UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Conflict and resource development McKellar, Richard David 1983

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CONFLICT AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT by RICHARD DAVID MCKELLAR B.Sc,  Murdoch U n i v e r s i t y  (Australia),  1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of Community And R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t  t h i s t h e s i s as  Planning  conforming  to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA January  ©  1983  R i c h a r d D a v i d M c K e l l a r , 1 983  In  presenting this  requirements  thesis in partial  fulfilment  of the  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available  f o r - r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  permission  f o r extensive copying  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  of t h i s  allowed without  Department of  I t i s understood  thesis for financial  thesis for scholarly  that copying gain s h a l l  my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Community And R e g i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date:  of t h i s  ** J a n u a r y ,  1983  that  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s  or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . publication  I f u r t h e r agree  Columbia  Planning  or  n o t be  i i  Abstract . Interorganisational conflict resources interest  are developed groups.  i s common when p u b l i c  f o r t h e b e n e f i t of i d e n t i f i a b l e  I n many  private  i n s t a n c e s i t i s not a d v i s a b l e or  p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d such c o n f l i c t , but r a t h e r t h e c o n f l i c t situation  should  be a d d r e s s e d  and i f p o s s i b l e managed t o a v o i d  environmentally,  economically  or s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e outcomes.  In  this  resource  t h e s i s I d i s c u s s how c o n f l i c t  development p l a n n i n g ,  l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g f o r  transportation c o r r i d o r s i n wilderness areas.  t r a c e t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s t o determine the " f o c i " these  instances.  histories  First I  of three  and outcomes of c o n f l i c t i n  Then, u s i n g a systems a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g and  decision-making, decision-making  in  s p e c i f i c a l l y u s i n g the context of  the r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and s i t e d e s i g n linear  m i g h t be a d d r e s s e d  I determine those  aspects  system which generated  of t h e p l a n n i n g and  the c o n f l i c t  w h i c h were t h e r e f o r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r s u b o p t i m a l .  f o c i and From t h i s I  s u g g e s t ways by w h i c h t h e s y s t e m m i g h t be i m p r o v e d . Thereafter literature following i.  I review  and propose a c o n f l i c t  management  management m o d e l h a v i n g t h e  elements: use of a m e d i a t i n g involvement authority  ii.  some o f t h e r e c e n t c o n f l i c t  involvement  agency w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u i r e  i n the planning process  but without the  t o impose a p l a n o r s o l u t i o n ; of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l major  interest  groups; iii.  a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n  into  i t s cognitive,  i n t e r e s t and v a l u e components, and a n a l y s i s and discussion iv.  of t h e s e components; and  h a v i n g a means o f o v e r c o m i n g the p r o c e s s democratic  w e l l - d e f i n e d deadlocks i  i n a manner t h a t ' i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n a society.  substantially  |10 T h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e  similar  to the suggestions f o r  improvements t o t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system  made e a r l i e r .  Next I review  in detail  the involvement  of d i f f e r e n t  o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r one o f t h e c o r r i d o r s previously  s t u d i e d , a n d compare i t w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t  management  model: i.  no m e d i a t i n g a g e n c y w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y o u t l i n e d was  ii.  involved;  the involvement  o f some i n t e r e s t  g r o u p s was n o t  welcomed o r p e r m i t t e d by t h e p r o p o n e n t iii.  only cognitive and  i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e d  i ndiscussions  b u t r a t h e r was d i s p u t e d ;  t h e r e was no a t t e m p t  to clearly  define the p e r t i n e n t  i s s u e s a n d d e f i n e d method o f o v e r c o m i n g Finally process  agency;  t h i s was n o t u s u a l l y o b j e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d o r  verified iv.  above  I suggest  deadlocks.  how t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  f o r t h e c o r r i d o r m i g h t have o c c u r e d had t h e c o n f l i c t  management m o d e l been  utilised.  iv  Table of Contents Abstract i i Acknowledgements vi I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. INTRODUCTI ON . 1 B. PROBLEM CONTEXT. 2 1. AN I D E A L I S E D PLANNING PROCESS FOR PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS. 2 2. REALITY INTRUDES 4 3. CORRIDOR PLANNING IN THE NORTHWEST OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 5 C. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 7 1. SYSTEMS DEFINED 7 2. TYPES OF SYSTEMS DISCUSSED IN THIS T H E S I S . ...8 D. LIMITATIONS OF THE THESIS 9 II. THE ORIGINS OF CONFLICT 11 A. INTRODUCTION 11 B. CASE STUDIES 11 1. STEWART-CASS IAR ROAD 12 2. THE B. C. RAILWAY DEASE LAKE EXTENSION 18 3. OMINECA MINING ROAD 27 C. PROBLEMS AND CONFLICT 42 1. CORRIDOR RATIONALE 42 a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: 42 b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n : 43 c. Omineca M i n i n g R o a d : 43 2. CORRIDOR LOCATION 43 a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: ......43 b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n 44 c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: 44 3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 44 a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: 44 b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n : 45 c. Omineca M i n i n g R o a d : 45 D. COMMON PROBLEMS ' 45 1. INCREASED TIME FROM PROJECT START TO COMPLETION 46 2. INCREASED COSTS 47 3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 48 4. CORRIDOR HAS NO PURPOSE 48 E. ' PROBLEM A N A L Y S I S . ..." 50 1. PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS .51 2. ORIGINS OF THE DEFINED PROBLEMS WITHIN THE PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM 55 a. I n c r e a s e d Time 56 b. Increased Costs 58 c. No R e a l i s t i c F o r m u l a t i o n Of P r o j e c t Objective 58 d. Environmental Impacts 59 3. THE IMPLICATION OF THE PROBLEM-ORIGIN ANALYSIS FOR THE DESIGN OF PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS 60  V  III. A MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 62 A. INTRODUCTION 62 B. EXISTING MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION 63 C. RECENT THEORETICAL MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. 64 1. WEHR: IMPROVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PARTIES TO A CONFLICT 64 2. FOX: OPEN THE PLANNING PROCESS TO ALL INTERESTS 65 3. LORD: USE A TAXONOMY OF CONFLICT TYPES 66 D. SYNTHESIS OF A CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL 70 1. COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE ORIGINS OF CONFLICT 72 2. COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE APPROACH APPARENTLY USED FOR THE THREE TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS 74 E. SUMMARY 75 IV. THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD. .76 A. INTRODUCTION 76 B. THE PLANNING PROCESS OF THE B. C. MINISTRY OF MINES 77 1. THEORETICAL APPROACH 77 2. APPARENT ACTUAL APPROACH 82 3. SYNTHESIS 85 C. THE PLANNING PROCESS OF THE F I S H AND W I L D L I F E BRANCH 86 D. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT 87 E. THE INVOLVEMENT OF PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS 91 a. Mining Interests 91 b. S p o r t i n g And C o n s e r v a t i o n I n t e r e s t s 92 c. E s s e n t i a l F e a t u r e s Of T h e i r I n v o l v e m e n t . .92 F. FEATURES OF THE PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM FOR THE LATTER PART OF THE OMINECA MINING ROAD 93 G. SUMMARY 94 V. ' THE HYPOTHETICAL OPERATION OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD 95 A. INTRODUCTION 95 B. THE EXAMPLE 96 1. THE DECISION TO CONSTRUCT A CORRIDOR TO F A C I L I T A T E MINERAL EXPLORATION I N THE OMINECA REGION I S ANNOUNCED 96 2. A CONFERENCE TO DETERMINE RELEVANT INFORMATION IS HELD 97 3. INFORMATION I S GENERATED 101 4. A SECOND CONFERENCE I S CALLED 102 5. THE MATTER I S REFERED TO CABINET FOR R A T I F I C A T I O N OR A DECISION 103 C. DISCUSSION 103 D. CONCLUSION. 104 BIBLIOGRAPHY  105  vi  Ac k n o w l e d g e m e n t  I of  would l i k e  t o e x p r e s s my  i n d i v i d u a l s who have a i d e d Firstly,  Professor  my work on t h i s t h e s i s .  my a c a d e m i c a d v i s o r s , D r .  Irving  supportive  g r a t i t u d e t o a number  Fox,  have  Bill  Rees and  been  consistently  and h e l p f u l a s my p e r c e p t i o n  of t h e p r o b l e m  became  r e f i n e d , and as I i n v e s t i g a t e d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l  context  and p o s s i b l e means  successfully  kept  me  even when t h e f i n a l  of  addressing  i t .  on a t r a c k o f my own  They  choosing,  d e s t i n a t i o n was n o t e n t i r e l y  clear  t o any o f u s . S e c o n d l y , many Federal  members  bureaucracies  of  were  the  willing  i n t r i c a c i e s of the p r o j e c t s s t u d i e d and  permitted  agency  free  and  Provincial to in  and  d i s c u s s the this  thesis,  open a c c e s s t o t h e r e l e v a n t  files.  T h i r d l y , my  f a m i l y showed  a  forbearance  Fellowship  from  of  my  folly. Finally,  a  greatly aided  the  thesis twelve  by  research  production  p r o v i d i n g needed f i n a n c i a l  month p e r i o d d u r i n g  work was  and  Transport  accomplished.  Canada of  this  support f o r the  which the m a j o r i t y  of  the  1  I. A.  INTRODUCTION. Conflict  The  INTRODUCTION.  a p p e a r s t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f human e x i s t e n c e .  very nature  of our l i m i t e d p l a c e  b e l i e v e t o be an i n f i n i t e U n i v e r s e much human c o n f l i c t .  i n and a c c e s s  t o what we  may be t h e d r i v i n g  I n any c a s e , c o n f l i c t  force for  i s no s t r a n g e r t o  most i n s t a n c e s o f human a c t i o n on t h a t p a r t o f t h e U n i v e r s e t o w h i c h we do h a v e a c c e s s : E a r t h a n d i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s t h e s i s t a k e s t h e v i e w t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e or a d v i s a b l e to avoid c o n f l i c t . conflict  i s i g n o r e d and p e r m i t t e d t o d e v e l o p  o r management i t may r e s u l t difficult  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f  in situations  without  restraint  i n which i t i s  t o d i s c e r n any b e n e f i t f o r a n y o n e i n v o l v e d .  be aware o f p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t  One must  s i t u a t i o n s , a n d manage them t o  avoid environmentally, economically  or s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e  situations. In t h i s  t h e s i s I d i s c u s s how c o n f l i c t m i g h t be a d d r e s s e d i n  resource development p l a n n i n g .  The c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h I do s o  i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of three l i n e a r n a t u r a l or "wilderness" areas. Stewart-Cassiar Railway;  transportation corridors in  The c o r r i d o r s a r e : a ) t h e  r o a d ; b) t h e Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n o f t h e B.  and c ) t h e Omineca m i n i n g  road.  t h e o n l y t h r e e t o h a v e been s t a r t e d Columbia  C.  These c o r r i d o r s a r e  i n t h e N o r t h West o f B r i t i s h  i n t h e p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y , a l l t h r e e were p r o m o t e d f o r  their potential  t o provide necessary  access  t o areas  o r p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s , a n d e a c h was d e v e l o p e d  of proven by a  2  different  government agency.  The  o b j e c t i v e s of the t h e s i s a r e :  i.  to identify  the bases of c o n f l i c t  in a particular  of human a c t i o n on n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i n e a r  "wilderness" ii.  type  - the planning  transportation corridors i n  a r e a s ; and  t o d e v e l o p a c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g y b a s e d on s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h have been d e s c r i b e d literature  i n recent  and which i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p l a n n i n g and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s i n " w i l d e r n e s s " areas. B.  1  PROBLEM CONTEXT. 1.  AN IDEALISED PLANNING PROCESS FOR PUBLIC SECTOR  TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS. The  planning  which i s designed  process  c a n be d e s c r i b e d  t o p r o d u c e , t h r o u g h an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s ,  p r o j e c t which maximises the w e l f a r e The  as a s e r i e s of s t e p s  s t e p s c a n be d e s c r i b e d  of those  a  associated with i t .  as f o l l o w s :  1) symptoms o f d i s o r d e r o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f p o t e n t i a l opportunities are perceived, 2)  f r o m t h e symptoms o r i n d i c a t o r s a p r o b l e m  i s defined,  3) t e n t a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s o r o b j e c t i v e s a r e f o r m u l a t e d  by  w h i c h i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m c a n be overcome o r  I n t h i s c o n t e x t " w i l d e r n e s s " means an a r e a i n w h i c h t h e r e h a s been l i t t l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a l t e r a t i o n by man, a n d i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e few o r no p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s .  3  ameliorated  or the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  taken advantage o f ,  4) a l t e r n a t i v e means o f a t t a i n i n g t h e g o a l s  or o b j e c t i v e s a r e  spec i f i e d , 5)  information  i s c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y s e d  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s c a n be 6) a c h o i c e Following  so t h a t t h e evaluated,  of p r e f e r r e d a c t i o n r e s u l t s from t h e e v a l u a t i o n .  these steps  a p r o j e c t may be i m p l e m e n t e d a n d  evaluated. However, t h i s p r o c e s s are  formulated  i s iterative.  and i n f o r m a t i o n  analysed,  redefined,  a n d so s u i t a b l e g o a l s  formulated  differently  For instance,  t h e p r o b l e m may be  a n d o b j e c t i v e s may be  t h a n t h e y were i n i t i a l l y .  such a p r o c e s s dynamic i n mind t h a t W i l d a v s k y goals  c a n n o t be t a k e n a s d e f i n a b l e  planning and  process,  but r a t h e r  as g o a l s  I t was  with  (1966) wrote  at the beginning  that  of a  emerge i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s  choice. The  process i s also recursive, occurring  planning  and d e c i s i o n l e v e l s .  planning  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t l e a s t t h r e e  interconnected  For instance,  on s e v e r a l in corridor  l e v e l s of  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g c a n be i d e n t i f i e d :  1) w h e t h e r t o  b u i l d a c o r r i d o r , 2) where t o b u i l d a c o r r i d o r , a n d 3) s p e c i f i c corridor design. desirability  The e x i s t e n c e  of a c o r r i d o r .  w h e t h e r any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n whether a s u r f a c e The  linear  l e v e l c o n c e r n s t h e need f o r o r  I t involves a determination facility  Finally,  i s needed i n an a r e a , and  c o r r i d o r i s t h e most s u i t a b l e f o r m .  next l e v e l of c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g  corridor.  of  r e l a t e s t o the l o c a t i o n of a  when t h e c o r r i d o r l o c a t i o n h a s b e e n c h o s e n ,  4  the  facility  must be d e s i g n e d  i n a way t h a t meets t h e  c o n s t r a i n t s of both t h e a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c groups c o n c e r n e d and the  b i o p h y s i c a l environment through which i t passes.  level,  the process involves goal  evaluation  formulation,  o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and so on.  s p e c i f i c a t i o n and  The f i n a l  e x p e c t e d t o be a d e t a i l e d c o r r i d o r d e s i g n  At each  result i s  in i t s specific  location. However, t h i s information  recursive process i s also  gained at the design  cause d e c i s i o n s a t higher it  iterative,  or l o c a t i o n planning  l e v e l s t o be c h a n g e d .  may be d e c i d e d t h a t a l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s h o u l d  certain  l o c a t i o n , but i f i n the d e s i g n  i n that  l e v e l s may  For instance, be b u i l t  stage extensive  to a  muskeg i s  f o u n d t o l i e on t h e p r o p o s e d c o r r i d o r , t h e l o c a t i o n o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode may h a v e t o be a l t e r e d . 2.  R E A L I T Y INTRUDES  There a r e s e v e r a l is  frequently  r e a s o n s why t h e p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d  not p r a c t i c a l  p r o c e s s may t a k e a l o n g especially yet  time and i n v o l v e  First,  large costs.  such a This i s  t r u e when f i r m l y d e v e l o p e d o p p o s i n g v i e w p o i n t s  some u n c e r t a i n t y  (Connally,  i n the r e a l world.  above  1980).  e x i s t regarding  Since  action  consideration  t h e p r o j e c t and i t s impacts  i s usually perceived  r e q u i r e d w i t h i n some f i x e d , a n d o f t e n  and  short, period  as of  being time,  o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d i t s i m p a c t s must i n e v i t a b l y be  truncated. S e c o n d l y , t h e agency and t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n planning  t h e c o r r i d o r u s u a l l y have t h e i r  l i m i t e d by t h e i r  search  foralternatives  i n s t i t u t i o n a l mandate a n d p e r s o n a l  educational  5  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l backgrounds  (Allison,  1972).  s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n  Thus t h e  i s u s u a l l y much  smaller  t h a n m i g h t a r i s e f r o m a g r o u p w h i c h i n c l u d e d many a g e n c i e s a n d professional  backgrounds.  Thirdly, p o l i t i c a l  or other  i n f l u e n c e s may  remove c e r t a i n a l t e r n a t i v e s o r e v e n p l a n n i n g of  t h o s e t h a t a r e t o be i n c l u d e d  analysis.  For instance,  explicitly  l e v e l s from t h e s e t  i n the planning  process  i n the c o r r i d o r s which a r e s t u d i e d i n  t h i s t h e s i s , the decision to construct c a s e s made a t t h e p o l i t i c a l  or high  a c o r r i d o r was i n a l l  bureaucratic  level,  and so  a n a l y s i s o f t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r b u i l d i n g t h e c o r r i d o r was essentially  foreclosed.  Since  this  level  of  decision-making  r a i s e s problems and i s s u e s t h a t a r e u s u a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those e n c o u n t e r r e d a t t h e l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n processes f o r t h i s  l e v e l of decision-making  stage,  planning  a r e not considered  in this t h e s i s . T h e s e f a c t o r s , among o t h e r s ,  usually r e s u l t i n planning  p r o c e s s e s w h i c h a r e i n some ways r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a l , a n d i n many ways a r e r a t h e r d i s t a n t f r o m i t . 3.  CORRIDOR PLANNING I N THE NORTHWEST OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  Common f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g " i n t h e north  west o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s r e v e a l e d  from  preliminary  observation, are: i.  decisions to build political little  or very  t h e c o r r i d o r s were made on t h e senior bureaucratic  level,  with  e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e need f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  mode h a d been f u l l y  assessed  or that a l t e r n a t i v e  6  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes h a d been c a r e f u l l y ii.  a s i n g l e a g e n c y was e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g o f each c o r r i d o r ,  so t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n c h o i c e r e f l e c t e d a  search l i m i t e d t o those either iii.  examined.  the p o l i t i c a l  t h e r e was l i t t l e  a l t e r n a t i v e s which  served  o r agency g o a l s .  reliable  environment of t h e impact  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n a t u r a l area or the potentia'l  e f f e c t s o f man's a c t i o n s on them ( i . e . c o r r i d o r c o n t r u c t i o n and u s e ) . iv.  F o r two o f t h e c o r r i d o r s  ( t h e Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n a n d  t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road) t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f conflict  regarding the environmental  impacts  of t h e  project.  Since c o n f l i c t  ( o r symptoms o f d i s o r d e r ) was  described  in section A.1  (above) as b e i n g  stage  the f i r s t  of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , not i t s product, t h e  process  seems i n t h e s e  i n s t a n c e s t o h a v e been  on  i t s head!  Even though t h e p r o c e s s  be  iterative,  i t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d  process original  output  will  process  be a d i f f e r e n t  stimulus.  i s expected t o  t h a t a major form of t h e  The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r  was t h e s u b j e c t o f r e l a t i v e l y  little  i n t h e development of a c o n f l i c t  system which i s c u r r e n t l y f u r t h e r developed Ministry  Road  c o n f l i c t , and  e v e n , i n r e t r o s p e c t , a p p e a r s t o h a v e been an element  turned  being a c t i v e l y  resolution used and  by t h e a g e n c y c o n c e r n e d :  of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways.  important  the  7  C.  SYSTEMS A N A L Y S I S . I n t h i s t h e s i s I make r e f e r e n c e t o " s y s t e m s " a n d s y s t e m s  analysis.  I t i s necessary, therefore, to at least  briefly  d e f i n e t h e a p p r o a c h and i t s a s s o c i a t e d terms and c o c e p t s so t h a t t h e y may be u s e d w i t h o u t c o n f u s i o n 1.  i n t h e r e s t of t h e t h e s i s .  SYSTEMS DEFINED.  The d e f i n i t i o n  given  f o r s y s t e m s by K r o n e  most o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s  (1980) s e r v e s  thesis:  "A s y s t e m i s a c o m p l e x s e t o f i n t e r a c t i n g e l e m e n t s ... s y s t e m s a r e what p e o p l e d e f i n e them t o be a n d what n a t u r e has bequeathed." 1  F o r my p u r p o s e s , a more s p e c i f i c u s e f u l : a system, and t h e r e f o r e  explanation  i s more  i t s boundaries, internal  c o m p o n e n t s a n d i n p u t s , c a n be d e f i n e d a s t h e minimum number o f elements necessary e x p l a i n or account f o r the behaviour (i.e.  outputs) of i n t e r e s t  f a c t o r s of i n t e r e s t  to the analyst.  There a r e t h r e e  i n these d e f i n i t i o n s :  1) s y s t e m s a r e composed o f s u b u n i t s , w h i c h may be s u b s y s t e m s o r i n d i v i d u a l elements; 2) e m p h a s i s  i s p l a c e d on c a u s a l a n d a s s o c i a t i v e  b e t w e e n t h e s e s u b u n i t s , a s w e l l a s on t h e i r  relations  i n d i v i d u a l and  s e p a r a t e f e a t u r e s ; and 3) s y s t e m s may be e i t h e r Other r e l e v a n t  i b i d , p. 1 7 .  self-defined or analyst-defined.  f e a t u r e s of systems  include:  8  4) s y s t e m s a n d t h e i r (i.e.  s u b u n i t s have c e r t a i n  boundary  i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s y s t e m o f i n t e r e s t  associated  i n a s much a s he c a n d e f i n e t h e s y s t e m  s u b u n i t s may a l s o  and a n a l y s e d a s s y s t e m s the c o n c e p t  2  ; and  1  i n many c a s e s be c o n s i d e r e d t o be  - thus there i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l nature t o  .  Systems a n a l y s i s , incorporates these 2.  and o t h e r  s y s t e m s ) w h i c h may be d e t e r m i n e d t o some e x t e n t by  the a n a l y s t 5) s y s t e m  conditions  t h e n , i s an a p p r o a c h t o p r o b l e m a n a l y s i s features.  TYPES OF SYSTEMS DISCUSSED IN THIS T H E S I S .  In Chapter I I I d i s c u s s  " p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s y s t e m s "  from a p r a g m a t i c and p r o c e s s v i e w p o i n t , and use t h i s to illuminate the d e f i c i e n c i e s were u s e d  orientation  i n the p l a n n i n g processes which  f o r t h e t h r e e c o r r i d o r s whose h i s t o r i e s a r e r e l a t e d i n  that chapter.  In the Chapter  decision-making that  which  systems  I I I I r e d e f i n e p l a n n i n g and  f r o m a more o u t p u t o r i e n t e d v i e w p o i n t -  i s , I d e f i n e the g e n e r a l form which system  i n p u t s and  processes should take i n order that the system w i l l l e a s t amount o f c o n f l i c t I reconsider  i n producing a decision.  generate the In Chapter IV  t h e O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road i n more d e t a i l ,  and d e f i n e  as w e l l as p o s s i b l e t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system w h i c h was u s e d  f o r t h a t p r o j e c t , a n d compare t h e s y s t e m  and p r o c e s s e s u s e d w i t h t h o s e w h i c h a r e p r o p o s e d a s b e i n g most s u i t a b l e  1 2  Von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1968. ibid.  for conflict  management.  inputs  i n Chapter I I I  9  D.  LIMITATIONS OF THE THESIS. T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h a t o p i c which i s a u n i v e r s a l f e a t u r e  of human i n t e r a c t i o n , comprehensively. developed  so i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o t r e a t  However, I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h e s  by some w r i t e r s i n r e c e n t y e a r s a n d d i s c u s s e d  have some a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o a d d r e s s i n g a n d m a n a g i n g arising  necessary  particular conflict  in certain  the thesis concentrates  as i t i s  key a r e a s .  on c o n f l i c t  type of p r o j e c t and then  In  surrounding  a  f u r t h e r c o n c e n t r a t e s on  regarding the environmental  t o Chapter  e f f e c t s of the p r o j e c t s . (from  Chapter  V I ) i s a means o f m a k i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n d e e p e r  i t otherwise  c o u l d have b e e n .  My work i n t h i s  thesis i s  f r o m b e i n g a " d e f i n i t i v e work" - r a t h e r I v i e w i t a s b e i n g a  working  r e p o r t w h i c h has. enough i n t e r n a l  relevance t o stand It and  conflict  left,  p r o g r e s s i v e r e s t r i c t i o n of the s u b j e c t matter  than far  some i s s u e s a r e r a i s e d a n d t h e n  t o c o n c e n t r a t e my e f f o r t  particular,  II  here  from t h e use of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s .  Unavoidably,  The  the subject  (however b r i e f l y )  s h o u l d be n o t e d  logic  and e x t e r n a l  on i t s own.  t h a t t h e models and p r o c e s s e s  I  develop  d i s c u s s a r e o r i e n t e d towards managing c o n f l i c t , and n o t  necessarily  towards m i n i m i s i n g e i t h e r  economic c o s t s .  Indeed, the long-term  i g n o r i n g v e r s u s managing c o n f l i c t s resources  over  long-term  cost balance  between  t h e use of p u b l i c  i s uncertain at best.  Finally, work.  s h o r t - or  there  i s y e t one more m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n  I i m p l i c i t l y suggest  on t h i s  t h a t human a c t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n i s  o r s h o u l d be b a s e d on some l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n  of  reasonable  10  original  precepts,  to non-destructive attacked  and t h a t most p e o p l e d e s i r e levels.  on t h e b a s i s t h a t  These v i e w s , the o r i g i n a l  to limit  conflict  i n t h e m s e l v e s , m i g h t be p r e c e p t s on w h i c h most  human t h o u g h t a n d a c t i o n a r e b a s e d a r e n o t " r e a s o n a b l e " , the  action  i s not l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e d .  In other  w o r d s , human  a c t i o n does n o t f o l l o w t h e same t y p e o f p r o g r e s s i o n  as a chess  m a t c h - i n w h i c h t h e r u l e s a r e a g r e e d upon a n d s u b j e c t variation, far  a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f e a c h move a r e o f t e n  i n t o t h e f u t u r e and i n r e s p o n s e t o p a s t  or that  t o no analysed  experiences.  Human a c t i o n , however r i t u a l i s e d , h a s an e l e m e n t o f t h e unanticipated. refrain  For instance,  the world  about us does n o t  from i n t e r f e r e n c e l i k e s p e c t a t o r s  a t a chess match.  However, w i t h i n human a c t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n t h e r e more l o g i c a l  i s room f o r  e x a m i n a t i o n o f most i s s u e s t h a n h a s been  evident  f r o m my i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t s w h i c h f o r m t h e s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r I I , a n d I p r o p o s e a method by w h i c h t h i s m i g h t be accomplished. belief,.he w i l l overly real  limited  world.  To t h e e x t e n t  that  f i n d my p r o p o s a l s  the reader disagrees  with  u n t e n a b l e and t h e t h e s i s  in its applicability  to the conditions  of the  this  11  II. A.  THE  CONFLICT.  INTRODUCTION. In  t h i s chapter  o r i g i n s of c o n f l i c t implementation In and  ORIGINS OF  the  I discuss a systems-oriented and  apply  first  section I relate  projects  and  of c o n f l i c t  i s given.  British  planning  Columbia  Thereafter, a brief  summary of  w h i c h were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Then, the p r o c e s s  making i s d e s c r i b e d  in aspects  the  these  o f p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n -  i n t e r m s o f a c y b e r n e t i c s y s t e m , and  t h e o r i g i n s of t h e p r o b l e m f o c i suboptimalities  the h i s t o r i e s of the  of t h r e e n o r t h e r n  transportation corridors. foci  i t t o the p l a n n i n g  the  h i s t o r i e s of t h r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s .  implementation  public  m o d e l of  are described  finally  i n t e r m s of  o f t h e p l a n n i n g and  decision-making  system. B.  CASE STUDIES. The  p l a n n i n g and  c o n s t r u c t i o n h i s t o r i e s of t h r e e c o r r i d o r s  w h i c h have been b u i l t described  in this  from  to  1952  i n n o r t h west B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  section.  1972,  and  The  Stewart-Cassiar  e x t e n d e d from M e z i a d i n  are  Road was  built  to Kitwanga  j o i n w i t h the g r e a t e r B r i t i s h Columbia highways system i n Except at the very conflict and  beginning  associated with this  of t h e p r o c e s s road d u r i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r when i t was  Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n incomplete, the area  i n 1977.  through  was  its initial  extended.  s t a r t e d i n 1969  t h e r e was  and  The  B.  to 1978.  little planning  C.  Railway  abandoned,  A l a c k of b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about  which the  rail  l i n e p a s s e d , and  conflict  12  regarding  i t s environmental  implementation  impacts,  resulted, i n the  of higher c o n s t r u c t i o n standards  l o n g e r p e r i o d of c o n s t r u c t i o n than  and c o s t s and a  had o r g i n a l l y  been p r o j e c t e d .  T h e r e was l i m i t e d d e b a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e rail  line.  The Omineca M i n i n g Road was e x t e n d e d n o r t h  Germansen L a n d i n g relating  from  1972 u n t i l  1978. T h e r e was c o n t r o v e r s y  t o t h e need f o r , l o c a t i o n a n d d e s i g n  1.  STEWART-CASSIAR  from  of t h e road.  ROAD  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was s t a r t e d i n 1952  by t h e B.  seaport  egress  C.  M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s t o p r o v i d e a B. C.  f o r the production of the Cassiar asbestos  At t h i s t i m e , and u n t i l asbestos  this  w o u l d be e x p o r t e d  Yukon a n d t h e n  r o a d c o u l d be c o m p l e t e d , t h e  over  a quickly built  route t o the  v i a A l a s k a t o t i d e w a t e r and f i n a l l y  North Vancouver.  mines.  by b a r g e t o  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was  commenced by a company w h i c h was owned by f r i e n d s o f t h e M i n e s M i n i s t e r , Mr.  R.  E.  Sommers, a n d w h i c h r e c e i v e d t h e m a c h i n e  r e n t a l contract without engineering resulted impassable  lying  2  A lack of p r e -  i n t h e road a r r i v i n g a t unexpected and  watercourses,  leading the*survey  tenders being c a l l e d .  and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n machines  sometimes  a n d r o u t e m a r k i n g team i n t o t h e f o r e s t o r  i d l e w h i l e a r o u t e was b e i n g m a r k e d f o r them. In  1956 t h e M i n e s M i n i s t e r r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f c h a r g e s o f  c o r r u p t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r c o n t r a c t s w h i c h he h a d lei,'.  2  No  ' B u i l d e r T e s t i f i e s on R o a d ' , by G o r d o n M c C a l l u m , The P r o v i n c e , Feb. 13, 1956, p. 3; 'Government H a l t s Work on C a s s i a r R o a d ' , by A l e x Y o u n g , The S u n , M a r c h 2 3 , 1956, p. 19.  13  c o n s t r u c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1956 t o a l l o w c o m p l e t i o n o f an e n g i n e e r i n g and f e a s i b i l i t y  study of the road.  was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r o a d s h o u l d be b u i l t Highways Department t o highway l o c a t i o n  Thereafter i t  by t h e B.  C.  standards with  complete  pre-engineering.  T h i s r o a d w o u l d c o s t $10 m i l l i o n ,  to  earmarked f o r the lower q u a l i t y mining  t h e $5 m i l l i o n  I t w o u l d " t a p a huge a r e a r i c h  in minerals."  B. C. Yukon Chamber o f M i n e s r e s p o n d e d what t h e ( m i n i n g )  3  as opposed road.  The manager o f t h e  by s t a t i n g :  " I t ' s just  i n d u s t r y h a s been w a i t i n g f o r , " a n d n o t e  made o f t h e n e a r l y 1000 c l a i m s w h i c h  was  h a d been s t a k e d i n one  area." The opening ocean,  f e d e r a l government, r e c o g n i s i n g the importance of an a l l - C a n a d i a n a c c e s s r o u t e f r o m t h e Y u k o n t o t h e  agreed  i n 1957 t o s h a r e t h e c o s t o f t h e r o a d w i t h t h e  p r o v i n c e o f B.  C.  I t was s t a t e d t h a t " t h e e n t i r e p u r p o s e o f  t h e r o a d i s t o r e a c h t i d e w a t e r , s o o r e from t h a t c o u n t r y northwest  B.  processing."  C. a n d t h e Yukon) c a n be s h i p p e d o u t f o r One o f f i c i a l  5  acres staked Feb.  1957). In  ( i . e.  r e m a r k e d : " T h e r e h a v e been  (with mining claims) i n the past  150,000  10 m o n t h s , " ( t o  6  October  1958 t h e B.  C.  C e l l u l o s e Company o p e n e d a 70  m i l e l o g g i n g r o a d t o a new camp on t h e N a s s R i v e r n o r t h o f  'Gov't t o S p e e d N o r t h e r n Hwy', V a n c o u v e r S u n , S e p t . 29, 1956, p. 17. Tom E l l i o t , q u o t e d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , 'New Road " W o n d e r f u l " Say M i n e r s ' , F e b . 26, 1957, p . 1 . U n i d e n t i f i e d government o f f i c i a l , q u o t e d i n t h e Vancouver Sun, Feb. 28, 1957, ' S t e w a r t Highway T e n d e r s i n M a r c h . " ibid  14  Terrace.  I t was h e r a l d e d a s " t h e f i r s t  the mountains and v a l l e y s of t h i s  road  t o push n o r t h  r i c h corner  o f B.  o t h e r s a r e b u i l d i n g , and i n a few y e a r s  this  expected  O n l y a 73 m i l e  t o be one l i n k  i n a network."  w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o l i n k  this  7  first  C.  into  But  one i s extension  road w i t h the p r o s p e c t i v e  S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road . Work c o n t i n u e d 1972  on t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road u n t i l  when t h e r o a d was o p e n , a n d t r a f f i c  t o C a s s i a r a n d on t o t h e Y u k o n .  c o u l d move f r o m  ( i s ) t o spur  d e v e l o p m e n t and l e t m i n e r a l s l i k e  C a s s i a r get t o tidewater at S t e w a r t . " Cassiar Asbestos  8  But t h e m a n a g e r s o f t h e  C o r p o r a t i o n chose t o continue  L a k e E x t e n s i o n when i t was c o m p l e t e d  The  date  final  of the r a i l  line  Highway. access  from M e z i a d i n  C.  their  Railway  Dease  was t o be 1 9 7 4 ) . 20 y e a r s o f  from Stewart  A system of g o o d - q u a l i t y  roads  sending  (at t h a t time the  c o s t of the p r o j e c t , a f t e r  . c o n s t r u c t i o n , was $30 m i l l i o n  great  the asbestos of  m a t e r i a l v i a A l a s k a , i n t e n d i n g t o u s e t h e B.  completion  Stewart  I t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e " P r i m a r y  p u r p o s e o f t h e new S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road resource  September  to the Alaska  l o g g i n g roads  Lake t o T e r r a c e  linked  and government the Stewart-  C a s s i a r Road t o t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c e . A f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Management o f f i c i a l u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t t h e B. bureau had worked " s h o u l d e r  7  8  C.  stated  Highways Department and h i s  t o s h o u l d e r " d u r i n g t h e d e s i g n and  'New Road Opens R i c h L a n d ' V a n c o u v e r Sun, O c t . 17, 1958, p. 31 . B r u c e L a r s e n , V a n c o u v e r Sun, S e p t . 16, 1971, p. 5 3 .  15  construction  of t h e r o a d t o m i n i m i z e  t h a t would r e s u l t was  anticipated  tourists, local  impacts  i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . However, b e c a u s e i t 9  t h a t t h e r o a d w o u l d be u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by  h u n t e r s and  recreational  t h a t t h e s e new the  from  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  f i s h e r m e n , and  concerns  r e s o u r c e u s e r s and  u s e r s w o u l d h a v e on  were e x p r e s s e d  managers a b o u t t h e  impact  the renewable r e s o u r c e s  of  area. In  1973  i t was  d e c i d e d , on  S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road s h o u l d be Highway  the p o l i t i c a l linked  16 by a p r o v i n c i a l h i g h w a y .  level,  Kitwanga  t o M e z i a d i n , and  Department o f f i c i a l s  Hazelton  that  from M e z i a d i n Lake  to Meziadin.  chose the Kitwanga  and  tracks  to Cranberry  from Kitwanga  Survey existing completed  and  roads  the upgrading  Highways  r o u t e , which  J u n c t i o n and  b e t w e e n M e z i a d i n and  they  existing  and  socio-economic  funded  impacts  t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e were f o r m u l a t e d by  9  L a n d Use  an  i n t o the  road a l o n g the s e l e c t e d r o u t e .  t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and  roads  and  the upgrading crossing  H o w e v e r , i n November of  i n o r d e r t o g a i n more i n s i g h t  environmental  and  river  Meziadin.  the Nass r i v e r  H i g h w a y s D e p a r t m e n t c o m m i s s i o n e d and study  of e x i s t i n g  d e s i g n work b e g a n i n 1974,  i n t h a t same y e a r .  to  to Meziadin,  p e r c e i v e d t o i n v o l v e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a m a j o r S k e e n a c r o s s i n g at Kitwanga  the  T h r e e r o u t e s were  c o n s i d e r e d by t h e H i g h w a y s D e p a r t m e n t : T e r r a c e  and  by  1974  the  likely the  I t i s notable that  Committee  was  interdisciplinary  of i m p r o v i n g  staff  of  the  of t h e L a n d s S e r v i c e Secretariat  P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n from W i l f r e d M c K e n z i e , Feb.  25,  1982.  16  Secretariat, funding social  r a t h e r than  the study. scientist,  t h e H i g h w a y s D e p a r t m e n t , who were  The s t u d y a wildlife  team i n c l u d e d an e c o n o m i s t , a biologist,  an a q u a t i c b i o l o g i s t , a  plant ecologist, a forester, a geologist, a hydrologist, a landscape  a r c h i t e c t , a n d an  Although regarding  the study  in aspects  the study  of the design  crossings),  local  w i l d l i f e winter  (e.g. w i t h respect t o stream  and m o n i t o r i n g  (e.g.  study  r e p o r t r a i s e d an i n t e r e s t i n g ,  instance  an  'environmental site  and c r u c i a l ,  s h o u l d highway d e s i g n  c o s t s be b i a s e d n o t o n l y t o w a r d s l i m i t i n g  options  location within  and c o n t r a c t o r s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) .  q u e s t i o n : t o what e x t e n t  existing  l e v e l s of the  outcome r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l c h a n g e s  r o u t i n g (e.g. regarding  range),  u s e f u l input  was h i r e d by t h e H i g h w a y s D e p a r t m e n t t o a d v i s e  engineers The  was much t o o l a t e t o y i e l d  the c o r r i d o r existence or l o c a t i o n  planning process,  monitor'  engineer.  biophysical resources,  standards  and  p o t e n t i a l damage t o  but a l s o towards  maintaining  f o r t h e f u t u r e enhancement o f s u c h r e s o u r c e s ?  For  i t was s t a t e d :  "A p o l i c y q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o c u l v e r t d e s i g n i s a s y e t u n r e s o l v e d and i s beyond t h e scope of t h i s study. The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch has r e q u e s t e d t h a t c u l v e r t s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o p a s s f i s h , n o t o n l y where f i s h p r e s e n t l y m i g r a t e , b u t i n s i t u a t i o n s where m i g r a t i o n i s b l o c k e d n a t u r a l l y n e a r t h e c u l v e r t a n d where t h e stream s i t u a t i o n i s favorable t o bypassing the block at a l a t e r date t o i n c r e a s e a v a i l a b l e h a b i t a t . "This request would r e q u i r e t h e Department of Highways t o i n v e s t e x t r a c a p i t a l t o improve t h e  17  existing environment."  1 0  Indeed, although the request o v e r t l y Highways Department d o i n g increasing  enhancement. happened  i t s utmost t o m a i n t a i n o p t i o n s of  s a l m o n i d enhancement,  requesting that  i t actually  As d i s c u s s e d  r e l a t e s to the  i t i s only a short  enter the f i e l d later,  this  step to  of s a l m o n i d  i s what h a s  actually  i n s u b s e q u e n t h i g h w a y d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n  When t h e r o u t e e x t e n s i o n was c o m p l e t e d , H i g h w a y s Alex Fraser the  reiterated  c o r r i d o r was  west B.  C.  that the purpose behind the investment i n  i t was  in north  expected t o encourage m i n e r a l  e x p l o r a t i o n and l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y  i n the area.  The K i t w a n g a M e z i a d i n S t u d y s t a t e d , "Concept of  projects. Minister  t o s t i m u l a t e and e x p e d i t e development  and t h a t  habitat  i n more s o b e r t e r m s :  Highway"  "The Highway ... h a s been c o n c e i v e d a s a means o f f a c i l i t a t i n g economic development of the n o r t h west, but no s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a r e d e p e n d e n t upon its construction. " I n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the highway appears t o have p r e c e d e d any d e f i n i t i v e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g by r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r development of the a n c i l l a r y f e a t u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e h i g h w a y . " 1 1  The  s t u d y a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , even u s i n g t h e most  r o a d u s a g e p r o j e c t i o n s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d  1 0  1 1  favorable  credible,  K i t w a n g a M e z i a d i n H i g h w a y , Volume I , Summary o f I m p a c t s , R e v i e w of D e s i g n C r i t e r i a f o r H i g h w a y , p. 11-2. op c i t , Volume I , p. 12-1.  18  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road r e p r e s e n t e d a s u b s i d y o f n e a r l y $0.20 p e r v e h i c l e m i l e f o r t h o s e u s i n g t h e r o u t e . S i n c e most o f t h e u s e r s were e x p e c t e d  t o be U.  S.  citizens,  t o u r i s t s who were u s i n g t h e r o u t e t o t r a v e l more q u i c k l y a n d cheaply  t o A l a s k a , t h e wisdom o f p r o v i d i n g s u c h a s u b s i d y was  questioned.  1 2  2.  THE B.  C.  RAILWAY DEASE LAKE EXTENSION  The  Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n was one o f a s e r i e s o f m a j o r t r a c k  construction projects initiated C. by t h e B.  C.  Railway  p r o g r a m have been f a i r l y actors  i n the northern half  i n t h e 1960's.  o f B.  The m o t i v e s  behind the  c l e a r l y p u t f o r w a r d by t h e l e a d i n g  i n the d e c i s i o n s .  One m o t i v e was t h e b e l i e f in p a r t i c u l a r sufficient  t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s , and  r a i l r o a d a c c e s s , was n o t o n l y a n e c e s s a r y  c o n d i t i o n f o r development.  W.  A.  C.  but a  Bennett  (1956) : "... we f o r e s e e many new d i s c o v e r i e s , many new f i e l d s , a n d many new r i c h e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e n o r t h , a n d we w i l l e n d e a v o u r a l w a y s t o keep them w i t h i n reach of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " 1 3  W.  A.  C.  Bennett  (1977):  " I t was a p i o n e e r i n g r a i l r o a d , c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n i t s d a y , t h a t p r o v i d e d t h i s p r o v i n c e i t s s t a r t i n Canada and i t s r a r e l y b r o k e n a v e n u e t o w a r d s p r o s p e r i t y . The B. C. R a i l w a y , d y n a m i c a l l y r e a c h i n g n o r t h , i s b o t h i n harmony w i t h t h e p a s t , a n d an e x c i t i n g s t e p i n t o  i b i d , E c o n o m i c I m p a c t o f H i g h w a y , p. 8-8. M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r  3, p. 3, p.  24. 41.  19  the  future." " 1  Bennett t o l d the McKenzie R o y a l Commission Railway that  the l i n e s  built  d u r i n g t h e 1960's and  meant t o " t r a i l - b l a z e a t m i n i m a l c o s t dynamic development to  state  i n t o t h e B.  ...  C.  1970's  were  making p o s s i b l e  o f r e s o u r c e s and c o m m u n i t i e s . "  1 5  the  He went on  that  " ... t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c r u c i a l to development. ... the r a i l w a y c o n c e p t was a p a c k a g e d e a l o f t r a n s p o r t , f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , mines, h y d r o e l e c t r i c development, and e x p l o r a t i o n , some c o m p o n e n t s more a d v a n c e d i n planning than o t h e r s . The D e a s e L a k e E x t e n s i o n w o u l d s o l v e ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o s t ) p r o b l e m s a n d o t h e r s . I t w o u l d a l s o h e r a l d i n an e r a o f renewed and t o r r i d explorat i o n . " 1 6  A l e s s c o n c r e t e m o t i v e was continuous r a i l or  link  t h e " r a i l r o a d e r s dream"  f r o m Panama t o A l a s k a .  of a  Bennett admitted,  perhaps r a t h e r b o a s t e d , t o the McKenzie R o y a l Commission  he a s c r i b e d t o t h i s A third provincial  f a c t o r was  government  r o u t e s t o t h e Yukon bargain position  vision. strategic.  It.was f e l t  o f t h e day t h a t c o n t r o l o f t h e a c c e s s  and A l a s k a w o u l d p e r m i t t h e p r o v i n c e t o  f o r i t s use w i t h O t t a w a and t h e U. of  by t h e  S.  A.  from a  strength.  As t h e M c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n  summarised:  "The c o n c e p t ... was t o e n c i r c l e w i t h r a i l an a r e a c o n t a i n i n g u n d e f i n e d r e s o u r c e s , ... In a d d i t i o n , a c c e s s w o u l d be p r o v i d e d f r o m Yukon and A l a s k a f o r  1 5 1 6  M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 3, p. M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 3, p.  28 29.  that  20  a n t i c i p a t e d h i g h volume r e s o u r c e t r a f f i c . Basic to t h e c o n c e p t was r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t r e s o u r c e and m a r k e t d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d t a k e some t i m e t o o c c u r f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e r a i l w a y . The r a i l w a y was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o 'minimum s t a n d a r d s ' , i m p l y i n g an i n i t i a l least-capital cost. Further investment, to u p g r a d e t r a c k bed and s t r u c t u r e and t h u s a s s u r e l o w e r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s w o u l d be j u s t i f i e d a t some l a t e r d a t e when a d e q u a t e t r a f f i c had d e v e l o p e d . " 1 7  At  the  Extension.  end  of  I t was  1969  approval  was  commenced t h e  r a i l h e a d a t Leo  C r e e k , some 180  G e o r g e , and  programmed t o be  was  Inflation viability  of  was  the  seen as  line,  and  the  f o r t h e Dease L a k e  f o l l o w i n g year from miles  n o r t h w e s t of  c o m p l e t e d by  the  Prince  1975.  f a c t o r most l i k e l y  to l i m i t  the  so e f f o r t s were t a k e n t o a v o i d  p o s s i b l e problems t h i s might pose. McKenzie R o y a l Commission  given  W.  A.  C.  the  Bennett to  the  (1977):  " I n v i e w i n g t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i t was i n f l a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e t i m e t h a t w o u l d be t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t factor. S p e e d , as a r e s u l t , w o u l d s a v e more t h a n a l l p o s s i b l e e c o n o m i e s o f e n g i n e e r i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s were t h e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y : A) t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be minimum c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e ; B) t h a t p r o j e c t s s h o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h a l l d e l i b e r a t e s p e e d ; and C) t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g r a i l r o a d s , o n c e t h e i n i t i a l l i n e was i n p l a c e , w o u l d be u p g r a d e d t o i n d u s t r i a l s t a n d a r d s as t h e need a r o s e t h r o u g h operating business volume." 1 8  B e n n e t t s t a t e d t h a t he s e t e a r l y and  1 7 1 8  as  wanted u n i t p r i c e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n  much work c o m p l e t e d as  soon as p o s s i b l e  M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , Chapte.r 4, M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 3,  p. pp.  work before  80. 27-28.  21  the expected  increase i n i n f l a t i o n  i n t h e 1970's.  T e n d e r s were c a l l e d , a n d t h e l o w e s t awarded t h e c o n t r a c t a f t e r a l i m i t e d railway  b i d d e r was  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by t h e  i n t o the c a p a b i l i t y of the c o n t r a c t o r t o complete the  work f o r w h i c h he h a d c o n t r a c t e d .  One m a j o r c o n t r a c t was l e t t o  a c o n s t r u c t i o n company f r o m A l b e r t a w h i c h f o u n d conditions unlike anything Almost without  working  i t had p r e v i o u s l y experienced.  exception the tender  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e work t o  be done d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y f r o m t h e g r o u n d r e a l i t y , e n g i n e e r i n g e s t i m a t e s were b a s e d on l i t t l e Cost  invariably  overruns  ground  because t h e investigation.  and d e a d l i n e e x t e n s i o n s p r o l i f e r a t e d ,  b u t t h e work  continued. In N.D.P. study  1972, t h e B e n n e t t  government f e l l ,  and t h e incoming  g o v e r n m e n t h a l t e d work on t h e e x t e n s i o n i t s r o u t i n g and i t s o v e r a l l  The  Regional D i s t r i c t  financial  i n order t o  viability.  of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e commissioned a  r e p o r t w h i c h showed t h a t t h e p r o j e c t e d r o u t e w o u l d b y - p a s s t h e m a j o r i t y of f o r e s t r y and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . be n e c e s s a r y be a c c e s s e d  t o b u i l d many s p u r by t h e E x t e n s i o n .  lines  i f these  An a l t e r n a t i v e  which would r u n c l o s e r t o and p a r a l l e l Road was s u g g e s t e d .  Therefore  r e s o u r c e s were t o route  I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n ,  t r e a s u r e s , might m i s s t h e mother l o d e . alignment  was c o n t i n u e d  i t s horizons to B r i t i s h  Finally,  resource however, t h e  because of a p r e f e r e n c e  B a r r e t t government t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s limit  alignment  to the Stewart-Cassiar  w h i c h was t o be t h e k e y t o o p e n n i n g t h e r e g i o n ' s  original  i t would  t o t h e Yukon r a t h e r  Columbia.  by t h e than  22  The  Touche-Ross Report  viability that  the  cost  of  along  the  l i n e , was  l i n e was $102  c o m i n g on report,  of  released  financially  million,  and  committed to the the  routing.  Extension  developments  On  costs  arising  r e q u e s t e d by D.  resulting  the  new  be  1)  from c o n d i t i o n s  P.  expected  increased  project the as for  i n any  p r o j e c t , became  f o r the  magnitude  environmental  protection  i m p o s e d by F i s h e r i e s C a n a d a , o r  g o v e r n m e n t ; 2)  increased  roadbed  supported  t h e CNR  3) a d e s i r e on  the  and soils  the p a r t  t o l e a r n f r o m and  avoid  l a t t e r c a s e low  maintenance c o s t s .  The  CPR,  and  f o u n d on  of  the  the  B.  to a r a i l  construction Fisk-Fox  line  away f r o m comparable  from l e a r n i n g about  the  the  construction  C.  Railway engineering  e r r o r s of the  Report  sites;  Fort Nelson  s t a n d a r d s had (Dec.  by  widths,  b o t h f r o m a c h a n g e i n management p h i l o s o p h y  r e q u i r e m e n t s of  the  the  g o v e r m e n t t o be  e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s o r g r o u p s and  t h o s e of  In the  this  B e n n e t t g o v e r n m e n t , and  f a v o r i n g a minimum-standard f a c i l i t y with  b a s i s of  B a r r e t t before  T h r e e f a c t o r s h a v e been c i t e d  extra expenditures:  t h e N.  the  same r e a s o n s .  ever g r e a t e r . the  stated  c e r t a i n resource  T e s t i m o n y by  as  It  construction  with  C o s t o v e r r u n s , w h i c h may  of  1973.  B a r r e t t government d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e  original  financial  v i a b l e at a t o t a l  M c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n showed t h e  many of  i n t o the  in February  stream at s p e c i f i e d dates.  the  the  , which looked  and team  Extension.  l e a d t o huge  1973)  questioned  e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y of c h a n g i n g a r a i l i n e f r o m a minimum  standard  development r a i l w a y  heavy r e s o u r c e  loads.  t o the  standards necessary to  I t s t a t e d t h a t the c o n c e p t of  carry  frontier  23  rail  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n which  the r a i l i n e  s t a n d a r d s and then upgraded development l i n e s . detail:  " i s no l o n g e r a d e q u a t e ,  ... t h e r u l e s have c h a n g e d . "  " i t i s uneconomical  these a r e not e a s i l y changed.  In  can e a s i l y  addition,  ... r a i l s ,  t i e s and b a l l a s t a r e  1 9  C.  Railway  , t h e f e d e r a l and  governments, and t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s through  Other  of the r a i l - l i n e  c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d t o stream  s e d i m e n t a t i o n , a n d t h e e f f e c t s on w i l d l i f e  i n c r e a s e d h u n t i n g which  was e x p e c t e d  whose  S u b s t a n t i a l cash and  demands were made, and a b l o c k a d e  was t h r e a t e n e d . and  I n more  I n d i a n g r o u p s p r o t e s t e d t h e l a c k o f an  r e s e r v a t i o n s the r a i l l i n e passed. territorial  even i n  d r a i n a g e and b r i d g e s - because  be u p g r a d e d . "  a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e B. provincial  t o low  t o c u t i n i t i a l c o s t s on some i t e m s -  alignment, g r a d i e n t s , subgrade,  items which  i s first built  to result  diversion  p o p u l a t i o n s of from t h e a c c e s s  a f f o r d e d by t h e c o r r i d o r . In  response  t o growing  p u b l i c and agency c r i t i c i s m  o'f t h e  e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage t h e e x t e n s i o n was r e p o r t e d t o be c a u s i n g , B.  C.  R a i l w a y C h i e f E n g i n e e r M i c h a e l Wakely e x p l a i n e d h i s , and  presumably  t h e r a i l w a y ' s view  on t h e s i t u a t i o n :  "We're v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t : we c e r t a i n l y h a v e no i n t e n t i o n o f c o m i n g o u t h e r e a n d d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s t r o y i n g i t . We welcome t h e f o r e s t r y a n d f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s c o m i n g i n h e r e - t h e y h e l p e d p u t more m u s c l e i n t o t h e p o l i c i n g of t h e c o n t r a c t o r s . We d o n ' t t h i n k we're d o i n g a l l t h a t much damage. I f we're g o i n g t o open t h i s c o u n t r y up f o r p e o p l e ... we've g o t t o make c e r t a i n s a c r i f i c e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ... a f t e r t h e  1 9  ' R e p o r t d e f e n d s S o c r e d R a i l w a y B u i l d i n g ' , by Tom V a n c o u v e r S u n , D e c . 2 1 , 1973, p. 29.  Gibbs,  24  v e g e t a t i o n t a k e s over damage."  again there w i l l  2 0  be v e r y  little  Wakely e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s arose  b e c a u s e o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r o u t e a l i g n m e n t  c h o s e n - f r o m maps a n d f r o m l i m i t e d a e r i a l o r no g r o u n d r e c o n n a i s s a n c e . been c h o s e n r e s u l t e d areas  h a d been  surveys, with  The p a r t i c u l a r  route which had  i n long s t r e t c h e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n  which had i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b m a t e r i a l s  little  through  for railbeds.  The  l a c k o f p r e - e n g i n e e r i n g meant t h a t t h e o n - s i t e e n g i n e e r s  were  unable  t o a n t i c i p a t e problems  v e r t i c a l m i s c l o s e of over them.  30 m e t r e s ) a n d s o make a l l o w a n c e f o r  But Wakely m a i n t a i n e d  view,  this In  i s t h e cheapest  the c o s t s of t h e e x t e n s i o n  Terrace  f o r t h e CNR. through  r o u t e we c o u l d have s e l e c t e d . "  2 1  economic reasons  t h a t Ottawa would pay a p o r t i o n o f i n exchange f o r c e r t a i n  running  P l a n s were drawn up f o r a CNR l i n e  t h e Nass V a l l e y t o M e z i a d i n  Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n  band.  t h a t " f r o m an e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f  1973 a n a g r e e m e n t was s i g n e d b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d  p r o v i n c i a l governments such  rights  (such as a p r e l i m i n a r y survey  from  Lake and t o j o i n t h e  n e a r S u s k e e n a , b u t t h i s was s t a l l e d f o r  a n d due t o o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e N i s h g a  Indian  Meanwhile, c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d , amid l a w s u i t s from  d i s g r u n t l e d c o n t r a c t o r s and c o n t i n u i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e x t e n s i o n on e n v i r o n m e n t a l Estimates  g r o u n d s f r o m many q u a r t e r s .  of the cost necessary  to f i n i s h the line  rose  f r o m $68  'The P r o v i n c i a l Dream i s F a s t B e c o m i n g a R e a l i t y ' , by N a t C o l e , V a n c o u v e r S u n , A u g . 3, 1974. ibid  25  million  i n 1969  t o $102  million  i n 1973  and  $110  millipn  in  1974. Yet  another report, t h i s  f i r m , was  released  in January  for proceeding with declared  1977.  Swan-Wooster  inadequate pre-engineering  l o c a t i o n design,  into a three-step c o n s t r u c t i o n are t i m e and  d e t a i l e d design,  coincident  was  very  resulting  w e l l be  o f f s e t by  warned t h a t  the  realities  d e t a i l e d design,  and  p r o c e s s of and  route  construction and  u n w i s e , e v e n t h o u g h some  avoided.  increased  f r o m l a c k of p r e l i m i n a r y  railway  studies,  process i n which d e t a i l e d design  i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s m i g h t be  i n t e r e s t may  Engineering  I t c a s t i g a t e d the  that c o l l a p s i n g a normal f o u r - s t e p  selection,  during  from the  "The  savings  construction  engineering."  costs  The  2 2  report  of c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h s h o u l d  only  became a p p a r e n t  in  emerge  during  construction. By  the  time the McKenzie R o y a l Commission i n t o the  R a i l w a y had  been a p p o i n t e d i n J a n u a r y  c o m p l e t e the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n When c o n s t r u c t i o n  of  the  extension  because of e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h  t o $310  originally only  million.  projected  a b o u t 2/3  of  the  At  this  to  5,  1977,  predicted  completion cost  had  some 2 y e a r s " a f t e r  the  been l a i d  on  distance.  Some c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g  2 2  estimate  April  lower than  c o m p l e t i o n d a t e , t r a c k had total  cost  h a l t e d on  estimated time,  the  C.  r i s e n t o $264 m i l l i o n .  was  c o s t s and  p o t e n t i a l c a r r i a g e volume, the risen  had  1977,  B.  the  necessity  to complete  E x c e r p t f r o m 'Swan W o o s t e r R e p o r t ' q u o t e d i n 'How D e a s e L i n e ' V a n c o u v e r Sun, J a n . 12, 1977.  BCR  the  Built  the  26  r a i l w a y as a commodity t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s w i t h i n t e r e s t s  link  were made by l o g g i n g  i n the r e g i o n , but the  management o f t h e o n l y l a r g e - s c a l e o p e r a t i n g m i n e , t h e C a s s i a r Asbestos Corporation, maintained  i n i t s submission t othe  M c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n t h a t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e x t e n s i o n was finished,  " C a s s i a r w o u l d want t o r e s e r v e i t s r i g h t  most e c o n o m i c r o u t e s t o g e t i t s f i b r e at l e a s t  two a l t e r n a t i v e  t o choose t h e  t o market, and t o m a i n t a i n  routes f o r t h i s purpose."  Thus t h e r e  2 3  were s t i l l  no g u a r a n t e e s  o f b u s i n e s s , even f r o m t h o s e who  maintained  that the l i n k  was e s s e n t i a l .  both metal and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s in very l i t t l e  Poor  i n the years  world markets f o r  1974-77 h a d r e s u l t e d  d e v e l o p m e n t o f any t y p e o c c u r r i n g i n t h e r e g i o n  during that time. In  i t s report,  t h e M c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n d i s c u s s e d why  t h e e x t e n s i o n was s t a r t e d , a n d some o f t h e r e a s o n s became  the project  untenable.  Reasons f o r b u i l d i n g  t h e Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n :  "The p r i n c i p a l f o r c e b e h i n d t h e s e immense u n d e r t a k i n g s was t h e u n c h a l l e n g e d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t r a i l w a y s a r e , a n d a l w a y s h a v e b e e n , t h e key t o o p e n i n g up t h e c o u n t r y , s t i m u l a t i n g investment and g e n e r a t i n g r e s o u r c e revenues." " "The r a i l w a y was s e e n a s a ' d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l . ' T h i s i s n o t a p r e c i s i o n t o o l , made t o f i t a s p e c i a l b o l t , b u t an a l l - p u r p o s e i n s t r u m e n t t h o u g h t by o p t i m i s t s t o be capable of opening e v e r y t h i n g that i s c l o s e d , i n c l u d i n g m i n e r a l s l o c k e d i n t o t h e ground and remote f o r e s t s f a r removed f r o m e c o n o m i c e x p l o i t a t i o n . " 2  2 5  'Forest, Mining Province, Jan. " MacKenzie Royal MacKenzie Royal  2 3  2  2 5  F i r m s F i g h t f o r Dease L i n e ' , V a n c o u v e r 17, 1977. . ' C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 4, p.2 C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 3, p . 3 2 .  27  Some o f t h e p r o b l e m s : "No d o u b t t h e r e h a s been a c o n s i s t e n t t e n d e n c y on t h e p a r t of our p o l i t i c i a n s t o s u b s t i t u t e a s s e r t i o n and e x a g g e r a t i o n f o r p a t i e n t argument . . , " " I t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e B. C. R a i l w a y t o o k on t h e Dease L a k e ... w i t h i n a d e q u a t e s t a f f a n d v e r y l i m i t e d experience." "We c a n n o t a s c r i b e a l l t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p l i c a t i o n s to inadequate e n g i n e e r i n g o r any other s i n g l e f a c t o r 2 6  2 7  "28 • • •  3.  OMINECA MINING ROAD  The  O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t  to provide access and time  t o g o l d p l a c e r d e p o s i t s i n t h e Manson C r e e k  Germanson a r e a s .  T h i s was c o m p l e t e d i n 1939, a n d f r o m t h a t  t h e r o a d was m a i n t a i n e d  t h e B.  C.  a t minimal  M i n i s t r y of Mines.  to o f f i c i a l s  i n t h e 1930's  standards  In the late  a n d c o s t by  1960's i t a p p e a r e d  w i t h i n M i n e s t h a t a l a c k o f s u r f a c e a c c e s s m i g h t be  inhibiting  e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n n o r t h o f Germanson  Landing.  S i n c e one r o l e g i v e n t h e M i n i s t r y  2 9  Petroleum  Resources i s t o provide access  'significant mineral potential' was  decided  t o extend  of Mines and  t o areas of  to facilitate  exploration,  t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road n o r t h w e s t  i t  to link  w i t h t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road n e a r t h e j u n c t u r e o f t h e K l a p p a n and  2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9  Stikine Rivers.  M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , V o l u m e I I , C h a p t e r 3, p. 32. . M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 4, p . 8 2 . M a c K e n z i e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , Volume I I , C h a p t e r 4, p. 8 5 . F o r i n s t a n c e , AMAX E x p l o r a t i o n I n c . urged e x t e n s i o n of t h e Road t o t h e " m i n e r a l i s e d e a s t e r n f l a n k o f t h e O m i n e c a b a s o l i t h " i n a l e t t e r t o t h e B. C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s d a t e d S e p t . 8, 1969. ''  28  An  invitation  share the  costs,  b e c a u s e of  low  responsibility  f o r e s t r y values  a r e a a c c e s s e d by The  from Mines t o the  the  extension  project.  of t h e  i m m e d i a t e l y e x p r e s s e d by sensitivity feeling  sharing  and  other  the c o n s t r u c t i o n Forestry  Forest  Service  f a c t o r s by  i t had  of the  i t to the  interagency  followed  Service  K l o h n , and  successful  the  concern  was  regarding  a lack  only  their  be  a r e f u s a l of  third, be  of  A  3 1  outcome of  second, complaints  extent  built this  f o r the  extension  e x i s t i n g winter Leontoff  in  regarding  the  sale  a c c e s s e d by the  that mineral  cost  by the  condition  of  exploration  t h e y were u n a b l e t o move h e a v y m a c h i n e r y  a r e a s i t was  initial an  to the  to  refused  hazard  and  would  timber occurred,  c o m m u n i c a t i o n on  spectacularly The  that  fire  at the  s t a n d a r d s e m p l o y e d , and  road d e t e r i o r a t e d  r o a d was  the c o n t r a c t o r .  resulted in f i r s t ,  co-ordination,  companies claimed over  the  the F o r e s t r y  harvesting  the  Service  3 0  of t i m b e r r i g h t s t h a t c o u l d  As  of  a limited  of a n n o y a n c e by M i n e s o f f i c i a l s  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , as  the  and  use  r o a d s t a r t e d i n 1971,  to environmental  communications with  road.  and  (then) F o r e s t  to access. i s s u e had B.  C.  Clearly, not  been  M i n i s t r y of  Mines!  f r o m Germansen L a n d i n g t o A i t k e n 'cat-track'.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Ltd.)  A consultant was  hired  Lake  (Ripley,  i n 1972  to  L e t t e r f r o m K. B. B l a k e l y , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r o f B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s t o K. S. McKinnon, deputy m i n i s t e r , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , M i n i s t r y o f l a n d s , F o r e s t s , and W a t e r R e s o u r c e s , A p r . 2, 1969. R e p l y f r o m M c K i n n o n t o B l a k e l y , A p r i l 10, 1969. C o m p l a i n t a b o u t t h e l a c k o f p r o p e r s l a s h d i s p o s a l was e x p r e s s e d i n a l e t t e r f r o m R. G i b b s , R a n g e r , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , t o H. B a p t y , Roads E n g i n e e r , B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , May 14, 1971.  29  plot a suitable corridor  location  L a k e and J o h a n s e n L a k e .  Opposition  greater at this  time.  f o r t h e s e c t i o n between A i t k e n t o t h e r o a d e x t e n s i o n became  Opponents i n c l u d e d p r o s p e c t o r s ,  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a n d s p o r t s m e n , who c l a i m e d not  economically  exploration, environmental  o p t i m a l o r even n e c e s s a r y  that the l o c a t i o n  that the road  i n order  was e x t r e m e l y  was  t o encourage  bad from a  p r o t e c t i o n v i e w p o i n t , and t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  s t a n d a r d was v e r y Ministry officials  low.  P r o p o n e n t s o f t h e r o a d were M i n e s  and mining  c o m p a n i e s who m a i n t a i n e d  e x i s t e n c e of the road decreased  that the  e x p l o r a t i o n expenses  considerably. In  early  1973, t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e  p r o j e c t , among o t h e r s , r e q u i r e d f o r p r o p e r  planning  r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g where e n v i r o n m e n t a l  matters  b u t a l s o t h a t t h e r e was " i n s u f f i c i e n t  personnel  Resource Departments t o handle o f f i c e work e n t a i l e d  are  that  concerned",  i n several  t h e volume of b o t h  i n multiple referral work."  f i e l d and 3 2  Nonetheless,  t h i s t i m e e f f o r t s were b e i n g made a t h i g h b u r e a u c r a t i c  to  e s t a b l i s h a co-ordinated planning process  notification to  The F i s h and W i l d l i f e  f o r mining  Branch requested  and c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e  be i m p l e m e n t e d  e n s u r e some i n p u t by them t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  Wildlife  suggested  levels  road  that a i n order F i s h and  t h a t t h e y c o u l d g i v e " e x p e r t a d v i c e on what  s t e p s m i g h t be t a k e n wildlife..."  t o minimise  d i s t u r b a n c e of f i s h and  I t was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e B r a n c h " i n c e r t a i n  L e t t e r f r o m R. W i l d l i f e Branch,  this  "inter-  at  construction.  3 2  Branch noted  Goodlad, R e g i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d a n t , F i s h and t o Mr. L e w i s H. C l a r k e , M a r c h 12.  30  critical  s i t u a t i o n s ... w o u l d want a s i g n i f i c a n t  even d e f e r r e d ...  construction, temporarily  permanently."  3 3  or o b j e c t i o n  from  "Your s u g g e s t i o n  construction  significant  ...  who i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  "someone i n ( t h e ) responsible  O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road i s e n t e r i n g Mines o f f i c i a l that  further  early  can.be  Deputy M i n i s t e r  F i s h and W i l d l i f e  f o r the area , should  Branch,  i n t o which the  contact  Mr. B a p t y ( t h e  begin."  3 5  1973, t h e r o a d h a d r e a c h e d J o h a n s e n L a k e , a n d  extension  was b e i n g  planned.  A geologist working i n the  a r e a f o r t h e M i n e r a l o g i c a l B r a n c h o f t h e B. Mines s t a t e d that  on t h e r o u t e  C.  M i n i s t r y of  p r o p o s e d t o Moose V a l l e y  "there  are  many s t r e a m s , a n d a number o f m a r s h y a n d boggy a r e a s . .  ...  good r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be t o o  plentiful." urged that  3 6  The e n g i n e e r on t h e r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n  i fa geologist  "consideration  to  i n charge of t h e e x p l o r a t i o n roads program) so  t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n may By  obstacle  Your r e f e r e n c e  i m p a c t on f i s h a n d w i l d l i f e 3  suggested that  M i n i s t r y of  might cause problems but I  m i n i m i z e d by d i s c u s s i o n a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n . " ' Fyles  C.  ... o f f e r s no  ... t h i s D e p a r t m e n t .  r e r o u t i n g and d e f e r r e d am s u r e t h a t  ... o r  The r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e B.  M i n e s was e n c o u r a g i n g :  r e - r o u t i n g or  should  location  f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y was n o t a v a i l a b l e  be g i v e n  to hiring a geologist  t o make t h e  L e t t e r from L l o y d B r o o k s , deputy m i n i s t e r F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , t o James T. F y l e s , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r B. C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s , M a r c h 16, 1973.' L e t t e r f r o m F y l e s t o B r o o k s , M a r c h 2 2 , 1973. ibid L e t t e r f r o m W. B. M o n t g o m e r y , R e s i d e n t E n g i n e e r , t o H. B a p t y , J u l y 17, 1973  31  survey and mapping." available  3 7  The m i n i s t r y g e o l o g i s t s were n o t made  f o r t h i s work, a n d i t a p p e a r s t h a t  g e o l o g y o f t h e a r e a was o n l y  scantily  ground, the road l o c a t i o n being  the superficial  i n v e s t i g a t e d on t h e  p l o t t e d p r i m a r i l y from  aerial  photographs. A memo p r e p a r e d w i t h i n t h e B. end  o f t h e 1973 c o n s t r u c t i o n  the  projected  was  expected that  C.  season, d e s c r i b i n g  by 1980 t h e r o a d w o u l d be c o m p l e t e d t o t h e Park.  In a d d i t i o n ,  five  c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road a n d t h e Dease  Lake E x t e n s i o n quartered,  Valley  were m e n t i o n e d - i n s h o r t , t h e r e g i o n  on t h e r o u t e  c h o s e n f o r t h e r o a d - t h r o u g h Moose  - was s t a t e d t o have i n c l u d e d  prospector.  was t o  a n d i n t h e e y e s o f n a t u r a l i s t s , a l s o hung a n d d r a w n .  Consultation  3 8  While consultation with  B r a n c h may h a v e o c c u r r e d , of  t h e h i s t o r y and  f u t u r e o f t h e O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road, s t a t e d t h a t i t  Klappan R i v e r , northwest of S p a t s i z i cross  M i n i s t r y of Mines a t the  t h e 1973 c o n s t r u c t i o n  "completed t o a point  there  a Mines Inspector  and a  t h eF i s h and W i l d l i f e  i s no r e c o r d  of any.  By t h e e n d  s e a s o n , t h e r o a d was s t a t e d t o be  near M o o s e v a l e . "  3 9  A proper survey of the  r o a d was s e e n t o be t o o e x p e n s i v e , a n d no s m a l l p r i d e was shown in the statement: similar  "No o t h e r  road i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n a  l o c a t i o n c a n match o u r c o s t s . " "  Branch and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  0  The F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e  were b e g i n n i n g  t o agree w i t h the  ibid F i l e memo, H. B a p t y , u n d a t e d J. W. P e c k , C H i e f I n s p e c t o r o f M i n e s , t o J . d e p u t y m i n i s t e r o f B. C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s ibid  E.  Mcmynn,  32  s t a t e m e n t , but sensitivity  not  i n i t s intended sense.  t o c o m p l a i n t s about the  i t s w o r t h i s a l s o a p p a r e n t : "... mineral road."" two  f i n d s t o be 1  This  statement  discussed  the  which w i l l  was  fully  c o s t s , and  enthusiasts  to  'lock  p l a n n e d and  d e p l o r e d the  up'  b u i l t with  another."'  B.  B r a n c h i t was  C. stated  construction it  1 2  3  4  no  C. one  the  Province 2  for  the  environmental  Federation)  or more r e s o u r c e s i n  and  co-ordination  M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s and "From a r e p o r t F i s h and  ( t h e y ) have had  that  reducing  wildlife  of t h e  Wildlife  the  the  3  consultation  that  opponents of  a few  the ...  files  procedures  F i s h and from the  Wildlife Prince  W i l d l i f e Branch,  p l a n s were s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e  and  is possible  sections  B.  of)  G e o r g e R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of t h e a f f i r m that  the  a minimum  need f o r  number o f p e o p l e , " "  the  "(desecration  C o n c e r n i n g the  " p l a n s by  large  ( s u c h as  d e v e l o p m e n t of  between the  berated  of a s m a l l  p r e s s u r e groups  this  this corridor, like  i n t e r e s t s emphasised the  exploration  right  justify  rationale for i t s existence.  While mining  exclusive  concerning  o r more m a j o r  C o n f l i c t c o n t i n u e d between p r o p o n e n t s and road.  of  optimism  e x p e c t one  indicates that  previously,  of a n a l y s i s of  r o a d and  we  established  A mixture  proposed  none t o d a t e  from which t h i s  they  road Thus,  s t o r y has  while  been  ibid L e t t e r f r o m Thomas E l l i o t , M a n a g e r , B. C. and Yukon Chamber o f M i n e s , t o Hon. Leo T. N i m s i c k , M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , Nov. 23, 1973 L e t t e r f r o m M. M o o r c r o f t , D i r e c t o r , B. C. Wildlife F e d e r a t i o n , t o Jame"s F y l e s , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , Feb. 15, 1974 ibid  33  compiled  may  n o t be c o m p l e t e , o r may  yet hide  i n s t a n c e s of  a t t e m p t e d i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t a c t , ' 'notification  and c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ' w h i c h had  been a g r e e d t o t h e p r e v i o u s l a c k o f c o n s u l t a t i o n may officials initiate  b e l i e v e d that the i n s t i g a t i n g the n o t i f i c a t i o n  B r a n c h was  make an e f f o r t  Wildlife  apparently  felt  p u r s u i t by t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e  should  i n s t a n c e of  road  that i f the F i s h  limited  and  should  degree  of  initiated  concerning  This arose  both  Branch of companies 6  and  by e x p l o r a t i o n c o m p a n i e s  Branch regarding t h e i r  and the  r o u t e s f r o m t h e Omineca  been r e p o r t e d t o be c o n s i d e r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t '  "  Wildlife  and p l a n n i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n between t h e F i s h  communications  A  t o keep a b r e a s t of a l l developments.  M i n i n g Road t o c l a i m s o r o r e b o d i e s .  1974,  easily  s e r i o u s about c o n s u l t a t i o n , then they  p l a n s of the l a t t e r t o c o n s t r u c t a c c e s s  In  (Mines)  B r a n c h and p r i v a t e e x p l o r a t i o n c o m p a n i e s  and W i l d l i f e  so  F i s h and  agency  procedure f o r each  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o h a v e been a v e r y communication  the  s p r i n g , d i d n o t come t o a n y t h i n g .  have o c c u r r e d because  work, w h i l e M i n e s o f f i c i a l s Wildlife  5  plans.'  from which  had  from t o the F i s h .  7  the Mines o f f i c i a l i n c h a r g e of road c o n s t r u c t i o n  A memo(J. W a l k e r t o E. H. Vernon, A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , Dec. 1 9 , 1 9 7 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch o f f i c i a l s "repeatedly asked f o r s p e c i f i c plans f o r t h e r o a d " , b u t t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f any s u c h r e q u e s t s i n any o f t h e f i l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s " F o r i n s t a n c e , a l e t t e r f r o m I . L. Withler, Co-ordinator, H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n , F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , t o F a l c o n b r i d g e N i c k e l M i n e s L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , Feb. 19, 1974. ' F o r i n s t a n c e , c o n t a c t made by K e r r , Dawson and A s s o c i a t e s , L t d . , K a m l o o p s , w i t h t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i n P r i n c e G e o r g e , t o w h i c h Dave K i n g , R e g i o n a l H a b i t a t b i o l o g i s t , replied on J a n . 11, 1974. 5  6  7  34  stated that  "construction  Creek and a i r s t r i p surprisingly  ... s h o u l d  be c o m p l e t e d t o M o o s e v a l e  i n 1974", and t h a t  heavy, mainly t o u r i s t s .  b r i s k , and w h i l e  main t r a n s p o r t  t h e Omineca R o a d . " "  " t r a f f i c on t h e r o a d i s Mining exploration i s  i s by a i r , h e a v y h a u l i n g  isvia-  8  A p a t r o l o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road by F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e officials  in late  problems a r i s i n g  summer  i n s p r i n g and f a l l  by  being  being  fisheries  related  f r o m t h e s t r e a m c r o s s i n g methods e m p l o y e d :  1)  placed  1974 f o u n d s e v e r a l  c u l v e r t s were o b s t a c l e s  too high  o r low i n r e l a t i o n  to fish  passage,  t o the stream bed, or  too small,  2) c u l v e r t s t h a t a r e u n p r o t e c t e d o r t o o s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of s i l t  w h i c h were b e l i e v e d  yielded  large  t o reduce t h e u t i l i t y of  spawning h a b i t a t . I t was s t a t e d  further  that  " I t appears that c o n s t r u c t i o n i s scheduled f o r branch a c c e s s r o a d s t o v a r i o u s o r e body l o c a t i o n s . We h a v e had no i n f o r m a t i o n v i a d e p a r t m e n t a l c h a n n e l s c o n c e r n i n g b r a n c h r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r ... r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e main r o a d n o r t h t o i t s p r e s e n t locat ion. is by  "The c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l process s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d when ... d e v e l o p m e n t f i n a n c e d g o v e r n m e n t p r o c e e d s w i t h l i t t l e o r no r e f e r r a l s . "  However, awareness of e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s  " " 5 0  8 9  9  was b o t h  claimed  P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , Omineca Road, P. E. O l s o n , J u l y 3, 1974. G. R. C h i s l e t t , R e g i o n a l F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t , t o R o g e r Goodlad, R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, P r i n c e George, Sept. 4, 1974. P. E. O l s o n t o J . E. McMynn, J a n . 6, 1975.  35  by and  the Mines o f f i c i a l also  indicated  i n c h a r g e of E x p l o r a t i o n  in stated  planning  Roads p r o g r a m  5 0  priorities:  " I s u g g e s t we e m p h a s i z e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r u n k r o a d s and d e - e m p h a s i z e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of b r a n c h r o a d s , a t t h e same t i m e e n c o u r a g i n g t h e use of h e l i c o p t e r s for access to mining e x p l o r a t i o n . This i d e a c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e use o f b u l l d o z e r s f o r t r e n c h i n g , w h i c h , i n many c a s e s , s h o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d because of d i s t u r b a n c e , e t c . Should e x p l o r a t i o n be s u c c e s s f u l , t h e n a w e l l e n g i n e e r e d r o a d c o u l d -be b u i l t and we s h o u l d a s s i s t a t t h i s s t a g e . I am r e a s o n a b l y s u r e t h a t F i s h and W i l d l i f e a s w e l l a s F o r e s t r y w o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h i s c o n c e p t of discouraging some o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n r o a d s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . The a l t e r n a t i v e s t o u s i n g heavy m a c h i n e r y f o r e x p l o r a t i o n may be u n p a l a t a b l e i n some c a s e s so we w o u l d have t o keep an open m i n d on t h i s m a t t e r . " 5 1  The regarding  level the  p l a n n e d and the  of c o m p l a i n t s r o s e i n l a t e manner i n w h i c h t h e  constructed.  E n v i r o n m e n t and  subgroups of  i t , and  As  L a n d Use the  1974  and  early  Omineca M i n i n g Road was  a result,  1975 being  a s e r i e s of m e e t i n g s  Committee S e c r e t a r i a t  of  Secretariat,  R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e  were o r g a n i s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e  situation  and  make  recommendations about i t . During  1975  m a i n t e n a n c e and  the m a j o r i t y  of  work on  the  also occurred.  An  interagency  t h e Omineca P e a c e R e g i o n w h i c h was  established  1975  year that  recommended i n O c t o b e r of t h a  t e r m i n a t e d a t J o h a n s e n L a k e and that point.  P.  E.  road  was  r e p a i r to reduce i t s environmental impacts,  some c o n s t r u c t i o n  5 1  the  the  Olson to J .  T.  F y l e s , Oct.  18,  by  the  r o a d b e d be  However, i n what a p p e a r s t o be  task  group i n  ELUC i n road  May  be  stabilised  beyond  a s l i g h t change  1974.  but  of  36  h e a r t , t h e R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e n o t i f i e d a t t h e end  of  1975  t h a t i t s members d i d n o t o p p o s e t h e Omineca  M i n i n g Road on p r i n c i p l e , s t a n d a r d be  raised.  but  requested  in their  extending  it.  5  view,  standards,  t o upgrade the e x i s t i n g  e n v i r o n m e n t c o n t i n u e d , and  sour.  o f M i n e s and  staff  Statements  r e g a r d i n g impacts  termed " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " v i e w p o i n t was addition,  by t h e i r  fisheries  by M i n e s ,  and  5 3  at the deputy  l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n and (Mines  had  siltation resources Wildlife  the road  were  rather antagonistic  minister level. to s o l i c i t  In  planning  i n t h e p a s t been  d i d , however, i g n o r e now  input  frustrated  the  e x i s t e d . ) The  mineral exploration.  t h a t t h e m i n e r a l p r o s p e c t s on w h i c h  5 3  this  s t a t e d t o be w i t h i n m i n i s t e r i a l  i n encouraging  became v e r y  the absence of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h i s b o d y , w h i c h  5 2  r e s o u r c e s by  the  C.  t o t h e c o n t r a r y by F i s h and  from o t h e r a g e n c i e s  M i n i n g Road was  of t h e r o a d on  r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e B.  stated that e f f o r t s  body s u c h a s ELUC.  effective  be  before  n e g l i g i b l e , a s were w i l d l i f e  on  supported  i t was  for the road  for i t would  road  c l a i m e d t h a t t h e amount o f  by t h e r o a d was  i n the a r e a .  then  the o t h e r government a g e n c i e s  Mines o f f i c i a l s  produced  funds  2  Disagreement r e g a r d i n g the impacts  Ministry  t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n  I f t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t  s u i t a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and better,  ELUC  work was  Omineca  policy, I t was  currently  and  admitted being  H. K. Boas, Chairman, Omineca-Peace R e g i o n a l Resource Management C o m m i t t e e , t o A. C r e r a r , D i r e c t o r , E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e S e c r e t a r i a t S e c r e t a r i a t , Dec. 23, 1975. Omineca R o a d , P. E. O l s o n , Nov. 3, 1975.  37  done h a d a l l been d i s c o v e r e d had  since  by a i r , b u t i t was s t a t e d  that  been c o n n e c t e d t o t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road by r o u g h  t o t e road i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e An ELUC r e p o r t  o r e body d e l i m i t a t i o n . " 5  q u e s t i o n e d whether t h e d e c r e a s e d c o s t of  exploration  came c l o s e  to balancing  the cost  of b u i l d i n g and  maintaining  the road.  I f n o t , a n d ELUC c l a i m e d t h i s was t h e  c a s e , a b e t t e r means o f s u b s i d i s i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n m i g h t be s o u g h t . doubted t h a t  t h i s aspect of e x p l o r a t i o n  exploitable deposits. personalities with  The r e p o r t  t h e B.  C.  costs f o r  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  e f f e c t on t h e e x t e n t o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n  costs  had a  ELUC  significant  f o r and t h e f i n d i n g of  concluded with  an a t t a c k  M i n i s t r y of Mines:  " T h e r e a r e some i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , who do n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e c r i t i c i s m w h i c h h a s been l e v e l l e d on t h e Omineca Road p r o j e c t . They do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e p r o j e c t t o be c a u s i n g any s e r i o u s i m p a c t on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h e y w i s h t o s e e i t s c o n t i n u e d e x t e n s i o n ; t h e y a p p e a r t o v i e w much controversy over the p r o j e c t as needless badgering. "Yet t h o u g h i t may n o t be r e c o g n i s e d by t h e s e p e r s o n s ^ t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage w h i c h h a s been c a u s e d by t h e Road i s s u b s t a n t i a l a n d w e l l d o c u m e n t e d by t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . The i m p a c t s a r e on a s i m i l a r s c a l e t o t h o s e c a u s e d by t h e B.C.R. a n d w h i c h e v o k e d s o much c r i t i c i s m f r o m t h e p u b l i c . "The b e n e f i t s o f t h i s m a j o r p r o j e c t (a 300 m i l e r o a d must c e r t a i n l y be c o n s i d e r e d m a j o r ) a r e few. The c o s t s , once e v a l u a t e d , r e a l l y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . "The Omineca Road p r o j e c t - t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y has b e e n t y p i f i e d by a l a c k o f p l a n n i n g a n d o f comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n f o r f e a s i b i l i t y . i t i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e t y p e o f l a n d use p r a c t i c e s w h i c h we must g e t away f r o m i n B. C. i f we w i s h d e v e l o p m e n t  5  some  " Omineca Road, op c i t .  on  38  to proceed  In e a r l y  sensibly."  5 5  1976 M i n e s o f f i c i a l s  c o u l d be an a c c e p t a b l e t e r m i n u s  agreed  t h a t Johansen Lake  f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g R o a d , a n d  t h a t e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r o a d w o u l d be s u b j e c t t o m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i o n and f u n d i n g . and  provide l i m i t e d  M i n e s was p r e p a r e d  financial  fully"  a i d t o t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e  Branch  f o r i t s m o n i t o r i n g and s u r v e i l l a n c e a c t i v i t i e s  road.  The o f f e r  o f t h e a i d was a l m o s t  on t h e  g r u d g i n g l y a c c e p t e d by  t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e  Branch,  officer  t o e n f o r c e game r e g u l a t i o n s a n d m o n i t o r  was a p p o i n t e d  road c o n s t r u c t i o n . Wildlife for  official  the f i n a n c i a l  a n d an a u x i l i a r y  Yet i n h i s year-end  i n charge  h e l p from M i n e s .  over-winter s i l t a t i o n siltation  conservation  r e p o r t t h e F i s h and  of t h e road expressed a p p r e c i a t i o n He n o t e d  w i t h game r e g u l a t i o n s had been v i r t u a l l y  that  complete,  compliance t h a t few  p r o b l e m s h a d been s e e n , a n d t h a t  direct  o f J o h a n s e n C r e e k was n o t s e r i o u s .  Hope was e x p r e s s e d  that the funding f o r the conservation o f f i c e r  would c o n t i n u e t h e  following  year.  I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1977, t h e B. decided t o extend Sturdee V a l l e y . and  year  C.  Ministry  of Mines  t h e O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road p a s t M o o s e v a l e t o T h i s change o f p l a n s a r o s e because r i s i n g  s i l v e r p r i c e s h a d made t h e m i n i n g  Valley  5 5  t o "co-operate  gold  of a d e p o s i t i n Sturdee  f e a s i b l e , and because Mines f e l t  the " p o l i t i c a l  ;  that during the previous  c l i m a t e " o f t h e p r o v i n c e h a d become more  f a v o r a b l e t o m i n e r a l development. A c o n s u l t a n t was h i r e d by A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e B e n e f i t s a n d C o s t s o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road, E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t S e c r e t a r i a t , J a n . 14, 1976.  39  mines to determine a s u i t a b l e c o r r i d o r f o r the h i s r e p o r t was  released  Construction Moosevale.  in April  continued  In c o n t r a s t  of t h a t  i n 1977,  t o the  two  p r a c t i c e s were much c r i t i c i s e d . public  c o n c e r n was  extension  The  be  build  was  the The  road  conflict  road  previous  Mines o f f i c i a l  the  but  f o u n d , but not  i t was  considered  Wildlife  dismay being  participating signs  roadside  the  spirit  revegetation  B.  C.  road  Ministry  for their  the c o s t  with  of the  the by and  of were  ebbing: a  and  form of  on  the  in  the  the  a p p l i e d t o the  planning  good  Wildlife  However, t h e r e  "modified"  to  him.  priorities  utility  guidelines included a specification "...  a  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  begun by M i n e s i n 1977,  f o r L i n e a r Development being  that  and  experiment to c o n t r o l erosion  Mines agreed t o a  modified  road  non-proponents about  o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n m i g h t be  s p r i n g of  The  the  the  and  M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , F i s h  planning.  Road was  Guidelines  habitat  F i s h and  e x p r e s s e d by  Omineca M i n i n g 1978  and year  e x p r e s s e d hope t h a t  e x p r e s s e d doubt at the  in mineral  that the  fish  a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n by  seeming d i s r e g a r d  o f f i c e of  officials  of t h e  t o o k an a l m o s t r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r ,  B e c a u s e of t h e  the V i c t o r i a  part  to  c l e a r t h a t a d e c i s i o n not  l a c k of o v e r a l l c o n t r o l o f p l a n n i n g  road.  completed  years standards  i n charge of  r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n l o c a l M i n e s and Branch s t a f f ,  being  latter  u n g u l a t e and  a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e p r o b l e m p o t e n t i a l and solution could  and  e x p r e s s e d a b o u t t h e a n t i c i p a t e d i m p a c t of  t o S t u r d e e V a l l e y 6n  populations.  extension  year.  the  In the  new  by  should  the be  road. Mines  40  commensurate w i t h the c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i o n . " outlining  the agreement  constructed with very l i t t l e vocal c r i t i c i s m  The  by M i n e s went on t o s t a t e :  low c o s t , m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d r o a d w h i c h  of  5 6  note "This i s a  i n t h e p a s t has  been  i m p a c t on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  (in spite  f r o m some q u a r t e r s ) . "  M i n e s n o t i f i e d ELUC, t h e R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committee, the  and t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e  Branch i n e a r l y  Omineca M i n i n g Road w o u l d n o t be e x t e n d e d p a s t  t h a t y e a r b u t t h a t an a i r s t r i p Valley  i n September.  Moosevale  Two  i n mid-August  was  1978  that  Moosevale  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  i n Sturdee  l a r g e c a t s w o u l d be w a l k e d t h e r e  o v e r t h e r o u t e t h a t had been  from  delineated  by t h e c o n s u l t a n t and w h i c h w o u l d become t h e r o u t e u s e d f o r t h e r o a d i f and when i t was  built.  the  Department  for  a s u r v e y of the w i l d l i f e  The  Resource A n a l y s i s B r a n c h of  o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t was  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  b u i l d i n g a r o a d on t h e p r o p o s e d r o u t e . not  be c o m p l e t e d u n t i l  r o a d was  September,  i m p a c t s of  Although the study would  c o n s t r u c t e d , perhaps the f o l l o w i n g year.  t h e c a t s w o u l d be m a k i n g  M i n e s e x p r e s s e d an  intention  Mines  i t w o u l d be u s e f u l when t h e  on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t h a t no r o a d was that  g r a n t e d $40,000 by  t o be b u i l t  Mines  t h a t y e a r , and  as c a r e f u l a p a s s a g e a s to p r o h i b i t access past  a n d t o c l o s e t h e r o a d a t some p o i n t between  stated  possible. Moosevale  Johansen Lake  and  Moosevale. In  t h e summer o f 1978  the i s s u e of the e x i s t e n c e  e x t e n s i o n o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road became m e d i a  5 6  and  fodder, with  J . T. F y l e s t o B. E. M a r r , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , Mar. '2, 1978.  of  41  Mines  f a c i n g a c o n c e r t e d o n s l a u g h t f r o m t h e B.  C.  Wildlife  F e d e r a t i o n , t h e S i e r r a C l u b as w e l l a s g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . was  s t a t e d t h a t a change i n a t t i t u d e  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s was Ministry  towards the i m p o r t a n c e of  needed i n M i n e s .  of Mines m a i n t a i n e d t h a t  The  B.  C.  t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road  c a u s i n g no e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s , and t h a t t h e i m p a c t w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s c a u s e d by p e o p l e who their was  responsibility.  They b u i l t  they r e s t a t e d  u s e d t h e r o a d was  Ministry officials  not  roads to m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s - i t  the n a t u r a l environment.  t h a t the road "conformed  m i n i s t r y , w h i c h was  was  on  t h e mandate o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s t o e n s u r e t h a t p e o p l e  t h e r o a d s do n o t a b u s e  It  using  In a d d i t i o n ,  t o the p o l i c i e s "  of the  a l l t h a t h a d been p r o m i s e d by them t o ELUC. e x p r e s s e d dismay  at the p o l i t i c i s a t i o n  of the  i s s u e by o t h e r p a r t i e s . F i s h and W i l d l i f e virtually track  no t r a f f i c  officials  was  confirmed in late  g o i n g beyond  Moosevale  t o S t u r d e e V a l l e y , and t h a t t h e c a t s had  little  d i s t u r b a n c e i n t h e i r passage.  never o f f i c i a l l y  extended past Moosevale,  siltation,  y e a r s , Mines Moosevale facilitate  seeded  and h a b i t a t  loss.  that  along the c a t i n d e e d made v e r y  Although the road  s p o r a d i c use of t h e u n c o n s t r u c t e d grade erosion,  1978  the c o n t i n u e d i f  resulted I n 1979  in localised  and t h e  r o a d v e r g e s between Johansen  t o r e d u c e e r o s i o n and u p g r a d e d  was  Lake  following and  s e c t i o n s of the road t o  t h e movement o f h e a v y m a c h i n e r y .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  r o a d r e m a i n s r o u g h , and s e d i m e n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e s a t a b o v e  normal  rates. The M i n e s  official  i n charge of the roads program  commented  42  in Our  1979 t h a t  t h e M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s "wanted t o do a t i d i e r j o b .  nose h a s been b l o o d i e d  i n the past."  c o m m u n i c a t i o n between e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s stated:  "We've g o t no s e c r e t s .  activity  Sturdee V a l l e y C.  a n d t h e M i n i s t r y he  I f we've f a i l e d  b e c a u s e we h a v e n ' t known e a c h o t h e r . " exploration  Regarding  i t appears that  to talk i t ' s  With i n c r e a s i n g extension  i s i n e v i t a b l e a t some f u t u r e  mineral  of the road t o  date.  PROBLEMS AND CONFLICT. As  mentioned i n Chapter I , a t l e a s t three  planning  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e i n v o l v e d  development p r o c e s s .  l e v e l s of  i n the c o r r i d o r  The i s s u e s , p r o b l e m s a n d c o n f l i c t s  were s a i d t o have a r i s e n a t e a c h l e v e l a r e d i s c u s s e d section  i n order to provide  a context  which  in this  f o r the f o l l o w i n g  sect ions. 1.  -CORRIDOR RATIONALE.  In a l l t h r e e  instances  the d e c i s i o n  t o b u i l d the c o r r i d o r  a p p e a r s t o have been t a k e n on e i t h e r a p o l i t i c a l bureaucratic  l e v e l w i t h o u t any a p p a r e n t o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s .  e x t e n t of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  the p r o j e c t a.  or high  by p o l i t i c a l  figures with  the d e c i s i o n  varied.  Stewart-Cassiar  The d e c i s i o n  Road:  t o b u i l d t h e r o a d and then t o l i n k  i t with the  r e s t of t h e p r o v i n c i a l highways system v i a t h e M e z i a d i n extension  was c o n s i s t e n t l y p o r t r a y e d  s u p p o r t e d by b o t h t h e F e d e r a l existence  The  as a p o l i t i c a l  Kitwanga  decision  and P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s .  The  o f t h e r o a d w a s . n e v e r s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d by p u b l i c  43  agencies  or p r i v a t e  interest  groups.  b.  Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n :  The  decision  to build this corridor  l i n k e d w i t h b o t h t h e W. governments.  During  A.  C.  Bennett  was v e r y  prominently  and B a r r e t t  i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , the r a t i o n a l e behind i t s  c o n s t r u c t i o n was n o t q u e s t i o n e d p u b l i c l y by g o v e r n m e n t and  t h e p r i n t e d media p r e s e n t e d a v i s i o n of b o u n d l e s s  awaiting exploitation However, a f t e r  i n t h e n o r t h west of t h e p r o v i n c e .  example of 'Forced  Omineca M i n i n g  Although  w i t h government p o l i c y ,  d i r e c t i o n and funding and i n accordance i t was n o t d i r e c t l y  f i g u r e or p a r t y .  linked with a  The n e e d f o r a n d d e s i r a b i l i t y o f  2.  CORRIDOR LOCATION  a.  S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road:  Interagency  questioned.  c o m m u n i c a t i o n was i n a d e q u a t e  at this  planning  However t h e r e was an e x t e r n a l ( t o t h e H i g h w a y s  D e p a r t m e n t ) s t u d y made o f t h e i m p a c t s and  Growth'.  Road:  t h i s c o r r i d o r was c o n s i s t e n t l y  level.  as a  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s c o r r i d o r was s t a t e d t o be  subject to " M i n i s t e r i a l "  political  resources  i t was h a l t e d i t became w i d e l y c r i t i c i s e d  c o s t l y and f a i l e d c.  agencies,  minor alignment  of the s e l e c t e d c o r r i d o r ,  a l t e r a t i o n s were' s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d a n d  s o m e t i m e s i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e H i g h w a y s D e p a r t m e n t . involvement  Public  i n c l u d e d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  t h e r o a d on a l o c a l  I n d i a n group  impact of  ( K i t w a n c o o l ) , and o t h e r  similar  44  e f f o r t s on t h e p a r t b.  of the p l a n n i n g  Pease Lake  agency.  Extension  Limited co-ordination  b e t w e e n B.  C.  R a i l w a y and o t h e r  a g e n c i e s and t h e p u b l i c y i e l d e d c o n f r o n t a t i o n on i s s u e s m i g h t h a v e been l e s s i n t e n s e o r more e a s i l y communication had o c c u r r e d Information only in  corridor  increases (i.e.  i n costs.  Conflicting  factors relating regarding  Omineca M i n i n g  T h e r e was l i t t l e of M i n e s and o t h e r location  3.  PESIGN ANP  a.  Stewart-Cassiar  independent study  an o p t i m a l  o f t h e B.  or  f o rthe  planning  C.  Ministry  acceptable  i t was l o c a t e d i n C.  M i n i s t r y of Mines  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r a c k  which  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other c o r r i d o r s .  IMPLEMENTATION  conflict  Road: noted.  As n o t e d a b o v e , t h e  w h i c h wqas f u n d e d by t h e H i g h w a y s P e p a r t m e n t  s u g e s t e d ways by w h i c h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d s o c i a l the  could  corridor location.  b e t w e e n t h e B.  Essentially,  initial  upgraded precluded  Very l i t t l e  the optimal  agencies regarding  quick  stated goals  to the 'existence'  co-ordination  f o r the c o r r i d o r .  The v e r y  was l a t e r  which  Road:  accordance with the p r i o r i t i e s only.  level  by c h a n g i n g t h e r o u t i n g a l i g n m e n t , w h i c h r e s u l t e d  l e v e l ) caused c o n f l i c t c.  i f earlier  between t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d .  gaps c a u s e d p r o b l e m s a t t h e d e s i g n  be s o l v e d  great  resolved  that  p r o j e c t m i g h t be m i t i g a t e d .  impacts of  45  b.  Dease Lak.e  Information i m p a c t s of  the  substantial of the  Extension:  g a p s and  c o r r i d o r as  c.  originally  associated  Omineca M i n i n g  designed r e s u l t e d in  higher  s t a n d a r d s and  c o s t s and  redesign  later  great  Road:  conflict  b e t w e e n t h e p r o p o n e n t and  a g e n c i e s and  the  existence  resources  i n the  on  T h e r e was  of  construction  public, regarding  them.  construction philosophy minimum s t a n d a r d  D.  environmental  time.  T h e r e was  very  to the  r e d e f i n i t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n  c o r r i d o r , and  completion  opposition  and  information  c o r r i d o r and  relating  i m p a c t s of  also conflict  to  the  the  relating  to  p r a c t i c e s : the c o n s t r u c t i o n  of  t r a c k w h i c h i s t h e n u p g r a d e d was  c o s t l y to n a t u r a l  opposing  claimed  a to  be  values.  COMMON PROBLEMS. There are  corridors.  The  s e v e r a l c l a s s e s o f p r o b l e m s common t o t h e problem types discussed  in this section  t h o s e w h i c h a p p e a r t o have been most d i s c u s s e d corridor construction memoranda, and public.  p r i n t e d media, i n  listing  are  time  of  interagency  i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between a g e n c i e s and  Thus t h i s  identification  i n the  at the  three  the  of p r o b l e m s i s e s s e n t i a l l y an  of e x p r e s s e d p u b l i c and  agency c o n c e r n s at  the  46  time of c o r r i d o r c o n s t r u c t i o n .  5 7  5 8  1.  INCREASED TIME FROM PROJECT START TO COMPLETION.  i.  The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r  Road was s t a r t e d i n 1952 t o p r o v i d e  a c c e s s and e g r e s s f o r t h e C a s s i a r In  1956 t h e M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s was a l r e a d y  respond t o questions  relating  ii.  road f i n a l l y  was i n t e n d e d possible, was h a l t e d  that  required to  i n 1972, was finish.  was a p p r o v e d i n 1969 i t  i t be c o n s t r u c t e d  as q u i c k l y as  t o be f i n i s h e d i n 1975. When  construction  i n 1977, t r a c k h a d been l a i d  on o n l y t w o -  t h i r d s of i t s projected iii.  Only  completed t o a gravel  When t h e Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n  operation.  t o the fact that the  r o a d h a d n o t y e t been c o m p l e t e d . the  Asbestos  length.  The Omineca M i n i n g Road was an o n g o i n g p r o g r a m ,  with  no s p e c i f i e d d a t e o f c o m p l e t i o n o r l o c a t i o n a l g o a l . It  i sd i f f i c u l t , therefore,  t o state the exact  dimensions of the problem with  5 7  respect  to this  S i n c e t h e p u b l i c a n d a g e n c i e s w h i c h were n o t t h e d i r e c t p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t were t o a v e r y l a r g e e x t e n t unaware o f much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d h a v e been g e n e r a t e d a n d communicated, t h i s l i s t i n g of problems i s i n c o m p l e t e . Other p r o b l e m s m i g h t have i n c l u d e d : a l o w ( i . e . l e s s t h a n o n e ) b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o f o r the p r o j e c t ; the lack of c o n s i d e r a t i o n given t o a l t e r n a t i v e resource uses d u r i n g i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g phases, and so on.  47  project.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the road  was s l o w e d  c o n s i d e r a b l y because of p u b l i c and agency  o p p o s i t i o n , and t h e road never reached original 2.  goal.  INCREASED COSTS.  Even a l l o w i n g f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f i n f l a t i o n , are  Dease L a k e , i t s  the increases  significant. i.  The c o s t o f t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road i n c r e a s e d f r o m an initial  estimate  when c o m p l e t e d , ii.  t o $30 m i l l i o n  million  rose  f r o m $68 m i l l i o n  t h e Dease Lake i n 1969 t o $310  i n 1979, an i n c r e a s e o f 3 5 6 % .  The c o s t o f b u i l d i n g a matter  t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road  o f much d e b a t e .  claimed that i n i t i a l t o an i n e x p e n s i v e complaints greatly  spent  a 500% o v e r r u n .  The e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f c o m p l e t i n g Extension  iii.  o f $5 m i l l i o n  remained  Opponents of t h e p r o j e c t  c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s were  standard  regarding this  i n order  t o thwart  f a c t o r , but t h a t t h i s  i n c r e a s e subsequent maintenance c o s t s .  addition,  kept  would In  i t was c l a i m e d t h a t e x t e r n a l i t i e s s u c h a s  the changed v a l u e of w i l d l i f e and w i l d e r n e s s  resources  which r e s u l t e d from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s should I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p r o b l e m s a p p a r e n t l y came t o t h e n o t i c e of t h e a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c concerned o n l y a t t h e t i m e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , many o f t h e p r o b l e m s had t h e i r o r i g i n s a t h i g h e r and e a r l i e r l e v e l s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l a c k of c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e p r o p o n e n t agency and o t h e r a g e n c i e s and t h e p u b l i c r e s u l t e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t p r o b l e m s w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n an e a r l y p l a n n i n g p h a s e were r e c o g n i s e d o n l y i n t h e f i n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e s o f t h e p r o j e c t , when o p t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t h a v e been a v a i l a b l e h a d b e e n l a r g e l y f o r e c l o s e d .  48  be  i n c l u d e d i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e c o s t s and  benefits arising 3.  the project.  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS.  These i n c l u d e d d i r e c t and  from  indirect  impacts,  such as stream  siltation,  impacts, such as i n c r e a s e d h u n t i n g r e s u l t i n g  increased access  t o the areas concerned  and r e s u l t i n g  from  i n changes  in local w i l d l i f e populations. i.  The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road f a c i l i t a t e d w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , and so promoted and  over-exploitation  d e p l e t i o n of t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e  those ii.  access t o  resources i n  areas.  The Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n p e r m i t t e d exploitation-related arising  from  problems.  similar  In a d d i t i o n ,  impacts  t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e c o r r i d o r and t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s a n d s t a n d a r d s were i d e n t i f i e d • and iii.  became c a u s e f o r c o m p l a i n t .  The.Omineca M i n i n g Road was i d e n t i f i e d a s c a u s i n g t h e same t y p e s o f i m p a c t s  a s t h e Dease L a k e E x t e n s i o n .  4.  CORRIDOR HAS NO PURPOSE.  The  planning process  briefly  outlined  s t a t e d t o be i t e r a t i v e a n d r e c u r s i v e . purpose behind  a project like  the purpose i t s e l f necessary  i n Chapter  Iis  What t h i s means f o r t h e  a transportation corridor  must be c o n t i n u a l l y  r e - e v a l u a t e d and i f  changed as t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s procedes.  a p p e a r s u n d e r t h e l i g h t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t h a s been during planning that the o r i g i n a l  i s that  p u r p o s e i s f o r some  If it. gained reason  49  unreasonable or u n a t t a i n a b l e , then developed that  a new p u r p o s e must be  t h a t c a n be l o g i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d  i s a v a i l a b l e or the p r o j e c t should In  the cases  original  of these  by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  be a b a n d o n n e d .  t h r e e c o r r i d o r s , however, t h e  p u r p o s e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e been t h e s u b j e c t o f  o b j e c t i v e s c r u t i n y , e i t h e r before construction.  The f a i l u r e  or d u r i n g p l a n n i n g and  o f two o f t h e c o r r i d o r s t o have any  widely  recognised  Rather  the s u r p r i s e i s that the Stewart-Cassiar  use  and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e  use i s then  - e v e n i f i t s c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s h a s been i.  The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r  Road was b u i l t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n access Cassiar Asbestos and  industrial  province.  not a s u r p r i s e . Road h a s h a d a  disputed.  to provide  f o r the e x i s t i n g  needs of t h e  o p e r a t i o n , and t o encourage  development  i n t h e n o r t h west of t h e  The r o u t e was 20 y e a r s  e v e n when i t was c o m p l e t e d  resource  i n t h e making, but  i n 1972 t h e C a s s i a r  o p e r a t i o n c h o s e n o t t o u s e i t a n d t h e r e were no o t h e r major i n d u s t r i a l  users.  the^ C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s  .Although  Corporation  at this  time  (1983)  uses the route i t s  major usage remains t o u r i s t i c . ii.  The s t a t e d p u r p o s e o f t h e D e a s e L a k e E x t e n s i o n make p o s s i b l e ' t h e d y n a m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f and  communities'  was t o  resources  i n the northwest of the p r o v i n c e .  B e c a u s e t h e e x t e n s i o n was n o t c o m p l e t e d i t i s difficult  to evaluate p r e c i s e l y  the extent  t h i s p u r p o s e w o u l d h a v e been a c h i e v e d . noted  t h a t e v e n i n 1977, two y e a r s a f t e r  t o which  B u t i t may be the i n i t i a l l y  50  projected completion  of t h e  r a i l w a y , t h e r e was  no g u a r a n t e e of s i g n i f i c a n t Asbestos  traffic.  Mine, which claimed  essential  to i t s business,  still  Even t h e  Cassiar  t h a t the e x t e n s i o n  was  r e f u s e d t o commit i t s e l f  to  using i t . iii.  The  d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e Omineca M i n i n g  m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and it  was  1970  built  to serve  ( b e f o r e the  t h e r e was  an  of t h e  that  i n the p r i c e  to the  area,  are  producers.  PROBLEM A N A L Y S I S .  w i t h the p r o j e c t s . eficiency,  the  These problems r e l a t e t o  l o g i c and  the environmental  corridors. order  The  problems are  implementation  those  validity  impacts  to determine t h e i r  The  and  operating  a l l of the o p e r a t i n g mines  A c o m m o n a l i t y o f p e r c e i v e d p r o b l e m s has  and  rise  1980  a l l of the c l a i m s a r e o r i e n t e d towards  g o l d p r o d u c t i o n , and  to  Between  However i t c o u l d be a r g u e d  more a r e s u l t  which  t o t h e a r e a ) and  t h e p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s  since v i r t u a l l y  E.  at best.  i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v e c l a i m s and  t h i s c h a n g e was  gold  built  increased  i n the area  i s problematic  r o a d was  mines i n the a r e a .  of g o l d t h a n  exploitation  Road  identified  planning  of t h e p r o j e c t r a t i o n a l e ,  o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and further analysed  use  in this  u n d e r l y i n g o r i g i n s w i t h i n the  of  and the  section in planning  process.  a n a l y s i s and  discussion is oriented primarily  l e v e l s of the p r o c e s s  design  been  of the c o r r i d o r .  which determine the The  route  towards location  d e c i s i o n to b u i l d a major  51  corridor,  which  i s most p r o p e r l y made a t t h e p o l i t i c a l  level, i s  n o t d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e s many f a c t o r s are d i f f e r e n t levels.  which  from those r e l e v a n t t o t h e r o u t i n g and d e s i g n  However, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o v a l d e c i s i o n  l e a s t be i n f o r m e d by t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l elements  should at  relates to the  of t h e p r o p o s a l and which  forms t h e b a s i s of t h e r o u t i n g and d e s i g n l e v e l factors.  Therefore the f a c t o r s which  discussed  f o r t h e r o u t i n g and d e s i g n l e v e l s w i l l  decision  a r e d e t e r m i n e d and t o some e x t e n t  be r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l l e v e l o f c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g . B e f o r e a n a l y s i n g t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h were p e r c e i v e d i n relation  to the c o r r i d o r s s t u d i e d , i t i s necessary  with greater precision making system democratic 1.  t h e dynamics of a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n -  i n what may be d e s c r i b e d a s an "open" a n d  society.  PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS.  Every  system  h a s some s o r t o f o u t p u t , a n d one o u t p u t o f a  p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system of some s o r t , p e r h a p s  i s expected  output which  T h e r e may  and c o s t s , but t h e  d e f i n e s a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system i s  t h e f a c t t h a t a d e c i s i o n emerges from of o u t p u t s  t o be a d e c i s i o n  w i t h i n a s e t p e r i o d of time.  a l s o be o t h e r o u t p u t s , s u c h a s c o n f l i c t  it.  The e x a c t  combination  ( i . e . the nature of the d e c i s i o n w i t h i t s attendant  c o s t s and c o n f l i c t s ) and  to describe  i s a f u n c t i o n of the i n p u t s t o the system  t h e i d e n t i t y , arrangement and e f f i c i e n c y  between subsystems  ( i . e . t h e system  communications  dynamics).  A p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system  i s composed o f a  52  number of  i n d i v i d u a l s and  s u b s y s t e m of t h e decisions, The  w e i g h i n g of to the  1974).  the  values  and  to t h e i r  the  information  and  c o s t s and  respected  by  their  other  participants.  and  and  the  " n o r m a t i v e " the  range of  p a r t i c i p a t e , and  (Deutsch,  pertain to  values  Finally, of t h e  Since  i n d i v i d u a l s and  i t f o r communication w i l l  the  a f f e c t the  inputs  b e n e f i t s on  other  changes i n t h e i r  the d e c i s i o n system.  o b j e c t i v e s , t o pay  ( o r t o seem t o be  able)  by  and  o b j e c t i v e s upon r e c e i v i n g and  the  regarding  t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s , to  to perceive  and  and  Similarly,  t o impose b u r d e n s o r  p a r t i c i p a n t s , and own  of  and  to generate information  of p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c o m m u n i c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n  able  impact  groups which  abilities  and  actors  inputs to a  the o u t p u t s of  values  also  determined  therefore  their  the  and  the  system are both " f a c t u a l "  their abilities  the  interests.  system dynamics.  decision-making  normative  s y s t e m , and  t o have t h e i r  individual perceptions  values  to  relate  b e n e f i t s of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the real ability  and  biophysical  s t a t e d above, the o u t p u t s of a system are  planning  conflicts).  system  p e r t a i n to the  a  own  involved w i l l  "Normative" i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l  i n t e r e s t s of  i n p u t s and  prepare  its  i s s u e a t h a n d , and  expected f i n a n c i a l  so on.  p r o j e c t on  v i e w e d as  i t s own  i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s w i t h i n the  communicate t h e i r  As the  The  e l e m e n t s of t h e  perceived  interests  reach  experience  " F a c t u a l " i n f o r m a t i o n may  p r o j e c t , and  be  system i n v o l v e s the communication  information.  environment, the  will  i t s c o s t s and  the  "factual"  f a c t o r s of  (a g r o u p may  l a r g e r s y s t e m w h i c h may  inflict  d y n a m i c s of  groups  be  confer institute evaluauting  53  information the  of v a r i o u s  t y p e s from other  dynamics of t h e system, and w i l l  system output The  (Deutsch,  planning  together  the  (1967) h a s w r i t t e n t h a t  ability  to transmit  makes o r g a n i s a t i o n s .  I believe  i n an " o p e n " d e m o c r a t i c  If  f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e  the process i s acceptable,  In which  w i t h i n our s o c i e t a l framework.  t h e n t h e outcome may a l s o be of those i n v o l v e d  the f o l l o w i n g features  i n the  t o be n e c e s s a r y i n  process:  l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s should  i n c l u d e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s whose  m a n d a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o p o s a l , p r i v a t e g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s who p e r c e i v e affecting it  are  s o c i e t y , the organisation  e x p e c t e d t o be a p p r o v e d by a m a j o r i t y  a)  that  are several requirements  make t h e p r o c e s s a c c e p t a b l e  such a  t o them,  of the s o c i e t y as a whole.  I believe that there  I believe  plan.  i n v o l v e d , and t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i s  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  system.  and i m p l i c i t  t h a t where p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s  occuring  will  o f g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s  messages and t o r e a c t  or i n d i r e c t l y  addition,  described  " I ti s communication, that i s ,  directly  should  1974).  a n d w i t h i n some e x p l i c i t searching  form  p a r t l y define the  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s y s t e m , a s  organisational context, Deutsch  therefore  1971; D e u t s c h ,  a b o v e , a p p r o x i m a t e s an o r g a n i s a t i o n who a r e ,  participants will  their  isdifficult  i n t e r e s t s and/or v a l u e s . t o have e v e r y  the proposal  In instances  and  as  i n which  i n d i v i d u a l or group p a r t i c i p a t e  a c t i v e l y , an e f f o r t must be made t o e n s u r e t h a t e v e r y i n t e r e s t and b)  value  i s represented  i n some way i n t h e s y s t e m .  l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s should  have s u f f i c i e n t  resources  to  54  generate information  and p r e p a r e  i t f o r communication t o other  participants,  and t o c o v e r o t h e r  c)  ( i . e . t h e d e c i s i o n ) must be s u b j e c t  the output  of o f f i c i a l s directly  transaction costs,  who a r e a c c o u n t a b l e  accountable  t o the c o n t r o l  t o t h e p u b l i c , and p r e f e r a b l y  to a defined public in a specific  manner.  I n t h i s way, t h e a f f e c t e d p u b l i c h a s some measure o f c o n t r o l on the p r o c e s s and i t s o u t p u t s . These r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d information  ensure t h a t a wide range of  i s a v a i l a b l e to the planning  and  decision-making  s y s t e m and t h a t no g r o u p w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m c a n c o n t r o l i t s dynamics. planning  I t also explicitly and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  political  context.  political  elements involved  it  n o t be f o r g o t t e n .  should  Following  i.  the proposal  and ' i t s  system w i t h i n a l a r g e r s o c i e t a l and  I do n o t p r o p o s e t o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s t h e  from t h i s ,  dynamics of a p l a n n i n g optimal  places  in this  system, but t h e i r  place i n  s e v e r a l ways by w h i c h t h e i n p u t s a n d  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  s y s t e m c a n be s u b -  may be p o s t u l a t e d : Inputs  - information  "factual"  aspects  e c o n o m i c and o t h e r  relating  t o what may be t e r m e d t h e  of the i n p u t s similar  (i.e. biophysical,  information)  u n c e r t a i n , u n a v a i l a b l e , or subject  may be  to dispute  between  actors. - representation severely certain  of v a l u e s  l i m i t e d by a r e a l  and i n t e r e s t s may be  l a c k of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , by some g r o u p s n o t b e i n g  t o g e n e r a t e and p r e p a r e  information  able  which i s important  55  to  their  " c a s e " , a n d by p e r m i t t i n g o n l y one  interest  g r o u p t o d e f i n e t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h i s t o be t h e s u b j e c t of  the system  formulated ii.  Dynamics  ( e . g . by u s i n g an agenda  w h i c h h a s been  by o n l y one i n t e r e s t g r o u p ) .  - c o m m u n i c a t i o n between  difficult,  p a r t i c i p a n t s may be  i n c o r r e c t or impossible  p a r t i c i p a n t s may n o t be a b l e transaction  because  some  to cover the necessary  costs.  - c o m m u n i c a t i o n may be d i f f i c u l t  or " l o p - s i d e d "  b e c a u s e one p a r t y o r g r o u p c a n c o n f e r  great  o r b u r d e n s on o t h e r  little  to  g r o u p s w h i c h have  benefits ability  reciprocate. - c o m m u n i c a t i o n between  difficult, reasons.  p a r t i c i p a n t s may be  i n c o r r e c t or impossible  for psychological  F o r i n s t a n c e , some p a r t i c i p a n t s may n o t be  a b l e t o comprehend own a r e n o t o n l y  that values  real  f o r other  different  from  individuals,  their b u t may  be a s d e e p l y h e l d a n d a s w e l l b a s e d i n l o g i c a l as a r e t h e i r  own.  - a means o f e n s u r i n g subject  thought  that the d e c i s i o n i s  t o the c o n t r o l of o f f i c i a l s  accountable to the  p u b l i c may n o t be d e v e l o p e d . 2.  ORIGINS OF THE DEFINED PROBLEMS WITHIN THE PLANNING  DECISION-MAKING  AND  SYSTEM.  E a c h o f t h e p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y was e x p l a i n e d i n the  t e r m s i n w h i c h i t was d i s c u s s e d  other  i n t h e m e d i a , memoranda, a n d  communications used i n the g e n e r a t i o n  of the case s t u d i e s .  56  In t h i s s e c t i o n each of t h e problems i s f a c t o r e d t o determine common o r i g i n s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g which together generation  a logical  of the problems.  determination future  provide  This  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  framework t h a t will  system  explains the  f a c i l i t a t e the  o f ways by w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s m i g h t be a v o i d e d i n  projects.  a.  Increased An  increased  Extension arising the  Time. construction  period  f o r t h e Dease L a k e  r e s u l t e d from changes i n t h e p r o j e c t from a) changes i n ' the  desired  p r o j e c t made a t t h e p o l i t i c a l  design  t e c h n i c a l l e v e l of  l e v e l and a r i s i n g  from  a l t e r e d p r o j e c t o b j e c t i v e s , a n d b) c h a n g e s i n t h e n e c e s s a r y technical  l e v e l o f t h e p r o j e c t demanded by e n v i r o n m e n t a l  factors discovered during  only  construction  on t h e p r o j e c t  by a g e n c i e s  (such  site  as Environment  Canada) h a v i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e factors affected the Stewart-Cassiar f r o m a minimum s t a n d a r d Ministry  o r imposed  them.  The same  Road, as i t changed  mining access road b u i l t  by t h e  of Mines t o a p o r t i o n of t h e p r o v i n c i a l highway  system b u i l t  by t h e M i n i s t r y o f H i g h w a y s .  Similarly,  construction  o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road was c o m p l i c a t e d  by  i n t e r f e r e n c e a n d demands by g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a n d t h e public. Increased  t i m e c a n be s e e n t o have h a d a p o s i t i v e  feedback e f f e c t . other  As t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  f a c t o r s h a d more o p p o r t u n i t y  attitudes t o a project could,  time  lengthened,  t o change: thus p u b l i c  and d i d , a l t e r d u r i n g t h e  57  c o u r s e of a l s o had  the their  objectives. built  project;  changes i n the  e f f e c t s on  the  It is possible  project  that  v e r y q u i c k l y , a g e n c y and  would not  political design  i f the  public  have d e v e l o p e d u n t i l  situation  and  c o r r i d o r s had  opposition  to  been  them  a f t e r t h e y were w e l l  in  place. The i.  o r i g i n s of  t h i s problem  Incomplete information environment.  ii.  regarding  This resulted  preconstruction  relating  to the  iii.  The  lack  to  them.  of  p r o c e d u r e s by  established  facilitated  readily  utility  included  of  legitimate  which  between  the  i n the  fairly  differing  quickly  c o m m u n i c a t i o n were n o t . and  o t h e r a t t i t u d e s and  corridor could  system.  not  be  Thus a p r o c e s s  c o m m u n i c a t i o n between l e g i t i m a t e a c t o r s established.  on  i n time d e l a y s because problems  through e f f i c i e n t  likely  involve  of  the  and  a d d i t i o n , changes i n p u b l i c the  of  ignore other agencies  w h i c h m i g h t have been a v o i d e d o r resolved  use  the  I have d e f i n e d  This resulted  impacts  a s s u m p t i o n by  failure  be  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  i t could  communication could groups.  scanty  a r e a s c o n c e r n e d and  i n d i v i d u a l s - i . e . the as  biophysical  public preferences  T h i s arose from the  proponent that  actors  from  regarding  them e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e corridors.  the  surveys.  Incomplete information use  are:  was  not  of  In in  58  b.  Increased  Increased inflation,  Costs.  .  c o s t s on t h e D e a s e L a k e E x t e n s i o n  changes i n the p r o j e c t design  unforeseen c o n s t r u c t i o n In e s s e n c e , t h e n ,  increased  f r o m t h e same t h r e e  increased  time:  ii. iii.  incomplete value  This  costs  as  information;  communication between agencies,  Formulation  In these cases, t h e e x t e r n a l  project  Objective.  to consider  a f f e c t the r e a l i s a t i o n  c o r r i d o r u s e , a n d an u n c r i t i c a l  and  groups and i n d i v i d u a l s .  Of P r o j e c t  arose because of a f a i l u r e  factors that could  c a n be d e f i n e d  and i n t e r e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ;  l a c k of e f f i c i e n t  No R e a l i s t i c  and  c l a s s e s of f a c t o r s as d i d  incomplete b i o p h y s i c a l  proponent and other c.  standards,  from  problems.  resulting  i.  resulted  a l l of t h e  of t h e p r o j e c t e d  acceptance of b e l i e f  f a c t o r s were: w o r l d  as f a c t .  commodity  demand a n d p r i c e s , a n d t h e f r e e d o m o f i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s t o develop t h e i r  resources  s h i p them by t h e r o u t e  at their  own p r e f e r r e d  they choose.  time-table  and  The b e l i e f s o f p r o j e c t  p r o p o n e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p a c t o f a c o r r i d o r on t h e n a t u r a l environment or i n d u s t r i a l  d e v e l o p m e n t were t r e a t e d a s l a w s o f  nature. A n o t h e r c a u s e o f t h i s p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o have been t h a t t h e s t a t e d p u r p o s e s o f a c o r r i d o r were n o t a l l o f t h e de purposes. This  p r o b l e m , t h e n , h a d two o r i g i n s :  facto  59  i.  information  relating  determine the available; ii.  to the  f a c t o r s which would  future u t i l i t y  of t h e  relating  determine the  t o the  f u t u r e use  f a c t o r s which would  of  t h e c o r r i d o r s was  r i g o r o u s l y a s s e s s e d , e i t h e r as to the  conclusions  r e a s o n f o r t h i s was and  that  that  the  necessity  to l o g i c a l were n o t the  a n a l y s i s , or  receptive  to  o b j e c t i v e s of the  not  its availability  i t would s u p p o r t .  some a c t o r s  the  One planning of  of  the  corridors  reason or a n o t h e r  information  that  p r o j e c t were  or  their  utility  f o r onr  i n the capable  to subject  preconceptions regarding  This  to  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s y s t e m were not  perceiving  not  and  information  as  c o r r i d o r was  indicated  they that  unrealistic.  f a c t o r , i . e . p r o j e c t r a t i o n a l e , r e l a t e s to l e v e l  of  d e c i s i o n making at which i t i s d e c i d e d to b u i l d the p r o j e c t  or  not.  of  As  I have s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  planning  and  that  o r i g i n s of  the  I do  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n any the  not  discuss  d e p t h , but  problem w i t h i n the  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system are  s i m i l a r t o the  this  I do  level  wish to  larger planning o r i g i n s of  the  note and  other  problems. d.  Environmental  The  o c c u r r e n c e and  Impacts. identification  of  undesireable  environmental impacts r e s u l t e d because: i.  there  was  little  e n v i r o n m e n t and  information the  likely  regarding  the  biophysical  e f f e c t o f a c o r r i d o r on i t ;  60  ii.  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  (and perhaps  s i g n i f i c a n c e ) t o the p u b l i c  the changing  of environmental  was m i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e p r o j e c t p r o p o n e n t . an  i n f o r m a t i o n gap w h i c h r e s u l t e d  from a  effects T h i s was  communication  problem. iii,  no means w h i c h was a c c e p t a b l e t o a m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n t e r e s t s who w i s h e d t o be r e p r e s e n t e d and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g deadlocks  3.  system e x i s t e d  between d i f f e r i n g  i n the planning  t o overcome  p e r c e p t i o n s of impacts.  THE IMPLICATION OF THE PROBLEM-ORIGIN A N A L Y S I S FOR THE  DESIGN OF PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS. The  a n a l y s i s of t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s has i n d i c a t e d  suboptimalities  i n e a c h o f t h e key e l e m e n t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g a n d  decision-making  systems  studied. relating improve  I t i s clear  f o r the l i n e a r  t h a t one means o f r e d u c i n g  conflict  t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of such p r o j e c t s would t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  In essence, i t appears improvements would i.  corridor projects  system  be t o  used.  from t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e  involve the f o l l o w i n g :  e n s u r i n g t h e use of a l l a v a i l a b l e  (or reasonably  o b t a i n a b l e ) and r e l e v a n t b i o p h y s i c a l , economic other s i m i l a r information ii.  and  i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d s p e c i f y i n g what  i s u n c e r t a i n , c o n t e s t e d or not a v a i l a b l e ;  e n s u r i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g and decision-making  system of i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s  than those  of t h e p r o j e c t p r o p o n e n t .  legitimate  i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s  other  Preferably a l l  (as p r e v i o u s l y  61  d e f i n e d ) s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d . iii.  facilitating and  iv.  the communication of d i f f e r i n g  i n t e r e s t s between a c t o r s , f o r i n s t a n c e  their  e x p r e s s i o n of p e r c e i v e d c o r r i d o r  logic  u n d e r l y i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n ; and  including  i n the system  values through  impact  and the  some means o f o v e r c o m i n g  d e a d l o c k s , and e l i m i n a t i n g o r e x p l i c i t l y  addressing  i n s t a n c e s where t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s by one  group w i l l  incontrovertibly  stop another  group  from a c h i e v i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s . The  improvements c o n s i s t  o f a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e two a s p e c t s  of t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g discussed: widening  i n p u t s and d y n a m i c s .  their  system  range and making t h e i r n a t u r e c l e a r e r or o t h e r w i s e ) .  range of i n p u t s i n v o l v e s opening m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be b a r r e d f r o m  t h e system  involvement  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o become more e f f e c t i v e A l t e r a t i o n s t o the system  ( i . e . their  Widening the  to participants  who  and a l s o a i d i n g  i n their  involvement.  dynamics i n v o l v e s improving the  o f communication between p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n s t i t u t i n g  a means o f a d d r e s s i n g c o n f l i c t s a n d d e a d l o c k s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of democratic In t h e next c h a p t e r l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t from  h a v e been  The i n p u t s a r e a l t e r e d by  c e r t a i n t y and whether " f a c t u a l "  efficiency  which  I review  that i s acceptable  society. some o f t h e r e c e n t r e l e v a n t  management t o d e t e r m i n e  that b a s i s these c o n c l u s i o n s a r e .  how  supportable  62  III. A.  A MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT.  INTRODUCTION Theories regarding the o r i g i n s of c o n f l i c t  conflicting. aggressive  They i n c l u d e t h e b e l i e f s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y  in certain  situations  i s an i n n a t e  g e n e t i c ) c a p a c i t y o f t h e human s p e c i e s Lorenz,  1969), and t h a t c o n f l i c t  because  society  needs c o n f l i c t  o r because  1968).  of a f a u l t  The r e a l i t y  (e.g.  i ssocially  (Likert  derived,  either  1971; Dunn, (Marcuse,  g e n e r a t i o n may l i e i n a l l o f  i s t h a t t h e r e i s some p o t e n t i a l  aspect of every s o c i e t y  A r d r e y , 1966, a n d  system  t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s , a n d many o t h e r s b e s i d e s . clear  (and perhaps  (e.g. Coser,  i n the social  of c o n f l i c t  t o be  i n o r d e r t o change, d e v e l o p and  i n n o v a t e new v a l u e s a n d b e h a v i o u r 1971)  a r e v a r i o u s and  What a p p e a r s t o be  forconflict  & Likert,  i n every  1976; F o x , 1 9 8 2 ) .  S i n c e c o n f l i c t may be u s e f u l o r even n e c e s s a r y , i t m i g h t n o t be w i s e t o a t t e m p t t o c o n t i n u a l l y a v o i d (Coser,  1971).  conflict  R a t h e r , t h e b e s t a p p r o a c h may be t o r e c o g n i s e  a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p r o g r e s s a n d b e i n g o f  humanity,  and attempt t o l i m i t  may be c r e a t i v e , which  i t s growth t o l e v e l s a t which i t  but ensure i t s d i s s i p a t i o n a t l e v e l s  i t c a n be d e s t r u c t i v e o r c o s t l y Being able t o p r e d i c t c o n f l i c t  e v o l u t i o n a n d b a s e s t o be e x p l i c i t achievement arise.  i t s evolution  o f more c r e a t i v e  (Dunn,  below  1971).  s i t u a t i o n s and g u i d i n g might  result  their  i n the  s o l u t i o n s than might o t h e r w i s e  A method o f a p p r o a c h i n g a n d g u i d i n g c o n f l i c t s  to t h e environmental impacts of l i n e a r  transportation  relating corridor  63  r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and s i t e developed similar  planning  i n t h i s chapter.  i n Northern  regions i s  Since environmental  conflicts are  i n many ways t o o t h e r t y p e s o f c o n f l i c t  (Wehr, 1 9 7 9 ) , I  b e l i e v e t h a t t h e method d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r useful B.  i n other  will  a l s o be  situations.  E X I S T I N G MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION. V a r i o u s ways o f a d d r e s s i n g c o n f l i c t  Wehr (1979) s u g g e s t s methods a r e " l e g a l  that currently  h a v e been  developed.  t h e t h r e e most o f t e n  r e g u l a t i o n " , i n which a consensus  between opponents r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s method o f s e t t l e m e n t  used  exists  u s e d t o j u d g e what t h e  i s t o be; " d e t e r r e n c e " ,  i n which t h r e a t s  a r e u s e d by one more p a r t i e s ; a n d " b a r g a i n i n g " o r n e g o t i a t i o n , which i n v o l v e s give-and-take. accurate for  While  in certain well-defined situations,  i n most c o n f l i c t  the standards  situation;  ultimately arise,  whether  a n d some e l e m e n t o f b a r g a i n i n g  s i t u a t i o n but those  Approaching  involving  the question  states that individuals,  agencies  i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t u a t i o n oppose a p r o j e c t w i l l until  occurs  maniacs.  from a d i f f e r e n t  governments o f t e n t r y t o l i m i t  potential  will  a r e t e e t h o r w i t ; t h r e a t s o f some k i n d u n d e r l i e  every c o n f l i c t every  i ti s a r t i f i c i a l ,  s i t u a t i o n s a l l three elements a r e present:  a consensus regarding standards  in  t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be  a n g l e , F o x (1982)  ( p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ) and  conflict  by c o n t r o l l i n g  t h a t most p e o p l e  who m i g h t  know n o t h i n g a b o u t i t s p l a n n i n g o r  i ti s too late  to substantially affect the  outcome o f t h e p l a n s w h i c h h a v e been made.  64  C.  RECENT THEORETICAL MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. 1.  WEHR: IMPROVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PARTIES TO A  CONFLICT. Wehr ( 1 9 7 9 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s included  in a conflict  management m o d e l  i n order  t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e m o d e l s he p o s t u l a t e d . i.  an e x p l i c i t conflict party.  improvement  should  t o f r e e i t from  These f e a t u r e s a r e :  i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e  p a r t i e s , perhaps f a c i l i t a t e d Thus t h e t h i r d p a r t y  by a t h i r d  would not judge the  i s s u e , as i t does i n t h e " l e g a l would h e l p  be  r e g u l a t i o n " model, but  the p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t  understand each other's  to better  p o s i t i o n s a n d s o be a b l e t o  d e f i n e a r e a s of agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t . ii.  the generation conflicting other  of t r u s t and c r e d i b i l i t y  between  p a r t i e s , so t h a t opponents w i l l  to respect  trust  t h e a g r e e m e n t s t h a t a r e made.  each  This  may d e v e l o p by v i r t u e o f t h e i m p r o v e m e n t i n commun i c a t i o n . iii.  a perceptual conflict  shift  with  respect  and t h e opponent.  associated  t o t h e nature of t h e  This also i s l i k e l y  t o be  w i t h changes i n communication, d e f i n i t i o n  of a r e a s o f agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t , and t h e l e v e l of t r u s t iv.  between p a r t i e s t o t h e c o n f l i c t .  a move f r o m t h r e a t a n d c o n f r o n t a t i o n  towards exchange.  Brooks  (1976) s u g g e s t s t h a t as a n a l y t i c a l  boundaries  (i.e.  the viewpoint) of the p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t  65  are  broadened the d i f f e r e n c e s  outcomes w i l l rather  in their  analytical  n a r r o w , a n d so t h e need t o t h r e a t e n  t h a n have e x c h a n g e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d  viewpoint  will  be r e d u c e d .  Once a g a i n ,  the importance  of c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n o p p o s i n g g r o u p s i s shown, since  i tw i l l  be l i k e l y  t o broaden t h e v i e w p o i n t  and  awareness of each group. Wehr d o e s n o t make any s u g g e s t i o n s a s t o how t h e s e can  features  be a c c o m p l i s h e d 2.  FOX: OPEN THE PLANNING PROCESS TO A L L INTERESTS.  Fox  (1982) s t a t e s t h a t  conflict  t h e i n t e n s i t y a n d o v e r a l l amount o f  c a n be r e d u c e d by 1) o p e n i n g up t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  s y s t e m t o e v e r y o n e who w i s h e s t o t a k e p a r t , a n d 2) p r o v i d i n g free access t o a l l a v a i l a b l e information. process to perceived by  or i d e n t i f i e d opponents i s u s u a l l y  t h e proponent of a p r o j e c t because of t h e i n c r e a s e s  and  cost  that  p r o b a b i l i t y that h i s project  p r o c e e d i n an a l t e r e d form o r n o t a t a l l . that  a n d m a k i n g an a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e  a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n them w i l l  situations.  i n time to  will  However, Fox s t a t e s  i n v o l v i n g many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s a n d v a l u e s  process,  avoided  such a wider d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i s p e r c e i v e d  i n v o l v e and the g r e a t e r  and  Opening the d e c i s i o n  early  i n the  the areas of c o n f l i c t  i n most c a s e s d e f u s e  conflict  66  3.  LORD: USE A TAXONOMY OF CONFLICT TYPES.  L o r d e t a l (1979) u s e many o f Wehr's c o n c e p t s suggestions  i n t h e development of a conflict-management  which the d e f i n i t i o n  are e s s e n t i a l components. of c o n f l i c t  Lord  o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n them  suggests  t h a t u s i n g a taxonomy  t y p e s c a n be u s e f u l b e c a u s e d i v i d i n g a c o m p l e x  into  i t s c o m p o n e n t s may f a c i l i t a t e  a n a l y s i s of i t s  d e r i v a t i o n a n d d y n a m i c s , a n d s o a i d i t s management. taxonomy he s u g g e s t s 2) v a l u e c o n f l i c t ;  i s three-fold:  a n d 3) i n t e r e s t  Cognitive conflict technical belief of  judgements.  i n streams,  1) c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t ; conflict.  T h e s e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n , such as t h e e x i s t e n c e  or regarding f u n c t i o n a l  a s t h e amount o f s i l t  e n t e r i n g a stream  construction practices at particular Value  conflict  desirability  p.  proponents of economic growth through  such  of c e r t a i n  assessments of the  by t h e a c t i o n  12). In the case  M i n i n g Road e x t e n s i o n s , v a l u e c o n f l i c t  those  as a r e s u l t  stems "from d i f f e r e n t  (ibid,  relationships,  sites.  o f e n d s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d  contemplated,"  The  a r i s e s because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n  regarding parametric  fish  model i n  aTid e v o l u t i o n o f a n a l y t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s o f  the opponents and t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n  situation  and p r a c t i c a l  of t h e Omineca  e x i s t e d between m i n e r a l development, and  who were c o n s e r v a t i o n - a n d w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e - o r i e n t e d  (among o t h e r s ) . an a s p e c t  Lord claims that value c o n f l i c t  of s o c i a l  are dynamic.  learning"  He s u g g e s t s  "may be s e e n a s  i n t h a t p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l  t h a t by m a k i n g a s e x p l i c i t  the v a l u e s of opponents i n a c o n f l i c t ,  values  as p o s s i b l e  and removing or r e d u c i n g  67  t o a minimum c o g n i t i v e a n d i n t e r e s t positions w i l l dialogue  5 9  factors,  a t l e a s t be c l a r i f i e d .  the opposing  value  Then, a t t e m p t s t o form a  b e t w e e n o p p o n e n t s may i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d empathy b e t w e e n them a n d p e r m i t a n a g r e e m e n t on a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o be made. by v o t e o r a r b i t r a t i o n ,  D e c i s i o n s may h a v e t o be made  o r o t h e r p r o j e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h do  n o t g e n e r a t e a s much v a l u e c o n f l i c t may be s o u g h t , of some s o r t c a n n o t  be o t h e r w i s e  Interest conflict expected e f f e c t different factual  developed.  i s g e n e r a t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the  o f a p r o j e c t on t h e p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o f  people.  Thus " i n t e r e s t s " a r e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e  ( i . e .physical,  p e r c e p t u a l element, of t h e f a c t u a l  i f agreement  f i n a n c i a l , a n d s o on) d i m e n s i o n , and t h e  s i n c e t h e p e r c e p t i o n and p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d when t h e  e f f e c t o f a p r o j e c t on o n e ' s i n t e r e s t s  i s defined.  A particular  m i n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t may be o p p o s e d by an u n e m p l o y e d mine who h a s a v a c a t i o n home j u s t d o w n s t r e a m f r o m a p r o p o s e d  worker effluent  o u t l e t , a n d s u p p o r t e d by an u n e m p l o y e d p e r s o n who h a s a home upstream  and upwind from t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e development.  s u c h a c a s e t h e r e may be no c o g n i t i v e o r v a l u e b e t w e e n h o l d e r s o f t h e two i n t e r e s t  sets.  differences  C o m p e n s a t i o n o f some  s o r t by " w i n n e r s " t o " l o s e r s " c a n s o m e t i m e s r e d u c e conflict,  but Lord notes that  such compensation  this  usually  the form of making u n i d e n t i f i e d or u n r e p r e s e n t e d groups,  5 9  In  type of takes such as  As d e f i n e d by Dunn (1971) d i a l o g u e i n c l u d e s t h e a b i l i t y o f e a c h s i d e t o s t a t e t h e opponent's p o s i t i o n and t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h i t w o u l d be v a l i d .  68  future generations losers, while able  e v e r y o n e who  to perceive  becomes a  Lord  and  i s represented  a c t on  expected  by  v i r t u e of h i s  i m p a c t s on  a l l conflicts  as d e f i n e d  by L o r d ,  suggests that  as much of an which should  and  i f the c o n f l i c t i n g  a g r e e m e n t as be  g r o u p s can  i s possible with  most o b j e c t i v e l y and  most e a s i l y  a s p e c t of c o n f l i c t  one  perhaps v i r t u a l  i n t e r e s t and  Interest conflict  has will  value  will  be  able  t o see  i n t e r e s t s are  be  indirectly  t o be  j u s t how  addressed  a f f e c t e d by  h i s own  the  will  addressable. in  this  information  l e s s agreed t o , then each  more c l e a r l y  likely  the  r e m o v a l of c o g n i t i v e e l e m e n t s  therefore  be  been  the e x e r c i s e ; second,  e l e m e n t s more e a s i l y  more o r  may  reasons:  has  s i n c e when some s e t of o b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i a b l e been a s s e m b l e d and  that  verifiable,  i s u s e f u l f o r two  a d d r e s s e d , which i s the o b j e c t i v e of r e d u c t i o n and  to  come t o  then c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t  first,  most o b v i o u s ,  types.  first  respect  This  and  conflict  most i n v o l v e a l l t h r e e  v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced.  way,  his interests  i n v o l v e more t h a n one  s u c h as b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ,  make t h e  being  "winner".  Virtually type,  o r t h e w i d e r p u b l i c , i n t o t h e c l a s s of  and  party  other  proposed a c t i o n s  and  developments. Interest conflict manner s i m i l a r various  can  a l s o be  to c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t :  i n t e r e s t s through e x p l i c i t  t h i s way  directly  they can  how  they o v e r l a p  can  be  be and  ascertained  addressed  by m a k i n g c l e a r  s t a t e m e n t s or  in a the  "mapping".  o b j e c t i v e l y or s u b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d , t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t one  f r o m an  o b j e c t i v e or s e v e r a l  and  another  subjective  In  69  viewpoints.  I f a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o n e n t were t o h a v e an  " i n t e r e s t map" o f t h i s determine expected sort  the other  sort,  i t would then  i n t e r e s t groups which c o u l d reasonably  to desire n o t i f i c a t i o n  in a particular  ordination otherwise  be e a s i e r f o r h i m t o  region.  be  of a development of a c e r t a i n  T h i s would f a c i l i t a t e  early co-  o f t h e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g b e t w e e n p a r t i e s who m i g h t become o p p o n e n t s i n a c o n f l i c t  t h i s would h e l p those  situation.  involved t o address  In s h o r t ,  interest  conflict  directly. Value other  conflict  two t y p e s .  i s much more d i f f i c u l t  to address  than t h e  I t c a n o n l y be h o p e d t h a t by m a k i n g t h e  c o g n i t i v e and i n t e r e s t  e l e m e n t s more e x p l i c i t ,  l e a s t become more c l e a r l y  perceived.  v a l u e s might a t  T h i s w o u l d t h e n mean t h a t  e a c h o f t h e p a r t i e s c o u l d more e a s i l y  state their  p o s i t i o n s , a n d so be b e t t e r a b l e t o e n t e r  value  i n t o b a r g a i n i n g or  negotiation. While  t h i s a p p r o a c h does not p r o v i d e a magic a p p r o a c h f o r  resolving a l l conflict, involved t o address  i t does p r o m i s e a t l e a s t  each aspect  of a c o n f l i c t  to help  situation  most s u i t a b l e manner, a n d a l s o p e r h a p s t o u n t a n g l e conflict  manifestations.  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h a t one o f t h e c e n t r a l g e n e r a t o r s  i f Tribe's  d i s c u s s i o n s on .the more a p p r o a c h a b l e  i n the  t h e maze o f (1976) c l a i m  of v a l u e c o n f l i c t  b r e a k d o w n i n d i s c o u r s e between o p p o n e n t s , t h e n  those  isa  starting  l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n and  i n t e r e s t may be v e r y u s e f u l i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a s was m e n t i o n e d  earlier.  70  D.  SYNTHESIS OF A CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL. The m o d e l s  discussed i n this  s e c t i o n may be s u m m a r i s e d a s  follows: Wehr: - i n c r e a s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n between - i n c r e a s e t r u s t between  parties to a conflict;  parties to a conflict;  - use a t h i r d p a r t y t o mediate, but not ( a t l e a s t initially)  t o impose a s e t t l e m e n t  - g a i n agreement  of t h e i s s u e ; and  r e g a r d i n g t h a t w h i c h c a n be a g r e e d upon  i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e h a b i t of s u c c e s s f u l communication and trust. F o x : - open  t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  representation  from a l l i n t e r e s t s .  Lord: - Divide a c o n f l i c t  situation  into i t s cognitive,  and v a l u e c o m p o n e n t s i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t aspects that  system t o  of the c o n f l i c t  the remaining  interest  r e s o l u t i o n of those  w h i c h a r e most e a s i l y  r e s o l v e d , and so  i s s u e s a r e as c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as p o s s i b l e .  I propose a s y n t h e s i s of these elements as f o l l o w s : 1) A mediating involved likely  a g e n c y w h i c h i s a s n e u t r a l a s p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be  i n t h e s i t u a t i o n a s soon a s i t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t i t i s  t o generate  s h o u l d n o t , have  conflict.  The a g e n c y need n o t , a n d p e r h a p s  t h e a u t h o r i t y t o impose  solutions to conflicts  t h a t a r i s e , b u t i t s h o u l d have t h e a u t h o r i t y t o f o r c e e a c h p a r t y to the c o n f l i c t  t o take part i n a mediation  2) R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e a c h m a j o r involved possible.  interest  g r o u p s h o u l d be  i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Thus,  process.  s y s t e m a s soon a s  f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e w o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  from opponents t o t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of t h e proposed  corridor,  71  and as  from opponents of i t s p r o p o s e d r.outing and d e s i g n , as w e l l from p r o p o n e n t s of t h e p r o j e c t .  representation or a s p e c t s be  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e r e s h o u l d be  from groups which oppose and s u p p o r t  of i t s design  fordifferent  r e p r e s e n t e d m i g h t be d e t e r m i n e d  reasons.  the c o r r i d o r  The g r o u p s t o  by t h e m e d i a t i n g  a g e n c y on  the b a s i s of i t s a n a l y s i s of t h e types of i n t e r e s t s which c o u l d reasonably  be e x p e c t e d  t o be i n t e r e s t e d  i n t h e p r o j e c t and i t s  ef f e c t s . 3) The c o n f l i c t  situation  s h o u l d be a n a l y s e d  i n t e r e s t and v a l u e components. attempting  into  i t s cognitive,  T h i s may be done by  t o o b j e c t i v e l y determine  first  what t h e c o g n i t i v e e l e m e n t s  a r e , a n d d e f i n i n g t h e most o b j e c t i v e l y a c c e p t a b l e c o g n i t i v e facts regarding the c o n f l i c t w h i c h r e m a i n may t h e n value c o n f l i c t s .  This  situation.  The c o n f l i c t  be c o n s i d e r r e d t o be m o s t l y  elements  i n t e r e s t and  i s d i s c u s s e d below, and elsewhere  i n the  thesis. 4) The i n t e r e s t s o f e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t , and t h e i m p a c t s p r o j e c t on t h o s e  of the  i n t e r e s t s a s p e r c e i v e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ,  s h o u l d be d e f i n e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t a n d c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e other p a r t i c i p a n t s as c l e a r l y  as p o s s i b l e .  5) D i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s be  implicitly  approached through"the  i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s ,  f o r e g o i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y  b u t some a t t e m p t  s h o u l d be made  t o p o i n t o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between v a l u e s a n d interests. 6)  Some means must be d e v e l o p e d  may  t o overcome d e a d l o c k s  which  72  arise  in this process.  situation  6 0  While not every p o t e n t i a l  conflict  a n d e v e r y c o n c o m i t a n t d e a d l o c k c a n be overcome i n a  manner s a t i s f a c t o r y  t o everyone  concerned,  some a t t e m p t must be  made t o d e v e l o p a p r o c e s s w h i c h a t l e a s t d o e s n o t f l y i n t h e f a c e o f what most o f us w i s h t o b e l i e v e a r e t h e " d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n s of our s o c i e t y . " g r o u p s who i d e n t i f y in a c o n f l i c t situation clearly  i f t h o s e p e o p l e and  t h e i r values or i n t e r e s t s as being  s i t u a t i o n cannot  develop a s o l u t i o n  a s p o s s i b l e and r e f e r e d  t o the  i s directly  for a decision  t o some one o r  accountable to the p u b l i c .  COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE  ORIGINS OF  CONFLICT.  The c o n f l i c t  management m o d e l s y n t h e s i s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s  s e c t i o n has elements  which are v i r t u a l l y  identical  t o the  improvements i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system were i d e n t i f i e d  i n Chapter  I I as being n e c e s s a r y .  which  The e l e m e n t s  which a r o s e i n each a n a l y s i s a r e compared i n t h e t a b l e  6 0  involved  among t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n t h e m a t t e r s h o u l d be d e f i n e d a s  some g r o u p w h i c h 1.  T h i s means t h a t  below.  The r e q u i r e m e n t i s n o t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g o v e r c o m i n g t h e d e a d l o c k must n e c e s s a r i l y be a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e method o f r e a c h i n g t h e d e c i s i o n must be acceptable.  73  Comparison of the c o n f l i c t improvements i n t h e p l a n n i n g Improvements i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system  management m o d e l a n d t h e and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system. Elements of t h e c o n f 1 i c t management model  - e n s u r i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e use o f a l l r e l e v a n t a n d a v a i l e l e m e n t s and i n f o r m a t i o n able (or obtainable) information, and m a k i n g c l e a r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n which i s not a v a i l a b l e or i s uncertain - ensuring representation various interests  of  - involvement of represent a t i v e s of each i n t e r e s t group  - f a c i l i t a t i n g communication of normative information  - t h e c l e a r communication of i n t e r e s t s a n d an i m p l i c i t ( a n d p o s s i b l y an e x p l i c i t ) a w a r e n e s s and an a p p r o a c h t o t h e p l a c e o f v a l u e s i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n and management o f c o n f l i c t  - i n c l u s i o n of a f a c i l i t y overcome d e a d l o c k s  - d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a c c e p t a b l e means by w h i c h d e a d l o c k s may be  to  resolved I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o n f l i c t management m o d e l  includes  e l e m e n t s which I f e e l a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the above f o u r neutral  factors.  These e l e m e n t s a r e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t of a  f a c i l i t a t o r or m e d i a t o r and t h e a n a l y s i s of a c o n f l i c t  situation  i n t o i t s c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and value  Thus, t o t h e e x t e n t correctly  t h a t a) t h e c o n f l i c t  identified,  a n d b) t h e c o n f l i c t  elements are implementable, the planning system w i l l  components.  o r i g i n s h a v e been management model and  decision-making  be i m p r o v e d by u s i n g a c o n f l i c t management  as o u t l i n e d a b o v e .  strategy  74  2.  COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE  APPROACH APPARENTLY USED FOR THE THREE TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS. In t h i s  section the c o n f l i c t  compared w i t h for  the c o r r i d o r s studied  superficial provides there  a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h were a p p a r e n t l y earlier.  This  bridge  (as opposed t o t h e c o n f l i c t  design  o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g  of the planning h i s t o r y , w h i c h was t h e  information  three  c o r r i d o r s n o r was t h e l e v e l  information  Road.  i n any a n a l y s i s d u r i n g  of u n c e r t a i n t y  used f o r the route  s e l e c t i o n and d e s i g n  one i n s t a n c e ,  Road t h e of the  a n d a v a i l a b l e by t h e  t h e O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road, was a  agency i n v o l v e d  in a conflict  agency d i d n o t have t h e a u t h o r i t y  were r e s p e c t e d  that developed, but  t o ensure that  agreements  by a l l p a r t i e s .  Deadlocked c o n f l i c t s resolved)  In a l l  agency.  In only "mediating"  of the  of c o g n i t i v e  s e c t i o n of t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r  c o r r i d o r s was t h a t d e t e r m i n e d r e l e v a n t proponent  the planning  a d d r e s s e d e x c e p t i n an a d v e r s a r i a l manner.  cases except the l a s t information  selection  was made b e t w e e n c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t a n d  value  proper,  i n which  o f C h a p t e r I I ) w h i c h were u s e d f o r t h e r o u t e  No d i s t i n c t i o n  the  both completes the  t o t h e next c h a p t e r ,  i s a more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n  subject  used  a n a l y s i s of t h e model a n d - i t s p o t e n t i a l , and  an i n t r o d u c t o r y  approaches  and  the planning  management m o d e l i s b r i e f l y  at the p o l i t i c a l  forpoliticians  were e v e n t u a l l y level  addressed  of decision-making.  i n our s o c i e t y a r e d i r e c t l y  ( i f not This i s accountable  75  to the p u b l i c .  However, t h e c o n f l i c t s  political  f o r r e s o l u t i o n as a normal p a r t of t h e p l a n n i n g  process,  level  the i s s u e s of the c o n f l i c t  differentiated  i n t o c o g n i t i v e , value  were n o t r e f e r e d t o t h e  being  w e l l d e f i n e d or  or i n t e r e s t d e r i v e d ,  on.  Rather, the p o l i t i c i a n s  only  when one o r more p a r t i e s t o t h e c o n f l i c t  the matter a p o l i t i c a l p o l i t i c i a n s could E.  became i n v o l v e d  i s s u e of s u f f i c i e n t  i n the  and so  situation  managed t o make  importance  that  not ignore i t .  SUMMARY. Through a b r i e f  survey of r e l e v a n t  literature  management s t r a t e g y h a s been s y t h e s i z e d . strategy with with the c o n f l i c t decision-making  a conflict  From c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e  o r i g i n s and t h e p l a n n i n g  systems used f o r t h e i r  and  d e r i v a t i o n , the strategy  a p p e a r s t o have some p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e management o f c o n f l i c t i n this  context. In the next chapter  and  decision-making  Omineca M i n i n g model d e v e l o p e d  I r e l a t e i n some d e t a i l  the planning  system used f o r the l a t t e r p a r t of the  Road a n d compare i t w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t in this  chapter.  management  76  IV. A.  THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD.  INTRODUCTION. In order t o demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l  conflict  management model i t i s n e c e s s a r y  utility  of the  t o h a v e a more  d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f an e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m t o provide a comparison. and  decision-making  Although  In t h i s chapter system  I describe the planning  f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g  the m a t e r i a l i n t h i s chapter  t o some e x t e n t , i t s o r i e n t a t i o n  Road.  repeats t h a t of Chapter I I  i s different,  f o r rather  than  s e e k i n g t o r e l a t e t h e r e l e v a n t s e r i e s and p a t t e r n of e v e n t s as r e p o r t e d by o b s e r v e r s , i n t h i s c h a p t e r content which  I seek t o e x p l a i n t h e  and p a t t e r n of t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  system  t o a l a r g e e x t e n t formed t h e e v e n t s . Because t h e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s  by d i f f e r i n g  a g e n c i e s and  o t h e r g r o u p s f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road a p p e a r s t o have been largely  unco-ordinated,  the planning processes  two  main a c t o r s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n ,  t h e B.  and  t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch,  are discussed separately.  a d d i t i o n , the involvement  C.  f o l l o w e d by t h e Ministry  of Mines In  o f ELUC i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e  t h i s a g e n c y i s i n some r e s p e c t s a p r o t o t y p e o f t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency d e s c r i b e d i n e a r l i e r of t h e p u b l i c  6 1  i s briefly  chapters.  discussed.  6 1  Finally,  the involvement  I n o r d e r t o g i v e some f o c u s  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s do n o t i n c l u d e t h e d e t a i l e d d e s i g n of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency, but s i n c e t h e e x i s t e n c e of some a g e n t w h i c h c a n a c t a s an i n d e p e n d e n t y e t f o r c e f u l n e u t r a l a g e n t a p p e a r s t o be n e c e s s a r y , i t i s d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s through the t h e s i s .  77  to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n  an  e m p h a s i s i s made t h r o u g h o u t on  specific  a r e a of c o n f l i c t :  spawning  habitat.  B.  THE  the  PLANNING PROCESS OF  impact of  THE  T h e r e i s some d i f f i c u l t y planning  a p p r o a c h u s e d by  actions the  that  to take.  and  petroleum e x p l o r a t i o n .  s i g n i f i c a n t mineral  delimited mineral road i s that exploration  i t reduces the sites.  For  6 3  a synthesis  Finally,  these  proposed.  under the  a u s p i c e s of  the  "road access to a s s i s t i n mining for access to areas  potential".  deposits.  have  of  built  ...  in a c o r r i d o r which passes c l o s e  the  discussion,  claimed to  i s formulated.  Road P r o g r a m t o p r o v i d e  and  gleaned from r e p o r t s  c o m p a r e d and  O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road was  because  of  other actions  The  the  Next, a d e s c r i p t i o n  and  THEORETICAL APPROACH.  of  forth.  construction  1.  t o use  In t h i s  w h i c h was  management a p p r o a c h as  d e s c r i p t i o n s are  MINES.  reality  methods t h e y c l a i m e d  set  salmon  M i n i s t r y of M i n e s ,  and  Mineral  6 3  MINISTRY OF  planning  two  6 2  C.  ( i . e . that  been u s e d by M i n e s ) i s f i r s t the  B.  t h e y were r e p o r t e d  t h e o r e t i c a l approach  C.  r o a d on  i n u n r a v e l l i n g the  the  of a d i v e r g e n c e between the  B.  the  one  This  6 2  single objective  t o a number of The  "length  of results  known but  rationale for building of  the  a i r f r e i g h t haul  some m i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s ,  it  not the to  has  The O m i n e c a M i n i n g R o a d , P a p e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Hon. J. R. Chabot, Min. o f M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , I n R e s p o n s e t o B r i e f S u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r by t h e B. C. Wildlife F e d e r a t i o n , Aug. 24, 1978, p. 1. i b i d , p. 2.  a  78  e l i m i n a t e d the n e c e s s i t y of b u i l d i n g roads  by m a k i n g h e l i c o p t e r a c c e s s  local  short-term  access  c o m p e t i t i v e . " " Thus t h e 6  b e n e f i t s a r e t w o f o l d : 1) t h e c o s t o f e x p l o r a t i o n i s r e d u c e d , which  increases a c t i v i t y  and so reduces  the e x i s t e n c e of m i n e r a l resources environmental  temporary  i n t h e r e g i o n ; a n d 2) t h e  disturbance i s minimised  permanent road  i s built  uncertainty relating to  and m a i n t a i n e d  b e c a u s e o n l y one r a t h e r than  many'  r o u t e s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d and not m a i n t a i n e d .  So i t i s  s e e n t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s i n g l e o b j e c t i v e on t h e p a r t o f t h e B.  C.  Ministry  of Mines does not p r e c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e  mandated i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s : road, M i n i s t r y wildlife  "In extending the  o f f i c i a l s have been w e l l aware o f t h e f i s h a n d  values  i n t h e a r e a and have worked t o m i n i m i s e t h e  impact  of t h e a c c e s s and adopt c o n s t r u c t i o n methods which  reduce  t h e d i s t u r b a n c e t o streams  addition, ...  and v e g e t a t i o n . "  i n 1978 t h e M i n i s t e r w r o t e t h a t " D u r i n g  upgrading  a n d r e c l a m a t i o n work were c a r r i e d  Johansen Lake t o Moosevale Creek.  6 5  will  In  the past  year  o u t ... f r o m  The r e c l a m a t i o n p r o g r a m  c o n s i s t e d o f r e g r a d i n g a n d s l o p i n g o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s on e a c h s i d e of t h e r o a d , d i t c h i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n of g r a s s m i x t u r e s and f e r t i l i z e r . of  October  seed  An i n s p e c t i o n made i n t h e e a r l y  part  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a good c a t c h o f g r a s s h a s been  a c h i e v e d which  will  assist  in stabilizing  the road  margins."  i b i d pp. 3-4. i b i d pp.2-3. L e t t e r f r o m J . C h a b o t t o H. L. P e t e r s o n , C h a i r m a n , E n v i r o n m e n t a l Committee, Spruce C i t y W i l d l i f e A s s o c i a t i o n , P r i n c e G e o r g e , B. C , November, 2 2 , 1978.  6 6  79  T h i s work had determine  been p r e c e d e d  by a two  t h e most e f f e c t i v e mix  year  experiment  of c o v e r  species  to  and  fertilisers. The  active  encouraged. II)  involvement  It will  t h a t t h e B.  C.  be  at  the  of M i n e s had  i n being  attempted  t h e r e has  first  ...  i n t e r a g e n c y d i s c u s s i o n of them ...  p l a n n i n g and  route s e l e c t i o n  necessary involved r o u t e was  must i d e n t i f y data."  6 7  The  i s necessary,  the areas  of concern  f o l l o w e d by a f i e l d  r e c r e a t i o n a l and  related  may  be  considered  If further  ...  interested  and  provide  p r o g r a m was  outlined prior  of t h i s p r o c e d u r e  study  impacts  planning  by t h e  6 7  6 8  Resource determine  that could  ...  were c o n t a c t e d  to i t s i n i t i a t i o n .  The  ...  be  Regional  ...  i s to insure that a l l f a c t o r s are  before a d e c i s i o n to proceed  the  i n which a proposed  a n t i c i p a t e d s h o u l d t h e r o a d be c o n s t r u c t e d . R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e s ...  (and  notified  A n a l y s i s Branch of the M i n i s t r y of the Environment t o environmental,  interest  being  minister stated that route  "a p r e l i m i n a r y e n g i n e e r i n g s u r v e y s e l e c t e d ...  to  a l r e a d y been  considerable  agencies  be  ( i n Chapter  B r a n c h was  " P r o p o s a l s f o r e x t e n s i o n of t h e r o a d s t a g e and  study  i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g  L a t e r t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e  'Prospectus'  i s s t a t e d to  from the case  o f t h e r o a d when i t s e x t e n s i o n was  considered. that:  recalled  Ministry  the F o r e s t r y Department funding)  of o t h e r a g e n c i e s  and  The  the  purpose  recognised  w i t h t h e p r o j e c t i s made."  6 8  Memorandum f r o m D r . J . F y l e s , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r o f t h e B. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s t o Mr. B. C. M a r r , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r of B. C. M i n i s t r y of the E n v i r o n m e n t . L e t t e r f r o m J . C h a b o t t o H. L. P e t e r s o n , op c ' i t .  Some  C. the  80  experimentation  regarding  v a r i o u s e r o s i o n c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s were  undertaken. T h e r e a p p e a r t o be few l i m i t s on t h e amount o f h e l p other  agencies  should  by t h e B.  be p r e p a r e d  to assist  wildlife  i i ithe area  Wildlife  Branch  1976  C.  ..,"  M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s : "The m i n i s t r y f i n a n c i a l l y w i t h t h e management o f  through co-operation 69  officer  c o s t s of p l a n n i n g  w i t h t h e F i s h and  An e x a m p l e o f t h i s was e x p l a i n e d :  summer s e a s o n t h e M i n i s t r y p a i d  conservation  ... d u r i n g  f o r an  the hunting  season."  i m p a c t on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  question: Mining  overall  7 1  The p r o c e d u r e  the environmental  from c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s  i s a low c o s t , m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d  The  But the  7 0  a n d management were e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t o be  was s t a t e d t o be s u c c e s s f u l : "...  little  "Inthe  auxiliary  "commensurate w i t h t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . "  resulting  given  road  road  impacts  are minimal."  7 2  which i n the past  ..,"  "This h a s had  73  v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r o g r a m was s t a t e d t o be b e y o n d  on one hand " T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n  Road h a s c o n f o r m e d t o t h e p o l i c i e s  t h a t t h e Omineca  of the Mining  Road  P r o g r a m o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d h a s been s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i m u l a t i n g e x p l o r a t i o n and i n t h e development of s e v e r a l m i n e r a l with production  potential." " 7  w h i l e on t h e o t h e r  deposits  " I t i s not  p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out a cost b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s of the extension  The Omineca M i n i n g Road op c i t , pp. 5-6. i b i d , p. 3. Memorandum, F y l e s t o M a r r , op c i t . Dr. J . F y l e s i n telephone conversation with Les Storey, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , M a r c h 18, 1978. Memorandum, F y l e s t o M a r r , op c i t . The Omineca M i n i n g Road, op c i t , p. 5.  81  of t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road b e y o n d U s l i k a L a k e . values are s t i l l quantified."  7 5  In essence:  Road i s o b v i o u s , The use  unknown and " e n v i r o n m e n t a l  but  the u t i l i t y  i t can't  be  a p p r o a c h t h a t t h e B.  Mineral  resource  " l o s s e s " cannot  of t h e Omineca  be  Mining  proven.  C.  M i n i s t r y of M i n e s c l a i m s  c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s and  i s b a s e d on  to  several  assumptions: i.  The  g o a l s and  the  o b j e c t i v e s of t h e p r o g r a m r e l a t e  r e d u c t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n c o s t s , and  r e d u c t i o n of u n c e r t a i n t y r e l a t i n g This  of b e i n g  Environmental predicted. and  the  to mineral d e p o s i t s . even  proven.  damage c a u s e d by t h e r o a d can  be  By u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n methods  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures the d i s t u r b a n c e  o c c u r s can  be c o n t r o l l e d or s t o p p e d .  performed to determine iii.  a)  i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be open t o q u e s t i o n , o r  capable ii.  b)  to  which  Experiments  useful rehabilitation  were  measures.  P l a n n i n g c o s t s s h o u l d be a f u n c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n costs.  iv.  Interagency the planning  v.  ibid,  p.  important  aspect  occurs  r o u t e s h a v e been s e l e c t e d and  after to a large  extent evaluated with respect to t h e i r  impacts  f a c t o r s of p r i m a r y  C.  3.  of  process.  Communication w i t h other agencies potential  7 5  c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s an  interest  t o t h e B.  on  Ministry  of  82  Mines. In comparison w i t h t h e i d e a l i s e d p l a n n i n g in  the f i r s t  B.  C.  chapter,  i t i s evident  M i n i s t r y of Mines claimed  i t e r a t i v e and r e c u r s i v e .  earlier  decision steps.  biophysical  that the process  at later  which the  apparent  stages  weakly  feedback  of the process  For i n s t a n c e , r a t h e r than  information being  described  t o h a v e u s e d was o n l y  T h e r e was l i t t l e  between i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d  process  and  site-specific  used t o suggest a l t e r a t i o n s of t h e  r o u t i n g o r c a n c e l l a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t , o n l y m i t i g a t i o n measures were  considered. 2.  APPARENT ACTUAL APPROACH.  There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n s from t h e approach o u t l i n e d above and t h e p l a n n i n g  process  which i s revealed  m i n i s t r y and F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch records planning i.  relating  and c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e Omineca M i n i n g Although  environmental  predicted using there  i s very  made t o do s o .  t o the  Road.  damage c a n i n some c a s e s be  the information that  little  from t h e Mines  i s available,  e v i d e n c e t h a t any a t t e m p t was  Information  t h a t m i g h t h a v e been  a v a i l a b l e was n o t s o u g h t o u t , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n was c o u n t e r Ministry  to the l i m i t e d goals  o f M i n e s was i g n o r e d  apparent j u s t i f i c a t i o n . ii.  7 6  Interagency  o f t h e B.  or contested  which  C. with  little  7 6  communication occurred,  b u t was l i m i t e d t o  A D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e C o s t s a n d B e n e f i t s o f t h e Omineca Road, ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , J a n . 14, 1976.  Mining  83  a) an  initial  attempt to i n t e r e s t  the  Forestry  Department i n s h a r i n g the c o s t of the later  e x c h a n g e of  i n s u l t s between the Mines  i n c h a r g e of t h e Roads p r o g r a m and Branch o f f i c i a l s Mining and  because the e x t e n s i o n  7 7  and  an  Since  the  7  interagency  b)  a  officials Wildlife  of t h e  Omineca  Road t o M o o s e v a l e o c c u r r e d a g a i n s t t h e  Peace R e g i o n . iii.  F i s h and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of o t h e r a g e n c i e s  ELUC,  r o a d , and  wishes  including  t a s k group i n the  Omineca-  8  r o a d was  with other agencies,  built  without  prior consultation  the p o s s i b i l i t y  t o use a v a i l a b l e  information to determine s u i t a b l e c o r r i d o r l o c a t i o n s was  foreclosed.  7 9  On  t h e segment of t h e r o a d  M o o s e v a l e an a n a l y s i s by was  requested  the  route  a n a l y s i s was iv.  7 8  7 9  8 0  l a r g e machines t r a v e r s e d  t o i n v e s t i g a t e a month b e f o r e  received.  the  8 0  T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be an a b s o l u t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  by  B.  Mining  C.  M i n i s t r y of M i n e s t o b u i l d  t h e Omineca  Road d e s p i t e any  p o t e n t i a l problems t h a t might  identified.  i n s t a n c e , the  For  Rehabilitation  7 7  the Resource A n a l y s i s Branch  by M i n e s , but  i t was  beyond  S e c t i o n on t h e i r  r e p o r t by seeding  the  the  be  Mines  experiments  Summary of I m p o r t a n t C o n c l u s i o n s , A. C r e r a r , D i r e s t o r , ELUC, Aug. 20.1975. Omineca M i n i n g Road S t u d y , R i c C a r e l e s s , R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g U n i t , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , O c t . 9, 1975. D. K i n g , R e g i o n a l B i o l o g i s t , B. C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , quoted i n the C a l e d o n i a C o u r i e r , F o r t S t . James, J u l y 5., 1978. Government D e p a r t m e n t s S p l i t o v e r M i n i n g Road, by S u z a n n e F o u r n i e r , The P r o v i n c e , p. 33, S e p t . 14, 1978.  84  stated: road  "The  most r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d s e c t i o n of  i n the Johansen Lake area c o n t a i n s  soils.  (1460  difficult."  8 1  concerning  Such a p p a r e n t  the  could result  impacts  the  i t was  from i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s  t h a t "...  the  the c u l p r i t  I f A.  by  T.  stopped  by  ...  serve to stop t h i s  a r e damaging the  j u s t as w e l l as  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e  i.  fragile use  would  f o r b i d d i n g the  8 2  following  elements:  f i t t h e management  Ministry  damage r e s u l t i n g  hypothesis  from a c t i o n s of the  of M i n e s were c o n s i d e r e d  responsibility  2  the  i g n o r e d or d i s p u t e d .  Environmental C.  1  the  I n f o r m a t i o n which d i d not was  ii.  resume s u g g e s t s  road."  hunting  hunting  t u n d r a , then a r e g u l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r  This brief  then  f o r b i d d i n g t h e b u i l d i n g of V.'s  road  since i t i s quite passive  i s too h i g h ,  r o a d s h o u l d be  not  stated that  r e g u l a t i o n , not road.  In f a c t  resources  i f hunting pressure  along  problem p o t e n t i a l s d i d  on w i l d l i f e  i s not  high  m e t r e s ) , makes r e v e g e t a t i o n  blunt that determination.  ...  unstable  T h i s , combined w i t h e f f e c t s of c l i m a t e at  elevations  itself  the  of a n o t h e r  t o be  B.  the  a g e n c y , a s d e f i n e d by  the  O m i n e c a Road V e g e t a t i o n T r i a l s , I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n , B. C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s , J a n u a r y 1978, p. 9. Omineca R o a d , P.E. O l s o n , S e n i o r I n s p e c t o r , B. C. Ministry of M i n e s . T h i s s t a t e m e n t and t h e document i n w h i c h i t was c o n t a i n e d was s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p r o v e d and c i r c u l a t e d by t h e d e p u t y m i n i s t e r o f t h e M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , J . F y l e s .  85  relevant iii.  mandate,  Communication w i t h other s p o r a d i c , not  3.  r e c e p t i v e and  was  and  that the divergence  mal-intent, a credible explanation i n s u l a r view of t h e i r use  have i n c l u d e d t h e i.  ii.  The  p o s i t i o n i n the  generated  by held  planning,  This view appears  to  f o l l o w i n g elements:  M i n e s mandate p r e c l u d e d  ordinate  its activities  interest  groups.  the n e c e s s i t y t o  with other  agencies  Nevertheless,  communication with these  entertained.  C o m m u n i c a t i o n was  not  ( a s d e f i n e d e a r l i e r ) but  memorandum The  the  i s that Mines personnel  of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s .  dialogue  iii.  between  a p p a r e n t management a p p r o a c h e s i s n o t  management and  and  *  i t i s hypothesized  claimed  defensive  responsive.  SYNTHESIS.  If  a very  agencies  coor p u b l i c  groups  equated  rather  was  with  with  generation.  a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h p r o g r a m s and  based are not  t e s t e d or even c o n s i d e r e d  policies to  were  be  testable. iv.  The  M i n e s mandate d e f i n e d  interest; of  little  the mandated  the M i n i s t r y ' s area  i m p o r t a n c e was interests.  given  of  factors outside  86  C.  THE  PLANNING PROCESS OF  The reactor  r o l e of the t o B.  C.  s i n c e M i n e s was  THE  F i s h and  F I S H AND  W i l d l i f e B r a n c h was  u n d e r no  other  agencies,  F i s h and  in planning  and  resources  a r e a s so t h a t  Branch i n the similar  are  the  planning  to the  main t r e n d s  resources  i t might b e t t e r present  understandable that  Nor  the  did  i n v o l v e m e n t of t h e  i n the  of  Thus i t i s  F i s h and  Wildlife not  i n Chapter I.  t h e F i s h and  the  affected  o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road was  activities  no  information  its position.  i d e a l i s e d process discussed  i n the  W i l d l i f e had  management d e c i s i o n s .  wildlife  i t s road-  i t s i n t e r e s t s were  to g r e a t l y increase  a v a i l a b l e a b o u t f i s h and  a  Moreover,  o b l i g a t i o n to c o - o r d i n a t e  i n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y to ensure that  B r a n c h have t h e  t h a t of  M i n i s t r y of M i n e s i n i t i a t i v e s .  b u i l d i n g program w i t h  respected  W I L D L I F E BRANCH.  Wildlife  at a l l Three  Branch  apparent: i.  In the  usual  spirit  p r o h i b i t o r y and  of  reactive planning,  negative  actions  r e g u l a t i o n s were p r o p o s e d and halt ii.  to the  Control  and  of the  r o a d and  iii.  out  by)  Mines;  h a b i t a t ) u n c e r t a i n t i e s was perceived  total  relating  to the  the natural  occasionally  and  Research i n t o parametric  was  fishing  attempted;  i t s i m p a c t on (and  were  and  implemented, a  rehabilitative actions  e n v i r o n m e n t were s u g g e s t e d t o carried  : hunting  r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n was  construction  there  t o be most  ( i . e . population  and  u n d e r t a k e n where t h e critical.  need  87  No e x p l i c i t  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n appears  by t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e  Branch,  t o have been  performed  a l t h o u g h r e f e r e n c e i s made t o  the need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o f u n c t i o n a l  relationships  i n order to  provide a rationale  f o r p r o h i b i t i v e and o t h e r c o n t r o l s .  resources necessary  f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , o r even f o r c r e d i b l e  parameter or not D.  d e t e r m i n a t i o n or c o n t r o l and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e  f o r the enforcement  of f i s h i n g  8 3  The  actions,  and h u n t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s  were  available. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT  AND LAND USE  COMMITTEE  SECRETARIAT. Interest  i n t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road by t h e E n v i r o n m e n t  L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e S e c r e t a r i a t official  involvement  commence u n t i l and W i l d l i f e  referring  complaints regarding the environmental  The  was r e f e r r e d  that, the m i n i s t e r s  the matter  be q u i c k l y  1974, b u t  S p r i n g 1975, when upon r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c a n d F i s h  Branch  i s apparent  in late  i n the p l a n n i n g of the road d i d not  impacts of the road, the matter It  i s apparent  and  involved  t o the Committee. " 8  believed  t o t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t  t h a t by  the problems would  r e s o l v e d a n d f u r t h e r c o n t r o v e r s y w o u l d be a v o i d e d .  Secretariat  construction,  8 5  recommended an i m m e d i a t e h a l t t o  a n d an e m p h a s i s on r e d u c t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  D. R. H a l l a d a y t o K. N. C h i l d , F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h Memorandum, J u l y 18, 1975. " L e t t e r f r o m A. A. N u n w e i l e r , M i n i s t e r f o r N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , t o Leo N i m s i c k , M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s a n d P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , M a r c h 20, 1975. ibid. Memorandum f r o m A. D. C r e r a r , D i r e c t o r , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , t o t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e S e c r e t a r i a t , May 9, 1975. 3  5 6  88  i m p a c t s w h i c h were e m a n a t i n g f r o m p r e v i o u s w o r k .  8 6  In a d d i t i o n ,  a w o r k i n g committee of " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of M i n e s , Highways, R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d t h e S e c r e t a r i a t " was under t h e a e g i s of t h e Omineca-Peace Management C o m m i t t e e . the  Regional Resource  I t was t o make a f i e l d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  p r o j e c t a n d s u b m i t a r e p o r t by t h e e n d o f J u l y The w o r k i n g c o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i.  t h a t t h e Omineca  established  1975.  8 7  included:  M i n i n g Road be t e r m i n a t e d a t J o h a n s e n  Lake; ii.  t h a t t h e r o a d b e d b e y o n d J o h a n s e n L a k e be and  iii.  stabilised  "put-to-bed";  t h a t t h e r o a d n o t be p r o m o t e d a s a t o u r i s t  end-point;  and iv.  t h a t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f o t h e r s t r e t c h e s o f t h e r o a d be at  a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d t h a n h a d been  Upon r e c e i v i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n  occuring.  8 8  of t h e recommendations the  A s s o c i a t e deputy m i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , E. H. V e r n o n , r e s p o n d e d : " I b e l i e v e t h i s for  f u t u r e management o f t h i s  report  7  8  9  basis  r o a d a n d I c a n s e e no n e e d f o r  f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and r e v i e w of t h i s m a t t e r . " closer  i s a sound  to the f i e l d  8 9  action  However,  and W i l d l i f e  officials  other views:  " W h i l e we a g r e e w i t h t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  Fish  expressed ... i t i s  L e t t e r f r o m C r e r a r t o L. B r o o k s , d e p u t y m i n i s t e r , R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n , May 16,1975. Omineca M i n i n g Road S t u d y - Summary a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e Task G r o u p , by R i c C a r e l e s s , R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g U n i t , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , O c t . 9, 1975. L e t t e r f r o m E. H. V e r n o n t o A. D. C r e r a r , O c t . 2 3 , 1 9 7 5 .  89  o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e p o r t was a 'paper s o l u t i o n ' environmental  damage i s s t i l l  s u g g e s t t o ELUC t h a t t h e y  occuring.  P o s s i b l y we  should  a t t e m p t t o back up t h e i r  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h a f i r m hand i f p o s s i b l e . confusion  o n l y and t h a t  The a p p a r e n t  a s t o who r e a l l y w a n t s o r h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  r o a d may make t h i s  somewhat  difficult."  for this  9 0  T h i s c o n c e r n was p a s s e d on t o t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t : "On t h e b a s i s o f {a} r e p o r t on m a i n t e n a n c e work done t h i s y e a r Omineca M i n i n g  {on t h e  Road}, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e recommendations of  t h e T a s k F o r c e have n o t been v e r y  w e l l c a r r i e d o u t ...  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e ELUC must f i n d a way o f e n s u r i n g  We  would  that the  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e Task F o r c e a r e p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d  out."  9 1  I n e a r l y 1976 t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t entitled Mining  "A D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e B e n e f i t s a n d C o s t s  Road", w h i c h was i t s m a j o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o j e c t t o  that date. type  o f t h e Omineca  I t concluded  that the road  was "an e x a m p l e o f t h e  o f l a n d u s e p r a c t i c e s w h i c h {must be s t o p p e d } i f  development  { i s } t o proceed s e n s i b l y . "  9 2  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , a t a m e e t i n g b e t w e e n ELUC a n d M i n e s , Mines o f f e r e d t o help  fund  wildlife  program w i t h t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e  conservation  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  monitoring  and Branch.  I n a d d i t i o n , "Agreement was r e a c h e d t h a t J o h a n s e n L a k e c o u l d be an  acceptable  await  9 0  9 1 9 2  t e r m i n u s and t h a t p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n  M i n i s t e r i a l 'direction  t o Moosevale  r e : p o l i c y and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  J . H. C. W a l k e r , C o - o r d i n a t o r , H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n , t o E. H. V e r n o n , O c t . 29, 1975. E. H. V e r n o n t o A. D. C r e r a r , Nov. 3, 1975. Op. c i t . p. 8.  of  90  availability funding  of funding  f o r extension  by M i n e s B r a n c h . "  of t h e road  I n May, 1976,  9 3  was g r a n t e d ,  a n d so t h e  a g r e e m e n t t o h a l t c o n s t r u c t i o n became e s s e n t i a l l y The  last  in Spring  i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e a p p e a r s t o have been  1978, when an a t t e m p t was made t o make ELUC's  Guidelines Mining  worthless.  f o r L i n e a r D e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e Omineca  Road.  Mines agreed that  a p p l i e d , as d i s c u s s e d  earlier  'modified'  Guidelines  could  in this thesis.  T h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t a l f i l e s p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h a t p o s e d by t h i s p r o j e c t s h o u l d t o ELUC o n l y seen  i f this  i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary.  (by t h e agency a c t o r s  resort,  within  planning.  Thus ELUC was  T h i s may h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m a  bureaucratic  l e v e l s and t h a t  necessary to r a i s e a l l interagency The  main a s p e c t s  i.  Interagency  issues to that  n o t be  level.  o f ELUC i n v o l v e m e n t a p p e a r t o have b e e n : c o - o r d i n a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d  to enforce  t h e y were o f t e n  where co-ordinated.  adherence t o i t s recommendations,  ignored  by p a r t i e s t o t h e c o n f l i c t .  The e f f o r t s o f ELUC were e s s e n t i a l l y a d hoc although  9 3  only  B e c a u s e t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t d i d n o t h a v e t h e authority  iii.  perception  issues  i t should  a g e n c i e s were f o r c e d t o o r a g r e e d t o be ii.  of l a s t  a t a l l stages of  t h e a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d t h a t ELUC d e a l t w i t h  at the highest  that  be r e f e r r e d  i n t h i s drama) a s a c o u r t  rather than a u s e f u l f a c i l i t a t o r  interagency  be  C o m m i t t e e o r S e c r e t a r i a t members m i g h t have  M e e t i n g on Omineca M i n i n g Road, J a n . 19, 1976, D. O'Gorman, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , J a n . 21,1976.  91  an a w a r e n e s s o r i n t e r e s t indication  i n an i s s u e , t h e r e  t h a t ELUC i n v o l v e m e n t  which i t s p o l i t i c a l words, i n t h i s  i s no  extended past  masters requested.  that  In other  i n s t a n c e ELUC a p p e a r s t o h a v e a c t e d a s  a r e a c t i v e a g e n c y , e n t e r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n o n l y when requested iv.  t o do s o .  T h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n other agencies discussions.  v.  t h a t ELUC s o u g h t t o i n v o l v e  or p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s  i n the  9 4  T h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a n o r i e n t a t i o n  towards  experimentation. E.  THE INVOLVEMENT OF PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS. Public  i n t e r e s t groups concerned  w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road may c o n v e n i e n t l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two types: and  1) m i n i n g  i n t e r e s t s ; a n d 2) s p o r t s ( h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g )  conservation a.  Mining  Mining  interests. Interests.  i n t e r e s t s were n o t u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n f a v o u r o f e x t e n s i o n  of t h e r o a d .  Although  the i n i t i a l  was s t a t e d t o h a v e r e s u l t e d f o r t h i s , and such  support  d e c i s i o n t o extend  from r e q u e s t s continued  the road  from m i n i n g  t o be made p u b l i c ,  interests there  was some o p p o s i t i o n t o e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r o a d b e c a u s e o f t h e potential  9 4  f o r vandalism  and o t h e r d i s t u r b a n c e w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n  An e x c e p t i o n o c c u r e d a t a m e e t i n g on J u n e 2, 1975, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e and t h e Highways M i n i s t r y a t t e n d e d i n o r d e r t o r e s p o n d t o s u g g e s t i o n s made a t a p r e v i o u s meeting (Jan. 19, 1976) when M i n e s p r o p o s e d t h a t F o r e s t r y a n d H i g h w a y s s h o u l d t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g R o a d .  92  and m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s t h a t t h e a c c e s s p r o v i d e d . b.  S p o r t i n g And C o n s e r v a t i o n  These i n t e r e s t  groups  expressed opposition to the fact o f ,  l o c a t i o n , a n d methods u s e d M i n i n g Road f r o m Although responded  Interests.  1973 u n t i l  i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e Omineca c o n s t r u c t i o n ceased  i t i s obvious that t h e i r t o by t h e M i n i s t r i e s  o p p o s i t i o n was n o t e d a n d  t o which  i t was d i r e c t e d ,  e q u a l l y o b v i o u s t h a t t h e c o m p l a i n t s had l i t t l e road proponent  until  1978, when t h e B.  showed a m o v i e w h i c h  i t had p r o d u c e d  M i n i n g Road t o a g r o u p and  C.  effect  i t is  9 5  on t h e  W i l d l i f e Federation  c o n c e r n i n g t h e Omineca  o f MLA's i n V i c t o r i a ,  a number o f o t h e r s p u b l i c i s e d  There  i n 1978.  a n d t h e same  group  the issue through the media.  i s s u b s t a n t i a l evidence that  the c o n s e r v a t i o n groups  r e s o r t e d t o t h e s e t a c t i c s o n l y when t h e y b e l i e v e d them t o be t h e o n l y means by w h i c h v a l u e s would c. The  be t a k e n  i n t o account  Involvement. interest  t o be:  The p r o - c o r r i d o r m i n i n g the Mining  ii.  i n t e r e s t s and  f e a t u r e s of the involvement of p u b l i c  appeared  i.  that t h e i r  i n the road p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  E s s e n t i a l F e a t u r e s Of T h e i r  essential  groups  they c o u l d ensure  i n t e r e s t s had a ready e a r i n  Ministry;  The a n t i - c o r r i d o r  interest  groups  h a d no method o f  having t h e i r views taken account of i n the process as it  9 5  existed.  I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o  T h e r e a r e a number o f e x a m p l e s o f c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e r o a d e x t e n s i o n i n the v a r i o u s Departmental f i l e s which s t a t e that the w r i t e r d o e s n o t know t o w h i c h d e p a r t m e n t t h e c o m p l a i n t s h o u l d be addressed.  93  carry  the c o n f l i c t  effect, F.  to the p o l i t i c a l  to subvert,  level,  and, i n  i f not change, t h e p r o c e s s .  FEATURES OF THE PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM FOR THE  LATTER PART OF THE OMINECA MINING ROAD. The Mining  p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  s y s t e m f o r t h e Omineca  Road h a d t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s :  i.  The o n l y  i n f o r m a t i o n type  explicitly  addressed  was  cognitive. ii.  U n c e r t a i n t y was e n d e m i c b u t g e n e r a l l y even w i t h r e s p e c t  iii.  Very l i t t l e prior  to cognitive information.  new c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n was  generated  t o d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made a n d a c t i o n b e i n g  that e f f e c t i v e l y iv.  unrecognised  No e x p l i c i t  taken  foreclosed alternatives.  a t t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y a n d c o n t a c t  g r o u p s t o i n v o l v e them i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i s i o n making v.  system.  A mediating acceptable  vi.  a g e n c y was e n g a g e d t o d e t e r m i n e  objectively  and r e l e v a n t c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n .  The m e d i a t i n g  a g e n c y was ony i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e  s i t u a t i o n when i t h a d a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d  into a  conflict. vii.  The m e d i a t i n g  agency d i d not t h e a u t h o r i t y t o f o r c e  adherence t o i t s recommendations. .viii.  ix.  The p r o p o n e n t a g e n c y was n o t r e q u i r e d t o a l t e r i t s plans  to suit  other  groups.  the interests,  values  or p e r c e p t i o n s of  No mechanism e x i s t e d f o r o v e r c o m i n g d e a d l o c k s ,  except  94  d i r e c t appeal  t o the p o l i t i c a l  a c t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l x.  No mechanism e x i s t e d  l e v e l as a p a r t i s a n  participants, t o ensure  that the matter  c l e a r l y d e f i n e d when i t was p u t b e f o r e  was  political  decision-makers. G.  SUMMARY. In  and  t h i s chapter  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  I have b r i e f l y  d e s c r i b e d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of  i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  system  u s e d f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road by t h e m a j o r a c t o r s who were o r wished briefly  t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . o u t l i n e how t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  Road m i g h t h a v e o c c u r e d h a d t h e c o n f l i c t u s e d f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g  Road.  In the next c h a p t e r I f o r t h e Omineca  Mining  management m o d e l been  95  V.  THE HYPOTHETICAL OPERATION OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD.  A.  INTRODUCTION-. In t h i s chapter  planning  I g i v e a h y p o t h e t i c a l e x a m p l e o f how t h e  o f t h e Omineca M i n i n g  the c o n f l i c t  Road m i g h t h a v e o c c u r e d ,  management model d e s c r i b e d  The c o n f l i c t  management p l a n n i n g  o b j e c t i v e s : a) d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g and  design  conflict  in earlier  using  chapters.  p r o c e s s has as i t s  the construction, l o c a t i o n  o f t h e c o r r i d o r ; and b) an e x p l i c i t a d d r e s s i n g  i s s u e s , so t h a t they a r e d e f i n e d as c l e a r l y  of  as  possible. As e l s e w h e r e  in this  t h e s i s I assume t h r o u h g o u t  example t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o c o n s t r u c t certain  general  area  considerations.  by t h e p o l i t i c i a n s  e x p l i c i t addressing i.  to over-ride  9 6  From t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e v i o u s an  a c o r r i d o r t o access a  h a s been made f o r s t r a t e g i c o r o t h e r  reasons which are perceived other  this  of c o n f l i c t  chapters  issues  i t i s clear  that  requires:  the involvement of a l l p a r t i e s ( p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ) w h i c h deem t h e m s e l v e s t o be a f f e c t e d ;  ii.  the a b i l i t y cognitive  9 6  of each p a r t y  information  t o g e n e r a t e and communicate  which i s r e l e v a n t  to i t s  This d e c i s i o n i s not i n c l u d e d because f a c t o r s enter the a n a l y s i s w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e most r e l e v a n t t o s i t i n g and d e s i g n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s d e c i s i o n l e v e l s h o u l d be a s w e l l - i n f o r m e d a s p o s s i b l e , w h i c h i t was n o t f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d t h e r o a d was n o t made a t t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , b u t r a t h e r by t h e b u r e a u c r a c y .  96  conceptualisation iii.  the a b i l i t y its  of the p r o j e c t  of each party  and i t s i m p a c t s ;  to define  and c o m m u n i c a t e  i n t e r e s t s a n d how t h e s e may be a f f e c t e d by t h e  project; iv.  the a b i l i t y the  to define  may i m p a c t on t h e s e v a l u e s o r p h y s i c a l  projections  o f them; and  the involvement of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g w h i c h i s s e e n t o be o b j e c t i v e the  and communicate  v a l u e s w h i c h i t h o l d s a n d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e  project  v.  of each p a r t y  authority  to require  a g e n c y i n some  (unbiased),  integrated  within  the process which ensures that d e c i s i o n s a r e i s acceptable within  the context of our  society.  In t h e r e s t of t h e c h a p t e r the  to the project.  i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o have some m e c h a n i s m  made i n a way t h a t democratic  and h a v i n g  the involvement of a l l  p a r t i e s w h i c h a r e seen t o be r e l e v a n t In a d d i t i o n ,  role  requirements could  I describe  h a v e been i n c l u d e d  p r o c e s s f o r t h e Omineca M i n i n g Road.  how I b e l i e v e  each of  i n the planning  The e x a m p l e i s i n t h e f o r m  of a n a r r a t i v e . B.  THE EXAMPLE. 1.  THE DECISION TO CONSTRUCT A CORRIDOR TO F A C I L I T A T E  MINERAL EXPLORATION I N THE OMINECA REGION I S ANNOUNCED. The  announcement by t h e M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , M i n e s a n d  Petroleum Resources of a d e c i s i o n  to construct  Johansen Lake t o reduce t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  a road north  costs  for private  from  97  concerns  u n d e r t a k i n g m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e Omineq.a r e g i o n  i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a s t a t e m e n t determine  that a conference  i s t o be h e l d t o  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s most r e l e v a n t t o d e c i s i o n s  r e g a r d i n g t h e s i t i n g and d e s i g n of t h e r o a d . t o open a p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h  The c o n f e r e n c e i s  has s t a t u t o r y  l i m i t a t i o n s a n d whose outcome must be r a t i f i e d  by C a b i n e t .  M i n i s t r y of Mines c o n t a c t s a separate governmental shall call  f o r convenience  body  the "Objective F a c i l i t a t i n g  o r OFB) whose mandate i s t o public  time  facilitate  p l a n n i n g of p r o j e c t s which  The  (which I Board",  t h e i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l and  may i m p a c t  public  resources.  I do n o t i n t e n d t o d e s i g n a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r t h e OFB, b u t I would suggest specific  t h a t i t s h o u l d be a s i n d e p e n d e n t  i n t e r e s t s and p o l i t i c a l  have a c c e s s  t o many d i f f e r e n t  as p o s s i b l e from  o r g a n i s a t i o n s and i t s h o u l d  f i e l d s of e x p e r t i s e i n both the  s c i e n c e s and h u m a n i t i e s . The has  OFB i s a s k e d  been a n n o u n c e d .  request  t o o r g a n i s e and r u n t h e c o n f e r e n c e The M i n i s t r y  t h a t t h e OFB do t h i s  in a conference  of Mines i s not h e s i t a n t t o  service,  with different  that  even t h o u g h i t may  result  p a r t i c i p a n t s and a d i f f e r e n t  outcome t h a n M i n e s w o u l d p r e f e r , b e c a u s e M i n e s r e a l i s e s t h a t t h e OFB w o u l d c a l l  the conference  whether Mines r e q u e s t e d  i t t o do  so o r n o t . 2.  A CONFERENCE TO DETERMINE RELEVANT INFORMATION I S HELD.  Staff  o f t h e OFB d e t e r m i n e  a r e a s and r e s o u r c e s w h i c h  to their  best a b i l i t i e s the  may be a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o j e c t .  OFB h a s an i n d e x o f g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h expressed  an i n t e r e s t  i n the region concerned  The  have p r e v i o u s l y -  or i n resources  98  which  exist  within  local  g o v e r n m e n t s and a g e n c i e s w h i c h  responsibilities may  it.  There are a l s o F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l  f o r t h e a r e a s and  have m a n d a t e d  resources concerned.  a l s o be p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o w n e r s , o r h o l d e r s of  l i c e n s e s o r o t h e r f o r m s of t e n u r e  There  leases,  i n the areas concerned.  of t h e s e c l a s s e s of p a r t i e s a r e c o n t a c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e wish t o a t t e n d the  All  i f they  conference.  I n t h e c a s e of t h e O m i n e c a M i n i n g Road p r o p o s a l t h e contacts several provincial  resource agencies, including  M i n i s t r i e s of F o r e s t s , of L a n d s P a r k s and H o u s i n g , Environment.  The  of I n d i a n and  Northern A f f a i r s are a l s o  conference.  and  and  f e d e r a l M i n i s t r i e s of F i s h e r i e s and informed  A l l r e g i s t e r e d p r o p e r t y owners and  of  OFB the  of  the  Oceans  and  the  r e s i d e n t s of  a r e a s w h i c h m i g h t be d i r e c t l y  a f f e c t e d a r e i n f o r m e d by m a i l of  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t and  the conference which  held.  i s to  H o l d e r s of m i n e r a l c l a i m s , g u i d i n g l i c e n s e s ,  l i c e n s e s and  organisations like  t h e S i e r r a C l u b and  W i l d l i f e Federation are a l s o n o t i f i e d . p o l i t i c a l , s p o r t s and informed.  Finally,  The  t o P r i n c e G e o r g e , and  advertisements e x p l a i n the nature p r o j e c t and a s k  i n a t t e n d i n g the conference c o n t a c t the  conference  of p a r t i e s  i s compiled  i n d i v i d u a l s and  t h e B.  C.  local and  advertisements are placed i n a l l l o c a l  l o c a t i o n of t h e p r o p o s e d  When t h e l i s t  forestry  business o r g a n i s a t i o n s are contacted  newspapers from P r i n c e Rupert and V i c t o r i a .  In a d d i t i o n ,  be  interested  t h a t anyone  i n Vancouver and interested  OFB. i n a t t e n d i n g the  i t i s sent to each p a r t y .  I f more  groups have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w i s h t o a t t e n d  99  t h a n can  be  accommodated, t h e B o a r d may  d i s c u s s among t h e m s e l v e s t e m p o r a r y f o r m e d so t h a t o n l y  one  attend.  I t may  f o r the  process.  willing  so t h a t t h e t o be  organisations. represented  Similarly,  by  SPEC and  a member o f t h e of I n d i a n  agencies are c h o o s e two  and  other  c o u n c i l , and  one  limited  t o two  on  p r o j e c t m i g h t a f f e c t them.  The  and  must be  basic  level  Road."  that  This  precisely  the  i n P r i n c e George.  B.  C.  attends  i s Relevant to the  p a r a m e t e r s of t h e  The  of  local  on  them  residents all. as  how  the  in a  group they  a later owned  conference. "Regional  Centre provides  Determine  S i t i n g and  i n f o r m a t i o n , but  The  the  D e s i g n of  necessarily include  a  for a  the p u b l i c p u r s e .  i s "To  by  government  i n t e r e s t s and  of t h e  be  represented  conference f a c i l i t i e s  the c o n f e r e n c e  o b j e c t i v e d o e s not (  behalf  in a publicly  t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and  s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of Information  behalf  o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n and  minimum c o s t  Other  prepared to attend  conference i s held  Conference Centre"  the  In a d d i t i o n t h e y must be  t o make d e c i s i o n s on  represent,  respective  groups agree to  bureaucrat  their  to  licensees  of t h e i r  h u n t e r s by  to  this  t o l d t h a t t h e y must make t h e m s e l v e s  i n f o r m e d as p o s s i b l e r e g a r d i n g  position  guiding  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and  of t h e i r group t o a t t e n d  that  organised  n a t i v e groups are  Northern A f f a i r s .  P a r t i c i p a n t s are well  the c o n s e r v a t i o n  local  groups  of m i g h t need  already  executives  l o c a l and  The  tribal  by  parties  Board to f a c i l i t a t e  f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g and  represented  W i l d l i f e Federation.  behalf  representative  I n t h i s c a s e most i n t e r e s t s a r e  some e x t e n t , are  necessary  t h a t the  i n t e r e s t or v a l u e  m i g h t be  be  request  the  determining  rather  1 00  concentrates instance,  on t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n  will  Instead,  in a specific  have on a p a r t i c u l a r  the conference  concerns i n the s i t i n g  way how t h e s e  and d e s i g n  directly  (and o t h e r )  of a road  resources.  or i n d i r e c t l y  Therefore  i n the general  attempt t o define  resources  using  this  relating  general  i n c o n s t r u c t i n g and  t h r o u g h i m p a c t s on r e l a t e d  t h e OFB a n d c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s must  to their various  information  a c c o m p l i s h e d : a) t h a t contested  in a  area.  m i g h t be a f f e c t e d , e i t h e r  have a v a i l a b l e t o them c r e d i b l e ( a n d i n some way information  determining  are legitimate  t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f human a c t i o n s  using a road,  conclude  t y p e o f f i s h o r mammal.  i s o r i e n t e d towards f i r s t  t h a t , the conference w i l l  For  l o c a t i o n and of a s p e c i f i c  w h e t h e r f i s h , mamals o r f o r e s t r y r e s o u r c e s  After  i s relevant.  i t i s not expected that t h i s conference w i l l  what e f f e c t a r o a d design  that  at a general information  i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s .  level  By  s e v e r a l t h i n g s may be  which i s a v a i l a b l e , u n c e r t a i n ,  o r u n a v a i l a b l e c a n t o some e x t e n t  b) a r e a s o f p a r t i c u l a r  defensible)  be d e t e r m i n e d ; a n d  s e n s i t i v i t y c a n be d e t e r m i n e d and s o some  o u t l i n e possible a l t e r n a t i v e routes  and d e s i r a b l e m i t i g a t i o n  r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be made. The m a t e r i a l o u t p u t o f t h i s c o n f e r e n c e determination  of t h e s o c i a l ,  f a c t o r s which a r e r e l e v a n t of t h e r o a d , concerning  a  e c o n o m i c and o t h e r  t o d e c i s i o n s on t h e s i t i n g a n d d e s i g n  and an i d e a o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  which i s a v a i l a b l e  these f a c t o r s .  Another unstated opportunity  environmental,  i s , then,  o b j e c t i v e of the conference  for representatives  i s the  t o meet one a n o t h e r  in a  101  relatively  neutral  setting.  The  outcome o f t h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s  i.  some l e v e l o f a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y regarding  the existence  resources,  of s o i l  of f i s h e r i e s and o t h e r  conditions  i n most o f t h e a r e a  concerned, and so on; ii.  some l e v e l obviously accepted  iii.  of agreement r e g a r d i n g unsuitable  f o r roadways because of s p e c i f i c  criteria;  some a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g and  the values  implicit  areas which a r e  the i n t e r e s t s which  parties hold  unless  a specific  (this effort  latter  exist  may  remain  i s made t o make i t  o t h e r w i s e ) ; and iv.  an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d p r i o r i t i e s o f the  other  discussed  p a r t i e s ( t h e importance of which i s by L i k e r t  & Likert,  1976; a n d H o l l i n g ,  1978) . 3.  INFORMATION I S GENERATED.  After  t h i s c o n f e r e n c e t h e OFB c o - o r d i n a t e s  information  w h i c h h a s been d e t e r m i n e d a s u n a v a i l a b l e ,  or c o n t e s t e d  , and a p p a r e n t l y  necessary.  to generate a l l the information before  project planning  The  i n the time t h a t  ministries,  i savailable  d e c i s i o n s a r e t o be made, b u t some  r e l a t i o n s h i p s or range of p a r a m e t r i c  information  uncertain  I t may n o t be p o s s i b l e  a t t e m p t i s made t o g a i n a t l e a s t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g functional  the g a t h e r i n g of  may be g e n e r a t e d by c o n s u l t a n t s  of the values  involved.  o r government  but as s t a t e d above t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e  and c o -  102  o r d i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n generation At t h i s t i m e a l s o s i t e - s p e c i f i c alternative 4.  routings  information relating  to the  i s gathered.  A SECOND CONFERENCE I S CALLED.  A second conference  i s c a l l e d when a s much i n f o r m a t i o n i s  a v a i l a b l e as i s p e r m i t t e d statutorily conference. i.  i s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e OFB.  by t h e t i m e l i m i t  defined or mutually  a g r e e d upon a t t h e f i r s t  The s e c o n d c o n f e r e n c e  has the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s :  most o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l acquainted  ii.  w i t h one  relating  be t o some  extent  another;  " o b j e c t i v e l y " gathered available  which i s e i t h e r  or generated  information i s  t o t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h have  d e t e r m i n e d as r e l e v a n t t o t h e r o u t i n g and d e s i g n road iii.  i n t h i s general  information  relating  of a  area; t o v a r i o u s m i t i g a t i o n measures  is available; iv.  economic c o s t , s o c i a l  impact and o t h e r  analyses are  available. Using  this  i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , w i t h the h e l p of  t h e OFB, a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e a s c l e a r l y a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r  as p o s s i b l e t h e  i m p l i c a t i o n s t o the various  i n t e r e s t s and  values. The  outcome o f t h i s c o n f e r e n c e  among a l l p a r t i e s r e g a r d i n g the  road,  i s t o be e i t h e r an a g r e e m e n t  the prefered  r o u t i n g and design of  o r a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r  i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h c a n be r e f e r e d t o t h e c a b i n e t  fora decision.  1 03  The a g r e e m e n t , i f i t o c c u r s , of  the p a r t i e s involved  objectives  i n the l i g h t  information. interests  will  a r i s e through the i n t e r a c t i o n  i n the c o n f e r e n c e as they r e d e f i n e o f new c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t a n d  The a g r e e m e n t may  their  value  i n c l u d e c o m p e n s a t i o n t o some  f o r damage t o them, o n - g o i n g p r o g r a m s t o m i t i g a t e t h e  damage, e x p e r i m e n t a l  research,  or the o u t r i g h t purchase of  affected interests. 5.  THE MATTER I S REFERED TO CABINET FOR R A T I F I C A T I O N OR A  DECISION. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , ratified  by c a b i n e t .  reached, the matter and  a decision.  i s made must be  However, i f no o v e r a l l a g r e e m e n t i s i s refered to the p o l i t i c a l  level  define  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the a l t e r n a t i v e s .  DISCUSSION. The e x a m p l e o u t l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r s a t i s f i e s  requirements: decisions explicit It  addressing  regarding  of c o n f l i c t  i s clear that  facilitated the  f o r review  In t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y the process should  as c l e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e C.  any a g r e e m e n t t h a t  r o a d s i t i n g and d e s i g n ;  when o r g a n i s e d  by a n e u t r a l a n d o b j e c t i v e b o d y , w i l l  and  n o t e a s i l y be  R a t h e r , t h e p r o c e s s becomes a  means o f d e f i n i n g t h e i s s u e s o f i m p o r t a n c e and g a t h e r i n g generating  information  relating  p r e s e n c e of the p a r t i e s d i r e c t l y decisions within  regarding  the context  and an  issues.  such a process,  t o o l o f one i n t e r e s t g r o u p .  t h e two  to these involved  t h e s i t i n g and d e s i g n  and  i s s u e s , a l l i n the i n the matter.  If  o f t h e Road a r e made  o f t h e s e c o n d c o n f e r e n c e , i t c a n be assumed  1 04  that the.representatives present consequences of the d e c i s i o n . second c o n f e r e n c e , clearly will  defined  level.  information that  interest  D.  CONCLUSION.  have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  t o make t h e d e c i s i o n w h i c h i s p r e f e r r e d by  or value  The p l a n n i n g  At t h i s point i t  i s a v a i l a b l e t o the  In a d d i t i o n , each p a r t y w i l l  his  fairly  c l e a r t o a l l p a r t i e s as t o t h e c o g n i t i v e ,  the p o l i t i c i a n  chapter  i s referred in a  form t o t h e p o l i t i c a l  i n t e r e s t , and v a l u e  lobby  l i v e with the  I f no a g r e e m e n t was made a t t h e  then t h e matter  be r e l a t i v e l y  politician.  could at least  group.  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  i s different  system d e s c r i b e d  i n many ways f r o m t h a t d e s c r i b e d  f o r the  Omineca M i n i n g  Road  most  d i f f e r e n c e i s i t s e x p l i c i t n e s s of p r o c e s s .  important  sufficient  i n C h a p t e r s I I and IV.  in this  commitment  decisions regarding  However, p e r h a p s t h e Given  t o t h e p r o j e c t by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , t h e  the route  s e l e c t i o n and s i t e p l a n n i n g  could  be t h e same f r o m e i t h e r s y s t e m , b u t by u s i n g t h e c o n f l i c t management m o d e l t h e a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t and  are i d e n t i l f i e d ,  defined,  a d d r e s s e d t o some e x t e n t , a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s h a v e a g r e a t e r  chance of b e i n g  perceived  f o r e c l o s e d by d e c i s i o n s . resource  and i n v e s t i g a t e d b e f o r e This  development p l a n n i n g  i s clearly must  move.  they  the d i r e c t i o n  have been i n which  1 05  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  A l l i s o n , G.T., E s s e n c e 1972.  2.  Altm'an, S. M., P i t f a l l s o f D a t a A n a l y s i s , i_n P i t f a l l s o f A n a l y s i s , G. M a j o n e a n d E. S. Quade ( e d r t o r s ) , I I A S A W i l e y , C h i c h e s t e r , 1980.  3.  A r d r e y , R., The T e r r i t o r i a l 1 966.  4.  B r o o k s , H., E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g : A n a l y s i s a n d V a l u e s , in_ When V a l u e s C o n f l i c t , L. T r i b e , C. S. S c h e l l i n g & J . Voss ( e d i t o r s ) , B a l l i n g e r , Cambridge, M a s s . , 1976.  5.  B u r t o n , I . , K a t e s R. W., a n d W h i t e , G. F., The E n v i r o n m e n t a s H a z a r d , O x f o r d , New Y o r k , 1978.  6.  C o n n a l l y , T., U n c e r t a i n t y , A c t i o n a n d C o m p e t e n c e : Some A l t e r n a t i v e s t o O m n i s c i e n c e i n Complex P r o b l e m S o l v i n g , in_ U n c e r t a i n t y , S. F i d d l e ( e d i t o r ) , P r a e g e r , New Y o r k , 1980.  7.  C o s e r , L.A., S o c i a l C o n f l i c t a n d t h e T h e o r y o f S o c i a l C h a n g e , _in_ C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , C. G. S m i t h ( e d i t o r ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame, 1 9 7 1 .  8.  D e u t s c h , K. Y o r k , 1966.  9.  D e u t s c h , K. W. , C o n f l i c t a n d i t s R e s o l u t i o n , _in C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , C. G. S m i t h ( e d i t o r ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame, 1 9 7 1 .  W.,  of D e c i s i o n , L i t t l e  The N e r v e s  Brown, B o s t o n ,  I m p e r a t i v e , D e l l , New Y o r k ,  o f G o v e r n m e n t , F r e e P r e s s , New  10.  D e u t s c h , K. W., P o l i t i c s a n d G o v e r n m e n t , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , B o s t o n , 1974.  11.  Dunn, E. S., E c o n o m i c s f o r S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , f o r t h e F u t u r e , B a l t i m o r e , 1971.  12.  F o x , I . 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