UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Conflict and resource development McKellar, Richard David 1983

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CONFLICT AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT by RICHARD DAVID MCKELLAR B . S c , Murdoch U n i v e r s i t y ( A u s t r a l i a ) , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of Community And R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1983 © R i c h a r d D a v i d M c K e l l a r , 1 983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r - r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community And R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: ** J a n u a r y , 1983 i i A b s t r a c t . I n t e r o r g a n i s a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t i s common when p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s a r e de v e l o p e d f o r the b e n e f i t of i d e n t i f i a b l e p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t groups. In many i n s t a n c e s i t i s not a d v i s a b l e or p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d such c o n f l i c t , but r a t h e r the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d and i f p o s s i b l e managed t o a v o i d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e outcomes. In t h i s t h e s i s I d i s c u s s how c o n f l i c t might be ad d r e s s e d i n r e s o u r c e development p l a n n i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y u s i n g the c o n t e x t of the r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and s i t e d e s i g n l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g f o r l i n e a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s i n w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . F i r s t I t r a c e the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n h i s t o r i e s of t h r e e c o r r i d o r s t o determine the " f o c i " and outcomes of c o n f l i c t i n these i n s t a n c e s . Then, u s i n g a systems approach t o p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , I det e r m i n e those a s p e c t s of the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system which g e n e r a t e d the c o n f l i c t f o c i and which were t h e r e f o r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e or s u b o p t i m a l . From t h i s I suggest ways by which the system might be improved. T h e r e a f t e r I re v i e w some of the r e c e n t c o n f l i c t management l i t e r a t u r e and propose a c o n f l i c t management model h a v i n g the f o l l o w i n g e l ements: i . use of a m e d i a t i n g agency w i t h the a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u i r e involvement i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s but w i t h o u t the a u t h o r i t y t o impose a p l a n or s o l u t i o n ; i i . i n volvement of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l major i n t e r e s t groups; i i i . a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n i n t o i t s c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and v a l u e components, and a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n of these components; and i v . h a v i n g a means of overcoming w e l l - d e f i n e d d e a d l o c k s i the p r o c e s s i n a manner that' i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n a de m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . |10 These elements a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i m i l a r t o the s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvements t o the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system made e a r l i e r . Next I review i n d e t a i l the invol v e m e n t of d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r one of t h e c o r r i d o r s p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d , and compare i t w i t h the c o n f l i c t management model: i . no m e d i a t i n g agency w i t h the a u t h o r i t y o u t l i n e d above was i n v o l v e d ; i i . the involvement of some i n t e r e s t groups was not welcomed or p e r m i t t e d by t h e proponent agency; i i i . o n l y c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n was used i n d i s c u s s i o n s and t h i s was not u s u a l l y o b j e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d or v e r i f i e d but r a t h e r was d i s p u t e d ; i v . t h e r e was no attempt t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e the p e r t i n e n t i s s u e s and d e f i n e d method of overcoming d e a d l o c k s . F i n a l l y I suggest how the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s f o r the c o r r i d o r might have o c c u r e d had the c o n f l i c t management model been u t i l i s e d . i v Table of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements v i I . INTRODUCTION 1 A. INTRODUCTI ON . 1 B. PROBLEM CONTEXT. 2 1. AN IDEALISED PLANNING PROCESS FOR PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS. 2 2. REALITY INTRUDES 4 3. CORRIDOR PLANNING IN THE NORTHWEST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 5 C. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 7 1. SYSTEMS DEFINED 7 2. TYPES OF SYSTEMS DISCUSSED IN THIS THESIS. ...8 D. LIMITATIONS OF THE THESIS 9 I I . THE ORIGINS OF CONFLICT 11 A. INTRODUCTION 11 B. CASE STUDIES 11 1 . STEWART-CASS IAR ROAD 12 2. THE B. C. RAILWAY DEASE LAKE EXTENSION 18 3. OMINECA MINING ROAD 27 C. PROBLEMS AND CONFLICT 42 1 . CORRIDOR RATIONALE 42 a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: 42 b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n : 43 c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: 43 2. CORRIDOR LOCATION 43 a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: ......43 b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n 44 c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: 44 3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 44 a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: 44 b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n : 45 c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: 45 D. COMMON PROBLEMS ' 4 5 1. INCREASED TIME FROM PROJECT START TO COMPLETION 46 2. INCREASED COSTS 47 3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 48 4. CORRIDOR HAS NO PURPOSE 48 E. ' PROBLEM ANALYSIS. ..." 50 1. PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS .51 2. ORIGINS OF THE DEFINED PROBLEMS WITHIN THE PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM 55 a. I n c r e a s e d Time 56 b. I n c r e a s e d C o s t s 58 c. No R e a l i s t i c F o r m u l a t i o n Of P r o j e c t O b j e c t i v e 58 d. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impacts 59 3. THE IMPLICATION OF THE PROBLEM-ORIGIN ANALYSIS FOR THE DESIGN OF PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS 60 V I I I . A MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 62 A. INTRODUCTION 62 B. EXISTING MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION 63 C. RECENT THEORETICAL MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. 64 1. WEHR: IMPROVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PARTIES TO A CONFLICT 64 2. FOX: OPEN THE PLANNING PROCESS TO ALL INTERESTS 65 3. LORD: USE A TAXONOMY OF CONFLICT TYPES 66 D. SYNTHESIS OF A CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL 7 0 1. COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE ORIGINS OF CONFLICT 7 2 2. COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE APPROACH APPARENTLY USED FOR THE THREE TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS 74 E . SUMMARY 7 5 IV. THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD. .76 A. INTRODUCTION 76 B. THE PLANNING PROCESS OF THE B. C. MINISTRY OF MINES 77 1. THEORETICAL APPROACH 77 2. APPARENT ACTUAL APPROACH 82 3. SYNTHESIS 85 C. THE PLANNING PROCESS OF THE FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 86 D. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT 87 E. THE INVOLVEMENT OF PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS 91 a. M i n i n g I n t e r e s t s 91 b. S p o r t i n g And C o n s e r v a t i o n I n t e r e s t s 92 c. E s s e n t i a l F e a t u r e s Of T h e i r Involvement. .92 F. FEATURES OF THE PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM FOR THE LATTER PART OF THE OMINECA MINING ROAD 93 G. SUMMARY 94 V. ' THE HYPOTHETICAL OPERATION OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD 95 A. INTRODUCTION 95 B. THE EXAMPLE 96 1. THE DECISION TO CONSTRUCT A CORRIDOR TO FACILITATE MINERAL EXPLORATION IN THE OMINECA REGION IS ANNOUNCED 96 2. A CONFERENCE TO DETERMINE RELEVANT INFORMATION IS HELD 97 3. INFORMATION IS GENERATED 101 4. A SECOND CONFERENCE IS CALLED 102 5. THE MATTER IS REFERED TO CABINET FOR RATIFICATION OR A DECISION 103 C. DISCUSSION 103 D. CONCLUSION. 104 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 v i Ac knowledgement I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who have a i d e d my work on t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t l y , my academic a d v i s o r s , Dr. B i l l Rees and P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g Fox, have been c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t i v e and h e l p f u l as my p e r c e p t i o n of the problem became r e f i n e d , and as I i n v e s t i g a t e d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t and p o s s i b l e means of a d d r e s s i n g i t . They s u c c e s s f u l l y kept me on a t r a c k of my own c h o o s i n g , even when the f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n was not e n t i r e l y c l e a r t o any of us. Se c o n d l y , many members of the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s were w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s the i n t r i c a c i e s of the p r o j e c t s s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , and p e r m i t t e d f r e e and open a c c e s s t o the r e l e v a n t agency f i l e s . T h i r d l y , my f a m i l y showed a f o r b e a r a n c e of my f o l l y . F i n a l l y , a F e l l o w s h i p from T r a n s p o r t Canada g r e a t l y a i d e d the r e s e a r c h and p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s by p r o v i d i n g needed f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r the t w e l v e month p e r i o d d u r i n g which the m a j o r i t y of the work was a c c o m p l i s h e d . 1 I . INTRODUCTION. A. INTRODUCTION. C o n f l i c t appears to be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of human e x i s t e n c e . The v e r y n a t u r e of our l i m i t e d p l a c e i n and a c c e s s t o what we b e l i e v e t o be an i n f i n i t e U n i v e r s e may be the d r i v i n g f o r c e f o r much human c o n f l i c t . In any c a s e , c o n f l i c t i s no s t r a n g e r t o most i n s t a n c e s of human a c t i o n on t h a t p a r t of the U n i v e r s e t o which we do have a c c e s s : E a r t h and i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s t h e s i s t a k e s the view t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s i t i s not p o s s i b l e or a d v i s a b l e t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t . On the o t h e r hand, i f c o n f l i c t i s i g n o r e d and p e r m i t t e d t o d e v e l o p w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n t or management i t may r e s u l t i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n any b e n e f i t f o r anyone i n v o l v e d . One must be aware of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , and manage them t o a v o i d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . In t h i s t h e s i s I d i s c u s s how c o n f l i c t might be a d d r e s s e d i n r e s o u r c e development p l a n n i n g . The c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h I do so i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h r e e l i n e a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s i n n a t u r a l or " w i l d e r n e s s " a r e a s . The c o r r i d o r s a r e : a) the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r r o a d ; b) the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n of the B. C. R a i l w a y ; and c) the Omineca m i n i n g r o a d . These c o r r i d o r s a r e the o n l y t h r e e t o have been s t a r t e d i n t h e N o r t h West of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y , a l l t h r e e were promoted f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y a c c e s s t o a r e a s of proven or p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s , and each was devel o p e d by a 2 d i f f e r e n t government agency. The o b j e c t i v e s of the t h e s i s a r e : i . t o i d e n t i f y the bases of c o n f l i c t i n a p a r t i c u l a r type of human a c t i o n on n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s - the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i n e a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s i n " w i l d e r n e s s " a r e a s ; and i i . t o d e v e l o p a c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g y based on s t r a t e g i e s which have been d e s c r i b e d i n r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e and which i s r e l e v a n t t o the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s i n " w i l d e r n e s s " a r e a s . 1 B. PROBLEM CONTEXT. 1 . AN IDEALISED PLANNING PROCESS FOR PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS. The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be d e s c r i b e d as a s e r i e s of s t e p s which i s d e s i g n e d t o produce, t h r o u g h an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s , a p r o j e c t which maximises the w e l f a r e of those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . The s t e p s can be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : 1) symptoms of d i s o r d e r or i n d i c a t i o n s of p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e p e r c e i v e d , 2) from the symptoms or i n d i c a t o r s a problem i s d e f i n e d , 3) t e n t a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s or o b j e c t i v e s a r e f o r m u l a t e d by which i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the problem can be overcome or In t h i s c o n t e x t " w i l d e r n e s s " means an area i n which t h e r e has been l i t t l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a l t e r a t i o n by man, and i n which t h e r e a r e few or no permanent r e s i d e n t s . 3 a m e l i o r a t e d or the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t a k e n advantage o f , 4) a l t e r n a t i v e means of a t t a i n i n g the g o a l s or o b j e c t i v e s are spec i f i e d , 5) i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y s e d so t h a t the consequences of the a l t e r n a t i v e s can be e v a l u a t e d , 6) a c h o i c e of p r e f e r r e d a c t i o n r e s u l t s from the e v a l u a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e s t e p s a p r o j e c t may be implemented and e v a l u a t e d . However, t h i s p r o c e s s i s i t e r a t i v e . For i n s t a n c e , as g o a l s a r e f o r m u l a t e d and i n f o r m a t i o n a n a l y s e d , the problem may be r e d e f i n e d , and so s u i t a b l e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s may be f o r m u l a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y than they were i n i t i a l l y . I t was w i t h such a p r o c e s s dynamic i n mind t h a t W i l d a v s k y (1966) wrote t h a t g o a l s cannot be ta k e n as d e f i n a b l e a t the b e g i n n i n g of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , but r a t h e r emerge i n the p r o c e s s of a n a l y s i s and c h o i c e . The p r o c e s s i s a l s o r e c u r s i v e , o c c u r r i n g on s e v e r a l p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n l e v e l s . For i n s t a n c e , i n c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t l e a s t t h r e e l e v e l s of i n t e r c o n n e c t e d d e c i s i o n making can be i d e n t i f i e d : 1) whether t o b u i l d a c o r r i d o r , 2) where t o b u i l d a c o r r i d o r , and 3) s p e c i f i c c o r r i d o r d e s i g n . The e x i s t e n c e l e v e l c oncerns the need f o r or d e s i r a b i l i t y of a c o r r i d o r . I t i n v o l v e s a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of whether any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y i s needed i n an a r e a , and whether a s u r f a c e l i n e a r c o r r i d o r i s the most s u i t a b l e form. The next l e v e l of c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g r e l a t e s t o the l o c a t i o n of a c o r r i d o r . F i n a l l y , when t h e c o r r i d o r l o c a t i o n has been chosen, 4 the f a c i l i t y must be d e s i g n e d i n a way t h a t meets the c o n s t r a i n t s of both the a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c groups concerned and the b i o p h y s i c a l environment through which i t p a s s e s . At each l e v e l , the p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s and so on. The f i n a l r e s u l t i s expected t o be a d e t a i l e d c o r r i d o r d e s i g n i n i t s s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n . However, t h i s r e c u r s i v e p r o c e s s i s a l s o i t e r a t i v e , i n t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d a t the d e s i g n or l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g l e v e l s may cause d e c i s i o n s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s t o be changed. For i n s t a n c e , i t may be d e c i d e d t h a t a l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s h o u l d be b u i l t t o a c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n , but i f i n the d e s i g n stage e x t e n s i v e muskeg i s found t o l i e on the proposed c o r r i d o r , the l o c a t i o n or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode may have t o be a l t e r e d . 2. REALITY INTRUDES There a r e s e v e r a l reasons why the p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d above i s f r e q u e n t l y not p r a c t i c a l i n the r e a l w o r l d . F i r s t , such a p r o c e s s may t a k e a l o n g time and i n v o l v e l a r g e c o s t s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e when f i r m l y d e v e l o p e d opposing v i e w p o i n t s and yet some u n c e r t a i n t y e x i s t r e g a r d i n g the p r o j e c t and i t s impacts ( C o n n a l l y , 1980). S i n c e a c t i o n i s u s u a l l y p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g r e q u i r e d w i t h i n some f i x e d , and o f t e n s h o r t , p e r i o d of t i m e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and i t s impacts must i n e v i t a b l y be t r u n c a t e d . S e c o n d l y , the agency and the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g the c o r r i d o r u s u a l l y have t h e i r s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s l i m i t e d by t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l mandate and p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l 5 and p r o f e s s i o n a l backgrounds ( A l l i s o n , 1972). Thus the s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y much s m a l l e r than might a r i s e from a group which i n c l u d e d many a g e n c i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l backgrounds. T h i r d l y , p o l i t i c a l or o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s may e x p l i c i t l y remove c e r t a i n a l t e r n a t i v e s or even p l a n n i n g l e v e l s from the s e t of those t h a t a re t o be i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n a l y s i s . For i n s t a n c e , i n the c o r r i d o r s which a r e s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , the d e c i s i o n t o c o n s t r u c t a c o r r i d o r was i n a l l c a s e s made a t the p o l i t i c a l or h i g h b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l , and so a n a l y s i s of the r a t i o n a l e f o r b u i l d i n g the c o r r i d o r was e s s e n t i a l l y f o r e c l o s e d . S i n c e t h i s l e v e l of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r a i s e s problems and i s s u e s t h a t a r e u s u a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e e n c o u n t e r r e d a t the l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n s t a g e , p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s f o r t h i s l e v e l of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . These f a c t o r s , among o t h e r s , u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which a re i n some ways r e l a t e d t o the i d e a l , and i n many ways a r e r a t h e r d i s t a n t from i t . 3. CORRIDOR PLANNING IN THE NORTHWEST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Common f e a t u r e s of the p r o c e s s of c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g " i n the n o r t h west of B r i t i s h C olumbia, as r e v e a l e d from p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n , a r e : i . d e c i s i o n s t o b u i l d the c o r r i d o r s were made on the p o l i t i c a l or v e r y s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l , w i t h l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t the need f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode had been f u l l y a s s e s s e d or t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e 6 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes had been c a r e f u l l y examined. i i . a s i n g l e agency was e n t r u s t e d w i t h the p l a n n i n g of each c o r r i d o r , so t h a t the l o c a t i o n c h o i c e r e f l e c t e d a s e a r c h l i m i t e d t o those a l t e r n a t i v e s which s e r v e d e i t h e r the p o l i t i c a l or agency g o a l s . i i i . t h e r e was l i t t l e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the n a t u r a l environment of the impact a r e a or the p o t e n t i a ' l e f f e c t s of man's a c t i o n s on them ( i . e . c o r r i d o r c o n t r u c t i o n and u s e ) . i v . For two of the c o r r i d o r s ( the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n and the Omineca M i n i n g Road) t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l of c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts of the p r o j e c t . S i n c e c o n f l i c t (or symptoms of d i s o r d e r ) was d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n A . 1 (above) as b e i n g the f i r s t s t a g e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , not i t s p r o d u c t , the p r o c e s s seems i n the s e i n s t a n c e s t o have been t u r n e d on i t s head! Even though the p r o c e s s i s e x p e c t e d t o be i t e r a t i v e , i t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a major p r o c e s s output w i l l be a d i f f e r e n t form of the o r i g i n a l p r o c e s s s t i m u l u s . The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was the s u b j e c t of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o n f l i c t , and even, i n r e t r o s p e c t , appears t o have been an i m p o r t a n t element i n the development of a c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n system which i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g a c t i v e l y used and f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d by the agency co n c e r n e d : the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways. 7 C. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS. In t h i s t h e s i s I make r e f e r e n c e t o "systems" and systems a n a l y s i s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o a t l e a s t b r i e f l y d e f i n e the approach and i t s a s s o c i a t e d terms and c o c e p t s so t h a t they may be used w i t h o u t c o n f u s i o n i n the r e s t of the t h e s i s . 1. SYSTEMS DEFINED. The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n f o r systems by Krone (1980) s e r v e s most of the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s : "A system i s a complex set of i n t e r a c t i n g elements ... systems a r e what people d e f i n e them t o be and what n a t u r e has bequeathed." 1 For my p u r p o s e s , a more s p e c i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n i s more u s e f u l : a system, and t h e r e f o r e i t s b o u n d a r i e s , i n t e r n a l components and i n p u t s , can be d e f i n e d as the minimum number of elements n e c e s s a r y e x p l a i n or account f o r the b e h a v i o u r ( i . e . o u t p u t s ) of i n t e r e s t t o the a n a l y s t . There a r e t h r e e f a c t o r s of i n t e r e s t i n these d e f i n i t i o n s : 1) systems a re composed of s u b u n i t s , which may be subsystems or i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s ; 2) emphasis i s p l a c e d on c a u s a l and a s s o c i a t i v e r e l a t i o n s between these s u b u n i t s , as w e l l as on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and s e p a r a t e f e a t u r e s ; and 3) systems may be e i t h e r s e l f - d e f i n e d or a n a l y s t - d e f i n e d . Other r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s of systems i n c l u d e : i b i d , p. 1 7 . 8 4) systems and t h e i r s u b u n i t s have c e r t a i n boundary c o n d i t i o n s ( i . e . i n t e r a c t i o n s between the system of i n t e r e s t and o t h e r a s s o c i a t e d systems) which may be determined t o some e x t e n t by the a n a l y s t i n as much as he can d e f i n e the s y s t e m 1 ; and 5) system s u b u n i t s may a l s o i n many cases be c o n s i d e r e d t o be and a n a l y s e d as systems - thus t h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e t o the c o n c e p t 2 . Systems a n a l y s i s , t h e n , i s an approach t o problem a n a l y s i s which i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e s e f e a t u r e s . 2. TYPES OF SYSTEMS DISCUSSED IN THIS THESIS. In Chapter I I I d i s c u s s " p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems" from a p r a g m a t i c and p r o c e s s v i e w p o i n t , and use t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t o i l l u m i n a t e the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which were used f o r the t h r e e c o r r i d o r s whose h i s t o r i e s a r e r e l a t e d i n t h a t c h a p t e r . In the Chapter I I I I r e d e f i n e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems from a more output o r i e n t e d v i e w p o i n t -t h a t i s , I d e f i n e the g e n e r a l form which system i n p u t s and p r o c e s s e s s h o u l d take i n o r d e r t h a t the system w i l l g e n e r a t e the l e a s t amount of c o n f l i c t i n p r o d u c i n g a d e c i s i o n . In Chapter IV I r e c o n s i d e r the Omineca M i n i n g Road i n more d e t a i l , and d e f i n e as w e l l as p o s s i b l e the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system which was used f o r t h a t p r o j e c t , and compare the system i n p u t s and p r o c e s s e s used w i t h those which are proposed i n Chapter I I I as b e i n g most s u i t a b l e f o r c o n f l i c t management. 1 Von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1968. 2 i b i d . 9 D. LIMITATIONS OF THE THESIS. T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h a t o p i c which i s a u n i v e r s a l f e a t u r e of human i n t e r a c t i o n , so i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o t r e a t the s u b j e c t c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y . However, I b e l i e v e t h a t the approaches de v e l o p e d by some w r i t e r s i n r e c e n t y e a r s and d i s c u s s e d here have some a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o a d d r e s s i n g and managing c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g from the use of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . U n a v o i d a b l y , some i s s u e s a r e r a i s e d and then l e f t , as i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n c e n t r a t e my e f f o r t i n c e r t a i n key a r e a s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the t h e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s on c o n f l i c t s u r r o u n d i n g a p a r t i c u l a r type of p r o j e c t and then f u r t h e r c o n c e n t r a t e s on c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s of t h e p r o j e c t s . The p r o g r e s s i v e r e s t r i c t i o n of the s u b j e c t m a t t e r (from Chapter I I t o Chapter VI) i s a means of making the d i s c u s s i o n deeper than i t o t h e r w i s e c o u l d have been. My work i n t h i s t h e s i s i s f a r from b e i n g a " d e f i n i t i v e work" - r a t h e r I view i t as b e i n g a wor k i n g r e p o r t which has. enough i n t e r n a l l o g i c and e x t e r n a l r e l e v a n c e t o s t a n d (however b r i e f l y ) on i t s own. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the models and p r o c e s s e s I d e v e l o p and d i s c u s s a r e o r i e n t e d towards managing c o n f l i c t , and not n e c e s s a r i l y towards m i n i m i s i n g e i t h e r s h o r t - or l o n g - t e r m economic c o s t s . Indeed, the l o n g - t e r m c o s t b a l a n c e between i g n o r i n g v e r s u s managing c o n f l i c t s over the use of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s i s u n c e r t a i n a t b e s t . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s y e t one more major l i m i t a t i o n on t h i s work. I i m p l i c i t l y suggest t h a t human a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n i s or s h o u l d be based on some l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n of r e a s o n a b l e 10 o r i g i n a l p r e c e p t s , and t h a t most peop l e d e s i r e t o l i m i t c o n f l i c t t o n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e l e v e l s . These v i e w s , i n t h e m s e l v e s , might be a t t a c k e d on the b a s i s t h a t the o r i g i n a l p r e c e p t s on which most human thought and a c t i o n a r e based a r e not " r e a s o n a b l e " , or t h a t the a c t i o n i s not l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e d . In o t h e r words, human a c t i o n does not f o l l o w the same type of p r o g r e s s i o n as a chess match - i n which the r u l e s a re agreed upon and s u b j e c t t o no v a r i a t i o n , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of each move are o f t e n a n a l y s e d f a r i n t o the f u t u r e and i n response t o past e x p e r i e n c e s . Human a c t i o n , however r i t u a l i s e d , has an element of the u n a n t i c i p a t e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , the w o r l d about us does not r e f r a i n from i n t e r f e r e n c e l i k e s p e c t a t o r s a t a chess match. However, w i t h i n human a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n t h e r e i s room f o r more l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of most i s s u e s than has been e v i d e n t from my i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r o j e c t s which form the s u b j e c t of Chapter I I , and I propose a method by which t h i s might be a c c o m p l i s h e d . To the e x t e n t t h a t the reader d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h i s b e l i e f , . h e w i l l f i n d my p r o p o s a l s u n t e n a b l e and the t h e s i s o v e r l y l i m i t e d i n i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the c o n d i t i o n s of the r e a l w o r l d . 1 1 I I . THE ORIGINS OF CONFLICT. A. INTRODUCTION. In t h i s c h a p t e r I d i s c u s s a s y s t e m s - o r i e n t e d model of the o r i g i n s of c o n f l i c t and a p p l y i t t o the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n h i s t o r i e s of t h r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n I r e l a t e the h i s t o r i e s of the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h r e e n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s . T h e r e a f t e r , a b r i e f summary of the p u b l i c f o c i of c o n f l i c t which were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e p r o j e c t s i s g i v e n . Then, the p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n -making i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a c y b e r n e t i c system, and f i n a l l y the o r i g i n s of the problem f o c i a r e d e s c r i b e d i n terms of s u b o p t i m a l i t i e s i n a s p e c t s of the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system. B. CASE STUDIES. The p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n h i s t o r i e s of t h r e e c o r r i d o r s which have been b u i l t i n n o r t h west B r i t i s h Columbia are d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was b u i l t from 1952 t o 1972, and extended from M e z i a d i n t o Kitwanga t o j o i n w i t h the g r e a t e r B r i t i s h Columbia highways system i n 1978. Except a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the p r o c e s s t h e r e was l i t t l e c o n f l i c t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s road d u r i n g i t s i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n , or when i t was extended. The B. C. R a i l w a y Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n was s t a r t e d i n 1969 and abandoned, i n c o m p l e t e , i n 1977. A l a c k of b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the a r e a t h r o u g h which the r a i l l i n e p a s s e d , and c o n f l i c t 1 2 r e g a r d i n g i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s , r e s u l t e d , i n the im p l e m e n t a t i o n of h i g h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s and c o s t s and a l o n g e r p e r i o d of c o n s t r u c t i o n than had o r g i n a l l y been p r o j e c t e d . There was l i m i t e d debate w i t h r e s p e c t t o the l o c a t i o n of the r a i l l i n e . The Omineca M i n i n g Road was extended n o r t h from Germansen L a n d i n g from 1972 u n t i l 1978. There was c o n t r o v e r s y r e l a t i n g t o the need f o r , l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n of the roa d . 1. STEWART-CASSIAR ROAD C o n s t r u c t i o n of the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was s t a r t e d i n 1952 by the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines t o p r o v i d e a B. C. se a p o r t e g r e s s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of the C a s s i a r a s b e s t o s mines. At t h i s t i m e , and u n t i l t h i s road c o u l d be completed, the a s b e s t o s would be e x p o r t e d over a q u i c k l y b u i l t r o u t e t o the Yukon and then v i a A l a s k a t o t i d e w a t e r and f i n a l l y by barge t o N o r t h Vancouver. C o n s t r u c t i o n of the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was commenced by a company which was owned by f r i e n d s of the Mines M i n i s t e r , Mr. R. E. Sommers, and which r e c e i v e d the machine r e n t a l c o n t r a c t w i t h o u t t e n d e r s b e i n g c a l l e d . 2 A l a c k of p r e -e n g i n e e r i n g r e s u l t e d i n the road a r r i v i n g a t unexpected and impassable w a t e r c o u r s e s , and the c o n s t r u c t i o n machines sometimes l e a d i n g t h e * s u r v e y and r o u t e marking team i n t o t he f o r e s t or l y i n g i d l e w h i l e a r o u t e was b e i n g marked f o r them. In 1956 the Mines M i n i s t e r r e s i g n e d because of charges of c o r r u p t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r c o n t r a c t s which he had lei,'. No 2 ' B u i l d e r T e s t i f i e s on Road', by Gordon McCallum, The P r o v i n c e , Feb. 13, 1956, p. 3; 'Government H a l t s Work on C a s s i a r Road', by A l e x Young, The Sun, March 23, 1956, p. 19. 1 3 c o n s t r u c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1956 t o a l l o w c o m p l e t i o n of an e n g i n e e r i n g and f e a s i b i l i t y study of the road. T h e r e a f t e r i t was d e c i d e d t h a t the road s h o u l d be b u i l t by the B. C. Highways Department t o highway l o c a t i o n s t a n d a r d s w i t h complete p r e - e n g i n e e r i n g . T h i s road would c o s t $10 m i l l i o n , as opposed to the $5 m i l l i o n earmarked f o r the lower q u a l i t y m i n i n g road. I t would " t a p a huge a r e a r i c h i n m i n e r a l s . " 3 The manager of the B. C. Yukon Chamber of Mines responded by s t a t i n g : " I t ' s j u s t what the (mining) i n d u s t r y has been w a i t i n g f o r , " and note was made of the n e a r l y 1000 c l a i m s which had been s t a k e d i n one a r e a . " The f e d e r a l government, r e c o g n i s i n g the importance of opening an a l l - C a n a d i a n a c c e s s r o u t e from the Yukon t o the ocean, agreed i n 1957 t o share the c o s t of the road w i t h the p r o v i n c e of B. C. I t was s t a t e d t h a t "the e n t i r e purpose of the road i s t o rea c h t i d e w a t e r , so ore from t h a t c o u n t r y ( i . e. northwest B. C. and the Yukon) can be sh i p p e d out f o r p r o c e s s i n g . " 5 One o f f i c i a l remarked: "There have been 150,000 a c r e s s t a k e d ( w i t h m i n i n g c l a i m s ) i n the past 10 months," ( t o Feb. 1957). 6 In October 1958 the B. C. C e l l u l o s e Company opened a 70 m i l e l o g g i n g road t o a new camp on the Nass R i v e r n o r t h of 'Gov't t o Speed N o r t h e r n Hwy', Vancouver Sun, S e p t . 29, 1956, p. 17. Tom E l l i o t , quoted i n the Vancouver P r o v i n c e , 'New Road "Wonderful" Say M i n e r s ' , Feb. 26, 1957, p.1. U n i d e n t i f i e d government o f f i c i a l , quoted i n the Vancouver Sun, Feb. 28, 1957, 'Stewart Highway Tenders i n March." i b i d 1 4 T e r r a c e . I t was h e r a l d e d as "the f i r s t road t o push n o r t h i n t o the mountains and v a l l e y s of t h i s r i c h c o r n e r of B. C. But o t h e r s a re b u i l d i n g , and i n a few y e a r s t h i s f i r s t one i s ex p e c t e d t o be one l i n k i n a n e t w o r k . " 7 Only a 73 m i l e e x t e n s i o n would be r e q u i r e d t o l i n k t h i s road w i t h the p r o s p e c t i v e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road . Work c o n t i n u e d on the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road u n t i l September 1972 when the road was open, and t r a f f i c c o u l d move from Stewart t o C a s s i a r and on t o the Yukon. I t was s t a t e d t h a t the "Primary purpose of the new S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road ( i s ) t o spur g r e a t r e s o u r c e development and l e t m i n e r a l s l i k e the a s b e s t o s of C a s s i a r get t o t i d e w a t e r a t S t e w a r t . " 8 But the managers of the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s C o r p o r a t i o n chose t o c o n t i n u e s e n d i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l v i a A l a s k a , i n t e n d i n g t o use the B. C. R a i l w a y Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n when i t was completed (at t h a t time the c o m p l e t i o n date of the r a i l l i n e was t o be 1974). The f i n a l c o s t of the p r o j e c t , a f t e r 20 y e a r s of . c o n s t r u c t i o n , was $30 m i l l i o n from Stewart t o the A l a s k a Highway. A system of g o o d - q u a l i t y l o g g i n g roads and government a c c e s s roads from M e z i a d i n Lake t o T e r r a c e l i n k e d the S t e w a r t -C a s s i a r Road t o the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e . A f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Management o f f i c i a l s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t the B. C. Highways Department and h i s bureau had worked " s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r " d u r i n g the d e s i g n and 7 'New Road Opens R i c h Land' Vancouver Sun, Oct. 17, 1958, p. 31 . 8 Bruce L a r s e n , Vancouver Sun, Se p t . 16, 1971, p. 53. 1 5 c o n s t r u c t i o n of the road t o m i n i m i z e the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts t h a t would r e s u l t from i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . 9 However, because i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the road would be used c o n s i d e r a b l y by t o u r i s t s , h u n t e r s and f i s h e r m e n , and concerns were e x p r e s s e d by l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e u s e r s and managers about the impact t h a t these new u s e r s would have on the renewable r e s o u r c e s of the a r e a . In 1973 i t was d e c i d e d , on the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , t h a t the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road s h o u l d be l i n k e d from M e z i a d i n Lake t o Highway 16 by a p r o v i n c i a l highway. Three r o u t e s were c o n s i d e r e d by the Highways Department: T e r r a c e t o M e z i a d i n , Kitwanga t o M e z i a d i n , and H a z e l t o n t o M e z i a d i n . Highways Department o f f i c i a l s chose the Kitwanga r o u t e , which they p e r c e i v e d t o i n v o l v e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a major Skeena r i v e r c r o s s i n g a t Kitwanga and the u p g r a d i n g of e x i s t i n g roads and t r a c k s from Kitwanga t o C r a n b e r r y J u n c t i o n and M e z i a d i n . Survey and d e s i g n work began i n 1974, and the u p g r a d i n g of e x i s t i n g roads between M e z i a d i n and the Nass r i v e r c r o s s i n g was completed i n t h a t same y e a r . However, i n November of 1974 the Highways Department commissioned and funded an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y study i n o r d e r t o g a i n more i n s i g h t i n t o the l i k e l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l and socio-economic impacts of i m p r o v i n g the e x i s t i n g road a l o n g the s e l e c t e d r o u t e . I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t the terms of r e f e r e n c e were f o r m u l a t e d by s t a f f of the Lands S e r v i c e and the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t 9 P e r s o n a l communication from W i l f r e d McKenzie, Feb. 25, 1982. 1 6 S e c r e t a r i a t , r a t h e r than the Highways Department, who were f u n d i n g the s t u d y . The study team i n c l u d e d an economist, a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , a w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t , an a q u a t i c b i o l o g i s t , a p l a n t e c o l o g i s t , a f o r e s t e r , a g e o l o g i s t , a h y d r o l o g i s t , a la n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t , and an e n g i n e e r . A l t h o u g h the study was much too l a t e t o y i e l d u s e f u l i n p u t r e g a r d i n g the c o r r i d o r e x i s t e n c e or l o c a t i o n l e v e l s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the study outcome r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l changes i n a s p e c t s of the d e s i g n ( e . g . w i t h r e s p e c t t o stream c r o s s i n g s ) , l o c a l r o u t i n g (e.g. r e g a r d i n g l o c a t i o n w i t h i n w i l d l i f e w i n t e r r a n g e ) , and m o n i t o r i n g (e.g. an ' e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r ' was h i r e d by the Highways Department t o a d v i s e s i t e e n g i n e e r s and c o n t r a c t o r s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . The study r e p o r t r a i s e d an i n t e r e s t i n g , and c r u c i a l , q u e s t i o n : t o what e x t e n t s h o u l d highway d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s and c o s t s be b i a s e d not o n l y towards l i m i t i n g p o t e n t i a l damage t o e x i s t i n g b i o p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s , but a l s o towards m a i n t a i n i n g o p t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e enhancement of such r e s o u r c e s ? For i n s t a n c e i t was s t a t e d : "A p o l i c y q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o c u l v e r t d e s i g n i s as y e t u n r e s o l v e d and i s beyond the scope of t h i s s t u d y . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch has r e q u e s t e d t h a t c u l v e r t s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o pass f i s h , not o n l y where f i s h p r e s e n t l y m i g r a t e , but i n s i t u a t i o n s where m i g r a t i o n i s b l o c k e d n a t u r a l l y near the c u l v e r t and where the stream s i t u a t i o n i s f a v o r a b l e t o b y p a s s i n g the b l o c k a t a l a t e r date t o i n c r e a s e a v a i l a b l e h a b i t a t . " T h i s r e q u e s t would r e q u i r e the Department of Highways t o i n v e s t e x t r a c a p i t a l t o improve the 1 7 e x i s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . " 1 0 Indeed, a l t h o u g h the r e q u e s t o v e r t l y r e l a t e s t o the Highways Department d o i n g i t s utmost t o m a i n t a i n o p t i o n s of i n c r e a s i n g s a l m o n i d enhancement, i t i s o n l y a s h o r t s t e p t o r e q u e s t i n g t h a t i t a c t u a l l y e n t e r the f i e l d of s a l m o n i d h a b i t a t enhancement. As d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , t h i s i s what has a c t u a l l y happened i n subsequent highway d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . When the r o u t e e x t e n s i o n was completed, Highways M i n i s t e r A l e x F r a s e r r e i t e r a t e d t h a t the purpose b e h i n d the investment i n the c o r r i d o r was t o s t i m u l a t e and e x p e d i t e development i n n o r t h west B. C. and t h a t i t was e x p e c t e d t o encourage m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y i n the a r e a . The Kitwanga M e z i a d i n Study s t a t e d , i n more sober terms: "Concept of Highway" "The Highway ... has been c o n c e i v e d as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g economic development of the n o r t h west, but no s p e c i f i c development p l a n s a r e dependent upon i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . " I n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the highway appears t o have preceded any d e f i n i t i v e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g by r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r development of the a n c i l l a r y f e a t u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r the h i g h w a y . " 1 1 The study a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t , even u s i n g the most f a v o r a b l e road usage p r o j e c t i o n s which were c o n s i d e r e d c r e d i b l e , 1 0 Kitwanga M e z i a d i n Highway, Volume I , Summary of Impacts, Review of D e s i g n C r i t e r i a f o r Highway, p. 11-2. 1 1 op c i t , Volume I , p. 12-1. 18 c o n s t r u c t i o n of the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road r e p r e s e n t e d a s u b s i d y of n e a r l y $0.20 per v e h i c l e m i l e f o r thos e u s i n g the r o u t e . S i n c e most of the u s e r s were e x p e c t e d t o be U. S. c i t i z e n s , t o u r i s t s who were u s i n g the r o u t e t o t r a v e l more q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y t o A l a s k a , the wisdom of p r o v i d i n g such a s u b s i d y was q u e s t i o n e d . 1 2 2. THE B. C. RAILWAY DEASE LAKE EXTENSION The Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n was one of a s e r i e s of major t r a c k c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s i n i t i a t e d i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f of B. C. by the B. C. Ra i l w a y i n the 1960's. The m o t i v e s b e h i n d the program have been f a i r l y c l e a r l y put f o r w a r d by the l e a d i n g a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n s . One motive was the b e l i e f t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r r a i l r o a d a c c e s s , was not o n l y a n e c e s s a r y but a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r development. W. A. C. Bennett (1956) : "... we f o r e s e e many new d i s c o v e r i e s , many new f i e l d s , and many new r i c h e s throughout the e n t i r e n o r t h , and we w i l l endeavour always t o keep them w i t h i n r e a c h of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " 1 3 W. A. C. Bennett (1977): " I t was a p i o n e e r i n g r a i l r o a d , c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n i t s day, t h a t p r o v i d e d t h i s p r o v i n c e i t s s t a r t i n Canada and i t s r a r e l y broken avenue towards p r o s p e r i t y . The B. C. R a i l w a y , d y n a m i c a l l y r e a c h i n g n o r t h , i s both i n harmony w i t h the p a s t , and an e x c i t i n g s t e p i n t o i b i d , Economic Impact of Highway, p. 8-8. MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, p. 24. MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, p. 41. 19 the f u t u r e . " 1 " B ennett t o l d the McKenzie R o y a l Commission i n t o t h e B. C. R a i l w a y t h a t the l i n e s b u i l t d u r i n g the 1960's and 1970's were meant t o " t r a i l - b l a z e a t m i n i m a l c o s t ... making p o s s i b l e the dynamic development of r e s o u r c e s and c o m m u n i t i e s . " 1 5 He went on to s t a t e t h a t " ... t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c r u c i a l t o development. ... the r a i l w a y concept was a package d e a l of t r a n s p o r t , f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , mines, h y d r o e l e c t r i c development, and e x p l o r a t i o n , some components more advanced i n p l a n n i n g than o t h e r s . The Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n would s o l v e ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o s t ) problems and o t h e r s . I t would a l s o h e r a l d i n an e r a of renewed and t o r r i d e x p l o r a t i o n . " 1 6 A l e s s c o n c r e t e motive was the " r a i l r o a d e r s dream" of a c o n t i n u o u s r a i l l i n k from Panama t o A l a s k a . Bennett a d m i t t e d , or perhaps r a t h e r b o a s t e d , t o the McKenzie R o y a l Commission t h a t he a s c r i b e d t o t h i s v i s i o n . A t h i r d f a c t o r was s t r a t e g i c . It.was f e l t by the p r o v i n c i a l government of the day t h a t c o n t r o l of the a c c e s s r o u t e s t o the Yukon and A l a s k a would p e r m i t the p r o v i n c e t o b a r g a i n f o r i t s use w i t h Ottawa and the U. S. A. from a p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h . As the McKenzie R o y a l Commission summarised: "The concept ... was t o e n c i r c l e w i t h r a i l an a r e a c o n t a i n i n g u n d e f i n e d r e s o u r c e s , ... In a d d i t i o n , a c c e s s would be p r o v i d e d from Yukon and A l a s k a f o r 1 5 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, p. 28 1 6 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, p. 29. 20 a n t i c i p a t e d h i g h volume r e s o u r c e t r a f f i c . B a s i c t o the c oncept was r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t r e s o u r c e and market development would t a k e some time t o occur f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y . The r a i l w a y was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o 'minimum s t a n d a r d s ' , i m p l y i n g an i n i t i a l l e a s t - c a p i t a l c o s t . F u r t h e r i n v e s t m e n t , t o upgrade t r a c k bed and s t r u c t u r e and t h u s a s s u r e lower o p e r a t i n g c o s t s would be j u s t i f i e d at some l a t e r date when adequate t r a f f i c had d e v e l o p e d . " 1 7 At the end of 1969 a p p r o v a l was g i v e n f o r the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n . I t was commenced the f o l l o w i n g year from the r a i l h e a d a t Leo Creek, some 180 m i l e s n o r t h w e s t of P r i n c e George, and was programmed t o be completed by 1975. I n f l a t i o n was seen as the f a c t o r most l i k e l y t o l i m i t the v i a b i l i t y of t h e l i n e , and so e f f o r t s were taken t o a v o i d t h e p o s s i b l e problems t h i s might pose. W. A. C. Bennett t o the McKenzie R o y a l Commission (1977): "In v i e w i n g t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i t was i n f l a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e time t h a t would be the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t f a c t o r . Speed, as a r e s u l t , would save more than a l l p o s s i b l e economies of e n g i n e e r i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s were t h e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p o l i c y : A) t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be minimum c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e ; B) t h a t p r o j e c t s s h o u l d proceed w i t h a l l d e l i b e r a t e speed; and C) t h a t the r e s u l t i n g r a i l r o a d s , once t h e i n i t i a l l i n e was i n p l a c e , would be upgraded t o i n d u s t r i a l s t a n d a r d s as the need a r o s e through o p e r a t i n g b u s i n e s s v o l u m e . " 1 8 Bennett s t a t e d t h a t he wanted u n i t p r i c e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n work set e a r l y and as much work completed as soon as p o s s i b l e b e f o r e 1 7 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapte.r 4, p. 80. 1 8 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, pp. 27-28. 21 the e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n i n f l a t i o n i n the 1970's. Tenders were c a l l e d , and the lowe s t b i d d e r was i n v a r i a b l y awarded the c o n t r a c t a f t e r a l i m i t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the r a i l w a y i n t o the c a p a b i l i t y of the c o n t r a c t o r t o complete the work f o r which he had c o n t r a c t e d . One major c o n t r a c t was l e t t o a c o n s t r u c t i o n company from A l b e r t a which found working c o n d i t i o n s u n l i k e a n y t h i n g i t had p r e v i o u s l y e x p e r i e n c e d . Almost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n the tender d e s c r i p t i o n of the work t o be done d i f f e r e d markedly from the ground r e a l i t y , because the e n g i n e e r i n g e s t i m a t e s were based on l i t t l e ground i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Cost o v e r r u n s and d e a d l i n e e x t e n s i o n s p r o l i f e r a t e d , but the work c o n t i n u e d . In 1972, the Bennett government f e l l , and the incoming N.D.P. government h a l t e d work on the e x t e n s i o n i n o r d e r t o stud y i t s r o u t i n g and i t s o v e r a l l f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e commissioned a r e p o r t which showed t h a t the p r o j e c t e d r o u t e would by-pass the m a j o r i t y of f o r e s t r y and m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e f o r e i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d many spur l i n e s i f the s e r e s o u r c e s were t o be a c c e s s e d by the E x t e n s i o n . An a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e a l i g n m e n t which would run c l o s e r t o and p a r a l l e l t o the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was su g g e s t e d . I t appeared t h a t the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n , which was t o be the key t o openning the r e g i o n ' s r e s o u r c e t r e a s u r e s , might miss the mother l o d e . F i n a l l y , however, the o r i g i n a l a l i g n m e n t was c o n t i n u e d because of a p r e f e r e n c e by the B a r r e t t government t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o the Yukon r a t h e r than l i m i t i t s h o r i z o n s t o B r i t i s h C olumbia. 22 The Touche-Ross Report , which l o o k e d i n t o the f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y of the l i n e , was r e l e a s e d i n F e b r u a r y 1973. I t s t a t e d t h a t the l i n e was f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e a t a t o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t of $102 m i l l i o n , and w i t h c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e developments coming on stream a t s p e c i f i e d d a t e s . On the b a s i s of t h i s r e p o r t , the B a r r e t t government d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e the p r o j e c t a l o n g t h e o r i g i n a l r o u t i n g . Testimony by B a r r e t t b e f o r e the McKenzie R o y a l Commission showed the new goverment t o be as committed t o the E x t e n s i o n as the Bennett government, and f o r many of the same r e a s o n s . Cost o v e r r u n s , which may be e x p e c t e d i n any p r o j e c t , became ever g r e a t e r . Three f a c t o r s have been c i t e d f o r the magnitude of the e x t r a e x p e n d i t u r e s : 1) i n c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n c o s t s a r i s i n g from c o n d i t i o n s imposed by F i s h e r i e s Canada, or r e q u e s t e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s or groups and s u p p o r t e d by t h e N. D. P. government; 2) i n c r e a s e d roadbed w i d t h s , r e s u l t i n g both from a change i n management p h i l o s o p h y away from f a v o r i n g a minimum-standard f a c i l i t y t o a r a i l l i n e comparable w i t h t h o s e of the CNR and CPR, and from l e a r n i n g about the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the s o i l s found on the c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s ; and 3) a d e s i r e on the p a r t of the B. C. R a i l w a y e n g i n e e r i n g team t o l e a r n from and a v o i d the e r r o r s of the F o r t N e l s o n E x t e n s i o n . In the l a t t e r case low c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s had l e a d t o huge maintenance c o s t s . The F i s k - F o x Report (Dec. 1973) q u e s t i o n e d the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of c h a n g i n g a r a i l i n e from a minimum s t a n d a r d development r a i l w a y t o the s t a n d a r d s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y heavy r e s o u r c e l o a d s . I t s t a t e d t h a t the c oncept of f r o n t i e r 23 r a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n which the r a i l i n e i s f i r s t b u i l t t o low s t a n d a r d s and then upgraded " i s no l o n g e r adequate, even i n development l i n e s . ... the r u l e s have changed." In more d e t a i l : " i t i s uneconomical t o c u t i n i t i a l c o s t s on some items -a l i g n m e n t , g r a d i e n t s , subgrade, d r a i n a g e and b r i d g e s - because these a re not e a s i l y changed. ... r a i l s , t i e s and b a l l a s t a r e items which can e a s i l y be u p g r a d e d . " 1 9 In a d d i t i o n , I n d i a n groups p r o t e s t e d the l a c k of an agreement between the B. C. R a i l w a y , the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, and the I n d i a n t r i b e s t h r ough whose r e s e r v a t i o n s the r a i l l i n e p assed. S u b s t a n t i a l cash and t e r r i t o r i a l demands were made, and a b l o c k a d e of the r a i l - l i n e was t h r e a t e n e d . Other c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d t o stream d i v e r s i o n and s e d i m e n t a t i o n , and the e f f e c t s on w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s of i n c r e a s e d h u n t i n g which was e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t from the a c c e s s a f f o r d e d by the c o r r i d o r . In response t o growing p u b l i c and agency c r i t i c i s m o'f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage the e x t e n s i o n was r e p o r t e d t o be c a u s i n g , B. C. R a i l w a y C h i e f E n g i n e e r M i c h a e l Wakely e x p l a i n e d h i s , and presumably the r a i l w a y ' s view on the s i t u a t i o n : "We're v e r y c o n s c i o u s of the environment: we c e r t a i n l y have no i n t e n t i o n of coming out here and d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s t r o y i n g i t . We welcome the f o r e s t r y and f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s coming i n here - they h e l p e d put more muscle i n t o the p o l i c i n g of the c o n t r a c t o r s . We don't t h i n k we're d o i n g a l l t h a t much damage. I f we're g o i n g t o open t h i s c o u n t r y up f o r people ... we've got t o make c e r t a i n s a c r i f i c e s i n the environment ... a f t e r the 1 9 'Report defends Socred R a i l w a y B u i l d i n g ' , by Tom G i b b s , Vancouver Sun, Dec. 21, 1973, p. 29. 24 v e g e t a t i o n t a k e s over a g a i n t h e r e w i l l be v e r y l i t t l e damage." 2 0 Wakely e x p l a i n e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e because of the way i n which the r o u t e a l i g n m e n t had been chosen - from maps and from l i m i t e d a e r i a l s u r v e y s , w i t h l i t t l e or no ground r e c o n n a i s s a n c e . The p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e which had been chosen r e s u l t e d i n l o n g s t r e t c h e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n through a r e a s which had i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b m a t e r i a l s f o r r a i l b e d s . The l a c k of p r e - e n g i n e e r i n g meant t h a t the o n - s i t e e n g i n e e r s were unable t o a n t i c i p a t e problems (such as a p r e l i m i n a r y survey v e r t i c a l m i s c l o s e of over 30 metres) and so make a l l o w a n c e f o r them. But Wakely m a i n t a i n e d t h a t "from an economic p o i n t of vi e w , t h i s i s the cheapest r o u t e we c o u l d have s e l e c t e d . " 2 1 In 1973 an agreement was s i g n e d between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments such t h a t Ottawa would pay a p o r t i o n of the c o s t s of the e x t e n s i o n i n exchange f o r c e r t a i n r u n n i n g r i g h t s f o r the CNR. P l a n s were drawn up f o r a CNR l i n e from T e r r a c e t h r o u g h the Nass V a l l e y t o M e z i a d i n Lake and t o j o i n the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n near Suskeena, but t h i s was s t a l l e d f o r economic reasons and due t o o p p o s i t i o n from the Nishga I n d i a n band. Meanwhile, c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d , amid l a w s u i t s from d i s g r u n t l e d c o n t r a c t o r s and c o n t i n u i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o the e x t e n s i o n on e n v i r o n m e n t a l grounds from many q u a r t e r s . E s t i m a t e s of the c o s t n e c e s s a r y t o f i n i s h t h e l i n e r o s e from $68 'The P r o v i n c i a l Dream i s F a s t Becoming a R e a l i t y ' , by Nat C o l e , Vancouver Sun, Aug. 3, 1974. i b i d 25 m i l l i o n i n 1969 t o $102 m i l l i o n i n 1973 and $110 m i l l i p n i n 1974. Yet a n o ther r e p o r t , t h i s from the Swan-Wooster E n g i n e e r i n g f i r m , was r e l e a s e d i n J a n uary 1977. I t c a s t i g a t e d the r a i l w a y f o r p r o c e e d i n g w i t h i n a d e q u a t e p r e - e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s , and d e c l a r e d t h a t c o l l a p s i n g a normal f o u r - s t e p p r o c e s s of r o u t e s e l e c t i o n , l o c a t i o n d e s i g n , d e t a i l e d d e s i g n , and c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t o a t h r e e - s t e p p r o c e s s i n which d e t a i l e d d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e c o i n c i d e n t was v e r y unwise, even though some time and i n t e r e s t charges might be a v o i d e d . "The s a v i n g s i n i n t e r e s t may w e l l be o f f s e t by i n c r e a s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from l a c k of p r e l i m i n a r y e n g i n e e r i n g . " 2 2 The r e p o r t warned t h a t the r e a l i t i e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n , which s h o u l d emerge d u r i n g d e t a i l e d d e s i g n , o n l y became apparent d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . By the time the McKenzie R o y a l Commission i n t o the B. C. R a i l w a y had been a p p o i n t e d i n January 1977, the c o s t e s t i m a t e t o complete the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n had r i s e n t o $264 m i l l i o n . When c o n s t r u c t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n was h a l t e d on A p r i l 5, 1977, because of e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h c o s t s and lower than p r e d i c t e d p o t e n t i a l c a r r i a g e volume, the e s t i m a t e d c o m p l e t i o n c o s t had r i s e n t o $310 m i l l i o n . At t h i s t i m e , some 2 y e a r s " a f t e r the o r i g i n a l l y p r o j e c t e d c o m p l e t i o n d a t e , t r a c k had been l a i d on o n l y about 2/3 of the t o t a l d i s t a n c e . Some c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g the n e c e s s i t y t o complete the 2 2 E x c e r p t from 'Swan Wooster R e p o r t ' quoted i n 'How BCR B u i l t the Dease L i n e ' Vancouver Sun, J a n . 12, 1977. 26 r a i l w a y as a commodity t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k were made by l o g g i n g and m i n i n g companies w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the r e g i o n , but the management of the o n l y l a r g e - s c a l e o p e r a t i n g mine, the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s C o r p o r a t i o n , m a i n t a i n e d i n i t s s u b m i s s i o n t o the McKenzie R o y a l Commission t h a t whether or not the e x t e n s i o n was f i n i s h e d , " C a s s i a r would want t o r e s e r v e i t s r i g h t t o choose the most economic r o u t e s t o get i t s f i b r e t o market, and t o m a i n t a i n at l e a s t two a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . " 2 3 Thus t h e r e were s t i l l no guar a n t e e s of b u s i n e s s , even from t h o s e who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the l i n k was e s s e n t i a l . Poor w o r l d markets f o r both metal and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n the y e a r s 1974-77 had r e s u l t e d i n v e r y l i t t l e development of any type o c c u r r i n g i n the r e g i o n d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . In i t s r e p o r t , the McKenzie R o y a l Commission d i s c u s s e d why the e x t e n s i o n was s t a r t e d , and some of the reasons the p r o j e c t became u n t e n a b l e . Reasons f o r b u i l d i n g the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n : "The p r i n c i p a l f o r c e b e h i n d t h e s e immense u n d e r t a k i n g s was t h e u n c h a l l e n g e d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t r a i l w a y s a r e , and always have been, the key t o opening up the c o u n t r y , s t i m u l a t i n g investment and g e n e r a t i n g r e s o u r c e r e v e n u e s . " 2 " "The r a i l w a y was seen as a 'development t o o l . ' T h i s i s not a p r e c i s i o n t o o l , made t o f i t a s p e c i a l b o l t , but an a l l - p u r p o s e i n s t r u m e n t thought by o p t i m i s t s t o be c a p a b l e of opening e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s c l o s e d , i n c l u d i n g m i n e r a l s l o c k e d i n t o the ground and remote f o r e s t s f a r removed from economic e x p l o i t a t i o n . " 2 5 2 3 ' F o r e s t , M i n i n g F i r m s F i g h t f o r Dease L i n e ' , Vancouver P r o v i n c e , J a n . 17, 1977. . ' 2" MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 4, p.2 2 5 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, p.32. 27 Some of the problems: "No doubt t h e r e has been a c o n s i s t e n t tendency on the p a r t of our p o l i t i c i a n s t o s u b s t i t u t e a s s e r t i o n and e x a g g e r a t i o n f o r p a t i e n t argument . .," 2 6 " I t seems c l e a r t h a t the B. C. Ra i l w a y took on the Dease Lake ... w i t h inadequate s t a f f and v e r y l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e . " 2 7 "We cannot a s c r i b e a l l the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p l i c a t i o n s to inadequate e n g i n e e r i n g or any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r " 2 8 • • • 3. OMINECA MINING ROAD The Omineca M i n i n g Road was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t i n the 1930's t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o g o l d p l a c e r d e p o s i t s i n the Manson Creek and Germanson a r e a s . T h i s was completed i n 1939, and from t h a t time the road was m a i n t a i n e d a t m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d s and c o s t by the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines. In the l a t e 1960's i t appeared t o o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n Mines t h a t a l a c k of s u r f a c e a c c e s s might be i n h i b i t i n g e x p l o r a t i o n i n the r e g i o n n o r t h of Germanson L a n d i n g . 2 9 S i n c e one r o l e g i v e n the M i n i s t r y of Mines and Pe t r o l e u m Resources i s t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o a r e a s of ' s i g n i f i c a n t m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l ' t o f a c i l i t a t e e x p l o r a t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t o ext e n d the Omineca M i n i n g Road northwest t o l i n k w i t h the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road near the j u n c t u r e of the Klappan and S t i k i n e R i v e r s . 2 6 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 3, p. 32. . 2 7 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 4, p. 82. 2 8 MacKenzie R o y a l Commission, Volume I I , Chapter 4, p. 85. 2 9 For i n s t a n c e , AMAX E x p l o r a t i o n I n c . urged e x t e n s i o n of the Road t o the " m i n e r a l i s e d e a s t e r n f l a n k of the Omineca b a s o l i t h " i n a l e t t e r t o the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines d a t e d Sept. 8, 1969. ' ' 28 An i n v i t a t i o n from Mines t o the (then) F o r e s t S e r v i c e t o share the c o s t s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and use of the road was r e f u s e d because of low f o r e s t r y v a l u e s and a l i m i t e d f i r e h a z a r d i n the a r e a a c c e s s e d by the p r o j e c t . 3 0 The e x t e n s i o n of the road s t a r t e d i n 1971, and c oncern was i m m e d i a t e l y e x p r e s s e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e g a r d i n g a l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s by the c o n t r a c t o r . 3 1 A f e e l i n g of annoyance by Mines o f f i c i a l s at the outcome of t h e i r communications w i t h the F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e would be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , as i t had r e s u l t e d i n f i r s t , a r e f u s a l of c o s t s h a r i n g and o t h e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n , second, c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s employed, and t h i r d , the s a l e by F o r e s t r y of t i m b e r r i g h t s t h a t c o u l d o n l y be a c c e s s e d by t h e r o a d . As h a r v e s t i n g of the t i m b e r o c c u r r e d , the c o n d i t i o n of the road d e t e r i o r a t e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n companies c l a i m e d t h a t they were unable t o move heavy machinery over i t t o the a r e a s i t was b u i l t t o a c c e s s . C l e a r l y , i n t e r a g e n c y communication on t h i s i s s u e had not been s p e c t a c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l f o r the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines! The i n i t i a l e x t e n s i o n from Germansen L a n d i n g t o A i t k e n Lake f o l l o w e d an e x i s t i n g w i n t e r ' c a t - t r a c k ' . A c o n s u l t a n t ( R i p l e y , K l o h n , and L e o n t o f f I n t e r n a t i o n a l , L t d . ) was h i r e d i n 1972 t o L e t t e r from K. B. B l a k e l y , deputy m i n i s t e r of B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines t o K. S. McKinnon, deputy m i n i s t e r , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , M i n i s t r y of l a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s , Apr. 2, 1969. Reply from McKinnon t o B l a k e l y , A p r i l 10, 1969. C o m p l a i n t about the l a c k of p r o p e r s l a s h d i s p o s a l was e x p r e s s e d i n a l e t t e r from R. G i b b s , Ranger, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , t o H. B apty, Roads E n g i n e e r , B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , May 14, 1971. 29 p l o t a s u i t a b l e c o r r i d o r l o c a t i o n f o r the s e c t i o n between A i t k e n Lake and Johansen Lake. O p p o s i t i o n t o the road e x t e n s i o n became g r e a t e r a t t h i s t i m e . Opponents i n c l u d e d p r o s p e c t o r s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and sportsmen, who c l a i m e d t h a t the road was not e c o n o m i c a l l y o p t i m a l or even n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o encourage e x p l o r a t i o n , t h a t the l o c a t i o n was e x t r e m e l y bad from a e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n v i e w p o i n t , and t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d was v e r y low. Proponents of the road were Mines M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s and mi n i n g companies who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of the road d e c r e a s e d e x p l o r a t i o n expenses c o n s i d e r a b l y . In e a r l y 1973, the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch noted t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t , among o t h e r s , r e q u i r e d f o r proper p l a n n i n g " i n t e r -r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g where e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s a r e co n c e r n e d " , but a l s o t h a t t h e r e was " i n s u f f i c i e n t p e r s o n n e l i n s e v e r a l Resource Departments t o handle the volume of both f i e l d and o f f i c e work e n t a i l e d i n m u l t i p l e r e f e r r a l w o r k . " 3 2 N o n e t h e l e s s , a t t h i s time e f f o r t s were b e i n g made a t h i g h b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l s t o e s t a b l i s h a c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r m i n i n g road c o n s t r u c t i o n . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch r e q u e s t e d t h a t a n o t i f i c a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e be implemented i n o r d e r t o ensure some i n p u t by them t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F i s h and W i l d l i f e suggested t h a t they c o u l d g i v e " e x p e r t a d v i c e on what s t e p s might be taken t o mi n i m i s e d i s t u r b a n c e of f i s h and w i l d l i f e . . . " I t was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the Branch " i n c e r t a i n 3 2 L e t t e r from R. Goodlad, R e g i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d a n t , F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, t o Mr. Lewis H. C l a r k e , March 12. 30 c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s ... would want a s i g n i f i c a n t r e - r o u t i n g or even d e f e r r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n , t e m p o r a r i l y ... or ... p e r m a n e n t l y . " 3 3 The response from the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines was e n c o u r a g i n g : "Your s u g g e s t i o n ... o f f e r s no o b s t a c l e or o b j e c t i o n from ... t h i s Department. ... Your r e f e r e n c e t o r e r o u t i n g and d e f e r r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n might cause problems but I am sure t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t impact on f i s h and w i l d l i f e can.be m i n i m i z e d by d i s c u s s i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n . " 3 ' Deputy M i n i s t e r F y l e s suggested t h a t "someone i n (the) F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, who i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ar e a i n t o which the Omineca M i n i n g Road i s e n t e r i n g , s h o u l d c o n t a c t Mr. Bapty (the Mines o f f i c i a l i n charge of t h e e x p l o r a t i o n roads program) so t h a t the c o n s u l t a t i o n may b e g i n . " 3 5 By e a r l y 1973, the road had reached Johansen Lake, and f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n was b e i n g p l a n n e d . A g e o l o g i s t w o r k i n g i n the are a f o r the M i n e r a l o g i c a l Branch of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines s t a t e d t h a t on the r o u t e proposed t o Moose V a l l e y " t h e r e are many streams, and a number of marshy and boggy a r e a s . . ... good road c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l d i d not appear t o be too p l e n t i f u l . " 3 6 The e n g i n e e r on the road c o n s t r u c t i o n l o c a t i o n urged t h a t i f a g e o l o g i s t from the M i n i s t r y was not a v a i l a b l e " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o h i r i n g a g e o l o g i s t t o make the L e t t e r from L l o y d B rooks, deputy m i n i s t e r F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch, t o James T. F y l e s , deputy m i n i s t e r B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines, March 16, 1973.' L e t t e r from F y l e s t o Br o o k s , March 22, 1973. i b i d L e t t e r from W. B. Montgomery, R e s i d e n t E n g i n e e r , t o H. Bapty, J u l y 17, 1973 31 s u r v e y and m a p p i n g . " 3 7 The m i n i s t r y g e o l o g i s t s were not made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s work, and i t appears t h a t the s u p e r f i c i a l g eology of the ar e a was o n l y s c a n t i l y i n v e s t i g a t e d on the ground, the road l o c a t i o n b e i n g p l o t t e d p r i m a r i l y from a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s . A memo p r e p a r e d w i t h i n the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines a t the end of the 1973 c o n s t r u c t i o n season, d e s c r i b i n g the h i s t o r y and the p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e of the Omineca M i n i n g Road, s t a t e d t h a t i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t by 1980 the road would be completed t o the Klappan R i v e r , northwest of S p a t s i z i Park. In a d d i t i o n , f i v e c r o s s c o n n e c t i o n s between the Omineca M i n i n g Road and the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n were mentioned - i n s h o r t , t he r e g i o n was t o q u a r t e r e d , and i n the eyes of n a t u r a l i s t s , a l s o hung and drawn. C o n s u l t a t i o n on the ro u t e chosen f o r the road - through Moose V a l l e y - was s t a t e d t o have i n c l u d e d a Mines I n s p e c t o r and a p r o s p e c t o r . 3 8 W h i l e c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch may have o c c u r r e d , t h e r e i s no r e c o r d of any. By the end of the 1973 c o n s t r u c t i o n season, the road was s t a t e d t o be "completed t o a p o i n t near M o o s e v a l e . " 3 9 A prope r survey of the road was seen t o be too e x p e n s i v e , and no s m a l l p r i d e was shown i n t he st a t e m e n t : "No o t h e r road i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n a s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n can match our c o s t s . " " 0 The F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s were b e g i n n i n g t o agree w i t h the i b i d F i l e memo, H. Bapty, undated J . W. Peck, CHief I n s p e c t o r of Mines, t o J . E. Mcmynn, deputy m i n i s t e r of B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines i b i d 32 s t a t e m e n t , but not i n i t s i n t e n d e d sense. A m i x t u r e of s e n s i t i v i t y t o c o m p l a i n t s about the road and o p t i m i s m c o n c e r n i n g i t s worth i s a l s o a p p a r e n t : "... we expect one or more major m i n e r a l f i n d s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d which w i l l f u l l y j u s t i f y t h i s r o a d . " " 1 T h i s statement i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s c o r r i d o r , l i k e the two d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , was p l a n n e d and b u i l t w i t h a minimum of a n a l y s i s of the r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e . C o n f l i c t c o n t i n u e d between proponents and opponents of the r o a d . W h i l e m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s emphasised the need f o r r e d u c i n g e x p l o r a t i o n c o s t s , and b e r a t e d " p l a n s by a few w i l d l i f e e n t h u s i a s t s t o ' l o c k up' l a r g e s e c t i o n s of the P r o v i n c e f o r the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t of a s m a l l number of p e o p l e , " " 2 e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s u r e groups (such as the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n ) d e p l o r e d the " ( d e s e c r a t i o n o f ) one or more r e s o u r c e s i n the development of a n o t h e r . " ' 3 C o n c e r n i n g the c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s between the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines and the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i t was s t a t e d t h a t "From a r e p o r t ... from the P r i n c e George R e g i o n a l O f f i c e of the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, they a f f i r m t h a t no p l a n s were s u b m i t t e d f o r the proposed road c o n s t r u c t i o n and (they) have had none t o date Thus, w h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the f i l e s from which t h i s s t o r y has been 1 i b i d 2 L e t t e r from Thomas E l l i o t , Manager, B. C. and Yukon Chamber of Mines, t o Hon. Leo T. N i m s i c k , M i n i s t e r of Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , Nov. 23, 1973 3 L e t t e r from M. M o o r c r o f t , D i r e c t o r , B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , t o Jame"s F y l e s , deputy m i n i s t e r B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , Feb. 15, 1974 4 i b i d 33 c o m p i l e d may not be c o m p l e t e , or may y e t h i d e i n s t a n c e s of a t t e m p t e d i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t a c t , ' 5 the ' n o t i f i c a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ' which had so e a s i l y been agreed t o the p r e v i o u s s p r i n g , d i d not come t o a n y t h i n g . A l a c k of c o n s u l t a t i o n may have o c c u r r e d because F i s h and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n s t i g a t i n g agency (Mines) s h o u l d i n i t i a t e the n o t i f i c a t i o n procedure f o r each i n s t a n c e of road work, w h i l e Mines o f f i c i a l s a p p a r e n t l y f e l t t h a t i f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch was s e r i o u s about c o n s u l t a t i o n , then they s h o u l d make an e f f o r t t o keep a b r e a s t of a l l developments. There appears t o have been a v e r y l i m i t e d degree of communication and p l a n n i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch and p r i v a t e e x p l o r a t i o n companies c o n c e r n i n g the p l a n s of the l a t t e r t o c o n s t r u c t a c c e s s r o u t e s from the Omineca M i n i n g Road t o c l a i m s or o r e b o d i e s . T h i s a r o s e b o t h from p u r s u i t by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch of companies which had been r e p o r t e d t o be c o n s i d e r i n g development' 6 and from communications i n i t i a t e d by e x p l o r a t i o n companies t o the F i s h . and W i l d l i f e Branch r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p l a n s . ' 7 In 1974, the Mines o f f i c i a l i n c h a r g e of road c o n s t r u c t i o n " 5 A memo(J. Walker t o E. H. Vernon, A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, Dec. 1 9,1975) s t a t e s t h a t F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch o f f i c i a l s " r e p e a t e d l y asked f o r s p e c i f i c p l a n s f o r the r o a d " , but t h e r e i s no r e c o r d of any such r e q u e s t s i n any of the f i l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s " 6 For i n s t a n c e , a l e t t e r from I . L. W i t h l e r , C o - o r d i n a t o r , H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n , F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a nch, t o F a l c o n b r i d g e N i c k e l Mines L t d . , Vancouver, Feb. 19, 1974. ' 7 For i n s t a n c e , c o n t a c t made by K e r r , Dawson and A s s o c i a t e s , L t d . , Kamloops, w i t h the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n P r i n c e George, t o which Dave K i n g , R e g i o n a l H a b i t a t b i o l o g i s t , r e p l i e d on J a n . 11, 1974. 34 s t a t e d t h a t " c o n s t r u c t i o n ... s h o u l d be completed t o Moosevale Creek and a i r s t r i p i n 1974", and t h a t " t r a f f i c on the road i s s u r p r i s i n g l y heavy, m a i n l y t o u r i s t s . M i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n i s b r i s k , and w h i l e main t r a n s p o r t i s by a i r , heavy h a u l i n g i s v i a -the Omineca Road."" 8 A p a t r o l of the Omineca M i n i n g Road by F i s h and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l s i n l a t e summer 1974 found s e v e r a l f i s h e r i e s r e l a t e d problems a r i s i n g from the stream c r o s s i n g methods employed: 1) i n s p r i n g and f a l l c u l v e r t s were o b s t a c l e s t o f i s h passage, by b e i n g p l a c e d too h i g h or low i n r e l a t i o n t o the stream bed, or be i n g too s m a l l , 2) c u l v e r t s t h a t a re u n p r o t e c t e d or too s m a l l y i e l d e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of s i l t which were b e l i e v e d t o reduce the u t i l i t y of spawning h a b i t a t . I t was s t a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t " I t appears t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n i s s c h e d u l e d f o r branch a c c e s s roads t o v a r i o u s ore body l o c a t i o n s . We have had no i n f o r m a t i o n v i a d e p a r t m e n t a l c h a n n e l s c o n c e r n i n g branch road c o n s t r u c t i o n , or ... r e g a r d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the main road n o r t h t o i t s p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . "The c r e d i b i l i t y of the i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l p r o c e s s i s s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d when ... development f i n a n c e d by government proceeds w i t h l i t t l e or no r e f e r r a l s . " 9 However, awareness of e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s was both c l a i m e d " 8 P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , Omineca Road, P. E. O l s o n , J u l y 3, 1974. " 9 G. R. C h i s l e t t , R e g i o n a l F i s h e r i e s B i o l o g i s t , t o Roger Goodlad, R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, P r i n c e George, Sept. 4, 1974. 5 0 P. E. Olson t o J . E. McMynn, J a n . 6, 1975. 35 by the Mines o f f i c i a l i n charge of E x p l o r a t i o n Roads p r o g r a m 5 0 and a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n s t a t e d p l a n n i n g p r i o r i t i e s : "I suggest we emphasize the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t r u n k roads and de-emphasize the c o n s t r u c t i o n of branch r o a d s , at the same time e n c o u r a g i n g the use of h e l i c o p t e r s f o r a c c e s s t o m i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s i d e a c o n f l i c t s w i t h the use of b u l l d o z e r s f o r t r e n c h i n g , which, i n many c a s e s , s h o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d because of d i s t u r b a n c e , e t c . Should e x p l o r a t i o n be s u c c e s s f u l , then a w e l l e n g i n e e r e d road c o u l d -be b u i l t and we s h o u l d a s s i s t a t t h i s s t a g e . I am r e a s o n a b l y s u r e t h a t F i s h and W i l d l i f e as w e l l as F o r e s t r y would encourage t h i s concept of d i s c o u r a g i n g some of the e x p l o r a t i o n roads i n the P r o v i n c e . The a l t e r n a t i v e s t o u s i n g heavy machinery f o r e x p l o r a t i o n may be u n p a l a t a b l e i n some c a s e s so we would have t o keep an open mind on t h i s m a t t e r . " 5 1 The l e v e l of c o m p l a i n t s rose i n l a t e 1974 and e a r l y 1975 r e g a r d i n g the manner i n which the Omineca M i n i n g Road was b e i n g p l a n n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d . As a r e s u l t , a s e r i e s of meetings of the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t S e c r e t a r i a t , subgroups of i t , and t h e R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee were o r g a n i s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s i t u a t i o n and make recommendations about i t . D u r i n g 1975 the m a j o r i t y of the work on the road was maintenance and r e p a i r t o reduce i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s , but some c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s o o c c u r r e d . An i n t e r a g e n c y t a s k group i n the Omineca Peace Region which was e s t a b l i s h e d by ELUC i n May 1975 recommended i n October of t h a y e a r t h a t the road be t e r m i n a t e d a t Johansen Lake and the roadbed be s t a b i l i s e d beyond t h a t p o i n t . However, i n what appears t o be a s l i g h t change of 5 1 P. E. O l s o n t o J . T. F y l e s , Oct. 18, 1974. 36 h e a r t , the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee n o t i f i e d ELUC a t the end of 1975 t h a t i t s members d i d not oppose the Omineca M i n i n g Road on p r i n c i p l e , but r e q u e s t e d t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d be r a i s e d . I f t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t funds f o r s u i t a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and s t a n d a r d s , then i t would be b e t t e r , i n t h e i r view, t o upgrade the e x i s t i n g road b e f o r e e x t e n d i n g i t . 5 2 Disagreement r e g a r d i n g the impacts of the road on the environment c o n t i n u e d , and r e l a t i o n s between the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines and the o t h e r government a g e n c i e s became v e r y s o u r . Mines o f f i c i a l s c l a i m e d t h a t the amount of s i l t a t i o n produced by the road was n e g l i g i b l e , as were w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s i n the a r e a . Statements t o the c o n t r a r y by F i s h and W i l d l i f e s t a f f r e g a r d i n g impacts on f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e s by the road were termed " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " by M i n e s , 5 3 and t h i s r a t h e r a n t a g o n i s t i c v i e w p o i n t was s u p p o r t e d a t the deputy m i n i s t e r l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n , i t was s t a t e d t h a t e f f o r t s t o s o l i c i t p l a n n i n g i n p u t f o r the road from o t h e r a g e n c i e s had i n the p a s t been f r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n and the absence of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body such as ELUC. (Mines d i d , however, i g n o r e the recommendations of t h i s body, which now e x i s t e d . ) The Omineca M i n i n g Road was s t a t e d t o be w i t h i n m i n i s t e r i a l p o l i c y , and e f f e c t i v e i n e n c o u r a g i n g m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n . I t was a d m i t t e d t h a t the m i n e r a l p r o s p e c t s on which work was c u r r e n t l y b e i n g 5 2 H. K. Boas, Chairman, Omineca-Peace R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee, t o A. C r e r a r , D i r e c t o r , Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t S e c r e t a r i a t , Dec. 23, 1975. 5 3 Omineca Road, P. E. O l s o n , Nov. 3, 1975. 37 done had a l l been d i s c o v e r e d by a i r , but i t was s t a t e d t h a t some had s i n c e been connected t o the Omineca M i n i n g Road by rough t o t e road i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e ore body d e l i m i t a t i o n . 5 " An ELUC r e p o r t q u e s t i o n e d whether the d e c r e a s e d c o s t of e x p l o r a t i o n came c l o s e t o b a l a n c i n g the c o s t of b u i l d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the ro a d . I f n o t , and ELUC c l a i m e d t h i s was the c a s e , a b e t t e r means of s u b s i d i s i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s f o r m i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n might be sought. More i m p o r t a n t l y , ELUC doubted t h a t t h i s a s p e c t of e x p l o r a t i o n c o s t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the e x t e n t of the e x p l o r a t i o n f o r and the f i n d i n g of e x p l o i t a b l e d e p o s i t s . The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d w i t h an a t t a c k on p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i t h the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines: "There a r e some i n d i v i d u a l s i n the Department of Mines, who do not a p p r e c i a t e the c r i t i c i s m which has been l e v e l l e d on the Omineca Road p r o j e c t . They do not c o n s i d e r the p r o j e c t t o be c a u s i n g any s e r i o u s impact on the environment; they wish t o see i t s c o n t i n u e d e x t e n s i o n ; they appear t o view much c o n t r o v e r s y over the p r o j e c t as n e e d l e s s b a d g e r i n g . "Yet though i t may not be r e c o g n i s e d by t h e s e p e r s o n s ^ the e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage which has been caused by the Road i s s u b s t a n t i a l and w e l l documented by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. The impacts a r e on a s i m i l a r s c a l e t o those caused by the B.C.R. and which evoked so much c r i t i c i s m from the p u b l i c . "The b e n e f i t s of t h i s major p r o j e c t (a 300 m i l e r o ad must c e r t a i n l y be c o n s i d e r e d major) a r e few. The c o s t s , once e v a l u a t e d , r e a l l y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . "The Omineca Road p r o j e c t - t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y has been t y p i f i e d by a l a c k of p l a n n i n g and of comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n f o r f e a s i b i l i t y . i t i s an example of the type of l a n d use p r a c t i c e s which we must get away from i n B. C. i f we w i s h development 5" Omineca Road, op c i t . 38 to proceed s e n s i b l y . " 5 5 In e a r l y 1976 Mines o f f i c i a l s agreed t h a t Johansen Lake c o u l d be an a c c e p t a b l e t e r m i n u s f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road, and t h a t e x t e n s i o n of the road would be s u b j e c t t o m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i o n and f u n d i n g . Mines was p r e p a r e d t o "c o - o p e r a t e f u l l y " and p r o v i d e l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l a i d t o the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch f o r i t s m o n i t o r i n g and s u r v e i l l a n c e a c t i v i t i e s on the ro a d . The o f f e r of the a i d was almost g r u d g i n g l y a c c e p t e d by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, and an a u x i l i a r y c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i c e r was a p p o i n t e d t o e n f o r c e game r e g u l a t i o n s and mo n i t o r road c o n s t r u c t i o n . Yet i n h i s year-end r e p o r t the F i s h and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l i n charge of the road e x p r e s s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the f i n a n c i a l h e l p from M i n e s . He noted t h a t c o m p l i a n c e w i t h game r e g u l a t i o n s had been v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e , t h a t few o v e r - w i n t e r s i l t a t i o n problems had been seen, and t h a t d i r e c t s i l t a t i o n of Johansen Creek was not s e r i o u s . Hope was e x p r e s s e d t h a t the f u n d i n g f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i c e r would c o n t i n u e the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . In the e a r l y p a r t of 1977, the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines d e c i d e d t o e x t e n d the Omineca M i n i n g Road p a s t Moosevale t o ; S t u r d e e V a l l e y . T h i s change of p l a n s a r o s e because r i s i n g g o l d and s i l v e r p r i c e s had made the m i n i n g of a d e p o s i t i n Stur d e e V a l l e y f e a s i b l e , and because Mines f e l t t h a t d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s year the " p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e " of t h e p r o v i n c e had become more f a v o r a b l e t o m i n e r a l development. A c o n s u l t a n t was h i r e d by 5 5 A d i s c u s s i o n of the B e n e f i t s and C o s t s of the Omineca M i n i n g Road, Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t S e c r e t a r i a t , J a n . 14, 1976. 39 mines t o determine a s u i t a b l e c o r r i d o r f o r the new e x t e n s i o n and h i s r e p o r t was r e l e a s e d i n A p r i l of t h a t y e a r . C o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d i n 1977, the road b e i n g completed t o Moosevale. In c o n t r a s t t o the two p r e v i o u s y e a r s s t a n d a r d s and p r a c t i c e s were much c r i t i c i s e d . In the l a t t e r p a r t of the year p u b l i c c oncern was e x p r e s s e d about the a n t i c i p a t e d impact of the e x t e n s i o n t o Sturdee V a l l e y 6n u n g u l a t e and f i s h h a b i t a t and p o p u l a t i o n s . The Mines o f f i c i a l i n charge of the road acknowledged the problem p o t e n t i a l and e x p r e s s e d hope t h a t a s o l u t i o n c o u l d be found, but i t was c l e a r t h a t a d e c i s i o n not t o b u i l d the road was not c o n s i d e r e d a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n by him. The c o n f l i c t took an a l m o s t r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , w i t h good r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g between l o c a l Mines and F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch s t a f f , but dismay b e i n g e x p r e s s e d by non-proponents about the l a c k of o v e r a l l c o n t r o l of p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r o a d . Because of the seeming d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s by the V i c t o r i a o f f i c e of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines, F i s h and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l s e x p r e s s e d doubt at the u t i l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m i n e r a l road p l a n n i n g . However, t h e r e were s i g n s t h a t the s p i r i t of c o n f r o n t a t i o n might be e b b i n g : a r o a d s i d e r e v e g e t a t i o n experiment t o c o n t r o l e r o s i o n on the Omineca M i n i n g Road was begun by Mines i n 1977, and i n the s p r i n g of 1978 Mines a g r e e d t o a " m o d i f i e d " form of the G u i d e l i n e s f o r L i n e a r Development b e i n g a p p l i e d t o the road. The m o d i f i e d g u i d e l i n e s i n c l u d e d a s p e c i f i c a t i o n by the Mines M i n i s t r y t h a t "... the c o s t of the p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be 40 commensurate w i t h the c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i o n . " 5 6 The note o u t l i n i n g the agreement by Mines went on t o s t a t e : " T h i s i s a low c o s t , m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d road which i n the p a s t has been c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h v e r y l i t t l e impact on the environment ( i n s p i t e of v o c a l c r i t i c i s m from some q u a r t e r s ) . " Mines n o t i f i e d ELUC, the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee, and the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n e a r l y 1978 t h a t the Omineca M i n i n g Road would not be extended p a s t Moosevale t h a t year but t h a t an a i r s t r i p was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d i n S t u r d e e V a l l e y i n September. Two l a r g e c a t s would be walked t h e r e from Moosevale i n mid-August over the r o u t e t h a t had been d e l i n e a t e d by the c o n s u l t a n t and which would become the r o u t e used f o r the road i f and when i t was b u i l t . The Resource A n a l y s i s Branch of the Department of the Environment was g r a n t e d $40,000 by Mines f o r a survey of the w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n a l impacts of b u i l d i n g a road on the proposed r o u t e . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y would not be completed u n t i l September, i t would be u s e f u l when the road was c o n s t r u c t e d , perhaps the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Mines s t a t e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t h a t no road was t o be b u i l t t h a t y e a r , and t h a t the c a t s would be making as c a r e f u l a passage as p o s s i b l e . Mines e x p r e s s e d an i n t e n t i o n t o p r o h i b i t a c c e s s p a s t Moosevale and t o c l o s e the road a t some p o i n t between Johansen Lake and Moosevale. In the summer of 1978 the i s s u e of the e x i s t e n c e and e x t e n s i o n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road became media f o d d e r , w i t h 5 6 J . T. F y l e s t o B. E. Marr, deputy m i n i s t e r of the Department of the Environment, Mar. '2, 1978. 41 Mines f a c i n g a c o n c e r t e d o n s l a u g h t from the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , the S i e r r a C l u b as w e l l as government a g e n c i e s . I t was s t a t e d t h a t a change i n a t t i t u d e towards the importance of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s was needed i n Mines. The B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the Omineca M i n i n g Road was c a u s i n g no e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems, and t h a t the impact on w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s caused by p e o p l e who used the road was not t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They b u i l t roads t o m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s - i t was the mandate of o t h e r a g e n c i e s t o ensure t h a t p e o p l e u s i n g the roads do not abuse the n a t u r a l environment. In a d d i t i o n , they r e s t a t e d t h a t the road "conformed t o the p o l i c i e s " of the m i n i s t r y , which was a l l t h a t had been promised by them t o ELUC. M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s e x p r e s s e d dismay a t the p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of the i s s u e by o t h e r p a r t i e s . F i s h and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l s c o n f i r m e d i n l a t e 1978 t h a t v i r t u a l l y no t r a f f i c was g o i n g beyond Moosevale a l o n g the c a t -t r a c k t o S t u r d e e V a l l e y , and t h a t the c a t s had indeed made v e r y l i t t l e d i s t u r b a n c e i n t h e i r passage. A l t h o u g h the road was never o f f i c i a l l y extended p a s t Moosevale, the c o n t i n u e d i f s p o r a d i c use of the u n c o n s t r u c t e d grade r e s u l t e d i n l o c a l i s e d e r o s i o n , s i l t a t i o n , and h a b i t a t l o s s . In 1979 and the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s , Mines seeded road v e r g e s between Johansen Lake and Moosevale t o reduce e r o s i o n and upgraded s e c t i o n s of the road t o f a c i l i t a t e the movement of heavy machinery. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the road remains rough, and s e d i m e n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e s a t above normal r a t e s . The Mines o f f i c i a l i n charge of the roads program commented 42 i n 1979 t h a t the M i n i s t r y of Mines "wanted t o do a t i d i e r j o b . Our nose has been b l o o d i e d i n the p a s t . " R e g a r d i n g communication between e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and the M i n i s t r y he s t a t e d : "We've got no s e c r e t s . I f we've f a i l e d t o t a l k i t ' s because we haven't known each o t h e r . " W ith i n c r e a s i n g m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y i t appears t h a t e x t e n s i o n of the road t o Sturdee V a l l e y i s i n e v i t a b l e a t some f u t u r e d a t e . C. PROBLEMS AND CONFLICT. As mentioned i n Chapter I , a t l e a s t t h r e e l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e i n v o l v e d i n the c o r r i d o r development p r o c e s s . The i s s u e s , problems and c o n f l i c t s which were s a i d t o have a r i s e n a t each l e v e l a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 1. -CORRIDOR RATIONALE. In a l l t h r e e i n s t a n c e s the d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d the c o r r i d o r appears t o have been taken on e i t h e r a p o l i t i c a l or h i g h b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l w i t h o u t any apparent o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s . The e x t e n t of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s w i t h the d e c i s i o n and the p r o j e c t v a r i e d . a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: The d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d the road and then t o l i n k i t w i t h the r e s t of the p r o v i n c i a l highways system v i a the M e z i a d i n Kitwanga e x t e n s i o n was c o n s i s t e n t l y p o r t r a y e d as a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s u p p o r t e d by both the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments. The e x i s t e n c e of the road was.never s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d by p u b l i c 43 a g e n c i e s or p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t groups. b. Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n : The d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d t h i s c o r r i d o r was v e r y p r o m i n e n t l y l i n k e d w i t h b o t h the W. A. C. Bennett and B a r r e t t governments. D u r i n g i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , the r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n was not q u e s t i o n e d p u b l i c l y by government a g e n c i e s , and the p r i n t e d media p r e s e n t e d a v i s i o n of bo u n d l e s s r e s o u r c e s a w a i t i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the n o r t h west of the p r o v i n c e . However, a f t e r i t was h a l t e d i t became w i d e l y c r i t i c i s e d as a c o s t l y and f a i l e d example of 'Forced Growth'. c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: A l t h o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s c o r r i d o r was s t a t e d t o be s u b j e c t t o " M i n i s t e r i a l " d i r e c t i o n and f u n d i n g and i n accordance w i t h government p o l i c y , i t was not d i r e c t l y l i n k e d w i t h a p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e or p a r t y . The need f o r and d e s i r a b i l i t y of t h i s c o r r i d o r was c o n s i s t e n t l y q u e s t i o n e d . 2. CORRIDOR LOCATION a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: I n t e r a g e n c y communication was inadequate a t t h i s p l a n n i n g l e v e l . However t h e r e was an e x t e r n a l ( t o the Highways Department) study made of the impacts of the s e l e c t e d c o r r i d o r , and minor a l i g n m e n t a l t e r a t i o n s were' s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d and sometimes implemented by the Highways Department. P u b l i c i nvolvement i n c l u d e d an a n a l y s i s of the socio-economic impact of the road on a l o c a l I n d i a n group ( K i t w a n c o o l ) , and o t h e r s i m i l a r 44 e f f o r t s on the p a r t of the p l a n n i n g agency. b. Pease Lake E x t e n s i o n L i m i t e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n between B. C. R a i l w a y and o t h e r a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c y i e l d e d c o n f r o n t a t i o n on i s s u e s t h a t might have been l e s s i n t e n s e or more e a s i l y r e s o l v e d i f e a r l i e r communication had o c c u r r e d between the p a r t i e s concerned. I n f o r m a t i o n gaps caused problems a t the d e s i g n l e v e l which c o u l d o n l y be s o l v e d by changing the r o u t i n g a l i g n m e n t , which r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t i n c r e a s e s i n c o s t s . C o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e d g o a l s f o r the c o r r i d o r ( i . e . f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o the ' e x i s t e n c e ' p l a n n i n g l e v e l ) caused c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g the o p t i m a l c o r r i d o r l o c a t i o n . c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: There was l i t t l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines and o t h e r a g e n c i e s r e g a r d i n g an o p t i m a l or a c c e p t a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r the c o r r i d o r . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t was l o c a t e d i n accordance w i t h the p r i o r i t i e s of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines o n l y . The ve r y q u i c k i n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r a c k which was l a t e r upgraded p r e c l u d e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r c o r r i d o r s . 3. PESIGN ANP IMPLEMENTATION a. S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road: V e r y l i t t l e c o n f l i c t n o t e d . As noted above, the independent study which wqas funded by the Highways Pepartment s u g e s t e d ways by which the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l impacts of the p r o j e c t might be m i t i g a t e d . 45 b. Dease Lak.e E x t e n s i o n : I n f o r m a t i o n gaps and o p p o s i t i o n t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts of the c o r r i d o r as o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d r e s u l t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s and r e d e s i g n of the c o r r i d o r , and a s s o c i a t e d h i g h e r c o s t s and l a t e r c o m p l e t i o n t i m e . c. Omineca M i n i n g Road: There was g r e a t c o n f l i c t between the proponent and o pposing a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c , r e g a r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the e x i s t e n c e of r e s o u r c e s i n the c o r r i d o r and impacts of the c o n s t r u c t i o n on them. There was a l s o c o n f l i c t r e l a t i n g t o c o n s t r u c t i o n p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e s : the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a minimum s t a n d a r d t r a c k which i s then upgraded was c l a i m e d t o be v e r y c o s t l y t o n a t u r a l v a l u e s . D. COMMON PROBLEMS. There a r e s e v e r a l c l a s s e s of problems common t o the t h r e e c o r r i d o r s . The problem t y p e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e those which appear t o have been most d i s c u s s e d a t the time of c o r r i d o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the p r i n t e d media, i n i n t e r a g e n c y memoranda, and i n communications between a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c . Thus t h i s l i s t i n g of problems i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e x p r e s s e d p u b l i c and agency c o n c e r n s at the 46 time of c o r r i d o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . 5 7 5 8 1. INCREASED TIME FROM PROJECT START TO COMPLETION. i . The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was s t a r t e d i n 1952 t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s and e g r e s s f o r the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s o p e r a t i o n . I n 1956 the M i n i s t e r of Mines was a l r e a d y r e q u i r e d t o respond t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the f a c t t h a t the road had not yet been completed. Only i n 1972, was the road f i n a l l y c ompleted t o a g r a v e l f i n i s h . i i . When the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n was approved i n 1969 i t was i n t e n d e d t h a t i t be c o n s t r u c t e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , t o be f i n i s h e d i n 1975. When c o n s t r u c t i o n was h a l t e d i n 1977, t r a c k had been l a i d on o n l y two-t h i r d s of i t s p r o j e c t e d l e n g t h . i i i . The Omineca M i n i n g Road was an ongoing program, w i t h no s p e c i f i e d date of c o m p l e t i o n or l o c a t i o n a l g o a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , t o s t a t e the e x a c t d i m e n s i o n s of the problem w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s 5 7 S i n c e the p u b l i c and a g e n c i e s which were not the d i r e c t proponents of the p r o j e c t were t o a v e r y l a r g e e x t e n t unaware of much of the i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d have been g e n e r a t e d and communicated, t h i s l i s t i n g of problems i s i n c o m p l e t e . Other problems might have i n c l u d e d : a low ( i . e . l e s s than one) b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o f o r the p r o j e c t ; the l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e uses d u r i n g i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g phases, and so on. 47 p r o j e c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the road was slowed c o n s i d e r a b l y because of p u b l i c and agency o p p o s i t i o n , and the road never reached Dease Lake, i t s o r i g i n a l g o a l . 2. INCREASED COSTS. Even a l l o w i n g f o r the e f f e c t s of i n f l a t i o n , the i n c r e a s e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . i . The c o s t of the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road i n c r e a s e d from an i n i t i a l e s t i m a t e of $5 m i l l i o n t o $30 m i l l i o n spent when completed, a 500% o v e r r u n . i i . The e s t i m a t e d c o s t of c o m p l e t i n g the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n rose from $68 m i l l i o n i n 1969 t o $310 m i l l i o n i n 1979, an i n c r e a s e of 356%. i i i . The c o s t of b u i l d i n g the Omineca M i n i n g Road remained a matter of much debate. Opponents of the p r o j e c t c l a i m e d t h a t i n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s were kept t o an i n e x p e n s i v e s t a n d a r d i n o r d e r t o thwa r t c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h i s f a c t o r , but t h a t t h i s would g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e subsequent maintenance c o s t s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was c l a i m e d t h a t e x t e r n a l i t i e s such as the changed v a l u e of w i l d l i f e and w i l d e r n e s s r e s o u r c e s which r e s u l t e d from the c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a l t h o u g h the problems a p p a r e n t l y came to the n o t i c e of the a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c concerned o n l y a t the time of c o n s t r u c t i o n , many of the problems had t h e i r o r i g i n s a t h i g h e r and e a r l i e r l e v e l s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l a c k of communication between the proponent agency and o t h e r a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c r e s u l t e d i n the f a c t t h a t problems which o r i g i n a t e d i n an e a r l y p l a n n i n g phase were r e c o g n i s e d o n l y i n the f i n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phases of the p r o j e c t , when o p t i o n s which might have been a v a i l a b l e had been l a r g e l y f o r e c l o s e d . 48 be i n c l u d e d i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g from the p r o j e c t . 3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS. These i n c l u d e d d i r e c t i m p a c t s , such as stream s i l t a t i o n , and i n d i r e c t i m p a c t s , such as i n c r e a s e d h u n t i n g r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o the a r e a s concerned and r e s u l t i n g i n changes i n l o c a l w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s . i . The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road f a c i l i t a t e d a c c e s s t o w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , and so promoted o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n and d e p l e t i o n of the f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s i n those a r e a s . i i . The Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n p e r m i t t e d s i m i l a r e x p l o i t a t i o n - r e l a t e d problems. In a d d i t i o n , impacts a r i s i n g from the l o c a t i o n of the c o r r i d o r and the c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s and s t a n d a r d s were i d e n t i f i e d • and became cause f o r c o m p l a i n t . i i i . The.Omineca M i n i n g Road was i d e n t i f i e d as c a u s i n g the same ty p e s of impacts as the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n . 4. CORRIDOR HAS NO PURPOSE. The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I i s s t a t e d t o be i t e r a t i v e and r e c u r s i v e . What t h i s means f o r the purpose b e h i n d a p r o j e c t l i k e a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r i s t h a t the purpose i t s e l f must be c o n t i n u a l l y r e - e v a l u a t e d and i f n e c e s s a r y changed as the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p r o c e d e s . I f i t . appears under the l i g h t of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been g a i n e d d u r i n g p l a n n i n g t h a t the o r i g i n a l purpose i s f o r some reason 49 u n r e a s o n a b l e or u n a t t a i n a b l e , then a new purpose must be de v e l o p e d t h a t can be l o g i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d by the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e or the p r o j e c t s h o u l d be abandonned. In the ca s e s of the s e t h r e e c o r r i d o r s , however, the o r i g i n a l purpose does not appear t o have been the s u b j e c t of o b j e c t i v e s c r u t i n y , e i t h e r b e f o r e or d u r i n g p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f a i l u r e of two of the c o r r i d o r s t o have any w i d e l y r e c o g n i s e d and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e use i s then not a s u r p r i s e . Rather the s u r p r i s e i s t h a t the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road has had a use - even i f i t s c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s has been d i s p u t e d . i . The S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road was b u i l t t o p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c c e s s f o r the e x i s t i n g needs of the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s o p e r a t i o n , and t o encourage r e s o u r c e and i n d u s t r i a l development i n the n o r t h west of the p r o v i n c e . The r o u t e was 20 y e a r s i n the making, but even when i t was completed i n 1972 the C a s s i a r o p e r a t i o n chose not t o use i t and t h e r e were no o t h e r major i n d u s t r i a l u s e r s . .Although a t t h i s time (1983) the^ C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s C o r p o r a t i o n uses the r o u t e i t s major usage remains t o u r i s t i c . i i . The s t a t e d purpose of the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n was t o make p o s s i b l e 'the dynamic development of r e s o u r c e s and communities' i n the n o r t h w e s t of the p r o v i n c e . Because the e x t e n s i o n was not completed i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e p r e c i s e l y the e x t e n t t o which t h i s purpose would have been a c h i e v e d . But i t may be noted t h a t even i n 1977, two y e a r s a f t e r the i n i t i a l l y 50 p r o j e c t e d c o m p l e t i o n of the r a i l w a y , t h e r e was s t i l l no guarantee of s i g n i f i c a n t t r a f f i c . Even the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s Mine, which c l a i m e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n was e s s e n t i a l t o i t s b u s i n e s s , r e f u s e d t o commit i t s e l f t o u s i n g i t . i i i . The degree t o which the Omineca M i n i n g Road i n c r e a s e d m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the a r e a which i t was b u i l t t o s e r v e i s p r o b l e m a t i c a t b e s t . Between 1970 ( b e f o r e the road was b u i l t t o the a rea) and 1980 t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v e c l a i m s and o p e r a t i n g mines i n the a r e a . However i t c o u l d be argued t h a t t h i s change was more a r e s u l t of the r i s e i n the p r i c e of g o l d than the p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s t o the a r e a , s i n c e v i r t u a l l y a l l of the c l a i m s a r e o r i e n t e d towards g o l d p r o d u c t i o n , and a l l of the o p e r a t i n g mines are g o l d p r o d u c e r s . E. PROBLEM ANALYSIS. A commonality of p e r c e i v e d problems has been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the p r o j e c t s . These problems r e l a t e t o p l a n n i n g e f i c i e n c y , the l o g i c and v a l i d i t y of the p r o j e c t r a t i o n a l e , and t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and use of the c o r r i d o r s . The problems are f u r t h e r a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g o r i g i n s w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n i s o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y towards those l e v e l s of the p r o c e s s which determine the r o u t e l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n of the c o r r i d o r . The d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d a major 51 c o r r i d o r , which i s most p r o p e r l y made a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , i s not d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h because i t i n v o l v e s many f a c t o r s which are d i f f e r e n t from those r e l e v a n t t o the r o u t i n g and d e s i g n l e v e l s . However, the c o n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o v a l d e c i s i o n s h o u l d a t l e a s t be i n f o r m e d by the p r o c e s s which r e l a t e s t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l elements of the p r o p o s a l and which forms the b a s i s of the r o u t i n g and d e s i g n l e v e l d e c i s i o n f a c t o r s . T h e r e f o r e the f a c t o r s which a re det e r m i n e d and d i s c u s s e d f o r the r o u t i n g and d e s i g n l e v e l s w i l l t o some e x t e n t be r e l e v a n t t o the p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l l e v e l of c o r r i d o r p l a n n i n g . B e f o r e a n a l y s i n g the problems which were p e r c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the c o r r i d o r s s t u d i e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n the dynamics of a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n -making system i n what may be d e s c r i b e d as an "open" and d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . 1. PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS. Ever y system has some s o r t of o u t p u t , and one output of a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system i s ex p e c t e d t o be a d e c i s i o n of some s o r t , perhaps w i t h i n a s e t p e r i o d of t i m e . There may a l s o be o t h e r o u t p u t s , such as c o n f l i c t and c o s t s , but the output which d e f i n e s a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system i s the f a c t t h a t a d e c i s i o n emerges from i t . The e x a c t c o m b i n a t i o n of o u t p u t s ( i . e . the n a t u r e of the d e c i s i o n w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t c o s t s and c o n f l i c t s ) i s a f u n c t i o n of the i n p u t s t o the system and the i d e n t i t y , arrangement and e f f i c i e n c y communications between subsystems ( i . e . the system d y n a m i c s ) . A p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system i s composed of a 52 number of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups (a group may be viewed as a subsystem of the l a r g e r system which may r e a c h i t s own d e c i s i o n s , i n f l i c t i t s c o s t s and e x p e r i e n c e i t s own c o n f l i c t s ) . The dynamics of the system i n v o l v e s the communication and w e i g h i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e d w i l l r e l a t e t o the " f a c t u a l " elements of the i s s u e a t hand, and t o n o rmative f a c t o r s of the i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s w i t h i n the system (De u t s c h , 1974). " F a c t u a l " i n f o r m a t i o n may p e r t a i n t o the b i o p h y s i c a l e nvironment, the e x p e c t e d f i n a n c i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of the p r o j e c t , and so on. "Normative" i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l p e r t a i n t o the v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the system, and a l s o t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d and r e a l a b i l i t y t o have t h e i r v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i n a l l y , the a c t o r s w i l l communicate t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the impact of the p r o j e c t on t h e i r v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s . As s t a t e d above, the o u t p u t s of a system are d e t e r m i n e d by the i n p u t s and the system dynamics. S i n c e the i n p u t s t o a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system a r e b o t h " f a c t u a l " and " n o r m a t i v e " the range of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups which p a r t i c i p a t e , and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and p r e p a r e i t f o r communication w i l l a f f e c t the i n p u t s and t h e r e f o r e the o u t p u t s of the d e c i s i o n system. S i m i l a r l y , the a b i l i t i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s t o communicate i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r v a l u e s and o b j e c t i v e s , t o pay t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s , t o be a b l e (or t o seem t o be a b l e ) t o impose burdens or c o n f e r b e n e f i t s on o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t o p e r c e i v e and i n s t i t u t e changes i n t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s upon r e c e i v i n g and e v a l u a u t i n g 53 i n f o r m a t i o n of v a r i o u s t y p e s from o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l form the dynamics of the system, and w i l l t h e r e f o r e p a r t l y d e f i n e the system o u t p u t (Deutsch, 1971; Deutsch, 1974). The p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system, as d e s c r i b e d above, a p p r o x i m a t e s an o r g a n i s a t i o n of groups and i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e , t o g e t h e r and w i t h i n some e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t o r g a n i s a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , s e a r c h i n g f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n . D eutsch (1967) has w r i t t e n t h a t " I t i s communication, t h a t i s , the a b i l i t y t o t r a n s m i t messages and t o r e a c t t o them, t h a t makes o r g a n i s a t i o n s . I b e l i e v e t h a t where p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s a re d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d , and the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i s o c c u r i n g i n an "open" d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , the o r g a n i s a t i o n s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s o c i e t y as a whole. In a d d i t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e a re s e v e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s which w i l l make the p r o c e s s a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n our s o c i e t a l framework. I f t he p r o c e s s i s a c c e p t a b l e , then the outcome may a l s o be e x p e c t e d t o be approved by a m a j o r i t y of those i n v o l v e d i n the system. I b e l i e v e the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s t o be n e c e s s a r y i n such a p r o c e s s : a) l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d i n c l u d e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s whose mandated r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be a f f e c t e d by the p r o p o s a l , and p r i v a t e groups and i n d i v i d u a l s who p e r c e i v e the p r o p o s a l as a f f e c t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and/or v a l u e s . In i n s t a n c e s i n which i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o have e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l or group p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y , an e f f o r t must be made t o ensure t h a t e v e r y i n t e r e s t and v a l u e i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n some way i n the system. b) l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d have s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s t o 54 ge n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and p r e p a r e i t f o r communication t o o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t o cover o t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s , c) the output ( i . e . the d e c i s i o n ) must be s u b j e c t t o the c o n t r o l of o f f i c i a l s who are a c c o u n t a b l e t o the p u b l i c , and p r e f e r a b l y d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o a d e f i n e d p u b l i c i n a s p e c i f i c manner. In t h i s way, the a f f e c t e d p u b l i c has some measure of c o n t r o l on the p r o c e s s and i t s o u t p u t s . These r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d ensure t h a t a wide range of i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system and t h a t no group w i t h i n the system can c o n t r o l i t s dynamics. I t a l s o e x p l i c i t l y p l a c e s the p r o p o s a l and ' i t s p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system w i t h i n a l a r g e r s o c i e t a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . I do not propose t o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s the p o l i t i c a l elements i n v o l v e d i n t h i s system, but t h e i r p l a c e i n i t s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n . F o l l o w i n g from t h i s , s e v e r a l ways by which the i n p u t s and dynamics of a p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system can be sub-o p t i m a l may be p o s t u l a t e d : i . I n p u t s - i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o what may be termed the " f a c t u a l " a s p e c t s of the i n p u t s ( i . e . b i o p h y s i c a l , economic and o t h e r s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n ) may be u n c e r t a i n , u n a v a i l a b l e , or s u b j e c t t o d i s p u t e between a c t o r s . - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s may be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by a r e a l l a c k of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t groups, by some groups not b e i n g a b l e t o g e n e r a t e and pr e p a r e i n f o r m a t i o n which i s impo r t a n t 55 t o t h e i r " c a s e " , and by p e r m i t t i n g o n l y one i n t e r e s t group t o d e f i n e the problem which i s t o be the s u b j e c t of the system (e.g. by u s i n g an agenda which has been f o r m u l a t e d by o n l y one i n t e r e s t g r o u p ) . i i . Dynamics - communication between p a r t i c i p a n t s may be d i f f i c u l t , i n c o r r e c t or i m p o s s i b l e because some p a r t i c i p a n t s may not be a b l e t o cover the n e c e s s a r y t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s . - communication may be d i f f i c u l t or " l o p - s i d e d " because one p a r t y or group can c o n f e r g r e a t b e n e f i t s or burdens on o t h e r groups which have l i t t l e a b i l i t y t o r e c i p r o c a t e . - communication between p a r t i c i p a n t s may be d i f f i c u l t , i n c o r r e c t or i m p o s s i b l e f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . For i n s t a n c e , some p a r t i c i p a n t s may not be a b l e t o comprehend t h a t v a l u e s d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own a r e not o n l y r e a l f o r o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , but may be as d e e p l y h e l d and as w e l l based i n l o g i c a l thought as a r e t h e i r own. - a means of e n s u r i n g t h a t the d e c i s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o the c o n t r o l of o f f i c i a l s a c c o u n t a b l e t o the p u b l i c may not be d e v e l o p e d . 2. ORIGINS OF THE DEFINED PROBLEMS WITHIN THE PLANNING AND  DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM. Each of the problems i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y was e x p l a i n e d i n the terms i n which i t was d i s c u s s e d i n the media, memoranda, and o t h e r communications used i n the g e n e r a t i o n of the case s t u d i e s . 56 In t h i s s e c t i o n each of the problems i s f a c t o r e d t o determine common o r i g i n s w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system which t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e a l o g i c a l framework t h a t e x p l a i n s the g e n e r a t i o n of the problems. T h i s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of ways by which the problems might be a v o i d e d i n f u t u r e p r o j e c t s . a. I n c r e a s e d Time. An i n c r e a s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d f o r the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n r e s u l t e d from changes i n the p r o j e c t d e s i g n a r i s i n g from a) changes i n ' the d e s i r e d t e c h n i c a l l e v e l of the p r o j e c t made a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l and a r i s i n g from a l t e r e d p r o j e c t o b j e c t i v e s , and b) changes i n the n e c e s s a r y t e c h n i c a l l e v e l of the p r o j e c t demanded by e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s d i s c o v e r e d o n l y on the p r o j e c t s i t e or imposed d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n by a g e n c i e s (such as Environment Canada) h a v i n g the a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e them. The same f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road, as i t changed from a minimum s t a n d a r d m i n i n g a c c e s s road b u i l t by the M i n i s t r y of Mines t o a p o r t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l highway system b u i l t by the M i n i s t r y of Highways. S i m i l a r l y , c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road was c o m p l i c a t e d by i n t e r f e r e n c e and demands by government a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c . I n c r e a s e d time can be seen t o have had a p o s i t i v e feedback e f f e c t . As the c o n s t r u c t i o n time l e n g t h e n e d , o t h e r f a c t o r s had more o p p o r t u n i t y t o change: thus p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o a p r o j e c t c o u l d , and d i d , a l t e r d u r i n g the 57 c o u r s e of the p r o j e c t ; changes i n the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n a l s o had t h e i r e f f e c t s on the p r o j e c t d e s i g n and o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f the c o r r i d o r s had been b u i l t v e r y q u i c k l y , agency and p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o them would not have developed u n t i l a f t e r t hey were w e l l i n p l a c e . The o r i g i n s of t h i s problem a r e : i . I n c omplete i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the b i o p h y s i c a l e nvironment. T h i s r e s u l t e d from s c a n t y p r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s u r v e y s . i i . I n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s of use r e l a t i n g t o the a r e a s concerned and the impacts on them emanating from the c o n s t r u c t i o n and use of the c o r r i d o r s . T h i s a r o s e from the assumption by t h e proponent t h a t i t c o u l d i g n o r e o t h e r a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s - i . e . the f a i l u r e t o i n v o l v e l e g i t i m a t e a c t o r s as I have d e f i n e d them. i i i . The l a c k of e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s by which communication c o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d between d i f f e r i n g groups. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n time d e l a y s because problems which might have been a v o i d e d or f a i r l y q u i c k l y r e s o l v e d through e f f i c i e n t communication were n o t . In a d d i t i o n , changes i n p u b l i c and o t h e r a t t i t u d e s and i n the l i k e l y u t i l i t y of the c o r r i d o r c o u l d not be r e a d i l y i n c l u d e d i n the system. Thus a p r o c e s s of communication between l e g i t i m a t e a c t o r s was not e s t a b l i s h e d . 58 b. I n c r e a s e d C o s t s . . I n c r e a s e d c o s t s on the Dease Lake E x t e n s i o n r e s u l t e d from i n f l a t i o n , changes i n the p r o j e c t d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s , and unf o r e s e e n c o n s t r u c t i o n problems. In e ssence, t h e n , i n c r e a s e d c o s t s can be d e f i n e d as r e s u l t i n g from the same t h r e e c l a s s e s of f a c t o r s as d i d i n c r e a s e d t i m e : i . i n c o m p l e t e b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; i i . i n c o m p l e t e v a l u e and i n t e r e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and i i i . l a c k of e f f i c i e n t communication between p r o j e c t proponent and o t h e r a g e n c i e s , groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . c. No R e a l i s t i c F o r m u l a t i o n Of P r o j e c t O b j e c t i v e . T h i s a r o s e because of a f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r a l l of the f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t the r e a l i s a t i o n of the p r o j e c t e d c o r r i d o r use, and an u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p tance of b e l i e f as f a c t . In t h e s e c a s e s , t h e e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s were: w o r l d commodity demand and p r i c e s , and the freedom of i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r own p r e f e r r e d t i m e - t a b l e and s h i p them by the r o u t e they choose. The b e l i e f s of p r o j e c t proponents c o n c e r n i n g the impact of a c o r r i d o r on the n a t u r a l environment or i n d u s t r i a l development were t r e a t e d as laws of n a t u r e . Another cause of t h i s problem appears t o have been t h a t the s t a t e d purposes of a c o r r i d o r were not a l l of the de f a c t o p u r poses. T h i s problem, t h e n , had two o r i g i n s : 59 i . i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the f a c t o r s which would determine the f u t u r e u t i l i t y of the c o r r i d o r was not a v a i l a b l e ; and i i . i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the f a c t o r s which would determine the f u t u r e use of the c o r r i d o r s was not r i g o r o u s l y a s s e s s e d , e i t h e r as t o i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y or as t o the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t i t would s u p p o r t . One reason f o r t h i s was t h a t some a c t o r s i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system were not c a p a b l e of p e r c e i v i n g the n e c e s s i t y t o s u b j e c t t h e i r p r e c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the u t i l i t y of the c o r r i d o r s t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , or f o r onr reason or a n o t h e r they were not r e c e p t i v e t o i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of the p r o j e c t were u n r e a l i s t i c . T h i s f a c t o r , i . e . p r o j e c t r a t i o n a l e , r e l a t e s t o l e v e l of d e c i s i o n making a t which i t i s d e c i d e d t o b u i l d the p r o j e c t or n o t . As I have s t a t e d e a r l i e r , I do not d i s c u s s t h i s l e v e l of p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making i n any d e p t h , but I do w i s h t o note t h a t the o r i g i n s of the problem w i t h i n the l a r g e r p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system are s i m i l a r t o the o r i g i n s of the o t h e r problems. d. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impacts. The o c c u r r e n c e and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of u n d e s i r e a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts r e s u l t e d because: i . t h e r e was l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the b i o p h y s i c a l environment and the l i k e l y e f f e c t of a c o r r i d o r on i t ; 6 0 i i . the s i g n i f i c a n c e (and perhaps the changing s i g n i f i c a n c e ) t o the p u b l i c of e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s was m i s p e r c e i v e d by the p r o j e c t proponent. T h i s was an i n f o r m a t i o n gap which r e s u l t e d from a communication problem. i i i , no means which was a c c e p t a b l e t o a m a j o r i t y of the i n t e r e s t s who wished t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system e x i s t e d t o overcome d e a d l o c k s between d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of im p a c t s . 3. THE IMPLICATION OF THE PROBLEM-ORIGIN ANALYSIS FOR THE  DESIGN OF PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS. The a n a l y s i s of the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s has i n d i c a t e d s u b o p t i m a l i t i e s i n each of the key elements of the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems f o r the l i n e a r c o r r i d o r p r o j e c t s s t u d i e d . I t i s c l e a r t h a t one means of r e d u c i n g c o n f l i c t r e l a t i n g t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of such p r o j e c t s would be t o improve the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system used. In e s s e n c e , i t appears from t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t the improvements would i n v o l v e the f o l l o w i n g : i . e n s u r i n g the use of a l l a v a i l a b l e (or r e a s o n a b l y o b t a i n a b l e ) and r e l e v a n t b i o p h y s i c a l , economic and o t h e r s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n , and s p e c i f y i n g what i n f o r m a t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n , c o n t e s t e d or not a v a i l a b l e ; i i . e n s u r i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system of i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s o t h e r than those of the p r o j e c t proponent. P r e f e r a b l y a l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s (as p r e v i o u s l y 61 d e f i n e d ) s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d . i i i . f a c i l i t a t i n g the communication of d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s between a c t o r s , f o r i n s t a n c e through t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of p e r c e i v e d c o r r i d o r impact and the l o g i c u n d e r l y i n g the p e r c e p t i o n ; and i v . i n c l u d i n g i n the system some means of overcoming d e a d l o c k s , and e l i m i n a t i n g or e x p l i c i t l y a d d r e s s i n g i n s t a n c e s where the achievement of i t s o b j e c t i v e s by one group w i l l i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l y s t o p a n o t h e r group from a c h i e v i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s . The improvements c o n s i s t of a l t e r a t i o n s t o the two a s p e c t s of the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system which have been d i s c u s s e d : i n p u t s and dynamics. The i n p u t s a r e a l t e r e d by w i d e n i n g t h e i r range and making t h e i r n a t u r e c l e a r e r ( i . e . t h e i r c e r t a i n t y and whether " f a c t u a l " or o t h e r w i s e ) . Widening the range of i n p u t s i n v o l v e s opening the system t o p a r t i c i p a n t s who might o t h e r w i s e be b a r r e d from involvement and a l s o a i d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o become more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t . A l t e r a t i o n s t o the system dynamics i n v o l v e s i m p r o v i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of communication between p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n s t i t u t i n g a means of a d d r e s s i n g c o n f l i c t s and d e a d l o c k s t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . In the next c h a p t e r I re v i e w some of the r e c e n t r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t management t o determine how s u p p o r t a b l e from t h a t b a s i s t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e . 62 I I I . A MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. A. INTRODUCTION T h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g the o r i g i n s of c o n f l i c t a r e v a r i o u s and c o n f l i c t i n g . They i n c l u d e the b e l i e f s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o be a g g r e s s i v e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s i s an i n n a t e (and perhaps g e n e t i c ) c a p a c i t y of the human s p e c i e s (e.g. A r d r e y , 1966, and L o r e n z , 1969), and t h a t c o n f l i c t i s s o c i a l l y d e r i v e d , e i t h e r because s o c i e t y needs c o n f l i c t i n o r d e r t o change, d e v e l o p and i n n o v a t e new v a l u e s and be h a v i o u r (e.g. Coser, 1971; Dunn, 1971) or because of a f a u l t i n the s o c i a l system (Marcuse, 1968). The r e a l i t y of c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t i o n may l i e i n a l l of these h y p o t h e s e s , and many o t h e r s b e s i d e s . What appears t o be c l e a r i s t h a t t h e r e i s some p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t i n every a s p e c t of eve r y s o c i e t y ( L i k e r t & L i k e r t , 1976; Fox, 1982). S i n c e c o n f l i c t may be u s e f u l or even n e c e s s a r y , i t might not be wise t o attempt t o c o n t i n u a l l y a v o i d i t s e v o l u t i o n ( C o s e r , 1971). R a t h e r , the best approach may be t o r e c o g n i s e c o n f l i c t as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p r o g r e s s and b e i n g of humanity, and attempt t o l i m i t i t s growth t o l e v e l s a t which i t may be c r e a t i v e , but ensure i t s d i s s i p a t i o n a t l e v e l s below which i t can be d e s t r u c t i v e or c o s t l y (Dunn, 1971). Be i n g a b l e t o p r e d i c t c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s and g u i d i n g t h e i r e v o l u t i o n and bases t o be e x p l i c i t might r e s u l t i n the achievement of more c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n s than might o t h e r w i s e a r i s e . A method of a p p r o a c h i n g and g u i d i n g c o n f l i c t s r e l a t i n g t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts of l i n e a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r 63 r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and s i t e p l a n n i n g i n N o r t h e r n r e g i o n s i s develo p e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . S i n c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t s a r e s i m i l a r i n many ways t o o t h e r types of c o n f l i c t (Wehr, 1979), I b e l i e v e t h a t the method d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a l s o be u s e f u l i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . B. EXISTING MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION. V a r i o u s ways of a d d r e s s i n g c o n f l i c t have been d e v e l o p e d . Wehr (1979) suggests t h a t c u r r e n t l y the t h r e e most o f t e n used methods a r e " l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n " , i n which a consensus e x i s t s between opponents r e g a r d i n g the s t a n d a r d s used t o judge what the method of s e t t l e m e n t i s t o be; " d e t e r r e n c e " , i n which t h r e a t s a r e used by one more p a r t i e s ; and " b a r g a i n i n g " or n e g o t i a t i o n , which i n v o l v e s g i v e - a n d - t a k e . While t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be a c c u r a t e i n c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n s , i t i s a r t i f i c i a l , f o r i n most c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s a l l t h r e e elements a re p r e s e n t : a consensus r e g a r d i n g s t a n d a r d s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y a r i s e , whether the s t a n d a r d s a r e t e e t h or w i t ; t h r e a t s of some k i n d u n d e r l i e e v e r y c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n ; and some element of b a r g a i n i n g o c c u r s i n e v e r y s i t u a t i o n but th o s e i n v o l v i n g maniacs. A p p r o a c h i n g the q u e s t i o n from a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e , Fox (1982) s t a t e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s , a g e n c i e s ( p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ) and governments o f t e n t r y t o l i m i t c o n f l i c t by c o n t r o l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t u a t i o n t h a t most people who might oppose a p r o j e c t w i l l know n o t h i n g about i t s p l a n n i n g or p o t e n t i a l u n t i l i t i s t o o l a t e t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t the outcome of the p l a n s which have been made. 64 C. RECENT THEORETICAL MODELS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. 1. WEHR: IMPROVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PARTIES TO A CONFLICT. Wehr (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a c o n f l i c t management model i n or d e r t o f r e e i t from the weaknesses of the models he p o s t u l a t e d . These f e a t u r e s a r e : i . an e x p l i c i t improvement i n communication between the c o n f l i c t p a r t i e s , perhaps f a c i l i t a t e d by a t h i r d p a r t y . Thus the t h i r d p a r t y would not judge the i s s u e , as i t does i n the " l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n " model, but would h e l p the p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t t o b e t t e r u n derstand each o t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n s and so be a b l e t o d e f i n e a r e a s of agreement and di s a g r e e m e n t . i i . the g e n e r a t i o n of t r u s t and c r e d i b i l i t y between c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s , so t h a t opponents w i l l t r u s t each o t h e r t o r e s p e c t the agreements t h a t a r e made. T h i s may d e v e l o p by v i r t u e of the improvement i n commun i c a t i o n . i i i . a p e r c e p t u a l s h i f t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the n a t u r e of the c o n f l i c t and the opponent. T h i s a l s o i s l i k e l y t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h changes i n communication, d e f i n i t i o n of a r e a s of agreement and d i s a g r e e m e n t , and the l e v e l of t r u s t between p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t . i v . a move from t h r e a t and c o n f r o n t a t i o n towards exchange. Brooks (1976) suggests t h a t as a n a l y t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s ( i . e . the v i e w p o i n t ) of the p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t 65 are broadened the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l outcomes w i l l narrow, and so the need t o t h r e a t e n r a t h e r than have exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n and v i e w p o i n t w i l l be reduced. Once a g a i n , the importance of communication between opposing groups i s shown, s i n c e i t w i l l be l i k e l y t o broaden the v i e w p o i n t and awareness of each group. Wehr does not make any s u g g e s t i o n s as t o how these f e a t u r e s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d 2. FOX: OPEN THE PLANNING PROCESS TO ALL INTERESTS. Fox (1982) s t a t e s t h a t the i n t e n s i t y and o v e r a l l amount of c o n f l i c t can be reduced by 1) opening up the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system t o everyone who wishes t o ta k e p a r t , and 2) p r o v i d i n g f r e e a c c e s s t o a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . Opening the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s t o p e r c e i v e d or i d e n t i f i e d opponents i s u s u a l l y a v o i d e d by the proponent of a p r o j e c t because of the i n c r e a s e s i n time and c o s t t h a t such a wider d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i s p e r c e i v e d t o i n v o l v e and the g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l p r o c e e d i n an a l t e r e d form or not a t a l l . However, Fox s t a t e s t h a t i n v o l v i n g many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s e a r l y i n the p r o c e s s , and making an attempt t o d e f i n e the a r e a s of c o n f l i c t and agreement between them w i l l i n most cases defuse c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . 66 3. LORD: USE A TAXONOMY OF CONFLICT TYPES. L o r d e t a l (1979) use many of Wehr's con c e p t s and p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s i n the development of a con f l i c t - m a n a g e m e n t model i n which the d e f i n i t i o n aTid e v o l u t i o n of a n a l y t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s of the opponents and the f a c i l i t a t i o n of communication between them are e s s e n t i a l components. L o r d s u g g e s t s t h a t u s i n g a taxonomy of c o n f l i c t t y p e s can be u s e f u l because d i v i d i n g a complex s i t u a t i o n i n t o i t s components may f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s of i t s d e r i v a t i o n and dynamics, and so a i d i t s management. The taxonomy he sug g e s t s i s t h r e e - f o l d : 1) c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t ; 2) v a l u e c o n f l i c t ; and 3) i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t . C o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t a r i s e s because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e c h n i c a l judgements. These may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n or b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g p a r a m e t r i c i n f o r m a t i o n , such as the e x i s t e n c e of f i s h i n streams, or r e g a r d i n g f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as the amount of s i l t e n t e r i n g a stream as a r e s u l t of c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s a t p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s . V a l u e c o n f l i c t stems "from d i f f e r e n t assessments of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of ends t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d by the a c t i o n c o n t e m p l a t e d , " ( i b i d , p. 12). In the case of the Omineca M i n i n g Road e x t e n s i o n s , v a l u e c o n f l i c t e x i s t e d between proponents of economic growth through m i n e r a l development, and those who were c o n s e r v a t i o n - and w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e - o r i e n t e d (among o t h e r s ) . L o r d c l a i m s t h a t v a l u e c o n f l i c t "may be seen as an a s p e c t of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g " i n t h a t p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l v a l u e s are dynamic. He sug g e s t s t h a t by making as e x p l i c i t as p o s s i b l e the v a l u e s of opponents i n a c o n f l i c t , and removing or r e d u c i n g 67 t o a minimum c o g n i t i v e and i n t e r e s t f a c t o r s , the opposing v a l u e p o s i t i o n s w i l l a t l e a s t be c l a r i f i e d . Then, a t t e m p t s t o form a d i a l o g u e 5 9 between opponents may i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and empathy between them and p e r m i t an agreement on a c o u r s e of a c t i o n t o be made. D e c i s i o n s may have t o be made by v o t e or a r b i t r a t i o n , or o t h e r p r o j e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s which do not g e n e r a t e as much v a l u e c o n f l i c t may be sought, i f agreement of some s o r t cannot be o t h e r w i s e d e v e l o p e d . I n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t i s g e n e r a t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ex p e c t e d e f f e c t of a p r o j e c t on the p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . Thus " i n t e r e s t s " a r e a c o m b i n a t i o n of the f a c t u a l ( i . e . p h y s i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and so on) d i m e n s i o n , and the p e r c e p t u a l element, s i n c e the p e r c e p t i o n and p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n of the f a c t u a l i s the most i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n used when the e f f e c t of a p r o j e c t on one's i n t e r e s t s i s d e f i n e d . A p a r t i c u l a r m i n e r a l development may be opposed by an unemployed mine worker who has a v a c a t i o n home j u s t downstream from a proposed e f f l u e n t o u t l e t , and s u p p o r t e d by an unemployed person who has a home upstream and upwind from the l o c a t i o n of the development. In such a case t h e r e may be no c o g n i t i v e or v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s between h o l d e r s of the two i n t e r e s t s e t s . Compensation of some s o r t by " w i n n e r s " t o " l o s e r s " can sometimes reduce t h i s type of c o n f l i c t , but L o r d notes t h a t such compensation u s u a l l y t a k e s the form of making u n i d e n t i f i e d or u n r e p r e s e n t e d groups, such as 5 9 As d e f i n e d by Dunn (1971) d i a l o g u e i n c l u d e s the a b i l i t y of each s i d e t o s t a t e the opponent's p o s i t i o n and the c o n d i t i o n s under which i t would be v a l i d . 68 f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s or the wider p u b l i c , i n t o the c l a s s of l o s e r s , w h i l e everyone who i s r e p r e s e n t e d by v i r t u e of h i s b e i n g a b l e t o p e r c e i v e and a c t on e x p e c t e d impacts on h i s i n t e r e s t s becomes a "winner". V i r t u a l l y a l l c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e more than one c o n f l i c t t y p e , as d e f i n e d by L o r d , and most i n v o l v e a l l t h r e e t y p e s . L o r d s u g gests t h a t i f the c o n f l i c t i n g groups can f i r s t come t o as much of an agreement as i s p o s s i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t which s h o u l d be most o b j e c t i v e l y and most e a s i l y v e r i f i a b l e , such as b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , then c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t may be v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. T h i s i s u s e f u l f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t , and most o b v i o u s , one a s p e c t of c o n f l i c t has been a d d r e s s e d , which i s the o b j e c t i v e of the e x e r c i s e ; second, the r e d u c t i o n and perhaps v i r t u a l removal of c o g n i t i v e elements w i l l make the i n t e r e s t and v a l u e elements more e a s i l y a d d r e s s a b l e . I n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be i n d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s way, s i n c e when some se t of o b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been assembled and more or l e s s agreed t o , then each p a r t y w i l l be a b l e t o see more c l e a r l y j u s t how h i s own and o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a r e l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d by the proposed a c t i o n s and developments. I n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t can a l s o be d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t : by making c l e a r the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s through e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s or "mapping". In t h i s way they can be o b j e c t i v e l y or s u b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d , and how they o v e r l a p and t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t one a n other can be a s c e r t a i n e d from an o b j e c t i v e or s e v e r a l s u b j e c t i v e 69 v i e w p o i n t s . I f a development proponent were t o have an " i n t e r e s t map" of t h i s s o r t , i t would then be e a s i e r f o r him t o determine the o t h e r i n t e r e s t groups which c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be expected t o d e s i r e n o t i f i c a t i o n of a development of a c e r t a i n s o r t i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n . T h i s would f a c i l i t a t e e a r l y co-o r d i n a t i o n of the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g between p a r t i e s who might o t h e r w i s e become opponents i n a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . In s h o r t , t h i s would h e l p those i n v o l v e d t o a d d r e s s i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t d i r e c t l y . V a lue c o n f l i c t i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o a d d r e s s than the o t h e r two t y p e s . I t can o n l y be hoped t h a t by making the c o g n i t i v e and i n t e r e s t elements more e x p l i c i t , v a l u e s might a t l e a s t become more c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d . T h i s would then mean t h a t each of the p a r t i e s c o u l d more e a s i l y s t a t e t h e i r v a l u e p o s i t i o n s , and so be b e t t e r a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o b a r g a i n i n g or n e g o t i a t i o n . While t h i s approach does not p r o v i d e a magic approach f o r r e s o l v i n g a l l c o n f l i c t , i t does promise a t l e a s t t o h e l p t h o s e i n v o l v e d t o a d d r e s s each a s p e c t of a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n i n the most s u i t a b l e manner, and a l s o perhaps t o u n t a n g l e the maze of c o n f l i c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , i f T r i b e ' s (1976) c l a i m t h a t one of the c e n t r a l g e n e r a t o r s of v a l u e c o n f l i c t i s a breakdown i n d i s c o u r s e between opponents, then s t a r t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s on .the more a p p r o a c h a b l e l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r e s t may be v e r y u s e f u l i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g communication, as was mentioned e a r l i e r . 70 D. SYNTHESIS OF A CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL. The models d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n may be summarised as f o l l o w s : Wehr: - i n c r e a s e communication between p a r t i e s t o a c o n f l i c t ; - i n c r e a s e t r u s t between p a r t i e s t o a c o n f l i c t ; - use a t h i r d p a r t y t o mediate, but not ( a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y ) t o impose a s e t t l e m e n t of the i s s u e ; and - g a i n agreement r e g a r d i n g t h a t which can be agreed upon i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e the h a b i t of s u c c e s s f u l communication and t r u s t . Fox: - open the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a l l i n t e r e s t s . L o r d : - D i v i d e a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n i n t o i t s c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and v a l u e components i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t r e s o l u t i o n of those a s p e c t s of the c o n f l i c t which a re most e a s i l y r e s o l v e d , and so t h a t the r e m a i n i n g i s s u e s a r e as c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as p o s s i b l e . I propose a s y n t h e s i s of th e s e elements as f o l l o w s : 1) A m e d i a t i n g agency which i s as n e u t r a l as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the s i t u a t i o n as soon as i t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t i t i s l i k e l y t o generate c o n f l i c t . The agency need n o t , and perhaps s h o u l d n o t , have the a u t h o r i t y t o impose s o l u t i o n s t o c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e , but i t s h o u l d have the a u t h o r i t y t o f o r c e each p a r t y t o the c o n f l i c t t o take p a r t i n a m e d i a t i o n p r o c e s s . 2) R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of each major i n t e r e s t group s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system as soon as p o s s i b l e . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e would be r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from opponents t o the v e r y e x i s t e n c e of the proposed c o r r i d o r , 71 and from opponents of i t s proposed r.outing and d e s i g n , as w e l l as from proponents of the p r o j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from groups which oppose and support the c o r r i d o r or a s p e c t s of i t s d e s i g n f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . The groups t o be r e p r e s e n t e d might be d e t e r m i n e d by the m e d i a t i n g agency on the b a s i s of i t s a n a l y s i s of the t y p e s of i n t e r e s t s which c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t and i t s ef f e c t s . 3) The c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be a n a l y s e d i n t o i t s c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and v a l u e components. T h i s may be done by f i r s t a t t e m p t i n g t o o b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e what the c o g n i t i v e e lements a r e , and d e f i n i n g the most o b j e c t i v e l y a c c e p t a b l e c o g n i t i v e f a c t s r e g a r d i n g the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . The c o n f l i c t elements which remain may then be c o n s i d e r r e d t o be m o s t l y i n t e r e s t and v a l u e c o n f l i c t s . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d below, and elsew h e r e i n the t h e s i s . 4) The i n t e r e s t s of each p a r t i c i p a n t , and the impacts of the p r o j e c t on tho s e i n t e r e s t s as p e r c e i v e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t , s h o u l d be d e f i n e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t and communicated t o t h e o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . 5) D i s c u s s i o n s of the v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s may be i m p l i c i t l y approached t h r o u g h " t h e f o r e g o i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s , but some attempt s h o u l d be made t o p o i n t out the p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s . 6 ) Some means must be de v e l o p e d t o overcome d e a d l o c k s which 72 a r i s e i n t h i s p r o c e s s . 6 0 W h i l e not every p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n and every c o n c o m i t a n t d e a d l o c k can be overcome i n a manner s a t i s f a c t o r y t o everyone concerned, some attempt must be made t o d e v e l o p a p r o c e s s which a t l e a s t does not f l y i n the fac e of what most of us wi s h t o b e l i e v e a re the "democratic t r a d i t i o n s of our s o c i e t y . " T h i s means t h a t i f those people and groups who i d e n t i f y t h e i r v a l u e s or i n t e r e s t s as b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n cannot d e v e l o p a s o l u t i o n t o the s i t u a t i o n among t h e m s e l v e s , then the matter s h o u l d be d e f i n e d as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e and r e f e r e d f o r a d e c i s i o n t o some one or some group which i s d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o the p u b l i c . 1. COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE ORIGINS OF CONFLICT. The c o n f l i c t management model s y n t h e s i s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n has elements which a re v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o the improvements i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system which were i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I as b e i n g n e c e s s a r y . The elements which a r o s e i n each a n a l y s i s a re compared i n t h e t a b l e below. 6 0 The requirement i s not t h a t the d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g overcoming the d e a d l o c k must n e c e s s a r i l y be a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , but r a t h e r t h a t the method of r e a c h i n g the d e c i s i o n must be a c c e p t a b l e . 73 Comparison of the c o n f l i c t management model and the improvements i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system.  Improvements i n the p l a n n i n g Elements of the and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system c o n f 1 i c t management model - e n s u r i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y and - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e use of a l l r e l e v a n t and a v a i l - elements and i n f o r m a t i o n a b l e (or o b t a i n a b l e ) i n f o r m a t i o n , and making c l e a r the i n f o r m a t i o n which i s not a v a i l a b l e or i s u n c e r t a i n - e n s u r i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of - involvement of r e p r e s e n -v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s t a t i v e s of each i n t e r e s t group - f a c i l i t a t i n g communication of - the c l e a r communication of n o r m a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r e s t s and an i m p l i c i t (and p o s s i b l y an e x p l i c i t ) awareness and an approach t o the p l a c e of v a l u e s i n the g e n e r a t i o n and management of c o n f l i c t - i n c l u s i o n of a f a c i l i t y t o - development of an a c c e p t a b l e overcome d e a d l o c k s means by which d e a d l o c k s may be r e s o l v e d I n a d d i t i o n , the c o n f l i c t management model i n c l u d e s elements which I f e e l a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the above f o u r f a c t o r s . These elements are the involvement of a n e u t r a l f a c i l i t a t o r or mediator and the a n a l y s i s of a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n i n t o i t s c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and v a l u e components. Thus, t o the e x t e n t t h a t a) the c o n f l i c t o r i g i n s have been c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d , and b) the c o n f l i c t management model elements are implementable, the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system w i l l be improved by u s i n g a c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g y as o u t l i n e d above. 74 2. COMPARISON OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT MODEL WITH THE APPROACH APPARENTLY USED FOR THE THREE TRANSPORTATION  CORRIDORS. In t h i s s e c t i o n the c o n f l i c t management model i s b r i e f l y compared w i t h the p l a n n i n g approaches which were a p p a r e n t l y used f o r the c o r r i d o r s s t u d i e d e a r l i e r . T h i s both completes the s u p e r f i c i a l a n a l y s i s of the model a n d - i t s p o t e n t i a l , and p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t o r y b r i d g e t o the next c h a p t e r , i n which t h e r e i s a more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g approaches (as opposed t o the c o n f l i c t h i s t o r y , which was the s u b j e c t of Chapter I I ) which were used f o r the r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and d e s i g n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road. No d i s t i n c t i o n was made between c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and v a l u e i n f o r m a t i o n i n any a n a l y s i s d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g of the t h r e e c o r r i d o r s nor was the l e v e l of u n c e r t a i n t y of c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a d d r e s s e d except i n an a d v e r s a r i a l manner. In a l l c a s e s except the l a s t s e c t i o n of the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Road the i n f o r m a t i o n used f o r the r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and d e s i g n of the c o r r i d o r s was t h a t d e t e r m i n e d r e l e v a n t and a v a i l a b l e by the proponent agency. In o n l y one i n s t a n c e , the Omineca M i n i n g Road, was a " m e d i a t i n g " agency i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f l i c t t h a t d e v e l o p e d , but the agency d i d not have the a u t h o r i t y t o ensure t h a t agreements were r e s p e c t e d by a l l p a r t i e s . Deadlocked c o n f l i c t s were e v e n t u a l l y a d d r e s s e d ( i f not r e s o l v e d ) a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s i s p r o p e r , f o r p o l i t i c i a n s i n our s o c i e t y a r e d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e 75 t o the p u b l i c . However, the c o n f l i c t s were not r e f e r e d t o the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l f o r r e s o l u t i o n as a normal p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the i s s u e s of the c o n f l i c t b e i n g w e l l d e f i n e d or d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o c o g n i t i v e , v a l u e or i n t e r e s t d e r i v e d , and so on. R a t h e r , the p o l i t i c i a n s became i n v o l v e d i n the s i t u a t i o n o n l y when one or more p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t managed t o make the m atter a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e of s u f f i c i e n t importance t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s c o u l d not i g n o r e i t . E. SUMMARY. Through a b r i e f survey of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e a c o n f l i c t management s t r a t e g y has been s y t h e s i z e d . From comparison of the s t r a t e g y w i t h w i t h the c o n f l i c t o r i g i n s and the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems used f o r t h e i r d e r i v a t i o n , the s t r a t e g y appears t o have some p o t e n t i a l f o r the management of c o n f l i c t i n t h i s c o n t e x t . In the next c h a p t e r I r e l a t e i n some d e t a i l the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system used f o r the l a t t e r p a r t of the Omineca M i n i n g Road and compare i t w i t h the c o n f l i c t management model dev e l o p e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 76 IV. THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD. A. INTRODUCTION. In o r d e r t o demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of the c o n f l i c t management model i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of an e x i s t i n g planning-management system t o p r o v i d e a comparison. In t h i s c h a p t e r I d e s c r i b e the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road. A l t h o u g h the m a t e r i a l i n t h i s c h a p t e r r e p e a t s t h a t of Chapter I I t o some e x t e n t , i t s o r i e n t a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t , f o r r a t h e r than s e e k i n g t o r e l a t e the r e l e v a n t s e r i e s and p a t t e r n of events as r e p o r t e d by o b s e r v e r s , i n t h i s c h a p t e r I seek t o e x p l a i n the c o n t e n t and p a t t e r n of the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system which t o a l a r g e e x t e n t formed the e v e n t s . Because the p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s by d i f f e r i n g a g e n c i e s and o t h e r groups f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road appears t o have been l a r g e l y u n c o - o r d i n a t e d , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s f o l l o w e d by the two main a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n , the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines and the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, a r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . In a d d i t i o n , the involvement of ELUC i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d because t h i s agency i s i n some r e s p e c t s a p r o t o t y p e of the c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency d e s c r i b e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s . 6 1 F i n a l l y , t he involvement of the p u b l i c i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . In orde r t o g i v e some f o c u s 6 1 The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s do not i n c l u d e the d e t a i l e d d e s i g n of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency, but s i n c e the e x i s t e n c e of some agent which can a c t as an independent yet f o r c e f u l n e u t r a l agent appears t o be n e c e s s a r y , i t i s d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s through the t h e s i s . 77 t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n an emphasis i s made throughout on one s p e c i f i c a r e a of c o n f l i c t : the impact of the r oad on salmon spawning h a b i t a t . B. THE PLANNING PROCESS OF THE B. C. MINISTRY OF MINES. There i s some d i f f i c u l t y i n u n r a v e l l i n g the r e a l i t y of the p l a n n i n g approach used by the B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , because of a d i v e r g e n c e between the methods they c l a i m e d t o use and the a c t i o n s t h a t they were r e p o r t e d t o t a k e . In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the t h e o r e t i c a l approach ( i . e . t h a t which was c l a i m e d t o have been used by Mines) i s f i r s t s e t f o r t h . Next, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a n n i n g and management approach as gleaned from r e p o r t s of c o n s t r u c t i o n and o t h e r a c t i o n s i s f o r m u l a t e d . F i n a l l y , t h e s e two d e s c r i p t i o n s are compared and a s y n t h e s i s proposed. 1. THEORETICAL APPROACH. The Omineca M i n i n g Road was b u i l t under the a u s p i c e s of the M i n e r a l Road Program t o p r o v i d e "road a c c e s s t o a s s i s t i n m i n i n g and p e t r o l e u m e x p l o r a t i o n . ... f o r a c c e s s t o a r e a s of s i g n i f i c a n t m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l " . 6 2 T h i s s i n g l e o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n a c o r r i d o r which passes c l o s e t o a number of known but not d e l i m i t e d m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s . 6 3 The r a t i o n a l e f o r b u i l d i n g the r o ad i s t h a t i t reduces the " l e n g t h of the a i r f r e i g h t h a u l t o e x p l o r a t i o n s i t e s . For some m i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s , i t has 6 2 The Omineca M i n i n g Road, Paper p r e p a r e d f o r the Hon. J . R. Chabot, Min. of Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , In Response t o a B r i e f S u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r by the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , Aug. 24, 1978, p. 1. 6 3 i b i d , p. 2. 78 e l i m i n a t e d the n e c e s s i t y of b u i l d i n g l o c a l s h o r t - t e r m a c c e s s roads by making h e l i c o p t e r a c c e s s c o m p e t i t i v e . " 6 " Thus the b e n e f i t s a r e t w o f o l d : 1) the c o s t of e x p l o r a t i o n i s reduced, which i n c r e a s e s a c t i v i t y and so reduces u n c e r t a i n t y r e l a t i n g t o the e x i s t e n c e of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i n the r e g i o n ; and 2) the e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e i s m i n i m i s e d because o n l y one permanent road i s b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d r a t h e r than many' temporary r o u t e s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d and not m a i n t a i n e d . So i t i s seen t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of a s i n g l e o b j e c t i v e on the p a r t of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines does not p r e c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the mandated i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s : " I n e x t e n d i n g the ro a d , M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s have been w e l l aware of the f i s h and w i l d l i f e v a l u e s i n the area and have worked t o m i n i m i s e the impact of the a c c e s s and adopt c o n s t r u c t i o n methods which w i l l reduce the d i s t u r b a n c e t o streams and v e g e t a t i o n . " 6 5 In a d d i t i o n , i n 1978 the M i n i s t e r wrote t h a t "During the pa s t year ... u p g r a d i n g and r e c l a m a t i o n work were c a r r i e d out ... from Johansen Lake t o Moosevale Creek. The r e c l a m a t i o n program c o n s i s t e d of r e g r a d i n g and s l o p i n g of d i s t u r b e d a r e a s on each s i d e of the roa d , d i t c h i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n of g r a s s seed m i x t u r e s and f e r t i l i z e r . An i n s p e c t i o n made i n the e a r l y p a r t of October i n d i c a t e s t h a t a good c a t c h of g r a s s has been a c h i e v e d which w i l l a s s i s t i n s t a b i l i z i n g the road m a r g i n s . " 6 6 i b i d pp. 3-4. i b i d pp.2-3. L e t t e r from J . Chabot t o H. L. P e t e r s o n , Chairman, E n v i r o n m e n t a l Committee, Spruce C i t y W i l d l i f e A s s o c i a t i o n , P r i n c e George, B. C , November, 22, 1978. 79 T h i s work had been preceded by a two year experiment t o determine the most e f f e c t i v e mix of cover s p e c i e s and f e r t i l i s e r s . The a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t of o t h e r a g e n c i e s i s s t a t e d t o be encouraged. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d from the case s t u d y ( i n Chapter I I ) t h a t the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines had a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r e s t the F o r e s t r y Department i n b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g (and f u n d i n g ) of the road when i t s e x t e n s i o n was f i r s t b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . L a t e r the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch was n o t i f i e d t h a t : " P r o p o s a l s f o r e x t e n s i o n of t h e road ... may be c o n s i d e r e d at the ' P r o s p e c t u s ' stage and t h e r e has a l r e a d y been c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r a g e n c y d i s c u s s i o n of them ... I f f u r t h e r p l a n n i n g and r o u t e s e l e c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y , ... i n t e r e s t e d a g e n c i e s must i d e n t i f y the a r e a s of concern and p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y d a t a . " 6 7 The m i n i s t e r s t a t e d t h a t r o u t e p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d "a p r e l i m i n a r y e n g i n e e r i n g survey i n which a proposed r o u t e was s e l e c t e d ... f o l l o w e d by a f i e l d s t udy by t h e Resource A n a l y s i s Branch of the M i n i s t r y of the Environment t o determine e n v i r o n m e n t a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l a t e d impacts t h a t c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d s h o u l d t h e r o a d be c o n s t r u c t e d . ... The R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees ... were c o n t a c t e d ... and the program was o u t l i n e d p r i o r t o i t s i n i t i a t i o n . ... The purpose of t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l f a c t o r s a r e r e c o g n i s e d b e f o r e a d e c i s i o n t o proceed w i t h the p r o j e c t i s made." 6 8 Some 6 7 Memorandum from Dr. J . F y l e s , deputy m i n i s t e r of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines t o Mr. B. C. M arr, deputy m i n i s t e r of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment. 6 8 L e t t e r from J . Chabot t o H. L. P e t e r s o n , op c ' i t . 80 e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g v a r i o u s e r o s i o n c o n t r o l measures were under t a k e n . There appear t o be few l i m i t s on the amount of h e l p g i v e n o t h e r a g e n c i e s by the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines: "The m i n i s t r y s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o a s s i s t f i n a n c i a l l y w i t h the management of w i l d l i f e i i i the ar e a through c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch ..," 6 9 An example of t h i s was e x p l a i n e d : "In the 1976 summer season the M i n i s t r y p a i d f o r an a u x i l i a r y c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i c e r ... d u r i n g the h u n t i n g s e a s o n . " 7 0 But the c o s t s of p l a n n i n g and management were e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t o be "commensurate w i t h the c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i o n . " 7 1 The procedure was s t a t e d t o be s u c c e s s f u l : "... the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts r e s u l t i n g from c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s road a r e m i n i m a l . " 7 2 " T h i s i s a low c o s t , m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d road which i n the p a s t has had l i t t l e impact on the environment ..," 7 3 The o v e r a l l v a l i d i t y of the program was s t a t e d t o be beyond q u e s t i o n : on one hand "There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t the Omineca M i n i n g Road has conformed t o the p o l i c i e s of the M i n i n g Road Program of the Government and has been s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i m u l a t i n g e x p l o r a t i o n and i n the development of s e v e r a l m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s w i t h p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l . " 7 " w h i l e on the o t h e r " I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out a c o s t b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s of the e x t e n s i o n The Omineca M i n i n g Road op c i t , pp. 5-6. i b i d , p. 3. Memorandum, F y l e s t o Marr, op c i t . Dr. J . F y l e s i n t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Les S t o r e y , P r e s i d e n t of the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , March 18, 1978. Memorandum, F y l e s t o Marr, op c i t . The Omineca M i n i n g Road, op c i t , p. 5. 81 of the Omineca M i n i n g Road beyond U s l i k a Lake. M i n e r a l r e s o u r c e v a l u e s a r e s t i l l unknown and "environmental " l o s s e s " cannot be q u a n t i f i e d . " 7 5 In essence: the u t i l i t y of the Omineca M i n i n g Road i s o b v i o u s , but i t can't be proven. The approach t h a t the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines c l a i m s t o use c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l elements and i s based on s e v e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s : i . The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of the program r e l a t e to a) the r e d u c t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n c o s t s , and b) the r e d u c t i o n of u n c e r t a i n t y r e l a t i n g t o m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s . T h i s i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be open t o q u e s t i o n , or even c a p a b l e of b e i n g p r o v e n . i i . E n v i r o n m e n t a l damage caused by the road can be p r e d i c t e d . By u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n methods and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures the d i s t u r b a n c e which o c c u r s can be c o n t r o l l e d or stopped. E x p e r i m e n t s were performed t o determine u s e f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures. i i i . P l a n n i n g c o s t s s h o u l d be a f u n c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s . i v . I n t e r a g e n c y communication i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . v. Communication w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s o c c u r s a f t e r p o t e n t i a l r o u t e s have been s e l e c t e d and t o a l a r g e e x t e n t e v a l u a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r impacts on f a c t o r s of p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t t o the B. C. M i n i s t r y of 7 5 i b i d , p. 3. 82 Mines. In comparison w i t h the i d e a l i s e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the p r o c e s s which the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines c l a i m e d t o have used was o n l y weakly i t e r a t i v e and r e c u r s i v e . There was l i t t l e apparent feedback between i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d a t l a t e r s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s and e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n s t e p s . For i n s t a n c e , r a t h e r than s i t e - s p e c i f i c b i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g used t o suggest a l t e r a t i o n s of the r o u t i n g or c a n c e l l a t i o n of the p r o j e c t , o n l y m i t i g a t i o n measures were c o n s i d e r e d . 2. APPARENT ACTUAL APPROACH. There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n s from the approach o u t l i n e d above and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which i s r e v e a l e d from the Mines m i n i s t r y and F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road. i . A l t h o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage can i n some c a s e s be p r e d i c t e d u s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t any attempt was made t o do so. I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might have been a v a i l a b l e was not sought o u t , and i n f o r m a t i o n which was c o u n t e r t o the l i m i t e d g o a l s of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines was i g n o r e d or c o n t e s t e d w i t h l i t t l e a p parent j u s t i f i c a t i o n . 7 6 i i . I n t e r a g e n c y communication o c c u r r e d , but was l i m i t e d t o 7 6 A D i s c u s s i o n of the C o s t s and B e n e f i t s of the Omineca M i n i n g Road, ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , J a n . 14, 1976. 83 a) an i n i t i a l attempt t o i n t e r e s t the F o r e s t r y Department i n s h a r i n g the c o s t of the r o a d , and b) a l a t e r exchange of i n s u l t s between the Mines o f f i c i a l s i n c harge of the Roads program and F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch o f f i c i a l s because the e x t e n s i o n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road t o Moosevale o c c u r r e d a g a i n s t the w i s h e s and recommendations of o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n c l u d i n g E LUC, 7 7 and an i n t e r a g e n c y t a s k group i n the Omineca-Peace R e g i o n . 7 8 i i i . S i n c e the road was b u i l t w i t h o u t p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o use a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o determine s u i t a b l e c o r r i d o r l o c a t i o n s was f o r e c l o s e d . 7 9 On the segment of the road beyond Moosevale an a n a l y s i s by the Resource A n a l y s i s Branch was r e q u e s t e d by Mines, but l a r g e machines t r a v e r s e d the r o u t e i t was t o i n v e s t i g a t e a month b e f o r e the a n a l y s i s was r e c e i v e d . 8 0 i v . There appeared t o be an a b s o l u t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n by the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines t o b u i l d the Omineca M i n i n g Road d e s p i t e any p o t e n t i a l problems t h a t might be i d e n t i f i e d . For i n s t a n c e , the r e p o r t by the Mines R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e c t i o n on t h e i r s e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t s 7 7 Summary of Important C o n c l u s i o n s , A. C r e r a r , D i r e s t o r , ELUC, Aug. 20.1975. 7 8 Omineca M i n i n g Road Study, R i c C a r e l e s s , Resource P l a n n i n g U n i t , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , Oct. 9, 1975. 7 9 D. K i n g , R e g i o n a l B i o l o g i s t , B. C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, quoted i n the C a l e d o n i a C o u r i e r , F o r t S t . James, J u l y 5., 1978. 8 0 Government Departments S p l i t over M i n i n g Road, by Suzanne F o u r n i e r , The P r o v i n c e , p. 33, Sept. 14, 1978. 84 s t a t e d : "The most r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d s e c t i o n of the road i n the Johansen Lake a r e a c o n t a i n s u n s t a b l e s o i l s . T h i s , combined w i t h e f f e c t s of c l i m a t e at h i g h e l e v a t i o n s (1460 m e t r e s ) , makes r e v e g e t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . " 8 1 Such apparent problem p o t e n t i a l s d i d not b l u n t t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n . In f a c t i t was s t a t e d c o n c e r n i n g the impacts on w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t from i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t h a t "... the road i t s e l f i s not the c u l p r i t s i n c e i t i s q u i t e p a s s i v e ... i f h u n t i n g p r e s s u r e i s too h i g h , ... then h u n t i n g a l o n g the road s h o u l d be stopped by h u n t i n g r e g u l a t i o n , not by f o r b i d d i n g the b u i l d i n g of the r o a d . I f A. T. V.'s a r e damaging the f r a g i l e t u n d r a , then a r e g u l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r use would s e r v e t o s t o p t h i s j u s t as w e l l as f o r b i d d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r o a d . " 8 2 T h i s b r i e f resume su g g e s t s the f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : i . I n f o r m a t i o n which d i d not f i t the management h y p o t h e s i s was i g n o r e d or d i s p u t e d . i i . E n v i r o n m e n t a l damage r e s u l t i n g from a c t i o n s of the B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines were c o n s i d e r e d t o be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of another agency, as d e f i n e d by the 1 Omineca Road V e g e t a t i o n T r i a l s , I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n , B. C. M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , January 1978, p. 9. 2 Omineca Road, P.E. O l s o n , S e n i o r I n s p e c t o r , B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines. T h i s statement and the document i n which i t was c o n t a i n e d was s p e c i f i c a l l y approved and c i r c u l a t e d by the deputy m i n i s t e r of the M i n i s t r y of M i n e s , J . F y l e s . 85 r e l e v a n t mandate, i i i . Communication w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s was d e f e n s i v e and s p o r a d i c , not r e c e p t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e . 3. SYNTHESIS. * I f i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the d i v e r g e n c e between the c l a i m e d and apparent management approaches i s not g e n e r a t e d by m a l - i n t e n t , a c r e d i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t Mines p e r s o n n e l h e l d a very i n s u l a r view of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g , management and use of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . T h i s view appears t o have i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : i . The Mines mandate p r e c l u d e d the n e c e s s i t y t o co-o r d i n a t e i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s or p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups. i i . N e v e r t h e l e s s , communication w i t h t h e s e groups was e n t e r t a i n e d . Communication was not equated w i t h d i a l o g u e (as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r ) but r a t h e r w i t h memorandum g e n e r a t i o n . i i i . The assumptions upon which programs and p o l i c i e s were based a r e not t e s t e d or even c o n s i d e r e d t o be t e s t a b l e . i v . The Mines mandate d e f i n e d the M i n i s t r y ' s a r e a of i n t e r e s t ; l i t t l e i mportance was g i v e n f a c t o r s o u t s i d e of the mandated i n t e r e s t s . 86 C. THE PLANNING PROCESS OF THE FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH. The r o l e of the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch was t h a t of a r e a c t o r t o B. C. M i n i s t r y of Mines i n i t i a t i v e s . Moreover, s i n c e Mines was under no o b l i g a t i o n to c o - o r d i n a t e i t s r o a d -b u i l d i n g program w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s , F i s h and W i l d l i f e had no i n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y t o ensure t h a t i t s i n t e r e s t s were r e s p e c t e d i n p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s . Nor d i d the Branch have the r e s o u r c e s t o g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e about f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s i n the a f f e c t e d a r e a s so t h a t i t might b e t t e r p r e s e n t i t s p o s i t i o n . Thus i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t the involvement of the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n the p l a n n i n g of the Omineca M i n i n g Road was not a t a l l s i m i l a r t o the i d e a l i s e d p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I . Three main t r e n d s i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch ar e a p p a r e n t : i . I n t h e u s u a l s p i r i t of r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g , t h e r e were p r o h i b i t o r y and n e g a t i v e a c t i o n s : h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were proposed and implemented, a t o t a l h a l t t o the road c o n s t r u c t i o n was a t t e m p t e d ; i i . C o n t r o l and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the road and i t s impact on the n a t u r a l environment were suggested t o (and o c c a s i o n a l l y c a r r i e d out by) Mines; and i i i . R e s earch i n t o p a r a m e t r i c ( i . e . p o p u l a t i o n and h a b i t a t ) u n c e r t a i n t i e s was undertaken where the need was p e r c e i v e d t o be most c r i t i c a l . 87 No e x p l i c i t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n appears t o have been performed by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, a l t h o u g h r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r p r o h i b i t i v e and o t h e r c o n t r o l s . 8 3 The r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , or even f o r c r e d i b l e parameter d e t e r m i n a t i o n or c o n t r o l and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e a c t i o n s , or f o r the enforcement of f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were not a v a i l a b l e . D. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT. I n t e r e s t i n the Omineca M i n i n g Road by the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t i s apparent i n l a t e 1974, but o f f i c i a l involvement i n the p l a n n i n g of the road d i d not commence u n t i l S p r i n g 1975, when upon r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c and F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s of the r o a d , the ma t t e r was r e f e r r e d t o the Committee. 8" I t i s apparent that, the m i n i s t e r s i n v o l v e d b e l i e v e d t h a t by r e f e r r i n g the ma t t e r t o the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t the problems would be q u i c k l y r e s o l v e d and f u r t h e r c o n t r o v e r s y would be a v o i d e d . 8 5 The S e c r e t a r i a t recommended an immediate h a l t t o c o n s t r u c t i o n , and an emphasis on r e d u c t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l 3 D. R. H a l l a d a y t o K. N. C h i l d , F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch Memorandum, J u l y 18, 1975. " L e t t e r from A. A. N u n w e i l e r , M i n i s t e r f o r N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , t o Leo N i m s i c k , M i n i s t e r of Mines and Pe t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , March 20, 1975. 5 i b i d . 6 Memorandum from A. D. C r e r a r , D i r e c t o r , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , t o the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t , May 9, 1975. 88 impacts which were emanating from p r e v i o u s w o r k . 8 6 In a d d i t i o n , a w o r k i n g committee of " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of Mines, Highways, R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n and the S e c r e t a r i a t " was e s t a b l i s h e d under the a e g i s of the Omineca-Peace R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee. I t was t o make a f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and submit a r e p o r t by the end of J u l y 1 9 7 5 . 8 7 The working committee recommendations i n c l u d e d : i . t h a t the Omineca M i n i n g Road be t e r m i n a t e d a t Johansen Lake; i i . t h a t the roadbed beyond Johansen Lake be s t a b i l i s e d and " p u t - t o - b e d " ; i i i . t h a t the road not be promoted as a t o u r i s t e n d - p o i n t ; and i v . t h a t the maintenance of o t h e r s t r e t c h e s of the road be a t a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d than had been o c c u r i n g . 8 8 Upon r e c e i v i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n of the recommendations the A s s o c i a t e deputy m i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , E. H. Vernon, responded: "I b e l i e v e t h i s r e p o r t i s a sound b a s i s f o r f u t u r e management of t h i s road and I can see no need f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and re v i e w of t h i s m a t t e r . " 8 9 However, F i s h and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l s c l o s e r t o the f i e l d a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d o t h e r v i e w s : "While we agree w i t h the recommendations ... i t i s 7 L e t t e r from C r e r a r t o L. Br o o k s , deputy m i n i s t e r , R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , May 16,1975. 8 Omineca M i n i n g Road Study - Summary and Recommendations of the Task Group, by R i c C a r e l e s s , Resource P l a n n i n g U n i t , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , O ct. 9, 1975. 9 L e t t e r from E. H. Vernon t o A. D. C r e r a r , Oct.23,1975. 89 o b v i o u s t h a t the r e p o r t was a 'paper s o l u t i o n ' o n l y and t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage i s s t i l l o c c u r i n g . P o s s i b l y we s h o u l d suggest t o ELUC t h a t they attempt t o back up t h e i r recommendations w i t h a f i r m hand i f p o s s i b l e . The apparent c o n f u s i o n as t o who r e a l l y wants or has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s road may make t h i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t . " 9 0 T h i s concern was passed on t o the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t : "On the b a s i s of {a} r e p o r t on maintenance work done t h i s year {on the Omineca M i n i n g Road}, i t i s apparent t h a t the recommendations of the Task Force have not been v e r y w e l l c a r r i e d out ... We would suggest t h a t the ELUC must f i n d a way of e n s u r i n g t h a t the recommendations of the Task Force a r e p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d o u t . " 9 1 In e a r l y 1976 the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "A D i s c u s s i o n of the B e n e f i t s and C o s t s of the Omineca M i n i n g Road", which was i t s major a n a l y s i s of the p r o j e c t t o t h a t d a t e . I t c o n c l u d e d t h a t the road was "an example of the type of l a n d use p r a c t i c e s which {must be stopped} i f development { i s } t o proceed s e n s i b l y . " 9 2 S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , a t a meeting between ELUC and Mines, Mines o f f e r e d t o h e l p fund an e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n program w i t h the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. In a d d i t i o n , "Agreement was reached t h a t Johansen Lake c o u l d be an a c c e p t a b l e t e r m i n u s and t h a t p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n t o Moosevale a w a i t M i n i s t e r i a l ' d i r e c t i o n r e : p o l i c y and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of 9 0 J . H. C. Walker, C o - o r d i n a t o r , H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n , t o E. H. Vernon, Oct. 29, 1975. 9 1 E. H. Vernon t o A. D. C r e r a r , Nov. 3, 1975. 9 2 Op. c i t . p. 8. 90 a v a i l a b i l i t y of f u n d i n g by Mines B r a n c h . " 9 3 In May, 1976, f u n d i n g f o r e x t e n s i o n of the road was g r a n t e d , and so the agreement t o h a l t c o n s t r u c t i o n became e s s e n t i a l l y w o r t h l e s s . The l a s t involvement of the Committee appears t o have been i n S p r i n g 1978, when an attempt was made t o make ELUC's G u i d e l i n e s f o r L i n e a r Development a p p l i c a b l e t o the Omineca M i n i n g Road. Mines agreed t h a t ' m o d i f i e d ' G u i d e l i n e s c o u l d be a p p l i e d , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n i n the Depar t m e n t a l f i l e s t h a t problems such as t h a t posed by t h i s p r o j e c t s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d to ELUC o n l y i f t h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . Thus ELUC was seen (by the agency a c t o r s i n t h i s drama) as a c o u r t of l a s t r e s o r t , r a t h e r than a u s e f u l f a c i l i t a t o r a t a l l s t a g e s of i n t e r a g e n c y p l a n n i n g . T h i s may have r e s u l t e d from a p e r c e p t i o n w i t h i n the a g e n c i e s concerned t h a t ELUC d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s o n l y a t the h i g h e s t b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l s and t h a t i t s h o u l d not be n e c e s s a r y t o r a i s e a l l i n t e r a g e n c y i s s u e s t o t h a t l e v e l . The main a s p e c t s of ELUC in v o l v e m e n t appear t o have been: i . I n t e r a g e n c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d where a g e n c i e s were f o r c e d t o or agreed t o be c o - o r d i n a t e d . i i . Because the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t d i d not have the a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e adherence t o i t s recommendations, they were o f t e n i g n o r e d by p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t . i i i . The e f f o r t s of ELUC were e s s e n t i a l l y ad hoc -a l t h o u g h Committee or S e c r e t a r i a t members might have 9 3 M e e t i n g on Omineca M i n i n g Road, J a n . 19, 1976, D. O'Gorman, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , J a n . 21,1976. 9 1 an awareness or i n t e r e s t i n an i s s u e , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t ELUC involvement extended past t h a t which i t s p o l i t i c a l masters r e q u e s t e d . In o t h e r words, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e ELUC appears t o have a c t e d as a r e a c t i v e agency, e n t e r i n g the s i t u a t i o n o n l y when r e q u e s t e d t o do so. i v . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t ELUC sought t o i n v o l v e o t h e r a g e n c i e s or p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s i n the d i s c u s s i o n s . 9 4 v. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of an o r i e n t a t i o n towards e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . E. THE INVOLVEMENT OF PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS. P u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups concerned w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road may c o n v e n i e n t l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two t y p e s : 1) m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s ; and 2) s p o r t s ( h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g ) and c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s . a. M i n i n g I n t e r e s t s . M i n i n g i n t e r e s t s were not u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n f a v o u r of e x t e n s i o n of the ro a d . A l t h o u g h the i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n t o ext e n d the road was s t a t e d t o have r e s u l t e d from r e q u e s t s from m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s f o r t h i s , and such support c o n t i n u e d t o be made p u b l i c , t h e r e was some o p p o s i t i o n t o e x t e n s i o n of the road because of the p o t e n t i a l f o r v a n d a l i s m and o t h e r d i s t u r b a n c e w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n 9 4 An e x c e p t i o n o c c u r e d a t a meeting on June 2, 1975, which r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the F o r e s t S e r v i c e and the Highways M i n i s t r y a t t e n d e d i n o r d e r t o respond t o s u g g e s t i o n s made a t a p r e v i o u s meeting ( J a n . 19, 1976) when Mines proposed t h a t F o r e s t r y and Highways s h o u l d t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road. 92 and m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s t h a t the a c c e s s p r o v i d e d . b. S p o r t i n g And C o n s e r v a t i o n I n t e r e s t s . These i n t e r e s t groups e x p r e s s e d o p p o s i t i o n t o the f a c t o f , l o c a t i o n , and methods used i n the e x t e n s i o n of the Omineca M i n i n g Road from 1973 u n t i l c o n s t r u c t i o n ceased i n 1978. A l t h o u g h i t i s ob v i o u s t h a t t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n was noted and responded t o by the M i n i s t r i e s t o which i t was d i r e c t e d , 9 5 i t i s e q u a l l y o b v i o u s t h a t the c o m p l a i n t s had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the road proponent u n t i l 1978, when the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n showed a movie which i t had produced c o n c e r n i n g the Omineca M i n i n g Road t o a group of MLA's i n V i c t o r i a , and the same group and a number of o t h e r s p u b l i c i s e d the i s s u e t h r o u g h the media. There i s s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e t h a t the c o n s e r v a t i o n groups r e s o r t e d t o these t a c t i c s o n l y when they b e l i e v e d them t o be the o n l y means by which they c o u l d ensure t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s would be taken i n t o account i n the road p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . c. E s s e n t i a l F e a t u r e s Of T h e i r Involvement. The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the invol v e m e n t of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups appeared t o be: i . The p r o - c o r r i d o r m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s had a ready ear i n the M i n i n g M i n i s t r y ; i i . The a n t i - c o r r i d o r i n t e r e s t groups had no method of h a v i n g t h e i r v iews t a k e n account of i n the p r o c e s s as i t e x i s t e d . I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o 9 5 There a r e a number of examples of c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t the road e x t e n s i o n i n the v a r i o u s D e p a r t m e n t a l f i l e s which s t a t e t h a t the w r i t e r does not know t o which department the c o m p l a i n t s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d . 93 c a r r y the c o n f l i c t t o the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , and, i n e f f e c t , t o s u b v e r t , i f not change, the p r o c e s s . F. FEATURES OF THE PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM FOR THE LATTER PART OF THE OMINECA MINING ROAD. The p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road had the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : i . The o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n type e x p l i c i t l y a d d r e s s e d was c o g n i t i v e . i i . U n c e r t a i n t y was endemic but g e n e r a l l y u n r e c o g n i s e d even w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . i i i . V ery l i t t l e new c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n was g e n e r a t e d p r i o r t o d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made and a c t i o n b e i n g taken t h a t e f f e c t i v e l y f o r e c l o s e d a l t e r n a t i v e s . i v . No e x p l i c i t attempt was made t o i d e n t i f y and c o n t a c t groups t o i n v o l v e them i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n -making system. v. A m e d i a t i n g agency was engaged t o det e r m i n e o b j e c t i v e l y a c c e p t a b l e and r e l e v a n t c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . v i . The m e d i a t i n g agency was ony i n t r o d u c e d t o the s i t u a t i o n when i t had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d i n t o a c o n f l i c t . v i i . The m e d i a t i n g agency d i d not the a u t h o r i t y t o f o r c e adherence t o i t s recommendations. . v i i i . The proponent agency was not r e q u i r e d t o a l t e r i t s p l a n s t o s u i t the i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s or p e r c e p t i o n s of o t h e r groups. i x . No mechanism e x i s t e d f o r overcoming d e a d l o c k s , except 94 d i r e c t a p p e a l t o the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l as a p a r t i s a n a c t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , x. No mechanism e x i s t e d t o ensure t h a t the matter was c l e a r l y d e f i n e d when i t was put b e f o r e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . G. SUMMARY. In t h i s c h a p t e r I have b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d the o r i e n t a t i o n of and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system used f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road by the major a c t o r s who were or wished t o be i n v o l v e d i n the c o n t r o v e r s y . In the next c h a p t e r I b r i e f l y o u t l i n e how the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road might have o c c u r e d had the c o n f l i c t management model been used f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road. 95 V. THE HYPOTHETICAL OPERATION OF THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT  PLANNING PROCESS FOR THE OMINECA MINING ROAD. A. INTRODUCTION-. In t h i s c h a p t e r I g i v e a h y p o t h e t i c a l example of how the p l a n n i n g of the Omineca M i n i n g Road might have o c c u r e d , u s i n g the c o n f l i c t management model d e s c r i b e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s . The c o n f l i c t management p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s has as i t s o b j e c t i v e s : a) d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n , l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n of the c o r r i d o r ; and b) an e x p l i c i t a d d r e s s i n g of c o n f l i c t i s s u e s , so t h a t they a r e d e f i n e d as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . As elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s I assume throuhgout t h i s example t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o c o n s t r u c t a c o r r i d o r t o a c c e s s a c e r t a i n g e n e r a l a r e a has been made f o r s t r a t e g i c or o t h e r reasons which are p e r c e i v e d by the p o l i t i c i a n s t o o v e r - r i d e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 9 6 From the a n a l y s i s of the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s i t i s c l e a r t h a t an e x p l i c i t a d d r e s s i n g of c o n f l i c t i s s u e s r e q u i r e s : i . the involvement of a l l p a r t i e s ( p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ) which deem themselves t o be a f f e c t e d ; i i . the a b i l i t y of each p a r t y t o g e n e r a t e and communicate c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n which i s r e l e v a n t t o i t s 9 6 T h i s d e c i s i o n i s not i n c l u d e d because f a c t o r s e n t e r the a n a l y s i s which are d i f f e r e n t from those most r e l e v a n t t o s i t i n g and d e s i g n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s d e c i s i o n l e v e l s h o u l d be as w e l l - i n f o r m e d as p o s s i b l e , which i t was not f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road. In a d d i t i o n , the d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d the road was not made a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , but r a t h e r by the b u r e a u c r a c y . 96 c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and i t s i m p a c t s ; i i i . the a b i l i t y of each p a r t y t o d e f i n e and communicate i t s i n t e r e s t s and how these may be a f f e c t e d by the p r o j e c t ; i v . the a b i l i t y of each p a r t y t o d e f i n e and communicate the v a l u e s which i t h o l d s and the way i n which the p r o j e c t may impact on these v a l u e s or p h y s i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s of them; and v. the involvement of a c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency i n some r o l e which i s seen t o be o b j e c t i v e ( u n b i a s e d ) , and h a v i n g the a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u i r e the involvement of a l l p a r t i e s which a r e seen t o be r e l e v a n t t o the p r o j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o have some mechanism i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the p r o c e s s which e n s u r e s t h a t d e c i s i o n s a re made i n a way t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of our d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . In the r e s t of the c h a p t e r I d e s c r i b e how I b e l i e v e each of the r e q u i r e m e n t s c o u l d have been i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road. The example i s i n the form of a n a r r a t i v e . B. THE EXAMPLE. 1. THE DECISION TO CONSTRUCT A CORRIDOR TO FACILITATE MINERAL EXPLORATION IN THE OMINECA REGION IS ANNOUNCED. The announcement by the M i n i s t e r of Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources of a d e c i s i o n t o c o n s t r u c t a road n o r t h from Johansen Lake t o reduce the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s f o r p r i v a t e 97 concerns u n d e r t a k i n g m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n the Omineq.a r e g i o n i s accompanied by a statement t h a t a c o n f e r e n c e i s t o be h e l d t o determine the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s most r e l e v a n t t o d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s i t i n g and d e s i g n of the ro a d . The c o n f e r e n c e i s t o open a p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which has s t a t u t o r y time l i m i t a t i o n s and whose outcome must be r a t i f i e d by C a b i n e t . The M i n i s t r y of Mines c o n t a c t s a s e p a r a t e governmental body (which I s h a l l c a l l f o r conv e n i e n c e the " O b j e c t i v e F a c i l i t a t i n g Board", or OFB) whose mandate i s t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l and p u b l i c p l a n n i n g of p r o j e c t s which may impact p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . I do not i n t e n d t o d e s i g n a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r the OFB, but I would suggest t h a t i t s h o u l d be as independent as p o s s i b l e from s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s and i t s h o u l d have a c c e s s t o many d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of e x p e r t i s e i n both the s c i e n c e s and h u m a n i t i e s . The OFB i s asked t o o r g a n i s e and run the c o n f e r e n c e t h a t has been announced. The M i n i s t r y of Mines i s not h e s i t a n t t o re q u e s t t h a t the OFB do t h i s s e r v i c e , even though i t may r e s u l t i n a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s and a d i f f e r e n t outcome than Mines would p r e f e r , because Mines r e a l i s e s t h a t the OFB would c a l l the c o n f e r e n c e whether Mines r e q u e s t e d i t t o do so or not. 2. A CONFERENCE TO DETERMINE RELEVANT INFORMATION IS HELD. S t a f f of the OFB determine t o t h e i r best a b i l i t i e s the a r e a s and r e s o u r c e s which may be a f f e c t e d by the p r o j e c t . The OFB has an index of groups and i n d i v i d u a l s which have p r e v i o u s l y -e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n the r e g i o n concerned or i n r e s o u r c e s 98 which e x i s t w i t h i n i t . There a r e a l s o F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments and a g e n c i e s which have mandated r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the a r e a s and r e s o u r c e s c o n c e r n e d . There may a l s o be p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners, or h o l d e r s of l e a s e s , l i c e n s e s or o t h e r forms of t e n u r e i n the a r e a s c o n c e r n e d . A l l of t h e s e c l a s s e s of p a r t i e s a r e c o n t a c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f they w i s h t o a t t e n d the c o n f e r e n c e . In the case of the Omineca M i n i n g Road p r o p o s a l the OFB c o n t a c t s s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g the M i n i s t r i e s of F o r e s t s , of Lands P a r k s and H o u s i n g , and of the Environment. The f e d e r a l M i n i s t r i e s of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans and of I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s a r e a l s o i n formed of the c o n f e r e n c e . A l l r e g i s t e r e d p r o p e r t y owners and r e s i d e n t s of a r e a s which might be d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d a r e i n f o r m e d by m a i l of the n a t u r e of the p r o j e c t and the c o n f e r e n c e which i s t o be h e l d . H o l d e r s of m i n e r a l c l a i m s , g u i d i n g l i c e n s e s , f o r e s t r y l i c e n s e s and o r g a n i s a t i o n s l i k e the S i e r r a C l u b and the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n a r e a l s o n o t i f i e d . In a d d i t i o n , l o c a l p o l i t i c a l , s p o r t s and b u s i n e s s o r g a n i s a t i o n s a r e c o n t a c t e d and i n f o r m e d . F i n a l l y , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e p l a c e d i n a l l l o c a l newspapers from P r i n c e Rupert t o P r i n c e George, and i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . The a d v e r t i s e m e n t s e x p l a i n the n a t u r e and l o c a t i o n of the proposed p r o j e c t and ask t h a t anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g the c o n f e r e n c e c o n t a c t the OFB. When the l i s t of p a r t i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g the c o n f e r e n c e i s c o m p i l e d i t i s sent t o each p a r t y . I f more i n d i v i d u a l s and groups have i n d i c a t e d t h a t they w i s h t o a t t e n d 99 than can be accommodated, the Board may r e q u e s t t h a t the p a r t i e s d i s c u s s among themselves temporary i n t e r e s t or v a l u e groups t h a t might be formed so t h a t o n l y one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of might need t o a t t e n d . I t may be n e c e s s a r y f o r the Board t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s p r o c e s s . In t h i s case most i n t e r e s t s are a l r e a d y o r g a n i s e d t o some e x t e n t , so t h a t the f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g and g u i d i n g l i c e n s e e s are w i l l i n g t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by e x e c u t i v e s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o r g a n i s a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , the c o n s e r v a t i o n groups agree t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by SPEC and l o c a l and o t h e r h u n t e r s by the B. C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . The l o c a l n a t i v e groups a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by a member of the t r i b a l c o u n c i l , and one b u r e a u c r a t a t t e n d s on b e h a l f of I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s . Other government a g e n c i e s a r e l i m i t e d t o two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s choose two of t h e i r group t o a t t e n d on b e h a l f of them a l l . P a r t i c i p a n t s are t o l d t h a t they must make themselves as w e l l i n f o r m e d as p o s s i b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and how the p r o j e c t might a f f e c t them. In a d d i t i o n they must be i n a p o s i t i o n t o make d e c i s i o n s on b e h a l f of the group they r e p r e s e n t , and must be p r e p a r e d t o a t t e n d a l a t e r c o n f e r e n c e . The c o n f e r e n c e i s h e l d i n a p u b l i c l y owned " R e g i o n a l Conference C e n t r e " i n P r i n c e George. The C e n t r e p r o v i d e s a b a s i c l e v e l of accommodation and c o n f e r e n c e f a c i l i t i e s f o r a minimum c o s t t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the p u b l i c p u r s e . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of the c o n f e r e n c e i s "To Determine the I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s R e l e v a n t t o the S i t i n g and Design of the Road." T h i s o b j e c t i v e does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e d e t e r m i n i n g p r e c i s e l y the ( parameters of the i n f o r m a t i o n , but r a t h e r 1 00 c o n c e n t r a t e s on the type of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e l e v a n t . For i n s t a n c e , i t i s not expected t h a t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e w i l l c o n c l u d e what e f f e c t a road i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n and of a s p e c i f i c d e s i g n w i l l have on a p a r t i c u l a r type of f i s h or mammal. I n s t e a d , the c o n f e r e n c e i s o r i e n t e d towards f i r s t d e t e r m i n i n g whether f i s h , mamals or f o r e s t r y r e s o u r c e s a re l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n s i n the s i t i n g and d e s i g n of a road i n the g e n e r a l a r e a . A f t e r t h a t , the c o n f e r e n c e w i l l attempt t o d e f i n e i n a g e n e r a l way how these (and o t h e r ) r e s o u r c e s might be a f f e c t e d , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y through a v a r i e t y of human a c t i o n s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g and u s i n g a roa d , or i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h impacts on r e l a t e d r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e f o r e the OFB and c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s must have a v a i l a b l e t o them c r e d i b l e (and i n some way d e f e n s i b l e ) i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s . By u s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a t a g e n e r a l l e v e l s e v e r a l t h i n g s may be a c c o m p l i s h e d : a) t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n which i s a v a i l a b l e , u n c e r t a i n , c o n t e s t e d or u n a v a i l a b l e can t o some e x t e n t be d e t e r m i n e d ; and b) a r e a s of p a r t i c u l a r s e n s i t i v i t y can be de t e r m i n e d and so some o u t l i n e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s and d e s i r a b l e m i t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s can be made. The m a t e r i a l output of t h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s , t h e n , a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s o c i a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic and o t h e r f a c t o r s which a re r e l e v a n t t o d e c i s i o n s on the s i t i n g and d e s i g n of the roa d , and an id e a of the i n f o r m a t i o n which i s a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g these f a c t o r s . Another u n s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of the c o n f e r e n c e i s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o meet one an o t h e r i n a 101 r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l s e t t i n g . The outcome of t h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s i . some l e v e l of acknowledgement of the u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the e x i s t e n c e of f i s h e r i e s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , of s o i l c o n d i t i o n s i n most of the a r e a c o n c erned, and so on; i i . some l e v e l of agreement r e g a r d i n g a r e a s which a r e o b v i o u s l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r roadways because of s p e c i f i c a c c e p t e d c r i t e r i a ; i i i . some agreement r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r e s t s which e x i s t and the v a l u e s p a r t i e s h o l d ( t h i s l a t t e r may remain i m p l i c i t u n l e s s a s p e c i f i c e f f o r t i s made t o make i t o t h e r w i s e ) ; and i v . an awareness of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s and p r i o r i t i e s of the o t h e r p a r t i e s ( t h e importance of which i s d i s c u s s e d by L i k e r t & L i k e r t , 1976; and H o l l i n g , 1978) . 3. INFORMATION IS GENERATED. A f t e r t h i s c o n f e r e n c e the OFB c o - o r d i n a t e s the g a t h e r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n which has been d e t e r m i n e d as u n a v a i l a b l e , u n c e r t a i n or c o n t e s t e d , and a p p a r e n t l y n e c e s s a r y . I t may not be p o s s i b l e t o g e n e r a t e a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the time t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e t o be made, but some attempt i s made t o g a i n a t l e a s t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s or range of p a r a m e t r i c v a l u e s i n v o l v e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n may be g e n e r a t e d by c o n s u l t a n t s or government m i n i s t r i e s , but as s t a t e d above the terms of r e f e r e n c e and co-102 o r d i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n i s undertaken by the OFB. At t h i s t i me a l s o s i t e - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t i n g s i s g a t h e r e d . 4. A SECOND CONFERENCE IS CALLED. A second c o n f e r e n c e i s c a l l e d when as much i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e as i s p e r m i t t e d by the time l i m i t which i s e i t h e r s t a t u t o r i l y d e f i n e d or m u t u a l l y agreed upon a t the f i r s t c o n f e r e n c e . The second c o n f e r e n c e has the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : i . most of the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be t o some e x t e n t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r ; i i . " o b j e c t i v e l y " g a t h e r e d or g e n e r a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e r e l a t i n g t o the f a c t o r s which have d e t e r m i n e d as r e l e v a n t t o the r o u t i n g and d e s i g n of a road i n t h i s g e n e r a l a r e a ; i i i . i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o v a r i o u s m i t i g a t i o n measures i s a v a i l a b l e ; i v . economic c o s t , s o c i a l impact and o t h e r a n a l y s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the p a r t i c i p a n t s , w i t h the h e l p of the OFB, attempt t o d e f i n e as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e the a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s t o the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s . The outcome of t h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s t o be e i t h e r an agreement among a l l p a r t i e s r e g a r d i n g the p r e f e r e d r o u t i n g and d e s i g n of the r o a d , or a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s which can be r e f e r e d t o the c a b i n e t f o r a d e c i s i o n . 1 03 The agreement, i f i t o c c u r s , w i l l a r i s e t h rough the i n t e r a c t i o n of the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the c o n f e r e n c e as they r e d e f i n e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s i n the l i g h t of new c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t and v a l u e i n f o r m a t i o n . The agreement may i n c l u d e compensation t o some i n t e r e s t s f o r damage t o them, on-going programs t o m i t i g a t e the damage, e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h , or the o u t r i g h t purchase of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . 5. THE MATTER IS REFERED TO CABINET FOR RATIFICATION OR A DECISION. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , any agreement t h a t i s made must be r a t i f i e d by c a b i n e t . However, i f no o v e r a l l agreement i s re a c h e d , the matter i s r e f e r e d t o the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l f o r r e v i e w and a d e c i s i o n . In t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y the p r o c e s s s h o u l d d e f i n e as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the a l t e r n a t i v e s . C. DISCUSSION. The example o u t l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r s a t i s f i e s the two r e q u i r e m e n t s : d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g r o a d s i t i n g and d e s i g n ; and an e x p l i c i t a d d r e s s i n g of c o n f l i c t i s s u e s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t such a p r o c e s s , when o r g a n i s e d and f a c i l i t a t e d by a n e u t r a l and o b j e c t i v e body, w i l l not e a s i l y be the t o o l of one i n t e r e s t group. R a t h e r , the p r o c e s s becomes a means of d e f i n i n g the i s s u e s of importance and g a t h e r i n g and g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e i s s u e s , a l l i n the presence of the p a r t i e s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the m a t t e r . I f d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s i t i n g and d e s i g n of the Road are made w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the second c o n f e r e n c e , i t can be assumed 1 04 t h a t t h e . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r e s e n t c o u l d at l e a s t l i v e w i t h the consequences of the d e c i s i o n . I f no agreement was made a t the second c o n f e r e n c e , then the ma t t e r i s r e f e r r e d i n a f a i r l y c l e a r l y d e f i n e d form t o the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . At t h i s p o i n t i t w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r t o a l l p a r t i e s as t o the c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r e s t , and v a l u e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o the p o l i t i c i a n . In a d d i t i o n , each p a r t y w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o lobby the p o l i t i c i a n t o make the d e c i s i o n which i s p r e f e r r e d by h i s i n t e r e s t or v a l u e group. D. CONCLUSION. The p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g system d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s d i f f e r e n t i n many ways from t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r the Omineca M i n i n g Road i n C h a p t e r s I I and IV. However, perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s i t s e x p l i c i t n e s s of p r o c e s s . Given s u f f i c i e n t commitment t o the p r o j e c t by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , the d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o u t e s e l e c t i o n and s i t e p l a n n i n g c o u l d be the same from e i t h e r system, but by u s i n g the c o n f l i c t management model the a r e a s of c o n f l i c t a r e i d e n t i l f i e d , d e f i n e d , and a d d r e s s e d t o some e x t e n t , and a l t e r n a t i v e s have a g r e a t e r chance of b e i n g p e r c e i v e d and i n v e s t i g a t e d b e f o r e they have been f o r e c l o s e d by d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i s c l e a r l y the d i r e c t i o n i n which r e s o u r c e development p l a n n i n g must move. 1 05 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A l l i s o n , G.T., Essence of D e c i s i o n , L i t t l e Brown, Boston, 1972. 2. Altm'an, S. M., P i t f a l l s of Data A n a l y s i s , i_n P i t f a l l s of A n a l y s i s , G. Majone and E. S. Quade ( e d r t o r s ) , IIASA-W i l e y , C h i c h e s t e r , 1980. 3. A r d r e y , R., The T e r r i t o r i a l I m p e r a t i v e , D e l l , New York, 1 966. 4. Brooks, H., E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g : A n a l y s i s and V a l u e s , in_ When V a l u e s C o n f l i c t , L. T r i b e , C. S. S c h e l l i n g & J . Voss ( e d i t o r s ) , B a l l i n g e r , Cambridge, Mass., 1976. 5. B u r t o n , I . , Kates R. W., and White, G. F., The Environment as Hazard, O x f o r d , New York, 1978. 6. C o n n a l l y , T., U n c e r t a i n t y , A c t i o n and Competence: Some A l t e r n a t i v e s t o Omniscience i n Complex Problem S o l v i n g , in_ U n c e r t a i n t y , S. F i d d l e ( e d i t o r ) , P r a e g e r , New York, 1980. 7. Coser, L.A., S o c i a l C o n f l i c t and the Theory of S o c i a l Change, _in_ C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , C. G. Smith ( e d i t o r ) , U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame, 1971. 8. 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J a n t s c h , E., Design f o r E v o l u t i o n , B r a z i l l e r , New York, 1975. 106 16. Krone, R. M., Systems A n a l y s i s and P o l i c y S c i e n c e s , W i l e y , New York, 1980. 17. Lake, L.M., M e d i a t i n g E n v i r o n m e n t a l D i s p u t e s , E k i s t i c s , 44, No. 262, Sept. 1977. 18. L i k e r t , R. and L i k e r t , J . B., New Ways of Managing C o n f l i c t , McGraw H i l l , New York, 1976. 19. L o r d , W. B., Adelman, L., Wehr, P., Brown, C , Crews, R., M a r v i n , B., and Waterstone, M., C o n f l i c t Management i n F e d e r a l Water Resources P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y f o C o l o r a d o , B o u l d e r , 1979. 20. L o r e n z , K., On A g g r e s s i o n , Bobbs M e r r i l , New York, 1969. 21. Marcuse, H., Reason and R e v o l u t i o n , H u m a n i t i e s P r e s s , New York, 1968. 22. T r i b e , L. H., S c h e l l i n g , C. S., & Voss, J . , When V a l u e s C o n f l i c t : Essays on E n v i r o n m e n t a l A n a l y s i s , D i s c o u r s e and D e c i s i o n , B a l l i n g e r , Cambridge, Mass., 1976. 23. Von B e r t a l a n f f y , L., G e n e r a l Systems Theory; F o u n d a t i o n s , Development, A p p l i c a t i o n s , B r a z i l l e r , New York, 1968. 24. Wehr, P., C o n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n , Westview, B o u l d e r , 1979. 25. W i l d a v s k y , A., The P o l i t i c a l Economy of E f f i c i e n c y : C o s t -B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s , and Program B u d g e t i n g , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, 26, pp. 292 - 308. 

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