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Signal to noise : a discussion on the value of interactive technology in lighting design for performing… Alfredson, Craig 2018

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		SIGNAL	TO	NOISE:	A	DISCUSSION	ON	THE	VALUE	OF	INTERACTIVE	TECHNOLOGY	IN	LIGHTING	DESIGN	FOR	PERFORMING	ARTS		by	CRAIG	ALFREDSON	B.F.A.,	The	University	of	British	Columbia,	2009		A	THESIS	SUBMITTED	IN	PARTIAL	FULFILLMENT	OF		THE	REQUIREMENTS	FOR	THE	DEGREE	OF			MASTER	OF	FINE	ARTS	in	THE	FACULTY	OF	GRADUATE	AND	POSTDOCTORAL	STUDIES	(Theatre)		THE	UNIVERSITY	OF	BRITISH	COLUMBIA	(Vancouver)			August	2018	©	Craig	Alfredson,	2018		 ii	The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the thesis entitled:   Signal to Noise: A Discussion on the Value of Interactive Technology in Lighting Design  for Performing Arts  submitted by  Craig Alfredson   in partial fulfillment of the requirements for  the degree of  Master of Fine Arts          in   Theatre            Examining Committee:   Robert Gardiner, Professor – Department of Theatre and Film Supervisor  Bradley Powers, Associate Professor – Department of Theatre and Film Supervisory Committee Member  	 		 iii	Abstract		The	goal	of	this	thesis	project	was	to	investigate	(within	the	confines	of	current	technological	limitations)	some	of	the	advantages	and	disadvantages	of	interactive	technology	in	lighting	for	performing	arts	and	compare	it	to	traditional	cue-based	systems.				To	accomplish	this	task,	the	author	designed,	implemented,	and	observed	interactive	lighting	for	two	contemporary	dance	shows.	The	first	show,	with	the	working	title	Signal	to	Noise,	was	devised	with	choreographers	Arash	Khakpour	and	Kelly	McInnes	to	test	various	interactive	technologies	specifically	for	this	thesis	project.			It	was	presented	in	various	forms	between	February	and	April	of	2013.		The	second	show,	Karoshi	by	Shay	Kuebler,	premiered	at	the	Scotiabank	Dance	Centre	in	Vancouver,	B.C.	Canada	on	December	6th,	2012	and	subsequently	toured	around	British	Columbia.				The	results	were	positive	but	limited.		There	is	notable	satisfaction	for	both	the	performers	and	the	audience	when	there	is	a	meaningful	correlation	between	the	action	on	stage	and	the	visual	and	auditory	environment	in	which	it	occurs.		Automating	that	correlation	using	interactive	technology	can	simplify	the	process	for	the	performers	on	stage	and	the	artists	who	create	the	environment.		On	the	other	hand,	the	complexities	of	programming	computer-controlled	interactivity	can	limit	its	usefulness.		As	software	improves,	interactive	technologies	will	become	a	more	valuable	tool	for	the	performing	arts.		 iv		Lay	Summary		This	thesis	report	considers	how	the	use	of	interactive	lighting	technology	in	two	contemporary	dance	performances	affected	the	artistic	outcomes,	and	also	examines	how	the	technologies	affected	the	jobs	of	those	involved	in	creating	the	performances.	The	results	are	positive,	but	current	technology	limits	the	potential.						 		 v	Preface		This	thesis	report	is	based	on	the	original	technological	research	done	in	preparation	for	the	two	aforementioned	productions.		Though	the	work	was	created	in	artistic	collaboration	with	others,	the	conclusions	drawn	in	this	report	are	my	own.		Unless	otherwise	noted,	all	photographs	and	video	stills	contained	in	this	report	were	taken	by	me.				 		 vi	Table	of	Contents	Abstract	............................................................................................................................................................	iii	Lay	Summary	.................................................................................................................................................	iv	Preface	.................................................................................................................................................................	v	Table	of	Contents	.........................................................................................................................................	vi	List	of	Figures	...............................................................................................................................................	vii	Acknowledgements......................................................................................................................................ix	1.	Introduction.................................................................................................................................................1	1.1	Software	options................................................................................................................................2	1.2	Isadora	....................................................................................................................................................4	2.	Signal	to	Noise	............................................................................................................................................8	2.1	Experimentation	.............................................................................................................................	25	2.2	Work-in-progress	Showing	.......................................................................................................	28	2.3	Summation	........................................................................................................................................	30	3.	Karoshi	........................................................................................................................................................	31	3.1	Methods	of	interactivity	..............................................................................................................	37	Audio	track	...........................................................................................................................................	37	Video	track	...........................................................................................................................................	38	Taiko	drums	........................................................................................................................................	39	Smash	booth	........................................................................................................................................	41	Magic	Broom	.......................................................................................................................................	43	4.	Conclusion	.................................................................................................................................................	45	4.1	Stakeholders	.....................................................................................................................................	45	The	Technologist	...............................................................................................................................	45	The	Artistic	Creators	.......................................................................................................................	47	The	Performers	..................................................................................................................................	47	The	Audience	......................................................................................................................................	48	4.2	Moving	forward...............................................................................................................................	49	4.3	Final	Thoughts	.................................................................................................................................	51	References	......................................................................................................................................................	53	Appendices	.....................................................................................................................................................	54	Appendix	1:	Signal	to	Noise	Lighting	Paperwork	...................................................................	54	Appendix	2:	Signal	to	Noise	Isadora	Scene	Examples	..........................................................	55	Appendix	3:	Karoshi	Lighting	Paperwork	..................................................................................	63	Appendix	4:	Karoshi	Isadora	Scene	Examples	.........................................................................	66		 vii	List	of	Figures		Figure	1	–	A	placement	of	various	software	platforms	used	for	projection	design	on	a	scale	of	ease	of	use	and	power/flexibility.		Note	that	this	graph	is	subjective	and	intended	for	illustrative	purposes	only.	....................................................................................................................	3		Figure	2	-	A	simple	scene	in	Troikatronix	Isadora	version	1.3	.............................................................	4		Figure	3	-	Enttec	DMX	USB	Pro	device	for	inputting	and	outputting	DMX	512	protocol	via	a	USB	connection.		Image	courtesy	of	www.enttec.com.	...........................................................................	6		Figure	4	-	Example	of	Isadora	code	for	DMX	lighting	control	via	the	Enttec	USB	DMX	Pro.	..........	7		Figure	5	-	Arash	Khakour	and	Kelly	McInnes	dancing	in	a	work-in-progress	showing	of	Signal	to	Noise.	.......................................................................................................................................................	8		Figure	6	-	Commercially	available	force	sensitive	resistor	(FSR),	approximately	5cm2	photo	courtesy	of	www.adafruit.com	.............................................................................................................	9		Figure	7	-	Store	bought	FSR's	attached	to	a	standard	insole.	..............................................................	10		Figure	8	-	An	XBee	Pro	Series	1	transmitter.	...........................................................................................	11		Figure	9	-	The	Arduino	Fio,	the	XBee	transmitter,	the	voltage	divider	circuit,	and	the	3.7v	lithium	polymer	battery	all	tucked	neatly	inside	a	plastic	case	the	size	of	a	deck	of	cards.....................................................................................................................................................................	12		Figure	10	-	Homemade	force	sensitive	resistor	attached	to	Arduin	Fio	and	lithium-polymer	battery	.....................................................................................................................................................	14		Figure	11	–	Diagram	of	the	circuitry	involved	in	the	homemade	sensors	as	well	as	the	formula	for	calculating	the	resulting	voltage	using	a	voltage	divider	circuit.	.....................................	15		Figure	12	-	Portrait	of	the	author	making	last	minute	costume	repairs	.........................................	17		Figure	13	-	An	intermediate	iteration	of	Arash	Khakpour's	costume.		Note	the	6	visible	sensor	areas	and	the	"brain"	attached	via	a	multi-conductor	cable.	...................................................	18		Figure	14	-	The	"brain"	unit	attached	to	Kelly	McInnes'	final	costume.		Above	the	brain,	the	rectangualr	object	is	a	high	gain	antenna	and	the	small	snap	is	the	negative	(common)	return	wire	for	the	electrical	circuit.	..............................................................................................	19		Figure	15	-	The	base	layer	of	Kelly	McInnes'	final	costume.		Note	the	seven	visible	sensor	areas.	........................................................................................................................................................	20		Figure	16	-	The	middle	(back)	and	outer	(front)	layers	of	Kelly	McInnes'	final	costume.		The	middle	layer	is	Eeonyx	and	the	outer	layer	is	conductive	spandex.	.......................................	21		Figure	17	–	Diagram	of	final	costume	sensors.		The	diagram	shows	only	four	sensors,	though	the	actual	costumes	had	8	sensors	each.	........................................................................................	22			 viii	Figure	18	-	Nearly	completed	final	sensor	prototype,	worn	by	dancer	Kelly	McInnes.		Note	the	outer	shiny	silver	fabric	is	the	fully	conductive	spandex	fabric	and	the	dark	grey	fabric	seen	at	the	sleeves	and	the	neckline	is	the	Eeonyx	force	sensitive	fabric.	...........................	24		Figure	19	-	Dancers	in	a	square	of	projector	light,	the	intensity	of	which	was	controlled	by	the	fabric	sensors.	........................................................................................................................................	25		Figure	20	-	Dancers	in	a	wash	of	LED	light	(video	still).	.......................................................................	26		Figure	21	-	The	contrast	between	the	blue	wash	when	Arash's	shoulders	were	pressed	and	amber	wash	when	Kelly's	shoulders	were	pressed.	...................................................................	27		Figure	22	-	Kelly	McInnes	and	Arash	Khakpour.	....................................................................................	28		Figure	23	-	The	dancers	find	each	other	in	a	field	of	static.	................................................................	29		Figure	24	-	Shay	Kuebler	and	the	dancers	in	Karoshi.	..........................................................................	31		Figure	25	-	Projector	front	lighting	creating	the	effect	of	a	moving	elevator.	...............................	34		Figure	26	–	Dancers	enacting	one	of	the	Subway	scenes	in	Karoshi.	...............................................	35		Figure	27	–	Shay	Kuebler	in	the	opening	scene	of	Karoshi.		A	100	lumen	projector	is	embedded	into	the	computer	monitor	and	a	second	projector	illuminates	him	from	the	front.		The	bulb	in	the	lamp	is	also	controlled	from	the	show-control	computer.	..................................	36		Figure	28	-	The	pulsing	of	the	red	LED	to	the	intensity	of	the	music.	...............................................	37		Figure	29	-	LED	side	lighting	emulating	the	intensity	and	colour	of	the	projection	overlay.	....	38		Figure	30	-	Jason	Overy	on	the	Taiko	drums.		The	light	focused	on	each	drum	skin	was	controlled	via	a	microphone	inside	each	drum.	...........................................................................	39		Figure	31	-	A	piezo	trigger	inside	the	SL	Taiko	drum	was	used	to	advance	to	the	next	lighting	sequence.	.................................................................................................................................................	40		Figure	32	-	Shay	Kuebler	inside	the	custom	made	smash	booth.	......................................................	41		Figure	33	-	The	Taiko	drums	and	the	smashing	of	plates	created	a	sonic	and	visual	duet.		All	the	lighting	in	the	scene	was	controlled	by	the	audio	intensity	of	the	three	sources.	.......	42		Figure	34	-	A	9-degree-of-freedom	inertial	movement	chip	(image	courtesy	sparkfun.com)	..	43		Figure	35	-	Example	of	Isadora	code	for	communication	between	the	broom	and	the	lighting	system.	.....................................................................................................................................................	44		Figure	36	-	"Drunk	Rag"	scene	in	Karoshi.	...............................................................................................	46		Figure	37	–	Isadora	screen	shots	of	the	same	"Drunk	Rag"	scene	in	Karoshi.		Notice	when	the	‘freq	5’	surpasses	the	threshold	of	5,	the	gate	is	opened	and	values	are	sent	to	the	LED	lighting	fixtures.	....................................................................................................................................	46			 ix	Acknowledgements		I	would	like	to	thank	choreographers	Shay	Kuebler,	Arash	Khakpour	and	Kelly	McInnes	for	sharing	their	creative	vision	with	me	and	allowing	me	to	use	our	collaboration	as	a	research	vehicle	for	this	thesis	project.		I	would	also	like	to	thank	Robert	Gardiner	and	Bradley	Powers	for	their	patience	in	allowing	me	the	time	I	needed	to	finish	this	thesis	report.		 		 1	1.	Introduction		Performance	is	an	art	form	that	has	existed	for	thousands	of	years,	and	as	long	as	it	has	been	presented	in	an	organized	fashion,	practitioners	have	used	technology	to	augment	their	performances.		Theatres	in	Roman	times	used	devices	such	as	the	deus	ex	machina	to	simulate	acts	of	the	gods,	concert	halls	and	opera	houses	of	the	18th	and	19th	century	used	candles	and	gas	lighting	to	create	lighting	effects,	and	theatre	artists	of	the	21st	century	use	modern	technology	and	computers	to	create	complex	scenography	and	lighting	for	the	stage.		In	modern	day	scripted	performances	such	as	theatre,	dance	and	opera,	theatre	technicians	operate	the	lighting	and	sound	effects	as	a	series	of	cues.		Changes	to	lighting	and	sound	are	programmed	as	a	sequential	list	of	“cues”	and	then	played	back	during	the	performance.		Though	modern	technology	can	allow	for	very	complex	sequences	of	cues,	the	relationship	between	performer	and	technician	is	reactionary;	the	performer	performs	on	the	stage	and	the	technician	advances	the	cues	in	reaction	to	their	performance.		In	an	“interactive”	system,	the	performer	would	directly	trigger	the	sound	and	lighting	(and	other	technology),	replacing	pre-recorded	cues	with	computer	systems	capable	of	“reading”	and	“interpreting”	the	performer’s	speech	and/or	movements,	changing	the	lighting,	sound,	and	other	elements	in	a	more	improvisational	way	(although	following	pre-determined	rules).		The	current	practice	of	constructing	cues	as	a	series	of	distinct	recorded	events	would	be	replaced	by	a	continual		 2	interaction	between	a	performer	and	a	computer	resulting	in	changes	to	the	lighting	and	sound	without	the	need	for	a	human	technician.				Though	the	use	of	interactive	technology	in	performing	arts	is	still	in	its	infancy,	it	shows	great	potential.		This	thesis	project	was	undertaken	to	explore	some	of	the	advantages	and	disadvantages	of	using	interactive	technology	over	the	best	available	cue-based	technology	in	scripted	performance	such	as	theatre	or	choreographed	dance.		To	accomplish	this,	I	studied	two	shows	for	which	I	acted	as	designer	and	technologist.		For	each	show,	I	had	creative	control	over	some	or	all	of	the	technological	aspects	and	used	interactive	technology	as	much	as	was	possible	within	the	confines	of	the	budget	and	overall	artistic	direction.		1.1	Software	options	Many	different	software	platforms	are	currently	available	to	control	theatrical	technology,	and	all	of	them	have	their	strengths	and	weaknesses.		Figure	1	shows	a	spectrum	of	software	platforms	commonly	used	for	projection	design	(as	an	example),	though	most	can	be	used	to	control	other	theatrical	elements	as	well,	such	as	lighting	or	sound.		Many	have	the	ability	to	control	interactivity,	though	some	are	designed	purely	as	linear	or	cue-based	systems.		These	various	systems	have	been	placed	on	the	graph	according	to	their	ease	of	use	and	their	power	and	flexibility.		“Ease	of	use”	is	a	very	subjective	term.		For	the	sake	of	this	graph,	I	have	defined	it	as	referring	to	the	complexity	of	creating	a	cue	or	event,	assuming	the	creator	is	fluent	in	the	given	software.		“Power	and	flexibility”	refers	to	the	number	of	options,		 3	features,	and	effects	that	the	software	might	possess.		The	resulting	graph	highlights	the	fact	that	there	is	a	definite	correlation	between	the	two	criteria.		The	more	powerful	and	complex	a	software	platform,	the	more	complicated	(and	therefore	time-consuming)	it	will	be	to	use.		Note	again	in	Figure	1	that	the	upper	right	quadrant	is	mostly	blank.		The	“Holy	Grail”	software	that	is	both	easy	to	use	and	highly	powerful	and	flexible	does	not	yet	exist.				Figure	1	–	A	placement	of	various	software	platforms	used	for	projection	design	on	a	scale	of	ease	of	use	and	power/flexibility.		Note	that	this	graph	is	subjective	and	intended	for	illustrative	purposes	only.				 4	1.2	Isadora	The	software	platform	that	I	chose	to	use	for	my	thesis	project	is	Isadora	version	1.3	by	Troikatronix	(the	latest	release	at	the	time).		It	is	not	the	most	powerful	software	platform	available,	nor	is	it	the	easiest	to	use,	but	it	was	able	to	accomplish	what	I	needed	without	excessive	programming	time.		Isadora	is	a	node-based	visual	programming	environment	designed	and	built	by	Mark	Coniglio	for	interactive	dance	performance.		It	has	the	ability	to	control	lighting,	sound,	and	projection	elements,	as	well	as	communicate	with	other	systems	via	many	different	protocols,	such	as	MIDI	and	RS232	(serial).		A	software	development	kit	is	available	to	extend	the	current	usability,	and	I	have	direct	communication	with	the	creator	to	troubleshoot	any	issues	that	may	occur.		Figure	2	-	A	simple	scene	in	Troikatronix	Isadora	version	1.3		 5	Isadora	allows	the	user	to	build	complex	events	using	smaller	blocks,	or	nodes	in	a	graphical	user	interface.	Mark	Cognilio	has	given	wonderfully	descriptive	names	to	these	nodes.	They	are	called	“actors”,	which	perform	in	“scenes”	(the	canvas	on	which	they	are	placed	and	connected)	and	then	are	projected	in	front	of	an	audience	on	one	or	multiple	“stages”	(the	outputs	to	the	literal	projectors	or	screens).		Each	actor	has	various	inputs	and	outputs	and	each	input	or	output	has	a	data	type	–	either	a	media	stream	(video	or	audio),	or	a	number	(integer,	float,	binary,	etc).		Each	actor,	depending	on	its	purpose,	takes	the	media	or	value	at	its	input,	affects	it	in	some	way,	and	then	outputs	the	affected	media	or	value.		With	hundreds	of	different	actors	with	different	purposes,	which	can	be	connected	in	thousands	of	different	ways,	the	resulting	outcomes	are	practically	limitless.		A	key	feature	of	Isadora	is	that	information	from	the	outside	world	can	be	relayed	to	Isadora	as	a	numerical	value	and	used	to	control	lighting,	projections,	sound,	or	any	other	system.		For	example,	in	Signal	to	Noise	I	had	sensors	connected	to	an	Arduino	Fio	boards	communicating	to	Isadora	via	an	RS-232	serial	connection,	giving	me	a	value	range	of	0	to	1023.		Within	Isadora	I	am	able	to	connect	that	value	to	anything	else	that	inputs	a	numerical	value,	such	as	the	intensity	of	a	specific	light,	or	the	opacity	of	a	video	projection,	or	the	location	of	the	playback	head	on	an	audio	track.		Similarly,	I	could	take	an	audio	input	from	a	microphone	and	use	the	magnitude	of	the	sound	wave,	or	the	peak	frequency,	as	a	numerical	input.		Or	I	could	take	a	video	input	from	a	camera	and	isolate	the	overall	brightness,	or	the	brightness	of	just	one	colour,	or	just	one	pixel,	and	convert	it	to	a	numerical	value.				 6	Of	equal	importance	is	the	ability	to	output	information	to	the	various	systems	that	are	used	in	a	theatrical	environment.		The	ability	to	output	audio	is	straight	forward,	via	either	the	headphone	jack	on	the	computer	or	any	audio	interface	that	may	be	attached.		Likewise,	sending	video	to	externally	attached	monitors	or	projectors	is	relatively	simple.		The	ability	to	output	data	to	the	lighting	system	was	initially	more	problematic.		The	software	included	some	rudimentary	connectivity	to	allow	Isadora	to	communicate	with	DMX-512	–	the	standard	protocol	used	for	theatrical	lighting	–	but	its	scope	was	quite	limited.		Control	of	stage	lights	was	important	if	Isadora	software	was	to	be	a	viable	choice	for	the	projects	I	wanted	to	undertake,	so	prior	to	embarking	on	my	thesis	project	I	worked	with	Mark	Coniglio	to	develop	a	better	way	for	Isadora	to	communicate	with	DMX,	using	standard	serial	protocol	and	an	open	source	interface	called	the	Enttec	USB	DMX	Pro.				Figure	3	-	Enttec	DMX	USB	Pro	device	for	inputting	and	outputting	DMX	512	protocol	via	a	USB	connection.		Image	courtesy	of	www.enttec.com.		 7		Though	lighting,	sound,	and	video	are	the	main	technical	elements	that	I	needed	to	control,	other	theatre	systems,	such	as	stage	automation,	could	also	be	controlled	using	similar	interfaces	and	protocols.	While	Isadora	is	not	the	only	software	platform	that	can	accomplish	all	of	these	tasks,	it	also	had	an	attractive	price-point	and	had	the	advantage	that	I	was	already	familiar	with	it.		For	all	of	these	reasons,	it	became	clear	that	it	was	the	best	choice	of	control	software	for	my	purposes.		Figure	4	-	Example	of	Isadora	code	for	DMX	lighting	control	via	the	Enttec	USB	DMX	Pro.		 8	2.	Signal	to	Noise		The	first	performance	piece	for	this	thesis	was	a	contemporary	dance	piece	with	the	working	title	Signal	to	Noise.		For	this	project,	I	invited	two	emerging	choreographers,	Arash	Khakpour	and	Kelly	McInnes,	to	dance	and	choreograph	movement	that	would	serve	as	the	vessel	for	my	technological	research.		Most	of	the	development	and	initial	work-in-progress	showings	for	this	piece	were	done	at	the	Dorothy	Somerset	Studio	at	the	Point	Grey	Campus	of	the	University	of	British	Columbia.					Figure	5	-	Arash	Khakour	and	Kelly	McInnes	dancing	in	a	work-in-progress	showing	of	Signal	to	Noise.			 9	Signal	to	Noise	focused	on	a	single	interactive	element,	that	of	touch	and	feel.		Though	touch	and	haptic	sensors	are	becoming	more	and	more	present	in	today’s	society	(for	example,	touch	screens	on	phones),	they	have	seen	little	use	in	performing	arts.		Touch	interaction	is	a	very	important	tool	for	dancers	to	communicate	to	one	another	non-verbally.		For	instance,	in	the	dance	form	known	as	touch-improv,	dancers	move	in	groups	of	two	or	more	and	create	improvised	dance	based	on	the	way	that	their	bodies	touch	and	interact.	Dancers	take	cues	from	each	other	based	on	the	location	and	force	of	touch	and	create	complex	movement	structures	without	any	verbal	communication.				It	is	important	to	make	the	distinction	that	a	meaningful	touch	interaction	is	more	than	a	simple	contact/no	contact	structure	and	therefore	I	required	a	sensor	that	was	more	than	a	binary	on/off	switch.		In	order	to	collect	meaningful	data,	I	elected	to	us	force	sensitive	resistors	(FSR’s).				Figure	6	-	Commercially	available	force	sensitive	resistor	(FSR),	approximately	5cm2	photo	courtesy	of	www.adafruit.com		 10	These	resistors,	which	are	commercially	available	in	various	sizes,	have	a	measurable	electrical	resistance	that	changes	depending	on	how	much	physical	pressure	(force)	is	being	applied	to	them.		They	have	many	commercial	uses,	such	as	electronic	scales	and	musical	instruments.		In	order	to	collect	locational	data,	it	was	necessary	to	use	many	of	these	FSR’s	in	various	locations	on	the	body.		For	the	first	iteration	of	my	research,	I	opted	to	use	four	FSR’s	located	on	a	dancer’s	feet	–	one	on	each	of	the	heels	and	one	on	each	of	the	balls	of	the	feet.				Figure	7	-	Store	bought	FSR's	attached	to	a	standard	insole.		Next,	I	used	Arduino	micro-processors	to	measure	the	electrical	resistance	of	the	FSR’s	and	convert	it	to	useful	data	that	I	could	interpret.		Arduino	is	an	open-source	collection	of	microprocessors	that	have	multiple	inputs	and	outputs	for	interfacing	real-world	devices	(such	as	FSR’s),	an	easy	to	use	C-based	programming	language,	and	serial	and	USB	connections	for	communication.		This	proved	to	be	an	ideal	solution	because	it	could	easily	translate	the	resistance	of	the	FSR’s	into	serial	data		 11	that	I	could	then	input	into	Isadora.		Once	in	Isadora,	the	data	was	available	for	me	to	monitor	and	use	as	needed.		Because	the	dancers	needed	full	freedom	of	movement,	I	opted	to	use	a	specific	Arduino	board	called	a	Fio	along	with	an	Xbee	wireless	transmitter.		The	Fio	board	uses	the	same	programming	language	as	other	Arduino	boards	and	was	specifically	designed	to	hold	the	Xbee	transmitter.			Figure	8	-	An	XBee	Pro	Series	1	transmitter.		The	Xbee	uses	2.4Ghz	transmissions	to	communicate	with	a	receiver	that	connects	to	a	computer’s	USB	port.		This	allowed	me	to	collect	serial	data	from	the	Fio	board	as	if	it	was	physically	connected	to	the	computer;	there	was	no	discernable	latency.		The	Fio	board	has	8	analogue	(voltage	measuring)	inputs,	meaning	I	could	have	up	to	8	FSR’s	on	a	dancer	and	get	discreet	measurements	from	each	of	them.		The	Fio	board	and	the	Xbee	tramsmitter	were	powered	by	a	small	3.7v	lithium	polymer	battery.		 12		Figure	9	-	The	Arduino	Fio,	the	XBee	transmitter,	the	voltage	divider	circuit,	and	the	3.7v	lithium	polymer	battery	all	tucked	neatly	inside	a	plastic	case	the	size	of	a	deck	of	cards.		The	FSR’s	have	variable	resistance	and	the	Arduino	Flo	measures	variance	in	voltage,	so	I	used	a	voltage	divider	circuit	to	output	a	variable	voltage	based	on	the	ratio	of	two	resistors.	One	of	the	resistors	was	the	FSR,	so	the	ratio	of	the	resistance	of	the	FSR	to	a	fixed-value	resistor	gave	a	measurable	voltage	with	a	proportional	relationship	to	physical	pressure	applied	to	the	FSR.			We	quickly	found	that	the	data	that	was	collected	from	the	four	FSR’s	placed	under	the	dancer’s	feet	was	not	particularly	interesting	or	useful.		Since	contemporary	dance	is	not	particularly	step-based,	and	it	involves	a	lot	of	movement	where	the	dancers	are	not	on	their	feet,	the	foot	sensors	gave	a	rather	incomplete	view	of	the	dancing,	and	any	interaction	between	dancers	wasn’t	captured.		So	we	took	the		 13	same	four	FSR’s	and	tape	them	to	various	points	on	the	dancers’	bodies.		This	provided	stronger	and	more	interesting	data,	but	the	store-bought	FSR’s,	which	came	in	various	sizes	from	about	1cm	diameter	to	5cm	squares,	were	either	too	small	or	not	pliable	enough	to	conform	to	the	dancers’	bodies.		I	began	to	research	methods	of	creating	my	own	force	sensitive	resistors	that	were	both	larger	and	more	pliable.		FSR’s	are	made	up	of	three	layers.		The	top	and	bottom	layer	are	fully	conductive	material,	and	the	layer	in	the	middle	is	the	special	pressure-sensitive	layer.		Finding	material	that	was	fully	conductive,	pliable,	and	came	in	useful	sizes,	was	fairly	straightforward.		Finding	material	that	had	pressure	sensitive	resistive	properties	was	more	of	a	challenge,	but	I	discovered	a	company	in	California	called	Eeonyx	that	made	a	stretchy	spandex-like	fabric	with	this	very	property.		I	also	found	a	very	common	and	cheap	material	used	as	anti-static	packaging	for	sensitive	electronics	that	also	has	this	property.		The	Eeonyx	fabric	was	expensive	and	needed	to	be	shipped	from	California,	but	I	ordered	a	sample	and	also	procured	a	large	roll	of	anti-static	sheeting	from	a	local	supplier	to	start	building	my	own	sensors.		The	first	prototypes	of	my	sensors	were	approximately	12cm	squares.		The	fully	conductive	layers	were	nylon	fabric	purchased	from	a	company	called	Less	EMF.		(There	is	apparently	a	market	for	conductive	clothing	because	some	believe	it	protects	one	from	radiation	in	a	manner	similar	to	wearing	a	tinfoil	hat).		Between	the	two	layers	of	conductive	nylon,	I	placed	a	piece	of	anti-static	sheet.		I	made	this		 14	middle	layer	slightly	larger	to	avoid	the	two	nylon	layers	touching	directly	and	causing	a	short	circuit.	I	then	sewed	a	wire	lead	onto	each	of	the	nylon	layers	using	conductive	thread	(also	from	Less	EMF),	to	eventually	connect	to	a	voltage	divider	circuit	and	the	Arduino	Fio.		Finally,	I	covered	the	entire	sensor	with	two	iron-on	clothing	repair	patches	to	protect	the	sensor	and	prevent	any	accidental	short-circuiting	or	electric	shock	to	the	dancers.		Figure	10	-	Homemade	force	sensitive	resistor	attached	to	Arduin	Fio	and	lithium-polymer	battery		At	this	point	some	experimentation	was	required	to	match	the	resistance	range	of	the	new	sensor	with	the	static	resistor	in	the	voltage	divider	circuitry.		Figure	9	shows	the	diagram	of	how	the	new	homemade	sensors	worked.		For	our	sensors,	the		 15	voltage	in	was	3.7V,	supplied	by	a	small	lithium	polymer	battery.		Since	it	was	hard	to	directly	measure	the	resistance	range	of	the	anti-static	sheet	(R1),	I	paired	it	with	many	different	static	resistors	(R2)	until	the	output	was	a	suitable	range.		I	found	using	a	2000-ohm	resistor	worked	best.		If	no	pressure	was	being	applied	to	the	sensor,	the	resistance	of	the	anti-static	sheet	was	very	close	to	infinite,	resulting	in	a	voltage	out	that	was	very	close	to	zero.		When	medium	pressure	was	applied	to	the	sensor,	the	resistance	ranged	between	1000	and	5000	ohms.		Using	2000	ohms	for	easy	calculations,	the	voltage	out	would	be	half	of	the	voltage	in	(1.85V).		Hypothetically,	if	enough	pressure	were	applied	to	the	sensor,	the	resistance	would	reach	zero,	then	the	voltage	out	would	equal	the	voltage	in	(3.7V).		This	gave	the	sensor	an	overall	voltage	range	of	0V	to	3.7V,	depending	on	the	pressure	applied.		Figure	11	–	Diagram	of	the	circuitry	involved	in	the	homemade	sensors	as	well	as	the	formula	for	calculating	the	resulting	voltage	using	a	voltage	divider	circuit.		When	the	voltage	out	was	connected	to	one	of	the	analogue	inputs	on	the	Arduino	board,	the	Arduino	would	compare	that	voltage	to	its	baseline	voltage	(also	3.7V)		 16	and	output	a	number	between	0	and	1023.		When	no	pressure	was	being	applied	to	the	sensor	and	the	voltage	out	was	zero,	the	Arduino	output	was	also	zero.		When	medium	pressure	was	being	applied	to	the	sensor,	the	Arduino	output	was	between	400	and	600.		I	could	not	manually	apply	enough	pressure	to	get	the	Arduino	to	output	the	full	1023	(equivalent	to	3.7Vout),	so	there	was	an	effective	usable	range	of	about	0	to	800.		These	homemade	FSR	pads	proved	to	be	quite	useful.		We	were	able	to	tape	them	to	various	points	on	the	body	to	discover	which	locations	provided	the	most	interesting	data.		The	pads	themselves	were	fairly	robust	and	held	up	well	when	the	dancers	were	moving,	but	the	wires	connecting	the	pads	to	the	Arduino	pack	kept	breaking.		Because	the	wires	had	no	way	to	stretch,	when	the	dancers	started	doing	more	dynamic	movement,	the	tension	on	the	wires	eventually	led	to	failure.		There	were	two	skills	that	I	became	quite	good	at	–	sewing	and	soldering.		I	sometimes	even	did	repairs	while	the	sensors	and	packs	were	still	attached	to	the	dancers,	in	order	to	quickly	continue	experimenting.					 17		Figure	12	-	Portrait	of	the	author	making	last	minute	costume	repairs		Although	I	had	great	success	with	the	first	prototype	of	the	homemade	sensors,	it	was	clear	that	a	new	strategy	was	required.		My	second	(and	final)	iteration	of	the	homemade	sensors	was	a	radical	departure	from	all	of	my	earlier	attempts.		This	was	made	possible	by	the	arrival	of	the	samples	of	Eeonyx	fabric,	as	well	as	the	fully	conductive	spandex	material	(from	Less	EMF).		From	our	experiments	with	the	previous	design,	we	had	found	that	many	sensors	dispersed	throughout	the	body	gave	us	the	best	results.		However	for	simplicity,	I	decided	to	concentrate	on	the		 18	upper	body,	which	allowed	us	to	be	conservative	with	the	expensive	fabrics.		Since	the	Arduino	sensors	allowed	for	8	analogue	inputs	each,	I	decided	to	place	8	sensors	on	each	of	the	dancers.		Kelly	had	one	on	each	shoulder,	one	on	each	arm,	one	under	each	armpit,	one	on	the	stomach	and	one	on	the	lower	back.		Arash	had	one	on	each	shoulder,	one	under	each	armpit,	two	on	his	stomach	and	two	on	his	back.		Figure	13	-	An	intermediate	iteration	of	Arash	Khakpour's	costume.		Note	the	6	visible	sensor	areas	and	the	"brain"	attached	via	a	multi-conductor	cable.		 19	For	the	new	design,	instead	of	building	stand-alone	sensors	that	attached	to	the	bodies	or	the	costumes,	I	fully	integrated	the	sensors	into	the	costumes	themselves.		This	design	consisted	of	three	shirts	worn	one	on	top	of	the	other.		The	base	layer	consists	of	a	standard	cotton	t-shirt,	on	which	were	sewn	8	patches	of	the	fully	conductive	material	–	one	patch	at	each	of	the	sensor	locations.		Small	“tracks”	of	the	conductive	spandex	were	also	sewn	from	each	of	the	sensors	to	a	central	location	at	the	fringe	of	the	t-shirt	near	the	left	hip.		These	spandex	strips	replaced	the	copper	wires	used	in	the	first	iteration,	and	allowed	much	more	freedom	of	movement	without	fear	of	breaking	the	circuit.			Figure	14	-	The	"brain"	unit	attached	to	Kelly	McInnes'	final	costume.		Above	the	brain,	the	rectangualr	object	is	a	high	gain	antenna	and	the	small	snap	is	the	negative	(common)	return	wire	for	the	electrical	circuit.		 20	At	the	end	of	these	“tracks”,	I	sewed	a	multi-conductor	connector	that	allowed	a	quick	disconnect.		From	there,	wires	ran	to	the	Arduino	Fio	and	battery	pack,	which	were	kept	in	a	small	plastic	case	about	the	size	of	a	deck	of	cards.		This	case	could	be	kept	in	the	pants	pocket	or	attached	via	elastic	to	the	dancer’s	leg.		The	Fio	transmitted	data	wirelessly	to	the	control	computer,	which	was	sent	into	Isadora	as	RS-232	serial	data.		Figure	15	-	The	base	layer	of	Kelly	McInnes'	final	costume.		Note	the	seven	visible	sensor	areas.		 21	The	second	layer	of	the	costume	consisted	of	another	full	shirt	made	entirely	of	the	Eeonyx	fabric.		This	shirt	covered	the	first	shirt	and	the	8	sensors	completely.		The	third	layer	was	yet	another	shirt,	this	time	sewn	from	the	fully	conductive	spandex	material.		Again	this	shirt	fully	covered	the	Eeonix	layer,	with	careful	attention	made	so	that	at	no	point	would	this	layer	touch	any	of	the	8	patches	on	the	under-layer	directly.		This	top	layer	was	connected	to	the	battery	pack	via	a	wire	and	snap	connector	to	complete	the	circuit.				Figure	16	-	The	middle	(back)	and	outer	(front)	layers	of	Kelly	McInnes'	final	costume.		The	middle	layer	is	Eeonyx	and	the	outer	layer	is	conductive	spandex.		 22	The	full	circuit	worked	like	this:		Positive	voltage	from	the	battery	passed	to	the	outer	layer	shirt,	which	was	insulated	from	the	body	and	sensors	by	the	Eeonyx	fabric.		However,	wherever	there	was	a	sensor	pad	on	the	under-layer	shirt,	electricity	would	pass	through	the	Eeonyx	fabric	and	connect	to	the	sensor	pad	underneath,	with	various	resistance	measurements	based	on	how	much	pressure	was	put	on	the	sensor	pad.		Each	of	the	sensor	pads	was	attached	to	a	different	voltage	divider	circuit	that	fed	an	analogue	input	on	the	Arduino.				Figure	17	–	Diagram	of	final	costume	sensors.		The	diagram	shows	only	four	sensors,	though	the	actual	costumes	had	8	sensors	each.		 23	This	arrangement	allowed	for	8	distinct	pressure	measurements	using	only	one	large	layer	of	the	Eeonyx	fabric.		There	was	no	noticeable	cross	talk	between	the	different	circuits	in	the	system.				The	other	advantage	to	this	system	is	that	the	outer	layer,	though	made	of	a	specific	fabric,	could	be	styled	to	match	the	aesthetics	of	the	piece.		All	of	the	sensors	and	inner-workings	of	the	circuitry	were	hidden	underneath	layers	of	fabric,	and	because	all	of	the	sensors	were	made	of	fabric,	there	was	no	bulkiness	or	awkward	movement	of	the	fabric.		The	sensors	virtually	disappeared.		If	desired,	the	inverse	could	also	be	fabricated,	where	the	inner	layer	is	the	full	conductive	layer.		The	patches	could	then	be	sewn	on	the	inside	of	any	costume	material,	hiding	the	entirety	of	the	sensor	array.				 24		Figure	18	-	Nearly	completed	final	sensor	prototype,	worn	by	dancer	Kelly	McInnes.		Note	the	outer	shiny	silver	fabric	is	the	fully	conductive	spandex	fabric	and	the	dark	grey	fabric	seen	at	the	sleeves	and	the	neckline	is	the	Eeonyx	force	sensitive	fabric.		 25	2.1	Experimentation	Having	made	complete	and	fairly	robust	costumes	with	integrated	sensors,	we	were	able	to	experiment	with	the	information	we	could	obtain	from	the	system.		To	begin,	I	connected	four	of	the	sensors	to	the	brightness	of	four	lights	in	four	quadrants	of	the	stage.		The	dancers	were	immediately	engaged	and	fascinated	by	the	way	that	they	could	“play”	their	bodies	almost	like	musical	instruments.		Direct	control	over	the	lighting	of	their	environment	was	a	foreign	idea	to	them.		However,	controlling	the	brightness	of	the	lights	didn’t	really	enhance	the	interaction	happening	on	stage.		In	effect,	it	just	replaced	the	operator	at	the	lighting	board	with	the	operator	who	was	a	dancer	on	stage.		The	connections	between	the	locations	of	the	sensors	on	the	body	and	the	location	of	the	quadrants	on	the	stage	was	arbitrary	and	didn’t	tell	a	meaningful	story.		Figure	19	-	Dancers	in	a	square	of	projector	light,	the	intensity	of	which	was	controlled	by	the	fabric	sensors.		 26	For	the	second	experiment,	I	took	seven	sensors	and	connected	each	to	one	of	seven	available	colours	in	an	array	of	LED	lighting	fixtures.		This	allowed	the	dancers	to	give	some	information	about	the	“intent”	of	touch.		For	instance,	a	touch	on	the	shoulder	is	cold	and	impersonal	and	therefore	blue,	whereas	a	touch	on	the	stomach	is	very	intimate,	and	therefore	red.		It	was	still	a	little	arbitrary,	but	finally	we	were	getting	somewhere	by	suggesting	intent	through	the	relationship	between	touch	and	colour.					Figure	20	-	Dancers	in	a	wash	of	LED	light	(video	still).		For	the	third	experiment,	I	connected	all	the	sensors	on	the	male	dancer	to	the	brightness	of	a	set	of	amber	top	lights,	and	all	the	sensors	on	the	female	dancer	to	the	brightness	of	a	set	of	blue	top	lights.		This	combination	resulted	in	a	very	interesting	impression	of	who	was	dominant	at	any	point	in	the	dance.		Typically,	when	the	male	dancer	was	in	control	or	dominating	the	movement,	he	was	putting	pressure	on	the	sensors	of	the	female	dancer’s	costume,	turning	the	playing	space	blue.		Likewise,	when	the	female	dancer	was	in	control,	she	was	pressing	the	sensors	on	the	male	dancer’s	costume,	turning	the	space	amber.		This	was	very	engaging.		It	was	amazing	at	how	subtly	and	quickly	this	dominance	changed.		It	didn’t	always		 27	work,	but	by	following	a	few	basic	choreographic	rules,	the	dancers	were	able	to	convey	a	very	telling	story.		Figure	21	-	The	contrast	between	the	blue	wash	when	Arash's	shoulders	were	pressed	and	amber	wash	when	Kelly's	shoulders	were	pressed.	For	the	final	work-in-progress	showing,	elements	of	all	of	these	experiments	were	employed.		I	maintained	the	area	top	washes	of	blue	and	amber	light,	as	well	as	the	concept	of	quadrants.		The	seven-colour	LED	fixtures	were	mounted	in	a	circular	array	around	the	stage.		I	also	employed	the	use	of	two	projectors	and	an	X-Box	Kinect	sensor.		One	projector	was	placed	directly	over	the	stage	pointing	straight	down,	the	other	was	over	the	audience,	covering	the	entire	stage	area	and	the	back	wall.		The	Kinect	sensor,	which	gives	the	ability	to	track	objects	in	three-dimensional	space,	I	placed	directly	over	the	stage	next	to	the	projector.		This	way	I	could	extrapolate	X/Y	coordinate	data	relating	to	the	dancers	positions	on	stage,	as	well	as	Z	data,	which	told	me	how	high	the	dancers	were	above	the	stage	floor.		 28	2.2	Work-in-progress	Showing	The	piece,	which	I	gave	the	working	title	“Signal	to	Noise”,	started	in	a	sea	of	TV	static	(created	by	the	two	projectors).		The	two	dancers,	unaware	of	each	other’s	presence,	writhed	around	on	stage.		Whenever	they	moved	or	lifted	themselves	off	of	the	floor	(as	measured	by	the	Kinect	sensor),	snippets	of	radio	or	TV	broadcasts	would	emerge	from	the	static.		Eventually	they	found	each	other,	and	working	as	a	team,	they	were	able	to	find	stronger	broadcasts	to	help	them	to	better	interpret	the	“world”	in	which	they	existed.	Figure	22	-	Kelly	McInnes	and	Arash	Khakpour.		Next,	the	world	transitioned	into	four	quadrants.		As	the	dancers	connected	and	separated,	they	contorted	their	bodies	to	try	and	find	each	other	in	the	space.		As	they	separated,	they	found	themselves	back	in	the	static	where	they	began.		Each		 29	time	they	found	each	other,	their	connection	grew	allowing	them	to	find	each	other	faster	and	faster.		Figure	23	-	The	dancers	find	each	other	in	a	field	of	static.		 30	As	their	bond	grew,	they	began	to	explore	emotion	and	the	touch	that	connected	them.		Each	touch	connected	to	a	specific	emotion	and	colour	of	light.		The	movement	became	more	and	more	frantic	as	anger	and	violent	emotions	dominated.		Eventually,	they	lost	control	of	their	emotions	and	they	were	thrown	around	in	a	chaos	of	light	and	sound.		It	all	came	to	a	peak	and	then	crashed	down	to	a	bare	stage	with	no	interaction	at	all.		As	they	tried	to	rebuild	and	reconnect,	the	stage	stayed	visually	barren.		Eventually,	they	found	their	emotions	again	and	started	dancing	as	a	couple.		The	connections	were	intensified	by	the	colours	that	each	of	the	dancers	controlled.		The	light	was	also	able	to	hone	in	and	focus	on	them	(via	X/Y	tracking	of	the	Kinect),	further	enforcing	the	fact	that	they	were	in	control	of	their	environment.		Finally,	they	were	left	in	static,	as	in	the	beginning,	but	now	in	a	place	of	knowing	and	accepting,	unlike	before.		2.3	Summation	Though	this	piece	was	never	developed	beyond	its	work-in-progress	stage,	it	was	still	a	success	in	terms	of	fulfilling	the	research	goals	of	this	thesis	project.	It	managed	to	show	that	using	interactive	technology	is	a	viable	method	to	create	artistically	valid	work,	and	that	sometimes	emotional	connection	can	be	better	expressed	using	this	method	rather	than	using	traditional	cue-based	methods.			 31	3.	Karoshi			Figure	24	-	Shay	Kuebler	and	the	dancers	in	Karoshi.	The	second	part	of	my	thesis	project	was	a	dance	piece	choreographed	by	Shay	Kuebler.		The	piece	is	titled	Karoshi,	which	translates	roughly	from	Japanese	as	“death	by	overwork”.		This	title	was	more	than	apt,	given	the	amount	of	work	myself,	Shay,	and	the	dancers	put	into	it.		The	piece	premiered	in	Vancouver,	BC	at	the	Scotiabank	Dance	Centre	in	December	2012.		My	focus	for	this	piece	was	slightly	different	than	for	Signal	to	Noise.	Where	for	that	piece	my	main	purpose	was	to	explore	the	capabilities	of	technology,	for	Karoshi	the	focus	was	to	create	a	full-length	work	with	public	performances	and	a	subsequent	tour.		The	other	significant	difference	was	that	I	was	bound	by	the	constraint	of	working	within	Shay’s	artistic		 32	vision.		Luckily,	Shay	was	eager	to	explore	the	technological	ideas	that	I	brought	forth.		My	goal	for	this	project	was	to	program	all	the	technological	elements	(lighting,	sound	and	projections)	using	only	one	software	platform	–	Isadora.		Having	everything	controlled	in	one	place	allowed	me	to	easily	create	interactions	between	the	various	elements.		For	example,	at	various	points	in	the	piece	I	had	recorded	sound	controlling	lighting,	live	sound	influencing	lighting,	live	sound	cueing	events,	projection	content	influencing	lighting,	and	live	movement	influencing	lighting.		The	result	was	very	appealing	to	both	myself	and	Shay,	and	the	interactive	elements	became	a	major	feature	of	the	piece.		Karoshi	is	very	musically	driven,	with	a	high-energy	pre-recorded	sound	track	and	live	taiko	drumming	by	percussionist	Jason	Overy.		One	of	the	key	design	elements	was	that	the	lighting	should	have	the	same	energy	and	percussiveness	as	the	music.		In	studio,	we	spent	a	lot	of	time	experimenting	with	the	live	audio	capture	capabilities	of	Isadora,	which	proved	to	be	quite	adequate.		Latency,	an	issue	that	had	been	prevalent	with	older	technology,	seemed	to	be	negligible	when	using	USB	2.0	audio	capture	cards.		One	area	with	which	we	did	have	difficulties	was	with	the	reaction	time	of	the	lighting	instruments	themselves.		Standard	incandescent	theatrical	luminaires	create	light	by	passing	electricity	through	a	filament	of	thin	wire,	thus	heating	it	up	and	causing	it	to	glow	white	(much	the	same	as	a	household	incandescent	light	bulb).		This	heating	up	process,	and	the	subsequent	cooling	down		 33	when	it	is	turned	off,	is	not	instantaneous.		This	heating	and	cooling	time,	usually	not	perceptible	in	a	household	light	bulb,	is	actually	quite	noticeable	in	higher	wattage	theatrical	lamps,	particularly	when	the	lights	are	turned	on	and	off	in	quick	succession	according	to	the	beat	of	an	accompanying	sound	track.				The	solution	to	this	problem	was	to	replace	the	incandescent	lights	with	LED	fixtures.		Unfortunately,	not	all	LEDs	are	created	equally;	some	cheaper	LED	lights	had	their	own	inherent	latency,	most	likely	do	to	the	built-in	circuitry.		However,	the	reaction	time	for	higher	quality	(and	more	expensive)	LEDs	was	well	within	the	needs	of	our	project.		Other	commonly	cited	shortcomings	of	LED	lighting,	such	as	lack	of	effective	low-end	dimming	and	lack	of	warmth,	were	not	issues	in	our	case	(and	have	more	or	less	become	non-issues	due	to	improvements	in	LED	technology	in	the	years	between	our	initial	research	and	the	time	of	writing).		We	experimented	with	a	few	other	types	of	lighting	fixtures	in	our	initial	research.		We	had	limited	success	with	fluorescent	lighting	fixtures.		Standard	48”	fluorescent	tubes	with	inexpensive	ballasts	actually	proved	to	be	quite	responsive,	but	they	lacked	the	ability	to	be	dimmed	and	were	limited	to	a	single	colour.		Most	compact	fluorescent	household	style	light	bulbs	had	the	same	latency	issue	as	cheaper	LED	lights,	though	some	labeled	“instant-on”	proved	fairly	effective.		We	also	experimented	with	the	LCD	projectors	that	we	were	already	using	for	content	display.		They	proved	quite	effective	in	terms	of	responsiveness	and	had	other	advantages,	such	as	the	ability	to	project	different	colours,	and	the	ability	to	use		 34	images	or	video	files	as	lighting	sources.		Although	replacing	all	the	stage	lights	with	LCD	projectors	would	have	been	prohibitively	expensive,	we	did	use	the	projectors	for	interactivity	whenever	we	could.		Figure	25	-	Projector	front	lighting	creating	the	effect	of	a	moving	elevator.		In	the	final	design	of	the	piece,	I	used	8	Elation	ELAR	LED	par	lighting	fixtures	as	side	lighting	in	the	wings,	and	16	Elation	LED	Octostrips	on	booms,	visible	to	the	audience.		The	Octostrips	were	mounted	vertically	to	create	a	7’	high	“tube”	of	light.		Aesthetically,	these	were	a	symbolic	representation	of	the	neon	and	LED	lightscape	of	urban	Japan.		They	were	also	used	to	represent	the	movement	of	the	subway,	a	recurring	theme	in	several	scenes	of	the	piece.		 35			Figure	26	–	Dancers	enacting	one	of	the	Subway	scenes	in	Karoshi.		A	ninth	LED	par	sat	on	the	floor	in	front	of	the	stage	and	was	used	for	a	strobe	light	effect.	This	was	later	exchanged	for	a	short-throw	video	projector	to	give	us	more	content	options.		In	addition,	I	used	a	fairly	typical	contemporary	dance	lighting		 36	hang	of	incandescent	fixtures	and	one	7000	lumen	LCD	projector	hung	over	the	audience	that	covered	the	full	stage	area	and	the	back	wall.		A	small	100	lumen	pico-projector	was	embedded	into	a	prop	computer	monitor	and	used	for	one	particular	scene	in	the	show.		It	gave	the	effect	of	computer	light	reflecting	off	of	a	dancer’s	face.		Figure	27	–	Shay	Kuebler	in	the	opening	scene	of	Karoshi.		A	100	lumen	projector	is	embedded	into	the	computer	monitor	and	a	second	projector	illuminates	him	from	the	front.		The	bulb	in	the	lamp	is	also	controlled	from	the	show-control	computer.			 		 37	3.1	Methods	of	interactivity	Audio	track	I	used	the	waveform	data	from	the	prerecorded	audio	track	extensively	for	programming	of	lighting	and	video.		Because	the	choreography	was	so	tightly	knit	with	the	music,	the	sound	provided	valuable	information	as	to	how	the	lighting	and	imagery	should	behave.		In	one	section	of	the	piece,	the	music	alternated	between	an	intense	rhythmic	beat	and	slower,	more	melodic	sections,	and	the	choreography	mirrored	these	changes.		I	was	able	to	analyze	the	frequency	and	volume	of	the	music	to	create	a	threshold	that	the	rhythmic	music	surpassed	but	the	melodic	music	did	not.		When	the	music	switched	from	melodic	to	rhythmic,	Isadora	was	programmed	to	detect	that	threshold	and	automatically	pulse	the	side	LED	fixtures	red	with	the	same	amplitude	as	the	music.		When	the	melodic	music	took	over	again,	Isadora	automatically	stopped	the	pulsing	of	red	light.		Figure	28	-	The	pulsing	of	the	red	LED	to	the	intensity	of	the	music.		 38		Video	track	There	were	other	points	in	the	piece	where	I	used	the	colour	and	brightness	information	from	the	prerecorded	video	content	to	affect	the	lighting.		Using	the	Isadora	‘color	watcher’	actor,	I	could	extract	the	colour	information	from	one	or	more	pixels	of	the	video	stream.		In	some	cases	I	would	follow	the	average	brightness	of	the	overall	video	image,	other	times	I	would	extract	the	red/green/blue	information	of	the	video	and	send	it	to	the	red/green/blue	LED’s,	either	as	a	whole	stream	average	or	by	sections.		This	effect	was	particularly	engaging	as	it	really	made	the	video	content	seem	more	immersive.		The	colour	of	the	images	on	the	dancers	coming	from	the	front	video	projector	was	mirrored	by	the	colour	of	the	LEDs	on	the	sides,	giving	three-dimensional	look	to	the	scene.		Figure	29	-	LED	side	lighting	emulating	the	intensity	and	colour	of	the	projection	overlay.			 		 39	Taiko	drums	Another	very	important	interactive	element	was	the	live	taiko	drums,	played	capably	by	percussionist	Jason	Overy.		I	placed	a	microphone	inside	each	of	the	two	drums	for	audio	amplification,	and	also	fed	this	signal	into	Isadora	for	interactivity.		During	one	of	the	drum	solos,	I	connected	the	amplitude	of	the	sound	coming	from	each	of	the	microphones	to	the	intensity	of	a	spotlight	focused	tightly	on	the	drum	skin	of	the	taiko.		The	result	was	that	whenever	Jason	hit	the	taiko,	it	shone	brightly	on	an	otherwise	darkened	stage.		The	effect	was	simple,	yet	quite	evocative.				Figure	30	-	Jason	Overy	on	the	Taiko	drums.		The	light	focused	on	each	drum	skin	was	controlled	via	a	microphone	inside	each	drum.		 40		At	other	times	we	wanted	a	strike	of	the	taiko	drum	to	initiate	a	change	in	the	lighting	state	on	stage.		In	effect,	we	wanted	to	turn	the	drum	into	a	‘go	button’	for	the	lighting.		I	initially	attempted	to	do	this	with	the	microphones,	but	I	found	there	were	too	many	false	positives	–	usually	caused	by	ambient	sound	pickup	in	the	microphone.		Instead	I	mounted	a	piezo	drum	trigger	inside	one	of	the	taiko	drums.		The	drum	trigger	works	similarly	to	a	microphone,	except	instead	of	measuring	vibrations	in	the	air,	it	measures	the	resonant	vibrations	of	the	surface	to	which	it	is	attached.		This	eliminated	all	of	the	false	triggers	and	isolated	only	the	sound	from	the	taiko.		The	combination	of	using	the	microphone	to	measure	variations	in	sound	amplitude	and	frequency	and	the	drum	trigger	to	isolate	specific	drum	hits	proved	so	effective	that	the	last	third	of	the	show	(roughly	twenty	minutes)	was	entirely	controlled	by	the	taiko	drummer	–	he	controlled	all	the	lighting	changes,	and	even	cued	recorded	music	events.		I	had	backups	set	on	my	computer	in	case	of	a	false	trigger,	but	they	proved	unnecessary,	as	the	system	was	very	robust.		Figure	31	-	A	piezo	trigger	inside	the	SL	Taiko	drum	was	used	to	advance	to	the	next	lighting	sequence.			 41	Smash	booth	Another	unique	interactive	element	of	the	piece	was	the	“smash	telephone	booth.”		This	booth	was	inspired	by	a	phenomenon	that	exists	in	Japan	where	to	relieve	stress,	people	can	pay	to	rent	a	room,	and	then	smash	and	break	everything	inside.		Because	we	could	not	safely	smash	things	openly	on	stage,	we	created	a	“smash	booth.”	It	resembled	a	telephone	booth	that	Shay	entered	and	then	smashed	a	stack	of	china	plates	rhythmically	to	the	accompanying	taiko	beats.				Figure	32	-	Shay	Kuebler	inside	the	custom	made	smash	booth.		 42	To	amplify	the	intensity	of	this	scene,	I	attached	a	small	microphone	to	the	inside	of	the	booth.		We	then	played	with	different	interactions	between	the	sound	of	the	plates	being	smashed,	the	lights	inside	the	booth,	and	the	general	lighting	of	the	stage.		At	the	beginning	of	the	scene,	the	brightness	of	the	lighting	inside	the	booth	was	set	to	be	the	inverse	of	the	volume	of	the	plate	smashing,	giving	the	effect	that	the	smashing	of	plates	was	somehow	affecting	or	damaging	the	booth.		Gradually	the	effect	reversed,	and	the	booth	became	brighter	with	each	smash;	the	effect	grew	until	the	entire	stage	was	getting	brighter	with	each	smash.		This	evolved	into	a	rhythmic	duet	between	the	taikos	and	the	smashing	plates,	with	both	being	lit	only	by	their	respective	spotlights	controlled	by	the	live	microphones,	and	no	other	light	on	stage.		Figure	33	-	The	Taiko	drums	and	the	smashing	of	plates	created	a	sonic	and	visual	duet.		All	the	lighting	in	the	scene	was	controlled	by	the	audio	intensity	of	the	three	sources.			 43	Magic	Broom	The	final	interactive	element	used	in	Karoshi	was	a	“magical”	broom.		The	idea	was	that	the	drummer,	who	also	happened	to	be	a	trained	martial	artist,	played	the	part	of	the	janitor	sweeping	up	after	the	other	dancers.		As	he	was	sweeping,	he	realized	that	the	movement	of	the	broom	gave	him	control	over	his	environment.		He	used	the	broom	as	a	bo-stick	(a	traditional	Japanese	martial	arts	weapon)	and	as	he	moved	it	through	the	air,	the	lighting	changed	around	him.		To	create	this	effect,	I	borrowed	some	of	the	technology	I	had	used	in	Signal	to	Noise.		I	carved	a	small	channel	on	the	handle	of	the	broom	and	placed	a	small	9-degree-of-freedom	inertial	movement	chip	inside.				Figure	34	-	A	9-degree-of-freedom	inertial	movement	chip	(image	courtesy	sparkfun.com)		I	attached	this	to	an	Arduino	Fio	board,	which	transmitted	the	movement	data	back	to	my	computer.		With	this	setup,	I	had	access	to	acceleration	data	in	three	dimensions,	rotational	data	in	three	dimensions,	and	magnetic	(compass)	data	in	three	dimensions.		This	provided	a	relatively	accurate	representation	of	the	broom	in	three-dimensional	space	such	that	I	was	able	to	create	the	effect	that	he	could		 44	control	the	lighting	with	the	movement	of	the	broom.		The	effect	was	not	100%	accurate,	but	it	was	effective	enough	to	wow	the	audience.			 								 	Figure	35	-	Example	of	Isadora	code	for	communication	between	the	broom	and	the	lighting	system.		 45	4.	Conclusion		4.1	Stakeholders	In	considering	the	value	of	interactive	control	of	stage	lighting	and	sound,	one	can	distinguish	four	categories	of	people	that	might	benefit	from	interactivity:		technologists,	artistic	creators	(e.g.	director,	choreographer,	designer),	performers,	and	audience.		An	individual	may	fall	into	more	than	one	category.		For	instance,	in	both	projects	I	performed	the	role	of	technologist	and	designer.		In	both	projects	the	choreographers	also	danced	in	the	piece,	making	them	both	performers	and	artistic	creators.		The	Technologist	For	the	technologist,	interactive	technology	does	not	necessarily	make	their	overall	job	easier,	but	it	does	shift	the	labour	from	one	aspect	of	the	job	to	another.	To	create	a	scene	with	great	technological	complexity	using	traditional	non-interactive	software	requires	hundreds	of	unique	events	or	cues	and	several	human	operators.		With	interactive	technology,	the	same	scene	might	be	created	using	only	a	handful	of	“cue”	events,	and	few	or	no	human	operators,	but	much	more	time	will	be	needed	to	create	and	program	the	parameters	within	which	the	interaction	will	take	place.		I	hope	that,	as	technology	progresses,	it	will	become	simpler	for	technologists	to	incorporate	interactive	elements	without	excessive	programming.		A	very	powerful	software	platform	with	a	very	simple	user	interface	doesn’t	currently	exist,	but		 46	perhaps	it	will	in	the	future.	If	that	platform	is	developed,	assigning	interactive	elements	will	very	likely	be	simplified.				Figure	36	-	"Drunk	Rag"	scene	in	Karoshi.			Figure	37	–	Isadora	screen	shots	of	the	same	"Drunk	Rag"	scene	in	Karoshi.		Notice	when	the	‘freq	5’	surpasses	the	threshold	of	5,	the	gate	is	opened	and	values	are	sent	to	the	LED	lighting	fixtures.	 		 47	The	Artistic	Creators	For	these	projects	the	artistic	creators	consisted	of	the	choreographers	and	myself,	the	designer.		In	theatre-based	pieces,	this	category	would	include	a	director	as	well	as	other	designers	that	may	or	may	not	have	a	hand	in	the	interactive	technology.			For	the	artistic	creators,	the	main	question	is	whether	interactivity	actually	adds	merit	to	the	work.		Lighting	and	sound	that	clearly	interacts	with	the	performers	can	be	spectacular	and	evocative,	particularly	as	this	idea	is	still	innovative	and	new.		However,	spectacle	is	often	superficial.		Ultimately,	the	answers	to	questions	about	interactivity	are	similar	to	all	artistic	questions:	they	are	answered	according	to	the	judgment	of	the	artists.		Like	all	other	theatre	technology,	interactivity	is	tool	in	the	artistic	toolkit	that	can	be	used	enhance	a	particular	piece,	but	whether	it	is	the	appropriate	tool	in	any	given	case	is	a	matter	of	subjective	opinion.			The	Performers	For	the	performer	on	stage,	it	seems	that	using	interactive	technology	will	almost	certainly	be	a	more	gratifying	experience.		All	of	the	dancers	involved	in	both	pieces	during	this	thesis	project	reported	enjoying	the	process	and	encountered	a	sort	of	symbiosis	with	their	interactive	environments	that	simply	does	not	exist	in	pieces	that	are	programmed	in	a	conventional	way.		Working	with	interactive	technology	can	make	the	performers’	jobs	easier	and	less	structured.		For	example,	in	a	conventional	dance	setting,	the	choreography	is	usually	set	first	and	then	the	lighting	is	programmed	to	follow	it.		In	this	format,	the	onus	is	on	the	dancer	to	get		 48	the	choreography	exactly	correct	at	every	performance	in	order	to	stay	in	their	light	–	the	slightest	mistake	could	betray	the	symmetry	of	the	two	elements.		Whereas	if	the	technology	is	set	to	interactively	follow	the	dancer,	small	variations	in	the	choreography	won’t	affect	the	symmetry,	because	the	technology	will	automatically	and	immediately	adapt	to	the	movement.		Furthermore,	the	dancer	is	not	bound	to	the	choreography	and	is	able	to	improvise	if	desired	and	the	technology	will	follow.		The	Audience	A	significant	question	regarding	interactive	technology	is	whether	it	should	be	noticeable	to	the	audience.		Early	works	with	interactive	technology	relied	heavily	on	the	“wow”	factor	of	the	technology	and	it	often	became	the	main	theme	of	the	work,	or	a	prop	on	which	the	main	theme	relied.		In	these	circumstances,	it	is	usually	the	desire	of	the	creators	that	the	audience	recognize	and	appreciate	the	interactive	technology.		A	more	recent	trend	is	to	integrate	interactivity	more	seamlessly	with	the	other	elements	of	the	show.		For	instance,	in	the	example	used	before	where	there	the	lighting	is	closely	tracking	the	dancer,	is	it	important	that	the	audience	knows	if	the	lighting	is	interactively	following	the	dancer	or	if	the	dancer	has	tightly	choreographed	to	the	lighting?	Is	one	inherently	better	than	the	other?		Ultimately	–	as	with	all	“technical	effects”	the	significant	question	is	whether	the	technical	production	elements,	interactive	or	not,	enhance	the	audience’s	ability	to	understand	and	appreciate	the	performance.			 		 49	4.2	Moving	forward	It	should	be	noted	that	a	significant	period	of	time	elapsed	between	the	initial	research	for	this	thesis	in	early	2012	and	the	final	writing	of	this	report.		During	this	time,	Karoshi	was	remounted	as	a	touring	production	and	I	worked	as	designer	and	or	technologist	on	at	least	half	a	dozen	other	productions	involving	interactive	technology,	some	of	which	have	toured	nationally	and	internationally.		Inevitably,	technology	has	evolved	and	improved	over	time,	as	have	my	methodologies.			For	the	touring	version	of	Karoshi,	it	was	necessary	to	simplify	the	show	to	allow	it	to	be	quickly	installed	in	various	venues.		Though	Isadora	was	running	all	of	the	elements	effectively,	the	prototype	interface	for	lighting	control	was	too	time-consuming	to	program	for	repetitive	use.		So	I	separated	the	lighting	control	out	of	Isadora	and	into	a	different	software-based	lighting	program	called	LX	Console,	designed	by	Claude	Heintz.		In	order	to	maintain	interactivity	between	the	lighting	and	other	elements,	I	used	Isadora	as	the	hub,	and	communicated	with	LX	Console	via	MIDI	commands.		This	allowed	me	to	maintain	the	same	level	of	interactivity	in	the	production,	but	with	a	lighting	interface	much	better	suited	to	the	multiple	quick	setups	and	tear-downs	of	a	touring	show.		The	other	interactive	element	that	was	eliminated	for	the	tour	was	the	magic	broom.	This	was	eliminated	for	artistic	reasons,	not	technical	limitations.		After	the	original	show	had	opened,	the	choreographer	and	I	reflected	on	the	effectiveness	and	impact	of	all	the	technological	elements,	and	we	came	to	the	conclusion	that	the	broom,		 50	despite	having	high	“wow”	factor,	did	not	really	contribute	dramaturgically	to	the	piece.				In	Signal	to	Noise,	the	touch-sensitive	fabric	sensors	yielded	interesting	results,	but	I	don’t	see	a	wide	spectrum	of	use	for	the	technology.		A	second	series	of	experiments	might	involve	place	the	sensors	on	(or	under)	the	floor	rather	than	on	the	dancers.		With	very	little	modification	to	the	underlying	technology,	it	would	be	fairly	easy	to	create	a	fabric-thin	array	of	pressure	sensitive	tiles	that	could	be	placed	underneath	a	conventional	portable	dance	floor.		This	would	give	both	positional	(within	the	space)	and	pressure	(weight)	data	that	could	yield	some	very	interesting	interpretations.		Though	pressure	sensitive	floors	already	exist,	to	my	knowledge	none	exist	that	would	be	this	portable	or	tourable.		Also,	since	starting	my	thesis	project,	the	number	of	available	software	platforms	has	increased	and	the	existing	software	platforms	have	improved.		The	current	version	of	Isadora,	for	example,	is	much	more	powerful	in	terms	of	processing,	and	the	user	interface	is	simpler.		Many	users	have	moved	to	a	new	software	platform	called	Touch	Designer,	by	Derivative	Software,	which	is	more	powerful	in	many	senses,	but	the	user	interface	is	complex,	and	the	lack	of	an	inherent	cueing	system	makes	it	cumbersome	to	use	in	a	traditional	theatrical	setting.		On	the	other	end	of	the	spectrum,	Figure	53	software	has	released	a	fourth	version	of	their	popular	software	platform	Q	Lab.		This	new	release	has	the	ability	to	natively	run	DMX	controlled	lighting	as	well	as	audio	and	video	media.		The	simple-to-use	graphical		 51	interface	positions	the	software	at	a	groundbreaking	point	as	the	first	truly	all-in-one	software	package.		Unfortunately	Q	Lab	does	not	have	any	inherent	ability	to	run	interactively.	However,	it	does	support	all	of	the	common	communications	protocols	(MIDI,	OSC,	etc),	so	it	can	interface	with	other	interactive	software	and	hardware	devices.		This	thesis	project	focused	on	interactive	applications	in	contemporary	dance,	but	there	are	some	fairly	obvious	ways	that	interactivity	could	improve	and/or	simplify	traditional	theatre	production	as	well.		For	instance,	motion	tracking	technology	could	be	used	to	create	automated	followspots,	or	sensors	could	be	embedded	in	light	switches	and	prop	guns	to	provide	faster	reaction	times.		Some	of	this	technology	exists	and	is	used	at	the	higher	end	of	the	theatre	industry,	but	with	the	availability	of	inexpensive	sensors,	it	could	easily	be	used	by	theatres	of	all	budget	levels.		4.3	Final	Thoughts	In	the	end,	the	argument	for	interactive	technology	can	be	reduced	to	two	questions	–	are	we	making	things	easier	and	are	we	making	things	better?		The	answer	cannot	be	so	simply	reduced.		Currently	it’s	still	a	lot	of	work	to	create	interactive	environments	for	performance,	but	software	and	equipment	are	improving	rapidly.		Every	new	show	I	work	on,	I	create	something	that	is	incrementally	better	than	the	previous	show.		I	can	then	take	that	advancement	to	the	next	show	and	build	upon	it	some	more.		On	the	other	hand,	there	are	many	very	intelligent	people	working	on		 52	these	same	problems.		It	seems	like	every	time	I	think	of	some	improvement	I	would	want,	a	few	months	later	it	has	been	implemented.		Eventually	we	will	reach	a	threshold	where	the	tools	we	need	will	simply	exist	and	it	will	only	be	a	matter	of	pressing	the	appropriate	button	or	checking	the	appropriate	box	and	systems	will	link	automatically	and	share	information.		Sensors	will	become	commonplace	and	the	challenge	will	be	choosing	what	interaction	happens	when,	and	not	how	to	make	the	interactions	happen	in	the	first	place.		And	are	we	making	things	better?		I	would	certainly	hope	so.		In	my	personal	practice,	I	am	happy	to	be	finally	moving	beyond	the	question	of	“Can	we	do	this?”	to	“Should	we	do	this?”		Interactive	technology	is	no	longer	a	complete	novelty	and	so	becomes	another	powerful	tool	with	which	to	tell	a	story	or	explore	an	idea.		Much	like	modern	theatrical	lighting	or	a	complex	soundscape	can	help	evoke	a	particular	mood,	interactive	technology	can	help	engage	the	audience	in	ways	that	were	formerly	impossible.				 		 53	References		Claude	Heintz	Design	(2018).	LX	Console	(version	5.4.1)	[computer	software].	Retrieved	from	https://www.claudeheintzdesign.com/lx		Derivative	Software	(2018).	Touch	Designer	(version	099)	[computer	software].	Retrieved	from	https://www.derivative.ca/		Figure	53	(2018).	Q	Lab	(version	4.3)	[computer	software].	Retrieved	from	https://figure53.com/qlab/			Troikatronix	(2013).	Isadora	(version	1.3.1)	[computer	software].	Retrieved	from	https://www.troikatronix.com			 		 54	Appendices		Appendix	1:	Signal	to	Noise	Lighting	Paperwork			 		 55	Appendix	2:	Signal	to	Noise	Isadora	Scene	Examples			56	 		57	 			58	 		59	 			60	 			61	 		62				 63	Appendix	3:	Karoshi	Lighting	Paperwork		 64	Karoshi Cue Listactive passive cue point Isadora Scene Notes0.1 untitled BlackoutComputer Solo1 preshow Preshow2 House is in computer solo slow shift3 " office look4 " shrink down5 " lamp flicker6 " Flash6.5 " Restore7 " Shay leaves desk8 " Projection corridor9 " Computer voice10 ' Back to office look11 " Desk pull12 " Walking13 falls B/O14 B/O post falls squareWalking/Transit15 Tyler falls after first stand neon slow fade16 " shift after neons17 trains 1 first subway19 " back to walking20 trains 2 second subway21 "22 back to walking22.5 " watch thing23 Nerves glitch video24 B/O back to walking25 trains 3 third subway27 B/O B/O28 Elevator29 B/O back to office lookStock30 Nck (last) hands Jason jacket Stock slow fade to shins32 " Neutral look33 " Red34 " Neutral look35 " pools36 " Neutral look37 " white w/ octos38 " Neutral look39 " spinning40 " Neutral look41 " conveyor42 B/O Neutral lookHayden Solo43 Hayden stops and looks down B/O Shrink down44 Spins then looks down coridor " Build & add corridor45 End of hand thing " general look46 Mime hand , then jump " shrink down to shins47 end of solo (?) " Add backs	 		 65	Karaoke/drunk51 all turn to face front karaoke karaoke video52 " ???53 " Video shifts to back curtain54 " Scott big Karaoke55 " DSL TV56 " Restore57 " MSR TV58 " Restore59 " lose big karaoke62 B/O transition into drunk63 Drunk Red drunk rage64 " Add corridor65 " second drunk look66 drunk strobes SL strobes67 B/O ResoreSamurai Solo70 Nick straightens (wind audio) Shins72 Nick's head hits the floor Samurai73 B/O Nick ends in Jason's light74 Nick stands " Add DSL square Standby Eric75 Nick kneels " Add sword special76 First Taiko hit " Tyler enters77 Second taiko hit " B/O (except for Jason) Legs out78 ON rim shots " Add booth special Scrim outBooth80 Shay Enters Booth Booth booth back only81 Jason Screams B/O82 Shay screams no interaction85 Shay goes at it a secon time Booth 2 Reverse interaction86 Shay Final big yell B/O87 Shay opens door Brighter exterior88 Shay leaves "89 Sweepers " Scrim inSecond Walking90 As sweepers start to leave falls 2 crossfade to falling Legs in91 " B/O with falls92 B/O Ending square93 " darker walking look94 " Brighter with dropouts99 Oroshi OroshiMayhem101 on last hit of Oroshi (auto) B/O Bright mayhem look105 (end of mayhem) Drum rolls drum rolls into flash/B/O108 after 3rd Drum roll B/O Stairwell & final audio111 (end of audio??) " Blackout112 Curtain call "113 dip "114 Post Show "	 		 66	Appendix	4:	Karoshi	Isadora	Scene	Examples				67			68	 		69		70	 		71		72	 		73	 	

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