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Scenic design for William Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing Gilchrist, Jacqueline 2019

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     SCENIC DESIGN FOR WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE’S MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING   by   Jacqueline Gilchrist   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF    MASTER OF FINE ARTS   in   The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies   (Theatre)    THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2019   © Jacqueline Gilchrist, 2019  ii  The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the thesis entitled:   Scenic design for William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing    submitted by Jacqueline Gilchrist in partial fulfillment of the requirements for  the degree of  Master of Fine Arts  in Theatre   Examining Committee:   Patrick Rizzotti, Theatre Supervisor  Robert Gardiner, Theatre Supervisory Committee Member             iii  Abstract William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing was presented by the University of British Columbia’s Theatre Department in November 2018. The play was performed at the Frederic Wood Theatre and was the first mainstage production of the department’s 2018–2019 season. It was adapted and directed by UBC Theatre alumna Lois Anderson, with costume design by Erica Sterry, lighting design by Erika Champion and sound design by Mai Inagaki. This thesis report documents my scenic designs and my design process for the production.                        iv  Lay Summary This thesis report documents my process of creating the scenic designs for UBC Theatre’s 2018 production of William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing.                                v  Preface As the set designer for Much Ado About Nothing, I prepared concept sketches, preliminary and final drafting, shift plots, white and final set models, paint elevations, paint research image packages, props lists and script analysis documents. My advisor for this production was Patrick Rizzotti. I was assisted by Rebecca Scherman.  The scenic construction was overseen by Technical Director Keith Smith, Assistant Technical Director Gemma Harris and Head Carpenter Jim Fergusson. The scenic painting was overseen by Head Painter Lorraine West. Properties acquisition, altering and building was overseen by Head of Properties Lynn Burton.    The scenic construction, scenic painting and properties departments were assisted by UBC Theatre Student Production Crew members.    The production photos show my realised designs along with the realised designs of Costume Designer Erica Sterry and Lighting Designer Erika Champion.           vi  Table of Contents   Abstract ........................................................................................................................... iii Lay Summary .................................................................................................................. vi Preface ............................................................................................................................. v Table of Contents ........................................................................................................... vi List of Figures ................................................................................................................ vii Chapter One: Introduction .............................................................................................. 1 1.1 Background .................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Synopsis ....................................................................................................... 1 1.3  Venue ........................................................................................................... 4 Chapter Two: Concept Stage .......................................................................................... 6 2.1  Initial Response to Script  ............................................................................. 6 2.2  Directorial Concept ....................................................................................... 7 2.3  Initial Work with Directorial Concept .......................................................... 10 Chapter Three: Preliminary Design ............................................................................. 19 3.1  Dock Setting ............................................................................................... 19 3.2  Palazzo Setting  ......................................................................................... 22 3.3  Street Setting ............................................................................................. 24 3.4 Design Meetings During Preliminary Stage ............................................... 26 Chapter Four: Final Design .......................................................................................... 28 4.1  Dock Setting ............................................................................................... 28 4.2  Palazzo Setting .......................................................................................... 30 4.3  Street Setting ............................................................................................. 31 Chapter Five: Production Stage ................................................................................... 33 5.1 Costing ....................................................................................................... 33 5.2 Set Build and Rehearsal ............................................................................ 34 5.3  Realised Set ............................................................................................... 40 Chapter Six: Conclusion ............................................................................................... 43 Appendices .................................................................................................................... 45 Appendix A: Script Analysis .................................................................................. 45 Appendix B: Props Package ................................................................................. 50 Appendix C: Drafting ............................................................................................. 56   vii  List of Figures Figure 1. View from back of house in the Frederic Wood Theatre .......................................................... 5 Figure 2. Rough sketch ground plan for the dock setting, Act 1 Scene 1 ........................................... 11 Figure 3. Rough sketch ground plan for the dock setting, Act 3 Scene 1 ........................................... 12 Figure 4. Rough sketch ground plan for the palazzo setting, Act 2 Scene 1 ...................................... 14 Figure 5. Rough sketch ground plan for the palazzo setting wedding look, Act 3 Scene 3 .............. 15 Figure 6. Rough sketch ground plan for the street setting, Act 5 Scene 3 .......................................... 16 Figure 7. Rough sketch for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing ........................................ 19 Figure 8. Preliminary white model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing ...................... 20 Figure 9. Follow-up white model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing ......................... 21 Figure 10. Rough sketch for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing ................................. 22 Figure 11. Preliminary white model for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing ................ 22 Figure 12. Follow-up white model for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing .................. 23 Figure 13. Rough sketch for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing ..................................... 24 Figure 14. Preliminary white model for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing ................... 25 Figure 15. Follow-up white model for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing ...................... 25 Figure 16. Final model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing .......................................... 28 Figure 17. Paint elevations for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing .................................. 28 Figure 18. Final model for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing ..................................... 30 Figure 19. Paint elevations for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing .............................. 30 Figure 20. Final model for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing ........................................ 31 Figure 21. Paint elevations for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing ................................. 31 Figure 22. Initial costing estimate ............................................................................................................ 33 Figure 23. Drafting of original dock size ................................................................................................. 36 Figure 24. Drafting of dock with extension ............................................................................................. 36 Figure 25. Second follow-up white model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing .......... 37 Figure 26. Gondola drafting ..................................................................................................................... 37 Figure 27. Post boat drafting .................................................................................................................... 37 Figure 28. Drafting of original under-stair openings ............................................................................. 38 Figure 29. Drafting of final under-stair opening ..................................................................................... 38 Figure 30. Set construction in progress ................................................................................................. 39 Figure 31. Set construction in progress ................................................................................................. 39 Figure 32. Dock setting in Act 1 Scene 1 Photo courtesy of Javier Sotres .........................................  40 Figure 33. Revolve progression from dock to palazzo setting Photos courtesy of Javier Sotres ....  41 Figure 34. Revolve progression from dock to palazzo setting Photos courtesy of Javier Sotres .... 41 Figure 35. Revolve progression from dock to palazzo setting Photos courtesy of Javier Sotres .... 41 Figure 36. Palazzo setting in Act 2 Scene 1 Photo courtesy of Javier Sotres ..................................... 41 Figure 37. Street setting in Act 5 Scene 3 Photo courtesy of Javier Sotres ........................................ 42  1  Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Background William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing was my first mainstage production and first realised scenic design for UBC Theatre. Following a design and production period beginning in late July 2018, it was staged at the Frederic Wood Theatre in November 2018.   The production predominantly used Shakespeare’s original text; however, it also featured setting and character updates by the director, Lois Anderson.    1.2 Synopsis Much Ado About Nothing is a Shakespearean comedy written in the late 16th century.   Originally set in Messina, Italy, UBC Theatre’s production moves the action north to Venice, Italy in 2018 and begins at the dock of Dona Leonata’s palazzo. Leonata is one of several characters who is reimagined as a woman in this production.    A messenger gives her a letter saying that members of the Napoli soccer team are on their way to stay at her house following their victory in the recent Italian League soccer tournament. While awaiting the team’s arrival, Dona Leonata, her sister Dona Antonia, Antonia’s daughter Hero and Hero’s cousin Beatrice discuss the players. Beatrice asks the messenger about one of the players, Benedick, and begins to besmirch the soccer player’s character. 2         The players, Benedick and Claudio, along with the team’s owner, Don Pedro and his sister, Dona Johnna, arrive at the dock by gondola. Upon re-meeting, Beatrice and Benedick insult one another.   While the rest are shown inside, the players remain behind so that Claudio can confide in Benedick that he loves Hero. Benedick, who has sworn off women, mocks Claudio. Don Pedro returns, learns what they are talking about and promises to help Claudio: Leonata is holding a masquerade in the team’s honour. Disguised as Claudio, Don Pedro will woo Hero for his friend and persuade Leonata to approve of the match.   Meanwhile, Dona Johnna plots with Conrade and Borachio of ways to cross her brother.   At the party Dona Johnna convinces Claudio that Don Pedro has lied and wants Hero for himself, leaving Claudio in a huff over his friend’s supposed betrayal. However, Don Pedro has successfully arranged the match between Hero and Claudio and so the latter quickly gets over his anger. With this matchmaking done, Don Pedro decides that Beatrice and Benedick will be the next to be paired up.   While Benedick is hiding nearby, Don Pedro, Claudio and Leonata stage a conversation about how Beatrice is tormented by her love for Benedick. Similarly Hero and her servant Ursula stage a discussion about Benedick’s love of Beatrice, while Beatrice 3  eavesdrops. With this new information to consider, Beatrice and Benedick decide that they are in love with one another.   Meanwhile, Dona Johnna, learning that Claudio is to marry Hero, decides to ruin the match, which will in turn hurt her brother as Claudio’s friend. Dona Johnna tells Don Pedro that Hero is unfaithful. At midnight, Dona Johnna leads Claudio and Don Pedro to the dock where, in Hero’s window, they see Borachio with Margaret, who in the poor lighting and her masquerade attire is mistaken for Hero.  The next day, Borachio boasts to Conrade about how he has tricked Claudio. The conversation is overheard and they are arrested by the local watch.  Hero and Claudio’s wedding begins as planned, but takes an unexpected turn when he accuses her of being unfaithful. In the ensuing commotion, Hero faints and Claudio storms off with Don Pedro. A nun, who was acting as a witness to the marriage, believes that Hero has been falsely accused and proposes that the remaining wedding guests spread the rumour that Hero died upon being accused. This is agreed to and most the guests disperse, leaving a weeping Beatrice and Benedick. They admit to being in love with one another and Beatrice asks Benedick to prove his love by killing Claudio. Though Benedick is at first shocked at the idea, he soon agrees.   The watch further questions their prisoners, Borachio and Conrade. They are brought to the street outside of Leonata’s palazzo, where they confess to Don Pedro and Claudio, 4  along with Leonata’s family, the trick that Dona Johnna orchestrated. Claudio is crushed with guilt that his false accusations resulted in Hero’s death. He agrees to marry one of Hero’s cousins to make amends to Leonata’s family.      That night there is a funeral procession for Hero. Hero hides herself while Claudio sings to and cries over her coffin.   The next day, Claudio arrives at Leonata’s palazzo to fulfill his promise to marry Hero’s cousin. Hero reveals that she is not dead, that she forgives him and that she would still like to marry him. Benedick and Beatrice admit to the assembled group that they love one another and would like to get married. Benedick decides that he will not kill Claudio as they will soon be family by marriage. Finally, Dona Johnna is captured and will be brought in to answer for her crimes.          1.3 Venue Much Ado About Nothing was performed at UBC Theatre’s mainstage, the Frederic Wood Theatre, on the Point Grey campus. The proscenium arch-style theatre can accommodate an audience of 400 people in the raked house.  5   Figure 1. View from back of house in the Frederic Wood Theatre The rectangular proscenium arch, at just over 36 feet long by 16 feet high, offers a wide but short frame for the stage picture.  The stage has an optional curved apron insert and a built-in revolve, both of which were used for this production. The theatre is also equipped with a flytower and 25 line sets.             6  Chapter Two: Concept Stage  2.1 Initial Response to Script  Before meeting with the director and the rest of the design team, I read the script multiple times, listened to audio adaptations and watched a few film versions. At this point I was working from the original Shakespearean text rather than the director’s updated version. Several things jumped out at me from the script. The first was that an orchard and other garden images were mentioned on multiple occasions. Antonio overhears Claudio and Don Pedro talking in a “thick-pleached alley in [his] orchard” (1.2.9). Benedick has a book brought to him in the orchard (2.3.4) and then hides in the arbor (2.3.34). Later, Hero and Ursula walk in the orchard (3.1.5) and have Margaret tell Beatrice to hide in the “pleachèd bower where honeysuckles ripened by the sun forbid the sun to enter” (3.1.7-9). Beatrice proceeds to hide herself in the “woodbine coverture” (3.1.31).   With all of these nature images establishing the setting in the first half of the play, I initially imagined that the scenic design would be organic and/or garden-inspired. I thought about box hedges that could be easily be repositioned to shape the different settings of the play. Looking up images of Italian gardens, cypress trees were a common feature. They, again, might be used as a moveable feature that could suggest the play’s different settings.          The second thing that jumped out at me from the script was how often deception, both malicious and well-meaning, was used as a plot point. A central scene of the play is a 7  masquerade party (2.1). With most of the characters at the party in masks, Don Pedro is able to pretend to be Claudio, Benedick is able to pretend to not be himself while Beatrice insults him and Don John is able to pretend not to know that Claudio is Claudio while lying to him. Later in the play, Benedick and Beatrice are similarly deceived; both are tempted into eavesdropping on conversations wherein they are misled about how much the other loves them. Additionally, the main antagonist of the play, Don John often uses lies to create trouble. For instance, while adopting a facade of helpfulness and concern, Don John stages a scene of ‘Hero’ being unfaithful to Claudio and ensures that Claudio sees it.   At this very early stage of the design, I knew that I wanted to try to incorporate elements of deception and trickery into the set design; however, I wasn’t yet sure how. Circling back to the natural imagery, I thought of things like hedge mazes that would introduce game playing and a lack of straightforwardness. While I thought that that approach could make for an interesting design, I didn’t think that it would necessarily serve the flow and pace of the script as it could hinder the actors’ movements.   2.2 Directorial Concept The first design meeting was held on July 31, 2018. This meeting was principally focused on the director, Lois Anderson, outlining her view of and ideas for the production. It was at this point that I received the first draft of the adapted script that we would use.   8  Anderson noted that the script of Much Ado About Nothing was challenging. Not only was it Shakespeare, which can be difficult due to its complex language, but this particular play included three different styles of show: first was the screwball comedy of wits between Beatrice and Benedick; second was the serious drama between Claudio and Hero; and third was the slapstick, physical comedy between the police officers and Conrade and Borachio. It was important, Anderson felt, to find a balance between all three of these tones of show to ensure that the production was coherent and strong.  Anderson decided that best way to find balance between the different tones was to lean away from the clownishness of the physically comedy and to increase the ‘heart of the show’ by grounding the production in the ‘emotional weight’ of Hero’s story. However, Anderson noted that Hero, as written in the original text, was not a rounded, active or especially engaging character. Rather than reworking the character of Hero, Anderson decided to increase ‘the female content in the play’. In this production, for instance, Hero’s father Leonato is instead her mother Leonata. When Hero is rejected by Claudio at the altar, rather than a physically threatening rage that might suggest Hero is little more than her father’s property, Leonata reacts with anger and heartbreak that arguably puts the focus Hero’s unfulfilled hopes and happiness; this in turn suggests that Hero has a greater interior life and is a more dynamic character than the text might traditionally offer.   The re-gendered casting also extended to Antonia, Hero’s aunt (formerly Antonio) and Dona Johnna, the play’s principal antagonist (formerly Don John). Other traditionally 9  male characters – Dogberry, Verges and Conrade – would also be played by actresses, but in a more ambiguous way. The characters were not changed from male, but there was also little or no attempt to hide the fact that they were being played by female actors.  Anderson was also interested in making this staging of Much Ado About Nothing relevant and more relatable for the young cast and the type of audience that a university production often entails. Rather than having Don Pedro’s party be victorious soldiers coming back from war, Claudio and Benedick are star soccer players whose team, owned by Don Pedro, has just won the Italian League Cup. They would still be boyish men coming from a hyper-masculine world and learning to understand women, but team sports would likely be more relatable than soldiering for young students at a Canadian university. The switch to soccer also evoked a real-world parallel in the recently completed 2018 FIFA World Cup.   In order to make the play more relevant, Anderson also updating the setting. The action would take place in 2018, allowing the characters to use cell phones and dress similarly, though more formally, to how the actors might dress in their daily lives. Likewise, rather than being set in Messina, Italy, the action would take place in Venice, Italy. This change allowed for iconic Venetian images such as the gondola, gondolier and spiral dock posts to be included in the staging. By using such readily identifiable images, the setting would be Italian even to people who had never been to Italy.    10  With this update in setting, Anderson noted that she would need the set design to provide three locations: Dona Leonata’s dock, the inside of Dona Leonata’s palazzo and a street front. Anderson also noted that she wanted the staging to be uncomplicated and elegant.        2.3 Initial Work with the Directorial Concept With the director’s concept and needs in mind, I read the director’s edit of the script. While going through each scene, I drew very rough ground plans that noted the requirements for each scene, including which characters were on stage, how they might use and move in the space, and how they might enter or exit the stage.   The first setting the audience sees is Leonata’s dock.  It was important that this setting, as the audience’s entry point, properly convey that the play is set in Venice and therefore that it include some of the iconic Venetian imagery. At this stage, I was not clear on how the show’s gondola would be designed or constructed, but knew that it would be a major and moving part of the scene. Figure 2 outlines the very basic shape that the scene would have. There would need to be room for moving a potentially large gondola along the downstage edge as well as in and out at both stage left and stage right.  11   Figure 2. Rough sketch ground plan for the dock setting, Act 1 Scene 1  In addition to the dock, I imagined that this setting would include some sort of flown-in facade. The facade would represent the exterior of Leonata’s palazzo and possibly provide masking for other permanent set piece that would be further upstage.  The dock setting was scripted to return for the final scene prior to intermission. In this scene, rather than the gondola, the dock itself would be more of the focus (Figure 3). Beatrice would require places to hide while Ursula and Hero pace the dock and discuss Benedick’s love of Beatrice. This suggested that the dock would have to be large 12  enough and long enough to accommodate the actors’ pacing and include details that could provide cover for Beatrice.       Figure 3. Rough sketch ground plan for the dock setting, Act 3 Scene 1  An additional consideration that this scene introduced was that the setting would have to have a second story window. The director wanted to end this scene with a mimed show of Margaret and Borachio embracing at a window while Claudio stands below thinking that it is Hero with another man. At this early stage in the design process, providing stair access to a second story window struck me as a challenge. If the stairs were built into the flown-in facade, it would need to be three or four feet deep. Flying it out would block the use of several fly lines and require the facade to be upstage of the 13  stage’s overhead bridge. If the stairs were a separate piece, they would need to be rolled on, which would likely result in a slower and more awkward transition into the scene. Neither of these options were very appealing.    The next setting of the show is the interior of Leonata’s palazzo. This is the main setting of the show; it is used the most and in a variety of ways. In the script, this setting is often used for back-to-back scenes that flow into each other with no sense of transition or time passing. A character grouping enters the scene, has a conversation and exits to allow the next character grouping to enter and have a conversation. For instance, in Act 1 Scene 2, Antonia enters to tell Leonata about overhearing Don Pedro talking about proposing to Hero. They exit. The next scene begins with Conrade and Dona Johnna entering to discuss Johnna’s villainy and her desire to cross Don Pedro. Borachio enters mid-scene and suggests a way they might hurt Don Pedro and Claudio. They exit, the next scene begins with Leonata, Antonia, Hero and Beatrice entering and discussing Dona Johnna. Because of the similar structure found in these sequential scenes, it was useful to create different spaces within the setting that the characters could use to avoid repetitive blocking. At this stage, I imaged this setting to be a living space with multiple seating areas. The multiple seating areas would allow the different character groupings to form around a natural focal point and conversations could be placed in different areas of the stage to create more dynamic blocking. The different seating areas would also encourage more movement within the scenes by offering areas to move to and away from depending on the tenor of the conversations.    14   Figure 4. Rough sketch ground plan for the palazzo setting, Act 2 Scene 1  However, in addition to being used as a living room, the palazzo was also going to be used a space for a party and a wedding. With this in mind, the space had to be flexible. There would need to be room for dancing (Figure 4) and probably the ability to reshape the space to create an aisle (Figure 5). 15   Figure 5. Rough sketch ground plan for the palazzo setting wedding look, Act 3 Scene 3  The final setting of the show mentioned in the script is a street. This setting read as being the most disconnected from the other settings. Originally, it did not appear on stage until after the intermission. While it is later clarified to be the street outside of Leonata’s palazzo, it is first described simply as ‘A Street’. It was also the setting in which the audience first meets Dogberry and the members of the Watch. This again makes the street feel separate, as it seems like it is the domain of these new characters whom the audience does not meet until halfway through the play.       16  One of the key moments that takes place in the street setting is Hero’s fake funeral (5.3). Several of the characters enter carrying a draped coffin across the stage. Due to the shape of a coffin and the typical pattern of a funeral procession, it was likely that most of the movement in this scene would be linear and that there would need to be a long, clear path along the downstage edge of the stage (Figure 6).        Figure 6. Rough sketch ground plan for the street setting, Act 5 Scene 3  Having completed rough sketch ground plans for the entire show, I again met with the director and the lighting designer, Erika Champion. We walked the stage and began discussing the scenic design in more detail. For instance, we talked about the two outdoors sides of the palazzo – the dock and street – being like two halves of a person. 17  The dock, as the ornate side, could be the polished side a person shows to the world. The street, as the grimier side, could be the darker side of a person. This tied in to the frequent use of masks and deception in the play such as Dona Johnna putting on a show of helping Claudio while actually trying to ruin him, and the literal use of masks in the party scene.      We also discussed more practical things. The furnishings would be a blend of time periods. It was important that the window in which Margaret and Borachio are seen be visible to the entire audience. A door in the street scene would likely prove very useful.   With the lighting designer present, we were also able to begin discussing how to and whether we could achieve particular looks. For example, with much of the action of the play taking place in a palazzo and on a street, it made sense to have a cobblestone or similar paint treatment on the stage floor. However, the director and I were concerned about how this paint treatment would work with the first scene taking place on a dock were the stage floor would be ‘water’. Champion had previously created a water effect with light for another show, The Shallow End. She felt that the texture and colour of a lighting effect would likely mask the paint treatment enough that the audience would read and understand that they were at a dock.   Along the same lines, we discussed how important light was within this setting. With the presence of the water in the Venetian canals, for instance, light would not just be from overhead, but would also be reflected from below onto the facade of the palazzo. In the 18  Mediterranean, summertime setting, the light would have particular tones, be bright and remain well into the evening.         Following this meeting, I began working on my preliminary designs.                                      19  Chapter Three: Preliminary Design  When I began to design the show, I thought back to the first meeting with the director and how she had tagged Hero as a pivotal component to finding the balance and heart in the production. One of Hero’s biggest moments in the play is when she is rejected at the altar by Claudio. When faced with Claudio’s false accusations, there is little that she can do. He and his co-accuser, Don Pedro, are more powerful than she is. They are physically stronger, rich and famous. Their word has more value than hers does. I tried to bring some of these power and gender dynamics into the scenic design        3.1 Dock Setting  Figure 7. Rough sketch for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing  In the overall design, I wanted the outside spaces – the dock and the street – to have a more masculine feel. This would serve Anderson’s idea from the first design meeting that Claudio and Benedick are coming from a masculine world and, over the course of 20  the play, learning to appreciate women. To create a more masculine feel, I used angular shapes in my preliminary designs for the dock setting. The facade is tapered into a cutoff triangle and the arches, rather than being curved, are again triangular.  Figure 8. Preliminary white model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing   The dock and street settings were also meant to suggest traditionally masculine sources of power that Hero confronts in her first wedding scene, with the dock facade suggesting wealth. The tapered shape of the facade plays with perspective to make the building grander and more overpowering. I planned on adding more details on the facade as I progressed in the design process, such as on the arches, creating an opulent look.  21   Figure 9. Follow-up white model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing  The building facade would be painted with a trompe l'oeil effect to create detail rather than building it out – this would be another way of playing with perspective. In addition to being more cost effective than built-out detail, trompe l’oeil seemed to work well with all of the instances of masking and falseness found within the play. In addition to the masks worn at the masquerade party, there are several instances of one character claiming to be another, friends holding false conversations to trick one another, Hero pretending to have died – amongst other examples of falseness. Trompe l’oeil, similarly, plays with and tricks the viewer.          At this stage, I anticipated that the dock facade would be flown in. Additionally, the director had decided that at this stage that the mimed scene of Margaret and Borachio in the window would happen in the palazzo setting, so there was no longer the need to consider adding a staircase to this set. 22  3.2 Palazzo Setting  Figure 10. Rough sketch for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing  In contrast to the dock and street settings, the palazzo would have a more traditionally feminine feel. The design would include more curved, rather than sharp angular, shapes.   Figure 11. Preliminary white model for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing 23   Figure 12. Follow-up white model for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing  With the switch in casting to more female characters and subsequent increased focus on women in the play, I want the scenic-world to be more from the female perspective. Hence, the palazzo, as Leonata and Hero’s home, would be the feminine space and would be more dimension and realistic in contrast to the outside spaces.   The palazzo would be an open space with several seating areas that could be rearranged through the play (i.e. decorated for the party and the wedding, etc.)    The vertical surfaces would again have trompe l'oeil rather than built out detailing to keep it coherent with the other settings and to again include the element of deception.      24  3.3 Street Setting  Figure 13. Rough sketch for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing  The street would again use trompe l’oeil and more angular shapes. It would also play with vanishing perspective to create a more visually constricting space that suggests an alleyway. This would make the space feel somewhat aggressive or threatening.  Like the dock setting, the street would again suggest a traditionally masculine source of power: physical strength. Grimy and likely including graffiti, the street would suggest the dark alley that women are told not to walk down.   25   Figure 14. Preliminary white model for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing   Figure 15. Follow-up white model for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing  I anticipated that the street facade would be follow in and the door would be a separate piece that would be rolled into place. The street facade would be downstage of the dock facade so that the street setting would give the actors access to the least stage space, making it the most constricting.  26  3.4 Design Meetings During Preliminary Stage During this preliminary design stage, the designers and director met to share their ideas and progress. It was still early in the processes for lighting and sound. At this stage, Champion had several images that were likely to inform her final lighting looks. These images included multiple sunset and evening photographs of Venice that suggested that the lighting design would have a deep, jewel-toned colour pallette. For sound design, Mai Inagaki played clips of Italian pop music that she might use. Her choices spoke to the modern and fun tone that the show was trying to achieve.  Costume designer Erica Sterry shared her costume plates with the group. Due to budgetary constraints, many pieces would have to be found in stock or purchased used rather than built or bought new. Because of this, the designs were subject to change; however, she was intending to create modern, high-end looks for the characters that used mainly tones of orange and blue.    During these meetings, I was able to present my work as well. This was particularly useful at this early stage as I was able to get feedback from a small audience, which helped me to redirect my work as I moved towards a final design. For instance, the director and other members of the design team were most enthusiastic about the design for the dock scene. They found it to be the most interesting and theatrical. Because of this response, I felt more secure in moving away from realism and continuing to develop the design I found most interesting, too.      27  By working closely with the other designers in the preliminary stage, we were all able to get a clear sense of the tone and colour of the overall show, which helped to create a more cohesive final product. Also by collaborating over a period of months, I felt that we developed more as a team who were in this together; it was easier to ask for and receive honest feedback from one another, because we had each been involved to some extent with the development of the other design areas from the start. This differed from my experience with other shows where the design areas are more separated. When I have worked on shows in the past (primarily as a costume designer), for example, I generally did not see lighting or hear sound cues until the tech week. In such cases, it is impossible to incorporate influences from these design areas into my design. I also would be less likely to offer critical feedback, because I would generally not have established that relationship as strongly.                   28  Chapter Four: Final Design  While in the middle of the design process, the director and I discovered that the Frederic Wood Stage’s built-in revolve had recently been refurbished and was now working. Upon learning this, Anderson asked me to consider if it was possible to integrate the revolve into the final design. While she was happy with what we had so far, she was also excited at the prospect of using the revolve as one is not found in every theatre and may not be something an audience often experiences.  4.1 Dock Setting    Figure 16. Final model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing  Figure 17. Paint elevations for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing  From the preliminary design of the dock setting to the final version, the general shape is similar. However, rather than being a flown-in facade, it became a built-in piece backed by a four-foot-wide staircase. The dock itself was now a part of the end of the staircase.   29  This new design helped to solve several of the concerns I originally had. It provided a staircase that was a feature in the design rather than something that would need to be hidden. With the staircase no longer an issue, it was easy to stage the mimed window scene of Margaret and Borachio as the director had originally envisaged: in the dock setting with Claudio looking on from the dock below.   The new design also meant that a larger dock was possible. With the preliminary design, the dock would have been a moveable piece that cast or crew would have had to roll on or offstage during transitions. The larger the dock, the more awkward, time consuming and noisy this would have been. It may have also created backstage storage problems. With the final design, the large dock stayed in place and during transitions was moved by the revolve.             30  4.2 Palazzo Setting    Figure 18. Final model for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing  Figure 19. Paint elevations for the palazzo setting for Much Ado About Nothing  The palazzo setting was the most altered by the use of the revolve. It was now an extension of the dock setting rather than an entirely separate set piece. This diminished some of the masculine/feminine contrast that I wanted to create between the indoor and outdoor spaces. However, it did make these two settings more cohesive, which made for a stronger design.   While I wasn’t able to create as strong a distinction between the dock and palazzo settings, I did maintain elements of that preliminary idea. For instance, the palazzo side of the staircase is curved, while the dock side uses more right angles. The archway within the palazzo is more arched rather than pointed. Similarly, the topiaries and statue are predominantly curved, more feminine shapes.   31  4.3 Street Setting      Figure 20. Final model for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing  Figure 21. Paint elevations for the street setting for Much Ado About Nothing  Throughout the design process, the design of the street setting remained close to my initial idea and rough sketch. It was not changed by the use of the revolve. The facade was still flown in.   While the design did not change much, the placement of the scene in the show changed by this point in the process. With the first draft of the script for this production, the first half of the show ended at the dock scene just after Claudio has seen a woman he thinks is Hero in the window with another man. However, for the final version of the show, the intermission was moved back a scene. Therefore, instead of being the first setting of the second half of the show, the street scene was introduced at the end of the first half.   Shifting the intermission back a scene made sense with the flow of the plot. The street sense takes place in the same night of the previous scenes. Following the street scene, there is break in time with the next scene taking place in the morning. However, it did 32  throw off the balance of settings in each half of the show. With the original placement of the intermission, the action of the first half of the show was located in only the dock and palazzo settings. The action of the second half was located only in the street and palazzo. Moving the intermission meant adding another large scene change to the first half of the show and introducing a new setting right before intermission. While this isn’t inherently a problem, I would imagine that for some audience members, particularly those not engaged with the show, throwing another setting and scene change in when they are beginning to expect an intermission, would be a frustrating, check-your-watch moment.                           33  Chapter Five: Production Stage   5.1 Costing With the designs finalised, I presented them to the production team and submitted them to the show’s Technical Director Keith Smith for costing.   Figure 22.  Initial costing estimate   The initial costing for the designs was nearly twice the $2000 budgeted for the set design. This was worrisome as the director and I weren’t sure what we could cut back on, let alone cutting back on half of the design.  34  Together, we met with Smith and discussed ways that we could achieve the design we wanted while coming in at budget. Ultimately, relatively small changes were all that was needed to significantly reduce the building costs. For instance, the dock would be made out of stock risers. Where possible, the facades would be made with stock flats. The archways under the staircase would be narrowed by a few feet to reduce the amount of structural support needed. The run of the stairs would be increased by an inch so that stock stairs could be used on the straight section rather than building the entire staircase. Though at first reducing the cost of the build seemed daunting, the overall look and feel of the design was not altered very much by making these small changes and compromises.          5.2 Set Build and Rehearsal Following the final design presentation to the production team, rehearsals began for the actors. The stage management crew took copies of my drafting and used them to tape out on the rehearsal room floor the size and placement of the large set pieces. In addition to working with the drafting in this way, the director asked to keep the set model in the rehearsal room so as to be better able to visualise the final space when considering blocking. This seemed to encourage a more dynamic use of the space. For instance, the adapted script originally had the actors in the first scene either on the dock or in a boat. By working with the model in the rehearsal room, Anderson decided instead to have Leonata start in the upper windows of the dock setting. Similarly, the landings of the staircase become places for characters in the background of the scene to stand and spy on the foreground characters. I was pleased to see this use of the 35  space as it again spoke to the theme of deception that jumped out at me in my first readings of the script.    Rehearsals also help the director and I discover some of the limitations of the set. By grouping the actors into the taped off section of floor that represented the dock, it became clear that the space was not large enough for the number of actors Anderson wanted to have on it during the first scene. She was interested in extending the dock downstage and towards stage left. However, while it was possible to add an extra length to the stage left side, because the dock was now placed on the revolve, adding depth to the entire length of the dock would have meant that it protruded several feet off of the revolve. This likely would have been a hazard during transitions may have impacted the cyc lights when the dock was turned to face upstage. Further, adding to the set at this point could add too much to the budget.     With the budget in mind, I suggested that we could use another stock riser to add space to the dock. I also suggested that it could be added downstage of the existing dock near the centreline or that it could be added to the stage left side of the existing dock. We decided that a longer, narrower dock would be more elegant. Additionally, while adding depth would create room, it might lead to actors blocking one another from the audience’s view. Adding length, on the other hand, would allow the actors more space to form groups without having to stand in front of each other.  36    Figure 23. Drafting of original dock size  Figure 24. Drafting of dock with extension  During rehearsal, we also began experimenting with the two-dimensional boats that the actors would use during the dock scene. At the second rehearsal, the actors were given cardboard prototypes of the boats so that they could get used to their size and learn how to manipulate them. From this process, we learned that it was awkward for the actor playing the postman to stay standing in his boat throughout the scene and that he would have to have a way of setting it down while keeping upright. Initially, the director and I wanted to add legs to the post boat. I was concerned that they might make the boat difficult to walk with, so drafted them to be as small as possible. I then consulted with the Technical Director. He wasn’t convinced that the legs would be a reliable way to keep the boat standing. Instead, he suggested that I return to a detail that I had in one of my preliminary models. On one of the earlier models (Figure 25) there were a small post along the edge of the dock. They were originally there to serve as handles to move the dock before the revolve was involved and I cut them when I was simplifying the design to fit the budget. But, he thought they could work as a place to hook the boats when they weren’t in use. This was the method we went forward with. 37   Figure 25. Second follow-up white model for the dock setting for Much Ado About Nothing      Figure 26. Gondola drafting  Figure 27. Post boat drafting    38    Figure 28. Drafting of original under-stair openings Figure 29. Drafting of final under-stair opening  Towards the end of the set construction, the build crew found that with the way the staircase had been constructed so far, it would be difficult to include the openings – as originally drafted (Figure 28) – in the palazzo side of the staircase. The crew was concerned that creating the openings while keeping the staircase structurally sound would be too labour intensive and might mean that support pieces would be visible in the openings. Possible solutions were offered, such as having painted side doors rather actual openings. However, I decide to instead go with a single centre opening that was wider than the original centre opening, but smaller than the original openings were cumulatively (Figure 29). I felt, in the circumstances, this compromise would be the best as it allowed the staircase to maintain a lighter and airier feel than painted openings would have.  39    Figure 30. Set construction in progress Figure 31. Set construction in progress  The construction process for this set was more time-intensive than originally anticipated. Due to the height of the dock/palazzo facade and staircase, the curved portions of the staircase and the two dimensional nature of many of the set pieces, it was often challenging to build and support pieces of the set so that it was safe and so that the structural elements weren’t visible to the audience. Because of these challenges, the build did fall behind; however, by tech week, it was back on schedule again. This was due in large part to the build crew working extra hours. Additionally, simplifying pieces of the set such as the staircase openings mentioned above and reducing the number of balusters on the curved section of the stairs helped to save some time.        40  5.3 Realised Set  Figure 32. Dock setting in Act 1 Scene 1 Photo courtesy of Javier Sotres    When the actors were able to begin working with the actual set, there were several elements that they need to adjust to: the time it took to move between the different levels, the height the staircase reached and acting on a revolve. On our first day on the set, the cast and crew spent the first portion of rehearsal working with just the revolve. Starting with a slow speed, we practiced walking on it and stepping off of it while it turned. Transitioning from a static, taped rehearsal room to the revolve was confusing for some of the actors at first. They would find themselves on the wrong side of the set during transitions, as they were not yet accounting for the rotation. 41     Figures 33-35  Revolve progression from dock Photos courtesy of Javier Sotres    to palazzo setting    Figure 36. Palazzo setting in Act 2 Scene 1 Photo courtesy of Javier Sotres   While the translation of the dock and palazzo designs from drafting to the stage were fairly smooth the street setting wasn’t quite as I had originally planned it. Due to the decision later in the design process to use the house curtain at the top and end of the show as well as for intermission, the final placement of the door was not where I first intended. I had planned to place the door several feet closer to centre stage and 42  downstage of the street wall. However, doing so was not possible as the curtain would have landed on the door. As it was, the curtain often caught on the door’s base. While the final result was fine, I would have preferred an overlapped placement, which would have mitigated the gap between the door and wall that was visible from house left. Additionally, because I was intending to have the door block more of the wall, the stage left side of the wall facade had fewer paint details and was mostly gray. I tried to tone down the grayness somewhat by having the paint team add more rust-coloured drips and texture. While these additions were an improvement, they weren’t a perfect solution.  Figure 37. Street setting in Act 5 Scene 3 Photo courtesy of Javier Sotres     43  Chapter Six: Conclusion  Overall, the scenic design for UBC’s production of Much Ado About Nothing was a success. The set seemed to be well received by the actors, who were excited to work on it, the director, who was enthusiastic about exploring the different spaces she could use for blocking, and the audience. While watching the opening night performance, I enjoyed seeing the set build and offer surprises to the audience throughout the first half: the gondola coming in, the first revolve, setting up the lights for the party, revolving back to the dock and then finally the wall flying in. I found that this added excitement and momentum to the top of the show. During the second half of the show, on the other hand, the set seemed to take more of a back seat. While there were some new elements, the audience was now acquainted with all of the settings. By slowing down the world, the audience could focus more on the plot in the second half as things took a more serious turn with the failed wedding.  I found that the scenic design ultimately helped with director’s original goal of balancing the tones of the script. With the use of trompe l’oeil and forced perspective, the set was not realistic. Rather, it had a sense of the cartoonish about it. That, along with the use of a predominantly warm colour palette made it a visually fun set that worked well with the comedic elements of the show. However, while having a sense of the cartoonish, the set was near enough to reality and was elegant enough to support the serious plot points of the show as well.  44  In addition to the set design serving the show well, I was pleased that the design aesthetic moved away from a strictly realistic approach into a more ‘theatrical’ design. In the very first meetings with the director, she imagined a realism-based set. While I did pursue this, I also offered the less realistic, rough sketch of the dock setting. I wasn’t sure that Anderson would like or want to go in that direction, but to me it was the more interesting design, so I sent it to her to see her reaction. I was glad that I was able to serve the needs of the director and the show, while at the same time developing a design that interested me.   The positive, fun collaboration with Lois Anderson on this show has helped to inform the working process I would prefer on future shows. Going forward as a designer, it’s clear to me that finding a collaborative back-and-forth with a director is important. I also need space and trust from the director to try unexpected things.                      45  Appendices  Appendix A: Script Analysis  ACT ONE (3 scenes) ACT ONE | SCENE ONE (312 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes SD Meeting a messenger  Likely outside the gates/outside the house/eager for news 2/Leo Setting is Messina  5-6/Leo Don Pedro & co returning from war   90/Ped Come you to meet your trouble They are probably on the front steps of the house/somewhere they would greet visitors 93/Leo Never came trouble to my house... It’s Leonato’s house 153/Ped Your hand, Leonato. We will go together. Leonato is lower rank than Pedro, but still high affluent and influential 268/Ped 6th of July Summer  ACT ONE | SCENE TWO (24 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 9/Ant Mine orchard (thick-pleached) The conversation between Pedro and Claudio is now supposed to have happened in an orchard 24/Leo This busy time They are preparing for party/likely carrying relevant PROPS      46  ACT ONE | SCENE THREE (67 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 37-38/Bor Yonder great supper...royally entertained by Leonato It’s evening/still likely light though as it’s summer  Leonato’s house would be nice/palatial  53-55/Bor Musty room...arras The conversation between Pedro and Claudio is now supposed to have happened indoors   ACT TWO (3 scenes) ACT TWO | SCENE ONE (366 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes SD Lots of dancing/many characters onstage Need open space 162-3/Bor/John tonight...banquet Evening or night  365/Ped Go in with me Might need a facade with door  ACT TWO | SCENE TWO (51 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes     ACT TWO | SCENE THREE (250 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 4/Ben Hither to me in the orchard Scene takes place outside 34/Ben I will hide me in the arbor  36/Cla How still this evening is  40/SD Balthasar enters with music Needs an instrument PROP 57/Ben Sheep’s guts Stringed instrument  ↑↑↑ 201/Leo Dinner is ready Evening again 47  ACT THREE (5 scenes) ACT THREE | SCENE ONE (116 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 5-8/Hero Walk in the orchard...bid her steal into the pleached bower, where honeysuckles, ripened by the sun...    16/Hero As we do trace this alley up and down  30/Urs [Beatrice] is couched in the woodbine coverture  33/Hero Then we go near her Need distance between where U & H start and where B hides  ACT THREE | SCENE TWO (121 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 73/Ped Good den, brother evening  ACT THREE | SCENE THREE (178 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 25/Dog Lantern PROP 42/Dog Bills Possible PROP: Halberds -- long pole with axe/spear head 103-4/Bor Stand... under this penthouse, for it drizzles rain Overhanging roof 130/Con ‘twas the vane in the house   ACT THREE | SCENE FOUR (92 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 1-2/Hero Wake my cousin..desire her to rise Morning 12/Mar I like the new tire within They can be outside again   48  ACT THREE | SCENE FIVE (61 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes     ACT FOUR (2 scenes) ACT FOUR | SCENE ONE (333 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes     ACT FOUR | SCENE TWO (84 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 2/Ver A stool and a cushion for the sexton PROPS 12/Dog Write down PROPS 62/Sexton Let these men be bound PROPS   ACT FIVE(4 scenes) ACT FIVE | SCENE ONE (321 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 46/Ped Good den evening 307/Leo For thy pains PROPS money/bag?  ACT FIVE | SCENE TWO (97 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 30-41/Ben Talking about poem Might have poem PROP           49  ACT FIVE | SCENE THREE (33 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes SD Taper candles PROPS 1/Cla Monument of Leonato  3/SD Reads from scroll PROP 9/SD Hangs up scroll PROP Scroll needs to hang-able and needs somewhere to hang on monument 11/Cla music PROPS instruments 24/Ped Put your torches out Tapers?  ACT FIVE | SCENE FOUR (126 lines) Line/Speaker What  Notes 11/Leo Withdraw into a chamber Offstage? 86/Cla Paper written in his hand PROP sonnet 89/Hero Here’ another PROP sonnet                      50  Appendix B: Props Package  Prop # Use/Notes First Appearance TVs on stands 3+ Play soccer match at pre-show  As many as possible Used in pre-show Bunting  For use in decorating lobby  Lower priority -- nice if possible  Would be the Napoli blue team colours and strung up in lobby perhaps between the chandeliers   Preshow  Team roster poster 1 For use in decorating lobby  Lower priority -- nice if possible  Would include images of the actors playing Claudio, Benedick, and Don Pedro as team captain Preshow Gondolas  2 Transport multiple actors   1 for Leonata group (1 actor) and 1 for Don Pedro group (6 actors)  Will be 2D, one-sided with straps to attach to actors.   Will likely have fabric skirt to hide feet  Set designer will provide drafting for shape and size 1.1 Water/gondola fabric  I’m going to say about 8 yards at this point-- subject to change  Lightweight and flowy       51  Prop # Use/Notes First Appearance Gondola rowing oars 2 Used to suggest propeling gondolas;   Straight pole rather than actual oar with rubber tip for anti-slip?    1.1 Letter  1 Letter to inform Leonata about the team’s arrival in Venice  Should have letter inside for Leonata to interact with 1.1 Additional mail/letters 6-12 bits Other mail for messenger to carry 1.1 Postbag 1 For postman  Looks like it’s carrying other mail, but other mail not shown 1.1 Soccer ball 1  1.1 Trophy? 1 Decorated with Naples team colour ribbons (blues) 1.1 Palazzo furniture -- chaise lounge 1  1.2 Palazzo furniture -- chairs 2  1.2 Palazzo furniture -- small round side table 1  1.2 Palazzo furniture -- larger side table 1 Serves as a makeshift bar 1.2 Palazzo furnishings -- flower vase 1 Sits on small side table 1.2 Palazzo furnishings -- faux flowers 3 For in vase; party arrangement, wedding arrangement, funeral arrangement   1.2 52  Prop # Use/Notes First Appearance Palazzo furniture -- benches 2  1.2 Palazzo furnishing --  throw pillows 4 Modern, colourful; decorate other furniture 1.2 Drinks trolley with silver tray 1  1.2 iPad/tablet 1 Maid carries it  Does not need to provide music SFX 1.2 Masks 13+ Costume Prop 2.1 Glassware 12 Various wine glasses  Preferably with an older look -- antique, something that would have been in the family for a few generations 2.1 String Lights  Large bulbs  Approximately 50 feet 2.1 Lanterns 4 Will decorate the party and then some or all will be taken ‘outside’ to line dock 2.1 Alcohol bottles ~5 Various wine bottles with ‘wine’  Consumable 2.1 Package of cigarettes  1 Personal prop for Borachio  Lighter 1 Personal prop for Borachio  Euros  1000 Euros 2.2 Purse  1 For Dona Johna 2.2 Guitar 1 Needs to be playable  Played during Balthasar’s song   With shoulder strap  2.3 53  Prop # Use/Notes First Appearance Umbrellas 3 For Dogberry, Verges, Watch  Probably dark, dependent on costumes 3.2 Flashlight 1 For Dogberry  Black 3.2 Tray of wedding appetizers 1 tray Will be carried -- not intended to be eaten at this stage  Silver tray 3.3 Wedding cake 1 Will be carried -- not intended to be eaten at this stage  Silver tray 3.3 Stack of wedding gifts 1 Will be carried   Boxes affixed to one another into a pile/pyramid stack  3.3 White tablecloth 2 For side tables  # and size dependent on tables chosen 3.3 Flower garland  To decorate palazzo  Approximately 20 feet 3.3 Palazzo furnishings -- rug 1 To ‘ground’ wedding ceremony  Something with nature imagery or that gives the impression of nature      3.3 Tissues or toilet paper roll  For Beatrice’s stuffy nose  Pocket tissues or neutral coloured box?  3.3 54  Prop # Use/Notes First Appearance Small bottle  1 Bottle for Carduus Benedictus 3.3 Bouquet 1 Small bouquet for Hero  4.1 Pen 1 For Sexton 4.2 Notebook 1 For Sexton  Already partly used 4.2 Handcuffs 2 For the watch to put on Borachio and Conrade  (1 set to share between the 2?) 4.2 Mourning Wreath  1  To lean on door stoop or hang on door  With black ribbon/bow 5.1 Cellphone 1 For Benedick to write on 5.2 Taper candles ~6  Faux tapers with wax catching cone  6 or more at present, depending on number of actors available for scene 5.3 Coffin 1 Won’t be weighted   Simple design -- will be covered with pall   Will be carried across stage by two or more actors  Can be rectangular      5.3 Coffin pall 1 Preferably longer than shown in image   5.3 55  Prop # Use/Notes First Appearance Black table clothes 2 For side tables  # and size dependent on tables chosen 5.4 Love letters 2 1 for Benedick and 1 for Beatrice  Handwritten   Might need multiple copies depending on staging -- could be fought over 5.4                              56  Appendix C: Drafting   Dock Ground Plan 57    Palazzo Ground Plan 58    Street Ground Plan 59    Dock Cross Section 60    Palazzo Cross Section 61    Street Cross Section 62    Dock and Palazzo Staircase Developed View 63    Dock and Palazzo Staircase Views 64   Facade Views 65    Dock and Street Smaller Set Pieces 66   Palazzo Smaller Set Pieces 67   Boats and Coffin   

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