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Computerized site documentation of public sector construction projects English, Ralph William 1995

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COMPUTERIZED SITE D O C U M E N T A T I O N OF PUBLIC SECTOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS by R A L P H W I L L I A M E N G L I S H B . A . S c , The University of British Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of Civil Engineering We accept this thesis as conforming to, the required s^aadar$P> THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A April, 1995 © Ralph W. English, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Civil Engineering The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada April 26th, 1995 Date v DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T This paper presents the results of a study to develop and field test a prototype computer-based system, the goal of which is to improve the ability of owners to monitor progress on and manage the site documentation of construction projects. Public agencies in particular often collect exhaustive site data which is used for such on-site purposes as decision-making and reporting, as well as serving claims support and design feedback needs by becoming the basis of the 'as-built' record of construction events. This information is typically kept in the form of site reports, diaries, photographs, test results, meeting minutes, etc. which are recorded, filed and archived in hard copy format for future reference. Retrieving the information relative to specific needs is cumbersome at best, especially when performed well after project completion, and correlating the different information types manually is virtually impossible when considering the volume and diversity of data generated. Additionally, public agencies often have needs unique from those of the private-sector contractor, especially since the former's direct costs are related primarily to contract pay items (e.g.: as with unit price contracts) as opposed to resource and time costs. Using an existing project management system as a starting point, routines were added and integrated with previous functions to accommodate pay item and quality management tracking, the linking of records and pay item information with activities, records searching and sorting, scanned records viewing, and associated report generation. The study makes use of a British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways ii reconstruction project, in order to identify the needs of a public owner, assess the implications of such a system with regard to typical site practices, and field test the prototype system. The resultant prototype system offers a seamless integration of various functions: planning and scheduling, progress measurement, quality management, documentation of progress and problems, and analysis of performance. Benefits of the system are projected to include improvements in claims support, problem assessment, report generation, communications, and feedback for future design and constructability refinement. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Tables vi List of Figures vii Acknowledgement xi Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1 1.2 The Public Owner 2 1.3 British Columbia Ministry of 3 Transportation and Highways Needs Chapter 2: State of the Art 2.1 Literature Review 7 2.1.1 Site Reporting 7 2.1.2 Computerized Construction Systems 9 2.1.3 Hypermedia 11 2.2 Current Software Market 14 Chapter 3: Field Analysis 3.1 Project Selection 16 3.2 Project Administration 18 3.3 Contract Format 21 3.4 Site Records 23 3.5 Project Schedule Modeling 27 3.5.1 System Platform 27 3.5.2 Activity Selection 31 3.5.3 Activity Progress Tracking 35 3.5.4 Activity Status 38 3.5.5 Schedule Updating 41 Chapter 4: System Development 4.1 Overview 43 4.2 Modified Activity Progress Tracking 46 4.3 Pay Items 56 4.3.1 Contract Structure 56 4.3.2 Pay Item Attributes 57 4.3.3 Cash Flow 64 4.3.4 Progress Reporting 73 iv Chapter 4: System Development 4.4 Quality Management 81 (continued) 4.4.1 Current Practice and System Structure 81 4.4.2 Future Quality Management System Features 91 4.5 Change Orders 93 4.5.1 Current Practice 93 4.5.2 Changes to Pay Item Structure 95 4.5.3 Changes to Project Schedule 96 4.5.4 Future Change Order System Features 98 4.6 Records Management 100 4.6.1 Records Linking 100 4.6.2 Records Searching and Sorting 107 4.7 Ministry Reporting 113 4.7.1 Daily Site Information 113 4.7.2 Project Reporting and Claims Analysis 114 4.7.3 Legal Considerations 118 Chapter 5: Considerations for 5.1 Current and Pending Technology 121 Implementation 5.1.1 Portable Data Collectors 122 5.1.2 Video Excerpts 124 5.1.3 C D - R O M 124 5.1.4 Wireless Communication 125 5.1.5 Remote Link-up 125 5.2 Project Management Trends 127 5.3 Personnel Considerations 129 Chapter 6: Conclusions 6.1 Corollary 131 6.2 Future Work 134 6.2.1 Field Testing 134 6.2.2 Additional System Features 135 6.2.3 Data Exchange 136 6.2.4 Productivity Derivation 136 6.2.5 Further Technology 136 6.2.6 Hypertext Specifications Reference 137 6.2.7 System Interface 137 Bibliography 139 Appendix 1 141 v LIST OF TABLES 3.1 Project Location Listing 31 3.2 Project Problem Code Listing 40 4.1 Cash Flow Example: Pay Item Breakdown 66 4.2 Sample Pay Item Progress Measurement and Progress Payment Report 80 4.3 Sample Pay Item Quality Management Listing 83 4.4 Sample Quality Management Test Requirements Listing 90 A l Project Activity Listing 144 A2 Project Network Data 152 vi LIST OF FIGURES 3.1 Barnet Highway Project Location Map 19 3.2 Ministry Site Supervisory Team 20 3.3 Excerpt of Schedule 7: Schedule of Approximate Quantities and Unit Prices 22 3.4 Sample Daily Site Report 26 3.5 Project Location Breakdown 30 3.6 Typical Contractor-Submitted Bar Chart 33 3.7 Project As-planned Schedule 36 3.8 Comparison Bar Chart: Actual versus As-planned Schedules 42 4.1 Prototype System Overview: Study Additions 45 4.2 Daily Data Entry Flowchart: Site Data 48 4.3 Daily Status Data Set-up: Reporting Categories 49 4.4 Daily Status Data Set-up: Site Environment 49 4.5 Daily Status Data: Revised Initial Entry Screen 50 4.6 Daily Status Data: Site Environment Entry 50 4.7 Daily Status Data: Survey Work Entry 51 4.8 Daily Data Entry Flowchart: Activity Data 53 4.9 Daily Status Data: Revised Activity Status Entry 54 4.10 Daily Status Data: Activity Workforce Entry 54 4.11 Daily Status Data: Activity Equipment Entry 55 4.12 Pay Item Data Entry Flowchart 60 4.13 System Pay Item Hierarchy Tree 61 vii LIST OF FIGURES (continued) 4.14 Pay Item Routine Window Options 61 4.15 Pay Item Scope/Cost Data Entry 62 4.16 Pay Item Associate With Activities Entry 62 4.17 Pay Item/Activity Quantity Breakdown By Location 63 4.18 Activity Data: Pay Item Quantity Breakdown 63 4.19 Activity Data: Cost to Client (Owner) 64 4.20 Cash Flow Example: Schedule of Activities 65 4.21 Cash Flow Example: Activity Cost Profiles 68 4.22 Cash Flow Example: Cash Flow Profiles 69 4.23 Cash Flow Profile: Owner Disbursements 71 4.24 Cash Flow Profile: Owner Disbursements vs. Contractor Billing 72 4.25 Progress Measurement Data Flowchart 76 4.26 Pay Item Progress Measurement: No Location Breakdown 77 4.27 Pay Item Progress Measurement: Data Entry, No Location Breakdown 77 4.28 Pay Item Progress Measurement: Location Breakdown Selection 78 4.29 Pay Item Progress Measurement: Location Breakdown Listing 78 4.30 Pay Item Progress Measurement: Data Entry, Location Breakdown 79 4.31 System Standards Sub-menu 83 4.32 Standard Quality Management Test Listing 84 4.33 Standard Quality Management Test Details 84 4.34 System Project Data Sub-menu 85 viii LIST O F F I G U R E S (continued) 4.35 Project Quality Management Details Editing 85 4.36 Quality Management Data Flowchart 86 4.37 Pay Item Quality Management Test Entry 87 4.38 Pay Item Quality Management Default Details 88 4.39 Pay Item Quality Management Custom Details Selection 88 4.40 Pay Item Quality Management Custom Details Entry 89 4.41 Change/Work Order Data Flowchart 97 4.42 Records Management Flowchart 103 4.43 Records Sub-menu 104 4.44 Sample Records Listing: Project Photographs 104 4.45 Record Details Entry 105 4.46 Sample Record Association Selection List: Project Activities 105 4.47 Other Records Association List Sub-menu: Record Type 106 4.48 Sample Other Records Association List: Project Photographs 106 4.49 Records Searching and Reporting Flowchart 108 4.50 Record Report Generator Sub-menu 109 4.51 Record Select Profile Sample Selection List: Search Keys 109 4.52 Record Select Profile: Conditions of Equality Selection List 110 4.53 Record Select Profile Sample Selection List: Problem Codes 110 4.54 Sample Record Sort Profile 111 4.55 Sample Record Search Results Listing 112 ix LIST O F F I G U R E S (continued) A l Project Design Staging Plan: Stages 1 and 2 142 A2 Project Design Staging Plan: Stages 3 and 4 143 A3 Project Description and Location Breakdown Entry 149 A4 Activity Data Entry: Activity Selection List 149 A5 Activity Data Entry: Production Data 150 A6 Activity Data Entry: Predecessors 150 A7 Schedule Execution Sub-menu 151 A8 Daily Status Data: Previous Initial Entry Screen 157 A9 Daily Status Data: Previous Activity Status Screen 157 A l 0 Daily Status Data: Activity Problem Coding 158 A l l Daily Status Data: Activity Problem Details 158 A12 Sample Cost to Owner Report 159 A13 Sample System Generated Daily Site Report Form 160 x ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author expresses his sincere appreciation to the following people who have greatly assisted in the completion of this thesis: Dr. Alan D. Russell, whose invaluable guidance and insight made my studies at U.B.C. both rewarding and enjoyable. Luong Pham and William Wong, for their timely and exemplary work in programming the associated computer routines. Mr. Earl A. Lund, P.Eng. and Mr. Rodney L . Chapman, P.Eng. of the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways (Headquarters) for their moral and financial support of this research. A special thank-you to the staff of Highway Engineering Branch in Victoria for their continuous encouragement and assistance throughout my studies. Mr. Singh Jassal, Mr. Dana Warick and the entire Project Supervision crew for accommodating me on their project and providing me with a clearer understanding of their field operations. It has been a pleasure and a lesson in itself. Mr. Rockne Hewko, Mr. Joe Jensen, P.Eng and staff of The Ministry's South Coast Regional Office for arranging access to the project and providing use of the laptop computer which served me so well. My family and many friends who provided encouragement, and ruthless support when needed. A special acknowledgment to Ann, who accepted the changes and my requisite periods of exile so that I could complete this step in my career. Funding in support of this research was provided to the University of British Columbia, Civil Engineering Department, by the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways. xi Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Objectives Despite the widespread use of computers in almost every field of engineering, few application programs exist which support the documentation of the construction stage of projects. Public agencies such as highway ministries are involved on an ongoing basis in construction projects, often collecting exhaustive site data which is used for such on-site purposes as decision-making and reporting, as well as serving claims support and design feedback needs. Invariably, records supporting these interests have typically been filed and referenced independent of one another in hard copy format, making the retrieval and correlation of available information cumbersome at best (in this paper, the term 'records' will refer to project correspondence, quality management tests, photographs, diaries, etc.). The objective set for this thesis is to design and field test a prototype computer-based system which would improve the ability of public owners to monitor progress on and manage the site documentation of construction projects. Essential to such a system is the ability to seamlessly integrate the functions of planning and scheduling, progress measurement, quality management, documentation of progress and problems, and analysis of performance. This infers that such a system must be able to maintain multiple views of a project, including activity, resource, pay item, location and day-by-day views, in order to facilitate the selective review and analysis of information from various sources on a common basis. 1 Benefits of the proposed system are intended to include improvements in claims support, problem assessment, report generation, communications, and historical reference of as-built records for future design refinement. 1.2 The Public Owner Public owners are the focus of this study primarily because it is from their perspective that the need for a construction documentation system is most prevalent. Since public agencies are charged with the assurance of quality on a project rather than the direct management of site operations, documentation of selected aspects of construction history must be done in greater detail than may be required in the private sector. Internal reporting and claims analysis must incorporate information from the full set of project data, further emphasizing the need for a means to effectively manage the expansive scope of records. Additionally, public agencies often have financial management needs unique from those of the private-sector entity, primarily because their direct costs are related to contract pay items (e.g.: as with unit price contracts) as opposed to resource and time costs. Because most available project management software tends to support the more common private sector activity-based view of site monitoring, public owners have been left without a readily available package which suits their needs. The benefits to be derived from better records management are possibly greater for the public sector than for the private because the work undertaken by a given agency is of a relatively consistent and repetitive nature, and therefore the knowledge obtained can be more 2 readily applied to new work. For claims support, the benefits of having immediate access to the full scope of data contained in site records are apparent when considering the costs involved in litigation. Cost savings are also expected through a reduction in effort required to compile information for various reporting purposes. 1.3 British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways Needs This thesis addresses the needs of one specific owner only - the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways (hereinafter referred to as the Ministry) - in order to identify the needs of a public owner, assess the implications of such a system with regard to typical site practices, and field test the prototype system. A further objective of this work is to perform sufficient research to allow the Ministry to assess the performance and practicality of a system such as that proposed, for possible future development and implementation. One of the primary needs unaddressed by available project management software was identified as the ability to combine project information collected from varying perspectives. This relates directly to the way in which the Ministry has traditionally administered its construction projects. Specifically, the use of unit price contracts implies that many unique records are kept in tracking the costs incurred as contract pay items are applied to the work, while other records must be generated solely in terms of progress on the contractor's activities and schedule. A complicating factor is that a given pay item in the contract may contribute to many site activities, and each activity may involve the application of many pay items, so that the resulting separate 'views' of the work are not easily correlated. Therefore, the proposed 3 system must be able to incorporate information from both of these perspectives and provide a convenient means of linking them into an overall project view. For progress reporting purposes, there is a critical need to reduce the amount of effort which is currently expended on reviewing various site records to garner the required information. A l l record types can contain data relevant to an issue at hand, and it is often difficult to be assured that the full scope of available information has been tapped when the various collected records are uncorrected. This is of particular concern in instances of post-completion reviews for claims analysis or design feedback purposes, when the reviewer must determine the extent and location of available data without the benefit of recent familiarity. The system must therefore be designed to offer an improved way to sift through the volumes of data contained in the current records formats. The goal here is to reduce the time and effort required to find and collate information for on-site progress reporting, claims support, and feedback to designers. The Ministry would also benefit from the ability to utilize the system to gain timelier insight into problems as they occur on-site. A computerized database of all records information would support the capability to manipulate component data far quicker and in ways not feasible with manual methods. For this reason, the study sought to capitalize on this quality and facilitate the presentation of system contents in forms which would better indicate site trends. 4 Through necessity, project records are currently archived in hard copy form for extended periods of time. The system should provide a means of more conveniently storing supporting project information for historical reference. The computer offers the ability to have large volumes of data retained on disk, which allows for easy distribution to many parties and the ready retrieval of information. Another advantage of this approach to data storage includes the ability to peruse records details without physically examining what has traditionally involved many boxes of records. In the event that the hard records must be accessed anyway, the proposed system should provide a way to narrow the search by indicating which record type, dates, and files contain the desired information. Through more conveniently retrievable project histories, the system should also support the capture of corporate memory - the collective experience and knowledge of staff - which is at risk of being lost through retirement and attrition; processes, strategies and insight must be documented for future reference and training. A critical objective in promoting the practicality of the resulting system is to ensure that field staff, who will experience the most impact from eventual implementation, are provided with benefits which warrant the change in their operations. The context in this regard is that it is at the site level that the success of the system will be determined by the extent of application and improvement in data availability. Therefore, the system must offer sufficient on-site advantages if affected personnel are to actively support its use, and allow the proposed benefits for management to be realized. 5 It is important to emphasize that this thesis did not involve the assessment of the scope of data currently collected in the field; the objective was to determine a means of better managing the information being collected through the existing, historically-refined, largely manual process. This approach was justified on the grounds that the extent of records obtained and their formats have received considerable attention in the Ministry over many years of application, to the point that the currently employed standard processes can reasonably be assumed to represent collection of an optimal level of detail. Eventual implementation of a construction management system may ultimately reveal obvious areas for improving the scope of data collected, but this is left as a topic for future consideration. 6 Chapter 2 STATE OF THE ART 2.1 Literature Review 2.1.1 Site Reporting The benefits of proper site reporting have been widely documented, along with recommendations for the scope of reporting (Jergeas and Hartman 1994). There is a marked consensus in the literature that the advantages to be gained include better insight into on-site progress, support for claim and change analysis, and the capturing of knowledge for application in future work (Reams 1990, Pogorilich 1992, Leymeister, Shah and Jain 1993, Russell 1993, Jergeas and Hartman 1994, etc.). The returns in terms of time saved and information acquired can easily justify the reporting effort (Pogorilich 1992). After reviewing the literature, it became apparent that the Ministry employs relatively robust site documentation procedures in relation to common suggestions for practice and detail (refer to Section 3.4 for a description of the scope of Ministry data collection). Therefore, the objective of designing the prototype system based on the Ministry's current records formats was further justified. With regard to the documentation needs of various owner-agencies, several papers confirm a general consistency. Of particular relevance, Tavakoli (1988) has performed staged work on the assessment of inter-agency consistencies, and recommendations for subsequent scheduling and control processes (Tavakoli 1990), based on a review of five state departments 7 of transportation or highways (DOT's). From this work, it was ascertained that the approach to construction management is similar among the agencies reviewed, and comparable to the Ministry's practices. This is particularly true of the shared need for an as-planned schedule, a means to track actual progress against the planned schedule, and simplified monthly progress reporting. The difficulty in manually associating contract pay items with contractor activities has also been noted (Tavakoli 1990). He recommends a process which is suitable for use by all DOT agencies which involves the collection of contractor-estimated projections of progress and cost (as a percentage of bid), as well as progress achieved, to produce 'S'-curve graphical representations of status. This proposed process unfortunately does not include the effects of activities not underway (either ahead or behind schedule), and is largely manual, utilizing a computer mainly for generating the 'S'-curve graph. The author does, however, suggest that future work look at computerizing both the scheduling and document tracking aspects of agency site management. The implications for this study are that the proposed tailoring of a construction management system to the specific requirements of the Ministry will undoubtedly hold particular relevance for other transportation agencies. The concepts applied in formulating the system's records tracking and searching features, as well as their intended integration with the project schedule, should be of interest to those involved in the management of site records for various project types. 8 2.1.2 Computerized Construction Systems Substantial work has gone into the conceptualization and development of computer applications to assist with the management and analysis of increasingly extensive construction site records. Dakers (1990) describes a document tracking system developed for use on projects involving steel structures, process plants, mills, pipelines and other similar works. System capabilities are claimed to include a drawing register (for tracking submittals, approvals and changes), the assessment of trends, materials tracking, procurement status, and documentation of testing results. A system for tracking and analyzing change orders as applied on a tunneling project is the focus of work by Leymeister, Shah and Jain (1993). Here, a database of labour, equipment and materials is used to derive productivities which can be exploited to compare billings submitted for change orders with those costs incurred on other contract work. Line graphs can be created from within the system to show progress versus time for contract and change order sourced incidents of the same work type. Data can also be selectively reviewed to ensure that there is no duplication of charges in the contractor's submissions for time and materials reimbursements. Russell (1993) presents the approach used in developing daily site reporting capabilities for REPCON, a computerized scheduling and construction management system. This system merges the functions of computer scheduling and daily progress reporting to facilitate the following: automated updating of the as-planned schedule, analysis of collected 9 data in the context of activity and time variables, problem identification, and the documentation of daily site data in an easily referenced manner. It is this system which was chosen as the platform on which to build the records tracking routines proposed under this study; further details on pre-study R E P C O N capabilities are presented in Section 3.5. A similar but less vigorous database system was developed and tested on a building site by Tse (1989). This system allows for the entry of daily site report data such as weather, site conditions, activity status, coded problem references, locations, equipment and manpower, as well as qualitative performance assessments. Although many simple graphical representations of the input data are accommodated for ready analysis, there is no linkage to an as-planned schedule. With regard to computerized systems developed for transportation projects specifically, two examples were noted. Chin (1985) describes one of the earliest such systems, which permits tracking of contract pay item progress. While the system can generate daily report, cost overrun, monthly cost, and total cumulative material usage summaries, there is no relationship to an activity breakdown or schedule. Al l searching and summaries are effected in terms of specified pay item references only. Another system, used by the New Jersey Department of Transportation, has been detailed by Blasko (1988). Data from manual forms containing activity, progress quantities, weather, workforce and equipment are transferred to the computer, which is tailored mainly to track and compile reports on the various information categories entered. Calculation and reporting capabilities provide an improvement over the previous strictly manual methods, to the extent that the time required to create certain daily and monthly reports was reduced from an order of magnitude of hours to 10 10-20 minutes. Of interest, the author also states that the benefits of the system have helped to convert previously computer-disinclined personnel into advocates. To address the need for a comprehensive management system, this study will therefore focus on incorporating activity and pay item reporting data into an overall project view, supported by linkage to the project schedule, since none of the systems described in the literature provide this capability. In this way, the goal is to model how distinct project records, which have traditionally (and universally) been treated as unique data entities, contribute to the complete picture of construction events. In the interest of facilitating eventual implementation, features of the prototype must include those which benefit field staff as well, in order to promote acceptance. 2.1.3 Hypermedia It was evident that the prototype system to be developed under this study would involve the application of some form of hypermedia, which can be defined as the computer manipulation of integrated text, data, pictures, video and/or audio. Thus, a review of recent literature covering this topic was deemed essential. Bubbers and Christian (1993) propose the use of a hypertext system for claims analysis support. With hypertext and hypermedia, the notion is that material need not be reviewed in the traditional sequential fashion of one page following another i f it is linked in what are referred to as 'nodes'. Through use of an appropriate hypertext shell program, conventional text is redrafted into small subsections of information - the nodes - and 11 associated with other relevant nodes. The user can selectively maneuver through the information, moving from one node to the other, usually by selecting a key word in the current node which activates a move to the pertinent associated node. For example, in the Bubbers/Christian prototype, the user can be perusing a specific contract clause, and select on-screen buttons which bring up case law, additional references, Construction Specifications Canada text, and other relevant excerpts all associated with the topic at hand. These new nodes in turn can lead to completely new information paths, or the user can return to previously viewed screens. The authors claim great promise for the technology as a contract documents analysis and educational tool, but caution that this type of system requires a significant amount of effort to incorporate the full scope of base information and maintain its currency. Although the premise of hypermedia is the same as described for hypertext, the application is expanded to cover additional forms of information. Venegas and Baker (1994) have characterized the requirements and application potential of systems exploiting hypermedia. They observe that prevailing computer technology allows for the accommodation of video clips, photographic images, audio excerpts, autocad drawings and text within a PC-based platform, all at a reasonable quality of presentation. With regard to the specific use of hypermedia in construction management systems, they note that there is a potential to combine references to project drawings, video and photograph records, report data, and the like, allowing immediate access to associated but multiform information from a single platform. The inherent advantages of this feature include not only the ready review of diverse forms of records, but also the correlation of project data in a form which assists with 12 effective events documentation and knowledge transfer (e.g.: design feedback, training), and a possible reduction in the required volume of hard copies of the same information. These benefits are corroborated separately in a paper by Williams (1994). Rocha and Morad (1993) have taken the concept of hypermedia a step further by proposing the complementary use of artificial intelligence in information retrieval systems. The simulated reasoning provided by an expert system is applied to the hypermedia network, essentially leading the user to the relevant associated data which would otherwise be accessed by direct selection. It was therefore determined that the prototype system developed under this study should exploit several of the foregoing capabilities. The incorporation of contract specifications or other extensive reference text into the system is an issue which may warrant future attention, but will be omitted from the scope of this work. Therefore, there will be no need to apply true hypertext at this stage. The underlying concept as employed in hypermedia will be utilized, however, to accommodate the viewing of photographic records associated with other material being reviewed. Similarly, the user should be able to 'jump' from one view of the data (e.g.: daily site report activity information) to another related view (e.g.: pay items used on that activity, and their test requirements) through internally defined linkages between the otherwise uniquely entered data sets. 13 2.2 Current Software Market Currently available software tends to target the largest client base - private contractors - and focuses on an activity-centric view of a project. Even when a work breakdown structure is accommodated, it is predicated on a hierarchical structure which uses the activity as the basic source of information. Recent versions of industry-leading packages such as Primavera P3 For Windows and Microsoft Project 4.0 have refined abilities in these areas, with impressive graphic capabilities and powerful but simplified user interfaces. With regard to the recording and tracking of as-built information as collected by the Ministry, however, capabilities remain lacking. Also, the strictly activity-centric approach is simply not flexible enough to meet the Ministry's needs with regard to pay items and records searching issues. Two programs which provide records tracking features were identified in a limited survey of the market. Primavera Systems has developed Expedition, a stand-alone package which allows the user to enter project correspondence, transmittals, site conditions, and resources used. Not all of this information is readily correlated to a project schedule, although certain correspondence can be linked to common 'issues' for ease of reference. Daily Log by C M R Publishing Inc. allows the user to import a project schedule from Primavera P3 and append actual start and finish dates, remaining durations, resources used, and information on delays to the P3 activities; this data can later be exported to P3 to generate an as-built schedule. Historical information can be reviewed only by perusing free-form records as they were entered, on a day-by-day basis. 14 In addition to the fact that all Ministry needs (especially with regard to pay items) cannot be addressed with a combination of the above products, the use of several packages to perform a comprehensive task is less than ideal. Therefore, this thesis sought to develop a seamless, inclusive system which would correlate the Ministry's separate activity and pay item site data, as well as permit referencing to various records. 15 Chapter 3 FIELD ANALYSIS In order to ascertain the needs of the typical public owner and in particular those of the Ministry, it was necessary to obtain access to a representative highway construction project and the staff involved in its site administration. Field analysis would also allow assessment of the practicality of the proposed system in terms of the expected impacts to personnel and procedures. The project characteristics required to meet these objectives included complexity of a level suitable to provide a rigorous testing platform, geographic convenience, and scheduling which coincided with the study period. 3.1 Project Selection The Ministry's South Coast Regional Office in Burnaby, B.C. is responsible for the administration of most highway works in the Vancouver area, including major highway construction projects. Many such projects are monitored by in-house site supervision teams (others by similar teams contracted from the consulting industry), which are typically assigned to an individual project for its duration. These teams perform the project documentation on behalf of the owner, and also serve as the owner's on-site liaison with the prime contractor. In anticipation that the study would entail a great deal of consultation with site staff to ensure an understanding of the procedures employed and to confirm needs, it was agreed with Regional officials that less disruption to the project administration would occur if the selected project employed in-house supervisory staff. An additional benefit of observing field 16 processes undertaken with in-house staff is that these Ministry teams are generally more familiar with the standard requirements, having been continually occupied on projects which consistently apply the procedures of interest. Reviewing the Ministry's fiscal capital construction program with these criteria in mind, it was agreed with Regional officials that projects associated with the Barnet Highway Project would be suitable. This program involves the widening of an existing two lane arterial from Port Moody to Burnaby to accommodate a minimum of four lanes of traffic, including a high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane in each direction. By April, 1994, work had been completed on several sections of the route with funding in place to initiate the remaining two-contract sections. Figure 3.1 provides a plan showing the location of these projects. Of the two contracts, Project 08690 - Texaco Drive to Petro Canada was selected as the focus of the study as it was anticipated that it would provide the optimum level of progress and range of activities to observe over the study period. Construction was scheduled to begin in August, 1994 with completion planned no later than October 31st, 1995. While it was recognized that it would not be necessary to follow the project from beginning to end in order to properly assess the functionality of the proposed documentation measures, the project schedule nevertheless held promise of permitting observation of a majority of the work, including several significant milestones. Project 08690 - Texaco Drive to Petro Canada can be described as 2.5 kilometers of four lane arterial reconstruction, with two signalized intersections and 560 meters of split grade. Significant project features include six structural retaining walls, a box culvert 17 diversion of a fish-bearing stream, and reconstruction of impacted park facilities. Other challenges are the need to maintain existing traffic on the route throughout construction, importation of replacement fill material and gravels, and the narrow working corridor. Figure 3.5 in Section 3.5 includes a representation of the general arrangement of the contract works. 3.2 Project Administration Under the terms of the standard Ministry construction contract, the prime contractor is assigned the responsibility for construction of all project works in accordance with the required specifications for materials and performance, while the Ministry assumes responsibility for assuring that these requirements are met and that value is obtained on the expenditure of public finances. Inherent in this structure is the basic philosophy that the contractor be allowed to employ a flexibility of processes which is intended to exploit the advantages of competitiveness in the private market, while limiting the imposition of constraints to those required to ensure quality, timeliness, and conformity with regulatory requirements (e.g.: environmental). The contractor is free to adopt any accepted construction strategy which meets the stated constraints; his as-planned schedule is submitted prior to construction start-up for review and approval by the Ministry. The Ministry's site representative's role is therefore limited to that of the documentation of progress against the contractor's approved as-planned schedule, assurance of quality, and contract administration, as opposed to the outright management of construction operations. 18 19 The site supervisory team assigned to Project 08690 consists of a Project Supervisor, a senior assistant, three site office personnel, and six field personnel. Of the site office staff, two are dedicated to computer interpretation of downloaded electronic field survey data, calculation of the resultant progress quantities, and drawing production. Other than the single survey supervisor, field staff generally rotate duties between daily data collection, testing and survey support in an effort to encourage an overall understanding of the project and improve interest. Figure 3.2 shows the general organizational structure of the site supervisory team. It is significant to note that in this instance, the site supervisory team was assigned responsibility for monitoring both Project 08690 (the study project) and the adjacent contract, Project 09052, a section of similar scope which was to see construction initiated in October, 1994. Therefore, for a majority of the projects' duration, the single team would be tracking, testing and measuring progress on both simultaneously. Office Manager Project Supervisor Senior Assistant I • daily diaries • daily site reporting • progress reporting CAD/Computer Technician CAD/Computer Assistant • survey data interpretation • progress quantity calculations • drawing production Site Inspectors (4) • daily site reporting • quality management testing • photographs, videos Survey Supervisor I Survey Assistant • progress measurements • layout • survey quality assurance Figure 3.2 - Ministry Site Supervisory Team 20 3.3 Contract Format As with most Ministry capital projects, the construction contract for Project 08690 was tailored to have the majority of work completed under the responsibility of a prime contractor in direct contract with the Provincial Government of British Columbia. The prime contractor in turn may subcontract any of the component works to other pre-approved vendors. In this case, subcontractors were employed by the successful bidder to perform clearing, bulk excavation, culvert tunneling, landscaping and electrical installations, as well as other miscellaneous works. Some project tasks were to be accomplished outside of this main contract however, but were limited to such activities as pavement marking which is typically performed by Ministry crews, power and telephone service relocations by the respective owner-agencies, and watermain service connections by municipal forces. These exceptions to an all-inclusive contract represent some additional coordination effort by either the supervisory team or prime contractor, but entailed work which is traditionally addressed in this way, such that all players were familiar with the risks involved. The contract is structured in a strictly unit price format for all planned work. This implies that a pay item exists for all measurable work on the project, generally representative of the material quantities used for various applications. Labour is for the most part considered incidental to the provision of the physical works, as are such ancillary tasks as traffic control, quality control testing, and contractor administration. This provides the Ministry with the ability to simplify the determination of progress payments by having the single unit price for each contract pay item represent the full cost for supply, installation and administration of the 21 work by the contractor. Figure 3.3 is an excerpt of Schedule 7 of the construction agreement for Project 08690, which indicates contract pay items, their expected quantities and ultimately the accepted bid unit prices. SCHEDULE 7 IQJECT NO. 0-8690 Pg* 2 of 18 I ITEM* DESCRIPTION OF WORK UMIT OF MEASURE APPROX QUANTITY UNIT PRICE .EXTENDED AMOUNT 2 .3.2 Type "D" excavate, load, haul, and dispose m3 112,700 2 3.3 Type "A" excavate, load, haul and dispose m3 250 2 3.4 Allowance for Payments Under Special Provisions Clauses 2.3(c for Type C Excav. P.S. 1 $5,000.00 $5,000.00 2 4 Existing pavement Removal, and Recycling (SP 2.4) 2 Remove and dispose m2 1,450 2 4.2 Remove by mil l ing, f u l l depth ra2 14,200 2 5 Increased Compaction (SP 2.5) ra2 12,600 2 6 Granular Materials, supply, haul and place (SP 2.6) 2 6.1 25mm well graded base ra3 11,300 2 6.2 50mm well graded base m3 10,100 2 6.3 Selected Granular Subbase m3 29,600 2 7 Imported Embankment Material (SP 2.7)Supply, Haul Place and Compact m3 66,800 2 8 Drainage Blankets, supply, haul, place and compact (SP 2.8) m3 2,600 2 9 Fencing and Gates, Supply and Place (SP 2.10) 2 9.1 Fencing, (13-SP203) c/w 25x50 Battens m 280 Figure 3.3 - Excerpt of Schedule 7: Schedule of Approximate Quantities and Unit Prices 2 2 3.4 Site Records The documentation of site events on behalf of the owner involves a number of independent record types. In addition to those records generated as a consequence of typical owner - contractor dealings (e.g.: letters, memoranda, minutes of meetings, permits, etc.), Ministry site staff produce several basic sets of supporting data which specifically document progress on the project works directly. Field personnel observe and report on various aspects of the contractor's work, creating standard records in the following formats: i) Project Diaries: The Project Supervisor and his assistant maintain independent versions of personal diaries which contain information on relevant observations and discussions on a daily basis. The contents tend to support and supplement information contained in the other records generated. ii) Daily Site Reports: On a daily basis, one or two field staff complete a standardized, pre-printed form indicating site progress. The report contains information on contractor resources, pay items applied, active locations, and general comments, all primarily in terms of the contractor's scheduled site activities. General site conditions are also noted. A sample completed Daily Site Report from Project 08690 is shown in Figure 3.4. iii) Quality Management Results: Formal results from quality assurance and quality control testing are kept in the appropriate format based on the tests performed. Informal observations or comments resulting from casual inspections may be contained in Daily Diaries and Daily Site Reports. In all cases, testing results are in terms of contract pay items only. 23 iv) Progress Measurements: Progress measurements on contract pay items are performed not only for the purpose of providing a further indication of status, but primarily as a means of determining contractor progress payments. Interestingly, it is the Ministry that prepares progress billings on the basis of these measurements, which the contractor merely reconciles. Most measurements are documented in the form of quantity surveys performed by Ministry staff, while others may be obtained by weigh scale, visual estimate, field count, or contractor invoice. v) Photographs and videos: Throughout the course of the project, field personnel are encouraged to take numerous photographs of work in progress and other notable site occurrences. These may contain information on site activities, resources, active locations, pay items used, site conditions, etc.. Video records are not currently as prevalent, but are increasingly encouraged in instances of rock blasting or the employment of unique construction processes. The current process undertaken by staff in correlating these various records relies heavily on their knowledge of which information is likely to be contained in each. For example, if the Site Supervisor wanted to peruse all collected information relevant to a particular claim for extra payment, he may narrow the focus of his records review to a search of only those record sets which he knows are most likely to contain applicable data or comments (e.g.: daily site reports for activity status, photographs, letters from the contractor, etc.). Nevertheless, this process involves a labored manual review of the record sets, which 24 inevitably results in some material being omitted due to the volume and diversity of material handled. 25 PROJECT: BARNET HVY. CONTRACT NO: 086% CONTRACTOR: ba b l a c k t o p REPORT NO: DATE: INSPECTOR: ram*' Tenpi AM_J2C Weather; PM_£v»»*>y-MANPOWER/EQUIPMENT IN USE/ACTIVITY (ntkt ipvcMt notr of *qwfm«M novtd on/off Ml*, and My ipvcHHftd *qulpn*ftt n ultl PAY ITEM STA. TO STA. 3B<oo- i»»««iO)«r ACTIVITIES EQUTP/MNPWR OA B A -S A SA HAQUAifc s a t a Ton FMJ.M/L .z-40<, p*rxMi<,tBr A T V M J P 6 H & punftut TivMOfnS ./-4QA PAtrjc/vCr&oT 38»e>o - 4o*<c> 40*U,KT H«wu6. LA«». coo»evtJAr/»jo fibers Fo* drgyifnauri FimrAto HA«J i. A vide. oifT cunacM S T A A ^ , / --4o« }t-TO* 3 MflV 4<*20 - 4>»;fo i pumua- ftynS UP row BAatffVAol » T J M J T « t ] 3 •*3.ao- 4B*V>+\ K * C A > / A T V U & Tyi^g p n/rretiAjL e»on mA £o**ot.Tt<Ai2.T.< o C A T M J - ^ - Z . MAOt/«jQ Am*y Type a MA-rfig/At <Tt>c*f>,<jr smr art. of* get. at*. U,T-//.Art. + -44<fl0 »,tJ 19t>ELt tX>£ 44*00 - 4&*tP ovmtseefXM eaoipnfrr^ Tyre o « I C A W P « ^ HTKCMI HQS sotoo- so+go«A a^Kiaolltr XJP v O O O P I U T O CHIPS PUHP/tJC* eeuceenf Po* PAD A T xuifT ir<uo aoy rmtrnf TVff" •4-5.20- 4%*-jQti cemtttn eat. PAD * «W K/At* PAOtftS EXTRA WORK HAUL EWD No. Location Equipnent Hrs Manpower Hrs Material Cut S/S fill S/S Vol/LC • VISITORS ON SITE PAT nnsoiOB f&so TCcU*) QUALITY ASSURANCE coucterf Tfsr Ai* IHCAM* P.S. SIGNATURE INSP. SIGNATURE Figure 3.4 - Sample Daily Site Report 3.5 Project Schedule Modeling Field observation clearly indicated that the prototype system developed had to provide support for alternate activity and pay item views of the same work by linking them and providing common associations to other project elements such as documents, tests, and change orders. Since most on-site staff possess an intuitive understanding of how the contract, site work, test results and other records relate, any computer system proposed to assist them had to be able to generate the project views required to support their work using data collected in established formats. Thus, current practice - not the architecture of existing project management systems - was the focus for design of the system. This is critical to the Ministry in evaluating its potential application, both in terms of functionality and the likelihood of success as measured by ease of implementation and degree of use. Nevertheless, central to the approach adopted is the need to produce at the very least an as-planned project schedule. Other project features such as pay item structuring, quality management, and records tracking would then be tied to this schedule as a means of linking them to a common time element and organizing them in a logical fashion. 3.5.1 System Platform Tavakoli (1988 and 1990), Jereas and Hartman (1993), Russell (1993) and others have identified the strengths associated with scheduling in the network format. While the simplicity and legibility of bar charts lend them to wider field application, the derivation of this type of schedule should nevertheless be based on a network model, such that the benefits of the 27 inherent and more explicit activity dependencies can be exploited (Tavakoli, 1990, Jereas and Hartman, 1993). Field observation confirmed that the bar chart was the scheduling apparatus of choice on the Barnet Highway Project, and was expected to remain so for most Ministry projects in the foreseeable future. A research system called REPCON, a project scheduling and site reporting system developed at the University of British Columbia, was chosen as the platform for development of the prototype system. The educational version of REPCON already possessed scheduling capabilities which met the preferred network modeling criterion, and could accommodate the recording of progress information and problems against component activities (Russell 1993). A project network can be created in REPCON by entering base activities and their production attributes, as well as the required predecessors and type of relationships (i.e.: finish-start, start-start, etc.). Additionally, the project itself can be partitioned into a series of locations in order to further refine the definition of relationships and sequencing of work between various locations of an activity, model unique precedence of various locations between activities, and better represent spatial variations in productivity or duration from location to location. The resulting model can be presented in traditional bar chart (by location if desired), network/CPM, or time-space formats (Russell and Wong, 1993). The nature of highway construction is such that activities do not typically assume the more uniform cyclical structure that they can on projects such as high-rise construction, where sequencing and durations from location to location (e.g.: floor to floor) are generally consistent. Thus, it was anticipated that a spatial refinement of the activity modeling would yield notable benefits for the study. 28 The study project was therefore divided into a set of base locations. It was determined that linear partitioning along the main line to a level of detail suitable for refinement without imposing unreasonable modeling and tracking requirements would be pursued. Significant project areas off of the main line were uniquely defined as well. Location boundaries were set based on two criteria - ease of reference and/or relevance to notable project elements. For example, even main line stationing (e.g.: 'station 40+00') provided an easily referenced boundary when no other constraints were apparent, while the boundary of station 44+10 was selected because it marked the beginning of Wall #12; by setting the boundary at this point rather than at station 45+00, the entire structure could be logically referenced within a single location. The benefits of modeling pay item quantity allocations by project location are addressed in Section 4.2 of this paper. An overall project site location was also included in order to provide an effective means to model those activities for which refinement by location was not either desired or applicable. One such example would be the activity of project mobilization, which is not tracked by location by the Ministry, but is rather addressed as a single effort for the entire site. The resulting location breakdown for the project through application of this criteria is as presented in Table 3.1. A project key map illustrating the study location boundaries is presented as Figure 3.5. 29 o CO Project 08690 - Barnet Highway: Texaco Drive to Petro Canada Code Location Name Location Description L7-1 L-7A, Sta. 36+70 to 40+00 Barnet Highway 7A line, Section 1 (330 meters), including L30 (Texaco Drive) and L31 (Municipal Reservoir access) lines. L7-2 L-7A, Sta. 40+00 to 44+10 Barnet Highway 7A line, Section 2 (410 meters). L7-3 L-7A, Sta. 44+10 to 50+00 Barnet Highway 7A line, Section 3 (590 meters). L7-4 L-7A, Sta. 50+00 to 55+00 Barnet Highway 7A line, Section 4 (500 meters). L7-5 L-7A, Sta. 55+00 to 61+00 Barnet Highway 7A line, Section 5 (600 meters). L40 L-40 line and parking area Marine Park parking lot and access road. L50 L-50 line Marine Park/Coast marksmen access and Takeda Drive. L60 L-60 and L-61 lines Local road, including General Chemical access. P R O J Overall project site designation. Table 3.1 - Project Location Listing 3.5.2 Activity Selection As with modeling of any type of project, activities must be included which represent packages of work commonly recurring on other similar projects, as well as those which may be unique to a particular project or necessary to adequately model the logical sequencing of events on site. This seems to have particular relevance on highway projects, where constraints imposed by the accommodation of existing traffic and the project-specific 31 instances of unique construction strategies or structures can dictate the way in which construction can proceed. As a matter of current policy, the Ministry requires that the prime contractor submit a bar chart of planned activities prior to construction start, with updated versions submitted monthly, or more frequently as progress dictates. The original design includes a staging plan which provides a basis for the as-planned schedule in lieu of any approved alternate presented by the contractor. Excerpts from the staging plan presented in the contract drawings for Project 08690 are provided as Figures A l & A2 in Appendix 1. The original staging plan was adopted by the contractor in this case (as it is on most Ministry contracts), and served as a reference for creation of the activity breakdown applied in this study. It must be noted that while the bar charts traditionally submitted by contractors are generally of acceptable detail to satisfy Ministry requirements, they tend to lack any network information and as a result are viewed by field supervisory staff as being of limited benefit at best. Figure 3.6 shows a typical bar chart as submitted by the contractor on Project 08690. The objectives of deriving a practical and vigorous network model for this project then came to include observing whether such a device would provide staff with a more useful reference than the common manual bar charts. 32 < x a X y— < r-CC O Q. W Z r-u. O >-CC r-</) < Q < i! o cc r-LU a O r-rr D o o UJ O H 2 UJ o it >-< x u X r-UJ Z CC < m UJ _i ZD O UJ X o V) z o r-o IPC a. o r-O CO < CD < 3 I ..V 7 «V I M IK! s; .No JS U « w <u E •Q 3 C/5 o w cs fc» +» c o u •Ml et ' a • 4) 9 61) 33 Table A l in Appendix 1 presents the list of activities used to create the network model for the study project. The breakdown, durations and sequencing of these activities were derived through iterative discussion with Ministry and contractor staff, as well as review of the initial bar chart schedule submitted by the contractor and the original design staging plan. While every effort was made to incorporate the best available consensus from these sources for values used, it was recognized that the as-planned schedule would in all likelihood be subject to constant revision as work progressed. Indeed, from the Ministry's point of interest, the as-planned schedule serves not only as a benchmark for measuring expected progress, but also as a reference against which to document the way in which the work was ultimately performed. From this perspective, initial estimations of duration and sequencing of work between locations of an activity need not be as precise - it is the tracking of how actual work proceeded against this plan which yields the greatest benefits to the Ministry, in terms of both claims support and creating a knowledge base for reference in nature work. In setting up the project in REPCON, base project information was first entered, such as the contractors involved and the project description and location breakdown (Figure A3). Within the Enter Activity Data routine, all schedule activities are then noted. By selecting individual activities from the entered list (Figure A4), the necessary network data for each can be appended through various windows such as Production Data by location (Figure A5), and Predecessors (Figure A6). Once this information is available to the system for all activities, logic can be checked and a schedule calculated through the appropriate routines accessed under the Execute sub-menu (Figure A7). Table A2 provides a listing of the project activities, 34 their predecessors, successors, and production data, as applied to derive the as-planned schedule. Figure 3.7 shows the associated graphical representation of this schedule in bar chart format. 3.5.3 Activity Progress Tracking Once an as-planned schedule has been established, the task of tracking progress against it must be undertaken as the actual work proceeds. Obviously, the more detail that is applied to the tracking, the more useful these records will be in later application. It was recognized, however, that there must exist some optimal level of effort in this regard such that the detail acquired meets the intended need for documentation without imposing unreasonable strain on field resources. While it may have been possible to perform an assessment of the marginal benefit to be derived from incremental changes in data collecting effort, this issue was nonetheless outside the scope of this study; as stated earlier, a central context to this work was to assume that Ministry field data collecting procedures had been essentially refined empirically through years of application and regulation. Again, it was a goal of this study to manipulate the existing realm of data to improve retrieval and interpretation. For this reason, the study sought to maximize the utilization of available data while minimizing the imposition of additional field effort. 35 UBC C O N S T R U C T I O N MANAGEMENT L A B File Used: C:\REP200\PR0J03\BNTBK Select/Sort Profile Seled: no hammock Sort: early start in ascending order Date Selection: Act/Sch/Early Schedule Mindow lime: I2AUG94 To 29SEP95 Locations: L7-1 To PROJ B a r n e t H i g h w a y - T e x a c o D r i v e t o P e t r o C a n a d a A s - p l a n n e d S c h e d u l e Report Date: 27MAR95 Report Tine: 14: 34:17 Progress Date: Revision Number: 0 Start Milestone • f in ish Milestone S7 Hammock Noncritical Critical MB I Installed WW Estimated II Positive float Negative float Progress Date I 1994 AUG 22 29 S E P 6 12 19 26 I OCT J 11 17 24 NOV 7 14 21 2B D E C 5 12 19 J A N 9 16 23 30 F E B 6 13 20 27 MARCH 6 13 20 27 APR 10 IB 24 1 9 9 5 MAY B 15 23 29 J U N E | 12 19 26 3 J U L Y 10 17 24 A U G U S T 8 14 21 28 S E P 11 18 25 Project Completion PflOJV PROJ^ Project Start Mobilization L 7 - l ^ L 7 - 4 ^ L60g2 Clearing and grubbing - EB L 7 - 2 ^ | L40^ L 7 - 3 ^ L50@ L7-111 L7-4tj^  L6O0 Stripping - EB L7-2^ L40^ L7-1I L7-4E Tunnel Culverts L7-^ T > 4 | L40K L50E L7-Excavation S Embankment - EB L60B Install Box Culvert L7-: Subdrains - Stage I L7- Hall 8 .i Hall 9 L7-i Mall 10 L 7 - 2 M u-W Nail 11 L7-2| L7-3K L60E L50E1 Haterwrks U-lffflM | L 7 - 3 ^ ^ BC Hydro S BC Tel Relocations L 7 - 2 ^ ^ U-4^M I L7- i^L7-3^ L4O0 L60i |L50g Granular Bases - EB I L7-4t^ I L7-2H L7-1E ] Burnaby Service Connections L7-3i j Storn Drainage - EB Stage I L7-1»7-3EH |L40fJ L60i | L5O0 Preduct ; EB U-»M L7"?l L7-5t^ L?-2^ Temporary Midening L7-3^ I L7-i| ABC Paving - EB L7-3J L7-4| L7-21 I L7-1H L7-4H| Clearing and grubbing - HB 1 L7-2BB |L7-1| Temp. Signs S Markings - EB L7-2| L7-3| L7-4| L7-5| PR0J|End Stage I - Shift Traffic L7-10 Pavement removal - KB L7-20 L501 L40^ Finish L40 along Hall 8 L7-3^ Culvert Replacement L7-lHL7-4^ Stripping - KB L7-2^ | L7-3^ L7- Hall 13 L7-1I L7-4I L50E53 Excavation & Embankment - HB U-lffl L7-2tJ L7-3[gj Removal of Existing Works ' L7-4FJ I I L7-1K . IL7;: L7-3f^L40tJ^ Storm Drainage - HB L 7 - « I I L7-3| Granular Bases - KB L7-4SJ L4 L50B L7-3H Preduct - HB O N Figure 3.7 - Project As-planned Schedule 1994 AUG 22 29 S E P 6 12 19 26 I O C T 3 11 17 24 NOV 7 14 21 28 D E C 5 12 19 J A N 9 16 23 30 F E B 6 13 20 27 MARCH I APR 13 20 27 3 10 IB 24 — . .—I , , , 1 9 9 5 MAY 8 IS 23 29 J U N E I 12 19 26 3 J U L Y 10 17 24 A U G U S T 8 14 21 28 S E P 11 IB 25 U-iM Preduct - KB j Landscape Marine Park | L7-1K L7- L7-' Landscaping L7-2E L7-4I Fencing L7-1|ABC Paving - KB L7-2| L7-3| L7r41. L7-I|L7-5| Teip. Signs & Markings - K8 L7-2| L7-3| L7-4| L7-4| Top Lift/Overlay KB - Stage II ' L7-5| I I PflOJ|End Stage II - Shift ^raffle L7-3> L7-4g| Pavenent removal - EB L7-1EJ! L7-3I I Hall 12 L 7 - l ^ L7-3f| U-2M L M Storm Drainage - Stage III L 7 - l ^ L7-2E L7-3I | Grave Is/ABC EB - Stage III L40|L7-4|Top| lift paving - EB L50| L7-3| L60| L7-l | L7-2| L7-lBL7-4|L50|Pavement|Markings - EB 17-2117-5H L7-3B L40| I L6Q1 L7-2^ Sidewalk, curb, islands - EB L7-4^ L7-10L7-5| Signing - EB L7-20 ' L7-3@ L7-4I L7-3|| Concrete barrier - EB L7-4^ LSO0 PR0J|End Stage III - Shift Traffic L 7 - I B I L7-3HI L40HElectrical L7-2I I L 7 - 4 I L60I L7-l@ Top lift paving - MB L7-20 L7-30 L7- j Construct MB lane - Hall 12 L7-I^L7-4^ Concrete barrier - HB L7-2I1 | L7-3^ L7-IJH Sidewalk, curb, islands - HB L7-1@L7-5| Signing - HB L7-20 L7-3@ L7-40 L7-|^L7-4^ Pavenent markings - HB L7-2^L7-5tl L7-3^ End Stage IV - Shift Traffic PH0J| I Clean-up|pA0J| Figure 3.7 - Project As-planned Schedule (continued) 3.5.4 Activity Status Existing REPCON capabilities also included routines for the tracking of activity-based progress and status, as well as overall site conditions. Upon accessing the Daily Status Data routine via the Daily Site selection at the main menu, project-wide information can be entered on a daily basis for weather and ground conditions, on-site resources, accidents, visitors, inspections, etc.. The system also presents those activities which are expected to be active for the chosen date, based on the as-planned or updated schedule (Figure A8). Further data can be noted for each date against these, or other selected activities, indicating status in terms of the descriptors postponed, started, ongoing, idle, finished, started and finished, and no status (Figure A9). While the essence of this existing activity reporting structure was adopted for use in this thesis, some modifications were ultimately made, as described in Section 4.2. Any significant problems can be noted against the activities as well. A problem listing is created beforehand, and includes codes for any common or anticipated problem types which could occur for the type of project in question. Appropriate selections from this list are tagged against activities as work progresses to provide coded reference within the system (Figure A10), and details of the problem and action taken can be noted (Figure A l 1). Table 3.2 contains a summary of the problem codes applied on the study project. While this set represents the general consensus of those field personnel petitioned and was found to be a reasonable initial attempt at bounding the full range of typical problems for Ministry projects, the list can be tailored from job to job. Nevertheless, it would be advantageous for an organization as large as the Ministry to develop a standard problem code listing if such a 38 system is to be implemented, since this would greatly promote consistency and compatibility of records between projects. 39 ENVIRONMENT SITE CONDITIONS 01 freezing conditions 11 unexpected type 'A' material 02 excessive wind 12 unexpected type H' material 03 snow 13 unexpected type 'C material 04 excessive rain 14 unexpected type D' material 05 forestry closure 15 excessive groundwater 16 accident MINISTRY DESIGN/DRAWINGS 21 awaiting MOTH survey 31 drawing error 22 awaiting inspections/ testing 32 design change/addition 23 awaiting MOTH decision 33 quantity error 24 awaiting MOTH work crew 34 insufficient information 25 equipment unavailable 26 insufficient site staff CONTRACTOR WORKFORCE CONTRACTOR WORK 41 absent employees/subcontractor 51 error in construction 42 labour problem/strike 52 layout error 43 WCB violation/shutdown 53 unsuitable const, method 44 injury 54 work does not meet specifications 45 no supervision 55 insufficient traffic control 56 unsuitable equip./labour 57 damage to existing works EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS UTILITIES/EXTERNAL AGENCD2S 61 contractor materials unavailable 71 awaiting utility relocation 62 MOTH materials unavailable 72 awaiting inspection 63 equipment breakdown 73 damage to existing utilities 64 equipment unavailable 74 awaiting permit 65 equipment maintenance 75 unanticipated utilities encountered 66 manufacturing error 76 insufficient notice to utility agency 67 materials do not meet specifications 77 insufficient notice to fish/envir. agency 78 insufficient notice to other agency MISCELLANEOUS 81 theft 82 vandalism 83 fire 84 natural disaster Table 3.2 - Project Problem Code Listing 40 3.5.5 Schedule Updating REPCON has previously programmed capabilities for updating the project schedule, which can be performed in two separate ways. In the first case, one can directly enter actual start and finish dates for activities, as well as estimations of remaining durations, percent supplied and percent installed. Once these values have been entered for the full range of schedule activities affected during the period of interest, the system can re-execute and update the project schedule, based on the new information, through a Batch Update routine. The alternate method for schedule updating within REPCON makes use of the information entered in the Daily Status Data routine. Here, the system alters the previous base schedule to reflect activity status as recorded in the postponed, started, ongoing, idle or finished format. Both of these schedule updating processes were retained for use in the thesis prototype. In order to provide reference against how the project is proceeding against expectations, the system can merge the original and updated schedules in a common view. The original as-planned schedule is archived, as are any interim schedule updates. When a comparison is to be made, the user generates the revised chart as per the normal procedure, while additionally specifying comparison with the appropriate archived schedule. The resultant graphical representation shows the updated activity positions against the calendar, on a location by location basis if desired, as well as the relative positioning of the original corresponding activities. A sample comparison bar chart is presented in Figure 3.8. 41 UBC CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT LAB File Used: C:\HEP2OO\PR0J04\SEPUPO Target File Used: C:\REP200\PR0J03\BNTBK Select/Sort Profile Select: no haiwock Sort: List By Early Start Date Oate Selection: Act/Sch/Early Schedule Hindo* Time: 15AUG94 To 29DEC94 Locations: L7-I To PROJ Barnet Highway - Texaco D r i v e to Pet r o Canada Progress To Sept. 30th. 1994 Report Date: 27HAR95 Report Tine: 14:54:41 Progress Oate: 30SEP94 Revision Number: 0 Current Target Current Target Start Milestone T • Haiwock U J flTTlTIT] Finish Milestone V A Noncritical W///d, I I Current Target Critical • • X Installed I I Estimated II Current Target Current Target Positive float i i Progress Oate I 0 Negative float IN) Figure 3.8 - Comparison Bar Chart: Actual versus As-planned Schedules Chapter 4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 4.1 Overview Ministry practices, pressing needs, and opportunities offered by a computer-based approach dictated the development of the prototype system. Working from the REPCON scheduling and activity tracking platform described in Section 3.5, the focus of this study was on developing a comprehensive system by appending new routines which would be able to correlate the existing planning and activity-based reporting features with contract pay item, quality management and records data. Figure 4.1 shows a representation of the structure of the resulting prototype system as accessed through the REPCON main menu. Section references in the figure indicate where details of each component can be found in this thesis. The basic approach taken in creating the prototype was to first address the incorporation of a pay item breakdown structure into the original platform, and then formulate the required routines for associating individual pay items with schedule activities. Once this was achieved, further work utilized the relationships created between these elements to develop cash flow, records management, progress measurement, and quality management features. With these routines in place, enhancements to the daily reporting structure were then able to be completed. Programming was performed in C/C++, with data organized using Btrieve, a data management utility. Hardware requirements of the system are a minimum 386 processor with 43 8Mb ram and color monitor, although all testing was performed on 486 machines. A 486/33mhz laptop, provided by the Ministry for the duration of the study, was employed for field testing purposes, and offered not only transportability but favorable performance as well. Other equipment utilized included a flatbed color scanner, color pen plotter, and laser printer. Adobe Photoshop served as the editing medium for scanned images, while CSHOW is the DOS-based graphics platform accessed by the system for viewing them on-screen. 44 45 4.2 Modified Activity Progress Tracking The previously fixed structure for entry of site condition data in REPCON, as described in Section 3.5.4, was altered to allow the user to choose which information categories will be tracked on a given project. This allows the system to be tailored for various types of work, which may require different information tracking. Standard Ministry reporting dictated that site-wide information collected with regard to visitors, blasting activity, accidents, survey work, deliveries, and weather conditions be noted in the system, although the option is provided to add other reporting categories from a list of available choices (e.g.: site instructions, miscellaneous notes), or suppress those which may not be desired. Figure 4.2 - Daily Data Entry Flowchart: Site Data illustrates the overall system structure for the entry of site information. A Set-up routine is used to specify the desired site reporting structure for the project at hand (refer to Figure 4.2). At the initial set-up screen, the user selects which categories of information are to be presented in the Daily Status Data routine, both for information reported on a site-wide basis, and that entered by activity (Figure 4.3). 'Site Environment' information is recorded for most projects, and when it is selected at the initial screen a subsequent screen allows the corresponding data entry structure to be tailored to the match the format used on the project (Figure 4.4). This governs whether such information as temperature is recorded as 'high/low' or 'a.m./p.m.', and if precipitation, wind, ground conditions, and the like are to be noted. A field for marking the subjective descriptors used by the Ministry to describe the effect of weather on daily progress (i.e.: none, minor, significant) was also added to the site 46 environment routine. The resulting initial screen at the Daily Status Data routine reflects the structure specified at the Set-up routine, with the chosen site-wide reporting categories listed first and scheduled activities for the selected period presented beneath (Figure 4.5). For each date in the period, information can be entered against any of the reporting categories. Figures 4.6 and 4.7 show typical entry formats for Site Conditions (as per the set-up in Figure 4.4) and Survey Work respectively; similar screens are presented upon selection of the other listed reporting categories. Once data has been entered against a category on a particular date, it is indicated by a check (V) at the appropriate place in the initial screen (refer to Figure 4.5). 47 48 DAILY SITE/SETUP D a l l y S i t e Setup Ci \REPZBB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD DAILY DATA CX] S i t e Environment C ] D a i l y Uork F o r c e CX] Survey Uorks C ] I n s p e c t i o n s CX] V i s i t o r s CX] A c c i d e n t s C ] I n s t r u c t i o n s C ] D e l i v e r i e s CX] B l a s t i n g C ] D a l l y Equipments CX] M i s c e l l a n e o u s ACTIUITY DATA CX] Uork F o r c e CX] EquipMents CX] Problems CX] Pay It e n s C"] C o n f i r n [»] E x i t F l : H e l p F I B ' C o n f i r M E s c ' E x i t Figure 4.3 - Daily Status Data Set-up: Reporting Categories ( — — N. DAILY SITE/SETUP C:\REPZBB\PHuJ84\SEPUPD P -" m ~ m m ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ — ^ — S i t e Data Setup • SITE DATA <•> TeMp. AK/PM C ) TeMp. Hi-'Lo ( ) None CX] Sky C o n d i t i o n CX] P r e c i p i t a t i o n CX] Uind v e l o c i t y CX] Ground C o n d i t i o n C ] S i t e S t o rage C ] S i t e Access CX] Ueather E f f e c t s C"] C o n f i r n C-] E x i t ^ F H H e l p FIB: C o n f i r n Esc: E x i t Figure 4.4 - Daily Status Data Set-up: Site Environment DAILY SITE/DAILY STATUS DATA Enter Data Other A c t i v i t i e s C >\REPZ00\PROJB4\SEPUPD e X i t FrOM 3BSEP94 t o 09OCT94 SEP OCT OCT OCT OCT OCT OCT A c t i v i t y I n f o r n a t i o n ' A c t l v i t y 30 1 Z 3 4 5 6 Code Loc D e s c r i p t i o n FRI SAT SUN HON TUE UED THU S i t e E n v i r o n n e n t Data J ; Survey Uorks i v i s i t o r s S a f e t y Log & A c c i d e n t s B l a s t i n g M i s c e l l a n e o u s Notes 010480 L7-3 S t r i p p i n g - EB IS 0 0 o f 010400 L60 S t r i p p i n g - EB f 010500 L7-1 Tunnel C u l v e r t s s s 0 0 0 0106B0 L7-Z I n s t a l l Box C u l v e r t 0 0 0 0 o 011280 L7-1 E x c a v a t i o n St EnbankMent - EB 0 0 f 011Z08 L7-Z E x c a v a t i o n S EnbankMent — EB o 0 0 0 f 011200 L7-4 E x c a v a t i o n S EnbankMent - EB 0 0 o o o 012888 L7-Z U a l l 8 0 0 o 0 o F l s H e l p Ti-»«-:Scroll E n t e r : S e l e c t E s c ' E x i t Figure 4.5 - Daily Status Data: Revised Initial Entry Screen DAILY SITE/DAILY STATUS DATA •aMIJ'JIifetWi Other A c t i v i t i e s C:\REPZ8B\PR0J04SSEPUPD e X i t FrOM 30SEP94 t o B90CT34 || SEP | OCT| OCT I OCT| — — S i t e C o n d i t i o n s f o r FRIDAY. 30 SEP 1994 — (a) AM Sky C o n d i t i o n <b> PM Sky C o n d i t i o n OCT! OCT! OCT CX] C l e a r C ] Cloudy C 1 Rain C 1 Snou (c ) Tenperature (C) AM: (d) P r e c i p i t a t i o n <MM)< B <f> Ground C o n d i t i o n ( ) Poor < ) F a i r (.) Good 15 PM: C Z4 C J C l e a r CX] Cloudy C 1 Rain 1 Snou (e) Uind (kph): 5 ( i ) E f f e c t s (•> None ( > Minor ( > S i g n . Iml C o n f i r M C " l E x i t 011ZBB L7-4 E x c a v a t i o n a EnbankMent 01Z088 L7-Z U a l l 8 F l : H e l p F 1 8 : C o n f i m A l t - C : COMMents Esc: E x i t Figure 4.6 - Daily Status Data: Site Environment Entry DAILY SITE^DAILY STATUS DATA Other A c t i v i t i e s e X i t FrOM 3BSEP94 to B90CT94 C'\REPZ00\PROJ04\SEPUPD E n t e r Data || SEP | O C T | O C T | O C T I O C T | O C T | O C T I Survey Uorks f o r FRIDAY, 30 SEP 1994 — — — A c t i v Code r s t 01 0 i 01 oiL o n BlL-R e s p o n s i b i l l t y Code: G Nunber o f Creus: 1 L o c a t i o n s A c t i v i t i e s L7-1 B11ZBB L7-3 010480 Content' M i n i s t r y c r e u o b t a i n i n g p r o g r e s s q u a n t i t i e s , e x c a v a t i o n eastbound s t a . 36+00 t o 39+50 ( B . H . > , and s t r i p p i n g s t a . 45+00 t o 48+00 ( P . M . ) . [•] C o n f i r n Imj E x i t B11ZBB L7-4 E x c a v a t i o n & EnbonkMent - EB 01ZBBB L7-Z U a l l 8 o o I o o o o I o o F l : H e l p FZ=Choice F l B ' C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.7 - Daily Status Data: Survey Work Entry The existing REPCON activity tracking structure as described in Section 3.5.4 was adopted for use on the study project, since activity status reported in the Ministry's daily records could easily be represented in terms of the resident descriptors of postponed, started, ongoing, idle, finished, started and finished, and no status. However, some remodeling of the REPCON data entry format was required in order to accommodate the full range of information gathered on site. In particular, the Ministry collects resource usage data on an activity-by-activity basis as opposed to for the entire site as a whole. The routine was therefore modified to accept equipment and personnel allocations for each activity if desired. No changes were made to the existing structure for documenting problems against activities. Figure 4.8 - Daily Data Entry Flowchart: Activity Data shows the overall intent of this modified data structure. 51 Upon selecting a date against an activity at the initial screen, a revised activity screen is presented which allows for entry of activity-based status data (Figure 4.9). The modifications made allow workforce and equipment information relative to that activity to be entered in a manner similar to that previously accommodated for problem documentation. Examples of the corresponding entry screens are provided in Figures 4.10 and 4.11. An additional selection at the activity screen, 'Pay Item', has been included to access a future pay item status routine which is described in Section 4.3.4. 52 53 DAILY SITF/DAILV STATUS DATA •aT.HJMiUTgi Other A c t i v i t i e s C = \REPZBB\PRO JB4SSEPUPD e X l t FrOM 3BSEP34 t o 09OCT94 — — ^ — D a i l y S t a t u s Data f o r FRIDAY. A c t i v i t y : IB1B4B3 S t r i p p i n g - EB 3B SEP 1994 Da S t a t u s F i n i s h e d I d l e On—going Postponed S t a r t e d S t a r t e d S F i n i s h e d No S t a t u s CoMnents S t r i p p i n g ongoing a t s t a . l y C ] CX] 45+00 t o 50+00. Has Problems Equipment CX] Uork F o r c e C ] Pay I t e n Ca] C o n f i r n C»] E x i t II I I I I I I ! F l s H e l p F 1 0 : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.9 - Daily Status Data: Revised Activity Status Entry DAILY SITE/DAILY STATUS DATA Other A c t i v i t i e s E n t e r Data C:\REPZBBsPROJB4\SEPUPD e X l t F r o n 30SEP94 t o B90CT94 || SEP | OCT | OCT A c t i v i t y I Uork F o r c e Data f o r FRIDAY. 30 SEP 1994 Code L o c | A c t i v i t y Code: 010403 <J> Nunber o f S u p e r v i s o r s : 1 (k) Nunber o f Uorkers: Z ( 1 ) Nunber o f T r a f f i c C o n t r o l l e r s : B Comment: S u p e r v i s o r c h e c k i n g v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s underway throughout p r o j e c t . 1 - equip, o p e r a t o r . 1 - l a b o r , (no t r a f f i c c o n t r o l needed) B10400 L7-3 B10400 L60 010500 L7-1 018600 L7-Z 011200 L7-1 B11Z00 L7-Z E x c a v a t i o n S Enbankment - EB 011Z00 L7-4 E x c a v a t i o n S Enbankment - EB 01Z000 L7-Z U a l l 8 [•] C o n f i r n C-] E x i t OCT OCT 5 e UED THU 0 f o o 0 0 0 0 f 0 0 0 0 F l : H e l p F 1 0 : C o n f i r n Alt-C:Comments E s c : E x i t Figure 4.10 - Daily Site Data: Activity Workforce Entry DAILY SITE/DAILY STATUS DATA Other A c t i v i t i e s e X i t FrOM 3BSEP94 t o B30CT34 E n t e r Data C•\REPZB0\PROJB4\SEPUPD A c t i v i t y I n f o r n a t i o n ' A c t i v i t y Code Loc D e s c r i p t i o n SEP 3B FRI OCT 1 SAT OCT Z SUN OCT 3 HON OCT 4 TUE OCT 5 UED OCT 6 THU S i t e E n v i r o n n e n t Data Survey Uorks 4" 4" B1B4B 01040 B1B5B 01060 01120 01120 01120 Equipment Data f o r FRIDAY. 30 SEP 1994 A c t i v i t y Code: 010403 Resource: Equip. I t e n : Z35D CAT Hoe Quan t i t y : 1 St a t u s : ( > D e l i v e r e d (•) A c t i v e < ) I d l e ( ) Returned Connent: S i n g l e Z35D uorking on s t r i p p i n g , p l u s l a b o u r e r a s s i s t i n g . [•] C o n f i r n [•] E x i t B1ZBBB L7-Z U a l l 8 I I I ° l ° l ° l F l : H e l p F I B : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.11 - Daily Status Data: Activity Equipment Entry 4.3 Pay Items As indicated previously, the Ministry's project costs are defined explicitly by the unit price format of its construction contracts. Although contract pay items can be associated with schedule activities, the two often receive mutually exclusive reporting attention, and can be considered to be essentially independent views of the same project work. Consequently, a tedious interpretation of separate record sets must currently be performed to integrate them into an overall project view. The prototype system therefore had to provide a means of entering and tracking information on these pay items, as well as correlating them with schedule activities. This is significant since pay items and activities relate in 'many-to-many' relationships; that is, a given pay item may contribute to many schedule activities, and conversely, an activity may involve the application of many pay items. By mapping pay items and activities in the system, the alternate views they provide of the project can be linked. Thereafter, records related directly to either pay items or activities alone can be correlated to the other view. 4.3.1 Contract Structure A hierarchical structuring of pay items is employed in Ministry construction contracts (refer to the excerpt provided in Figure 3.3), which has been formalized as a pay item breakdown structure (PBS) for the purposes of system design. For example, i f contract item 2.1 is Steel Culverts, it does not necessarily possess quantity and price attributes, but may be a heading for such actual pay items as 2.1.1 - 600 mm Steel Culvert, 2.1.2 - 400 mm Steel 56 Culvert, etc.. A pay item routine was designed for entering this hierarchical information as illustrated in Figure 4.12 - Pay Item Data Entry Flowchart. All contract pay items and headings are entered, and their relationships indicated through use of a graphical interface which in effect illustrates the hierarchy in 'tree' format. Each heading item is assigned its respective immediate sub-items only, keeping in mind that these immediate sub-items may include other headings as well, which would in turn have their own immediate sub-items. In this way the hierarchy is defined specifically. However, there was no need to accommodate downward inheritance or roll-up capabilities in the system's hierarchy, since it was observed that, in the current contract structure, there is no strict consistency of attributes among items sharing a given heading (e.g.: different units of measure). More importantly, the Ministry does not currently have a need to impose this consistency. If desired, a future refinement of pay item reporting features could merely provide total cost summaries at various heading levels, but again this was not seen as a need at this time. Figure 4.13 shows the resulting screen representation of a pay item hierarchy tree. 4.3.2 Pay Item Attributes Once the pay item breakdown structure is entered, information describing the attributes for each pay item is appended through various data windows (Figure 4.14, and Figure 4.12). A Scope/Cost Data window accepts entry of the units, quantity, unit price and scope statement for each pay item, as shown in Figure 4.15. Another window, Associate With Activities, is used for identifying the activities to which each pay item contributes, as well as the appropriate amount from the total pay item quantity which is attributable to each. 57 By design, the construction schedule must be structured such that all pay items map into at least one activity. Since many of the pay item quantities as presented in the contract contain an internal contingency over the 'neat line' values obtained from the design, the prototype has been structured such that the sum of the quantities allocated to each associated activity do not have to equal the total pay item quantity noted in the contract. This allows the user to input the actual quantity expected for each activity, which is the value of most interest to supervisory staff, without having to similarly allocating a share of any contingency which may have been applied to the overall pay item quantity. Figure 4.16 illustrates the resulting activity association screen format. A further option allows the pay item quantity for each of these activities to be further apportioned to each location of that activity, so that progress monitoring can be refined if desired. When 'location breakdown' is noted against an activity in the Associate With Activities screen, the further quantity allocations are entered as shown in Figure 4.17. This option is intended to be applied specifically in those instances when subsequent progress measurements on the pay item in question are to be performed on a location-by-location basis. In this way, progress monitoring can be refined such that deviations from the expected quantities can be isolated, and trends toward overruns can be identified earlier than is usually possible. Overruns have traditionally been evident only when the total pay item quantity has been approached, usually near completion when it is too late to effect any remedial measures. If this level of refinement is not intended to be pursued for progress measurements, providing a breakdown by activity alone will suffice. Once the desired breakdown of quantities has been entered, the system has all of the information needed to present an inverse listing of pay items by activity, and therefore total 58 cost per activity. The Enter Activity Data routine has been modified to present this inverse listing, and the initial associations can in fact be made directly through this routine if desired. Figure 4.18 shows the resulting pay item quantity breakdown listing as viewed through the Enter Activity Data routine. The owner's cost for each activity can also be derived from this information, by having the system apply the unit prices noted in the pay item Scope/Cost Data window to the respective quantities at each location. This information is viewable from the Enter Activity Data routine, as shown in Figure 4.19, and is used for cash flow estimating as described in Section 4.3.3. Tabulations for the full range of project activities can be printed or viewed as well; a sample report showing cost to owner for several activities is shown in Figure A12. 59 PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCTIQUALIT Y MANAGEMENT C:\REP200\PR0JCH\SEPUPD Uindou Report, eX.it m - i -2 <-3 GENERAL Ministry's site office Mobilization Prouisional Items 1 Enuironnental uork 2 Property settlements GRADING -1 Clearing and Grubbing 1—0 Clearing and grubbing L-1 Allouance for paynent - Spec. 200.5 |—2 Removal and Adjustnent of Existing Uorks Removal and disposal of existing pipes Renoue and dispose of existing manhole Relocate existing catchbasins Roaduay and Drainage Excavation Organic Stripping -1 Remoual and disposal -2 Placed in stockpile Type 'D' Type 'A' Allouance for payment for Type 'C h-3 Figure 4.13 - System Pay Item Hierarchy Tree PROJECT/PAY • E d i f - n m h i ITEM-ACCT!DEFINE/MODIFY PBS C:\REP200SPR0J04\SEPUPD Reports e X i t " I IBHHBBHm Define/Modify TBS+1 *r | | Scope/Cost vData i^ "J 8 Associate Uith Activities Memo " ? Progress 'Data Quality Itanagrncnt . . . i ' . . ' « - , .< r=z~ Property settlements GRADING Clearing and Grubbing Clearing and grubbing Allouance for payment - Spec. 200.5 |—2 Removal and Adjustment of Existing Uorks 1 Remoual and disposal of existing pipes 2 Remove and dispose of existing manhole 3 Relocate existing catchbasins |—3 Roaduay and Drainage Excavation \—l Organic Stripping 1 Removal and disposal 2 Placed in stockpile h-2 Type 'D' 3 Type 'A' -4 Allouance for payment for Type ' C Figure 4.14 - Pay Item Routine Window Options PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCIiSCOPE/COST DATA C:\REPZOO\PROJ04SSEPUFD _T?. .*4 SCOPE/COST DATA PBS Path: 2.6.3 s; - , _ Description: Seiec^giyi^^ _ -^~\~Z.-J Contract Quantity: &mWS$M U n i t Of Measure: £37 .'••-"•'J C/UO Ho.: g U f f i S " " " C ] Deleted by C/UO" ~ Unit Price: ^ S f l B l l Extended Anount: 459392.W"! Scope Supply?'haul Tnd place 1 * " r ~ - T > r ~* ^F3 :Conpute: Extended Ajiount,^  tl3 Standard sideualk fence 14 Geotextile fabric •3 RETAINING WALLS f-1 Structure backfill - S.G.S.B. 2 /673 lgBiM^i lSI^^ Figure 4.15 - Pay Item Scope/Cost Data Entry PROJECT/PAY ITEH-ACCT[ASSOCIATE WITH ACTIVITIES C:\REPZ00SFR0J04\SEPUPD 6T ASSOCIATE UITH ACTIVITIES PBS Path: 2.6.3 ;' * , Description: Select;granular"subbase Contract Quantity: 29600.00 , ' ! C/UO No.: I H l L i s " Units of Measure: n3; [ I Deleted by C/UO' No. of Associated Activities: Code Description f 012600 Granular Bases - UB | 81270© Granular Bases - EB il540S Grauels/ABC EB - Stage III 111300 Finish L40 along Uall 8 1 Method Quant i ty Lrat'ionM7aWoun]fij 11650.00 I^tlon^BreaJcdounH 11300.00 Locat 1onjiBreakdoun t | Z700.00 Lrca't'ion ;Birakdouh r i 800.00 iFJ3Jpaai&iS^^ ill J 3 RETAINING UALLS •| |-1 Structure backfill - S.G.S.B. Figure 4.16 - Pay Item Associate With Activities Entry PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT!ASSOC IATE UITH ACTIUI TIES C:\REP200\PR0J04\SEPUPD ASSOCIATE UITH ACTIUITIES m PAY ITEM QUANTITY BREAKDOWN BY LOCATION PBS Path: Z.6 .3 Description: Select granular subbase A c t i u i t y : 01Z600 Granular Bases - UB Location Range Quantity/Location - •S tar t F in ish % t?ri , ( m p | L ? - 3 , 4 1 2 ^ „*JL Total : 11650.00 Figure 4.17 - Pay Item/Activity Quantity Breakdown by Location ACTIVITY DATAxPAY ITEH/ACCOUNT CODE UIND0U C:SREPZ00SPR0J04SSEPUPD *SelS£gg !Ui^^ Act iu i ty Code: 011000 Subproject: Phase:? EU0: • Description: is Type: Element: | xcauation 8 Embankment - UB rdered B M » W 8 No. • PBS| t; i PAY ITEM QUANTITY BREAKDOWN BY LOCATION PBS Path: Z.5 Description: Increased compaction Quant i ty/Locat ion Location Range - •S tar t F in ish T L7-1 I L7-Z -t -Total : miwsm zw^m&i 7100.00 Figure 4.18 - Activity Data: Pay Item Quantity Breakdown ACTIUITY DATA/COST UINDOU C:\REP200\PR0J04\SEPUPD Actiuity Code: 011000 Subproject: Phase: ^ EUO: tage II Description: j Type Elenent: I xcauation 8 Embankment - UB rdered EJ^SUM 0 Actiuity Totals Cost to GC Total/Loc N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Cost to Client Total/Loc 25727.00 125735.00 280805.00 576102.00 1008369.00 GC Margin Margin/Loc N/A N/A N/A N/A hVA Figure 4.19 - Activity Data: Cost To Client (Owner) 4.3.3 Cash Flow The pay item/activity mapping function facilitates much more accurate projections of cash flow for the Ministry. Currently, cash flow estimates are often simplified as constant rate expenditures over the project duration, due primarily to the difficulty associated with manually assigning the appropriate quantities and prices to a schedule of activities. This problem is compounded by the fact that the determination of remaining costs would require a similar level of effort every time the schedule was updated or revised. 64 The prototype system was designed to derive cash flow by assessing the portion of each pay item contributing to an activity over the scheduled (or actual) duration, and then integrating over all project activities. To demonstrate the process, consider a simplified project consisting of three activities over four site locations. The cost of these activities to the owner is defined by a set of six contract pay items attributable in various quantities to each activity, which may or may not be further allocated to each activity location. The sample scenario uses the pay item quantity allocations as listed in Table 4.1, and the schedule illustrated in Figure 4.20. V Project Start Days 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Project Finish V Loc.l{6d) Loc 2 (5d) Loc 3 (5d) Lex: 4 (5d) SS8 ACTIVITY 2 Loc 1 (6d> Loc (5d) ACTIVITY 1 .Loc. 4(5d) ACTIVITY 3 Loc 2 <5d) FFO FSO Loc. 1 (4d) Loc. 2 (6d) Loa 4 (6d) Figure 4.20 - Cash Flow Example: Schedule of Activities 65 ACTIVITY 1: Pat Item CP) Unit Price (TJ) Method Quantity (Q) payiteml $100/m3 payitem2 $200/m3 payitem5 $60/tonne location breakdown location breakdown no location breakdown L o c i : 200 m 3 Loc.2: 180 m 3 Loc.3: 200 m 3 L o c i : 1000 m 3 Loc.3:2500 m 3 Total: 500 tonne ACTIVITY 2: Pat Item CP) Unit Price (TP) Method Quantity (O) payitem2 $200/m3 payitem6 $250 each location breakdown no location breakdown L o c i : 400 m 3 Loc.3: 300 m 3 Loc.4: 400 m 3 Total: 160 units ACTIVITY 3: Pat Item CP) Unit Price CU) Method Quantity (O) payitem3 $50/ tonne location breakdown payitem4 $9500 lump sum no location breakdown L o c i : 130 tonne Loc.2: 150 tonne Loc.4: 120 tonne Total: $9500 Table 4.1 - Cash Flow Example: Pay Item Breakdown Cash flow can be derived from the supplied data, since the activity schedule contains the time element for projected owner expenditures by activity and location, while the pay items and quantities define the various costs to be attributed to each. The basic simplification which is made is that the expenditures are uniform over the duration of the activity (or location of the activity). In practice, pay items may not be used uniformly throughout a defining duration (e.g.: weighted to the beginning or end), but the instances of such non-66 uniformity over duration are generally few and the resulting impact on the overall cash flow estimate is minor. For the purposes of this work, escalation over the life of the project has been ignored as well, primarily since all unit prices are fixed at the time of contract award. If considered relevant, future work in this area could allow for alternate cost profiles over activity duration and the effects of interest rates could be applied to projected month-end expenditures. For any given location (Ly) of an activity (Aj) which has an assigned duration (dy), the cost per day can be described as a summation of the uniform application of the cost of each contributing pay item, P k (with unit price Uk, contributing quantity Qy) over that duration: Total cost on the project for a given day (Cd) is then the summation of all costs/day for all active locations of all activities for that day: Using the data presented in Table 4.1 for each activity and location, the cost profile for Location 1 of Activity 1 becomes: Cii = (Ui)(Q„), /du +(U 2)(Q 1 1) 2/d 1 1 + (U,)(Qn)i/dii + (U5)(Q)j/(dii+ d2,+ d3i+ d4i) = ($100/m3)(200m3)/6days + ($200/m3)(1500m3)/6days + ($60/t)(500t)/21days = $3333/day + $50,000/day + $1428/day = $54,761/day (1) Cd=ZZC* (2) 67 As shown for Pay Item 5, in instances where the pay item quantity has not been broken down by location for an activity, the total cost of the pay item is applied over the full activity duration. The process decribed above is applied to all activity locations, resulting in individual pay item profiles which occur over their respective work periods as shown in Figure 4.21. These individual profiles can then be summed over any given day to give total end-of-day daily costs, and accumulated from the start of the project to provide a cumulative cash flow profile. The resulting plots for these cash flow profiles are provided in Figure 4.22. V Project Start Days 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Project Finish V P5:$1428/d P2:$50,000/d P2:$40,000 Pl:$3333/d Pl:$3600/d Pl:$4000/d loc 1 (6A) L O G 2(5d) ACTIVITY 1 P6:$1905/d P2:$13,333/d P2:$12,000/d P2:$16,000/d ACTIVITY 2 lx>c 1 (6d) I oc A (5d) Loc 3(5d) Loc.2(5d) P4:$594/d P3:$1625/d P3:$1250/d P3:$1000/d ACTIVITY 3 Loc J(4d LOC.. A (6d) Loc 2(6d) Figure 4.21 - Cash Flow Example: Activity Cost Profiles 68 Daily Costs Cumulative Costs Figure 4.22 - Cash Flow Example: Cash Flow Profiles The existing REPCON platform possessed capabilities to derive cash flow profiles from the contractor's perspective, based on entered resource and material costs. This routine was modified to accept the owner's pay item cost data, as described in Section 4.3.2. Costs for each activity are applied uniformly to the prevailing schedule durations, and graphs can be generated showing the resulting profiles in terms of'client disbursements'. Figure 4.23 shows a plot of monthly expenditures and cumulative cash flow based on project data entered. The effects of payment lag can also be illustrated by having the plot include the contractor's billing amount, owner holdback, and subsequent payments, as shown in Figure 4.24. 7 0 71 72 4.3.4 Progress Reporting A subroutine which allows entry of the date, location, measured quantity and method used for each progress measurement has been included within the Pay Item/Account routine. Figure 4.25 - Progress Measurement Data Flowchart shows the resultant system structure. This function allows for the tracking of detailed measurements against the appropriate pay item, which facilitates the Ministry's determination of month-end payments to the contractor and provides the primary source of information on pay item progress. The Progress Measurements window presents a listing of the associated activities and their total progress quantity to date for each selected pay item, against which field progress measurements can be entered. Where pay item progress is not tracked by location for an activity, as with mobilization (Figure 4.26), measurements are recorded against the overall pay item alone (Figure 4.27). However, if a further quantity breakdown by location was originally entered in the Associate With Activities window, the system accommodates the ability to enter measurements on this basis as well. Figure 4.28 shows the selection of the location breakdown option for the pay item clearing and grubbing. The routine then accesses the internal record of valid locations for the activity, presenting a list thereof for which total measurements to date are shown (Figure 4.29). Further measurements are then detailed against the appropriate location of the activity as shown in Figure 4.30. An option is provided to summarize all pay item progress measurements for determining incremental progress payments at month-ends or completion. This allows the system to remain indifferent to the input frequency of progress measurement data, which is 73 collected at various times for different pay items. For example, pay items such as mobilization, for which interim progress is difficult to quantify, will not have formal 'measurements' done as they proceed, since the quantity achieved cannot be ascertained precisely. In such cases, pay item status may simply be reported in daily site reports while the associated activities were active, and a progress quantity provided for payment purposes at month-end by visual estimate (likely reconciled with the contractor). With other pay items such as Type 'D' Material (for bulk excavation and embankment construction), the pay item and activity status would likewise be noted in daily reports, but pay item progress could be supplemented with specific quantity information as ongoing results of survey crew measurements become available. It is possible that these progress measurements would be available for this item on a daily basis for the duration of the associated activities. Therefore, pay item progress measurement information would be entered as and when it was produced, daily for some items, and merely month-end for others. This provides the user with the benefit of a current view of project status based on all data which is available at a given time. The summarization process then utilizes the measured pay item quantities for all locations of all activities, over a specified progress period, to determine the incremental progress payment to the contractor. The system has been structured to allow the user to view and print progress measurement records and monthly (batched) progress payment values by pay item. A sample print-out of measurements and progress payments for several pay items is appended as Table 4.2. Future work in this area could include facilitating the exchange of data between this system and the financial reporting systems used by the Ministry to process formal payments, thereby eliminating the need to input the voluminous data common for each. 74 Supplementary information on pay item progress is available from Ministry daily site report forms. The reports generated in the field include information on the status of not only each activity, but also their contributing pay items, in a form which can be coded in a format similar to that previously accommodated in REPCON for activity status - that is, either postponed, started, ongoing, idle, or finished (refer to Sections 3.5.4 and 4.2). The capability to document pay item status in this format has not been included in the prototype system at this time, as it is the progress measurement data described earlier which provides the most useful status information to the Ministry. Nevertheless, a routine has been designed which would allow the available daily site report data on pay item status to be included through future work. Since daily site report information on activity status is entered in the Daily Status Data routine, the supplementary pay item data contained in the same daily site report would ideally be entered at this routine as well. When entering data for a selected activity, an option would be provided to append available status information for any contributing pay items. Figure 4.8 in Section 4.2 includes a representation of the proposed status entry structure. 75 PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT{PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS C:SREP20GSPR0J04SSEPUPD PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS PBS Path: l.ZWfflM Description: " I H ^ a B S i m r a Contract Quantity: g f i ^ P B Units of Measure: L . S . 8 * OUO No.: I J P f j [ ] Deleted by C/'UO No. of Associated A c t i v i t i e s : i}} Code Description t eiGZtfei Mobil izat ion 1 Method Quantity to Date is! I t-i Type 'A ' Allouance for payment for Type ' C Figure 4.26 - Pay Item Progress Measurement: No Location Breakdown PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT1PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS C:\REPZ00\PR0J04\SEPUPD • S u a jlUig«588teBPj^^ PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS PBS Pa Descri Contra No. of Code! T 61021 4 QUANTITY « METHOD PBS Path: 1.2 Description: Mobil ization A c t i u i t y : 010200 Mobil ization b Date rDate — Quantity T19AUG94 0.50 F1AUG94 0.50 I Method Uisual Estimate Uork Completion I Allouance for payment for Type 'C Figure 4.27 - Pay Item Progress Measurement: Data Entry, No Location Breakdown 77 PROJECT/PAYJTEM-ACCT iPROGRESS MEASUREMENTS ^C:SREP200sPR0J04yEPUPD PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS PBS Path Descr : 2.1.0;|j]"lji.^S ipt ion: @ s @ M f f i ^ ^ i G i n s n s n n H n Contract Quantity: S g M l I ! ! Units of Measure: havV r _ J J C/UO No.: « B i t 1 Deleted by C/UO No. of Associated A c t i u i t i e s : ZJj Code Description 1j el03gg Clearing and grubbing - EB 81470,6} Clearing and grubbing - UB Method Quantity to Date Ij^tionjBre'a^ountTJ 6.76 LocatIon Breakd I G.00 WW Type 'A ' Allowance for payment for Type ' C j r i^Help i l^TmsWelJ^wr^ Figure 4.28 - Pay Item Progress Measurement: Location Breakdown Selection PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT!PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS C:\REP200\PR0J04\SEPUPD I PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS PROGRESS MEASUREMENTS BY LOCATION PBS Path: 2.1.0 Description: Clearing and grubbing Act iu i ty : 010300 Clearing and grubbing - EB Location Range Quantity/Location Start F in ish f, L7-1 0.87 IL7-2 1.33 L7-3 1.21 L7-4 1.05 8 L40 0.95 Total : 6.76 late iSI 1 ^ Allouance for payment for Type ' C ' ~ Figure 4.29 - Pay Item Progress Measurement: Location Breakdown Listing PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT1 PROGRESS MEASUREMEMTS C:\REP200\PR0J04SSEPUPD PROGRESS MEASUREMEMTS Act i T=9 QUANTITY 8 METHOD PBS Path: 2.1.0 Description: Clearing and grubbing Act iu i ty : 010300 Clearing and grubbing - EB Loc: L7-3 rDate — Quantity T31AUG94 0.30 •09SEP94 0.91 Method F i e l d Suruey F i e l d Suruey late EMM* Figure 4.30 - Pay Item Progress Measurement: Data Entry, Location Breakdown 79 0~> - • cr* OC p _ <£, - - co *—' C D C O I C D * J * J QJ C t- C_ g.S.5 g" cS eS! i 80 4.4 Quality Management 4.4.1 Current Practice and System Structure There are two distinct processes which comprise quality management on Ministry projects - quality control and quality assurance. Quality control is considered to be the testing and inspections performed by the contractor to satisfy himself that the materials and methods he is using result in a product which meets the specifications outlined in the contract. In this way, the onus is placed on the contractor to be actively responsible for the quality of his project. Conversely, quality assurance is the testing and inspections performed on behalf of the Ministry (owner) which serve as the basis for acceptance or rejection of the contractor's materials or works, and provide additional confidence that the delivered product meets required standards. The challenge in modeling this process is to create a means by which testing requirements can be correlated to project work and readily accessed. By improving the availability of test referencing, the system should provide Ministry site staff with a tool to help ensure that all tests are performed when necessary, and to the appropriate standards. All quality control and quality assurance testing is defined in terms of pay items. The Ministry creates a Quality Management Plan for each construction project prior to tendering which identifies, by pay item, the description of the testing or inspections required, the suggested frequency, the tolerance or acceptance criteria, and the party responsible. Table 4.3 provides a sample pay item test listing from the Quality Management Plan for Project 08690. Since the testing outlined for a given pay item will be consistent over many projects involving 81 that same pay item, the ability to create a standard list of quality management requirements was included in the system. From the modified existing list of system Standards shown in Figure 4.31, the new Standard Quality Management routine allows entry of the standard tests required globally on typical Ministry projects (Figure 4.32). This listing was designed to include test code, description, responsibility and required frequency attributes as shown in Figure 4.33. It is from this standard list that information is drawn, and edited if necessary, to create a project-specific quality management list from which tests are assigned to pay items. This project list is set up through the Quality Management routine accessed via the Project Data main menu selection (Figure 4.34), where the component tests are tagged and imported from the Standard list created earlier. Frequency, responsibility and remark attributes can then be tailored for the project at hand as shown in Figure 4.35. For example, the pay item noted in Table 4.3 is used on almost every Ministry project, and the testing requirements shown would likely apply in all instances. Some tests, such as the gradation analysis, apply to other project pay items as well. For this reason, the use of a standard quality management list (essentially a comprehensive listing of all Ministry tests) and a project-specific list (the full range of tests to be applied on the project at hand) can greatly reduce the repetitive entry of consistent data both from one project to another, and from pay item to pay item. Figure 4.36 - Quality Management Data Flowchart provides an overall view of the system structure with regard to quality management testing. 82 Suggested Tolerance or Pav Item Description Frequency Acceptance Responsibility Select Granular - degradation test -1/material type BCHI-9 Ministry Subbase - gradation analysis, QC -Spec. Prov. 1.12.3 ; ASTM CI 17.... Contractor - gradation analysis, QA - random testing ASTM CI 17.... Ministry - segregation - random inspection MOTH 202 Ministry - moisture-density - 1/material type ASTMD698 Ministry - field compaction, QC - 3 tests/20m/150mm lift 100% Proctor Contractor - field compaction, QA - random testing 100% Proctor Ministry - construction grade - 3 elev. checks/20m +/- 10mm Ministry - cold-in-place recycling - random inspection appearance Ministry Table 4.3 - Sample Pay Item Quality Management Listing R E P C O N Z E d u c a t i o n a l and Research v e r s i o n CurH S t a n d a r d C a l e n d a r S t a n d a r d P r o c u r e r - i e n t / P r o c e s s Macros S t a n d a r d S c h e d u l e o f U a l u e P r o f i l e s S tandard Sur - tMary S c h e d u l e Breakdouns S t a n d a r d GC G e n e r a l Expense Breakdouns S t a n d a r d Pay I t e r i s^Account Codes S tandard R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Codes S t a n d a r d D a i l y S i t e P r o b l e M Codes S t a n d a r d Phases S tandard E l e r i e n t s S tandard U n i t s o f Measure Resources Cash F l o u Sched o f Ualues CASH FLOU & RESOURCES I Standard Q u a l i t y Managecient Standard Resource C l a s s e s ' S u b c l a s s e s S t a n d a r d R e s o u r c e s S t a n d a r d A c t i u i t y Repor t P r o f i l e s CONTROL » PROJECT ADMINISTRATION D a i l y S i t e P ayltew/Acct Appl f o r Payment Change Orders Records Set up s t a n d a r d q u a l i t y nanagenent. CC) C o p y r i g h t A l a n D. R u s s e l l 1385-1995 Figure 4.31 - System Standards Sub-menu 83 SYSTEM STANDARD/QUALITY MANAGEMENT C:\REPZOO t.w y r Quality Management TZ.3 .Z.1 L i f t Thickness .1.1.1 Layout and Uork .1.1.2 check surueying ! .Z Check Suruey A Inspection ! .Z.3 .1 Eleuation Check .3.1.1 s tr ipping depth I.3.1.2 p a r t i c a l s ize !.3.1.3 material '..3.1 A Thickness 12.3.Z.Z Subgrade Figure 4.32 - Standard Quality Management Test Listing SYSTEM STAHDARPyQUALITY MANAGEMENT C:\REPZ00 r Qua 1ity Management ta .3.2.1 L i f t Thickness Test Code: Zj3%Zj5t| Description: E M i l M l c K n ^ i i ^ S ^ S ^ K i H f f l i H Frequency: L ^ O p J ' l i f t " ! Remark: U.i'iuIl|cKecK".' Tolerance Z0Onn*/-50nn("D") ABC-SP6 J l Z„lZ0kg / s .n . Figure 4.33 - Standard Quality Management Test Details R E P C O N Z E d u c a t i o n a l and Research U e r s i o n SYSTEM PROJECT PLANNING & SCHEDULING CASH FLOU a RESOURCES CONTROL a PROJECT ADMINISTRATION P r o j e c t F i l e s Standards C o n f i g u r a t i o n Stnd P r o j e c t s U t i l i t i e s E x i t P r o j e c t Data 1i^^^^fl S u b p r o j e c t s 1 ^ ^^^J E l e t i e n t s I^^^^H C o n t r a c t o r Data I >^ ^^ H^ E x p e r t P r o j e c t 1 >^ ^^ |^ •••••••• Resources Cash F l o u Sched o f Ualues D a i l y S i t e Paylten-'Acct Appl f o r Paynent Change Orders Records Current P r o j e c t : C:\REPZBB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD Set up p r o j e c t q u a l i t y M a n a g e M e n t . <C> C o p y r i g h t A l a n D. R u s s e l l 1985-1995 V . J Figure 4.34- System Project Data Sub-menu PROJECT^QUALITY MANAGEMENT C:\REP200\PR0J04\SEFUPD r Quality Management .3.2.1 L i f t Thickness Test Code: 2y3;ZvIv Description: m i f t l n f f c l a i e s s ^ ^ ^ B S ^ ^ i j I . ^ ^ Responsibi l i ty Cade: §6 Frequency: P z a B l l T f ^ i H! Renark: UisVal "check""."* * Tolerance 200nnV-50nm(Typ'e"''D" materia]) AJB.jC.^naterial^Jtefer to Spec_.Proy.^Clause^.Z, lZOkg/s .n . Figure 4.35 - Project Quality Management Details Editing 86 From within the Pay Item/Account routine, the Quality Management window allows tests to be tagged from the project listing and assigned to each selected pay item (Figure 4.37). At this point, remarks and frequency information can again be altered to reflect any differences in test details as applied to specific pay items. If the Frequency/Remark toggle is set at 'default' (as shown against the test 'Degradation' in Figure 4.37), the data is appended as contained in the project listing for that test (Figure 4.38). If modification of this data is desired, the toggle is set at 'custom' (Figure 4.39) and the appropriate revisions made (Figure 4.40). Summaries of all quality management information can be viewed or printed in terms of the test requirements for each pay item, as shown in the sample listing provided as Table 4.4. PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT!QUALITY MANAGEMENT C:\REPZ00\PR0J04\SEPUPD QUALITY MANAGEMENT PBS Path: Z . 6 . 3 l p p l Description: ^ j j g ^ ^ S J ^ g f l g ^ M ^ ^ E Contract Quantity^ tt&M?1 C/UO No.: « s r Unit Of Measure: «i3 [ 1 Deleted by C/UO No. of Quality Mgmt Tests: 9J||2 Test Code Description 11 fflSmm Degradation I2 | | 1 S 2 | Gradation Analysis QC 2lfBfffi3l Gradation Analysis QA Z-.6_ri'.5,i Segregation S S l l f i l l f i J l Resp Frequency/Remark :J9[§Z:L5i Moisture-Density Relationship 07 Default 01 Default 07 Default G Default 07 Default G Default j 2|jgg93i Conpaction QA g r a i t i p a i a p e ^ I T-3 RETAINING UALLS **; r - l Structure b a c k f i l l - S .G.S .B . fCTIBeipra^ Figure 4.37 - Pay Item Quality Management Test Entry 87 PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCTiQUALITY MANAGEMENT C:\REPZ00\PR0J04\SEPUPD ^ t*f QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY MANAGEMENT REMARK PBS Path: Z.6 .3 Description: Select granular subbase Test Code: Z.6 .1 .1 Degradation Frequency: 1/mat. type Remark: 25mm, 50mm: BCHI-9 Press any key to continue. I F m . 3 RETAINING UALLS [-1 Structure b a c k f i l l -_S.G^S.B Figure 4.38 - Pay Item Default Details PROJECT/PAY ITEM-ACCT!QUALITY MANAGEMENT C:\REPZ00\PR0J04\SEPUPD QUALITY MANAGEMENT PBS Path: Z.6 .3^'gJJj Description: S£ ler t : ;grawlar / jMb1>^se ; i Contract Quantity: Z96B6T00;~ T'i Unit Of Measure: w3 '-"""Tul C/UO Ho.: i B B M " ~ " [ 1 Deleted by C/UO No. of Quality Mgmt Tests: ST|~S Test Code Description Resp Frequency/Remark f, ZTfj&Bm Degradation 0? CusJSn^|t| i Zl '6#TZj Gradation Analysis QC 01 DefalM?™ zWMfM Gradation Analysis QA 07 befauftl Z f o W s i Segregation G TJ&JSi't 2*3|Z:*5TJ Moisture-Density Relationship 07 Default I ^3j2l3j Compaction QA G tefMLtlft iF3liroaa%g^ sLl 3 RETAINING UALLS (-1 Structure b a c k f i l l - S .G .S .B . i E i l H e l p l ^ ? L y i s t I B ^ Figure 4.39 - Pay Item Custom Details Selection PROJECT/PAY I TEM-ACCT.' QUALITY MANAGEMENT C: SREP200\PR0JM^SEPUPD ^ m QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY MANAGEMENT REMARK PBS Path: 2.6.3 Description: Select granular subbase Test Code: 2.6.1.1 Degradation Frequency: S^iS^SGiSe^ Remark: BOMt-^ltestfi 1 Z*3»ZJ3a Compaction QA G Def aul t | 4; I T-3 RETAINING UALLS <m H Structure b a c k f i l l - S .G .S .B . Figure 4.40 - Pay Item Quality Management Custom Details Entry UBC CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT LAB File Used: C:\REP288\PR0JB4\SEPUPD Barnet Highway - Texaco Dr ive to Petro Canada PAY ITEM QUAIITY MANAGEMENT Report Date: 31HAR9S Report Time: 13:46:19 Revision Number: fl Progress Date: 38SEP94 PAY lIEII/flCCOUNI CODES PBS PATH IDESCRIPTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT TEST CODE DESCRIPTION QUALITY (IGnT QUALITY <WfWm RESP FREQUENCY REHARK 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 2 2.1 2.1.B 2.1.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.1.1 GENERAL Ministry's site office Mobilization Provisional I tens Environmental uork Property settlements GRADING Clearing and Grubbing Clearing and grubbing Allowance for payment - Spec. 2BB.5 Removal and Adjustment of Existing Works Removal and disposal of existing pipes Remove and dispose of existing manhole Relocate existing catchbasins Roadway and Drainage Excavation Organic Stripping Removal and disposal 2.3.1.2 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 Placed in stockpile Type 'D' 2.1.1.1 Layout and Uork 2.1.1.2 check surveying 2.1.1.2 check surveying 2.1.1.1 Layout and Uork Type 'A' Allouance for payment for Type 'C 2.2 Check Survey 8 Inspection 2.3.1.1 stripping depth 2.3.1.2 partical size 2.3.1.3 Material - Stripping 2.3.1.4 Thickness Z.3.1.5 Soil Amendment 2.3.1.6 Spreading 2.3.1.1 stripping depth 2.3.1.2 partical size 2.3.1.3 Material - Stripping 2.3.1.4 Thickness 2.3.1.5 Soil Amendment 2.3.1.6 Spreading 2.3.2.6 Material Specification 2.2.3.1 Elevation Check 2.3.2.5 Moisture-Density Relationship 2.3.2.3 Compaction QA 2.3.2.4 Compaction QC 2.3.2.2 Subgrade 2.3.2.1 Lift Thickness 2.3.2.6 Material Specification G as req'd G G at complete G as req'd visual inspection. Spec. Prov. l.Btenv.) Dug. 38-SPZ19 (islds) before I after construction, survey H/U limits •/- 8.5m(cl 1 gr) each island to '/-lBmm (islands) visual inspection. Spec. Prov. l.Btenv.) Dug. 38-SP219 (islds) G as req'd G random G random 66 random samp! G random Bl random sampl G random insp G random G random B6 random sampl G random 81 random sampl G random insp. G continuous G at complete B7 1/mat. type G random test Bl 3/28m/28Bmm G 3/2Bm G l/2Bm lirt G continuous visual inspection •MSmm. Sp. Pr. 2.1, Spec. 2BB(rem. t adj.) •/-58mm <5Bm To MOTH Spec. /-25mm stripping ref. Spec. Prov. 8.1.1 MOTH Section 238.7 I 238.8 •/- SBm <5Bmm To MOTH Spec. /-25mm stripping ref. Spec. Prov. 8.1.1 MOTH Section 238.7 i 238.8 D:waste to be noted as per Geotech definition! random inspect, by Geotech C:ref. MOTH 281.3, random inspect. •/-lSmm ASTM D698 (D, 25mm) D, str.bkfl: 95X Proctor 2Smm,SBmm:lBBZ Proctor D, 95Z Proctor on 288mm lifts 25m:l88X Proctor on 158mm litts Imp. Emb., drn.blkt: 9SZ on 15Bnm lifts str.bkfl:l/38s.m./lirt Elevation checks to •/- 15mm visual check. Tolerance 2BB«m»/-5Bmm(T) ABC:SP6.Z 128kg/s.m. D:waste to be noted as per Geotech definition.' random inspect, by Geotech C'-nt. MOTH 281.3, random inspect. O Table 4.4 - Sample Quality Management Test Requirements Listing 4.4.2 Future Quality Management System Features Ideally, records are maintained noting compliance or non-compliance for every inspection and test performed under the Quality Management Plan. However, this is not easily achieved in practice, especially when considering that the Plan for Project 08690 contains over 250 tests applied to more than 50 pay items. Test and inspection results are therefore often documented in varying formats; while most testing produces a formal document of results (e.g.: gradation curves, nuclear densometer readouts for compaction, etc.), inspection documentation can be far less formal and may only be noted for instances of non-compliance. This suggests that any test tracking features of the system be designed to accommodate the input of results for the entire Quality Management Plan with variable levels of detail, some of which may be sourced from comments contained in project diaries or daily site reports. Although the programming which would allow entry of test results against pay items has not as yet been incorporated into the prototype system, the design of the routine required to accomplish this has been formulated for future consideration. Figure 4.36 - Quality Management Data Flowchart in Section 4.4.1 includes a representation of the proposed structure of the overall quality management data entry procedure, and the relationship between the completed and future routines. As test results become available, information on the location, date, record source, and pass or fail status of each test would be recorded through the Daily Status Data routine, under the proposed pay item status routine described in Section 4.3.4. For each selected pay item under the activity at hand, the quality management 91 routine would be accessed to present a listing of tests required, against which entry of the results information would be made as illustrated in Figure 4.36. An 'action required' flag is envisioned to assist in prompting the user if follow-up is required for failed tests. Reporting features would have to be provided which could list all tests documented against a pay item, with a breakdown by each associated activity. 92 4.5 Change Orders 4.5.1 Current Practice The Ministry of Transportation and Highways currently treats all extra work and changes to the original construction contract under one process utilizing a Work Order/Supplemental Agreement document for formalization. There is no differentiation between change/work orders and extra work orders as there is from a contractor's point of view, and therefore no need to accommodate the mapping of many extra work orders into a given change order, although the general design of a system should accommodate a capability to do so. The existing Ministry change order process covers all of the following change scenarios: 1. Addition of new pay item(s). 2. Deletion of existing pay item(s). 3. Force Account* work. 4. Quantity increase/decrease. 5. Non-monetary change(s) (i.e.: scope or process changes only). * Force account work is defined as extra work which is paid for on a cost plus percentage basis. While not noted specifically in this list, changes to unit prices are common and typically addressed either by deleting the original pay item and simultaneously adding the same item at a new unit price, or by adding a new item which is described as the 'extra cost' of the 93 original item (i.e.: same units and estimated quantity as the original pay item, but at a unit price equal to the change in price). It appears that the number of these change orders on past projects has not been cumbersome; an adjacent section of the Barnet Highway Project had a total of approximately 15 such orders at completion, and site staff suggest that this would be a norm, if not high. Of note, reporting either for monthly or completion purposes does not currently differentiate between the various types of changes noted above. For example, one of the reports currently generated by the Ministry on a regular basis is one which lists all pay items, the respective quantities to date, and extended cost to date. In this report, all change orders are listed at the end of the original pay items, by change order number. Not all change orders result in additional work, and it is only those that do which require specific additional daily reporting effort. For example, if a change order covers force account work, there would undoubtedly be an associated activity or activities which could be defined; these activities would have daily activity and pay item progress, equipment and labour reported in the same manner as with any originally defined activity, with the additional requirement that hours worked and materials used be recorded for cost-plus payments. It is significant to note that the only recording of labour and equipment hours that the Ministry currently performs is against force account work. 94 4.5.2 Changes to Pay Item Structure For new or altered pay items required as a result of a change order, the entry is added or changed in the same manner as with any initial pay item, with the additional requirement of simply appending the corresponding change order number in the reference field provided at the Pay Item Scope/Cost Data screen (refer to Figure 4.15 in Section 4.3.2, and Figure 4.41-Change/Work Order Data Flowchart). One must also ensure that any new or altered activity and quality management test associations are made. Thereafter, status and progress measurements against these pay items can be noted as with any original pay item - the system merely uses the change order reference on these entries to differentiate them from original entries. To address force account tracking, the user sets up new pay items to reflect the hourly rate, cost-plus work. This is achieved by simply creating a heading item denoting unique force account work (i.e.: for each change order) in the hierarchy tree, and adding sub-items for each classification of materials, equipment and labour to be applied to that work. Figure 4.41 includes a representation of the intended pay item tree structure. The units of measure for the equipment and labour then become hours, with the unit price being the hourly rate noted in the change order. In this way, no other routine had to be created to track force account work, as daily monitoring of hours and materials used are then recorded as progress measurements, as with any other pay item. Where a pay item is to be deleted, there is a need to differentiate between the deletion of an item without retaining reference (e.g.: error in input) and deletion for change order purposes. This was achieved by having the alternate deletion functions performed in two 95 different locations in the Pay Item/Account routine. Deleting an item without requiring reference is performed within the graphical hierarchy routine, whereas selection of a toggle uniquely specifying Deleted by Change/Work Order under the Scope/Cost Data window merely suppresses the pay item internally (refer to Figure 4.15 and 4.41). In this way, the system ensures that further reporting is suspended for that item, while information pertaining to activity associations, testing and progress records established prior to deletion is retained for future reference. 4.5.3 Changes to Project Schedule A new activity is required only for force account work or in instances where new pay items have been added as a result of a change order. When addition of an activity to the project schedule is necessary, it is performed through the existing Enter Activity Data routine as with any original activity, again with the difference of noting the appropriate change order number in the reference field provided (refer to Figure 4.41 and Figure A5 in Appendix 1). The user must also ensure that each newly entered activity is associated with the appropriate pay items. Daily site information on progress, problems, pay item status, etc. can then be recorded as with any original activity. 96 97 4.5.4 Future Change Order System Features A Change/Work Order routine has been designed which would allow tracking of information related to change orders. However, the associated programming remains to be completed at this time. For the purposes of this study, the design will be described briefly, but actual implementation and testing of the additional routine will be left as an effort for future work. Figure 4.41 - Change/Work Order Data Flowchart includes a representation of the proposed future routine. Once accessed from the main menu, the routine will accept entry of change order number, date, description, and type of change. Based on the type indicated at that point, the system will be tailored to prompt for the appropriate supplemental costing information. For example, if Force Account is tagged, the Cost Data window will present fields for entering markup rates and estimated totals for material, labour and equipment cost categories. If the applicable type is Add/Delete/Change Existing Pay Item, the same window will present fields for noting the new, deleted or altered items, as well as their quantity and price attributes (Figure 4.41). Non-monetary Changes will not require any further data entry beyond the initial screen. Any month-end or completion reporting of pay item progress and payments by the Ministry must include those items associated with change orders. In the established reporting format, pay items which have been deleted or changed are printed in their original position in the hierarchy, but are highlighted by an asterisk which indicates association with a change 98 order; any payments made prior to deletion are shown. All new pay items are printed at the end of the listing by change order number, as opposed to by any newly assigned pay item coding. The system should therefore be enabled with the capability to not only compile pay item progress reports in a comparable format, but also generate various other summary reports from change order data. These functions would be available through the proposed Change/Work Order routine, and should allow for the selective listing of change order details in any combination of reference number, date, type (e.g.: force account, etc.), description, and cost information. 99 4.6 Records Management Once information regarding the relationships between project activities and pay items has been accommodated within the system, a platform is available on which to base the linkage of other project records to site events. This linking is critical if the system is to provide a means of searching and sorting on the basis of the parameters observed as being most applicable for records searches typically performed by the Ministry. These parameters are the attributes specified to selectively narrow the scope of material for review, and were identified as record type, record number, date, location, activity, pay item, and problem type. While information contained in daily site reports, diaries, quality management test results, change orders and progress measurements is exploited by direct entry into the system, substantial information embodied in other project records is not suited to a similarly structured reproduction of content within the computer. Instead, the goal in the case of records such as letters and photographs is to document the general content or issue, and tie them to other project elements. 4.6.1 Records Linking Separate but parallel entry operations have been created for photographs, videos, correspondence to, correspondence from, certificates/permits, meeting minutes and plan excerpts. Figure 4.42 - Records Management Flowchart portrays the overall entry and listing structure. From the Records menu option, the user can select any of these listings for review or editing from the sub-menu (Figure 4.43). Each is structured in the same manner, with an 100 initial screen showing all records of the selected type, their codes, date, description, and a checklist of what information has been appended to each (Figure 4.44). Further details for each of the list's component records can then be reviewed independently; these details include expanded remarks, location of the original record (e.g.: file reference), and user-defined associations with project activities, pay items, problem codes, and other records related to the same issue (Figure 4.45). Although it was not pursued as part of this work, the resulting linkages between records and other project elements could be exploited to allow greater access to records details. For example, future work is being considered which would permit the review of records associated with a given activity directly from the Activity Data routine, by searching the database for only those records with a link to the activity of interest. Internal listings of options for these associations are accessible such that the selection can be tagged and imported to simplify entry and ensure consistency. Figure 4.46 shows a typical selection list for project activities; similar lists are available for the other fields. Entries for 'other records' can be made in the same manner by specifying the type of records list to be drawn from (Figures 4.47) and selecting the appropriate record from the subsequently presented list (Figure 4.48). In its current form, the field showing associated other records does not indicate the type of record the code corresponds to; future modifications could incorporate some means of identifying type next to the listed code, or the user may simply utilize a discernible coding format for each different type, as was done for this study. A feature which was included in the routine is the ability to view scanned images of pertinent records. The system accesses a proprietary graphics viewing package called 101 CSHOW to generate on-screen images of photographs, plan excerpts, and documents from image files referenced in the record details (refer to Figures 4.42 and 4.45). A flatbed color scanner was used to create the initial image files, which were stored in *.GIF or *.JPG format to conserve disk space. The average photograph stored at 256 colors and 100 to 150 dpi in 640x480 size required 200KB storage in *.GIF format and less than half of that in *.JPG format; grayscale images of plan excerpts required approximately 50KB. The trade-off in applying the two formats is that image generation is somewhat slower when using *.JPG files, due to the additional decompression required. The resolution, size, and color attributes adopted for testing were intended to minimize storage requirements by providing a level of image detail which reflected the limitations of the computer monitor used. The size of the image file will increase if more colors are used for improved screen representations, or if a resolution suitable for printing the image is required (i.e.: 300 dpi). 102 103 R E P C O N E d u c a t i o n a l and Research U e r s i o n SYSTEM P r o j e c t F i l e s Standards C o n f i g u r a t i o n Stnd P r o j e c t s U t i l i t i e s E x i t PROJECT P r o j e c t Data C a l e n d a r Rept Manager P a y l t e i V A c c t S e l e c t / S o r t R eports PLANNING S SCHEDULING A c t i v i t i e s Execute Uie u Batch Update Macros Reports Summary Sched CASH FLOU S RESOURCES Resources Cash F l o u Sched o f Ualues Current P r o j e c t : C:\REPZB8\PR0JB4\SEPUPD En t e r data f o r photos. CONTROL ft PROJECT ADMINISTRATION D a i l y S i t e P a y l t e i V A c c t Appl f o r PayMent Change Orders Photos U i d e o s Let ters /Mer- ios To L e t t e r s / M e r i o s Fror-i C e r t i f i c a t e s / F o r f i s Mi nu tes P l a n E x c e r p t s Record Repor t G e n e r a t o r <C> C o p y r i g h t Alan D. R u s s e l l 1985-1995 Figure 4.43 - Records Sub-menu RECORDS/PHOTOS Add D e l e t e S o r t Moue Uieu e X i t C:\REPZBB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD t—CODE-Z3.18 Z3.Z1 Z3.ZZ Z4.BZ Z4.18 24.17 Z4.18 Z4.Z1 Z5.BZ Z5.B9 -DESCRIPTION-u a l l 11 near c o t i p l e t i o n u a l l 9 d r a i n / b a c k f i l l perf/CSP t i e on u a l l 9 u a l l 9 b a c k f i l l p r o g r e s s s e t t l e m e n t c r a c k s - L7-1 Marine Park s i g n r e n o u a l coMpaction L7-1 EB a s p h a l t g r i n d i n g s l i u e r f i l l t e r r a c i n g u a l l 9 S 11 cOMpletion - D A T E -N O. o f r e c o r d s : A C T . - L O C . —PRB. - O T H . - S C A N , 1ZB 15N0U94 4" j" 4" 4" 16NOU94 J" j" 4" 4" 16N0U94 T «r 4" 4" 17N0U94 4" j" 4" 18N0U94 <r j" 4" 4" <r 18N0U94 j" 4" 18N0U94 4" j" 4" 4" 18N0U94 j" j" Z3N0U94 f 4" 4" 4^  Z3N0U94 f «T S e l e c t a r e c o r d t o be e d i t e d . Figure 4.44 - Sample Records Listing: Project Photographs RECORDS/PHOTOS Add D e l e t e C:\REPZBB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD S o r t M O V B Uieu e X i t E d i t Record Code: JBUl] A c t s : Locs 91B5BB 870CT34 D e s c r i p t i o n : mmmmmsvmmasm Pay IteMs/Accounts: Other Records: L7T1 1 L7-2 L7-3, „ , 5 , I L ll I Date: Probs: 32 47i"i."65 ; : r : ~ 4.1.1 ,.Ta lV " J . 4.1.1.Ba, • i-1 ! . ' . i . . - " i -1 .ii"?-v;i irdes4l mm . 'IT.'Zl C"3 C o n f i r n C-3 E x i t iMage F i l l - Ci^TEXSCArKPII»EJACK;GIF v"--j:-;—.:"f ; ' . •*.-:.-• F i l e Loc Photograph'rilB>:tot:iG\-"BoTt.^lj-'^%ri'i.ir-.-'.'!i/4 _ Renarks: vTBu'of.. J a c k i n g " operation*. ' l o o k i n g "Into''slope ul'th' "pipe "Jacking" i n operation.' .- • •' - • V - J - .ri : i " , . . •-.. ..->.;. F l : H e l p FZ:Choice F I B : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.45 - Records Details Entry RECORDS/PHOTOS Add D e l e t e C:\REPZBB\PROJ84\SEPUPD S o r t Move Uieu e X i t E d i t Record Code: lg£2J| Date: Qflggft D e s c r i p t i o n : t u n n e l i n g d e t a i l . 3 A c t s : Locs: Probs: pay itei-is/Accounts: Other Records: ismii L7T<*1 aw 4Mi^a fMfe lS#g i 010100 P r o j e c t S t a r t 010Z0O M o b i l i z a t i o n 01B300 C l e a r i n g and g r u b b i n g - EB 010400 S t r i p p i n g - EB I 81B5BB Tunnel C u l v e r t s 010600 I n s t a l l Box C u l v e r t 010700 Ter-iporary U i d e n i n g 010B00 Pauerient rer ioval - UB 010900 Pauer-ient rer-ioual - EB 011000 E x c a v a t i o n 8 Etibankr-ient J1672S |'des4^ C«] C o n f i r n C" l E x i t ]g! Into s l o p e ulth.'pipe J a c k i n g i n F l : H e l p FZ:Choice F I B : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.46 - Sample Records Association Selection List: Project Activities RECORDS/PHOTOS Add D e l e t e C:\REPZBB\PROJB4\SEPUFD S o r t Moue Code: 16.21 Acts : Locs: 81B5BB Date: Probs: m Uieu e X l t — E d i t Record D e s c r i p t i o n : Sffi B70CT94, Pay I t e n s / A c c o u n t s 4. Other Records: 16. • . . d B : c 6 i J 16.17 [•] C o n f i r n C-] E x i t iMage F i l e : Ci^TEXSCArKPIfCIAOCGIF,": ~ " '-' ' F i l e Loc: Photograph ,Yile « . _ S B t'.16i 1 ,"no'J 21 ,,' 1 ' Renarks: wleu o'F 'Jacking 'operatidV.'.looklng 'into' o p e r a t i o n . 1 '."-"i' - •'" .'•' .' t! :Uideo .JMerio to ;;;MeMO f roM Xert./Forri •^ Minute : Excerpt F l : H e l p FZ:Choice F l B : C o n f i r M E s c : E x i t fpB^JSEIclnilSni H i Figure 4.47 - Other Records Association Sub-menu: Record Type RECORDS/PHOTOS Add D e l e t e C:\REPZBB\PROJB4SSEPUPD S o r t Moue Uieu e X l t E d i t Record Code: i i g g l Date: B70CT94 D e s c r i p t i o n : t u n n e l l n g ,deln 11 Acts: Locs: Probs: Pay Itens/Accounts: Other Records: ai050B L7-1 3Z 4 : i : i V B o " " -;: "lBl'ZS L7-Z 4.1.1.7a' des61 L7-3 4.1.1.8B des4'| > - i 6 : i 7 i .- _«--- ---- •-* 16.18 C»] C o n f i r n C" l E x i t uall 8 roaduay backfi l l box culuert inlet forr-iing box culvert inlet structure Inage F i l e : Ct^ TEXSCAMsPIPEJAaCvG F i l e Loc: PKotograph?f l l B«ifOTtal6 Renarks: U I B U ^ o f ' J a c k i n g o p e r a t i o n ! 16.Z5 t u n n e l i n g o p e r o t l O p e r a t i o n . - "?* = - • T T B r f ^ B T ^ ^ B ^ B M n f H W r a B I W M B B S T S P J ? tunneling - ran placement uall 9 footing rebar box culvert paving truck nishap F l s H e l p FZ:Choice F I B : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.48 - Sample Other Records Association List: Project Photographs 4.6.2 Records Searching and Sorting To search the full set of available records, a separate routine has been created which accesses a 'select/sort' function. Figure 4.49 - Records Searching and Reporting Flowchart illustrates the structure of this process. Upon selecting Records Report Generator from the Records sub-menu (Figure 4.50), the user can enter the Records Select/Sort Profiles routine to set up 'select' and 'sort' profiles which specify the desired combination of search parameters and the ordering of the list of matching records respectively. For each 'select' profile, any combination of the parameters of record type, code, date, activity, location, problem code and pay item can be specified, once again through the tagging of desired entries from a list of available options (Figure 4.51). Combined searches (more than one parameter) are performed on the basis of 'and' and 'or' modifiers which designate whether the search is to be an intersection or union of the record sets defined by the individual parameters. To bound the search, various conditions of equality can be specified (Figure 4.52), along with one or two limiting values as appropriate. Where the value required is a reference to the internal code of an activity, problem type, or other such entity, the entry can be tagged from the appropriate listing, which is determined by the selected parameter (Figure 4.53). The 'sort' profiles are set up in a similar manner to the 'select' profiles, but dictate instead how the results of the search are to be listed. The parameters of record type, code and date are used, in any combination, with options for listing each in ascending or descending order (Figure 4.54). 107 R E P C O N 2 E d u c a t i o n a l and Research V e r s i o n SVSTEM P r o j e c t F i l e s Standards C o n f i g u r a t i o n Stnd P r o j e c t s U t i l i t i e s E x i t PROJECT P r o j e c t Data C a l e n d a r Rept Manager P a y l t e i V A c c t S e l e c t / S o r t Reports PLANNING a SCHEDULING A c t i v i t i e s E xecute Uieu Batch Update Macros Reports SuMnnry Sched CASH FLOU S RESOURCES Resources Cash F l o u Sched o f v a l u e s Current P r o j e c t : C: SREP2BB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD Set up p r o f i l e s used t o s e l e c t r e c o r d s . CONTROL ft PROJECT ADMINISTRATION D a i l y S i t e P a y l t B M / A c c t A p p l f o r P a y M e n t C h a n g e O r d e r s I Record S e l e c t - S o r t P r o f i l e s I Record C o n t e n t s P r o f i l e s Record R e p o r t s Record Report Generator (C) C o p y r i g h t Alan D. R u s s e l l 1985-1995 Figure 4.50 - Record Report Generator Sub-menu RECORDS/SELECT-SORT PROFILES Add D e l e t e E d i t Move UTT? C:\REPZ0B\PROJB4\SEPUPD eXlt S e l e c t P r o f i l e Contents P r o f i l e Nane: Design change r e c o r d s f o r culvBrt t u n n e l l i n g R e l : AND AND Keys: Cond: Ualue 1: ACTNO' EO 81B5BB7:~.~ ppjf ra azflv T V P E CODE :0 DATE :; ACTNO : LOCN :•; PRBN PAVNO Record Typu Kecord Code Record Date A c t i v i t y Code L o c a t i on P r o b l e n Code Pay IteM Ualue Z: C " 3 C o n f i r M [•] E x i t F l : H e l p FZ:Choice FIB:ConfirM E s c : E x i t Figure 4.51 - Record Select Profile Sample Selection List: Search Keys RECORDS/SELECT-SORT PROFILES Add D e l e t e E d i t Move C:SREPZBBsPROJ04\SEPUPD e X i t S e l e c t P r o f i l e Contents P r o f i l e None: Design change r e c o r d s f o r c u l v e r t t u n n e l l i n g Rpl - Kp'i-:- Cond: Ualue 1: v a l u e Z= II ill.' 'i'l i'i i^ tiVMT''"'"" A N D ™ A C T N O EQ = U a l u e l (UalueZ not used) N E < > U a l u e l ( U a l u e Z not used) 0 G T > U a l u e l ( U a l u e Z not used) :: G E >= U a l u e l ( U a l u e Z not used) :• L T < U a l u e l ( U a l u e Z not used) ;v L E <= U a l u e l ( U a l u e Z not used) UR U i t h i n Range C U a l u e l . Ua lueZ] V: NR 3 O u t s i d e Range C U a l u e l . Ua lueZ] ImJ C o n f i r n C - l E x i t F l : H e l p FZ:Choice F 1 0 : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.52 - Record Select Profile Conditions of Equality Selection List RECORDS/SELECT-SORT PROFILES Add D e l e t e E d i t hove IH.I.UU.m e X i t ~ — S e l e c t P r o f i l e Contents — — — P r o f i l e Nane: Design change r e c o r d s f o r c u l v e r t t u n n e l l i n g R e l : Keys: Cond: Ualue 1: Ualue Z: E Q B i B S B a v r T T r - T T - r i . -r.-^v-'r:^-:-:-- -EQ 3Z • — '•='.-- > • -m t j C:\REPZB0\PROJB4NSEPUPD AND" l A C T N O : A N D ' P R B N 1 30 D E S I G N / D R A U I N G S 31 d r a u i ng e r r o r t| 3Z desi g n c h a n g e / a d d i t l o n 33 q u a n t i t y e r r o r 34 i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r M a t i o n 40 CONTRACTOR UORKFORCE 41 absent e r i p l o y e e / s u b c o n t . 4Z l a b o u r p r o b l e t - i / s t r i k e 43 UCB v i o l a t i o n / s h u t d o u n 44 i n j u r y C - l C o n f i r n [•] E x i t F l : H e l p F2:Choice F 1 0 : C o n f l r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.53 - Record Select Profile Sample Selection List: Problem Codes RECORDS/SELECT—SORT PROFILES Add D e l a t e E d i t Moue •H.I.U-.MU e X l t " S o r t P r o f i l e Contents P r o f i l e None: Ascending order by date KBys= Order: DATE i j AscendlhgTf; C:\REPZBB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD C » ] C o n f i r M [•] E x i t F i : H e l p FZ:Choice F I B : C o n f i r n E s c : E x i t Figure 4.54 - Sample Record Sort Profile To effect an initial search with screen output alone, the user selects the Review option in the Records Select/Sort Profiles routine and specifies the desired 'select' and 'sort' profiles from those created. Search results are presented in a format similar to that used for the individual record type listings. This search process automatically lists only those records meeting the specified search criteria, greatly reducing the work associated with the traditionally rigorous manual review of all record types. A sample screen presentation of a search review using the profiles represented in Figures 4.51 through 4.54 is provided as Figure 4.55. I l l RECORDS/SELECT-SORT PROFILES S e l e c t s O r t • • U ' l l J ' B e X i t S e l e c t P r o f i " " So r t P r o f i C:\REPZBB\PROJB4\SEPUPD l e = Des i mmiBlSSSSk^B^ T—CODE-des4 i d e s B 16.18 16. Z5 16.17 16. Z l 17.21 -DESCRIPTION-s t e e l p i p e a l t e r n a t e c u l v e r t a l t e r n a t e - t u n n e l i n g t u n n e l auger t u n n e l i n g o p e r a t i o n t u n n e l i n g - ran placement t u n n e l i n g d e t a i l t u n n e l i n g o p e r a t i o n L7-3 - D A T E -N O. o f s e l e c t e d r e c o r d s : - L O C . - P R B . - O T H . - S C A N , Figure 4.55 - Sample Record Search Results Listing A separate routine has been designed to generate screen and printed records compilations with greater accompanying detail, although completion of the required prograrrirning has not been pursued for this study. The proposed reporting function will make use of REPCON routines already established for the production of other system reports. Report Contents Profiles must first be set up, which identify the record attributes that are to be included with the search results (refer to Figure 4.49). Once the required 'report' profile has been created, the user would access the Records Report Generator routine, which will use specified 'select', 'sort', and 'report' profiles to perform the desired search and present the matching records with the details of interest. This feature will allow the user to have immediate access to additional information on each of the records meeting the search criteria, such as the file location, remarks, associated activities and pay items, or any other available record attributes. 112 4.7 Ministry Reporting 4.7.1 Daily Site Information A benefit of tying all project elements together in a common system is that previously unrelated information can be readily linked and referenced to as-built and planned work. By exploiting the data structure created, the system can assist with the collection of daily site data, further leveraging the time of field personnel. An existing REPCON routine can generate Daily Site Report forms in a format commensurate with that currently used by the Ministry. The traditional Ministry form is generic and its blank fields for activities, resources, pay items, tests and the like must be filled in by hand each day. The system's version can incorporate information on expected activities and their status as deduced from the schedule and any previous information already entered. For example, a form printed prior to field inspection on a given day can contain completed fields for those activities which are either scheduled to start or be ongoing. Figure A13 in Appendix 1 shows an excerpt from a sample system generated form; other sheets can be produced for filling in site condition data, and a reference listing of project problem codes can be attached if desired. Additional information on associated pay items to observe, testing to be considered, and equipment and personnel which are expected to be assigned to each activity is also available within the system and could be pre-attached to fields adjacent to the appropriate activity field with minor adjustments to the current format. In this way, staff completing the forms would not have to fill in all fields, especially when these fields may have consistent entries from day to day. Instead, the pre-entered data from the system can merely be checked off as confirmed, or the 113 appropriate status code circled. Manual entries would only be needed to modify the data presented by the system or for cases of work initiated prior to its scheduled start. An additional benefit to this feature is that the pre-printed data can be used as a checklist of sorts, to serve as a reminder to field staff of all of the elements which need to be reported on. 4.7.2 Project Reporting and Claims Analysis The Ministry must refer to the records collected on its construction projects for information in support of various reporting requirements. For on-site reporting purposes, the records generated provide data used primarily in the creation of monthly and completion reports to Project Managers. These reports typically contain information on costs, progress, significant events, changes, and problems encountered. While the structure of the reports has been standardized to a great extent, the formatting of the data presented in required sections currently remains relatively flexible. Nevertheless, site personnel who prepare the reports must glean the supporting information manually from the various records collected. For example, background data on a specific construction delay may be contained in varying detail within diary entries, daily site reports, photographs, correspondence, progress measurements and other records. In order to compile all related information on this issue, the person preparing the report has to perform a laborious manual review of all of the pertinent records, often contending with the added inconvenience that the independent record types may contain information in terms of different views of the work (e.g.: activity versus pay item). 114 The inefficiencies of manual records searching become even more prevalent in instances where these must be reviewed in detail for the purposes of claims analysis or design feedback. In such cases, the review of records could be performed well after the project has been completed, and perhaps by someone not originally on site. Thus, the person undertaking the review is not as likely to be able to exploit a personal recollection of records content as someone generating a monthly report. From this perspective, a system which allows for the selective refinement of records searching and summary presentation would not only help to reduce the time required to compile the desired information, but would also offer the ability to produce a wider range of compilations from the same data set. The prototype system has therefore been tailored to generate summary presentations of various information sets, to assist with the preparation of typical Ministry reports. These compilations are proposed to either replace or support the tables and graphics which are currently manually generated for inclusion in the Ministry's formal reports. Additionally, the records searching features of the prototype system address the need to reduce the time which is required for locating relevant photographs, letters, and the like. Site staff and off-site Project Managers have provided comments on their needs and the current limitations with regard to monthly and completion reporting. Functionally, the monthly reports must be concise yet contain sufficient information to relay a clear indication of significant events and problems, as well as general progress for the month. Most of these reports are no more than two pages in length. Completion reports do not generally have a size restriction, and are intended to provide far greater detail and scope. While some text is inevitably required, Project Managers have expressed a preference for receiving data in the 115 form of tables, or graphics where appropriate. For example, a bar chart showing actual activity dates and the impact on planned future work (for monthly reports) is considered more beneficial than a written summary of the same information. As described earlier, the prototype system has the capability to provide these bar charts on the basis of data collected in its present format, so that the time involved in manually extracting activity data from site records and drafting the same chart is eliminated. The system can also provide a comparison of actual activity progress with the as-planned schedule on the same chart, further increasing the amount of information contained therein (refer to Figure 3.8 in Section 3.5.5). Black and white printer plots can be made through a laser printer or equivalent, while full color plots were generated for the study project on Calcomp and Hewlett-Packard pen plotters. If necessary, information used by the system to create the bar charts can be printed in tabular form as well, with the option to show various additional activity attributes such as float, pay items, responsibility, scope statement, or most other information entered in the system. Ministry reports must also contain a summary of any problems which occurred on the project. REPCON has an existing capability to present listings of all problems by type, activity, location, and responsibility, as well as generate graphs on problem type by number of occurrences or frequency. Cost information has traditionally been presented in the form of tabular listings of each pay item, its incremental or final quantity, and cost. While this format is useful and summaries of progress measurements and monthly payments can now be produced by the system automatically (refer to Figure 4.30 in Section 4.3.4), Project Managers have indicated that 116 cash flow diagrams would be highly desirable. Understandably, these have not been demanded of site staff to date due to the unreasonable amount of time which would be required to manually derive projected flows based on historically unassociated pay items and activities. On occasions when approximations have been attempted, management invariably have dismissed them on the basis of their dubious accuracy. Through the cash flow routine described in Section 4.3.3, the system can generate far more dependable comparisons of projected and actual cash flows without the imposition of additional effort. By incorporating the bulk of data collected on-site, the system provides the potential for compiling and presenting many summary views in various formats. This may have particular relevance when records must be searched for the purposes of claims analysis, since the issues addressed are often unique and unpredictable. Typical issues for claims review involve ascertaining resources applied to activities, dates of events, problem occurrences, weather impacts on progress, and the like. Several reporting features of the system facilitate the analysis of data collected on site for these purposes. Resources, weather conditions, and problems can be presented in graphical form, and tabular listings of visitors, accidents, and other daily site data are readily available. However, it is apparent that these summaries represent only a small subset of the reporting formats which may be desired of an implemented system. Again, since the majority of field data collected is contained within the system, further work could focus on creating a greater range of report formats using the available storage structure. 117 4.7.3 Legal Considerations Whenever the computerized representation of documents and their contents is intended for use as support in legal proceedings, the issue of admissibility must be considered. As of the writing of this paper, the guidelines for the use of electronic representations of data as original records in claims support remains for the most part unaddressed. However, the approach of this study was to produce a system for better managing the data contained within the current hard copy records, not to replace them. A benefit of assuming this strategy is that these traditionally undisputed document formats remain available for legal reference if necessary. This may be crucial when considering the 'best evidence rule' of the courts, which basically states that if a litigant intends to present summary information as evidence, he is expected to produce the source document(s) unless there is a satisfactory reason for not doing so. Nevertheless, an agency involved in a claim may wish to take advantage of the data manipulation capabilities of a system as developed under this study. While the supporting hard records are intended to remain at hand, the validity of the many summary reports which can be produced from their contents by the system must be ascertained. In British Columbia, the Evidence Act addresses the acceptance of documents as evidence in legal application. While this statute does not uniquely address the matter of computerized records, it is intended to treat the presentation of all materials for the purposes of civil proceedings and arbitration. Section 32(1) covers the use of public agency documents as evidence: 118 "Where a book or other document is of so public a nature as to be admissible in evidence on its mere production from the proper custody, and no other statute exists which renders its contents provable by means of a copy, a copy of it or extract from it is admissible as evidence in any court, or before a person having, by law or by consent of parties, authority to hear, receive and examine evidence, if it is proved that it is a copy or extract purporting to be certified to be true by the officer to whose custody the original has been entrusted."1 This implies that information extracted from records constitutes acceptable documents, providing the site manager responsible for the records certifies the information as true. Indeed, the presentation of data at legal sessions has historically been accepted in alternate formats intended to clarify or illustrate the information contained in many other original records. The use of a computer to perform this summarization seems to be accepted as an application of another analytic medium, the content of which can be validated through expert testimony. The validity of computerized records is further supported if a firm or organization has documented procedures for using them, and does so consistently throughout a project as a matter of standard practice. The legal environment will undoubtedly continue to evolve with regard to the acceptance of electronic records, as computers become even more prevalent as a documentation tool. This will have to be considered as systems move toward an exploitation of developing trends in the collection of initial data in electronic form. This effect is currently evident in the advent of digital cameras and portable data collectors. Until such time as the issue of authenticity of original electronic records has been formally addressed by the courts, it 1 British Columbia. Evidence Act. RS1979, C.116, 32(1). 119 is apparent that the most prudent approach to promoting acceptability is to generate signed hard versions of any electronic data for backup, especially if there is any possibility that such information could be required for future reference as evidence. 120 Chapter 5 CONSIDERATIONS FOR I M P L E M E N T A T I O N Several issues need to be addressed in assessing the implications of a public agency such as the Ministry adopting a system based on the prototype developed under this study. These issues include concerns for available and pending technology, trends in the way in which agency work is conducted, and the expected impact on personnel who would use the system. Brief considerations of each of these issues are presented. 5.1 Current and Pending Technology The basic computer requirements for operation of the system as designed are readily available, and are therefore not a limiting factor. At the time of the writing of this paper, a 486 processor with 8Mb R A M could be considered the nominal configuration for newly purchased machines, and is adequate for providing satisfactory performance. Use of the increasingly common Pentium processor and generally higher hard drive access speeds would only result in improved performance. Similarly, current standard hard drive capacities provide suitable storage for the system, a significant number of compressed scanned image files, and the volumes of data inherent with even a large project. However, an extensive amount of scanned images stored on the hard drive could easily dictate the size needed. Depending on their number and the file format adopted, a 1 gigabyte drive may be required to accommodate the full complement of project photographs. 121 5.1.1 Portable Data Collectors An emerging tool which warrants further investigation for potential support of the system is portable data collectors. With such devices, field data currently recorded manually and duplicated within the system afterward would be downloaded as input, much as is currently done with data collectors used for forestry and surveying applications. The benefits of performing data collection in this manner include not only the expected time savings that would result, but also an improvement in clarity, accuracy, and consistency between operators. Although a laptop computer with the full system (or only adapted sub-systems) could be provided for field personnel, thereby allowing for the direct creation of system data files, they do not possess a suitable resistance to wear, weather, and impact that field use demands. Ministry crews currently use Husky Hunter collectors for the automatic entry and downloading of survey data. While these units offer the required durability and portability, they unfortunately cannot be programmed to accept the extensive text-based information in the standard formats desired for daily site reporting on Ministry projects. Also, keypad entry may prove to be a deterrent to use when compared to the relative ease with which the existing hard forms are filled in by hand. Bar code scanners are enjoying wider application in many operations, but are more suited to the tracking of materials and products than construction progress. The advent of pen-based technology may offer the best solution in this regard (McCullouch and Gunn 1993, Williams 1994). This class of portable collector employs the ability to enter data by 'writing' on the screen with a wand, or using the wand to indicate a 122 selection from internal menus or listings. Some training is required, however, in order for operators to master a handwriting style which the unit will recognize. Although manufacturers claim high recognition accuracies, users of recent products caution that the applications remain cumbersome, and fail to meet the expectations for providing marked advantage over manually completed forms (Holmboe 1995). Until such time as writing recognition technology is adequately refined, greater immediate promise in automated data collection resides in the use of convertibles. Forestry and other inspection-based sectors have claimed encouraging success in the use of these units, which combine the use of a pen for screen selection and a keypad for text entry. The most favorable results to date have been achieved with applications which are intended to replace hard copy form completion (Holmboe 1995); these applications exploit the ability to select field entries from a list of stored options where appropriate, with supporting text fields completed through the keypad. Ministry daily site report forms are an ideal candidate for adaptation to this electronic format, since the options for many fields such as activities, pay items, site conditions and resources are finite and readily suited to creation of a selection list. Remaining text fields are brief enough that the advantage gained by reducing effort through option tagging for the majority of fields should outweigh the possible inconvenience of partial keypad entry. As with most data collectors, the additional benefits to be derived from the use of convertibles include an improved consistency in the information gathered, especially when using selection lists, and the relative ease of data transfer to a parent system. 123 5.1.2 Video Excerpts Technology is also available which would permit the incorporation of video records into the system. The Ministry often documents such events as rock blasting with video, and with increased use of this medium likely, on-line excerpts of these films could be useful. At this time, short video clips transferred to the computer require a significant, although not prohibitive amount of storage and available RAM. A 10 second video excerpt composed of images at a resolution similar to that used for the system's photographs would require approximately 4MB of storage (Venegas and Baker, 1994). Although the prototype system was designed to reference video records in the format described in Section 4.6.1, accommodating excerpts thereof was not pursued. To do so would require the incorporation of a video viewing platform, as well as specialized hardware for the conversion of camcorder images to video files. 5.1.3 CD-ROM CD-ROM is essentially a laser-based read-only medium with the potential to store a vast amount of data on a single disc. This technology is prevalent in the computer market today, and could be exploited for the storage and rapid retrieval of information used by the prototype system. In particular, scanned photograph and document images (and perhaps video excerpts) are a suitable target for storage in CD-ROM format, primarily because they do not generally need to be edited once created. This is important at this time, due to the fact that equipment for the recording of data on discs is currently expensive and not widely 124 promoted. Nevertheless, some companies provide the service of copying files onto CD-ROM, such that large sets of scanned images can be batch transferred onto disc. This would not only reduce hard drive storage requirements, but would also provide a convenient means for distributing and accessing project information for design feedback and future reference, since all system files for a completed project could be archived in this format on a single disc. 5.1.4 Wireless Communication Through the use of modems and cellular technology, it is currently possible to transfer data between remote locations without the need for direct wired links. While this technology has not yet gained widespread application, it is likely that many organizations that deal with field data collection will begin to capitalize on this available communication tool as the market adapts and cellular service is expanded. For remote field offices employing the use of PC-based systems, this means that data collected on site can be sent immediately to a main office when no other hard link is available, or transferred directly from on-site portables to the main system. This provides the potential benefits inherent with standard wired link-ups where otherwise not possible, and includes increased communication between field and head offices, a reduction in costly travel to sites, and the timelier involvement of supervisors and managers in assessing problems, schedule changes, and the like (Williams 1994). 5.1.5 Remote Link-up Currently available technology allows for the potential to provide remote link-up to the prototype system. In this way, the capability would be provided to have off-site managers 125 view the contents of the on-site system. The fundamental approach in proposing this feature is that off-site access is in no way intended to reduce or replace direct communication between field and office personnel. Rather, the intention would be to provide a tool for improving communication, and hopefully encouraging increased contact. Norton PCAnywhere has been identified as a suitable utility to facilitate the linking of separate computers via modem. The software allows one user to operate the on-site system, with all screen information mirrored on the off-site monitor. Set-up and concurrent verbal communication could be achieved through telephone contact. Therefore, a method is available for allowing the parties to review the system's contents simultaneously and conduct real-time discussions on progress, methods, costs, etc.. In support of issues being reviewed during these sessions, the ability to present the on-screen versions of site photographs and memoranda as linked to activities offers particular potential benefit. It is anticipated that this feature could greatly improve the timely communication of design feedback as well. Where the parties are both conversant with the system, data will be able to be transferred via conventional modem for direct manipulation and analysis by the off-site manager. This will facilitate a greater involvement of management in problem solving. Similarly, it is feasible that this feature will enable more complicated changes to the project model to be performed through a central office, based on data conveyed from the field, such that the need for computer modeling expertise on each site is reduced. 126 5.2 Project Management Trends The way in which highway projects are administered has been the subject of much recent debate in British Columbia. While the traditional approach of separate planning, design, and construction contracts has been accepted with little exception for decades, the increasing strain on government budgets has resulted in the need to examine alternative ways of funding and reducing costs on large projects. One philosophy often adopted by governments is that the open, competitive market of the private sector is suited to the provision of more efficient, innovative, and therefore cost effective engineering than can be achieved with resources employed directly by the government agency. With regard to construction monitoring, the Ministry has made an effort over the past ten years to increase the proportion of projects monitored on their behalf by private consulting firms. A complement of in-house supervisory teams, such as the one resident on the study project, is maintained for immediate availability on a nominal level of the total work undertaken by the Ministry; consulted counterparts are engaged on any additional or exceptional work beyond the nominal volume. Design-build projects to be undertaken by the Ministry will likely involve the exclusive use of consulted site services. When considering implementation of a construction management system uniquely tailored to the Ministry's needs, the issue of maintaining consistent historical information on all projects, whether monitored by in-house or external forces, needs to be addressed. While it remains a topic to be resolved in greater detail by the appropriate Ministry officials, it is nevertheless apparent that maximum benefit would be achieved by having all projects documented with the 127 assistance of the adopted system. This is of particular relevance if the information linking benefits are to be realized when conducting post-construction reviews of consultant gathered project records. Assuming that the system's proposed on-site reporting benefits are acknowledged, it is reasonable to predict that those companies engaged by the Ministry would willingly accept an imposition of its use, for the leverage it would afford them in the delivery of their services. However, if this strategy of requiring use of a common system by all site representatives is not considered viable, an alternative for computerizing the records on privately monitored jobs may be to have a Ministry representative attend the site specifically to the transfer data collected to the Ministry system. Conversely, mandatory transfer of data by the consultant could be required as a condition of award, whether or not the firm intends to make use of the system for its own needs. Governments have also been looking to the private sector for assistance in the financing of large public projects. Public-private partnerships involve the scope of financial structuring typified by build-operate-transfer (BOT) projects and other similar formats entailing varying degrees of private investment. In these cases, it may be more difficult to impose the use of a particular construction management system, since by their very nature these partnerships are intended to permit the private party latitude to manage its operations to the benefit of both (within the bounds of required performance and product standards). However, where the private firm or consortium designs, builds and sometimes operates the project, the Ministry's need for ready access to construction records produced is reduced due 128 to the fact that any disputes over construction events are likely to be internal to the private partner. Again, use of the system by the private party would then be predicated on their willingness to adopt it on its own merit (e.g.: for the site reporting benefits), or if it is mandated as a term of award. 5.3 Personnel Considerations A key factor in assessing the impacts of the implementation of any new system is that of the effects on personnel. The most obvious consideration is that all targeted users would have to be trained in the operation of the program, and quite possible the basic use of computers as well, since a majority of the seasoned veterans of the construction industry have historically been averse to adopting them. Similarly, at least a segment of the affected group may have to become familiar with network scheduling techniques due to the fact that internally derived network models have not commonly been employed by the Ministry. The changes which would be necessary to the current structure of the site supervisory teams is likely to be limited to a reallocation of duties amongst existing staff. It is clear that each crew would need to have at least one member conversant with the system and responsible for the consistent, regular entry of data collected. Based on field data entry performed for the study, it is estimated that the reproduction of data in the system from records in their current format should take no more than one or two hours per day. Bulk scanning of photographs and documents takes approximately five minutes per file, and it is reasonable to assume that this task could be delegated to clerical or support staff. Until such 129 time as the use of portable data collectors are pursued, field inspector duties may not be affected at all. It is nevertheless important that the person or persons responsible for management of the project's system files be experienced and knowledgeable with regard to not only the construction processes in general, but also the Ministry's documentation requirements. This is critical, since to ensure the realization of the intended benefits of the system, it is imperative that information be entered and correlated properly. While this does not preclude the assignment of data collection, scanning or other tasks to support staff, the incorporation of the resultant data or files into the system must be done by a qualified operator. A common concern for field staff is that the increased automation and computerization of processes may lead to a reduction in employment. This fear was allayed on the study project when it was made clear that the objectives of the proposed system focused on elimination of the mundane, repetitive tasks associated with site management, such that more time could be freed for more valuable work. In a similar way, the system should not be considered as a replacement for the valuable insight which experienced personnel can provide. On the contrary, it is not an expert system, but an additional analytic tool which can offer better information to support personal expertise and hopefully encourage communication. From this perspective, implementation of a system such as the prototype developed should be regarded as a means of improving productivity, rather that reducing personnel requirements. 130 Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS 6.1 Corollary The prototype system developed under this thesis successfully addresses the stated objective of providing public owners with an improved ability to monitor progress on and manage the site documentation of construction projects. This was achieved primarily by incorporating the following features into the existing REPCON platform: Contract Pay Items - new capabilities for pay item breakdown structure definition, cost and quantity entry, and summary reporting. Pay Item and Activity Mapping - new capabilities for defining associations between pay items and activities, identifying pay item quantity breakdown by activity and location, determining cost to owner, and summary reporting. Progress Measurement - new capabilities for tracking pay item progress, determining progress payments, and summary reporting. Quality Management - new capabilities for creating standard and project-specific test listings, associating tests with pay items, and summary reporting. Cash Flow - modified REPCON capabilities to produce projections based on pay item/activity associations and the project schedule, and generate summary charts. 131 Records Management - new capabilities for listing available site records, associating them with activities, pay items, project locations, problems, and other records, searching and sorting of records on specified parameters, and scanned records viewing. Daily Site Reporting - modified REPCON resource tracking by activity, and revised site data reporting categories. All of these features have been integrated with REPCON's previous activity scheduling and reporting capabilities, such that the resultant system provides a means to address the site management needs of public owners. This includes an achieved ability to create alternate views of the project, both in terms of the contract pay item breakdown structure and the contractor's work. Each of these views can reference other project elements such as quality management testing, locations, and progress measurements, which have previously been uncorrelated and related solely to one view or the other. This represents an improvement over the capabilities of currently available project management software and other research systems reviewed, which all address site documentation in terms of a single view. Additionally, the benefits of integrating the various views can be considered greater than the sum of the benefits from each independent view, due to the fact that complementary data can now be shared between views, and a broader project image created to permit analysis in ways which were not previously possible. 132 It has become apparent during development and ongoing review of the prototype with Ministry personnel that the system offers promise of greatly assisting with the management of the construction records produced on behalf of the owner. Similarly, the enthusiasm shown by Ministry field staff and management for the resulting product, and their willingness to provide useful input, is encouraging for the prospects of possible formal application. Since the literature identifies that many owner agencies share the same needs as the Ministry, the concepts employed in developing the prototype are more likely to be of universal appeal. The most obvious impact in considering implementation is that some modification in the current approach to site administration would have to be adopted. In particular, the Ministry would have to begin utilizing at least some form of computer schedule to support the reporting process. The additional benefits of employing the use of an automated scheduling system include being able to better confirm the feasibility and acceptability of the contractor's submitted plan, and having a readily modifiable baseline from which to document progress. This infers a modest effort toward training staff in the operation of not only the system itself, but most likely in computers as well, since senior field supervisors have traditionally been averse to embracing them. Adoption of such a system could generate true savings with regard to the time required to compile standard and ad-hoc reports, while improving accessibility to records generated for design feedback purposes and assessing the validity of claims. While the net proposed benefits are difficult to quantify due to their long term and subjective nature, it is reasonable to predict a positive return on implementation when considering the potential 133 economies from a single records review for litigation, which can currently take months to complete. When contemplating the financial stakes in modem construction claims cases, deflection of a single significant spurious claim through improved access to available site data could easily offset the cost of implementation. The same observation can be made for monthly and completion reporting, where the possible cumulative value of compilation time saved on the many projects the Ministry executes over a few years alone may justify its application. This is without consideration of the less tangible predicted benefits such as reduced hard copy needs, improved knowledge transfer, and more efficient on-site operations. 6.2 Future Work The following are issues which have been identified as warranting further consideration: 6.2.1 Field Testing Although testing was performed on an actual Ministry project for this study, only a small subset of the data collected on site was entered in order to confirm the functionality of the routines designed. Prior to pursuing formal application of a system based on the prototype, it would be advisable to perform more rigorous daily field testing over an extended period. This would provide additional refinement of the results presented herein, as well as indicate other desirable features. 134 6.2.2 Additional System Features It is apparent that some functions not accommodated in the prototype may warrant inclusion in a future version of the system. In particular, routines have been designed as part of this thesis for the eventual accommodation of supplementary pay item status information (Section 4.3.4), quality management test results (Section 4.4.2), change order details (Section 4.5.4), and record search results reporting (Section 4.6.2). Another beneficial addition would be the incorporation of available pay item, testing, and resource information in the daily site report forms generated by the system, which currently provide completed fields for expected activities only (Section 4.7.1). As noted in Section 4.7.2, users of a system based on the prototype developed under this study would benefit from a greater range of available reporting functions. This necessitates providing a flexibility in report formatting such that compilations can be created for the analysis and support of unique claims, as well as for further improving the content of standard project reports. In its current state, the prototype already houses a majority of the project data which would be required by any revised features which would generate the additional reports. A simpler approach may be to have future work address the need to generate unique tables and graphs by allowing data from the system to be exported to off-the-shelf software which is designed specifically for data manipulation and presentation (e.g.: Microsoft Excel), thereby eliminating the requirement for new reporting routines. 135 6.2.3 Data Exchange The exchange of data between the system and the many other independent programs already employed to support the administration of the Ministry's construction processes should be examined. This would likely involve the conversion of files to ASCII or some other viable format, and would allow for the sharing of data from supporting applications to further promote integration of many computer-based administrative functions and reduce the repetitive input of common, extensive base information. 6.2.4 Productivity Derivation Although noted as a desirable feature by the Ministry and espoused in relevant literature, this study did not pursue features to derive and compare productivity rates within the system. Base information on activity and pay item durations, costs and resource usage are all available in the current prototype, however, and could be accessed by a supplementary routine for this purpose. The as-built productivity rates would provide additional information for developing future as-planned schedules, assessing claims and change orders, and gauging progress on projects currently underway. 6.2.5 Further Technology As described in Section 5.1, the use of other available and pending technologies should be explored. In particular, CD-ROM could be considered as a storage medium, and video clips could be incorporated as viewable records. Portable data collectors hold substantial 136 promise for promoting consistent and comprehensive daily site reporting, and offer the potential for simplified transfer of data into the main management system. 6.2.6 Hypertext Specifications Reference Hypertext specification referencing was not pursued under the scope of this study. While not critical to the effective functioning of the prototype, an available network of linked references between relevant sections of the contract provisions, Standard Specifications, Standard Agreement, pay item listing, and activity listing (among others) may be useful enough to warrant the effort involved in creating an operative version. The benefits would involve the focused and simplified perusal of all project specifications, and through extension, ready referencing to any of that information from the point of view of relevant site records. Autocad versions of standard and contract drawings could also eventually be included in the overall hypertext/hypermedia network. 6.2.7 System Interface The prototype system has been designed to be completely operational with respect to the proposed functions, and its DOS-based, mouse-driven current form has served the purposes of testing well. Nevertheless, it would be advantageous when pursuing formal implementation if the prototype were modified to operate in a format more conducive to use by a wider audience. This infers that any configuration proposed for practical application should incorporate a more user-friendly graphical interface (e.g.: Windows), possibly exploiting on-screen 'toolbars' or 'buttons', online help, and 'wizards' (step by step operation 137 guidance) in accordance with the features provided by the majority of contemporary software products. The main consideration in this regard is to promote quicker learning and employment of the system through use of familiar and more universal qualities. 138 BIBLIOGRAPHY Blasko, Eugene K.. "New Jersey Department of Transportation Automated Construction Estimate System." Transportation Research Record, n.1186 (1988): 40-50. Bubbers, Geoffrey and John Christian. "Hypertext and Claims Analysis." 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Morad. "Intelligent Systems for Information Retrieval in Construction." Computing in Civil and Building Engineering: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference. L.F. Cohn (Ed.), Vol.2 (June 1993): 1592-1599. Russell, Alan D. "Computerized Daily Site Reporting." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 119(2) (June 1993): 385-402. Russell, Alan D. and W. Wong. " A New Generation of Planning Structures." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 119(2) (June 1993): 196-214. Singh, Surinder. "Developing a Computer Model for Cash Flow Planning." Cost Engineering. 3 K i n fNov. 1989): 7-11. Tavakoli, Amir. "Scheduling and Control Processes of Departments of Transportation." Journal of Management in Engineering. 4(4) (Oct. 1988): 368-373. Tavakoli, Amir. "Effective Progress Scheduling and Control for Construction Projects." Journal of Management in Engineering. 6(1) (Jan. 1990): 87-98. Tse, Roger L . M . . "Computerized Daily Construction Site Reporting System (DSRS)." M A S c Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Vanegas, Jorge A. and Nelson C. Baker. "Multimedia in Civil Engineering." Civil Engineering. (May 1994): 71-73. Williams, T.P.. "Applying Portable Computing and Hypermedia to Construction." Journal of Management in Engineering. 10(3) (May/June 1994): 41-45. 140 APPENDIX 1 141 to Activity Name Project Start Mobilization Traffic Control Project 08690 - Barnet Highway: Texaco Drive to Petro Canada Activity Listing Activity Description Project start milestone. Site mobilization by contractor. Flagging, temporary signing and other traffic operations of the contractor; hammock activity. Clearing and Grubbing - WB Clearing of project right-of-way - west side. Clearing and Grubbing - EB Clearing of project right-of-way - east side. Removal of organic ground surface layer - west side. Removal of organic ground surface layer - east side. Stripping - WB Stripping - EB Tunnel Culverts Install Box Culvert Pavement Removal - WB Pavement Removal - EB Removal of Existing Works Temporary Widening Tunneling of large diameter steel culverts by hydraulic ram and auger. Cut and cover installation of concrete box culvert, including associated weirs, inlet and outlet structures. Removal and disposal, or milling, of existing asphalt pavement - west side. Removal and disposal, or milling, of existing asphalt pavement - east side. Removal or adjustment of various existing features such as manholes, hydrants, valves, etc.. Widening along east side to allow relocation of traveled surface during work in areas of restricted width. Excavation and Embankment Excavation of cut material and construction of west fill - WB embankments; earthwork. Table A l - Project Activity Listing 144 Activity Name Activity Listing (continued) Activity Description Excavation and Embankment Excavation of cut material and construction of east fill - E B embankments; earthwork. Storm Drainage - EB Stage I Supply and installation for the completion of storm drainage accessible on the east side in Stage I. Storm Drainage - Stage Hi Storm Drainage - WB Culvert Replacement Top Lift/Overlay - Stage H Waterworks Wall 8 Wall 9 Wall 10 Wall 11 Wall 12 Wall 13 Supply and installation for the completion of storm drainage which cannot be accessed until Stage III. Supply and installation for the completion of storm drainage on the west side. Replacement of existing culvert accessible during construction of Wall #12. Final lift paving of lanes widened under a previous contract, east end of project. Supply and installation for the completion of all project water mains and associated services. Supply and installation for completion of Wall #8. Supply and installation for completion of Wall #9. Supply and installation for completion of Wall #10. Supply and installation for completion of Wall #11. Supply and installation for completion of Wall #12. Supply and installation for completion of Wall #13. Table A l - Project Activity Listing (continued) 145 Activity Name Finish L40 Along Wall #8 Granular Bases - WB Granular Bases - EB Preducting - WB Preducting - EB Fencing ABC Paving - WB ABC Paving - EB Top Lift Paving - WB Top Lift Paving - EB Subdrains - Stage I Concrete Barrier - WB Concrete Barrier - EB Activity Listing (continued) Activity Description Completion of that portion of the L40 access road adjacent to Wall #8. Supply, haul and placement of all roadway structural gravel bases, west side. Supply, haul and placement of all roadway structural gravel bases, east side. Conduit placement for electrical works, west side. Conduit placement for electrical works, east side. Supply and installation of all project right-of-way fencing. Supply and placement of asphalt binder course pavement, west side. Supply and placement of asphalt binder course pavement, east side. Supply and placement of final lift asphalt pavement, west side. Supply and placement of final lift asphalt pavement, east side. Supply and installation of subdrains accessible during Stage I (east shoulder). Supply and placement of all concrete roadside and median barrier, west side. Supply and placement of all concrete roadside and median barrier, east side. Sidewalks, Curb, Islands - Supply and construction of all concrete and asphalt WB sidewalks, curb and gutter, islands, and sidewalk fencing on west side. Table A l - Project Activity Listing (continued) 146 Activity Name Sidewalks, Curb & Islands EB Electrical Signing - WB Signing - EB Activity Listing (continued) Activity Description • Supply and construction of all concrete and asphalt sidewalks, curb and gutter, islands, and sidewalk fencing on east side. Completion of all project electrical works such as signals and lighting. Removal of existing signs, and supply and installation of new project signing, west side. Removal of existing signs, and supply and installation of new project signing, east side. Temporary Signs/Mkgs - WB Placement of temporary signs and marking for delineation of staged works, west side. Temporary Signs/Mkgs - EB Landscape Marine Park Placement of temporary signs and marking for delineation of staged works, east side. Supply and installation of special landscaping required at Marine Park. Construct WB Lane - Wall 12 Completion of westbound lane adjacent to Wall 12. Gravels/ABC EB - Stage m Landscaping Pavement Markings - WB Completion of structural gravel placement and application of asphalt binder course pavement on east side, accessible during Stage III. Supply and installation of all project landscaping, other than that required for Marine Park. Final pavement markings for west side, by Ministry crews. Pavement Markings - EB Final pavement markings for east side, by Ministry crews. BCHydro & BCTel Relocations Relocation of electrical and telephone facilities, by utility agencies. Table A l - Project Activity Listing (continued) 147 Activity Name Burnaby Service Connections Property Issues Environmental Issues Clean-up End Stage I - Shift Traffic End Stage II - Shift Traffic End Stage m - Shift Traffic End Stage IV - Shift Traffic Project Completion Activity Listing (continued) Activity Description Completion of service connections to new watermains by municipal crews. Any additional work arising from property-related settlements, as anticipated in the contract; hammock activity. Any additional work arising from environmental needs, as anticipated in the contract; hammock activity. Site clean-up and vacating by the contractor. Milestone for completion of Stage I, and associated re-routing of highway traffic. Milestone for completion of Stage II, and associated re-routing of highway traffic. Milestone for completion of Stage HI, and associated re-routing of highway traffic. Milestone for completion of Stage IV, and associated re-routing of highway traffic. Milestone for project completion. Table A l - Project Activity Listing (continued) 148 fPROJECT/PROJECT DATA C:\REF200\PHOJB4sSEPUPD "1 General Contractors UBC CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT LAB Project Nane: Barnet Highuay - Texaco Drive to Petro Canada —• Project MBMO t Project 08690-0000 of Barnet Highuay Project: 1 2.4 kilOMeters of a r t e r i a l uidening. froM existing tuo lone to four, uith HOU lanes. 560 Meters of s p l i t grade, lighting, signals & six 4 structural ualls. Nunber of Locations: 9 Loc Description t L7-1 Sta 36+78 to 48+00. I L7-2 Sta 40+00 to 44+10 L7-3 Sta 44+10 to 50+00 L7-4 Sta 50+08 to 55+80 L7-5 Sta 55+00 to 61+08 I L40 L40 li n e and parking area in Construction Order Unit i n c l . L30 value 8 0 0 0 8 0 F8'F9(-•+>:Del/Ins Meno'Location L i n e F3 =Insert L o c a t i o n s froM Macro Fl-.Help F Z : L i s t F10:ConfirM Esc: E x i t | F7:Log A l t - P : P r l n t Figure A3 - Project Description and Location Breakdown Entry ACTIUITY DATA/PREDECESSOR UINDOU C:\REPZ00\PR0J04\SEPUPD Actiuity Code: 0101| Subproject: Phase: EUO: Code Description Start milestone has T*>12500 Uall 13 112600 Granular Bases - UB H2700 Granular Bases - EB H2800 Preduct - EB H2900 Preduct - UB H3000 Fencing H3100 E l e c t r i c a l H3200 Subdrains - Stage I 113300 ABC Pauing - UB 1013400 ABC Pauing - EB i Figure A4 - Activity Data Entry: Activity Selection List ACTIUITY DATA/PRODUCT ION DATA UINDOU C:\REP200\PR0J04\SEPUFD Activity Code: OllOOO Subproject: Phase: 3 EUO: tage 11 Description: is Type: Elenent: | xcauation S Enbanknent - UB rdered KMEIHO Quantity: Units Governing Resource It: Descriptor Location M Range Uork Skip Days /Loc Quantity /Loc Average Res usage/Loc Aug Prod /Loc Calculated Days/Loc Figure A5 - Activity Data Entry: Production Data ACTIUITY DATA/PREDECESSOR UINDOU C:SREP200SPR0J04SSEPUPD Activity Code: 012600 Subproject: Phase: 3 EUO: tage II Description: J Type: Elenent: | ranular Bases - UB rdered S I H ^ S ® No. of Typical Predecessors: 2kT~* Pred Description Excavation 8 Enbanknent - UB Removal of Existing Uorks Pavenent renoval - UB Storn Drainage - UB Rel Lag Offset ai l; No. of Non-Typical Predecessors: Pred Description f micioio] Finish L40 along Uall 8 PLoc Rel Lag Location mmmmm^mmm^^iem^smit Figure A6 - Activity Data Entry: Predecessors R E P C O N Z Educational and Research Version SVSTEM PROJECT PLANNING & SCHEDULING CASH FLOU a RESOURCES CONTROL a PROJECT ADMINISTRATION Project F i l e s Standards Configuration Stnd Projects U t i l i t i e s Exit Project Data Calendar Rept Manager PaylteiVAcct Select/Sort Reports A c t i v i t i e s Execute Resources Cash Flou Set Resource L e v e l i n g Options Check Schedule L o g i c C a l c u l a t e Schedule Resource L e v e l i n g Report Daily Site Paylte«/Acct lAppl for Paynent Change Orders Records Current Projects Cs\REPZB0\PROJB4\SEPUPD Select the resources to be leveled. (C> Copyright Alan D. Russell 1985-1935 Figure A7 - Schedule Execution Sub-menu 151 ....•IS £ vis t- «- ry: C z 111 3J fe H Z w S u u •< z z o f-o E> (t! H to Z o o 0 ' E l " C_> .Z ^ = 3 =5 CO — CB - 5= B .43 a e — "0 £ — 5 £ IS £ I f — « CV. «J ES -I ho'-fs. -r-i rsj gg m f>- rl. 13 ri. i - E E E E u - £ V — 1_ Cn CJ «c 1c t>3 : cc cc «c » . r» is-r*i — rs) • E E E a c K *•* J . to ^ — , s | B A' £ j£ cc — c «a «e | § fe-S'li £ E pi c £ »-> w D » 5 — .2 5 A £ § 8 \ 2 U i 2 . t l i 2 . t 2 i 2 . i 2 i 2 . i 2 i 2 . i 2 l Z i 2 i 2 . w-» rjt *r op as m rsj «y OP op BP - E E E E E E E E E E E E E E S E S B B g B B i B B B B B B B 8 8 1? ji 3 I Bi " £. E. $L S. tL K. £..! 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J 3 5s 33 OS OS 154 s e e rs.3 rs. rs. r- 3 S S S S S S S rL 3 -J —3 _J —J a. a. a. a. a. a_ a. _ l E2£2 E2E2S3 £362 £262 a aa aa E E - - E E E E E 3£ S,£3 e i -£3 £3 I I £3 E g am a. a. a. (3 •— 1— £2 £2 £2 £2 63 E l 3 ' .2 « 6 .£? J 3 a a u S '5 % C T3 cn => <3 to to cu 6262 i i a. a. E E u u CO CO 33 cn cn £2 62£2 £2£2£2£2£262£2 £2 £2 £ r>- rs! pi. rL rL S S a. a. a. —1 —) —3 — i —J _J 3 a_ a. E E E E E E E E E E E E u u u — w E m _' |Jlss | to to «>*> to CO CO s £?e CO CO 8 CP S S 9 Z K S 5 fi 92 & co co L/1 i»n v/i m ro m r*i ^ i»n CD LTI LO £2 £2 £2 £2 £2 S3 •—> m 8r!-£2 63 £2 £2 aaa E E E a. E ssa E E a - E a - E . £ 3 3 U u i l l ft. *3S £^3 £3 1 ES IE CO CO — •a ««-n o t Al = i i i : J T T rs. S pi- r>-i l l s i £2 £2 , CO CO id i l l i H i ; S 3£ - E E E cn en en ES ' o> S> « = .i.S c£ *) *a eg — - s O) L L e rsj u « a e » — * ^ 5 a a. 9 c_9 u co co a rsi ES I g1 £3 I ST £3 £3 I I S? ST B63 ! •3 £?1 £2 £2 £2 £2 I E E E E U QE3E3 ( » i to fa g>i > : • £ • £ 2.2.S. *^  e c age III p s S » t> CO 3 z= z; z: a-CD CD CD CS CD CD GO CD £2 £2 £2 £2 E2 CI a «— «— 1— 3 E s l s 3 b - & "w *£ lac .? J 33 | a. Concret Sidetul Signing Pavewn Top lif £2 £2 Ea E E . - 3 •5* g CO w mosco v CD rsi —• rsi rsi rsi i rsi — CO I 1 .1" ~"~ a. a* en —' <fl «— co — 3 & •a s e © £2 £2 -S a <-> cs Q 0 w <u •? PH 1 -< « r l . S 3 ri-r !3 i rs. rs. s E 5s ES I i u e cu en CO V cn CO £ «> cn £3 1 e | c to i i £3 i c c ii £3 s ES £ £3 2 «l £T 1 I i 3 8? S 3 155 etc iz SS SS SS E E E E E E -u u u u u u {•3 to CO CO CO CO c cn o c n cn en en cn cw. co c o c o c o c o c o c o e I! • •J, s s s s s s s s s s s S — °-s £1 E E S2S2 O C S Ss £ CW BS a= E - E ~ E - E U U (J U «Z <w c CW Li . £ . & _ .1*1 "> — .Wl .?! cu tn fO <tg - S, c_ ta £= w c*. * - & C O — C O — C O — C O 3 13 13 13 s C O ss C D C D ss £ C D ss £ SD rsi m C D C D C O 0 3 - -I I I I E E E E E E E E E E E E -s s | | j j S S J J B § g> u c u c c i t j U ' a < a c . K . L j iss: **M Ut U l S t/l •a ** 3 1 CO CO s s? 5 .-| Li 1 a S S K CO E2 S CU S a s 0 w CJ Q iA u © CU w CU •? PM 1 f S «< cu 3 « 156 DAILY SITEXDAILY STATUS DATA Other A c t i v i t i e s Enter Data C: \REPZ0B\PROJ04SSEPUPD eXit FrOM 15AUG94 to Z4AUG94 AUG AUG AUG AUG AUG AUG AUG Actiuity Inf ornation/'Activity 15 16 17 18 13 za Z l Code Loc Description HON TUE UED THU FRI SAT SUN Uork Environnent Data Uork Force Data Inspections & Tests V i s i t o r s Safety Log S Accidents Site Instructions Deliveries Equ i pMen t/Rentals Miscellaneous Notes "818188 PROJ Project Start d 010Z00 PROJ Mobilization S 0 0 P !P 818380 L7-1 Clearing and grubbing - EB 010308 L7-Z Clearing and grubbing - EB s 0 o 0 0 818388 L48 Clearing and grubbing - EB s o o o Fl'Help Ti - M - i S c r o l l Enter:Select E s c Exit Rou:Z^18 Col'Z/11 Figure A8 - Daily Status Data: Previous Initial Entry Screen DAILV SITIXDAILV STATUS DATA Other A c t i v i t i e s C\REPZ88\PR0J84\SEPUPD eXit F r O M 15AUG94 to Z4AUG94 II I I I — — Daily Status Data for FRIDAV, 19 AUG 1994 810209 Mobilization Activity: Daily Status-( > Finished > Idle On—going I ( ) C O Postponed ( ) Started Started a No Status Finished CX] Has Problefts r—CoMnents * postponed due to unseasonably heavy rains. [•1 Confirn [•] Exit ^ Fl:Help F18'Confirn Esc:Exit Figure A9 - Daily Status Data: Previous Activity Status Screen DAILY SITEXDAILY STATUS DATA •i.UJJthlTEM other A c t i v i t i e s exit Fron 1SAUG94 to Z4AUG94 — ^ — — — — ^ — ProblBM Data for FRIDAY. 19 AUG 1994 Activity: B10ZB3 Mobilization ProblBM Codes 4 11 Delete th i s ProblBM Code lode: C•\REPZBB\PROJB4VSEPUPD Iml Confirn C»: Exit 1 f r e e z i n g c o n d i t i o n s Z e x c e s s i v e u i n d 3 snou I 4 excessive rain b i o r e s t r y c l o s u r e 11 unexpected type 'A' 1Z unexpected type *B' 13 unexpected type *C 14 unexpected type ' D* 15 e x c e s s i v e grounduater C 1 Extra Uork Order C 1 Verbal Instruct ( i f applicable) ADJ ADJ TOT TOT Ref One Ref Tuo || B1B3BB L4B Clearing and grubbing - EB I S I ° I ° I ° I Fl:Help FZ:Choice F1B=Confirm Esc:Exit Figure A10 - Daily Status Data: Activity Problem Coding s DAILY SITE/DAILY STATUS DATA C'\REPZBB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD •jl.HJJUifcBBM Other A c t i v i t i e s eXit Fron 15AUG94 to Z4AUG94 — — — — — — ProblBM Data for FRIDAY. 19 AUG 1994 — — — — — — Activity: B1BZB9 Mobilization C-l Confirn Problen Code: 4 excessive rain C"3 Exit Problen Source Responsibility Code: ( i f applicable) Problen Description: unseasonably heavy rains - off-road surfaces inaccessible. Contractor to resune tonorrou pending inproved ueather. Est 1Mate of tine lost: MHRS: FE ADJ TOT DAYS: FE ADJ TOT Problen Action Renarks Ref One Ref Tuo XI Telephone c a l l to Bob Sanples 1 Letter 1 Meno ] Back Charge ] Extra Uork Order ] Uerbal Instruct B1B3BB L4B Clearing and grubbing - EB Fl:Help FZ:Choice F1B=Confirn Esc:Exit Figure A l l - Daily Status Data: Activity Problem Details U B C C O N S T R U C T I O N M A N A G E M E N T L A B File Used: C:\REP2BB\PR0JB4\SEPUPD Select: All Activities Sort: Activity Code B a r n e t H i g h w a y - T e x a c o D r i v e t o P e t r o C a n a d a coat • Critical Activity < Governing predecessor of an activity or successor governed by activity Report Date: B6APR95 Report Tine: 69:18:11 Revision Nunber: 8 Progress Date: 38SEP94 ACTIUITY LOC PAY ITEJ1 I I J O C J A N G E 1 COST TO CLIENT/LOC I C O D E DESCRIPTION PBS PATH DESCRIPTION QUANTITY UNIT MEASURE 1 | SUPPLY I N S T A L L TOTAL) •B181BB Project Start • P R O J 816288 Mobilization 1.1 Ministry's site office 1.88 L.S. PROJ N/A 433643.75 433643.75 1.2 Mobilization 1.88 L . S . PROJ 818388 Clearing and grubbing - EB 2.1.1 Allouance For paynent - Spec. 288.5 8.58 P .S . L7-2 N/A 26623.57 26623.57 L48 N/A 26683.57 28683.57 L7-2 2.1.B Clearing and grubbing 1.23 ha L5B N/A 5768.57 5768.57 L7-1 N/A 17593.57 17593.57 L 4 B 2.1.8 Clearing and grubbing 8 . 95 ha L7 -3 N/A 32428.57 32428.57 L 7 - 4 N/A 23828.57 23828.57 158 2.1.8 Clearing and grubbing 8.26 ha L68 N/A 17163.57 17163.57 L7 - 1 2.1.8 Clearing and grubbing 8.81 ha L7 - 3 2.1.8 Clearing and grubbing 1.58 ha L 7 - 4 2.1.8 Clearing and grubbing 1.18 ha L6B 2.1.8 Clearing and grubbing 8 .79 ha 816408 Stripping - E B L7 -1 2.3.1.1 Reiuval and disposal 3488.88 n3 L7 -1 N/A 38726.88 38726.68 L7-2 N/A 52394.88 52394.68 L7-2 2.3.1.1 Remval and disposal 4688.68 n3 L7-3 N/A 36448.BB 36448.68 L7-4 N/A 13668.BB 13668.68 L7-3 2.3.1.1 Renoval and disposal 32B8.BB n3 L4B N/A 76768.88 76768.68 15B N/A 6B34.68 6834.88 L7-4 2.3.1.1 Remval and disposal 1288.88 n3 L68 N/A 31692.68 3iB92.ee L 4 B 2.3.1.2 Placed in stockpile 4888.88 n3 158 2.3.1.1 Remval and disposal 688.68 n3 L68 2.3.1.1 Remval and disposal 2888.88 n3 618588 Tunnel Culverts 4 . 7 Concrete sandbags 388.88 each L7 -1 N/A 977.B8 977.88 L7-3 N/A 4389.58 4389.58 L7-1 4.1.1.6a 9BBm dia Steel Ut 8.375 66.88 n L 7 - 4 N/A 4389.58 4389.58 L7 - 3 4.1.1.8a 1568m dia Steel Ut 8.537 59.88 n 4.8.1 58 kg class, nachine laid 58.88 n3 L7-4 4.1.1.7a 1288m dia Steel Ut. 8.477 63.68 n 4.8.1 SB kg class. Machine laid 5B.BB n3 B1B6BB Install Box Culvert 2.18 Pavemnt cuts 28.88 n L7-2 N/A 188885.27 188885.27 4 .1 .1 .9 1838m x 1228m concrete box culvert 58.88 n 4.8.1 58 kg class, nachine laid 38B.B8 n3 4.18 Lock-block ueirs 9.68 each 4.11.1 Over-excavation 8.58 n3 4.11.2 Select granular backfill . S88.B6n3 L7 -2 818788 Temporary Widening L7 - 2 6.1 Spray priner and tack coat 1888.68 litre L7-2 N/A 18815.88 18815.88 6.3 Asphalt pavemnt, Class 1, mdiun nix 228.68 tonne L7-3 N/A 21585.88 21585.68 2.6.1 25m He II graded base 288.68 n3 L7 -3 6.1 Spray priner and tack coat 2288.88 litre 6.3 Asphalt pavemnt, Class 1, mdiun nix 588.88 tonne 2.6.1 2Sm uel 1 graded base 488.8Bn3 818888 Pavement renewal - UB 2.1B Pavemnt cuts 258.88 n L7 - 1 N/A 59B8.75 5988.75 L7 - 2 N/A 2484.75 24B4.75 L7 -1 2.4.2 Remve by K i l l ing , full depth 1888.88 M2 L4B N/A 3498.75 3498.75 2.4.1 Renove and dispose 288.86 n2 158 N/A 2415.25 2415.25 L7 -2 2.4.2 Remve by nil ling, full depth 888.88 n2 L 4 B 2.4.1 Remve and dispose lB88.B8n2 158 2.4.1 Remve and dispose 156.88 n2 2.4.2 Remve by nil ling, full depth 6BB.B6n2 "010386 Pavemnt remval - EB 2.1B Pavemnt cuts 256.88 n L7 -3 N/A 12733.75 12733.75 L7 -1 N/A 268.75 268.75 «L7 - 3 2.4.2 Remve by nil ling, full depth 4588.88 n2 L7 - 2 N/A 8381.75 8381.75 L 7 - 4 N/A 5888.75 5888.75 L7 -1 L7 -2 2.4.2 Remve by nil ling, full depth 2986.88 n2 L7 -4 2.4.2 Remve by nilling, full depth 2888.88 n2 "811888 Excavation 1 Enbanknent - UB 2.3.4 Allouance for paynent for Type ' C 6.58 P.S. L7-1 N/A 25727.88 25727.88 L7 - 2 N/A izs73s.ee 125735.88 «L7 -1 2.3.2 Type 'D' 1688.88 n3 L7-4 N/A 288885.88 288885.B8 2.5 Increased conpaction 8B8.8B n2 L7-3 N/A 576182.B9 576182.88 2.7 Inported enbanknent naterial 18B8.B8 n3 • L 7 - 2 2.3.2 Type '»' 358B.88n3 2.5 Increased conpaction 2888.88 n2 2.7 Inported enbanknent naterial 6688.88 n3 «L7-4 2.3.2 Type 'D' 38BB.ee n3 2.5 Increased conpaction 23BB.68 n2 2.7 Inported enbanknent naterial 156B8.ee n3 2.8 Drainage blankets 688.68 n3 2.14 Geotextile fabric 6688.86 n2 4.1.1.2 258m dia CSP Ut 1.3 (perf) 268.88 n »L7-3 2.3.2 Type 'D' 38888.88 n3 2.5 Increased conpaction 2888.88 n2 2.7 Inported enbanknent naterial 15886.88 n3 2.8 Drainage blankets 28B8.B6 n3 2.14 Geotextile fabric 2888.88 n2 4.1.1.2 256m dia C S P Ut 1.3 (perf) 788.88 n Figure A12 - Sample Cost to Owner Report z o o s. w ES s i OB 55" cc u 8 £ US £ t t p b L L M 8.8.8-5 CS •o a C a 0 o u o p. s > u Q o u a x » a X 60 ft. w cn -< Q -< 0 -< Z C 2 U 2* z o H O » H cn Z o o u co 3 1 i i O I 8 S3 E I ES i l 5E IE! X I _ j i U 1 O I cS i 1 < i u ' P General £•1 i i i i t. : i 5 : tt s tt Ea i : Ea fsi tt S3 ii B t l E iij (I C II fO i i it i - i i B £ C I I I I I 1 ii g?i c Con e ii & i «*. II i 5 • I L. i II CV3 i 1 «s 9 Is i l l ! H i —a iS .3 <s S I 1 86-: S : S I 5 E u © t: o c CU CU 1 / 3 • mm a Q •o CU B CU o E -4-1 CA CU a E « • cu S-s 160 

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