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Cross-shore sediment transport on mixed sand and gravel beaches Dyksterhuis, Patricia Lynne 1998

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CROSS-SHORE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT ON MIXED SAND AND GRAVEL BEACHES  by PATRICIA LYNNE DYKSTERHUIS B. A. Sc., University of Windsor, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Civil Engineering  We accept this thesis as conforming o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1998 © Patricia Lynne Dyksterhuis, 1998  In  presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment  of the  requirements  for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  CWIL  ^G-irOEg/gjA/gj  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  APRIL-  l¥  ,  ABSTRACT  Cross-shore (onshore-offshore) sediment transport has been studied to determine the importance of sediment permeability on the equilibrium beach slope. Quick (1991) has proposed that the permeability of the beach material effects the onshore-offshore transport by changing the stresses on the beach through the infiltration and exfiltration processes. Based on Hazen's (1911) idea that the sediment's D value (that is, 10% of 10  the material is finer than this value) may be used to represent its permeability, Quick developed a relationship between the wave height, the sediment D value, the D value 60  10  and the equilibrium beach slope. Three series of experiments which used sand (D =0.59 50  mm) and gravel (D =5.5 mm) in varying proportions to represent a range of 50  permeabilities. Gravel and sand beaches were exposed to wave action and the resulting beach profiles noted. Mixtures of the two sediments were then put through the same tests and their equilibrium beach profiles measured. From this data, it was found that as little as 25% (by volume) sand could cause a gravel beach to behave much like a sand beach. The beach permeability was an important factor in determining beach response to wave conditions, along with the wave height. Further experimental work is necessary in order to determine the minimal amount of sand required to shift a gravel beach's response to wave attack. The fact that so little sand is require to make the shift, caution is necessary when designing artificial beaches and in modifying existing beaches.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iii  LIST OF TABLES  v  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  I. INTRODUCTION  1  II. LITERATURE SURVEY  4  III. THEORY  15  IV. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE  :  V. EXPERIMENT RESULTS  29 35  A. Sand Beaches  35  1. Low Waves 2. Medium Waves 3. High Waves  35 37 38  B. Gravel Beaches 1. Low Waves 2. Medium Waves  39 39 40  C. Mixed Beaches 1. 75% Sand + 25% Gravel Mixture 2. 50% Sand + 50% Gravel Mixture 3. 25% Sand + 75% Gravel Mixture  41 41 44 49  D. Application of Quick's Equation  52  VI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  101  A. Sand and Gravel Beaches  103  B. Mixed Beaches  104  iii  C. Discussion of Quick's Equation  107  D. Summary of Conclusions  107  REFERENCES  110  APPENDIX A SIEVE ANALYSES FOR SAND AND GRAVEL SAMPLES  112  APPENDIX B CALCULATION OF MIXED SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE PROFILES  117  APPENDIX C LABORATORY DATA AND NOTES  123  iv  LIST O F T A B L E S Page Table 1 Beach Profile Types (from Hattori & Kawamata, 1980) Table 2 Test Summary Table 3 Calculated Slope Values Using Quick's Equation  V  7 32 55  LIST O F FIGURES Page Figure 1 Beach Control Volume (from Quick, 1991) Figure 2 Time-Averaged Streamlines Created During Infiltration/Exfiltration (from Quick, 1991) Figure 3 Free Body Diagrams for Beach Segments (from Quick, 1991) Figure 4 Gradation Analysis for Sand Sample Figure 5 Gradation Analysis for Gravel Sample Figure 6 Sand Beach Profile Evolution, Test 2 Figure 7 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 2 Figure 8 Sand Beach Profile Evolution, Test 5 Figure 9 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 5 Figure 10 Sand Beach Profile Evolution, Test 1 Figure 11 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 1 Figure 12 Sand Beach Profile Evolution, Test 6 Figure 13 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 6 Figure 14 Sand Beach Profile Evolution, Test S2F2 Figure 15 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S2F2 Figure 16 Sand Beach Profile Evolution, Test 4 Figure 17 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 4 Figure 18 Gravel Beach Profile Evolution, Test 7 Figure 19 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 7 Figure 20 Gravel Beach Profile Evolution, Test 8 Figure 21 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 8 Figure 22 Gravel Beach Profile Evolution, Test 9 Figure 23 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 9 Figure 24 Gravel Beach Profile Evolution, Test 10 Figure 25 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test 10 Figure 26 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S3M3 Figure 27 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S3M3 Figure 28 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S3M4 Figure 29 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S3M4 Figure 30 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S3M6 Figure 31 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S3M6 Figure 32 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test M l Figure 33 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test M l Figure 34 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test M3 Figure 35 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test M3 Figure 36 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test M2 Figure 37 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test M2 Figure 38 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test M4 Figure 39 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test M4  vi  27 27 28 33 34 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 ...75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90  LIST O F FIGURES (continued) Page Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49  Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S2M2 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S2M2 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S2M1 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S2M1 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S3M1 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S3M1 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S3M2 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S3M2 Mixed Beach Profile Evolution, Test S3M5 Beach Slope Variation with Time, Test S3M5  vii  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author is very grateful to her advisor, Dr. Michael C. Quick, for his endless patience and constant encouragement during the performance of this work. He was also instrumental in restoring the funding for a part of this project. His faith in the author's abilities will not be forgotten. The experimental work was completed with the help of two part-time laboratory assistants. Wayne Borrowman spent several afternoons helping haul and sieve sand and gravel mixtures as well as assisting in the performance of some of the experiments. Irene Dyksterhuis took an afternoon from her vacation to take notes during one of the sieve tests. The author wishes to thank them for their time and efforts. The author would like to thank her family for their past and continuing support: to her parents, Peter and Irene Dyksterhuis, for never placing limits on her goals; to her brother, Jeff Dyksterhuis, for his encouragement and company during the tough times; and, finally, to her husband, Wayne Borrowman, for all his help, his drafting abilities, his coercion to continue this work, and for bearing the stresses related to this project. Thank you to all. This project was partially funded by a scholarship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Canada.  viii  1  I. INTRODUCTION Sediment transport on the coasts is divided into two modes: longshore transport and cross-shore or onshore-offshore transport, which have been taken to be distinct modes of transport. The former has been studied for many years and can be adequately modelled to predict this type of transport. The latter, however, has only recently been studied to develop models to help predict changes in beach profiles. Sediment transport is now considered to be a combination of longshore and on/offshore processes. For waves that approach the shore directly, as in this study, there is no longshore sediment transport as this form of transport requires the waves to approach the beach at an angle. Theory has been developed (Quick 1991) which incorporates the effect of beach permeability on the onshore-offshore transport of sediment and the resulting equilibrium beach slope. The theory indicates that permeability is a major factor and therefore in this thesis experiments were designed to test the theory. Fine sand has a low permeability and permeability then increases with sediment size, as described by Hazen (1911). Permeability also is a function of grading and Hazen showed that the finer sediments in a graded sediment control the permeability. He used the D size which is defined such that 10% of the total material is finer than this size. 10  The present experiments were therefore designed to cover a range of permeability. In the first series of tests sand was sieved to limit its size range closely (median grain  2  diameter 0.59 mm). The results represent a well-sorted beach sand with low sediment size variability. Experiments were made with this sand to examine beach slope and behaviour as a function of wave attack. This study involved the use of equilibrium beach profiles, which may be defined as "an idealized profile that has adjusted to the sediment, wave and water-level fluctuations at the site of interest." (Dean 1991, 716) In the second series of tests, gravel with a median grain size of 5.5 mm was used. This gravel had also been sieved to restrict its size range. This higher permeability material was mobile for the range of wave attacks used to determine equilibrium beach slope and beach behaviour. The third series of tests was the critical series, because it involved testing mixtures of the two sediments. From Hazen's findings, it was argued that some sand mixed with the gravel would greatly reduce permeability and would have a major effect on the beach behaviour. In the following sections, the theory and experiments will be presented according to the following schedule: •  Chapter 2 will look at previous work and theories related to cross-shore sediment transport.  •  Chapter 3 will cover the theory developed by Quick.  •  Chapter 4 will discuss the experimental setup and procedures.  •  Chapter 5 will reveal the experimental results and apply Quick's theory to these results.  •  Chapter 6 will summarize the experiments performed, review Quick's theory and discuss the relevance of these findings and make recommendations for future work.  •  The complete data reports will be found in the appendices. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of Quick's theory by  performing a series of experiments in the laboratory. Theory suggested that the finer particles in a sediment mixture would be important in determining equilibrium beach and that the percentage of finer particles would be less than expected. The experiments were designed to look at the fraction of sand that would cause a gravel beach to behave as if it were a sand one. In summary, these experiments do indicate a considerable change in behaviour when sand is added to the gravel. In fact, 25% sand (by volume) caused the gravel beach to behave in a similar fashion to the sand beach. The results of this study could have important implications for design of artificial beaches or modification of existing ones. The study indicates that small amounts of finer materials can have a big influence on the behaviour of coarser beaches. The engineering implications will be discussed in the conclusions.  4  II. L I T E R A T U R E S U R V E Y  In his 1964 book, Oceanological Engineering, Weigel described the events that take place when a wave hits a beach: Upon breaking, wave motion becomes translatory. The water moves forward as a foam line and then rushes up the beach face, carrying fine sand in suspension and moving coarser grains along the bottom. The uprush gradually slows down, due to gravity,friction,and percolation, depositing a thin layer of sand along the way. At its maximum landward limit on sandy beaches, a thin line of sand grains (called a swash mark) is deposited, the grains usually being of a larger size than the rest of those on the beach. When its motion up the beach face has ceased, the water which has not percolated into the sand returns as gravity flow down the beach face, moving sediment with it. This sediment consists mainly of grains greater in size than average (like those in the swash marks). When this backflow comes in contact with the forward moving water of the next breaking wave, the coarse material is deposited, forming a low seaward facing step. (p. 345-6) The goal, then, is to develop numerical models that can reproduce this scenario. Hattori and Kawamata (1980) based their model: on the physical consideration that when the net transport attains a state of equilibrium, the power expended through gravitational force in suspending sand grains is balanced by that due to the uplifting force arisingfromthe turbulence generated by breaking waves. (Hattori and Kawamata 1980,1175).  They found that two variables controlled onshore-offshore sediment transport: the beach slope and the dimensionless fall time parameter (Hattori and Kawamata 1980,1175), which was defined in the Shore Protection Manual as  5  F = Ho / w T 0  (1)  s  where: F = dimensionless fall time parameter H = deepwater significant wave height w = fall velocity of particles in the water column 0  0  s  T = wave period" (SPM 1977)  Hattori and Kawamata define a stirring power parameter, P , as P =a'Wutzto.p s  s  (2)  where: W = submerged weight of sand grains u = maximum wave-induced velocity tan P= bottom slope in surf zone a' = constant (Hattori and Kawamata 1980, 1177)  Using linear long wave theory, u = 2n(H / L„)gT b  (3)  where: H = wave height at the breaking position 1^ = wave length at breaking position T = wave period g = gravitational acceleration b  Thus P = a"W(H /L )gTtan fi  (3)  P = a"'Ww (d)  (4)  s  b  b  where a" =constant. Resistive power, P , is defined as r  r  s  6  where: W = submerged weight of sand grains w (d) = fall velocity of a sand grain of diameter d a'" = constant (Hattori and Kawamata 1980,1178) s  If the stirring power, P is greater than the resisting power, P , sand grains tend to keep in suspension due to breaking waves. Then, suspended sand grains would be transported seaward in the form of a sand cloud by wave-induced currents (Sunamura, 1980). If, on the other hand, the resisting power is greater than the stirring one, sand grains tend to roll and jump on the bottom surface. Then, sand grains are shifted shoreward as bed load. (Hattori and Kawamata 1980, 1178) s  r  Using linear wave theory,  P  (H /L )tanB  P  w (d )/(gT)  s =  0  r  s  0  C  (5)  50  where C = constant. Substituting L =(g/2n) T'  (6)  0  results in <  (onshore transport) (neutral)  >  (offshore transport)  tan/? w (d )T s  50  2n  (7)  which clearly demonstrates the importance of the non-dimensional fall velocity parameter and the beach slope in determining sediment transport direction. Hattori and Kawamata go on to define three types of beach profiles which are summarized in Table 1.  7  Table 1 Beach Profile Types (from Hattori & Kawamata, 1980) Type I  -an accretive beach profile with a step in the foreshore -a landward sand shift is dominant in the surf zone and the shoreline advances  Type II  -a bar is formed at the breaking position which may move landward or seaward -under certain conditions, which depend mainly on the wave characteristics in the nearshore zone, the Type II profile transforms to the Type I or to the Type III profile  Type III  -an erosive or storm beach profile without bars -intense offshore sand transport occurs in the nearshore zone  Gourlay studied the role of permeability in laboratory experiments. He tested two beaches with significant differences in sediment permeability; one was composed of sand and the other of coal. He considered the dimensionless fall velocity parameter to be a "scaling parameter" (Gourlay 1980, 1324) which represented the time taken for a sand particle to fall a distance equal to the wave height. If this time is large compared with the wave period, any material stirred up by the breaking waves is likely to remain in suspension and to move as suspended load. If it is of the same order of magnitude or less than the wave period, bed load motion will predominate. And that "a value [of Hr/wT] of the order of unity could be critical in determining the different sediment transport processes which lead to different profile forms." (Gourlay 1980, 1324) He found permeability to be an important factor in the amount of reflection that occurred on the beach models, as well as the resulting beach profiles. He wrote: The sand beach behaved as an almost impermeable surface with both the uprush and the backwash flowing parallel to the beach face. Beach profiles in sand showed a breakpoint bar with plunging breakers. In contrast the beach profiles formed in the coal were much smoother in shape and a bar was not formed with  8  plunging breakers. The most obvious feature of the coal beach profiles form[ed] by low wave heights was the very steep berm which was built up at the uprush limit. (Gourlay 1980,1328)  In describing the formation of the steep coal beach slopes, he described the process, which "involved the uprush percolating into the steep berm face, draining vertically downwards through the deposited material, and then emerging as the backwash [at] the base of the beach below the mean water level." (Gourlay 1980, 1328) In his conclusions, Gourlay finds that The shape of the initial profile does not appear to affect the shape of the equilibrium profile when the former is steep and offshore accretion is confined to the initial plane profile surface. (Gourlay 1980, 1337) Experiments run by Watanabe, Riho and Horikawa involved a beach of constant slope subjected to selected wave action for one hour each. Using the changes in the beach profiles, the net rate of onshore-offshore sediment transport was calculated. In their results they "observed during the experiment that the shoreward limits of significant beach change in most cases were determined by the locations of maximum runup." (Watanabe, Riho and Horikawa 1980, 1111) Onshore sediment transport was "explained by the asymmetric to-and-fro water particle motion under large amplitude waves, since the coarse sands are transported essentially as bedload." (Watanabe, Riho and Horikawa 1980, 1112) They found that while net bedload transport was usually onshore, net suspended load could be onshore or offshore depending on the wave conditions.  9  In his 1984 book, Coasts, Bird discusses the grain size distributions of beach materials, finding that they are "commonly asymmetrical, and negatively-skewed, the mean grain size being coarser than the median." (p. 109) He attributes this to the fining of the beach sediments due to wave action which "reduces the relative proportion of fine particles." (Bird 1984, 109) The incoming swash carries a number of particles with it up the slope against the gravitational forces. However, because of the permeability of the beach, a certain proportion of the swash flows into the beach, and velocity of the backwash is reduced. Consequently, despite the favourable slope the backwash can carry fewer particles seaward. (Dyer 1986, 308) "[T]he greater permeability of gravel and coarse sand beaches diminishes the effects of backwash, leaving swash-piled sediment at relatively steep gradients." (Bird 1984,112) As the waves approach the beach at an angle to the shore [they] produce a transverse swash, running diagonally up the beach, and a backwash that retreats directly seaward. Sand and shingle are edged along the shore by waves that break in this manner. (Bird 1984, 122) This explains the cross-shore component of longshore sediment transport. Storm waves on gravel beaches behave differently than on sand beaches; "in addition to scouring shingle awayfromthe beach face, the breaking waves throw some of it forward to build a ridge higher up the beach." (Bird 1984, 140) The beach water table also has an effect on a beach's response to incoming waves. "[A] wet sandy beach is more easily eroded by wave scour than a dry one." (Bird 1984, 118) On some beaches a distinct break occurs in the beach slope at the water table level: a steep, coarser upper beach with a shallower, finer lower beach results. (Bird 1984, 143)  10  "Below this [break] the mean flow is out of the beach during the tidal cycle and this increases the potential mobility of the sediment resulting in a lower slope." (Dyer 1986, 310) From studies of bimodal sediments, Dyer notes that •  "[F]or a grain size less than about l/7th of the larger grains, more or less free passage through the pore spaces can occur and the smaller particles can flow into the coarser lattice as a separate deposition stage." (Dyer 1986, 33)  •  "[I]n a binary mixture with a diameter ratio of 1:6.3, there is a minimum porosity when the proportion is 25 per cent small spheres to 75 per cent large." (Dyer 1986, 33)  •  "[M]aximum packing densities for binary mixtures [occur] at about 70 per cent large to 30 per cent small spheres." (Dyer 1986, 33)  •  Less Tollable grains are more likely to be transported in suspension or by saltation while morereliablegrains will be transported as bedload. (Dyer 1986, 43) Sediment transport can also create variations in grain size distribution through the  depth of the beach, as described by Dyer: Under extreme conditions where all of the fine material has been winnowed from the surface materials, a coarse lag deposit a few grains thick is left on the surface protecting the material beneath. If this is removed then further erosion of fine grains will occur. (Dyer 1986, 39) Dalrymple (1992) based his work on data from Larson and Kraus who used regular waves in large-scale flumes to study sand beaches. He determined that there were two types of beach profiles: storm, or barred, ones and normal, or non-barred, ones. By combining two dimensionless parameters he formed the profile parameter, P, defined, in  11  terms of deep-water wave characteristics as  (8) where: g= gravitational acceleration H = deep water wave height w = sediment fall velocity 0  T= wave period (Dalrymple 1992, 196) "If the profile parameter exceeds 10,400, then the beach is barred; for small values of P, the beach profile is normal." (Dalrymple 1992,196) Studies on cross-shore sediment transport of bimodal sediment beaches by Richmond and Sallenger (1984) showed that onshore transport of coarser materials and offshore transport of finer grains may occur simultaneously. Theoretical work by Bowen (1980) showed "that when a sediment of a given grain size is in equilibrium with a given slope and wave regime (net sediment transport rate is zero for this size) any coarser material should move onshore and finer material offshore." (Richmond and Sallenger 1984, 1997) The slope of the beach and the current velocity were listed as the two major parameters responsible for the variation in direction of sediment transported. (Richmond and Sallenger 1984) Walsh reports that if a beach is artificially protected by adding a material that increases the grading, the beach is now more susceptible to erosion since the permeability is decreased. The new combined material will be moved more aggressively offshore and the breaking point may move further onshore if enough material is moved offshore. (Walsh 1989,135)  12  Years of observations have led geologists and coastal engineers to develop some guidelines that define beach response to its environment. Some of these rules include: 1.  Fine grained sediments form shallow sloped beaches while coarser grains form steeper slopes when attacked by the same waves,  2. Larger waves result in shallower slopes (erosive or 'storm' profiles) while smaller waves cause beaches to steepen (accretive or 'summer' profiles), 3. "Decreasing wave height was associated with a coarsening of the beach sediments and, conversely, increasing wave heights were followed by a fining of the foreshore" (Richard and Sallenger 1984, 2001), 4. There is a continuous sequence of breaking wave types, and the type is a function of the deep water wave steepness and beach slope. Spilling waves occur with steep waves on gently inclined beaches, plunging waves are of intermediate steepness on steeper beaches, and surging is of low amplitude waves on steep beaches (Dyer 1986, 297) Referring to the Shore Protection Manual (SPM, 1984 edition), the dimensionless fall velocity parameter is taken as the key component in onshore-offshore sediment transport in the littoral zone, which is defined as "extend[ing] from the shoreline to just beyond the seawardmost breakers." (SPM 1984, 4-57) Earlier studies "indicate that sediment in suspension in the surf zone may form a significant portion of the material in longshore transport." (SPM 1984, 4-60) However, the SPM admits that it cannot recommend suitable prediction procedures, and that it can only provide "useful guidance" (SPM 1984,4-66). In the Shore Protection Manual, the beach slope depends on the wave exposure, the specific gravity, porosity and permeability of beach materials and, to some degree, on  13  the tides. The manual's guidance for design is 1.  "Slope of the foreshore on open sand beaches depends principally on grain size and (to a lesser extent) on nearshore wave height.  2.  Slope of the foreshore tends to increase with increasing median grain size, but there is significant scatter in the data.  3.  Slope of the foreshore tends to decrease with increasing wave height, again with scatter.  4.  For design of beach profiles on ocean or gulf beaches, use Figure 4-35, keeping in mind the large scatter in the basic data in Figure 4-36, much of which is caused by the need to adjust the data to accounts for differences in nearshore wave climate." (SPM 1984,4-86-4-89) For design of replacement beach materials it is essential "to ensure that the  sediment supplied to the artificial beach is at least as coarse in texture as that which existed naturally" (Bird 1984,175) to avoid or lessen any future erosive episodes. In these studies, the permeability of a beach is highlighted as an important factor in the type of beach response to wave attack and the resulting equilibrium beach profile. (Hattori and Kawamata 1980, Gourlay 1980, Dalrymple 1992) Other factors include initial beach slope, current velocities, and wave height. (Hattori and Kawamata 1980, Richmond and Sallenger 1984, SPM 1984) As well, the amount of sediment transported is a function of the beach permeability. (Gourlay 1980) Beaches with a higher permeability have greater slopes. During wave attack, coarser sediments mainly move onshore as bed load while finer sediments are placed in suspension and may move on- or  14  off-shore, depending on the wave conditions. (Watanabe, Riho, and Horikawa 1980) These two forms of transport may occur simultaneously. (Richmond and Sallenger 1984) Both Bird (1984) and Walsh (1989) caution against increasing the gradation of a beach to prevent continued or worsening erosion of the original beach.  15  III. THEORY  The variation with time of a plane beach subjected to wave attack is a complex and unsteady process. Assumptions must be made and simplifications used in order to attempt the calculations required to model a beach. Quick has developed his model in a series of papers (Quick 1990, 1991, Quick & Har, 1985, Quick & Ametepe, 1991) which will be highlighted here. The predictions generated by this model will be compared to the results of studies performed in the laboratory setting. This model uses the momentum calculated for the incoming waves to resolve the stresses along the beach and the pressures created through wave setup and water infiltration patterns. The control volume used for the momentum balance is bounded by the wave breaking region, the beach face, and the mean water level as shown in Figure 1, found at the end of this chapter. Initial assumptions include a plane beach with waves arriving perpendicular to the beach face, i.e. there is no longshore transport involved in this model.  Tides are not  considered. All sediment transport occurs within the control volume and the beach is allowed to reach an equilibrium state profile. Time-averaging is used to calculate the momentum flux of the waves as well as the wave set up, shear stresses and infiltration rates. Dyer defines radiation stress "as the excess flow of momentum due to the presence  16  of waves." (Dyer 1986, 298) "Part of this momentum flux may be reflected to the sea and part will be dissipated by friction. The rest causes wave setup. As can be seen, wave set-up is likely to be greater on dissipative beaches" (Dyer 1986, 298) A force-momentum balance for the equilibrium beach face shown in Figure 1 is represented by B  C  C  M+ \pdy - jpdy- JV cost? ds = 0 A  B  (9)  B  where: M =  momentum flux for the wave entering through the seaward boundary as defined using Longuet-Higgins and Stewart's radiation stress: „  y 1, smh2ky 2 2k  YH , 2ky 1 8 smh2ky 2 2  v  '  B  + Jpdy =  time-averaged horizontal pressure force on AB  A  c - jpdy =  horizontal pressure force on BC (including extra pressure  B  due to wave set up) c  - Jr cos 9 ds =  horizontal component of time-averaged net shear  B  stress on the beach face, length s, acting seawards on the water (thus a shoreward stress of the wave acting on the sediment) (Quick 1991) For a permeable beach, the stresses createdfrominfiltration and exfiltration must also be determined. From experiments, Quick finds that the increased pressurefromthe time-averaged wave set-up creates a quasi-steady state flow. As shown in Figure 2,  17 infiltration takes place in the upper portion of the beach face while exfiltration occurs on the lower part. Exfiltration occurs on the beach face when the backwash flows down the beach. A shoreward stress is created by the infiltrating water as its momentum decreases to zero. When the exfiltrating water escapes the beach, its initial momentum along the beach is zero. Therefore the backrush water must share its momentum in order to carry the exfiltrating water along, thus losing some of its own seaward momentum. This can be viewed as creating a shoreward stress on the sediments. Thus, both infiltrating and exfiltrating waters exert an onshore stress on beach sediments. Quick (1991) comments that this is true for steady and unsteady states. The time-averaged infiltrating shear stress, x, is defined as  (11)  t ^ \pV,u dt T  t  p  0  where: T = wave period V - infiltration velocity u = wave uprush velocity x  Similarly, the time-averaged exfiltrating stress, x , can be defined as E  1 r =-lpV u dt T  E  E  d  (12)  •* 0  where: T = wave period V = exfiltration velocity u = downrush velocity "[NJoting that a positive infiltration stress acts offshore on the water control volume, but is an onshore stress acting on the sediment" (Quick 1991, 318), Equation (11) can be  18  substituted into Equation (9), resulting in jT M+\pdy -\[pdy] -JVcos#ds - \-\pV,u dtds B  C  A  B  C  C  0  p  =0  (13)  B O  B  Figure 3 shows the average shear and average weight stresses acting on the sediments for (a) wave downrush and (b) wave uprush. Shear stresses on the beach face are calculated using Bagnold's (1966) theory of a carpet of moving grains. Because the size of the grains is small compared with the scale of the motion, it is reasonable to assume a steady-state formulation in which overall accelerations are ignored, although within the carpet there will be many impacts and accelerations...For the present simplified argument, the onshore and offshore shear stresses of the water on the sediment, x and T , will be represented by timeaveraged values. (Quick 1991, 319) L  s  Considering the forces along the beach slope, during downrush (Figure 3-a) Tcs = T + w sin 6  ( ) 14  s  s  where r s = A wscosc? C  r = t = X = w = cs  s  s  ( ^ 15  critical sediment shear resistance seaward shear stress of the water on the sediment friction factor weight per unit area of seaward moving sediment  Similarly for the uprush (Figure 3-b) To. = h - L sin# W  ( ) 16  where T  cl  and L denotes Landward.  = Xw cosO L  (17)  19  Solving for i and ^results in L  T = w (X cosO + smd)  (18)  T = w (A cost? - sint^)  (19)  l  s  L  s  The net onshore stress, r , becomes net  — T -TS L  =  (WI-ws)A,cos&  + (w  +  L  (20)  Ws)sin0  For an equilibrium beach, the net transport is zero, thus (21) where u and u are the uprush and downrush velocities, respectively, and w and w are L  s  L  s  as defined previously. The velocity of sediment transport in a moving carpet of sediment can be evaluated from Bagnold's dilation stress concepts. Bagnold (1954) has analyzed a carpet of moving grains in terms of the random impacts between the grains which produces a dilation stress, similar to the turbulent Reynolds stress and is represented by (Quick 1991, 320) r = pu'v'  (22)  Bagnold used Prandtl's mixing length ideas to determine  U'~V'KD  du dy  (23)  Thus  T<x  pD  (24)  20  From the equations developed using Figure 3, "if the beach slope, 6, is small, the weight component is also small, so that rwill be essentially constant. Integrating Eq. [23] for r constant," (Quick 1991, 321) ucc^(t/p) y  (25)  1/2  [T]he sediment transport velocity, u, will vary linearly with carpet thickness and inversely with sediment size ... if the weights of sediment moving onshore, w , and offshore, w , are equal, then the carpet thicknesses will be equal and ... from Eq. [25] that the onshore and offshore mean sediment transport velocities will also be equal. (Quick 1991, 321) L  s  Thus for an equilibrium beach, w =w L  (26)  s  Returning to the net shear stress,  r„ei = (w  + Ws) sin 0 = 2w sin 6  L  ( ) 27  "[B]each equilibrium requires a net onshore stress, T t, equal to the combined offshore ne  weight components of the total sediment in motion." (Quick 1991, 321) Rearranging the equations results in  /lcost9-sint9 (29)  w = L  /Icos0+sinc9  Since "sint9is usually small compared with AcosO," (Quick 1991, 322) we can add these  S  W  +  L  W  "  -f _  \  /lcost9  (  3 0  )  21 Thus  tant?  Tnet  (  3 1  )  The next step is to determine the shear stresses "in terms of the incident wave characteristics, the beach slope and the beach sediment size." (Quick 1991, 322) [Wjhere there is a large source of momentum present, the drag force on the sediment is more likely to depend directly on the exposed area of sediment. This exposed area of sediment per unit width of beach is directly proportional to D, the sediment size, and the D size will be used to characterize this sediment roughness. (Quick 1991, 323) 6 0  Quick makes the assumption that "shear force on the beach is a function of both sediment size and of M, the incident breaking wave momentum flux per unit width of beach, i.e." (Quick 1991, 323) TL cos 0 °cMD S  S0  (32)  where M = yH /8  (33)  L ocH/sin9  (34)  2  From Figure 1, S  Substituting these two equations results in the average shear stress on the beach, r, TocyHD tan0 so  (35)  "However, because there is a finite amount of available wave stress, it is unlikely that the wave-induced shear stress would continue to increase linearly with sediment size." (Quick 1991, 324).  22  The total net shear stress per unit width of beach is assumed to be described by TocyH(D )  a  S0  tan 9  (36)  where a=0.8. Since this equation is a proportionality, it could "describe any of the various shear stress components[:]  x,T s  l  , or ...  x ." (Quick 1991, net  324)  The additional shear stress induced by the beach permeability is considered next. "[T]he total force balance [of the control volume], Eq. [13] will now be defined in terms of beach permeability and wave-induced velocities." (Quick 1991, 324) Using Darcy's equation, the mean infiltration velocity can be described in terms of the permeability, K, and the pressure gradient, dh/dl as follows  "For medium sands and fine gravels, standard tests ... indicate that laminar flow breaks down, especially under higher pressure gradients," (Quick 1991, 324) so that the permeability is Kcc(D )  b  10  (38)  where D is the sediment size and "b variesfrom2 for laminar flow to 0.5 for fully l0  turbulent flow." (Quick 1991, 324) "For quasi-steady infiltration, the pressure gradient dh/dl, will increase with wave height, H, and decrease with beach length, L , so that approximately the gradient can be s  written as:" (Quick 1991, 325) dh  H  (39)  23  For unsteady flow, dh/dl=constant. Using the shallow water wave theory, the Shore Protection Manual (1984) gives u ocHy[g~d/2d  (40)  max  "For breaking waves, d, the water depth, is proportional to H" (Quick 1991, 325) u  ocy[gH  (41)  for steady infiltration  (42)  f ° unsteady infiltration  (43)  max  The infiltration stress, Tj, has two forms: T, x p(D )  b  10  T, ocp(Dj )  b  0  (gH)  1/2  sin 0  r  (gH)  1/2  The net onshore stress, x , is equal to the stresses due to infiltration, T„ and due to net  the waves, x . To determine Tj alone, Equation 27 will be studied for impermeable and w  permeable beaches. "For an impermeable beach subjected to strong wave attack, there will always be offshore transport." (Quick 1991, 326) Thus,  (w + w )s\x\0> (rj s  L  (44)  net  which can be rewritten as ( w)ne, T  = k(w +w ) sin 0 s  (45)  L  where k is less than 1.0. "For a permeable beach under strong wave attack, equilibrium is possible" (Quick 1991,326) so that (W '+ W ') i\X\0=(T ) S  L  w  net  + (Tj)  net  ( ) 46  24  where the primes refer to a permeable beach. Combining the two equations results in  LYV + w j - k(w + wj] sinO =(Tj) s  (47)  net  "[AJssume that the total weight of sediment in motion (w ' + w ') for the permeable s  L  beach is essentially identical to (w + w ) for the impermeable beach." (Quick 1991, 327) s  L  Then, (w +w ) sin 0 oc (T, ) s  L  (48)  N E T  "From Eq. [30], the weights of sediment in motion can be written in terms of the waveinduced stresses, so that Eq. [48] becomes" (Quick 1991, 327) [(Ts+Tj/Zltmdccfr,)^  (49)  Two results are possible 1) for steady infiltration, (yH/X)(D ) (tm Q) ocp(D )"(gH) sm G a  2  1/2  6g  10  (50)  which can be rewritten as sin0  X  x  (cosG)  (D )  S?  2  H-  b  m  10  (D )  /2  (51)  a  60  2) for unsteady infiltration, (yH/X)(D )°(tan 6) ocp(D )"(gH) 2  t0  1/2  10  (52)  or tan 6  oc  X  (D^  in  g"  2  4  (D r 60  H'  ,/4  (53)  25  By introducing a set of known conditions, i.e. G , (D ) , (D ) , the proportionalities can 0  10  0  60  0  define the equalities. In other words, for steady infiltration tan 9  cos 9  tan 9  cos 9  b  0  0  H H  (DJo D  (D )o_  0  60  IO  (54)  and for unsteady infiltration D 10  tan 9  (D )  \V2  tan 9 0  10  (D )o D so  0  60  a/2  H H  0  (55)  where a=0.8 and b=l .4. Thus knowing one set of conditions one can predict the beach response to changes in wave or beach conditions. For example, if a beach which has an original slope of 16 degrees, and where the sediment size remains the same, is subjected to higher waves, i.e. H=2F£ , then the equation predicts, for unsteady flow, a new slope of 14 0  degrees. This agrees with the expected result of a decrease in beach slope. If a gravel beach of slope 16 degrees has sand added to it such that D =0.5(D ) , 10  10  0  then, for the same wave attack, the equation predicts a new slope of 10 degrees. Again, a decrease in slope is expected when the permeability of a beach decreases. These equations will be discussed further in a later chapter using the results obtained from the experiments. In a more recent paper, an alternate method is used to develop these formulae. In this method, a flow element is analyzed by "equating the net horizontal pressure and shear force components to the resulting momentum change." (Quick & Dyksterhuis 1994,  26  1445) The key point in this method is to rearrange the terms and to recognize in them the unsteady continuity equation which Quick sets equal to the infiltration velocity in a permeable beach. From there, the same equations are simply developed. See Quick & Dyksterhuis (1994), for more details.  27  WAVE BREAKING  Figure 1 Beach Control Volume (from Quick, 1991)  Figure 2 Time-Averaged Streamlines Created During Infiltration/Exfiltration (from Quick, 1991)  28  MOVING CARPET OF SEDIMENT  a. Wave Downrush  b. Wave Uprush  Figure 3 Free Body Diagrams for Beach Segments (from Quick, 1991)  29  IV. E X P E R I M E N T A L P R O C E D U R E  In order to test the effect of permeability on equilibrium beach slope, three sets of experiments were performed. A summary of the tests run is given in Table 2. It should be noted that both the fine and coarse sediments could be put in motion by the waves used in these tests. In the first series of tests, sand with a low size range (d =0.59 mm) was subjected 50  to three different wave heights and two wave periods and the resulting beach profiles measured. These tests would be used as a standard to compare with the mixed beach experiments in the third series. The second series of tests were done on a closely graded gravel (d = 5.5 mm) 50  using two of the same wave heights and two periods. These profiles, too, would be compared to the results from the mixed beach tests. The third series of tests used a set of three mixed beaches, each with a different permeability. By varying the amount of sand added to the gravel for each mixture, a range of beach permeabilities was created. These beaches were tested using three different wave heights. The resulting equilibrium profiles and beach behaviours would then be compared to the standards for sand and gravel beaches determined in the first two series of tests.  30  The experiments were performed in the hydraulics laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at the University of British Columbia. A small wave flume was used to measure the effects of regular waves on beaches composed of sand, gravel or mixtures of the two. The 5 m glass-walled, steel-floored flume measured 21 cm by 46 cm. It used a variable speed 1 hp, 1750 rpm motor, to power a paddle to produce regular waves. The paddle was connected by a lever to a slotted disk which could be adjusted to vary the wave height. The motor shaft rotated the disk, resulting in a sinusoidal path for the paddle stroke. Fresh city water was used in the flume; the flume depth was set at 15 cm by a weir behind the paddle. To keep the water level constant while the flume was in use, a hose supplied water to the flume behind the paddle. A second reservoir at the far end of the flume was set to the same water height as the flume to prevent back flow through the beach. The bed materials consisted of a closely graded sand, median size 0.59 mm (see gradation analysis in Figure 4), and a closely graded gravel, median size 5.5 mm (gradation analysis shown in Figure 5). The results of the sieve tests for these two materials are given in Appendix A. The sand and gravel were used in five combinations by volume for the experiments: 100% sand, 75% sand and 25% gravel, 50% sand and 50% gravel, 25% sand and 75% gravel, and 100% gravel. A standard initial beach slope of approximately 16 degrees was used for all the experiments. All profiles were measured by hand in the centre of the flume using a horizontal spacing of 10 cm. The vertical measurements were taken relative to the top of the flume so as not to disturb the beach. (The data would later be recalculated using a  31  spreadsheet to set the datum at the bottom of the flume, for ease in profiling.) The initial profile was measured before the motor was started. The test commenced and profiles were taken at set intervals of: 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 60 minutes, and 90 minutes. Each profile took approximately 3 minutes to measure. The intermediate profiles were measured as the waves ran, with care being taken to not disturb the experiment in progress. The waves were run for 2 hours and a final profile was taken. For the mixed bed tests, the materials were removed from the flume and remixed between tests of the same mixture. The bed was resieved between mixtures to separate the gravel and sand before the new mixture was prepared.  Table 2 Test Summary 100% 25% 50/50 75% 100% Paddle Motor Sand Gravel Mixture Gravel Gravel Setting Speed  H (mm)  T (sec)  Series 1  1 2 3 4 5 6 S2F1 S2F2 S2F3 S2F4  2 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 2  3.25 3.25 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.25 4 4  54 38 25 64 19 32 35 70 25 38  1.2 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.1  1 1 2 2  3.25 2.2 3.25 2.2  25 32 51 57  1.2 1.7 1.3 1.7  1 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3  3.25 3.25 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.25 4 4 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25  32 48 10 13 38 64 25 44 25 48 32 44 67 64  1.2 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3  Series 2  7 8 9 10 Series 3  Ml M2 M3 M4 S2M1 S2M2 S2M3 S2M4 S3M1 S3M2 S3M3 S3M4 S3M5 S3M6  33  C/3  00  CU  -a a «  u  «2 >>  73 a «J a o es  OS  o © ©  o  OS  ©  00  o  o  SO  © to  o  o  ©  CN  4) S-  s  ox  34  o o  o 1  6  9J  £  O u .© V5  " 3 H a o  « « i-  o o  o  o  OS  ©  00  o UBIJX  o S  S  o 3  o  o  1 % 3AUBmuirt3  ©  CN  cu i.  s  OX)  35  V. EXPERIMENT RESULTS  The experiments have been divided into three series: sand beaches, gravel beaches and mixed beaches. The sand beaches represent low permeability beaches while the gravel beaches have a relatively high permeability. From the sand and gravel beach results, an indication of the typical response to the wave action for each type can be determined. The mixed beaches are composed of sand and gravel and thus have different permeabilities. The mixed beach results will then be compared to those of the sand and gravel beaches to determine the effects (if any) of permeability.  A. Sand Beaches  These results show that as wave height increases, the equilibrium beach slope decreases, which is expected.  1. Low Waves a. Test 2, T=1.2s The sand beach responded to low waves with offshore transport from foreshore step to breaking waves depth, (see Figure 6 at the end of this chapter.) The beach slope was shallow. Less erosion and deposition occurred than for moderate wave attack. The  36  step and offshore bar were apparent after 5 minutes and no other major changes were seen through the test. After 40 minutes, particles could be tracked moving down the bar, offshore. Sediment transport was not symmetrical near the end of the test as the outer edge of the sand was not perpendicular to the wave approach direction. The end of the beach prograded by 29 mm during the test. The beach slope, measured over time, is shown in Figure 7.  b. Test 5, T=1.7s Less sediment was transported than in test 6. A small step (<25 mm high) was left on the upper beach at end of test, (see Figure 8.) Offshore sediment transport occurred from the upper beach face to the offshore bar. The offshore bar is higher up on the beach, (not much change in profile for y<50 mm) The beach response to the incoming waves was immediate and no major changes were noticed in the rest of the test. Some larger particle contaminants were separated from the sand beach and were moved offshore to the bottom of the bar. The final beach profile was not symmetric across the flume. A step appeared on only one side of the flume. The beach slope experienced a major change in the first five minutes (see Figure 9) and continued to vary a small amount during the rest of the test.  37  2. Medium Waves a. Test 1, T=1.2 s Sand from the foreshore was eroded and transported to the beach under the breaking waves forming an offshore bar, thus decreasing the beach slope, as shown in Figure 10. The amount of sediment eroded was high and the beach slope decreased with time as the step receded while the bar accreted. The possibility of reflection of the waves off the beach was presented when the runup became larger for every other wave; however, this lasted only for a short time. This test was run for 3 hours and by the second hour, the bar had disappeared, although one appears on the foreshortened profile. A plot of the beach slope against time (Figure 11) reveals that most of the beach response had taken place in the first half hour. From this, it was decided that the test time could be shortened to 2 hours.  b. Test 6, T=1.7s Test number six was done to replace test 3 which was unusable due to water level fluctuations during the test. The beach responded with offshore sediment transport from the upper beach face to an offshore bar. A very small step (~6 mm) formed during the erosion, (see Figure 12.) The step appeared by 5 minutes into the test and at fifteen minutes, the profile had become parabolic in plan view. At 45 minutes, a small berm had formed on the offshore bar. The beach slope changed over time during the test, as shown in Figure 13.  38  3. High Waves a. TestS2F2, T=1.2s The beach responded to the high waves with a large amount o f offshore transport which resulted i n a large step being created in the upper beach, (see Figure 14.) Most o f the transport occurred in the first forty-five minutes. The beach slope variation with time is shown in Figure 15. Two small troughs appeared on the shore side o f offshore bar at x = 122 cm, 142 cm. A t forty-five minutes the wave runup had undercut the step by 22 m m and a trough had formed behind the bar by the breaking waves. The waves appeared as an alternating cycle o f larger waves followed by smaller waves. Every other wave runup reached the step. Approximately one hour into the test, the breaking waves formed a second trough near the end o f the beach as the first trough filled in. Moments later the waves returned to breaking in the first trough's location and sediment filled in the second trough. B y this time, the step had been undercut by 25 m m and a crack had appeared 75 m m back from the edge o f the step. A third trough appeared after 90 minutes, 203 m m closer to the step than the first one and the second trough had been filled in. One hundred and seventeen minutes from the beginning o f the test, the step collapsed leaving no undercut and the troughs were filled in. A trough formed once again i n the first location near the end o f the test. A t the end o f the test a fourth trough was visible approximately 175 m m shoreward o f the first trough. The flume water was silty along the entire length o f the flume, to a depth o f 25 m m above the bottom surface.  39  At 45 minutes, a foam formed along the walls of the flume to a height 12.5 to 37.5 mm from 50 mm from the step.  b. Test 4, T=1.7s In test 4, a large amount of offshore sediment transport occurred, (see Figure 16.) At the beginning of the test, there was noticeable wave reflection off the beach. The step was evident after 5 minutes. At 35 minutes, ripples were forming offshore of the edge of the beach. Sand was moved all the way to the end of the beach, and after 2 hours the beach had prograded 100 mm. At the end of the test, a step of approximately 32 mm in height was left on the upper beach. A major change in beach slope occurred in the first 5 minutes, as shown in Figure 17, while the changes were less drastic in the remaining test.  B. Gravel Beaches  These results show that as H increases, the equilibrium beach slope also increases, as was expected.  1. Low Waves a. Test 7, T=1.2s In the first minutes of this test, a berm began to form on the upper beach (onshore transport, see Figure 18.). Bedload transport was observed. The waves were overtopping the berm. This stopped around 20 minutes into the test. The beach formed more of a rounded profile instead of a plane sloped one. Below and seaward of the wave breaking  40  point, no movement of grains was observed. Twenty minutes into the test, some reflection of the waves off the beach was noted. After an hour, the water reached near the top of the berm, but it did not flow over it. The beach slope, as it changed during the course of the test, is shown in Figure 19.  b. Test 8, T=1.7s After 5 minutes of wave action, there were no well-defined berms or bars on the beach profile, (see Figure 20.) Onshore sediment transport occurred during test 8, forming a berm on the upper beach. An hour into the test, it was noted that the water overtopped the top of the berm on the upper beach. A break in the slope was noted at x~150 mm at 15 minutes and through the rest of this test. The beach prograded about 50 mm at its lower end. The beach slope varied over time, as shown in Figure 21.  2. Medium Waves a. Test 9, T=1.2s A berm appeared at the upper limit of wave uprush (onshore transport), creating a steeper beach, (see Figure 22.) A small offshore bar also formed. Little change in profile was seen after 5 minutes of wave action. The beach prograded 36 mm during the 75 minute test. The beach appeared to respond to the incoming waves using both onshore and offshore transport. The beach slope, as it changed over time, is shown in Figure 23.  41  b. Test 10,T=1.7s A large berm began to form after 5 minutes of wave action and it continued to grow through the test, (see Figure 24.) A small offshore bar formed in the first five minutes and was fairly stable throughout this test. Some progradation occurred (-25 mm) at the foot of the beach. The slope decreased early in the test but gradually steepened until it was around the initial slope after one hour. See Figure 25.  C. Mixed Beaches These beaches all reacted with offshore sediment transport to any wave attack. The sand decreases the permeability of the beach and sediment moves offshore, as predicted by the theory.  1. 75% Sand + 25% Gravel Mixture a. Low Waves (Test S3M3) Seventeen seconds into the test, the gravel congregated to form a bar while a silty plume formed under the breaking waves and started to move offshore. A step had formed at the end of the wave runup after 1 minute and 15 seconds, (see Figure 26.) By three minutes, the gravel under the breaking waves could no longer be seen, as they were covered by sand. A tan-coloured scum sat on the face of the step and along the edges of the flume.  42  At 21 minutes, some gravel had collected at the base of the step. The waves had undercut the step by approximately 6 mm while two cracks formed above the step. After 27 minutes, gravel was scatteredfromthe offshore side of the bar to the end of the beach. After 40 minutes, offshore sediment transport was noted as the sand travelled back and forth over the crest of the bar, sometimes dropping off a piece of gravel, which did not return over the bar crest to the swash zone. The sand on the upper beach has settled approximately 12 mm. At 43 minutes the step collapsed along the previously noted cracks behind the step. A minute later, the bar surface on the offshore side was pitted, as the sand moved back and forth, slight holes were formed where the grains of gravel sat. After 50 minutes, air bubbles formed along the walls of theflumein a waveshaped pattern. These bubbles ended just before the crest of the offshore bar. The waves were large enough to throw some sand up into the water. By 1 hour, 50 minutes the breaking waves were full of air bubbles, however the wave crests were not vertical during breaking and there was no real surge of water up the beach. Just before the end of the test, tiny bubbles similar to those previously mentioned were visible on the offshore surface of the bar. The change in beach slope over time is shown in Figure 27.  b. Medium Waves (Test S3M4) The offshore transport of sediment happened quickly as no major profile changes were observed after 5 minutes, (see Figure 28.) After 53 minutes the gravel was scattered at the foot of the step and on the offshore side of the bar. The breaking waves were most turbulent 22.5 cm infromthe bar. At approximately 1 hour, a crescent shaped mound of  43  sand had formed at the foot of the beach. The resulting profile for this test looks like a sand beach profile. The beach slope variation with time is shown in Figure 29. The gravel offers no protection for this beach.  c. High Waves (Test S3M6) The final profile looks like a sand beach profile, (see Figure 30.) Again the gravel offers no protection. At 1 minute, a silt plume came out of the beach and began working its way down the flume towards the paddle. After two and a half minutes, the step was 31 mm high. The lower part of the beach could not be seen due to suspended sediments. By four minutes gravel had begun to collect at the top of the beach. On the upper beach, a crack formed 15 cm behind the step which was practically the entire width of the flume at 12 minutes. The silt had travelled the length of the flume after 23 minutes so that the water was murky. By 25 minutes it was possible to see the waves pick up sand on the bar and at 28 minutes, the sand that was coming up off the beach looked like miniature explosions. After 40 minutes the water was still murky, but on the upper half of the beach, gravel was scattered across the upper swash zone and moved about by the waves. The crack behind the step appeared to be widening. The water was still murky after 1 hour, 7 minutes so it was difficult to see the lower half of the beach.  44  At the end of the test, the wave runup no longer reached the base of the step. The gravel had collected in the swash zone in the area where the waves were most turbulent, 1. e. x = 145 mm to x= 122 mm. A small amount of gravel also collected at the base of the step; the rest of the beach surface was sand. The change in beach slope over time is shown in Figure 31.  2. 50% Sand + 50% Gravel Mixture a. Low Waves i. TestMl,T=1.2s Immediately a plume of silt formed under the breakers and moved seaward while a foamy scum was left on the beach at the runup limit. The water was clouded by the suspended sediments on the beach and offshore to a distance of 89 cm. After 5 minutes the upper beach surface was mainly sand while the beach surface below the breaking waves was covered with gravel. The waves reflected off the beach appeared to hold back the incoming waves which seemed to lessen the wave breaking turbulence. In ten minutes the water began to clear at the bottom of the flume while it remained cloudy on the top 50-75 mm for the entire length of the flume. The entire flume remained cloudy and after 25 minutes remained so, except for the swash zone and approximately 25 mm along the bottom of the flume. The water began to clear after 90 minutes, probably as a result of thefreshwater input used to maintain the water level in the flume.  45  The final profile was composed of three zones. The upper swash zone was covered with sand to a depth of 22 mm. The lower swash zone was covered with a mixture of sand and gravel and, from the offshore bar to the end, the beach was covered with gravel to a depth of 22 mm. A small step (less than 25 mm) was left on the upper beach at the end of the test, (see Figure 32.) The beach slope, as it varied over time, is shown in Figure 33.  ii. TestM3,T=1.7s The test started with the formation of a silty plume which grew as the waves ran over the bed. Two minutes later, an offshore bar was forming under the point where the backrush water was holding back the incoming waves. In the swash zone, gravel moved up to the runup limit and down to the bar. The area in between was mostly sand, (see Figure 34.) At fifteen minutes the gravel had moved to both ends of the swash zone. At twenty minutes there was no transition between gravel and sand on the upper swash zone; the sand had covered the gravel. The swash zone was mostly covered with sand after 90 minutes. This test was run for 3 hours. The final profile consisted of three zones. On the upper beach was an area of sand and gravel, the sand and gravel being separated approximately half and half down the centre of the beach, parallel to the incoming waves. The lower swash zone was covered with 13 mm of mostly sand andfromthe bar to the end, the beach was covered with gravel only two grains thick. The beach slope varied continually during the test, as shown in Figure 35.  46  b. Medium Waves i. TestM2, T=1.2s When the test started, some silt was released from the beach under the breaking waves which moved offshore at the surface of the water column. After ten minutes, the offshore bar appeared to be composed of gravel only on the surface while the swash zone was covered with sand. Two minutes later, the beach between the step and the runup limit was a mixture of sand and gravel. Reflection of waves off the beach was noted and it appeared that the waves headed offshore were also breaking over the bar. At 95 minutes, the waves did not appear to be breaking as powerfully as they did at the beginning of the test. The two-hour beach profile was composed of two areas: from the base of the step through the swash zone to the bar, the beach was covered with sand while the lower beach, from the offshore bar to the end of the beach, was covered with gravel. A large step (>25 mm) was left at the end of the test, (see Figure 36.) The beach slope decreased in the first five minutes, as shown in Figure 37, then remained relatively stable over the remaining test.  ii. TestM4, T=1.7s Over the first 10 waves or so, coarse material was picked up and pulled down the beach to form the offshore bar. At the same time a small silt plume formed and began working its way down the flume. By 4 minutes the incoming waves were being held back by the backrush flow at the outer (offshore) side of the bar.  47  After 13 minutes the gravel was located at the runup limit and on the offshore bar. At 43 minutes, the reflected waves passed the incoming waves as a series of small waves of wavelength ~ 1 cm. At 93 minutes, the sand began to cover the gravel on the swashzone side of the bar. The wave height value seemed low, possibly due to reflection of the waves off the beach. In this test, the distinction between pure gravel and pure sand was "fuzzy", where the previous test (Test M3) showed distinct boundaries. A large amount of offshore sediment transport occurred which resulted in a small step (<25 mm high) on the upper beach at end of test, (see Figure 38.) The beach slope variation with time is shown in Figure 39.  c. High Waves i. TestS2M2,T=1.2s Five minutes into the test, the beach was composed of two zones: the offshore side of the bar was gravel while the swash zone was mainly sand. After 15 minutes it was noted that every other wave was stronger than the one in between. At 43 minutes the runup of the larger waves reached the base of the step but not the smaller waves. After 45 minutes, the sand covered the former bar area. At 53 minutes, the waves appeared to be more alike; there was a smaller difference in the waves runup limits. One hour into the test, gravel was noted on the beach surface below the turbulent zone of the breaking waves and on the offshore side of the bar; the rest was covered with sand. At 1 hour 17 minutes, the waves returned to a larger/smaller cycle and most of the time (say 80%) the runup did not reach the base of the step. The breakers on the beach are plunging breakers.  48  One hundred minutes into the test, the beach surface was divided into three zones: gravel and sand were mixed over the breaking zone, while only sand covered either side of the mixture. At the end of the test, gravel and sand covered the swash zone. A small trough had formed behind the bar. The waves appear to break before they reach the top of the offshore bar. Gravel was more concentrated on the bar where the waves were breaking and sand covered the bottom portion of the beach. A huge amount of offshore sediment transport occurred in this test, resulting in a very large step (>50 mm) being left at the end of the test, (see Figure 40.) The beach slope mostly decreased over time; however, it did increase slightly near the end of the test, as shown in Figure 41.  ii. TestS2Ml,T=1.7s In 4 minutes the swash zone was covered by sand and the offshore bar began to form. There was no major changes in the profile after the first five minutes. After 12 minutes both ends of the swash zone were gravel covered while the swash zone was covered with sand. Gravel was sprinkled throughout the swash zone at 43 minutes. After 1 hour, 8 minutes, the swash zone was covered with gravel and the gravel was extending toward the runup limit. At the same time, the backrush water was holding back the incoming waves between the crests. After 1 hour, 15 minutes, the beach was not eroding symmetrically across the flume. As the test progressed the waves were noted to appear smaller throughout the flume.  49  At 1 hour, 50 minutes, some sand had moved offshore from the beach and formed a series of 3 ripples which ended approximately 22.5 cmfromthe end of the beach. At 2 hours, the wave runup no longer reached the base of the step. This test resulted in a large amount of offshore transport. As well, a large step (-25 mm) was left at end of test, (see Figure 42.) The beach slope, as it varied over time, is shown in Figure 43.  3. 25% Sand + 75% Gravel Mixture a. Low Waves (Test S3M1) Silty material was removedfromthe beach during the first minute of the test and the resulting plume moved seaward. After 3 minutes some gravel was tossing back and forth, but no waves seemed to break on the beach. A small offshore bar began to form at 4 minutes. After 12 minutes, there was only sand at the runup limit and the gravel had collected under the hardly breaking waves. At 14 minutes, the gravel in the swash zone was either moving onshore to the runup limit or offshore to the bar. Most of the sand was located in the centre of the swash zone. By 25 minutes, the gravel had been pushed onshore and was covering the sand at the uprush limit. At 28 minutes the gravel had covered the sand at the uprush limit. After 42 minutes, no gravel moved offshore of the bar, but pebbles were tossed back and forth in the swash zone. At 54 minutes, the gravel had separated into two groups: one at the uprush limit and one under the breaking waves. In between these two  50  zones a small area of gravel and sand existed and the gravel was moved back and forth between the two limits. After 1 hour, 52 minutes, air bubbles were released from the beach offshore of the bar and also formed in the water along the flume walls. The final profile of the beach consisted of gravel on an offshore bar to a depth of 2-3 grain diameters. In the middle of the swash zone, the gravel depth is 1 grain diameter. At the uprush limit, the beach was gravel only to a depth of 2.5 cm; below this gravel only area, the mixed sediments appeared undisturbed. Even with 75% gravel, this beach showed offshore sediment transport, as shown in Figure 44, although no step formed and the amount of transport was low. The beach did not prograde. The beach slope changed with time, as shown in Figure 45.  b. Medium Waves (Test S3M2) After 30 seconds a small amount of silty material escaped from the beach and moved as a plume offshore. A small gravel offshore bar started to form after 1 minute. After three and a half minutes, some gravel was visibly thrown around by the waves. By 21 minutes, gravel had collected at the base of the step, as well as on the bar and its onshore approach. A strip of sand approximately 75 mm wide was visible on the beach 17.5 to 20 cm from the base of the step. The step was collapsing as it was attacked by the waves and most of the gravel was being moved offshore. At 27 minutes, the sand appeared to move only downslope; the incoming waves did not appear to move the sand onshore. However, they did move gravel onshore at this location. By 41 minutes, the strip of sand was expanding in both directions. Onshore and offshore movement of sand was visible. The gravel did not move very much except in  the sandy area. At 68 minutes, the incoming waves stop breaking where the sandy zone begins. Some of the sand moved offshore of the end of the beach a distance of 25 mm after 84 minutes. The sandy part of the beach was hard to the touch. At the end of the test, the sand was located on the upper beach while the gravel was on the lower beach. The sandy area was covered by a 3 mm layer of sand. Below this, (x=107 cm) was mixed sand and gravel. The gravel on the landward side of the bar was 13 mm deep, with mixed sand and gravel below. The gravel on the bar was 6 mm thick (at x=147 cm). The wave height decreased during the test, possibly as a result of wave reflection off the beach. A 50 mm step was left on the upper beach, (see Figure 46.) The beach slope mostly decreased during the test, as shown in Figure 47.  c. High Waves (Test S3M5) Seventeen seconds into the test, a silty plume began to form. The gravel was subject to lots of movement by the waves. By 3 minutes, the swash zone was mostly sand covered while the gravel accumulated at the base of the step and seaward of the point where the wave breaking was most turbulent. The silty plume had moved the length of the flume. At 24 minutes, the top 38 mm of the bar, seen through the Plexiglas wall, was gravel only. This gravel only bed extendedfromthe point of maximum wave turbulence to the end of the beach. A cycle of lower then higher waves was noted. After 29 minutes, most of the beach was covered with gravel. By 1 hour, 10 minutes, the base of  the step was covered with sand and gravel and a small part of the swash zone was sand only. The waves just reached the base of the step. The beach had armoured itself with gravel from the end of the beach to the location where the breaking waves were most turbulent. At 1 hour, 15 minutes, the waves were rapidly eroding the step. By the end of the test, the runup just reached the base of the step. The final profile consisted of a very large step, 75 mm high, as shown in Figure 48. The sand only area on the upper beach went to a depth 6 mm. The gravel on the offshore bar was 31 mm deep. A mixed gravel and sand base existed below the gravel only area at the location where the waves started to break. The mixed bed was 11.25 cm deep. The final profile looks like a sand beach profile; gravel offers no protection. The beach slope variation with time is shown in Figure 49.  D. Application of Quick's Equation The development of the equations introduced by Quick (1991) was shown in the Theory section. In this section, equation 55, for unsteady infiltration, is used with data obtained from the experiments to compare its results. Equation 54 requires higher mathematics for its solution and is not examined here. The values of D and D were taken from Figures 4.1 and 4.2. The values of D 10  60  and D for the mixed beach tests were calculated based on the sieve test results for the 60  sand and gravel sediments. These results were combined mathematically using the  ]0  53  proportions set out for the mixed tests. The calculated grain size profiles were plotted and the D and D values read off the curves. These calculations and charts are found in 10  60  Appendix B. The resultsfromthe experiments and the calculated D values were assembled on a spreadsheet. Equation 55 was also input and three initial conditions were run: the results of Test 7 for 100% gravel, Test 4 for 100% sand and Test M2 for 50% sand and 50% gravel mixture. The complete set of calculations are shown in Table 3. The uniform beaches of sand and gravel were used to test the equation for changes in wave height. The data for the sand beaches arefromTests 4 and 6: Test 4: H = 64 mm, G = 10.5° (ave.), (D ) = 0.43 mm, (D ) = 0.59 mm Test 6: H =32 mm, D = 0.43 mm, D = 0.59 mm 0  0  10  10  0  60  0  60  Using Equation 55, for unsteady infiltration, 9 = 12.4°. In test 6, 0  m  i = n  9°.  The gravel tests, Test 7 and Test 9, are also checked: Test 7: H = 25 mm, 0 = 11° (ave.), (D ) = 4.9 mm, (D ) = 5.5 mm Test 9: H = 51 mm, D = 4.9 mm, D = 5.5 mm 0  O  10  10  0  60  0  60  From Equation 55, for unsteady infiltration, 0 = 9.2°. In Test 9, 0 = 16° (ave.). To study the effect of adding sand to a gravel beach and lowering the permeability, tests Test 7 (100% gravel) and Test S3M1 (75% gravel) are used: Test 7: H = 25 mm, 0 = 11° (ave.), (D ) = 4.9 mm, (D ) = 5.5 mm Test S3M1: H = 25 mm, D = 0.59 mm, D = 5.4 mm 0  O  10  10  0  60  0  60  Using Equation 55, for unsteady infiltration, 0 = 2.5°. In test S3M1, the swash zone was divided into two parts. The upper swash zone had an average slope of 21°, while the lower swash zone had an average slope of 7.  When the amount of sand is decreased from 100% (Test 4) to 75% (Tests S3M3, S3M4, and S3M6), the theory predicts little change in slope, which is expected because the permeability, when defined by the D value, has only changed a small amount. The 10  equation's predictions agree well with the results obtained in the experiments. The slopes predicted by Equation 55 are reasonable when the wave heights only are effected. The large decrease in the D value resultingfromthe addition of 25% sand 10  to the gravel results in a large decrease in the predicted beach slope. The predicted value is less than the experimental results suggest, although within an order of magnitude. A very large increase in slope is also predicted when the amount of sand is decreased from 100% to 0%, although this condition is practically impossible. The sand and gravel used in these experiments were chosen to represent vast differences in grain size and thus the mixtures of the two vary greatlyfromtheir parent uniform samples. It is more appropriate to consider changes in the mixtures. Taking the 50% combination and Test M2 as the initial condition, Equation 55 is recalculated. Referring to Table 3, for a decrease in the sand content from 50% to 25% (Tests S3M1, S3M2, and S3M5), the equation predicts an increase in slope, as expected. This increase, however, appears less effected by changes in wave height than the experimental results show. For an increase in the percentage of sandfrom50% to 75% (Tests S3M3, S3M4, and S3M6), the equation predicts large increases in slope, whereas the experiments show only small changes. If the D value controls the beach slope, then only 10  small changes in slope would be expected. The higher percentage of the sand in the mixture has decreased the D value and significantly reduced the D value. 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DISCUSSION A N D CONCLUSIONS  Cross-shore sediment transport is an important factor i n beach restoration projects, longshore sediment transport models, and i n the prediction o f the effects o f increasing ocean levels due to storm fronts or global warming. A numerical model by Quick predicts changes i n the beach equilibrium slope using the initial beach slope, and the initial and final values o f wave height and beach gradation. The D  1 0  value for the  sediment is taken to represent the beach permeability. The model uses time-averaging i n its calculations and includes infiltrating and exfiltrating flows i n the beach. U s i n g the known parameters o f the beach, predictions o f the effects o f changes i n wave heights and beach sediment on the beach slope may be made. This theory highlights the beach permeability as an important factor i n determining equilibrium beach slope, because o f its influence on the infiltrating and exfiltrating flows and thus on the momentum flux on the uprushing and downrushing waters. Three sets o f experiments were performed to compare to the theoretical predictions. The first and second sets o f tests used sand and gravel beaches, respectively, while the third set used several combinations o f sand and gravel for the beaches. The tests were run until the beach slopes appeared stable, i.e. had reached equilibrium. For some tests (e.g. Test 5), this took place i n as little as 75 minutes. However, it was noted  102  that the basic shape of the equilibrium profile formed in the first 15 minutes. It was decided that, for ease in comparison of results, the rest of the tests would be run for 2 hours each. The initial steepness in the beach (16 degrees) was thought to be a factor in the swiftness of the beach evolution. Gourlay (1980) pointed out that there is no agreement as to the effect the initial profile or slope has on the equilibrium beach profile. It is agreed, he noted, that the initial profile does determine the time to reach equilibrium. Watanabe, Riho, and Horikawa (1980) used a single sloped initial beach profile and ran their tests for one hour each. The initial steepness of the beach was sufficient to cause wave reflection off the beach in certain tests. For example, the appearance of cycles in wave heights, as in tests TI, S2F2, S2M2, and S3M5, are thought to be the results of wave reflection. In one test (M2), the waves were actually noted to reflect and the reflected wave was large enough to break on the bar as it moved offshore. Another interesting phenomenon occurred in test S2M1, when the downrushing water was holding back the incoming wave until it was overpowered by the incoming wave as it crested and surged up the beach. The tests on the sand beach and the gravel beach were carried out to confirm the known behaviour for such beaches. These tests showed that the gravel beach formed a steeper profile than the sand beach for all wave attacks and were in general agreement with previous work. These tests also provided basic data for later comparison with the tests on beaches comprised of mixtures of sand and gravel.  103  A. Sand and Gravel Beaches  All tests were startedfromthe same initial beach slope of approximately 16 degrees. The experimental results show that the equilibrium gravel beach is steeper than the initial beach while the equilibrium sand beaches are shallower than the initial beach slope. From previous work, it is expected that, for the same wave attack a gravel beach will have a steeper equilibrium beach slope than a sand one. The two types of beaches also have different profiles. For a gravel beach, onshore sediment transport creates a berm at the top of the runup and for the higher wave height, some offshore transport forms a bar on the lower beach. The sand beaches all show offshore transport which creates a step on the upper beach and a bar on the lower beach. At lower wave heights, the step on the upper beach is very small and quite stable in location, but as the wave height increases, the amount of offshore sediment transport also increases, causing the step on the upper beach to retreat, while the bar on the lower beach accumulates the extra sediment on its offshore side. This increases the length of beach available for wave breaking. A typical sand profile, as in Figure 10, can be generalized. Sand beaches responded to wave attack with offshore sediment transport resulting in a profile which included a step on the upper beach and an offshore bar on the lower beach, thus reducing the slope of the beach. The amount of transport increased as the wave height increased.  104  Bird (1984) suggested a mean slope for the beach face of 7° for the Wentworth size class coarse sand (defined as the range 0.5 mm through 1 mm). With a median diameter of 0.59 mm, the sand tests would fall in this class; however, their average slopes varyfrom8.5° to 10.5°, somewhat higher, but in the correct range. The gravel beaches responded with onshore transport and resulted in the formation of a ridge on the upper beach as shown in Figure 22, indicating that they were below the equilibrium slope. However when the wave height was increased, offshore transport was noted and a bar formed on the lower beach, (see Figure 24) but some onshore transport was seen as a ridge on the upper beach. For pebbles, sizedfrom4 mm to 64 mm, Bird (1984) suggests a mean beach face slope of 17°. With a median diameter of 5.5 mm, the gravel tests fall into this class and their average slopes, rangingfrom11° (Test 7) to 18° (Test 10), are of the same order. These results provide a set of equilibrium slopes for different wave attacks which will be compared with the tests made on the beaches comprised of a mixture of sand and gravel.  B. Mixed Beaches The resultsfromthe mixed beaches showed that beaches are constantly changing and, in nature, beaches rarely become equilibrium profiles due to constantly changing wave and wind conditions. At the beginning of the mixed bed tests, the waves flushed out silty suspended sediments which proceeded to hide the lower beach, making data  105 retrieval difficult (some data points were measured by feel instead of sight). In most cases the suspended sediments moved offshore and the water column above the beach cleared before the end of the test. By adding sand to the gravel beach in varying amounts, the effect of permeability may be examined. When 25% sand (by volume) is added to the gravel, the resulting beach responds to wave attack with offshore sediment transport; the amount moved increases with increasing wave height. No berm forms on the upper beach as on the gravel beaches; instead, the profiles resemble the sand beaches, both in profile and equilibrium slope. At higher wave heights, the step on the upper beach retreated in a similar manner to the sand beaches, while the step did not form at the low wave height. The swash zone profile remained very stable for these tests, while erosion was visible in the swash zone of some of the sand beaches. Two main conclusions are drawn from these results. First, the results support the argument that beach permeability has an important influence on beach slope, because the addition of sand causes gravel and sand to move offshore, producing a flatter beach profile. Second, the final equilibrium slope is essentially the same as the pure sand beach. It is therefore concluded that if 25% sand is added to a gravel beach, the beach will be destabilized and much material, both sand and gravel, will move offshore, causing the beach slope to reduce. The coastal protection provided by the gravel beach will therefore be seriously reduced by the added sand, and wave attack will penetrate further onshore.  106  When the sand content is increased to 50% by volume, the resulting profiles also resemble the sand beaches. For low and medium wave heights, the equilibrium beach profile results in less than 15 minutes and is quite stable during the rest of the 2 hour test. This short response time is similar to the sand beaches' response time for low and medium waves. For high waves, the mixed beach profile continues to change throughout the test as do the sand beaches under medium and high wave attack. All the equilibrium beach profiles have a step at the top of the beach and a bar on the lower beach, indicating offshore sediment transport, similar to the sand beaches. The equilibrium beach slopes of these mixed beaches are similar to those of the sand beaches; their average slopes range from 9.5° to 16°. The beaches containing 75% sand and 25% gravel, by volume, all respond to wave attack with offshore sediment transport resulting in a decrease in beach slope. These beach slopes are similar to the sand equilibrium beach slope although somewhat higher, averaging 10° to 12°. For the low and medium waves, the mixed beaches formed their equilibrium profile shape within 15 minutes and were fairly stable throughout the test. For the high waves, the upper beach step and lower beach bar formed in the first 5 minutes, however, the step continued to retreat throughout the test along with the bar enlarging on its offshore side. No berm formed on the upper beach at any wave height and these mixed beaches do not resemble the gravel beaches at all. It appears that the addition of some coarser material to a finer beach does nothing to improve the stability of the shore, which is expected since the added material does little to increase the permeability of the beach when defined by the D grain size. 10  107  C. Discussion of Quick's Equation The predictions made by Quick's Equation 55 using data resulting from the laboratory experiments are reasonable and agree with the results obtained in the laboratory, provided that the changes in the beach characteristics, D and D , are of the 10  60  same order. The equation appears sensitive to large changes in its variables, although it is probable that such large changes are unrealistic in practice. The fact that these equations were developed for well-graded sediments, yet work well with a basically bimodal sediment should not be overlooked. It is necessary, though, for further data to be determined in the laboratory using better graded materials, in order to reduce the effects caused by bimodal sediments.  D. Summary of Conclusions Overall, it appears that when sand is added to gravel, the beach permeability is decreased causing the gravel beach to flatten and sand and gravel are moved offshore. The offshore movement of sediment for the mixed beaches occurred very quickly (less than 15 minutes) for most of the tests. Some of the high wave tests took the shape of the equilibrium profile early on in the test, however offshore sediment transport continued throughout the test causing the step to recede and the bar to accrete, thus increasing the length of beach able to dissipate wave energy. This is very significant because the addition of sand to gravel increases the mobility of the gravel, causing it to move rapidly offshore and leaving an unstable, almost vertical step at the top of the beach which could be vulnerable to wave attack during high tide.  108  Therefore a beach of mixed gravel and sand, even if gravel is the major constituent, is much less stable than gravel alone, and offers a much reduced protection against storm wave attack. This warns that, for beach restoration projects, the applied beach material must not be less permeable than the original beach material and preferably should be more permeable. The permeability of a beach is represented by its grain size. In mixed beaches, the grains are sorted by size to armour the beach. In most tests, the gravel ended up on the offshore side of the bar, while the swash zone was covered in sand. Some of the tests had gravel at the uprush limit which was expected from the literature. This segregation of particles leads to a variation of permeability along the beach. Quick's theory, however, assumes a uniform beach permeability. Calculations made using these equations reveal that they can be useful even for bimodal sediments. The slope is dominated by the finer fraction, represented by the D size in Equations 54 and 55, so that the D size is much 10  10  more important than the D , provided that the coarser material is mobile under the given 60  wave attack. The primary conclusion of this work is that the addition of 25% sand, and possibly even less, changes the behaviour of a gravel beach so that it behaves essentially like a sand beach. The protective steeper slope behaviour of the gravel beach is lost and much sediment moves offshore, both sand and gravel. This conclusion only applies if the gravel is mobile under the given wave attack. Therefore there is a limit to the size range  of the gravel, which has not yet been investigated. Further tests with more variation in permeability are necessary, especially decreasing the proportion of sand in the sediments in order to determine the minimum amount of sand required to shift the beach response from a gravel to a sand beach. Larger scale testing is also suggested to support this model, but the model results concur with these experimental results at a basic level.  110  REFERENCES Bagnold, R. A. (1966) An Approach to the Sediment Transport Problem From General Physics. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 422-1. 37 pp.  Bird, Eric. (1984) Coasts: An Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology. Oxford, 320 pp.  Blackwell,  Bowen, A. J. (1980) Simple models of nearshore sedimentation beach profiles and longshore bars, in The Coastline of Canada, S.B. McCann ed., Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 80-10:1-11. Dalrymple, Robert A. (1992) Prediction of storm/normal beach profiles. Journal of the Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering Division of ASCE Vol. 118, No.  2 (Mar/Apr) 193-200. Dean, Robert G. (1991) Beach Profiles, in Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 2, John B. Herbich, ed., Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, 715-734. Dyer, Keith R. (1986) Coastal and Estuarine Sediment Dynamics. Toronto, 342 pp.  John Wiley and Sons,  Gourlay, Michael R. (1980) Beaches: Profiles, processes and permeability. Proc. 17th International  Coastal Engineering Conference 1320-1339.  Hattori, Masataro and Ryoichi Kawamata. (1980) Onshore-offshore transport and beach profile change. Proc. 17th Conf. Coastal Eng., Sydney 1175-1194. Hazen, A. (1911) Discussion of: dams in sand foundations, by A. C. Loeing. Transactions ASCE 73-193.  Quick, Michael C. (1990) Wave induced beach transport stress. Proc. Canadian Conference 387'-401.  Coastal  Quick, Michael C. (1991) Onshore-offshore sediment transport on beaches. Coastal Engineering 15:313-332.  Ill  Quick, Michael C. and Joseph Ametepe (1991) Relationship between longshore and cross-shore transport. Coastal Sediments '91 Proc. Specialty Conference, WR Div., ASCE, Seattle, Washington 184-196. Quick, Michael C. and Patricia L. Dyksterhuis. (1994) Cross-shore transport for beaches of mixed sand and gravel. Proc. International Symposium: Waves—Physical and Numerical Modelling, Vancouver, B. C. 1443-1452. Quick, Michael C. and Boon C. Har. (1985) Criteria for onshore-offshore sediment movement on beaches. Proc. Can. Coastal Conf. Natl. Res. Counc, Can. 257269. Richmond, Bruce M. and Ashbury H. Sallenger, Jr. (1984) Cross-shore sediment transport of bimodal sands. Proc. 19th International Coastal Engineering Conference 1997-2008. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. (1984) Shore Protection Manual, 4 ed.. Coastal Engineering Research Centre, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. tn  Walsh, Bruce William. (1989) Onshore-offshore transport mechanisms. M. A. Sc. Thesis, Dep. Civ. Eng. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 213 pp. Watanabe, Akira, Yoshihiko Riho, and Kiyoshi Horikawa. (1980) Beach profiles and onoffshore sediment transport. Proc. 17th International Coastal Engineering Conference 1106-1121. Weigel, R. L. (1964) Oceanological Engineering. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA  APPENDIX A SIEVE ANALYSES FOR SAND AND GRAVEL SAMPLES  oo  > o cu T3  on o  c*-t  CN  Tf  UO  r~  Ul  Tf  r-i  UO OO  CO  rH  UO  Tf  CN CN Tf CN O vo UO  vq co uo Ov  -ao  >—'  CO  3  < * 5  Tf Tf  CO  CO  rH  vd vd Tf  uo uo uo  (L> >  Tf  UO  o  bO 00 CN CO vd © oo co ov  00 OV uo uo ov  CN  oo <4H  o co  00  o Tf o Tf vq © vd uo vd vd i> 00 ON © co rH CN rH ov UO Tf Tf Tf uo uo co co ro  rH  Tf cu > .2  oo 'oo <4H  W  o  )H  co  CU  8 a o co co c u  c u  ^ uo rH r- 00 OV rH a ^ 00 Ov CO c  CU  rH  D*  a  cu _N  03  H CZ) CU •o  a  CO  ca ca  •a  00  cu > co CU cu • r<  H  oo  rH  rH  ro © co 00 00 © Tf ©  ©  o  cu  c  2 •  "  § o § oo U oo C<-l  CM  <+H  o o o co  co  co  CO CCi  CO CCJ  CO CCj  s s s  00  > CL>  •a  OS O  f>i ci  "Cf  fi OS ^ M SO Tt Os so _ i  T3  «J  60  o (/I  co cd  O  SO  Tt  Tt  OS  T t  rH  so q  in Tt ^ m os r-  <U >  oo 00 on in co CN © oo ro in  ~  CO CfH  o CO CO  HE  cd  co < oo so o m co ro CN  <L> > CD  O  co 'So o  Cu)  cn  8  g  E Os  H CO  iev am  cu - a  CO CO  ize  ests on ample  m  CN CO  CD  H  co  CD  >  CO  o  II  U 13  2*  11  |1 g co U co C H  C H C H  O O O co co co  3 8 3 S S S  115  o o o o  OS OS OS OS  <n  00 OS OS Os  OS 00 00 OS  00 co 00  OS vd Tt Tt CN OS OS OS  <N oq CN o s i r i oo CN m 00 oo  CN CO r o OS SO r o Tt o s SO  ~H  CN  ©  o  in OS CN r o  OS CN m OS  oo  ro oo  ,—1 OS m o OS 1 — 1 r- 00 SO co © Os Tt OS OS OS 00 o  r~~ r- r-  Os 00  *^  > o CD  •a T 3  Tt Tt  ro  ro vd  Tt H  CN  Tt  vd Tt  in in in  > .2  co o  Tt Tt  ,—<  VO  in  in  ro  Tt  m  00  CN q Tt  Tt  o m  o  Tt  SO  Tt  co  Tt  m  q  Tt  in CN  vd  in m  Tt  © ro CO r o r o VO VO i — 1  VO Tt  OS OS  Tt  rTt  00  in  CO co Tt  co m  CD > CD  co c« O  /  vd m  m  Tt  vd OS  so CN ,—I 00 OS O VO Tt m co o co  5o w  CO  8  on  » —i in o 00  cn CD  HCD  I  « C 03  CO  -a  an  CA  Tt  53 C/5  •d  CD  1a CD  O  CD  N  CO CD > CD  co  OS OS r o 1—1  oo  i-<  Tt  00 ©  ro ro 00 ©  os m ©  t-Tt  ©  o  vo OO Tt  OS  O  00  CN  ON  f-  ON ON  ON ON  uo  Tt'  00 00  00  NO NO 00  uo oo rH 0 0  cn  CN  r-c  2  00  ON  o CJ  Q u  O  ts  NO  •J3  CJ  r H  "5.  CO CrH  o  i> oo i n tN oo <N uo  o 00 00  ^  ^0w  CO  3  00  o  Tt  CU  cn  co  >  00  CO  cj  3  CO  ect fa.  o  t CO U0  CJ  > cj  co o  H CU  > CO  CO  CN >/0 NO  CO 00 Tt  Tt  wo  CN  ON O UO  CN  r-  CJ  .% CO  10O  ON  c  6  3  CO  00  O CN CO  co  CJ N  60  CN CN I O rH C O l O O  60  UO  cn  m ui oo  i/o vo r~  CJ  CJ  Tt NO  CN  UO  CN UO  O 00 VO  ON NO  ON ON VO  Tt  Tt  O  II  _1_  >H  + CJ  CJ _ g  II  If 1  co U co H H o o o <H  co ca co  3 3 3 2 ^  APPENDIX B CALCULATION OF MIXED SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE PROFILES  O O  rH O  CN OO  CN  CNT f CN  uo CN ©  u o© Os CO  rH ©  h o  o ©  oo  00  oo vq  VO CO  Ov CN vd  © O UO  Tf © ©  VO rH ©'  vd co  Tf CN  uo Tf  Tf CN vd rH  Ov rH Tf  © © © uo  00  rH CO o  CN  © rH CN  © © uo CN  CN  co CO CO  © co © CN  n 1—H  © © uo CN  CD UO  oo &  0  rH.  > § .2 oo <4H  o  rH u o u o  O  O  UO rH  ©  O  ©  © © ©  © r-- r- r- UO o o © Os © © © © © o o  H  r^  Tf CN  © ©  r-vo vd  Os uo © Tf  © © ©  Os oo © vo  Tf CO CN*  © © © UO  uo  V.VJ 0  o  CO CN CN rH  00  Tf  ©'  o  © o o ©  Tf oo ov OV  UO CO  © © uo  r-  uo CN  O 0 \ 0 0 0 \ 0 \ O H h h 0 0 © O v O \ o q u o o v - - H i > o q c o 00 © O V O V O O V O C O O O N © © O V O V O V O V O V O V O O T f  © O r H c o i > o q c o o v u o T f © © ' r H r 4 c N c o o o d c N o d T f CO  rH ©  CN d  Tf *-H CN  Tf Tf  uo  OV  VO  ov  CN uo  co o  vd  CN uo Os  © CO co vo  00  co CO VO  vq 00  Tf OV rH  rH ov CN o o v q ov uo T f OS 0 0  CN ©  v q c o CN i > © C O rH T f rH 0 0  ©  00  CO  rH rH  0 0  o  U 0  CN  UO vd CN  rH c o  oood o 0 O  00  U 0  o c/a  R  CO N OO CO > co •r.  00  ,  »SJ  u o rH r - o o  t - 0 0 OS rH ft. T f rH § rH rH  K  3  n  Tf 00  co ov rC O U 0 rH  o  o  ft.u o  uo © OS CN 0 0 OV U0 VO VO OV  VO T f *  t>T f rH ©  1  Cumulati ve% Less Than 25%Sand 50%Sand 99.88 99.91 99.40 99.60 89.40 92.93 28.51 52.34 25.00 49.99 24.72 49.44 24.15 48.30 23.47 46.95 22.53 45.05 22.44 44.88 10.22 20.43 2.10 4.19 N°  >0  OO  99.95 99.79 96.46 76.16 74.99 74.16 72.44 70.42 67.58 67.33 30.65 6.29  00  0.84 0.833 0.59 0.417  eve Size (mm) 12.5 9.525 6.68 4.699 1.981 1.397 1.18 T3  r-  1  120  o o  co  CO  1 co <o CN  3  o  cd  CJ  o o  o ON  O 00  O  o NO  ©  IO  o  Tt  o  o  CN  121  o o  I-i  o o vo  1 CO  o  KO  <u  U  o o  o ON  O 00  o  o VO  O  o  Tt  o  co  ircqx S S 9 1 % psrqnuirQ  o CN  Cumulated % Less Than o  o  4^  o  ©  ©  ^1  o  00  o  SO  o  o o  o  s» cf  PCD  s/< o  N  00  9  O O  231  APPENDIX C LABORATORY DATA AND NOTES  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min  1 920912  26.4 15.2 2 3.25  step bottom step top  Fine sand 54 1.2  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 44.5 42.5 41.6 38.7 35.9 33.0 28.9 26.7 22.5 20.0 16.8 14.3 12.1 31.0  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 1.9 3.8 4.8 7.6 10.5 13.3 17.5 19.7 23.8 26.4 29.5 32.1 34.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 44.8 43.2 37.1 36.5 35.9 33.7 31.8 29.5 27.6 26.4 22.9 20.0 16.8 14.3 12.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 1.6 3.2 9.2 9.8 10.5 12.7 14.6 16.8 18.7 20.0 23.5 26.4 29.5 32.1 34.3  water level t= 5 min  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  t= 15 min  step bottom step top  t=30 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=60 min outer edge  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 287.3 287.3 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 45.7 43.2 37.8 36.8 35.9 34.0 32.4 29.5 27.3 27.3 21.9 20.0 16.8 14.3 12.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 93.7 93.7 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.6 3.2 8.6 9.5 10.5 12.4 14.0 16.8 19.1 19.1 24.4 26.4 29.5 32.1 34.3  X(cm) 196.2 203.2 213.4 222.3 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.9 289.9 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 43.2 38.1 37.8 36.5 35.6 34.0 32.4 30.2 27.9 26.7 21.9 20.0 16.8 14.3 12.1  x (cm) 184.8 177.8 167.6 158.8 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.1 91.1 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.0 1.0 3.2 8.3 8.6 9.8 10.8 12.4 14.0 16.2 18.4 19.7 24.4 26.4 29.5 32.1 34.3  X(cm) 197.2 203.2 213.4  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 42.5  x (cm) 183.8 177.8 167.6  y (cm) 0.0 1.0 3.8  bar  step bottom step top  t=120 min  step bottom step top (no bar)  t=180 min  222.3 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 290.2 290.2 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  37.5 37.8 36.5 35.6 34.3 32.4 30.5 27.9 26.7 21.6 20.0 16.8 14.3 12.1  158.8 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 90.8 90.8 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  8.9 8.6 9.8 10.8 12.1 14.0 15.9 18.4 19.7 24.8 26.4 29.5 32.1 34.3  X(cm) 194.3 203.2 210.2 213.4 221.6 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 298.5 298.5 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 41.3 41.0 37.8 36.8 35.9 34.9 34.3 33.0 31.1 28.9 25.7 25.7 18.1 16.8 14.3 12.1  x (cm) 186.7 177.8 170.8 167.6 159.4 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 82.6 82.6 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 1.0 5.1 5.4 8.6 9.5 10.5 11.4 12.1 13.3 15.2 17.5 20.6 20.6 28.3 29.5 32.1 34.3  X(cm) 193.7 203.2 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 43.5 37.8 36.5  x (cm) 187.3 177.8 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 2.9 8.6 9.8  step bottom step top  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 302.9 302.9 304.8 315.0 325.1  35.6 35.6 34.6 32.7 31.1 28.6 25.7 23.5 17.5 16.8 14.3 12.1  147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 78.1 78.1 76.2 66.0 55.9  10.8 10.8 11.7 13.7 15.2 17.8 20.6 22.9 28.9 29.5 32.1 34.3  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  2 920915 26.4 15.2 1 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Fine sand 38 1.2  t=0 min  X(cm) 199.4 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 42.9 40.3 37.8 34.9 33.0 29.8 26.7 22.5 20.0 17.1  x (cm)* 181.6 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 1.0 3.5 6.0 8.6 11.4 13.3 16.5 19.7 23.8 26.4 29.2  t=5 min  X(in) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 283.8 283.8 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(in) 45.1 42.9 40.3 37.5 34.9 33.3 31.1 28.6 26.4 24.8 23.2 23.2 20.0 17.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 97.2 97.2 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 1.3 3.5 6.0 8.9 11.4 13.0 15.2 17.8 20.0 21.6 23.2 23.2 26.4 29.2  bar  scarp scarp bottom scarp top  t=15 min  bottom of bar top of bar  bottom of step top of step  t=30 min  bottom of bar top of bar  bottom of step top of step  t=60 min  bottom of bar top of bar  X(cm) 197.5 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 43.2 40.3 38.7 36.5 34.9 33.3 30.8 28.6 26.7 23.2 20.0 17.1  x (cm) 183.5 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.6 3.2 6.0 7.6 9.8 11.4 13.0 15.6 17.8 19.7 23.2 26.4 29.2  X(cm) 197.8 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.6 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 285.1 285.1 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 43.2 40.6 38.7 36.2 34.9 33.3 31.1 28.6 26.0 22.9 20.0 17.1  x (cm) 183.2 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.4 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 95.9 95.9 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.3 3.2 5.7 7.6 10.2 11.4 13.0 15.2 17.8 20.3 23.5 26.4 29.2  X(cm) 197.2 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.9 232.4 233.7  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 42.9 40.3 38.4 36.2 35.9  x (cm) 183.8 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.1 148.6 147.3  y(cm) 0.0 1.3 3.5 6.0 7.9 10.2 10.5  bottom of step top of step  t=90 min  bar  bottom of step top of step  t=120 min  bottom of bar top of bar  243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  34.6 33.3 31.1 29.5 26.0 22.9 20.0 17.1  137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  11.7 13.0 15.2 16.8 20.3 23.5 26.4 29.2  X(cm) 197.2 203.2 213.4 223.5 230.8 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 43.2 40.0 38.1 35.9 34.6 33.7 31.4 28.9 26.0 23.2 20.0 17.1  x (cm) 183.8 177.8 167.6 157.5 150.2 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.0 3.2 6.4 8.3 10.5 11.7 12.7 14.9 17.5 20.3 23.2 26.4 29.2  X(cm) 196.5 203.2 213.4 223.5 230.5 231.8 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 43.2 40.0 38.1 35.9 35.6 34.6 33.3 31.1 29.2  x (cm) 184.5 177.8 167.6 157.5 150.5 149.2 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 1.6 3.2 6.4 8.3 10.5 10.8 11.7 13.0 15.2 17.1  bottom of step top of step  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  26.0 23.2 20.0 17.1  96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  20.3 23.2 26.4 29.2  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  3 920923 26.4 15.2 2 2.2  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Fine sand 25 1.7  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.2 38.7 35.6 32.1 28.9 26.7 23.8 20.6 17.8 14.6 12.1  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 4.1 7.6 10.8 14.3 17.5 19.7 22.5 25.7 28.6 31.8 34.3  t=5 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 236.2 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 279.4 279.4 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 45.7 45.1 41.0 36.2 34.6 34.0 33.0 30.8 28.6 26.4 26.0 24.4 20.6 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 144.8 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 101.6 101.6 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.6 1.3 5.4 10.2 11.7 12.4 13.3 15.6 17.8 20.0 20.3 21.9 25.7 28.9  bar break in slope  top of scarp bottom of scarp  t=20 min  break in slope  bottom of scarp top of scarp  t=30 min  trough break bar break  bottom of scarp top of scarp  t=60 min  trough  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 237.2 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 285.8 285.8 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 45.7 45.4 41.0 37.8 34.9 33.7 32.7 30.8 28.9 26.7 26.0 24.1 20.6 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 143.8 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 95.3 95.3 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.6 1.0 5.4 8.6 11.4 12.7 13.7 15.6 17.5 19.7 20.3 22.2 25.7 28.9  X(cm) 196.2 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.6 233.7 236.2 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 288.6 288.6 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 45.4 41.6 45.4 36.5 34.3 33.7 32.7 31.1 29.2 27.0 26.4 23.8 20.6 17.5  x (cm) 184.8 177.8 167.6 157.5 152.4 147.3 144.8 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 92.4 92.4 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.0 1.0 4.8 1.0 9.8 12.1 12.7 13.7 15.2 17.1 19.4 20.0 22.5 25.7 28.9  X(cm) 196.5 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.1  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 41.6 40.0 40.3  x (cm) 184.5 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 4.8 6.4 6.0  bottom of scarp bench on scarp top of scarp  t=90 min  trough bottom bar break  bottom of scarp top of scarp  233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 287.0 287.0 287.0 294.6 304.8  37.5 35.2 34.3 31.8 29.8 27.3 26.4 25.4 23.8 20.6 17.5  147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.0 94.0 94.0 86.4 76.2  8.9 11.1 12.1 14.6 16.5 19.1 20.0 21.0 22.5 25.7 28.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.2 233.7 238.1 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 287.0 287.0 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 45.7 41.0 39.7 42.2 40.6 35.9 34.6 34.0 32.1 30.5 27.6 27.3 23.8 20.6 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.8 147.3 142.9 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.0 94.0 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.6 5.4 6.7 4.1 5.7 10.5 11.7 12.4 14.3 15.9 18.7 19.1 22.5 25.7 28.9  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test 3—OBSERVATIONS - Sept. 23/92 12:50 PM  test begins  12:52 PM  waves run up to approx. 295 cm bar immediately begins to form  12:54 PM  waves run up to approx. 279 cm  135  1:37 PM  Yonas borrowed hose  1:43 PM  wave run up to approx. 264 cm  1:45 PM  Yonas returned hose water appears to have dropped 50 mm during loss of hose H=25 mm T=17/10=1.7 sec  1:48 PM  second step started to develop at lower runup level moving up to old level as water rises  2:00 PM  water level back up  2:03 PM  trough at 229 cm bar break at 237 cm sand is soft for measuring in area shoreward of bar --> depositional area  2:16 PM  backrush water appears to hold incoming wave at a distance where bar break in slope is  2:18 PM  wave almost appears to be plunging  2:20 PM  end of test  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  4 921003 26.4 15.2 3 2.2  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Fine sand 64 1.7  t=0 min  X (cm) 203.2 210.8 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 44.1 42.5 39.1 36.2 33.0 30.2 27.6 24.4 21.0 18.4 15.9 14.0  x (cm)* 177.8 170.2 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 2.2 3.8 7.3 10.2 13.3 16.2 18.7 21.9 25.4 27.9 30.5 32.4  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 211.8 213.4 223.5 232.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 44.8 40.6 35.9 35.6 34.9 33.7 31.4 29.5 27.0 23.8  x (cm) 177.8 169.2 167.6 157.5 148.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 1.6 5.7 10.5 10.8 11.4 12.7 14.9 16.8 19.4 22.5  scarp  scarp  t=15 min  scarp scarp  t=30 min  bar break  scarp  295.3 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.9 18.4 15.9 14.0  85.7 76.2 66.0 55.9  23.5 27.9 30.5 32.4  X(cm) 203.2 210.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 298.1 298.1 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 44.8 40.3 35.2 34.6 34.0 32.1 30.2 27.6 24.8 23.5 22.2 18.4 15.9 14.0  x (cm) 177.8 170.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 82.9 82.9 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 1.6 6.0 11.1 11.7 12.4 14.3 16.2 18.7 21.6 22.9 24.1 27.9 30.5 32.4  X(cm) 203.2 209.6 213.4 223.5 227.3 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 44.8 39.4 36.5 35.6 34.3 33.7 32.1 30.5 27.9 25.4 22.9  x (cm) 177.8 171.5 167.6 157.5 153.7 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 79.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 1.6 7.0 9.8 10.8 12.1 12.7 14.3 15.9 18.4 21.0 23.5  scarp  t=60 min edge of beach  bar break  scarp scarp  t=90 min edge of beach  break in slope  301.3 304.8 315.0 325.1  21.0 18.4 15.9 14.0  79.7 76.2 66.0 55.9  25.4 27.9 30.5 32.4  X(cm) 203.2 206.7 213.4 223.5 226.7 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 312.7 312.7 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 38.1 36.5 35.6 34.3 33.3 31.4 29.5 27.3 25.4 22.9 19.7 16.8 15.9 14.0  x (cm) 177.8 174.3 167.6 157.5 154.3 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 68.3 68.3 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 8.3 9.8 10.8 12.1 13.0 14.9 16.8 19.1 21.0 23.5 26.7 29.5 30.5 32.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 225.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 42.9 38.1 37.1 35.2 34.3 33.3 31.8 29.5 27.3 25.1 22.9  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 155.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 3.5 8.3 9.2 11.1 12.1 13.0 14.6 16.8 19.1 21.3 23.5  139  scarp scarp  t=120 min  bar bar  step step  313.1 313.1 315.0 325.1  19.4 16.2 15.9 14.0  67.9 67.9 66.0 55.9  27.0 30.2 30.5 32.4  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 225.7 228.0 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 313.7 313.7 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 42.2 38.4 38.1 36.2 35.2 34.3 33.3 31.8 29.8 27.3 25.1 22.2 19.4 16.5 15.9 14.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 155.3 153.0 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 67.3 67.3 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.0 4.1 7.9 8.3 10.2 11.1 12.1 13.0 14.6 16.5 19.1 21.3 24.1 27.0 29.8 30.5 32.4  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # 4 OBSERVATIONS- Oct 10/92 4:25 PM 4:28 4:58 5:30 5:35 6:35  test starts noticeable wave reflection off beach ripples forming off edge of beach, i.e. at x<203 cm T=17/10=1.7sec. H=63 mm end of test  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  5 921003 26.4 15.2 1 2.2  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  Fine Sand 19 1.8  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 41.9 38.1 36.2 33.0 29.2 27.0 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 0.0 1.3 4.4 8.3 10.2 13.3 17.1 19.4 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  t=5 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 232.4 233.7 240.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 275.6 275.6 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.0 42.9 40.6 38.7 34.6 33.7 33.0 31.1 29.2 28.3 27.9 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 148.6 147.3 140.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 105.4 105.4 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.3 3.5 5.7 7.6 11.7 12.7 13.3 15.2 17.1 18.1 18.4 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  bar bar  step step unchanged  t=15 min  bar bar  step step  t=30 min  bar bar  step step  t=45 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.8 233.7 241.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 278.1 278.1 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.0 45.1 42.5 40.0 38.4 34.0 34.0 33.0 31.4 29.2 27.9 26.7 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.2 147.3 139.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 102.9 102.9 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.3 1.3 3.8 6.4 7.9 12.4 12.4 13.3 14.9 17.1 18.4 19.7 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 232.1 233.7 241.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 279.4 279.4 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 42.2 40.0 38.1 34.0 34.0 33.0 31.4 29.5 28.3 26.7 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 148.9 147.3 139.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 101.6 101.6 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 1.9 4.1 6.4 8.3 12.4 12.4 13.3 14.9 16.8 18.1 19.7 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4  Y(cm) 46.0 44.8  x (cm) 177.8 167.6  y (cm) 0.3 1.6  bar bar  step step  t=60 min  bar bar  step step  t=75 min  bar  223.5 230.5 233.7 241.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.6 281.6 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  42.5 40.6 38.4 34.3 34.6 33.3 31.4 29.5 27.9 26.0 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  157.5 150.5 147.3 139.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.4 99.4 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  3.8 5.7 7.9 12.1 11.7 13.0 14.9 16.8 18.4 20.3 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 232.1 233.7 242.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 280.0 280.0 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.0 44.8 42.5 40.6 38.1 34.3 34.3 33.0 31.4 29.2 27.3 26.0 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 148.9 147.3 138.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 101.0 101.0 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.3 1.6 3.8 5.7 8.3 12.1 12.1 13.3 14.9 17.1 19.1 20.3 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.2  Y(cm) 46.0 45.1 42.5 40.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.8  y(cm) 0.3 1.3 3.8 5.7  233.7 241.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.0 281.0 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  bar  step step  38.1 34.3 34.3 33.7 31.8 28.9 27.0 26.0 24.4 21.6 18.7 15.9 12.4  147.3 139.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 100.0 100.0 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # 5 -OBSERVATIONS - October /92 4:57 PM  test starts T=18/10=1.8 sec.  5:02  larger particles (contaminants) have been moved to bottom of bar  8.3 12.1 12.1 12.7 14.6 17.5 19.4 20.3 21.9 24.8 27.6 30.5 34.0  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  6 921003 26.4 15.2 2 2.2  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  Fine sand 32 1.7  t=0 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.0 45.1 41.3 39.4 36.5 33.3 30.5 27.3 24.8 21.6 19.1 15.6  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm)* 0.3 1.3 5.1 7.0 9.8 13.0 15.9 19.1 21.6 24.8 27.3 30.8  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 224.2 233.7 238.1 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 286.7 286.7 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.0 44.5 41.9 42.2 37.1 34.6 34.3 33.0 31.4 29.5 27.6 26.7 26.0 21.6 19.1 15.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 156.8 147.3 142.9 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.3 94.3 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm) 0.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 9.2 11.7 12.1 13.3 14.9 16.8 18.7 19.7 20.3 24.8 27.3 30.8  bar bar  step step  r  t=15 min  bar bar  step step  t=30 min  bar bar  step step  t=45 min  bar bar  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 237.5 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 287.3 287.3 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.0 44.8 42.5 37.1 35.2 34.3 33.7 31.8 29.5 27.3 26.4 25.7 21.6 19.1 15.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 143.5 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 93.7 93.7 86.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.3 1.6 3.8 9.2 11.1 12.1 12.7 14.6 16.8 19.1 20.0 20.6 24.8 27.3 30.8  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.4 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 289.6 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.0 44.8 42.5 40.6 34.9 34.3 33.0 31.4 29.5 27.3 25.7 25.4 21.6 19.1 15.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.6 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 91.4 86.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.3 1.6 3.8 5.7 11.4 12.1 13.3 14.9 16.8 19.1 20.6 21.0 24.8 27.3 30.8  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 222.9 233.7  Y(cm) 46.0 44.8 41.3 42.9 38.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 158.1 147.3  y(cm) 0.3 1.6 5.1 3.5 7.9  bar  step step  t=60 min  bar  bar  step step  239.4 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 289.6 294.6 304.8 315.0  34.9 34.3 33.3 31.4 29.8 27.3 25.7 25.1 21.6 19.1 15.6  141.6 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 91.4 86.4 76.2 66.0  11.4 12.1 13.0 14.9 16.5 19.1 20.6 21.3 24.8 27.3 30.8  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 221.9 223.5 230.5 233.7 239.1 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 289.6 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.0 44.8 42.5 41.0 39.7 36.8 35.6 34.3 33.3 31.4 29.5 27.3 25.7 25.1 21.6 19.1 15.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 159.1 157.5 150.5 147.3 141.9 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 91.4 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm) 0.3 1.6 3.8 5.4 6.7 9.5 10.8 12.1 13.0 14.9 16.8 19.1 20.6 21.3 24.8 27.3 30.8  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # 6 (#3A) - OBSERVATIONS - Oct 3/92 6:30 PM  7:15  test starts end level @ 13.3 cm  small berm on offshore bar  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  t=5 min end of beach  top of berm shore side of berm  t=15 min end of beach  7 930107 26.4 15.2 1 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Gravel 25 1.7  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.5 37.8 35.2 33.0 30.2 28.6 27.6 27.0 27.0  x (cm)* 177.8 172.7 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.8  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 2.9 8.6 11.1 13.3 16.2 17.8 18.7 19.4 19.4  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 262.3 264.2 267.7 274.3 284.5 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 37.5 35.2 33.3 31.4 26.4 27.0 28.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 172.7 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 118.7 116.8 113.3 106.7 96.5 91.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 8.9 11.1 13.0 14.9 20.0 19.4 18.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2  x (cm) 177.8 172.7 167.6  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2  break in slope  back edge of berm top of berm  t=30 min edge of beach  break in slope  front of berm top of berm back of berm  t=45 min edge of beach  break in slope  front of berm top of berm  223.5 226.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 262.3 263.5 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.2  37.5 37.1 35.2 33.3 31.8 27.9 26.4 27.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  157.5 154.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 118.7 117.5 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.8  8.9 9.2 11.1 13.0 14.6 18.4 20.0 19.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  X(cm) 203.2 208.6 213.4 223.5 227.3 . 233.7 243.8 254.0 255.3 262.9 264.2 267.7 274.3 284.5 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 37.8 37.1 35.6 33.3 31.8 31.4 26.7 27.0 28.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 172.4 167.6 157.5 153.7 147.3 137.2 127.0 125.7 118.1 116.8 113.3 106.7 96.5 91.8  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 8.6 9.2 10.8 13.0 14.6 14.9 19.7 19.4 18.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  X(cm) 203.2 208.6 213.4 223.5 227.3 233.7 243.8 253.0 254.0 262.6  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 43.5 37.8 36.8 35.6 33.7 32.1 31.4 26.7  x (cm) 177.8 172.4 167.6 157.5 153.7 147.3 137.2 128.0 127.0 118.4  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 2.9 8.6 9.5 10.8 12.7 14.3 14.9 19.7  back of berm  t=60 min end of beach break in slope  front of berm top of berm back of berm  t=75 min edge of beach  break in slope  front of berm top of berm back of berm  264.2 268.0 274.3 284.5 289.2  26.4 28.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  116.8 113.0 106.7 96.5 91.8  20.0 18.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  X(cm) 203.2 206.4 213.4 219.7 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 255.3 262.3 264.2 273.7 274.3 284.5 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.8 37.1 37.8 33.7 33.3 31.1 32.1 26.7 26.7 28.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 174.6 167.6 161.3 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 125.7 118.7 116.8 107.3 106.7 96.5 91.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 2.5 9.2 8.6 12.7 13.0 15.2 14.3 19.7 19.7 18.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  X(cm) 203.2 209.2 213.4 223.5 226.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 258.8 262.3 264.2 267.3 274.3 284.5 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 43.5 37.8 37.1 35.6 33.7 31.1 31.8 26.7 27.0 28.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 171.8 167.6 157.5 154.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 122.2 118.7 116.8 113.7 106.7 96.5 91.8  y (cm) 0.0 0.6 2.9 8.6 9.2 10.8 12.7 15.2 14.6 19.7 19.4 18.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  t=90 min  X(cm) 203.2 209.6 213.4 223.5 225.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 258.4 263.2 264.2 268.9 274.3 284.5 289.2  edge of beach  break in slope  front of berm top of berm back of berm  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 43.8 37.8 36.8 35.2 33.3 31.4 32.4 27.0 27.0 28.3 27.6 27.0 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 171.5 167.6 157.5 155.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 122.6 117.8 116.8 112.1 106.7 96.5 91.8  y(cm) 0.0 1.0 2.5 8.6 9.5 11.1 13.0 14.9 14.0 19.4 19.4 18.1 18.7 19.4 19.4  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # 7 -OBSERVATIONS - Jan 7/93 11:08 A M  -test starts  11:09  -berm is being formed at top of beach -grains are rolling along the surface -water is overtopping the berm -curved profile, no real break in slope -water no longer tops berm -water infiltrates berm -no movement of grains on lower part of beach, i.e. below point of waves breaking -noticeable reflection of waves off beach -T=1.7sec. -water reaches near top of berm but does not flow over -small amount of breaking of waves coming off the paddle -H=25 mm -end of test  11:13 11:30 11:35  11:53 12:05 12:35 12:38 12:40  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  8 Jan. 7/93 26.4 15.2 1 2.2  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Gravel 32 1.7  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 43.5 37.8 33.0 32.4 31.1 28.9 27.6  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7  y (cm)* 0.0 2.9 8.6 13.3 14.0 15.2 17.5 18.7  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 208.0 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 37.5 34.9 33.0 31.8 27.3 27.6  x (cm) 177.8 173.0 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 8.9 11.4 13.3 14.6 19.1 18.7  X(cm) 203.2 209.2 213.4 223.5 227.0 233.7 243.8 254.0  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 43.8 38.1 36.8 34.3 33.0 31.8  x (cm) 177.8 171.8 167.6 157.5 154.0 147.3 137.2 127.0  y(cm) 0.0 1.0 2.5 8.3 9.5 12.1 13.3 14.6  end of beach  t-15 min end of beach  break in slope  foot of berm top of berm  t=30 min end of beach  break in slope  foot of berm top of berm back of berm  t=45 min end of beach  break in slope  foot of berm top of berm back of berm  f=60 min end of beach  break in slope  254.6 261.6 264.2 274.3  31.4 27.3 27.3 27.6  126.4 119.4 116.8 106.7  14.9 19.1 19.1 18.7  X(cm) 203.2 208.6 213.4 223.5 233.7 235.3 243.8 254.0 257.2 261.9 264.2 267.7 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.5 38.1 34.6 36.5 33.3 31.8 33.0 27.3 27.3 27.6 27.6  x (cm) 177.8 172.4 167.6 157.5 147.3 145.7 137.2 127.0 123.8 119.1 116.8 113.3 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 2.9 8.3 11.7 9.8 13.0 14.6 13.3 19.1 19.1 18.7 18.7  X(cm) 203.2 212.7 213.4 223.5 231.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 262.6 264.2 267.3 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.5 38.1 35.6 34.3 33.3 31.8 27.0 27.0 27.9 27.6  x (cm) 177.8 168.3 167.6 157.5 149.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 118.4 116.8 113.7 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 2.9 8.3 10.8 12.1 13.0 14.6 19.4 19.4 18.4 18.7  X(cm) 203.2 208.9 213.4 223.5 230.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 43.5 38.1 35.6  x (cm) 177.8 172.1 167.6 157.5 150.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 2.9 8.3 10.8  foot of berm top of berm back of berm  t=75 min end of beach  break in slope  foot of berm top of berm back of berm  t=90 min end of beach  break in slope  foot of berm top of berm back of berm *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  233.7 243.8 254.0 254.3 261.6 264.2 267.3 274.3  34.9 33.3 31.4 31.8 27.3 27.6 27.6 27.6  147.3 137.2 127.0 126.7 119.4 116.8 113.7 106.7  11.4 13.0 14.9 14.6 19.1 18.7 18.7 18.7  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4 223.5 228.3 233.7 243.8 253.4 254.0 261.9 264.2 268.9 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.5 38.1 36.8 34.9 33.3 32.4 32.1 27.3 27.3 27.6 27.6  x (cm) 177.8 172.7 167.6 157.5 152.7 147.3 137.2 127.6 127.0 119.1 116.8 112.1 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 2.9 8.3 9.5 11.4 13.0 14.0 14.3 19.1 19.1 18.7 18.7  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4 223.5 226.1 233.7 243.8 253.4 254.0 262.3 264.2 267.7 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.5 38.1 37.8 34.9 33.3 31.8 31.8 27.6 27.3 27.9 27.6  x (cm) 177.8 172.7 167.6 157.5 154.9 147.3 137.2 127.6 127.0 118.7 116.8 113.3 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 2.9 8.3 8.6 11.4 13.0 14.6 14.6 18.7 19.1 18.4 18.7  154  Test # 8 -OBSERVATIONS - Jan 7/92 1:46 PM 1:51 2:41 3:12 3:23  -test starts -no well defined steps or bars -water overtops top of berm -top of berm appears to be higher on right side than on left -T=1.7sec -H=32 mm -end of test  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min  end of beach  t=5 min  offshore bar  Ridge top  t=15 min  9 Jan 9/93 26.4 15.6 2 3.25  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  Gravel 51 1.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 215.9 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0 42.2 39.4 35.9 33.0 30.5 28.3 25.7 21.9 19.1  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 165.1 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 0.3 4.1 7.0 10.5 13.3 15.9 18.1 20.6 24.4 27.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 37.8 35.6 34.3 32.1 29.5 23.8 24.8 21.6 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 8.6 10.8 12.1 14.3 16.8 22.5 21.6 24.8 27.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 216.9  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 164.1  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 0.3  bar  ridge top  t=30 min  end of beach  t=45 min  end of beach  223.5 231.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  42.5 39.4 37.8 36.8 34.3 32.4 28.6 23.8 24.4 21.6 19.1  157.5 149.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  3.8 7.0 8.6 9.5 12.1 14.0 17.8 22.5 21.9 24.8 27.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 216.2 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 282.6 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0 42.9 38.4 36.8 34.9 32.4 28.6 23.5 25.1 21.6 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 164.8 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 98.4 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 0.3 3.5 7.9 9.5 11.4 14.0 17.8 22.9 21.3 24.8 27.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 215.3 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 284.5 294.6  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0 42.9 38.4 35.9 34.3 32.1 28.6 23.5 24.1 21.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 165.7 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 96.5 86.4  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 0.3 3.5 7.9 10.5 12.1 14.3 17.8 22.9 22.2 24.8  304.8  19.1  76.2  27.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 216.2 223.5 232.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 42.9 39.1 38.4 35.9 34.3 32.1 29.2 23.2 25.1 21.6 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 164.8 157.5 148.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.5 7.3 7.9 10.5 12.1 14.3 17.1 23.2 21.3 24.8 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 216.9 223.5 230.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 45.7 42.5 39.7 38.4 35.6 34.6 32.4 28.9 23.5 24.4 21.6 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 164.1 157.5 150.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.6 3.8 •6.7 7.9 10.8 11.7 14.0 17.5 22.9 21.9 24.8 27.3  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  Test # 9 -OBSERVATIONS -Jan 9/93 3:32 PM 3:43  -test starts -waves just reach top of berm, occasionally overtops berm  -H=50 m m -T=(38-12)/20=1.3 sec. -water depth = 15.6 c m -end o f test  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min  end of beach  t=5 min  ridge  10 Jan. 9/93 26.4 6.1 2 2.2  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  Gravel 57 1.7  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 216.2 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0 42.2 39.7 38.1 33.7 30.5 28.3 24.4 21.6 18.4  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 164.8 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 0.3 4.1 6.7 8.3 12.7 15.9 18.1 21.9 24.8 27.9  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 216.9 223.5 233.7 240.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 283.5 284.5 289.6 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0 42.5 39.7 36.2 35.2 34.3 32.4 27.9 23.2 23.2 23.5 21.6 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 164.1 157.5 147.3 140.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 97.5 96.5 91.4 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 0.3 3.8 6.7 10.2 11.1 12.1 14.0 18.4 23.2 23.2 22.9 24.8 27.9  t= 15 min  bar  ridge back of ridge  t=30 min  bar  t=45 min  end of beach  bar  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.9 39.7 35.6 35.2 34.9 32.1 28.9 23.2 24.1 21.6 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 139.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.6 3.5 6.7 10.8 11.1 11.4 14.3 17.5 23.2 22.2 24.8 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 240.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.9 39.1 36.2 35.2 34.3 32.4 28.6 22.5 23.2 21.6 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 140.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 3.5 7.3 10.2 11.1 12.1 14.0 17.8 23.8 23.2 24.8 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 214.9 223.5 233.7 240.3 243.8 254.0 264.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 46.0 42.9 38.7 35.9 35.6 34.3 31.8  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 166.1 157.5 147.3 140.7 137.2 127.0 116.8  y (cm) 0.0 0.3 0.3 3.5 7.6 10.5 10.8 12.1 14.6  161  ridge  t=60 min  274.3 284.5 290.5 294.6 304.8  28.6 22.5 23.2 21.6 18.4  106.7 96.5 90.5 86.4 76.2  17.8 23.8 23.2 24.8 27.9  X (cm)  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 45.7 42.5 39.1 36.5 35.6 34.3 32.1 28.6 20.3 22.9 21.6 18.4  x (cm)  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 0.6 3.8 7.3 9.8 10.8 12.1 14.3 17.8 26.0 23.5 24.8 27.9  203.2 213.4 218.4 223.5 233.7 241.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 294.6 304.8 *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # 10 - OBSERVATIONS - Jan 9/93  5:02 PM 6:02  -test starts -T=l7/10=1.7 sec -H=57 mm -test ends  177.8 167.6 162.6 157.5 147.3 139.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 86.4 76.2  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  Ml Feb. 5/93 26.4 15.6 1 3.3  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  50/50 mix 32 1.24  t=0 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 42.5 39.4 37.1 34.9 32.1 29.2 25.4 23.2 19.7  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 1.3 3.8 7.0 9.2 11.4 14.3 17.1 21.0 23.2 26.7  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.2 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 42.5 39.4 35.6 34.3 32.7 30.5 27.0 25.7 23.2 19.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.8 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 1.6 3.8 7.0 10.8 12.1 13.7 15.9 19.4 20.6 23.2 26.7  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 42.5 39.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3  y (cm) 0.0 1.9 3.8 7.0  water edge of scum land edge of scum  t=15 min  waves breaking at beg. of trans, zone  end of trans, zone berm  t=30 min  waves breaking at  t=45 min  waves breaking at  step  243.8 249.2 254.0 263.2 264.2 274.3 275.6 279.4 284.5 294.6 304.8  35.9 34.6 34.3 33.3 33.0 30.5 30.2 27.9 26.7 23.2 19.7  137.2 131.8 127.0 117.8 116.8 106.7 105.4 101.6 96.5 86.4 76.2  10.5 11.7 12.1 13.0 13.3 15.9 16.2 18.4 19.7 23.2 26.7  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 245.1 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 42.5 39.4 35.2 34.9 34.3 33.0 29.8 26.7 24.8 23.2 19.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 135.9 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.9 3.8 7.0 11.1 11.4 12.1 13.3 16.5 19.7 21.6 23.2 26.7  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 244.5 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 42.5 39.7 35.2 34.9 34.3 33.0 30.2 26.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 136.5 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5  y(cm) 0.0 1.6 3.8 6.7 11.1 11.4 12.1 13.3 16.2 19.7  step  t=60 min  waves breaking at beg of trans zone  end of trans, zone step step  t=90 min  waves breaking at beg. of trans, zone end of trans, zone step step  284.5 294.6 304.8  26.0 23.2 19.7  96.5 86.4 76.2  20.3 23.2 26.7  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 244.2 254.0 259.4 264.2 274.3 275.6 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 42.9 38.7 35.6 34.9 34.6 34.0 32.7 29.8 29.8 26.7 25.7 23.2 19.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 136.8 127.0 121.6 116.8 106.7 105.4 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.6 3.5 7.6 10.8 11.4 11.7 12.4 13.7 16.5 16.5 19.7 20.6 23.2 26.7  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 247.0 254.0 257.5 264.2 273.4 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 42.5 39.4 35.6 34.9 34.3 34.3 32.7 30.5 29.8 26.7 26.0 23.2 19.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 134.0 127.0 123.5 116.8 107.6 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 1.9 3.8 7.0 10.8 11.4 12.1 12.1 13.7 15.9 16.5 19.7 20.3 23.2 26.7  t=120 min  waves breaking at beg. of trans, zone end of trans, zone step step  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 245.4 254.0 258.1 264.2 271.8 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 42.9 39.4 35.6 34.9 34.3 34.3 32.7 30.5 29.8 26.7 25.7 23.2 19.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 135.6 127.0 122.9 116.8 109.2 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.6 3.5 7.0 10.8 11.4 12.1 12.1 13.7 15.9 16.5 19.7 20.6 23.2 26.7  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Mixed Test # M l - OBSERVATIONS - Feb 5/93 11:35 A M  -test begins -"cloud" of silt formed under breakers and appears to be moving seaward" -foamy scum left on beach at runup height -water is clouded by suspended sediments throughout beach and offshore to a distance of-89 cm  11:40  -upper beach composed mainly of fine grains on surface -below breakers, surface is coarse grains -reflected waves off beach appear to hold back incoming waves --> small breaking, just a little at front of crest  11:45  -water is clearing at bottoms of flume -cloudy on top (50 - 75 mm) for entire length of flume  12:00PM  -entire flume is clouded with suspended sediment except for runup swash and approx. 2.5 cm along bottom of flume  1:05  -water in flume not so cloudy as before (possibly due to supply of fresh water added by hose)  166  1:35  -T=1.24sec -H=32 mm -final profile composed of three areas: sand to a depth of 2.2 cm, mixture of sand and gravel, and gravel to a depth of 2.2 cm  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  M2 Feb. 11/93 26.4 15.2 2 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  50/50 mix 48 1.3  t=0 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 41.9 40.6 38.1 35.6 32.4 29.8 26.0 22.9 21.0  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.6 4.4 5.7 8.3 10.8 14.0 16.5 20.3 23.5 25.4  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.9 38.1 36.5 35.2 33.0 31.1 27.9 25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.6 3.5 8.3 9.8 11.1 13.3 15.2 18.4 20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.9  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 3.5  scarp scarp  t=15 min  waves breaking at trans, sand/gravel  small berm forming scarp scarp  t=30 min  waves breaking at trans, sand/gravel  scarp scarp  t=45 min  waves breaking at  trans, sand/gravel  233.7 235.6 243.8 247.0 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  37.1 37.5 36.5 36.8 35.6 33.0 30.8 27.3 25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  147.3 145.4 137.2 134.0 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  9.2 8.9 9.8 9.5 10.8 13.3 15.6 19.1 20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.9 243.8 245.4 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 42.9 37.5 36.8 36.8 36.8 35.6 33.0 30.8 27.9 25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 139.1 137.2 135.6 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 1.3 3.5 8.9 9.5 9.5 9.5 10.8 13.3 15.6 18.4 20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 235.3 243.8 254.0 254.3 264.2  Y(cm) 46.0 45.4 43.2 37.8 37.5 36.5 35.6 36.8 33.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 145.7 137.2 127.0 126.7 116.8  y(cm) 0.3 1.0 3.2 . 8.6 8.9 9.8 10.8 9.5 13.3  scarp scarp  t=60 min  waves breaking at trans, sand/gravel  scarp scarp  t=90 min  waves breaking at trans, sand/gravel  small berm small berm  274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  30.8 27.9 25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  15.6 18.4 20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 235.6 243.8 253.7 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.4 42.9 37.5 37.5 36.5 36.2 35.2 33.0 31.4 27.6 25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 145.4 137.2 127.3 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.0 3.5 8.9 8.9 9.8 10.2 11.1 13.3 14.9 18.7 20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 234.6 243.8 253.4 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5  Y(cm) 46.0 45.1 42.9 37.8 37.8 36.5 36.2 35.6 33.0 31.1 27.6 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 146.4 137.2 127.6 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5  y(cm) 0.3 1.3 3.5 8.6 8.6 9.8 10.2 10.8 13.3 15.2 18.7 19.4  scarp scarp  t=120 min  waves breaking at trans, sand/gravel  scarp scarp  t=180 min  trans, sand/gravel  293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 238.1 243.8 244.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.0 45.4 43.2 37.8 37.1 36.2 36.2 35.6 33.3 30.8 28.3 27.6 25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 142.9 137.2 136.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.3 1.0 3.2 8.6 9.2 10.2 10.2 10.8 13.0 15.6 18.1 18.7 20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 234.3 243.8 253.0 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5  Y(cm) 46.0 45.4 43.2 37.5 37.8 36.5 36.2 35.2 33.3 31.1 27.3 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 146.7 137.2 128.0 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5  y(cm) 0.3 1.0 3.2 8.9 8.6 9.8 10.2 11.1 13.0 15.2 19.1 19.4  scarp scarp  293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  25.7 22.9 22.9 21.0  87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  20.6 23.5 23.5 25.4  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  Mixed Test # M2 - OBSERVATIONS - Febll/93 11:30 A M  -test starts -some silt released under swash zone, moving off shore on surface of water  11:40  -offshore bar appears to be gravel only, while swash zone is mostly sand  11:42  -breakers appear to be plunging type -beach between step and runup level is mixed -appears to be some breaking of reflected waves over bar going offshore, as well as onshore breaking  1:05PM  -waves do not appear to be as powerful as at beginning of test (breaking is less powerful)  1:15  -T=1.29 sec -H=48 mm  2:35  -end of test  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  M3 Feb. 19/93 26.4 15.6 1 2.2  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  50/50 mix 10 1.7  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 226.1 226.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.4 46.4 44.5 40.6 37.8 35.2 32.7 28.9 25.4 22.5 19.4  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 154.9 154.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 5.7 8.6 11.1 13.7 17.5 21.0 23.8 27.0  t=5 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 255.0 264.2 274.3 275.9 284.5 287.3 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 40.6 37.8 33.7 34.6 32.7 30.5 32.1 25.7 27.6 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 126.0 116.8 106.7 105.1 96.5 93.7 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 5.7 8.6 12.7 11.7 13.7 15.9 14.3 20.6 18.7 23.8 27.0  trans g/s waves breaking at  trans s/g run up height  t=15 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  t=30 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  t=45 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 251.5 254.0 257.5 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 40.0 37.1 34.3 34.3 34.3 33.0 30.8 27.0 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 129.5 127.0 123.5 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 6.4 9.2 12.1 12.1 12.1 13.3 15.6 19.4 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 250.5 254.0 261.6 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 40.3 37.5 34.6 34.3 34.3 32.7 30.5 27.0 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 130.5 127.0 119.4 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 6.0 8.9 11.7 12.1 12.1 13.7 15.9 19.4 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 250.8 254.0 257.5 264.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 40.6 37.1 34.6 34.3 34.3 32.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 130.2 127.0 123.5 116.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 5.7 9.2 11.7 12.1 12.1 13.7  trans, s/g  t=60 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  t=90 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  berm  t=120 min  270.5 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  31.8 31.1 27.6 22.5 19.4  110.5 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  14.6 15.2 18.7 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 249.9 254.0 256.5 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 40.3 37.5 34.9 34.0 34.3 32.4 30.8 27.6 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 131.1 127.0 124.5 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 6.0 8.9 11.4 12.4 12.1 14.0 15.6 18.7 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 249.9 254.0 261.3 264.2 274.3 282.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 40.3 37.8 34.9 34.0 34.3 33.0 31.4 27.9 27.3 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 131.1 127.0 119.7 116.8 106.7 98.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 6.0 8.6 11.4 12.4 12.1 13.3 14.9 18.4 19.1 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5  waves breaking at trans, g/s  berm step bottom step top  t=180 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  233.7 243.8 254.0 254.3 261.9 264.2 274.3 277.8 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  40.6 37.1 34.0 35.6 33.7 32.7 31.4 27.6 27.3 26.4 22.5 19.4  147.3 137.2 127.0 126.7 119.1 116.8 106.7 103.2 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  5.7 9.2 12.4 10.8 12.7 13.7 14.9 18.7 19.1 20.0 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 256.2 261.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 40.3 36.8 34.3 35.2 33.7 32.7 31.1 26.4 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 124.8 120.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.0 9.5 12.1 11.1 12.7 13.7 15.2 20.0 23.8 27.0  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Mixed Test # M3 - OBSERVATIONS - Feb 19/93 11:15AM -silty "cloud" grows as waves run over bed 11:17  -bar is forming under point where backrush water holds back incoming waves -gravel moved up to edge of beach runup and down to bar; area in between mostly sand  11:30  -gravel at edges of runup and rundown  176 11:35  -no transition between gravel and sand on upper beach, sand appears to be covering over the gravel -transition from gravel to sand is in a straight line parallel to beach  11:40  -patch of gravel  12:00PM  -gravel patch -small berm of sand  12:15  -no distinct boundary between sand and gravel on upper beach  12:45  -surface area of swash zone mostly sand  1:15  -H=10 mm -T=1.7 sec -H=19 mm near beach  2:15  -end of test -final profile  Run No. Date Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  M4 Feb. 24/93 26.4 15.2 2 2.2  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  50/50 mix 13 1.8  t=0 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 40.3 37.8 35.2 32.1 28.3 25.7 22.9 19.4  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.0 8.6 11.1 14.3 18.1 20.6 23.5 27.0  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 291.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 40.0 34.6 34.0 33.3 32.4 30.8 28.3 26.7 24.1 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 89.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.4 11.7 12.4 13.0 14.0 15.6 18.1 19.7 22.2 26.4  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2  waves breaking at  run up height  t=15 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  trans, s/g run up height  t=30 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  trans, s/g run up height  t=45 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  233.7 239.4 243.8 253.0 254.0 264.2 274.3 278.4 284.5 291.8 294.6 304.8  40.3 34.9 34.0 34.3 33.7 32.4 31.1 30.2 28.9 27.0 24.1 20.0  147.3 141.6 137.2 128.0 127.0 116.8 106.7 102.6 96.5 89.2 86.4 76.2  6.0 11.4 12.4 12.1 12.7 14.0 15.2 16.2 17.5 19.4 22.2 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 249.2 254.0 264.2 274.3 280.7 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.2 39.4 34.6 34.3 34.3 34.0 32.4 31.1 29.5 28.6 26.7 25.4 24.1 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 131.8 127.0 116.8 106.7 100.3 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.2 7.0 11.7 12.1 12.1 12.4 14.0 15.2 16.8 17.8 19.7 21.0 22.2 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.4 243.8 251.1 254.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 40.0 34.9 34.6 34.3 34.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.6 137.2 129.9 127.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 6.4 11.4 11.7 12.1 12.4  trans, s/g run up height  t=60 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  run up height  t=90 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  trans, s/g run up height  264.2 274.3 282.9 284.5 293.1 293.1 294.6 304.8  32.4 30.5 29.5 28.6 25.7 24.8 24.1 20.0  116.8 106.7 98.1 96.5 87.9 87.9 86.4 76.2  14.0 15.9 16.8 17.8 20.6 21.6 22.2 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 249.2 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 290.8 290.8 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 38.7 35.2 34.3 34.3 33.7 32.7 30.8 28.9 27.6 25.4 23.8 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 131.8 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 90.2 90.2 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 7.6 11.1 12.1 12.1 12.7 13.7 15.6 17.5 18.7 21.0 22.5 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 251.5 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 287.0 290.5  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 40.0 34.9 34.3 34.3 33.7 32.7 31.1 28.9 28.9 27.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 129.5 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.0 90.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.4 11.4 12.1 12.1 12.7 13.7 15.2 17.5 17.5 19.4  step bottom step top  t=120 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  trans, s/g runup height  t=150 min  waves breaking at trans, g/s  trans, s/g run up height  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  293.1 293.1 294.6 304.8  26.4 25.7 23.2 20.0  87.9 87.9 86.4 76.2  20.0 20.6 23.2 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.3 243.8 253.7 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 288.6 292.1 292.1 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 38.4 34.6 34.3 34.3 34.0 32.7 31.1 28.9 27.9 26.7 25.1 24.4 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 139.7 137.2 127.3 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 92.4 88.9 88.9 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 7.9 11.7 12.1 12.1 12.4 13.7 15.2 17.5 18.4 19.7 21.3 21.9 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 250.5 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 288.9 294.0 294.0 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 40.0 34.0 34.3 34.6 33.7 32.4 31.1 28.9 28.3 26.0 24.1 24.4 19.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 130.5 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 92.1 87.0 87.0 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.4 12.4 12.1 11.7 12.7 14.0 15.2 17.5 18.1 20.3 22.2 21.9 26.7  Mixed Test # M4 - OBSERVATIONS - Feb 24/93 11:40 A M  -test begins  11:42  -over the first ~10 waves, coarse material picked up and pulled down beach to form offshore bar -small silt "cloud" formed and is working its way offshore  11:44  -incoming waves are held back by backrush flow at outer side of bar  11:53  -coarse grains at top end of runup and on offshore bar  12:23 PM  -reflected waves passing incoming waves as a series of small waves, L ~ l cm  12:30  -transition zones are over an area, measurements taken for centre of area  1:15  -sand appears to be covering gravel on swash side of bar -H=13 mm Is wave generator acting up, or is Ff really that low? -T=1.76 sec -in future tests, measure H,T at start and end of tests  2:08  -the distinction between pure gravel and pure sand is "fuzzy" in this test, whereas the previous test gave discreet boundaries  2:15  -d=15 cm -end of test  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (in) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  SWL  t=5 min  bar  step bottom step top  S2F1 May 29/93  26.4 15.2 3 2.2  Bed 14.0 H (mm) T(sec)  Fine 32;35 1.8  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) x (cm)* y (cm)* 46.4 177.8 0.0 46.4 167.6 0.0 42.2 4.1 157.5 40.3 147.3 6.0 37.8 137.2 8.6 34.6 127.0 11.7 31.8 116.8 14.6 18.4 27.9 106.7 25.1 96.5 21.3 24.4 21.9 86.4 18.4 76.2 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 226.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.3 294.3 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 36.5 37.5 35.2 34.6 32.7 30.5 27.9 24.8 24.1 23.8 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 154.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.7 86.7 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 9.8 8.9 11.1 11.7 13.7 15.9 18.4 21.6 22.2 22.5 26.4  t=15 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=30 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=45 min  bar  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.7 293.7 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.9 36.8 35.2 34.6 33.0 30.8 28.3 24.8 23.8 23.8 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.3 87.3 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 4.4 9.5 11.1 11.7 13.3 15.6 18.1 21.6 22.5 22.5 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.8 297.8 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.2 36.5 34.9 34.6 33.0 30.8 28.3 25.4 24.8 22.9 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.2 83.2 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 4.1 9.8 11.4 11.7 13.3 15.6 18.1 21.0 21.6 23.5 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.2 36.8 35.2 34.3 33.0 30.8 28.3  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 4.1 9.5 11.1 12.1 13.3 15.6 18.1  step bottom step top  t=60 min end of beach bar  step bottom step top  t=90 min end of beach bar  step bottom step top  t=120 min  bar  294.6 298.8 298.8 304.8  25.7 24.8 22.9 20.0  86.4 82.2 82.2 76.2  20.6 21.6 23.5 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 298.8 298.8 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.2 36.5 34.9 34.3 33.0 31.1 28.3 25.7 24.4 22.5 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 82.2 82.2 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 4.1 9.8 11.4 12.1 13.3 15.2 18.1 20.6 21.9 23.8 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 298.8 298.8 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.6 36.8 35.2 34.3 33.0 30.8 28.6 25.7 24.4 22.5 20.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 82.2 82.2 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 4.8 9.5 11.1 12.1 13.3 15.6 17.8 20.6 21.9 23.8 26.4  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.3 36.8  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 5.1 9.5  185  243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 295.6 298.1 298.1 304.8  runup height step bottom step top  35.2 34.3 33.0 30.8 28.6 25.4 24.8 24.1 22.5 20.0  137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 85.4 82.9 82.9 76.2  11.1 12.1 13.3 15.6 17.8 21.0 21.6 22.2 23.8 26.4  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # S2F1 -OBSERVATIONS - May 29/93 3:00 PM  -start of test  3:02 PM  -large release of silty materialfromfirst few waves -Hoi = 32 mm  3:05 PM  -time for runup, then rundown approx. same as the period"  3:12 PM  -rundown water holds back incoming waves at offshore edge of the top of the bar -silty "cloud" extends entire length offlume,fromwater surface to approx. 5 cm (average)frombottom  3:35 PM  -shape of step is concave when viewedfromabove  3:50 PM  -step is straighter, less concave  4:39 PM  -Ho = 38 mm  4:55 PM  -T = 17.5/10 = 1.75 seconds -Ho = 38 mm  5:07 PM  -df " 14 cm -waves breaking as plunging breakers -end of test  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  t=5 min  bar  step bottom step top  S2F2 930606  26.4 15.6 3 3.25  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  Sand 64; 70 1.2  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) x (cm)* y (cm)* 46.4 177.8 0.0 46.4 167.6 0.0 42.2 157.5 4.1 39.7 147.3 6.7 36.8 137.2 9.5 34.3 127.0 12.1 31.8 116.8 14.6 28.3 106.7 18.1 25.1 96.5 21.3 21.6 86.4 24.8 19.1 76.2 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 227.3 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 298.1 298.1 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 40.0 38.4 37.1 36.2 35.2 33.7 31.1 28.9 26.4 25.4 22.2 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 153.7 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 82.9 82.9 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.6 6.4 7.9 9.2 10.2 11.1 12.7 15.2 17.5 20.0 21.0 24.1 27.3  t=15 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=30 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=45 min end of beach bar  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.6 301.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 43.5 38.4 37.1 36.2 35.6 33.7 32.4 29.8 27.6 25.4 21.0 19.1 14.6  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 79.4 79.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 2.9 7.9 9.2 10.2 10.8 12.7 14.0 16.5 18.7 21.0 25.4 27.3 31.8  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 216.5 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 307.3 307.3 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 41.9 39.1 37.8 36.5 35.6 34.9 33.7 32.4 31.1 28.6 26.0 26.0 18.1 14.6 10.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 164.5 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 73.7 73.7 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 4.4 7.3 8.6 9.8 10.8 11.4 12.7 14.0 15.2 17.8 20.3 20.3 28.3 31.8 35.9  X(cm) 199.1 203.2 211.5 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 38.7 38.4 37.1  x (cm) 181.9 177.8 169.5 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 1.3 7.6 7.9 9.2  trough  step (undercut by 22 mm)  t=60 min end of beach bar  trough  step (undercut by 25 mm)  t=90 min end of beach bar  233.7 241.9 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 306.1 306.1 315.0 325.1  36.5 37.8 37.5 35.6 35.2 33.3 30.8 28.6 26.0 26.0 19.1 14.6 10.5  147.3 139.1 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 74.9 74.9 66.0 55.9  9.8 8.6 8.9 10.8 11.1 13.0 15.6 17.8 20.3 20.3 27.3 31.8 35.9  X(cm) 195.6 203.2 210.8 213.4 223.5 233.7 242.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 306.7 306.7 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 44.1 39.1 39.4 37.5 37.1 38.7 38.1 35.9 34.6 33.0 31.1 29.2 26.7 26.4 18.7 14.6 10.5  x (cm) 185.4 177.8 170.2 167.6 157.5 147.3 138.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 74.3 74.3 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 2.2 7.3 7.0 8.9 9.2 7.6 8.3 10.5 11.7 13.3 15.2 17.1 19.7 20.0 27.6 31.8 35.9  X(cm) 194.0 203.2 211.5 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 43.5 40.0 38.4 37.1  x (cm) 187.0 177.8 169.5 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 2.9 6.4 7.9 9.2  233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 306.4 306.4 315.0 325.1  36.8 36.5 36.2 35.2 33.7 31.8 29.5 27.0 26.7 18.7 14.6 10.5  147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 74.6 74.6 66.0 55.9  9.5 9.8 10.2 11.1 12.7 14.6 16.8 19.4 19.7 27.6 31.8 35.9  X(cm) 195.9 203.2 210.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 240.3 243.8 254.0 259.1 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 309.6 309.6 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 43.2 39.4 39.4 37.5 36.5 37.5 36.5 35.9 36.5 34.9 33.0 30.8 28.9 26.4 25.1 17.8 14.6 10.5  x (cm) 185.1 177.8 170.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 140.7 137.2 127.0 121.9 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 71.4 71.4 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 3.2 7.0 7.0 8.9 9.8 8.9 9.8 10.5 9.8 11.4 13.3 15.6 17.5 20.0 21.3 28.6 31.8 35.9  trough  step (undercut by 22 mm)  t=120 min end of beach bar  #1 trough  #4 trough  step (no undercut) step top  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  Test # S2F2 - OBSERVATIONS - June 6/93 4:50PM  -H j = 64 mm 0  -waves are breaking slightly when coming off paddle  190  4:52 PM  -bar noticeable -breaking waves coming off paddle are spilling, but breaking disappears on every other wave before reaching beach  4:53 PM  -on beach, smaller waves form plunging breakers on bar, while larger waves start to break at edge of beach  5:10 PM  -every other wave is still larger -step is undercut, then sloughs off -breakers on beach are plunging -backwash holds back incoming water until overcome by incoming wave crest  5:15 PM  -breaking waves coming off paddle (every other one) are spilling, then disappear approx. 100 cm off beach and then reform as plunging breakers at the bar  5:17 PM  -every other wave runup reaches step  5:32 PM  -waves no longer breaking coming off paddle -breaking waves on beach have created a trough behind bar  5:34 PM  -runup does not quite reach the step anymore, and waves appear to be more even -foam has formed along walls of flume for 5 cm from step to a height of 1 to 4 cm.  5:35 PM  -step is undercut by 2.2 cm  5:43 PM  -waves are once again different: every other wave runup reaches undercut step  5:45 PM  -every other wave comes off paddle spilling and keeps on spilling to x=109 cm.  5:47 PM  -second breaking trough near end of beach; first trough appears to be filling in (waves plunge into trough) -spilling waves have stopped  5:48 PM  -breaking waves location returning to first trough and  191  filling in second one (at X=210 cm approx.) 5:50 PM  -step is undercut by 2.5 cm -crack formed 7.5 cm back from edge of step, on right hand side of flume (looking from above)  5:58 PM  -once again, wave runups do not reach undercut step, and the waves are even  6:00 PM  -every wave comes off paddle spilling, but dissolves after 15 to 30 cm.  6:08 PM  -small third trough is 20 cm closer to step than first one (second trough has filled in)  6:19 PM  -breaking troughs being filled in  6:20 PM  -step is undercut by 2.2 cm  6:27 PM  -step collapsed leaving no undercut -every other waves reaches bottom of step -every other wave spilling coming off paddle to distance X=89 cm  6:32 PM  -waves are more even, spilling coming off paddle but disappearing after approx. 15 to 30 cm -wave runups do not reach base of step  6:34 PM  -waves breaking are forming a trough at location 1 again -T= 12/10 =1.2 seconds  6:42 PM  -H f=70mm o  -flume water is silty along entire length and to a depth of 2.5 cm above bottom 6:45 PM  -fourth wave breaking trough visible at X=262 cm (approx.)  6:50 PM  -step is not undercut  7:00 PM  -end of test  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  SWL  t=5 min  bar  runup height initial step  S2F3 June 7/93  26.4 14.9 1 4  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Fine 19; 25 1.1  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) x (cm)* y (cm)* 46.4 177.8 0.0 46.4 167.6 0.0 42.9 157.5 3.5 40.0 147.3 6.4 36.8 137.2 9.5 34.0 127.0 12.4 31.4 116.8 14.9 28.3 106.7 18.1 25.7 96.5 20.6 22.2 86.4 24.1 18.4 76.2 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 232.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 261.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.2 40.3 38.4 36.5 34.9 32.7 32.1 29.5 25.7 22.2 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 148.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 120.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 3.2 6.0 7.9 9.8 11.4 13.7 14.3 16.8 20.6 24.1 27.9  t=15 min  bar  runup height  t=30 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=45 min  bar  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 235.0 243.8 254.0 257.2 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 39.1 38.7 36.8 34.3 32.7 32.1 29.5 25.7 22.2 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 146.1 137.2 127.0 123.8 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 7.3 7.6 9.5 12.1 13.7 14.3 16.8 20.6 24.1 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 235.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 280.7 280.7 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 38.7 36.5 35.6 34.6 32.7 30.5 28.3 26.7 25.7 22.2 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 145.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 100.3 100.3 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 7.6 9.8 10.8 11.7 13.7 15.9 18.1 19.7 20.6 24.1 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.1 243.8 254.0 264.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 39.1 36.8 35.6 34.6 33.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.9 137.2 127.0 116.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 7.3 9.5 10.8 11.7 13.3  step bottom step top  t=60 min  bar  step bottom step top  t=90 min  bar  ridge step bottom step top  274.3 282.9 282.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  30.8 28.6 26.4 26.0 22.2 18.4  106.7 98.1 98.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  15.6 17.8 20.0 20.3 24.1 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.1 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 282.9 282.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 39.1 37.1 35.6 34.6 33.0 30.5 27.9 26.0 25.7 22.2 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.9 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 98.1 98.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 7.3 9.2 10.8 11.7 13.3 15.9 18.4 20.3 20.6 24.1 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 281.9 282.9 282.9 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 39.4 36.5 35.6 34.3 32.7 31.1 27.6 27.9 26.0 25.4 22.2 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 99.1 98.1 98.1 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 7.0 9.8 10.8 12.1 13.7 15.2 18.7 18.4 20.3 21.0 24.1 27.9  t=120 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 240.0 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 282.9 282.9 283.8 283.8 284.5 294.6 304.8  bar  ridge bottom ridge top step bottom step top  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 39.4 36.2 35.6 34.3 32.7 30.8 28.6 27.9 27.9 26.4 25.4 22.2 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.0 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 98.1 98.1 97.2 97.2 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 7.0 10.2 10.8 12.1 13.7 15.6 17.8 18.4 18.4 20.0 21.0 24.1 27.6  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # S2F3 -OBSERVATIONS - June 7/93 2:45 PM  -test starts -Hoi=19 mm (started at 25 mm, then 22 mm, then 19 mm over 2 minutes)  2:48 PM  -water level is below weir  2:52 PM  -water level seems low—down to approx. 10 cm, hose flow increased  3:00 PM  -somewhat coarser material at bar—contaminants  3:04 PM  -water depth approx. 12 cm, hose flow increased again  3:05 PM  -bar and runup height seem to be moving up beach  3:07 PM  -Ho=19 mm; d=14.0 cm  3:09 PM  -runup is back to initial height  3:15 PM  -larger material is being covered by seaward edge of bar  196  3:25 PM  -d= 14.9 cm  3:28 PM  -T = 10/10 = 1 second  3:30 PM  -crack in sand 7.5 cm behind step on right side of flume  3:38 PM  -some larger particles at base of step -small plunging breakers  3:45 PM  -crack on step appears to be widening, is 50 cm in length  3:55 PM  -T= 11/10= 1.1 seconds  4:11 PM  -step is slightly undercut, but runup no longer reaches it; instead, a small ridge formed just seaward of step  4:42 PM  -ridge is still being built up -except for a couple stones, beach surface is uniform sand -H f=25 mm; df=14.9 cm 0  4:55 PM  -test stopped  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  S2F4 July 6/93  26.4 15.6 2 4  14.9  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  Fine 38 1.1  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) x (cm)* y (cm)* 46.4 177.8 0.0 46.4 167.6 0.0 42.5 157.5 3.8 6.4 40.0 147.3 137.2 37.5 8.9 11.4 34.9 127.0 31.4 116.8 14.9 28.6 106.7 17.8 25.1 96.5 21.3 21.9 86.4 24.4 19.1 76.2 27.3  t=5 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.3 230.2 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 286.1 286.1 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.6 39.1 38.1 37.8 36.2 35.6 34.0 31.4 28.9 29.8 26.0 22.2 19.1  bar waves break at  step bottom step top  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 152.7 150.8 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.9 94.9 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 4.8 7.3 8.3 8.6 10.2 10.8 12.4 14.9 17.5 16.5 20.3 24.1 27.3  t=15 niin  bar  step bottom step top  t=30 min  bar waves break at  trough  step bottom step top (no undercut)  t=45 min  bar waves break at  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 222.3 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 287.0 287.0 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.6 40.3 37.1 36.2 36.2 34.9 32.4 30.2 29.8 25.4 21.9 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 158.8 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.0 94.0 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 4.8 6.0 9.2 10.2 10.2 11.4 14.0 16.2 16.5 21.0 24.4 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 221.9 223.5 225.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 255.9 264.2 274.3 284.5 286.7 286.7 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 39.1 39.1 38.4 37.1 36.5 37.1 37.5 34.3 32.7 29.8 29.2 24.8 22.2 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 159.1 157.5 155.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 125.1 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.3 94.3 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 1.9 7.3 7.3 7.9 9.2 9.8 9.2 8.9 12.1 13.7 16.5 17.1 21.6 24.1 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 221.3 223.5 224.5  Y(cm) 46.4 43.5 39.4 38.4 38.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 159.7 157.5 156.5  y(cm) 0.0 2.9 7.0 7.9 7.9  trough  step bottom step top  t=60 min end of beach bar waves break at  trough  step bottom step top  t=90 min end of beach bar waves break at  233.7 243.8 254.0 255.6 264.2 274.3 284.5 288.3 288.3 294.6 304.8  36.8 36.5 36.8 36.8 34.9 32.7 30.2 29.2 24.1 22.2 19.1  147.3 137.2 127.0 125.4 116.8 106.7 96.5 92.7 92.7 86.4 76.2  9.5 9.8 9.5 9.5 11.4 13.7 16.2 17.1 22.2 24.1 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 209.6 213.4 220.0 223.5 224.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 258.8 264.2 274.3 284.5 288.3 288.3 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.5 39.4 38.1 38.1 36.8 36.2 36.5 37.1 34.9 32.7 30.2 29.2 23.5 22.2 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 171.5 167.6 161.0 157.5 156.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 122.2 116.8 106.7 96.5 92.7 92.7 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 2.9 7.0 8.3 8.3 9.5 10.2 9.8 9.2 11.4 13.7 16.2 17.1 22.9 24.1 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 208.0 213.4 218.8 221.9 223.5 233.7 243.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.2 38.7 38.1 37.8 36.5 36.8  x (cm) 177.8 173.0 167.6 162.2 159.1 157.5 147.3 137.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 4.1 7.6 8.3 8.6 9.8 9.5  trough 2 trough 1  step bottom step top beginning of slough  t=120 min end of beach bar waves break at  trough 2 trough 1  step bottom step top  247.7 254.0 257.2 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 289.6 294.6 304.8  37.5 36.8 36.8 35.2 32.7 30.5 29.8 25.7 22.9 18.7  133.4 127.0 123.8 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 91.4 86.4 76.2  8.9 9.5 9.5 11.1 13.7 15.9 16.5 20.6 23.5 27.6  X(cm) 203.2 206.7 213.4 218.4 218.8 223.5 233.7 243.8 248.9 254.0 258.8 264.2 274.3 284.5 291.8 291.8 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.3 39.1 38.7 37.8 36.5 37.5 38.1 36.8 36.2 35.6 33.0 30.5 28.9 25.4 23.2 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 174.3 167.6 162.6 162.2 157.5 147.3 137.2 132.1 127.0 122.2 116.8 106.7 96.5 89.2 89.2 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 5.1 7.3 7.6 8.6 9.8 8.9 8.3 9.5 10.2 10.8 13.3 15.9 17.5 21.0 23.2 27.6  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test # S2F4 - OBSERVATIONS - July 6/93 1:13 PM  -test starts -Hmin=3.5 cm; Hmax=4 cm -water foamed up at runup level  1:27 PM  -step is being undercut -surface of bed oscillating from end of beach to step  201  1:43 PM  -step is perpendicular to wave approach, no undercut -bottom of trough is lined with larger sediment contaminants  1:50 PM  -water level seems ok  1:54 PM  -H  m m  = 35 mm; H  m a x  = 46 mm  (note: plunging breakers defined here as when a pocket of air is visible in the breaking wave) 1:58 PM  -step sloughing off  2:09 PM  -most of sloughed material has been eroded away -trough still exists with coarser grains inside and also seaward of trough for approx. 7.5 cm  2:16 PM  -sloughed material all gone  2:25 PM  -T=(l.ll + 1.12 + 1.11) / 3 = 1.11 seconds -trough is moving offshore  2:30 PM  -H  2:37 PM  -coarse grains have split to form two small troughs  2:43 PM  -major sloughing of step as far back as 7.5 cmfromedge  2:53 PM  -troughs have flattened out -top layer of step has sloughed down step; approx. 7.5 cm wide, 6 mm deep at the end of slough -patch of coarse grains where troughs were and at bottom of step  3:12 PM  -all sloughed material removed by wave action  3:22 PM  - H j = 35 mm; H  m m  m  = 32 mm; H  n  -df = 14.9 cm 3:28 PM  -end of test  m a x  m a x  = 50 mm  = 52 mm  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  S2M1 May 3/93  26.4 15.2 3 2.2  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  50/50 mix 64; 38 1.8  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 40.6 37.5 34.9 31.8 28.3 25.1 23.2 18.7  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 3.5 5.7 8.9 11.4 14.6 18.1 21.3 23.2 27.6  t=5 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 300.4 300.4 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 36.8 35.9 34.9 34.3 32.7 30.5 28.6 25.4 23.5 20.0 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 80.6 80.6 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 9.5 10.5 11.4 12.1 13.7 15.9 17.8 21.0 22.9 26.4 27.6  base of bar berm  step bottom step top  t=15 min  break in slope bar  gravel to sand  berm & s/g  t=30 min  bar waves break at  gravel to sand  berm & s/g berm top  t=45 min  bar  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.9 233.7 243.8 254.0 259.1 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 299.7 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 37.8 36.2 34.9 34.3 34.0 33.0 30.8 28.6 25.1 24.1 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.1 147.3 137.2 127.0 121.9 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 81.3 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.5 8.6 10.2 11.4 12.1 12.4 13.3 15.6 17.8 21.3 22.2 27.6  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 230.5 233.7 239.7 243.8 254.0 258.8 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 300.7 300.7 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 40.6 37.5 36.5 35.9 34.9 34.3 34.0 33.0 31.1 28.6 26.0 24.8 20.3 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 150.5 147.3 141.3 137.2 127.0 122.2 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 80.3 80.3 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.6 5.7 8.9 9.8 10.5 11.4 12.1 12.4 13.3 15.2 17.8 20.3 21.6 26.0 27.6  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.9 233.7  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 40.3 37.5 36.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.1 147.3  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 6.0 8.9 9.8  waves break at  sand to gravel  step bottom step top  t=60 min  bar waves break at  sand to gravel  step bottom step top  t=90 min  bar  waves break at sand to gravel  240.3 243.8 254.0 260.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.6 301.6 304.8  35.6 34.6 34.0 33.3 33.0 31.4 29.2 26.4 24.1 20.6 19.7  140.7 137.2 127.0 121.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 79.4 79.4 76.2  10.8 11.7 12.4 13.0 13.3 14.9 17.1 20.0 22.2 25.7 26.7  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.2 233.7 240.0 243.8 254.0 258.1 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 302.3 302.3 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.3 37.8 36.8 35.6 34.9 34.0 33.7 33.0 31.4 28.9 25.7 24.1 20.6 19.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.8 147.3 141.0 137.2 127.0 122.9 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 78.7 78.7 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 5.1 8.6 9.5 10.8 11.4 12.4 12.7 13.3 14.9 17.5 20.6 22.2 25.7 27.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.6 233.7 243.8 254.0 255.9 259.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.3 37.8 36.8 35.2 34.3 34.9 34.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 152.4 147.3 137.2 127.0 125.1 121.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 5.1 8.6 9.5 11.1 12.1 11.4 12.4  step bottom step top  t=120 min  bar  waves break at sand to gravel  gravel ends at step bottom step top  264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 302.3 302.3 304.8  33.3 31.4 28.9 26.4 23.5 21.3 19.7  116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 78.7 78.7 76.2  13.0 14.9 17.5 20.0 22.9 25.1 26.7  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.6 233.7 243.8 254.0 262.9 264.2 274.3 284.5 292.1 294.6 301.9 301.9 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.0 37.5 36.2 35.2 34.6 33.3 33.0 31.8 28.9 27.0 26.0 23.5 21.3 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.4 147.3 137.2 127.0 118.1 116.8 106.7 96.5 88.9 86.4 79.1 79.1 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 5.4 8.9 10.2 11.1 11.7 13.0 13.3 14.6 17.5 19.4 20.3 22.9 25.1 27.6  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test S2M1 - OBSERVATIONS - May 3/93 2:00 PM  -test starts  2:04 PM  -entire swash zone covered with sand -offshore bar begins to form  2:12 PM  -ends of swash zone are gravel covered, while the swash zone is covered with sand  2:22 PM  breaker  2:43 PM  -gravel throughout swash zone, but only speckled  206  between berm and transition from sand to gravel 3:08 PM  -swash zone covered with gravel, and is extending towards beach -waves still plunging, but seem smaller -between wave crests, return flow holds back incoming flow at bar  3:15 PM  -berm is not eroding perpendicular to beach, (eroded further on right side than left)  3:37 PM  -breaking waves are significantly smaller  3:51 PM  -appears some sand has moved offshorefrombar and formed a series of 3 ripples, extends approximately 23 cm from bottom of bar  4:00 PM 4:09 PM  -runup does not go to berm (less 2.5 - 5 cm) -test ends  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  S2M2 May 6/93  26.4 15.6 3 3.25  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  50/50 mix 76; 64 1.2  t=0 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 39.4 37.1 34.9 32.1 28.9 24.8 22.2 18.7  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 3.8 7.0 9.2 11.4 14.3 17.5 21.6 24.1 27.6  t=5 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.6 233.0 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 296.9 296.9 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 43.2 39.7 38.1 37.5 37.5 36.5 35.6 33.7 31.4 28.6 26.4 26.0 21.0 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.4 148.0 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 84.1 84.1 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 3.2 6.7 8.3 8.9 8.9 9.8 10.8 12.7 14.9 17.8 20.0 20.3 25.4 27.6  bar waves breaking at  step bottom step top  t=15 min  bar waves break at gravel to sand  step bottom step top  t=30 min  bar gravel to sand waves break at  step  t=45 min bar gravel to sand  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.2 223.5 231.8 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.5 297.5 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 43.8 39.1 39.1 37.8 37.5 36.2 35.6 34.0 31.8 29.2 26.7 25.7 22.2 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.8 157.5 149.2 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.5 83.5 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 2.5 7.3 7.3 8.6 8.9 10.2 10.8 12.4 14.6 17.1 19.7 20.6 24.1 27.6  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 218.8 223.5 232.7 233.0 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 300.4 300.4 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 42.2 40.6 38.4 37.5 37.5 37.1 36.2 35.2 34.0 32.1 29.5 26.7 24.8 19.1 18.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 162.2 157.5 148.3 148.0 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 80.6 80.6 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 4.1 5.7 7.9 8.9 8.9 9.2 10.2 11.1 12.4 14.3 16.8 19.7 21.6 27.3 27.6  X(cm) 203.2 209.9 213.4 215.6  Y(cm) 46.4 41.9 40.6 40.6  x (cm) 177.8 171.1 167.6 165.4  y(cm) 0.0 4.4 5.7 5.7  waves break at  step bottom step top  t=60 min  waves break at gravel~>sand bar  step bottom step top  t=90 min  gravel to sand waves break at bar  223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 303.2 303.2 304.8  38.4 36.2 35.9 35.2 34.0 32.7 30.5 28.6 26.4 19.1 18.7  157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 77.8 77.8 76.2  7.9 10.2 10.5 11.1 12.4 13.7 15.9 17.8 20.0 27.3 27.6  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 225.4 226.4 233.7 235.9 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.6 301.6 304.8  Y(cm) 45.7 41.0 38.1 38.4 39.1 36.8 36.5 35.9 35.2 34.0 32.4 30.8 28.6 26.4 18.7 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 155.6 154.6 147.3 145.1 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 79.4 79.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.6 5.4 8.3 7.9 7.3 9.5 9.8 10.5 11.1 12.4 14.0 15.6 17.8 20.0 27.6 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 214.0 219.7 221.6 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0  Y(cm) 45.1 40.6 40.3 39.4 38.4 38.1 36.5 35.9 35.2  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 167.0 161.3 159.4 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0  y(cm) 1.3 5.7 6.0 7.0 7.9 8.3 9.8 10.5 11.1  step (undercut another 13 mm)  t=120 min  gravel to sand waves break at bar gravel & sand mix scour trough  gravel & sand mix  step bottom step top *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.6 301.6 304.8  34.3 32.7 31.1 28.6 27.3 19.1 18.4  116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 79.4 79.4 76.2  12.1 13.7 15.2 17.8 19.1 27.3 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 215.6 223.5 226.4 231.5 233.7 234.6 241.9 243.8 254.0 255.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 304.8  Y(cm) 44.8 40.3 40.3 37.8 38.4 36.8 36.5 36.8 37.5 37.1 35.2 35.6 34.3 32.7 30.8 28.6 25.4 18.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 165.4 157.5 154.6 149.5 147.3 146.4 139.1 137.2 127.0 126.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 76.2  y(cm) 1.6 6.0 6.0 8.6 7.9 9.5 9.8 9.5 8.9 9.2 11.1 10.8 12.1 13.7 15.6 17.8 21.0 28.3  Test S2M2 - OBSERVATIONS - May 6/93 2:00 PM  -test starts -waves are starting to break coming off the paddle  2:05 PM  -offshore side of bar is gravel -swash zone is mainly sand (finished taking PM readings at PM)  2:15 PM  -every other wave is stronger than one between  2:23 PM  -timing between waves, lesser one to greater one smaller  211  than vice versa, i.e. ls vs. 2s 2:28 PM  -every other wave coming off paddle is larger; larger ones are starting to break, smaller ones at break point but don't break"  2:37 PM  -step is sloughing off (slowly)  2:43 PM  -runup reaches bottom of step for larger waves, but not for smaller ones  2:45 PM  -sand covers former bar area  2:53 PM  -waves appear to become more alike; smaller difference in runup lengths -some gravel below breaking wave turbulence and offshore side of'bar'; rest is sand  2:58 PM  3:17 PM  -waves have returned to every second waves breaking coming off paddle and odd ones not -most runups do not reach step bottom (say about 2 out of 10 do)  3:21 PM  -breakers coming off paddle are spilling breakers, disappear before reaching beach; breakers on beach are plunging  3:40 PM  -gravel still mixed with sand over breaking length; sand only to either side  3:54 PM  -waves coming off paddle approximately the same (no breaking)  3:55 PM  -Hf=64mm  4:12 PM  -end of test  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed  S2M3 May 8/93  26.4 15.6 1 4  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  50/50 mix 29; 25 1.1  t=0 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.2 39.1 37.1 34.3 31.8 28.3 25.4 22.5 19.4  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.6 4.1 7.3 9.2 12.1 14.6 18.1 21.0 23.8 27.0  t=5 min  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.2 243.8 250.2 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.2 39.4 34.9 34.6 34.3 33.7 32.4 30.5 25.7 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.8 137.2 130.8 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.6 4.1 7.0 11.4 11.7 12.1 12.7 14.0 15.9 20.6 23.8 27.0  bar waves break at  t=15 min  bar gravel to sand  t=30 min  bar waves break at gravel to sand  t=45 min  bar waves break at gravel to sand  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 244.2 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.5 39.4 34.9 35.2 33.7 32.4 30.2 25.7 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 136.8 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 3.8 7.0 11.4 11.1 12.7 14.0 16.2 20.6 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 240.0 243.8 250.2 251.5 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 39.7 36.5 35.2 34.6 34.6 34.3 32.7 30.5 26.7 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.0 137.2 130.8 129.5 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 6.7 9.8 11.1 11.7 11.7 12.1 13.7 15.9 19.7 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.1 243.8 248.0 249.2 254.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 39.4 36.5 35.2 35.2 34.9 34.3  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.9 137.2 133.0 131.8 127.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 7.0 9.8 11.1 11.1 11.4 12.1  step bottom step top  t=60 min  bar waves break at gravel to sand  step bottom step top  t=90 min  bar waves break at gravel to sand  step bottom step top  264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  32.7 30.5 27.9 26.4 22.5 19.4  116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  13.7 15.9 18.4 20.0 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 237.2 243.8 245.4 248.6 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 39.4 37.5 35.2 35.2 34.9 34.3 32.7 30.5 27.6 25.7 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 143.8 137.2 135.6 132.4 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 7.0 8.9 11.1 11.1 11.4 12.1 13.7 15.9 18.7 20.6 23.8 27.0  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.1 243.8 248.6 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 39.4 35.9 35.2 34.9 34.3 32.4 30.2 28.6 26.0 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.9 137.2 132.4 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.5 7.0 10.5 11.1 11.4 12.1 14.0 16.2 17.8 20.3 23.8 27.0  t=120 min  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 238.8 243.8 245.4 249.9 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 284.5 294.6 304.8  bar waves break at gravel to sand  step bottom step top  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.2 39.4 36.2 34.9 34.9 34.9 34.3 32.4 30.5 27.9 25.7 22.5 19.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 142.2 137.2 135.6 131.1 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 4.1 7.0 10.2 11.4 11.4 11.4 12.1 14.0 15.9 18.4 20.6 23.8 27.0  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test S2M3 - OBSERVATIONS - May 8/93 3:00 PM  -test starts -H j = 29 mm 0  3:13 PM  -material under bar and breaking waves is gravel (armour?), while swash zone is mostly sand -no step apparent  3:25 PM  -breaking type-plunging  3:55 PM  -breaking waves appear to be stronger, more turbulent than previously  5:00 PM  -T= 11/10 = 1.1 seconds - H f = 25 mm 0  -depth of sand in swash zone approx. 12 mm -depth of gravel on bar approx. 25 mm -very small step -length from end of step to transition between gravel to sand approx. 36 cm -end of test  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min  SWL  t=5 min  gravel to sand (on) waves break at/bar  step bottom step top  S2M4 May 13/93  26.4 15.6 2 4  Bed H(mm) T (sec)  50/50 mix 57; 44 1.2  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 40.3 37.8 34.6 31.4 28.6 25.1 21.9 18.4  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 3.5 6.0 8.6 11.7 14.9 17.8 21.3 24.4 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 219.1 223.5 223.8 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.6 40.6 39.1 38.1 36.2 35.6 33.7 31.4 27.0 26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 161.9 157.5 157.2 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 5.7 5.7 7.3 8.3 10.2 10.8 12.7 14.9 19.4 20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  t=15 min  gravel to sand (on)  sand to gravel (on) waves break at gravel to sand (on)  sand to gravel (on) small sand ridge step (water does not run up that far)  t=30 min  gravel sand to gravel (off) sand gravel to sand (off) waves break at gravel sand to gravel (off) sand sand gravel to sand (off) gravel ridge (s-->g)  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 220.0 223.5 233.7 239.1 241.9 243.8 252.4 254.0 264.2 267.3 274.3 275.3 284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.0 40.6 38.1 37.1 39.4 36.5 36.2 35.6 33.7 33.0 31.1 31.1 27.3 26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 161.0 157.5 147.3 141.9 139.1 137.2 128.6 127.0 116.8 113.7 106.7 105.7 96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 6.4 5.7 8.3 9.2 7.0 9.8 10.2 10.8 12.7 13.3 15.2 15.2 19.1 20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 225.7 233.7 239.7 240.3 243.8 250.5 254.0 264.2 267.3 274.3 277.8 284.5  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.6 39.7 37.8 37.1 38.4 36.5 36.2 35.6 33.7 32.7 31.1 29.8 27.3  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 155.3 147.3 141.3 140.7 137.2 130.5 127.0 116.8 113.7 106.7 103.2 96.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 5.7 6.7 8.6 9.2 7.9 9.8 10.2 10.8 12.7 13.7 15.2 16.5 19.1  step (water does not run up that far)  t=45 min end of beach gravel sand to gravel (off) waves break at gravel to sand (off) gravel sand sand to gravel (off) sand s&g—>sand (off) sand & gravel sand ridge step (water does not run up that far)  t=60 min end of beach gravel sand to gravel (off) waves break at sand gravel to sand (off) gravel sand to gravel (off) sand sand s&g~> sand (off) sand & gravel sand ridge  286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 227.0 229.9 233.7 243.8 254.0 255.9 264.2 268.9 274.3 278.8 284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.3 39.4 38.7 37.5 36.5 35.9 36.5 34.0 32.4 31.1 29.5 27.3 26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 154.0 151.1 147.3 137.2 127.0 125.1 116.8 112.1 106.7 102.2 96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 6.0 7.0 7.6 8.9 9.8 10.5 9.8 12.4 14.0 15.2 16.8 19.1 20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 227.3 229.2 233.7 235.9 243.8 250.5 254.0 264.2 267.7 274.3 277.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.0 39.1 38.7 38.1 37.5 37.1 36.2 36.2 34.0 32.7 31.1 29.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 153.7 151.8 147.3 145.1 137.2 130.5 127.0 116.8 113.3 106.7 103.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 6.4 7.3 7.6 8.3 8.9 9.2 10.2 10.2 12.4 13.7 15.2 16.8  step (water does not run up that far)  t=90 min end of beach gravel sand to gravel (off) waves break at sand s&g~>sand (off) sand & gravel sand~>s&g (off) sand sand s&g—>sand (off) sand & gravel sand ridge step (water does not run up that far)  t=120 min end of beach gravel sand to gravel (off) waves break at s&g—>s (off, fuzzy) sand & gravel s~>s&g (off, fuzzy) sand sand s&g~>sand (off) sand & gravel  284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  27.3 26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  19.1 20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 227.3 230.8 233.7 240.3 243.8 248.0 254.0 264.2 270.5 274.3 278.4 284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.3 39.1 38.7 38.1 37.1 37.1 37.1 36.2 33.7 32.4 31.1 29.5 27.3 26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 153.7 150.2 147.3 140.7 137.2 133.0 127.0 116.8 110.5 106.7 102.6 96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 6.0 7.3 7.6 8.3 9.2 9.2 9.2 10.2 12.7 14.0 15.2 16.8 19.1 20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.6 232.1 233.7 243.8 249.6 254.0 264.2 268.9 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.3 39.1 38.1 37.8 37.1 37.5 36.2 34.0 32.4 31.4  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 152.4 148.9 147.3 137.2 131.4 127.0 116.8 112.1 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 6.0 7.3 8.3 8.6 9.2 8.9 10.2 12.4 14.0 14.9  sand ridge step (water does not run up that far)  279.4 284.5 286.4 286.4 294.6 304.8  29.2 27.3 26.4 23.8 21.9 18.4  101.6 96.5 94.6 94.6 86.4 76.2  17.1 19.1 20.0 22.5 24.4 27.9  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  Test S2M4 - OBSERVATIONS - May 13/93 1:45 PM  -test starts -H j = 57 mm 0  1:48 PM  -boundary between sand and gravel developed under point of wave breaking  2:00 PM  -water does not run up as far as the step -small sandridgeis forming seaward of step  2:10 PM  -waves start breaking on sand bed, then most turbulent on short -gravel is moved down bar (offshore side) -sand travels onshore/offshore under waves, i.e. onshore with gravel bed  2:14 PM  -runup ends at smallridge,area belowridgeis gravel, then changes to sand in swash zone, breaking waves -breaking zone: gravel, sand, gravel  2:28 PM  -offshore side of bar composed only of gravel (at least on the surface)  2:38 PM  -gravel is carried to offshore side of bar -ridge height approx. 1 cm  2:41 PM  -breaker type is plunging -no reflection effects visible; waves are even, regular  3:05 PM 3:43 PM  -T = 12/10 = 1.2 seconds - H = 44 mm  3:55 PM  -test ends  o f  Run No. Date  S3M1 A p r i l 16/94  Weir Height (cm)  26.4  Bed  Water Depth (cm)  14.6  H(mm)  Hf=25 m m  1  T (sec)  1.2  Paddle Setting Motor Speed  t=0 min end o f beach  SWL  t=5 min end o f beach  waves breaking  runup height  3C:1F  3.25  X(cm)  Y(cm)  x (cm)*  y (cm)*  203.2  46.4  177.8  0.0  210.5  46.4  170.5  0.0  213.4  167.6  0.6  223.5  45.7 42.9  157.5  3.5  233.7  40.6  147.3  5.7  243.8  37.8  137.2  8.6  254.0  34.3  127.0  12.1  261.6  31.8  119.4  14.6  264.2  31.8  14.6  274.3  28.3  116.8 106.7  18.1  284.5  26.0  96.5  20.3  294.6  22.2  86.4  24.1  304.8  19.7  76.2  26.7  315.0  17.1  66.0  29.2  X(cm)  Y(cm)  x (cm)  y(cm)  203.2  46.4  177.8  0.0  213.4  46.4  167.6  0.0  223.5  43.2  157.5  3.2  233.7  40.6  147.3  5.7  243.8  35.9  137.2  10.5  254.0  35.2  127.0  11.1  264.2  33.3  116.8  13.0  270.5  31.1  110.5  15.2  274.3  29.8  106.7  16.5  284.5  26.0  96.5  20.3  294.6  22.2  86.4  24.1  304.8  19.7  76.2  26.7  315.0  17.1  66.0  29.2  t=15 min end of beach  bar  runup ht/ sand strip  t=30 min end of beach  waves breaking/ bar  runup height  t=45 min end of beach  waves breaking  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 271.5 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 41.3 35.9 35.6 33.0 30.5 29.5 26.0 22.2 19.7 17.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 109.5 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 5.1 10.5 10.8 13.3 15.9 16.8 20.3 24.1 26.7 29.2  X(cm) 203.2 212.4 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.6 35.9 34.9 33.0 29.8 26.0 22.2 19.7 17.1  x (cm) 177.8 168.6 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 5.7 10.5 11.4 13.3 16.5 20.3 24.1 26.7 29.2  X(cm) 203.2 212.7 213.4 223.5 233.7 242.6 243.8 254.0 264.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.6 36.8 36.2 35.2 33.3  x (cm) 177.8 168.3 167.6 157.5 147.3 138.4 137.2 127.0 116.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 5.7 9.5 10.2 11.1 13.0  runup height  t=60 min edge of beach  offshore edge of bar breaking wave/ bar onshore edge of bar  runup height  t=90 min  edge of beach  offshore edge of bar waves breaking/ bar onshore edge of bar  runup height  274.3 276.5 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  29.8 28.6 26.0 22.2 19.7 17.1  106.7 104.5 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  16.5 17.8 20.3 24.1 26.7 29.2  X(cm) 203.2 210.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 239.1 243.5 243.8 249.6 254.0 264.2 274.3 277.2 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 42.9 41.0 39.4 36.5 35.6 35.9 35.6 33.7 29.5 28.6 26.0 22.2 19.7 17.1  x (cm) 177.8 170.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.9 137.5 137.2 131.4 127.0 116.8 106.7 103.8 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.5 5.4 7.0 9.8 10.8 10.5 10.8 12.7 16.8 17.8 20.3 24.1 26.7 29.2  X(cm) 203.2 212.7 213.4 223.5 233.7 236.2 243.2 243.8 250.8 254.0 264.2 274.3  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.4 42.9 41.0 40.3 36.2 36.5 35.2 35.2 33.7 29.5  x (cm) 177.8 168.3 167.6 157.5 147.3 144.8 137.8 137.2 130.2 127.0 116.8 106.7  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 5.4 6.0 10.2 9.8 11.1 11.1 12.7 16.8  t=120 min end of beach  offshore edge of bar centre of bar onshore edge of bar  runup height  284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  26.0 22.2 19.7 17.1  96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  20.3 24.1 26.7 29.2  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 236.2 243.2 243.8 250.5 254.0 264.2 272.7 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 41.3 40.0 36.8 36.5 35.9 35.2 33.7 30.2 29.5 26.0 22.2 19.7 17.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 144.8 137.8 137.2 130.5 127.0 116.8 108.3 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.5 5.1 6.4 9.5 9.8 10.5 11.1 12.7 16.2 16.8 20.3 24.1 26.7 29.2  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test S3M1—OBSERVATIONS - April 16/94 0:00 min  -test starts  1 min  -silty material released from beach is moving seaward in a plume  3 min  -some gravel is tossing back and forth, no real breaking wave is seen  4 min  -small bar is forming  12 min  -sand only at top of runup; also gravel congregating into a bar below breaking wave  14 min  -appears the gravel in the swash zone is moving onshore  to runup zone or offshore to bar -greater amount of sand in centre of swash zone 25 min  -gravel has been pushed onshore and is encroaching the sand at the edge of the runup zone  28 min  -gravel has covered zone of sand at runup height  42 min  -no gravel is moving offshore of bar but pebbles are being tossed back and forth in swash zone)  54 min  -gravel has separated into two groups: one at edge of runup, one under breaking waves  1 h 52 min  -air bubbles are being released offshore of bar. there are some bubbles located on entire shore. Is it 02 being released from water as it warms up? (filled flume with cold water) Bubbles are forming all along flume, -waves do not break totally, or is it just the rundown holding back the incoming wave?)  2 h 6 min  -test stopped  End notes: -gravel depth on bar is 2 to 3 grain diameters -in middle of swash zone, gravel depth is 1 grain diameter -at top of runup height gravel only for 2.5 cm -below gravel, mix does not appear to be touched  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  SWL  t=5 min end of beach bar waves breaking  bottom of step  S3M2 May 1/94  26.4 15.2 2 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  3C:1F 60; 48 1.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 268.3 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 40.0 37.5 35.2 32.4 30.8 29.2 25.7 22.5 20.0 17.5  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 112.7 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 3.5 6.4 8.9 11.1 14.0 15.6 17.1 20.6 23.8 26.4 28.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.8 233.7 239.4 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 37.8 37.5 36.2 35.6 34.6 33.7 31.8 29.8 27.3  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.2 147.3 141.6 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.5 8.6 8.9 10.2 10.8 11.7 12.7 14.6 16.5 19.1  top of step  t=15 min end of beach bar waves breaking  bottom of step top of step  t=30 min edge of beach  waves breaking/bar  sand ends  sand starts bottom of step top of step  289.2 294.6 304.8 315.0  22.5 22.5 20.0 17.5  91.8 86.4 76.2 66.0  23.8 23.8 26.4 28.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.9 233.7 237.5 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 291.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 37.8 37.5 36.5 35.6 34.3 33.7 31.8 30.2 27.3 22.9 20.0 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 152.1 147.3 143.5 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 89.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 8.6 8.9 9.8 10.8 12.1 12.7 14.6 16.2 19.1 23.5 26.4 28.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.6 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 267.7 274.3 284.5 287.7 294.6 295.9 298.1 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.0 37.8 36.8 35.2 34.3 34.0 33.0 31.8 29.8 28.9 27.0 27.0 22.2 20.0 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.4 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 113.3 106.7 96.5 93.3 86.4 85.1 82.9 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 5.4 8.6 9.5 11.1 12.1 12.4 13.3 14.6 16.5 17.5 19.4 19.4 24.1 26.4 28.9  t=45 min  bar waves breaking  sand ends  sand starts bottom of step top of step  t=60 min end of beach waves breaking bar  end of sand  sand starts bottom of step top of step  t=90 min end of beach  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.9 232.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 290.2 294.6 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.0 37.8 37.1 36.8 35.2 34.3 34.3 31.8 29.8 28.9 26.4 22.5 20.0 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.1 148.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 90.8 86.4 86.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 5.4 8.6 9.2 9.5 11.1 12.1 12.1 14.6 16.5 17.5 20.0 23.8 26.4 28.9  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.1 231.8 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.9 294.6 297.2 297.2 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.0 37.5 37.5 37.1 35.2 34.3 34.0 31.8 29.8 28.6 27.0 26.7 21.6 20.0 17.5  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.9 149.2 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.1 86.4 83.8 83.8 76.2 66.0  y (cm) 0.0 0.3 5.4 8.9 8.9 9.2 11.1 12.1 12.4 14.6 16.5 17.8 19.4 19.7 24.8 26.4 28.9  X(cm) 203.2 210.8 213.4  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0  x (cm) 177.8 170.2 167.6  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3  40.0  157.5  6.4  bar  223.5 228.9  38.7  152.1  7.6  waves breaking  231.1  37.5  149.9  8.9  233.7 243.8  36.8 35.2  147.3 137.2  9.5 11.1  254.0  • 34.3  127.0  12.1  sand ends  264.2 266.4 274.3  33.7 33.7 31.8  116.8 114.6 106.7  12.7 12.7 14.6  sand starts  284.5 289.9 294.6  29.8 28.6 27.6  96.5 91.1 86.4  16.5 17.8 18.7  bottom o f step top o f step  296.9 296.9  26.7 22.2  84.1 84.1  19.7 24.1  304.8  20.0 17.5  76.2  26.4  315.0  66.0  28.9  X(cm)  Y(cm)  x (cm)  y(cm)  203.2  46.4 46.4  177.8 172.7  0.0 0.0  46.0 40.0  167.6 157.5 148.3  0.3 6.4 9.2  147.3 137.2  9.5 11.1  t=120 min end o f beach  waves breaking  208.3 213.4 223.5 232.7 233.7 243.8  37.1 36.8 35.2  254.0 264.2  34.3  127.0 116.8  12.1  34.0  266.1  34.0  114.9  12.4  274.3  31.8  106.7  14.6  29.8  96.5  16.5  sand starts  284.5 290.2  29.2  90.8  27.6  86.4  bottom o f step  294.6 298.1  17.1 18.7  26.7  82.9  top o f step  298.1  21.6  304.8  20.0 17.5  82.9 76.2  sand ends  315.0 *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  66.0  12.4  19.7 24.8 26.4 28.9  Test S3M2 - OBSERVATIONS - May 1/94 0:00 min  -test starts  0:30 min  -small amount of silty material escapes from beach and moves as a cloud offshore  1:12 min  -small gravel bar starting to form  3:30 min  -measured H j = 60 mm 0  -gravel is visibly thrown around by the waves 21 min  -gravel has collected at base of step, and on bar and its onshore approach -sand is visible at approximately 18 to 20 cm from base of step (approximately 7.5 cm wide strip of mostly sand) -step is collapsing as it is attacked by the waves -most of the gravel is being moved offshore  27 min  -sand appears to be flowing only down slope. Incoming waves do not seem to visibly move sand onshore; however, gravel is carried onshore at this point and may be hiding the true onshore/offshore movement of sand -breaking waves capture a lot of air but can't tell the type of breaker  41 min  -sandy zone is getting larger, spreading in both directions -onshore/offshore movement of sand is visible -not a lot of movement of gravel except in sandy zone, also, smaller pieces are being tossed about on the onshore approach of bar -definite segregation of sand and gravel can be seen  68 min  -breaking waves look to be collapsing waves (i.e. the front of the wave is perpendicular to the direction of travel) -incoming waves stop breaking at sandy zone  73 min  -some gravel is being tossed back and forth under breaking waves (aside: the bubbles appeared on the inside walls of the tank again, after about 1 hourfromthe time the flume was filled)  232  84 min  -at the end of the beach, some sand has separated and moved offshore for a distance of about 2.5 cm. -looking at bar from side, it appears to be composed only of gravel to a depth of 6 grain diameters (may be edge effects from the slope form in the flume, and may not exist in centre of beach)  100 min  -sandy portion of beach is packed, i.e. hard to the touch  120 min  -sand is at top of beach while gravel is at bottom (bar) -sandy area is actually only covered with an 3 mm thick layer of sand (at X=274 cm or x=107 cm). Below this is still mixed sand and gravel -gravel on onshore side of bar is 12 mm thick with mixture below -at bar, gravel is 6.7 cm thick at X=234 cm (x=147 cm)  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  SWL  t=5 min  bar waves break  bottom of step top of step  S3M3 940604  26.4 15.2 1 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  3C:1F 32 1.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 39.7 36.8 34.6 30.8 28.6 24.8 21.9 19.1 17.8 13.0  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 3.8 6.7 9.5 11.7 15.6 17.8 21.6 24.4 27.3 28.6 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 242.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 289.2 289.2  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 43.2 41.0 36.2 35.6 34.3 33.0 30.5 27.9 27.3 24.1  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 138.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 91.8 91.8  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 3.2 5.4 10.2 10.8 12.1 13.3 15.9 18.4 19.1 22.2  t=15 min end of beach  bar/waves break  bottom of step top of step  t=30 min end of beach  bar/waves break  bottom of step top of step  294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.5 19.1 17.8 13.0  86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  23.8 27.3 28.6 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 208.9 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.0 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 292.7 292.7 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 42.5 40.6 35.9 35.9 34.6 33.0 30.5 28.3 26.0 23.5 22.2 19.1 17.8 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 172.1 167.6 157.5 147.3 140.0 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 88.3 88.3 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.8 5.7 10.5 10.5 11.7 13.3 15.9 18.1 20.3 22.9 24.1 27.3 28.6 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 209.9 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.0 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.1 293.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.3 35.6 35.2 34.0 33.0 30.5 28.6 26.0 22.9  x (cm) 177.8 171.1 167.6 157.5 147.3 140.0 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.9 87.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 6.0 10.8 11.1 12.4 13.3 15.9 17.8 20.3 23.5  t=45 min end of beach  bar  bottom of step top of step  t=60 min end of beach  bar  bottom of step top of step  294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.5 20.0 16.8 13.7  86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  23.8 26.4 29.5 32.7  X(cm) 203.2 207.3 213.4 223.5 233.7 242.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 292.7 292.7 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.6 35.9 35.2 34.0 32.7 30.5 28.3 26.0 23.2 22.2 19.1 16.5 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 173.7 167.6 157.5 147.3 138.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 88.3 88.3 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 5.7 10.5 11.1 12.4 13.7 15.9 18.1 20.3 23.2 24.1 27.3 29.8 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 209.9 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.3 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.6 35.6 35.2 34.0 32.7 30.8 28.6 26.0 22.9  x (cm) 177.8 171.1 167.6 157.5 147.3 139.7 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 5.7 10.8 11.1 12.4 13.7 15.6 17.8 20.3 23.5  t=90 min end of beach partially exp. base bar/waves break  bottom of step top of step  t=120 min end of beach  bar/waves break  bottom of step top of step  294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.5 19.7 16.2 13.0  86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  23.8 26.7 30.2 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 209.9 213.4 223.5 233.7 241.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.4 293.4 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.6 35.9 35.6 34.0 32.7 30.5 28.3 25.7 22.9 22.5 19.4 16.2 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 171.1 167.6 157.5 147.3 139.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.6 87.6 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 5.7 10.5 10.8 12.4 13.7 15.9 18.1 20.6 23.5 23.8 27.0 30.2 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 209.9 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.2 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 293.1 293.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 46.0 43.2 40.0 35.6 35.2 34.0 32.7 30.2 28.3 26.0 23.2  x (cm) 177.8 171.1 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.8 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 87.9 87.9  y (cm) 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.2 6.4 10.8 11.1 12.4 13.7 16.2 18.1 20.3 23.2  294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.2 19.1 16.5 13.0  86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  24.1 27.3 29.8 33.3  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  Test S3M3 - OBSERVATIONS - June 4/94 0:00  -test starts  0:17  -gravel is congregating to form a bar -silty cloud formed at wave break point and is moving offshore  1:15  -step has formed at end of runup  3 min  -cannot see gravel under waves breaking, covered by sand -tan coloured scum on face of step and along edges of flume  21 min  -some gravel has accumulated at base of step -wave runup is cutting into base of step by ~ 6 mm -a crack has formed behind step; a second crack has also formed; location of cracks appears to be related to the width of the undercut  27 min  -gravel is scattered along offshore side of bar to edge of beach  38 min  -sand has settled on the upper beach approx. 12 mm  40 min  -sand travels back and forth over crest of bar, sometimes dropping off a piece of gravel; however gravel does not travel over crest of bar to return to swash zone.  43 min  -step is collapsing along cracks behind wall of step (see earlier sketch)  44 min  -bar surface on offshore side is pitted, sand is moving back and forth and slight holes form where gravel sits  50 min  -noticed air bubbles have formed along walls of flume in  238  a wave-like pattern, bubbles end just before crest of bar 1:11  -waves are large enough to throw some sand up into the water  1:50  -Ho=32mm -breaking waves of full of air (bubbles) but wave crests are not vertical during breaking, no real wave "surge" like plunging waves.  1:59  -tiny bubbles visible on offshore surface of bar (like those on walls of flume)  2:00  -test ends -T=51.39/40=1.284 seconds  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min  SWL  t=5 min  bar/waves breaking  bottom of step  S3M4 June 28/94  26.4 15.2 2 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  1C:3F 44 1.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 268.9 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 44.5 41.3 38.1 34.9 32.7 31.8 29.5 26.4 22.5 19.1 16.2 13.0  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 112.1 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 1.9 5.1 8.3 11.4 13.7 14.6 16.8 20.0 23.8 27.3 30.2 33.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.0 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 295.9  Y(cm) 46.0 46.4 43.2 39.7 38.1 36.8 35.6 34.0 31.4 29.2 26.0 25.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 153.0 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 85.1  y(cm) 0.3 0.0 3.2 6.7 8.3 9.5 10.8 12.4 14.9 17.1 20.3 20.6  top of step  t=15 min  bar/waves breaking  bottom of step top of step  t=30 min  bar  bottom of step top of step  295.9 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.2 19.7 16.2 13.0  85.1 76.2 66.0 55.9  24.1 26.7 30.2 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.9 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 295.3 295.3 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 45.7 42.5 39.1 38.1 36.8 35.9 33.7 31.1 28.9 26.4 26.4 22.2 19.4 16.2 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.1 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 85.7 85.7 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.6 3.8 7.3 8.3 9.5 10.5 12.7 15.2 17.5 20.0 20.0 24.1 27.0 30.2 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 231.1 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.2 297.2 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 38.4 37.8 36.2 35.2 33.3 31.4 28.9 27.0 25.7 21.9 19.7 15.9 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 149.9 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.8 83.8 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.0 0.3 3.5 7.9 8.6 10.2 11.1 13.0 14.9 17.5 19.4 20.6 24.4 26.7 30.5 33.3  t=45 min  bar  bottom of step top of step  t=60 min  bar  bottom of step top of step  t=90 min  bar/waves breaking  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 229.2 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.2 297.2 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.5 38.7 37.8 36.5 35.2 33.7 31.4 29.5 27.3 26.7 22.2 19.7 15.9 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 151.8 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.8 83.8 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.0 0.3 3.8 7.6 8.6 9.8 11.1 12.7 14.9 16.8 19.1 19.7 24.1 26.7 30.5 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.9 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.2 297.2 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.9 38.4 37.5 36.5 35.2 33.3 31.1 29.5 26.0 26.7 21.9 19.4 15.9 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 152.1 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.8 83.8 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm) 0.0 0.3 4.4 7.9 8.9 9.8 11.1 13.0 15.2 16.8 20.3 19.7 24.4 27.0 30.5 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 228.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 41.3 38.7  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 153.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 5.1 7.6  start of wv turbulence  bottom of step top of step  t=120 min  bar/waves breaking  turbulence starts  bottom of step top of step  233.7 243.8 249.9 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 298.5 298.5 304.8 315.0 325.1  37.5 36.5 35.9 35.6 34.0 31.4 29.5 27.3 26.7 21.9 19.7 15.9 13.0  147.3 137.2 131.1 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 82.6 82.6 76.2 66.0 55.9  8.9 9.8 10.5 10.8 12.4 14.9 16.8 19.1 19.7 24.4 26.7 30.5 33.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 224.2 233.7 243.8 244.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.8 297.8 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 40.6 38.7 37.5 36.5 36.5 35.6 33.7 31.8 29.2 27.6 27.3 22.2 19.7 16.5 13.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 156.8 147.3 137.2 136.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.2 83.2 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 5.7 7.6 8.9 9.8 9.8 10.8 12.7 14.6 17.1 18.7 19.1 24.1 26.7 29.8 33.3  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  Test S3M4 - OBSERVATIONS - June 28/94 0:00  -test starts  0:53  -gravel is scattered at foot of step and on offshore side of bar  243  -most turbulence 230 cm infrombar 0:58  -at foot of beach, crescent shape mound of sand  1:25  -can actually see air entrained in breaking waves -T=39.65/30=1.33 sec  1:41  -H =44mm  2:00  -test ends  0  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  t=5 min  bar  bottom of step top of step  S3M5 July 2/94  26.4 15.2 3 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  3C:1F 67 1.3  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 43.8 42.9 40.0 37.1 34.6 30.8 26.7 23.2 19.7 16.8  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0  y (cm)* 0.0 0.0 2.5 3.5 6.4 9.2 11.7 15.6 19.7 23.2 26.7 29.5  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 225.7 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 300.4 300.4 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 40.3 39.7 38.4 37.1 35.9 34.9 33.7 31.1 28.3 26.4 21.9 19.7 16.8  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 155.3 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 80.6 80.6 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.3 6.0 6.7 7.9 9.2 10.5 11.4 12.7 15.2 18.1 20.0 24.4 26.7 29.5  t=15 min  bar  bottom of step top of step  t=30 min end of beach  waves breaking  sand disappears  bottom of step top of step  t=45 min end of beach break in slope  X(cm) 203.2 213.4 220.0 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 297.2 297.2 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 43.8 40.3 39.4 38.1 36.5 35.6 34.9 33.7 31.8 29.2 28.3 21.9 19.7 16.8  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 161.0 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 83.8 83.8 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 2.5 6.0 7.0 8.3 9.8 10.8 11.4 12.7 14.6 17.1 18.1 24.4 26.7 29.5  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4 223.5 233.7 237.5 243.8 254.0 264.2 268.9 274.3 284.5 294.6 300.0 300.0 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 39.4 38.1 37.5 36.8 35.6 34.9 34.9 34.0 31.8 29.2 27.3 20.3 16.8  x (cm) 177.8 172.7 167.6 157.5 147.3 143.5 137.2 127.0 116.8 112.1 106.7 96.5 86.4 81.0 81.0 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 7.0 8.3 8.9 9.5 10.8 11.4 11.4 12.4 14.6 17.1 19.1 26.0 29.5  X(cm) 203.2 207.6 210.8 213.4  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 44.5 42.2  x (cm) 177.8 173.4 170.2 167.6  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 1.9 4.1  waves breaking  sand - gravel  gravel - sand bottom of step top of step  t=60 min end of beach  waves breaking  gravel only starts  bottom of step top of step  t=90 min edge of beach  223.5 233.7 241.6 243.8 254.0 264.2 269.9 274.3 284.5 290.2 294.6 299.1 303.8 304.8 315.0  40.0 37.8 36.8 35.9 35.6 34.6 34.3 33.3 31.4 32.1 29.5 28.6 20.3 19.4 16.8  157.5 147.3 139.4 137.2 127.0 116.8 111.1 106.7 96.5 90.8 86.4 81.9 77.2 76.2 66.0  6.4 8.6 9.5 10.5 10.8 11.7 12.1 13.0 14.9 14.3 16.8 17.8 26.0 27.0 29.5  X(cm) 203.2 207.0 213.4 223.5 233.7 240.0 243.8 254.0 264.2 272.4 274.3 284.5 294.6 300.7 300.7 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 40.6 37.5 37.1 36.2 35.6 34.3 33.7 33.3 31.8 29.2 29.8 20.3 19.7 16.8  x (cm) 177.8 174.0 167.6 157.5 147.3 141.0 137.2 127.0 116.8 108.6 106.7 96.5 86.4 80.3 80.3 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 5.7 8.9 9.2 10.2 10.8 12.1 12.7 13.0 14.6 17.1 16.5 26.0 26.7 29.5  X(cm) 203.2 207.6 213.4 223.5  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 40.6  x (cm) 177.8 173.4 167.6 157.5  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 5.7  waves breaking  sand - gravel  gravel - sand bottom of step top of step  t=120 min end of beach  waves breaking  sand - gravel  bottom of step middle bench top of step  *x=381.0-X;y=46.4-Y  228.9 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 269.2 274.3 284.5 289.6 294.6 299.7 299.7 304.8 315.0  39.4 37.8 36.2 35.6 34.9 34.3 33.3 31.4 31.8 29.5 27.9 20.3 19.7 16.8  152.1 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 111.8 106.7 96.5 91.4 86.4 81.3 81.3 76.2 66.0  7.0 8.6 10.2 10.8 11.4 12.1 13.0 14.9 14.6 16.8 18.4 26.0 26.7 29.5  X(cm) 203.2 208.3 213.4 223.5 233.7 236.9 243.8 254.0 264.2 268.9 274.3 284.5 294.6 299.7 301.0 302.6 304.8 315.0  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.5 40.3 38.1 38.1 36.5 35.6 34.6 34.9 33.3 31.4 29.2 27.9 24.8 21.0 19.7 16.8  x (cm) 177.8 172.7 167.6 157.5 147.3 144.1 137.2 127.0 116.8 112.1 106.7 96.5 86.4 81.3 80.0 78.4 76.2 66.0  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.8 6.0 8.3 8.3 9.8 10.8 11.7 11.4 13.0 14.9 17.1 18.4 21.6 25.4 26.7 29.5  248 Test S3M5 - OBSERVATIONS - Jul 2/94 0:00  -test starts  0:17  -silty cloud forming -gravel is really getting thrown around by waves  3 min  -swash zone is mostly sand -gravel is at base of step and seaward of point where waves are most turbulent -silty cloud has moved the length of the flume  24 min  -through Plexiglas, top 3.8 cm of bar area is only gravel -gravel only bed from point of maximum turbulence, seaward -every other wave is stronger (reflection?)  27 min  -gravel is tossed back and forth under breaking waves -bar appears to be extending seaward  29 min  -most of beach is covered in gravel  1:10  -base of step has sand and gravel -small part of swash zone is sand only -waves just reach base of step -beach has armoured itself from edge of beach to point where waves are most turbulent -air is entrained as the waves break (plunging breakers?)  1:15  -waves are eroding top of beach so much that they may reach sand used as a base  1:55  -H =67 mm  1:57  -water runup j ust reaches base of step  2:10  -test stopped -T=52.82/40=1.07 seconds  Q  249  Final notes: -large step, 7.5 cm -interesting to note: the sand/sand and gravel border is perpendicular to the wave direction -sand depth ~6 mm -gravel only depth 32 mm -also see pictures -a mixed gravel and sand base exists in the gravel only area at the location where the waves started to break. Mixed bed is 11.4 cm deep, starting at X=236 cm to +11.4 cm  Run No. Date  Weir Height (cm) Water Depth (cm) Paddle Setting Motor Speed t=0 min end of beach  t=5 min  bar  bottom of step  S3M6 July 3/94  26.4 15.2 3 3.25  Bed H(mm) T(sec)  1C:3F 64 1.3  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.0 42.9 38.1 37.8 35.2 33.3 28.9 25.7 22.9 20.3 16.8 13.3  x (cm)* 177.8 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  y (cm)* 0.0 0.3 3.5 8.3 8.6 11.1 13.0 17.5 20.6 23.5 26.0 29.5 33.0  X (cm) 203.2 213.4 223.5 224.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.6  Y(cm) 46.4 45.1 40.0 38.4 38.1 36.8 35.9 34.6 32.7 30.8 27.9 26.0  x (cm) 177.8 167.6 157.5 156.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 79.4  y(cm) 0.0 1.3 6.4 7.9 8.3 9.5 10.5 11.7 13.7 15.6 18.4 20.3  top of step large crack  t=15 min end of beach  bar  bottom of step top of step  t=30 min end of beach  bar  bottom of step 2 top of step 2  301.6 304.8 315.0 325.1  22.2 20.6 17.5 13.3  79.4 76.2 66.0 55.9  24.1 25.7 28.9 33.0  X(cm) 203.2 207.0 213.4 223.5 225.4 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 301.0 301.0 304.8 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 42.9 39.4 40.0 37.8 36.8 35.9 34.6 32.7 30.8 28.6 26.7 21.9 21.0 17.8 14.3  x (cm) 177.8 174.0 167.6 157.5 155.6 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 80.0 80.0 76.2 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 3.5 7.0 6.4 8.6 9.5 10.5 11.7 13.7 15.6 17.8 19.7 24.4 25.4 28.6 32.1  X(cm) 202.2 203.2 213.4 215.9 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 302.6 302.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 46.4 41.3 39.7 38.1 37.5 36.8 35.9 34.6 33.0 31.4 28.9 27.3 23.8 20.3  x (cm) 178.8 177.8 167.6 165.1 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 78.4 78.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 0.0 5.1 6.7 8.3 8.9 9.5 10.5 11.7 13.3 14.9 17.5 19.1 22.5 26.0  bottom of step 1 top of step 1 crack  t=45 min end of beach bar  bottom of step top of step  t=60 min end of beach bar  bottom of step  306.1 306.1 315.0 315.0 325.1  24.4 20.6 17.5 16.5 14.6  74.9 74.9 66.0 66.0 55.9  21.9 25.7 28.9 29.8 31.8  X(cm) 201.3 203.2 211.1 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 304.8 307.0 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.0 45.7 40.6 40.0 38.4 37.5 37.1 39.4 35.2 33.3 31.1 29.2 24.1 20.6 20.3 17.8 14.3  x (cm) 179.7 177.8 169.9 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 76.2 74.0 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.3 0.6 5.7 6.4 7.9 8.9 9.2 7.0 11.1 13.0 15.2 17.1 22.2 25.7 26.0 28.6 32.1  X(cm) 198.4 203.2 212.1 213.4 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 40.0 41.0 38.4 37.5 36.8 35.6 34.3 33.0 31.8 30.2 26.7  x (cm) 182.6 177.8 168.9 167.6 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2  y(cm) 0.0 1.9 6.4 5.4 7.9 8.9 9.5 10.8 12.1 13.3 14.6 16.2 19.7  top of step crack  t=90 min end of beach  bar  bottom of step top of step crack  t=120 min end of beach  bar  end of runup  304.8 315.0 315.0 325.1  21.0 17.8 16.5 14.3  76.2 66.0 66.0 55.9  25.4 28.6 29.8 32.1  X(cm) 199.4 203.2 213.4 214.6 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 304.8 315.0 315.0 325.1  Y(cm) 46.4 44.5 39.4 39.7 37.5 37.1 37.8 36.5 36.2 34.3 31.8 29.2 27.0 20.6 17.8 16.8 14.3  x (cm) 181.6 177.8 167.6 166.4 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 76.2 66.0 66.0 55.9  y(cm) 0.0 1.9 7.0 6.7 8.9 9.2 8.6 9.8 10.2 12.1 14.6 17.1 19.4 25.7 28.6 29.5 32.1  X(cm) 199.7 203.2 213.4 214.6 223.5 233.7 243.8 254.0 264.2 274.3 284.5 294.6 304.8 307.0  Y(cm) 46.4 44.8 39.1 39.7 37.5 36.8 36.8 36.2 35.9 36.2 31.4 29.5 27.3 27.0  x (cm) 181.3 177.8 167.6 166.4 157.5 147.3 137.2 127.0 116.8 106.7 96.5 86.4 76.2 74.0  y(cm) 0.0 1.6 7.3 6.7 8.9 9.5 9.5 10.2 10.5 10.2 14.9 16.8 19.1 19.4  bottom of step top of step crack  308.9 308.9 315.0 315.0 325.1  26.0 17.8 17.8 16.5 14.3  72.1 72.1 66.0 66.0 55.9  20.3 28.6 28.6 29.8 32.1  *x=381.0-X; y=46.4-Y  Test S3M6 - OBSERVATIONS - Jul 3/94 0:00  -test starts  1 min  -large silt cloud came out of beach and is working its way down flume  2.5 min  -step is 32 mm high -can't see lower point of beach for silt  4 min  -gravel is collecting at top of beach  12 min  -crack has formed 15 cm behind step, practically goes entire width offlume(is in two pieces)  23 min  -step is overhanging slightly -silt has travelled length offlume;water is murky  25 min  -can actually see waves picking up sand on the bar  28 min  -sand coming up off bed looks like little explosions  40 min  -water is still murky, but on upper half of beach, gravel is scattered across beach and is moved about by waves -crack at X=315.0 cm appears to be widening  54 min  -waves are just starting to break coming off the paddle  1:07  -water is still murky so difficult to see lower half of beach -length offlumefrom paddle to 203.2 cm mark=340.4 cm -width offlume=21.0cm -Between Plexiglas - 17.1 cm -Plexiglas is 12 mm thick  255  -motor is 1 hp at 1750 rpm -T=52.56/40=1.06 sec  2:05  -water does not reach base of step -test ends (6:6 pm)  Final notes: -stones have all collected in area where waves were most turbulent, i.e. X = 236 cm to X=259 cm -small amount of stone at base of step -everywhere else on beach is sand  i  

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