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Chunhyang-ga as pansori-style opera : a guide for performing pansori with classically-trained singers… Klippenstein, Jason Abram 2019

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CHUNHYANG-GA AS PANSORI-STYLE OPERA: A GUIDE FOR PERFORMINGPANSORI WITH CLASSICALLY-TRAINED SINGERS OUTSIDE OF KOREAbyJason Abram KlippensteinB.Mus., The University of Manitoba, 2008M.Mus., The University of Manitoba, 2014A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES(Voice)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)June 2019© Jason Abram Klippenstein, 2019The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate andPostdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the dissertation entitled:CHUNHYANG-GA AS PANSORI-STYLE OPERA: A GUIDE FOR PERFORMINGPANSORI WITH CLASSICALLY-TRAINED SINGERS OUTSIDE OF KOREAsubmitted by Jason Abram Klippenstein in the partial fulfillment of the requirements forthe degree of Doctor of Musical Artsin VoiceExamining Committee:Professor Nancy HermistonSupervisor Dr. Nathan HesselinkSupervisory Committee Member Professor J. Patrick RafterySupervisory Committee Member Dr. Herbert RosengartenUniversity ExaminerDr. Donald BakerUniversity ExaminerAdditional Supervisory Committee Members:Dr. Paul StanwoodDefence ChairDr. Chan ParkExternal ExaminerDr. Hilary Finchum-SungExternal ExamineriiAbstractMy love of Korean traditional vocal music stemmed from my two years of living and working near Seoul as an English teacher. Upon returning to Canada, I entered a Masters program inmusic which required the performance of a recital. Choosing a Korean art song cycle for this recital sparked my research into other Korean vocal art forms. From this, I discovered changgeuk, which is commonly referred to as “Korean Traditional Opera,” and subsequently pansori, a traditional form of Korean sung storytelling on which changgeuk is based. A continued curiosity in these two traditional art forms during my UBC doctoral studies inspired me to question whether there was an in-road for classically-trained singers in North America to perform them, and led to this creative-interpretive thesis project.The purpose of this thesis, which includes a dissertation and performance project, is to provide an example of a possible guide and template for individuals or institutions interested in presenting an opera production of pansori material. It provides an overview of pansori's theory, historical background, and repertoire; the basics and history of changgeuk; details of the production process for my Lecture-Recital performance (singing Korean, transcribing a vocal score, arranging full scores, directing the drama, and presenting suitable visual aspects); and a distilling of the successes and challenges of this project into suggestions on how future productions of pansori opera may be presented effectively. A great deal of the experience I gained from this project involved navigating the adaptations necessary for performing this traditional Korean source material with the resources available to me in a non-Korean location.I plan to expand this thesis project into a full opera production and hope that my efforts may encourage others to experiment with similar hybrids using traditional musical-theatrical material. iiiUltimately, the goal is to establish such cross-cultural experiments as a more frequent source for opera productions, increasing exposure and interest in the traditions on which they are based.ivLay SummaryThis thesis, which includes a dissertation and performance project, provides a guide for individuals or institutions interested in basing an opera production on material from a traditional form of Korean sung storytelling called pansori. It provides an overview of pansori's theory, historical background, and repertoire; the basics and history of changgeuk; details of the production process for my Lecture-Recital performance (singing Korean, transcribing a vocal score, arranging full scores, directing the drama, and presenting suitable visual aspects); and a distilling of the successes and challenges of this project into suggestions on how future productions of pansori opera may be presented effectively. Ultimately, the goal is to establish such cross-cultural experiments as amore frequent source for opera productions, increasing exposure and interest in the traditions on which they are based.vPrefaceThis dissertation is an original, unpublished, independent work by the author, Jason Abram Klippenstein. All transcriptions are based on tracks from the 2011 5-CD Pansori recording of 춘향가(Chunhyang-ga) by Shin Young-hee (신영희; 1942-) and produced by  로엔엔터테인먼트 (Lo-en Entertainment). Of the four excerpts transcribed, buk drum transcriptions (in common buk notation) for the three chosen excerpts of the Lecture-Recital (tracks #11, 29, & 47 in a cumulative numberingof the 5-CD set) were provided by Gina Choi.viTable of ContentsAbstract.........................................................................................................................................iiiLay Summary.................................................................................................................................vPreface............................................................................................................................................viTable of Contents.........................................................................................................................viiList of Tables..................................................................................................................................xList of Supplementary Material..................................................................................................xiChosen System of Romanization................................................................................................xiiGlossary.......................................................................................................................................xivAcknowledgements.....................................................................................................................xxiChapter 1: Introduction................................................................................................................11.1 Inspiration.....................................................................................................................11.2 Purpose..........................................................................................................................11.3 Literature Review..........................................................................................................2Chapter 2: Pansori, Changgeuk, and My Project.......................................................................72.1 Overview of Pansori.....................................................................................................72.1.1 Pansori Repertoire........................................................................................102.1.2 Pansori's Origins...........................................................................................132.1.3 Pansori's History...........................................................................................132.2 Overview of Changgeuk.............................................................................................182.2.1 Changgeuk's Origins and History.................................................................192.3 Current Trends in Pansori and Changgeuk.................................................................212.4 My Project...................................................................................................................23viiChapter 3: Producing the Lecture-Recital Performance.........................................................263.1 Singing Korean............................................................................................................263.1.1 Syllabic Element Building............................................................................273.1.2 Vowels..........................................................................................................273.1.3 Consonants....................................................................................................283.1.4 Common Speech-to-Singing Modifications.................................................303.2 Vocal Scores – Choosing a Version, Transcribing, and Translating..........................313.3 Full Scores – Instrumentalists and Arranging.............................................................343.4 Drama – Acting and Gestures.....................................................................................383.5 Visuals – Sets, Props, and Costumes..........................................................................39Chapter 4: Potential Future Performances...............................................................................414.1 Editing and Expanding My Chunhyang-Ga................................................................414.1.1 Singing Korean.............................................................................................424.1.2 Vocal Scores.................................................................................................434.1.3 Full Scores....................................................................................................444.1.4 Drama............................................................................................................464.1.5 Visuals...........................................................................................................474.2 Choices........................................................................................................................494.3 Difficulties – Old as New............................................................................................534.4 Significance.................................................................................................................54Bibliography.................................................................................................................................59Appendices....................................................................................................................................64Appendix  A Scores.......................................................................................................65A. 1 Transcription Scores..........................................................................................65viiiA. 2 Voice-Buk Scores...............................................................................................80A. 3 Mini-Sized Full Scores....................................................................................117A. 4 Buk Transcriptions in Buk Notation.................................................................152Appendix  B Synopsis of Chunhyang-ga....................................................................159ixList of TablesTable 1: RR Vowel Letters............................................................................................................xiiTable 2: RR Consonant Letters......................................................................................................xiiTable 3: Special RR Previous Ending-Following Initial Consonant Combinations.....................xiiixList of  Supplementary MaterialVideo 1: DMA Lecture-Recital – PerformanceVideo 2: DMA Lecture-Recital – LecturexiChosen System of RomanizationDue to my relatively recent introduction to Korean society compared to the primary scholars on this topic, I have chosen to use the Revised Romanization (RR) of Korea instituted in 2000 instead of the McCune-Reischauer system commonly used in my source material. This is the romanization system currently used for all transportation signage in South Korea. It follows the standard pronunciation of Korean and is easiest for typing as it uses only letters from the basic 26-letter English alphabet. For the Korean names of modern scholars and performers, I have followed their commonly used form for reference purposes, when applicable. In the case of historical names that appear in the literature in a mixture of forms, I have again chosen the RR system.From the Wikipedia page on the Revised Romanization of Hangeul, the following contains tables delineating the transcription of Roman letters derived from the hangeul characters and their combinations in this system:Hangeul ㅏㅐㅑ ㅒ ㅓㅔ ㅕ ㅖㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚㅛㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠㅡㅢ ㅣRomanization a ae ya yae eo e yeo ye o wa wae oe yo u wo we wi yu eu ui iTable 1 RR Vowel lettersHangeul ㄱㄲㄴㄷㄸㄹㅁㅂㅃㅅㅆㅇㅈㅉㅊㅋㅌㅍ ㅎ RomanizationInitial g kk n d tt r m b pp s ss – j jj ch k t p h Final k k n t – l m p – t t ng t – t k t p t Table 2 RR Consonant lettersxiiㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㄹ are usually transcribed as g, d, b, and r when appearing before a vowel, and as k, t, p, and l when followed by another consonant or when appearing at the end of a word.Following InitialPrevious endingㅇ ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ – g n d r m b s j ch k t p hㄱ k g kg ngn kd ngn ngm kb ks kj kch k-k kt kp kh, kㄴ n n n-g nn nd ll, nn nm nb ns nj nch nk nt np nh ㄷ t d, j tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch ㄹ l r lg ll, nn ld ll lm lb ls lj lch lk lt lp lh ㅁ m m mg mn md mn mm mb ms mj mch mk mt mp mh ㅂ p b pg mn pd mn mm pb ps pj pch pk pt p-p ph, pㅅ t s tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch ㅇ ng ng- ngg ngn ngd ngn ngm ngb ngs ngj ngch ngk ngt ngp ngh ㅈ t j tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch ㅊ t ch tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch ㅌ t t, ch tg nn td nn nm tb ts tj tch tk t-t tp th, t, ch ㅎ t h k nn t nn nm p hs ch tch tk tt tp tTable 3 Special RR for Previous Ending-Following Initial Consonant CombinationsThe revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the ending consonant of a character and the initial consonant of the next like Hanguk → Hangugeo. These significant changes occur for the combinations highlighted in italics in Table 3.Note that phonetic changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed and phonological changes are reflected where ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ. However, aspirated sounds are not reflected in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ.xiiiGlossaryaak (아악) – Korean traditional court music imported from Chinaajaeng (아쟁) – a bowed zither, derived from the Chinese yazheng, originally used seven strings but modern versions may have eight or nineaniri (아니리) – spoken text of a pansori performanceballim (발림) – stock gestures employed by a pansori singer as part of their story-telling/-singingbatang (바탕) – label for each of the works in the pansori repertoire; aka. madang (마당)bel canto – Italian for “beautiful singing;” common to singers of opera, especially Italian operas from the 17th-19th centuriesboncheong (본청)– the principal tone of the Korean pentatonic modes (jo): gyemyeonjo and ujobuk (북) – a barrel drum played primarily as part of pansori, pungmul, and samulnori; also the generic Korean term for “drum”bunchang (분창) – “dialogue singing;” a precursor to changgeuk where multiple pansori singers would divide the roles of the performance but only a small amount of set pieces or costuming, like ipchechangchanggeuk (창극) – performances of pansori and pansori-style material with multiple singers portraying the different roles; usually performed with a set, props, and costumes and on a theatre-style stagechuimsae (추임새) – calls of encouragement given by the drummer and audience to the singer in a pansori performanceCommedia dell'arte – an early Italian form of professional theatre popular around Europe from 16th-18th centuries; these troupes specialized in the portrayal of archetypal characters with stock, easy-to-understand gesturesxivdaegeum (대금) – a large transverse bamboo seven-hole flute with a buzzing membranedang-ak (당악) – Korean traditional court music with a mixture of Chinese and Korean influencesdeoneum (더늠) – a master pansori singer's singing of the melody, songwriting, and skill specializations for a specific portion of a pansori story; they may show mastery at more than one piecedochang (도창) – the narrator of a changgeuk performancedongpyeongje (동편재) – the Eastern school of the pansori educational tradition; known for specialization in the ujo style of singing with little elaboration of the melodyeotcheong (엇청) – “modulating/irregular tone;” label given to the tone above the principal tone (boncheong) of the gyemyeonjo pansori pentatonic mode (jo) that usually equals the sub-dominant pitch (fourth above the principal) eotjungmori (엇중모리) – rhythmic jangdan consisting of half of a jungmori cycle (6/4 = 6x1); it is rarely used in pansori but can be when the text refers to something in the pasteotmori (엇모리) – rhythmic jangdan equivalent to 10/8 time with an alternating triple/duple meter switch; it “depicts a mysterious or uncanny scene with a heroic figure.”erhu – a Chinese two-stringed, vertically-played spike fiddle with a rod-like neck and hollow soundbox; very similar to a Korean haegeum-ga (-가) – song or tale; used for all titles of pansori's five great songs and for popular individual scenes from these larger works; ex. Sarang-ga (love song) from Chunhyang-gagak (각) – standard subdivision unit common to jangdangagok (가곡) – long lyrical art songgayageum (가야금) – twelve-stringed finger-plucked Korean zithergayageum pyeongchang (  가야금평창) – a short-lived trend started by gayageum players who wouldperform pansori repertoire while accompanying themselves on their instrumentxvgeomungo (거문고) – six-stringed stick-plucked Korean zithergisaeng (기생) – female entertainers who studied and performed poetry, music, dance, and art; originally slaves of local and central government, they were freed during the Gabo Reforms (1894–1896) shortly after Japanese Annexation begangisaeng johap (  기생조합) – traditional organization of female entertainers; precursors to gwonbeon at the begnning of Japanese Annexationgosu (고수) – pansori drummergugak (국악) – national musicgwangdae (광대) – folk entertainer; common label for the singing storyteller in a pansori performancegwangi (관기) – traditional organization of female entertainers (gisaeng) affliated with central and local governmentgwonbeon (권번) – organizations began near the beginning of Japanese Annexation that trained and educated gisaeng; took the place of gyobang after gisaeng were granted their freedom as part of the Gabo Reforms (1894–1896)gyemyeonjo (계면조) – the melodic mode associated with a feminine, sad, tragic, and elaborate sound; commonly used to label the mi-so-la-do-re pentatonic mode with “la” as its principal tone popular with some pansori singersgyobang (교방) – pre-Japanese Annexation building where gisaeng would train in poetry, music, dance, and arthaegeum (해금) – a two-stringed, vertically-played fiddle with a rod-like neck and hollow soundbox;very similar to the Chinese erhuhangeul (한글) – the name of the Korean alphabet created in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great (1397-1450)xvihojang (호장) – the male head of a gyobang; kept the registry of gisaeng and took efforts to prevent these women from escaping their position as slave of the governmenthwimori (휘모리) – the fastest rhythmic jangdan; written as a rapid 4/4 with a duple sub-division; used for frantic or busy pieces in the storyhyangak (향악) – purely Korean-based traditional court musicimyeon (이면) – inner dimension of pansori singing, comparable to subtext in opera singingipchechang (입채창) – three-dimensional singing; a precursor to changgeuk where multiple pansori singers would divide the roles of the performance but only a small amount of set pieces or costuming, like bunchangjangdan (장단) – rhythmic cycles in Korean traditional musicjanggu (장구) – double-headed hourglass-shaped drum generally played with one stick and one handjing (징) – a large suspended gongjinyangjo (진양조) – slowest rhythmic jangdan that usually consists of eighteen (6x3) or twenty-four(6x4) beats for each repeated pattern; it is used for sorrowful songsjo (조) – commonly refers to the melodic framework of a pansori piece, similar to a Western mode or key; also may refer to the appropriate vocal timbre and emotionje (제) – school of pansori; the most developed over its history have been seopyeonje (Western), dongpyeonje (Eastern), and junggoje (Central) but other more personalized sub-schools exist; examples are: dongchoje (from Jeong Jeongnyeol's pen-name Dongcho) and manjeongje (fromKim Soheui's pen-name Manjeong) junggoje (중고제) – the Central school of the pansori educational tradition; known as a mixture of the styles from the Western and Eastern schoolsjungjungmori (중중모리) – rhythmic jangdan more up-tempo than jungmori; can be notated as 12/8 but divides the twelve beats into 4x3; for more cheerful piecesxviijungmori (중모리) – rhythmic jangdan at a more moderate tempo than jinyangjo; normally notated as 12/4, in a 6x2 pattern; used to accompany songs with either a peaceful or sorrowful qualitykabuki – traditional Japanese dance-drama known for its elaborate make-up and stylized actingkkeokkneuncheong (꺾는청) – “downward-breaking tone;”  label given to tones above the principal tone (boncheong) of pansori pentatonic modes (jo) that usually lead to a lower pitch in the melodic linekkwaenggwari (꽹과리) – a small gong used primarily in Korean folk musicManjeongjae (만정제) – the name of Kim Soheui's mixed-school version; based on her pen-name Manjeong, a portmanteau of her teacher(s) of Eastern-school heritage,Song Mangap (and Kim Sejong), and her Western-school teacher, Jeong Jeongnyeolminyo (민요) – Korean folk musicmuga (무가) – shamanistic ritualsmuhyeong munhwajae gineung boyuja (  무형문화재기능보유자) – 'an artist emblematic of intangible cultural properties' (Um, 218)myeongchang (명창) – master singer; traditional title given to the great pansori singers of specific erasnoreumsae (노름세) – the dramatic gestures of the pansori performer that follow the emotions of thecharacters being created by the gwangdaeodaega (오대가) – “five great songs;” label given to the five works in the pansori repertoire that have maintained their popularity from the pansori hey-day of the 18th century up to the modernday: Chunhyang-ga, Heungbo-ga, Sugung-ga, Simcheong-ga, and Jeokbyeok-ga.pansori (판소리) – combination of “space or stage” and “sound or song;” current label for Korea's dramatic storytelling/-singing traditionpiri (피리) – double-reeded cylindrical oboe with a bamboo bodyxviiipungmul (풍물) – traditional Korean percussion-based folk music with a mixture of drumming, dancing, and singingpyeongjo (평조) – the melodic mode associated with a peaceful, placid, and calm sound; commonly used to label the sol-la-do-re-fa pentatonic mode with “do” as its principal tone; not popular with most pansori singerssamulnori (사물놀이) – a form of pungmul where performers are seated so there is no dancing; this genre name grew out of one group from 1978sanjo (산조) – “scattered melodies;” a form of Korean folk music played at a faster tempo and without pause; usually involves a melodic instrument such as the gayageum or ajaeng matchedby the rhythmic janggusemachi (세마치) – rhythmic jangdan variation used as a faster jinyangjo for folk-songs; was popular with one singer who employed it like a 9/8 pattern in the late 18th centurysogeum (소금) – a small transverse bamboo seven-hole flute without buzzing membrane seopyeonje (서편제) – the Western school of the pansori educational tradition; known for specialization in the gyemyeongjo style of singing with large amounts of elaboration of the melodyshinpa (신파) – Japanese-style staged popular drama; like kabukisori (소리) – sound; also refers to songstaepyeongso (태평소) – a double-reed conical oboe with a metal mouthpiece, a wooden eight-holed body, and a cup-shaped metal bell taryeong (타령) – ballads or tunes; used for all titles of the less popular pansori works from the old twelve-story listsxixtteoneuncheong (떠는청) – “undulating/trembling tone;” label given to the tone below the principal tone (boncheong) of pansori pentatonic modes (jo) that usually equals the dominant pitch (fourth below the principal)tomak sori (토막소리) – “short singing;” performing an excerpt of a pansori storytori (토리) – regions delineated along the Korean peninsula based on their “styles of labor, ritual, and entertainment music, verbal and non-verbal”ujo (우조) – the melodic mode associated with a masculine, noble, cheerful, bright, and direct sound;commonly used to label the sol-la-do-re-mi scale with “do” as its principal tone popular with some pansori singersverismo – Italian for “realism;” a post-Romantic era opera trend attributed to a group of Italian composers (such as Mascagni, Leoncavallo, Cilea, and Puccini)wanchang (완창) – “complete singing;” a full-length performance of a pansori storyyeonchang (연창) – “consecutive singing;” name given to pre-changgeuk trend of alternating solo pansori singers throughout a performanceyeoseong gukkeuk (여성국극) – a form of changgeuk involving only women playing the male and female rolesyupa (유파) – alternative name for a school of pansorixxAcknowledgementsI would like to thank Professor Nancy Hermiston for her continued support of both my operatic and academic endeavors. The performing opportunities she has provided me and the financial support she has secured for me over the years of my doctoral studies allowed me to grow asa performer and be able to focus as much of my attention as I could on the vocation that I love.Dr. Nathan Hesselink has been a wonderful academic supervisor and course professor during my time at UBC. I have never received feedback on my writing that has been as positive as what he has provided me even though it still challenges me and guides me in an effective direction. For this and his guidance throughout the development of this project and dissertation, I am deeply grateful.I thank J. Patrick Raftery for helping me prepare for the university-level professorial positionI hope to attain one day by involving me with numerous small tasks that he has been completing towards progression of his rank at UBC.I had a wonderful time collaborating with all of the singers and instrumentalists who were willing to join me in preparation and execution of this project's Lecture-Recital performance. Thank you for all of your effort given in such a short time-frame: Ye-eun, Justin, Matt M, Luka, Matt K, Yuhui, Gina, Lyla, Shanti-Ella, Nathania, Marie, Joanna, and Abigail.Son Hyunseung, aka “Tom,” aided me in navigating the most difficult parts of my Korean-to-English translations: the Chinese characters, the dialect, and the antiquated language. Throughout many conversations in passing, he exposed tidbits of misinformation or debated issues that I had xxigained from specific sources and provided me with better direction in my research on those topics. Lastly, he connected me to a pansori student of Shin Young-hee's, Han Areum. This young lady, in turn, helped me, my wife, and my son gain an audience with the master on whose recordings I wouldbase my transcriptions.I would also like to thank Dr. Iain Taylor for his help in the formation and editing of this dissertation document.Lastly, I would like to thank my wife, son, and other family members for their continuing love, support, time, and patience throughout my many years of study.xxiiChapter 1: Introduction1.1 InspirationWhile living and teaching English in South Korea from 2010 to 2012, I was immersed in a culture that had progressed technologically at a tremendous rate in recent decades yet was full of opportunities to showcase its rich traditional (ie. pre-Japanese annexation) heritage, especially in terms of history, architecture, and music. At the time, I did not know how pervasive the temporal dichotomy was within the national consciousness of modern-day South Korean society or that an established government mandate (“Cultural Property Preservation Act” of 1962) was behind the promotion of thesetraditional aspects to my specific demographic as a member of the international community. The juxtaposed displays of old and new Korean culture attracted me to the foreign world that I had entered. As a musician, the folk-song music (minyo) that accompanied most of the Cultural Heritage sites that I visited, either in live performances or via recordings, was particularly influential in sparking my first desires to create a cross-cultural connection between pansori and opera. 1.2 PurposeMy goal in this project is to create a template for opera programs and companies so that they may expand their performance repertoire to include the dramatic musical stories from Korea's cultural heritage: specifically, those from their pansori tradition and the changgeuk theatre that developed from it. A large part of this template involves showing how I have navigated the adaptations necessary for performing this traditional Korean source material with the resources available to me in a non-Korean location, so that others may be better prepared for the choices they will have to make in a similar situation.1Ideally, performances that create a hybrid of opera and pansori will aid in increasing awareness of the pansori tradition among international companies and audiences that are accustomed to presenting and consuming operatic material. The beautiful spirit of pansori stories and music has been passed down through aural traditions for hundreds of years, thus professional singers, directors, and conductors from a European classical background will need to learn how to be sensitive to the language, music, movement, and cultural norms of traditional Korea if they are to recreate this beauty effectively. The detailed framework for North American opera companies and universities that I propose should make this material more accessible. Ultimately, the goal is to establish such cross-cultural experiments as a more frequent source for opera productions, increasing exposure and interest in the traditions on which they are based.1.3 Literature ReviewThe five texts that became core resources for my research have informed and influenced my approach to maintaining the pansori aspects throughout the development process of my pansori-opera hybrid Lecture-Recital performance. They are largely similar in their historical and theoretical content regarding pansori and changgeuk but each have unique, in-depth insights. Different aspects of the performance process are also explained by the authors of these texts from their specialized research andperformance perspectives.The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts' Pansori (the second book in their 2008 Korean Musicology Series) is a collection of an introduction and six chapters that is designed to be an English-language overview of pansori providing an access point for those new to this genre. Each chapter is written by a different scholar in this field, three of whom are not of Korean heritage. They progress from topics of history and theory, through the more specific focal points of 2myeongchang (master singers), changgeuk, and pansori's relationship to literature, and end with pansori's recording history. The Introduction and History chapters written by Lee Yong-Shik1 and Kim Kee Hyung,2 respectively, helped me greatly in cementing a framework of general knowledge on whichto add more specific observations from the other scholars. In Kim Kyung-hee's chapter on the musical theory of pansori,3 the first section lays out the rhythmic patterns of Korean folk music, many of whichare employed in pansori. The following section on melodic modes clearly displays the common jo (modes), ujo and gyemyeonjo, in terms of style and pentatonic framework from which early pansori likely came. It acknowledges that these frameworks do not cover all of the more complicated, personalized pansori melodic material that has developed among some lineages, especially the florid style attributed to singers from the seopyeonje western school. The remainder of Kim's chapter expandsupon the numerous pansori singing techniques, expounds the necessity of subtext (imyeon – “the inner dimension”) in performance, and provides examples of how popular songs have traditionally been added into pansori works. Heather Willoughby's chapter on the master singers of pansori4 includes quotes of Shin Younghee gained from interviews with this recognized master. Willoughby's words expanded my understanding of pansori's oral traditions into a more vivid picture with her biographies and descriptions of every member in the line of transmission from the founder of the dongpyeongje (Eastern school), Song Heungrok (ca. 1800-1864), to a student of Shin Younghee's, Lee Ju-eum (b. 1972). Both Dr. Andrew P. Killick's chapter on changgeuk5 and Dr. Chan Park's on pansori's connection to literature6 contained information that was included in their full-length published books, 1 Lee Yong-Shik, 2008, “Introduction,” in Pansori, Korean Musicology Series 2 (Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts), 1-2.2 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, “Chapter I: History of Pansori,” in Pansori, 3-29.3 Kim Kyung-hee, 2008, “Chapter II: Theory of Pansori,” in Pansori, 31-69.4 Heather Willoughby, 2008, “Chapter III: Pansori Master Singers,” in Pansori, 71-96.5 Andrew Killick, 2008, “Chapter IV: Korean Opera, Changgeuk,” in Pansori, 97-127.6 Chan E. Park, 2008, “Chapter V: Pansori in the View of Literature,” in Pansori, 129-162.3which I had accessed earlier than this one, so I have not referenced these chapters in my dissertation. The final chapter on recording pansori was not applicable to the scope of my project.Killick's In Search of Korean Traditional Opera7 was the first resource I found as I began my research. At that early stage, I viewed the parameters of what I hoped to do as being most closely related to changgeuk instead of pansori, and his name was always the first to come up in any searches Idid on “Korean Traditional Opera” because his material has always been written through the perspective of a changgeuk enthusiast. His book begins with an example of a changgeuk performance that he experienced during his research. It introduces pansori as the precursor to changgeuk's history and goes through changgeuk-based topics for the remainder of the pages. With every other scholar on this subject, pansori dominates in the amount of attention it is given and changgeuk comes up during the discussion of pansori trends starting in the twentieth century. Killick's chapters on the trends and politics of changgeuk's history are much more extensive than in the other literature on this core list. These cover: changgeuk's place in Japan-colonized Korea, its trend involving women-only performing troupes, its failure to gain the same “traditional” status as pansori, and its aspirations in the current musical climate of South Korea. All of Killick's other articles listed in my Bibliography contain information incorporated into this 2010 book.In Yeonok Jang's 2014 Korean P'ansori Singing Tradition,8 she develops unique historical theories pertaining to pansori's origins and its trends before the twentieth century. Her research reveals that one popular trend before the 19th century was the use of clear, open-throated, bel canto-like singingamong pansori performers. This directly opposes the current iconic public characterization of all pansori singers; namely, a vocal production which comes from restrictive tension in the throat and 7 Andrew P. Killick, 2010, In Search of Korean Traditional Opera: Discourses of Ch'angguk (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press).8 Jang Yeon-Ok, 2014, Korean P'ansori Singing Tradition: Development, Authenticity, and Performance History (Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press).4possesses a rough, raw timbre. She also brings to light the possibility that pansori may have been a solosinging art without a drummer before circa 1843 as she did not find references to pansori drumming in texts written before this year. After five chapters on the history of pansori from its development to current-day performances, the final chapter of Jang's book provides a comparative study of different pansori singers from the dongpyeonje (eastern school) style singing the same song from Chunhyang-ga.From Chan Park's 2003 Voices from the Straw Mat,9 I gained further historical and theoretical information regarding pansori. What I particularly enjoyed was the way her text flowed intertwined with personal insights gained as a pansori singer. She also included a variety of personalized notation from different stages in the development of her performance material. As a performer myself, I felt comfort in gaining this applied knowledge from her less formal, more holistic approach. Her writing embodies a balance that is held as a virtue within the pansori repertoire: her book contains just as manypansori texts and translations as tables and figures, her chapter titles fight the static nature of the written word through a sense of action with their -ing endings, and the target audience seems to includeboth those who are interested in experiencing pansori and those who would like to perform it. She currently teaches at the Ohio State University and performs mainly for audiences of English speakers so her insight into the dynamics of presenting this material to North Americans has been invaluable during preparations for my pansori-based project. Her explanation of the power of the straw mat in pansori will influence every performance of this material that I produce in the future.Um Haekyung's Korean Musical Drama: P'ansori and the Making of Tradition in Modernity10 contains separate chapters for history, theory, and many excerpts of pansori texts with translations but highlights the different performance-based elements in a similar way to Dr. Park's book. Although the 9 Chan E. Park, 2003, Voices from the Straw Mat (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press).10 Um Hae-Kyung, 2013, Korean Musical Drama: P'ansori and the Making of Tradition in Modernity (Surrey, England: Ashgate).5gayageum and gagok vocal music have been the focus of Um's research, the details in her chapters on Text and Music, Schools and Styles, and Individual Styles come close to the hands-on perspective of a pansori performer. I appreciated her numerous musical excerpts presented as transcriptions on five-lined staves. They were a feature of this book to which I could personally relate, as this style of transcribing was a difficult part of my thesis project. As a pansori researcher but vocal performer of non-pansori music, I feel that transcribing pansori into standard European classical notation and explaining what aspects I was unable to capture through this method is more effective than presenting the personalized notation of others and accompanying it with a second-hand explanation. Perhaps Um felt the same way. The final chapters of this book regarding Pansori in Diaspora and New Pansori provided more examples and explanations on these topics than is to be found in the other books.6Chapter 2: Pansori, Changgeuk, and My ProjectThe purpose of this chapter is to provide background information regarding pansori and changgeuk for the English-language intended audience of this thesis: those who are active participants in and consumers of Classical music and opera across the world, especially in North America and Europe. I am aware of the large and varied literature on these topics in Korean and the limits of my ability to thoroughly read everything that exists on this topic in its native language. My aim is not to summarize or necessarily synthesize this body of material. I am only addressing those sources that havebeen published in English to provide a basic context for readers unfamiliar with the tradition or what has been said about it. With the Lecture-Recital being the focus of this dissertation, an understanding ofthis context is needed to recognize which elements of this performance are derived from pansori material and which are creative additions meant to build a stronger connection between Korean traditions and an international audience.2.1 Overview of PansoriKorea's dramatic storytelling/-singing tradition in its current state involves performances of one gwangdae (singer) and one gosu (drummer) who plays the buk barrel drum. This musical genre has been given many names over time11 but since the late 19th century/early 20th century it has been referredto as pan-sori (space-sound/song).12 A full performance (wanchang) is from 3 to 8 hours long,13 and is made up of sori (song), aniri (speaking), and ballim (gesture), supported by the drummer through 11 Bongsa, taryeong, jabga, changgeukjo, chang, and sori make up a compiled list from the introductions of my two National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts Pansori sources.12 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 3.13 Um, 17.7jangdan (rhythmic cycles) and chuimsae (calls of encouragement). Audience members are also called to be active participants in this process with their own chuimsae.The style of singing that is currently taught as appropriate for pansori and valued by audiences is one which uses husky, raw, and pressed colours in the voice instead of being focused on the efficient use of breath and clarity of tone as in the bel canto style. In the last two-hundred years or so, the outpouring of emotions in this rough vocalism has stirred the hearts of pansori audiences, even though this singing would be considered “ugly” to the ears of those accustomed to bel canto sounds.Melodies in pansori are sung in three common jo (modes). The three jo are ujo, gyemyeonjo, and pyeongjo. Ujo is commonly described with adjectives such as masculine, noble, cheerful, bright, and direct; gyemyeonjo with feminine, sad, tragic, and elaborate; and pyeongjo with peaceful, placid, and calm. Ujo and gyemyeonjo are used most often in pansori; pyeongjo is rarely mentioned in the most basic explanations of this music. Some theorists of pansori attribute a specific pentatonic scale to each jo: gyemyeonjo uses mi-so-la-do-re in solfege with the “la” as the boncheong (principal or mediant tone), while ujo makes a sol-la-do-re-mi scale with “do” as its boncheong.14 To the ears of European and American audiences, they have the qualities of sounding minor and major, respectively. These scales may account for the foundational aspects of singers' melodies, but throughout my listeningto pansori recordings I have yet to find one that restricts him or herself to such limits. Researchers evenhave inconsistencies among their explanations of these modes as to which pitches are labelled as elaborative notes outside the core tones, but the labels of “trembling/undulating tone” (tteoneuncheong), “modulating/irregular tone” (eotcheong), and “downward-breaking tone” (kkeokkneuncheong) are common.14 Pyeongjo uses the same relative tones as ujo except that it replaces “mi” with “fa” (sol-la-do-re-fa).8The seven common rhythmic cycles (jangdan) for singing the sori of pansori are: jajinmori, jungmori, jungjungmori, jinyangjo, hwimori, eotmori, and eotjungmori. The first three are the oldest and the most common for the stories of pansori's earliest stages.15 Jajinmori is a fast, simple 12/8 with four beats subdivided into triples; it is used for scenes with an urgent or agitated atmosphere.16 As with the other two early jangdan, it is thought to have come to pansori from Korea's minyo (folksong) traditions, especially from gagok (long lyric art songs).17 Jungmori is at a more moderate tempo than the speedy jajinmori or the languid jinyangjo. While it is predominantly notated as 12/4, it may be felt as four 3-beat gak (the standard subdivision unit for this rhythmic theory) or two 6-beat gak due to where strikes between the left and right hand occur off-beat from each other within this cycle. Gosu (drummers) may use the poetry they are accompanying to determine which division is appropriate. Scenes with either a peaceful or sorrowful quality employ jungmori. Jungjungmori is more up-tempo than jungmori and divides the beat in the same way, but is more commonly felt as four 3-beat gak; it is for more cheerful pieces. Jinyangjo is the slowest jangdan and usually consists of eighteen (three 6-beat gak) or twenty-four (four 6-beat gak) beats for each repeated pattern, depending on the text that it is matching and the preferred style of the individual singer; it is used for sorrowful songs. A variation on this called semachi is only rarely used in pansori these days but has been used as a faster jinyangjo for gagok18 and was popular with one pansori singer in the late 18th century who employed it like a 9/8 pattern.19 Hwimori, the fastest jangdan, is written as a rapid 4/4 with a duple sub-division, and is used for frantic or busy pieces in the story. Eotmori is more complex than the rhythms used in early pansori,as it is a 10/8 pattern with an alternating triple/duple meter switch; it “depicts a mysterious or uncanny 15 Kim Kyung-hee, 2008, in Pansori, 33.16 Um, 70.17 Jang, 50.18 Kim Kyung-hee, 2008, in Pansori, 34.19 Jang, 51.9scene with a heroic figure.”20 Eotjungmori is half of a jungmori cycle (6/4 = one 6-beat gak) but it is rarely used in pansori; it can be used when the text refers to something in the past.21 While these are thecommon rhythmic cycles handed down from Korea's folk-song tradition, they are often just used as guidelines for a pansori performance where the singer may have the freedom to elaborate the melody atwill, add rests for breath, or cut a pattern short for dramatic emphasis. A gosu (drummer) is expected tocatch these moments of freedom; a feat that no doubt becomes easier as a gwangdae/gosu relationship matures.2.1.1 Pansori RepertoireChunhyang-ga is only one of five batang22 (“background”) works that are considered the current staples of the pansori repertoire, referred to as odaega, the “five great songs.”23 The other four are: Heungbo-ga (The Song of Heungbo), Simcheong-ga (The Song of Simcheong), Sugung-ga (The Song of the Underwater Palace), and Jeokbyeok-ga (The Song of Red Cliff). This rise to prominence is commonly attributed to the strong moral values within their narratives, as each can seemingly be encapsulated in one Confucian ideal: female fidelity to one's husband in Chunhyang-ga, brotherly love in Heungbo-ga, filial piety in Simcheong-ga, loyalty to the king in Sugung-ga, and faith among friends in Jeokbyeok-ga. While this belief is a popular and convenient way to define these pansori stories collectively, they are gross over-simplifications that both leave out other positive ethical codes (like Mongryong's filial piety when he follows his father back to Seoul)24 and gloss over character and 20 Kim Kyung-hee, 2008, in Pansori, 39.21 Um, 72.22 Joon Hee Shim, ed., 2004, Pansori (Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts), 63.23 Killick, 2010, 153.24 Um, 63.10relationship flaws within these stories (like Simcheong's father's lechery and Heungbo's seeming disinterest in his brother's greed and other negative actions prior to forgiving him).25Similar flaws are also a common reason given for the loss in popularity of the other seven stories that, along with the first five, made up the standard twelve-story repertoire established during pansori's growth in the 18th century. Lists of these seven have been made by two different scholars: Song Manjae (1788-1851) in his 1810 Gwanuhui and Jeong Noshik (?-1965) in his Joseonchanggeuksa (The History of Korean Changgeuk). They both include: Byeongangswe-taryeong (The Ballad of Byeon Gangswe), Jangkki-taryeong (The Ballad of the Cock Pheasant), Baebijang-taryeong (The Ballad of Chief Aide Bae), Onggojip-taryeong (The Ballad of Mr. Obstinancy), and Gangneungmaehwa-taryeong (The Ballad of the Apricot Blossom from Gangneung). However, they differ in their final two stories as Song Manjae includes Walja-taryeong (The Ballad of a Hussy) and Gajjasinseon-taryeong (The Ballad of the Counterfeit Immortal) while Jeong Noshik has Musugi-taryeong (The Ballad of Musugi) and Sugyeongnangja-taryeong (The Ballad of Maiden Sugyeong).26 Chan Park posits that this discrepancy has arisen because there were more than twelve batang performed in the 18th and 19th centuries but the proclivity towards strengthening information through numerical symbolism drove the authors of these lists to exclude some stories.27 The common logical reasoning for why these seven or more taryeong (ballads or tunes) were dropped from the list of great pansori songs is that they were too lewd for the nobility who began to join audiences more and more throughout the 19th century. Even though crude humour and the mixture of noble and vulgar characters are still common themes within all pansori stories, the protagonists of the odaega are all virtuous whilethose of the taryeong are not.2825 Killick, 2010, 156.26 Translations from Chan Park, 2003, 59.27 Ibid.28 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 4.11More themes pervasive throughout the odaega (to a greater degree than the taryeong) are those of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shamanism/folk beliefs. The moral values within each of these belief systems take the form of love, justice, order, and faith,29 all of which are explored in different moments of these stories. Along with Chunhyang's fidelity towards Mongryong after eight years of him being away, Chunhyang-ga also contains a scene where Chunhyang's mother prays to heaven through a Buddhist rite for her daughter to be rescued by Mongryong from jail and another where Chunhyang uses a fortune-teller, common in Korea's folk beliefs, to decipher her dreams while in jail.30 Within Simcheong-ga,  Simcheong 1) proves her filial piety (one Confucian ideal) by giving herself up as a sacrifice to the sea in order to pay for her father's sight; 2) is served heavenly justice in the form of her rebirth when she arrives back on Earth inside a lotus flower (a strong Buddhist image); and 3) is rewarded for her loving sacrifice by being made empress (following the folk belief of rewarding good/punishing evil).31 This same folk belief is presented at the end of Heungbo-ga when Heungbo is rewarded for mending an injured bird with a seed (from the bird) that produces a gourd full of riches. His brother, observing this, intentionally injures a bird in order to help it recover and receive riches himself, but is penalized with a seed that produces a gourd full of goblins.32The odaega stories have been preserved into the modern era as audio recordings while the others fell out of the common performance rotation before this technology was available; hence, these “five great songs” have more written texts and recordings available on them should someone wish to produce them in a style similar to my project. Also, living master singers still perform these, especially the most popular of the group, Chunhyang-ga. The National Changgeuk Company of Korea recently put on a newly-composed changgeuk called Madame Ong in 2014 and its plot was mainly derived from29 Willoughby, 2008, in Pansori, 92.This is from her 2006 interview of Shin Young-hee.30 Jang, 46-47.31 Ibid.32 Ibid.12the narrative Byeongangswe-taryeong (with Byeon Gangswe as the main male protagonist), but the textused in this production had to be created because the pansori lyrics for this taryeong (ballad) have not survived to the modern day.2.1.2 Pansori's OriginsPansori's origins are uncertain, as it has always been passed down from teacher to student by aural/oral tradition instead of being written down, but scholars all agree that the latest it could have possibly come into existence is in the 17th century and that it began among common people. The most common theories as to how pansori was first developed are: 1) parts of purely spoken pan plays of the Shilla dynasty (6th century to early 20th) were set to the folk songs common to that time; 2) muga (shamanistic rituals) of the Shilla dynasty that were meant to comfort dead spirits expanded into fuller stories; 3) it grew out of popular folk tales; and 4) gwangdae expanded written texts into a performanceof spoken and sung storytelling.33 Another speculation is that pansori did not begin as a two-person endeavour but adopted this format later. Pinpointing when the buk drum became an addition as part of apansori performance is also difficult; the earliest documentation mentioning this partnership states that its inclusion had become normative by 1843 at the latest.34 Essentially, pansori's murky beginnings have led academics to cite the earliest reference to something resembling it in historical documents35 and decide collectively that it originated at some point in the 17th century.2.1.3 Pansori's HistoryPansori's popularity grew throughout the 18th century, prospered in the 19th century, and began to wane at the beginning of the 20th century as Japan began taking control over Korea. 33 Um, 14.34 Ibid, 50.35 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 4.13Throughout the 18th century, pansori became a more established performing art as its repertoire of twelve stories was developed, musical elements increased in complexity, and the dramatic aspects ofthese stories were further explored by the emerging masters of the time.36  It was also in this era that “the first known historical reference to [pansori], Kasa Ch'unhyangga ibaekku (Two Hundred Lines of Chunhyangga), was written in 1754.”37 As it gained prominence, audiences enjoying it grew to include members of the higher classes even though the newly established stories contained moments of vulgar humour and all of the gwangdae were of the lowest social class.Korea in the 19th century saw the development of the three yupa (stylistic schools) most commonly associated with propagating the teaching of pansori throughout its history: dongpyeonje, seopyeonje, and junggoje. Dongpyeonje (eastern school) was started by Song Heungnok in the middle of this century; seopyeonje (western school) by Pak Yujeon near the end of it; and junggoje (central school) by Yeom Gyedal and Kim Seong-ok. The dongpyeonje style is described as predominantly in the ujo mode, concise, and with abrupt endings to phrases; seopyeonje uses gyemyeonjo most often, is full of description, and trails off at the end of phrases; and junggoje is a mixture of the two. Coupled with its relatively small lineage, the mixed nature of junggoje leads to its being left out of some descriptions of pansori's yupa. More yupa have existed based in some members from the Eastern or Western schools creating their own fusions of the two.38 Cultural lines can also be drawn across “the Korean peninsula, [in] styles of labor, ritual, and entertainment music, verbal and non-verbal,”39 to delineate five different regions (tori) for traditional Korean music in other genres. However, it is only these three middle ones (not the one that is now North Korea or the island on its south-west corner, 36 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 4-5.37 Jang, 3.38 Jang, xviii. They are gangsanje ('river and mountain' style), boseongje, and dongchoje.39 Park, 2003, 51-52.14Jeju) that have been connected to Korea's pansori tradition. Current performers are still categorized based on their lines of lineage in relation to these educational and stylistic centres.The 19th century was also the era of the first master singers (myeongchang) of pansori, who were deemed as such for their mastery of specific pieces from one of the five main stories. Eight singers are commonly identified as myeongchang of the early part of this century and eight different ones for the latter part,40 and while many of them belong to the main yupa there are some outside of thislineage. Sustained patronage from the elite class was another significant improvement for pansori coming out of the 18th century. With the national recognition of the eight great pansori singers, it became more popular for members of the elite to hire them and others for private performances or as a way to raise the morale of the commoners around them. Pansori's increased popularity, status, and prospect of receiving patronage led to many new singers performing and added a ferocity to the competition between them. Dramatic performance aspects were heightened by those with gritty, husky, raw characteristics to their voice as well as beautiful folk-song style tones. A greater singing volume was also valued as outdoor crowds grew, and singers added more complexity to melodic embellishments to demonstrate their mastery.41 While the different schools and preferences of different audiences throughout pansori's history may have included singers with simpler melodies performed in a clearer tone in the past, advocacy for the pansori style that is currently common seems to have begun by the late 19th century.42 Pansori patron, story revisionist, teacher, theorist, and critic Shin Jaehyo was a major advocate in making the form more easily consumable for the Korean elite of the 19th century. As a rural official of the middle class, Shin educated himself in Chinese literature and other subjects of the elite. His revisions to six of the twelve common pansori stories consisted mainly of removing some vulgarity and40 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 7-8.41 Jang, 90-91.42 Ibid, 51-53,57.15class-based impropriety so that the elite could find more virtue in pansori as an art. Many aspects of hislife were dedicated to connecting himself to the upper classes, most directly with the Prince Regent andfather of a Joseon king, Heungseon Daewongun. He used his wealth to help fund the Daewongun's reconstruction of the royal palace (Gyeongbokgung) and composed songs for its inauguration ceremony, both of which led to him having his official rank raised.43 Late in this century, the first female gwangdae emerged when Shin decided to teach a girl named Jin Chaeseon (who had also sung the inauguration songs) and she was successfully hired by the Daewongun.Change was commonplace on the Korean peninsula around the turn of the 20th century, and the pansori world inside it was no different. Japanese powers ended the reign of the Joseon dynasty and, through a series of lopsided treaties and agreements that began in 1876, brought about the annexation of Korea in 1910. Long-established Korean laws were abolished as Japanese ones took over, and the ending of slavery which was part of the Gabo Reforms (1894–1896) included the release of one prominent group in a social position equal to that of slaves, gisaeng. Gisaeng were female entertainers of the lowest social class during the Goryeo (918–1392) and Joseon (1392–1897) dynasties who were predominantly registered under the ownership of civic and municipal government under the term gwan-gi. Before Japanese intervention, the Korean system for gisaeng had them educated in a gyobangbuilding where they would train in poetry, music, dance, and art, and they were headed by a male hojang, whose job it was to maintain the registry and ensure that no gisaeng ran away. After the Gabo Reforms, the newly freed gisaeng formed “gisaeng johap (organization of gisaeng) or gwonbeon (organizations that raised and managed gisaeng) which played a strong role in nurturing the talents of ... female master singers.”44 They continued study of the same subjects in these gwonbeon but were no longer watched over by a hojang. The Japanese officials stationed in Korea were important 43 Um, 45.44 Ibid, 15.16supporters of pansori performances, especially those by gisaeng, and sought to bolster its popularity (while censoring references to the Korean monarchy and to nationalism45) as a way to relieve tensions between themselves and the people whose country they were occupying. As each gwonbeon had its own regional specialties, those in the northwest and southwest parts of Korea taught gisaeng that were best at pansori46 and would employ the established master singers to teach their students in poetry, song, pansori, and the gayageum (twelve-stringed zither).47As the gender of gwangdae began to mix at the turn of the 20th century, so did the style of pansori singers in general. Many singers began mixing the styles of the Eastern and Western school and focused on using a version of the stories that presented the best parts of their individual talents. Song Mangap, a leading singer from the Eastern School, is said to be the first to mix the two styles for the sake of popularizing his story.48 This “mixed” style was then employed by many students of the master singers of the late 19th century, such as Kim Soheui (1917-95). She created the best-known version of Chunhyang-ga, known as Manjeongje, by combining elements from the versions of dongpyeonje master singers Song Mangap and Kim Sejong with those of Jeong Jeongnyeol from the sopyeongje tradition. Other collaborations that led to new pansori-based musical genres formed in the 20th century were gayageum pyeongchang and changgeuk. Gayageum pyeongchang was a short-lived trend started by gayageum players who would perform pansori repertoire while accompanying themselves on their instrument. Changgeuk was first performed by pansori singers, involves several singers within a performance, and expanded from a one-drum accompaniment into a small “orchestra” of traditional Korean instruments.45 Um, 51-52.46 Ibid, 50.47 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 15.48 Jang, 107-108.172.2 Overview of ChanggeukPerformances of pansori stories involving various singers taking the gwangdae position throughout the story (yeonchang, “consecutive singing”) or splitting the characters, including that of the narrator, among themselves in a way similar to opera (bunchang, “dialogue singing” or ipchechang,“three-dimensional singing”) have both been posthumously labelled as changgeuk, but this designation is still debated. When these trends began, the performers just wore the clothes that gwangdae usually wore to perform and there were no sets. Over time, productions employed costumes, props, and sets on a curtained stage similar to a theatre show; performances with these additions have been unanimously designated as being changgeuk.In addition to the buk from the pansori tradition, changgeuk productions can be performed with a mixture of other traditional Korean instruments from sanjo (“scattered melodies”), minyo (folk-song),and a range of percussion instruments from Korea's pungmul and samulnori traditions. These include:  the haegeum, a two-stringed instrument played with a bow (similar to the Chinese erhu); the daegeum and sogeum, transverse bamboo flutes of which the sogeum is higher pitched and lighter in timbre; the gayageum, a twelve-stringed49 lap zither plucked with the fingers; the geomungo, a six-stringed50 lap zither plucked with a stick; the ajaeng, an eight-stringed51 woodblock-propped zither plucked with a stick; the piri, a double-reeded bamboo woodwind with a cylindrical bore; the taepyeongso, a double-reed woodwind with a conical bore; the jing, a large suspended gong;49 Twelve is the traditional number of strings for the gayageum but modern versions can have up to 25.50 Modernised geomungo have eleven strings.51 The seven-stringed version of this is from the Korean court music tradition.18 the kkwaenggwari, a hand-held gong; and the janggu, an hourglass-shaped drum.2.2.1 Changgeuk's Origins and HistoryAs previously mentioned, there is still debate as to what should be regarded as the first changgeuk performance. The event described at the beginning of the previous section was held in 1902 at the newly-built Hyeomnyulsa Theatre in Seoul and originally was intended to celebrate both its opening and the 40th year of King Gojong's reign.52 However, it was not until 1908 when the same theatre was re-opened by Yi Injik under the name of Weongaksa Theatre that a multi-singer performance with definite dramatic elements and props was first produced. Yi had revised a pansori story written by some others53 into Silver World (Eunsegye), in reference to the old world of the Joseon Dynasty.54Musical resources were centralized around the time of Japanese Annexation in the larger cities of Korea, due in some part to the migration of gisaeng from smaller cities and towns into the gwonbeon that had been established in the various metropolises. It was here that these gisaeng learned to sing pansori stories (and smaller scenes/songs from them called tomak sori, “part” singing) and to play instruments such as the gayageum. One changgeuk trend that blossomed from this was all-female troupes called yeoseong-gukkeuk, which were especially popular with the Japanese military members occupying Korea. The popularity of changgeuk came and went throughout the period of Japanese Annexation; productions by several different organizations have been cited by academics as being performed during this time but no group had any staying power. Newly composed changgeuk works 52 Um, 48.53 Ibid, 49.54 Killick, 2008, in Pansori, 102.19were just as commonly performed as the standard pansori repertoire. Also, a desire to please those in charge (Japanese officials) dictated the settings of the new compositions and censorship of material from the traditional pansori-based stories made some productions unrecognizable.Pansori as a genre became a beacon of pre-Annexation Korea and carried nationalist sentiment throughout the later years of Japanese rule. Some popular new pansori were even written at this time on the theme of patriotism. However, after the end of World War II when Korea gained its freedom, changgeuk and yeoseong-gukkeuk took over as the more popular genres.55 This held true for the 1950s and 1960s, although musical purists looked down upon these offspring of pansori because of the diminished quality of singing and acting within them. With large performance groups, many of the individual performers had little or no training, in complete opposition to the often lifetime dedication ofa master pansori singer. When the Cultural Property Preservation Act of 1962 began examining cultural properties, pansori was a more attractive choice for designation as its myeongchang were viewed as more talented than changgeuk performers56 and it was a tradition that predated Japanese, European, and American influence and all the hardships Koreans associated with the Japanese occupation of Korea.Changgeuk's common issue throughout its existence is that every different production has been conceptualized by whoever is producing it. In opera, the composer's wishes based on their score (be they real or imagined, written by the composer or added by a score editor) become the canonized version. Pansori performers follow the ways of their teacher, but changgeuk productions have no set rules for choices such as: 1) whether or not there is a narrator, 2) what makes up an appropriate instrumental section, or 3) what, how often, and when each instrumentalist should sound. This lack of specificity amid a practice that is still continuing after more than 100 years, especially through the 55 Jang, 126.56 However, there was a lot of cross-over.20National Changgeuk Company of Korea, is why Killick, the main English-language researcher on this topic, believes that changgeuk's status as traditional is still under debate.57 He instead provides the term “traditionesque” as a categorization of its place between the labels of “traditional” and “modern.”58 2.3 Current Trends in Pansori and ChanggeukSince pansori's designation as National Intangible Cultural Asset No. 5 in 1964, it and changgeuk have both had a place in Korea's world of traditional music and music dramas. Some masterpansori singers who have been deemed as preservers of one of the main five stories or one or two songs from those five have been given the title “Artist Emblematic of Intangible Cultural Properties” (muhyeong munhwajae gineung boyuja).59 Those given this designation perform government-mandatedpreservative repertoire at least once a year and some join the casts of changgeuk productions. Althoughchanggeuk has never been given the “Intangible” label, funding was given at the time of pansori's designation to start what is now the National Changgeuk Company of Korea.60Part of the process to include pansori as one of these assets was to specify exactly what constitutes pansori in order to preserve it. Most scholars who have written about this process have pointed out a significant disadvantage of this system: how it has tried to take a musical tradition that has grown, adapted, and changed throughout its history and frozen it in time for the sake of preservation. Changgeuk, in contrast, has more freedom to maintain a vibrancy in its progressive nature. Nevertheless, both traditions have followed similar trends since 1964. They each have performers who revere the full-length (wanchang) performances as authentic, even though tomak sori (“part/excerpt singing”) has been much more common and more easily consumed by audiences ever 57 Andrew P. Killick, 2001, “Ch'anggŭk Opera and the Category of the 'Traditionesque',” in Korean Studies 25(1), 52.58 Ibid, 53.59 Um, 53.60 Killick, In Search of Korean Traditional Opera, 127.It was known as the Gungnip Gukkeuktan (National Stage-Drama Company) at the time.21since recordings of them have been made. Indoor performances of both are now much more common than outdoor presentations. Singing in the Seopyeonje (western school) style singing is predominant among singers in both genres, although many of them also use aspects of the dongpyeonje (eastern school) style.For modern adaptations of pansori performances for the changgeuk realm, there are a few common choices that are made which include the use of: unison singing, chuimsae, narration, and performance space. While not an element of pansori for obvious reasons, unison singing is now a common occurrence in changgeuk performances. In pansori storytelling, Sarang-ga (love song), perhaps the most popular piece from Chunhyang-ga, consists of a dialogue in both aniri and sori between the main characters, Chunhyang and Lee Mongryong, interspersed with only a few short observations by the narrator. On YouTube, many of the most popular (most viewed) concert and fully-staged performances of this duet include portions ranging from a half-phrase to a repeat of eight bars ofthe melody that is sung by more than one person. In the concert versions, it is more common for the singers to alternate parts of the melody regardless of the dramatic proceedings (yeonchang) so the unison singing is for shorter portions. With the fully-staged productions, however, they follow the drama-conscience bunchang/ipchechang style except when certain melodic material is repeated by everyone on stage as if these scenes followed a verse-chorus style of composition common to today's pop music.Chuimsae has been used by every gosu drummer that I have heard and seen in modern recordings, but the popularity of it being called out from the audience is declining as people these days are more used to European classical recital and concert settings where the audience is expected to remain silent during the performance.61 A separate performer cast as narrator is unnecessary in the 61 Jang, 151-155.22yeonchang (“consecutive singing”) or tomak sori (“part/excerpt singing”) style common to concert settings of the Sarang-ga duet, but for fully-staged productions it is an aspect that has remained through the pansori-to-changgeuk process. There is inconsistency as to how the narrator is integrated into the drama. In the changgeuk performances that I have experienced, the narrator acts similarly to a Greek Chorus: detailing the atmosphere of the scene, reiterating the morals of the story, and staying on stage to observe the action on which they comment. As a narrator, one moves around the stage to different vantage points so as to not block any sight-lines or interfere with the characters' freedom of movement. In pansori, a bulk of the phrases that are performed from the perspective of the narrator have a simple transitionary function: announcing who is the speaker/singer of the following words. These are the lines whose message becomes unnecessary as the text is transferred into a changgeuk setting; a director should be able to easily and effectively display who is singing the text after a transition such as this. Current changgeuk productions seem to follow the logic of this way of thinking.Lastly, for performance space, both pansori and changgeuk are predominantly performed indoors on a stage like most performing arts around the world and they follow a standard distribution ofstage types (proscenium, thrust, etc.) when compared to other vocal performance genres. The annual Namwon Chunhyang Festival is one common exception to this as the pansori performances and competitions during this event are often performed in outdoor spaces around the city, especially under the roofs of its numerous traditional pavilions.2.4 My ProjectWhile browsing through both pansori and changgeuk productions of Chunhyang-ga and some of the other main stories on YouTube to aid me in my instrumental arrangements, I noticed differences between the musical version that one of them had chosen as well as some tendencies in the ways their 23Korean traditional instrumentalists interact with the melodies of the pansori singers. In regard to the first of these issues, in many of the iconic moments (such as the ones I have chosen for this performance), some of the melodies from the most popular changgeuk and pansori performances on YouTube are similar to those of Shin Younghee's version but with one major difference: the distinguishing feature of the YouTube melodies is a I-V-I sequence while she gives more prominence to the submediant (vi). A strong dominant-tonic focus gives both the ujo (major-sounding) and gyemyeonjo (minor-sounding) melodies a very early European classical feel. Within Shin's melody, however, the consistent thirds created by accentuating the submediant pitch and avoiding the dominant allows listeners (especially non-Koreans) to maintain their immersion in a foreign musical atmosphere. Another choice that was made in the online changgeuk version is to keep each scene in the same key and basically the same rhythm so that many pieces sound as if they are a folk song, not just the ones that were originally based on farmers planting rice. Another trend I have noticed across different videosof modern changgeuk is the addition of tutti singing where everyone on stage sings certain lines or an entire section is repeated by all singers. On the instrumental side, the gayageum seems to be the most common traditional instrument used for the purpose of maintaining the prime tone of each song in changgeuk. Again, this is usually established with a very strong I-V-I sounding and any section that does transition away from the tonic is almost always to the dominant. For the other melodic instruments, echoing or anticipating the strong melodic figures of the singer is common, especially in the slow laments.The choice that I have made for the melodies is to follow the pansori version of Shin Younghee, which much more commonly plays with the I-vi-I relationship instead of I-V-I and includes a shifting of the tonal centre to pitches other than the dominant in many of her pieces. Both of these melodic tendencies follow the style of Kim Soheui's version but differ from the common practice of 24most modern changgeuk and some pansori performers, including Ahn Sukseon, another student of this master. While transcribing the melodies from Shin Younghee's Chunhyangga recording for the few scenes I selected for my Lecture-Recital, I attempted to follow where I felt (with my classically-trained sensibilities) that she was going with the “tonality” of her melodies. From this pansori basis, though, my arranging of European classical instruments to play with the singers takes aural sensations of the audience to a very different world than that of modern changgeuk. As I explain what went into putting on the November 24, 2018 performance, I will go through how I came to the decisions I made regarding both these aural aspects of Chunhyang-ga and the visual ones.25Chapter 3: Producing the Lecture-Recital PerformanceAiming to approach the organization and execution of my Lecture-Recital performance the same way that the artistic director of an opera company or program would with any opera from the standard repertoire, I categorized the different audio and visual parts of a production into five areas: 1) singing the Korean language, 2) producing a vocal score, 3) expanding that into a full score that is separable into part scores, 4) developing the dramatic aspects, and 5) supplementing the drama with visual elements.3.1 Singing KoreanNon-Korean speakers, including myself, were the majority of the performers available for my project and such is likely to be the case if this were to be repeated in a North American or European university or opera company setting. As with the preparation for opera productions with performers who are not native speakers of the language they are singing, fluency of the sung language is always encouraged but not necessary. Pronunciation of the performance's text, though, must be developed to the point that a native speaker of the language in the audience can understand it. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) can be a useful tool for an easy-to-follow, approximated representation of linguistic sounds that can be written into the score for the beginning stages of learning the text of an opera, and so this section will: 1) detail how to read hangeul characters, 2) provide a breakdown of the different Korean vowel and consonant sounds that a potential performer will encounter while learning pansori texts, and 3) specify how accurately each sound is represented by the IPA. Only a few of these sounds are captured nearly perfectly. Some others require more fine-tuning that is difficult to 26generalize. I include suggestions for some slight pronunciation modifications that will help with the transition from speech to singing while maintaining a Korean audience's understanding.3.1.1 Syllabic Element BuildingHangeul characters and their separate elements are read left-to-right, top-to-bottom in Korean. They consist of a minimum of: one beginning consonant (or silent consonant replacement “ ”ㅇ ), one vowel element, and zero ending consonants. In this minimum case, the beginning consonant is either tothe left of the vowel, as with more vertical vowels 아, 야, 어, 여, and 이 or above the vowel, as with 우, 유, 오, 요, and 으. They have maxima of: one beginning consonant, three vowel part-elements, and two ending consonants. In this case, the beginning consonant is in the top-left; the three vowel elements are below the beginning consonant (for the one horizontal part-element) and to the right of both the beginning consonant and horizontal part-element (for the one or two vertical part-elements); and the ending one or two consonants are below these first two elements.3.1.2 VowelsThere are both simple and mixed vowels in Korean. The simple ones are: 아, 야, 우, 유, 어, 여, 오, 요, 으, and 이. These are approximately equal to [a], [ja], [u], [ju], [ɔ], [jɔ], [ɔ], [jɔ],  [œ:], and [i:], respectively. The mixed ones are: 애, 얘, 에, 예, 와, 왜, 외, 워, 웨, 위, and 의. They are approximately equal to [e], [je], [ɛ], [jɛ], [wa], [we], [w(e/ɛ)], [wɔ], [wɛ], [wi], and [œi] (or the Russian [ɨ]), respectively.The first two simple vowel pairs,  아&  야(≈ [a] & [ja]) and  우&  유(≈ [u] & [ju]), are the closest to their IPA counterparts as they are both produced in a pure, Italianate way. As with all of the following vowel elements, the second small line set perpendicular to the long line indicates that the 27glide [j] is pronounced prior to the vowel. The second two pairs,  어&  여(≈ [ɔ] & [jɔ]) and  오&  요(≈ [o] & [jo]), are not articulated with the large difference of the English back-and-open [ɔ] and forward-and-closed [o]. While this pair is articulated very close to each other in the middle of the mouth in sungItalian, Korean differentiates them a bit more. The English schwa [œ:] is produced neutrally in the mid-mouth but the Korean 으is articulated more towards the back of the mouth around where glottal consonants are produced. The Korean  이 is also produced more in the back of the mouth, while the English [i:] is closer to the front (teeth). For a more balanced projection and fuller sound, an Italianate [i/I] mixture may be sung and it still should be understood by Korean audiences.With the Korean vowels that are a mixture of two or three simple ones,  애&  얘(≈ [e] & [je]) and  에&  예(≈ [ɛ] & [jɛ]) have a similar relationship to that of 어/  여and 오/요. Their difference is not asextreme as English, but not as minuscule as sung Italian. The  오part-element of 와, 왜, &  외(≈ [wa], [we], & [w(e/ɛ)]) and the  우part-element of 워, 웨, &  위(≈ [wɔ], [wɛ], & [wi]) give these mixed vowelstheir beginning [w] glide sound and the only exceptional vertical part-element of these is the  이 in 외, asit falls between  애&  에on the [e/ɛ] spectrum.62  의(≈ [œi]) is most easily likened to a Russian [ɨ], another notoriously difficult sound for English speakers to make and singers to project. Projection may be made easier by using the [œ] as more of a glottal glide and sustaining the more Italianate [i]; this canbe heard by some Russian singers who sing in a more Italianate way with both their Russian opera and art song repertoire.633.1.3 ConsonantsAs they are the intended audience for this information, I have ordered and distributed the Korean consonants by places-of-articulation groups normally taught in diction classes for English-62 Due to the fact that  위already produces the [wi] sound.63 The late Dmitri Hvorostovsky is one example of such a singer.28speaking voice majors. Double consonants in this language lack the “:” between them of their Italian counterparts as they are not sustained as long in Korean. For consistency, each consonant here is ended with the  아vowel ([a]), except where the nature of the vowel changes the pronunciation of the consonant. As mentioned earlier, “ ”ㅇ  is a silent consonant-replacement when used in the beginning-consonant element of a hangeul character. Bilabials 바, 빠, &  파(≈ [ba], [bba] & [pa]) are the first group in this list where the three sounds all lie within the spectrum from their purely voiced English equivalent and the unvoiced equivalent. The first has a slightly more unvoiced quality than a purely voiced [b], the last has a slightly more voiced quality than purely unvoiced  [p], and the double-consonant [bb] is somewhere in-between these two but sounded for a bit longer.  ㅂ&  ㅍare also used in place of labiodentals [v] & [f], respectively, for English-based words because these consonant sounds are not part of Korean.  마(≈ [ma]) is the last bilabial and can be sung the same as its counterparts in other operatic languages. For alveolar consonants,  나(≈ [na]) and  사& 싸 (≈ [sa] & [ssa]) are also standard with their IPA (the double consonant again sounded for a bit longer); 다, 따, &  타(≈ [da], [dda], & [ta]) follow the same voiced/unvoiced-spectrum relationship to their English equivalents as the bilabial group; and  알(≈ [(l/ʁ)a]), the ending-consonant version of ㄹ, falls slightly towards the [l] on the [l/ʁ] spectrum. The retroflex version of ㄹ, as it falls slightly towards the [ʁ] on the [l/ʁ] spectrum, is used when it is in the beginning-consonant position:  라(≈ [(l/ʁ)a]). Velars with the voiced/unvoiced-spectrum relationship to English are  가(≈ [ga]),  까(≈ [gga]),  카(≈ [ka]), and the“ ” ㅇ in the ending-consonant position, 앙 (≈ [aŋ]). Postalveolar자, 짜, &  차(≈ [dd ʒa], [ddd ʒa], & [td ʃa]) arethe last group with a spectrum-based relationship to their English versions and the ㅅ/  ㅆpair use their postalveolar sound when before 이, as in  시& 씨 (≈ [ʃ i] & [ʃʃ i]), or before any vowel with an added 29short line indicating the glide [j] before it. Lastly, hangeul's glottal  하(≈ [ha]) matches its IPA equally to that of its English equivalent.3.1.4 Common Speech-to-Singing ModificationsOne difficulty that modern pansori audiences have with connecting to the gwangdae's (singer's)story is the differences between their understanding of their native (contemporary) language and the version of Korean that is being sung. In addition to some scenes containing a large amount of antiquated Chinese poetry, the Western and Eastern schools that have propagated the oral pansori tradition each have their own regional dialects. Also, the swapping of vowels for one that matches the emotion of a moment or allows a gwangdae to amplify/soften their voice in a difficult range has been a common singing tactic in pansori. With a project such as mine, the intended performers, opera singers, have trained to project their voices more-or-less equally across their full vocal range while making onlyslight modifications to the resonance and articulation of vowels when necessary. Therefore, these singers have the option of updating the text to the modern standardized version of Korean or emulating the dialect from the transcribed recording, and they might even experiment with vowel swapping for the sake of sound symbolism like pansori singers.64 As a non-native singer of Korean becomes more comfortable with the texts that they will be performing, guidance from a Korean-speaking vocal pedagogue will help improve the effectiveness of communicating sounds that require a balance between efficient vocal production and accuracy with regards to how it is spoken. Using these 64 Here is an explanation of this using simple examples:Dark vowels such as [u] & [ɔ] match words with darker, more negative, and slower meanings; light vowels such as[o] and [a] match words with lighter, positive, and faster meanings; and the neutral vowel sounds are [i] and Korean's [œ:] equivalent. Mixed vowels follow the same symbolism as the simple vowels within them. Consonants may be exaggerated by producing an unvoiced or more forcefully aspirated equivalent (with place-of-articulation pairs) to matcha faster, sharper, or more aggressive word. Conversely, words describing something slower, softer, or calmer can be modified to use the voiced place-of-articulation equivalent for word-painting.30techniques, opera singers should be able to conform to an updated text if the choice is made to replace those in current oral-tradition circulation.For the Lecture-Recital performance, my decision to maintain the integrity of the melody that I made from Shin Younghee's CD dictated that we perform the same amount of syllables as found in her performed texts. The result of this was that, with my wife's help, I modified vowels to what would be consistent with the modern pronunciation and modernized/standardized the Korean text from the Jeolla dialect when my wife found it glaringly awkward to hear. However, there were some possible changes from the dialect that would have resulted in adding or removing notes from the melody and others that may have been missed, as the changes from dialect to standard Korean were made during the stage of score development when we were focusing on translations more than pronunciation. As my approach resulted in a mixture of dialect and standard Korean pronunciations, I will be sure to choose only one of these options for future performances. The translations were a mixture of my independent work and work aided by my wife, Yu Jiyeon, for some sections and my colleague, Son Hyunseung, for others.3.2 Vocal Scores – Choosing a Version, Transcribing, and TranslatingPrior to May of 2018, I made my first attempts to pull together all of the musical resources that I had gathered throughout my DMA studies: a score notated on common five-line staff for me and the other singers a recording for my Korean instrumentalists to follow a series of books that contained both the Korean script and English translations for four different versions of Chunhyang-ga6565 Yu Sŭng, Bak Sŭng-bae, Chŏng Sŏk-kwŏn, and Choi Dong-hyŏn, trans. [옮김], Joseph J. Ball, Linda van de Vijver, and Hermine E. Engel, eds. [감수], 2005, Chʻunhyangga: yŏngyŏkpon chʻunhyangga   영역본춘향가 , Pʻansori sasol chonjip   판소리사설전집 13; Cholla Munhwa Yonʹguso pʻansori chʻongso      전라문화연구소판소리총서 15 (Seoul: Minsogwon 민속원).31I assumed that when I put them together I would only need to clarify a few transitional moments in the music before I sent the material to the instrumentalists to practice for a couple of months before the Lecture-Recital performance.The first issue was that my contact in the Vancouver traditional Korean instrument world was always very busy and she was unavailable during the proposed time (March 2018). She gave me contact information for another woman near Vancouver but after a couple of emails with this second woman, I discovered that she sings Chunhyang-ga but does not play any traditional instruments. After Iinformed her that I already had singers and was looking for instrumentalists, she stopped responding. The unusual nature of my project may have seemed like a daunting task. While starting to organize my musical resources into one score for the Lecture-Recital production, I discovered that the recording of Shin Younghee on which I wanted to base my performance, the transcription that I had,66 and all four of the Korean scripts/translations were of different versions. Therefore, I decided that I would make myown transcriptions of the recording to make it more attractive to prospective collaborators. Out of the many recordings of Chunhyang-ga available, I chose Shin Younghee's because I had been introduced to her in April of 2017 through a personal connection and was able to briefly speak to her about my project. Also, before I had researched the history of the different versions of each pansori story, I had been told that she followed the Manjeongjae version of Chunhyang-ga due to the heritage of her development and that this version is the most popular in the ears of Koreans. These personal reasons, combined with her recognition as ingan munhwajae (Human Cultural Asset) for the preservation of Chunhyang-ga (given March 2013), made her recording an ideal choice for my project.Transcribing pansori and preparing it to fit to a five-line score was a step I followed to help the classically trained singers with whom I planned to work (and any future ones) in learning the repertoire66 Kim Ki Soo, ed., 1977, Chun Hyang Ka. Anthology of Korean Traditional Music 15 (Seoul: National Classical Music Institute).32in a much shorter amount of time than by oral/aural transmission. This process was slow and arduous, but necessary. It involved making a lot of choices as to how “irregular” aspects will fit in the score. Transcription of music has imperfections whether you take the prescriptive notation approach, that “facilitates the reproduction of music in the future and may leave out some less perceivable details that may confuse a performer”67 rather than help them achieve the desired effect, or the descriptive approach, that “aims to capture as much musical detail as possible no matter how impossible it may be for a performer to read, interpret, and relay the desired sound in the heat of the moment.”68 Both of these definitions are from a paper I wrote for a seminar in ethnomusicology which ends with a recommendation that people should follow the prescriptive approach for functionality but include a preface (or equivalent) to describe how the original performance might differ. This is what I have done for this document's project.Part of the difficulty in choosing the details to lay out in my score for future readers was the moments and sections in which the toll of a non-stop several-hour singing performance with no outside melodic support was affecting Shin Younghee's intonation and inner pulse. I tried to be sensitive to where I believed her to be taking the pitches and rhythms, but ultimately the notation process was deeply biased towards my personal musicality and the tonal underpinnings that I felt while doing it. On average, it took me about an hour to transcribe every minute of this music to a workable first version ofthe score, which has gone through many changes since.Once these working copies of my transcriptions were finished and I had sent them to the one singer who had committed to my project, I attempted to translate the pieces word-for-word with the help of my wife. Initially, I assumed that this first singer, Lee Ye-eun, would be able to do this for herself and my version would be for the benefit of me and the other non-Korean singers. My wife made67 Jason Klippenstein, 2016, “Clarifying Transcription in Ethnomusicology” (unpublished manuscript, University of British Columbia: Vancouver, BC, Canada).68 Klippenstein, 2016.33me immediately aware that the vocabulary in Shin Younghee's recording is predominantly from a dialect, but the texts also contain words from an older form of Korean. As an example of this, she pointed out that many of Mongryong and Chunhyang's lines use Chinese characters for poetry and references to Chinese literature and history, a common practice of the highly Confucian nobility of the time. Luckily, once I focused on trying to use the different script/translations from the available book series, I finally made the mental connection that Manjeongjae is the name of Kim Soheui's mixed-school version of Chunhyangga. She was both Shin Younghee's teacher and one of the people whose version was included in this book series. This helped greatly in my translation efforts and they were sped up even more by the assistance I received from my friend and colleague, Son Hyunseung, who helped me to work through a large portion of my chosen texts.3.3 Full Scores – Instrumentalists and ArrangingAfter sending a copy of the transcriptions to my Chunhyang, Ye-eun, I knew the next task would be to transpose the melodies into a suitable range for her and me before adding instrumentation. As a pansori singer, the lack of tonal accompaniment allows you to follow your body and brain's long-term pitch retention from hours, days, and years of repeating the repertoire to determining your starting notes for each piece, phrase, melodic figure, etc. The pitch that is actually produced each time will become more consistent as you progress in your experience level and the number of repetitions, but other factors like health, vocal stamina, and the barometric readings of your environment may lead to slight inconsistencies that may not be noticeable unless someone has a control variable to aid in perception, like a piano or any other tuned instrument. That freedom is lost once the decision is made toperform with instruments that have specifically tuned pitches. Ye-eun has quite a low mezzo voice, but the notes that Shin Younghee attempted on the low end of her range and those that she chose as the 34primary tone for each piece left us with no choice but to transpose every piece up at least a little. For the Mongryong/Wolmae duet that we prepared earlier in this process but did not perform at the Lecture-Recital, I wanted to choose a soprano for the character of Wolmae to differentiate her more from her daughter. The transposition from Shin Younghee's contralto-like range up to soprano was quite substantial.Once I had the vocal scores transposed up to the desired performance pitches, all that remained was distributing this information to the Korean traditional instrumentalists I was trying to contact and providing them with a recording of me singing the vocal lines. This would give them something to which they could refer in their practice. After that, I could focus on preparing my singing performers for this Lecture-Recital. Unfortunately, this was not the case. Both my wife and I were unable to communicate our circumstances and desired collaboration with the musicians whom we contacted. Under the constraints of personnel and performance space availability, I made the decision to try to find European classical instrumentalists whose instruments could somewhat emulate the function and sound of the most common melodic Korean instruments: oboe – in imitation of the piri (a double-reeded bamboo woodwind) flute/bass flute – in imitation of the sogeum/daegeum (transverse wooden "flutes") harp – in imitation of the gayageum (12-stringed finger-plucked lap "zither") cello – in imitation of the geomungo (6-stringed stick-plucked lap "zither") violin/viola – in imitation of the haegeum (two-stringed, played with a bow, similar to the Chinese erhu)Those were the descriptions I sent out to my prospective instrumentalists. I managed to fill out my “shopping list” and recruited an instrumentalist for each of these classifications. Upon meeting with all of them for initial sell of the project, it became apparent that I was going to have to arrange parts as 35many European classical instrumentalists do not have a lot of experience with improvising, especially at the university level.Originally, I intended to send the instrumentalists for my project the transcribed-and-transposedmelodic material and let them play in unison with the singer until they felt comfortable improvising their own deviations and developing these into their part. The first melodic instrumentalist I spoke to was Marie, my oboist for this project. During our conversation, she informed me that she would requirea part score. At the end of our conversation, she explained that oboists cannot play continuously for ten minutes and that they usually have a break of about two measures after playing for eight (or some ratio close to that).As I had never before experimented with arranging music, I felt simplicity would be my most effective approach. My baby steps into arranging began as a simple splitting of the vocal melody into phrases and putting different combinations of the three melodic instruments (oboe, violin, and alto flute) in unison with the singer for each of these. I determined what those phrase combinations would be based on the momentary mood of the piece: a mixture of my interpretation of the translation and of the melody. The next step was to provide the harmonic and rhythmic foundation for the melodies from the other two instruments, the harp and cello, as this was done by the gayageum and geomungo in the changgeuk productions that I had viewed on YouTube. I provided the harp and cello with a similar amount of activity to that of the gayageum and geomungo from the YouTube productions for the three scenes that I chose for my project: a lot of material in Sarang-ga, a bit less in Shipchang-ga, and a verysparse amount in Chunhyang's “last will and testament.” The harmonic material that I gave them, however, is where I feel I created the greatest difference between my North American-sounding version and the current norm for changgeuk, which always sounds like traditional Korean music but notalways like pansori. As a non-Korean realizing that the legitimacy of my experimental application of 36pansori material is likely to be questioned, I have formulated a justification for my methods which, likethose of changgeuk, aim to propagate the spirit of pansori.Pansori melodies have evolved over time through the nature of their oral transmission, the interpretation that comes with that, and the personal touches each performer adds as they transition in their identity-ratio from more student-dominant to more master-dominant. The musical atmosphere influencing these stylistic changes would definitely have included court music (a-ak, hyang-ak, and dang-ak) and folk-song (minyo) performed by instrumentalists and singers of their eras, the same repertoire that is now propagated by traditional Korean instrumentalists. So when changgeuk began, this was the musical language to which the instruments collaborating with pansori singers were accustomed. When the Korean government hoped to freeze pansori (and other National Intangible Cultural Assets) in a specific time, they were referring to a point before Korea was strongly influenced by Japan and the West. This has been a common argument among the English-language scholars in my bibliography who have written about changgeuk. The human beings who they have designated as these Assets since 1962, though, have still lived through times of Japanese, European, and American influence, so their melodies have evolved inside a body and mind accustomed to a broadened sound spectrum when compared to pansori singers from the 19th century (pansori's heyday). While transcribing, I listened repeatedly to the melodies of only these four pieces from Shin Younghee's 5-CD-long performance of Chunhyangga. During this time, I noticed that the majority of her phrases followed the pentatonic ways of traditional Korean court and folk-song music. Occasionally, however, the melodic figures and tonal transitions struck my ear as closer to North American classical and pop material. Therefore, the arrangement I made went through the same process as changgeuk productions at the beginning of the 20th century: matching the pansori with my own personal interpretation, full of harmonic preferences that I have developed over my own history of musical exposure.373.4 Drama – Acting and GesturesPerformers of pansori use their body language – often with the addition of a hand-fan or handkerchief – to supplement the vocal accentuations of the words they sing or provide a visualization of objects used in their story. According to previous researchers on this topic, the timing and execution of these gestures have traditionally been up to the discretion of performers but attempts at a standardized aesthetic for timing and style of execution became desirable around the 1962 adoption of the Cultural Properties Protection Act. Ballim is the name of the stock gestures that became common tools of pansori singers. Many of them involve the brandishing of a hand-fan in an opening or closing gesture, and they often punctuate a word or phrase beginning/ending with elongation of the limbs to create lines somewhat like a ballet dancer would. Noreumsae are the dramatic gestures of the pansori performer that follow the emotions of the characters being created by the gwangdae. These are up to the discretion of the performer, and may entail exaggerating emotions to give them clarity or portrayingobjects and locations with charades-like hand/fan/handkerchief movements. In European opera terms, the former would be close to the style of Commedia dell'Arte whereas the latter would be closer to something you would see from a Verismo opera performer.During the preparations for my Lecture-Recital production, the staging process was very concentrated. Because of this, we kept to noreumsae instead of risking a beginner's display of ballim that take years to learn and embody properly. The other vocal performers and I have become accustomed to stage acting in this manner from participating in the productions of the UBC Opera Ensemble. We provided a small nod towards the ballim tradition when our narrator held a fan and brandished it to some effect for a few of his sung lines.383.5 Visuals – Sets, Props, and CostumesProducing a performance of this kind is limited by the availability of resources. This is especially true for the visual aspects of an opera production, including the sets, props, and costumes. With our set, I tried to make use of the basic set piece used for a pansori performance, a mat. Both gwangdae (singer) and gosu (drummer) would sit on these for the duration of their storytelling whether out in public or for private functions, and this tradition has been carried down into modern dayfull-length or recital-style performances. The chair and sticks that we used for Chunhyang's torture scene is a common way to portray this punishment. I first saw it on the YouTube changgeuk productionI have referenced earlier but have learned that it is also used commonly in K-drama TV shows set in the Joseon Dynasty time period.Traditionally, pansori performers were of the working class and would be dressed accordingly. The basic outfit is set in plain colours like white, brown, and grey; simple jackets (jeogori) are worn byboth men and women; and a plain set of pants (paji) is worn by men, and a skirt (chima) for women. For modern performances, the performers usually wear modern hanbok (traditional outfit) suitable to their current status in society instead of hearkening back to the origins of their art.We used my own and my wife's hanbok from our wedding for the clothes of Mongryong and Chunhyang in the Lecture-Recital. In the normal configuration of clothing that makes up a hanbok, undergarments (sokgot) are included. Ye-eun was wearing the sokgotpaji from my wife's hanbok under her chima, but the modern hanbok for men only includes pants, a jacket, and a vest (jokki). I chose to leave our characters balanced in their degree of undress in the bedroom scene. “Beggar” Mongryong and our narrator have just the jacket and pants, and magistrate Byeon and his guards all have jackets, pants, and vests from those worn by the UBC pungmul drumming group for their annual performance. Byeon's hat in our case is meant to portray a jeonrip, which was worn by military personnel, but in its 39stead we used a sangmo: a smaller and stylized hat in basically the same shape that uses ribbons to enhance the theatrics of pungmul drumming and dancing.40Chapter 4: Potential Future PerformancesI hope my presentation of this pansori and changgeuk material will be deemed interesting enough for other opera programs and companies to be willing to experiment with it in the future. To aidthem, this chapter will contain a guide to highlight the successes of my project and lends advice on howto learn from my failures so that future first attempts to display the musical storytelling of Korea in a non-Korean atmosphere may benefit those producing them and their audiences. By examining the learning moments throughout the process of my Lecture-Recital project, Chunhyang-ga, I will identify what to maintain, what to change, and how to expand into a full production. I have then listed and reviewed pansori repertoire other than Chunhyang-ga in an effort to give prospective organizations more choice as to the type of plot they can present. Similar themes repeat among all of the different stories, and I will present these. Lastly, significant topics that were beyond the scope of my situation will be explored: choices that will need to be made in the planning stages of future projects, difficulties that will likely arise and require proper navigation, and the significance behind an endeavour such as the one I have outlined.4.1 Editing and Expanding my Chunhyang-gaSimilar to the situation of many small opera programs and companies, my limited amount of time and finances trickled down to restrict the human resources to which I had access and the amount of visual materials I could display on stage. Concurrently, I was gaining more knowledge along every step of the musical drama production process as I realized the extent of some of these limitations, especially when I failed in my attempt to find Korean instrumentalists willing to be involved in my experiment and when one of our singers fell ill a week before the presentation. Fortunately, these 41events led to the discovery of further possibilities when fusing Korean pansori and changgeuk story and music with operatic vocal and instrumental capabilities. As the narrative of how I came to these realizations has already been laid out in the previous chapter, I will use the same headings in this section to provide advice on moving forward from those experiences.4.1.1 Singing KoreanThe singers who joined me in this collaboration did a wonderful job of communicating the Korean text of this story to the best of their abilities within the time that we had to work on it. Most of them had never spoken or sung in Korean before this project but still managed to be understood by the few Korean audience members and instrumentalists to whom I spoke after the show. Assumptions that problem sounds, such as 으, would be less clear than the rest with this short amount of preparation werecorrect. However, with more time, these singers could become more comfortable with ridding their Korean of momentary Anglicization and attuning their resonance balance and points of articulation to the subtleties of Korean. This is something that takes singers years to do with the standard German, Italian, and French opera repertoire, and Korean is no different. Even our native Korean-speaking Chunhyang, Ye-eun, made strides in re-balancing the more unbalanced spoken sounds in Korean so that they projected clearly and more loudly to the theatre-seated audience.One issue that we worked on specifically was becoming more comfortable with slowing down and exaggerating Ye-eun's Korean diction for a theatre space but, again, that is a skill that all vocal performers must develop with their native language. I, as Mongryong, was on the opposite side of the stage-pronunciation spectrum during the performance; my Korean was clearly heard but it required more polish before it could be considered equal to those who are fluent. These two extremes will 42probably be tendencies that performers will need to work on to balance for future projects, especially if the cast is a mix of native and non-native speakers.4.1.2 Vocal ScoresThroughout the process of creating the vocal scores for this performance, the greatest inefficiency was assuming that the musical, textual, and audio resources I had acquired would correspond with each other. I chose the Manjeongjae version because it was recommended by several Korean vocalists and composers who professed that it is commonly thought of as the most popular version and should be the easiest for finding material. Even realizing that some of my materials did match69 was a confusing process due to incongruent labelling and sparsity of written material in general. I was unable to find and access with any amount of ease any written compilations of pansori or changgeuk material throughout my research. Therefore, my advice for anyone producing a performance of this nature would be to choose a recording and then transcribe it, no matter how arduous or subjective this approach seems. Personalisation of the material is a necessary and desirable practice when building upon the pansori and changgeuk traditions. As Shin Young-hee said in her 2006interview with Heather Willoughby, “As everyone has his or her appearance and personalities, pansori performances should have their own style. This is the feature of traditional music.”70 Of course, the audio source and its performers should be referenced when such a work is presented but so should those who provide the fusion qualities such as transcribers and instrumental arrangers.69 Kim Soheui is Manjeong and, therefore, the text-and-translations of her version from the series of translation books I found at the beginning of my research match with my chosen audio recording.70 Willoughby, 2008, in Pansori, 91.434.1.3 Full ScoresIt was unfortunate that the Korean instrumentalists with whom I had made contact were not ableto join my collaborative project, as I could have included more details in this guide regarding their involvement. Also, had I received noticed of their non-availability sooner, I could have arranged more rehearsal time for my European classical players to become comfortable with their scores.Despite this compact rehearsal schedule, the instrumentalists that participated in my European classical-Korean traditional fusion experiment with pansori material did so valiantly and adapted extremely well to the mixture of traditional melodies in my arrangements. Among these players, there were varying levels of ease in performing the score and collaborating with the singers. Some showed more interest and obviously practised more than others. They were all at different levels in experience and in their university studies (undergraduate to doctoral). The final performance included a couple of pitch inaccuracies. Regardless of these issues, they all grew in their willingness to listen to each other and communicate with me about their needs for re-arranging and clarifying their individual parts. They also became increasingly intrigued by this cross-cultural experiment.There were quite a few learning moments for me as I realized the limits of my orchestration skills and knowledge. My greatest inefficiencies arose when I based the function of each European classical instrument on their equivalent Korean instruments, because the capabilities of two instrumentsbased on essentially the same elements can be quite different. I was listening to recordings and watching videos for inspiration and guidance before I added the instruments on top of the vocal melody, and their functions seemed quite clear: the strongest instruments in changgeuk performances for providing a harmonic basis and rhythmic downbeats are the gayageum and geomungo lap zithers. Their low-pitch octave leaps and the twang behind these finger- or stick-plucks can give the vocalists stability in their pitch and aid the buk in affirming the rhythmic connection between orchestra and 44singer despite having no conductor to lead. As the European classical instrument most closely resembling these zithers is obviously the harp, I assumed that the harpist who joined our group could provide the same function. Unfortunately, the attack of our harpist plucking the strings of her harp (a Chinese Konghue Harp in our case) was not loud enough to be heard by the singers on stage or in the audience, especially with the clarity necessary to provide a harmonic and rhythmic basis. Luckily, I also assigned our cellist to fulfill the gayageum/geomungo role in some parts of the score and these moments proved to be more successful at providing the desired effect.Another issue with incompatibility occurred with the downward glissandi that I originally wrotefor all of my melody-doubling instruments. As this effect was something I heard commonly in changgeuk performances where the haegeum (the two-stringed bowed one) would intermittently confirm the melancholy/sad mood of the scene with a short melodic figure that often ended with a falling glissando, I decided to add similar moments to the melodic instruments I was arranging (the oboe, violin, and flute) in the last two scenes of my presentation: Mongryong's duet with Chunhyang's mother, Wolmae, and Chunhyang's “last will and testament” song. The violinist had no problem performing these figures, that I placed in moments when these instruments were not doubling the vocal melody, and the oboist had more years of experience learning how to fill such a gap in a way that sounds like a slide, but I had confused my less-experienced flautist and made the decision to keep the pitch intervals that I had written but remove the glissando marking. This could have been solved beforehand by someone with more experience and knowledge as a composer and orchestrator. With ourbuk drummer, there was no emulation to be attempted so everything ran smoothly after she transcribed the drum part from Shin Young-hee's recordings for herself and became comfortable with the level of sound that she could make in conjunction with the singers.45To future producers of this repertoire of music in a setting outside of Korea, I would suggest finding a composer who is comfortable immersing themselves in the music of Korea's history and then arranging parts for the number of vocal and instrumental performers at their disposal. Even in a situation where Korean traditional instrumentalists are available and they make up the entire “orchestra,” coordinating everyone will be streamlined by having one knowledgeable person making executive decisions.4.1.4 DramaAs mentioned in the previous chapter, both stock gestures (ballim) and more naturalistic noreumsae are important in representing the tradition of pansori to audiences that may not be familiar with this genre. Although my project was a fusion of pansori and operatic styles, becoming adept at thestandard ballim of opening and closing a hand-fan to accentuate a point is one of my future goals. It will be a worthwhile endeavour both for my own presentations and to more adequately help fellow performers with this skill. Immediate visual recognition of this musical genre will be an effective promotional tool during the process of displaying it to the world outside Korea, and this one stock gesture can exhibit one of the unique qualities of pansori/changgeuk in a simple way. Hopefully, when performers in cross-cultural pansori-style opera productions are able to display ballim on the stage withequal grace, beauty, and fluidity to today's pansori performers in Korea, international audiences will beable to clearly identify this traditional Korean musical drama through amateur displays of these gestures to each other.464.1.5 Visuals Each performance space has its own dimensions, features, and quirks so the possibilities regarding how to integrate them into a performance of this style are plentiful. We were fortunate that Professor Nancy Hermiston granted us the use of the Old Auditorium Stage on the UBC campus for myLecture-Recital presentation as it gave us options for the visual set-up for our Chunhyang-ga. We were able to use the standard black curtain borders and legs to alleviate distractions behind our stage business. Also, the design of the orchestra pit there allows its floor to be set at three different levels: flush with the rest of the stage, flush with the audience floor, and farther below for when a full opera orchestra is accompanying one of our fully-staged operas. Without a conductor, the pit's lowest position (opera standard) would have made it difficult for our buk drummer in the conductor position toconnect with our singing performers and impossible for the rest of the instrumentalists to do so. The highest position (flush) would have dictated that the instruments play on-stage but to one side of the singers' drama; this is one common practice for modern changgeuk as it is simply an expansion of the pansori setup where the gwangdae (singer) faces the audience and the gosu (drummer) sits perpendicular to the audience while they watch the singer. Similar to the configuration of the National Changgeuk Company of Korea's stage at the National Theater of Korea in Seoul, the “half-pit” allowedall our instrumentalists to orient themselves in a way that they could follow the drummer or singers in the moments that they needed to connect to either one. Overall, I feel that this made the collaborative communication of our performance successful without the need of a conductor even though the instrumentalists were still in the beginning stages of developing the confidence and level of comfort to do this.Our set and props were minimal and clear in their function in my Lecture-Recital. Chunhyang's torture scene demanded the majority of what we used as it took a chair, two large poles, and a bundle of47sticks to create the iconic leg-beating image that has become popular in today's K-dramas. The historical importance of our most prominent set-piece can be proven by the title of Dr. Chan-E Park's 2003 book Voices from the Straw Mat. The prominent advocate for performing pansori abroad (as a professor at the Ohio State University), she supports the strength of the visual association to pansori made by Koreans when they see a straw mat in a public area. While I was not able to find a traditional straw mat for our performance, I was able to find a small carpet and to integrate it into each of our scenes: a place for Chunhyang and Mongryong to cuddle during the duet, a seat of power for Byeon Hak-do during the torture scene, and the floor of Chunhyang's prison cell during her “last will and testament.” With a fully-funded production, minimalism would not be necessary and each scene could have a full facade of the proper location: Gwanghal-lu garden and the swing for the opening scene, Mongryong's father's home, Wolmae's home (outside and inside), the magistrate's residence and pavilion, and Chunhyang's prison cell.Likewise, the costumes we used were simple and effective. By presenting each character in different configurations of the traditional hanbok, from single-layered jacket and pants on the guards to Chunhyang's full double-layered display when she presents herself to Byeon Hak-do, the place and time of the cultural setting was efficiently established. For someone with financial means wanting to put on this repertoire, there are numerous Korean blog websites in English detailing all of the clothing, hairstyles, furniture, and architecture of the Joseon dynasty. This time period is a very popular setting for modern K-Drama TV shows. Although I was unable to use much of the information due to my budget restraints, I found “A Guide to Joseon Hairstyles and Headgear” from to be very thorough in its descriptions for everything head/hair related.484.2 ChoicesBecause no standards have been set for performing changgeuk or pansori-style opera in the setting of a production by an opera program or company outside of Korea, the planning stage of such a project is open to numerous possibilities but also requires making a few large-scale choices. Even after picking a story from the pansori repertoire to present, one must still decide how much of that story will be displayed, how intimate and economical or grand and spectacular the production will be, which configuration of instruments (Korean, European classical, or some mixture of both) will make up the orchestra, whether they will be led by a conductor or not, if efforts will be made to emulate the current changgeuk trends or adapt pansori in a similar way to my project, and whether or not a narrator will be one of the performing characters. Each choice in these different areas will affect the others to some degree and require a number of smaller choices to be made in the production stage, but this wider focusshould help prospective program directors get started.Full-length performances (wanchang) of the “Five Great Songs” repertoire can have a much longer duration than would be considered acceptable for an opera program or company to present to their regular paying audience, especially with its current obscurity. For example, the recording of Shin Younghee's Chunghyang-ga on which I based my transcriptions has been distributed as a five-CD set and contains 5 hours and 22 minutes of speaking and singing with only six of those minutes considered as “bonus” material. Until pansori-style opera becomes a recognized staple, at least to a niche market of the international opera world, and likely even after that, audiences will likely prefer truncated versions of these stories.One way of going about this is to follow the path of small, not-yet-fully-established opera companies and choose specific scenes that follow the specific narrative that the director wants to tell. Another method, one which is common to changgeuk productions inside Korea, is to perform the “hits”49of the story and add whichever scenes are necessary to connect the plot between these popular tunes. To determine which songs and scenes are recognized as being the most popular, those new to pansori can research which performers throughout history were considered myeongchang (master singers) and the list of these could describe which specific songs they had been judged to have mastered. Current myeongchang, labelled as ingan munhwajae (Human Cultural Assets), are now considered to be preservers of one entire work.71 Before this system was made in 1962, performers were given their designation as being masters of deoneum, denoting their singing of the melody, songwriting, and skill specializations for a specific portion and they may show mastery at more than one piece. Scenes from Chunhyang-ga make up around half of these in the list given in Kim Kee Hyung's first chapter of the pansori book from the Korean Musicology Series, as different singers are masters of: Mongryong's reading of the thousand-character text, Chunhyang and Mongryong's love song, their song of parting/farewell, the song of Chunhyang's torture, her prison lament, her “Song of Going to the Royal Tomb,” and the “Song of East Wind.”72 The melodic material has been developed by gwangdae the most over time for these popular scenes so including all of them will likely lead to the strongest impression on audiences who are new to pansori-style opera.Moments lending themselves to a more intimate setting and to a grand spectacle exist in all pansori stories, so programs/companies wishing to expand the visual aspects of prospective pansori-style opera productions from their “one singer standing in one place” roots have plenty of material withwhich to work. However, even the larger ceremonial scenes, such as Byeon Hak-do's arrival at Namweon in Chunhyang-ga and the Rabbit's scenes with the Dragon King in Sugung-ga (Song of the Underwater Palace), have a clear hierarchy delineating those characters who are necessary for the plot 71 For example, Shin Younghee earned recognition as a national preserver of Chunhyang-ga in March 2013.72 Kim Kee Hyung, 2008, in Pansori, 7-8.50to function and those who act to fill out the atmosphere of the moment. If economy of resources is a desire, these stories can also maintain a smaller scale and still be performed effectively.Collaborating with different types of instrumentation for a pansori-style opera project (Korean, European classical, or a mixture of both) has distinct idiosyncrasies needing attention in each configuration. With Korean instrumentalists, oral-tradition is still the predominant mode of learning music so players likely will not be able to follow notation on a five-line staff; they may prefer not usinga score at all. The challenge with this is only that these players will probably need extra time to prepare. When mixing Korean and European classical instruments, an issue that I did not have to deal with in my project, matching pitch tuning systems will not be impossible but the Korean instrumentalists will need to take it into account and find moments within the music to make adjustments, such as re-positioning the movable bridges on a gayageum (12-string zither).The composition and size of the orchestra will help dictate the preference for another option, namely, hiring a conductor. A small group of Korean instrumentalists should be able to follow the rhythmic impetus of the gosu (drummer) matching the buk to the singer's melody and integrate themselves, but European classical instrumentalists are much less comfortable with this jazz-style leadership in performance: a fact that I learned first-hand with the small group of musicians assembled for my Lecture-Recital. Again, this process may just require a bit more time for preparation. In the week between the first group rehearsal with instruments-only and the first full ensemble rehearsal, my European instrumentalists went from politely demanding a conductor to finding their own ways of basing their rhythmic impulses on the singer and buk. A confident buk player can make a big differencein aiding this transition. As the size of the orchestra grows, though, so does the likelihood that a conductor will be needed to keep all of the moving parts together.51Perceived authenticity and ease of development are the two main factors in the choice of whether to emulate changgeuk productions or adapt pansori into this pansori-style opera form. I selected the latter for my project and based that decision partially on the advice of Dr. Killick from his book In Search of Korean Traditional Opera where he concludes that international audiences desire cultural performances foreign to them to maintain a semblance of authenticity and tradition whether thematerials match those descriptions well or not in the minds of those native to the culture.73 He posits that changgeuk would be transmitted more effectively to these completely non-Korean audiences by emphasizing qualities that delineate it as foreign to the aesthetics of North American and European classical audiences rather than to bolster its authenticity in the eyes of Koreans by hearkening back to the glory days of pansori.It was from this viewpoint that I began this project, but my focus gradually altered as I realized that a significant part of prospective audiences for this niche art form will be made up of Koreans taking their non-Korean friends to see an example of their culture. A seemingly authentic experience will require very expensive logistical costs in transporting all human, musical, and theatrical resources from the Republic of Korea to the prospective performance location, and Korean changgeuk enthusiastsmay still turn to their friend to explain which aspects of a changgeuk performance are too influenced byEuropean, American, or Japanese colonial powers to be considered “authentic.” To showcase both pansori and changgeuk in my attempt to spark interest in them among opera goers, I thought I would need to highlight the most authentic primary source available (as recognized by Korean enthusiasts) to balance out all of the operatic resources I was planning to propose for my fusion project. Transcriptionsof the Chunhyang-ga melodies from a designated Human Cultural Asset of that batang, Shin Younghee, filled that prerequisite. If one takes the less composition- and arrangement-heavy (but more 73 Killick, In Search of Korean Traditional Opera, 215-223.52transcription-heavy) route of choosing a changgeuk production to recreate abroad with North Americanor European resources, it will be important to note the production's musical arranger and the source of each scene's deoneum if a mixture of different singers' melodies is used.The last large-scale choice, the use of a dochang (narrator), is worth mentioning because there was a trend in changgeuk's history of omitting this role in order to alleviate the halts in dramatic energycaused by omniscient interjections in the story.74 As pointed out by Dr. Killick in his discourse regarding this phenomenon, the decision made by the head of the National Changgeuk Company of Korea in the 1990s to change their style in this way was directly North American/European/Japanese-influenced and is more detrimental than helpful.75 The dochang functions as a connective symbol to thepansori tradition and the otherness of the culture from which it comes. Such a performer is also able to build a rapport with the audience, invite them directly into the story, and encourage them to express chuimsae at moments that ignite their passion to do so. Finally, the omniscient commentary provided by the dochang fills the role normally played by the composer of an opera who can evoke a physical or emotional atmosphere through the medium of the orchestra. The orchestral tradition of changgeuk  and other genres that expanded out of their parent, pansori, is that “the orchestra is hardly omniscient, […] it follows the singers and does not seem to know more than the characters do, except perhaps when instrumental introductions set the mood for a coming scene.”764.3 Difficulties – Old as NewOpera production projects based on foreign and traditional material face many of the same challenges as newly-composed operas because they are both fresh to the eyes and ears of a prospective European-style opera-loving audience. Credibility is always a factor when presenting new musical 74 Killick, In Search of Korean Traditional Opera, 219-220.75 Killick, In Search of Korean Traditional Opera, 219-220.76 Ibid, 219.53productions or re-surfacing traditional ones, as quality may be promised to prospective associations or investors but one cannot provide proof of success based on past performances. Risk management by these entities would most likely determine the likelihood for success based on the integrity and reputation of the person pitching the idea. For a doctoral student about to join the “real world” such as myself, time is necessary to grow my reputation before I will be granted a significant amount of resources in all areas of a production. Therefore, I will continue using the more economical approach when I begin expanding my pansori-style opera version of Chunhyang-ga towards a full-length performance.While this emic approach to creating demand for pansori-style opera projects serves directly as a way to build its audience, my long-term goal is for my etic perspective on the world of pansori to be given context in these fusion performances and encourage other outsiders to gain interest in the authentic traditional art form by proxy. Every scholar on pansori and changgeuk laments the continued decline in their popularity and, in concurrence with the concluding chapter of Dr. Killick's book on changgeuk,77 I believe that the best hope for increasing the national audience for these art forms is to spark international recognition.4.4 Significance Although my project was the first performance of pansori material in a changgeuk-like setting by non-Koreans outside of Korea,78 that milestone was not the goal of my research. I created this guide to demonstrate possibilities for non-Korean individuals, programs, and companies which are looking todisplay the musical-theatrical traditions of Korea outside its native land, using the resources most likelyto be available to them. Hopefully, this will lead to an increased international exposure and subsequent 77 Killick, In Search of Korean Traditional Opera, 215-223.78 Andrew P. Killick, 2014. Email correspondence with Jason Klippenstein, 22 September 2014.54interest in Korea's traditional performing arts, especially pansori. Recent historical and cultural events such as the ongoing nuclear threat of North Korea, the boom of K-Pop worldwide, and the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics have already brought more attention to South Korea on a global scale. It is “prime time” to capture the eyes and ears of those who would like to experience a bit of the traditional world that existed prior to these events without requiring them to travel to Korea, though that may become their desire once they have fallen in love with the culture like I have.Numerous other musical-theatrical genres with pansori as their root have been developed in South Korea, although none as fully as changgeuk. The changjak pansori (newly composed pansori works) trend began around the same time as changgeuk, 190479, and has occasionally crossed over into the realm of “western” opera, musicals, and ballet80 in order to appeal to an international audience and to Koreans whose tastes have shifted towards Westernized culture. Material from the great five batang of pansori such as the general form of their plots and excerpts of popular melodies have been integrated into parts of these new compositions but the purpose of this practice has been to make new productions, not to follow the ways of past myeongchang (master singers) by creating new deoneum forthe different parts of their stories. Although it did not receive a very positive reception, the first public instance of experimenting with singing pansori accompanied by a European classical orchestra was in 1987 at the Sejong Cultural Center.81 Closer to the dimensions of my project, pansori-style opera is a performing art form that has recently emerged among Koreans in South Korea as a fusion genre that mixes Korean and European classical instruments but employs pansori singers. Perhaps due to the proximity to authentic pansori, productions of this type usually focus on re-imagining and re-ordering 79 Um, 181.80 Ibid, 24.81 Jang, 139.55the plot and musical material, as in 2018's “Chunhyang is Dead” produced at the National Gugak Center,82 instead of just expanding around the deoneum of past myeongchang.In prioritizing my future directing/producing projects, finding an opportunity to create a full opera-length performance of my pansori-style opera version of Chunhyang-ga is at the top. Both the experience I gained in the formation of this dissertation and the guidelines in it will aid me as I expand from the few scenes that we performed in my Lecture-Recital into this larger scale. In that regard, the lessons I have learned here can also be applied to similar traditional music-based productions. Whether these prospective cultures have their singing and storytelling traditions wrapped up into one performance style like pansori or they have notable foundations in those two entities separately, one should be able to relate their musical and dramatic material to the different operatic elements I have outlined. As a Canadian, the cultural group most prominent in my mind for such a project is that of the Indigenous peoples in Canada. Musical-theatrical performances telling the rich and often tragic history of the different communities, collectively and individually, that make up our First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples are becoming more common among members of the Canadian operatic community. Newly-composed operas, such as Missing (2017) by Marie Clements and Brian Current, and endeavours that display traditional music within a modern setting, like operatically-trained singer Jeremy Dutcher's 2017 Polaris Prize-winning album Wolastoqiyik Lintuwakonawa,83 are examples of the projects currently “setting the stage” for a production such as mine to flourish.82 Cha Hyo-chin, Kim Do-yeon, and Lim Su-bin (writers), Seo Jin-yong, Cho Yoo-kyung, and Lee Yoon-ah (producers & directors), 2018, Arts Avenue 2018, “Pansori Opera: Chunhyang is Dead,” in Episode 08, aired February 22, 2018 on Arirang (Seoul: The Korea International Broadcasting Foundation),, accessed 2019-01-13.83 Based on transcriptions of traditional Wolastoq songs recorded on wax phonograph cylinders.Sean Brocklehurst, (2018, September 18), 'Deep listening': How Jeremy Dutcher crafted his fascinating Polaris Prize-winning album, CBC News, retrieved from storytelling, whether Korean or Indigenous Canadian, is not just important for its historical significance but also from the perspective of singers in terms of vocal pedagogy, the art of teaching singing. This may be confusing to read in the same dissertation where I have specifically chosen to base my project guidelines around performing with classically-trained bel canto style singers instead of traditionally-trained pansori ones. However, I made this decision due to the fact that my target audience, current opera programs and companies, will have bel canto singers at their disposal and developing one's voice into the current publicly-accepted form deemed suitable for pansori singing(husky, raw, and pressed) would take many years and very careful technical transitions. I have never come across a singer holding the abilities necessary for each of these very different techniques simultaneously in my research. I believe, though, that opera singers who have developed their personal technique to a mature, healthy, sustainable level should be open to learning, playing around with, and integrating some of the more expressive and characterful sounds from pansori into their general performance choices. A guttural or husky sound in the right moment of an opera could be the difference between audiences finding a performance generically beautiful and chillingly powerful. In my experience, some who have striven for bel canto vocal perfection throughout their studies have a tendency to enter the professional realm with bland, colourless voices. It may take them years to realizeor be shown that colour and character are something that audiences find to be desirable traits in both singing actors and acting singers. For those who are not yet technically sound, though, focusing on adding colours to their sound or practising alternative vocal techniques may inhibit their long-term growth and limit the longevity of their instrument. As opera-going audiences learn to accept the effectiveness of “ugly” sounds, on occasion, pansori-loving audiences should also learn to appreciate the same impact of clear, open-throated sounds when mixed with the often restricted and pressed voicescommon to their national traditional genre. After all, it has been shown that pansori audiences 57throughout its history have trended towards finding both styles in this dichotomy to be in fashion during different time periods.84Essentially, a project such as mine is not a drastic leap from the trends that have come before it but rather another step along the path towards global awareness of the positive impact that traditional musical forms can have on modern performances. I can only hope that my suggestions for creating pansori-style opera outside of Korea will lead it in a successful direction.84 Jang, 52.58BibliographyCha Hyo-chin, Kim Do-yeon, and Lim Su-bin (writers). Seo Jin-yong, Cho Yoo-kyung, and Lee Yoon-ah (producers & directors). 2018. Arts Avenue 2018. “Pansori Opera: Chunhyang is Dead.”in Episode 08. Aired February 22, 2018 on Arirang. Seoul: The Korea International BroadcastingFoundation. Accessed 2019-01-13.Chun In-Pyong. 1951. A Guide in Musical Composition For Korean Instruments. Translated by Jiyeon Yu. Seoul: Hyundai Music Publishing.Finchum-Sung, Hilary. 2008. “Performing the 'Traditional' in the South Korean Musical World.”Folklore Forum 38(1): 55-81._____. 2012. “Visual Excess: The Visuality of Traditional Music Performance in South Korea.” Ethnomusicology 56(3): 396-425.Hesselink, Nathan, ed. 2001. Contemporary Directions: Korean Folk Music Engaging the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Berkeley: The University of California Press.Jang Yeon-Ok. 2014. Korean P'ansori Singing Tradition: Development, Authenticity, and Performance History. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press.Killick, Andrew P. 1991. “Nationalism and Internationalism in New Music for Korean Instruments.” Korea Journal 31(3): 104-116._____. 1992. “Musical Composition in Twentieth Century Korea.” Korean Studies 16: 43-66.59_____. 1997a. “Cracking a Rock with an Egg: Problems and Solutions for Korea's Traditional 'Opera' Ch'angguk.” In Onji nonch-ong samjip [Onji Institute Research Papers, Vol. 3: A Festschrift for Cho Nam-kwon], edited by Cho Kyoik, 279-309. Seoul: Onji Hakhoe._____. 1997b. “Putting P'ansori on the Stage: A Re-study in Honor of Marshall R. Pihl.” Korea Journal 37(1): 108-130._____. 1998. “The Chosŏn Sŏngak Yŏn'guhoe and the Advent of Mature Ch'anggŭk Opera.” The Review of Korean Studies 1: 76-100._____. 2001. “Ch'anggŭk Opera and the Category of the 'Traditionesque'.” Korean Studies 25(1):51-71._____. 2003a. “Jockeying for Tradition: The Checkered History of Korean Ch'angguk Opera.” Asian Theatre Journal 20(1): 43-70._____. 2003b. “Road Test for a New Model: Korean Musical Narrative and Theater in Comparative Context.” Ethnomusicology 47(2): 180-204. _____. 2004. “Review of Voices of the Straw Mat: Toward an Ethnography of Korean Story Singing by Chan E. Park.” Asian Theatre Journal 21(2): 206-208._____. 2010. In Search of Korean Traditional Opera: Discourses of Ch'angguk. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press._____. 2014. Email correspondence with Jason Klippenstein, 22 September 2014.Kim Hye-jeong and Yi Myeong-jin, eds. 2011. P'ansori. Seoul: Minsogweon.60Kim Hye-Lin. 2014. “Book Review: Hwang Byungki: Traditional Music and the Contemporary Composer in the Republic of Korea by Andrew Killick.” British Association of Korean Studies. Accessed June 21, 2016.Kim Kang-Mi. 2003. “A Study of Korean Art Songs since 1900: Focusing on Pieces by Dong-Jin Kim, Heung-Yeol Lee, and Isang Yun.” DMA dissertation, University of Washington.Kim Ki-Hyun. Posted [May 2014]. “   창극춘향전 Changgeuk Chunhyangjeon.” Filmed [August 2013]. YouTube video, 1:47:17. Accessed 2018-01-27.Kim Ki Soo, ed. 1977. Chun Hyang Ka. Anthology of Korean Traditional Music 15. Seoul: National Classical Music Institute.Kim Kong-on. 1977. “Sound Symbolism in Korean.” Journal of Linguistics 13(1): 67-75.Kim Soheui. 1995. Chunhyang-ga. Kim Soheui and Kim Myeonghwan. Seoul Records Inc. SRCD-1293~1298, 6 compact discs.Klippenstein, Jason. 2016. “Clarifying Transcription in Ethnomusicology.” Unpublished manuscript, University of British Columbia.KoreaFolksong. Posted [June 2010]. “  사랑가 (   판소리춘향가중) - 안숙선,  이봉근 (Pansori Sarang-ga).” YouTube video, 3:42. Accessed 2018-01-27.Korean Arts & Lifestyle 4: The Beauty of Traditional Korean Arts. 2006. DVD. Arirang TV under the sponsorship of Korea Foundation.61Kwak Seoung-Yon. 2011. “Interpreting Elements of Traditional Korean Song in Contemporary Choral Music: Me-Na-Ri (2005).” DMA dissertation, University of California at Berkeley.Lee, Samuel Songhoon. 2013. Hanbok: Timeless Fashion Tradition. Edited by Lee Jin-hyuk and D. Peter Kim. Korea Essentials No. 16. Seoul: The Korea Foundation.Lee Yong-Shik, ed. 2008. Pansori. Korean Musicology Series 2. Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts.Lee Young-Ju. 2009. “Isang Yun's Musical World: A Guide to Two Songs and the Opera Sim Tjong.” PhD Dissertation, Florida State University.Muchadoaboutlove. Posted [April 2013]. “A Guide to Joseon Hairstyles and Headgear.” The Talking Cupboard. Accessed 2019-01-09.National Gugak Center. 2010. Musical Notations of Korea. Korean Musicology Series 4. Seoul: National Gugak Center.Park, Chan-E. 2003. Voices from the Straw Mat. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.Pease, Rowan. 2012. “In Search of Korean Traditional Opera: Discourses of Ch'anggŭk by Andrew P. Killick.” Ethnomusicology Forum 21(1): 109-112.Provine, Robert C. 2004. “Contemporary Directions: Korean Folk Music Engaging the Twentieth Century and Beyond by Nathan Hesselink.” The Journal of Asian Studies 63(1): 203-205.62Shim, Joon Hee, ed. 2004. Pansori. Translated by Hee Sook Hwang and Heather Willoughby. Seoul: National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts.Shin Younghee. 2011. Chunhyang-ga. Shin Younghee and Shin Gyushik. Lo-en Entertainment L-100004378~4382, 5 compact discs.Tenzer, Michael, and John Roeder, eds. 2011. Analytical and Cross-Cultural Studies in World Music. New York: Oxford University Press.Um Hae-Kyung. 2013. Korean Musical Drama: P'ansori and the Making of Tradition in Modernity. Surrey, England: Ashgate.Wikipedia contributors. (2018, August 6). “Revised Romanization of Hangeul.” In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:03, January 19, 2019, from, Sunny. 1997. Hanbok: The Art of Korean Clothing. Elizabeth, New Jersey: Hollym. Yu Sŭng, Bak Sŭng-bae, Chŏng Sŏk-kwŏn, and Choi Dong-hyŏn, trans. [옮김], Joseph J. Ball, Linda van de Vijver, and Hermine E. Engel, eds [감수]. 2005. Ch'unhyangga: yŏngyŏkpon ch'unhyangga  영역본춘향가. P'ansori sasol chonjip    판소리사설전집 13; Cholla Munhwa Yonʹguso p'ansori ch'ongso      전라문화연구소판소리총서 15. Seoul: Minsogwon 민속원.Yun I-Sang. 1994.  초기가곡집 (Early Collection of Songs). [1948?]. Seoul: Ye-eum Munhwa Jaedan (Acute Cultural Foundation).63AppendicesThe first of these two appendices contains all of the musical and intermittent spoken material (aniri) for the four excerpts of Chunhyang-ga that were prepared for my Lecture-Recital, three of which were performed at that event. They are split up into four different score types: the transcriptions of Shin Young-hee's melodies from her recording; the transpositions of those melodies set to the buk drum accompaniment transcribed by my drummer, Gina Choi; miniversions of the full-scores created by arranging melodic and harmonic content for my non-drumming instrumentalists; and Choi's buk transcriptions in buk notation. These scores are numbered based on their cumulative track position from the recording (11, 29, 42, & 47). Because the decision to cut #42 was made before Choi decided to develop her buk transcriptions,this scene has no buk accompaniment in the voice-buk and mini full scores and it has been excluded from the charts of buk notation.The second appendix is a synopsis of the Chunhyang story based on the translations of Kim Soheui's Version of Chunhyang-ga in Ch'unhyangga: yŏngyŏkpon ch'unhyangga.8585 Yu Sŭng, Bak Sŭng-bae, Chŏng Sŏk-kwŏn, and Choi Dong-hyŏn, trans. [옮김], Joseph J. Ball, Linda van de Vijver, and Hermine E. Engel, eds [감수]. 2005. Ch'unhyangga: yŏngyŏkpon ch'unhyangga   영역본춘향가 . P'ansori sasol chonjip    판소리사설전집 13; Cholla Munhwa Yonʹguso p'ansori ch'ongso    전라문화연구소판소  리총서 15. Seoul: Minsogwon 민속원.64Appendix A ScoresA.1 Transcription Scores656667686970717273747576777879A.2 Voice-Buk Scores8081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116A.3 Mini-sized Full Scores117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151A.4 Buk Transcriptions in Buk Notation152153154155156157158Appendix B Synopsis Of Chunhyang-gaSetting: Namweon, in the southwest part of Korea, at the end of the 17th CenturyOne day during the Dano Festival (fifth day of fifth moon) Lee Mongryong, son of Namweon's magistrate, and his servant Banja are discussing the scenery and main attractions of Namweon when the former decides he would like to visit one, the pavilion at Gwanghal-lu garden. Once there, Mongryong's eye is caught by the most beautiful young lady on a swing and tells his servant to bring the girl to him. Bangja warns that Chunhyang (her name) is too proud tofollow when summoned but Mongryong insists he try. As expected, Chunhyang refuses to followBangja and, after a bit of banter between the two, Chunhyang says she must go home, but leaves Bangja with a cryptic message for Master Lee. Bangja relays the message thinking it is an insult, but Mongryong recognizes it as an invitation to her home.For the next couple of days, Mongryong tries to focus on his studies but his mind keeps going back to Chunhyang. Eventually, he decides to go and visit her at night. When he arrives at the house, he meets Chunhyang's mother, a retired gisaeng named Wolmae. Immediately, Mongryong describes his love-at-first-sight moment and asks Wolmae for Chunhyang's hand in marriage. She is reluctant at first due to her experience with Chunhyang's father, a nobleman who returned to Seoul and died just after Chunhyang was born, but agrees as long as the young master signs an informal certificate. As Mongryong does so, Wolmae sneakily indicates to her servant Hyangdan to ready the bedroom. After spending most of a week together in and around the bedroom, Mongryong and Chunhyang become more comfortable and playful with each other and show this in a Sarang-ga (love song), which concludes with “    ” – 이리오너라업고놀자“Come here for a piggy-back.”159Unfortunately, it is only a short time of this happiness before Mongryong receives the news that his father (and by extension, their family) has been recalled to Seoul to occupy a different leadership position. Mongryong must follow and Chunhyang cannot because she woulddistract him from studying for his exams with the desired intensity and her low social status would embarrass the family. They lament their impending farewell together, and before Mongryong leaves they exchange tokens: Mongryong giving Chunhyang a turtleskin-backed mirror and Chunhyang giving Mongryong a jade ring.After about eight years of being apart, Chunhyang is still weeping over her separation from Mongryong and pining for his return. Meanwhile in Namweon, a new magistrate has been assigned: Byeon Hakdo. He is a greedy man who has turned down numerous other positions in other areas because he has heard about the beauty of Chunhyang. His welcoming parade flows through the town to his gated home. Before beginning the usual duties that start a tenure as magistrate, Byeon calls for an inventory of his new city's gisaeng, female entertainers similar to (but different from) Japanese geisha. Many women introduce themselves and the meaning of their given names but Chunhyang is not among them, and Byeon notices. Guards are sent to capture her so she convinces them to take a bribe, but the head gisaeng follows after them and guilts Chunhyang into presenting herself to Byeon using the negative consequences that will come to other members of the town if she continues to refuse. Although Chunhyang goes to Byeon's residence to answer his call she denies his commands to attend on him like a proper gisaeng, citing that she cannot serve him because she already has a master: her husband.For this insolence, Byeon orders her to be beaten in a fashion that is usually effective as an execution. His calling for the executioner, “집장사령!” – “Executioner!”, begins what is labeled as Shipchang-ga (the Song of Ten Lashes). In it, Chunhyang defiantly answers each 160numbered strike on her legs with a poetic integration of that number's Sino-Korean character intomessages that insist upon her fidelity to Mongryong or attack Byeon's justification for ordering her beating. In total, she is beaten thirty times and comes very close to death. The people of the town are shocked and appalled at the extremity of her punishment, and Wolmae wails and weepsby her daughter's side when finding her being dragged from Byeon's residence to prison. In prison, Chunhyang sings of the inconsolable grief she feels at her situation.While all of this is happening, Mongryong has finally passed his examinations and been raised to the position of Royal Inspector over the Honam region, in which Namweon is located. He is tasked with taking care of the citizens of this area, so he sends out his scribes, agents, and postmen. Before starting his journey towards his jurisdiction, he disguises himself as a beggar so that he may better judge the feeling of the common people there. A short way into his travels, he runs into his former servant, Bangja, teases him, and tricks him into handing over the purpose of his journey: a letter to Mongryong from Chunhyang. Bangja only recognizes his old master after Mongryong becomes emotional from reading the letter. Through a slip of Mongryong's tongue, Bangja also discerns his old master's new position despite his beggarly clothes so Mongryong sends him to Unbong with the letter and they part ways. Between that meeting and Namweon in Mongryong's travels, he sees and hears farmers singing a song while they plant rice.Once in Namweon, Mongryong goes immediately to Wolmae's residence but sees that it has become dilapidated since he was last there. As he arrives, he glimpses Wolmae praying in the garden for her son-in-law's triumphant return to save Chunhyang. He catches her attention, but, seeing him as some strange beggar, she snaps at him for bothering her. Back-and-forth, Wolmae dismisses the beggar and Mongryong chides her for not recognizing him until he loses patience and tells her his name and address directly. After the initial shock, she both celebrates his return and chastises him for coming back in such a humble state. From there, they both head 161to the jail to visit Chunhyang. Dishevelled and with her legs still broken, Chunhyang still beams at Mongryong when they are reunited and rebukes her mother's complaints about his current low status. Not wanting his love to expend too much energy, Mongryong urges Chunhyang to speak with haste if she has anything to say before he leaves. Her response, “    내일본관사또생신잔치끝에” – “Tomorrow when the magistrate's birthday ends,” is her submission to the high probability of her imminent death, as well as a list of the ways in which she would like to be memorialized after she dies: as if they had married legally and she was his late wife. He encourages her to stay alive one more day and assures her tomorrow will prove there is always a glimmer of hope when all seems lost.Arriving the next day at the magistrate's birthday, Mongryong is refused entry (and is about to be beaten by) the guards when the commandant of Unbong catches how he is being treated. Noticing an air of stateliness about this strange beggar, he admits Mongryong himself. Mongryong sits among the nobility and asks for the same food, drink, and entertainment, which greatly angers the magistrate. To get rid of this pest, the magistrate announces a poetry contest inwhich the loser will be expelled from the pavilion and beaten. Mongryong quickly whips up a poem regarding how the nobility lives well off of the flesh and blood of the common people, andhas just shown it to the commandant from Unbong when a scribe rushes in with the message that the Royal Inspector's arrival is imminent. The commandant and several others hastily make excuses for their quick departure and Mongryong slips out to discard his beggar costume and assume his true role.Promptly, Mongryong's scribes, agents, and postmen surround the pavilion and assert their power over Byeon and his men. Citing innumerable abuses of Byeon's power and unjust accusations, Mongryong releases most of the city's prisoners and calls for Chunhyang to be brought to him. She is hauled into the pavilion but keeps her eyes downcast because she expects 162to be killed for not following the magistrate's orders. Mongryong asks her to tend to him as a gisaeng would; she refuses. He asks why she will not follow his or the last magistrate's orders, and she professes her fidelity to her husband, Lee Mongryong, and repeats her words from Shipchang-ga: “I cannot serve two husbands.” In response, he calls for the head gisaeng to carry something from him to Chunhyang and to tell her to raise her head to look at him. Seeing the jade ring in her hands, Chunhyang looks all around the room for her love in beggar's clothes and asks why he's come so late. She finally looks up at the Royal Inspector and is overcome with joy when she sees the face of her Mongryong. Outside, Wolmae has just heard the wonderful news but is ashamed of her previous attitude towards her son-in-law. At the calling of her daughter, though, she enters the pavilion singing and dancing.163


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