4 9 2 2 6 5 0 4 6 2 2 3 0 2 2 1 9 2 8 2 4 7 0 1 2 3 7 7 5 9 2 5 0 2 2 3 6 3 2 8 2 0 5 7 9 7 2 2 2 8 9 . 7 8 2 0 3 3 1 6 5 5 1 2 2 0 1 1 , 2 2 2 1 7 8 0 , 3 3 2 1 8 8 8 2 3 5 1 6 8 3 0 1 4 5 2 2 1 5 1 5 , 0 9 5 1 4 2 6 3 6 4 1 4 0 4 3 2 8 1 2 7 1 7 0 9 5 3 2 9 3 6 9 1 8 9 8 5 5 7 5 8 8 9 2 1 1 8 2 2 4 2 5 5 4 2 3 7 4 , 0 0 3 5 1 0 , 4 3 6 3 8 4 . 4 9 8 3 8 7 3 8 5 5 2 9 4 , 4 5 5 1 8 6 0 4 8 1 0 9 7 2 1 3 9 2 9 7 C O N N E C T I O N R O T A T I O N D I S P L A C E M E N T S W E S T E A S T W E S T E A S T B - E N D B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D T - E N D SLIP m m m m m m m m m m 0 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 8 0 . 0 0 7 6 2 0 . 0 2 7 9 4 0 . 0 6 0 9 8 0 . 0 7 B 2 0 . 0 8 6 3 6 0 . 0 9 1 4 4 0 0 9 9 0 6 0 . 1 0 6 6 8 0 . 1 0 9 2 2 0 . 1 1 4 3 0 1 2 4 4 6 0 . 1 2 7 0 . 1 3 2 0 8 0 . 1 3 7 1 6 0 1 4 2 2 4 0 1 4 4 7 8 0 1 4 7 3 2 0 . 1 5 2 4 0 . 1 6 0 0 2 0 . 1 6 0 0 2 0 . 1 6 5 1 0 1 6 7 6 4 0 . 1 7 5 2 6 0 . 1 7 5 2 6 0 . 1 7 5 2 6 0 . 1 8 0 3 4 0 . 1 8 5 4 2 O 1 8 7 9 6 0 . 1 9 3 0 4 0 . 1 9 6 5 8 0 . 2 0 0 6 6 0 . 2 0 0 6 6 0 . 2 0 5 7 4 0 . 2 1 0 8 2 0 . 2 0 6 2 9 0 . 2 1 0 8 2 0 . 2 1 0 8 2 0 . 2 1 0 8 2 0 . 2 1 0 8 2 0 . 2 2 6 0 6 0 . 2 2 6 0 6 0 . 2 2 6 0 6 0 . 2 2 6 0 8 0 . 2 1 8 4 4 0 . 2 1 0 8 2 0 . 2 0 0 6 6 0 . 1 9 0 5 0 . 1 3 2 8 8 o i e s i 0 . 1 4 9 8 6 0 . 1 2 9 5 4 0 . 1 0 1 6 0 . O 4 3 1 8 0 0 1 2 7 W E S T L Û A D T - E N D C E L L SLIP L A H 3 E m m (KN) E A S T L O A D C E L L S M A L L ( k N ) TOTAL ROTAON lOAO RADIAN ( k N ) x 1 0 e - 3 M O^eNT ( (N -m) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 0 0 . 0 6 6 O 4 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 0 3 . 7 5 6 9 6 8 3 7 5 6 9 6 8 0 , 0 0 5 7 8 0 4 7 7 1 3 5 0 0 , 0 2 2 8 6 - 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 . 2 9 7 1 8 0 . 0 0 6 0 8 2 . 3 0 3 7 3 4 3 . 7 5 6 9 6 8 6 . 0 6 0 7 0 2 - 0 , 0 2 3 1 2 0 . 7 8 9 7 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 8 0 . 0 1 5 2 4 - 0 , 0 2 5 4 0 . 5 0 2 9 2 0 . 0 0 6 0 8 2 . 3 0 3 7 3 4 3 . 7 5 6 9 6 8 6 . 0 6 0 7 0 2 0 , 0 2 8 9 0 2 0 . 7 8 9 7 0 9 - 0 , 0 1 2 7 0 - 0 , 0 9 3 9 8 0 . 6 M 8 4 0 . 0 0 5 0 8 6 . 9 1 0 7 5 8 7 . 5 1 3 9 3 7 1 4 . 4 2 4 6 9 0 , 2 4 8 5 5 5 1 . 8 3 1 9 3 6 - 0 0 3 0 4 8 0 . 0 4 0 6 4 - 0 , 1 9 5 5 8 0 6 8 3 2 6 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 1 3 . 8 2 1 5 2 1 1 . 2 7 0 9 2 5 . 0 9 2 4 2 0 4 2 1 9 6 5 3 . 1 8 6 7 3 7 - 0 , 0 5 0 6 0 , 0 6 8 5 6 - 0 2 7 4 3 2 0 . 7 3 6 6 0 . 0 C 6 O 8 2 0 . 7 3 2 2 7 1 5 0 2 7 8 7 3 5 , 7 8 0 1 5 0 5 2 6 0 1 2 4 5 4 1 5 3 9 - 0 , 0 6 6 0 4 0 . 0 8 3 8 2 - 0 3 4 2 9 0 7 8 9 9 4 0 2 9 . 9 4 6 7 6 2 2 . 5 4 1 8 1 5 2 4 8 8 5 7 0 , 6 3 5 8 3 8 6 . 8 8 6 0 4 9 - 0 , 0 7 6 2 0 . 0 9 1 4 4 - 0 3 9 1 1 6 0 . 6 5 8 5 2 0 0 0 6 0 8 4 1 . 4 6 4 5 5 2 6 . 2 9 8 7 8 6 7 , 7 8 3 3 2 0 , 7 1 6 7 6 3 9 . 6 0 6 9 4 2 - 0 , 0 7 6 2 0 . 0 9 9 0 6 - 0 , 4 3 1 8 0 . 9 2 9 6 4 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 5 7 . 5 8 9 6 3 3 . 8 1 2 7 1 9 1 , 4 0 2 5 1 0 . 8 0 9 2 4 9 1 1 . 6 0 8 1 2 - 0 0 7 6 2 0 . 1 0 1 6 - 0 4 7 7 5 2 1 . 0 0 5 8 4 0 . 0 0 5 0 8 7 1 . 4 1 1 3 1 4 5 . 0 6 3 6 2 1 1 6 , 4 9 4 9 0 , 9 & 1 8 5 5 1 4 . 7 9 4 8 6 - 0 , 0 7 1 1 2 0 . 1 0 4 1 4 - 0 5 1 8 1 6 1 0 8 7 1 2 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 8 2 9 2 9 0 9 5 6 . 3 5 4 5 2 1 3 9 2 8 3 8 1 , 0 2 6 9 0 2 1 7 6 8 9 0 2 - 0 0 7 1 1 2 0 . 1 0 6 6 8 - 0 5 5 8 2 6 1 . 1 7 0 9 4 0 . 0 0 6 0 6 1 0 1 3 5 7 6 6 7 . 6 2 4 9 8 1 6 8 3 8 2 6 1 , 1 2 1 3 8 7 2 1 . 4 6 0 7 9 - 0 , 0 6 3 5 0 . 1 0 9 2 2 - 0 , 5 9 9 4 4 1 . 2 4 2 0 8 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 1 1 7 . 4 8 2 9 7 8 . 8 9 5 8 9 1 9 6 3 7 8 8 1 , 2 5 4 3 3 5 2 4 . 9 4 0 1 - 0 , 0 5 8 4 2 0 . 1 1 1 7 6 - 0 , 6 4 5 1 6 1 . 2 8 7 7 8 0 . 0 C 6 0 8 1 3 5 9 1 1 4 9 3 . 3 2 3 7 8 2 2 9 8 3 5 2 1 , 3 6 9 9 4 2 2 9 . 1 8 9 0 7 - 0 , 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 1 1 1 7 6 - 0 , 6 9 6 5 1 . 3 2 5 8 8 0 , 0 0 5 0 6 1 5 8 9 4 7 4 1 0 5 1 9 4 7 2 6 4 , 1 4 2 1 1 , 5 1 4 4 5 1 3 3 . 5 4 6 0 5 - 0 , 0 4 8 2 6 0 . 1 1 4 3 - 0 , 7 4 4 2 2 1 . 3 5 6 9 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 1 8 6 5 9 0 5 1 1 6 4 6 5 6 3 0 3 0 5 6 1 6 3 5 8 3 9 3 8 . 4 8 8 1 2 - 0 0 4 3 1 8 0 . 1 2 1 9 2 - 0 . 7 9 7 4 1 3 8 6 9 4 0 , 0 0 5 0 8 2 0 5 0 1 9 1 3 5 2 5 3 4 0 2 6 9 1 , 7 3 9 3 8 4 4 3 . 2 1 4 1 6 - 0 0 3 5 5 6 0 1 0 9 2 2 - 0 , 8 2 8 0 4 t 4 1 2 2 4 0 0 0 2 5 4 2 3 2 6 6 2 1 5 0 2 7 7 8 3 9 2 9 3 9 9 1 - 8 9 4 3 9 3 4 8 . 6 3 3 3 6 - 0 0 3 0 4 8 0 1 0 6 6 8 - 0 S 6 8 6 8 1 4 4 0 1 8 0 0 0 6 0 6 2 5 8 . 0 0 1 3 1 6 5 3 0 5 7 4 2 3 3 0 7 2 5 3 7 5 9 9 9 - 0 , 0 2 7 9 4 0 . 0 9 1 4 4 - 0 9 1 6 9 4 1 . 4 8 3 3 6 0 2 8 3 3 4 1 1 1 8 7 8 4 7 5 4 7 1 , 1 9 9 6 2 . 1 9 1 8 5 5 9 M 0 9 5 - 0 , 0 2 5 4 0 . 0 7 6 2 - 0 3 4 7 4 2 1 . 5 0 1 1 4 0 . 0 0 5 0 8 3 0 6 3 7 6 6 2 0 2 8 7 5 5 0 9 2 5 1 6 2 2 8 8 0 1 7 6 4 . 6 7 4 9 5 - 0 , 0 2 5 4 0 . 0 7 8 7 4 - 0 , 9 8 2 9 8 1 . 5 2 6 5 4 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 3 3 1 7 1 6 4 2 2 5 4 1 8 8 5 5 7 , 1 3 3 1 2 . 3 6 4 1 6 2 7 0 . 7 5 5 9 1 - 0 , 0 2 0 3 2 0 , 0 6 3 5 - 1 , 0 3 1 2 4 1 . 5 4 4 3 2 0 . 0 0 6 0 8 3 5 9 3 5 9 4 2 4 4 2 0 1 6 6 0 3 561 2 . 5 3 1 7 9 2 7 6 6 5 2 2 5 - 0 0 1 7 7 9 0 . 0 5 0 8 - 1 , 0 7 1 8 8 1 . 5 7 2 2 8 0 . 0 0 5 0 8 3 8 9 3 0 5 7 2 7 0 5 0 0 4 6 5 9 8 0 6 1 2 6 6 4 7 4 6 3 . 7 9 5 3 8 - 0 0 1 5 2 4 0 , 0 4 3 1 6 - 1 , 1 1 2 5 2 1 . 5 9 2 5 8 0 . 0 0 6 0 8 4 2 1 5 5 5 8 2 9 6 7 9 8 7 7 1 8 3 5 4 5 2 . 7 9 7 8 8 8 9 1 . 2 3 1 0 2 - 0 , 0 1 7 7 8 0 . 0 4 5 7 2 - 1 , 1 1 5 0 6 1 . 5 9 7 6 6 0 . 0 C 6 0 S 4 2 6 . 1 6 3 2 2 9 6 7 9 8 7 7 2 2 9 6 2 2 7 9 1 9 0 8 9 1 . 8 1 6 1 7 - 0 , 0 1 2 7 0 ,0381 - 1 , 1 5 0 6 2 1 . 8 1 7 9 8 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 4 4 9 . 1 9 8 8 3 1 5 . 5 8 3 6 7 6 4 7 8 2 4 2 . 9 0 1 7 3 4 9 7 . 1 2 7 3 6 - 0 , 0 1 0 1 8 0 . 0 2 7 9 4 - 1 , 1 9 1 2 8 1 . 6 3 5 7 6 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 4 7 6 8 4 1 8 3 4 1 8 8 2 3 8 1 8 7 2 4 2 3 . 0 3 4 6 8 2 1 0 3 3 7 8 - 0 , 0 0 5 0 6 0 , 0 2 0 3 2 - 1 2 2 6 8 2 1 . 6 5 3 5 4 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 5 0 9 . 0 9 2 3 3 6 8 . 1 8 0 7 8 7 7 2 7 3 3 . 1 5 6 0 6 9 1 1 1 . 4 1 3 7 - 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 0 . 0 0 7 6 2 - 1 2 5 9 8 4 1 . 6 6 8 7 8 0 5 3 2 . 1 2 7 9 3 8 6 3 6 5 5 9 1 9 0 9 3 4 3 . 2 7 1 6 7 8 1 1 6 7 2 4 9 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 0 0 2 0 3 2 - 1 3 0 3 0 2 1 . 6 9 1 8 4 0 5 5 9 7 7 0 9 4 2 4 5 3 4 7 9 6 4 3 0 5 7 3 3 6 4 1 6 2 1 2 5 . 0 0 6 8 0 , 0 1 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 2 8 6 - 1 3 3 6 0 4 1 . 7 0 9 4 2 0 . 0 O 2 5 4 5 9 5 . 1 1 0 7 4 4 7 0 7 6 8 1 0 3 2 1 8 7 3 . 5 8 6 4 7 4 1 3 1 . 0 6 7 6 0 , 0 2 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 3 8 1 - 1 3 6 9 0 6 1 . 7 1 9 5 8 0 0 0 2 5 4 6 0 3 5 3 9 2 4 6 9 6 1 8 4 1 0 7 3 1 5 8 3 . 7 0 5 2 0 2 1 3 6 2 9 1 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 . 0 5 5 8 8 - 1 . 4 0 2 0 8 1 , 7 2 9 7 4 0 . 0 O 2 5 4 6 2 4 2 7 1 5 4 9 2 . 1 5 9 7 1 1 1 8 4 3 1 3 8 7 8 6 1 3 1 4 1 . 7 3 6 8 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 . 0 8 3 8 2 - 1 . 4 3 0 0 2 1 . 7 3 9 9 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 6 4 0 3 9 6 3 5 2 2 2 1 5 5 1 1 6 2 8 1 2 4 . 0 1 7 3 4 1 1 4 7 . 8 5 1 7 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 . 1 1 6 8 4 - 1 . 4 6 5 5 8 1 . 7 3 7 3 6 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 8 5 1 9 1 4 5 5 4 4 7 5 7 3 1 1 9 8 8 7 2 4 . 1 8 4 9 7 1 1 5 1 3 7 7 3 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 . 1 3 9 7 - 1 4 9 0 9 8 1 . 7 3 4 8 2 O 0 0 2 S 4 6 6 5 7 3 6 5 6 3 5 4 1 7 1 2 2 9 , 2 7 8 4 . 2 8 9 0 1 7 1 5 6 . 1 1 8 3 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 . 1 6 2 5 6 - 1 5 1 6 3 6 1 . 7 3 0 9 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 6 7 2 . 6 4 6 8 5 9 2 3 2 6 5 1 2 5 4 , 9 7 3 4 . 4 0 4 6 2 4 1 5 9 3 8 1 6 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 . 1 6 0 0 2 - 1 . 5 3 6 7 1 . 7 3 7 3 6 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 6 7 4 9 5 0 1 5 9 7 3 5 4 4 1 2 7 2 3 0 4 4 . 4 4 5 0 8 7 1 6 1 5 8 2 7 0 , 0 4 5 7 2 - 0 2 3 3 6 8 - 1 5 5 4 4 8 1 . 7 2 7 2 0 6 7 9 5 5 7 5 6 1 2 3 8 2 3 1 2 9 1 , 9 4 4 6 5 3 1 7 9 1 6 4 . 0 7 6 4 0 , 0 4 8 2 6 - 0 2 6 4 1 6 - 1 5 6 7 1 8 1 . 7 2 2 1 2 0 8 9 4 . 1 8 4 6 8 2 3 8 5 3 2 1 3 0 7 . 8 1 8 4 . 7 5 7 2 2 5 1 6 8 . 0 9 2 9 0 05O8 - 0 . 3 0 2 2 6 - 1 5 7 2 2 6 1 . 7 1 4 5 0 6 7 9 5 5 7 5 6 3 4 9 2 3 6 1 3 1 4 , 4 8 1 4 . 6 9 5 9 5 4 1 6 6 9 3 9 1 0 , 0 5 0 8 - 0 , 3 3 5 2 8 - 1 5 7 7 3 4 1 . 7 0 6 8 8 0 6 7 9 . 5 5 7 5 6 4 6 . 1 9 4 5 1 3 2 5 7 5 2 4 . 9 8 2 6 5 9 1 6 8 . 3 7 0 5 0 , 0 5 0 6 - 0 3 3 5 2 6 - 1 . 5 8 4 9 6 1 . 6 9 6 7 2 0 6 7 9 S 5 7 5 8 5 3 7 0 8 5 1 3 3 3 2 8 6 5 1 6 9 3 2 4 8 0 , 0 5 0 8 - 0 3 9 3 7 - 1 5 9 0 0 4 1 6 8 6 5 8 0 6 7 4 3 5 0 1 661 2 2 2 4 1 3 3 8 1 7 2 5 1 4 4 5 0 9 1 6 9 . 6 9 3 9 0 , 0 5 0 8 - 0 3 9 6 2 4 - 1 . 5 0 1 1 4 1 6 6 6 7 8 0 5 8 8 3 8 5 4 5 5 9 7 8 5 2 1 1 2 8 7 7 1 4 . 9 3 0 6 3 6 1 4 3 3 5 3 9 0 , 0 5 0 8 - 0 , 3 7 5 9 2 - 1 . 3 6 9 0 6 1 . 8 2 5 6 0 4 6 9 9 3 1 1 4 5 8 3 4 7 5 9 2 8 2 7 9 5 4 . 5 6 6 4 7 4 1 1 7 3 9 1 4 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 - 0 3 3 0 2 - 1 2 4 7 1 4 1 . 5 7 7 3 4 0 3 7 3 . 1 8 0 5 3 6 4 4 2 3 7 7 3 7 , 8 0 4 2 4 . 1 6 7 6 3 9 3 . 6 7 5 7 3 0 , 0 4 8 2 6 - 0 2 3 1 1 4 - 1 . 1 7 0 9 4 1 .534 0 2 9 0 2 5 1 8 2 7 8 0 1 3 9 5 6 8 2 6 5 7 3 . 7 3 4 1 0 4 7 2 . 1 6 9 7 4 0 . 0 3 3 0 2 - 0 1 9 3 0 4 - 1 . 1 1 7 6 1 .47D66 0 2 1 4 2 3 3 5 2 0 6 . 8 3 1 9 4 2 0 , 8 6 5 4 3 4 7 3 9 8 8 5 3 . 4 4 9 9 1 0 , 0 2 0 3 2 - 0 , 1 3 2 0 8 - 0 9 9 8 2 2 1 . 4 M 6 2 O O O E O S 1 5 4 . 3 4 1 4 2 7 6 3 9 2 9 7 , 1 0 3 9 2 . 9 9 4 2 2 3 7 7 3 2 1 9 0 - 0 , 0 6 3 5 - 0 . 8 9 1 5 4 1 . 3 1 8 2 6 0 , 0 0 6 0 8 9 6 . 7 5 0 6 1 9 3 . 9 2 3 7 6 1 9 0 8 7 4 4 2 . 5 1 4 4 5 1 2 4 . 2 1 5 6 5 - 0 , 0 2 2 8 6 - 0 , 0 1 2 7 - 0 . 7 7 2 1 6 1 2 0 3 9 6 0 . 0 0 7 6 2 5 0 . 8 7 9 0 4 5 2 . 5 9 7 5 6 1 0 3 2 7 6 6 2 . 0 2 8 9 0 2 1 3 . 1 1 6 1 3 - 0 , 0 3 5 5 6 - 0 , 0 1 0 1 6 - 0 8 5 2 7 8 1 . 1 0 4 9 0 0 1 0 1 6 2 3 . 0 3 8 0 1 2 2 . 5 4 1 8 1 4 5 , 5 7 7 8 2 1 . 6 5 8 9 6 5 . 7 8 6 3 6 3 - 0 0 3 0 4 8 - 0 0 4 0 6 4 - 0 . 4 8 5 1 4 0 . 9 9 0 6 0 . 0 1 0 1 6 4 . 6 0 7 0 2 4 7 . 5 1 3 9 3 7 1 2 1 2 0 9 6 1 . 2 2 5 4 3 4 1 5 3 8 3 6 : - 0 0 0 2 5 4 - 0 0 7 6 2 - 0 2 9 2 1 0 5 6 6 4 2 0 . 0 1 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 - 8 6 1 2 7 2 0 S C A N E V E R Y 1 0 S E C B E N D I N 3 S P E O M E N M 0 5 N 1 0 0 N O N - B E A R I N Q P 0 S T - T E N 3 O N E D T O 2 0 0 0 M I C F O S T R A I N M O M E N T A R M P E T W E E N L O A D A N D C O N C R E T E - S T E E L I N T E R F / > C E ) = 546 mm S T R A I N O A G E S S O L T l B O L T 2 B O L T 3 B O L T 4 S O U T H N O R T H 3 D U T H N O R T H B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D T - E N D M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N 1 1 9 7 3 1 9 6 1 2 2 0 6 2 2 0 6 6 1 9 7 3 9 5 5 1 9 5 9 0 9 2 2 2 0 9 8 1 7 2 2 0 7 9 0 8 1 8 1971 0 9 2 1 9 5 7 1 6 4 2 2 1 5 5 4 1 2 2 1 8 4 9 5 2 8 1 9 6 6 . 3 2 2 1 9 5 5 2 7 5 2 2 2 8 9 9 1 2 2 2 7 9 4 4 3 8 1 9 6 4 . 4 1 4 1 9 4 6 6 8 9 2 2 4 2 2 5 8 2 2 4 7 9 8 4 8 1 9 5 4 . 8 7 3 1 9 3 8 1 0 2 2 2 6 3 2 4 6 2 2 7 0 8 7 8 5 8 1 9 4 8 1 9 4 1 9 2 6 6 5 3 2 2 9 3 7 7 7 2 3 0 0 . 4 5 5 6 8 1 9 3 6 7 4 5 1 9 1 6 1 5 8 2 3 3 0 0 3 2 2 3 3 8 6 1 8 7 8 1 9 2 5 2 9 6 1 9 0 1 . 8 4 6 2 3 7 3 9 2 2 3 8 2 5 0 6 8 6 1 9 1 3 8 4 7 1 8 8 7 5 3 5 2 4 2 5 4 4 1 2 4 3 3 0 7 3 9 8 1 9 0 2 3 9 8 1 8 7 5 1 3 2 2 4 8 0 7 7 8 2 4 8 9 3 6 4 1 0 8 1 6 8 9 0 4 1 8 6 1 7 7 5 2 5 4 2 7 9 4 2 5 5 0 4 2 6 1 1 6 1 8 7 8 5 4 6 1 8 4 9 3 7 2 2 6 1 3 3 9 7 2 6 1 8 1 6 7 1 2 8 1 8 6 8 0 5 1 1 8 3 8 8 7 6 2 6 8 9 7 2 4 2 6 9 2 5 8 6 1 3 8 1 8 6 0 . 4 1 8 1 8 2 9 . 3 3 6 2 7 7 8 4 5 4 2 7 7 5 5 9 1 1 4 6 1 8 6 8 0 5 1 1 8 3 7 9 2 2 2 8 7 8 6 3 4 2 8 7 6 7 2 5 1 5 8 1 9 1 0 9 8 5 1 8 9 9 9 3 8 3 0 1 8 8 8 5 3 0 3 0 3 3 3 1 6 8 1 9 5 3 9 1 9 1 9 6 1 . 9 5 4 3 1 6 7 7 2 3 3 1 7 8 2 1 7 1 7 8 1 9 6 5 4 0 4 2 0 0 9 6 5 6 3 3 2 4 1 9 4 3 3 2 2 2 8 5 1 8 8 2 0 1 7 8 4 3 2 0 5 3 5 4 7 3 4 8 7 3 4 3 3 4 6 3 4 9 1 9 8 2 0 3 8 . 8 3 3 2 0 7 6 4 4 5 3 6 3 7 1 3 5 3 5 6 9 4 3 2 0 8 2 0 7 9 8 5 9 2 1 0 6 0 2 2 3 7 9 6 , 4 6 8 3 7 2 8 7 2 7 2 1 8 2 1 9 8 1 6 5 2 2 0 0 . 4 7 6 4 0 4 0 7 1 5 3 9 4 3 3 9 7 2 2 8 2 2 3 9 1 9 1 2 2 3 9 5 9 4 4 2 0 3 8 6 5 4 0 8 2 6 9 4 2 3 8 2 3 1 7 4 2 7 2 3 1 9 . 7 3 8 4 3 7 2 7 3 9 4 2 3 4 . 3 9 5 2 4 8 2 3 6 7 9 9 4 2 3 7 2 2 1 3 4 5 3 8 7 5 4 3 9 3 7 2 8 2 5 8 2 4 1 0 9 2 8 2 4 1 8 0 0 9 4 6 7 0 4 1 4 4 5 2 8 2 5 4 2 6 8 2 4 5 4 . 8 1 6 2 4 6 2 8 5 1 4 7 9 4 , 4 4 6 4 6 5 7 0 5 7 2 7 8 2 4 9 2 9 6 2 5 0 2 9 2 3 4 9 0 5 1 2 4 7 7 9 . 1 8 2 8 8 2 5 1 5 8 7 7 2 5 3 0 . 5 9 2 4 9 9 4 , 8 0 5 4 8 8 0 3 1 3 2 9 8 2 5 3 4 0 0 5 2 5 4 6 6 1 1 5 0 8 1 6 2 7 4 9 9 1 9 4 2 3 0 8 2 5 4 8 3 1 7 2 5 5 9 2 1 4 5 1 4 8 4 1 3 5 0 7 2 0 8 5 3 1 8 2 5 6 3 5 8 2 2 5 7 7 3 4 2 5 2 0 2 7 9 7 5 1 3 9 , 8 2 6 3 2 8 2 5 7 5 0 3 1 2 5 9 1 6 5 4 5 2 4 7 6 3 9 5 1 9 4 , 2 0 9 3 3 6 2 5 8 5 5 2 6 2 6 0 5 0 1 1 5 3 0 1 0 6 8 5 2 6 Q 9 9 6 3 4 8 2 5 9 6 0 2 1 2 6 1 8 3 6 8 5 3 4 0 1 8 5 5 3 0 8 7 3 5 8 2 6 0 4 6 0 8 2 6 2 6 9 5 5 5 3 7 9 3 0 3 5 3 5 8 3 1 2 3 6 6 2 6 1 0 3 3 3 2 6 3 6 4 9 5 5 4 1 2 6 9 6 5 4 0 4 , 1 0 9 3 7 8 2 6 1 6 0 5 7 2 6 3 9 3 5 8 5 4 5 4 . 6 7 6 5 4 7 0 8 9 5 3 8 8 2 6 1 7 . 0 1 1 2 6 4 2 2 2 5 4 7 6 6 2 5 5 0 3 3 3 4 3 9 8 2 6 2 1 7 8 2 2 6 4 7 9 4 5 5 4 9 7 6 1 5 5 3 3 8 6 5 4 0 8 2 6 2 5 5 0 8 2 6 5 5 5 7 7 5 5 2 5 2 7 9 5 5 6 4 3 9 6 4 1 8 2 6 3 2 2 7 6 2 6 6 2 2 5 6 5 5 3 9 5 9 5 5 8 6 3 4 4 2 8 2 6 3 6 . 0 9 3 2 6 6 8 9 3 5 5 5 6 1 . 5 3 4 5 6 1 5 , 9 1 7 4 3 6 2 6 3 8 0 0 1 2 6 7 2 7 5 1 5 5 7 8 7 0 8 5 8 3 6 9 0 7 4 4 2 2 6 3 8 9 5 5 2 6 7 5 6 1 3 5 5 8 4 4 3 2 5 6 4 2 6 3 1 4 5 2 2 6 6 6 6 2 4 2 7 0 1 . 3 7 4 5 2 0 9 4 7 5 5 2 9 5 3 4 3 4 6 2 2 7 0 1 . 9 2 5 2 7 2 9 9 9 6 4 7 5 6 2 8 3 4 9 3 5 6 5 1 4 7 2 2 7 3 4 . 3 6 4 2 7 5 4 8 0 3 4 3 3 3 6 2 1 4 6 2 4 6 1 a 4 8 2 2 7 7 0 6 2 2 7 7 7 7 0 1 3 9 2 9 . 0 6 7 4 3 3 2 6 6 6 4 9 2 2 8 0 2 1 0 5 2 8 0 4 4 1 5 3 5 3 7 9 1 4 0 4 2 6 2 3 5 0 2 2 8 3 5 4 9 8 2 8 2 8 2 6 8 3 1 8 1 0 8 3 7 4 6 8 5 5 5 1 2 2 8 6 9 8 4 5 2 8 4 6 3 9 5 2 9 0 2 4 8 6 3 4 9 2 1 1 3 5 2 2 2 8 9 4 . 6 5 1 2 8 6 4 5 2 3 2 6 8 3 9 9 9 3 2 6 8 8 5 6 5 3 2 2 8 9 6 5 6 2 8 6 6 4 3 1 2 6 1 3 3 9 7 3 1 9 1 , 5 7 5 5 4 2 2 8 9 7 5 1 4 2 8 6 4 . 5 2 3 2 6 0 6 7 1 8 3 1 6 2 9 8 8 C O N N E C T I O N R O T A T I O N D I S P L A C E M E N T S W E S T E A S T W E S T E A S T B - E N D B - E N D T - E N D T - E N D B O T T O M T O P S L I P S L I P m m m m W E S T E A S T U 3 A D U 3 A D C E L L C E L L L A H 3 E S M A L L ( K N ) ( k N ) 0 0 , 0 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 1 0 1 6 0 , 0 1 0 1 6 0 0 1 7 7 8 0 , 0 2 2 6 6 0 , 0 3 0 4 8 0 0 4 0 6 4 0 , 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 6 0 9 6 0 , 0 7 3 6 6 0 . 0 6 3 8 2 0 , 1 0 1 6 0 . 1 1 4 3 0 , 1 2 9 5 4 0 1 4 8 8 6 0 , 1 6 7 6 4 0 , 1 9 6 5 6 0 2 2 8 6 0 2 5 4 0 , 2 8 7 0 2 0 , 3 2 2 5 6 0 , 3 5 6 6 0 . 3 9 3 7 0 , 4 3 1 8 0 . 4 7 4 9 8 0 , 5 2 0 7 0 . 5 6 1 6 6 0 5 7 9 1 2 0 . 6 1 7 2 2 0 . 6 8 0 7 2 0 . 7 2 3 9 0 . 7 5 6 9 2 0 . 7 8 0 9 4 0 . 7 9 7 5 6 0 . 7 4 4 2 2 0 7 1 8 8 2 0 . 7 0 6 1 2 0 . 6 9 3 4 2 0 . 6 8 6 3 4 0 6 9 0 6 8 0 . 6 8 8 3 4 0 . 6 8 8 3 4 0 . 6 8 6 3 4 0 0 0 , 0 0 2 5 5 0 , 0 1 0 2 0 , 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 7 8 5 0 , 0 2 8 0 5 0 , 0 4 0 8 0 ,0561 0 0 7 1 4 0 , 0 8 4 1 5 0 , 1 0 2 0 , 1 1 4 7 5 0 1 3 2 6 0 . 1 4 7 9 0 . 1 6 8 3 0 . 1 9 6 3 5 0 , 2 2 9 5 0 , 2 6 2 6 5 0 , 3 0 6 0 , 3 4 6 6 0 , 3 9 6 2 5 0 , 4 2 0 7 5 0 , 4 5 3 9 0 ,51 0 , 5 6 8 6 5 0 , 6 4 7 7 0 , 7 6 2 4 5 0 , 8 3 3 8 5 0 8 5 4 2 5 0 , 6 5 6 8 0 ,8721 0 ,9231 0 , 9 5 8 8 1 0 0 4 7 1 0 4 5 5 1 0 9 8 0 5 1 , 1 5 2 6 1 , 1 5 2 6 1 , 2 0 6 1 5 1 , 2 6 2 2 5 1 , 3 0 8 1 5 1 3 5 1 5 1 . 3 9 7 4 1 .4331 1 , 4 4 5 8 5 1 . 4 1 0 1 5 1 , 3 5 1 5 1 . 2 9 6 4 1 , 2 4 1 8 5 1 . 1 9 3 4 1 . 1 3 7 3 1.071 1 . 0 0 8 6 0 , 9 9 1 9 5 0 9 8 8 4 0 - 0 , 0 0 5 0 8 - 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 - 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 - 0 0 1 2 7 - 0 0 2 0 3 2 - 0 , 0 3 3 0 2 - 0 0 5 3 3 4 - 0 0 7 6 2 - 0 1 0 1 6 - 0 1 2 7 - 0 1 5 7 4 6 - 0 1 9 0 5 - 0 2 2 8 6 - 0 2 7 1 7 8 - 0 , 3 0 9 6 8 - 0 3 5 5 6 - 0 , 4 0 1 3 2 - 0 , 4 4 9 5 6 - 0 4 9 7 8 4 - 0 , 5 4 6 1 - 0 , 5 8 6 9 - 0 6 7 5 6 4 - 0 7 3 4 0 6 - 0 7 8 2 3 2 - 0 , 8 6 6 1 4 - 0 9 2 9 6 4 - 1 , 0 0 6 3 8 - 1 . 0 9 7 2 8 - 1 , 1 7 8 5 6 - 1 2 9 5 4 - 1 3 9 1 9 2 - 1 . 4 8 0 8 2 - 1 , 5 5 7 0 2 - 1 , 6 4 8 4 6 - 1 7 3 9 9 - 1 8 2 1 1 8 - 1 , 8 9 2 3 - 2 0 1 6 7 6 - 2 0 7 7 7 2 - 2 , 1 4 6 3 - 2 2 0 9 8 - 2 2 7 8 3 6 - 2 3 3 9 3 4 - 2 4 1 0 4 6 - 2 4 3 3 3 2 - 2 2 9 3 6 2 - 2 0 7 2 6 4 - 1 8 1 1 0 2 - 1 5 5 1 9 4 - 1 3 2 3 3 4 - 1 , 1 3 2 8 4 - 1 , 0 0 5 8 4 - 0 8 0 9 3 2 - 0 8 7 6 3 - 0 8 6 8 6 8 0 0 - 0 , 0 0 2 1 5 - 0 , 0 0 8 6 2 - 0 0 1 5 0 6 - 0 0 2 5 8 5 - 0 0 4 0 8 3 - 0 , 0 5 8 1 6 - 0 , 0 8 1 8 5 - 0 . 1 0 8 8 5 - 0 , 1 4 0 0 1 - 0 . 1 7 2 3 2 - 0 2 1 1 0 9 - 0 2 4 7 7 1 - 0 2 9 2 9 4 - 0 3 3 3 6 7 - 0 , 3 8 1 2 6 - 0 4 2 8 6 5 - 0 4 8 8 9 6 - 0 5 6 6 5 - 0 , 6 4 4 0 5 - 0 7 3 2 3 6 - 0 8 1 2 0 6 - 0 9 0 2 5 3 - 0 8 8 4 3 6 - 1 , 0 7 9 1 5 - 1 , 1 6 3 1 6 - 1 2 4 0 7 - 1 , 3 2 2 5 6 - 1 3 8 9 3 3 - 1 4 3 0 2 6 - 1 4 9 0 5 7 - 1 , 5 4 4 4 2 - 1 , 5 8 9 6 5 - 1 6 5 2 1 2 - 1 . 6 9 9 5 1 - 1 . 7 5 1 2 - 1 7 9 8 5 9 - 1 8 3 5 2 1 - 1 8 7 6 1 3 - 1 9 1 7 0 6 - 1 9 5 5 8 3 - 1 9 9 4 6 - 2 . 0 3 3 3 8 - 2 , 0 6 7 8 4 - 2 . 0 8 0 7 6 - 1 8 4 5 0 6 - 1 , 7 4 0 4 3 - 1 5 5 7 3 4 - 1 , 3 6 7 7 8 - 1 , 1 6 1 0 1 - 0 9 7 3 6 1 - 0 , 8 2 0 6 7 - 0 , 7 0 2 2 - 0 8 7 6 3 6 - 0 6 7 4 2 0 0 , 5 5 8 6 0 . 7 5 1 8 4 0 , 8 0 6 7 8 1 , 0 7 4 4 2 1 , 2 3 9 5 2 1 3 8 1 7 6 1 , 4 9 6 0 6 1 , 5 7 4 8 1 , 6 4 0 8 4 1 , 6 9 6 7 2 1 , 7 4 7 5 2 1 , 7 9 0 7 1 , 8 2 8 8 1 , 8 6 1 6 2 1 , 8 8 4 6 8 1 , 9 0 2 4 6 1 , 9 1 7 7 1 , 9 3 2 9 4 1 , 9 4 8 1 8 1 , 9 5 8 3 4 1 , 9 7 3 5 8 1 , 9 8 6 2 8 1 , 9 9 6 9 8 2 , 0 0 6 6 2 , 0 1 4 2 2 2 . 0 1 9 3 2 , 0 2 4 3 8 2 . 0 2 4 3 8 2 , 0 2 6 9 2 2 . 0 2 6 9 2 2 . 0 2 9 4 6 2 . 0 3 4 5 4 2 , 0 3 2 2 . 0 3 4 6 4 2 , 0 3 4 6 4 2 . 0 3 7 0 8 2 , 0 3 9 6 2 2 . 0 4 4 7 2 . 0 4 7 2 4 2 . 0 4 8 7 8 2 . 0 5 4 8 6 2 . 0 5 7 4 2 0 5 8 8 4 2 . 0 6 2 4 6 2 0 6 2 4 6 2 . 0 5 2 3 2 2 , 0 2 6 9 2 1 , 9 8 6 2 8 1 , 9 3 6 0 2 1 . 8 7 4 5 2 1 , 7 6 5 3 1 5 9 5 1 2 1 , 3 1 5 7 2 1 , 0 6 9 3 4 0 , 9 8 8 0 6 0 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 0 0 . 0 O 2 5 4 0 , 0 0 2 5 4 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 0 , 0 0 5 0 8 0 .O06O8 0 , 0 0 6 0 8 0 0 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 0 6 0 8 0 , 0 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 . 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 0 7 6 2 0 , 0 3 0 4 8 0 . 0 3 0 4 8 0 , 0 3 0 4 8 0 . 0 3 0 4 8 0 , 0 3 3 0 2 0 . 0 3 3 0 2 0 . 0 3 3 0 2 0 . 0 3 3 0 2 0 . 0 3 5 5 6 0 . 0 3 6 5 6 0 , 0 3 5 5 6 0 . 0 3 5 5 6 0 , 0 3 6 1 0 ,0381 0 0 3 5 5 6 0 , 0 3 6 5 6 0 , 0 5 0 6 0 , 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 5 0 8 0 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 5 0 6 0 , 0 5 0 8 0 , 0 5 0 8 0 0 5 0 8 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 0 , 0 5 3 3 4 0 . 0 5 3 3 4 0 , 0 5 3 3 4 0 , 0 5 3 3 4 0 0 5 3 3 4 0 2 , 3 0 3 7 3 4 8 , 9 1 0 7 6 6 1 6 . 1 2 5 2 5 2 9 . 9 4 6 7 6 4 6 . 3 7 5 3 6 9 , 1 0 7 5 8 9 9 , 0 6 3 9 1 2 6 8 9 6 9 1 5 8 , 6 4 3 7 1 9 1 , 1 9 7 5 2 1 6 , 6 3 6 6 2 5 1 , 0 9 0 6 2 8 5 , 6 4 4 4 3 2 0 . 1 9 8 1 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 7 0 . 8 7 7 2 3 9 6 2 1 8 5 4 1 9 2 5 2 5 4 4 4 5 9 1 8 4 6 3 0 2 0 3 4 9 0 . 6 6 3 4 4 9 7 5 7 4 1 5 1 8 3 0 6 4 5 3 9 0 3 8 7 5 5 2 8 6 0 2 5 6 8 9 8 6 4 5 8 5 . 1 1 0 7 5 9 4 3 2 4 7 6 0 5 8 4 2 5 6 0 8 , 1 4 6 2 6 2 4 2 7 1 5 6 2 8 8 7 6 5 6 3 3 4 8 5 5 6 3 8 , 0 9 3 6 4 2 7 6 4 9 6 1 0 8 6 5 6 , 5 2 1 5 6 5 4 2 1 7 6 6 6 1 , 1 2 8 6 6 5 , 7 3 6 6 6 8 0 3 9 3 6 7 0 3 4 3 1 6 7 4 9 6 0 1 6 7 7 2 5 3 8 6 7 9 5 5 7 5 5 8 2 , 8 0 6 9 4 7 6 8 4 1 8 3 8 2 , 3 9 5 2 8 7 9 4 8 1 1 9 5 , 8 0 4 5 1 1 7 4 8 2 9 5 5 , 2 8 6 0 6 6 , 9 1 0 7 6 6 - 4 . 6 0 7 0 2 - 4 . 6 0 7 0 2 0 3 7 5 6 9 6 8 7 . 5 1 3 9 3 7 1 5 . 0 2 7 8 7 2 6 . 2 9 8 7 8 3 7 5 6 9 6 8 5 6 3 5 4 5 2 7 5 . 1 3 8 9 2 1 0 1 . 4 3 7 7 1 2 3 9 7 9 5 1 5 0 2 7 7 8 1 7 6 5 7 6 6 2 0 2 8 7 5 4 2 2 9 . 1 7 3 7 2 5 9 2 2 8 5 2 6 9 2 8 4 8 3 1 5 . 5 8 3 6 3 3 8 . 1 2 5 4 3 6 4 4 2 3 7 3 9 0 7 2 2 5 4 1 3 2 6 4 3 4 3 9 , 5 6 2 6 4 5 4 . 6 9 0 5 4 7 3 3 7 5 3 4 9 2 . 1 6 0 2 5 1 4 . 7 0 1 6 5 3 3 . 4 8 6 4 5 4 8 5 1 4 3 5 6 7 2 9 9 1 5 7 8 5 6 9 6 5 8 9 . 8 4 0 5 6 0 4 8 6 8 3 6 0 8 8 2 5 3 6 1 6 . 1 3 9 2 6 2 3 8 5 3 2 6 3 4 9 2 4 1 6 3 8 6 8 1 1 6 4 6 . 1 8 4 5 6 4 9 9 5 1 5 6 5 3 . 7 0 6 5 6 5 7 4 6 5 4 6 6 1 2 2 2 4 6 6 4 9 7 9 4 6 6 8 7 3 6 4 6 7 2 4 8 3 3 6 7 2 , 4 8 3 3 5 7 4 8 1 2 6 4 6 8 8 1 8 4 3 7 5 8 8 4 6 2 8 5 , 5 2 8 3 1 9 3 , 1 1 8 4 1 2 0 2 2 2 5 6 3 , 8 6 8 4 6 2 2 5 4 1 8 1 7 , 5 1 3 9 3 7 7 , 5 1 3 9 3 7 T O T A L L O A D ( K N ) 0 6 . 0 6 0 7 0 2 1 4 . 4 2 4 6 8 3 1 . 1 5 3 1 2 6 6 . 3 4 5 5 4 6 5 . 9 4 4 8 8 1 2 5 4 6 2 1 1 7 4 . 1 9 2 8 2 2 8 . 1 3 4 6 2 6 0 . 6 2 3 2 3 4 1 . 4 7 5 3 3 9 3 , 1 1 3 4 4 5 3 8 6 6 5 1 4 8 1 8 1 5 7 9 4 2 7 6 6 3 2 5 1 8 9 6 8 6 4 8 0 7 7 3 4 , 3 4 1 8 7 8 3 8 7 6 2 8 3 5 3 1 4 3 8 7 6 2 8 4 6 9 3 0 2 2 6 9 5 2 , 1 6 4 6 9 9 1 , 6 8 1 7 1 0 3 1 , 1 9 8 1 0 6 7 6 6 2 1 1 0 2 4 7 2 1 1 3 3 6 2 6 1 1 6 1 , 6 2 4 1 1 6 4 . 4 1 2 1 1 9 7 , 9 8 7 1 2 2 9 1 4 1 2 3 7 5 0 4 1 2 4 8 6 2 5 1 2 6 1 . 7 4 6 1 2 7 7 6 2 4 1 2 8 8 2 9 2 1 3 0 2 7 1 6 1 3 0 4 . 1 6 9 1 3 1 4 6 3 7 1 3 2 3 2 0 1 1 3 2 9 , 2 6 2 1 3 3 5 3 2 2 1 3 4 3 6 8 6 1 3 4 8 7 4 7 1 3 5 2 0 5 1 1 1 5 7 6 2 9 4 6 4 6 0 2 7 5 8 , 0 8 9 6 5 7 3 4 7 6 3 3 9 4 9 2 2 9 2 3 7 7 0 5 4 1 1 9 , 1 5 4 5 2 9 , 4 5 2 5 7 2 , 9 0 6 9 1 3 2 , 9 0 6 9 1 3 R O T A O N M O I ^ N T R A D I A N k N - m ) X106 -3 0 0 0 ^ 1 2 1 0 , 0 4 6 3 6 7 0 , 0 8 3 2 8 3 0 1 0 8 6 4 9 0 1 8 6 1 5 0 2 6 4 1 3 8 0 , 4 1 5 9 5 3 0 , 5 7 8 8 3 7 0 , 7 5 8 3 0 5 0 , 9 3 7 8 7 3 1 , 1 5 0 2 8 9 1 3 6 6 8 0 5 I, 6 1 6 9 2 7 1 8 6 1 8 5 3 2 , 1 4 2 6 0 2 2 , 4 6 4 7 6 7 2 7 9 2 5 5 8 3 , 1 7 8 6 6 3 3 6 3 8 7 5 6 4 0 7 5 7 0 4 4 , 5 7 7 6 9 3 5 , 0 7 7 2 1 1 5 , 5 6 6 6 2 4 8 , 0 7 7 0 9 7 6 , 7 0 3 7 0 9 7 , 3 1 7 5 5 5 8 , 0 3 6 4 0 1 8 , 7 2 6 2 0 1 9 , 1 0 5 7 7 6 9 , 5 5 7 3 1 6 1 0 C 8 3 5 5 1 0 , 8 3 2 7 4 11 0 6 5 4 8 I I , 5 9 5 3 3 1 2 . 0 2 1 4 5 1 2 , 3 2 4 5 5 1 2 6 6 8 3 1 2 . 9 9 5 9 7 1 3 . 3 2 0 8 1 3 , 6 6 6 1 1 14 0 2 9 O 9 14 3 6 6 2 6 1 4 , 6 9 7 6 8 1 5 , 0 1 9 2 1 0 1 , 6 5 4 6 7 2 3 , 9 3 7 9 4 2 8,5O»803 15 3 5 6 0 3 2 3 , 4 6 2 8 8 3 4 , 2 5 1 1 5 4 7 5 5 4 6 4 6 2 , 2 8 0 7 5 7 8 6 1 0 1 3 9 3 2 2 2 7 6 1 0 7 , 3 2 1 2 3 , 9 3 2 7 1 4 0 , 5 4 5 3 1 5 8 , 1 8 3 7 1 7 2 6 7 7 7 1 8 7 4 0 3 8 2 0 0 4 7 5 3 2 1 3 9 4 3 6 2 2 6 , 0 4 0 8 2 3 9 2 2 5 7 2 5 3 8 5 1 7 2 5 9 , 9 4 0 9 2 7 0 7 2 9 1 2 8 1 5 1 7 3 2 9 1 , 4 4 4 3 3 0 0 8 7 4 8 3 0 9 4 7 9 6 3 1 7 , 1 2 3 3 3 2 3 , 3 4 4 5 3 2 7 , 0 5 0 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 2 3 3 7 8 3 8 5 3 4 1 1 4 7 6 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 3 4 8 7 9 1 4 351 7 0 3 7 3 5 5 6 4 1 5 3 5 6 0 3 6 2 3 5 8 8 5 0 6 3 6 1 2 3 4 3 6 2 8 8 8 6 3 6 4 5 4 3 3 6 6 8 2 6 4 3 6 8 4 8 1 3 6 9 , 1 0 9 9 3 1 6 , 0 3 0 1 2 5 8 3 6 3 6 2 0 6 8 5 8 5 1 5 6 6 6 9 1 0 7 8 1 4 6 4 , 8 8 3 5 8 3 2 , 5 2 8 1 8 8 , 0 4 0 5 5 1 0 7 3 3 5 8 7 0 7 9 3 5 6 7 BeNDINQ SPEOMEN MOÏBIOO SCAN EVmY 1 0 SEC BEAFtNO P O S T - T Ï N S I O N E D TO 2000 MICROSTRAIN MO^€NTARM (BETWEEN LOAD AND CONCRETE-STEEL INTERFACE)-TOPSTRAINQAQEOFTHg S E œ N O BOLT WAS N0TWOFKIN3 AT THE TIME OF PHTENSONINQ -INITIAL VALUE WAS GUESSED AT FFOM THE BOTTOM STRAIN Q/OE VALUE N S T R A I • • ™ a O L T 1 - — " SOUTH B-END T-SIDg B-SIDe M I C R O 1 10 20 30 40 50 eo 70 ao 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 441 1677 2220 1878046 2220 954 167223 2217138 1687459 1654,102 2208551 2194,24 1638.928 2171.342 1819755 2144.827 1598785 2117.913 1576821 2087 382 1558693 2057805 1538657 2027274 a A O E " • — B 0 L T 2 — — NORTH B-END T -S i oe B-SIDE S T R A I N 2081 2081 2081.954 2081.954 2080046 2079.092 2072413 2089551 2060964 2055.24 2040.928 2031387 • • — B O L T S " * — SOUTH T-END T-SIDg B-SIDE —~eOLT4^"^— NORTH T-ENO T-S lOe B-SIDE CONNECTION ROTATION DISPLACEMENTS EAST WEST EAST WEST B-END T-ENO B-END B-END T-END T-END SLIP SLIP WEST U3A0 CELL LAR3E m EAST L O A D CELL SMALL ( k N ) TOTAL LOAD m HOTATDN MOr^NT RADIAN (<N-m) xlOe-3 1517887 1501.447 1485228 1471.871 1463264 1477595 146332 1489044 1496,877 1501,447 1507172 1513851 1522437 1531 978 1541,519 1550106 1558693 1 566326 1996743 1988,121 1936835 1903242 18584 1784,935 1740093 1700.021 1655179 1817969 158076 1540.888 149203 1443371 1399.483 1362273 1321 247 1288809 1573958 1264.002 1578729 1247763 1582545 1574.913 1582545 1585407 1588.27 123538 121439 1211527 1204.849 1196.282 1589224 1188829 1569224 1181.95 1590.178 1170501 1592066 1163623 1643607 1715164 1799.123 1877359 1946053 1946053 1947008 1232517 1329.834 1436601 1544.505 1939913 164373 1642776 2014214 1985591 1956014 1837 707 1641 523 1644.388 2000.858 1986509 1931.208 1929.3 1895907 1904.493 1864.422 1884.457 1833.891 1855835 1792865 1837707 1821.487 1809.084 1818625 1826258 1830.074 183399 1833.89 1834.844 1764.242 1729.895 1890777 184021 1605.963 1574S78 1539.077 1510.454 148374 1835799 1451.301 1835799 1419816 1836753 1389285 1936753 13578 1330,131 1302483 1274794 1848202 1251,896 1654,881 1236631 1856789 1854 881 1859851 1884,421 1886238 1866,329 1667283 1870146 1872054 1916896 197605 1223273 12061 1204,191 1197513 1192742 1184.155 1176523 1169944 1161.257 1212778 1286243 2050469 1372111 2128704 1464.858 2215527 221648 2220 297 1560,067 1583,893 15677 2495 2485 248977 2499 311 2517.439 2556557 2606189 2666185 2737834 2816069 29048 3002117 3095617 3198659 3311.242 3433365 3544 994 3664.255 3775884 3917089 4035396 418706 4303495 4453287 4810712 4752872 488549 5020971 5148819 5254.723 5342499 5409.285 545699 5500878 5565756 5600.103 5657349 5700,283 575562 5778518 5199.385 4273919 3357992 2671.047 2240753 2230258 2221671 927 928908 931.77 942265 957531 988062 1024317 1065343 1111.139 1159798 1213227 1268564 1320085 137256 1425989 1478556 1516828 156624 1610128 1669282 171317 1785645 1817168 1975365 1936427 1991177 2028974 2072962 2114.842 2139848 2157776 2165409 2155668 2157776 2173995 2171.133 2189.281 2194.031 2208343 2202618 1652108 1055802 619.783 373.828 261.045 265816 268.678 1959 1959 1961771 1973311 1991.439 2016154 2056317 2102114 2156497 2212788 2272996 2338728 2437953 2504.74 2586899 2674567 2765206 2857753 2931.218 2992279 3052387 3115357 3190.73 3270874 3350063 341685 3480773 3530388 3601.943 3654.418 3699.26 3737.424 3688785 3894.49 3737424 3742194 3782266 3796485 3829.97 3828062 3388227 2874926 2371.167 1951.367 1670865 1662278 1857.508 907 907 909863 916541 929899 952.797 979511 1013859 1052978 1089232 1126349 1182896 1218.988 1251.427 1292453 1328708 1334.433 1380193 1386616 1427.934 145751 1482317 151571 1552919 1594 899 1627338 166264 168183 1719.885 1743737 1759003 1778084 1759003 1752324 1773314 1762819 1782855 1782855 1791.442 1779993 1357331 987.144 680 881 47289 388894 388894 37271 0 -0.00152 0 0.00(318 0.011938 0.028924 0.04191 0.062739 0.080772 0.103124 0.122428 0.146559 0.170434 0.19S834 0.221234 0.251206 0.27B6O6 0.30353 0.327406 0.356854 0.378206 0.406654 0.43053 0.46355 0.503682 0.5S3212 0.804012 0.678688 0.784032 0.83586 0.838708 0.86868 0.69108 0.918432 0.947928 0.977646 1.008142 1.038114 1.083918 1,136142 1,06077 0,982219 0,970204 0,766826 0,663702 0,663702 0.662178 0 0 0.002794 0 009398 0.021336 0.037592 0.056134 0.07493 0.09652 0.116586 0.137922 0.162052 0.167386 0.188992 0.207518 0.22479 0.24638 0.262382 0277114 0.291386 0309118 0.327914 0.342646 0.360172 0.380238 0.400304 0.417576 0.441706 0.456438 0.47117 0.491236 0.529828 0.560832 0.606298 0.850494 0.74549 0.82O42 0.912876 1.036066 1.133856 1.0922 0.986536 0.864616 074189 0.84262 0.639826 0.636762 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0,00457 0,00127 -000432 0 0 -375697 -375697 0,004046 -1,02565 -0.0061 0,00127 0,105156 0 4,607157 0 4,607157 0,017341 1,257754 -001372 -0,00279 0,225298 0 11,51791 7,513892 19.03181 0,068786 5,195683 -0.02718 -0,01803 0 337312 0 25,33943 18.78471 44,12414 0,178613 12,01589 -0.04394 -004826 0,4191 0 43,7681 37 58942 81 33752 0,356647 22,20514 -00668 -0,08839 0,476504 0 89,10753 56.35417 125,4617 0,576301 34,25104 -0.09398 -0,13259 0520192 -0,00178 94,44696 82 65277 1770997 0,828902 48,34823 -0.12903 -0,18212 0,548894 0 122,09 105.1944 2272844 1,111561 62,01865 -0.1884 -024003 0.577596 0 156,6437 131.493 288.1368 142949 78,66134 -021539 -0,30226 0,597916 0 1865904 1615486 348.139 1,77052 95,04194 -026568 -0,37135 0.61976 0,001778 216,537 191.6042 408.1411 2,152023 111 4225 -034747 -039065 0,622554 -000356 244,18 221 6598 465.8397 2448555 127,1742 -041275 -045542 0.641804 -0,00356 2764302 2517153 528.1454 2,853757 144,1837 -048412 -0,506 0,656114 -0,00178 304,0732 281 7708 585 844 3,233526 1 599354 -0.56312 -0,56185 0.666242 - 0 00178 3317161 315.5834 6472995 3 643353 1787129 -08284 -062509 0,684022 0 361,6628 341.682 703.5448 4,042775 192,0677 -0.70866 -0,88174 0.698008 0 384,6987 371 9375 756.6362 4,452023 206,5617 -078765 -0,73558 0,716312 0,003556 4123416 3944792 806.8208 4,842197 2202621 -0,88011 -0,80747 0.735838 0,006334 4399847 4282917 8682763 5,320231 237,0394 -096977 -0,86817 0,752348 0,00889 463,0205 4508333 9138538 5,746821 249,4821 -1,05486 -095225 0.770128 0012192 4952706 477.1321 9724027 6,238306 2654659 -1,15951 -1,0226 0,797909 0,017526 5160028 5034305 1019.433 6725434 2783053 -127483 -1,11252 0 806688 0,021082 543,6459 529.7292 1073375 7,307514, 2930314 -1,39471 -120218 0.8»738 0,0W638 5689856 556.028 1125014 7,921387 307,1287 -15146 -129591 0,839724 0,029972 5943249 5823264 1176651 6 566896 321 2258 -1,6223 -137744 0.85344 0,033528 8127534 8048682 1217.622 9,151445 3324107 -1,72568 -1,49479 0,87122 0,038606 6334857 623653 1257139 9678613 343,1989 -1,85445 -1,59969 0.884892 0,042194 649611 646.1944 1295 805 1083815 3537549 -199349 -1,68935 0,901192 0,043942 6634325 657.4853 1320899 11,33237 360,6051 -2,09271 -1,77902 0.917449 0,04572 677254 6649792 1342233 11 83757 366,4297 -2.18694 -1,86182 0,931164 0,047498 881,861 6687362 1350597 12,39422 368713 -226441 -194183 0,930292 0,047498 6933788 8687362 1362115 12,98324 371 8574 -2,32969 -2,00685 094615 0,047498 6956825 8762501 1371.933 13,3341 374,5376 -2,43129 -2,07569 0,953008 0,047498 7002696 660.0071 1390297 13 96422 376,821 -251765 -2,14199 0,955902 0.048276 704897 683 764 1398861 14,52543 379.1045 -2,64058 -220955 0,96139 0,048276 7072003 695035 1402235 15 20116 3828102 -274953 -226549 0 96266 0.047499 7164148 702.5489 1418964 15 89827 3873771 -2,90932 -239039 0,967994 0,048276 7233256 706.3054 1429631 16 68497 3902893 -3,02158 -2,46507 0 970788 0.048278 725 6293 7138194 1439449 17 66202 3929695 -2,72415 -2,16129 0,947674 0,048276 5689856 5485141 11175 16 063O1 305 0774 -222631 -1 67691 0,905256 0.04572 3823951 3644237 7468187 13,36301 203.8815 -1,66497 -126009 0,843788 0,040386 218,8406 195.3612 4142017 10 60462 113.0771 -125044 -094412 0,72771 0.0353O6 87 5362 71,36195 1589182 8,427168 43,36466 -1,04267 -07178 0543306 0,029972 2,303601 0 2.303601 6979191 0 828893 -1,0381 -070942 0,465582 0.029194 2,303601 0 2,303601 6,943353 0 626983 -1,04115 -0,70256 0,404114 0,029972 0 0 0 8,921965 0 

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