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Primary sludge fermentation using a pilot-scale mainstream fermenter to enhance biological phosphorus… Atherton, Heather 1995

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PRIMARY SLUDGE FERMENTATION USING A PILOT-SCALE MAINSTREAM F E R M E N T E R TO ENFLANCE BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS R E M O V A L  by HEATHER ATHERTON B.A.Sc. (Civil Engineering), Queen's University, 1992  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF APPLIED SCIENCE  in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of Civil Engineering  We accept this thesis as coriforming to the required stanctedrcl  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A July 1995 © Heather Atherton, 1 9 9 5  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  University of British Columbia, I agree that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of  this thesis 'for  department  or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted her  representatives.  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of my copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  o \ \  V  1  yW^x? e  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  -3CT.V  * -A  DE-6 (2/88)  ? \ ,  \ C X O ^  ^  v  r  " V ^  A  B  S  T  R  A  C  T  Research was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using a mainstream primary sludge fermenter to produce simple carbon compounds to enhance biological phosphorus removal from wastewater. A mainstream fermenter,  which consisted of a complete mix  tank followed by a thickener with solids recycle, was constructed and incorporated into the biological nutrient removal process train of the U B C Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. The mainstream fermenter was operated for a period of one year to investigate the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and environmental factors on process operation and short chain carbon production. The mainstream fermenter was operated at HRTs of 2.2, 3.2 and 4.3 hours. The H R T of the mainstream fermenter was observed to influence the production of volatile fatty acid (VFA);  an increase in H R T resulted in an increase in net production of V F A .  Individual acid formation in the mainstream fermenter was found not to be influenced by fermenter HRT. The performance of the mainstream fermenter operating at an H R T of 4.3 hours was equal to that of a side-stream static fermenter or a complete mix fermenter but below that of a side-stream separate complete mix/thickener fermenter.  The quantity of  simple carbon compounds produced in the mainstream fermenter while operating at an H R T of 4.3 hours combined with that found in the influent sewage were sufficient to stimulate good biological phosphorus removal at the U B C Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant. Fermenter H R T had little affect on the quantity of soluble C O D produced in the mainstream fermenter nor the portion of soluble C O D that existed in the form of V F A . There was little change in the concentration of soluble C O D between the mainstream fermenter influent and effluent suggesting hydrolysis of particulate organic matter did not readily occur in the mainstream fermenter.  Nevertheless,  ii  the V F A fraction of  soluble  ABSTRACT  C O D was significantly higher in the mainstream fermenter effluent than the raw influent indicating there was a conversion of soluble C O D to V F A in the mainstream fermenter. The configuration of the mainstream fermenter did not allow for accurate control of solids retention time (SRT). However,  a stable biomass inventory was quickly achieved  and maintained without purposeful wasting.  The steady-state level of biomass  was  dependent upon the length of HRT; longer HRTs resulted in lower biomass concentrations. Seasonal variations did not significantly affect the operation of the mainstream fermenter.  iii  T  A  B  L  E  O  F  C  O  N  T  E  N  T  S  ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS.........  iv  LIST OF T A B L E S  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  1 INTRODUCTION.....  1  2 LITERATURE REVIEW  3  2.1 Carbon Requirements for Biological Phosphorus Removal 2.2 Kinetics of Acid Fermentation 2.2.1 Carbohydrates 2.2.2 Proteins... 2.2.3 Lipids 2.3 Factors Affecting Acid Fermentation 2.3.1 pH 2.3.2 Temperature 2.3.3 H R T a n d S R T 2.4 Fermenter Configuration 2.4.1 Activated Primary Tanks 2.4.2 Static Fermenter 2.4.3 Complete Mix Fermenter 2.4.4 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter  3 4 6 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 16 18 20  3 R E S E A R C H OBJECTIVES  23  4 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES 4.1 Fermentation System Configuration and Operation 4.1.1 Fermenter Setup 4.1.2 Fermenter Operation 4.2 Batch Experiments 4.3 Analytical Procedures 4.3.1 T S S a n d V S S 4.3.2 V F A 4.3.3 Soluble C O D 4.4 Statistical Analysis  25 25 25 28 29 31 32 32 33 34  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  5 R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION 5.1 General Operating Conditions 5.1.1 Influent Composition 5.1.2 Fermenter Operation 5.1.3 Process Acclimatization and Stability 5.2 Effect of Environmental Factors 5.2.1 pH 5.2.2 Temperature 5.3 Effect of H R T 5.3.1 Fermenter TSS 5.3.2 V F A Production 5.3.3 V F A Speciation 5.4 Soluble C O D 5.5 Batch Experiments 5.6 Comparison of Fermenter Performance  35 35 35 38 39 41 41 42 46 47 48 50 52 56 62  6 CONCLUSIONS A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 6.1 Conclusions 6.2 Recommendations  64 64 65  REFERENCES  67  APPENDIX A - C A L C U L A T I O N S A N D C O N V E R S I O N F A C T O R S  72  APPENDIX B - O P E R A T I N G CHARACTERISTICS  74  APPENDIX C - V F A DISTRIBUTION A N D P R O D U C T I O N  84  APPENDIX D - S O L U B L E C O D  97  APPENDIX E - B A T C H E X P E R I M E N T S  102  APPENDIX F - STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  107  v  L  I  S  T  O  F  T  A  B  L  E  S  4.1 Operating Conditions (Mean Values)  29  5.1 Fermenter pH  42  5.2 Summary of Temperature Statistical Analysis  44  5.3 Summary of TSS Concentrations  47  5.4 Fermenter V F A Production  48  5.5 One-Way Anova for Significant Difference in H R T  ...49  5.6 Effluent V F A Speciation  51  5.7 Fermenter Soluble C O D  54  5.8 V F A Fraction of Soluble C O D  55  5.9 Comparison of Fermenter Performance  62  vi  L  I  S  T  O  F  F  I  G  U  R  E  S  2.1 Pathways of Anaerobic Metabolism  5  2.2 Activated Primary Tank  14  2.3 Static Fermenter  16  2.4 Complete Mix Fermenter  18  2.5 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter  21  4.1 Mainstream Two-Stage Fermenter  26  4.2 B atch Experiment Apparatus  30  5.1 Influent Composition  36  5.2 Fermenter TSS Concentrations  40  5.3 Fermenter Daily Average Temperature  43  5.4 Scatter Plot of Temperature and V F A Production  45  5.5 Fermenter V F A Speciation  52  5.6 Fermenter Soluble C O D  54  5.7 V F A Fraction of Soluble C O D  55  5.8 Batch Experiment 1  58  5.9 Batch Experiment V F A Production  59  5.10 Batch Experiment V F A Speciation  61  vii  A  C  K  N  O  W  L  E  D  G  E  M  E  N  T  S  I wish to express my sincere thanks to the many people who provided guidance, encouragement and technical support throughout this research project. I am most grateful to my supervisor, Dr. W. K. Oldham, whose quiet laugh along with his knowledge, insight, and enthusiasm guided me through my research. I am also grateful to Fred Koch and Angus Chu for freely sharing their ideas and experience during many enlightening discussions.  This project could not have been  successful without the assistance given to me by Susan Harper, Paula Parkinson and Zufang Zhou, of the U.B.C. Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, and by Guy Kirsch, of the Civil Engineering Workshop. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank my father,  Professor D. L.  Atherton, for his continued understanding and support during my studies. Financial support for this project was provided by The University of British Columbia Department of Civil Engineering.  viii  C  H  A  P  T  E  R  O  N  E  INTRODUCTION  Although some activated sludge plants operated for biological phosphorus removal are capable of consistently achieving very low effluent phosphorus concentrations without separate fermentation for the production of volatile fatty acid (VFA), experience in North America has shown that purposeful fermentation of primary sludge greatly enhances the biological phosphorus removal process.  Short chain organic compounds, primarily V F A ,  are the carbon compounds responsible for stimulating phosphorus release and uptake in a biologically enhanced phosphorus removal process.  Certain quantities of V F A are present  in influent sewage due to fermentation in the sewage collection systems, however,  the  degree of fermentation is influenced by the temperature and flow time in the sewers as well as groundwater infiltration.  Varying concentrations of simple organic compounds in the  influent stream result in incomplete and inconsistent biological phosphorus removal. Primary sludge fermentation ensures an adequate supply of V F A regardless of temperature changes and stormwater infiltration. Numerous configurations of primary clarifiers, complete mix tanks, and gravity thickeners may be utilized to ferment primary sludge to produce short chain organic compounds.  The four most common process schematics are:  activated primary tanks,  static fermenter, complete mix fermenter, and separate complete mix/ thickener fermenter. The choice of fermenter configuration is largely dependent upon the strength of the wastewater,  the degree of fermentation in the sewerage system,  available for conversion in existing retrofitted plants.  and the structures  Both the fermenter efficiency and  capital cost increase from activated primary tanks to separate complete/mix thickener fermenter.  If high efficiency fermentation is not required,  1  converting a clarifier to an  INTRODUCTION  activated primary tank is a feasible economic alternative. production of simple carbon compounds is required,  Conversely, if substantial  a newly constructed separate  complete/mix thickener fermenter may be costly but necessary alternative. The use of a mainstream fermenter is proposed as a cost efficient alternative to conventional fermentation systems. The fermenter configuration is similar to that of the separate complete mix/thickener fermenter but rather than transferring primary sludge to the fermenter from the primary clarifier, the mainstream fermenter has the novel design in which the primary clarifier is replaced by the fermenter. Thus, there is potential for the fermenter to be incorporated into the main biological phosphorus removal reactor;  a useful feature  when retrofitting activated sludge wastewater treatment plants for biological phosphorus removal. A mainstream fermenter was constructed and incorporated into the biological nutrient removal process train of the U B C Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant.  Its  performance with regards to process operation and production of short chain carbon compounds was investigated.  2  C  H  A  P  T  E  R  T  W  O  LITERATURE REVIEW  2.1 Carbon Requirements for Biological Phosphorus Removal  The biological phosphorus removal process is a well established technology for the control of eutrophication of receiving water bodies.  The process utilizes certain species of  bacteria which, under sequential anaerobic-aerobic conditions, are capable of storing phosphorus in excess  of their metabolic requirements;  thereby removing  soluble  phosphorus from the wastewater stream. The operating costs of the biological phosphorus removal process are low compared to phosphorus removal by chemical precipitation as a conventional activated sludge process can be modified to remove phosphorus by adding an anaerobic zone preceding the aerobic zone (Toerien et al, 1990). In the anaerobic zone phosphorus accumulating bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, store simple carbon compounds; primarily in the form of poly-P-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a four carbon unit, and poly-P-hydroxyvalerate (PHV), a five carbon unit (Comeau et al, 1987).  Energy for the storage of PHB and P H V  polyphosphate pools.  is provided by the hydrolysis of  Consequently, there is a release of phosphorus correlating to the  quantity of organic carbon taken up (Wentzel et al, 1985; Jones et al, 1987; Abu-ghararah and Randall, 1990) .  In the subsequent aerobic zone,  phosphorus removing bacteria  rapidly ingest soluble phosphorus and store it as polyphosphate reserves.  Energy for the  uptake of phosphorus is produced by the aerobic decomposition of intracellular substrates, PHB and P H V (Somiya et al, 1986).  3  LITERA TURE  REVIEW  Phosphorus accumulating bacteria proliferate under sequential anaerobic-aerobic conditions as their ability to store carbon in the anaerobic zone provides them with a competitive advantage over other heterotrophic microorganisms in the subsequent aerobic zone (Toerien et al, 1990). Hence, the capacity for phosphorus removal of a treatment plant configured for biological phosphorus removal is a function of the availability of readily biodegradable short chain carbon compounds in the anaerobic zone of the bioreactor (Gerber et al, 1986; Comeau etal,  1987; Comeau, 1989; Lotter and Pitman, 1992).  The carbon substrate most readily stored by phosphorus accumulating bacteria is V F A , primarily acetic and propionic acid (Comeau et al., 1987; Gerber et al., 1987; Jones et al., 1987; Mostert et al, 1988; Abu-ghararah and Randall, 1990).  Since influent  domestic wastewater does not usually contain sufficient quantities of V F A to induce high levels of phosphorus removal, an external carbon source is required. This source can be either preformed V F A or the products of primary sludge fermentation.  2.2 Kinetics of Acid Fermentation  In the natural environment many species of microorganisms share the ability to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) under anaerobic conditions, however the form and measure of volatile acid depends largely upon the microbial species and substrate involved (Andrews and Pearson, 1985).  Historically, anaerobic bacteria have been utilized in  wastewater treatment technologies such as two phase anaerobic digestion of sludge; a biological process whereby organic matter is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen with volatile acids produced as intermediate products. Recently the first stage of anaerobic digestion of primary sludge, the acid forming phase,  4  LITERA TURE REVIEW  has been isolated for the production of V F A ,  the substrate required to induce biological  phosphorus removal. The conversion of complex organic substrates to acetic acid or other intermediary products such as propionic and butyric acid is a multistep process of series and parallel reactions entailing several distinct microbial populations. Particulate biopolymers such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes to their monomer constituents, respectively sugars, amino acids and fatty acids, which are then be used as substrates by fermentative organisms or by anaerobic oxidizers (Eastman and Ferguson, 1981).  Figure 2.1 presents a summary of the four processes that may occur during acid-  phase anaerobic digestion of a complex substrate.  1) HYDROLYSIS 2) FERMENTATION 3) ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS 4) ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS  Figure 2.1 Pathways of Anaerobic Metabolism (Adapted from Kaspar and Wuhrmann, 1978)  5  LITERA TURE REVIEW  Fermentation is defined as a microbial metabolic process in which organic compounds serve as both electron donors and electron acceptors.  The substrates for  fermentation are amino acids and sugars and the products are cellular material, intermediary degradation products (propionate and butyrate), acetate, and hydrogen (Gujer and Zehnder, 1983).  Long-chain fatty acids, propionate and butyrate are substrates for anaerobic  oxidation; a microbial process in which molecular hydrogen is the main sink for electrons. Degradation of long-chain fatty acids to short-chain fatty acids occurs by P-oxidation. Intermediary products such as propionate and butyrate are anaerobically oxidized to produce acetate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen (Gujer and Zehnder, 1983). The metabolic sub processes and microbial groups involved in the acid-phase anaerobic digestion are dictated by the initial polymeric material (Pavlostathis and GiraldoGomes,  1991).  The next sections will discuss in greater detail the microbial and  biochemical aspects of V F A formation from each of the three major organic constituents of primary sludge: carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991).  2.2.1  Carbohydrates  The most abundant class of carbohydrates occurring in nature are polysaccharides; extremely large macromolecules (molecular weights ranging from 25,000 to 15 million) of simple and derived sugars linked together by glycosidic bonds. Almost all polysaccharides are insoluble in water (Brock and Madigan, 1991).  Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and  starch are the most common polysaccharides in domestic wastewater. (Hunter and Heukelekian, 1965). The major source of cellulose is paper, contributing greater than 40% of the carbohyrates found in municipal wastewater.  Hemicellulose constitutes the second  greatest contributor of carbohydrates in wastewater, ranging from 20 to 25% (Hunter and  6  LITERA TURE REVIEW  Heukelekian, 1965).  Only small quantities of pectin and starch occur in domestic  wastewater. Before particulate polysaccharides can be utilized by microorganisms they must be degraded by enzymes to soluble compounds which are capable of being transported through the cell membrane.  Cellulose is degraded by cellulose hydrolyzing organisms using the  enzyme complex cellulase yielding glucose. Hemicellulose is degraded by the exoenzyme complex hemicellulase to produce pentoses, hexoses, and uronic acids (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991).  Pectin is hydrolyzed to galacturonic acid residues by a series of  enzymatic reactions involving pectinesterase, hydrolase and lyase. Hydrolysis of starch to the final end product glucose is carried out by many anaerobes using the synergistic action of four types of specific enzymes (Eastman and Ferguson, 1981). Fermentative microorganisms utilize glucose, the primary simple sugar generated from polysaccharide hydrolysis, as the substrate for the glycolytic Embden-MeyerhofParnes (EMP) pathway.  Two molecules of pyruvic acid are generated per molecule of  glucose. Depending upon the anaerobic microbial species present, subsequent pyruvic acid fermentation can lead to the production of different forms of V F A ,  primarily acetic,  propionic, and butyric acid (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Acetic acid is the end product of the E M P pathway and is also formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide. Propionic acid is generated by the degradation of pyruvic acid via the succinate-propionate pathway, or via the acrylate pathway using lactic acid as the substrate. Butyric acid, the least common form of VFA, is the end product of pyruvic acid fermentation by many obligate anaerobes (Brock and Madigan, 1991) .  7  LITERA TURE  2.2.2  REVIEW  Proteins  The most complex class of organic compounds found in municipal wastewater are proteins; polymers of a-amino acids bonded by peptide bonds.  Proteins contain carbon,  hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and a few also contain phosphorus and sulfur. The covalent peptide bonds are formed by elimination of water from the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the a-amino group of the next. The molecular weight of proteins ranges from one thousand to several million (Gaudy and Gaudy, 1980). As with carbohydrates, proteins must be reduced from biopolymers to their monomelic components which are capable of penetrating the cell membrane to be used either as building blocks or fermentative substrates.  Extracellular enzymes attack  polypeptide chains and split peptide bonds, acting either along the length of the polypeptide chain (endopeptidases) or at terminal peptide bonds (exopeptidases) (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991).  Free a-amino acids result from the synergistic action of both types  of enzyme. There are many different metabolic pathways that specific microorganisms use to convert individual single amino acids to V F A . Aliphatic amino acids (containing an alkyl group, R) are degraded to the corresponding V F A through reductive deamination by bacteria possessing the enzyme dehydrogenase.  Glutamic acid is fermented by obligate  anaerobes yielding acetic and butyric acid via the methylaspartate pathway and the hydroxglutarate pathway (Brock and Madigan, 1991). However, not all amino acids are fermented singly; pairs of amino acids are coupled via the Stickland reaction, an oxidationreduction reaction in which one amino acid acts as the hydrogen donor and the second as the hydrogen acceptor. The energy generated is used as an energy source to produce V F A (Brock and Madigan, 1991).  8  LITERA TURE REVIEW  2.2.3 Lipids  Lipids are organic biomolecules comprised primarily of fatty acids, alcohols, and glycerol.  As a result of their chemical properties, lipids are virtually insoluble in water  (Gujer and Zehnder, 1983). Food items such as butter, lard, margarine, vegetable fats and oils are the main contributors of lipids to municipal wastewater (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). The most common classification of lipids is based on their chemical characteristics and includes simple, compound and non-saponifiable lipids (Gaudy and Gaudy, 1980). Fats, oils and waxes are classified as simple lipids. Fats and oils are esters of various fatty acids and the trihydroxy alcohol glycerol. Waxes are esters of fatty acids and long chain monohydroxy alcohols.  Simple lipids are frequently referred to as triglycerides as  they are comprised of three fatty acids linked to the glycerol molecule (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Fatty acids can be either saturated (fully hydrogenated) or unsaturated and usually contain 16 or 18 carbon atoms (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Compound lipids are simple lipids which contain additional elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur or carbohydrates (Brock and Madigan, 1991). Phospholipids, an important class of compound lipids, are formed from the addition of phosphate compounds (Pavlostathis and GiraldoGomez, 1991). Non-saponifiable lipids are not comprised long chain fatty acids, and consequently do not produce short chain fatty acids upon hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the ester linkages in simple lipids is catalyzed using the group of lipolytic enzymes lipases. Complete hydrolysis of the triglyceride ultimately yields 3 mol of the corresponding fatty acid and 1 mol of glycerol  (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez,  1991). Phospholipids are hydrolyzed using the enzymes phospholipases.  The metabolism  of compound lipids generates the corresponding fatty acids and organic compounds, depending upon the complex lipid addition. Degradation of phospholipids result in the production 1 mol of glycerol, 1 mol of phosphoric acid and 2 mol of fatty acid (Pavlostathis and Giraldo-Gomez, 1991).  9  LITERA TURE REVIEW  Long chain fatty acids are anaerobically degraded via a mechanism called P oxidation to produce end products of acetic, propionic and butyric acid,  p-oxidation is  appropriately termed as the beta carbon (second from the carboxyl carbon) is oxidized, resulting in the removal of two carbon atoms in the form of acetyl-CoA with each repetition (Brock and Madigan, 1991). The first step in P-oxidation is activation of the fatty acid by one of several enzymes called acetyl-CoA synthetases. Four hydrogen atoms are generated per molecule of acetylCoA, consequently P-oxidation is inhibited unless much of the hydrogen produced is converted to hydrogen gas. Acetyl-CoA, the main intermediate of p-oxidation is converted to either acetic acid, in the case of an even carbon long chain fatty acid, or propionic acid, if the long chain fatty acid contained an odd number of carbon (Pavlostathis and GiraldoGomez, 1991).  2.3 Factors Affecting Acid Fermentation  The quantity and species of short chain fatty acid produced during acid fermentation of primary sludge may be greatly influenced by environmental factors such as wastewater characteristics, available trace minerals, pH, temperature, reactor configuration, as well as operational parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT). Due to increased interest in optimizing V F A production to enhance the biological phosphorus removal processes, studies focusing on the controllable environmental factors, such as pH and temperature, and operational parameters affecting the acid producing step in anaerobic digestion of primary sludge have recently been conducted. sections summarize the pertinent findings of those studies.  10  The following  LITERA TURE  REVIEW  2.3.1 p H  Eastman and Ferguson (1981) determined the production of soluble carbon during the acid phase of anaerobic digestion of primary sludge was affected by pH.  It was  discovered during anaerobic batch tests of primary sludge that the pH did the not fall below 5.1 due to buffering of ammonia released from amino acid fermentation.  The maximum  amount of soluble carbon obtained in batch tests as a result of acetogenesis of primary sludge was 15% higher at pH 6.6 than at pH 5.2.  Joubert and Britz (1986) also concluded  the pH significantly influenced the type and concentration of fatty acid formed.  The  concentration of acetic acid produced in a hybrid anaerobic digester increased by greater than 100% at p H 7.0 compared to pH 6.5.  However, there was very little increase in  propionic acid production over the same pH range.  Perot et al,  (1988) investigated the  influence of pH on the acidification of primary sludge in laboratory complete mix fermenters and determined the optimal pH to be 6.8. On the contrary, Gupta et al, (1985) reported no significant increase in short chain fatty acid production from primary sludge fermentation at controlled pH of 7.0 compared to uncontrolled pH ranging from 5.9 to 6.4.  2.3.2  Temperature  Primary sludge fermentation systems operate at ambient temperatures; however, few studies have examined the influence of temperature on V F A production in the temperate ambient temperature range of between 10°C to 30°C.  Gupta et al, (1985) observed the  net volatile fatty acid production from primary sludge consistently improved with an increase in temperature between 10°C and 30°C.  11  LITERA TURE REVIEW  2.3.3 H R T and S R T  The hydraulic retention time is an important operational variable that can be easily manipulated to encourage the growth of selected species of microorganisms, such as the acid producers, as it governs the amount and type of substrate utilized by the bacteria. The SRT is another operational parameter that can be used as a selective factor because it tends to select for species of organisms in accordance with their generation times.  Most studies  report the combined affect of H R T and SRT on acid digestion as experiments were conducted using batch reactors or conventional continuous flow systems without solids recycle,  resulting  in almost identical SRT and H R T (Andrews and Pearson, 1965;  Eastman and Ferguson, 1981, Rabinowitz, 1985). As a result, no clear distinction can be made between the individual influence of the two parameters. Elefsiniotis (1993) conducted a series of bench-scale, continuous-flow experiments to investigate the independent effect of H R T and SRT on the acid-phase digestion of primary sludge. The net V F A production increased between HRT's of 6 to 12, hours then decreased at an H R T of 15 hours in both a completely mixed and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The volatile fatty acid speciation was determined to be independent of H R T (Elefsiniotis and Oldham, 1994).  The influence of SRT on the process was  determined to become insignificant at SRTs of greater than 10 days, but at an SRT of 5 days the rate of acidogenesis was reduced by almost 50%.  Acetic acid and propionic acid  were the predominant volatile fatty acid formed, regardless of SRT (Elefsiniotis and Oldham, 1993).  12  LITERA TURE REVIEW  2.4 Fermenter Configurations  The use of primary sludge fermentation to increase the phosphorus removal capacity of biological phosphorus removal processes has been clearly demonstrated.  Rabinowitz  and Oldham (1985) reported an improvement in phosphorus removal efficiency of 100% after incorporation of a primary sludge fermenter in a pilot-scale biological phosphorus removal process . Lotter and Pitman (1992) significantly improved biological phosphorus removal after enriching the bioreactor feed with fermentation products. The principal function of primary sludge fermenters is to anaerobically degrade the complex organic material in primary sludge to short chain volatile fatty acids. There are four common types of fermenter configurations, consisting of primary clarifiers, complete mix tanks and gravity thickeners. The choice of fermenter configuration is primarily dependent upon the V F A requirement and the structures available for conversion in existing retrofitted plants.  The V F A requirement is dictated by the quantity of V F A inherently  present in raw sewage due to fermentation in the sewer lines, pump stations and inverted siphons, and by the degree of phosphorus removal required (Randall, 1994). The amount of V F A produced during fermentation in the sewers is dependent upon the length of time and temperatures in the sewers and can also be affected by such things as high infiltration during storms. Primary sludge fermentation ensures an adequate supply of short chain organics regardless of temperature  fluctuations and stormwater  infiltration, thereby ensuring  consistent and high levels of phosphorus removal. The subsequent sections summarize the various fermenter configurations currently in use, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and reviews typical design criteria used for each configuration.  13  LITERA JURE REVIEW  2.4.1 Activated P r i m a r y Tanks  a) Process Description Barnard (1984) proposed using activated primary tanks (Figure 2.2) to produce fermentation products for biological phosphorus removal.  Underflow from the primary  clarifier is recycled to the inlet of the clarifier, either directly or through a gravity thickener, thereby maintaining a thick sludge blanket in the primary clarifier. Hence, the capacity of the primary clarifier is available for fermentation.  The recycling has the dual purpose of  maintaining the sludge blanket and elutriating the acids. A portion of the sludge is wasted from the primary clarifier to sludge handling facilities. MIXING/ ELUTRIAnON TANK  PRIMARY CLARIFIER  VFA-och prim or y effluent to bioreoctor  Figure 2.2 Activated Primary Tank (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994)  b) Process Performance Activated primary tanks are the least efficient of the fermentation systems. A study at a biological phosphorus removal plant in Hirblingen, Germany, determined that the effluent of the activated primary settling tank provided no higher concentrations of V F A compared with the effluent of a regular settling tank (Wedi, 1992). However, this may be a result of the tank design, a rectangular flat-bottomed tank, and a function of the combined  14  LITERA TURE  REVIEW  influent wastewater. This contradicts studies at the CSIRO Watertec pilot plant at Lower Plenty, Australia (Raper et al,  1994) in which the soluble organic carbon in the activated  primary tank effluent increased by approximately 50% compared to settled influent sewage concentrations.  In the downstream Bardenpho pilot plant, effluent total phosphorus  decreased from 3-5 mg/L to below 0.5 mg/L.  c) Advantages and Disadvantages The greatest advantage of activated primary tanks lies in the simplicity of their design; additional unit processes are not required (Barnard,  1984).  They are a very  economical alternative as often it is possible to retrofit clarifiers to carry the high sludge blanket and solids recycle that is required to promote fermentation in activated primary tanks.  However, there are considerable disadvantages with this fermentation system.  Firstly, it is difficult to control the sludge blanket depth and thus the sludge age. Secondly, it is not possible to direct the V F A rich supernatant to the anaerobic zone independently but must be conveyed in the primary effluent. As a result, there is a possibility of some loss of formed V F A due to volatization and aerobic biological activity in the primary clarifier effluent channels  (Oldham, Elefsiniotis, 1993).  The greatest problems are, however,  mechanical resulting from the increased solids loading in the primary clarifiers. increased loading leads to high solids loss over the clarifier weirs.  The  Another physical  problem encountered was that recycling the primary sludge can lead to a build-up of fibrous material and plastics in the sludge mass, which results in blockages in the recycle pumps and piping (Barnard, 1994).  d) Design Criteria The design of activated primary tanks is most often based on the sludge inventory required to achieve a given sludge age,  which is usually between 2 and 4 days.  The  quantity of sludge wasting is determined by the sludge blanket height; optimal height is 15  LITEM  TURE  REVIEW  between 1.5 to 2.0 m above the clarifier floor. Primary sludge recirculation rates range from 5 to 10% of the average dry weather flow rate to the plant (Rabinowitz, 1994).  2.4.2 Static Fermenter  a) Process Description The static fermenter depicted in Figure 2.3 was developed by Oldham and Stevens (1984) and is similar in concept to the to the activated primary tanks.  The fermenter  consists of a gravity thickener with an increased side water depth to accommodate sludge storage on the thickener bottom (Stevens, 1994). Primary sludge is pumped into a center well and allowed to thicken. As the sludge thickens, excess liquids rich in fermentation products rise to the supernatant zone and are discharged directly to the anaerobic zone of the B N R bioreactor. Thickened primary sludge is drawn off from the bottom of the fermenter at a solids concentration of 5 to 8% and wasted to the sludge handling system (Barnard, 1994).  The wastage rate is determined by the operational sludge age, which is  based on the sludge inventory in the fermenter.  This type of fermentation system is in  operation at the B N R facility in Kelowna, B.C. (1984).  PRIMARY CLARIFIER  Primary effluent to bioreoctor  FERMENTER/THICKEN EE  u Primary'4ucoe  Figure 2.3 Static Fermenter (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994)  16  VfA-rieh fermenter supernatant to biereoctor  *-  Waste sfcidoe to 4u4oe hooding  LITERA TURE  REVIEW  b) Process Performance The static fermenter at the 5-stage Bardenpho plant in Kelowna, B.C. has been in operation since 1983. In 1988 the fermenter supernatant was directed to the anaerobic zone of the B N R bioreactor rather than through the primary clarifiers. During the past two years the fermenter has operated at a 14 hour HRT. The SRT has not been accurately determined but is estimated to be approximately 15 days.  Average production of V F A per litre of  influent sewage is 24 mg/L (expressed as HAc). This level of production, when added to the V F A normally present in the raw sewage (varying between 5 and 15 mg/L as HAc), is sufficient to maintain an average effluent ortho-P of 0.10 mg/L (Oldham and Abraham, 1994).  c) Advantages and Disadvantages The greatest advantage of the static fermenter compared to activated primary tanks is that the V F A rich supernatant is discharged directly into the anaerobic zone of the BNR process, thus allowing for optimal use of this substrate source in the biological phosphorus removal mechanism (Rabinowitz, 1994).  In addition, the H R T can be controlled with a  reasonable degree of accuracy by varying the primary clarifier underflow transfer rate (Oldham and Elefsiniotis, 1993).  The main disadvantage of using thickeners as fermenters  is the lack of direct control over the SRT. However, detection of the sludge blanket can serve as a means of controlling the system adequately (Barnard, 1994).  d) Design Criteria The governing design criterion of the static fermenter is usually the solids loading rate, which ranges from 25 to 40 kg/m^/d (Stevens, 1994).  The solids loading rate for a  static fermenter is significantly lower than the solids rate normally used for gravity thickeners (Rabinowitz, 1994). Primary sludge from the underflow of the primary clarifier is pumped into the static fermenter at a rate of 5 to 10% of the average dry weather flow to  17  LITERA  TURE  REVIEW  the plant (Oldham et al, 1992). Sludge ages are typically between 3 to 6 days, depending on the fermenter temperature (Stevens, 1994). Side water depths of approximately 3 m are required to maintain the sludge inventory (Stevens, 1994).  The design of the static  fermenter incorporates internal rake mechanisms and scrapers to improve settling efficiencies, remove entrained gasses, transport sludge to a collection well and remove and collect floating solids (Stevens, 1994).  2.4.3 Complete M i x Fermenter  a) Process Description  Rabinowitz et al., (1987) proposed the complete mix fermenter shown in Figure 2.4, which is in operation in Penticton, B.C. Sludge from the primary clarifiers is transferred by pump to a completely mixed tank where acid fermentation occurs. The overflow fermenter liquor is returned by gravity to the primary clarifier for separation of sludge and supernatant. Excess primary sludge is wasted from the complete mix fermenter.  FERMENTER  PRIMARY CLARIFIER influent  VFA-ric*i primary effluent to bioreoctor  Waste sfejdqe to sludo* handing  Figure 2.4 Complete Mix Fermenter  (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994)  18  LITERA TURE  REVIEW  b) Process Performance The complete mix fermenter was installed at the BNR wastewater treatment plant in Penticton, B.C. in 1990. The fermenter operates at an H R T of 17 hours and SRT of 7 days. During a nine month study period in 1993-1994 the fermenter produced 17 mg/L V F A (measured as HAc) per litre of plant influent. Further fermentation occurs in the primary clarifier as it is used as the separation reactor, fermenter.  returning sludge to the complete mix  The formed carbon substrate, along with the V F A found in the raw sewage  (between 8 and 14 mg/L as HAc),  was sufficient to reduce the influent total phosphorus  concentration of 7.1 mg/L to 0.15 mg/L (Oldham and Abraham, 1994).  c) Advantages and Disadvantages The complete mix fermenter configuration allows for accurate control of both H R T and SRT; thereby reducing the danger of methane formation and sulphide generation. The fermenter H R T is determined by the tank volume and rate at which sludge is pumped from the primary clarifier. The SRT is controlled by the sludge wastage rate from the complete mix fermenter (Rabinowitz, 1994).  Compared to the static fermenter,  the complete mix  fermenter provides greater contact of incoming substrate with the recycled fermentative organisms.  The disadvantages of the complete mix fermenter are similar to those of the  activated primary tank.  The high solids loading rates in the primary clarifier result in  excessive loss of solids over the clarifier weir. In addition there is the loss of some of the V F A produced in the fermenter as a result of aerobic activity and stripping in the passage through the primary clarifiers (Rabinowitz, 1994).  Other operational difficulties include:  winding of fibrous material around the shafts due to the vortexing action of the mixer in the complete mix tank;  blockages of the outlet pipework and primary sludge pumps;  formation of a stable scum blanket in the tanks (Abraham, 1994).  19  and  LITERA  TURE  REVIEW  d) Design Criteria The design of complete mix fermenter is most often based on the dry weather flow rate to the plant; with the fermenter operating at 5 to 10% of the plant flow. Complete mix tanks are of a size to provide a hydraulic retention time of between 6 and 12 hours, an SRT of 4 to 8 days and a solids concentration of 1 to 2% (Rabinowitz, 1994).  Mixing is the  essential unit process that distinguishes the complete-mix primary fermenter system from the static fermenter.  The mixing energy provided by the mixers must be sufficient to  maintain heavy primary solids in suspension and to resuspend light anaerobic solids and scum that have float-separated to the surface of the fermenter.  Nevertheless, the mixing  must not be so vigorous as to result in vortexing and excessive air entrainment in the fermenter (Abraham, 1994). The use of slow speed mixers equipped with variable speed drives that impart between 5 and 10 W/m^ is recommended (Rabinowitz, 1994).  2.4.4 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter  a) Process Description The separate complete mix/thickener fermentation system depicted in Figure 2.5 was deemed by the designers (Rabinowitz and Oldham, 1985) to be the ultimate in fermentation systems, combining the positive features of the complete mix fermenter and the static fermenter.  The fermentation system consists of a complete mix tank and gravity thickener  in series. Primary sludge is transferred by pump to the completely mixed tank, overflow flows by gravity to the gravity thickener.  and the  Thickener sludge from the thickener  bottom is returned via a pump to the complete mix tank. As a result, a larger proportion of sludge is stored in the complete mix tank compared to the thickener. The wastage rate of the thickened primary sludge controls the fermenter SRT.  The V F A rich thickener  supernatant is discharged directly to the anaerobic zone of the main B N R bioreactor. 20  LITERA  TURE  REVIEW  FERMENTER  Row htu«nt  PRIMARY CLARIFIER  Primary •Mu«nt to bicraactor  THICKENER  VfA-rieri fermenter juoemotont to bicrecctcr  Waste JkxJoe  to dvOoc  Primary sludge recyde  *-C7  Figure 2.5 Separate Complete Mix/Thickener Fermenter (Adapted from Rabinowitz, 1994)  b) Process Performance A separate complete mix/thickener fermenter has been in operation at the Kalispell, Montana B N R facility since 1992. The fermenter operates at an H R T of 28 hours and an SRT of 12 days. Over a two year data collection period, the fermenter has produced an average of 58 mg/L V F A per litre of plant influent, more than is required to maintain good removal of 5 mg/L of influent phosphorus.  It is apparent from the initial operating  experience, that this fermentation system provides a significantly higher V F A contribution to the influent sewage than does either the static fermenter at Kelowna or the complete mix fermenter at Penticton (Oldham and Abraham, 1994).  c) Advantages and Disadvantages The separate complete mix/thickener fermenter has the advantages associated with both the complete mix and the static fermenter. It allows separate and accurate control of HRT and SRT, along with direct discharge of the V F A rich thickener supernatant to the anaerobic zone of the main B N R bioreactor.  21  The greatest disadvantage of the separate  LITERA TURE  REVIEW  complete mix/thickener fermenter is capital cost.  The use of a complete-mix fermenter  with a dedicated thickener will usually require newly constructed facilities, even for the retrofit of an existing activated sludge plant (Daigger, 1994).  d) Design Criteria The primary sludge pumping rate typically ranges between 2 to 4% of the average dry weather flow.  The pumping rate is lower compared to other fermenters because  recycling the sludge between the units significantly increases the solids loading to the thickener (Rabinowitz, 1994).  The complete mix/thickener fermenter is usually designed  to operate at an SRT of 4 to 8 days, with a solids concentration of between 1.5 and 2% in the complete mix tank.  The gravity thickener should be designed with loading rate of 100  to 150 kg/m^/d and a side water depth of between 3.5 and 4 m (Rabinowitz, 1994). The thickened sludge recycle rate from the thickener to the complete mix tank is usually 50 percent of the primary sludge pumping rate. Slow speed mixers that impart 5 to 10 W/m^ to the fermenter liquid should be used to provide mixing energy to the complete mix tank.  22  CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  The science and engineering of primary sludge fermentation to produce V F A for the biological phosphorus removal process have been well documented in the previous chapter. Elefsiniotis (1993) investigated the effects of operational and environmental parameters on acid-phase digestion of primary sludge. Rabinowitz (1994) summarized criteria for design of effective primary sludge fermentation systems. Oldham and Abraham (1994) presented an overview of full-scale fermenter performance. fermentation technology is well established.  It is apparent that primary sludge  There is a need, however, to develop a more  economic primary sludge fermenter process configuration. The mainstream two-stage primary sludge fermenter was proposed as a cost efficient alternative to conventional fermentation systems. The fermenter configuration is similar to the separate complete mix/thickener fermenter (Section 2.4.4) but rather than transferring primary sludge to the fermenter from the primary clarifier, the mainstream fermenter has the novel design in which the fermenter replaces the primary clarifier. Thus, the fermenter could be incorporated into the main biological phosphorus removal process train; a useful feature when retrofitting activated sludge wastewater treatment plants for biological phosphorus removal. Research involved the construction and operation of a pilot scale mainstream twostage fermenter to investigate its performance with regards to V F A production and process operation.  The influence of various operational  (temperature and pH) parameters was examined.  (HRT and SRT) and environmental  Particular attention was paid to the role  of H R T as the mainstream fermenter operates at much shorter HRTs compared to traditional side-stream fermenters.  Anaerobic batch experiments, designed to model  23  RESEARCH  OBJECTIVES  conditions in the complete mix reactor, were conducted in an attempt to determine a rate of production of V F A during fermentation of primary sludge. In addition to V F A , the truly soluble C O D was monitored throughout the study to investigate the possibility of using it as an easily measurable parameter indicating the availability of short chain carbon compounds for the biological phosphorus removal process (Mamais et al., 1992).  24  CHAPTER FOUR EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND A N A L Y T I C A L PROCEDURES  4.1 Fermentation System Configuration and Operation  The fermentation study was conducted at the University of British Columbia Pilot Plant. The plant operates as a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) facility treating low strength domestic wastewater generated on the university campus.  A mainstream primary sludge  fermentation system was incorporated into each of the two parallel B N R process trains. Raw wastewater was pumped continuously to the fermenters from three stirred storage tanks which were filled twice daily from a nearby trunk sewer during peak hours.  Effluent from each  fermenter was discharged directly to the anaerobic zone of the corresponding B N R process train.  The mainstream fermenters replaced the existing primary clarifiers; consequently, the  entire wastewater stream passed through the fermentation system before entering the B N R process train.  4.1.1 Fermenter Setup  As illustrated in Figure 4.1 the fermentation system was two-stage; completely mixed reactor (CMR) followed by a thickener with solids recycle. was constructed from a round plastic tank (diameter: 395 L ) .  consisting of a The  CMR  71 cm, height: 109 cm, liquid volume:  Influent was pumped continuously to the C M R by a Moyno SP pump (Model 2L3)  with variable speed controller (90 volt DC-SCR).  25  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  71.0 cm-  3R  \  P L A N VIEW  INFLUENT FROM STORAGE TANK  RECYCLE TO FERMENTER  «—46.0 cm  CROSS S E C T I O N A L VIEW  Figure 4.1 Mainstream Two-Stage Fermenter  26  »  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  The outlet of the influent line was located at mid depth in order to minimize short circuiting of the influent through the CMR.  Effluent from the C M R flowed by gravity to the thickener  through a two inch P V C connecting pipe. A double-sided weir trough that extended across the diameter of the tank, ensured the effluent was drawn uniformly from the entire CMR.  The weir  was fabricated from one half of a P V C pipe and was installed 10 cm below the rim of the tank. Return sludge from the thickener was pumped using a Moyno SP pump (Model 33259) with variable speed controller (90 volt DC-SCR) to an outlet located at the bottom of the CMR. The ratio of return sludge to influent flow remained constant at experiment.  0.75:1.0 throughout the  The mainstream fermenter was design such that solids could be wasted from the  CMR. A ball valve was located at mid depth of the C M R and connected to a line that lead to the wasting tank of the B N R process.  Complete mixing of the reactor was achieved using a  Dayton mixer (Model 4Z128A) with stainless steel shaft and double twin blades.  The mixer  was set as high as possible to achieve maximum contact between influent and biomass without causing eddies at the surface of the liquid, thus resulting in aeration of the upper level of the reactor. The first zone in the B N R process train was utilized for the thickener. Consequently, the thickening tank (width: 60 cm, length: 46 cm, height: 162 cm, liquid volume: 380 L) was flat bottomed and not optimized for solids settling.  As a result  entrained gas bubbles in the sludge blanket, occurred.  rising solids, caused by  This problem was mitigated by the  installation of a mixer (Model 4Z128A) with stainless steel shaft and single twin blades which rotated slowly thereby dislodging the trapped gas bubbles.  Stirring the sludge blanket also  prevented the formation of channels in the blanket causing short circuiting of the recycle flow through the blanket.  Return sludge with low solids concentration was an indication of short  circuiting of the recycle flow through the sludge blanket.  The optimum mixing regime was  found to be intermittent with three minutes mixing at 30 rpm every ten minutes; greater mixing, either in speed or frequency,  resulted in significant loss of suspended solids in the thickener  27  EXPERIMENTAL  effluent.  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  The outlet to the sludge recycle pump was located 10 cm from the bottom of the  tank. Effluent from the thickener was discharged by weir directly to the anaerobic zone of the BNR bioreactor.  4.1.2 Fermenter Operation  The effects of selected operational and environmental parameters on acid-phase digestion of primary sludge in a study.  mainstream two-stage fermentation system were investigated in this  Initially the operational parameters of interest were H R T and SRT.  However, it soon  became apparent that the SRT of the mainstream fermenter could not be accurately manipulated as a result of uncontrolled wasting of suspended solids in the fermenter effluent.  As a result,  the study focused on the effects of manipulating H R T by changing flow rate through the mainstream fermenter.  Calculations for determining fermenter H R T and SRT are detailed in  Appendix A. The environmental parameters deemed relevant to monitor in this study were pH and temperature.  The pH of each tank was measured bi-weekly using a portable Horiba pH  meter (Model D-13 US). Temperature was monitored continuously using a Temperature Sensor Thermocouple with Intellution Fixx (Version 3.00) software interface.  Temperature probes  were mounted in the CMR. The influence of system HRT on the production of V F A during fermentation of primary sludge was examined in a series experimental runs.  The mainstream fermenter was operated at  HRTs of 2.2, 3.2, and 4.3 hrs. In addition, a preliminary test run at an H R T of 4.3 hrs was conducted in which any operational problems were identified and solved.  The runs ranged in  length from 50 to 100 days. The experimental run was considered to be in steady-state when the TSS concentrations showed approximately steady values (Zaloum, 1992); within fifteen days.  usually achieved  Two identical mainstream two-stage fermentation systems,  Side A and Side B, were operated in parallel in order to duplicate the results.  28  identified as Between each  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  run the sludge recycle from Side A and Side B were intermixed to ensure uniform composition of both sides.  Table 4.1 presents a summary of operating conditions.  Table 4.1 Operating Conditions (Mean Values)  Run  Length  HRT  SRT  TSS  Temp  (days)  (hrs)  (days)  (mg/L)  (°C)  pH  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  Test  47  4.3  14.0  13.9  3120  3580  19.4  19.4  6.7  6.7  1  56  2.2  5.8  5.6  7470  6850  15.9  15.7  6.7  6.7  2  107  3.2  12.6  12.3  7700  8340  13.6  13.3  6.8  6.8  3  70  4.3  9.1  9.4  4570  4480  18.4  18.3  6.8  6.9  4.2 Batch Experiments  Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to determine the production rate of V F A during acid fermentation of primary sludge. conditions in the CMR.  The experiments were designed to model the  Using techniques to create and maintain an anaerobic environment,  thickener return sludge and raw influent were completely mixed in a 2.8 L Erlenmeyer flask. The production of V F A was monitored throughout the four hour batch experiment.  Four  batch tests were conducted simultaneously; three utilizing different ratios of sludge and influent and one, a control, in which influent was replaced with tap water.  Five sets of batch  experiments were conducted throughout the operational period of the mainstream two-stage fermenter.  29  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  nitrogen balloon on syringe needle  Figure 4.2 Batch Experiment Apparatus  Batch experiment apparatus, as depicted in Figure 4.2, consisted of a 2.8 L Erlenmeyer flask stoppered with a rubber bung.  Two plastic tubes, a larger one for filling and a smaller  one for sampling, were inserted through the rubber bung and extended into the flask. The tubes were clamped when not in use.  The rubber bung was fitted with a septum pierced with a  syringe needle connected to a balloon filled with nitrogen gas (Comeau, 1989). The batch experiment was setup in such a way as to.create an anaerobic environment within the flask.  Prior to filling the flask was purged with nitrogen gas. Sludge was transferred 30  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  to the flask by plastic tube connecting the ball valve on the sludge recycle pump inlet to the filling tube.  Nitrogen gas was bubbled through the influent and water to reduce D O levels to a  value of less than 1 mg/L before being pumped using a variable speed Masterflux pump (Model 7520-00) to the purged flask. During the experiment the nitrogen gas filled balloon maintained anaerobic conditions by providing an inert atmosphere above the liquid and by replacing the volume of sampled liquid in the flask. Throughout the duration of the experiment complete mixing of the components within the flask was achieved using a magnetic stirring bar and plate.  In order to ensure uniform  mixing of all flasks a six plate magnetic stir mixer was constructed. The mixing speed of all six plates was directed by one control knob connected to a single variable speed motor that rotated six magnetic stirrers. The batch experiments were conducted at ambient temperature and no attempt was made to control pH. However, the temperature of the tap water used in the control flask was adjusted to that of the influent.  At regular intervals throughout the four hour batch experiment samples  for V F A analysis were withdrawn using a syringe.  A sample was collected for TSS analysis  upon completion of the experiment.  4.3  Analytical Procedures  Grab samples for VFA, soluble C O D and solids analysis were gathered from four locations in the mainstream fermenter, in order to document  the changes in wastewater  composition as it passed through the fermentation system. 1. Influent sample was collected from the influent line just prior to the CMR. 2. C M R sample was collected from the exit of the C M R weir. 3. Fermenter effluent sample was collected from the exit of the thickener weir.  31  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  4. Sludge recycle sample was collected from the recycle line just prior to the pump. Samples for V F A , and soluble C O D analysis were collected five days a week, Monday through Friday.  Samples for solids analysis were collected three days a week, Monday,  Wednesday, and Friday.  4.3.1. T S S a n d V S S  Samples for solids determination were analyzed immediately upon collection.  The TSS  and VSS concentrations were determined in accordance with Standard Methods (A.P.H.A. et al.,  1989).  To determine TSS content, a known volume of sample was filtered through a  Whatman 934-AH glass micro fiber filter and dried at 104°C.  The VSS component was  obtained by igniting the residue at 550°C.  4.3.2. V F A  Samples for volatile fatty acid analysis were first filtered through Whatman No. 4 filters then preserved by acidification. A 0.1 ml aliquot of phosphoric acid and a 1.0 ml sample were injected by syringe into a 2.0 ml glass G C vial (HP Model 5181-3375), resulting in a p H level below 3. The vial was sealed using G C vial lids (HP Model 5181-1210) and refrigerated until time of analysis, usually within seven days. A computer controlled Hewlett-Packard 5880A gas chromatograph, equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), was used for determination of acetic, propionic, and iso-butyric concentrations. A).  Samples were injected using a Hewlett-Packard auto-sampler (Model 7672  The G C was equipped with a glass column (length: 91.0 cm, external diameter: 6.0 mm,  32  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  internal diameter: 2.0 mm)  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  that was packed with 0.3% Carbowax 20M/0.1% H 3 P O 4 on  Supelco Carbopack C. The column was conditioned according to the procedure described in the Supelco Bulletin 75 I E (1989).  The gas  chromatograph was operated under the following  conditions: Injector Temperature:  150°C  Detector Temperature:  200°C  Isothermal oven temperature:  120 ° C  Flow rate of helium gas:  20 ml/min  The detection limit of the H P 5 8 80A gas chromatograph operated under the above conditions is 1 mg/L for each species of V F A .  4.3.3  Soluble C O D  The truly soluble portion of C O D was determined using a rapid physical-chemical method developed by Mamais et al. (1992). The method involves removal by flocculation and precipitation of colloidal matter that would normally pass through a 0.45 urn membrane filter. Samples were prefiltered through Whatman No. 4 filters then flocculated by adding seven drops of a  178 g/L zinc sulfate solution to a 40 ml sample volume and mixed vigorously with a  magnetic stirrer for roughly one minute. The pH of the sample was adjusted to approximately 10.5 by adding three drops of 0.5 M sodium hydroxide solution.  Once the sample had settled  quiescently the supernatant was withdrawn using a syringe and filtered through a 0.45 urn Cellulose Nitrate Filter. The supernatant filtrate was refrigerated and analyzed in duplicate using the dichromate reflux procedure outlined in Standard Methods (A.P.H.A. et al, 1989). According to Mamais et al. (1992), the resultant COD concentration was a measure of the truly soluble organic matter.  33  EXPERIMENTAL  METHODS  AND ANALYTICAL  PROCEDURES  4.4 Statistical Analysis  Calculation of averages,  standard deviations, coefficients of variation, significant  difference between the means (one-way anova) and linear regressions was done using statistical analysis tools included in Quattro Pro for Windows Version 5.0 (Borland International) software program.  34  CHAPTER FIVE R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION  5.1  General Operating Conditions  In addition to the previously identified operational and environmental parameters affecting the production of simple carbon compounds discussed in detail in Sections 5.2 and 5.3,  (Section 2.3),  which will be  the formation of V F A in a primary sludge  fermenter is influenced by changes in wastewater composition, fermenter operation, process upsets caused by operator error, toxic loading or mechanical failure, and many other natural variabilities inherent in operating a biological process.  5.1.1  Influent Composition  The truly soluble COD, TSS, and V F A concentrations of the influent were monitored throughout the duration of the experimental runs and the monthly means ± one standard deviation are graphically illustrated in Figure 5.1.  The results of the daily  sampling program are presented in Appendices B, C, and D. The TSS concentrations (Figure 5.1a) were not observed to fluctuate significantly throughout the experimental period.  Small sample size (single grab samples were  35  RESULTS  2 0 0  J  AND  DISCUSSION  r  175  --•  150  »-  ^ 1 2 5  . -  3 1 0 0  --.  YX  75  -  H  50  —  25  ---  0  4-  Sep-93  I  • '  1, ,  1  Nov-93  1  1  Dec-93  1  1  Feb-94  1  Apr-94  h  1  May-94  Jul-94  May-94  Jul-94  150  B, 1 2 5 100  Q O U  75 5 0 25  "o 00  Sep-93  <  58  1  H  - i — h  0  Nov-93  Dec-93  h  Feb-94  Apr-94  4 0 3 0  CO  >r,20  io £ >: o  Sep-93  H  H  Nov-93  Test Run  Dec-93  1  1  Feb-94  Run 1  H  1-  Apr-94  May-94  Run 2  Figure 5.1 Influent Composition  36  h  Jul-94  Run 3  RESUL  TS AND  DISCUSSION  collected twice weekly for TSS analysis) standard deviations around the mean.  may account for monthly variations and large  A slight decrease in TSS concentrations throughout  the winter months, which was calculated to be not statistically significant (Appendix F), may be a result of decreased biological growth in the sewage collection system due to colder temperatures. The levels of truly soluble COD (Figure 5.1b) present in the raw influent were observed to be relatively constant during the Run 1, Run 2, and Run 3. There appeared, however,  to be a slight increase in average soluble C O D concentration in the warmer  summer months; consistent with higher TSS levels. statistically insignificant (Appendix F).  The increase was determined to be  This again suggested there was greater biological  activity in the sewer collection system during the warmer summer months compared to the cooler winter months. The large standard deviations around the mean may be a result of variations in sample collection (single grab sample collected five days per week) and sample preservation and laboratory analysis. There was a definite trend toward higher concentrations of influent V F A (Figure 5. lc) in the summer months compared to the winter months, which proved to be statistically significant (Appendix F).  This is consistent with previous studies conducted in northern  climates which indicate significantly more biological activity leading to V F A formation in the sewer collection system during periods of warmer temperatures (Randall, 1994; Steven, 1994). Apart from seasonal variations in V F A concentration, which will be accounted for in later analysis, the composition of the influent remained reasonably consistent between experimental runs.  Thus,  the production of short chain carbon compounds in the  mainstream fermenter was not affected by significant changes in wastewater composition.  37  RESULTS  5.1.2  AND  DISCUSSION  Fermenter Operation  Prior to conducting the experimental runs, the mainstream fermenter was operated for a test period in order to identify and solve any operational difficulties.  The greatest  operational issue proved to be rising solids in the thickener, resulting in the formation of a thick scum layer on the thickener surface. The rising solids were thought to be caused by two factors.  Firstly,  anaerobic floe formed in the fermentation process inherently has  extremely poor settling characteristics, and secondly, entrained gases such as C O 2 and C H 4 (Abraham, 1994).  Rising sludge is common in full-scale fermenters.  Stevens (1994)  reported the occurrence of rising solids forming a stable sludge blanket in the primary sludge fermenters at wastewater treatment plants in Kelowna, B.C. and Westbank, B.C.. Installation of sludge scraper mechanisms, to assist with degasification and to increase sludge settling efficiency, mitigated the problem.  During the test run a scum blanket, often  reaching a thickness of 20 cm, covered the entire surface of the mainstream thickener. The problem was solved by installing a mixer with a stainless steel shaft and impeller in the thickener. The impeller was located close to the bottom of the thickener and rotated very slowly (approximately 30 rpm) for a period of three minutes in every ten minutes. This mixing regime was suitable to dislodge entrained gas bubbles, thereby virtually eliminating the problem of surface stable scum formation, but not so vigorous to result in loss of solids over the weir of the thickener. The slow turning impeller also prevented short circuiting of the thickener recycle sludge through the bottom sludge blanket. Another physical problem encountered while operating the mainstream fermenter was a buildup of fibrous material in the sludge mass as a result of recycling the primary sludge between the complete mix reactor and the thickener.  The fibrous solids caused  blockages in the recycle pump and the pipe connecting the complete mix reactor to the thickener. This problem was reduced with regular clearing of the pump and pipe by forcing water under high pressure through it. In addition, the fibrous material had a tendency to  38  RESUL TS AND  DISCUSSION  wind around the mixer shaft due to the vortexing action of the mixer in the complete mix tank.  Similar problems were observed in full-scale fermenters and are a result of the  inherent fibrous nature of primary solids (Abraham, 1994; Stevens, 1994).  5.1.3  Process Acclimatization and Stability  An adequate transition period between experimental runs is required to acclimatize the biomass to a new H R T and to ensure that measurements on the effluent reflect the performance under the new operating mode.  An experimental run is considered to be at  steady-state when the M L V S S concentrations reach a steady level at a constant SRT (Zaloum, 1992).  Although the SRT was not constant in this study,  the mainstream  fermenter was considered to have achieved approximately stable conditions when the TSS concentrations showed roughly steady values. fermenter  TSS  concentrations for  the  Figure 5.2 presents the system daily average three  experimental  runs.  Fermenter  TSS  concentrations are calculated using a weighted average of complete mix reactor and thickener TSS concentrations (Appendix A). The TSS concentrations in Run 1 were consistently erratic, though there was a trend toward increasing TSS concentration in Side A throughout the entire experimental run (which may indicate steady-state was not fully achieved). approximately stable conditions within 15 days.  Side B appeared to reach  The inconsistent system TSS  concentrations in Run 1 compared to Run 2 and 3 may be attributed to error in laboratory analysis. Samples taken during Run 1 were weighed directly after being removed from the drying oven, whereas samples taken during Run 2 and Run 3 were placed in a dessicator to cool prior to being weighed. There was a process upset that resulted in loss of much of the biomass inventory in the transition period between Run 1 and Run 2.  39  Side A achieved steady-state conditions  RESULTS AND  ^ lb £ go  DISCUSSION  12,000 10,000 f WOO 6,000 -4,000 2,000 f 0 -f 0  c  . . . . o • • -a • • - n.  •  H  i-  20  10  12,000 ^10,000 • ^ 8,000 >S 6,000 8 4,000 - * 2,000 H 1 0 0 20  30  40  •C33-  H  ^ ^ & S H  60  - - - Trffe  -  :  12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 4 c 2,000 f 0 0  50  cf  1  H  -I—I—I—I—I  1-  40  60  80  100  1—(-  120  140  IT H  10  20  1-  -i  1  30 40 Days of Run  (-  H  50  1  60  A-Side - B-Side  Figure 5.2 Fermenter TSS Concentrations  40  H  70  RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION  within a 20 day period whereas Side B took a longer period to recover due to greater initial solids loss.  On day 50, the mixing speed of the mixer in Side A thickener was increased.  This resulted in resuspension of the biomass and loss of solids through the thickener effluent.  Very low fermenter TSS concentrations ensued.  There was a plug in the line  connecting the C M R to the thickener on day 100, causing the C M R to overflow and again much of the fermenter biomass inventory was lost. Stable conditions were quickly achieved and maintained throughout Run 3.  5.2 Effect of Environmental Factors  The environmental factors deemed most probable to influence V F A production in the mainstream fermenter were pH and temperature.  Gupta et al. (1985) conducted a  series of anaerobic batch experiments to investigate the influence of pH, temperature and retention time on the production of V F A from primary sludge.  It was concluded that the  effect of changing one parameter could not be isolated due to the dependency of one variable upon the value of the other two variables.  In Section 5.2, the fluctuations in pH  and temperature in the mainstream fermenter are examined to determine their significance relative to that of fermenter HRT.  5.2.1 p H  The pH of the mainstream fermenter was monitored throughout the experimental period.  Measurements were taken twice weekly in both the complete mix reactor and  41  RESUL  TS AND  DISCUSSION  thickener using a portable Horiba pH meter and summarized in Table 5.1.  There was no  external adjustment of the pH in the mainstream fermenter.  Table 5.1  Run#  PH  HRT  (hrs) Run 1 Run 2 Run 3  Fermenter p H  2.2 3.2 4.3  Side A Thickener C M Reactor  Side B C M Reactor Thickener  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  6.7 6.8 6.8  0.3 0.2 0.1  6.7 6.7 6.8  0.3 0.2 0.1  6.7 6.8 6.9  0.3 0.1 0.1  6.6 6.8 6.8  0.3 0.1 0.1  There was low variability in pH measurements in both the complete mix reactor and thickener during the operational period of the mainstream fermenter.  Gupta et al. (1985)  determined through a series of anaerobic batch experiments that a controlled pH of 7 did not significantly affect the production of V F A from primary sludge compared to an uncontrolled pH of  between 5.9 and 6.3.  Thus variations in pH observed in the  mainstream fermenter are unlikely to have a significant influence on the production of V F A .  5.2.2 Temperature  The mainstream fermenter operated at ambient temperatures. the complete mix reactor was  The temperature in  monitored continuously using a temperature  sensor  thermocouple. Daily average temperatures of each run are graphically illustrated in Figure 5.3 and presented numerically in Appendix B.  42  RESUL TS AND  DISCUSSION  There were notable temperature fluctuations in the complete mix reactor during each experimental run as a result of ambient operating conditions.  In the previously  mentioned batch reactor study, Gupta et al. (1985), observed a consistent improvement in net V F A production from primary sludge with increase in temperature in the range of 10°C  24 22 3  20  2 18  «  a  °  i,"»B  C  r ! B  91 • S I 9 J -  3  - „  tf  14 12 10  1  -H  0  h-  10  20  30  40  50  60  24 2 2 420  3  2 18  c  «u  I a  3  ed  1 6  14 12 10  1  H  0  1-  20  1  H  40  H  1-  60  80  h  100  120  24 w  2 2  3  +  20  m  "V.V* .  2 18  c  0  1  14  3 tf  -  12 10  H  0  1 r10  H  20  1 30  1—— :I  H  H  40  50  h  60  70  Days of Run  A-Side '• B-Side Figure 5.3 Fermenter Daily Average Temperature  43  RESUL TS AND  to 30°C.  DISCUSSION  Scatter plots of temperature versus V F A production in the mainstream  fermenter were plotted and correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated to determine if temperature fluctuations in the mainstream fermenter influenced the production of V F A (Figure 5.4 and Table 5.2, respectively).  Details of the statistical analysis for the  correlation are found in Appendix F.  Table 5.2  Summary of Temperature Statistical Analysis  Run 1  Run 2  Run 3  Side A  SideB  Side A  SideB  Side A  SideB  CC  0.17  0.45  0.26  0.05  0.28  0.20  R Square  0.029  0.201  0.066  0.003  0.077  0.040  The scatter plots suggest that, within the operating temperature range of the mainstream fermenter, there was not a definite correlation between temperature and V F A production. The degree of variation in the V F A production that may be accounted for by the linear relationship with the temperature is denoted by the R square value. Run 1 Side A, temperature.  In the case of  only 2.9 % of the variation in V F A production is due to change in Excluding Run 1 Side B,  the results of statistical analysis for correlation  indicate that less than 10% of the variability in V F A production in the mainstream fermenter is related to temperature fluctuation.  44  RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  Run 1 30 CC=0.45  20 02 10  -g i/5  -a  i  < u. >  -10 12  14  16  20  18  Temperature (oC)  10  12  14  16  18  20  Temperature (oC)  Run 2 80 60 +  CC=0.26  CC=0.053  E  % 40 o •a | 20 o  £ <  0 -20  12  10  14 16 Temperature (oC)  18  20  10  12  14 16 Temperature (oC)  18  20  Run 3 70  100 *  80  CC=0.28  £ C  %  •  a" 40  03 a  •  20 •• - -  1 0  B  a  m  40  cc=oao  1*50  "SB 60  I  0  3 0  •V3  £20  < -20 > -40  |2 10  •  ,  16  1  17  •  1  -.  1  18 19 Temperature (oC)  1  1  20  0  1  21  16  17  18 19 Temperature (oC)  Figure 5.4 Scatter Plot of Temperature and V F A Production  45  20  21  RESUL TS AND  DISCUSSION  Rabinowitz and Oldham (1994) concluded from a series of bench-scale, continuous flow experiments that the mass of V F A produced during acid fermentation of primary sludge was largely affected by the FfRT.  The specific rate of net V F A production was  determined for HRTs of 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours. The maximum rate of production was found at 12 hours and the minimum rate at 6 hours. It was speculated that the low production rate at the short H R T may be due in part to the limited time available for substrate assimilation.  The decline noticed at the longest H R T was thought to be caused by the  conversion of soluble V F A to gaseous products. In this research, the mainstream fermenter was operated at three different HRTs; 2.2, 3.2, and 4.2 hours. The range of fermenter H R T s was dictated by the chosen H R T of the downstream biological phosphorus removal bioreactor as the wastewater stream flowed through the fermentation system prior to entering the phosphorus removal process train. As a result, very short HRTs ensued compared to those of Rabinowitz and Oldham (1994) and those of conventional sidestream fermenters, which usually operate at HRTs of 14 to 17 hours (Oldham and Abraham, 1994). The influence of retention time on the production of short chain organic compounds in a primary sludge fermentation system is complex.  The H R T affects the net production  of V F A directly by controlling contact time between substrate and microorganisms and indirectly by affecting the growth of microorganisms through the mass rate of addition of substrate.  46  RESULTS  5.3.1  AND  DISCUSSION  Fermenter T S S  During the operation of the test run it became apparent that the SRT of the mainstream fermenter could not be accurately manipulated as a result of uncontrolled wasting of suspended solids in the fermenter effluent.  Consequently, it was decided not to  control SRT by purposeful wasting of solids but to allow for biomass in the mainstream fermenter to build up to steady-state conditions.  A detailed analysis of fermenter TSS  concentrations with respect to process stability and acclimatization was performed in Section 5.1.3. experimental run.  Table 5.3 summarizes the fermenter TSS concentrations of each The fermenter TSS concentrations were calculated using weighted  average of complete mix reactor and thickener TSS concentrations (Appendix A). The steady-state TSS concentrations in the mainstream fermenter were strongly influenced by fermenter HRT.  An H R T of 4.3 hours resulted in a substantially lower TSS  steady-state concentration compared to that of only 2.2 hours (Table 5.3). It is uncertain even whether steady-state conditions were achieved on Side A during Run 1 (HRT of 2.2 hours) due to very short HRT (Figure 5.2a). The mean TSS concentrations of Side A and Side B were approximately equal for each run.  Table 5.3 Summary of TSS Concentrations  Run#  HRT  TI  (mg /L)  (hrs)  Sidle B  Sid e A  Run 1 Run 2 Run 3  2.2 3.2 4.3  Mean  Std. Dev.  14850 7700 4570  5570 1910 340  47  .  Mean  Std. Dev.  13720 8340 4480  3130 2290 530  RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION  The steady-state TSS concentrations are linked to fermenter H R T through the mass rate of substrate addition. At the shortest HRT, the mass rate of addition of substrate is highest; hence, the observed increase in biomass inventory in Run 1. Conversely, at the longest HRT, there is less substrate available for the microorganisms and the biomass inventory decreases, as was the case for Run 3.  5.3.2  V F A Production  The production of V F A (as acetic acid) in the mainstream fermenter is summarized in Table 5.4.  It appears that an increase in H R T results in a corresponding increase in  mean V F A production. confidence due to the  However, this cannot be concluded with a great degree of large standard deviations around the mean.  A one-way anova  statistical analysis with a 95% level of significance was conducted to determine if the experimental runs were statistically significantly different (Table 5.5).  The details of the  mainstream fermenter V F A production and statistical analysis are presented in Appendix C and F, respectively.  Table 5.4 Fermenter V F A Production  Run#  HRT  V F A Production (mg/L Infl.)  (hrs)  Sid e A Std. Dev.  Mean Run 1 Run 2  2.2 3.2  10 14  Run 3  4.3  18  48  12 9 19  SidleB Std. Dev.  Mean 12  12  16 18  16 15  RESUL TS AND  DISCUSSION Table 5.5 One-Way Anova for Significant Difference in H R T  Side A  Run 1 (2.2 hrs) Run 2 (3.2 hrs) Run 3 (4.3 hrs)  SideB  Run 2 Run 3 Run 1 (2.2 hrs) (3.2 hrs) (4.3 hrs) Yes Yes No  Yes Yes  Run 1 (2.2 hrs) Run 2 (3.2 hrs) Run 3 (4.3 hrs)  No  Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 (2.2 hrs) (3.2 hrs) (4.3 hrs) No Yes No Yes  No No  The daily variability in V F A production may be accounted for in part by sample collection techniques.  A single daily grab sample may not accurately represent the  conditions in the fermenter or the characteristics of the influent. Samples were collected at the same time each day to avoid registering the fluctuations in diurnal activities.  However,  daily fluctuations were still present. The concentration of V F A in the fermenter effluent of both Side A and Side B was significantly higher in samples collected on Monday compared to samples collected on the other four days of the sampling program.  This is especially  apparent during Run 2. The only plausible explanation is that on weekdays the thickener was completely mixed once a day following sample collection to dislodge any entrained gas bubbles. Only during Run 3 was the thickener completely mixed on the weekend in addition to during the week. Throughout Run 3, significantly higher V F A concentrations were not observed on Monday compared to other days. This suggests the higher V F A concentration on Monday in Run 1 and Run 2 may be attributed to buildup of V F A during the weekend. Whereas, during Run 3 the V F A was elutriated during mixing of the thickener on the weekend. Variations in V F A production may, to a lesser degree, be explained by sample preservation and laboratory analysis.  Although V F A samples were acidified to a pH below  49  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Variations in V F A production may, to a lesser degree, be explained by sample preservation and laboratory analysis.  Although V F A samples were acidified to a pH below  3 and refrigerated until analysis there is a possibility some V F A may have volatilized prior to analysis.  In addition there was a detection error of 1 mg/L on the HP 5880A gas  chromatograph used for V F A analysis.  However,  these errors were most probably  insignificant compared to fluctuations in V F A production resulting from variability in sample collection. The statistically significant difference  in V F A production in the mainstream  fermenter between the experimental runs was determined using a one-way anova statistical analysis with a 95% level of significance (Table 5.5). There is some doubt of the validity of the results of the analysis as one-way anova is based upon a normally distributed sample and the V F A production sample is a skewed distribution.  For the purposes if this study,  statistical analysis using one-way anova was deemed to be adequate. There was a statistically significant difference in V F A production in Side A between Run 1 and Run 2, and Run 1 and Run 3, but not between Run 2 and Run 3. There was not a significant statistical difference between Run 1 and Run 2, and Run 2 and Run 3 in Side B. Run 1 and Run 3 were statistically significantly different.  Thus, a change in H R T between  2.2 and 4.3 hours resulted in a statistically significant difference in V F A production in the mainstream fermenter.  Varying the H R T by only one hour did not induce a significant  difference in V F A production.  5.3.3 V F A Speciation  Identification of the individual acids formed in the mainstream fermenter during the acid phase digestion of primary sludge is consequential as bacteria capable of phosphorus removal prefer acetic acid to other short chain carbon compounds (Comeau et al., 1987;  50  RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  the mainstream fermenter effluent.  Table 5.6 summarizes the percent acetic acid of the  total V F A found in the fermenter effluent.  Table 5.6 Effluent V F A Speciation Run#  V F A Speciation  HRT  (% Acetic Acid)  (hrs)  Sid e A Mean Std. Dev. Run 1 Run 2 Run 3  2.2 3.2 4.3  81 85 83  9 9 12  SidLeB Mean Std. Dev. 8 11 10  81 85 83  The distribution of individual species of V F A was not significantly affected by varying the H R T between 2.2 and 4.3 hours.  In the previously mentioned study,  Rabinowitz and Oldham (1994) also concluded the percent V F A distribution was not influenced by length of HRT.  However, Rabinowitz and Oldham observed acetic acid and  propionic acid to occur in approximately equal proportions.  In contrast, acetic and  propionic acid were detected in this study with the proportion of acetic acid far greater than that of propionic acid. Acid fermentation of primary sludge generally produces V F A in the approximate proportions of 55% acetic, 30% propionic and 15% other V F A (Randall, 1994). The difference in V F A speciation found is this study compared to others may be a result of the raw influent sewage source and the short fermenter HRT.  The proportion of  acetic to propionic acid in the raw influent is even greater than that of the fermenter effluent (Figure 5.5), which is characteristic of fresh influent. In addition, the short operating HRTs of the mainstream fermenter may not allow for accumulation of fermentative end products other than acetic acid.  51  RESUL TS AND  DISCUSSION  Figure 5.5 Fermenter VFA Speciation  5.4  Soluble C O D  The phosphorus accumulating bacteria in the biological phosphorus removal process require a supply of substrate in the form of simple organic compounds to become a significant fraction of the biomass. Although acetic acid is the preferable substrate, almost any short chain carbon compound is suitable to stimulate the biological phosphorus removal process (Oldham, 1994).  The measure of the available substrate for the phosphorus  accumulating bacteria has traditionally been V F A as it can be quickly determined by gas chromatography.  However, the readily biodegradable portion of soluble C O D may be a  more accurate measure of the available substrate for the biological phosphorus removal process (Manoharan, 1988).  52  RESUL  TS AND  DISCUSSION  The readily biodegradable portion of soluble C O D can determined using a rapid physical-chemical method, involving removal by flocculation and precipitation of colloidal matter which would normally pass through a 0.45 urn membrane filter prior to analysis for C O D content (Mamais et al, 1992). The resultant C O D concentration is a measure of the truly soluble organic matter. The readily biodegradable portion is determined by subtracting from the influent C O D the truly soluble effluent C O D of an activated sludge system with a mean cell retention time of greater than three days.  The resultant is the readily  biodegradable portion of soluble COD consisting of simple organic molecules such as V F A and low molecular weight carbohydrates.  The determination of the readily biodegradable  portion using the physical-chemical method developed by Mamais et al. (1992) is fast and simple compared to the biological method outlined by Manoharan (1988), which involved the operation of a short sludge age continuous activated sludge system. However,  the  reliability and accuracy of the rapid physical-chemical method has yet to be proven. In this research, mainstream fermenter.  only the truly soluble C O D values were determined around the The results of analysis for truly soluble C O D are summarized in  Table 5.7 and graphically illustrated in Figure 5.6. Contrary to the results of previous studies, the retention time has little affect on the quantity of truly soluble COD produced in the fermenter. In a previous study of concerning the solubilization of organic matter in primary sludge,  Elefsiniotis (1993) observed that  variation in H R T between 6 and 15 hours had a profound effect on the net soluble COD concentration. The maximum value occurred at an H R T of 12 hours. It is possible that varying the H R T between 2.2 and 4.3 hours is not great enough to affect the rate of conversion of particulate organic matter to soluble compounds. There is little change in the measure of soluble C O D between the complete mix reactor and fermenter effluent and only a small increase between influent and fermenter effluent, suggesting hydrolysis of particulate organic matter producing soluble C O D does  53  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Table 5.7 Fermenter Soluble C O D  Run #  (hrs)  Influent Mean  Run I Run 2 Run 3  Soluble C O D (mg/L) Side A SideB Effluent C M Reactor C M Reactor Effluent  HRT  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  2 2  78  19  91  35  89  23  95  37  89  25  3.2  73  20  80  24  77  22  73  28  74  26  20  86  21  90  32  88  22  92  27  4.3  Figure 5.6 Fermenter Soluble C O D  readily occur in the mainstream fermenter.  This concurs with previous studies (Eastman  and Ferguson, 1981; Gosh and Pohland, 1974) concluding the hydrolysis of particulate matter to soluble substrates was the rate limiting step in the conversion of waste solids to fermentation products.  54  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 5.8 VFA Fraction of Soluble COD  Run #  (hrs) Run 1 Run 2 Run 3  % Soluble C O D in the form o f V F A Side B Side A C M Reactor Effluent C M Reactor Effluent  HRT  2.2 3.2 4.3  Influent Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  Mean  Std. Dev.  26 29 36  9 18 22  41 40 44  20 15 14  36 49 52  13 24 22  39 48 47  15 43 17  37 56 51  13 46 16  Figure 5.7 V F A Fraction of Soluble COD  The portion of truly soluble C O D that consists of V F A does not appear to be influenced by fermenter HRT.  Nevertheless, the V F A fraction of soluble C O D is  significantly higher in the mainstream fermenter effluent than the raw influent (Table 5.8, Figure 5.7).  In every case, the increase proved to be statistically significant using a one-  way anova analysis with 95% level of significance (Appendix F). Previous studies have shown that the acid fermentation is exceedingly rapid with minimum cell residence times of a few hours (Andrews and Pearson, 1965; Ghosh and Pohland, 1974).  55  It is possible that  RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION  the H R T of the mainstream fermenter is sufficiently long for acid fermentation to occur but not for hydrolysis of the particulate organic matter. The V F A fraction of truly soluble C O D detected in the mainstream fermenter was significantly less than observed by Elefsiniotis and Oldham (1993) in a series of bench-scale continuous flow experiments using primary sludge in which the percent soluble C O D in the form of V F A was greater than 90% in the reactor effluent. Eastman and Ferguson (1981) also conducted continuous flow experiments using primary sludge and determined that the V F A accounted for 85% to 95% of the soluble C O D in the reactor effluent in all experimental runs.  It is probable that the exceedingly short H R T of the mainstream  fermenter allowed for less acid fermentation of soluble substrates,  and consequently,  a  lower fraction of V F A compared to studies with considerably longer retention times.  5.5  Batch Experiments  Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to determine the production of V F A during acid fermentation of primary sludge. conditions in the complete mix reactor.  Batch experiments were setup to model  Thickener return sludge and raw influent were  completely mixed in a 2.8 L Erlenmeyer flask using aseptic techniques to create and maintain an anaerobic environment. Samples for V F A analysis were withdrawn at regular intervals throughout the four hour batch experiment.  Four batch tests were conducted  simultaneously; three utilizing different ratios of sludge and influent and a fourth, a control, in which influent was replaced with tap water. Three batch tests with varying quantities of primary sludge and influent were conducted to investigate the influence of substrate to biomass ratio. Five sets of batch experiments were conducted throughout the operational  56  RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION  period of the mainstream fermenter.  A detailed account of the results of the anaerobic  batch experiments is presented in Appendix E. Beyond adjusting the control water temperature to that of the influent, no attempt was made to control the pH or temperature during the batch experiments. The first three batch experiments were conducted during Run 2 and the final two experiments during Run 3. Consequently the influent temperature of the first three experiments was lower than that of the final two;  16°C for the first three and 18°C for the final two.  As discussed in  section 5.3.2, a temperature variation of 2°C is not expected to significantly influence the results of the batch experiments.  The pH was measured before the start and after the  completion of each experiment. There was not a significant change during the experiments. The pH values were found to be similar to those measured in the mainstream fermenter with values ranging between 6.7 and 7.0.  The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in both the  influent and the water were reduced to levels below 0.5 mg/L by stripping the oxygen with nitrogen gas. Batch Experiment 1 was a preliminary experiment, conducted to compare Side A and Side B and to determine whether there was a difference in V F A production using raw influent and water.  The rate of V F A production, both per liter of influent and gram of  TSS, is greater for the batch experiments using influent compared to those using water, the control (Figure 5.8a).  The results of Test A and B using recycle thickener sludge from  Side A are similar to Test C and D using thickener sludge from Side B, indicating the two sides are approximately equal in composition and activity.  Figure 5.8b graphically  illustrates the fraction of V F A as acetic acid. Only acetic and propionic acid were detected in the batch test with increasing proportions of propionic acid detected throughout the final two hours of the experiment.  This agrees with the results of Section 5.3:3 indicating that  accumulation of propionic acid does not occur at retention times of less than two hours.  57  RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION  Production Rate Test A - 2.87 m ^ L ' h r Test B - 4.40 mg/L*hr Test C - 2.12 m»T-*hr Test D - 3.55 mg/L'hr  03:00  04:00  03:00  04:00  95 •-  •1 <  I  90  T  80 + 75 00:00  01:00  02:00 Time  • Note: Test A Test B Test C Test D  A V J 3 » C A D  -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + -1.2 L B-Side Recycle + -1.2 L B-Side Recycle +  1.6 L 1.6 L 1.6 L 1.6 L  Tap Water Influent Tap Water Influent  Figure 5.8 Batch Experiment 1  Anaerobic Batch Experiments 2 to 5 were conducted using recycle fermenter sludge from Side A thickener only. The ratios of influent to fermenter sludge were the same for each set of experiments. Figure 5.9 provides a graphical summary of the V F A production from acid phase digestion of primary sludge in Anaerobic Batch Experiments 2 to 5. production rate of V F A for each test was calculated using linear regression analysis.  58  The  RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION  Production Rate  Test A - 3.24 mg/L'hr Test B - 2.85 mg/L'hr Test C • 3.76 mg/L'hr Test D - 1.85 mg/L'hr  Production Rate  Test A-1.78 mg/L'hr Test B - 2.40 mg/L'hr Test C - 3.70 mg/L'hr Test D - 2.22 mg/L'hr  5  1  I_H  00:00  1  1  r  00:30 01:00  01:30  02:00  03:00  04:00  Production Rate  Test A - 1.08 mg/L'hr Test B-1.62 mg/L'hr TestC- 1.82 mg/L'hr TestD- 1.16 mg/L'hr  00:00  00:30  01:00 ' 01:30  02:00  03:00  04:00  Production Rate  Test A-1.47 mg/L'hr Test B-1.93 mg/L'hr TestC-2.13 mg/L'hr TestD - 1.39 mg/L'hr  00:00  00:30 01:00  01:30 Time  02:00  03:00  04:00  A • B • C A D Note: Test A • 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water Test B • 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent Test C • 1.2 L A-Side Recycle «• 1.6 L Influent Test D •0.6 L A-Side Recvcle •"• 2.2 L Influent  Figure 5.9 Batch Experiment V F A Production  59  RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION  The production of V F A in the batch experiments was observed to be strongly influenced by the ratio of influent to primary sludge.  Although some V F A production  occurred in the control test, the rate of production was significantly less than that of the other tests.  The V F A production observed in the control was most likely a result of  conversion of soluble C O D in the primary sludge recycle due to the short H R T of the mainstream fermenter (see Section 5.4). production occurred during Test C, influent.  In each experiment the maximum rate of  which contained 1.2 L primary sludge and 1.6 L  Reducing the quantity of available substrate by diluting the influent with water  (Test B) resulted in a lower V F A production rate.  A high ratio of substrate to biomass  (Test D) also resulted in a lower V F A production rate. The results of the batch experiments indicate the optimal ratio of primary sludge to influent for maximum V F A production is 0.75:1.0 Once again, only acetic acid and propionic acid were detected with increasing proportions of propionic acid two hours after the start of the experiment (Figure 5.10).  In  Experiments 2 and 5 there was a propionic acid contribution from the thickener sludge, which was detected throughout the duration of the batch experiment, but an increase in the ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid was not detected until midway through the experiment. The propionic acid detected at the start of Experiment 4, Test C and D, was a result of propionic acid in the influent.  These observations confirm that a retention time of greater  than two hours is required for propionic acid production.  60  RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION  100  a-  -a  95  T3 < u u u  <  u a. x  90  Ui o  85  oa 80 01:00  00:00  02:00  03:00  100 95 •a  '3  c u  90  i l  <u a. x  < o  85  5  80  <  u=  75  o  70  03  00:00  01:00  02:00  03:00  04:00  100 0 s  TJ <  98  C u  96 •  94  u  *  92  <  90  u  •  Q  e  o a a  A  "C u o.  X  U  JS a ca 09  88 00:00  01:00  02:00  03:00  04:00  100  e u S •c  3- 95  O < o  u o  •<  90 85  il-B  B  O  B  .B.ft  u a. x  u  80 75  f  70 00:00  01:00  03:00  02:00  04:00  Time A • B • C  A  D  Note: Test A - \2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water Test B -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent Test C -1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6L Influent Test D - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent  Figure 5.10 Batch Experiment V F A Speciation  61  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  5.6  Comparison of Fermenter Performance  The performance of the mainstream fermenter operating at an H R T of 4.3 hours is compared in Table 5.9 to fermentation systems currently operating in North America (Oldham and Abraham, 1994).  Table 5.9 Comparison of Fermenter Performance  Plant Flow  Static  CM  CM/Thick.  Mainstream  Kelowna BC  Penticton  Kalispell Montana  U B C Pilot Plant Vancouver, B C  BC  20ML/d  14 ML/d  5.7 ML/d  0.009 ML/d  Ferm. Inflow  1.12 ML/d  0.98 ML/d  0.42 ML/d  0.009 ML/d  Ferm. Waste Flow  unknown  0.10 ML/d  0.04 ML/d  none  700 m  500 m  3  0.4 m  3  3  0.4 m  3  Ferm. Volume Thickener Volume  670 m  3  .  3  n/a  n/a  380 m  Ferm. H R T  14 hr  17hr  28 hr  4.3 *  Ferm. SRT  unknown  7d  12 d  unknown  Ferm. V F A  21 mg/L  17 mg/L  58 mg/L  18 mg/L  Plant Inf. TotP  5.5 mg/L  7.1 mg/L  5.0 mg/L  5.3 mg/L  0.10 mg/L  0.15 mg/L  0.29 mg/L  0.10 mg/L  Plant Eff. Ortho-P  * Complete Mix Reactor plus Thickener  One notable feature of the mainstream fermenter compared to the other operating fermentation systems is that there is no purposeful wasting of solids from the mainstream fermenter. Consequently, the requirements for sludge handling facilities are reduced but the oxygen requirements in the succeeding bioreactor are increased. For ease of comparison, the fermenter V F A concentrations found in Table 5.9 are expressed as mg of V F A (as HAc) produced per liter of plant influent. The performance of  62  RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION  the mainstream fermenter is equal to that of the complete mix fermenter and static fermenter but well below that of the two-stage complete mix/thickener fermentation system. In addition to the V F A produced by the fermentation system,  V F A is naturally  present in raw sewage. Raw influent to the U B C pilot plant contained an average V F A concentration of 22 mg/L as HAc,  resulting in a mean fermenter effluent  VFA  concentration of 40 mg/L as H A c (22 mg/L found in the raw influent plus 18 mg/L produced in the mainstream fermenter).  The quantity of V F A entering the anaerobic zone  of the Penticton B N R facility is greater than the amount produced by the complete mix fermenter (17 mg/L as HAc) due to further conversion of soluble C O D to V F A in the primary clarifier and the additional 8 to 14 mg/L of V F A (as HAc) from the influent.  Raw  sewage in Kelowna usually contributes between 5 and 15 mg/L V F A (as HAc) to that already produced by the static fermenter.  Influent to Kalispell B N R plant often contains  low levels of V F A due to groundwater infiltration, thus a high V F A contribution from the fermentation system is required to ensure good phosphorus removal.  The availability of  short chain carbon compounds to the biological phosphorus removal process is dependent upon both the fermenter efficiency and the amount of V F A naturally present in the raw sewage. At an H R T of 4.3 hours the mainstream fermenter produced sufficient quantities of V F A to maintain good phosphorus removal efficiency in the U B C Pilot Plant. (Mainstream fermenter performance with regard to phosphorus removal efficiency could not be assessed during Run 1 and Run 2 due to direct addition of acetate to the anaerobic zone of the BNR bioreactor. There was no addition of acetate during Run 3.)  Levels of effluent ortho-P  observed in the U B C pilot plant were as low, or lower than, those observed in the effluent from full-scale B N R plants equipped with side-stream fermentation systems (Table 5.9).  63  CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  6.1  Conclusions  The pilot scale mainstream fermenter was operated for a period of one year, during which the following conclusions were drawn: 1)  Seasonal variations (summer-winter) did not significantly affect the operation of  the mainstream fermenter. 2) The configuration of the mainstream fermenter did not allow for accurate control of SRT. without  However,  a stable biomass inventory was quickly achieved and maintained  purposeful wasting.  The steady-state level of biomass was dependent upon the  HRT; longer HRTs resulted in lower biomass concentrations. 3)  The net production of V F A from acid fermentation of primary sludge in the  mainstream fermenter was influenced by fermenter HRT. The longer the H R T the greater the production of simple carbon compounds. Varying the H R T by approximately one hour did not make a statistically significant difference in V F A production.  However,  VFA  production at an H R T of 4.3 hours was statistically significantly higher than that of 2.2 hours. 4) Change in fermenter H R T over the range tested did not influence individual acid formation in the mainstream fermenter.  Significantly higher proportions of acetic acid to  propionic acid were detected in the mainstream fermenter compared to other acid fermentation studies, which was attributed to a fresh source of raw influent and very short fermenter HRT.  64  CONCL USIONS AND RECOMMEND  A TIONS  5) Change in fermenter H R T had little affect on the quantity of truly soluble C O D produced in the mainstream fermenter nor the portion of soluble C O D that existed in the form of V F A .  There was little change in the soluble C O D concentrations between the  mainstream fermenter influent and effluent; suggesting hydrolysis of particulate organic matter did not readily occur in the mainstream fermenter. Nevertheless, the V F A fraction of R B C O D was significantly higher in the mainstream fermenter effluent than the raw influent indicating conversion of soluble C O D to V F A did take place. 6)  The results of anaerobic batch experiments using primary sludge indicated the  optimal ratio of primary sludge to influent for maximum V F A production is 0.75:1.0. 7)  The performance of the mainstream fermenter operating at H R T of 4.3 hours  was equal to that of a side-stream static fermenter or a complete mix fermenter but below that of the separate complete mix/thickener fermenter. 8)  The quantity of V F A produced in the mainstream fermenter operating at H R T  of 4.3 hours combined with that found in the influent sewage was sufficient to stimulate good biological phosphorus removal at the U B C Pilot Wastewater Treatment Plant.  6.2  Recommendations  In recent years,  knowledge of the science and engineering required to optimize  short chain volatile fatty acid production through primary sludge fermentation has advanced greatly.  As a result, future research should be primarily directed towards overcoming  coming practical problems in full-scale installations such as: 1) Minimizing tank size while still producing sufficient simple carbon compounds to ensure good biological phosphorus removal.  65  CONCL USIONS AND RECOMMEND A TIONS  2) Eliminating the problem of rising solids resulting in a thick stable sludge layer on the surface of the fermenter. 3) Preventing blockages of pumps and lines, which occur as a result of the fibrous nature of the primary sludge. 4) Minimizing odour generation and improving odour control technology. 5) Minimizing the impact of seasonal variations in influent V F A concentration. 6) Ascertaining whether the rapid physical-chemical technique for determination of the readily biodegradable portion of soluble C O D is an adequate measure of substrate available for the phosphorus removing bacterium.  66  REFERENCES  Abraham, K., (1994), Operational Issues of Complete Mix Fermenters - Cold Weather, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Conference on Use of Fermentation to Enhance Biological Nutrient Removal, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 57-64. 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Hunter, J.V., Heukelekian, (1965), The Composition of Domestic Sewage Fractions, J. WPCF, Vol.37, pp. 1142-1163. Jones, P.H., Tadwalkar, A.D., Hsu, C.L., (1987), Enhanced Uptake of Phosphorus by Activated Sludge - Effect of Substrate Addition, Wat. Res., Vol.21, No. 3, pp. 301-308. Kaspar, H.F., Wuhrmann, K., (1978), Kinetic Parameters and Relative Turnovers of Some Important Catabolic Reactions in Digesting Sludge, Appl. and Env. Micr., Vol. 36, pp. 1-7. Kissel, J . C , (1986), Modeling Mass Transfer Processes, Wat. Sci. Tech., Vol. 18, pp. 35-45.  68  in Biological  Wastewater  Treatment  REFERENCES  Lotter, L.H., Pitman, A.R., (1992), Improved Biological Phosphorus Removal Resulting from the Enrichment of Reactor Feed with Fermentation Products, Wat. Sci. Tech., Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 943-953. Mamais, D., Jenkins, D., Pitt, P., (1993), A Rapid Physical-Chemical Method for the Determination of Readily Biodegradable Soluble COD in Municipal Wastewater, Wat. 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Oldham, W.K., (1994), Biological Nutrient Removal - Supplementary Processes, Proceedings of Second Australian Conference on Biological Nutrient Removal from Wastewater., Albury, NSW Australia, pp. 191-197. Oldham, W.K., Abraham, K., (1994), Overview of Full-Scale Fermenter Performance, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Conference on Use of Fermentation to Enhance Biological Nutrient Removal, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 81-87.  Oldham, W., Abraham, K., Dawson, R.N., McGeachie., G , (1992), Primary Sludge Fermentation Design and Optimization for Biological Nutrient Removal Plants, Proceedings of European Conference on Nutrient Removal from Wastewater, University of Leeds, UK. 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Rabinowitz, B., Oldham, W.K., (1985), The Use of Primary Sludge Fermentation in the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Process, Proceedings of the International Conference on New Directions and Research in the Waste Treatment and Residuals Management, Vancouver, B.C., pp. 347-363. Rabinowitz, B., Oldham, W., (1986), Excess Biological Phsophorus Removal in the Activated Sludge Process Using Primary Sludge Fermentation, Can. J. Civ. Eng., Vol. 13, pp. 345-351. Randall, C.W., (1994), Why Use Fermentation?, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Conference on Use of Fermentation to Enhance Biological Nutrient Removal, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 1-12. Raper, W., Crockett, J., Glover, P., Purpose Built Prefermenter for West Wodonga, Proceedings of Second Australian Conference on Biological Nutrient Removal From Wastewater, Albury, NSW Australia, pp. 209-216. 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Toerien, D.F., Gerber, A., Lotter, L.H., Cloette, T.E., (1990), Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Activated Sludge Systems, Advances in Microbial Ecology, Vol. n, Plenum Press, N.Y.  70  REFERENCES Toerien, D.F., Siebert, M.L., Hattingh, W.H.J., (1967), The Bacterial Nature of the AcidForming Phase of Anaerobic Digestion, Water Research, Vol.1, pp. 497-507. Uribelarrea, J.L., Pareilleux, A., (1981), Anaerobic Digestion: Microbial and Biochemical Aspects of Volatile Acid Production, European J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., Vol. 12, pp. 118-122. Wedi, D., (1992), Effects of an Activated Primary Settling Tank on Biological Removal, Wat. Sci. Tech., Vol.26, No. 9-11, pp. 2199-2022. Wentzel, M.C., Dold, P.L., Ekama, G.A., Marais, G.v.R., (1985), Kinetics of Phosphorus Release, Wat. Sci. Tech., Vol. 17, No. 11-12, pp. 57-71. Zaloum, R., (1992), Significance and Establishment of Adequate Wastewater Experimentation, Env. Tech., Vol. 13, pp. 605-619.  71  Phosphorus  Biological  Transition Periods  in  APPENDIX  A  CALCULATIONS  AND CONVERSION  FACTORS  CALCULATIONS  i. H R T Determination System HRT = Volume^  (hours)  + Volume  mck  Q l n f  ii. Solids Determination a) System TSS = (TSSc^Volume^ (Volume^  b) System SRT =  + (TSS *  Volume  Thick  +  )  Thick  (mg/L)  Volume J m  (days)  (Mass of solids in system) (Daily wastage rate of solids)  The only wastage was unintentional resulting from solids loss in the fermenter effluent and daily complete mixing of the thickener. Analysis of effluent TSS concentrations following complete mixing of the thickener determined the TSS concentrations to be approximately one half thickener TSS concentrations two minutes after mixing and steady state levels four minutes after mixing.  System SRT = (TSS *Volume^ CM  + TSS' *Volume J mek  (TSS /Q + E  m  TSS *Q *4*I/2)  Inf  mck  72  Inf  (days)  APPENDIX  A  CALCULATIONS  AND CONVERSION  FACTORS  iii. Fermenter V F A Production a) CM Reactor  = VFA *(Q +Q ) CM  In/  - VFA *Q -VFA *Q  Rcycl  Inf  Inf  Rcycl  Rcycl  (mg/L Inf)  Q l n f  b) Thickener = VFA /Q + E  Inf  VFA *Q Rcycl  Rcycl  - VFA^fQ^+Q^J  (mg/L Inf)  Q l n f  c) System = VFA Inf  (mg/L Inf)  VFA  Eff  Table A l : Conversion Factors A. Conversion Factors for V F A Parameter  Mol. Weight mg VFA/mg HAc 60.05 74.08 88.10  Acetic Propionic Butyric  1.000 0.817 0.682  B. Conversion Factors for COD Parameter Acetic A c i d C O D Propionic A c i d C O D Butyric A c i d C O D  Basis Acetic A c i d Propionic Acid Butyric A c i d  73  Conversion Factor 1.067 mg/mg A c i d 1.514 mg/mg A c i d 1.818 mg/mg A c i d  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS  Table B l : Operating Conditions of Test Run HRT of 4.3 hrs  Date  08/30/93 08/31/93 09/01/93 09/02/93 09/03/93 09/04/93 09/05/93 09/06/93 09/07/93 09/08/93 09/09/93 09/10/93 09/11/93 09/12/93 09/13/93 09/14/93 09/15/93 09/16/93 09/17/93 09/18/93 09/19/93 09/20/93 09/21/93 09/22/93 09/23/93 09/24/93 09/25/93 09/26/93 09/27/93 09/28/93 09/29/93 09/30/93 10/01/93 10/02/93 10/03/93 10/04/93 10/05/93 10/06/93 10/07/93 10/08/93 10/09/93 10/10/93 10/11/93 10/12/93 10/13/93 10/14/93 Average Std. Dev.  Day  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46  SRT  A-Side Temp  System TSS (mart.)  (days)  (oC)  1497  5.83  2952  5.22  2778  9.39  2862  6.19  4070  5.86  3803  5.95  3098  3.87  2375  24.00  2712 3098 3098  17.48 14.46 14.46  3086  30.22  2961  11.04  3005  12.49  3184  43.00  3332  31.85  3489  18.54  3406  11.39  3899 3384 3440  42.93 9.56 12.01  20.6 20.8 20.6 20.4 20.6 20.9 20.8 20.4 21.4 21.7 21.6 21.3 20.8 19.6 19.3 19.3 18.8 18.7 19.1 18.9 18.7 18.7 17.9 17.9 18.2 18.1 17.7 18.4 19.1 19.4 19.3 19.0 19.1 19.4 18.9 19.3 19.1 19.6 19.1 19.2 18.8 18.6 18.9 19.1 18.7 17.6  3120 536  15.99 11.57  19.4 1.1  \  PH CMR  Thick  6.6  6.5  SRT  B-Side Temp  System TSS (mR/L)  (days)  (oC)  1703  12.55  2966  17.67  6.7  6.8  3216  7.38  6.6  6.2  3634 3760 3657  27.48 10.95 11.44  20.7 20.7 20.4 20.6 20.4 20.8 20.6 20.2 21.7 21.7 21.7 21.6 20.8 19.5 19.7 19.4 18.9 18.9 19.0 18.8 18.6 18.5 18.0 17.8 17.9 17.9 17.9 18.2 18.8 19.1 19.2 19.4 18.9 19.2 19.1 19.4 19.2 19.7 19.3 19.1 18.6 18.4 18.7 18.9 18.6 17.4  6.7 0.1  6.6 0.2  3581 614  16.05 11.56  19.4 1.1  6.7  6.7  3494  57.48  6.6  6.7  3807  11.32  3993  12.91  6.7  6.8  4016  14.29  6.9  6.9  4413  14.14  6.9  6.8  6.6  6.6  6.4  6.5  6.4  6.6  74  3001  16.15  3897  11.83  4110  10.62  3706  10.35  3920  10.19  pH CMR  Thick  6.6  6.5  6.8  6.8  6.6  6.7  6.6  6.5  6.8  6.9  6.5  6.9  6.9  7.0  6.5  6.5  6.7  6.8  6.6  6.5  6.4  6.5  6.6 0.1  6.7 0.2  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS Table B 2 : Operating Conditions o f R u n 1 H R T o f 2.15 hr  Date  10/19/93 10/20/93 10/21/93 10/22/93 10/23/93 10/24/93 10/25/93 10/26/93 10/27/93 10/28/93 10/29/93 10/30/93 10/31/93 11/01/93 11/02/93 11/03/93 11/04/93 11/05/93 11/06/93 11/07/93 11/08/93 11/09/93 11/10/93 11/11/93 11/12/93 11/13/93 11/14/93 11/15/93 11/16/93 11/17/93 11/18/93 11/19/93 11/20/93 11/21/93 11/22/93 11/23/93 11/24/93 11/25/93 11/26/93 11/27/93 11/28/93 11/29/93 11/30/93 12/01/93 12/02/93 12/03/93 12/04/93 12/05/93 12/06/93 12/07/93 12/08/93 12/09/93 12/10/93 12/11/93 12/12/93 12/13/93 Average Std. Dev.  Day  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  System TSS  SRT  0riB/L)  (days)  8140 7895 7765  6.43 3.45 4.02  10010  4.16  9455  4.13  A-Side Temp  20040  7.61  20285  5.78  21450  6.62  25605  7.27  20615  4.72  14846 5571  6.02 2.20  15.9 3.5  2.42  14260  4.76  11160  4.11  12220  4.71  9450  3.82  12450  5.04  11080  4.65  12375  5.40  12590  7.43  13370  8.84  17940  9.68  23240  11.99  19175  7.77  21015  8.32  22230  7.44  Thick  (oC) 18.6 18.9 19.1 18.7 17.6 18.2 18.2 18.4 18.2 17.4 17.0 17.8 18.0 18.2 18.3 18.1 17.6 17.3 17.7 17.6 17.5 17.8 17.4 17.3 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.8 16.6 16.7 16.4 16.3 16.1 16.2 15.7 0.0 16.3 15.8 15.6 15.2 15.6 16.0 15.6 14.2 13.0 12.6 12.4 13.6 13.9 0.0 15.3 14.7 14.7 14.2 14.7 13.3  7345  PH CMR  SRT  System TSS (mft/L)  (days) 5.49 5.72 4.79  B-Side Temp  7.1  7.0  17185  6.08.  6.7  6.7  18775  5.45  6.7 0.3  6.7 0.3  13725 3134  5.88 1.29  15.7 3.4  6.6  6.7  6.6  8060 8715 8755  6.5  6.3  10700  4.77  10535  4.17  6.5  6.5 10365  4.47  11695  4.38  15745  7.37  16085  7.26  11455  4.90  19465  4.82  14905  7.02  15250  7.68  13770  7.08  6.6  6.5  6.9  6.9  6.9  7.0  6.9  6.9  7.1  7.0  6.3  6.3  15675  5.81  5.8  6.1  15210  6.70  16040  8.26  14055  6.42  14150  7.00  7.1  7.1  7.0  6.9  6.8  6.9 6.7  6.7  75  15945  7.66  9620  3.49  15140  4.30  15840  5.79  Thick  6.7  6.6  6.6  6.5  6.5  6.4  6.5  6.5  6.2  6.1  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.6  6.9  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.5  6.5  6.1  6.2  7.0  7.0  7.0  6.9  6.9  7.0  6.6  6.5  (oC) 18.4 18.7 18.9 18.6 17.4 18.1 18.0 18.2 17.9 17.2 16.9 17.7 17.9 18.0 18.2 17.9 17.4 17.0 17.5 17.4 17.4 17.7 17.2 17.1 16.9 16.9 16.8 16.6 16.4 16.5 16.1 16.0 15.8 15.9 15.5 0.0 16.1 15.5 15.3 15.0 15.4 15.8 15.4 13.8 12.5 12.3 12.1 13.7 14.0 0.0 15.0 14.6 14.5 13.7 14.8 14.5  6.7  PH CMR  7.0  7.0  6.8  6.7  6.7 0.3  6.6 0.3  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS Table B3: Operating Conditions of Run 2 HRT of 3.2 hrs  Date  12/14/93 12/15/93 12/16/93 12/17/93 12/18/93 12/19/93 12/20/93 12/21/93 12/22/93 12/23/93 12/24/93 12/25/93 12/26/93 12/27/93 12/28/93 12/29/93 12/30/93 12/31/93 01/01/94 01/02/94 01/03/94 01/04/94 01/05/94 01/06/94 01/07/94 01/08/94 01/09/94 01/10/94 01/11/94 01/12/94 01/13/94 01/14/94 01/15/94 01/16/94 01/17/94 01/18/94 01/19/94 01/20/94 01/21/94 01/22/94 01/23/94 01/24/94 01/25/94 01/26/94 01/27/94 01/28/94 01/29/94 01/30/94 01/31/94 02/01/94 02/02/94 02/03/94 02/04/94 02/05/94 02/06/94 02/07/94 02/08/94 02/09/94 02/10/94 02/11/94 02/12/94 02/13/94 02/14/94 02/15/94 02/16/94 02/17/94 02/18/94 02/19/94 02/20/94  Day  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  System TSS (mart.)  SRT (days)  5.66  7322  5.95  4710  4.32  8032  7.00  8121  6.65  9080  7.64  9886  11.69  9632  8.06  9978  9.42  10022  9.10  9784  8.87  9964  13.24  10496  10.92  10195  12.10  10345  10.60 9.89  2396  4.14  2772  3.92  3904  3.89  4762  4.75  5216  5.56  6540  6.13  6219  6.89  7051  PH CMR  9070  9768  A-Side Temp  7.32  Thick  (oC) 13.7 14.2 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.3 13.9 13.7 13.7 13.6 13.8 13.9 13.9 14.4 14.8 14.8 14.9 15.0 14.2 14.3 13.7 12.9 13.9 14.1 14.7 14.5 14.0 14.3 14.4 14.7 14.5 15.5 15.1 14.4 14.0 14.0 13.8 15.0 15.5 15.1 14.8 14.9 14.6 14.0 13.8 14.0 13.4 12.8 12.8 13.2 13.2 12.6 13.3 13.2 11.8 11.1 12.0 12.3 13.7 14.2 13.8 13.5 12.9 13.0 13.0 13.4 13.9  6.6  6.8  6.5  6.7  6.7  6.7  System TSS (mf?/L)  SRT (days)  10067  6.45  4575  1.92  4874  4.55  3768  3.27  4117  3.48  4663  4.91  3780  3.23  4185  3.96  4873  4.36  4937  4.79  5274  4.69  5306  8.54  6206  5.49  6743  7.11  7370  6.15  6.5  6.5  6.6  6.7  6.4  6.5  6.6  6.5  6.5  6.5  8689  12.48  7798  7.15  6.8  6.6  7663  13.54  6.9  6.9  9612  9.68  9625  9.78  6.4  6.4 9699  7.97  10442  11.56  9625  12.13  9490  9.18  7.0  6.9  6.7  6.5  76  B-Side Temp  PH CMR  Thick  6.6  6.6  6.7  6.6  6.7  6.7  6.7  6.6  6.6  6.6  6.7  6.6  6.7  6.6  6.6  6.6  6.7  6.6  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.7  6.7  (oC) 13.3 12.9 12.9 13.2 13.4 13.3 13.5 13.3 13.5 13.3 13.4 13.3 13.5 13.5 13.5 14.1 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.8 13.9 14.1 13.5 12.6 ' 13.6 13.8 14.5 14.2 13.7 14.0 14.1 14.4 14.3 15.2 14.7 14.0 13.6 13.6 13.5 14.7 15.3 14.8 14.6 14.7 14.3 13.8 13.5 13.7 13.0 12.4 12.5 12.9 12.9 12.3 13.0 12.9 11.5 10.6 11.8 11.2 12.1 14.0 13.8 13.4 13.0 12.9 12.8 13.2 13.6  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS  Table B3 (Continued) Date 02/21/94 02/22/94 02/23/94 02/24/94 02/25/94 02/26/94 02/27/94 02/28/94 03/01/94 03/02/94 03/03/94 03/04/94 03/05/94 03/06/94 03/07/94 03/08/94 03/09/94 03/10/94 03/11/94 03/12/94 03/13/94 03/14/94 03/15/94 03/16/94 03/17/94 03/18/94 03/19/94 03/20/94 03/21/94 03/22/94 03/23/94 03/24/94 03/25/94 03/26/94 03/27/94 03/28/94 03/29/94 03/30/94 03/31/94 04/01/94 04/02/94 04/03/94 04/04/94 04/05/94 04/06/94 04/07/94 04/08/94 04/09/94 04/10/94 04/11/94 04/12/94 04/13/94 04/14/94 04/15/94 Average Std. Dev.  Day 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123  System TSS  SRT  (mg/L)  7314  (days) 10.07  7964  14.73  7995  18.54  7883  12.23  A-Side Temp  PH CMR  8340  10.58  (oC) 13.5 12.3 12.0 11.8 11.6 12.4 13.7 13.9 13.4 13.6 13.5 13.6 13.6 13.9 13.6 12.9 13.0 13.2 13.2 13.7 14.3 14.3 14.2 13.5 12.4 12.6 13.0 13.1 12.5 11.9 12.3 12.6 13.2 14.2 15.4 15.9 16.1 16.2 15.7 15.8 16.0 15.7 15.6 15.0 14.1 13.3 13.1 13.9 14.9 15.4 14.9 14.8 NA NA  7716 1894  9.40 3.48  13.6 2.0  7800  11.30  7908  10.00  8133  10.58  9000  11.11  8225  8.87  8068  11.98  8382  10.39  8466  11.38  8798  11.13  5199  6.16  5592  8.02  6469  8.38  7021  8.90  6792  10.56  7767  9.07  7944  8.23  7642  12.26  8455  22.16  7930  10.86  Thick  System TSS (me/L) 10237  SRT (days) 6.98  9668  12.68  9802  14.58  8843  12.42  9765  7.25  B-Side Temp  6.8  6.9  9774  9.81  6.8  6.8  10356  10.64  8906  8.12  6.9  6.8 9824  12.90  10705  11.92  9984  14.31  10009  9.24  10217  13.06  9939  13.38  9836  11.16  10542  16.82  10252  16.20  8141  10.37  (oC) 13.2 12.0 11.7 11.4 11.3 12.2 13.6 13.8 13.4 13.4 13.5 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.5 13.3 12.6 12.8 13.0 13.0 13.5 14.2 14.1 13.9 13.3 12.2 12.4 12.8 12.9 12.2 11.7 12.0 12.3 12.9 14.0 15.2 15.7 16.0 16.0 15.5 15.6 15.9 15.6 15.4 14.8 13.9 13.1 12.9 13.8 14.7 15.2 14.8 NA NA  8339 2269  9.25 3.78  13.3 2.0  6.7  6.7  6.9  6.9  6.6  6.6  6.8  6.7  10416  10.74  6.9  6.9  9742  12.41  10545  12.91  9571  13.89  9867  6.46  9972  9.55  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.8  7.0  &9  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.8 6.7 0.2  6.8 0.2  77  PH CMR  Thick  6.7  6.7  6.9  6.9  6.7  6.7  6.7  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  7.0  7.0  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.8  6.8 0.1  6.8 0.1  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS Table B4: Operating Conditions of Run 3 HRT of 4.3 hrs  Date  05/06/94 05/07/94 05/08/94 05/09/94 05/10/94 05/11/94 05/12/94 05/13/94 05/14/94 05/15/94 05/16/94 05/17/94 05/18/94 05/19/94 05/20/94 05/21/94 05/22/94 05/23/94 05/24/94 05/25/94 05/26/94 05/27/94 05/28/94 05/29/94 05/30/94 05/31/94 06701/94 06/02/94 06/03/94 06/04/94 06/05/94 06/06/94 06/07/94 06708/94 06/09/94 06/10/94 06/11/94 06/12/94 06/13/94 06/14/94 06/15/94 06/16/94 06/17/94 06/18/94 06/19/94 06/20/94 06/21/94 06/22/94 06/23/94 06/24/94 06725/94 06/26794 06/27/94 06/28/94 06/29/94 06/30/94 07/01/94 07/02/94 07/03/94 07/04/94 07/05/94 07/06794 07/07/94 07/08/94 07/09/94 07/10/94 07/11/94 Average Std. Dev.  Day  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  SRT  A-Side Temp  System TSS (mR/L)  (days)  (oC)  4197  12.35  4944  6.75  4324  10.37  4735  8.48  5087  11.95  5335  11.80  5038  17.00  4670  9.01  4269  8.72  4547  8.48  4408  9.61  4376  8.83  4575  8.53  4970  8.58  4654  8.89  4295  10.74  4298  8.89  4235  9.20  4646  8.75  3867  7.14  4503  6.35  4862  10.39  4172  7.96  4102  8.33  4181  9.14  5008  10.31  4897  12.14  4592  12.80  4658 4567 345  10.18 9.71 2.12  17.1 17.9 18.6 19.5 18.4 18.7 18.2 17.4 17.4 17.7 17.5 17.4 18.0 18.6 18.4 18.1 18.5 19.0 19.3 19.4 18.8 18.0 17.4 16.7 16.9 17.4 17.3 17.6 18.1 18.1 18.0 17.8 17.2 17.6 18.1 18.5 18.9 18.8 17.9 17.3 17.3 17.9 18.4 17.8 17.5 17.6 18.7 18.8 18.4 17.7 18.2 19.0 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.0 18.4 18.8 19.0 18.8 18.2 19.1 19.8 20.2 20.3 20.5 20.3 18.3 0.9  PH Thick  CMR  SRT (days)  (oC) 17.1 17.9 18.5 18.5 18.3 18.6 18.1 17.3 17.3 17.5 17.5 17.3 17.8 18.6 18.3 18.0 18.3 18.9 19.3 19.4 18.7 17.9 17.4 16.6 16.8 17.3 17.2 17.5 18.0 17.9 17.7 17.6 17.0 17.4 17.9 18.3 18.7 18.6 17.6 17.0 17.1 17.8 18.1 17.5 • 17.3 17.4 18.6 18.7 18.3 17.5 18.1 18.9 19.1 19.3 19.3 18.8 18.2 18.6 18.9 18.6 18.0 19.0 19.8 20.1 20.1 20.3 20.1 18.2 0.8  6.6  6.6  5865  21.48  6.8  6.7  5464  8.41  5067  21.17  6.9  6.9  5049  15.01  6.9  6.8  5007  15.32  4699  15.21  7.0  6.9  4482  13.89  6.8  6.9  4847  11.22  4778  14.95  6.7  6.8  4405  11.93  7.0  7.1  4309  9.63  3615  12.92  6.9  7.0  3501  10.37  7.0  6.8  4034  8.26  4549  8.42  6.7  6.8  4033  9.98  6.8  6.8  4325  9.99  4815  12.40  6.8  6.8  4874  12.71  6.7  6.8  4137  10.65  4138  8.93  6.9  6.8  4064  14.01  7.0  7.0  3680  9.85  3893  11.67  6.8  6.8  3989  12.57  6.8  6.9  4627  10.04  4564  16.53  6.7  6.8  4611  13.11  6.8 0.1  6.8 0.1  4399 4477 533  11.40 12.48 3.29  78  B-Side Temp  System TSS (mart.)  DH CMR  Thick  6.9  6.8  6.9  6.8  7.0  7.0  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.9  7.0  6.7  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.9  6.9  6.9  6.9  7.0  7.0  6.9  6.7  6.9  6.9  6.8  6.8  6.7  6.9  6.9 0.1  6.9 0.1  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS  Table B5: Solids Concentrations of Test Run HRT of 4.3 hrs  Dale  08/30/93 08/31/93 09/01/93 09/02/93 09/03/93 09/04/93 09/05/93 09/06/93 09/07/93 09/08/93 09/09/93 09/10/93 09/11/93 09/12/93 09/13/93 09/14/93 09/15/93 09/16/93 09/17/93 09/18/93 09/19/93 09/20/93 09/21/93 09/22/93 09/23/93 09/24/93 09/25/93 09/26/93 09/27/93 09/28/93 09/29/93 09/30/93 10/01/93 10/02/93 10/03/93 10/04/93 10/05/93 10/06/93 10/07/93 10/08/93 10/09/93 10/10/93 10/11/93 10/12/93 10/13/93 10/14/93 10/15/93 Average Std  Day  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)  A-Side Thick TSS (mg/L)  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (mg/L) CMRctr (days)  Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)  B-Side Thick TSS (mgrt.)  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (mg/L) CMRctr (days)  44  78  58  3010  1497  3  5.57  22  138  132  3372  1703  4  11.45  98  1158  5520  4866  2952  20  5.06  26  183  2091  5935  2966  3  15.54  50  1225  6495  4435  2778  23  8.87  6  150  410  7060  3494  2  39.65  80  1635  8920  4170  2862  29  5.98  55  195  75  7660  3807  3  10.41  120  1730  6320  6565  4070  22  5.65  50  320  190  7910  3993  4  11.74  110  1035  6430  6755  3803  14  5.71  45  450  225  7820  4016  6  12.90  140  1025  4050  5310  3098  17  3.77  50  455  155  8635  4413  5  12.77  15  885  3835  3965  2375  19  20.78  25 35 35  1430 1380 1380  5450 4960 4960  4080 4930 4930  2712 3098 3098  27 23 23  15.87 13.28 13.28  15  1500  5575  4777  3086  25  25.59  45  1560  5135  4455  2961  27  10.38  30  1300  4375  4815  3001  22  14.67  40  1570  7285  4535  3005  27  11.64  55  2005  6525  5915  3897  27  11.06  10  1735  5835  4730  3184  28  34.48  65  1945  5850  6420  4110  24  9.98  15  1370  5850  5425  3332  21  26.53  60  1495  5650  6065  3706  21  9.72  30  1670  8915  5430  3489  25  16.67  65  2130  7735  5830  3920  28  9.62  50  1700  9355  5225  3406  26  10.67  75  1970  6465  4545  3216  32  7.10  12 60 49  1760 1860 3440  8770 6875 6335  6180 5010 3440  3899 3384 3440  23 28 52  33.98 9.07 11.48  20 58 55  2015 2415 3940  7145 6430 5920  5360 5195 3355  3634 3760 3657  29 33 56  23.75 10.34 11.00  51 37  1482 587  6044 2029  4868 901  3120 536  24 8  14.01 9.03  46 19  1319 1071  3711 2972  5993 1510  3581 614  19 15  13.86 7.56  79  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS Table B 6 : Solids Concentrations o f R u n 1 H R T o f 2.15 hrs  Date  Day  10/19/93 10/20/93 10/21/93 10/22/93 10/23/93 10/24/93 10/25/93 10/26/93 10/27/93 10/28/93 10/29/93 10/30/93 10/31/93 11/01/93 11/02/93 11/03/93 11/04/93 11/05/93 11/06/93 11/07/93 11/08/93 11/09/93 11/10/93 11/11/93 11/12/93 11/13/93 11/14/93 11/15/93 11/16/93 11/17/93 11/18/93 11/19/93 11/20/93 11/21/93 11/22/93 11/23/93 11/24/93 11/25/93 11/26/93 11/27/93 11/28/93 11/29/93 11/30/93 12/01/93 12/02/93 12/03/93 12/04/93 12/05/93 12/06/93 12/07/93 12/08/93 12/09/93 12/10/93 12/11/93 12/12/93 12/13/93  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  Average Std  Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (me/L) (me/L) ( » i « l )  A-Side Thick TSS (mg/L)  System %System SRT TSS in TSS (mg/L) CMRctr (days)  Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)  B-Side Thick TSS (mg/L)  System %System SRT TSS in TSS (mg/L) CMRctr (days)  154  53 98 82  3265 2735 2510  5355 5760 6855  4875 5160 5255  4044 3908 3838  42 36 34  6.07 3.33 3.86  62 64 77  3190 3285 2940  6115 5580 5880  4870 5430 5815  4003 4323 4331  41 39 35  5.22 5.42 4.57  162  102  3235  7490  6775  4948  34  3.98  95  3905  6580  6795  5303  38  4.55  98  3725  9520  5730  4695  41  3.97  108  4010  7180  6525  5227  40  4.01  132  2920  4945  4425  3648  41  2.37  100  4880  6210  5485  5173  49  4.31  126  4505  8505  9755  7045  33  4.53  no  1650  9665  10045  5712  15  4.13  115  3420  8230  7740  5510  32  3.93  88  5670  10415  10075  7801  38  6.86  110  4455  8420  7765  6057  38  4.50  92  6375  10195  9710  7989  41  6.79  106  3555  6960  5895  4687  39  3.68  98  3555  9425  7900  5657  32  4.66  104  4365  9385  8085  6165  37  4.80  170  6430  12875  13035  9626  34  4.59  100  3240  7390  7840  5466  31  4.42  87  4685  12045  10220  7363  33  6.53  96  4220  9160  8155  6124  36  5.12  81  5075  12030  10175  7543  35  7.11  75  9430  4120  3160  6396  76  7.23  85  9160  2660  4610  6958  68  6.83  69  12335  1520  1035  6867  93  8.75  117  9120  2155  6555  7879  60  5.60  81  13100  6120  4840  9103  74  9.31  103  13345  1685  1865  7790  88  6.62  81  13880  7040  9360  11693  61  11.16  88  14215  1125  1825  8220  89  8.14  112  17065  1765  2110  9829  90  7.67  95  8535  6020  5520  7076  62  6.18  111  15325  7960  5690  10663  74  8.04  91  11815  3780  2335  7228  84  6.88  133  17330  5560  4900  11315  79  7.26  91  10955  2045  4990  8069  70  7.39  118  16340  4220  3700  10224  82  7.45  120  4730  7735  4890  4807  51  3.40  158  16450  1220  3835  10346  82  5.68  150  5600  4115  9540  7506  39  4.12  145  17075  5970  4375  10930  81  6.49  120  10185  3685  5655  7993  66  5.61  161  23625  2665  1980  13152  93  7.20  120  7950  8185  9235  8572  48  5.79  182  5065  6995  15550  10138  26  4.47  138  1235  1445  17540  9125  7  5.04  110 30  8927 6393  6125 2389  5920 2966  7472 2880  55 23  5.81 2.12  102 24  6500 3508  6353 3508  7226 3517  6851 1570  48 21  5.61 1.24  187  176  168  152  172  154  80  APPENDIX  B OPERA TING CHARA  CTERISITICS  Table B7: Solids Concentrations of Run 2 HRT of 3.2 hrs  Date  12/14/93 12/15/93 12/16/93 12/17/93 12/18/93 12/19/93 12/20/93 12/21/93 12/22/93 12/23/93 12/24/93 12/25/93 12/26/93 12/27/93 12/28/93 12/29/93 12/30/93 12/31/93 01/01/94 01/02/94 01/03/94 01/04/94 01/05/94 01/06/94 01/07/94 01/08/94 01/09/94 01/10/94 01/11/94 01/12/94 01/13/94 01/14/94 01/15/94 01/16/94 01/17/94 01/18/94 01/19/94 01/20/94 01/21/94 01/22/94 01/23/94 01/24/94 01/25/94 01/26/94 01/27/94 01/28/94 01/29/94 01/30/94 01/31/94 02/01/94 02/02/94 02/03/94 02/04/94 02/05/94 02/06/94 02/07/94 02/08/94 02/09/94 02/10/94 02/11/94 02/12/94 02/13/94 02/14/94 02/15/94 02/16/94 02/17/94 02/18/94 02/19/94  Day  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68  Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mR/L)  A-Side Thick TSS (mg/L)  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (mg/L) CMRctr (days)  Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mR/L) (mg/L)  B-Side Thick TSS (nw/L)  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (mR/L) CMRctr (days)  138  9970  8110  9070  57  8.18  138  16688  3005  10067  86  9.53  106  8345  6230  7322  59  8.59  212  6905  2090  4575  78  2.86  94  3955  5515  4710  43  6.23  92  4005  5800  4874  42  6.55  97  7575  10980  8520  8032  49  9.93  101  4170  7275  3340  3768  57  4.80  103  6955  13515  9365  8121  44  9.42  102  2295  6725  6060  4117  29  5.02  99  7360  12820  10915  9080  42  10.70  81  3330  8365  6085  4663  37  7.01  67  7215  14620  12735  9886  38  15.71  101  2130  17165  5540  3780  29  4.68  98  6230  15235  13260  9632  33  11.13  91  2845  5305  5615  4185  35  5.70  173  86  7135  11350  13010  9978  37  12.90  96  3700  7310  6125  4873  39  6.27  130  90  7620  10845  12585  10022  39  12.55  88  3490  7590  6480  4937  36  6.85  138  90  6915  14690  12845  9784  36  12.21  96  3510  9335  7155  5274  34  6.70  142  58  6485  13675  13675  9964  34  17.41  51  3920  11495  6785  5306  38  11.82  164  76  6550  13150  14705  10496  32  14.65  96  4750  13520  7760  6206  40  7.82  120  66  6820  13705  13795  10195  35  16.11  78  3530  12025  10170  6743  27  9.85  170  78  7200  13810  13700  10345  36  14.35  101  5480  14745  9385  7370  38  8.70  122  80  7375  15790  12320  9768  39  13.53  54  5445  15665  12150  8689  32  16.50  156  50  2040  9205  2775  2396  44  5.99  91  5800  18520  9930  7798  38  10.01  61  2080  3800  3510  2772  39  5.66  42  3015  8640  12620  7663  20  17.32  87  3350  9360  4495  3904  44  5.63  79  5025  15450  14505  9612  27  13.04  86  3850  8760  5735  4762  42  6.82  78  4760  15430  14815  9625  26  13.14  160  80  4410  7405  6075  5216  44  7.94  100  6360  12330  13260  9699  34  11.02  164  90  4895  9765  8295  6540  39  8.67  69  3975  10150  17340  10442  20  15.09  104  75  3935  12090  8655  6219  33  9.62  60  3560  8925  16095  9625  19  15.73  168  80  4995  12400  9245  7051  37  10.22  82  3870  9130  15485  9490  21  12.34  174  188  170  81  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS  Table B7 (Continued) Date  Day  70 02/21/94 71 02/22/94 02/23/94 72 02/24/94 73 02/25/94 74 02/26/94 75 02/27/94 76 02/28/94 77 03/01/94 78 03/02/94 79 03/03/94 80 81 03/04/94 03/05/94 82 03/06/94 83 03/07/94 84 03/08/94 85 03/09/94 86 03/10/94 87 88 03/11/94 03/12/94 89 03/13/94 90 03/14/94 91 03/15/94 92 03/16/94 93 03/17/94 94 03/18/94 95 03/19/94 96 03/20/94 97 03/21/94 98 03/22/94 99 03/23/94 100 03/24/94 101 102 03/25/94 03/26/94 103 104 03/27/94 03/28/94 105 03/29/94 106 107 03/30/94 108 03/31/94 04/01/94 109 110 04/02/94 04/03/94 111 04/04/94 112 04/05/94 113 114 04/06/94 04/07/94 115 04/08/94 116 04/09/94 117 04/10/94 118 04/11/94 119 04/12/94 120 04/13/94 121 04/14/94 , 122 04/15/94 123 Average Std  A-Side Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle Thick TSS TSS TSS TSS TSS (me/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mt/L.) (mg/L) 9960 10300 168 58 4515  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (me/L) CMRctr (days) 7314 32 13.61  Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 120 4305 9800  B-Side Thick TSS (mg/L) 16565  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (nw/U CMRctr (days) 10237 22 9.63  130  40  3960  14370  12235  7964  26  18.80  58  4720  16825  14945  9668  25  16.52  118  30  3785  15070  12485  7995  24  22.72  49  3715  9535  16295  9802  20  18.41  122  50  4740  10220  11235  7883  31  16.17  54  3825  9885  14195  8843  22  16.14  138  55  5785  10240  9950  7800  38  15.25  110  4425  10975  15460  9765  23  9.99  120  64  5970  11595  9975  7908  39  13.67  80  10745  8225  10065  10416  53  14.91  146  61  4995  10280  11480  8133  32  14.22  60  4790  12175  15025  9742  25  16.21  64  5760  11364  12456  9000  33  14.89  62  5234  12764  16210  10545  26  16.79  148  75  4920  11600  11750  8225  31  12.12  51  3980  9270  15535  9571  21  17.74  130  53  5600  14780  10700  8068  36  16.00  126  4380  15985  15720  9867  23  8.98  62  2215  8970  14960  8382  14  13.62  82  3515  18035  16860  9972  18  12.73  168  58  4652  11360  12534  8466  28  15.11  78  3525  18320  16440  9774  19  13.04  142  62  5065  10760  12780  8798  30  14.84  75  3410  10960  17765  10356  17  13.98  71  3740  7855  6755  5199  37  8.70  88  3225  9740  14965  8906  19  11.01  120  58  4750  8685  6490  5592  44  11.23  57  3790  7560  16260  9824  20  16.61  136  63  4115  8745  8980  6469  33  11.53  68  3820  7720  18050  10705  18  15.48  64  4490  10650  9720  7021  33  12.19  51  3730  6875  16655  9984  19  18.12  128  52  5440  10800  8235  6792  41  14.41  88  7055  10890  13160  10009  36  12.67  140  69  4530  8180  11220  7767  30  12.36  58  3375  9940  17515  10217  . 17  16.70  79  5145  10780  10930  7944  33  11.35  55  3545  8465  16760  9939  18  17.08  126  49  5460  12780  9970  7642  37  16.36  68  4165  9735  15885  9836  22  14.69  120  25  3940  11370  13270  8455  24  26.19  44  3930  20400  17595  10542  19  20.73  58  5245  10585  10795  7930  34  14.62  45  4000  10705  16920  10252  20  20.14  126  63 -  5780  13215  11070  8340  36  14.32  59  380  7735  16420  8141  2  13.39  144 21  71 21  5363 1646  11317 2442  10197 2983  7702 1912  36 8  12.64 4.12  81 30  4548 2264  11361 3717  12392 4768  8344 2293  30 14  12.27 4.59  82  1  APPENDIXB  OPERATING  CHARACTERISTICS  Table B8: Solids Concentrations of Run 3 HRT of 4.3 hrs Dale  Day  05/06/94 05/07/94 05/08/94 05/09/94 05/10/94 05/11/94 05/12/94 05/13/94 05/14/94 05/15/94 05/16/94 05/17/94 05/18/94 05/19/94 05/20/94 05/21/94 05/22/94 05/23/94 05/24/94 05/25/94 05/26/94 05/27/94 05/28/94 05/29/94 05/30/94 05/31/94 06/01/94 06/02/94 06/03/94 06/04/94 06/05/94 06/06/94 06/07/94 06/08/94 06/09/94 06/10/94 06/11/94 06/12/94 06713/94 06/14/94 06/15/94 06/16/94 06/17/94 06/18/94 06/19/94 06720/94 06/21/94 06/22/94 06/23/94 06/24/94 06/25/94 06/26/94 06/27/94 06/28/94 06/29/94 06/30/94 07/01/94 07/02/94 07/03/94 07/04/94 07/05/94 07/06/94 07/07/94 07/08/94 07/09/94 07/10/94 07/11/94 Average Std  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  Influent Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)  A-Side Thick TSS (nWL)  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (mg/D CMRctr (days)  Effluent CMRctr Recycle TSS TSS TSS (mg/L) (mR/L) (mR/L)  B-Side Thick TSS  System %System SRT TSS TSS in (mgOJ) (mR/L) CMRctr (days)  156  56  1400  14025  7180  4197  17  11.41  54  2950  14325  8975  5865  26  15.83  328  126  2375  8775  7685  4944  25  6.49  140  2800  11405  8305  5464  26  6.47  69  545  770  8355  4324  7  9.62  46  1010  2030  9395  5067  10  15.40  238  95  2125  7340  7520  4735  23  8.06  69  2080  5925  8215  5049  21  11.26  122  70  1240  2075  9190  5087  13  11.03  67  2135  5305  8070  5007  22  11.48  74  760  4830  10215  5335  7  10.85  64  2655  6100  6880  4699  29  11.46  126  46  100  15660  10305  5038  1  14.99  68  3195  9300  5855  4482  37  10.56  154  88  2260  4960  7240  4670  25  8.54  92  3110  7520  6700  4847  33  8.58  83  1830  3685  6870  4269  22  8.28  66  2390  6125  7325  4778  26  11.25  138  92  3095  9455  6095  4547  35  8.12  78  2450  1093  6490  4405  29  9.08  132  77  1420  4650  7595  4408  17  9.03  95  1500  5100  7305  4309  18  7.35  84  1920  4220  6995  4376  23  8.38  57  160  1845  7300  3615  2  9.66  142  91  1870  2020  7460  4575  21  8.10  72  1945  2455  5160  3501  29  7.93  242  97  240  2210  10015  4970  2  8.04  105  1760  3145  6460  4034  23  6.35  89  2305  4380  7160  4654  26  8.44  116  1965  5510  7305  4549  22  6.47  170  67  1895  4340  6855  4295  23  10.07  85  830  1930  7450  4033  11  7.59  162  82  1995  4620  6755  4298  24  8.44  92  1860  2350  6955  4325  22  7.63  78  2000  4925  6620  4235  24  8.71  81  1875  4245  7950  4815  20  9.38  170  91  3240  6890  6145  4646  36  8.37  81  3120  10025  6745  4874  33  9.68  214  93  1815  2450  6055  3867  24  6.84  83  2625  7100  5750  4137  33  8.16  123  2945  6695  6165  4503  34  6.14  100  2645  2885  5730  4138  33  6.88  134  79  2740  4005  7125  4862  29  9.81  59  660  1905  7695  4064  8  10.46  118  90  2595  8330  5855  4172  32  7.63  80  2105  6775  5360  3680  30  7.55  84  2125  7560  6210  4102  27  7.94  71  2635  7885  5235  3893  35  8.92  172  78  2635  6545  5830  4181  33  8.71  67  2455  8225  5625  3989  32  9.57  240  81  1420  3990  8835  5008  15  9.63  98  2125  5490  7295  4627  24  7.68  67  2270  4775  7700  4897  24  11.31  56  1840  4495  7470  4564  21  12.34  118  60  3005  10435  6285  4592  34  11.99  74  2845  9695  6495  4611  32  9.96  160  76 82 17  845 1897 819  6670 5906 3347 .  8725 7415 1279  4658 4567 345  9 22 9  9.48 9.12 1.80  81 79 20  1665 2117 744  3935 5659 3185  7315 6993 1065  4399 4477 533  20 24 8  8.66 9.43 2.34  172 53  83  APPENDIX  C VFA DISTRIBUTION  |  o <  o p 5 oo  •a  u~. r- OSf i UI rs  i  t  i  i  ui oo  O^ f i rT  8 a r-ooinf i  rs UI  f  5s S3  PRODUCTION  a  fi 00  rfi  s rs00 o fl  rm  NO Os VI  8 00 rs 5 In ui  3  oo ur-i 8 Ui rs  fl fl fl fi  s oo  rs  a  aa  *  pPp  r>  rv  aa  o o rN  r— f l fi fl  s  a  rr  rs  rs U-!  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Cl  v>  8 p  S  Cl  Cl  VI Vl  8  R a p a  O  Ov Vl  a  P p  rs o  s  a  ui R a rs Cl  Os  a  §  fN  VI  Cl  rr V )  rs V l  Cl  a  Os Os  SO 00  Cl  rN rr  9  NO  S3 OO  OO Vl  SS  SO  rs  Os OO Cl Cl  Cl  rs p  Cl  =  Cl rN rr rr  £a R  ? 3  Cl  Cl  OO  8  m  rr  oo NO  00  Vl  Cl  V  p 9  OQ  Cl  VI 8 rs S3 V I rr <  ci  Os  sa  a oo  CK  r-  1  Cl  a S3 a SS  rs  I  8 a p  8 9  OC  rr o rrs rs rr  a R P  rr  «  Os  a 8 s  Cl  00 V l  oo v3 Os  8 s  Cl  $  Cl  c  r— oo rs r-  St  8  8 8 a  I  Vl  Cl  S3 R  8 a  8  8  r?  Vl  Vl  8  rs  8 a  00  Ov  a  rr  00 Os V I  rs  P S3  3 SS s 8  oo rr r—  NO  Vl  s  rs Cl  rs s  VI  s  NO  Os OO  a R a  Os Cl  8 8  NO  00 V l  r- r—  VI  Vl  Cl V I Cl V I  Cl  3  8  3 a  a a R a ?! rr  oo  r-  Cl  r?  Cl  Os  CN  ci  a rrr  3  fN  1  Vi  a a a a  © rr  i o •a 8 <!  rr rr  a a a a ?!  I  Total HAc  1  oo a  rr  ?!  H i  i  rs rs rr 3 ?! Cl  rr c i rr rr C l  Vl  Ii CM Reactor  A-Side  1  H i  o •a ^ 8 <!  rs ?! a  o rso 00 NO rs rs  1  V  rr C l  oo 5\ 8 oS a  H i i i  u •a 3? 8  a  rr fN r-  •a d s i o 3 < •a 5? 8  a  rs  a rs Cl  n i  1  c i fN- C l  a SS a 5s  •£3  UJ  OS  Cl  rs rC l ci a 5 8  1 1  i  8 oo 8 a s  fN  1  1 1  B-Side  rr  HI  >  8  rr C l  1  •a  «  ci  8 ft (8  a R  Cl  rr  Cl  00  rs 9  rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr r^ rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr rr  5 1 §s S 1 S s S § 5 Vl S p p p p p p 3p p 5 s is s s s s s s 8 s s s s s  90  1 1 11i %  s  S s S Cl s S 1 i £ £ £ £ £  APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION  Total HAc (mg/L)  •a  i  Acetic  (mart.)  Total HAc (mg/L)  B-Side  u •a  ro ro VI  Vl  VI OO fN ro ro r^ ro ro  8  8 a 3  oo  a  ro  VO NO  VI  rO  e > Pi Os v! ro ro  a  fN U-i ro fN ro ro ro ro  Tf  a a 3  o o 3 r-  Vl  a a 8 58 SS  5» £ a  (--  3  I  1 •a  a a rTf  1  1  r—  ON  ro  Total HAc (mg/L) Total HAc (mg/L)  w  i  i  i  i  o  rf  •a  Total HAc (mg/L)  I  1  u  •a  OO  <3  r-  5? 8 O  s1 1 U  **!  I 1  HI  00  -  £ % •a 3  tJ  00  I  i  i  i  a 8  R  VI ro  a  ro  rO ro  8  8  rO fN ro ro  So 8  rO rO  Tf  r-  Vi ro  a  N©  8 8  a  00  fN  S  ro V)  ro  a  Tf  Tf  =  fN  a  Tf  ro  8 8  ON  a  oo ro rO  00  NO  ro  CN fo ro  uo ro  Tf  8  8 a  s$  a  *a  ro  =  Tf  Vl  o>  a  ro  ro Tf  a  S3 0 0  00  Tf  00  00  NO  a  a  NO  a  Ov  9a  a  3 e  Pro  Tf  ro  a 3  ON  a  a  Tf  O  S3 fN  8 S3  fN  9a fN rO  9  a  O  8 a a a  6  Vl  ro  fN  CN © ro  a a  rro  Ov uo Vl ro  Tf  oo  fN  O0  r- CN  Tf  r-  se fN  a  co ro  a  Tf  9  ?!  P  8 8  ON 8  a  OO So  a  ON  r»  fN  fO  Tf  Tf  fN ro  a R  VI  Tf  ro  ro  a  fN ro  a a a  v> ro ro  8  00  V)  Vl  ©  a  Tf  9 9  a  ro  o  00  r—  a a  a  NO  88  a  r-  00  Tf  ro  -  ©  oo NO  8 8 8 8 8  a 8 s 8  ON  §8  a  a a a  a  a  »  ro  ro  a  NO  ro  Tf  v> Vi  Tf  Tf  fN  a  CN a ro  a  a  Vi  a  Tf  a  a  8  fN ro uo Ul ui  a  VI U-l  U-l  Tf  Tf  Tf  Tf  Tf  r-  Tf  a a  111 I  S  oo  a a  Tf  9 8  ro Ov  a  uq  ro  3  Tf  R  Ov ro  a a  ro  Tf  ro ro  ro  00  ?  9  ro  p 8  00  rs Tf  ON  Tf  a  R  8 s 8  Ul  V  ON  a a  8  a a  f*V  a S3  a s R  a  -  3  fN  OO  I e  ro ro  ro ro  R  rs  a  Tf  a a  a S  R  ro ro  a s a  S 5!  ro  Ul  s $  uo  s 8 8  SS  a a  NO ro  rO  a  Tf  9 8  rO  o  Vl  oo  a is  fN  ro  9  ON  a  OO ro  o\  a a  S3 o  8 a p  a  r-  r-  TT  Tf  a  r~ ro  s a 8 8 8  *a  rro  3  NO r—  a  Jo r s  S? 8  Tf  vi ro  OO  1 1  m  fN ro  P;  1  a  ro  Ov ©N K oo Ul  1 I  fN uo rro ro ro So ro  R  a  Total HAc (mg/L)  A-Side  £ 8  ro ro  rs  a a S3  1 6  a 8  a 8 8 a a  s  •a  ro  UO  fN  a  Tf  a  a 8  fN  a  ro  !  So  a S3 8 8  Tf  a 8 8  V) ro ro  tJ  O  00  ON  vi  i  i  r-  vi  8  •a  ro  r-  r-  •a  1 8i  ro  3 58 8 a 5?  73  8 8 8 a 8  8  00  £  ro 8 ON  P s 58 58 a  a  i  Tf  a a r- a  a 00  uo Tf  ON VI s NO Tf  S ro § s I S o  Tf  <2 3 a 8 Tf  ?I  •v* Tf  58 8 o Tf  Tf  Tf  i i 1s$ S I i s s So S 1 i I o 1 i uo  r-  91  1  APPENDIX  C  VFA DISTRIBUTION  AND  PRODUCTION  Table C 5 : V F A Production (as H A c ) o f Test R u n H R T o f 4.3 hrs  Date  Day  08/30/93 1 08/31/93 2 3 09/01/93 4 09/02/93 09/03/93 5 09/04/93 6 09/05/93 . 7 . 09/06/93 8 9 09/07/93 09/08/93 10 09/09/93 11 09/10/93 12 09/11/93 13 09/12/93 14 09/13/93 15 16 09/14/93 17 09/15/93 09/16/93 18 19 09/17/93 20 09/18/93 09/19/93 21 22 09/20/93 23 09/21/93 09/22/93 24 25 09/23/93 26 09/24/93 09/25/93 27 09/26/93 28 09/27/93 29 30 09/28/93 09/29/93 31 09/30/93 32 10/01/93 33 10/02/93 34 10/03/93 35 10/04/93 36 10/05/93 37 10/06/93 38 10/07/93 39 10/08/93 40 10/09/93 41 10/10/93 42 10/11/93 43 44 10/12/93 45 10/13/93 46 10/14/93 47 10/15/93 Average Std  B-Side A-Side Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) 31 35 14 16 13  20.9 12.0 5.0 5.7 4.6  35 27 95 23 39  20.3 9.2 27.1 6.6 10.2  20 23 25 29 6  5.0 5.6 6.5 7.6 2.1  3 38 21 30 67  0.7 9.5 5.2 7.5 15.2  34 15 16 . 24 13  14.1 6.1 5.9 7.8 4.3  20 11 9 9 2  4.4 2.5 2.0 2.1 0.5  24 18 10 20 18  7.7 5.8 3.3 6.9 6.2  3 16 14 11 17  0.9 5.4 4.8 3.7 4.4  45 23 24  15.0 7.2 7.5  23 21 24  5.7 5.0 6.5  -4  -2.1  29  6.2  26  7.7  -14  -7.4  30  4.7  16  4.2  -11 -5 -3 -15 -12  -6.5 -2.7 -1.9 -8.6 -7.2  37 24 21 30 35  6.8 4.5 3.9 5.8 6.8  26 20 18 16 23  7.4 5.8 5.3 4.6 5.9  -6 -1 -0 -15 -11  -3.0 -0.4 -0.1 -7.4 -5.4  31 22 18 31 36  5.3 3.7 4.0 6.8 8.0  25 21 18 16 26  7.6 6.5 5.6 5.1 8.0  -10 -5 -1 36 9  -5.6 -2.7 -0.4 10.5 2.7  46 32 33 3 11  7.4 5.2 6.7 1.0 3.2  36 27 33 40 20  10.5 7.9 10.5 12.7 38.0  -15 -4 -4 26 8  -7.4 -2.1 -1.6 6.5 2.0  53 37 40 7 13  10.0 6.9 7.8 2.0 4.0  38 33 36 32 21  10.2 9.0 10.1 9.0 34.6  -2 14  -2.2 5.1  27 11  S.2 1.8  JJ  ii  -3 11  -1.4 4.2  29 13  i.l  5$  9  6.3  92  2.2  18  7.0  |  APPENDIX  C  VFA DISTRIBUTION  AND  PRODUCTION  T a b l e C 6 : V F A Production (as H A c ) o f R u n 1 H R T o f 2.15 hrs  Date  Day  10/19/93 10/20/93 10/21/93 10/22/93 10/23/93 10/24/93 10/25/93 10/26793 10/27/93 10/28/93 10/29/93 10/30/93 10/31/93 11/01/93 11/02/93 11/03/93 11/04/93 11/05/93 11/06/93 11/07/93 11/08/93 11/09/93 11/10/93 11/11/93 11/12/93 11/13/93 11/14/93 11/15/93 11/16/93 11/17/93 11/18/93 11/19/93 11/20/93 11/21/93 11/22/93 11/23/93 11/24/93 11/25/93 11/26/93 11/27/93 11/28/93 11/29/93 11/30/93 12/01/93 12/02/93 12/03/93 12/04/93 12/05/93 12/06/93 12/07/93 12/08/93 12/09/93 12/10/93 12/11/93 12/12/93 12/13/93  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  Average Std  B-Side A-Side Thickener CM Reactor System Thickener System CM Reactor (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) 4 12 19 8  1.2 3.8 6.8 3.3  17 12 1 13  3.6 2.5 0.2 2.5  21 24 19 22  5.3 6.0 5.0 5.7  4 12 12 4  1.2 3.7 3.6 1.5  19 14 10 18  4.0 2.8 1.8 3.1  23 26 22 23  5.8 6.4 5.0 5.2  -2 33 2 -3 -10  -0.6 10.3 0.6 -0.9 -3.4  17 -39 12 6 12  2.5 -5.7 2.1 1.0 2.6  15 -5 14 2 2  3.1 -1.1 3.0 0.5 0.5  6 6 2 -17 2  1.4 1.5 0.6 -4.2 0.5  12 8 9 15 -2  1.7 1.2 1.4 2.3 -0.4  17 14 12 -2 0  3.2 2.6 2.2 -0.3 0.1  -6 -4 8 3 4  -1.3 -0.8 2.3 0.8 1.0  20 2 -7 13 6  2.1 0.2 -1.0 1.7 0.8  14 -2 1 16 10  2.0 -0.3 0.1 2.9 1.7  4 -8 3 11 10  2.3 -5.1 0.6 1.9 1.6  43 10 4 4 3  4.3 1.0 0.4 0.4 0.4  47 1 7 15 14  8.2 0.2 0.9 1.9 1.7  -5 6 10 -21 -5  -1.4 1.7 2.3 -4.8 -1.5  10 7 3 24 -0  1.7 1.2 0.4 2.9 -0.0  5 13 13 3 -5  1.1 2.8 2.1 0.4 -0.9  -0 5 -38 -13 -10  -0.0 1.4 -6.0 -2.1 -2.2  17 7 56 20 9  2.2 0.9 4.3 1.5 0.8  17 12 18 7 -2  3.0 2.2 1.9 0.7 -0.2  11 11 73 36 162  2.7 2.7 7.7 3.8 13.1  12 -3 -61 -21 -149  1.5 -0.4 -19.3 -6.6 -82.2  23 8 12 15 13  3.8 1.3 1.8 2.4 1.9  9 3 127 71 76  1.8 0.6 13.9 7.7 8.4  9 13 -99 -54 -64  0.8 1.3 -21.5 -11.6 -9.8  18 16 28 17 12  2.4 2.1 4.0 2.5 1.5  29 233 -15 -1 2  2.2 17.8 -1.0 -0.1 0.1  27 -223 13 9 1  5.6 -26.3 1.4 1.0 0.4  56 11 -1 8 3  6.2 1.2 -0.1 0.7 0.3  159 1 29 1 6  11.9 0.1 2.1 0.1 0.7  -122 3 -35 6 2  -18.6 -17.1 -19.3 3.4 0.3  37 4 -6 7 8  4.7 0.5 -0.7 0.9 1.1  -7 4 -4  -0.5 0.2 -0.3  18 7 9  3.2 1.2 1.5  11 11 5  1.0 1.0 0.4  7 4 3  0.6 0.3 0.3  10 7 0  28.1 15.3 0.0  17 11 4  2.4 1.5 0.5  -2  -0.1  11  3.0  9  0.8  2  0.5  3  0.7  5  1.1  -33  -2.0  61  16.0  28  2.7  10  1.9  -4  -0.4  7  0.9  -10 -9 0  -0.6 -0.5 0.0  15 -10 5  3.4 -2.2 2.6  5 -19 5  0.5 -1.7 0.4  -8 -35 -1  -0.8 -3.5 -0.2  12 12 6  2.1 2.1 0.6  3 -23 4  0.4 -2.9 0.5  -40  -8.0  41  2.6  1  0.1  -7  -5.9  11  0.6  4  0.4  13 48  1.5 4.6  -3 48  -1.9 14.7  10 12  1.7 1.9  12 37  1.1 4.0  -0 33  -0.2 8.7  12 12  2.0 2.1  93  APPENDIX  C VFA DISTRIBUTION  AND  PRODUCTION  T a b l e C 7 : V F A Production (as H A c ) o f R u n 2 H R T o f 3.2 hrs  Date  Day  12/14/93 12/15/93 12/16/93 12/17/93 12/18/93 12/19/93 12/20/93 12/21/93 12/22/93 12/23/93 12/24/93 12/25/93 12/26/93 12/27/93 12/28/93 12/29/93 12/30/93 12/31/93 01/01/94 01/02/94 01/03/94 01/04/94 01/05/94 01/06794 01/07/94 01/08/94 01/09/94 01/10/94 01/11/94 01/12/94 01/13/94 01/14/94 01/15/94 01/16/94 01/17/94 01/18/94 01/19/94 01/20/94 01/21/94 01/22/94 01/23/94 01/24/94 01/25/94 01/26/94 01/27/94 01/28/94 01/29/94 01/30/94 01/31/94 02/01/94 02/02/94 02/03/94 02/04/94 02/05/94 02/06/94 02/07/94 02/08/94 02/09/94 02/10/94 02/11/94 02/12/94 02/13/94 02/14/94 02/15/94 02/16/94 02/17/94 02/18/94  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  B-Side A-Side CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) -93  -9.4  96  11.8  3  0.3  5  0.3  1  0.4  6  0.6  -115 -112  -29.0 -28.4  131 125  23.7 22.7  16 13  3.4 2.8  -105 -3  -26.2 -0.6  119 16  20.6 2.7  15 13  3.0 2.7  -40 -37 -33 -82 -35  -5.3 -4.9 -4.8 -11.2 -4.7  68 65 47 101 52  7.9 7.6 5.0 9.3 4.8  28 27 14 19 18  3.5 3.4 1.7 2.1 1.9  11 -6 -7 -7 -7  2.7 -1.5 -3.2 -2.2 -2.0  10 26 17 22 9  2.9 7.9 2.9 3.5 1.5  21 20 10 14 2  5.6 5.3 2.4 3.1 0.5  -36 -79 -67 -75 4  -5.0 -10.9 -10.7 -10.5 0.6  73 89 84 90 19  5.7 7.0 6.3 6.9 1.4  37 10 17 15 23  3.7 1.0 1.8 1.5 2.3  -8 -15 -11 4 -95  -3.7 -6.8 -4.0 1.1 -25.6  34 15 18 7 112  6.1 2.6 3.2 1.1 18.3  26 0 7 11 17  6.9 0.0 1.6 2.2 3.6  4 -61 -66 -6 7  0.5 -8.0 -9.5 -1.0 1.0  25 79 84 24 20  2.0 6.3 6.5 1.7 1.5  29 18 18 17 27  2.9 1.8 1.9 1.8 2.7  8 -4 -5 -12 7  2.4 -1.0 -1.4 -3.0 1.9  10 15 15 26 10  1.5 2.3 2.1 3.9 1.4  18 11 10 15 17  3.6 2.2 1.9 2.8 3.2  -85 -112 -58 -7 -17  -13.0 -17.2 -8.5 -1.0 -2.4  129 131 77 23 36  8.8 8.9 5.6 1.7 2.6  44 18 19 16 19  4.2 1.8 1.9 1.5 1.8  9 5 -24 22 -2  1.9 1.1 -6.7 4.0 -0.4  25 7 33 -16 8  3.3 1.0 3.2 -1.7 0.8  35 13 9 6 6  5.6 2.1 1.3 0.8 0.8  -29 -35 -12 -1  -4.0 -17.4 -5.7 -0.3  48 45 22 12  3.9 16.1 6.2 3.4  19 9 10 11  1.9 3.8 3.5 4.0  21 2 -2 -1  3.9 0.4 -0.7 -0.3  -18 12 18 22  -1.5 1.2 1.5 1.7  4 15 16 21  0.4 1.9 2.1 2.8  3 -15 9 -11 5  0.9 -4.6 2.2 -2.5 1.0  17 15 12 14 8  3.7 3.2 2.1 2.3 1.3  20 -1 21 3 13  5.0 -0.2 4.3 0.6 2.4  17 -20 29 -6 24  3.5 -4.0 6.0 -0.9 3.8  24 19 45 7 -8  1.6 1.3 3.1 0.5 -0.6  41 -1 74 1 16  4.3 -0.1 7.7 0.1 1.6  22 -26 -35 -54 -60  4.5 -5.3 -9.0 -10.9 -12.1  8 40 48 67 65  0.9 4.9 5.6 7.2 7.0  30 14 13 12 5  4.6 2.2 2.1 1.8 0.7  34 -16 -12 -11 -13  8.6 -4.1 -3.4 -2.8 -3.3  23 30 23 22 18  1.3 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.1  57 14 11 12 5  5.5 1.4 1.1 1.2 0.5  94  APPENDIX C VFA DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION Table C 7 (Continued)  Date  Day  02/19/94 02/20/94 02/21/94 02/22/94 02/23/94 02/24/94 02/25/94 02/26/94 02/27/94 02/28/94 03/01/94 03/02/94 03/03/94 03/04/94 03/05/94 03/06/94 03/07/94 03/08/94 03/09/94 03/10/94 03/11/94 03/12/94 03/13/94 03/14/94 03/15/94 03/16/94 03/17/94 03/18/94 03/19/94 03/20/94 03/21/94 03/22/94 03/23/94 03/24/94 03/25/94 03/26/94 03/27/94 03/28/94 03/29/94 03/30/94 03/31/94 04/01/94 04/02/94 04/03/94 04/04/94 04/05/94 04/06/94 04/07/94 04/08/94 04/09/94 04/10/94 04/11/94 04/12/94 04/13/94 04/14/94 04/15/94  68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123  Average Std  B-Side A-Side CM Reactor Thickener System CM Reactor Thickener System (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/L Inf) (mg/gTSS) 12 -18 -17 -52 -7  2.7 -4.1 -4.2 -13.8 -2.0  24 36 26 58 13  2.3 3.5 2.1 4.7 1.1  36 17 9 6 6  4.9 2.4 1.2 0.8 0.7  43 -25 -13 -49 -10  10.0 -5.7 -2.8 -13.3 -2.6  36 45 21 54 15  2.2 2.7 1.4 3.3 0.9  79 20 8 5 6  7.7 2.0 0.8 0.5 0.6  -108 -12 -7 -36 -38  -22.8 -2.4 -1.2 -6.0 -6.3  122 23 16 46 43  10.9 2.0 1.6 4.6 4.3  14 11 8 10 6  1.8 1.4 1.1 1.3 0.7  -52 -19 -11 -21 -14  -13.7 -5.0 -2.6 -2.0 -1.3  62 25 16 31 21  4.3 1.6 1.0 3.1 2.1  9 6 5 9 7  1.1 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.7 .  11 -9 -18 -7 -5  2.2 -1.7 -3.2 -1.5 -1.0  20 21 26 25 14  1.7 1.8 2.1 2.1 1.2  31 12 8 17 9  3.8 1.5 0.9 2.1 1.1  25 -8 -8 -2 2  5.2 -1.6 -1.5 -0.4 0.6  30 17 19 16 10  2.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.6  55 9 11 14 12  5.6 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.3  -43 9 -20 -129 -208  -7.8 1.6 -8.8 -27.8 -44.7  64 3 31 133 206  6.0 0.3 2.1 10.6 16.4  21 12 12 4 -2  2.6 1.5 1.4 0.4 -0.2  -78 -20 -12 -12 4  -17.7 -4.5 -3.5 -3.4 1.2  137 32 22 21 1  8.7 2.0 1.3 1.3 0.1  59 12 10 9 5  6.0 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.5  20 -10 1 2 1  3.9 -1.9 0.3 0.4 0.1  10 20 4 8 7  0.8 1.5 0.7 1.2 1.0  30 10 6 10 7  3.4 1.1 1.1 1.7 1.3  78 -11 0 3 0  23.0 -3.1 0.2 0.8 0.1  16 8 7 8  -7  -0.4 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.5  71 6 9 10 8  6.9 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.8  -85 -8 3 -18 -22  -20.6 -1.9 0.7 -4.1 -4.0  87 19 12 32 36  9.7 2.0 1.2 3.3 4.4  2 11 15 14 14  0.3 1.7 2.2 2.0 2.1  -75 -35 -6 -16 -29  -19.7 -9.2 -1.7 -4.2 -4.2  78 47 21 27 39  4.3 2.8 1.3 1.6 3.0  2 12 15 12 10  0.2 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.0  -114 -1 -39 -4 -22  -25.2 -0.1 -7.5 -0.8 -4.0  121 12 56 14 32  10.8 1.1 5.1 1.4 3.2  7 11 17 10 11  0.9 1.5 2.1 1.3 1.4  -104 -33 -7 1 -19  -30.7 -9.6 -1.9 0.2 -4.5  125 40 17 8 25  7.2 2.3 1.0 0.5 1.6  22 7 10 9 7  2.1 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.7  -85 -58 1 -30 -4  -21.7 -11.1 0.2 -5.1 -0.7  93 69 8 35 10  7.0 5.2 0.8 3.2 0.9  8 11 9 5 6  0.9 1.3 1.2 0.6 0.8  -60 -171 -11 -26 -6  -15.3 -43.4 -2.7 -6.4 -14.9  70 181 20 30 16  4.0 10.3 1.2 1.8 1.0  10 11 9 4 10  0.9 1.0 0.9 0.5 1.3  -34 42  -6.7 8.8  49 41  5.0 4.6  14 9  1.9 1.2  -ii  -3.5 8.9  29 33  2.<S  16 16  1.6  95  34  3.4  1.9  APPENDIX  C  VFA DISTRIB UTION AND PROD UCTION Table C 8 : V F A Production (as H A c ) o f R u n 3 H R T o f 4.3 hrs  Date 05/06794 05/07/94 05/08794 05/09/94 05/10/94 05/11/94 05/12/94 05/13/94 05/14/94 05/15/94 05/16/94 05/17/94 05/18794 05/19/94 05/20/94 05/21/94 05/22/94 05/23/94 05/24/94 05/25/94 05/26/94 05/27/94 05/28794 05/29/94 05/30/94 05/31/94 06/01/94 06/02/94 06/03/94 06/04/94 06/05/94 06/06/94 06/07/94 06/08/94 06/09/94 06/10/94 06/11/94 06/12/94 06/13/94 06/14/94 06/15/94 06/16/94 06/17/94 06/18/94 06/19/94 06/20/94 06/21/94 06/22/94 06/23/94 06/24/94 06/25/94 06/26794 06/27/94 06/28/94 06/29/94 06/30/94 07/01/94 07/02/94 07/03/94 07/04/94 07/05/94 07/06/94 07/07/94 07/08/94 07/09/94 07/10/94 07/11/94 07/12/94 07/13/94 07/14/94 Average Std  Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70  B-Side A-Side System CM Reactor Thickener System Thickener CM Reactor (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS) (mg/LInf) (mg/gTSS)  -88.0 -4.2 -14.2 -2.4 4.1  219 14 15 13 10  28.5 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.3  10 4 7 8 18  2.1 0.9 1.6 1.7 3.9  -275 -3 -21 -5 -1  -98.2 -1.2 -21.2 -2.2 -0.6  294 11 39 14 21  35.4 1.3 4.1 1.7 2.5  19 7 17 9 19  3.5 1.4 3.4 .1.8 3.8  -9 -108 -352 -237 -595  -7.0 -86.9 -463.5 -2366.2 -5953.1  23 118 360 244 609  2.5 12.8 35.2 23.7 59.1  14 10 7 7 13  2.8 1.9 1.4 1.4 2.7  -46 12 -10 -35 3  -21.5 5.6 -3.7 -11.1 0.9  63 11 22 40 12  7.8 1.4 3.2 6.9 2.1  17 23 12 5 15  3.5 4.7 2.5 1.1 3.4  -66 2 -18 -0  -29.3 0.9 -5.9 -0.0  74 41 26 8  10.3 5.9 4.2 1.3  8 42 7 8  1.7 9.9 1.6 1.7  -86 -27 -20 2  -27.5 -11.4 -8.0 0.9  99 67 28 8  14.8 9.1 4.4 1.2  13 40 9 10  2.7 8.3 2.0 2.3  -29 -45 3 3 -14  -20.7 -31.6 1.6 1.4 -7.4  45 49 4 8 28  5.9 6.4 0.6 1.1 3.7  16 4 7 11 14  3.6 0.9 1.6 2.3 3.0  -10 -171 -433 -180 -26  -7.0 -114.1 -2707.1 -92.3 -13.4  46 181 439 192 33  6.3 24.7 60.2 37.3 6.4  35 9 6 13 7  8.2 2.2 1.7 3.7 2.0  0 -245 -10 -1 -15  1.4 -1020.9 -4.4 -0.7 -7.9  0 255 96 54 61  0.0 35.6 13.5 7.8 8.9  1 10 86 52 46  0.1 2.0 18.5 12.1 10.7  -42 21 8 4 -14  -23.6 11.9 4.1 4.3 -17.0  43 -6 5 34 84  6.7 -1.0 0.6 4.5 11.3  1 15 13 37 70  0.4 3.6 2.8 9.3 17.3  -442 -409 5 6 6  -221.5 -205.2 2.6 1.9 1.8  452 417 -30 7 4  66.9 61.8 -4.6 1.2 0.6  10 8 -25 14 10  2.3 1.8 -5.9 3.0 2.1  -69 12 -9 -4 -5  -37.2 6.6 -4.8 -1.3 -1.5  84 -4 16 12 16  12.1 -0.6 2.0 1.8 2.4  15 8 7 8 11  3.5 1.8 1.5 1.7 2.3  13 -3 6 -26 -16  7.4 -1.7 2.0 -9.6 -5.9  14 9 15 85 46  2.3 1.5 2.4 11.9 6.4  27 6 2158 30  7.1 1.5 4.7 12.0 6.1  16 -16 5 30 -1  6.1 -6.3 1.8 45.4 -1.4  18 27 41. 22 12  3.2 4.6 7.1 2.8 1.6  34 10 45 52 11  8.3 2.4 11.0 12.7 2.8  -31 -14 6 4 4  -12.1 -5.2 3.0 1.7 1.5  34 28 -1 17 7  5.8 4.7 -0.1 2.9 1.2  3 14 6 21 11  0.7 3.4 1.3 5.1 2.6  -4 5 4 7 7  -2.0 2.5 1.4 2.7 2.7 •  6 6 3 16 1  1.1 1.2 0.6 2.8 0.2  2 11 7 23 8  0.5 3.1 1.7 5.7 2.0  -273 -19 5 -9 -2  -192.3 -13.6 2.4 -2.8 -0.6  282 24 3 19 47  31.9 2.7 0.4 3.0 7.5  8 4 8 11 45  1.7 0.9 1.7 2.3 9.9  11 0 1 4 12  5.4 0.2 0.6 1.4 4.1  13 6 3 6 30  1.7 0.8 0.4 1.0 4.6  24 7 4 10 42  5.2 1.4 1.0 2.2 9.1  -1 5 4 6 -65 136  -1.7 6.0 2.1 2.9 -223.8 913.3  67 44 21 22 83 134  7.7 ' 5.1 2.8 3.0 10.5 16.2  65 49 25 28 18 19  - 14.0 10.6 5.4 6.1 4.0 4.3  23 -4 -0 3 -28 81  13.8 -2.2 -0.0 1.5 -64.9 386.4  12 13 39 19 46 79  1.6 1.8 5.6 2.7 6.6 11.1  35 9 39 22 18 15  7.9 2.1 8.7 4.9 4.1 3.5  -209 -10 -8 • -5 9  96  •  APPENDIXD  SOLUBLE  COD  Table D 1 : Comparison o f Test R u n Soluble C O D and V F A A n a l y s i s H R T of 4.3 hrs  B-Side  A-Side Date  Day  08/30/93 08/31/93 09/01/93 09/02/93 09/03/93 09/04/93 09/05/93 09/06/93 09/07/93 09/08/93 09/09/93 09/10/93 09/11/93 09/12/93 09/13/93 09/14/93 09/15/93 09/16/93 09/17/93 09/18/93 09/19/93 09/20/93 09/21/93 09/22/93 09/23/93 09/24/93 09/25/93 09/26/93 09/27/93 09/28/93 09/29/93 09/30/93 10/01/93 10/02/93 10/03/93 10/04/93 10/05/93 10/06/93 10/07/93 10/08/93 10/09/93 10/10/93 10/11/93 10/12/93 10/13/93 10/14/93 10/15/93  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  CM Reactor  Effluent  CM Reactor  Influent  Effluent  Total VFA CODeqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured COD COD of VFA COD as HAc of VFA as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc as HAc of VFA (mR/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mud.) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 17 13 22 17 20  18 14 24 18 21  60 18 25 49 31  34 26 25 28 25  36 28 27 30 26  38 53 33 41 49  48 49 36 32 33  52 52 39 35 35  23 71 53 20 36  28 29 31 26 26  30 31 33 28 28  42 71 32 20 41  52 40 117 39 59  55 43 125 42 63  78 58 103 41 20  28 27 25 18 21  30 29 27 20 22  23 38 21 134 74  37 32 31 35 25  40 34 34 37 27  36 38 35 101 70  49 50 50 47 27  52 53 53 51 29  43 45 23 106 120  29 24 21 29 66  . 31 26 23 31 70  39 23 25 98 122  31 65 46 49 88  33 70 49 52 94  51 43 35 116 100  18 23 19 21 24  19 25 20 23 26  112 82 67 81 83  29 28 23 29 26  30 30 25 31 28  122 80 64 65 73  51 38 35 45 38  55 40 37 48 40  112 82 87 48 78  28 22 19 25 27  30 23 20 27 29  117 81 75 75 79  37 34 28 30 26  40 36 30 32 28  100 94 92 75 68  28 17 17 12 22  30 18 18 13 24  98 65 71 88 71  38 27 21 17 35  40 29 22 18 38  63 71 81 65 71  52 34 26 32 41  56 37 28 35 44  75 95 81 88 98  24 19 17 21 26  26 21 18 22 28  75 73 61 55 71  31 33 31 23 40  33 35 33 25 42  91 78 81 28 48  21 18 20  23 19 21  101 81 83  28 25 33  29 27 35  81 91 99  66 40 44  71 43 47  177 119 101  32 27 38  34 29 41  113 99 99  45 38 44  48 41 47  21  22  78  31  33  83  46  50  117  26  28  101  36  39  131 109 101 108 112  30 25 23 29 25  32 26 24 31 26  123 99 67 85 83  39 34 32 33 35  41 37 34 35 38  112 116 118 114 111  56 45 41 45 48  60 48 43 48 51  156 112 148 105 107  40 39 36 36 36  42 41 39 39 39  74 116 106 80 123  54 46 40 46 50  58 49 43 49 54  215 112 106 109 171  40 43 40 27 33  43 46 42 28 35  140 125 123 88 102  56 57 53 67 48  60 61 57 72 51  103 132 129 125 116  76 70 72 66 53  81 75 77 71 57  142 146 154 148 109  60 59 54 62 48  64 63 58 66 51  123 161 130 144 83  79 76 76 59 54  84 81 81 63 58  172 158 160 125 83  Average  24  25  79  34  36  82  47  50  95  33  36  83  48 .  52  96  Std  7  8  32  11  12  31  12  13  41  13  14  35  20  21  43  97  APPENDIXD  SOLUBLE  COD  Table D2: Comparison of Run 1 Soluble COD and VFA Analysis HRT of 2.15 hrs A-Side Date  10/19/93 10/20/93 10/21/93 10/22/93 10/23/93 10/24/93 10/25/93 10/26/93 10/27/93 10/28/93 10/29/93 10/30/93 10/31/93 11/01/93 11/02/93 11/03/93 11/04/93 11/05/93 11/06/93 11/07/93 11/08/93 11/09/93 11/10/93 11/11/93 11/12/93 11/13/93 11/14/93 11/15/93 11/16/93 11/17/93 11/18/93 11/19/93 11/20/93 11/21/93 11/22/93 11/23/93 11/24/93 11/25/93 11/26/93 11/27/93 11/28/93 11/29/93 11/30/93 12/01/93 12/02/93 12/03/93 12/04/93 12/05/93 12/06793 12/07/93 12/08/93 12/09/93 12/10/93 12/11/93 12/12/93 12/13/93 Average Std  Influent  CM Reactor  B-Side  Effluent  CM Reactor  Effluent  Day Total VF/ COD eqv Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv Measured Total VF/ COD eqv Measurer, Total VF/ COD eqv Measured COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mgTL) (mgrt.) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mgrt.) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56  29 23 12 11  31 24 13 12  113 67 82 86  42 40 33 27  45 43 35 29  110 84 87 24  50 47 31 33  53 50 33 35  105 120 103 106  43 41 28 26  46 43 30 28  105 102 98 94  52 48 33 34  55 51 36 36  114 113 101 104  19 19 20 34 31  21 20 21 36 33  101 79 81 84 89  30 31 30 36 25  32 33 32 39 26  102 94 89 92 96  35 14 34 36 32  37 15 36 38 35  111 100 93 93 89  34 32 28 29 35  36 34 30 31 37  107 91 90 98 92  37 33 32 32 31  39 35 34 34 33  60 96 95 94 99  22 27 21 15 14  24 29 22 16 15  103 98 74 92 96  37 25 28 28 24  39 27 30 30 26  114 87 92 107 71  37 25 21 32 24  39 27 23 34 26  124 94 96 103 71  52 21 26 32 28  55 22 28 34 30  138 81 96 105 78  69 28 28 30 28  74 30 30 32 29  182 94 93 97 69  30 16 15 20 33  32 17 16 22 35  96 94 82 84 83  33 27 29 23 33  35 29 31 25 35  105 86 81 94 95  35 29 28 23 28  37 31 30 25 30  56 96 74 94 115  43 25 36 27 30  46 27 38 28 31  126 99 103 86 101  47 29 33 27 31  50 30 35 29 33  63 92 116 97 96  16 19 20 13 14  17 20 21 14 15  97 79 57 79 85  43 34 68 40 117  45 36 73 43 124  123 94 150 76 218  40 27 31 28 27  42 29 34 30 29  139 82 86 86 60  34 30 104 60 62  37 32 111 64 66  142 96 233 88 141  34 35 48 30 26  36 37 51 32 28  108 105 128 85 74  18 14 20 6 10  19 15 22 7 10  60 95 68 62 60  54 153 19 13 14  58 163 20 14 15  119 156 103 51 38  74 25 19 15 13  79 27 21 16 14  119 95 87 66 42  132 19 36 11 19  141 20 39 11 20  170 88 100 35 50  55 18 15 14 18  58 19 16 14 19  83 96 78 66 41  18 14 19  19 15 20  44 95 68  25 22 20  27 24 21  39 101 85  29 25 24  31 27 25  108 77 77  39 24 22  41 25 23  76 85 77  35 25 23  38 26 24  65 77 87  15  16  76  20  22  60  24  25  49  22  24  49  20  22  79  19  20  54  28  29  63  47  50  64  42  44  54  26  27  82  14 32 7  15 34 8  70 77 38  17 18 10  18 20 10  75 94 17  19 14 13  21 14 14  75 35 84  17 9 10  18 10 11  78 83 42  18 9 12  19 9 12  75 54 29  14  15  20  16  17  89  15  16  92  18  19  27  17  18  82  19 7  20 7  78 19  34 26  37 28  91 35  29 12  31 13  89 23  35 23  37 25  95 37  30 12  32 13  89 25  98  APPENDIXD  SOLUBLE  COD  Table D3: Comparison of Run 2 Soluble COD and V F A Analysis HRT of 3.2 hrs B-Side  A-Side Influent  Date  12/14/93 12/15/93 12/16/93 12/17/93 12/18/93 12/19/93 12/20/93 12/21/93 12/22/93 12/23/93 12/24/93 12/25/93 12/26/93 12/27/93 12/28/93 12/29/93 12/30/93 12/31/93 01/01/94 01/02/94 01/03/94 01/04/94 01/05/94 01/06/94 01/07/94 01/08/94 01/09/94 01/10/94 01/11/94 01/12/94 01/13/94 01/14/94 01/15/94 01/16/94 01/17/94 01/18/94 01/19/94 01/20/94 01/21/94 01/22/94 01/23/94 01/24/94 01/25/94 01/26/94 01/27/94 01/28/94 01/29/94 01/30/94 01/31/94 02/01/94 02/02/94 02/03/94 02/04/94 02/05/94 02/06/94 02/07/94 02/08/94 02/09/94 02/10/94 02/11/94 02/12/94 02/13/94 02/14/94 02/15/94 02/16/94 02/17/94 02/18/94  C M  C M  Effluent  Reactor  Reactor  Effluent  Day Total VFACOD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured Total VF,* COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VFA COD eqv. Measured COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc ofVFA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  (mart.)  9  9  85  21  22  86  12  12  79  10  11  62  15  16  82  21 29  22 31  113 93  34 47  36 50  100 114  37 42  40 45  116 36  29 24  31 26  3 21  36 42  38 45  18 106  16 16 24 24 28  17 17 26 26 30  57 79 94 74 72  43 38 36 41 44  46 41 39 44 47  130 94 96 88 77  44 43 38 43 46  47 46 41 46 49  45 115 94 98 80  31 28 28 31 34  33 29 29 33 36  57 103 94 69 47  37 36 34 39 31  40 38 37 41 33  59 98 81 65 44  32 26 21 15 13  34 28 22 16 14  98 79 76 78 68  37 32 32 27 30  40 34 34 29 32  86 171 89 87 88  69 37 38 30 36  73 39 40 32 39  140 125 90 92 41  36 29 29 23 21  39 31 31 25 22  11 74 87 84 68  58 27 28 26 31  62 28 29 28 33  60 78 81 87 46  20 19 19 7 8  22 20 20 8 9  89 79 70 74 76  44 38 34 24 32  47 40 37 26 34  109 84 80 103 51  49 37 37 25 35  53 39 40 26 37  114 89 80 I'll 46  29 28 24 8 21  31 29 26 9 22  23 88 81 92 84  38 30 29 22 25  41 32 31 24 27  64 90 67 62 89  ND 15 13 5 13  0 16 14 5 14  88 151 70 54 90  25 32 27 15 36  27 34 29 16 38  95 95 87 103 97  44 33 32 21 32  47 35 34 22 34  108 100 90 70 74  28 19 18 20 23  29 20 19 21 25  84 86 80 111 58  35 27 22 10 19  37 29 24 11 20  64 83 80 77 85  15 14 11 11 13  16 15 12 12 14  46 89 84 116 59  32 30 18 20 20  34 32 19 22 22  96 92 82 76 10  33 32 20 21 25  35 35 21 23 27  96 98 74 75 33  22 24 23 21 25  23 26 25 22 27  55 89 81 21 28  21 18 26 27 35  22 19 27 29 38  85 89 75 15 12  18 30 37 22 23  19 32 39 24 25  27 96 • 41 68 83  32 30 54 30 40  34 32 57 32 42  84 85 55 57 78  37 29 57 25 36  40 31 61 27 38  37 78 60 65 78  39 30 59 23 39  41 32 63 25 41  89 73 82 66 93  59 28 111 23 39  63 30 118 25 42  62 85 86 64 82  11 11 8 18 23  12 12 8 19 25  82 86 64 80 63  40 23 20 23 23  43 25 21 25 25  . 106 75 75 68 55  41 25 21 30 28  44 27 22 32 30  117 74 87 52 58  41 24 19 33 24  43 26 20 35 26  57 66 73 84 60  68 25 19 29 28  73 27 20 31 30  156 70 84 59 68  99  APPENDIXD  SOLUBLE  COD  Table D3 (Continued) B-Side  A-Side Date 02/19/94 02/20/94 02/21/94 02/22/94 02/23/94 02/24/94 02/25/94 02/26794 02/27/94 02/28/94 03/01/94 03/02/94 03/03/94 03/04/94 03/05/94 03/06/94 03/07/94 03/08/94 03/09/94 03/10/94 03/11/94 03/12/94 03/13/94 03/14/94 03/15/94 03/16/94 03/17/94 03/18/94 03/19/94 03/20/94 03/21/94 03/22/94 03/23/94 03/24/94 03/25/94 03/26/94 03/27/94 03/28/94 03/29/94 03/30/94 03/31/94 04/01/94 04/02/94 04/03/94 04/04/94 04/05/94 04/06/94 04/07/94 04/08/94 04/09/94 04/10/94 04/11/94 04/12/94 04/13/94 04/14/94 04/15/94 04/16/94 04/17/94 04/18/94 04/19/94 04/20/94 Average Std  Influent  CM Reactor  Effluent  CM Reactor  Effluent  Day Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc of VFA COD (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 68 69 79 48 51 86 56 60 66 53 56 115 99 105 78 20 21 70 77 26 28 73 34 36 84 29 31 87 26 28 9 10 72 71 20 60 14 15 66 28 30 70 24 26 75 27 28 65 19 72 50 15 16 54 14 15 63 14 15 55 66 14 15 9 10 73 13 68 14 15 71 12 13 69 14 15 56 9 64 12 74 8 75 76 93 20 21 82 24 26 52 19 20 86 20 21 58 77 10 11 5 6 51 9 9 61 17 18 64 10 10 67 11 12 66 78 64 8 9 70 14 15 67 9 10 59 10 11 67 6 6 79 14 77 7 7 64 11 12 59 13 73 13 3 60 12 80 3 14 15 67 7 7 67 16 17 51 12 13 58 9 9 63 81 82 83 114 36 38 85 31 33 144 60 64 111 91 32 34 84 5 5 19 66 20 21 63 13 14 58 17 18 67 61 18 85 8 8 20 73 15 16 66 21 23 72 73 19 66 20 21 10 10 86 27 29 60 23 25 60 24 26 48 27 28 72 9 10 58 87 64 24 26 69 24 26 64 28 30 63 24 25 15 16 61 88 89 90 44 47 114 49 53 97 45 48 116 87 93 160 30 88 91 28 34 91 30 32 76 24 26 82 30 32 79 18 70 32 92 17 74 32 34 70 24 26 70 30 32 58 63 31 33 20 21 93 25 48 25 27 67 28 29 53 31 33 43 67 23 94 22 23 28 29 57 34 36 36 35 37 38 26 28 53 31 61 95 29 96 97 104 70 75 182 103 110 163 62 66 61 65 111 34 92 98 32 81 26 28 68 31 33 72 38 36 75 35 27 66 34 99 25 61 28 29 78 33 35 63 69 30 32 30 32 24 26 59 100 25 26 70 23 25 70 26 27 62 26 69 57 25 101 14 15 27 73 22 23 73 26 28 77 67 25 57 25 26 19 102 18 103 104 74 28 29 79 31 33 74 30 32 29 31 83 30 74 105 28 30 32 82 23 25 93 31 33 95 30 120 80 28 106 19 20 32 69 22 23 75 29 31 74 30 27 29 73 107 13 14 72 34 90 24 26 81 29 31 55 32 28 30 83 18 19 21 108 24 26 80 29 31 89 34 36 49 37 69 28 30 19 20 109 110 111 35 38 98 51 54 98 38 27 48 36 41 36 39 29 31 112 43 104 30 32 107 36 38 97 41 92 40 97 38 31 113 29 92 26 28 85 33 35 88 40 42 38 82 24 80 35 114 23 63 30 32 61 37 40 56 40 37 40 78 38 28 30 65 115 37 40 44 28 29 34 34 36 42 28 33 35 116 27 29 31 117 118 61 33 35 119 41 44 104 39 42 39 42 123 73 119 31 33 47 67 32 34 107 44 47 92 44 41 44 95 35 96 120 33 29 31 36 42 44 101 44 75 41 98 42 90 38 32 35 121 81 19 20 33 22 23 13 23 24 23 61 17 18 70 21 122 19 44 26 28 70 75 18 30 22 23 23 16 33 22 123 15 124 125 95 32 34 75 96 29 31 44 34 36 34 37 20 82 126 18 47 34 36 70 67 41 119 63 34 94 38 91 32 127 23 22 26 28 68 38 41 91 33 65 54 31 29 31 128 25 27 68 18 8  19 9  73 20  30 10  32 11  80 24  32 11  100  35 12  77 22  27 11  28 12  73 28  33  36 20  74 26  APPENDIXD  SOLUBLE COD Table D 4 : Comparison of Run 3 Soluble COD and VFA Analysis HRT of 4.3 hrs B-Side  A-Side Date 05/06794 05/07/94 05/08/94 05/09/94 05/10/94 05/11/94 05/12/94 05/13/94 05/14/94 05/15/94 05/16/94 05/17/94 05/18/94 05/19/94 05/20/94 05/21/94 05/22/94 05/23/94 05/24/94 05/25/94 05/26/94 05/27/94 05/28/94 05/29/94 05/30/94 05/31/94 06/01/94 06/02/94 06703/94 06704/94 06/05/94 06/06/94 06/07/94 06/08/94 06/09/94 06710/94 06/11/94 06/12/94 06/13/94 06/14/94 06/15/94 06/16/94 06/17/94 06718/94 06/19/94 06/20/94 06/21/94 06722/94 06/23/94 06724/94 06725/94 06726/94 06/27/94 06/28/94 06/29/94 06/30/94 07/01/94 07/02/94 07/03/94 07/04/94 07/05/94 07/06/94 07/07/94 07/08/94 07/09/94 07/10/94 07/11/94 07/12/94 07/13/94 07/14/94 Average Std  Influent  Effluent  CM Reactor  CM Reactor  Effluent  Day Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured Total VF/ COD eqv. Measured as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc OfVFA COD as HAc ofVFA COD as HAc of VFA COD as HAc ofVFA COD (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 1 2 3 23 94 37 40 97 30 80 22 152 24 25 28 19 90 4 18 30 68 25 27 78 31 33 71 71 25 26 75 28 25 5 23 77 34 75 39 41 92 28 30 32 27 29 73 23 73 • 6 21 88 27 29 79 78 26 28 58 26 28 19 65 24 26 7 18 33 44 30 32 46 32 34 66 84 29 30 91 31 13 8 13 9 10 30 32 85 31 33 80 34 36 86 26 28 71 17 59 11 16 27 29 68 30 32 74 41 44 76 73 25 26 85 17 19 12 29 79 32 34 75 27 29 71 28 26 71 74 24 13 20 21 97 23 25 98 29 30 80 31 33 92 22 23 85 14 24 25 34 104 33 36 82 34 36 95 32 25 27 75 19 20 75 15 16 17 18 104 37 39 93 39 42 98 42 45 98 109 34 36 19 29 31 40 108 64 68 132 71 150 42 100 67 82 43 46 24 26 20 30 31 29 31 39 30 22 28 28 59 28 13 26 21 21 22 26 28 91 32 34 83 29 31 111 80 29 31 88 23 22 22 23 24 38 41 92 39 42 85 58 62 117 37 73 24 83 35 25 23 31 82 34 36 74 30 73 29 29 77 29 73 28 26 25 26 27 29 91 24 26 82 26 28 80 27 28 85 20 22 67 27 40 32 34 46 32 34 44 30 32 27 29 68 21 46 28 19 37 88 35 38 39 61 35 42 45 30 44 31 33 72 29 28 30 31 101 34 36 106 35 37 108 34 36 130 106 30 32 32 34 36 40 43 108 48 113 38 104 45 36 33 35 102 28 95 33 26 38 89 35 37 99 175 35 108 116 50 53 119 24 96 34 22 56 114 61 65 117 80 120 53 75 53 57 106 25 60 35 23 120 57 61 111 98 104 162 79 63 74 80 45 48 28 30 36 37 38 89 54 58 88 65 69 52 119 95 49 37 39 39 42 122 39 44 96 45 48 97 41 44 101 41 34 81 35 98 32 40 33 93 36 39 99 38 4 100 36 4 37 93 31 86 35 41 29 94 40 42 84 43 45 45 48 12 46 57 77 44 33 42 31 94 43 46 97 104 35 37 44 79 41 39 42 34 82 43 32 44 45 53 56 57 50 84 55 47 49 42 84 46 82 40 18 19 46 35 37 110 37 39 115 35 58 128 33 31 33 27 29 88 47 . 37 102 56 60 125 35 34 92 109 32 82 24 26 12 48 11 57 61 55 75 80 110 87 77 •• 66 82 43 46 25 36 49 23 . 34 71 31 33 79 57 32 50 53 53 70 45 48 50 20 21 51 52 37 80 32 34 78 35 35 85 35 81 33 77 33 53 30 32 100 34 36 93 38 40 71 43 73 41 78 34 36 54 26 28 33 63 80 31 29 31 30 32 • 75 32 51 24 26 74 30 55 37 39 80 81 73 36 38 38 39 41 72 3514 15 65 56 38 96 35 34 36 86 41 98 36 111 38 29 91 34 57 28 58 59 53 57 122 39 112 40 124 37 37 85 38 88 34 60 29 31 26 28 86 92 85 26 28 77 24 26 80 22 23 61 20 21 30 32 76 31 33 72 71 34 36 78 27 74 32 35 25 62 29 84 27 27 65 29 54 25 79 27 18 44 22 23 63 17 64 68 103 57 98 134 54 67 72 67 52 56 143 64 22 23 65 66 117 62 66 100 144 57 61 99 76 81 127 93 29 103 67 28 62 45 48 44 52 118 42 104 85 91 . 117 48 51 68 36 38 70 75 128 164 140 49 52 56 60 45 97 31 33 116 42 69 158 57 113 53 129 41 43 59 63 89 43 46 105 70 31 33 37 86 90 39 79 34 24 26 4i 37 85 45 45 55 16 27 15 10 22 20 22 32 20 10 11 21 6 6 H  101  APPENDIX E BATCH EXPERIMENTS Run 2: Batch Test #1 Conducted February 14, 1994 A B C D  - 1.2 - 1.2 - 1.2 - 1.2  L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent L B-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water L B-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent  Suspended Solids A  B  c  D  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  4275 3905 4090  3830 3895 3865  3895 4060 3980  3725 4005 3865  Avg  V F A Distribution  Inf MLSS Time  00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:15 02:30 02:45 03:00 03:15 03:30 03:45 04:00  Acetic  Prop  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  A  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  Prop (mg/L)  B  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  Prop (mgfl-)  c  D Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  ND 32  ND ND  32  100  11 31  ND ND  11 31  100 100  ND 28  ND ND  28  100  10 27  14 11 12 14 13 14 14 15 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 16 17  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 3 3 4 4 5 5 6  14 11 12 14 13 14 14 15 14 14 18 18 19 21 21 20 22  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 87 85 84 82 80 79 78  21 20 22 24 25 23 23 28 29 28 28 31 30 31 26 31 32  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 3 4 4 5 5 6 7  21 20 22 24 25 23 23 28 29 28 31 34 34 35 30 36 38  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 92 91 90 89 88 87 85  16 14 14 12 14 14 15 15 18 14 15 15 16 16 15 16 17  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5  16 14 14 12 14 14 15 15 18 16 17 18 19 19 19 20 21  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 87 86 84 83 81 80 79  17 17 19 20 22 23 22 23 25 25 26 26 25 27 27 26 28  N D - Not Detected V F A Production (as HAc) Time  mg/L  00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:15 02:30 02:45 03:00 03:15 03:30 03:45 04:00  -4 -3 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 -0 -0 3 4 5 6 6 6 8  B  A  mf^LInf mg/gTSi -7 -4 -1 -2 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 6 6 8 11 11 10 14  -0.9 -0.6 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.9  mg/L -1 1 3 4 3 2 7 9 7 10 13 13 14 9 15 17  mg/LInf mg/gTSi -2 2 5 7 5 3 13 15 12 18 23 23 24 16 27 30  -0.3 0.3 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.5 1.9 2.2 1.8 2.6 3.4 3.3 3.6 2.3 3.9 4.4  mg/L -2 -3 -4 -2 -3 -1 -1 1 -0 0 2 2 3 3 4 5  D  c  mg/LInf mg/gTSi -4 -5 -7 -4 -4 -2 -2 2 -0 1 3 4 4 5 7 8  102  -0.5 -0.7 -1.0 -0.6 -0.6 -0.3 -0.2 0.4 -0.0 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.2  mg/L 0 2 3 5 6 5 7 8 8 9 9 10 13 13 13 15  mg/LInf mg/gTSi 0 4 5 9 10 9 11 14 15 16 16 18 22 23 22 26  0.0 0.5 0.7 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 . 2.7 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.9  Prop (mg/L) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 3 3 4 4 5  Total % Acetic as HAc (m*/L) 10 27  100 100  17 17 19 20 22 23 22 23 25 25 26 26 27 29 30 29 32  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 92 91 90 89 88  APPENDIXE  BATCH  EXPERIMENTS  Run 2: Batch Test #2 Conducted March 1, 1994 A B C D  - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent  Suspended Solids B  c  D  A (mR/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  4390 4350 4370  4380 4880 4630  4915 4820 4870  2560 2665 2610  Avg  VFA Distribution  Inf Recyc. Time 00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00  A  Acetic  Prop  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  4 19  ND ND  6 6 7 7 8 8 12 13 13 13 14  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 3 4  Prop (mg/L)  4 19  100 100  6 20  ND 4  6 6 7 7 8 8 12 13 13 15 17  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 85 82  8 11 13 14 14 16 18 18 18 19 19  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 4  D  C  B Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  Prop  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  (mg/L)  6 23  100 85  8 24  ND ND  8 24  100 ioo  8 24  ND 3  8 26  100 91  8 11 13 14 14 16 18 18 18 19 22  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 86  13 14 15 15 17 19 20 21 23 26 26  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND  13 14 15 15 17 19 20 21 23 26 26  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100  8 8 9 9 9 10 12 11 12 13 15  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND  8 8 9 9 9 10 12 11 12 13 15  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100  N D - Not Detected  V F A Production (as HAc) mg/L  00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03.00  -0 1 0 1 1 6 6 6 9 11  mg/L inf mg/gTS< mg/L -0 •1 1 2 2 10 11 11 15 18  -0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2  3 5 6 7 8 10 10 10 11 14  mg/L inf mg/gTSS mg/L 5 9 10 12 14 18 18 18 20 24  D  c  B  A  Time  0.7 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 3.0  -2 -1 -1 0 2 4 5 6 9 10  mg/L inf mg/gTSi -4 -2 -2 0 4 7 8 11 16 17  103  -0.5 -0.3 -0.3 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.9 2.0  mg/L 0 1 1 1 2 4 3 4 5 7  mg/L inf mg/RTSi 0 1 1 1 2 5 4 5 7 8  0.0 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.7 1.5 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5  Prop <mg/L)  Total % Acetic as HAc (mg/L)  APPENDIXE  BATCH EXPERIMENTS  Run 2: Batch Test #3 Conducted March 15, 1994 A B C D  - 1.2 L A-Side - 1.2 L A-Side - 1.2 L A-Side - 0.6 L A-Side  Recycle Recycle Recycle Recycle  + 1.6 + 0.8 + 1.6 + 2.2  L Tap Water L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent L Influent L Influent  Suspended Solids A (mg/L)  B mg/L)  C (mR/L)  D mg/L)  4095 4310 4205  4835 4670 4755  5475 5975 5725  2985 3040 3015  Avg  V F A Distribution  (mR/L) Inf Recyc. Time 00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00 03:30 04:00  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) Prop  D  c  B  A Acetic  Prop Total % Acetic Acetic Prop Total % Acetic Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc as HAc as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mR/L) (mR/L) (mg/L) (mart.) (mg/L) Prop  ND 30  ND 12  40  100 76  8 30  ND 11  8 39  100 78  18 31  2 11  11 12 13 13 13 13 14 13 14 15 15 15 14  3 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 5 4 5 6 6  14 14 14 14 16 16 16 15 18 18 19 20 19  80 86 87 90 82 81 86 85 77 82 79 76 75  17 20 20 20 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 21  2 ND ND ND 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 7 7  19 20 20 20 20 22 23 24 24 26 27 29 27  90 100 100 100 93 92 90 89 88 85 84 81 80  25 26 27 29 26 28 25 28 29 31 32 32 32  3 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 10  mg/L  mg/L inf  DIR/RTS!  mg/L  12 12 15 12 14 12 15 17 20 22 22 24  20 21 26 21 24 20 27 30 35 38 39 42  2.0 2.1 2.6 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.6 3.0 3.5 3.8 3.9 4.2  11 13 12 13 14 13 15 16 17 19 19 19  18 . 40 .28 28 28 31 28 30 28 31 34 36 38 38 40  100 77  17 32  ND 11  17 41  100 79  90 93 95 94 93 91 90 89 87 86 84 82 81  20 19 21 21 21 22 21 23 24 25 26 25 25  2 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 2 2 2  21 19 21 21 21 22 21 23 24 25 27 27 ' 27  93 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 94 93  N D - Not Detected  V F A Production (as H A c )  mg/L  00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00 03:30 04:00  7 8 8 9 9 10 8 12 12 13 13 13  mg/L inf mg/gTSi  13 14 14 16 16 17 15 20 21 22 24 22  1.8 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.0 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.0  mg/L  12 12 12 13 15 15 16 16 18 19 21 19  mg/L inf mg/gTSS  21 22 21 22 25 26 28 28 32 34 37 33  D  c  B  A Time  2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.0  104  mg/L inf mg/gTSi  14 16 16 16 17 16 19 21 21 24 24 24  3.7 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.2 5.0 5.4 5.5 6.3 6.2 6.4  APPENDIXE  BATCH EXPERIMENTS  Run 3: Batch Test #1 Conducted June 2, 1994  A B C D  - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent  Suspended Solids A (mg/L)  B  C  D  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  1890 1910 1900  1900 1860 1880  1630 1575 1600  900 860 880  Avg  V F A Distribution  Inf Recyc. Time 00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00 03:30 04:00  Acetic  Prop  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  A  B  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L)  Prop  C Prop (mg/L)  (mg/L)  Total % Acetic as HAc (mg/L)  ND 4  33  100 90  11 31  ND 4  11 34  100 90  21 31  ND 3  21 34  100 92  21 33  ND 3  21 36  100 92  14 15 15 15 15 16 15 15 15 15 16 17 18  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 2 3  14 15 15 15 15 16 15 15 15 15 16 19 20  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 89  17 18 17 19 19 19 19 20 20 19 20 22 23  ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 2 2  17 18 17 19 19 19 19 20 20 19 20 24 24  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 94 93  24 25 26 26 26 26 25 27 28 28 29 30 32  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3  26 26 27 27 28 28 26 29 29 29 30 32 34  93 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 94 93  21 22 22 21 22 23 22 23 22 23 23 25 26  2 2 ND ND 2 2 2 2 ND 2 2 2 2  23 23 22 21 23 24 24 24 22 25 24 26 28  94 94 100 100 95 95 95 94 100 95 95 94 94  V F A Production (as H A c ) mg/L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 6  mg/L inf mg/gTSi  2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 9 10  c  B  A  00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00 03:30 04:00  Prop  ND 30  N D - Not Detected  Time  1D  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.0 2.7 3.1  mg/L 0 -1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 6 6  mg/L inf mg/gTSi 0 -4 2 3 4 5 7 7 4 8 20 22  0.1 -0.6 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.7 1.1 1.1 0.6 1.3 3.0 3.4  mg/L  1 1 1 2 2 0 3 3 3 5 6 8  D  m^Linf mg/gTSi  1 2 2 4 3 0 5 5 6 8 11 14  105  0.4 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.0 0.1 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.8 4.0 5.0  mg/L 0 -1 -2 0 1 1 1 -1 2 1 3 5  mg/L inf mg/gTSi 0 -2 -3 0 1 1 2 -1 2 2 4 6  0.0 -1.4 -2.4 0.3 1.0 0.9 1.5 -0.6 1.9 1.5 3.5 5.5  APPENDIX  E  BATCH  EXPERIMENTS  Run 3: Batch Test #2 Conducted June 16, 1994  A B C D  - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Tap Water - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 0.8 L Tap Water +0.8 L Influent - 1.2 L A-Side Recycle + 1.6 L Influent - 0.6 L A-Side Recycle + 2.2 L Influent  Suspended Solids A (mg/L)  B (mg/L)  C (mg/L)  D (mg/L)  2400 2070 2235  2005 1865 1935  1170 1180 1175  825 830 828  Avg  V F A Distribution  Inf Recyc. Time 00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00 03:30 04:00  Acetic  Prop  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  ND 21  ND 3  17 18 16 16 17 17 18 19 18 19 19 19 19  4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6  A  Prop  B  D  c  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  Prop  (mg/L)  23  100 90  13 37  2 11  14 46  88 80  28 38  5 10  28 46  100 83  26 35  5 10  29 43  87 82  20 21 19 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24  83 85 85 86 86 86 85 85 84 83 82 81 80  25 23 23 24 23 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 27  5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7  29 27 26 27 26 27 27 28 29 30 32 32 33  86 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 86 85 84 83 82  30 29 29 29 30 28 36 32 32 32 34 33 35  6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 7 8  35 34 34 34 35 33 42 37 37 37 40 39 42  85 86 86 86 86 86 87 87 86 86 87 85 85  30 27 27 28 27 28 32 28 28 30 28 31 31  6 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 6 5 6 6  35 31 31 32 31 32 36 33 32 35 32 36 36  87 87 87 87 87 87 87 86 86 86 87 86 86  (mg/L)  Total % Acetic Acetic as HAc (mg/L) (mg/L)  N D - Not Detected  V F A Production (as H A c ) mg/L  00:00 00:15 00:30 00:45 01:00 01:15 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:30 03:00 03:30 04:00  1 -1 -1 -1 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4  mg/L inf mg/gTSS 2 -2 -2 -1 0 2 4 3 5 5 7 8  0.6 -0.5 -0.5 -0.3 0.0 0.4 1.0 0.7 1.31.3 1.8 1.9  mg/L -2 -3 -2 -3 -3 -2 -1 -0 1 2 3 3  mg/L inf mg/RTSS mg/L  A -6 -3 -5 -5 -4 -2 -0 2 4 4 6  D  c  B  A  Time  -1.3 -1.7 -1.0 -1.5 -1.3 -1.2 -0.6 -0.1 0.5 1.2 1.3 1.7  -2 -2 -1 -0 -2 7 2 2 2 4 3 6  mg/L inf mg/gTSS mg/L  •  -3 -3 -3 -0 -4 12 3 3 4 8 5 11  106  -1.5 -1.4 -1.3 -0.1 -2.1 5.6 1.6 1.5 1.7 3.7 2.7 5.4  -4 -4 -3 -4 -3 1 -2 -3 -0 -3 1 1  mg/L inf mg/RTSS -5 -6 A -6 A 2 -3 -3 -1 -3 1 1  -5.0 -5.4 -3.8 -5.2 -3.6 1.8 -2.9 -3.2 -0.5 ' -3.2 0.8 1.4  Prop (mg/L)  Total % Acetic as HAc (mg/L)  APPENDIXF  STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  Determination of Statistical Significant Difference in Influent Paramete TSS A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS  df  MS  F  P-value  F-crit  B e t w e e n 3967.46 Within G 20281.1  8 4 9 5 . 9 3 3 1.32046 0.25342 2 . 1 1 5 2 2 54 375.577  Total  62  24248.6  Soluble COD A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 3463.45 Within G 3 5 6 8 2 . 4 Total  39145.8  MS F P-value F-crit 6 577.241 1.58537 0.15942 2 . 1 9 2 5 2 98 364.106 104  VFA  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e i O n e W a y  S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 2569.99 Within G 8 9 2 5 . 2 2  MS F P-value F-crit 9 2 8 5 . 5 5 4 5.75893 5.1 E - 0 7 1.9322 180 4 9 . 5 8 4 6  Total  189  11495.2  9 5 % level of significance  107  APPENDIX  F STA TISTICAL ANAL YSIS  Statistical A n a l y s i s for C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e a n d V F A P r o d u c t i o n Run 1 Side A - V F A Production mg/L Influent  Regression  Statistics  Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations Analysis  of  0.170989 0.029237 -0.00018 1.62896 35  Variance  df  Regression Residual Total  Sum  ofSc  M e a n  Sqi  F  Significance  F  1 2.637301 2.637301 0.993892 0.326047 33 87.56581 2.653509 34 90.20311 Coefficie,  Intercept mg/LInf  Standard  t Statistic  P-value  Lower  95.  Upper  95.00%  16.45194 0.421114 39.06766 0 15.59518 17.3087 0.032763 0.032864 0.996941 0.325836 -0.0341 0.099625  Side B - V F A Production mg/L Influent  Regression  Statistics  Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations Analysis  of  0.448849 0.201465 0.176511 1.42002 34  Variance  df  Regression Residual Total Coeffjclei  Intercept mg/L Inf  Sum  ofS$  Mean  Sgi  F  Significance  F  1 16.27963 16.27963 8.07339 0.007753 32 64.52659 2.016456 33 80.80622 Standard  t Statistic  P-value  Lower  95.  Upper  15.64075 0.407553 38.37716 0 14.81059 16.4709 0.083501 0.029388 2.841371 0.007642 0.02364 0.143361  108  95.00%  APPENDIXF  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  Statistical A n a l y s i s for C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e a n d V F A P r o d u c t i o n  Run 2 Side A - V F A Production mg/L Influent  Regression  Statistics  Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations Analysis  of  0.256355 0.065718 0.052371 8.540527 72  Variance  df  Regression Residual Total  Sum  of  Sc  Mean  Sat  F  Significance  F  1 359.148 359.148 4.923843 0.029732 70 5105.842 72.94059 71 5464.99 Coefttclei  Intercept Temp  Standard  t Statistic  P-value  -11.9464 12.06936 -0.98981 0.325629 1.951394 0.879413 2.218973 0.029686  Lower  95..  Upper  95.00%  -36.018 12.12522 0.19746 3.705328  Side B - V F A Production mg/L Influent  Regression  Statistics  Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations Analysis  of  0.053508 0.002863 -0.01138 16.96933 72  Variance  df  Regression Residual Total Coefflclei  Intercept Temp  Sum  of  SQ  Mean  Sgi  F  Significance  F  1 57.87716 57.87716 0.200992 0.655306 70 20157.07 287.9581 71 20214.94 Standard  t Statistic  P-value  Lower  95.  Upper  25.92557 22.55495 1.14944 0.254232 -19.0589 70.91001 -0.74711 1.666471 -0.44832 0.655287 -4.07078 2.576558  109  95.00%  APPENDIXF  STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  Statistical Analysis for Correlation of Temperature and V F A Production Run 3 Side A - V F A Production mg/L Influent  Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations  0.278113 0.077347 0.057289 19.09396 48  Analysis of Variance '  Regression Residual Total  df  Sum ofSc Mean Sgi F  1 1405.894 1405.894 46 16770.64 364.5792 47 18176.54  Significance F  3.85621 0.055623  Coefficiei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% Intercept Temp  -87.399 53.79196 -1.62476 0.110902 -195.677 20.87856 5.708019 2.906732 1.963724 0.055493 -0.14293 11.55897  Side B - V F A Production mg/L Influent  Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error Observations  0.199462 0.039785 0.018911 14.52412 48  Analysis of Variance df_ Regression Residual Total  Sum ofSc Mean 5q< F 1 402.0605 402.0605 46 9703.705 210.9501 47 10105.77  Significance F  1.90595 0.174086  Coefficiei Standard t Statistic P-value Lower 95. Upper 95.00% Intercept Temp  -37.8744 40.59783 -0.93292 0.355631 -119.594 43.8448 3.054 2.212i43 1.380562 0.173944 -1.39881 7.506813  110  APPENDIX F ST A TISTICAL ANAL YSIS Statistical Analysis for Significant Difference o f H R T Side A V F A Production mg/L Inf A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups Run 1 Run 2  Count 38 38  Sum A v e r a g e Variance 3 3 8 . 0 6 8 . 8 9 6 3 2 133.182 501 1 3 . 1 8 4 2 3 9 . 3 4 3 5  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df B e t w e e n 349.334 Within G 6383.44  MS F P-value F-crit 1 3 4 9 . 3 3 4 4 . 0 4 9 6 6 0.04782 3.97023 74 86.2626  Total  75  6732.77  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . O n e W a y Summary Groups Run 2 Run 3  Count  Sum  A v e r a g e Variance 501 1 3 . 1 8 4 2 3 9 . 3 4 3 5 5 9 5 . 2 5 15.6645 216.79  38 38  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 116.883 Within G 9 4 7 6 . 9 6  MS F P-value F-crit 1 1 1 6 . 8 8 3 0.91267 0.34252 3.97023 7 4 128.067  Total  75  9593.84  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . O n e W a y Summary Groups Run 3 Run 1  Count 38 38  Sum A v e r a g e Variance 5 9 5 . 2 5 15.6645 216.79 3 3 8 . 0 6 8 . 8 9 6 3 2 133.182  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 870.352 Within G 12949  MS F P-value F-crit 1 8 7 0 . 3 5 2 4 . 9 7 3 8 3 0.02877 3.97023 7 4 174.986  Total  75  13819.3  9 5 % level of significance  111  APPENDIX  F ST A TISTICAL ANAL YSIS  Statistical A n a l y s i s for Significant Difference o f  HRT  SideB VFA  Production mg/L  Inf  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . O n e W a y Summary Groups  Count  Run 1 Run 2  Sum  Averagi  Variance  38 3 7 3 . 7 2 7 9 . 8 3 4 9 2 134.014 38 5 7 8 15.2105 163.684  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation 55 df Between 549.046 Within G 11014.8  MS F P-value F-crit 1 5 4 9 . 0 4 6 3.68861 0.05864 3.97023 74 1 48.849  Total  75  11563.9  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups  Count  Run 2 Run 3  Sum  Averagi  Variance  38 5 7 8 15.2105 163.684 38 708.529 18.6455 204.35  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation 55 df B e t w e e n 224.181 Within G 13617.3  MS F P-value F-crit 1 224.181 1.21826 0.27328 3.97023 74 184.017  Total  75  13841.4  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . O n e W a y Summary Groups  Count  Run 3 Run 1  Sum  Averagi  Variance  38 7 0 8 . 5 2 9 18.6455 204.35 38 3 7 3 . 7 2 7 9.83492 134.014  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation 55  df  MS  F  P-value  F-crit  B e t w e e n 1474.9 Within G 12519.4  1 1474.9 8.71783 0.00422 3.97023 74 169.182  Total  75  13994.3  9 5 % level of significance  112  APPENDIXF  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  Statistical Significant Difference in % Soluble COD in the form of VFA Run 1: Side A A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e i O n e W a y Summary Groups  Count  Side A Influent  38 38  Sum  Averagi  Variance  1 3 5 9 . 0 3 3 5 . 7 6 3 9 178.277 9 8 9 . 3 5 9 2 6 . 0 3 5 8 87.314  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation df  MS  B e t w e e n 1798.11 Within G 9 8 2 6 . 8 6  1 74  Total  75  11625  F  P-value  F-crit  1798.11 13.5404 0.00044 3.97023 132.795  Side B A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups Influent SideB  Count 38 38  Sum  Averagi  989.359 26.0358 1409.08 37.0809  Variance 87.314 172.8  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 2317.92 1 Within G 9 6 2 4 . 2 4 74 Total  11942.2  MS F P-value F-crit 2 3 1 7 . 9 2 17.8223 6 . 8 E - 0 5 3.97023 130.057  75  9 5 % level of significance  113  APPENDIXF  STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  Statistical Significant Difference in % Soluble COD in the form of Run 2: Side A A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups Side A Influent  Count 78 78  Sum Average Variance 3 7 9 0 . 5 2 4 8 . 5 9 6 5 501.166 2 2 7 7 . 3 29.1961 3 4 6 . 3 5 2  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df B e t w e e n 14678.6 1 Within G 6 5 2 5 8 . 9 154  Total  79937.5  MS F P-value F-crlt 14678.6 34.639 2 . 4 E - 0 8 3.90255 423.759  155  Side B A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups  Count  Sum  Average  Variance  Influent 78 2 2 7 7 . 3 29.1961 346.352 SideB 78 4 2 8 8 . 4 7 5 4 . 9 8 0 4 1906.49 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 25928.4 1 Within G 1 7 3 4 6 9 154 Total  199398  MS F P-value F-crlt 25928.4 23.0184 3 . 8 E - 0 6 3.90255 1126.42  155  9 5 % level of significance  114  APPENDIX  F ST A TISTICAL ANAL YSIS  Statistical Significant Difference in % Soluble COD in the form of VFA Run 3: Side A A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups Side A Influent  Count 48 48  Sum Average Variance 2 4 9 7 . 3 52.0271 4 7 6 . 8 9 7 1733.6 3 6 . 1 1 6 7 4 7 7 . 9 2 8  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 6075.39 1 Within G 44876.8 94 Total  50952.2  MS F P-value F-crlt 6 0 7 5 . 3 9 12.7257 0.00057 3.9423 477.413  95  Side B A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : O n e W a y Summary Groups Influent Side B  Count 48 48  Sum  Average  Variance  1733.6 3 6 . 1 1 6 7 4 7 7 . 9 2 8 2430.47 50.6348 258.522  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e S o u r c e of Variation SS df Between 5058.66 1 Within G 34613.1 94 Total  39671.8  MS F P-value F-crlt 5 0 5 8 . 6 6 13.738 0.00036 3.9423 368.225  95  9 5 % level of significance  115  

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