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Automated draft plan and schedule generation using templates, physical breakdown structures and expert… Chevallier, Nicola Jane 1998

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AUTOMATED DRAFT PLAN AND SCHEDULE GENERATION USING TEMPLATES, PHYSICAL BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES AND EXPERT SYSTEMS by NICOLA JANE CHEVALLIER B.Eng., McGill University, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED TN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1998 © Nicola Jane Chevallier, 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference arid study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of d/O/c /vUnW The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e JUL si l o . m F . DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Even for the most well-intentioned companies, the commitment required for the initial drafting of a plan is a real barrier to developing a useful schedule for a construction project. This thesis explores how artificial intelligence and expert systems have and can be used for automating the generation of plans and schedules. The goal is to demonstrate how expert systems with an editable rule base can be combined with standard templates of modifiable, predefined sequencing, scoping, and scaling knowledge within a project management system in order to generate draft plans and schedules automatically. Findings from a thorough literature review and observations about the general characteristics of projects provide a backdrop to explain the philosophy that has led to this approach. The breakdown of projects into different views is discussed and the important role of the physical and process views in automated schedule generation is emphasised. Implementation details and worked examples, including a thorough explanation of rule syntax and predicate logic, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and capabilities of the proposed approach. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT II TABLE OF CONTENTS Ill LIST OF TABLES VI LIST OF FIGURES VII ACKNOWLEDGEMENT XI CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW OF APPROACHES TO AUTOMATED SCHEDULE GENERATION 3 CHAPTER 3.0 PHILOSOPHY AND APPROACH 19 3.1 C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F A P R O J E C T 19 3.2 E L E M E N T S O F T H E A P P R O A C H 22 3.3 O V E R V I E W O F T H E S T A N D A R D A N D P R O J E C T S I D E S O F T H E S Y S T E M S T R U C T U R E 27 3.4 E X P E R T P R O J E C T T E M P L A T E S 3 0 3.5 A N O T E O N R U L E D E F I N I T I O N A N D R E A S O N I N G S C H E M A ; 33 CHAPTER 4.0 PHYSICAL COMPONENT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE 36 4.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 36 4.1.1 Different views of a project 36 4.1.2 The need for a physical view 37 4.2 D E S I G N C O N S I D E R A T I O N S 38 4.3 D E S I G N F E A T U R E S 43 4.3.1 Physical Component Breakdown Structure (PCBS) 44 4.3.2 Defining the physical view..... 46 iii 4.3.3 Association with other views and component description.... 49 4.4 R O L E OF R E A S O N I N G . . . . . 54 C H A P T E R 5.0 A C T I V I T I E S 5 6 5.1 DEFINITION A N D SEQUENCING OF P L A N N I N G STRUCTURES 56 5.2 R O L E OF R E A S O N I N G 59 C H A P T E R 6.0 P R O J E C T T E M P L A T E S A N D A U T O M A T E D S C H E D U L E G E N E R A T I O N 65 6.1 T E M P L A T E STRUCTURE 67 6.2 C O P Y I N G A N D M E R G I N G T E M P L A T E S 68 6.2.1 Copying and merging the PCBS structures 71 6.2.2 Copying and merging the activity lists 74 6.3 E X P E R T S Y S T E M ASSISTANCE 75 6.3.1 Overview of expert system structure 75 6.3.1.1 Rule file 76 6.3.1.2 Inference engine 76 6.3.1.3 Application program 77 6.3.1.4 Interaction between the expert system components 78 6.3.2 Predicate and rule syntax 80 6.3.2.1 Predicates and command functions that can be treated by the inference engine 82 6.3.2.2 PCBS predicates, command functions, and rules 88 6.3.2.3 Activity predicates, command functions, and rules 96 6.4 W O R K E D E X A M P L E S 104 iv 6.4.1 Example 1: Staging and phasing 104 6.4.2 Example 2 : Concrete Superstructure Highrise 120 6.4.3 Example 3: Multiple Subprojects 134 C H A P T E R 7 .0 C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 1 5 0 7.1 C O N C L U S I O N S . 1 5 0 7.2 R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S F O R F U T U R E W O R K 152 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1 5 6 A P P E N D I C E S 1 5 9 A P P E N D I X A : S A M P L E T E M P L A T E R E P O R T S A N D R U L E S 160 A P P E N D I X B : E X A M P L E 1 ( A ) - P R O J E C T R E P O R T S 172 A P P E N D I X C : E X A M P L E 1 ( B ) - P R O J E C T R E P O R T S 177 A P P E N D I X D : E X A M P L E 1 ( C ) - P R O J E C T R E P O R T S 182 A P P E N D I X E: H I G H R I S E ( C O N C R E T E S U P E R S T R U C T U R E ) T E M P L A T E R E P O R T S A N D R U L E S 185 A P P E N D I X F : E X A M P L E 2 - P R O J E C T R E P O R T S 205 A P P E N D I X G : P A R K A D E T E M P L A T E R E P O R T S A N D R U L E S 2 1 3 A P P E N D I X H : L O W R I S E T E M P L A T E R E P O R T S A N D R U L E S 2 3 2 A P P E N D I X I: H I G H R I S E ( A L L T R A D E S ) T E M P L A T E R E P O R T S A N D R U L E S 255 A P P E N D I X J : E X A M P L E 3 - P R O J E C T R E P O R T S 2 8 0 v LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1: Comparative analysis of automatic scheduling systems 10 Table 4-1: PCBS property definition when using automated scheduling features 55 Table 5-1: Activity property definition when using automated scheduling features 60 Table 6-1: PCBS predicate definitions 90 Table 6-2: PCBS command functions 92 Table 6-3: Activity predicate definitions ; 97 Table 6-4: Activity command functions 98 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3-1: Conceptual model for automated draft schedule generation 26 Figure 3-2: Standard physical component breakdown structure (PCBS) 28 Figure 3-3: Attribute definition 28 Figure 3-4: Activity fragnet '. 29 Figure 4-1: Physical Component Breakdown Structure (PCBS) 45 Figure 4-2: Options available under Window bar menu item 47 Figure 4-3: Standard PCBS library 48 Figure 4-4: Defining attributes associated with a PCBS component 52 Figure 4-5: Assigning attribute values to location ranges 52 Figure 5-1: Activity properties menu 57 Figure 5-2: Activity sequencing relationships 58 Figure 5-3: Activity fragnet - definition of predecessors 59 Figure 5-4: Splitting an activity into stages to reflect scale 63 Figure 5-5: Introducing an offset relationship due to space constraints 64 Figure 6-1: Overview of the copying, merging and expert template mode 66 Figure 6-2: Copy Template menu selection 69 Figure 6-3: Create subproject list from template library 70 Figure 6-4: Selection of phases for truncating the template 70 Figure 6-5: Copying and merging templates 71 Figure 6-6: Example of PCBS transformations in Copy Template mode 73 Figure 6-7: Interaction between expert system components 79 Figure 6-8: Example 1: Physical Breakdown Structure of Sample Template 105 vii Figure 6-9: Example 1: Activity List of Sample Template... 105 Figure 6-10: Step 1-Select template 106 Figure 6-11: Step 3-Input number of locations 106 Figure 6-12: Example 1- Project PCBS 107 Figure 6-13: Step 5-System asks user whefherto view PCBS or continue 108 Figure 6-14: Step.7-User inputs start date 109 Figure 6-15: Step 9-Input number of zones 110 Figure 6-16: Step 9-Select staging method 111 Figure 6-17: Step 11-Input durations for different location ranges 113 Figure 6-18: Step 11-Input default activity duration 114 Figure 6-19: Step 12-End of activity rules 114 Figure 6-20: Step 12-Project activity list and calculate schedule function 115 Figure 6-21: Linear planning chart showing sequential staging 115 Figure 6-22: Step 9-Input staging method 116 Figure 6-23: Linear planning chart showing staging with partial overlap..... 117 Figure 6-24: Step 1-Phase selection 118 Figure 6-25: Step 9-No staging of the construction activities ' 118 Figure 6-26: Project activity list 119 Figure 6-27: Linear planning chart 119 Figure 6-28: Example 2-Physical breakdown structure of highrise (Concrete Superstructure) template 121 Figure 6-29: Example 2-Activity list of highrise (Concrete Superstructure) template 121 Figure 6-30: Stepl-Select template 122 viii Figure 6-31: Step 3-Input number of typical floors 123 Figure 6-32: Step 3-Input number of penthouse suites 123 Figure 6-33: Step 3-Input number of mechanical penthouses 123 Figure 6-34: Example 2-Project PCBS 126 Figure 6-35: Step 7-User inputs column shape 128 Figure 6-36: Step 7-User inputs number of columns 128 Figure 6-37: Step 11-Asks whether activity has same duration at all locations 131 Figure 6-38: Step 11-Input same activity duration for all locations 132 Figure 6-39: Linear planning chart for highrise project 133 Figure 6-40: Conceptual model of Example 3 135 Figure 6-41: Example 3-Physical breakdown structure of parkade template 136 Figure 6-42: Example 3-Activity list for parkade template 136 Figure 6-43: Example 3-Physical breakdown structure of lowrise template 137 Figure 6-44: Example 3-Partial activity list for lowrise template 137 Figure 6-45: Example 3-Physical breakdown structure of highrise template 138 Figure 6-46: Example 3-Partial activity list for highrise template 138 Figure 6-47: Step 1-Select template and specify activity numbering buffer 139 Figure 6-48: Step 3-Input number of parkade levels 140 Figure 6-49: Step 3-Input number of storeys for the lowrise building 140 Figure 6-50: Step 3-Input number of typical floors in the highrise 140 Figure 6-51: Step 3-Input number of penthouse suites in the highrise 140 Figure 6-52: Step 3-Input number of mechanical/elevator penthouses in highrise 140 Figure 6-53: Example 3-Project PCBS... 141 ix Figure 6-54: Step 7-User inputs subproj ect start month (weather factor) 142 Figure 6-55: Step 7-User inputs excavation length 143 Figure 6-56: Step 7-User inputs excavation width 143 Figure 6-57: Step 7-User inputs excavation depth 144 Figure 6-58: Step 7-User inputs excavation soil type 144 Figure 6-59: Step 11-Input number of zones .' 145 Figure 6-60: Step 11-Select staging method 146 Figure 6-61: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the global project 147 Figure 6-62: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the parkade subproject 148 Figure 6-63: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the lowrise subproject 148 Figure 6-64: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the highrise subproject 149 x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Dr. Alan D. Russell, who always found time in his busy schedule to provide invaluable guidance and insight. Without his dedication, support and sense of humour this work would not have been possible. Well-deserved thanks to William Wong for his excellent work in producing all of the code needed to realise a working system. I am grateful for his patience and assistance with the writing and debugging of the expert rules. I would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for their financial support and for recognising and encouraging my academic work. Special thanks to my husband, Francois, for his continued support, encouragement and patience. xi CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION Industry and researchers generally agree that the success of a construction project is influenced by proper planning and control. However, the development of an effective schedule using available software can be tedious, time-consuming, error prone, and often neglectful of past lessons learned. The return on such an investment of time and resources is difficult to quantify, leading many companies to concentrate their efforts on more obviously pressing issues related to advancing the construction process. Even for the most well-intentioned companies, the commitment required for the initial drafting of a plan is a real barrier to developing a useful schedule. Construction scheduling using current commercially available software involves listing all activities leading to the completion of the work along with their respective durations. Repetitive activities such as "form slab" or "pour concrete" must be listed individually for each and every location at which they occur. Sequencing logic must also be entered, describing the link between each activity and its predecessors and successors, both in terms of type and lag value. Despite the fact that companies often engage in many similar projects and that the activities and logic are largely unchanged from project to project, this information is seldom stored in a reusable format that can be applied to future projects. Commercially available software try to facilitate the schedule formulation process by offering template and fragnet features as a means of storing reusable information. 1 The intent of this thesis is to explore how artificial intelligence and expert systems have and can be used for automating the generation of plans and schedules. Specifically, this thesis will: • examine past work by means of a thorough literature review, presented in tabular format, and discussion (Chapter 2.0); • offer some observations about the general characteristics of projects, and how they affect a project's schedule (Chapter 3.0); • use the findings from the previous sections as a backdrop to explain the reasoning that has led to the authors' approach to developing a module that is capable of generating draft plans and schedules automatically (Chapter 3.0); • explore, in detail, the important role of a physical representation or view of a project in automatic schedule generation and its treatment in the reasoning process. A framework for this view is presented (Chapter 4.0); • explore, in more depth, the central role of activities and their treatment in the reasoning process. (Chapter 5.0) • present implementation details of the expert system, rules, templates, and user interface comprising the author's system (Chapter 6.0); and, • demonstrate the capabilities of this system through three worked examples (Chapter 6.0). A major goal of this research is to contribute to the development of practical tools which build on past work, reflect the complexity of planning and scheduling real projects, are capable of handling the scale of real projects, and are realisable in the near term. 2 CHAPTER 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW OF APPROACHES TO AUTOMATED SCHEDULE GENERATION Researchers have taken many different approaches to developing expert systems capable of automatic schedule generation. To better understand and compare the differences in approach, systems and research efforts described in the literature to date have been summarised under several of the key themes underlying the treatment of automated schedule generation (Table 2-1). The focus is on complete systems which all share the same goal (i.e. to generate a project schedule, albeit with different degrees of completeness), rather than on research directed at a single aspect of planning and scheduling, such as activity duration estimation (Hendrickson et al., 1987). An explanation of the headings under which the systems are categorised, follows: Implementation/Programming Environment: This category includes: the reported system status whether it is simply a proof of concept, a working prototype, or a full working model; a description of the system's programming environment; and, an assessment of the generality of the domain to which the system can be applied (e.g. whether the application of the system is restricted to certain types of construction projects such as high-rise buildings, bridges, highways, etc., or is broadly applicable). Input/Output: This category indicates the amount of flexibility allowed by the system, in terms of the level of detail of the input and output (e.g. whether or not support is offered for highly aggregated descriptions of a project through to low-level detailed project descriptions, including mixed descriptions). It also describes the nature of the project information required by the system from the user (i.e. activity list, detailed descriptions of project components), 3 and the type of output generated by the system (i.e. network diagram, Gantt chart, explanation of findings, etc.). Physical Product Model: This is a description of how the project's physical characteristics are represented in the system. Activity Generation: The method that the system uses to determine the list of activities required to complete the work. This list may be entered by the user, predefined, or generated by the system based on the physical description input by the user. Sequencing Approach: The method that the system uses to determine the sequencing logic of the different activities. Logic may be entered by the user, predefined, or generated, in whole or in part, by the system based on its ability to "reason" about the relationships between tasks and components. Duration Estimation: How the system estimates the duration of each activity. This may be entered by the user, predefined, or generated by the system based on its ability to "reason" about a project's physical features and resource characteristics. Nature of Knowledge Base: A description of the form and characteristics of the knowledge stored by the system (e.g. rules, templates, basic physical laws and relationships). The terms low-level and high-level reasoning are frequently used in the table, and in the rest of the paper, to describe the approach taken by a system with regards to each of the categories. Low-level reasoning refers to the use of basic principles to generate activities, determine their sequencing, or calculate durations. For example, many systems base their sequencing reasoning on fundamental relationships between components or tasks (i.e. a beam is supported by a column - therefore the activity 'build column' precedes 'build beam'). In 4 other words, these systems tend to start from scratch when determining the schedule. High-level reasoning refers to the use of predefined activities, sequencing logic, or durations. These systems allow reasoning to take place at a more aggregated level, with less detailed rules, in order to make decisions about modifying the predefined knowledge to reflect the scale of the project at hand. As a result of this comparative study, we found that many researchers appear to have adopted a long-term view of the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in construction scheduling by striving to reduce the role of the user to a minimum. Because of the low level at which many of these systems reason, as well as limited resources for research, researchers tend to focus on demonstrating proof of concept on one type of project, rather than on developing full working models. While this approach is important in support of the future application of AI in the construction industry, it does partially explain industry's lack of interest in supporting this type of research. For an industry, parts of which are still only reluctantly adopting the use of computers in day-to-day practice, the gap between industry practice and the researchers' focus is simply too wide. We believe that the research community can help to bridge this gap in the short to medium term by developing practical knowledge-based tools that industry can use on full-scale projects, while still pursuing more fundamental AI approaches over the long term. In the case of scheduling, it is our opinion that this means striving to develop a tool that helps to relieve the user from the tedium of initial schedule formulation, and that can be applied to a wide-range of projects. How we propose to do this is described later in this thesis. First, the approaches and features of work performed to date are examined. 5 The nature of the input required from the user is relatively similar for all of the different systems. This usually consists of a project description in the form of a hierarchical breakdown of the physical components and project characteristics, and/or a list of activities describing the work to be done. All systems have precedence networks as output,, and many have more elaborate means of commumcating the project schedule. However, it appears that many of the systems are inflexible regarding the level of detail of the input and output. For these systems, there seems to be an implicit (or sometimes explicit) assumption that a complete description (or CAD representation) of what is to be built, or of the resources and methods needed, is available and essential. This does not mirror reality since very often only partial information is available during the planning stages. It is desirable that the system accept what information is available to produce preliminary documents that can later be refined as more information becomes known. Systems that request input through a query process based on domain-dependent questions (Gray, 1986; Stretton & Stevens, 1990) tend to be the least flexible. Also, systems that rely on low-level reasoning for determining the sequencing logic require more detailed project information in order to satisfy the sequencing rules (Gray, 1986; Navinchandra et al., 1988; Kartam & Levitt, 1990; Yau et al, 1991; Waugh & Froese, 1990; Winstanley et al., 1993; Fischer & Aalami, 1996), than those based on higher level reasoning. Nearly all of the systems require information about the physical characteristics of the project, leading us to include product modelling in our analysis. The physical view is generally stored as a hierarchical product model of components, either on its own, or in combination with 6 other project views. Despite the important role that the physical view plays in these systems, it has been relatively neglected in the literature in terms of its importance in supporting project management functions. It appears that little effort has been made in formalising its representation by adopting a standardised vocabulary and structure that is capable of supporting any kind of construction project. In terms of the literature reviewed in Table 2-1, the authors seldom elaborate on the generality or formalisms of the structures used to describe their project domain. Researchers have focused on automating all or some of the following scheduling processes: generation of activities; determination of sequencing logic; and, estimation of activity durations. Each of these issues is addressed in the following discussion. In most cases, activities are predefined in the system in the form of subnetworks (e.g. in CMD Scheduler, aggregated and elemental activities are stored in an activity or process hierarchy where, based on the selection of a seed, or aggregated activity, the user has access to the corresponding lower level activities (Fischer & Aalami, 1996)), or in the form of a standard activity library (Kahkonen & Atkin, 1991). They are either selected directly through user input (Fischer & Aalami, 1996; Kahkonen & Atkin, 1991; Moselhi & Nicholas, 1990), or indirectly through the selection of the building components with which they are associated (Navinchandra et al., 1988; Zozaya-Gorostiza et al., 1989; Shaked & Warszawski, 1992; Al-Shawi et al., 1990; Yau et al, 1991; Soh & Lee, 1991). In some systems, the user inputs a list of general tasks and then the system automatically elaborates on this list by generating each instance of the task (activity on a per location basis) (Shaked 7 & Warszawski, 1992; Shaked & Warszawski, 1995). Other systems seem to be content to generate the network diagram based only on the sequencing of components (i.e. build columns, build beams) without any mention of the work tasks or processes (i.e. form, reinforce, pour) required to build those components (Morad & Beliveau, 1991; Winstanley et al;, 1993; Kartam & Levitt, 1990). A large number of systems determine the sequencing of activities or, in many cases, components, based on the low-level physical relationships between components that were clearly articulated in the work by Echeverry et al. (1991). In nearly every case, the authors give the example of column activities preceding beam activities based on the "supported by" rule that governs their sequencing. In effect, the computer must perform a complex sequencing process using an extensive rule set and project definition in order to come up with this relationship each and every time it encounters these two components. Due to the focus on physical relationships, most of these systems are unable to take into account non-constructive activities (e.g. permitting, utility connections, marketing), temporary structures, resources, space, and code constraints, or the grouping and overlapping of tasks based on trade rather than components. In contrast, some researchers have addressed the importance of task-oriented rather than component-oriented activities (Shaked & Warszawski, 1992; Shaked & Warszawski, 1995; Aalami & Fischer, 1996), and the possibility of hard-coding much of the sequencing in order to avoid the complex processing of such low-level rules, by storing activities as predefined sequences (Stretton & Stevens, 1990; Shaked & Warszawski, 1992; Dzeng & Tommelein, 1995; Froese et al., 1997). 8 Most, but not all, systems provide activity duration estimates. They do so either by simply deriving the duration from standard productivity rates, (Winstanley et al., 1993; Yau et al., 1991) or by modifying these standard rates to take into account actual project characteristics (Gray, 1986; Stretton & Stevens, 1990; Naoum & Fong, 1995; Thabet & Beliveau, 1997; Moselhi & Nicholas, 1990) or resource allocation only (Zozaya-Gorostiza et al., 1989; Shaked & Warszawski, 1992; Shaked & Warszawski, 1995). The generation of activities and sequencing logic implies that the system creates a schedule from scratch for each new project. Some researchers, however, have emphasised the need to capitalise on the knowledge captured in the planning documents of past projects in order to save time and effort, ensure consistency, and reduce errors (Faris, 1991; Dzeng & Tommelein, 1995). In particular, Faris (1991) states his belief that future systems will support parametric scheduling which will create a schedule framework based on preliminary project parameters, and a database of similar past projects. The concepts described by these authors are closely in line with the philosophy underlying our approach, which involves the use of parameter values to scale up predefined (usually from past projects) project templates to reflect the scope of the project at hand. 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This is either because the company specialises in certain classes of projects or is simply due to the commonality of the type of project (i.e. residential high-rise buildings, various bridge types). The breakdown of projects into classes is generally facilitated by the obvious differences between them (e.g. building versus bridge construction). However, even among projects that are typically considered to be of the same class, there are certain differences in their characteristics. These differences are usually based on issues of scale, site context (e.g. topography, climatic conditions), focus (i.e. the project phases that are of concern to the company), contractual requirements (e.g. speed of construction, quality levels), physical system composition, or construction methods. In order to develop an automated scheduling system based on project templates, it is important to recognise the role that the various characteristics of a project play when adapting the schedule of a similar past project to fit a new project. Assume projects are grouped together in such a way as to contain similar basic features (physical system composition and construction methods), differing only in scale, site context, contractual requirements, or focus. The issue of scale is reflected in the number of locations where each activity takes place, as well as the attribute values describing physical components. For example, in the relatively simple case of a high-rise project whose major difference from previous projects lies solely in the number of stories, the only scheduling difference is the number of times that certain activities or sequences of activities are 19 repeated. In the case where there are also differences in the scope of work reflected in the physical component attribute values, the activity durations are scaled up or down accordingly. If the scope of work becomes large enough, it may warrant, or even require, splitting an activity or sequence of activities into different stages within a location. In the case of our high-rise example, it may be necessary to form and pour the slab in two stages if the floor area is greater than a certain limit. Site context is reflected in the attribute values describing the project as a whole, whereas the issue of contractual requirements is imposed, in part, by constraints with respect to speed of delivery. These characteristics can be handled by scaling activity durations. While every project may be usefully described in terms of a sequence of different phases (i.e. design, construction, commissioning), a company is typically only interested in scheduling those phases which directly concern them. In addition, the focus of the scheduler's firm may differ from project to project depending on their role, or the contractual arrangement. In other words, a contractor under a traditional design-bid-build contract may wish to disregard the scheduling of the design phase and concentrate only on one or more of the later construction phases. On a design-build contract, the same contractor may wish to schedule both design and construction phases. Project consultants, on the other hand, may be more interested in scheduling the design phase. What is important to note is that each participating company is generally interested in one or more contiguous phases, rather than in intermittent phases. Since this is the case, the only difference in the schedule is that the front or back, or both, end phases are disregarded. The content and logic that binds the schedule of the 20 contiguous phases, in which the company is interested, remains unchanged. In the unlikely case of a company being interested in scheduling intermittent phases by omitting one or more of the intermediate phases, the links between the remaining phases would have to be established. This is a much more complicated task than simply omitting the front or back end of a schedule, and cannot be easily supported in an automated schedule generation system. The problem of scheduling intermittent phases is similar to the one encountered when projects differ in their more basic features, such as their physical system composition or construction methods. In these cases, the schedule must be modified at the level of individual activities and logic links due to the differences in the actual tasks that must be carried out to complete the project. Whole sequences of activities must be discarded, and new activities introduced into the schedule to represent the current methods and design features. The sequencing logic that links these new activities to the rest of the schedule must be established. Whenever the activities and, as a result, their corresponding links are altered, the knowledge needed to update an existing schedule becomes much more involved than if the changes are just a matter of scale, site context, contractual requirements, or focus. While it may be desirable to treat such cases, the level of effort involved in automated reasoning precludes an implementation that can treat full-scale projects at the current time. In other words, we can manipulate project schedules using relatively simple reasoning when projects are organised into project classes and, within a class, if the project is organised by phase. However, once we attempt to manipulate a schedule by interfering with detailed knowledge, arising from significant differences in a project's physical systems and/or methods used for construction, the reasoning required becomes far more complex. For this reason, projects 21 that do differ in their physical system composition or construction methods should be categorised into separate project classes. 3.2 Elements of the Approach The last entry in Table 2-1 shows how our module can be categorised under the same headings as the other systems. This module builds on earlier research (Russell and Wong, 1993) resulting in the development of generalised activities, or planning structures, and precedence relationships, which allowed the traditional critical path method to be merged with linear planning through a single algorithm. Using these activities to formulate standard projects for high-rise projects, Russell (1991) outlined how a number of small expert systems embedded in a project management system could facilitate the initial preparation of a project plan and schedule. This basic idea has been considerably refined and generalised, as described in this section of the thesis. There are several underlying themes that have influenced the design of the approach presented herein. One such theme is the emphasis placed on the role of the user. Many of the systems mentioned in the literature review section strive to minimise the role of the user by, in effect, creating a black box in which the user input is processed by "hidden" knowledge to create a schedule. By keeping the knowledge base invisible to the user, the researcher is assuming the role of both AI expert and construction expert. However, the system design should allow the user to maintain their role as the construction expert, without requiring the firm to hire a computer expert every time the knowledge base needs modification. This can be done by designing a standard framework, independent of project 22 type, for breaking down and organising project information. A relatively simple, and visible, rule set is then sufficient to perform the links between the various project information. Similarly, the existence of expert system capabilities should not preclude the user from foregoing assistance and entering the project data manually. The flexibility of multiple modes of use is key to ensuring the practicality of the approach. This has led to the adoption an open architecture that keeps the knowledge base transparent so that the user can readily modify it to reflect their own knowledge. Some explanation of the reasoning should also be attached to the encoded knowledge in order to further assist the user in understanding and modifying the knowledge base. Another important theme underlying the approach is the desire to exploit past experience. This is done by storing the recurring project information and sequencing logic in a format that can be adapted to future projects through the use of standard structures and complete project templates, which form part of the knowledge base. Based on the discussion of a project's characteristics, an expert system can be designed to automatically adjust the appropriate project template for scale, site context, contractual requirements, and focus. The user could also manually adapt an existing template to form a new template that reflects different physical systems or construction methods. Based on our review of the literature in Chapter 2.0, while the concept of templates is not new, the proposed method of applying rules that adapt them to reflect a project's characteristics is new. By using rules in combination with project templates, a considerable amount of the reasoning that must normally take place when creating a schedule has already 23. been performed by the user in defining the template. The system is only required to perform very selective reasoning using rules, thereby facilitating the treatment of full-scale projects. During the initial template formulation and subsequent modifications, the user is responsible for defining the rules, just as they are responsible for defining other template information. While the user must abide by the syntax imposed by the inference engine when formulating the rules, their representation allows them to be accessed directly and defined or edited by the construction expert. Based on the foregoing, the goal of this thesis is to develop a module that can automate the creation of a schedule for any project type by generating the input needed for the scheduling algorithm through the use of standard structures and rules contained in project templates. The standard structures include the process view (activity list and sequencing logic) and the physical view (physical component breakdown structure), while the rules complete these standard structures using input on a specific project's characteristics, to include: • the location list; • all associations between predefined activity lists and the locations; • duration estimates based on the project's physical characteristics; • the deletion of activities for work phases not considered in the scope of the work; • the splitting of activities for cases where the scale becomes too large; and, • the characteristics of certain logic relationships (types and spatial buffers) based on the project's scale. 24 While a research version of a project management system is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, the methodology and ideas discussed here could be adopted in the design of a front-end module that generates input for commercially available project management systems. The features of the proposed approach will be demonstrated on a sample high-rise condominium project in order to show what is possible and practical in terms of full-size projects. However, as mentioned, the intent is to keep the knowledge stored by the system completely visible to and editable by the user so that any type of construction project can be handled. Figure 3-1 shows the conceptual framework of the system. The concept of a standard and a project side is introduced in more detail in the next section. As shown, the main elements on the standard side include the standard PCBS and activity fragnet structures, and complete project templates with rules. When copied to the project side, these elements are transformed to physical and process views of the project. The role of each of these elements, in a conceptual sense, is elaborated on in the sections of this chapter which follow. Implementation issues are discussed in Chapter 6.0. 25 26 3.3 Overview of the Standard and Project Sides of the System Structure An important aspect of the system is the use of two "sides" for storing and defining information. These are referred to as the Standard side and the Project side. This concept allows the system to offer varying levels of assistance to the user in defining a project schedule. These different modes of use and the system's framework are shown in Figure 3-1, and discussed below. Two key types of structures that are stored on the Standard side are the standard physical views, discussed in detail in Chapter 4.0, and standard activity fragnets, discussed in Chapter 5.0. These standards, as well as the corresponding expert project template capability described briefly later in this chapter and in detail in Chapter 6.0, provide a good example of how "reasoning" has been encoded in the standard structures rather than in the rule sets. A standard physical view takes the form of a standardised physical component breakdown structure (PCBS). It is a hierarchical representation structure of all or some of the physical components and construction context that comprise a project class, along with their description in terms of the quantitative and qualitative attributes that are used in the reasoning processes essential to project management. Its level of detail is dictated by the user, and reflects the project management functions for which the user seeks support. A sample standard PCBS structure is shown in Figure 3-2 for a high-rise condominium project. For each component in this structure, it is possible to define attributes of interest as shown in Figure 3-3. Inheritance is supported, which eases the attribute definition task, and provides a feature which can be exploited in the schedule generation expert system mode. Corresponding attribute values as well as the number of instances of selected PCBS 27 components (e.g. number of location elements) are defined on the project side, using options shown in Figure 3-1. [STANDARD. PCBS!DEFINE/EDIT PCjjS 81 ATTRIBUTES Add Delete Edit Moue E35EDS351 Recurd List C:\REP4NEUl Report eXit, [•Standard PCBS Structures Type ICHiBISEtCpMPOmtllUri Project HIGH-RISE CONDOMINIUM mum Uindou 'Class eXit Type: Project * S-t - 1 - z -3 - 4 Hz 3 h i M Project HIGH-RISE CONDOMINIUM Location Set PROCUREMENT PROCESS Location SDUG - SHOP DRAWING PREPARATION Location SDRU - SHOP DRAUING REUIEU Location FABR - FABRICATION Location DEL - DELIUERY Location Set PHYSICAL LOCATIONS ^ System ' SUPERSTRUCTURE T „ 1 Element Element EI ernent Figure 3-2: Standard physical component breakdown structure (PCBS) (STANDARD/PCBS! DEF INE/EDIT PCBS & ATTRIBUTES Add Delete Edit Moue !WOTr™*Sj Record List C:\REF4NEUI Report eXit /Standard PCBS Structures m '———— IGHfRISEjgpNpOMINIUM QFF SUP| ME |PC0 0 t« 'E K C 0 Define Attribute "Moue eXit PCBS Structure: HIGH-RISE CONDOMINIUM PCBS Component: SLAB p Attribute — Iff FORMUORK AREA "CONCRETE MOLUME "FORMUORK COMPLEXITY LENGTH UIDTH DEPTH Type Project Class '"" ' '"——— MATERIAL QUANTITY MATERIAL QUANTITY INDEX DIMENSION DIMENSION DIMENSION Inherited Attribute [ IH!!? 1 P~" t -~TScro 1 PEnter: Se 1 ecjTEjciBtl t~ B/Q/L Urii n3 Figure 3-3: Attribute definition 28 Standard activity fragnets, represented in Figure 3-1, consist of sets of activities and sequencing logic. Properties that can be assigned to a fragnet activity consist of a subset of the complete set of properties found in a project's process view. A fragnet (shown in Figure 3-4) can be defined at any level of detail and its scope can range from the activities required to construct an entire project down to the activities involved in the construction of a single element of a project. Each fragnet may be linked to either a standard PCBS, or a custom one formulated on the Project side, depending on the mode of use. Similarly, activity durations are input by the user on the Project side (they can also be entered on the Standard side), or are determined by rules when using the expert capabilities, depending on the mode of use. pTANDARD/FRAGNETS Add * Delete Edit Moue [Fragnet hrX 1 leonstitiientsi IGH-RISE COMBO Check Logic Report eXit &RBS Template C:sREP500| Fragnet: HIGH RISE CONDOMINIUM CONST ITUENT/BURATTON fcllNDOU Edit Uindou Add Delete Moue eXit Description Duration Jf (ORE ULS Predecessor OLS/UALLS Successor . ^  COLS/UALLS f Cons TF. R/M| flEGH 2ELEC §F/R/M| iJF/R/P/C/S GRND FLR CQLS/UALLS fePLACE/C/S GRND FLR CORE HALLS &ET CORE METL DR FRAMES TYF FL gINSTALL FIRST LIFT OF MANHOIST fPREFAB FL* FORMS 1 ,'(..: ; • _ . _ •„...; : 8 . : Duration —i I ' l - l l ' - l p t l « : Juni I I F u t i . i - S L - I L ' J L E ,I • K> i t Figure 3-4: Activity fragnet The role of the standard structures may vary depending on the mode of use selected by the user. If no expert assistance is desired (shown as Option 1 in Figure 3-1), the user is free to start from scratch by defining the activity list and sequencing logic (part of the process view), 29 and a physical component breakdown structure (PCBS) (the physical view). Assistance from past experience is still available, however, in the form of the standard PCBS structures and standard activity fragnets, which have been previously defined and stored on the Standard side. They can be copied over to the Project side, thus facilitating the speedy and consistent definition of a project's physical and process view. 3.4 Expert Project Templates The highest level of assistance offered by the system corresponds to Option 2 in Figure 3-1, the automated draft schedule generation feature, and is the subject of Chapter 6.0. Central to this option is the use of expert project templates, which, as shown, have three major components. The first two consist of physical and process view project templates. They are compiled using one or more of the PCBS standards and standard activity fragnets described previously to represent the project class under consideration, plus any additional customisation the user wishes to do. It is important to note that, while standard activity fragnets may be used to assist in setting it up, a project process template may be edited and expanded to include additional information in the form of additional activities, logic, and activity properties. For example, phases and responsibility codes may be assigned to a project process template, but not an activity fragnet. Once the constituents of the template are known, the third component is the rules, described in Section 6.3, which are defined by the user and which may involve attribute definitions from both project views as arguments. These rules deal only with the issues of scale, site context, contractual requirements, and focus that were discussed previously. They are used to transform the project template into a project PCBS and schedule based on the scale and characteristics reflected in the user 30 assigned attribute values. As noted previously, no attempt has been made to incorporate rules to "cut and paste" individual activities or blocks of activities from within the main body of the template, since automatically re-establishing the links between substituted activities and the rest of the schedule represents a very complex reasoning problem, and requires a complex and large knowledge base. Thus, any differences in the work tasks that are required to construct a project, due to a substitution of systems or construction methods, must be represented in the form of a new template, which the user is free to define. The option to subtract whole blocks of activities, however, is available by deleting either front or back end, but not intermediate, phases from the schedule. The rule set for this is simple, and is based on the requirement that each activity in the template be associated with a project phase. As part of the project set-up process, the user identifies pre-coded phases of interest. The rule set simply prunes activities that do not match the phases selected. To automatically generate the physical and process views of a project, and then derive a draft schedule from this information, the user must associate the project at hand with an expert project template. In the case of complex projects, it is possible to associate each subproject with a different expert project template in order to generate an overall project schedule. Once the association is made, a copy of the template is transferred to the Project side. This process of copying and merging templates is described in detail in Section 6.2. Attribute values are then assigned by the user in combination with an expert system on the Project side to the components of the physical view that has been copied over from the Standard side. Based on the attribute values and project characteristics assigned to the PCBS components, the rules contained in the rule set adjust the template to reflect the scale, site context, 31 contractual requirements, and focus of the project at hand. The most basic rule scales the standard schedule to account for the number of locations assigned to a project. For example, each typical floor activity is automatically repeated at all of the typical floor locations defined in the project's PCBS. Other rules may include determining forming, stripping, or pour durations based on volume or surface area, formwork complexity, and type of finish required. More complex rules allow for the splitting of certain activities into stages within a location, where scale necessitates it. Application of the rules to generate all of the required input, and execution of the scheduling algorithm results in the generation of a draft plan and schedule. The user also has the option of using a third mode of use, which is not shown in Figure 3-1. This simply involves copying over a complete project template, minus the rules. This option is useful when the user wishes to store more complete project information on the Standard side than is available through the standard PCBS structures and activity fragnets, but does not wish to use rules to automatically generate a draft schedule. The use of expert project templates implies working at a higher, more pragmatic, level than many of the other systems described in Table 2-1. The intent is that this form is more readily understood and modified by the user so that a broader range of projects may be treated. The scaling of templates also permits additional flexibility in the approach taken to assign durations. For example, depending on the project, the user may wish to take a bottom-up approach by calculating, for example, the cycle time required based on the project characteristics, and methods or resources available. Other times, the user may prefer to 32 impose a cycle time and choose the methods and resources needed to achieve it (top-down approach). Each approach has its utility and is easily supported by the use of templates. 3.5 A Note on Rule Definition and Reasoning Schema In order to achieve the efficiency required to handle the automated schedule generation of full-scale projects, a combination of strategies have been pursued. They include: incorporating much of the reasoning in user-defined templates; exploiting special planning structures as described later; limiting the number of variables treated using automated reasoning; and, decomposing the reasoning process to the local level of individual physical components and process activities. This last aspect of the overall strategy is briefly elaborated upon here. The proposed approach permits templates to store much of the knowledge and reasoning that other systems attempt to derive through expert systems capable of much lower-level reasoning. Because each template contains its own set of rules for transforming it into a representation of the project at hand, and the basic physical characteristics and activity list are already defined when writing the rules, the rules can be made very specific to the template to which they are attached. In fact, in doing so, we have narrowed the domain about which the system must reason considerably. While the rules could be made general, or the same rule file could be used for several templates, this approach would lead to redundancy in the rules and limitations as to the amount and quality of help that could be provided. 33 Currently, separate rule files are used to modify the various building blocks (i.e. the PCBS and the process view). These rules are defined using a different user interface from the rest of the system. Eventually, the goal is to allow the user to define rules against components or activities from within the system. For the PCBS components, the rules deal with querying the user for the number of locations in each location set, inserting locations and customising their names and descriptions, assigning location ranges, and querying the user for attribute values. Information is distributed using the hierarchical structure and inheritance properties of the physical view. Some reasoning is supported that links components at the same hierarchical level in the PCBS structure, although this primarily involves relating components to Location Set and Location component information. Activity rules are expressed in terms of individual activities and may be related to physical components or component attributes provided that the association between the component and the activity has been done previously. Reference to the properties of other activities may be required when considering staging, or when basing durations of secondary activities on the pace set by a lead activity. The reasoning supported deals with the following questions for each activity: Are you in an allowable phase?; What is your location assignment?; What is your duration at each assigned location?; and, Do you need to be split due to project scale? In order to apply the rules, use is made of two application programs, supported by an inference engine, all integrated within the project management system. The application programs, inference engine, and rule sets constitute the expert system. The application programs correspond to Option 2-Expert System Mode: Step 1 and Step 2 in Fig. 1 34 respectively. For Step 1, the application program simply steps through each rule of the PCBS rule file and modifies the PCBS structure as required (e.g. inserting locations, naming and describing locations, assigning location ranges, etc.). If the firing of certain rules depends on the outcome of other rules, the application program may be required to perform several passes through the rule file. This process is complete once all rules have been fired. Once Step 1 of Option 2 is completed, and the user confirms that no further changes to the PCBS are required, the application program for Step 2 consults the second rule file. These rules simply treat each of the activities in the activity list in turn in order to answer the four questions posed earlier. 35 CHAPTER 4.0 PHYSICAL COMPONENT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE 4.1 Introduction This chapter elaborates upon the need for a physical representation of a project, proposes a framework for this purpose, and discusses its role in the reasoning process. 4.1.1 Different views of a project Construction project management embraces a range of functions which requires data and operations on that data that reflect several distinct views of a project. Six views of importance are: • the physical view (what is being built); • the process view (how it will be built, including issues of safety); • the cost view (how much it will cost the various participants); • the as-built view (what happened and why); • the quality view (what standard must be achieved); • the change view (changes in scope). The first four of these views have been elaborated upon by Russell and Froese (1997). Currently, most computer-based project management systems treat the process view - i.e. they are activity-centric in their focus, which limits the number of functions that they can support. The support of additional functions and improvements in the quality of assistance offered for existing ones will involve the development of more versatile systems that provide and integrate all of the various project views. In the specific application of automated schedule generation that is the subject of this thesis, the two most important views, as shown 36 in Figure 3-1, are the physical view, discussed in this chapter, and the process view, discussed in Chapter 5.0. 4.1.2 The need for a physical view In performing project management functions such as scheduling and project control, construction professionals base much of their reasoning on the physical characteristics and context of the work. And yet this view is missing in virtually all project management systems commonly used in construction. The facility to provide the physical view of a project should be both central and a priority to the development of computer-integrated project management systems in order to successfully imitate and support the thought processes of the user. Interestingly, little discussion has been presented in the literature on the formal and structured representation of the physical characteristics of a project in aid of project management, as opposed to design, functions. However, as researchers explore ways of improving the effectiveness of project management systems, the utility of a physical view becomes evident. For example, nearly all researchers working on the automated generation of schedules either implicitly assume, or explicitly require, a physical view (Fischer and Aalami, 1996; Al-Shawi et al., 1990). The physical view should describe both the configuration and context of the project (e.g. for a high-rise building, a description of the project in terms of a number of locations and their physical dimensions as well as anticipated site conditions such as access and congestion), and the attributes of physical systems and their elements to be built (e.g. superstructure - walls, columns, stairs, slab). Its existence would provide information essential to the more effective 37 execution of a broad range of project management functions. These functions not only include the formulation of plans and schedules, but also the detailed design of construction cycles, progress measurement and control including productivity analysis, and post-project analysis. In designing a system that is capable of capturing physical view information, it is important to allow flexibility in the way one describes the physical project and accessibility to this information from other views within the system. This chapter describes several of the design considerations and features of a physical component and parametric modelling module capable of providing a physical view of a project as well as support for the foregoing functions. The concepts developed here have been incorporated into a project management system which supports multiple project views. Selected aspects of this particular implementation are discussed briefly in order to illustrate the concepts presented and their application. Emphasis is placed on those concepts and features that are believed to be important when implementing a physical view in any project management system in order to increase the number of functions that can be performed, and facilitate their integration. 4.2 Design Considerations Rather than try to fit all views of a project within the framework of a single structure, in particular the traditional work breakdown structure, several hierarchical structures have been adopted to support the various views that describe a project, amongst and within which the user can make various associations, or linkages. This provides more flexibility in describing a project, more closely mirrors the way that practitioners model a project both formally and 38 informally, reduces data redundancy (e.g. attributes of a physical element are described at only one place in the system), and helps support a much broader range of project management functions. The physical view we seek is not intended to replicate the kind of detailed information contained in a CAD representation of a project, nor is it intended to replace the drawings and specifications essential to the day-to-day functioning of construction personnel. While it may eventually be appropriate to forge a link between a CAD representation and the physical view, as a means of inputting the physical description into the system, we do not wish to impose the constraint that a CAD view must always exist, nor that detailed design information must be available before preliminary planning and scheduling, or other project analysis, can take place. It is believed that a flexible representation structure of the physical components and construction context that describe a project is needed, along with their description in terms of the quantitative and qualitative attributes that are used in the reasoning processes essential to the support of pre-construction, construction and post-construction project management functions. Thus, in designing the physical view module, how this broad range of functions uses information from the physical view has been explored. A "language" which the system understands and hence which provides additional power to the user is essential. Included in this "language" is the pre-definition of different classes of components. We have adopted the following vocabulary: Component: any physical object or process described. Physical Component Breakdown Structure (PCBS): a hierarchical description of the physical components that comprise a project. 39 Project: the global project under which all other components can be defined and described. Subproject: a self-contained entity within a project (e.g. a building). Location Set: a collection of locations which constitute a physical or process location set within a subproject or project. Location: Either a physical project location (floor number, bay number, bridge pier number, etc.) or a process location (i.e. step in a procedure, e.g. preparation, review, fabrication, etc.) to which activities can be assigned. System: a collection of building elements which constitute a physical system within a subproject or project (e.g. mechanical system). Subsystem: a self-contained system within a larger system (e.g. sprinkler system as part of the mechanical system). Element: a building component (e.g. columns). Subelement: a component within a category of elements (e.g. round columns, rectangular columns). Attribute: a quantitative or qualitative descriptor that provides information about the component's characteristics or context that may in some way affect the feasibility, applicability, duration or cost of the processes involved in its construction. A number of features are required of the design of the physical view module and the user-interface. The first deals with facilitating learning and the transfer of experience. Thus, the ability to incorporate standards, at least in the context of the individual firm, should be included in the system design. These standards relate to the consistent use of terminology (e.g. names of building components), standard descriptors and units of measure, the ability to 40 create standard project components as well as complete project templates, and the ability to predefine both quantitative and qualitative attributes to describe the characteristics of different kinds of components. The second desired feature is flexibility. For example, if the user is a general contractor, the structure of the system must accommodate the desire by management personnel to describe work done by the general contractor's own forces in more detail than subtrade work. Similarly, when a project is in its preliminary stages, a developer should be able to describe the physical project in general terms for use in preliminary schedule generation. Also, the system should offer assistance in how to describe the physical view, but allow this assistance to be overridden. For example, the user should have the option of either defining all components at the project level without using any of the predefined standards, importing and editing various building blocks from a library of standard components and complete standard PCBS templates, or allowing the system to automatically set up the project's Physical Component Breakdown Structure (PCBS) by using an expert rule-base to scale pre-defined complete project templates. By selecting the expert system mode using predefined templates, the user will also have access to automatic draft schedule generation by the system. However, the more assistance provided by the system in terms of automated set-up, the more the user will have to adhere to predefined procedures and therefore sacrifice flexibility. Also with regards to flexibility, the system should be capable of handling a broad spectrum of projects, from small to large, with the former requiring very flat views (i.e. not a deep hierarchy), and the latter being the case for complex projects comprised of many subprojects and multiple systems. Lastly, the design of the interface should provide leverage to the user when defining 41 projects which embody significant repetition of components and parameter values, while simultaneously supporting the description of projects which are very unique and highly variable in their physical configuration. Third, the ability to support a comprehensive description of every component in the PCBS in terms of quantitative and qualitative attributes should be provided. This information will be accessed by both the system (as arguments in one or more rule bases) and the user (as a record of physical characteristics and context) in supporting and carrying out project management functions. The system should have the ability to support operations in order to derive quantitative attribute values from other attributes. This will require the consistent use of units and/or the conversion of units (a standard list of units of measure should be supported to help avoid errors in defining units), as well as the facility to enter functional relationships. The system must also be able to interpret qualitative measures in order to take them into account in any relationships used for estimating values for duration and productivity, as well as other variables. Finally, the notions of inheritance, aggregation, and accumulation must be included to allow the speedy set-up and definition of the physical view and ensure consistency and adherence to standard terminology. They are key to the support of a number of project management functions. For example, one may plan at one level, and control at a higher level. Thus, to create an as-built view of progress to date, the option should exist to integrate (aggregate) over the components for the same parameter definition for each location at one level to generate material quantities from which performance at the higher level can be derived (e.g. 42 roll up performance at the element level to the system level). Similarly, accumulation refers to the integration of values for the same parameter definition over all locations, rather than for each. It may also be useful to support other operations which would allow the system to find the average, minimum, maximum, or other attribute value. As discussed later, inheritance not only allows the user to define certain global attributes at a high level in the hierarchy and then inherit these definitions at lower levels, it also plays a key role in the aggregation operation. 4.3 Design Features In what follows, various features are highlighted that should be part of any implementation of a physical view. These include a hierarchical physical component breakdown structure, procedures for setting up the physical view, and the ability to associate and describe physical components. A hierarchical representation has been adopted because, as stated earlier, it is believed that this is reflective of how projects get described in practice. However, aspects of our implementation borrow object-oriented programming concepts, and this "hybrid" approach, while offering several advantages, does pose some interesting challenges. The implementation described herein also builds on the concept of generalised activities which has been described elsewhere (Russell and Wong, 1993). In describing the system features a top-down approach has been taken. The discussion starts with an overview of the physical component breakdown structure, and then treats the more detailed aspects such as component attribute definitions and the assignment of values. 43 4.3.1 Physical Component Breakdown Structure (PCBS) A physical component breakdown structure (PCBS) has been adopted to describe the physical view of a project. As indicated through the definitions previously given, a maximum six level hierarchy is recommended for describing physical components. These levels correspond to Project, Subproject, System, Subsystem, Element, and Subelement. The description of the site context involves the use of Location Set and Location objects. Their use does not increase the maximum number of levels in the hierarchy. Although considerable thought was given to providing more building blocks by increasing the maximum number of levels, it is beiieved that for supporting project management functions the user should err on the side of simplicity in describing the physical project within the system. Highly detailed descriptions imply a level of planning and control which is not reflective of day-to-day practice for the majority of projects built, the quality of data readily available, nor the resources typically assigned to project management functions. Having said this, the addition of more levels (e.g. sub location, sub-subelement, etc.) has been anticipated in the coding. Depending on the function being performed, different levels of refinement may be required in the physical view. For example, in the case of scheduling, the location component is generally sufficient. For tracking deficiencies, however, a more refined location description may be necessary. Depending on the complexity of the project at hand and the project management functions to be supported, Elements may either be grouped in Systems or appear directly below the Project or Subproject level. Likewise, the Subproject, Subsystem, and Subelement levels are optional. Locations, on the other hand, must be defined under a Location Set. An additional 44 constraint requires that location sets occur directly below the subproject or project level, before any other components. The reasons for distinguishing between a Location Set and a System, and controlling their position in the hierarchy, are to exploit the generalised activity structures existing in the system (i.e. an activity may occur at more than one location and be executed in a user-specified location sequence), and to facilitate the automated generation of the PCBS. What is important to note is that the physical view is restricted to physical components, and is basically silent on process issues that treat who is responsible for different components of the work and how a system or element will be constructed. fsTANDABD/PCBS!DEFINE^ EDIT FCBS 8 ATTB1BUTES l ^ p B j c l c t e Edit Howe BjfflttSffia Record List Report. eXit C:SREP50G S^tandard PCBS Structures mr" UL| • HIGH-RISE CONDOMINIUM Uindou Class "eXit OFF S P ISPR :0L ;ou IEC H¥ iES RO gcori L Type Project Type: Project Project HIGH-RISE CONDOMINIUM Location Set PROCUREMENT PROCESS Location SDUG - SHOP DRAWING PREPARATION Location SDRU - SHOP DRAWING REUIEU Location FABR - FABRICATiON Location DEL - DELIMERV Location Set PHYSICAL LOCATIONS System _ SUPERSTRUCTURE ~SLA"BT TsEletnenC™ Elenent COLUMNS Subelement RECTANGULAR COLUMNS Figure 4-1: Physical Component Breakdown Structure (PCBS) Figure 4-1 shows an example of a physical component breakdown structure. The project depicted consists of two independent high-rise office towers. Although the system's features will be illustrated on a vertical project, a horizontal project, such as a highway or bridge, or any other project type could have been chosen for this purpose. Three different shared sets of 45 process locations have been assigned - design, procurement and commissioning. Some of the levels of the tree structure are collapsed for illustrative purposes (e.g. Superstructure System), however, when expanded they contain further details of the Location, Subsystem, Element and Subelement levels (see Figure 4-2). The procurement set has been expanded to depict its constituents which range from shop drawing preparation (SDWG) through to delivery (DEL). Each subproject is further described by its physical location set and physical systems. 4.3.2 Defining the physical view A central aspect of the proposed system, which we suggest is important for any implementation, is the use of two "sides" for storing and defining information. These are referred to as the Standards side and the Project side, and their role was discussed in Chapter 3.0. While this concept is adopted throughout the system, it is particularly important when implementing the physical view. Recurring or typical PCBS tree structures and individual components can be defined and stored on the Standards side and then copied over, along with their attribute definitions, to the Project side when needed for the project at hand. All information stored on the Standards side is accessible from the Project side, thus facilitating the speedy and consistent definition of a Project PCBS. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show an overview of the PCBS screen. In terms of the menu of operations, the Window bar menu item is of interest here (Figure 4-2). This menu reflects what any system should have - the ability to formally define attributes and their corresponding values; the ability to link the components to other information (i.e. multi-46 media records); and, the ability to associate the components of one view with those of another in order to facilitate the interchange of information, and the integration of various project management functions. When setting up a project from scratch, the user has two possibilities to define the tree structure. Both require that the user be in the Edit mode of the Define/Modify PCBS & Attributes window (Figure 4-1). Using the various keys available to define, insert and delete levels, the user then has the option to either insert predefined components and tree structures from the PCBS templates stored on the Standards side (Commands Ctrl-F5 and Ctrl-F9) or establish the basic structure as they see fit (Commands F5andF9). pROJECT/PCBSIDEFINE/EDIT PCBS 8 ATTRIBUTES Edit TUindou " Class "Re'porty "eXit s u « f c C:SRep500\PR0JZ0\EXANPL| Dcfine^Edit PCBS 8 Attributes Assign Attributes Ualues Uieu Multi-Media'Records Associate With Activities Associate Uith Pay Items Associate uith Quality Manatjenent Associate Uith Changes Associate Uith Project Records' EINIUM OCESS DRAMING PREPARATION DRAUING REUIEU ICATION |EB¥ TIONS <* A 1 -z t -3 -4 System SUPERSTRUCTURE Element SLAB Element COLUMNS 1 Subelement RECTANGULAR COLUMNS 2 Subelement ROUND COLUMNS Element UALLS Element STAIRS System MECHANICAL Element SUPPLY WATER System ELECTRICAL System ENCLOSURE rT7Hplp"n~ SL75n~Enter:Se'li5t EscTExif Figure 4-2: Options available under Window bar menu item Standard physical component breakdown structures (PCBS) are predefined under Standards in the Main Menu. Figure 4-3 shows a list of predefined PCBS's which is expanded to show the contents of the Superstructure System PCBS. Note that these standard structures can be defined by the user on the Standards side for whole projects, parts of projects, or single 47 components. The user can also define a higher level PCBS by combining lower level structures on the Standards side. For example, the Superstructure System and its corresponding Elements and Subelements are not only defined on their own, but are also contained in the Project and Subproject PCBS's. The standard structures in the example in Figure 4-3 are all related to high-rise construction, however the user is free to define them for any type of project. The role of flexible standard structures cannot be overemphasised as a means for encoding knowledge and transferring experience from project to project. fJTANDARD/'PCBS! DEF INE/EDIT PCBS tfdd Delete Edit ' Moue ATTRIBUTES CAREPbOO -Standard PCBS Structures |HIGH-RISE CONDOMINIUM PULTI-TOUER OFFICE COMPLEX FFICE TOUER pUBlliiilfORF P I E C H A N I G A L S P R I N K L E R S Y S T E M BLUNNS BUND COLUMNS lECTANGULAR COLUMNS HYSICAL LOCATIONS I E S I G N PROCESS ROCUREMENT PROCESS gCOMNISSIONING PROCESS Type ~ Project Project Subproject i js. It- n Systen Subsystem Element Subelement Subelement Location Set Location Set Location Set Location Set SUPERSTRUCTURE l££|2!^Uindow Class eXit Type: Systen -Kill IT —2 Systen " " S»PHgjHBHeiUBC Element :SLAB "*""" Element COLUMNS Subelemerrt ROUND COLUMNS Sube iehent RECTANGULAR COLUMNS M. 00 T F3':DaYa?Uindow'"CtW2F^ 5lnmehp"l ina t& m&4aii fe&afcias a? a&s urea Figure 4-3: Standard PCBS library 48 Other ways of setting up the PCBS involve the use of complete project templates, with or without expert help. Templates and expert rules can assist the user in setting up not only the physical view, but also the process view, and in generating a draft schedule. Because the use of complete project templates and expert rules involves an understanding of the whole system, rather than just the physical view, their use will be discussed in conjunction with the generation of schedules in Chapter 6.0 4.3.3 Association with other views and component description As shown in the drop-down menu under the Window bar menu item in Figure 4-2, the user can define a number of attributes for each component in the PCBS, assign values to them, and make associations between components and activities or methods and resources (the process view), between components and pay items (the cost view), between components and quality management (the quality view), between components and change orders (the change view), and between components and project records (the as-built view). All of the foregoing associations are of the many-to-many type, and are accessible through all of the views. For example, the user can associate components with activities through the PCBS, or conversely, make the association through the activity (process) view. The association of components and their respective attribute values to project records, activities and cost items is central to planning, productivity measurement and the derivation of comprehensive productivity estimation functions. For example, to help in defining attribute descriptions and assigning their corresponding values, the user may view different records, which may be comprised of photos, videos, drawings, and correspondence. In associating the physical view with the process view, it is important to think through clearly the associations that should be defined 49 between activities and physical components. One-to-one relationships offer the greatest clarity, however, many-to-many relationships do occur frequently. For example, a single component and all of its attributes may be associated with several activities, (e.g. slab may be associated with the form slab and place slab activities). In this case, each activity might make use of a different subset of attributes (e.g. formwork surface area and formwork perimeter area may be used in the calculating the duration of the form slab activity, and concrete volume may be needed when considering the place slab activity (see Section 6.3.5 for expert system duration calculations). Likewise, more than one physical component may be associated with a single activity, due to differing levels of coarseness or aggregation in the different views (e.g. both horizontal and vertical structural components may be associated with the aggregated activity "build i t h floor of the superstructure"). The term attributes is adopted in the sense of object-oriented modelling. Attributes generally include any information about the characteristics or properties of the component or its context which may affect the feasibility, applicability, duration or cost of the processes involved in its construction. These are then used either as arguments in the system's rules or functional relationships for calculating activity durations or conducting a productivity or feasibility analysis, as a source of information that can be accessed by the user when reasoning about the construction process, or to allow quantity takeoffs or higher level control through aggregation. Three types of attributes, quantitative, boolean and linguistic, and several types of operators (e.g. equal to, greater than, lesser than, within range, etc.) are available and must be specified by the user. Attributes fall into two general classes. There are parameters which describe the inherent characteristics of a component (e.g. length, width, 50 weight, complexity, finish) and there are conditions which describe external influences or context such as weather, congestion, soil type and access. The manner in which the system uses the information provided by the values is the same regardless of whether the attribute is a condition or a parameter and the usefulness of formally distinguishing between the two is questionable. For the implementation, no distinction is required, but the user is free to do so if desired through the use of user-defined classes. By taking this approach, the flexibility of the system is increased by not restricting the number and types of attributes that can be defined by the user. For example, in addition to, or instead of, the parameter and condition attribute classes, the user may find it useful to define classes for dimensions, derived parameters, indices, capacities, tolerances, or feasibility ranges, among others. These classes are available globally within the physical view in order to ensure consistent definitions for each component. The system supports the ability to sort based on these class definitions in order to present the information in a more organised manner. Figure 4-4 depicts the screen used for defining the attributes associated with the component type, Subelement (Rectangular Column), which belongs to the Superstructure System. If a standard System or Element template had been imported, then, depending on how the standard had been defined, one or more of the attributes shown may have been predefined. Any number of attributes may be defined against a component, although it is expected that the number will generally be small. 51 ^ R O J E C I / P C B S i D E F I H E / K D I T P C B S a A T T R I B U T E S Uindou Class Report' eXit C: \REP500\PRDJ 1 ?SEX AMPLl 1 i Define Attribute Delete Edit "Moue \~eXit PCBS Component: RECTANGULAR COLUMNS r Attribute -T'FDRMUORK AREA CONCRETE OOLUME "FORMUORK COMPLEXITY UIDTH D] i'Til • Class '"" ': — — — MATERIAL QUANTITY MATERIAL QUANTITY INDEX DIMENSION DIMENSION DIMENS! B. Q. L Unii Q n2 Q m3 L Q ch q cn Figure 4-4: Defining attributes associated with a PCBS component PROJECT. PCBS!ASSIGN ATTRIBUTES UALUES Uindou Class Report eXit C:VREP500sPR0J17\EXAMPL| H I m PC 1. Assign Attribute Location Raiige 8 Ualues PCBS: RECTANGULAR COLUMNS Attribute: FORMUORK AREA Class: MATERIAL QUANTITY Unit Abbrevation: m2 Ualue Type: Quantitative [XI Sun values of all locations Location Range tad Start Finish Uork Skip Ualue if applicable it;"»MAIN 1 0 8 •' 2 10 1 . 0 , Total 2973.00 j F3":rtssign Attribute UaliTeb"F4":Af/gregtTtiurr "Location List" FffJUpTlotie Un.H m3 cm cm [ F7 L ^ H nit P Trim lilt h . ' L ' l i . t . Figure 4-5: Assigning attribute values to location ranges Once the PCBS tree structure is generated and the attributes for a component are defined, then values can be assigned to groups of locations for each attribute. This assignment of 52 values is depicted in Figure 4-5. Originally, it was necessary that each set of a component's attribute values be assigned with a location range in order to provide information about the component's attributes. While this was not especially limiting (in an extreme case, the attribute values could be described location by location for those cases where there is no repetition of values), it was later determined that to provide greater flexibility, ease of use, and to more readily support the operations of inheritance, aggregation and accumulation, it was better to treat each attribute separately and assign its values against location ranges. This method eliminates the need to identify location ranges for which all attribute values are constant, and also allows the system to treat attributes individually when performing operations. The need for inheritance, aggregation, and accumulation has been addressed- i.e. the option exists to make attribute definitions associated with a component available at levels in the tree below it and, conversely, to aggregate the assigned values at the higher level, either by location or accumulate them over all locations. The decision as to the inheritance of attribute definitions is made at the lower level for each component, whereas the decision as to which attribute values are to be aggregated is made at the upper level and for each individual attribute. The decision to accumulate either the assigned, or aggregated, attribute values over all locations is made at the individual attribute level. Therefore, a component either inherits all or none of the attribute definitions from the component one level up, or aggregates any of the values assigned to flagged inherited attributes from the component one level lower in the hierarchy. In the example shown in Figure 4-4, the user has opted to inherit the attributes formwork surface area, concrete volume, formwork complexity, height, and quantity from 53 the Column Element component (formwork surface area, concrete volume, and formwork complexity were actually defined at the superstructure system level and inherited at each of the lower levels) because these attributes are common to all types of columns. These inherited attribute definitions are flagged as such. The other attributes, width and depth, are unique to the Subelement, Rectangular Column. As implemented, only attribute definitions, units, and classes can be inherited down the hierarchy. (This is similar to the manner in which inheritance works in object-oriented programming, where each instance of a class can inherit the same property definitions, but property values are unique to each instance.) Currently, ways of allowing the selective inheritance of attribute values, where the values are constant across all location instances are being explored. Such situations often arise in real projects (e.g. floor plate size for all locations in the location set -typical floor) and thus such a feature would reduce the tedium of describing a project. While inheritance is available regardless of the type of attribute defined, aggregation and accumulation are only available for those attributes that are "equal-to" a single, quantitative value. 4.4 Role of Reasoning With respect to the above-mentioned features of a physical representation of a project, Table 4-1 lists those properties that are relevant to the functioning of the automated scheduling procedure. Their values are either defined in the template, user-defined, or determined by the system through expert rules. The purpose of Table 4-1 is to make explicit where, and in what form, assistance can be provided by the system. Also, opportunities for additional assistance in the future are indicated in brackets (X). 54 Table 4-1: PCBS property definition when using automated scheduling features ' , \ • ' Property „. Determined by user- "', defined rule . base .^Softjeoded in Knipl.ite Tvpc of leasonini; that could be performed ami otliei Component path X X Paths for inserted location components can be created. Locations and subprojects paths may be modified by application program when combining templates. The position of sets of global locations in the PCBS hierarchy is also modified by the system. Component description X X Descriptions of locations may be modified by rules. Particularly for locations that are inserted during copying process. Component type X X Location components can be created. Memo X Attribute definition X Attribute value(s) (X) May be queried from user or determined through rules or aggregation. Attribute location range X Determined by rules. Attribute- aggregate values X Attribute- accumulate values X PCBS- inherit attribute definitions X Number of associated activities X Codes of associated activities X Examples of automated reasoning include the insertion, renaming, and redescribing locations to represent the scale of the project at hand. Location ranges can also be assigned to the attributes of a component and inherited down the hierarchy to all components and their attributes that are below it. The various tools that are available to perform these functions are demonstrated in sample rules contained in Chapter 6.0. 55 C H A P T E R 5.0 A C T I V I T I E S 5.1 Definition and Sequencing of Planning Structures Activities in the proposed system correspond to planning structures, as defined by Russell and Wong (1993). Figure 5-1 shows the menu of properties available to describe these activities. In this section, only selected properties are outlined, and then again only in the context of the application domain discussed in this thesis (i.e. highrise construction). The role of reasoning in defining these property values is then discussed. Figure 5-2 illustrates a number of planning structure properties. As shown, a planning structure can appear at multiple locations, and a requirement can be imposed that work at the various locations be carried out in an ordered location sequence. Locations need not be contiguous, and various regular work/skip location patterns can be readily accommodated. A typical 'ordered' planning structure is shown as activity A in Figure 5-2. For an ordered activity, time interruptions between locations are allowed. Alternatively, it is possible to impose a work continuity constraint, which requires that work, once started, must proceed without interruption until work at all locations is completed. (Note: A planning structure may involve only a single location. This thesis, however, is focused on projects that involve significant repetition.) Given the description of the activity and where it must be carried out, a production rate or duration has to be determined for each location. This is a function of the scope of work as determined by the PCBS attribute values, the resources/methods assigned, and anticipated productivity. The duration can be assigned directly, pr computed as a function of the variables just described. Logic links can then be used to describe relationships between activities. Shown in Figure 5-2 are two types of relationships - typical and non-typical. The typical relationship is used to describe the case where work at location 56 i+offset of an activity is a predecessor of work at location i of another activity. Such a situation is shown for activities A and B in Figure 5-2, with an offset of 1 (the so-called space buffer). A non-typical relationship is used when a linkage is required between location K of one activity and location J of another activity, as shown between the completion of activity B at location 3 and the start of activity C at location 2 in Figure 5-2. [TEMPL A TE/AC TIUIIY!DESCRIPTION UINDOU C:\REP500\PROJ10NHIRISE| Edit Uindou Add" Delete Renumber ..Options Sum_Act_Dir^ "Check Logic Exit Description Production Data Predecessor Successor . Internal.Logic Scope siAttributes Memo PCBS N8RBS Resource Cost Task Pay*Item. Account Code Records Summary activity Code G001 GOOZ G003 G004 G005 G006 GOO? G008 G009 G010 G011 G01Z G013 G014 GO 15 G01Ci| GO1700 Hang Interior Doors G01800 Baseboards G01900 Carpet G0Z000 Repair Trade Damage RESP Type Phase '' —-0 CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION FTfHcIp t i"":Scr"oll Eh'ter":Selcct"EscfExiL" Figure 5-1: Activity properties menu 57 Ordered planning structure. Activity must be executed in location order specified. Typical precedence relationship with offset=1 (i.e. location i+1 of activity A is predecessor to location i of activity B) ® © Non-typical precedence relationship (i.e. location K of activity B is predecessor to location J of activity C) 4 .1 3 8 f \ \ \ / \L \<y \ © 3 2 I \ \ \ ' \ \ _—• 1 [<-— : - r t . ^— k. Time Figure 5-2: Activity sequencing relationships Both typical and non-typical relationships can be further described in terms of relationship type and corresponding lag value: e.g. finish-start (FS), start-start (SS), finish-finish (FF), and start-finish (SF). Figure 5-3 depicts a precedence relationship screen for the activity F/R/M/E7 Typ Fir Slab (form, reinforce, sleeve, conduit typical floor slab) in the activity fragnet, High-rise Condominium. Note that beside each predecessor there are two user-controlled entries under the heading "logic". The first identifies whether the logic relationship is essential (E) or discretionary (D). The second entry, which is truncated due to space requirements, indicates the basis of the relationship. Both entries are selected from pop-up lists. The second list is shown, and currently treats the relationships articulated by Echeverry et al. (1991) and Winstanley et al. (1993). While passive (i.e. not used in the automated schedule generation process) and not imperative, this information allows the basis for the logic structure of the fragnet to be conveyed to others. 58 PTANDARD/FRAGNETS • C:\REP4NEU| (Fragnet HI IGH-RISE CONDO Constituent Task: VMp\ No. of Type | .Tail Typical Fredece Pred Const i SET CORE N Logic Explanation TProuides support _ _~ l i s cowered by t IjEnbedded in pLess flexible than PCloser to support MFarther from access MProtects lis protected by Required space occupied by Kbhpetes for crane uith No. of Non-Typical Pre TijpH Pred Const T Tusk i PREFAB FLi | Tusk I INSTALL-FIRST LIFT OF NANHOIST FS 0 | >.' Ta.k I MECH SLUG- GRND FLR COLS/UALLS FS 0 I fj T.nk 1 F/R/P/C/S GRND FLR COLS/UALLS FS 0 I I T<<!.k_ i ELEC CONDT GRND FLR COLS/UALLS FS 0 ' F B / F 9 ( - / * ) " Di-lxluw Pn d!:Li. . . - , i i i M Suitr.h In . - J I I I I . Offset Logic -1 fTl E Prouides"'s rJU IL* E P.ROUIDES„-S Logic E Prouides s E Prouides s E Prouides s E Prouides s I i l l i i i i l Figure 5-3: Activity fragnet - definition ofpredecessors 5.2 Role of Reasoning With respect to the foregoing activity properties, Table 5-1 lists those properties that are relevant to the functioning of the automated scheduling procedure. Their values are either user defined, soft-coded in the template, or determined by the system through a reasoning procedure. The purpose of Table 5-1 is to articulate where, and in what form, assistance is to be provided by the system. Also, opportunities for additional assistance in the future are indicated in brackets (X). Examples of automated reasoning include the assignment of location ranges and durations, which are the most useful functions that the rules can provide. Chapter 6 provides sample rules and demonstrates the flexibility of the tools available to write rules for assigning location ranges and durations. 59 •8 I 1 s •B • in % .2 •*= §• a. 3 (73 _ 0 5 rt aj g _ 1 > « Si 's; CQ £ -o •C rt 2 I I 2 £ a -o i — a K - I M I " 2 I .ST -S rt o JO S O T 3 o & u -o rt 8 g H i ; 2 | OJ "O > SS CJ M 3 A 1 / 1 — u u w £ c -p „ .2 T3 1> rt J8 u 3 J3 •O X) C ' £ u u v •s § i E §--5 o — U CQ O 2 y fe. g c rt ,§> JS c a E 2 rt r- C u •£ o 2 ^ 3 0 3 o 0 0 l~ w C — .S 2 «f rt c 5 u *H <2 3 g _ iA « 3 O a S to •Si X X X X X i X X I X X X ' X ' X I X 1 . 1 3 V « e £ X X X i X X i X .E ' E < < s 11 ..S i 2 Q rt: OH . CQ, ° U 60 In addition to assigning location ranges and durations to activities, it is of interest to elaborate graphically on at least two other types of situations related to scale that we are trying to treat with automated reasoning. They are discussed in the context of high-rise construction, although they are broadly applicable to other types of facilities. The first case deals with the situation where the scale of the facility is sufficiently large or resources sufficiently limited to require that work be performed in stages. Figure 5-4 depicts a scenario where the construction of the walls/columns and slab are lead activities. They are succeeded by activity A and have a non-typical predecessor relationship with activity B. The construction of the walls/columns and slab depends on the construction methods selected (e.g. bucket and crane technology for concrete pouring), and the resources (e.g. labour and formwork) that are made available. Assume that the methods and resources used to construct these elements are sufficient to complete the activities in one pass for a maximum floor plate size of say 1300 m2 (14000 ft2) (see Figure 5-4(a)). Any floor plate size exceeding this limit requires that the work be completed in stages. This basically involves the insertion of one replication of the original activity for each zone, and the addition of additional logic linking the zones. There are two general cases which are explored in this work, as depicted in Figure 5-4(b) and (c). Figure 5-4(b) shows the case where all activities in each stage or zone are completed sequentially before the next zone is started. This involves adding a relationship (i.e. finish-start) between the last activity of a zone and the first activity of the next zone. This relationship needs to be defined with a 'special' offset- meaning that the two activities are not constrained to having similar location ranges. Figure 5-4(c) shows the case where as soon as a zone of an activity is completed the next zone of that activity can commence, resulting in some overlapping. This involves adding a relationship (i.e. finish-start) between the zones of a single activity. As shown, this may result in one or more different activities 61 taking place in different zones simultaneously, but no single activity taking place in more than one zone at one time. In both cases, links with successor or predecessor activities must be maintained, as shown. Successor activities which are outside of the group of staged activities will maintain their link with the last zone of the original activity, while outside predecessor activities will maintain their link with the first zone of the original activity. Also, in both cases, a subsequent location is not started until all zones of all activities in the sequence are completed at the previous location. These cases cover the most general situations, and the sequential model can be used regardless of the coarseness of the activities being staged. However, in the case where overlap is desired, the components that are to be built in stages should be described by equally coarse component-level activities for the best results. For example, if both the walls and the slab need to be built in stages, but the slab construction can be started in the first zone while the walls in a later zone are still being completed, then the activities that are acted upon by the system should be 'build walls' and 'build slab'. If the activities describing the construction process are more detailed than what actually needs to be staged, the overlapping may be misleading. For example, in the previous situation, if the activities describe the details of constructing the walls and columns (i.e. form, reinforce, pour) then, in staging the components, the system must be told that all activities related to building the walls must be complete before starting the next zone and/or starting the slab. One solution that may be worth exploring in future work is the use of a hierarchical activity structure to represent the detailed tasks required to complete a higher level activity. However, the model proposed in this work provides the user with a significant head start. In any case, the user is free to change the logic relationships and lags to modify the extent of overlapping. 62 (a) 4 .1 3 2 1 8 o No staging for walls/columns (W) and floor slab (S) activities. Scale is below limit. / V /,•••••-/ . ,<© , • Time (b) 2 stages for each of walls/columns (W) and floor slab (S) activities (with successor A and predecessor B). Each zone is sequential. (c) I 3 8 i i 2 1 2 stages for each of walls/columns (W) and floor slab (S) activities (with successor A and predecessor B). Some overlapping of zones. ^ d x _ur_._.^:. 1_._4:_._._.L \k.<^T_.. Time (W) Walls/columns Qn Slab CA) Typical Successor activity (B) Non-typical Predecessor activity Figure 5-4: Splitting an activity into stages to reflect scale 63 The second case deals with the opposite situation - the scale is sufficiently small that concerns exist about how much work can be ongoing in a shared space simultaneously. While a non-zero offset is generally soft-coded in the template, Figure 5-5 illustrates an example of how a rule may be used to introduce an offset when space is constrained. In this example, activity A is in a predecessor relationship with two other unrelated activities, B and C, which represent the work of two different trades. As long as there is sufficient space, activities B and C may be carried out simultaneously (see Figure 5-5(a)). However, if space is constrained, a rule should be fired to introduce an offset relationship between activity A and one of its successors, in this case activity C, in order to ensure a spatial separation between the two successors (see Figure 5-5(b)). This type of reasoning can be carried out, in part, at the local activity level, as only immediate predecessors or successors need be examined. (a) (b) Time Figure 5-5: Introducing an offset relationship due to space constraints 64 CHAPTER 6.0 PROJECT TEMPLATES AND AUTOMATED SCHEDULE GENERATION This chapter includes implementation details of the templates and expert rules, and includes examples of their application. The concept of templates was introduced in Chapter 3, and an overview of the approach adopted was presented in Figure 3-1. The automated scheduling features described in this thesis have been added to a research system called REPCON, which was developed under DOS. Much of the interface work described herein has been added to the existing system under a Windows 95 environment, with calls being made to DOS routines where appropriate. All of the coding involved in the implementation has been done by William Wong. The primary goal of the implementation is to prove the concepts outlined in the previous chapters, in a way that demonstrates their validity for full-scale projects. To move beyond the proof of concept stage, much work remains to make the user interface as intuitive as possible, particularly for defining rules. However, this chapter successfully demonstrates the workability of the ideas underlying the proposed approach. Extensive use is made of system screens to illustrate various concepts and to depict implementation details. Figure 6-1 provides an overview of the steps taken to transform one or more templates into a project using expert help. If the user wishes to simply copy and merge templates without expert help, all of these steps, except 4 and 8, still apply. Each mode of use will be described in detail in this chapter. 65 Standard Side Project Side Expert Project Template Expert Project Template Expert Project Template I ligli-riM- Condominium Project I'C BS Template Standard components and attribute definitions Locution >cl definitions Project Process Template Ac;;\ ity Jcfinuior. Standard Rule Set (Knowledge Base) Stores rules for setting up the PCBS structure, editing the activity list based on project phases, and determining activity locations, (luiatinn* and suiuinc. User creates template list, specifies activity numbering buffer, and selects front and/or back end phases to be truncated from each template System copies each PCBS from template to project side System fires PCBS rules to insert and name locations, assign location ranges to other components, and assign attribute values. Bey System creates Project PCBS: • Redefines paths to identify subprojects • Relocates common location sets User makes any additional changes to PCBS before requesting to move on to activity copying Expert Project Template Expert Project Template Expert Project Template High-rise Condominium Projvci IH BS Tcmplatc Standard ci.ni>inerH ai.ui i'llii l.i.i- .!i-fi:i.'i;i' Project Process Template Activity definition Sequencing logic Standard Rule Set (Knowledge liase) Stores rules for setting up the PCBS structure, editing the activity list based on project phases, and determining activity locations; durations ands staeine. System copies the activities of the selected phases from each template to project side © ^ System fires the activity rules to determine activity durations, and staging. \jj User specifies the logic links between activities of different subprojects and initiates generation of the schedule. y System creates Project activity list: Renumbers activities Updates associations between activities and PCBS components. Defines the association between each activity and a subproject. Determines the location range for each activity based on its associated PCBS components' locations. Creates a master phase list for the project. Figure 6-1: Overview of the copying, merging and expert template mode 66 6.1 Template Structure The template forms allow the user to input all of the same information as for a project, other than that relating to project scale or timing. A project template is made up of a PCBS template and a process or activity template. Each PCBS template contains only one Subproject node and no Project elements. The definition of Location elements in the template is optional. This differs from the Project side where at least one Project and one Location node must be defined. Location sets on the Template side may contain predefined locations or may remain empty until the scale is defined when copying the template to the project. Templates do not contain information pertaining to the scale of the project, so only locations of a global nature would typically be predefined. Certain associations are also not available in the PCBS template, including associations with multi-media records and as-built data. Similarly, attributes can only be defined, but no values assigned, in the template. Reports containing the template's components, attributes, and activity associations can be generated. A template's activity information includes much the same information as a project, other than location ranges, durations, and, generally, activity staging. As with the PCBS, reference to as-built and project records are also unavailable in template mode. The activity description, responsibility code, phase and typical logic relationships between activities are input into the template, and this information can be output into a report. Since non-typical logic relationships generally link a specific location of one activity with a specific location of its successor or predecessor, the details of these types of relationships cannot generally be entered into the template. The user must fill the location fields after the template is copied to the project side, and the scale of the project is known. However, certain non-typical logic 67 relationships can be input by using the linguistic descriptors FIRST, LAST or ALL in the activity location and predecessor/successor location fields. For example, these descriptors allow one to input the non-typical relationship: "The FIRST location of Activity A will not start until ALL of the locations of Activity B are complete". In other words, these descriptors allow some non-typical relationships to be represented in a general manner in templates, without knowledge of the scale of the project or construction order of the locations. The system can interpret them at the time of execution of the schedule once the scale and construction order is known. 6.2 Copying and Merging Templates If the user decides to define a new project using predefined templates, but without using expert rules to modify them to reflect the project's scale and scope, they would make use of the Copy Templates mode under the New Project menu items (Figure 6-2). This menu option brings up a window in which the user can create a list of templates to represent the various subprojects comprising the overall project, using any combination, repetition, or number needed (Figure 6-3). Because the system identifies each subproject by a letter of the alphabet, the number of subprojects that may comprise a project is limited to twenty-six (26). The user may also go through each template and modify the scope of responsibility for each subproject by clicking on the "Phases" button. This option brings up the screen shown in Figure 6-4, which allows the user to truncate, or delete, the front or back end phases of the template by selecting them. When copying the activity list to the project side, the system will not copy activities assigned to any of the truncated phases. The standard phase list shown in Figure 6-4 is the same for each template regardless of whether or not the activities in the 68 template have actually been assigned to all of them, so some knowledge of the template is needed by the user. The phases included in the standard list are: concept/feasibility, design/engineering, procurement, construction, and commissioning. Truncating this list permits a contractor who is only responsible for the procurement and construction phases to prune, for example, any other front and back end phases from the schedule. Once the templates that are to be used are identified, they are copied over from the standard side to the project side by the system control program. The system control program contains certain procedures for copying and merging the templates over to the project side (see Figure 6-5). It treats the PCBS structures first, before treating the activities. \n\x\ REPCON5 File New Eroject_View _'Iemg§|B_View Standards Help ]m 2^^ ^m< Define Directly Open Iemplate - J^ JJSEHS^ SB: N Expert Project Delete Rename Duplicate ' \ Duplicate as Iemplate Report Manager Dos Report Mi - . Configuration Exit Copy template to the new project Figure 6-2: Copy Template menu selection 69 Select Repcon Template Available Templates IE] PROJ05MOWER Proj06\TWRDET PROJ07\TWRSIM PROJ08\HIRISE PROJ09 \BRIDGE •i J Selected -Templates PROJ05\TOWER PROJ05VTOWER PR0J09XBP.IDGE < <Efimove PR0J1 PR0J1 PR0J1 Proj 1 Proj 1 PR0J3 ONHIRISE 1\L0RISE 2XPRKADE 3\BRPHYS 4\BRSEP 7VTEST love Ehases ^Activity Numbering.-Buffer Between Templates: [5 j OK Cancel Figure 6-3: Create subproject list from template library Select Repcon Template Available Templates PROJ05NTOWER Proj06\TWRDET PROJ07XTWRSIM PROJ08NHIRISE PP.OJ09\BRIDGE PROJIONHIRISE PR0J11\L0RISE PR0J12\PRKADE Proj13\BRPHYS Proj14\BRSEP PR0J37\TEST Selected Templates < <Remove [ Move PROJ05\TOWER PROJ05\TOWER P R O J 0 9 \ B R I D G E Ehases I V BRIDGE;: Prune Template Phases PPOJDg^ BRIDGE C O N C E P T / F E A S I B I L I T Y D E S I G N / E N G I N E E R I N G PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION -.Activity Numbering" Buffer, Between Template ICOMMI S S I OWING OK OK Cancel Figure 6-4: Selection ofphases for truncating the template 70 TEMPLATE (Sj ^'.Stores all of the standard; ' 1 - data for each of the ; .standard project views. 01'' SYSTEM CONTROL, * - v > <.' \' ' „ PROGRAM , v • Jyl-Pertqrms the hard-coded command functions or ^"x'.&procedures related to copying'-. f$ <*• ?Rd templates "< & < r • Writes this mlormjtion to thv. tK%Xpfoject'data files. I SLR IMERTU i; • 1 he user pros ides input about the projea hs '; responding to the system's • queries. J ' PROJECT N • Stores all ol the data iceeisol Mom the application piogram and ssstun coniml piogiam loi the project under Figure 6-5: Copying and merging templates 6.2.1 Copying and merging the PCBS structures The system first copies over the PCBS structures under a project node. Each template is given a subproject name by changing the path name of its subproject node to 'A', 'B', ' C etc. If two or more templates have identical location sets containing identical predefined locations (i.e. the number of locations in that location set will not vary with project type or scale), then those sets are deleted from the subprojects, or local level, and one copy of each is moved to the project, or global, level. This is illustrated in Figure 6-6, which represents a project comprising of two towers and a bridge. The figure shows the transformation of the PCBS templates, which contain common location sets with and without predefined locations, into a project PCBS. Any further modifications and the insertion of locations into the 71 remaining location sets are up to the user to do manually after the system has finished copying over the activities of the process templates that correspond to selected project templates. 72 O o if! a cc • • m co W ^ a! 15 8 3= * CO co.w. CO'CJ _ i o CJ OS. O.Oi CO OS. CO,ft. US. . u a ; ,u «- «: _>•_:-•_: K w - o : P H W CO JE tc CO P5-I 05 '_1-W"l->-3 » 0 : I.CJ;S_ >- '3 i . « 0 . O « . I W K O -' + < + > + > I CO CO CO feCO — f O M • O CO I 'M =) i.OS-l-' !••_) o: l - K _ > . i ; o - a s . IfPSSCJ; ;.<-•«:• i co w.<: .u.:a —•:o —: * -<E i -l-w-.l W PC: W . _ l : . :a->U U I to co'C ( o • a — 95 •«-".• =>,0. »-« _5 ; O-PS 3J;rti CC-CO CO Ed ea'cv = .=> CO CO' b3 • W . • D5't-i.«= - J . _HO;!— <e • f-'."_lilr-CJ'- eves « rt -z: t r co tc <n H - cc i -x . w c o u to U <J3 CQ 0 , e w ; « ; _ i . 3 D JE.~i;CO CO ICO cc CO CO I U iS u a •—> cr. o « to (0 id U 0 '0 a a a SH.-.C- c »> c •«: O ' O -o u o o — — . E « . « " . - - " , - ; B . . B ' E •rj+j.'-K .IU i) u " -S -H .—' u *> a 0:--« *>,*• 0 - : S : « + • . + > ? + » • fc- O - O D » H fa 0 , 0 M M ; W . . . Bi 'O O 3131 31:.o. O O 31-31 31 a>0--.0. XI - J >^1 CO CO'CO.rt N J rtCO:CO'C0»a"rt)-J-iCO co co co: , :+>. c c •,o -o • o ,.. 0) — — E - Its- «frt . ; Q . - C ai 73 6.2.2 Copying and merging the activity lists When treating the activities, the system copies the activity list of each template in sequence. Activities belonging to phases that have been truncated during the creation of the template list are not copied. The codes of the first template's, or subproject's, activities remain the same as defined in the template. The activities of the subsequent subprojects are given the next available number (while keeping the same responsibility code (i.e. first two digits)). For example, if the last activity of the first template under the responsibility code 'G' is numbered 'GOl 100' the first activity of the next template with the code 'G' will be numbered 'GO 1200'. The user has the option of specifying an activity numbering buffer between subprojects, which will be applied for each responsibility code. This buffer leaves a specified amount of activity numbers available between subprojects so that the user may add activities if needed. For example, if the last activity of the first template under the responsibility code 'G' is numbered 'G01100" and a buffer of 5 is specified, the first activity of the next template with the code 'G' will be numbered 'G01700'. Five activity numbers (i.e. G01200, G01300, GO 1400, GO 1500, GO 1600) are kept available in case the user decides to add activities to a subproject at a later date. Because the numbering of a large number of activities has been changed in the copying process, all of the predefined associations between activities and other views (including the physical view) as well as the relationships between activities must be updated to reflect the new activity numbers. Likewise, the field specifying to which subproject each activity belongs must be updated with the name given to each subproject by the system. 74 The system also assigns default location ranges to each activity by looking up the location ranges assigned to the PCBS components to which the activity is associated. For example if the activity 'pour walls' is associated with the walls element in Subproject B, and that element is assigned locations BMN to BPH, then the activity 'pour walls' will also be assigned this location range. If an activity is not associated with any PCBS component, then the system automatically assigns all of the subproject's locations to it as a default. 6.3 Expert System Assistance In addition to having the system copy and merge templates to represent a project, the user may also make use of the expert system capabilities to modify the template to reflect the scale of the project. Similarly to the copying process, the expert system mode treats the PCBS first and then the activities. 6.3.1 Overview of expert system structure The expert system is comprised of three components: the rule file(s), the application program, and the inference engine. These components receive data from the template(s) and user input. A separate rule file is needed for the PCBS and the activities. The same inference engine and application program, however, can handle both parts. Expert assistance simply extends the capabilities of the system by adding an application program containing procedures that can be triggered by user-specified external rules attached to a template and interpreted by the inference engine. 75 6.3.1.1 Rule file Use is made of two separate rule files in order to set up a project using expert mode. The first is-for setting up the PCBS, and the other is for setting up the activities. The rules take the form of if-then statements using predicate calculus syntax (i.e. IF conditions are satisfied, THEN action is taken). A rule can also consist of several statements that provide alternative actions if one or more of the conditions are not satisfied (i.e. IF condition is satisfied, THEN action is taken, ELSE alternative action is taken). Currently rules are edited as an ASCII file. As part of future work, it may be desirable to develop a macro-style interface to ease the task of writing rules with minimum knowledge of predicate calculus. Since a separate rule file is attached to each template and because the basic PCBS components and activities are known when writing the rule file, the knowledge that it embodies can be as specific to the type of project that it represents as the template developer desires. The predicate syntax arid predefined command functions allow significant flexibility in the types of reasoning that can be performed. Specific examples of this are presented in the later sections. 6.3.1.2 Inference engine The inference engine is a set of rules that provides the system, or application program, with the ability to reason about the knowledge base. The role of the inference engine is to interact with the application program and the rule base to prove whether or not the conditions in the rule base are satisfied (i.e. they are TRUE) and, in the case that they are, to return a value to the application program. A number of predicates can be evaluated by the inference engine 76 without using the application program to access the template files. These include predicates that are used internally within a rule, as well as predicates that perform numerical and character string comparisons, arithmetic operations, and logical comparisons of predicate expressions. The evaluation of the rest of the predicates and their processing relies on information from REPCON's template files, which is made available by the application program. Similarly, the inference engine can perform a small number of predefined actions or command functions without consulting the application program. Those that modify REPCON project data however, must be carried out by the application program. Sections 6.3.2, 6.3.3, and 6.3.4 describe in greater detail all of the predicates and command functions, their definitions, and whether they are handled by the application program or the inference engine. The application program developed as part of this work is capable of handling the automated scheduling of a wide variety of project types. Other application programs could and have been developed for different types of applications such as corrective action decision support, or methods selection. While each of these applications, or knowledge bases, has its own application program, the same inference engine can be used in each case. The interaction between the application program, the inference engine, and the rule base is explained in Section 6.3.1.4. 6.3.1.3 Application program The application program consults the template files and translates any relevant information into predicate form. The application program also stores procedures or command functions which may be triggered by the firing of a rule in the template's rule base. These command functions usually result in the modification of creation of REPCON project files. Generally, 77 an application program processes a single rule file, resulting in a different application program for each type of rule set. In the case of automated schedule generation, however, the process requires two different rule files, one for the PCBS rules and one for the activity rules. Because both rule files are components of the automated schedule generation application, a single application program, capable of handling a broad range of project types, has been developed to process both the PCBS and the activity rule files. 6.3.1.4 Interaction between the expert system components Figure 6-7 shows the interaction between the different components of the expert system. The application program sets up the environment in which the inference engine can be used. It goes through the REPCON PCBS data files and activity data files and retrieves all of the information that it needs to be able to evaluate the predicates listed in Sections 6.3.2 to 6.3.4. This information is organised in a format that is usable by the inference engine. The files that will be used to store information received from the inference engine are also set up at this time. The true or false value that is returned by each of the predicates is stored in temporary memory which will be accessed by the inference engine. The evaluation of the predicates is done on a global basis. In other words predicates are evaluated for each and every component of the combined PCBS during PCBS copying and for each and every activity during activity copying. Each component or activity is uniquely identified by its path name, or activity code and template name. 78 RILE FILE > Instruv-tinn-. on how to 'x modify a particular," template's data stiuetuie-. In re-lleet the pmicet's scale ^ „ , , ' i I I ' -T:f;TEMPLATE(S) • Stores all of the standard data for each of the standard project views • • i i 1 ' , INFERENCE ENGINE „• ',. ^ .Cb'mmuriicate^ witK1^^ ^^ ' • ;Y/application program to;%:J?,-,s ' send and receivetS&'iK^ y?? , infonriation/fe~.^ $.i^ ->-% .5 n:\fPOR.IR) UEUOR) » Stores predicate values horn the applicant program so that th< lnlcicncc engine can retrieve them * 'MWSYSTEMGONTROL PROGRAM /•y^ lPJnpr^ jffi^ hafd%ode(l S^ c^ommandilfunctibns •< ir procedures;related to copying S*SfeWntes\this!infonnatioii to the-%^ #.&protect data^ fi les %?» c » w s Application Program Translates information from the user and template into predicate form. Calls the inference engine to interpret the rules that may trigger its command functions. J . PROJECT. • " Stores all of the data received from the •application program and system control program for the project under consideration .. ^ ' - -USER INTERFACE The user provides input about the project by responding to the system's queries Figure 6-7: Interaction between expert system components When the inference engine is called, it goes through each of the rules to determine to which component or activity it applies, and whether or not it needs to fire. The application program passes it the case-specific data that it has stored in temporary memory in the form of a predicate expression. These predicates form the arguments of the rules. When a rule is established as true (i.e. the IF condition is satisfied), it 'fires' (i.e. the T H E N side of the rule, containing the action, can be applied). The rule may require the inference engine to assign unknown values or to request user input in assigning unknown values to variable predicate 79 arguments. The rule may then require that this information be passed back to the application program along with a command function for updating REPCON's data files. The evaluation procedure then continues with the next rule in the rule file. The inference engine repeats the passes through the rule file until they trigger no further actions. 6.3.2 Predicate and rule syntax In order for the REPCON inference engine to process a rule, the conditions that determine whether the rule is to be fired must be written as predicate expressions in an ASCII file by the user. The basic concepts used to form these predicates and rules are described in some detail below. While this interface is sufficient for the purposes of this thesis, a more intuitive interface should be developed in the future in order to move beyond proof of concept, and develop a more user-friendly tool. For example, an interface which could request input from the user, and then translate this information into rules which are understandable by the system would be worth pursuing. A predicate expression takes the form: predicate_name(X 1, X2, ...) The number of arguments that a given predicate takes is constant. This number is either determined when the inference engine first encounters the predicate, if the predicate is defined internally to the rules, or is defined in the application program. The exceptions to this are the predefined predicates AND, OR, MIN, and MAX, for which the number of arguments may vary. 80 A variable name starts with the character '@'. '@' by itself is an unnamed variable. All other strings are constants. The NOT modifier can be used by placing the word 'not' in front of the predicate name. This replaces the ' - ' character which was used in previous thesis work that made use of this syntax. It served a similar purpose as 'not' but could not treat variables as arguments. Predicate expressions return either TRUE, or FALSE. To illustrate, consider the following simple examples: weather(monday, sunny) - returns TRUE if the weather on Monday was sunny, FALSE if the weather was not sunny or is unknown. not(weather(monday, sunny)) - returns TRUE if the weather on Monday was not sunny, FALSE if it was sunny or is unknown. , weather(Monday, @X) - returns TRUE along with the value of the variable @X if the weather has been entered, FALSE if no value for Monday's weather has been entered. A rule is represented in the following way: #ifpredicate(Xl,X2, ...) #then $action Y l Y2 ... #else $actionZl Z2 ... #end 81 In this format, '#' is a delimiter that begins a statement and is a delimiter that indicates an allowable action (command function) that can be taken by the application program or the inference engine. The predicate expression(s) forms the conditions that return the values TRUE or FALSE to determine the corresponding action that is to be taken. Note that predicate arguments are enclosed by parentheses and separated by commas, while the arguments of command functions are not. 6.3.2.1 Predicates and command functions that can be treated by the inference engine As mentioned previously, a small number of predicates and command functions are predefined and understood by the inference engine. Four of these predicates perform logical comparisons: AND(predicate(Xl,X2, ...), predicate(Xl, X2, ...),...) - returns the value TRUE if all of the predicate expressions within the outer brackets returns TRUE, FALSE if one or more of the predicate expressions returns FALSE. OR(predicate(Xl,X2, ...), predicate(Xl, X2, ...),...) - returns the value TRUE if one or more of the predicate expressions within the outer brackets returns TRUE, FALSE if none of the predicate expressions returns TRUE. MIN(@R, XI, X2, ...) - returns TRUE with @R set to the minimum value of the arguments XI to Xn. 82 MAX(@R, X1, X2, ...) - returns TRUE with @R set to the maximum value of the set of arguments XI to Xn. Another predefined predicate expression is capable of handling arithmetic operations: =(@X, Y) - where @X is a variable and Y is an arithmetic expression (e.g. = (@X, (5*4)) assigns the value 20 to the variable @X). There are six predefined predicates that perform numerical string comparisons. Each of these takes 2 numeric expressions or variables as arguments: = =(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if xl equals x2. ! =(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if xl does not equal x2. > =(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if xl is greater than or equal to x2. < =(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if xl is less than or equal to x2. >(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if xl is greater than x2. <(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if xl is less than x2. There are two predefined predicates that perform string comparisons. These are: NE(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if the character strings are not identical. EQ(xl, x2) - returns TRUE if the character strings are identical Finally, there are five predefined predicates that had to be added to the inference engine for the purposes of this work. These are: 83 string_copy(dest, src, count) - copies the specified number (count) of characters from the source (src) string to the destination (dest) string, and returns the value TRUE. For example, string_copy(@s_no, @subproject_path, 9) copies the first 9 characters of the subproject path (i.e. "PROJECT.A") and assigns them to the destination variable '@s_no' (subproject number). This is particularly useful for verifying that two PCBS components belong to the same subproject (i.e. belong to the same path). string_cat(dest, srcl, src2) - concatenates the strings from source 1 (srcl) and source 2 (src2), assigns them to the destination (dest) string, and returns the value TRUE. For example, string_cat(@LN, @X, FDN) where @X has been assigned the subproject name (i.e. 'A'), assigns 'AFDN' to the destination string '@LN' (location name). This is useful for composing location names that include the system assigned subproject name (i.e.A,B,C...). string_search(@dest, @pattern) - searches a string (@dest) for the specified pattern. For example, it can identify any activity descriptions containing the word "form", and use this as a condition for firing a duration rule. 84 string_loc_copy(@dest, @src, @count, @no.of characters) - assigns the specified number of characters from the source string to the destination string, starting at the specified character (counting from left to right). For example, to identify the number of the location "APH3" as "3", the predicate would be 'string_loc_copy(@dest, @LP, 4,1)'where @LP has been assigned the location name APH3 through the'component'predicate. While this may have other uses, this has been added primarily due to the need to know how many locations of a certain type are present as a condition of certain activity rules. In many cases, this variable was assigned as a temporary variable during the processing of the PCBS rules, and is therefore unknown once the system has proceeded to the activity rules. member(@key, item 1, item 2, item 3, ...) - returns TRUE if there is a match between the key and one of the items listed. For example, member(@code, GOO 100, G00500) will return TRUE if the code of the activity under consideration is GOO 100 or G00500. This is equivalent to the more 85 awkward expression: or(eq(@code, GOO 100), eq(@code, G00500). Other predicate expressions may be introduced within a rule file to define a temporary variable that will be used within that file. These can be named and created as needed and can be "understood" by the inference engine. Since such predicates are unique to a particular rule file, they will be discussed in the sections that follow. Only three command functions are predefined in the inference engine. These are: 1) $define predicate(Xl, X2, ...) - evaluates a predicate value to be TRUE. This may also return a value to the application program along with TRUE. 2) $delete predicate(Xl, X2, ...) - evaluates a predicate value to be FALSE. 3) $ask predicate(Xl, X2, ...) input_type... list of messages to be displayed on the screen $end_ask This input command is used to elicit information from the user. Note that the messages that are displayed on the screen may contain variables that are determined by the system, prior to displaying the message. There are four input types, 0, 1, 2, 3: • 0 accepts a Y (yes) or N (no). A default value may also be specified, however, if left blank, the system assumes that the default is N (no). $ask predicate(Xl, X2, ...) 0 default e.g. $ask assign_attribute(@path) 0 Y Do you wish to assign attributes to the component? 86 $end_ask 1 accepts numeric input. The value input by the user will be assigned to the variable that is replaced by '?' in the $ask command. Length of input field, lower bound, upper bound and a default value may also be specified. $askpredicate(Xl, X2, ?,...) 1 length_of_input_field lowerbound upperbound default e.g. $ask nloc(@location_set_path, ?) 1 2 1 99 1 How many locations does this location set have? $end_ask 2 accepts a character string of specified length. This may be used when entering durations since the format for a duration is DD/HH/MM (days/hours/minutes). However, if a numeric value is entered, the system assumes that it is in days and translates it to the string format (i.e. 3.5 would be translated to 3/4/0 assuming an 8 hour workday). The value input by the user will be assigned to the variable that is replaced by '?' in the $ask command. $ask predicate(Xl ,X2, !,.. .)! length_of_input_field e.g. $ask duration(@code ©location ?) 2 10 What is the duration of activity "950200 Install doors" at location ©location? $end_ask 3 accepts a selection from a list. The value input by the user will be assigned to the variable that is replaced by '?' in the $ask command. $askpredicate(Xl,X2, ?,...)2 (item 1, item2, ...) default 87 e.g. $ask component(@path, subproject, ?, @name) 2 (bridge, officetower, condominium_hirise) bridge Select description for this subproject $end_ask All other actions are performed by the application program(s). They differ from the actions described above in that they usually perform system operations on the project data files. 6.3.2.2 PCBS predicates, command functions, and rules Several sample rule files for setting up the PCBS are included in the appendices. These show the flexibility and potential customisation of the rules. Each one shows the screens of the original template PCBS structure, and how it appears on the project side after it has been transformed by the rules. A brief paragraph at the start of each example explains what the rules are trying to achieve. In order to better understand the sample rule files, the following discussion defines the predicates and command functions used and translates some of the common rules into English. Table 6-1 shows the predicate definitions that are predefined in the application program, and can therefore be used in the rules to trigger modifications, or actions, to the project PCBS data files. In reviewing the sample rule files, one may notice the presence of predicates other than those listed in Table 6-1. These are intermediate predicates that are defined and used as needed within the rules. Since these predicates are not needed by the application program, they can be named and created as needed by the template developer. Examples of these types of predicates include: 88 assign_attribute(@path) - tracks whether the user has said 'yes' to assigning attribute values to the specified component. assign_nloc(@location_set_path) - tracks whether the location set has had locations added to it. assign_location_range(@path) - tracks whether a location range has been assigned to the component's attributes and its children. assignsubproj ect_location_range(@subproj ect_path) - tracks whether all of the locations within a subproject have been assigned to its attributes. done(@path) - tracks whether the component has been treated by the rules. ntyp(@ntyp), nph(@nph), etc... - intermediate variables that are introduced to add greater refinement to the rules. 89 Table 6-1: PCBS predicate definitions current_template(@template_path) Stores the current template path i.e. "Project.A", "Prqject.B", etc. component(@path, @type, @description, @name) Stores each component's identifying data including path (i.e. Project.A. 1, Project.B.2.4, etc.), type (i.e. Subproject, Location Set, Location, System, Subsystem, Element, Subelement), description (i.e. office tower, column, etc.), and name/path index (i.e. A, 1, SDWG, AFDN, etc.) location_set(@subproj ect_path, @location_set_path) Stores the component and component's parent's path. The rules apply only to location sets that are defined under a subproject (not under a project node). location(@location_set_path, @location_path) Stores the component and component's parent's path. In expert mode, locations are always defined under a location set. system(@subproj ect_path, @system_path) Stores the component and component's parent's path. System is always defined directly under the subproject node subsystem(@system_path, @subsystem_path) Stores the component and component's parent's path. Subsystem is always defined under a system. element(@parent_path, @element_path) Stores the component and component's parent's path. Element may be defined under a subproject, system, or subsystem. subelement(@element_path, @subelement_path) Stores the component and component's parent's path. Subelement is always defined under an element. nloc(@location_set_path, @no_of locations) Stores the number of locations within the location set of the given path name. *Note that these predicates can also be used in the activity rule file, since they are evaluated and stored in memory before the activities are treated. Table 6-2 defines the command functions, or actions, that the PCBS application program can perform. The basic actions that these command functions allow you to specify in creating the rule file are insert and rename locations in location sets, and assign location ranges to the attributes of a component and all of the component's children. Each rule file starts with the following IF statement: #if and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, ©description, @X), current_template(@tp_path), string_copy(@s_no, @subproject_path, 9), eq(@s_no, @tpj>afh)) 90 This rule states that "If a component is a subproject, with a given subproject path, description, and name (referred to as the variable (@X)), and the template path is 'PROJECT. A' (for example), and the first 9 characters of the subproject path are equal to the first 9 characters of the template path, then proceed to the following rules". This rule is essential for checking that the correct rule file be used on the current template. In other words, the application program makes each template 'current' in turn, and applies the rules in that template to the components that belong to the same template. 91 Table 6-2: PCBS command functions $delete_tree @subproject _path ©description Within the specified subproject, delete all components, and their children, with the specified description. $assign_location_set_pcbs @path @location_set_path (@location_set_path) Assigns the first and last locations of the specified location set (or the first location of the first location set and last location of the second location set) as a range to the specified component and its attributes and copies this range to all components and their attributes that are lower in the hierarchy. $assign_subproject_location_range_pcbs @subproject_path Assigns all of the locations of all of the location sets defined under the specified subproject to the subproject and its attributes and copies this range to all components and their attributes that are lower in the hierarchy. Sassign inserted locations_pcbs @path @L1 (@L2) Assigns an individual location (LI) or range (L1-L2) of locations that were inserted during the copying process, to the specified component and its attributes and copies this range to all components and their attributes that are lower in the hierarchy. Uses the specified string without doing any checks for changes in its name (since it was inserted after the PCBS was copied). $assign_predefined locations_pcbs @path @L1 (@L2) Assigns an individual location (LI) or range (L1-L2) of locations that were predefined in the template, to the specified component and its attributes and copies this range to all components and their attributes that are lower in the hierarchy. The system verifies if the name has changed in the copying process and, if so, uses the new name. $call_attribute_screen @path Call up the 'assign attributes' screen for the specified component. Allow the user to enter values and then, when completed, continue with the next rule. Sinsertloc @location_set_path @no of locations Insert the specified number of locations under the specified location set. Srenameloc @location_set_path @name_ ? @description_ ? @start location @finish_location @location_increment @start_value @value_increment Assigns the specified name and description by iterating from the start location to the finish location by the location increment amount. The value assigned to replace the '?' in the name and/or description is iterated from the specified start value by the value increment amount. The first part of the rule file, after this initial check, generally treats the inserting and renaming of locations. A typical rule in this part of the file may include: #if assignjiloc(@location_set_path) • #else $defme assign_nloc(@location_set_path) #if and(nloc(@location_set_path, @Y), = =(@Y, 0)) #then Sdelete nloc(@location_set_path, @Y) 92 $ask nloc(@location_set_path, ?) 1 2 1 99 Subproject @X ©description Number of substructure locations $end_ask #if and(nloc(@location_set_path, @nloc), component(@location_set_path, "location set", @dscrp, @)) #then $insertloc @location_set_path @nloc #if string_cat(@LN, @X, FDN)) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path @LN "FOUNDATIONS" #end #if and(<=(2, @nloc), string_cat(@LN, @X, P), =(@S, @nloc-l)) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path "@LN"? "PARKING LEVEL ?" 2 @nloc 1 @S -1 #end #end #end What this rule is saying is: "If locations have already been inserted to this location set by way of the rules, then do nothing. Otherwise, first set the tracking predicate to TRUE in order to tell the application program that next time this rule is encountered locations will have been inserted. Then, if the location set is empty (i.e. does not contain predefined locations), ask the user how many locations are part of this set. Insert the specified number of locations into the location set. Form a character string by combining the subproject name (e.g. 'A', 'B', ' C , etc.) and the string 'FDN'. Assign this name to the first location, along with the description 'FOUNDATIONS'. 93 If two or more locations have been inserted to this location set, then form a character string (@LN) by combining the subproject name and the character 'P'. Cycle through the locations starting at location 2 and ending at the last ('@nloc') location. Assign the ' @ L N _ ' string as the path name of each, and TARKING LEVEL ' to the description while filling the blank with a number starting at @nloc-l and iterating by -1 (e.g. if the total number of locations is 4 and the current subproject is 'A', then the parking levels will be named AP3, AP2,AP1)." Once all of the locations have been inserted, rules containing information about assigning these locations to the components are fired. Any activities that are associated with the components will inherit the component's location ranges. This is important to keep in mind when writing the rules especially if you do not intend to take the time to assign values to all of the attributes. Refining the location ranges through rules can provide significant efficiencies in the copying process and, while further refinement may be done in the activity rules, it may, in many cases, be easier to do in the PCBS rules because use can still be made of temporary predicates and variables. The first rule may assign all of the subproject's locations to all of the subproject's components. This would be written as follows: #if assign_location_range(@subproj ect_path) #else Sdefine assign_location_range(@subproject_path) $assign_subproj ect_location_range_pcbs @subproj ect_path #end 94 A simple translation of this rule is: "If this subproject has already had a location range assigned to it, then skip to the next rule. Otherwise, record that this subproject has now had a location range assigned to it, and assign all of the subproject's locations to the subproject component and all component's lower than it in the hierarchy." Later rules may either assign individual predefined locations, individual locations inserted in the copying process, or the first and last location of a location set to a component. A rule that assigns the first and last location of a location set, for example, may be as.follows: #if and(system(@subproject_path, @system_path), component(@system_path, system, superstructure, @), not(done(@system_path))) #then $defme done(@system_path) if assign_location_range(@system_path) #else #if and(location_set(@subproj ect_path, @physical_location_set_path), component(@physical_location_set_path, "location set", "physical location set", @)) #then Sdefine assign_location_range(@system_path) $assign_location_set_pcbs @system_path @physical_location_set_path #end #end #end This rule states that: "If there is a superstructure system below the subproject in the hierarchy, and this system has not yet been treated, then define this system as 'done'. If this system has not yet had a location range assigned to it, and if there is a location set in the subproject's hierarchy called 'physical location set', then define the superstructure system 95 as having been assigned a location range, and assign the first and last location of the physical location set to the superstructure system." Some thought was also given to allowing changes to be made to the PCBS tree. Thus, the function $delete_tree was defined, which allows a branch of the tree to be deleted. However, at present, the use of this function is not recommended, as any changes in the physical systems of a project would likely result in changes to the activity list and, hence, to the sequencing logic. In keeping with the philosophy outlined in Chapter 3, such changes in the physical makeup of a project should be represented by a new template, rather than by significantly modifying the PCBS of an existing template through rules. Once no more PCBS rules are being fired, the application program asks the user if they want to view the PCBS and assign any attribute values before copying the activities. This also allows the user to modify the components' location ranges. If the user says 'no' or once they have finished making changes to the PCBS, the system will start the activity copying process automatically. 6.3.2.3 Activity predicates, command functions, and rules Similarly to the previous section, this section looks at the predicates, command functions, and rules that operate on the activity data. Sample rule files can be found in the appendices. Table 6-3 shows the predicate definitions that are predefined in the application program, and can therefore be used in the rules to trigger modifications, or actions, to the project activity data files. The PCBS predicates that are defined by the application program are still stored in 96 memory while the activity rule file is being treated, and so they can also be used in the activity rules. Some of the intermediate activity predicates (i.e. not predefined in the application program) that have been used within these sample activity rule files are: asked_question(@code) - tracks whether the user has been asked if all of the locations of a particular activity have the same duration. same_duration_all_locations(@code)- tracks whether the user has said that an activity has the same duration at all locations . default_duration(@subproj ect_path, @duration) - tracks the default duration that is to be assigned to activities which have no duration rule attached to them. done(@code, @location) - tracks whether the activity has been treated by the duration rules for the specified location. done_asg_location(@code) - tracks whether the activity has been assigned a range of locations by means of a rule. Table 6-3: Activity predicate definitions current_template(@template_path) Stores the current template path i.e. "Project.A", "Project.B", etc. activity(@code, @subproject_path, ©location) Stores each activity's code and the subproject that it belongs to for each location. activity_PCBS(@code, @pcbs_path) Returns TRUE if the specified activity and pcbs component are associated in the template. attribute(@pcbs_path, @name, ©location, @value) Stores the attribute values for a given location and component. duration(©code, ©location, ©duration) Stores the activity duration at a given location. activity_location(@code, @subproject_path, ©location) Stores the locations that are assigned to a given activity. activity description(@code, ©description) Stores the activity descriptions. 97 Table 6-4 defines the command functions, or actions, that the activity application program can perform. The basic actions that the rules can perform include assigning either individual locations or a location set to an activity, and assigning a duration to the location of an activity. Similarly to the PCBS rules, each rule file starts with a rule that checks that the activity belongs to the same template as the rule file. Table 6-4: Activity command functions $assign_location_set_act @code @location_set_path Deletes any default location ranges and assigns the first and last location of the specified location set to the specified activity. $assign_subproject_location_range_act @code @subproject_path Assigns all of the locations of all of the location sets defined under the specified subproject to the activity. $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @L1 (@L2) Assigns an individual location (Ll) or range (L1-L2) of locations that were inserted during the copying process, to the specified activity. Uses the specified string without doing any checks for changes that it may have gone through since it was inserted after the PCBS was copied. $assign_predefined_locations_act @code @L1 (@L2) Assigns an individual location (Ll) or range (L1-L2) of locations that were predefined in the template, to the specified activity. The system verifies if the name has changed in the copying process and, if so, uses the new name. $assign_duration @code @location @duration Assigns the duration at the specified location for the specified activity. The activity rule files are split into two parts. The first includes rules that overwrite default location range assignments, determined through associations with PCBS components, with a rule-derived location range. (Note that if an activity is not associated with a component at the time of copying the activities to the project side, the application program will assign it all of the locations in the subproject as a default.) The rules may either assign individual predefined locations, individual locations inserted in the copying process, or the first and last 98 location of a location set to an activity. A typical rule that assigns an individual inserted location may include: #if or(eq(@code, G02900), eq(@code, G03000)) #then #if and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, ©description, @X), string_cat(@LP, @X, GSP)) #then $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @LP #end #end This translates to: "For both activities G02900 and G03000, assign the location 'x'GSP to the activity, where 'x' is the letter identifying the subproject which is contained in the location name." Note that the command function may have two locations specified, the first being the start of the location range, the second being the end. Also, within this rule several command functions assigning different location ranges can be listed. Each range will be added to the activity's location range, although the system may regroup them so that consecutive locations are contained in one range. The second part of the file contains rules that assign durations to the activities at each location. This can be determined through a formula using PCBS component attribute values, by assigning an activity the same duration as another activity, or by asking the user for a specific duration and/or a default duration. Once all of an activity's locations have been assigned a duration the system regroups them into ranges so that consecutive locations with similar durations are shown as a range. 99 Durations calculated by or contained in rules are numeric and are interpreted as being in days. The system translates these durations into a string fitting the form Days/Hours/Minutes. Therefore, a duration of 2.5 assigned by a rule will appear as 2/4/0, assuming that the default calendar has been defined with 8 hour working days. If the rule sends a query to the user to define a duration, the user may enter this duration as either a string or a numerical value (in days). A typical rule for assigning a duration calculated using a PCBS attribute value may appear as follows: #if and(eq(@code, GOO 100), component(@Cl, element, walls, @), component(@C2, element, columns, @), string_copy(@cl_no, @C1, 9), eq(@cl_no, @subproject_path), string_copy(@c2_no, @C2, 9), eq(@c2_no, @subproject_path), activity_PCBS(@code, @C1), activity_PCBS(@code, @C2), attribute(@Cl, "formwork area", @location, @X), attribute(@C2, "formwork area", (allocation, @Y), =(@duration, @X/4+@Y/10), !=(@duration, 0)) #then Sdefine done_duration(@code, @location) $assign_duration @code ©location @duration Sdefine duration(@code, ©location, ©duration) #end This translates as follows: "For activity GOO 100 (this is the code defined in the template; the system will automatically look up the new code if this was changed in the copying process), look up the 'walls' element and 'columns' element that appear under the activities subproject hierarchy. Once these elements are identified, look up the value of the formwork area attribute for each element at the location under consideration, and calculate the duration using these values in the specified formula. If the resulting duration is non-zero, then define this activity's location as 100 being 'done', and assign the duration to it. Record the assigned duration for this activity's location and proceed." Note that, in the above rule, if the calculated duration had been zero, the activity's location would not have been defined as being 'done'. The rule that assigns a default duration to any activity location that is not 'done' would then be fired, and the default duration assigned to it. The check to avoid a zero duration must be contained in the rule. Similarly, if the formula contains denominators that may result in a 'divide-by-zero' error depending on the attribute values or user input, the rule must contain a check that avoids this error before the duration is calculated. Also note that in the above rule, the predicates 'activity_PCBS(@code, @C1)' and 'activity_PCBS(@code, @C2)' check that there is an association between the activity and the PCBS component whose attributes are being used to calculate the activity's duration. To understand the importance of this check, one must understand that the system considers the rules location by location. The rule is required to match a PCBS attribute value at the location under consideration, with the activity's duration at that location. If the attribute is not defined at the same locations as the activity, a duration cannot be determined. Checking for the association eliminates this problem in most cases. However, in the unusual case of an activity's default location range being drastically changed by rules in the activity rule so that there is no longer any overlap between this range and the associated PCBS component's range, the rule still will not be able to determine a duration. The fact that an activity duration cannot be determined from attributes of a component that does not have the same locations 101 assigned to it can present some limitations. For example, the duration of procurement activities which are assigned process location, may be related to the attributes of physical elements which are assigned values at each physical location. This limitation cannot be overcome due to the system's method of processing the rules location by location. Another tool that is available as a condition to firing any activity (or PCBS) rule, is the predicate string search((% @ ), which can be used to fire a rule if a certain character string is present in the description of an activity or component, or any other specified string. This can be used to write more general rules that actually require the system to "read" a string to decide if a rule should be fired. The drawback to this approach is that the user is required to be consistent in their vocabulary. An example rule is as follows: #if and(activity_description(@code, ©description), string_search(@description, EPH)) #then #if and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @name, @X), string_cat(@LNAME, @X, EP), component(@, location, @, @LP), string_copy(@L_Nl, @LP, 3), eq(@L_Nl, @LNAME), string_cat(@S, @X, EP1), string_loc_copy(@LNUMBER, @LP, 4, 1), =(@LASTP, @LNUMBER+1), string_cat(@LASTS, @LNAME, @LASTP), not(component(@, location, @, @LASTS))) #then $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @S "@LNAME""@LNUMBER" #end #end This translates to: "If any activity under consideration has a description containing the string "EPH" (elevator penthouse), then define the start of that activity's location range as 'x'EPl (where V is the 102 letter identifying the subproject). Next, go through the locations and determine, by iteration, the name of the last elevator penthouse. Assign this as the last location in the activity's range." 103 6.4 Worked Examples The following section includes three examples, which are designed to illustrate the flexibility and capabilities of the system. Screens are shown to guide the reader through the steps of copying and merging the templates. The template and project reports and complete rule files are included in the appendices. 6.4.1 Example 1: Staging and phasing This example is broken down into three parts which treat, in turn, a) sequential staging of activities; b) staging activities with partial overlap; and, c) selecting phases to truncate a template. In each case, the same, very simple, template "Sample" is used. Recall that an expert template is comprised of a PCBS template and its rule file, a process or activity template and its rule file, and that associations between the two may be defined. In the "Sample" project template, the physical view template contains only a physical location set (Figure 6-8) and the process view template contains a total of seven activities from three different phases (Figure 6-9). The process for generating a draft schedule is described step-by-step for each example. The rules, which correspond to each step, are also included. The complete rule files and reports for this template are included in Appendix A. 104 IEMPLATE/FCBS!DEFINE^ EDIT PCBS a ATTRIBUTES jrt eXit C:\REP500\PR0J15\SAMFLE i 1 Subproject Location SIMPLE STAGING EXAMPLE Set PHVS1CAL 4 i, n 3 I >i * S . - -r i O H f . - ' — Figure 6-8: Example 1: Physical Breakdown Structure of Sample Template TEMPLATE^ fiCTIUI TV I DESCRIPTION UINDOU C:VHEP500\PR0J1S\SAMPLE Edit" Uindou Add Delete Renumber Options Sum_ActJ)ir Check Logic ".Exit Type Phase '" ' '" " —•— SM 0 DESIGN/ENG1NEERING 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION C CONSTRUCTION 0 COMMISSIONING I FHHelp Ti*vfScVbl 1 Enter:Select Esc~:Exit " " Figure 6-9: Example 1: Activity List of Sample Template r Code - Description — RESP | 040100 Subproject Start 1 GOO100 Design building 1 G00200 Build foundations 1 G00300 Build uerticals I G00400 Build slab | G00500 Architectural finish | G0O6O0 Comhission building 105 a) Sequential staging Step 1: The user first selects the template upon which the project will be based (Figure 6-Select Repcon Template Avai ;labip Templates If*1 PROJ05\TOWER Proj 06VTWRDET PROJ07\TWRSIM PROJ08SHIRISE PROJ09\BRID6E PROJIONHIRISE PROJ11MORISE PR0J12\PRKADE Proj13\BRPHYS Proj14\BRSEP ProilSVSAMPLE Add>> Re]ectud lem .• • Proil5\SAMPLE < < Remove A Move A £hases SIMPLE STAGING EXAMPLE Activity-Numbering Buffer Between Templates: JO • Figure 6-10: Step 1-Select template Step 2: The inference engine consults the PCBS rule file ("samplerp.txt"), evaluates the predicates, and starts firing the rules. Step 3: The first rule, requesting the number of physical locations, is fired. $asknstoreys(?) 12199 Subproject @X @name . Number of building storeys Send ask The user inputs the number of physical locations (Figure 6-11). Subproject A SIMPLE STAGING EXAMPLE -Number'of 'building storeys " A ^ • • • • • • • • • • M i l OK Figure 6-11: Step 3-Input number of locations 106 Step 4: The rules insert the specified number of locations, plus a global subproject location and foundations, and renames them. #if nloc(@location_set_path, @nloc) ttthen Sinsertloc @location_set_path @nloc #ifstring_cat(@LN, @X, GSP) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path @LN "GLOBAL SUBPROJECT" #end #ifstring_cat(@LN, @X, FDN) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path @LN "FOUNDATIONS" 2 2 111 #end #ifand(<=(3, @nloc), string_cat(@LN, @X, F), =(@F, @nloc)). #then Srenameloc @location_set_path "@LN"? "FLOOR ?" 3 @F 1 1 1 #end #end The resulting project PCBS is shown in Figure 6-12. [PRO.JECM'CBSiDEFlNE^EDIT PCBS « ATTRIBUTES lE d l ^ l U ' l n d o u C l a s s " Report e X i t C \HepS00\PR0.n3\EX1B Hi •2 S....1 M t P r o j e c t Subproject SIMPLE STAGING EXAMPLE Lo c a t i o n Set PHYSICAL -AGSP Locat. i on GLOBAL SUBPROJECT -AFDN Loc a t i o n FOUNDATIONS -AF1 L o c a t i o n FLOOR 1 -AF2 L o c a t i o n FLUOR Z -AF3 L o c a t i o n FLOOR 3 -AF4 Loc a t i o n FLOOR 4 h Scr'oTrEn'tcr: Sclec t'Esc: ExTf" Figure 6-12: Example 1- Project PCBS 107 Step 5: At the end of the PCBS rule file, the application program asks if the user would like to view the PCBS or carry on to copying the activities (Figure 6-13). If the user decides to consult the PCBS screen, the activities will be copied once they exit from that screen. Would you' like'^o view the project PCBS'';before.copyirig"tlie ac t iv i t i es? (Y/N) -TKfs wil l / allow you to verify the structure and add additional .attribute values. Adding or deleting locations wi l l result in errors in previously i-;made location range assignments. YES HO Figure 6-13: Step 5-System asks user whether to view PCBS or continue Step 6: The application program copies over the activities and assigns to each activity the location range assigned to the associated PCBS components as a default. The inference engine consults the activity rule file("samplera.txt"), evaluates the predicates, and starts firing the rules. Step 7: The rules overwrite the default location range and assign the global subproject location to activities 040100, GOO 100, and G00600. The rules also ask the user for the start date for the start milestone activity (see Figure 6-14). #ifmember(@code, 040100, GOO 100, G00600) #then #if and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @description, @X), string_cat(@LP, @X, GSP)) #then $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @LP #if start_date(@date) #else #ifeq(@code, 040100) #then $ask start_date(?) 2 71 Subproject @X What is the start date for this subproject? Send ask 108 #if start_date(@date) #then $assign_start_date @code @LP @date Mend Mend Mend Mend Mend Subproject A What is the start date for this subproject? I |01JUN98 " OK Figure 6-14: Step 7-User inputs start date Step 8: The rules overwrite the default location ranges and assign location ranges to certain of the other activities. #ifmember(@code, G00300, G00400, G00500) #then #if and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @description, @X), string_cat(@LP, @K, F), component(@location_set_path, "location set", "physical", @), nloc(@location_set_path, @nloc), <-(3, @nloc), string_cat(@S, @LP, 1), =(@Y, @nloc-2), string_cat(@F, @LP, @Y)) #then $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @S @F Mend Mend Mifeq(@code, G00200) Mthen Mif and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @description, @X), string_cat(@S, @X, FDN), component(@location_set_path, "location set", "physical", @), nloc(@location_set_path, @nloc)) Mthen $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @S Mend Mend 109 Step 9: The rule which assigns durations and requests the number of zones to split certain activities (Figure 6-15), and whether to overlap the zones or schedule them sequentially (Figure 6-16), is fired. #ifand(or(and(eq(@code, G00200), =(@duration, 10)), and(eq(@code, G00300), -(@duration, 5)), and(eq(@code, G00400), =(@duration, 10))), component(@subproject_path, subproject, @name, @X)) #then Sdefine done_duration(@code, @location) $assign_duration @code @location @duration Sdefine duration(@code, @location, @duration) #ifnot(done_zoning(seql)) #then Sdefine done zoning(seql) $ask nzonefseql, ?)1 2 1 20 Subproject @X Specify the number of horizontal zones that the activities G00200 to G00400 should be split into: Sendask Subproject A Specify the number of horizontal zones that the act iv i t ies G00200 to G00400 should be s p l i t into: Q K M Figure 6-15: Step 9-Input number of zones $ask case(?) 3 (easel, case2) Specify the type of zoning that you would like the system to implement: Case 1: Totally sequential. All activities in each zone are completed before the next zone is started. Case 2: Partial overlapping. No activity takes place in more than one zone at one time. However, different activities in the sequence may take place simultaneously in more than one zone. Sendask #end #end 110 Specify the type;of zoning that you would like the systenuto implement Case 1: Totally sequential. " - • All activities in each zone are completed before the nextt.zone is started. Case 2: Partial overlapping. No activity takes place in more than one zone at one ,time However,, different activities ir. the sequence may take place simultaneously in more than one zone. " " -OK Figure 6-16: Step 9-Select staging method Step 1 0 : The rules split the activities into the specified number of zones, and insert logic relationships to reflect case 1. As described in Chapter 5 (Figure 5-4), sequential staging of activities involves duplicating an activity for the number of zones specified, and then adding logic so that the sequence of activities is completed in each zone before starting the next, and all zones in a location are completed before moving to the next location. This involves the addition of finish-start relationships between the last activity of the sequence in zone x and the first activity in zone x+1, as well as between the last activity in the sequence in a zone at location x and the first activity in the same zone at location x+1. In addition, a relationship is created between all typical and non-typical predecessors, which are outside the sequence, and the first zone of the activity that they were originally related to. Similarly, typical and non-typical successors that are not in the sequence, are linked to the last zone of the activity that they were originally linked to. These changes can best be seen in the project reports in Appendix B. I l l These actions are carried out by the application program and are triggered by the $split_activities_sequential command function in the following rule: #if and(or(nzone(seql, @nzone), nzone(seq2, @nzone)), done_asg_location(@code), not(done_splitting(seql)) Mthen Sdefine donesplitting(seql) #if and(nzone(seql, @nzone), case(casel)) Mthen $split_activities_sequential @nzone G00200 G00300 G00400 Mend Mif and(nzone(seql, @nzone), case(case2)) Mthen $split_activities_overlap @nzone G00200 G00300 G00400 Mend Mend Step 11: The rules assign durations to the other activities by; • time allowance: Mifand(member(@code, G00100, G00600), =(@duration, 20)) Mthen Sdefine done_duration(@code, (allocation) $assign_duration @code (allocation @duration Sdefine duration(@code, (allocation, @duration) Mend • asking for the durations of different location ranges (Figure 6-17): Mifeq(@code, G00500) Mthen $ask_duration @code Mend 112 Enter Activity Duration Act iv i ty: 600500 Architectural f inish Strt Fnsh Duration Add Delete Edit OK Start Lc.-:.--. I:-.!: ] AF1 T Finish Location: Duration AF1 AF2 AF3 OK Cancel Figure 6-17: Step 11-Input durations for different location ranges • or, by asking for a default duration (Figure 6-18): #if and(not(done_duration(@code, @location)), component(@subproject_path, subproject, @description, @X)) #then #if default_duration(@subproj ect_path, @duration) #else $ask default_duration(@subproject_path, ?) 2 10 • Subproject @X For activities in this subproject that do not have a rule to assign a duration, what would you like their default duration to be? $end_ask #if default_duration(@subproject_path, @duration) Mien Sdefine done_duration(@cbde, (allocation) Sassign duration @code (allocation @duration Sdefine duration(@code, @location, @duration) #end #end #end 113 Su^roject A .Fo^activiti'ss in this subproject that do not have a rule to assign a what y.-ould you like 'their default duration to be? duration, OK Figure 6-18: Step 11-Input default activity duration Step 12: At the end of the activity rule file, the application program displays the screen in Figure 6-19. A l l of the expert~help associated with thislproject has been applied. Before executing the schedule, you should % check the act iv i ty production data, add locations to the .--non-typical act iv i ty relationships and introduce logic to l^ ink the various^subprojects. Y E S NO Figure 6-19: Step 12-End of activity rules Figure 6-20 shows the project activity list where the user can view the production data and logic by switching to the appropriate window, and calculate the schedule as shown. This screen reflects the decision by the user to stage some of the work (Figure 6-15). The application program has duplicated the staged activities for the number of zones and changed their names so that they are identified by zone. The linear planning chart in Figure 6-21 illustrates the results of the schedule calculation. Although simple, this example demonstrates the ease of generating a draft schedule. After execution of the rules, no additional work, other than simply executing the schedule calculation, was required to produce the schedule shown. Other graphical reporting features are also available (i.e. bar charts, network diagrams) as well as detailed project reports which are included in Appendix B. 114 Note that both Figures 6-20 and 6-21 are on the project side of the system-i.e. applying the rules to the template resulted in the creation of project files. POJECT/ACT1UI TV! DESCRIPT ION U IND0U_ f Code -II 040100 GOOIOO GOO20O I G00300 600400 G0O50O G00600 GO0VOO G00800 I G00900 G01000 GO11O0 GO 1.200 Description Subproject Start Design building ZliBuild foundations 21 Bui id verticals 21 Bui Id slab Architectural f i n i s h Commission building 22:Buiid foundations Z2:Build verticals 22Build slab 23:Bui Id foundations Z3:Build uerticals Z3:Build slab I Frag ^Options RESP C" \Rep500VPR0JZ3SEXl A| •Prog_Date TExecutel Exit-. Set Resource Leveling Options CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION ammssioNiNG CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION FlTrieIjT't:ScroTrEirter~Si-leef EicTExit Figure 6-20: Step 12-Project activity list and calculate schedule function li BKecute Act Fil ter nOde Zom' eXit Conpletlon: IS JAN99. 5 : 00pm Duration(d/h/n)::ZZQ/9/B * 040100 Subproject Start FActv'Sch/Early: < 01JUN98 8:0Ban f1!H«-lii t i n iSoi i l l Cntt-r :ScI<-rt Esr^CHlt Figure 6-21: Linear planning chart showing sequential staging 115 b) Staging with a partial overlap: The following illustrates the case of activity staging with partial overlapping. The only difference with Example 1(a) occurs in Step 9 where case 2 is selected rather than case 1 (Figure 6-22). -.Specify.the type-of zoning that,you „would like" theisy'stem to, implement: lEase Total ly'-sequeff -r All"-activities !in';eachsJzone are completed before the next zone is starred jJCase 2: Partial overlapping. No activity tak*e's"'place in more" than-; one "zone at''one time. jlHowever, different 'activities in the sequence may. take place simultaneously tan more than one zone. : r - -easel IlllflliliiK^ ^^ ^^  OK Ml Figure 6-22: Step 9-Input staging method The resulting linear planning chart is shown in Figure 6-23. The detailed reports for this project are included in Appendix C. In this case, finish-start relationships are added between each zone of each activity in the sequence, rather than between the last activity of the sequence in one zone and the first activity of the sequence in the next zone, resulting in some overlap and a shortened project duration. The logic between locations is the same in both cases (i.e between the last activity in the sequence in a zone at location x and the first activity in the same zone at location x+1), as well as the relationships with predecessors and successors outside the sequence. Further overlap could be specified manually by the user by defining a relationship that allows the first zone of the activity sequence to start in location x+1 before the first zone of the activity sequence at location x is completed. Since this decision is unique to each project, and therefore difficult to generalise, no attempt has been made to include this feature in the expert system. 116 I .Uindou Cursor Select Activities J«ecute Aet_F i Iter , nOde„ Zoom eXit j Iti * 040100 Coi Du mpletion: 04DEC98 .-5 :00pm ration<d/7iA*> : 186^ 9>B .19.93 «=*«J«3 | SJESI-*"' | OCT' I NOV Subproject Start. I'l.llc-lp t*-»fr Stroll Hnter'St-luct EicIEult Figure 6-23: Linear planning chart showing staging with partial overlap c) Phasing: The sample template can also be used to illustrate the selection of phases in order to truncate a template. Most of the steps shown in part (a) are unchanged. Phase selection occurs in Step 1 as depicted in Figure 6-24. In this example, the highlighted front and back-end phases are to be truncated, leaving only the construction phase to be included in the schedule. 117 Select Repcon Template A v a i l a b l e romplatec K I P PP'JJCSNICWER Proj06\TWRDET PROJO 7XTWRSIM PROJ08NHIRISE PROJ09NBRID6E PROJIONHIRISE PROJllALORISE PR0J12NPRKADE Proj13\BRPHYS Proj14\BRSEP Proil5\SAtvIPLE Ada>> -Selected Templatesj3> Pro i 15VS AMPLE <• i.Kemove J A £hoses • Activity Numbering Buffer Between Templates OK Figure 6-24: Step 1-Phase selection Prune Template Phases ProjISnSAMPLE CONCEPT/FEASIBILITY DESIGN/ENGINEERING PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION; COMMISSIONING m OK Cancel If no staging of the construction activities is desired, the user may input the value 1 when asked for the number of zones in Step 9 (see Figure 6-25). The resulting project activity list, with only the construction activities copied over from the template, is shown in Figure 6-26. Figure 6-27 shows the linear planning chart for these activities. Complete project reports for this example are contained in Appendix D. (Subproject A Specify the number of horizontal zones that the act iv i t ies G002D0 to G00400 should be s p l i t into: OK J Figure 6-25: Step 9-No staging of the construction activities 118 PROJECT/ACTiyiTy[PRODUCTION DATA UINDOU CAltepSOOSPRO JZ4\EX1C| |Ed it ; U indpu "j Add J De lete jRenunber - Frag Options "PrbglDate rExecutel Exit ' I Code - Description -I 040100 Subprojec.t Start j GOO1O0 Build foundations I G00Z00 Build uerticals I G00300 Bui Id slab I GOQ4O0 Architectural finish RESP Set Resource Leueling Options CaIcu1ate Scheduleg »,v. CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION LTHelp" TWScro 11' Enter'.Se I6ct~E5cTE"x 11 Figure 6-26: Project activity list miyidow, Cursor Select Activities BHecuie Act_Filter mOdf* Poon eXit m Completion: HSEP98: S :00pn IJ>ura-tion(d/Ti/m) : J U N E ;-t. «s»«»oi. JUJJL. V • ^ .--^-.-**] " ^ . . . ^ - ^ - S .>»""" .0 J U N E I * 04010a Subproject Start Act^SchVEarly: < 01JUN98 s:00an i l . t l - l i i tHi: L ,r .rol l RV>1IT:^I U'rt Esi.Eiit Figure 6-27: Linear planning chart 119 6.4.2 Example 2: Concrete Superstructure Highrise This example demonstrates the automated scheduling of a highrise project. The template "Hirise (Concrete Superstructure)" contains relatively detailed information about the superstructure work of the construction phase. The purpose of this example is to show, on a single building, some of the features for modifying the template to reflect scale, as well as to demonstrate the calculation of an activity duration based on attribute values assigned to a physical component. This example illustrates how a specialty trade might use such a system as compared to a general contractor's view, which might be similar to Example 3. In other words, the template and rules in this template enter into greater depth when describing the activities and calculating durations, but less breadth as far as the scope of work is concerned. Figure 6-28 shows the template's PCBS, while Figure 6-29 shows part of the activity list. Note the use of lower level components in the PCBS (i.e. subelements), which enables the user to track performance at a more detailed level. Also note the use of Hammock activities in the template. These facilitate reporting at a more aggregated level and provide a simplified view of the project. It is also useful at this point to take a close look at the template reports contained in Appendix E in order to reveal some additional important information that is contained in the template. For example, use is made of inheritance in defining component attributes, which helps to ensure consistency in their definition and nomenclature. Several of the rules depend on these attributes in order to calculate activity durations. In addition, the associations that have been defined between activities and PCBS components should be noted, since the assignment of default location ranges to activities is largely based on these. 120 |TEMPLATE/PCBS IDEFINE/ED11 PCBS S ATTRIBUTES EdTtjUindou ..Class Report eXit m C: vREP500sPR0J08sH IRISEI A i i 2 H-3 i-1 Jr1 *-2 b 8-2 Subproject HIRISE (CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE) Location Set GLOBAL SUBPROJECT Location Set PHYSICAL LOCATION SET SUPERSTRUCTURE UERICAL SUPPORTS COLUMNS WALL ELEMENTS END SHEAR UALLS ELEMATOR AND STAIR CORES PRECAST STAIRS HORIZONTAL SUPPORTS FLOOR SLAB System Subsystem Element Element 1 Subelement 2 Subelement Element Subsystem Element gLVHtifu" n^ScrolI Enter:Select Esc:Exi"t Figure 6-28: Example 2-Physical breakdown structure of highrise (Concrete Superstructure) template |TEMPLATE/ACTIVIH (DESCRIPTION WINDOW " C:NREF500SFR0JOBSHIRISEI Edit" Uiidou Add Delete Renumber Options Sun_Act_Dir Chectf'Logic Exit* r Code - Description — =— i 040100 Reinforce Columns I 040200 Reinforce Halls I 040300 Reinforce Slab 040400 Reinforce EPH Malls 040500 Reinforce EPH Roof 050100 Place Slab Concrete 050200 Finish Concrete Slab 050300 Place 8 Finish EPH Roof GOOIOO Subproject Start 600200 S/F/P Columns G00300 S/F/P UalIs G00400 Form Slab GGO50O Place Precast Stairs G00600 Form EPH UalIs G00700 Form EPH Roof I G00800 Pour EPH UalIs 1 G00900 Strip EPH Wals | GOIOOO BUILD. UERTICALS I GOilOO BUILD SLAB I G01200 BUILD SUPERSTRUCTURE FLOOR t_i. RESP — Reinforcirig Reinforcing Reinforcing Reinforeing Reinforcing Concrete Concrete Concrete General General General Genera I Genera 1 General General General General General Genera1 General Type Phase b b o b b o o b sn b o o o o o o o H H H FJ 'Help tn*-":Scroll Enter":Select £sc~:Ex"it"" Figure 6-29: Example 2-Activity list of highrise (Concrete Superstructure) template 121 Similarly to Example 1, a step-by-step description is shown to describe the process of setting up a schedule. The rules corresponding to each step are shown and complete rule files and reports for this template are included in Appendix E. Step 1: The user selects the template upon which the project will be based (Figure 6-30). Select Repcon Template 'Available Templates PROJ05\TOWER Proj 06VTWRDET P RO J 0 7\TWRSIM PR0J08\HIRISE PROJ09\BRIDGE PROJ10NHIRISE PR0J11\L0RISE PR0J12\PRKADE Proj13\BRPHYS Proj14XBRSEP Proj15XSAMPLE Selected Template; H Add>> PR0J08VHIRISE < < Remove »love Phases Act iv i tv Numbering Buffer Between Templates: [o OK Cancel Figure 6-30: Stepl-Select template Step 2: The inference engine consults the PCBS rule file (hiriserp.txt), evaluates the predicates and starts firing the rules. Step 3: The rules requesting the number of physical locations are fired one at a time by the application program and inference engine. The user input is shown in Figures 6-31, 6-32, and 6-33. 122 $askntyp(?) 1 2 099 Subproject @X@name Number of typical floors (excluding Main floor and penthouses) $end_ask Subproject A HIRISE (CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE) Number of typical floors (excluding Main floor and penthouses) lIBil^^ Figure 6-31: Step 3-Input number of typical floors $asknph(?) 1 2 099 Subproject @X @name Number of penthouse suites $end_ask Subproject A HIRISE (CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE) j Number of^penthouse suites ' '..^ k £ : Figure 6-32: Step 3-Input number of penthouse suites $ask mechph(?) 12 0 99 Subproject @X @name Number of mechanical/elevator penthouses $end_ask I * -Subproject A HIRISE (CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE) Number of mechanical/elevator penthouses OK Figure 6-33: Step 3-Input number of mechanical penthouses 123 Step 4: The rules insert the required number of locations and rename them. #ifand(location_set(@subprojectjpath, @location_set_paih), component(@location_set_path, "location set", "global subproject", @), not(done(@location_set_path))) Mthen Sdefine done(@location_set_path) #ifassign _nloc(@location_set_path) ttelse Sdefineassign _nloc(@,location_set_path) #if and(nloc(@location_set_path, @Y), ==(@Y, 0)) #then Sdefine nloc(@location_set_path, 1) #if and(nloc(@location_set_path, I), component(@location_set_path, "location set", @dscrp, @)) Mien Sinsertloc @location_set_path 1 #ifstring_cat(@LN, @X, GSP) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path @LN "Global subproject @X" #end #end Mend end fiend #if and(location_set(@subproject_path, @location_set_path), component(@location_set_path, "location set", "physical location set", @), not(done(@location_set_path))) #then Sdefine done(@location_setjpath) #if assign _nloc(@location_setjpath) #else Sdefine assign_nloc(@location set jpath) #if and(ntyp(@ntyp), nph(@nph), mechph(@mechph), =(@nloc, (@ntyp+@nph+@mechph+l))) #then Sdefine nloc(@location_setjpath, @nloc) #end #if and(ntyp(@ntyp), nph(@nph), mechph(@mechph), nloc(@location_setjpath, @nloc), component(@location_setjpath, "location set", @dscrp, @)) #then 124 Sinsertloc (allocation set_path @nloc #ifand(<=(l, @nloc), string_cat(@LN, @X, MN)) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path @LN "MAINFLOOR" #end #ifand(<=(l, @ntyp), =(@S, @ntyp+l), string_cat(@LN @X, F)) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path "@LN"? "FLOOR ?" 2@S1 2 1 ttend #ifand(<=(l, @nph), string_cat(@LN, @X, PH), =(@S, @ntyp+2), =(@F, @ntyp+@nph+l)) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path "@LN"? "PENTHOUSE ?." @S@F1 1 1 #end #if and(<=(l, @mechph), string_cat(@LN, @X, EP), =(@S, @ntyp+@nph+2), =(@F, @ntyp+@nph+@mechph+1)) #then Srenameloc @location_set_path "@LN"? "ELEVATOR/MECHANICAL PENTHOUSE ?" @S @F 111 Mend #end ttend ttend The resulting PCBS is shown in Figure 6-34. Note that two screens have been captured and joined in order to display the complete PCBS structure. 1.25 gROJECT/'PCBSiASSIGN ATTRIBUTES UftUIES 3051 Uindou Class Report eXit C \Rep500\FROJ1fNEX2| -Pi-uj-r A —1 4-2 Project Subprujccl HIRISE (CONCRETE SUl'LHSTHUCTURE) Location Set GLOBAL SUBPRfUECT AGSP Location Global subproject A • Location Set PHYSICAL LOCATION SET -ANN Location MAIN FLOOR -AF2 Location FLOOR 2 -AI3 Location FLUOR 3 -AF4 Location FLOOR 4 -AFS Locat ion FLOOR 5 -AF6 Location FLOOR 6 AF? Location FLOOR 7 -AFB Locat ion FLOOR 8 -AF9 Location FLOOR 9 -AF10 Locat i on FLOOR 10 -AF11 Location FLOOR 11 -AF12 Location FLOOR 12 -AF13 Location FLOOR 13 -AF14 Location FLOOR 14 [PROJECT/PCRSiASSIGN ATTRIBUTES UAI.UES C \RepSOO\FR0J1H\EX2] T«-* -AF15 -AF16 -AF17 AF18 -AF19 -AF20 -AFZ1 -AF22 -AF23 -APH1 -APH2 AEP1 1 Location Location Location Location Locat i on Location Location Location Location Location Location Location System Subsystem L'lt-mt:n1 Element Subelement Sube lenient Element Subsystem Element FLOOR 15 FLOOR 16 FLOOR 17 FLOOR IB FLOOR 19 FLOOR 20 FLOOR 21 FLUOR 22 FLOOR 23 PENTHOUSE PENTHOUSE ELEUATOR/MECHANICAL PENTHOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE VERTICAL SUPPORTS COLUMNS UALL~ELEMENTS * END SHEAR WALLS ELEUATOR AND STAIR CORES PRECAST STAIRS HORI20NTAL SUPPORTS FLOOR SLAB Pro ii-t t 0 i 1 I libit ui Figure 6-34: Example 2-Project PCBS Step 5 : The rules first assign all of the subproject's locations to all of the physical components and their attributes, #ifassign_location_range(@subproject_path) #else Sdefine assign_location_range(@subproject_path) SassignsubprojectJocation range_pcbs @subproject_path #end 126 and then assign the locations in the physical location set to the components and attributes in the superstructure system. ttifand(system(@subprojectjpaih, @system_path), component(@system_path, system, superstructure, @), not(done(@system_path))) #then Sdefine done(@system_path) #ifassign _location_range(@system _path) ttelse #if and(location_set(@subproject_path, physical_location set_path), component(@physical_location_set_path, "location set", "physical location set", @)) #then Sdefine assign_location_range(@system_path) Sassign location_setjpcbs @system_path @physical_location_set_path ttend ttend ttend These location ranges will be copied to all activities associated with the PCBS components. Step 6: At the end of the PCBS rule file, the application program asks if the user would like to view the PCBS or carry on to copying the activities (Figure 6-13). If the user decides to consult the PCBS screen, the activities will be copied once they exit from that screen. Because the activity rules in the Highrise template use certain column attribute values to calculate the duration of activities related to column construction, the user decides to consult the PCBS to enter the attribute values. Step 7: In the project PCBS screen, the user enters values corresponding to the attributes of the project's physical components. In particular, the user should enter any attribute values that are used by the activity rules. In this example, both the shape (Figure 6-35) and the 127 number (Figure 6-36) of columns are input as they are important to calculating column activity durations. As will be seen later, both of these attributes figure prominently in computing activity durations. pnjEeivrcBs:ASSIGN ATTRIBUTES UALUES nQOQ Uindou Class Report"iXit " C \Rep500sPR0JtBSEXZI Assign Attribute Location Range S Ualues PCBS: COLUMNS Attribute: SHAPE Cl.i-i- miPr.RTV Ua-lue Type: Linguistic Location Range 13 Start Finish Uork Skip value if applicable jlj • AMM AFZ3 1 0J '" " 'ViTwF. " TT •APH1 APH2 1 Uni ft2 yd3 No.: ftZ yd3 Figure 6-35: Step 7-User inputs column shape Tryyp-rr-y F?:lo»-Alt-PTPFint---Art^ T-LTL1irti P O J E C M T B S I A S S I G N ATTRIBUTES UALUES JUj'ndow Class Report eXit I C: NRcp50O\PRQJ18\EX2| PC PCBS COLUMNS Attribute: NO.OF ELEMENTS Class; Unit Abbreuatiori; No. Assign Attribute Location Range 8 Ualues value Type; Quantitative [_] Sun ualues of all locations Location Range Jp Start Finish Uork Skip Ualue if applicable jtj •ANN AF23 1 • 0 j i | I .APH1 APH1 1 0 - ' . I 1 «APH2 AEH2 1 0 ' I rraVAsTiinniaRfete-Uarues F4rftnBreBari7nrLo-6ation~r;rst~F5TUbail^ 1 Uni ftZ yd3 ftZ y<13 B S a l M Eftiflgj Ajtefegfetejaa qsLWBBHm - - - - -' T » I'M nit P Print wit n L Ll,t, Figure 6-36: Step 7-User inputs number of columns 128 Step 8: The application program copies over the activities and assigns to each activity the location range assigned to the associated PCBS components, thus emphasising the advantage of making associations between the physical and process views when defining the template. The inference engine consults the activity rule file ("hirisera.txt"), evaluates the predicates, and starts firing the rules. Step 9: The rules assign the global subproject location to the start milestone activity GOO 100, and ask the user for the start date, as shown in Step 7 of Example 1(a). Step 10: The rules overwrite the default location ranges for certain activities. This rule assigns the electrical penthouse locations to any activity with the string "EPH" in its description: ttif and(activity_description(@code, ©description), string_search(@description, EPH)) #then ttif and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @name, @X),string_cat(@lNAME, @X, EP), component(@, location, @, @LP), string_copy(@L_Nl, @LP, 3), eq(@L_Nl, @LNAME), string_cat(@S, @X, EP1), string_loc_copy(@LNUMBER, @LP, 4, I), =(@LASTP, @LNUMBER+1), string_cat(@LASTS, @LNAME, @LASTP), not(component(@, location, @, @LASTS))) #then $assign_inserted_locations_act @code @S "@LNAME""@LNUMBER" ttend ttend This rule assigns a range from MAIN to the last typical floor or penthouse suite (if applicable) to certain specified activities: 129 #ifmember(@code, 040100, 040200, 040300,050100, 050200, G00200, G00300, G00400, G00500, GO1000, GO 1100, GO1200) #then #if and(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @name, @X), string_cat(@LNAME, @X, PH), component(@, location, @, @LP1), string_copy(@L_Nl, @LP1, 3), eq(@L_Nl, @LNAME)) #then #if and(component(@, location, @, @LP),string_copy(@L_N2, @LP, 3), eq(@l_N2, @LNAME), string_cat(@S, @X, MN), string_loc_copy(@LNUMBER, @LP, 4, 1), =(@LASTP, @LNUMBER+1), string_cat(@LASTS, @LNAME, @LASTP), not(component(@, location, @, @LASTS))) #then Sassign inserted locations_act @code @S "@ENAME""@LNUMBER " #end #else #ifand(component(@subproject_path, subproject, @name, @X), string_cat(@LNAME, @X, F), component(@, location, @, @EP), string_copy(@L_Nl, @LP, 2), eq(@L_Nl, @LNAME), string_cat(@S, @X, MN), string_loc_copy(@LNUMBER, @LP, 3, 1), =(@LASTP, @LNUMBER+1), string_cat(@EASTS, @LNAME, @LASTP), not(component(@, location, @, @LASTS))) #then Sassign insertedJocations act @code @S "@LNAME " "@LNUMBER " #end #end Step 11: The rules assign durations to the activities by; • calculating the duration based on the shape and number attributes of the column elements: #if and(or(eq(@code, G00200), eq(@code, 040100)), component(@C1, element, columns, @name), string_copy(@c_no, @C1, 9), eq(@c_no, @subproject_path), attribute(@Cl, "no.of elements", (allocation, @QJ, attribute(@Cl, shape, (allocation, @shape), or(and(eq(@shape, round), =(@SF, 0.8)), and(eq(@shape, rectangular), =(@SF, 1))), =(@duration, (@Q/(@SF*15))), !=(@duration, 0)) #then Sdefine done_duration(@code, (allocation) Sassignjduration @code (allocation @duration Sdefine duration(@code, (allocation, @duration) ttend 130 assigning a time allowance, similarly to Example 1: asking the user for the duration. In this rule, the user is asked if all locations have the same duration (Figure 6-37). If yes, then the user is asked what that duration is (Figure < 38). If no, the screen, requesting the durations for different ranges is shown (Figure 6-17): #ifeg(@code, G00500) #then • ttif not(asked_question(@code)) ttthen Sdefine asked_question(@code) $ask same duration_all_locations(@code) 0 Y Does activity "G00500 Place Precast stairs" have the same duration at all of its locations? Sendask ttif same_duration_pll_locations(@code) #then $ask duration(@code, all locations, ?) 2 10 What is the duration of activity "G00500 Place Precast stairs"? $end_ask ttelse $ask_duration @code #rem call assign duration screen ttend . ttend ttif'same duration_all locations(@code) ttthen ttif duration(@code, all locations, @duration) ttthen Sdefine done_duration(@code, (allocation) $assign_duration @code (allocation @duration Sdefine duration(@code, (^location, @duration) ttend ttend ttend Does act iv i ty "GD0500 Place Precast = - . : : E Save the same "dura'tion at all'-of 'its locatidris.?* Figure 6-37: Step 11-Asks whether activity has same duration at all locations 131 What is'the^duration of act iv i ty "G00500 Place Precast stairs"?, • lo/i /u t , .-:!* - ' -h , ... . — ^ .OK Figure 6-38: Step 11-Input same activity duration for all locations • or, by asking for a default duration to assign to any activity that does not have a duration assigned by any other rule, as shown in Step 11 of Example 1(a). As this step demonstrates, computing an activity duration from component attribute values is an important feature of the system. It emphasises the strong relationship between the physical and process views, and demonstrates the ability to determine activity durations based on both quantitative and qualitative physical characteristics of the project. Similarly, as demonstrated later, in Example 3, attributes such as weather and soil type may be defined against PCBS components and taken into account in the duration calculation. While determining a general rule for determining an activity duration based on physical attributes is difficult and requires further study, this feature provides the user with considerable flexibility in defining a relationship between physical attributes and an activity duration. The user may also choose to include factors such as productivity or learning as attributes of PCBS components in order to calculate durations; however, such factors can more accurately be characterised as activity attributes and should be defined as such in the future. However, while the development of this feature is recommended for future work, the current system, does not yet allow the definition of activity attributes or their use in rules. 132 Step 12: As shown in the first example, upon reaching the end of the activity rule file, the application program opens the activity list where the user can view the production data and logic, and calculate the schedule. The resulting linear planning chart, after schedule calculation, is shown in Figure 6-39. Window Cursor Select Activities Execute Act Fi l ter mOde H ZOOM » e'( 1 I ti - - _ _ Completion: 29JAN99 li:Z8an g tur«tioT>(4/h/i<): Z42/3SZ0 > > liOCN- K !•: »». o c : t I>EIC: -I t k rtPHl APHZ, AF2Z-AF23, P AF28-AF21 AF18-AF19 AF16-AF17 t AF14-AF1S • AF12-AF13 AFlB-AFll 1 AFS- AF9 AF6- AF? ; AE4- AFS: 1 AFZ- AF3; " AGSP- AMN 1 o o N O V a. • * GBB10B Subproject Start |Act/Sch>Early: ( 01JUN98 8:88am > i l H f l i f • • r i l l 1 ii 1 r Ii t 1 i T i l l Figure 6-39: Linear planning chart for highrise project The detailed project reports generated in this example are included in Appendix F. 133 6.4.3 Example 3: Multiple Subprojects " This example demonstrates the ability to combine templates to represent a complex project, as well as the ability to calculate activity durations based on several PCBS attributes, and stage certain activities. The project consists of an underground parkade, completed in stages, which acts as a podium to both a wood-framed lowrise and a concrete highrise building. To generate a draft schedule for this project, use will be made of three templates to represent each of the three subprojects. A conceptual model of the draft schedule generation process is included as Figure 6-40. It should be noted that the level of detail in the various activity templates is reflective of the actual scoping used on a major, multi-storey project built in the Vancouver area. 134 135 Figures 6-41 and 6-42 show the PCBS structure and activity list for the parkade template "Prkade". The complete rule files and reports for this template are included in Appendix ( iTEMFLATE/PCBSiDEFINE/'EDII PCBS & ft I TRIBUTES E d i t , Uindou " C l a s s " Report e X i t em C:\REP500\PRUJ12\PRKADE| I « L-S 1 GPRJ SITE •2. 3 4 5 hi -2 •^3 -4 Subproject PARKADE Lo c a t i o n Set L o c a t i o n L o c a t i o n L o c a t i o n Set Loc a t i o n Set Element Systen E lenient Element Element Element System Element Element GLOBAL PROJECT GLOBAL PROJECT SITEUORK GLOBAL SUBPROJECT PHYSICAL LOCATIONS EXCAVATION FOUNDATION PILES PILE CAPS FOOTINGS SDG STRUCTURAL VERTICALS SLAB m I'FlTHelp H«- S. roll Enl-i Si Ii rt Em- E.it Figure 6-41: Example 3-Physical breakdown structure of parkade template fTEMPLATE>ACT IMI TV! DESCRI P.T I ON UINDOU _ C:vREPb00\PR0J12sPRKADE| fiditj Uindou Add De l e t e . Rejniuiblfg^ L o g i c E x i t D e s c r i p t i o n Excavate f o r P i l i n g P i l i n g Forn/pour p i l e caps Bulk excavation D e t a i l e d excavation Form>pour f o o t i n g s Form/pour v e r t i c a l s bVG M e c h a n i c a l / E l e c t r i c a l B a c k f i l l 8 U/S f i l l RebaivPour SOG Forn/pour susp.slab Remove contaminated s o i l Reroute/remoue e x i s . u t i l . Form/pour crane base(s). E r e c t cranes Remove crane(s) PK Subproject s t a r t RESP F l : H c l p U»-:ScrolI Enter :Select Esc: Ex i t — Type Phase 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCtlON 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 : CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION 0 CONSTRUCTION SH CONSTRUCTION Figure 6-42: Example 3-Activity list for parkade template 136 Figures 6-43 and 6-44 show the collapsed PCBS and partial activity list for the lowrise template ("Lorise"). The complete rule files and reports for this template are in Appendix [TEMPLATE/PCBS i DEF INE/ED11 PCBS 8 ATTRIBUTES E d i t Uindou C l a s s Report e X i t Mi C:\REF500sPRIIJll\LuRISEI t : GPRJ SITE H2 3 A * 3 Subproject LOWRISE [MOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION/ALL TRADES] Lo c a t i o n Set GLOBAL PROJECT L o c a t i o n GLOBAL PROJECT L o c a t i o n S1TEU0RK Lo c a t i o n Set GLOBAL SUBPROJECT Lo c a t i o n Set SUPERSTRUCTURE System SUPERSTRUCTURE System ARCHITECTURAL FINISH Subsystem WINDOWS AND TREATMENTS Subsystem FLOOR COVERINGS Subsystem EXTERIOR FINISH Subsystem FURNISHINGS 8 FIXTURES System FURNISHINGS & FIXTURES F l :'He 1 p" t Serb IT" Enter": Se 1 wff" EscTEx i £" Figure 6-43: Example 3-Physical breakdown structure of lowrise template 1IEMPLATE/ACTIUITV[DESCRIPTION UINDOU lEdllBiU'iWaouiyAaai Delete Renumber C :\REP500SPR0J11SL0R ISEI O p t i o n s g S u n j A c t _ D i r £Check~Logic Ex i f Code -GOO1O0 G0O200 G00300 G0O4O0 G00500 G0O60O G00700 G0080O G0O90O G01O00 G01100 G01200 G013O0 GO14O0 G0150O GO160O G0170O G018O0 GO19O0 G02000 D e s c r i p t i o n Form 8 Pour Curbs Framing 8 Sheathing Permits E l e c t r i c a l Rough-In I n s t a l l Uindous B i d i n g Paper 8 Mesh Stucco P a i n t E x t e r i o r Plumbing Rough In Roof iug Pour F l o o r Toppings I n s t a l l E l e v a t o r s D r y u a l l / i n s u l / V B Tape/Finish, Prime Pa i n t I n s t a l l C a b i n e t s / v a n i t i e s I n s t a l l B l i n d Tracks K i t c h e n 8 Bathroom T i l e I n s t a l l U i n y l F l o o r i n g Hang I n t e r i o r Doors I n s t a l l Appliances RESP type 0 0 0 d o o o 0 b b b b b s o o o o o o Phase -—-—— CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION F l f H e l p ti»:Scroll E n U r S . . l i . t E;. " E x i t Figure 6-44: Example 3-Partial activity list for lowrise template 137 Figures 6-45 and 6-46 show the collapsed PCBS and partial activity list for the highrise template "Hirise". The complete rule files and reports for this template are in Appendix (IEMPLATE/'PCBS iDEFINE/ED11 PCBS « ATTRIBUTES •EMIllMlndou " C l a s s Report e X i t C•vREFb00sPRUJ10\HIRISH 8-5 Subproject HIRISE [CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE/ALL TRADES] Location Set GLOBAL PROJECT Location GLOBAL PROJECT Location SITEUORK Location Set GLOBAL SUBPROJECT Location Set SUPERSTRUCTURE System SUPERSTRUCTURE System ARCHITECTURAL FINISH Subsystem UINDOUS AND TREATMENTS Subsystem INTERIOR DOORS AND UAIlS Subsystem FLOOR COUERINGS Subsystem EXTERIOR FINISH Subsystem FURNISHINGS 8 FIXTURES I T Hi-1 |i tl-»i-~ S c r o l l E n t e r : S e l c c t E s c : E x i t Figure 6-45: Example 3-Physical breakdown structure of highrise template [ T E M P L A T E / A C T I U I T ¥ ! DESCRIPTION U I N D O U C : \ R E F 5 0 0 N P R O J 1 0 S H 1 R I S E I E d i t Uindou Add Delete Renumber-Opt ions Sum_Act_Dir Check L o g i c E x i t I Code Description Hi G00100 Form S Four Verticals y G0O2O0 Form 8 Pour Susp. Slabs | G003G0 Structural Steel ' GOO-100 Cladding I G00500 Exterior Steel Studs I G0O60O Exterior Board % GOO700 Windows I G0O800 Building Paper S Mesh 1 G00900 Stucco 1 G0100O Caulking \ G01100 Interior Steel Studs \ G01200 Electrical Rough In I GO1300 Mechanical Rough-In I GO140O Brd/Tape/Prime/Paint I G015O0 Blind'Tracks | GO16O0 Hang Blinds j G0i?D0 Hang Interior Doors s G01800 Baseboards j G01900 Carpet H G02O0O Repair Trade Damage RESP Type Phase — 0 CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCflbN CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION ri":Help U * * : S c r o l l Enter': S e l e c t £sc:Exit": 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Figure 6-46: Example 3-Partial activity list for highrise template 138 The step-by-step procedure for generating a schedule for this project follows. Screens showing user input are included for each step. However, only those rules that are of particular interest, or differ significantly from the other examples, are included here. Complete rule files are presented in the appendices. Step 1: The user selects the templates upon which the project will be based. When dealing with multiple templates, it is useful to insert an activity numbering buffer between the templates so that activities can be added manually, if needed, after the draft schedule is generated (Figure 6-47). ISelect Repcon Template A v a i l a b l e Templates Selected Templates PR0J05\TGWER Proj06\TWRDET PR0J07\TWRSIM PROJ08\HIRISE PR0JC9NBRIDGE PP.OJIOXHIRISE PROJllMORISE PR0J12\PRKADE Proj13\BRPHYS Proj14NBRSEF Proj15\SAMPLE Add>> PP.0J11\L0RISE PROJ10 \HIRISE ''Eenove "4cve EHases HIRISE"lCONCRETE™SUPERSTRUCTURE/ALL TRADES] A c t i v i t y Numbering Buffer 3etween Templates: _ - O K J Cancel 1811 Figure 6-47: Step l-Select template and specify activity numbering buffer Step 2: The inference engine consults the PCBS rule files ("prkaderp.txt", "loriserp.txt", and "hiriserp.txt") sequentially, evaluates the predicates and starts firing the rules. 139 Step 3: The rules pertaining to the numbers of locations in each subproject are fired (Figures 6-48 to 6-52). ra Subproject A PARKADE Number of parkade levels OK Figure 6-48: Step 3-Input number of parkade levels Subproject B L0WRISE [WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION/ALL TRADES] Number of storeys " W Figure 6-49: Step 3-Input number of storeys for the lowrise building Subproject C HIRISE [CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE/ALL TRADES] Number of typical floors (excluding Main floor and penthouses) OK Figure 6-50: Step 3-Input number of typical floors in the highrise Subproject C HIRISE "[CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE/ALL 'TRADES] Number of penthouse suites OK 4-Figure 6-51: Step 3-Input number of penthouse suites in the highrise Subproject C HIRISE [CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE/ALL TRADES] Number', of mechanical/elevator penthouses OK Figure 6-52: Step 3-Input number of mechanical/elevator penthouses in highrise 140 Step 4: The rules insert the required number of locations and renames them. The collapsed project PCBS is shown in Figure 6-53. Note that since the templates had a common location set ("global project") with identical predefined locations, the application program has moved this location set to the global project level. pROJECT/PCBSiASSIGN fitTRIBUTES UALUES Window; C l a s s , Report eXit C: SBep500\FR0JZZ\EX3| [4-Project * 1 T A H '*-b -B £-Z a* fc I t P r o j e c t L o c a t i o n Set GLOBAL PROJECT PARKADE"" Pru.H'c I 1 Subproject L o c a t i o n Set GLOBAL SUBPROJECT Lo c a t i o n Set PHYSICAL LOCATIONS Element EXCAUATION System FOUNDATION System STRUCTURAL Subproject LOWRISE [WOOD FRANE CONSTRUCTION/ALL TRADES] Lo c a t i o n Set GLOBAL SUBPROJECT L o c a t i o n Set SUPERSTRUCTURE System SUPERSTRUCTURE System ARCHITECTURAL FINISH System FURNISHINGS 8 FIXTURES Subproject HlRISE (CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE/ALL TRADES] Lo c a t i o n Set GLOBAL SUBPROJECT L o c a t i o n Set SUPERSTRUCTURE System SUPERSTRUCTURE System ARCHITECTURAL FINISH m W ' ' "" • Figure 6-53: Example 3-Project PCBS Step 5: The rules assign location ranges to the PCBS components and their attributes. These location ranges will be copied to any activities associated with the PCBS components. Step 6: At the end of the PCBS rule file, the application program asks if the user would like to view the PCBS or carry on with copying the activities (Figure 6-13). The activity rules in the parkade template make use of certain PCBS attribute values to calculate the duration of the bulk excavation activity. For this calculation process to work, these attribute values must be assigned now. 141 Step 7: The user enters attribute values reflecting the scale of the project at hand. In particular, the user must enter the start month (weather factor) attribute value for the parkade subproject component (Figure 6-54), as well as the dimensions (Figures 6-55 to 6-57) and soil type (Figure 6-58) of the excavation component at each location, as these are used in the calculation of the bulk excavation activity duration (see Step 13 for the excavation duration rule). PRO.JECTVPCBS i ASS IGN ATTRIBUTES UAUJES C: SRep"iOG\PRnj?2vEX3 Htttwa Uindow C l a s s 'Report e X i t ' % i » i X i t i i i * & 1 PC r T 41 P Assign A t t r i b u t e L o c a t i o n Range 8 Ma lues PCBS: PARKADE Attribute.': START MONTH " " i E F l C l a s s : INDEX ........ • .< Uaiue Type: L i n g u i s t i c L o c a t i o n Range P S t a r t F i n i s h Uork S k i p Value i f a p p l i c a b l e *• UniV mZ Mi . r F - ) : f t s s i H n A t t r i b u t e Values F4?A™VeMtfcVI^C15.TLlst F5:U"ptl1He~ P r H | F> unlet Untrfiiu (.Ir) I'j <u^ li-nplrtti- f.ti-1 I'J.In', 1 r-rnpl.i 11- F L i i i s d l 1 n . . . . ,. F. . . ^ . . - - j - K 7 : L D - g - 7 f l t - T : P r i r . t ftlt-ft,=t:LTsfs Figure 6-54: Step 7-User inputs subproject start month (weather factor) 142 PB0JECT/FCBS1ASSIGN ATTRIBUTES VALUES C \Bep500\PROJ??\FX3 p > I i i P ll 1+ f PC r t P P Assign Attribute Location Range 8 Values PCBS EXCAVATION Attribute LENGTH Class DIMENSION 'Value Tope Quantitative Unit Abbreuation: n I 1 Sun ualues of all locations Location Range H Start Finish Uork Skip Value if applicable LTi »_AP3 :AP1 1.; 0" i ^ r I Uuii n m h .|F3:Assign Attribute Ualues F4:Amiregatiun Location List F5:Upda£eI|! "" ' > •'•>:• [ F?~Log Alt-P:"Pririt Alt-A.-TYLlsls Figure 6-55: Step 7-User inputs excavation length PROJECT/PCBSIASSIGN ATTRIBUTES VALUES jQSS Uindou Class Report eXit C NRep500\PR0J22sEX3| Assign Attribute Location Range 8 Ualues PCBS: EXCAUATION Attribute: UIDTH Chi.s DIMFNSI UN Unit Abbreuation n Ualue Tgpe: Quantitatiue f 1 Slim ualues of all locations Location Range •""•j Start Finish Uork Skip Ualue if applicable jtf «_AP3 API i ' o ; ;.;.;.:v:v 1 ffi.*1 ; ! P3:AssiHn^ AttViRrte*'UaT^ es*r4.:r^ "gTrega Location L"ist""F5:|] Uni M " • [ ' -.1 1 rV:Luu Alt P:P,-lnt AIL A. l.:I.i-t-. Figure 6-56: Step 7-User inputs excavation width 143 IPROJECT/PCBSIASSIGN ATTRIBUTES UALIJES C SRepS00\FR0J2?sEX3| Ml PCI Assign' Attribute Location Range 8 Ma lues PCBS EXCAUATION Attributi- DrPTII Class: DIMENSION Unit Abbreuation n> Ualue Type: Quantitative t I Sun values of all locations Location Range Fjj Start Finish Uork Skip Ualue if applicable A *1AP3 A P I i : o j L' " _ 3 :'Ass ign ftttrih"iifK~Ua lues"~M:A![Hreniitiun~1Joc:i>f7ion LisfFB': Update Uni 1 F 7 L u i | A l t P P r u . L n i l ft. I. l i . t -Figure 6-57: Step 7-User inputs excavation depth PROJECT/PCBS!ASSIGN ATTRIBUTES UALUES Uinduu Class Report eXit C \KLp,.OOsrHMJrY\FXI PC Assign Attribute Location Range 8 Malues PCBS: EXCAUATION Attribute SOIL TVPE " Class: PROPERTY , ' " Ualue Type' Linguistic 151 Location Range Start Finish Uork Skip Ualue if applicable it," • AP3 AP3 1 0 ~A\'~\~ ' ••• 1 § • APZ APZ 1 0 I • API _AP1 1 0 I Uni M n ri |F.3gMJBtOi^fpnEe^l 1m-. H Ayiiirii it ion I MI al inn I r t "5: Up~dft~te~| ~ — r — ~ - • r-r~r„TTT.-?J* " | ,7-h.i A l ' f Print Alt fcttl&j-Figure 6-58: Step 7-User inputs excavation soil type 144 Step 8: The application program copies over the activities and assigns to each activity the location range assigned to the associated PCBS components. The inference engine consults the activity rule files ("prkadera.txt", "lorisera.txt", and "hirisera.txt"), evaluates the predicates, and starts firing the rules. Step 9 : The rules assign the global subproject location to each of the subprojects' start milestone activities, and ask the user for a start date, as shown in Step 7 of Example 1(a). The parkade start date is entered as June 1, 1998, while the lowrise and highrise are scheduled to start near the end of parkade construction on November 30, 1998. Step 10: The rules overwrite the default location ranges for certain activities. Step 11: The rule which assigns durations and requests the number of zones to split certain of the parkade activites (Figure 6-59), and whether to overlap the zones or schedule them sequentially (Figure 6-60), is fired. Subproject k Specify-the number, of horizontal zones thatOthe*. ac t iv i t i es G0010(Kto G01100 should be-spl :it int O K Figure 6-59: Step 11-Input number of zones 145 I Specify the type cf zoning thdt you would like the system to inplament: i/Cavse 1: Totally sequerf • (•.All"activities in each7zone are'completed before the next 7one is started. CwOO 2: Partial overlapping. No activity takes place in more than one zone at one tirro. • However, different activities in tK'e'sequence may take place»simultaneously ii in more than one zone. . easel, OK Figure 6-60: Step 11-Select staging method Step 12: The rules split the activities into the specified number of zones, and insert logic relationships to reflect case 2. Step 13: The rules assign durations to the other activities by the methods described in the previous examples. The duration of the bulk excavation activity is calculated using attribute values in the following rule. This rule uses scope, weather factors, and soil type to determine productivity: #if and(eq(@code, G00400), component(@El, element, excavation, @), string_copy(@ell_no, @E1, 9), eq(@ell_no, @subproject_path), attribute(@El, width, @location, @W), attribiite(@El, length, @location, @L), attribute(@El, depth, ©location, @H), attribute(@F,l, "soil type", ©location, @ST), or(and(eq(@ST, sand), =(@PR, 1500)), and(eq(@ST, "glacial till"), =(@PR, 1000)), and(eq(@ST, "clay/fractured rock"), =(@PR, 500))), component(@E2, subproject, parkade, @), string_copy(@el2_no, @E2, 9), eq(@el2_no, @subproject_path), attribute(@E2, "start month", ©location, @SM), or(and(eq(@SM, January), =(@WF, .5)), and(member(@SM, november, december, february), =(@WF, .7)), and(member(@SM, march, april, may, October), =(@WF, .85)), and(member(@SM, June, July, august, September), =(@WF, 1))), nzone(seq 1 ,@nzone), =(@durationperzone, (@ W*@L *@H)/(@PR *@ WF*@nzone)), !=(@durationperzone, 0)) #then Sdefine done_duration(@code, (allocation) $assign_duration @code (allocation @durationperzone Sdefine duration(@code, @location, @durationperzone) ttend 146 Step 14: At the end of the activity rule file, the user can simply calculate the schedule from the activity screen The resulting linear planning chart for the global project is shown in Figure 6-61. Uindow Cursor Selectliyicti'vities:>.; /BHecute A c t ' F i l t e r mOric Zoom o X i t Completion: . B9SEP99 . S:: 00pm Dur»tion<d/]i/n): 465/9/0 * G01700 FK Subproject s t a r t *rt/Sch/Karl«: < 01JUN98 8:00am 1 1 II. I j M M •• I K . t . , . 1. . I I . £j 11 Figure 6-61: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the global project Figures 6-62 to 6-64 zoom in on the section of the linear planning chart that corresponds to each subproject. Note that several of the activities had no duration rules and, hence, use was made of a default duration (Figure 6-63). 147 Unridow^ C u r s o r Se 1 e c t A c t i v i t i e s Enecute Actj_Fi I t e r nOdn Soon o X i t C o n p l e t ion 09SKP99 5 :00pm Du r a t i on < AShSt* > : 465/^/0 * G01700 PK S u b p r o j e c t s t a r t ftctyScli>TEar 1 y V < 01JUN98 8 : BBan Figure 6-62: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the parkade subproject Windou Cur.^oir^Selecfcvi f tct iv . l^ iesafBi iecute - >,Act»P ! ia ter ,^ i»Ocle ' -BZo'o«»s ieXi . ' t^<H i s j ! j ! i t f * LOCN • ' » j r :Cqnp lWt i o n : 09SEP995 &: B0ph Dura ' t ibn<d/h^n>'465 /9 /B J BF4/ / I f f f t BP3 ' « BF2 4 ) , i W t s« t BGF BGSP API is f I « P 3 : f * * n =»•»• •» ; • . |* G0Z900 Framing a Sheath ing , , . ^ A c t / S c h / B a r l y : < 14DEC9G O iOBan 08JAN99 D:00pm 20 > Figure 6-63: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the lowrise subproject 148 Figure 6-64: Example 3-Linear planning chart for the highrise subproject The detailed project reports for this example are included in Appendix J. 149 CHAPTER 7.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1 Conclusions The objective of this work was to explore how artificial intelligence and expert systems have and can be used for automating the generation of draft plans and schedules, and to develop an approach to treating this problem through the use of physical breakdown structures, templates and expert systems. A thorough review of the literature describing different approaches to automated schedule generation has been tabulated and discussed in Chapter 2. This discussion provided a context for describing the similarities and points of departure of the author's approach. The literature review revealed that, while considerable work has been done in exploring ways to think about construction planning and scheduling, and developing prototype systems in an attempt to simplify this task, there has been little success when it comes to creating a practical tool that industry would willingly adopt to handle full-size construction projects. The approach proposed in this thesis attempts to contribute to the state of the art by: • making use of templates comprised of both the physical description of the facility and the process to be used to construct it, in order to capture previous experience and reasoning (as opposed to reasoning from first principles); • employing customizable expert rules to modify the templates in order to reflect the scale and scope of the project at hand; • allowing the knowledge to be both visible and modifiable to the user; 150 • increasing the practicality and flexibility of the system, from industry's point-of-view, by combining templates and rules within a project management system (as opposed to making use of templates only or creating an independent expert system using rules). Observations about the general characteristics of projects and how they affect a project's schedule, as well as about the important roles played by the physical project representation and activities in the reasoning process, were elaborated on in Chapters 3, 4 and 5. As a result, frameworks for the representation of both physical and process project information in template format were developed. The proposed approach to automated schedule generation combines expert systems with large building blocks of predefined sequencing and scaling knowledge contained in standard templates and rules, which in turn.make use of generalised planning structures. A major advantage of this approach is that it can be used on full-scale projects. A basic premise of the approach is that there is significant similarity amongst the construction plans for projects of similar type. Thus, emphasis is placed on the role of the user as the construction expert, and their ability to download much of their reasoning into user-defined templates plays a central role to the approach. This helps to eliminate much of the tedium of entering detailed project information and plans into a computerised management system. As mentioned, these templates contain standard physical and process views, and a set of rules that tell the system how to modify the template to account for the scale of the project, once that information is known. Because the physical and process views 151 contain the physical systems and attribute definitions, as well as the activities and sequencing logic, the set of rules that the expert system must apply is relatively simple. Like the other template data, the rules are defined and edited by the user. The level of assistance that these rules can provide has been described in a detailed discussion about the central role of activities and their treatment in the reasoning process. The implementation of the proposed approach involved adding expert system capabilities, comprised of an application program, inference engine and expert rule files, to an existing scheduling system. Because the rules are intended to be readily accessible and modifiable by the user, a detailed introduction to their syntax, as well as examples demonstrating their capabilities was included in Chapter 6. As a result, the user has considerable freedom in the level of detail that projects are represented in the templates, as well as in the amount and type of assistance provided by the rules. While the creation of a detailed template which calculates satisfactory durations is relatively long, once this template is functioning it may be reused or refined repeatedly. Also, one advantage of the proposed approach is that even a template with very simple rules for inserting locations, and assigning location ranges, default durations, or time allowances, allows the user to avoid much of the tedium of the scheduling task. This enables them to rapidly generate a draft schedule, which can be used to better visualise the project while adding refinements to transform it into a working schedule. 152 7.2 Recommendations for Future Work The system described in this thesis would benefit from further work. Additional capabilities for adding logic relationships that link subprojects to one another would help to avoid the problem of separating subprojects into independent templates. Currently, the system has ' difficulty treating global type activities, such as install or remove crane, or excavation and foundation activities when one subproject is acting as a podium to the others. This results in templates which implicitly assume with which other templates they will be combined. A similar mechanism as in the PCBS application program, which moves common location sets to the global project level is needed. This work was limited to considering the relationship between the schedule and the physical view. Significant reasoning capabilities could be added by considering the relationship between the schedule and resources, methods (M&RBS), or cost. Such considerations may lead to more general templates and a less linear, but more complex, reasoning process. The actual relationships between activity durations and physical, weather, resources, methods, and other factors is not well understood in the industry or literature. While this thesis describes how relationships, assuming they exist, might be expressed and exploited in a scheduling system, more work needs to be done to explore what these relationships actually are. 153 The case where scale is sufficiently large to require staging certain activities has been addressed. However, the opposite situation, where an offset must be added due to lack of space could be addressed in the future. This concept was introduced in Chapter 5. The templates currently have a 'check logic' function, which allows the user to check for loops and orphaned activities before using it to generate a project schedule. An additional feature would search the rule files and tag all attributes used in the rules so that the user knows which values are needed when copying the templates to the project side. The concept of linguistic logic introduced in Chapter 6 for describing non-typical relationships in a general manner is extremely useful when developing standard templates because knowledge of the scale of the project or construction order of the locations is not needed. The current capabilities allow the use of descriptors FIRST, LAST and ALL to be entered in the activity location and predecessor/successor location fields. It may be worth expanding the set of descriptors to include HALF, TWO-THIRDS, X t h , etc. For example, such descriptors would allow the expression of a relationship such as: "The FIRST location of Activity A may start after HALF of the locations of Activity B are complete". Productivity rates, learning, weather, and other factors affecting the duration calculation can currently be queried from the user and used in the rules, or defined as physical attributes. However, these would be better represented as activity attributes and used in the rules in a similar manner to the physical attributes that are treated now. 154 It would be useful to be able to enter rules for calculating attribute values from other assigned attributes, regardless of the mode of use. This could be done in expert mode by adding a third rule file containing an 'assign attribute' command function, which would be evaluated after the PCBS rules have been fired and attribute values have been assigned manually, but before the activity rules are fired. In keeping with the intention that the rules be easily accessible and modifiable by the user, the system would greatly benefit from an improved interface for entering the rules. The current text file interface requires considerable understanding of the inference engine and rule syntax. An interface which either provides better debugging capabilities, or which translates basic user input into rule form could be developed. 155 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aalami, F., and Fischer, M. A. (1996). "Requirements for industry applicability of knowledge-based schedulers." Proc, 3rd Congr. on Comp. in Civ. Engrg., ASCE, 774-780. Al-Shawi, M., Jaggar, D. M., and Brandon, P. S. (1990). "An expert system to assist in generation and scheduling of construction activities." Proc, CIB90 Build. Econ. and Constr. Mgmt.,2, 375-384. Dzeng, R., and Tommelein, I. D. (1995). "Case-based scheduling using product models." Proc, 2nd Congr. on Comp. in Civ. Engrg., ASCE, 1, 163-170. Echeverry, D., Ibbs, C.W., and Kim, S. (1991). "Sequencing knowledge for construction scheduling." J. Constr. Engrg. andMgmt., ASCE, 117(1), 118-130. Faris, R. K. (1991). "The role of scheduling in computer integrated construction." Proc, Constr. Congr. '91 on Preparing for Constr. in the 21s' Century, 295-299. Fischer, M. 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"PREDICTE: An expert system for estimating indicative construction times for multi-storey buildings at concept stages." Proc. of CIB90 Build. Econ. and Constr. Mgmt., 2, 643-649. Thabet, W. Y., and Beliveau, Y. J. (1997). "ScaRC: Space-constrained resource constrained scheduling system." J. Comput. in Civ. Engrg., ASCE, 11(1), 48-59. Tommelein, I. D., Carr, R. I., and Odeh, A. M. (1994). "Assembly of simulation networks using designs, plans and methods."/. Constr. Engrg. andMgmt., ASCE, 120(4), 796-815. Waugh, L. M. (1989). "Knowledge-based construction scheduling." Comput. in Civ. Engrg., ASCE, 84-91. Waugh, L. M., and Froese, T. M. (1990). "Constraint knowledge for construction scheduling." Proc, 1st Int. Conf. on Expert Planning Systems., IEE, Brighton, England, 114-118. Winstanley, G., Chacon, M. A., and Levitt, R. E. (1993). "Model-based planning: scaled-up construction application." J. Comput. in Civ. Engrg., ASCE, 7(2), 199-217. 157 Yau, N., Garrett, J. H., and Kim, S. (1991). "Integrating the processes of design, scheduling, and cost estimating within an object-oriented environment." Proc, Constr. Congr. '91 on Preparing for Constr. in the 21s' Century., ASCE, Cambridge, MA, 342-347. Zozaya-Gorostiza, C , Hendrickson, C , and Rehak, D. R. (1989). Knowledge-based process planning for construction manufacturing, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA. 158 r APPENDICES 159 Appendix A: Sample Template Reports and Rules 160 z o o W i3 S i3 .2 X £ =§ as DJ Q) U (. 161 162 163 £5 C-k3 C L . g CD 3 S . s : fc' E 3 u EC • CS "SB E l i2 Cl § 8 S •25 3 S . \i2 E3 I CO CO ea 3 S Lo CO r E E S E E CJ I—• t— O 3 * J H U V .63 £ - § I CSi <X CO l o s e s i O CD m : - B S D * £g S £ £2 § § 8 S 3 i 3 CO CJ Q-s £3 CO CO 63 164 C •H 10 c o •H 4-1 (0 O fc. 0 .— . rH X •P ro o a , 1 C O o, u 4-1 cu GJ XJ ' E a) a 4-> c rO H M a O E I M cu 4-1 ~ >H 1 — 0) 4-> Si 10 *. C 4-J a a) ro X iH u a d) 4-1 rd M I x ro O a a 4-1 Q . -H U 4-1 1 m ^4 4-1 >i to <U X .— . ro I O ^ a. 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CHJ *» p 3 "— CO CD X to C T l TJ -p CHJ o 0 O — •H U U to C 4-1 CHJ CHJ CO 0 ra — 0 -H p C c Cn - P 3 0 0 ro TJ -H -H E p 14-J 4-1 ra 3 CO ra ra P TJ c p p Cn 0 3 3 0 - P T l T l TJ p rH • a 3 CO C CO ro C Cn G - c UH - P -n -rl o CO U H to UH -H TS C CO 10 CO - P CD TJ ro T l T l ra UH X •CO- •CO- -CO- C u - P 4-1 CO. T J . C CO =8= T J C CO a a ra E CO p 4-1 X -p ro p u P I Cu 171 Appendix B: Example l(a)-Project Reports 172 o w Bi re * J a} o o -2 01 a- cw » o OJ u tu fc. m -< H Z w S w o •< z •< z. o u p H z o o o ra TO H . ra QJ CU QJ - — 3 1 5 * S3 as ca • co as cc O J i—* LD Lfl PS S CO CD CD CD CS CD FT*"1 <C" V V Li, U . U-. <x <x <r &« O - T -^I O-g g g S g 5 s < x 5 i S i 1 SE ( g c=> <=> o> c=> c_> c=> CD O S N t3 i cS S S S B S S a S3 £3 E3 S3 E3 8 S S B CD CD CD CO § DK 1 S3 173 174 175 r — T 3 i i 63^ — to ca 25 3 : 163 63 E3 OO Q 8 8 ! 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