THE WORLD PATTERN OF PROCESS by Rasunah Marsden B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1975 M.A.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 2014 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Curriculum Studies) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) April 2019 © Rasunah Marsden, 2019 ii The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the dissertation entitled: The World Pattern of Process submitted by Rasunah Marsden in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Curriculum Studies Examining Committee: Cynthia Nicol, Curriculum Studies Supervisor Samson M. Nashon, Curriculum Studies Supervisory Committee Member Karen Meyer, Curriculum Studies Supervisory Committee Member Samuel David Rocha, Educational Studies University Examiner Michael Marker, Educational Studies University Examiner Gregory Cajete, Native American Studies, Arts and Sciences, The University of New Mexico External University Examiner iii Abstract The World Pattern of Process, a holistic 'theory of everything' is based on four elements of existence (material, vegetal, animal and human — MVAH) and four stages of process (Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al — ZSAA) or Idea-Condition-Action-Result. The four stages modeled by the World Pattern are: Zat: power, pure potential, essence, existence, force, energy, concept, seed Sifat: condition, attributes or qualities, nature, being, form, container Asma: work, deed, action, course or step taken. Af'al: evidence, proof, reality, truth, result, outcome The process components, underscored in the framework above, can be used to gain new insights into the work of the Humanities and the Sciences. I have elaborated The World Pattern of Process, also a cosmology, in two parts. Part One outlines the World Pattern and explains how basic structures posited in the sciences and humanities are connected to a four-fold, cosmological World Pattern of Process. Part 2 discusses how correlations between disciplines and the World Pattern can be shown to support a Grand Pattern when applied to Indigenous world views, to the Great Chain of Being and to Theories of Everything. The methods of investigation are through conceptual analysis and intuitive inquiry, which follows a cycle of interpretation: 1) general engagement with the theory is described in relation to the work of Pope (2007), Whitehead (1978), Jantsch (1980), Bohm (1981), Pirsig (1991), and Schooler, Hunt & Schooler (2011); 2) emerging patterns are identified through elaboration of the World Pattern; 3) descriptive analyses of data associated with the World Pattern of Process (theories of everything, Indigenous world views, and the Great Chain of Being) are presented; and 4) the analysis of selected texts is summarized in Conclusions and Implications. In sum, the constituents of the World Pattern of Process hypothesize a new critical approach and perspective on possibilities for the analysis and integration of various disciplines and applications, cosmologies, theories of everything, and Indigenous world views. Based on energy, the motion of energy, and key patterns inherent in a four-fold process, the World Pattern of Process offers a holistic approach to knowledge systems and re-invigorates dialectics on human be-ing. iv Lay Summary The World Pattern of Process introduces the concepts Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al (ZSAA) and material, vegetal, animal and human energies and then discusses correlations in the sciences and humanities which are supported by these concepts. A focus on energy and processes over and above objects or matter is emphasized in the dissertation. Part 1 (Chapters 1-4) articulates the process central to World Pattern in the ‘ZSAA’ format. Part 2 (Chapters 5-7) shows the application of the concepts when viewing Indigenous world views, the Great Chain of Being, and Theories of Everything. These applications were chosen as examples of alternate, past and contemporary world views, respectively, which can be associated with the World Pattern. As a pattern of analysis, the World Pattern of Process offers a holistic approach to knowledge systems and re-invigorates dialectics on human be-ing which can enrich deliberations on existence and process in the field of education and beyond. v Preface This dissertation is an original, independent, intellectual product of the author, Rasunah Marsden. All Figures are used with permission from applicable sources. No versions of any contents of this material have been published elsewhere. vi Table of Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................................... iii Lay Summary ............................................................................................................................... iv Preface .............................................................................................................................................v Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................x List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... xi List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. xii Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................... xiii Dedication ................................................................................................................................... xiv Part 1: The Process ........................................................................................................................1 Retrospective ..................................................................................................................................2 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................5 Invitation to the Reader.................................................................................................................8 Chapter 1: Zat: How Did We Get Here? .................................................................................. 11 1.1 Alternative world views, Wholes, and Universal Soup ....................................................... 15 1.2 States of Existence, Processes and Fours ............................................................................. 20 1.3 Sketching an Outline of the World Pattern with Whitehead, Pope and Wilson .................. 25 vii 1.4 Recapping the Outline.......................................................................................................... 33 Chapter 2: Sifat: What do we have here? ................................................................................. 36 2.1 Spirals of Process, Phases of Evolution and the Development of Social Structures ........... 38 2.2 Describing Cycles of Process and Stages of the Grand Pattern ........................................... 45 2.3 Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern, Abbreviated .............................. 53 2.4 E. O. Wilson’s Work on Consilience and the Skeleton of the World Pattern ..................... 58 Chapter 3: Asma: What is the Work? ...................................................................................... 61 3.2 Energies Within the Human Constitution ............................................................................ 66 3.2.1 Material Energies .............................................................................................. 67 3.2.2 Vegetal Energies ............................................................................................... 68 3.2.3 Animal Energies................................................................................................ 74 3.2.4 Human Energies ................................................................................................ 79 3.3 The Greater Framework — Ontogeny and Phylogeny ........................................................ 89 3.4 Human Values and Virtues ................................................................................................ 100 Chapter 4: Af’al: What are the results? ................................................................................. 108 4.1 Back to the Number Four ................................................................................................... 113 4.2 What is Education? ............................................................................................................ 117 4.3 Where are we? (and) Where do we go from here? ............................................................ 126 Part 2: Correlations and Connections......................................................................................130 viii Chapter 5: Indigenous World Views & the World Pattern of Process ................................ 131 5.1 Fours ................................................................................................................................. 133 5.2 All Creation is Imbued with Spirit ..................................................................................... 140 5.3 All My Relations ................................................................................................................ 146 5.4 Relational Knowledge ........................................................................................................ 148 5.5 Approaches to Research and Skills in Co-operation and Collaboration ............................ 154 5.6 Spirit-based Relationships and Indigenous Contributions to Human Societies................. 157 5.7 Indigenous World Views and the World Pattern of Process.............................................. 163 Chapter 6: The Great Chain of Being and the World Pattern of Process ........................... 169 6.1 Cosmology, Grand Theory and Observable Relationships ................................................ 169 6.2 The Great Chain of Being .................................................................................................. 173 6.3 Missing Links, Dualisms and Denouement ....................................................................... 178 6.4 Correlations between the World Pattern of Process and the Great Chain of Being .......... 186 Chapter 7: Theories of Everything and the World Pattern of Process ................................ 200 7.1 (Not) Bridging General Relativity, String and Quantum Theory ...................................... 203 7.2 Quantum Considerations .................................................................................................... 208 7.3 Approaches to Consciousness: States of Matter, Dimensions and the Flow of Time ....... 212 7.3.1 Illusions, Tenets and Levels of Consciousness ............................................... 217 7.3.2 Solutions Needed ............................................................................................ 219 ix 7.3.3 Recap on Approaches to Consciousness ......................................................... 222 7.4 Pirsig’s Metaphysics of Quality (MOQ) ............................................................................ 223 7.5 Pirsig on Values, Causation and Morals ............................................................................ 227 7.6 Pirsig’s Classifications and their Derivations .................................................................... 232 7.7 Theories of Everything and the World Pattern of Process Revisited ................................. 237 Chapter 8: Conclusions and Implications .............................................................................. 249 8.1 Key Themes and Theory Advancement ............................................................................. 253 8.2 Implications for Application and Practice ......................................................................... 255 8.3 Implications for Research .................................................................................................. 262 8.4 Implications for Curriculum and Instruction ..................................................................... 272 8.5 Limitations ......................................................................................................................... 278 8.6 General Contributions ........................................................................................................ 280 References ...................................................................................................................................281 Appendices ..................................................................................................................................290 Appendix A Creative Advance, Concrescence and Appetition in Whitehead’s Process and Reality ......................................................................................................................................................... 290 Appendix B How to Describe a Human Being Workshop .............................................................. 310 Appendix C Notes on Sudarto’s Four States of Marriage ............................................................... 312 x List of Tables Table 2-1: Four Formally Different Stages of the Grand Pattern ................................................. 47 Table 2-2: Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern ........................................... 54 Table 3-1: Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern, Abbreviated ..................... 66 Table 7-1: Patterns in the World Pattern of Process, TOE and the MOQ .................................. 246 Table C-1: MVAH Energies In Relation To Sudarto’s Four States Of Marriage ...................... 313 xi List of Figures Figure 1-1: ZSAA-MVAH ............................................................................................................ 21 Figure 1-2: The Pattern of all Patterns .......................................................................................... 27 Figure 2-1: Evolution of Evolutionary Processes (Jantsch, 1980, p. 224) .................................... 39 Figure 2-2: Co-evolution of Macro — and Microstructures (Jantsch 1980, p. 94) ...................... 41 Figure 2-3: The Kuhn Cycle (Harich & Bangerter, 2014) ............................................................ 47 Figure 3-1: Material, Vegetal, Animal, Human (MVAH) ............................................................ 67 Figure 3-2: M-Dominant ............................................................................................................... 67 Figure 3-3: V-Dominant ............................................................................................................... 68 Figure 3-4:A-Dominant ................................................................................................................ 74 Figure 3-5: H-Dominant ............................................................................................................... 79 Figure 3-6: Jung's House (Pope 2007, p. 232) .............................................................................. 92 Figure 5-1: The Four Directions (Benton-Banai, 1988, p. 63) .................................................. 133 Figure 5-2: Four Directions — Otter (Benton-Banai 1988, p. 64) ............................................. 136 Figure 5-3: The Four Directions — Wandering Buffalo ............................................................ 146 Figure 6-1: The Great Chain of Being, Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana, 1579 ............. 174 Figure 7-1: Dynamic and Static Quality ..................................................................................... 226 xii List of Abbreviations AVMH-dominant: Animal Energy is dominant in Material, Vegetal, Animal and Human composition. GCOB: Great Chain of Being GR: General Relativity HAVM-dominant: Human Energy is dominant in Material, Vegetal, Animal and Human composition. ICAR: Idea, Condition, Action, Result MOQ: Metaphysics of Quality MVAH: Material, Vegetal, Animal and Human MVAH-dominant: Material Energy is dominant in Material, Vegetal, Animal and Human composition. QFT: Quantum Field Theory TOE: Theory of Everything VMAH-dominant: Vegetal Energy is dominant in Material, Vegetal, Animal and Human composition. World Pattern: Abbreviated form for the title of the dissertation, the World Pattern of Process. ZSAA: Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al xiii Acknowledgements With special thanks for the ongoing support of my Supervisor, Dr. Cynthia Nicol and committee members Dr. Karen Meyer and Dr. Samson Nashon and earlier committee members Dr. Peter Cole and Dr. Stephen Petrina. With special thanks to the UBC Faculty of Education committee members who assisted in selections for Fellowship and Scholarship support for the following scholarships and fellowships: Aboriginal Graduate Fellowship 6481 Cordula and Gunter Paetzold Fellowship 6350 Special UBC Graduate Scholarship-Aboriginal PhD Scholarship 6372 Special UBC Graduate Scholarship Faculty of Education Entrance Scholarship 6372 Joseph Katz Memorial Scholarship 1956 Faculty of Education Graduate Award 6438 Special thanks are due also for Aboriginal Master’s/Doctoral Student Award provided by the Irving K. Barber B.C. Scholarship Society and for the scholarship provided by the NIB Trust Fund. I would also like to acknowledge the stewardship and stellar course content in the Master and Doctoral Programs taught by Faculty of Education members: Dr. Samson Nashon, Dr. Bill Doll and Dr. Donna Trueit, Dr. Cynthia Nicol, Dr. Karen Meyer, Dr. William Pinar, Dr. Peter Cole, Dr. Pat O'Reilly, Dr. Sandra Mathison, and Dr. Jo-ann Archibald. Special thanks are also due to all my relations, past and current Chief and Council and Education Committee members of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation, for their ongoing support. Finally, thanks are due to my father, my mother and my children, for being who they are… xiv Dedication This work is dedicated to the life-long inspiring and exemplary efforts of Y. M. Bapak Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, his daughter Ibu Rahayu Sumohadiwidjojo, his grandson Mas Istiadji Wirjohudojo and to my former neighbor and long-term correspondent, Salamah Pope. 1 Part 1: The Process Part 1 describes and elaborates the World Pattern of Process, a model which in part is derived from Javanese cosmology. 2 Retrospective Currently I am an Elder for the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation, matriarch for an extended family of fifty persons on the West Coast, mother of four grown children and three grandchildren, residing in North Vancouver. My original settings were Canadian military combat training grounds which prepared tens of thousands of American troops for the Vietnam war just prior to the assassination of President JFK. As a child of Indigenous and French descent, my mother preferred I take Roman Catholic religious instruction, choir and classical music, theory, ear training and composition lessons. By my early teens I had begun to read works on theology in the local priest’s library, and in particular, accounts of the questioning of Lúcia Santos of Fatima, Portugal from a Jesuit Library in Brandon, Manitoba. In a bookstore one day, I also leafed through a collection of photographs of archaeological explorations of Incan sites which included shocking depictions of human sacrifice. My father is a residential school survivor and a WWII veteran who was descended not only from Anishinaabe stock, but unbeknownst to me at the time, from South American Indigenous ancestry, as DNA would later point out. For some reason, the images from the book of archaeological explorations marked the beginning of a personal quest for knowledge. In the coming months, at the age of fourteen, I also discovered I could not adapt to cloistered boarding school conditions while removed from my family and siblings for four months, after a doctor persuaded my parents that the episode of ‘psychological blindness’ that I experienced there would not persist if I returned home. Leaving home a few years later (1969) introduced me to the equally confusing company of the flower-power generation flowing through Canadian cities, mixed in with bikers, drug users, mafia collectors, Woodstock attendees, musicians, students, feminists and Indigenous militant activists. Also, having come across the book, Susila Budhi Dharma in 1969, I first met Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjo in Toronto in 1970, which is when I first heard the terms, “Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al”, about which the dissertation revolves. 3 The search for putting all the pieces of the puzzle of life together, and knowledge transformation, was ‘on’. As a result, I was first in my ancestral line to leave the continent and visit Southeast Asia (Jakarta) in 1971 and later to live and work there through the 1980’s where I was fully immersed in Javanese society. In his second essay in Finding the Center, entitled “The Crocodiles of Yamoussoukro” in which a travel writer describes his experience of the Ivory Coast, V.S. Naipaul wrote, “I travel to discover other states of mind” (p. 90). That about sums up what I was doing during the Wandering years (see Section 5.3). I would also be first in my immediate family to obtain an undergraduate degree at Simon Fraser University (SFU) in what would now be termed ‘comparative literature’ but was then known as a Bachelor of Arts with all electives taken from linguistics department literature courses offered ‘in translation’ (Russian, Chinese, South American, French). The rest of the undergraduate work was spent in Commonwealth, Canadian, and American literature courses along with period literatures (Romanticism, Shakespeare, the European novel) and whatnot: sociological theory, social structure, psychology, philosophy of the arts. I went on to acquire a teaching degree at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in conjunction with courses for a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing (all but final submission of thesis – a novel for gifted children – was aborted after shifting overseas in 1980. Why? Because my supervisors couldn’t agree with each other that my ‘hero’ needed to have a specific (psychological) problem . . . and this young boy, Jax, was carefree as all get-out; his imaginary friend was as masterful as Shakespeare’s Puck, and all of Jax’s so-called problems vanished in discovery). Returning from Jakarta I lived in Sydney (NSW) for five years, obtaining a Graduate Diploma of Design at the University of Technology. Finally, I returned to Vancouver, and then worked in Indigenous-centered positions (instructor, curriculum developer, coordinator of Indigenous services, and associate dean for Outreach) in the En’owkin Center, the Native Education College, and the University of the Fraser Valley – which was when the concentration on Indigenous research via a MEd became an obvious next step. Thus, proceeding on to write a dissertation has enabled me to tie together the results of a lifelong-learning process drawn from continents and 4 deliberations of a life experienced: the origins, nature of the journey, steps taken, and proof or outcomes examined. 5 Introduction I chose the title, The World Pattern of Process, after over forty-five years of familiarizing myself with the concepts which it embeds, and after deciding the title needed to emphasize process as its key theme. This work distinguishes itself from the work of Salamah Pope, whose book, The Pattern of the World, was self-published in 2007 on Amazon.com is difficult to find elsewhere, or expensive. (Only one copy remains available at the time of this writing for $927.99.) Foundations for both works derive from Javanese cosmology (about which few or no comprehensive English or translated works are available), and from talks given by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo a spiritual leader of Javanese aristocratic descent, born in Semareng, Indonesia who later went on several world journeys. His talks were not intended for public access. Originally neighbors in Indonesia for upwards of a decade, Salamah Pope and I had many discussions about the ideas I present as a cosmology, or world view and much else, which have ranged over decades, until her passing on August 30, 2017. We largely agreed on major points but differed on occasion in details and areas of ‘correspondence’. Our shared hope was that others see the value of the Pattern sooner, rather than later. Upon referencing several of her quotes I realized she had used the same phrase (which I chose for a title) in her book, as well as in the title of one of her unpublished articles. Nevertheless, analytically and thematically, Pope’s work is of seminal importance to the World Pattern of Process, along with the work of Pirsig, Whitehead, and Schooler et al – other major influences in this expanded elaboration of the World Pattern. I should not need to repeat this, but for the sake of clarification, both Salamah and I were working with the same concepts on the same topic over the same time period in the absence of other translated sources. The distinction between Salamah’s work, The Pattern of the World and The World Pattern of Process is that Part 1: The Process, is an extended analysis and elaboration of the Pattern which is strongly supported by Salamah’s work; but Part 2: Correlations and Connections are applications of the Pattern to other fields (the Great Chain of Being, Indigenous World Views, and Theories of Everything) which are entirely original. These Correlations and 6 Connections illustrate how the World Pattern can be applied to other disciplines and by extrapolation, to any other disciplines. In the matter of conceptual interpretation and analysis, the World Pattern of Process is also strongly supported by Jantsch’s work on the spiral of microevolution, Bohm’s work on Consilience, and Pirsig’s work on the Metaphysics of Quality. The contributions which they have made most closely approximate the World Pattern of Process as an explicit model — principally because the scope of their works support the over-riding themes of consilience of the sciences and humanities, processes, the pattern of four, consciousness and energy which are the primary themes explored in the World Pattern. The World Pattern of Process is speculative in that it may be considered "the endeavor to frame a coherent, logical necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every element of our experience can be interpreted” (Whitehead, 1978, p. 30). Through conceptual analysis and an interpretive blend of speculative, integrative and theoretical viewpoints, a framework of process which is realized as a grand pattern is established in the World Pattern. The primary research focus is based on the following underlying research questions: How do foundational structures in the sciences and humanities apply to a fourfold, cosmological World Pattern of Process? How can correlations between disciplines be shown to support a Grand Pattern? In keeping with the analysis of patterns and concepts discussed in works on speculative philosophy (Clarke, 1982; Eastman, Epperson, Griffin, & Walter de Gruyter & Co., 2016; Whitehead, 1978) and on intuitive inquiry (Anderson 2004; Anderson 2014), the World Pattern of Process builds upon cosmologies and perspectives brought forward by Pope (2007), Whitehead (1978), Jantsch (1980), Bohm (1981), Pirsig (1991), Schooler, Hunt & Schooler (2011); E. O. Wilson (1998), Einstein (1923), and others in the construction of the Pattern. In order to follow the process of inductive theory building and to "explore topics that require attention by the culture at large," (Anderson, 2014, p. 244) I have based the design of study and methods of investigation on conceptual analysis and have used the cycle of interpretation described in Anderson’s pattern of intuitive inquiry (Anderson, 2004; 2014). The sequence of steps taken include: 7 1) the theory is outlined in conjunction with the works of Pope (2007), Whitehead (1978), and others mentioned above, 2) emerging patterns are identified through further elaboration of the World Pattern; 3) descriptive analyses of data associated with the World Pattern of Process (theories of everything, Indigenous world views, and the Great Chain of Being) are presented; and 4) the analysis of selected texts is summarized in Conclusions and Implications. In the first part of the thesis I describe the World Pattern of Process, a model which in part is derived from Javanese cosmology, and elaborates on the pattern of process (Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al) in relation to material, vegetal, animal and human forms of energy. In the second part of the thesis I apply perspectives developed in the first part to the analysis of patterns found in three applications: Indigenous world views, the Great Chain of Being, and Theories of Everything. Lastly, I discuss conclusions and interpretations in the final chapter of the thesis. In sum, the constituents of the World Pattern of Process hypothesize a new critical approach and perspective on possibilities for the analysis and integration of various disciplines and applications, cosmologies, theories of everything, and Indigenous world views. As contribution to theory advancement, the World Pattern offers a holistic approach to knowledge systems and re-invigorates dialectics on human being. Key themes I explore throughout the thesis contribute to a pattern of analysis outlined in the World Pattern of Process. In addition, the World Pattern has implications for encouraging dialogue between Indigenous, Western and non-Western cultures, education, philosophy, and ways of knowing. It can also be used as a critical, interpretive lens when mapped to different disciplines or when associated with cosmologies, world views, systems, energy and other scientific processes. In sum, the conceptual framework of the World Pattern of Process provides a flexible tool for the review of knowledge systems which are being produced today and for further deliberations on consilience, convergence, creative advance, and the interconnectedness of all things… 8 Invitation to the Reader Everything is Energy; Everything is Process Very simply, Curriculum and Pedagogy is the operationalization of areas of knowledge which are not limited to the field of Education. Curriculum and Pedagogy is the vehicle; education is the journey. How did this vehicle come to be in this current piecemeal state? I wrote this document for anyone who has ever wondered what ‘the Big Picture is’ and how things fit into it, or interconnect; who have ever wondered about human be-ing; and for those who have ever wondered what the quality of an idea is. The landscape of The World Pattern of Process is the energy that courses through the World that we know. I am convinced it will be of interest to people who are familiar with one or more areas of knowledge, and remain curious about other areas of knowledge. My intention has been to extend the repertoires of both instructors and students in the field of Education and those who understand that the borders between one discipline and another are inter-related. What excuses have we made for fiddling with forms of classification while the world burns? Now is the time to pay attention to research which has global reach. My work offers substantive new insights to possibilities for the cross-fertilization of disciplines through the epistemological and ontological lens of education. Here is a detailed, process-oriented, groundbreaking, I believe, approach to scholarship. Admittedly, the emphasis on the organic and the integrative is in full evidence, yet not to the exclusion of space taken up by contextualist, mechanist or formist sentiments. Preferably, the work, as a treatise, becomes seminal in its own right. 9 Let us say, if we want to navigate through the uncharted territory of this new landscape, possibly to unleash the power of dragons1, how would that be possible if we had never thought of dragons, or ever thought we might slay our own dragons? This is the hunter’s guide for how to acquaint yourself with the text: Part 1 answers the question about how to recognize the dragon. Part 2 answers the question about what happens when you look through the dragon’s eyes. Begin at the beginning and follow the process; that is the principal way to tackle this work. In Canada, we are by default born into the concept of “unity in diversity.” It is lived experience. It is also the experience of Indigenous people globally who are comfortable with what is collective and what is inclusive. What partially is needed in the recognition of this work, the Asma, the assembling of the “Pattern that connects” (Bateson, 1972) is that regardless of color, gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status, above all, you are a member of one species, the human being. A quantum leap in findings is not required; it is elementary, my dear Fellows, “Relativity teaches us the connection between the different descriptions of one and the same reality” (Seelig, 1956, p. 28). Between one description and another, the pendulum swings; between three descriptions we can appreciate the teamwork; but between four descriptions lie the results of the journey taken between them. Now that we can pinpoint our existence in Towns A, B, C and D, or in this 1 In the west, the necessity to slay the dragon to surmount an obstacle is well known; mostly to achieve recognition as a protector, whether for someone's hand in marriage or for righting wrongs (adventures of knights of King Arthur; St. Michael). In Southeast Asia, on the other hand, they are associated with power and there are several levels of dragons and they are highly symbolic: as one of the zodiac animals, the four guardians of heaven, of wisdom, of court or palace protectors, representing kings which benefit their people, etc. And because the thesis includes Javanese cosmology, the dragon reference may appeal to those from geographic areas, who will understand they will also be looking for a balance of energies. The phrase, "This is the hunter's guide" invites those who want to know how to deal with the cosmology and contents of the thesis by directing readers to "Begin at the beginning and follow the process; that is the principal way to tackle this work" - because anyone who starts mid-way through, not paying attention to the structure of the work, will not be able to understand it as easily. 10 or that cosmology, will we know that much more about where we started, the preparations we made, where we completed our journey and how the journey went? Yes. I leave you with one of my little stories: SACRED WATERFALL A long river runs across the top, the top of the top of the world. The only way the Beings know this river exists, is because in a sacred place, there is a waterfall. The waterfall is the most beautiful waterfall the Beings have ever seen. From a high place it falls, in millions upon millions of droplets, perhaps billions of countless individual droplets & miraculously, each & every droplet rejoins each & every companion droplet at the bottom of the waterfall & forms a river again, a river whose end, no one has ever seen. The Beings have tried to follow it to the ends of the world, but no one has been able to say where this river ends. Great Creator God, who is the Being, who is the Being who will tell me the name of this excruciatingly beautiful waterfall? 11 Chapter 1: Zat: How Did We Get Here? The epistemological question is what can be done about this gulf. Can we bridge it? Need we bridge it? Or must we learn to get along without bridging it? (Toulmin, 2003, p. 207) The following ‘sketch’ outlines an introduction to the World Pattern of Process, concerning orders of being and levels of process, which I have arranged for your perusal, rather like beads on a string . . . How I came to synthesize a collection of ideas which I came to view as a World Pattern of Process is not that complicated; the ideas were already in circulation: Of Anishinaabe and French descent, relationships between myself and materials, plants, animals and human beings were inherent in earliest childhood explorations. Like most children designated for assimilation through schooling, I would next have been introduced to the Christian version of the Great Chain of Being found in Christian materials over several years prior to reaching puberty. A third version of orders of being — material, vegetable, animal and human were introduced to me in 1969 from the book, Susila Budhi Dharma, written by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo, a Javanese2 spiritual leader born in Semareng, Indonesia who later went on several world journeys. In 1970 I read a short article in a newsletter by Sudarto Martohudojo entitled the Four States of Marriage which raised additional possibilities for different ways of perceiving states of being and which at the time raised more questions than were answered. Sudarto was one of Muhammad Subuh’s helpers or assistants. This article suggested that the nature of marriages were the results of their most dominant constituents, i.e. that a marriage from heart to heart, was equivalent to a marriage in the material level; that a marriage from feeling to feeling, was equivalent to a marriage on the vegetable, or vegetal level; that a marriage from inner-feeling to inner-feeling was equivalent to a marriage in the animal level; and that the nature of marriage from soul to soul was equivalent to a marriage in the human level. Other articles which gave me pause to think through the 1970’s were those written by Salamah Pope, a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute in London, who later became my neighbor and friend in Cilandak, a 2 The term “Javanese” refers to the people who are Indigenous to Java and is linked to the Javanese cosmology. While Javanese persons are resident to all of Indonesia, the largest group of Javanese are resident to the island of Java, largest in the Indonesian Archipelago. 12 suburb of Jakarta in the 1980’s. She eventually wrote and published The Pattern of the World in 2007. Thus, in the early 70’s I began to formulate ideas about nature and the reality of life. I was and somewhat remain in no way ‘trained’ to handle other belief systems in any specific way, yet they existed and continue to exist, as do the common grounds in their relationships. What I have been able to do was to reserve judgement (or avoid conclusions,) having the attitude that in some world, or under specific circumstances, everything might be true (and thus ‘truth’ was relative)…in the meantime, once I started thinking about the material, vegetal, animal and human level ‘orders of being’ as basic building blocks for a World Pattern of Process, I began to see ‘the pattern’ everywhere… A selection of correspondences drawn from patterns found in cosmologies and ideas about evolutionary process, which proceed from the material through to the vegetal, animal and human kingdoms is in order and can serve as a basis for a holistic cosmology, world pattern or grand pattern. These concepts are drawn from a variety of sources: from Empedocles, the Great Chain of Being, world views, scientific paradigms, Indigenous, Indonesian and Sufi cosmologies. Further, the question of finding a practical, appropriate and simple method of how a four-fold basic structure (in contrast to five-fold and other structures) applies to a “fourfold, cosmological World Pattern of Process” (Pope, 2007, p. 110) also needs to be outlined, along with its correspondences in such descriptions of four-fold processes as encapsulated in the terms, Zat-Sifat-Asma-Af’al3. An exploration of this initial question will perhaps enable the discernment of the formal unity of all the disciplines (Wilson, 1998; Pope, 2007). The intent is to provide a basis for the unification of disciplines. Exploring reasons for suggesting the genesis of a ‘grand pattern’ are in the first instance, narrative and descriptive of the process through which this structure is posited. 3 Although no religious connotations are intended, these terms are familiar to Javanese and Sufi circles. When represented instead as a model of process, the model can be used to generate new approaches to Whitehead’s cosmology, the Big Bang and several other processes. 13 However, it will also be useful to present an abbreviated collection of ideas or dramatis personae which factor into to ‘the pattern’. The first idea to deal with is the idea of force, or energy. “Life is an energy process. Like every energy process it is in principle irreversible and it is therefore directed towards a goal. That goal is a state of rest…Life is teleology par excellence…The end of every process is its goal” (Jung, The Soul and Death, 1960, p. 405). Everything is in some kind of relation, or there are 6 degrees of separation between everyone, but what all this means is that all beings are influenced differently by energies or ‘forces’ or ‘factors’ and within a range, to different degrees of influence. No two persons are equally influenced by materials, plants, animals or other human beings equally, the difference is in degree. Does this have to do with the person as a whole — who the person is — or the influence exerted upon the person by the environment as a whole? Furthermore, what are the relationships which human beings exert upon their surroundings and in view of evolutionary process; are human beings also composed of material, vegetable and animal elements? Oh yes, they are — and where they are not, we will agree to disagree. But what does that mean? What if there was a neat way of packaging elements or energies such that there was a way to understand the outcomes of process as relative to the composition or constituents at hand. Three people following the same recipe will have somewhat the same results. But not always, depending on other variables — height above sea level, variations in ambient temperature, differing units of measure, and the approaches and preferences of each person who follow the instructions — a little bit more or less of each ingredient, the quality or lack of quality and age of the ingredients, how and where they were grown or manufactured, etc. By the same token, the human being, the animal, the plant, and material objects differ in unique ways. For example, Renaissance and Early Modern ideas about evolution included that there was a structure or hierarchy of elements: material, vegetal, animal, and human as the last species to arrive. The reverse of the theory that held for centuries is that the human being is comprised of ‘lesser,’ or less complex elements such that the human being embodies the human, animal, vegetable and material elements within its being, organs, muscle, skeleton. In other words, the belief was that a human being, as a consequence of evolution (which was supposedly a logical 14 progression), retains elements of the lower forms of natures but also possesses a divine nature or spirit which distinguishes him/her in status (but not always) from ‘lower’ forms of existence. These concepts about lower and higher orders of being are reflected in the earlier models of the hierarchy of being in Aristotle’s and later, in Linnaeus’s Great Chain of Being. Similarly, in the centuries-long evolution of beliefs about how the cosmos unfolded, the logic applied to orders of being was also meant to be applicable to the order of the universe. From flat earth to numerous variations on the Big Bang theory, recent attempts to explain the origin of the universe continue. An advance on the work of Bohm as explained by Zyga (2015) provides quantum corrections to the equations used by Bohm, Friedman, Raychaudhuri and others in support of the concept that the universe has no beginning, in opposition (or apposition) to the big bang theory: one may be able to get a better understanding of some of the above problems (the smallness problem, the coincidence problem, the flatness problem, the true nature of dark matter and the so-called big-bang) by studying the quantum correction terms in the second order Friedmann equation, derived from the quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE), which in turn was obtained by replacing geodesics with quantal (Bohemian) trajectories . (This formulation of quantum mechanics gives rise to identical predictions as those of ordinary quantum mechanics). In particular, while one correction term can be interpretable as dark energy, with the right density, and providing a possible explanation of the coincidence problem, the other term can be interpreted as a radiation term in the early universe, preventing the formation of a big-bang type singularity, and predicting an infinite age of our universe. (Ali & Das, 2015) In brief, their work describes modifications of certain equations used in the calculation of trajectories which are adjusted in quantum physics but stem from general relativity. Ahmed Ali and Saurya Das worked with Bohm’s development of quantum trajectories and applied them to quantum-corrected equations developed by Das’s teacher and physicist, Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri in the 1990’s. According to Lisa Zyga (2015), they also derived quantum-corrected Friedmann equations, which describe the expansion and evolution of universe (including the Big Bang) within the context of general relativity. Although it's not a true theory of quantum gravity, the model does contain elements from both quantum theory and general relativity. . . In cosmological terms, the scientists explain that the quantum corrections can be thought of as a cosmological constant term (without the need for dark energy) and 15 a radiation term. These terms keep the universe at a finite size, and therefore give it an infinite age. The terms also make predictions that agree closely with current observations of the cosmological constant and density of the universe. (Zyga, 2015) Ergo, the work accomplished by Ali and Das supports the theory that the orderly arrangement of the universe has no beginning and no end. Let’s look at a few other ideas. 1.1 Alternative world views, Wholes, and Universal Soup Alternative world views differ from the proliferation of hierarchical structures held in mainstream academia. Instead, concepts surrounding Indigenous cosmologies whose beliefs about respect, reciprocity, and relationality for the earth, plant, animal and human elements of the universe are well known and reinforce the interconnectedness between all forms of life, seen and unseen, past, present and future. These four basic elements are also reflected in the Javanese cosmology which attributes ‘levels’ or spheres of existence to the material, vegetal, animal and human kingdoms, domains or realms. David Suzuki, notable environmental activist echoes the interconnectedness which he has learned from Indigenous peoples: “The aboriginal sense of the interconnection of everything in the world is also readily demonstrable and irrefutable scientifically.” His book, The Sacred Balance correlates several examples of Indigenous teachings with biological, ecological and environmental principles while articulating the connections between all life forms: …each of us is quite literally created by air, water, soil and sunlight, and what cleanses and renews these fundamental elements of life is the web of living things on the planet. We are social animals, and the most profound force shaping our humanity is love. And when that vital social requirement is fulfilled, then a new level of spiritual needs arises as an urgent priority. This is how I made the fundamental re-examination of our relationship with Earth that led to The Sacred Balance. (Suzuki, 1997, p. 18) 16 Suzuki’s depth of experience in work and research is aligned with Indigenous and World cosmologies. “At the center of the story (of every cosmology) stood the people who had shaped it to make sense of their world. Their narrative provided answers to those age-old questions: Who are we? How did we get here? What does it all mean?” (my italics, Suzuki, 1997, p. 22). Drawing on recent research, Suzuki reflects “that humans may have an innate propensity to hold spiritual beliefs and may be naturally inclined to believe in a distinction between body and soul” (Suzuki, 1997, p. 5). His understanding is that without a sense of spirituality, life cannot be fully understood: “Spirituality,” as we conceive it, is the apprehension of the sacred, the holy, the divine. In our modern world we see matter and spirit as antithetical, but our myths reveal a different understanding. They describe a world permeated by spirit, where matter and spirit are simply different aspects of the totality: together they constitute “being.” (Suzuki, 1997, p. 270) Similarly, what might be conceived as spirituality, which pervades human consciousness, cannot be swept aside, nor can it be treated like so much rubbish: What I’m talking about are things that exist only in my mind and heart, memories and experiences that matter to me, that enrich and give meaning to my life. They are spiritual values. No economist will ever be able to factor them into an equation, but they are just as real as and far more important than any amount of money or any material object. (Suzuki, 1997, p. 291) Suzuki’s signature was amongst those of 1700 scientists, 104 of whom were Nobel Laureates, who signed a “Warning to Humanity” twenty-five years ago, following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 which urged world leaders to pay attention to the need for this Sacred Balance: Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course. Human activities inflict harsh and often irreversible damage on the environment and on critical resources. If not checked, many of our current practices put at serious risk the future that we wish for human society and the plant and animal kingdoms and may so alter the living world that it will be unable to sustain life in the manner that we know. Fundamental changes are urgent if we are to avoid the collision our present course will bring about. (Union of Concerned Scientists, 1992) Exchanges between living species occurring over millenniums, viewed as cyclic, are also part of the Sacred Balance. The bones of a muskox supporting flowers, lichens, grasses and insects; 'reincarnations of generations past' in poppy fields thriving on blood and bones from the world 17 wars: for Suzuki, “all of these examples demonstrate the exquisite balance between life and death, one cycle emerging from the other” (Suzuki, 1997, p. 131). The whole of creation is enmeshed in a ‘web of interdependence’. A plant that utilizes energy from the sun to grow and reproduce may also nourish a host of parasites and herbivores and upon dying feed still other life-forms while returning organic material to the soil to nurture future generations of plants. Material is used, transformed and used again in a never-ending cycle. (Suzuki, 1997, p. 305) Let’s look at a few other ideas: Sa’ke’j Henderson explained how a certain gourd contained the whole world . . . Bohm suggested that, in its deepest essence, reality, or “that which is,” is not a collection of material objects in interaction but a process or a movement, which he calls the holomovement — the movement of the whole . . . For Bohm, the gourd that Sa’ke’j Henderson carries is the explicate or surface manifestation of an underlying implicate order. Within that implicate order the gourd enfolds, and is enfolded by, the entire universe. Thus, within each object can be found the whole and, in turn, this whole exists within each part. (Peat, 2000, pp. 140-141 in Robinson, 2015, p. 31) This form of thinking suggests a symbiotic relationship between explicate and implicate orders, rather like a form of co-dependency or overall relativity. But this would not explain evolution, unless the two orders were self-organizing to some extent. If that is the case, the external ‘manifestation’ acts as a representation of the implicate order yet may not serve to represent the ‘order of orders’ there again, unless all of the orders were already known, or parts of them could be apprehended. The idea of a holomovement4, relative to a process, indicates the movement of the whole, which brings us to another question: What is the whole? Whole cannot be known except in relation to that which is ‘un-whole’. Therefore, because we are not likely to agree upon that which defines ‘un-whole’, anything which can be considered ‘whole’ cannot also be known. In fact, it’s not certain we know to which extent ‘it’ can be whole, un-whole, symbiotic , representational, self-organizing, or un-organized. In the case of our 4 In principle, holomovement presupposes that parts within wholes (e.g. organs, sub-systems, existents in early stages of growth, etc.) are whole in themselves and that the movement of parts affects the movement of the whole, and vice versa. 18 universe, it is as if all of these considerations, dependent on context, float in some sort of suspension, what scientists used to call the ether or plasma — and this is what I call universal soup! But Bohm has represented the background ‘suspension’ or solution which holds its constituents in an unfathomable pool of energy much more succinctly: If one computes the amount of energy that would be in one cubic centimeter of space, with this shortest possible wavelength, it turns out to be very far beyond the total energy of all the matter in the known universe.(10) . . . What is implied by this proposal is that what we call empty space contains an immense background of energy, rather like a tiny ripple on a vast sea . . . this vast sea of energy may play a key part in the understanding of the cosmos as a whole….In this connection it may be said that space, which has so much energy, is full rather than empty. (Bohm, 1981, p. 242) Our galaxy, which includes behaviors or motions which are not all demonstrable or visible, is part of this universal soup, and you might say that this is how it can be said that a gourd contains the world and the world contains the gourd. The implicate manifests the explicate and neither are ‘empty’ of content. At the same time, these ideas must both be true and untrue. Returning to the ‘universal soup’ image, imagine that the bowl of soup is as large as our universe or galaxy. Beyond its parameters, we cannot describe the relationship between this universe and other universes with any more accuracy than we can describe what our understanding of how long it takes a ray of the sun to reach the earth (about 7 minutes) might be like…for the same reasons, we are unable to say how all elements of the ‘soup’ — although they certainly are in some kind of suspension — combine or interact within our somewhat ‘arbitrary’ parameters of that suspension. This is part of the reason that I suggest that a chemistry of life forces or energies is at play; at least, that all of these are ‘in relation’. Thus, does a material or mechanistic movement of energy begin within this universe or arrive from beyond it? Does the (organismic) energy of life which plants contain begin within or without plants? Yes, it begins both within and without plants, but it may begin much further within or without than heretofore imaginable. The micronutrients carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen which support life on earth also rank amongst the most abundant elements throughout the universe. As the eminent biochemist George Wald wrote: 19 The course of most of the reactions that occur in molecular constructs all depend to a remarkable degree on the shapes of their component molecules. Many of the key processes in living cells depend upon the capacity of specific molecules to fit together closely, a capacity wholly dependent upon molecular shape….Ninety-nine percent of the living parts of living organisms are composed of only four [italics added] of the ninety-two natural elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen….their bond radii and hence their interatomic distances radii in molecules are almost identical, as are also the bond angles…Hence chains composed of these atoms have an almost identical geometry, whether made entirely of carbon or however mixed with nitrogen or oxygen atoms. (Wald, 1965, p. 21) Secondly, although I am not entirely schooled in energy transference or thermodynamics, there is that general understanding that various qualities of energy are transferable or combine and mix to a greater or lesser extent. We may not have the technological sophistication to represent energy transfer but know that it occurs — or always occurs. In terms of various theories of growth or development, Whitehead’s theory of process among them having been described as a ‘cosmology’, notions of energy transference appear to be a given within the internal and external relationships which are required for the process of becoming to occur. The ideas that Carl Jung, psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology offered about energy transference and transformation as natural occurrences are similar to Whitehead's: I used the expression “canalization of libido” to characterize the process of energic transformation or conversion…for example, in the steam-engine the conversion of heat into the pressure of steam and then into the energy of motion. Similarly, the energy of certain psychological phenomena is converted by suitable means into other dynamisms…When Nature is left to herself, energy is transformed along the line of its natural “gradient.” Living matter is itself a transformer of energy, and in some way as yet unknown, life participates in the transformation process. (Jung, Collected Works, 1960, p. 41) However, as we are mere humans whose minds and lives are transient, we may only estimate within certain parameters. The kinds of parameters I have been speaking about are conditions for existence which are known or have been understood to be capable of animation or transference, and those have been described as orders or elements of existence which are the material, vegetal, animal and human energies. I suppose that life in other planets or galaxies would not necessarily be contingent on these same ‘conditions’ or in accordance with the forms of nature that we ‘know’ here. What is implicit in the idea of naming these (four) forces or energies is that other 20 forces, levels, or energies exist. Secondly, these are arranged, as far as we have previously surmised, in a hierarchy of levels. 1.2 States of Existence, Processes and Fours So, let me begin by saying that there are at least these four states of existence, which are the material, vegetal, animal and human. These ‘states’ are equivalent to their natures or conditions, and those conditions are limited to what we know about existence on this planet: although we do not entirely rule out that these forms of existence do not exist or behave in similar ways on other planets, there are things we can say about what they are or how they behave within the conditions of this world. We were told that states of matter, for example, are solids, liquids, or gases…but the concept of states of existence which I speak of implies that matter is composed of material energy, and I will add that material energy is material in effect. Similarly, vegetal energy is vegetal in effect, animal energy is animal in effect and human energy is human in effect. As soon as we are talking about effect, we are talking about process. And that is the other part of the matrix — or grand pattern — that I am describing. Without yet referring to the nature of energy which Einstein and others formulated, which views that everything is part and parcel of process, and that all energy is process and vice versa, a further assertion applies. Process can also be broken down into four states, stages or phases, and these, to borrow the Sufi phrase, Zat-Sifat-Asma-Af’al, which I somewhat irreligiously translate as idea-condition-action-result, are the phases by which all processes can be known. Again, there may well be as wide a variety of stage models for processes (3-step, 4-step, etc.) as there are elements of existence but for purposes of this thesis, I am working with 4 elements of existence and 4 stages of process. Figure 1.1 is a representation of the combination of these concepts. 21 Why is it useful that this visualization rests on the material, vegetal, animal and human elements or existents? Quaternities or patterns of four have always been and continue to be supported historically, are found more prevalently in literatures and, the pattern of four provides a basis for stability which other combinations do not. Parallels which seem to exist between concepts about God and Energy warrant further examination. I am not looking at physical events solely from the mechanistic viewpoint but from the viewpoint of energy, in part from what Jung would call the ‘energic’ point of view, which views the flow of energy as having “a definite direction (goal) in that it follows the gradient of potential [development in the being]in a way that can’t be reversed” (Jung, Collected Works, 1960, p. 15). According to Jung, “energy is always experienced specifically as motion when actual and as a state or condition when potential” (p. 32). Jung’s differentiation of the quantity and quality of energy which states that “the concept of quantity should never be qualitative at the same time” (p. 15) sounds rather like the wave and particle relation. “The theory of energy recognizes not only a factor of intensity but also a factor of extensity” (p. 20). Mass and Energy co-exist, (without Mass there can be no Energy and without Energy there can be no Mass) in that Mass is the visible form of energy while Energy is the content of mass in motion. This tension of opposites is evident in human activities and ceremonies: But when we remember that Primitive man is much more unconscious, much more of a natural phenomenon than we are, and has next to no knowledge of what we call “will,” then it is easy to understand why he needs complicated ceremonies where a simple act of will is sufficient for us. We are more conscious, that is to say, more domesticated. (Jung, Collected Works, 1960, p. 45) Figure 1-1: ZSAA-MVAH 22 This is not to say that “domestication” is always the best option when subjugation of all unconscious processes is the end result or is at the expense of loss of connection to a sense of what is natural. Jung calls the God-concept a spiritual principle par excellence [which is]…at the same time a conception of the First Cause, from which proceed all those instinctual forces that are opposed to the spiritual principle” (p. 55). God is viewed as both supreme Creator and Destroyer, “whose innermost nature is a tension of opposites. Science calls this ‘being’ energy, for energy is like a living balance between opposites. For this reason, the God-concept, in itself impossibly paradoxical, may be so satisfying to human needs that no logic, however justified, can stand against it.” (p. 55) Jung’s ideas about the process of individuation have been elaborated by many. The symbolic contents found in dreams, for example, or through patterns of archetypes over time are indicators of gradual transformation which “seem to follow an arrangement or pattern. This pattern Jung called ‘the process of individuation’” (von Franz, 1964, p. 160). In addition, archetypical sequences common in dreams (e.g. the warrior, the lover, the leader, the sage) or similar objects of fascination which are projected in the conscious life can also be correlated with the stages of (psychic) life. The process of individuation parallels a conscious recognition of unconscious processes, whereby a youthful, ‘undifferentiated’ or unconscious self proceeds through development to a “differentiated” being, to an “individuated” being which the self recognizes as distinct from other personalities (apart from the collective milieu), which thence proceeds, all circumstances being favorable, to a completed being whose personality is characterized by “wholeness”. These stages are reflected in the stages of life whereby typically the archetypes of the warrior, the lover, the leader and the sage — or their feminine counterparts — are reflected in the path of life and in the process of transformation undergone. Returning to quaternities which are supported historically, mostly through belief systems, it might be wise to assert that either spiritual or scientific belief systems are subject to human bias so long as they cannot be subjected to further modifications — those of new belief systems, cosmologies or scientific paradigms. An early assertion of a fourfold vision which I can recall was from one of Blake’s poems: Now I a fourfold vision see, And a fourfold vision is given to me; ‘Tis fourfold in my supreme delight 23 And threefold in soft Beulah’s night And twofold Always. May God us keep From Single vision & Newton’s sleep! (William Blake, 1802) There was also the “so-called axiom of Maria the Jewess (or Copt): Out of the third comes the one as the fourth,” (Jung, 1960, p. 513) which Salamah Pope notes when accurately translated and understood should actually read “Out of the third ‘comes four as the one’” (Pope, 2007, p. 32). There are reasons to be picky about what comes from what when sorting out or breaking down phases of process, which I intend to expand upon later. But for the moment, semiotically, one cannot ‘become’ a fourth before it is a second and third. Historically the Great Chain of Being, which components were forwarded by Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Augustine, Aquinas, represented the four nethermost elements of being in the material, vegetal, animal and human spheres of existence, later envisioned as rungs or stages through which the soul ascended… reflected in turn by classification systems, nested hierarchies and theories of biological evolution developed in science. The four elements or components of the Great Chain of Being were also variously termed scales of being or kingdoms of Nature (Lovejoy, 1936); factors or kingdoms (Schumacher, 1977); realms or stages of evolution within an emerging paradigm of evolution (Jantsch, 1980); holonomic or a “Great Nest of Being as well as levels of being and cultures (Wilbur, 1996); etc. The 20th century saw renewed efforts on the parts of scientists, philosophers, anthropologists, theologians, cosmologists and others who were searching for a "pattern which connects." (Bateson, 1980: 8) But we are still in need of the forms and patterns and relations within these connections. The sciences have yet to accept a universal structure: that is, an overall format has yet to be described and delineated, showing the forms of the connected-ness…We now need to rethink our beliefs about the place of humanity in some larger scheme of things. Those beliefs were, of course, traditional concerns of cosmology . . . and now that scientists have abandoned the spectator’s standpoint to these cosmological questions, they are beginning to arise again spontaneously, even within science itself (Toulmin, 1982: 268 in Pope, 2007, p. 33). A selection of other quaternities used in the sciences and humanities, loosely patterned in a numerical sequence includes: 24 ONES, TWOS, THREES, FOURS: mineral, vegetal, animal, human (Chain of Being) undifferentiated being, differentiated, individuated, wholeness (Jung) creation, separation, union of opposites, new creations (Pythagorean) dative, concrescence, satisfaction, new given primary phase (Whitehead) thesis, antithesis, synthesis, (new thesis) (Hegel) Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al (Sumohadiwidjojo, Sufi) chaos, separation, union, transcendence (Pope) idea, condition, action, result (Rasunah) and within Indigenous cosmologies includes: The Four Directions: East, South, West, North The Four Seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter The Four Stages of Life: Birth, Youth, Adult, Death The Four Times of Day: Sunrise, Noon, Sunset, Midnight The Four Elements of Life: Earth, Fire, Water, Wind The Four Races of Man: Red, Yellow, Black, White The Four Trials of Man: Success, Defeat, Peace, War The Heavenly Beings: Sun, Moon, Earth, Stars All of the above-mentioned quaternities can be considered either cosmologies or processes while in other respects, authors have described processes as forms of spirituality, spiritual evolution or even levels of being. Wilbur argues that within cultures, “levels of being are common to all teachings” (Spiritual evolution, n.d.).Thus at some level where patterns of four are considered, there seems to be an overlapping of the terms which explain levels of being through the lenses of ‘process’, ‘cosmology’, ‘world view’ and by association, what I am suggesting is that the World Pattern of Process can serve equally well as a ‘paradigm’ or grand pattern. "This is the simple pattern of the evolutionary upward urge, the creative advance to complexity, the opposite of entropy. And it is this simple, universal Pattern of the World . . . that shows the fourfold form common to all the processes… the Grand Pattern of the World, or the World Pattern of Process . . . shows the upward trend towards increasing order, organization, complexity and freedom…and the formal path of all process, progress and development (Pope, 2007, p. 61) 25 1.3 Sketching an Outline of the World Pattern with Whitehead, Pope and Wilson Alfred N. Whitehead (1929; 1978), British philosopher and mathematician whose seminal work, Process and Reality influenced process philosophers for generations to come, described his 4-step pattern of process or creative advance (dative, concrescence, satisfaction, new given primary phase) as a cosmology, as well as a process: “The actual world is a process, and that the process is the becoming of actual entities” (1978, p. 22). In the Lowell lectures Whitehead gave at Harvard University in 1925 before writing his major work, Whitehead traced ‘the success and the failures of the particular conceptions of cosmology with which the European intellect has clothed itself in the last three centuries” (Whitehead, 1925, p. 18). The term ‘prehension’ in these lectures pre-figures the later concept of Appetition, leading to ‘creative advance,’ as discussed in Process and Reality5: Apprehension is a process of unifying. Accordingly, nature is a process of expansive development, necessarily transitional from prehension to prehension. What is achieved is thereby passed beyond, but it is also retained as having aspects of itself present to prehensions which lie beyond it. Thus, nature is a structure of evolving processes. The reality is the process. It is nonsense to ask if the color red is real. The color red is ingredient in the process of realization. (Whitehead, 1925, p. 74) Whitehead describes his cosmology as a philosophy of organism. The philosophy of organism is the inversion of Kant's philosophy. The Critique of Pure Reason describes the process by which subjective data pass into the appearance of an objective world. The philosophy of organism seeks to describe how objective data pass into subjective satisfaction, and how order in the objective data provides intensity in the subjective satisfaction. For Kant, the world emerges from the subject; for the philosophy of organism, the subject emerges from the world — a 'superject' rather than a 'subject'. (1978, p. 88) Whitehead’s concentration on patterns within states of existence and becoming are provided over a vast range from the molecular to the universal. In addition, he devotes considerable attention to ‘categories’ or types of existence and explanation in order to show how they fit into his overall 5 Further discussion of terms which Whitehead uses in Process and Reality can be found in Appendix 1: Creative Advance, Concrescence and Appetition in Whitehead: Process and Reality 26 cosmology, although most of the information he supplies is overly abstract. For example, in concrescence, or the process of ‘becoming’, “God is the principle of concretion; namely, he is that actual entity from which each temporal concrescence receives that initial aim from which its self-causation starts” (Whitehead, 1978, p. 244). Whitehead’s explanations of states of existence and becoming range from the molecular to the universal and his descriptions of patterns include those which are qualitative and quantitative, predictive; those found in structured or ‘unspecialized’ societies, and in a multitude of patterned relationships…Patterns which can be discerned in emotions, related to ‘Sensa’, may be simple or complex; or they may represent an ‘eternal object’. Whitehead’s first chapter, Theory of Feelings, describes their Subjective Form, Qualitative Pattern, Quantitative Pattern; and Intensity. Patterns are realized through contrasts apprehended by the senses: “A pattern is in a sense simple: a pattern is the 'manner' of a complex contrast abstracted from the specific eternal objects which constitute the 'matter' of the contrast” (Whitehead, 1978, p. 115). Recognition of the color ‘green’, for example, is part of the process whereby the color is associated with emotional experience: “the aesthetic feelings, whereby there is pictorial art, are nothing else than products of the contrasts latent in a variety of colors qualifying emotion, contrasts which are made possible by their patterned relevance to each other (Whitehead, 1978, p. 162). Similarly with the apprehension of sound, the process is encapsulated through the various phases (listed above), such that “The final concrete component in the satisfaction is the audition with its subject, its datum, and its emotional pattern as finally completed” (Whitehead, 1978, p. 235). Further, Whitehead draws connections between physical sensations of recognition, indicative feelings and those which are characterized as conceptual: "The physical recognition is the physical basis of the conceptual feeling which provides the predicative pattern" (Whitehead, 1978, p. 260). To be brief, as a full explanation of Whitehead’s analysis of patterns derived from datum which reside in the environment, or those phases associated with the ‘mental pole’ (p. 249) would serve only to distract much further, I will only note the connections which Whitehead also painstakingly makes between these processes (and patterns derived from them) and those understood in physics: 27 If we substitute the term 'energy' for the concept of a quantitative emotional intensity, and the term 'form of energy’ for the concept of 'specific form of feeling’ and remember that in physics Vector' means definite transmission from elsewhere, we see that this metaphysical description of the simplest elements in the constitution of actual entities agrees absolutely with the general principles according to which the notions of modern physics are framed. The 'datum’ in metaphysics is the basis of the vector-theory in physics; the quantitative satisfaction in metaphysics is the basis of the scalar localization of energy in physics; the 'sensa' in metaphysics are the basis of the diversity of specific forms under which energy clothes itself (Whitehead, 1978, p. 116). Whitehead’s goal in his larger work was to "elaborate an adequate cosmology in terms of which all particular topics find their interconnections” (Whitehead, 1978, p. xi). His cosmology was to provide “a system of ideas which brings together the aesthetic, moral, and religious interests into relation with those concepts of the world which have their origin in natural science.” (p. xii) His efforts to provide an organic or holistic cosmology focused on the four-fold process of becoming, was intended as a “synthesis which includes yet moves on beyond the materialistic, reductionist paradigm” (Pope, 2007, p. 20). Salamah Pope’s work identifies elements of the pattern, or becoming, as Chaos, Separation, Union and Transcendence, and because the pattern is progressive, evolutionary and developmental, “some of the ‘transcendent’ results were the beginnings of other, further, processes — perhaps on ad infinitum. The Pattern of all Patterns was an open-ended spiral ‘in-forming’ everything” (Pope, 2007, p. 10). Jantsch’s pictorial representation of this spiral has been reproduced as is given in Figure 1.2: The Pattern of all Patterns. (See also explanation surrounding Figure 2-1: Evolution of Evolutionary Processes (Jantsch, 1980, p. 224, below, in which the Pattern of all Patterns was first displayed as a spiral, and tied to evolutionary processes.) Figure 1-2: The Pattern of all Patterns 28 Similarly, the same four elements (material, vegetal, animal and human) are prevalent in a number of eastern cosmologies. Some of the explanations given by Bapak6 Muhammad Subuh were based in part on Javanese cosmology, Islamic and/or Sufi traditions still commonly understood in Indonesia. Not only are there four states of existence or energies (and others) which include the material, vegetable, animal and human kingdoms, domains or states, but the process which applies to and is inherent in all states of existence is encapsulated in the terms, Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al. The precise state or process would depend to some extent upon the perception or understanding of the viewer but can be applied universally to represent the steps of life processes, creation, evolution, etc. For example, the terms Zat7, Sifat, Asma, Af’al may have any number of connotations: Zat: power, pure potential, essence, existence, force, energy, concept, seed Sifat: condition, attributes or qualities, nature, being, existence, form, container Asma: work, deed, action, course or step taken. Af'al: evidence, proof, reality, truth, result, outcome I have modified the traditional translation of the process Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al and represent it as “Idea, Condition, Action, Result”. The correlations to other four-fold patterns are not completely accurate for this translation, but they are conceptually useful for most purposes. In accordance with the translations mentioned above, the Zat and Sifat can have a number of origins, i.e. the dominant ‘life force’ or energy innate in the being can be Material, Vegetal, Animal, Human, and beyond, although at any given time, the process inherent in one of these life forces dominates or takes center stage. It can also be considered that the human being contains, in concordance with evolutionary patterns, a minimum of four qualities or essences, those of the Material, Vegetal, Animal and Human. (Note: I will begin to refer to these energies as MVAH.) In the larger Javanese cosmology, there are a total of nine life forces or energies — or seven, which is an abbreviated model of the former, older cosmology. These nine life forces are arranged in a fixed order termed ‘rohs’, (life forces, spirits, energies) the lower four (MVAH) plus the Roh Rohani, Roh Raewani and the Roh Rabbani as three ‘higher-than-human’ rohs, 6 The term ‘Bapak’ is an honorific or respectful term for all fathers, grandfathers or older men, just as “Ibu” is the term used for all married women, mothers, grandmothers. Bapak or Pak is the term used most often for Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo. 7 In Islamic writings, the original term, Zat, (variant — Dzat) represents the Power of God or Creation. 29 “plus two unrestricted cosmic powers of God: the Roh Ilofi, which is translated as The Great Life Force, and the Roh El Khudus, the Holy Spirit” (Pope, 2007, p. 42). As I understand it, the Roh Ilofi is the connecting force which works from top to bottom, or bottom to top of the hierarchy from the inside, while the Roh Kudus (spirit of the Angels) works from the outside as a means for beings or other existents to ascend or evolve where possible. And finally, beyond and within all of these Rohs is “God” or “Allah”. However, this World Pattern of Process which I am outlining is not concerned, but could be, with the (more esoteric, or) higher orders of existence, for much the same reasons that the higher orders or ‘upper layers’ of the Great Chain of Being are now rarely discussed within the Western world’s vocabulary. To use an analogy which depicts an organic or vegetal process: let us say that the energy which germinates the seed is the Zat; the nature or condition of the seed and its propensity for growth and development are equivalent to the Sifat; the beginning of the process of growth signals the working of the Asma, and the result, or outcome of the process is termed the Af’al — or, in parallel: idea, condition, action, result. Thus, the Sifat does not have life without the Zat, and no movement occurs except within the action or Asma part of the process. (These ideas are not dissimilar to Bohm’s ideas about implicate and explicate orders and their symbiotic relationships; in fact, I am starting to wonder if you can have a man without the moon…or the environment without the ‘invironment’.) But let us say that from the outcome of the completed growth period or process, we determine that the plant has not flowered or seeded, or that it has grown poorly. The content of the Sifat can have 7 or 9 levels (according to Javanese Cosmology8, but I am only using the first four, as the others are ‘unseen’). Other variables considered, including variable nutrients, time of planting, quality of seed, environmental influences, etc. may have served to deter or alter the expected growth pattern. We would say this is due to the ‘condition’ or ‘nature’ within which there has 8 Older Javanese persons remain familiar with the nine levels of the world pattern but following the Japanese invasion of Indonesia during WWII in 1942, the general suppression and loss of common knowledge comprising the origins of Javanese cosmology occurred as a result of Japanese invasion and the execution of twelve sultans from several districts in Indonesia along with many of their male relatives. 30 been an interaction of the Zat and Sifat, i.e. that to a certain degree, either the quality of the Zat, or the quality of the Sifat are not optimal. The stages undergone in the process (which I will now abbreviate to ZSAA), as reflected in the evidence of the Af’al, or outcome, can be described as material/mechanical, vegetable/vegetal/organic, animal or human in nature. These are all reflections on energic processes and, as shown above, formally correlate with Whitehead’s cosmological framework. A mechanical or material analogy is much simpler (albeit within complexity of any man-made or natural design) to describe power-steam engine-steam production-provision (outcome evaluated) — and both of these analogies correspond to the idea-condition-action-results of the process. All processes contain within their final or completed stage the means whereby an analysis of the whole process becomes evident, as well as the means for germination of continued, refined or new processes: the “fourth as the one” or, from the fourth, the first. Another reference I would like to make in support of patterns of four comes from some of Schumacher’s work. A widely-traveled German statistician and economist, he first became known for writing Small is Beautiful: a study of economics as if people mattered (1973). His second work, A Guide for the Perplexed (1977), is concerned with four visible ‘factors’ or energies, from the “four great kingdoms” whose qualities move through a hierarchy of levels… “Scientists tell us that we must not talk of a ‘life force’ because no such force has ever been found to exist; yet the difference exists” (Schumacher, 1977, pp. 25-48). Thus, he is known for expressing these energies or four levels of being, “M”, + X + Y + Z — which refer to the Mineral (Material), Plant (Vegetal/Life Force), Animal (Consciousness) and Human (Awareness) kingdoms in the following formula or set of ‘progressions’ : 'Mineral' = m 'Plant' = m + x 'Animal' = m + x + y 'Man' = m + x + y + z (Schumacher, 1977, p. 28) If a differentiation between Man and Animals thus rests on differences between Consciousness and the (perhaps wider-ranging) human Awareness, the human category points also toward the spiritual dimension: In a section called ‘Progressions’ Schumacher shows that, with this upward trend to increasing complexity of the concrete Existents in the Chain of Being…and the invisible 31 Energies within them…it is rational to think that an ultimately organized, ultimately dynamic, ultimately fine and free consciousness and/or spiritual energy might well exist” (Pope, 2007, p. 129). Thus, even though discrepancies in understanding are still being passionately debated, numerous perspectives — that the human being is constituted of and/or subject to the impacts and interactions of its own and other energies from the material, vegetal and animal kingdoms — in conjunction with ideas about the progression of life forces within ‘the four great kingdoms’ and their relationships to living processes (as exemplified by ZSAA or its equivalent, ICAR, the four-stage process: idea-condition-action-result)9 — can be substantiated further and woven together more finely, providing a new set of correspondences and points of comparison and reference which can enrich deliberations on existence and process in the field of education and beyond. In addition to the values of cosmologies and the human's place in the larger scheme of things presented philosophically and historically, and more recently by Suzuki, Toulmin, Whitehead, and Subuh, renewed arguments against the fragmentation of knowledge and for the unification of the sciences and humanities have been promoted by E. O. Wilson, an American biologist who specialized in sociobiology and biodiversity. Having published Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1998), he also became known for his work on ‘consilience’ — the convergence or concordance of evidence across disciplines: We are approaching a new age of synthesis, when the testing of consilience is the greatest of all intellectual challenges . . . Science offers the boldest metaphysics of the age. It is a thoroughly human construct, driven by the faith that if we dream, press to discover, explain, and dream again, thereby plunging repeatedly into new terrain, the world will somehow come clearer, and we will grasp the true strangeness of the universe. And the strangeness will all prove to be connected and make sense… Win or lose, true reform will aim at the consilience of science with the social sciences and humanities. (Wilson E. O., 1998, pp. 12-13) One of Wilson’s empirical objectives was to “establish the plausibility of the central program of consilience, in this instance “the causal connections between semiotics and biology” (Wilson E. 9 please note for future reference that ZSAA and ICAR are intended as equivalent representations of process; while MVAH is intended to represent a state of existence or form or impulse of energy. 32 O., 1998, p. 148). While he does not offer theory on process or being, instead he explores gaps which are or need to be bridged between the sciences and humanities. One of his rationales for finding a universal consilience across disciplines is that “units and processes of a discipline that conform with solidly verified knowledge in other disciplines have proven consistently superior in theory and practice to units and processes that do not conform” (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 216). Such knowledge would be of inestimable value to chemists, geneticists, economic and social theorists, academicians, evolutionists, empiricists, etc. The central idea of the consilience world view is that all tangible phenomena, from the birth of stars to the workings of social institutions, are based on material processes that are ultimately reducible, however long and tortuous the sequences, to the laws of physics. In support of this idea is the conclusion of biologists that humanity is kin to all other life forms by common descent. (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 291) Wilson views consilience as “the perception of a seamless web of cause and effect.” (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 291). By exploring the ‘gaps’ between knowledge systems, Wilson sees “a united system of knowledge (as) the surest means of identifying the still unexplored domains of reality” (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 326). But he may already have predicted the end results of such a voyage: “If the consilience world view is correct, the traverse of the gaps will be a Magellanic voyage that eventually encircles the whole of reality. But that view could be wrong: The exploration may be proceeding across an endless sea” (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 293). The indication here is that our notions about reality may be inexhaustible. Nevertheless, Wilson’s preference is for a cosmology which supports empiricism. God’s presence, whose “fine hand is not needed to explain the biosphere” (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 216) because empirical evidence favors a purely material origin of ethics, and it meets the criterion of consilience: Causal explanations of brain activity and evolution, while imperfect, already cover the most facts known about moral behavior with the greatest accuracy and the smallest number of freestanding assumptions. While this conception is relativistic, in other words dependent on personal viewpoint, it need not be irresponsibly so. If evolved carefully, it can lead more directly and safely to stable moral codes than transcendentalism, which is also, when you think about it, ultimately relativistic. And yes — lest I forget — I may be wrong. (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 263) 33 1.4 Recapping the Outline Recapitulating briefly, the observable structure of reality is material, which in turn supports or underpins the development of the higher life forms. Meanwhile all forms of existence undergo transitions; all life forms affect one another; all are in relation or are inter-related in effect or influence. Remembering the ‘beads on a string’ metaphor, hopefully you will not find my provision of a topics list tedious, which follows: • How I came to view a collection of ideas as a World Pattern of Process • Indigenous, Christian, Bapak, Sudarto and Salamah — early influences • Belief systems and orders of being, 'the pattern' • Force or energy, energy process • Analogy of the results of a recipe • Evolution & hierarchy of elements/Great Chain of Being • Bohm's Wholeness and the implicate order • Quantum corrections to equations which show the universe has no beginning • Indigenous cosmologies and David Suzuki's environmental correlations • Suzuki's cosmologies and spirituality as central • The scientist’s Warning to Humanity • Suzuki's cycles and interdependence • Henderson and Bohm's holomovement — movement of the whole • Relationships between implicate and explicate orders • Universal Soup and Bohm's connection to energy • Seemingly arbitrary parameters of the ‘suspension’ and the chemistry of life forces • Question regarding sources of energy for mechanistic and organismic processes • George Wald's four elements • Whitehead's theory of process as cosmology & energy transference • Jung's energy transference • Conditions for existence • 4 elements arranged in a hierarchy • States of matter: material, plant, animal, human • 4 phases of matter (Sufi & mine) as basic process • Parallels between concepts of energy and God • Quantity and quality; intensity and extensity; energy and mass • Acts of will and ceremony • Jung's God-concept as teleology • Jung's patterns of archetypes, process of individuation; • and stages of life as related to transformation 34 • Quaternities in Blake, Maria Prophetessa, the Great Chain of Being • Quaternities, forms and patterns in cosmologies and Indigenous quaternities or processes • Overlapping of terms — 'levels of being' and paradigms • Whitehead's conceptions of cosmology and reality • Whitehead’s concentration on patterns within states of existence • Salamah Pope's 'Pattern of Patterns' • 4 elements prevalent in eastern cosmologies: Bapak, Javanese and Sufi cosmologies • Explanation of terms Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al • Explanation of energies MVAH • The 9 & 7 stage (Javanese) cosmology of forces or energies • Analogies of vegetal process in the germination of a seed • & mechanical process in the production of steam • Connections between 4-stage process and the 'fourth-as-one' • Schumacher's patterns of four as an equation • The Constitution of the human being; • the progression of life forces and their relationships to living processes • Wilson’s consilience and true reform All above-mentioned topics could be a shopping list or a recipe of some sort, could they not? Taken separately, they would meet a questionable set of criteria which conform holistically to a World Pattern of Process; from Whitehead’s point of view they might simply be considered in the ‘dative’ phase and hardly worth considering as related, yet the relationships exist. This is the Zat phase, the origins, the beginnings of the process. The common denominator is energy; and if we are meant to understand that “everything is energy,” then even if taken separately, any two topics on the list are relative, or are ‘in relation’ and in sum, are representative of ‘the whole’. Taken together, they provide an outline for a theoretical cosmology which can serve as a World Pattern of Process, something which Salamah Pope (and I) would describe as a useful, “rational and practical Theory of Everything. A new ‘story’ fit for today, a holistic paradigm, and a cosmology fit for Gaia” (Pope, 2007, p. 24). In summary, selected candidates for a World Pattern of Process have been conceptualized as embodying two focuses: being (the material, vegetable, animal and human) and process (ZSAA). The overall ‘pattern’ is contingent on the merging of several strands of qualitative inquiry — those which underscore the underpinnings of cosmologies and paradigms which have known similarities; those which draw upon consilience and correspondences in metaphysics and science 35 in their paradigmatic forms; those which focus on discourses concerned with patterns of process which have been noted in both the sciences and humanities; and finally those — perhaps linked to an internalized quest for meaning in a world ‘permeated by spirit’ — which do not necessarily reject spiritual undercurrents or cultural practices, but which are inclusive of the human species’ “innate propensity to hold spiritual beliefs” and values. Finally, the World Pattern of Process is not intended to be a substitute for a modified philosophy or theory of reality; rather ‘the pattern’ permits a practical design for re-viewing the world and the universe as a possibly never-ending or continuous process through a reliance on a generalized framework which 'works' in relation to the 'whole'. 36 Chapter 2: Sifat: What do we have here? Likewise, in other fields: we need only invoke a sufficient range of extra faculties and abilities, and we can — if this line of argument is acceptable — obtain all the extra data we need to bridge the gulfs there too. Given the evidence of our moral, intellectual or religious senses, claims to knowledge about material objects in the external world, about beauty or goodness or the existence of God, will all appear to be rescued from the threat of skepticism. (Toulmin, The Uses of Argument, 2003, p. 208) In preparation for the construction of a four-fold World Pattern of Process, (in actuality, a ‘new’ cosmology based on ideas already in existence) it is best to discuss how correlations between disciplines can be shown to support a Grand Pattern, and to consider how these foundations for a Theory of Everything or a Grand Pattern are best collected, sorted and classified. Analogous to preparing the soil, conditions which are conducive to the four-fold basic structure, much like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, can be identified and explored through various interpretive, philosophical and auto-ethnographic avenues. In this chapter, the ‘potentiates’ of the cosmology are examined with a focus on patterns and process. The process is similar to the assembling of a puzzle, whereby “random mass separates into differentiates, some or all of which become an organized whole, which has a random mass” (Pope, 2007, p. 137) A preliminary discussion of the range of existents and the contexts of process sets the stage for the possibility of seeing potential in the working of the inherent larger pattern and overall process. Although the framework or ‘skeleton’ of the grand pattern has not yet materialized, this stage of discourse discusses frameworks and examples which are conducive to the emergence of the grand pattern. A cross-sectional analysis of the four-fold structures evident in the works of Pythagoras, the Chain of Being, Jung, Sumohadiwidjojo, Pope, Hegel, Whitehead, Bohm, Jantsch, Schumacher and others, can provide “a practical, appropriate and simple method of doing so.” (Pope, 2007, p. 110) Specifically, discussion in this chapter pertains to differentiation between stages of existence (phases of process) and differentiation between conditions of existence. Sifat refers both to the second stage of process which the World Pattern of Process describes, and the categorization (differentiation) of conditions (natures, characterizations, forms of existence). 37 I once had a discussion in the early 1980’s in Jakarta (dated and highly subjective, granted,) with some visiting Japanese managers about how they viewed management styles in relation to approaches on the parts of the Japanese, Americans and Indonesians. The problem I presented was the curriculum format used by the Americans for the development of technological curriculum. I asked them what they supposed were the strengths and weaknesses in approach to the system I will call “ADDIE” 10, which stands for the steps — Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. The question I asked was in what stage did they (the managers) feel the Japanese performed best? The problem was not so much intended as a discourse on race, but just a general inquiry on management perspectives. They supposed their own style to be the most collective and collaborative in all stages, since the input of all levels of workers and management was important, whereas the American style appeared to be more hierarchical. It was their view, (and I discovered later that a sampling of Indonesian personnel in the joint U.S.-Indonesian military curriculum unit where I worked, also agreed with the managers), that in the “ADDIE” process, the Americans might be strong in the Design stage and weak in the Implementation stage, while the Indonesians might be weak in the Design stage but strong in the Implementation stage. The ‘ADDIE’ discussion might offer different results with different participants in different locations and eras, certainly in the current era, but the point was and is that perceived and collective differences vary. Secondly, if I were to crunch down the “ADDIE” model, the Analysis and Design bit of it would become the origination or genesis of the curriculum (a Stage One) through to Stages Two (Development), Three (Implementation) and Four (Evaluation) which in turn is the basis for a One, again. Thus, through means of the ADDIE discussion, we begin the Sifat section, in which the locus for forms of ‘development’ within their immense array of permutations becomes differentiated, having ensued from the initial, random mass of the Zat stage. 10 The University of Texas Instructional Design Course EDTC 6321 still uses the ADDIE model. For a comparison of ADDIE with other instructional design models, see (Ramirez, Hamilton, MacDonald, & Reynolds, 2011) 38 Sifat, the stage of differentiation, corresponds to the ‘ingredients,’ conditions, nature or what you have to work with. Differentiated ‘potentiates’ are not yet actualized in the overall process, but are poised for development, which will be expanded later in the section on dualities. Again, the process of Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al can be viewed as the process inherent in all evolutionary structures. It also becomes apparent in various cosmologies, as previously noted in the chapter which focuses on ‘Zat’. I have already given a ‘plant’ analogy which describes the growth or development of the plant in the process achieved on the vegetal or organic level. Another analogy which I can ascribe to Bapak Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo which was given in one of his talks (not available to the general public, and which I can no longer find) is a description of process on the human level: let us say that a person wishes to become a doctor. That is her intention, or part of the Zat stage. In order to do that, she has to go to a medical school, which is part of her aspiration. The school for becoming a doctor is the Sifat Stage, the container. The Asma or working stage of the process is the work of completing the medical training. Finally, everything she has learned is applied in the Af’al, or the Completion stage, where she provides prescriptions to patients. In this fourth stage in which the results of the process of becoming a doctor have been actualized, we are also able to determine whether she really is a doctor or not, i.e. whether her prescription actually achieves the well-being of the patient. There may be reasons why the prescription does not, but if in general her prescription(s) results in the well-being of her patient(s), we consider that she is a doctor and she enters a new stage whereby her experience is put into practice and the ‘open-ended’ spiral of process, now concerned with her mastery of practice, continues. 2.1 Spirals of Process, Phases of Evolution and the Development of Social Structures This ‘open-ended’, continuous spiral of development was depicted as a “Spiral of Microevolution” (Jantsch, 1980, p. 224), as reflected in Figure 2.1: 39 Figure 2-1: Evolution of Evolutionary Processes (Jantsch, 1980, p. 224) 40 Before considering the relationship between micro — and macroevolution in the diagram above, it may be helpful to review Figure 2.2: Co-evolution of Macro — and Microstructures (Jantsch 1980, p. 94,) on the following page, which shows the inter-relationship between microevolution and macroevolution as a result of the interplay of the ‘four physical forces’11 (gravitation, electromagnetic forces, and the strong and weak nuclear forces). Jantsch was an Austrian-born astrophysicist and engineer who emigrated to the U.S. He died the same year that his most influential work, The Self-Organizing Universe, 1979, was published. In keeping with the condensation model proposed by Carl Friedrich von Weizӓcker (1974), endorsed by Jantsch, microevolutionary development does not occur simultaneously with macroevolutionary development but relies on the appropriate cooling of gases over broad stretches of time estimated as up to 700,000 years. (Jantsch, 1980, pp. 86-87). You will also notice that while the effect of the four physical forces are shown to vary, e.g. “the electromagnetic and the gravitational forces decrease with the square of the distance" (p.82), that the photons12, leptons and baryons precede the organization of molecules along the suggested time line. As you would expect, a certain range of chemical non-equilibrium supports the evolution of organic life structures: The atmosphere is also in high chemical non-equilibrium. (up to 10 to the 30th amount present in the atmosphere as would be permissible in an equilibrium system with given oxygen content. We may remember here that non-equilibrium is one of the basic pre-requisites for self-organizing and autopoietic behavior of dissipative structures. (Jantsch, 1980, p. 116) Nevertheless, the suggested scenarios need further exploration. Mysteriously, if we are looking for the precise breaks where advancement or complexity occurs in 'being' we may not pinpoint the nexus or point of confluence accurately; where we seek 'visibility', we cannot trace by using 11 Note also that the term ‘energy’ is synonymous with ‘force’ used in the context of this paragraph; I am not certain why the preference for the term ‘force’ prevails… 12 photons are not (yet) properly ‘matter,’ even if physicists have recently been able to ‘clump’ them together…(see http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/sep/26/physicists-create-molecules-of-light and http://phys.org/news/2013-09-scientists-never-before-seen.html ) 41 various apparatus, for instance, the locus of a shift from feeling to thinking in the evolution of life forms or within the neural pathways of an individual life form, but it follows that if macrocosm and microcosm are in balance, one cannot do without the other, i.e. on the one hand, existence is predicated upon the availability of all 'physical forces' irrespective of space or distance and time for all time, at any time; on the other, the 'part' in moving, moves the 'whole', or the 'whole' in moving, moves the 'part', without end. What does this say about our original ideas about genesis? Or about holomovement, or evidential-existentiality (Rubovitz, 1999)? Connections between macro — and micro-evolution are further illustrated through the shifts occurring in the states of the four physical forces which are played out in cosmic evolution: The origin of matter from an excess over antimatter breaks a temporal as well as spatial symmetry . . . The condensation of macrostructures in a multilevel hierarchy breaks the macroscopic spatial symmetry of the originally homogeneous universe. And with the appearance of stars a further time symmetry Figure 2-2: Co-evolution of Macro — and Microstructures (Jantsch 1980, p. 94) 42 is broken, perhaps already with galaxies. Individual evolution commences. The energy generation in the transformation processes of matter has a beginning and an end and runs through a specific sequence of qualitatively different phases. (Jantsch, 1980, p. 222) We return now to Jantsch’s Figure 2.1, which is a Schematic representation of the co-evolution of evolutionary process levels in the sociobiological and sociocultural phases of evolution. Each transition between two levels of autopoietic13 existence is marked by a specific break of spatial or temporal symmetry. For an explanation of the dynamics, see Figures 41 and 42. Framed fields indicate autopoietic system levels. (Jantsch, 1980, p. 225) In Figure 2.1, dissipative structures (signified by two large dots) appear first in the evolution of the earth’s surface and manifest subsequently in the remaining phases of development, and attempts to present a rough sketch of some of the basic aspects of evolution from biochemical/biospheric to the sociocultural phase . . . the first branch of the solidifying earth surface may be meaningfully described with the four elements of Greek natural philosophy, earth, water, air and fire (the lightning which was so important for starting chemical evolution as predecessor of biochemical evolution). Ecosystems . . . appear only with heterotrophy14. Social systems soon start to structure themselves in hierarchical ways. (Jantsch, 1980, p. 223) Jantsch refers to transitions to higher levels of evolution as symmetry breaks which are either spatial or temporal. “In the evolution of a dissipative structure, each instability threshold with a transition to a new structure marks the break of a further spatial symmetry. In the transition to higher levels of microevolution, spatial and temporal symmetry breaks alternate” (Jantsch, 1980, p. 226). These breaks are figurative, though not entirely in the sense of continuous or discontinuous; symmetry breaks are relative to both dissipative and stable structures. He also characterizes four pairs of symmetry breaks: In the first pair to follow, the temporal and spatial distribution of past experience is bound in such a way that it may become effective in the present. In the next pair, the autonomy of the evolving system from its environment becomes 13 self-creating or reproducing 14 All animals, protozoans, fungi, and most bacteria are heterotrophs. "Sexuality was one of two essential factors which resulted in an extraordinary acceleration of evolution and the emergence of a great variety of life forms. The other factor is heterotrophy or the capability of feeding on other life" (Jantsch, 1980, p. 126). 43 enhanced, at first by the increasing importance of the epigenetic15 process and subsequently by the establishment of an autonomous inner world. In the final pair it is at first the symmetry between the processes creating the outer and the inner world which becomes broken, and then the connectedness of man with the evolving universe becomes structured in a specific way. These four pairs of symmetry-breaking processes may also be correlated with four phases of the microevolution of life: thermodynamic/chemical, biological/genetic, epigenetic and neural (sociocultural) phases (my italics, Jantsch, p. 226). These same four phases of microevolution are those expressed in the spiral Jantsch has used in Figure 2.1 which are: numbered 1’ to 4’ into neural/mental evolution and steps 1”, … into spiritual evolution. The fourth step always falls together with the first step of the following group. Four is the “powerful retrograde connection to the primal one”, as Marie-Louise von Franz (1974), in developing C. G. Jung’s thoughts, has found confirmed in many mythologies. Evolution is basically not the linear progression as is suggested by Fig. 43 for the sake of simplicity of the graphical representation. Considered from whatever angle of view, evolution is always a spiral, as is indicated in the side sketch in Fig. 43. The connectedness over time and space, the unity of evolution as a total phenomenon, thereby becomes even more sharply accentuated. (my italics, Jantsch, 1980. p. 227) Interestingly, Jantsch’s phases of micro-& macro-evolution advance in complexity beginning with the micro-evolutionary; from the ‘top-down’ point of view, the diversity in range of creation is concentrated at the ‘lower’ or ‘earlier’ part of the scale. Thus “the Universe (or at least, on a less grandiose scale, our planet) has all this diversity within its Unity; yet because this is a structured Unity it can be seen as an integrated and coherent — and thus genuinely holistic — Unity. (Pope, 2007, p. 170). In brief, Jantsch’s contributions go into great detail about relationships between the interdependence of macro — and micro-evolutionary structures — and the interplay between the four physical forces (Jantsch, 1980, pp. 83-85) which play a part in the co-evolution of the universe, based on the same principle which plays such an important role in the domain of the living. This principle implies that every system is linked with its environment by circular processes which 15 expression of genetic variation as a result of environmental or external factors 44 establish a feedback link between the evolution of both sides…the entire complex system plus environment evolves as a whole. (Jantsch, 1980, p. 85) Thus, Jantsch’s spiral of evolution can be seen to represent a four-fold process which follows a somewhat orderly sequence, in which relations between micro — and macroevolution are seen to follow similar four-fold patterns as each transition to ‘new structural levels’ is unfurled. Pope (2007), in referring to Jantsch, himself a Whiteheadian scholar, also notes the connections made with Whitehead’s earlier concepts: “This developing spiral form illustrates the upward trend of things, the evolving creative advance” (Pope, 2007, p. 54). As such, the transitions inherent in the open-ended spiral process constitute the internal form or skeleton of the overall process of evolution from atoms to galaxies, a contribution on Jantsch’s part which corresponds to the ‘Big Picture’, which Pope (2007) describes as ‘bones’ and which I have been outlining as the four-stage World Pattern of Process. A further differentiation in the Big Picture that needs to be made is that all processes, micro-cosmically, are of course not stand-alone ‘whole processes’ and as such, would only serve as a reflection of the World Pattern of Process; or rather as ‘nested processes’ in the same sense as that used by Arthur Koestler when arguing that sub-wholes were all meant to be classified as holons (Koestler, 1969). Organs in the human body, for example are not whole ‘items’ because they do not act independently of the human being. However, relationships between levels or hierarchies of scale, as supplied by Jantsch, Jung and others, do bear intrinsic processual similarities in their development; whether simultaneously or spatially or temporally separated, energy conserved by the whole proceeds characteristically along its own ‘gradient’ (Jung, Collected Works, 1960, p. 15, 41). In conjunction with the application of Sufi and other cosmological viewpoints on the nature of things, the development of social structures “including the four stages of human life, the four stages of the history of cultures and civilizations” (Pope, 2007, p. 123) and the skeleton of the World Pattern of Process begins to emerge. Returning to the idea of the “four as the one” and other ‘transformative’ processes within the World Pattern, Pope supplies another analogy, this time with reference to the animal species: 45 Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Using Gaia’s cosmology, you can see, even here, four clear stages of development! And yes, like Bohm’s concept of some kind of initial Primordial Energy (and/or the Big Bang of astronomers), in this scheme of things at least, the simpler egg does come before the more complex chicken — (i) Egg (ii) Hatchling, and its growth and development (iii) Adult chicken (iv) Results — such as a lot more eggs, more chickens, some income for the farmer, and perhaps eventually some chicken soup (Pope, 2007, p. 123) 2.2 Describing Cycles of Process and Stages of the Grand Pattern Now let’s sort out a few more attributes of processes in order to further characterize the internal structure of the skeleton: In themselves, cosmologies can be classified as static, cyclic or processual, and often there is some overlap between perspectives upon these. That is, patterns in static cosmologies, such as the four directions, or the Empedoclean elements — earth, water, air, fire (or light)16 are unchanging and do not advance. Patterns in cyclic cosmologies, such as those mentioned in the chapter on Zat, with the exception of the stages of life, are also unchanging, to an extent. The ways in which Indigenous Knowledge is accumulated collectively and individually are not considered entirely ‘cyclic’, however, within cyclicity, stages are successive and lean toward the processual (e.g. in the four developmental stages of the human being). Although non-processual four-fold patterns are used for contrast in this section, it is the patterns of four which are processual or concentric or spiral to which the World Pattern of Process is oriented. Creative advance, new cosmology, energy transfer and paradigmatic advance also lean toward the processual. The World Pattern of Process suggests that new ways of thinking (about old ways of thinking) or approaches are required to solve such matters as sustainability. 16 re-arranged in the ascending order found on Earth; following Jantsch’s order as well as Lamark’s: “Mind became that which needed explanation when Lamarck showed that the Great Chain of Being should be inverted to give an evolutionary sequence from the protozoa upward. (Bateson, 1972, p. 349) 46 Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist and philosopher of science whose groundbreaking work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) reached its fourth edition in 2012, was first to identify the nature of paradigm shifts, more or less by accumulation of the work of ‘normal science’. Kuhn’s model of paradigmatic process serves to illustrate, in this case, that new ways of thinking are needed for ways to approach the sustainability of all species: Environmentalism finds itself in the Pre-science step of the Kuhn Cycle. It lacks a valid paradigm for solving its central problem of sustainability. Yet the field's members are assuming they are in the Normal Science step, where a field has a paradigm that works well enough for that field to be called a bona fide science. This is a grave error….Civilization as a whole is in the Model Crisis step… (Harich & Bangerter, 2014) If Jantsch’s model of evolution — which demonstrates that integrative approaches at the level of spirituality are developed within the higher orders of evolution — is also considered, it then becomes evident that work on finding additional convergences within these integrative spheres is also warranted. Models which are processual — as the World Pattern of Process is — whether derived from the humanities or the soft or hard sciences — are fundamentally linked to paradigm shifts, as depicted in Figure 2.3: the Kuhn Cycle. 47 The four-stage process I have been describing offers a way to formulate and review process, having been described also by Pope as having the archetypical positions of chaos, differentiation, unity and transcendence in the sense that the newly formed result of a process can be examined as a new starting point; these correlate with the process encapsulated in Zat, Sifat, Asma, Af’al; are echoed in Jantsch’s spiral of evolution and are supported by other scientists. Drawn from various accounts, “Niels Bohr, for example . . . never regarded achieved results in any other light than as starting points for further exploration . . . he would dismiss the usual consideration of simplicity, elegance, or even consistency with the remark that such qualities can only be properly judged after the event” (Jantsch, 1980, p. 291). Writing a paper involves four stages of process whereby all the reference materials needed are to hand along with the author and writing accoutrements needed to generate the paper — but the actual writing begins with the Beginning stage, (Zat, Idea/Chaos) followed by a Middle stage (Sifat-Differentiation/Conditions), an End — Asma-Action/Unity/the body of work, and the Results17 (Af’al-Transcendence/greater scale) by which the completed paper is viewed. Puzzles and recipes follow similar patterns of assemblage: an assortment of pieces or ingredients (Chaos), organization of pieces or ingredients (Differentiation), assemblage or integration of ingredients or pieces (Unity), the completed puzzle or recipe (Transcendence). Each stage can be represented as a One, Two, Three, and Four, which Pope has organized into a table, “The Four Formally Different Stages of the Grand Pattern” (Pope, 2006, p. 61) reproduced in Table 2.1 below: Table 2-1: Four Formally Different Stages of the Grand Pattern Stage of Process beginning middle end Results phase first second third fourth format random mass differentiates coherent whole RANDOM MASS 17 Deciding steps of a process can seem arbitrary. Writing and research processes from the point of view of their authors can follow technical, logical, aesthetic or a multitude of approaches. Figure 2-3: The Kuhn Cycle (Harich & Bangerter, 2014) 48 forms atomistic particles in ‘global’ whole parts coherent organized whole, with parts PARTICLES IN ‘GLOBAL’ WHOLE archetypes chaos separation union CHAOS symbolic number One Two Three Four abstract forms monads dyads/dualities triads/trinities emergent quaternities A vast range concepts is associated with monads, dyads, triads and emergent quaternities, but these can serve to illustrate the ‘internal skeleton’ or structure of the World Pattern, and these abstract forms or modes can be classified or categorized under their symbolic numbers. Thus, an atom, person, a single-celled organism, a single cell, a variety of single entities or a unit, the idea of One essence (in Gnosticism) or the most primal aspect of God is associated with the symbolic number One. In category theory, “The monad theory matters as part of the effort to capture what it is that adjunctions 'preserve'.” (Monad - Category Theory, n.d). The constituents of the World Pattern as a cosmology, for example, appear initially to be a random mass of ideas, which are then separated into parts, then viewed as coherent or Whole, and are finally realized as parts that are Global or universal in reach, conforming to the symbolic numbers assigned above. Rocks, for example, would not be considered alive and so would be considered ‘Ones’ and classified under the Material or Mineral stage of development — but if in a larger process would undergo several other transitions. Again, the initial stage, archetypically is chaos, and in the final (realized) stage, is this time the larger CHAOS. Similarly, Dyads, or dualities are associated with ‘Twos’ are representative of pairs, notes, dyad symmetry in genetics, dyad products in mathematics and other configurations which illustrate principles of “two-ness”, polarities, including the Yin-Yang symbol, the internal/external relations of plant life and its environment, etc. “because a dyad or pair can’t combine unless they are working within a greater framework.” (Pope, 2007, p. 41) Because plants, unlike minerals or materials, can die, they are particularly vulnerable to the availability or non-availability of resources. The automatic re-action of plants to externals is a response to the need for survival of plants; the competitive nature of plants for resources 49 internally and externally characterizes the dual focus of plant life as egoistic or self-preserving in nature. Then there is the dyadic ‘Yes — no’ stimulus-and-reaction, the automaton-like tropisms in plants as they react to specific things in the environment: night and day, sunlight and shade, drought and rain, and so on…Last but not least, beginning in 1966 documentation has been being made of such sensitivity to their environment that feelings of like/dislike have been recorded in plants (cf. Tompkins and Bird,1973). (Pope, 2007, p. 80) The theory of opposites, which is not formally recognized today, would be categorized as a “Two”; constituents of Two, illustrated by plant life are tied to context: plants depend upon conversion of matter (One) for survival and: In their external relations, Twos, being sensitive, may be difficult, problematic, unstable, defensive and even (in the case of feelings) turn into their own opposites — ‘enantiodroma’ as Jung calls this . . . Dyads and dualities, without a greater framework (Three) to reconcile each other and/or to work within, tend to instability. (Pope, 2007, p. 134) Dualities may also be further classified into sorts of pair relationships or dynamics, i.e. perpendicular or higher-lower (e.g. active-passive, parent-child, good-evil); equal worth (e.g. brother-sister, creative-receptive, east-west) or ambiguous or context-dependent (e.g. father-mother, spiritual-material, conscious-unconscious). (For further examples, See Table 5, in Pope, 2007, p. 144.) Gregory Bateson, for whom “the pattern is the thing” (Bateson, 1972, p. 430) reminded readers that “Pythagoras stood for inquiry into pattern rather than inquiry into substance” (p. 456) and contributed much to the theory of dualities. Although “every such relationship contains elements of the other type” (p. 80), equal pairs relied on symmetrical relations and context-dependent pairs relied on complementary relations, extending also to patterns held in social or political groups: Common examples of simple symmetrical relationships are armaments races, keeping up with the Joneses, athletic emulation, boxing matches, and the like. Common examples of complementary relationship are dominance-submission, sadism-masochism, nurturance-dependency, spectatorship-exhibitionism, and the like. (Bateson, 1972, p. 329) 50 He also accounted for changes in either symmetrical or complementary relationships which were subject to “schismogenesis”: Symmetrical struggles and armaments races may, in the current phrase, "escalate"; and the normal pattern of succoring-dependency between parent and child may become monstrous. These potentially pathological developments are due to undamped or uncorrected positive feedback in the system and may — as stated — occur in either complementary or symmetrical systems. However, in mixed systems schismogenesis is necessarily reduced. (Bateson, 1972, p. 330) Bateson’s distinctions between dualities or ‘Twos’ as having either equal value (symmetrical) or having different values (complementary) helps to decide classifications for the World Pattern of Process. Complementary relations tend to be co-operative (mother-son or manager-employee) whereas symmetrical relations between equal-value ‘wholes’ (Threes) tend to be competitive. Either way, Two’s tend to remain polarized and non-progressive. However, because they are ‘wholes’ in several respects, Nations are Threes, as we said, but when they come too close, things irritate and may grow problematic. This type of ‘tit-for tat’ re-action exemplifies Bateson’s ‘symmetrical’ behavior, where the equal-but-different entities (wholes, Threes) are stimulated to re-act as if they were Twos, behaving in a cyclic fashion or pendulum swing (both typical of Twos) within the second stage of the cosmology, either to one another or to other external conditions or both, increasing in intensity but without making any forward progress (Pope, 2007, p. 150). The question to be asked when characterizing behaviors as Twos or Threes is whether the relationships are distinctively complementary or symmetrical. Polarization, or extremes, characterizes dualities, or the state of Twos, and they are marked “by differentiation, duality and sensitivity, where rivals rub up against each other, relating competitively: the ‘survival of the fittest’, predator-prey relations” (Pope, 2007, p. 153). Relationships which occur on the level of Twos do not progress, are not transformed, either individual in the pair is alternatively dominant and more often than not, have separate goals or direction. “Here also are circular and cyclic relations, with first one particle ‘on top of the heap’, and then the other, and another, in turn; also the swing of a pendulum from one extreme to another…there is no progress, only an increase in intensity and/or Bateson’s ‘constant, non-progressive change’ (Pope, 2007, p. 155). 51 Also, while under the canopy of the forest there appears to be a certain co-cooperativeness in the use of resources, nevertheless the connection between ‘Twos’ in the plant kingdom — because plants are unable to move — can be summed up by noting that their sole strategy for survival is restricted to competition for resources. Species in the animal kingdom, (wholes as Threes) however, by and large have evolved a distinct capacity for social co-operation. Once again, competitive relations, wherever marked by extremes or a pendulum swing, may be associated with the behaviors of existents within Sifat, the second category of process in which differentiation is the key activity, especially when vulnerability to the greater or larger context is absent: relations between two more or less equal-value wholes, e.g. two male kangaroos, or two competing sumo wrestlers, or even two neighboring cultures — North and South Korea, say — are generally competitive. These are Bateson’s ‘symmetrical’ relations, characterized not only by competitiveness but by sensitivity, reactivity, and, lacking a greater context in common, sometimes even outright conflict…. There are thus two different qualities of relations here: lesser/greater, or complementary relations, and equal value or symmetrical relations, qua Bateson. (Pope, 2007, p. 153) Synthesis is associated with ‘Threes’, for example in the Triad of Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis (to which the fourth stage, a new Thesis is derived). Other Triads in association with the symbolic number Three: Trichotomies; Triple deities, tripartites; 3-bit groups as Triads in computing, the Catalytic triad (biochemical term); the Currarino triad — “three malformations with a genetic link;” a Portal triad — “a distinctive arrangement in the liver; a structure in skeletal muscles;” Medical triads — “a group of three signs or symptoms for diagnosis of various conditions” (Triad, n.d.); and other specific sociological, legal, regulatory, psychological configurations. Analysis-Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation can also be correlated with the pattern Idea-Condition-Action-Result in the construction of a building, as well as in curriculum development: All organisms, organizations and organized wholes are Threes . . . Nations are also Threes, centered on their heads of state and two-tier governments: the ‘three estates’. Multinational corporations are over-large Threes . . . One problem with their inherent stability is that Threes may get stuck, and come to exist only for themselves… (Pope, 2007, p. 135) 52 Following on from the behaviors associated with ‘Threes’, the Four, a tetrad, emerges as representative of all processes or phases which follow on from synthesis and are emergent or processual, as well as isomorphic to Whitehead’s four stage process, Jantsch’s open-ended evolutionary spiral, Bohm’s energies in the evolution of the universe, etc. They are ambiguous or unpredictable or open in the sense that as results (Af’al) they are drawn after the completion of whole; are simultaneously starting points for the next process; are drawn from Threes which “can only be properly judged after the event”; whose attributes are therefore viewed archetypically as ‘Transcendent’; and are similarly random (as Ones) yet on a greater scale which may be considered ‘realized’ or finer or more subtle. Pope adds that “Fours, as I have said before, may sometimes descend from another dimension (e.g. light from the sun) or arise from within (such as intuitions from the unconscious)” (Pope, 2007, p. 151). Elsewhere, Pope refers again to: the belief found in Indonesia that ‘once the human body had completely evolved, as G-d had intended, it was a fitting vehicle (wahana) for the soul of humanity (jiwa manusia) to enter.’ For theologians at least, this cosmology thus provides a rationale for the descent of the Human energy or Spirit (Four) ‘down’ into the natural, biological human body (Three) — in which case Genesis and Darwin are both right. (Pope, 2007, p. 137) Stage Four of process on the animal scale, for instance, is relative to the animal’s social behaviors and environmental context and is pertinent to a specific physical territory and offspring. On the human scale, emergent qualities of ‘Fours’ may be read or assessed in a multitude of ways (rather than definitive of all individuals) as the emergent ‘fruit-bearing’ stage proceeding from the completed whole (the Three) — not restricted to, but inclusive of — the exercise of free will, freedom, autonomy; the capacity to govern innate behaviors (mineral, vegetable, animal); the ability to produce a range of external, wide-ranging outcomes pertinent to offspring, families, communities or which have global reach; innate tendencies which are self-correcting, subtle, cultural, ceremonial or spiritual in intent; etc. Another way to view the ambiguity or unpredictability of ‘Fours’ is via the analogy of building a castle: If, instead of a doing a jigsaw puzzle, we had built a ‘castle’ out of children’s bricks (a Three) — then, for stage Four, there are other and quite different additional possibilities. The original is, as with the jigsaw puzzle, limited to one castle (Three) and all its following results (Four). But if there were two or more people also building little castles with children’s bricks in the same room, then several different outcomes are possible. Four could be either (i) a combining of all 53 the little castles, moving them together and adding them on to each other — so there is one large but not very well designed castle; or (ii) it could be that, by knocking them all down, a completely new and much larger and better-integrated castle could be built out of all the bricks; or even (iii) the castles could remain single and separate but taken over by other owners and turned into model shopping malls for example! So, the reason that Fours in general tend to be unpredictable and ambiguous is that these different types of options are all open (as results of Three, the completed third stage of process) as Fours. (Pope, 2007, pp. 135-6) The point in categorizing abstract forms of process within stages of process then positions them within the larger framework of the World Pattern of Process and opens up new possibilities for interpretation and classification. However, at this stage of organization (Sifat) we are merely selecting on the basis of ‘nature’, conditions, etc. and initially, as well as in later stages of process, human perception adjusts. In ‘normal science’, we see this through the refinement of theorems until a new paradigm emerges and replaces the former in the Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Thus, it follows in the third stage of the Grand Pattern (Asma) — that ‘the work’ or the critical mass of the World Pattern of Process becomes activated, prior to reaching the fourth stage, in which the results become evident. 2.3 Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern, Abbreviated In the meantime, let’s sort through several other categories, conditions or containers which might be associated with Sifat, noting that methodologically, we are laying out other pieces which might fit into the overall Pattern, in a less than random manner: Pope uses Jung’s set of four psychological behaviors to generalize qualities which do not necessarily follow a process but nevertheless conform to the World Pattern: Sensation — amorphous impressions that come into us from outside, as a random whole; Feeling — the dualistic emotional reactions of like-dislike, happy-sad, stressed-relaxed, fearful-hopeful, and so on; Thinking — active, purposeful, directed, dynamic, etc.; and Intuition — another amorphous, ambiguous, random whole, this time reaching us from inside, from our unconscious; transcendent. (Pope, 2007, p. 146) 54 Other loose associations for this pattern of behaviors (sensation-feeling-thinking-intuition) are the qualities characteristic of growth phases of the infant-adolescent-young adult-mature adult, as well as qualities which can be indirectly emergent in Ones, Twos, Threes, Fours. Pope has also illustrated connections between The Four Formally Different Stages of the Grand Pattern; Exemplars of the four stages of process (p. 137); four types of behaviors (p. 147); and States of Existence in the internal structure of the World Pattern (p. 168), which I have re-assembled into a single modified table, in Table 2.2 below: Table 2-2: Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern Symbolic Number One Two Three Four stage of process beginning middle end results symbolic order first second third fourth formats random whole differentiates coherent whole RANDOM WHOLE forms atomistic particles in ‘global’ whole parts coherent organized whole, with parts particles in ‘GLOBAL’ whole archetypes chaos separation union CHAOS abstract forms monads dyads/dualities triads/trinities emergent quaternities elements earth water air light existents minerals plants animals humans modes active passive active passive energies matter life will consciousness Sufi Zat (god) Sifat (matter) Asma (life) Af’al (humanity) D. Bohm energy matter life consciousness chicken egg chick chicken more eggs qualities inert/passive/quiescent/obedient sensitive/reactive to (external) stimuli purposeful (from internal stimuli) /moving chosen from (or mere) possibilities /transcendent 55 ideational or organic emerging/ growing adaptive/ expansive/ differentiating stable/ co-operative, rational quirky/ ambiguous/ free The traditional elements and existents rows are italicized to emphasize that they are drawn from much earlier cosmologies. If together they constitute “our entire environment and our reality” (Pope, 2007, p. 68) and “are also formally tesspirals18 — and con-form isomorphically to the pattern of process — then it follows that they con-form to each other” (Pope, 2007, p. 90). Similarly, Schumacher19 has shown how the four kingdoms or ‘factors’ conform to the Great Chain of Being, previously noted in the Zat section. “Alisjahbana, Pak Subuh and Schumacher are correct in that another, fourth ‘factor’, a fourth energy, is necessary to account for all the qualitative differences between animals and the most humane of human beings” (Pope, 2007, p. 107). Also, while not all exemplars are processes, together they permit the re-envisioning of a more holistic and integrated overview — food for thought! Some of the positions given in the table are questionable and at this point are suggestions only. Nevertheless, we can begin to see the emergence of the Pattern. For instance, the Sufi sequence doesn’t quite seem to fit the overall table, particularly if the original association (‘Zat’ with ‘God’) is considered specious, but cell contents have been placed in that order since the Zat is considered the prime referent from which everything else is generated, from the processual and cosmological point of view (previously discussed in the Zat section.) All that being said, please note the similarities between Bohm’s model of evolution and the Sufi model of process: “Strictly speaking this traditional Sufi model is not a cosmology but an outline of the four stages of the process of the creation (and/or the evolution) of the universe” (Pope, 2007, p. 120). An aside: Even while we are not required to ‘blend’ all isomorphs into a homogenous ‘soup’, we are entitled to new perceptions, perhaps leading to other insights, when constructing a grand pattern. Other supports for correlating the various forms of energy in the sciences and the arts are 18 Pope’s term for the advancing spiral. 19 Schumacher worked with John G. Bennett during their wartime years in the British Coal Board, and joined the Subud spiritual movement in its very early days when Pak Subuh first arrived in London in 1957. Schumacher then adapted some of Pak Subuh’s ideas about the energies of being, without acknowledging their source (Pope, 2007, p. 93). 56 emerging. For instance, the basic four ‘physical’ forces exert different effects relative to space and time. This is analogous to how hormones work; we may have been able to label and define what each does, but the precise balance between them which plays a part in all life cycles remains unknown…similarly the precise balance between the ‘four physical forces’ which produce life as we understand it over space and time also remains unknown yet correlated. On the microscopic scale: “Genome and phenome form an integrated system of functionally autonomous parts, correlated so as to survive, reproduce, and evolve as a coherent whole” (Laszlo, 2003, p. 26). Correlated, yes, although not reproducible. Wilson’s echo: The greatest obstacle to consilience by synthesis, the approach often loosely called holism, is the exponential increase in complexity encountered during the upward progress through levels of organization. I have already described how an entire cell cannot yet be predicted from the knowledge of its scrambled molecules and organelles alone. Let me now indicate how bad the problem really is. It is not even possible to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein from a complete knowledge of its constituent atoms (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 91). Similarly, on the macrocosmic scale: Quanta that at one time and one place occupied the same quantum state can be light years apart in space and thousands of years apart in time, and still remain correlated . . . Schrödinger maintained that particles in the quantum state do not have individually defined states: their states are fundamentally “entangled” with each other (Laszlo, 2003, p. 10). Secondly, although not intended (language can fail us), the terms ‘passive’ used within the ‘qualities’ sequence suggests that the order passive-active-passive-active is inferred along that row; however, qualities cannot be categorized as either active or passive. (Such sequence is argued contextually and to the contrary in the ‘modes’ sequence: active-passive-active-passive). Thus, in the row tabled for ‘qualities’, the “Ones” column (actually correlated with Materials) is designated as passive for the fact they can be manipulated or modified, and because materials ‘receive’ actions done to them, in which sense they are ‘passive’; whereas in the row tabled for ‘modes’, the sequence is designated in terms of whether the mode is active or passive in effect. An alternative perspective to consider here is that active-passive-active-passive ‘modes’ are occupied in relation to their larger contexts, for which Materials have been assigned ‘active in effect or influence’, Plants have been assigned ‘passive in effect’ because they are stationary, 57 Animals have been assigned ‘active in effect’ due to their ability to move and Humans have been assigned ‘passive in effect’ due to how their conscious abilities and insight are derived internally and due to the human’s evolutionary incorporation20 of former life forms (Whitehead — creative advance, Jantsch — spiral of evolution). With reference to the modes sequence, therefore, it might be helpful to think in terms open and closed systems, or of the interaction of pair dynamics: active-external, passive-internal (or it might not…) Thirdly, the ‘energies’ row refers to concepts or characteristics of energies ascribed to ‘lower energies’ or ‘daya-daya’ (powers or natural forces), widely understood in the Javanese cosmology as referring to a range of coarse-to-subtle or fine energies, with the finest energies active at the higher or more complex end of the scale. In the West, we are not familiar with vague concepts such as ‘Chi’, ‘Prana’ or ‘daya-daya’, but this does not mean that their existence can be ruled out, simply that the West has concentrated on forms of energy derived largely from material sources: kinetic, thermal, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, etc. Whitehead, for instance, “missed seeing that the Four Elements and the Chain of Being — both seemingly starting with inert and therefore passive, material Ones — also conform to his own fourfold pattern of process” (Pope, 2007, p. 131). Also, whether Energy is viewed from the top-down or bottom-up makes no difference “because the great Pattern of Process works whichever way the sciences eventually decide is correct” (Pope, 2007, p. 132). Fourthly, reading the columns individually supplies additional information about the behaviors of ‘Ones’, ‘Twos’, ‘Threes’ and ‘Fours’, which then offers parameters for further selection, i.e. all items in individual columns are more closely related to each other than they would be if a mixture of say, Ones and Twos dominated the Ones column. For instance, ‘pure potential’ characterizes the One’s column (where “even the Earth/Minerals pair can be seen to be exemplars of the pure potentials in One” (Pope, 2007, p. 130); differentiates (or differentiation) characterizes the Twos column; organized wholes characterize the Threes column; and random wholes, this time realized, as well as poised to become Ones again in a new process, are described in the Fours column. 20 not forgetting the human being’s life-long assimilation of material, plant and animal forms of sustenance 58 2.4 E. O. Wilson’s Work on Consilience and the Skeleton of the World Pattern Regarding the Sifat section, various gaps related to ethical concerns; E. O. Wilson’s lament for the absence of theory in the social sciences which can strengthen bridges to be made between the sciences and the arts, and the role of the environment (or invironment) in development may have become evident. But what E. O. Wilson sought was consilience of a structural kind in both the humanities and sciences. Empirical examples of consilience, he believed, would enable stronger links between both and would help to recover the inherent logical orderliness of all things, an approach somewhat weakened historically, until recently. Two difficulties with this view are that ‘all things’ or ‘each thing’ measured using multiple independent methods are not equal and secondly that equivalency scales between disciplines are unacceptable or do not exist; across the gulf between disciplines, we tend to understand that while the scientific viewpoint can be used to illuminate the humanities, reverse applications to the contrary are less than well tolerated. Consider Wilson’s comments in this respect: social theory is not yet true theory (p. 212); Social theorists . . . point to the nonlinearity of the viable equations, to second — and third-order interactions of factors, etc. (p. 227); The medical sciences have it and the social sciences do not” (p. 198); Economic theory . . . lacks a solid foundation of units and processes. It has not acquired or even attempted serious consilience with the natural sciences (p. 219); [and]Academic theorists have paid little attention to biology; consilience is not in their vocabulary (p. 233). Thus, the viewpoint endorsed by Wilson (no longer limited to the natural sciences) prevails: empiricism, as I have argued, is well supported thus far in the case of ethics. The objective evidence for or against it in religion is weaker, but at least still consistent with biology. For example, the emotions that accompany religious ecstasy clearly have a neurobiological source. At least one form of brain disorder is associated with hyper-religiosity, in which cosmic significance is given to almost everything, including trivial everyday events. Overall it is possible to imagine the biological construction of a mind with religious beliefs, although that alone does not dismiss transcendentalism or prove the beliefs themselves to be untrue. (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 282) 59 However, the MVAH differentiation identified in Table 2.2: Stages of Existence and Exemplars along the existents row is not incompatible with Wilson’s statement that: The central idea of the consilience world view is that all tangible phenomena, from the birth of stars to the workings of social institutions, are based on material processes that are ultimately reducible, however long and tortuous the sequences, to the laws of physics. In support of this idea is the conclusion of biologists that humanity is kin to all other life forms by common descent. (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 291) In other words, support for these qualifications is admittedly emerging and ongoing. Further exemplars for the Sifat section will be provided in subsequent chapters for Asma, and Af’al, along with descriptions of how recent research for the Great Chain of Being, Indigenous Cosmologies, and Theories of Everything fit the Pattern. At the same time, Sifat is part of the overall internal structure, or ‘skeleton’ of the World Pattern of Process, whose exemplars have been posited in the table. It will become the task of those using the Pattern to provide further corroborations in support of the pattern. The Two’s Column offers a set of descriptors for the Sifat stage of process — which in effect are the repositories for Zat positions, which in turn are candidates for the ZSAA process. In conjunction, Wilson’s efforts “to unite the natural sciences with the social sciences and humanities” considers that: The difference between the two domains is in the magnitude of the problem, not the principles needed for its solution. The human condition is the most important frontier of the natural sciences. Conversely, the material world exposed by the natural sciences is the most important frontier of the social sciences and humanities. The consilience argument can be distilled as follows: The two frontiers are the same. (Wilson E. O., 1998, p. 293) The consilience work done by Wilson points more to the work that still needs to be done in linking the arts and sciences, rather than to the actual areas of consilience he has painstakingly explored. The assumption, that a relationship exists somewhere . . . as in science, so in the humanities…is a worthy pursuit — for what it is, but only if strong foundational links can be provided. The concept MVAH21, for example, cheerfully grasped by the Indonesian population 21 correspondences for the four types or qualities permeate Bahasa Indonesia, and more especially in the Javanese language, for instance, four qualities of mind, four qualities of heart, “four qualities of love, four types of magic, 60 of not less than 245 million, or belief systems embedded in other world views, no longer warrant exclusion. Other notions to bear in mind are that, perhaps more than realized, correlations for 'spiritual' or 'religious' ideas and the sciences are not entirely innocuous — as emerging research in neurochemistry, biology and other disciplines has indicated — and that all structures and existents have a concrete foundation, such as a skeleton, albeit if abstractly an 'internal' structure or skeleton, especially in view of correlations over space and time. Nevertheless, within the overall cosmological Pattern of Process, we have ended up with a developmental sequence of four formally different, increasingly complex, phases, stages, levels or parts, in which each becomes more orderly, more complex, more organized, more dynamic, finer and freer than the one before it…And these can act as a progressive sequence of qualitatively emerging categories for the whole cosmological system. (Pope, 2007, p. 167) When originally exposed to the MVAH and ZSAA concepts in my early twenties, I must admit they seemed to pose some threat to my established belief systems…but I was able to overcome these concerns by asking myself the question, “What if…on some level…these perspectives are valid?” Much later, I would understand that the tenets of the Anishinaabe world view were facilitative of the feeling of connection to other cultures — in much the same way as care for all of our human relatives (for the most part) is intrinsic to a majority of traditional belief systems, world-wide. Thus, the capacity to re-structure, re-envision or review principles which are truly human in approach is encompassed by the World Pattern of Process — a small price to pay for inroads to holism and the chance for global re-engagement in the unification of ‘best practices and interests’ of (One) humankind. four grades of (human) souls, four kinds of illness, four moods, and so on: all of which can be shown to conform to this same cosmological structure… Apart from the two obvious black (harmful) and white (healing) types of magic there are also, it is said, yellow (plant) magic for increasing the fertility of rice, other crops and domestic animals; and red (animal) magic for increasing the human will, determination and powers of endurance” (Pope, The pattern of the world, 2007, p. 171). 61 Chapter 3: Asma: What is the Work? He whose vision cannot cover History's three thousand years, Must in outer darkness hover, Live within the day's frontiers. (Goethe, Westostlicher Diwan) 'Your Level of Being attracts your life.' There are no occult or unscientific assumptions behind this saying. At a low Level of Being only a very poor world exists and only a very impoverished kind of life can be lived. The Universe is what it is; but he who, although capax universi, limits himself to its lowest sides — to his biological needs, his creature comforts or his accidental encounters — will inevitably 'attract' a miserable life. If he can recognize nothing but 'struggle for survival' and 'will to power' fortified by cunning, his 'world' will be one fitting Hobbes's description of the life of man as 'solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short'. (Schumacher, 1977. p. 45) Not everyone needs to work at human being and becoming; some simply work at the maintenance of human being, but by virtue of membership, none are exempt from the side effects incurred from not doing the work. What is the work? The World Pattern of Process, a holistic, process-based cosmology, is encapsulated by the Idea-Condition-Action-Result sequence: Zat: power, pure potential, essence, existence, force, energy, concept, seed Sifat: condition, attributes or qualities, nature, being, existence, form, container Asma: work, deed, action, course or step taken. Af'al: evidence, proof, reality, truth, result, outcome As described previously, patterns incorporated within the World Pattern were those which were characterized by levels of being or energies originating in the material, vegetal, animal and human realms of existence (MVAH). The composite term, MVAH relies on interaction between all constituent elements (MVAH) of the body — again, composed of increasingly advanced systems which I will touch on next: the skeleton, i.e. the human material form, the autonomous systems (vegetal), the endocrine systems (animal) and the human systems which are conscious, or transformative. Ordinarily, all living entities may be categorized as having elements of MVAH. But essentially, all cosmologies and all individuals contain four spheres of existence. However, this may not hold 62 true for all existents operative within systems, institutions, paradigms, groups, collections, classes. What needs to be decided is whether a dominant output of energy for one or more spheres of existence exists within the pattern under analysis, such that a dominant element characterizes the nature of the existent(s) or it can be determined that the natural elements are in balance within the existent. A material system, for example, produces materials. A vegetal system can be observed in terms of its distinct outputs (seeds, uses). Animal existents can be characterized in terms of collective and social behaviors. Human existents can be characterized as dominant or balanced in combination of areas of activity, namely all MVAH spheres of existence, each of which have their own outputs. In the section on Zat (Idea), the analogy of the growth of a plant described energies which were characteristic of the vegetal level of being. The mechanical or material analogy of steam engine production described energies which were characteristic of the material level of being. In the section on Sifat (Condition), the analogy of becoming a doctor described energies which were characteristic of the human level of being. In the Sifat section, Table 2.2: Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern, provided a glimpse into the internal ‘skeleton’ of the World Pattern. As indicated by the table, the World Pattern is not limited to ‘beings’ but encompasses other ‘levels’ of process, e.g. within economics and mathematics: Economics on a purely material level, for instance, is solely profit-oriented, on a vegetal level will be not be used progressively but will maintain status quo, on an animal level will satisfy community interests and on a human level will be used in a transformative manner with far-reaching consequences. On the material level, mathematics is straight facts or equations used for a specifically material purpose, (if necessary, at the expense of all other purposes); on the vegetal level, it is studied, observed, examined, but nothing necessarily comes of it. On the animal level, it will be of communal consequence; on the human level, it will have transformative and far-reaching consequences. If mathematics is considered in the vein of paradigmatic shift, the World Pattern of Process, then the parallel for the Idea-Condition-Action-Result process would be similar to 63 Kuhn’s or Hegel’s cycle (thesis-antithesis-synthesis-new thesis) “This fourfold pattern of process, in other words, shows us what must be included in all human activities to make them holistic — and thereby balanced, and sustainable” (Pope, 2007, p. 172) . Regarding the classification of energies in the tables in the Sifat chapter, which sequence is matter-life-will-consciousness, and which is symbolically represented as One-Two-Three-Four, ‘Will’ can be considered definitive of the (oft-instinctive) animal kingdom. (Despite the fact that it remains fashionable to classify humans as animals, I will shortly argue grounds for re-instatement of human status.) In recent decades, some enthusiasts have gone so far as to argue “consciousness” not only for animals but for plants, yet it remains apparent that instinctual behavior and reflexes can be executed unconsciously. But first, since the term ‘consciousness’ is a ‘four’, I prefer to clarify further that the ‘four’ is relative to behaviors having the context of wide-ranging or far-reaching effects, assumed at minimum ‘for the greater good’ — for all species, which characterizes this category (Fours), rather than a ‘Three’. In this case, the connotation for consciousness is ‘transformative’, or has transformative results, and thus surpasses the status of unity and completeness as a matter of process (a Three). In addition, research about the World Pattern of Process has been referenced only by one other person than myself, and not in dissertation form, which is the reason for a limited number of other references than Pope’s in the latter part of this chapter. Asma focuses upon MVAH energies within human becoming. Originally neighbors in Indonesia for upwards of a decade, Salamah and I have had many discussions about the ideas I am presenting as a cosmology, or whole world view and much else, which have ranged over 35 years. We are largely agreed on major points, for which reasons I reference her, but differ on occasion in details and areas of ‘correspondence’. Our hope is that others will see the value of the Pattern sooner, rather than later. But now to venture further: Having considered how processes in general fit within the World Pattern, such as those which pertain to other world views or the sciences, and without ignoring human capacities, we need to review how all of those types of processes are at work within the 64 dynamic presence of the human be-ing — and becoming. Later, we can reflect on matters of development of the human being within its own lifespan, the history of the species, and human values. The works of others who have sought answers to questions about being or becoming which have perplexed mankind for centuries warrants further review. If we are able to synthesize the deliberations I am presenting, we will be able to accomplish a description of what it is to be a human being. So, how does the World Pattern of Process work? And what is the identity of a human being? 3.1 Synthesis — the Work Asma is the interaction between the Zat and the Sifat, or Idea and Condition, which brings them together to fruition in this, the ‘working stage’. Speaking traditionally, or in the sense I intend, you would not consider that either the Zat or the Sifat are randomly associated. For example, the intention to become a medical doctor (Zat) would not accurately serve as a metaphor for a material process involving a steam engine (Sifat), although in some instances (genetics, cloning) stranger processes have been attempted — with results which are only beginning to be disseminated, but for the most part remain indeterminate (or unsubstantiated). Such products tend to be considered atrocities, and to remain separate in nature, such as using human skin for a lampshade or a book cover or inserting the DNA of fish scales to enhance the skin texture of tomatoes. In other words, until recently, the mixing of levels or orders of being has often been avoided in research. Ethically, there remain reasons for protections against ‘admixtures’ derived from the combination of human with other-than-human processes. Yet the sciences are largely oriented toward material processes at the expense of human observer status wherein scientists attempt to render the observer/researcher as extraneous to the process examined. However, for identification purposes it is important to illustrate identities: predominantly material processes are used to describe mechanical or material interactions; vegetal processes are used to describe vegetal processes, and so on. This is not to say (in terms of energy) that a convergence of processes does not exist. On the contrary, everything is 65 energy…but a description of effects of various levels of energy or ‘factors’ as Schumacher might have put it, serves to elucidate the World Pattern of Process. Originally, Asma, as Pak Subuh said over and over again, is ‘the working together of God and Nature’. Alternatively, as he explained at other times, it is the working of any organized, purposive whole: which (I add) has been formed by the coming together of two or more different and now reconciled things. Yin and Yang within the Tao, for instance, and Hegel’s synthesis following thesis and anti-thesis — or any other pair working together within in a framework greater than themselves . [italics added] (Pope, 2007, p. 181) In relation to orders of being, everything in existence can be considered in a context ‘greater than its own’. Inanimate materials are converted by plants into living energy and thus a greater framework of existents of vegetable energies over material energies prevails. In terms of evolution, human beings were the more advanced or complex, latest-evolved creatures after animals, plants and materials. Humans did not arrive at the same time as the creation of the earth, but earlier forms of evolution were incorporated within the human being, who was part of the complex sophistication of the aggregate of material, vegetable, animal and human energies. Salamah Pope has quoted Joseph Needham’s historical position that with two concepts alone, those of energy (for matter-mass is now regarded as simply a special form of energy), and organization (li at various levels of its manifestation), our whole world can be built up . . . Since the guiding thread of the rise of organization shows itself throughout the evolutionary process, we are to look for it in the history of human society as well. (Needham, 1969, in Pope, 2007, p. 181) Schumacher’s formula for the human being supports the conclusion that as a species, the ‘organization’ of human beings has incorporated biologically and physiologically the strengths and weaknesses of our forerunners — the ‘life forces’ derived from materials, plants and animals. In other words, these energies exist without as well as within the human being’s ‘invironment’. Here is his formula of ‘factors’ (or energies) again, this time reversed in the top-to-bottom order of evolution: 'Man' = m + x + y + z 'Animal' = m + x + y 'Plant' = m + x 'Mineral' = m (Schumacher, 1977, p. 28) 66 3.2 Energies Within the Human Constitution Having described existents found in our environment in association with Schumacher’s formula, the next step is to sort out how the same energies are utilized within the human constitution. Firstly, the characteristics of our material selves were referenced in Table 2.2 originally constructed in the Sifat section and reproduced and abbreviated below in Table 3.1: Table 3-1: Stages of Existence and Exemplars in the World Pattern, Abbreviated Symbolic Number One Two Three Four elements earth water air light existents minerals plants animals humans modes active passive active passive energies matter life will consciousness qualities inert/passive/ quiescent/ obedient sensitive/reactive to (external) stimuli purposeful (from internal stimuli) /moving chosen from (or mere) possibilities /transcendent ideational or organic emerging/ growing adaptive/ expansive/ differentiating stable/ co-operative, rational quirky/ ambiguous/ free Remember, in a discussion of energies, we assume that all forms or embodiments apply (planets, acorns, antelope, cousins, etc.) and also that energy (itself) may be transformed but is not perishable. We have no way of calculating the long-term existence of any form of energy except in terms of its form. Figure 3.1 represents four types of energy embodied in the human being. 67 3.2.1 Material Energies Material energies (Figure 3.2), with which we are most familiar, are associated with the densest, simplest and coarsest of elements, comprising the skeleton and chemical matter of the body. Without exception, human beings are familiar with and engaged in material pursuits to a greater or lesser extent. ‘Ones’ are considered chaotic or random wholes, since they contain un-manifest growth potential — to a point. Through absorption, photosynthesis and other processes, we understand that material energies are vulnerable to manipulation by higher, more complex orders, energies, or “Schumacher’s x, y and z”: “Shoes and ships and sealing wax do not and cannot ‘do’ anything themselves” (Pope, 2007, p. 186). Eventually materials degrade and tend towards entropy, once their life cycle is complete. Where material elements are subject to manipulation by other life forms, we consider that they are passive — despite their overall active, pervasive influence as a form of energy throughout the cosmos. Material energies are used in construction, business, archaeological purposes, transportation, etc. but because they break down over the long term, we might also consider the effect of material energy as ‘dissipative’ as well as divisive. We know that material wealth divides. Utilization of the range of material energies is also destructive when used purely in pursuit of profit or for killing others. Genocide and wars are conducted through the means of material resources in the production of weaponry. Over-consumption of goods, beyond needs, cannot be considered anything but destructive and relies largely upon the focused concentration of material energies. What does all this tell us about a human being in whom material energies are dominant? Figure 3-1: Material, Vegetal, Animal, Human (MVAH) Figure 3-2: M-Dominant 68 3.2.2 Vegetal Energies Vegetal energies (Figure 3.3) can be associated with the softer parts of the body — the organs, blood, and metabolic systems (Pope, 2007). As ‘Twos’ they are passive, and rely upon engagement with the environment (external stimuli) for nutrients. To get a picture of the impact of the vegetal energy upon the body and our physiological and psychological behaviors, imagine, for an instant, the amount of plant nutrients you have consumed not just daily, but over a lifetime. Pope argues that the job of the vegetal energies: is to keep us alive. If we were knocked unconscious, we would be vastly diminished but still living. We would be reduced to our functioning ‘vegetative’ systems (as they used — very appropriately! — to be called), such as our blood, breathing and metabolic systems. These are controlled and run by the autonomic nervous system, and normally we are unconscious of its functioning. (Pope, 2007, p. 189) Apart from their functions, organs tend to either contract or expand. Vegetal energies have the status of ‘differentiates’ (rather than random wholes, which precede them) and represent pairs, dualities (complementary or symmetrical systems) as well as dynamics between poles or polarities. Above all, the survival mechanism of vegetal energies is competitive and works at expansion of domain (e.g. in the vegetable kingdom through proliferation). Pervasive throughout the human body, they run our autonomic nervous systems. Vegetal energies are also linked to our personal emotions — and the element of water. Pope reminds us that In the interests of Holism remember that Water is also a Two, with the varieties and separate locations of water being metaphors for the differentiated, automatic, cyclic and circular systems that exist in a state of fluctuation at this stage of process. If this is true, then it may be the water in our body that holds the key to our emotional life; if we were injured as children, if we were ‘broken hearted’ by a lover, if we were shattered by the death of a child, then this is where our feelings may have been stored — in the water of our cells. (Pope, 2007, p. 188) Figure 3-3: V-Dominant 69 Vegetal energies, which affect our ‘vegetative systems,’ have also to do with our emotional lives and ‘flight or fight’, or protective, immediate responses to our environment. They may also be associated with forms of energy (Chi, Kee, Qi) described in alternative health practices, meditation and the martial arts, and are studied by masseuses, reflexologists, meditators, and “are what Pak Subuh called the daya-daya tumbuhan, the forces or powers of plants…which Schumacher calls the Life Force” (Pope, 2007, p. 189) Because they are merely ‘immediate responses to stimuli in our environment’, vegetal energies are not associated with consciousness. Vegetal energies are also associated with selfishness and gluttony, especially in the area of food consumption. Curiously, it is a general practice that children are discouraged from over-eating, perhaps in hopes of moderating the habit of selfishness. The effects of food or the lack of it, hoarding, depression era (or any era) food insufficiency, overindulgence, excess, and greed have all been decried in political cartoons or remediated in psychological quarters. And any researcher can find a wealth of materials on the internet about negative feelings and unhealthy foods, or positive feelings and healthy foods, emotional eating, food cravings and whatnot, but more research of the actual effects of specific foods on our emotions is needed. The power of vegetal energies and selfishness extends much further than we imagine: obsession with control of food resources, their growth, distribution and their manipulation, if it is not already the case, will shortly loom as much more important than material pursuits, since everyone knows in times of scarcity — you can’t eat gold. Let us think a little further on the reactive vegetative arena with its range of emotions, moods and feelings in terms of human behavior. While we may be unconscious of the body engaged in its autonomic, regulatory, circulatory functions (which include breathing, blood replenishment, and digestive processes), Schumacher’s plant life force, the m + X combination, works at maintenance and survival of the organic system — at all costs. A body can sometimes be held in an induced coma, commonly termed a vegetative state, indefinitely. Aside from the part played for survival in unconscious functions, energy derived from the vegetal ‘life force’ is primarily reactive and affects our emotions and feelings — as anyone can attest who has reacted to any external stimuli, positively or unfavorably. 70 Here are the intensely alive but blind and automatic, reactive, psychologically defensive behaviors . . . Acting from this energy, people indulge in tit-for-tat. ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.’ Retaliation and revenge are vegetal level reactions, on whatever scale." (Pope, 2007, p. 191) Even though we tend to think of energy supplied by food as nurturing of our physical bodies, we tend to overlook the connections between food and our feelings and the incredible range of resources that food provides (in the area of feelings). The effects of the vegetable level energies, despite the lower proportion of plant-like DNA that humans share with plants, cannot be used as a percentage or measure which represents the powerful effects of vegetal energies. In discussing vegetal energies, I am focusing on their range of impact, derived from the plant kingdom, which runs, environmentally speaking, from the wholly beneficial, healthful and medically life-saving to the poisonous or toxic if used inappropriately, and I am asserting how they are tied to the range of emotions within the human realm of experience. The impact of vegetal energies, not simply those we identify in our environments, is wholly vested in the workings of the human body. Persons may have genes which ‘predispose’ them to certain diseases, but without the influence of vegetal energies (as externals) which prevail in our environments, of two persons with the same genetic receptors for specific diseases, one will, for example, become addicted to a substance while the other may not. This explains the nature versus nurture argument which in the end relies upon a precise combination of internal and contributing external factors in our environments — neither nature nor nurture, both. In other words, vegetal environments bear strongly on vegetal energies which circulate within our bodies. New studies show that vegetal energies play a part in human DNA. Scientists have recently ascertained that vegetal matter forms part of the human genome and forms part of the process of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT). (See Human Genome Includes 'Foreign' Genes not from our Ancestors, 2015; and Crisp & et al, 2015.) Even while the range of emotions falls between extremes, reactions cannot be eradicated from cycling through the human body. And everyone is familiar the state where emotions overtake reason or dominate the imagination! As opposed to the election of an action over a re-action, which may originate from a higher or more complex level of interaction in the animal or human ‘arena’ of the self, Schumacher’s ‘X’ factor as a ‘Two’ is characterized by various dyadic 71 sensitivities: pain-pleasure, joy-despair, or ecstasy-depression, etc. Book II of Aristotle’s Rhetoric includes love-hate, kindness-cruelty, shame-confidence22, friendship-enmity and others in the range of emotions — in all, falling between extremes. Pope connects the vegetable energy to the source of self-esteem (consider your occasional reactions to insults or flattery-hurt feelings, pain or aggression or smiles and feelings of happiness,) and One more thing: on this level our thoughts — influenced by the vegetal energy — can run riot, and fantasy and imagination play havoc in our perceptions of reality. Controlled, they may give us artistic and other creative abilities and even perhaps flashes of genius. (Pope, 2007, p. 191) Because vegetal energies play a part in our autonomous nervous system and are likely sense-based feelings, they may also affect the tone or mood of our unconscious activities or everyday dreams. Currently there exist a number of card games which tell us what our ‘inner animal’ is. It is not such a stretch that eventually there will be games associated with our ‘inner plant’, or to think that the concept of plant nature is altogether foreign. Remember my mention of a short article I read in a newsletter in 1970 by Sudarto Martohudojo entitled the Four States of Marriage? Sudarto was visited regularly by persons from all over the world seeking answers to a wide range of questions, including the more trivial: “What is my animal nature?” He also answered questions about their vegetal natures. (Consider descriptors of plant items: tall, stiff, prickly, flexible, hollow, root systems, etc.) Knowledge about vegetal natures is interwoven with the culture in Indonesia, termed a ‘rice’ or agrarian culture for centuries. Sudarto was able to describe the person’s dominant plant nature (or animal nature) through what he was able to sense or ‘receive’ spontaneously. (He thought my ‘animal energy’ was like that of a squirrel’s — very resourceful and works best when alone, rather than in the company of others. But when watched, will slow down.) I should mention that these were mostly light-hearted speculations, (at least, for Javanese visitors) since it is 22 (…interesting, also, that the higher the level of confidence, the lower the level of shame. All to the good? Not necessarily, for those in favor of the ‘middle way’, which lies somewhere between indulgence and asceticism. 72 conceivable that the way a person ‘puts himself forward’ derives from ingesting (and inheriting) a variety of plant or animal energies and because different energies might serve a person’s processes of growth and development in different stages of life. Although I was familiar with some of his earlier writings, for a short period of time in the late 1980’s, I translated Sudarto’s remarks in sessions with women who came to ask him various questions. Consulted for his wisdom, Sudarto’s comments on the “Four States of Marriage” described how persons are able to recognize the state of their marriage through descriptions of the passions (the Indonesian term is ‘nafsu’) associated with the material, vegetal, animal and human energies. The dynamic of Marriage on the vegetal level was similar to the metaphor of two trees growing in the same yard. Regarding the vegetal nature, he said that the nature of the passion in this level is“[nafsu] amarah” (egoist), egoistic in maintaining its nature. The nature of marriage in this level is from feeling to feeling. Even though the nature of the passion is egoistic, egoistic in maintaining its nature, yet there is a going together, but it is separated. Therefore, there is a feeling of appreciation for each other, and the nature of a quarrel in this level is the natural way of discussion. (personal correspondence, Sudarto Martohudojo, 1971) (Sometimes interminable discussion, I might add.) The Javanese calendar is divided into eight-year cycles called windhus, subdivided into five-day weeks. Successive windhus correlate with ‘the ages of man’ in the life span, the first windhu associated with the exploration of the material world and basic physical behaviors (children being taught to share, not to slap or push each other over); the second, ages 8-16, associated with the vegetal when one ‘eats like a buffalo’; the third associated with development of the animal nature, where the focus on disciplines, social interactions and organization come into play, and the fourth, ages 24-32, associated with development of the human nature when one matures as a young adult. Subsequent windhus are associated with further refinement. I have provided these ‘experiential’ notes as evidence of how some of these cultural understandings are interwoven in the traditional Javanese culture. The word ‘nafsu’ (or passion) defines the type of oil which burns in the lamp. The near-dogged pursuit of happiness where it occurs (again along the continuum of emotional sensitivities and 73 their extremes) can be associated with the vegetal energy with its tendency to polarization: nothing is given up, the pursuit, sometimes unconscious, is maintained as part of the identity. Flight or fight, immediate or interruptive reactions are also the hallmarks of this type of energy. …this re-active vegetal energy brings to us all the self-seeking and ‘me first!’ behaviors not only of plants but of small children, petty chiefs and corporate managers. And, alas, alack, even some prominent leaders and heads of nations today. So, this vegetal energy flowing in and all through us make us (like plants) selfish and competitive. From them we may sometimes be pushy, greedy, and self-seeking. This is the automatic and dualistic ‘I versus Thou’ syndrome, which needless to say is sub-human. We might also mention malicious gossip, which is basically the unconscious attempt to ‘slaughter’ another person or their reputation. Herbert Spencer’s classic phrase about the Darwinian version of evolution as ‘the survival of the fittest’ holds good here. (Pope, 2007, p. 193) I should also mention how the vegetal energies work differently from the animal energies which Pope found in a physiology textbook and which compares vegetative reflexes with the more complex behaviors typical of animal level energies: — although it is actually comparing ‘the nervous system’ with ‘the endocrine’ system. It says: Of the two systems, [the autonomic nervous system] is by far the more rapid acting and complex. Cells of the nervous system communicate by means of electrical signals, which are rapid, specific, and usually cause almost immediate responses…In contrast, the endocrine system typically brings about its effects in a more leisurely way through the activity of hormones released into the blood. (Marieb, 1991: 363 in Pope, 2007, p. 198) In sum, vegetal energies in action within the human being manifest as central to organic welfare and as the source of specific behaviors and feelings. Essentially defensive or self-protective and competitive, vegetal energies are the instinctual, 'first-responders' to external stimuli. The work of these energies is "to maintain us and preserve our health and self-esteem; to keep our physical systems functioning well and our ego pleased and happy" (Pope, 2007, p. 193). Symbolized cosmologically as a Two, and characterized by sensitivity, competitiveness and dualistic ranges of emotion, vegetal energies function within the human being to enable survival at all costs. What does all this tell us about a human being in whom vegetal energies are dominant? 74 3.2.3 Animal Energies Cosmologically a ‘Three’, animal energies (Figure 3.4) are associated with air, traditional harbinger of ‘the winds of change’ whose compound structure affords movement and engagement of integrated parts within the coherent wholeness of the being. The active will and purpose, (i.e. moving on internal motivations rather than external stimuli) and the focusing of the more stable, co-operative and rational behaviors which have effects upon our environment and others has long been a hallmark of the animal kingdom and animal societies. As noted by Pope in an unpublished essay written when she was director of The Institute for Human Values and Culture in Perth, Western Australia, “The third or animal energy is, on the contrary, integrative, organized, instinctive, socially constructive, hierarchic, purposeful, motivated and responsive to internals" (Pope, 2006, p. 6). In directional purpose and in the context of the ‘greater framework’ of the World Pattern and its contents, ‘Threes’ indicate unity and a wholeness greater than the sum of its parts (Pope, 2007, p. 159). Operating as ‘wholes’ at a level of greater complexity and unity, religions, schools, corporations, institutions and the like can also be considered ‘Threes’. Aside from characteristics which pertain strictly to animal behaviors, (and not to plants or materials), ‘Threes’ nevertheless signify Unity in their incorporation and integration of processes of the material, vegetal and animal energies. Within the increasingly complex MVAH framework, the animal energies are equivalent to Schumacher’s ‘Y’ — greater than vegetal while organized within the larger complexity of our species. Whereas the vegetal energies are centered in individualistic, re-active responses (Twos), animal energies reside in our “higher but still natural, social-animal characteristics and talents (Threes)” (Pope, 2007, p. 189). Part of the nature of Threes is coherency in action, where Figure 3-4:A-Dominant 75 movement and purpose are combined, and in coherent ‘wholes’ or centralized forms of organization, typical of what can be seen in religions or other social organizations23. Animal energies are synonymous with higher organizational capacity, where there is a “division of labor …(a) definition of territories, food-seeking, building — and defending — shelters and rearing young” (Pope, 2007, p. 199). I also consider animal behaviors to be linked to environment, or territorial, rather than global…animal behaviors are part of the human complex…though not necessarily behaviors which in sum we might consider strictly human (which I will argue later). Again, animal energies are deployed at a more complex level than those characteristic of plants, which lack the combined capacity of internal motivation and physical movement. Plants do not hollow out burrows for winter, for example. But to focus again on the internal workings of the human being, the animal energies are those which enable us to use our talents if they have been developed, to engage our organizational and social capacities, to be productive or dynamic, and to act upon, rather than to re-act in response to external stimuli. Schumacher’s “y”, the animal level energy, is the organizer, governor and motivator of internal processes which we recognize through our feelings of purpose and through motivations. This energy is characterized by movement, i.e. while we may feel a vegetal impulse to eat, we are not certain to act upon the craving immediately. Once motivated internally, responses are marshalled and activated in “the workings of our muscles and skeleton, the central and aptly named sympathetic nervous system, the endocrine glands and hormones, our sexuality, our intelligence and the integrative powers of the mind” (Pope, 2007, p. 194). These internally motivated responses are not limited to hunger, sex, curiosity, feelings of sympathy, love, protection and care for our immediate circle of family members but to following up normal instincts in social interactions, having purposes, attending to communications and longer-term work patterns, and using rational, purposeful thought. More deliberation characterizes animal energies, than can be attributed to responses of the vegetal energy which are required for immediacies. Coming from a different source of chemical interactions in the body, animal energies do not seem to have the 23 as described previously in the Sifat section 76 same quality as the more ‘automatic,’ sense-based, vegetal responses since, in the first place, the animal energy is used to assess which motivation or purpose is in order, and if necessary, governs by restricting immediate reactions to externals. I tend to associate animal energies with the emergence of ideals which are evident in social or shared behaviors and collective activities — those which are commonly observed in animal groups for purposes of hunting, for example. Animal behaviors, evident in communications and forms of organization which are distinct from self-serving vegetal energies, encompass especially the ‘familiar other’ members of the group. While we have the capacity to nourish our bodies, care for others as well as ideals would not materialize without commonly held objectives. I doubt it is possible for an individual to conceptualize, animate, or actualize an ideal without having consideration of, or communicating or acting in concert with ‘other’ beings. While animal energies originate internally, they are separate from ‘reactions’. Having purpose and acting motivationally often has to do with empathetic, rather than individualistic, reactive behaviors. A hunting group, for example, shares the communally-organized aim of food provision for the group, despite rankings. Thus, because animal behaviors are internally motivated, in addition to being commonly held as purposes, this is where relationships find internal orientations. I believe it is for this reason that Sudarto Martohudojo felt that the nature of a marriage on the animal level is from inner-feeling to inner-feeling. Where you have the emergence of ideals, you also have exponentially increased possibilities for greater outcomes on larger scales between members of groups. These ‘ideal’ animal energies work at the unity and harmony of the
UBC Theses and Dissertations
The world pattern of process Marsden, Rasunah 2019
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