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Hope for Chinese ecocities Jiang, Bei 2019

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  Hope for Chinese Ecocities   by  Bei Jiang M. U. D., The University of California, Berkeley, 2007 B.E., Southeast University, 2003   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   Doctor of Philosophy   in  The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies  (Interdisciplinary Studies)     THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  December 2019 © Bei Jiang, 2019 ii  The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the dissertation entitled:  Hope for Chinese ecocities                                                                                          submitted by       Bei Jiang                              in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of       Doctor of Philosophy                                                                                           _ in                    Interdisciplinary Studies                                                                                           _ Examining Committee:    Patrick Mooney, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture                                          _   Co-supervisor    Patrick Condon, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture                                          _   Co-supervisor    Daniel Roehr, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture                                              _   Supervisory Committee Member   Maged Senbel, School of Community and Regional Planning                                                      _    University Examiner   Stephen Sheppard, Forestry                                                                                                           _                                        University Examiner  iii Abstract This study focuses on the ecological and social metrics of sustainable cities in China. It presents a dialogic critique between Western scholars and local Chinese practitioners on how the ecocity concept has been framed locally in China. The dissertation consists of three papers, based on fieldwork and surveys conducted in the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) project.  Chapter 2 reviews the theories and modern history of ecological planning, from which the concept of ecocity and “best practices” have evolved. My fieldwork of SSTEC concluded that in China the ecocity is a product of the local planning regime, which incorporates selective measures and principles into everyday governmental practices and city planning as a way to manage harmonious urban development.  Chapter 3 is based on a survey that introduced the concept of Ecosystem Services (ES) to urban planners. ES cover a broad range of services that human populations can receive from their surrounding ecosystems. I hypothesized that ES would be a helpful tool to help planners, particularly because increased exposure to ES would promote greater awareness of the connection between the well-being of ecosystems and that of human communities. The results show that respondents put a higher priority on ES that matched the benefits found in the existing ecocity indicators. Existing planning policy and legislation could be improved by identifying missing ES and adding these to the evaluation framework.  Chapter 4 examines neighbourly behavior and citizen participation in Tianjin, China, and explores the potential for identifying people who are likely to become local leaders i.e. individuals who are essential to the delivery of community services in China. Using a small-sample survey, I paired the participants’ demographic characteristics with the participants’ community involvement behaviors. This study contributes empirically to urban community research, and has practical implications for community building, particularly in the Chinese context.   iv Lay Summary The idea of “Ecocity”, which originally emerged in Europe and North America during the 1960s and 1970s, is an approach to urban development that respects environmental limits. Over the past decade, China has aggressively pursued urban development. Many local governments, calling their developmental projects “ecocities”, experimented with new policies, strategies and approaches for incorporating green technology, planning and design. By 2017, nearly 300 ecocities had been developed across the country, from the eastern coast to the third-tier hinterlands. Some ecocities even boast about having partnered with wealthier countries to attract foreign investment to China.  Bei Jiang studied Chinese practices used in planning sustainable cities. She developed a set of ecological and social metrics for the Chinese ecocities. This study contributes to urban community research, presenting a dialogic critique between Western scholars and local Chinese practitioners on how the ecocity concept has been framed locally in China.    v  Preface This dissertation is an original intellectual product of the author, Bei Jiang. The fieldwork reported in Chapter 2-4 was approved by the UBC Ethics Board (H16-01823).  vi  Contents Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... iii Lay Summary ............................................................................................................................. iv Preface ......................................................................................................................................... v Contents ..................................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ vii List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... viii List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. ix Glossary ...................................................................................................................................... x Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................... xii Chapter 1. Introduction of this dissertation .............................................................................. 1 1.1 Metrics of Ecocities .................................................................................................... 1 1.2 About the Tianjin Eco-City ......................................................................................... 1 1.3 Structure of the Study ................................................................................................. 4 Chapter 2. Revisiting the concept of ecocity in China: An investigation of current practice .. 6 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6 2.2 The Origins of Ecocities: Western Theories of Ecology and Planning ...................... 8 2.3 Integrating Ecological Planning into Chinese Ecocities ........................................... 13 2.4 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 28 Chapter 3. Is lack of ecological knowledge a barrier for urban planners?  Evidence from Chinese urban communities ...................................................................................................... 31 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 31 3.2 Methodology ............................................................................................................. 36 3.3 Results ....................................................................................................................... 42 3.4 Discussion ................................................................................................................. 45 3.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................................... 52 Chapter 4. A survey of the public’s perceptions of community building in Tianjin, China .. 53 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 53 4.2 Literature Review ...................................................................................................... 55 4.3 Setting and Method ................................................................................................... 63 4.4 Study Findings .......................................................................................................... 68 4.5 Discussion ................................................................................................................. 73 4.6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 75 Chapter 5. Dissertation Conclusions ...................................................................................... 77 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 82 Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 99  vii  List of Tables Table 1 Project summary of SSTEC ............................................................................................... 2 Table 2 Examples of the ecocities planned and constructed worldwide ...................................... 17 Table 3 A comparison of ecocities from West and China ............................................................ 24 Table 4 List of all analyzed planning documents ......................................................................... 37 Table 5 The 20 options of ES and their paired benefits as stated in the survey questionnaire ..... 41 Table 6 Number of respondents that selected each item ............................................................... 43 Table 7 Correlation analysis ......................................................................................................... 44 Table 8 Biodiversity and ES Derived from a given type of Green Infrastructure (GI) ................ 51 Table 9 The transition of China’s urban communities from 1912 to 2018 ................................... 59 Table 10 Demographics of the sample (n=125) ............................................................................ 69 Table 11 Survey on neighboring and citizen participation ........................................................... 69 Table 12 Neighboring and citizen participation, and a demographics comparison (n=125) ........ 71 Table 13 A comparison between Berkeley and Tianjin ecocity models ....................................... 78   viii  List of Figures Figure 1 The Tianjin Ecocity site’s previous condition .................................................................. 3 Figure 2 Illustrated map of SSTEC ................................................................................................. 3 Figure 3 Geographical location of China of low-carbon ecocities and provinces ........................ 15 Figure 4 Original masterplan made in 2008 ................................................................................. 19 Figure 5 Construction of residential buildings in SSTEC ............................................................ 20 Figure 6 An activity room in the community center ..................................................................... 21 Figure 7 Inside the community center .......................................................................................... 22 Figure 8 A cascade diagram showing the understanding of ecosystem features .......................... 32 Figure 9 The site map of the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict in 2015 ................................................. 38 Figure 10 Photos taken from northwest of the site ....................................................................... 38 Figure 11 Photo taken on the Heyun Road ................................................................................... 39 Figure 12 The options checked off from the two survey questions .............................................. 42 Figure 13 Tianjin Binhai New Area on the map of China ............................................................ 63 Figure 14 Tianjin Binhai New Area on the Map of China ........................................................... 63   ix  List of Abbreviations CBC    Community Building Campaign ES       Ecosystem Services HOA   Homeowners’ Association KPIs    Key Performance Indicators MEA   The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment MOHURD   The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development RC       Residents’ Committee SSTEC     The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City   x  Glossary Citizen participation: Citizen participation is the local population’s voluntary involvement in community political or social affairs (Zhu, 2015). “Citizen participation” can be used as an indicator to describe the degree of involvement. Community Efficacy: Community efficacy (or neighborhood collective efficacy) refers to the ability of the collective to intervene in order to combat neighborhood problems such as crime (Craig et al., 2014). Ecocity: An ecocity is a city that reduces environmental stress, improves living conditions and helps to achieve sustainable development through a comprehensive urban improvement system, involving the planning and management of land and other resources (Gordon, 1990). Ecosystem Services (ES): Ecosystem Services can be described as the benefits people obtain from the environment (MEA, 2005).  Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): A key performance indicator is a performance indicator that is more important than others. In this paper, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) refers to a set of quantitative and qualitive indicators developed to guide the planning and development of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. They were jointly formulated by experts from Singapore and China, and endorsed by the Ministerial-level Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city Joint Working Committee, covering ecological, economic and social dimensions.  Measure and indicator: “Measures and indicators” refer to quantified information that quantifies the performance dimensions of processes, products, services, and overall organization. A “measure” measures something, while an “indicator” indicates something. For example, the number of complaints is an indicator of dissatisfaction, but not a direct measure of dissatisfaction. An indicator can be used as a proxy measure related to performance. A “performance indicator” indicates (not measures) performance.  xi Mutual influence: Mutual influence refers to interactional partners taking account of each other’s characteristics and behavior, and modifying their behavior as a result. In this paper, “interactional partners” of mutual influence can be community group members, or neighbors. Neighboring: Neighboring (or neighborly behavior) refers to social interactions or closeness between neighbors (Perkins & Long, 2002; Woldoff, 2002). “Neighboring” in this paper also is used as an indicator to distinguish different levels of bonding between neighbors, i.e., friendship-oriented interactions as “strong neighboring”, casual social contact as “weak neighboring”. Higher scores for neighboring indicate stronger social ties and neighborly relations. Principle: A principle is a concept or value that serves as the foundation for behaviour or evaluation. A “planning principle” refers to a list of appropriate matters to be considered in making a planning decision.  Sense of community: Sense of community refers to the quality of neighborhood bonds, a sense of belonging, mutual influence and the significance of place for individuals. It emphasizes the collective beliefs and expectations among neighbors (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). Task: In planning management, a task is an activity that needs to be accomplished within a defined period of time and constitutes movement toward work-related goals. Three Harmonies: “Three harmonies” is a political slogan to promote the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. The three harmonies stand for: • people living in harmony with each other, now and for future generations;  • people living in harmony with economic activities; • people living in harmony with the environment (Baeumler et al., 2009). The terms “harmony” and “sustainability” are used interchangeably in China’s ecological urban development initiative. Similar to the three pillars of sustainability, the three harmonies identify ecological health, social harmony, and economy prosperity as important goals.   xii Acknowledgements  I would like to give my sincere and deepest thanks to my advisor Professor Patrick Mooney. His kindness, enthusiasm and dynamism were instrumental in the completion of my Ph.D. His guidance helped me through the research and writing of this thesis. He expected greatness; he demanded independence, creativity and critical thinking. And, above all, he wanted to see and hear new and exciting things. His expectations pushed and inspired me to complete this dissertation.  His patience, motivation, and immense knowledge gave me a role model for how to live a life with wisdom and intelligence. I cannot imagine having a better advisor and mentor for my doctoral project. I would like to thank the members of my committee, Professor Patrick Condon, and Professor Daniel Roehr, for their insightful comments and encouragement, but also for the hard questions they posed. Their perspectives widened my research and my vision of the world.  My sincere appreciation also goes to my previous supervisors: Professor Michael Leaf, Professor John Friedmann, and Professor Jordi Honey-Rosés from the School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) at UBC. Without their precious support, I would not have been able to find a suitable research project. In addition, I would like to thank my fellow UBC Ph.D. students: Stefan Honisch, Elizabeth Namazzi, Prajna Rao, and Rohit Mujumdar for their inspiring comments during our discussions, for the seemingly endless, sleepless nights we worked together to reach our deadlines, and for all the fun we have had in the last six years. I would also like to thank my friends Denise Haugh and Laura Rauchwarg, who provided excellent editing and support for my writing. Their tremendous patience and encouragement helped me thrive and gain confidence toward the end of my dissertation. I would also like to thank the Chinese Scholarship Council for providing me with a four-year graduate fellowship.   xiii I would like to give special thanks to my department—the Interdisciplinary Studies Graduate Program, our dean Dr. Barbara Weber, and our administrative assistant Enid Ho, for their constant encouragement.  It is my privilege to have had my partner, Rene, in my life during the creation of this project. He found something beautiful and precious in me, and his constant encouragement always gave me hope, especially in the moments that I doubted myself.  Last but not the least, I would like to thank my family: my parents, my sister, and my cousins for supporting me spiritually throughout the writing of this dissertation and in everyday life. 1 Chapter 1. Introduction of this dissertation 1.1 Metrics of Ecocities Without a clear definition and official standards of what constitutes an ecocity, Chinese ecocities have generated much critical attention in literature. Since 2005, China has initiated hundreds of ecocities. In this study, I consider the planning of Chinese ecocities as an evolving practice one that combines both Western theories and conventional Chinese planning. This study focuses on the ecological and social metrics of Chinese ecocities through the lens of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC), a single ecocity that currently on construction in China. SSTEC is commonly considered successful among the Chinese ecocities. I selected it as a single example to study the Chinese ecocities because I had worked in Tianjin’s municipal planning institute, and I had access to its planning documents and policy makers. The research used an opportunistic case study that allows for data collection and opportunity to see how this project developed over a ten-year period.  The objectives of this study are to: • Examine the SSTEC’s approach on sustainability; • Develop the ecological and social metrics that can be used in the decision making of planning in the context of Tianjin; • Provide recommendations to Chinese (eco)cities.  1.2 About the Tianjin Eco-City The Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) is a high-profile ecocity project, co-signed by the Singaporean and Chinese governments as an example of inter-state cooperation. It is designed to leverage Singaporean expertise in integrated urban planning and water resource technologies (Baeumler, et al., 2009). This project showcases China’s ambition to realize “a sustainable development model” that is “socially harmonious, environmentally friendly and resource efficient”, otherwise known as the “Three Harmonies” (Joss & Molella, 2013; Baeumler et al.,  2 2009). Similar to the three pillars of sustainability, the three harmonies identify ecological health, social harmony, and economy prosperous as important goals. In order to guide the implementation and evaluation of the development process, the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Administrative Committee formulated a set of twenty-six Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Many of these KPIs are higher than the national standards in China (Baeumler et. al., 2009). (Content of the SSTEC KPIs, see Appendix 1)  Table 1 Project summary of SSTEC Project Name Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Location 45 km from the Tianjin city center, 150 km from Beijing, and 50 km from Tangshan Located in the northern part of the Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) Date Designed/Planned Original design completed in 2007; redesigned in 2013 Construction Completed Planned to be fully completed by 2020 Construction Cost £24bn Size 34.2 km2 for the whole project, 3 km2 has been completed by 2013 Master Plan By China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, the Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute, the Singapore planning team led by the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore Client/Developer Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city Investment and Development Company Ltd, the Chinese Consortium Managed By Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Administrative Committee   The SSTEC was built on wasteland (see Figure 1)—consisting of saltpan, deserted beach, and wastewater pond that was transformed through the introduction of green technology, to make it suitable for human habitation. The replacement of wetlands with new urban development, however, has resulted in a loss of Tianjin’s wetlands, and increase of greenhouse gas emission (Lee, 2011). The site is 40 km from Tianjin’s city center and 150 km from central Beijing (see Figure 2). Designed to be “practical, replicable and scalable,” the SSTEC features a number of advanced environmental technologies, such as solar energy, the practice of green building, and rainwater collection.   3 Figure 1 The Tianjin Ecocity site’s previous condition  Source: Archived document of Tianjin salt factory, photo taken in the 1990s Figure 2 Illustrated map of SSTEC  Source: Plymouth University cartography office, based on SSTEC maps  4 Since the project started, an exhibition house has been open to visitors seven days a week for a year, like a political showcase for this state-of-art green building. The “green” or ecological label fuels home sales. At its peak, homebuyers had to bid in order to get on the waiting list to buy properties in the SSTEC (according to an interview source). The SSTEC is set to relax its rules for hukou, the household registration, to attract labour and homebuyers, especially people from Tianjin and Beijing who are keen to buy new subsidized homes.   1.3 Structure of the Study The concepts of “Ecological Civilization” and “Ecocity” have been broadly interpreted in China. Given the lack of transparent information about China’s ecocities, I attempted to introduce the concept of “Ecosystem Services” (ES) to urban planners in Tianjin in the hope that ES might be incorporated into the local planning practices of Tianjin. In addition, I studied the social interaction of residents involvement in specific neighborhoods as neighborhood involvement indicates a variety of Cultural Services at neighborhood scale. Following the Introduction, the main body of this study includes three papers, from Chapter 2 to Chapter 4.  Chapter 2 provides an overview of the evolving “ecocity” concept by reviewing the relevant modern history of ecological planning. The paper then discusses the possible interpretation of “Ecological Civilization” and “Ecocity”, in the Chinese context, drawing on fieldwork of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC). By analysing the SSTEC’s effort to exemplify a successful ecocity, this paper shows how the ecocity concept has been framed locally in China. Chapter 3 introduces an experimental approach to introduce ES to urban planners with the aim of identifying omissions and oversights existing in the planning structure linked to specific outcomes. I started with a policy review of current planning documents to understand the SSTEC’s scope on environmental sustainability. Then I conduct a survey among local planners, using the ES metrics, to find out what ES are prioritized and undervalued, as well as a correlation analysis between ES and benefits.   5 Chapter 4, as a separate study, examines neighbourly behaviour and citizen participation in Tianjin, China. Although community action was not the focus of my dissertation, I am reluctant to ignore the impacts of local residents’ involvement on a series of Cultural Services, such as sense of community, residents’ wellbeing etc. This paper explores the potential for identifying people who are likely to become local leaders i.e. individuals who are essential to the delivery of community services in Chinese society. Chapter 5 concludes the key findings of this dissertation and indicates the direction for future research on Chinese ecocities, to help them improve their ecological and social performance.   6 Chapter 2. Revisiting the concept of ecocity in China: An investigation of current practice 2.1 Introduction The concept of the “Ecocity”, which originally emerged in Europe and North America during the 1960s and 1970s, is an approach to urban development that respects environmental limits (Rapoport, 2014). Richard Register first coined the term “Ecocity” in 1987, setting up a self-sustaining model that attempted to minimize the inputs and outputs of the city while preserving biodiversity. Register’s Ecocity, modelled after Berkeley modelled in the 1980s, supports the long-term ecological balance of urban environments. Chinese scholars started to pay attention to the subject of ecocities when Shenzhen hosted the Fifth International Conference on Ecocities in 2002. That same year, China signed the Kyoto Protocol, committing to reduce fossil fuel emissions. China’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) strengthened the leadership for addressing climate change and for conserving energy and reducing emissions, a milestone in China’s transition to a low-carbon economy (Zhang, 2010). Carbon reduction was an essential task for many of China’s early ecocities (Shepard, 2017; World Bank, 2012; Wu, 2014).1  “Ecocity”, much like “Green City”2  or “Ecological City”, is an attempt at sustainable city building3. These models play a valuable role in testing new ideas of how to manage urbanism. However, there is a lack of consistency in measuring “sustainability” of China’s policy structure.   1 The first Chinese ecocity, Dongtan, was initiated in 2006.  This city was to be nearly carbon neutral and as close to zero waste as possible. Even though this ecocity was never actually built, Dongtan has had an unprecedented impact. 2 Green City refers to cities like Curitiba (Brazil), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Portland (U.S.) that strive to minimize resource and energy consumption, while taking advantage of the ecosystem services of the blue-green natural components within the city and its surrounding region. It is a concept of urban planning that relies on the ecosystem services that green infrastructure can supply. 3 A sustainable city strives to balance ecological, economic, and social needs to ensure a clean, healthy and safe environment for all members of society and for generations to come (Robert, Parris & Leiserowitz, 2005). The 1987, Brundtland Report defines “sustainable development” as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.   7 Chinese ecocity research frequently pairs “ecocity” with “Ecological Civilization”, a political slogan introduced during the Chinese Communist Party’s 17th Congress meeting in 2007. On one hand, the phrase reflects China’s ambition to become a leader in global climate change; on the other hand, Chinese leaders used the expression to mobilize new sources of value and expertise to formulate certain aesthetic environmental practices. Pow (2018) interprets it as “eco-aesthetic normativity that perpetuates the aestheticization of urban environmental politics in China” (p.877). “Ecological Civilization” has also become a projection of Chinese state power and the zhongguomeng (the Chinese Dream) for Chinese people (Yel, 2009).  Compared to their “Western” counterparts, Chinese ecocities are still at an early stage, both in theory and in methodology. However, aggressive development has taken place in China over the past decade. A recent report shows that as of 2017, 285 ecocities had been developed across the country, from the eastern coast to the third-tier hinterlands (Shepard, 2017). Some ecocities even boast of having partnered with wealthier countries to attract foreign investment to China (Caprotti, 2014; Joss & Molella, 2013; Pow & Neo, 2010; 2015). Without a clear definition and official standards of what an ecocity is assumed to be, “ecocity” is an ecologically friendly city with Chinese characteristics (Williams, 2017). This is a vague definition that has generated much critical attention in literature (see Caprotti, 2014; Pow & Neo, 2015; Wu, 2012). In this study, I consider the planning of Chinese ecocities as an evolving practice, one that combines both Western theories and conventional Chinese planning. This paper addresses the following questions:  1) How have the theories and methodologies of ecological planning been adapted and applied in China’s ecocities? and 2) How does the concept of “Ecological Civilization” direct the planning actions in ecocities?  To answer these questions, this paper draws on fieldwork conducted in the Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) from 2012 to 2017, during which period I made repeated visits to the site. In addition, I attended planning workshops, and official meetings, where planners shared their experiences and views on knowledge transfer in the SSTEC.   8 2.2 The Origins of Ecocities: Western Theories of Ecology and Planning Ecology and planning have many areas of shared concern. Ecology is engaged with understanding the functioning of resources, while planning focuses on the appropriate use of resources for the benefit of humanity (Botequilha Leitão & Ahern, 2002). The concept of ecocity has the potential to combine the goals and issues of ecology and planning. This section reviews literature on ecological planning as it relates to ecocities, in a search for relevant contemporary Western perspectives on the relationship between humans and nature.  2.2.1 The Beginning of Ecological Planning: Bringing Nature to Cities The beginning of ecological planning offers up utopian ideas about how to use the tools of architecture, engineering, planning and design for the betterment of society as a whole. Many of the visionaries’ plans were intended to reverse the negative consequences of economic development in the Industrial Revolution, making cities healthier, cleaner, and more productive (Larson, 2013).  Howard’s (1898) Garden City in Britain is an example of using landscape to shape urban form. Howard argued for the importance of preserving agriculture close to cities and for using large green spaces (known as “greenbelts”) to provide physical boundaries between communities. In Howard’s plan, each greenbelt community was a self-contained unit, encompassing residences, industry, and agriculture. Self-sufficiency was the priority upon which Register created his Berkeley ecocity in 1987. This mode of organization promotes harmony between people and their environment.  Urban parks, which began in Europe and Britain, spread throughout North America after the completion of Central Park in New York in 1873. The new parks were presented to the public as a means to improve the health, welfare, and character of citizens as well as the tax base of the municipal government (Schuyler 1986). Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of Central Park and many of the later city parks and park systems in North America, regarded his parks as works of art whose purposes were to serve as antidotes for the detrimental effects of city life (Jordan, 1994).  9 After Central Park in New York, Olmsted went on to design major parks and park systems in many of America’s major cities (e.g., Boston’s Franklin Park and Emerald Necklace, and Brooklyn’s Prospect Park). This spate of park building increased taxation revenues, fostered development and changed the standards of city living for urbanites. Such was their success that today parks have become a necessary part of any form of urban planning. Greenways were fundamental infrastructure for solving urban problems such as congestion and sanitation in the U.S. The early greenways were a source of recreation for cities, such as Boston’s Emerald Necklace and the Minneapolis’ parkway. Early twentieth century Greenways provided the full range of possibilities in landscape design, from aesthetic to recreational, from ecological to social, from economic to ethical. For example, the removal of the Embarcadero freeway in the 1960s proved successful for downtown San Francisco. The miles of public space as well as walking and bike paths that were built subsequently have stimulated the growth of numerous businesses and cultural events, transforming the city’s vitality and atmosphere for the better. During the 1990s, the concept of greenways was further woven into the urban fabric, fueling urban growth toward the city’s fringes (Ahern, 1996). As such, greenways have become useful for smart conservation and smart growth (Walmsley, 2006). Many of the visionaries in the urban planning canon such as Patrick Geddes, Ebenezer Howard and Frederick Law Olmsted were in favour of a comprehensive transformation of the urban environment (Fishman, 1977). A review of their work demonstrates their concern for the preservation of nature and ecological functions (Hall, 1996; Lye & Gang, 2010). Before the 1900s, when ecological ideas were still rudimentary, cities were studied separately from their surroundings. The study of ecological functions within cities was rare. 2.2.2 Ecological Planning as an Accepted Paradigm: “Design with Nature” Breakthroughs in ecological theory and methodology emerged in the United States during the mid-twentieth century. Perhaps the most influential was the work of American landscape architect Ian McHarg. His “suitability approach”, introduced in 1969, consists of three components, which, when combined together, create a robust paradigm. These three components are human ecology, regional planning theory, and the overlay mapping technique. Although  10 McHarg was not the first to develop these concepts, he recognized the advantages of their synthesis.  McHarg was influenced by Benton MacKaye and Lewis Mumford, particularly their earlier contributions to regional planning theory and analysis (Ndubisi, 2002). MacKaye (1940) argued in favor of applying human ecology to regional planning. He asserted that the tasks of revealing and visualizing physical and human aspects can be used in the context of regional planning. He defined “region” as a unit of environment, and regional planning as “applied human ecology” (p. 351). In line with MacKaye, Lewis Mumford (1938) introduced a cultural dimension into ecological planning. For Mumford, “region” was a unit of cultural and natural heritage. Instead of focusing on ecological or biological features, Mumford’s regional planning approach focuses on analyzing human activities and human beings’ active relationships with the environment. The overlay mapping technique is a powerful tool for systematically documenting and evaluating natural and cultural data. Prior to McHarg, similar techniques had been adopted in numerous large-scale projects (Collins, Steiner & Rushman, 2001; McHarg, 1997). The advantage in using the overlay mapping technique is that it brings together information from across disciplines and translates abstract natural and cultural data into a visual aid that non-specialists can understand. Its application involves both quantitative and qualitative methods. McHarg’s suitability analysis marks a paradigmatic shift in ecological planning, moving the focus from the well-being of specific ecosystems toward the concerns of human survival in relation to geography (Ndubisi, 2002; 2014). 2.2.3 Advances in Ecology: Understanding Urban Environments as Ecosystems Early twentieth-century advances in ecological science led to ecological interaction between humans and the non-biological components of cities. A city is understood as an ecosystem, consisting of both biological and physical features. The idea of considering a city as an urban ecosystem changes the way cities are studied. Firstly, cities are no longer considered as separate from nature. Ecologists have shifted their focus from ecological sites to ecological processes and functions (Wiens, 1989). Secondly, city functions are studied as a whole, rather than examined as individual separate parts (such as the transportation systems, networks, or parks).   11 Urban planners have been attracted by the evolving concept of “region”. Region is a scale for successful management of ecosystems (Ndubisi, 2008). It is also a territorial community, distinguished by its common history and cultural system of meaning (Ndubisi, 2002). Patrick Geddes (1915) highlighted the interrelationship between the regional landscape, people’s economic activities, and their cultures. He (1905) also proposed a regional survey method with the focus on “folk-work-place” analysis (p.71) analysis for understanding the complexities between human action and the environment. Such an approach stimulates systematic thinking about our living environment and expands the theoretical foundation for regional planning. 2.2.4 A Quantitative Research Direction: Reducing the Impact of Humans During the second half of the twentieth century, regional planning in the U.S. relied heavily on spatial analysis accompanying the development of computer and information systems (Erickson, 1979). From the 1970s onwards, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) were generally applied before large development designs could be carried out (Wolfe & Larry Wolfe Associates, 1987). Existing EIA frameworks concern ecological limits, and often use an index-based approach to evaluate ecosystem performance. The original ecocity concept proposed by Register (1987) was based on the bioregion’s carrying capacity. The priority of his design was to reduce the city’s carbon footprint, or, in other words, achieve large reductions in urban energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions (Rees, 1996). The ecological footprint approach reflects a closer link between consumption and its impact on the site (Rees, 1992; Wackernagel & Rees, 1996). Other prevailing composite indices include the well-being index and the environmental sustainability index (Mori, K., & Christodoulou, 2012). The emerging concept of “Ecosystem Services” provides a value basis for selecting indicators (Huang, Wu & Yan, 2015). Ecosystem Services can be broadly defined as the contribution of ecosystems to human well-being (Haines-Young & Potschin, 2009; TEEB, 2012). The Ecosystem Services approach stimulates communication and mutual understanding about the goods and services shared across groups. For example, access to green space has been shown to contribute to human well-being, physically, mentally, and spiritually (Kuo, 2010). These cultural ecosystem services hold the potential of integrating multiple resources and interests in decision  12 making. The aesthetic and spiritual gains from nature, therefore, have been recommended in numerous developments (Chan et al., 2012; Martin-Lopez et al., 2014; Soy-Massoni et al., 2016). For policymakers, indicators, adapted for large-scale development programs, that integrate infrastructure, landscape change, urban design, and ecosystem services management, provide useful information concerning environmental impact and mechanisms. Planning institutions independently decide which indicators to use. Through the use of indicators, these integrated programs can address environmental challenges. Various indicators are selected and applied by planning institutions as an autonomous practice (Shen et al., 2011). However, it is usually a complicated, indirect attribution between an environmental intervention and the result. For example, air quality can be impacted by both local and non-local sources of pollution. It is hard to tell if a change in the air quality of an area has been triggered by the implementation of local or non-local environmental policies, or a combination of both. Also, the impact of a policy on the ecological performance of a particular area can be gradual and intangible, taking years for policymakers to become aware of (Lye & Gang, 2010). 2.2.5 Sustainability as a Practice of Ecological Planning in Europe and North America Since the 1970s, the concept of sustainability has become a significant influence on planning and policy, at the local level. The sustainability of urban areas is essential to the sustainability of regions, nations, and the world as a whole (Huang, Wu & Yan, 2015). In the U.S., the concept of sustainability is practiced as a framework, and it includes four thematic subsystems for possible solutions to certain kinds of problems: Smart Growth, New Urbanism, Renewable Energy, and Green Development. Planning practice and policies related to sustainability, in North America, are based on consensus building, and their enforcement is shared by the courts and regulatory systems (Freilich & Popowitz, 2010). In such a context, planners act like mediators, aiming to build coalitions between different stakeholder groups (Innes & Booher, 2003).  Sustainability in Europe is practiced in a very different way from North America. The European Union has a centralized policy structure, and employs a political sustainability framework that is based on spatial and regional planning. Sustainability objectives are transformed into action plans on specific topics, and these action plans are carried out by European Union cities and member states (James, 2014).   13 Currently, there are no universal criteria or methods for measuring the sustainability of urban areas (Alberti, 1996; Huang, Wu & Yan, 2015; James, 2014; Maclaren, 1996; McManus, 2012). There are rating programs, such as LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), and China’s “Three Star” system, which measures an individual building against the criteria of green and low-carbon standards (Geng et al., 2012). In the U.S., Urban Sustainability Indicators (USIs) are widely applied in large planning projects. Rather than being a rigid standard, USIs can be continually developed, flexibly integrating participatory policy input (Innes & Booher, 2003; Huang, Wu & Yan, 2015; Newig & Fritsch, 2009). USIs are used to predict the outcomes of various development scenarios (e.g. determining the best location for a park). Planners can choose among various indicators of different sustainability goals, depending on the drivers and goals of each practice (Liu, Ness, & Huang, 2011; Qiu, 2009; Yu, Li, & Ji, 2001; Zhang, 2007).   2.3 Integrating Ecological Planning into Chinese Ecocities Drawing on the fieldwork of the flagship Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) project, this section highlights the shifting planning politics that increasingly incorporates local agendas into governmental practices and urban planning as a way to manage emerging situations.  2.3.1 Why Ecocity? “Eco” and “city” sound like contradictory terms. However, when “eco-desires”, combined with green technological wizardry, meet profitable urban land development, the move to build more ecocities seems understandable. The development and successful functioning of Chinese cities depends heavily on a strong performance by the real estate market (CSUS, 2015; Li & Liu, 2011). The lease of land-use rights provides city governments with an incentive to sell land to generate revenue. On average, 70% of the municipality’s revenue is generated through land leasing, and this revenue is used to finance urban development (World Bank & Development Research Center of the State Council of People’s Republic of China, 2014). While most ecocities are in China’s wealthier regions, the underdeveloped western regions also use ecocities to generate a more “civilized” urban scene  14 that will to stand out in inter-city competition (Yeh, 2015). An ecocity is considered to be successful when the created urban design leads investment and new jobs (Liu & Salzberg, 2012). Other factors that drive local governments to build ecocities are environmental objectives (Rapoport, 2014), and environmental tasks are regularly mandated at the local level by the local government. As “environmental governance” becomes a more important part of officials’ performance evaluations, the completion of such tasks will have a significant impact on the officials’ careers (Shiuh-Shen, 2013). For example, since 2006 the weight assigned to “sustainable development” in the municipalities of Fujian Province increased to 32% (Zhou, 2010). In some regions, achievements in the field of environmental protection is considered more “politically” provocative than “technologically” provocative (Turiel, Ding & Chung-En Liu, 2017). This is due, in part, to the lack of a unified technological method for describing environmental protection. Taking Guangzhou Province as an example, a comprehensive index system for assessing the “Level of Scientific Development” has been employed since 2008 to evaluate the performance of officials at the municipality and bureau levels. The evaluation of “Scientific Development” picked two indices: Per Capita Green Space, and Synthetic Energy Consuming Per 10,000 RMB of GDP. However, both indices are questionable in terms of accountability and their use as a measurement for representing ecosystem services (Chi & Yang, 2009; Yu et al., 1999). This, in turn, forces performance evaluations to focus even more on the technological solutions. Very often, ecocities are used by local governments as a tool for experimenting with policies and technological innovations.  Constructing ecocities is an effective way of attracting educated young talent to the field of eco-technologies. For example, the Dezhou “Solar Valley” is estimated to have employed 800,000 people in the solar panel industry. China’s subsidization of the solar industry is an example of the strong incentives given to this type of high-tech business park project. Another example is the Shenzhen Sino-Dutch Low Carbon City. In its “Open Innovation Campus”, space is organized to stimulate communication between universities, research and development centers, and high-end services (de Jong et al., 2013). In such cases, local politicians see ecocities as a catalyst for promoting both large-scale new commercial developments and high-tech solutions for resolving environmental concerns (Sze, 2015, p. 54).   15  Figure 3 Geographical location of China of low-carbon ecocities and provinces  Source: Garfield et al., 2019, p.4342  Table 2 shows evolving ecocities around the world in chronological order. European and American ecocities are the earliest neighborhood-scale experiments, and these ecocities have been focusing primarily on devising solutions to reduce human impact on the environment. These projects have showcased sustainability models, such as green development, new urbanism, and renewable energy. In 2006, Abu Dhabi undertook the first large-scale ecocity project in the Middle East, taking on the challenge of finding eco-friendly solutions for an unlivable environment. In more recent years, various ecocities have been established in other geographic territories, and many are in developing countries. This demonstrates the power of knowledge sharing, which facilitates the advancement of multiple solutions for the sake of human civilization. A closer look at the Chinese ecocities that have thrived since the late 2000s shows that their scale is both promising and challenging. Also, the large number of ecocities in China has resulted in a streamlining of paths to all types of sustainability goals. Consequently, China has succeeded in generating plenty of design schemes, models, strategies, and scientific evidence for researchers and planners to use in dealing with the challenges posed by complex urbanization.  16 Undeniably, the practice of ecocities also helps form a strong alliance between local government and investors, and enables them to stand out amid the intense competition among regions and cities.  17 Table 2 Examples of the ecocities planned and constructed worldwide Reference: Zhou & Williams, 2013Geographic Area Project Name Scale and timeline Ecological Planning Themes Ref. North America Berkeley, California, U.S. Late 1970s, 10 acres New urbanism; human impact on the environment (e.g., promotion of holistic living, restoring creeks) Register (1987; 2002) Europe EVA Lanxmeer, Netherlands 1994-2009, 240 houses Human impact on the environment (e.g., reduce household energy consumption) Roggema (2017) Europe Hammarby-Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden Designed in 1990 for the Olympic 2012, realization 2004-2016, 1.5 km2 with 26,000 residents Integrated urban systems Ignatieva & Berg (2014); Pandis Iverot & Brandt (2011) East Asia Kawasaki Eco-town, Japan 1997, 28 km2 Human impact on the environment Low (2013) Europe Hannover-Kronsberg, Germany Drafted in 2000, 3200 units, 70 ha Eco-friendly urban development (e.g., a design that adapts local weather) Shashua-Bar, Tsiros, & Hoffman (2012) Europe Solar District Schlierberg, Germany Completed in 2002, 59 homes Green development; reduce human impact on the environment (e.g., carbon-neutral homes) Heinze & Voss (2009) Europe BedZED, UK Finished in 2002, 82 homes Renewable energy (e.g., zero-carbon homes); human impact on the environment (e.g., sustainable lifestyles) Chance (2009) Middle East Masdar, Abu Dhabi 2006, 6 km2 45 -50K residents “Green living”: Using energy solutions to transform a non-liveable place into a city (e.g., clean power, desalinization plant that runs on solar power, transportation) Cugurullo (2015) Europe Eco-towns, UK 2007 initial planning proposal; 2012, approved with no completion Political sustainability framework based on spatial and regional planning (e.g., affordable housing, lifestyle changes) BBC News (2007; 2009) Austria SolarCity, Linz Planned in 1992 and completed in 2006, aims to accommodate 35 ha 4,000 people Integrated urban systems; human impact on the environment (e.g., energy-saving residential district);  Breuste (2012); Breuste & Riepel (2008) South America SymbioCity, Sao Paulo, Brazil 2009 Smart growth (e.g., mobility, a mixed land use urban structure) Chiariotti et al. (2016) East Asia Shanghai Dongtan Ecocity, China Drafted in 2005, 86 km2, 50K residents Green development; renewable energy; human impact on the environment Castle (2008); Sze (2015) Southeast Asia KL Eco City, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2007, 0.1 km2 Smart growth (e.g., downtown mixed-use development) Tan (2012) East Asia Solar Valley, Dezhou, China 2007, 3 km2 Green development; renewable energy Nusca (2010) East Asia Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City, China First plan drafted in 2007 of 35 km2, 350K residents; Revised in 2016 as 120 km2 Renewable energy; human impact on the environment; integrated urban systems Baeumler et al. (2009) East Asia Tangshan Caofeidian International Ecocity, China 2007, 60 km2, 1.2 million residents Green development; renewable energy; integrated urban systems Following “The Hammarby model” East Asia Suzhou Western Eco-City Construction began in 2010, 6 km2, 1.2 million residents Integrated urban systems Wang, Ding & Zhuang (2015) East Asia Sino-Swedish Wuxi Low-Carbon Eco-city Construction began in 2010 Integrated urban systems de Jong et al. (2013)  18 2.3.2 The Undefined Chinese Ecocity and its Evolving Agenda: From the Case of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City The revised masterplan for an eco-friendly future Prior to development, the SSTEC site comprised mainly salt pans, aquaculture ponds and waste land. The site is situated in Northern China with a low precipitation and high evaporation rate. The site is in an area that was reclaimed from tidal flats that were used for salt farming for centuries. The soil is highly saline and alkaline, making it unsuitable for plant growth (Green Building Index, 2010).  The site is close to several designated Important Bird Areas, including the Qilihai Nature Reserve and the Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve. The mudflats around the SSTEC are part of the greater Yellow Sea/Bohai Bay coastal wetlands. A good number of migratory coastal birds have come to the site along Bohai Bay. The SSTEC masterplan is a blueprint that started from scratch (See Figure 4). It proposes a green “spine”, with a main axis road that runs through the entire ecocity and links three city hubs with four subcenters. The proposed spine is 500 meters wide, connecting residential neighborhoods, social amenities, and workplaces with tram networks, as well as scenic trails for pedestrians and cyclists. By the time the project is completed in 2030, it is expected to accommodate 350,000 permanent residents in an area of over 30 km2. Phase one was completed in 2011, but it had failed to reach the projected population targets. No residents had moved in as of October 2011 (Chang et al., 2016). Several international media outlets, showing pictures of dusty construction sites, housing developments, high-rise office buildings, and empty streets, warned that the city may become another ghost town—an overbuilt city with few inhabitants (see Kaiman 2014). The green spine idea was also revised, becoming an 8-lane-wide road surrounded by commercial and office buildings, just like any other Chinese new town development. Caprotti (2014) questioned whether the SSTEC would be ecologically healthy. He stated that it would be impossible to finance the city’s development at such a speed. Those dusty, empty homes represented a misalignment of interests between citizens, the government, and urban planners. As for the governments, the urgent issue was to formulate  19 actions to turn the ecocity into a place to live and stay, rather than a place to visit (the source is from personal communication, anonymous public official). Figure 4 Original masterplan made in 2008  Source: Plymouth University cartography office, based on the 2008 masterplan  By late 2015, the situation started to improve. A boom in home and condominium sales was triggered by the thousand-family relocation in the wake of the Tianjin warehouse explosions on August 12, 2015. (This disaster is commonly known as “the Port of Tianjin 8.12 explosions”)  20 (The Guardian, 2017). On that day, a series of massive industrial explosions occurred in the nearby Port of Tianjin, taking the lives of more than 150 people and polluting the Binhai New Area with hazardous chemicals. The SSTEC was reported to have been slightly impacted. The municipality offered settlement subsidies to the affected families to facilitate their resettlement. By the end of 2015, more than 75% of the housing units had been occupied (source from an interview). Soon afterwards, a revision to the SSTEC masterplan increased residential land by 10%. The 10% increase in residential land saved the SSTEC project substantial costs associated with the maintenance of high-rise towers. The Binhai government hesitated to lease more land for offices and commercial purposes as “it was more urgent to put the empty towers and malls to use in order to serve those who have been newly relocated in the ecocity,” an official of the Administration Committee admitted during an interview. The Tianjin-Binhai government continued to report that SSTEC was making good progress in terms of physical development and public services. Free bus transportation was provided for all residents. Top-notch schools and discounted rates for medical care were introduced as part of premier deals offered to new homeowners. By the end of 2015, the number of residents had reached 30,000. This was still insufficient, considering that the target population was 350,000 by 2030, but at least residential neighborhoods were no longer empty. Figure 5 Construction of residential buildings in SSTEC   Source: The Guardian, photographed by Bloomberg via Getty Images   21 In addition to actively promoting physical construction, the SSTEC initiated the Community Building Campaign (CBC) as an innovation to improve social services. The goal of the CBC is to encourage the non-governmental sectors to establish facilities and provide services that will improve the quality of community life.  The establishment of a community center system is part of the program to support the daily lives of local residents. Similar to Singapore’s neighborhood center, each community center provides a “meeting point” for residents within a 1 km radius, where they can go to socialize outside of their homes. The community center offers a variety of services, including job hunting support services, legal services, a gym, a library, art classrooms, and other social amenities, as well as retail and healthcare facilities (See Figures 6 and 7). During my visit in early 2017, a few residents said that in their daily lives they were quite “dependent on their nearby community center”. Meanwhile, some residents still felt that their social lives had become more limited since moving into the SSTEC, especially for people who did not drive. “Most bus lines are free, but the buses are infrequent. It is tough to stand for 30 minutes on winter days, waiting for a bus,” one community manager told me, adding, “all the bus lines stop before 8:30 p.m., so you have to have a backup plan to get home if you and your family decide to go for dinner somewhere outside the Ecocity.” Figure 6 An activity room in the community center  Note: Photo taken by the author in 2017   22 Figure 7 Inside the community center  Note: The left poster says “Cultivate good habits for a healthy life.” The right poster says “A non-smoking life starts from saying ‘no’ to the first cigarette. Keep air fresh and maintain sanitation indoors”. A dead-end path for Chinese ecocities Local officials’ eagerness to make the ecocity a liveable place is understandable, given that the city had already made massive investments in social amenities. However, further actions are required to effectively deal with the existing environmental problems. For example, residents in the SSTEC have been encouraged to sort and recycle waste to cultivate a healthier lifestyle. Each neighborhood is equipped with waste disposal and recycling bins that come with detailed instructions. Many residents, after discovering that all the sorted-out items would eventually be put into the same garbage truck, refused to use the recycling bins. “I feel like a fool, doing whatever they tell us to do,” said an interviewee. He added, “If the lifestyle tip is just to make us feel good, I am not interested in being part of the show.” One SSTEC official explained to me in an interview that the city uses advanced German technology to sort waste refuse by density. “It takes time to cultivate the habit to sort and recycle garbage. I cannot force residents to do it, but can only educate them about how to do it…Waste treatment [currently undertaken in the SSTEC]  23 does not require households to sort their refuse and recycling,” she said. “The separated bins in neighborhoods are more for educational purposes. It is important for residents and visitors to see for themselves that I take seriously the spirit of cultivating a ‘green’ lifestyle, so that others can follow our example.” Looking closely at the language the SSTEC uses to describe its “Three harmonies”, “ecocity” means to provide a decent quality of urban living. Terms like “economic growth”, “improved living conditions”, “better mobility”, and “social progress” are simply intended to be much-needed improvements and infrastructural development with an “Eco” prefix.  Table 3 highlights the characteristics of Western and Chinese ecocities, comparing their goals, processes, and outcomes. Nearly all ecocities make energy-related objectives a top priority, and an essential goal. The earlier ecocities of wealthy countries are, in general, small-scale suburban initiatives, focusing on household and community lifestyles. Their primary aim is to reduce their impact on the environment. In contrast, the emerging ecocities of developing (Asian) countries are mostly ambitious urban projects, driven by local and national pride, and a promise for a decent quality of urban environment (Shepard, 2015). Some European ecocities have developed a “transaction-oriented” planning framework, based on structural cooperation among different levels of government. Issues like climate change and affordable housing win strong political support, as well as the integration of infrastructural systems. For example, in Stockholm, “The Hammarby Model” exemplifies advances in the integration of infrastructural systems (i.e., technical infrastructures, mobility, communications, building, and blue-green infrastructures. This methodology is also applicable to other processes of environmental management (Svane, 2008). There have been ecocities such as Tangshan Caofeidian (China) and SymbioCity (Brazil), which followed this model to achieve extensive environmental objectives. The development of ecocities in these countries allows the integration of the state-of-the-art technologies and the latest advancements in architecture, planning and design.    24  Table 3 A comparison of ecocities from West and China Project  Goals Processes Outcomes Berkeley, California, U.S. Livability, healthy communities Led by environmental activists. Residents are involved in the early depaving and creek restoration efforts A case to represent New Urbanism; Re-naturalization of the Bay Area creeks; Wake up the global-wide climate change campaign led by community leaders BedZED, UK New energy, zero-carbon homes, sustainable community and sustainable lifestyles Two years to complete the project. Designed by architect Bill Dunster, with consulting supports on engineering and marketing. Energy efficient design for high-income households;  Housing policies and household variety of the residential development in Brighton (Chance, 2009) Eco-towns, UK Zero carbon, affordable housing, sustainable living More like a policy proposal, sponsored by government, sites were approved but never been completed “Eco Town” standards as criteria for vision, construction and urban management (e.g., social inclusion) Hammarby-Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden Interdisciplinary planning of physical flows of energy, water and waste Integrate systems in planning at the beginning of the project “The Hammarby model”−an exemplary residential case for sustainable neighborhood. Caofeidian Ecocity in China and the SymbioCity in Brazil imitated the Hammarby model Solar District Schlierberg, Germany PlusEnergy addresses climate change issue, carbon neutral A framework for local action in key areas identified for effective GHG emissions reduction Freiburg Climate Protection Strategy 2030─an action plan supported by current implementation Hannover-Kronsberg, Germany Reduce carbon emission; reduce household energy consumption Close cooperation between the City and public utilities resulting in the establishment of an Energy Agency  Suburb of Kronsberg was built as part of the World Exhibition 2000 as an example of sustainable city planning (City of Hannover, 2004) Shanghai Dongtan, China Carbon neutral, new energy, eco-tourism,  2002-Distinguished international partners involved in the scoping stage 2005-Project was scrapped after political scandal  The Dongtan project stalled. Nonetheless, it drew much attention from the media. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City, China Pollution; public transportation; Creating abundant jobs and housing; Clean energy resources; High-tech development parks; Eco-tourism Start from integrated infrastructural systems, with massive investment in green technologies  From 2015 onward, a real-estate development breakthrough; investment in transportation and community facilities; and eco-tourism A hub for Greentech; Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as a criteria system to guide the SSTEC development Solar Valley, Dezhou, China Building the biggest solar energy production base in the world Build upon experimental venture in the solar industry, situated on reclaimed farmland. A hub for clean energy technology launched by Himin Solar Energy. Suzhou Western Eco-City Applying relatively low ecological footprint urban settlement, with the strong financial incentives to businesses for urban development  Settlement extension initiated by Suzhou New District government. A masterplan informed by “agro-urbanism”-connecting urban areas to agricultural land Walkable neighborhoods with a main town center providing services for the local community.  An environmentally-based design code to govern development   25 2.3.3 The Resultant Ecocities Embody Diverse Interpretations of “Ecological Civilization” Historically, Chinese cities were ecological by default. They were built based on Chinese environmental philosophies such as Taoism and feng shui, which have always given priority to patterns inherent in nature (Shiuh-Shen, 2013; Skinner, 1982; Yu, 1994). However, few of the above traditions have been applied in Chinese ecocities. China, a country once known for its more holistic approach to urban planning, currently runs the risk of missing out on some of its own historical practices.  After reviewing more than fifty Chinese ecocities that have been built over the past decade, it is my impression that the concept of “Ecological Civilization” is being interpreted in many different ways, depending on the objectives or the policies in the spotlight at the time of project implementation. Local leaders and planners usually use the opportunity of building ecocities to deliver local political agendas. I outline four themes as “local interpretations” of what local leaders envisioned when they refer to a project as an “Ecocity”: • High-tech development parks: Using the “eco” brand to build research and development centers and promote an entrepreneurial environment with the aim of attracting high-tech companies and talent from all over the world. For example, the National Animation Industry Park has been set up in the SSTEC, and the Dezhou “Solar Valley” is now the home of China’s solar panel industry. In general, such projects occupy large areas of land, and have costly infrastructure requirements. For this model to succeed, the city needs to generate a lot of jobs and attract young workers, and it requires converting rural land to urban uses to finance urban expansion. Heavy debts have become a serious issue as local governments continue investing in such infrastructure. The “eco” is a catchphrase that helps authorities to market projects of superior urban planning and design. • Abundant housing: Ecocities provide a variety of housing options for China’s growing middle class, enabling people to live on the outskirts of the city in more spacious residential units, while still allowing them to benefit from access to urban facilities and services. Ecocities exemplify a compact development model that preserves farmland. This type of ecocity is supposed to accommodate a huge population. For cities that have an expanding population and growing homebuying power, the promise of a better quality of life on the  26 edge of urban centers sounds appealing. However, this model may not be suitable for cities that already face a shrinking population and a loss of jobs. • Public transit: Most ecocities are built outside of city centers. The promotion of public transit affords the dual benefits of greater ease of mobility and energy efficiency. Considering the extensive investments required over numerous years, and the small populations that actually live in the district undergoing new development, it is hard, in the planning stages, to predict whether the ecocity will reach a population size that is large enough to support extensive infrastructure investment. The Caofeidian Eco-City and the SSTEC are both expecting the provision of convenient public transit services to be the key to success. Caofeidian is within a one-hour commute to the urban center of Beijing, and the SSTEC is within a one-hour commute to both the Tianjin and Beijing city centers. Such a model provides businesses the incentive to relocate outside the city, where leases will be cheaper. The employees of these companies could then choose to commute or buy a second home in the ecocity. • Pollution remediation and eco-tourism: Reducing the negative impact on the environment is essential for the success of an ecocity. Many ecocities’ promises of a better quality of life for residents have a lot to do with pollution remediation. Ecocities that can provide access to nature are able to attract new homebuyers. The way to do this is by developing eco-tourism and creating commercial spaces for gardens or cultural venues.4 The continual provision of clean water and reliable food resources is heavily subsidized, which begs the question of whether such subsidies are economically sustainable.  2.3.4 Advice Given to Chinese Ecocities Williams (2017) suggests that “ecocity” is a vaguely defined concept open to interpretation. While Westerners consider urban living issues relating to air pollution and water quality as the cost of growth, “China hangs on to the idea that environmental concerns should be addressed in order to revamp productive growth” (Williams, 2007, p.68). As a result, many ecocities provide misleading commentaries about their environmental achievements, offering data that demonstrates growth in business involving new technologies. Cultural commentaries question the extent to which green technology can actually improve environmental performance. An  4 The SSTEC has invested massively in tourism, primarily in a nature sanctuary featuring wetlands for migratory birds and an ocean-themed tourist destination.  27 important study by Sze (2015) concluded that such ecocities do not allocate sufficient resources to truly address China’s environmental emergency. She points out that the planning of Dongtan was based on the commodification of ecosystem services, such as eco-tourism. Similar critiques can be found in other ecocities (see de Jong, Wang & Yu, 2013; Joss & Molella, 2013).  What advice can be given to Chinese ecocities? Clearly, looking at building performance or green technology alone is not sufficient. Instead, I looked at how our cities are designed, and consider which values are appreciated by the leadership, especially the mayors and planning directors in the municipalities. Considering the scale and speed of China’s urbanization, the country would benefit greatly from reliable guidance at the planning stage (e.g., holistic design strategies, and development plans that consider locally accessible resources). Such guidance could lead China on a new path toward urbanization. Project teams are required to function at a high level, with coordination between the planning and environmental offices, if environmental objectives are to be realized. Many of these objectives, however, are in conflict with other objectives (i.e., transport and aesthetic objectives). For example, the energy efficiency of industry has significantly improved. However, the way this improvement has been achieved is problematic. After the 2012 smoggy Beijing winter, SSTEC closed down hundreds of factories as a move to combat air pollution (CSUS, 2012). The municipality of Tianjin also started to limit the number of new car license plate registrations. Estimates suggested that if 90% of commuters chose not to drive a private car, transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 50% when compared to 2005 levels (Tianjin Capital Environmental Protection Group, 2016). However, the masterplan in 2008 did not support such a transit solution. The number of private cars has been increasing every year. According to the local Environmental Protection Bureau report, the improvements seen in air quality within the SSTEC since 2014 have been attributed to the closure or relocation of factories.   28 2.4 Conclusion An ecocity is a city that reduces environmental stress, improves living conditions and helps to achieve sustainable development through a comprehensive urban improvement system, involving the planning and management of land and other resources (Gordon, 1990). Ecocities should further develop both a design and an economic basis for cities and regions organized around a fundamental respect for inherited natural environmental and economic systems that support human activity (Register, 2016a; 2016b). A comparison of ecocities from five continents suggests that ecocities have shifted from small-scale, grassroots environmental activism in the 1970s, to the ambitious, large-scale projects of today. A review of ecocity literature indicates that the early literature on ecocities has failed to address the incremental, bottom-up reforms required. This paper contributes to a dialogue between Western and Chinese planners on the subject of ecocities.  In recent years, China’s local governments have begun embracing ecological objectives, and seem eager to believe in the ability of “green technology” to solve many environmental problems. Municipalities have promoted compliance with advanced standards for transaction value in the tech market, the number of patents granted, and expenditures on R&D funding to attract media attention and investments amid intense competition. Such a strategy puts ecocities in a problematic situation, as the main priority becomes the achievement of environmental objectives that are somewhat dependent on the marketing of an “eco” brand. In such a situation, maintaining a holistic focus on environmental protection becomes a much lower priority. Some municipalities have gone deeply in debt, while providing their inhabitants with clean water, a high quota of green spaces, top-notch schools and hospitals. Each city is competing with other cities by creating jobs to generate tax revenue and attract homebuyers.  One undeniable fact is that the quality of urban living has been greatly enhanced all over China in the past few decades, a development which is not limited to the ecocities.  Such an improvement is seen as a success derived from a housing market that features competition and cities that compete for labor. But tax revenue drawn from property investment is insufficient to help the country to achieve healthy growth (Ding, 2003). Meanwhile, the situation brings with it more challenges for managing the public’s desire for “greener,” “healthier,” and “balanced” urban living.  29 In this chapter, “Ecological Civilization” impacts planning actions for much-needed infrastructural development and improvement. Driven by economic and environmental objectives, Chinese ecocities have selectively applied theories and approaches to support local political agendas. Chinese ecocities exemplify a model for developing countries that combines advances in new technologies and accommodating a growing urban population. This paper concludes that the following planning guidance should be given to China. • Build cost efficient, multi-functional green infrastructure. The ecocities that have been developed in China are large-scale, high-profile projects aimed at attracting investment. More consideration must be given to the economic health. The current problem with nearly all of China’s ecocities is the tendency to promise investors too much, and be overly focused on “expansion” and “development”. In addition, local leaders are not making a sufficient commitment to solving real environmental problems. The development of multi-functional green infrastructure that can mitigate environmental problems, like flooding and pollution, while delivering cultural ecosystem services should become an accepted component of ecocities. Curbing the scale of ecocities, or phasing them over longer time frames, would reduce the pressure on project developers to achieve impressive-looking results, and allow them to make economic feasibility and long-term sustainability higher priorities. • Learn from tradition for both urban design and the economic basis for cities. The current approach to ecocity development in China brings together a cumulative body of knowledge relating to resource circulation, environmental performance, and the adaptation of ecological principles in planning. This knowledge, however, has yet to be integrated with the vernacular city building wisdom that has long been practiced in Chinese cities. Advances have been made with regard to integrating input from various fields in the development of urban systems in some of China’s ecocities, particularly in the case of collaborations with foreign partners. Future ecocities, however, should not focus solely on the “best practices” of the West or rely entirely on green technologies and land reclamation. China’s ecocities should draw on the principles of feng shui, incorporate locally available materials, and adopt concepts and designs that suit the local ecologies and people.  • Use cross-section collaboration to address climate change and sea-level raising challenges. Strong political support for ecocities in China enables an interdisciplinary approach to  30 solving the challenges of urban living. Given the recent effects of climate change, ecocities slated for development in populated urban areas, along the coast, should address climate change and rising sea levels as special concerns, and seek holistic solutions.  • Ecocities need to supply ease of mobility. Many ecocities are averse to low-carbon living, primarily because residents keep buying new cars and making driving a priority. Ecocities should be designed to ensure the safety of pedestrians. Ease of mobility should be among the highest priorities for the urban design and transportation planning teams, and non-motorized transportation networks are a necessary part of transportation networks. Like other ecocities, the attribute of “Ecological Civilization” led SSTEC to address housing affordability, cleaner energy, eco-tourism, and a high-tech development park. However, Tianjin did not deliver what it originally promised, and is nothing like what Register’s Ecocity proposed. In this regard, Tianjin is more akin to a Chinese conventional planning product.  31  Chapter 3. Is lack of ecological knowledge a barrier for urban planners?  Evidence from Chinese urban communities  3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Ecosystem Services: A Useful Concept for Understanding how Ecosystems work to Contribute to Human Welfare Cities present a host of sustainability challenges (Grimm et al., 2008; Solecki et al., 2010). As cities become more populous and more consumptive, environmental problems increase. Scholarly literature is uncovering major adverse health effects in urban residents that are caused by the stresses on the natural environment, including those caused by increased pollution and flood risk, rising temperatures, and decreased biodiversity (Butler et al., 2005; Northridge, Sclar, & Biswas, 2003).  As previously mentioned, the promise of a green healthy environment is a big attractor to the new residents of Chinese ecocities. The Chinese populace is increasingly aware of the negative health impacts of air and water pollution and many will seek the opportunity to live in a healthier environment. In order to plan actions to counteract negative environmental effects, the interactions between the ecosystems, ecosystem management, and human well-being need to be examined in a holistic way. Ecosystem Services (ES) can be described as the benefits people obtain from ecosystem. In 2000, the United Nations initiated a worldwide assessment of the condition of global ecosystems, known as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005). The scientists who conducted this work used ES to assess the health of the global ecosystems. They divided ES into four broad categories: material or provisioning services such as food, water, and fiber; regulating services that affect environmental processes of regulating climate, floods, disease, wastes and water quality; supporting services that lay the foundation for all other services by providing processes/functions such as soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling; and cultural services that meet the recreational and spiritual needs of people. Their report stated that the net  32 gains in human well-being and economic development in recent years had been achieved at the cost of degradation of many ecosystem services (MEA, 2005).  The MEA provided a scientific framework to guide policy and planning toward the sustainable use of ecosystems. The approach seeks to put human needs at the centre of ecosystem management, and considers the needs of different stakeholders in the decision-making process. It is now widely used among research and policy communities to enhance communication regarding human welfare (Costanza & Kubiszewski, 2012; Plant & Ryan, 2013; MEA, 2005). Yet challenges to this approach remain, including predicting how human actions will affect ecosystems, how landscape changes will affect the provision of ES, and how changes in the provision of different ES will affect different groups in society (Granek et al., 2010).              Note: The relationship between the ecosystem structure, process/functions, services and benefits (adapted from Haines-Young and Potschin, 2010)  The MEA used the terms “ecosystem structure”, “ecosystem function”, “ecosystem services” and “benefits” interchangeably, which confused and frustrated planners. Haines-Young and Potschin (2010) clarified the relationship between these concepts by developing the Cascade Diagram (see Figure 8). They correctly expressed the understanding that the structure or physical make up of an ecosystem gives rise to ecosystem processes (sometimes called functions). Ecosystem processes yield the ES, and the services produce the benefits received by humans. Thus, the Intermediate product Ecosystem Structure Process/ Function Services Benefit Final services or products/output Figure 8 A cascade diagram showing the understanding of ecosystem features  33 ecosystem structure provides a biophysical space for ecological processes and functions, and services produce the benefits that people enjoy. The distinctions between services and benefits, however, is debatable, and, depending on one’s point of view, both may be the final outcomes of ecosystems. Wallace (2007) argues that “service” should only be defined as a benefit that people can consume or experience, while the rest are part of ecological structures and processes that help create the benefit. Following Wallace’s logic, a service can be described as a benefit only if people can directly enjoy it. Because the benefits of intangible and intermediate ES are not immediately apparent, they can be overlooked (e.g., soil formation, nutrient cycling, and disease regulation). By contrast, Fisher and Turner (2008), and Costanza (2008) disagree with limiting the definition of “service” as a final product to be utilized directly by people. In many cases these undervalued services that contribute to biodiversity also enhance human well-being. ES therefore provides a vehicle to help people re-access whether the structure, function, and services currently being provided are optimum. 3.1.2 The Problematic Assessment of Ecocities From the 1970s onwards, environmental and urban planning promoted new frameworks for tackling urban sprawl, biodiversity loss, and associated social problems (Imura, 2010; Jongman, Külvik, & Kristiansen, 2004; Luederitz, Lang, & Von Wehrden, 2013; Margules & Sarkar, 2007; Termorshuizen, Opdam, & van den Brink, 2007). Later, the idea of the ecocity emerged from grassroots environmental movements that sought to respect environmental limits in urban development (Rapoport, 2014).  Richard Register (1987), in his book Ecocity Berkeley: Building cities for a healthy future, expressed his idea that the primary goal of an ecocity was to conserve, recycle, and preserve biodiversity. For Register, the design and planning of an ecocity needed to be grounded in self-sustaining resilient structures and a properly functioning ecosystem (Chang & Sheppard, 2013). In subsequent years, new planning principles that include a reduction in the use of automobiles, wetland restoration, and affordable housing have all become part of an ecocity framework (Kenworthy, 2006; Roseland, 1997). Meanwhile, many indicators have been developed to assess ecocities, such as Urban Sustainability Indicators, Ecocity Standards, and Ecocity Builders used in the North America, and Key Performance Indicators for Ecocities in the Asia-Pacific Region  34 (Zhou & Williams, 2013). However, the planning literature did not fully explain some of the critical connections between planning actions and their outcomes (e.g., how the principles and the assessment systems actually play a role in helping an ecocity achieve its goals). In this study, I attempt to link assessment systems and the desired outcomes, drawing on the burgeoning literature on ecocities. The problems with the current indicators that planners use have been well analysed in literature. One common problem is the way that indicators are selected (Joss & Molella, 2013). Current methodology has relied heavily on statistical data and on expert opinion regarding which indicators can be used to best track progress (Voß & Bornemann, 2011). However, there is little consensus on how to set priorities for issues that are to be evaluated (Zhou & Williams, 2012). Another critique is the adaption of indicators at different stages of the planning process. Indicators selected in the initial planning stage are fixed, and then handed down from the top as assigned targets (Berrini & Bono, 2011; Zhou & Williams, 2012). These indicators are not responsive to changing agendas or emerging situations. For example, urban sustainability indicators have frequently omitted “social identity” and “social cohesion,” which are important issues pertaining to the influx of new ecocity residents (Maclaren, 1996). Many indicators are dependent upon complicated data described in abstract economic terms. For example, carbon reduction is measured according to GDP, and water consumption is measured per capita. It is unclear what planning practices would need to be applied in order to achieve these appropriate goals for these parameters. Lastly, planning scholars have not fully elaborated the direct impact and role of these indicators in the planning process. 3.1.3 A Potential Solution: Integrate Ecosystem Services into Urban Planning In this study, I propose the use of Ecosystem Services (ES) as a response to these assessment problems. This research intends to show that ES can be adapted in different phases of the planning and decision-making process, as well as being included as indicators of new requirements that are relevant for the formulation of decisions, in later phases of the planning process. The concept of service does not exist in isolation from people’s needs. Hauck et al. (2013) pointed out that it is important to include the beneficiaries in the context of analysing ES. Without demand and an interest group, certain ES would not be identified as being important in  35 ecosystem management. Brown and Mooney (2013) developed a simplified method that can be applied by planners and researchers to investigate the relationship between landscape change and ES. Their approach was used to assess the ES of more than 100 designed landscapes of varying scales in North America. Ahern et al. (2014) and Hauck et al. (2016) decided to use the ES tool because the beneficiaries (i.e., members of the local community) would be involved, and because they found it useful for responding to changes in monitoring data and feedback from these important stakeholders. In this study, planners were used to test the ES method because planners combined two roles that are important for ES analysis: First, as ES beneficiaries (i.e., the end users who will benefit from the ES as residents) and second, as ES decision-makers, those who identify specific questions that will be tackled by the ES assessment (Hauck et al., 2013; Wissen Hayet al., 2015). With this study, I used the survey method to investigate how local planners identify key values of their living environment. More specifically, I would like to discover, for planners and environmental experts, what ES related to the SSTEC were considered most valuable.  Hansen et al. (2015) summarized six human-nature relationships closely related to ES: Benefits that represent an outcome provided by an urban ecosystem; dependence, in which humans are depending on ecosystems (e.g., photosynthesis and fresh water); interdependence, where humans and urban ecosystems are closely interrelated and depending on each other (e.g., national park habitats, not just as human experience, but as the sum of the interconnection of all living things that shape the ecosystem); impact, representing environmental problems caused by humans (e.g., emissions); conservation, where humans have the responsibility to preserve the ecosystem; and vulnerability, which describes humans’ need to be protected from the environment (e.g., extreme weather conditions).  These six relationships explain how each ES category plays a role in triggering certain planning actions. Provisioning services provide the material outputs of ecosystems; cultural services cover all the non-material benefits of human contact with ecosystems. Both categories can be consumed or experienced by people, therefore beneficiaries are willing to pay for these services (Boyd & Banzhaf, 2006; Wallace, 2007). Regulating services serve humans by providing ecosystem resilience and protecting people from natural hazards and climate change; supporting services are intermediate services that are necessary for the other categories of ES to be sustained (Haines-Young & Potschin, 2010). As regulating services and supporting services represents  36 indirect, long-term benefits humans obtain from nature, they have been undervalued in some cases (Díaz et al., 2011) These six relationships also help planners to create links between planning goals and ES. In our survey, I used language familiar to planners (e.g., conserve, reduce risks) with planning action examples to introduce the output of the ES. The research questions are: “Would urban planners prioritize certain Ecosystem Services based solely on their immediate benefits, or would they look beyond the immediate benefits to include long-term or intangible benefits?”, and “How does translating ES into planning terminology impact the results?” The chapter is structured as follows: Section 3.2 describes the methodology; Section 3.3 and 3.4 present the results and discuss their relevance; and Section 3.5 provides the concluding remarks with suggestions for ES study to improve decision-making in urban planning.   3.2 Methodology 3.2.1 Review Planning Documents and Undertake Site Observation	The design of the research began with a small-sample interview survey involving ten municipal planning employees operating at different levels in the planning bureaucracy. Each interviewee was asked to describe their educational background, and if they understood, or had even heard of, ES. Because the targeted subjects were unfamiliar with the ES concept, I translated the original ES into terms that the planners would be familiar with, that were taken from the existing Tianjin Ecocity planning documents, and I provided examples of planning actions that contribute to each ES item.    I then created a list of ES that were mentioned in the current planning bylaws and regulations released during the period 2012-2017 (see Table 4). Some regulations suggest important ecosystem types, locations, and conservation areas within the study area. I also included the environmental regulations that local government has updated. The 14 documents analysed delineate the many ES considered. This was followed with an online survey of 107 planning professionals (see section 3.2.2). Appendix 2 presents which types of ES had already been  37 considered and determine how broad the overall thematic scope was concerning each ES (findings are in the third column, and policy examples are in the last column).  Table 4 List of all analyzed planning documents Tianjin/Binhai Tianjin Ecocity (SSTEC) Comprehensive planning TJ_1 City of Tianjin Comprehensive Plan 2008 SSTEC_1 Master plan of SSTEC 2008 (original) TJ_2 Binhai New Area masterplan 2012 SSTEC_2 Key Performance Indicators 2009 TJ_3 Strategic planning of Tianjin Binhai New Area 2015 SSTEC_3 District 04 masterplan 2016 Green space/landscape planning TJ_4 Tianjin Green space planning 2010, revised in 2016 SSTEC_4 Landscape guideline SSTEC 2014 TJ_5 Vision a sustainable Tianjin SSTEC_5 Eco-community SSTEC 2010, revised in 2015 Environmental/Gray infrastructure planning TJ_6 Tianjin Transportation Planning 2010 SSTEC_6 Vision 2020: Community hubs TJ_7 Sponge City Tianjin 2012 SSTEC_7 Sponge City infrastructure planning SSTEC 2015  There are many different ways to categorize ES. In this study, I used Mooney’s (2014) ES Evaluation Matrix and the MEA (2005) as references to create an ES checklist with which to review current policies related to the Tianjin Ecocity (see Appendix 2). The policies found in the 14 planning documents were reviewed to pick out the essential issues that planners had identified as being essential components of the ecocity. The rule used to identify local concerns was simple: If an ES, or the benefits drawn from this ES, was mentioned in more than one of the 14 reviewed documents, I considered it to be of local concern.  The combination of Mooney’s (2014) ES Evaluation Matrix and MEA (2005) mention 35 ecosystem services. I found policy items that matched only 20 ES and missed 15 ES in the 14 planning documents reviewed (see Appendix 2, missing ES are coloured). This large portion of unaddressed ES indicates that planners have failed to address some important issues. Our field research was conducted in the core residential area, which was central to the first phase of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) project in Tianjin, China. Figure 9 shows the site I have focused on. Figures 10 and 11 show photographs taken of the site by the author in 2016.   38 Figure 9 The site map of the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict in 2015  Source: Google map (the red line encloses the studied residential area)   Figure 10 Photos taken from northwest of the site    39 Figure 11 Photo taken on the Heyun Road    I chose this site because SSTEC started its early real estate development here. Therefore, this is now the most populous area within the SSTEC. I spent a few days walking along the streets, taking buses and taxis, and visiting the community center. During our field research, I wandered around the core residential area to observe the daily-life experiences of the local residents. In addition, I contacted the Ecocity Administration Office to get permission to conduct a survey. With the support of the local officials, I uploaded a survey to my research website, and shared the link under the planning section of the Tianjin Ecocity official website in early 2017. I collected data over six months, during which the online questionnaire was open, and the voluntary participants were able to submit their questionnaire.  3.2.2 The Survey  I conducted a survey with 107 planning-related professionals from Tianjin to examine their perception of ES (see Appendix 3). The purpose of this survey was to explore the potential use of ES tools in planning practices. The researcher created an online survey that was administered through the local planning association website as well as the researchers’ blog. Visitors of these websites who responded to the study were given a three-page informative booklet with ES descriptions and examples of how to enhance each ES (see Appendix 4). Respondents comprised urban planners, administrators and researchers who were involved in the planning work for the Tianjin Ecocity project. Many of our subjects knew the SSTEC KPIs but had not necessarily  40 heard about ES. In order to help them understand ES, I attached a three-page booklet with information from “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity”, or TEEB (2011), translated into Chinese. (Appendix 4 shows the contents of the booklet that was attached to the survey.)  The survey asked for the respondent’s age, education level, profession, and general knowledge in sustainability research. After deleting invalid sets of responses (including those that were more than 20% empty), we retained 107 valid submissions (143 submissions in total, 75% response rate). A breakdown of total respondents shows that 72 were urban planners; 8 were environmental scientists; 15 were official administrators; and 12 were community staff and social workers. In this survey, two questions were asked. The first was: “What ecosystem services do you consider important for your living environment?” This was followed by the question: “What benefits would you consider important when choosing a neighbourhood?” Both questions provided 20 options, and respondents were allowed to choose multiple answers.  The 20 options of the first question were based on the ES used in literature (see Boyd et al., 2016; Hansen et al., 2015; Brown & Mooney, 2013; La Notte et al., 2017). The 20 options for the second question included benefits that were expressed in terms familiar to planners as planning outcomes. I sourced the planners’ terminology from the planning documents I had reviewed. Based on the respondents’ answers to these two questions, I created the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: The perception of ES and their benefits are correlated. Hypothesis 1 would be supported in this study if respondents who considered an individual ES to be important to their living environment were more likely to pick the associated benefits as important. Hypothesis 2: The perception of ES and their benefits are not correlated. Hypothesis 2 would be supported in this study if respondents selected an ES as important but not a correlating benefit, or vice versa.  41  Table 5 The 20 options of ES and their paired benefits as stated in the survey questionnaire  Question 1: What services do you consider important for your living environment? (Multiple options applied) Question 2: What benefits would you consider important when choosing a neighborhood? Code Options (ES) Options (Benefits with planning action examples) 1 Food: Agriculture, crops, grain/vegetables produced, fishery More reliable food provision (e.g., Locally-grown food) 2 Fresh water: Freshwater, drinking water, water supply, groundwater, water infiltration, water suspension, water storage Improved water quality and availability (e.g., Maintain the carrying capacity of river channels) 3 Ornamental plants: Local plants, invasive plants, all-season greenery, flowers and fruit trees Access to plants and greenery (e.g., Patio gardening) 4 Carbon sequestration & storage: Gas cycles, biomass/soils as carbon sinks Provide renewed energy (e.g., Recycled heating in buildings) 5 Hazard regulation: Noise reduction, stormwater regulation, reducing stormwater runoff, disease control Reduced disaster risk (e.g., Build rain gardens in neighbourhoods) 6 Pollution mitigation: Quality of water, soil, and air Better quality of air, water and soil (e.g., Remove impurities from air, water and soil) 7 Local climate & air quality regulation: Microclimate regulation, mitigating heat island effect, shading, reflecting solar radiation, wind blocking More resilient to climate change (e.g., Launch “sponge city” projects to reduce the effect of a flood) 8 Moderate impacts of weather extremes: Buffering from damage through storms/floods/waves Reduce the negative consequences of extreme climates (e.g., Emergency preparedness for disasters) 9 Seasonal drought mitigation: Alternative water resource Improve the efficiency of water use (e.g., Rainfall harvesting) 10 Wastewater treatment: Filtering wastewater, sewage Hazardous wastewater removal (e.g., 100% wastewater treated) 11 Maintenance of soil fertility: Crop rotations, manure management, compost, soil acidity and liming, fertilizer applications Sustain plant growth and optimize crop yield while minimizing the environmental impact (e.g., Enrich humus content of soils to allow soils to regenerate quicker) 12 Preservation and generation of soil: Erosion prevention, maintaining nutrient content Cultivating soils in the city (e.g. Build urban farms) 13 Nutrient cycling: Biogeochemical cycles, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen Regulating the flow of substances in different organisms in forms that are usable to them (e.g., Compost collecting and reuse) 14 Water cycling: Stormwater regulation/retention, balancing stormwater peaks, reducing stormwater runoff Produce potable water (e.g., Water management to reduce water demand, lower construction cost, and minimise future maintenance needs) 15 Social cohesion: Trust, a sense of belonging, participation, inclusion, recognition and legitimacy5 Strong, socially cohesive community that make one feel safe, secure and supported in social life (e.g., Community events) 16 Sense of identity: Identity, spiritual experiences, neighbourhood experience, sense of place, experience in nature Recognize the resources that makes one feel connected to the community (A physical place such as the community center) 17 Mental & physical well-being: Mental and physical health, tranquilizing effects Cultivate health by having healthy lifestyles options (Provide pedestrian friendly experience) 18 Recreation: Outdoor recreation, sports, walking, fishing, gardening Plenty of dining, shopping and leisure choices 19 Tourism: Tourism sights Places to spend quality time for visits 20 Aesthetic & spiritual sensibility: Aesthetic appreciation, cultural sensibility, art and design Therapeutic, feeling connected and calm (Access to historical heritage sites) Note: Subjects of this survey did not receive any extensive training on ecological knowledge.  5 http://www.unesco.org/most/besseng.htm  42 3.3 Results 3.3.1 Profile of Respondents The data consisted of 107 respondents recruited online. Background questions included age, education, and profession. The results show that the subjects are highly educated (103 were degree holders) young professionals (98 out of 107 are between 25 to 44 years old). Most subjects had been involved in the planning and management of Tianjin Ecocity projects. Respondents included urban planners (72/107), environmental researchers (8/107), administrators (15/107), and community staff (12/107). 3.3.2 Perceived Significant Individual Ecosystem Services Figure 12 The options checked off from the two survey questions   43  Figure 12 and Table 6 shows the result of the options checked off from the two survey questions. Provisioning services and some cultural services were rated significantly higher by planners than regulating or supporting ES. Unexpectedly, the ES of carbon sequestration was rated extremely low even though the planning documents of the Tianjin Ecocity listed cutting carbon emissions as an essential planning goal.  Table 6 Number of respondents that selected each item Note: The top-rated ES items were fresh water, aesthetic & spiritual sensibility, ornamental plants, well-being, pollution mitigation, and food. 3.3.3 Correlation Analysis between ES and Benefits A correlation analysis was run to assess the 20 ES options and their paired benefits. For the two to be considered as correlated, the respondent had to check both the ES and the planning action or goal supported by that ES. I then divided the number of correlated answers by the number of subjects that chose the ES. The result is shown in the fourth to last column in Table 7. I refer to the resulting correlation as high when the result is .75 or higher, moderate when the result is .5 to .74, and low when the result is below .5. The results show that a total of 5 items are highly correlated, 7 items are moderately correlated, and 8 items are poorly correlated. ES Category ES items Number of subjects that chose this ES (and %) Number of subjects that chose this benefit (and %) Provisioning Services Food 81 (75.70%) 83 (77.57%) Fresh water 98 (91.59%) 102 (95.33%) Ornamental plants 85 (79.44%) 91 (85.05%) Regulating Services Carbon sequestration & storage 34 (31.78%) 45 (42.05%) Hazard regulation 53 (49.53%) 11 (10.28%) Pollution mitigation 83 (77.57%) 100 (93.45%) Local climate & air quality regulation 56 (52.34%) 12 (11.21%) Moderate impacts of weather extremes 36 (33.64%) 2 (1.87%) Seasonal drought mitigation 32 (29.90%) 49 (45.79%) Wastewater treatment 64 (59.81%) 43 (40.19%) Maintenance of soil fertility 50 (46.73%) 35 (32.71%) Supporting Services Preservation and generation of soil 51 (47.66%) 73 (68.22%) Nutrient cycling 40 (37.38%) 49 (45.79%) Water cycling 57 (53.27%) 19 (17.76%) Cultural Services Social cohesion 72 (67.29%) 69 (64.49%) Sense of identity 72 (67.29%) 95 ((88.79%) Mental & physical well-being 95 (88.79%) 74 (69.16%) Recreation 60 (56.07%) 58 (54.21%) Tourism 52 (48.60%) 64 (59.81%) Aesthetic & spiritual sensibility 87 (81.31%) 54 (50.47%)  44 I found a high correlation between ES and the associated benefits for all the items under the provisioning services, and a moderate correlation between ES and the benefits for all ES in the cultural services (except number 16, sense of identity). Items under the regulating services and supporting services had, in general, lower degrees of correlation (except number 6, pollution mitigation).  Table 7 Correlation analysis ES categories  ES Number of subjects that chose this benefit Number of subjects that chose this ES Number of correlated answers Correlated/ Benefit Correlated/ ES Correlation level Provisioning services 1 Food 83 81 66 0.80 0.81 High 2 Fresh water 102 98 93 0.91 0.95 High 3 Ornamental plants 91 85 77 0.85 0.91 High Regulating services 4 Carbon sequestration & storage 45 34 22 0.49 0.645 Moderate 5 Hazard regulation 11 53 8 0.73 0.15 Low 6 Pollution mitigation 100 83 80 0.8 0.96 High 7 Local climate & air quality regulation 12 56 8 0.67 0.14 Low 8 Moderate impacts of weather extremes 2 36 2 1 0.06 Low 9 Seasonal drought mitigation 49 32 17 0.35 0.53 Moderate 10 Wastewater treatment 43 64 30 0.70 0.47 Low 11 Maintenance of soil fertility 35 50 17 0.49 0.34 Low Supporting services 12 Preservation and generation of soil 73 51 23 0.32 0.45 Low 13 Nutrient cycling 49 40 16 0.33 0.40 Low 14 Water cycling 19 57 13 0.68 0.23 Low Cultural services 15 Social cohesion 69 72 49 0.71 0.68 Moderate 16 Sense of identity 95 72 60 0.63 0.83 High 17 Mental & physical well-being 74 95 65 0.88 0.68 Moderate 18 Recreation 58 60 41 0.71 0.68 Moderate 19 Tourism 64 52 32 0.50 0.62 Moderate 20 Aesthetic & spiritual sensibility 54 87 43 0.80 0.50 Moderate  3.3.4 Results (Not) Supporting the Hypotheses I considered that ES would be useful, to better address environmental concerns in planning, if planners were able to link ES terminology with the tasks and outcomes drawn from the planning practice. One way to prove this would be to compare the respondents’ answers of the two questions. In question 1, all the options were the 20 ES with descriptors (see Table 7). In this way, even though the respondents may not have been familiar with the original ES terms, they could get a hint from the descriptors. In question 2, I let respondents choose from the related options using translated terms (planners’ terminology). The correlation analysis found no  45 consistent correlation pattern shown in the subjects’ answer. Of the 20 ES mentioned in the survey, 5 were shown to have a high correlation between the selected ES and the paired benefits, 7 were moderately correlated, while 8 had a low correlation with the benefits. All eight items with a low correlation are regulating and supporting services. Hypothesis 1 (that respondents would understand the relation between ES and their benefits) was supported in some cases. Likewise, hypothesis 2 (that there would not be a correlation between ES and the paired benefits) was partially supported.  3.4 Discussion 3.4.1 What does the ES Mean to Planners? In this study, I used the information booklet and the survey to introduce ES to urban planners (see Appendix 4). The study is not limited to a scientific purpose, but has some relevance to management and policy. As a small-sample survey, the study focused on the identification of a better planning tool to address local concerns in ecocity planning. I did not make further group comparisons relating to the demographic information (the respondent’s age, education level, profession, and residence). I collected such information only to control the target subjects. Our method of introducing ES entailed asking the respondents which services they considered important. This phrasing emphasized the supply-demand relationship between natural and human values. This process clarified the respondents’ concerns, which, in turn, highlighted certain ES. The analysis of respondents’ answers regarding their perception of the significance of ES helped me to identify what areas the Tianjin Ecocity’s planning community focus on. However, such an analysis does not explain what the ES mean to the respondents. Here are a few clues to explain the results:  • The planners saw a direct connection between the environmental problem and an ES because of their related terminology. For example, respondents may select the ES item “Pollution mitigation” without knowing the specific ES, because they see it as a response to the problem of pollution appearing frequently in newspaper headlines. • ES are related to both the personal and professional concerns of the respondents. Certain ES may have represented policy options that were also closely related to the local inhabitant’s  46 quality of life. For the Singaporean and Chinese partnership, finding solutions to the current environmental challenges facing SSTEC and thereby achieving and sustaining a clean and green environment is crucial to the project’s success. Fourteen out of 22 quantitative KPIs for SSTEC are environment-related (Baeumler et al., 2009). Since many respondents were familiar with the KPIs, they might prioritize ES that are related to the KPIs. The respondents who are governmental employees may have also given priority a service that is closely related to their work. • Some ES may be undervalued due to a lack of ecological knowledge or a focus on immediate benefit. As previous studies have found, supporting and regulating services have been frequently underrated in planning decision-making processes (Díaz et al., 2011). A large number of respondents prioritized ES that simply match existing policies. This leads us to believe that a lack of ecological knowledge could be a barrier for urban planners to more fully manage ecosystem and human welfare by incorporating a broader range of ES into ecocity planning.  3.4.2 Applications and Limitations This study takes an experimental approach to introducing ES to urban planners, by addressing their concerns about the Tianjin Ecocity ecosystem. Our study showed the disadvantages of not linking ES to planning i.e. that many potential ecosystem benefits are overlooked in the planning process.  • Reviewing current policy using ES helps planners to identify achievements and missing issues of ecosystem management and/or planning. ES is a process that facilitates the co-production and active sharing of knowledge. Ecosystem management is a complex process dealing with ecosystem structures, ecosystem functions and processes, and the consequential benefits and ES. Introducing ES into the planning process means bringing in a range of knowledge related to ecosystem management, while simultaneously meeting the socioeconomic, political and cultural needs of current and future generations. By participating in the study, planners were exposed to a range of services and benefits drawn from ecosystems (i.e., the informative booklet about ES, the ES descriptors within the survey options, and examples of possible planning actions that can be taken). These resources were intended to help planners focus attention on how their work contributes to different ES.  47  • Tianjin is seeking planning solutions that are linked to specific outcomes. For the Singaporean and Chinese partnership, finding solutions to the current environmental challenges facing SSTEC and thereby achieving and sustaining a clean and green environment was considered to be crucial to the project’s success. ES are a tool that planners can use to communicate certain (ecological and environmental) values and concerns of the local community within the planning process. An ecosystem usually contributes to multiple ES and multiple benefits (Voß & Bornemann, 2011). Incorporating an awareness of ES into planning can also connect multiple ES to the benefits drawn from a specific planning action. For example, wetland restoration can increase a range of outputs, including tourism, clean water, carbon sequestration, seasonal drought mitigation and biodiversity.  • Raising awareness of unaddressed environmental goals in the current practice of ecocities. The selection of ES for inclusion in this survey was based on a review of Tianjin’s environmental documents and the SSTEC project itself. The resultant list of ES, therefore, reflects local concerns. I have found a total of fifteen ES to be missing. These unaddressed ES are ones that future policy making should address in planning policies, as well as ecosystem management.  This study has a few notable limitations:  First, since our survey questionnaire options were based on a review of current policies, a large portion of ES items were not addressed. Future ES research should consider introducing the full range of ES options to planners.  Second, correlation analysis fails to inform us about whether planners know how planning actions can contribute to ES. Urban ecosystems generate multiple ES and benefits (e.g., urban farms produce food, and contribute to soil fertility, individual well-being, and social cohesion). Without some training in ES, planners are unable to know all the ES and benefits drawn from such policy alternatives as urban farming.  Thirdly, I did not analyse how the terminology used in the study might have affected the respondents’ answers. In this study, the pairing of ES and their related benefits was undertaken by the researcher and the options under the description were created from the current planning policies that were reviewed. Therefore, it may not be a good match to the relating ES at all. This  48 fault might create a problem for the respondents to learn the ES-benefit relation, and even worse, cause my correlation result incorrect. In order to understand if the terminology used in the study might have confused the respondents, further study needs to investigate the descriptions of ES given to respondents. 3.4.3 What are the SSTEC’s Environmental Achievements?  Among Chinese ecocities, SSTEC is commonly considered to be a successful example but what has the Tianjin Ecocity achieved over the past decade?  During our field research, I visited the Exhibition Center, which showcases the achievements of the SSTEC project to date. After completing a review of scientific reports, observation notes, corporate documents and literature, I offer the following findings: • Green building: By 2015, the performance of green housing had reached the relevant KPI—all buildings within SSTEC built after 2008 met the National Green Building Standard. • Public green spaces: Many of the officials and planners I interviewed claimed that public green spaces were one of the most visible achievements that SSTEC had made (i.e., urban parks, per capita green spaces within residential communities). The high standard of green spaces is being used in the marketing of residential units to homebuyers. Some communities have become concerned about the ongoing burden of the maintenance and upkeep of these landscapes.  • Water quality and quantity: Current indicators have focused on quality rather than quantity.6 In terms of improvements, most of the SSTEC documents and reports direct readers to note the construction of the Water Treatment Center, without clearly stating whether the water management system meets the requirements of future development.  • Community activities: Active community living is part of the SSTEC propaganda, and has been implemented in detailed plans in community management. Residents have access to plenty of sports and exercise programs, social events, art activities and seminars in the Community Center to help them develop hobbies.   6 There are three KPIs that are water-related. KPI 2 specifies the goal that water bodies within the SSTEC should be applicable for industrial water supply and recreational waters, so long as there is no direct human contact with the water (World Bank, 2006). KPI 3 stipulates that tap water should be potable. KPI 11 refers to domestic water consumption.   49 • Public transit: Local residents of SSTEC can ride the buses for free. However, a large number of residents still drive to work, due to insufficient bus services. Data from online ticket booking programs suggest that there has been an increase in the number of riders for the extended subway lines and train networks coming into the SSTEC. Private cars still dominate the intercity and local commutes (source: an SSTEC Administration policy analysis report). • Industrial impact: The energy efficiency of local industry has significantly improved. However, the way this improvement has been achieved is problematic. Hundreds of factories that did not meet China’s Energy Efficiency Standards were either forced to close or move to a different location. A list of SSTEC’s newly launched companies indicates that these companies are predominantly high-tech (e.g., biotech, animation, Internet) and cultural companies. There is little evidence that existing industries have improved their environmental performance/impact since moving into the SSTEC. • Neighborhood systems: Environmental advances can be seen in terms of sustainable urban design. China expects to benefit from Singapore’s extensive knowledge and experience in integrated urban planning and resource management. The current hierarchical model of urban communities is based on the Singaporean neighborhood model.7 However, such a model has only been implemented in a few locations. Most neighborhoods are no different from other Chinese cities. Many of what the government has posted as “achievements” on the SSTEC official website reflect an eagerness for continued investments, to support further housing projects and the building of infrastructure. Environmental protection is not a high priority. For example, the water shortage problem within the municipality not only has not gained much attention—it has rendered industrial production liable to interruptions and seasonal suspensions. Caprotti et al. (2015) argue that ecocity development has focused exclusively on ecological benefits for inhabitants, at the cost of ecological benefits for the broader socio-environmental landscape. The above list of “environmental achievements” supports their view.  To improve planning practice, I suggest that ecocities should give priority to holistic strategies, formulated within a sustainability framework, rather than focusing on short-term individual  7 The original Master Plan of the SSTEC followed a hierarchical model of neighborhood system: Eco-cell, eco-neighborhood, and eco-district. Each eco-cell is a human-centric 400m by 400m module. The eco-cells are designed to maximize accessibility and efficiency, with basic amenities located within the cell. Four eco-cells make an eco-neighborhood, and several of these together in turn form an eco-district.  50 outputs. The results of this study suggest that the respondents have given little or no consideration to soil fertility, nutrition cycling, and solutions for dealing with seasonal droughts. In long term, this may cause environmental degradation in the SSTEC, habitat loss and or failure of provisioning and regulating ES.  3.4.4 Green Infrastructure for Ecosystem Services Tianjin has well-designed parks that exemplify the natural process of plant adaption. For example, Tianjin Qiaoyuan Wetland Park provides a range of ES including stormwater purification, soil pollution remediation, aesthetic values, wildlife habitat, and native plant diversity. However, I found that planners were not able to identify green infrastructure components that supported ES. A more detailed understanding and measurement of the ES provided by green infrastructure is needed. Different types of green infrastructure deliver a range of ES. For example, vegetation and soils within a rain garden can handle flood and drought by facilitating groundwater recharge. Bioswales can increase infiltration and pollutants removal and parks can support biodiversity and cultural ES. These green infrastructure/ES relationships are summarized in Table 8, after Brown and Mooney 2013. In addition, there are a number of tools that have been developed to quantitatively measure the ES that might be derived from green infrastructure: Co$ting Nature and VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment Model) can analyse ES with natural capital accounting, so as to help green infrastructure implementation decisions for ecosystem management. EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator, National Green Values Calculator are designed for more broad users to evaluate performance of urban stormwater, therefore to reduce runoff from a specific site. Future research may incorporate the quantitative tools to measure not only the presence or absence but also amount if the different ES being planned for.  51 Table 8 Biodiversity and ES Derived from a given type of Green Infrastructure (GI) Type of GI Case Study Relative increase or Proportion High Medium Low Wetlands (region) Beijing Urban Wetland Planning Beijing, China  Columbia, Missouri Treatment Wetlands Missouri, U.S.A. (Kadlec et al., 2010) • Fresh water • Carbon sequestration & storage • Water pollution mitigation • Reduced flooding • Wastewater treatment Water cycling • Sense of identity  • Local climate & air quality regulation • Nutrient cycling • Recreation  - Wetlands (city-scale)  Tianjin Qiaoyuan Municipal Park Tianjin, China • Increased genetic diversity  • Carbon sequestration  • Wastewater treatment • Water cycling • Sense of identity • Mental & physical wellbeing • Recreation • Aesthetic appreciation • Noise reduction  - Riparian Corridors Rock Creek and Ignacio Creek stream restoration  Southwestern Colorado, U.S.A.  • Water pollution mitigation • Reduced erosion  • Biodiversity  • Habitat for native species   • Reduction in landslide potential  • Preservation and generation of soils • Carbon sequestration & storage • Primary productivity • Water cycling  Parks Southeast False Creek Community Vancouver, Canada  Masdar City Urban Planning Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Gret-Regamey et.al., 2013) • Habitat for native species • Fresh water • Seasonal drought mitigation • Mental & physical wellbeing • Recreation  • Aesthetic appreciation • Carbon sequestration & storage • Water pollution mitigation  • Local climate & air quality regulation  • Pollination  • Social cohesion  • Tourism  • Food  • Raw materials • Fresh water  • Air pollution mitigation • Primary productivity   • Habitat for native species  Bioswales (restorative) Phytoremediation of a pond contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster Chernobyl, Ukraine  • Pollution mitigation (water) • Mental & physical wellbeing • Pollution mitigation (soil) • Reduced erosion • Habitat for native species Bioswales (garden) Alex Wilson Community Garden U.S.A. • Food  • Mental & physical wellbeing  • Habitat for native species  • Water cycling  • Carbon sequestration & storage • Local climate & air quality regulation  • Pollination  • Noise reduction  • Primary productivity Rain garden Fisherman’s Wharf Park and Rain Garden Victoria, British Columbia, Canada • Flood control • Seasonal drought mitigation  • Fresh water • Biodiversity • Carbon sequestration & storage  • Pollution mitigation (air+ water) • Social cohesion • Mental & physical wellbeing • Recreation • Local climate & air quality regulation  • Primary productivity • Tourism   Green roof Gary Comer Youth Center Chicago, U.S.A 8,160 sq ft • Food  • Mental & physical wellbeing • Reduced flooding • Carbon sequestration & storage  • Local climate & air quality regulation • Habitat for native species • Water cycling • Carbon sequestration & storage  52  3.5 Conclusions The provision of ES is intended to increase human benefits. This study investigated the merits of a survey tool that introduced the concept of ES to urban planners. The tool is comprised of, the selection of ES discovered in the review of current planning documents (see Appendix 2); and secondly the statements of the benefits of the ecosystem service paired with policy statement as found in the two-question survey (see Table 5). This approach helped planners to be aware of how planning interacts with ecosystem management, in terms of scope and outputs. Raising awareness of unaddressed ES is important, because the incorporation of pertinent ES at an early stage will increase the likelihood of achieving ecocity goals. It is dangerous to pursue certain values without understanding the consequences in a broad context. I hypothesized that ES would be a good tool to help increase planners’ awareness of how ecosystem management and human welfare relate to each other. If a large number of respondents prioritize ES/benefits that merely match existing policies, this might indicate a lack of ecological knowledge. This leads me to believe that a lack of such knowledge is an impediment for urban planners. The data analysis drawn from this survey study suggests respondents prioritize ES that match the benefits found in the existing ecocity indicators. The findings of this study also support Díaz et al. (2011) that regulating and supporting ES are undervalued ES by planners.  For future research, input from environmental experts is required to enable planners to identify and address the missing ES. These unaddressed ES require further research pertaining to the question: “Can linking ES to planning actions help to focus attention on those low-rated or missing ES items?” Further research should investigate which strategies would help planners to identify overlooked ES, and pay more attention to those ES. The analysis of the role of ES in urban planning should relate to questions of content (what is defined and measured) and process, in terms of methodologies, interest group involvement, and the resulting policy functions.    53  Chapter 4. A survey of the public’s perceptions of community building in Tianjin, China 4.1 Introduction This study draws from the socio-psychology literature on communities as it relates to place attachment and community planning. Typically, the literature on place attachment focuses on the feelings and experiences of residents, which have not been fully addressed in planning practice. Conversely, the literature on planning practices emphasizes participation and empowerment but overlooks the emotional connections to place (Manzo & Perkins, 2006; Sanoff, 2000). To close this gap, this study addresses the theory of place attachment from both the socio-psychological and urban planning perspectives. By investigating the Chinese experience, this paper takes a more holistic view of how such relationships influence the experience of place and the success of communities. This paper presents a survey study conducted in Tianjin, China, to addresses the following questions:  (1) What is the relationship between community satisfaction and community engagement in China?  (2) What demographic characteristics do the Chinese local leaders, or those who are actively engaged in their community, have in common? Place attachment fosters sense of community because long-term residency leads to development of neighborhood social networks. This relationship between length of residency and the formation of community social network is reported in western literature but was also found in this study (see conclusions). Historically, the sense of community for Chinese people is based on a patrilineal kinship network, where extended families live in close proximity, and care for each other in times of need (Xu, Perkins, & Chow. 2010). Chinese society provides individuals who bond to the community with a sense of security and order (Yan & Gao, 2007). Under the socialist regime of 1949-1976, urban residents were restricted to geographically-based communities. These new communities were constructed by the means of employeeship and the associated welfare system (Xu & Chow, 2006). The integration of work, residence, and social facilities during the Maoist socialist regime resulted in intensive community involvement and  54 strong social cohesion among residents (Hazelzet & Wissink, 2012; Li, 1993). In the 1980s, when housing reform created a mixed ownership housing system, this situation gradually changed. Massive labor migration and a growing middle-class also triggered a better standard of living (He & Wu, 2007; Wang, 2012). Home ownership dominated the market throughout China, and it underpinned the rationale that social and community service programs should be carried out in the community by community members, and with community input (Guan, 2000; Guan & Chow, 2003). At the beginning of the 21st century, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) of China began promoting the Community Building Campaign (CBC), in which each municipality developed its own plan or agenda, aiming to empower the community as a whole and community members to get involved in their neighborhood (Zhu, 2015). To achieve such a goal, it is important to understand how the psychological sense of community and neighborly relations relate to each other, and how their respective characteristics are to be measured. In the West, public participation is considered to be a necessity of good governance. Public participation enables the achievement of desired community or societal outcomes, such as the government’s trust in citizens and government legitimacy (Cooper, Bryer, & Meek, 2006). An increasing number of American cities experimented with citizen-centered collaborative public management in the 1990s. Local residents of these cities were encouraged to participate in their communities, both politically and socially (Barry, Portney & Thomson, 1993). In the context of Western democracy, community participation can include joining voluntary associations and civic engagement (e.g., attending community meetings and exercising voting privileges), informal neighbor-to-neighbor interactions, or all of the above (Stone, Dwyer & Sethi, 1996). High voting rates and an increasing number of community organizations are considered indicators for community building or strong community engagement. However, it would be incorrect to apply the Western concept of community and community participation in China (Xu et al., 2010; Zhu, 2015). To begin with, voters in China participate passively. Due to censorship, Chinese people do not gain membership within the context of politics or religion through voluntary processes. “Membership” and “voting” behavior, therefore, do not indicate that Chinese people are actively involved in their communal affairs or that they participate in their society. Many Chinese people build strong ties to their communities simply by knowing and helping their neighbors (i.e., through social interaction), rather than through formal affiliations or  55 by exercising voting privileges (Xu et al., 2010). Given this situation, some scholars argue that the people of China may gain influence through social connections in their community rather than through political activities (Yip et al., 2007). In this study, we acknowledge the limitations of using the Western perspective to study Chinese communities, and have developed a method to address the gap in this measurement.  Section 4.2 outlines the key concepts of social capital, neighborly relations, community participation, and place attachment, and describes how these concepts are related to community building in the Chinese context. Section 4.3 introduces the context of this survey study, its design, the data generated, and the analytic approach. Section 4.4 presents the findings. Section 4.5 discusses the implications of the survey, and is followed by the Conclusion section.  4.2 Literature Review This section of the chapter outlines key concepts drawn from community psychology and community planning. We then discuss how community participation in the Chinese context can be studied in the planning of neighborhoods. 4.2.1 Social Capital and its Measurement Community psychologists have developed a rich understanding of the psychological dimensions of people’s interactions with community (Greenfield & Reyes, 2015; Nasar & David, 1995). Scholars generally agree that the proximity of neighbors contributes to community efficacy and trust among its members, which helps local authorities to better mobilize resources for the renewal and improvement of their respective communities (Larsen et al., 2004; Unger & Wandersman, 1985). In this context, the proximity of neighbors indicates stronger social ties (Perkins et al., 1996; Perkins & Long, 2002). The concept of social capital is predominantly associated with behavior, and emphasizes observable interpersonal interactions and impact (Häuberer, 2011). According to the norm of social capital proposed by Narayan-Parker (1999), social capital is an individual’s capacity to secure benefits resulting from social engagement. Comparison studies of low-income communities in various countries indicate that those who actively interact with their neighbors usually have better access to social and welfare support (see Xu et al., 2010; Yamamura, 2010).  56 This observation matches the sociology literature regarding individual health and social exclusion (see Stanley et al., 2012; Garoon et al., 2016; Lin, Ye & Ensel, 1999; Greenfield & Reyes 2015; Tomaka, Thompson, & Palacios, 2006). Researchers report that people who are isolated and alienated from their community are likely to withdraw from political participation, and are less likely to gain benefits from community services. Conversely, people who frequently participate in organized social groups (e.g., community sports clubs, volunteer groups), socialize with neighbors, or engage in other neighborly behaviors, are considered to have high individual social capital, and benefit more from community services.  Compared to the west, social capital in China refers to the establishment of social ties that emphasize informal rather than formal relationships, self-interest rather than the collective common-good, and economic rather than social, psychological or political well-being (Bian, 2001). In his nation-wide survey of the social mobility of individuals, Wei (2010) found that migrant workers who had actively interacted with their coworkers were more likely to receive training opportunities and had a smaller wage gap compared to local employees, than those who did not. This suggests that social capital which aligns with the values of traditional, kinship-oriented communities also benefits the emerging diversity of newcomers. Scholars have long been interested in understanding the determinants of the psychological construct of social capital. Earlier social capital research tended to use individuals’ demographics (i.e., gender, age, income, residential stability), while research in recent years has relied heavily on the use of self-report surveys, with a focus on the quality of one’s social relations (i.e., size, frequency, and intensity of social contacts) (Lin, Cook, & Burt, 2001). This shift from individual-level determinants to social determinants indicates a change in practical implications relating to social capital. In those studies, researchers code the participants’ answers into measurable variables, to understand the dynamics between a neighborhood and its interpersonal relationships (Buckner, 1988). Frequently used variables include sense of community, community efficacy, neighborly relations, and community participation.  Sense of community refers to the quality of neighborhood bonds, a sense of belonging, mutual influence, and place meaning. Sense of community emphasizes the collective beliefs and expectations among neighbors (Hughey & Speer, 2002; McMillian & Chavis, 1986). Here, “place” is a meaning-oriented concept. A communal place (e.g., a post office, coffee shop, or a school in a neighborhood) is one that arouses nostalgic sentiments from community members,  57 based on their interpretation of its physical setting (Shumaker & Taylor, 1983; Stedman, 2003; Vanclay, 2008). Nostalgia is a key element in fostering a sense of community. Community members find meaning in their lives through their sense of belonging and acceptance, thereby establishing a connection between their past and present (Sedikides & Wildschut, 2018). In fast-changing physical environments, individuals may feel disconnected from the place where they grew up. A typical example is the disappearing Hutongs8 in Beijing. During the past three decades, as China underwent urban development, old neighborhoods and streets were demolished. The growing mobility of urban populations has a weakened “sense of community” and lessened community participation (Li et al., 2008). The residents have lost their sense of place, and home has become nothing more than an address.  Community efficacy is the most important community predictor of physical and social disorder in neighborhoods (Cohen et al., 2008). Kingston et al. (1999) and Long & Perkins (2003) define it as collective action and feelings of community control; however Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls (1997) argue that collective efficacy consists of both informal social control and neighborly mutual trust. Both groups of scholars agree that with strong efficacy residents are more likely to take active part in community decision-making (Ohmer, 2007). The argument is embedded in a broader debate that mutual trust and help, and neighborly shared norms are likely to motivate community actors to achieve the common good (Putnam, 2000; Morenoff, Samposon & Raudenbush, 2001). Neighboring (or neighborly behavior) refers to interactions or closeness between neighbors, and uses different scales to distinguish casual social contact from friendship-oriented interactions (Perkins & Long, 2002; Woldoff, 2002). Positive neighboring indicates stronger social ties (Perkins et al., 1996; Perkins & Long, 2002). There is a lack of research that examines how the gated neighborhoods influence neighborly relations, and how China’s community experience has been shaped within the commodity housing neighborhood (Lu, Zhang, & Wu, 2018).  8 Hutongs are a type of narrow street or alley, commonly associated with northern Chinese cities. Hutongs are considered to be the source of the socio-cultural identity of Beijingers. When the Forbidden City (a palace complex) was built as the imperial palace in Beijing in the early 15th century, the hutongs surrounded the palace (high-ranking officials and wealthy merchants wanted to live closer to the Inner City, while aristocrats lived to the east and west of the imperial palace). Some hutongs are named after a profession, and for generations, their residents have made a living by serving imperial families. Even today, there are still commoners, merchants, and laborers who depend on hutongs to make a living, providing services for their neighbors and tourists who are curious about life in a modern-day hutong.  58 Community participation is the local population’s voluntary involvement in community political or social affairs (Sanoff, 2000). McMillian & Chavis (1986) indicate that community participation is a predictor of community solidarity, political mobilization, and local organization. Scholars use the term community participation and citizen participation interchangeably in the literature. These concepts may differ, and sometimes the boundary between them is fluid. For example, some authors refer to “participation” as a political act rather than as a social one, while other authors focus on the frequency of participation, without distinguishing whether it was political or social (see Ohmer, 2007). How do the psychological constructs described above relate to community building in the Chinese context? The scholarly study of “community” and Chinese “community building” have a common purpose, which is to improve the quality of people’s life. Empirical studies on neighborhood satisfaction in China suggest that demographic characteristics used to define vulnerable groups (i.e., women, children, the elderly, minorities, and the disabled) do not correlate to one’s gains in community life (Yan & Gao, 2007; Zhang, 2007). A cross-geographic and repeated display of harmonious neighborly relations are much more crucial than demographics in creating friendship bonds, social capital, increasing social inclusion, and eventually enhancing neighborhood satisfaction (Hipp, 2009). Some scholars think the disappearance of traditional spaces is causing individuals to feel a weakened “sense of community” or belonging to their cultural identity (i.e., the sense of being a Chinese, or belonging to a particular locality).  Against the backdrop of China’s fast-paced urbanization and dramatic changes in the physical urban environment, a “sense of virtual community” is emerging. Internet users find themselves motivated to communicate and collaborate in a virtual community. Studies show that these members contribute to the community without expectation of return or reciprocation (see Ye, Feng & Choi, 2015). An example of the Chinese “sense of virtual community” is through social media, such as Wechat and Sina Weibo, to protect the housing rights shared by homeowners. The social-relational antecedents of citizenship behavior are explored through an examination of how the member’s general attitude and desire for relationship building and maintenance (including attachment motivation, social support orientation, and disposition to trust) influence their trusting beliefs and citizenship knowledge-sharing behavior (Xu, Li & Shao, 2011).   59 4.2.2 Brief History of Chinese Transformation of Urban Community Table 9 The transition of China’s urban communities from 1912 to 2018 Period Provision of Housing Provision of Community Services “Sense of Community”  Typical problems Before the Chinese Communist Revolution: Patriarchal familial tradition 1912-1949 Private housing ownership dominated Local institutionalized welfare services system + state welfare programs Community is based on a patrilineal kinship network. Shortage and overcrowding; unclear property rights during wartime Maoist “socialist regime”: Housing as a welfare provision and service 1949-1956  Gradual change from private rental housing to public rental housing Confiscation from1949-1950; rent control in the private sector Nationalization Shortage and overcrowding; inefficient use of land 1956-1976 Public housing ownership dominated Work Unit for the employed and state welfare for the non-employed Urban residents felt a sense of belonging to their Work Unit Lack of investment in housing; unequal distribution between cadres and workers Neo-liberal “capitalist revolution”: Moving towards privatization 1977-1998  Implementation of hybrid housing through gradual privatization Work Unit and state welfare Work Unit served as the home community for many urban residents Inequalities: 1 million migrant workers were excluded from social/welfare services 1992-1998 Comprehensive implementation of privatization in all urban areas Residents’ Committee + property management company + Homeowners’ Association Gated communities with exclusive services (e.g. schools, club memberships) form a new social identity for individuals Controlled access and gated communities; strong private property rights (complicated by state ownership of land) 1998-2007  Deep marketization: commodity housing 15%, affordable housing 70%, social rental housing 15% Same as above, except more services were provided by local communities in some cases HOA empowerment-support for home ownership for middle-and-high income families Price inflation; land shortage and environmental costs; Strengthened private property rights  2008-  Recurrence of public housing provision Emergence of NGOs; increase in variety of service providers (not limited to public funds) Increasing number of self-organized community groups Many properties sold but some were unoccupied; social segregation; increasing income gap  * Note: The subdistrict is the smallest political administrative unit in urban China. A typical subdistrict may consist of several neighborhoods, comprising of a population between 3,000 and 16,000 people. The operation and maintenance of an urban neighborhood includes: (1) a professional property management company (PMC); (2) the owner-elected Homeowners’ Association (HOA); and (3) the Residents’ Committee (RC) – to supervise neighborhood activities (Bray, 2006).  Many studies have documented the changes in China’s culture, politics, and economy due to the urbanization that followed the Chinese Revolution of 1949 (Fleischer, 2010; Friedmann, 2005). However, the foundation of self-governing urban life has long existed for the Chinese. Table 6 outlines a brief history of China’s urban communities in transition.  60 Before the Revolution (1912-1949) Before the Chinese Revolution, most urban and rural Chinese had a very low standard of living (e.g., 3m2/person per dwelling). “Historically, sociopolitical control in China was … organized with natural communal and intimate groups, notably with the family and the clan system.” (Liu 2006, P.133) During warfare, local elites played a key role in strengthening community solidarity by supporting local charities to help the urban poor. Historian William Rowe (1989) observed the remarkable public welfare system that emerged in Hankow during the 19th century, when the city experienced a rising rate of urbanization. In the early 18th century, Hankow implemented local institutionalized welfare services that supplanted state welfare facilities. These local charities provided social initiatives for orphaned children, care for the homeless, an urban militia, firefighting, and other public services. The Hankow study supports the well-accepted observation that the delivery of community-based services, charity, and resident-initiated activities contribute to community efficacy and trust among its members (Narayan-Parker, 1999). Maoist “Socialist Regime” (1949-1976) Under the Maoist regime, public housing was a product of socialist public ownership. From 1949 to 1953, the government appropriated most properties from the private sector and converted them into public rental housing. These subsidized properties were assigned to cadres, mostly communist party members, who ran the state-owned enterprises. The Work Unit, a form of social organization that linked the workplace to housing, provided health care and other social welfare services to employees. From the 1950s to 1970s, a new sense of community and identity emerged, as well as financial and social protection for many urban residents who lived and worked in the same neighborhood. The Work Unit also handled conflict resolution and requests for community improvement. Neo-liberal “Capitalist Revolution” (1977-2018) Market reforms in the 1980s brought tremendous transformation to China’s urban landscape and community governance. A series of housing policies were initiated to increase home ownership. For example, the Chinese government launched the Housing Provident Fund (HPF, Zhu Fang Gong Ji Jin) program to reduce the number of tenants living in publicly owned housing and to promote private home ownership. Since the 1990s, urban residents’ living conditions have improved noticeably. However, the strict rural-urban division of the hukou household registration system excluded over 220 million migrant workers from social welfare programs  61 provided by the government. Migrant housing has become a serious issue, causing inequalities and worsening social segregation.  New commodity housing projects have dominated China’s communities since 2008. The more abundant space of commodity housing and a three-tiered urban greenspace model have gradually become the community’s landscape framework.9 In many new housing units, residents who live in the same apartment building share little in common. Communal spaces (such as activity centers and parks) are becoming increasingly standardized, and the living environment is often tediously repetitious. Unlike older inner-city neighborhoods, the “gated communities” of commercial housing projects have restricted access to homeowners and their guests. It is unclear how urban residents will adapt to the changes in spatial and social infrastructure and respond to the social services in place. While some scholars argue that traditional forms of social bonding and civic trust have eroded in these new neighborhoods (Ma, 2002), others believe that this is offset by the privatization of community services. Pow’s (2007) early-1990s commodity housing study suggests that the homeowners who moved to gated communities are more engaged in community affairs, compared to the beneficiaries of socialist welfare housing. The emergence of gated communities as part of the marketized housing system in early 1990s has provided the local population with greater autonomy over community affairs (Pow, 2007). Ye’s survey (2012) on a Shanghai gated community shows a strong correlation between the “marketization of housing” and “a sense of community”. The practice of excluding outsiders, on the other hand, has no correlation to a sense of community.  4.2.3 The Implication of Social and Political Participation in Community Planning The validity of public participation in planning is found in the political science debate of “good governance” (Masango, 2002; Rydin & Pennington, 2000). Public participation is a well-accepted practice that is often seen as essential to sustainable community development (Innes, 1996). Healey (2006) indicates that participatory processes in the early planning stages are key elements for communities to reach a consensus toward a healthy transition, (i.e., evolving from a  9 The contemporary Chinese residential communities follow greenspace standards, called the “community-group-yard” model. “Communities” are divided by city roads or natural lines (rivers, green buffers, etc.), and equipped with recreational features, such as playgrounds, shaded sidewalks, fountains, and recreational facilities for children. “Groups” are subordinated to “communities”, and they usually have fences and residents-only entrances to the community. A group can be the unit for a housing sale (phase I, II, III, with group ABC). “Yards” refers to the small proximate enclaves between buildings. Their design usually meets daylighting regulations, without any proposed features or functions.   62 neighborhood in decline that is dependent on massive investments into an inclusive, socially sensitive community supported by multiple players without causing gentrification). Suzuki (1994) states that real change can occur only when grassroots movements are empowered with a vision and the means to achieve it. Taking the environmental movement as an example, to transform the vision of a sustainable future into action requires more than experts educating the public. It requires community commitment and mutual exchanges of knowledge between experts and laypeople. Therefore, public participation helps to foster a mutually shared vision of the community’s future and generates channels for blending knowledge.  A form of participation drawn from the productive interface between laypeople and planning actors is mapping and spatial learning. It can be traced back to Kevin Lynch’s experimental research on “imageability” (1960) – an experimental approach that extracted the “mental images” (AKA cognitive maps) held by citizens of the visual quality of the environment.10 Lynch explained that planners can access the local residents’ knowledge by using survey and interview methods. Spatial learning, in the form of cognitive mapping, presents a two-way knowledge sharing of planning physical environments. Spatial learning can also be applied to identify social problems. For example, Wendel (2009) incorporated Lynch’s mapping method into his research to illustrate the uneven neighborhood recovery effort in the reconstruction of New Orleans. However, spatial learning has constraints in its use due to the high level of community expertise it requires. To train laypeople and to collect their drawings is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, spatial learning is better suited to small-sample studies. The survey questionnaire method is frequently used for social capital research. However, conducting large-scale surveys for academic research without political support is rare in China. Very often, researchers use official data rather than data collected by themselves. This is especially true for studies on social issues, which rely on large-scale samples (see for example, Xu et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2006). In China, resident satisfaction surveys are gaining increasing attention as meaningful and essential sources of information for identifying gaps and developing an effective action plan for service quality improvement in community management. The neighborhood accommodates most social activities that are handled by the Civil Affairs Department (Friedmann & Fang, 2011). The Planning Department has not participated in neighborhood services (Zhao & Zhao, 2002). Using surveys to draw critical connections among  10 Cognitive maps represent the structural knowledge of the human mind to interact with the surrounding environment (Jonassen, Beissner & Yacci, 1993).  63 China Japan Korea Mongolia India Thailand Figure 14 Tianjin Binhai New Area on the Map of China Figure 13 Tianjin Binhai New Area on the map of China people’s experience of community living and the implications for planning is still rare. The planning literature in China focuses on using the survey method to improve the physical environment, rather than on investigating the level of participation and the social dynamics in planning. Further investigation is required to link neighborhoods’ feedback to the Planning Department’s participation.  4.3 Setting and Method             Note: The red line of left image encloses the Tianjin Binhai New Area  I conducted a survey study in multiple neighborhoods in the Tianjin-Binhai New Area (TBNA), concentrating on the respondents’ experiences of community participation in the selected neighborhoods. Geographically, TBNA has the advantage of being close to Beijing and Tianjin, where some rich scientific resources are located (See Figure 13). In the past decade, the Tianjin-Binhai government has invested heavily in infrastructure and public services to attract skilled technical workers. Top schools and discounted rates for medical care were introduced, with premier deals being offered to new homeowners. In addition, TBNA incorporated advanced principles of urban design, meaning that all construction meets state-of-the-art green building codes, and bus transportation was being provided free-of-charge for all residents. The region welcomes the implementation of experimental policies that will make it an example of sustainable development.   64 4.3.1 Context of the Case My field research was conducted in the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict (红树湾社区), a high density residential site under development since 2010 (See Figure 14). This site is one example of the commodification of urban housing, a practice that is pervasive in contemporary Chinese cities. In the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict, the average floor area ratio is 2.0, with strict daylighting regulations for residential buildings. As a result of many factors, (i.e., land size, housing prices, and the spacing of city streets), the dominant type of housing is high-rise towers. There are a few multi-storey apartments, covering 4-6 floors, for more high-end customers. The SSTEC requires that 20% of the total available units should be affordable housing, targeted at blue-collar migrants and low-income families. Each affordable public housing unit is no larger than 60 m2, while the market commodity housing units are 90-180m2. The residents of the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict are a mixture of resettled locals with Tianjin hukou (household registration), commuters who work or live in nearby cities, and rural migrants who buy properties to gain a Tianjin hukou. According to the official meeting minutes, by early 2017, the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict had 27,000 registered households, and of this total 3,100 are working migrants.  I first conducted a sample survey in three subdistricts on their Homeowners’ Association meetings. After sitting in a couple meetings of each community, I found that Mangrove Bay had a variety of ancestral, age, and income residents. I selected Mangrove Bay, over the other subdistricts, for this study because their staff responded to my request to study their neighborhoods, so I had access to a larger pool or research participants.  The final survey questionnaire was distributed and collected during seven meetings. Community staff helped me call for these meetings (on the weekend and during the week) to answer the questionnaires, and afterward conduct a discussion with residents and community staff. Everyone who participated in the meeting was given a small gift. In 2013, soon after the central government announced the Community Building Campaign (CBC), the Binhai government initiated the CBC with a clear political agenda—to improve community social cohesion with minimum government interaction. Along with the campaign, specific programs were implemented to secure community participation. For example, newly-built neighborhoods were directed to elect resident representatives to establish a Homeowners’  65 Association (HOA).11 In older neighborhoods, the delivery of basic social services is handled by Residents’ Committees (RCs), whereas in new higher-income neighborhoods, homeowners tend to be more active about organizing a variety of activities and hobby groups. Local governments welcome non-political self-organized groups (i.e., sports clubs, social support services, and volunteer groups) to take over community services. Considering the important role that community participation plays in the CBC, it is crucial to learn more about the local leaders who contribute to community-based services. Figure 14 The Mangrove Bay Subdistrict site  4.3.2 Survey Design I conducted a survey study in multiple neighborhoods in the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict of Tianjin, China, to measure community engagement and identify local leaders—those who are deeply engaged in community services and decision-making and individuals with leadership potential.    11 The HOA members are either elected by the homeowners or assigned by the RC members. A neighborhood which has regular HOA meetings usually encourages residents to become actively involved in community life. 500 m  66 Reviewing the Western approach to community studies, I found limitations in employing the existing indicators and protocols used to measure neighborly relations, group membership, and community participation. The most obvious type of affiliation was membership in community groups, which is frequently used as an indicator of community participation in Western countries. In China, local government undertakes supervision and censorship of membership in groups relating to politics or religion. Therefore “membership” is only an indicator for measuring collective efficacy and neighborhood cohesion (Zhang, 2007). Current literature on Chinese community social capital focuses on measuring individual behavior patterns (Gui & Huang, 2008). In this study, I adopted two indirect constructs of social capital: (1) neighboring, and (2) citizen participation. These constructs are used in both Western and Chinese literature, to explore their potential to identify local leaders—individuals who are actively engaged in community services and decision-making (e.g., are able to call a meeting to discuss property service issues). I consider local leaders to be the ones who have high scores in both constructs. Neighboring indicates the closeness of ties the participants developed informally with their neighbors, including the frequency of their interaction, a sense of attachment, and the growth of friendships. These neighborly behavior patterns are measured by asking, “How would you describe your relationship with your neighbors?” using a 4-point Likert scale measurement. 1= I do not know my neighbors well; 2= I have limited contact with my neighbors; 3= I often meet my neighbors outside of the home; 4= I am close to my neighbors with whom I share my private concerns. Scales 1 and 2 suggest that residents have distant neighborly behaviors; scales 3 and 4 indicate positive neighborly behaviors. Citizen participation measures the membership in residential groups. Again, I used a 4-point Likert scale to measure the level of engagement of neighborhood activities. Citizen participation was measured by asking, “Which of the following options best describe your involvement in community group meetings?” 1= I am not a member of any community groups; 2= I am a member of at least one community group; 3= I have participated in the Homeowners’ Association meetings; 4 = I am involved in community management. I considered respondents who chose option 1 as not engaged in community activities, option 2 as community service users, and options 3 and 4 as service providers or residents involved in community decision-making.  Two rounds of surveys were done to collect data for the study. The first round of data was collected through personally-administered questionnaires to those who were involved in the CBC,  67 which included volunteers, social workers, activity organizers, and local business owners. The second round of data was obtained from two resident meetings in the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict. I asked community staff to notify the residents about the purpose of this research, and distributed the survey questionnaires after making a brief introduction. I gave everyone who returned their completed questionnaire a small gift. Respondents were residents and people who worked in the community.  I collected personal information as four independent variables: age, profession, education level, and length of residence. I paired these demographics with the two constructs to analyse their impact on the respondents’ experiences in participating in community activities. I hypothesized that the new residents and the old residents differed in their neighborly behaviors and citizen participation. Therefore, I tested the following hypotheses. • Hypothesis (1): The length of residence is associated with the rate of neighborly behavior.  • Hypothesis (2): The length of residence is associated with the rate of citizen participation.   Joong-Hwan (2003) indicates that one’s neighborly behavior pattern changes over the course of time. Newcomers are more unlikely to participate in community activities and make friends with neighbors than long-term residents. The data related to hypotheses 1 and 2 will test if his view is supported in this study. Hypothesis 2 is based on Narayan’s (1999) social capital model, which suggests that individuals with high social capital are more likely to lead or act towards achieving collectively shared goals. In addition to testing neighboring and citizen participation in the self-supported questionnaire, I asked residents to describe their level of satisfaction with their community using a 5-point Likert scale (1=Very dissatisfied; 2=Dissatisfied; 3=Neutral; 4=Satisfied; 5=Very satisfied). I then tested the relationship between the levels of satisfaction and participation. • Hypothesis (3): A low level of satisfaction in community life correlates with low participation. This hypothesis is based on Uzzell et al.’s (2002) study in which residents with low social capital may be in high risk of social exclusion. A common approach to determining a group of individuals’ social capital is to investigate their level of satisfaction with their community life. If hypothesis 3 is supported, it suggests that residents who report a low level of satisfaction with  68 their community life are unlikely or unwilling to be involved in neighborhood activities. Low community participation is neither the cause nor the result of low satisfaction. However, if a correlation exists between these two, I could employ the survey as a means to identify the vulnerable groups, and to better provide them with the needed services. The last objective of this study was to discover the relationship between community involvement and local leadership. I found that local leaders were longer, time-period residents, who were highly involved in the community. This would indicate that, over-time, they gained social capital that was then used to support their leadership activities.  In China, local leaders have a good reputation. They host discussions across groups, and devote themselves to conflict management, all in the pursuit of the delivery of community services. However, the major goal of this survey was not to highlight such contributions but to discover what characteristics local leaders possess. By analysing the demographics of those who scored high in social capital, I was better able to locate the groups in which the local leaders are likely to belong.   4.4 Study Findings Among the 125 participants, the clear majority (71.2%) were degree holders, while 20% of the participants were unemployed or retired. In addition, 17.6% of the respondents had moved to the current neighborhood sometime within the past 12 months. Furthermore, 6.4% did not live in Mangrove Bay. Those respondents either lived nearby, or worked in nearby neighborhoods, commuting from Tianjin. Table 10 provides the respondents’ personal information.  69 Table 10 Demographics of the sample (n=125) Variables Frequency % Age   18-24 4 3.2 25-34 59 47.2 35-44 29 23.2 45-54 8 6.4 55-64 17 13.6 65 and above 8 6.4 Profession   Planners 2 1.6 Environmental scientists 3 2.4 Administrators 14 11.2 Social workers and community employees 17 13.6 Residents with a job 64 51.2 Residents without a job 25 20.0 Education    Primary/junior high school (<9 yrs) 4 3.2 High school (<12 yrs) 32 25.6 Undergraduate 57 45.6 Graduate 32 25.6 Length of Residence   Does not reside here. 8 6.4 Short-term resident (< 1 year) 22 17.6 Mid-term resident (1-3 years) 45 36.0 Long-term resident (3-5 years) 31 24.8 From local area (> 5 years) 19 15.2  4.4.1 Community Engagement Table 11 Survey on neighboring and citizen participation Measurements Survey Options using the 4-point Likert Scale Score Counts (N=125) % Neighboring I do not know my neighbors well. 1 17 13.6% I have limited contact with my neighbors. 2 27 21.6% I often meet my neighbors outside of the home. 3 21 16.8% I am close to my neighbors with whom I share my private concerns. 4 60 48.0% Citizen Participation I am not a member of any community groups. 1 38 30.4% I am a member of at least one community group. 2 35 28.0% I have participated in the Homeowners’ Association meetings. 3 34 27.2% I am involved in community management. 4 18 14.4% Note: Respondents were asked, “How would you describe your relationship with your neighbors?”, and “Which of the following options best describes your involvement with community group meetings?” In measurements using a 4-point Likert scale, a high score in neighboring means that the respondents are close to their neighbors; a high score in citizen participation indicates that the respondents are more actively involved in community groups (e.g., sports clubs, social circles, and discussion groups).  70 Table 11 presents the survey results on neighboring and citizen participation, based on the number of respondents who chose these options. Using Woldoff’s (2002) measurement of neighboring, about one-third of the respondents (35.2%) were quite disengaged from their neighbors (scores 1 and 2), while the remaining two-thirds showed purposeful, friendship-oriented interactions with their neighbors (scores 3 and 4). As for citizen participation, 30.4% of the respondents considered themselves not to be members of any community groups (score 1), 28% participated in community groups (score 2), and 41.6% participated in some sort of community decision-making (scores 3 and 4). This result shows that inhabitants of the Mangrove Bay Subdistrict had a higher rate of citizen participation than the combined residential communities in Binhai, using the rate reported by the social services sector of Binhai for comparison (Hu & Li, 2016). As I further paired the demographics with the two independent variables—neighboring and citizen participation (see Table 12), I found that age had no correlation with either variable. The length of residence, however, had a positive correlation to both variables.  In terms of neighboring, long-term residents (> 5 years) had a much higher score than new residents (< 1 year) (3.84:2.00/4). This result supports my first hypothesis that residents become closer to their neighbors the longer they reside in a neighborhood. I also found a positive correlation between age and positive neighborly behaviors. This finding suggests that local friendship ties and community attachment are stronger among middle-aged and elderly residents than among younger residents. As I compared participants from the first round of surveys (recruiting professionals using personally administered questionnaires) and the second round (recruiting residents from the community), I found that despite other variables, the second-round participants (mostly blue-collar workers), in general, had closer relationships with their neighbors than the professionals did.  Hypothesis 2 was also supported: A positive correlation between the length of residence and citizen participation is found in this study. Long-term residents (3-5 years) and residents originally from this place had higher scores in citizen participation. In addition, they were significantly more active in political participation than short-term and medium-term (1-3 years) residents. This finding is consistent with the community attachment literature. The survey results show that long-term residents (2.58/4) and older residents (2.50/4) are more likely to participate in community groups. This same group (long-term residents and older  71 residents) also exhibits a higher neighborly relation score (3.5 and 3.84/4) than the other groups. Meanwhile, I found that the length of residence predicted positive neighborly relations and strong citizen participation. Therefore, I concluded that residents who live in a neighborhood long enough are inclined to be local leaders who contribute to the identity of the community.  I previously mentioned that education does not predict participation. However, respondents who are degree holders were found to be more active in citizen participation than non-degree holders. Holders of master’s and bachelor’s degrees each scored 2.35/2.25, while those possessing a middle school and primary school education scored 1.75/2.16. Table 12 Neighboring and citizen participation, and a demographics comparison (n=125) Variables Total (%) Neighboring (mean/SD) Participation b (mean/SD) Positive Neighboring (%) Active Participation (%) Age      18-24 3.2 2.00/0.82 2.25/0.82 25.0 50.0 25-34 47.2 2.73/4.27 2.27/3.50 55.9 40.7 35-44 23.2 3.24/6.70 2.28/2.22 72.4 41.4 45-54 6.4 3.38/2.71 2.25/0.82 75.0 37.5 55-64 13.6 3.29/4.50 2.06/3.10 76.5 41.2 65 and above 6.4 3.50/2.71 2.50/1.15 87.5 50.0 Profession      Planners 1.6 2.50/0.58 3.00/1.00 50.0 100.0 Environmental scientists 2.4 3.33/0.96 3.00/1.50 66.7 100.0 Administrators 11.2 2.43/1.00 2.79/1.29 42.9 57.1 Social workers and community employees 13.6 2.76/2.22 2.59/1.50 52.9 52.9 Residents with a job 51.2 3.11/11.17 2.06/7.39 70.3 31.3 Residents without a job 20.0 3.16/5.85 2.08/4.35 72.0 40.0 Education       Primary/junior high school  3.2 2.75/0.82 1.75/0.82 50.0 25.0 High school 25.6 3.44/9.42 2.16/5.48 84.4 34.4 Undergraduate 45.6 3.04/9.00 2.35/2.36 66.7 43.9 Graduate 25.6 2.50/2.58 2.25/3.92 43.8 46.9 Length of Residence      Does not reside here. 6.4 - - - - Short-term resident (< 1 year) 17.6 2.00/4.43 1.91/3.42 18.2 27.3 Medium-term resident (1-3 years) 36.0 2.91/4.86 2.20/3.59 66.7 37.8 Long-term resident (3-5 years) 24.8 3.51/9.60 2.42/4.27 87.1 51.6 From local area (> 5 years) 15.2 3.84/8.18 2.58/0.50 94.7 52.6 a Ranging from 1 to 4, the higher the number, the higher the perceived neighborly relations b Ranging from 1 to 4, the higher the number, the more active the participation is SD Standard deviation  “Positive neighboring (%)” refers to scores that are larger than 2. As such, I count the percentage of respondents who chose 3= “I often meet my neighbors outside of the home” and 4= “I am close to my neighbors with whom I share private concerns” in the sub-group analysis.   “Active participation (%)” refers to scores that are larger than 2. I consider active community participants as those who selected 3= “I have participated in the Homeowners’ Association meetings” and “I am involved in community management.”    72  In examining the professional groups, I noticed that the social worker group did not show a higher score in citizen participation or in active participation. The groups most active in participation were planners (100%), environmental scientists (100%), administrators (57.1%), and individuals with a master’s degree (46.9%). The planners, administrators, and graduates of master’s degree programs, however, had a relatively lower score in positive neighborly relations. This finding suggests that a relatively large portion of people who are actively involved in community activities do not necessarily developed close relationships with their neighbors. Neighboring and citizen participation were not found to be correlated in this study.  4.4.2 Participant Satisfaction  In the section of the survey on participant satisfaction, I asked respondents if they were satisfied with their neighborhood in terms of quality of life, property management, and the HOA. I eliminated the data of eight participants who were living somewhere other than Mangrove Bay. The results showed that residents were positive about their neighborhood’s quality of life (3.8/5), and less satisfied with property management (3.3/5) and with the HOA (3.2/5). The operation and maintenance of all the observed neighborhoods were provided by professional property management companies and the HOA. This low score (indicating dissatisfaction with such services) communicates the concerns of homeowners and neighborhood residents regarding property management.  Ten out of 117 (8.5%) respondents reported a low level of satisfaction with community living. The data shows that these respondents originate from all age groups, educational levels, and lengths of residence. Surprisingly, 3 out of these 10 respondents also reported a relatively higher level of participation, and all 3 are employed. Looking closely at those who reported the lowest level of participation, their demographic does not suggest that they were at high risk of social exclusion. They know their neighbors well, and have actively participated in community decision-making. Hypothesis 3 “Low level of satisfaction in community life correlates with low participation” is not supported in this study.  73 4.4.3 Identifying Local Leaders In this study, I defined local leaders as those who exhibit positive neighboring and strong citizen participation. By analysing the demographics of 41 out of 125 respondents who reported strong neighborly relations and active citizen participation, I found the following pattern of local community leaders: Length of residence dominates all other demographic features. The number of long-term local leaders (3-5 years) and residents from local groups (>5 years) outweighed the two groups’ population percentage. Similarly, retirees (55-64, and 65+ age group) with a high school education were likely to be local leaders.   Surprisingly, the observed sample of social workers failed to indicate a high percentage of local leaders. One explanation for this finding is that this professional group was comprised of new residents, mostly in their 20s. The combination of such demographics indicates a low social capital construct as well as a short length of time in the community. Another explanation is that young professionals may build social networks beyond their neighborhood, and not make as many friends as retirees within the neighborhood. Since this sample is small (two planners, three scientists, and eleven social workers), the results had limitations, and failed to suggest a relationship between professionals and social capital.   4.5 Discussion The Chinese proverb, “A close neighbor is better than a brother far off” illustrates the important role of neighbourly mutual help to support daily life in China. To a certain extent, this kind of informal reciprocity is still relevant to today’s urban communities. This paper aims to apply the knowledge of social capital to the practice of community action, particularly methods that community planners can implement in terms of community building. More specifically, I used the survey method to understand the residents’ behavior, in their respective neighborhoods. I have adopted a total of seven variables in this study. As dependent variables, I use two social capital constructs: neighboring and citizen participation. Age, profession, education, and length of residence were selected as independent variables. Such an approach is experimental in the study of Chinese communities and poses the following two challenges.    74 First, even though the Western concepts of community and community participation are arguably adaptable to China, it is inappropriate to generalize the findings of the studied community to all Chinese communities. In short, the importance of local community may be greater in China than in the West but the mechanisms of length of stay influencing community attachment and engagement is not fundamentally different than that reported in the West. Measuring community participation in the Chinese context is challenging. Scholars state that community participation in China rarely involves local political decision-making (Xu et al., 2010). Promoting homeowners’ involvement in community decision-making is the central task of community building, according to the propaganda posted on the Tianjin-Binhai official website. Therefore, I include the typical behavior of political participation – the attendance of HOA meetings – in my measurement. Although residents may have attended HOA meetings only once, a higher participation scale is set for them compared to residents who frequently attend meetings of other community groups. I believe this is because involvement in political decision-making serves as a valid indicator in the cultivation of local leaders, which is essential for democratic development. The theory of social capital tells us that the contributors to neighborhood services, compared to the receivers of such services, are more likely to form a new status in their respective communities.  Second, conducting surveys for academic research without political support is rare in China. Most previous studies have relied on officially provided data (i.e. national surveys) to attain large samples. In this case, I contacted the local authorities for permission to distribute and collect the survey questionnaires on my own. Doing so allowed access to the targeted groups and direct contact with the participants in the field. The latter proved to be especially fruitful. Talking to the participants face to face provided the opportunity for me to find out what considerations they deemed the most essential for community life (e.g., security, maintenance fees). I was also able to identify the profile of local leaders as (1) middle-aged or retired long-term residents who had established a large circle of connections with their neighbors; or (2) young or middle-aged married homeowners who have strong social networking skills and are actively involved in community decision-making. In terms of its application, this study has the potential to empower communities by using a resident survey to identify community leaders. Community leadership is about people who live with you and interact with you. With solid leadership, a community develops greater resilience  75 for dealing with crises (Guo et al., 2018). This study enables local authorities and policy makers to understand the public’s desires and expectations regarding those who govern at the community level. The resident survey explores measurements that are suitable for accessing community leadership in China. However, neighborly relations and the behavioral pattern of citizen participation may be better supported by a larger-sample study. Another limitation of this study is the lack of data on the physical environment. The examined neighborhoods were built according to recent architectural designs and planning codes. The type of housing was quite uniform, consisting mostly of high-rise buildings, with a few three-story or four-story walk-up apartments for the higher-end homebuying market. Therefore, this survey did not distinguish residents by housing type. As such, the research could not measure social behavior based on different residential structures in various physical environments (e.g., flats vs high-rises in high, medium, or low-density living spaces, facing large parks or streets). Future research should address the impact of the physical environment on community experience in newly-built neighborhoods.   4.6 Conclusion Public participation in community management remains limited because of China’s political environment. Censorship has a huge impact on political views and daily life in terms of posting on social media, promoting membership in NGOs, and maintaining self-organized groups. However, citizen participation is evident in the growing middle class. In the past decade, Chinese homeowners’ involvement in environmental issues has drawn much attention in local governance. Although homeowners have very little impact on public decision-making due to the central government’s control over local policy issues, the involvement of homeowners in public policy discussions is being tolerated to a certain extent, and this constitutes a substantial improvement compared with the intolerance of civic participation under the Maoist regime (Huang & Sun, 2014). Community building is based on the idea that attachment to community is an important resource for the local authorities to consider, as they mobilize resources for the renewal and improvement of their respective communities. Participation is seen as a critical component of community building. This paper draws a connection between community engagement (e.g., neighborly interaction and community participation) and its implications for community building. Previous  76 studies suggest that length of residence has a positive impact on community attachment in Western society (Kasarda & Janowitz, 1974). This study found little difference in how “length of stay” influenced community attachment in China. What’s new is finding that the length of residence is positively correlated to community engagement. This means most local leaders have lived in the neighbourhood for at least three years. One implication of this finding is that if researchers have limited access to Chinese communities, they could use length of residence to identify potential local leaders. However, this finding would need to be replicated in other studies to confirm its validity. I recognize that community participation and neighborly behavior have social applications in China that are different from the West. On the one hand, social ties and social networks at the local level in China are more social than political. Residential homeownership has weakened the traditional resources of community mobilization, such as the Work Unit and the Subdistrict office. New communities, in which homeowners have increased autonomy over community affairs, have been created within the SSTEC neighbourhoods. In addition, organized volunteer support, such as that of the Homeowners Association, has emerged at the community level and plays an important role in community building.  The purpose of studying neighborly relationships and community engagement is to discover how social interaction influences the quality of life in new communities through the delivery of various cultural ES to both individuals and communities. Based on these findings, I suggest that the quality of social relationships can better explain neighborhood satisfaction than demographic characteristics might. As such, I acknowledge the urgent need for further research on local leaders: (1) the distinguishing characteristics of individuals who have become local leaders; and (2) the extent to which they influence their neighborhood (i.e., their ability to mobilize resources and win their neighbors’ support for community initiatives). These topics are important for differentiating social support strategies for vulnerable groups in China’s urbanizing areas. The implication of research on local leaders can develop better explanations regarding social capital and the “neighbor effect theory” for Chinese communities.   77  Chapter 5. Dissertation Conclusions The original idea of “Ecocity,” which emerged in Europe and North America, is an approach to urban development that respects environmental limits. The rise of ecocity developments on the global stage, in many ways, tells us the story of how ecocities have been framed by power, globalization, privatization, and the emergent discourse of sustainability.  Over the past decade, China has undertaken aggressive urban development. This urbanization has been detrimental to public health, has caused the degradation of ecosystems, and has been the source of a biodiversity loss in many environments. In the face of rising public anxiety over these issues, many local governments have turned to “ecocities”. Ecocities create a vision for a sustainable urban future in China, and many local governments call their new development projects “ecocities” (Zhou et al., 2012).  Given the lack of a common understanding of “sustainability”, what makes a city an “ecocity” the term is ambiguous: Does it refer to delivering a healthy and prosperous city development model, or does it describe a way to provide urban growth while being socially and environmentally responsible?  To resolve this vagueness, Chapter 2 began with an overview of the theoretical roots from which the concept of “ecocity” evolved and investigates how Chinese ecocities have adapted these ideas. After reviewing more than fifty Chinese ecocities, I concluded that “ecocity”, in the Chinese context, is a pragmatic approach to sustainable urban development that incorporates technology, design, and political innovations to support sustainability. In many cases, the prefix “eco” is merely a marketing buzzword meant sell real estate on city edges with much-needed supporting infrastructure (e.g., public transportation). Meanwhile, the affix “city” reflects the local governments’ real agenda to quickly develop city projects that include, but are not limited to, new residential and commercial neighbourhoods, high-tech development parks, eco-tourism destinations and cultural attractions, with some forms of pollution remediation.  78 Table 13 A comparison between Berkeley and Tianjin ecocity models Project Berkeley SSTEC Goals Self-sustaining resilient; Function of natural ecosystems; Healthy abundance to its inhabitants; Social justice, fairness, and equity The “three harmonies”  (social, economic, and ecological sustainability); Create an urban ecosystem upon a non-livable area Scale & Timeline 27 km2, 11K residents by 2010 1975-1990s 30 km2, 90K by 2010; propose 350K residents 2008-2020s Ecological planning themes Enhance biodiversity; Prioritize reuse of land and public transport;  Conservation of water and energy; Biodiversity; Ecological restoration and construction on saline-alkaline soil; Residents’ access to green open space (high green space ratio) Outcomes Well-planned city layout that support walkability, biking and the use of public transit; Planetary-supportive lifestyles (reduced waste, detoxicate of neighboring ecosystems, local agriculture production); Waste management that promotes recycling and reuse Restoration of bird habitats, enhanced biodiversity; Green and blue infrastructure; Energy conservation and emissions reduction; A light-rail transit system, supplemented by a secondary network of trams and buses; All housing and commercial buildings meet green building standard  After spending years studying the SSTEC, it is inevitable for me to ask: Is Tianjin really an ecocity?  There is no obvious answer to this question. When I compared Berkeley and Tianjin (see Table 13), the goals of the Tianjin Ecocity seemed ambiguous. The language that SSTEC uses to describe the “three harmonies” has nothing to do with “living on a limited ecological footprint”, or with promoting a lifestyle that supports local businesses or local food production. Phrases repeated throughout SSTEC’s current planning documents, such as “economic growth”, “improved living conditions”, “better mobility”, and “social progress”, refer to development and improvements. In a way, Tianjin delivered public services (e.g., hospitals, schools etc.) and parks that allow residents to enjoy a decent quality of life. However, such an “ecocity” does not necessarily focus on ecological sustainability. Instead, Tianjin exemplifies how a planning structure may provide a variety of cultural ES within urban neighborhoods, by implementing green infrastructure.  A new question arises then: Is this “enough” to make Tianjin an “ecocity”?  To answer this question, this dissertation focuses on the development of relevant ecological and social metrics, shown respectively in Chapter 3 and 4.   79 Chapter 3 began with the identification of the planning scope of SSTEC using the widely used ES metrics in the MEA (2005) and Brown and Mooney (2013.) A review of current planning policy in the SSTEC shows that a large number of ES were missing (15 out of 35). The SSTEC only addressed a limited environmental agenda that matched what officials considered important to ecosystem and resident wellbeing. Since Tianjin is not what Register defined as an “ecocity”, would integrating ES into Tianjin’s planning practice contribute to turn it into an ecocity? I addressed this question through a survey study that introduce ES to local planners of Tianjin in Chapter 3. Considering that the majority of respondents lack knowledge of ES, I only included 20 ES that were found in current planning policies, and phrased the description of benefits in a way that planners would be familiar with, and ran a correlation analysis of two questions paired with ES and associated benefits. The results indicate that the inadequate scope of environmental sustainability in SSTEC is associated with planners’ lack of ecological knowledge, however this finding is not definitive. This lack of awareness of ES and ecological issues may contribute to omissions and oversights in the formulation of planning solutions linked to broader ES outcomes. However, these are only first indications and the impact of integrating ES into Tianjin’s planning practice remains unsure. For a more responsive approach to urban planning, I recommend that future research should address a full list of ES to evaluation. Chapter 4 developed social metrics of Chinese ecocities by examining two social capital indicators (neighbourly behavior and citizen participation) in Tianjin. Using a small-sample survey, I paired the participants’ demographic characteristics (age, education, profession, and length of residence) with the participants’ neighbourly behavior and citizen participation. I found that the length of residence in a neighborhood is strongly correlated with both indicators. Long-term residents were the most likely candidates to act as local leaders—individuals who are essential to the delivery of community services. The study of neighborhood involvement indicates a variety of cultural ES at neighborhood scale (e.g., sense of community, physical wellbeing etc.). The findings of this chapter suggest that the quality of social relationships can better explain neighborhood satisfaction than demographic characteristics might. Considering these findings, I call for further research on: (1) the distinguishing characteristics of local leaders; and (2) the influence that local leaders have on their communities. These topics are important for devising a variety of social support strategies that will meet the specific needs of diverse and vulnerable groups in China’s urbanizing areas.  80 Looking closely at what differentiates Tianjin from Berkeley, one cannot neglect the scale and timeline. The Tianjin Ecocity is considerably more ambitious than Berkeley in terms of scale: Berkeley is known for its prestigious international campus and as a west coast village that has long been cultivated as a home for environmentalists. In Register’s plan, the population of Berkeley remains stable and so does its ecological footprint; The Tianjin Ecocity, in contrast, was controversially built on saline-alkaline soil, and is geographically isolated from existing urban infrastructure and plans to accommodate 350,000 people within 20 years, providing housing, jobs, businesses, and a vibrant urban environment. This new urban infrastructure, consumption and services will create a large ecological footprint that cannot be ignored.  I believe that the scale is a key factor that limits Tianjin’s realization of Register’s Ecocity model. Considering their influence on the region, ecocities force local governments to pay attention to the environmental as well as social objectives. Housing affordability has become a crippling crisis in many ecocities. Caprotti (2014) points out the need to address social resilience in ecocity research. So, what might be a solution for the Chinese ecocities? As mentioned, land resource is crucial to the planning of Chinese cities. Local governments acquire the majority of their revenue by collecting income from leasing land. Therefore, a strong real estate market is pivotal in successfully operating a Chinese city. This also applies to Chinese ecocities. In fact, many cities offer privileges, such as reduced land leases, in ecocity developments to attract investment in housing, business, and infrastructure. Local politicians are constantly struggling to lease land rapidly in order to maintain a sustained flow of revenue for the city. This explains why Chinese cities and ecocities are often scattered, leapfrog development with low density. Without innovations in municipal financing that introduces more revenue channels, the planning of Chinese cities is not likely to change. However, new revenue streams alone will not suffice. Greater understanding of environmental imperatives and the recognition that the human social and economic systems are set within a finite ecological system must also become standard operating procedure for city planning in China. I would like to quote Richard Register to end my dissertation. My vision of hope for Chinese ecocities fits with his words on what ecocity is about.   81 “Nature’s economics is the foundation for human economics … survival and thriving hangs in the balance. There is good and bad in both capitalism and socialism – choose the best from both. Let nature’s economics be the guide.” (Register, 2016a)      82 Bibliography Ahern, J. (1996). Greenways as a planning strategy. In J.G. Fabos & J. Aherns (eds.) Greenways: The beginning of an international movements (pp. 131-155). New York: Elsevier. Ahern, J., Cilliers, S., & Niemelä, J. (2014). The concept of ecosystem services in adaptive urban planning and design: A framework for supporting innovation. 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Habitat International, 46, 44-53.     99  Appendices Appendix 1 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) developed for the SSTEC project Quantitative KPIs (22) Description A. Good Natural Environment Ambient Air Quality The air quality in the Eco-city should meet at least China's National Ambient Air Quality Grade II Standard for at least 310 days.  The SO2 and NOx content in the ambient air should not exceed the limits stipulated for China's National Ambient Air Quality Grade 1 standard for at least 155 days. Quality of water bodies Water bodies in the Eco-city should meet Grade IV of China's latest national standards. Quality of Water from Taps Water from all taps should be potable. Noise Pollution Levels Noise pollution levels must satisfy the stipulated standards for different functional zones. Carbon Emission Per Unit GDP The carbon emission per unit GDP should not exceed 150 tonne-C per US$1 million. Net Loss of Natural Wetlands There should be no net loss of natural wetlands in the Eco-city. B. Healthy Balance in the Man-made Environment Proportion of Green Buildings All buildings in the Eco-city should meet green building standards. Native Vegetation Index At least 70% of the plant varieties in the Eco-city should be native plants/vegetation. Per Capita Public Green Space The public green space should be at least 12 square metres per person. C. Good Lifestyle Habits Per Capita Daily Water Consumption The daily water consumption per day each person should not exceed 120 litres. Per Capita Daily Domestic Waste Generation The amount of domestic waste generated by each person should not exceed 0.8 kg. Proportion of Green Trips At least 90% of trips within the Eco-city should be in the form of non-motorised transport, i.e. cycling and walking, public transport. Overall Recycling Rate At least 60% of total waste should be recycled. Access to Free Recreational and Sports Amenities All residential areas in the Eco-city should have access to free recreational and sports amenities within a walking distance of 500m. Waste Treatment All hazardous and domestic waste in the Eco-city should be rendered non-toxic through treatment. Barrier-Free Accessibility The Eco-city should have 100% barrier-free access. Services Network Coverage The entire Eco-city will have access to key infrastructure services, such as recycled water, gas, broadband, electricity and heating. Proportion of Affordable Public Housing At least 20% of housing in the Eco-city will be in the form of subsidised public housing. D. Developing a Dynamic and Efficient Economy Usage of Renewable Energy The proportion of energy utilised in the Eco-city which will be in the form of renewable energy, such as solar and geothermal energy, should be at least 20%. Usage of Water from Non-Traditional Sources At least 50% of the Eco-city's water supply will be from non-traditional sources such as desalination and recycled water. Proportion of R&D Scientists and Engineers in the Eco-city Workforce There should be at least 50 R&D scientists and engineers per 10,000 workforce in the Eco-city. Employment-Housing Equilibrium Index At least 50% of the employable residents in the Eco-city should be employed in the Eco-city. Qualitative KPIs (4) Maintain a safe and healthy ecology through green consumption and low-carbon operations. Adopt innovative policies that will promote regional collaboration and improve the environment of the surrounding regions. Give prominence to the river estuarine culture to preserve history and cultural heritage, and manifest its uniqueness. Complement the development of recycling industries and promote the orderly development of the surrounding regions. Resource: The official website of the SSTEC (available at https://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_kpis.htm)    100  Appendix 2 A review of individual ES in planning documents ES Description  Findings Policy examples Provisioning services: Material outputs from ecosystems Food Agriculture, food, crops, grain/dairy/vegetables produced, vegetable garden, fishery  Regional food systems related to ES are not mentioned but are considered an important goal. TJ_1 Fishery is important for local economy. TJ_3 Agriculture and fishery shall be supported to enhance the regional food system. Ornamental plants Local plants, invasive plants, all season greenery, flowers and fruit trees, neighbourhood park Increasing vegetation is mentioned in several policies. This ES is used as an argument to introduce the goal and benefit.  SSTEC_2 >12 m2 per capita public green space; SSTEC_4 Residents have access to parks  TJ_4 Community parks within 500 m circle to all new neighbourhoods Freshwater Freshwater, drinking water, water supply, groundwater, water infiltration, water suspension, water storage Problem of water shortage is mentioned but is not linked to ES. Policies to promote better management of water resources focus on conserving water. No planning solutions are mentioned. TJ_7 Water availability of the region is decreasing SSTEC_2 < 120 liters water consumption per day per person SSTEC_7 100% portable tap water within the eco-neighbourhood Genetic resources Genetic material of actual or potential value. Any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity Not mentioned at all - Medicinal resources Biotechnological and pharmaceutical use of plants etc. Not mentioned at all - Raw materials Timber, energy (from biomass) Not mentioned at all - Biomass fuel Woody fuels, animal wastes, source for municipal solid waste Not mentioned at all - Regulating services: Ecosystem processes that serve as regulations of ecological systems Carbon sequestration and storage Gas cycles, carbon sequestration and storage, biomass/soils as carbon sinks Addressing potential climate change impacts as regional task is mentioned but is not related to ecosystems or planning solutions. SSTEC_2 Carbon emissions per unit of GDP: ≤150 tons C per one million US$ GDP SSTEC_2 100% green buildings SSTEC_2 20% renewable energy usage  Hazard regulation Noise reduction, stormwater regulation, reducing stormwater runoff; disease control  Noise is mentioned as problem that needs to be mitigated. Toxic management is discussed as a new issue but is not related to ES.  SSTEC_2 Mitigate noise caused by traffic, industries, and other resource SSTEC_3 Reduce the risk of natural hazard while reclaiming and treating previously toxic sites. Pollution mitigation Quality of water, soil, and air, geological and hydrogeological resources Goals and policies are related to reduction of air pollution and water body pollution but are not related to ES. SSTEC_2 Water quality reaches IV type SSTEC_2 Air quality reaches II type SSTEC_3 Safe handling of chemicals Local climate & air quality regulation Local climate regulation, microclimate regulation, mitigating heat island effect, evapotranspiration, cooling, shading, reflecting solar radiation, wind blocking Vegetation loss is mentioned as problematic. Landscape policies in relation to vegetation protection – but are not related to ES TJ_4 Critical areas such as wetlands and floodplains are defined as non-for-development zone SSTEC_4 Street trees and pedestrian shading affects comfort and visibility  101 ES Description  Findings Policy examples Moderate impacts of weather extremes Flood prevention, buffering from damage through storms/floods/waves Flooding is mentioned several times. Ocean tides and summer storms are mentioned as problematic. Policies include: Protection of natural wetlands and redwood forests TJ_7 Reducing stormwater drainage infrastructure can lower infrastructure costs. TJ_2 A hotter climate increases risks of noxious pest infection, and affect human health Reduced erosion Erosion prevention, maintaining nutrient content Protection of natural resource land is mentioned as a goal but is not related to ES TJ_5 Prevent damaged riparian areas from further erosion Seasonal drought mitigation Alternative water resource Water scarcity is mentioned as a problem but is not related to ES. Solutions rely on technology rather than on holistic planning/design SSTEC_2 50% water supply from non-conventional sources SSTEC_7 Integrate water supply into planning effort by coordinating infrastructure projects with water resource management activities  Wastewater treatment Wastewater treatment, filtering wastewater, sewage Impact on water quality; policies for reducing waste water but not related to ES SSTEC_1 100% wastewater treated within the ecocity Maintenance of soil fertility Crop rotations, manure management, compost, soil acidity and liming, fertilizer applications Not mentioned as a goal, but several policies do mention related planning solutions, e.g., gardening, urban farming, local food SSTEC_4 Yard and patio used to grow food SSTEC_6 Growing number of urban farms Erosion control Preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction Not mentioned at all - Pest and disease regulation  Through actions of predators and parasites by the defence mechanism of their prey Not mentioned at all - Pollination Pollinations, bees, seed dispersal Not mentioned at all - Supporting services: The provision of living spaces and maintenance of plant and animal diversity (serve as the foundation for all other services) Water cycling Stormwater regulation/retention, rainwater infiltration/absorption, balancing stormwater peaks, reducing stormwater runoff Stormwater management is discussed as an important issue but is not related to ES. Vegetation is mentioned as one solution. SSTEC_6 80% of rainfall is collected in the rainwater catchment system TJ_7 Reducing stormwater drainage infrastructure can lower infrastructure costs Preservation and generation of soil Gardening and farming, salinity management, irrigation, maintain soil pH, community education Goals of salinity management and tree planting are mentioned, but are not directly related to ES SSTEC_1 Salinity management as a main task for the Tianjin Ecocity SSTEC_5 Community-based educators and advocates provide gardening and farming workshops   to teach how to cultivate soil Nutrient cycling Biogeochemical cycles, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen Protection of wetland and forests is discussed as important issue. Composting management is suggested as a neighborhood-level service but is not required in planning. SSTEC_2 Net loss of wetland  SSTEC_4 Waste organic plant management  SSTEC_5 Compost collecting and reuse are included as a neighbourhood service Production of atmospheric oxygen Photosynthesis, produces free oxygen from carbon dioxide and water Mentioned but not related to planning - Primary productivity Organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide, base of the food chain Not mentioned at all -  102 ES Description  Findings Policy examples Cultural services: Non-material benefits obtained from human contact with ecosystems Social cohesion Trust, a sense of belonging, participation, inclusion, recognition and legitimacy12 Inclusion is mentioned as important to quality of life but is not linked to ES. SSTEC_5 Citizens have access to judicial review and appeals  SSTEC_6 Recognizing the resources that makes one feel connected to the community Sense of identity Identity, spiritual experiences, neighborhood life, sense of place, experiences in nature Environmental health and human health are seen as related. The value of landscape for community life is mentioned.  SSTEC_4 There is a growing understanding of how the environment fosters a sense of place. Mental & physical well-being Mental and physical health, tranquilizing effects  The value of ecosystem and its value on the quality of life are mentioned as important, but no specific suggestion is related to health.  SSTEC_2 90% green trips by 2020 (30% by 2013) TJ_4 Managing the wetland ecosystem is important to human well-being. Recreation Outdoor recreation, sports, walking, fishing, gardening The value of outdoor recreational options is mentioned. No landscape sites are addressed in planning policies. TJ_5 Plenty of outdoor leisure choices SSTEC_4 Gardening in private and public spaces is encouraged  Tourism Tourism, sights The value of natural areas for tourism is mentioned. Policies focus on tourism in urban landscapes. TJ_2 Economic opportunities through recreation and tourism SSTEC_1 Wetlands as a tourists’ destination Aesthetic & spiritual sensibility Aesthetic appreciation, cultural sensibility, art and design Regional identity is recognized (preservation of archeological sites, and historic and cultural landscapes) TJ_2 Enhancing current physical geography (e.g., wetlands, waterways, redwood forests) Cultural heritage values Customs, which are traditions and rituals; values, which are beliefs; and culture, which is all of a group's guiding values Mentioned but not related to ecosystems  - Spiritual & religious values The relationship to a superior being and are related to an existential perspective on life, death, and the nature of reality Not mentioned at all - Educational values People's views or ideas on the whole core or basic values of education have influence on other educational concept   Mentioned but not related to ecosystems - Knowledge systems A program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base Not mentioned at all - Cultural diversity  Recognize and respect “ways of being” that are not necessarily our own Not mentioned at all - Note:  o The selection of ES is adapted from Mooney 2014; Brown and Mooney 2013; MEA 2005 o Policy examples (Document code shown in Table 2) 12 http://www.unesco.org/most/besseng.htm  103 Appendix 3 Survey research questionnaire  Study Title: Generating innovation in urban planning: Applying the Ecosystem Service assessment to planning projects  Thank you for agreeing to take part in this research questionnaire. Your responses will assist us in our efforts to advance the evaluation system of urban planning projects. Please be assured that your responses will be kept in strict confidentiality. This questionnaire will take approximately 20 minutes to complete. Your participation in this study is absolutely voluntary, and you may refuse to answer any questions or stop at any time.   A. Context questions 1. What is your age?  18-24         25-34         35-44         45-54        55-64      65 or over 2. What is your highest degree or highest level of education completed?  High School                    Attended College                     University     Post-Graduate with Master Degree   Post-Graduate with Doctoral Degree  Still in a Post-Graduate Program   Scholar with Subsidy 3. Who is your current employer? (If possible, please also specify the department you are currently working in.)  _____________________________________________________ 4. Have you ever been involved in any environmental projects?                                                      Yes                                 No           If “YES”, please provide a few examples that you consider the most relevant and important.   _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Have you ever been involved in designing, developing, or managing the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) project?                                                      Yes                                 No                          If “YES”, how would you describe your involvement in the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC)? (e.g. project manager involved in the scoping stage since 2009) ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Have you ever been trained in or have access to sustainability research?  Yes                                 No                     104 7. Do you know anything about the following concepts, tools, or methods? (Multiple responses apply.)  Environmental Impact Assessments        Life Quality Assessments  Strategic Environmental Assessments     Adaptive Design           Sustainability Indicators                          Key Performance Indicators  Ecological Footprints                               Ecological Carrying Capacity         Environmental Recovery Planning          Ecosystem Services  B. Your Views on Sustainability and Ecocities 8. What services do you consider important for your living environment? (Multiple responses apply.)  Biodiversity Maintenance or Increase   Fresh Air and Water  Food Security and Provision  Plants and Greenery  Carbon Sequestration and Storage  Pollution Mitigation (Air and Water)  Local Climate and Air Quality Regulation  Moderate Impact of Weather Extremes  Hazard Regulation (Reduced Flooding, Landslide, Noise, Disease)  Seasonal Drought Mitigation  Sewage Treatment  Solid Waste Treatment  Maintenance of Soil Fertility  Preservation and Generation of Soil  Nutrient Cycling  Water Cycling (Hydrologic Flows)  Walkways and Cycling Routes  Mobility (Including Driving and Transit)  Social Cohesion  Justice and Equity  Sense of Identify  Mental and Physical Well-being   Recreation  Tourism  Aesthetic Appreciation/Spiritual Well-being  Others 9. What benefits would you consider important when choosing a neighborhood? (Multiple responses apply.)  Biodiversity Maintenance or Increase   Fresh Air and Water  105  Food Security and Provision  Plants and Greenery   Carbon Sequestration and Storage  Pollution Mitigation (Air and Water)  Local Climate and Air Quality Regulation  Moderate Impact of Weather Extremes  Hazard Regulation (Reduced Flooding, Landslide, Noise, Disease)  Seasonal Drought Mitigation  Wastewater Treatment  Solid Waste Treatment  Maintenance of Soil Fertility  Preservation and Generation of Soil  Nutrient Cycling  Water Cycling (Hydrologic Flows)  Walkways and Cycling Routes  Mobility (Including Driving and Transit)  Social Cohesion  Justice and Equity  Sense of Identity  Mental and Physical Well-being   Recreation  Tourism  Aesthetic Appreciation/Spiritual Well-being  Others  (End of the questionnaire) Confidentiality Statement The information gathered during this study will remain confidential on secure premises during this project. Only the researchers will have access to the study and information. This research is part of a doctoral dissertation and is intended to be published in academic journals.   Follow-ups  If you have any questions or concerns before or after the questionnaire has been completed, please contact the study leader or the co-investigator.    106 Appendix 4 Booklet attached to questionnaire (translated into Chinese)  Ecosystem Services Service description  Translated in Chinese Provisioning services: Ecosystem services that describe the material or energy outputs from ecosystems Food Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food. Food comes principally from managed agro-ecosystems, but marine and freshwater systems, forests and urban horticulture also provide food for human consumption. ኞாᔮᕹԅᐿ༙൉׀๵կ̶ᷣᇔ๶რ۱ೡ١ӱኞாᔮᕹ҅ၹ၇޾Ⴈ࿜ᔮᕹ̵༏຋޾᮷૱١ࢮ̶Raw materials Ecosystem provide a great diversity of materials for construction and fuel including wood, biofuels and plant oils that are directly derived from wild and cultivated plant species. ኞாᔮᕹԅୌᒺ޾ᆮා൉׀य़ᰁ๭ා҅๙๭̵ኞᇔᆮා޾༙ᇔရᬯԶ๭ාፗള๶ᛔᰀኞ޾໓ङᇔᐿ̶Freshwater Ecosystems play a vital role in the global hydrological cycle, as they regulate the flow and purification of water. Vegetation and forests influence the quality of water available locally. ኞாᔮᕹࣁ࿜෈஗ሾӾ᩸፳ᛗى᯿ᥝጱ֢አ҅᧣ᜓ࿜ၞ޾ٳ۸̶༙ᤩ޾༏຋୽ߥ୮ࣈݢአጱ࿜ᨶ̶Medicinal resources Ecosystems and biodiversity provide many plants used as traditional medicines as well as providing the raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. All ecosystems are a potential source of medicinal resources. ኞாᔮᕹ޾ኞᇔग़໏௔൉׀ԧᦜग़አ֢փᕹយᇔጱ༙ᇔ҅Ԟԅګយૡӱ൉׀ԧܻ๭ා̶ಅํኞாᔮᕹ᮷ฎᄟࣁጱ܅យᩒრ๶რ̶Regulating services: The services that ecosystems provide by acting as regulators (e.g., regulating the quality of air and soil or by providing flood and disease control). Local climate & air quality regulation Trees provide shade whilst forests influence rainfall and water availability both locally and regionally. Trees or other plants also play an important role in regulating air quality by removing pollutants from the atmosphere. ໅๙൉׀ផᠰ҅ᘒ༏຋୽ߥ୮ࣈ޾܄ऒጱᴳᵨᰁ޾࿜ᩒრݢአ௔̶໅๙౲ٌ՜༙ᇔԞ᭗ᬦႴᴻय़࿈Ӿጱ࿱ວᇔ๶᧣ᜓᑮ࿈ᨶᰁ̶Carbon sequestration and storage Ecosystems regulate the global climate by storing and sequestering greenhouse gases. As trees and plants grow, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and effectively lock it away in their tissues. In this way forest ecosystems are carbon stores. Biodiversity also plays an important role by improving the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to the effects of climate change. ኞாᔮᕹ᭗ᬦؙਂ޾ᵍᐶჅਰ࿈֛๶᧣ᜓقቖ࿈ײ̶༙ᇔኞᳩޕතԫ࿔۸᏶҅ଚํපࣈਖ਼ٌᲁࣁᕟᕢӾ̶ࢩྌ༏຋੪ฎࢴ᏶ՙପ̶Moderation of extreme events Extreme weather events or natural hazards include floods, storms, tsunamis, avalanches and landslides. Ecosystems and living organisms create buffers against natural disasters, thereby preventing possible damage. For example, wetlands can soak up flood water whilst trees can stabilize slopes. Coral reefs and mangroves help protect coastlines from storm damage. ຄᒒॠ࿈Ԫկ౲ᛔᆐᅒਸ਼۱ೡၒ࿜̵̵ูᷚၹ࠲̵ᵪૄ޾ჶ̶࣠ኞாᔮᕹ޾ኞᇔԅᛔᆐᅒਸ਼൉׀ᖨ٫҅՗ᘒᴠྊݢᚆጱഖਸ̶਼ֺই҅ლࣈݢզޕතၒ࿜҅ᘒ໅๙ݢզᑞਧෑ̶࣠቉ተᐉ޾ᕁ໅຋ํۗԭכಷၹધᕚعݑูᷚጱᏈ̶ࣕWastewater treatment Ecosystems such as wetlands filter both human and animal waste and act as a natural buffer to the surrounding environment. Through the biological activity of micro- organisms in the soil, most waste is broken down. Thereby pathogens are eliminated, and the level of nutrients and pollution is reduced. ლࣈᒵኞாᔮᕹ෬ᬦᄁՈᔄ޾ۖᇔጱഭအᇔ݈҅੒ޮࢱሾह᩸کᛔᆐᖨ٫֢አ̶᭗ᬦࢿॉӾஙኞᇔጱኞᇔၚ௔҅य़᮱ړଳᇔᤩړᥴ̶՗ᘒၾᅋየܻ֛҅ٺ੝០ِᇔᨶ޾࿱ວ̶Erosion prevention and maintenance of soil fertility Soil erosion is a key factor in the process of land degradation and desertification. Vegetation cover provides a vital regulating service by preventing soil erosion. Soil fertility is essential for plant growth and agriculture and well- functioning ecosystems supply the soil with nutrients required to support plant growth. ࢿॉ׍ᡴฎࢿࣈᭅ۸޾ងᄏ۸ᬦᑕӾጱӞӻىᲫࢩᔰ̶༙ᤩᥟፍ᭗ᬦᴠྊ࿜ࢿၞ०൉׀ԧ᯿ᥝጱ᧣ᜓ๐ۓ̶ࢿॉᙑێ੒༙ᇔኞᳩ޾١ӱᛗى᯿ᥝ҅ᘒۑᚆᜉঅጱኞாᔮᕹԅࢿॉ൉׀ԧඪ೮༙ᇔኞᳩಅᵱጱِړ̶Pollination Insects and wind pollinate plants and trees which is essential for the development of fruits, vegetables and seeds. Animal pollination is an ecosystem service mainly provided by insects but also by some birds and bats. ෾ᡩ޾ᷚԅ༙ᇔ̵໅๙ദᔇ҅ᬯԶ༙ᇔ޾໅๙੒࿜ຎ̵ᠩោ޾ᐿৼጱݎᙙᛗى᯿ᥝ̶ۖᇔദᔇฎզ෾ᡩԅԆ҅᮱ړềᔄ޾ᣍᣎԅᬀጱኞாᔮᕹ๐ۓ̶Biological control Ecosystems are important for regulating pests and vector borne diseases that attack plants, animals and people. Ecosystems regulate pests and diseases through the activities of predators and parasites. Birds, bats, flies, wasps, frogs and fungi all act as natural controls. ኞாᔮᕹ੒ԭ᧣ᜓਸ਼ᡩ޾׍ᤪ༙ᇔ̵ۖᇔ޾Ոᔄጱড়Օփඎዤየஉ᯿ᥝ̶᭗ᬦഔᷣᘏ޾ੀኞᡩၚۖ᧣ᜓਸ਼ᡩ޾ዤየ̶Habitat or supporting services: These services underpin almost all other services ecosystem provide living spaces for plants or animals; they also maintain a diversity of different breeds of plants and animals. Habitats for species Habitats provide everything that an individual plant or animal needs to survive: food; water; and shelter. Each ecosystem provides different ໇௳ࣈԅӻ֛༙ᇔ౲ۖᇔ൉׀ਙժኞਂಅᵱጱӞڔ̶ӧݶጱኞह੒ᇔᐿጱኞ޸ޮ๗ᛗى᯿ᥝ̶ᬢஓ 107 Ecosystem Services Service description  Translated in Chinese habitats that can be essential for a species' lifecycle. Migratory species including birds, fish, mammals and insects all depend upon different ecosystems during their movements. ᇔᐿ҅۱ೡềᔄ̵Ṻᔄ̵߿ԥۖᇔ޾෾ᡩ҅ࣁᬢஓᬦᑕӾ᮷ׁᩢԭӧݶጱኞாᔮᕹ̶Maintenance of genetic diversity Genetic diversity is the variety of genes between and within species populations. Genetic diversity distinguishes different breeds or races from each other thus providing the basis for locally well-adapted cultivars and a gene pool for further developing commercial crops and livestock. Some habitats have an exceptionally high number of species which makes them more genetically diverse than others and are known as 'biodiversity hotspots'. ᭳փग़໏௔ฎ೰ᐿᗭᳵ޾ᐿᗭٖጱचࢩग़໏௔̶᭳փग़໏௔ਖ਼ӧݶߝᐿ౲ᐿ෧܄ړ୏๶҅՗ᘒԅ୮ࣈᭇଫᜉঅጱߝᐿ޾ᬰӞྍݎ઀ࠟӱ֢ᇔ޾ᇗኻጱचࢩପ൉׀ԧचᏐ̶ӞԶኞहጱᇔᐿහᰁᇙڦग़҅ᬯֵ஑ਙժጱ᭳փग़໏௔ṛԭٌ՜ኞह҅ᤩᑍԅʼnኞᇔग़໏௔ᅾᅩŊ̶Cultural services: These include the non-material benefits people obtain from contact with ecosystems. They include aesthetic, spiritual and psychological benefits. Recreation and mental and physical health Walking and playing sports in green space is not only a good form of physical exercise but also lets people relax. The role that green space plays in maintaining mental and physical health is increasingly being recognized, despite difficulties of measurement. ࣁᖖࣈӤවྍ̵ᬩۖӧՐฎᐿᲷᅫ୵ୗ҅ᬮᚆᦏՈනຂ̶Ոժ᩼๶᩼ᦊݢᖖࣈ੒כ೮᫝ஞ؋଼ጱ֢አ̶Tourism Ecosystems and biodiversity play an important role for many kinds of tourism which in turn provides considerable economic benefits and is a vital source of income for many countries. ኞாᔮᕹ޾ኞᇔग़໏௔੒ᦜग़ᔄࣳጱ෢჋ӱ᩸፳᯿ᥝጱ֢አ҅ᘒᬯԶ෢჋ӱ݈ԅᦜग़ࢵਹ൉׀ԧݢᥡጱᕪၧපፅ޾᯿ᥝጱතف๶რ̶Aesthetic appreciation and inspiration for culture, art and design Language, knowledge and the natural environment have been intimately related throughout human history. Biodiversity, ecosystems and natural landscapes have been the source of inspiration for much of our art, culture and increasingly for science. ᧍᥺̵Ꭳᦩ޾ᛔᆐሾहࣁՈᔄܲݥӾํ፳ੂڔጱᘶᔮ̶ኞᇔग़໏௔̵ኞாᔮᕹ޾ᛔᆐวᥡӞፗฎՈᔄᜏ๞̵෈۸޾ᑀ਍ጱᅎఽ๶რ̶Spiritual experience and sense of place In many parts of the world natural features such as specific forests, caves or mountains are considered sacred or have a religious meaning. Nature is a common element of all major religions and traditional knowledge, and associated customs are important for creating a sense of belonging. ࣁӮኴጱᦜग़ࣈො҅᧘ইᇙਧጱ༏຋̵၏ᑩ౲ઊᚉᒵᛔᆐᇙ஄ᤩᦊԅฎᐟࣀጱ౲ٍํਤර఺Ԏ̶ᛔᆐฎಅํԆᥝਤර޾փᕹᎣᦩጱوݶزᔰ҅ፘىጱԟח੒ԭڠ᭜୭ંఽஉ᯿ᥝ̶   108 Appendix 4 Data of respondents reported low level of satisfaction to the community  ID Age Profession Education Length of Residence Neighborly Relations Participation 1 58 25-34 Administrator Graduate 1-3yrs 2 1 2 68 25-34 Social worker Undergraduate < 1yr 1 1 3 116 35-44 Residents with a job High school > 5yrs 4 1 4 133 35-44 Residents with a job High school 3-5yrs 4 3 5 136 25-34 Residents with a job Undergraduate 3-5yrs 4 4 6 137 55-64 Residents with a job Undergraduate > 5yrs 4 4 7 152 35-44 Residents with a job Undergraduate < 1yr 2 1 8 153 35-44 Residents with a job Undergraduate 1-3 yr 2 1 9 156 45-54 Residents with a job High school 3-5 yrs 4 2 10 162 65 and above Residents with a job  High school 1-3 yrs 3 2   109   Appendix 5 Demographic features of those who reported both positive neighborly relations and active citizen participation ID Age Profession Education Length of Residence Neighborly Relations Participation 42 25-34 4 Undergraduate 3 4 3 43 25-34 3 Graduate 3 3 4 44 25-34 4 Undergraduate 3 4 4 49 25-34 4 Undergraduate 4 4 4 51 35-44 3 Graduate 1 4 3 59 25-34 3 Undergraduate 3 3 4 63 25-34 3 Undergraduate 1 3 3 66 25-34 4 Graduate 3 3 3 69 25-34 5 Undergraduate 4 4 3 80 35-44 2 Undergraduate 4 4 3 82 65 and above 2 Undergraduate 5 4 3 93 25-34 5 Undergraduate 5 4 3 100 18-24 5 Undergraduate 3 3 3 103 25-34 5 Undergraduate 3 4 3 104 25-34 5 Undergraduate 3 4 4 105 25-34 5 Graduate 3 4 3 107 25-34 5 Graduate 3 4 3 109 35-44 5 Graduate 3 4 4 110 35-44 5 Undergraduate 5 3 3 112 35-44 5 High school 4 4 3 113 45-54 5 Undergraduate 4 4 3 126 45-54 4 Undergraduate 3 4 4 127 25-34 4 Undergraduate 3 4 4 128 35-44 3 Graduate 5 4 4 130 35-44 3 Graduate 5 4 4 133 35-44 5 High school 4 4 3 135 45-54 6 High school 4 4 3 136 25-34 5 Undergraduate 4 4 4 137 35-44 5 Undergraduate 5 4 4 140 55-64 6 High school 4 4 3 141 65 and above 6 High school 4 4 3 143 65 and above 6 High school 4 4 3 145 55-64 6 High school 4 4 3 146 55-64 6 High school 4 4 3 154 25-34 5 Graduate 5 4 4 155 25-34 5 Undergraduate 2 4 3 157 35-44 5 Graduate 3 3 3 159 65 and above 5 High school 5 4 4 165 55-64 6 High school 4 4 3 166 55-64 6 Undergraduate 4 4 3 168 55-64 6 High school 5 4 3      


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