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Daily site interpretation tools for different hierchical levels in a construction project Yue, Benjamin Tsan-Pin 1993

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DAILY SITE INTERPRETATION TOOLS FORDIFFERENT HIERACHICAL LEVELS IN A CONSTRUCTION PROJECTbyBENJAMIN TSAN-PIN YUEB.Sc., California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 1990A THESIS SUBMITtED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCEinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment of Civil EngineeringWe ccept this the a conformingto the re r standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIADecember 1993© Benjamin Tsan-Pin Yue, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.Department of c. si:.The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDateDE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThis thesis is an extension of Fayek’s work (Fayek 1992) on the automated interpretation of aconstruction activity’s problems and suggestion of possible corrective actions. It consists of three majorparts.First, an extensive field test was undertaken in order to obtain a real data set to test and validateboth Fayek’s work and extensions to it. As part of this exercise, an attempt was made to capture theexpertise of seasoned construction personnel regarding the selection of corrective actions as a functionof problem source and prevailing job site conditions. The original problem source list was extended fromseven problem sources to fifteen, and corrective actions for the new sources were identified.The second part of the thesis, which constitutes the core of the work, deals with the formulationof a general, higher-level analysis schema. It includes integrating across all problem sources andcorrective actions at the activity level, and the detection of patterns of problems at the trade and overallproject levels, along with the suggestion of higher-level corrective actions. One of the challengesconfronted in this work is the need to deal with conflicting corrective actions arising from the diagnosis.Several examples are given to illustrate the workings of a prototype.Lastly, the graphical representation of daily site data is partially explored. Construction personnelare often overwhelmed by the amount of data that describes a project. The use of graphics, especiallythe stacking of different graphs, helps the user to identify patterns of problems and provides insights intocausation. Various graphical images are presented, along with suggestions for more complex threedimensional representations.11TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT iiTABLE OF CONTENTS iiiLIST OF FIGURES viiLIST OF TABLES xACKNOWLEDGEMENT xiCHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION 11.1 FOCUS OF THE THESIS 11.2 THESIS STRUCTURE 21.3 OVERVIEW OF FAYEK REASONING SYSTEM 3CHAPTER 2.0 FIELD STUDY AND GRAPHICS REPRESENTATION OF DATA 62.1 OBJECTIVES 62.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AND AUTHOR’S ROLE 62.2.1 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE PROJECT 62.2.2 ROLE OF J.C. SCOTT CONSTRUCTION LTD 92.2.3 MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES 92.2.4 ROLE OF AUTHOR 141112.2.5 DATA COLLECTED & OBSERVATIONS 232.3 USEFULNESS OF THE DATA COLLECTED 362.3.1 ADDITIONAL PROBLEM SOURCES 372.3.2 CORRECTIVE ACTIONS 392.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DAILY SITE DATA 47CHAPTER 3.0 HIGHER LEVEL LOGIC 573.1 BACKGROUND 573.2 BUILDING BLOCKS USED FOR HIGHER LEVEL ROUTINE 603.3 GENERAL LAYOUT OF HIGHER LEVEL ANALYSES 693.3.1 HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS SCHEMA 703.3.2 ACTIVITY LEVEL ROUTINE 713.3.2.1 Weighting corrective actions 733.3.2.2 Run through Compatibility factors 743.3.2.3 Feedback to user 753.3.3 TRADE LEVEL ROUTINE 763.3.3.1 Trade Problem Source 763.3.3.2 Trade Corrective Action List 773.3.3.3 Trade Level Analysis Schema 773.3.4 PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSIS 853.3.4.1 Project problem source 853.3.4.2 Project corrective action list 863.3.4.3 Project Level Analysis Schema 873.4 EXAMPLE 92iv4.5.1 VALIDATION FOR ACTIVITY LEVEL ANALYSIS4.5.1.1 PROJECT DATA4.5.1.2 COMPUTER OUTPUT FOR ANALYSIS ATLEVEL4.5.1.3 MANUAL COMPUTATION AT ACTIVITY LEVEL4.5.2 VALIDATION FOR TRADE AND PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSIS4.5.2.1 PROJECT DATA FOR TRADE AND PROJECT LEVELANALYSIS4.5.2.2 COMPUTER OUTPUT FOR TRADE AND PROJECT LEVELANALYSIS4.5.2.3 MANUAL COMPUTATION AT TRADE AND PROJECTLEVEL4.6 CASE STUDY EXAMPLE4.7 SUMMARYCHAPTER 4.0 TESTING AND APPLICATION4.1 PROGRAM ORGANIZATION4.2 LIST OF PREDICATES4.2.1 SYNTAX OF THE RULES4.2.2 ACTIVITY PREDICATES4.2.3 TRADE PREDICATES4.2.4 PROJECT LEVEL PREDICATES4.3 APPLICATION INTERFACE IN REPCON4.4 PROCEDURE FOR AUTOMATED INTERPRETATION..4.5 TESTING AND VALIDATION OF THE PROTOTYPE102102102104104106.109112113116117117ACTIVITY122122132132140140140160VCHAPTER 5.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTUREWORK 1615.1 SUMMARY 1615.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 162BIBLIOGRAPHY 165APPENDIX A STANDARD STRENGTH VALUES FOR EXAMPLES IN THESIS 167APPENDIX B MANUAL COMPUTATION FOR ACTIVITY LEVEL ANALYSIS FOR TESTPROJECT 171APPENDIX C TRADE LEVEL ANALYSIS BY MANUAL CALCULATION 187APPENDIX D PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSIS BY MANUAL CALCULATION 207APPENDIX E SUPPORTIVE INFORMATION FOR CASE STUDY EXAMPLE 213APPENDIX F DATA INTERPRETATION FOR CASE STUDY EXAMPLE 238viLIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1 Project schedule in bar chart format . . 16Figure 2.2 Typical format for daily site report form 20Figure 2.3 Daily site problem sources report . . . 24Figure 2.4 Example activity history report 31Figure 2.5 Bar graphs of work force data for General Contractor 49Figure 2.6 Split screen graphs for problem sources, total manhour Lost and total time lost . . . 50Figure 2.7 Site Conditions (1) for Case Study 51Figure 2.8 Site Conditions (2) for Case Study 52Figure 2.9 Sample 3D Graph 55Figure 2.10 Sample 3D split screen graphs 56Figure 3.1 Compatibility Matrix 62Figure 3.2 Hierarchical diagram 70Figure 3.3 Activity level analysis 72Figure 3.4 Sample of Trade level expert rule 80Figure 3.5 Example of project level expert rules (Undermanning) 88Figure 4.1 System diagram for prototype 103Figure 4.2 Screen shot of menu under DATA INTERPRETATION 113Figure 4.3 Screen under activity corrective action menu 114Figure 4.4 Clip Screen of Activity Level Corrective Action Coefficients 115Figure 4.5 Screen Shot of Trade Level Interpretation Menu 116Figure 4.6 Activity relationship report for testing at activity level 118Figure 4.7 Daily site report for testing at activity level 120viiFigure 4.8 Daily Site Activity Analysis Report using Frequency of Occurrence 123Figure 4.9 Daily Site Activity Analysis Report using Manhours Lost criterion 126Figure 4.10 Daily Site Activity Analysis Report using Time Lost Criterion 129Figure 4.11 Activity Report for testing at trade and project levels 133Figure 4.12 Work Environment Data Report for testing at trade and project levels 135Figure 4.13 Work Force Data Report for testing at trade and project levels 136Figure 4.14 Daily Site History Report for testing at trade and project levels 138Figure 4.15 Analysis at Trade Level for example using Frequency of Occurrence 141Figure 4.16 Analysis at Trade Level Example using Manhours Lost 143Figure 4.17 Analysis at Trade Level for Example using Time Lost 145Figure 4.18 Analysis at Project Level for Example using Frequency of Occurrence 147Figure 4.19 Analysis at Project Level for Example using Manhours Lost 148Figure 4.20 Analysis at Project Level for Example using Time Lost 149Figure 4.21 Analysis at project level for Case Study using Frequency of Occurrence 151Figure 4.22 Activity Analysis Report for Activity “Hard Landscaping” in Case Study 153Figure 4.23 Project Analysis Report for Case Study using Manhours Lost criteria from07FEB94 to 04MAR94 157Figure 4.24 Project Analysis Report for Case Study using Time Lost criteria from 07FEB94to 04MAR94 158Figure 4.25 Trade Analysis Report for Case Study investigating effect of limited number oftreated problem sources 159Figure 4.26 Calculation for Trade 09 (Drywall) to validate the effect of limited number ofproblem sources 160viiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTI wish to express my sincere appreciation to my advisor Professor A. D. Russell, whose inputs,encouragement, inspiration and other qualities of excellence have contributed a great deal over the years.A special thanks goes to John Scott, John Mills, and Bill Jaeggle of J.C. Scott Construction Ltd. for theircooperation, willingness, and patience during the field study. Finally, I thank my family for theirpatience, understanding, and encouragement while the thesis was being written.xixiLIST OF TABLESTable 2.1 Activity Problem Source List 38Table 2.2 Activity Corrective Action List 41Table 3.1 Sample activity level compatibility factor matrix 63Table 3.2 Trade corrective action list 77Table 3.3 Trade attributes 78Table 3.4 Trade Level Corrective Action Coefficient 86Table 3.5 Project Corrective Action List 87Table 3.6 Project Level Corrective Action Coefficient 91Table 3.7 Activity locations and problem incidences for example 92Table 4.1 Interpretations of Case Study Example which are included in Appendix F 150xCHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 FOCUS OF THE THESISThis thesis is an extension of Fayek’s work (Fayek 1992) on the automated interpretation of aconstruction activity’s problems and suggestion of possible corrective actions. It consists of threemajor parts.First, an extensive field test was undertaken in order to obtain a real data set to test andvalidate both Fayek’s work and extensions to it. As part of this exercise, an attempt was made tocapture the expertise of seasoned construction personnel regarding the selection of corrective actionsas a function of problem source and prevailing job site conditions. The original problem source listwas extended from seven problem sources to fifteen, and corrective actions for the new sources wereidentified.The second part of the thesis, which constitutes the core of the work, is the formulation ofhigher-level analysis schema. These include integrating across all problem sources and correctiveactions at the activity level, and the detection of patterns of problems at the trade and overall projectlevels, along with the suggestion of higher-level corrective actions. One of the challenges confrontedin this work is the need to deal with conflicting corrective actions arising from the diagnosis.Different reasoning schema and approaches presented in the literature are explored and compared withthe reasoning approach adopted.Lastly, the graphical representation of daily site data is partially explored. Constructionpersonnel are often overwhelmed by the amount of data that describes a project. The use of graphics,1especially the stacking of different graphs, helps the user to identify patterns of problems andprovides insights into causation. Various graphical images are presented, along with suggestions formore complex three-dimensional representations.1.2 THESIS STRUCTUREChapter 1 describes the goals and structure of the thesis. The prototype framework of the datainterpretation and analysis system for individual problem sources as developed by Fayek (1992) isdescribed. This framework provides the starting point for the work described herein.Chapter 2 describes the field study performed. The method of data collection, the descriptionof the project, the type of data collected, and the acceptability and usefulness of the data collected aretreated. The usefulness of various graphical representations of the daily site data is explored, andsuggestions are made for further graphics work.Chapter 3 sets out the analysis schema devised for second and higher level analysis. Severaladditions to the existing system, including derivation of trade attributes as a function of activity attributesand formulation of a dispersion index, are described.Testing and the validation of the extended interpretation system is described in Chapter 4.Chapter 5 summarizes the thesis in the form of conclusions and gives recommendations forfuture work.21.3 OVERVIEW OF FAYEK REASONING SYSTEMSince the work of Fayek (1992) provides the starting point, an overview of the approachadopted along with a definition of symbols is given. It is noted that other reasoning approaches couldbe examined (and should be in the longer term). However, the system as originally developed showspromise and its potential should be fully explored, including several needed extensions before otherreasoning schema are tackled.The basic building blocks of Fayek’s system consist of: project-wide data in the form ofweather conditions, site conditions, and work force data; system-derived and user-assigned activityattributes; problem sources and their time (days lost) and cost (man-hours lost) impacts; types ofproblems (time, cost, quality); and corrective actions. In addition, an expert rule base, combinedwith a fuzzy logic framework, is used to link the various building blocks together. This frameworkmakes use of two analysis schema: one to link problem sources to corrective actions based on user-assigned activity interpretation attributes (Schema A); the other to link problem sources to correctiveactions based on the type of problem arising out of the problem source (Schema B).In Schema A, S, is the strength of the linkage between a problem source, X, and a user-assigned activity interpretation attribute, Va. It is the product of the degree of applicability, D,, toactivity i, of attribute Va by the user-assigned standard strength, B?, between problem source X3 andattribute Va. Matrix S(X, V) is composed of elements S?. T?c is the strength of the linkage betweenan interpretation attribute and a corrective action, Z, for a problem source, as determined by a set ofexpert rules. Matrix T(V,Z) is composed of elements T. A fuzzy composition operation (max-mmor cum-min) is used to determine the relationship between the set of problem sources, X, and the setof corrective actions, Z, through their respective relationships to the set of interpretation attributes, V.3to yield a matrix R1(X,Z).In Schema B, Pjd is the strength of the linkage between a problem source, X, and a problemtype, ‘1d. as determined by a set of expert rules that account for the attributes of the problem source(days and man-hours lost) and the type of problem source. Matrix P(X,Y) is composed of elementsPjd. Q is the strength of the linkage between a problem type and a corrective action, Z,, for aproblem source, as determined by a set of expert rules. Matrix Q(Y,Z) is composed of elementA fuzzy composition operation (man-mm or cum-min) is used to determine the relationship betweenthe set of problem sources, X, and the set of corrective actions, Z, through their respectiverelationships to the set of interpretation attributes, Y, to yield a matrix R2(X,Z). Analysis schema Aand B are combined using an intersection operation to produce a matrix R(X,Z). The elements of thismatrix are the strengths with which corrective actions, Z, are recommended for problem sources, X.The purpose of suggesting corrective actions based on two sets of data (activity attributes andprobLem types) is to make use of supporting evidence from all sources as a form of corroboratinginformation to suggest the most suitable corrective action(s). It is possible to suggest correctiveactions based solely on reported problem sources. Accounting for the activity’s attributes providesrefinement to these suggestions. Accounting for the type(s) of problem(s) resulting also providesrefinement. Taking both the attributes and the problem type(s) into account yields a set of correctiveactions that are recommended most strongly if both sets of data point to them. Thus, the greater theamount of supporting evidence pointing to a corrective action, the more highly it is recommended.Fayek demonstrated the practicality of the prototype system. However, it was deficient inseveral respects. The diagnosis is conducted on a problem source by problem source basis for each4activity, and the results of the analysis, including suggested corrective actions, are output to the user,regardless of what corrective actions may have been initiated previously. Although suggested forfurther work, no attempt was made to merge corrective actions for all problem sources for a givenactivity, and no analysis was conducted to look for patterns of problems across activities at both thetrade and overall project levels.What is needed is a weighing scheme to combine all of the sets of corrective actions for eachproblem source into one set in such a way that conflicts are minimized. Given the recommendedcorrective actions for each problem source for each activity, a number of criteria and procedurescould be used to combine them. Weighing factors could be derived based upon one of the frequencyof problem sources, the magnitude of time-lost or the magnitude of man-hours lost. In some cases,this means that the number of elements in the combined set will be less than the union of theindividual sets. These corrective actions, along with the problem sources they address, should thenbe stored for further analysis at the trade and overall project levels.Different sets of corrective actions and expert rules’ bases are required for the higher levels ofanalysis. In order to fully assess the impacts of problems occurring on a particular project, theanalysis should be performed at each of these levels and corrective actions suggested at each tier.Moreover, a schema in recording recommendations from previous analyses is needed.5CHAPTER 2.0 FIELD STUDY AND GRAPIUCS REPRESENTATION OF DATA2.1 OBJECTIVESThe objectives for the field study were several-fold:1. To let experts in industry review the problem sources, the corrective action list and expert ruleslinking problem sources with corrective actions.2. To obtain a comprehensive time history of an ongoing project in the form of a daily site data setfor system validation and calibration purposes. The goal here was to have an impartial observercollect the data set so that it is as objective and as complete as possible. The potential exists forsite personnel to be biased and/or selective in the recording of information and attribution ofproblems.3. To extend the current list of problem sources to treat commonly occurring ones.4. To identify additional corrective actions which are consistent with the extended problem sourcelist and review existing corrective actions with seasoned project management personnel.2.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AN]) AUTHOR’S ROLE2.2.1 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE PROJECTThe project studied was a six-story, reinforced concrete, 100 bed, extended medical care facilityat 3490 Porter Street, Vancouver, B.C.. The total cost of construction was approximately $4.0 million.J.C. Scott Construction Limited (JSC) of Vancouver was the construction manager.6The building itself is divided into north and south wings. A wall between the wings separatesthe building to obtain a two-zone fire rating. The basement of the building contains kitchen, laundry andparking facilities. The main floor houses the lobby and offices in the north wing and patient rooms inthe south wing. Levels two to five are typical floors for patient rooms. The sixth floor contains a largedining area and offices. Overall, the building is similar to a hospital except that it does not have anyoxygen supply service.The physical site was an irregular lot located at the corner of Victoria Drive, Commercial Driveand Porter Street, forming the east, south and west boundaries of the site, respectively. Victoria Driveand Commercial Drive are both busy routes in Vancouver. Thus, there were problems for external accessto the site for loading/unloading. A special zoning was granted by the City on Victoria Drive adjacentto the site to temporarily disallow public parking during business hours. In addition, traffic flagmen wereneeded for large/lengthy deliveries, e.g. concrete delivery for floor slabs. Only a limited amount ofdelivery could be done at a time. Once in a while, delivery vehicles had to wait in a queue or return ata later time.During the removal of the crane, a special one day permit was issued to transform Victoria Driveinto single lane traffic. This further limited the delivery to the site on that day. The constructionmanager arranged with the trades to make sure that the suppliers had delivered all the major materialsand equipment needed to complete the project before the crane’s removal. A week before the removalof crane, time usage for the crane was scheduled in half-hour increments to complete loading of thebuilding. After the crane’s removal, forklifts and mobile cranes were used on an intermittent basis toplace materials and equipment.7The elevated guideway for Skytrain (ALRT system in Vancouver) ran alongside the southwesternboundary of the project. This imposed limits on the location and usage of the crane. After muchconsideration, the crane was purposely set up on the Skytrain side of the boundary, ten feet from the railstructure. The reason for doing this was to prevent the tip of the crane from swinging across the rail.Doing so would cause an emergency alarm in the crane to ring and could result in the total shut downof the crane by Skytrain officials.Because of this position of the crane, the crane operator was unable to see the delivery area whenthe building height reached the 5th floor. Management had not envisaged the need to place an extracontrol room at the tip of the crane. Thus, a concrete pump was used to place the sixth floor slab andthe roof, resulting in extra cost.When forming the floor slab for the 4th floor of the building, the structure itself reached the levelof the rail. Vandals who entered the site illegally could therefore use the building to get onto theguideway. Thus, special meetings were conducted between Skytrain officials and JSC. To resolve thissituation, plywood sheets were used to cover the crane’s column truss structure. It was done so thatintruders who went onto the site could not use the crane as a step to the guideway structure. Moreover,when it was time to form, pour and strip the stairwell on the Skytrain side of the building, personnel fromthe ALRT control system visited the site to ensure that no formwork or concrete would fall onto thetracks.During the drywall and exterior enclosure phase of the building, a tough 1” plastic mesh wasplaced outside the scaffolding along the ALRT side of the building. The mesh was placed to prevent anywaste material from falling onto the track.82.2.2 ROLE OF J.C. SCOTT CONSTRUCTION LTD.J.C. Scott Construction Ltd. was the construction manager for the project. The company is ayoung, aggressive firm in Vancouver which specializes in construction management for high-riseresidential buildings. For planning and scheduling, the company uses a commercial version of theREPCON construction management program plus a Daily Site Reporting system which has beendeveloped under a research program sponsored by J.C. Scott Construction Ltd. and W. A. StephensonConstruction Ltd.. This system is fully integrated with REPCON. REPCON was originally developedas part of an extended research program at UBC under the direction of Professor A. D. Russell.For this project, JCS represented the owner and managed the construction aspects of the project.The majority of the work for this project was subcontracted out to different trades. Monitoring the sitedirectly, JCS coordinated all information amongst the trades and the design consultants. Information fromthe consultants was first passed onto the project manager and then sent to the appropriate sub-trades.Inspections such as building inspection, energy-efficiency inspection, concrete testing, etc., were arrangedby JCS to ensure that the building complied with all legal requirements and restrictions.JCS assigned one project manager, one superintendent, one construction safety officer and oneforeman to the project for its entire duration. Occasionally, labourers and other carpenters were calledin for miscellaneous activities, e.g. installing window sills and hardware backing.2.2.3 MANAGEMENT PROCEDURESManagement procedures used are described below under the subheadings of communicationchannels, personality of key management personnel, and contractor information practices.9Communication ChannelsThe project manager acted as a bridge between the consultants and the trades. Informationrequested, clarifications, and errors were sent to the appropriate consultants to ensure constructibility ofthe project. Changes, clarifications and revisions from consultants were distributed to the relevant sub-trades. If the current situation could not be described clearly through sketches and telephoneconversations, the consultants were asked to come to the site to resolve the problem.When a sub-trade encountered a problem, the superintendent and the foreman were to be notifiedfirst about the problem. The superintendent would then try to resolve the problem or conflicts on siteor call upon the appropriate consultants for additional information/clarifications. He would alsosummarize problems at the site to the project manager at the end of each working day. If he was notsuccessful in solving a problem, he would pass the relevant information on to the project manager andask if he could resolve the situation. The project manager would then take over the problem and woulddeal with the trade and/or consultant himself.Every Tuesday morning a trade meeting was held at the site to effect information flow andcoordination amongst the trades. The meeting was conducted by the project manager, and each trade inprogress was asked to send a representative to attend. During the meeting, progress of the trades wassummarized and their performance was evaluated. Any problems encountered were reported and theirsolutions were looked for when problems could not be resolved immediately amongst the trades.Information requested for and from consultants was noted. Each meeting ranged between 30 minutes to1 hour in duration.Similar meetings were held at the site between the various consultants (architect and engineers).10These meetings were held initially once a month, and later became biweekly meetings at the request ofthe project manager. The architect chaired the meeting. The main purpose of these meetings was toimprove coordination amongst the consultants and to resolve design conflicts by viewing the situationdirectly on site. Information and clarifications requested by subcontractors were presented in themeetings to make sure that they were addressed.Personalities of management team key personnelSince different experts confront problems different ways, it is of interest to point out thepersonalities of the different construction experts involved in this project. During the study period, theproject managers changed. The two project managers had very different approaches to site management.The first project manager tended to reason with the sub-trades and worked with them as a team.This made him more forgiving of trade mistakes. He would allow the trades to use extra time to recovertheir mistake as long as the total schedule was not delayed. He tried to be their friends and believed thatif he was lenient then the trades would be more responsive. Overall, he sought to maintain harmony inthe working environment.This first manager used REPCON to schedule the project, although he did not use the programto its and his best advantage. The original project plan and schedule was done in a very cursory mannerwhich did not facilitate effective daily site reporting and schedule updating from the daily site data base.Also, the schedule was not particularly aggressive--for example, no intermediate floors were sealed offto let drywalling start as early as possible. Moreover, he did not update the project schedule to reflectprogress of on-going activities. He believed that a planning and scheduling system is just a tool to help11him get familiar with the project, and one should never be too deeply dependent on such a system. Hewas not conversant with the REPCON scheduling system. As part of this research project, a specialtraining session was held for him to get accustomed to it. As the project unfolded under the directionof this project manager, it fell further and further behind the anticipated spring delivery date. When anupdate of the schedule indicated a fall completion, the first project manager was effectively fired.The second project manager was a much more aggressive person. He would not tolerate anydelay in a trade’s performance. If a trade was delayed or a mistake was made, he would then ask thetrade to speed up and correct the problem. He documented everything and would threaten back-chargingand other legal actions if corrective actions were not initiated. In addition, as soon as any activityfinished, he wanted its successor activities to commence. His goal was to have every activity start inaccordance with an early start date. He sought considerable detail in the plan and scheduled, and henceit was extensively modified, with many activities added. Strategies such as sealing off floors to permitearly start of drywall activities were adopted. The schedule was ultimately brought back in line with therequired spring completion.This project manager, while a user of REPCON reports, was not familiar with the operation ofthe program; however, he is a strong believer in computerized project scheduling. He himself used amatrix schedule, i.e., a chart with activities on the y-axis, activity locations on the x-axis and the startingdate in each cell, which was generated by a spreadsheet program using output from the planning andscheduling system. Project performance was closely monitored against the matrix schedule.Interestingly, REPCON can produce a matrix schedule with activities on the x-axis and locations on they-axis. The project manager insisted that the results be transposed, hence the use of a spreadsheet.12The superintendent was a very experienced field person who had been in construction for manyyears and had worked for JCS for over 7 years. He had encountered many different constructionproblems during his career. He worked well with the trades, and often he was able to solve theirproblems directly on site. Frequently, design errors and conflicts were detected by him before the workstarted on an activity. Moreover, with his experience, he could easily detect whether the trades had realproblems or were just playing games to try to get more time.Contractor Information PracticesAs noted previously, JCS uses the commercial version of REPCON plus an earlier version of thedaily site reporting research system. Updating with the daily site reporting system becomes much easierand can be conducted more frequently. The system shows whether activities are progressing in anunacceptable manner or not. More creditability is given to the schedule since the decision maker has amore current representation of the project. For example, the superintendent frequently utilized the dailysite report to determine the performance of the forming subcontractor. He then used the daily site reportto calculate the total man-hours of the crew, the percent of work completed, the cost-to-date, and theperformance index (input/output) of the trade. Overall, this provided him with the ability to controldifferent subtrades and pinpoint any problem sources for on-going activities.A new set of daily site reports was generated biweekly from the office. At the end of eachworking day, the superintendent completed that day’s daily site report. It was then sent back to the officeand the relevant data entered into the computer by a person in office. The schedule could then beupdated to reflect progress in the field (although the frequency of updating was low and there was aconsiderable backlog of data entry).132.2.4 ROLE OF AUTHORA data set was obtained through a six month internship by the author from July 1992 to January1993 using the research version of REPCON which included Fayek’s prototype system. The datastructures for the commercial and research versions are different, and hence the project files were notcompatible. The original plan and schedule of the project designed by the first project manager wasrecreated using the research system and then refined with more details. This revised plan and schedulewas further refined as the project progressed, and was reworked extensively when project managerschanged. The schedule in bar-chart form, as of 14th January, 1993, is shown in Figure 2.1.Acting as an observer, I recorded the progress for on-going activities using the daily site systemat the end of each working day. The report (see Figure 2.2 for a typical format) recorded informationdealing with weather data, work force data, tests and inspections, equipment rentals, materials delivered,activity status, problem sources and consequences, etc.. If a problem occurred in an activity, thecorresponding problem sources were selected by the user and description(s) of the problem(s) entered.The estimated amount of time lost and/or man-hours lost was noted down in the daily site report (seesection 2.3).Other duties of the author consisted of creating detailed schedules, e.g. drywall and finishingschedules, establishing a room numbering routine and layout for the consultants, contracting for the fireproofing trade, reporting delays in activities to the project manager and superintendent, helping withgeneral layout of the floors, and so forth.Decisions taken to rectify different problems were noted. Often, the project manager revised theschedule sequence to reflect changes in the construction strategy. For example, when constructing the14floor slab, due to the considerable amount of mechanical and electrical equipment to be placed on certainslabs, the rebar crew deliberately started from the other end of the building for those slabs to allow themechanical and electrical crews enough time to rough-in their equipment. These changes were noted inthe Daily Site Report.15UNCCOTISTOIJCTOONMANAGEMENTLABPEPCONINripUsed0ILP20DP00J3I\NT1lWTSelectAllAtliviliesSariSlarlDaleDaleSelethonkIlSth/EarlyScheiluleWindowhip07MAY92100920993toteI)c,nsSIloDETroutLakeManor—InOetaa]s(newRepcori)flepoptDale24SEP93Pope-ITile32443ProgressDate14J1093PensionNuuTYer:0PaqeOf4StartMilestoneVIiipt6CriticalFinishDaleslnneVistriticAlIInstalledEstimatedIIPosItiveIloat—19AtiVe(batN-’ 0ProgressDaleIProcure,eotPC019921993CootTYPEDDSCTTPT(OMMAYIJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTNOVDECJANFEBIMARCHAPRMAYJIA25IN152261320274101724A142128S132629tO2371421II1025A1572IN1522296121929II1724YGOGIOGSNPPY6CT514111STV--.---.-—0101000PIJTJtAO041109U60201000SHOOIILblcS00IT00SIltPPSPAOI1I99STA‘5002000C0010NTHATEDSOILlltI01020001000106[4(40*0(99U6II0301000001St[SF0400906A00402000rooW/P0011W4LSS/COLS/VDEIIWGS040300AF0004/P00j0Wit/CotP4INCaPElLI0105000DACIFIIL£00401(11(0lIST0C.IW10900DWATEMPOUDEINS0114000101.8*91111£00401CM-EaSTIL0111000111594150699110156A0103000501111(1SEWASE10NaTeI01170001051410111100SF-(451uG01060000061(0105IN060051I01100001051015P1.04111-0051lA0115000IOETCIYTACINILEASTlICEI1203000INSTAlLIL00CM-WESTlICE0116000INSTaLLP104111-FAST[ICI:293000TEST16WISH-NESTILIl5000INSTAtE0611(4[49ILR1)11000INSTALlIL(ItCI.-FASTI303000INSTAlLIL[LECIRICAI-lISIIfl112000PACEFILITOIFINUSWESTI0184000P0CPIINCS0.6.WESTSlotI.11400DMACellISCOlIC.DCTOFr-EAST1309000[IEC191CAL1(51100-WEST0415000POlIO506-WESTSITEDCII‘0101000P050000SDC,-EASTSIDEILgA041600II10011NATOFLOORDAB-WESTI206000lESTIL00CM-EASTI131000DTICCTPICAI1151111-EISI061IA25AIS2?6II20274101724AIA21285II262916237II21IIlB25I81522A1522296121926310II247CODETYPED[SCPIPIIONMAYJUNEJULYIAUGSEPOCTNOVDECJANFEBMARCHAPRMAYJ29924993Fig.2.1ProjectscheduleinbarchartformatPane20119921993CODETYPEDEOCTIPTIOTAMAYJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTNOVDECJANIFEBIMARCHAPRMAYJtO250152?61326274II172401421205132629162371421II1025I0IS22I0IS22296Il19263101724710404000POURS01-EASTSIDE.7405000P000MAINFLOORStAM-64511207000P1EIECCI4-MA-SL4W4(STI041000000T1(lIM5STEEL-MM-lOST1130200001EIEC6lOCH-MN-EASTNW040600000FORCINSSTEEL-MN-EAST10€I0410000FORM6POORWALLS/CDUMOIS0I041700OPOURMMFLSLAR-4SIMOO‘0412000REMAPWILLSMMDCOLUMN0162OHSRARIo4O70O0POOHMAINFLSLIM-EASTWOOI307000ELECTCORD6MECHINWIU./COL,MN!2RORSRNH1040100DUnNTYPICALSUM23460IPFI.0413000PLACEWALLS/COLUMNSPI203051600410000STAIRMDOK6MISC.FO10IMARE_________11305000ELECTC0lO0T19SLAM‘1306000lOCHSLEEVIIlOINSLAM2OR4060qa04l470lOIRE.STEELTNSLAM.0409000INSTALlCAMLETMSLAMS10400000ALICESLIM2045060OFI0113000OICKFILLEXT.MALIIJ6___________________________0411000STPDSSCAALES213005000I1070100SWAS0000TOALLFLOORS1-_________4120100DR1P1090110I24011001.001C______0503000EATERIOR5TGLSOR26ALLIDa26060WISCCOONWILLS0100030000111010111005.---..1025015220132022101724B1421295132629162371421II1025015220IS2229612IX26IX17247C000TYPEDESCOIPTIONMAYJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTINOVDECJANFEBMARCHAPRMAYJ19921993Paqe301419921993COOtTYPE00000IP1000MAYJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTINOVDECJANFEBMARCHAPRMAYJ19259IS22613202741072491421295132629162371421IIIi20I0IS220IS2229612II263IIII247G0O30009311370111(1160504000IWOSTEEl50005_________0420000COON000001.1301000UE0001CAL6CABLETV9.1.i35R G€230I000FINESP000WIERKIlNI_________o441209000O(CU0.0.4BACK.EONFIXTURE2JAB0007000rcoc114(0FIRI1101000060114CPFI090300S91100111150I11100I9A 5II6_P2302000[lOOPCOILINGl9l300202000HAULNGI100STO4(040(09AR+2303000SPRINKlER40*0591€2P2501060FIRESTOPPI440Pill20394I60’150200SNICKINGFC104061160(100NI I IDR0601000IRSTLATTCWP-EASIp30602000lWsa0000u-4(ST43I060900000*00100-EASTW4I5OR2066300000*140006-4(ST..P*€2R4SR6124030001141000OlAIlPE-EASTWNORDI030200C10150*11tIEVATCIPI002402000001-11000ABATING-WESTml20006000T00P1440m2R 39,1102000009001*1F00flOOrINGPW3301000STYCCO19€0611000CEILING-LASTJgOR0606000CEILIIE-WESPIil230.60II258152261320274IIIl2401421295132629162371421II1025815221815222961219260007247COOtTAPEOESCIIPTIOWMAYJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTINOVDECJANFEDIMARCHAPRMAYJ19921993PNNP406419g2ogg3tOTTAPEDESCRIPTIONMAYJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTNOVDECJANFERMARCHAPRMAYJ6258152263202740Ii246142!265II2629162311421IIIN25I615226152229&129263II17247060600060500061000060000060400090100lD0I00130100140100l00I00150100P120100P1601000CEIlING-HOST0TAPEANDFILL-NGST0TWOANDFILL-EAST0DEAD-EAST0AD-I(SI01IL0656MAFCWARO0PAINflNEIII00050FINISHELECTRICALo811.11106NOSEFINISHING0FINISHFLNGRING0HANEHTAIL0FONISNNGCH06ICAL0CLEAN-OPI4N34114 I400 56I3JSE4NNMN N66004000TESTINGMN)APPROVAL—SI—4IITE2E. •—3E4E1625IN152261320274tO17241421285132629162371421II102581522I815222061219263ID17247CODETYPEDESCRIPTIONMAYJUNEJULYAUGSEPOCTNOVDECJANFEBIMARCHAPRIMAYJ19g2igg. 061REPCONT1TUBCCONSTILUCTIONMANACEMENTLABTroutrileUsed:R:\RO’\pROJ3I’flTR5JTSuperintit:PleaseS9n.__________________________WORKENVIRONMENTDATAUsatterConditionslà)IrS))(leerI)ClooA*j 1)RainIISnowI1k)(P11)ClearIIClooIgIRainIISnowIc)le.perelorelhgh_CLowC14)Precipitation:notelUsnd_hphSueCondilinnsflorndcooditions:PoorIIfairIICoo4IIIg)StorageansitePoorIIfairIICooSII(hlcestostePearlhairIICejodIICno.entsLakeManor-LnDetalIa(newaepcon)ACTIVITYDIARY-WEDNESDAY,14OCT1102IeporlDate:24Sl93Departho:16:47:ProgressDaLeI4J193WOREFORCEDATADELIVERIESPage)lIonIQtg1UnitsICaweotINSPECTIONSANDTESTSSaperTradew,iTradeIISatSkill1/I)MarlTMH/M/IH/WIIfIi)(jI1k)(I)l)In)IIIXrSlIS104FOIWRJ(/WUL1CI?tUI1113DiDRhI.Ca,eotsCVISITORSACCIDENTSSITEINSTRUCTIONSMISCELLANEOUSNOTESEQUIPMENT/RENTALSlollhowqtCaweotStaInsStaIns:D1lehinere4AUstine!:IdIeRRetarne4Fig.2.2Typica’formatfordailysitereportformREPCONTh0%)OneJogAenlow.AllProjectActinitiesbgDespCode(enciodiogcnwplntedactinities).locationsSTto5?.TOrtEciT.TlUIfl/00(O000SCVIYTHAGAb08011DAT1SIAdIR)SDAY500011€STATUSP809)131lADE))P00(0055OiYffJC/ftTiltLOST0(1)51tAlE(00€(DOE(DCDISCOiPT10115101111110)(4)0TODAYTODAYISIS?I(00€P000101DSSCE1PT1016101(5IDAYS(00€ItItLEIIoliIOISTAII1IE)RDIIIISC.IDIPWOI(joeTsI?1711001?nnooxxronn(PsoirIIIIB4192STAIMADR010ISC.FO101010002151?11Wn,onDDnnonIPS0iFlIII10119TSTAIIAWDIOISC,1010w101Az9Slr171WDIInnonenoaIPSoIrIIIIIIIloll,ISTAIOMDOIO1SU.IO(I1.080IOOGOCT154W)iInoonDTnnonlPSOlIIIIIIIIbusSSTAI0IOOI00SC.10E)ss80lotionznvlDOnnnoiP5oifIIIIII101500)1I0?0IILiYt4lDTY01LIlO0RSlADled10)4WDElownnbxooo,IPSOIFIIIIIIIID.ITTA1CNJIlTOSGDILIWIXETIOSY000130(1IGOCTIIooflnnnnIPSYIIIIIIIlinGItDtStm’IILIHSL.01iIAIIYCTIIYCTIIXEPSDIEIIwwoTui01110111115IIIIIpsoirlIIIIIIII—IIrsoirlIIIIIIIIIIPSOIFIIIIII•w1)180000000011(5IIIIIPsoirlUBCCONSTItt3CTION)1ANACEMLNTLABTroutLakeManor—OnDetail•(newRepcon)ACTIVITYDIARY-WEDNESDAY,14OCT1993rileDad:R\lii?200)\PAOJIIVITISOIITOepa’tDate:245(09)DeportTM:15:42:10ProgressDatel4JfttYTDewisionilaE.erAPage2IctCsMTl&lilOll)iE10131111LI)T.IA1Liol&slytzsrtllItuinoonxxonnnIPsoirIIIIIIioiot)o0fCI04016IDl0I1YPiC01SLctIA89OCT160(1SInonoxYnonnlPSYIIIIIII104006lltTAcL(00i1l0StS10110(1150(121flonIPsoIrlIIIIDIII68tlIt.ST[111115t00IAIWCTIbOCTIInno.XoonnIPSOII’I__________________IIIIIIrsolrl“01050*30(05IIIIPsoirlI____I_IIIiPsoIriIItaPage3T:ldephaveLLetterflactchargeExtraDarkOrderUUerhaIlustructiceisSTATUS68013FinishadIdleAngoingPPostponed5StartedCriticalP0091339SiRCE6801366thAtDVIROIIIYff16SITECflhTl€26tUGMtCUtGtLffihTSIll5lt3I/DlPC460088fOHtt61Toemackprecipitation11Insultstoragespace21Itecisinvts)req.aired31Inwft./Ircorqcl.IraaiogIItkideemaweing62Tuelittleprecipitation12Inadequateeataccess22Chaugesrequested32Drawingerrors42Ouermauaiug63Teuqieraturetoohight3Inadequatemtaccess23loterf./Stnp-niurkorder33Designchanges/additions43TradestackingIIITeiqieraturetoelawIICongestion24Eutraworkrequested34ConflictinginformationIILeaskilltenet85kindlouhighISSitenetprepared/ready25tkaaitinginspection/test35PourdesigncoordinationISExcessiveturnover66Excessivehavidity16Poorgroundconditions26Excessivequalitydemand46leouetinatiue/m,rale67Freer-thawcycle17tiueepectedgrodcuedtus47Inadequateinstructions18Workspacevetcleaned46Ilusafepractices/aceid.49PeertradecoordinationSt138966WPPLIISMtLTDIIPNITS1795011416166UTlLTlt)CIT334DISt131MItSIItewurktDesigochaugest61Iosatficieotmaterials71Delayofactpredecessor81Daaitiogperuiits31Theft52Iteuarktkorkiaaushipt62Insufficientequipwont72Iiçruperactseipieicing82tkiaitingcniuiectinis92StrikesSTBeiwirktllamaged)63Latematerialdelivery73Outofonqueucework83tkaaitiagiospectos/tests33ttaudalisuSIOeuerktloapp.,rtlnidst64Lateequipmentdelivery74BelayofuftsitepeirDIlotertereecceeutogatil34IDSluitdour55Estimatingerrors65Tuel/eqoipmeutbreakdown85Damagetoeetogutil.85CuetractawarddelayStErectimcuastructiun66Damageddelivery66ttnaoticipatedutilities%l%iiselevelstuehigh57Layouterror67Fabricationerrorts)58Paceraurloaaoship68Poormaterialshandlingk9kroogequipawiotRISPWGIOILITT60613cInuta.t.UIT1tICTOR/Ul16PAINTIIC21Fuaicretetheirfinishing31Topping61IYCIRMTIMIII680fItE22Scaffoldr,er32Skylight62M6tlC121933WI01.23fl89SPLIIID)53510133[uterinewalltiuiidiing6313.L00TOIIPISTON13I1dITMICM.24ICRTIILSTSTOI31Ceiling64tttO’aKDK/UJUJLlE149111313683tIRESTtIPPI1C35Waterproofing6551611STt8tDItE15100*11616526tRot%TN’EMt[Ill.66DRtlWtLROM1OIIE1601A4127LaundryOnaoteSBPlaadiingeogioeer62MSC9I1I18fL009IIC26Misc.AhIalSIElectricalengineer191MiiiUIt6IUUS1966906291881.IltoTIJtTOR52tOotceusultmnt6TttlfL004ltS/tWIf488tC26Orchitect14PIPEI1Q8STOR53StructuralengineerMany discussion sessions were held between the project manager, the superintendent and theauthor. The meetings were informal, and different approaches for responding to specific problem sourceswere discussed. The existing compilation of problem sources in the current research version of REPCONwas reviewed and critiqued by these individuals.2.2.5 DATA COLLECTED & OBSERVATIONSUsing the plan and schedule shown in Figure 2.1 as a basis for monitoring the project, theproblem source list, and example activity history report shown in Figures 2.3 and 2.4, respectively wereproduced using the daily site reporting system.An extended problem source list (see bottom of Figure 2.2) was used for recording problems atthe site. A total of thirty-one different problem sources were encountered during my internship. Forpurposes of the work on automated analysis of daily site records, only a subset of the problem sourceswere treated.There were difficulties associated with the collection of site data. Oberlender (1989) came to thesame conclusion that obtaining the information from the site can be most difficult. It is realistic to saythat the data set collected does not reflect all problems encountered. On any given day, some could bemissed because my site duties required me to focus my attention on specific parts of the project. (Thisis the same situation faced by a superintendent. The larger the site and/or the project, the more difficultit is for one person to have a complete view of progress and problems.) Others were not recordedbecause they were resolved very quickly. Nevertheless, I believe that I have recorded the majordifficulties encountered during my time on site.23USCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTroutLakeManor-Enbeta!Is(newOtepcon)DAILYSITEPROBLEMSOURCESREPORT1CriticalCIotraDarkOrderoDan-workedDayILetter•llnscicdoled6DaneOOackcharge1TeieploioeCoogretedsiteduetomassinematerialsonsitelikeforwofordeckingscaffolds,plywoodetclayingarooodioticsite.loterioraccessproblemCoogestedsitecausesinleroalaccessproblemandstorageproblem.Congestedsitefortradestoworkortic2ndfloordeck.Limitaiwomntofspaceoositecostsinternalaccessproblemandstorageproblem.Temporarystorageowsite,stackofrebarsam!scaffoldsetcaffectinteroolaccessofworkersorsiteCongestedsitetoday.ToomanytradesareworkingonticdecktotrytogetticslabinbySep36.ReportDale6251Y93Reportfir:1755:25ProgressDatellJf863JRcwisinnlkither:6rileUsedU\tLT’2it1\P003t7\IRCIITOrfertPeriod14.11(1.92-26Jrtfi3AllProblem(Mrs(orfillftlinitirsBCTIOIIY/lYfDAriottOtI)I/DAE3I011111P0061131OIY01GIOLIfOtnttootSLASTDAYSLASTDATECOPELYERCOPDISCAIPIIAIP0001131RCOCAIPTIDACOOC10010071014CORESLMNOTOTfLf7300J111100PROBLEM:I)TonmuchpeerIpitattooI21JUL92i610906tE61DATOIP00011KRainprenentodwaterproofinginticenteriorwall.6.666.06IkPCC9Z630260Ito63ltEfrLLllLlllffOToonickmaterinlouIsfordonatorcremtoworkor.icodtopoq2.662.06aateromit.21DEC9213106116104CTYPPIKSomepartsofflooraretoowettolayingtoppingon.Assicaterto5.665.666.566.56warmticfloor.29OCt923361661143357110305101111411RcA1830110DElAYYSTlOIfT2.682.6631DEC9233010616433STUCCOStAidrcAgfil101(1310106001101102.662.66ISIJRIOINSI13.6613.66I1.584.56IPROBLEM:(a)Tninipeeaturetoolow67.1(603)0106662CIOPPI1S)tmTI31Llltn01wAt3:06t11.lRDTYfl6l9lyTTTtt01R6DAttl6ll1E.III6.586.56)I51tRfOrnSlIGM6256)fPROBLEM:(5)WIodtaohIghI645012•641966IttRISTAlAlitTt0RISC.I’fittnRRVimdtookigh,craneskitdownatl6:am.Canootpoorotairtoday.IInLafargeLearon1.660.66Iloscicduloticpoortonentworkingday.IStIRTOTN.SII1.661.66IIPROBLEM:)0)EsccmmIvnhnooldltpZgDLt92•66666611406CEILIK-blIf00110010110016OITIWS0111300100114ROll.RSC1(301010(8161TOt2.662.661.581.5600011lIPfORIDATO0661AlTTOEIOIST6JRCItIIIAIR.pISUDT6TPLSI2.662.061,581.56)PROBLEM:(14)Cnogrnttnn625(392i61016626410161TYPICJt51.0064Sl192•8401%264I’ORIIYPICId,SCSI605l3’9261010028110161IYPIC11.51141651092616100264181(11TYPICIA.51107fl5f397•611406464DCIIISIll).It511464101614601000L1t1.061.061.061.061.661.66Fig.2.3Dailysiteproblemsourcesreportt%)l.aOCTIUITY/lYTtADARK0RDDI/tOClt(nulLPRORWIRCTPOtIRUTYtROt151165LOSTDAYSLOSTtitlECODEI.OCRtTPDIICRIPTION10061131DIIEDIPIISI(083liltOCT1914(DOllf_IllliiiTOTS.flITAMtom.IojeToras3.603.00IIPROBLEM(15)Sitenotprepared/ready26ftit92011060Itt0410161IP9116lA’d..LS/f)JLIRDGWestkaqdidnothaveonecoinworeadyintimetopour.DanteDlf0I01lIK/COlVlCtEReturnunaseporti0.46iiofconcrete.ISTJOTOTfLSPROBLEM:(10)Workapacenotcleaned00517926401*20410161IYPIES.51.00Westhamphadn’tcleanouttIe2ndflourslabfortieelect,andmech..04fOItWRt/(OIVIETEYinTimoflkstkaq4.004.00Thishaddelayedbothactivitiesofroughingineech.andelect.Slonprogressofmech.andelect.wasobserned.01OCT32670160156766301010TO01.11100115083131711IllS15101331131.ftUtT14l91flL0006WIRO?.1W5(31111000004FOlOtnRRfflTETO1W(liStITt00.509711171(192076106Itt071515014191001.1.11,00115Mainflouroutcleanforlayoutofmasonryandottertrade.lkstkai04fTJfOUJRit/CfKaCfE2.002.06hadoutstartedcleaninguntillateintieafternoon.Difficultinlayout.120006Itt126.?.P1.101183Mainflournotcleanedforplumbertownrkou.04fOl6WRK/(016]IL’fE1.061.0011OCT92076100Itt8718301419TOlii.flOORSMarkspacestilltondirtyfortradetoworkon.04fl)IOUIIIK/fIKO3lETC8.061.0012600010112Dl.PtI#Illtit(lustfrougrindallnoertieflour.04fOIOIMOt/COtOJtCfC.0.lO0.1626OCT92050406Itt65IN?.SIll).511615llurkspacenetcleanedforinteriorstoutstudtoworkou.04foIotmRxiuJIonC0.580.5616152I056466305IN?.5111].51(105Seyie.narstatedthatworkspaceoutcleanou3rdflourfnrlayoutinC(2JUl01.(311411831000.460.46tiewestside.lbsoandcwçlyat11amISlJtlTOTN.S6.066.003.063.00PROBLEM:(22)Changearequeated2445921207*Itt(20.?.13.10IlDl-’lIf’SLAO-lllIWechitectrequestedchangesinentranceoftiebuilding.Mato.dour26Wechitectmechanism.NeedtorearrangemarkonslabandchangingtielandscapedraaiogtOriginalplanshaneplantsinfrontoftienenoutrance).I51IOTOTPLSI(PROBLEM:(34)Lotraworkrequemted244592‘64100010104RCltO’ORltESll]1.-ltt4OITMastkamprequestedpourWest101slabouToesdag,25thMagust,l992.04fOfOSAlRO/(3141Et0Needacceleratetoacco.ecdatetietightsciedaleISTIOTOTNSI(PROBLEM:(31)rnnuff./Ineooupl.Drawing20110.92611060150111151011Pl1l1T15-l0IT0ollfooddrawingshaneouweasorewont.Waitingforinformationtocompleteploaking.126710lit12liSTS!0610131-0111Rassell’sfooddrawingshannowoasoreaent.Needworeinformation4.004.00forlitntilitiesintIekitcleo.1710592120766Itt126.1.1311AltDfltI-51004l11Plomberhasprobleminlandscapedraaing.Needadditionaldrainage12lWntl00.inlandscapeareabutdrawingisincompleteinslouaingtielocation,andnonkerofoutlet.Willdiscosswith0.LeetocerroutosortitoutISIIRTOT01.Sl4.604.061(PROBLEM:(12(Drawingerrora10*1592126766161120.1.11111ItDHtI-S1.15101Laundrychatearealayoutprsklen.Needstructuralengineercomingintosortitout.IIII0’ctTIUIflhI)TOAlt000111/lOGOor#zP110011310tP0l6lO1IT9lit10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MaIM11000St00-lTScaffoldingneppesedtocinat730aw.rieediositeat1:45pm.1.001.00Delaythebuildingofnoaffoldingtoneetday21(0169210ll10104REII0OllltCSTU1-lOl-6OSTDebardidnotarriwetodaynetil100pmintheafternoon.Debarguy2.002.00didnetbaneenenyhmaterialtofinishoffkitchenarea.26001692040600101010I300C11165Tf11-l0I-fPSTDebarsteeldidnotarriveinmorning.Markerscannotstartbottomsteel.Thisdelayedbothrebarpersoonelandelectricao.ahereqoiredthebottomlayofrebartobedonebeforestarting.1051292040000201llCT(0J.(tOtEIN56005PTcabledidnotarrinetositetoday.Cannotinstallcableonnec.KToRichfield1.001.00floorslab.Reassignmarkerstoprefabricaterebarinoerticalforthesecondfloor.I5llRTOTfLS2.002.002.1012.00)PROBLEM;(65)Tool/equIpmentbreakdown24502920410003MIfOWlIPOlIOLS/COU0tCCranebrokedeantodayataround2:00pm.PoorconcreteforcolaimisTforrepairat2:1512.0012.000.500.50atthetine.HidtosendaboutSbofcoecretebacktoplantat1:00pmforithaskeenstayedtonlong.2100192I600101CTOPPIICPompfortoppingbreakdeanormetmnesimthenereieg.fioiohaunall0.750.75partofthetotalflooronly.I50WTOTN.S12.0012.001.31.3PROBLEM:(60)WrongequIpment1751792646100301fOWlT?Plf4.51.01llmacsdeliverywrongbracestothesite.SizetonumallTInform.lbacsRel0001292041000504fOWl0P000OWLS/COIIJMCMasonryporeinadequatetopoorcurbmallonmain.TIneinchespipe04fOWWO0/CEIIJETE6.006.00gotstochedfrequently.Eneotoallygotittomurk.Startat3:00pm.finishedat5:pmIWRTRTfLS6.006.00(PROBLEM:(7I)DcIapofactprodceomao2ISl3’920414003040(111.STIRIllSillDecaaseformingdidnotfinishallfor,maerkonthethirddeckattheRIfOfOMMRO/COIO31ETE0.130.13hegioninyofthemorning,rebarcannotstartoothirddeckeffectierlyLastaboutIheintinlost.150M3131311T(OWlETIMSI.00Electircalcan’tstartinstallingelectricalconduitbecansebottom01fOl000)RD/U.*VIETE1.001.00steelandcableshaoen’tkeenfinishedlayingyet.29S1792I130500I1313.1STCOOCRETINSl.00Electricalcannotlayelectricalpipeonlessalargeportionofbottom190131000.100.10steelislaid.IbidopbyDebarpartially.Markie45dsrioythetTIOIfl/CITOUPARE0101)1/6930Dm1P1001139OUflllLlTTP69110100LASTOARSLOSTPATE(00€LOCRILPIISCOIPTISIP0001131OOtCRIPTI06(06€tUEOCtISI(06(0fT401TON,F[ST1011TOOtawhileperio,l.3051792!646900404PtKI5100IlestkuqsaidthedeckwouldbereadgkglU06aw.frtualstartaround04fOlKI7OK/fl?t10.0010.00lU25aw.Delagschedolecausedholdupofcnccretetwiceinthedag.finishpourkgO:fiO.11OCT92‘041406604BEllE.STIRIll.00Deckwasn’tfinisheduntilIlo’clock.Cainotworkonwestsidewetil04P)R0006/CREOETC0.300.30deckfinished.120000101120.1.PIINItEStillwaitingforgrindingofceilingtobefinished.04fOIRt060/01EIIETE1.06III?l5066IIlift?COIPE?Ill51.00Reckworkdidfinishuntil11o’clock.Electricalcainwulstartoo04fOlUttIlK/COO3IEOE0.566.50westsideofthebuilding.Relocatewaopowertoworkinkasewentduringawaitingtine20OCT92042604MISC.3100011.5BUMPOUR013001640(0lodETO001101??OUTRl?.OURU)fORMlfOlOOJlRll/l30C0E?EC10CRETCAT2:30PM.110106POORAT410PM.M3R2¶0420006MlMISC.GIRD0115OelaginpeoriogcnrhaaIlat06flour.Schedoleat):OOp...Pourat04fOIR0..ORK/I30VICTE3:tSpta110(092600011(106llG1djj01lAiodewon6thfloorcanootfinishwitleintthelinerwed/orTgnekon.06PROWl],000001000.500.50finishas‘nickaspeesikleandwillcanehacklatertoconipplete.300(092‘2lM22416-11000W.ATIICEMTPEATI1E1105RITh00113)11)tO10011101OTIUI00011DIll1010TIsoTWiTOW071660101?0.250.251105010)9SPOTPt4)E011.1lOTSIt]’CMIEATI1EPIPEtR0311001001.100IiRSS0I,OCX.lOUSY06IPP1OI?II’l]ASS010(01ISRRTOTN.5f10.0610.00I3.703.70IPROBLEM(74)Delayofoffelteprocur153)19264030600MlfOIRl/PO01ILL/COtPCMRM)€0110?OfCTE011110)19.NlRftAT20110(0BInHOWE(POEAT041OIPIMRK/CCIEI1CTE2:SOPII.0043lTlPEPARK100P001100015161)113).ISIIMTOT00SI(PROBLEM:(94)WeBShutdown645179204010020410*1T9Plf5)1(1Tiltedpowerpoleisunsafefortheworkersinsite.0411calledTl)$rocaneandfin0.500.50llgdrnand1030.001slotdownsitefeetheafteramew130506213WIT(REtOrt10S106linsafesitedoetntiltedpowerpoleinPorterstreet.0.500.50CI5)IRTOTP&SII1.001.001ITONS1107.50107.50I55.9355.93ItIDCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTroutLakeManor—InDetaIls(newftepeoeo)DAILYSITEHISTORYREPORTaCritical£ExtraDArkOrderthan-workedDayLLetterFUnscheduledFtthemIRackchargeTTelep)waneReportDate:29SEP93ReportTine:1RS354ProgressRate:t135193Revisionthinker:0FileUsed0\Rt3’Z00\PROJ3t\FOTRSITReportPeriod:07111092—1435193DyRespoosihilityCode(Oil.SOIEIOLLT1ML9tUftRHODATEPRRRLIIIFF11(SODS1.051RAtSLOSTLOCSTOATfINISHDUDSTARTFINISHSiRDSTATUSDESPCOREDI311RKSIP001191DCTCI1IPTIONACTIONFISTADJTOTAl.FCOTARJTRTALActivity:040100FORMTYPICALSLAB—--203SEP9217SEP92901SEP9210SEP926DRSIY92StIE)Startheildingscaffoldingfor2ndfloorslabintieafternoon.02SEP920tIE)Newloadofscaffoldingarrioedinthearning.Cootioaetosetapscaffoldsfor2odslab.InstallfonisforcenterstairwalltO.caroelDl(RI)CongestedsitedoetonassioeMaterialsmasitelikefernsfordocking1.00scaffolds,plgwoedetclayingarawaaadinthesite.Interioraccessprohleai03SEP920tIE)LayingscaffoldingintheeastsideoftIehoildieg.75?westsideplywood.25?.soothsidoscaffolding.oOISEP920tIE)forwalongeastwingofthebuilding.Installscaffoldsandlagdecking.(RI)Congestedsitecaasesinternalaccessproblewandstorageproblew.20(32)Rechitecthasoatconsideredthesizeofthenech.neededinsteelstads.thingtinehedesignedthestadtowswallfortiewechanicalandelect,tofitiosideproperly04(56)ReongestiwationofheightMakestheoerticalpearI”higherthan4.00specification.HoewanfrewUestkawçchippedtheextraceecreteofffrowtheoerticals(94)Tiltedpowerpoleisaesafeforthewarhersinsite.Iillcalled0Hodracsmandfieoverweekend.0.50HodreandACR.(ICRskitdeansitefortheafternoon005EP920tIE)Stillhaoeo’tfinishedforwiog2ndfloordeck.Delayplankingandelectrical.(14)Ceegostedsitefortradesteweekowthe2ndfloordeck.Linitaawaaetofspaceonsitecostsinternalaccessproblenandstorageprwblew.04(10)DAstkaqhadn’tcleannottheledfloorslabfortheelect,andnech..0ToTinofVrstkaq.4.00Thishaddelayedbothactioitiesofroughinginneck,andelect.Sloeprogressofneck,andelect.wasobseroed.04(56)OnenunchippingoetraI”concreteofftapofoerticalsallday.0.0009SEP920tIE)2ndslabis90’!finished.04(56)OnewanfrowIestkawpchippingeotraI”concretefrewnorticalall0.00day.Fioishtoday.10SEP92F(RE)Hioordockwork(14)TewperargstorageonsitestackofrebarsandscaffoldsetcaffectRONinternalaccessofworkersonsite323SEP9201OCT92717SEP9221SEP92317SEP92StOE)Lielinoryat1R:3Daa(69)Onacsdeliaerywroogbracestothesite,SizetoosnaIlTleforw.tksacsReliwertaocarrona10SEP92AIDE)Startandcootiooeworkingonthirddock.20SEP92fIDE)Deckfinishedintheworeiog.04(41)(Jestkawphadonly20?ofsafetyhandrailinstalledenthe3rdfloorHTalktaAestkanp’sownersHforewandeck.Unsafeworkconditionforworkers.430SEP9205OCT92425SEP9230SEP92425SEP92S(RE)Startworkingwoertineennorthwing.o26SEP92R(th)SettingopscaffoldsandpI’pwaedfor4thfloordecknorthwingandparteastwing.28SEP920(DC)forwingsuspendedslabeastwing.DArklatetofinish.Oinerworktegoinnorthwing.Strippedstairatfl-fl.70?finishedFig.2.4ExampleactivityhistoryreportsuatwircavmamiTtP031w1ml1005LOSTOATSLOSTLOt5110flmlUSTOSflHl4UISiAM19COOtAllOWSIP100TholscrnnlmlOCT10FIST903blOt1ST903IDIOtActivlty:040100FORMTYPICALSLAB-----29507920(Of)Minorjokondeck.MainlyFinish.JS1792Ilit)Cleawoutdeckwithbluer.Minorweekiwknkcapsandhandrail.01OCT9219OCT92402OCT9207OCT92402OCT92S(it)Startsettingupseafloldi.gIrnoeastwingaOIOCT920(It)Settingupscaf1oldingnothe5thfloordeck05OCT920(it)907cr.aleted.Deedtwrinishwestuiwgtuerru.16OCT92007OCT92F(It)Cautiruaeworkingnocorkwallnowain.Startinstallingcorkwall.616OCT9221OCT92409OCT9211OCT92S09OCT92S(At)StartscaFfoldingfrcaitieeastendoftiebuilding.Startareond10:00an.04tlS)l(irenewcrewwentwsite3.00otOltT920(it)Settingupscaffoldingfartiedeck.2OCT920(t)Ieckisolzdaieattleendnrdag.04(IS)HiringencreurnFrauoutsideduetwtoolerleftsite.11OCT929It)Decknaeotfinished.wtil00wcI.ck.StillhwsbaardcapsOwinstallandstairnorkat13-14.15OCT920(it)957coopleted.STillworkingnocorkwallnoslab.16OCT92Al22OCT9220OCT92S22OCT9229OCT92I22OCT92SIt)StartsettingupscarfaldsFarrooF.Cawletedapprosiwatelg407oftiedeck.22OCT920(it)CewtinoetosetupscaFFoldsfortieroot.21OCT920(WItaatimeemarknodeck.017coqleted.27OCT920lOt)Intoopeningforskylightnoroot.CT920(it)952ordeckfinished.WillrootslabnoFriday.29OCT92F(it)Mienworktoday.ITOTtLS29.000.50Various problem sources were encountered on a recurring basis, such as undermanning, errorsin construction and drawing errors (see Figure 2.3). An enormous amount of time was spent requestingadditional information and clarifications. These problem sources had a negative impact on the cost, timeand quality aspects of the project. Some problems affected ongoing activities, while others affectedactivities not scheduled to start until several weeks later. Different corrective actions were utilized inorder to ensure a continuous flow of work.In terms of detailing and accuracy, the architectural drawings for the building were of very poorquality. Too many errors and mistakes were found in the drawings and they required substantial timeto resolve. To help cope with such problems, JCS changed its foreman to a more experienced one to helpthe superintendent detect mistakes in the drawings.Information coordination problems amongst consultants were another recurring theme. Becauseof the complexity of the building, especially in terms of mechanical equipment, a large number ofdrawings was required. Design conflicts were often encountered. Computer aided design was not usedby the consultants.The lowest priced subcontractor almost always was selected because of the tight budget of theowner. As a result, trades known for quality were often not selected due to the higher price they carried.Some trades had worked with the construction manager before, while others had not (e.g. forming).None of the trades, except the elevator subcontractor, involved union workers.For the forming contractor, this was their first mid-rise project. All of their previous projects33were two-story apartment buildings. They underbid this project due to their lack of experience inestimating the complexity of institutional type buildings. Since they were losing money on the job, muchtension arose between JCS and the forming contractor.Weather had a significant impact on construction. For example, during the winter, specialprecautions were needed to prevent the water line from freezing. On one occasion, the finishing activityfor the floor slab had to be stopped due to a frozen pipe. Exterior labour-intensive activities such asshovelling and cleanup tended to slow down in cold weather. In addition, heat was needed continuouslyto keep the dampness out so that the workers could install the interior finishing.It was observed that the selection of key management personnel is important for a project tosucceed. Under the management of the first project manager, with his lenient approach to the trades, theproject schedule suffered and became longer and longer as the project proceeded. When a new projectmanager was assigned, a new approach was used. The project schedule was refined and controlled ina professional manner resulting in a earlier project finish date for the project.JCS personnel were very safety conscious. During the author’s on-site stay, there were timeswhen workers were sent off the site because of their unwillingness to comply with WCB safetyrequirements. The construction safety officer gave warning notices to different subtradesmen for workingunsafely (e.g. not willing to wear a safety helmet, no steel-toed shoes, and not wearing a harness whenworking outside the fencing area of a deck). It was observed that most workers were willing to complywith safety standards once a warning was issued. In one incident, due to the unwillingness of twoworkers to comply with the safety requirements, they were asked to get off the site immediately. Thiscaused the whole crew to stop work and walk off the job site, resulting in the loss of half a day’s work.34Undermanning was a problem source that appeared quite frequently. Although many peoplewalked onto the site looking for work during working hours, most of them were inexperienced workersand only suitable for general labouring type work. Trades that experienced frequent undermanning weremechanical (plumbing) in the earlier stage and in-floor heating. Several days were lost due to insufficientmanpower on site. At the end of the study period, most of the trades that suffered under-manning hadhired additional workers.It was also observed that time was needed for workers to adapt to new technology andconstruction methods. A slow learning curve phenomenon was noticed on site. For example, the in-floorheating, which used metal strips instead of wire mesh to hold rubber heating tubes onto the floors,involved a learning curve effect. The metal strips, at first, could not hold the tubes onto the floorproperly. Although it presented a cash saving for the owner, delays were encountered in the first slablevel. After considerable practice, and as more workers were hired and more equipment (e.g. pin-guns)was purchased, productivity finally rose to an acceptable level.Overall, according to the superintendent, the morale among the work force was high. They werehighly motivated, and pride could be felt when they completed their work within the confines of a tightschedule. There was competition in terms of speed and quality amongst the trades at the site.Security was also a problem at the site. The project suffered many break-ins which resulted inthe loss of materials, tools and equipment. Reports to the police and insurance companies took upvaluable time of management personnel. After suffering many break-ins, the superintendent hired asecurity guard to monitor the site during off-work hours.352.3 USEFULNESS OF THE DATA COLLECTEDUsing the daily site system offers many advantages. Analysis of the daily site data helped theproject manager to evaluate performance of the project. Problem sources organized in a structuredframework permit easy retrieval for legal documentation and reference. Documenting activity progress,problems encountered with activities and environment, site and work force conditions is very valuablewhen preparing claims.Generally, site data are not gathered and organized in a logical fashion. Information andexperience from a project usually remain as heuristic and seldom documented knowledge. Often, peoplefind that problem sources have happened repetitively, only too late in time. If a pattern of problemsources can be detected early, corrective actions can usually be initiated to limit their impact. Knowledgegained from a project, when incorporated in an expert system, can be used again for future projects.Knowledge can be analyzed and formalized in a way that lends itself to heuristic forms of problemsolving.Nevertheless, some disadvantages accompany such a system. A major drawback is the amountof effort needed to collect reliable daily site data. For instance, the physical activity start and finish datesare sometimes difficult to determine. Often, a sub-contractor found design conflicts in a small part ofhis work. He would tell the project manager, complete what could be done on a floor, and go onto thenext level. When the clarification came in later, he would then go back and finish the floor. Thus, thefinish date for this activity was not firm since the activity was not finished; however, the successoractivity could be started since most of the work for the predecessor activity had been done. To resolvethis problem, the author frequently conferred with the superintendent regarding the progress of individualactivities. I noted down the date which the superintendent indicated as the start of the successor activity36and marked that date as the finish date for the previous activity. Final completion of the predecessoractivity, when design conflicts were resolved, would then be noted in the daily site system.Prior to the study period, the superintendent used a free format report for the daily site reportand chose not to follow its general format. Many times, he neglected to record information such as theskill level of the sub-trades, their overtime, etc.. Moreover, as stated previously, the original schedulewas brief and had not been updated to reflect the on-going schedule of the project. Thus, thesuperintendent, when completing the daily site report, frequently needed to cross out many of theactivities listed, since they were either already completed or were not in the current time window. Otheron-going activities had to be penned in. Thus, these changes made the schedule very difficult to updateprior to the study period.As stated previously, for a sizeable project, it is difficult to maintain a complete mental imageof the status of the project and hence record it on a daily site form. For example, during the studyperiod, many tradesmen were on site. Since they were usually not static in one location, determining anaccurate work force count was not very easy. Moreover, an accurate inventory of materials andprocurement for the trades was difficult to determine.2.3.1 ADDITIONAL PROBLEM SOURCESA total of 15 problem sources were examined in this thesis; 7 from Fayek’s work pIus 8 newones. The total list of problem sources used at site is shown in Table 2.1 (and on the bottom of the dailysite form), and the new ones added to the automated analysis are flagged.37Table 2.1 Activity Problem Source List1*. Conflicting information2*. Construction error3*• Delay in awarding contract4*• Drawing error5*• Layout error6*. Low moral/motivation in worker(s)7*• Site not ready/available8*. Skill too low9. Too much precipitation10. Drawings insufficient/incomplete11. Undermanniñg12. Rework (workmanship)13. Inadequate external access14. Poor ground conditions15. Unanticipated utilitiesThe selection of the eight new problem sources was done using the following procedure:1. The complete set of problem sources identified to date (see figure 2.2), minus the seven whichthe prototype system can already analyze, were presented to the experts. Each problem sourcecategory was discussed with the experts one at a time to minimize confusion.2. The experts were asked to rank the problem sources under each category according to the amountof impact they experienced on previous projects.3. The top two problem sources under each problem source category were then selected for possible38treatment. The elements of this set of eighteen problem sources were then ranked in order ofimportance.4. From this ordered list, I selected the top eight problem sources as the additional problem sourcesfor the thesis.2.3.2 CORRECTIVE ACTIONSNew corrective actions were added to the list of existing corrective actions (see Table 2.2). Theywere obtained using the following procedure:1. The original corrective action set was first presented to the experts for review. It was ofparticular interest to pinpoint the corrective actions which the experts believed they would neverapply on a construction project or which were redundant with others. These actions wereeliminated from the corrective action set. Examples include combining corrective actions “pursuea project time extension for unreasonable delay” and “request a time extension from the Ownerfor unanticipated utilities” into a single corrective action “pursue a project time extension forunreasonable delay beyond contact control” and modifying corrective action “open a claim foracceleration” to more specific “open a claim for acceleration at owner request”, etc..2. The 15 problem sources identified in Table 2.1 were presented to the experts again. Selectivesets of corrective actions for these problem sources were created by the author prior to thediscussion with the experts. I formulated the corrective action sets by using the literature anddrawing on observations I made at the site. An attempt was made to formulate corrective actionsto focus on specific problems but which are applicable to the same problem source on more thanone project.3. Each list of corrective actions was presented to the experts for their comments. I asked them to39view the information from a general point of view and not limit themselves to a specific project.Questions like “what would you do if you encountered this [problem source]?” were asked toimprove the brainstorming sessions so that a complete set of corrective actions for each problemsources was created. New corrective actions elicited from the experts were added to eachcorrective action set.Due to the complexity of this project, the management team personnel were preoccupiedwith the project and did not make significant contributions during the discussion sessions. Manytimes I attempted to arrange meetings with the experts, but achieved only limited success.Moreover, it proved to be difficult to document construction knowledge in a codified format.There is not a clear boundary of what one should and should not do in a situation. Seemingly,the range of corrective actions that management can pursue are quite limited in scope. The trickseems to be to identify the condition variables that make the selection of one action moreappropriate than another. See Chapter 3 for dealing with the formulation of rules to selectcorrective actions.4. The generated sets of corrective actions were combined into a global corrective action set.Redundant corrective actions were eliminated. All corrective actions were categorized underrelevant headings.5. Since there was a great emphasis on management, I refined this corrective action set and brokethe “Management” category into subgroups of “On-site Management” and “Off-siteManagement”. On-site management refers to those corrective actions which can be implementeddirectly at the field, e.g. improve supervision, purchase/rent equipment, etc.. Similarly, off-sitemanagement deals with actions by head office personnel, subcontractors, and suppliers.Corrective actions such as “submit letter of intent”, “request information from architect and/orconsultant ASAP”, etc. are grouped under this category.406. The complete list of corrective actions was then presented to the experts to check forcompleteness and appropriateness. Few changes were made.Table 2.2 Activity Corrective Action List0.0 Do Nothing (Default)1.0 ENVIRONMENT1.1 Provide a protected environment or shelter.1.2 Postpone the activity to a time window with better anticipated weather conditions.1 •3* Try to improve working conditions.2.0 WORK FORCE2.1 Seek additional tradesmen and allocate them to activity XXYYZZ.2.2 Reallocate manpower from preferably a buffer or non-critical activity (XXSSTT) toactivity XXYYZZ.2.3* Upgrade untrained personnel to trained personnel.2.4* Discuss with subtrade foreman workforce performance.412.5* If low motivation is exhibited by specific crew members, lay off unproductive workersand seek new ones.2.6* When workers are idle, reroute manpower to other activities to prevent severe manpowerloss.2.7* Seek alternative subcontractor if possible.2.8* Perform work with own forces and backcharge subtrade.2.9* Hire more experienced workers to lead inexperienced workers.2.10* Reassign inexperienced workers to activities which do not require extensive skills.2.11* Hire experienced workers and substitute for inexperienced workers.3.0 CONSTRUCTION METHODS3.1 Conduct more on-site soil investigations.3.2* Where appropriate, use extra support or shoring to alleviate poor ground conditions.3•3* Seek possible alternative designs to save time, i.e. prefabricate beam and column forms inshop vs. free form.3.4 Use an alternate construction method.3•5* To save time, use more equipment and less labour intensive construction method if budgetand/or site conditions permit.424.0 ON-SITE MANAGEMENT4.1 Postpone the activity.4.2 Do secondary work on the activity.4.3 Increase the remaining duration of the activity.4.4 Postpone interfering buffer or non-critical activities.4.5 Investigate resequencing of remaining work.4.6 Employ staggered shifts for interfering trades (trade stacking).4.7 Investigate use of scheduled overtime.4.8 Increase or improve supervision.4.09 Reallocate tools/equipment from preferably a buffer or non- critical activity to a criticalone.4.10 Purchase or rent backup equipment/tools.4.11 Use alternate routes of access.4.12 Monitor the activity closely.4.13* Change follow-up layouts so error can be absorbed.4.14* Correct construction error at site immediately if possible.4.15* Discuss with/notify subtrade(s) of required changes in layout.434.16* Seek possible alternatives to accommodate changes if their details are likely to arrive toolate to properly plan for.4.17* Reschedule procurements to a later date.4.18 * Note down in daily report dates of information requested, conversations/verbalinstructions, telephone calls etc.4.19* Commence work on a time and material basis.4.20* See if an alternative design can be used rather than performing remedial work to correctproblems.4.21 * Allocate time for rework to correct error.4.22* Videotape on-going construction sequences to pinpoint problems and solutions to improveperformance. Use as part of targeted training program.5.0 OFF-SITE MANAGEMENT5.1 Improve subtrade management/coordination.5.2 Employ a quality control program.5.3 Establish improved equipment maintenance and management policies.5.4 Make periodic visits to the fabricator’s shop.5.5 Identify alternate supplier(s).5.6 Obtain street closure permit.445.7 Reschedule the work to hours with less traffic.5.8 Obtain from the City a location map of all utilities on the site.5.9 Improve architect/engineer/consultant coordination.5.10* Contact relevant parties for correction and/or information.5.11* Call the architect to provide necessary information ASAP.5.12* Notify owner/project manager about the possibility of delay if the activity affected is acritical one.5.13* Submit letter of intent.5.14* Request information/clarification from architect and/or consultant(s) ASAP.5.15* Notify owner/project manager regarding the conflict in writing.5.16* Issue speedy memo to affected parties.5.17* Determine the impact of construction error on the project; if critical, seek additionaltrade/workers for rework.6.0 CONTRACT REMEDIES6.1* Pursue a project time extension for unreasonable delay beyond the contractor’s control.6.2 Notify the Owner under a contract clause for unexpected conditions (ground conditions,utilities).456.3* If award of the contract is delayed, ask if the owner will pay for acceleration once thecontract is awarded.7.0 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS7.1 Issue a memo to the Owner to request decision(s).7.2 Issue a memo to the party concerned to request drawing completion.7.3 Open a delay claim.7.4 Open an extra work order.7•5* Open a claim for directed acceleration.7.6 Open a backcharge to a subtrade or supplier for delay.7.7 Open a backcharge to a subtrade or supplier for extra work.7.8 Open a backeharge to a subtrade or supplier for acceleration.7.9 Issue a memo to the supplier or fabricator requesting correction(s).7.10 Notify the City of unanticipated utilities.7.11 Open a claim for conditions not covered by the contract.8.0 MATERIALS8.1 Explore use of admixtures for concrete462.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DAILY SITE DATAThere is an old saying that “a picture is worth a thousand words”. It is possible to have too muchraw data, precluding the decision-maker from drawing meaningful conclusions. When expressinginformation in text form, one wants to select only the most important data for presentation. Unlikegraphical displays, text and numerical tables cannot be scanned easily to obtain information. Many times,negative outcomes happen due to the project managers’ inability to interpret the data in time. The useof graphics for reviewing daily site data could help simplify the analysis process and allow the user theflexibility to explore relationships or correlations amongst data items.Roth and Hendrickson (1991) described the development of automatic graphics presentationsystems. Since users of project management systems have different preferences for graphical formats anddifferent information-seeking goals, the ability to select from a range of presentation techniques torepresent data and to integrate them in a simple picture is vital.There is a growing literature which addresses graphics representation. Roth et al. (1991)presented an application-independent graphics presentation system which utilizes graphics and naturallanguage as components of automatic explanation. The system combines both text and graphics for itsexplanations, and therefore serves as a vehicle for exploring the interaction between these two modes ofpresentation. The goal of the system is to eliminate the need for end-users and application programmersto specify, design, and arrange a display each time output is needed for a project. Mackinlay (1986,1991) developed an application-independent presentation tool that automatically designs effective graphicalpresentations of relational information. He stated that expressiveness and effectiveness are two crucialterms in graphics representation. Expressiveness criteria determine whether a graphical language canexpress the desired information. Effectiveness criteria determine whether a graphical language can exploit47the capabilities of the output medium and the human visual system.The objective here is not to recreate these systems but to focus on the kinds of graphical imagesthat might prove to be useful for construction management personnel. Thus, the effectiveness ofgraphical representations is the objective we seek here.Some daily site data graphics have already been implemented in the research version ofREPCONto support this thesis work. Some of the graphical images programmed were selected based ondiscussions with the project manager and the superintendent, while other modes of representation weregenerated internally and/or from the literature. Ultimately, an ideal situation would be to develop aflexible system which allows the user to select his/her x-axis and y-axis for the graph freely.Split screen graphics can be helpful to make comparisons or explore correlations amongst dataitems. For example, a comparison between two histograms, with number of supervisors on top andamount of labour allocated on bottom, would help a project manager realize whether sufficientsupervision has been assigned by each trade. See Figure 2.5 for a representation of this data for theproject studied. Similarly, a dual screen of precipitation data on top and total lost time for an activitywithin a time window due to too much precipitation would indicate to a project manager whether specialprecautions should be taken for weather protection or extensions sought under relevant provisions of thecontract. Aligned bar graphs can be used to display different information for the same data set. Forexample, time lost, man-hours lost and frequency of occurrence can be shown together for the problemsource domain set. Figure 2.6 illustrates the problem sources encountered during the period of 1stDecember, 1992 and 14th January, 1992. Figure 2.7 and 2.8 illustrate the site conditions for the sameperiod.48URtCDNSIPUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABliltUsed0\POO\PR0J3l\NrROUTfltoo.’LPeriodOIOEC92-14JAN93PogeILEGENDTroutLakeManor—InDetails(newRepcon)DailySiteGraphicsAEPCONPeortDate13DEC93ReportTime15.35IIRevisionNumber90WorkForceSizeforResp.CodeGGENERALCONTRACTOR/CMIADEC9aOltI€t92tATISSMIC115SeterrsseTerrsseTMTISSetcrrssMtlOEt9228t904JAN93I1JAN93Figure2.5BargraphsofworkforcedataforGeneralContractorLu CUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANOBEMENTLABFileUsed0\REP200\PPDJ3I\NTRDUIReportPeriod01DEC92—1&JAN93PqeLEGENDTroutLakeManorInOetails(newRepcon)DailySiteGraphicsREPCDN’ReportDate13DEC93Report!i.e:163725Rt1SionNu.Oer0No.ofProblemsforwholeproject16 12 B j 123456ProblemCodesmanhoursTotalManhoursLostforwholeproject20 t:123456ProblemCodesDaysTotalTimeLostforwholeproject12 P123156ProblemCodesFigure2.6Splitscreengraphsforproblemsources,totalmanhourlostandtotaltimelostU8CCDNSTRUC11DNMA1iAGEMENTtATroutLakeManor—InDetails(newflepcon)REPC0ii1eUsed0\PEP200\P10J31\NTqDUIDeportDate13DEC93ReportTue153117ReportPeriod01DEC92-14JAN93DaiiySiteGraphics0PageILEGENDGroundConditionsGoodFair HHHld.KthU.dlluniou.1PoorTKIF55wIIF55NINIF5$KINIFSSNINIFS$NINIISSN07DEC9214DEC9221DEC9228DEC9204JAN9311JAN93StorageonSiteGoodPuorINIF55NIKIF55NINIFS’SNTNT155NTNIFSSNINIFSSN07DEC9214DEC9021DEC9028DEC9204JAN9311JAN93AccesstoSiteGoodFairPoorjOflU11111 .1111.11K.1101 .1IKIF550IaIF55NTIIIFSSNINI1558TNT155NIKIF55HT07DEC9214DEC9221DEC9228DEC9204JAN9311JAN93Figure2.7SiteConditions(1)forCaseStudy3‘33——_.,,__________-.\\\\\\\\‘‘n—-.-\“‘I-,-—I________II—Z•:•—-,—C ççç’c________——rrI—OJ00----.—-.DQJn0)D —U,-C__-o —4u-,‘.—.CDCDI_3,()U,o-C—-I—IDr-’-D -,I-i-CD—‘z-;0$——I-,.CD____01C)CD:rr—.oo0Jci, CDCDcm-.DU)D— 0)-.-.U’__n-CaU,U)C’,,,,,,D.,--I 1<——‘:w.-x-iCDC-,-C-CD\“-‘t\\\‘X\\\\\’t,,,\\‘stooUn-________Cumu1tive*5____________A dual screen graphic of site conditions versus problem source frequency and/or time lost wouldindicate possible correlations between the two factors and may suggest the need for initiating correctiveactions. This particular superposition of graphs is not supported in the research system.The following graphical representation capabilities were incorporated into the daily site system.1. Job Conditions / Activity StatusFor a specific time window, we can superimpose up to three of the following graphs at a time:Sky conditions (AM, PM)PrecipitationTemperature (High, Low)Wind SpeedGround Conditions (Good, Fair, Poor)Storage on Site (Good, Fair, Poor)Access to Site (Good, Fair, Poor)Activity statusThe foregoing are all plotted versus time. For activity status, the information is shown only fora single activity at a time.2. Work ForceFor a specific time window, the following work force data can be plotted for a single trade:53Work force sizeOvertime HoursSkill level (of individual responsibility code)Turn over (of individual responsibility code only)At the project level, only the first two views can be plotted.3. ProblemsThe items listed below can be plotted against problem source for a specified time window andfour levels of detail: by activity location, by activity code, by responsibility code, and by wholeproject.Number of ProblemsTotal Man-hours lostTotal Time LostFrequency of ProblemsPercentile of Man-hours LostPercentile of Time Lost3-D GraphicsThree dimensional representations of daily site data could be of significant value to projectmanagement personnel, as they would help identify patterns or pockets of problems. Examples of suchgraphs include the distribution of problems (or their consequences) versus time or location (Figure 2.9).54A split screen format which synthesizestwo and three dimensional views would alsoenhance the evaluation of the project. Onerecommendation is a 3-D graph on one sidetogether with three smaller 2-D graphs,representing the relationships of the three axis, onthe other side. An example is shown in Figure2.10.03E30CProblem sourceFigure 2.9 Sample 3D Graph55U) 0 -J U)I. D 0 -C C C”AmountofTimeLost forTrade3fromDayItoDays1IZZI IL\I-‘IIIcMAmountofTimeLost forProjectfromDayItoDaysDay3 TimeAmountofTimeLoston0ayI2TradeFigure2.10Sample3DsplitscreengraphsCHAPTER 3.0 HIGHER LEVEL LOGIC3.1 BACKGROUNDA major objective of this thesis is to develop the capability to analyze the data recorded againstindividual activities in order to be able to view it from a more global perspective. Problems may occurindividually at the activity level; however, when activities are analyzed together as a group, significantpatterns may be observed. Currently, the data interpretation system in REPCON (Fayek 1992) workson an activity-by-activity basis, with an activity being defined for analysis purposes as a single locationof a multi-location activity. Each activity and problem source are treated separately. The correctiveactions suggested for one problem source are independent of the results obtained for other problemsources for the same activity. Given a system potential of ninety problem sources and considering aproject with two hundred activities, many of which could be multi-location activities, the volume ofcorrective actions generated is potentially massive. A project manager may find that some of thesuggested corrective actions contradict each other, and consequently, they may not be very useful. Thus,a schema to integrate all problem sources for a given activity to produce one compatible set of correctiveactions is sought.Dubois and Prade (1993) stated that in their expert system, “partial conclusions obtained fromdifferent rules whose conclusions pertain to the same variable, have to be combined into a globalconclusion. This combination step raises difficult problems: reinforcement or not in case of convergingconclusions, synthesis of (partially) conflicting conclusions, preference of conclusions obtained by themost specific rules,... More generally it may be necessary to process several rules together in order to57take into account dependencies and imprecision of the input facts.” Thus, there is a need for a schemato combine different problem sources and corrective actions when information is accumulated andpresented at different levels of aggregation.In addition, we seek to examine patterns of problem sources across all of the activities of a singletrade as well as across all trades for a given time window. Consideration of the problem sourcesrecorded and corrective actions initiated during a previous time frame when selecting corrective actionsfor the current time frame is left for future work.A number of assumptions have guided the work. They are:1. There is a commonality of problem sources amongst projects (e.g. undermanning). Thus, itshould be possible to compile a comprehensive list of problem sources which is applicable to abroad range of projects or, at the very least, to a specific class of projects (e.g. high-riseresidential projects). Clearly, there are problem sources that appear on an exceptional basis. Forexample, damage by war can be a significant problem source for construction projects inpolitically unstable countries. Such problem sources can be treated on an one-off basis.2. Knowledge and lessons learnt from one project can be treated as experience and used on futureprojects. Heuristic knowledge, as noted from chapter 2, is difficult to formulate. However, asdemonstrated in the literature, knowledge is documentable. Systems like MYCIN (Shortliffe,1976), MASON (Hendrickson et al. 1987), etc. are just a few of the many successful examplesof knowledge collection and documentation.3. There exists, at least on a partial basis, a set of corrective actions that spans most projects andwhich responds to the list of problem sources. The selection of any one of these actions is58conditional on prevailing site conditions and project characteristics and also possibly onmanagement style. The case study presented in the previous chapter suggested that for a givenproblem source, there are only a small number of corrective actions that management can initiate.For example, for the problem source under-manning, depending on project situations, one canhire more workers, upgrade the workforce, allocate more workers from buffer activities, etc. tocope with this situation. In addition, this problem source is universal and could appear on anyconstruction site.4. The base strengths that link problem sources with activity attributes are similar from one projectto the next. This allows us to use the rule base on multiple projects (although some allowanceshould be made for editing the strengths which link problem sources and project conditions withcorrective actions).5. The basic reasoning schema developed by Fayek (1992) provides a satisfactory starting point forreasoning about corrective actions for individual problem sources at the activity level. Extensionsthat relate directly to her work include additions to the problem source list, additional and refinedcorrective actions, normalization of the strengths suggested for the corrective actions, and anupgraded inference engine that can handle both forward and backward chaining. This latterimprovement allows us to employ more complex rules.Additionally, we have used only her schema A (see chapter 1), but with the addedflexibility that the user can set the criterion to be used in the analysis - frequency of problemsource, man-hours lost or time lost.6. The compatibility factors that measure the conflict or reinforcement between corrective actionson a pair-wise basis are invariant for different problem sources and are independent of differentcombinations of corrective actions.7. The standard strengths that link problem sources with activity attributes are the same for trade59and project attributes. See Appendix A for the linking values used for the examples in this thesis.8. We seek an analysis schema that does not require feedback from the user during the analysisprocess. In particular, no intermediate assessments of the relative desirability of one correctiveaction over another is required, although it would be desirable. The reasons for this approachare that the amount of feedback required could be considerable, and the analysis cycles could belengthened unduly. A consequence of this assumption is that it is not possible to optimize thereductions of the corrective action set.3.2 BUILDING BLOCKS USED FOR HIGHER LEVEL ROUTINEAn attempt has been made to develop a schema that is applicable to three higher levels ofanalysis:• integrating across all corrective actions for all problem sources for an activity;• integrating across all problem sources for all activities of each trade; and• integrating across all problem sources for all activities of all trades.No attempt has been made in the current work to detect patterns of problems amongst anactivity’s location set. This could be important for being able to take preventative actions, such asadjusting the duration of remaining locations.Building blocks developed as part of the task of formulating a higher level analysis schema aredescribed below.60Dispersion IndexOne issue in our analysis schema is how to distinguish a problem source that is very localizedfrom one that is widely spread. Our hypothesis is that problem sources that occur at more than onelocation and/or for more than one activity may be more damaging than a problem that reoccurs for asingle activity at a single location. To assist in identifying such situations, we introduce the concept ofdispersion index (DI). The dispersion index is defined as:DI = Number of unique appearances of a problem source (3.1)Number of active activitiesWe start by counting the number of locations of all activities active in the time window underconsideration. This is equal to the number of active activities which is the denominator in the previousexpression. We then count the incidence of problems. A problem that occurs at a single location of anactivity is counted only once, no matter how many times it occurs for that activity at that location. Forexample, if a problem source happens five times at one location of one activity, of which the culpabletrade has a total of 20 different activities (locations) active, then the DI for this problem source wouldstill be 1/20. On the other hand, if a problem source happens five times at five different locations, ofwhich the trade has a total of 20 different activities, then the DI for this problem source would be 5/20.Thus, from the above-mentioned example, it can be noted that 0 DI 1. A value of zeroindicates that the problem source at hand never occurs; on the other hand, a value of one denotes thatevery activity at every location has at least one occurrence of the problem source. Using this index, thedistinction between a very localized problem and a widely spread problem can be accounted for.61Compatibility FactorLet CF be a measure of the compatibilityMatrix CFbetween two corrective actions Z and Z. We have (Assumed symmetrical)defined CF to lie in the range -1 CF 1,Z1 Z2 Z3 • • •shown in Figure 3.1. This notion of compatibility is Z1 1 1 -1similar in many respects to the concept of correlation Z2 1 1 0between random variables. The value -1 illustrates Z3 -1 0 1that the two corrective actions are TOTALLY.OPPOSITE to each other; the selection of one will.substantially conflict with the other from the list of______________________________________Figure 3.1 Compatibility Matrixcorrective actions and their simultaneous applicationis likely to nullify their potential effectiveness. On the other hand, the factor + 1 represents completecompatibility of two corrective actions, and taken together, they reinforce each other. Doing both ofthem would enhance the effectiveness of the corrective actions for the project sources, although onecannot assert that the effect of the actions would be greater than the sum of the parts (e.g. multiplicative).Independent actions (e.g. CF13 = 0) are assumed to be only additive in their effect.In reality, the range of the CF could be any number. To simplify the elicitation task, CF islimited to the values -1, 0 or 1 in this thesis, rather than taking on any value in the range -ito 1. Futurework should address the reasonableness of using fractional values and the burden of eliciting CF13 values.An example compatibility factor matrix is presented in Table 3.1 for the first three correctiveactions listed in Table 2.2. These values were established in discussion with Dr. Russell, and have notbeen reviewed by industry personnel. After estimating values of the three levels of compatibility matrix62Table 3.1 Sample activity level compatibility factor matrixCorrective action 1 Corrective action 2 Coefficient1.1 Provide a protected 9.1 Do nothing. -1.0environment or shelter.1.3 Try to improve working conditions. -1.04.1 Postpone the activity. 1.04.4 Postpone interfering buffer or non- 1.0critical_activity.4.5 Investigate resequencing of remaining 1.0work.1.2 Postpone the activity to a 4.17 Reschedule procurements to a later 1.0time window with better date.anticipated weatherconditions. 5.12 Notify owner/project manager about the 1.0possibility_of delay.6.1 Pursue a project time extension for 1.0unreasonable delay beyond thecontractor’s control.7.11 Open a claim for conditions not 1.0covered by the contract.9.1 Do nothing. -1.03.5 To save time, use more equipment and -1.0less labour intensive construction1.3 Try to improve working method if budget and/or site conditionsconditions. permit.9.1 Do nothing. -1.0been reviewed by industry personnel. After estimating values of the three levels of compatibility matrixfiles, it is noted that there is not a significant number of -1 values, i.e. corrective action pairs withcontradictions, amongst all the corrective actions. As a consequence, the corrective action set for anactivity (trade or project) may not be reduced significantly using the process described later.63One major drawback in the formation of this matrix is the substantial effort required to elicit allof the compatibility linkings. From our limited experience to date, it would appear that many of thecorrective actions are independent of one another. They neither conflict with nor reinforce each other.Thus, the default value of CF1 is zero, easing the elicitation task.Resolving Conflict Amongst Corrective Actions Using the Compatibility MatrixWe seek a process for reducing the corrective action set to minimize conflicts amongst thecorrective actions recommended. This leads to a strengthening of the weights for some corrective actionsand the elimination of others. This is similar to the many conflict resolution routines used in expertsystems today. For example, in Hayes-Roth et al. (1983), a “consistency enforcer” is used to maintaina consistent representation of the emerging solution. The same literature also concluded that most expertsystems use some kind of numerical adjustment scheme to determine the degree of belief in each potentialdecision. The scheme attempts to ensure that plausible conclusions are reached and inconsistent ones areavoided.Other consistency enforcing schemes have been described in the literature. For example, Weisset al. (1978) described a model-based medical consultation system. CASNET, the model described, isused by clinical decision-making for:a. selecting and interpreting observations,b. analyzing and resolving conflicts and contradictions in the observations,c. selecting diagnostic and prognostic categories,d. recommending treatments.64The described system utilizes forward and backward weighting schemes to determine theadmissible pathway from one node to another. The test result which is held with greatest confidence istaken as the accepted result. If conflicting results are received with equal confidence, then the conflictis noted, and the status of the state of disease remains undetermined until additional results, with greaterconfidence, resolve the conflict.It is also noted that in general, the overall effect of forward weight calculation is to increase theweights of those nodes resulting from confirmed nodes while decreasing those from denied nodes. Onthe other hand, the calculation of inverse weights is strongly influenced by evidence for the confirmationor denial of nodes. The weight of a node may be increased when its effects are confirmed. It issuggested that initially, a pathway may be an unlikely alternative, but after some testing it may becomethe only feasible pathway to a particular confirmed node. This results in increased weight assignmentsto the remaining causes of the confirmed node.Such weighting schemes might suggest some insights for the selection of corrective actions as tominimize conflicts for the application described herein. However, I was unable to find in the literaturea conflict resolution schema that was directly applicable to the problem of reducing the corrective actionset to minimize conflicts. We therefore sought a metric or scalar whose properties we could exploit inorder to determine which corrective action weights should be strengthened or weakened.Let:S=ZTCF (3.2)be a scalar which measures the compatibility of a set of corrective actions: Z is a n-dimensional vectorof normalized strengths of corrective actions (Z1, i = 1, ..., n and Z = 1), as recommended by the65expert system following the analysis of daily site records and CF is the compatibility matrix describedpreviously. Some properties of S are:(i). Its maximum value is 1. This can be achieved if all of the strength is assigned to a singlecorrective action. It is independent of the values assigned to the CF13 (note: CF11 = 1).(ii). If all corrective actions reinforce each other (i.e. CF = 1 for all i and j), then S also equals 1.(iii). Suppose all corrective actions are recommended with equal weight i.e. Z = 1/n. Assume,further, that all corrective actions are independent so that CF = [I]. For this case,S=Z2.! (3.3)(iv). Also, when all CF1 -1 with ij, then S = -(n-2)In which approaches -1 as n gets large.It would appear then that if S is a measure of effectiveness, that individual corrective actionsstrengths should be reassigned to a single corrective action. In order to do this, however, we wouldrequire an assessment of the relative effectiveness of each corrective action for the problem sources athand for prevailing project conditions. This would require intervention by the user, something we aretrying to avoid. The Z represent the strengths with which a corrective action is recommended, basedon project conditions, activity attributes, etc.. They are not a measure of relative effectiveness. Thus,we have no basis for reassigning Z to increase S (i.e. we cannot optimize the value of 5). However, inthe case of conflict between pairs of corrective actions, we can exploit the properties of S to reassignweights to increase the value of S. If there is not significant conflict between corrective actions (i.e. fewCF13 = -1), then the schema proposed will not result in much reduction in the corrective action set.Our approach is as follows:662. We are interested in the scalar value of.When the value of is less than zero, the associatedvalue of Z should be driven to zero in order to increase S while reducing conflicts. The valueassigned to Z should be reassigned to the corrective action k, which has the largest positive valueof (or the least negative value if all < 0) in order to maximize growth in S.3. If there is more than one Zk that has the largest positive 4, redistribute the value of Z equallyto the Z with the same cSk.4. This reassignment process in steps 2 and 3 should be repeated until all are greater than orequal to zero.One advantage of this approach is that the strengths assigned to the corrective action set remainnormalized. The use of this schema for reassigning weights is demonstrated in an example at the end of1 CF12 CF13 ...CF21 1 CF ... CFCF31 CF32 I ... CFCF1 CF2 .. .. 1 -1. Expand S = ZT CF Z, i.e.[Z1Z24....Z]aswhich can be written aswherez1411S =Z1(ZCF1)+Z2(Z,CF) + ... +S =(3.4)(3.5)(3.6)67this chapter.Additional check for corrective action “DO NOTIUNG”After completing the aggregation schema for corrective actions, a corrective action “DONOTHING”, with a weight of 1.0, is assigned by default to those problem sources which associate withno corrective action due to lack of evidence. Thus, this “DO NOTHING” is different from the correctiveaction which resulted from either no time and manhours lost or just not enough time to act upon aproblem source. A distinction between them is needed.In coping with this situation, three distinctive ‘DO NOTHING’s” are added. These correctiveactions are more informative in explaining the causes of the corrective actions. The three “DONOTHING”s are:(a) DO NOTHING - lack of evidence,(b) DO NOTHING - no time or manhours lost,(c) DO NOTHING - insufficient time to act on problem.These corrective actions are then used in the aggregation routine and are treated as any other correctiveactions for that level of analysis.The priority of these three corrective actions is (a) < (b) < (c). Thus for example if a problemsource has no time or man-hours lost and has no corrective actions due to lack of evidence, (b) will takeprecedence over (a) and be the only “DO NOTHING” for this problem source. Moreover, the correctiveaction “DO NOTHING” has a compatibility matrix coefficient of-i linked between it and any other directimplementable actions.68Other building blocks for higher level routineOther building blocks for analysis at the trade and project levels are discussed in more detail insections 3.3.3 and 3.3.4. The basic ingredients are attributes (as seen later, trade and project levelattributes can be derived from activity level attributes), total man-hours and time lost, a linkage betweenattributes, problem sources and corrective actions, expert system rules (described below), compatibilitymatrices and corrective action files. The analysis process performed at the trade and project levels issimilar to the process used at the activity level.Based on the work to date, the number of corrective actions at the higher levels of analysis issignificantly less than at the activity level. This seems reasonable, as the prerogatives available to addressproblems are quite restricted, and generally relate to management actions dealing with key personnel,subtrades, etc..3.3 GENERAL LAYOUT OF HIGHER LEVEL ANALYSESThis routine breaks the analysis process into several steps as follows:a). Define a hierarchical analysis schema for the project.b). Suggest corrective actions for each problem source for an activity.c). Analyze and combine the corrective action sets for different problem sources ofone activity.d). Combine different problem sources for different activities for the same trade andsuggest trade level corrective actions.e). Combine and analyze different problem sources at the project level and suggest69project level corrective actions.3.3.1 HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS SCHEMAA five level hierarchy is envisaged as part of a comprehensive system:a). Individual problem source at the activity level.b). All problem sources at the activity level.c). All problem sources at the trade level.d). All problem sources at the sub-project level.e). All problem sources at the project level.For our analysis scheme, we omit thesubproject level. The simplified diagram that we used /for the base of this thesis is shown in Figure 3.2. TFd5 AdMies Problem SowcesNevertheless, the subproject level would be anessential ingredient for a system designed toaccommodate large projects. As noted previously, an Figure 3.2 Hierarchical diagramadditional step could be inserted between (b) and (c)for the case of activities with multiple locations.When we analyze a project, we start from the individual problem source level and proceedtowards the project level. The first level has been treated by Fayek (1992) with the modifications asnoted in section 3.1 and is not considered further here. The corrective actions suggested for an individualproblem source are first checked for their compatibility with other actions and problem sources for the70same activity. When this is completed, a reduced corrective action set is suggested for the complete setof problem sources.3.3.2 ACTIVITY LEVEL ROUTINEHere, we present the steps involved in the activity level analysis, after corrective actions havebeen suggested for each problem source encountered. The routine utilizes a weighting schema and thecompatibility matrix to combine all the corrective actions suggested for different problem sources at theactivity level. Basically, the activity analysis can be separated into several modules as shown inFigure 3.3. All of the analysis is with respect to a user-specified time window.Define the following notation.Let:i be the activity number i = 1, ..., Ik be the problem source number k= 1, ..., Kj be the corrective action number j =1, ..., JZ(j) be the strength assigned to the jth correction action for the ith activity and kth problem sourcefrom the first level of analysis.W be weight given to the kth problem source for the ith activityCF, be the compatibility between corrective actions m and n (the notation CF1 was usedpreviously.)To simplify the exposition at the activity level, we drop the subscript i. Moreover, keep in mindthat our goal is to merge corrective actions across all problem sources.71Data from 1St level analysis (Fayek 1992)Figure 3.3 Activity level analysisOutputtoUserActivity level analysisCombine corrective actionsaccording to: 1. Frequency of problemoccurrence2. Man-hours lost3. TIme lost‘i,Reduce corrective action set usingCompatibility MatrixS_ZTCFZOutput routineOutput to higher level analysis723.3.2.1 Weighting corrective actionsFrom the initial analysis, we have an adjusted vector Zk of corrective action strengths for eachproblem source k that affected an activity - i.e. we haveZk(1)4(2)= :, for all k, k = 1, ..., K (3.7)Zk(J)We seek to combine the corrective action vectors into one and then reduce the entries in thecombined vector (i.e. the number having non-zero strengths) using the compatibility matrices betweenthe various corrective actions.1. We start by assigning a set of normalized weights to the problem sources to denote their relativeimportance. We consider three ways to determine the weights Wk; k = 1, ..., K, when Wk(i) Weights are determined by frequency of occurrence of problem source.w = number of occurrences ofth problem source (3.8)k Total number of occurrences of all problem sources(ii) Weights are determined by man-hours lost.w = manhours lost due toth problem source (39)k Total manhours lost from all problem sources(iii) Weights are determined by time lost.73= time lost due to kth problem source (3.10)k Total time lost from all problem sources2. Before considering the compatibility of corrective actions, we sum the vectors of corrective actionstrengths weighted by the importance of the problem source to obtain a single vector of correctiveactions, .i.e.Z1(1) Z2(1) ZK(1)Z1(2) Z2(2) ZK(2)Z=W1 +W +...+WK (3.11)Z1(J) Z2(J) ZK(J)Note that since Zk is normalized and is normalized, then is normalized.3. We now seek to reduce the number of corrective actions selected by considering their pairwisecompatibility. This reduction step uses the process described previously in section 3.2.3.3.2.2 Run through Compatibility factorsAssume the activity compatibility matrix is created ahead of time. From the above weightingscheme of corrective actions, we have for the jth corrective action a strength Z(j) i.e.Z(j)=Wl*Zl(j)+W2*(j)+...+WK*ZK(J) (3.12)1. Get all compatibility factors (CF1), where i and j are the corrective actions.2. Utilizing the S = ZT CF Z reduction scheme described in Eqn. (3.4), we have74S = Z(1) * * CF1 + Z(2) * * CF2 + ... + Z(J) * * CF (3.13)3. Let=Z(j) * CF (3.14)4. We drive the value of Z(n) to zero when qS < 0 and assign the weight of Z(n) to the Z(m) withthe largest positive m°5. If none of the 4 * Z(n) is less than zero, stop and exit the routine.If none of the cb is greater than zero, then pick the most negative c, and assign its Z(n) to theZ with least negative.If two or more çb’s are equal and negative in value, reassign the one with the smallest Z(n) tothe Z(j) with the largest positive.If two or more Z(j) have the same largest positive,reassign the strength(s) to the one with thelargest Z(j).If two or more Z(j) have the same largest positive 4 and value Z(j), distribute the strengthsevenly amongst them.Otherwise, return to step 3.3.3.2.3 Feedback to userThe system outputs the reduced set of corrective actions for this activity. The output also liststhe new normalized strengths, along with the problem sources each corrective action originated from.Moreover, any untreated problem sources, i.e. no corrective actions selected, are also reported to theuser.753.3.3 Trade Level RoutineIn the trade level analysis, the goal is to determine if a pattern of a problem source over theactivities of a trade exists. It is asserted that additional emphasis should be placed on problem sourceswhich appear over many locations of the same activity and/or over many activities and work locationsof these activities. When the same problem source appears frequently across the trade’s activities, itsends a signal to the decision-maker that there may be something wrong with one or more of themanagement of the trade, the design of the trade’s work, site conditions for the trade, etc.. Thus, thetrade’s work should be examined more closely to determine if additional corrective actions over andabove those identified at the activity level should be explored.In developing an analysis routine for the trade and project levels, we have attempted to emulatethe analysis process used at the activity level. In essence, at the trade level, we have merged all of theon-going activities of a trade for the time window specified into a single work package which is treatedas an “activity” (similarly for the project level). We determine attributes for this activity as a functionof the activities it represents, and call these trade attributes. Corrective actions sets are then suggestedfor each problem source, using the reasoning process used at the individual activity and problem sourcelevel, but with a different rule base and corrective action set. We then seek to merge the correctiveaction sets into one, taking account of the relative importance of the various problem sources (asmeasured by their consequences and dispersion) and their compatibility.3.3.3.1 Trade Problem SourceFor this thesis, problem sources treated to date are “Conflicting information”, “Undermanning’and “Construction error” for the trade level analysis. These problem sources were selected based on theobservations from the field study described in chapter 2.763.3.3.2 Trade Corrective Action ListThe corrective actions for the trade level analysis are shown in Table 3.2.Table 3.2 Trade corrective action list1.0 Workforce1.01 Assign more men to the project.1.02 Reduce workforce size.1.03 Replace crew with a more experienced one.1.04 Investigate alternate stait of work day for crew.1.05 Seek additional workmen for rework.2.0 Management2.01 Adopt a more stringent quality control program for thistrade.2.02 Discuss with subtrade its overall performance.2.03 Acquire new subtrade.2.04 Prepare delay claim.2.05 Place special attention on activities for localized problemsource.2.06 Improve subtrade coordination.2.07 Improve architect/engineer/project manager coordination.2.08 Open extra work order since problem originated witharchitect/engineer.3.3.3.3 Trade Level Analysis SchemaLet:p be the trade number p = 1, ..., Pk be the trade problem source number k= 1, . .a be the trade attribute number a= 1, ..., A77M, be the number of unique occurrences of problem source k for trade pN be the number of active activities for trade pVa(p) be value of trade attribute a for trade number pW, be the weight for problem source k for trade pThe process is elaborated as follows:(1) Determine Trade AttributesThe trade attribute set is the same as the activity attribute set, as shown in Table 3.3.Table 3.3 Trade attributesSensitive to: 1. High precipitation2. Low precipitation3. High temperature4. Low temperature5. Humidity6. Wind7. Ground conditions8. Storage on site9. Site congestion10. Internal access1 1. External accessCharacteristics: 12. Labour intensive13. Equipment intensive14. Buffer activity15. Innovative MethodsSubject to: 16. Design changes17. High inspection18. Contract provision19. Controlled environment20. Low tolerance21. Learning curve effects22. Design complexityTrade attributes are derived from the trade’s activities that are active in the time window selected. Each78trade attribute is defined by:= Sum of the attribute values for all active activities (3 INwnber of active activities for the tradeFor example, if the trade has five activities in total, and each of their activities’ attributesregarding the sensitivity to high precipitation is [1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.0, 0.5], then the trade attribute for highprecipitation is obtained as:(l.0+1.0+0.5+0.0+0.5)15 = 0.60In the calculation procedure, each location of a multi-location activity is considered as a separateactivity; i.e. if an activity takes place at 5 work locations during the time window selected, its activity’sattributes will be multiplied by the weight of 5 in calculating the trade attribute.With the trade attributes defined, we calculate all VaQ)) to obtain a matrix [V], in which eachelement V(p) represents the attribute value for the ath attribute, pth trade as:V1(1) V1(2) ... 1’(P)= V2(1) V2(2) ... V2(P)(3.17)V4(1) VA(2) ... VA(P)Each column represents the trade attributes for each trade in the current window.(ii) Determine Corrective Actions for Each Problem SourceUsing the trade level attributes, trade level problem sources, expert rules, and corrective actionset, trade level analysis can be performed to generate a set of suggested corrective actions for eachproblem source.(1). Each V(p) is linked up with the problem sources by the standard strengths S(X, V), defined at79the activity level. (Note the assumption that the linkage between attributes and problem sourcesis identical at the activity, trade and project levels.)(2). T(V, Z) is the trade level rule base which links the trade attributes with the trade level correctiveactions. All of the rules follow the general “IF-THEN” rule format, and focus on the attributesand performance of the various trades. Examples of trade level expert rules dealing with theproblem source “Undermanning” are shown in Figure 3.4. These rules lead to differentcorrective actions; for example, the first rule in Figure 3.4 simply states that if the dispersionindex is less than 0.3 (a localized problem at hand), then link the trade attribute 12 (labourintensive) with corrective action 1.1 (assign more men to the project) with a strength of0.3*@DI. Similarly, the second rule states that if the current problem is undermanning, and ifthe dispersion index is greater than 0.7, and if less than 25% of the trade’s activities arecompleted, then link trade attribute 12 (labour intensive) with trade corrective action 2.4 (acquirenew subtrade from outside sources) with a strength of 1 .0*@DI.#rem second level nile for undermanning#REM Define ag_strength v z w (trade attribute, trade level corrective action, weightingof linkage)#rem define current(problem, @)#rem define trade(percent_remain_duration, @)#rem define rnanpower(skill, )#rem define site(condition, @)#If current(problem, Undermanning) and<(@DI, 0.3)#thenSag_strength 12 1001 0.3*@DI#end#If current(problem, Undermanning) and> =(@DI, 0.7) andtrade((percent_remain_duration,@B), > (@B, 75))#thenSag_strength 12 2004 1 .0*@DI#rem Acquire new trade#endFigure 3.4 Sample of Trade level expert rule80(iii) Determining Weights for Combining Corrective Actions1. Compute dispersion indexAs before, the dispersion index DI, is defined as:DI = (3.17)° Npand for the pth trade, we obtain a vector for all problem sources:DI1p= DI,(3.18)DIA,,Generate a matrix [M] which contains the number of unique instances of each problem sourcefor each trade, i.e.M11 M12 ... M1[M]= M21 M22... M2P (3.19)MKJ MK2 ...Generate a vector N which contains the number of active locations/activities for each trade, i.e.N1[NJ=N2 3.20)NDivide every M by N for p= 1, ..., P, k=1, ...K to obtain the dispersion matrix [DI].81D11 D112 ... DI1[DI]= D12 D42... DII,, (3.22)DIK1 DIK2 —Each column in Eqn. (3.22) is used as DI for trade analysis.2. Compute Weights WFor trade p, compute vector of weights ,whereW1(p)w =W2(p)(3.23)W(p)andoccurrence for all activities of trade p,Number of manhours lost=__________time lost problem source k (3.24)occurrence for all activities of trade p,Number of manhours losttime lost all problem sources kThen, we know that is normalized, i.e.Wkp=1 (3.25)Now, we seek to adjust these weights using the dispersion index to reflect how widely distributed each82problem source is. Our goal is to end with a renormalized set of weights.We summarize the properties of j:• It is not normalized;• The maximum value that any entry can have is 1 (i.e. N unique occurrences);• The minimum value, excluding non-occurring problem sources, is 1 IN.Here, we suggest a reasonably straight forward approach for deriving a set of weights that can be usedto combine the corrective action sets suggested for each problem source at the trade level.Define= * DI(p) (3.26)andw= kp (3.27)kpThen, the vector W will be normalized.To illustrate the foregoing, consider the following example for a single trade. Assume that forthe time window under study,K, the number of problem sources encountered = 5N, the number of active locations = 1083, based on time lost is equal toW1(p) 0.35W2(p) 0.30W = W3(p) 0.20W4(p) 0.10W5(p) 0.05UI(p), the dispersion vector, is.2 2 out of 10 locations/activities.4 4 out of 10 locations/activitiesDI = .1 1 out of 10 locations/activities.8 8 out of 10 locationslactiviites.1 1 out of 10 locations/activitiesWe know that problems at the local level have already been addressed at the activity level.Our revised, intermediate weighted vector is:0.35x.2 0.070.30x.4 0.12W 0.20x.1 0.02—p0.lOx.8 0.080.05x.1 0.005Thus, we have0.23730.4068= 0.06780.27 120.0169Taking into account the distribution of the various problem sources has altered considerably the weightsto be used in combining the different corrective sets at the trade level.84(iv) Combining Corrective Action SetsThe corrective actions suggested for the different trade problem sources are then combined usingthe trade compatibility matrix and the modified weight vector to produce a reduced set of trade correctiveactions. This process is identical to the one used at the activity level. A listing of the trade compatibilitymatrix is shown in Table 3.4.3.3.4 Project Level AnalysisAt the project level, problem sources are viewed as to how they affect all activities for all tradesfor a given time window. For example, if many activities, regardless of which trades are responsible forthem, suffer from undermanning, then it may indicate to the project manager there is a shortage of labourin the area during this period, or that the field superintendent is not aggressive enough on trades to makethem allocate enough manpower to the project. Possible corrective actions might include for the former,discussion with various trades, and the hiring of workers from outside of the local area. For the latter,possible corrective actions might embrace formal estimation of manpower requirements and thendiscussion with the trades.The analysis process used for the trade level is also adopted for the project level. Hence, in thissection, only selected aspects are discussed to highlight different corrective action sets, rule bases, etc..3.3.4.1 Project problem sourceOnly the problem source “Undermanning” was selected for the overall project level analysis.Again, the selection of this problem source was selected based on the observations from the field studydescribed in chapter 2. Because only one problem source has been treated, no examples of thecombination of corrective actions across problem sources at the project level were explored in the thesis.85Table 3.4 Trade Level Corrective Action CoefficientCorrective Action I Corrective Action 2 [ Coef1.1 Assign more men to the 1.2 Reduceworkforce size. -1.0project.1.3 Replace crew with a more experienced one. -1.01.5 Seek additional workmen for rework. 1.02.3 Acquire new subtrade. 1.02.8 Open extra work order since problem originated with 1.0architect/engineer.1.2 Reduce workforce size. 1.3 Replace crew with a more experienced one. 1.01.4 Investigate alternate start of work day for crew. 1.01.5 Seek additional workmen for rework. -1.02.2 Discuss with subtrade its overall performance. 1.01.3 Replace crew with a 1.5 Seek additional workmen for rework. -1.0more experienced one. .2.1 Adopt a more stringent quality control program for this trade. 1.02.2 Discuss with subtrade its overall performance. 1.01 .4 Investigate alternate start 1.5 Seek additional workmen for rework. -1.0of work day for crew.2.6 Improve subtrade coordination. 1.02.7 Improve architect/engineer/project manager coordination. 1.01.5 Seek additional workmen 2.1 Adopt a more stringent quality control program for this trade. 1.0for rework. .2.2 Discuss with subtrade its overall performance. 1.02.8 Open extra work order since problem originated with 1.0architect/engineer.2.1 Adopt a more stringent 2.2 Discuss with subtrsde its overall performance. 1.0quality control programfor this trade. 2.3 Acquire new subtrade. 1.02.2 Discuss with subtrade its 2.5 Place special attention on activities for localized problem source. 1.0overall performance.2.6 Improve subtrade coordination. 1.02.3 Acquire new subtrade. 2.6 Improve subtrade coordination. 1.02.5 Place special attention on 2.8 Open extra work order since problem originated with 1.0activities for localized architect/engineer.problem sources.2.7 Improve architect/ 2.8 Open extra work order since problem originated with 1.0engineer/ project architect/engineer.manager coordination.3.3.4.2 Project corrective action listThe project level corrective action list which addresses the undermanning problem source isshown in Table 3.5:86Table 3.5 Project Corrective Action List1.0 Workforce1.01 Hire more workers for all trades.1.02 Dismiss the trade.1.03 Focus labour resources on critical activities.2.0 Management2.01 Extend workday/utilize overtime.2.02 Resequence the work to a better time window.2.03 Noti1’ owner of existing site conditions.2.04 Special attention should be given to particular trade and/or activities.2.05 Revise the project finish date.2.06 Extend the durations of those activities that have problems.2.07 Obtain estimates of activity manpower requirements and produce resource loadedschedule for a]] trades. Use to monitor manpower levels at site.2.08 Discuss with various trades.The intention here is not to construct a complete project level corrective action list but rather toshow the system’s applicability for analysis at the project level.3.3.4.3 Project Level Analysis Schema(i) Compute Project AttributesSimilar to the trade level, the entire project is now treated as a single activity, whose attributesare derived from all activities active for the time window at hand, i.e.87EE Vjp) (3.28)y = p-li.laNumber of activities for projectandV1v (3.29)VAA total of 22 project attributes are computed this way, for the time window under consideration.(ii) Determine Corrective Action for Each Problem SourceProject level expert rulesA project level expert rule base is used to link the project attributes with the corrective actions.One of the project level expert rules for the problem source “Undermanning” is shown in Figure 3.5.In plain English, this rule says that if the current(probiem, undermanning)#thencurrent problem is undermanning, and if for the #if and(project_manpower(percent_sufficient, @suff),>(@suff, 0.7),and projectpereent critical, @pc),current time window, the workforce of the whole > 0.3), 0.7)#thenproject is sufficient 70% of the time, and if the Sag_strength 12 01003 0.7#endnumber of critical activities for the current timeFigure 3.5 Example of project level expert rulesframe is between 30% and 70% of the number of (Undermanning)total current activities, then the linkage betweenthe project attribute 12 (labour intensive) and the project corrective action 1.3 (Reassign manpowerresources from buffer activities to critical activities) is recommended with a strength of 0.7.88Clearly, the challenge exists in formulating such rules so that reasonable thresholds fordetermining when action should be initiated can be found. Much consultation with industry personnelremains to be done to develop the rule set and threshold values.(iii) Determine Weight for Combining Corrective Actions1. Compute Dispersion IndexFor the kth problem source, we create a vector k from using Equations (3.20) and (3.21) suchthatD11= (3.30)DIKandDI = p-i (3.31)892. Compute Weight WkWk is used to replace W, so that:occurrence for all activities of whole project,Number of manhours losttime lost problem source k (3.32)occurrence for all activities of whole project,Number of manhours losttime lost all problem sources(iv) Combining Corrective Action SetsProject Compatibility MatrixThe project level compatibility matrix is used with the modified weight vector to produce areduced set of project corrective actions. The project level corrective action compatibility matrix isshown in Table 3.6.90Table 3.6 Project Level Corrective Action CoefficientCorrective Action 1 Corrective Action 2 Coefficient1.1 Hire more workers for all trade. 1.3 Focus labour resources on critical 1.0activities.2.3 Notif’ owner of existing site conditions. 1.02.8 Discuss with various trades. 1.01.2 Dismiss the trade. 2.4 Special attention should be given to 1.0particular trade and/or activities.2.8 Discuss with various trades. 1.01.3 Focus labour resources on critical 2.1 Extend workday/utilize overtime. 1.0activities.2.2 Resequence the work to a better time -1.0window.2.7 Obtain estimates of activity manpower 1.0requirements and produce resourcesloaded schedule for all trades. Use tomonitor manpower levels at site.2.1 Extend workday/utilize overtime. 2.2 Resequence the work to a better time -1,0window.2.2 Resequence the work to a better time 2.5 Revise the project finish date. 1.0window.2.6 Extend the durations of those activities 1.0that have problems.2.8 Discuss with various trades. 1.02.3 Notil’ owner of existing site 2.5 Revise the project finish date. 1.0conditions.2.4 Special attention should be given to 2.6 Extend the durations of those activities 1.0particular trade and/or activities, that have problems.2.5 Revise the project finish date. 2.8 Discuss with various trades. 1.02.6 Extend the durations of those activities 2.7 Obtain estimates of activity manpower 1.0that have problems. requirements and produce resourcesloaded schedule for all trades. Use tomonitor manpower levels at site.2.8 Discuss with various trades. 1.0913.4 EXAMPLEA simplified example has been formulated to illustrate the process described in this chapter.Assume that the project can be described by 10 work locations and three multi-location activities, asshown in Table 3.7.Table 3.7 Activity locations and problem incidences for exampleTRADE 1 TRADE 2Location Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 31 3xPl,lxP2 P12 P1 P1 6xP23 P1 , P3 P2, P3 P1 , P24 P1 P1,P25 P1,P2 P1 P1,P26 P178910The darkened line in Table 3.7 represents the current status of the project (i.e. work on subsequentlocations has not yet commenced). Problem 1, 2 and 3 (P1, P2, P3) appear frequently during the projectlife cycle. With the above data, we would like to explain the analysis process at the activity, trade andproject levels. Note that each location of an activity is treated as a separate activity. Thus, for the timewindow being examined, a total of 16 activities were commenced, in progress or completed, and 14activities had one or more problem sources recorded against them.921. Activity Level AnalysisTo start the analysis process, consider activity one at location one.Assume the corrective actions suggested for the individual problem sources are:P1 := Zi, Z2, Z3 with strengths {Z1(l)Z1(2)Z1(3) } = { 0.6 0.3 0.1 }P2 := Zi, Z4, Z5 with strengths {Z2(1)Z2(4)Z2(5) } = { 0.5 0.3 0.2 }(I) The weights, determined by the frequency of occurrence of problem sources, are:Wk: W= 3/4 = 0.75W2= 1/4 = 0.25Therefore,Z1(1) Z2(1)z = w1 Z(2) + W2 4(4)Z1(3) Z2(5)0.6 0.0.3 0.0Z then = 0.75 0.1 + 0.25 0.00.0 0.30.0 0.2930.575 Z1(1)* W1 + 4(1) * W20.225 4(2) * w10.075 Z1(3) * W10.075 4(4) * W20.05 4(5)*W2(ii) Compatibility FactorsAssumez1, z12 z13 z14 z15 1 0 —1 1 1z U Hz51 z521 0 —1 1 1S = ZT CF Ztherefore,S = Z1 (0.575 + 0 - 0.075 + 0.075 +0.05) + Z2( 0 + 0.225 + 0.075 - 0.075 + 0)+ Z3( -0.575 + 0.225 + 0.075 + 0 - 0.05) + Z4( 0.575 - 0.225 + 0 + 0.075 + 0.05)+Z5(0.575 + 0 - 0.075 + 0.075 + 0.05)S = 0.625 Z1 + 0.225 Z2 - 0.325 Z3 + 0.475 Z4 + 0.625 Z5Since of z3 is negative, we drive Z3 to zero and assign the weight of Z3 to the Z with largest positiveçb. Since both Z1 and Z5 satisfy this criteria, the weight of Z3 is distributed equally amongst them.i.e. Z1 = 0.575 + 0.0375 = 0.6125Z5 = 0.05 + 0.0375 = 0.087594Z1 O.6125fl4 0.2254 0Z4 0.075z O.08755Therefore, S:S = Z (0.6125 + 0 + 0 + 0.075 + 0.0875) + Z2(0 + 0.225 + 0-0.075 + 0)+ Z3( -0.6125 + 0.225 + 0 + 0 - 0.0875)+ Z4( 0.6125 - 0.225 + 0 + 0.075 + 0.0875)+ Z5( 0.6125 + 0 + 0 + 0.075 + 0.0875)S = 0.775 Z1 + 0.15 Z2 - 0.475 Z3 + 0.475 Z4 + 0.775 Z5Since none of the is negative for corrective actions with non-zero strengths (Z3 has been driven tozero), stop and exit the routine.Therefore,Z(1) 0.6125Z(2) 0.225Z(j) = Z(3) 0Z(4) 0.075Z(5) 0.0875This process would then be repeated for each active location of each activity.2. Trade Level Analysis(i) For trade 1, compute the trade level attributes by considering all active locations of activities oneand two.95Using Eqn. (3.16), the first trade attribute is calculated as:V(l)- V of Activity One x 6 + V of Activity Two x 5I— 11 active activitiesThe process is repeated for the other attributes.(ii) Determine corrective action strengths for each trade problem source using Fayek’s schema A.Assume that the results are:P1: Z1,Z2,Z4with[0.5 0.4 0.1]P2: Z3 with [1.0]P3: Zi, Z4 with [0.5 0.5]thus, we have:0.5 0.0 0.50.4 0.0 0.0z= z= z=2 1.0 0.00.1 0.0 0.5(iii) Determining Weights for Combining Corrective ActionsAssume weights are determined by frequency of occurrence.(1). Calculate W,11Wi1W -21 16216(2). Calculate Dispersion IndexN1=1196M11=9 M21=3 M31=2r1D11 I i21131DI = DI-I I-ui[D131j I 21Li(3). Get W*,W’iq, = WkP * DIk(P)r iiIr iii 10.56251W I X = 10.051141I 16 11Lo.o2273il22lLi ill10.080311kp =[0.03572]Thus, Z becomes:r5 Tool ro59 rO.4598110.41 10.01 10.01 10.353561= 0.8839 0.01 + 0.0803 1 11.01 + 0.0357210.01 = 1008031 ILo.i] [o.oj [0.5] [0.10625]97(4). Utilize Compatibility MatrixCF11 CF12 13 CF14[CF]= C21 CF22 ... CF24CF1 CF42 CF43 CFS =ZCFZS = Z1( 0.4598 + 0- 0.08031 + 0.10625) + Z2( 0 ++ Z3( -0.4598 - 0.35356 + 0.08031 + 0)+Z4(0.4598 + 0 + 0 + 0.10625)S = 0.48574 Z1 + 0.27325 Z2 - 0.7331 Z3 + 0.56425 Z4Since 3 is negative, assign weight of Z3 to Z4 (largest )1 0 —1 10 1 -1 0—1 —1 1 010010.35356 - 0.08031 + 0)0.45980.35356NewZ=0.18656New S = Z1(O.4598 + 0 + 0 + 0.18656) + Z2( 0 + 0.35356 + 0 + 0)+ Z3( -0.4598 - 0.35356 + 0 + 0) +Z4(0.4598 + 0 + 0 + 0.18656)S = 0.64606 Z1 ÷ 0.35356 Z2 - 0.81336 Z3 + 0.64636 Z4Since Z3 = 0, all qS*Z’s are positive. Stop and exit routine.Z1 0.4598:.Z= Z2 = 0.353560.18656Assume:for Trade 1983. Project Level Analysis(i) Obtain Va for project(ii) Obtain corrective actions for individual problem sources at the project level.Assume:P1: Z1, Z2, Z4 with strengths [0.4 0.5 0.1 1P2: Zi, Z2, Z3 with strengths [0.1 0.1 0.8]P3: Z4 with strength [1.0](iii) Determine Weight WkAssume weights are determined by frequency of occurrenceW1 = 14 /28W2 = 12 /28W3 = 2 /2812D11 16DI= D12 -D13 2160.6563.. W*k = 0.32810.01563990.4x0.6563 + 0.1x0.3281 0.29533 Z1- O.5x0.6563 + 0.lxO.3281 - 0.36096 4z— 0.8x0.3281 - 0.26248 41.OxO.01563 + 0.lxO.6563 0.08126 z4(iv) Utilize compatibility matrixAssume:CF11 CF12 CF13 CF14 1 -1 0 0CF21 CF ... CF -1 1 1 1[CF1== 0110CF41 CF42 CF43 CF 0 1 0 1S=ZT CF ZS = Z (0.29533 - 0.36096 + 0 + 0) + Z2 ( -0.29533 + 0.36096 + 0.26248 + 0.08 126)+ Z3(0 + 0.36096 + 0.26248 + 0) + Z4(0 + 0.36096 + 0 + 0.08126)S = -0.06563 Z1 + 0.40937 Z2 + 0.62344 Z3 + 0.4422 Z4Since 4 is negative, assign weight of Z1 to Z3 (largest )00.36096NewZ=— 0.55780.08126New S = Z1 (0 - 0.36096 + 0 + 0) + Z2 (0 + 0.36096 + 0.5578 + 0.08126)+ Z3 (0 + 0.36096 + 0.5578 + 0) + Z4 (0 + 0.36096 + 0 + 0.08126)Since Z1 = 0, all *Z’s are positive. Stop and exit routine.1000.36096...= Z3 = 0.5578Z4 0.08126for the project.101CHAPTER 4.0 TESTING AN!) APPLICATIONThe objectives of this chapter are to describe the implementation of the concepts set forth in theprevious chapter in the form of an application program and to test their applicability and validity onsimplified examples. The application program was written in C by William Wong, a senior computerprogrammer in the construction management laboratory of the University of British Columbia, based onpseudo code prepared by the author.4.1 PROGRAM ORGANIZATIONThe schematic diagram of the system developed is shown in Figure 4.1. It can be observed thatparallel structures exist for the activity, trade and project level analyses. This approach simplifies theanalysis process by applying similar diagnosis schema for all levels in the analysis hierarchy.Several building blocks were used to formulate the prototype. At the activity level, a weightingschema and compatibility matrix were added to the existing individual problem source analysis schema.For the trade and project levels, the following constituents make up the components for these two analysislevels: problem source lists, attributes, expert rule bases, corrective action lists, weighting schemes,dispersion indexes and compatibility matrices.4.2 LIST OF PREDICATESNew predicates defined for the activity, trade and project levels of expert rules are presented here.These predicates are used to provide context information for the inference engine for evaluation of theexpert rules. The system searches for the information identified in these rules and then it reports eithernumerical or Boolean values such as TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.102Figure 4.1 System diagram for prototype1034.2.1 SYNTAX OF THE RULESThe rules for the REPCON inference engine are expressed in the following syntax:predicate name(X1, X2...).The parameters X1 in the expression are linked using the predicate predicate_name. Each predicatecontains a constant number of parameters determined when the inference engine first encounters thepredicate. A parameter that starts with the character @ indicates that it is a variable. A @ by itself isan unnamed variable. All other strings are constants. For example, consider the following predicate:problem(@problem_no, resp code, @rc)This predicate will look up the code number for the party which was responsible for the problem@problem_no and assign it to @rc. If a value is found, this predicate will be assigned a value TRUE.Combined with predefined predicates such as AND, OR, EQ (equal), etc., different expert rules are fired.For example, if we have:and(problem(@problem_no, resp_code, @rc), eq(@rc, g))the system will return either a value TRUE if @rc indeed is equal to g (General Contractor), a valueFALSE if @rc contains a value but it is not equal to g, or a value UNKNOWN if no value is found forthe variable @rc.4.2.2 ACTIVITY PREDICATESNew activity predicates were identified and added to the original predicates defined by Fayek(1992). They specify the information needed from the project data so that the inference engine canevaluate each expert rule to determine whether it should activate the rule. The new activity predicates,range of values, and their descriptions are listed as follows:104PREDICATES RANGE OF INTERPRETATIONVALUESproblem(@problemno, G, 01-99 Report the responsibility code for theresp_code, @) party which causes the current problem.activity(actual duration, @) 0 - variable Report the actual duration of the activity.activity(freefloat, @) 0 - variable Report the amount of free float for thecurrent activity.activity(respcode, @) G, 01-99 Report which trade manages the currentactivity.activity(total_manhour_lost, 0 - variable Report the total number of manhours lostfor this activity during the analysis timeframe.activity(total_time_lost, @) 0 - variable Report the total amount of time lost forthe current activity during the analysistime frame.activityj,roblem 0 - variable Report the number of manhours lost for(@problem_no, manhour I- the current problem source @problem_noost, @) for the current activity.105activity_problem 0 - variable Report the amount of time lost for the(@problem_no, time_lost, current problem source @problem_no forthe current activity.otheractivity(freefloat) TRUE, Return the value TRUE if other activitiesFALSE, of the same trade have non-zero free floatUNKNOWN in the current time window.activity(gc, critical) TRUE, Return the value TRUE if the currentFALSE, UN- activity belongs to the General ContractorKNOWN and is critical.4.2.3 TRADE PREDICATESThe new predicates used in the trade level expert rules of this thesis are as follows:PREDICATE RANGES OF INTERPRETATIONVALUESproblem_source (number- I - variable Report the number of times this problem_of_occurrence, @) source appears during the analysis timeframe.106trade(percentremai- 0 - 100 Report percentage of activities that are notn_duration, @) completed for the current trade. Thispredicate does not limit itself to thecurrent time frame, but rather it iscomputed using the whole projectduration. This predicate is calculated as:(Number of unstarted activities for trade+ Sum of (activity remain duration/actualduration) )I(# of activities for the trade) *100for the total project duration.trade(critical_act_timelost, 0 - variable Report the sum of time lost due to thecurrent problem source for criticalactivities of the current trade for thecurrent analysis time window.trade(critical_act_manhour- 0 - variable Report the total manhours lost due to thelost, @) current problem source for critical activities of the current trade for the analysistime window.trade(percent_critical, @) 0 - 100 Report the percentage of activities that arecritical for the current trade. It is calcu107lated by dividing (number of critical activities for current trade) by (total number ofactivities for current trade) during theanalysis time frame.number_activity(@) 0 - variable Report the total number of activities/locations for the current trade,regardless of whether or not they arecompleted, started or ongoing, during theanalysis time frame.probsource(dispersion index, 0 - 1.0 Compute the dispersion index for the cur@di) rent problem source.problem(@problem_no, 0 - 100 Report the percentage of the current probpercent_critical, @) lem source which take place on thecritical activities for the trade. It iscalculated by (number of occurrences forthis problem source that appear on criticalactivities)! (total number of occurrences ofthis problem source) during the analysistime frame.108trade(total_tiine_lost, @) 0 - variable Report the total time lost for the currenttrade during the analysis time frame.trade(total_manhour_lost, @) 0 - variable Report the total number of man-hours lostfor the current trade during the analysistime frame.trade_problem 0 - variable Report the number of the manhours lost(@problem_no, manhour_I- for the current problem source @probost, @) lem_no for the current trade for theanalysis time frame.trade_problem 0 - variable Report the amount of time lost for the(@problem_no, time_lost, current problem source @problem_no forthe current trade for the analysis timeframe.4.2.4 PROJECT LEVEL PREDICATESThe following list presents new predicates used at the project level of analysis.PREDICATE RANGES OF DESCRIPTIONSVALUESprobsource(dispersion_index, 0 - 1.0 Report the value for the dispersion index@di) for the current project level problem109source during the analysis time frame.manpower(percent_sufficient, 0 - 100 Report the value for the percentage ofdays for all trades that have sufficientmanpower during the analysis time frame.project(percent_critical, @) 0 - 100 Report the percentage of activities for alllocations which are critical during theanalysis time frame.project(percent 0 - 100 Report percentage of activities that are notremain_duration, @) completed for the project. Note that thispredicate is not limited to the analysistime window but rather treats the wholeduration of the project. The value iscalculated by:(Total number of unstarted activities!locations + Sum of (remaining durationof on-going activities I Actual duration forthe activities) ) I (Total number ofactivities per locations for the project)110problem(@problem_no, 0 - 100 Report the percentage of the currentpercent_critical, @) problem source which takes place on thecritical activities for the project. It iscalculated by (number of occurrences forthis problem source that appear on criticalactivities)! (total number of occurrences ofthis problem source) during the analysistime frame.project(critical_aet_time_lost, 0 - variable Report the time-lost due to currentproblem source which occurs on criticalactivities of the project during the analysistime frame.project_problem 0 - variable Report the number of manhours lost for(@problem_no, manhour_l- the current problem source @problem_noOst, @) during the analysis time frame.project_problem 0 - variable Report the amount of time lost for the(@problemno, time_lost, current problem source @problem_noduring the analysis time frame.1114.3 APPLICATION INTERFACE IN REPCONThe prototype system is integrated within the educational/research version of the REPCONconstruction management program. The new menus which were added to the interface described byFayek (1992) include data interpretation for trade and project levels, compatibility factor coefficients forcorrective actions, and selection of the weighting criterion to be used to guide the analysis. Use of anintegrated approach allows for changes, additions and deletions to be automatically accounted for. Anexample of the benefits of integration lies with the additions, subtractions, and modifications of thecorrective action lists. Whenever corrective actions are added or subtracted, the system automaticallymakes the changes within the corresponding level expert rules.Currently, the analysis schema has three levels. Figure 4.2 shows the sub-menu for “DataInterpretation” under daily site report. Under this menu, the user has two choices. He can either modifythe corrective action sets and their compatibility matrix coefficients or activate the data interpretationroutine for any one of the three analysis levels.When any level (activity, trade, project) of corrective action set is selected, the screen inFigure 4.3 appears. The user can then add, delete, or revise any corrective action categories and theirconstituents. If the user selects “Coefficients”, a new screen will appear as shown in Figure 4.4. Thisscreen illustrates the menu for inputting compatibility coefficients for corrective actions at the activitylevel. Inside the menu, the user can enter the compatibility matrix by initially selecting a correctiveaction from Group (A). When this is completed, the system will highlight corrective actions at Group(B). Under this group, the user can enter coefficients for any corrective action to link to the correctiveaction initially selected in Group (A).112REPCOFIUer. 2.80Educational and Research UersionDaily Site DataDiarj FortisTiMe SheetsTrades PersonsEquiprientExtra LJor’k OrdersI—PLANNING & SIJIIIIARY CASH FLOU &SYSTEM PROJECT SCHEDULING PROCUREMENT REPORTING RESOURCESProjects Data Generate ResourcesStandards Calendar Macros Cash FlouUtilities Rept. Mgt. Reports Sch. of UaluesStd. Proj. Alt. Code Change OrdersExit Sel.—SortReportsI Actiuiti.i Level Corrective Actionsurrent Project D:\REPZet up activity level corrective actions for autoMated data interpretation.(C) Copyright Alan D. Russell i85—193Trade Level Corrective ActionsProject Level Corrective ActionsInterpret Activity Level DataInterpret Trade Level DataInterpret. Project Level Dat*Figure 4.2 Screen shot of menu under DATA INTERPRETATION4.4 PROCEDURE FOR AUTOMATED INTERPIWI’ATIONThe following step-by-step approach should be followed in order to create and analyze a projectat any level.(i) Create a project using REPCON. Setup activity data e.g. relationships, duration, schedule startdate, attributes, milestones, etc. for the project. Check the logic of the activity and compute theschedule by selecting “Execute” under the “Planning & Scheduling” category. This processinitiates a project and creates a schedule for all activities of the project.(ii) When the project is created, go to “Problem Source” under “Daily Site”. Set up the projectproblem sources and input their corresponding standard strengths (mapping onto the activityattribute set). This will create the base for problem sources recorded at the daily site report.(iii) Go to “Data Interpretation” under “Daily Site” menu. When selected, another menu will bedisplayed. The user has two groups of choices here. Either he can modify the corrective actions113)AILY SITE/ACTIUIT LEUEL ORRECTIUE ACTIONS D:%REP2UAdd Delete Edit Constituents Coefficients Report eXitCorrective Action Categor9£ 1] ENUIROI*IENT[ 2] UORK FORCE[ 3] CONSTRUCTION METHODS£ 4] OH—SITE MANAGEMENTC Si OFF—SITE MANAGEMENTC hi CONTRACT REMEDIESC 7] PROTECTIUE ACTIONSC 8] MATERIALSC 9] DO NOTHINGFiHelp -i*-:ScrolI Enter:Select. EscExitFigure 4.3 Screen under activity corrective action menuor perform interpretation at any one level. So far, we can only modify the corrective actionsbecause no daily site data have been entered.(iv) When the user selects any corrective action level, a new screen will be displayed. The user canthen adjust the corrective actions and their corresponding compatibility matrix. Default valueshave already been defined (all values except the diagonal are set to 0). However, the user canadjust the values to best reflect the project and their experience. Any value between -1compatibility value 1 can be assigned. For this thesis, only values of -1, 0 or 1 have beenconsidered.(v) Having completed the initial project setup, go to “Daily Site Data” under “Daily Site”. Setup andrecord the daily site activities using the daily site report. Record the progress of the activities,site conditions data, workforce data, problem sources encountered, time lost, manhours lost, etc..(vi) When performance data for a suitable time window has been captured, go to the main menu and114)RLL’ SITE/ACTIUIV LEUEL ORRECTIUE ACTIONSAdd Delete Edit Constituents______________Corrective Action CategoryCoefficients Report eXitD: \REP2UCorrective Action CoefficientsCorrective Action Category/Code Itens[ 1.1 ) ENUIROFIMENT Provide a protected envlron,ient or shelter.[ 1.Z 3 DIUIRONMENT Postpone the activity to a tine uindou uith[ 1.3 3 ENUIRONF1ENT Try to inproue uorking conditions.[ 2.1 3 IJORI< FORCE Seek additional tradesnen and allocate theM[ 2.2 3 UORK FORCE Reallocate nanpouer fron preferably a bufferCorrective Action Category/Code IteMs Coeff —[ 1.1 3 ENUIRONIIENT Provide a protected enuironnent or s[ 1.2 ] ENVIRONMENT Postpone the activity to a tine uind[ 1.3 3 ENVIRONMENT Try to inprove uorking conditions.C 2.1 3 LIORK FORCE Seek additional tradesnen and alloca£ Z.Z 3 IJORK FORCE Reallocate rianpouer fron preferablyFl. Help -‘i- Scroll Enter Select Esc ExitFigure 4.4 Clip Screen of Activity Level Corrective Action Coefficientsselect “update project”. Use “Batch Update” and select “daily site data” as input data. Specifya new progress date.(vii) When the project is updated, re-execute the schedule to calculate a new schedule which revealsthe implications of the problems encountered at the site. The data are now ready for analysis.Select “Data Interpretation” under the “Daily Site” menu in order to carry out the automatedanalysis.(viii) Select the level (activity, trade, project) for interpretation. When one is selected, a new screenwill be displayed as in Figure 4.5.(ix) Enter preferences displayed on screen regarding the analysis e.g. time frame, output to, weightingcriterion, etc.. The system then analyzes the daily site data using the preferences specified. Theinterpretation will run for several minutes to evaluate the data. An output will be generated withboth the corrective actions for each individual problem source and the aggregated corrective115action set which should be considered for implementation for the level analyzed.(x) Repeat from (viii) for other analysis levels.AILY SITE proj29%benyuuDAILY SLTE TRADE LEUEL INTERPRETATIONOUTPUT DEUICE[1] Screen[2] DIrectly to Printer’[3] PrInt in Background[4] Printer’ FileEnter SelectLonStart Date: IY44II Finish Date iriiUse r :iIT ruleProcess Problens By: frequency of occurrenceiFinish Date For analysis should not exceedLast date for uhich Daily Site Data entered.Fi:Help F2:List F1O:ConfirM Esc:Exlt. Alt—P:Print fllt—A,—S:ListsFigure 4.5 Screen Shot of Trade Level Interpretation Menu4.5 TESTING AND VALIDATION OF THE PROTOTYPETwo example projects were created for testing different scenarios. A highly simplified and smallscale project was used with a variety of problem sources at the individual locations of an activity to testout the activity level. The responses of the system for each individual problem source were comparedto the manual computations for each problem source to check the accuracy of the implementation.For the activity, trade and project levels, a more realistic (yet still simplified) project with onlya few problem sources was created. Again, the output of the computer analysis was then validated by116the manual computation of the interpretation process. Last, the usefulness of the system was tested byexamining a fictional case study project which reflected some of the field experience gained (Chapter 2).4.5.1 VALIDATION FOR ACTIVITY LEVEL ANALYSIS4.5.1.1 PROJECT DATAThe project data used for analysis at the activity level contains three activities, ten locations anda total of two trades. Figure 4.6 shows for this example project number of work locations, activity logic,duration, attribute values, etc.. The daily site report shown in Figure 4.7 contains the information formanpower, site data, activity status, problem sources experienced, skill level, days lost, manhours lost,etc. for the two day period, 20 January, 1992 to 21 January, 1992. No attempt has been made here tobe realistic in the assignment of problem sources or consequences.117111W4ONSTIOIJCTIONIvIANAGEMENTLADltEPii)NLOSampleteetprojectforBenjumin’ntheuIs()Page1017Activityrelatlon.hlpreportFileOsrK:\OGPiIHi\PlI0JH\IfTL’TReportDaieOZDliY]‘CriticaltivitgReportTi,tS:SSstCririlAllfttioitie•CovervingpredecessorofanactivitgRevisiont4aberItToilftIlvitCodeorsuccessorgonerodhgactiniIgProgressDate70i10fl7WTIOITYPOCDLtIS0RSSTXflTSORSLOGOAIPROD.DATA10411T4SCRIKTIODIiaCOlICDlCRIPTl0HTYPEPLOCDlitOGKIT/I/iCDEl.CODEDICRlPTIO0TOPESlOGILLTOGOIT/IfiC0600SKIPIOJR‘11161110frIloligIICOOTOItProjectStartlITIISI*•010200Retioitg21150(111I-IIII03LOG11111FLOATTOTIE.FLOATHi0hparc-t.oaapreci-Hightrq-I.o.aloupe-IA.aidltgRindGroundcv-StorageonSitecong-lntrrnal-Eutrrnal-LabourinIqaiponnt1131001.COTRA11311101.COTRAipitationpitatiourratureratureoditionssiteostiomaccessaccesstensineintensiuIBIt/A0H/K1.0001100.060.000.000.001.066.061.001.000001.00I0026tI/AIIl/A30K/A2lI/A4KlI/A3It/K50H/AIIl/AI.011/ASH/A70H/A6H/AIi0H/A7it/A—30lI/AOil/A-lB‘0Il/AIl/ADullerat-InnovativeDesignrh-11196ivsp-Contract-ControlledLaobIer-Learning-DesigncvlivitgnetlodsaogesectiooprovisioneoniroranantecurverIfeapieoitg6.060.0060011101.000.000.000.000.0013110110PREDLtISORSSOGICOSOIISl,OCIltItPROD.ROTAcoii:II15CRIPTIOHDEl.CODEDFCRIPTIOtlTYPEhOCRD.LOGOI1’/IOCOCT.CODED[TCRIPTIOIITYPESt/iCDliLOGKIT/LOGROOKSKIPDiR‘1110/lOtftlivilg71.010100RetiaitgII[S00111.070100fttioitg3T[50III-10104lOGCOltflOATTOTOt.flOATHighparc-Loupreci-Highteup-La.loupe-IhaaiditgRindGroundcv-StorageciiSitecuing-Internal-Evtrrval-LabourinEguiponot000001.COlOnROPJRO.COTRAipitationpatatiuneratureratureoditionssitrrslioeaccessaccesslens/neintensiaC•10lI/A0N/A0.000.000.000.060.000.000.000.061.0110.000.001.0100.011.200/AOIl/A•30Il/AOIl/A‘46H/AOil/A‘SOIl/AOH/A‘60N/A011/A170tI/AOIl/A‘RDIl/liOH/A‘90Il/AON/A‘100lI/A0Il/ADullerac-InnovativeDesignch-Highinsp-Contract-Caotrolledlavatolrr-Learning-Ilesigocctlaitg,etbodsangesrclinnproalsionroairocioantetic-nerileaplenitg0.000.1101.001.001.000.061.000.060.000111VITOPHEDECCOSOHSSI633SORSLOGR014TPROD.DATA(ORER[5CRIPTIOIIOCT.COnG0[SCOIPTIOHTYPEP1/iCDO.LOGHIT/LOGOCT.CODEICOCKIPTI00ITYPESLOGIllLOGKIT/LOGROIl/ISAl?tOdD‘11/0101101lioilgi.010700fttivitg7TIS0011“IO2tl6ProjectFinislIlITTO[S0IttI-IllI03Figure4.6ActivityrelationshipreportfortestingatactivitylevelPage201bC(3)11flOATTOTIN. FlOATHighprec-boopreci-Hightnt-baate”pe-liamidityWindGroundto-StoragenoSitetong-Internal-External-labourin-Cqiiipoent14)10CC.EXTRA14)10W.EXTRAipilationpitatinoeratureratorenditionssiteestinoaccessaccesstensineintensioeIIN/A9N/AfiNNN.NNINNN.NNNANN.NNN.NNt.NN.ANINNN.RtINNNAN21N/ANWA31N/A7N/A41N/AbN/ASIN/ASN/A6IN/AIN/A7!N/A3N/AAIN/A2N/AIIN/AIN/A‘INNN/ANN/Alitterac-InnnnatioeDesignch-Highiosp-Contract-CootrolledLoutoler-Learning-Designtotiait9irtludsangesectionpeunisionennirs.noaxetarnciteleaitgNANNON1.06N.061.061.061.06UNN.ON14111410POIII11ISSOISSIXC1SONSICCPUNIPOND.DATAcool;PlC0IPTI0NCCI.CODEIEXCIIPTITNTYPEP1CC00.1RCIT/LOCOCT.CONENISCIIPTI4)lTYPESLAC011ICCOtT/ICC-DANKSKIPCUD‘QIOIONProjectStart‘NINIONDetinitylNTIFSN1I-IINN/ALOCFIATflOAT101CCFLOATHighprec-Ionpreci-Nighteaqn-Iontagie-lAa.iditgWindGroundto-StoragenoSitecnng-loternal-internal-labourin-Eqnipncntl4)INtd.EXTRAIN)lNil.EXTRAipitatinapitationeraturnratureeditionssiteestinnaccessaccesstensienintensiveIN/AN/AN/AN/AN.ONNNNN.NNN-ONN.ONN.ONN.ONN.06N.ONN.NN6.06NONANNlitterat-lnnnaatineDesignch-Nighinsp-Contract-Controlledboototer-learning-Designcotint9netludsangesectinnprnnisinnenoirniorniaxecurveciteIenitqNONN.NNN-ONN.NNNONN.ON0.06N.ON0.0614111410PYIDIEII5SOAS9.flDSOIISICC10041PNAN.DATACOPEPFSIIIPTI10ICCI.CONEOISCNIPTI4)tTYPEPIACNaICCNIT/ICCOCT.CODEDFSCJ1IPTI4)lTYPESIOCNIl,bftS0ff/ICCDANASKIPINtO‘(30)/ANProjectFinish“A2NIANtttiait93NTINISNININ-ININN/AICC11111FLOAT101CCFLOATNighprec-Ionpreci-Highteq-boatagie-llnaoiditgWindCruondto-StorageonSitetong-Internal-internal-Latanirin-Eqaipnient1CCNW,EXTRANIINItEXTRAipitutinnpitatinaneruinrenaturenditinessiteestinuaccessaccesstensioninteosine•INNN/ANWANANN-ONN.ONN.ONN.06N.ANN.ONNONN.06N.06N.ONNONNANNailerarlnnnnatineDesignch-Highinsp-Contract-ControlledLeobIer-learning-Designto---tinilyoettodsangesectinnpraaisinnennironuoenaxeaaronciteoplnoitgNNNNONNONANNNANN-ONN.ONN.ONN.06FCCH1(114.OfSCCIIOITIFSREPCONtOFileIJseiUD:\1CO200\PIOJO7\ITISTSnperinteedentPleasesign:_________________________WORKENVIRONMENTDATAHeatlerConditionstat(01)’ClearIIClondy101lainIISnnwlI11)iPli:ClearIIClendy101lainIISnowI(citenperuture:HighlOGlow-3C(dlPrecipitatinn:15inn(ciHind:AhhSiteConditions:tnGroundcnnditinns’Pnnr101FairIIGoodIIigiStoragennsite:PoorIIFair101GoodI(hiAccesstnsite:Poor101FairIIGoodIICo,n,ents:INSPECTIONSANDTESTSVISITORSACCIDENTSSITEINSTRUCTIONSACTIVITYSTATUSLOUISF:FinisltdIdleOAn-goingP:Postponed5:Started*:CriticalP000101SOIJOFELOUIS12001WMFAIGLTHIITS30l151121/UISJRHSReportDate:1lD1t93ReportTit:10:21:23ProgressDate:7010012OenisionlNu&r:H1.TDCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABSampletestprojectforBenjamin’sthesIs(2)DAILYSITEREPORT-MONDAY,20JAN1992WORKFORCEDATASoperTradessenTrade00SoPShillT/AAnerTinne0/NH/I/IA/H/IIllS(il(ji(hIIll(in)(01OlTradelI1I310)1III0.00)DELIVERIESCants:MISCELLANEOUSNOTESIItesIItylOnitICoinnentEQUIPMENT/RENTALSStatus:ID)elineeed(AlctioeIlIdle10)etornedIlesIliesIHoantity)StatosandConsentAllProjectActinities.locationIto10.Tw(ACT.0(510111lOTUSIA:OGT!R1STAT1JS11101010000PDAQIISSmC/ItTiltLASTACTIONlistFOULFOOLLOGDISGIIPIIOtISTcdITFlASHHIMIRONYlISPCOOtP000(121DISCOIPTIHISISISIDOTSCOVE111010115-I*tDIProjectStartIA203101203011SFITradeI001011ActinityIA2010$1231011145(3213.003.0030(3416.004.00(4113.003.00(4413.002.00(4614.114.11(56)3.113.00(57)3.113.11(9513.004.0000GROUP00JoeHLATII3I14000011FADGEAUToo‘inchprecipitation31lnsoIT./Inco*çI.DrawingIAInseflicicotnanpowerASSitenotready32DrawingerrorsIII.ewshilllenel34ConFlictinginfornatine46Lownetination/neraleISO(lull60SOVPIIIScotIOVIPIEITS7000OTILITIIS/CITTI52ReworkIIkrIa*aoship)-70Inadequatee:ternalace.01Unanticipatedutilities95Delayinaward.contractS6Errorinconstruction72Poorgroondconditions57l.ayooterrorACTIONLOUISTTelephoneI:letterIIachchargeFutru01urhOrder3:(terhallostroctionsFigure4.7DailysitereportfortestingatactivitylevelUI3CCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTMSampIeFileUsedD:\tITzON\pROJHl\KTLSTSoperiotendeorPlease_________________________WORKENVIRONMENTDATAReatterConditionstat(Nil:ClearIICloudyIt)lainIISnowIItk(lPfll:ClearIICloodyltllainlISoowlIIdTenperatore:HighICLeoC(dlPrecipitationISto,teltied:31kphSiteConditions:If)Ceneodconditions:PeerIA)FairIICoedI)191Storageonsite:PoorIIFair101CoedII(hIDecesstositePoetIIIFairIIGoodIIcesqeots:INSPECTIONSANDTESTSV[SITORSACCIDENTSSITEINSTRUCTIONSWOREFORCEDATASuperTradesunTradeIISetSkillT/tUeerli,e0/NH/fl/IH/fl/IIllSIi)tj)1k)(I)to)•In)OlIradelIIiiNjIILIloll——‘-—,.-lbsICo.weots•MISCELLANEOUSNOTESDELIVERIESIIteoI)ltylboitlCetorotIEQUIPMENT/RENTALSStatus(Dle)ioered(A)ctioeoldieIllletoroedito.IQoaotitylStatusandCetweotAl)ProjectUstiuities.LocationIto10.TAA1ICALT.ACTIIIITYDATFE(HACTUAL)STATUSP1)01101100)0PROGRESS10511)5/FtTIlELOSTACT)0t1liltCOlICCOlICLACDESCRIPTIONSTARTtuSHDIIITODAYIESPCHICP10111)1DESCRIPTIOIS114)5IDAYSCODE1)043005TradeI‘fill)Ifrtioity0A2015112315114HItItS)tS.flHLION(31)2.113.01156)4.002.00195)5.112.01IIToepudipreeipitwtieo31IosoFt./Incoql.Drawing41InsotticientoaopowerOSSitenotready32Drawingerrors44l.eoskilllend34Coot) ictiogintonation4kLow,etieatioe/israIeISO1000160SOPPLIIEtillL’oJIPtUITS170lIeUTILITIES/CITY190-52Rework(Workoaoship)71Inadequateeateroa)ace.01Unanticipatedotilities95Delayinaward.contract5kCrrorinceostrectioo32Poorgroundconditions57byonteetorP00111)1SOURCECODES00GUNS06f 10I.EATIIDR1200601)1MlCOISUITNITS130DESUJI/DIN1I1CIllDAlIFARCEtestprojectforBenjamIn’sthesis(2)DAILYSITEREPORT-TUESDAY,21JAN1902ReportDate04DLt93ReportTiwo:10:2030ProgressDate:2115192Oeoisioo14,oher0ACT1OITOSTATUSCODESFFioishedIIdleUn-goingPPos(pooed5:StartedCriticalACTIONCODESTTelepbonieILetterfib.sIRackchargeCotraDeckOrderHOerkal)ostroctioos4.5.1.2 COMPUTER OUTPUT FOR ANALYSIS AT ACTIVITY LEVELWith the project data created, the daily site interpretation was first performed at the activity level.Figures 4.8, 4.9, and 4.10 show the results of using “MAX-MIN” and weighting criteria of frequencyof occurrence, manhours lost and time lost, respectively. Each report contains the summary informationsuch as trade responsible, time window under analysis, duration of the activity, remaining duration, freefloat and total float, activity attributes and the total amount of days and manhours lost for each activity.In addition, for each problem source the report displays both percent and number of days lost, manhourslost, and number of occurrences for each problem source, plus the corrective actions suggested and thestrengths for each of them.It is observed that for the first part of the daily site activity interpretation, i.e. the individualproblem source analysis, the results are identical for all three weighting criteria used since Schema A ofFayek (1992) was used. (It is suggested for future work that Schema A incorporate the criterion specifiedby the user (frequency of occurrence, manhours lost, time lost), such a change has been made and onlypartially tested--see Appendix B for comparison results for Figures 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10.) This behaviouris expected since the weighting criteria only affects the combination of corrective actions of one activityand does not change the reasoning for the individual problem source analysis. Note that the ranking ofthe corrective actions for the aggregated analysis is a function of the analysis criterion specified.4.5.1.3 MANUAL COMPUTATION AT ACTIVITY LEVELThe manual calculations for individual problem sources at one work location of an activity verifythe accuracy of the analysis process performed by the computer. The calculation is included in AppendixB. Only schema A of Fayek’s routine is utilized in the calculations.122UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONSampleteatprojectforBenjamIn’.theele()Page1Of3DAILYSITEACTIVITYANALYSISREPORTfileLIsed\IlfP280\PROJ87\tfTTReportDate2210193DeportTinel9:2:SSDecisionlder:0ProgressDate:2tWfT2DateUindouUrn.20JH192to2138092Ilethodusedwan-vieIkightingconditionfrelluencliofoccurrenceCocludecoopletedactivitiesfttioitg810100tivttgIIcc:ITraderesponsible:TradeIStartdate20J8092Prnjected(tual)finishdate21J8092Totalduration:IdaysRenamingdoration:3days,757freefloat:dogstotalC looU0daysTotalfloat/renamingduration:0.00tioityAttributesDegreeofOpplicabilitgIHighprecipitative:1.807Crovndconditions:1.809Sitecongestion1.0010Internalaccess:1.8012Labourintensiee:1.0013Cqnipneotinteosint:1.8017Highinspection:1.0018Contractprovision:1.80Totalnw.berofdigslest:13.80Totalvunherofnanlonurslost:54.80ProbleeSource7totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalRetieitylevelCorrectivetinnStrengthRe.DescriptiondaysInstdayslestidoslostairslestoccuroccurDo.DescriptionISSitenotready2110.802815.0013.5Tnsavetine,050neroequipnentaodlesslabour0.8000intensiveconstroctionnetlodiCbudgetand/orsiteconditionspernit.4.2Dosecondaryaorkonhractivity.1.04.7Investigateuseofocle&ledoreetine.l.05.12Retifgowner/projectaanageraboutthepossibility1.ofdelayiftheactivityaffectedisacriticaluve.6.1Purnueaprojecttineextensionfororreasnoable1.0080delaybeyondcontractor’strol.6.3Ifawardofthecontractisdnlaged,askifthe1.0ownerwillpayforaccelerationoncethecontractisawarded.7.3Openadelayclai...1.000031Insnff./lnconpl.Drawing73.118I2.1188IRecorrectiveaction-lackofnupportingevidence12l)rawingerrors3.0813.88814.18Dotedownindailyreportdatesofinforwatino1.8880Figure4.8DailySiteActivityAnalysisReportusingFrequencyofOccurrencePage/01reirstedconnersatiows/nerbaliostroctionstelepherecallsetc..S.14Requestinforwalion/clarificationfrowarchitect1.0808wed/orcoosaitwot(s).7.2loseramtothepartgconesroedtorequest1.0880drannqcoqletion.14fnnfliclirqinformation4.90II6.80814.18Retedownindougreportdatesofinformation1.8880requested,cnnwersatiowo/nerhalinstructions,teleptemnecallsetc..5.9lrçronearchitect/nngimeer/coneoltantcoordination.5.15Retifgmmwnrr/projectmanagerregardingtIeconflictinwriting.6.1ruea‘ojecttineeotinnieiiforninasonabledelaghrpomdcontractor’scontrol.41Insufficientmanpower73.803.00812.1Seekadditinnattrak.enandallocatethemtowctinitgXXYY7Z.44(owskilllevelS2.8063.80912.3Upgradeontraiwodpersenneltotrainedpemowonel.2.4Riocusswithuabtradefomewanuorkforceperformance.2.9Hireworeegeriercelworkerstoleadjr.experiewcndworkers.2.10Reassigninenperinocedworkerstoactinitimswhichdonotrequireenteoci,edulls.2.11Hireeoperiencedwosandsehstitotnforjneoperinncndworkers.45Ionnvtjwation/mmrale99I2.1Seekadditionaltradensenandallocatetie,,toactinitgXXTY.2.5Iflouwoti,ationiseohibitedhajspecificcrew.emers,lagoffwiproductiweworkersandseekins,owes.SI,[terminconstruction12131722.1Seekadditionaltradee,enandallocatethento1.8080actiwitgtX6672.4.9Reallocatetools/euipeentfroapreferahlmja8.5809bufferornon-criticalactinitgInacriticalone.4.18Purchaseorrenthadoipeqoipirot/tools.1.80884.21Pllocatetineforrewoiktocorrecterror.1.89005.2[qlogaqualitgcontrolpmn,gran.1.88805.12Retifgowner/projectnarmageraboutthepossibilitgI.0ofAeloujiftIeactl,itgaffectedisacriticalone.5.16Isseeo4’eed9itoaffectedparties.5.17llotermninetIeiiq’actorconstrictionerrorontheproject;ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforresorb.7.3Openadelagclaim.57l.ajnuterror714.55Oineusswith/owtifgsebtradetslofrequiredchangesinlajout.5.14Hequestinformation/clarificationfm.,architectand/orconseltantlo).95tmrlainaward,contract145.60ISI?26.3Ifawardoftiecontractisdelaged,askiftienamervillpaqforaccelerationonestiecontractisawarded.AqreqntodfroblensftlmnitqILnrlCarrrcti,efttiunStrengthProblonthaikertOm.Or’scriptinnI,]IfonardofLIecontractisdelaed,askiftir0.1789115%PagelOf3oonerwillpayforaccelerationoncetiecontract-isawarded.5.16Isseespeedyneimxtoaffectedparties.0.1648562.1Seekadditionaltradesmenandallocatethemto0.1146Il1656actinityXXYVZZ.5.11Dopiestioforiaatinn/clarificationfromarchitect0.06l3257and/orcensnltantts)fEW.4.10Dotedownindailyrepnrtdatesofinformation0.05273234reynested,coenersatioos/aerkalinstenetinns,telepieeecallsetc..4.15Piscnsswith/notifysohtrade(s)ofreynired8.811757changesinlayent.5.12Ittifyowner/projectmanagerakenttiepessihility0.03t91556ofdelayiftieactinityaffectedisacriticalone.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.031915567.2Isseeameowtoliepartyconcernedtnreynest0.027832drawingcenpletioo.6.1Parsoeaprojectlimeeolensinnfornereasnoahle0.02721534delaykenjendcnnitracter’scontrol.5.9lmprnnearchitecl/engineer/coosmltant0.024934cenrdinatioe.2.4Discnsswithnoktradeferemaownrkforce0.0208IIperformance.2.9Hiremareeoperiencedworkerstolead0.0208IIinexperiencedworkers.4.10Parchaseorrenthacknpeqwipment/teols.0.01%564.21Allocatelimeforremarktncorrecterror.0.01%565.2faiplnyaynalitycontrolprogra0.01%565.17Determinetheimpactofcoostrocliooerrornotie0.01%56çjgproject;ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforrewerk.5.15lbtifyowner/projectmanagerregardingtie0.0111?34conflictinwriting.2.3Opgradeootrainedpersooneltotrainedperseonel.0.0167II2.11Hireenperiencedworkersandsokstitntefor0.01%44inexperiencedworkers.4.2Dosecondarymarkontieoctioity.0.0123154.7lnoestigatenseofsciedoledenertime.0.0123154.9Deallocateteols/eqwipmemtfrompreferahlya8.08%56kofferornon-criticalactinitytoacriticalone.UlICiDONSTICUCT1OI9MANAGEMENTLABREPCONTSSampletwitproject(orBenjamin.the.ls(2)Page101DAILYSITEACTIVITYANALYSISREPORTflIlsedI)\7OOPPOJ01dftltDeportDale:2211tV33DeportlimeI:3S7DecisionWrProgressDate:2faifl92bate,dow:Crow703(0192lv213(01)2Dothednsnd:Deightuigcondition”wanheurlostCocludernwg’letediclioititsfrtivily:616166kti,ityIbc:1tradrrespoosiblTradeIStartdale:70.J(0f37Projrcledltual)finishdate23.3(01)2lolalduration4Demainingdorat,nn3days,?SX[ronC loaLDdaysTotalfloat6daysTotalfloat/reiwaininyduration6.66ftiwityAttributesDegreeofiplicabiIityIHighprciptatno:1.06?Coundcor4itions:1.06Sitecongestion:1.06lbInternalaccess:1.0617Lwbcwirinlensiot:1.06IIEquipmentsotnnsiu:1.06I?highinspection:1.06IAContractpronision1.06Totalnun3.erofdayslost:43.661taIrooterof,.anlu,nrslost54.06froble,,Sonrcetotallotaltotaltotal2totaltinitgtenniEorroctioetionStrengthDo.1)eccriptioodayslostdayslosteslostotislostoccuroccurDo.DescriptionISSiterotready2310.002815.06II13.5Tosawntime,nonmereeqiiipwrntaodlosslabour6.0066inteosiooconstructionmethedifbudgetand/ncsitetonditionspermit.(.2Dosecondargworkontheactinitg.I.?lonestigateoneefonjedoledonertime.5.12Dotifgowner/projectmanageraboutthepossibilitg1.0606ofdelayiftIeactioitgaffoctedisacriticalone.b.lPureeaprojecttimenotcosionForonre.asonable1.6606ilelagbenjondcootractor’econtrol.61IFawardofthecontractisdelanjed,ashiftie1.ownerwillpagforaccelerationothecontractisawarded.7.3Openadnlaijclaim.1.666091lne(1./lnromplPraoinq7IIIDocorrectiveaction-lackofepportingceidence11Droningrrrors78I4.18Dotedowninlailgreportdittoofinformation1.0666Figure4.9DailySiteActivityAnalysisReportusingManhoursLostcriterionPage7013requested,conoersations/nerkalieotrwctioos,telephocecallsetc..5.14Requestiolormation/clarificatiuaFromarchitect1.6060and/orconsultautls)1t.1.2Issueairetotheportgconcernedtorequest1.6666drawiogcompletion.34(ontlittiogcnlornotios31.66II614.16RetedeanindoUgrepertdatesofinformation1.6666requested,coooersatioos/oerkalinstructions,telephonecoltsetc..5.9Inprowearchitect/eogioeer/cooociltaot1.6066coordination.5.15lhctifqowner/projectmanagerregardingtie6.7566conflictinwriting.6.1Parsonaprojecttimeesteosionfornraeaueoahte6.6660delaghegoodcontractor’scontrol.ittosolticientmanpower73.66h31416I2.1Seekadditionaltradesoeoandallocatethento1.6666actioitg019172.44towstilttenetS2.66t,3.66612.3Upgradenntrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.6.60662.4Riocusswithsoktradeforemanworkforce1.6666perfornarce.2.9Hireworeenperiecredtenetstolead1.6060ioeoperiencedworkers.2.16Reassigoior.operiecceedceirloirstoactioitieswhich6.5666docentrequireeoteosioechills.2.11Hireeoperiercedworkersandowkstitatefor63666ioeeperieocedaorkers.ittoowetenatcon/ewerate94.667HI2.1Seekadditionaltradreoandallocatethemto1.6666actioitgt11172.2.511lroawotieatiomiseohikitedkgspecificcrew1.6666traders,lagoffwoprodoctioeworkersandseekcrwones.SErrorincoostroctisoIl13Il22.1Seekadditionaltradesmenandallocatetintol.actioitgflflU.4.9Reallocatetools/eqoipmentfrompreferaklga6.5666kafferoreon-criticalactioitgtnacriticalone.4.16Parchaoeorrootkacloipngnipcrmt/tnolo.1.66601.21Allocatetineforreworktoaerrecterror.1.66665.2Employaqualitycontrolprogram.1.60665.12lttifgcorner/projectmanageraknwttiepossikilitej1.6666ofdelayiftieactinitgaffectedisacritical000.5.16Isseespeedytoaffectedparties.1.66605.11DeterminetieimpactofconstructionerrorontIe1.6666projectifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforrework.7.3Openadelayclaim.57spenterror766I4.15Dircossoitklontifgowbtrade(slofrequiredchangesiolageot.5.14Requestiofoneoationfclorificatioofromarchitectand/orceosoltaottslOW.35Pntaqinaward.coetrattt4lS6.661726.3IfawardnOtiecontractisdelayed,askiftieownerwillpayforaccelerationoiceotiecontractisawarded.OpgregatedProklemsfttinit9lendforrectioefrtiooStrengthProhlenlhcmkertte.DescriptionI,.]Ifawardofttecontractisdelayed.askiftIeI6.lt96IS95‘ageJUlownermillpagmraccelerationoncetIecontractisawarded.6.1Pursueaprojectlineeutensionforunreasonable8.1144IS34drla’gbeqiinlcontractor’scontrol.2.!Sethadditionaltradesmenandallocatethento8.1070114656actioitqXXV???.5.12Ilatilqraioer/projectmanagerabouttIepossihilitg8.05611556ofdelaqiftheactioitgaffectedisacriticalone.1.]Dpenadelaqclaim.0.056115564.18tbitedownindailqreportdatesofinrnrnatioo0.05173234reqoested,conversations/verbalinstrnctioos,telepheoecallsetc..S.IlBequestinturmatioo/clarificatinofronarchitect0.04633257and/orcnnouiltantts)I&f.4.2Dosecondarqnorkontheactivity.0.048015I.?Innestigateuseofscheduledooertiwe.8.0480155.9Inpronearckitect/eogioeer/consoltant0.033?34coordination.4,15Aiscnssoith/notirqonbtradels)ofrequired0.027057changesinlaqoot.5.15lh,tifgowner/projectmanagerregardingthe0.024931cnnrlictiowriting.7.2Issueameowtothepartyconcernedtorequest0.010532draoingcompletion.1.10Porchaseorrentkackopequipment/bob.0.0153564.21Allocatetimeforreworktocorrecterror.0.0153565.2Faipbnyaqualitycontrolprogram.0.0153565.16Issuespeedymeowtoarfectedparties.0.0153565.17Determinetheimpactofcnnstroctiooerroronthe0.015356project;ircritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersroerework.2.4Discusswithsuktraderoreaianmorkrnrce0.813944performance.2.9Itiremareenperiencedworkerstolead0.013944inenperiencedworkers.2.3Upgradenotrainedpersonneltotrwinedpersonnel.0.0111442.11Itireeuperiencedworkersandsobstitotefoe0.8097IIineiperirncednorhers.1.9Reallocatetools/equipmentfronpreferablya0.807656barfrrornun-criticalactivitytoacriticalone.UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANACEMENTLABIDEPCON1MSwmpl.ti.LprojectforBenjamlo’.theel.(2)PageIll3DAILYSITEACTIVITYANALYSISICEPOICTfileUse.EI:\88\r80JO7\tITITDeportDat&220ThDeportTine:11:4800Revisiontha,erIProgreosDate20J1t102DoteOindon:from283ct432to213(8192Dethodosejman-winUcightingcnndiliontine_lostIncludecompletedactinitiesDetiv)tg010180DetinitgIlocITraderespansibleTrade1Startdate283(4192Projected(Detnal)finishdate233r4f32TotaldnratinnIdogsRemainingduration3dogs,75/freeFloat:OdagsTotallinaCdigstotalIloat/reavainingduration8.88ktiuit.jAttributesDegreeof(jiplicabtlitgIiiihreciritation:1.88?Ccnnditions:1.88Sitecongestion1.8010Internalaccess1.80l2habuorintensive1.8013Iqoipneotintensive:1.80I?highinspection:1.00IIContractprovision1.88Totalnw.kerofdagslost:43.80Total,o,nber.1,.a,ilnjnrslost51.80Pruhie.SourcetotaltotaltotaltotaltotalDetivitgLevelCorrectiveDetio.Strtngthllj.Descriptiondagslostdogsloste’frslostrjrslostoccuroccnrPa.DeecriptionISSiteoutreadg2316.882015.80813.5Tosanetine,iononceequiponotandlesslabour6.8880intensivecoonbrgctioanetlodifbudgetand/orsittconditionsperneit.4.2Dosecor4orgmarknotOnwctlnitg.4.7Investigateoneofneldulednnertine.I.M5.12&tifgovoer/projectmanageraboittOnpnssibilitg1.ofdelagiftOnacti,itgaffectedisacriticalone.6.1Puroneaprojecttinecotensinoforonrcasonable1.6delagbegondcontractor’scontrol.6.3IiawardoftincontractisIelaged,askiftIn1.8000owneraillpagforacozlerationoncetincontractisaaarded.7.3Openadeligclaim.1.808831Iusnff./lnuivpl.braving73.00I2.8881Pacorrectionaction—lackofnapportiogevidence1/Draaingerrors1380I,3.06014,18Patedawninlail4reportdatesofinformation1.8800Figure4.10DailySiteActivityAnalysisReportusingTimeLostCriterionPage201334Conflictinyinformation41Insufficientmanpower44[owskilllevel46[owwotination/nerale56Drorinconstruction57layouterror95Delayinaaard.contract9 7 S 9 12 II1662.084.663.8011 6 13 IS6.683.863.063.888.608 0 17 172requested,counersatiuns/nerbalinstructions,telephonecallsetc..5.14Requestinfomnatiow/clurificatianIronarchitectand/orcousultaut(slASPI.7.2Issueaneontothepartyconcernedtoreqaestdraniugcopyiletion.4.10lttedewoindailyreportdatesofinformationrequested,connersatious/nerhalinstructions,telephonecallsetc..5.9leqeronearchitect/eugieeer/cnnsnltantcoordination.5.15Ittifyinter/projectmanagerregardingtheconflictinwriting.6.1Pursueaprojecttineeoteusinnforunreasonabledelaybeyondcontractor’scontrol.2.!Seekadditionaltradegemandallocatethentoactinity801172.2.3Upgradeuntrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.2.4Discusswithsubtradnforopeunworhforceperfornaucn.2.9Hireworeeoperioncndworkerstoleadineoperieocedworkers.2.10Reassigniuexperiencedworkerstoactiwitiesediichdonotrequireeotensineskills.2.10Hireenperinncedworkersandsubstituteforineoperinocedworkers.2.1Seekadditionaltradesmenandallocatethentaactiuity007772.2.5Iflinewotinationisexhibitedkgspecificcrewekers,lugoffonprudoctineworkersandseekneweows.2.1Seekadditionaltradesmenandallocatethentoactinity019122.4.9Reallocatetwols/eqoipneutIronpreferablyabufferorwon-criticalactinitytoacriticalone.1.16Purchaseorrentbackupequiperut/tuols.4.21Allocatetinefurreworktocorrecterror.5.2Deployaqualitycontrolprogram.5.12ittifyowner/projectmanageraboutthepossibilityofdelayiftheactinityaffectedisacriticalone.5.16Issunspeedytoaffectedparties.5.17Ontnrninetheie,actnfceoistrnctiwoerrorontheproject;ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforrework.7.3Openadelayclaim.4.15Discussaithmsotifysuktrade(s)ofrequiredchengesinlagnat.5.14Requestinformation/clarificationfromarchitectand/orcousultant(s)ASPI.6.3Ifawardofthecontractisdolayed,askiftheownerwillpayforaccelerationnicethecontractisawarded.1.6l.61.6635066.6866116661.66666.5631.66661.01.66.51166611600l.8 1.68661.1.6666t.61.61.6AggregatedPrablewsflctieilyLeonCorrectineActionStrengthProblewthinkerito.Description6.1Pursoeaprojecttineentensinuforunreasonable6.2*311534IU)CPage3013delaybeyondcontractor’scontrol.6.3IIawardorthecontractisdelayed,ashifthe0.17371595onoerwillpayforaccelerationoncethecontractisawarded.2.1Seekadditionaltradro&nandallocatethemto0.1300411656actinity000Y2Z.5.11Hequestioformation/clarificationfromarchitect0.05013257and/arcuns,altaotts)AS’.4.10lttedownindailyreportdateoofinformation0.05103234requested,conoersations/nerhaliostrnctioos,telephenecallsetc..5.12Detilyowner/projectmanagerahanatthepossibility0.04791556ofdelayiftheactinityaffectedioacriticalone.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.047915564.15Discusswith/notifysuhtradets)ofreqoired0.034957changesinlayent.1.2Desecondarywnrkootheactioity.0.0312154.7lnaestigateuseofschedoledonertime.0.0342IS5.3Improvearchitect/engieeer/cnmsoltant0.027834coordination.7.2Issueameamotothepartyconcernedtorequest0.023332drawingcompletion.5.15Ittifyowner/projectmanagerregardingthe0.020034conflictinwriting.1.10Purchaseorrentbackupeqnipmeot/tools.0.0137564.21Allocatetimeforreiwnrhtocorrecterror.0.0t37565.2fa.ployaqualitycontrolprogram.0.0137565.16Issuespeedymematoaffectedparties.0.0)37565.17Determinetheimpactofconstruetionerroronthe0.013756project:ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/onrkersforrework.2.4Discusswithsnhtradeforemanworhforce0.011644performance.2.9Hiremereeuperiencedworkerstolead0.0116IIinenperiencedworhers.2.3Upgradeuntrainedpersanoeltotrainedpersunnel.0.08’))442.11Hireeaperiencedworkersandsubstitutefar0.000144ineeperiencedworkers.4.9Deallocatetools/equipmentfranpreferablya0.0056kalferornon-criticalactioitytoacriticalone.4.5.2 VALIDATION FOR TRADE AND PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSIS4.5.2.1 PROJECT DATA FOR TRADE AND PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSISSimilar to the daily site analysis at the activity level, a project was created from 20 January 1992to 14 February, 1992. The activity report for the project is shown in Figure 4.11; the Work EnvironmentData Report, Work Force Data Report, and Daily Site History Report are shown in Figures 4.12, 4.13,and 4.14, respectively.132tTtC4)IISTIIIJCTION)‘IANACEMEFITLABRER’Ct)N10Filellsr4D:\RIy700\pR0J36\T1)lSelect’AllfrtinitiesSort’&tivit9CodeSampleteatprojecttorBenjamin’•theol,ActivityrelitlonehipreportoCriticalkttoitg•CstnerniogpredecessoroPanactioitgorsuccessorgonernodhgactioitgllrportDote71110003Reportlie&15:12:86RevisionIfl,nbcr8ProgressRate:IllTh92PaqeIor7(FtCWillPOOR.ROTATOPCSlotRI],1aAlT/tnt-00011SKIP[410II’S8881-10107lOt11111ft00110110,11001Highprec-lowpreci-Highteop-lowtaco-lhomiditgRindGrooMto-StorageonSitecoog-Internal-Coteroal-Lahoorio-£qnipro’nt1100100.l)TRA1101811,151PMipitatioopitatiooeratoreratoreoditinossiterstiooaccessaccesstcnsioeintensiveIH/A0/AWAH/A8.088888.888.808.888.888.888.881.888.088.801.888.811‘70H/AOH/A‘18H/A88/A‘10H/A88/A•SO8/A88/A‘68H/A80/A‘78H/A88/A•A88/A8H/A•98H/fl8H/A•IA88/A80/AOilerac-lnnnnalioeDesignch-Itighiosp-Contract-tootrolledleabIer-looming-Resigncotio•tgncttndsangesectinoprnvisionennirooaeoaucecurveottoçlenitg0000.01)1.881.881.1108.1181.888.1018.80PISCOIPTICIIfttio.tqIPRI]ILtLSSARSotI.tOPEP1’St8IPTI101010100,ProjectStnrtTOOtPlOtRI],totCIT/lOtC.(COtRt’SC8IPTlOtt81II’S81‘818280&tioitg2w I.,)TOOtSlAtRI].titCAlT/lOt1I’S8081.0€FftHlPRAR.ROTA110011SKIPlolAI-18I8Slot[Otttl.AATgAIN.FLOATHighprer-lowpreci-highleap-tan.teqe-IlaniditgKind(‘cooedto-StorageonSitetong-Internal-Internal-labourin-tqnipeent1101011.1)18.01108111.1)100ipitatinnpitatiooeratureratorenditinossiteestionaccessaccesstensieeintensineoI8/A8/fl8/A8/A1.008,81)8.888.888.888.8111.888.881.881.088.088.801.8878/A8/AH/AH/A38H/AIH/AI8H/A3H/A588/ASWA688/A78/A708/A9H/A088/AII8/A98H/A13H/A10158/AIS8/A(CT(CIII((IC‘0101110A1lt’IlO(TIC‘018’00AhTITIlToIl’‘OPLVRIPTIBIft’lieilq2RotteracInnovativeResignclv-Highinsp-Contract-ControlledtowbIer-learning-DesigntoheitgirtIn.dsangesectionprnnisionmnirowoaucecomeePPooçleoitg8.088.008.881.888.008.888.888.888.88POII1IIFSSORSOtT.COltRCSC8IPTIO8•018100Deti,itgI10805501$T8PCPIACRI].totOFT/lotOtt.(CR1RFSCOIPTIOIIIPS88H0.870188frtieitg31O13(CCISSOOSSIICCISSOHSlotANtIPOOP.POlOIqs’AlrllogOCT.EPiC1ICTIIPTICIITiltPlOtRI).lotCIT/lotOtT,COOtDISCRIPTINITYPEStOtRI].huitOIT,1.Ot1008SKIPlAIRíamph;1‘‘010/00(Clinil21[5888“010208ProjectFinish,8118I’S0IIIF10IASFigure4.11ActivityReportfortestingattradeandprojectlevelsPage2012LOCflEEFLOATTOTALFLOATHighprec-Lawpreci-Hightenp-Loutempo-IhiwiditgWindGrounden—StoragenoSitetong-Internal-Ceternal-Lahnnrin-Eqnipnont0001111.COTTAOAOIHTLCOTTAipitationpitatinneratureratnrenditinnssiteestinoaccessaccesstensineintensive100/A160/A0.00HOW1.000.000.000.000.001.001.001.000.001.000.0022N/A16N/A32N/Aii0/AI20/A120/A520/A100/A62li/Ag0/A72N/A60/A020/AIN/A920/A20/Aw1000/A0N/ADullerac—InnnnatineDesignch-Highinsp-Contract-ControlledLowtome-Learning-DesigntotinitymethodsangesectionprnnisinnennirnnwenoncetunenIlemqmlenitg0.000.001.000.001.001.001.000.000.00Onilerac-Ilnnnnatineloesigneh-IHighinsp—Ilontroct-ItontrnlledlLowtoler-ILoarning-benignco-II-.n_iaItinityImetNmdsIangnsIectinnprnnisieuIennirnnonnlanceItoneelIelmqleuitgI.p.I0.0010.0010.OOILOO0.OOIO.00I0.OOi&OOIo.00ILOCIDACP000.DATATYPESLOtDELLAGOFI/LAC0000SHIP010110-10100/ALACFREEFLOATTOTALFLOATHighprec-Lowpreci-Hightnt,-Lowtempo-Ihn.iditgWindGroundto-StorageonSitecnng-Internal-Eutornal-l.ahnnrin-EqnipmentOAAO11LCOTtAN3TI11LCOTtAipitatinnpitatinneratoreratureeditionssiteestinnaccessaccesstensionintensiveo1000/A0N/A0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00Wolferac—lnnnnatineDesignch-Highiasp-Contract—ControlledLowtuler-Learning-DesigncutinilymethodsangesectinnpronisinoenvirnmnoncecomeeFFemçleuitg0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00ACTIVITYPOEDYIESSOTSSt01ESSOOSLOCW0EPROD.DATACODEDESCRIPTIONACT.CODEDESCRIPTIONTYPEPLOtDELLAGOFT/bCALT.CODEDESC0IPTIA0TYPESLACDELLAGOFF/LAC0000SHIPDUOWGOOI0OProjectStartw010100Detinitg1NTIES001-I100/AICC1101FLOATTOTALFLOATHighproc-Lowpmeci-Hightom,-lowtnmqmo-IliuiditgWindGroundto—StorageonSitetong- Internal-External-baheurin-Equipmentl11Tfft1010000I011L10100ipitationpitatiuneraturerationeditionssiteestiuoaccessaccesstensineintensineI0/A0/AN/AN/A0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00ACTIVITYPIIIIIIIOSSOIISSOCCESSOOSCODEDESCRIPTIONALT.EOYCDESCRIPTI00TYPEPLOC1111LAGDOT/LOtALT.COALDESCOIPTI10InCC0200PrnjectFinish0.020100frtinitg)NT10150-10--FATATOTAL015ACTIVITIESREPCONTMFileUsed:p:\OEpZ08\pOUJ36\T[TfleportPeriad2OJf92to14F12leatherandSiteConditions.0Ihei-worhedDogUFflBCOtlDITlSITEKItIGtI’ll1131’Ce)(3101119COt19ItI01STOIINEOil SITEACGS10SITEPATE(a)Ib)Ic)Id)hod(F)(9)(6)c0111IfTSClearCIoudilainiSoonCleariClondRainiSnowHighilowPrecipSpeedPoorFainGoodPoorFainGoodPoor1FairGoodCCkph2Oitt9ZU015780UU2lJIT2U0135S20UU22itUJZHUII61238HUZ3J0112UU1301525UI21JPA12UU13I38UU27JlZPU122028UUZUJPAT2UU100010UU29JtJZUU15530UU3UIrdZHH187815U31JKZUK14S815UKO3FEU32UH165015UUU41t992UU10381HOSITU9Z0U1638UUUSFLUTZUU1540UUOIFCOUZUH1220UHIHFCHU2HU153820UUUI1FF132UUU1103930UUU12FEB92KU102018UKU13FEB92U15202011114FEB92UU17I015UUHUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABSampleteotprojectforBenjamin’ethelDAILYSITEWORKENVIRONMENTREPORTOeportlate:ZI113Deporthoe:15:39:82Progresslate:14113192Ilenisioolheer:0Figure4.12WorkEnvironmentDataReportfortestingattradeandprojectlevelsREPCONAMIi)TAAAD3)UlDeepSuper(4)(kA(I)(ml(ii)DATECodeTradeintendentASatSkillTurnoverAnerlitsCosientsPTIMAAll.AKI.DearsZAJcSDTZCA-AAAAlTradelASADAAZAJ(tiAZCAAKAAlTradelISAKA2235)92CITAAAlTradel1SNAAZ3Jctl92AlTradeII£AlAIA2435192C17ilA2735)92CIAAAAlTradel17AKA2AJctAA2CI-AAAAlTradeA17AAK29i5192G-AAAA-AltradelA7AAA3AJSI92IAIAradeAf171AAIAllJc.n2CIAAAAlTradelIIAAAAA3FED92CAAAAAATraAeAIIAAAAA4FA92CAAAANATradelAIAAAAASFA92C--AAAAAITradeAAAAAA%1tA92CAAAAAATradeIAAAAAA7FCA92CIAAAAlTradeAIAAAAA2Trade213AAAAAFCA92CAAAAAlTradelAAAAKA2AradeZA3VAAAeportDate:21(1)993DeportThe:15:39:39ProgressDat&A4FA92AenisionItisker:AUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABSampletestprojectforBenjamin’sthesisDAILYSITEWORKFORCEREPORTFileAced:D:\AEP2AA\PA0336\TESTDeportPeriod:2AJ1t192—AIFEA92AllAespnnsibilitgCodes.to)aflgure4.13WorkForceDataReportfortestingattradeandprojectlevels(UTRAPDIDIRespSuper-(j)1k)(I)(N)PATECodeTradeinteedentNSupSkillTurnonerNP/NHIPILKfIIJL(n)PuerTiNeIkoirsCuiNlents1I1EP9251PPPNITradel1PNPPNZTradeZISVPPI2ITPVZCIPPPPiTradelISNPPPZTradeZ3PPPP1315092C1PPOlTrudelI12PP1P2Trade2I6PPP14SEP93CIPP1PITradel1SNPPN2Trade216PPP—IUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTOSampletestprojectforBenjamin’stheeIsDAILYSITEHISTORYREPORTCriticalCExtraReckOrderolAin-workedRagILetter1Ilnochedwled0Resin0BackchargeITeleptoneReportRate:22B1C93ReportTii&20:30:06ProgressDate14FEB92RevisionFtjnber0FileUsed:B:\BEp200\PRUJ36\TEBTReportPeriod20310192-14)11192UI)Projectfttivities.00SOIERULEB/FPRL1ACTUAL(DlBATEP00(1131tAll100)05LUSTBOOSLOSTLU)START[1111811P1)11START[1015)110300STATUSOCOPCOREBDW(RS0P000)331(COCIIPTIOIIACTION[STABJTOTALF_FM0113TOTALActi”ity:010190ActieityII2030313224310192S2030319220310192720310192S01(32)4.001.0001(31)3.002.0021310)92U0)(40)2.0022303092URI(II)2.0023310192URI(4(1(.0024303192273030)2U20310)92F231,1031920611092529303)9204(11192S2930319253(310192001(41)2.002.0031303032U031119200411192F3071119213(1092505(1(92101119210051131920611192001(41)2.002.00011%)1.00071119201011192U01(41)2.000.30111119201211192001(41)0.4013113)92000(4(10.300.200115615.000.1011113192001(II)0.300.30)SURTUTALS19.6013.30lActlvity:010200Actlvity2131303)92101109272930309206110927293030925OR(41)3.001.00(46)10.000.5030303192001(41)2,000.403(303192001(4(13.000.300311192004110920511092006(1192F2111109219FEB92707FD19219FEB92907FEB92501(II)1.0010FEB92002(41)3.000.2011FEB9212FEB92001141)2.0001(56)5.001311092U01141)2.000.4001(56)4.0014FEB92U(34)2.000.50Figure4.14DailySiteHistoryReportfortestingattradeandprojectlevelsISURTUTrtS16.081.78SCW.OULEP/FfdlLYACTUAl.RI)?PATEP800W?FAR?lOUTSLASTTAOSLOSTLotSTART1101501TOOSTART0101514lAIR1STATUSRESTCUTERI3ITI1AS1P800W?DESCRIPTIONACTIONFISTOOJTOTALF_ESTATJTOTALActivity:010200ActivityII!0H4flIIoo--ISOOTOTALSI36.484.90Actlvity:020100Actlvity$IllltR9Z1710892S87008921900892907FEB92S02(34)2.0008FEB92U(34)5.088.401100092A01141)3.000.40120089213FEB92013412.080.401400892U(34)4.808.50)ns172.00119904.5.2.2 COMPUTER OUTPUT FOR TRADE AND PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSISCalculations were performed at trade and project levels using the “MAX-MIN” method. Figures4.15, 4.16, 4.17 are analyses performed at the trade level using “MAX-MIN” method with weightingcriteria of either frequency of occurrence, manhours lost, or time lost. Similarly, figures 4.18, 4.19, and4.20 illustrate the analyses performed at the project level using “MAX-MIN” method with weightingcriteria of either frequency of occurrence, manhours lost, or time lost.4.5.2.3 MANUAL COMPUTATION AT TRADE AND PROJECT LEVELThe manual calculations for the trade and project level analysis are presented in Appendix C andD respectively. The manual computations verified the analysis process completed by the computer. Thethree separate calculations for aggregating corrective actions using different weighting criteria are alsoshown for each calculation.4.6 CASE STUDY EXAMPLEAfter verifying the computational accuracy of the system using the previous test projects, datasomewhat similar to that found in the case study described in chapter 2 was generated in order to morefully explore the prototype. Daily site data for the period of 7th February, 1994 to 4th March, 1994were generated. Appendix E includes all the supportive information for this case study such as activitylogic report, listing of activity attributes, project schedule in bar chart format, history report, project dailysite data, work force report, site condition report, etc.. Table 4.1 summarizes the data interpretation runsconducted and their reports are included in Appendix F.140URICii)NSTI0UCTIONMANAGEMENTLADREPCONT0SampleSewSprojectforBenjamIn’.Shoal.Page1012DAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTtileusedR\RlYlRO\PROJ36\TESTReportRate:7201193ReportTine19:18:57Reoisioohawker:aProgressRate1111192toteRiodowfrom783101112to1111197Detloidosed001-010kiglatiogcondition:frequencyofoccoereoceTradeRITradeITotalrooterofdayslost:1878Totaltoimberofoaoloairslost:56.80ProblemSoorceRispeesioototaltotal7.totaltotaltotalTradel.eoelCoreectimeRetioeStrengthho.Rescriptionlr.deotagslostdayslostekeslostekeslostoctoroccurho.Deocriptioo32traaiogerrors8.2101000S1.8074.8041Itocorrectinoactioo—lickofsapportiogenideoce31Cooflictingofoematioo8.488080142.5095.00I22.1Adoptaworestringentqoalitgcootrolprogramforthistrade.2.2Riscosswithwhtradeitsooerallperformance.0.48002.4Preparedelayclaim.0.l2.6Imprononahtradecoordination.0.48002.7Iwprooeaechitect/eogiwoer/prnjectmanager0.4880coordination.2.0Openeotraworkordersinceproblemoriginated0.4080iiitharchi tecteoioeer.IIlnoiifficieolmanpower7714.1039601?1.1si9nworewontotheproject.0.01.3Replacecrewwithaworeeoperieocedone.0.48802-2Discusswithonhtradeitsowerallperformance.0.39002.3Requiremewsiaktrmde.0.48002.4Preparedelayclaim.0.4000IIleawotieation/,awale0.28888430.581918.8041lbcorrectinoactioo-lackofnappartingewideoce‘3,Errorinrooslractioo0181160010.182715.0016II.)Replacecrowwithaworeeopeeieecedone.1.4Inoestigatealternatestartofworkdayforcrew.0.5800ISSeekadditionalonelnroforreoneii.0.49002.1Adoptaworeotriogootqoalitgcontrolprogramfor0.7800tkiotrade.2.2Discusswithoakteadeitsonerallperfoemasce.0.40002.5Placespecialatteotiononactioitiosfor0.Slocalizedproklemonorco.IljgrryaledfroklrmsTrade[eoelCorrectioeIttionlStreogtkProblemltimker01,.DescriptionI.]Ileplarecrewoithaworeeoperieoredone.0.19394156?APreparedelayclaim.0.18783441IIAssignrorementotIeproject.0.1888II2.3&qiiirenewsoktrade0.1980412.Discussauthsoktradeitsnoerallperformaoce.0.155731415621Adoptaworestringentqoalitycontrolprogramfor0.03433456Figure4.15AnalysisatTradeLevelforexampleusingFrequencyofOccurrence1%)thistrade.1.1Investigatealternatestartofworkdayforcrew.2.5Placespecialatteotiononactivitiesforlocalizedproblemsource.1.5Seekadditionalworkmentarrework.2.6Improvesuktradecoordination.2.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanagercoordination.2.0Opeoentraworkordersinceproblemoriginatedoitkarchitect/engineer.Trade:02trade2Totalnumberofdayslnvt1.70Totalenimberatnaniniursloot:16.060.01630.61636.01360.06716.00710.06715& Sb 56 34 34 34Page20f2ProblemSauteDispersion2totaltotal2totaltotal7.totalTradeItnelCorrectionDetionStrengthIt,.Descriptionlodendayslostdayslostwitslostwitslostoccurnccnrlhi.llescriptioo34Conflictinginformationt.600761.360113.0011042.1Moptawornstringentqnalitgcootrolprogramfor0.5066thintrade.2.2Dincosswithoobtradeitsaural)perlnemance.0.50602.4Preparedelayclaim.1.02.6Impromewhtradecoordination.6.70602.7lqronearchitect/engineer/projectmanager1.6060coordination.2.0Openeotraworkordersiocoproblemoriginated1.0000witharchitect/engineor.IIInsufficientmanpower1.066600240.40193.062011.1signmaremantotheproject.1.00061.3eplacecrewwithamareenperieecedone.0.56602.3Deqoirenewonhtrade.1.06602.4Preparedelanjclaim.0.5066AggregatedProblems2.4Preparedelayclaim.2.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanagercoordinatino.2.6Apeoentraworkordersinceproblemoriginatedwitharchitect/engineer.2.6Improvesobtradecoordination.2.1optamarestringentqualitycontrolprogramforthistrade.2.2Oiscosswithsahtradeitsoverallperformance.1.1Rssignworewontotheproject.2.3kqairenewoobtrade.1.3Oeplacecrewwithaworeenperiencedone.344134 34 34 34 34 41 4’ IITradeleoelCorrectivektiooStrengthPrahlemllosherWI.Description0.20350.17020.17020.11910.06510.00510.06670.06670.6333UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTSSampleteatprojectforBenjamIn’.thn.l.PageIII2DAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTrileused:D:\DEP280\PD0J36\TlTReportDate:22D1t93ReportTire:19:51:59OevisiooWr8ProgressDate:14111192DateAiodoa:from20Jf192tollfED92Retiedosed:mae-edoReightiogceoditionpanleor_lostTrade:81Trade1iota)neaterofdayslost:10.20Totaleonterofeanleorslost:56.80ProblemSoorceDispersioo2totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalTradeLeoelCarrectineDetinoStreogtkRe.DescriptionlodeodayslostdayslostaIrslestaIrslostoccoroccorRe.llewriptioo32Draaiogerrors8.2DB51.0074.8041Recorrectiveaction—lackofoipportiogevidence14Cooflictinyinformation0.480142.5895.00022.tAdoptamarestriogeotqoalitymetro)programfor0.2tkiotrade.2.2Discossmitkeiktradeitsoverallperformance.0.40002.4Preparedelayclaim.0.40662.6lqronenihtradecoordioatioo.0.40062.7liqirovearckitect/eogioeer/projectmaoager0.4000coordioatioe.2.0Opennotraimrkordersinceprnklemoriginated0.lcitharckitect/eagineer.IIlesafficientnaopnaerl.8007?14.103922.0060I?1.1igomaremantatIeproject.0.40001.3Replacecremmithamareeoperiencedone.0.40802.2Oiscnssaitheihtradeitsoverallperformance.0.30002.3Requiremannibtrade.0.l2.4Preparedelayclaim.0.400016Leamatieatinn/marale0.20000830.501010.0041Recnrrectineaction-lackofsupportingevidenceStErrorincenstruction8.48880018.182?15.8016I1.3Replacecraawithamareeeperiencedone.8.40801.1lonestigatealternatestartofmarkdayforcren.0.S1.5SeekadditinealmarIneforreaork.0.40002.1Adoptamarestringentqualitycontrolprogramfor0.21818tkistrade.2.2Disunssmitho,ktradeitsoverallperformance.0.46002.5Placespecialattentionomactinitiesfor0.5886loealizedprakiemsoorce.AygreyatedPrntlemsTradeLevelCorrectiveActionStrengthProblemReekerRe.Description1.3Replacecremaittamareenperiencedone.0.170?11562.4Preparedelayclaim.0.1519344t2.2Discusswithsnttradeitsoverallperformance.0.14613441561.1Designmaremantotheproject.0.1412II2.3Acqaireoemsnbtrade.0.1112112.1Adoptamarestringentqualitycontrolprogramfor8.11353456Figure4.16AnalysisatTradeLevelExampleusingManhoursLostPage2012thistrade.1.1Investigatealternatestartofworkdayforera..2.5Placespecialattentionnoactinitiesforlocalizedprohlensource.1.5Seekadditionalwnrln.enforrework.2.6Improvesohtradecaordinatinw.2.?lmproeearchitect/engineer/projectmanagercoordination.2.8Openentraworkordersinceprohieworiginatedwitharchitect/engineer.Trade:02Trade2TotalrankerofdaysIost1.28Totaloankrrofwanlarorslost:16.80AggregatedProhiens8.83698.83698.82%8.81878.810?8.818756 56 56 34 31 31PrnhlewSourceDispersion2totaltotal2totaltotal7.totalTradehanoICarroctineDelia..Strengthft.DescriptionlndendaysInstdayslostwitslastairslastaccaroccurft.Description34Conflictinginforaatiwn1.088761.388113.888842.1Adoptamarestringentqaalitgcentralprogramfor8.5088thistrade.2.2Discusswitha.ibtradeitsenerallperformance.8.58802.4Preparedelayclaim.1.88882.6Impranenohtradecoordination.8.78882.7Impronearchitect/engineer/projectmanager1.8coardinatian.2.8Opeaextraworkordersinceproblemoriginated1.witharchitect/engineer.41Insofficientmanpower1.8248.48193.887811.)Assignmareiantofirproject.1.3lteplacecrewwithamareeaperiencedone.8.58082.3Deqoirenewnahtrade.1.88882.1Preparedelayclaim.8.58802.1Preparedelayclaim.2.?Iwprneearchitect/engineer/projectmanagercoordination.2.8Openeatraworkordersinceprahlennriginatedaitharchitect/engineer.2.6Twpronesehtradecenrdinatina.2.1Adeptaworestringentqualitycoatrelprogramforthistrade.2.2Discossaithsnhtradeitsonerallperformance.1.1Assignworeiantotheproject.2.3Asqeirenewsnhtrade.1.3Replacecrewwithaworeenperiencedone.8.28418.17298.172g8.12188.88648.80648.86258.86258.8312344134 34 34 31 34 41 41 IITradeLareelCorrectionDetionIStrengthPrnhlenIknd.erft.DescriptineUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTOfileUsedD:\R[P209\p10j36\TISrSampletestprojectforBenjamin’.thesisDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTReportRate:72Df113ReportThe:19:54:20OcoisiuwRewker:aPropessRate:1411192PageIOf2DateUindoo:Fros28.19892to1411192Retlndused:sax-alelkightiegcusditioetue_lostTrad&81Trade1Totaleusherofdayslest18.28Totaleusherofaaoheurslost:56.00ProblesSourceDispersieu7totaltotal7totaltotal7totalTradeLevelCarrectiseRetiowStrespthIt.DescriptiouIedeodayslestdayslestideslostsirslostoccuroccurRe.Descriptioo32Drawiugerrors0.288060S1.0074.0041lbcorrectieeactiou-lackofoippurtiuyeoideoce34CenflictiegiuIorsatiue0.480000142.5095.00822.1Adoptawerestriugeutqualityceutralprograsfur0.2900thistrade.2.2Discusswithoditradeitsowerallperlurwauce.0.48002.4Preparedelayclaiw.0.42.6lwprouesuhtradecuerdiuatiow.0.40002.7lspruuearchitect/eugieeer/projectwauager0.4800coordioatiuu.2.9Openeutraiwirkordersiuceprubleaunigisated&4witharchitect/eugiweer.41Iusefficieutsaupower1.0000607714.103922.00681?1.1Resiguweretototheproject.1.3Replacecrewaithawereeuperieucedeec.0.40002.2Discusswithsuhtradeitsoeerallpertorsauce.0110002.3qairewe.njhtrade.0.40002.4Preparedelaydais.0.480046Lawweti,atiuu)weralr0.28000030.501010.0041lbcurrectiseactiuw-lackuPouppertiugeuidewee56Erroriecaustructiae0.498000I0.102715.0016I1.3Replacecrewwithawereeoperieuceduse.0.40001.1lusestigatealteruatestartofworkdayforcrew.0.51.5Seekadditinualworkueufurresurh.0.40002.1Adoptawerestriugeutqualitycoutrolprugrasfor0.2900thistrade.2.2Discusswithsuhtradeitsooerallperfursauce.0.40002.5PlacespecialattewtioeweactisitiesFor0.Slocalizedpruhlnwuworce.AggregatedPreblessTradeCruelCurrrctiueActiusStreugthPrahleuItawlierlb.tescriptiou2,4Preparedelaydais.8.2834411.3Orplacecreauithaworeeuperieuceduse.0.192741561.1Assigusurewestothepraject.0.1923412.3Acquireceosahtrade.0.1923412.2Discussaithsohtradeitsouerallpertorwasce.9.15603441562.1AdoptawerestrisgeutqualitycoutrolprugrasFor0.02773456LI’Figure4.17AnalysisatTradeLevelforExampleusingTimeLostthistrade.2.6Improvesnhtradecoordination.2.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanagercoordination.2.0Openextraworkordersinceproblemoriginatedwitharchitect/engineer.1.4InvestigatealternatestartofworkdagForcrew.2.5Placespecialattentisonoactivitiestsrlocalizedproblemsource.1.5SeekadditionalworhoonForrework.Trade:02Trade2Totalsomberofda9slost:0.70Totalnomberofmanbn,rslost:tk.08AggregotedProblems8.8114340.01t4348.8t14348.0885560.0885Sb8.888156PateZIP2ProklewSourceDispersion7totaltotal7totaltotal7totalTradeLendcorrectineActionStrengthtt.DescriptionIndeodaqslostda9slostmirslost*5lostoccurnccorIt.Doscriptioo34Conflictinginformation1.080888761.388113.608042.1Adoptwworestringeotqowlitgcontrolprogramfor0.5088thistrade.2.2Discnsswithwktrwdeitsnnerwllperforownce.0.50002.4Preparedelwgclaim.I.02.6Iqrnnewktrwdecoordination.0.76002.7Iqronearckitoot/eogiocer/projectmanager1.0800coordination.2.0Opeoentroworkordersinceproblemnrigioote41.0800withwrchitect/eogineer.IIInnefficientmanpower1.088880240.48093.602011.1designworewoototheproject.1.00081.3lleplacecrewwithoworeenperiencedone.0.S2.3Acquirenewonhtrade.2.4Preparedelwgclaim.0.52.4Preparedeluqclaim.2.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanagercoordination.2.8Openestraworkordersinceprokleneoriginatedwitharchitect/eogineer.2.6Ioprsnesihtrwdecoordination.2.1AdoptaworestringentqoalitgcontrolprogramForthistrade.2.2tiscssswithwktradeitssnerallperformance.1.1designworewontotheproject.2.3Acquirewowsnhtrade.1.3ReplacecrewwithaworeenperieocedPoe.0,20190.16278.16278.11390.08140.80148.81848.01848.8392344134 34 34 34 34 II It IITradet.enelCorrectiveActionlStrengthProblemlh*erIt.DescriptiooUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTSSampleteetprojectforBenjamin’.theslePage1oriDAILYSITEPROJECTANALYSISREPORTtileUsed:R\U1Y200\PROJ36\TITReportDate:220F393ReportTi:20:00:22RenisionReeker0oessRate:14Fl92PatePiodoutrue20Jul92tollFl3I9ZRetiedused:mao-,,jnUsightingcondition:trequencgatoccurrenceTotalvinierofdagslost:19.90Totalmemberofimanleurslost:72.00Prokle,mSourceDispcrsisuZtotaltotal2totaltotal2totalProjectLevelCorrectivetiooStrengthRa.I)escriptionIndexdagslostdagslosteli’slostdi’slostoccuroccorRe.Rascription32Prawiogerrors0.16666751.0064.003IRecorrectionaction-lackofsopportinevidence34Conflictinginfornation0.500000193.802518.00206Recorrectionaction-lackofoupportiogeoidenco41Insufficient..anponer1.6006007314.503525.6060181.1Hireonreworkersforalltrades.0.5800IiCocoslabomwrcesoncriticalactinities.6.l2.3Retifgwooerofeoistiogsiteconditions.0.50602.5Fleoisetheprojectfinishdate.lblowehoationmnarale0.16666730.501110.003IRecorrectionaction-lackofsupportingevidence56Freerioconstruction0.33333310.102115.0013IHocorrectiveaction—lackofsupportingeoidencegregatedProkiensProjectFeudCorrectivePctioo1*,.Ilescription1.1hireworeourkersfuralltrades.0.4706II2.3Retifyoaoerofeoistingsiteconditious.0.2617411.3Focuslabourresourcesnocriticalactivities.8.2118It2.5Renisetheprojectfinishdate.0.6529Ii1StrengtPrebleoitimberIFigure4.18AnalysisatProjectLevelforExampleusingFrequencyofOccurrenceURSaCONSTfttTCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONT5SampleteitprojectforBenjamIn’.LIneal.PagelOtDAILYSITEPROJECTANALYSISREPORTfileOsedl’\0IP7tm\flIOJJ,\T1TReportDate:7201193ReportTiw78:01:22Revisionlbnher:0ProgressDate:1411192Patediodon[roe703(01)2to1111897Rettosiusednunviodei9ldiogcooditioo.aotoiorlostTotalnnp,hrrofdaslost:1998Totalrno,hervioanto,orslost:72.00frohiroSourceDispersino2totaltotal7totaltotal2totalProjectjoelforenctinoRetionStrengthit,liesrriptioo1Mevdayslostdayslostdrslostairslostoccuroccurlb.Description.p.12Provingerrors0.11,666751.8861.803Ilbcorrectionaction-lackofoopportiogeoideoce00TI(onflictioyinior.atioo0.580000193.0818.00206lbcorrectionaction-lackofsspportiognoideoceIItoq,ti,cieotnaopiwerI.887314.5835.8060181.1Hireenorkoesfoealltrades.0.5080I.]focuslakesresonecesoncriticalactivities.0OO002.3tbtifgnooseofenistiogsiteconditions.0.50002.5Revivetheprojectiioishdate.0.100011,leo,onitooatioo/’e’rale0.16666730.50II10103Ilbcorrectionaction-lackofnoopportiogooiderce56Errorjoroostroctioo0.333333I0.102115.80134lbcorrectionaction—lackofuopportiognnideoc.n(qgeeqatedfrohlenosProjectlevelCorrectioeRetinoStrengthProhlenIbodier1¾..PeriptiooIIlireonceaorkrrsforalltrades.0.5968II7,3tblolyneverofeoistiogsitecooditioos.0.2016III3[anuslahoorresnoircesoncriticalactinitios.0.1613II25Rinsetinproject(isis6date.0.0103IIFigure4.19AnalysisatProjectLevelforExampleusingManhoursLostUSCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONThSampleteatprojectforBenjamin’.SheilaPage1OfDAILYSITEPROJECTANALYSISREPORTFileReed:D:\Rl3’280\PROJ*\TRTReportDate:221t1E93ReportTiwe20:o2:36Revisionthoibor0ProgressRat&tlflE92DateVindna’frco’28i1t192tol4flE92Rethedosed:man-adoReightingcondition:tine_lostTotaloonherofda’slost:19.90Totaleomherof,maolnorslest:72.08PrnhleeSeorceDispersion7totaltotal7totaltotal2totalProjectLenelCorrectineRetinaStrengthRe.DescriptionlodendogslostdogslestaIrsInstedrslestoccuroccurRe.Rescriptioa32Rraaingerrors0.166567S1.0854.0031Recorrectineaction-lackofwppnrtioenideece34Conflictinginformatioo0.500000193.882518.08286Itcorrectineaction-lackofsnpportiogeoideeco41lneofficionteanponer1.8800887314.50356.0068181.1Hireworenerknesforalltrades.0.50001.3focuslabourresmirceooncriticalactiolties.0.02.3Retifgmawrofeniotiegsiteconditions.0.58002.5Denisetheprojectfieishdate.0.1000lSlm,wtinatinn/nerale0.16666?30.501410.883IRecorrectineactieo-lachofnipportingenideoceenideoceDggregatedProhiensProjectLenelCorrectineRetionStrengthProhlonItrnberRe.Description1.1Hireneroworkersforalltrades.0.4206412.3Retifgownerofeeistiogsiteconditions.0.209?411.3focuslahoorresourcesoncriticalactioities.8,2318412.5DenisetIeprojectFinishdate.0.057941Figure4.20AnalysisatProjectLevelforExampleusingTimeLostTable 4.1 Interpretations of Case Study Example which are included in Appendix FFull time frame (07FEB94 - Partial time frame (07FEB94 -04MAR94) 18FEB94)Freq. Time MHrs Freq. Time MHrsLost Lost Lost LostActivity /w xcompleted activitiesActivity w/ocompleted activitiesTrade Level X X X X X XProject Level X X XFrom the results of the interpretation, several conclusions were drawn:• The project sustained the majority of its manhours lost from problem source “Too muchprecipitation”, although it was not a wide spread problem at the site and only affected about 18%of the activities (treating each location of each activity as a separate activity) (See Figure 4.21).• Problem source “Insufficient manpower” was one of the more frequently appearing problems(Figure 4.21). It resulted in 15.58 days lost and appeared in half of the activities at differentlocations (DI = 0.5); however, it was not a large contributor to manhours lost (only 6 Out of265.5 manhours lost). Overall, this problem source was a project problem that managementneeded to focus upon since it was not a localized problem (as compared to problem source“Insufficient / Incomplete Drawing” which had a DI of 0.107).150UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONThUt0-BENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTPageIOfIDAILYSITEPROJECTANALYSISREPORTfileUsed:k:\01y200\Pll0329\OBIYIRIReportlate:22R1t93ReportTime:21:13:00ReoioioolIa,ther:IProgrossDate04W194PateUiodoo:from0711094toOllkll9lIttloolosed:oaomioReigktiogcondition:freqoeocgofoccorreoceTotoloonkerofdogslost:44.23Totaloomberofoao[oorolos’1:265.50ProblemSoorceRe.RescriptiooIIToomockprecipitotiso31Iosuff./locoopl.Rraoiog32Rraoingerrors31fooflictiogioformatioo41losofficieotmacpowerIItaoshillleoel46laomotioatioolmarole52Remark(Uorlouaosbip)5kErroriocoostroction57l.agooterror72Poorgroondconditions95Relaginaoard.contractAggregatedProblemsProjecttendCorrectioeActionRe.Rescriptioo2.3Retifgminerofexistingsiteconditions.0.6849411.1liremareoortersforalltrades.0.1972412.5Reoisetheprojectfioiskdate.0.l54RIII.)focoslakoorresoorcesoncriticalactioitieo.0.0440II(Streeotk129331.1 1.32.32.50.17057162.75020.0011120.07112910.50512.00330.03531421.0000.00110.17057152.401611.5014160.170571135.7526.00090.03571420.7500.00330.03571473.0000.0045Rispersieo2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalProjectLaoelCoerectioektiooItdogslostdogslootEu-slostudislostoccuwoccorRe.Description0.170571IS6.7540127.001315Recorrectinoactioo-lackofsupportingeoideoce0.107143S2.25617.0056Recorrectioeactioo—lackofsupportingeoideoce0.07142931.25410.0022Recirrectioeaction—lackofoeppmtiogenidence0.10714352.251026.0067Recorrectioeactiom-lackofsupportingeniderce0.S003515.5026.00Hiremareworkersforalltrades.fontslakuourresourcesoocriticalactinities.Retifgminerofeoistingsitecooditioos.Denisetieprojectfioiskdate.Recorrectioeidiom-lackofsupportiogenideoceRecorrectioeaction-lackofsupportingenideoceRecerrectineaction-lockofsupportingenidenceRecorrectioeactioo-lockofsupportingeoideoceRecorrectioeactioo—lackofsupportingenideoceRecorrectinoaction-lockofsupportingenideou-eRecorrectiooactioo-lackofsupportingeoidence0.05640.20000.05640.700015treogtkjProkfto.rIFigure4.21AnalysisatprojectlevelforCaseStudyusingFrequencyofOccurrence• The system successfully combined the corrective actions according to the different weightingcriteria. The aggregate corrective action routine worked as expected, though few correctiveactions were eliminated (which confirmed our observations in chapter 3). For example,Figure 4.22 illustrates the activity analysis of “Hard Landscaping” for the analysis time frameof 07FEB94 to 04MAR94. Out of a total of 36 corrective actions, only two corrective actions(9.1 and 1.3) were eliminated during the aggregation process. If the compatibility coefficientsare accurate, this result points to the need for additional input from the user dealing with relativeeffectiveness of different corrective actions.• Using the same example in Figure 4.22, it is clear that some of the rules used in the thesis needreview and refinement. For example, problem source “Error in Construction” suggestedcorrective action 7.3 (Open a delay claim) with strength of 0.5 which is not appropriate for thesituation. Nevertheless, after aggregating corrective actions, this corrective action received a lowpriority in the suggested list of corrective actions.• If no information is recorded for the user selected criteria, e.g. no manhours lost for a trade whenthe user selected manhours lost as his criterion, then the aggregation routine for the trade/projectis skipped and a message “No time_lost/manhours lost for all problems of the trade” is printedout.• Only one problem source, “undermanning”, was treated at the project level; thus, the analysisfor all other recorded problem sources reported “No corrective action - lack of supportingevidence”.• Only a limited number of problem sources are treated at the trade level--”Conflictinginformation”, “Insufficient manpower”, and “Construction Error”. However, other untreatedproblem sources still take part in the corrective action aggregation routine by assigning acorrective action of “DO NOTHING - LACK OF EVIDENCE” to them.152UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABFLEPCONEBBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTPageIOf3DAILYSITEACTIVITYANALYSISREPORTFileUsedP:\HEPZOS\PI1OJ29\0l)WUUDeportPate23DEC93DeportTine:10:52:24RevisiontImber:0ProgressDate:0408094PateUindvuFrom07FEB94to04100194Dethednnedmax-ojohoightingconditinnfrequencyofoccurrenceExcludecompletedactivitiestivity:500388F/D/P/C/S110111laIDSCDd1tObc:SITETraderesponsible:aODStartdate:09FEB94Projected(10tual)finishdate:08100191Totalduration:20daysRemainingduration:2days,102Freefloat67daysTotalfloat:67daystotalfloat/remainingduration:33.50ButinityAttributesDegreeoffplicabilityIHighprecipitation:1.003Hightemperature:0.601teatemperature:1.007Crxxndcooditions:1.00OStoragenosite:1.009Sitecongestion:1.08IIExternalaccess:1.0012tebourintensine:0.0014Bufferactivity:0.5016Designchanges:1.00lBContractprovision:0.5021l.earningcurveeffects:0.2022Designcomplexity:1.00Totalnumberofdogslost:9.55Totalnxmberofmanhourslost:00.00-ProblemSoorcetotaltotal2totaltotal2totalActinityl.eoelEarrectineActiouStrengthIi.Descriptiondayslostdogslostmli’slostmli’slostoccuroccur08.Description11Toonechprecipitation161.501917.0014I1.1Provideaprotectedeooirooneotorshelter.0.40001.2Postponetheactioitytoatinewiodowwithbetter1.0000anticipatedweatherconditions.3.2Ubereappropriate,useextrasopportorshoringto1.0000alleoiatepoorgroundconditions.4.3Increasetheremainingdurationontheactinity.1.00006.1Pursueaprojecttineextensionforunreasonable0.5000delaybeyondcontractor’scontrol.9.1Donothing.0.500031losoIf/Incompl.Drawing00.7507.001034.1Postponetheactinity.1.08004.2Dxsecondaryworkoutheactioity.0.2000Figure4.22ActivityAnalysisReportforActivity“HardLandscaping”inCaseStudyPage20f34.3Increasetheremainingdaratioonotheactivity.SiInprovearchitect/enqineer/cenioultantcoerdioatioo.7.2Issuea.rctothepartyconcernedtoreqoestdraningcoqletion.32Praoioyerrors354.00312.6ienworkersareidle,remotevanpioiertootheractivitiestopreventseveremaopouerloss.4.18Notedownindailyreportdatesofinformationrequested,coenersations/verhaliztroctinns,telepheiccallsetc..5.14Begoestiofov’motion/clorificotioofromarchitect1.0600and/orcooseltanttslAS.34Conflictinginformation101.753026.001752.6lbnworkersoreidle,reroutemanpnvertoother8.0000actinitiestopreoentseveremanpowerloss.4.2Dosecondaryworkontheactioity.0.00001.12Ithuitortheactivityclosely.1.00005.9Improvearchitect/enyineer/coosoltant1.0000coordination.5.10Contactrelenantpartiesforcorroctiovand/or1.0000information.41lesofficientvanpoaer292.7500.001754.3Increasetheremainingdorationontheactinity.0.000046leavetiaatioo/vorale50.5090.00721.3Trytoimproneworkingconditions.0.30002.2Reallocatemanpowerfran.preferablyahefferorO.5non-criticalactivity(TXSSTTItoactivity0)19972.2.5Iflawwotinationiseohihitedbyspecificcrew0.7000venhers,layoffonprodoetiveworkersandseekoemones.2.6I0ieoanrkersareidle,reroutemanpowertoother0.5000actinitiestopreventseveremanpowerloss.4.1Postpovetlcactivity.0.5000StErrorincoostroctino111.052320.002802.2Oeallocatemanpowerfrompreferablyabmfferor0.0000won—criticalactivity(OOSSTTItoactivity0)11972.4.3Increasetheremainingdarationnotheactivity.0.50004.21Allocatetiweforreworktocorrecterror.5.10Contactrelevantpartiesforcvrrectiwoand/or1.0000information.5.12Notifyowoer/projectmanageraboutthepossibility0.5600ofdelayittheactivityaffectedisacriticalvile.5.16Issuespeedy.rctvaffectedparties.0.50005.17Determinetheimpactofcowotroctionerrorovthe0.5000project:ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforreverb.7.3Openadelayclaim.57layouterror101.0076.00314.14Correctconstructionerroratsiteimmediatelyifpossible.4.05Discussmith/wotifysoktrade(slofreqoiredchangesinlayout.5.14Reqoestinformation/clarificationfromarchitect1.0000and/orcoveultantle)ASO?.AggregatedProblensActivitylendCorrectiveActionStrengthProblemthinkerlbs.Description4.]Increasetherevainivydurationontheactinity.0.2500113111S65.10Contactrelenantpartiesforcnrrectiaoand/or0.09163456inforvatinn.2.2Deallocatemanpowerfrompreferablyakofferor0.057146S6Page3Of3non-criticalactivity(ttSSTT)toactivityXXVY?2.2.klihenworkersareidle,reroutewanponertoother0.0553323446activitiestopreventseveremanpowerloss.5.9Inprovearchitect/engineer/consultant0.85153131coordination.4.21AllocatetilEforreunrhtocorrecterror.0.0433564.1Postponetheactioity.0.041831164.12llvnitertkeactivityclosely.0.0375341.2Dosecondarywarkootheactinity.0.035k31344.18thvtedownindailyreportdatesofinforoation0.035132re’piested,conoersatiees/nerhalinstructions,telephenecallsetc..1.2PostponetheactivitytoatilEwindowwithhetter0.031311anticipatedweatherconditions.3.2lMwreappropriate,assentrasupportersheringto0.031311alleniatepouryrnonilconditions.7.2Issueamewetothepartyconcernedtorequest0.828031drawingcnwpletion.5.12Ittifyowner/projectwanayeraheutthepussihility8.027056ofdelayiftheactivityaffectediswcriticalone.5.16IssuespeedyinInaffectedparties.0.02705.17lleterwinethepactofconstructionerroronthe0.0270project:ifcritical,seekwdditionaltrade/workersforrework.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.02705k5.11leynestinformation/clarificationfrowarchitect0.02483257and/orconsoltantlsl$f.çjy2.5Iflowwvtinationisenhihitedhyspecificcrew0.019346tagwev’kcrs,layoffnoprodnctioewoekersandseeknewnoes.6.1Parsonaprojecttimeeotensiooforanreasnoahle8.8157Ildelayheynodcontractor’scontrol.4.15Piscosswith/notifysnhtradelslofrequired0.013357ckanyesinlayout.1.1Provideaprotectedeooirecmeotorskelter.0.0125Il1.14Correctconstructionerroratsiteimediatelyif0.00805?possiklr.• Different weighting conditions used in the analysis did effectively result in different aggregatedcorrective actions and corrective action rankings. An example can be observed by comparing theproject analysis reports for Date Window 07FEB94 to 04MAR94 using weighting criteria of timelost and manhours lost (see Figure 4.23 and Figure 4.24). When the analysis used time lost asthe weighting criteria, with a large percentage of the time loss coming from the problem source“undermanning”, the corrective actions from the problem source were retained. On the otherhand, when the analysis utilized manhours lost as its weighting criteria, due to the smallcontribution of the undermanning problem source to manhours lost (only 6 out of 265.5 manhourslost were from undermanning), the corrective actions for undermanning were effectivelyeliminated using the corrective action aggregation routine.• More problem sources need to be treated at the project and trade levels. The ideal situationwould be to have the same set of problem sources treated at all three analysis levels. It wasobserved that corrective actions from trade and project level analyses got eliminated due to thislack of treatment. A good example is displayed in the trade analysis for the drywallsubcontractor (Trade 09) in Figure 4.25 accompanied by the calculations in Figure 4.26. Sincemany problem sources under this trade were not treated, the result led to the suggested correctiveaction of “DO NOTHING - LACK OF EVIDENCE”. As verified from the manual calculation,the analysis procedure is correct and is a result of the small number of problem sources treatedat the higher level of analysis.• A deficiency was observed in the calculation of the dispersion index (DI) for a trade when thereis only one single activity of the trade during the analytical time frame. It was observed that aDI of 1.0 would result for a problem source when the trade either worked only on a singlelocation activity or just started at the first location of an activity for the whole project.Modifications for calculation of the dispersion index should be explored in future work.156UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONT0fileUsed:D:\tt7200\P0tJ29\DfDfflJJBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITEPROJECTANALYSISREPORTReportDat&2200293ReportTie:21:00:27ReoisiooWr0ProgressDate:0*80194Page101IDateWindow:from0711194to0ll94Iletludused:qac-niolkigktingcondition:timeostTotalsinkerofdagslost:11.21Totaloookerofmaolowrslost:265.50Dispersiom7totaltotaltotaltotal7totalProjectlevelCorrectionUstiooludnodagslostdagslostodeslostdirslostoccoroscorlb.Desoription0.17091156.75401271013ISlbcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingnoidonci0.107143S2.25617,0056lbcorrectionactioo-lackofsopportingnoideoce0.07112931.25410.0022lbcorrnctiooactioo-lackofsopportingowidnnce0.107ll3S2.251026.0067lbcorrectionaction-lackofsopportiogooidence0.5000003515.5026.002933Hirewornworkersforalltrades.raceslakoorresourcesoncriticalactioities.lbtifgownerofooistiogsiteconditions.OonisetInprojectfiniskdate.lbcorrectionactioo-lackofsopportiogenidnocelbcorroctioeaction—lackofsupportiogonidencelbcorrectionaction-lackofsuppnrtingonideocelbcorrectionaction-lockofsupportingooidoorelbcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingevidencelbcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingonideecelbcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingowideoco0.09640.20000.09610.7000AggregatedProblemsProjectLendCorrectionUstiooStrengtkProkleoDaterlb.Descriptino2.3Lbtifgownerofenistingsiteconditions.0.5565411.1llireworennrkersforalltrades.0.2213II2.5Renisetheprojectfioiskdate.0.1720III.)ficoslaknnrresourcesnocriticalactioities.0.0494IIFigure4.23ProjectAnalysisReportforCaseStudyusingManhoursLostcriteriafromPrnklewSourceIt.DescriptionIIToninickprecipitation31losuff./locn,gil.Draaieg32Drawingerrors34Conflictinginformation41InsufficientmanpowerkM -a1.11.32.32.544l.oaskilllend0.17057162.75020.00111246tonwotinatinn/oaraln0.071429I0.50S12.003352ReworktRerlnsanship)0.03571421.0000.00I156frrnrinconstruction0.170571S2.401641.50II1657Lagonterror0.170571135.7526.000972Poorgroundcnnditinns0.03571420.7500.003395Onlaginaward,contract0.03571473.0000.004Strenotj07FEB94to04MAR94UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONThBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTPage1011DAILYSITEPROJECTANALYSISREPORTFileUsed:R:\R()’208\Pll0i29\RI3WIOIReportRate:2Z0.93ReportTine:2109:47RevisionWr:0ProgressDate:094PateIdindow:Fm..07113191to0415994RetIedusedvax-ninIk)ightingconditicovanleurlostTotalnuvberofda9slost:44.23Totalnor.berofoaolooarslost:265.501.11.32.32.5Proble..SourceDispersion2totaltotaltotaltotal2totalProjectl.eoelCorrectiveIhtionStrength1k).Rescriptionlodendagslostda.jslostideslostmirslostoccoroccor1k).Oeseriptioe111evpinchprecipitation0.170571056.75II127.801)151k)correctiveaction—hckofsupportingeoidence31lnsuff./lncavpl.Draaing0.007143S2.25617.0056Recorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingvoidence32Draainqerrors0.07142931.25410.0022Recorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingewideoce34Conflictingiofornatioo0.10714352.251026.0067Mocorrectiveaction—lackofsupportingevidence41InsufficientManpower8.5868603515.5926.002933Hireworeworkersforalltrades.Focostabonereenircesnocriticalactivities.Retilgownerofeoistingsiteconditions.Revisetheprojectfinishdate.Recorrectiveaction—lackofsupportingeoidenceItocnnroctiveaction-lackofsupportingevidenceRecorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingevidenceItocorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingevidenceRecorrectiveaction—lacknfsupportingevidence1k)correctineactioo—lackofsupportingevidence1k)correctiveaction—lackoFsupportingevidence44louskilllenel46leomnitinatioo/woeale52Rework(rkuaos1iipl56FrrorinconstructionSiLagoaterror72Poorgroundconditions95Pelajinaaard.contract0.1795710.0114290.0357140.1705708.1705710.0357140.635714S 13 2 72.758.58 1.002.485.75 0.753.665 0 lb 2 0 8200012.000.0041.506.000.008.8011 14 912 lb 9 S0.0%I0.26000.119640.7800AgUregatedPrnblevsProjectLevelCorrectivetioeStrengthProblepil*udierRe.PescriptiovDonothing-lackofeoidence.I1.0088jil30323444465657IFigure4.24ProjectAnalysisReportforCaseStudyusingTimeLostcriteriafrom07FEB94I— (It00to04MAR94UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONT0BENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTPageiOf3FileIlsed:D:\DEP200\P00J29\IBWISDateDiodoo:Fron07FEB94to04100194ltthodesed:mao—nmlkightiogceoditiooF reqoencgofoccorreoceDeportDate:22D1t93DeportTion:21:15:59Deoisioothinker:0ProgressDate:O4ltdPD4Trade09DDV00LL1K.Totalnooherofdagslost:6.00Totalnooherofmanhourslost:6.00ProhlenSoorceDispersion7totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeLendCorrectioeActionStrengthIt.Descriptioolodendagslostdagslostida’slosttEn’slostoccoroccorIt.Description32Drawingerrors0.142057D71.001006.0051Itcorrectionactioo—lackofsupportiogeoideoce41losnlficieotnanpower0.420571332.0000.003371.tDesignmaremantotIneproject.1.3Deplacocrewwithaworeeeperiencedone.0.50002.4Preparedelagclaim.0.500044leaskillleoel0.205714130,7500.00296itcorrectionaction—lackofsupportingeoidence52DenerktUorlamanckip)0.142057171.0000.0051Itcorrectionaction—lackofsupportingeoidernee56Errorinconstroctioo0.14215700.5000.001021.3Deplacecrewwithaworeenperiencedone.0.50001.5Seekadditionalwnrloieoforrework.0.50002.5Placespecialattentionnoactioitiesfor0.3000localizedprohlenntrce.57Lagooterror0.205714130.7500.00194Itcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingenidenceAggregatedProhleosTradeLendCorrectineActionStrengthProblemltnherHo.DescriptionDonothinglackofenidence.I1.0000132445257Figure4.25TradeAnalysisReportforCaseStudyinvestigatingeffectoflimitednumberofUItreatedproblemsourcesFigure 4.26 Calculation for Trade 09 (Drywall) to validate the effect of limited number of problemsources4.7 SUMMARYThe results of the analysis at the activity, trade, and project levels of the case study helped tovalidate the analysis process of automated interpretation. Many refinements are needed for the systemsuch as validation of the expert rules and compatibility matrix coefficients, modification in the dispersionindex for single location activity, and treatment of more problem sources at the project and trade levelsbefore the system can become a truly useful tool. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated the potentialusefulness of the system for construction projects.Case study emple at trade levelBy Frequency of occurrenceProblem DlSourre32 0.142857Freqof 0cc.‘5Dl NonoclizedW W5DI0.047619 0.006893 0.0153850.3333330.2857140.0476190.0952380.1904760.3230770.1846150.0153850.0307690.4307690.1428570.0816330.0968030.0136050.1904760.44217744 521 10 00 00 00 00 0Odg Dsta32000000.01.11.31.52.42.5Sum =41 0.428571 744 0.285714 652 0.142857 156 0.142857 257 0.285714 4Sum= 214100.30.500.501.3Normalized Strengths32 340.0 1 01.1 0 0.2307691.3 0 0.3846151.5 0 02.4 0 0.3846152.5 0 056000.50.500.31.3570000041 46 561 1 00 0 00 0 0.3846150 0 0.3846150 0 00 0 0.2307695700000Sum= 1 1Combined Adjusted Strengthlet Data Coeff.0.0 0.646154 0.2923081.1 0.074556 -0.695861.3 0.136995 -0.596451.5 0.011834 -0.719532nd Data0.6579880.0745560.13699502.4 0.12426 -0.52189Coeff.0.315977-0.71953-0.59645-0.719532.5 0.037101 -0.639053rd Data0.73254400.1360950Coeff. 4th Data0.465089 0.739645-0.86864 0-0.59645 0.136995-0.86864 00.12426 -0.53373 0.12426 -0.60828 0.124260.037101 -0.65089 0.037101 -0.72544 0Coeff. 5th Data Coeff.0.47929 0.863905 0.727811-0.87574 0 -1-0.60355 0.136095 -0.72781-0.87574 0 -1-0.615386th Data Coeff.1 10 -10 -10 -1-0.739650 -0.86391 0 -10 -0.86391 0 -1160CHAPTER 5.0 SUMMARY AN]) RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTUREWORK5.1 SUMMARYWith today’s advancements in technology, many new decision-making tools are possible for aproject manager to control a project. Two such tools, a daily site data interpretation system and graphicalrepresentation of daily site data, were described in this thesis.The main objective of this thesis was to develop a system which could record and analyzeproblem sources and suggest relevant corrective actions at the activity, trade, and project levels. Usingthe work of Fayek (1992) as the starting point for the work, the following has been accomplished in thisthesis:(1). The number of problem sources treated by the system at the activity level has been increasedfrom 7 to 15. The problem sources added were determined through an extensive field study.(2). A six-month duration case study conducted on an on-going project enabled us to capture moreknowledge from the construction industry. Specifically, insights into activity problem sources,corrective actions and reasoning processes linking problems with corrective actions were gainedthrough observation of and discussion with construction experts.(3). The ability and usefulness of graphics for viewing data site data was demonstrated. The use ofgraphics allows large amounts of data to be visualized quickly, assisting in the spotting of trendsand correlations amongst data items.(4) A routine was developed to combine corrective actions from individual problem sources at onework location of an activity to provide a single compatible set of corrective actions for allproblem sources for that activity. The concept of compatibility coefficients was formulated forthis task and a schema involving no user intervention was devised.161(5). Trade and project level analysis frameworks were developed using an analysis structure thatparallels the one adopted at the activity level. Elements such as dispersion indexes, compatibilitycoefficients, and trade and project attributes were developed as part of the analysis schema. Theopen architecture of the analysis framework provides an interface that is flexible enough to beadopted for a diverse range of project types.(6). A prototype system was implemented in REPCON and tested using progressingly morecomplicated examples. Valid, if somewhat simplified, corrective actions were suggested for theactivities, trades and project which experienced difficulties. The accuracy of the results producedby the prototype system was verified through a series of manual calculations.(7). Nevertheless, it was found that construction knowledge is very difficult to formulate. Much moreresearch is needed in order to capture and document what constitutes construction expertise inthe form of corrective actions, reasoning and data used to select one or more corrective actionsto mitigate a problem source.5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORKFurther refinements and enhancements to the prototype system are required before it can providethe basis for an operational tool for project managers. The following recommendations reflect some ofthe deficiencies of the current system and highlight specific parts of the system which need to bestrengthened and enhanced.Construction knowledge is difficult to formulate and document in a codified format. Much workremains to be done on the formulation and verification of expert rules. More problem sources need tobe treated at the trade and project levels. Currently, only three problem sources, i.e. undermanning,162conflicting information, and construction error, are treated at the trade level and only the problem source“undermanning” is treated at the project level. This severely limits the capability of the system at thehigher levels of analysis.Another feature that needs to be addressed for the data interpretation system is the analysis ofproblem sources for multi-location activities as a single unit. Currently, each location is treated as anindependent activity. Clearly, there is a high potential for correlation of problems and corrective actionsamongst locations of a repetitive or multi-location activity. Fayek (1992) indicated that a multi-locationactivity should be treated with an increase in duration for all successive locations of the activity, basedon the likelthood of encountering similar problems in the remaining locations. Moreover, when a detailedschedule is defined, it often happens that an activity’s remaining duration at a specific location will betoo short for the system to suggest proper corrective actions. A routine to combine all locations of anactivity, or indeed all types of related work -- e.g. all activities related to concrete forming, into one workpackage is needed. This addition would lengthen the duration of a work package; and thus correctiveactions suggested by the system could be suggested and implemented.Refinements should be considered in the computation of the dispersion index which applies toproblem sources assigned to activities (recall: each location of a multi-location activity is treated as aseparate activity) for analysis at the trade/project level. If a trade contains only one activity locationduring any analytical time frame, a dispersion index of 1.0 will be given to the problem source beinganalyzed. This suggests that the problem source is a very widely-spread problem, which is really not thecase for this situation. An enhanced DI would account for the number of activity locations active duringthe analysis time frame.163Moreover, the dispersion index should be modified to consider the weighting criterion selectedby the user. This adjustment will produce a more meaningful result at the individual problem sourceanalysis. The current system calculates the dispersion index only according to frequency of occurrence;thus, the individual problem source analyses using the three weighting criteria produce identical results.Consider the following example using the modified dispersion index. If a problem appears at 5 locationsfor a trade with 5 activity locations, and only 4 of the 5 locations have manhours lost, and if the user usesmanhours lost as the weighting criterion, the current disperison index would report a value of 1.0 whilethe modified DI would report a value of 4/5 = 0.8.Refinement is also needed for the compatibility matrix routine. For simplicity, this thesis limitedthe value of the compatibility coefficients at all analysis levels to either -1, 0, or 1. It is suggested thatfuture researchers explore the effect of using compatibility coefficient with values within the range of -1and 1. More work is also needed to verify whether the schema converges for all cases. To date, allevidence suggests that it does, although mathematical proof is needed to demonstrate that this is alwaysthe case.From the results of the aggregation routine, plus a review of the compatibility matrices, it seemsthat there is not a great deal of conflict amongst the corrective actions. This phenomenon resulted in veryfew reductions of corrective actions. Future work should investigate the value of user intervention ingauging the effectiveness of various corrective actions through a feedback loop. By assigning a value toeach corrective action selected, the scalar S could be optimized, potentially leading to a much reducedcorrective action set. Currently, the system does not take into account which corrective actions the userimplemented through a previous round of analysis. A feedback loop between the user and the system isneeded to consider actions previously implemented.164BIBLIOGRAPHYAliwood, R. J. (1989), Techniques and Applications of Expert Systems in the Construction Industry,Ellis Horwood Limited, ChichesterDiekmann, J. E. and Al-Tabtabai, H. (1992), “Knowledge-based approach to construction projectcontrol,” International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 23-30Dirt, W. and Schlehofer, U. (1988), “A Project Management Support Tool Based on Feedback LoopTechnique” in Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Vol. 14, Pt. 2, pp. 15-20Dubois, Didier and Prade, Henri (1993), “Fuzzy Sets. A survey of engineering applications,”Computer & Chemical Engineering, Vol. 17, n Suppi, pp. 373-380Fayek, A. (1992), “An Automated Corrective Action Selection Assistant” Master Thesis, Departmentof Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaForgy, Charles L. (1982), “Rete: A Fast Algorithm for Many Pattern/Many Object Pattern MatchProblem,” Artifical Intelligence Vol. 19, pp. 17-37Grzymala-Busse, Jerzy W. (1991), Managing uncertainty in expert systems, Kiuwer AcademicPublishers, BostonHayes-Roth, F., Waterman, D.A. and Lenat, D. B., ed. (1983), “Building Expert Systems” Addison-Wesley Publishing, Mass.Hendrickson, Chris, Martinelli, David and Rehak, Daniel (1987), “Hierarchical Rule-Based ActivityDuration Estimation,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol.113, No.2,pp. 288-301Levitt, R.E. and Kunz, J.C. (1987), “Using artificial intelligence technique to support projectmanagement,” Al EDAM, Vol. 1, pp. 3-24McGartland, Martin R. and Hendrickson, Chris T. (1985), “Expert Systems for Construction ProjectMonitoring,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 111, No.3, pp. 293-307Mohan, Satish (1990), “Expert Systems Applications in Construction Management and Engineering,”Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 116, No. 1, pp. 87-99Roth, Steven and Hendrickson, Chris (1991), “Computer-Generated Explanations in Project ManagementSystems,” Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp 23 1-244Roth, S., Mattis, J. and Mesnard, X. (1991), “Graphics and Natural Language as Components ofAutomatic Explanation,” Intelligent User Interfaces, Sullivan, Joseph and Tyler, Sherman, ed.,ACM Press, New York, pp. 207-239165Russell, Alan D. (1991), “Automated daily site reporting,” Proceedings of the 1991 Canadian Societyfor Civil Engineering Annual Conference, Vol. III, pp. 405-414Russell, Jeffrey S. and Chang, Luh-Maan (1987), “Methods for Construction Productivity Measurement,”AACE Transaction, pp. K. 1.1-K. 1.10Shortliffe, E.H. (1976), “Computer-based medical consultation: MYCIN,” American Elsevier, NewYorkWeiss, S., Kulikowski, C., Amarel, S. and Safir, A. (1978), “A Model-Based Method for ComputerAided Medical Decision-Making,” Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 11, pp. 145-172166APPENDIX A STANDARD STRENGTH VALUES FOR EXAMPLES IN THESIS167APPENDIX A STANDARD STRENGTH VALUES FOR EXAMPLES IN THESISPROLBEM DESCRWION ATTRIBUTES AND WEIGHTSToo much precipitaiton 01 High precipitation 1.0007 Ground Conditions 1.0012 Labour intensive 0.8013 Equipment intensive 1.0014 Buffer activity 1.0018 Contract provision 1.0019 Controlled environment 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0015 Site not ready 09 Site congestion 1.0011 External access 1.0012 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 1.0014 Buffer activity 1.0016 Design changes 1.0017 High inspection 0.5018 Contract provision 1.0031 Insuff./Incompl. Drawing 12 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 1.0014 Buffer activity 1.0015 Innovative methods 1.0016 Design changes 1.0032 Drawing errors 14 Buffer activity 1.0016 Design changes 1.0017 High inspection 1.0018 Contract provision 1.0019 Controlled environment 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0034 Conflicting information 09 Site congestion 1.0010 Internal access 1.0012 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 1.0014 Buffer activity 1.0016 Design changes 1.0018 Contract provision 1.0019 Controlled environment 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0016841 Insufficient manpower 12 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 0.5014 Buffer activity 1.0044 Low skill level 12 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 0.5014 Buffer activity 1.0015 Innovative methods 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0022 Design complexity 1.0046 Low motivation/morale 01 High precipitation 1.0003 High temperature 1.0005 Humidity 1.0012 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 1.0014 Buffer activity 1.0017 High inspection 1.0018 Contract provision 1.0019 Controlled environment 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0052 Rework (Workmanship) 12 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 0.5014 Buffer activity 1.0015 Innovative methods 1.0016 Design changes 0.5017 High inspection 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0056 Error in construction 09 Site congestion 1.0012 Labour intensive 1.0013 Equipment intensive 1.0014 Buffer activity 1.0015 Innovative methods 1.0016 Design changes 1.0017 High inspection 1.0018 Contract provision 1.0020 Low tolerance 1.0022 Design complexity 1.0057 Layout error 09 Site congestion 1.0010 Internal access 1.0012 Labour intensive 1.0016 Design changes 1.0017 High inspection 1.0018 Contract provision 1.0022 Design complexity 1.0016971 Inadequate external access 11 External access13 Equipment intensive14 Buffer activity01 High precipitation02 Low precipitation07 Ground conditions13 Equipment intensive14 Buffer activity12 Labour intensive13 Equipment intensive14 Buffer activity18 Contract provision14 Buffer activity15 Innovative methods16 Design changes18 Contract provision22 Design complexity72 Poor ground condtiions81 Unanticipated utilities95 Delay in awarding contract1.000.501.000.800.801.000.501.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00170APPENDIX B ACTIVITY LEVEL ANALYSIS BY MANUAL COMPUTATION171Activity level analysisActivity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem source (Xi): 15 Site not readyStandard Strength:V9 VII V12 V13 V14 V16 V17 V18X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 10Amount of man-hours lost = 15Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost 54Activity attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V17 V18X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 1T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V17 V184007 [ 0 0 0 0 1.0 ]7003 [ 0 0 0 0 1.0 ]5012 [ 0 0 0 0 1.0 16003 [ 0 0 0 0 1.0 14002 [ 0 0 0 0 1.0 ]6001 [ 0 0 0 0 1.0 ]3005 [ 0 0 0.8 0 0 1R1(X, Z):3.5 4.2 4.7 5.12 6.1 6.3 7.3X [ 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (X3): 31 Insufficient/Incomplete drawingStandard Strength:V12 V13 V14 V15 V16X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1System-derived data:172Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost 3Amount of man-hours lost = 2Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Activity attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V2 V13X [ 1.0 1.0 ]T(V, Z) matrix:V12 V13 V14 V15 V164002 [ 0 0 0.4 0 0.47002 [ 0 0 1.0 0 1.07003 [ 0 0 1.0 0 1.05009 L 0 0 1.0 0 1.0R(X, Z):4.2 5.9 7.2 7.3X [ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ]Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (Xi): 32 Drawing errorsStandard Strength:V14 V16 V17 V18 V19 V,X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 3Amount of man-hours lost = 3Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Activity attributes:V1 V7 V V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]173S(X, V) matrix:V17 V18X [ 1.0 1.0 1T(V, Z) matrix:V14 V16 V17 V18 V19 V205014 [ 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 0 ]7002 [ 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 0 14018 [ 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 0 ]5012 [ 0 0.75 0 0 0 0 1R(X, Z):4.18 5.14 7.02X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (Xi): 34 Conflicting informationStandard Strength:V9 V10 V12 V1 V14 V16 V18 V19 V29X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 4Amount of man-hours lost = 6Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Responsibility code for problem source = 30Activity attributes:v1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V9 V10 V2 V13 V1X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V10 V12 V13 V14 V16 V18 V19 V205010[ 0 0 0 0 1.0 1.0 0 0 0 ]5009 [ 0 0 1.0 0 0 1.0 1.0 0 1.05011 [ 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 04018 [ 0 0 1.0 0 0 1.0 1.0 0 01745015 [ 0 0 0.75 0.75 0 0.75 0 0 04018[ 0 0 0 0 0 0.600 0 06001[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.600 0R(X, Z):4.18 5.09 5.15 6.01X [ 1.0 1.0 0.75 0.6 ]Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (Xi): 41 Insufficient manpowerStandard Strength:V12 V13 V14X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0 1System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 3Amount of man-hours lost = 3Total amount of time lost 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Responsibility code for problem source = 30Activity attributes:Vi V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]S(X, V) matrix:V12 V13X [ 1.0 0.5 1T(V, Z) matrix:V12 V13 V142001 [ 1.0 0 1.0 ]R(X, Z):2.01X [ 1.0 ]Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (X3): 44 Low Skill LevelStandard Strength:175V12 V13 V14 V1 V20 V22X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 2Amount of man-hours lost = 3Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Activity attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V1 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V12 V13X [ 1.0 0.5 1T(V, Z) matrix:V12 V13 V14 V15 V20 V222004 [ 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 12009 1 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 ]2010 [ 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 ]2011 [ 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 12003 [ 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 15002 [ 0 0 0 0 0 0 15006 [ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1R(X, Z):2.3 2.4 2.9 2.10 2.11X [ 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.7 ]Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (Xi): 46 Low motivation/moralStandard Strength:vi V3 V5 V12 V13 V14 V17 V18 V19 V20X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficient176Amount of time-lost = 4Amount of man-hours lost = 4Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Activity attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V1 V12 V13 V17 V18X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]T(V, Z) matrix:Vi V3 V5 V12 V13 V14 V17 V18 V19 V202005 [ 0 0 0 1.0 0 02001 [ 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 ]R(X, Z):2.1 2.5X [ 1.0 1.0 ]Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (X3): 56 Error in constructionStandard Strength:V9 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 V20 VX [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remainIng_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 5Amount of man-hours lost = 7Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Frequency of occurrence = 2Otheractivity(freefloat) = FalseActivity attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V17 V18X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 V20 V177R(X, Z):2.1 4.09 4.10 4.21 5.2 5.12 5.16 5.17 7.03X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (Xi): 57 Layout errorStandard Strength:System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 3Amount of man-hours lost = 3Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54I5010[ 0 0 0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0 0 0 0 14021[ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05017[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 04020[ 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 05002[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 ]7003[ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 ]5012[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 15016[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 14010[ 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14009[ 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 02001[ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1V9 V10 V12 V16 V17 V18 V22X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 IActivity attributes:010100S(X, V) matrix:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V181.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0V9 V10 V12 V17 V18X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0T(V, Z) matrix:IIV9 V10 V12 V1 V17 V18 V225014 [ 0 0 1.0 1.0 0 1.0 0 14015 [ 0 0 1.0 1.0 0 1.0 0 14014 [ 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 12002 [ 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0R(X, Z):1784.15 5.14X [ 1.0 1.0 1Activity 1 at location 1 (010101)Method used: MAX-MINProblem Source (Xi): 95 Delay in awarding contractStandard Strength:V14 V15 V16 V18 V22X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1System-derived data:Critical activityPercent_remaining_duration = 75%Ground Condition = PoorManpower = insufficientAmount of time-lost = 6Amount of man-hours lost = 8Total amount of time lost = 43Total amount of man-hours lost = 54Frequency of occurrence = 2User input:Buffer activity in current time frame = YesActivity attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V17 V18010100 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0S(X, V) matrix:V18X [ 1.0 1T(V, Z) matrix:V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V1 V226003 [ 1.0 1.0 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 ]2002 [ 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 02008 [ 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 04010[ 0 0.750 0 0 0 0 ]4009 [ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 ]2008 [ 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]4010 [ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0R(X, Z):6.3X [ 1.0]179Activity level aggregation analysisFrom Problem Source 15 we have35 4.2 4.7 5.12 6.1 6.3 7.3X [ 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]From Problem Source 31 we have0.0X [ 1.0 ]For problem source 32 we have4.18 5.14 7.02X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1For problem source 34 we have4.18 5.09 5.15 6.01X [ 1.0 1.0 0.75 0.6 ]For problem source 41 we have2.01X [ 1.0 1For problem source 44 we have2.3 2.4 2.9 2.10 2.11X [ 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.7 ]For problem source 46 we have2.1 2.5X [ 1.0 1.0 1For problem source 56 we have2.1 4.09 4.10 4.21 5.2 5.12 5.16 5.17 7.03X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]For problem source 57 we have4.15 5.14X [ 1.0 1.0 ]For problem source 95 we have6.3X [ 1.0 ]Renormalized each of them, we have,3.5 4.2 4.7 5.12 6.1 6.3 7.315 [ 0.118 0.147 0.147 0.147 0.147 0.147 0.147 ]1800.031 [ 1.0 14.18 5.14 7.0232 [ 0.333 0.333 0.334 ]4.18 5.09 5.15 6.0134 [ 0.30 0.30 0.22 0.18 12.0141 [ 1.0 12.3 2.4 2.9 2.10 2.1144 [ 0.20 0.25 0.25 0.125 0.175 ]2.1 2.546 [ 0.5 0.5 12.2 4.09 4.10 4.21 5.2 5.12 5.16 5.17 7.0356 [ 0.1176 0.1176 0.0592 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176]4.15 5.1457 [ 0.5 0.5 ]6.395 [ 1.0 1(i) Weights determined by frequency of occurrence are:Wk: W15= 1/12 = 0.0833W31= 1/12 = 0.0833W2 1/12 = 0.0833W= 1/12 = 0.0833W41= 1/12 = 0.0833W= 1/12 = 0.0833W= 1/12 = 0.0833W56= 2/12 = 0.1667W57= 1/12 = 0.0833W= 2/12 0.1633Therefore,when renormalized each of them, we have,1813.5 4.2 4.7 5.12 6.1 6.3 7.3Z = 0.0833 x [ 0.118 0.147 0.147 0.147 0.147 0.147 0.147 ] +0.0 4.18 5.14 7.020.0833 x [ 1.0 ] + 0.0833 x [ 0.333 0.333 0.334 1 +4.18 5.09 5.15 6.01 2.010.0833 x [ 0.30 0.30 0.22 0.18 ] + 0.0833 x [ 1.0 1 +2.3 2.4 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.1 2.50.0833 x [ 0.20 0.25 0.25 0.125 0.175 1 + 0.0833 x [ 0.5 0.5 1 +2.1 4.09 4.10 4.21 5.2 5.12 5.16 5.17 7.030.1667 x [ 0.1176 0.0592 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 0.1176 ] +4.15 5.14 6.30.0833 x [ 0.5 0.5 1 + 0. 1667 x [ 1.0 1and0.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.10 2.11 3.5 4.2Z = [ 0.0833 0.1446 0.0167 0.021 0.0417 0.0208 0.0104 0.0146 0.01 0.0122 +4.7 4.9 4.10 4.15 4.18 4.21 5.2 5.9 5.12 5.14 5.150.0122 0.01 0.0196 0.042 0.0527 0.0196 0.0196 0.025 0.0318 0.0694 0.0186 +5.16 5.17 6.1 6.3 7.2 7.30.0196 0.0196 0.0272 0.1789 0.0278 0.0318 1182NP..NNtoItotototoNICattoNIDIDto0atCcoC.)toU(U—ZNCCU°OatINxI.4I to(UN>.. NONC.)>04->4-,C.)oooo0oooo0oooo0oo.-o0.-0,-.oooooo0oeo—ooo0.-000,-.-o00.-.-o,.-0000000000000.-00000.-.-000oo0000OOOOOOOO0.-OO.-O.-O,.-0.-O.-o0000000——000—000—000000000000000000000—00000000000—0—00000000000000000000O0000oooO•;000000000000—.-O ——0- 0—0,000oo0000000—.-00—000—000000000000000-00000000000ooo•;•—0000000—000000000000oooo000000OO.-OOOOOOO.OOOOOOOO‘00O000OOOOOO0O..-OOOO.OO‘‘;•000000-0000000o00000.:0o000— —0—’;•0000000000000000oo0-—O000000O000000000000000--0000000000000000000000’00000000-0000000000N N N N N INtoNIN at tNC’)to to p.. p..183The resulted aggregation runs are equal:Original 1st run Rearranged 2nd run Rearrange 3rd run Rearranged 4th run Rearranged 5th runData Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 40.0 0.0833 .0.8338 0 -1.0004 0 -1.0004 0 -1.0004 0 -1.00042.1 0.1446 0.0288 0.1446 0.1121 0.1446 0.1221 0.1446 0.1325 0.1446 0.17422.3 0.0167 -0.022 0.0167 0.0613 0.0167 0.0613 0.0167 0.0717 0.0167 0.07172.4 0.021 0.0106 0.021 0.0939 0.021 0.0939 0.021 0.0835 0.021 0.04182.5 0.0417 -0.1652 0.0417 -0.0819 0.0417 -0.0819 0.0417 -0.0819 0 -0.12362.9 0.0208 -0.0302 0.0208 0.0531 0.0208 0.0531 0.0208 0.0635 0.0208 0.06352.10 0.0104 -0.2194 0.0104 -0.1361 0.0104 -0.1361 0 -0.1465 0 -0.14652.11 0.0146 -0.0624 0.0146 0.0209 0.0146 0.0209 0.0146 0.0105 0.0146 0.01053.5 0.01 .0.2375 0.01 -0.1542 0 -0.1642 0 -0.1642 0 -0.16424.2 0.0122 0.0419 0.0122 0.1252 0.0122 0.1252 0.0122 0.1252 0.0122 0.12524.7 0.0122 -0.0271 0.0122 0.0562 0.0122 0.0562 0.0122 0.0562 0.0122 0.05624.9 0.01 0.0835 0.01 0.1668 0.01 0.1668 0.01 0.1668 0.01 0.16684.10 0.0196 0.0809 0.0196 0.1642 0.0196 0.1642 0.0196 0.1642 0.0196 0.16424.15 0.042 0.056 0.042 0.2226 0.042 0.2326 0.042 0.243 0.042 0.28474.18 0.0527 0.2447 0.0527 0.4113 0.0527 0.4213 0.0527 0.4317 0.0527 0.47344.21 0.0196 0.0086 0.0196 0.0919 0.0196 0.0919 0.0196 0.0919 0.0196 0.09195.2 0.0196 0.0057 0.0196 0.089 0.0196 0.089 0.0196 0.089 0.0196 0.0895.9 0.025 0.1005 0.025 0.2671 0.025 0.2771 0.025 0.2875 0.025 0.32925.12 0.0318 0.2635 0.0318 0.3468 0.0318 0.3468 0.0318 0.3468 0.0318 0.34685.14 0.0694 0. 1384 0.0694 0.305 0.0694 0.315 0.0694 0.3254 0.0694 0.36715.15 0.0183 0.0073 0.0183 0.1739 0.0183 .0.1839 0.0183 0.1943 0.0183 0.2365.16 0.0196 0.3504 0.1029 0.517 0.1129 0.527 0.1233 0.5374 0.165 0.57915.17 0.0196 -0.0015 0.0196 0.0818 0.0196 0.0918 0.0196 0.0918 0.0196 0.09186.1 0.0272 0.3207 0.0272 0.404 0.0272 0.404 0.0272 0.404 0.0272 0.4046.3 0.1789 0.1742 0.1789 0.3408 0.1789 0.3508 0.1789 0.3612 0.1789 0.40297.2 0.0278 0.1112 0.0278 0.2778 0.0278 0.2878 0.0278 0.2982 0.0278 0.33997.3 0.0318 0.0393 0.0318 0.1226 0.0318 0.1226 0.0318 0.1226 0.0318 0.1226The Rearranged Data 4 represented the final output data for aggregating corrective actions according tofrequency of occurrence.The following pages show the aggregating corrective actions routine by manhours and time losts.184Aggregating corrective actions by manhours lost15 31 32 34 41 44 46 56 57 95MIlL 15 2 3 6.0000 3.0000 3.0000 4.0000 7.0000 3.0000 8.0000W 0.2778 0.0370 0.0556 0.1111 0.0556 0.0556 0.0741 0.1296 0.0556 0.1481Orig. Coeff. Rearr. Coeff. Rearr. Coeff. Rearr. 4th run Rearr. 5th runData*W Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 40.0 0.0370 -0.9259 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 -1.00002.1 0.1078 0.0170 0.1078 0.0541 0.1078 0.0610 0.1078 0.0937 0.1078 0.13072.3 0.0111 0.0060 0.0111 0.0430 0.0111 0.0500 0.0111 0.0500 0.0111 0.05002.4 0.0139 0.0347 0.0139 0.0718 0.0139 0.0648 0.0139 0.0648 0.0139 0.02782.5 0.0370 -0.0940 0.0370 -0.0569 0.0370 -0.0569 0.0370 -0.0569 0.0000 -0.09402.9 0.0139 00004 0.0139 0.0375 0.0139 0.0444 0.0139 0.0444 0.0139 0.04442.10 0.0069 -0.1393 0.0069 -0.1023 0.0000 -0.1092 0.0000 -0.1092 0.0000 -0.10922.11 0.0097 -0.0231 0.0097 0.0139 0.0097 0.0069 0.0097 0.0069 0.0097 0.00693.5 0.0327 -0.1275 0.0327 -0.0904 0.0327 -0.0904 0.0000 -0.1231 0.0000 -0.12314.2 0.0408 0.2252 0.0408 0.2993 0.0408 0.3063 0.0408 0.3389 0.0408 0.37604.7 00408 0. 1008 0.0408 0.1378 0.0408 0. 1378 0.0408 0.1378 0.0408 0.13784.9 0.0076 0.1193 0.0076 0.1563 0.0076 0.1563 0.0076 0.1563 0.0076 0.15634.10 0.0153 0.0861 0.0153 0.1231 0.0153 0.1231 0.0153 0.1231 0.0153 0.12314.15 0.0278 0.0908 0.0278 0.1279 0.0278 0.1279 0.0278 0.1279 0.0278 0.12794.18 0.0517 0.2947 0.0517 0.3688 0.0517 0.3757 0.0517 0.4084 0.0517 0.44554.21 0.0153 0.0452 0.0153 0.0822 0.0153 0.0822 0.0153 0.0822 0.0153 0.08225.2 0.0153 0.0410 0.0153 0.0780 0.0153 0.0780 0.0153 0.0780 0.0153 0.07805.9 0.0332 0.1040 0.0332 0.1410 0.0332 0.1410 0.0332 0.1410 0.0332 0.14105.12 0.0561 0.4583 0.0561 0.5324 0.0561 0.5393 0.0561 0.5720 0.0561 0.60905.14 0.0463 0.1886 0.0463 0.2627 0.0463 0.2697 0.0463 0.3023 0.0463 0.33945.15 0.0249 0.0548 0.0249 0.0918 0.0249 0.0918 0.0249 0.0918 0.0249 0.09185.16 0.0153 0.3695 0.0153 0.4066 0.0153 0.4066 0.0153 0.4066 0.0153 0.40665.17 0.0153 0.0308 0.0153 0.0678 0.0153 0.0678 0.0153 0. 1005 0.0153 0. 10056.1 0.0608 0.4637 0.0978 0.5378 0. 1047 0.5448 0.1374 0.5774 0. 1744 0.61456.3 0.1890 0.2841 0.1890 0.3581 0.1890 0.3651 0.1890 0.3978 0.1890 0.43487.2 0.0185 0.1279 0.0185 0.1649 0.0185 0.1649 0.0185 0.1649 0.0185 0.16497.3 0.0561 0. 1920 0.0561 0.2661 0.0561 0.2730 0.0561 0.3057 0.0561 0.3427The rearranged data 4 displayed the end results of the aggregating routine using manhours lost criterion.185Aggregating corrective actions by time lost at activity level15 31 32 34 41 44 46 56 57 95TL 10 3 3 4 3 2 4 5 3 6W 0.2326 0.0698 0.0698 0.0930 0.0698 0.0465 0.0930 0.1163 0.0698 0.1395Orig. Coeff. Rearr. Coeff. Rearr. Coeff. Rearr. 4th run Rearr. 5th runData * W Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 40.0 0.0698 -0.8605 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 0.0000 -1.00002.1 0.1300 0.0010 0.1300 0.0708 0.1300 0.0766 0.1300 0.1040 0.1300 0.15052.3 0.0093 -0.0328 0.0093 0.0369 0.0093 0.0427 0.0093 0.0427 0.0093 0.04272.4 0.0116 0.0058 0.0116 0.0756 0.0116 0.0698 0.0116 0.0698 0.0116 0.02332.5 0.0465 -0.1416 0.0465 -0.0718 0.0465 -0.0718 0.0465 -0.0718 0.0000 -0.11832.9 0.0116 -0.0375 0.0116 0.0323 0.0116 0.0381 0.0116 0.0381 0.0116 0.03812.10 0.0058 -0.1951 0.0058 -0.1253 0.0000 -0.1311 0.0000 -0.1311 0.0000 -0.13112.11 0.0081 -0.0581 0.0081 0.0116 0.0081 0.0058 0.0081 0.0058 0.0081 0.00583.5 0.0274 -0.1860 0.0274 -0.1163 0.0274 -0.1163 0.0000 -0.1436 0.0000 -0.14364.2 0.0342 0.1521 0.0342 0.2916 0.0342 0.2974 0.0342 0.3248 0.0342 0.37134.7 0.0342 0.0465 0.0342 0.1163 0.0342 0.1163 0.0342 0.1163 0.0342 0.11634.9 0.0068 0.1012 0.0068 0.1710 0.0068 0.1710 0.0068 0.1710 0.0068 0.17104.10 0.0137 0.0739 0.0137 0.1436 0.0137 0.1436 0.0137 0.1436 0.0137 0.14364.15 0.0349 0.0576 0.0349 0. 1274 0.0349 0. 1274 0.0349 0. 1274 0.0349 0. 12744.18 0.0510 0.2581 0.0510 0.3977 0.0510 0.4035 0.0510 0.4309 0.0510 0.47744.21 0.0137 0.0086 0.0137 0.0784 0.0137 0.0784 0.0137 0.0784 0.0137 0.07845.2 0.0137 0.0042 0.0137 0.0740 0.0137 0.0740 0.0137 0.0740 0.0137 0.07405.9 0.0278 0.0880 0.0278 0.1577 0.0278 0.1577 0.0278 0.1577 0.0278 0.15775.12 0.0479 0.3700 0.0479 0.5095 0.0479 0.5154 0.0479 0.5427 0.0479 0.58925.14 0.0581 0. 1550 0.0581 0.2945 0.0581 0.3003 0.0581 0.3277 0.0581 0.37425.15 0.0208 0.0158 0.0208 0.0855 0.0208 0.0855 0.0208 0.0855 0.0208 0.08555.16 0.0137 0.3335 0.0137 0.4033 0.0137 0.4033 0.0137 0.4033 0.0137 0.40335.17 0.0137 -0.0103 0.0137 0.0595 0.0137 0.0595 0.0137 0.0869 0.0137 0.08696.1 0.0509 0.3940 0.1206 0.5335 0.1264 0.5393 0.1538 0.5667 0.2003 0.61326.3 0.1737 0.2164 0.1737 0.3559 0.1737 0.3617 0.1737 0.3891 0.1737 0.43567.2 0.0233 0.1041 0.0233 0.1739 0.0233 0.1739 0.0233 0.1739 0.0233 0.17397.3 0.0479 0. 1247 0.0479 0.2643 0.0479 0.2701 0.0479 0.2974 0.0479 0.3440The rearranged data 4 displayed the end results of the aggregating routine using time lost as weightingcriterion.186APPENDIX C TRADE LEVEL ANALYSIS BY MANUAL CALCULATION187Trade: 01Method used: MAX-MINWeighting criterion: Frequency of occurrenceProblem source (Xi): 34 Conflicting informationStandard Strength:V9 V10 V12 V13 V14 V16 V18 V19 V20X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0System-derived data:Dispersion index = 2/5 = 0.4Percent_critical = 3/5*100 = 60%Trade(Percent_remaining_duration) = (7+2/10 + 8+3/9)120*100 = 77.67%Ground Condition = FairManpower = insufficientManpower(skill) = FairCritical activity day lost = 12.9Amount of time-lost = 2.5Amount of man-hours lost = 5Total amount of time lost = 18.2Total amount of man-hours lost = 56Trade attributes:Vi V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V16 V17 V18 V20Trade 01 [ 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.4S(X, V) matrix:V9 V10 V12 V13 V16 V18 V20X [ 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 ]T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V10 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V18 V19 V202008 [ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 0.28 0 0.282004[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 ]2006[ 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 02007[ 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0.280 0 02001[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2811003[ 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 02002[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0R(X, Z):2.1 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8X [ 0.28 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 1Trade: 01Method used: MAX-MINWeighting criterion: Frequency of occurrenceProblem source (Xi): 41 UndermanningStandard Strength:188V12 V13 V14X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0 1System-derived data:Dispersion index = 5/5 = 1.0trade_percent_critical = 3/5*100 = 60%Percent_remaining_duration = 77.67%Ground Condition = FairSite access = FairManpower = insufficientCritical activity day lost = 12.9Amount of time-lost = 14.10Amount of man-hours lost = 22.00Total amount of time lost = 18.2Total amount of man-hours lost = 56Trade attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V16 V17 V18 V20Trade 01 [ 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.4S(X, V) matrix:V12 V13X [ 0.4 0.3 ]T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V16 V17 V18 V201001 [ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 02003 [ 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 01003 [ 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 01004 [ 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]2002 [ 0 0.2 0.5 0 0 0 02004[ 0 1.0 0 0 0 1.0 0R(X, Z):1.1 1.3 2.2 2.3 2.4X [ 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 ]Trade: 01Method used: MAX-MINWeighting criterion: Frequency of occurrenceProblem source (Xi): 56 Construction ErrorStandard Strength:V9 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 V20 V22X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0System-derived data:Dispersion index = 2/5 = 0.4189Trade percent_critical = 3/5*100 60%Percent_remaining_duration = 77.67%Ground Condition = FairSite access = FairManpower = insufficientManpower(skill) = FairCritical activity time lost = 12.9Amount of time-lost = 0.1Amount of man-hours lost = 15Total amount of time lost = 18.2Total amount of man-hours lost = 56Site(access) = FairTrade attributes:V1 V7 V9 V10 V12 V13 V16 V17 V18 VTrade 01 [ 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.4S(X, V) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V16 V17 V18 V20X [ 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.4T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 V20 V222001[ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.280 02005[ 0.5 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 01005[ 0 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01003[ 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01004[ 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 02002[ 0 0.200 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0R(X, Z):1.3 1.4 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.5X [ 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.28 0.4 0.5 ]Trade: 02Method used: MAX-MINWeighting criterion: Frequency of occurrenceProblem source (X): 34 Conflicting informationStandard Strength:V9 V V12 V13 V14 V16 V18 V19 V20X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]System-derived data:Dispersion index = 1/1 = 1.0Trade percent_critical = 0/1*100% = 0%Percent_remaining_duration = (3/9 /10)* 100% = 93.33%Ground Condition = FairSite access = Fair190Manpower = sufficientManpower(skill) = FairCritical activity time lost = 0Amount of time-lost = 1.3Amount of man-hours lost 13Total amount of time lost = 1.7Total amount of man-hours lost = 16Site(access) = FairTrade attributes:V3 V8 V9 V10 V12 V16 V18 V19 V20Trade 02 [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]S(X, V) matrix:V9 V10 V12 V16 V18 V19 V20X [ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ]T(V, Z) matrix:V12 V15 V16 V18 V202008 [ 0 0 0 1.0 0.5 12007 [ 0.7 0 1.0 0 0 12006 [ 0.7 0 0 0 0 12001 [ 0 0 0 0 0.5 ]2004 [ 0 0 0 1.0 1.0 11003 [ 0 0.5 0 0 0 ]2002 [ 0 0 0 0.5 0 1R(X, Z):2.1 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8X [ 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0Trade: 02Method used: MAX-MINWeighting criterion: Frequency of occurrenceProblem source (X3): 41 UndermanningStandard Strength:V12 V13 V14X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0System-derived data:Dispersion index = 1/1 = 1.0Trade percent_critical = 0/1*100% = 0%Percent_remaining_duration = 93.33%Ground Condition = FairSite access = FairManpower = sufficientManpower(skill) = FairCritical activity time lost = 0Amount of time-lost = 0.4Amount of man-hours lost = 3191Total amount of time lost = 1.7Total amount of man-hours lost = 16Site(access) = FairTrade attributes:Trade 02S(X, V) matrix:V’2X [ 1.0V3 V8 V9 V,0 V,2 V16 V18 V19 V20[ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0]IW = 2/25W41 = 17/25W = 4/25W32 = 1/25W = 1/25Calculate Dispersion Index as:= 0.4D14, = 1.0DI = 0.4D132 = 0.2= 0.08= 0.68= 0.16= 0.04= 0.04T(V, Z) matrix:V9 V,2 V,3 V181001 [ 0 1.0 0 0 ]2003 [ 0 1.0 0 0 11003 [ 0 0.5 0 0 11004 [ 0.5 0 0 0 12004 [ 0 0.5 0 0.5 12002 [ 0 0 0.5 0 1R(X, Z):1.1 1.3 2.3 2.4X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5AGGREGATION ROUTINE FOR TRADE LEVEL ANALYSISTrade: 01Weighting criterion: Frequency of occurrenceWeight distributions determine by frequency of occurrence are:]192DI = 0.2Calculate modified weight as:W * DI = 0.032W41 * DI = 0.68W*DI = 0.064W32 * D132 = 0.008W * DI = 0.0080.792Renormalized modified weight, we have:W = 0.0404W41 = 0.8586W = 0.0808W32 = 0.0101W46 = 0.0101When multiply each of them with the corrective actions, we have:2.1 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8Z = 0.0404 x [ 0. 1228 0. 1754 0. 1754 0. 1754 0. 1754 0. 1754 ] +1.1 1.3 2.2 2.3 2.40.8586 x [ 0.21 0.21 0.16 0.21 0.21 ] +1.3 1.4 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.50.0808 x [ 0.1613 0.2016 0.1613 0.1129 0.1613 0.2016 1 +0.0 0.00.0101 x [ 1.0] + 0.0101 x [ 1.0 1193Trade compatibility matrix coefficients for the corrective actions are:Trade level aggregation level0.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.5 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.80.0 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 .zL. -1 -1 -1 -11.1 -1 1 -1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 11.3-1 -1 1 0 -1 1 1 0 0.0 0 0 01.4 -1 0 0 1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 01.5 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 12.1 -1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 02.2 -1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 02.3 -1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 02.4 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 02.5 -1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 12.6 -1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 02.7 -1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12.8 -1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1The calculation for the compatibility factor routine at trade level using frequency of occurrence ofproblem sources is as follows:Original Coeff. 2nd Run Coeff.Data0.0 0.0202 -0.95959 0 -0.999991.1 0.180306 0.167192 0.180306 0.1873921.3 0. 193339 0. 151379 0. 193339 0. 1917791.4 0.016289 -0.00277 0.016289 0.0174291.5 0.013033 0.142176 0.013033 0.1825762.1 0.014083 0.538057 0.034283 0.5784572.2 0.157495 0.381126 0.157495 0.4215261942.3 0.180306 0.361582 0.180306 0.4019822.4 0.187392 0.167192 0.187392 0.1873922.5 0.016289 0.160671 0.016289 0.1808712.6 0.007086 0.340977 0.007086 0.361 1772.7 0.007086 0.010262 0.007086 0.0304622.8 0.007086 0.203601 0.007086 0.223801Trade level manual calculations using manhours lost criterionProblem DI Manhours W*DI NormalizedSource Lost W W*DI32 0.2 4 0.071429 0.014286 0.0243934 0.4 5 0.089286 0.035714 0.06097641 1 22 0.392857 0.392857 0.67073246 0.2 10 0.178571 0.035714 0.06097656 0.4 15 0.267857 0.107143 0.182927Sum = 56 1 0.585714 1Original Data32 34 41 46 560.0 1 0 0 1 01.1 0 0 0.4 0 01.3 0 0 0.4 0 0.41.4 0 0 0 0 0.51.5 0 0 0 0 0.42.1 0 0.28 0 0 0.282.2 0 0.4 0.3 0 0.42.3 0 0 0.4 0 01952.4 0 0.4 0.4 0 02.5 0 0 0 0 0.52.6 0 0.4 0 0 02.7 0 0.4 0 0 02.8 0 0.4 0 0 0Normalized_Strengths32 34 41 46 560.0 1 0 0 1 01.1 0 0 0.210526 0 013 0 0 0.210526 0 0.161291.4 0 0 0 0 0.2016131.5 0 0 0 0 0.161292.1 0 0.122807 0 0 0.1129032.2 0 0.175439 0.157895 0 0.161292.3 0 0 0.210526 0 02.4 0 0.175439 0.210526 0 02.5 0 0 0 0 0.2016132.6 0 0.175439 0 0 02.7 0 0.175439 0 0 02.8 0 0.175439 0 0 0Sum= 1 1 1 1 1Compatibility Matrix calculations1st Data Coeff. 2nd Data Coeff.0.0 0.085366 -0.82927 0 -11.1 0.141207 0.066538 0.141207 0.1519041961.3 0.170711 0.088882 0.170711 0.2596141.4 0.03688 -0.05659 0.03688 0.0287711.5 0.029504 0.062699 0.029504 0.2334312.1 0.028141 0.430304 0.113507 0.6010362.2 0.146107 0.336675 0.146107 0.5074072.3 0.141207 0.235886 0.141207 0.4066182.4 0.151904 0.066538 0.151904 0.1519042.5 0.03688 0.108319 0.03688 0.1936852.6 0.010697 0.249526 0.010697 0.3348912.7 0.010697 -0.02709 0.010697 0.0582752.8 0.010697 0. 143621 0.010697 0.228986197Trade level manual calculations using time lost criterionBy Time LostProblem DI Time W*DI NormalizedSource Lost W W*DI32 0.2 1 0.054945 0.010989 0.01295334 0.4 2.5 0.137363 0.054945 0.06476741 1 14.1 0.774725 0.774725 0.91321246 0.2 0.5 0.027473 0.005495 0.00647756 0.4 0.1 0.005495 0.002198 0.002591Sum 18.2 1 0.848352 1Original Data32 34 41 46 560.0 1 0 0 1 01.1 0 0 0.4 0 01.3 0 0 0.4 0 0.41.4 0 0 0 0 0.51.5 0 0 0 0 0.42.1 0 0.28 0 0 0.282.2 0 0.4 0.3 0 0.42.3 0 0 0.4 0 02.4 0 0.4 0.4 0 02.5 0 0 0 0 0.52.6 0 0.4 0 0 02.7 0 0.4 0 0 02.8 0 0.4 0 0 0Sum 1 2.28 1.9 1 2.48198Normalized Strengths32 34 41 46 560.0 1 0 0 1 01.1 0 0 0.210526 0 01.3 0 0 0.210526 0 0.161291.4 0 0 0 0 0.2016131.5 0 0 0 0 0.161292.1 0 0.122807 0 0 0.1129032.2 0 0.175439 0.157895 0 0.161292.3 0 0 0.210526 0 02.4 0 0.175439 0.210526 0 02.5 0 0 0 0 0.2016132.6 0 0.175439 0 0 02.7 0 0.175439 0 0 02.8 0 0.175439 0 0 0Sum= 1 1 1 1 1Compatibility matrix routine1st Data Coeff. 2nd Data Coeff.0.0 0.01943 -0.96114 0 -11.1 0.192255 0.184188 0.192255 0.2036181.3 0.192673 0.144788 0.192673 0.1836481.4 0.000522 0.0034 0.000522 0.022831.5 0.000418 0.155628 0.000418 0.1944892.1 0.008246 0.530134 0.027676 0.5689942.2 0. 155972 0.349764 0.155972 0.3886242.3 0.192255 0.384689 0.192255 0.4235492.4 0.203618 0.184188 0.203618 0.2036181992.5 0.000522 0.148427 0.000522 0.1678572.6 0.011363 0.340682 0.011363 0.3601 122.7 0.011363 0.003817 0.01 1363 0.0232482.8 0.011363 0.196491 0.011363 0.215921200AGGREGATING CORRECTIVE ACTION ROUTINE FOR TRADE 02Compatibiility matrix for trade 02Trade level aggregation level0.0 1.1 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.80.0 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -11.1 -1 1 -1 0 0 1 0 0 0 11.3 -1 -1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 02.1 -1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 02.2 -1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 02.3 -1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 02.4 -1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 02.6 -1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 02.7 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12.8 -1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1ProblemSourceDI Freq. of0cc.w W*DI NormalizedW*DITrade 02 by Frequency of OccurrenceSum 5344111410.80.20.80.2Original Data Normalized StrengthsProbSour 34 41 34 410.0 0 0 0 01.1 0 1 0 0.3333330.80.2201Sum = 4.7 3 11.3 0 0.5 0 0.1666672.1 0.5 0 0.106383 02.2 0.5 0 0.106383 02.3 0 1 0 0.3333332.4 1 0.5 0.212766 0.1666672.6 0.7 0 0.148936 02.7 1 0 0.212766 02.8 1 0 0.212766 0Compatibiliy matrix routine1st Data Coeff.0.0 0 -11.1 0.066667 0.2702131.3 0.033333 0.1368792.1 0.085106 0.2702132.2 0.085106 0.3226952.3 0.066667 0.3375892.4 0.203546 0.2035462.6 0.119149 0.2709222.7 0.170213 0.3404262.8 0.170213 0.4070921202Aggregating corrective actions of Trade 02 by Manhours LostTrade 02 By Manhours LostProblemSource3441Sum =DI11Compatibility Matrix Routine1st Data Coeff.0.0 0 -11.1 0.0625 0.2666221.3 0.03125 0.141622Manhours W*DI NormalizedLost W W*DI13 0.8125 0.8125 0.81253 0.1875 0.1875 0.187516 1 1 1Original Data Normalized_Strengths34 41 34 410.0 0 0 0 01.1 0 1 0 0.3333331.3 0 0.5 0 0.1666672.1 0.5 0 0.106383 02.2 0.5 0 0.106383 02.3 0 1 0 0.3333332.4 1 0.5 0.212766 0.1666672.6 0.7 0 0.148936 02.7 1 0 0.212766 02.8 1 0 0.212766 0Sum= 4.7 3 1 12032.1 0.086436 0.2666222.2 0.086436 0.3251332.3 0.0625 0.3324472.4 0.204122 0.2041222.6 0.121011 0.2699472.7 0.172872 0.3457452.8 0.172872 0.408245Aggregating corrective actions routine for trade 02 using time lost criterionTrade 02 by Time LostProblem DI Time W*DI NormalizedSource Lost W W*DI34 1 1.3 0.764706 0.764706 0.76470641 1 0.4 0.235294 0.235294 0.235294Sum= 1.7 1 1 1Original_Data Normalized_Strengths34 41 34 410.0 0 0 0 01.1 0 1 0 0.3333331.3 0 0.5 0 0.1666672.1 0.5 0 0. 106383 02.2 0.5 0 0.106383 02.3 0 1 0 0.3333332042.4 1 0.5 0.212766 0.1666672.6 0.7 0 0.148936 02.7 1 0 0.212766 02.8 1 0 0.212766 0Sum 4.7 3 1 1205The adjusted corrective actions and their coefficients from the compatibility matrix routine are shownbelow:Compatibility_Matrix_Routine1st Data Coeff.0.0 0 -11.1 0.078431 0.280351.3 0.039216 0.1234882.1 0.081352 0.280352.2 0.081352 0.3158112.3 0.078431 0.3521072.4 0.201919 0.2019192.6 0.113892 0.2736752.7 0. 162703 0.3254072.8 0. 162703 0.403838206APPENDIX D PROJECT LEVEL ANALYSIS BY MANUAL CALCULATION207Project level analysisProblem source - 41 UndermanningSystem derived data:Project dispersion index = 6/6 = 1.0Site precipitation > 12Project total time lost = 19.9Project total manhours lost = 72.0Manpower(percent_sufficient) = 3/20 15%Project (percent_critical) = 3/6 * 100 50%Project(percent_remain_duration) = (2/10 +3/9 + 3/9 + 7 + 8 + 9)130 * 100% 82.88%Number of occurrence = 18Total number of occurrence for all problem = 30Site precipitation > = 12problem(41, percent_critical, @perc) = 11/18*100% = 61.11%Standard strength:V12 V13 V14X [ 1.0 0.5 1.0Project attributes:V12 V13 V14Proj. [ 0.5 0.5 0.0S(X, V):V12 V13 V14X [ 0.5 0.250 1T(V, Z):V12 V13 V42005 [ 0.1 0 0 12003 [ 1.0 0 01001 [ 1.0 0 0 11003 [ 0.4 0 0 ]R(X, Z):1.1 1.3 2.3 2.5X [ 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.1 ]208AGGREGATION ROUTINE FOR PROJECT LEVELWeight distributions determine by frequency of occurrence are:W32 = 1/30 = 0.033W = 6/30 = 0.200W41 = 18/30 = 0.600W = 1/30 = 0.033W = 4/30 = 0.133Calculate Dispersion Index as:D132 = 0.1667DI 0.5000D14 = 1.000DI = 0.1667D1 0.3333Calculate modified weight as:W2 * D132 = 0.005534*D1 = 0.01W41 * DI1 = 0.6W * DI = 0.0055W * DI = 0.04430.6653Renormalized modified weight, we have:= 0.008267= 0.01503= 0.9018= 0.008267= 0.06659When multiply each of them with the corrective actions, we have:0.0 0.0Z = 0.008267 x [ 1.0 1 + 0.01503 x [ 1.0 1 +1.1 1.3 2.3 2.50.9018 x [ 0.333 0.267 0.333 0.0667 1 +2090.0 0.00.008267 x [ 1.0 1 + 0.06659 x [ 1.0 1I I I IProject Level Compatibility Matrix for Manual Calculation Example00 1.1 1.3 2.3 2.50.0 1 -1 -1 -1 -11.1 -1 1 1 1 01.3 -1 1 1 0 02.3 -1 1 0 1 12.5 -1 0 0 1 1By Frequency of OccurrenceFreq. of NormalizedDI Occu. W DI*W DI*W32 0. 1667 1 0.033333 0.005557 0.00735434 0.5 6 0.2 0.1 0. 13235341 1 18 0.6 0.6 0.7941246 0. 1667 1 0.033333 0.005557 0.00735456 0.3333 4 0.133333 0.04444 0.058818Sum = 30 1 0.755553 12100.01.11.32.32.5Data0.205880.2647070.2117650.2647070.052941By Manhours LostProblemSource32344146DI0.16670.51Coeff.-0.588710.535750.2709660.376880.112095ManhoursLost4Run00.4705870.2117650.2647070.052941w0.0555560.25Coeff.—10.9470430.6822590.7881720.317741DI*W0.0092610.125Original 1st0.0 0.395161 -0.20968 0 -11.1 0.201613 0. 169356 0.596774 0.95967756Sum=0.16670.3333OriginalData1825101572Coeff.0.3472220.1388890.20833311stRun0.3472220.0231530.0694380.574074Coeff.NormalizedDIW0.0161320.2177420.6048390.0403310.12095612111.3 0.16129 -0.03226 0.16129 0.7580642.3 0.201613 0.048388 0.201613 0.838712.5 0.040323 -0.15323 0.040323 0.241936By Time LostProblem Time NormalizedSource DI Lost W DI*W DI*W32 0.1667 1 0.050251 0.008377 0.00999234 0.5 3.8 0. 190955 0.095477 0.11388641 1 14.5 0.728643 0.728643 0.86912846 0.1667 0.5 0.025126 0.004188 0.00499656 0.3333 0.1 0.005025 0.001675 0.0019980.0 0. 130872 -0.73826 0 -11.1 0.289709 0.680315 0.420581 0.9420581.3 0.231768 0.390606 0.231768 0.6523492.3 0.289709 0.506489 0.289709 0.7682322.5 0.057942 0.21678 0.057942 0.347651Sum=OriginalData19.9Coeff.1stRun0.838361Coeff.212APPENDIX E SUPPORTIVE INFORMATION FOR CASE STUDY 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VITV/IYTUAyORKUUDUlfU(011111P10011)1U50DTR€1Ut119DElllOOtSLOSTDAYSLOSDATCCODELOCUPD11CDIPTISIP105ThU50CUIPTISICODEIDAtDETlOEUDUSfT103TUllEf[21TAlt?TUllEPROBLEM:(11)TonmuchprecipitatIon071T.U94(300100SCf/U/P/C/SSUPCDSTUUCIUUEfreezingraindelayedconcretepour.40.0040.001.000.00UU1EU9I(3001005Cf/U/P/C/SSUPEUSTUUCDUUEfreezingrainagain.Letworkersnosnperstrncturegoat0:30am.30.0030.000.001.00300300SITECf/U/P/C/S103RDl.ft0)SCAPIISfreezingrainledtopnstpenementofstartofhardlandscaping.Since1.001.00itiscritical,thiswilldelaythejab.llfCD9l(I006Cf/U/P/C/SSOIPIESTIUETUUEfreezingrainandsiowawakingworkingconditinasimpossible.Letmen6.00k.000.500.50goatnoon.(300300SITECf/ft/P/C/S103RDLflSSC01’ltEfreezingrainandsnowwakinglayoutworkandpreliminaryworknery1.001.000.50630difficnlt.Letworkcrewinafternoon.141T194(3001006Cf/U/P/C/SSTJPI31STUUCTUUEOeaoysnowwakingworkneryslow.ShinnIedoffslabfnrownrk.Rept5.006.000.500.50haningtocleanbecauseofsnow.500300SITECf/U/P/C/S(ODDl.ftI(SCdPI1ESnowslowingworknohardlandscaping.Thiswillaffectstartof0Requesttineeutr3.003.0011.506.50scaffoldingerection,anddelaycnmpletinoofproject.Suggestwenotifyarchitectandrequestentensinn.lSff.g9l•5001006Cf/U/P/C/SSI3PEDSTUI.ETIJUCItanyrainresultinginlowerproductinitgandredncedworale.4.004.00IlinidedestimateofpEtslostbetweeneachproblemsource.500300SITEC1/0/P/C/S(BI1DIJIIDSCPPIIEHeanyrainslowingproductinitg.1.001.001711194!13001006Cf/U/P/C/SSIIPEIISTUOCTUUCHadtnpostponedpour.Theoghtwecouldcatchitatmidday.1.001.00500300SITECf/I/P/C/S103RDLIIOISCAI’IIEHeanyrainslowingproduction.Tryandgeteutension.6.006.000.500.50IUfEU9I5001006Cf/U/P/C/SSUPU3ISTUIICTURERentaheadwiththepnor.Oillhanetodosowogrindingoftheslab0.000.00laterbecauseofraindamagetothefinish.22150945001007Cf/U/P/C/SSDPI]1STIRICTDUE(tangrainaffectingprndactinitg.6.005.0023ltD945001007Cf/U/P/C/SSIJPEUSTOrTIIUERuinaffectingprodoctinity.6.006.0002111194(3101000Cf/U/P/C/SSIIPEUSTIUETIO1Egain,especiallyfreezingrain,slowingwork.1.004.000.250.25I50110201.5127.00127.006.756.75PROBLEM:(11)In.uff./Rneompl.Druwing071509401150940915094IOfEU9IIlfET9l151111941601000010lbOAlJJf-1013.IXTUIC4.160100001016RUtIGI-IllU3IETUICPd.500300SITECf/U/P/C/S103RDLftIDSCACIDE500300SITECf/U/P/C/S103RDIRIDSCAPI1L(310300SITECf/U/P/C/S(SODIftIISCAPIIS160100216000(31-10ELECTUICTI.0.500.500.500.501.001.006.006.004.004.003.003.000Uequesttimeenten0Toarch.RrauingsIISeekclarif.reel0.500.250.500.500.30.50Seewsthatdrywallsohtradelightonwanpower.Bockioodorswithhiw.Onp.allerooderwaneiogjob.itwell,shilllevelofstaddersoatoptopar.Recordedprohlovayaiestshilllevelaswell.Ittenoughneotogetcopperroogh-iwneniegquickly.Haylose0.5toOdays.Insufficientwaopm.eraffectiogpaceoCiwwk.Ileallocatedpersoonelfrowhardlandscaping,hottheyhonetogetfawiliarizodwiththerootine.lhstorthewanpewerhasheeoreassignedtosuperstructureworhhecaoseouteooughweeshooedaptoday.Ittenooghneoshowedtoday.Theyweresupposedtohefinishedhynoootheowoveontoneotfloor.Instead,ittoohallday.Startpostponedootiltoworrnabecauseofieswfficieotwaopooer.Lusttinealreadycountedforpreoi005locatiou.Onlyonewanworkinghecaoseshortofwanpowerdoetoweather.Lightonwanpuwer.Flayaffectduration.Checkwaopuwerleveltoworrow.Seentohesendingontoanotherjob.Goingtostretchoutdaration.Sinceoutcritical,prohahlyoh.Keepaneye00it.Harhinywithundersizedcrew.Grabbedwanpuwerfrowlandscaping.(1Tt0lT0/FD1100100000131/0(1.0CUDJITEP001(1)1HERP1001IOLIT0lOlllaiRSLOSTOATSLOSTDOTECODEbCAtSptlCRtPTI011P0001131OISCHIPTIIICOKElilt4Th00CODESFESTWtiTOT01.FtSTfillTON.SUBTOTALS117.0017.00I2152.251PROBLEM:(32)DrawIngerror!OIEED9I090100209(MOAT14.LS/IIOTL5100SILl.lousingtinehecansedrawingerrorsresultinginIaipiterrors.6.006.001.0111.00151131911310300SITE6f/H/P/C/S0000L01105C001101Errordiscoveredindrawings-architectaral,strectoral1electrical1.004.000.250.25outcoordinated,Hadtochangesoweofthefor,w.nrh.$slJoToT01s10.0010.000.25115PROBLEM:(34)ConflIctingInformation16fEB94160100216HOtIBI-INL1IETDICAI.Soweconflictsininstrnctiuusreplacenentofelectricalronyh-in0.250.25andplowkingrewgh—iu.Hillloseapprwo.1/4dayiwresolvingconflicts.I7fEH941502002151101031-10COPPERP11.0111101Stilleoperieocinysonelosttinefruwcooflictsiudesigndrawings.0.250.2521FEB94500300SITECf/H/P/C/S11100IR0ISCSiPII01Structural,electricalandlandscapedrawingsinconsistent.losttine4.004.000.250.25andwanheorstryingtoresoloeconflicts.23fEB941300300SITECf/H/P/C/S0000LIOSCAPItEConflictinginforwatiuwiudrawingshasreswltndiwwistahein0.000.000.500.50fnrrwiorh.Hodtotearpartofitoutandrehaild.bessofbethwaehaorsandtine.2OfEl94500300SITECf/H/P/C/S0000L01IIISCAI’lF01Hareconflictsdiscoveredindrawings-thistinedealswithhluchoutsEOpenLWrelandsc4.004.000.250.25fornechawicalandelectrical.Talkwitharchitect.Startthinhingahootaclam.Olthlll9l1110300SITECf/H/P/C/S10100LftIOSCAPIIEConflictinginferwatineslowingprodoctiow.Uaitingforinforwation.4.004.000.500.50RunningoutofworbCureoenredacedwanpowerleoelbecauseoflachofclarifications.021001940904001111009110110111YTEIOITI. 14.1.00000Needsoneclarificatiwnsoohoardingaroundwindows.Don’thoowall0.250.25detailsofhewwindowstohefastened.1110300SITECC/H/P/C/S00110IRIDSCAPIIFYConflictingieforwatioeleadingtowereprodactioitylossanderrors.6.006.000.250.25031100940904001011N09ltCTflLIYTEOF011.14.1.00000Stillwaitingfordetailsaroundwindows.0.250.25100100110101011011011011(10115Can’tstartinstallingwiodowsantildetailsofmternalhwarding1.001.00aroundwindowssertndout.ISIJRTOT01.SI26.0026.00I3.753.75PROBLEM:(41)Inwuffleleotmanpowert%)0010010941111094LSfER9417fEB9411fEB94210109409020020911011011101001511105!090200209100101.1.0(101.STUDS1502002IS11010)1-10COPPER£11001100n5001006CF/H/P/C/SSIIPEBSTMET0HE600300SITECf/I/P/C/S11100IIt0lSfAPllE‘1502002150010)4-IllCOPPERP110111110115020031500001-INCOPPERP11011111015002003CIO01TALI.OLOCILIIICfOR0100010090100409LO000T141.S/I101TL5100SILl15020031500004-INCOPPERPtOllOItE5001007Cf/ft/P/C/SSOPEOSTOOCIOHE6.006.00IS0IDWIICAL150f13#llCO109010141150WttlICoL0.250.250.250.250.500.500.200.200.500.500.500.500.500.500.500.500.200.20Usingapprenticecarpenters.Theirskillleveliswianmatchodtotictask.Loosingprodoctinityandtine.Lowskilllevelofapprenticesslowingpaceofprodactiononblocking.Tolddrywallertoweedontkisworkcrew.lanaskilllevelleadingtodowagetometalstods;seatnotplot.Tiwecountedwgwinstmanpewerlenel.Lowskilllevellendingtoproklea€ivcowstroctioo.Timelostrecordedondeeerrorsincnostructiow.prenticesstillneedalotofguidanceindoingklockingwork.Haoowoodgrainronningwrongway.Hatfasteningblockingsecorelyeneogh.lowskilllendofstndderswillcaasequalityproblemslater.Haarelosingmercyonthoseapprentices.Swggestweletonegoandreplacewitkwereseasonedcarpenterwincanoverseeworkofapprentice.Lowskilllevelnfstaddersleadingtotoowangmistakes.HavetogobackandreplonkseatoFthestods.Also,detailsfordropceilingsinbathroomsnotbeingadheredto.Gigconfroototionovercrappyworkbeiogdonekgstodders.Icyweretnldthatwewillbackchargeforreplookingstods.Also,seatstudsarebentandbanetnbereplaced.Seereworkcode.WTIUITU/IYTRAAggtgUDEg/gALU0401CCP800101gCTPgoCloLlTg1501IflOUSLUST•gypyLUSTDOTECODEt.OCHCTPDIISCOIPTIUOIPlltOLThlEgClllPTlttlCtUEWHtUCTICOICOACTfIST01)3TOTALFF5101)3ggT01.0)02003CIItSTAIJ.PLUCUIPE[OH0111)005Hatenanaghwenonsitetoday.IleallocatedonepersonProwblocking0.500.50tosaperstrnctore.Willentendblockingworkdorotion.22FED94090106409CAPUOT001.1.5/11611STUDSillLackofmanpowerslnwingprodaction.0.250.251502003isOUtOTO—lOyppgPLFUIDIIELackofwanpwerirapediegprndaction.15OEOtOIICAL0.330.33C06l007CF/H/P/C/SSUPEIISTIIIICTgREShortonmanpower.Slowingdowoprodoctinn.Cewplicatedbyrain.0.50O.S05062003Cl0$TALI, ULOCtIIEIOUWINDOWSRecanseofshortageofmanpower,assignedallwentosupeestractare.1.001.00Willloseadayonblocking.Hatcritical—ob.500306SITEF/H/P/C/S)tOWDLft1)SCAPIPEWosigoedallmentosoperstroctorehecaoseofmanpowershortage.Will1.001.00loseday.Criticalphaseoflandscapingalwestnoerhecansenotinterferingwithscaffoldingerection.23118946902064Hgl)ETAI.LOCTALSTUDSLockofmanpowerslowingprodoction.150260315RollOl-lyCOl’PCIFPLANDIIELightonmanpower.0)6300SITECf/H/P/C/SlODlft1)SCAPIIEWorkingwithoolyapartialcrewbecanseofshortageofmanpower.0.750.25Superstrnctareisloppriority.2SFED9I090200409lIETALL111801. STUDSLightonmanpower,andqoalitystillpoor.Won’tfinishactivity0.250.75ontilitoday.1k61003lB8001)410alxTglCcd.Fewermentoday.flayslowdownworkonelectrical.0.250.755001607CF/U/P/C/SSUPD1STOUCTUREHarkingwithondersizedcrew.0.100.102011894090200IoyII6STAI.LOCTALSTUDSHatenoughmanpowertogetactivityfinished.Lostanotherday.1.001.00156700I15OO’,lOflOCOPPERP1.1018116Hateoonghmanpowertoreallygetgoing.Willloseaday.1.601.00lkOtOO3lbIly004-lHCLLCTHIC$4.Hahedyshowedop.If,D1DETOICUI.1.001.00011401940904001011009l)ETALLCITOHItlOW!0000DPostponedstartbecaaseoflackofmanpower.09D01FflJ.1.001.001501005150000)-IN50Hl01TIIFISEI1SWorkproceedingslowlyhecanseoflackofmanpowerdantocold15OOflflllCfd,0.500.50weather?150206IIS8000)-INCOPPERPUU18FIELackofmanpowermeantnoaorkdoneonthis.151IDWIICN,1.001.0010)10631680013)-INI1EETFIICOLHahndyshowedbecanseofcoldweather?16E10ETI1FCtO.1.001.005001000CF/U/P/C/SSUPERSTRUCTURELightonmanpower.Seemsthattradesmeonotshowingopbecaoseof0.250.25cnldweather.Pottingwestofmanpoweronsoperstroctorn.1)012004CI1ITALLOLUEDI1E[000111)016Allocatedmanpowertoswperstrnctore.1.061.000210094500300SITECF/HIP/C/S11110IR18SCI9IDEPoorweathercaosingseatwnrhorstostayaway.Harkingwith0.500.50ondersizedcrew.63008940)0300SITECf/H/P/C/SIOWDL011)SCP1IIEHarkingwithonlyapartialcrewhecaosnweathercaosingseatworkers0.S00.50nottoshownp.---ISUOTOTALS6.006.0016.5016.50PROBLEM:(44)LowmklIIloveFt%)t%)07118940)02000010ClOElfdiOLUCUIIEFURWIHDOUS00FE8940500200lAINCllET0l.LHLUCDIIEFUR01100)1511FEB940096200209RETAIlPETALSTUDS500100BCf/K/P/C/SSUPFJISTIOJCTURE5007062CPETAl!OLUCUIIEfUUWINDOWS14FEB940696200209IIETALLPETALSTUDSt2062C10001COINTfORWIllOWS15FEB94690200309IPETALLOCTALSTUDS16fEB940962003OyINSTALLOCTALSTUDS4.004.000.500.504.064.000.500.564,004.000.500.504.000.504.060.500.50ErrorinroriwinrkconstructionresultsFromlowskilllevel.Errorsbeingmadeiulaynotorsteelandusingcnerectbars.Attrikoteinparttolnwskilllenels.Itedtospendmoretimechocking.Lawskilllenelscnmlnuuwlingproblemsorpoorlycoordinateddrawings,loadingtoco,gnundingorrect orerrors.Pickedopmireerrorsinreinrorcingsteellayoutdoetowlowskilllevels.l,ackormanpower,lowskilllenelandcoorlictingdrawingsleadingtncnostroctionerrors.IladtnwodiFyFoi,t.Poorskilllevelleadingtoinstallationproblems.Olockiognotbeingprnperlyraslonod.ConFlictinginFormationandlowskilllenelsloadingInerrnrs.Arrectingprodnctinityandduratino.ErrorinlagoatoFsteelagain.Theguyscan’troaddrawings.Hanototakemoretimeprnnidinginstrnctinnsandcheckingwork.Hareerrorsinsteellaynotandinbuttoningapronit.RadeamistakeinlayoutoFpartortheFnrmsbecauseorconFlictinginFormationindraoiogs.TimeInstcbargeagainstconFlictinginFnrmatinncode.Rawbaneenoughmen,butpoorqualityorworkrorceleadingtnerrnrsinstudwalls.Outorplumb,soreembersdamaged,detailsinbathroomnotbeingWiltproperly,gillarrecthoardinglater.PoorqualityorworkrurceandlackoFerrectiwesopernisionresultinginerrors.Soporbaniogtospendtowithtirecheckingwork.Telldrywallsubtbatwillstartbacbcbargingroesoporinision.Lawskilllevelsandpourdrawingsleadingtoworeconstructionerrors.Lawskilllevelscausingmiteproblemsagain.HareerrorscowingupbecauseoFcuoFlictioginFormatinnivdrawings.Talkedtoarchitect—toldheritistopprioritytoresolvedirrereuresindrawings.SeecoorlictingmmcoderortimeestimatesOunthererror,dnetoconrlicts.lloralenrstarrbeingarFected.frchitectclaimsthatitiscurerror.DETIOITY/EBTRA0000O00ER/W0010CCpgogtniIIESPOICIOLIT!1W1031105LOSTDAYSLOSTDATECODELOClISPRISCRIPTI01IP00011)1OtSC1IIPTI00CORElArt0311011COOlSp1ST00JTOT10.FIST003TOTOC17FEB940907110309IDETALLPETALSTAYSSloppyworkstillbeingperFormed.Statedthatwillkachckargeagain.0.250.25I0901006CF/U/P/C/SSIJPE0STOOCTO0Etowskillleoelinpactiogonprndactioity.4.001.00IOFCO94I090200309I1tSTALLPETAl.STAYSSkillleooloutouchimproved,althoughsawsorenewrarosinthe09DOTWI.crew.ISOBTATULS20.0020.0012.252.251PROBLEM;(46)Lowcontivwtlnn/mnrwlo-15FEB91I0901006CF/RIP/C/SSIIPETISTIDETIITIEl.nwmoraleduetolousyweather-impactingnegativelyonprodnctinitg4.001.0010FEB94090300SITEGF/DIP/C/S101011I30O)SCOPI1IEGuysaresomewhatdemoralizedbecauseorcontinuedrain.Orrecting1.004.00prodnctioitg.01100194090300SITECF/H/P/C/S10100IR01SCAPIIEIlorkersgettingredupbecanseoFlackoFinrurmatiowandcoorlicts4.004.000.500.50-ininstructionsgioen.ISUBTOTALSI12.0012.000.500.50PROBLEM;(B))Rework(Workmanmlnlp)16FEB94I0902011309IPISTOCI.PETAl,STAllSCorrectionorpourqualityworkwillcostaday.III1.001.00ISO0TOTALSI1.001.00PROBLEM;(56)Errorineonmtruetion10FEB91CR01006ITFER9ICR01006C090300SITE090100090300SITE0902003090300SITE09010070901007090300SITECF/R/P/C/SSOPERSTIIIICTtIOECF/R/P/C/SSUrERSTOOCTORECF/B/P/C/S11110l.aOISCAl’llcCF/RIP/C/SSIIPOISTI10CTORCCF/B/P/C/S10100l.NIDSCAPI1ECIPGTAI.L0L01311P03FORWINDOWSCF/B/P/C/S11010IIAAISCAl’IlECF/H/P/C/SSUPEI1STRIICTOI1ECF/B/F/C/SSOPI3TS’TOIICTTIDECF/R/P/C/S10100IROISEAPIIO314FEB9410FEB9421FEB94221119423FEB9424FEB9425FEB9401000940200094090200I09IIISTAI.LOCTALSTAYS090200409IIGTFtI.PETAl.STUDS090300SITEG00300SITE090300SITE6.006.1106.006.003.003.002.002.003.003.002.002.005.005.002.502.502.002.002.002.00CF/R/P/C/S11dbI401SCwIlLCF/R/P/C/S013111) lftObSEBP lIECF/R/P/C/SI01ODISO01SCAPIPE0.250.250.100.100.250.250.200.200.100.100.200.200.100.100.250.250.250.250.200.2004100191010)00SITECF/H/P/C/S0000LIIDSCP4’I1030.000.000.50U)OCTIOITO/COTDAWORDORDER/BALDOTiOCEP0001111ODEPODGIOLITY100100005LUSTOAYSLUSTPATECOPELOCOCOPPESCDIPTIONPOORERDESCRIPTIONCODElOUtACTIONCODESDEST093TOTALrESTAOJTOTALISODTOTAI.SIl1.SO41.50I2.402.10IPROBLEM:(57)Layouterror0711094090100209LAYOUTIOU.l.S/INSTLSTUDSILLLageoterrorcausedbgpeerqualityofdrawingsanderrorindrawings.Subtradewantstobillfortineandmanheurslost.Timecoontedonderdrawingerrorcode.0011094090100209LAYOUTIALLS/INSTLSTUDSILLLagooterrorbecaoseofdrawingerrorslowedpaceofwork.finallycompletedtoday.Tinelostestimatedgesterdag,15010031500001-IN50ADATEDDISCOSlhcbanicalsohtradepotsleeningiowrongplacewhenfleerslabbuilt.USLWOUIICAL1.001.00Dillreqoirecoringofslab.Willloseadayortwo.Thisproblemwillenistonnentslabaswell.Changelagnotforremainingslabs.091109415010031510001-IDSOAOUTEDDISEDSLaynoterrnrforsleeningforriserswerethaoatfirstthanght.1.001.00lhiredrillingwillbereqoired.Dillloseatleastanotherdog.l0ItD4150100315001101-ID50AOUTEDRISERSDittingreinforcingsteelwhewdrilling.Slowingdrilliogdown.Will1.001.00probablyloseanotherday.CR0300SITECf/D/P/C/SlOUlDLSOIDSCAPI1EDisconeredalaynoterrorinpositioningretainingandplanterwalls6.006.001.001.00onmainslab.Attrihntetopeerdrawings,includinginconsistencies.1111094090100309LAYOUTOUI.l.S/IUTTLSTUDSILLfoonddrywallsebtradenotosingupdateddrawings.Deseltedinminor0.2S0.25layouterror.14fED91090100309LAYOUTOULLS/IUTTLSTUDSILLLayouterrorcostusanentrahalfdag.0.500.50151119415010041500001-INSO0OUTERRISERSLayouterrorwilladdeotradaybecauseofrequirementtodrillslab1.001.00fornewlocationofrisers.ISODTOTALSI6.006.00I5.755.75I)PROBLEM:(72)Pourgroundeundltiouw1011094120100091012ERECTSCNTDLDIN3DUDIODSONDPeergroundconditionscausedbgcontinuedrainsmeansentracare0.250.25requiredinsettingopscaffolding.22fED941201001011012ERECTSCNTOLDIIEFOR1015000Peergroundconditionsbecauseofrainwahingset-updifficult.0.250.2523110941201001011012ERLITSCALfOLDIIEDODIBS000Poorgroundconditionsbecauseofrainslowingseaffuldingset-up.0.2S0.25ISIJDTOTAI.SII0.750.75IPROBLEM:(55)Delayloaward.eootraet1511094120100091012ERECTSCAFfOLDI1EFORFODS000Sobjastphaned.Sagsthatbecausewewornslowinawardingcontract,thatheishawingahardtimeinsecuringenoughscaffolding,flagneedaneatradayortwo.Can’tcounttodaybecausepred.notdune.1611094120100091012ERECTSCUATOLDI1EDOD0950101Subtradehaningdifficulttimeinroundingupenoughscaffolding.1.001.00Willloseanotherdag.Couldhanestartedtosetup,becauseprod.almostfarenoughalong.g7fER9l120100091012ERECTSCNTULDI1EFOR1015000Subtradewillhanetobringscaffoldinginfromnutoftown.Dlaming1.001.00lateawardofcontract.2111091120100091012ERECTSCAFfULDItEFOR1YIS000Stillhaningproblemsgettingenoughscaffolding.flagdelagactioity1.001.00somemore.Destestimatenowisanotherdag.25FER94120100091012ERECTSCADIOLDIFEDUDYBS000Tradecomplainingmereaboutshertagenfscaffoldingandblamingusforlateaward.Mayaffectpacoofworkonupperlends.03001094120100212ERECTSCAFfOLDIIEDUDIODS000Donningoutofscaffnlding.Willtabeanentradaytocomplete1.001DBsecondflour.ISIJDTOTALS4.004.00IITOTOI.S1265.50265.50117.7347.73USCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLASREPCONTWFilelinedft\REP200\PPOJI2\NENYSJESelect:AllActivitiesSortStartTateDateSelectosAct/Sch/EarlpScheiloleWindowlit13DEC93To30MAY94locAtionsSITETo15SFStartMilestoneVISmtctCriticalFinishWitestoneVIocriticalCInstalledBENJAMINYUE—EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTBASELINESCHEDULEEstimatedIIPa9etlfIBeDortDate22DEC93TeoortTimeID3020ProqreoslateNeaioiosNumberProgressDateIProcireotPc>Pooitieefloat_jItgatioefloatrtJ59931994CYSFTYPEDESCTTPTIDNScheduled/actualIt)DECJANUARYFEBRUARYMARCHAPRILMAYStartFinishSir2929ID17247142t7142t294111925291624aY9945SWSTARTSDPERSTTILTDRE13DEC93SITEVaSYTITYAF/A/P/C/SSARERSTNDCTTITTE13DEC9321MAR94NTMAIN3579DDAIF2—4t0IY150105AelITES-IN56WMATERRISERS21JAN9425MAR9449MAR9023904905906790990.1090001110ALa000TWaLLS/INSTI5155SILLS20JAN9431MAY9447WAIN9029038485tO780098ITS090790IINSTALLMETALSTAYS31JAN9415APR9447WAII4290390490C7909090tSI200ItAYeEA-INCYPRETPLDNNI1C11EN94I2APNN449NCC459C0901190CC790tIDIlYISASH-INELECTRICALTJ’EB9419APR9453NCoCa90CACtO500200IINSTALLBLICEITSFDAWINDI3ISDTEN9407APR9449NC28704558687008ITOa5153l5IF/P/P/C/SHAtSLAINISCAPITSTNEN942WE994ISSITEaT70IDDAERECTSCAFFCLITNSFANWASIWAY15FEB9411APR9440WAIN3•fl5S051190fl79090m095401IINSTALLEDTENNAI.WILL0099123FEB9415APR9439WAINfi34fl799090090090aIDDIOD0INSTALLWINDOWS25FEB0419APR9439WAIlIflflfl90090fl6509011900090355AINSTALLTNSLEATIYN/YAPIAABAYD3WAtt9422APR9437NNflfl45.790990fl900901190170200CAYILDBRICEWALLSD3WABS42YNAY94S7NNzzZ3905790IC20CACA90AC00905(5COPAWALL9OARAI%DAWAA9413NAY9449N0IN329aY9I5STSTAPS/FILL/SUITIRYMALL14NA15430MAY9455WAIW909011390C30WJJJ/S//JA25291017247142171421294111025291124ClEfTYPEIESCRIPTTDTIDECJANUARYFEBRUARYMARCHAPRILIMAY19931994UNCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPC0FileUsed11\PEP?IU\PepJtT\RENI1JESelectAllActivihesSortStartDateDateSelectionAct/Sch/EaelyScheduleAindowTile13DEC93To3006094locat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F DATA INTERPRETATION FOR CASE STUDY 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(ItProblemSoorcetotaltotal2totaltotal)totalActivityl.eoelCorrectiveActionStrengthtla.DescriptinodayslostdayslostMrslostMrslostoccuroccurOh,.DescriptionItlnsolficieotmacpowertOO8.580.885822.2Reallocatemanpowerfrompreferahlgataifferor8.6non-criticalactiwity(8555111toactivityXX0Y.9.1Onnothing.0.088814l.ewskilllevel80.888.885822.4Discosswithsnbtradeforemanmnrkforce1.0888performance.yeeyatedfroblemoActivitylevelCorrectiveActionStrengthPrnhlemllamherRe.Description2,4Discosswithsnhtradeforemanwnrkforce8.7857IIpcrfnrmance.2.7Reallocatemanpowerfrompreferablyatoffeeyr0.2143IInon-criticalactivity(0155111toactinity109922.Activity.820Ol85T.1lt’faSMSLnc:3Traderesponsible:D1t100t1.Startdate:l5fD3l94Prnjected(frtuallfinishdate:lUfDIllItotaldnration:IlaysRemainingduration:0daysOXfreefloau0daysTotalfloat:12daysTotalfloat/remaininglmrationRndefinedtltimideD81ActivityAttributesDegreeofApplicability00Internalaccess:1.0002l.aboorintensive:1.0816Designchanges:1.0821learningcurveeffects:0.08Z2Desigocnmplenity:0.10totalvnnnkrrofdayslost:135Tetalnumberofmanlnnirslost:8.00ProblemSource2totaltotal2totaltotal7.totalActinityl.noelCorrectiveActionlStrengthlRe.DescriptionlayslostdayslostMrslostMrslostoccuroccurRe.Description44lineshilllevel430.758.800842.3Upgrademntraiondpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.0.80002.4Uiscnsswithonhtradeforemanmnrkforce1.8080performance.2.9Hiremoreeoperiencedworknrstolead1.10108ioenperieocedworkers.52Reworktlkrkmaoshipl571.880.082812.3Upgradenntrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.1.08884.3IncreasetieremainingdurationontIeactinity.0.58881.0Increaseorinprovesopervision.1.08007.6Openatachchurgetoasobtradeornupplierfor1.0888accelerntion.Page5AC23AggregatedProhiensDetinitgLevelCorrectineDetinaStrengthProhlewlieterlb.Description2.3Upgradeuntrainedpersonneltntrainedpersnnnel.8.285714522.4DiscusswithsnbtradeEnrewanaorhfnrce8.285744perfnrwance.2.9Hireworeenperiencedanrberotolead8.285714ineuperiencedanrhers.4.8Increaseorinpronesopernisinn.8.8571527.6OpenahachchargetnawhtradeorsupplierForL857152acceleratinn.I.]Increasetierenamingduratinnnotheactinitg.8.828652Detinity:898288l)€TALI.maSTUDSLoc:ITraderespnnsihleD8lfli.Startdate:23FC894Prnjected(Detnal)Finishdate81198194TntaldnratinnSdagsRenamingdnration8dags,87FreeFInatHdaysTotalrlnat:144agsTotalfloat/renamingduration:Uodefined(DinidePg0)&tinitgAttrihutesIlegreeoFAgplicahilitg18Internalaccess:1.8812Labourintensive:1.8816Designchanges:1.8821LearningcurveeFfects:8.8822Designcnqleoitg:8.48Totalneoherofdagslout:1.75Totalonoherorwanhoorslout:8.88PrnhleoSource7totaltotal7totaltotal7totalfrtioitgl.eoelCorrectionktiooStreopthPu.DescriptiondagsloutdagsloutwitsloutidesloutocuiroccurIt.Pescriptioo41InsufFicientaanpoaer71.758.886834.3IncreasethereoaioingdarationontIeactioitg.1.88889.1Donothing.1.888856Errorinconstruction298.588.884825.18ContactreleoaotpartiesForcorrectionand/or1.8888inFormation.AggregatedPrnhlensfrtinitglevelCorrectioeDetionStrengthProhle’nIt.imherIt.Description5.18ContactrelenantpartiesForcorrectionand/or8.788856istorwatioe.4.3increasetherenaioinAoratiooontieactinity.8.388841tinity120188LTICCTSCaTOI.DItEFAIl88501811bc:88THTraderespoosihle:itos000lTStartdate:IOFCD9IProjected(Actaallfinishdate:8188891Tutu)duration:8daysPage6AfziOeoaininyduration:0daysOXFreefloat:daysTotalfloat:-2daysTotalfloat/renamingduration:tlndelined)ltinideDy0)DotioityAttributesDegreeofApplicability6Aind:0.007tonndconditions:OStorageensite6.409sitecongestinn:0.06DICnternalaccess:too12labourintensioe:1.0617Aighinspectino:0.5620learningcurveeffects0.46Totaliemberofdayslost:0.75Totalneoberofoaehearslost:0.06ProblenSource7.totaltotal7totaltotal7totaltioitylevelCorrectiveDetioolStrengthltOn.Descriptiondayslestdayslostohrslostmb’slostoccuroccurIt.Description72PourgroundconditionsI)0.750.006033.1Conductmareon-sitesoiliooestigatioos.0.00064.3locreasetherenamingdorationontheactioity.0.00006.2l*atifytheOwnerunderacontractclaosefor0.0006unexpectedconditions(groundconditions,utilities).7.3Openadelayclaim.7.01OpenaclaimforconditinnsnutcoveredOnjtIeO.contract.9.0Dxnething.0.000095Delayinaaard.contract570.060.00402Hocorrectiveaction-lackofsapportingevidenceAgyregatedProhlneDetinityl.eoelCorrectiveDetionStrengthProblonlHamkerIt.DescriptinnDonething-lackofenideoce.0.000695ktinity:150100000QI-lO51000T1310051305Lec:3Traderesponsible:t%J34IlCP6,Startdate:0Ol’13l94Prujected(Actual)finishdate:11103094Totalduration:4daysIlemainingderatino:0days,OXFreefloat:0daysTntalflout:12daysTotalfloat/remainingduratinoOndefinedttiaideOy0)frtioityAttributesDegreeofApplicability16Internalaccess:0.0602laheurintensive:0.50lbDesignchanges:0.0607Oighinspection:0.0019Controlledennironment:0.5620leatolerance:0.2020Learningcomeeffects:0.5622Designcnupleaity:0.50Page7012]Totaleunherofdayslost:3.06Totaloonherofnanluoirslost:6.00frohlenSource7.totaltotal7totaltotal7totalActioitgLaudCorrectioeActionStrengthlb.DescriptiondagslostdayslostwIn’slostdo’slostoccuroccurlb.Description57Layouterror1663.600.0000031.14Correctconstructionerroratsitei,niediatelgif6.6060possible.4.15Discusswith/oetifgsubtradeto)ofrequired1.0606changesinlayout.5.11Requestiofornatioe/clarificationtrio,architect1.and/orcunsultantlslW.AggregatedProblensfttioityl.eoelCurrectiueActionStrengthPrublenDenSerlb.Description1.15Discusswith/outifyoshtradelslofrequired6.384657chaugesinlaquot.5.14Requestiuforwatiuo/clarificationIronarchitect0.384657and/orcunsultantlslASAF.1.14Correctcuosteuctieuerroratsiteiineliatelyif0.2w57possible.Actinity156160llQfl6SI086Tt01513151.oc:Iraderesponsible:lIDflill38.Startdate:15113194ProjectedldutuallIioishdate:DDfD319ITotalduration:4daysRenamingduration:0dags.67Freefloat:6daysTotalfloat:12daysTotalflout/renamingduration:tiudefioedlDinideDy0)ActinitgAttrihntesDegreeofplicabilitq16Internalaccess:1.0612Laheurioteosiue:6.5016Designchanges:1.60I?Highinspection:6.8619Controlledeooiroioueot:6.50201.0wtolerauce:6.2621Learoiugcurueeffects:0.5022Designconplenity6.50Totaleenheeofdayslost8.60Totaleueèerofnauluoirslost:6.66PrnblenSource7totaltotal7.totaltotal7totalActinitylendCorrectiveActionStrengthlb.Descriptiusdayslostdayslostdo’slostdo’slostoccuroccurlb.Description57Layouterror1061.060.6010011.11Correctcoostructionerroratsiteirniediatelyif0.6060possible.4.15Discusswith/notifysubtradelslofrequired1.0600changesinlayout.5.14Requestiufornatiuo/clarificationfronarchitect1.0060and/ercousultautls)ASAP.Page0Of23Detiwity:150200oni-i0COPP0PIJOIlICTraderesponsihl&iwwicaStartdat&lSFD9lPrnjected(Octnal)Finishdate:18113194Totalduration:4daysllenaioiogduration:0days,OXFreefloatIdaysTotalfloat:12dayst) \0OggregatedPrublerasfrtioityLevelCnrrectioeDetiaoStrengthProblesIhonberlie.Description415Discussaith/ontifysohteade(s)ofrequired6304557changesinlayout.5.14teqaestiofnrvatioo/clarificatioofronarchitect6.304557ni/orconsultant(s)ftStt1.11Correctcoastractinaerroratsiteionediatelgif6.230057possible.Detinity:150100lng730-l0S8800TlJlDlSt3lSmc:Traderesponsible:lfJ3WllCStartdate:2001194ProjectedlDetaallfinishdate:0Jl94Totaldoratioo4daysRemainingduration:0days,OXfreefloat:6daysTotalfloat:12daysTotalfloat/remaioioydoratianltodefioedllioideOg0)DetioityAttribotesDegreeofplicabilitg10Internalaccess:1.0012Labourietensioe:6.50tt.Designchanges:1.0017Highinspection:0.0019Controlledeooironot: 6.50Z0Leutoleraoce:oio21learningcoroeeffects:0.5022Desigoculeoity:6.50Totalmiterofdayslost:6.50Totaluo’erofmanhourslost:0.00ProblemSource7totaltotal2totaltotal2totalIttioitgI.eoelCorrectiveDetiooStrengthIt.Descriptiondayslostdayslostmli’sloutmli’slostoccuroccurIt.PescriptiooIIInsufficientmaopower1000.500.00100I4.3IncreasetheremainingdurationontIeactiaitg.0.50009.1Donothing.0.5000OggregatedProblemsDetinityLenelCorrectioefctiooStrengthProblemItoberIt.Description4.3IncreasetIeremaioiugdurationontIeactioitg.0.5000It9.1Donothing.0.5000II—-Lo2Page9Of23Totalflea/rennainingduration:llodefioedllinideDy01tinityAttrihotesDegreeofAgplicahilitg10Internalaccess:1.9012l.ahoorintensioo:0.9016Designchanges:0.901?Highinspection:0.9019Controlledennironaieot: 0.7921Learningcoroeeffects:0.5022Designconplenity0.50Totalrainkerofdayslost:1.25Totalnonkorofwanloorslost:0.00Actinity:150290190101-10COPPI3IPUOlll06bc:3Traderesponsible:ltlIWllCOI,Startdate:21f194Projectedtft:toallfioinbdate:Thf194Totaldoration:5daysIlonainiogduration:0days,02Freefloat:IdagsTotalfloat:16daysTotalfloat/revaioiogdoration:llndefioed(DioideDy01ActinityAttributesDegreeofApplicabilitg10Internalaccess:1.0012bahonrinteosine:0.90lbDesigochanges:0.9017Highinspection:0.90I-fl 0ProhletnSoorce7.totaltotal7totaltotaltotalActinityLevelCorrectivektiooStrength110.Descriptinndayslostdayslostntislostirslostoccoroccur110.Description34Conflictingioforaation200.250.003312.5Stunworkersareidle,rerootewanpowertoother0.9000activitiestoprenentseverewanpowerloss.1.211wsecondaryworkowtheactivity.0.90001.12Ihnoitortheactioitycloselg.0.90905.9lwprooearchitect/eogineer/coorailtaot0.9000coordination.5.10ContactrelevantpartiesForcorrectionand/or0.9000infornatinan.IIlnsnfficientnanpower001.000.006724.3Increasetherewainingdurationontheactivity.0.90009.1Onnothing.0.9AggregatedProblensActinityLeoelCorrectineActionStrengthPrnblewHankerIt,Description4.12Ibsoitortheactioitgclosely.0.4000344.3Increasetherenamingdurationontheactinitg.0.3333II2.6mOwnworkersareidle,remotewanpniurtoother0.066734activitiestopreventseverenanpowerloss.4.2Dosecondaryworkontheactiwitg.0.0667345.9lnprnnearchitect/engineer/cnnsoltant0.066734coordination.5.10Contactrelevantpartiesforcorrectionand/or0.066734infnrnation.Page19Of2319Controlledeooireniaent6.7921Learningcsroeeffects:9.5922Designcomplexity:9.59Totalraoaherofdayslost:9.93Totalronderofmaolanirslost9.99ProblemSource2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalRetinitylenelCorrectionRetinaStrengthFin.Descriptioodayslostdayslost‘airslost‘aIrslostoccuractorFt.DescriptionIIInsofficientmanpower1099.030.0919932.7Reallocatemanpowerfrompreferablyabufferor94.999non-criticalactinityIOXSSTT)toactioity090022.9.1Donothing.9.0999(Ita-.AggregatedProblemsActinityleastCearectiveActionStrengthProblemFtnherFt.Description9.1Rnnothing.I1.9999IIIRetinity15920910101-INCAPPIJInitwtcLet:ITraderespnnsible:FIDVIIICPLStartdate:2911391ProjectediRetoal)fioishdate:9l9ITotalduration:5daysRemainingduration:9days,92freefloat:1daysTotalfloat:lbdaysTotalfloat/remainingduration:liodefinedilinideBy9)RetinityAttributesDegreeof‘plicahilitg19Internalacceos:0.9912Lahcaarinteosine:999lbDesigncbunges:9.9917Highiospectioo:9.0019Controlledeooirnaaaeot:97921Learningceroeeffects:9.5922Resigncomplenity:9.59Totalnaodiernfdayslost:2.99Totalnumherofmanhourslast:9.99ProblemSource2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalRetioityLeadCorrectionActionStrengthFt.Descriptiondayslostdayslostairslust‘alaslostoccuroccurtin.DescriptionItlnsofficieotmanpower1992.099.0919922.2Reallocatemanpowerfruit.preferablyabufferor9.6090nan-criticalactiuity(XXSSTT)tuactiaity091172.9.1Donothing.9.9960AggregatedPrahiemsActinityLevelCorrectineRetinaStrengthPruhlen.FtmberFt.Description9.1Donothing.1.0909IIIPage12Of23lbDesignchanges:0.9017Highinspection:0.11019Controlledennironuent:0.7021learningcurneeffects:0.5022Designcnnplenitg:0.60Totalnunherofdayslost:8.75Totalnnnberofmanhourslost:0.08ProblewSnorce7.totaltotal7.totaltotal7.totalDetinitgbeonlCorrectionfttioolStrengthlIt.Descriptiondayslostdagslostohrslostdo’slostoccoroccorIt.Inscription31lnsnff./lnco.mpl.Drawing670.500.005014.1Postpnnetheactinitg.0.90004.3Increasetheremainingderationentheactinitg.0.90005.9lnpronnarchitect/enginenr/cnosnltant0.5800coordination.7.2Isseeamemotothepartgconcernedtorequest0.98(10drawingcommpletion.34Conflictinginfnrwation330.250.005012.6Whenenrhersareidle,rerooteManpowertoother0.98110actinitinstoprenentseneremanpowerloss.4.2ltnsecondargworhowtheactinitg.0.98084.12Itnitnrtheactinitgclnselg.0.90085.9Inpronearchitect/engineer/consultant0.9008coordination.5.10Contactrelenantpartiesforcorrectionand/or0.9infornation.&tinitgknelCorrectineDetionStrengthProblemthnmhertin.Description5.9Inpronearchitect/engineer/consultant0.17013134coordination.4.1Postponetheactinitg.0.1406314.3Increasetheremmainingdnrationontheactinitg.8.1406317.2Issueamemotothepartyconcernedtorequest0.1406311drawingcowpletinn.2.6Whenenrhersareidle,rerouteenpowertouther0.100834actinitiestoprenentsenerenanponerloss.4.2Dosecnndargwnrhontheactinitg.0.1808344.12ttnitortheactinitgcloselg.0.1000345.10Contactrelenantpartiesforcorrectionand/or0.100834infnrnation.Detinity:160100tgllQl—INt1DZT8ICl.ac:Traderesponsible:I3.IITAICPLStartdate:24111194PrnjectedtDetnallfinishdate:04881191Totaldnration7dagsIlenainingduration0dogs,87freefloat:8dogsTotalfloat:11daysTntalfloat/remainingdoratinn:Ilndefined(Dinidellg0)ActinityAttributesDegreeofpIicabilitg18Internalaccess:1.8812I.abenrintensine:8.90‘JoAggregatedPruhiensPage11Of73frtinitg:160100IOOQI-IMI1IXIDICPI,l.oc:0010Traderesponsible:I3JtTIICPLStartdate:030tt94Prajectedlktnal)Finishdate:10f5091Totaldnratian5dadsRemainingdaratioo0days,07FreeFloat:1daysTotalfloat:ItdaysTotalFloat/remainingdaratino:UndefioedttinideDy0)DetinityAttributesDegreeofPçplicahilitg10Internalaccess:IMO12labourintensive:0.90thDesignchaages:0.90t7Highinspection:19Controlledenoiroaornt:03021learningcurveeffects:0.5072Designcooplenity:0.60Totalnumberofdayslest:1.00Totalnumberofmanlnmarslest:10.00ProblemSource7totaltotal7totaltotal2totalRetinitylevelCorrectionktiooStrengthIttDescriptiondaysInstdaysInstdrsInstoh’sInstactoroccirIt.Descriptiom31losaff./lncoopl.Drawing1001.0010010.0010021.1Postponetheactivity.0.9000I.)Increasetheremainingdoratinoontheactinity.0.90005.9Improvearchitect/engineer/causaltaut0.5000coordination.7.2Issneapeontothepartyconcernedtorequest0.9000draaingcançletioo.AggregatedProblemsDetioitylendCorrectioeDetiouStrengthProblemthioberIt.Description1.1Postponetheactivity.0.2012314.3Increasetheremainingdarationantheactivity.0.2012317.2lssoeamemotothepartyconcernedtorequest0.281231drawingcompletion.5.9lmprooearchitect/eogineer/cnnsoltaut0.156331coordination.Detiuity:ISOIOODAIIQHIIDIITDICPLbc:2Traderespunsihle:I1IIT0lCStartdate:tSPUlProjected)ztaaI)finishdate:2JUl91Totaldoration:7daysRemainingduration:0days,07freefloat:0daysTotalfloat:13daysTatalfloat/remainingdurationOndefinedttioideBy0)DetimityAttributesDegreeofftaplicabilitg10Internalaccess:1.0012labourintensiue:0.90Page130123If,Desigochanges0.9017Highiospectioo:19Controlledenmiroemeot0.7021l.earniogcnroeeffects:6.5022Resignciempleoitg:0.60Totalnumberofdayslost:2.25Totaloomberofmanlo,orslost:0.00ProblemSource7.totaltotal2totaltotal2totaltioitgloadCorrectineRetionStreogthRe.DescriptiondayslostdayslosteRrslosteRrsInstmeciaraccorIt.DescriptioeIIlosofficientmanpower1002.250.0010031.3Increasetheremaioioghiratiooo”theactioitg.0.99.1Donothiog.0.9000OggregotedProblemsRetioitylendCorrectivetiooIt.tescriptinoI.]Increasetheremaioingdurationnotheactioitg.0.5000II9.1Donothing.0.5000IIRetimity)3100FIR/P/C/SSRWCISTIHETII1IELeeTraderesponsible:)3NIIcLCOHTI00TORStaetdate:31J1fl91l’rojectedtktnaltfinishdate:0911194Totalduration0daysRemainingdaratioo0days,OXfreefloat:0daysTotalfloat:—2daysTotalfloat/remaioiogduration:Uo.lefinedtDioide090)ft:tioityAttributesDegreeofPq’plicabilitg1Highprecipitalioo:1.003Highteqeratore:0.604loutemperatare:1.00bRim):0000Storageonsite:1.00IIExternalaccess:1.0012lahoorioteosioe:0.9013Equipmentintensine:0.00ISlnoouatioenotloids:0.0016Designchanges:1.0012Highinspection:1.00tgContractprooisioo:1.0020lenatolerance:0.7021learningcomeeffects:0.9022Resignconipleoitg:1.00Totalomiherofdayslost:2.00Totalonmherofmanleoarslost:70.00ProblemSource2tntaltotal7totaltotal7.totalRetioitylenelCorrectioefrtiooStrengthIt.DescriptiondayslostdayslostelmslostmloslostoccuroccurIt.Description11TooouchprecipitationI100I2.00I10070.001160211.1Prooideaprotectedenoiroementnoshelter.I0.4000IViJStreogth1ProblemlhimhorIPage1401231.2Postponethewctinitgtoatinewindowwithbetter1.anticipatedweathercenditimas.4.3Increasetherenamingdurationontheactivity.1.00005.1Porveeapruojecttineeotnnsionforwnreasnoable0.0000delaybeyondceatractor’scontrol.9.!Dxnothing.0.7200AggregatedProhleiasfrtivitglevelCerrectioeDetionStrengthProhienthanhertha.Description5.1Parseeaprojecttineentensionforanreasonable0117tIIdelayheynedcontractor’scentrnl.1.2Postponetheactioitgtoatinewindowwithbetter0.2551Itanticipatedweatherconditions.I.)Increasetherenamingdurationnotheactinitg.0.351It1.1Provideaprotectedennironnentorshelter.0.1020ItDetivity:0l00fin/P/C/SSllPlIlSIHllClllICl.ac:5Traderespensihie:GtlltllPd.C0ttTtTHRStartdate:10111191Prajectedt&tnallfinishdate:11111191Totalduration7daysRenamingduration0days,02Freefloat:0daysTotalfloat:-ldaysTotalPIvot/renamingduration:tlndefinedttinideBy01Ruft:tinityAttribatesDegreeofAgplicabilityIHighprecipitation:1.003Hightenperatore:0.50lientenperatare:1.085Wind:0.10IStorageonsite:1.00Itinternalaccess:1.0012lahenrintensine:0.9013t)gnipnentinteosine:0.0015Innenativenetheds:0.0015Designchanges:1.00I?Highinspection:1.90IACeotractprevision:t.0020Iontolerance:0.7021learningcarveeffects:0.9022Designconplenitg:1.08Totalonanherofdayslnst2.55Totalmu*aerofnanlonarslost:57.00PruhlenSeorce2totaltotal7totaltotal2tntwlktinitglevelCnrrectinodetionStrength1Dx.Descriptiondayslostdayslostidu’slostekesInstoccuroccurIt.DescriptionIIToonochprecipitation702.004521.084251.1Provideaprotectedennirnianentorshelter.0.40001.2Postponetheactinitgtnatinewindowwithbetter1.0000anticipatedweatherconditiens.4.3Increasetherenamingdaratinoontheactivitg.1.00005.1Pursueaprojecttineentensionforunreasonable0.0000delayhegondcontractor’scentral.PageIS01239.11)nothing.4.3Increasetheremainingdurationontheactioitg.9.1Punothing.2.4Piscosswithsubtradeforemanwvrkfvrceperformance.livcorrectiveactino—lackofsupportingevidence2.1SeekadditionaltradesmenandallocatethemtoactivitgO1YYZZ.2.2Reallocatemanpowerfrompreferahlgahollerormen-criticalactimitg(XXSSTT)toactivitgXXYTZZ.(.9Reallocatetools/eqnipmemtfrompreferablgahullerorvon-criticalactivitgtoacriticalone.4.10Pnrchaseorrentbackupeqnipmeot/tools.4.20Seeifanalternativedesigncanbewsedratherthanperformingremedialworktocorrectproblems.421Allocatetimeforreworktocorrecterror.5.2fiiplvgaqnalitgcontrolprogram.5.10Contactrelevantpartiesforcorrectionand/orinformation.5.17Determinetheimpactofcnnstrnctionerrorentheproject;ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade!workersforrework.7.3Openadelagclaim.8.72000.96080.90000.9000Actinitt8l80F/B/P/C/SS0P13ISTRlJCTlJ0Traderesponsible:GUIEBALc0NTRTOftStartdate:21FEB94£rojected(ktoallfinishdate:28FEB94bc7IIInsufficientmanpower44I.ooskilllevel4kInnmotivation/morale56ErrorinconstructionB 8 140.200.860.800.3512 276.864.01)4.0614.8017 252AggregatedProblems0.90000.96000.50.00661.001)01.06061.0868fttiuitl.enelCorrectivetinnStrengthProblemIbimberPu.Description6.1Pursueaprojecttimeextensionfornoreasonable0.611delayhe,jovdcontractor’scontrol.2.4PiscosswithsnbtradeForemanworkforce0.166744performance.4.3Increasetheremainingdnratiomontheactivitg.0.146611411.2PostponetheactivitgtoatimewindowwithheLter0.1%)11anticipatedweatherconditions.1.1Prooideaprotectedenvironmentorshelter.0.0425IlS.2CopIngaqoalitgcontrolprogram.0.0301565.10Contactrelevantpartiesforcorrectionand/or0.830156information.5.17Determinetheimpactofcnnstractionerroronthe8.030156project;ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforrework.2.1Seekadditinnaltradesmenandallocatethemto6.027156actinitg0000ZZ.2.2DeallocatemanpowerIronprelerablgaholleror0.027156nun-criticalactimitg(DISSIT)toactimitg839072.4.21AllocatetimeForreworktocorrecterror.0.0271564.10Purchaseorreotbackupeaipmewt/tnols.0.0241564.20Seeifanalternativedesigncanbeosedrather0.024156thanperlormiogremedialworktocorrectproblems.1.9fleallncatetnnls/eqnipmentfrompreferablga0.015056bailervi’non-criticalactimitgtoacriticalone.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.015156Page16Of23t) Vi—0Totalduration:6daysDemainiogduration:days,02freefloat:0daystotalfloat:-ldaysTotalfloat/remainingduration:Ondefined(DioideDy0)(ttioityAttributesDegreeof‘plicahilityIHighprecipitation:1.003Itightemperatare:0.60Ilowtemperature:1.00Wind:0.00Storageonsite:1.0011Internalaccess:1.0012l.ahoorioteosioe:0.9013Equipmentiotensioe:0.00ISlnnnoatioemethods:0.00lbDesignchanges:1.0017Highinspection:1.0010Contractprooisioo:1.0020lao.tolerance:0.7021Learningcnirneeffects:0.9022Designcnmpleoity:1.00Totalnumberofdayslost:1.10Totalnumberofmanhourslost:19.50ProblemSource2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalActinitgtactCorrectionActionStrengthDo.DescriptiondaysInstdayslostida’sInstmli’slastoccuroccurlb.DescriptionIITnomachprecipitation00.006212.002921.1Pranideaprotectedennironmentorshelter.0.10001.2Pestpooetheactinitytoatimemiodnuwithbetter1.001*1anticipatedweatherconditions.I.)Increasetheremainingdurationontheactinitg.1.06.1Pursueaprnjecttimeentensinofarunreasonable0.0000delaghegendcontractor’scontrol.9.1Donothing.0.7200IIlosofficientmanpower730.0000.004334.3Increasetheremainingdurationontheactimitg.0.90009.1Doonthing.0.9000SbErrorinconstruction270.30307.502922.1Seekadditionaltradesmenandallocatethemto0.9000actinitg000072.2.2Deallocatemanpowerfrompreferahlgahnfferor0.9non-criticalactimity110SSTT)toactinitg009972.4.9Deallocatetonlsleqnipmeotfrompreferahlga0.5000bufferornun—criticalactinitytoacriticalone.4.10Purchaseorrenthachnpeqoipment/tonls.0.00001.20Seeifaoalternationdesigncanheusedrather0.0000thanperformingremedialmurktocorrectprahleme.4.21Allocatetimefarrewnrhtocorrecterror.0.90005.2LopIngaqnalitgcnotrolprogram.1.00005.10Contactrelenantpartiesforcorrectionand/or1.0000informatino.5.17Determinetheimpactofconstructionerroraothe1.0000project:ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersfnrrework.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.5000Page170123greyatedProblemsActivitylevelCorrectiveActionStrengthProblemFloaterIt.Description6.1Porsneaprojecttbextensionforunreasonable0.3251IIdelaybeyondcontractor’scnntrnl.4.3Increasetheremainingdurationontheactinitg.0.2872liii1.2Pnstpnnetheactivitytoatinewindvawithbetter0.8729Itanticipatedweatherconditions.5.2fsaplnyaqoalitycontrolprogram.0.0344565.10Contactrelevantpartiesforcorrectionand/or0.834456infnrmatinn.5.07Determinetheiwpactofcoostroctionerrnronthe8.834456prnject;ifcritical,seehadditionaltrado/aorhersforrevork.2.1Seehadditionaltrademoandallocatetlato8.831856activity008172.2.2HeallocatemanpowerIrmapreferablyahulleror8.831856non-criticalactivity111SSTT)toactioity011922.4.21Allocatetueforreiaochtocorrecterror.8.8318561.1Provideaprotectedenoireoaieotorshelter.8.8292114.18Purchaseorroothachnpeqiaipnaot/tools.8.0275564.28Seeifanalternativedesigncanhewoodrather8.027556thanperlnrniogre’edialieirhtocorrectprohleac.4.9Reallocatetools/equipeentfrompreferablya0.817256hofferoronn-ceiticalactinitytoacriticalone.t%)7.3Openadelayclaim.0.017256UI-00-Activity:018100f/H/P/C/SSIIPI3ISTIIIICTIJRCmc:Traderesponsible:wiiaCOItfRTAHStartdate:01119194ProjectedtActoallfinishdate:87119194Totalduration:5daysRemainingdoratioo1days,282freefloat:0daysTotalfloat:4daysTotalflnat/remainingdoratioo4.00ActinityAttributesDegreeofplicahilityOHighprecipitation:1.003Hightemperatore:0.01Il.owtemperature:1.00bOredAStorageonsite:1.00IiEnteroalaccess:1.0012t,ahvairiotensine:9.9013Equipmentintensive:0.9015Innonatinenetheds:0.9016Designchanges:1.0007Highinspection:1.0018Contractprnoisioo:1.0020lowtolerance:9.7921learningcurveeffects:0.9022Desiyocomplexity:1.00Totalnomherofdayslost:0.50Totalnonherofmaoheorslost4.00Page100123ProblemSoorce7.totaltotal7totaltotal7totalMioityl.eoelcorrectiooDetiooStreogtbIt.Descriptioodayslostdayslostairslost‘airslastoccoroccurlb.DescriptiooIIToomichprecipitation500.25ItO4.0050I1.1Provideaprotectodeoniroin€otorshelter.0.40001.2Postponetheactioitgtoatimeaiodoaawithbetter1.aoticipatedweathercooditioos.I.]locreasetheremainingdurationnotheactivity.1.06.1Pursueaprojecttimeeoteosioaforooreawuable0.0000delaybeyondcontractor’scontrol.9.1Dooothiog.0.720041losolficientmaopoaerSt0.2500.005014.3locreasetheremalologduration00theactinity.0.90009.1tooothiog.0.9000AggregaledProblemsDetinitylevelCorrectiveUctiooStreogthProblemlhaEerIt.Descriptioo6.1Pursueaprojecttimeeoteosiooforaireasoeable0.143911delaybeyondcootractor’scootrol.I.)locreasetheremainingdoratiooastheactioitg.0.377611411.2Postponetheactivitytoatimewindowwithbetter0.1276tlanticipatedweatherconditions.1.1Provideaprotectedenniromrotorshelter.0.051011Detinity:500200ItGTAU.tl.OClll05FOR0100005bc:0019t.)Traderespoosible:61311.3101.C0tt1HTDflStartdate:0310294“0Projectedlfrtoallfinishdate:0010294Totalduration:4daysRemaioiogdnratioo:0days,OXFreefloat:3daysTotalFbar60daysTotalfloat/renvainingdoratioo:thidefinedtltioideD01OttinityAttributesItegreeofUpplicability10Interoalaccess:0.0012Labenariotensioe:1.00IItalleractioity:1.00lbDesigocbaoges:0.0017Highinspection:0.3020l.owtolerance:0.5021Learningcarveeffects:0.5022Designcoopleaitg:0.50Totalonnberofdayslost:1.00Totalnoaberofwaoheaarslast:0.00ProblemSoorce7totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalDetinitybroelCorrection&tiooStrengthIt.Descriptiondayslostdayslast*slostEnlastoccurorcurIt.Description44lowsl:illlevel1001.001000.0010022.3Upgradeaotrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.0.00002.4Discussaithsobtradeforemanworliforce1.0000.performance.2.9Hiremoreeoperieocedwarherstolead1.0000ioeoperiencedaorhers.Page19Of23Activity:500200INTTAIJ.RLOCKIRArot0100005I.oc:3Traderesponsible:01)03101.CONTRACTORStartlate:101)3194t) SAggregatedProblemsActieityLevelCorrectiveActionStrengthProblemlhxmherAc.Description2.1Discusswithsobtradeforemanworhferce0.3571‘IIperformance.2.9Hiremereexperiencedworkerstolead0.357141inexperiencedworkers.7.3tpgradeentrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.0.205744Actioity:500200lNTTAl.l.Dl.OCIIINTFUR0100005Lec:2Traderespxnsible:01JUFAI.CONTRACTORStartdate11113194Projected(Acteallfinishdate:1Sl’5094Totaldoration3daysRemainingdoration0days,HZFreefloat:3daysTotalfloat:57daysTotalfloat/remainingdoratiooOodefioed(DioideBy0)ActivityAttributesDegreeofplicahility10Internalaccess: 0.1012Laboorintensive:1.0014Bufferactivity:1.00lbDesignchanges:0.1017Highivspectioe:0.3020Lamtelerance:0.5021Learningcurveeffects:0.5022Designcompleoity:0.50Totalcomberofdayslest:1.10Totalnemberofmacboorslost:6.00ProblemSoarce2totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalActinityLevelCnrrectioeActionStrengthFbi.Descriptiondayslostdayslostida’slostmhrslestoccuroccorAc.DescriptionIIlowskilllevel1001.001001.0010022.3Rpgradeontrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.0.00002.1Discusswithsohtradeforemaomorhforce1.6000performance.2.9Hireworeenperiencedmorherstolead1.0600inexperiencedmorhero.AggregatedProblemsActivityLevelCorrectiveActiooiStrengtkProblemlhimberFbi.Description2.4Discussaithsehtradeforemanmorhforce0.357114performance.2.9Hiremereeeperiencedmarkerstolead6.357144inexperiencedworkers.2.3Upgradeootrainedpersonneltotrainedpersonnel.6.205744Pays20Of23Prujectedthtuallfinishdate:2311194Totalduration:4daysRemainingduration:0days,OXFreefloat:IdaysTotalfloat:57daysTotalfloat/remainingduration:RndefinedtTiuideBy01frtinityAttributesDegreeofiplicahilitg10Internalaccess:0.90I?Labourintensiee:1.0014Bufferactiuity:1.0016Desnchanges:0.90I?Highinspection:0.3020I.e..tolerance0.5021Learningcnroeeffects:0.50ZlDesignco.çleaity:0.50Totalnumberofdayslost:2.20Totalrnjmherof..anlaonrslost:0.00ProblemSourceXtotaltntal2totaltotal2totalDetinityLendCurrnctinetionStrengthlha.DescriptinodayslostJayslestmb’sInstado’sloutnccuroccurBu.lescriptionIIInsefficientmanpower912.900.007534.3lrnreasntheremainingdurationowtieactivity.1.09.1(Innnthing.1.9000SErrorinconstruction90.200.002515.10Cuotactremnantpartiesfurcorrectionand/nr1.0000N)information.gregatedProblemsDetinitylendCorrectionDetinoStrengthPrnhlnmIhudierIt.Description1.3IncreasetIeremainingdurationontheactioitg.0.7500II5.10Contactreleoantpartiesfurcorrectionand/ne0.30056ioformatioo.frtioity:1300290INSTAlLOLOCIIIIEFOR011010115l.oc:4Traderesponsible:GD3tlIAI.fO0TRT00Startdate:29913191ProjectedlActoallfinishdate:07)90194Totaldoratinn:3daysRemainingduration:0days,OXfreefloat:6daysTotalfloat:54daysTotalfloat/remainingduration:HndefimndllliuideDy01ActioitgAttributesDegreeof‘pIicahiIity10Internalaccess:0.9012Labouriotensioe:1.00IIBufferactioitg:1.0016lesignchanges:0.9017Highinspection:0.3020Lu..tolerance:0.5021Learningcuroeeffects:0.5022Designcompleoity:0.50Totalnumberofdayslost:1.00Page21OF23TotaloooheroF,raoluoirslost:6.66ProblemSource2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalActioitgLenolCorrectiveActionStrengthtin.Descriptiondagslostdagslostmlv’slestdo’slostoccuroccurtin.Descriptioo41losoIFicieotmaopower1661.660.0616614.3locreasethero.raioiogdoratioro00theactioitg.1.66669.1Itonothing.1.6666AggregatedProhlensActioitgLevelCorrectioeActionStrengthProhlemthurberDo.Descriptioo4.3Increasetherevaluingdurationontheactioitg.6.5606II9.1ltonothing.6.5606IIttieitg:666366F/DIP/C/S10611IRIISCAPIIEl.ec:SITCTraderespeosible:(DIM.COt6TAT66Startdate:69111391Projected(ft:toallFinishdate:6306191Totaldoratien:20dagsRemainingduration:2dags162FreeFloat:67dagsTotalFloat:67dagsTotalFloat/remainingduration:33.56t) 0”RetioitgAttributesIlogreeoFplicahilitgIHighprecipitation:1.063Highteoperature6.664Lowtemperature:1.667Groundconditions:1.066Storageensite:1.669Sitecongestion:1.6611Externalaccess:1.0612Lahnnrinteesioe:6.6614DoFFeractioitg:6.56lbDesignchanges:1.6616Contractprovision:6.5621learningcomeeFFects:6.2022Designcoopleeitg:1.66TntalnooheroFdagslost:9.55TotalnumberoFmanheorslost:66.66ProhleoSource2totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalActioitgI.enelCerrectineActionStrengthDo.Descriptiondagslostdagslostohrslostmlv’slostoccuroccurDo.DescriptionIITooreichprecipitationlb1.561917.661441.1Provideaprotectedeoeiroioentorshelter.6.46661.2Postponetheactioitgtoatirewindowwithhotter1.6666anticipatedweatherconditions.3.23ieroappropriate,oseentrasopportorsharingto1.6666alleoiatepoorgroundconditions.4.3Increasetheromainiogdnratiooontheactioitg.1.60661.1PorseeaprojecttireeoteusiooForonreasnnahlo6.5666dolaghegoodcootractor’scontrol.9.1Donothing.6.566631lnsuFF./Incenpl.Drawing60.7507.601634.1Postpoootheactinitg.1.6606Page2201234.2Dosecnodamjworkontieactivity.4.3locreasetieremainingdurationontieactivity.INO5.9lmçrovearchitect/engioeer/coeseltant0.5800coordination.7.2IssueaometotiepartyconcernedtorequestD.NOdrawiogce.g’Ietion.32Prayingerrors30.255312.6Ottoworkersareidle,remotemaopvwertootter1.NOactimitiestopreveotseveremanpowerloss.4.10Dotedowniodailyreportdatesofinfonvation1.0000reqoested,conversations/verbalinstructions,telepleoecallsetc..5.14Requestinformation/clarificationfromarchitect1.0000and/orcvnsoltavtls)ASPi.34Cenflictinyinformation100.753026.001752.6OPenworkersareidle,remotemanpenertootter0.0000actioitiestopreventseveremnopnwerloss.4.2Dvsecendaryworkontieactinity.0.00004.12Phoitortieactivityclosely.0.00005.9liçronearchi tect/eogieeer/cvnsoltantIONcoordination.5.10Contactreleoaotparties[orcorrectionand/orl.MlOinformative.IIInsafficientmanpower292.7500.001754.3IncreasetieremainingdoratiooentIeactivity.0.000046leowotinativn/worale50.5090.00721.3Trytoiiq’roneworkingconditions.0.30002.2Reallocatewoopeworfrompreferablyahofferor0.5000non-criticalactivity100SSTT)toactivity1009U.2.5Iflowwotivatienisevkibitedbyspecificcrev0.7000members,layoffonprodoct innworkersandseekt—Jnewones.2.610evworkersareidle,remotemanpowertootter0.SNto.)activitiestopreveotseveremanpowerloss.4.1Pestpowotieactinity.0.500056[trotinceestroctive111.052320.002002.2Reallocatemanpowerfrompreferablyaknfferor0.0000non-criticalactinity(0055011toactivity000022.4.3Increasetieremainingdoratinoontieactinity.0.50004.21Allocatetinefeereworktocorrecterror.5.10Contactrelenootpartiesforcorrectionand/orl.N0informativo.5.12Ihitifyowner/projectmanageraheottiepossibility0.5800ofdelayiftIeactivityaffectedisacriticalole.5.16Issuespeedywowotoaffectedparties.0.50005.17Deterniwotiei’çactofconstructionerrorontie0.5800project:ifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/workersforrework.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.SN57Lvgeoterror101.0076.00311.11Correctconstructionerroratsiteimediatelyif0.6800possible.1.15Discusswith/notifysubtrade(s)efrequired1.0000ckangesinlayvot.5.14Requestinformation/clarificationfromarchitect1.0000and/ercnnsnltavtls)0501’.AggregatedPreblewoActivitylevelCorrectiveActiveStrengthProblemthinkerIt.Description4.3Increasetieremainingdvratinventieactivity.0.2500113111565.10Contactrelevantpartiesforcorrectionand/or0.09163456informative.Page2301232.2Reallocatemanpowerfrompreferablyaholleror0.85711656non-criticalactinityt1ISSTT)toactinity11101Z.2.6ienworkersareidle,reroutemanpowertoother0.0553323116actioitiestopreoentseoeremanpowerloss.5.9lmprooearchitect/engineer/cnnsnltant0.05153131coordination.1.21Allocatetimeforreanrktocorrecterror.0.0433561.1Postponetheactinity.0.011031461.12tboeitortheactivityclosely.0.0375344.2Resecnedanjaerhontheactioity.0.035630344.10Retedownindailyrepnrtdatesofinfnrmatiee0.035432reqnested,cennersatinns/eerbalinstrnctines,telephonecallsetc..1.2Postpone11€activitytoatimewindowwithbetter0.031311anticipatedmeatiercnnditiees.3.2lOereappropriate,oseeatraonppnrtorshoringtn0.031311alleoiatepeergrenndcnoditions.7.2Issneamemotothepartyconcernedtorequest0.020031draminycompletion.5.12Ittifyowner/projectmanageraboutthepossibility0.027056nfdelayiftheactinityaffectedisacriticalone.5.16Issuespeedymemotoaffectedparties.0.0270565.17I1eterminetheimpactofconstructionerrorenthe0.027056prnjectifcritical,seekadditionaltrade/merhersforrewnrh.7.3Openadelayclaim.0.0270565.14Requestinfnrmatinn/clarificatioefromarchitect0.02403257and/arcnnwltantlslasce.2.5Ifluwmetimatinnisenhibitedbgspecificcrew0.019346memhers,laynflnnprnductieeworhersandseekmewones.b.1Pursueaprojecttimeentensinaforenreamnuahle0.0157IIdelaybeyondcontractor’scontrol.4.15Riscusswith/notifymnbtradetslofrequired0.013357changesinlayout.1.1Prenideaprntectedennirnincotorshelter.0.0125114.14Correctconstructionerroratsitei,mediatelyif0.000057possible.UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPC0ThfilePsedp:\1l3700\f10329\IflfflJJBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTReportlate2210193Reportlion:21:46:27llemisiooRe’er0Progresslate094rageIof3tJ 0-fllateRindew:FromO4Ft94to110)191Retla,dosed:mao-mmlkigktiogcooditioofreqoeocgofoccorreoceTrade:09DATIAILI.Itt.Totaloooberofdayslost:4.00Totaloomberofoaolijorslost:6.00ProblemSoorceDispersion7.totaltotal7.totaltotal7.totalTradeLeoelCorrectionfttiooStreogthRe.DescriptionlioleodayslostdayslostmIrelostmIrelostoccoroccorRe.lescriptioo32Drawingerrors0.200006251.061006.0671Recorrectiveactioo-lackofsopportiogemideoceIIlosofficieotmaopnoer0.200006130.5000.06II21.1ResigoMoreMoOtotheproject.0.0600I.)Replacecrewwithamareeoperieocedooe.1.0000IIleoskilllevel0.400000190.7500.00436Recorrectionactioo-lackofsopportiogeoideoce52teworktllorkmaoshipl0.200000251.0000.0071Recorrectioeactiom-lackofsopportiogeoideoce57Lagooterror0.400000190.7500.00294Recorrectioeactioo-lackofsopportiogeoideoceAggregatedProbleosTradeLevelCorrectivePstiooStreogthProblemttaEerRe.DescriptiooDoootkiog-lackofeoideoce.Il.32445257trade:12101011)1516614110615Totaloamberofdayslost:2.25Totaloomkerofmaokiorslost:0.00ProblemSoorcelispersioototaltotal7.totaltotal7.totalTradel.eoelCorrectivoRetiomStreoqtkRe.Descriptioolodeodayslostdayslost*lostmIrelostocoaroccurRe.Ileocriptiow72Poorgrovodcooditloos1.000006110.250.0031Recorrectioeaction-lackofsopportirigeoideoce95Delayioaoard.cootract1.000000892.000.00753Recorrectioeactioo—lackofsopportiogeoideoceAggregatedProblemsTradeLevelCorrectioeActiooStreogtkProblemRemberRe.DescriptiooDooothieg—lackofeoideoce.I1.066017295Trade:1566LDfillCOLDAllAAOTERTotalnooberofdayslost:5.3Page2Df3Totalounherofwanhourslost:0.011ProblewSourceDispersion2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeLeadcorrectiveActionIStrengthlRe.DescriptionIndendayslostdayslostwItslostwhrslastoccuroccurho.Descriptive34Conflictinginforwatinn0.25000050.250.001412.5lepraveswhtradecoordination.0.10002.7lopronearchitect/eogieeer/projectsmanager0.1000ceordinatiow.2.8Openextraworkordersinceprobleworiginated0.0witharchitect/engineer.IIInsufficientwanpmaer0.30191.000.002921.1Assignworenewtetheproject.0.07501.3Replacecrewwithaworeexperiencedowe.0.557layewterror0.5M764.000.0057IRecorrectiweaction-lackofsupportingevidenceAggreyatedPrablensTradeLendCorrectiveActionStrengthPrnhlewRewkerRe.DescriptionDonothing-lackofevidence.I1.0000IS?Trade:16P011131Itt.Tntaloewberofdayslost:1.75Intalnewberofwaehenrslast:10.00ProblowSnuarceDispersion2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeLevelCorrectiweAstiowStrengthRe.Descriptionlodendayslastdayslastmdv’slostmdv’slostaeon’occurRe.Description31losuff./locoeçl.Drawing1.00000000,1.5010010.00753Recorrectineaction-lackofuaappnrtiogevidence31Conflictingivforwation0.500000140.2500.00312.6lmçrnves.htradecoordination.0.30002.7lmçrnvearchitect/engineer/projectmanager0.3500coordination.AggregatedProbleosIradeLenelCerrectineActionStreegtkProkleoRewkerRe.DescriptionRenothing-lackofevidence.I1.0000131Trade:CDICCOttTlItlCTlthI100035170711LEOTutalnuwberafdayslast:12.30TvtalrnaerofwaoFenrslest:182.00llTnnwachprecipitatioe0.500000535.5861111.00351231losnff./loconpl.Drawing0.16666?60.7547.009332Drawingerrors0.16666?20.321.003141Insufficientmanpower0.500800101.2036.00931.11.32.22.444Lowskilllenel0.508800162.00II20.0018Recorrectiveaction-lackofsnppartingevidenceRecorrectioeaction—lackofsupportiegeoideoceRecorrectiveactive—lackofsupportingevidenceAssignworewootutheproject.0.3500Replacecrewwithaneroenperiencedone.0.9333Discusswithsoktradeitsoverallperfnrnaoce.0.1333Preparedelayclaiw.0.3000Recorrectiveaction—lackofsupportingenideuceProblewSnarceDispersion2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeLevelforrectiveAstionStrengthRe.DescriptiveIndeedayslastdayslastwin’slastmdv’slestoccuroccurRe.Descriptionfage301346leanotioatioo/noralc0.33333300.00I0.00Nocorrectiveaction—lackoFsapportingevidence56Fsrorincovstroctioo0.33333350.601120.0015S1.3Replacecrewwithawereeoperiencedeec.0.93331.1lovestigatealternatestartofworkdagForcrew.0.16671.5Seekadditinnalworkmenmrrework.0.75002.1AdoptamerestringentqaalitgcontrolprogramFor0.2333tkistrade.2.2Riscossaitksnktradeitsoverallpertnrwance.0.50332.5PlacespecialattentiooonactivitiesFor0.5000localizedproblemowarce.57Laooterrer0.16666701.0036.0031Itcorrectiveactino—lackofsoppnrtingeoidcnceAggregatedPrvklensTradelevelCorrectiveRetioeStreragtkProklewlko.ker1kv.PcscriptiooDonotkioglack0Feeideoce.I1.0000(ii3132111657UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTPageiOf3DAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTfileUsed:I:\0l7200\P00J29\IBWlIJReportDate2301113ReportTime:12:20:13Revisionthinker:0ProgressDate:04151194DateWindow:from0711194to1011194Pettedosed:nan—winWeightingcondition:naoleor_lostTrade:09009141Itt.Totalnnmberofdayslost:4.00Totalemberofmanltairslost:6.06ProblemSoorceDispersion7totaltotal7.totaltotal7.totalTradeLevelforrectinektinnStrengthIt.DescriptionlodendogsInstdayslestdi’slostdo’slostnccoroccorIt.Descriptiom32Draoingerrors0.231.001006.0071Itcao’rectineactiao-lackefonpportingevidenceIIInsufficientmanpnaer0.20000013025000.001421.1Wesignmereonototheproject.0.1500t.3Replacecrewwithamereenpeelencedone.1.60060%)lILnoshilllevel0.400000190.7500.00436Itcorrectineactinn-lachnfsnppnrtingeoidence52Reworklherknanship)0.200000251.0000.007IItcnrrectineaction-lackofsupportingeoidence57Lagnnterror0.400000190.7500.0029IItcnrrectineactinn-lachnfsoppnrtingenidencnAggregatedProblemsTradeLendCarrectioeUstionStrengthPrehlemtimberIt.DescriptionDonothing-lockofenidence.I1.000032Trade12001011315iIStWtD3liSTotalnooherofdogslost:2.25lotalmetierofnanl’aon’slnst0.00ProblemSnnrceDispersioa7.totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradelevelCorrectiveRetiomStrengthIt.Descriptionladendayslostdayslostmdi’slostmdi’slostnccoroccnirIt.Description72Poorgrenndconditinesl.000110.250.00251Itcoreectineaction-lackofsmppnrtingevidence95Delayinaward,contract1.0092.000.00753Itcnrrectineaction-lackofsupportingevidenceItmanlenr_lostforallproblemsofthistradeTrade:151(11.0SRICOLDAIRIIRITL3ITotalnumberofdayslost:5.25Tntalnumberofnanlenrslost:0.00Page20f3TradeCODECOttSTRtlCTltOIWthCD3VOTLAOTotalnumberoPdayslost:12.30Totalnumberofmaoheorslust:182.0044Lowskillleoel46lowmotivation/moraleSbErrorinconstruction0.5000000.3333330.333333lbcnrrectioeaction—lackofsopportingenidencetincorrectionaction—lackofsupportingeoideecotincorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingenidence1.1Assignmorementotheproject.1.3Replacecrewwithamoreenperiencedone.2.2Itiscosswithsnhtrodeitsoverallperformance.2.4Preparedelagclaim.lbcurrectineaction-lackofsupportingenidencelbcurrectineaction-lackofsupportingevidence1.3Replacecrewwithamoreeoperieocodone.1.4Inoestigatealternatestartofworkdayforcrew.1.5Seekadditionalworkmenforrework.2.1Adoptamorestringentqualitycontrolprogramforthistrade.2.2Discusswithsokteudeitsonerallperformance.0.35000.93330.13330.30000.93330.16670.75000.23330.5833ProblemSoorceDispersioototaltotal7totaltotal2totalTradel.eoelCorrectiveAstionStrengthlb.Descriptioolodendaqslostdayslostmkrslostmkrslostoccuroccwrlb.Description34Cooflictinyinformation0.25000050.250.001412.6lmprooosuktrodecoordination.0.10002.7Improvewrckitect/engiroer/projectmanager0.lcoordination.2.8Openeotraworkordersinceprubbeworiginated0.witharchitect/engineer.IIlnsnfficientmanpower0.250000190.000.002921.1Assignmorementotheproject.0.07501.3Replacecrewwithamoreeoperiencedone.0.500057Laysnterror0.500000760.000.00574lbcorrectineaction—lackofsupportingevidencelbmantour_lostforoilproblewsofthistradeTrade:16P04631iC.Totalrunéerofdayslost:t.75Totalnnmberofmanlooirslost:10.00ProblemSnnrceDispersion7.totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradelevelCorrectionAstionStreogtklb.Descriptioelodendayslostdayslostidrslostwitslostoccnroccurlb.Description31lnsoff./lnconçl.Drawing1.000000%1.5010010.00753lbcorrectimeaction-lackofsupportingevidence34Conflictinginformative0.SO0II0.2500.002512.6lruoesubtradecoordination.0.02.7Improvewrckitect/engineer/projectmanager0.3500coordination.0%)05‘.0AggregatedProblemsTradel.enelCerrectineAstinuStrengthProblemthinkerlb.DescriplionDonothing-lacknfeoidence.I1.t131I11innmockprecipitation31lnsuff./lncnnpl.Drawing32DrawingerrorsIIInsufficientmanpower0.5000000.1666670.0666670.500000ProblemSnorceDispersion7.totaltotal7.totaltotaltotalTradel.enelCorrectimeAstionStrengthllb.Descriptionlodendayslostdayslostdu’sInstvitolostoccoroccurlb.Description53 10 lb6.500.750.251.202.000.000.1,061 II 11111.007.004.006.0020.000.0020.0036 9 3 9 to 6 Is12 3 2 S-J CPac30132.5Placespecialattentiononoctinitiesfor9.5600localizedproblnosoorce.57l.ayoaterror6.16666791.0036.6631FIncorrectionaction—lackofoopportiogevidenceAggregatedProkleosTradeLenelCorrectiveActionStrengthProhlenthoiberlb.PescriptionFtnothing-lackofenideoce.I1.0006Itt3132444657IDepartlate:22111t93DepartTine:21:59:50lleoisioolkwker:6ProgressDate:61168191PateIjiadow:frey6411194to11111194lttla,dused:wae-ooIdeightiogcondition:tinelostTrade:891119flJ.lIt.Totalnooherofdayslast:1.66Totalrevikerefaaidnvaeslast:6.66ProblenSourcelispersioo2totaltotal2totaltotal7totalTradeLoadforrectiaeDetinoStrength1k,.PescriptieelodeadayslostdayslostMrslastMnlostoccuroccurIt.Pescriptiow32Drawingerrors6.266686251.661666.8671Itcorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingevidenceIIlosofficieotvaopnwer6.268668II6.5666.861421.1DesignnereitototIeproject.8.66661.3Replacecrewaithaonreeoperieecedoee.1.6666IILowshilllevel6.166666196Th66.66136Itcorrectioeactien—lackoFsupportingevidence52llewqrl<lloekvaoslnipl6.266666251.6668.8671Itcorrectiveactive-lackelsnppeetiogevidence57Layouterror6.468686198.7586.86294Itcorrectioeaction-lackvisupportingevideoceAggregatedProbleicTradeLevelCorrectivefrtiooIt.[IescriptiooDoeothing-lackofeoideoce.Trade:12RHIC11IISSIItIStJSTotalroiokerofdayslast:2.25TotalrvaerofwaoDeerslast:6.86ProklenSourceDispersiontotaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeLeoelCorrectiveDetionStrengthIt.DescriptionledeodayslostdayslostMrslostaIrslostoccuroccurIt.Descriptioo72Poorgroundcooditioos1.686666Il8.256.8631Itcerrectioeachy-lackofsupportingevidence95Delayioaward.cootract1.8668661192.666.66753Hocnrrectioeactieo-lackofsopportiogevideeceAggregatedProblensTradeLeoelCorrectioeDetiooIt.DescriptionInootkiog-lackofevidence.Trade:151031.1fillCDLIAIRIDeTl3lTotaloooherofdayslost:5.25UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABFileItsed:lf\I17266\PIDJZ9\RtJfflJJBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTREPCONTMPageIOf3Streogth1ProklenthinkerIiiii;52IStreegtk1ProklenthinkerII1.(7295IPage2Of3Totalnnmherofmanhourslost:0.00ProblemSourceDispersion7totaltotal7.totaltotaltotalTradelevelCorrectinetioeStrengthlhn.DescriptionlindendayslostdayslostmkrslostinkslostoccuroccurIt.Oescriptioo34Conflictinginformation0.250000S0.250.001412.6lppronesobtradecoordination.0.10002.?lpprnoearchitect/engineer/prajoctmanager0.1000coordination.2.8Openontraworkordersincnprohlemoriginated0.3000witharchitect/engineer.IIlosnfficientmanpower0.250000191.000.002921.1Assigoworewontotheproject.0.02501.3Deplacecrewwithaworeeoperieocedone.0.S5?layouterror0.500000764.000.00574Itcnrrectineaction-lockofsupportingevidenceAggregatedProblems11Toomuchprecipitation0.500000536.5061111.00361231lnsoff./lncompl.Drawing0.1666676025I7.009332Drawingerrors0.16666720.2524.0031IIInsufficientmanpower0.500000100.2036.009344leoskilllenel0.500000162.001120.0010Itcorrectiweaction-lackofsupportingevidenceItcorrectiweaction-lackofuippertingeoidenceItcorrectineaction—lackofsupportingeeidence1.1Assignworewoetotheprnject.0.35001.3Replacecrewwithaworeeoperiencedone.0.93332.2Iliscosswithsohtradeitsoverallperforwoece.0.13332.1Preparedelayclaim.0.3000Itcorrectiveaction-lackofsupportingevidence—00%)TradelevelCorrectionAstinoStrengthProblemItmkerIt.DescriptinoItnothing—lackofenidence.I1.000015?Trade:16POktRlIE.Totalnumberofdayslost:1.75Totalinvokerofwanboorslost:10.00ProblemSourceDispersion7.totaltntal7totaltotal7totalTradelendCorrectionAstionStrengthIt.DescriptionlodendayslostdayslostideslostideslostoccoroccorIt.[Inscription31lnswff./lncnmpl.Drawing1.000000060.5010010.00753Itcorrectineaction—lackofsnppertingevidence34Conflictinginformation0.S00140.2500.002512.6lpprooesuhtradecnerdinatiow.0.32.?liçrooearchitect/engineer/projectmaoager0.3500coordination.AggregatedProblemsTradelenelCorrectionfrtiooStrengthProblemthinherIt.DescriptionDoosthing-lackofenidence.Il.0b131TradeCOILWLTIItTI&lI4100DUIT1Tntalnumberofdayslost:12.30Totalnumberofmanhourslost:102.00ProblemSourceDispersiontotaltotal7.totaltotal7.totalTradelevelCorrectiveAstionStrengthDescriptionIndeedayslostdayslostideslostideslostoccuroccurIt.Pescriptine46Lea,.otioationlnnrale0.33333300.0048.002itcorrectineaction—lackofsupportingeoidence56Errorinconstruction0.33333350.60Ii28.001551.3Deplacecrewwithaworeenperiencedone.0.33331.4Investigatealternatestartofworkdagforcrew.0.16671.5Seekadditiowalworlumenfeereiwnrk.035002.1Adoptaworestringentqualitgcnntrnipnograwfor0.2333thistrade.2.2Discusswithssihtradeitsonerallperforsiance.0.58332.5Placespecialattentiwwonactinitiesfor0.5000lwcalioedpruhlewscarce.53l.anuterror0.15666?81.0035.0031Itcorrectineaction-lackofnapportingeeidencePage3tf3AggregatedProklensTradeLevelCorrectiveActionStrengthI’rohlmathiwkerIt.PescriptionTonothing-lackofevidence.It.000011313244S7IP.3URICCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTSBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTPage1Of3FileSsed’P:\AtP200\PR0J29\008609PateAiodsoFromO7FIE9Ito01100194Rethodusedmax-mbUeightingcooditioo.fre4pieOcljofoccurrenceReportDate:220t193ReportTime:21:15:59HeoisiooSomber:0ProgressDate:0400091Trade:09DtTl.l.lIE.Totalosmberofdayslost:6.00Totalcomberofmaolojarslost:6.005?l.ageoterrorAggregatedProblen€Tradel.eorlCorrectivefrtiooIt.PescriptiooProblemSoorceDispersioototultotal2totaltotal2totalTradeleoelorrectioe&tiooStreogtkIt.PrscriptioolodeadayslostdayslostmbrslostmlwslostoccuroccurIto.Descriptioo72foorgrooodcooditioosI.510000200.750.00303Itcorrectiveactioo-lackofsopportingeoideoce9SPelaginaward.cootract1.006080003.000.0063SMocorrectioeactioo-lackofsopportiogeoideoceProblemSoorceDispersioo2totaltotaltotaltotal2totalTradeleadCarroctimektiooStrengthIt.Pescriptioolodeodayslostdogslostmlv’slostmOm’slostoccuroccorIt.llescriptioo32Drawiogerrors0.14205?17l.001006.00S1Itocorrectiveactioo-lackorsoppertingeoideoce41lesofFicieotmaopower0.420571332.0000.003371.1ItsigaimiromentotIeproject.0.30001.3Replacecrewwithaworeeopcrieocedooe.0.50002.4Preparedelayclaim.IILeoshillleoel0.205714130.7500.00296Itcorrectiveaction-lackofoapportiogevideoce52Reworklllorkmaosbipt0.142057171.0000.00S1Itcorrectimeactive-lackofsopportivgevidence56Crrorinconstrsctioo0.14205?00.5000.00tO21.3Replacecrewwithaworeeoperieocedone.0.50001.5Seekadditiooalworkmenforreverb.0.50002.5Placespecialatteotimommactivitiesfor0.3000localizedproblemsoorco.0.205711130.7500.00194Itcorrectiveactioo-lackofsopportingeoideoceTrade:12RRlO09Om00Totalnumberofdayslost:335Totalvovkerofwaoboorslost:0.00Streogth1ProklevItidierDoeotkiog-lackofeoideece.I1.0000132415257USCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABWeUsed:I:50872965P30J29\ID*28BENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTSegortSaw2251593ReportTire:21:15:59Reoisioetb*erIProgresslateR894REPCONTTPatetUT—IRateUiodootree1719594to8154194tkttcdnt:..aeeisIki9htiojcocditio&Tro9srrc900xssrrt.trTrade:69ttlTdlLtIC.TotalcurAreoFdaystoot:6.8Totaleaterotoaeloo.rstoot:6.857I.cyenterrorAggregatedProbteonTradekeelCarrestieeRho..It..Description-ProtteeSoarreDispersionZTotaltotalStttttotalV.tatatTradekeelCorrectionkIlo..Strength9.DescriptionIntrodayslostdaystest*5testairslestoccuroccorltcleocriptien37Traaiogerrors6.142857171.4t86.85Ilbcorroclineaction-tack..PeopportioeoikcurIttrsoTtacarntoaepeaerl.lZtSlt332.451.43371.1iqoeonetotieproject.t.3Replacewe..eitkaonceeepeetercederr.6.5882.4Preparedelaydale.0.58841lenshillteoet1.7952141367588.8296lbcorrectionaction-tacktOrepportiegeeiderce57Reaorkltkrke.arshipl8.142857171.800.85IIRacorrectionaction-lackoPeapgortiegroideace56[roariocoostrsctioo6.11765350.5808.8II21.3Replacecaseaitkaonceeoprriercrdore.0.5881.5Seekadditioeatam-toe..Forreourk.0.5862.6Placespecialatleolioonoactieitiesfor0.localliedprsktonnra.4295714tI0.2500.819Ilbcarrectieeaction-lackofeapportingeoidereelboothiog-lackofroideect.ItegtjoklonBroker11.18632II5257Page2Af3TradelevelCorrectiveActionStrengthProblemItmberIt.DescriptionDonothing-lackofevidence.I1.800017295Trade:IS00111011COIl)AltI08Tl11Totaloumberofdayslost:0.50Totalrumherofmanhourslost:0.00frohlemSourceDispersion7totaltotal7totaltotal7totalTradeLevelCorrectiveActionStrengthIt.DescriptionlodeodayslostdayslostmlwslostwhrslostoccuroccurIt.Description34Cooflictioginformation0.14285730.250.00712.6Improvesohtrodecoordination.0.10882.7Improvearchitect/eogineer/projectmaoayee0.1800cooriinatioo.2.0Opeoeotraworkodorsinceprohlemoriginated0.3000witharchitect/engineer.IIInsufficientmanpower0.571429504.330.006491.1Assignmarewontotheproject.0.I1.3Replacecrowaithaneroeoperieocedone.0.50002.4Preparedelayclaim.8.500857laycoiterror0.285714174.080.00294Accorrectiveaction-lachofsupportingevidenceAggregatedProblemsTradeLevelCorrectiveActiveStrengthPrehiemthimherIt.Description2.4Preparedelayclaim.0.6921II1.3Replacecrowoithoworeeuperiencedone.0.2857412.0Openeotraovrhordersinceproblemoriginated8.013334witharchitect/engineer.2.6Improvesnhtradecvurdiootiov.8.0044342.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanager0.001134coordination.Trade:16P0103)lItTetalmmEerofdayslost:4.00Totalino’k,ervfmardvonrslost:10.00ProblemSovrceDispersion7totaltotaltotaltotal7totalTradeLevelerrectienActionStrengthIt.Description1MevdayslostdaysInstmbrslostmhrslostoccnvroccurIt.Description31lvsuff/lvconpl.Drawing0.500000301.5010010.00433Itcorrectiveaction—lackofsupportingevidence31CavIl ictivyinformation0.25000060.2500.001412.6Iiqirvvesnbtradecnnrdivatinn.0.10002.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanager0.1000coordination.2.0Openeotraworhordersinceprnhlemoriginated0.3aitharchitect/engineer.IIInsufficientmavpoarr0.250000562.2580.004331.1Assignworewontotheproject.0.07501.3Replacecrowaithaworeeoperiencedone.0.50002.4Preparedelayclaim.0.2080Agyrcyatcdfrohlems0%)-J 05Page3013AggregatedProklevsTradelevelCarrectineDetionIt.DescriptionDonothing-lackofevidence.Itmhrn’II1.6666131I-a -aTrade:CABCCAABT6JCTItII1114d3)flflLABTotalenoherofdagslost:21.66Totalnamherefwanlviorslost:249.56ProhlemSourceDispersion7totaltotal7totaltotal7.totalTradelevelCorrectiveDetienStrengthdo.DescriptionlodendanjsInstdogslosteArslosteArsInstactoroccurIt.DescriptionIIToonickprecipitation6.SSSSSG316.25SI127.6624ISlbcorrectionoction-lackofsupportingevidence31lvsvff./lvcnmpl.Drawing6.11111136.7537.6653Itcorrectioeaction—lathofsupportingevidence32Drawingerrors6.11111116.2524.6621Itcorrectiveaction—lathofsoppertingenideoce34Conflictinginformation6.111111I1.751626.66I52.2liscvsswithsehtradeitsoverallperforwaoce.6.56662.5Placespecialattentiononactinitiesfor6.5666localizedprohlea.source.2.6Improvesohtradecoordination.6.62.7Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanager6.3666coordination.2.6Openextraworkordersinceprohlemoriginated6.3666witharchitect/engineer.IIInsufficientwanpvoer6.6k6667327.6626.6623141.1Resignworeiwototheproject.6*671.3Replacecrewwithameeoperieecedone.6.93332.2Discusswithsohtradeitseverallperformance.6.S2.4Preparedelagclaim.6.566644towskilllevel6.33333392.66626.66166Itcorrectiveaction—lackefsupportingevidence46len.m,tioative/mjrale6.22222226.56512.6653Itcorrectineaction-lackofsupportingevidence56Errorivconstruction6.41441491.661?41.5623141.3Replacecrewwithaworeeoperiencedone.6.93331.4Innestigatealternatestartofworhdogforcrew.6.11111.5Seekadditionalworkmenforrework.6.93332.1Adoptaworestriogeotqvalitgcontrolprograwfor6.3111thistrade.2.2liscosswithsohtradeitsoverallperformance.6.56662.5Placespecialattentiononactivitiesfor6.5666localizedproblemseorce.57lagvuterror6.11111151.6626.6621Itcorrectiveaction-lackofviopportingevidenceAggregatedProblemsTradelevelCorrectiveRetinaStrengthPreblemItEerIt.Description2.2liscvsswithsobtradeitsoverallperformance.6.741134Ii56I.)Replacecrewaithaworeevperiencedone.6.1956II562.5Placespecialattentiononactivitiesfor6.63953456lvcalizedprohlemsavrce.2.1Adoptawirestringentqvalitgcootrelprogramfor6.621356thistrade.2.6Improvesohtradecoordination.6.663234IUBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCONTMBENJAMINThE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTPageor3DAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTrileusedD:\113’2Wd\P1l0i29\DfDfulOlDepartDate:2305E93Departlive:12:17:58Nenisiowsodler:0ProgressDat&0400194DateViadowtren07fEB94to01100194ltthodased:Max—oleUeightiegcooditiea:vaalaoar_lasttrade:09DtT00l.l.lIE.Totaloaokerofdayslast:6.00TotalonrJjerof..aelnorslosU6.00ProklevSnorceDispersioe7totaltotal7totaltotaltotalTradelevelCorrectiveRetionStrengthIt.Descriptiaalodeodayslastdayslast,drslostvirslestactoroccorIt.Deacriptioo32Drawingerrors8.142057171.001006.0051Itcorrectiaeaction-lackatsoppoctiegeaideoce41lasotficievtvaopeaer0.420571332.0000.603371.1Ossigowireiratotheproject.0.30001.3Replacecrewwitkavereeoperieocedooe.0.50002.4Preparedelayclaiv.0.50000044LeoskillIrnel8.205711130.7508.00296Itcorrectiveaction-lachofropportiogevidence52Rework(Ikrkoaoship)0.112057171.0000.00S1Itcorrectiveaction-lackofoupportiegevidence56Errorincoostroctiov0.14205700.5000.601021.3Replacecrewwithaworeeoperieocedair.0.50001.5Seekadditiovalwarlnroforrework.0.52.5Placespecialattevtiooonwctioitiesfor0.3060localizedprohlewsource.57l.ayooterror0.205714130.7500.00194itcorrectiveaction-lackofsopportiogeoideoceOggregatedProhlewoTradeleoelCorrectioeittiooStrengthProhlavItoberIt.Description(Inoothivg-lackateoideoce.I1.000032ITrade:12RRICR131SttOW80tlSTotaloiniherofdayslost:3.75Totaloovherofvaolnanrslost:0.00ProNe.SoorceDispersioetotaltotal7.totaltotal7.totalTradeLevelCorrectineRetionStrengthIt.DescriptionlodendayslostdayslostideslostideslostnoractorIt.Dencciptioo72Poorgreoodcooditiens1.060000200.750.00303itcorrectiveaction-lackofsopportiogenideoce95Delayinaward,contract1.000800003.000.80635tIncorrectiveactiov-lackofonpportiogevidenceitmanhourostforallprahlevsofthistradeTrade’1508111110(01.0AIRIRATERTotalovduerofdayslost:0.50Page2013Totaltointerofmonitorslost.0.00TradeClUGCTIIKTI80lflh1l33VltIllTotalnamkerofdayslost:21.90Totaloaokerofoanlonurslost:249.58ProblemSourceDispersion2totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalTradelendCorrectineDetiooStrengthIt.Descriptionlndeodayslostdayslostmb’sInstdo’slosteccoruccorIt.DescriptionIIToonickprecipitatioo0.555556316.7551127.002415Itcorrectioeaction—lackofsupportingeoidenceIIlosoff./lrre.gil.Draaiog0.11111138.7537.0053Itcorrectiveaction—lackofsupportingevidence32Draniogerrors0.11111110.2524.082INocorrectioeaction-lackofsupportingenidence34Conflictingioformatioo6.11111101.751026.00IS2.2Discosswithsuktradeitsooerallperformaoce.0.50602.5Placespecialattentionooactioitiesfor8.5080localizedproblemsource.2.lIiçruoesoktradecoordination.0.M60PreklenSourceDispersion7.totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalTradel.eoelCurrectioefttieoStrrngtkNo.Descriptionlodendayslostdayslestdo’sInstdo’slostoccoroccurIt.Description34Ceoflictiogioformation0.14205730.250.08712.6lmprooesuktradecoordination.0.10082.?liçrooearckitect/eogineer/projectmauagee8.1*8ceerdioatiiov.2.8Openeotraworkordersinceproblemoriginated0.3000witharchitect/eogioeer.41losofficientmaopoaer8.571129501.338.006491.1Assignmerementothepreject.0.18881.3Deplacecreaaithamereeeperiencedone.0.50682.4Preparedelayclaim.0.580057layeeterror0.2057114?4.000.80294Itcorrectieeaction—lackofsupportingeoideeceItmaeboior_lostforallproblemsofthistradeTrade:16potto11€.Totalnooberofdayslost:1.08Totalnumberofmaoleiurslost:10.00jStrengthl18.00433Nocorrectioeaction-lackofsupportingeoidence0.001412.6liq’rooesaktradecoordination.0.10082.7Iwpreoearchitectleegieeer/prujectmanager0.1000coordination.2.0Openeotraverbordersinceproblemoriginated0.3008witharchitect/engineer.0.001331.1Assignmerementotheproject.0.07501.3Deplacecrewwithamereeoperiencedone.0.50802.4Preparedelayclaim.8.2080ProblemSourceDispersion2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeleoelCorrectivedetiooIt.Descriptionlodendayslostdayslostido’sInstttrslostoccuroccurIt.Description31losoff./Iocompl,Drawing0.508080301.5000034Conflictinginformation0.3800060.250-J soIIInsufficientmanpower0.250800562.250AggregatedProblemsTradehoodCorrectiveDetionStrengthProblemIiamherIt.DescriptionDonothing-lackofeoideoce.I1.0*8131000Page30132.7lapronearchitect/engineer/projectwaoagercoordination.2.0Openextraworkordersinceprobleworiginatedwitharchitect/engineer.41Insufficientmanpower32223141.1Resignneronentotheproject.8.416?1.3Replacecrewwitha,wmreeoperieocedone.8.93332.2Iliscosswithsuhtradeitsoverallperforwance.0.50002.4Preparedelagclaiw.8.5080IILouskilllevel0.33333392.00020.00101Nocorrectiveaction-lackofsopportingevidencel6Louxetioation/rxorale0.22222220.50512.0053Recorrectioeaction-lackofsopportingewidence56Errorinconstroctiov0.14414491.901741.5023II1.3Replacecrewwithaworeexperiencedone.0.93331.4Investigatealternatestartofworkdo0foxcrew.0.11111.5Seekadditionalworkmenforrework.0.93332.1Poloptanerostringextnalitgcontrolpxograwfor0.3111thistrade.2.2Discosswithsohtradeitsoverallperforwance.8.50002.5Placespecialattentiononactioitiesfor0.5000localizedprohlewsource.57L.apenterror0.11111151.00221Recorrectioeaction—lackofsopportingevidenceAggregatedProblemsTradel.eoelCorrectiveRetionStrengthProblemItodierNo.DescriptiooDonothing-lochofenideoce.I1.0808III313244415?UBCCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTLABREPCON58FileUsed:U:\A[7280\pU0J79\0I)fftJJBENJAMINYUE-EXTENDEDEXAMPLEPROJECTDAILYSITETRADEANALYSISREPORTIeportlate:22%033Deportlion:21:20:57Revisionhawker:6Progressbate:0466094Page1Of3DateOindoo:how07FEb94to0866194thatloidnsedwax-winleightingcondition:tion_lostTrade:09DIYUSLItt.Totalnonkerofdayslost:6.00Totalnuokerofoaeloaarslost:6.66Trade:12IOlEbEbSSOWDETotalenokerofdayslost:3.75Totaleo,4aerofwanloorslost:0.00ProblewSoorceDispersion2totaltotal2.totaltotal2totalTradelendCorrectionktiooStrength1k.DescriptionlndeodayslostdayslostwinslostiloslostoccuroccorIto.Description72Poorgroundconditions1.806800260.750.00303Itocorrectineaction-lackofsupportingenidence95Delayinaaard.contract1.606800063000.8063Stincnrrectioeaction-lackofsoppartingeoidence6%)00ProklewSnrcelbispersioo2totaltotal2totaltotal2totalTradeLeoelCorrectionDetieoiStreagthlIt.DescriptionlodendayslostdayslostwInslostwinslostoccnroccarIt.Description32Draaiogerrors0.112057171.661006.065166correctionaction-lackofsupportingeoideoce41lnsnfficientwanponer0.426571332.0000.003371.1Designonreonototheproject.6.3600t.3Replacecrewwithawareeoperiencodnon.0.58802.4Preparedelagclaiw.0.560044Leaskilllevel0.205711130.7500.00296Itcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingeoidence52ReworktWoicoanship)0.112857171.8000.80S1Itcorrectionaction-lackofsupportingenidence56Errorinconstraction0.11205700.5600.801021.3Replacecrewwithawareeoperiencodone.0.50001.5Seekadditionaloorla.eoforrework.0.50002.5Placespecialattentiononactinitiesfor0.3000lacalizedprohlewsource.57Layouterror0.205711130.7500.08191Itcorrectineaction-lackofsupportingeoidenceAggregatedProklcwsTradelevelCorrectionDetionStrengthProhIewIhanherIt.DescriptionDonothing—lackofeoidence.I1.0806132145257IPage2013Trade:16P0143111€.Totalemberofdayslost:4.00Totaloio.berofmaoluorolost:10.06ProblemSourceDispersioo2totaltotal2totaltotaltotalTradeLevelCorrectionDetionStrengthit.Pescriptioolodeodayslostdayslostedirslostidirslostoccmroccurit.Description31losoff./loco.çl.Draaing0.506381.5016010.06433itcorrectiveaction-lochofuapportiogenidooco3llooflictiogioformatioo0.25686660.2506.0014t2.6lmprooosohtradocoordioation.0.16602.?Improvearchitoct/oogioeer/projoctmaoager0.1686coordioatioo.2.8Openootraworkordersinceproblemorigioatod0.aitharchitect/engineer.IilosoIficiootmaopoaor6.2566601.1ignwore.metotieproject.0.07561.3teplacecromwithamareooperioocedooe.0.56002.4Preparedelayclaim.6.286600t%)AggregatedProblemsTradeleselCorrectioeActiooStreogthProblemtankerit.tescriptiooItootkiog-lackofooideoce.I1.006017295Trade:IS6011.11cAl’? COIl011111101131Totaloomborofdayslost:6.58Totalnumberofmaolmuorslost:0.06ProblemSourcellisporsioo7.totaltotal2totaltotal7.totalTrademodCorrectionDetiooStrengthit.Descriptionlodeodayslostdayslostedoslost*slostoccuroccurit.Description34Cooflictiogiolormatioo0.14205?30.30.06712.6lmprooosobtradecoordioatioo.0.16602.7lmprooearchitect/engineer/projectmoooger0.1060coordination.2.8Opeoeotraworkordersinceproblemoriginated0.3800witharchitect/engineer.41losolficieotmaopower0.571429504.330.006491.tsigomorewontotIneproject.0.48601.3Replacecrowwithwworeeoperieocednor.0.10602.4Preparedelayclaim.0.586057lagooterror0.265714474.000.0029Iitcorrectimeaction-lackofswpportiegenidenceAggregatedProblemsTradeItoelCorrectiveDetiooStrengthProblemtimberit.Ilescriptioo2.4Preparedelayclaim.0.7463411.3Replacecnnaithaworeeoperieocedone.0.2419412.0Openeotraworkordersinceproblemoriginated0.605934witharchitect/eogioeer.2.6liçrooewbtradecoordioatino.0.0020342.7lmprooearchitect/engineer/projectmanager0.002034coerdioatioo.Page30f3AggregatedProblemsTradelevelCorrectionActionit.DescriptionDonothing—lackorenideoce.t) 00jStrength1PrnhlemtimberI1.0088131Tr&le60%CAt10%Tl08lWflh)VITlTotalrinmherofdayslost:21.00Totalnonkerofmaohonrslost:249.50ProblemSourceDispersion7.totaltotal7.totaltotal2totalTradelevolCorrectiveDetiooStrengthFt.Descriptionlodendayslostdayslostdo’slostmlv’sInstoccuroccurIt.DescriptionllToomickprecipitation8.555556316.7551127.6821Isltcnrrectineaction-lackofsopportiogeoidonce31losoff./lncnnpl.Drawing8.11111130.7537.0053Itcorrectionactionlachofsopportiogevidence32Deawingerrors8.11111110.2524.0821itcoerectineaction-lackofnoppertiogevidence31ConflictinginTonation0.111111A1.751026.68052.2liscusswithsobtradeitsoverallperformance.0.50082.5Placespecialattentiononactiwitiesfor0.Slocalizedprohlemirce.2.6Iperonezehtradecoordination.8.32.?Improvearchitect/engineer/projectmanager8.cnordinatinn.2.0Openeotraoorhordersinceprohlemoriginated8.3800witharchitect/engineer.41losoifficientmanpower0.666667327.0026.0823141.!Designonretentteproject.I0.16€?I0.3Replacecrewwithaterneoperieocedone.0.93332.2Discusswithsohtradeitsonerallperformance.0.50082.1Preparedelagclaim.0.S44lowskilllevel8.33333392.08020.00106Ftcorrectionaction-lochofsoppnrtingeoidence46lowimjtioation/onrale0.22222220.58512.8853itcorrectionaction-lochofsopportiugenidence56fa’rorinconstroctioa8.41444491.001741.5023141.3Replacecrewwithaonceeeperieocndote.8.93331.4Investigatealternatestartofwnrhdaijforcrew.0.11111.5Seekadditionalworloenforrework.8.93332.1Adoptaoncestringentqnalitgcnotrnlprogramfor8.3111thistrade.2.2Discusswithsohtradeitsonorallperformance.8.58002.5Placespeciwlattentiononactinitiesfor8.5008localizedprnhlemsnarce.57t.agonterror0.11111051.0826.0821ltcorrectionaction-lochnfsoppnrtiognnidenceAggregatedProblemsgradelevelCorrectiveActionStrengthProblemtimberIt.DescriptionDonothing-lachofeoidencn.Jl.6808lIt3132444657

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