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Primary sludge fermentation using a pilot-scale mainstream fermenter to enhance biological phosphorus… Atherton, Heather 1995

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P R I M A R Y S L U D G E F E R M E N T A T I O N U S I N G A P I L O T - S C A L E M A I N S T R E A M F E R M E N T E R T O E N F L A N C E B I O L O G I C A L P H O S P H O R U S R E M O V A L by H E A T H E R A T H E R T O N B.A.Sc. (Civil Engineering), Queen's University, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF APPLIED SCIENCE in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of Civil Engineering We accept this thesis as coriforming to the required stanctedrcl T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A July 1995 © Heather Atherton, 1 9 9 5 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis 'for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of o \ \ V 1 y W ^ x ? e ^ v r " V ^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date -3CT .V - ? \ , \ C X O ^ * -A DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Research was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using a mainstream primary sludge fermenter to produce simple carbon compounds to enhance biological phosphorus removal from wastewater. A mainstream fermenter, which consisted of a complete mix tank followed by a thickener with solids recycle, was constructed and incorporated into the biological nutrient removal process train of the UBC Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. The mainstream fermenter was operated for a period of one year to investigate the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and environmental factors on process operation and short chain carbon production. The mainstream fermenter was operated at HRTs of 2.2, 3.2 and 4.3 hours. The HRT of the mainstream fermenter was observed to influence the production of volatile fatty acid (VFA); an increase in HRT resulted in an increase in net production of VFA. Individual acid formation in the mainstream fermenter was found not to be influenced by fermenter HRT. The performance of the mainstream fermenter operating at an HRT of 4.3 hours was equal to that of a side-stream static fermenter or a complete mix fermenter but below that of a side-stream separate complete mix/thickener fermenter. The quantity of simple carbon compounds produced in the mainstream fermenter while operating at an HRT of 4.3 hours combined with that found in the influent sewage were sufficient to stimulate good biological phosphorus removal at the UBC Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. Fermenter HRT had little affect on the quantity of soluble COD produced in the mainstream fermenter nor the portion of soluble COD that existed in the form of VFA. There was little change in the concentration of soluble COD between the mainstream fermenter influent and effluent suggesting hydrolysis of particulate organic matter did not readily occur in the mainstream fermenter. Nevertheless, the V F A fraction of soluble ii ABSTRACT COD was significantly higher in the mainstream fermenter effluent than the raw influent indicating there was a conversion of soluble COD to VFA in the mainstream fermenter. The configuration of the mainstream fermenter did not allow for accurate control of solids retention time (SRT). However, a stable biomass inventory was quickly achieved and maintained without purposeful wasting. The steady-state level of biomass was dependent upon the length of HRT; longer HRTs resulted in lower biomass concentrations. Seasonal variations did not significantly affect the operation of the mainstream fermenter. iii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ABSTRACT ii T A B L E OF CONTENTS......... iv LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii 1 INTRODUCTION..... 1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3 2.1 Carbon Requirements for Biological Phosphorus Removal 3 2.2 Kinetics of Acid Fermentation 4 2.2.1 Carbohydrates 6 2.2.2 Proteins... 8 2.2.3 Lipids 9 2.3 Factors Affecting Acid Fermentation 10 2.3.1 pH 11 2.3.2 Temperature 11 2.3.3 HRTandSRT 12 2.4 Fermenter Configuration 13 2.4.1 Activated Primary Tanks 14 2.4.2 Static Fermenter 16 2.4.3 Complete Mix Fermenter 18 2.4.4 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter 20 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 23 4 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 25 4.1 Fermentation System Configuration and Operation 25 4.1.1 Fermenter Setup 25 4.1.2 Fermenter Operation 28 4.2 Batch Experiments 29 4.3 Analytical Procedures 31 4.3.1 TSSandVSS 32 4.3.2 VFA 32 4.3.3 Soluble COD 33 4.4 Statistical Analysis 34 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 35 5.1 General Operating Conditions 35 5.1.1 Influent Composition 35 5.1.2 Fermenter Operation 38 5.1.3 Process Acclimatization and Stability 39 5.2 Effect of Environmental Factors 41 5.2.1 pH 41 5.2.2 Temperature 42 5.3 Effect of HRT 46 5.3.1 Fermenter TSS 47 5.3.2 VFA Production 48 5.3.3 V F A Speciation 50 5.4 Soluble COD 52 5.5 Batch Experiments 56 5.6 Comparison of Fermenter Performance 62 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 64 6.1 Conclusions 64 6.2 Recommendations 65 REFERENCES 67 APPENDIX A - CALCULATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS 72 APPENDIX B - OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS 74 APPENDIX C - V F A DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION 84 APPENDIX D - SOLUBLE COD 97 APPENDIX E - B A T C H EXPERIMENTS 102 APPENDIX F - STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 107 v L I S T O F T A B L E S 4.1 Operating Conditions (Mean Values) 29 5.1 Fermenter pH 42 5.2 Summary of Temperature Statistical Analysis 44 5.3 Summary of TSS Concentrations 47 5.4 Fermenter V F A Production 48 5.5 One-Way Anova for Significant Difference in HRT ...49 5.6 Effluent V F A Speciation 51 5.7 Fermenter Soluble COD 54 5.8 VFA Fraction of Soluble COD 55 5.9 Comparison of Fermenter Performance 62 vi L I S T O F F I G U R E S 2.1 Pathways of Anaerobic Metabolism 5 2.2 Activated Primary Tank 14 2.3 Static Fermenter 16 2.4 Complete Mix Fermenter 18 2.5 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter 21 4.1 Mainstream Two-Stage Fermenter 26 4.2 B atch Experiment Apparatus 30 5.1 Influent Composition 36 5.2 Fermenter TSS Concentrations 40 5.3 Fermenter Daily Average Temperature 43 5.4 Scatter Plot of Temperature and V F A Production 45 5.5 Fermenter V F A Speciation 52 5.6 Fermenter Soluble COD 54 5.7 VFA Fraction of Soluble COD 55 5.8 Batch Experiment 1 58 5.9 Batch Experiment V F A Production 59 5.10 Batch Experiment VFA Speciation 61 vii A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I wish to express my sincere thanks to the many people who provided guidance, encouragement and technical support throughout this research project. I am most grateful to my supervisor, Dr. W. K. Oldham, whose quiet laugh along with his knowledge, insight, and enthusiasm guided me through my research. I am also grateful to Fred Koch and Angus Chu for freely sharing their ideas and experience during many enlightening discussions. This project could not have been successful without the assistance given to me by Susan Harper, Paula Parkinson and Zufang Zhou, of the U.B.C. Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, and by Guy Kirsch, of the Civil Engineering Workshop. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank my father, Professor D. L. Atherton, for his continued understanding and support during my studies. Financial support for this project was provided by The University of British Columbia Department of Civil Engineering. viii C H A P T E R O N E INTRODUCTION Although some activated sludge plants operated for biological phosphorus removal are capable of consistently achieving very low effluent phosphorus concentrations without separate fermentation for the production of volatile fatty acid (VFA), experience in North America has shown that purposeful fermentation of primary sludge greatly enhances the biological phosphorus removal process. Short chain organic compounds, primarily VFA, are the carbon compounds responsible for stimulating phosphorus release and uptake in a biologically enhanced phosphorus removal process. Certain quantities of V F A are present in influent sewage due to fermentation in the sewage collection systems, however, the degree of fermentation is influenced by the temperature and flow time in the sewers as well as groundwater infiltration. Varying concentrations of simple organic compounds in the influent stream result in incomplete and inconsistent biological phosphorus removal. Primary sludge fermentation ensures an adequate supply of V F A regardless of temperature changes and stormwater infiltration. Numerous configurations of primary clarifiers, complete mix tanks, and gravity thickeners may be utilized to ferment primary sludge to produce short chain organic compounds. The four most common process schematics are: activated primary tanks, static fermenter, complete mix fermenter, and separate complete mix/ thickener fermenter. The choice of fermenter configuration is largely dependent upon the strength of the wastewater, the degree of fermentation in the sewerage system, and the structures available for conversion in existing retrofitted plants. Both the fermenter efficiency and capital cost increase from activated primary tanks to separate complete/mix thickener fermenter. If high efficiency fermentation is not required, converting a clarifier to an 1 INTRODUCTION activated primary tank is a feasible economic alternative. Conversely, if substantial production of simple carbon compounds is required, a newly constructed separate complete/mix thickener fermenter may be costly but necessary alternative. The use of a mainstream fermenter is proposed as a cost efficient alternative to conventional fermentation systems. The fermenter configuration is similar to that of the separate complete mix/thickener fermenter but rather than transferring primary sludge to the fermenter from the primary clarifier, the mainstream fermenter has the novel design in which the primary clarifier is replaced by the fermenter. Thus, there is potential for the fermenter to be incorporated into the main biological phosphorus removal reactor; a useful feature when retrofitting activated sludge wastewater treatment plants for biological phosphorus removal. A mainstream fermenter was constructed and incorporated into the biological nutrient removal process train of the UBC Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. Its performance with regards to process operation and production of short chain carbon compounds was investigated. 2 C H A P T E R T W O L ITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Carbon Requirements for Biological Phosphorus Removal The biological phosphorus removal process is a well established technology for the control of eutrophication of receiving water bodies. The process utilizes certain species of bacteria which, under sequential anaerobic-aerobic conditions, are capable of storing phosphorus in excess of their metabolic requirements; thereby removing soluble phosphorus from the wastewater stream. The operating costs of the biological phosphorus removal process are low compared to phosphorus removal by chemical precipitation as a conventional activated sludge process can be modified to remove phosphorus by adding an anaerobic zone preceding the aerobic zone (Toerien et al, 1990). In the anaerobic zone phosphorus accumulating bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, store simple carbon compounds; primarily in the form of poly-P-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a four carbon unit, and poly-P-hydroxyvalerate (PHV), a five carbon unit (Comeau et al, 1987). Energy for the storage of PHB and PHV is provided by the hydrolysis of polyphosphate pools. Consequently, there is a release of phosphorus correlating to the quantity of organic carbon taken up (Wentzel et al, 1985; Jones et al, 1987; Abu-ghararah and Randall, 1990) . In the subsequent aerobic zone, phosphorus removing bacteria rapidly ingest soluble phosphorus and store it as polyphosphate reserves. Energy for the uptake of phosphorus is produced by the aerobic decomposition of intracellular substrates, PHB and PHV (Somiya et al, 1986). 3 LITERA TURE REVIEW Phosphorus accumulating bacteria proliferate under sequential anaerobic-aerobic conditions as their ability to store carbon in the anaerobic zone provides them with a competitive advantage over other heterotrophic microorganisms in the subsequent aerobic zone (Toerien et al, 1990). Hence, the capacity for phosphorus removal of a treatment plant configured for biological phosphorus removal is a function of the availability of readily biodegradable short chain carbon compounds in the anaerobic zone of the bioreactor (Gerber et al, 1986; Comeau etal, 1987; Comeau, 1989; Lotter and Pitman, 1992). The carbon substrate most readily stored by phosphorus accumulating bacteria is VFA, primarily acetic and propionic acid (Comeau et al., 1987; Gerber et al., 1987; Jones et al., 1987; Mostert et al, 1988; Abu-ghararah and Randall, 1990). Since influent domestic wastewater does not usually contain sufficient quantities of VFA to induce high levels of phosphorus removal, an external carbon source is required. This source can be either preformed VFA or the products of primary sludge fermentation. 2.2 Kinetics of Acid Fermentation In the natural environment many species of microorganisms share the ability to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) under anaerobic conditions, however the form and measure of volatile acid depends largely upon the microbial species and substrate involved (Andrews and Pearson, 1985). Historically, anaerobic bacteria have been utilized in wastewater treatment technologies such as two phase anaerobic digestion of sludge; a biological process whereby organic matter is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen with volatile acids produced as intermediate products. Recently the first stage of anaerobic digestion of primary sludge, the acid forming phase, 4 LITERA TURE REVIEW has been isolated for the production of VFA, the substrate required to induce biological phosphorus removal. The conversion of complex organic substrates to acetic acid or other intermediary products such as propionic and butyric acid is a multistep process of series and parallel reactions entailing several distinct microbial populations. Particulate biopolymers such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes to their monomer constituents, respectively sugars, amino acids and fatty acids, which are then be used as substrates by fermentative organisms or by anaerobic oxidizers (Eastman and Ferguson, 1981). Figure 2.1 presents a summary of the four processes that may occur during acid-phase anaerobic digestion of a complex substrate. 1) HYDROLYSIS 2) FERMENTATION 3) ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS 4) ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS Figure 2.1 Pathways of Anaerobic Metabolism (Adapted from Kaspar and Wuhrmann, 1978) 5 LITERA TURE REVIEW Fermentation is defined as a microbial metabolic process in which organic compounds serve as both electron donors and electron acceptors. The substrates for fermentation are amino acids and sugars and the products are cellular material, intermediary degradation products (propionate and butyrate), acetate, and hydrogen (Gujer and Zehnder, 1983). Long-chain fatty acids, propionate and butyrate are substrates for anaerobic oxidation; a microbial process in which molecular hydrogen is the main sink for electrons. Degradation of long-chain fatty acids to short-chain fatty acids occurs by P-oxidation. Intermediary products such as propionate and butyrate are anaerobically oxidized to produce acetate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen (Gujer and Zehnder, 1983). The metabolic sub processes and microbial groups involved in the acid-phase anaerobic digestion are dictated by the initial polymeric material (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomes, 1991). The next sections will discuss in greater detail the microbial and biochemical aspects of VFA formation from each of the three major organic constituents of primary sludge: carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). 2.2.1 Carbohydrates The most abundant class of carbohydrates occurring in nature are polysaccharides; extremely large macromolecules (molecular weights ranging from 25,000 to 15 million) of simple and derived sugars linked together by glycosidic bonds. Almost all polysaccharides are insoluble in water (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch are the most common polysaccharides in domestic wastewater. (Hunter and Heukelekian, 1965). The major source of cellulose is paper, contributing greater than 40% of the carbohyrates found in municipal wastewater. Hemicellulose constitutes the second greatest contributor of carbohydrates in wastewater, ranging from 20 to 25% (Hunter and 6 LITERA TURE REVIEW Heukelekian, 1965). Only small quantities of pectin and starch occur in domestic wastewater. Before particulate polysaccharides can be utilized by microorganisms they must be degraded by enzymes to soluble compounds which are capable of being transported through the cell membrane. Cellulose is degraded by cellulose hydrolyzing organisms using the enzyme complex cellulase yielding glucose. Hemicellulose is degraded by the exoenzyme complex hemicellulase to produce pentoses, hexoses, and uronic acids (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991). Pectin is hydrolyzed to galacturonic acid residues by a series of enzymatic reactions involving pectinesterase, hydrolase and lyase. Hydrolysis of starch to the final end product glucose is carried out by many anaerobes using the synergistic action of four types of specific enzymes (Eastman and Ferguson, 1981). Fermentative microorganisms utilize glucose, the primary simple sugar generated from polysaccharide hydrolysis, as the substrate for the glycolytic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnes (EMP) pathway. Two molecules of pyruvic acid are generated per molecule of glucose. Depending upon the anaerobic microbial species present, subsequent pyruvic acid fermentation can lead to the production of different forms of VFA, primarily acetic, propionic, and butyric acid (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Acetic acid is the end product of the EMP pathway and is also formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide. Propionic acid is generated by the degradation of pyruvic acid via the succinate-propionate pathway, or via the acrylate pathway using lactic acid as the substrate. Butyric acid, the least common form of VFA, is the end product of pyruvic acid fermentation by many obligate anaerobes (Brock and Madigan, 1991) . 7 LITERA TURE REVIEW 2.2.2 Proteins The most complex class of organic compounds found in municipal wastewater are proteins; polymers of a-amino acids bonded by peptide bonds. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and a few also contain phosphorus and sulfur. The covalent peptide bonds are formed by elimination of water from the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the a-amino group of the next. The molecular weight of proteins ranges from one thousand to several million (Gaudy and Gaudy, 1980). As with carbohydrates, proteins must be reduced from biopolymers to their monomelic components which are capable of penetrating the cell membrane to be used either as building blocks or fermentative substrates. Extracellular enzymes attack polypeptide chains and split peptide bonds, acting either along the length of the polypeptide chain (endopeptidases) or at terminal peptide bonds (exopeptidases) (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991). Free a-amino acids result from the synergistic action of both types of enzyme. There are many different metabolic pathways that specific microorganisms use to convert individual single amino acids to VFA. Aliphatic amino acids (containing an alkyl group, R) are degraded to the corresponding VFA through reductive deamination by bacteria possessing the enzyme dehydrogenase. Glutamic acid is fermented by obligate anaerobes yielding acetic and butyric acid via the methylaspartate pathway and the hydroxglutarate pathway (Brock and Madigan, 1991). However, not all amino acids are fermented singly; pairs of amino acids are coupled via the Stickland reaction, an oxidation-reduction reaction in which one amino acid acts as the hydrogen donor and the second as the hydrogen acceptor. The energy generated is used as an energy source to produce VFA (Brock and Madigan, 1991). 8 LITERA TURE REVIEW 2.2.3 Lipids Lipids are organic biomolecules comprised primarily of fatty acids, alcohols, and glycerol. As a result of their chemical properties, lipids are virtually insoluble in water (Gujer and Zehnder, 1983). Food items such as butter, lard, margarine, vegetable fats and oils are the main contributors of lipids to municipal wastewater (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). The most common classification of lipids is based on their chemical characteristics and includes simple, compound and non-saponifiable lipids (Gaudy and Gaudy, 1980). Fats, oils and waxes are classified as simple lipids. Fats and oils are esters of various fatty acids and the trihydroxy alcohol glycerol. Waxes are esters of fatty acids and long chain monohydroxy alcohols. Simple lipids are frequently referred to as triglycerides as they are comprised of three fatty acids linked to the glycerol molecule (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Fatty acids can be either saturated (fully hydrogenated) or unsaturated and usually contain 16 or 18 carbon atoms (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Compound lipids are simple lipids which contain additional elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur or carbohydrates (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Phospholipids, an important class of compound lipids, are formed from the addition of phosphate compounds (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991). Non-saponifiable lipids are not comprised long chain fatty acids, and consequently do not produce short chain fatty acids upon hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the ester linkages in simple lipids is catalyzed using the group of lipolytic enzymes lipases. Complete hydrolysis of the triglyceride ultimately yields 3 mol of the corresponding fatty acid and 1 mol of glycerol (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991). Phospholipids are hydrolyzed using the enzymes phospholipases. The metabolism of compound lipids generates the corresponding fatty acids and organic compounds, depending upon the complex lipid addition. Degradation of phospholipids result in the production 1 mol of glycerol, 1 mol of phosphoric acid and 2 mol of fatty acid (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991). 9 LITERA TURE REVIEW Long chain fatty acids are anaerobically degraded via a mechanism called P -oxidation to produce end products of acetic, propionic and butyric acid, p-oxidation is appropriately termed as the beta carbon (second from the carboxyl carbon) is oxidized, resulting in the removal of two carbon atoms in the form of acetyl-CoA with each repetition (Brock and Madigan, 1991). The first step in P-oxidation is activation of the fatty acid by one of several enzymes called acetyl-CoA synthetases. Four hydrogen atoms are generated per molecule of acetyl-CoA, consequently P-oxidation is inhibited unless much of the hydrogen produced is converted to hydrogen gas. Acetyl-CoA, the main intermediate of p-oxidation is converted to either acetic acid, in the case of an even carbon long chain fatty acid, or propionic acid, if the long chain fatty acid contained an odd number of carbon (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991). 2.3 Factors Affecting Acid Fermentation The quantity and species of short chain fatty acid produced during acid fermentation of primary sludge may be greatly influenced by environmental factors such as wastewater characteristics, available trace minerals, pH, temperature, reactor configuration, as well as operational parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT). Due to increased interest in optimizing VFA production to enhance the biological phosphorus removal processes, studies focusing on the controllable environmental factors, such as pH and temperature, and operational parameters affecting the acid producing step in anaerobic digestion of primary sludge have recently been conducted. The following sections summarize the pertinent findings of those studies. 10 LITERA TURE REVIEW 2.3.1 p H Eastman and Ferguson (1981) determined the production of soluble carbon during the acid phase of anaerobic digestion of primary sludge was affected by pH. It was discovered during anaerobic batch tests of primary sludge that the pH did the not fall below 5.1 due to buffering of ammonia released from amino acid fermentation. The maximum amount of soluble carbon obtained in batch tests as a result of acetogenesis of primary sludge was 15% higher at pH 6.6 than at pH 5.2. Joubert and Britz (1986) also concluded the pH significantly influenced the type and concentration of fatty acid formed. The concentration of acetic acid produced in a hybrid anaerobic digester increased by greater than 100% at pH 7.0 compared to pH 6.5. However, there was very little increase in propionic acid production over the same pH range. Perot et al, (1988) investigated the influence of pH on the acidification of primary sludge in laboratory complete mix fermenters and determined the optimal pH to be 6.8. On the contrary, Gupta et al, (1985) reported no significant increase in short chain fatty acid production from primary sludge fermentation at controlled pH of 7.0 compared to uncontrolled pH ranging from 5.9 to 6.4. 2.3.2 Temperature Primary sludge fermentation systems operate at ambient temperatures; however, few studies have examined the influence of temperature on VFA production in the temperate ambient temperature range of between 10°C to 30°C. Gupta et al, (1985) observed the net volatile fatty acid production from primary sludge consistently improved with an increase in temperature between 10°C and 30°C. 11 LITERA TURE REVIEW 2.3.3 H R T and S R T The hydraulic retention time is an important operational variable that can be easily manipulated to encourage the growth of selected species of microorganisms, such as the acid producers, as it governs the amount and type of substrate utilized by the bacteria. The SRT is another operational parameter that can be used as a selective factor because it tends to select for species of organisms in accordance with their generation times. Most studies report the combined affect of HRT and SRT on acid digestion as experiments were conducted using batch reactors or conventional continuous flow systems without solids recycle, resulting in almost identical SRT and HRT (Andrews and Pearson, 1965; Eastman and Ferguson, 1981, Rabinowitz, 1985). As a result, no clear distinction can be made between the individual influence of the two parameters. Elefsiniotis (1993) conducted a series of bench-scale, continuous-flow experiments to investigate the independent effect of HRT and SRT on the acid-phase digestion of primary sludge. The net VFA production increased between HRT's of 6 to 12, hours then decreased at an HRT of 15 hours in both a completely mixed and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The volatile fatty acid speciation was determined to be independent of HRT (Elefsiniotis and Oldham, 1994). The influence of SRT on the process was determined to become insignificant at SRTs of greater than 10 days, but at an SRT of 5 days the rate of acidogenesis was reduced by almost 50%. Acetic acid and propionic acid were the predominant volatile fatty acid formed, regardless of SRT (Elefsiniotis and Oldham, 1993). 12 LITERA TURE REVIEW 2.4 Fermenter Configurations The use of primary sludge fermentation to increase the phosphorus removal capacity of biological phosphorus removal processes has been clearly demonstrated. Rabinowitz and Oldham (1985) reported an improvement in phosphorus removal efficiency of 100% after incorporation of a primary sludge fermenter in a pilot-scale biological phosphorus removal process . Lotter and Pitman (1992) significantly improved biological phosphorus removal after enriching the bioreactor feed with fermentation products. The principal function of primary sludge fermenters is to anaerobically degrade the complex organic material in primary sludge to short chain volatile fatty acids. There are four common types of fermenter configurations, consisting of primary clarifiers, complete mix tanks and gravity thickeners. The choice of fermenter configuration is primarily dependent upon the V F A requirement and the structures available for conversion in existing retrofitted plants. The VFA requirement is dictated by the quantity of V F A inherently present in raw sewage due to fermentation in the sewer lines, pump stations and inverted siphons, and by the degree of phosphorus removal required (Randall, 1994). The amount of VFA produced during fermentation in the sewers is dependent upon the length of time and temperatures in the sewers and can also be affected by such things as high infiltration during storms. Primary sludge fermentation ensures an adequate supply of short chain organics regardless of temperature fluctuations and stormwater infiltration, thereby ensuring consistent and high levels of phosphorus removal. The subsequent sections summarize the various fermenter configurations currently in use, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and reviews typical design criteria used for each configuration. 13 LITERA JURE REVIEW 2.4.1 Activated Primary Tanks a) Process Description Barnard (1984) proposed using activated primary tanks (Figure 2.2) to produce fermentation products for biological phosphorus removal. Underflow from the primary clarifier is recycled to the inlet of the clarifier, either directly or through a gravity thickener, thereby maintaining a thick sludge blanket in the primary clarifier. Hence, the capacity of the primary clarifier is available for fermentation. The recycling has the dual purpose of maintaining the sludge blanket and elutriating the acids. A portion of the sludge is wasted from the primary clarifier to sludge handling facilities. MIXING/ ELUTRIAnON TANK PRIMARY CLARIFIER VFA-och prim or y effluent to bioreoctor Figure 2.2 Activated Primary Tank (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994) b) Process Performance Activated primary tanks are the least efficient of the fermentation systems. A study at a biological phosphorus removal plant in Hirblingen, Germany, determined that the effluent of the activated primary settling tank provided no higher concentrations of VFA compared with the effluent of a regular settling tank (Wedi, 1992). However, this may be a result of the tank design, a rectangular flat-bottomed tank, and a function of the combined 14 LITERA TURE REVIEW influent wastewater. This contradicts studies at the CSIRO Watertec pilot plant at Lower Plenty, Australia (Raper et al, 1994) in which the soluble organic carbon in the activated primary tank effluent increased by approximately 50% compared to settled influent sewage concentrations. In the downstream Bardenpho pilot plant, effluent total phosphorus decreased from 3-5 mg/L to below 0.5 mg/L. c) Advantages and Disadvantages The greatest advantage of activated primary tanks lies in the simplicity of their design; additional unit processes are not required (Barnard, 1984). They are a very economical alternative as often it is possible to retrofit clarifiers to carry the high sludge blanket and solids recycle that is required to promote fermentation in activated primary tanks. However, there are considerable disadvantages with this fermentation system. Firstly, it is difficult to control the sludge blanket depth and thus the sludge age. Secondly, it is not possible to direct the VFA rich supernatant to the anaerobic zone independently but must be conveyed in the primary effluent. As a result, there is a possibility of some loss of formed VFA due to volatization and aerobic biological activity in the primary clarifier effluent channels (Oldham, Elefsiniotis, 1993). The greatest problems are, however, mechanical resulting from the increased solids loading in the primary clarifiers. The increased loading leads to high solids loss over the clarifier weirs. Another physical problem encountered was that recycling the primary sludge can lead to a build-up of fibrous material and plastics in the sludge mass, which results in blockages in the recycle pumps and piping (Barnard, 1994). d) Design Criteria The design of activated primary tanks is most often based on the sludge inventory required to achieve a given sludge age, which is usually between 2 and 4 days. The quantity of sludge wasting is determined by the sludge blanket height; optimal height is 15 LITEM TURE REVIEW between 1.5 to 2.0 m above the clarifier floor. Primary sludge recirculation rates range from 5 to 10% of the average dry weather flow rate to the plant (Rabinowitz, 1994). 2.4.2 Static Fermenter a) Process Description The static fermenter depicted in Figure 2.3 was developed by Oldham and Stevens (1984) and is similar in concept to the to the activated primary tanks. The fermenter consists of a gravity thickener with an increased side water depth to accommodate sludge storage on the thickener bottom (Stevens, 1994). Primary sludge is pumped into a center well and allowed to thicken. As the sludge thickens, excess liquids rich in fermentation products rise to the supernatant zone and are discharged directly to the anaerobic zone of the BNR bioreactor. Thickened primary sludge is drawn off from the bottom of the fermenter at a solids concentration of 5 to 8% and wasted to the sludge handling system (Barnard, 1994). The wastage rate is determined by the operational sludge age, which is based on the sludge inventory in the fermenter. This type of fermentation system is in operation at the BNR facility in Kelowna, B.C. (1984). PRIMARY CLARIFIER Primary effluent to bioreoctor FERMENTER/THICKEN EE Primary'4ucoe VfA-r ieh fermenter supernatant to biereoctor u *-Waste sfcidoe to 4u4oe hooding Figure 2.3 Static Fermenter (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994) 16 LITERA TURE REVIEW b) Process Performance The static fermenter at the 5-stage Bardenpho plant in Kelowna, B.C. has been in operation since 1983. In 1988 the fermenter supernatant was directed to the anaerobic zone of the BNR bioreactor rather than through the primary clarifiers. During the past two years the fermenter has operated at a 14 hour HRT. The SRT has not been accurately determined but is estimated to be approximately 15 days. Average production of V F A per litre of influent sewage is 24 mg/L (expressed as HAc). This level of production, when added to the VFA normally present in the raw sewage (varying between 5 and 15 mg/L as HAc), is sufficient to maintain an average effluent ortho-P of 0.10 mg/L (Oldham and Abraham, 1994). c) Advantages and Disadvantages The greatest advantage of the static fermenter compared to activated primary tanks is that the VFA rich supernatant is discharged directly into the anaerobic zone of the BNR process, thus allowing for optimal use of this substrate source in the biological phosphorus removal mechanism (Rabinowitz, 1994). In addition, the HRT can be controlled with a reasonable degree of accuracy by varying the primary clarifier underflow transfer rate (Oldham and Elefsiniotis, 1993). The main disadvantage of using thickeners as fermenters is the lack of direct control over the SRT. However, detection of the sludge blanket can serve as a means of controlling the system adequately (Barnard, 1994). d) Design Criteria The governing design criterion of the static fermenter is usually the solids loading rate, which ranges from 25 to 40 kg/m^/d (Stevens, 1994). The solids loading rate for a static fermenter is significantly lower than the solids rate normally used for gravity thickeners (Rabinowitz, 1994). Primary sludge from the underflow of the primary clarifier is pumped into the static fermenter at a rate of 5 to 10% of the average dry weather flow to 17 LITERA TURE REVIEW the plant (Oldham et al, 1992). Sludge ages are typically between 3 to 6 days, depending on the fermenter temperature (Stevens, 1994). Side water depths of approximately 3 m are required to maintain the sludge inventory (Stevens, 1994). The design of the static fermenter incorporates internal rake mechanisms and scrapers to improve settling efficiencies, remove entrained gasses, transport sludge to a collection well and remove and collect floating solids (Stevens, 1994). 2.4.3 Complete Mix Fermenter a) Process Description Rabinowitz et al., (1987) proposed the complete mix fermenter shown in Figure 2.4, which is in operation in Penticton, B.C. Sludge from the primary clarifiers is transferred by pump to a completely mixed tank where acid fermentation occurs. The overflow fermenter liquor is returned by gravity to the primary clarifier for separation of sludge and supernatant. Excess primary sludge is wasted from the complete mix fermenter. FERMENTER influent PRIMARY CLARIFIER VFA-ric*i primary effluent to bioreoctor Waste sfejdqe to sludo* handing Figure 2.4 Complete Mix Fermenter (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994) 18 LITERA TURE REVIEW b) Process Performance The complete mix fermenter was installed at the BNR wastewater treatment plant in Penticton, B.C. in 1990. The fermenter operates at an HRT of 17 hours and SRT of 7 days. During a nine month study period in 1993-1994 the fermenter produced 17 mg/L VFA (measured as HAc) per litre of plant influent. Further fermentation occurs in the primary clarifier as it is used as the separation reactor, returning sludge to the complete mix fermenter. The formed carbon substrate, along with the VFA found in the raw sewage (between 8 and 14 mg/L as HAc), was sufficient to reduce the influent total phosphorus concentration of 7.1 mg/L to 0.15 mg/L (Oldham and Abraham, 1994). c) Advantages and Disadvantages The complete mix fermenter configuration allows for accurate control of both HRT and SRT; thereby reducing the danger of methane formation and sulphide generation. The fermenter HRT is determined by the tank volume and rate at which sludge is pumped from the primary clarifier. The SRT is controlled by the sludge wastage rate from the complete mix fermenter (Rabinowitz, 1994). Compared to the static fermenter, the complete mix fermenter provides greater contact of incoming substrate with the recycled fermentative organisms. The disadvantages of the complete mix fermenter are similar to those of the activated primary tank. The high solids loading rates in the primary clarifier result in excessive loss of solids over the clarifier weir. In addition there is the loss of some of the VFA produced in the fermenter as a result of aerobic activity and stripping in the passage through the primary clarifiers (Rabinowitz, 1994). Other operational difficulties include: winding of fibrous material around the shafts due to the vortexing action of the mixer in the complete mix tank; blockages of the outlet pipework and primary sludge pumps; and formation of a stable scum blanket in the tanks (Abraham, 1994). 19 LITERA TURE REVIEW d) Design Criteria The design of complete mix fermenter is most often based on the dry weather flow rate to the plant; with the fermenter operating at 5 to 10% of the plant flow. Complete mix tanks are of a size to provide a hydraulic retention time of between 6 and 12 hours, an SRT of 4 to 8 days and a solids concentration of 1 to 2% (Rabinowitz, 1994). Mixing is the essential unit process that distinguishes the complete-mix primary fermenter system from the static fermenter. The mixing energy provided by the mixers must be sufficient to maintain heavy primary solids in suspension and to resuspend light anaerobic solids and scum that have float-separated to the surface of the fermenter. Nevertheless, the mixing must not be so vigorous as to result in vortexing and excessive air entrainment in the fermenter (Abraham, 1994). The use of slow speed mixers equipped with variable speed drives that impart between 5 and 10 W/m^ is recommended (Rabinowitz, 1994). 2.4.4 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter a) Process Description The separate complete mix/thickener fermentation system depicted in Figure 2.5 was deemed by the designers (Rabinowitz and Oldham, 1985) to be the ultimate in fermentation systems, combining the positive features of the complete mix fermenter and the static fermenter. The fermentation system consists of a complete mix tank and gravity thickener in series. Primary sludge is transferred by pump to the completely mixed tank, and the overflow flows by gravity to the gravity thickener. Thickener sludge from the thickener bottom is returned via a pump to the complete mix tank. As a result, a larger proportion of sludge is stored in the complete mix tank compared to the thickener. The wastage rate of the thickened primary sludge controls the fermenter SRT. The V F A rich thickener supernatant is discharged directly to the anaerobic zone of the main BNR bioreactor. 20 LITERA TURE REVIEW FERMENTER Row htu«nt PRIMARY CLARIFIER Primary •Mu«nt to bicraactor THICKENER VfA-rieri fermenter juoemotont to bicrecctcr Waste JkxJoe to dvOoc *-C7 Primary sludge recyde Figure 2.5 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994) b) Process Performance A separate complete mix/thickener fermenter has been in operation at the Kalispell, Montana BNR facility since 1992. The fermenter operates at an HRT of 28 hours and an SRT of 12 days. Over a two year data collection period, the fermenter has produced an average of 58 mg/L VFA per litre of plant influent, more than is required to maintain good removal of 5 mg/L of influent phosphorus. It is apparent from the initial operating experience, that this fermentation system provides a significantly higher V F A contribution to the influent sewage than does either the static fermenter at Kelowna or the complete mix fermenter at Penticton (Oldham and Abraham, 1994). c) Advantages and Disadvantages The separate complete mix/thickener fermenter has the advantages associated with both the complete mix and the static fermenter. It allows separate and accurate control of HRT and SRT, along with direct discharge of the VFA rich thickener supernatant to the anaerobic zone of the main BNR bioreactor. The greatest disadvantage of the separate 21 LITERA TURE REVIEW complete mix/thickener fermenter is capital cost. The use of a complete-mix fermenter with a dedicated thickener will usually require newly constructed facilities, even for the retrofit of an existing activated sludge plant (Daigger, 1994). d) Design Criteria The primary sludge pumping rate typically ranges between 2 to 4% of the average dry weather flow. The pumping rate is lower compared to other fermenters because recycling the sludge between the units significantly increases the solids loading to the thickener (Rabinowitz, 1994). The complete mix/thickener fermenter is usually designed to operate at an SRT of 4 to 8 days, with a solids concentration of between 1.5 and 2% in the complete mix tank. The gravity thickener should be designed with loading rate of 100 to 150 kg/m^/d and a side water depth of between 3.5 and 4 m (Rabinowitz, 1994). The thickened sludge recycle rate from the thickener to the complete mix tank is usually 50 percent of the primary sludge pumping rate. Slow speed mixers that impart 5 to 10 W/m^ to the fermenter liquid should be used to provide mixing energy to the complete mix tank. 22 C H A P T E R T H R E E RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The science and engineering of primary sludge fermentation to produce V F A for the biological phosphorus removal process have been well documented in the previous chapter. Elefsiniotis (1993) investigated the effects of operational and environmental parameters on acid-phase digestion of primary sludge. Rabinowitz (1994) summarized criteria for design of effective primary sludge fermentation systems. Oldham and Abraham (1994) presented an overview of full-scale fermenter performance. It is apparent that primary sludge fermentation technology is well established. There is a need, however, to develop a more economic primary sludge fermenter process configuration. The mainstream two-stage primary sludge fermenter was proposed as a cost efficient alternative to conventional fermentation systems. The fermenter configuration is similar to the separate complete mix/thickener fermenter (Section 2.4.4) but rather than transferring primary sludge to the fermenter from the primary clarifier, the mainstream fermenter has the novel design in which the fermenter replaces the primary clarifier. Thus, the fermenter could be incorporated into the main biological phosphorus removal process train; a useful feature when retrofitting activated sludge wastewater treatment plants for biological phosphorus removal. Research involved the construction and operation of a pilot scale mainstream two-stage fermenter to investigate its performance with regards to VFA production and process operation. The influence of various operational (HRT and SRT) and environmental (temperature and pH) parameters was examined. Particular attention was paid to the role of HRT as the mainstream fermenter operates at much shorter HRTs compared to traditional side-stream fermenters. Anaerobic batch experiments, designed to model 23 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES conditions in the complete mix reactor, were conducted in an attempt to determine a rate of production of VFA during fermentation of primary sludge. In addition to VFA, the truly soluble COD was monitored throughout the study to investigate the possibility of using it as an easily measurable parameter indicating the availability of short chain carbon compounds for the biological phosphorus removal process (Mamais et al., 1992). 24 CHAPTER FOUR EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 4.1 Fermentation System Configuration and Operation The fermentation study was conducted at the University of British Columbia Pilot Plant. The plant operates as a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) facility treating low strength domestic wastewater generated on the university campus. A mainstream primary sludge fermentation system was incorporated into each of the two parallel B N R process trains. Raw wastewater was pumped continuously to the fermenters from three stirred storage tanks which were filled twice daily from a nearby trunk sewer during peak hours. Effluent from each fermenter was discharged directly to the anaerobic zone of the corresponding B N R process train. The mainstream fermenters replaced the existing primary clarifiers; consequently, the entire wastewater stream passed through the fermentation system before entering the B N R process train. 4.1.1 Fermenter Setup As illustrated in Figure 4.1 the fermentation system was two-stage; consisting of a completely mixed reactor (CMR) followed by a thickener with solids recycle. The C M R was constructed from a round plastic tank (diameter: 71 cm, height: 109 cm, liquid volume: 395 L). Influent was pumped continuously to the C M R by a Moyno SP pump (Model 2L3) with variable speed controller (90 volt DC-SCR). 25 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 71.0 cm-3R \ P L A N VIEW INFLUENT FROM STORAGE TANK RECYCLE TO FERMENTER «—46.0 cm » CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW Figure 4.1 Mainstream Two-Stage Fermenter 26 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES The outlet of the influent line was located at mid depth in order to minimize short circuiting of the influent through the CMR. Effluent from the CMR flowed by gravity to the thickener through a two inch PVC connecting pipe. A double-sided weir trough that extended across the diameter of the tank, ensured the effluent was drawn uniformly from the entire CMR. The weir was fabricated from one half of a PVC pipe and was installed 10 cm below the rim of the tank. Return sludge from the thickener was pumped using a Moyno SP pump (Model 33259) with variable speed controller (90 volt DC-SCR) to an outlet located at the bottom of the CMR. The ratio of return sludge to influent flow remained constant at 0.75:1.0 throughout the experiment. The mainstream fermenter was design such that solids could be wasted from the CMR. A ball valve was located at mid depth of the CMR and connected to a line that lead to the wasting tank of the BNR process. Complete mixing of the reactor was achieved using a Dayton mixer (Model 4Z128A) with stainless steel shaft and double twin blades. The mixer was set as high as possible to achieve maximum contact between influent and biomass without causing eddies at the surface of the liquid, thus resulting in aeration of the upper level of the reactor. The first zone in the BNR process train was utilized for the thickener. Consequently, the thickening tank (width: 60 cm, length: 46 cm, height: 162 cm, liquid volume: 380 L) was flat bottomed and not optimized for solids settling. As a result rising solids, caused by entrained gas bubbles in the sludge blanket, occurred. This problem was mitigated by the installation of a mixer (Model 4Z128A) with stainless steel shaft and single twin blades which rotated slowly thereby dislodging the trapped gas bubbles. Stirring the sludge blanket also prevented the formation of channels in the blanket causing short circuiting of the recycle flow through the blanket. Return sludge with low solids concentration was an indication of short circuiting of the recycle flow through the sludge blanket. The optimum mixing regime was found to be intermittent with three minutes mixing at 30 rpm every ten minutes; greater mixing, either in speed or frequency, resulted in significant loss of suspended solids in the thickener 27 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES effluent. The outlet to the sludge recycle pump was located 10 cm from the bottom of the tank. Effluent from the thickener was discharged by weir directly to the anaerobic zone of the BNR bioreactor. 4.1.2 Fermenter Operation The effects of selected operational and environmental parameters on acid-phase digestion of primary sludge in a mainstream two-stage fermentation system were investigated in this study. Initially the operational parameters of interest were HRT and SRT. However, it soon became apparent that the SRT of the mainstream fermenter could not be accurately manipulated as a result of uncontrolled wasting of suspended solids in the fermenter effluent. As a result, the study focused on the effects of manipulating HRT by changing flow rate through the mainstream fermenter. Calculations for determining fermenter HRT and SRT are detailed in Appendix A. The environmental parameters deemed relevant to monitor in this study were pH and temperature. The pH of each tank was measured bi-weekly using a portable Horiba pH meter (Model D-13 US). Temperature was monitored continuously using a Temperature Sensor Thermocouple with Intellution Fixx (Version 3.00) software interface. Temperature probes were mounted in the CMR. The influence of system HRT on the production of VFA during fermentation of primary sludge was examined in a series experimental runs. The mainstream fermenter was operated at HRTs of 2.2, 3.2, and 4.3 hrs. In addition, a preliminary test run at an HRT of 4.3 hrs was conducted in which any operational problems were identified and solved. The runs ranged in length from 50 to 100 days. The experimental run was considered to be in steady-state when the TSS concentrations showed approximately steady values (Zaloum, 1992); usually achieved within fifteen days. Two identical mainstream two-stage fermentation systems, identified as Side A and Side B, were operated in parallel in order to duplicate the results. Between each 28 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES run the sludge recycle from Side A and Side B were intermixed to ensure uniform composition of both sides. Table 4.1 presents a summary of operating conditions. Table 4.1 Operating Conditions (Mean Values) Run Length (days) H R T (hrs) SRT (days) TSS (mg/L) Temp ( ° C ) pH A B A B A B A B Test 47 4.3 14.0 13.9 3120 3580 19.4 19.4 6.7 6.7 1 56 2.2 5.8 5.6 7470 6850 15.9 15.7 6.7 6.7 2 107 3.2 12.6 12.3 7700 8340 13.6 13.3 6.8 6.8 3 70 4.3 9.1 9.4 4570 4480 18.4 18.3 6.8 6.9 4.2 Batch Experiments Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to determine the production rate of V F A during acid fermentation of primary sludge. The experiments were designed to model the conditions in the CMR. Using techniques to create and maintain an anaerobic environment, thickener return sludge and raw influent were completely mixed in a 2.8 L Erlenmeyer flask. The production of VFA was monitored throughout the four hour batch experiment. Four batch tests were conducted simultaneously; three utilizing different ratios of sludge and influent and one, a control, in which influent was replaced with tap water. Five sets of batch experiments were conducted throughout the operational period of the mainstream two-stage fermenter. 29 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES n i t r o g e n b a l l o o n o n s y r i n g e n e e d l e Figure 4.2 Batch Experiment Apparatus Batch experiment apparatus, as depicted in Figure 4.2, consisted of a 2.8 L Erlenmeyer flask stoppered with a rubber bung. Two plastic tubes, a larger one for filling and a smaller one for sampling, were inserted through the rubber bung and extended into the flask. The tubes were clamped when not in use. The rubber bung was fitted with a septum pierced with a syringe needle connected to a balloon filled with nitrogen gas (Comeau, 1989). The batch experiment was setup in such a way as to.create an anaerobic environment within the flask. Prior to filling the flask was purged with nitrogen gas. Sludge was transferred 30 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES to the flask by plastic tube connecting the ball valve on the sludge recycle pump inlet to the filling tube. Nitrogen gas was bubbled through the influent and water to reduce DO levels to a value of less than 1 mg/L before being pumped using a variable speed Masterflux pump (Model 7520-00) to the purged flask. During the experiment the nitrogen gas filled balloon maintained anaerobic conditions by providing an inert atmosphere above the liquid and by replacing the volume of sampled liquid in the flask. Throughout the duration of the experiment complete mixing of the components within the flask was achieved using a magnetic stirring bar and plate. In order to ensure uniform mixing of all flasks a six plate magnetic stir mixer was constructed. The mixing speed of all six plates was directed by one control knob connected to a single variable speed motor that rotated six magnetic stirrers. The batch experiments were conducted at ambient temperature and no attempt was made to control pH. However, the temperature of the tap water used in the control flask was adjusted to that of the influent. At regular intervals throughout the four hour batch experiment samples for VFA analysis were withdrawn using a syringe. A sample was collected for TSS analysis upon completion of the experiment. 4.3 Analyt ica l Procedures Grab samples for VFA, soluble COD and solids analysis were gathered from four locations in the mainstream fermenter, in order to document the changes in wastewater composition as it passed through the fermentation system. 1. Influent sample was collected from the influent line just prior to the CMR. 2. CMR sample was collected from the exit of the CMR weir. 3. Fermenter effluent sample was collected from the exit of the thickener weir. 31 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 4. Sludge recycle sample was collected from the recycle line just prior to the pump. Samples for VFA, and soluble COD analysis were collected five days a week, Monday through Friday. Samples for solids analysis were collected three days a week, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. 4.3.1. T S S a n d V S S Samples for solids determination were analyzed immediately upon collection. The TSS and VSS concentrations were determined in accordance with Standard Methods (A.P.H.A. et al., 1989). To determine TSS content, a known volume of sample was filtered through a Whatman 934-AH glass micro fiber filter and dried at 104°C. The VSS component was obtained by igniting the residue at 550°C. 4.3.2. V F A Samples for volatile fatty acid analysis were first filtered through Whatman No. 4 filters then preserved by acidification. A 0.1 ml aliquot of phosphoric acid and a 1.0 ml sample were injected by syringe into a 2.0 ml glass GC vial (HP Model 5181-3375), resulting in a pH level below 3. The vial was sealed using GC vial lids (HP Model 5181-1210) and refrigerated until time of analysis, usually within seven days. A computer controlled Hewlett-Packard 5880A gas chromatograph, equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), was used for determination of acetic, propionic, and iso-butyric concentrations. Samples were injected using a Hewlett-Packard auto-sampler (Model 7672 A). The GC was equipped with a glass column (length: 91.0 cm, external diameter: 6.0 mm, 32 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES internal diameter: 2.0 mm) that was packed with 0.3% Carbowax 20M/0.1% H3PO4 on Supelco Carbopack C. The column was conditioned according to the procedure described in the Supelco Bulletin 75 IE (1989). The gas chromatograph was operated under the following conditions: Injector Temperature: 150°C Detector Temperature: 200°C Isothermal oven temperature: 120 °C Flow rate of helium gas: 20 ml/min The detection limit of the HP 5 8 80A gas chromatograph operated under the above conditions is 1 mg/L for each species of V F A . 4.3.3 Soluble C O D The truly soluble portion of COD was determined using a rapid physical-chemical method developed by Mamais et al. (1992). The method involves removal by flocculation and precipitation of colloidal matter that would normally pass through a 0.45 urn membrane filter. Samples were prefiltered through Whatman No. 4 filters then flocculated by adding seven drops of a 178 g/L zinc sulfate solution to a 40 ml sample volume and mixed vigorously with a magnetic stirrer for roughly one minute. The pH of the sample was adjusted to approximately 10.5 by adding three drops of 0.5 M sodium hydroxide solution. Once the sample had settled quiescently the supernatant was withdrawn using a syringe and filtered through a 0.45 urn Cellulose Nitrate Filter. The supernatant filtrate was refrigerated and analyzed in duplicate using the dichromate reflux procedure outlined in Standard Methods (A.P.H.A. et al, 1989). According to Mamais et al. (1992), the resultant COD concentration was a measure of the truly soluble organic matter. 33 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 4.4 Statistical Analysis Calculation of averages, standard deviations, coefficients of variation, significant difference between the means (one-way anova) and linear regressions was done using statistical analysis tools included in Quattro Pro for Windows Version 5.0 (Borland International) software program. 34 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1 General Operating Conditions In addition to the previously identified operational and environmental parameters affecting the production of simple carbon compounds (Section 2.3), which will be discussed in detail in Sections 5.2 and 5.3, the formation of V F A in a primary sludge fermenter is influenced by changes in wastewater composition, fermenter operation, process upsets caused by operator error, toxic loading or mechanical failure, and many other natural variabilities inherent in operating a biological process. 5.1.1 Influent Composition The truly soluble COD, TSS, and V F A concentrations of the influent were monitored throughout the duration of the experimental runs and the monthly means ± one standard deviation are graphically illustrated in Figure 5.1. The results of the daily sampling program are presented in Appendices B, C, and D. The TSS concentrations (Figure 5.1a) were not observed to fluctuate significantly throughout the experimental period. Small sample size (single grab samples were 35 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2 0 0 r 1 7 5 - -• J 1 5 0 » -^ 1 2 5 . -3 1 0 0 - - . YX 7 5 -H 5 0 — 2 5 - - -0 4 - I • ' 1, , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 h Sep -93 Nov - 9 3 Dec - 9 3 Feb - 94 Apr - 9 4 M a y - 9 4 Jul -94 B, Q O U "o 00 1 5 0 1 2 5 1 0 0 7 5 5 0 2 5 0 - i — h H 1 h Sep - 93 Nov - 9 3 Dec - 9 3 Feb - 9 4 Apr - 9 4 M a y - 9 4 Jul -94 < 4 0 58 3 0 CO > r , 2 0 io -£: o H H 1 1 1- H h > Sep -93 Nov - 9 3 Dec - 9 3 Feb - 94 Apr - 9 4 M a y - 9 4 Jul -94 Test Run Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Figure 5.1 Influent Composition 36 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION collected twice weekly for TSS analysis) may account for monthly variations and large standard deviations around the mean. A slight decrease in TSS concentrations throughout the winter months, which was calculated to be not statistically significant (Appendix F), may be a result of decreased biological growth in the sewage collection system due to colder temperatures. The levels of truly soluble COD (Figure 5.1b) present in the raw influent were observed to be relatively constant during the Run 1, Run 2, and Run 3. There appeared, however, to be a slight increase in average soluble COD concentration in the warmer summer months; consistent with higher TSS levels. The increase was determined to be statistically insignificant (Appendix F). This again suggested there was greater biological activity in the sewer collection system during the warmer summer months compared to the cooler winter months. The large standard deviations around the mean may be a result of variations in sample collection (single grab sample collected five days per week) and sample preservation and laboratory analysis. There was a definite trend toward higher concentrations of influent VFA (Figure 5. lc) in the summer months compared to the winter months, which proved to be statistically significant (Appendix F). This is consistent with previous studies conducted in northern climates which indicate significantly more biological activity leading to V F A formation in the sewer collection system during periods of warmer temperatures (Randall, 1994; Steven, 1994). Apart from seasonal variations in VFA concentration, which will be accounted for in later analysis, the composition of the influent remained reasonably consistent between experimental runs. Thus, the production of short chain carbon compounds in the mainstream fermenter was not affected by significant changes in wastewater composition. 37 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1.2 Fermenter Operation Prior to conducting the experimental runs, the mainstream fermenter was operated for a test period in order to identify and solve any operational difficulties. The greatest operational issue proved to be rising solids in the thickener, resulting in the formation of a thick scum layer on the thickener surface. The rising solids were thought to be caused by two factors. Firstly, anaerobic floe formed in the fermentation process inherently has extremely poor settling characteristics, and secondly, entrained gases such as C O 2 and C H 4 (Abraham, 1994). Rising sludge is common in full-scale fermenters. Stevens (1994) reported the occurrence of rising solids forming a stable sludge blanket in the primary sludge fermenters at wastewater treatment plants in Kelowna, B.C. and Westbank, B.C.. Installation of sludge scraper mechanisms, to assist with degasification and to increase sludge settling efficiency, mitigated the problem. During the test run a scum blanket, often reaching a thickness of 20 cm, covered the entire surface of the mainstream thickener. The problem was solved by installing a mixer with a stainless steel shaft and impeller in the thickener. The impeller was located close to the bottom of the thickener and rotated very slowly (approximately 30 rpm) for a period of three minutes in every ten minutes. This mixing regime was suitable to dislodge entrained gas bubbles, thereby virtually eliminating the problem of surface stable scum formation, but not so vigorous to result in loss of solids over the weir of the thickener. The slow turning impeller also prevented short circuiting of the thickener recycle sludge through the bottom sludge blanket. Another physical problem encountered while operating the mainstream fermenter was a buildup of fibrous material in the sludge mass as a result of recycling the primary sludge between the complete mix reactor and the thickener. The fibrous solids caused blockages in the recycle pump and the pipe connecting the complete mix reactor to the thickener. This problem was reduced with regular clearing of the pump and pipe by forcing water under high pressure through it. In addition, the fibrous material had a tendency to 38 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION wind around the mixer shaft due to the vortexing action of the mixer in the complete mix tank. Similar problems were observed in full-scale fermenters and are a result of the inherent fibrous nature of primary solids (Abraham, 1994; Stevens, 1994). 5.1.3 Process Acclimatization and Stability An adequate transition period between experimental runs is required to acclimatize the biomass to a new HRT and to ensure that measurements on the effluent reflect the performance under the new operating mode. An experimental run is considered to be at steady-state when the MLVSS concentrations reach a steady level at a constant SRT (Zaloum, 1992). Although the SRT was not constant in this study, the mainstream fermenter was considered to have achieved approximately stable conditions when the TSS concentrations showed roughly steady values. Figure 5.2 presents the system daily average fermenter TSS concentrations for the three experimental runs. Fermenter TSS concentrations are calculated using a weighted average of complete mix reactor and thickener TSS concentrations (Appendix A). The TSS concentrations in Run 1 were consistently erratic, though there was a trend toward increasing TSS concentration in Side A throughout the entire experimental run (which may indicate steady-state was not fully achieved). Side B appeared to reach approximately stable conditions within 15 days. The inconsistent system TSS concentrations in Run 1 compared to Run 2 and 3 may be attributed to error in laboratory analysis. Samples taken during Run 1 were weighed directly after being removed from the drying oven, whereas samples taken during Run 2 and Run 3 were placed in a dessicator to cool prior to being weighed. There was a process upset that resulted in loss of much of the biomass inventory in the transition period between Run 1 and Run 2. Side A achieved steady-state conditions 39 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 12,000 ^ 10,000 f l b WOO £ 6,000 go -4,000 2,000 f 0 -f • . . . . o • • -a • • - n. H i-0 10 20 30 40 50 c 60 12,000 0 • •C33-^10,000 -^ 8,000 >S 6,000 -8 4,000 - * H 2,000 : c f-- - - Trffe H 1 1 H 1- - I — I — I — I — I 1—(-0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 12,000 ^ 10,000 -^ 8,000 -& 6,000 S 4,000 H 2,000 f 0 4c H 1- - i 1 (- H 1 H IT 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Days of Run A-Side - B-Side Figure 5.2 Fermenter TSS Concentrations 40 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION within a 20 day period whereas Side B took a longer period to recover due to greater initial solids loss. On day 50, the mixing speed of the mixer in Side A thickener was increased. This resulted in resuspension of the biomass and loss of solids through the thickener effluent. Very low fermenter TSS concentrations ensued. There was a plug in the line connecting the CMR to the thickener on day 100, causing the CMR to overflow and again much of the fermenter biomass inventory was lost. Stable conditions were quickly achieved and maintained throughout Run 3. 5.2 Effect of Environmental Factors The environmental factors deemed most probable to influence VFA production in the mainstream fermenter were pH and temperature. Gupta et al. (1985) conducted a series of anaerobic batch experiments to investigate the influence of pH, temperature and retention time on the production of V F A from primary sludge. It was concluded that the effect of changing one parameter could not be isolated due to the dependency of one variable upon the value of the other two variables. In Section 5.2, the fluctuations in pH and temperature in the mainstream fermenter are examined to determine their significance relative to that of fermenter HRT. 5.2.1 pH The pH of the mainstream fermenter was monitored throughout the experimental period. Measurements were taken twice weekly in both the complete mix reactor and 41 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION thickener using a portable Horiba pH meter and summarized in Table 5.1. There was no external adjustment of the pH in the mainstream fermenter. Table 5.1 Fermenter pH Run# H R T (hrs) P H Side A Side B C M Reactor Thickener C M Reactor Thickener Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Run 1 2.2 6.7 0.3 6.7 0.3 6.7 0.3 6.6 0.3 Run 2 3.2 6.8 0.2 6.7 0.2 6.8 0.1 6.8 0.1 Run 3 4.3 6.8 0.1 6.8 0.1 6.9 0.1 6.8 0.1 There was low variability in pH measurements in both the complete mix reactor and thickener during the operational period of the mainstream fermenter. Gupta et al. (1985) determined through a series of anaerobic batch experiments that a controlled pH of 7 did not significantly affect the production of VFA from primary sludge compared to an uncontrolled pH of between 5.9 and 6.3. Thus variations in pH observed in the mainstream fermenter are unlikely to have a significant influence on the production of VFA. 5.2.2 Temperature The mainstream fermenter operated at ambient temperatures. The temperature in the complete mix reactor was monitored continuously using a temperature sensor thermocouple. Daily average temperatures of each run are graphically illustrated in Figure 5.3 and presented numerically in Appendix B. 42 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION There were notable temperature fluctuations in the complete mix reactor during each experimental run as a result of ambient operating conditions. In the previously mentioned batch reactor study, Gupta et al. (1985), observed a consistent improvement in net VFA production from primary sludge with increase in temperature in the range of 10°C 2 4 2 2 3 2 0 2 18 3 14 12 10 « a ° i , " » B r ! B -H 1 h-0 91 • S I 9 J - - „ C tf 10 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 2 4 2 2 4-3 2 0 2 18 «u a 1 6 I 14 12 10 H 1 1- H 1 1-H h 0 2 4 w 2 2 + 3 2 0 2 18 0 1 14 -12 10 c 3 ed 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 100 120 "V.V* . H 1 r- H 1 H H 1—:—I h m c 3 tf 0 10 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 D a y s o f R u n A-Side '• B-Side Figure 5.3 Fermenter Daily Average Temperature 43 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION to 30°C. Scatter plots of temperature versus VFA production in the mainstream fermenter were plotted and correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated to determine if temperature fluctuations in the mainstream fermenter influenced the production of VFA (Figure 5.4 and Table 5.2, respectively). Details of the statistical analysis for the correlation are found in Appendix F. Table 5.2 Summary of Temperature Statistical Analysis Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Side A SideB Side A SideB Side A SideB CC 0.17 0.45 0.26 0.05 0.28 0.20 R Square 0.029 0.201 0.066 0.003 0.077 0.040 The scatter plots suggest that, within the operating temperature range of the mainstream fermenter, there was not a definite correlation between temperature and VFA production. The degree of variation in the VFA production that may be accounted for by the linear relationship with the temperature is denoted by the R square value. In the case of Run 1 Side A, only 2.9 % of the variation in V F A production is due to change in temperature. Excluding Run 1 Side B, the results of statistical analysis for correlation indicate that less than 10% of the variability in VFA production in the mainstream fermenter is related to temperature fluctuation. 44 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Run 1 12 14 16 Temperature (oC) 18 20 30 20 10 -a i < u. > -10 10 CC=0.45 02 -g i/5 12 14 16 Temperature (oC) 18 20 Run 2 10 CC=0.26 12 14 16 18 Temperature (oC) 20 80 60 + E % 40 o •a | 20 o £ < 0 -20 10 CC=0.053 12 14 16 Temperature (oC) 18 20 Run 3 "SB £ C % 0 1 < > 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 * CC=0.28 m a •• - -• • • , 1 • 1 - . 1 1 1 1 16 17 18 19 20 Temperature (oC) 21 70 1*50 B a" 40 I 3 0 £ 2 0 |2 10 0 cc=oao 16 17 18 19 20 Temperature (oC) 03 a •V3 21 Figure 5.4 Scatter Plot of Temperature and V F A Production 45 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION Rabinowitz and Oldham (1994) concluded from a series of bench-scale, continuous flow experiments that the mass of VFA produced during acid fermentation of primary sludge was largely affected by the FfRT. The specific rate of net V F A production was determined for HRTs of 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours. The maximum rate of production was found at 12 hours and the minimum rate at 6 hours. It was speculated that the low production rate at the short HRT may be due in part to the limited time available for substrate assimilation. The decline noticed at the longest HRT was thought to be caused by the conversion of soluble VFA to gaseous products. In this research, the mainstream fermenter was operated at three different HRTs; 2.2, 3.2, and 4.2 hours. The range of fermenter HRTs was dictated by the chosen HRT of the downstream biological phosphorus removal bioreactor as the wastewater stream flowed through the fermentation system prior to entering the phosphorus removal process train. As a result, very short HRTs ensued compared to those of Rabinowitz and Oldham (1994) and those of conventional sidestream fermenters, which usually operate at HRTs of 14 to 17 hours (Oldham and Abraham, 1994). The influence of retention time on the production of short chain organic compounds in a primary sludge fermentation system is complex. The HRT affects the net production of VFA directly by controlling contact time between substrate and microorganisms and indirectly by affecting the growth of microorganisms through the mass rate of addition of substrate. 46 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.3.1 Fermenter TSS During the operation of the test run it became apparent that the SRT of the mainstream fermenter could not be accurately manipulated as a result of uncontrolled wasting of suspended solids in the fermenter effluent. Consequently, it was decided not to control SRT by purposeful wasting of solids but to allow for biomass in the mainstream fermenter to build up to steady-state conditions. A detailed analysis of fermenter TSS concentrations with respect to process stability and acclimatization was performed in Section 5.1.3. Table 5.3 summarizes the fermenter TSS concentrations of each experimental run. The fermenter TSS concentrations were calculated using weighted average of complete mix reactor and thickener TSS concentrations (Appendix A). The steady-state TSS concentrations in the mainstream fermenter were strongly influenced by fermenter HRT. An HRT of 4.3 hours resulted in a substantially lower TSS steady-state concentration compared to that of only 2.2 hours (Table 5.3). It is uncertain even whether steady-state conditions were achieved on Side A during Run 1 (HRT of 2.2 hours) due to very short HRT (Figure 5.2a). The mean TSS concentrations of Side A and Side B were approximately equal for each run. Table 5.3 Summary of TSS Concentrations Run# HRT (hrs) TI (mg /L) Sid e A Sid le B Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Run 1 2.2 14850 5570 13720 3130 Run 2 3.2 7700 1910 . 8340 2290 Run 3 4.3 4570 340 4480 530 47 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION The steady-state TSS concentrations are linked to fermenter HRT through the mass rate of substrate addition. At the shortest HRT, the mass rate of addition of substrate is highest; hence, the observed increase in biomass inventory in Run 1. Conversely, at the longest HRT, there is less substrate available for the microorganisms and the biomass inventory decreases, as was the case for Run 3. 5.3.2 V F A Production The production of VFA (as acetic acid) in the mainstream fermenter is summarized in Table 5.4. It appears that an increase in HRT results in a corresponding increase in mean VFA production. However, this cannot be concluded with a great degree of confidence due to the large standard deviations around the mean. A one-way anova statistical analysis with a 95% level of significance was conducted to determine if the experimental runs were statistically significantly different (Table 5.5). The details of the mainstream fermenter V F A production and statistical analysis are presented in Appendix C and F, respectively. Table 5.4 Fermenter V F A Production Run# HRT (hrs) VFA Production (mg/L Infl.) Sid e A Sid leB Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Run 1 2.2 10 12 12 12 Run 2 3.2 14 9 16 16 Run 3 4.3 18 19 18 15 48 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION Table 5.5 One-Way Anova for Significant Difference in H R T Side A S ideB Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 (2.2 hrs) (3.2 hrs) (4.3 hrs) (2.2 hrs) (3.2 hrs) (4.3 hrs) Run 1 Yes Yes Run 1 No Yes (2.2 hrs) (2.2 hrs) Run 2 Yes No Run 2 No No (3.2 hrs) (3.2 hrs) Run 3 Yes No Run 3 Yes No (4.3 hrs) (4.3 hrs) The daily variability in V F A production may be accounted for in part by sample collection techniques. A single daily grab sample may not accurately represent the conditions in the fermenter or the characteristics of the influent. Samples were collected at the same time each day to avoid registering the fluctuations in diurnal activities. However, daily fluctuations were still present. The concentration of VFA in the fermenter effluent of both Side A and Side B was significantly higher in samples collected on Monday compared to samples collected on the other four days of the sampling program. This is especially apparent during Run 2. The only plausible explanation is that on weekdays the thickener was completely mixed once a day following sample collection to dislodge any entrained gas bubbles. Only during Run 3 was the thickener completely mixed on the weekend in addition to during the week. Throughout Run 3, significantly higher VFA concentrations were not observed on Monday compared to other days. This suggests the higher V F A concentration on Monday in Run 1 and Run 2 may be attributed to buildup of V F A during the weekend. Whereas, during Run 3 the VFA was elutriated during mixing of the thickener on the weekend. Variations in VFA production may, to a lesser degree, be explained by sample preservation and laboratory analysis. Although VFA samples were acidified to a pH below 49 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Variations in VFA production may, to a lesser degree, be explained by sample preservation and laboratory analysis. Although VFA samples were acidified to a pH below 3 and refrigerated until analysis there is a possibility some VFA may have volatilized prior to analysis. In addition there was a detection error of 1 mg/L on the HP 5880A gas chromatograph used for VFA analysis. However, these errors were most probably insignificant compared to fluctuations in VFA production resulting from variability in sample collection. The statistically significant difference in VFA production in the mainstream fermenter between the experimental runs was determined using a one-way anova statistical analysis with a 95% level of significance (Table 5.5). There is some doubt of the validity of the results of the analysis as one-way anova is based upon a normally distributed sample and the VFA production sample is a skewed distribution. For the purposes if this study, statistical analysis using one-way anova was deemed to be adequate. There was a statistically significant difference in VFA production in Side A between Run 1 and Run 2, and Run 1 and Run 3, but not between Run 2 and Run 3. There was not a significant statistical difference between Run 1 and Run 2, and Run 2 and Run 3 in Side B. Run 1 and Run 3 were statistically significantly different. Thus, a change in HRT between 2.2 and 4.3 hours resulted in a statistically significant difference in V F A production in the mainstream fermenter. Varying the HRT by only one hour did not induce a significant difference in VFA production. 5.3.3 V F A Speciation Identification of the individual acids formed in the mainstream fermenter during the acid phase digestion of primary sludge is consequential as bacteria capable of phosphorus removal prefer acetic acid to other short chain carbon compounds (Comeau et al., 1987; 50 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION the mainstream fermenter effluent. Table 5.6 summarizes the percent acetic acid of the total VFA found in the fermenter effluent. Table 5.6 Effluent V F A Speciation Run# HRT (hrs) VFA Speciation (% Acetic Acid) Sid e A Sid LeB Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Run 1 2.2 81 9 81 8 Run 2 3.2 85 9 85 11 Run 3 4.3 83 12 83 10 The distribution of individual species of VFA was not significantly affected by varying the HRT between 2.2 and 4.3 hours. In the previously mentioned study, Rabinowitz and Oldham (1994) also concluded the percent V F A distribution was not influenced by length of HRT. However, Rabinowitz and Oldham observed acetic acid and propionic acid to occur in approximately equal proportions. In contrast, acetic and propionic acid were detected in this study with the proportion of acetic acid far greater than that of propionic acid. Acid fermentation of primary sludge generally produces V F A in the approximate proportions of 55% acetic, 30% propionic and 15% other V F A (Randall, 1994). The difference in VFA speciation found is this study compared to others may be a result of the raw influent sewage source and the short fermenter HRT. The proportion of acetic to propionic acid in the raw influent is even greater than that of the fermenter effluent (Figure 5.5), which is characteristic of fresh influent. In addition, the short operating HRTs of the mainstream fermenter may not allow for accumulation of fermentative end products other than acetic acid. 51 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION Figure 5.5 Fermenter VFA Speciation 5.4 Soluble C O D The phosphorus accumulating bacteria in the biological phosphorus removal process require a supply of substrate in the form of simple organic compounds to become a significant fraction of the biomass. Although acetic acid is the preferable substrate, almost any short chain carbon compound is suitable to stimulate the biological phosphorus removal process (Oldham, 1994). The measure of the available substrate for the phosphorus accumulating bacteria has traditionally been V F A as it can be quickly determined by gas chromatography. However, the readily biodegradable portion of soluble COD may be a more accurate measure of the available substrate for the biological phosphorus removal process (Manoharan, 1988). 52 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION The readily biodegradable portion of soluble COD can determined using a rapid physical-chemical method, involving removal by flocculation and precipitation of colloidal matter which would normally pass through a 0.45 urn membrane filter prior to analysis for COD content (Mamais et al, 1992). The resultant COD concentration is a measure of the truly soluble organic matter. The readily biodegradable portion is determined by subtracting from the influent COD the truly soluble effluent COD of an activated sludge system with a mean cell retention time of greater than three days. The resultant is the readily biodegradable portion of soluble COD consisting of simple organic molecules such as VFA and low molecular weight carbohydrates. The determination of the readily biodegradable portion using the physical-chemical method developed by Mamais et al. (1992) is fast and simple compared to the biological method outlined by Manoharan (1988), which involved the operation of a short sludge age continuous activated sludge system. However, the reliability and accuracy of the rapid physical-chemical method has yet to be proven. In this research, only the truly soluble COD values were determined around the mainstream fermenter. The results of analysis for truly soluble COD are summarized in Table 5.7 and graphically illustrated in Figure 5.6. Contrary to the results of previous studies, the retention time has little affect on the quantity of truly soluble COD produced in the fermenter. In a previous study of concerning the solubilization of organic matter in primary sludge, Elefsiniotis (1993) observed that variation in HRT between 6 and 15 hours had a profound effect on the net soluble COD concentration. The maximum value occurred at an HRT of 12 hours. It is possible that varying the HRT between 2.2 and 4.3 hours is not great enough to affect the rate of conversion of particulate organic matter to soluble compounds. There is little change in the measure of soluble COD between the complete mix reactor and fermenter effluent and only a small increase between influent and fermenter effluent, suggesting hydrolysis of particulate organic matter producing soluble COD does 53 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 5.7 Fermenter Soluble COD R u n # H R T (hrs) Soluble C O D (mg/L) Side A S i d e B Influent C M Reactor Effluent C M Reactor Effluent Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Run I 2 2 78 19 91 35 89 23 95 37 89 25 Run 2 3.2 73 20 80 24 77 22 73 28 74 26 Run 3 4.3 20 86 21 90 32 88 22 92 27 Figure 5.6 Fermenter Soluble COD readily occur in the mainstream fermenter. This concurs with previous studies (Eastman and Ferguson, 1981; Gosh and Pohland, 1974) concluding the hydrolysis of particulate matter to soluble substrates was the rate limiting step in the conversion of waste solids to fermentation products. 54 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 5.8 VFA Fraction of Soluble COD R u n # H R T % Soluble C O D in the form of V F A Side A Side B (hrs) Influent C M Reactor Effluent C M Reactor Effluent Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Run 1 2.2 26 9 41 20 36 13 39 15 37 13 Run 2 3.2 29 18 40 15 49 24 48 43 56 46 Run 3 4.3 36 22 44 14 52 22 47 17 51 16 Figure 5.7 V F A Fraction of Soluble COD The portion of truly soluble COD that consists of V F A does not appear to be influenced by fermenter HRT. Nevertheless, the V F A fraction of soluble COD is significantly higher in the mainstream fermenter effluent than the raw influent (Table 5.8, Figure 5.7). In every case, the increase proved to be statistically significant using a one-way anova analysis with 95% level of significance (Appendix F). Previous studies have shown that the acid fermentation is exceedingly rapid with minimum cell residence times of a few hours (Andrews and Pearson, 1965; Ghosh and Pohland, 1974). It is possible that 55 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION the HRT of the mainstream fermenter is sufficiently long for acid fermentation to occur but not for hydrolysis of the particulate organic matter. The V F A fraction of truly soluble COD detected in the mainstream fermenter was significantly less than observed by Elefsiniotis and Oldham (1993) in a series of bench-scale continuous flow experiments using primary sludge in which the percent soluble COD in the form of VFA was greater than 90% in the reactor effluent. Eastman and Ferguson (1981) also conducted continuous flow experiments using primary sludge and determined that the VFA accounted for 85% to 95% of the soluble COD in the reactor effluent in all experimental runs. It is probable that the exceedingly short HRT of the mainstream fermenter allowed for less acid fermentation of soluble substrates, and consequently, a lower fraction of V F A compared to studies with considerably longer retention times. 5.5 Batch Experiments Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to determine the production of VFA during acid fermentation of primary sludge. Batch experiments were setup to model conditions in the complete mix reactor. Thickener return sludge and raw influent were completely mixed in a 2.8 L Erlenmeyer flask using aseptic techniques to create and maintain an anaerobic environment. Samples for V F A analysis were withdrawn at regular intervals throughout the four hour batch experiment. Four batch tests were conducted simultaneously; three utilizing different ratios of sludge and influent and a fourth, a control, in which influent was replaced with tap water. Three batch tests with varying quantities of primary sludge and influent were conducted to investigate the influence of substrate to biomass ratio. Five sets of batch experiments were conducted throughout the operational 56 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION period of the mainstream fermenter. A detailed account of the results of the anaerobic batch experiments is presented in Appendix E. Beyond adjusting the control water temperature to that of the influent, no attempt was made to control the pH or temperature during the batch experiments. The first three batch experiments were conducted during Run 2 and the final two experiments during Run 3. Consequently the influent temperature of the first three experiments was lower than that of the final two; 16°C for the first three and 18°C for the final two. As discussed in section 5.3.2, a temperature variation of 2°C is not expected to significantly influence the results of the batch experiments. The pH was measured before the start and after the completion of each experiment. There was not a significant change during the experiments. The pH values were found to be similar to those measured in the mainstream fermenter with values ranging between 6.7 and 7.0. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in both the influent and the water were reduced to levels below 0.5 mg/L by stripping the oxygen with nitrogen gas. Batch Experiment 1 was a preliminary experiment, conducted to compare Side A and Side B and to determine whether there was a difference in VFA production using raw influent and water. The rate of VFA production, both per liter of influent and gram of TSS, is greater for the batch experiments using influent compared to those using water, the control (Figure 5.8a). The results of Test A and B using recycle thickener sludge from Side A are similar to Test C and D using thickener sludge from Side B, indicating the two sides are approximately equal in composition and activity. Figure 5.8b graphically illustrates the fraction of VFA as acetic acid. Only acetic and propionic acid were detected in the batch test with increasing proportions of propionic acid detected throughout the final two hours of the experiment. This agrees with the results of Section 5.3:3 indicating that accumulation of propionic acid does not occur at retention times of less than two hours. 57 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION 95 •-•1 90 T < I 80 + 75 00:00 Production Rate Test A - 2.87 m^L 'hr Test B - 4.40 mg/L*hr Test C - 2.12 m»T-*hr Test D - 3.55 mg/L'hr 03:00 04:00 01:00 02:00 Time 03:00 04:00 • A V J 3 » C A D Note: Test A -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water Test B -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent Test C -1.2 L B-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water Test D -1.2 L B-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent Figure 5.8 Batch Experiment 1 Anaerobic Batch Experiments 2 to 5 were conducted using recycle fermenter sludge from Side A thickener only. The ratios of influent to fermenter sludge were the same for each set of experiments. Figure 5.9 provides a graphical summary of the V F A production from acid phase digestion of primary sludge in Anaerobic Batch Experiments 2 to 5. The production rate of VFA for each test was calculated using linear regression analysis. 58 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5 I_H 1 1 1 r 00:00 00:30 01:00 01:30 02:00 03:00 04:00 00:00 00:30 01:00 ' 01:30 02:00 03:00 04:00 Production Rate Test A - 3.24 mg/L'hr Test B - 2.85 mg/L'hr Test C • 3.76 mg/L'hr Test D - 1.85 mg/L'hr 00:00 00:30 01:00 01:30 02:00 03:00 Time 04:00 Production Rate Test A-1.78 mg/L'hr Test B - 2.40 mg/L'hr Test C - 3.70 mg/L'hr Test D - 2.22 mg/L'hr Production Rate Test A- 1.08 mg/L'hr Test B-1.62 mg/L'hr TestC- 1.82 mg/L'hr TestD- 1.16 mg/L'hr Production Rate Test A-1.47 mg/L'hr Test B-1.93 mg/L'hr TestC-2.13 mg/L'hr TestD - 1.39 mg/L'hr Note: Test A • Test B • Test C • Test D • A • B • C A D 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent 1.2 L A-Side Recycle «• 1.6 L Influent 0.6 L A-Side Recvcle •"• 2.2 L Influent Figure 5.9 Batch Experiment V F A Production 59 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The production of VFA in the batch experiments was observed to be strongly influenced by the ratio of influent to primary sludge. Although some VFA production occurred in the control test, the rate of production was significantly less than that of the other tests. The VFA production observed in the control was most likely a result of conversion of soluble COD in the primary sludge recycle due to the short HRT of the mainstream fermenter (see Section 5.4). In each experiment the maximum rate of production occurred during Test C, which contained 1.2 L primary sludge and 1.6 L influent. Reducing the quantity of available substrate by diluting the influent with water (Test B) resulted in a lower VFA production rate. A high ratio of substrate to biomass (Test D) also resulted in a lower VFA production rate. The results of the batch experiments indicate the optimal ratio of primary sludge to influent for maximum V F A production is 0.75:1.0 Once again, only acetic acid and propionic acid were detected with increasing proportions of propionic acid two hours after the start of the experiment (Figure 5.10). In Experiments 2 and 5 there was a propionic acid contribution from the thickener sludge, which was detected throughout the duration of the batch experiment, but an increase in the ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid was not detected until midway through the experiment. The propionic acid detected at the start of Experiment 4, Test C and D, was a result of propionic acid in the influent. These observations confirm that a retention time of greater than two hours is required for propionic acid production. 60 RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION 100 -a a-T3 < u u u < 95 90 85 80 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 u a . x Ui o oa 100 95 90 85 •a '3 < o 5 80 < 75 70 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 c u i l <u a . x u= o 03 0 s -100 98 96 TJ < 94 u * 92 u < 90 • • Q o a a 88 00:00 A C u e "C u o . X U JS a ca 09 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 100 3- 95 90 85 80 75 f O < o u o •< i l - B B O B .B.ft 70 00:00 01:00 02:00 Time 03:00 e u S •c u a . x u 04:00 A • B • C A D Note: Test A - \2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water Test B -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent Test C -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6L Influent Test D - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent Figure 5.10 Batch Experiment V F A Speciation 61 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.6 Comparison of Fermenter Performance The performance of the mainstream fermenter operating at an HRT of 4.3 hours is compared in Table 5.9 to fermentation systems currently operating in North America (Oldham and Abraham, 1994). Table 5.9 Comparison of Fermenter Performance Static C M CM/Thick. Mainstream Kelowna Penticton Kalispell UBC Pilot Plant BC BC Montana Vancouver, BC Plant Flow 20ML/d 14 ML/d 5.7 ML/d 0.009 ML/d Ferm. Inflow 1.12 ML/d 0.98 ML/d 0.42 ML/d 0.009 ML/d Ferm. Waste Flow unknown 0.10 ML/d 0.04 ML/d none Ferm. Volume 670 m 3 . 700 m 3 500 m 3 0.4 m 3 Thickener Volume n/a n/a 380 m 3 0.4 m 3 Ferm. HRT 14 hr 17hr 28 hr 4.3 * Ferm. SRT unknown 7d 12 d unknown Ferm. V F A 21 mg/L 17 mg/L 58 mg/L 18 mg/L Plant Inf. TotP 5.5 mg/L 7.1 mg/L 5.0 mg/L 5.3 mg/L Plant Eff. Ortho-P 0.10 mg/L 0.15 mg/L 0.29 mg/L 0.10 mg/L * Complete Mix Reactor plus Thickener One notable feature of the mainstream fermenter compared to the other operating fermentation systems is that there is no purposeful wasting of solids from the mainstream fermenter. Consequently, the requirements for sludge handling facilities are reduced but the oxygen requirements in the succeeding bioreactor are increased. For ease of comparison, the fermenter VFA concentrations found in Table 5.9 are expressed as mg of VFA (as HAc) produced per liter of plant influent. The performance of 62 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION the mainstream fermenter is equal to that of the complete mix fermenter and static fermenter but well below that of the two-stage complete mix/thickener fermentation system. In addition to the VFA produced by the fermentation system, V F A is naturally present in raw sewage. Raw influent to the UBC pilot plant contained an average VFA concentration of 22 mg/L as HAc, resulting in a mean fermenter effluent VFA concentration of 40 mg/L as HAc (22 mg/L found in the raw influent plus 18 mg/L produced in the mainstream fermenter). The quantity of VFA entering the anaerobic zone of the Penticton BNR facility is greater than the amount produced by the complete mix fermenter (17 mg/L as HAc) due to further conversion of soluble COD to V F A in the primary clarifier and the additional 8 to 14 mg/L of VFA (as HAc) from the influent. Raw sewage in Kelowna usually contributes between 5 and 15 mg/L VFA (as HAc) to that already produced by the static fermenter. Influent to Kalispell BNR plant often contains low levels of VFA due to groundwater infiltration, thus a high VFA contribution from the fermentation system is required to ensure good phosphorus removal. The availability of short chain carbon compounds to the biological phosphorus removal process is dependent upon both the fermenter efficiency and the amount of VFA naturally present in the raw sewage. At an HRT of 4.3 hours the mainstream fermenter produced sufficient quantities of VFA to maintain good phosphorus removal efficiency in the UBC Pilot Plant. (Mainstream fermenter performance with regard to phosphorus removal efficiency could not be assessed during Run 1 and Run 2 due to direct addition of acetate to the anaerobic zone of the BNR bioreactor. There was no addition of acetate during Run 3.) Levels of effluent ortho-P observed in the UBC pilot plant were as low, or lower than, those observed in the effluent from full-scale BNR plants equipped with side-stream fermentation systems (Table 5.9). 63 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1 Conclusions The pilot scale mainstream fermenter was operated for a period of one year, during which the following conclusions were drawn: 1) Seasonal variations (summer-winter) did not significantly affect the operation of the mainstream fermenter. 2) The configuration of the mainstream fermenter did not allow for accurate control of SRT. However, a stable biomass inventory was quickly achieved and maintained without purposeful wasting. The steady-state level of biomass was dependent upon the HRT; longer HRTs resulted in lower biomass concentrations. 3) The net production of VFA from acid fermentation of primary sludge in the mainstream fermenter was influenced by fermenter HRT. The longer the HRT the greater the production of simple carbon compounds. Varying the HRT by approximately one hour did not make a statistically significant difference in V F A production. However, VFA production at an HRT of 4.3 hours was statistically significantly higher than that of 2.2 hours. 4) Change in fermenter HRT over the range tested did not influence individual acid formation in the mainstream fermenter. Significantly higher proportions of acetic acid to propionic acid were detected in the mainstream fermenter compared to other acid fermentation studies, which was attributed to a fresh source of raw influent and very short fermenter HRT. 64 CONCL USIONS AND RECOMMEND A TIONS 5) Change in fermenter HRT had little affect on the quantity of truly soluble COD produced in the mainstream fermenter nor the portion of soluble COD that existed in the form of VFA. There was little change in the soluble COD concentrations between the mainstream fermenter influent and effluent; suggesting hydrolysis of particulate organic matter did not readily occur in the mainstream fermenter. Nevertheless, the V F A fraction of RBCOD was significantly higher in the mainstream fermenter effluent than the raw influent indicating conversion of soluble COD to VFA did take place. 6) The results of anaerobic batch experiments using primary sludge indicated the optimal ratio of primary sludge to influent for maximum VFA production is 0.75:1.0. 7) The performance of the mainstream fermenter operating at HRT of 4.3 hours was equal to that of a side-stream static fermenter or a complete mix fermenter but below that of the separate complete mix/thickener fermenter. 8) The quantity of VFA produced in the mainstream fermenter operating at HRT of 4.3 hours combined with that found in the influent sewage was sufficient to stimulate good biological phosphorus removal at the UBC Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. 6.2 Recommendations In recent years, knowledge of the science and engineering required to optimize short chain volatile fatty acid production through primary sludge fermentation has advanced greatly. As a result, future research should be primarily directed towards overcoming coming practical problems in full-scale installations such as: 1) Minimizing tank size while still producing sufficient simple carbon compounds to ensure good biological phosphorus removal. 65 CONCL USIONS AND RECOMMEND A TIONS 2) Eliminating the problem of rising solids resulting in a thick stable sludge layer on the surface of the fermenter. 3) Preventing blockages of pumps and lines, which occur as a result of the fibrous nature of the primary sludge. 4) Minimizing odour generation and improving odour control technology. 5) Minimizing the impact of seasonal variations in influent V F A concentration. 6) Ascertaining whether the rapid physical-chemical technique for determination of the readily biodegradable portion of soluble COD is an adequate measure of substrate available for the phosphorus removing bacterium. 66 REFERENCES Abraham, K., (1994), Operational Issues of Complete Mix Fermenters - Cold Weather, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Conference on Use of Fermentation to Enhance Biological Nutrient Removal, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 57-64. 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Tech., Vol. 13, pp. 605-619. 71 APPENDIX A CALCULATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS CALCULATIONS i. H R T Determination System HRT = Volume^ + Volumemck (hours) Q l n f ii. Solids Determination a) System TSS = (TSSc^Volume^ + (TSSThick* Volume Thick) (mg/L) (Volume^ + VolumemJ b) System SRT = (Mass of solids in system) (days) (Daily wastage rate of solids) The only wastage was unintentional resulting from solids loss in the fermenter effluent and daily complete mixing of the thickener. Analysis of effluent TSS concentrations following complete mixing of the thickener determined the TSS concentrations to be approximately one half thickener TSS concentrations two minutes after mixing and steady state levels four minutes after mixing. System SRT = (TSSCM*Volume^ + TSS'mek*VolumemJ (days) (TSSE/QInf+ TSSmck*QInf*4*I/2) 72 APPENDIX A CALCULATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS iii. Fermenter V F A Production a) CM Reactor = VFACM*(QIn/+QRcycl) - VFAInf*QInf-VFARcycl*QRcycl (mg/L Inf) Q l n f b) Thickener = VFAE/QInf+ VFARcycl*QRcycl - VFA^fQ^+Q^J (mg/L Inf) Q l n f c) System = VFAInf- VFAEff (mg/L Inf) Table A l : Conversion Factors A. Conversion Factors for VFA Parameter Mol. Weight mg VFA/mg HAc Acetic 60.05 1.000 Propionic 74.08 0.817 Butyric 88.10 0.682 B. Conversion Factors for COD Parameter Basis Conversion Factor Acetic Acid C O D Acetic Acid 1.067 mg/mg Acid Propionic Acid C O D Propionic Acid 1.514 mg/mg Acid Butyric Acid C O D Butyric Acid 1.818 mg/mg Acid 73 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table Bl : Operating Conditions of Test Run HRT of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day System TSS (mart.) SRT (days) Temp (oC) PH System TSS (mR/L) SRT (days) Temp (oC) pH CMR Thick CMR Thick 08/30/93 1 1497 5.83 20.6 6.6 6.5 1703 12.55 20.7 6.6 6.5 08/31/93 2 20.8 20.7 09/01/93 3 2952 5.22 20.6 2966 17.67 20.4 09/02/93 4 20.4 20.6 09/03/93 5 2778 9.39 20.6 6.7 6.7 3494 57.48 20.4 6.8 6.8 09/04/93 6 20.9 20.8 09/05/93 7 20.8 20.6 09/06/93 8 2862 6.19 20.4 6.6 6.7 3807 11.32 20.2 6.6 6.7 09/07/93 9 21.4 21.7 09/08/93 10 4070 5.86 21.7 3993 12.91 21.7 09/09/93 11 21.6 21.7 09/10/93 12 3803 5.95 21.3 6.7 6.8 4016 14.29 21.6 6.6 6.5 09/11/93 13 20.8 20.8 09/12/93 14 19.6 19.5 09/13/93 15 3098 3.87 19.3 6.9 6.9 4413 14.14 19.7 6.8 6.9 09/14/93 16 19.3 19.4 09/15/93 17 2375 24.00 18.8 18.9 09/16/93 18 18.7 18.9 09/17/93 19 2712 17.48 19.1 6.9 6.8 19.0 6.5 6.9 09/18/93 20 3098 14.46 18.9 18.8 09/19/93 21 3098 14.46 18.7 18.6 09/20/93 22 18.7 18.5 09/21/93 23 17.9 18.0 09/22/93 24 3086 30.22 17.9 6.6 6.6 17.8 6.9 7.0 09/23/93 25 18.2 17.9 09/24/93 26 2961 11.04 18.1 3001 16.15 17.9 09/25/93 27 17.7 17.9 09/26/93 28 18.4 18.2 09/27/93 29 19.1 18.8 09/28/93 30 3005 12.49 19.4 6.5 6.4 3897 11.83 19.1 6.5 6.5 09/29/93 31 19.3 19.2 09/30/93 32 3184 43.00 19.0 4110 10.62 19.4 10/01/93 33 19.1 18.9 10/02/93 34 3332 31.85 19.4 6.4 6.6 3706 10.35 19.2 6.7 6.8 10/03/93 35 18.9 19.1 10/04/93 36 3489 18.54 19.3 3920 10.19 19.4 10/05/93 37 19.1 19.2 10/06/93 38 \ 19.6 19.7 10/07/93 39 3406 11.39 19.1 6.7 6.8 3216 7.38 19.3 6.6 6.5 10/08/93 40 19.2 19.1 10/09/93 41 18.8 18.6 10/10/93 42 18.6 18.4 10/11/93 43 18.9 18.7 10/12/93 44 3899 42.93 19.1 6.6 6.2 3634 27.48 18.9 6.4 6.5 10/13/93 45 3384 9.56 18.7 3760 10.95 18.6 10/14/93 46 3440 12.01 17.6 3657 11.44 17.4 Average 3120 15.99 19.4 6.7 6.6 3581 16.05 19.4 6.6 6.7 Std. Dev. 536 11.57 1.1 0.1 0.2 614 11.56 1.1 0.1 0.2 74 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B2: Operating Conditions o f Run 1 H R T of 2.15 hr A-Side B-Side Date Day System TSS 0riB/L) SRT (days) Temp (oC) PH System SRT (days) Temp (oC) PH CMR Thick TSS (mft/L) CMR Thick 10/19/93 1 18.6 6.7 6.6 18.4 6.7 6.6 10/20/93 2 8140 6.43 18.9 8060 5.49 18.7 10/21/93 3 7895 3.45 19.1 6.7 6.6 8715 5.72 18.9 6.6 6.5 10/22/93 4 7765 4.02 18.7 8755 4.79 18.6 10/23/93 5 17.6 17.4 10/24/93 6 18.2 18.1 10/25/93 7 10010 4.16 18.2 6.5 6.3 10700 4.77 18.0 6.5 6.4 10/26/93 8 18.4 18.2 10/27/93 9 9455 4.13 18.2 10535 4.17 17.9 10/28/93 10 17.4 6.5 6.5 17.2 6.5 6.5 10/29/93 11 7345 2.42 17.0 10365 4.47 16.9 10/30/93 12 17.8 17.7 10/31/93 13 18.0 17.9 11/01/93 14 14260 4.76 18.2 6.6 6.5 11695 4.38 18.0 6.2 6.1 11/02/93 15 18.3 18.2 11/03/93 16 11160 4.11 18.1 15745 7.37 17.9 11/04/93 17 17.6 6.9 6.9 17.4 6.9 6.8 11/05/93 18 12220 4.71 17.3 16085 7.26 17.0 11/06/93 19 17.7 17.5 11/07/93 20 17.6 17.4 11/08/93 21 9450 3.82 17.5 7.0 6.9 11455 4.90 17.4 6.8 6.6 11/09/93 22 17.8 17.7 11/10/93 23 12450 5.04 17.4 19465 4.82 17.2 11/11/93 24 17.3 17.1 11/12/93 25 11080 4.65 17.0 6.9 6.9 14905 7.02 16.9 6.9 6.8 11/13/93 26 17.0 16.9 11/14/93 27 17.0 16.8 11/15/93 28 12375 5.40 16.8 15250 7.68 16.6 11/16/93 29 16.6 7.1 7.0 16.4 6.9 6.9 11/17/93 30 12590 7.43 16.7 13770 7.08 16.5 11/18/93 31 16.4 16.1 11/19/93 32 13370 8.84 16.3 6.3 6.3 15675 5.81 16.0 6.5 6.5 11/20/93 33 16.1 15.8 11/21/93 34 16.2 15.9 11/22/93 35 17940 9.68 15.7 5.8 6.1 15210 6.70 15.5 6.1 6.2 11/23/93 36 0.0 0.0 11/24/93 37 23240 11.99 16.3 16040 8.26 16.1 11/25/93 38 15.8 15.5 11/26/93 39 19175 7.77 15.6 7.1 7.1 14055 6.42 15.3 7.0 7.0 11/27/93 40 15.2 15.0 11/28/93 41 15.6 15.4 11/29/93 42 21015 8.32 16.0 14150 7.00 15.8 11/30/93 43 15.6 7.0 6.9 15.4 7.0 6.9 12/01/93 44 14.2 13.8 12/02/93 45 22230 7.44 13.0 15945 7.66 12.5 12/03/93 46 12.6 6.8 6.9 12.3 6.9 7.0 12/04/93 47 20040 7.61 12.4 9620 3.49 12.1 12/05/93 48 13.6 13.7 12/06/93 49 20285 5.78 13.9 6.7 6.7 15140 4.30 14.0 6.6 6.5 12/07/93 50 0.0 0.0 12/08/93 51 21450 6.62 15.3 15840 5.79 15.0 12/09/93 52 14.7 14.6 12/10/93 53 25605 7.27 14.7 7.1 7.0 17185 6.08. 14.5 7.0 7.0 12/11/93 54 14.2 13.7 12/12/93 55 14.7 14.8 12/13/93 56 20615 4.72 13.3 6.7 6.7 18775 5.45 14.5 6.8 6.7 Average 14846 6.02 15.9 6.7 6.7 13725 5.88 15.7 6.7 6.6 Std. Dev. 5571 2.20 3.5 0.3 0.3 3134 1.29 3.4 0.3 0.3 75 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B3: Operating Conditions of Run 2 HRT of 3.2 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day System SRT Temp (oC) PH System SRT Temp (oC) PH TSS (mart.) (days) CMR Thick TSS (mf?/L) (days) CMR Thick 12/14/93 1 13.7 13.3 12/15/93 2 14.2 12.9 12/16/93 3 9070 5.66 13.9 10067 6.45 12.9 12/17/93 4 13.9 13.2 12/18/93 5 13.9 13.4 12/19/93 6 13.9 13.3 12/20/93 7 13.9 13.5 12/21/93 8 13.3 13.3 12/22/93 9 7322 5.95 13.9 4575 1.92 13.5 12/23/93 10 13.7 13.3 12/24/93 11 13.7 13.4 12/25/93 12 13.6 13.3 12/26/93 13 13.8 13.5 12/27/93 14 13.9 13.5 12/28/93 15 13.9 13.5 12/29/93 16 4710 4.32 14.4 4874 4.55 14.1 12/30/93 17 14.8 14.6 12/31/93 18 14.8 14.6 01/01/94 19 14.9 14.6 01/02/94 20 15.0 14.8 01/03/94 21 8032 7.00 14.2 6.8 6.6 3768 3.27 13.9 6.6 6.6 01/04/94 22 14.3 14.1 01/05/94 23 8121 6.65 13.7 4117 3.48 13.5 01/06/94 24 12.9 12.6 ' 01/07/94 25 9080 7.64 13.9 6.5 6.7 4663 4.91 13.6 6.7 6.6 01/08/94 26 14.1 13.8 01/09/94 27 14.7 14.5 01/10/94 28 9886 11.69 14.5 3780 3.23 14.2 01/11/94 29 14.0 6.7 6.7 13.7 6.7 6.7 01/12/94 30 9632 8.06 14.3 4185 3.96 14.0 01/13/94 31 14.4 14.1 01/14/94 32 9978 9.42 14.7 4873 4.36 14.4 01/15/94 33 14.5 14.3 01/16/94 34 15.5 6.5 6.5 15.2 6.7 6.6 01/17/94 35 10022 9.10 15.1 4937 4.79 14.7 01/18/94 36 14.4 14.0 01/19/94 37 9784 8.87 14.0 5274 4.69 13.6 01/20/94 38 14.0 6.7 6.6 13.6 6.6 6.6 01/21/94 39 9964 13.24 13.8 5306 8.54 13.5 01/22/94 40 15.0 14.7 01/23/94 41 15.5 15.3 01/24/94 42 10496 10.92 15.1 6206 5.49 14.8 01/25/94 43 14.8 6.5 6.4 14.6 6.7 6.6 01/26/94 44 10195 12.10 14.9 6743 7.11 14.7 01/27/94 45 14.6 14.3 01/28/94 46 10345 10.60 14.0 7370 6.15 13.8 01/29/94 47 13.8 6.6 6.5 13.5 6.7 6.6 01/30/94 48 14.0 13.7 01/31/94 49 9768 9.89 13.4 8689 12.48 13.0 02/01/94 50 12.8 6.5 6.5 12.4 6.6 6.6 02/02/94 51 2396 4.14 12.8 7798 7.15 12.5 02/03/94 52 13.2 12.9 02/04/94 53 2772 3.92 13.2 6.8 6.6 7663 13.54 12.9 6.7 6.6 02/05/94 54 12.6 12.3 02/06/94 55 13.3 13.0 02/07/94 56 3904 3.89 13.2 6.9 6.9 9612 9.68 12.9 6.8 6.8 02/08/94 57 11.8 11.5 02/09/94 58 4762 4.75 11.1 9625 9.78 10.6 02/10/94 59 12.0 6.4 6.4 11.8 6.8 6.8 02/11/94 60 5216 5.56 12.3 9699 7.97 11.2 02/12/94 61 13.7 12.1 02/13/94 62 14.2 14.0 02/14/94 63 6540 6.13 13.8 7.0 6.9 10442 11.56 13.8 6.9 6.9 02/15/94 64 13.5 13.4 02/16/94 65 6219 6.89 12.9 9625 12.13 13.0 02/17/94 66 13.0 6.7 6.5 12.9 6.7 6.7 02/18/94 67 7051 7.32 13.0 9490 9.18 12.8 02/19/94 68 13.4 13.2 02/20/94 69 13.9 13.6 76 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B3 (Continued) A-Side B-Side Date Day System SRT Temp (oC) PH System SRT Temp PH TSS (mg/L) (days) CMR Thick TSS (me/L) (days) (oC) CMR Thick 02/21/94 70 7314 10.07 13.5 10237 6.98 13.2 02/22/94 71 12.3 6.7 6.7 12.0 6.7 6.7 02/23/94 72 7964 14.73 12.0 9668 12.68 11.7 02/24/94 73 11.8 11.4 02/25/94 74 7995 18.54 11.6 6.9 6.9 9802 14.58 11.3 6.9 6.9 02/26/94 75 12.4 12.2 02/27/94 76 13.7 13.6 02/28/94 77 7883 12.23 13.9 8843 12.42 13.8 03/01/94 78 13.4 6.6 6.6 13.4 6.7 6.7 03/02/94 79 7800 11.30 13.6 9765 7.25 13.4 03/03/94 80 13.5 13.5 03/04/94 81 7908 10.00 13.6 6.8 6.7 10416 10.74 13.3 6.7 6.8 03/05/94 82 13.6 13.3 03/06/94 83 13.9 13.3 03/07/94 84 8133 10.58 13.6 6.9 6.9 9742 12.41 13.5 6.9 6.9 03/08/94 85 12.9 13.3 03/09/94 86 9000 11.11 13.0 10545 12.91 12.6 03/10/94 87 13.2 12.8 03/11/94 88 8225 8.87 13.2 6.8 6.8 9571 13.89 13.0 6.9 6.9 03/12/94 89 13.7 13.0 03/13/94 90 14.3 13.5 03/14/94 91 8068 11.98 14.3 9867 6.46 14.2 03/15/94 92 14.2 6.8 6.8 14.1 6.8 6.9 03/16/94 93 8382 10.39 13.5 9972 9.55 13.9 03/17/94 94 12.4 13.3 03/18/94 95 8466 11.38 12.6 6.8 6.9 9774 9.81 12.2 6.9 6.9 03/19/94 96 13.0 12.4 03/20/94 97 13.1 12.8 03/21/94 98 8798 11.13 12.5 6.8 6.8 10356 10.64 12.9 6.8 6.8 03/22/94 99 11.9 12.2 03/23/94 100 5199 6.16 12.3 8906 8.12 11.7 03/24/94 101 12.6 6.9 6.8 12.0 6.9 6.9 03/25/94 102 5592 8.02 13.2 9824 12.90 12.3 03/26/94 103 14.2 12.9 03/27/94 104 15.4 7.0 &9 14.0 6.9 6.9 03/28/94 105 6469 8.38 15.9 10705 11.92 15.2 03/29/94 106 16.1 15.7 03/30/94 107 7021 8.90 16.2 9984 14.31 16.0 03/31/94 108 15.7 6.9 6.8 16.0 6.9 6.9 04/01/94 109 6792 10.56 15.8 10009 9.24 15.5 04/02/94 110 16.0 15.6 04/03/94 111 15.7 15.9 04/04/94 112 7767 9.07 15.6 6.9 6.9 10217 13.06 15.6 7.0 7.0 04/05/94 113 15.0 15.4 04/06/94 114 7944 8.23 14.1 9939 13.38 14.8 04/07/94 115 13.3 6.9 6.8 13.9 6.9 6.8 04/08/94 116 7642 12.26 13.1 9836 11.16 13.1 04/09/94 117 13.9 12.9 04/10/94 118 14.9 13.8 04/11/94 119 8455 22.16 15.4 6.8 6.8 10542 16.82 14.7 6.8 6.8 04/12/94 120 14.9 15.2 04/13/94 121 7930 10.86 14.8 10252 16.20 14.8 04/14/94 122 NA 6.9 6.8 NA 6.8 6.8 04/15/94 123 8340 10.58 NA 8141 10.37 NA Average 7716 9.40 13.6 6.8 6.7 8339 9.25 13.3 6.8 6.8 Std. Dev. 1894 3.48 2.0 0.2 0.2 2269 3.78 2.0 0.1 0.1 77 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B4: Operating Conditions of Run 3 HRT of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day System SRT Temp (oC) PH System SRT Temp (oC) DH TSS (mR/L) (days) CMR Thick TSS (mart.) (days) CMR Thick 05/06/94 1 4197 12.35 17.1 6.6 6.6 5865 21.48 17.1 6.9 6.8 05/07/94 2 17.9 17.9 05/08/94 3 18.6 18.5 05/09/94 4 4944 6.75 19.5 6.8 6.7 5464 8.41 18.5 6.9 6.8 05/10/94 5 18.4 18.3 05/11/94 6 4324 10.37 18.7 5067 21.17 18.6 05/12/94 7 18.2 18.1 05/13/94 8 4735 8.48 17.4 6.9 6.9 5049 15.01 17.3 7.0 7.0 05/14/94 9 17.4 17.3 05/15/94 10 17.7 17.5 05/16/94 11 5087 11.95 17.5 6.9 6.8 5007 15.32 17.5 6.8 6.8 05/17/94 12 17.4 17.3 05/18/94 13 5335 11.80 18.0 4699 15.21 17.8 05/19/94 14 18.6 18.6 05/20/94 15 5038 17.00 18.4 7.0 6.9 4482 13.89 18.3 6.9 6.9 05/21/94 16 18.1 18.0 05/22/94 17 18.5 18.3 05/23/94 18 4670 9.01 19.0 6.8 6.9 4847 11.22 18.9 7.0 6.7 05/24/94 19 19.3 19.3 05/25/94 20 4269 8.72 19.4 4778 14.95 19.4 05/26/94 21 18.8 18.7 05/27/94 22 4547 8.48 18.0 6.7 6.8 4405 11.93 17.9 6.8 6.8 05/28/94 23 17.4 17.4 05/29/94 24 16.7 16.6 05/30/94 25 4408 9.61 16.9 7.0 7.1 4309 9.63 16.8 6.9 6.9 05/31/94 26 17.4 17.3 06701/94 27 4376 8.83 17.3 3615 12.92 17.2 06/02/94 28 17.6 17.5 06/03/94 29 4575 8.53 18.1 6.9 7.0 3501 10.37 18.0 6.9 6.8 06/04/94 30 18.1 17.9 06/05/94 31 18.0 17.7 06/06/94 32 4970 8.58 17.8 7.0 6.8 4034 8.26 17.6 6.8 6.9 06/07/94 33 17.2 17.0 06708/94 34 4654 8.89 17.6 4549 8.42 17.4 06/09/94 35 18.1 17.9 06/10/94 36 4295 10.74 18.5 6.7 6.8 4033 9.98 18.3 6.9 6.9 06/11/94 37 18.9 18.7 06/12/94 38 18.8 18.6 06/13/94 39 4298 8.89 17.9 6.8 6.8 4325 9.99 17.6 6.8 6.8 06/14/94 40 17.3 17.0 06/15/94 41 4235 9.20 17.3 4815 12.40 17.1 06/16/94 42 17.9 17.8 06/17/94 43 4646 8.75 18.4 6.8 6.8 4874 12.71 18.1 6.9 6.9 06/18/94 44 17.8 17.5 06/19/94 45 17.5 • 17.3 06/20/94 46 3867 7.14 17.6 6.7 6.8 4137 10.65 17.4 6.9 6.9 06/21/94 47 18.7 18.6 06/22/94 48 4503 6.35 18.8 4138 8.93 18.7 06/23/94 49 18.4 18.3 06/24/94 50 4862 10.39 17.7 6.9 6.8 4064 14.01 17.5 7.0 7.0 06725/94 51 18.2 18.1 06/26794 52 19.0 18.9 06/27/94 53 4172 7.96 19.3 7.0 7.0 3680 9.85 19.1 6.9 6.7 06/28/94 54 19.4 19.3 06/29/94 55 4102 8.33 19.5 3893 11.67 19.3 06/30/94 56 19.0 18.8 07/01/94 57 4181 9.14 18.4 6.8 6.8 3989 12.57 18.2 6.9 6.9 07/02/94 58 18.8 18.6 07/03/94 59 19.0 18.9 07/04/94 60 5008 10.31 18.8 6.8 6.9 4627 10.04 18.6 6.8 6.8 07/05/94 61 18.2 18.0 07/06794 62 4897 12.14 19.1 4564 16.53 19.0 07/07/94 63 19.8 19.8 07/08/94 64 4592 12.80 20.2 6.7 6.8 4611 13.11 20.1 6.7 6.9 07/09/94 65 20.3 20.1 07/10/94 66 20.5 20.3 07/11/94 67 4658 10.18 20.3 4399 11.40 20.1 Average 4567 9.71 18.3 6.8 6.8 4477 12.48 18.2 6.9 6.9 Std. Dev. 345 2.12 0.9 0.1 0.1 533 3.29 0.8 0.1 0.1 78 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B5: Solids Concentrations of Test Run HRT of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Dale Day Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) CMRctr (days) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mgrt.) (mg/L) CMRctr (days) 08/30/93 1 44 78 58 3010 1497 3 5.57 22 138 132 3372 1703 4 11.45 08/31/93 2 09/01/93 3 98 1158 5520 4866 2952 20 5.06 26 183 2091 5935 2966 3 15.54 09/02/93 4 09/03/93 5 50 1225 6495 4435 2778 23 8.87 6 150 410 7060 3494 2 39.65 09/04/93 6 09/05/93 7 09/06/93 8 80 1635 8920 4170 2862 29 5.98 55 195 75 7660 3807 3 10.41 09/07/93 9 09/08/93 10 120 1730 6320 6565 4070 22 5.65 50 320 190 7910 3993 4 11.74 09/09/93 11 09/10/93 12 110 1035 6430 6755 3803 14 5.71 45 450 225 7820 4016 6 12.90 09/11/93 13 09/12/93 14 09/13/93 15 140 1025 4050 5310 3098 17 3.77 50 455 155 8635 4413 5 12.77 09/14/93 16 09/15/93 17 15 885 3835 3965 2375 19 20.78 09/16/93 18 09/17/93 19 25 1430 5450 4080 2712 27 15.87 09/18/93 20 35 1380 4960 4930 3098 23 13.28 09/19/93 21 35 1380 4960 4930 3098 23 13.28 09/20/93 22 09/21/93 23 09/22/93 24 15 1500 5575 4777 3086 25 25.59 09/23/93 25 09/24/93 26 45 1560 5135 4455 2961 27 10.38 30 1300 4375 4815 3001 22 14.67 09/25/93 27 09/26/93 28 09/27/93 29 09/28/93 30 40 1570 7285 4535 3005 27 11.64 55 2005 6525 5915 3897 27 11.06 09/29/93 31 09/30/93 32 10 1735 5835 4730 3184 28 34.48 65 1945 5850 6420 4110 24 9.98 10/01/93 33 10/02/93 34 15 1370 5850 5425 3332 21 26.53 60 1495 5650 6065 3706 21 9.72 10/03/93 35 10/04/93 36 30 1670 8915 5430 3489 25 16.67 65 2130 7735 5830 3920 28 9.62 10/05/93 37 10/06/93 38 10/07/93 39 50 1700 9355 5225 3406 26 10.67 75 1970 6465 4545 3216 32 7.10 10/08/93 40 10/09/93 41 10/10/93 42 10/11/93 43 10/12/93 44 12 1760 8770 6180 3899 23 33.98 20 2015 7145 5360 3634 29 23.75 10/13/93 45 60 1860 6875 5010 3384 28 9.07 58 2415 6430 5195 3760 33 10.34 10/14/93 46 49 3440 6335 3440 3440 52 11.48 55 3940 5920 3355 3657 56 11.00 10/15/93 47 Average 51 1482 6044 4868 3120 24 14.01 46 1319 3711 5993 3581 19 13.86 Std 37 587 2029 901 536 8 9.03 19 1071 2972 1510 614 15 7.56 79 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B6: Solids Concentrations o f Run 1 H R T of 2.15 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day Influent TSS (mg/L) Effluent TSS (me/L) CMRctr TSS (me/L) Recycle TSS ( » i « l ) Thick TSS (mg/L) System TSS (mg/L) %System TSS in CMRctr SRT (days) Effluent TSS (mg/L) CMRctr TSS (mg/L) Recycle TSS (mg/L) Thick TSS (mg/L) System TSS (mg/L) %System TSS in CMRctr SRT (days) 10/19/93 1 10/20/93 2 53 3265 5355 4875 4044 42 6.07 62 3190 6115 4870 4003 41 5.22 10/21/93 3 154 98 2735 5760 5160 3908 36 3.33 64 3285 5580 5430 4323 39 5.42 10/22/93 4 82 2510 6855 5255 3838 34 3.86 77 2940 5880 5815 4331 35 4.57 10/23/93 5 10/24/93 6 10/25/93 7 162 102 3235 7490 6775 4948 34 3.98 95 3905 6580 6795 5303 38 4.55 10/26/93 8 10/27/93 9 98 3725 9520 5730 4695 41 3.97 108 4010 7180 6525 5227 40 4.01 10/28/93 10 10/29/93 11 132 2920 4945 4425 3648 41 2.37 100 4880 6210 5485 5173 49 4.31 10/30/93 12 10/31/93 13 11/01/93 14 187 126 4505 8505 9755 7045 33 4.53 no 1650 9665 10045 5712 15 4.13 11/02/93 15 11/03/93 16 115 3420 8230 7740 5510 32 3.93 88 5670 10415 10075 7801 38 6.86 11/04/93 17 11/05/93 18 110 4455 8420 7765 6057 38 4.50 92 6375 10195 9710 7989 41 6.79 11/06/93 19 11/07/93 20 11/08/93 21 176 106 3555 6960 5895 4687 39 3.68 98 3555 9425 7900 5657 32 4.66 11/09/93 22 11/10/93 23 104 4365 9385 8085 6165 37 4.80 170 6430 12875 13035 9626 34 4.59 11/11/93 24 11/12/93 25 100 3240 7390 7840 5466 31 4.42 87 4685 12045 10220 7363 33 6.53 11/13/93 26 11/14/93 27 11/15/93 28 168 96 4220 9160 8155 6124 36 5.12 81 5075 12030 10175 7543 35 7.11 11/16/93 29 11/17/93 30 75 9430 4120 3160 6396 76 7.23 85 9160 2660 4610 6958 68 6.83 11/18/93 31 11/19/93 32 69 12335 1520 1035 6867 93 8.75 117 9120 2155 6555 7879 60 5.60 11/20/93 33 11/21/93 34 11/22/93 35 152 81 13100 6120 4840 9103 74 9.31 103 13345 1685 1865 7790 88 6.62 11/23/93 36 11/24/93 37 81 13880 7040 9360 11693 61 11.16 88 14215 1125 1825 8220 89 8.14 11/25/93 38 11/26/93 39 112 17065 1765 2110 9829 90 7.67 95 8535 6020 5520 7076 62 6.18 11/27/93 40 11/28/93 41 11/29/93 42 172 111 15325 7960 5690 10663 74 8.04 91 11815 3780 2335 7228 84 6.88 11/30/93 43 12/01/93 44 12/02/93 45 133 17330 5560 4900 11315 79 7.26 91 10955 2045 4990 8069 70 7.39 12/03/93 46 12/04/93 47 118 16340 4220 3700 10224 82 7.45 120 4730 7735 4890 4807 51 3.40 12/05/93 48 12/06/93 49 154 158 16450 1220 3835 10346 82 5.68 150 5600 4115 9540 7506 39 4.12 12/07/93 50 12/08/93 51 145 17075 5970 4375 10930 81 6.49 120 10185 3685 5655 7993 66 5.61 12/09/93 52 12/10/93 53 161 23625 2665 1980 13152 93 7.20 120 7950 8185 9235 8572 48 5.79 12/11/93 54 12/12/93 55 12/13/93 56 182 5065 6995 15550 10138 26 4.47 138 1235 1445 17540 9125 7 5.04 Average 110 8927 6125 5920 7472 55 5.81 102 6500 6353 7226 6851 48 5.61 Std 30 6393 2389 2966 2880 23 2.12 24 3508 3508 3517 1570 21 1.24 80 APPENDIX B OPERA TING CHARA CTERISITICS Table B7: Solids Concentrations of Run 2 HRT of 3.2 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mR/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) CMRctr (days) (mg/L) (mR/L) (mg/L) (nw/L) (mR/L) CMRctr (days) 12/14/93 1 12/15/93 2 12/16/93 3 138 9970 8110 9070 57 8.18 138 16688 3005 10067 86 9.53 12/17/93 4 12/18/93 5 12/19/93 6 12/20/93 7 12/21/93 8 12/22/93 9 106 8345 6230 7322 59 8.59 212 6905 2090 4575 78 2.86 12/23/93 10 12/24/93 11 12/25/93 12 12/26/93 13 12/27/93 14 12/28/93 15 12/29/93 16 94 3955 5515 4710 43 6.23 92 4005 5800 4874 42 6.55 12/30/93 17 12/31/93 18 01/01/94 19 01/02/94 20 01/03/94 21 174 97 7575 10980 8520 8032 49 9.93 101 4170 7275 3340 3768 57 4.80 01/04/94 22 01/05/94 23 103 6955 13515 9365 8121 44 9.42 102 2295 6725 6060 4117 29 5.02 01/06/94 24 01/07/94 25 99 7360 12820 10915 9080 42 10.70 81 3330 8365 6085 4663 37 7.01 01/08/94 26 01/09/94 27 01/10/94 28 188 67 7215 14620 12735 9886 38 15.71 101 2130 17165 5540 3780 29 4.68 01/11/94 29 01/12/94 30 98 6230 15235 13260 9632 33 11.13 91 2845 5305 5615 4185 35 5.70 01/13/94 31 01/14/94 32 173 86 7135 11350 13010 9978 37 12.90 96 3700 7310 6125 4873 39 6.27 01/15/94 33 01/16/94 34 01/17/94 35 130 90 7620 10845 12585 10022 39 12.55 88 3490 7590 6480 4937 36 6.85 01/18/94 36 01/19/94 37 138 90 6915 14690 12845 9784 36 12.21 96 3510 9335 7155 5274 34 6.70 01/20/94 38 01/21/94 39 142 58 6485 13675 13675 9964 34 17.41 51 3920 11495 6785 5306 38 11.82 01/22/94 40 01/23/94 41 01/24/94 42 164 76 6550 13150 14705 10496 32 14.65 96 4750 13520 7760 6206 40 7.82 01/25/94 43 01/26/94 44 120 66 6820 13705 13795 10195 35 16.11 78 3530 12025 10170 6743 27 9.85 01/27/94 45 01/28/94 46 170 78 7200 13810 13700 10345 36 14.35 101 5480 14745 9385 7370 38 8.70 01/29/94 47 01/30/94 48 01/31/94 49 122 80 7375 15790 12320 9768 39 13.53 54 5445 15665 12150 8689 32 16.50 02/01/94 50 02/02/94 51 156 50 2040 9205 2775 2396 44 5.99 91 5800 18520 9930 7798 38 10.01 02/03/94 52 02/04/94 53 61 2080 3800 3510 2772 39 5.66 42 3015 8640 12620 7663 20 17.32 02/05/94 54 02/06/94 55 02/07/94 56 170 87 3350 9360 4495 3904 44 5.63 79 5025 15450 14505 9612 27 13.04 02/08/94 57 02/09/94 58 86 3850 8760 5735 4762 42 6.82 78 4760 15430 14815 9625 26 13.14 02/10/94 59 02/11/94 60 160 80 4410 7405 6075 5216 44 7.94 100 6360 12330 13260 9699 34 11.02 02/12/94 61 02/13/94 62 02/14/94 63 164 90 4895 9765 8295 6540 39 8.67 69 3975 10150 17340 10442 20 15.09 02/15/94 64 02/16/94 65 104 75 3935 12090 8655 6219 33 9.62 60 3560 8925 16095 9625 19 15.73 02/17/94 66 02/18/94 67 168 80 4995 12400 9245 7051 37 10.22 82 3870 9130 15485 9490 21 12.34 02/19/94 68 81 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B7 (Continued) A-Side B-Side Date Day Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in (me/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mt/L.) (mg/L) (me/L) CMRctr (days) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (nw/U CMRctr (days) 02/21/94 70 168 58 4515 9960 10300 7314 32 13.61 120 4305 9800 16565 10237 22 9.63 02/22/94 71 02/23/94 72 130 40 3960 14370 12235 7964 26 18.80 58 4720 16825 14945 9668 25 16.52 02/24/94 73 02/25/94 74 118 30 3785 15070 12485 7995 24 22.72 49 3715 9535 16295 9802 20 18.41 02/26/94 75 02/27/94 76 02/28/94 77 122 50 4740 10220 11235 7883 31 16.17 54 3825 9885 14195 8843 22 16.14 03/01/94 78 03/02/94 79 138 55 5785 10240 9950 7800 38 15.25 110 4425 10975 15460 9765 23 9.99 03/03/94 80 03/04/94 81 120 64 5970 11595 9975 7908 39 13.67 80 10745 8225 10065 10416 53 14.91 03/05/94 82 03/06/94 83 03/07/94 84 146 61 4995 10280 11480 8133 32 14.22 60 4790 12175 15025 9742 25 16.21 03/08/94 85 03/09/94 86 64 5760 11364 12456 9000 33 14.89 62 5234 12764 16210 10545 26 16.79 03/10/94 87 03/11/94 88 148 75 4920 11600 11750 8225 31 12.12 51 3980 9270 15535 9571 21 17.74 03/12/94 89 03/13/94 90 03/14/94 91 130 53 5600 14780 10700 8068 36 16.00 126 4380 15985 15720 9867 23 8.98 03/15/94 92 03/16/94 93 62 2215 8970 14960 8382 14 13.62 82 3515 18035 16860 9972 18 12.73 03/17/94 94 03/18/94 95 168 58 4652 11360 12534 8466 28 15.11 78 3525 18320 16440 9774 19 13.04 03/19/94 96 03/20/94 97 03/21/94 98 142 62 5065 10760 12780 8798 30 14.84 75 3410 10960 17765 10356 17 13.98 03/22/94 99 03/23/94 100 71 3740 7855 6755 5199 37 8.70 88 3225 9740 14965 8906 19 11.01 03/24/94 101 03/25/94 102 120 58 4750 8685 6490 5592 44 11.23 57 3790 7560 16260 9824 20 16.61 03/26/94 103 03/27/94 104 03/28/94 105 136 63 4115 8745 8980 6469 33 11.53 68 3820 7720 18050 10705 18 15.48 03/29/94 106 03/30/94 107 64 4490 10650 9720 7021 33 12.19 51 3730 6875 16655 9984 19 18.12 03/31/94 108 04/01/94 109 128 52 5440 10800 8235 6792 41 14.41 88 7055 10890 13160 10009 36 12.67 04/02/94 110 04/03/94 111 04/04/94 112 140 69 4530 8180 11220 7767 30 12.36 58 3375 9940 17515 10217 . 17 16.70 04/05/94 113 04/06/94 114 79 5145 10780 10930 7944 33 11.35 55 3545 1 8465 16760 9939 18 17.08 04/07/94 115 04/08/94 116 126 49 5460 12780 9970 7642 37 16.36 68 4165 9735 15885 9836 22 14.69 04/09/94 117 04/10/94 118 04/11/94 119 120 25 3940 11370 13270 8455 24 26.19 44 3930 20400 17595 10542 19 20.73 04/12/94 120 04/13/94 121 58 5245 10585 10795 7930 34 14.62 45 4000 10705 16920 10252 20 20.14 04/14/94 , 122 04/15/94 123 126 63 - 5780 13215 11070 8340 36 14.32 59 380 7735 16420 8141 2 13.39 Average 144 71 5363 11317 10197 7702 36 12.64 81 4548 11361 12392 8344 30 12.27 Std 21 21 1646 2442 2983 1912 8 4.12 30 2264 3717 4768 2293 14 4.59 82 APPENDIXB OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Table B8: Solids Concentrations of Run 3 HRT of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Dale Day Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick System %System SRT TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS in (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (nWL) (mg/D CMRctr (days) (mg/L) (mR/L) (mR/L) (mgOJ) (mR/L) CMRctr (days) 05/06/94 1 156 56 1400 14025 7180 4197 17 11.41 54 2950 14325 8975 5865 26 15.83 05/07/94 2 05/08/94 3 05/09/94 4 328 126 2375 8775 7685 4944 25 6.49 140 2800 11405 8305 5464 26 6.47 05/10/94 5 05/11/94 6 69 545 770 8355 4324 7 9.62 46 1010 2030 9395 5067 10 15.40 05/12/94 7 05/13/94 8 238 95 2125 7340 7520 4735 23 8.06 69 2080 5925 8215 5049 21 11.26 05/14/94 9 05/15/94 10 05/16/94 11 122 70 1240 2075 9190 5087 13 11.03 67 2135 5305 8070 5007 22 11.48 05/17/94 12 05/18/94 13 74 760 4830 10215 5335 7 10.85 64 2655 6100 6880 4699 29 11.46 05/19/94 14 05/20/94 15 126 46 100 15660 10305 5038 1 14.99 68 3195 9300 5855 4482 37 10.56 05/21/94 16 05/22/94 17 05/23/94 18 154 88 2260 4960 7240 4670 25 8.54 92 3110 7520 6700 4847 33 8.58 05/24/94 19 05/25/94 20 83 1830 3685 6870 4269 22 8.28 66 2390 6125 7325 4778 26 11.25 05/26/94 21 05/27/94 22 138 92 3095 9455 6095 4547 35 8.12 78 2450 1093 6490 4405 29 9.08 05/28/94 23 05/29/94 24 05/30/94 25 132 77 1420 4650 7595 4408 17 9.03 95 1500 5100 7305 4309 18 7.35 05/31/94 26 06/01/94 27 84 1920 4220 6995 4376 23 8.38 57 160 1845 7300 3615 2 9.66 06/02/94 28 06/03/94 29 142 91 1870 2020 7460 4575 21 8.10 72 1945 2455 5160 3501 29 7.93 06/04/94 30 06/05/94 31 06/06/94 32 242 97 240 2210 10015 4970 2 8.04 105 1760 3145 6460 4034 23 6.35 06/07/94 33 06/08/94 34 89 2305 4380 7160 4654 26 8.44 116 1965 5510 7305 4549 22 6.47 06/09/94 35 06/10/94 36 170 67 1895 4340 6855 4295 23 10.07 85 830 1930 7450 4033 11 7.59 06/11/94 37 06/12/94 38 06713/94 39 162 82 1995 4620 6755 4298 24 8.44 92 1860 2350 6955 4325 22 7.63 06/14/94 40 06/15/94 41 78 2000 4925 6620 4235 24 8.71 81 1875 4245 7950 4815 20 9.38 06/16/94 42 06/17/94 43 170 91 3240 6890 6145 4646 36 8.37 81 3120 10025 6745 4874 33 9.68 06/18/94 44 06/19/94 45 06720/94 46 214 93 1815 2450 6055 3867 24 6.84 83 2625 7100 5750 4137 33 8.16 06/21/94 47 06/22/94 48 123 2945 6695 6165 4503 34 6.14 100 2645 2885 5730 4138 33 6.88 06/23/94 49 06/24/94 50 134 79 2740 4005 7125 4862 29 9.81 59 660 1905 7695 4064 8 10.46 06/25/94 51 06/26/94 52 06/27/94 53 118 90 2595 8330 5855 4172 32 7.63 80 2105 6775 5360 3680 30 7.55 06/28/94 54 06/29/94 55 84 2125 7560 6210 4102 27 7.94 71 2635 7885 5235 3893 35 8.92 06/30/94 56 07/01/94 57 172 78 2635 6545 5830 4181 33 8.71 67 2455 8225 5625 3989 32 9.57 07/02/94 58 07/03/94 59 07/04/94 60 240 81 1420 3990 8835 5008 15 9.63 98 2125 5490 7295 4627 24 7.68 07/05/94 61 07/06/94 62 67 2270 4775 7700 4897 24 11.31 56 1840 4495 7470 4564 21 12.34 07/07/94 63 07/08/94 64 118 60 3005 10435 6285 4592 34 11.99 74 2845 9695 6495 4611 32 9.96 07/09/94 65 07/10/94 66 07/11/94 67 160 76 845 6670 8725 4658 9 9.48 81 1665 3935 7315 4399 20 8.66 Average 172 82 1897 5906 7415 4567 22 9.12 79 2117 5659 6993 4477 24 9.43 Std 53 17 819 3347 . 1279 345 9 1.80 20 744 3185 1065 533 8 2.34 83 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION B-Side | Effluent o •a < o r- p 5 oo s 5s a f i 00 3 rs oo ui r- 8 Ui 00 c- OO ui r- p P p s s 58 P P oo B-Side | Effluent H i rs u~. r-OS f i UI f S3 r-f i s 00 rs o f l f l f l f l f i a s ui rr 00 f l 3 8 8 Os U"i oo rr 8 B-Side | Effluent i t O^  f i r-T ui oo NO Os VI r-m 00 s© o f i f o = rv u- f u-Os fN f l f O f l rs oe rr o B-Side | Effluent i i 8 a oo r- in f i rs UI 8 00 ui rs 5 In s oo rs a a a r> a a oo rN r— f i f l f l s f l ft UI f l f l UI u-a rs rr 8 f l B-Side | «J "a >-£ a rr rs rr s 3 rr B-Side | Total HAc (mg/L) rs U-! SO B S3 8 § R u-i r- 00 UI s UI B-Side | * 1 U*l a a R 8 rs f i o f i 8 OO rs OO B-Side | •a 1 1 rr o« f i SO f l f i rr f l rr 8 f i ui UI rs rr Os B-Side | CM Reactor 1 u •a 00 r- a oo r- S G oo s Si Si s Si § s So S3 $ f i OO s p P Os r— 8 P u-i r- 8 f i oo oo B-Side | CM Reactor 1 H I oo rS o* rs ci 8 rs R S rs S oo rs a Os a CN Ov rs SO rs rs f i r— rs 00 f l 8 Os f l sO f i 8 3 o U-l s OO rr f l f l f i B-Side | CM Reactor 1 1 I OO Os ft rr f l rs NO S f i rs rs rs rs rs g rr rr ui oo Ui - o o - rs rs a rr 00 r-~ B-Side | CM Reactor 1 •a eJ 1 1 a a s rs s a PI 8 s 3 s s oo a rs a oo oo a 8 a rN ft a f l a 9 rs rr rr 3 8 fi oo A-Side | 6 H a •a <I 58 rs r- 88 a a 1= oo So1 a S3 88 00 r- 00 r— » a r— & 8 $ r— UI r- 8 u-i A-Side | n i oo rr o m rs f i f i f i 5? fN oo f l f l 00 f i rs ui S rs m rr 3 s« rr 00 rr 8 8 P 8 f i ui rr rs A-Side | i i * Os UI 00 vi vi VI 00 oo UI r» rr Os 00 rs Os f i r— 8 -r rs f i UI a 8 a a rr SO A-Side | i i f i f i ui f i a o rs 8 r» f i t~-m s f l S f l a rs f i 3 f l ft f i f i f i f i ?! f l UI f l f i ui 9 R 9 f l r-A-Side | 1 o •a s? 8 •< 8 P P s 58 88 r- rr f i A-Side | H i 5? f l UI 00 u-> 8 8 00 P P * S3 f i A-Side | i i rs 00 UI 8 a VI f i rs f i a a 00 s SO A-Side | I ! f i f i rr Os f i UI rr s K R rs rr oo A-Side | CM Reactor 1 u •a S? 8 a os ss £ 5\ ss oo oo 51 38 a 3 | £ S Os 3 s 3 fN S3 oo P 8 P OO A-Side | CM Reactor 1 n i 3 8 a oo rs a PI rs f i m m a 00 rs a SO rs OO f l r-rs rs UI ft OO rs a f i f i f l Os f l S rs f i f l f l u-i f l * t-UI f l UI s oo rr 3 -A-Side | CM Reactor 1 1 1 © ui ft VI oo ui m rN rr rs t— f i g g UI u-i f i SO SO o OO r— oo 00 Os UI a f i UI A-Side | CM Reactor 1 •a trf 8 | < £ a a s 00 rs m a a a s rs f i s rs f l a a 00 rN 8 f l 00 rs 8 a a S3 rr a r-f i 00 rs r-a s •a a? 8 <. a 8 § 00 a §8 a S3 s s 3 fS 8 1 8 8 88 8 8 8 S3 3 Si 8 P S3 & 8 oo H i r- f i r- 8 a r— rs a 00 rs oo Ov rs a rs a fs OO 8 rs S a a a ? R f i f i rr rN r~ i i f i § PI g v-> rr rs f i f l f i rs \e> g g g m f i g g g SO ft rs rr f i f l rs OO r-ui rr f i •a 1 I rr f i 8 r- oo s s u-i rs oo r- s a rs Os oo a rs a a rs sO rs a a f i f i f l ft rs R rN B - rs f l ui so r- oo © - rs f l UI r- 00 o» S rs a a s a R a ?! m Si f i f i ui f i f i oo f l o> f i r? 9 3 !? i f i § S o ft S o ft S s s f i 1 s m ci i e S S f i 1 s f i s f l I I S 1 f i S s f l s s f i a s f l e m s f i S s f i z. u-i f i S s f i S 3 f l ?: s f i s $ ft S s f i 1 f i S g s f i « f i g s f i 1 g s f l «; U-i g s S g s f l g f l g ro i Os S $ f l § s s f i S f l s f i ft i ft SI ui f l f i 1 f i | f l i m S s m S s f l s s f l f i s ft S wt a g > < S 84 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION B-Side 1 •a e£ 8 T r- is Si fN OO 3 3 % s O N £ P S3 a ON a S 3 S O N 8 oo r~ 00 B-Side 1 a § H I fN m ro ro ro ro ro ro ro fN fO fN fO s a 00 fN S a ?! ro ro F5 fO a «1 ro a S OO m TT oo B-Side 1 Ul r» t— r— r— r- r— N O so fN ro 00 in N O - tn W1 T T fN oo « fN fN Tf TT B-Side 1 •a 1 1 •ON ro oo fN o0 ro OO fN so fN OO fN r- a s s TT fN a a oo rN a fN ro ro rr fN ro ro rO Tt B-Side 1 J2 •a 8 •<! P a 00 a a OO s 3 8 Si O S r» P s S * ro OO SS a f5 3 OO m 3 p B-Side 1 H i r-m O N T a T ? V l T T fN T in m S ?! O N ro fO ro so a »n fN m O N ro T? OO fN a P a OO »n a B-Side 1 1" 1 V l 00 © s - oo - ON ro S fO O - a 00 s oo 00 - O N fN r-ro B-Side 1 1 I ro ro ro co ?! m ro s s ro a a ft CN ro a ro a a 9 a m B-Side 1 CM Reactor 1 u •a <. £ & s 3 3 8 a S3 oo O N r— T 3 S O fN m P B-Side 1 CM Reactor 1 Total HAc (mg/L) ro 00 <N 8 T T ro fN ro 00 CN ?! ro fN fN fN ro OO fN rO TT a rN ?! a o ro S S s fN ro O N 00 B-Side 1 CM Reactor 1 1 ! - in T T V l so m so U-l n § fN S O r-- fN S O m <n N O ro s a a f= ro o fN V l B-Side 1 CM Reactor 1 1 1 S fN ro a a oo CN s a ro ro ro fN s ro ro a a a a ?! a 8 ro ro s R O S TT A-Side I 1 e UJ '£3 m r- 00 00 8 3 3 oo r- a S) S O N r- «n r- 8 •8, SS 38 oo A-Side I Total HAc (mg/L) a r— TT ro ro ro V l ro fN ro ro a fN fN ro s a ?5 a a R rO a R a a O S >n ro A-Side I i i p- oo so § r— S O O fN fN 00 O N so T T 00 OO ro m Tf m ro ro ro CN A-Side I 1 1 r-ro V) ro a so fN o cn T T m ?! a a a a OO fN a a a fN a a a a a »n TT PI r— fN A-Side I I o •a s? 8 r- v i p- 8 OO OC | OO 3 O S a OO r- s s OO « a oo S! £ ?: P P A-Side I Total HAc (mg/L) fi fN 9 S R a fN ro 9 s a m m s O N ro r-ro oo fN ro R a r— A-Side I 1 1 TT 00 O S g fN m oc fN ro O N fN O N oo a a 00 O N so Tf o r- S O A-Side I I ! V> fO a r-ro fN a S so fN 5? a CN a S a fO ro fN ro a a fN ro 9 fN a oo CN A-Side I CM Reactor 1 u 5? 8 8 88 C O oe O N O N r~~ oo r— s £ SS a S3 P a 3 s m m 3 00 A-Side I CM Reactor 1 Total HAc (ma/L) fN T T ro o ro o m S O m r— ro a 00 fN 00 r- T T fN ro fO fN ON fN a ro ro ro rr a r- ro m O N ro TT A-Side I CM Reactor 1 1 1 - © V l T T so r- ro O N fN r- S O oo <n m ro a « % ro rO CN CN A-Side I CM Reactor 1 •a e I ! ro rO a a Pi O ro O N a a a fN ro 9 00 PS 3 c 1 o •a 8 <i Si s 8 3 Si 8 S8 S 3 S P £ oc 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 S oS O Total HAc (ma/L) ?! r- - ON ON 8 s f* PI a so V a rO ro N O O N a oc TT a so i i ro fN fN Tf fN fN ON g i r NO so TT in TT >n fN ro - fN CN § fN 1 1 ? ON P- Ot o m s o* a — o> a fN —- r a o r- ot (* r- f O N S O O N fS ro rr so r- OC 0^ o fN m in S O OC O S a fN p a a s PN 00 rN ?! a ?r fN ro ro ro a V l rO R 00 ro O N PO <5 r*-o* § | ro Z I ro S ro 1 ro $ 1 ro z v 1 f S 1 fl 1 1 1 S 1 r* i r*" 1 r*" 1 fO S 5 s 1 g f ? ro S g ro | r* S 11/12/93 ro fO 3^ rO z fO S ro ro S fO z o> rO S c ro S c ro s s a S c ro 1 s ro z *n c ro S s 85 APPENDIXC VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION B-Side | 1 Effluent 1 u 8 Vl r— s S3 P- 8 fN VO Sc S3 00 oo B-Side | 1 Effluent 1 a a OO Ov - s fN B-Side | 1 Effluent 1 i i ft f l r- f l 00 rN rN rr OO vo B-Side | 1 Effluent 1  1 8 rr P = r- o rr s OO B-Side | u 1 £ U *I oo 28 3 Os WI R oo to 8 © B-Side | m * f i fs R R a VI f l f l 8 B-Side | a f i f i R rr fi rr f l fl fN B-Side | •a 1 1 m a ON Os os rr rN Pl R -B-Side | 1 S u •a 8 ? 88 8 $ v3 s S3 00 00 R fN B-Side | HI 90 fi S Pi r? r- Os o oo v> f l B-Side | 1 1 rs f l ft OO a oo fN rN rr = VO B-Side | I S R rs a v> a O oo rr VO CN | A-Side | I u •a 8 <! S3 s a 00 S3 OO Os | A-Side | ^ J R a a Os f l f l VI R fN | A-Side | 1 1 v© VI f l s Ov rr f l f l r-| A-Side | I s rN fN 00 a rN © © fN oO | A-Side | I u •a VI Os fN oo f l OO P f i VI rN vo in r- oo r— 00 r-o | A-Side | H I 3 oo fN fi 8 S3 f l fN fN p 00 fi vo | A-Side | 1 s ft v© so o 9 v-i rr f l 9 fN o | A-Side | •a H 1 I rs rr a 3 fN Os o m fi R o | A-Side | I 1 § •a 8 1^ R 38 3 » s p 3 R o | A-Side | H i a a 8 a fi 00 © vo | A-Side | i i r- f l r- fN Ov rr f l f l | A-Side | •a 8 1 < 3 a 00 00 rr OO © m r- f i rr a u 3 u •a 8 P a a 8 $ DO VI S s 38 O H I oo rr os VI rr fN f l r- rr Os f-I s v© - fN VO r- r— fN § fN f l rN •a 1 1 f i f l OO o fi 00 f l fN SO vo r? rs rr f l rr 3 Vi rr VI fN VI f i VI m m 8 1 ft g s f i § f i £ f i § s f l s ft S S f l s 8 f i 1 f l S5 S f i f i r-S f l S S f l 1 § f l s f i S 5 f l S! f l 3 i 1 3 56 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION s 3 se a S3 S3 a s 8 a V l r- P a a S3 a 'S, 8 ON 1 u i V) se. fN T ro s ON rO ro oo V l r s OO fN NO fN ro 9 0 ro ro ?! a V l ro r -rN o ON 1 1 r - ON fN ON ro TT ON fN § NO ON O tO T f r - TT CN •a 1 1 o\ ?! fN ro S a ?! S3 a 9 a 00 fN fN a a a a ON a ?! Os o OC u •a a? 3 C8 58 SS ?5 a a S P P P P 3 a r - G 8 3 se B-Side J I I ! a 3 8 3 8 s se in V l r - R a r -ro S a B-Side 1 1 CN - * S a rs oo a fN ro OO ro s Ov 8 SS NO ro a o a V l 1 1 ro SJ v i rO TT 3 a TT 3 8 a SS ON ro VI ro a 8 9 a V l ro rO ro ro o • a os T p So s Si a ON | So a P V l 8 3 £ 8 So H I oo SS r*t oo r s rO ro oo ro a ?! oo fN a ro V l ro fN ro OO a fN ro a O0 a 8 s 1 1 © ON ro TT r~ § ro V l fN fN i - ro ON O g VN NO fN g T f TT i i © ?! a rO a ro ?! ?! a rN a a rN oo fN OO fN ON oo a u • a 8 <! oo a 0 0 f£ oo a fN OO B a a P oo a s P se V) r - S3 S3 a u i fN ro 3 9 00 ro m r -ro OO ro a NO ro ON TT ro r -ro a V l ro 3 ro ro CN ro <N fN ro UJ i t ro ON - fN ON to o OO fN TT NO fN ON 0 0 ro tO ro TT O O TT r-•a 1 I ON S ro rO ro Si Pi ro ro ro ro a NO fN a a 8 a a CN ro a fN 00 NO fN u • a *s 3 OO V i S to s V i V i r» to VI 8 S2 8 * V> VI .•a 4> > m to § fN ro 00 R TT Si 3 NO ro rO TT s? p fN TT § » S s fN CN fN ON ro oS A-S - 0 0 fN fN ro 3 8 » OO V l 3 a V l 3 p- a rS fN ro a s ro S CN 0 0 TT I I a a fN P * 3 » oo V i r - V l r - ro ro 3 P a a a S3 $ a OO TT o •a 8 <! s 3 P S S3 a a ON S3 OO P ft a P f5 OO r - 3 Hi fN r - 9 OO ro TT 3 R fN ro fN ro P a 3 oo rO a a fN ro a fN ro V l SR s * 1 ON r- fN ro fN ON 00 TT 00 NO ro ro V l V l O = T f ON 00 fN •a ed 1 1 rO CN rO ro ro a r— ro O ro a a a fN ro O ro a fN a a fN TT a o •a 8 3 S vn r - 00 SS S 8 00 r - P SS 8 oo VI 8 8 8 a 8 8 8 a H I ON fN ?! NO NO r s 00 fN fN ro (N V l ro a Os ON 00 g V l ro V l ro | 1 1 - TT v i NO NO - fN NO 1 S TT TT NO g O g g g CN § s • a «d I- 1 00 OO a fN a oo fN r s r s O V) ON OO g ro ro V l ro 8 - fN ro T v i NO 00 ON o - fN ro TT V l NO r- oo Ot a CN a a NO fN fN O0 fN ?! o ro ro rN ro ro ro VI ro ro 00 ro ON ro fN TT 9 3 ? a ro TT ro v i 3 ro s 3 ro rO ro ON 5 ro S s ro S ro S S ro rO S ro TT s ro S s ro S s rO S s ro £ S ro S s ro S s ro S T § © TT s g © TT ro g s « g 5 TT V l g © o TT s g O TT 1 g S « g TT 1 £ o T f § o TT ro O 1 3 TT VI O T f 1 O TT r -O 1 o TT S TT s O T f s O I p 5 «: ro S T f I S O •tT s O TT s s o TT s s il o Ot s 5 s o S s s 87 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION B-Side I I Effluent | •a 38 s 3 OC $ s Os m § 38 8 8 8 8 00 m 3 Os 8 8 8 8 8 8 s 51 8 ol oo m 38 S3 B-Side I I Effluent | H i oo NO rs rs V) f l Os m 00 rs P OV f l 58 a Os R 00 rs a R r~ fN rr rr a © NO s rN a 00 fN ss a a f in f i B-Side I I Effluent | 1 1 m ft in oo - S g f g g f l f i Cr! rs rs g g g g g g f l O0 rs rN fN g f l rr VI V) r-B-Side I I Effluent | •a 1 1 in P R r? a P a f i rr a Os a R 00 fN a rr rr a © 3 f r-ft ir a a a Cn 8 R B-Side I JU >i a u •a a? 8 a a a P 8 P in m a r— P R R a SO 8 S3 m r- a P So 3 s 58 B-Side I m NO rs rr s f i in m r— C3 f i rs f i 3 oe S3 a es fN 8 00 a s rr R rs f i a f i rs f i f i rr f i f i rs p S3 Os rr 58 8 B-Side I 1 1 rr ci rs oo f i OO P so - t~~ f i 8 oo f i v i P f i m in rs rs r- a © P m rs f i Os Os fN m rs f i Os 8 a B-Side I •a td 1 1 fN f i 8 Os f l P oo rs m f i m rs rr in f i f i rr f i f i S3 r-m f l rr a 8 a rs OO rs rs 3 P a f l f l R fN f i a B-Side I s * J 8 o>" SS a Si S3 8 s 8 8 8 Si 3 8 8 s 8 3 8 8 rs r- S3 8 8 8 8 8 Os R B-Side I H I fi a a rs m rs f i s: P 8 a Os P a 88 a a rr rs P O Os Os f i P a ? R 8 a B-Side I 1 1 f i f t rs NO r~ f i rs rr g Os a g g g rs f l rr g g g § rr g g f l m a g g g g m f i f l rs oo 3 B-Side I I ! a rs a Os f l a 9! P O* f l r? a Os f i f i a f l m a a rr rs Os O Os f i f i m P a VI rr a O0 rs a A-Side | 1 o •a 8 38 S oJ Os OO $ P S3 00 r- 8 8 s s 8 s 8 8 Os 8 8 8 8 P 8 8 f i Os 8 $ fN OO R 3 A-Side | H i rs f l a rs a f i R R a rr a rs o f l 00 rs oo rs in rr rr rs rr f l rr a — R a a rs f i a 00 rs A-Side | 1 1 m g rs m Vi rN tN - g g rs rs a g rs g g ft g g g g o g g fN ft Os in A-Side | •a 1 1 a a p ft f i a P a rs f i a fN R NO rs a «n rr p rr f l rr a a Os a p a a 8 a p A-Side | u ? 1 u •a X 8 •< a 3 oo a P $ $ a 8 3 SR 3 00 rr a •« 8 >n «n s c o 5! 8 P 8 P 8 rr 3 A-Side | P i 8 r-OO rr a m S3 s 8 a S8 8 3 s$ a f i Os rs rr r- R rs rN s fN m S! rr o rs oo f i rs t— 00 Os rr R A-Side | i i Cn r? rs m P rs rs in a r-m Os m oo fN a rs r— m Os rr >n g r-f l fN m R OO fN rr a 3 Os f l OO rs a A-Side | •a 1 I 00 rr rs rr m a Os f i r-rr r-f i Os f l f i 8 » m m R 3 a Si a rs m f i a f l f l a a rr 3 o f l A-Side | § 1 o •a s Si oo a So S) SS fN 8 8 8 8 P 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 3 8 8 « a P SS 3 00 3 A-Side | H - i a 00 a a rN a a a p a P P NO rs rr fN a Os 00 rs rs 00 a R a 3 rs f i p 8 A-Side | £ i rr g rs rs rs rs f l O0 Os g g g g g g g g g g g g g 00 g g fN rs rr m VO Vi •<f A-Side | •a H 1 1 00 OS Os R R a f l ft f l f l p a P P a NO rs rr rr rs a Os oo rs rs a 00 a a p rs f i a 8 Os P 1 *! 88 1 ss § 38 S3 a 8 8 8 8 8 8 oo 8 8 8 oo 8 8 8 s 8 8 | 8 8 £ 8 a a S3 H I rr f l 00 8 f i p - 00 00 P a Os Os Os 00 © f l Os in 00 o ON m 00 rs a p R 1 1 rs § rs g f l in f i rr rr g § g g g g rs g g g f i g g g rs g g g g g rr g rs rs NO 8 1 < 3 rs O f l m a Os a - = 00 00 P a r- Os Os ao 00 m NO f l r- m 00 © Os in » r- Os a a o m >n rs m f l m m VI in 00 o\ m s NO fN NO S S8 S 58 s a P P a in r- p 00 r- Os r- S 00 00 So 3 00 88 00 8 a a 3 m Os a a rr s rr I rr m § o rr 1 o rr m 1 rr o rr 1 rr § 1 O rr S 1 s 1 rr s I rr f l i rr $ o rr s 1 rr $ 1 rr s 1 rr 1 rr S Os rr 1 ? 1 i s © rr f l s © rr $ 1 rr m 1 rr s 1 rr 1 1 rr f i © rr S ft © rr f l s rr e S rr m 1 s rr r-f i © rr S f i © s rr § s rr s s rr S s rr f l f l © rr 1 m s rr § s rr s 08 f i © 55 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION B-Side | Effluent 1 •a 8 o 8 8 s m oo S8 rO 00 TT r—• 3 So O0 r— a a oo S3 rO OO CN r— -B-Side | Effluent 1 H I 8 ro ro rO 8 fO ro a a V l ro ro ro a TT 3 CN TT a 8 fN ro a oo rO ro ro ON B-Side | Effluent 1 1 1 rs m fN TT rO ro V l NO VI V l NO r» NO v. ON 00 - TT ro T f V l r- oo ro 00 -B-Side | Effluent 1 •a <d 1 1 8 8 a 8 NO fN a a TT rs r-ro ro a 8 a CN ro CN ro ro a 8 oo CN a a o B-Side | u 3 u •a <! V l £ oo a oo 8 5! CN 8 oo m oo TT a a 3 V l 58 in r- R » sa B-Side | H i rs T in rN ro ro © TT 8 a 00 rs $ 3 s TT a ro m m ro S3 B-Side | £ 1 00 fN m NO NO S3 V| a 9 OO CN <ON ro TT m a S3 V l oo rs - 3 a TT CN ro ro ro B-Side | •a 8 I < 3 oo TT ro NO CN a TT CN rO OS ro VI a CN ro fN TT a o ro % p~ ro 8 r-TT & T f CN TT fN B-Side | •a 8 88 8 a 3 a a ON S3 3 8 a a a V l r- 00 S3 S3 a a £ rO B-Side | H i 2 a a rO ro a a a 3 ro ro a m ro ro ro 3 V l ro a CN a 58 fN ro ro ro Oj B-Side | i i £ m fN 1 fN t - fN fN ro 3 TT ro NO ro fN 00 TT TT NO NO NO r- -B-Side | •a 1 1 a a a 00 fN a a a a V l ro 8 8 O0 fN ro ro CN ro a ON OO r^l 3 NO rN a A-Side | a 3 E w o •a S? 8 $ a s a oo 00 38 S3 a a S8 So R a a O0 r— a a oo OO oo r~ oo r- S3 ON A-Side | H ! 3 ro a a 8 8 8 CN ro a ? oo CO ro Os ro 3 CN T a a a oo fO ro fN ro -A-Side | i i a rO fN TT V l m in NO c—• NO ON - o ON © rO ro TT TT f> © oo NO A-Side | •a H 1 1 a a a a NO CN a NO rN a ro rO ro rO 8 8 ro ro ro S ON 8 8 a a r~-A-Side | i o •a 8 « o r— S3 fN 00 a ON TT a a a fN VI « 9 V l a m a a V l V l 8 CN A-Side | H i a oo m r-ro m ro ro ro CN TT Vt s £ $ oo ON fN m § f> rs 3 * m rO ON CN CN 8 a A-Side | i i ro fN r- 00 ON OO 00 8 CN ro ro a OO CN 00 vo a VI ro O a V l m rO CN m a CN m ON ro A-Side | •a eJ 1 1 TT CN ro a a V) ro 8 TT a a R fN TT a * CN ro r» ro a 8 3 V l A-Side | 0 1 s o •a 8 •<! a 38 a a 8 38 a S S3 S3 a S3 a 00 r— 00 r- 38 So 3 So* a $ © A-Side | HI 3 s a a a a R a 00 CN 00 rO V l rO ro rO ro ON ro TT oo ro CN a a fN rO a 8 © A-Side | i i m fN fN ro TT TT V l m VO 00 in ON © O ro T f 00 r- NO NO V l A-Side | •a H 1 1 o ro a a fN fN a a a TT fN TT CN fN ro ro o ro oo fN ro fN ro © ro ON ON 00 CN NO fN TT rs r— a (j *a SS 8 •<! S3 ro 00 fN ON 8 8 8 a 8 8 8 5v ON a So S3 00 3 00 ro OO OO r- ro OO 00 a ON ON H i ro a TT OO O0 rs ON ro OO ON a a a 00 fN CN ro ro rO fN ro r- VI oo a a 00 OO 1 1 V l fN § § TT rs § § § ro rO fN TT NO r- 00 r- TT TT TT V l m CN rO •a id 8 | < s rs T f 00 a oo ro 00 ON NO fN NO CN rs a CN a NO fN NO fN TT CN V l oo CN NO r-8 © fN © s 3 s s S 8 8 © - fN ro TT V l NO r- 00 o fN fN CN fN ro CN TT CN V l CN NO fN r-CN 00 CN i ON 1 TT s s TT s 5 O TT § S TT ro S TT o> TT C! O T f m S s TT s s TT s TT ro O TT 1 ty o T f m O TT S 5 ro © T f s © s TT s e S •vT ro 3 TT I TT V) s TT 3 TT © 3 TT i TT ! TT 1 1 £ TT s 1 TT ro 1 TT 1 i ? m 1 1 i TT i TT 1 1 T f s ON 1 TT s I % it •2 IS) 89 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION B-Side | Effluent 1 a R 8 8 oo 8 a s Cl oo 8 ft (8 8 00 r-V l r— Os OO s 3 SS s 8 P S3 S3 R B-Side | Effluent 1 i ci Cl OS c i fN- rs C l a rr rs C l ?! a rs rr 3 ?! rs Cl oo VI a NO rs rs Cl V l Cl V l Cl v3 oo Os rr 8 9 C l rr B-Side | Effluent 1 * I rr C l rr rr V i © rr Cl NO Ov a oo o* Os oo rr r— 00 V l p 9 V oo NO OO = B-Side | Effluent 1 •a 1 1 ?! s a ?! a C l Cl ?! 8 ?! V l C l 3 p a Os C l a R a 8 a c OO V l rN rr a Cl C l C l a B-Side | « > a •a rr £ o< r» p 3 Cl Os r- 3 a V l O0 V l 3 NO rs NO s 8 s « OC OQ s Ov V l VI V l 8 p $ a B-Side | H I fN r-C l rs ci a 5 8 8 8 VI 8 5 a 3 ?! V l Ov a 8 V l 00 8 Cl rr rN rr SS Cl 9 R s B-Side | 1 1 a v i ci C l CN Cl VI Cl VI 85 s a 00 V l Cl I r— oo C l rs r- 9 Os Os rr V) § a rr rs rr B-Side | 1 1 NC a r-rr r? s 00 rs Os VI rr 8 8 r? P Os rs rr r-rs o rr V l m a 8 S r? 9 a B-Side | CM Reactor 1 o •£3 a SS a 5s 8 a St $ a 8 s a R P 00 S s B 8 $ S3 B-Side | CM Reactor 1 n i a rs C l 8 C l 8 a p Cl C l Os Cl 9 a a Os C l R a rs Cl ui a V l rr V i C l Cl V l R V l rr 8 9 V l Cl B-Side | CM Reactor 1 i i rr fN r- rs rr rr Cl Cl fN NO r- © NO rr 00 rr vo V l Os P a NO OO r-B-Side | CM Reactor 1 •a d s i < 3 — P a a a a C l C l rs Cl p fN a p Os R 8 R Cl r-C l R s Cl 8 8 A-Side | 1 UJ o •a 5? 8 oo 5\ 8 oS a Os C l Os a oo sa S3 OO a 8 a R S S3 r» VI 3 vo 00 r-8 S3 8 A-Side | H i oo rs 00 rs NO rs C l 8 p r-rs Cl Cl £ a R oo Cl R r-rs 8 a S a a rr rr 9 rr A-Side | i i rr c i rr rr C l rr rs rs rr rs SO SO 00 rs V l Cl = r- R p S3 rr © Os o A-Side | a 1 1 a a a a ?! a a a a C l fN Cl P p R a p a Cl C l R 8 ft fN Cl rr r-Cl Cl C l A-Side | V I u •a 3? 8 a S3 a SS 8 rs VI VI rr <S 3 18 g 3 a R R a P V l 9 a OO V l 00 V l R 8 A-Side | H i V l ?! ? 3 Os C l OO C l VI Cl C l oo rr VI rN Cl fN R a 00 V l 8 Os Cl a s 00 V l 8 a i rr V l V l UI m V l rs rr A-Side | i i I rs o O 00 C l s v> rs Cl % OS C l V l $ a a rr Os VO Os V l Os a 8 8 Cl rr V) 8 VO Cl rs A-Side | i i © rr 8 8 C l rs C l oo rs rr VI fN VI C l 58 a R R p 8 Os Cl Cl V l V l R V l V l R R V i a 8 rr Pi A-Side | CM Reactor 1 o •a ^ 8 <! 3 8 8 a a s Os Os SS ft s ft 8 R a SS S3 P a S3 $ S3 3 A-Side | CM Reactor 1 H i a a R a ?! a a p a a 9 R V l Cl 00 rs P R Cl 8 C l C l 8 r» Cl fN Cl V l Cl 3 o A-Side | CM Reactor 1 i i rr ci C l C l C l C l rs C l - Cl VI V i r- © V l r» rs V i V l rN NO NO Ov 00 A-Side | CM Reactor 1 •a eJ 1 I rs a P rs p p p a 8 rr C l p p a rN a a a fN Cl Cl a 8 8 Cl C l i o •a 8 <! CK 8 00 00 51 So 38 3 a 3 % 5s 00 P NO r- Os So 8 R rs oo S8 SS Total HAc 00 Pl rs 00 C l SO r- a a Os ?! rr rs rs p p a a Os a a p P 00 fN Os Cl Cl Cl R C l rs Cl i i rN C l C l rs rs rs Cl C l rN C l rr C l rr V l vo NO rs VI r- V l Cl Cl r— Os NO V l VI V l •a 1 1 r- fN r- = rr VI oo P r- a p 00 00 00 Os V l 00 a a p a rs p rs C l R a a 00 rs fN ci rr WI NO p- 00 Os = rs Cl rr VI VO r- 00 Os a rs p p a a NO rs r» rs 00 rs R 8 Cl fN Cl Cl C l a V l c l r— Cl 00 Cl C l rr 9 1 s rr S p s rr S o s 1 s rr rr s rr s rr rr ©\ rr rr Os V l s rr s rr rr s rr 1 is rr S p s T s 3 s rr S p s rr § p s rr 5 s rr V l p s rr S p 8 rr p s rr 5 p s rr 1 p s rr § s rr s 5 s rr S rr 1 rr % rr 1 rr r^ rr 1 rr 1 rr i rr S 1 rr s rr S i rr Cl £ rr s £ rr s £ rr S £ rr £ 90 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION •a P s 58 58 a 8 ro ON 8 r -0 0 8 8 8 a 8 a S3 8 8 S3 o Total HAc (mg/L) ro VI ro Vl r— ro fN ro OO ro r^  ro VI ro 8 8 a 3 a 8 9 Vl £ i 0 0 oo a ro ro O VO NO VI rO Tf fN fN o rO - ON Acetic (mart.) e> ro Pi Os ro v! a fN ro U-i ro ro fN ro ro Tf a a 3 f*V V a 0 0 u •a o r - o 3 Vl r - a a 8 58 SS 5» £ a So a p 8 0 0 ro B-Side 73 Total HAc (mg/L) 3 58 8 a 5? (--Tf ro a 8 ro ro fN ro uo ro r-ro ro So 8 a p ON Tf 3 B-Side 3 1 I a a a UO rs ro a m Tf NO r— r - a a oo a ro 9 8 •a 1 1 r -Tf ON ro 3 r~ ro R VI ro a r-ro a a 8 ro a is Tf S Vl o> ro a ro Tf • a 8 vi r - ON a 8 8 a a 8 8 a a a S3 a S3 00 1 Total HAc (mg/L) v i ro V) ro R fN ro vi ro a a a r -ro rO a a R r s Tf ? Tf R O 8 i i ro o\ OO ro fN NO ro Ul ro Ov oo 0 0 Tf 0 0 0 0 NO •a tJ i ! s 9 8 rO ro a a ro ro ro ro ro a Ov 9 a P-ro a a NO • a a a S3 8 8 s $ 8 8 ON a 3 e S3 fN 1 Total HAc (mg/L) rO ro fN ro So 8 rO rO Tf a ro oo rO 0 0 ro a s R 8 S3 ON 9 a 6 w i i r f T f r - Vi ro uo Tf NO ro Tf T f a a fN fN rO i i a N© fN 8 8 ro ro 8 CN ro fo uo ro a ro a 3 9 a O o • a £ 8 a 0 0 S ro V) 8 a s $ 3 a a 8 a a a 6 Vl A-Side Total HAc (mg/L) a s 8 8 a s a r-ro Ov uo Vl ro Tf ro Tf 0 0 V) Vl fN CN ro © A-Side I 1 I Ov ©N K oo Ul a a a r» fN oo Tf fN O0 r- CN Tf r- se © fN 1 1 P; S 5! R * a fO a co ro a Tf 9 ?! P u • a 5? 8 <3 OO r - SS 8 8 s 8 ON 8 8 ON 8 8 a OO So a ON O Total HAc (mg/L) ro a ro Tf 9 ro ro a a Ov ro a a a fN ro a R 0 0 Tf 9 9 a © s 1 1 Tf Tf = VI Tf ro ro a a ro o - oo NO 1 1 Jo OO r s fN a Ul Tf ro ro a a v> ro ro fN ro a a a 00 Tf r— ro a a a NO U * a S? 8 **! s a 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 a 8 s 8 ON §8 88 a r -I H I 0 0 R a S a a Tf a a a a r - a a » ro ro a NO 1 £ % - r s fN Tf ro Tf v> Vi Tf Tf fN •a tJ 3 I 0 0 a = a a a a Tf a a a r- a a CN ro a a a Vi TT OO T f 8 uo fN Ul ro ui a VI U-l U-l 00 uo ON VI s NO <2 3 a 8 58 8 o i i Tf i I e 1 1 1 Tf uq Tf I Tf Tf i Tf Tf § s Tf S I Tf ro S o I Tf uo i Tf s ? r -s I S o •v* i S Tf i 1 1 i Tf s I Tf $ o Tf S 1 i 1 91 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION Table C5 : V F A Production (as H A c ) of Test Run H R T o f 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) 08/30/93 1 31 20.9 35 20.3 08/31/93 2 35 12.0 27 9.2 09/01/93 3 14 5.0 95 27.1 09/02/93 4 16 5.7 23 6.6 09/03/93 5 13 4.6 39 10.2 09/04/93 6 09/05/93 . 7 . 09/06/93 8 20 5.0 3 0.7 09/07/93 9 23 5.6 38 9.5 09/08/93 10 25 6.5 21 5.2 09/09/93 11 29 7.6 30 7.5 09/10/93 12 6 2.1 67 15.2 09/11/93 13 09/12/93 14 09/13/93 15 34 14.1 20 4.4 09/14/93 16 15 6.1 11 2.5 09/15/93 17 16 5.9 9 2.0 09/16/93 18 . 24 7.8 9 2.1 09/17/93 19 13 4.3 2 0.5 09/18/93 20 09/19/93 21 09/20/93 22 24 7.7 3 0.9 09/21/93 23 18 5.8 16 5.4 09/22/93 24 10 3.3 14 4.8 09/23/93 25 20 6.9 11 3.7 09/24/93 26 18 6.2 17 4.4 09/25/93 27 09/26/93 28 09/27/93 29 45 15.0 23 5.7 09/28/93 30 23 7.2 21 5.0 09/29/93 31 24 7.5 24 6.5 09/30/93 32 10/01/93 33 -4 -2.1 29 6.2 26 7.7 -14 -7.4 30 4.7 16 4.2 10/02/93 34 10/03/93 35 10/04/93 36 -11 -6.5 37 6.8 26 7.4 -6 -3.0 31 5.3 25 7.6 10/05/93 37 -5 -2.7 24 4.5 20 5.8 -1 -0.4 22 3.7 21 6.5 10/06/93 38 -3 -1.9 21 3.9 18 5.3 -0 -0.1 18 4.0 18 5.6 10/07/93 39 -15 -8.6 30 5.8 16 4.6 -15 -7.4 31 6.8 16 5.1 10/08/93 40 -12 -7.2 35 6.8 23 5.9 -11 -5.4 36 8.0 26 8.0 10/09/93 41 10/10/93 42 10/11/93 43 -10 -5.6 46 7.4 36 10.5 -15 -7.4 53 10.0 38 10.2 10/12/93 44 -5 -2.7 32 5.2 27 7.9 -4 -2.1 37 6.9 33 9.0 10/13/93 45 -1 -0.4 33 6.7 33 10.5 -4 -1.6 40 7.8 36 10.1 10/14/93 46 36 10.5 3 1.0 40 12.7 26 6.5 7 2.0 32 9.0 10/15/93 47 9 2.7 11 3.2 20 38.0 8 2.0 13 4.0 21 34.6 Average -2 -2.2 27 S.2 JJ ii -3 -1.4 29 i.l 5$ Std 14 5.1 11 1.8 9 6.3 11 4.2 13 2.2 18 7.0 | 92 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION Table C6: V F A Production (as H A c ) of Run 1 H R T of 2.15 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) 10/19/93 1 4 1.2 17 3.6 21 5.3 4 1.2 19 4.0 23 5.8 10/20/93 2 12 3.8 12 2.5 24 6.0 12 3.7 14 2.8 26 6.4 10/21/93 3 19 6.8 1 0.2 19 5.0 12 3.6 10 1.8 22 5.0 10/22/93 4 8 3.3 13 2.5 22 5.7 4 1.5 18 3.1 23 5.2 10/23/93 5 10/24/93 6 10/25/93 7 -2 -0.6 17 2.5 15 3.1 6 1.4 12 1.7 17 3.2 10/26793 8 33 10.3 -39 -5.7 -5 -1.1 6 1.5 8 1.2 14 2.6 10/27/93 9 2 0.6 12 2.1 14 3.0 2 0.6 9 1.4 12 2.2 10/28/93 10 -3 -0.9 6 1.0 2 0.5 -17 -4.2 15 2.3 -2 -0.3 10/29/93 11 -10 -3.4 12 2.6 2 0.5 2 0.5 -2 -0.4 0 0.1 10/30/93 12 10/31/93 13 11/01/93 14 -6 -1.3 20 2.1 14 2.0 4 2.3 43 4.3 47 8.2 11/02/93 15 -4 -0.8 2 0.2 -2 -0.3 -8 -5.1 10 1.0 1 0.2 11/03/93 16 8 2.3 -7 -1.0 1 0.1 3 0.6 4 0.4 7 0.9 11/04/93 17 3 0.8 13 1.7 16 2.9 11 1.9 4 0.4 15 1.9 11/05/93 18 4 1.0 6 0.8 10 1.7 10 1.6 3 0.4 14 1.7 11/06/93 19 11/07/93 20 11/08/93 21 -5 -1.4 10 1.7 5 1.1 -0 -0.0 17 2.2 17 3.0 11/09/93 22 6 1.7 7 1.2 13 2.8 5 1.4 7 0.9 12 2.2 11/10/93 23 10 2.3 3 0.4 13 2.1 -38 -6.0 56 4.3 18 1.9 11/11/93 24 -21 -4.8 24 2.9 3 0.4 -13 -2.1 20 1.5 7 0.7 11/12/93 25 -5 -1.5 -0 -0.0 -5 -0.9 -10 -2.2 9 0.8 -2 -0.2 11/13/93 26 11/14/93 27 11/15/93 28 11 2.7 12 1.5 23 3.8 9 1.8 9 0.8 18 2.4 11/16/93 29 11 2.7 -3 -0.4 8 1.3 3 0.6 13 1.3 16 2.1 11/17/93 30 73 7.7 -61 -19.3 12 1.8 127 13.9 -99 -21.5 28 4.0 11/18/93 31 36 3.8 -21 -6.6 15 2.4 71 7.7 -54 -11.6 17 2.5 11/19/93 32 162 13.1 -149 -82.2 13 1.9 76 8.4 -64 -9.8 12 1.5 11/20/93 33 11/21/93 34 11/22/93 35 29 2.2 27 5.6 56 6.2 159 11.9 -122 -18.6 37 4.7 11/23/93 36 233 17.8 -223 -26.3 11 1.2 1 0.1 3 -17.1 4 0.5 11/24/93 37 -15 -1.0 13 1.4 -1 -0.1 29 2.1 -35 -19.3 -6 -0.7 11/25/93 38 -1 -0.1 9 1.0 8 0.7 1 0.1 6 3.4 7 0.9 11/26/93 39 2 0.1 1 0.4 3 0.3 6 0.7 2 0.3 8 1.1 11/27/93 40 11/28/93 41 11/29/93 42 -7 -0.5 18 3.2 11 1.0 7 0.6 10 28.1 17 2.4 11/30/93 43 4 0.2 7 1.2 11 1.0 4 0.3 7 15.3 11 1.5 12/01/93 44 -4 -0.3 9 1.5 5 0.4 3 0.3 0 0.0 4 0.5 12/02/93 45 12/03/93 46 -2 -0.1 11 3.0 9 0.8 2 0.5 3 0.7 5 1.1 12/04/93 47 12/05/93 48 12/06/93 49 -33 -2.0 61 16.0 28 2.7 10 1.9 -4 -0.4 7 0.9 12/07/93 50 12/08/93 51 -10 -0.6 15 3.4 5 0.5 -8 -0.8 12 2.1 3 0.4 12/09/93 52 -9 -0.5 -10 -2.2 -19 -1.7 -35 -3.5 12 2.1 -23 -2.9 12/10/93 53 0 0.0 5 2.6 5 0.4 -1 -0.2 6 0.6 4 0.5 12/11/93 54 12/12/93 55 12/13/93 56 -40 -8.0 41 2.6 1 0.1 -7 -5.9 11 0.6 4 0.4 Average 13 1.5 -3 -1.9 10 1.7 12 1.1 -0 -0.2 12 2.0 Std 48 4.6 48 14.7 12 1.9 37 4.0 33 8.7 12 2.1 93 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION Table C7 : V F A Production (as H A c ) o f Run 2 H R T o f 3.2 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) 12/14/93 1 -93 -9.4 96 11.8 3 0.3 5 0.3 1 0.4 6 0.6 12/15/93 2 12/16/93 3 12/17/93 4 12/18/93 5 12/19/93 6 12/20/93 7 12/21/93 8 12/22/93 9 12/23/93 10 12/24/93 11 12/25/93 12 12/26/93 13 12/27/93 14 12/28/93 15 12/29/93 16 12/30/93 17 -115 -29.0 131 23.7 16 3.4 -105 -26.2 119 20.6 15 3.0 12/31/93 18 -112 -28.4 125 22.7 13 2.8 -3 -0.6 16 2.7 13 2.7 01/01/94 19 01/02/94 20 01/03/94 21 -40 -5.3 68 7.9 28 3.5 11 2.7 10 2.9 21 5.6 01/04/94 22 -37 -4.9 65 7.6 27 3.4 -6 -1.5 26 7.9 20 5.3 01/05/94 23 -33 -4.8 47 5.0 14 1.7 -7 -3.2 17 2.9 10 2.4 01/06794 24 -82 -11.2 101 9.3 19 2.1 -7 -2.2 22 3.5 14 3.1 01/07/94 25 -35 -4.7 52 4.8 18 1.9 -7 -2.0 9 1.5 2 0.5 01/08/94 26 01/09/94 27 01/10/94 28 -36 -5.0 73 5.7 37 3.7 -8 -3.7 34 6.1 26 6.9 01/11/94 29 -79 -10.9 89 7.0 10 1.0 -15 -6.8 15 2.6 0 0.0 01/12/94 30 -67 -10.7 84 6.3 17 1.8 -11 -4.0 18 3.2 7 1.6 01/13/94 31 -75 -10.5 90 6.9 15 1.5 4 1.1 7 1.1 11 2.2 01/14/94 32 4 0.6 19 1.4 23 2.3 -95 -25.6 112 18.3 17 3.6 01/15/94 33 01/16/94 34 01/17/94 35 4 0.5 25 2.0 29 2.9 8 2.4 10 1.5 18 3.6 01/18/94 36 -61 -8.0 79 6.3 18 1.8 -4 -1.0 15 2.3 11 2.2 01/19/94 37 -66 -9.5 84 6.5 18 1.9 -5 -1.4 15 2.1 10 1.9 01/20/94 38 -6 -1.0 24 1.7 17 1.8 -12 -3.0 26 3.9 15 2.8 01/21/94 39 7 1.0 20 1.5 27 2.7 7 1.9 10 1.4 17 3.2 01/22/94 40 01/23/94 41 01/24/94 42 -85 -13.0 129 8.8 44 4.2 9 1.9 25 3.3 35 5.6 01/25/94 43 -112 -17.2 131 8.9 18 1.8 5 1.1 7 1.0 13 2.1 01/26/94 44 -58 -8.5 77 5.6 19 1.9 -24 -6.7 33 3.2 9 1.3 01/27/94 45 -7 -1.0 23 1.7 16 1.5 22 4.0 -16 -1.7 6 0.8 01/28/94 46 -17 -2.4 36 2.6 19 1.8 -2 -0.4 8 0.8 6 0.8 01/29/94 47 01/30/94 48 01/31/94 49 02/01/94 50 -29 -4.0 48 3.9 19 1.9 21 3.9 -18 -1.5 4 0.4 02/02/94 51 -35 -17.4 45 16.1 9 3.8 2 0.4 12 1.2 15 1.9 02/03/94 52 -12 -5.7 22 6.2 10 3.5 -2 -0.7 18 1.5 16 2.1 02/04/94 53 -1 -0.3 12 3.4 11 4.0 -1 -0.3 22 1.7 21 2.8 02/05/94 54 02/06/94 55 02/07/94 56 3 0.9 17 3.7 20 5.0 17 3.5 24 1.6 41 4.3 02/08/94 57 -15 -4.6 15 3.2 -1 -0.2 -20 -4.0 19 1.3 -1 -0.1 02/09/94 58 9 2.2 12 2.1 21 4.3 29 6.0 45 3.1 74 7.7 02/10/94 59 -11 -2.5 14 2.3 3 0.6 -6 -0.9 7 0.5 1 0.1 02/11/94 60 5 1.0 8 1.3 13 2.4 24 3.8 -8 -0.6 16 1.6 02/12/94 61 02/13/94 62 02/14/94 63 22 4.5 8 0.9 30 4.6 34 8.6 23 1.3 57 5.5 02/15/94 64 -26 -5.3 40 4.9 14 2.2 -16 -4.1 30 1.8 14 1.4 02/16/94 65 -35 -9.0 48 5.6 13 2.1 -12 -3.4 23 1.4 11 1.1 02/17/94 66 -54 -10.9 67 7.2 12 1.8 -11 -2.8 22 1.5 12 1.2 02/18/94 67 -60 -12.1 65 7.0 5 0.7 -13 -3.3 18 1.1 5 0.5 94 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION Table C7 (Continued) A-Side B-Side Date Day CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) 02/19/94 68 02/20/94 69 02/21/94 70 12 2.7 24 2.3 36 4.9 43 10.0 36 2.2 79 7.7 02/22/94 71 -18 -4.1 36 3.5 17 2.4 -25 -5.7 45 2.7 20 2.0 02/23/94 72 -17 -4.2 26 2.1 9 1.2 -13 -2.8 21 1.4 8 0.8 02/24/94 73 -52 -13.8 58 4.7 6 0.8 -49 -13.3 54 3.3 5 0.5 02/25/94 74 -7 -2.0 13 1.1 6 0.7 -10 -2.6 15 0.9 6 0.6 02/26/94 75 02/27/94 76 02/28/94 77 -108 -22.8 122 10.9 14 1.8 -52 -13.7 62 4.3 9 1.1 03/01/94 78 -12 -2.4 23 2.0 11 1.4 -19 -5.0 25 1.6 6 0.6 03/02/94 79 -7 -1.2 16 1.6 8 1.1 -11 -2.6 16 1.0 5 0.5 03/03/94 80 -36 -6.0 46 4.6 10 1.3 -21 -2.0 31 3.1 9 0.9 03/04/94 81 -38 -6.3 43 4.3 6 0.7 -14 -1.3 21 2.1 7 0.7 . 03/05/94 82 03/06/94 83 03/07/94 84 11 2.2 20 1.7 31 3.8 25 5.2 30 2.0 55 5.6 03/08/94 85 -9 -1.7 21 1.8 12 1.5 -8 -1.6 17 1.0 9 0.9 03/09/94 86 -18 -3.2 26 2.1 8 0.9 -8 -1.5 19 1.1 11 1.0 03/10/94 87 -7 -1.5 25 2.1 17 2.1 -2 -0.4 16 1.0 14 1.5 03/11/94 88 -5 -1.0 14 1.2 9 1.1 2 0.6 10 0.6 12 1.3 03/12/94 89 03/13/94 90 03/14/94 91 -43 -7.8 64 6.0 21 2.6 -78 -17.7 137 8.7 59 6.0 03/15/94 92 9 1.6 3 0.3 12 1.5 -20 -4.5 32 2.0 12 1.2 03/16/94 93 -20 -8.8 31 2.1 12 1.4 -12 -3.5 22 1.3 10 1.0 03/17/94 94 -129 -27.8 133 10.6 4 0.4 -12 -3.4 21 1.3 9 0.9 03/18/94 95 -208 -44.7 206 16.4 -2 -0.2 4 1.2 1 0.1 5 0.5 03/19/94 96 03/20/94 97 03/21/94 98 20 3.9 10 0.8 30 3.4 78 23.0 -7 -0.4 71 6.9 03/22/94 99 -10 -1.9 20 1.5 10 1.1 -11 -3.1 16 0.9 6 0.6 03/23/94 100 1 0.3 4 0.7 6 1.1 0 0.2 8 0.5 9 1.0 03/24/94 101 2 0.4 8 1.2 10 1.7 3 0.8 7 0.4 10 1.0 03/25/94 102 1 0.1 7 1.0 7 1.3 0 0.1 8 0.5 8 0.8 03/26/94 103 03/27/94 104 03/28/94 105 -85 -20.6 87 9.7 2 0.3 -75 -19.7 78 4.3 2 0.2 03/29/94 106 -8 -1.9 19 2.0 11 1.7 -35 -9.2 47 2.8 12 1.1 03/30/94 107 3 0.7 12 1.2 15 2.2 -6 -1.7 21 1.3 15 1.5 03/31/94 108 -18 -4.1 32 3.3 14 2.0 -16 -4.2 27 1.6 12 1.2 04/01/94 109 -22 -4.0 36 4.4 14 2.1 -29 -4.2 39 3.0 10 1.0 04/02/94 110 04/03/94 111 04/04/94 112 -114 -25.2 121 10.8 7 0.9 -104 -30.7 125 7.2 22 2.1 04/05/94 113 -1 -0.1 12 1.1 11 1.5 -33 -9.6 40 2.3 7 0.7 04/06/94 114 -39 -7.5 56 5.1 17 2.1 -7 -1.9 17 1.0 10 1.0 04/07/94 115 -4 -0.8 14 1.4 10 1.3 1 0.2 8 0.5 9 1.0 04/08/94 116 -22 -4.0 32 3.2 11 1.4 -19 -4.5 25 1.6 7 0.7 04/09/94 117 04/10/94 118 04/11/94 119 -85 -21.7 93 7.0 8 0.9 -60 -15.3 70 4.0 10 0.9 04/12/94 120 -58 -11.1 69 5.2 11 1.3 -171 -43.4 181 10.3 11 1.0 04/13/94 121 1 0.2 8 0.8 9 1.2 -11 -2.7 20 1.2 9 0.9 04/14/94 122 -30 -5.1 35 3.2 5 0.6 -26 -6.4 30 1.8 4 0.5 04/15/94 123 -4 -0.7 10 0.9 6 0.8 -6 -14.9 16 1.0 10 1.3 Average -34 -6.7 49 5.0 14 1.9 -ii -3.5 29 2.<S 16 1.6 Std 42 8.8 41 4.6 9 1.2 34 8.9 33 3.4 16 1.9 95 APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIB UTION AND PROD UCTION Table C8: V F A Production (as H A c ) o f Run 3 H R T of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Date Day CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) 05/06794 1 05/07/94 2 05/08794 3 05/09/94 4 -209 -88.0 219 28.5 10 2.1 -275 -98.2 294 35.4 19 3.5 05/10/94 5 -10 -4.2 14 1.9 4 0.9 -3 -1.2 11 1.3 7 1.4 05/11/94 6 -8 • -14.2 15 1.8 7 1.6 -21 -21.2 39 4.1 17 3.4 05/12/94 7 -5 -2.4 13 1.7 8 1.7 -5 -2.2 14 1.7 9 .1.8 05/13/94 8 9 4.1 10 1.3 18 3.9 -1 -0.6 21 2.5 19 3.8 05/14/94 9 05/15/94 10 05/16/94 11 -9 -7.0 23 2.5 14 2.8 -46 -21.5 63 7.8 17 3.5 05/17/94 12 -108 -86.9 118 12.8 10 1.9 12 5.6 11 1.4 23 4.7 05/18794 13 -352 -463.5 360 35.2 7 1.4 -10 -3.7 22 3.2 12 2.5 05/19/94 14 -237 -2366.2 244 23.7 7 1.4 -35 -11.1 40 6.9 5 1.1 05/20/94 15 -595 -5953.1 609 59.1 13 2.7 3 0.9 12 2.1 15 3.4 05/21/94 16 05/22/94 17 05/23/94 18 05/24/94 19 -66 -29.3 74 10.3 8 1.7 -86 -27.5 99 14.8 13 2.7 05/25/94 20 2 0.9 41 5.9 42 9.9 -27 -11.4 67 9.1 40 8.3 05/26/94 21 -18 -5.9 26 4.2 7 1.6 -20 -8.0 28 4.4 9 2.0 05/27/94 22 -0 -0.0 8 1.3 8 1.7 2 0.9 8 1.2 10 2.3 05/28794 23 05/29/94 24 05/30/94 25 -29 -20.7 45 5.9 16 3.6 -10 -7.0 46 6.3 35 8.2 05/31/94 26 -45 -31.6 49 6.4 4 0.9 -171 -114.1 181 24.7 9 2.2 06/01/94 27 3 1.6 4 0.6 7 1.6 -433 -2707.1 439 60.2 6 1.7 06/02/94 28 3 1.4 8 1.1 11 2.3 -180 -92.3 192 37.3 13 3.7 06/03/94 29 -14 -7.4 28 3.7 14 3.0 -26 -13.4 33 6.4 7 2.0 06/04/94 30 06/05/94 31 06/06/94 32 0 1.4 0 0.0 1 0.1 -42 -23.6 43 6.7 1 0.4 06/07/94 33 -245 -1020.9 255 35.6 10 2.0 21 11.9 -6 -1.0 15 3.6 06/08/94 34 -10 -4.4 96 13.5 86 18.5 8 4.1 5 0.6 13 2.8 06/09/94 35 -1 -0.7 54 7.8 52 12.1 4 4.3 34 4.5 37 9.3 06/10/94 36 -15 -7.9 61 8.9 46 10.7 -14 -17.0 84 11.3 70 17.3 06/11/94 37 06/12/94 38 06/13/94 39 -442 -221.5 452 66.9 10 2.3 -69 -37.2 84 12.1 15 3.5 06/14/94 40 -409 -205.2 417 61.8 8 1.8 12 6.6 -4 -0.6 8 1.8 06/15/94 41 5 2.6 -30 -4.6 -25 -5.9 -9 -4.8 16 2.0 7 1.5 06/16/94 42 6 1.9 7 1.2 14 3.0 -4 -1.3 12 1.8 8 1.7 06/17/94 43 6 1.8 4 0.6 10 2.1 -5 -1.5 16 2.4 11 2.3 06/18/94 44 06/19/94 45 06/20/94 46 13 7.4 14 2.3 27 7.1 16 6.1 18 3.2 34 8.3 06/21/94 47 -3 -1.7 9 1.5 6 1.5 -16 -6.3 27 4.6 10 2.4 06/22/94 48 6 2.0 15 2.4 21- 4.7 5 1.8 • 41. 7.1 45 11.0 06/23/94 49 -26 -9.6 85 11.9 58 12.0 30 45.4 22 2.8 52 12.7 06/24/94 50 -16 -5.9 46 6.4 30 6.1 -1 -1.4 12 1.6 11 2.8 06/25/94 51 06/26794 52 06/27/94 53 -31 -12.1 34 5.8 3 0.7 -4 -2.0 - 6 1.1 2 0.5 06/28/94 54 -14 -5.2 28 4.7 14 3.4 5 2.5 6 1.2 11 3.1 06/29/94 55 6 3.0 -1 -0.1 6 1.3 4 1.4 3 0.6 7 1.7 06/30/94 56 4 1.7 17 2.9 21 5.1 7 2.7 16 2.8 23 5.7 07/01/94 57 4 1.5 7 1.2 11 2.6 7 2.7 • 1 0.2 8 2.0 07/02/94 58 07/03/94 59 07/04/94 60 -273 -192.3 282 31.9 8 1.7 11 5.4 13 1.7 24 5.2 07/05/94 61 -19 -13.6 24 2.7 4 0.9 0 0.2 6 0.8 7 1.4 07/06/94 62 5 2.4 3 0.4 8 1.7 1 0.6 3 0.4 4 1.0 07/07/94 63 -9 -2.8 19 3.0 11 2.3 4 1.4 6 1.0 10 2.2 07/08/94 64 -2 -0.6 47 7.5 45 9.9 12 4.1 30 4.6 42 9.1 07/09/94 65 07/10/94 66 07/11/94 67 -1 -1.7 67 7.7 ' 65 - 14.0 23 13.8 12 1.6 35 7.9 07/12/94 68 5 6.0 44 5.1 49 10.6 -4 -2.2 13 1.8 9 2.1 07/13/94 69 4 2.1 21 2.8 25 5.4 -0 -0.0 39 5.6 39 8.7 07/14/94 70 6 2.9 22 3.0 28 6.1 3 1.5 19 2.7 22 4.9 Average -65 -223.8 83 10.5 18 4.0 -28 -64.9 46 6.6 18 4.1 Std 136 913.3 134 16.2 19 4.3 81 386.4 79 11.1 15 3.5 96 APPENDIXD SOLUBLE COD Table D1: Comparison o f Test Run Soluble C O D and V F A Analysis H R T of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Influent CM Reactor Effluent CM Reactor Effluent Date Day Total VFA as HAc (mR/L) CODeqv. of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) Total VFA as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv. of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) Total VFA as HAc (mud.) COD eqv. of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) Total VFA as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv. of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) Total VFA as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv. ofVFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) 08/30/93 1 17 18 60 34 36 38 48 52 23 28 30 42 52 55 78 08/31/93 2 13 14 18 26 28 53 49 52 71 29 31 71 40 43 58 09/01/93 3 22 24 25 25 27 33 36 39 53 31 33 32 117 125 103 09/02/93 4 17 18 49 28 30 41 32 35 20 26 28 20 39 42 41 09/03/93 5 20 21 31 25 26 49 33 35 36 26 28 41 59 63 20 09/04/93 6 09/05/93 7 09/06/93 8 28 30 23 37 40 36 49 52 43 29 . 31 39 31 33 51 09/07/93 9 27 29 38 32 34 38 50 53 45 24 26 23 65 70 43 09/08/93 10 25 27 21 31 34 35 50 53 23 21 23 25 46 49 35 09/09/93 11 18 20 134 35 37 101 47 51 106 29 31 98 49 52 116 09/10/93 12 21 22 74 25 27 70 27 29 120 66 70 122 88 94 100 09/11/93 13 09/12/93 14 09/13/93 15 18 19 112 29 30 122 51 55 112 28 30 117 37 40 100 09/14/93 16 23 25 82 28 30 80 38 40 82 22 23 81 34 36 94 09/15/93 17 19 20 67 23 25 64 35 37 87 19 20 75 28 30 92 09/16/93 18 21 23 81 29 31 65 45 48 48 25 27 75 30 32 75 09/17/93 19 24 26 83 26 28 73 38 40 78 27 29 79 26 28 68 09/18/93 20 09/19/93 21 09/20/93 22 28 30 98 38 40 63 52 56 75 24 26 75 31 33 91 09/21/93 23 17 18 65 27 29 71 34 37 95 19 21 73 33 35 78 09/22/93 24 17 18 71 21 22 81 26 28 81 17 18 61 31 33 81 09/23/93 25 12 13 88 17 18 65 32 35 88 21 22 55 23 25 28 09/24/93 26 22 24 71 35 38 71 41 44 98 26 28 71 40 42 48 09/25/93 27 09/26/93 28 09/27/93 29 21 23 101 28 29 81 66 71 177 32 34 113 45 48 131 09/28/93 30 18 19 81 25 27 91 40 43 119 27 29 99 38 41 109 09/29/93 31 20 21 83 33 35 99 44 47 101 38 41 99 44 47 101 09/30/93 32 108 10/01/93 33 21 22 78 31 33 83 46 50 117 26 28 101 36 39 112 10/02/93 34 10/03/93 35 10/04/93 36 30 32 123 39 41 112 56 60 156 40 42 74 54 58 215 10/05/93 37 25 26 99 34 37 116 45 48 112 39 41 116 46 49 112 10/06/93 38 23 24 67 32 34 118 41 43 148 36 39 106 40 43 106 10/07/93 39 29 31 85 33 35 114 45 48 105 36 39 80 46 49 109 10/08/93 40 25 26 83 35 38 111 48 51 107 36 39 123 50 54 171 10/09/93 41 10/10/93 42 10/11/93 43 40 43 140 56 60 103 76 81 142 60 64 123 79 84 172 10/12/93 44 43 46 125 57 61 132 70 75 146 59 63 161 76 81 158 10/13/93 45 40 42 123 53 57 129 72 77 154 54 58 130 76 81 160 10/14/93 46 27 28 88 67 72 125 66 71 148 62 66 144 59 63 125 10/15/93 47 33 35 102 48 51 116 53 57 109 48 51 83 54 58 83 Average 24 25 79 34 36 82 47 50 95 33 36 83 48 . 52 96 Std 7 8 32 11 12 31 12 13 41 13 14 35 20 21 43 97 APPENDIXD SOLUBLE COD Table D2: Comparison of Run 1 Soluble COD and VFA Analysis HRT of 2.15 hrs A-Side B-Side Influent CM Reactor Effluent CM Reactor Effluent Date Day Total VF/ as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) Total VF/ as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv. of VFA (mgTL) Measured COD (mgrt.) Total VF/ as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) Total VF/ as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv of VFA (mgrt.) Measurer, COD (mg/L) Total VF/ as HAc (mg/L) COD eqv of VFA (mg/L) Measured COD (mg/L) 10/19/93 1 29 31 113 42 45 110 50 53 105 43 46 105 52 55 114 10/20/93 2 23 24 67 40 43 84 47 50 120 41 43 102 48 51 113 10/21/93 3 12 13 82 33 35 87 31 33 103 28 30 98 33 36 101 10/22/93 4 11 12 86 27 29 24 33 35 106 26 28 94 34 36 104 10/23/93 5 10/24/93 6 10/25/93 7 19 21 101 30 32 102 35 37 111 34 36 107 37 39 60 10/26/93 8 19 20 79 31 33 94 14 15 100 32 34 91 33 35 96 10/27/93 9 20 21 81 30 32 89 34 36 93 28 30 90 32 34 95 10/28/93 10 34 36 84 36 39 92 36 38 93 29 31 98 32 34 94 10/29/93 11 31 33 89 25 26 96 32 35 89 35 37 92 31 33 99 10/30/93 12 10/31/93 13 11/01/93 14 22 24 103 37 39 114 37 39 124 52 55 138 69 74 182 11/02/93 15 27 29 98 25 27 87 25 27 94 21 22 81 28 30 94 11/03/93 16 21 22 74 28 30 92 21 23 96 26 28 96 28 30 93 11/04/93 17 15 16 92 28 30 107 32 34 103 32 34 105 30 32 97 11/05/93 18 14 15 96 24 26 71 24 26 71 28 30 78 28 29 69 11/06/93 19 11/07/93 20 11/08/93 21 30 32 96 33 35 105 35 37 56 43 46 126 47 50 63 11/09/93 22 16 17 94 27 29 86 29 31 96 25 27 99 29 30 92 11/10/93 23 15 16 82 29 31 81 28 30 74 36 38 103 33 35 116 11/11/93 24 20 22 84 23 25 94 23 25 94 27 28 86 27 29 97 11/12/93 25 33 35 83 33 35 95 28 30 115 30 31 101 31 33 96 11/13/93 26 11/14/93 27 11/15/93 28 16 17 97 43 45 123 40 42 139 34 37 142 34 36 108 11/16/93 29 19 20 79 34 36 94 27 29 82 30 32 96 35 37 105 11/17/93 30 20 21 57 68 73 150 31 34 86 104 111 233 48 51 128 11/18/93 31 13 14 79 40 43 76 28 30 86 60 64 88 30 32 85 11/19/93 32 14 15 85 117 124 218 27 29 60 62 66 141 26 28 74 11/20/93 33 11/21/93 34 11/22/93 35 18 19 60 54 58 119 74 79 119 132 141 170 55 58 83 11/23/93 36 14 15 95 153 163 156 25 27 95 19 20 88 18 19 96 11/24/93 37 20 22 68 19 20 103 19 21 87 36 39 100 15 16 78 11/25/93 38 6 7 62 13 14 51 15 16 66 11 11 35 14 14 66 11/26/93 39 10 10 60 14 15 38 13 14 42 19 20 50 18 19 41 11/27/93 40 11/28/93 41 11/29/93 42 18 19 44 25 27 39 29 31 108 39 41 76 35 38 65 11/30/93 43 14 15 95 22 24 101 25 27 77 24 25 85 25 26 77 12/01/93 44 19 20 68 20 21 85 24 25 77 22 23 77 23 24 87 12/02/93 45 12/03/93 46 15 16 76 20 22 60 24 25 49 22 24 49 20 22 79 12/04/93 47 12/05/93 48 12/06793 49 19 20 54 28 29 63 47 50 64 42 44 54 26 27 82 12/07/93 50 12/08/93 51 14 15 70 17 18 75 19 21 75 17 18 78 18 19 75 12/09/93 52 32 34 77 18 20 94 14 14 35 9 10 83 9 9 54 12/10/93 53 7 8 38 10 10 17 13 14 84 10 11 42 12 12 29 12/11/93 54 12/12/93 55 12/13/93 56 14 15 20 16 17 89 15 16 92 18 19 27 17 18 82 Average 19 20 78 34 37 91 29 31 89 35 37 95 30 32 89 Std 7 7 19 26 28 35 12 13 23 23 25 37 12 13 25 98 APPENDIXD SOLUBLE COD Table D3: Comparison of Run 2 Soluble COD and VFA Analysis HRT of 3.2 hrs A-Side B-Side In f luent C M R e a c t o r E f f l u en t C M R e a c t o r E f f l u e n t Date Day Total VFA COD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured Total VF,* COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc ofVFA COD (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) (mart.) 12/14/93 1 9 9 85 21 22 86 12 12 79 10 11 62 15 16 82 12/15/93 2 12/16/93 3 12/17/93 4 12/18/93 5 12/19/93 6 12/20/93 7 12/21/93 8 12/22/93 9 12/23/93 10 12/24/93 11 12/25/93 12 12/26/93 13 12/27/93 14 12/28/93 15 12/29/93 16 12/30/93 17 21 22 113 34 36 100 37 40 116 29 31 3 36 38 18 12/31/93 18 29 31 93 47 50 114 42 45 36 24 26 21 42 45 106 01/01/94 19 01/02/94 20 01/03/94 21 16 17 57 43 46 130 44 47 45 31 33 57 37 40 59 01/04/94 22 16 17 79 38 41 94 43 46 115 28 29 103 36 38 98 01/05/94 23 24 26 94 36 39 96 38 41 94 28 29 94 34 37 81 01/06/94 24 24 26 74 41 44 88 43 46 98 31 33 69 39 41 65 01/07/94 25 28 30 72 44 47 77 46 49 80 34 36 47 31 33 44 01/08/94 26 01/09/94 27 01/10/94 28 32 34 98 37 40 86 69 73 140 36 39 11 58 62 60 01/11/94 29 26 28 79 32 34 171 37 39 125 29 31 74 27 28 78 01/12/94 30 21 22 76 32 34 89 38 40 90 29 31 87 28 29 81 01/13/94 31 15 16 78 27 29 87 30 32 92 23 25 84 26 28 87 01/14/94 32 13 14 68 30 32 88 36 39 41 21 22 68 31 33 46 01/15/94 33 01/16/94 34 01/17/94 35 20 22 89 44 47 109 49 53 114 29 31 23 38 41 64 01/18/94 36 19 20 79 38 40 84 37 39 89 28 29 88 30 32 90 01/19/94 37 19 20 70 34 37 80 37 40 80 24 26 81 29 31 67 01/20/94 38 7 8 74 24 26 103 25 26 I'll 8 9 92 22 24 62 01/21/94 39 8 9 76 32 34 51 35 37 46 21 22 84 25 27 89 01/22/94 40 01/23/94 41 01/24/94 42 ND 0 88 25 27 95 44 47 108 28 29 84 35 37 64 01/25/94 43 15 16 151 32 34 95 33 35 100 19 20 86 27 29 83 01/26/94 44 13 14 70 27 29 87 32 34 90 18 19 80 22 24 80 01/27/94 45 5 5 54 15 16 103 21 22 70 20 21 111 10 11 77 01/28/94 46 13 14 90 36 38 97 32 34 74 23 25 58 19 20 85 01/29/94 47 01/30/94 48 01/31/94 49 15 16 46 32 34 96 33 35 96 22 23 55 21 22 85 02/01/94 50 14 15 89 30 32 92 32 35 98 24 26 89 18 19 89 02/02/94 51 11 12 84 18 19 82 20 21 74 23 25 81 26 27 75 02/03/94 52 11 12 116 20 22 76 21 23 75 21 22 21 27 29 15 02/04/94 53 13 14 59 20 22 10 25 27 33 25 27 28 35 38 12 02/05/94 54 02/06/94 55 02/07/94 56 18 19 27 32 34 84 37 40 37 39 41 89 59 63 62 02/08/94 57 30 32 96 30 32 85 29 31 78 30 32 73 28 30 85 02/09/94 58 37 39 • 41 54 57 55 57 61 60 59 63 82 111 118 86 02/10/94 59 22 24 68 30 32 57 25 27 65 23 25 66 23 25 64 02/11/94 60 23 25 83 40 42 78 36 38 78 39 41 93 39 42 82 02/12/94 61 02/13/94 62 02/14/94 63 11 12 82 40 43 . 106 41 44 117 41 43 57 68 73 156 02/15/94 64 11 12 86 23 25 75 25 27 74 24 26 66 25 27 70 02/16/94 65 8 8 64 20 21 75 21 22 87 19 20 73 19 20 84 02/17/94 66 18 19 80 23 25 68 30 32 52 33 35 84 29 31 59 02/18/94 67 23 25 63 23 25 55 28 30 58 24 26 60 28 30 68 99 APPENDIXD SOLUBLE COD Table D3 (Continued) A-Side B-Side Influent CM Reactor Effluent CM Reactor Effluent Date Day Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 02/19/94 68 02/20/94 69 02/21/94 70 20 21 79 48 51 86 56 60 66 53 56 115 99 105 78 02/22/94 71 9 10 72 26 28 77 26 28 73 34 36 84 29 31 87 02/23/94 72 19 20 60 14 15 66 28 30 70 24 26 75 27 28 65 02/24/94 73 9 10 66 14 15 50 15 16 54 14 15 63 14 15 55 02/25/94 74 8 9 64 12 13 68 14 15 71 12 13 69 14 15 56 02/26794 75 02/27/94 76 02/28/94 77 10 11 93 20 21 82 24 26 52 19 20 86 20 21 58 03/01/94 78 5 6 51 9 9 61 17 18 64 10 10 67 11 12 66 03/02/94 79 6 6 64 8 9 70 14 15 67 9 10 59 10 11 67 03/03/94 80 3 3 60 12 13 73 13 14 77 7 7 64 11 12 59 03/04/94 81 9 9 63 12 13 58 14 15 67 7 7 67 16 17 51 03/05/94 82 03/06/94 83 03/07/94 84 5 5 91 32 34 114 36 38 85 31 33 144 60 64 111 03/08/94 85 8 8 61 18 19 66 20 21 63 13 14 58 17 18 67 03/09/94 86 10 10 66 20 21 73 19 20 73 15 16 66 21 23 72 03/10/94 87 9 10 58 27 28 72 27 29 60 23 25 60 24 26 48 03/11/94 88 15 16 61 24 25 64 24 26 69 24 26 64 28 30 63 03/12/94 89 03/13/94 90 03/14/94 91 28 30 88 44 47 114 49 53 97 45 48 116 87 93 160 03/15/94 92 17 18 70 32 34 91 30 32 76 24 26 82 30 32 79 03/16/94 93 20 21 63 31 33 74 32 34 70 24 26 70 30 32 58 03/17/94 94 22 23 67 23 25 48 25 27 67 28 29 53 31 33 43 03/18/94 95 29 31 61 26 28 53 28 29 57 34 36 36 35 37 38 03/19/94 96 03/20/94 97 03/21/94 98 32 34 92 61 65 111 62 66 104 70 75 182 103 110 163 03/22/94 99 25 27 66 34 36 75 35 38 81 26 28 68 31 33 72 03/23/94 100 24 26 59 30 32 69 30 32 61 28 29 78 33 35 63 03/24/94 101 14 15 57 25 26 69 25 26 70 23 25 70 26 27 62 03/25/94 102 18 19 57 25 26 67 25 27 73 22 23 73 26 28 77 03/26/94 103 03/27/94 104 03/28/94 105 28 30 74 29 31 83 30 32 74 28 29 79 31 33 74 03/29/94 106 19 20 80 28 30 120 30 32 82 23 25 93 31 33 95 03/30/94 107 13 14 72 27 29 73 30 32 69 22 23 75 29 31 74 03/31/94 108 18 19 21 28 30 83 32 34 90 24 26 81 29 31 55 04/01/94 109 19 20 69 28 30 37 34 36 49 24 26 80 29 31 89 04/02/94 110 04/03/94 111 04/04/94 112 29 31 41 36 39 48 36 38 27 35 38 98 51 54 98 04/05/94 113 29 31 97 38 41 92 40 43 104 30 32 107 36 38 97 04/06/94 114 23 24 80 35 38 82 40 42 92 26 28 85 33 35 88 04/07/94 115 28 30 65 37 40 78 38 40 63 30 32 61 37 40 56 04/08/94 116 27 29 31 33 35 28 37 40 44 28 29 34 34 36 42 04/09/94 117 04/10/94 118 04/11/94 119 31 33 73 39 42 123 39 42 61 33 35 119 41 44 104 04/12/94 120 33 35 96 41 44 95 44 47 67 32 34 107 44 47 92 04/13/94 121 32 35 90 38 41 98 42 44 75 29 31 36 42 44 101 04/14/94 122 17 18 70 21 23 61 23 24 81 19 20 33 22 23 13 04/15/94 123 15 16 33 22 23 30 22 23 75 18 19 44 26 28 70 04/16/94 124 04/17/94 125 04/18/94 126 18 20 82 34 37 44 34 36 96 29 31 95 32 34 75 04/19/94 127 22 23 91 32 34 94 38 41 119 63 67 47 34 36 70 04/20/94 128 25 27 68 29 31 54 31 33 65 26 28 68 38 41 91 Average 18 19 73 30 32 80 32 35 77 27 28 73 33 36 74 Std 8 9 20 10 11 24 11 12 22 11 12 28 20 26 100 APPENDIXD SOLUBLE COD Table D4: Comparison of Run 3 Soluble COD and VFA Analysis HRT of 4.3 hrs A-Side B-Side Influent CM Reactor Effluent CM Reactor Effluent Date Day Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc OfVFA COD as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc ofVFA COD (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 05/06794 1 05/07/94 2 05/08/94 3 05/09/94 4 18 19 90 24 25 97 28 30 80 22 23 94 37 40 152 05/10/94 5 23 25 71 25 26 75 28 30 68 25 27 78 31 33 71 05/11/94 6 21 23 73 • 27 29 73 28 30 77 32 34 75 39 41 92 05/12/94 7 18 19 65 24 26 58 26 28 78 26 28 88 27 29 79 05/13/94 8 13 13 84 29 30 91 31 33 44 30 32 46 32 34 66 05/14/94 9 05/15/94 10 05/16/94 11 16 17 59 26 28 71 30 32 85 31 33 80 34 36 86 05/17/94 12 17 19 73 25 26 85 27 29 68 30 32 74 41 44 76 05/18/94 13 20 21 74 24 26 71 27 29 71 28 29 79 32 34 75 05/19/94 14 24 25 92 22 23 85 31 33 97 23 25 98 29 30 80 05/20/94 15 19 20 75 25 27 75 32 34 104 33 36 82 34 36 95 05/21/94 16 05/22/94 17 05/23/94 18 05/24/94 19 29 31 109 34 36 104 37 39 93 39 42 98 42 45 98 05/25/94 20 24 26 82 43 46 100 67 71 150 40 42 108 64 68 132 05/26/94 21 21 22 13 26 28 59 28 30 22 28 30 31 29 31 39 05/27/94 22 22 23 80 29 31 88 29 31 111 26 28 91 32 34 83 05/28/94 23 05/29/94 24 05/30/94 25 23 24 83 35 37 73 38 41 92 39 42 85 58 62 117 05/31/94 26 25 26 73 28 29 77 29 30 73 29 31 82 34 36 74 06/01/94 27 20 22 67 27 28 85 27 29 91 24 26 82 26 28 80 06/02/94 28 19 21 46 27 29 68 30 32 40 32 34 46 32 34 44 06703/94 29 28 30 44 31 33 72 42 45 61 35 37 88 35 38 39 06704/94 30 06/05/94 31 06/06/94 32 34 36 106 30 32 130 34 36 101 34 36 106 35 37 108 06/07/94 33 26 28 95 33 35 102 36 38 104 45 48 113 40 43 108 06/08/94 34 22 24 96 50 53 119 108 116 175 35 38 89 35 37 99 06/09/94 35 23 25 60 53 57 106 75 80 120 53 56 114 61 65 117 06710/94 36 28 30 80 45 48 63 74 79 120 57 61 111 98 104 162 06/11/94 37 06/12/94 38 06/13/94 39 39 42 122 37 39 95 49 52 119 65 69 89 54 58 88 06/14/94 40 33 35 98 32 34 81 41 44 96 45 48 97 41 44 101 06/15/94 41 29 31 86 35 37 93 4 4 100 36 38 93 36 39 99 06/16/94 42 31 33 77 44 46 57 45 48 12 43 45 94 40 42 84 06/17/94 43 32 34 82 39 42 79 41 44 104 35 37 94 43 46 97 06718/94 44 06/19/94 45 06/20/94 46 18 19 82 40 42 84 46 49 55 47 50 84 53 56 57 06/21/94 47 27 29 88 31 33 128 33 35 58 35 37 110 37 39 115 06722/94 48 11 12 82 24 26 109 32 34 92 35 . 37 102 56 60 125 06/23/94 49 23 25 36 43 46 66 82 87 77 •• 57 61 55 75 80 110 06724/94 50 20 21 70 45 48 53 50 53 57 32 . 34 71 31 33 79 06725/94 51 06726/94 52 06/27/94 53 30 32 77 33 35 81 33 35 85 35 37 80 32 34 78 06/28/94 54 26 28 78 34 36 73 41 43 100 34 - 36 93 38 40 71 06/29/94 55 24 26 74 30 32 51 30 32 • 75 29 31 80 31 33 63 06/30/94 56 14 15 65 39 41 72 35- 38 73 36 38 81 37 39 80 07/01/94 57 28 29 91 34 36 111 38 41 98 34 36 86 35 38 96 07/02/94 58 07/03/94 59 07/04/94 60 29 31 88 34 37 85 38 40 124 37 39 112 53 57 122 07/05/94 61 20 21 80 22 23 77 24 26 85 26 28 92 26 28 86 07/06/94 62 25 27 74 32 35 71 34 36 78 31 33 72 30 32 76 07/07/94 63 17 18 44 22 23 79 27 29 54 25 27 65 27 29 84 07/08/94 64 22 23 67 52 56 143 67 72 134 54 57 98 64 68 103 07/09/94 65 07/10/94 66 07/11/94 67 28 29 103 76 81 127 93 99 144 57 61 117 62 66 100 07/12/94 68 36 38 117 48 51 104 85 91 . 118 42 44 52 45 48 62 07/13/94 69 31 33 116 42 45 97 56 60 140 49 52 164 70 75 128 07/14/94 70 31 33 89 43 46 105 59 63 129 41 43 113 53 57 158 Average 24 26 79 34 37 86 4i 90 37 39 85 45 45 55 Std 6 6 20 10 11 21 20 22 32 10 H 22 15 16 27 101 APPENDIX E BATCH EXPERIMENTS Run 2: Batch Test #1 Conducted February 14, 1994 A - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water B - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent C - 1.2 L B-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water D - 1.2 L B-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent Suspended Solids A B c D (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 4275 3830 3895 3725 3905 3895 4060 4005 4090 3865 3980 3865 Avg V F A Distribution A B c D Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic as HAc as HAc as HAc as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mgfl-) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (m*/L) Inf ND ND 11 ND 11 100 ND ND 10 ND 10 100 MLSS 32 ND 32 100 31 ND 31 100 28 ND 28 100 27 ND 27 100 Time ND 00:00 14 ND 14 100 21 ND 21 100 16 ND 16 100 17 ND 17 100 00:15 11 ND 11 100 20 ND 20 100 14 ND 14 100 17 ND 17 100 00:30 12 ND 12 100 22 ND 22 100 14 ND 14 100 19 ND 19 100 00:45 14 ND 14 100 24 ND 24 100 12 ND 12 100 20 ND 20 100 01:00 13 ND 13 100 25 ND 25 100 14 ND 14 100 22 ND 22 100 01:15 14 ND 14 100 23 ND 23 100 14 ND 14 100 23 ND 23 100 01:30 14 ND 14 100 23 ND 23 100 15 ND 15 100 22 ND 22 100 01:45 15 ND 15 100 28 ND 28 100 15 ND 15 100 23 ND 23 100 02:00 14 ND 14 100 29 ND 29 100 18 ND 18 100 25 ND 25 100 02:15 14 ND 14 100 28 ND 28 100 14 2 16 88 25 ND 25 100 02:30 15 3 18 87 28 3 31 92 15 3 17 87 26 ND 26 100 02:45 15 3 18 85 31 4 34 91 15 3 18 86 26 ND 26 100 03:00 16 4 19 84 30 4 34 90 16 4 19 84 25 3 27 92 03:15 17 4 21 82 31 5 35 89 16 4 19 83 27 3 29 91 03:30 17 5 21 80 26 5 30 88 15 4 19 81 27 4 30 90 03:45 16 5 20 79 31 6 36 87 16 5 20 80 26 4 29 89 04:00 17 6 22 78 32 7 38 85 17 5 21 79 28 5 32 88 ND - Not Detected V F A Production (as HAc) Time A B c D mg/L mf^ LInf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/LInf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/LInf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/LInf mg/gTSi 00:00 00:15 -4 -7 -0.9 -1 -2 -0.3 -2 -4 -0.5 0 0 0.0 00:30 -3 -4 -0.6 1 2 0.3 -3 -5 -0.7 2 4 0.5 00:45 -1 -1 -0.2 3 5 0.7 -4 -7 -1.0 3 5 0.7 01:00 -1 -2 -0.2 4 7 1.1 -2 -4 -0.6 5 9 1.4 01:15 -1 -1 -0.2 3 5 0.7 -3 -4 -0.6 6 10 1.5 01:30 -1 -1 -0.2 2 3 0.5 -1 -2 -0.3 5 9 1.3 01:45 0 1 0.1 7 13 1.9 -1 -2 -0.2 7 11 1.7 02:00 -0 -1 -0.1 9 15 2.2 1 2 0.4 8 14 2.1 02:15 -0 -1 -0.1 7 12 1.8 -0 -0 -0.0 8 15 2.2 02:30 3 6 0.8 10 18 2.6 0 1 0.1 9 16 2.3 02:45 4 6 0.9 13 23 3.4 2 3 0.4 9 16 2.4 03:00 5 8 1.1 13 23 3.3 2 4 0.6 10 18 . 2.7 03:15 6 11 1.5 14 24 3.6 3 4 0.6 13 22 3.3 03:30 6 11 1.6 9 16 2.3 3 5 0.7 13 23 3.3 03:45 6 10 1.4 15 27 3.9 4 7 1.0 13 22 3.3 04:00 8 14 1.9 17 30 4.4 5 8 1.2 15 26 3.9 102 APPENDIXE BATCH EXPERIMENTS Run 2: Batch Test #2 Conducted March 1, 1994 A - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water B - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent C - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent D - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent Suspended Solids A B c D (mR/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 4390 4380 4915 2560 4350 4880 4820 2665 4370 4630 4870 2610 Avg VFA Distribution A B C D Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic as HAc as HAc as HAc as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) <mg/L) (mg/L) Inf 4 ND 4 100 6 ND 6 100 8 ND 8 100 8 ND 8 100 Recyc. 19 ND 19 100 20 4 23 85 24 ND 24 ioo 24 3 26 91 Time 00:00 6 ND 6 100 8 ND 8 100 13 ND 13 100 8 ND 8 100 00:15 6 ND 6 100 11 ND 11 100 14 ND 14 100 8 ND 8 100 00:30 7 ND 7 100 13 ND 13 100 15 ND 15 100 9 ND 9 100 00:45 7 ND 7 100 14 ND 14 100 15 ND 15 100 9 ND 9 100 01:00 8 ND 8 100 14 ND 14 100 17 ND 17 100 9 ND 9 100 01:15 8 ND 8 100 16 ND 16 100 19 ND 19 100 10 ND 10 100 01:30 12 ND 12 100 18 ND 18 100 20 ND 20 100 12 ND 12 100 01:45 13 ND 13 100 18 ND 18 100 21 ND 21 100 11 ND 11 100 02:00 13 ND 13 100 18 ND 18 100 23 ND 23 100 12 ND 12 100 02:30 13 3 15 85 19 ND 19 100 26 ND 26 100 13 ND 13 100 03:00 14 4 17 82 19 4 22 86 26 ND 26 100 15 ND 15 100 N D - Not Detected VFA Production (as HAc) Time A B c D mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTS< mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSS mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/L inf mg/RTSi 00:00 00:15 -0 -0 -0 3 5 0.7 -2 -4 -0.5 0 0 0.0 00:30 1 • 1 0 5 9 1.1 -1 -2 -0.3 1 1 0.2 00:45 0 1 0 6 10 1.2 -1 -2 -0.3 1 1 0.4 01:00 1 2 0 7 12 1.4 0 0 0.0 1 1 0.3 01:15 1 2 0 8 14 1.8 2 4 0.5 2 2 0.7 01:30 6 10 1 10 18 2.2 4 7 0.8 4 5 1.5 01:45 6 11 1 10 18 2.2 5 8 0.9 3 4 1.2 02:00 6 11 1 10 18 2.2 6 11 1.3 4 5 1.5 02:30 9 15 2 11 20 2.4 9 16 1.9 5 7 2.0 03.00 11 18 2 14 24 3.0 10 17 2.0 7 8 2.5 103 APPENDIXE BATCH EXPERIMENTS Run 2: Batch Test #3 Conducted March 15, 1994 A - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water B - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent C - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent D - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent Suspended Solids A (mg/L) B mg/L) C (mR/L) D mg/L) 4095 4835 5475 2985 4310 4205 4670 4755 5975 5725 3040 3015 Avg V F A Distribution A B c D Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic as HAc as HAc as HAc as HAc (mR/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mart.) (mg/L) (mR/L) (mR/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) Inf ND ND 100 8 ND 8 100 18 2 18 . 100 17 ND 17 100 Recyc. 30 12 40 76 30 11 39 78 31 11 40 77 32 11 41 79 Time 00:00 11 3 14 80 17 2 19 90 25 3 .28 90 20 2 21 93 00:15 12 2 14 86 20 ND 20 100 26 2 28 93 19 ND 19 100 00:30 13 2 14 87 20 ND 20 100 27 2 28 95 21 ND 21 100 00:45 13 2 14 90 20 ND 20 100 29 2 31 94 21 ND 21 100 01:00 13 3 16 82 19 2 20 93 26 3 28 93 21 ND 21 100 01:15 13 4 16 81 20 2 22 92 28 3 30 91 22 ND 22 100 01:30 14 3 16 86 20 3 23 90 25 4 28 90 21 ND 21 100 01:45 13 3 15 85 21 3 24 89 28 4 31 89 23 ND 23 100 02:00 14 5 18 77 21 4 24 88 29 5 34 87 24 ND 24 100 02:30 15 4 18 82 22 5 26 85 31 6 36 86 25 ND 25 100 03:00 15 5 19 79 23 5 27 84 32 7 38 84 26 2 27 95 03:30 15 6 20 76 23 7 29 81 32 8 38 82 25 2 27 94 04:00 14 6 19 75 21 7 27 80 32 10 40 81 25 2 ' 27 93 N D - Not Detected V F A Production (as HAc) Time A B c D mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSS mg/L mg/L inf DIR/RTS! mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSi 00:00 00:15 7 13 1.8 12 21 2.5 12 20 2.0 11 14 3.7 00:30 8 14 1.9 12 22 2.6 12 21 2.1 13 16 4.2 00:45 8 14 1.9 12 21 2.5 15 26 2.6 12 16 4.1 01:00 9 16 2.2 13 22 2.6 12 21 2.0 13 16 4.2 01:15 9 16 2.1 15 25 3.1 14 24 2.4 14 17 4.5 01:30 10 17 2.3 15 26 3.1 12 20 2.0 13 16 4.2 01:45 8 15 2.0 16 28 3.3 15 27 2.6 15 19 5.0 02:00 12 20 2.8 16 28 3.3 17 30 3.0 16 21 5.4 02:30 12 21 2.9 18 32 3.8 20 35 3.5 17 21 5.5 03:00 13 22 3.0 19 34 4.1 22 38 3.8 19 24 6.3 03:30 13 24 3.2 21 37 4.4 22 39 3.9 19 24 6.2 04:00 13 22 3.0 19 33 4.0 24 42 4.2 19 24 6.4 104 APPENDIXE BATCH EXPERIMENTS Run 3: Batch Test #1 Conducted June 2, 1994 A - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water B - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent C - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent D - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent Suspended Solids A (mg/L) B (mg/L) C (mg/L) D (mg/L) 1890 1900 1630 900 1910 1860 1575 860 1900 1880 1600 880 Avg V F A Distribution A B C 1 D Acetic (mg/L) Prop (mg/L) Total as HAc (mg/L) % Acetic Acetic (mg/L) Prop (mg/L) Total as HAc (mg/L) % Acetic Acetic (mg/L) Prop (mg/L) Total as HAc (mg/L) % Acetic Acetic (mg/L) Prop (mg/L) Total as HAc (mg/L) % Acetic Inf ND ND 100 11 ND 11 100 21 ND 21 100 21 ND 21 100 Recyc. 30 4 33 90 31 4 34 90 31 3 34 92 33 3 36 92 Time 00:00 14 ND 14 100 17 ND 17 100 24 2 26 93 21 2 23 94 00:15 15 ND 15 100 18 ND 18 100 25 2 26 94 22 2 23 94 00:30 15 ND 15 100 17 ND 17 100 26 2 27 94 22 ND 22 100 00:45 15 ND 15 100 19 ND 19 100 26 2 27 94 21 ND 21 100 01:00 15 ND 15 100 19 ND 19 100 26 2 28 95 22 2 23 95 01:15 16 ND 16 100 19 ND 19 100 26 2 28 95 23 2 24 95 01:30 15 ND 15 100 19 ND 19 100 25 2 26 95 22 2 24 95 01:45 15 ND 15 100 20 ND 20 100 27 2 29 95 23 2 24 94 02:00 15 ND 15 100 20 ND 20 100 28 2 29 95 22 ND 22 100 02:30 15 ND 15 100 19 ND 19 100 28 2 29 95 23 2 25 95 03:00 16 ND 16 100 20 ND 20 100 29 2 30 95 23 2 24 95 03:30 17 2 19 90 22 2 24 94 30 2 32 94 25 2 26 94 04:00 18 3 20 89 23 2 24 93 32 3 34 93 26 2 28 94 N D - Not Detected V F A Production (as HAc) Time A B c D mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSi mg/L m^Linf mg/gTSi mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSi 00:00 00:15 1 2 0.5 0 0 0.1 1 1 0.4 0 0 0.0 00:30 1 2 0.5 -1 -4 -0.6 1 2 0.9 -1 -2 -1.4 00:45 1 2 0.5 1 2 0.4 1 2 0.8 -2 -3 -2.4 01:00 1 2 0.7 1 3 0.5 2 4 1.3 0 0 0.3 01:15 3 1.0 1 4 0.7 2 3 1.0 1 1 1.0 01:30 1 2 0.7 1 5 0.7 0 0 0.1 1 1 0.9 01:45 1 2 0.6 2 7 1.1 3 5 1.7 1 2 1.5 02:00 1 2 0.7 2 7 1.1 3 5 2.0 -1 -1 -0.6 02:30 1 2 0.6 1 4 0.6 3 6 2.1 2 2 1.9 03:00 2 3 1.0 2 8 1.3 5 8 2.8 1 2 1.5 03:30 5 9 2.7 6 20 3.0 6 11 4.0 3 4 3.5 04:00 6 10 3.1 6 22 3.4 8 14 5.0 5 6 5.5 105 APPENDIX E BATCH EXPERIMENTS Run 3: Batch Test #2 Conducted June 16, 1994 A - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water B - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent C - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent D - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent Suspended Solids A B C D (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 2400 2005 1170 825 2070 1865 1180 830 2235 1935 1175 828 Avg V F A Distribution A B c D Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic as HAc as HAc as HAc as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) Inf ND ND 100 13 2 14 88 28 5 28 100 26 5 29 87 Recyc. 21 3 23 90 37 11 46 80 38 10 46 83 35 10 43 82 Time 00:00 17 4 20 83 25 5 29 86 30 6 35 85 30 6 35 87 00:15 18 4 21 85 23 4 27 87 29 6 34 86 27 5 31 87 00:30 16 3 19 85 23 4 26 87 29 6 34 86 27 5 31 87 00:45 16 3 19 86 24 5 27 87 29 6 34 86 28 5 32 87 01:00 17 3 19 86 23 4 26 87 30 6 35 86 27 5 31 87 01:15 17 3 20 86 23 4 27 87 28 6 33 86 28 5 32 87 01:30 18 4 21 85 23 4 27 87 36 7 42 87 32 6 36 87 01:45 19 4 22 85 24 5 28 87 32 6 37 87 28 5 33 86 02:00 18 4 22 84 25 5 29 86 32 6 37 86 28 5 32 86 02:30 19 5 23 83 26 6 30 85 32 6 37 86 30 6 35 86 03:00 19 5 23 82 27 6 32 84 34 6 40 87 28 5 32 87 03:30 19 6 24 81 27 6 32 83 33 7 39 85 31 6 36 86 04:00 19 6 24 80 27 7 33 82 35 8 42 85 31 6 36 86 N D - Not Detected V F A Production (as HAc) Time A B c D mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSS mg/L mg/L inf mg/RTSS mg/L mg/L inf mg/gTSS mg/L mg/L inf mg/RTSS 00:00 00:15 1 2 0.6 -2 A -1.3 -2 -3 -1.5 -4 -5 -5.0 00:30 -1 -2 -0.5 -3 -6 -1.7 -2 -3 -1.4 -4 -6 -5.4 00:45 -1 -2 -0.5 -2 -3 -1.0 -1 -3 -1.3 -3 A -3.8 01:00 -1 -1 -0.3 -3 -5 -1.5 -0 -0 -0.1 -4 -6 -5.2 01:15 0 0 0.0 -3 -5 -1.3 -2 -4 -2.1 -3 A -3.6 01:30 1 2 0.4 -2 -4 -1.2 7 12 5.6 1 2 1.8 01:45 2 4 1.0 -1 -2 -0.6 2 3 1.6 -2 -3 -2.9 02:00 2 3 0.7 -0 -0 -0.1 2 3 1.5 -3 -3 -3.2 02:30 3 5 1.3- 1 2 0.5 2 • 4 1.7 -0 -1 -0.5 03:00 3 5 1.3 2 4 1.2 4 8 3.7 -3 -3 ' -3.2 03:30 4 7 1.8 3 4 1.3 3 5 2.7 1 1 0.8 04:00 4 8 1.9 3 6 1.7 6 11 5.4 1 1 1.4 106 APPENDIXF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Determination of Statistical Significant Difference in Influent Paramete TSS Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation S S df M S F P-value F-crit Between 3967.46 8 495.933 1.32046 0.25342 2.11522 Within G 20281.1 54 375.577 Total 24248.6 62 Soluble COD Analys is of Var iance:One W a y Source of Variation S S df M S F P-value F-crit Between 3463.45 6 577.241 1.58537 0.15942 2.19252 Within G 35682.4 98 364.106 Total 39145.8 104 VFA Analys is of Var iance iOne W a y Source of Variation S S df M S F P-value F-crit Between 2569.99 9 285.554 5.75893 5.1 E-07 1.9322 Within G 8925.22 180 49.5846 Total 11495.2 189 95 % level of signif icance 107 APPENDIX F STA TISTICAL ANAL YSIS Statistical Ana lys i s for Correlation o f Temperature and V F A Product ion Run 1 Side A - VFA Production mg/L Influent Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.170989 R Square 0.029237 Adjusted R Square -0.00018 Standard Error 1.62896 Observations 35 Analysis of Variance df Sum ofSc M e a n Sqi F Significance F Regression 1 2.637301 2.637301 0.993892 0.326047 Residual 33 87.56581 2.653509 Total 34 90.20311 Coefficie, Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% Intercept 16.45194 0.421114 39.06766 0 15.59518 17.3087 mg/LInf 0.032763 0.032864 0.996941 0.325836 -0.0341 0.099625 Side B - VFA Production mg/L Influent Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations 0.448849 0.201465 0.176511 1.42002 34 Analysis of Variance Regression Residual Total Intercept mg/L Inf df Sum ofS$ Mean Sgi F 1 16.27963 16.27963 32 64.52659 2.016456 33 80.80622 Significance F 8.07339 0.007753 Coeffjclei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% 15.64075 0.407553 38.37716 0 14.81059 16.4709 0.083501 0.029388 2.841371 0.007642 0.02364 0.143361 108 APPENDIXF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical Ana l y s i s for Corre lat ion o f Temperature and V F A Product ion Run 2 Side A - VFA Production mg/L Influent Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations 0.256355 0.065718 0.052371 8.540527 72 Analysis of Variance df Sum of Sc Mean Sat F Significance F Regression 1 359.148 359.148 4.923843 0.029732 Residual 70 5105.842 72.94059 Total 71 5464.99 Coefttclei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95.. Upper 95.00% Intercept -11.9464 12.06936 -0.98981 0.325629 -36.018 12.12522 Temp 1.951394 0.879413 2.218973 0.029686 0.19746 3.705328 Side B - VFA Production mg/L Influent Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.053508 R Square 0.002863 Adjusted R Square -0.01138 Standard Error 16.96933 Observations 72 Analysis of Variance df Sum of SQ Mean Sgi F Significance F Regression 1 57.87716 57.87716 0.200992 0.655306 Residual 70 20157.07 287.9581 Total 71 20214.94 Coefflclei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% Intercept 25.92557 22.55495 1.14944 0.254232 -19.0589 70.91001 Temp -0.74711 1.666471 -0.44832 0.655287 -4.07078 2.576558 109 APPENDIXF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical Analysis for Correlation of Temperature and V F A Production Run 3 Side A - V F A Production mg/L Influent Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.278113 R Square 0.077347 Adjusted R Square 0.057289 Standard Error 19.09396 Observations 48 Analysis of Variance ' df Sum ofSc Mean Sgi F Significance F Regression 1 1405.894 1405.894 3.85621 0.055623 Residual 46 16770.64 364.5792 Total 47 18176.54 Coefficiei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% Intercept -87.399 53.79196 -1.62476 0.110902 -195.677 20.87856 Temp 5.708019 2.906732 1.963724 0.055493 -0.14293 11.55897 Side B - V F A Production mg/L Influent Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.199462 R Square 0.039785 Adjusted R Square 0.018911 Standard Error 14.52412 Observations 48 Analysis of Variance df_ Sum ofSc Mean 5q< F Significance F 1 402.0605 402.0605 1.90595 0.174086 46 9703.705 210.9501 47 10105.77 Coefficiei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% Intercept -37.8744 40.59783 -0.93292 0.355631 -119.594 43.8448 Temp 3.054 2.212i43 1.380562 0.173944 -1.39881 7.506813 Regression Residual Total 110 APPENDIX F ST A TISTICAL ANAL YSIS Statistical Analysis for Significant Difference of H R T Side A V F A Production mg/L Inf Analys is of Var iance:One W a y Summary Groups Count S u m Average Var iance Run 1 38 338.06 8.89632 133.182 Run 2 38 501 13.1842 39.3435 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation S S df M S F P-value F-crit Between 349.334 1 349.334 4.04966 0.04782 3.97023 Within G 6383.44 74 86.2626 Total 6732.77 75 Ana lys is of Var iance .One W a y Summary G r o u p s Count S u m Average Var iance R u n 2 38 501 13.1842 39.3435 R u n 3 38 595.25 15.6645 216.79 Ana lys is of Var iance Source of Variation S S df M S F P-value F-crit Between 116.883 1 116.883 0.91267 0.34252 3.97023 Within G 9476.96 74 128.067 Total 9593.84 75 Ana lys is of Var iance .One W a y Summary G r o u p s Count S u m Average Var iance R u n 3 38 595.25 15.6645 216.79 Run 1 38 338.06 8.89632 133.182 Ana lys is of Var iance Source of Variation S S df M S F P-value F-crit Between 870.352 1 870.352 4.97383 0.02877 3.97023 Within G 12949 74 174.986 Total 13819.3 75 9 5 % level of signif icance 111 APPENDIX F ST A TISTICAL ANAL YSIS Statistical Analysis for Significant Difference of H R T S i d e B V F A Production mg/L Inf Analys is of Var iance .One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Averagi Variance Run 1 38 373.727 9.83492 134.014 Run 2 38 578 15.2105 163.684 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation 55 df MS F P-value F-crit Between 549.046 1 549.046 3.68861 0.05864 3.97023 Within G 11014.8 74 1 48.849 Total 11563.9 75 Ana lys is of Var iance :One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Averagi Variance Run 2 38 578 15.2105 163.684 R u n 3 38 708.529 18.6455 204.35 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation 55 df MS F P-value F-crit Between 224.181 1 224.181 1.21826 0.27328 3.97023 Within G 13617.3 74 184.017 Total 13841.4 75 Analys is of Var iance .One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Averagi Variance Run 3 38 708.529 18.6455 204.35 Run 1 38 373.727 9.83492 134.014 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation 55 df MS F P-value F-crit Between 1474.9 1 1474.9 8.71783 0.00422 3.97023 Within G 12519.4 74 169.182 Total 13994.3 75 9 5 % level of signif icance 112 APPENDIXF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical Significant Difference in % Soluble COD in the form of VFA Run 1: Side A Analys is of Var iance iOne W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Averagi Variance Side A 38 1359.03 35.7639 178.277 Influent 38 989.359 26.0358 87.314 Ana lys is of Var iance Source of Variation df MS F P-value F-crit Between 1798.11 1 1798.11 13.5404 0.00044 3.97023 Within G 9826.86 74 132.795 Total 11625 75 Side B Analys is of Var iance:One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Averagi Variance Influent 38 989.359 26.0358 87.314 S i d e B 38 1409.08 37.0809 172.8 Ana lys is of Var iance Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F-crit Between 2317.92 1 2317.92 17.8223 6.8E-05 3.97023 Within G 9624.24 74 130.057 Total 11942.2 75 9 5 % level of signif icance 113 APPENDIXF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical Significant Difference in % Soluble COD in the form of Run 2: Side A Analys is of Var iance :One W a y S u m m a r y Groups Count Sum Average Variance Side A 78 3790.52 48.5965 501.166 Influent 78 2277.3 29.1961 346.352 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variat ion S S df MS F P-value F-crlt Between 14678.6 1 14678.6 34.639 2 .4E-08 3.90255 Within G 65258.9 154 423.759 Total 79937.5 155 Side B Ana lys is of Var iance :One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Average Variance Influent 78 2277.3 29.1961 346.352 S i d e B 78 4288.47 54.9804 1906.49 Ana lys is of Var iance Source of Variat ion S S df MS F P-value F-crlt Between 25928.4 1 25928.4 23.0184 3 .8E-06 3.90255 Within G 173469 154 1126.42 Total 199398 155 9 5 % level of signif icance 114 APPENDIX F ST A TISTICAL ANAL YSIS Statistical Significant Difference in % Soluble COD in the form of VFA Run 3: Side A Ana lys is of Var iance :One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Average Variance Side A 48 2497.3 52.0271 476.897 Influent 48 1733.6 36.1167 477.928 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation S S df MS F P-value F-crlt Between 6075.39 1 6075.39 12.7257 0.00057 3.9423 Within G 44876.8 94 477.413 Total 50952.2 95 Side B Ana lys i s of Var iance:One W a y Summary Groups Count Sum Average Variance Influent 48 1733.6 36.1167 477.928 S ide B 48 2430.47 50.6348 258.522 Analys is of Var iance Source of Variation S S df MS F P-value F-crlt Between 5058.66 1 5058.66 13.738 0.00036 3.9423 Within G 34613.1 94 368.225 Total 39671.8 95 9 5 % level of signif icance 115 

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