Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Hydrocarbon pollution from urban runoff in the Brunette watershed Larkin, Gillian Alexandra. 1995

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1995-0543.pdf [ 12.62MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0050394.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0050394-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0050394-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0050394-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0050394-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0050394-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0050394-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0050394-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0050394.ris

Full Text

H Y D R O C A R B O N POLLUTION F R O M URBAN RUNOFF IN THE BRUNETTE WATERSHED by Gillian Alexandra Larkin B.Sc.(Chemistry), University of British Columbia, 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of British Columbia September, 1995 © Gillian Larkin, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of (°AVIvl 4 /^G^QS^i/\Sl The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) Hydorcarbon Pollution from Urban Runoff in the Brunette Watershed by Gillian Alexandra Larkin, M.A.Sc. ERRATA 1. Page 46, Table 6.5 Last column, date range should read 1984.2 - 1994.5 2. Page 51, 2nd paragraph, 5th sentence. These higher concentrations are closer to those found in New Jersey sediments by Kashner and Hunter [1983], who reported an approximate range of 630 - 2000 ug/g. 3. Page 54, Paragraph 3, 2nd sentence "For the July samples, only 5 of the 20 stations had less than 50% aliphatics, three of which were located on Eagle Creek (13,14,16). 4. Page 59, Table 6.7 Lake core sediments range should be 2636 - 9150 ppm TPH 5. Page 66, Figure 6.23 Replace with new plot 6. Page 67, Opening line There was also significant correlation (R2 = 0.9672 .... 7. Page 67, Figure 6.25 Replace with new plot 8. Page 72, Table 6.14 Lake core sediments range should be 2636 -9150 ppm TPH 9. Page 106, Table C-2 Replace 10. Page 112, Table D-2 Replace 11. Page 119, Figure F-3 (a) and F-3 (b) Replace 12. Note for street surface sediments, station I7a (Table A-2, page 101 and Table G-1, page 137) = station 18 (Figure 5.2, page 30) ABSTRACT During the first half of the twentieth century, the Brunette watershed underwent rapid urbanization with water resources largely forsaken in the name of development. Urban runoff has been recognized as the major continuing source of contaminants to the urban streams. This study examines hydrocarbon pollution in the Brunette watershed. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were determined in lake core sediments, streambed sediments, stormwater and street surface sediments from throughout the watershed. The lake core sediments provided a record for change ; TPH concentrations increased tenfold over the last 200 years, due to regional development and anthropogenic inputs. TPH concentrations found in streambed sediments were generally higher than those cited in the literature (up to 4800 ug/g), indicating some highly contaminated areas. Streambed sediments from industrialized regions had the highest TPH concentrations, implicating highly developed areas as sources. Hydrocarbons found in stormwater were predominantly aliphatic (66.8 -92.1%) and particulate associated (75.3 - 96.7%) ; mean concentrations (0.96 -5.79 mg/L) were similar to those reported in the literature. Suspended solids and hydrocarbon loadings were greatest during the first flush ; TPH concentrations were measured as high as 8.6 mg/L. The influence of catchment land use, dilution of street runoff by the stream volume, and traffic intensity on mean hydrocarbon concentration in stormwater runoff is evident. Relationships between hydrocarbon concentration and Microtox® EC50 values suggest that hydrocarbon content is a consequential contributor to stormwater toxicity. TPH concentrations were remarkably uniform in street sediments from throughout the watershed (average 5812 ug/g). The exception was parking lots where concentrations were considerably higher (6629 - 12111 ug/g). Suspended solids in stormwater are considerably enriched in hydrocarbons compared to their source street surface sediments. Oil stains in traffic lanes and parking stalls implicate road washoff as the source. This study found that hydrocarbon pollution is prevalent in the Brunette watershed. The watershed lacks responsible, sustainable resource management. Actions such as restructuring institutions to form an effective framework, creation of economic incentives, installation of management technologies, use of source control measures, reclamation projects and expansion of public education programs are needed to generate results. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS A B S T R A C T ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S iv L I S T O F T A B L E S vii L I S T O F F I G U R E S ix A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S xii 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.1 S T U D Y O B J E C T I V E S 2 1.2 R O A D M A P 2 2. T H E B R U N E T T E R I V E R W A T E R S H E D S T U D Y A R E A 4 2.1 H I S T O R Y O F D E V E L O P M E N T 4 2.2 H Y D R O L O G Y 6 2.3 F L O R A A N D F A U N A 7 2.4 W A T E R Q U A L I T Y 8 2.5 INSTITUTIONAL F E A T U R E S 9 3. U R B A N R U N O F F 11 3.1 T H E H Y D R O L O G I C C Y C L E 11 3.2 T H E E F F E C T OF U R B A N I Z A T I O N - Q U A N T I T Y C O N C E R N S 11 3.2.1. Impacts on Receiving Waters 13 3.3 T H E E F F E C T OF U R B A N I Z A T I O N - Q U A L I T Y C O N C E R N S 13 3.3.1 Constituents of Urban Runoff. 13 3.3.1.1 Oxygen Demanding Substances 14 3.3.1.2 Colifbrms 14 3.3.1.3 Nutrients 14 3.3.1.4 Metals 14 3.3.1.5 Suspended Solids 15 3.3.1.6 Hydrocarbons 15 3.3.2 Impacts on Receiving Waters 15 3.4 S T O R M W A T E R M A N A G E M E N T 16 3.4.1 Engineering Technologies 16 3.4.2 Watershed Management Plans 17 3.5 T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 17 4. H Y D R O C A R B O N S I N T H E A Q U A T I C E N V I R O N M E N T 2 2 4.1 S O U R C E S 22 4.2 B E H A V I O R 23 4.3 T R A N S P O R T 24 4.4 F A T E 25 4.5 T O X I C I T Y 26 5. M E T H O D S 2 7 5.1 F I E L D M E T H O D S 27 5.1.1 Lake Core 27 5.1.2 Streambed Sediments 27 iv 5.7.5 Stormwater 27 5.1.4 Street Surface Sediments 29 5.2 L A B O R A T O R Y ANALYSIS 29 5.2.1 Protocols 29 5.2.1.1 Extraction - Solids 29 5.2.1.2 Extraction - Water 31 5.2.1.3 Silica Gel Separation 31 5.2.1.4 Estimation of Hydrocarbons by Infrared Absorption 32 5.2.1.5 Gas Chromatography 33 5.2.1.6 Microtox® Toxicity Testing 33 5.2.2 Lake Core 33 5.2.3 Stream Sediments 34 5.2.3.1 Microtox® of Stream Sediments 34 5.2.4 Stormwater 34 5.2.4.1 Water Analysis for Hydrocarbons 34 5.2.4.2 Suspended Solids Analysis for Hydrocarbons 34 5.2.4.3 Microtox® of Stormwater Suspended Solids 35 5.2.5 Street Surface Sediments 35 5.3 G I S M A P P I N G 35 5.4 S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S 36 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 37 6.1 Q U A L I T Y A S S U R A N C E A N D Q U A L I T Y C O N T R O L 37 6.1.1 Lake Core 37 6.1.2 Streambed Sediments 37 6.1.3 Stormwater 38 6.1.4 Street Sediments 39 6.2 R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION 39 6.2.1 Lake Core : 39 6.2.1.1 Sedimentation Rate 41 6.2.1.2 Extractable Organic Carbon 42 6.2.1.3 Hydrocarbons .' 43 6.2.1.4 Hydrocarbon Composition 45 6.2.1.5 Advancing to Streambed Sediments 49 6.2.2 Streambed Sediments 49 6.2.2.1 Extractable Organic Carbon 49 6.2.2.2 Hydrocarbons 51 6.2.2.3 Hydrocarbon Composition 54 6.2.2.4 Extractable Organic Carbon and Hydrocarbons 56 6.2.2.5 Hydrocarbon Content of Solids 59 6.2.2.6 Microtox® 59 6.2.2.7 Advancing to Stormwater 60 6.2.3 Stormwater 60 6.2.3.1 Storm Event Information...! 60 6.2.3.1.1 Storm 1 - October 1994 63 6.2.3.1.2 Storm 2 - January 1995 63 6.2.3.1.3 Storm 3 - April 1995 63 6.2.3.2 Suspended Solids Loading 64 6.2.3.3 Hydrocarbon Loading 65 6.2.3.3 Hydrocarbon Composition 70 6.2.3.4 Hydrocarbon Content of Solids 71 6.2.3.5 Microtox® of Stormwater Suspended Solids 72 6.2.3.6 Advancing to Street Sediments 75 6.2.4 Street Surface Sediments 75 6.2.4.1 Extractable Organic Carbon 75 6.2.4.2 Hydrocarbons 77 6.2.4.3 Hydrocarbon Composition 77 V 6.2.4.4 Hydrocarbon Content of Solids 79 7. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS 81 7.1 S U M M A R Y OF DISCUSSION 81 7.1.1 Lake Core 81 7.1.2 Streambed Sediments 81 7.1.3 Stormwater 82 7.1.4 Street Surface Sediments 83 7.2 IMPLICATIONS FOR T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 83 8. INSIGHTS 84 8.1 B A C K T O T H E B E S T QUESTIONS 84 8.1.1 The Future 84 8.1.2 Feasibility. 85 8.1.3 How do we get there? 86 8.2 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 87 9.0 REFERENCES 91 APPENDIX A 99 L O C A T I O N O F S T R E A M B E D A N D S T R E E T S U R F A C E SEDIMENT S A M P L I N G STATIONS 99 APPENDIX B 102 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y INFORMATION 102 APPENDIX C 105 Q U A L I T Y A S S U R A N C E / Q U A L I T Y C O N T R O L D A T A 105 APPENDIX D 108 L A K E C O R E D A T A 108 APPENDIX E 114 S T R E A M B E D S E D I M E N T D A T A 114 APPENDIX F 116 S T O R M W A T E R D A T A 116 APPENDIX G 137 S T R E E T S U R F A C E S E D I M E N T D A T A 137 APPENDIX H 138 P O L Y C Y C L I C A R O M A T I C H Y D R O C A R B O N S T U D Y 138 INTRODUCTION 138 OBJECTIVES : 138 EXPERIMENTAL 138 CONCLUSIONS 138 RECOMMENDA TIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES 138 APPENDIX 1 142 S U B - B A S I N T R A F F I C D E N S I T Y A N D L A N D C O V E R PERMEABILITY 142 vi LIST OF TABLES T A B L E 4.1 S U M M A R Y OF M O L E C U L A R M A R K E R S F O U N D IN S T O R M R U N O F F T A B U L A T E D A C C O R D I N G T O THEIR P R E S U M E D SOURCES 23 T A B L E 6.1 S U M M A R Y OF S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENT REPLICATES 37 T A B L E 6.2 S U M M A R Y OF S T O R M W A T E R REPLICATES 38 T A B L E 6.3 S U M M A R Y OF S T R E E T S U R F A C E SEDIMENT REPLICATES 39 T A B L E 6.4 M O I S T U R E C O N T E N T OF B U R N A B Y L A K E C O R E SEDIMENTS 45 T A B L E 6.5 H Y D R O C A R B O N COMPOSITION OF B U R N A B Y L A K E C O R E SEDIMENTS 4 6 T A B L E 6.6 T R A F F I C D E N S I T Y A N D L A N D C O V E R PERMEABILITY IN S U B - C A T C H M E N T S 51 T A B L E 6.7 H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N T E N T OF L A K E C O R E A N D S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENTS 59 T A B L E 6.8 M E A N T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S 67 T A B L E 6.9 T R A F F I C D E N S I T Y A N D L A N D C O V E R PERMEABILITY IN SUB-BASINS 6 8 T A B L E 6 .10 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N A N D T R A F F I C V O L U M E - S T O R M 3 6 9 T A B L E 6.11 S U M M A R Y O F D O C U M E N T E D U R B A N R U N O F F H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S 69 T A B L E 6.12 P E R C E N T COMPOSITION OF F L O W W E I G H T E D U R B A N R U N O F F 70 T A B L E 6.13 S U M M A R Y OF D O C U M E N T E D H Y D R O C A R B O N COMPOSITION OF U R B A N S T O R M W A T E R 71 T A B L E 6.14 H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N T E N T OF S T O R M W A T E R SUSPENDED SOLIDS 72 T A B L E 6.15 H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N T E N T OF L A K E C O R E SEDIMENTS, S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENTS A N D S T O R M W A T E R SUSPENDED SOLIDS 72 T A B L E 6 .16 S T O R M 2 M I C R O T O X ® E C 5 0 V A L U E S 73 T A B L E 6 .17 S T O R M 3 M I C R O T O X ® E C 5 0 V A L U E S 73 T A B L E 6 .18 H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N T E N T OF S T O R M W A T E R SUSPENDED SOLIDS A N D S T R E E T S U R F A C E SEDIMENTS 7 9 T A B L E A - 1 S T R E A M B E D S E D I M E N T S A M P L I N G STATIONS 99 T A B L E A - 2 S T R E E T SEDIMENTS S A M P L I N G STATIONS 101 T A B L E C - 1 S T R E A M B E D S E D I M E N T D A T A 105 T A B L E C - 2 S T O R M W A T E R D A T A : 106 T A B L E C - 3 S T R E E T S E D I M E N T D A T A 107 T A B L E D - 1 2 1 0 P B RADIOISOTOPE D A T I N G R E S U L T S FOR B U R N A B Y L A K E C O R E I l l T A B L E D - 2 D A T A FOR B U R N A B Y L A K E C O R E SAMPLES (UG/G) 112 T A B L E D - 3 D A T A FOR B U R N A B Y L A K E C O R E SAMPLES ( U G / G / Y E A R ) 113 T A B L E E - 1 S T R E A M B E D S E D I M E N T D A T A - J U L Y 1994 S A M P L I N G 114 T A B L E E - 2 S T R E A M B E D S E D I M E N T D A T A - F E B R U A R Y 1995 S A M P L I N G 115 T A B L E F - l D A T A FOR S T O R M 1 - O C T O B E R 13TH, 1994 116 T A B L E F - 2 D A T A F O R S T O R M 2 - J A N U A R Y 8 T H , 1995 121 vii T A B L E F - 3 D A T A FOR S T O R M 3 - A P R I L 17TH, 1995 126 T A B L E F - 4 D E T E R M I N A T I O N O F F L O W 133 T A B L E F - 5 S U M M A R Y O F S T O R M W A T E R COMPOSITION 134 T A B L E F - 6 S U M M A R Y O F W A T E R Q U A L I T Y INFORMATION FOR S T O R M 2 R E P L I C A T E S A M P L E S 135 T A B L E F - 7 T R A F F I C V O L U M E D A T A FOR S T O R M 3 136 T A B L E G-l S T R E E T S E D I M E N T D A T A - M A R C H 1995 S A M P L I N G 137 T A B L E 1-1 T R A F F I C D E N S I T Y A N D L A N D C O V E R PERMEABILITY IN SUB-BASINS A N D S U B - C A T C H M E N T S P A T A F R O M M C C A L L U M 1995] 142 viii LIST OF FIGURES F I G U R E 2.1 T H E B R U N E T T E R I V E R W A T E R S H E D 5 F I G U R E 2.2 H O R I Z O N T A L PROFILE OF STILL C R E E K A N D T H E B R U N E T T E R I V E R 6 F I G U R E 3.1 C H A N G E S IN W A T E R S H E D H Y D R O L O G Y AS A R E S U L T OF U R B A N I Z A T I O N (A). W A T E R B A L A N C E (B). S T R E A M F L O W F I G U R E 3.2 L A N D U S E A C T I V I T Y IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D IN 1993 19 F I G U R E 3.3 L A N D C O V E R P E R M E A B I L I T Y IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D IN 1993 2 0 F I G U R E 5.1 L O C A T I O N OF S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENT S A M P L I N G STATIONS 28 F I G U R E 5.2 L O C A T I O N OF S T R E E T S U R F A C E SEDIMENT S A M P L I N G STATIONS 30 F I G U R E 6.1 L O C A T I O N OF S E D I M E N T C O R E S A M P L I N G S T A T I O N IN B U R N A B Y L A K E 4 0 F I G U R E 6.2 A G E PROFILE OF L A K E C O R E DETERMINED USING 2 1 0 P B RADIOISOTOPE D A T I N G 41 F I G U R E 6.3 S E D I M E N T A C C U M U L A T I O N O V E R T I M E IN L A K E C O R E D E T E R M I N E D F R O M 2 1 0 P B RADIOISOTOPE D A T I N G INFORMATION 42 F I G U R E 6.4 E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S IN T H E L A K E C O R E 43 F I G U R E 6.5 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S IN T H E L A K E C O R E (A) ( D R Y W E I G H T -- U G / G ) (B) W E T V O L U M E U G / C M 3 44 F I G U R E 6.6 T O T A L A L I P H A T I C H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S IN L A K E W A S H I N G T O N SEDIMENTS (UG/G) 4 7 F I G U R E 6.7 P O P U L A T I O N IN B U R N A B Y , 1890-1991 47 F I G U R E 6.8 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N OF E X T R A C T F R O M L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1984 - 1975 48 F I G U R E 6.9 E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N DISTRIBUTION IN S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENTS IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 50 F I G U R E 6 .10 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N DISTRIBUTION IN S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENTS IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 52 F I G U R E 6.11 SUB-BASINS A N D S U B - C A T C H M E N T S IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 53 F I G U R E 6.12 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S IN J U L Y A N D F E B R U A R Y S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENTS 55 F I G U R E 6.13 R A N K E D T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S IN J U L Y A N D F E B R U A R Y S T R E A M B E D SEDIMENTS 55 F I G U R E 6.14 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF A L I P H A T I C F R A C T I O N OF E X T R A C T F R O M S T R E A M B E D S E D I M E N T F R O M S T A T I O N #14 ( F E B R U A R Y ) 56 F I G U R E 6.15 J U L Y S T R E A M SEDIMENTS : T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S VERSUS E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N 57 ix F I G U R E 6 .16 F E B R U A R Y S T R E A M SEDIMENTS : T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S VERSUS E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N 57 F I G U R E 6 .17 J U L Y S T R E A M SEDIMENTS : T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N R A N K VERSUS E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N R A N K 58 F I G U R E 6.18 F E B R U A R Y S T R E A M SEDIMENTS : T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N R A N K VERSUS E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N R A N K 58 F I G U R E 6 .19 R A I N F A L L R E C O R D 1994, B U R N A B Y M O U N T A I N 61 F I G U R E 6.20 R A I N F A L L R E C O R D , J U N E 1994 - F E B R U A R Y 1995, B U R N A B Y M O U N T A I N 62 F I G U R E 6.21 SUSPENDED SOLIDS C O N C E N T R A T I O N S : S T O R M 1 - G R A N D V I E W 64 F I G U R E 6.22 FIRST F L U S H OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS : S T O R M 1 - G R A N D V I E W 65 F I G U R E 6.23 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S : S T O R M 1 - G R A N D V I E W 66 F I G U R E 6.24 FIRST F L U S H OF T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S : S T O R M 1 - G R A N D V I E W 6 6 F I G U R E 6.25 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S VERSUS SUSPENDED SOLIDS : S T O R M 1 - G R A N D V I E W 67 F I G U R E 6.26 M I C R O T O X ® E C 5 0 R A N K VERSUS P A R T I C U L A T E P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N R A N K 74 F I G U R E 6 .27 M I C R O T O X ® E C 5 0 VERSUS S T O R M W A T E R P A R T I C U L A T E P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N 75 F I G U R E 6.28 E X T R A C T A B L E O R G A N I C C A R B O N DISTRIBUTION IN S T R E E T SEDIMENTS IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 76 F I G U R E 6.29 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N DISTRIBUTION IN S T R E E T SEDIMENTS IN T H E B R U N E T T E W A T E R S H E D 7 F I G U R E 6 .30 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N F R O M S T R E E T S U R F A C E S E D I M E N T F R O M S T A T I O N C 4 ( L O U G H E E D M A L L ) 7 Y F I G U R E B-l G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF 1000 PPM U N L E A D E D G A S O L I N E 103 F I G U R E B-2 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF 1000 PPM D I E S E L F U E L 103 F I G U R E B-3 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF 1000 PPM U S E D M O T O R O I L 104 F I G U R E D - 1 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF A L I P H A T I C F R A C T I O N OF L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1 9 9 4 - 1 9 8 4 1 0 8 F I G U R E D - 2 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N OF L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1984-1975 108 F I G U R E D - 3 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N OF L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1963-1944 109 F I G U R E D - 4 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N OF L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1944-1932 109 F I G U R E D - 5 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N OF L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1896-1861 110 F I G U R E D - 6 G A S C H R O M A T O G R A M OF ALIPHATIC F R A C T I O N OF L A K E C O R E S E C T I O N F R O M 1818-1767 110 F I G U R E F - l SUSPENDED SOLIDS C O N C E N T R A T I O N S - S T O R M 1 (A) G I L M O R E (B) E A G L E 117 F I G U R E F - 2 FIRST F L U S H OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS - S T O R M 1 (A) G I L M O R E (B) E A G L E 118 F I G U R E F - 3 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S - S T O R M 1 (A) G I L M O R E (B) E A G L E 1 1 9 F I G U R E F - 4 FIRST F L U S H OF T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S - S T O R M 1 ( A ) G I L M O R E (B) E A G L E .. 120 x F I G U R E F - 5 SUSPENDED SOLIDS C O N C E N T R A T I O N S - S T O R M 2 (A) G I L M O R E ( B ) W I L L I N G D O N 122 F I G U R E F - 6 FIRST F L U S H OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS - S T O R M 2 (A) G I L M O R E (B) W I L L I N G D O N 123 F I G U R E F - 7 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S - S T O R M 2 (A) G I L M O R E (B) W I L L I N G D O N 124 F I G U R E F - 8 FIRST F L U S H OF T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S - S T O R M 2 (A) G I L M O R E (B) W I L L I N G D O N 125 F I G U R E F - 9 SUSPENDED SOLIDS C O N C E N T R A T I O N S - S T O R M 3 (A) N O O T K A (B) R E N F R E W 127 (c) W I L L I N G D O N 128 F I G U R E F - 1 0 FIRST F L U S H OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS - S T O R M 3 (A) N O O T K A 128 (B) R E N F R E W (C) W I L L I N G D O N 129 F I G U R E F - 1 1 T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N C O N C E N T R A T I O N S - S T O R M 3 (A) N O O T K A (B) R E N F R E W 130 (c) W I L L I N G D O N 131 F I G U R E F - 1 2 FIRST F L U S H OF T O T A L P E T R O L E U M H Y D R O C A R B O N S - S T O R M 2 (A) N O O T K A 131 (B) R E N F R E W (C) W I L L I N G D O N 132 xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was funded in part by the Tri-Council Secretariat (National Sciences and Research Council (NSERC), Medical Research Council (MRC), and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)) through the Basin Ecosystem STudy (BEST) at the University of British Columbia. Many thanks for their continuing support. I would like to thank Dr. Ken Hall for approaching me with this research opportunity. I sincerely appreciated and wish to recognize his unrelenting enthusiasm and quiet guidance. A pleasant environment can make all the difference in the world. The support received in the laboratory was also invaluable ; many thanks to Paula Parkinson and Jean MacRae for their patience. Special thanks go to my parents for their inspired suggestions, editing vigor and constructive criticisms. Their tolerance from start to finish did not go unnoticed or unappreciated. I am also indebted to Gord Binsted for providing opportunities to escape and regroup when needed. He shall be in the same boat soon enough. xii 1. Introduction During the first half of the twentieth century, the Lower Fraser River Basin underwent rapid urbanization with water resources largely forsaken in the name of development. The Brunette watershed, once a medley of forests, marshes and salmon bearing streams, is now the heart of a metropolitan centre. The urban environment generates a variety of contaminants that reach and pollute what watercourses remain. Point sources of pollution that attract public attention, such as sanitary sewage and industrial waste, have largely been eliminated from the watershed in recent years. However, urban runoff, a non point source, has been recognized as the major continuing source of contaminants to urban streams [Gibb et al. 1991]. The Brunette watershed is one of three case study watersheds in the Basin Ecosystem STudv (BEST), also known as the U.B.C. Eco-Research Project. Funded by the National Tri-Council Secretariat (Medical Research Council, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council), the project is taking an interdisciplinary, ecosystem approach to examining the sustainability of development in the Lower Fraser Basin. The Brunette watershed reflects the pressures of urban development. Recent and ongoing studies have investigated urban runoff contaminants including pathogenic bacteria, oxygen demanding substances, nutrients, trace metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [McCallum 1995, Hall & Anderson 1988, Morton 1983, Anderson 1982, Koch et al. 1977, Hall et al. 1976, 1974]. Information from these studies and others is used to measure water quality and assess ecosystem health. A basin wide study of hydrocarbon pollution in lake sediments, streambed sediments, stormwater and street sediments has never been conducted. The lack of a former basin wide hydrocarbon study and the attention given to hydrocarbon pollution in other regions warrants their investigation [Latimer et al. 1 1990, Fam et al. 1987, Hoffman et al. 1984, 1983, 1982, Kashner & Hunter 1983, Hunter et al. 1979, MacKenzie & Hunter 1979, Whipple & Hunter 1979, Wakeham 1977, DiSalvo et al. 1975, Giger et al. 1974]. The specific objectives of this study are given below. 1.1 Study Objectives • Identify changes in lake sediment hydrocarbon concentrations concurrent with the development of the region • Identify the spatial distribution and severity of hydrocarbon contamination in streambed sediments of the watershed • Examine stormwater as a probable major source of hydrocarbons to watercourses • Identify the spatial distribution and severity of hydrocarbon contamination of street sediments and examine their role as a source of hydrocarbons to stormwaters 1.2 Roadmap This hydrocarbon study will add to the growing database of both the Brunette and the Lower Fraser Basin. The presentation addresses the four guiding questions of BEST : 1. What kind of ecosystem structure and function do we have at present; what forces and processes shaped it historically; how is it affected by policy and institutional arrangements? 2. What kind of ecosystem structure and function do we want to have in 30+ years? 3. What is feasible - what can be accomplished in the context of social, biophysical and economic constraints? 4. How do we get there; what policy instruments and processes will help us towards a more sustainable future? Chapter two is an introduction to the Brunette watershed, responding to BEST question one. Chapter three is a brief literature review of urban runoff, 2 with chapter four discussing hydrocarbons in further detail. Chapter five outlines the methods used for the study, chapter six presents results and discussion, and chapter seven offers a summary and implications. Chapter eight then offers answers to the remaining three BEST questions based on the information collected for this presentation, and offers some recommendations. 3 2. The Brunette River Watershed Study Area The Brunette River Watershed Study Area is highly urbanized, and lies predominantly within the city of Burnaby, British Columbia. The Brunette River discharges at New Westminster and accounts for almost 22 % of the urban runoff into the Lower Fraser River [Environment Canada 1992]. The watershed is located in the geographic centre of the Greater Vancouver Regional District and is heavily traveled via two major traffic corridors that link downtown Vancouver to the eastern regions of the district (see Figure 2.1). This section introduces the watershed in the context of BEST question #1 ; What kind of ecosystem structure and function do we have at present; what forces and processes shaped it historically; how is it affected by policy and institutional arrangements? 2.1 History of Development The Brunette River Watershed was covered by forest and swamps as little as 130 years age [Dawson et al. 1985a, Harris 1978]. The area formed traditional hunting grounds for the Squamish and Kwantlen Nations [Gardner Dunster Associates Ltd. 1992] and was not settled by Europeans until the mid 1860's. Expansion was rapid and the town of Granville was incorporated into the City of Vancouver in 1886. Forestry was then the major industry as lands were cleared to make way for productive agriculture. Developing transportation corridors soon turned Vancouver into a thriving port. In 1904, the Great Northern Railroad (now Burlington Northern) extended its line from New Westminster to False Creek running parallel to the Brunette River, Burnaby Lake and Still Creek. Agricultural lands opened up for housing and in 1912, the Burnaby Lake Interurban was built along the route now taken by Highway 1 [Dawson et al. 1985a]. In 1947, shortly after World War II, a strip of land adjacent to Still Creek was zoned industrial to promote development and create jobs [Dawson et al. 1985a]. This marked the beginning of a prolonged period of expansion with 4 absolute growth in population peaking in the decade between 1951 and 1961 [McCallum 1995]. The late 1980's again brought more growth via transportation with the introduction of the Skytrain and the development of the Metrotown region [City of Burnaby 1987, Gardner Dunster Associates Ltd. 1992]. Burnaby's 1987 Official Community Plan predicts continued growth of both industry and population [City of Burnaby 1987]. 2.2 Hydrology The Brunette is a lowland stream system, with groundwater supplying base flows. The hydrograph follows the precipitation cycle with maximum discharges in the wet winter months and minimums in the summer. The catchment topography dictates variation in stream velocities (Figure 2.2). The upper reaches of Still Creek and tributaries from Burnaby Mountain have steep gradients and high stream velocities. The lower reaches of Still Creek, aptly named, are often stagnant during low flow conditions. The Brunette River, downstream of Brunette Avenue, also experiences low stream velocities due to small gradients and tidal influences [McCallum 1995]. FIGURE 2.2 Horizontal Profile of Still Creek and the Brunette River (adapted from Hall et al. 1976) 100 _, . 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Distance from Source (km) 6 The whole of the Brunette River Watershed is under the jurisdiction of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (G.V.R.D.) as a conveyance system for flood waters [Wood 1995]. In 1914, Still Creek was classified as a storm sewer [Dawson et al. 1985b]. Since that time, the "sluggish" stream, along with the rest of the system, has seen several engineering efforts undertaken to improve drainage. In 1924, the headwaters of Still Creek were encased in the Collingwood storm sewer. In the 1930's, a dam was placed at the outlet of Burnaby Lake and excavation removed boulders, roots and vegetation from Still Creek, forming a well defined and straightened channel. These "improvements" to Still Creek are probably responsible for the greatest changes to the hydrology of the system [McCallum 1995]. The Cariboo Dam (on the Brunette River downstream of Burnaby Lake) was also constructed. Culvert systems in Still Creek were extended from 1956 to 1975 ; it was anticipated at that time that culverts would eventually be continuous [Dawson et al. 1985a]. In 1973, a rowing channel was dredged down the centre of Burnaby Lake in preparation for the Summer Games, but has since filled in enough for dredging to be considered again. For flood control in New Westminster, a relief channel was built from the Brunette River to the Fraser River at Braid Street as recently as 1982 [McCallum 1995]. 2.3 Flora and Fauna The forests and swamplands that once commanded the Brunette watershed have all but been eliminated save a few stands of old growth forest in Cariboo Heights and some marshy areas around the shores of Burnaby Lake. Other natural areas feature second growth stands, such as on the slopes of Burnaby Mountain [Gardner Dunster Associates Ltd. 1992]. The region once provided refuge for bears, deer, elk and cougars, but the only large mammals left are some Coastal Blacktail deer that live on Burnaby Mountain [Dawson et al. 1985a, Gardner Dunster Associates Ltd. 1992]. The watercourses of the Brunette System once supported salmon and trout and were popular fishing 7 spots in the early 1900's [Harris 1978], but changes to make the system a drainage facility deteriorated water quality and fish habitat [Dawson et al. 1985a]. Riparian vegetation that provides shade to streams and habitat for birds and small mammals was largely removed to improve drainage and allow for construction. The Cariboo Dam prevented fish passage up the Brunette River and hence terminated any salmon runs (until recent improvements) [Dawson et al. 1985a]. Efforts by the Sapperton Fish and Game Club including removing debris, eliminating point sources of contaminants and restocking from hatcheries, have brought back small numbers of salmon to spawn. Some sections of the watershed were spared engineering improvements and maintain natural habitats. Reaches of Eagle Creek, Stoney Creek, Renfrew Ravine (Still Creek) and Burnaby Lake have significant riparian vegetation and provide habitat for a diverse population of aquatic life, birds and small mammals [Dawson et al. 1985a]. However, those reaches that have been dredged, straightened, lined with concrete, culverted or sewered do not offer promising habitat. 2.4 Water Quality "In the last 100 years, a large metropolitan city has replaced the forests and swampland that once surrounded Still Creek. The creek that once drained a natural environment is now a storm sewer that has been dredged, culverted, buried and in some places paved over. It has been used as a dump. It has received urban runoff, industrial effluents, domestic sewage, material from construction activity, fallout from air pollution, accidental spills and litter. All of these changes have contributed to the decline of the stream as a community recreational asset." [Dawson et al. 1985b] This quote aptly summarizes the changes in water quality that much of the entire watershed has undergone. Deterioration in water quality has wiped out fish populations, threatened indigenous ecosystems, and intermittently closed 8 areas for health concerns. Most problems with point source discharges have been eliminated in recent years, although illegal sanitary sewer hookups still plague the system [Dawson et al. 1985b]. Damage from construction sites has also been targeted with mandatory use of sediment barriers and environmentally sound practices [B.C. Environment 1993b, B.C. Environment 1992] Accidental spills have been responsible for many fish kills over the past decades [Dawson et al. 1985a, McCallum 1995, Northcote & Luskin 1992] but the largest contributor of pollution is unquestionably urban runoff. 2.5 Institutional Features In the first half of the twentieth century, water resources management in Canada focused on economic development. Western man's historic view of his relationship to the natural world was an anthropocentric one. The British North America Act gave no guide for water resources management, and made holistic approaches difficult by dividing responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments. By the mid 1960's, there was a dramatic increase in the amount of attention given to the environmental and social consequences of development. A new interest in water resource management was established which recognized multiple purposes and multiple objectives. Major planning studies began to precede developments and be prescribed to existing ones. [Healey & Wallace 1987] In the last 25 years, water resources have been more highly valued in urban settings. The Federal Fisheries Act and the Provincial Water Act and Waste Management Act have only recently been used to target problems in urban environments. Both the federal and provincial governments have been active in producing guidelines such as Stream Stewardship : A Guide for Developers and Planners and Land Development Guidelines that outline practices to protect urban watercourses. 9 Urban runoff is still without regulation anywhere in Canada. The inherent difficulties in targeting specific sources within non-point pollution hinders most efforts. Attempts to regulate storm sewer discharges to streams are hindered by inadequate funding and lack of available land for any management alternatives. 10 3. Urban Runoff 3.1 The Hydrologic Cycle Water continually moves from one place to another in the hydrologic cycle. Water in the atmosphere falls to the surface as precipitation to add to the ocean, be intercepted by plants, or join surface and ground water stocks. Groundwater reaches the ocean either directly, or via surface water flows. Surface water may be taken up by plants, percolate to ground waters, or make its way to the ocean. Transpiration from plants, as well as evaporation from the ocean, surface waters and soil complete the cycle by returning water to the atmosphere. The urban landscape is not often appreciated as a dynamic ecosystem involving water, yet cities are complex ecosystems with their own hydrologic cycle [Healey & Wallace 1987]. 3.2 The Effect of Urbanization - Quantity Concerns Dramatic changes in land use accompany urbanization. Pervious ground, such as forest floor or grassland, is cleared, graded and paved with impervious concrete or asphalt. Runoff coefficients may increase from 0.10 up to as high as 0.95 [The Urban Land Institute et al. 1975]. These changes affect the established hydrologic cycle as illustrated in Figure 3.1a. Decreases in pervious area reduces infiltration to groundwater stocks that provide base flows to streams. Canopy interception is reduced and the larger surface runoff volumes are quickly collected and directed to drainage routes. The result is urban streams with extreme flow regimes. Figure 3.1b illustrates the dramatic effects urbanization can have on the hydrograph of a stream. Post-development peak storm flows are higher and come sooner. Total runoff volume is also greatly increased. Urbanization can create peak storm flows that can be too large for the natural drainage system to handle. High flows can cause flooding coupled with widening and deepening of channels by erosion. Measures taken to prevent 11 FIGURE 3.1 Changes in Watershed Hydrology as a Result of Urbanization (adapted from Schueler 1987) a. Water Balance b. Streamflow 12 flood damage include engineering improvements such as sewering, culverting, and excavation, straightening and lining of channels. 3.2.1. Impacts on Receiving Waters The extreme flow conditions created in urban streams are not favorable for established aquatic ecosystems. Poor groundwater recharge means base flows are diminished such that habitat areas are substantially reduced. Rapid collection and discharge of storm flows can cause flooding and habitat destruction through erosion and downstream sedimentation [Ferguson 1991]. Engineering solutions to quantity problems have impacts of their own. Culverts and excavated drainage channels offer little riparian habitat and accompanying shelter, lack quiet reaches and ponds, and often limit fish passage. Concrete stream beds and banks replace diverse habitat and preclude natural communities. 3.3 The Effect of Urbanization - Quality Concerns Any change in land use also results in changes to surface water quality. Several decades ago, Weibel et al. [1963] took the first serious look at urban runoff. His work was the first to suggest that runoff could not be neglected when considering waste loadings to urban streams. In the Greater Vancouver area, the impacts of urban runoff on aquatic biota and water quality in the Fraser River may be comparable to those of municipal sewage [Swain 1985]. This has prompted the suggestion that improving quality of urban runoff should be tackled before the upgrading of sewage treatment facilities [Swain 1985, Whipple & Hunter 1977]. 3.3.1 Constituents of Urban Runoff A storm event effectively picks up and homogenizes a medley of pollutants from a wide variety of sources [Eganhouse et al. 1981]. Pollutant sources in the urban environment include, but are not limited to such things as road pavement, roofing materials, motor vehicles, atmospheric deposition, plant material, fertilizer, litter, animal wastes, illegal sewer or industrial hookups, 13 construction, erosion, spills and deliberate dumping [Gibb et al. 1991]. Of the countless compounds that reach urban watercourses, most can be accounted for in the following categories. 3.3.1.1 Oxygen Demanding Substances Organic matter, such as leaves, grass clippings, and pet droppings, is subject to microbial degradation in surface waters. Aerobic degradation processes can depress oxygen levels. Serious short term depressions can result in fish kills. Long term build-up of settled materials can cause oxygen depressions in sediments, adversely affecting benthic communities [Gibb et al. 1991]. 3.3.1.2 Coliforms Conforms, indicators of other bacterial contamination, often reach urban runoff from illegal sewer hookups or pet droppings. Contamination may adversely affect the water supply for drinking or agriculture, limit fishing and shell fishing as well as restrict swimming and other recreation for health concerns. 3.3.1.3 Nutrients Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous loading to surface waters can lead to deterioration of water quality through eutrophication. Nuisance plant growth and algal blooms can precede further problems such as water discolouration, odour and depressed oxygen levels [Gibb et al. 1991]. 3.3.1.4 Metals Several metals found in urban runoff exceed safe threshold limits for freshwater biota, causing acute or chronic toxic effects. Metals of general concern are zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and nickel. Metals are predominantly found in association with particulates and settle out to become immobilized in sediments [McCallum 1995]. 14 3.3.1.5 Suspended Solids Suspended solids are a consequential constituent of urban runoff since many pollutants are found in direct association with particulates. Runoff through urban areas picks up appreciable quantities of material, from rooftops, street surfaces and open areas. Peak storm flow velocities can carry large sediment burdens. This 'first flush' of sediment can carry such high pollutant burdens, that dilution is inadequate to prevent shock loading. As well, increases in turbidity of the water can hinder the penetration of light necessary for photosynthesis, cause stress to aquatic species, and reduce visibility, hampering the success of some predators [Gibb et al. 1991, Atwater 1994]. Suspended solids may also settle out in quiet reaches and destroy important habitats such as spawning gravel. 3.3.1.6 Hydrocarbons The ubiquity of hydrocarbons in urban streams and runoff should come as no surprise [Whipple & Hunter 1979] ; pools of oil on roadways only hint at the abundance of these products in urban settings, [Hoffman et al. 1983] and their fate in its watercourses. Except in extreme cases such as spills, hydrocarbons do not significantly contribute to the oxygen demand of urban waters. However, while some simpler hydrocarbons are easily biodegraded, others can cause acute or chronic toxic effects. Other concerns are aesthetic ; shimmering oils on water bodies are unsightly and preclude recreation [C.C.R.M.E. 1995]. 3.3.2 Impacts on Receiving Waters Urban streams receive a potent concoction of pollutants. Water quality effects can be short or long term. Rapid short-term depressions in dissolved oxygen and increased concentrations of toxics can occur during or shortly after storms. Low dissolved oxygen levels, chronic exposure to toxics and eutrophication occur over the long term [Gibb et al. 1991]. These changes in water quality may be immediately lethal to resident organisms. Sub-lethal effects can weaken organisms over time, ultimately affecting their survival. Stream ecosystems shift to be dominated by those organisms that can tolerate 15 the harsher conditions, while the more sensitive species disappear [Schueler 1987]. 3.4 Stormwater Management 3.4.1 Engineering Technologies Managing urban stormwater runoff involves confronting both quantity and quality concerns. Drainage systems need to be governed to mitigate peak storm flows, attempt to increase groundwater recharge, reduce sediment and hence pollutant loads, and abate sources of pollution before they reach the watercourses. Several engineering solutions have been designed over the past several decades to tackle the various quantity and quality problems. Quantity problems arise from the huge peak storm flows that overwhelm the system. A popular solution is detention on rooftops, in parking lots, or in detention basins to hold up peak flows for gradual release. Porous pavements and infiltration trenches can simulate pervious ground to allow recharging of groundwater stocks and relief from peak flows. Other technologies attempt to target specific pollutants. Coalescing plate separators, for example, can be effective in removing floating oil and grease [Gibb et al. 1991]. Since suspended solids are primary carriers of the pollutant load, their removal can be especially effective for improving water quality. Swirl concentrators can trap sediments before they reach watercourses. Extended detention of stormwaters in natural lakes, extended detention basins or wetlands not only allow suspended material to settle out, but provide opportunities for uptake of nutrients and biological degradation of organics. These biological alternatives also provide wildlife habitat and recreation opportunities. Source control of pollutants such as elimination of illegal sewage and industrial hookups is another obvious approach to improving water quality. Street sweeping can remove roadside sediments that carry pollutant loads. Reducing traffic volume and improving auto maintenance can alleviate pollution from transportation. Public education and the incorporation of programs such as 16 storm drain marking are also effective. Source control is not only about removing pollutants before they reach the watercourses, but increasing awareness and curbing problems before they start. 3.4.2 Watershed Management Plans Integrated management of land and water resources is not a new idea. Some of the world's greatest civilizations flourished because they learnt to manage these resources in a way that "harmonized the pursuit of economic objectives with the integrity of their environment" [Saha and Barrow 1981]. Watersheds are natural choices for planning units since they are functional regions established by physical relationships, with logical biological and economic linkages [Easter et al. 1986]. Difficulties arise when administrative and political boundaries are different from watershed boundaries, which is often the case [Easter et al. 1986]. New provincial directions have incorporated the watershed management concept, as well as specific commitments to development and implementation of watershed management plans [B.C. Environment 1993a]. Guidelines also encourage community plans to "include statements of goals and objectives, and special designations, which address watershed management, the protection of habitat and stream stewardship" [B.C. Environment 1993b]. 3.5 The Brunette Watershed Urbanization in the Brunette watershed has brought about land use distinctly different from a century ago. Figures 3.2 and 3.3 show land use and land cover permeability in the watershed in 1993. Since the major upheaval of the early part of the century, land cover change seems to have slowed. Over recent years (1973 till 1993), residential land use increased only 5 % while population increased 30 % ; the combined land area increase for commercial, industrial and institutional uses was only 1.5 % while employment in the watershed rose 120 % [McCallum 1995]. 17 Quantity problems found are typical of urban streams. Reduced land cover permeability results in storm flows that exceed the capacity of the system. Many engineering efforts have been undertaken to improve drainage, but as a result, flow regimes, especially in the upper reaches of Still Creek, are extreme. Riparian vegetation is limited ; channel straightening and culverting have destroyed habitat in many areas. Some stream beds and banks have been replaced by concrete to minimize erosion. Fish passage has been limited by both dams and culverts. Numerous studies of the water quality throughout the region show the impacts of urbanization [McCallum 1995, Hall & Anderson 1988, Morton 1983, Anderson 1982, Koch et al. 1977, Hall et al. 1976, 1974]. Conforms, trace metals, nutrients, suspended solids, hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons have all contributed to the ailing quality of the surface waters. This combination of contaminants earned the Brunette Drainage Basin ratings of 'fair' to 'poor' in the Greater Vancouver Liquid Waste Management Plan - Stage 1 report [G.V.R.D. 1988]. Less work has specifically examined the effects these contaminants are having on the resident ecosystems. The devastation of trout and salmon populations, although at least in part accounted for by deteriorating water quality, was also due to loss of habitat and changes in flow regimes. Preliminary studies, such as that of Hall et al. [1976], found benthic communities dominated by a limited number of oligochaete worm species ; the low community diversity was suggested to be the result of high contaminant levels in the sediments. Stormwater management in the Brunette system has gradually evolved since the channel dredging and straightening of the 1930's. The majority of illegal sanitary sewer and industrial waste hookups have been eliminated and pilot projects, such as those currently in place on Deer Creek are attempting to combat specific pollutants. There are currently no on-line detention facilities anywhere in the system, but Deer Lake and Burnaby Lake act as natural sediment traps. Recent additions have been floating oil and grease traps along 18 cn cn E 3 15 o o It it o (0 co o en -? o c ig •o £ > a> > "D <D = r o c — 3 tf) CD c £ i . - a o > > < c W M CM to LU or LL 0 c 0 .-> •-> to c 0 _ J • ILUIJ C UJJU] 0 — 0 0 c 0 L -—I 0 «-> Q 0 CD CD c L 0 0 L CD h-0 — — 0 •f* c L 0 0! *J L T J CO l!) -^ I E CO T J E CD c 0 a. C J u <I • Z <I c r c r 1 9 20 Still Creek, storm drain marking with the designated yellow salmonid and several further attempts at public education. Current developments along the southwestern shore of Deer Lake included an extensive stormwater management and treatment plan that addressed both quantity and quality concerns [Oakalla Development Plan 1991]. The majority of the Brunette is contained within the city limits of Burnaby, so obstacles encountered when political and watershed boundaries do not coincide can largely be avoided. But since the region was developed prior to the incorporation of any planning that took water resources into account, most current plans focus on preserving what little is left [City of Burnaby 1987]. Efforts outlined in the Official Community Plan focus on conservation and protection of environmentally sensitive areas. 21 4. Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment 4.1 Sources Hydrocarbons are naturally occurring compounds in the aquatic environment, but increasing urbanization has elevated their levels far beyond the natural state. Dramatic oil spills from tankers receive most of the publicity [Latimer et al. 1990]. Recent evidence, however, indicates sources of chronic pollution may contribute more oil on a mass basis to coastal waters [Latimer et al. 1990, Hoffman et al. 1983, Whipple & Hunter 1979]. Several authors have shown that urban runoff is laden with hydrocarbons, predominantly of anthropogenic origin [Jacobs et al. 1993, Fam et al. 1987, Hoffman et al. 1984, Stenstrom et al. 1984, Barrick 1982, Eganhouse et al. 1981, Hunter et al. 1979, MacKenzie & Hunter 1979, Whipple & Hunter 1979, Wakeham 1977]. Sources of urban runoff hydrocarbons are plentiful and ubiquitous ; their presence is ultimately linked to our society's dependence on fossil fuels [MacKenzie & Hunter 1979, Whipple & Hunter 1979]. Petroleum and petroleum products dominate our markets and dictate our way of life. The plethora of anthropogenic sources include automobile crankcase oil, heating oil, gasoline, diesel, asphalt, tire, clutch and brake particles, exhaust particulates, and deposition of other pyrolysis products from the atmosphere [Bomboi et al. 1990, Ellis et al. 1985, Hoffman et al. 1983, Wakeham 1977]. Land use also plays a role in the hydrocarbon input with heavily trafficked and industrialized areas shown to contribute the largest quantities [Hoffman et al. 1983, Wakeham 1977]. Table 4.1 [Eganhouse et al. 1981] lists some hydrocarbon compounds found in urban runoff, along with their presumed sources. 22 TABLE 4.1 Summary of Molecular Markers found in Storm Runoff Tabulated According to their Presumed Sources ANTHROPOGENIC RECENT BIOGENIC Petroleum Microbial 1. n-alkanes, n-Ci3-24 1. n-alkanes 2. branched hydrocarbons 2. alkanoic acids a. iso, anteiso a. iso, anteiso series b. isoprenoids b. cyclopropane acids 3. cyclic compounds 3. p-hydroxy acids a. cyclohexane series a. normal acids <C2o b. steranes b. iso, anteiso acids c diterpanes 4. a,co-dicarboxylic acids d. triterpanes 4. aromatic hydrocarbons Hiciher Plants 5. unresolved complex mixture 1. n-alkanes >n-C24 2. n-alkanoic acids >20:0 Synthetics 3. dihydroabietic acid 1. phthalates, adipates 4. n-alkan-2-ones 2. aromatic ketones 5. chlorophyll derivatives a. C i 8 isoprenoid ketone b. isoprenoid y-lactones 6. a,©-dicarboxylic acids 7. ©-hydroxy acids 8. n-alkanols >C24 9. phytosterols Hiaher animals 1. fecal sterols a. coprostanol b. epicoprostanol 4.2 Behavior In aquatic environments, hydrocarbons may be found in the water column, in biota, or in association with suspended or settled particulate material. Sorption is an important process when considering the fate of organic compounds in aqueous systems. Sorption is a reversible process involving both physical (Van der Waals forces) and chemical (electronic interactions) bonding between particle surface and solute molecule [Voice & Weber 1983]. The 23 tendency for a solute molecule to sorb can be expressed by a water - particulate partition coefficient, Kp. Kp = concentration associated with particulate phase concentration associated with dissolved phase Kp is dependent on properties of the solute compound and properties of the particulate [Jones 1991]. Hydrophobic compounds willingly partition into the organic phase; hydrophobicity is measured by octanol water partition coefficients, or Kow's. These compounds often readily sorb to particulates [Jones 1991]. Compounds with low water solubilities also readily sorb, although water solubilities can change with pH, presence of dissolved organic carbon or surfactants [Schlautman & Morgan 1993, Edwards et al. 1991]. Smaller particles tend to have high amounts of sorbed material, attributed to their high surface area to volume ratios [Hoffman et al. 1983]. Sorption is prominent on particles of high organic content [Schlautman & Morgan 1993, Edwards et al. 1991, Jones 1991, Capel & Eisenreich 1990]. Urban runoff can and often contains high amounts of suspended solids. Hydrocarbons have high K o W values indicative of their hydrophobic nature. This leads to a state of dynamic equilibrium between the dissolved and particulate-associated states, with urban runoff hydrocarbons found predominantly associated with the particulate fraction [Capel & Eisenreich 1990, Ellis et al. 1985, Voice & Weber 1983, Hoffman et al. 1982, Eganhouse & Kaplan 1981, Herrmann 1981, Hunter et al. 1979, Whipple & Hunter 1979]. A characteristic feature of areas with chronic hydrocarbon pollution is a high concentration of hydrocarbons in the sediments [Shelton & Hunter 1974]. 4.3 Transport Hydrocarbons are found in all parts of an aquatic system. The water, biota, suspended material and sediment all contain some fraction of the hydrocarbon load. The cycling that occurs among these sinks controls their 24 availability and mobility [Capel & Eisenreich 1990, Bates et al. 1984]. The dominant interaction of hydrocarbons with particulates is reason to recognize that their transport and fate will largely be dependent on that of the solids [Eganhouse & Kaplan 1981, Herrmann 1981]. During the first flush of storm events, the peak flow rates hold particulate material in suspension. As flows decrease, suspended material is given the chance to settle out and become part of the bedload of the urban streams [Herrmann 1981, Whipple & Hunter 1979]. This is the rationale behind many detention basins aimed to treat runoff. Since many pollutants are found sorbed onto particulates, slowing down the flow allows solids to settle out before the retained water is released. 4.4 Fate Although certain organic compounds are refractory (i.e. PCB's or Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls), the majority are subject to biological uptake, photodegradation or microbial degradation [Jones 1991]. Many hydrophobic compounds such as hydrocarbons show preferential accumulation in the lipids of organisms. Exposure can occur via uptake of dissolved compound from the water column, or via ingestion. The compound may then be degraded by the organism, excreted, or accumulated in fatty tissue. Photodegradation in the water column or on sediment surfaces is limited by light intensity and penetration, in turn a function of depth and turbidity. Indirect photolysis is also a possible degradation pathway whereby radicals and oxidants formed by photolyzed organic acids act to decompose other molecules. Microbial degradation is the most significant pathway of hydrocarbon removal from aquatic systems. Considerable research time and effort have gone into finding ways to enhance microbial action to clean up large scale marine oil spills [Prince 1992]. In urban streams, much of the responsibility for clean up of organics seems to fall on the shoulders of the indigenous microbial population. This degradation takes place throughout the water column and in the sediments by various aerobic and anaerobic decomposition pathways [Shelton & Hunter 25 1974]. Hydrocarbons vary in their degree of biodegradability; some are easily degraded while others may persist in the environment. 4.5 Toxicity Most oil pollution publicity has focused on oil spills, whose toxic effects are immediately evident. Impacts of chronic oil pollution are less evident and harder to demonstrate. Hydrocarbons vary in their toxicity; many low boiling aromatic hydrocarbons are essentially non-toxic while most high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) show some degree of carcinogenicity. Several of these PAH's have been found at toxic levels in urban runoff, as have phthalates [Garrett 1980] and dibenzothiophenes [Whipple & Hunter 1979]. The presence of such EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) priority pollutants has sparked concern about the toxic contribution of the organics in urban runoff; correlations have been found between Microtox® EC50 values and semi-volatile organic EPA priority pollutants concentrations [Jacobs et al. 1993]. Accumulation of hydrocarbon compounds has even led to the development of shellfish as bioindicators of anthropogenic hydrocarbon input [DiSalvo etal. 1975], 26 5. Methods 5.1 Field Methods 5.1.1 Lake Core Lake core samples for this study were taken from a Burnaby Lake core collected by Don McCallum, July 7th, 1994 [McCallum 1995]. The half of the core from which samples were taken was refrigerated at 4°C from the coring date until sampling for this study (approximately 6 months). Six quarter sections of the core, each five centimetres in length, were removed and stored in washed / solvent rinsed / prefired glass canning jars with lids lined with solvent rinsed / prefired aluminum foil and frozen until analysis. 5.1.2 Streambed Sediments Stream sediments were collected from 20 stream stations located throughout the basin (stations shown in Figure 5.1). The stations were a selection of those used by Hall et al. [1976] with 2 additions and a few location changes noted in italics in Table A-1, Appendix A. Sediment samples were taken with a large stainless steel spoon or with an aluminum pot attached to a pole where greater depths limited direct access. Samples were stored in washed / solvent rinsed / prefired glass canning jars with lids lined with solvent rinsed / prefired aluminum foil. Samples were refrigerated at 4°C until analysis and also preserved with HCI (to pH « 2) if extraction was not going to be completed in 48 hours. Sediment consistencies through the watershed ranged from coarse sand to oozy organic mud. When more than one sediment consistency was present at a given sampling site, a composite of the different sediment types was collected. 5.1.3 Stormwater Samples were collected from stream stations and/or storm drains throughout storm events. With only one vehicle to travel from station to station, 27 28 a maximum of three stations were monitored for any one storm event so that samples could be taken at least once per hour. Sampling procedures were fashioned after that of Hoffman et al. [1982, 1983] and Latimer et al. [1990]. Samples were collected in washed / solvent rinsed 4 litre amber glass bottles (hydrocarbons, Microtox® (Storm 3)) and 1 litre washed / solvent rinsed plastic bottles (Microtox® (Storm 2)), either directly, or by filling with sample collected in a steel bucket. Samples were refrigerated at 4°C until analysis ; those for hydrocarbons were also preserved with HCI (to pH « 2). Depth measurements were taken at stream stations when samples were collected. Stream discharges were calculated using Generic Cadd [Mathews 1994]. Approximate flow measurements were taken at storm drains by using a calibrated bucket and a stopwatch. 5.1.4 Street Surface Sediments Street surface sediments were collected from 19 stations throughout the basin (stations shown in Figure 5.2). The stations were a selection of those used by Hall et al. [1976] with 4 additions and a few location changes noted in italics in Table A-2, Appendix A. Street surface materials were collected from the edges of roadways with a stainless steel spoon or whisk broom and dust pan. Samples were stored in washed / solvent rinsed / prefired glass canning jars with lids lined with aluminum foil (also prefired). Samples were refrigerated at 4°C until analysis. 5.2 Laboratory analysis 5.2.1 Protocols 5.2.1.1 Extraction - Solids The solids extraction method used in this study combined previously used extraction techniques [Fam et al. 1987, APHA 1985, Hoffman et al. 1984, 1983] with a less solvent intensive method currently in use in the U.B.C. Environmental Engineering lab for a study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [MacRae 1994]. 29 30 Tared samples were placed in 250 ml_ screwtop amber glass bottles. Fifty mLs methylene chloride were added and bottles were shaken for 1 hour on a "wrist action" automatic shaker machine. The methylene chloride was poured off through sodium sulfate in a Whatman #4 filter into prefired / solvent rinsed round bottom flasks. This extraction was then repeated through two more cycles (total solvent volume 150 mLs, total extraction time 3 hours). The final solvent volume of 150 mLs in the round bottom flasks was flash evaporated to less than 10 mLs and transferred to prefired / solvent rinsed / tared screw top glass test tubes. These extracts were then blown down to dryness with N 2 and weighed to determine extractable organic carbon (EOC). 5.2.1.2 Extraction - Water Water extraction was performed by direct liquid-liquid extraction, similar to procedures employed by Hoffman et al. [1982], Fam et al. [1987] and ASTM [1989]. Water samples (4 litres) were extracted in portions with 3 x 60 mLs methylene chloride in a 2 L separatory funnel. Extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and rotary evaporated to less than 10 mLs. These were then transferred to prefired / solvent rinsed / tared screw top glass test tubes, blown down to dryness with N2, and weighed to determine EOC. 5.2.1.3 Silica Gel Separation Silica gel chromatography was used to separate aliphatic from aromatic hydrocarbons. This study combined previously documented techniques [Latimer et al. 1990, Fam et al. 1987, Hoffman et al. 1984, 1983] with those previously practiced in the U.B.C. Environmental Engineering lab [MacRae 1994, Parkinson 1994]. Silica gel columns were made up in standard lab burettes with separatory funnels fused to the open end. Columns were prerinsed with methylene chloride and allowed to air dry. After insertion of a glass wool plug, columns were filled with hexane (approximately 60 mLs) to which approximately 5 grams of activated gel was added (gel was activated at 110°C for minimum 24 hours). After the gel 31 settled, a small scoop of anhydrous sodium sulfate was added to top the columns. Columns were drained to just above the level of the sodium sulfate. The methylene chloride extract of the sample was added to the top of the columns with a Pasteur pipette. The aliphatic fraction was eluted with 60 ml_s hexane and collected in a prefired / solvent rinsed round bottom flask. The aromatic fraction was eluted with 60 mLs toluene and likewise collected. The remaining polar fraction and the column were discarded. The aliphatic and aromatic fractions were rotary evaporated to less than 10 mLs and transferred to prefired / solvent rinsed screw top test tubes. These fractions were then blown down to dryness with N 2 and made up in 5 mLs Freon 113 (1,1,2 trifluoro-1,2,2 trichloroethane). 5.2.1.4 Estimation of Hydrocarbons by Infrared Absorption Infrared absorption techniques have been used for several decades for quantitative estimates of hydrocarbon content of samples [Rosen & Middleton 1955, Gruenfeld 1973, ASTM 1989]; Absorbance spectra of samples and standards (both in Freon 113) were obtained from a BOMEM MB100 FTIR [Wassel 1994, McNeil 1994] using a 1 cm quartz cell. Standards were made in concentrations from 0 to 1600 ppm from a 10,000 ppm diesel stock solution. Diesel was chosen over isooctane and toluene as standards [Hall 1995, Koch et al. 1977] since the absorbance spectra more closely matched those of the samples. Absorbance of the standards was measured at six wavenumbers in the C-H stretching region (2962, 2952, 2928, 2926, 2903 and 2858 cm"1), with a calibration curve constructed for each. Absorbance of the samples was likewise measured with corresponding concentrations determined from the calibration curves. Hydrocarbon concentration in each sample was taken to be the average concentration determined by the 6 wavenumbers. The results of the infrared hydrocarbon determination must only be considered as estimates [Giger et al. 1974]. The estimates of hydrocarbon 32 concentration allow for comparison of absolute values to be made among samples. 5.2.1.5 Gas Chromatography Some qualitative information can be gained by obtaining gas chromatograms of sample extracts. Compound classification and identification of potential sources are some of the recent uses of gas chromatography [Latimer et al. 1990, Fam et al. 1987, Hoffman et al. 1984, 1983, Matsumoto 1982, Wakeham 1977, Wakeham & Carpenter 1976, Giger & Schaffner 1975]. Selected samples were run on a Hewlett Packard 5890 Series II gas chromatograph to gain information from the chromatograms of the compounds present. Run conditions and column identification are provided in Appendix B. 5.2.1.6Microtox® Toxicity Testing The Microtox® toxicity assay utilizes a freeze dried culture of Photobacterium phosphorium ; toxicity is measured by the inhibition of bioluminescence by toxicants. Toxicity is reported as an EC50, or effective concentration of toxicant resulting in a 50% decrease of bioluminescence. Procedures were performed according to Microtox® protocol [Microbics Corporation 1992, 1990] by British Columbia Research Inc. (B.C.R.I.). Stream sediment samples were analyzed using standard solid-phase protocols. Stormwater samples were first filtered, then an EC50 determined for the suspended particulates. 5.2.2 Lake Core The entire 5 cm sections of lake core were extracted, minus a small section transferred to porcelain dishes and dried at 110 °C for determination of moisture content. Dried extracts were made up in 10 mLs methylene chloride of which 2 mLs was subjected to silica gel separation for fractionation into aliphatic and aromatic components. Petroleum hydrocarbon content of silica gel fractions was estimated by IR absorption. 33 5.2.3 Stream Sediments All stream sediments were presieved through a 2 mm sieve to remove larger gravel and other unwanted debris. Samples of approximately 10 grams (dry weight) were extracted. A separate quantity of each stream sediment was transferred to porcelain dishes, and dried at 110 °C for determination of moisture content. Dried extracts were made up in methylene chloride, a portion of the extract (July =1 mL of 10 ml_, February = 2 1/ 2 mLs of 5 mLs or 2 mLs of 10 mLs) was then subjected to silica gel separation and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon content by IR absorption. 5.2.3.1 Microtox® of Stream Sediments A subsample of each of the July sediment samples was sent to B.C.R.I. for Microtox® analysis. A complete description of sample preparation, test methods, test results and quality assurance / quality control measures is given in the B.C.R.I. report [Keen 1994]. 5.2.4 Stormwater Samples were filtered through prefired / tared glass microfibre filters via a Buchner Funnel into a 4 L vacuum Erlenmeyer Flask. Storm 1 filters were placed into an 110 °C drying oven and dried to constant weight to determine solids content. Filters from subsequent samplings were dried at room temperature [Standard Methods 1985]. 5.2.4.1 Water Analysis for Hydrocarbons Filtrate was extracted in portions with methylene chloride. Extracts from Storms 2 and 3 were weighed to determine extractable organic carbon. Extracts were made up in < 2 mLs CH2CI2, all of which was subjected to silica gel separation. Petroleum hydrocarbon content was estimated by IR absorption. 5.2.4.2 Suspended Solids Analysis for Hydrocarbons Filtered material, complete with filter, was extracted with methylene chloride. Storm 2 and 3 extracts were weighed to determine extractable organic 34 carbon. Extracts were made up in < 2 ml_ CH2CI2, all of which was subjected to silica gel separation, with petroleum hydrocarbon content estimated by IR absorption. 5.2.4.3 Microtox® of Stormwater Suspended Solids A selection of stormwater samples from 2 of the storm events monitored was sent to B.C.R.I. for Microtox® analysis. A complete description of sample preparation, test methods, test results and quality assurance / quality control measures is given in the B.C.R.I. report [Keen 1995a (Storm 2), 1995b (Storm 3)]. 5.2.5 Street Surface Sediments Street surface sediments were presieved though a 180 urn sieve to remove larger gravel and other unwanted debris ; this size of filter had been used in the recent trace metal study [McCallum 1995]. Samples of approximately 2 grams were extracted. A portion (one fifth to one tenth) of the extract was then subjected to silica gel separation and petroleum hydrocarbon estimated by IR absorption. 5.3 GIS Mapping Two Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were employed to summarize and present various data. The Terrasoft system provided digitized maps of the land use and land cover permeability throughout the watershed. The Mapinfo system was used to present traffic patterns and facilitate spatial analysis of stream sediment and street surface sediment data. These GIS programs were previously utilized in a study of trace metal contamination in the Brunette watershed. A more complete description of the compilation of information and its digitization can be found in McCallum [1995]. The present study introduces a combination of the digitized watershed information compiled for the trace metal study with the hydrocarbon data acquired in this study. 35 5.4 Statistical Analysis All statistical analysis including determination of average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and R2 were completed using statistical functions included in Microsoft Excel, Version 5. 36 6. R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n Results and discussion are presented in the following order ; lake core sediments, streambed sediments, stormwater, and finally street surface sediments. This sequence works backwards from the ultimate sink of material, through paths to initial sources. 6.1 Quality Assurance and Quality Control 6.1.1 Lake Core There was insufficient lake core sediment available to process replicate samples. The bounds determined in the following section for streambed sediments are to be applied to the lake core sediments as well. 6.1.2 Streambed Sediments Although composite samples were taken at sampling locations, heterogeneity was identified as a possible source of error in analytical results (see Appendix H). Several sets of replicate samples were extracted to determine variability in both the streambed sediment and in the analytical method. All sediments were extracted by identical procedures with mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation determined for extractable organic carbon (EOC) and/or total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for each replicate set (see Table C-1, Appendix C). Coefficients of variation are summarized in Table 6.1. TABLE 6.1 Summary of Streambed Sediment Replicates Repl icate s e t # Number in Set Coeff ic ient of Variat ion for Extractable Organic Carbon Coeff ic ient of Var iat ion for Tota l Petro leum Hydrocarbons 1 5 11.77 -2 2 8.93 -3 2 7.38 -4 2 14.65 -5 3 17.44 15.89 6 2 57.98 22 .76 7 3 23.44 24 .40 average - 20.23 21 .02 3 7 The coefficient of variation expresses the standard deviation of a sample set as a percentage of the mean. The average coefficient of variation for the 7 replicate sets analyzed was 20.23 for EOC and 21.02 for TPH. For these streambed sediments, the data presented in the subsequent sections should be viewed with bounds of ± « 20 % in mind. 6.1.3 Stormwater Stormwater in the streams was presumed to be completely mixed by the turbulence of the flow. Replicates stormwater samples were taken in order to determine repeatability of the analytical method, reliability of the sampling method, as well as changes in water quality over short time periods (all replicates were collected within a 5 minute window). Two sets of replicates were analyzed by identical procedures with mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation determined for extractable organic carbon (EOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for each replicate set (see Table C-2, Appendix C). A summary is given in Table 6.2. TABLE 6.2 Summary of Stormwater Replicates Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of Replicate set # Number in Set Variation for Variation for Variation for Suspended Extractable Total Organic Petroleum Carbon Hydrocarbons 1 5 12.99 13.39 14.45 2 3 13.16 8.79 4.33 average - 13.08 11.09 9.39 The average coefficient of variation for the 2 replicate sets analyzed was 13.08 for suspended solids, 11.09 for EOC and 9.39 for TPH. Replicates were also quite consistent with respect to percentage composition of the total petroleum hydrocarbons. For stormwater, the data presented in the subsequent sections should be viewed with bounds of ± « 15 % for suspended solids and ± « 10 % for EOC and TPH in mind. 38 6.1.4 Street Sediments Street sediment samples collected were only expected to reflect the area immediately surrounding their collection site. Complete mixing of each sample was assumed accomplished by the combination of sample collection and sieving. Several sets of replicate samples were extracted to determine variability in analytical method and any heterogeneity of samples. All sediments were extracted by the identical procedures with mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation determined for extractable organic carbon (EOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for each replicate set (see Table C-3, Appendix C). Coefficients of variation are summarized in Table 6.3. T A B L E 6.3 S u m m a r y o f S t r e e t S u r f a c e S e d i m e n t R e p l i c a t e s Coefficient of Coefficient of Replicate set # Number in Set Variation for Variation for Total Extractable Organic Petroleum Carbon Hydrocarbons 1 3 16.35 31.38 2 3 21.54 14.04 3 3 20.81 18.50 4 3 15.15 11.54 average - 18.46 18.87 The average coefficient of variation for the 4 replicate sets analyzed was 18.46 for EOC and 18.87 for TPH. For the street sediments, the data presented in the subsequent sections should be viewed with bounds of ± « 20% in mind. 6.2 Results and Discussion 6.2.1 Lake Core The coring site at the west end of Burnaby Lake (Figure 6.1) was chosen to exhibit the influence of Still Creek, the tributary that has undergone the greatest transformations in both land use and hydrology. 2 1 0Pb radioactive dating was performed on the core ; a full description of coring procedures and dating accuracy evaluation has previously been described [McCallum 1995]. 39 40 Figure 6.2 shows the results of the Pb radioactive dating of the lake core sediments ; complete dating data are given in Table D-1, Appendix D. FIGURE 6.2 Age Profile of Lake Core determined using Pb Radioisotope Dating (error bars represent standard deviation) 0 -, it 1 10 • 0) 1 20 3 <A bottom 30 n lake 40 Depth frori 50 -60 I — i - i 1 1 1 1 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 210Pb Date 6.2.1.1 Sedimentation Rate The changes in sedimentation rate up the length of the core (Figure 6.3 -note logarithmic scale of x axis) show the impacts of urbanization in the region. Sediment accumulation increases correspond well with the arrival of European settlers and clearing of the land in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Larger increases after 1915 are probably due to the beginning of drainage improvements made to Still Creek. Encasing of the headwaters in the Collingwood Storm Sewer probably accounts for the large peak in the 1920's. Excavation during the 1930's to form a defined and straightened channel could also be responsible for higher sediment loads. The peak in the late 60's has been attributed to an intense storm event which left a distinctive sand layer in the core [McCallum 1995]. 41 FIGURE 6.3 Sediment Accumulation over time in Lake Core determined from 2 1 0Pb Radioisotope Dating Information (error bars represent standard deviation) 2000 1780 A ' ' f ' 1 ' — ' 0.01 0.1 1 10 Sediment Accumulation (g/cm*2/year) The figure shows that sedimentation rates are still climbing in recent years. Construction from continuing development of the region, and high storm flows causing stream bank erosion are possible contributors. 6.2.1.2 Extractable Organic Carbon Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) concentrations determined in core sections have been expressed on a dry weight basis (ug/g) and on a wet volume basis (ug/cm3). The wet volume method, used to normalize the effects of differing particle sizes, was used in a recent study of trace metals in this same core [McCallum 1995]. Extractable organic carbon profiles from the lake core (Figure 6.4) show that EOC in the lake sediments experienced an increase corresponding to the development of the region around the turn of the century. This increase can be 42 attributed to clearing of the land. Further increases continue well into this century which coincide with further development in the region. The profiles also show that EOC has declined in the lake core sediments over the past decade or so. FIGURE 6.4 Extractable Organic Carbon Concentrations in the Lake Core Extractable Organic Carbon ug/g (dry weight) ug/cm A3 (wet volume) 6.2.1.3 Hydrocarbons Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations determined in the core sections have also been expressed on a dry weight basis (ug/g) and on a wet volume basis (ug/cm3). Figures 6.5a (dry weight) and 6.5b (wet volume) show the hydrocarbon profiles obtained from the lake core samples. See Appendix D for the complete data set. 4 3 Either method for expressing TPH content clearly shows an increase coinciding with the development of the region in the late 1800's, similar to that documented for nearby Lake Washington in Seattle (see also Figure 6.6) [Wakeham & Carpenter 1976]. FIGURE 6.5 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations in the Lake Core 41 «3 Q n a. Dry Weight - -ug/g ug/g O Q O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o S o O O O Q O O O O O OO O ^ CM CO o ! ,j, , ,j i t, CM b. Wet Volume ug / cm ug / cmA3 -Aliphatics -Aromatics -Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons o o o o o o o o o io o o o Q. The two different expressions of TPH above seem to differ as to the recent trend of hydrocarbons in the lake core sediments. The dry weight method seems to suggest that levels are declining, while the wet volume method shows continued increase. This may in part be due to changing moisture content of the lake sediments summarized in Table 6.4. 44 TABLE 6.4 Moisture Content of Burnaby Lake Core Sediments Sample Date Range Weight Loss on Drying 1994-1984 39.1 % 1984-1975 51.0% 1963-1944 63.8 % 1944-1932 66.0 % 1896-1861 71.4% 1818-1767 72.9 % Decreasing moisture content up the core implies that for sediments closer to the surface, each cubic centimetre of sediment contains more actual solid material and less water. This would boost the wet volume number since more material is extracted for each cubic centimetre. Changing particle size up the core may also be important to consider since the surface area to volume ratio affects the pollutant load a particle can carry. Whichever the case may be for the last decade or so, levels of hydrocarbons in the sediments have increased tenfold over the last 200 years. This type of increase has also been documented for Lake Washington (Figure 6.6), as well as for Lake Zug and Lake Griefensee in Switzerland [Wakeham & Carpenter 1976, Giger et al. 1974, Giger & Schaffner 1975]. The higher concentrations seen in the Burnaby Lake core (Figure 6.5a) when compared to the Lake Washington core may be largely due to coring location ; the sampling site in Lake Washington was in the centre of the lake, while the Burnaby Lake sampling site was specifically chosen to demonstrate the influence of Still Creek. Increases in trace metal concentrations in the Burnaby Lake core have also been recently documented [McCallum 1995]. All of these increases parallel population growth in the region (Figure 6.7). 6.2.1.4 Hydrocarbon Composition The majority of the hydrocarbons in the core appear to be aliphatic (see Table 6.5), up to over 90% of the TPH in the most recent core segment. 45 TABLE 6.5 Hydrocarbon Composition of Burnaby Lake Core Sediments Date Range of Sample 1767-1818 1861-1896 1932.2-1944.2 1944.2-1963 1974.85 -1984.2 1984.2-1994.5 Percent Aliphatics of Total Hydrocarbons 21.1 51.8 76.1 84.9 85.1 91.3 Percent Aromatics of Total Hydrocarbons 78.9 48.2 23.9 15.1 14.9 8.7 Figures 6.5a and 6.5b show that total aromatic hydrocarbon content in the core has not changed significantly over the depths examined. Increases in aliphatic hydrocarbons have been predominantly responsible for the increase in total petroleum hydrocarbons over the last 200 years. The core of nearby Lake Washington showed a fiftyfold increase in total aliphatic hydrocarbons over the same time period, while total paraffins, representing the natural hydrocarbon input from plant and microbial waxes, showed little comparable increase. The increase in aliphatic hydrocarbons was attributed to contamination by fuel and lubricating oils and pyrolysis products of fossil fuel combustion. Although no analysis for paraffin content was performed on the Burnaby Lake core, the similar increase in aliphatic content, the lake's proximity to Lake Washington, and their parallel urbanization stories suggest that the same conclusion is valid. Gas chromatograms of the aliphatic fraction confirm that the majority of the material found in the cores is of high molecular weight and could be classified as the "unresolved complex mixture" cited by Matsumoto [1982], Wakeham & Carpenter [1976] and Giger & Schaffner [1975] (see Figure 6.8 and Appendix D, Figures D-1 to D-6). This characteristic 'hump' lacks the large paraffin peaks that indicate natural sources, and rather suggests inputs from predominantly lubricating type (heavier) oils and pyrolysis products [Wakeham & Carpenter 1976]. A chromatogram of used motor oil is included in Appendix B. Chromatograms of unleaded gasoline and diesel have also been included for comparison. 46 Figure 6.6 Total Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Lake Washington Sediments (ug/g) [data from Wakeham and Carpenter 1976] ug'g 8 t™1—"J 1 1 CM Figure 6.7 Population in Burnaby, 1890-1991 [data from McCallum 1995] 160000 140000 120000 -100000 --Q. O a 60000 + 40000 20000 1890 ap ap 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 Date 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 47 FIGURE 6.8 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction of Extract from Lake Core Section from 1984-1975 The presence of the 'hump' and the lack of peaks from simpler compounds also suggests than significant degradation of the hydrocarbons has occurred throughout the depth of the core [Eganhouse et al. 1981, Wakeham & Carpenter 1976]. Decomposition processes first target the simple and lower molecular weight alkanes before moving on to the higher molecular weight, more complex compounds responsible for the hump. Most of the degradation of organic compounds likely occurs in surficial sediments, since decomposition at depth is limited to slower, anaerobic processes. Decomposition seems unable to keep up with the inputs since hydrocarbons are being incorporated in increasing concentrations in the lake sediments [Wakeham 1977]. The increase in hydrocarbon inputs to the lake can also in part be attributed to the increase in impervious land cover in the watershed over the past century. Changes to impervious surfaces would gradually contribute to higher and higher storm flow volumes in Still Creek. These higher storm flows would 48 result in the transport of more particulate material; a greater load of contaminant laden particulates would ultimately reach the lake. 6.2.1.5 Advancing to Streambed Sediments The location of the coring site in Burnaby Lake was chosen to capture sediment inputs from Still Creek. Suspended sediments carried in the stream's flow settle out with their hydrocarbon burden to the bottom of the lake. Some larger suspended material certainly settles out as streambed sediments, before it reaches the lake. Sediments from Still Creek and other streams in the watershed were examined for hydrocarbon content. 6.2.2 Streambed Sediments Streambed sediment samples from 20 stations were obtained in dry weather conditions in July of 1994 and in February of 1995 (see ahead to Figure 6.20 for the Environment Canada rainfall record for the period). 6.2.2.1 Extractable Organic Carbon Spatial variability in Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) found in the sediment samples for the two time periods is illustrated in Figure 6.9. The stations located along heavily industrialized Still Creek show consistently higher levels of EOC than other stations in the watershed. Eagle Creek and Stoney Creek, which drain primarily residential and green space areas have much lower levels. The lower land cover permeability and higher traffic volumes found in the Still Creek reaches likely contribute to higher contaminant loadings. The upper reaches of Eagle and Stoney Creeks are largely undeveloped and allow considerably more infiltration (see Table 6.6 and Figure 6.11 ; also refer to Figures 3.2 and 3.3 for more detail of land use and permeability, as well as Appendix I). Guidelines for solvent extractables from sediments have recently been proposed by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (lowest effect level = 2400 ug/g) [Giesy & Hope 1990]. By these guidelines, 16 of the Brunette sediment samples (6 from the July sampling, 10 from the February sampling) exceed the lowest effect level (see Appendix E). 49 50 6.2.2.2 Hydrocarbons Spatial variability in Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content estimated for the sediment samples for the two time periods is given on Figure 6.10. The spatial variation is similar to that seen for EOC. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments are seen along Still Creek ; the lowest are seen in the tributaries that drain Burnaby Mountain. Table 6.6 shows the higher traffic densities and lower land cover permeabilites found in the Still Creek catchment in relation to other areas of the watershed (see also Figure 6.11). Appendix I gives complete data for the 29 sub-basins in the watershed [McCallum 1995], TABLE 6.6 Traffic Density and Land Cover Permeability in Sub-Catchments Sub-Catchment Traff ic Density (vehicle km/day x 1 0 3 ) Impermeable A rea (%) Still Creek 2245 51.6 Eagle Creek / Burnaby Lake / Deer Lake 941 30.0 S toney Creek / Brunette River 1142 36.4 There are limited data available from studies of hydrocarbon content of streambed sediments since most have looked at particular organic compounds such as pesticides or PAH's. Matsumoto [1983] found TPH for sediments in the range of 7-79 ug/g in unpolluted waters and 250-1100 ug/g for polluted waters. In the July sampling period, two stations on Eagle Creek are in his unpolluted range. The majority of the stations for July and February fall into his polluted range, while some contain as much as 4800 ug/g TPH. These higher concentrations are closer to those found in New Jersey streambed sediments by Kashner and Hunter [1983], who reported an approximate range of 630 - 2000 ug/g. No sediment quality guidelines for hydrocarbons could be found. The amount of TPH found at the 20 stations varied, sometimes greatly, between the two time periods (Figure 6.12). February samples had higher TPH 51 52 concentrations than July samples except for three stations (#20, #23, #38). The higher rainfall of the fall / winter season creates greater flushing of material into the streams and could account for the higher February concentrations (See Figures 6.19 and 6.20 of section 6.2.3.1). The cooler winter temperatures could be responsible for some elevated levels since less would be lost to evaporation and microbial degradation. However, even a comparison of the ranks of the stations (Figures 6.13) shows large changes between the two sampling periods. A more likely explanation for the inconsistency is the difference in laboratory methods for the two time periods. For the July sediment samples, only one tenth of the sample extract was subjected to silica gel separation and infrared analysis for estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon content. A larger portion (one half or one fifth) of the February extract was used. The dilute July samples would produce higher errors in hydrocarbon content estimation. This error would be magnified when concentrations for the entire sample were calculated. With so many variables to consider (i.e. season, antecedent dry period, temperature, laboratory method), the differences between stations from the two sampling times are not unreasonable. 6.2.2.3 Hydrocarbon Composition The hydrocarbons found were predominantly aliphatic, the average for the 20 stations just over 60 % for the July samples and over 66 % for the February samples (see Appendix E for the complete data set). For the July samples, only 5 of the 20 stations had less than 50% aliphatics, 3 of which were located on Eagle Creek (13,14,16). Six stations had sediments with over 70% aliphatics; all were on Still Creek or its tributaries (31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 38). Since Still Creek is more highly urbanized than Eagle Creek which drains the south slope of Burnaby Mountain, these data are consistent with the theory that urban land use contributes significant quantities of aliphatic hydrocarbons to surface waters (as discussed for the lake core). 54 FIGURE 6.12 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations in July and February Streambed Sediments at c i w-g •D >< 0) 2 -s Q_ To o H D) U> 3 5000 4500 --4000 --3500 3000 • • 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 • JULY • FEB ( D I ^ O ^ C O O J O T - C M C O l Q h -• ^ C M C M C M C M C O C O O C O C O C O Station Number 8 Figure 6.13 Ranked Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations in July and February Streambed Sediments 20 18 a c o k_ ra o s •a >< x O "3 Q. "5 o 16 14 + 12 + 10 + 8 + 6 + 2 + f l J l IL 0 JULY • FEB O t - c o o o T - f M c o m t -C M C M c N C M c o n c o c o m r o 8 Station Number 55 Chromatograms from some of the sediment extracts show distinct hydrocarbon series', similar to those found in diesel fuel (see Figure B-2, Appendix B). Figure 6.14 is a representative chromatogram of the aliphatic fraction of sediment extract (this one from the February sediment sample from station #14). The presence of the alkane series peaks atop the "hump" indicate that some of the simpler hydrocarbons have not yet been degraded. FIGURE 6.14 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction of Extract from 6.2.2.4 Extractable Organic Carbon and Hydrocarbons A comparison was done between EOC and TPH found for each sample. Numerical values of EOC and TPH at each of the stations plotted against each other are given for each of the sampling periods in Figures 6.15 and 6.16. Weak correlations are seen for both time periods with R2 values of 0.5003 and 0.4185 for July and February respectively. A more significant relationship was found plotting each station's TPH rank versus EOC rank ; extreme values have less influence in a ranks plot. Figures 6.17 and 6.18 show the higher correlation coefficients of the rank relationship (0.8574 for July, 0.6844 for February). Streambed Sediment from Station #14 (February) 56 FIGURE 6.15 July Streambed Sediments : Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons versus Extractable Organic Carbon o n I S u o 4000 3500 3000 i S 2000 2 1500 3 o i— . E a a. 1000 500 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 ppm Extractable Organic Carbon FIGURE 6.16 February Streambed Sediments : Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons versus Extractable Organic Carbon 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 ppm Extractable Organic Carbon 57 FIGURE 6.17 July Streambed Sediments : Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Rank versus Extractable Organic Carbon Rank 20 j 18 c n 16 •-tt. c 14 -o n 1 12 -•a X 10 -E 3 0) 8 --2 6 • 0. •5 4 -i-2 0 -• ap ap ap 6 8 10 12 14 Extractable Organic Carbon Rank 16 18 20 FIGURE 6.18 February Streambed Sediments : Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Rank versus Extractable Organic Carbon Rank 6 8 10 12 14 Extractable Organic Carbon Rank 58 The relationship found between EOC and TPH could be useful for determining approximate hydrocarbon concentrations at stream stations, or for comparison between stations. Analyzing samples through to TPH content is time consuming, and labour and solvent intensive. For approximate values or comparisons, perhaps determination of EOC is sufficient, once some preliminary work has been done to confirm the relationship holds true. 6.2.2.5 Hydrocarbon Content of Solids The range of concentration of hydrocarbons on the sediments is higher in the lake core samples than in the stream samples as shown in Table 6.7. TABLE 6.7 Hydrocarbon Content of Lake Core and Streambed Sediments Sample Medium ppm T P H Lake Core Sediments 2 6 3 6 - 9 1 5 0 ug/g S t reambed Sediments 54 - 4 8 0 5 ug/g Still Creek Stat ion S t reambed Sediments 252 - 4805 ug/g, m e a n 1530 ug/g This is likely due to suspended sediments from Still Creek flows settling out at the lake core location. Particulates that make it this far downstream are likely small in diameter, giving them a larger surface area to volume ratio. The enrichment of hydrocarbons on these slower settling particles has previously been suggested by Hoffman et al. [1982]. These smaller particles also tend to have a high organic content that promotes sorption of hydrocarbons and other hydrophobic compounds. These high organic content sediments are seen in the lake core (10.5 - 25.4 %) and in stream stations (February) 3, 23 and 35 (8.6 %, 57.8 % and 12.8 %), all of which are located in wide, slow moving reaches that allow for considerable settling (refer to Figures 2.2 and 5.1). All other sediments had an organic content less than 2.5 % (see Appendices D and E). 6.2.2.6 Microtox ® The EC50 was not determinable for 7 of the 20 streambed sediment samples (see Table E-1, Appendix E). Of the remaining 13 samples, 11 did not demonstrate a toxic response, 1 demonstrated a slightly toxic response (from station #32) and 1 demonstrated a moderately toxic response (from station #3) 59 [Keen 1994]. Figure 6.27 in section 6.2.3.5 gives definitions of toxicity criteria ranges. 6.2.2.7 Advancing to Stormwater Stormwater is the principal source of the suspended material that contributes to the finer sediments in urban stream beds. Stormwater was sampled to determine its hydrocarbon content and contribution to the hydrocarbon pollutant load in the streambed and lake sediments. 6.2.3 Stormwater The loading of suspended solids (SS) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) was monitored through three storm events. 6.2.3.1 Storm Event Information The annual precipitation cycle (Figure 6.19) of the Brunette region is characterized by heavier and more frequent rains in the winter months, and longer, drier stretches in the summer [Environment Canada 1995]. The trendline shows the minimum for 1994 occuring in late June and the maximum in December. Hydrographs of Brunette streams would also follow this precipitation cycle ; maximum flows and flushing occur in the winter months while greater pollutant buildup may occur between summer storm events. Antecedent dry period and storm intensity are factors that influence the pollutant loading to receiving waters. The rainfall record for the sampling period (Figure 6.20) gives an indication of conditions prior to and on the sampling dates [Environment Canada 1995]. Stormwater from three separate storm events was collected. The sampling locations were different for each storm event, and are discussed below. Since sampling locations changed from storm to storm, no attempt was made to evaluate the influence of antecedent dry period or storm intensity among storm events. 60 ujey uiiu 61 62 6.2.3.1.1 Storm 1 - October 1994 This heavy storm event followed several months of particularly dry weather. Only a few short and modest rainfalls occurred throughout the months of July, August and September. The stormwater sampling stations for Storm 1 were stream stations #13 on Eagle Creek at Piper Avenue, # 31 on Still Creek at Gilmore Avenue and #33 on Still Creek at Grandview Highway. These three stations were chosen to represent different catchments. Still Creek at Grandview has primarily culverted headwaters with some illegal sanitary sewer connections. Still Creek at Gilmore is in an area of high industrial land use, and has higher flow volumes than the Grandview station upstream. The Eagle Creek station collects drainage from Burnaby Mountain where there is extensive green space with residential areas in its lower reaches. 6.2.3.1.2 Storm 2 - January 1995 Storm 2 featured light and intermittent showers. Stations for Storm 2 were stream station # 31 on Still Creek at Gilmore and direct runoff from the Highway 1 overpass at Willingdon Avenue. These two stations were chosen to illustrate differences between runoff diluted by the stream flow with that directly off the road surface. 6.2.3.1.3 Storm 3 - April 1995 Storm 3 began as showers that gradually developed into steady rainfall. The stormwater sampling stations for Storm 3 were all storm drains on roadways. The three stations, located at Nootka and E. 15th Street, Renfrew and E. 15th Street and the Willingdon overpass of Highway 1 were chosen to reflect differences in traffic intensity. The Nootka station is on a quiet residential street, the Renfrew station is on a better traveled roadway, and the Willingdon overpass has heavy, continual traffic volumes. (Note: Storm 3 is not included on Figure 6.20 since Environment Canada climate information was only available until February 28th, 1995). 63 6.2.3.2 Suspended Solids Loading Suspended solids loading was determined for each of the sampling stations over the course of each of the three storms. Solids loading was largely controlled by the discharge flows. The higher flow volumes (and hence velocities) at the beginning of the storms can usually carry more material in suspension. This is most clearly illustrated by Storm 1 Grandview in Figure 6.21. Appendix F contains similar curves for the other storm events and stations. This solids concentrations curve is typical for an urban stream [Whipple & Hunter 1977, Hoffman et al. 1985, 1984, 1982]. FIGURE 6.21 Suspended Solids Concentrations : Storm 1 - Grandview Time (mins) The first flush effect can also be seen. This effect is defined as the time when the accumulated load (as percent of the total) exceeds the accumulated discharge (also as a percent of the total). On a plot of cumulative load versus cumulative discharge, the first flush is occurring when the line is above the 45 degree slope. Figure 6.22 shows a plot of cumulative suspended solids loading versus cumulative discharge similar to that found in Swain [1985]. Appendix F contains first flush curves for the other storm events and stations. 64 FIGURE 6.22 First Flush of Suspended Solids : Storm 1 - Grandview Cumulative Discharge (%) 6.2.3.3 Hydrocarbon Loading Hydrocarbon content was determined for the particulates and water of the stormwater samples collected (see Appendix F for a complete data set). A plot, analogous to that presented for suspended solids, shows how closely the curve for hydrocarbon concentrations matches that of the solids. Again, Storm 1 Grandview is used as an example in Figure 6.23. Hydrocarbon profiles often closely resemble those of suspended solids [Hoffman et al. 1982, 1984, 1985, Hunter et al. 1979] since hydrocarbons are often found associated with the particulates. Hydrocarbons are also subject to the first flush phenomenon due to their predominant affinity for particulates. Hoffman et al. [1982], among others, noted the highest concentrations of suspended solids and hydrocarbons associated with the first flush. This is also noted in this study in Figure 6.24. 65 FIGURE 6.23 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations : Storm 1 - Grandview 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time (mins) FIGURE 6.24 First Flush of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons : Storm 1 - Grandview 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Discharge (%) 66 There was also significant correlation (R2 = 0.9672 for the Grandview station, Storm 1) between concentrations of suspended solids and total petroleum hydrocarbons (Figure 6.25). This supports the suggestion that removing solids from stormwater, such as by settling in a detention pond, would be an effective method for hydrocarbon removal from stormwater. Figure 6.25 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons versus Suspended Solids : Storm 1 - Grandview _ 4.5 I 4 + ¥ 3.5 + CO I 2.5 + >. * 2 E 3 15 + I -o. « 0.5 + *~ 0 • l l l l 50 100 150 200 Suspended Solids (mg/L) 250 300 350 To compare with previous studies, flow weighted (mean) hydrocarbon concentrations for each of the three stations were determined and are presented in Table 6.8. TABLE 6.8 Mean Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations Station Total Load / Total Flow = Storm 1 Mean TPH Concentration (mg/L) Grandview 3.15 Gilmore 2.32 Eagle 0.96 Storm 2 Gilmore 2.40 Willingdon 5.79 Storm 3 Nootka 1.14 Renfrew 3.68 Willingdon 4.04 67 The mean concentrations for Storm 1 show the influence of catchment land use differences among the three stations. The Grandview station shows the highest loading levels of hydrocarbons. The Gilmore station also has significant, albeit diluted, hydrocarbon content, while the Eagle creek station's levels are below 1 mg/L. The data suggest that there is significantly more hydrocarbon loading in Still Creek than in Eagle Creek. The Eagle Creek sub-basin drains an area of considerably lower traffic density and greater permeability than the Grandview or Gilmore sub-basins, both in the heavily industrialized Still Creek catchment (see Table 6.9, also Appendix I for detail). Even if the mean hydrocarbon concentrations are normalized to take into account differing sub-basin sizes, the Still Creek stations still receive a larger hydrocarbon burden. This heavier burden is at least partially attributable to both land cover permeability and traffic density effects. TABLE 6.9 Traffic Density and Land Cover Permeability in Sub-Basins Stat ion Sub-Bas in #(s) Traff ic Density (vehicle km/day llllllllllill^lll Sub-Basin (hectares) Impermeable A rea (%) Normal ized T P H Concent ra t ion (ug/L/hectare) Grandv iew 1 670 685.9 54.0 4 .59 Gi lmore 1+3 978 1073.2 55.4 2 .16 Eagle 19+24 177 818.1 24 .6 1.17 The mean hydrocarbon concentration found at the Gilmore Station in Storm 2 is similar to that from Storm 1. The Willingdon station, however, shows the much higher hydrocarbon content of the overpass runoff. This was the highest mean concentration found at any location for any of the three storm events monitored. The hydrocarbon load from the street runoff also seems to be diluted by the stream flows; the Willingdon street runoff concentration is much higher than that found in Still Creek at the nearby Gilmore station. Mean hydrocarbon concentrations from Storm 3 stations seem to accurately reflect the traffic volume of their locations. The Willingdon overpass again has the highest concentration, second only to the same location in Storm 2. The Renfrew station has the next highest concentration with the residential, 68 low traffic Nootka station having levels comparable to Eagle Creek in Storm 1. A simple traffic count was done to compare typical traffic volumes to TPH concentrations found (see Table 6.10, also Appendix F, Table F-7 for detail). TPH concentration in street runoff clearly increases significantly with traffic volumes. TABLE 6.10 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentration and Traffic Volume - Storm 3 Stat ion Typical Traff ic Vo lume (vehicles/hr) Mean T P H Concent ra t ion (man.) Nootka 38 1.14 Renf rew 1140 3.68 Wi l l ingdon 2560 4 .04 The highest hydrocarbon concentration measured in a sample taken during a storm event was 8.63 mg/L at the Willingdon station during Storm 2. This value is significantly higher than the average value over the entire storm. This peak value is an example of the much higher shock loading levels that can occur during the first flush. A similar first flush of hydrocarbons was previously noted by Hunter et al. [1979]. The mean concentrations from the stormwater samples collected in the Brunette Watershed are of the same order as those documented in previous studies, a summary of which is presented in Table 6.11. TABLE 6.11 Summary of Documented Urban Runoff Hydrocarbon Concentrations Reference Particulars Range of Va lues M e a n Va lue W a k e h a m 1977 Highway Runoff Al iphat ics Urban Runoff Al iphat ics 6 - 24 mg/L 0.2 - 7.5 mg/L 12 mg/L 1.2 m g / L Hunter, Sabat ino, Gomper ts & MacKenz ie 1979 T P H in Urban Runoff high 8 mg/L 3.69 mg/L Eganhouse & Kaplan 1981 Hydrocarbons in Urban Runoff 13.1 mg /L 69 Reference Particulars Range of Values Mean Value Whipple & Hunter 1979 TPH in Urban Runoff 0.64 - 6.02 mg/L <1.00, 2.16, 2.50, 3.78, 5.90 mg/L Hoffman, Latimer, Mills & Quinn 1982 TPH in Urban Runoff from Commercial Land Use 0.059 - 5.70 mg/L 1.73, 2.15, 1.00, 1.98, 0.98 mg/L MacKenzie & Hunter 1979 TPH in Urban Runoff 4.04, 5.30, 4.24 mg/L Hall & Anderson 1988 TPH in Urban Runoff from Different Land Use Areas 2.0 - 6.7 mg/L (Commercial) 4.6 - 9.2 mg/L (Industrial) 2.4 - 5.8 mg/L (Residential) 1.8-3.2 mg/L (Open Space) 6.2.3.3 Hydrocarbon Composition The stormwater samples were analyzed to separate aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons as well as distinguish particulate associated from soluble. The hydrocarbons from all stations in each of the three storm events were predominantly particulate associated and aliphatic. Percent composition of the flow weighted runoff from the three stations is given in Table 6.12. TABLE 6.12 Percent Composition of Flow Weighted Urban Runoff Station Particulates Soluble Grand Total Storm 1 Aliphatic Aromatic Total Aliphatic Aromatic Total Grandview 83.2 13.5 96.7 1.9 1.4 3.3 100 Gilmore 76.2 7.5 83.7 15.9 0.3 16.3 100 Eagle 76.7 8.1 84.8 11.6 3.6 15.2 100 Storm 2 Gilmore 80.7 9.8 90.5 3.6 5.9 9.5 100 Willingdon 71.2 23.7 94.9 4.0 1.1 5.1 100 Storm 3 Nootka 51.4 23.9 75.3 9.3 15.4 24.7 100 Renfrew 60.7 27.2 87.9 5.4 6.7 12.1 100 Willingdon 68.1 23.9 92.0 4.1 3.9 8.0 100 70 This type of hydrocarbon distribution in stormwater has been well documented and a summary is given in Table 6.13. TABLE 6.13 Summary of Documented Hydrocarbon Composition of Urban Stormwater Particulates Soluble Grand Total Author Aliphatic Aromatic Total Aliphatic Aromatic Total Hunter, Sabat ino, 59.1 27.3 86.4 10.1 3.5 13.6 100 Gomper ts & MacKenz ie 1979 Eganhouse 100 and Kaplan 88 12 1981 Eganhouse , 100 Simonei t & 94 6 Kaplan 1981 Hof fman, 83 17 100 Latimer, Mills 93 7 100 & Qu inn 89 11 100 1982 93 7 100 92 8 100 MacKenz ie & 64 .4 27.2 91.6 6.9 1.5 8.4 100 Hunter 1979 34.4 31.1 95.5 3.2 1.3 4.5 100 72.9 23.3 96.2 2.9 0.9 3.8 100 Hof fman, Latimer, Hunt, Mills & Qu inn 1985 88-96 4-12 100 In every case, the particulate associated hydrocarbons account for the huge majority of the total. As well, the majority of all hydrocarbons, particulate associated or soluble, are aliphatic. 6.2.3.4 Hydrocarbon Content of Solids The hydrocarbon content of the particulate fraction of the stormwater samples was determined and is given in Table 6.14. The hydrocarbon content of suspended solids varied greatly between storms as well as between stations during a given storm. Variation between identical stations for different storms may be due to antecedent dry periods affecting buildup time for hydrocarbons 71 and solids. The markedly higher concentration of hydrocarbons on the suspended solids of Storm 2 may be due to the lower storm volumes only being able to suspend smaller particles. These particles may be enriched in hydrocarbons, as was suggested in section 6.2.2.5 above. TABLE 6.14 Hydrocarbon Content of Stormwater Suspended Solids Station TPH Content -Storm 1 TPH / SS (ug/g) Grandv iew 15200 Gi lmore 22700 Eagle 16800 Storm 2 Gilmore 54800 Wi l l ingdon 6 9 1 0 0 Storm 3 Nootka 7450 Renf rew 19800 Wi l l ingdon 19200 The hydrocarbon content of the suspended solids in the stormwater samples is markedly higher than that previously found for the lake core or streambed sediments - see Table 6.15. TABLE 6.15 Hydrocarbon Content of Lake Core Sediments, Streambed Sediments and Stormwater Suspended Solids Samp le Medium p p m TPH Lake Core Sediments 2 6 3 6 - 9 1 5 0 ug/g S t reambed Sediments 54 - 4805 ug/g Stormwater Suspended Solids 7450 - 6 9 1 0 0 ug/g sol ids Presumably, decomposition has not yet had a significant chance to act. 6.2.3.5 Microtox® of Stormwater Suspended Solids Eight one liter stormwater samples collected throughout Storm 2 were sent to B.C.R.I. for Microtox® analysis. The EC50 results given in Table 6.16 show the higher toxicity of the solids in direct street runoff from the Willingdon highway overpass when compared to those from the waters at the Gilmore 72 stream station. Dilution of the pollution load by the higher flow volumes is probably responsible for the lower toxicity at the Gilmore station. TABLE 6.16 Storm 2 Microtox® EC50 Values S t a t i o n F l o w (L/s) M i c r o t o x ® E C 5 0 Gi lmore 13832 1.30 - may be slightly toxic Gi lmore 13832 0.81 - demonst ra tes moderate ly toxic response Gi lmore 11937 1.14 - may be slightly toxic Gi lmore 10238 2.02 - does not demonst ra te toxic response Gi lmore 9533 1.54 - may be slightly toxic Wi l l ingdon 0.0333 0.55 - demonst ra tes moderate ly toxic response Wi l l ingdon 0.0167 0.80 - demonst ra tes moderate ly toxic response Wi l l ingdon 0.0083 0.65 - demonstrates moderate ly toxic response Four 4 Litre stormwater samples from Storm 3 were also sent to B.C.R.I. for Microtox® analysis. The EC50 results given in Table 6.17 clearly show varying toxicities of the solids in runoff from areas differing in traffic intensity. TABLE 6.17 Storm 3 Microtox® EC50 Values S t a t i o n Tra f f i c F low ( U s ) M i c r o t o x ® E C 5 0 Nootka residential area, low volume 0.08 4.198 - does not demons t ra te toxic response Renf rew main road, moderate vo lume 0.133 1.312 - may be slightly toxic Wi l l ingdon h ighway overpass, heavy, cont inual vo lume 0.0667 0.670 - demonst ra tes modera te ly toxic response Wi l l ingdon h ighway overpass, heavy, cont inual vo lume 0.0667 0.851 - demonst ra tes moderate ly toxic response No demonstrable toxic response is seen from the sample taken from the residential storm drain, while the sample from the moderately trafficked road may be slightly toxic. Both samples from the heavily traveled highway overpass demonstrate moderately toxic responses, just as samples from the same station in Storm 2 had done. EC50 values of similar magnitude (range of 2.72 - 0.07) were recently reported in a study of contaminated suspended sediments from the Rhone River [Santiago et al. 1993]. 73 There are several possible constituents in urban runoff that alone, or in combination, would produce the toxic responses noted; hydrocarbons are not presumed to be wholly or even primarily responsible for toxic effect. Replicate samples from Storm 2 were analyzed for several other constituents and water quality parameters. Several heavy metals were found in concentrations well above established criteria for protection of aquatic life. A summary of this information is given in Table F-6, Appendix F. With respect to hydrocarbons, Figure 6.26 shows the significant correlation (R2 = 0.7042) between ranked hydrocarbon concentration and ranked EC50 values from the Microtox® analysis. There is also an observable exponential relationship in Figure 6.27 between hydrocarbon concentrations and EC50 values. As hydrocarbon concentration increases, the EC50 decreases along an exponential curve (R2 = 0.7875). This suggests that the hydrocarbon content of a sample is a consequential contributor to its toxicity. FIGURE 6.26 Microtox® EC50 Rank versus Particulate Petroleum Hydrocarbon Rank 2 4 6 8 10 12 Particulate Petroleum Hydrocarbon Rank 74 FIGURE 6.27 Microtox® EC50 versus Stormwater Particulate Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentration 4-f 3.5 3 -2.5 •> 2-\ 1.5 • 1 - ' 0.5 • • Note ; toxicities associated with Microtox EC50 values >2% Not toxic 1-2% SiigWy toxic 0.1-1% Moderately toxic <0 1 % Highly toxic V f } , Y , Y , Y , y , Y ^ ^ ^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulate Petroleum Hydrocarbons (mg/L) 6.2.3.6 Advancing to Street Sediments The stormwater collected directly from the street surface shows the influence that traffic volumes can have on hydrocarbon loading. The Willingdon station with large and continual traffic volumes shows the highest loading while the quiet, residential Nootka station shows the lowest. The implication that much of the hydrocarbon pollutant load comes from street surface materials, especially those related to traffic, has been previously suggested [Wakeham & Carpenter 1976]. 6.2.4 Street Surface Sediments A set of 19 samples from stations throughout the watershed was taken in March 1995, during dry weather conditions. 6.2.4.1 Extractable Organic Carbon Spatial variation in Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) from the street sediment samples for the March sample set are given on Figure 6.28. The figure 75 76 shows reasonably uniform concentrations from street sediments throughout the watershed. The exceptions are the three higher values found at stations C2, C3 and G1 ; all three of these sampling stations are parking lots. 6.2.4.2 Hydrocarbons Spatial variation in Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content estimated for the street sediment samples for the March sample set are given on Figure 6.29. Hydrocarbon levels are quite uniform throughout the basin, except for station C3, the parking lot of Lougheed Mall. The hydrocarbon concentrations do not seem to correlate well with land use or traffic volume; concentrations are comparable for busy industrial roads and quiet residential streets. Noted however, is that of the 5 stations with the highest hydrocarbon concentrations, 3 are parking lots (C2, C3, G1). 6.2.4.3Hydrocarbon Composition The hydrocarbons found were predominantly aliphatic, averaging just over 57 % of the total for the 19 stations (see Appendix G for a complete data set). This is slightly lower than the 60 and 66 % aliphatics found in the July and February streambed sediments and considerably lower than the 90% found in the lake core sediments. Chromatograms from some of the extracts show distinctive hydrocarbon series', similar to those found in diesel fuel (see Figure B-2, Appendix B). Figure 6.30 shows a representative chromatogram of the aliphatic fraction of the street sediment extract (this one from the March street sediment sample from station #C4). The presence of the alkane series peaks atop the "hump" indicates that some of the simpler hydrocarbons have not yet been degraded. 77 78 FIGURE 6.30 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction from Street Surface Sediment from Station C4 (Lougheed Mall) 6.2.4.4 Hydrocarbon Content of Solids Noteworthy is that the suspended solids in the stormwater are considerably enriched in hydrocarbons compared to their source street surface sediments as presented in Table 6.18. TABLE 6.18 Hydrocarbon Content of Stormwater Suspended Solids and Street Surface Sediments Samp le Medium p p m T P H Stormwater Suspended Solids 7455 - 69087 ug/g sol ids Street Sur face Sediments 3 4 4 8 - 12111 ug/g This phenomenon was also noted by Latimer et al. [1990] who provided two plausible explanations. The first indicated a non-particulate source of oil, namely deliberate dumping down storm drains, or washoff of crankcase oil from the centre of traffic lanes, later becoming associated with particulates in catch basins. Their second explanation implicated their sampling method which, like the one used in this study, took particulates from curbsides and not the centre of traffic lanes. Either or both of these explanations may be valid for this study. 79 Visual evidence of oil stains along the centre of traffic lanes suggests that hydrocarbon contribution from washoff is important to consider. This theory could also help to explain the high concentration of EOC and TPH found in the parking lots sampled. Leaky crankcases which account for the stains often seen in parking stalls would provide the source of hydrocarbons that would be washed off in storm events. The sediments that accumulate in and around storm drains of the parking lots would be enriched with the material washed off the pavement by the stormwater. The theory could also account for the low aliphatic content of street surface sediments. In a storm event, the road washoff would carry with it aliphatic hydrocarbons (from automobile sources) that would associate with street surface particulates as it drains away.' The suspended solids in stormwater would thus be not only enriched in hydrocarbons, but have a higher aliphatic content compared to the street surface sediments. Street surface sediment EOC and TPH concentrations were quite uniform from stations representing different regions of the watershed, differing land uses and differing traffic densities. Stormwater sampled from different areas (chosen for differing traffic volumes) showed great variability. This suggests that EOC or TPH content of street surface sediment is not a good indicator of potential loading to watercourses. This complements the suggestion above that road washoff may be an important contributor. Street sweeping may also be a factor when considering time available for buildup of hydrocarbons and other pollutants on the street surface sediments. 80 7. Summary and Implications 7.1 Summary of Discussion 7.1.1 Lake Core The lake core sediments provided a record for changes in sedimentation rate, and extractable organic carbon and total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations over the past 200 years. The input of material from Still Creek reflects development of the watershed ; sedimentation rate, extractable organic carbon (EOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) increases all correspond with European settling and development of the region. Increases in TPH have continued since they began around the turn of the century, and are attributed to anthropogenic inputs from a growing population. Concentrations in recent sediments are tenfold higher than those dating prior to development. 7.1.2 Streambed Sediments Higher EOC and TPH concentrations were seen in streambed sediments from industrialized Still Creek; those streams that drain primarily green space or residential area had lower levels. TPH concentrations found in Brunette Watershed streambed sediments are generally higher than those cited in the literature, indicating that there are some highly contaminated areas. The designation of the Brunette as a stormwater collection and conveyance system has significantly contributed to this contaminated state. The range of concentration of hydrocarbons in streambed sediments is lower than that found in the lake core samples. Smaller particulates, enriched in hydrocarbons, were likely the ones that traveled all the way downstream to the lake. There is a relationship between ranked EOC concentrations and ranked TPH concentrations for the stream stations. This could be useful for determining approximate hydrocarbon concentrations, or for comparison between stations, 81 since analyzing samples through to TPH content is time consuming, and labour and solvent intensive. 7.1.3 Stormwater Stormwater hydrocarbons in the Brunette watershed appear to be typical of those reported from other watersheds by numerous investigators. Suspended solids and hydrocarbon loadings are greatest during the first flush. Hydrocarbons are predominantly aliphatic and particulate associated; mean concentrations are in the same order as those found in the literature. Influence of catchment land use, dilution of street runoff by the stream volume, and traffic intensity on mean hydrocarbon concentration in stormwater runoff is evident. The hydrocarbon content of the suspended solids in the stormwater samples is markedly higher than found for the lake core or streambed sediments. Decomposition processes are probably responsible for the lower concentrations in the deposited sediments. Solids in stormwater are also generally smaller than those collected as streambed sediments. These smaller particles would carry a higher pollutant load due to their larger surface area to volume ratio and higher organic content. Microtox® toxicity testing shows the lower toxicity of suspended solids from stream flow than those from street runoff, likely due to dilution of the pollution load by the large stream volume. Street runoff solids also prove more toxic when from locations with greater traffic volumes. Relationships between hydrocarbon concentration and EC50 values from the Microtox® analysis suggest that the hydrocarbon content is a consequential contributor to the toxicity of stormwater. It would be useful to compare the hydrocarbon concentrations found in the stormwater to criteria for aquatic organism protection. However, no such criteria exist, probably because 'total petroleum hydrocarbons' includes a highly variable mixture of compounds. 82 7.1.4 Street Surface Sediments EOC and TPH concentrations are remarkably uniform in street sediments from throughout the watershed. The exception was parking lots (particularly shopping mall parking lots) where concentrations were considerably higher. Suspended solids in stormwater are considerably enriched in hydrocarbons compared to their source street surface sediments. Visual evidence of oil stains along the centre of traffic lanes, as well as in parking stalls, implicates washoff, which later associates with particulates, as the source. The lack of variability in EOC and TPH concentrations among stations suggests that street surface sediments are not good indicators of potential loadings to water bodies. 7.2 Implications for the Brunette Watershed This hydrocarbon study unfortunately confirms the adverse influence that urbanization has had on the watercourses in the Brunette watershed. Hydrocarbon pollution is prevalent throughout the basin. Skepticism about the health of the Brunette watershed is not new, but what this study, combined with others, reveals, is the extent and severity of the pollution. No single factor is likely responsible for the degradation of this urban watershed ecosystem. Rather, the cumulative impacts of many individual factors such as engineering improvements, erosion, sedimentation, low summer flows, high storm flows, higher water temperatures, and pollution have taken their combined toll [Schueler 1987]. 83 8. Insights 8.1 Back to the BEST Questions This study and other such endeavors aid in our understanding of our environment. Historical records tell us where we have been. Current studies tell us where we are now. But where are we going? 8.1.1 The Future What kind of ecosystem structure and function do we want to have in 30+ years? There is no shortage of vision statements for the Lower Fraser Basin. That of the Georgia Basin Initiative [B.C. Round Table... 1993] captures the prevailing sentiment. Human activities in the Georgia Basin of the future will be sustainable, based on a set of ethics and values that recognize and limit our impact on the basin's environment. The decisions we make, both individually and collectively, will balance environmental, economic and social values. Visions for water resources dutifully include the term 'sustainable' defined in countless ways; the Province of B.C. defines sustainability as "being able to maintain water, its many uses, and the integrity of the aquatic ecosystem indefinitely" [B.C. Environment 1993a], The Stream Stewardship and Land Development Guidelines have goals of preserving and maintaining fish and fish habitat "at the productive level that existed prior to land development activities" [B.C. Environment 1993b, 1992]. They [B.C. Environment 1993a] have even come up with visions for water management, which include the following basic components: • stewardship by all British Columbians; • understanding of the resource and its capacity to replenish itself; • respect for water as a powerful force in nature; • harmony among environmental, economic and social values, and; • integrated watershed management. 84 Likewise, visions for the Brunette Watershed have spawned from these rediscovered values of water resources. Priorities have changed since the time the region was first developed ; a harmony between the growing population and the environment is now sought. The intent of The Burnaby Lake System Project is "to protect, enhance and rehabilitate the area's fish, wildlife and recreation resources" [B.C.IT. 1994]. This project and others aspire to the goals set out in Burnaby's Official Community Plan [1987] - "to preserve and enhance the quality and livability of the physical environment". With the multiple uses and users of the Brunette's water resources (stormwater, industry, fishing, swimming and boating to name a few), there are inevitable conflicts - each of these users wants to get the most out of the resource. To even attempt to satisfy all of these demands, the Brunette's water resources need to be responsibly managed for sustainability. 8.1.2 Feasibility What is feasible in the light of social, biophysical and economic constraints? The goals profiled above all seem realistic. But these notions would have met with considerable resistance, and probably a few snickers, just a few decades ago. Priorities are changing; what is feasible depends on what your priorities are. With persistence and the guidance of a long term plan, these visions are within reach. But what seems overwhelming is the challenge to realize these goals quickly ; change takes time and the journey can seem endless. There are several obstacles in the path. Biophysical obstacles are possibly the most obvious ; where there once was a stream, there is now a parking lot; buffer zones have been occupied by industry ; pollution from several sources plagues the system. Social ignorance and apathy is perhaps the most frustrating. For every attempt at habitat rehabilitation, there will be someone dumping their garbage 85 into the creek. For every stormdrain marked, another will carry away waste oil. I do not believe that all of these incidents are the work of malicious individuals. More often they are actions of ignorance. While doing this research, I cannot recall any individual, outside of those directly involved, who knew what the stormdrains were connected to. There is also a lack of economic incentives to kickstart progress. Projects routinely lack funding for questions of economic viability. Industry and government alike want an immediate return on their dollar - unfortunately visible change takes time. But perhaps the largest obstacle was not mentioned in BEST question 3 -what about institutional constraints? 8.1.3 How do we get there? How do we get there; what policy instruments and processes will help us towards a more sustainable future? The changes that have taken place in the Brunette Watershed over the past 100 years have been extensive ; forest and swampland is now metropolis. What will the region look like in another 100 years? The shape that the watershed takes depends on our long range planning now. If water resources are made a priority, the city 100 years from now may realize some of today's visions. The concerns voiced are not unique to the Brunette Watershed ; many others are in the same plight. We have more than sufficient data to identify the problems. Engineering technologies, management plans and visions have all been developed. We even have management and rehabilitation examples to follow [B.C.R.C. 1992]. To reach the ecosystem structure and function that we want in 30 years, this region needs an institutional framework that recognizes and supports changing values. Policy statements, vision statements and guidelines are present, but with little or no legal backing. Initiatives need to be empowered with economic incentives. Investments need to be made in public 86 education. Every chance we get to reclaim lost habitat must be taken. Every little incremental step in the right direction will help us reach our goals that much faster. There is abundant interest in the Brunette watershed from various levels of government, community organizations and individuals. What is needed is a capable, coordinating body to oversee their efforts, prevent overlap and ensure dedication to collective goals. 8.2 Recommendations The conclusions from this study lead to several specific recommendations: • Lake core sediments show hydrocarbon inputs to the region have increased dramatically over the last century. Source control measures should be taken, or hydrocarbon inputs to Burnaby Lake are likely to continue to rise with population. • Hydrocarbon pollution is more pronounced along industrialized Still Creek. This indicates the need for remediation efforts along with source control measures. Redevelopment planning should include initiatives to incorporate Best Management Practices (BMP's). • Traffic is a major source of hydrocarbons to street surface runoff and should be a target of public education and source control measures. Toxicity of runoff from heavily trafficked areas justifies treatment prior to release to surface waters. Although a basinwide study of hydrocarbon pollution had never been done, recommendations similar to these have been made several times before. Some suggestions have matured into action; the Sapperton Fish and Game Club has, and continues to take the lead in salmon enhancement efforts; water quality monitoring is underway by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the City of Burnaby, and U.B.C. among others; pilot projects for pollutant removal are in place along Deer Creek. 87 There are also many suggestions for future action. A recent E.S.A. (Environmentally Sensitive Areas) study provided some 40 pages of examples and suggested actions based on the following 10 principles [Gardner Dunster Associates Ltd. 1992]: 1. Link ESA's and Greenspaces into a Network 2. Maintain Larger Continuous Open Spaces 3. Preserve Ecological Continuity 4. Encourage Protective Zoning of Parklands 5. Achieve a Zero Net Increase in Runoff and Avoid the Degradation of Water flowing into Watersheds 6. Control Construction Damage to Sites 7. Plant Native Species 8. Protect Micro-habitats 9. Give Planning Priority to Nature Conservation 10. Set an Example B.C.l.T.'s Burnaby Lake System Project [B.C.IT. 1994] also includes a five year plan and description of several potential enhancement projects. The project has also been responsible for public education projects such as stormdrain marking, brochures, videos and displays. An interpretive trail system is also in the works. Public education projects are all about providing people with information so they can make choices for a sustainable environment. This study and others have identified traffic as a significant source of pollutants, including hydrocarbons and trace metals, to urban watercourses [McCallum 1995]. Efforts such as promotion of transit, High Occupancy Vehicle lanes and bicycle lanes, have been in place for some time to reduce traffic volumes in the name of congestion. The Air Care Program is an attempt to preserve our air quality. But there is no corresponding program to preserve water quality. Economic incentives are often needed to encourage behavioral change. Along with schemes that hit the consumer in the pocketbook (i.e. increasing gas prices), tax incentives can be used to encourage land owners to do their part. The industrial strip along Still Creek would be an ideal place to encourage each business to clean up their part. The added incentive of good publicity might be 88 enough to encourage contributions to the restoration and maintenance of riparian and aquatic habitats. Another alternative is to follow the example of the City of Bellevue, Washington, and create a Stormwater Utility with bi-monthly service charges to land owners based on the development intensity and surface permeability. This provides a continuous source of revenue with which to develop and maintain treatment, management and planning alternatives [B.C.R.C. 1992]. The future of this watershed depends on the priorities and choices that we make today. Land use planning, source control and treatment should be incorporated into the planning of new developments and redevelopments from the outset. In the Brunette Watershed, the majority of the opportunities for innovative management will come with redevelopments of established areas. The rigorous water resource management planning that went into the Oakalla development should be an example for others to follow. Redevelopment is an opportunity to incorporate engineering BMP's, source control and habitat protection / restoration. BMP options include creation of dry detention basins, wet ponds, artificial or enhanced wetlands, or installation of coalescing plate separators, swirl concentrators, or permeable pavements. Source control options include removal of illegal sewer connections and management of construction sites. Stream reclamation involves initial instream work followed by diligent stream stewardship. We know what the problems are, we have several suggestions for action to choose from, we have a vision for the future. However, progress at best is slow. So many of the reports and studies of the past decade have stated the need for further study as one of their primary recommendations [G.V.R.D. 1988, B.C. Round Table 1993, City of Burnaby 1993, 1987]. Further research is warranted for filling in gaps in our database, monitoring of effectiveness of BMP's and developing some criteria for aquatic organism and ecosystem protection. But many studies just churn out recommendations that are repetitive 89 and redundant - reevaluate, reexamine, support, adopt, and consider — all lose their impact after exhaustive use. The phrase "when in doubt, have another study" seems to ring true - if any actions had been taken, we would at least have something new to talk about. Perhaps it is time we took some action. While the recommendations of studies are given with good intentions, they often seem to rehash the same concepts while little tangible work is taking place. A wiser investment might be applying our knowledge to the Brunette itself, and spending our time chipping away at the obstacles in the path to future goals. Restructuring institutions to form an effective framework, creation of economic incentives, installation of BMP's, source control measures, reclamation projects and expansion of public education programs are more likely to bring visible results than more studies and reports. 90 9.0 R e f e r e n c e s American Public Health Association (APHA) 1985 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 16th Edition. APHA, American Water Works Association & Water Pollution Control Federation. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 1989 Standard Test Method for Oil and Grease and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water. Designation : D 3921-85, 1929 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section 11 Water and Environmental Technology, Volume 11.02 Water (II), Page 42. Anderson, B.C. 1982 Toxicity of Urban Stormwater Runoff. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. Atwater, J. 1994 Civil Engineering 566 : Transport and Mixing of Pollutants in Aguatic Systems. Class Notes, University of British Columbia. Barrick, R.C. 1982 Flux of Aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Central Puget Sound from Seattle (Westpoint) Primary Sewage Effluent. Environmental Science and Technology Volume 16, Number 10, Page 682. Bates, T.S., S.E. Hamilton & J.D. Cline 1984 Vertical Transport and Sedimentation of Hydrocarbons in the Central Main Basin of Puget Sound, Washington. Environmental Science and Technology Volume 18, Number 5, Page 299. Bomboi, M.T., A. Hernandez, F. Marino & E. Hontoria 1990 Application of Multivariate Analysis for Characterization of Organic Compounds from Urban Runoff. The Science of the Total Environment Volume 93, Page 523. British Columbia Environment 1992 Land Development Guidelines for the Protection of Aguatic Habitat. Integrated Management Branch of the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks & Habitat Management Division of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. British Columbia Environment 1993a Stewardship of the Water of British Columbia : A Vision for New Water Management Policy and Legislation. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, ISBN 0-7726-18429. British Columbia Environment 1993b Stream Stewardship : A Guide for Planners and Developers. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks & Ministry of Municipal Affairs. 91 British Columbia Institute of Technology (B.C.l.T.) 1994 The Burnaby Lake System : A Proposal for a Community Project to Protect, Enhance and Rehabilitate the Area's Fish, Wildlife and Recreation Resources. January, 1994 British Columbia Research Corporation (B.C.R.C.) 1992 Urban Runoff Quality Control Guidelines for the Province of British Columbia. Prepared by the Waste Management Group, B.C.R.I. British Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 1993 Georgia Basin Initiative : Creating a Sustainable Future. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers (C.C.R.M.E) 1995 Canadian Water Quality Guidelines, Chapter 3 (for Protection of Freshwater Aguatic Life). March 1995. Capel, P.D. & S.J. Eisenreich 1990 Relationship between Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Organic Carbon in Sediment and Porewater. J. Great Lakes Research Volume 16, Number 2, Page 245. City of Burnaby 1993 The State of the Environment Report (SOER) for Burnaby. Environment and Waste Management Committee, City of Burnaby. City of Burnaby 1987 Official Community Plan for Burnaby, British Columbia. Burnaby Planning and Building Inspection Department. Dawson, L., M Flaherty, & M. Gang 1985a Still Creek Inventory, Part I. Rupert-Cassiar Neighbourhood Association. Dawson, L., M Flaherty, & M. Gang 1985b Still Creek Inventory. Part II : Environmental Quality. Rupert-Cassiar Neighbourhood Association. DiSalvo, L.H., H.E. Guard & L. Hunter 1975 Tissue Hydrocarbon Burden of Mussels as Potential Monitor of Environmental Hydrocarbon Insult. Environmental Science and Technology March 1975, Volume 9, Number 3, Page 247. Easter, K.W., J.A. Dixon & M.M. Hufschmidt 1986 Watershed Resources Management : An Integrated Framework with Studies from Asia and the Pacific. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1986. Edwards, D.A., R.G. Luthy & Z. Liu 1991 Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Micellar Nonionic Surfactant Solutions. Environmental Science and Technology Volume 25, Number 1, Page 127. 92 Eganhouse, R.P. & I.R. Kaplan 1981 Extractable Organic Matter in Urban Stormwater Runoff. 1 Transport Dynamics and Mass Emission Rates. Environmental Science and Technology March 1981, Volume 15, Number 3, Page 310. Eganhouse, R.P., B.R.T. Simonneit & I.R. Kaplan 1981 Extractable Organic Matter in Urban Stormwater Runoff.2. Molecular Characterization. Environmental Science and Technology March 1981, Volume 15, Number 3, Page 315. Ellis, J.B., D.M. Revitt & A. Gavens 1985 PAH Distributions in Sediments of an Urban Catchment. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry Volume 21, Page 161. Environment Canada 1995 Weather Data. Climate Data Services, Environmental Services and Applications, Pacific and Yukon Region, Bob Tortorelli, August 22, 1995. Environment Canada 1992 State of the Environment for the Lower Fraser Basin. SOE Report No. 92-1. Fam, S., M.K. Strenstrom & G. Silverman 1987 Hydrocarbons in Urban Runoff. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering Volume 113, Number 5, October 1987, Page 1032. Ferguson, B.K. 1991 Urban Stream Reclamation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Sept-Oct 1991. Page 324. Gardner Dunster Associates Ltd. 1992 The Nature of Burnaby : An Environmentally Sensitive Areas Strategy. Prepared for the City of Burnaby. Garrett, C.L. 1980 Fraser River Estuary Study : Water Quality -- Toxic Organic Contaminants. Background Report to the Fraser River Estuary Study of the Fraser River Estuary Study Steering Committee, ISBN 0-7719-8320-4. Gibb, A., B. Bennet & A. Birkbeck 1991 Urban Runoff Quality and Treatment: A Comprehensive Review. British Columbia Research Corporation. Giesy, J.P & R.A. Hope 1990 Freshwater Sediment Quality Criteria : Toxicity Bioassessment. Chapter 9 in Sediments : Chemistry and Toxicity of In-Place Pollutants, Lewis Publishers, Michigan, 1990. 93 Giger, W. and C. Schaffner 1975 Aliphatic, Olefinic, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Recent Sediments of a Highly Eutrophic Lake. Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1975 Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Madrid, Spain. Giger, W., M. Reinhard, C. Schaffner & W. Stumm 1974 Petroleum-Derived and Indigenous Hydrocarbons in Recent Sediments of Lake Zug, Switzerland. Environmental Science and Technology May 1974, Volume 8, Number 5, Page 454. Greater Vancouver Regional District (G.V.R.D.) 1988 Liguid Waste Management Plan - Stage 1. Report of the Water Quality and Water Use Committee, June 1988. Gruenfeld, M. 1973 Extraction of Dispersed Oils from Water for Quantitative Analysis by Infrared Spectrophotometry. Environmental Science and Technology July 1973, Volume 7, Number 7, Page 636. Hall, K.J. 1995 Professor. University of British Columbia. Hall, K.J., I. Yesake, & J. Chan 1976 Trace Metals and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Sediments of a Metropolitan Watershed. Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Technical Report No. 10. Hall, K.J., F.A. Koch, & I. Yesaki 1974 Further Investigations into Water Quality Conditions in the Lower Fraser River System. Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Technical Report No. 4. Hall, K.J. & Anderson, B.C. 1988 The Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Urban Stormwater Runoff. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering Volume 15, Page 98. Harris, G. 1978 The Salmon and Trout Streams of Vancouver. Waters (Journal of the Vancouver Aguarium) Volume 3, Number 1, First Quarter, 1978. Healey, M.C. & R.R. Wallace 1987 Canadian Aguatic Resources. Rawson Academy of Aquatic Science, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa. Herrmann, R. 1981 Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons though a Partly Urbanized River Basin. Water. Air and Soil Pollution Volume 16, Page 445. 94 Hoffman, E.J., J.S. Latimer, CD. Hunt, G.L Mills & J.G. Quinn 1985 Stormwater Runoff from Highways. Water. Air and Soil Pollution Volume 25, Page 349. Hoffman, E.J., G.L Mills, J.S. Latimer & J.G. Quinn 1984 Urban Runoff as a Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Coastal Waters. Environmental Science and Technology Volume 18, Number 8, Page 580. Hoffman, E.J., G.L Mills, J.S. Latimer & J.G. Quinn 1983 Annual Input of Petroleum Hydrocarbons to the Coastal Environment via Urban Runoff. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aguatic Science Volume 40, Supplement 2, Page 41. Hoffman, E.J., J.S. Latimer, G.L Mills & J.G. Quinn 1982 Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Urban Runoff from a Commercial Land Use Area. Journal WPCF November 1982, Volume 54, Number 11, Page 1517. Hunter, J.V., T. Sabatino, R. Gomperts & M.J. MacKenzie 1979 Contribution of Urban Runoff to Hydrocarbon Pollution. Journal WPCF August 1979, Volume 51, Number 8, Page 2129. Jacobs, M.W., J.A. Coates, J.J. Delfino, G. Bitton, W.M Davis & K.L Garcia 1993 Comparison of Sediment Extract Microtox® Toxicity with Semi-Volatile Organic Priority Pollutant Concentration. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. Volume 24, Page 461. Jones, K.C. 1991 Organic Contaminants in the Environment : Environmental Pathways and Effects. Environmental Management Series, Elsevier Applied Science, New York. Kashner, J. & J.V. Hunter 1983 Influence of Land Utilization on Hydrocarbon Runoff Pollution. J. Environ. Sci. Health A Volume 18, Number 1, Page 135. Keen, P.K. 1994 Solid Phase Microtox® Analyses of Stream Sediments. Prepared for the Westwater Research Centre, September, 1994, British Columbia Research Inc. Keen, P.K. 1995a Solid Phase Microtox® Analyses of Suspended Particulate Samples. January 12. 1995. Prepared for the Westwater Research Centre, Project No. 2-11-691, February 15th, 1995, British Columbia Research Inc. Keen, P.K. 1995b Solid Phase Microtox® Analyses of Suspended Particulate Samples collected Apr. 17. 1995. Prepared for the Westwater Research Centre, Project No. 2-11-691, May 15th, 1995, British Columbia Research Inc. 95 Koch, F.A., K.J Hall, & I. Yesaki 1977 Toxic Substances in the Wastewaters from a Metropolitan Area. Westwater Research Center, University of British Columbia, Technical Report No. 12. Latimer, J.S., E.J. Hoffman, G. Hoffman, J.L Fasching & J.G. Quinn 1990 Sources of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Urban Runoff. Water, Air and Soil Pollution Volume 52, Page 1. McCallum, D.W. 1995 An Examination of Trace Metal Contamination and Land Use in an Urban Watershed. M.A.Sc. Thesis, Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia. MacKenzie M.J. & J.V. Hunter 1979 Sources and Fates of Aromatic Compounds in Urban Stormwater Runoff. Environmental Science and Technology February 1979, Volume 13, Number 2, Page 179. McNeil, S. 1994 Graduate Student. Ph.D. Candidate. Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia. MacRae, J. 1994 Graduate Student. Ph.D. Candidate. Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia. Mathews, H.M. 1994 Trace Metal Loading from Urban Stormwater in the Brunette River Watershed. B.A.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. Matsumoto, G. 1983 Comparative Study on Organic Constituents in Polluted and Unpolluted Inland Aquatic Environments - V. Water Research 1983, Volume 17, Number 7, Page 823. Matsumoto, G. 1982 Comparative Study on Organic Constituents in Polluted and Unpolluted Inland Aquatic Environments - IV. Water Research 1982, Volume 16, Page 1521. Microbics Corporation 1992 Microtox Manual : A Toxicity Testing Handbook Volumes 1-5. Microbics Corporation, USA. Microbics Corporation 1990 Microbics Reference #243, Technical Methods Section : Method for measuring Toxicity of Suspended Particulates in Waters. Toxicity Assessment: An International Journal Volume 5, Page 91. Morton, T.A. 1983 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Still Creek Sediments. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. 96 Northcote, T.G., & B. Luskin 1992 Restoration and Environmental Sustainability of a Small British Columbia Urban Lake. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada Volume 27, Number 2, Page 341. Oakalla Development Plan 1991 Oakalla Development Plan, pages 1-16. Parkinson, P. 1994 Environmental Engineering Organics Lab Technician. Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia. Prince, R.C. 1992 Bioremediation of Oil Spills, with Particular Reference to the spill from the Exxon Valdez. Microbial Control of Pollution. 48th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, J.C. Fry, G.M. Gadd, R.A. Herbert, CW. Jones & I.A. Watson-Craik (editors), Cambridge University Press, Page 19. Rosen, A.A., & F.M. Middleton 1955 Identification of Petroleum Refinery Wastes in Surface Waters. Analytical Chemistry May 1955, Volume 27, Number 5, Page 790. Saha, S.K., & Barrow, C.J. 1981 River Basin Planning : Theory and Practice. John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, 1981. Santiago, S., R.L. Thomas, G. Larbaigt, D. Rossel, M.A. Echeverria, J. Tarradellas, J.L Loizeau, L. McCarthy, Cl. Mayfield, & C Corvi 1993 Comparative Ecotoxicity of Suspended Sediment in the Lower Rhone River using Algal Fractionation, Microtox® and Daphnia magna Bioassays. Hvdrobiologia Volume 252, Page 231. Schlautman, M.A. & J.J. Morgan 1993 Effects of Aqueous Chemistry on the Binding of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Dissolved Humic Materials. Environmental Science and Technology Volume 27, Number 5, Page 961. Schueler, T.R. 1987 Controlling Urban Runoff : A Practical Manual for Planning and Designing BMP's. Department of Environmental Programs, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Shelton, T.B. & J.V. Hunter 1974 Aerobic Decomposition of Oil Pollutants in Sediments. Journal WPCF September 1974, Volume 46, Number 9, Page 2172. Stenstrom, M.K., G.S. Silverman & T.A. Bursztynsky 1984 Oil and Grease in Urban Stormwaters. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering February 1984, Volume 110, Number 1, Page 58. 97 Swain, L. 1985 Stormwater Management - The Next Step? Canadian Water Resources Journal Volume 10, Number 1, Page 47. The Urban Land Institute, The American Society of Civil Engineers, The National Association of Home Builders 1975 Residential Stormwater Management: Objectives, Principles and Design Considerations. Voice, T.C. & W.J. Weber Jr. 1983 Sorption of Hydrophobic Compounds by Sediments, Soils and Suspended Solids. Water Research Volume 17, Number 10, Page 1433. Wakeham, S.G. 1977 A Characterization of the Sources of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Lake Washington. Journal WPCF July 1977, Page 1680. Wakeham, S.G. and R. Carpenter 1976 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments of Lake Washington. Limnology and Oceanography September 1976, Volume 21, Number 5, Page 711. Wassell, P. 1994 Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia. Weibel, S.R., R.J. Anderson & R.L Woodward 1963 Urban Land Runoff as a Factor in Stream Pollution. Journal WPCF July 1964, Volume 36, Number 7, Page 914. Whipple, W. & Hunter, J.V. 1979 Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Urban Runoff. Water Resources Bulletin August 1979, Volume 15, Number 4, Page 1096. Whipple, W. & Hunter, J.V. 1977 Nonpoint Sources and Planning for Water Pollution Control. Journal WPCF January 1977, Volume 49, Number 1. Wood, Stan 1995 Greater Vancouver Regional District, Sewerage and Drainage District, Personal conversation. 98 A P P E N D I X A Location of Streambed and Street Surface Sediment Sampling Stations TABLE A-1 Streambed Sediment Sampling Stations Station # Station Location / Description General Remarks 3 Brunette River at Braid Street (bridge) (upstream of 1976 location) Near wood products industries. 6 Brunette River at North Road Sampled from Hume Park. 7 Stoney Creek on Lougheed Highway east of Gaglardi Way Sampled from Government Street. 9 Stoney Creek at East Broadway near Norcrest Road Residential area. 10 Brunette River at Cariboo Road Heavy traffic. 13 Eagle Creek at Piper Avenue, south of Winston Street Sampled from Werner Loat Park. 14 Eagle Creek at East Broadway (south side), between Lake City Way and Lawrence Drive Below golf course (land fill), iron hydroxide precipitates evident. 16 Tributary of Eagle Creek at Philips Avenue (Squint Lake Park / Burnaby Mountain Golf Course) Sampled from wooded stream buffer off golf course parking lot. 17 Robert Burnaby Creek Sampled within Robert Burnaby Park, from access down wooded trails. 20 Deer Lake Brook at Deer Lake Avenue, south of Canada Way, underneath overpass Within Deer Lake Park, downstream of Deer Lake. 21a Tributary to Deer Lake at Royal Oak (east side), between Deer Lake Parkway and Oaktree Crescent (downstream of 1976 location) Small park adjacent to Oakalla development. 23 Still Creek at Sperling Avenue Within Burnaby Lake Park, sampled from log boom. 29 Small stream at Deer Lake Parkway (north side), east of Willingdon Avenue (500m downstream of 1976 location) Adjacent to B.C.IT. parking lots. 30 Still Creek at Willingdon Avenue Sampled from banks on East side of Willingdon. 99 Station # Station Location / Description General Remarks 31 Still Creek at Gilmore Avenue Industrial area. 32 North Branch of Still Creek at Lougheed Highway (south side) Industry, affected by development. 33 Still Creek at Grandview Highway (south side) and Renfrew Street (east side) Residential, sanitary sewage inputs. 35 Still Creek at Douglas Avenue Industrial area. 37 (addition) Still Creek at Atlin Street and E.27th Avenue Wooded ravine, residential. 38 (addition) Tributary to Still Creek at Willingdon Green In Industrial Park. 100 TABLE A-2 Street Sediments Sampling Stations Station # Station Location / Description General Remarks 11 Rupert Street between Grandview Highway and East Broadway moderate traffic 12 Boundary Road at Myrtle Avenue moderate traffic 13 Gilmore Avenue, North of Still Creek industrial area, moderate traffic 14 Willingdon Avenue at Highway #1 (north east side) Heavy traffic 15 Douglas Road at Still Creek Industrial area, moderate traffic 16 Lake City Way at Venture Street Industrial area I7a Braid Street at Cantor Avenue (in same industrial area as 1976 17 location) Industrial area C2 Parking lot of Brentwood Mall (Lougheed Highway at Willingdon Avenue) Parking lot C2a (addition) Lougheed Highway at Willingdon Avenue Heavy traffic C3 Parking lot of Lougheed Mall (Lougheed Highway at Austin Road) Parking lot C4 North Road at Lougheed Highway Heavy traffic G1 Forest Lawn Memorial Cemetery Parking lot G4 Philips Avenue at Halifax Street Low traffic, near golf course R1 Nootka Street and E.14th Street Low traffic, residential R5 2400 Duthie Street Residential R6 Mahon Avenue and Eglington Street Residential X1 (addition) X2 (addition) X3 (addition) Brunette Avenue at Braid Street Canada Way at Kensington Avenue Kingsway at Boundary Road Heavy traffic Heavy traffic Heavy traffic 101 A P P E N D I X B Gas Chromatography Information Instrument: Hewlett Packard 5890 Series II Gas Chromatograph Autosampler: Hewlett Packard 7672A Automatic Sampler Integrator: Hewlett Packard 3396 Series II Integrator Column: J & W Scientific Cat. No. 123-5033 #2346114 30 m x 32 mm internal diameter Phase : DB5 Film thickness : 1 urn Conditions: Initial temperature 40 °C, held for 1.5 minutes Final temperature 300 °C, held for 10 minutes Temperature ramp rate Detector temperature Injector temperature Purge on Run time Carrier gas flow rate Autosampler specifics: Sample volume: No. of sample washes No. of pumps No. of solvent A washes No. of solvent B washes 8 °C / minute 310 °C 300 °C 0.9 minutes 44 minutes 20 mL / minute 1 uL 3 5 3 3 Detector: (note solvents A and B matched that of the sample solvent) Flame Ionization Detector 102 FIGURE B-1 Gas Chromatogram of 1000 ppm Unleaded Gasoline FIGURE B-3 Gas Chromatogram of 1000 ppm Used Motor Oil 104 APPENDIX C Quality Assurance / Quality Control Data TABLE C-1 Streambed Sediment Data Sample ppm Extractable Organic Carbon ppm Aliphatic Hydrocarbons ppm Aromatic Hydrocarbons ppm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons July 38(1) 3898 July 38(2) 4487 July 38(3) 4703 July 38(4) 5276 July 38(5) 4155 average 4503.8 std. deviation 530.3091 coeff. of variation 11.7747 Sept. 23(1) 7266 Sept. 23(2) 8246 average 7756 std. deviation 692.9646 coeff. of variation 8.934562 Sept. 32(1) 3216 Sept. 32(2) 3570 average 3393 std. deviation 250.3158 coeff. of variation 7.377418 Sept. 35(1) 1307 Sept. 35(2) 1609 average 1458 std. deviation 213.5462 coeff. of variation 14.64652 Feb. 3(1) 7136.912 1626.742 1052.42 2679.162 Feb. 3(2) 6406.489 2627.259 689.2821 3316.541 Feb. 3(3) 8946.146 2799.79 895.3224 3695.113 average 7496.516 2351.264 879.0081 3230.272 std. deviation 1307.46 633.3565 182.1178 513.4401 coeff. of variation 17.4409 26.93686 20.71855 15.89464 Feb. 23(1) 5447.544 1206.38 1098.209 2304.589 Feb. 23(2) 19662.005 1202.625 1107.878 2310.503 Feb. 23(3) 2279.431 1855.445 1499.518 3354.962 average 3863.488 1421.483 1235.202 2656.685 std. deviation 2240.195 375.8263 228.9554 604.7332 coeff. of variation 57.98374 26.43902 18.53587 22.7627 Feb. 38(1) 1311.722 385.7284 214.5377 600.2661 Feb. 38(2) 896.7182 341.7039 264.5606 606.2645 Feb. 38(3) 1443.279 302.5011 597.5087 900.0099 average 1217.24 343.3111 358.869 702.1802 std. deviation 285.2673 41.63693 208.176 171.3518 coeff. of variation 23.43558 12.12804 58.00892 24.40283 105 % Partic. Aromatic HC's 28.73544 || 31.454971| 33.19371 | 29.641 || 25.48759 || 29.70254 | 2.913938 || 9.8103981| 15.781481| 17.757951| 16.6281 || 16.72251 | 0.991614 fl 5.929815|| Soluble romatic HC's 990457 963929 488406 .59747 582773 124607 514468 29.55287 342405 082987 773586 066326 284775 694364 ^ < co co m •* m 29.55287 CO CO m CO o •* % Partic. Aliphatic HC's 64.9943 64.47417 61.2685 62.49575 69.8492 64.61639 3.288268 5.088908 77.66008 74.94401 77.34158 76.64855 1.484746 1.937082J Soluble .liphatic HC's 279799 106925 .04938 265775 080429 556461 966981 73.7733 216039 215051 256735 562608 565398 D0.4959 CM o o o o o o T— o ••- o o o ppm Total Petroleum HC's 3.395443 4.015145 2.950472 2.965957 3.665605 3.392525 0.465323 13.71613 2.688501 2.745597 2.54822 2.660773 0.101568 3.817239 ppm Partic. romatic HC's 975695 262963 979371 870247 934275 .00451 151013 5.03349 424285 487562 423721 445189 036697 242981 < o o o o o t— o o o o o co ppm Soluble Aromatic HC's 0.135494 0.159157 0.161934 0.223058 0.167986 0.169526 0.032371 19.09481 0.170516 0.167014 0.147124 0.161551 0.012617 7.809696 ppm Partic. .liphatic HC's 206845 588732 .80771 834848 560396 199706 376919 7.13496 087892 057661 970834 038795 060767 980518 < CM CM CM CM o CM CM CM o CM ppm Soluble Aliphatic HC's 0.077409 0.004293 0.001457 0.007803 0.002948 0.018782 0.032858 176.9408 0.005808 0.03336 0.006542 0.015237 0.0157 103.0371 ppm Extrble. Organic Carbon 7.759036 7.6625 6.225 5.775 7.642857 7.012879 0.939245 13.39315 4.647059 4.542169 5.325301 4.838176 0.42511 8.786576 Susp. Solids mg/L 172.5542 203.875 185.975 161.425 223.0714 189.3801 24.60386 12.99179 136.9412 149.9277 163.2771 150.0487 13.16838 8.776074 Sample |Grandview(1) | Grandview(2) | Grandview(3) | Grandview(4) | Grandview(5) | average | std. deviation | coeff. of var. | Gilmore(1) | Gilmore(2) | Gilmore(3) | average | std. deviation | coeff. of var. 106 TABLE C-3 Street Sediment Data Sample ppm Extractable Organic Carbon ppm Aliphatic Hydrocarbons ppm Aromatic Hydrocarbons ppm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons C2(1) 33467.12 8750.105 6885.901 15636.01 C2(2) 29023.02 7176.17 2370.806 9546.976 C2(3) 40137.45 15302.83 3187.6 18490.42 average 34209.19 10409.7 4148.102 14557.8 standard deviation 5594.251 4310.026 2405.919 4568.174 coeff. of variation 16.35306 41.40394 58.00048 31.37956 C4(1) 5846.154 3612.491 1579.066 5191.557 C4(2) 6721.014 2872.415 1870.095 4742.511 C4(3) 8834.356 2386.868 1527.433 3914.301 average 7133.841 2957.258 1658.865 4616.123 standard deviation 1536.28 617.2006 184.7435 647.9399 coeff. of variation 21.53511 20.87071 11.13674 14.03645 R1(1) 17226.64 2219.614 2094.717 4314.331 R1(2) 12500 2129.514 3761.776 5891.289 R1(3) 11972.66 2119.282 2239.471 4358.753 average 13899.77 2156.137 2698.655 4854.791 standard deviation 2893.198 55.21053 923.5304 897.9086 coeff. of variation 20.81472 2.560623 34.22188 18.49531 13(1) 10738.4 3670.685 2277.475 5948.16 13(2) 9601.449 3474.033 2046.912 5520.945 13(3) 7904.564 4349.03 2552.209 6901.239 average 9414.803 3831.249 2292.199 6123.448 standard deviation 1426.106 459.0648 252.9698 706.6448 coeff. of variation 15.14749 11.98212 11.03612 11.53998 107 A P P E N D I X D Lake Core Data FIGURE D-1 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction of Lake Core Section from 1994-1984 FIGURE D-2 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction of Lake Core Section from 1984-1975 108 FIGURE D-3 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction of Lake Core Section from 1963 -1944 109 FIGURE D-5 Gas Chromatogram of Aliphatic Fraction of Lake Core Section from 1896 -1861 110 o O <D JSC R> —I >» n ro c i_ 3 C Q >_ a 3 tf) CD Q. O) c (0 Q d) a o * J o tf> "5 CQ ja CL o a L U - I OQ < c ~ .2 O CO CO ° I < ^ o cu co < CD «-» CO a 2 co o 9> LU CO . . o CD 0) O) CO CD m — CD '•3 ^  > CO I B I S • a CD •c ^ o ^ > P a."^ = fc 3 o ui w < D T3 CD a-? §-§ CO < Z> CD > o ~ CO ra TO 3 ^  E £ <3Q O TO CD c! CO CD TO CD — I— c= T - c o o t - T - ( 0 0 * c o n c o * ( 0 * < o i O ( O o r M ( D O ) U ) * ^ -0>Tt-OOC0CDtf>TfCMTtCNC0C0i-Tl-OC0r-~C0CNCM0>OC0 0 0 0 ( D ( D ^ f O ) ( 0 0 0 ) S M s - t O O O C O T - C B S l O O O i n i O ' * N ^ T - n N ^ r t o o i o o o o o T - T - f f i T - g o o T - j - N j o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d d o d ^ d d d d d d d d o d o d d o o o +l c o o i n i n T f i O T T T f o c O ' * c o r ~ C N C N j c D T f T f c D ' * i > - < D C D c o ( O M O O < D ( D O C O O M S S M O O J O ) O N ( D ' t ' < f O < D r t ( D c o i o c N j i n c M i o c N j o o i ^ ^ T - T - ^ ^ ^ ^ d d d o d d n r i d d d d d d d d d d d d o o o o S T f C D ^ o c o c v i i o c n n w c o i o N O J C N j q s ^ S T - T - ^ c o ( X J u S d r ^ T j - T - ^ d a i ^ c N i i d o S c N i c d d o d c d c ^ C O C O C O S N S N ( D ( D < 0 ' 0 * * C O ( 0 ( M C M T - O S C D I O C O O ) o>oicno)cno)0)cno)0)a)CRO)0)0)CBO)0)a)cocococoh-TT OT CD T - m i f l m o N i o N N r t n < < ) i n < O N ^ < D N O ( M r t O ' * s N c o s c o c o c o c o c o T t i n t o c o o r v i T - T - T i - o i t o s ^ ^ T - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ T ^ ^ ^ r ^ ^ C N C N i C N C N C N C N C D r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . . T - N C O I O N C N l i n C B t t l N i O O ^ O ^ O i n g t S J ^ S ^ f f l o ^ r j c o r o i O ' - O T - O f O f f l n i n c q T - n ^ ^ ' r " ^ ^ c o ' r ^ d c o T f T t d c N i a i i n c N i c d c o c D T ^ r ^ cn co o co co Tt- co o T- Tj- cn co co co CO CM i - Tj- O CO CD -r-| 0> CD CO TT O s to co rj d 6 C M T f T - T - C O C O O l O O C M C M T - C M m O T - C D »<DCO(0'0'*0)iOCMr-OCO*S^ , '*CO o o c o o o n c v i r i ^ O ) N c o c » T t w c o c N T - q CD CDr^cDvOTt-cocNCNiCNT-^T^doddd o o w ^ i o c n s i t o i o i o o T - T - ^ - c o s c o r t c n c o t o o j s m T-Tfr^cDOTuiTfCNCDoooicoooTfcococooT-co-^-h--T}-co r |^^ (DTroOTfCN|CNCNCDCDCDU1COTl-C\jTj-cOTrTj-CNC\ICNCN O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C D O O O d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d C M r ^ c o c N c o T C C M t ^ T - T i - i o o o i o c o r ^ T - t ^ c o c o c o o c o r o c o c o T - i n T - r ^ o > c o r o O T T r T - T - T f c \ i c N j o » c o T t c » c o i o i r ) C N j T i -c N c o c N O T C N i o o o ) i ~ ~ i ^ T r c N < 3 ) « o c o ' r r i ^ i ^ c o i o o ) t ^ o O ' « - i o ( D C » ( D S N u i q q c o ( q ^ N f ^ c n S T - u i i n ( p t f ) T - T - ^ q ^ d ^ d ^ d d d o T - T - ^ T ^ ^ d d d d d d d c i o o o SCSSSS^coi^ T - c n o o T t f M T j - c o p c o r ^ c O T - o c N i rrtOOOTj-T-OOCDLncNiDT-CDCDi-CNOlCO - - - • — • - ' C D O O - I - C D L O O C O O T J -O C M O CO C M OTCDCOT-Oh-TfOTCDCO CD h- CO 1^- CM CN T - CO * N CB CM / \ i m i n m i > J m ' - « i n < O S C O C O O > O T - r g ( \ | C , ) ' * 1 0 < O N C O C N ' c 0 l o t O | ^ O > ^ T - T - T - T - T - T - T - C M C M C M C M C M r M C M C M C M C M m m m i n C M m m m m m i o v n m i o m i o m m m i o i o i o i o m i o - , n » , o c \ i * ( D c o o t \ i * ( D c o o c \ i ' t ( D c o r g ^ ( D c o r \ i ^ r o c 0 T - T - T - T - T - C M C M C M C M C M C O C O C O C O C O ' N r T j - T l - T l - l O E o m i o m m m i o m i o i o m i o m i o i o i o i o m c o m " ^ ^ ^ T - T - T - T - T - C M C M C M C M C M C O C O C O C O T j - T j - T l - T l - i n O CL >< a> CM E O Q. CO IO co :21.. 9 pC o CO CD -p SS n CO d "cio CD PS d +i i-- co T3 ' ' oo CO CD X OT •e 3 CM d T3 CD •c 8> P. -P p 3 Q. .Q a. coo CL o Q. 3 CO = S —' T3 CD CD o > - c CD '^ 3 O •c CD CO Q. P 3 P-DO E C 1 3 C 10 3 3 3 C W Z O D 111 O) DI a> a E RJ CO £ o o a> CO _ l >* .Q ro c i_ 3 CQ £ ra *J ro CM • Q U J _ 1 ffi < I -Percent Aromatic of TPH 8.7 14.9 I 0. I 23.9 48.2 78.9 Percent Aliphatic of TPH 91.3 85.1 84.9 76.1 51.8 21.1 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ug/g dry weight 7507 8210 9150 4995 2636 3574 Aromatic Hydrocarbons ug/g dry weight 654 1219 1386 1193 1272 2819 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons ug/g dry weight 6853 6991 7765 3802 1364 755 Extractable Organic Carbon ug/g dry weight 7684 12614 12933 7682 5407 5297 Percent Volatile Solids of Total Solids 10.5 10.5 20.9 23.7 25.4 24.7 Average Sediment Accumulation g/cm^/year 0.4216 0.3978 0.1419 0.1205 0.0508 0.0294 Sample Date Range A.D. 1994.5-1984.2 1984.2-1974.85 1963-1944.2 1944.2-1932.2 1896-1861 1818-1767 Sample Depth Range cm 0-5 5-10 20-25 25-30 40-45 50-55 112 o o o . E (TJ CO 0) l _ o O a> CO _ l >% ja co ffl CC CO Q CO Q L U _ l C Q Percent Aromatic of TPH 8.8 14.8 15.2 23.8 48.0 78.6 Percent Aliphatic of TPH >S 91.2 85.2 84.8 76.2 52.0 21.4 Aromati Hydro-carbons ug/cm wet volume CM OJ 00 CN T- CO co TJ- co m oo o CO Tf CO CN T- Tf Aliphatic Hydro-carbons ug/cm wet volume 3474 2576 1893 803 194 108 Total Petroleum Hydro-carbons (TPH) ug/cmJ wet volume 3806 3025 2231 1055 375 511 Extract-able Organic Carbon ug/cmJ wet volume 3895 4649 3153 1622 768 758 Aromatic Hydro-carbons ug/g/year dry weight Tf 2 Tf o> CD in (D ™ N O) n K) Aliphatic Hydro-carbons ug/g/year dry weight 8 5? £ £ 3 w co i— Tf co Total Petroleum Hydro-carbons (TPH) ug/g/year dry weight O) CO CO o CN l»- 00 T- C P P"* 00 Tf Tf Extract-able Organic Carbon ug/g/year dry weight 746 1349 688 640 154 104 Percent Volatile Solids of Total Solids 10.5 10.5 20.9 23.7 25.4 24.7 Mid-point of Inter-val A.D. ai ai cd od od CM oo r~- m co f- CT> a> a> a> a> co Year in Inter-val years co m oo • co CM m T-o . oo T— co m T- a> T-Sample Date Range A.D. 1994.5-1984.2 1984.2-1974.8 1963-1944.2 1944.2-1932.2 1896-1861 1818-1767 Sample Depth Range cm 0-5 5-10 20-25 25-30 40-45 50-55 113 A P P E N D I X E Streambed Sediment Data Microtox EC50 (n/d non-deter-minable) 0.34 18.23 n/d n/d 1fi 0,7 n/d 3.16 n/d n/d 9.33 5.21 4.21 n/d 10.82 3.15 1.34 n/d 4.77 4.05 3.95 Percent Aromatic of TPH T fLocor^ooLnwcor^ r - ^cqc^ o S c d u i d u i c N L O ^ i n i ^ ^ c d c d c i ' * * i o M N c » i f l i n * « ' * * « N T - c M 0 ' ' r - T - t o r g L O Percent Aliphatic of TPH ~S d ^ T t c » T t r ~ ^ c d T t c N i o d < D < d u ^ ( O i o i n ^ c o r M ^ T f T f i n t D i o i o c D N c o r - r o o o c o f f l N c o Aromatic Hydrocarbons O) O) 3 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons cn 3 c ro DH I-0_ f - out of 20 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ai o 3 C N C O r o T - T - r o ^ O T ^ C O C N ^ T - C \ | T f C » C O ^ C O ° EOC Rank out of 20 Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) CO 3 Station Number ?> > ro ffl m 5) > M m ^ r o T - T - ^ T - T - c N ^ c N C N c o c o c o c o c o c o c o a j^SJ: > 2 a> ro co o 114 1* IT O M_ < 0 C N ^ ^ L O ^ c o c N T i - i o T f i o T f c o c o ^ c M T i - c M c o i n co T -cz CO CD I Q . £ x 0 3 Q . •§ . ! -c o o T - o ^ o i s M T f c i f f l ^ t o w c n c B t o c x i N C f l c o c p c p cv ioodcDCNicdcd^cDCDuicdod S O ) 0 0 T f C J ) ( D N i n T f i * > * U ) ( D ( O O ) S i O S ( D T ? < D T - C N CO cz o o E 8 2 2 o a C N C O , ^ ^ C D ^ C O . ^ . ^ l r t C M f 0 { O T l . c o c O I > . C O c O CO CZ ™ co 1 2 X CO 1 0 ° CNI CO _ CM T -^ CT) ,_ CD CO m o ^ (O ^ I— CD T - Tf O CM co co 1- Tt CM 00 o r- co CM CO co CM LO CO 0 0 ^ CD ^ 4_ LO ~ CD CO l2 I f CD 1- T - co J co CO CM ^ O O T C N L O O C O c o r - C D CO CD ° j 0. to CZ o co X o r o i n t x ) ( D o o e 5 c o e o c M C M , ^ 2 < 5 ! 2 c v , T - 5 ; e o c M cz , co i t U " ll o HI CM C O T j - ^ O O L O ^ r - C M C D ^ O ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 0 3 •2 ••s co T5 .2 c c o o co -P- o ,5 E? co Q J U J n S m S S ^ C O N S c N l C O N O O ^ T - i O C M C B T -° I l S 2 ^ _ c O T - c D _ - < - - r - o o L O T i - c o r - - o o T i - c M ^ CO ^ C O C D C M T J - C M T I - T - L O C M T -tz' £ CD 2 — I CD O 0. > to o CO GO o O O t D T f O O C N T - ^ C O T l - l O C O S L O O O - i - C D L O S r ^ O 12 s i co co CD o c o T i - t o t ^ o ™ c o o ) O T - c M c o i o t ^ c o 2-3uj /\i * m /vl /rt /rt /rt /rt /rt /rt /rt « . iTTT CD 5 , c ? * T - T ~ •«- CM CM C M C M C O C O C O C O C O C O C O CD CO to 115 A P P E N D I X F Stormwater Data Particulate Aromatic Hydro-carbons mg/L || i - T t - I O O O T - T - M T - O t D N S C O N C O T - ^ - N O O T - c o o o o c D o o T - o o o m c D C O o o o o o T r c O T - o o i n c o q q q T - ; o c N < N T - ; o q q T - o o q q o d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d Soluble Aromatic Hydro-carbons mg/L (D<tOOCOiO(MMOCO i- T - C B T -O O O I - O T 1 - T - C N | T - T - C M _ C O O O O O C N O T — O O O O O Q O T — O T — o O O o o o o o o o o o d d d o Particulate Aliphatic Hydro-carbons mg/L N<OCOO(DCMCOSCD<00)T- iOrtrOCOCMin(D COCOt^<DI^COt^TfT-C\IOC\|Tl-CN|OOCOOOVOlO O U 1 i n C « C D p f ^ O C N | T f l ^ O O t ^ C N ^ x f c O C N ^ d f i ^ d d r - d d r i ^ r d d ^ r d d d d Soluble Aliphatic Hydro-carbons mg/L m N S M ^ O j T f i n O S I D C M T - r O C O C O O l N C O O O O O O O T - ; x - O l ^ p C ) p O T - - ; 0 0 0 0 Total Petroleum Hydro-carbons mg/L C M S ( 0 0 > 0 ) 0 ) l ^ 1 ' ^ n ^ 0 > i O ( 0 T - M 0 O * T - T - a c \ i N < \ i O ( N i n * c n c o o q r i c o ( 0 * < o c \ i d T f r ^ d ^ ^ d n c i ^ d d ^ ^ d o d d Suspended Solids mg/L eo 0 ^ °°- o s c o o i g j ^ ^ n m o ^ c o o o c D c o c o ^ ^ S f d d c M ^ ^ t ^ d c D T f c v j ^ c d c d c i ^ ^ £ * I O C \ | C O C N " ^ ° 0 D C O C N ^ C » I O C \ I C N | T -Flow co < E 0.0057 1.71 1.351 0.441 1.211 1.351 5.19 20.63 23.89 15.7 12.5 15.68 0.1359 0.8034 1.017 0.75 0.8835 0.8835 Depth cm M o m r t c i N i n o o m o M O N t M o o m i f l ^ T f c o N T - c o n t c o c o N c o N r M m t D i n i o i o Time Hour i o m o m i o o o o t f ) i o m o m o « n m m m i o T t e o d d ^ c N ' c M ' b ' o o d d ^ ' c s i i n T-T-rMCNICNC\ICNT-T-CMCNCNCNT-T-CN|CNCNCN Sample Number T-CNcOTt-LncDi^T-cNcOTfincD-i-CNicOTj-LncD Station Name Grandview Gilmore Eagle 116 FIGURE F-1 Suspended Solids Concentrations - Storm 1 a. Gilmore 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time (mins) b. Eagle Time (mins) 117 FIGURE F-2 First Flush of Suspended Solids - Storm 1 a. Gilmore Cumulative Discharge (%) b. Eagle Cumulative Discharge (%) 118 FIGURE F-3 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations - Storm 1 a. Gilmore Time (mins) 119 FIGURE F-4 First Flush of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Storm 1 a. Gilmore Cumulative Discharge (%) b. Eagle Cumulative Discharge (%) 120 IO O) 00 (0 3 C ta CM E i _ o o (0 (0 Q CN LL. LU —I ffl < I-Particulate Aromatic Hydro-carbons mg/L | 00 T - Tf 00 00 CN O CO CD LO CN CO LO CD CO O CN CN CN CN *- CD CN CD d d d d ci CN d d Soluble Aromatic Hydro-carbons mg/L N W CO T - CO CM o o oo CD LO LO co co oo TJ- o o o o CD q q ci ci ci ci ci ci d d Particulate Aliphatic Hydro-carbons mg/L O Tf CO •<— CO tO CD CD CO LO CN CO CD CN CD f-LO O CD LO Tf Tf Tf CD C N C N T ^ T ^ T ^ I O CN LO Soluble Aliphatic Hydro-carbons mg/L 00 CD CD Tf CN r~- CO LO CO O LO CD 00 Tf T-o 1- o o q T - •<- r-~ ci ci ci ci o ci d d Total Petroleum Hydro-carbons mg/L CO CD C~- Tf 1- h- LO h-CN O CD CO CD CN o r— TfiocNqr^q CD CO cdcNCNT^T t^b csi Extractable Organic Carbon mg/L i o c N o r - o < S 2 8 co co -* LO o L: JI g! O CO LO LO CO . . . T f i o i o T f c d ^ °2 £ Suspended Solids mg/L CN i - Tf q q q r-; ^ CD CD CN O CD CD CD J Tf Tf Tf Tf CN CO CO ^. Flow w CO < E 13.83 13.83 11.94 1 n. oa 9.53 3.33 E-05 1.67 E-05 8.33 E-06 Depth cm CN CN LO T— O , , , CD CD LO LO LO Time Hour O LO O O O LO LO LO CN q Tf CN q Tf T - LO to od CD <b r~ Sample Number T- CN CO Tf LO i - CN CO Station Name Gilmore Willingdon 121 FIGURE F-5 Suspended Solids Concentrations - Storm 2 Gilmore 40 1 « 30 + + 10 15 10 •-5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (mins) 120 140 + 4 160 122 FIGURE F-6 First Flush of Suspended Solids - Storm 2 a. Gilmore Cumulative Discharge (%) b. Willingdon 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Discharge (%) 123 FIGURE F-7 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations - Storm 2 a. Gilmore 60 80 100 Time (mins) -TPH -Flow Willingdon 0.035 0.005 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (mins) -TPH -Flow 124 FIGURE F-8 First Flush of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Storm 2 Gilmore Cumulative Discharge (%) Willingdon 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Discharge (%) 125 Particulate Aromatic Hydro-carbons mg/L || eo»noocNjT-ococDoOT-Tj-TfTfoocoio Tfooioio^-or^cDOooT-Tfioococo CNCNCNCNIr^ COCXjOTCOCOiOM o d o d d d o o o d o o d c ^ ^ ^ Soluble Aromatic Hydro-carbons mg/L | 0 ) 0 ( M M U ) ( D * 0 ) O N N M O O O O o<ocoo>Tfi«Tj-Tt-c»inr~Ti-cocOTreo f \ ) T - T - r - S T - T - t - C \ J T - T - ; T - ; C O T - T - ; t -o o o o o o o o o d o d o o o d Particulate Aliphatic Hydro-carbons mg/L i n N r o p j o o i o o ' i r N o i o i T - o t t x O ' t o)T-inooou)(0(DSooin<ococo(00) o O O O O T — ^ ^ o d ^ T t T - T - T j - c N i Soluble Aliphatic Hydro-carbons mg/L r~TtcOCNOOCOCD<DCOiOCMO>CNC»OOCD C N O O C N O C O O O p p c o p ^ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d Total Petroleum Hydro-carbons mg/L <OT-oocNT-ocDTfCMcor~-comoTj-cMT - commN ' * '< fT -ooN' i , ' *« )r i i s t ^ O O O C O T — O O U I T — CTiCDCDOCDO T-* T—• T"— T~" CO CNJ CO •— v— C\i Tf" CNJ T|" Tl" CO Extractable Organic Carbon mg/L 30.038 4.963 5.221 24.207 4.000 5.866 5.129 16.280 3.163 2.814 11.626 7.988 16.538 14.877 10.257 9.547 Suspended Solids mg/L 28.2 67.6 216.2 122.6 54.6 180.4 37.7 175.8 45.2 18.1 94.8 76.0 169.4 499.4 103.2 83.9 Flow co < E i n , „ i n i f l ( o m i f l ^ m i n m i n m m m w , ID li) i i i i i i i m^yjLULUUJlllUJLUUJLULUUJUJllJLiJ c\irr>r-1cor^r^cNcocOT-r^r~r^r~cocD CN..CO<D«DTfCOCOT-COCD<DCDCOC3> Time Hour i n m o m m m o o o o o o o m o o N O ^ ^ o n T - i o N t - ^ i f l c o q i f l n tNcocOTfih'cNcocoTt-ih'cM Sample Number T-CNicoTfiOT-cNcoTi-iOT-cNcOTfincD Station Name Nootka Renfrew Willingdon 126 127 c. Willingdon 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 «r a. I 0.03 EZ 0.02 0.01 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (mins) FIGURE F-10 First Flush of Suspended Solids - Storm 3 Cumulative Discharge (%) 128 b. Renfrew 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Discharge (%) c. Willingdon Cumulative Discharge (%) 129 FIGURE F-11 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentrations - Storm 3 a. Nootka 130 c. Willingdon 0.07 100 Time (mins) -TPH -Flow Figure F-12 First Flush of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Storm 2 a. Nootka 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Discharge (%) 131 Renfrew Cumulative Discharge (%) Willingdon 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cumulative Discharge (%) 132 TABLE F-4 Determination of Flow Storm / Sample # Depth Wetted Area (A) Flow (Q) Station Perimetre (P) m m rnA2 m*3/S STORM 1 Grandview 1 0.02 3.4 0.04 0.0057 2 0.4 4.3 1.35 1.71 3 0.35 4.19 1.16 1.351 4 0.23 3.9 0.73 0.655 5 0.19 3.8 0.57 0.441 6 0.32 4.13 1.08 1.211 7 0.35 4.19 1.16 1.351 Gilmore 1 0.4 5.9 1.7 5.19 2 0.8 7.44 4.27 20.63 3 0.85 7.67 4.72 23.89 4 0.7 7.13 3.56 15.7 5 0.62 6.92 3.07 12.5 6 0.7 7.13 3.56 15.68 Eagle 1 0.27 0.1359 2 0.52 0.8034 3 0.6 1.017 4 0.5 0.75 5 0.55 0.8835 6 0.55 0.8835 STORM 2 Gilmore 1 0.62 7.12 3.3 13.83176 2 0.62 7.12 3.3 13.83176 3 0.55 6.94 2.99 11.93676 4 0.51 6.77 2.7 10.23815 5 0.50 6.66 2.57 9.533374 133 2c5 O I TO O co E i l Ujl m ID _ i , O co c o 'th o a. E o o o (0 E o CO o (0 E E 3 CO IO LL L U _ l OQ O 0. ""> O o LU 0 01 LU Q. C0 LU h-O I-cc < >s co o I a. i -o 5 o | lu. I eg o 1 TO O CO .E CL CO O I o CO E '< o o o m co CM co m CM r-co m co OT CO 00 oo CM co* OT in o o> Tf CM CO oo Tf o CM in I 5 E O) E •—• cu E> CO o in cz CO CD Tf I co or o i -E co £ CO I £ cz lor co co m, . oo CM co t OT o h-00 00 o o CO o CO OT CO m oil o o CM 00 o o Tf m o o Tf CM m Tf o oo o CM CO O CO 00 m'l Tf CM m OT o oo oo CO in oo a> OT CO m co co OT co o co Tf d OT CO r~-OT oo r~-oo OT o h-co d oo 00 in o co Tf o Tf CM CM oo m oo Tf OT m oo o r~-cd CM r-Tf OT Tf co CM co oil OT OT O m co o loo I co o o co oo oo co co OT o CM m 00 co CO CM Tf co OT OT Tf Tf d o m co r~ r~ 0 1 in CM OT CO CM m CM co Tf 00 CM in m m I CD OT OT OT I - * CN I loo oo CM Tf CO CM CO CO CO O CN OT r-" CM f~ Tf r~ CN d co co co OT co oo co CN Tf CN in OT o cd I co CO CD r-CM CM O I m' CM CO Tf CO Tf 00 IS m m CD CD Tf m oo oo o OT co m in Tf OT co CD CD co CD co •a c CO I CO oo CM OT CO co c o to l l c CD O CD O IO co o Tf CM o OT h-iri CM Tf m Tf o E ca £ CO I £ o E CD £ CO rz o co OH 0 1 col CD £ ico • CO o o CD £ l<7> CD £ co 5 CD CZ ICC cz o '"S, cz 134 CD © a E ro co o CO o a o or CM E o c o co E c >. 4 - 1 "rc 3 a i _ a> •*-> ro o ro E E 3 CO CO LL UJ _ l m < i -MPN 2300 o o Tf CM o o CD Fecal Coli-IUI 11 lo (N/100 mLs) MF 9300 0096 6400 7600 4000 O f~ O O Tf O O Tf Pb CO -<r 13.4 in 128 11 9 197 193 Zn co g> o o T — oo T — r-CO co CM m T — o in CO O) m Mn Tf CM CD 00 o 00 OT CD co CO oo CM CM o CM IO CM Metals (ug/L-total) Cu _ i CM O) 3 CO o CO m Tr CO CO CD in Tf OT T — T — T — Chem-ical Oxygen Deman d mg/L co Tf r-CO OT co T — CO CM CO o CD o T — Total Kjeldah Nitroge n mg/L 1.02 1.26 o> d CD d 0.77 1.78 2.51 CO Ammoni a Nitrogen mg/L 2.2 mg/L 1.472 1.449 1.29 1.417 1.38 0.991 1.552 1.947 Nitrate Nitrogen mg/L if nuis-ance plant growth 0.801 0.767 0.652 0.64 0.653 0.388 0.573 0.59 Total Phos-phoru mg/L 0.185 0.119 0.092 0.065 0.087 0.179 0.263 0.104 Soluble Reactiv Phos-phorus mg/L 0.042 0.065 0.064 0.112 0.077 0.055 0.112 0.05 Chloride mg/L 93.1 83.8 80.9 71.1 67.2 213.8 259.4 373.3 Volatile Susp-ended Solids mg/L CO co Tr-co OT CO CM oo CO o Tf Total Susp-ended Solids mg/L max. 10% over back-groun CM IO co Tf o Tf lO co 27.6 Tf oo CM 00 oo CM T — X Q. CO o> CO o> CO o o r-" h- CD 1^  Alka-linity mg/L CaCo CM CO 29.5 in CM 26.5 co CM o m 56.5 CO CO Specific Conduct -ivity uS/cm co CO o co CO co o co co Tf CM Tf CO CM Tf CO oo CO h-OT 1405 Turb-idity NTU OT CM CO CM f~ CM Tf CM co CM o m CO m CO m Sample Name Criteria* Gilmore 1 Gilmore 2 Gilmore 3 Gilmore 4 Gilmore 5 Hiqhway 1 Hiqhway 2 Highway 3 o c o O c CO X J CO c CO o CO D cr < 0 ra "5 sz Ui Cj) c g TJ a> -4—< o i_ CL CO u. CD -*—' CL CO sz O CO CD c 0 X J 'zz CD $ CO O i— CD CO c CO X J CO c, CO o o UJ c in 03 Oi E °2 c o sz •5 -c 5 T J C oo 0) .52 eg o c <o ro CD •cz o X J CD CD O X CD -*—< CO sz oo CD J2 CO > ro < ro X J & ro o X J c oo c o C J ) CD * o X J CD X J ro sz CO 135 Vehicles/ hour CD co 1140 2560 Total oo o h-m 1095 1465 1280 Trucks South CO m m CO Cars South •* CN CN m •* m r~ Trucks North Tr h-CN o co Cars North f -co CN CO m 00 in CO End Time 9:18 AM 10:07 AM 7:45 AM 1:15 PM Start Time 8:48 AM 9:37 AM 7:15 AM 12:45 PM Date July 7th, 1995 August 24th, 1995 July 7th, 1995 July 7th, 1995 Station Nootka Renfrew Willingdon Willingdon Average for Willingdon A P P E N D I X G Street Surface Sediment Data Percent Aromatic of TPH ^ ^ c o c o c o r g c o M - ' t ' t ' ^ c o c o t O ' t ' t i n i n i n ' i-coT-Percent Aliphatic of TPH U 0 i f l ( D ( D < 0 M D i O m U ) i f l ( 0 ( D ( D i O i O , * ' t ' * i f l " ' T -Aromatic Hydrocarbons ra ra Z3 "* CM l O i n c O N N i n i o o o i o i f l i o o i O ' t i n r g ' ^ o j f i s ' S o i i n c o M n o ^ T - N r t O f l O M n T - o c M n p i t o . n " ! o s » r \ i o ) e o ( D f f l N T - T - i n i n * c i ) N O T - s e o « ' i o CNCMT-CMT-T-T-T-CMCMCMTrT-CMCOCMCMTfCMrr*ScO CM a J Aliphatic Hydrocarbons ra ra zz CO °* OT-cOT-cN-*cMr^TrcoOLOCMcOT-LOcqcMco-cn^r CMCMlOt^ CJ>CMtO00CMCOlOCMT-CMCOCOCMC»T-«O{o<R C M o o T f < o c o o o o ) C M C » » n c o i o c o c o o o i O T f r ^ c o ^ t > ~ o CMCMCOCOCOTfCMCMCNCMCMr^COTi-TrCMT-MCM^cO-* TPH Rank (1=low, 19=high) out of 19 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ra ra =3 — S CO i n t o t o c o o i c i i c o s ^ ^ t o ' l T - i o w o o o c o i n c o - c B T - r^r tTfTfcNOJOJCJJCMiozI ror^cj iTrTi -cMT -^o . n i o c o a c o t D w c o T - N ^ ^ T - o s N j c B T - , - " ^ EOC Rank (1=low, 19=high) out of 19 t ? ° ^ ' I s ! ^ n ' < f T ! l ' 2 o > ' 5 o j c o ' l ( D i r ) ' 2 T -Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) ra ra SCJLOCONCO'l-COCOCOCOCDIDCOCOiOCONNincOO ( s o i T - c o T - c o c j ) T - c o s c v i ^ * i o N N O ' j - s i n N ; c j ( N O C B N O O c o o o c o ^ w o i o o n c v i c o c o o J C B - c L p ; N O O O W T - l O f f l C O T - O l i - m f f i C O N N t D t O^C 1 ^ r - CM ^ r - n - - CM 00 CO CM Station Number CD ' i= OJ > co ^ ^ r o c o ^ < M ^ l o l O T | - t o c O ' < t T - CO CM CD T - CO CO ^ Q : r : r 2 i ? 2 ^ 0 f j ! £ 2 a : o - o o x t > < Q i O X ^ ^ 8 137 A P P E N D I X H POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON STUDY This study as presented does not respond to the objectives originally proposed. The first several months of my research work were spent on a project that was to examine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distribution in sediments throughout the Brunette watershed. The following is an account of the initial research and an explanation as to why the project was modified to the total petroleum hydrocarbon study now presented. INTRODUCTION PAH's are naturally occurring compounds, but are produced and released in relatively large amounts by pyrolysis of fossil fuels, and thus can be used as indicators of anthropogenic activity. Transportation and industry are often fingered as important urban sources. PAH's reach watercourses by dry deposition, wet deposition and urban runoff, where they preferentially bind to particulates and become immobilized in the sediments. Although only present in minute quantities, PAH's have been long regarded as significant urban pollutants due to their low degradability and high carcinogenicity. OBJECTIVES The Brunette was chosen as the case study for an urban watershed in the Basin Ecosystem Study (BEST). PAH levels could indicate the influence that urban activities have on the water quality and ecosystem health in the basin. Spatial variation in PAH levels can be examined over the variety of land uses, and a previous basinwide PAH study [Morton 1983] provides the opportunity to investigate temporal variation over the last 12 years. EXPERIMENTAL The availability of a Supercritical Fluid Extractor (SFE) provided a chance to work with this new technology as well as benefit from the rapid sample 138 preparation and savings of solvent costs that it promised. Several weeks were spent trying to validate some of the method development for the SFE found in the literature for sediment / soil studies similar to this (trap spiking, matrix spiking, parameter (pressure, temperature, time) adjustment, sample size, sample preparation, etc.). This method development was done with representative sediment samples from the basin. It was clear quite early on that reproducible results were difficult to obtain. Numerous problems with the instrument led to obtaining a replacement model (which was also not fully functional) from the distributor. Due to the instrument problems, it was difficult to determine whether the inability to achieve reproducible results was due to the equipment, the method, or the samples. To eliminate confusion from the instrument, wet solvent extractions using methylene chloride were attempted to determine how much variability was due to sample heterogeneity. Soxhlet extractions offered similar results to the SFE extractions. The only samples that showed any statistically acceptable reproducibility were those done on the fraction that passed a 63 urn sieve. Although studying this fraction is feasible for some stations, most did not possess enough of this silty material to make sampling possible. A comprehensive experiment was undertaken to assess the heterogeneity in the sediment samples. Sediment samples were taken from five different sampling stations throughout the basin. The object was to compare PAH concentrations determined from five sub-samples from one station with five samples taken from the five different stations. If the variability was comparable, then no conclusive results could be ever be drawn if we pursued the original study. All samples were extracted in duplicate (one in a Soxhlet apparatus and one using the shaker method), then cleaned up in identical fashion using a DMSO separation technique [MacRae 1995]. The experiment showed that there was no significant reproducibility among the five replicate samples using either extraction method. There was also no agreement across the two methods with respect to the replicates or the other five samples. Since no acceptable 139 reproducibility was obtained from any of the extraction techniques attempted, the lack of reproducibility was attributed to a highly heterogeneous sediment. CONCLUSIONS Removing the effects of a heterogeneous matrix can be accomplished by increasing sample size or number of samples. Increasing the number of samples would be exhaustive and time consuming since the number needed to get statistically acceptable data would be enormous. Increasing sample size would be possible as we were not limited by sediment available, but the SFE is unable to deal with samples over 2g. Processing larger samples by liquid extraction would be feasible, but only with high solvent volumes and costs. This reproducibility experiment indicated that the sediment was extremely heterogeneous with respect to PAH's and the basinwide sediment study was not worth pursuing. My thesis objectives were modified to include PAH's within the broader category of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). We hoped to avoid the PAH heterogeneity problems since TPH concentrations should be some 100 fold higher and not as susceptible to wide variation. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES Since PAH's provide a good measure of urban activity, this study would have made valuable contributions to the Basin Ecosystem Study. For those who choose to attempt similar in the future, I make the following recommendations: • It is time consuming and expensive to overcome reproducibility problems with methods such as increasing sample size or number of samples. • The supercritical fluid extractor provides an opportunity to save both time and solvent. Before proceeding with field samples, reproducible results must be obtained from standards. • Higher reproducibility may be obtained by extracting only finer grained sediments. Trial extractions on sediments that pass small sieve sizes may be worthwhile. 140 A study of PAH concentrations in the suspended solids of stormwater or street runoff may be a better choice. Stormwater provides a completely mixed medium that would be less susceptible to heterogeneity problems. However, large sample volumes would be required to bring levels above detection limits. A continuous centrifuge, used to obtain suspended sediments from throughout storm events, may supply suitable samples. A study of PAH's in lake core sediments would provide a valuable historical record. Lake core samples should also be less susceptible to heterogeneity problems of larger streambed sediments since (1) they are a composite of several years of accumulation and (2) they consist of finer sediments. Again, sample size would have to be large enough. Question results presented by other researchers. What methods are they using? Did they mention any problems with reproducibility or provide confidence intervals for their data? 141 A P P E N D I X I Sub-Basin Traffic Density and Land Cover Permeability TABLE 1-1 Traffic Density and Land Cover Permeability in Sub-Basins and Sub-Catchments [Data from McCallum 1995] Sub-Catchment Sub-Basin 1993 Traffic Density (vehicle km/day x 10 3) Permable Area (hectares) Impermeable Area (hectares) Still Creek 1 670 364.2 321.8 2 380 271.2 250.7 3 308 203.9 183.3 4 259 209.4 161.1 6 29 16.3 25.8 7 17 24.7 16.4 8 66 35.5 30.4 9 114 123.1 104.3 10 26 33.3 13.7 11 27 10.9 17.3 12 150 106.6 68.2 15 106 253.3 190.3 Total 2245 1469 1566.9 (51.6%) Eagle Ck/Bby Lk/Deer Lk 5 272 555.3 283.9 13 106 96.3 24.5 14 158 55.2 32.1 16 0 132.6 0.0 17 8 62.3 13.0 18 97 43.0 24.2 19 145 475.2 91.8 20 62 81.3 37.0 21 16 63.4 23.3 23 45 38.5 18.2 24 32 216.1 35.0 Total 941 1681 721.1 (30.0%) Brunette 22 176 50.1 13.5 25 31 49.3 21.2 26 39 100.9 36.2 27 224 634.5 154.0 28 39 31.8 2.6 29 633 467.0 275.3 Total 1142 1168.9 667.6 (36.4%) Note : a more detailed data set is available in McCallum 1995. 142 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0050394/manifest

Comment

Related Items