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Being Against Disappearance : a photographic inquiry through an a/r/tographic lens Smith, Blake Elizabeth 2020

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  BEING AGAINST DISAPPEARANCE: A PHOTOGRAPHIC INQUIRY THROUGH AN A/R/TOGRAPHIC LENS  by  BLAKE ELIZABETH SMITH  B.F.A, The University of Georgia, 2002 M.A., Arizona State University, 2008     A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY   in   THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Curriculum Studies)       THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)   December 2020   © Blake Elizabeth Smith, 2020 	 ii	The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the dissertation entitled:  Being Against Disappearance: A Photographic Inquiry Through an A/r/tographic Lens  Submitted by Blake E. Smith in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum Studies.  Examining Committee:  Dr. Rita L. Irwin, Curriculum and Pedagogy Supervisor  Dr. Karen Meyer, Curriculum and Pedagogy Supervisory Committee Member  Dr. Kedrick James, Language and Literacy Supervisory Committee Member  Dr. Kerry Renwick, Curriculum and Pedagogy University Examiner  Dr. Maureen Kendrick, Language and Literacy  University Examiner  Dr. Robert Dalton, Curriculum and Instruction, University of Victoria External Examiner   	 iii	Abstract    In this dissertation, I seek to understand how creative engagement with photo-based memory work might evoke meaningful experiences of teaching, learning, and making and provoke critical, contemporary conversations on ethics in photography and art education. Drawing on my experiences as a photo educator, art teacher educator, curator, and photographer, I situate this study as a photographic inquiry through an a/r/tographic lens, considering the ways photo-based memory work might be generative as an artistic, emotive practice and a pedagogical possibility with ethical implications.               I explore my research question alongside a creative community of practice, a group of artists and educators who came together after a course I taught at UBC in 2015, EDCP 405 Visual Arts for Classroom Practice: New Media and Digital Processes. To consider the potential of photo-based memory work and visual lifewriting, we participated in a group exhibition entitled Against Disappearance: A Photographic Search for Memory, an exhibit from May 20th – August 25th, 2016 at UBC’s Liu Institute Lobby Gallery. This exhibition offered thirty-six photographs and one sculpture, highlighting a series of juxtaposed viewpoints on the concept of disappearance from eight unique visual perspectives.             As a/r/tographic artifacts, I studied closely the artwork and writing from the show and a series of generative conversations from focus groups and individual interviews for their nuance and narrative. Threading together my poetic observations, our artwork, artist statements, and conversational excerpts, I present the data in the creative form of a lexicon: a fragmented, alphabetical whole that gestures towards an emergent a/r/tographic language for photography.              In an extended act of tracing pedagogy beyond classrooms, my research suggests the vibrant potential of a/r/tography for bringing artists and educators together beyond coursework to engage in collaborative art making projects that materialize as significant experiential learning events. New a/r/tographic understandings emerge from this study in a series of artful propositions based on offerings around the notion of trace, expanding vocabularies of possibility for photo-based memory work. This study illuminates the lexicon and exhibition as promising artistic forms for photographic theory, practice, and creation and highlights the potency of a/r/tography as a creative research methodology of potential.     	 iv	Lay Summary   In this dissertation, I seek to understand how creative engagement with photo-based memory work might evoke meaningful experiences of teaching, learning, and art making and provoke critical, contemporary conversations on ethics in photography and art education. Drawing on my experiences as a teacher, artist, and curator, I present this research as a photographic inquiry grounded in a/r/tography.   Alongside a community of artists and educators who met in a photography course, this study explores artistic possibilities emerging from our 2016 exhibition, Against Disappearance: A Photographic Search for Memory at UBC’s Liu Institute Lobby Gallery. This exhibition offered thirty-six photographs and one sculpture, highlighting eight viewpoints on disappearance. The data (interviews, artwork, and observations) are presented in the creative form of a lexicon. This research suggests the vibrant potential of teachers and artists collaborating through a/r/tography, offering new ideas and language for photo-based memory work, including a series of eight artful propositions.  	 v	Preface  Author & Original Artwork   This dissertation is an original, unpublished, and independent contribution by the author and artist, Blake E. Smith. It includes original artwork in a series of digital photographs presented in the dissertation with permission.   I conceptualized, designed, and carried out the research with support from my committee and was responsible for the analysis and writing of this dissertation, which was completed with thoughtful guidance from my supervisor, Dr. Rita L. Irwin. Additionally, I received support for interview transcription from Rev.com and Amber Lum.   In addition to myself, seven research participants contributed to the content of this dissertation through research conversations and their participation in an exhibition, including: Paul Best, Hari Im, Niloofar Miry, Kathleen Nash, Matthew Sinclair, Andrew Smith, and Joanne Ursino. They have all granted permission for the reproduction of their artwork and interviews and have reviewed this dissertation.   Publications  A version of the writing in Chapter 6 is published, for the lexicon letters V & W in the section entitled “Visual Lifewriting as Memoir | Collecting Photographs in the Wake of Lived Experience | The Work of Blake Smith,” in Smith. B. (2018). Revisiting The Visual Memoir Project: (Still) searching for an art of memory. In A. Lasczik Cutcher & R. L. Irwin (Eds.) The flâneur and education research: A metaphor for knowing, being ethical and new data production (pp. 63-92). New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan. An adapted version of that chapter was first published in the Marilyn Zurmuehlen Working Papers in Art Education Journal (see Smith, 2015) and was reprinted with permission. All photographs by Blake Smith in both publications and the dissertation are original artworks by the author who retains copyright. Other images by research participants in the dissertation are also original artworks and are part of the study.   Ethics  This research was conducted with the approval of The University of British Columbia’s Behavioural Research Ethics Board under certificate # H15 – 00327 and was granted a Minimal Risk status.   	 vi	Table of Contents Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................... iii Lay Summary ................................................................................................................................................. iv Preface ............................................................................................................................................................. v Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................................... vi List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................ xi Acknowledgements  .................................................................................................................................. xvi Dedication ................................................................................................................................................... xix Prologue ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 Chapter 1: On Photography: An Introduction ......................................................................................... 2  Birthplaces of an Inquiry: My Why ...................................................................................................................... 3 Research Question ..................................................................................................................................................... 9 Another Backstory | The Course EDCP 405: Visual Arts for Classroom Practice: New Media & Digital Processes  ............................................................................................................................................................. 11  Chapter 2: Photography in Educational Contexts: A Review ............................................................. 16  A Pedagogical & Practice-Oriented Perspective .............................................................................................. 17 Literature on Photography .................................................................................................................................... 18 Six Emergent Themes from the Readings ....................................................................................................... 20 Theme 1: Identity, voice, & lived experience ................................................................................................. 21 Theme 2: Social action & awareness ............................................................................................................. 23 Theme 3: Collaborative partnerships & community engagement:  Photography beyond schools ........................................................................................................................... 25 Theme 4: Ethics ................................................................................................................................................. 26 Theme 5: Existing & new technologies .......................................................................................................... 28 Theme 6: Photographers as inspirational entry points & Ways of engaging the photograph ............. 30 A Breadth of Awareness ......................................................................................................................................... 34  Chapter 3: These Clouds Have Eyes: Being in the Presence of Photographs & the Absence of Bodies | Understanding Photographs as Agents & Archives of Knowledge .............................................. 37  “Gathering in:” On Photography | Thoughts on Sontag, Barthes, Butler, Jaar, & Miyako ........................ 38 Agents, Archives, & Absence ................................................................................................................................ 39 ‘Only Beginnings’ .................................................................................................................................................... 40 Photographability/Grievability ...................................................................................................................... 43 The Privilege of Seeing/Disrupting Seeing .................................................................................................. 46 Framing Desire ................................................................................................................................................ 49 Post-Death: Visual Narratives in the After-moment ................................................................................... 52 	 vii	Toward an Ethics of Picturing Others ....................................................................................................................... 56  Chapter 4: An Artful Methodology: Photographic Inquiry Through an A/r/tographic Lens .... 63  A/r/tography: An Overview .................................................................................................................................. 64 Photography & Visual Lifewriting Through A/r/tography ......................................................................... 69 Study Details: Extending the Learning Moment ............................................................................................. 71 Eight Participant Biographies: Our Creative Community of Practice ...................................................... 72 ‘Who-ness’ .................................................................................................................................................................. 75 Artistic Methods as Teaching, Learning, & Researching Methods ........................................................... 76 Methods ...................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Poetic Observations .......................................................................................................................................... 79 Exhibition: Artworks, Writing, & Artifacts ................................................................................................. 80 Individual & Group Interviews (Focus Groups) .......................................................................................... 81 Interview Details & the Exhibition ..................................................................................................................... 82  Chapter 5: An Exhibition | Against Disappearance: A Photographic Search for Memory .................... 86  The Summer of 2016 ................................................................................................................................................ 87 Exhibition Location & Context ............................................................................................................................ 87 Curating & Preparing for the Exhibition ......................................................................................................... 89 Looking to Other Artists, Curators, & Exhibitions ......................................................................................... 92 A Visual Chapter ..................................................................................................................................................... 94 Artist Statements & Images from the Exhibition ........................................................................................... 96 Group Artist Statement .......................................................................................................................................... 97 Artist Statement: The Visual Memoir Project by Blake Smith ............................................................ 98 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 99 Artist Statement by Joanne Ursino .......................................................................................................... 111 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 112 Artist Statement: Student Chair by Paul Best ......................................................................................... 114 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 115 Artist Statement by Matthew Sinclair .................................................................................................... 117 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 118 Artist Statement: Parallel Landscapes by Andrew Roy George Smith ........................................... 120 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 121 Artist Statement: The Bus Stop Series by Paul Best .............................................................................. 124 Images ............................................................................................................................................................. 125 Artist Statement: Residue by Niloofar Miry .......................................................................................... 128 Images ............................................................................................................................................................. 129 Artist Statement by Hari Im ..................................................................................................................... 132 Image ................................................................................................................................................................ 133 Artist Statement: Conversations by Kathleen Nash ............................................................................. 134 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 135 The Visual Memoir Project, continued by Blake Smith ....................................................................... 136 Images .............................................................................................................................................................. 137      	 viii	Chapter 6: A Lexicon for Against Disappearance: A Photographic Search for Memory ..................... 146  A Poetic Alphabet of Understandings & Observations ............................................................................... 148 (a) | au revoir: until we meet again | A Dedication to Dr. Carl Leggo ...................................................... 154  A | An Art of Memory ............................................................................................................................................. 155  A | Artists of Inspiration Another Kind of Lexicon ........................................................................................................................................... 156  B | Beloveds Subjects in a Blue Key ............................................................................................................................................... 157  C | “Conversations, Explicit or Otherwise:” On Teaching & the Topic of Suicide The Work of Kathleen Nash  ................................................................................................................................... 158  D | Diptychs in Duration ....................................................................................................................................... 161  E | Ethereal Everyday, The The Work of Paul Best (Artwork 1/2) ..................................................................................................................... 162  F | Forever, On The Weight of The Work of Matthew Sinclair ............................................................................................................................... 164  G | Gestures of Going Home (An Observation) Eight Autobiographies on the Wall ........................................................................................................................ 167  H | Hope, Six Ways of ........................................................................................................................................... 169  I | Intention, Numbers of ...................................................................................................................................... 170  J | Juxtaposition, The Art of Dynamic ............................................................................................................... 171  K | Kenosis {Inspired by Sontag on Barthes} On the Art of “Emptying Out”  ................................................................................................................................ 172  L | Landscapes in Parallel The Work of Andrew Smith .................................................................................................................................... 174  M | Making ................................................................................................................................................................ 177  M | Memento The Work of Paul Best (Artwork 2/2) ..................................................................................................................... 177  N | Narrative Definity ............................................................................................................................................. 181  N | Nuance (n.) ......................................................................................................................................................... 182  O | Offering “I am making bare my soul.” (Joanne Ursino, interview) ................................................................................... 183 	 ix	O | Opening Night .................................................................................................................................................. 185  P | Pride in Participation ....................................................................................................................................... 187  P | Process, When Goodbye is a The Work of Hari Im ............................................................................................................................................... 189  Q | Quilt, Signature “In the Hands of the Artist & the Photographer” The work of Joanne Ursino  .................................................................................................................................... 193  R | Rephotography The Artful Return, The Art of Return .................................................................................................................... 196  R | Residue, An Art of Migration Photographs Inside “Third Spaces” The Work of Niloofar Miry ..................................................................................................................................... 197  S | Search, The Photographic ............................................................................................................................. 199  T | Trace .................................................................................................................................................................... 201  U | Unphotographed  / Unphotographable {An Unfinished List} .......................................................... 202  V & W | Visual Lifewriting as Memoir Collecting Photographs in the Wake of Lived Experience The Work of Blake Smith ....................................................................................................................................... 203  X | A/r/tographic Axis ........................................................................................................................................... 208  Y | Yearn ................................................................................................................................................................... 209  Z | Zero (and Beyond) ............................................................................................................................................ 210  Chapter 7: The Art of Tracing Pedagogy Beyond Rooms: Lifewriting Our “Learning Selves” in Seven Offerings of Meaning, Method, & Possibility .......................................................................... 213  “A Pedagogy of Trace:” A/r/tographic Offerings Made Visible ................................................................ 214  Offering No. 1  Tracing the Lexicon: On Lingering with Language, Love, & Liminal Spaces ................................................. 216  Offering No. 2  Tracing the Exhibition: On Understanding Against Disappearance as a Provocative Learning Event ...... 222  Offering No. 3  Tracing Disappearance: On Pursuing Artists’ Echoes & Photographic Inquiry ............................................. 226  Offering No. 4  Tracing an “Ethics of Seeing” (Sontag, 1977, p. 3): On Cultivating Visual Awareness ................................... 233 	 x	Offering No. 5  Tracing Duration & Necessary Discomfort: On Rendering an Extended Image ........................................... 240  Offering No. 6  Tracing Desire: On the Importance of Being In & Alongside a Creative Community of Practice ............... 248  Offering No. 7 Tracing the In-between: On In-between Spaces as Informal Learning & Making Opportunities ............... 254  Chapter 8: Notes on a Photographic Education: Invitations for Theory, Research, & Practice ........................................................................................................................................................ 260  A Closing Reflection .............................................................................................................................................. 261 Pedagogical Dreaming: Potential Applications for This Work ................................................................ 262 On Complexity, Transformation, & Extending the Image ..................................................................... 264 On Durational Inquiry .................................................................................................................................. 265 On Potentiality ................................................................................................................................................ 267 On Sensitivity: A Cautionary Move ............................................................................................................ 268 On Risk-taking, Ethics, & Doing This Work ............................................................................................. 269 Emerging Concepts for Visual Lifewriting ..................................................................................................... 272 Journey as Documenta: Visual lifewriting as a pedagogy/form of “address” ................................ 273 Slow Curriculum: Visual lifewriting as a pedagogy of contemplation ........................................... 273  “Strange Glitter:” Visual lifewriting as a pedagogy/process of creative wayfinding ................. 274 Residue: Visual lifewriting as a pedagogy of ‘lifting’ ........................................................................... 274 Archiving the Self: Visual lifewriting as a pedagogy/practice of memoir &/as currere ............. 274 A Project for the Next Generation: Visual lifewriting as a pedagogy of critical hope ................... 274 Artists as Exemplars .............................................................................................................................................. 275 On the Resonance of Disappearance ............................................................................................................... 277 Tracing the Traces: On Ar/t/ography & Propositional Thinking ............................................................. 279 Upon Reflection: The Lexicon & Exhibition as Kinds of Propositions ................................................... 280 On Lexical Thinking & Doing ............................................................................................................................ 282 Eight Diffractive Propositions for the Future ................................................................................................ 283 Portrait (A Narrative Research Poem) .............................................................................................................. 287  Postscript ..................................................................................................................................................... 290 Credo ............................................................................................................................................................... 298  Epilogue: An Open Letter to Our Group ..................................................................................................... 299  References ................................................................................................................................................... 302  Appendix ...................................................................................................................................................... 325 Appendix A: List of Hyperlinks .................................................................................................................... 326 Appendix B: The B-Side Lexicon .................................................................................................................. 330   	 xi	List of Figures  Figure 1 | By Blake Smith, Pop’s camera, photographed inside a ‘DIY’ diffusion box in the  course ................................................................................................................................................................. xviii  Figure 2 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ....................................................................................................................... 1  Figure 3 | By Blake Smith, Page spread from one of my visual journals, juxtaposing an image by a favorite artist (Ishiuchi Miyako) with a favorite quote by Piero Ferrucci .................................................... 2  Figure 4 | By Blake Smith, Photograph of a photograph from my first a/r/tography series on loss: an image of my grandmother’s locket held in a plaster cast of my hand at age 18 .................................................. 7  Figure 5 | By Blake Smith, A collection of images, including photos from the course EDCP 405  (July 2015) ............................................................................................................................................................. 11  Figure 6 | By Blake Smith, Self-portrait in Gastown .......................................................................................... 16  Figure 7 | By Blake Smith, Reading Sontag, with Kaylah ................................................................................. 37  Figure 8 | By Blake Smith, Knolling: Some materials for an arts-based dissertation, camera in use .......... 63  Figure 9 | By Blake Smith, Contact sheet (iteration): 24 selected images from The Visual Memoir  Project ................................................................................................................................................................... 69   Figures 10 & 11 | By Blake Smith, Fig. 10 (Left) Page spread from participant Hari Im’s visual journal from EDCP 4o5 (2015). Fig. 11 (Right) Image overlay of 8 visual journal page spreads from EDCP 4o5 (2015) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 77  Figure 12 | By Blake Smith, Bug’s eye view of Matthew and Joanne on our November 2015 photowalk. As I was taking this photo, an older man walked by and asked “Are you making picture?” I smiled and said yes ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 80  Figures 13 & 14 | By Blake Smith, Fig. 13 (Left) Children’s chalk drawing I photographed at the beginning and again at the end of our group’s final photowalk (October 2016). Fig. 14 (Right) Being led by a small child. Picture of Matthew and his daughter, camera in hand, petting a neighborhood cat along our photowalk ............................................................................................................................................................. 84   Figures 15-18 | By Blake Smith: Fig. 15 (Top left) View of gallery wall 1/2 of The Visual Memoir Project; Fig. 16 (Top right) View of Hari Im’s work; Fig. 17 (Bottom left) View of guest book; Fig. 18 (Bottom right) View of 2 gallery walls and community piano .................................................................................... 86  Figure 19 | Photograph and post by Andrew Smith, Screenshot of a post from participant Andrew’s Instagram account (web version) on May 16, 2016 as we prepared mats and frames for the show. Shown in picture left to right: Paul, Hari, and Blake ............................................................................................... 89    	 xii	Figures 20 & 21 | By Blake Smith, Fig. 20 (Top) Image of blades of grass emerging from an inverted table at the expansive installation ‘Plegaria Muda’ from the Doris Salcedo exhibition at The Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago. Fig. 21 (Bottom) Close-up image of a pair of abandoned shoes suspended in the gallery wall behind translucent material at ‘Atrabiliarios (1992–2004),’ from the Doris Salcedo exhibition ............................................................................................................................................................... 92  Figure 22 | By Blake Smith, Untitled .................................................................................................................. 99  Figure 23 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................ 100  Figure 24 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 101  Figure 25 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 102  Figure 26 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 103  Figure 27 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 104  Figure 28 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 105  Figure 29 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 106  Figure 30 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................ 107  Figure 31 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 108  Figure 32 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 109  Figure 33 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 110  Figure 34 | By Joanne Ursino, Matters of Text(ile), Photograph by Blake Smith  ................................... 112  Figure 35 | By Joanne Ursino, Reading Embodied 1 and 2, Photographs by Blake Smith ....................... 113  Figure 36 | By Paul Best, Untitled (Student Chair), Photograph by Blake Smith, outside the gallery 115   Figures 37 & 38 | Paul Best, Additional views of Untitled (Student Chair), Photographs by Blake Smith, outside the gallery ............................................................................................................................................ 116   Figure 39 | By Matthew Sinclair, Weight ........................................................................................................... 118  Figure 40 | By Matthew Sinclair, Forever .......................................................................................................... 119  Figure 41 | By Andrew Smith, Parallel Landscapes 1 ........................................................................................ 121  Figure 42 | By Andrew Smith, Parallel Landscapes 2 ...................................................................................... 122  Figure 43 | By Andrew Smith, Parallel Landscapes 3 ...................................................................................... 123  Figure 44 | By Paul Best, Untitled (Bus Stop #15) ............................................................................................. 125 	 xiii	Figure 45 | By Paul Best, Untitled (Bus Stop #5) ............................................................................................... 126  Figure 46 | By Paul Best, Untitled (Bus Stop #20) ............................................................................................ 127  Figure 47 | By Niloofar Miry, Residue #1 ........................................................................................................... 129  Figure 48 | By Niloofar Miry, Residue #2 .......................................................................................................... 130  Figure 49 | By Niloofar Miry, Residue #3 ............................................................................................................ 131  Figure 50 | By Hari Im, April 7, 2009 Jeju, Korea .............................................................................................. 132  Figure 51 | By Hari Im, The process to say a proper goodbye ............................................................................ 133  Figure 52 | By Blake Smith, Exhibition image: Kathleen’s work in the gallery, against glass walls ......... 134  Figures 53 & 54 | By Kathleen Nash, Conversations, Photographs by Blake Smith ................................ 135   Figure 55 | By Blake Smith, View of gallery wall 2/2 of The Visual Memoir Project .................................. 136  Figure 56 | By Blake Smith, Untitled .................................................................................................................. 137  Figure 57 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 138  Figure 58 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 139  Figure 59 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 140  Figure 60 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 141  Figure 61 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 142  Figure 62 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 143  Figure 63 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 144  Figure 64 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................ 145  Figure 65 | By Blake Smith, Untitled. Bus stop and hedges in late afternoon light ......................................... 146  Figure 66 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 155  Figure 67 | By Blake Smith, Untitled .................................................................................................................. 157  Figure 68 | By Kathleen Nash, Conversations (Image 2 of 2). Photograph by Blake Smith .................. 158  Figure 69 | By Paul Best, Untitled (Bus Stop #15) ............................................................................................. 162  Figure 70 | By Matthew Sinclair, Forever ......................................................................................................... 164  	 xiv	Figure 71 | By Andrew Smith, Parallel Landscapes 1 ....................................................................................... 174  Figure 72 | By Paul Best, Untitled (Student Chair), Photograph by Blake Smith,  outside the gallery ............................................................................................................................................ 177   Figure 73 | By Blake Smith, Contact Sheet (1/3) of Untitled (Student Chair) by Paul Best ........................ 180  Figure 74 | By Blake Smith, Offering: Interview at Joanne’s table ................................................................. 184  Figure 75 | By Hari Im, The process to say a proper goodbye .......................................................................... 189  Figure 76 | By Joanne Ursino, Matters of Text(ile). Photograph by Blake Smith ................................... 193  Figure 77 | By Blake Smith. Portrait of Joanne with the quilt-back Women United Against Poverty ...... 195  Figure 78 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 196  Figure 79 | By Niloofar Miry, Residue #2 ........................................................................................................... 197  Figure 80 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ............................................................................................................... 203  Figure 81 | Blake Smith, ‘Behind the scenes’ screenshot of a diptych from The Visual Memoir Project being created in Adobe Photoshop, playing with juxtaposition .................................................................. 205  Figures 82 & 83 | By Blake Smith, Fig. 82 (Left) Photograph of our guest book table with postcards and coffee stains, taken towards the end of the exhibition. 2016/The Lobby Gallery, Vancouver, BC. Fig. 83 (Right) Remnant of the back of an exhibition postcard I put up along Commercial Drive. This is what was left a couple of months later ...................................................................................................................... 212  Figure 84 | By Blake Smith, Close-up of Paul Best’s Untitled (Student Chair) ............................................ 213  Figure 85 | By Hari Im, The process to say a proper goodbye .......................................................................... 216  Figure 86 | By Andrew Smith, Parallel Landscapes 2 ...................................................................................... 222  Figure 87 | By Blake Smith, Untitled ................................................................................................................. 226  Figure 88 | By Matthew Sinclair, Selection from Forever ............................................................................... 233  Figure 89 | By Niloofar Miry, Residue #1 .......................................................................................................... 240  Figure 90 | By Joanne Ursino, Reading Embodied 1 and 2. Photographs by Blake Smith .................... 248  Figure 91 | By Kathleen Nash, Conversations (Image 1 of 2). Photograph by Blake Smith ................... 254   Figure 92 | By Blake Smith, Untitled. Found under the overpass: Pink suede heel ........................................ 260  Figure 93 | By Blake Smith in collaboration with Frank and Dance (pictured), Untitled. Image of Dance’s jacket, now stolen, signed by his friends in the community. I was signature # 1, 447. That day, we looked at The VMP series on my laptop, sitting on the sidewalk together. What an honor ............. 277 	 xv	Figure 94 | By Paul Best, Cartoon pencil drawing. On his photographic journey from EDCP 405 to the exhibition. Collected as part of a focus group ‘journey mapping’ exercise ................................................ 289  Figure 95 | By Blake Smith, Untitled (locket) ................................................................................................ 290  Figure 96 | By Matthew Sinclair, Group photograph 2016 | A final image of our research group, with Kathleen joining us on the phone I am holding. Back row left to right: Hari, Niloofar, Joanne. Front row left to right: Blake, Andrew, Paul, & Matthew ................................................................................................. 301   Acknowledgements    As a graduate student, instructor, and curator at The University of British Columbia, I would like to respectfully acknowledge that I worked, taught, studied, and held an exhibition on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Musqueam people. In addition, I lived, worked, and carried out my research in East Vancouver and Squamish and wish to acknowledge the land of the Coast Salish peoples – Sḵwx ̱wú7mesh (Squamish), Stó:lō and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) and xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) Nations.   With a deep sense of appreciation for all of the wonderful individuals who have supported and guided me in and through this doctoral degree process, I say a heartfelt thank you. You held me, you loved me, and you stood by me when things became challenging. I am forever grateful for this community and for all of you. Indeed, to earn a doctorate degree, it takes a village.   With utmost gratitude and humility, I extend a loving thank you to my incredibly supportive and insightful supervisor Dr. Rita L. Irwin, without whose encouragement, kind words, rigor, and belief in me this work would not be possible. Through you, I have learned to be a better teacher and a/r/tographer, told my story, and experienced a level of professional and personal support that is one-of-a-kind, allowing me to not only cross the finish line but also to shine. Thank you for staying gently by my side throughout this long journey – and for always believing. I will do the same for my students, in your honor. Thank you for everything, especially your sense of hope.    I thank my amazing committee members for your support and mentorship. To Dr. Karen Meyer, for your innovative teachings, your generosity of time in visioning my work, and your enthusiasm for creative writing as a way of expressing ourselves with originality and purpose in the academy. You helped me grow my writer’s wings. To Dr. Kedrick James, for offering your creative guidance, infectious energy, and provocative insight towards my work. While our paths crossed later in this process, I am ever grateful they did. Thank you for engaging fully and with an open heart. You helped me narrate the ending in a meaningful way and find my credo in the process.   To two previous committee members no longer with us, I acknowledge your noteworthy influence upon this work and my education. To the memory of the one and only Dr. Carl Leggo, I thank you for inspiring me to write and speak with courage and conviction, to see the poetry everywhere, and for being one of the kindest teachers I have ever known. Your teachings on writing are imprinted upon this dissertation. To the sweet memory of Dr. Don Krug, I thank you for your encouragement to find my own way and to pursue it with zest and passion – and without apology.    I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Dónal O’Donoghue, for your time, guidance, and thoughtful advising on my work. Our discussions on photography and teaching helped to shape some of the framework of this study, in particular that artists should exhibit their work. Thank you for the opportunity to work with you, learn from you, and for pointing me towards Susan Sontag, Judith Butler, and Roland Barthes.  It is with profound appreciation that I express immense gratitude to the following seven individuals who participated in my study and willingly gave your time, ideas, artwork, stories, and heart to this work. A heartfelt thank you to: Paul Best, Hari Im, Niloofar Miry, Kathleen Nash, Matthew Sinclair, Andrew Smith, and Joanne Ursino. Your commitment to our creative community of practice and my research is noteworthy and made this project come to life. I am forever changed as a result of our collaboration.  I extend a singular thank you to my dearest friend Joanne Ursino for your exceptional dedication to my project’s success and to my wellbeing. You taught me what it means to walk truly alongside and hold gentle space, sharing in one another’s joy, pain, and success. I am ever grateful for your friendship, love, and insight shared on our many walks, meals, and meaningful conversations over all the years. Having you alongside in this journey has meant so much.   	 xvii	 I offer a loving thank you to my dear friend and gifted poet Dr. Juliane Okot Bitek. I am grateful for our countless conversations and all that we shared together across our years at UBC, including one Christmas in Vancouver. Your heart is made of gold. Thank you for connecting me with Lara Rosenoff Gauvin, creator of The Lobby Gallery, an introduction that led me here.  To my gifted colleagues in art education and other disciplines, I thank and acknowledge our graduate community: Kimberly Baker, Dr. Marie-France Berard, Rena Del Pieve Gobi, Nicole Lee, Dr. Elsa Lenz Kothe, Ken Morimoto, Marzieh Mosavarzadeh, Anna Ryoo, Kate Thomas, and Joanne Ursino. Thank you to Dr. Adrienne Boulton and Dr. Natalie LeBlanc for paving the way. A special thank you to Dr. Marie-France Berard and Dr. Elsa Lenz Kothe for our generative conversations over the years and for touring the exhibition Against Disappearance: A Photographic Search for Memory, offering your insights on the project. A special thanks to my talented friend Dr. Tetsuro Shigematsu and your lovely wife Bahareh Shigematsu for your companionship and collaboration. Thank you to Dr. Winston Massam, Dr. Andrea Webb, and Dr. Ashley Welsh for your friendship in the doctoral program. Thank you to Dr. Sam Stiegler for your camaraderie and wonderful Thanksgiving dinners. Thank you to Rupert Richardson for your kind heart and insightful work on healing. A special thank you to Kimani Wa Karangu (Philip) for your friendship, our memorable conversations, and special connection to the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya.   Thank you to Dr. Samson Nashon for your kindness, patience, and listening as I walked this path over the years and sought your wisdom. Your open door and warm spirit always offered me caring advice and steered me in the right direction. Thank you to everyone on the Dadaab research team for including me on the Dadaab Secondary Education research project and for taking me to Dadaab, Kenya, especially Dr. Rita L. Irwin, Dr. Karen Meyer, Dr. Samson Nashon, and Dr. Cynthia Nicol. You taught me how to do respectful, ethical research and to care about teachers’ stories. A special thank you also to Dr. Jackson Too and Dr. Emme Kipsoi for your kindness and teachings.  Thank you to Dr. Pilar Riaño-Alcalá for your insightful pedagogy and for introducing me to memory studies and the artist Alfredo Jaar. A fond thank you to Dr. Rajdeep Gill for your inspirational, passionate teachings and your sustained belief in creative, critical work. A special thank you to Dr. Kit Grauer and Dr. Sandrine Han for your support and counsel over the years.  I thank both my graduate and undergraduate mentors and acknowledge your influence on my art education: Dr. Bernard Young from Arizona State University and Dr. Richard Siegesmund [formerly] from The University of Georgia. Dr. Young, thank you for encouraging me to apply for my PhD, saying “put your dreams into plans and your plans into actions.” Dr. Siegesmund, thank you for your support, advising, and mentorship all the way from Athens, GA to Vancouver, B.C.   Thank you to The Liu Institute for Global Issues, The Liu Scholars Program, and The Liu Scholars Fund for supporting my research in the form of an exhibition at The Lobby Gallery and for offering me the unique opportunity to be a volunteer curator/co-curator at the gallery for four years (2014-2018). Thank you to my fellow curator Miriam Matejova for your work during the years we curated together. Thank you to Lindsay Marsh, Aaron Poeshn, Moura Quayle, Andrea Reynolds, and Tim Shew for your support at the Liu. A special thank you to Moises Mones for caretaking the space so well and helping me prepare for the exhibition until midnight.   In the Faculty of Education, I thank my EDCP department for the Four Year Fellowship and the Art Education department for the Gordon and Marion Smith Prize in Art Education. I thank Dr. Blye Frank for your leadership. I also offer my sincere gratitude to the wonderful staff in EDCP: Fred Brown, Scott Cartmill, Saroj Chand, Kalie Fong, Bob Hapke, Anna Ip, Alan Jay, and Basia Zurek. Thank you especially to Kirsty Robbins for your wonderful help! Thank you to Rod Brown, Dr. Wendy Carr, Dr. Keith MacPherson, and John Yamamoto in Teacher Education for keeping me employed and to Bette Shippam for being such a kind-hearted soul I could always count on. A special thank you to a gifted librarian, Joanne Naslund, for all of your help over the years.   A heartfelt thank you to Margot Bell at the Centre for Accessibility at UBC for your kind words, encouragement, and ongoing support as I finished the writing process from Atlanta, GA.  	 xviii	 I lovingly thank two impactful teachers in my life who inspired me to become a teacher of photography and to fall in love with writing: Michelle Van Parys (college, photography) and Martha McDavid (grades 3 & 7, writing). The influence of your teachings and passion is evident in this work.   Thank you to all of my amazing, talented students across eighteen years of teaching, since my first position in Charlotte, NC in 2002 to my most recent one in Vancouver at UBC in 2019. As I watched you grow and blossom, you made the act and art of teaching more than worthwhile.   To my group of wonderful friends who have been along for the ride, showing support and encouragement as you witnessed your friend embark on a wildly challenging experience: Thank you for our long phone calls and walks, meals we shared, bike rides to the beach, encouraging conversations, and critiques of my work. To Jonathan Schmidt, for knowing I would like Vancouver, for being a compassionate, kind friend all these years, and for sharing your lovely cabin. To my best friend Cloë Zanotto for your huge heart, positivity always when I needed it, and unending support. To you, Adam, and Cosma Zanotto, for being amazing humans and sharing your home for my many writing ventures. To Albert and Eva Zanotto, for your open hearts, open home, and sense of belonging. To my dear friend Dr. Nicole Arihood for encouraging me as we both completed our doctoral degrees and for always making me laugh. To Dr. Gabriel Lévesque-Tremblay for making me smile and encouraging me to finish and find my path. To Heidi Uotila for your encouragement, love, and belief. To Brandi Guenther, for being such a beautiful soul and always supporting me. To Shauna Dougall for your creative graphic design of our show postcards and your kindness and sense of humor. To you, David, and Eve Dougall for all the love, smiles, and sweetness. To Janine and Jaxon Jones for all the laughter, meals, wine – and cars. Love you all!  Thank you also to these friends in Canada, The United States, and elsewhere for being alongside and sharing in a part of my doctoral journey, however big or small: Elma Dzanic Bass, Jamie Bishop, Darek Broza, Cecile Edwards, Jeff Fink, Ruy Noya, Jared Penso, Betty Pietak, Karen Garry, Emma Raine, Max Rietmann, Parker Rueger, Alaleh Sahabi, Theodore Samouris, Rachel Somerville, Abbas Stancioff, Jindy Thandi, Jenifer Theimann, Shannon Tock, and Chiara Zanotto.  A very special thank you to two dear friends and carvers, Frank and Dance, who always made me smile even on the hardest days and taught me more than I could ever learn in school.   Thank you to Ticha Albino, Janine Jones, and Joanne Ursino for helping me hang some of the work for the exhibition. I could not have done it without you. Thank you for showing up.       A huge caffeinated thank you to Turks Coffee (and their baristas) on Commercial Drive in Vancouver where much of my early dissertation drafts were written, usually in the evening hours over a rooibos fog or decaf Americano. Thank you for providing the music, ambiance, space, conversations, and warm chocolate banana bread to write part of this dissertation.  Thank you to all of my extended family members who have shown your support over the years, especially to my aunts, Susan Corbin and Donna Thomas, for your generous love, laughter, and care for my spirit. A special thank you to Dr. Angela Shiflet for your advising towards my dissertation. A very loving thank you to my wonderful grandparents watching from above: Nana, Pop, Bob, and Nanny. I wish you were still here. A cuddly thank you to three sweet, silly doggies who made the journey so much more fun and endearing: my beloved Kaylah, Sandi, and Riley.  Last and most certainly not least, my family. A heartfelt thank you to my sister Lindsay Smith for your wisdom, understanding, and care for my endeavors and dreams. You have been there through it all, showing support not only for me as a graduate student but always as a sister.   With grace and deep gratitude, I extend the most important thank you of all to my loving, caring parents, Robert and Cindy Smith. You have stood unwaveringly by my side since the beginning and to the very end. Along with Lindsay, this accomplishment is shared with both of you. A special thank you to my mother for reading parts of my dissertation, for inspiring me to become a teacher, and to my parents for allowing me the time and space to finish writing my dissertation from the comfort of home. Your unending support, impactful life teachings, encouragement, laughter, and great love are etched upon my heart in ways words cannot fully express. Thank you.  	 xix	Dedication   Fig. 1 | By Blake Smith, Pop’s camera, photographed inside a ‘DIY’ diffusion box in the course EDCP 405   To the memory of my beloved late grandfather, Richard J. Sturm, who passed away October 18th, 2018 in Atlanta, Georgia. Pop was a beautiful influence on my life and wanted to see me graduate. We had a special bond through photography and vintage cameras. He shot Polaroids of us when we were little and gave me the oldest camera I have, possibly used by him in WWII (pictured above, Fig. 1). The memory of his kindness, love, sense of humor, and encouragement left a lingering sense of hope as I wrote during the final mile, progress made in his honor. I dedicate my dissertation to him.    Pop is dearly missed. He is here in spirit, along with nine other individuals who passed away during my doctoral studies, to whom I also dedicate this work. They include: Don Smith, Barry Gray, Dr. Carl Leggo, Helen Morrison, Steven Morrison, Evelyn Burnett, Christopher Long, Dr. Don Krug, and Canadian artist Gordon Smith. It is my sincere hope that this composition is something they all would have found pleasure and pride in reading. ~  And finally, I offer a special, endearing dedication to all of the smart, talented, ambitious, fabulous, overworked, and fragile graduate students out there who may be writing and may be struggling right now. Know that, despite moments of self-doubt, often being alone, fatigue, and real challenges including mental health, incredible triumphs are possible if you have confidence, a supportive team, and can just keep going the distance. This moment is a marathon, a milestone, and a majestic mystery to unfold – one that requires great courage, writing from the heart, and rising when you fall. Keep rising. May you stay healthy, stay passionate, stay vulnerable, stay resilient, and always, always stay you. 	 1	Prologue   Fig. 2 | By Blake Smith, Untitled   A photographic inquiry of loss and hope, this project began a very long time ago as a visceral longing for visual language and a poetics of pictures.   Over time it has become a durational portrait  of seeing, feeling, knowing, being, learning and the tender breaths  that linger in-between.  An artistic offering towards  a pedagogy and poetry of images, this dissertation is both breath and longing. Through a series of gestures exploring creative possibility, I share with you this extended field note on a photographic education.  	 2	Chapter 1   On Photography: An Introduction     Fig. 3 | By Blake Smith, Page spread from one of my visual journals, juxtaposing an image by a favorite artist (Ishiuchi Miyako) with a favorite quote by Piero Ferrucci:   We will look at people’s lives in motion – and see that their goal is the self. Each one moves forward in a different way, and each has a different path. The analogy of a path is accurate, for it reminds us that we are all in the process of becoming. We may of course, crystallize. At times, however, we move forward, make discoveries, and change. We venture into unknown territories, looking for something we long for without knowing – and yet recognize it the moment we encounter it. During our search we may come up against obstacles. As anyone who sets out on a long, arduous journey, we may lose our way, grow weary, become disheartened. And perhaps fail.  Piero Ferrucci, Inevitable grace: Breakthroughs in the lives of great men and women: Guides to your self-realization (1990, p. 6) 	 3	Birthplaces of an Inquiry: My Why   This research is born out of my years as a photographer, a high school photography teacher in the United States, and a university photography instructor in Canada. It draws on my experiences of being behind the lens and in front of the classroom. Both entail ways of seeing and shaping the world – one through pictures, the other through pedagogy. Bringing these two worlds together as an artist and a teacher means these roles have become beautifully and intricately intertwined: the making of art, the art of teaching, and the teaching of photography have become one. My life as a photographer comes alongside my life as a teacher to create a diptych, a single image of two parts – one woman walking with two different shoes. Thus, teaching becomes artful and art becomes pedagogical.   At times, themes and interests from my photographic inquiries have found their way into classroom assignments, and some classroom assignments have come to inspire new photography, including work in this dissertation. I admire and embrace this back and forth dance of teaching and art. I appreciate how they parallel, arc, and intersect. I enjoy how they share a language of creativity, emotivity, and self-expression, and how they have taught me to see and, as a teacher, have taught others how to see. This dialogic exchange of meaningful content and visual material has provided rich opportunities to bridge my teaching work with my artwork. As well, I explore similar topics across multiple creative spaces and media, sharing with my students that their teacher is also an artist, also still learning.   As evidence of ‘still learning,’ this dissertation seeks to deepen understandings around the educative potential of photography in the context of memory work.1 This work brings forward both a teaching and an artistic practice alongside a research practice in a project of a/r/tography (Irwin & deCosson, 2004; Springgay, Irwin, Leggo, & Gouzaouasis, 2008). My writing tone and the contemplative manner of this work intentionally reflect and imbue narrative and lifewriting, aspiring to connect with readers with more intimacy and less distance (Karr, 2015; Leggo, 2008; Palmer, 2017; Roorbach, 2008). To commence this story is to begin at the end of another, a postscript for a journey made: the end of research, the end of a community coming together, the end of a photographer’s narrative. It is an end, a closure, shaped by a tender letting go, so that another moment can be held while appreciating what came before. It is also a heartfelt moment of long                                                 1 For projects and methods that involve returning to places, objects, or memories of the past, using memory as source material for artwork, or narrating the autobiographical self, be it past or present, this type of work might be considered a form of ‘memory work.’ There are many variations and likely other interpretations of this phrase which is broad yet not all-encompassing of what, artistically, the ‘work of memory’ might look like or be. 	 4	reflective pause, the time for new beginnings to emerge, and a chance to look back over my shoulder at a path travelled in order to tell the story as I have experienced it. In this case, in the company of seven others who meaningfully walked alongside. This photographer’s narrative is also theirs.   As a way of describing to readers who I am and how and why I come to this research, I wish to share a key backstory – two, in fact – that shape the development and initiative behind this research agenda and illustrate some of the pulls that inspired the study. I do so to create a personalized frame around this dissertation and introduce myself as someone emotionally and subjectively invested in the research and what may come of it. Further, I position this inquiry as one that has been long in the making, as noted in the Prologue. It is a living inquiry (Irwin & deCosson, 2004; Irwin, LeBlanc, Ryu, & Belliveau, 2018; Meyer, 2010; Springgay, Irwin, & Wilson Kind, 2005), born from my experiences with pictures, pedagogy, practice, and pain. As such, it is quite personal, intimate, and autobiographical. At the same time, it seeks connections to the lives and autobiographies of others also involved in teaching, learning, and photography.  As I seek linkages from teaching and art to this research, I am reminded that certain   through-lines are present from years of teaching as well as present in my own artwork, suggesting the significance of the things that never seem to leave us – ideas, desires, imagery, dreams, themes, and longings we wear like second skin. At the heart of this project is something I have stayed with for many years: photo-based memory work, or photographic inquiry that seeks to explore, document, creatively respond to, and/or invite memory as subject matter and inspiration for art making. From the projects assigned to my students to the learning gained from my own teachers to personal photographic inquiries, I notice there is a curious presence around and artistic commitment to this kind of work over time again and again – always photography as my anchor – suggesting the importance of such through-lines in the life of an artist who teaches. Here, that curiosity and commitment to photo-based memory work are brought into the realm and context of arts-based research in order to further explore its dynamics, potential, concerns, affect, edges, and reach.    Noteworthy influences upon this work are other artists whose artwork and practices have come to shape my own. Their names and sometimes their exhibitions are presented in different moments throughout the dissertation as a way of bringing them alongside. In most cases, I have hyperlinked their names and/or work2 and other key references as a deliberate citational practice                                                 2 To support my citational practice and archive existing URL’s (Uniform Resource Locator), see Appendix A for a complete List of Hyperlinks included in this dissertation. They are active links as of December 2020. 	 5	of sharing key information and as a way of enacting the artistic and scholarly act of tracing that I write of as important in this piece by way of tracing and archiving pedagogy beyond rooms.   In time, as I have found interest in certain artists3, artworks, exhibitions, or themes, they have influenced my decision-making, photographic inquiries, writing practice, research, and classroom offerings as sources of inspiration and assignments for students. As well, their influence on this dissertation is evident. Interested in photography as a form of autobiography (Adams, 2000; Miyako, 2005 a&b; Sinner & Owen, 2011; Smith, 2018; Weston, 2000/1990; Wolfe, 2007) and a visual expression of lived experience, the projects I tend to assign and enjoy taking on are of the storytelling, self-reflective kind. Some examples from my teaching include: photo essays and poetry on home and beloveds, documentations of the urban and domestic landscape, everyday photography, self-portraits as extended images, photowalks with memory, still life photography of personal mementos, and The Visual Story Corps Project4.   In addition to projects like these, in all levels of photography education, I invite students to explore and interpret their assignments through a variety of themes such as these mentioned or other self-directed themes they wish to explore, a method I found to be highly productive, generative, and freeing in its capacity for open-ended interpretation and creative control for students. This is a way I like working as well.   This study and the exhibition at its core take on a similar approach. As a teacher, I place a chosen emphasis on the artistry of photography alongside a mastery of technique, always urging the narrative and narrator to come through while pushing for creativity, originality, and risk-taking. The assignments I give ask students to dig deep, photograph with intention, and share (to their own level of comfort) aspects of their personal lives in the classroom to varying degrees, being                                                 3 Three of those artists influenced my understanding and practice of photo-based memory work and are discussed as key inspirations throughout the dissertation: Ishiuchi Miyako, Alfredo Jaar, and Byron Wolfe. A more detailed list of influential artists is described in Chapter 6, under letter A, Artists of Inspiration.  4 I designed The Visual StoryCorps Project for my advanced high school photography students as a portrait assignment, inspired by National Public Radio’s popular interview series called StoryCorps, the largest oral history project in The United States. People interview important individuals in their lives, and the interviews are archived at The American Folklife Center in The Library of Congress. In my project, students were invited to create portraits of influential people in their lives and/or their loved ones along with conduct an interview to get to know their subject on a deeper level, presenting both the photograph and interview text* together as their final submission. This became a district-wide collaborative photo project and exhibition that I organized and curated in Peoria Unified School District in Peoria, Arizona for the participating local high school advanced photography classes. The final works were stunning and moving. *The idea of presenting interview text alongside the portrait (and combining interviews with photographs) was inspired by Palestinian American artist Emily Jacir’s project Where We Come From (2001-2003). For her project, Jacir, who has an American passport and can move freely in Israel, asked exiled Palestinians the question: “If I could do anything for you, anywhere in Palestine, what would it be?” then went on to carry out those tasks for them, documenting her actions and experiences through photography. I encountered her work in that series in an installation at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), which included large-size color photographs alongside interview text printed in two languages side by side.   	 6	encouraged to explore photography’s potential for visual narration, life telling, and showing what/how you see.   It seems students of mine were, at times, being asked to write their lives into pictures in a similar way that I write my own, something that directly reflects the photographic practice of visual lifewriting5 (Sinner & Owen, 2011), a key method in the study. As I look back and remember the pedagogical paths I have walked over the years, I can see that these projects I assigned often centered around memory, identity, and students’ lived experiences, things I understood but had not fully explored or researched at the time, beyond the rich research of lived teaching experience. In a way, this became a kind of teaching philosophy – to seek out the meaning and memories that shaped students’ lives, to use the camera as a way of expressing the soul, and to teach them how to see the world by first learning to see themselves. I wanted to open their eyes.  Reflectively, this perspective is most informed by two things: one, my own artistic practice which includes a multi-year personal photographic inquiry around memory, hope, and loss, entitled The Visual Memoir Project (Smith 2018/2015), presented in a series of everyday photographs as part of this study; and two, lived experiences of school, art, and life. These experiences include my own photographic education, starting with high school photography classes and marked by the influence of key photo teachers along the way6 who have continued to expand my understandings of what photography can be or might be. I share this to say that my ongoing love affair with and commitment to photography was sparked by influential others along the way. As great teachers tend to do, their love inspired mine.                                                    5 Throughout the dissertation, I use the terms ‘lifewriting’ and ‘visual lifewriting’ without the separation of life + writing, following in the footsteps of my mentor Carl Leggo and how he spelled it [see Leggo (2019b) Lifewriting – A poet’s cautionary tale (2010)]. In doing so, I acknowledge that throughout much of the literature, it is spelled ‘life writing,’ with the separation. As my first introduction to the method and practice, Sinner and Owen (2011) spell it: ‘visual life writing,’ separating all three words. I am unclear if one or the other is ‘correct’ and may one day change course. For now, I follow Leggo’s lead.  6 The influential photography teachers I refer to include: Michelle Van Parys of the College of Charleston, Charleston, SC; Christian Widmer and Aaron Rothman both formerly of Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona; and Susan Staggs of Lakeside High School, Atlanta, GA, who first introduced me to the darkroom and my first 35mm camera. Furthermore, and although he was not my teacher, someone who taught me in other ways through his beautiful photography is Byron Wolfe of Temple University, cited throughout this dissertation as a key influence visually and conceptually, particularly in my own memoir series. 	 7	 Fig. 4 | By Blake Smith, Photograph of a photograph from my first a/r/tography series on loss: an image of my grandmother’s locket held in a plaster cast of my hand at age 18.    In my work as a photographer and adjacent to the work of memory, a significant theme that has stayed with me across all of my years is loss, finding its way into photographs, poetry (Smith, 2014), teaching, research, and curation and is an anchoring theme in this study. Drawn to loss for reasons both within and beyond my grasp, it is a concept and feeling that haunts my creative imagination and compels me to take pictures as a way of being against the loss of all that is loved and held dear. Like many others, I have experienced great loss and have grieved those losses over time and through photography, as pictures sometimes help to alleviate the pain. Lewko (2014), a teacher who has also experienced loss, writes compellingly about the contemplation of loss in the face of a student’s death, speaking to the ways a teacher might carry it:  My students carry loss with them in their migration to new lands, and I also carry loss with me as I migrate from pedagogical landscape to heart landscape in my own teaching…I live with experiences of loss, which at times pulls my heart into unknown depths of despair and fear. The past and the present together form a more complete understanding of how living perceptively in loss will revive the will to tell the story in places far from apprehension. (p. 168)  As a kind of memory work, doing photography around loss upon, as Lewko (2004) calls it, the “heart landscape” (p. 168), is a tender and sometimes tearful process. Yet, it can also be healing as I am able to create an archive of remembrance that both honors and speaks back to loss. Each photograph is a holding on and a letting go, with a knowing that things photographed are no longer as they once were and in some cases are now gone and have disappeared. Photography extends the memory of. 	 8	 I first began to address loss, memory, and displacement (Golparian, 2013) photographically in an a/r/tography course at The University of British Columbia with Dr. Rita L. Irwin. That course was a noteworthy moment in my learning journey that, in many ways, led to the research presented here. Through a series of photographs of personal mementos, I engaged in an a/r/tographic search for home as I sought to engage a poetics of loss through photography (see Smith, 2014). The significance of that course and my introduction to a/r/tography is important to note, part of my why, for it marked a shaping of an understanding about what research could be, how artistic practice could be integral to research creation, and why the heart of it matters.   Fresh to graduate school, my eyes and heart were opened in that class. I felt safe to dare, encouraged to create, and inspired to learn more. My work and experience as a teacher could come alongside my art and become research. All three practices were intertwined and intermeshed, yet each bore its own identity. This was so intriguing as a new scholar and so inspiring as an artist: the ideas of exploring education through artistic practice and writing about art by making art.   I identified both loss and the idea of engaging memory photographically as source material for art making as themes significant in my artistic work early on, which has led to continued thinking into photography’s autobiographical capacity. That thinking is continued here throughout this dissertation. Over time, those themes have been explored through photography and poetry in numerous projects as my explorations and interpretations of this methodology.   Sharing all of this information is a way of building context – becoming as a teacher, being passionate about photography, and coming to understand loss – and is to say that this research represents a very personal project close to my heart that is intimately connected to my lived experiences as a teacher, a photographer, and a human being. In a way, this dissertation is a significant chapter in my visual memoir, including pages as the lives of others who became written into this story through their participation, artwork, and shared commitment to this work. To do qualitative, arts-based research of this nature means using experiences, understandings, memories, and challenges from my own life and vocation as a way of framing an inquiry that stems directly from it. I have lived this inquiry, in one way or another, for likely twenty-plus years, through various pedagogical wonderings and poetic iterations, almost all of them photographic. Over the years, it seems these themes and I (memory, loss) have never let each other go. As such, this study presented a unique opportunity to carry forward into research some of the lingering, nagging, and important questions I have had as both a teacher and a photographer, questions that intend to stay grounded in the work of teaching and the work of photography throughout this work.   	 9	Research Question  At the heart of this research is an inquiry about the creative and disruptive potential of photo-based memory work within a frame of disappearance. I address this inquiry by the following two-part research question towards memory work in the contexts of photography education, practice, and research: How can creative engagement with photo-based memory work, including visual lifewriting: a) evoke meaningful experiences of teaching, learning, and making art; and b) provoke contemporary, critical conversations about ethics in art and photo education?  As described on the previous pages, my research question emerges from a trifold place of practice, teaching, and life experiences and attempts to explore further the themes aforementioned that continue to beckon my scholarly and creative attention. This study considers the research question from multiple practice-based viewpoints: artist, teacher, researcher, as well as curator (all roles I have experienced and roles some of my participants identify with as well). It also addresses some of the complexities, uniqueness, artistry, ethics, and pedagogical potential around memory work through photography. In my research question, I include teaching, learning, and making as three related practices in order to study the lives of teachers, learners, and artists who engage in all three practices. In this way, I consider them a/r/tographically meshed and in relation to one another. This move draws on the way my life as a teacher, learner, and artist is positively entangled and forever all three. As such, the study was designed to explore all of these practices in a way that might mirror and illuminate the bright, vivacious, and interlaced threads of this entanglement.   I addressed the research question by carrying out an a/r/tographic study over the course of one year and a half (from 2015 to 2016), as I worked with a group of seven adult artists and art educators, myself included, making a group of eight, who are all photographers and met earlier in a course I taught on photography and new media, discussed next. We formed a small creative community of practice, conducted interviews, shared stories, and broke bread, united by a shared commitment to and interest in photography, teaching, and learning. Our main accomplishment and the focus of this dissertation was the production of a group photography exhibition entitled Against Disappearance: A Photographic Search for Memory, held May 20, 2016-August 25, 2016. We presented our work in The Lobby Gallery at The Liu Institute for Global Issues on the Vancouver campus of The University of British Columbia, the place where all of us attended school and the gallery where I was a curator. The images and didactics (wall text) from this exhibition are presented in Chapter 5, and a creative analysis of the exhibition and study is presented in Chapter 6 in ‘A Lexicon for Against Disappearance.’ Alongside the interviews, both individual and group, each participant created and exhibited artwork and wrote an artist statement. These creations 	 10	represent the key visual data for the study and emphasize art making and the art exhibition process as the sharing and production of new knowledge for and as artistic research.   Through creative engagement, this a/r/tographic research study seeks to understand, deepen, and expand current notions of pedagogical and artistic possibilities around photo-based memory work through the vehicles of meaningful experience, research conversations, art making (namely photography), and the curation and production of a group photography exhibition. By exploring the educational value of an exhibition as both a professional and personal development opportunity for teachers as well as a significant learning event, I consider: 1) the creative and disruptive potential of photo-based memory work; 2) some of its artistic, pedagogical, and ethical implications; and 3) how this kind of work might be made meaningful to artists, visual researchers, a/r/tographers, curators, and teachers (and, therefore, potentially their students).   The methodology and approach of a/r/tography allowed me to study the ways art teachers and/as visual artists engage creatively with photo-based memory work, as I was interested in studying their creations as well as understanding their perspectives, processes, stories, and critiques. Doing so addresses both parts to my research question and helps to gain deeper insights into practicing artists’ and art teachers’ perspectives and lived experiences in Canada of teaching, learning, and making art, specifically digital photography. It also invites me to consider how and if they negotiate ethics in their practices and in what ways. As such, I sought to discover a unique photographic window into their worlds.                       	 11	Another Backstory | The Course EDCP 405 Visual Arts for Classroom Practice:  New Media & Digital Processes   Fig. 5 | By Blake Smith, A collection of images, including photos from the course EDCP 405 (July 2015)    Before I proceed to a discussion of some of the relevant literature as another way of framing this study, it is important for readers to know the context in which the research group and I first met. It is a significant underpinning of note and gives way for a group to be born after a course has ended. Our research group first met in July in the summer of 2015 in a three-week course on photography and new media I taught at The University of British Columbia. Held in the Faculty of Education, it was entitled EDCP 405 Visual Arts for Classroom Practice: New Media and Digital Processes7. Situating this photography course as our beginning emphasizes the pedagogical nature of this study and highlights the shared duration of our journey as paramount. The course locates the place where our learning and relationships began, rooted in educational and photographic practice, as a significant context within this research backstory and marks a moment in the history of our making. This context also explains how a group of individuals with a shared love for photography came together after a university course to form a group that would later collaborate                                                 7 A link to the online syllabus and course outline can be found on my current UBC teaching blog, Awakening the Spirit or by emailing me for a copy. [It is possible this blog may not be available post-graduation.] 	 12	on another project, this time a research study outside the classroom – a photographic inquiry through an a/r/tographic lens.  As such, this study attempts to trace pedagogy beyond the bounds of the classroom where we first met and looks at an evolutionary process of learning, teaching, making, and becoming over time.  During those three weeks in the course, a group of photography students committed to evolving their practice as educators and artists explored the pedagogical and artistic possibilities of photography from multiple lenses, seeking connections from theory to practice. As a learning community, important foundational and relational groundwork was laid in the course that helped to shape the group that would later become research participants. Thus, it is important to share from the start the place where we began conversations on photography as a way to understand where we ended up. The experiences in the course in some ways informed our experiences of research, as both involve photographic inquiry and being part of a collective. Side by side and chronologically one just before the other, the course teaches learning and the research teaches learners, so they share a capacity for deepening understandings about the art and experience of a photographic education. Further, some of the themes (such as memory, loss, autobiography) and artists (such as Ishiuchi Miyako, Alfredo Jaar, and Byron Wolfe) from the course carried over into the research in a way that certain significant through-lines can be traced across both events, delineating a shared lineage of ideas, imagery, and intentionality.   These two experiences (the course and the research study) affected the relationships, project, and understandings that emerged, so it is fitting that one story is shared briefly before the other in order to situate a photography course context alongside a photography research context where both are concerned with the creative, transformative potential of teaching, learning, and making both with and through photography.   Looking at the notion of ‘Visual Arts for Classroom Practice’ (a phrase from the course title) as a doorway to possibility, in the course we considered how and in what ways to bring photography and new media arts into classrooms meaningfully, from elementary to post-secondary. We also considered together what topics, assignments, approaches, prompts, and artists might be relevant, creative, and promising for educators to engage with their students. For example, we read the work of Juan Carlos Castro (2007) on the fourth day of the course, given that his work considers “constraints that enable artistic inquiry” (p. 7). Further, we discussed some of the prompts he gives to high school photography students to encourage meaningful inquiry, such as: “What would your self-portrait look like if you couldn’t include yourself directly?” (p. 7), “What places are significant to me?” 	 13	(p. 12). And one I am quite drawn to for its connection to photography: “If you were struck blind tomorrow, what vision of the world would you leave?” (p. 9).   With a strong emphasis on photographic practice, we also spent time taking photographs, designing and carrying out personal inquiry projects, and going on photo-based excursions outside the classroom while embracing a hands-on, experiential, sharing-oriented, and self-directed approach. The offerings laid out to the students, including experienced teachers, teacher candidates, and artists included: rich classroom conversations and discussions, open studio time, hands-on demonstrations, photowalks, a scavenger hunt, learning bookmaking and visual journals from guest artist Joanne Ursino, photo-based memory work including a visual lifewriting project, introductions to the work of several artists, student-driven photographic inquiries, the opportunity to share their work with the class, and photo field trips to Spanish Banks and the Vancouver Art Gallery. Of important note are the two exhibitions our class saw together at the Vancouver Art Gallery that summer which, in some ways, later informed the shaping of this project. Together we saw:  How Do I Fit This Ghost in My Mouth? An Exhibition by Geoffrey Farmer from May 30, 2015–September 7, 2015 and Residue: The Persistence of the Real from June 12, 2015–September 27, 2015. Both exhibitions included memory, remembering, and photography as part of their offering, but addressed the topics in quite differing ways and media. As well as those activities, the course centered on a series of themes, relevant to this dissertation, including:  v Photography as a Practice: Art, Teaching, & Research v The Photographer’s Currere v Contemporary Issues for Photography Part 1: The Ethics of Seeing/Being Seen v Contemporary Issues for Photography Part 2: Teaching in the Era of the Selfie: Representation, Identity, & Online Exposure  v Photography as Autobiography: Exploring Pedagogical Possibilities for Visual Lifewriting & Memory v Photography Beyond School: Participatory Photography & Community Art Projects    The course themes, readings, and other assignments drew from contemporary literature8 as well as the emotional literature that emerges from lived experience. We exchanged tales of darkrooms and digital labs, teenagers, young children, and adults finding their way and learning to see, struggles and triumphs of teaching, the importance of nurturing creativity, what it meant as                                                 8 Course readings for EDCP 405 included the following required and optional readings, included in my references. Further details and related activities are available on my course outline, linked in footnote 7: Allison (2009), Barrett (2011), Boyd (2007), Castro (2007), Cress (2012), Dugan (2012), Durbin (2014), Edwards (2007), Eldon & Eldon (1997), Eldon (n.d.), Green (2001), Gude (2010), Hart (2009), Hutzell (2007), Hyde (2005), Irwin (2018a), Jerome & Cran (2008), LeBlanc (2014), Leggo (2010), Levi Strauss (2012), Lykes (2010), Macdonald (2012), Michiko (2005), New (n.d.), O’Donoghue (2015), PBS Art21 ‘Contemporary Approaches to Teaching’ (n.d.), Pinar (1975), Powell (2015), Purcell (2009), Rhoades (2012), Richmond (2004), Sontag (1977), Trafi-Prats (2012), Weston (2000), & Wolfe (2007).  	 14	adults to be in school/back in school, understanding the new B.C. visual arts curriculum9, and strategies for approaching curricula and teaching methods for both new and experienced teachers. We looked at photography as both a pedagogical endeavor and a vibrant creative practice for our students and for ourselves as evolving artists and educators.   In a beautiful shared learning experience, as their teacher I witnessed their growth, passions, and transformations over the course of three short weeks, being alongside each of their stories of coming to know the photograph and understand and embody their own photographic educations. I still remember standing on the beach at Spanish Banks on a field trip10 as each student embarked on a solo photowalk, camera in hand, as we practiced ‘walking our currere’ (Irwin, 2018a), some with bare feet. The sun was exceptionally hot that day, and together we basked in its golden light as the ocean tide rolled in, taking pictures, collecting found objects, and making memories in this expansive outdoor classroom by the sea. That day remains a cherished teachable moment from the course that I hold dear and marks a moment among many of impactful together-learning, evoked by photography and carried out in community.  ~  The course came to an end in late July of 2015, and we parted ways. I invited everyone in the course and Joanne Ursino to take part in this study once the course was over and marks were submitted. My intention was to form a creative community of practice devoted to photography, centered on teaching, learning, and creation. Students were contacted via email with a ‘Letter of Recruitment: Email Invitation’ after ethics had been approved by the university. Six students out of nine in the course agreed to take part in the study along with Joanne and myself, forming a colorful group of eight11. As reciprocity and incentive for taking part in the study, participants were invited to participate in a photography exhibition I was in the midst of planning at that time for The Lobby Gallery. This was an offering to create, collaborate, and exhibit our art (perhaps from the course or perhaps new work) in an on-campus interdisciplinary art gallery, which was a noteworthy motivating factor for participation and, later, became the main event of the study.                                                  9 The new British Columbia Arts Education curriculum (specifically Visual Arts) can be viewed online here.  10 The idea to walk and collect objects at Spanish Banks with my students was suggested to me by Canadian artist Gordon Smith (1919-2020) who used to take his UBC Art Education classes there, where students created artworks of found objects cast in plaster inside of shoeboxes. Although we did not use plaster, we did collect and discuss objects we found along the beach, including the ethics of taking things away versus leaving found materials behind.  11 The eight participants included practicing art educators, art teacher candidates, art education graduate students, a visual art student, and students completing a diploma or other degree. They are further discussed in Chapter 4 in their biographies and under ‘Who-ness.’ All were students at UBC. All eight identify as artists and most identify as educators; during the course of this study we recognized and considered the many overlaps in these roles. 	 15	 Set against tangerine summer skies above the Pacific Ocean, this story begins with the EDCP 405 course and ends with that exhibition, two bookends as significant creative learning events to a moving pedagogical experience about photography, centered around a group of photographers.   ~  The next chapter presents a review of relevant literature in photography education and research in relation to this dissertation, presenting an expanse of perspectives, projects, and photographic endeavors, many engaged with youth. As an overview of the field, I present a collection of works by a selection of authors addressing six emergent themes. Together, these themes and the literature cited within each offer a unique, expansive view of how photography is being employed in schools, in research, in communities, and in other educative spaces and ways. The literature review in Chapter 2 accentuates photography from a practice-oriented perspective and intends to come alongside further theory and literature presented later in Chapter 3, which emphasizes a philosophically-oriented perspective towards the photograph.     	 16	Chapter 2 Photography in Educational Contexts: A Review      Fig. 6 | By Blake Smith, Self-portrait in Gastown  	 17	A Pedagogical & Practice-Oriented Perspective   To contextualize the value and relevance of the July 2015 course I taught, EDCP 405, and the significance of the photography exhibition within this study, I address some of the ways photography has been employed in existing and emerging literature from a pedagogical and practice-oriented perspective. Upon my review, I determined the need to address my research question in the form of an experiential study with art educators. In general, research in the field has not looked closely or specifically at the intersections of memory work, loss, autobiography, and ethics in the context of photography and/or photography education, specifically through the lens of practicing art educators and artists in a community of practice.   Thus, I conceptualized and carried out this research in order to attend to several noted gaps in the current literature regarding: 1) photo-based memory work and visual lifewriting being used in a photography classroom (Sinner & Owen, 2011), gallery, and/or research learning setting; 2) deeper understandings of ethics in art and photo education as well as photo-based research projects (Aldridge, 2012; Batsleer, 2011; Gil-Glazer, 2015; McAra, 2016); and 3) descriptive and narrative case studies of art teachers and artists learning, creating, and exhibiting together  (Triggs, Irwin, Beer, Springgay, Grauer, & Xiong, 2011) – specifically around photo-based memory work. Using the exhibition as a dynamic pedagogical tool for co-learning, photographic inquiry, and the opportunity to address difficult knowledge in/through memory work, this study addresses these gaps through our collaborative endeavor.  As an original offering to art and photo education, this project centers the significant work and voices of eight art educators by highlighting our artistic contributions, distinct perspectives, and personal experiences in/as research. Furthermore, this research encourages and explores the possibilities of art educators and a/r/tographers exhibiting their work around critical, contemporary concepts (here, disappearance), another angle not widely addressed in the literature.   In order to appreciate the ways and reasons photography and photographic inquiry have been brought into classrooms, research agendas, and other educative spaces, I turn to the work of educators, researchers, and others who engage with the medium. As such, I consider photography’s pedagogical capacities for knowledge formation in schools and elsewhere. By thinking through a literature-based and practice-based lens (Springgay, et al., 2008), I reflect on photography as an agent and archive of knowledge in the classroom (Furniss, 2019; Macdonald, 2012; Mitchell, Martin-Hamon, & Anderson, 2002) and other educative settings: as agentic to learning and part of the archive of one’s understanding and creative expression, referring to both teachers and students. This consideration pairs nicely with the chapter that follows (Chapter 3). Some of the ideas carry 	 18	over, such as: how teachers might bring contemporary artists and contemporary ideas into the classroom and other learning/making contexts; what kinds of photo projects, methods, and subjects are prominent and under what umbrella themes; and if/how topics like ethics, seeing, loss, and memory are being addressed. Through this review, I frame ways photo educators, community pedagogues, researchers, and others have developed and engaged photo-based methods, curricular models, and practices in contemporary public educative spaces (such as secondary schools, alternative, and community-based settings). The literature referenced, in many but not all cases, is concerned with the education of youth.12 This is a way of attending to my commitment to teaching and situating my interest in the relationship of young people to photography, which draws on my experience as a photo educator.   Finally, to address a noted stylistic and linguistic gap, the forms that make up the architecture of this dissertation address the need a more elaborate language for photography education, practice, and research. Through the exhibition (Chapter 5), lexicon (Chapter 6), and a series of offerings (Chapter 7) and propositions (Chapter 8) that end the dissertation, these forms offer poetic, thoughtful, and artistic research responses as an expression of and desire for new language. These forms expand and redefine current understandings of photographic inquiry, specifically in the vein of memory work and in the context of disappearance.   Literature on Photography  Photography and videography are both popular mediums being employed across teaching, art, community, research, and other platforms. Such employment involves various age groups and members. It also includes a wide variety of reasons and agendas in disciplines ranging from sociology to mental health and, here, in art and photo education. As well, there is ongoing interest in and gravitation towards what still and moving pictures can/not document, reveal, tell, archive, and show, particularly with regards to understanding and pictorializing lived experiences, using visual forms to narrate and visualize them. Youth and adults alike authentically engage in their own education and life narration in a number of ways, especially now on social media, as they and we explore, often through photography, the capacities, expressions, and constructions of identity via the ‘self-portrait’ (Dalton, 2010) in a number of interesting ways. Photography, then, is one                                                 12 For this inquiry, ‘youth’ is meant to encompass young people roughly ages ten to eighteen years old, in order to include middle and high school aged individuals – the primary age group I am interested in looking at in terms of their photographic education both inside and outside of schools and the group I have the most teaching experience with. Besides youth in that age range, a small number of models/practices with younger ages (below age ten) and older adults (over age eighteen) were reviewed but are not the main focus for this chapter.  	 19	compelling way into this process of coming to know, to see, and to share and understand the self and the experiences that shape and construct the self.   Understandably, the notion of participating and storytelling with/through image-making becomes a potential ethical area involving concerns around representation, power, and agency with regards to asking individuals to “give account of oneself” (Butler, 2005, p. 10), perhaps for the benefits or desiring eyes of others – teachers, researchers, public audiences, youth, communities, etc. In looking to how photo educators and visual researchers (Rose, 2012) develop, study, and engage photography as research, pedagogy, and visual methodology (Metcalf, 2016), we can see a range of directions teachers, researchers, and others have taken photography and a plethora of reasons why.   To garner a sense of this range, I studied some of the existing and emerging literature on the development of photography education and research as it has evolved from 2000-2019, reviewing abstracts and articles across eleven field-specific journals13. This review of literature was a highly personal exercise whereby I sought to make connections between my own research and teaching interests and the greater field of art and photo education.   I targeted writing that addresses three areas I suggest are linked or thematically adjacent to memory work. These areas align with my pedagogical values, present in this research study: autobiographical projects (the employment of personal life story/lived experience), narrative projects (the employment of story), and participatory/relational projects (the employment of others in social context). Further, these themes framed this collection of writings as well as informed the conceptual design of this study – a study that is autobiographical, narrative, and participatory/relational in nature. Further, in terms of a pedagogical trace, these three areas link back with the kinds of projects I assigned in my years of teaching, now present in this research. Another through-line emerged.   I look at the literature through the lens of a photography teacher and photographer interested in exploring the potential intersections of memory work and pedagogy (Mitchell, Strong-Wilson, Pithouse, & Allnutt, 2012; Sinner & Owen, 2011). Committed to finding artful ways of “bringing memory forward” (Strong-Wilson, 2008, p. 4), I recognize and bear certain pedagogical commitments. These commitments include an appreciation for student autobiographical narratives and lifewriting, a belief in photography’s capacity to inspire visual literacy and evoke stories, the importance of expressing inner and outer landscapes, and last, the benefits of                                                 13 In no specific order, the journals I reviewed include: Art Education, Canadian Art Teacher, Canadian Review of Art Education, International Journal of Education and the Arts, International Journal of Education Through Art, International Journal of Art and Design Education, Journal for Artistic Review, School Arts, Studies in Art Education, Visual Arts Research, and Visual Studies. 	 20	collaborative, public, and socially-engaged endeavors, particularly in art education. This lens includes an affinity for personal, narrative-based, and experiential projects and learning strategies, without a set outcome, that encourage multiple, self-directed, and open-ended entry points for sense-making, meaning-making, creative engagement, risk-taking, and experimentation. As such, this research study embraces the same lens. From my own experience and years of teaching high school photography, these kinds of entry points can invite photographic youth and others to document their lives by speaking in/with pictures and to make connections between their evolving art knowledge and practice with their everyday lives. That is, they may discover more about society and themselves through photography.   Six Emergent Themes from the Readings  I situate this review not as a summative all-encompassing statement about photography education and research, but rather a collection of voices in a continuation of an evolving and changing conversation already underway. Among those voices are photo and visual art teachers sharing lessons, artists, stories, experiential knowledge, and action research with their students. All are all invaluable gestures towards research on/in photo education. Further, looking at research and teaching articles by/about/related to photo educators and researchers supports the rationale for this study wherein I conduct research with educators and artists who work with photography.   The following six themes emerged from my readings of the collected abstracts and articles between 2000-2019 that are noteworthy to share in relation to this study: Theme 1: Identity, voice, & lived experience Theme 2: Social action & awareness Theme 3: Collaborative partnerships & community engagement: Photography beyond schools Theme 4: Ethics Theme 5: Existing & new technologies Theme 6: Photographers as inspirational entry points & Ways of engaging the photograph  These themes illustrate evident trends in and language around photo-based projects and research from my perspective. As aforementioned, many, but not all, address work with youth. Under each theme group, I provide a sampling of references discussing projects, photo-based methodologies, and new understandings across multiple sites (communities, schools, public spaces, etc.) in both education and research. This gathering of resources is an attempt to cover both the breadth and 	 21	depth of my discoveries14 while at the same time making sense of their emerging thematic groupings.  Theme 1: Identity, voice, & lived experience  One prominent theme in the literature speaks to the voice behind the camera that emerges in photographs and through photographic inquiry. Works in this collection consider the nature of photography as a medium through which personal stories can be told and aspects of identity can be, or are believed to be, visually addressed, expressed, explored, and/or accessed. As such, there is a premium on understanding, hearing, and studying youth voice as a way of understanding youth vision and lived experience and inspiring their creative expression through photography. In terms of assignments for youth, or research projects on/with youth, the prevalence of invoking the camera to narrate one’s self or story is evident. I group three concepts into one for this theme: identity, voice, and lived experience. They are closely related terms repeated across the readings. As well, my own interests in autobiography and narrative as part of memory work fall here. In some ways, they connect most closely with memory work, due to their thematic closeness and relationship to autobiography.   Many photography projects with youth focus on aspects of identity, such as: what it is, how to reveal or construct it, what perspective are reflected, why identity matters, how lived experience impacts identity, and the personal viewpoint each of us speaks from. The photographic voice and its potential as a storytelling vehicle appear to be powerful and significant in the existing literature, particularly around the research method PhotoVoice (Wang & Redwood-Jones, 2001; Wang & Burris, 1997). Opportunities become many when telling a life story, illustrating lived experience from one’s own point of view photographically, learning about oneself through photographic inquiry, and engaging in the world via photography. Projects that ask youth to take or make photographs include the development and critique of photo-based narratives, visual diaries, images series, and other image-based projects, often looking at the work of artists as source material. These projects involve strategies for locating, narrating, and re/constructing one’s individual identity and social identity with and through photography.   In most cases, identity and voice across these readings are addressed in two ways: self and other. Questions, either explicit or implied might include:                                                   14 Further details and narration on these themes and individual references would most certainly deepen the conversation here. Due to space, I do not elaborate on them but recognize and appreciate the value in doing so, perhaps as a task for future writing. 	 22	(Self) Who am I to myself? How do I perceive myself?  What is my story or what story do I want to tell? Where do I come from?  How can I tell my story to have it be heard and acknowledged15? and  What is it I want or need to say?  (Other) Who am I to others, to society at large?  How do others perceive me and how do I perceive them?  What is the story being told about me that may not be mine?  What is my story, and how do I want to tell it in relation to others? In pictures? In what ways is my identity, voice, and lived experience understood/misunderstood in terms of current historical or social representations? How can I resist, counter, heal, and be seen?    Researchers offer invitations to label/unlabel common stereotypes using photography and pose questions around sexuality, gender, family, culture, race, ethnicity, and more. In several cases, participants are invited to record, represent, picture, or voice aspect(s) of youth identity or lived experience, including troubling experiences (Cress, 2012; Joanou, 2009; Sinner & Owen, 2011). Often, researchers are interested in the lived experiences of youth, describing those of interest with adjectives and identities such as: urban, marginalized, at risk, vulnerable, in trouble, low-income, disenchanted, underprivileged, homeless, refugees, native, Indigenous, and/or migrant/immigrant. The use of these labels is complicated and complex, inviting further study and conversation. Their prevalence across the literature reviewed suggests a targeted use for photography with specific populations who are marginalized, highlighting both the creative potential and risk for photography to be useful as a storytelling tool. Photography appears to be a trusted vehicle of promise to reach, empower, or connect with youth in these categories (being identified by such adjectives and identities) as a way to invite their creative expression, resistance, and story, which may have previously been unheard or silenced and/or not yet studied. In addition, researchers encourage youth to respond photographically to current issues of relevance to youth or those who study/work with youth (Castro & Grauer, 2010; Mendez, 2013; Weber & Levy, 2011).  Within this theme, researchers often employ photography (and in some cases video) as a tool or method for autobiography, storytelling, and un/making layers of experience and identity. Examples in this line of thinking include: Allison, 2009; Castro, 2007; Chung, 2007; Cress, 2012; Durrant, Frohlich, Sellen, & Uzzell, 2011; Fontes, 2012; Golding, 2011; Madrid, 2012; Marshalsey & Sclater, 2019; Packard, Ellison, & Sequenzia, 2004; Peralta, 2010; Talusani, 2005; Trafi-Prats, 2009a;                                                 15 I am grateful for the insight of educator-activist and my friend Elma Dzanic Bass on this topic. Her work in Bosnia, South Africa, and in Chicago Public Schools around restorative justice speaks to these same issues. She has suggested that a positive, often therapeutic use for photographs is their ability to tell a story and make visible something that needs to be told, heard, and witnessed in order to be validated and honored. For some, in witnessing and telling there is healing and justice, where storytelling offers agency in speaking one’s truth and being seen and heard.  	 23	and Young, 2012, among others. Researchers use photography as a way of understanding lived experience of participants and visualizing personal stories. A powerful example from the literature by Sinner and Owen (2011) includes photography that traces oneself and one’s past as a way of moving through the world and moving past pain. In a different kind of tracing, Bey’s work (2012) documents mourning and memorials connected to one’s identity that are rooted in a community that experienced significant loss.   A key aspect of one’s identity and sense of belonging is place. Photography and place have a special relationship, as a kind of locational autobiography and a critical piece of selfhood and rootedness. This relationship is illustrated in works that address place, place-making, or the location of place/self in (a) place, including: Bey, 2013; Coats, 2014; Leblanc, 2015; Mendez, 2013; Gerdts, 2008; Joanou, 2009; Kushins & Brisman, 2005; Ozga, 2016; Trafi-Prats, 2012; and Pink, 2011. Researchers also invite youth to capture a certain public or private place/space important to them or where they spend time as well as places they have memories associated with, such as school and home (Fontes, 2012; O’Donoghue, 2007; Pardiñas & Lema, 2011).   Further studies under this theme explore a range of interesting topics and experiences, illustrating a mixture of perspectives on how photography can be engaged in/as research. For example, the work of Renwick, Romes, and Lam (2019) involves engaging young people through PhotoVoice to share their experiences of gardening while reflecting on their mental health. From South Africa, Thomas (2018) considers how Black consciousness has made a resurgence and is evident in visual images. Orzech, Moncur, Durrant, James, and Collomosse (2017) study the variation in age groups as to how digital identities are constructed. Also looking at digital identity, Bae-Dimitriadis (2015) explores self-photographic play through digital photography. Alkateb (2013) explores culture and heritage through photography, and the transcendence of cultural borders is addressed by Grahm, Murphy, and Jaworski (2007). Radley, Chamberlain, Hodgetts, Stolte, and  Groot (2010) use photography to consider the experiences of homeless people. Lastly, Joanou (2017) addresses how photographs provide an expressive vehicle to record and document the childhoods of street children in Peru and discusses how that humanizes them.    These examples support the theme of identity, voice, and lived experience.   Theme 2: Social action & awareness  The theme of social action and awareness highlights another prominent use for photography. The history of photography to affect social change via the documentary impulse is well known. Such desire continues in these projects and research, suggesting a strong lean towards 	 24	and commitment to social justice and socially-oriented projects through photography. In the reviewed selections, the camera is being used to record, intuitively see, teach, counter-narrate, speak back, historically document, and articulate unique personal and social statements as voice-giving, storytelling exercises in free speech, activism, creativity, journalism, and justice.   Researchers invite students, youth, and participants to use photography as an artistic and/or documentary tool to respond to injustice, be heard, make change in the world, critique social life, express themselves, and/or engage directly with certain stereotypes being laid against them. Studying these works, I find it promising when students are encouraged to speak up and use their photographic voices for hope and positive change. As such, this theme is connected to Theme 1 since taking action, raising awareness, or critiquing the world are connected to youth identity in terms of developing voice and documenting lived experience. In some cases, it was difficult to separate examples between Themes 1 and 2 due to their overlaps, which became an opportunity to study connections and a challenge of dividing findings and readings into established categories.   Within this theme, youth are encouraged to use the camera as a form of empowerment (Grauer, Castro, & Lin, 2012; Stanley, 2003; Weber & Levy, 2011; Williams & Taylor, 2004) and for transformative resistance, with youth being seen as critical researcher-activists (Cerecer, Alberto, Cahill, & Bradley, 2011). In addition, social issues-based photography is employed towards education on a number of critical issues, many of which overlap and not all are listed here, including: social in/justice (Mitchell, Martin-Hamon, & Anderson, 2002; Smith, 2012); racism (Fey, Shin, Cinquemani, & Marino, 2010; Walker, 2001); representations of and social issues surrounding family (Kanatani & Vatsky, 2010); difficult histories (Wenger, 2007), child labor (Gianatti, 2004; Mizen, 2005;), advocacy and outreach by and for LGBTQ youth (Rhoades, 2012); and sexuality, inclusivity, and classrooms/curriculum as a space for needed change (Ashburn, 2007). Researchers address social action and social awareness (Darts, 2011; Marquez-Kenkov, 2007) in various examples within this theme group, as well as activism (Emme, 2001; Mendez, 2013), intervention (Hoffman, 2007; Katzew, 2010; Yang, 2013), and memorialization (Bey, 2012).   In other related examples within this theme: Thomas (2018) suggests that photographs by student-protestor-photographers are signs of emerging ‘woke’ subjectivities of young Black South Africans. On fieldwork among Syrian refugees in Sweden and activists in Aleppo, Syria, Rodineliussen (2019) examines the role of visuals on Facebook by Syrian student activists in mobilizing demonstrations and other resistance acts. Arlington (2018) shares a No Place for Hate installation project that protested non-American values such as bigotry and homophobia. The work of Lykes (2010) considers photography as a contentious resource in post-conflict situations for 	 25	human rights activism and personal narrative (referring to PhotoPAR: Photo participatory action research). Lastly, in another example, Ivashkevich (2013) uses the metaphor of disidentification to study digital narratives made by adolescent girls in a juvenile arbitration program that invited the girls to speak back to their own stigmatizations.   These examples support the theme of social action and awareness.  Theme 3: Collaborative partnerships & community engagement: Photography beyond schools  The two concepts I bring together for Theme 3 complement one another well and come alongside Theme 2 in a generative and sometimes overlapping way. Often photography is used as a bridge between collaborative partnerships and community engagement, as a medium by which groups/partners/communities collaborate. Collaborative partnerships and community engagement often share a sense of coming together for a greater good, be it for a shared project or to engage with/as a community and, in some cases, to do both. In the examples found, different kinds of public and private organizations and institutions, nonprofits, artists, and other groups created partnerships with youth, youth organizations, and schools or those who work with youth (such as their teachers and mentors) to carry out photography projects and/or research.   Here, community engagement arrives in the form of photo projects or research that, for example, might aim to tell the story of a place, or connect with or document a certain community or one’s relationship to it. Other examples in the literature include using photography as a means of exploring visual communication, social justice, and/or creative practice. This theme also includes community art education and is, in some cases, an embodiment of it. Often the collaborative partnership is purposefully combined with/created for the community engagement piece, or the engagement with local and even online communities occurs through partnerships with others. The key takeaway here is the idea that photography is not being done alone or without a sense of community, partnership, support, and the sense of a collective effort. This supports the notion that photography can be educative and creatively useful in ways and places beyond school.  Collaborative partnerships and art-related projects involving youth and photography involve multiple stakeholders and various sites of art engagement and programming, including universities, community centers, schools and after school programs, museums, youth organizations, artists/art centers, grant-funding agencies, youth incarceration facilities, etc. The promise of collaborating with youth is evident and exciting while raising a number of important ethical concerns as well (some of which are noted in Theme 4: Ethics and discussed later in the dissertation). A variety of relevant studies from the literature around collaborative partnerships 	 26	and community engagement include: Chung & Ortiz, 2011; Eckhoff, 2011; Ewald, 2007; Goodwin, 2013; Herne, Adams, Atkinson, Dahs, & Jessel, 2013; Hiett & Kushner, 2013; Hyde, 2005, on the collaborative works of Wendy Ewald; Marin-Viadel, Arias-Camison, & Varea, 2019; Markidou, 2019; Rhoades, 2012; Richard, 2005; Stanley, 2003; Tuck, 2014; and Wewiora, 2019.  Within this theme group are an array of interesting examples for how photography (and in some cases video) is employed with regards to collaborative partnerships and community engagement. For example, Klimt (2018) shares a community-based collaborative documentary photography project, and Hutzel (2007) discusses service learning via cooperative imaging.  In differing ways, community engagement and film-making are addressed by Castro and Grauer (2010) and Gerdts (2008). Hart (2009) discusses community art education and interactions cross-culturally, and Purcell (2009) brings forward a discussion on community development, social regeneration, and critical photography practice. Brown and Jeanneret (2015) present the Evolution Program, an artist-guided visual arts program for youth with mental health and social challenges, founded by a community-based youth arts studio. As well, Kee, Bailey, Horton, Kelly, McClue, and Thomas (2016) present the Unpacking Student Identities Through Art project, a collaboration with K-12 students who collage antique suitcases.   Further examples from the literature include photography being used in a number of productive ways, including: social transformation and engaging youth in their local community (Prettyman & Gargarella, 2012); working directly with artists/photographers (Hark-Weber, 2013; Rhoades, 2012; Stanley, 2003; Walker, 2001); collaborations between groups of teachers – here, non-art – using PhotoVoice in English classrooms (Zenkov, Harmon, Bell, Ewaida, & Lynch, 2011); and online collaborations/participatory projects (Motter, 2011; Carpenter & Cifuentes, 2011; Kan, 2013).   These examples support the theme of collaborative partnerships and community engagement in terms of photography being employed in and beyond schools.   Theme 4: Ethics  Of note, most of the examples located under the theme of ethics are written by researchers (regarding research ethics and photography) not teachers, which I determine to be a gap as well as an area of further curiosity and potential. Ethics is an area of study important to my dissertation. Thus, I sought out works on this theme in two ways: 1) in relation to photography and memory work; and 2) as an area (the ethics of art and photography) that I wondered if photo teachers and other art educators were talking/writing about very much and, if so, in what ways. I wonder if/how the language of research ethics translates into the classroom or other spaces where youth and 	 27	others reside. Or how it could, for example, involve more teacher education or professional development around ethics in art and photo education. Of note, in the pieces I located, more emphasis is on ethics with projects involving children than with older students (for example middle- and high school-aged youth) and most examples are research studies. This is an important area of study as there is great creative potential as well as some risks that exist when inviting youth, young people, students, teens, or adolescents to partake in endeavors that involve photography, video, and other image-based print/digital media as forms of telling, as inquiry, and as social/cultural critique.   Under the theme of ethics, some recurrent themes touch on a range of evident and emerging topics, including: participation, silencing voice/personhood, representation, authorship, collaboration, agency, curation, power, trauma, and visual data production/analysis/methods. What resonates is the potential for cameras (and other imaging devices) to assist and enable youth in telling their story and to share insight on and document their lived experiences, as discussed in varying ways across Themes 1, 2, and 3.   Thought differently, what is potentially problematic is the possible assumption that to see a photograph is to fully know a person, that all of lived experience is documentable or capable of being understood by others, and the fact that youth are sometimes not in control of how images of them (or images created by them) are presented in research, writing, some exhibitions, or other areas. Because of a seeming reliance on cameras to ‘give voice,’ an assumption may be raised that voice did not already exist or that we can gain access to another person’s eyes and way of seeing the world by handing them a camera. Although in some ways we can, this is an area for further discussion and study. In some ways, this is possible and such camera-giving has resulted in some fantastic, emotionally-moving, and powerful work in both art and research. And yet, it is helpful to also consider the ways that such compelling creative photographic possibilities may pose a challenge, be entangled in a power dynamic, and be ethically complicated to navigate.   Within this theme, some of the ethical concerns raised by authors vary widely and include a plethora of important topics for consideration. For example, (Aldridge, 2012) addresses children’s participation, vulnerability, and transformation in/from visual research studies. Joanou (2009) writes of protecting participant interests and a concern for exploitation and intrusion in research with adolescents living on the streets. Ewald (2007) discusses collaboration with children and questions around authorship. Fairey (2018) shares the need for listening to and negotiating (rather than giving) voice in participatory visual projects, regarding photographs by refugee youth, and addresses researcher transparency and accountability.  	 28	 Of note is a distinction among writers with equally relevant perspectives who highlight the need to protect children/youth and those who speak more of their innate capacity for authentic voice and something to say. Luttrell (2010) considers children as knowing subjects and writes of the limits of what we can understand about them, including multiple voices. McClure’s (2009) work puts forward the need for reconsidering images of children as localized and site-specific. Of photographs by children who work and live on the street, Mizen and Ofosu-Kusi (2010) write of photography as a vector and of the capacity of children's photographs to astonish us as well as shed light on the imperfections of our understandings. Last, on youth voice, Batsleer (2011) discusses the capability of pedagogic engagement through arts-based strategies to offer a form of voice that is hopeful rather than controlling and ‘tokenistic.’   Further studies and publications address other related issues connected to ethics, spanning a range of topics, subthemes, and perspectives. These examples are gathered together here in a purposeful collection that highlights different ethical considerations as well as some of the ways ethics is tied up with photography and with youth. The work of Sinner and Owen (2011), centered in this dissertation as an exemplar of visual lifewriting, uses pinhole photography to address vulnerability, agency, risk, and empowerment in visual lifewriting projects. McAra (2016) studies relational ethics, creativity, and building trust through participatory filmmaking with at risk youth. Lykes (2010) critically considers the emergence versus silencing of voices in published photonarratives. Marshalsey and Sclater (2019) raise the ethical challenges and benefits of using social media and video-based research methods such as PhotoVoice. Mannay (2013) writes of the effects of a researcher’s and significant others’ intrusive presence and on the use of participant-led visual data production. Gianatti’s (2004) work addresses the ethics of interventions (photographic and humanitarian), including a photographer’s role as an observer, referring to Gianatti’s documentation of child labor in Peru. Pink (2011) discusses amateur photography and the mis/representations of place. Hoffman (2007) considers the truth of the photographic image as thought from a West African (particularly Yoruba) perspective versus the traditional realist approach of documentary photography.   Lastly, three final examples that contribute to insightful perspectives in this theme group include: Sweeny’s (2007) point of view on censorship and mass-mediated images; Gil-Glazer’s (2015) discussion on facing difficult knowledge with students in educational contexts; and Green’s (2004) suggestions of how to look at violent images with students.   These examples support the theme of ethics.  	 29	Theme 5: Existing & new technologies  Moving across the literature I reviewed, a fifth trend emerged, somewhat outside the triad of autobiography, narrative, and participatory/relational works I set out to study, yet important in a discussion on photography. I include existing and new technologies as an important and timely trend to note, taking into account the capture, delivery, and distribution of images alongside the content in them. Ways in which youth and others are invited to photographically express themselves understandably changes as new and available technologies and media change. As such, this theme dovetails nicely with Themes 1 (Identity, voice, and lived experience) and 4 (Ethics) in thinking about the role of new technology with projects that intend to evoke voice and have ethical considerations to attend to, such as image/content circulation and distribution, context, authorship, representation, consent, privacy laws, and the potential for manipulation or misrepresentation.   This theme was realized in articles and/or projects using existing and new technologies with/for photography16 or video with youth in a number of innovative ways, highlighting modes of visual capture and rendering as significant and ever-changing. Photography and videography have gone digital for over a decade. This review suggests changes in digital modalities and digital learning need to be recognized, explored, and more fully understood so that educators and researchers can keep up to date17.  In my review, I observed that over time, as new technologies and media have emerged, new photographic approaches are developed and new articles are written about them, offering insights towards technological futures as well as the present.  Educators and researchers with expertise and experience in these areas often discuss their projects and new understandings. Those less familiar with technology can learn from these authors, articles, and projects in terms of applications, creative uses, challenges, new considerations, and educational and artistic value.   This collection of literature contains a wide variety of articles and approaches, which speaks to the breadth of directions these authors have taken in their work involving technology and                                                 16 Some but not all of the following examples are written about in this theme group, including a range of technologies with some connection (or potential connection) to photography across various devices, digital platforms, software, applications, and media such as: smartphones, photo apps, Ipads/tablets, digital cameras and videocameras, digital pinhole photography, scanners/scanography, Adobe Creative Cloud (ex: Photoshop, Lightroom, InDesign), drones, GPS, geocache, GoPro video, videography, vlogs, social media (such as Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, Facebook, Youtube, TicTok, Twitter), mobile media, memes, websites, games/gaming, virtual worlds/reality, and other innovative technology being used both inside and outside of classrooms. Additionally, especially given the current 2020 context of COVID-19, photography is also being used successfully online in many virtual classrooms as a valuable tool for visual teaching, learning, sharing, storytelling, documentation, and self-expression. Thus, the use and creativity of photography in online teaching spaces could be a compelling area of research to consider exploring now and in the future. 17 It is valuable to note that the references provided under Theme 5 are not necessarily all about technology as their main subject but rather they may include the use of some form of technology in their teaching, art, and/or research projects. 	 30	photography. Specifically, several examples in this theme include photography and other technology being used to connect with and invite creative expression from youth and others, not unlike projects and studies shared in the previous four themes. For example, the work of Castro, Lalonde, and Pariser (2016) involves a mobile media visual art curriculum with at-risk youth that increased their agency and made space for the possibility of learning to be a positive experience. Eglinton, Gubrium, and Wexler (2017) share an arts-inspired inquiry as a digital storytelling initiative supporting Indigenous and marginalized youth to produce digital stories. Herne, Adams, Atkinson, Dash, and Jessel (2013) describe a technology learning community in The Future Something Project (FSP), a two-year action research project designed to nurture the talent of small groups of at-risk young people. Cress (2013) creates an Artist Postcard project, framing on-and off-line activity for teens. Carpenter and Cifuentes (2011) create an online image gallery, entitled ‘Seeing Culture,’ designed to build visual literacy. Durrant, Frohlich, Sellen, and Uzzell’s (2011) work explores representations of self and family through photographs, regarding on and offline photo displays. Last, Marshalsey and Sclater (2019) discuss the use of Snapchat and participant generated GoPro video filming to understand students’ lived experiences of studio learning.   Additional examples from the literature include the power of digital storytelling to teach contemporary visual culture (Chung, 2007); a commentary on new visual technologies (Graham, Laurier, O’Brien, & Rouncefield, 2011); Black’s (2010) discussion on place-based community education and digital art practices; Overby’s (2009) writing on weblogs; and a discussion around the shifting dynamics of teaching and learning through social media (Castro, 2012). Further dynamics are discussed in a study of virtual worlds to support the development of voice and active citizenship (Sclater & Lally, 2013) and the use of quest photography in Second Life (Stokrocki, 2014).   Finally, another collection of studies addresses perspectives from students, teachers, and researchers on technology, photography, art education, and new media in schools and communities. Black (2009) addresses wired art classrooms and teachers' perspectives and lived experiences regarding technology usage, specifically regarding authority and pedagogy. In another work, Black (2014) shares a case study of three strong Canadian new media/video programs of recognition. Lin, Castro, Sinner, and Grauer (2011) write about new media arts programs in and out of school. Black, Davidson, and Mullen (2007) consider new media approaches to art education. Carlos & Grauer (2010) discuss GIFTS, a community-based new media school. Lastly, Macdonald (2012) studies students’ attitudes towards digital and film photographic media.  These examples support the theme of existing and new technologies.   	 31	Theme 6: Photographers as inspirational entry points & Ways of engaging the photograph  From my analysis of the readings and drawing on my understanding of photo curricula, I observed a sixth theme that readers, especially teachers and artists, may find useful. Across the five aforementioned themes are curricular models, pedagogical practices, community work, projects, collaborations, and research studies using photography in a number of ways in terms of knowledge formation, creative visual expression, documentation, and community engagement. This theme highlights some of the ways photography is being engaged in such projects and research and how the work of mostly established and well-known photographers is being brought into classrooms and projects as inspirational entry points.  Like projects in the previous theme groups, photographic engagements with youth in this theme involve a wide and exciting variety of media, including film and digital photography, video, stop-motion animation, mobile media, collaborative film-making, and more. Some projects are done individually, where youth work alone on individual images, mostly for in-school art projects. Others are participatory and/or collaborative, where several youth work together on a project or where youth work alongside others, such as university students, researchers, teachers, artists, and/or community workers. In addition, I located several international participatory and/or collaborative photo projects involving research, activism, and education as well as a few online participatory photo projects. I also came across photo-based studies occurring world-wide (individual and collaborative) involving youth participation, suggesting collective global interest in photography’s reach with youth in/across various cultural, social, artistic, and educational spaces.     In terms of engaging the photograph, there are numerous examples of ways this occurs, from critique to creation, that appear common for educators and in some cases, researchers and their subjects. Such ways of engagement include: 1) looking at, critiquing, or using works by photographic artists as exemplars and conceptual jumping-off points for projects; and 2) taking or making new photographs, drawing on a range of themes, concepts, and assignments; or 3) manipulating existing photographs.  In terms of looking at and responding to images, many of these projects are designed to have students view/interact with examples of photography that critique social issues (connecting back to Theme 2), that address some aspect(s) of culture, specifically, visual/material culture, and/or that speak to youth identity and lived experience (connecting back to Theme 1). Notions of identity as self-constructed and socially/culturally constructed are often addressed in terms of how we see ourselves and others and how others including the media see us (Blair & Shalmon, 2005; Kanatani & Vatsky, 2010; Peralta, 2010).  	 32	 Images being brought into classrooms appear to come from several places and sources of inspiration for curriculum, an interesting example of tracing pedagogy beyond and into classrooms. Of note, there is a particular emphasis on using local, contemporary, and historical photographic artists’ works as entry points for projects, described further on the next page. As a photography teacher, this is a practice I engage in often as well. Likely, in the reviewed pieces, these are artists that teachers were already familiar with or interested in learning more about. New and experienced teachers alike have their own archive of works and artists they reference, reflecting each teacher’s own knowledge collection of teaching resources. These examples are often based on the educator or researcher’s interests, experiences, curricular goals, and (for art educators) artistic practices.  Across works in classrooms, the work of mostly established photographers is often brought in (shown on screen or in print) to spark dialogue, provoke response and discussion, and provide project inspiration and visual reference for students. As one journal-specific example from the literature review, within the American journal Art Education, I located a series of ‘Instructional Resources’18 that speak to this practice by highlighting and centering the work of photographers in the process of learning, making, and seeing.   With the artist(s) named first, followed by the citation, I have compiled a list of articles that center around or reference the work of artists. These examples include, by order of year (present to past):  v Eudora Welty (Furniss, 2019) v Bea Nettles (Cress, 2012) v Stephen Marc (and other historical images) (Smith, 2012) v Helen Levitt (Ruich, 2012) v Juan Miquel Ramos (Peralta, 2010) v Nikki S. Lee (Allison, 2009) v Nic Nicosia and Modern Art Museum of Ft. Worth (Talusani, 2005) v Gordon Parks (Mitchell, Martin-Hamon, & Anderson, 2002) v Tseng Kwong Chi (Fey & Bashore, 2000)                                                    18 In a March 2020 online call for submissions, the following description for Instructional Resources is given by the journal Art Education: “Instructional Resources provide readers of Art Education a fresh look at a single work of art or body of artworks to inspire art educators in classrooms, museum galleries, and community spaces. Who can submit an IR? You can! Submit one by yourself or with a writing team. How? 1) Select an artwork or artist’s body of work that has contemporary significance 2) Identify meaningful connections with National Visual Arts Standards 3) Write up essential information about the artworks or artists, including cultural and/ or historical context, and present practical applications for the teaching and studio practices of art and design educators.” 	 33	Other important examples from the literature that center the work of photographers include: v Sol Lewitt and Uta Barth (Marin-Viadel, Arias-Camison, & Varea, 2019) v Antoine D’Agata, Nikos Economopoulos, Bieke Depoorter and Nicolas Iordanou (Project Creator) (Markidou, 2019) v Sally Mann (Savage, 2017) v Susan Bowen, Rita Marhaug, Dennis Adams, and Frank Video (Ozga, 2016) v Laurie Hogin, Siebren Versteeg, Brian Ulrich, and Hank Willis Thomas (Danker, 2014) v Ashley Gilbertson (& NY Times photo slide