UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Mapping the East - West divide in human sexuality Chang, Sabrina Chia Hsuan 2018

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
24-ubc_2018_november_chang_sabrina.pdf [ 2.01MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 24-1.0371260.json
JSON-LD: 24-1.0371260-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 24-1.0371260-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 24-1.0371260-rdf.json
Turtle: 24-1.0371260-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 24-1.0371260-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 24-1.0371260-source.json
Full Text
24-1.0371260-fulltext.txt
Citation
24-1.0371260.ris

Full Text

   MAPPING THE EAST – WEST DIVIDE IN HUMAN SEXUALITY    By   Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang   B.A. (Hons), The University of British Columbia, 2007  M.A., The University of British Columbia, 2012               A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies  (Psychology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)  August 2018    © Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang, 2018        	 	 ii	 Committee The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the dissertation entitled:  MAPPING THE EAST – WEST DIVIDE IN HUMAN SEXUALITY   submitted by Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology.    Examining Committee:   Eric Eich, Psychology Supervisor   Boris Gorzalka, Psychology Co-Supervisor   Todd Handy, Psychology Supervisory Committee Member    Lawrence Ward, Psychology University Examiner   Margaret Wright, Social Work University Examiner                  	 	 iii	Abstract Culture anchors human behaviours, thoughts, and feelings. As with many psychological disciplines, sexuality research is beginning to recognize the influence of culture. The study of culture in sex research has predominantly taken the form of comparing ethnic groups. Such comparisons have revealed some interesting similarities and disparities between Asians and Westerners, with Asians appearing to be overall more conservative than their Western counterparts. While this field has accumulated some important information on how the East and West compare with respect to sexuality, it is not without considerable shortcomings. This dissertation addresses three such limitations. In Study 1, the common practice of merging individuals from different Asian ethnicities into one participant group was evaluated by comparing Japanese-, Korean- and Chinese-Canadian women on their sexual functioning. The results challenge the assumption of Asian sexual homogeneity by demonstrating that Japanese-, Chinese- and Korean-Canadian women differ with respect to sexual functioning. Study 2 was designed to ameliorate the overreliance on self-report measures in cross-cultural research by measuring sexual attitudes using the Implicit Association Test in addition to subjective measures. Both methods found the well-documented trend of Chinese individuals endorsing more negative sexual attitudes, lending confidence that this is a genuine ethnocultural difference, rather than a product of response bias. Integrating the fields of sex research and relationship science, Study 3 is the first to examine the derogation effect in a non-Western culture and whether this relationship maintenance mechanism is influenced by sexual arousal. Surprisingly, the derogation effect was not replicated in Chinese men, Chinese women, or European women. Contrary to previous reports, European men were found to exhibit a reverse derogation effect, where 	 	 iv	those in relationships were more likely to find opposite-sex individuals attractive, compared to their single counterparts. Moreover, sexual arousal was observed to increase the attractiveness of opposite-sex others to single individuals, but not those in relationships, revealing a relationship maintenance mechanism that has not previously been identified. This series of studies has important clinical and research implications, not only for furthering our understanding of Asian sexuality, but also for improving the practice of examining the role of culture in sexuality.                                 	 	 v	Lay summary    This dissertation addressed three limitations in the existing research comparing the sexuality of individuals of Asian and European descent. Study 1 challenged the long-held assumption of Asian sexual homogeneity by documenting differences in sexual functioning between Japanese-, Chinese- and Korean-Canadian women. Study 2 demonstrated that Chinese individuals hold more negative attitudes towards sexuality than their European peers and that this difference remained even when individuals had little control over their responses. Study 3 examined the derogation effect (i.e., the tendency for those in relationships to devalue the attractiveness of other individuals) in a non-Western culture and did not find the effect among European or Chinese individuals. In fact, European men exhibited a reverse derogation effect, where those in relationships found more individuals attractive, compared to their single counterparts. Study 3 also found that sexual arousal increased the attractiveness of others to single individuals, but not those in relationships.                     	 	 vi	Preface  This dissertation is an original, unpublished, intellectual product of the author, Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang. The three studies reported in this dissertation were approved by the University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board and covered by certificates H10-00435 (Study 1), H15-03340 (Study 2), and H16-01711 (Study 3).                    	 	 vii	Table of contents Abstract……………………………………………………………………………...……....iii  Lay summary….……………………………………………………………...………...……v  Preface……………………………………………………………………………………….vi  Table of contents…….……………………………………………………………………...vii  List of tables……………….………………………………………………………..………xii  List of figures……………….…………………………………………………………..….xiii  Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………...xiv  Dedication……………………………………………………………………………...……xv  Chapter 1. Introduction…………………………….……………………………………….1  1.1 Overview………………………………………………………………………….1  1.2 Cultural influences on Asian sexuality: A brief history……….…………………3  1.3 East - West comparisons in sexuality…………..……………...…………………4      1.3.1 Sexual attitudes and beliefs………………….……………………….…4     1.3.1.1 Premarital and extramarital sex……………….………………5      1.3.1.2 Non-coital sexual activities……….………………………..…6     1.3.1.3 Gender roles in sexual expression…………..…...………...…8  1.3.2 Sexual behaviour…………………………………………………..……8   1.3.2.1 Degree of sexual experience….………………………...……..8   1.3.2.2 Number of sexual partners…….……………………….…….13   1.3.2.3 Frequency of sexual activity…..………………………….….16     1.3.3 Sexual functioning………………………………………………….………17     1.3.3.1 Sexual desire…………………………………………….…..17  	 	viii	   1.3.3.2 Sexual arousal….……………...………………………...…..19     1.3.3.3 Orgasm, sexual pleasure and pain…………………………..20     1.3.3.4 Cognitive and affective aspects of sex………...…………….21    1.3.4 Summary…………………………………………………………….....22    1.4 Three gaps in the current literature………………………………….…………22    1.4.1 Use of “Asian” comparison group……………………………………22    1.4.2 Over-reliance on self-report measures……………...…………...……23     1.4.2.1 Sexuality is a particularly sensitive topic……..……………..24     1.4.2.2 Differential response biases between cultures…………….....25    1.4.2.3 Other response biases………...………………………………26  1.4.3 Lack of comparative research on relationship maintenance……...….. 27    1.5 Objectives of the current studies……………………………………………..…30   Chapter 2.   Study 1:    Deconstructing the “Asian” group: Variations in sexual function between Chinese-, Korean- and Japanese-Canadian women……………………..……..31   2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………….…..31  2.2 Method……....……………………………………………………………...……32  2.2.1 Participants………………………………………………………….…32  2.2.2 Measures……………………………………………………………….34  2.2.3 Procedure………………………………………………………………35    2.2.4 Data analysis…….……….…...……………………………………..…36   2.3 Results………………………………………………………………………...…37  2.3.1 MANCOVA results…………....………….…………………………...37  2.3.2 ANCOVA results………..…………....…………………………...…...38   2.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………..………43 	 	 ix	 2.4.1 Variations between Chinese-, Japanese-, Korean- and European-  Canadian women …….……………………………………………………...43  2.4.2 Variations within East Asian – Canadian women ….…..………...…...44  2.4.3 Explanations for observed patterns in female sexual function ………..44  2.4.4 Limitations….……………………………………………………….…49  2.4.5 Future directions…..………………………………………………..….51  2.4.6 Conclusions….……………………………………………………..….51  Chapter 3.   Study 2:    A comparison of implicit and explicit sexual attitudes between individuals of Chinese and European descent…………………………………………...53   3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………….…..53  3.2 Method…………………………………………………………………...………55  3.2.1 Participants…………………………………………….………………55  3.2.2 Measures……………………………………………………….………58  3.2.3 Procedure……...………………………….……………………………61    3.2.4 Data analysis….…………...………………….…………………..……62   3.3 Results…………………………………………………………………...………64  3.3.1 Gender and ethnic differences in implicit and explicit sexual attitudes…   …………………………………………….…………………………………64  3.3.2 Correlations between implicit and explicit sexual attitudes..…………66 3.3.3 Bidimensional acculturation as predictors of sexual attitudes…......….67 3.3.4 Implicit sexual attitudes as predictor of sexual experience…….......….71 3.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………..………73  	 	 x	3.4.1 Implicit and explicit sexual attitudes among Chinese and European men       and women.....................................................................................................73 3.4.2 Correspondence between explicit and implicit sexual attitudes….…...76 3.4.3 Bidimensional acculturation as predictor of sexual attitudes…............78   3.4.4 Sexual experience predicted by implicit sexual attitudes ….....….…...80 3.4.5 Limitations…………………...………………………………………..80 3.4.6 Future directions…………………………………………………....…81 3.4.7 Conclusions……………………………………………………………82 Chapter 4.   Study 3:    Ethnicity, sexual arousal and the derogation effect…………....83   4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………..……….83  4.2 Method……………………...……………………………………...……………85  4.2.1 Participants………………………………………….…………………85  4.2.2 Measures…………………………………………….…………………88  4.2.3 Procedure………………………………………………………………90    4.2.4 Data analysis……..………………………………………………..…...92   4.3 Results……………………………………………………………...……………92    4.3.1 Effectiveness of IAPS photos in provoking sexual arousal………..…92    4.3.2 The roles of gender, ethnicity, and sexual arousal on the derogation     effect……………………….………………………………………...…..….93  4.4 Discussion……………………………………………………………………..…96    4.4.1 Gender and ethnic differences in the derogation effect…….....……….96  4.4.2 Impact of sexual arousal on attractiveness of others….…...…………100     4.4.3 Limitations……………………………………………………………101 	 	 xi	  4.4.4 Future directions……………….……………………………………..101  4.4.5 Conclusions……………………………………………………….….102 Chapter 5.   General discussion……………...…………….……………………………..103   5.1 Summary of results…………….……………………………………………….103 5.2 Limitations…………………………………………………………………….. 105 5.3 Clinical implications ……………………………………………………...……107 5.4 Future directions………………………………………….…………………….110 References……………………………………………………………………...…………..114  Appendix A………………………………………………………………………………...155  Appendix B……………………………………………………………………………...…156  Appendix C…………………………………………………………………………...……158                          	 	 xii	List of tables  Table 1. Participant demographic information………………………………………………33  Table 2. Participant demographic information………………………………………………56  Table 3. Bivariate correlations of all variables………………………………………………66  Table 4. Predicting explicit sexual attitudes as measured by SOS total score in Chinese men and women in relation to bidimensional acculturation as measured by VIA total score……68 Table 5. Predicting implicit sexual attitudes as measured by IAT D score in Chinese men and  women in relation to bidimensional acculturation as measured by VIA total score………...69  Table 6. Bivariate correlations of all variables………………………………………………70 Table 7. Predicting Sexual Experience as measured by the DSFI experience subscale in the European and Chinese samples in Relation to Sexual Attitudes…………………………….72  Table 8. Participant demographic information………………………………………………86                   	 	xiii	List of figures  Figure 1. Ethnic differences in female sexual function as measured by FSFI total score…...39 Figure 2. Ethnic differences in desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain as measured by FSFI domain scores……………………………………………………………42 Figure 3. Ethnic difference in explicit sexual attitudes as measured by SOS total score……64 Figure 4. Ethnic difference in implicit sexual attitudes as measured by IAT D score………65 Figure 5. Significant participant ethnicity × relationship status interaction for mean number of photos rated as attractive among European men, but not Chinese men…………………..94 Figure 6. Significant participant relationship status × experimental condition interaction for mean number of photos rated as attractive…………………………………………………..95              	 	xiv	Acknowledgements  It is only fitting that I start by thanking my supervisor, Dr. Boris Gorzalka, who, eight years ago, offered me the opportunity to pursue the dream I have had since I was 11 years old.   I extend my deepest gratitude to my committee members, Dr. Eric Eich and Dr. Todd Handy, who have always been generous with their time and support.     I want to acknowledge the research assistants who have dedicated their valuable time to the Sexual Psychophysiology and Psychoneuroendocrinology Laboratory.   Words cannot capture the gratitude I feel towards my mentor, Dr. Brandy McGee. Her kindness has steered my life in a new direction.   My heart bursts with happiness when I think of my friends. Thank you for making my life fuller.   Nothing would be possible without my brave parents, who immigrated to Canada so I can have opportunities they never did. There is no better person to share this journey with than my brother, who makes me laugh in the most trying times.   Finally, I want to thank my partner, Evan Ardiel. I can spot his love in every line of this dissertation and also in every line of my life story.    	 	 xv	     Dedicated to the courageous immigrants around the globe who have left everything they know for the possibility of a better life.   		 	 1	 	 	 42	Chapter 1.  Introduction 1.1 Overview  Psychology is largely a Western enterprise.  In a landmark study, May (1997) compared 79 countries with respect to their number of scientific papers and citations. Western countries were the most prolific in the 20 disciplines examined, with the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Germany emerging as leaders. The American presence in psychology was unparalleled, with 70% of citations coming from American researchers. More recent analyses of six top psychology journals revealed that Western countries have continued to dominate psychological research (Arnett, 2008). Specifically, from 2003 to 2007, 73% of first authors worked at American universities and 99% worked at universities in Western countries. It was no surprise that the make-up of psychology participant samples largely reflected the authors’ countries of residence, such that 68% were drawn from the United States and 96% from Western countries, the latter of which comprise only 12% of the world’s population (Arnett, 2008).  As national comparisons of scientific contribution have not been conducted in the study of sexuality, I used an approach similar to Arnett’s (2008) to gather some preliminary data. In the latest volume of Archives of Sexual Behavior, Journal of Sex Research, and Journal of Sexual Medicine, the three leading sexuality journals based on impact factor (Thomson Reuters, 2016), 90.14% of first authors were from universities in Western countries with 45.63% of these Western authors situated in the United States. Consistent with these figures, 83.96% of the published studies reported results based on participants from Western countries, 43.31% of which were from the United States.  	 1		 	 2	Based on these results, sexuality appears to be examined primarily through a Western lens. This is troubling given that the goal of sex research is to understand human sexuality, not only Western sexuality. Yet, disproportionately less is known about human sexuality in other parts of the globe. To make matters worse, having an unrepresentative sample has not prevented researchers from drawing inferences about human sexuality. This inferential leap is routinely evident in the titles of published papers, such as “Why humans have sex” (Meston & Buss, 2007), “The impact of aging on human sexual activity and sexual desire” (Kontula & Haavio-Mannila, 2009), and “Preference for facial self-resemblance and attractiveness in human mate choice” (Kocsor, Rezneki, Juhasz, & Bereczkei, 2011), which are actually reporting research conducted solely with Western individuals. These inferences are made with little to no knowledge on the generalizability of results from Western samples to other members of the human species. Such practice is problematic especially when one considers recent cultural psychology research demonstrating that culture influences even the most basic psychological processes (e.g., attention; Kitayama, Park, Sevincer, Karasawa, & Uskul, 2009, reasoning styles; Uskul, Kitayama, & Nisbett, 2008). Moreover, older anthropological data (Ford & Beach, 1951; Herdt, 1984) document great sexual diversity across human societies. Culture, defined as “socially transmitted or socially constructed constellation consisting of such things as practices, competencies, ideas, schemas, symbols, values, norms, institutions, goals, constitutive rules, artifacts, and modifications of the physical environment” (Fiske, 2002, p.85), likely exerts a formidable force on sexuality.  The need to account for culture in sex research is steadily gaining recognition and empirical attention. Ethnocultural variations in sexuality have become the focus of an increasing number of studies, with a notable portion of them approaching this subject by 	 	 3	comparing individuals of Asian and European descent living in the same area, typically somewhere in North America (e.g., Brotto, Woo, & Ryder, 2007; Meston, Trapnell, & Gorzalka, 1998).  This dissertation is organized as follows. The first chapter will continue with a brief historical overview of the cultural influences that have shaped Asian sexuality. Literature comparing Asians and Westerners with respect to sexual attitudes, beliefs, behaviours, and sexual functioning are then integrated and reviewed.  Next, three gaps in this literature are characterized, each of which serves as the impetus for the three studies comprising this dissertation project. The next three chapters will describe the studies’ rationale, methods, results and implications. In the final chapter, findings from all three studies are considered together in order to generate broader directions for clinical practice and future research.  1.2 Cultural influences on Asian sexuality: A brief history    Asian sexuality has undergone a dramatic evolution over thousands of years. In ancient China, sexuality was approached openly and positively. I-Ching (Book of Changes), the oldest of the Chinese classics, exemplifies this spirit by portraying sex as an integral element of nature. Man (yang) and woman (yin) were characterized as two forces continuously striving for sexual harmony, which was considered essential to achieving optimal physical health (Ng & Lau, 1990). Taoism and Confucianism, which were both influenced by I-Ching, have arguably been the most important forces that shaped Asian sexuality. Taoism is a philosophy that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao, the force behind everything in existence (Kaltenmark, 1969), whereas Confucian philosophy is centered on social harmony and cultivation of virtue (Fingarette, 1972). Taoism advocated 	 	 4	for the pursuit of sexual harmony and developed a series of theories on sexual techniques termed The Art in the Chamber Room. Such theories encouraged prolonged sexual intercourse and multiple sexual partners to enhance sexual pleasure and physical health (Zhang, Li, Li, & Beck, 1999). Confucianism, the more powerful influence of the two, characterized sexual desire as a natural vehicle for fulfilling one’s marital and childbearing duties. Sex was regarded as positive, unless it interfered with social stability and interpersonal harmony (Ruan, 1991). However, the interpretation of Confucian text on sexuality became more negative and repressive during the social and political instability of the Qin and Han dynasties (207 BC - 220 AD). During this period, sexual behaviour was confined to marriage and procreation. Open sexual expression, especially among women, was considered a threat to the highly interdependent social order and family structure (Abraham, 1999). This reading of Confucian sexuality remains popular today. Its influence has permeated national borders and countries neighbouring China have adopted these conservative sexual philosophies (Frenier & Manicini, 1996).  1.3 East – West comparisons in sexuality  1.3.1 Sexual attitudes and beliefs Consistent with the neo-Confucian prescriptive stance on sexuality, available data regarding sexual attitudes and beliefs has documented more conservatism among Asian individuals, compared to their Western counterparts. Such disparity has been found with respect to attitudes on sex outside the marriage, non-coital sexual activities, and gender roles in sexual expression.  	 	 5	1.3.1.1 Premarital and extramarital sex  Most of the research on ethnocultural differences in sexual attitudes concerns sex outside of marriage. Among adolescents living in China, recent research has shown that their attitudes towards premarital sex vary by degree of urbanization. Among junior high school students, respondents that opposed premarital sex ranged from 76% in rural areas of Zhejiang, Shanxi, and Qinghai provinces (Zhao et al., 2005) to 67% in the city of Dalian (Yang & Yu, 2000) and 38% in the larger city of Wuhan (Peng, Qi, Huang, Wu, & Shi, 2004). For senior high school students, a similar trend was observed with respect to urbanization, with 64% of respondents in the Shaanxi province (Wang et al, 2009) and 34% of respondents in Beijing (Song, Zhang, Zhou, Liu, & Xu, 2006) expressing disagreement with premarital sex. This effect of urbanization may be due to increased Westernization and/or decreased religiosity in urban areas, both of which have a liberalizing influence on sexuality (Brotto, Chik, Ryder, Gorzalka, & Seal, 2005; Chang, Lee, & Weng, 2011). In addition to urbanization, maturity of those engaging in premarital sex appears to be a factor in its acceptability. When premarital sex was specified as sex between unmarried adolescents, a larger proportion of senior high school students expressed negative attitudes, such that 86% of Shanxi students (Sun, Cao, Wang, & Wei, 2004) and 50% of Beijing students (Wu, Xiong, & Shi, 2007; Xu et al., 2007) were not in favour. Junior high school students reported even lower acceptance of adolescent premarital sex, with 96% responding unfavourably (Xu et al., 2007).  While this adolescent literature is valuable in delineating Chinese sexual attitudes, they cannot speak to potential East – West attitudinal differences due to the absence of a Western comparison group. Such comparisons have been conducted with undergraduate 	 	 6	students. In these studies, Asian-Canadian and Asian-American students have been found to report more negative attitudes towards premarital sex than European-Canadian and European-American students, respectively (Meston et al., 1998; Ahrold & Meston, 2010). More conservative attitudes towards casual sex was also found in a recent study comparing survey results of 4645 adults in China with analogous data collected in Western countries (Zheng, Zhou, Zhou, Liu, Li, & Hesketh, 2011).  Research on attitudes towards sexual infidelity has generated more mixed results. Older studies suggest that Asians tend to hold more conservative attitudes compared to Westerners (Maykovich, 1976), while more recent surveys found no differences (Meston et al., 1998; Ahrold & Meston, 2010). One explanation that can reconcile these inconsistent findings is that Asia may have become more accepting of sexual infidelity over time. Recent results emerging from China appear to lend support to this hypothesis (Zhang et al., 1999; Zheng et al., 2011). 1.3.1.2 Non-coital sexual activities In addition to their tendency to view sexual behaviours as appropriate only when occurring within the confines of marriage, Asian individuals also exhibit more negative attitudes and beliefs than their Western counterparts towards sexual activities outside of vaginal intercourse and the intention of procreation. With respect to masturbation, Meston, Trapnell, and Gorzalka (1998) surveyed both Asian- and European-Canadian undergraduate students and found that Asian students were more likely to interpret masturbation as abnormal sexual behavior and a sign of poor marital adjustment.  This study also reported similar results with respect to oral sex. Specifically, 	 	 7	Asian-Canadian students were more likely than their European counterparts to endorse the beliefs that oral sex is unhealthy, cannot be as pleasurable as vaginal intercourse, and falls outside the range of normal human sexuality. More recently, Morton and Gorzalka (2013) also found that East Asian female undergraduate students were more likely to characterize non-coital activities in the forms of masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex as deviant acts and coitus as the central feature of sexual expression.   Homosexual acts are regarded especially negatively in traditional Chinese society because, in addition to being non-procreative, they violate the yin (female) - yang (male) model of sexuality (Zhang et al., 1999). More recently, when Zheng and colleagues (2011) interviewed 212 men and women aged 18 to 39 in urban and rural areas in China, 64% of interviewees described homosexual behaviour as unacceptable, with women and individuals living in urban areas being less likely to hold this view.  Studies conducted in Canada and the United States have also found that Asian undergraduate students tend to possess more negative attitudes towards homosexuality than their Western counterparts (Ahrold & Meston, 2010; Meston et al., 1998). These findings are in line with the literature on Asian-American LGBTQ individuals, who often encounter heterosexism in their ethnic communities (Nadal & Corpus, 2013) and are more likely to experience suicidal ideation than their European-American counterparts (Lytle, De Luca, & Blosnich, 2014). Using data from the latest installment of the World Values Survey comprising responses from 66 096 participants from 47 nations, Adamczyk and Cheng (2015) found that views on homosexuality were predicted by the degree to which Asian countries endorsed Confucian values. Importantly, these results highlight the sexual diversity within Asia and the imperfect proxy that geography is for culture.  	 	 8	 1.3.1.3 Gender roles in sexual expression    Not only are Asian individuals more likely to limit sex to marriage and vaginal intercourse, they also confine men and women to more rigid gender roles in sexual situations. When Meston and colleagues (1998) surveyed undergraduate students in Canada, they found that compared to European-Canadian students, Asian-Canadian students were more likely to believe that women should not be seductive and that only men should initiate sexual activities. This finding was replicated four years later, using the same questionnaire at the same Canadian university (Kennedy & Gorzalka, 2002). More recently, Morton and Gorzalka (2013) revealed additional disparities in the same direction. Specifically, East Asian Canadian undergraduate students endorsed  the following beliefs more than their European Canadian peers: sex is a male activity, women’s sexual urges and pleasures are to be subdued, body image is a central aspect of female sexuality, and maternal, as opposed to sexual activities are the ultimate source of female pleasure. Similar disparities in gender role have been documented among American undergraduate students (Ahrold & Meston, 2010).  1.3.2 Sexual behaviour  Consistent with their more negative sexual attitudes and beliefs, Asian individuals also report more conservative sexual behaviours than those of European descent. Literature on variations in sexual behaviour between Asians and Westerners have examined sexual experience, number of sexual partners, and, to a lesser extent, frequency of sexual activity.  1.3.2.1 Degree of sexual experience  Previous research has consistently found Asian individuals to be less sexually 	 	 9	experienced than Westerners. With respect to adolescents, in a survey of 2026 grade nine through twelve high school students from Los Angeles, Asian-American adolescents were more likely to never have had vaginal intercourse (73%) than African (28%), Latino (43%), and European Americans (50%) (Schuster, Bell, & Kanouse, 1996). Grunbaum and colleagues (2000) reported similar numbers from an analysis of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (N = 52,985) collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Specifically, 72% of Asian-American students, 23% of African-American students, 45% of Latino-American students, and 52% of European-American students indicated no experience with sexual intercourse. Horan and DiClemente (1993) compared between Asian ethnicities and found that 13% of Chinese-American high school students in grade eleven and twelve have had sexual intercourse, compared to 32% of Filipino-American students. A more recent US national school survey revealed that the documented difference in sexual experience between Chinese- and European- Americans remains, although the incidence of virginity has increased for both groups, to 86.7% and 63.9% respectively (Kuo & St. Lawrence, 2006).  In China, research on adolescent sexuality has recently surged in the face of increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this cohort (Zhang, Song, Liu, Hong, & Zhou, 2004; Wang et al., 2009). Contrary to predictions based on these statistics, emerging research suggests that the reported incidence of virginity among Chinese adolescents remains high. In studies where both junior and senior high school students were surveyed together, the incidence of previous experience with sexual intercourse was found to be 1% in Henan province (Zhi, 2008) and 2% in Beijing (Zhang et al., 2004). Studies focusing exclusively on junior high school students have also 	 	 10	found that 1 to 2% of participants report having engaged in sexual intercourse (Wu et al., 2007; Xu, Song, Zhou, Zhang, & Liu, 2007). Among older adolescents attending senior high school, reports of previous sexual intercourse experience was slightly higher at 3% in Beijing (Zhou, Song, Zhang, Liu, & Liu, 2005), 4% in Henan province (Liang, He, Yang, Zhong, & Mao, 2009), and 5% among male adolescents and 2% among female students in Shaanxi province (Li, Zhen, Lu, Wang, & Li, 2002). Research conducted in South Korea indicates that the incidence of sexual intercourse among South Korean adolescents may be more similar to adolescents in United States than in China, with 24.3% of male adolescents and 10% of female adolescents reporting to have engaged in sexual intercourse (Youn, 2001).  With respect to undergraduate students, Huang and Uba (1992), in one of the earliest studies, surveyed 114 Chinese-American college students living in northern California (60% of whom were U.S.-born) and found that 37% of the men and 46% of the women had engaged in coitus, revealing that women were more sexually experienced. The authors attributed this finding to the sexually undesirable stereotypes of Asian-American men and eroticization of Asian-American women, resulting in the latter being perceived as more attractive dating and sexual partners in the United States. This gender difference was replicated more recently by Meston and Ahrold (2010), who found that Asian-American male college students were less likely to have engaged in sexual intercourse than their female counterparts. In addition to the explanation based on ethnic stereotypes offered by Huang and Uba (1992), Meston and Ahrold (2010) speculated that the gender difference may be due to the tendency of women to date older, more sexually experienced men, while men in the same age cohort typically date younger women (Johnson, Wadsworth, Field, Wellings, & Anderson, 1990), which results in Asian-American women being exposed to more sexual 	 	 11	opportunities. However, this explanation is incompatible with the absence of such gender difference among the Latino- or European-American participants. Studies examining sexuality among Asians living in their home countries often show the opposite trend of gender differences, where men report more sexual experience than women (Tung, Ding & Farmer, 2008). This has been largely attributed to the stricter cultural norms surrounding female sexuality (Abraham, 1999). Although it was a pioneering effort in understanding Asian American sexuality, the work of Huang and Uba (1992) did not include comparison groups and thus cross-cultural variations could not be examined. Subsequent investigations that included at least one comparison group have consistently found that Asian-American undergraduate students are less likely to have experienced sexual intercourse than their European-American counterparts (Baldwin, Whiteley, & Baldwin, 1992; Meston & Ahrold, 2010), with similar results found in Canada (Brotto et al., 2005; Brotto et al., 2007; Chang, Woo, Gorzalka & Brotto, 2010; Meston et al., 1998; Woo, Morshedian, Brotto & Gorzalka, 2012). In a notable cross-national research effort, Tung and colleagues (2013) surveyed 608 Chinese college students, 475 in China and 133 in United States, and found that those living in the United States were more likely to report to have had sexual intercourse. These results suggest that acculturation to Western culture has a liberalizing effect on Asian sexuality.  Researchers have also examined age of sexual debut. Three studies carried out by Tung and colleagues (2008; 2011; 2012) found the average age at first intercourse ranged from 17.92 to 21.32 for Chinese undergraduate students. With respect to studies with comparison groups, older research consistently established that Asian-Americans have a later age of debut than their Latino-, African-, and European-American peers (Baldwin et al., 	 	 12	1992; Meston et al., 1998). An exception to this trend comes from a study carried out by Hou and Basen-Engquist (1997), which found that Asian-American and European-American students did not differ in median age of sexual debut. They speculated that this was due to the higher degree of acculturation among the Asian-American students they sampled, albeit acculturation was not directly measured in the study. In contrast to this earlier work, later studies have found that the mean age at debut is comparable for Asian-Americans and European-Americans (Kuo & St. Lawrence, 2007, Meston & Ahrold, 2010). The recent literature indicates that while Asian-American adolescents and young adults are still more likely than their European counterparts to be virgins, those who are not virgins likely engaged in sexual intercourse for the first time at a comparable age to their European peers. This disappearance of differences in age of debut in more current literature may reflect the ongoing liberalization of sexual attitudes and practices in Asia due to the feminist movement and wider East – West cultural exchange instigated by Asian economic reforms (Shim, 2001; Zhang et al., 1999). Continued efforts to examine ethnocultural differences in sexuality during these changing times are crucial for determining whether such forces may bridge other sexual gaps.  In addition to sexual intercourse, research has also investigated differences in experience with other forms of sexual activity. These survey studies have found similar patterns. Specifically, Asian high school and university students are less likely than their European counterparts to have ever engaged in hugging, holding hands, kissing, touching of their partner’s genitals (Lam, Russell, Tan, & Leong, 2008; Schuster et al., 1998; Woo et al., 2012), anal sex (Schuster et al., 1998), and oral sex (Baldwin et al., 1992; Meston, & Ahrold, 2010; Woo et al., 2012; Schuster et al., 1998; Yule, Woo & Brotto, 2010), but are equally 	 	 13	likely to have masturbated (Meston & Ahrold, 2010). Interestingly, Lam and colleagues (2008) also found disparities in maternal predictors of adolescent non-coital sexual activity. While maternal support, control, and communication about sex and perception of maternal approval of sex predicted non-coital sexual activity among European-American adolescents, maternal support was the sole predictor among Asian-American adolescents such that those with greater maternal support were less likely to have non-coital sexual activity. A more recent study that examined sexual debut in South Asian undergraduates did however find an indirect effect of maternal approval. Specifically, students who perceived their mothers as more permissive toward premarital sex reported more liberal attitudes themselves, which in turn was associated with a greater likelihood of previous experience with oral sex, as well as sexual intercourse. No effect was found for fathers (Gravel, Young, Darzi, Olavarria-Turner, & Lee, 2016).  With respect to gender differences, Meston and Ahrold (2010) reported that Asian- American female undergraduates were more likely to have experienced oral sex than their male counterparts, a finding that echoed the sexual intercourse literature. In contrast, Asian-American men and women in the same study were equally likely to have engaged in petting and Asian-American men were more likely to have engaged in masturbation than Asian-American women. Meston and Ahrold (2010) also examined age of first sexual caress, defined as kissing and/or petting, and age of first sexual activity, defined as any contact with a partner’s genitals. With respect to both types of debut, Asian-American undergraduate students reported older ages, compared to their Latino- and European-American peers.  1.3.2.2 Number of sexual partners  In parallel to the literature on degree of sexual experience, research on number of 	 	 14	sexual partners has consistently documented Asians having fewer partners than their Western counterparts. With respect to adolescents, Schuster and colleagues (1998), who recruited and administered anonymous surveys to 2026 participants, found that Asian-American non-virgins were the least likely to have had five partners or more with respect to vaginal intercourse at 8%, compared to 38% of African-American, 21% of Latino-American and 20% of European- American students. Another larger-scale survey study similarly showed that Asian-American high school students were less likely than African-, Latino-, and European-American students to have had four or more sexual partners (Grunbaum, Lowry, Kann, & Pateman, 2000). The most recently published study corroborated this pattern and found that Asian- American adolescents reported the fewest sexual partners in the past 12 months, compared to Latino-, European-, and African -American adolescents for both genders (Landor & Halpern, 2016). The type of sexual partner also seems to differ, as Kuo and St. Lawrence (2006) found that Chinese-American male adolescents were less likely to have had casual sexual partners than their European counterparts. Research conducted in China has documented a wide range in the incidence of having had more than one sexual partner among adolescents, spanning from 3% to 60% (Liang & Jian, 2006; Xue, Lin, & Zheng, 2008; Zhu, Wang, Zhou, & Li, 2009). Ambiguous wording of the surveys used in these studies, which can be interpreted as inquiring about the incidence of having multiple sexual partners at the same time or across different time periods, may be responsible for these disparate results. In the United States, Landor and Halpern (2016) reported that Asian-American male adolescents were less likely to have had concurrent sexual partners in the last year than their Latino-, European-, and African-American peers. Such differences were not observed among adolescent girls.  	 	 15	Research on college students has found comparable differences in the number of sexual partners. An exception to this is an early study that surveyed undergraduate students at a southern California university, which reported that Asian-, African-, European-, and Latino-American students did not differ in the number of sexual partners in the past year (Baldwin et al., 1992). Later studies however consistently documented a difference in the number of sexual partners between students of Asian and European descent, such that the former report having fewer partners in the previous year, partners in their lifetime, predicted number of partners in the future, and lifetime number of one-night-stands (Meston & Ahrold, 2010, Meston, Trapnell, & Gorzalka, 1996). Furthermore, Cochran, Mays, and Leung (1991) noted that among Asian undergraduate students, women report having more sex partners in the last six months than men, which is consistent with the literature on previous experience with sexual intercourse and oral sex. All of these studies were conducted at American universities, except one, which was carried out at a Canadian university (i.e., Meston et al., 1998).  Studies of older populations are almost completely absent. Maestripieri and colleagues (2014) sampled the oldest group to date, which comprised Master of Business Administration (MBA) students with a mean age of 28.75 years. They found that Asian-American men have had fewer lifetime sexual partners and one-night-stands than their European, African, and Latino peers. Unexpectedly, Maestripieri and colleagues (2014) also found that, unlike the other ethnic groups for whom the trend was reversed, Asian-American men in romantic relationships reported a higher number of previous sexual partners and had higher concentrations of salivary testosterone than those who were single at the time of the study. Going beyond differences in number of sexual partners, Nguyen and colleagues 	 	 16	(2012) examined ethnocultural disparities in the correlates of vaginal and anal sex partners. In their community sample of predominantly heterosexual adults (mean age of 26.5 years), sexual sensation seeking was found to be associated with more anal sex partners among Asian- and European-Americans, but not African-Americans, while sexual excitation was positively associated with number of vaginal sex partners for all three ethnic groups.   1.3.2.3 Frequency of sexual activity   Not only does the literature suggest that individuals of Asian descent are less likely to have had sexual intercourse, it also shows that once they become sexually active, they engage in it less often than their European counterparts. The adolescent sexuality literature appears to be more heavily focused on the incidence of virginity than frequency of sexual activity. Studies that claim to examine sexual frequency survey both sexually experienced and non-experienced adolescents (e.g., Schuster et al., 1998), thus skewing results towards a reduced frequency. With respect to research conducted with undergraduate students, Meston, Trapnell and Gorzalka (1998) found that Asian-Canadian students reported a lower actual and ideal frequency of sexual intercourse than their European counterparts. With respect to gender differences, Asian-American female students were found to engage in sexual activity more frequently than their male counterparts, echoing the literature on sexual experience (Cochran, Mays, & Leung, 1991).  Extending beyond high school and university students, two studies that examined sexual frequency among midlife women found conflicting results. Cain and colleagues (2003) interviewed 3302 women between the ages of 42 and 52 from seven American cities 	 	 17	and reported that the frequency of sexual activity did not differ between European-, African-, Latino-, Chinese-, and Japanese-American women. In contrast, a more recent study of 1977 women aged 40 to 69 found that Asian-American women reported less regular sexual activity than European-American women (Huang et al., 2009).  1.3.3 Sexual functioning Given the significant clinical implications, interest is growing in the differences in sexual functioning between individuals of Asian and Western backgrounds. These two groups have been compared with respect to numerous facets of sexual function: sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, as well as emotional and cognitive responses to sex. This diverse body of literature appears to reach the consensus that Asian participants report poorer sexual functioning compared to their Western peers.  1.3.3.1 Sexual desire   Previous research has largely converged on the finding that Asian women and men report lower levels of sexual desire than their Western counterparts. In what is arguably one of the most culturally inclusive studies to date, Japanese- and Chinese-American women were both found to experience sexual desire to a lesser extent than European-American women, even after controlling for age and socioeconomic status (Cain et al., 2003). These results largely replicated what was found in a landmark study conducted by Abramson and colleagues (1982) more than 35 years ago. Such large-scale studies on female sexual desire have yet to be conducted in Canada, with the scope of the Canadian literature restricted to undergraduate students. Nonetheless, this collection of studies have arrived at similar conclusions, with Asian-Canadian women reporting lower levels of sexual desire than their 	 	 18	European peers (Brotto et al., 2005; Woo, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2009; Woo, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2011; Woo, Morshedian, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2012). One exception to this trend was a study that did not find such differences (Yule et al., 2010), which may be due to its smaller sample sizes (i.e., 38 European-Canadian students and 37 Asian-Canadian students).  With respect to male sexual desire, in a rare international effort, Namiki and colleagues (2011) surveyed prostate cancer patients living in the United States and Japan, and concluded that Japanese men were more likely to report problems with sexual desire, compared to their American counterparts. As some prostate cancer treatments have been found to adversely affect sexual desire (Helgason, Fredrikson, Adolfsson, & Steineck, 1995), it was unfortunate that these authors did not specify if and what treatments these patients had received at the time of the survey. In another study that crossed national boundaries, Masumori and colleagues (1999) found that men from a small fishing village in Japan reported lower sexual desire than American men living in Olmsted County, Minnesota. These cross-national differences are consistent with the results of  studies conducted in North America comparing European- and Asian-Canadian undergraduate students (Brotto, et al., 2007) and European- and Japanese-American prostate cancer patients (Namiki, et al., 2008).  One recent study employed a qualitative approach to better understand the cultural factors responsible for the observed discrepancies in sexual desire. Phenomenological analysis of interviews conducted with 20 Chinese women and men revealed that Chinese culture was unanimously characterized as a prohibitive force on sexuality, especially for women, which frames sexual desire as appropriate only in the context of a committed relationship and otherwise is an embarrassing or shameful experience (Dang, Chang, & Brotto, 2017).  	 	 19	1.3.3.2 Sexual arousal   As sexual desire and sexual arousal are closely intertwined constructs, it is not surprising that research has also found that Asian individuals tend to report lower levels of sexual arousal than individuals of European descent. This difference has been observed among young and midlife women with respect to both self-reported genital and subjective sexual arousal (Brotto et al., 2005; Cain et al., 2003). To date, only one study has investigated ethnocultural differences in female sexual arousal using a psychophysiological measure. Yule, Woo and Brotto (2010) measured vasocongestion of vaginal capillaries in Asian- and European-Canadian undergraduate students while they viewed sexually explicit and neutral films. Contrary to previous self-report data, these two groups of women showed similar degrees of vaginal vasocongestion in response to sexually explicit films. They also did not differ on self-reported perceived genital arousal and subjective sexual arousal to the erotic film stimuli. While this study contributes important psychophysiological information to the literature, these findings should be considered cautiously as a lack of group difference in either subjective or psychophysiological arousal may be driven by volunteer bias. Although a problem in all sex research, volunteer bias is a particular risk factor in sexual psychophysiological research, as individuals who choose to participate in such studies may be more sexually liberal regardless of culture.    Asian men tend to report poorer erectile functioning than men of European descent. This finding has been documented among undergraduate students (Brotto & Woo, 2006; Woo & Brotto, 2008), prostate cancer patients (Namiki et al., 2011), and adults sampled from the community (Masumori et al., 1999). All of these studies relied on self-report measures and no corroborating sexual psychophysiology data have been published to date.  	 	 20	1.3.3.3 Orgasm, sexual pleasure and pain  Compared to research on sexual desire and arousal, less empirical attention has been devoted to differences in the orgasm phase of the sexual response cycle. Through analyses of their patients’ demographic information, Richardson and Goldmeier (2005) noted a higher percentage of British-Asian patients presented with premature ejaculation than would be expected based on the ethnic distribution of the community population. It is difficult to discern whether these results stem from a higher incidence of premature ejaculation or greater inclination to seek help for sexual issues among British-Asian men. Supporting the latter explanation, Woo and Brotto (2008) did not find a difference in premature ejaculation when they surveyed Asian- and European-Canadian undergraduate students. At the other extreme of orgasmic difficulties, Japanese prostate cancer patients were found to report more difficulties with attaining an orgasm than their American counterparts (Namiki et al., 2011).  Ethnocultural studies conducted with women have investigated sexual pain and pleasure, in addition to orgasm. Two studies conducted in Canada have found that Asian women report more difficulties with reaching an orgasm (Woo & Brotto, 2008) and experiencing pleasure during an orgasm than their European counterparts (Brotto et al., 2005). It is important to note that when sexual pleasure was not restricted to that resulting from an orgasm, Cain and colleagues (2003) found that Asian- and European-American women did not differ in their self-report of physical pleasure during sex. When Yule, Woo, & Brotto (2010) inquired about sexual pain during sex, Asian- and European-Canadian women reported similar experiences. However, in another study, where the definition of sexual pain was limited to that stemming from vaginismus, Asian-Canadian women indicated more problems than their European peers (Woo & Brotto, 2008).  	 	 21	1.3.3.4 Cognitive and affective aspects of sex  Consistent with their reports of lower sexual functioning, Asian men and women have also described higher anxiety in response to anticipated sexual arousal (Brotto, Chik, Ryder, Gorzalka, & Seal, 2005) and more worry about their sexual functioning (Masumori et al., 1999). Aside from these findings, most of the literature on affective responses to sex is centered on sex guilt. In the pioneering study by Abramson and Imai-Marquez (1982), differences in sex guilt were documented for the first time between European- and Japanese- Americans, with the latter more likely to experience guilt related to sex. More than twenty years later, Kuo and St. Lawrence (2006) replicated these findings with Chinese- and European-American adolescents. Woo and colleagues also conducted a series of studies that found similar differences in a community sample of women (Woo, Brotto, & Gorzalka, 2012), as well as undergraduate samples of female and male students (Woo et al., 2009; 2011; 2012;). Not only did Woo, Brotto and Gorzalka (2011; 2012) replicate these differences in sex guilt, they found that sex guilt, as well as sexual conservatism, mediated differences in sexual desire between Asian- and European-Canadian women sampled from the community and the university campus. These investigations are among the first to shed light on the cultural ingredients driving disparities in female sexual desire. Such empirical efforts are absent with respect to male sexual desire.  To date, only one study has explored variations in the cognitive aspects of sexual function between individuals of Asian and European descent. In this landmark study, Morton and Gorzalka (2013) investigated the automatic thoughts of European- and East Asian-Canadian women during sexual activity. Their results indicated that East Asian- Canadian women report having fewer erotic thoughts during sex than their European counterparts. No 	 	 22	difference was found with respect to thoughts related to sexual abuse, failure and disengagement, partner’s lack of affection, sexual passivity, and poor body image.  1.3.4 Summary The literature on ethnic differences in sexual behaviour, attitudes, beliefs, and functioning suggests that Asians are generally more conservative then Westerners. These variations also demonstrate that findings from studies conducted in the West do not necessarily reflect Asian sexuality or, more broadly, human sexuality. The disparities delineated between Asian and Western sexuality are especially compelling when one considers that the majority of these studies compared individuals of Asian and European descent living in North America. While this collection of research has delineated some important ethnocultural sexual disparities and similarities, it has significant limitations, three of which are reviewed below.  1.4 Three gaps in the current literature  1.4.1 Use of the “Asian” comparison group   The tradition in cross-cultural sex research is to compare individuals of European and Asian descent living in a Western country, typically the United States. One major assumption underlying this practice is that “Asian” is a culturally and sexually homogeneous group. However, this is unlikely given that Asian cultures diverge in dimensions known to influence sexuality, such as Confucian values (Zhang, Lin, Nonaka, & Beom, 2005) and gender roles (Zuo et al., 2012). The “Asian” participant group effectively obscures these and other meaningful differences between Asian cultures. This problem is exacerbated when studies do not report the ethnocultural distribution of their Asian participants, which is commonly 	 	 23	observed in sex research (e.g., Landor & Halpern, 2016; Maestripieri et al., 2014; Meston & Ahrold, 2010). This practice, which maintains the assumption of Asians as a homogeneous group that does not need further breakdown, makes it impossible to determine whether all Asian cultures were well represented in a study or the findings in fact only reflect certain Asian cultures. Among studies that do report the ethnocultural distribution of their Asian participant group, what is meant by “Asian” seems to differ from study to study. This is not surprising given that the term is used differently in the United Kingdom and the United States, the two countries that produce the majority of the research with Asian participant groups. Specifically, in United Kingdom, the term “Asian” more commonly denotes individuals of South Asian origin, whereas in the United States, the term is more likely used to describe those of East Asian descent (Bhopal, 2004). Contradictory findings reviewed earlier in this chapter may be one consequence of the absence of a universal definition of “Asian”. Studies that share the aim of examining Asian sexuality may inadvertently end up studying disparate Asian cultures, depending on the composition of their “Asian” participant group. In order to justify the continued use of the “Asian” participant group, data on the degree of sexual homogeneity among individuals from different Asian cultures are needed.   1.4.2 Over-reliance on self-report measures Similar to other areas of psychological research, ethnocultural sexual research has been predominantly carried out using self-report measures (e.g., Brotto et al., 2007; Cochran et al, 1991; Morton & Gorzalka, 2013). My literature review identified only two studies that employed a data collection method other than self-report (i.e., Maestripieri et al., 2014; Yule et al., 2010). Such overreliance on self-report may be especially problematic for cross-	 	 24	cultural sex research, given the sensitivity of sexuality as a topic and differential response biases between cultures. 1.4.2.1 Sexuality is a particularly sensitive topic  One challenge to the validity of self-report data is social desirability responding, the tendency of respondents to project a favourable image of themselves, regardless of accuracy (Nederhof, 1985). Sensitive research topics are especially prone to social desirability bias (Tourangeau & Yan. 2007). According to Tourangeau, Rips and Rasinki (2000), sensitivity can be distilled into three elements. First, sensitive questions are those that are seen as intrusive by delving into “taboo” topics that would be considered inappropriate in everyday conversation. Second, sensitive questions are those capable of eliciting negative consequences should the disclosed information become known to a third party. Lastly, questions can be sensitive if the answer is socially unacceptable. As such, sensitivity is determined by the respondents’ answer to the question, so that a question about lying, for example, is not sensitive for a respondent who has never lied.  Sexuality appears to meet all three criteria of sensitivity, as questions about sex are considered invasive and can elicit socially unacceptable answers that may trigger significant backlash if made public. Thus, social desirability bias is likely to be a particular concern in sexuality research (Tourangeau & Yan, 2007). Indeed, many studies on social desirability responding use questions about sexuality to draw out this phenomenon (e.g., Richman, Kiesler, Weisband, & Drasgow, 1999). In sex research, social desirability responding has been found to pose a threat to data validity when self-report measures are used to assess numerous variables, such as sexual desire, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviours (e.g., virginity 	 	 25	status, age of first sexual experience, range of sexual experience, and number of sexual partners), and ratings of sexual arousal after exposure to erotic stimuli (Alexander & Fisher, 2003; Boyer, Pukall, & Holden, 2012; Huberman, Suschinsky, Lalumiere, & Chivers, 2013; Jonason, & Fisher, 2009; Meston, Heiman, Trapnell, & Paulhus, 1998). Nonetheless, cross-cultural research examining these sexual variables continue to use self-reports and has not attempted to establish the validity of self-report data by collecting corroborating information, such as biomarker examinations (e.g., Minnis et al., 2009) and partner reports (e.g., Padian, Aral, Vranizan, & Bolan, 1995).  1.4.2.2 Differential response biases between cultures  Another reason self-report data are especially problematic in cross-cultural sex research is that social desirability responding appears to vary as a function of culture (Warnecke et al., 1997). This has the potential to confound any genuine cultural differences or similarities, as well as exaggerate or deflate relationships between variables differentially across cultural groups (Matsumoto & van de Vijver, 2012). Some research suggests that collectivist cultures exhibit more social desirability responding than individualistic cultures (Bernardi, 2006), while other studies have uncovered an interaction between culture and type of socially desirable responding. Specifically, participants from an individualistic culture, such as that of the United States, tend to engage in more self-deceptive enhancement (e.g., describing oneself in inflated terms; Paulhus, 1998) and less impression management (e.g., portraying one’s actions in a favourable manner; Schlenker & Britt, 1999), compared to their collectivist counterparts, such as the Japanese, who are more concerned with sociability and cooperation (Lalwani, Shavitt, & Johnson, 2006).  	 	 26	To complicate matters further, cultural differences in social desirability responding do not apply equally across topics. As previously discussed, sensitivity of the topic moderates social desirability responding, but sensitivity is largely culturally defined. Therefore, different cultures can be expected to differentially engage in social desirability responding with respect to the same topic (Tourangeau, Rips, & Rasinki, 2000). Such topic specificity in differential social desirability responding has been documented in sexuality research. For example, Meston and colleagues (1998) revealed that women typically engage in more social desirability responding than men when participating in sex research, a trend consistent with disproportionately heavier restrictions placed on female than male sexuality (Baumeister and Twenge, 2002). One of the most established findings in sex research, heterosexual men reporting more lifetime sexual partners than heterosexual women (Brown & Sinclair, 1999), has been attributed to such differential social desirability responding, where this gender difference was found to be mediated by perceived prestige related to number of sexual partners (Jonason, & Fisher, 2009). Considering that sexuality is generally regarded as more taboo by cultures in Asia than in the West, it is conceivable that Asian individuals engage in more social desirability responding with respect to sexuality-related questions.  1.4.2.3 Other response biases  Response biases other than social desirability responding also appear to differ by culture. Much of the work on acquiescence bias, the tendency to agree with statements, has found variations along the individualism – collectivism spectrum, such that acquiescent responses are more characteristic of collectivist societies (Smith, 2004). According to cross-cultural cognition research, this phenomenon may be attributed to the collectivist propensity 	 	 27	to see the world in a holistic and dialectical way, where contradictory truths and opposite statements can comfortably co-exist (Hamamura, Heine, & Paulhus, 2008). From this perspective, opposite statements on a questionnaire, such as “I enjoy having sex” and “I do not enjoy having sex”, both contain some truth as one can contemplate situations where engaging in sexual activity may or may not be enjoyable.  Not only do cultures exhibit varying tendencies to agree with encountered statements, they also differ in how extremely (e.g., choosing a 7 on a 7-point scale) or moderately (e.g., choosing a 5 on a 7-point scale) they express their agreement. Extremity bias may be more indicative of cultures that value uniqueness, independence, assertiveness, and competitiveness, while moderacy bias is characteristic of cultures that emphasize modesty, interpersonal harmony and subtlety (Yang, Harkness, Chin, & Villar, 2010). For example, Chinese individuals have been found to be more moderate in their responses than Westerners (Chen, Lee & Stevenson, 1995; Wang, Hempton, Dugan & Komives, 2008). Chen and colleagues (1995) posit that cultural value in conformity and the Confucian principle of moderation, which stresses balance in thoughts and actions, (Kim & Markus, 1999), may both act to temper response styles in Asian collectivist cultures. Propensity towards dialectical thinking has been proposed as another explanation of this finding (Hamamura et al., 2008).  1.4.3 Lack of comparative research on relationship maintenance  As reviewed earlier, infidelity has been examined between Asians and Westerners. However, little comparative research has investigated the opposite: mechanisms that buffer a relationship against the threat of attractive others.  Research on the maintenance of romantic relationships points to two major protective 	 	 28	processes: inattention to attractive individuals (Miller, 1997) and the derogation effect (Johnson & Rusbult, 1989). The first process involves a perceptual bias, where individuals in committed relationships fail to notice the presence of attractive others (Milller, 1997). This phenomenon was first discovered by Miller and colleagues (1997). In this influential study, heterosexual participants were shown slides of attractive opposite-sex individuals while their looking time was measured. Results indicated that those in casual dating relationships spent considerably more time looking at the photos than those in exclusive relationships. Self-reported amount of attention to alternatives also predicted relationship termination in the two months following study participation. This relationship maintenance process has since been investigated with different methods of operationalizing attention to attractive others (e.g., Maner, Gailliot, & Miller, 2009; van Dillen Papies, & Hofmann, 2013).  Such attentional bias against attractive others does not always work. People often encounter attractive alternatives in situations where such inattention is next to impossible, such as working alongside or living next to an attractive other. In these situations, individuals in relationships tend to devalue the attractiveness of the alternative in a process known as the derogation effect (Johnson & Rusbut, 1989; Ritter, Karremans, Van Schie, 2010; Meyer, Berkman, Karremans, & Liebermann, 2011). Johnson and Rusbult (1989) first detected this phenomenon when they found relationship commitment to be negatively correlated with attractiveness ratings of alternatives. In addition to physical attractiveness, the derogation effect has been observed with respect to other qualities, such as personality traits (e.g., intelligence and sense of humour; Johnson & Rusbult, 1989). Although these relationship maintenance processes have been studied for more than two decades, their universality has received little empirical attention. Almost all of the 	 	 29	findings to date have come from studies conducted in the West using mostly participants of European descent (e.g., Cole, Trope, Balcetis, 2016; Visserman, & Karremans, 2014). Cross-cultural literature on self-concept suggests that these processes may not readily generalize to Asian cultures.  Relational mobility, the ease with which relationships can form and dissolve, has consistently been found to fluctuate along the cultural dimension of independence – interdependence in self-concept (Oishi, Lun, & Sherman, 2007; Yuki et al., 2007). People with an independent self-concept perceive themselves as fundamentally separate from others and only form relationships when advantages can be gained (e.g., have fun, feel good about self). If a relationship becomes insufficiently rewarding, these individuals have ample freedom to end them and withdraw relationship maintenance efforts (Yuki et al., 2007). Relationships formed between people with interdependent views of themselves are the opposite. These individuals, who define the self by close relationships, encounter more obstacles to terminate relationships and fewer opportunities to establish new ones. The longevity of their relationships is thus less dependent on maintenance efforts (Yuki et al., 2008). Given that self-concept in Western culture tends to be more independent than that in Asian culture (Wang, 2004), research on relational mobility suggests that relationship maintenance processes aimed to thwart the lure of attractive others may be less pronounced among Asian individuals.  Consistent with this line of thinking, positive illusion, the idealization of one’s romantic relationship (Murray, Holmes, & Griffin, 1996) was found to be weaker among Japanese- than European-Canadian participants (Endo, Heine, & Lehman, 2000). More recently, Ma and colleagues (2015), in the first and only cross-cultural study on inattention 	 	 30	towards attractive others, found that heterosexual Chinese women who were single and those in committed relationships did not differ in their attentional engagement of attractive male faces. However, when these women were primed with the idea of romantic love, a relatively Western and individualistic concept (Dion & Dion, 1996), significant differences did emerge, such that single women showed increased attention to attractive male faces while those in relationships did not alter their attention subsequent to the priming task. Since no cross-cultural research has been conducted on the derogation effect, it remains unknown whether the trend of diminished relationship maintenance in collectivist cultures applies to this particular mechanism.    1.5 Objectives of the current studies   The present literature on differences between Asian and Western sexuality is characterized by several limitations. Three of these limitations were reviewed in this chapter: the use of the “Asian” comparison group, overreliance on self-report measures, and insufficient research on relationship maintenance. Due to these issues, the current state of research runs the risk of painting Asian sexuality in overly broad strokes, misconstruing response bias as genuine ethnocultural differences, and overlooking important facets of sexuality that are deserving of cross-cultural attention. The objective of the three studies that comprise my doctoral research is to address these deficits. Findings from these three studies hold several clinical implications, which are discussed in the final chapter.     	 	 31	Chapter 2.  Study 1: Deconstructing the “Asian” group: Variations in sexual function between Chinese-, Korean- and Japanese-Canadian women   2.1 Introduction   Merging individuals from different Asian ethnicities into one participant group has been one popular procedure in ethnocultural sex research that has been largely unexamined. This study aimed to evaluate the assumption of sexual homogeneity in Asia that underlies such practice. Since there are 48 countries in Asia, examining variations between all Asian nations was considered impractical due to restraints surrounding participant recruitment and rise in the risk of committing Type I error with the increase in the number of groups being compared. Instead, this study focused on comparing Asian ethnicities that are likely the most culturally similar, driven by the premise that if sexual variations are found between these ethnicities, one can assume comparable, if not more dramatic, disparities would be found between those that had less cultural overlap. For this purpose, Canadian individuals of East Asian ethnic backgrounds, i.e., Japanese, Korean, and Chinese were compared. These ethnic groups were all historically shaped by ancient Chinese culture, which has resulted in a shared Confucian philosophical worldview (Weiming, 2000), Buddhist traditions (Harvey, 2013), and the use of Chinese characters in their written languages (Brown, 1990).  Given that sexual function has been the topic of substantial research using the amalgamation of Asian participants, this study focused on examining variations in sexual function between these East Asian ethnicities. I only investigated female sexual function, as I was unable to recruit a sufficient number of male participants through the University British Columbia Psychology Department’s online Human Subject Pool. I hypothesized that differences would emerge between Japanese-, Chinese- and Korean-Canadian women, with 	 	 32	Japanese-Canadian women reporting the highest degree of sexual functioning and Korean-Canadian women the lowest.  In addition to comparisons within East Asian ethnicities, this study also examined differences between Canadian women of each East Asian ethnicity and Canadian women of European descent in order to establish whether previously documented differences in sexual function apply to each East Asian ethnicity. I hypothesized that different patterns of discrepancies would emerge, such that Korean-Canadian and Japanese-Canadian women would differ the most and the least from European-Canadian women respectively, in the direction of European-Canadian women endorsing in a higher level of functioning  2.2 Method   2.2.1 Participants   In order to determine the sample size needed for this study, a priori power analysis for ANCOVA was conducted using G*Power software (version 3.1.9.2; Faul, Erdfelder, Lang & Buchner). Based on this analysis, a total of 179 participants are needed for statistical power of .8 for detecting a medium effect size (f = .25).  A total of 1914 female University of British Columbia undergraduate students participated in this study. An initial 655 participants were excluded due to either identification with an ethnicity other than European or East Asian or because of missing data with respect to ethnicity, the Vancouver Index of Acculturation, or Female Sexual Function Index. Of the 1259 remaining participants, 25 univariate and 4 multivariate outliers were identified using adjusted boxplots (Hubert & Vandervieren, 2008) and Mahalanobis distance (Huberty & Petoskey, 2000), respectively, and removed. In order to create a balanced MANCOVA design that was robust to assumption violations, 823 participants were 	 	 33	randomly discarded from the larger cells so that the ratio of the largest to smallest cell size was within the ratio of 1.5 (Leech, Barrett, & Morgan, 2005). The final sample comprised 407 participants, of which 111 were European-, 111 were Chinese-, 111 were Korean- and 74 were Japanese-Canadian. Their demographic information is reported in Table 1.   Table 1. Participant demographic information   Variable European  (n = 111) Chinese  (n =111) Korean  (n = 111) Japanese  (n = 74) Age, years, mean (SD) 20.94  (2.84) 20.34  (1.92) 20.86 (2.33) 20.74 (3.16) Place of birth (% of each group)**     Canada or US 88.3 32.4 8.1 26.8 Europe 10.8 0 0.9 4.2 East Asia 0 66.7 89.0 67.6 Other 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.4 Years of residency in Canada, mean (SD)** 18.11  (6.55) 12.36  (6.94) 8.92 (4.74) 9.02 (8.88) Years of education, mean (SD)* 14.72  (1.54) 14.40  (1.78) 14.41 (2.44) 14.10 (2.03) Sexual orientation (%)*     Exclusively heterosexual 55.0 73.6 70.6 76.4 Exclusively homosexual 1.8 5.5 4.6 1.4   Neither 43.2 20.9 24.8 22.2 VIA score, mean (SD)†     Mainstream***  6.91  (1.14) 6.31 (1.22) 6.65 (1.37) Heritage*  6.98  (1.29) 6.99 (1.30) 6.59 (1.39) Note. Significant group differences at * p <.05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. †Scale range 1-9. 	 	 34	2.2.2 Measures    Demographics  The demographics survey (see Appendix A) enquired about participant sex, age,  ethnicity, country of birth, educational level, household income, sexual orientation, years living in Canada, and English language comprehension ability. Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA; Ryder, Alden, & Paulhus, 2000).  In accordance with a bidimensional perspective of acculturation, the VIA (Ryder et al., 2000) was administered to examine the degree to which participants had acculturated to mainstream North American culture and adhered to their heritage culture. Such information is not captured by knowledge of one’s ethnic group. The VIA comprises 20 items, with one heritage and one mainstream item keyed to each of the following ten domains: cultural traditions, marriage partner, social activities, comfort in professional relationships, entertainment, behaviour, maintenance or development of cultural practices, values, humour, and social relationships. Higher scores on the heritage dimension indicate greater adherence to heritage culture and higher scores on the mainstream dimension indicate greater Westernization in this study. For both dimensions, scores range between 1 and 9. Both dimensions of the VIA have been demonstrated to possess good internal consistency in a Chinese validation sample (Cronbach’s α of .92 for heritage acculturation and .85 for mainstream acculturation). VIA scores were also found to be correlated with other indicators of acculturation, such as percentage of time spent living and receiving education in a host country, and demonstrated good concurrent validity (Ryder et al., 2000). In this study’s sample, both cultural dimensions of the VIA were found to possess good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .88 for the heritage dimension and .89 for the 	 	 35	mainstream dimension).  Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000)  Participant sexual functioning was assessed using the FSFI (Rosen et al., 2000), a 19-item survey that measures sexual desire, subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasm, global satisfaction, and pain during sexual activity over the previous four weeks. Higher scores on all subscales indicate higher levels of sexual functioning. Previous research has demonstrated the FSFI to be a valid measure for differentiating sexually functional and dysfunctional women (Wiegel, Meston, & Rosen, 2005). The FSFI has been found to possess good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .97) and test-retest reliability for all of its subscale scores (r, range = .79 – .86) and total score (r = .88) (Rosen et al., 2000).   In this study’s sample, the FSFI total score (Cronbach’s α of .89) and subscale scores (desire, Cronbach’s α = .87; arousal, Cronbach’s α = .96; lubrication, Cronbach’s α = .97; orgasm, Cronbach’s α = .95; satisfaction, Cronbach’s α = .85; pain, Cronbach’s α = .97) were determined to possess good internal consistency.   2.2.3 Procedure  Participant recruitment was conducted at the University of British Columbia through the Psychology Department’s online Human Subject Pool (HSP) system that connected studies in active recruitment with undergraduate students interested in participating in research for course credit. In the HSP system, the study was described as completing questionnaires about one’s sexuality and demographics. Participants were also informed of three inclusion criteria for participation: fluency in English, ages 18 or older, and comfort with sexual material. Students interested in participating were directed to www.psychdata.com, where they entered the study’s identification number and received an 	 	 36	online questionnaire package that they were instructed to complete in private. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses and their right to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. Upon submitting their completed questionnaires online, participants were debriefed and awarded course credits in exchange for their participation. No identifying information was collected from the participants at any point during this study. All procedures were approved by the University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board.  2.2.4 Data analysis  All data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. The primary hypotheses were examined using a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with participant ethnicity (European-Canadian, Chinese-Canadian, Korean-Canadian, and Japanese-Canadian) as the independent variable. Mainstream acculturation, length of residency, education, and age were included as covariates to statistically control for their effects as previous research has demonstrated these demographic variables to predict female sexual function (Brotto et al., 2005; Spector & Carey, 1990; West, Vinikoor, & Zolnoun, 2004). FSFI total and individual domain (i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) scores were the dependent variables. Statistically significant MANCOVA main effects were followed up with univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and statistically significant main effects at the univariate ANCOVA level were further examined using post hoc tests.  Since the experiment-wise type I error control provided by the omnibus MANCOVA test does not extend to subsequent univariate tests, the false discovery rate 	 	 37	(FDR; Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995; q = .05) was applied at the univariate ANCOVA and post hoc test levels in order to control for the inflated type I error rate that accompanies multiple comparisons. FDR procedures are designed to control for the expected proportion of rejected null hypotheses that are incorrect. These procedures are more powerful than those designed to control familywise error rate, such as the Bonferroni correction, and recommended for maintaining a balance between type I and II error (Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995; Nakagawa, 2004).     Effect sizes for analysis of covariance tests were calculated using partial eta-squared (ɳ2) and the effect was considered small when partial eta-squared ranged between .0099 and .0588, medium when ranged between .0589 and .1379, and large when greater than .138 (Richardson, 2011). Effect sizes for post hoc tests were calculated using Cohen’s d and the effect was considered small when Cohen’s d ranged between .2 and .5, medium when ranged between .501 and .8, and large when the value was .801 and above (Cohen, 1988).  2.3 Results    2.3.1 MANCOVA results   The assumptions of MANCOVA include: 1) independence of observations, 2) multivariate normality, 3) homogeneity of variance/covariance matrices, 4) homogeneity of regression slopes, and 5) linearity (Field, 2005; Leech et al., 2005; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). The first assumption was satisfied by the experimental design. With respect to the second, third and fourth assumptions, the performed MANCOVA was robust to violations as I randomly dropped participants from the larger cells to ensure that the analyses had cells of nearly equal sizes, (i.e., the n of the largest cell is no more than approximately 1.5 times the n 	 	 38	of the smallest cell) (Hakstian, Roed, & Lind, 1979; Hamilton, 1977; Leech et al., 2005; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). The final assumption was tested and found intact.  Although not included as an assumption of MANCOVA, the examined dependent variables are expected to be related conceptually and correlated at a low to moderate level (Leech et al., 2005). With regards to the present study, the first criterion is satisfied as FSFI total and subscale scores examine aspects of the same construct, i.e., female sexual function. However, the second criterion was not met in my sample as the FSFI total score was too highly correlated to arousal, r = .93, p < .001 and to lubrication, r = 0.91, p < .001. Despite these large correlations, FSFI total score was still included as a separate variable since the aim of this study was to examine both overall female sexual functioning as well as its specific domains.  The MANCOVA yielded a statistically significant main effect for ethnicity,  Wilk’s λ = .89, F(18, 1114.89) = 2.62, p = < .001, partial ɳ2 = .038. This was followed up with univariate ANCOVAs. 			2.3.2 ANCOVA results The assumptions of ANCOVA include: 1) independence of observations, 2) univariate normality, 3) homogeneity of variances, 4) homogeneity of regression slopes, 5) linearity and 6) homoscedasticity (Field, 2005; Leech et al., 2005; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). The first four assumptions were satisfied by experimental design and approximately equal cell sizes, as previously described. The fifth and sixth assumptions were tested and found intact.  With respect to overall sexual function as assessed by FSFI total score, follow-up ANCOVA revealed a significant effect, F(3, 399) = 8.35, p = < .001, partial ɳ2 = .059. Post 	 	 39	hoc analyses revealed that European-Canadian women reported higher overall function than their Japanese (Mdiff = 4.26, p = .003, Cohen’s d = .80) and Korean (Mdiff = 6.55, p < .001, Cohen’s d = 1.15) counterparts while Chinese-Canadian women reported higher overall function than Korean-Canadian women (Mdiff = 4.02, p = .001, Cohen’s d = .43). Please see Figure 1.   Figure 1. Ethnic differences in sexual function as measured by FSFI total score    	 	 40	In regards to specific facets of sexual function, follow-up ANCOVA revealed a significant effect for every FSFI domain score: desire, F(3, 399) = 5.76, p = .001, partial ɳ2 = .042, arousal, F(3, 399) = 10.11, p < .001, partial ɳ2 = .071, lubrication, F(3, 399) = 8.09, p < .001, partial ɳ2 = .06, orgasm, F(3, 399) = 5.24, p = .001, partial ɳ2 = .038, satisfaction, F(3, 399) = 3.076, p = .028, partial ɳ2 = .023, and pain, F(3, 399) = 3.19, p = .024, partial ɳ2 = .023. Post hoc analyses revealed that European-Canadian women reported less difficulties compared to each East Asian group with respect to subjective arousal (Chinese-Canadian, Mdiff = .78, p = .002, Cohen’s d = .75; Japanese-Canadian, Mdiff = .87, p = .003, Cohen’s d = .83; and Korean-Canadian, Mdiff = 1.48, p < .001, Cohen’s d = 1.24). Concerning desire and lubrication, European-Canadian women reported higher function than Japanese-Canadian (desire, Mdiff = .40, p = .02, Cohen’s d = .70; lubrication, Mdiff = 1.03, p = .002, Cohen’s d = .86) and Korean-Canadian women (desire, Mdiff = .67, p < .001, Cohen’s d = 1.01; lubrication, Mdiff = 1.46, p < .001, Cohen’s d = 1.11). With respect to orgasm, pain and satisfaction, European-Canadian women were found to differ in the same direction from only Korean-Canadian women (orgasm, Mdiff = 1.15, p < .001, Cohen’s d = .79; satisfaction, Mdiff = .78, p < .009, Cohen’s d = .38; pain, Mdiff = 1.00, p = .005, Cohen’s d = .35).  Focusing within the three East Asian ethnicities, Chinese-Canadian women reported better functioning than Korean-Canadian women in the following domains: desire (Mdiff = .35, p = .02, Cohen’s d = .52), subjective arousal (Mdiff = .70, p = .003, Cohen’s d = .47), lubrication (Mdiff = .86, p = .001, Cohen’s d = .48), orgasm (Mdiff = .74, p = .005, Cohen’s d = .43), and satisfaction (Mdiff = .69, p = .01, Cohen’s d = .45). Furthermore, Japanese-Canadian 	 	 41	women indicated less difficulties in subjective arousal compared to their Korean peers (Mdiff = .61, p = .02, Cohen’s d = .33). Please see Figure 2.    		 	 1	 	 	 42	    	43		2.4 Discussion 2.4.1 Variations between Chinese-, Japanese-, Korean- and European- Canadian women  In contrast to the tradition of comparing North American individuals of European descent with a merged group comprising different Asian cultures, my study treated the latter as separate entities and delineated differences that would have otherwise been lost in the aggregation. For the first time, Canadian women from different East Asian cultures were each compared to European-Canadian women with respect to global sexual function, as well as its domains: desire, subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, and satisfaction. As hypothesized, differential patterns of differences were uncovered. With respect to overall sexual function, European-Canadian women were found to have higher functioning than Japanese- and Korean-Canadian women, but not Chinese-Canadian woman. While European-Canadian women scored higher than Korean-Canadian women on all facets of function, European-Canadian women indicated having better function compared to Japanese-Canadian women with respect to only three areas: subjective arousal, desire and lubrication. European- and Chinese-Canadian women differed in even fewer sexual function domains with the former reporting less sexual difficulties regarding subjective arousal only.  Not only did European-Canadian women differ from Korean-Canadian women the most with respect to number of statistical differences, an examination of effect sizes reveals that differences were also the most pronounced between these two groups. That is, the three differences with the largest effect sizes were all found between European- and Korean-Canadian women. Specifically, these disparities were in the areas of subjective arousal (i.e., Cohen’s d = 1.25), global sexual function (i.e., Cohen’s d = 1.15) and lubrication (i.e., 	 	 44	Cohen’s d = 1.11).  2.4.2 Variations within East Asian – Canadian women This is also the first study to investigate differences in sexuality between East Asian ethnicities, focusing particularly on female sexual function. Several disparities were discovered. Specifically, Chinese-Canadian women reported higher overall sexual function than their Korean counterparts and with respect to each of the domains measured by FSFI, except for pain (i.e., sexual desire, subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasm and satisfaction). That is, Chinese-Canadian women were found to differ in more sexual function domains when compared to Korean-Canadian women than European-Canadian women. Additionally, Japanese-Canadian women scored higher on subjective arousal than Korean-Canadian women. Together, these results support my hypothesis that female sexual function varies across East Asian ethnicities and challenge the long-held practice of lumping participants of disparate Asian ethnicities into one purportedly homogeneous group. In addition to statistical significance, the practical significance of these differences is denoted by their medium to large effect sizes, ranging from Cohen’s d = .33 to .52, with the difference in subjective arousal between Japanese- and Korean- Canadian women yielding the smallest effect size and the difference in sexual desire between Chinese- and Korean- Canadian women producing the largest effect size.   2.4.3 Explanations for observed patterns in female sexual function  When taken together, the pattern of differences observed in this study suggest that Korean-Canadian women experience the lowest sexual function. While the difference in 	 	 45	sexual function between Korean- and European-Canadian women is not novel to this study and can be attributed to the cultural influences on Asian sexuality that were described in the first chapter, the same influences cannot explain the sexual function disparities between Korean-Canadian women and their Japanese and Chinese peers. However, East Asian differences in religion can potentially account for these results.  Although the religious landscape of Japan, South Korea, and China share similar topography, such as the centrality of Taoist philosophies (Pregadio, 2008) and the prevalence of syncretism (Fisher, 1997), the countries differ notably with respect to religiosity. Recent worldwide polls indicate that South Korea is dramatically more religious than Japan and China (WIN/GIA International, 2014). In 2014, an international polling firm known as the Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA), found that 44% of Korean respondents reported being religious, compared to 13% and 7% of Japanese and Chinese respondents, respectively. A higher religiosity among South Koreans may explain the lower female sexual function found among the Korean-Canadian women in this study, as religion is considered to exert a powerful, adverse influence on human sexuality. Throughout history, the majority of religions have closely regulated sexual behaviour (Regnerus, 2007). Most, if not all, major religions define what is acceptable sexual activity for their followers (Ahrold, Farmer, Trapnell, & Meston, 2011).  Religious beliefs have been long proposed as an important psychological factor in prompting and maintaining female sexual dysfunction in the clinical literature (LoPiccolo & Friedman, 1988). Consistent with this, the scientific study of sexuality and religion has linked religiosity with multiple factors that predict lower sexual functioning, such as conservative sexual attitudes (Davidson, Moore, & Ullstrup, 2004), lower frequency of 	 	 46	sexual fantasy and masturbation (Ahrold et al., 2011; Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953), poorer sexual self-esteem (Abbott, Harris, & Mollen, 2016), more restrictive sociosexual orientation (Bendixen, Asao, Wyckoff, Buss, & Kennair, 2017), and increased sex guilt (Emmers-Sommer, Allen, Schoenbauer, & Burrell, 2018), suggesting that religiosity may negatively influence sexual function through these pathways. Woo and colleagues (2012) recently conducted the first study to test one of these mechanisms. In their study, European- and East Asian – Canadian female undergraduates completed self-report measures of sex guilt, sexual function, and four domains of religiosity: intrinsic religiosity (i.e., the degree to which religion is perceived as influencing one’s daily life; Kirkpatrick & Hood, 1990), spirituality (i.e., the internalized subjective experience of one’s belief in a divine or sacred being; Zinnbauer, Pargament, & Scott, 1999), religious fundamentalism (i.e., the belief in the existence of only one correct religious doctrine and that those who adhere to this doctrine would have a special relationship with the deity; Altemeyer & Hunsberger, 1992), and paranormal belief (i.e., the belief in supernatural phenomena, regardless of whether they are espoused by traditional religions; Irwin, 1993). Their results showed that among both European- and East Asian- Canadian women, sex guilt mediated the relationship between sexual desire and spirituality, as well as between sexual desire and religious fundamentalism. For East Asian – Canadian women only, sex guilt additionally mediated the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and sexual desire. In all three mediational relationships, higher levels of the religious variable were associated with higher sex guilt, which in turn was linked to lower sexual desire. Higher religiosity in South Korean culture may be at least partially driven by the dramatic embrace of Christianity in this country, which has not been seen in China or Japan. 	 	 47	Although Protestant Christians can be found in almost every Asian country, South Korea has experienced the most pronounced and culturally significant Protestant growth (Kim, 2000). Since its introduction in 1884, Protestant Christianity has fiercely competed with Buddhism for popularity in Korea. The Protestant expansion was especially dramatic during the period of modernization from the early 1960’s to the end of the 1980’s. By 1989, nearly one fourth of the 40 million South Korean citizens were Protestant Christian, who attended one of the 29 820 Protestant churches that were overseen by 55 989 pastors (Kim, 2000). In the latest national census conducted in 2015, 27.6% of South Koreans identified as Christians (19.7% as Protestant and 7.9% as Catholic Christians), far surpassing Buddhists at 15.5% as the largest religious group (South Korea National Statistical Office, 2015). Consistent with these figures, Pew Research Center (2010), a nonpartisan think tank based in the United States, estimates the prevalence of Christianity in South Korea to be 29.3%, compared to 1.5% and 5% in Japan and China, respectively. Although the present study did not collect information on participant religious membership, a study on attitudes towards sexual assault that I conducted at the same time did and can shed some light on the religious affiliations of the present study’s participants. Of the female participants (n = 332) in the concurrent study, which also recruited participants from the HSP system and had identical participant eligibility criteria, Korean-Canadian women had the largest portion of Christians, with 74.5% identifying as Christian, compared to 28.4% of Chinese-Canadian women and 29.7% of Japanese-Canadian women. The widespread adoption of Christianity in South Korea is striking and surprising, especially when considering that Christianity has had far less appeal in neighboring countries with similar social organization and cultural traditions (Kim, 2000). In his influential paper, Kim (2000) attributes the widespread adoption of Christianity in 	 	 48	South Korea to the similarities of the imported faith with important concepts and practices of South Korean religious traditions. For example, Christian accounts of the miraculous deeds of Jesus Christ map remarkably well onto the indigenous folk belief in shamans, whose magical powers are often also applied to cure diseases and exorcise evil spirits.  The strong Christian presence in South Korean culture is important to highlight as a further explanation of the lower sexual function among Korean-Canadian woman observed in this study. Christianity is arguably a religion that is at enmity with sexuality. This faith traditionally places a myriad of restrictions on sexual behaviour, such that it should occur within the context of marriage, with the intent of reproduction, not for pleasure, and only involve vaginal penetration to the exclusion of masturbation, oral sex, anal sex, and behaviours between same sex individuals. Such sexual prohibitions are considered especially crucial for female members of the Church (Runkel, 1998). Despite their different origins, Christianity effectively reinforces the conservative sexual teachings from neo-Confucianism. This double dose of sexual conservatism is one possible factor behind the lower sexual function among Korean- Canadian women, who are not only more religious, but also more likely to be Christian compared to their Japanese and Chinese peers.  Another account of the disparity in sexual function between Chinese- and Korean- Canadian women is that the influence of neo-Confucian philosophy, including its prohibitive stance on female sexuality, may be more limited in contemporary Chinese culture as a result of the Cultural Revolution, which aggressively purged neo-Confucian teachings. Formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the Cultural Revolution was a sociopolitical movement that took place from 1966 to 1976 set in motion by the Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Mao Zedong. Its overarching goal was to uphold Communist 	 	 49	ideology by abolition of any remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, which were grouped into the Four Olds: Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits and Old Ideas. Confucianism was quickly identified at the start of the Revolution as one of the olds to be eradicated. In fact, the Party’s desire to dismantle Confucianism was so intense that Mao and his wife created a political propaganda campaign called Criticize Lin Biao, Criticize Confucius for this purpose. As part of this movement, universities created special curricula condemning Confucian teachings for students, as well as workers and peasants. Writings by Confucius were burned and destroyed. Paramilitant units largely comprising high school and college students vandalized historical landmarks related to Confucius, such as the Temple of Confucius and the burial place of Confucius, as a symbolic removal of Confucius’ revered place in Chinese culture (MacFarquhar & Schoenhals, 2006).The impact of the Cultural Revolution is still palpable today in the ongoing cultural identity crisis in contemporary China (Kyong-Dong, 2017). Ironically, recent efforts to fill this void by the current Communist Party have partly consisted of reviving Confucian teachings and this movement has been met with ambivalence (Hammond & Richey, 2015; Kyong-Dong, 2017). As the Communist Party continues their efforts to restore neo-Confucianism, it remains to be seen whether Chinese female sexual function would change accordingly and fall to levels more similar to their Korean counterparts.   2.4.4 Limitations  This study is characterized by limitations that may affect the conclusions that have been drawn. First, participants were university students who were younger, more educated, and had higher socioeconomic statuses than the general population. As a result, the findings 	 	 50	of this study may not apply to the entire population. Furthermore, like nearly all previous studies, the majority of the East Asian participants in the present investigation (i.e., 78%) have undergone emigration first-hand and all of them were living in a country where they were regarded as visible minorities. Because of these unique experiences, it is uncertain whether the study’s results can be generalized to East Asian women living in East Asia, i.e., those who have not left their country of origin. Generalizability seems especially unlikely when taking into consideration the differences that exist between individuals who immigrate and those who remain in their country of origin. For example, previous research has found that those who are more educated, extraverted, and open to experience are more likely to emigrate (Canache, Hayes, Mondak, & Wals, 2013) and these variables have also been found to predict female sexual function (Crisp, Vaccaro, Fellner, Kleeman, & Pauls, 2015; Lianjun et al., 2011). The present investigation did not collect data on participants’ romantic relationship status, which has been found to predict sexual functioning (West, Vinikoor, Zolnoun, 2004). The observed differential levels of sexual function thus may be due to ethnic differences in this demographic variable and warrant follow-up. A final limitation to note is the smaller sample of Japanese-Canadian participants, compared to the size of European-, Korean- and Chinese-Canadian samples, which reflects the fewer number of Japanese-Canadian undergraduate students enrolled at the University of British Columbia (UBC Alma Mater Society, 2017). This limitation is noteworthy as the larger number of differences observed between Chinese- and Korean- Canadian women than with Japanese-Canadian women may be the result of higher statistical power, rather than actual disparities in sexual function.   	 	 51	2.4.5 Future directions  As this study focused on female sexual function, additional efforts are needed to explore differences in male sexual function within East Asia. Researchers also encouraged to examine potential differences in sexual function between Chinese individuals from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China given regional differences in endorsement of Confucian values (Zhang et al., 2005). Follow-up investigations can also build on this study by recruiting participants from outside university campuses. Studies that sample East Asian participants living in East Asia would address concerns regarding the lack of equivalence between East Asians who emigrate and those who stay in their country of origin. Advances in online questionnaire administration and worldwide participant recruitment websites, such as Amazon Mechanical TURK, are making such cross-national comparisons more feasible and economical. The difficulty of recruiting participants from particular ethnocultural groups, such as the one encountered in this study with respect to Japanese-Canadian women, is likely also mitigated by these developments. Lastly, results of this study challenge the common practice of merging individuals from different Asian cultures into one group and raise the possibility that previously documented contradictory results may stem from variations in the composition of the Asian group. To obtain more reliable results and honour the diversity that exists between minority groups, future studies are recommended to sample individuals from a single minority culture or at least report the ethnocultural distribution of their Asian participants.  2.4.6 Conclusions  This study is the first to shine a spotlight on the sexual heterogeneity within East 	 	 52	Asia, instead of obscuring it by merging individuals from different Asian cultures into one group. Our results demonstrate that Japanese-, Chinese- and Korean-Canadian women diverge from each other with respect to their sexual function and show discrepant patterns of differences when compared to European-Canadian women. Indeed, Chinese-Canadian women were found to be more similar to European-Canadian women in their sexual functioning than to Korean-Canadian women. Variations within the East Asian groups are not surprising when one considers discrepancies in religiosity, endorsement in Christian beliefs, and observance of Confucian principles, which serve as possible explanations for the observed differences. Future research is encouraged to use this study as a springboard to delve further into the sexual diversity within East Asia and other parts of the world that are currently treated as homogenous in cross-cultural sex research.              	 	 53	Chapter 3.  Study 2: A Comparison of implicit and explicit sexual attitudes between individuals of Chinese and European descent  3.1 Introduction  Information appears to be processed in at least two ways. The first is an aware, reflective and declarative mode and the second is an unaware, intuitive and procedural mode (Greenwald & Farnham, 2000). Many facets of human behaviour previously assumed to be rooted in deliberate reasoning are now considered to arise from automatic processes occurring outside conscious awareness or control (Moors & De Houwer, 2006). Such dual-process theory is heavily utilized by social psychologists studying attitudes, where deliberate, “explicit” attitudes are differentiated from automatic, “implicit” attitudes (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). While explicit attitudes are often evaluated with self-report measures, implicit attitudes can be assessed using response latency measures (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). The accuracy of measuring explicit attitudes thus depends on the individual’s willingness to disclose, whereas implicit attitudes can be reliably assessed without this criterion (Greenwald et al., 1998). The implicit-explicit attitude distinction is evident in a myriad of research areas, especially those related to sensitive topics where social desirability is of particular concern, such as racial attitudes (Hofmann, Gschwendner, & Castelli, 2008) and gender stereotypes (Ebert, Steffens, & Kroth, 2014). Sexuality is one of few sensitive topics where implicit attitudes remain largely unexplored. To date, the inclusion of implicit attitudes has been largely limited to the study of pedophilia (Babchishin, Nunes, Hermann, 2013), homophobia (Banse, Seise, & Zerbes, 2001), sexual function (Dosch, Belayachi, & Van der Linden, 2016) and condom use (Czopp, Monteith, Zimmerman, & Lynam, 2004). Cross-cultural sexual research has not yet adopted the dual model of attitudes. The inclusion of implicit attitudes in this field would offer two 	 	 54	important advantages. First, issues surrounding social desirability responding and other response biases, which are especially problematic in cross-cultural sex research, can be addressed, as implicit attitudes are largely insensitive to these influences. Second, implicit attitudes have been demonstrated to possess reliable predictive validity of numerous behavioural outcomes, surpassing even self-report measures in some research domains (Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhlmann, & Banaji, 2009), and thus the potential for implicit sexual attitudes to enable better prediction of sexual outcomes is promising. To my knowledge, no study has examined the relation between implicit sexual attitudes and sexual experience.  The present study was the first to adopt a dual approach to sexual attitudes in cross-cultural research by comparing implicit sexual attitudes of individuals of Chinese and European descent. Results may elucidate whether the well-documented East – West attitudinal differences in sexuality would emerge when social desirability responding and other response biases are curtailed. Previous research suggested that Chinese men and women endorse more negative explicit sexual attitudes than their European counterparts (Ahrold & Meston, 2010; Morton & Gorzalka, 2013). However, I hypothesized that no differences would be found with respect to implicit sexual attitudes, as the influence of social desirability responding would be minimized. In addition to testing these primary hypotheses, this study also examined the correspondence of implicit and explicit sexual attitudes, gender differences in these two attitudes, the predictive value of bidimensional acculturation and whether implicit sexual attitudes would predict degree of sexual experience. With respect to these secondary analyses, I hypothesized that: 1) men would report more positive implicit (Geer & Robertson, 2005) and explicit sexual attitudes (Petersen & Hyde, 2010) in both ethnic groups, 2) no correspondence between implicit and explicit sexual attitudes would 	 	 55	emerge for men or women of either ethnicity (Geer & Robertson, 2005), 3) both mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence would predict implicit and explicit sexual attitudes in Chinese women and men (Ahrold & Meston, 2010) and, 4) implicit sexual attitudes would uniquely predict degree of sexual experience over and above explicit sexual attitudes (Greenwald et al., 2009).   3.2 Method   3.2.1 Participants   In order to determine the sample size needed for this study, a priori power analysis was conducted using G*Power software (version 3.1.9.2; Faul, Erdfelder, Lang & Buchner). Based on the power analysis, a total of 328 participants are needed for statistical power of .8 for detecting a medium effect size for each of the four analyses conducted in this study (i.e., f = .25 for ANCOVA, ρ = .3 for Pearson product-moment correlation, and f 2= .15 for multiple hierarchical regression).  A total of 1321 individuals participated in this study. From this initial sample, 470 were excluded due to either identification with an ethnicity other than European or Chinese or data missing for ethnicity, gender, Implicit Association Test (IAT), the Sexual Opinion Survey or Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. An additional 28 participants were discarded as their reaction times on the IAT indicated that their responses were likely invalid (Greenwald, Nosek &, Banaji, 2003). Of the remaining participants, 45 were identified as univariate outliers using adjusted boxplots (Hubert & Vandervieren, 2008) and excluded. In order to create a balanced ANCOVA design that was robust to assumption violations, we randomly dropped 180 participants from the larger cells so that the ratio of the largest to 	 	 56	smallest cell size was within 1.5 (Leech et al., 2005). The final sample comprised 598 participants, of which163 were European women, 163 were Chinese women, 163 were European men, and 109 were Chinese men. Their demographic information is reported in Table 2.                     	 	 57	Table 2. Participant demographic information 	 	 58	3.2.2 Measures    Demographics  The demographics survey (see Appendix B) enquired about participant sex, ethnicity, age, relationship status, duration of current romantic relationship, number of children, country of birth, country of residence, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, educational level, household income, and English language comprehension ability.  Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS; Fisher, White, Byrne, & Kelley, 1988) The Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS; Fisher et al., 1988) was used in this study to assess explicit sexual attitudes. This scale is often employed to measure the dimension of erotophobia – erotophilia, the disposition to respond to sexual cues along a negative – positive dimension of affect and evaluation. Each of the 21 items on the scale describes a positive or negative affective evaluative response to a sexual situation, such as masturbation and sexual fantasy, and is rated on a 7-point scale (from strongly agree to strongly disagree). The SOS has been demonstrated to possess good test-retest reliability (r, range = .80 to .85, Fisher, 1998; Tanner & Pollack, 1988) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, range = .76 – .89; Fisher,1998; Birnbaum & Gillath, 2006). For this study’s sample, the SOS was found to possess good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.87). Evidence supporting the construct validity of the SOS has steadily accumulated since the scale was published. For example, SOS scores have been found to be predictive of subjective sexual arousal (Nobre et al., 2004), sexual anxiety (Cyranowski & Andersen, 1998), and sexual behaviour (Durant, Carey, & Schroder, 2002). Participants of East Asian and European descent have previously been found to differ in SOS scores, with East Asians scoring higher on erotophobia (Wright & Reise, 1997).  	 	 59	Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998) The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998), programmed using Inquisit (2010), was used to measure implicit sexual attitudes. The IAT is a computer-administered task that measures implicit attitudes by determining the strength of association between concepts, operationalized by reaction time. In this study, participants were initially instructed to classify exemplars of the two target concepts, sexual and non-sexual, as quickly as possible by pressing one of two keys on a computer keyboard (i.e., the d key with left hand for sexual and the k key with right hand for non-sexual). Exemplars were presented individually. Next, participants sorted exemplars of two contrasted attributes, positive and negative, using the same keys (i.e., the d key with left hand for positive and the k key with right hand for negative). Participants then completed a combined task, where exemplars from all four concepts were displayed and each concept was assigned to one of the two keys used in the earlier blocks (e.g., the d key for sexual and positive, the k key for non-sexual and negative). Participants subsequently completed another combined block, but this time the pairings were reversed (e.g., the d key for non-sexual and positive, the k key for sexual and negative). The IAT effect is based on the difference in the average latency between the two combined tasks such that shorter response times for the sexual-positive/non-sexual-negative task than for the non-sexual-positive/sexual-negative task was interpreted as a stronger association of sexual with positive than with negative. Seven blocks were administered in total: three classification blocks and four combination blocks (Greenwald et al., 1998). Blocks were counterbalanced across participants to minimize order effects. The following words were used for the nonsexual category: Orange, Spoon, Tongs, Envelope, Microwave, Oven, Recipe, Restaurant, Salt, Sandwich, and Telephone (Geer & 	 	 60	Robertson, 2005).  The following words were used for the sexual category: Clitoris, Ejaculate, Intercourse, Masturbate, Nipples, Orgasm, Penis, Semen, Testicles, Vagina, and Arousal (Geer & Robertson, 2005). The following words were used for the positive category: Happy, Laughter, Gift, Miracle, Cheer, Peace, Freedom, Honor, Heaven, Sunrise, and Paradise (Brauer, Leeuwen, Janssen, Newhouse, Heiman, & Laan, 2012; Greenwald et al., 1998).  The following words were used for the negative category: Abuse, Filth, Grief, Pollute, Ugly, Evil, Rotten, Accident, Disaster, Agony, and Assault (Brauer et al., 2012; Greenwald et al., 1998). Psychometric properties of the IAT have been the subject of many studies (e.g., Greenwald & Farnham, 2000; Nosek & Smyth, 2007). According to this extensive body of literature, the IAT possesses good internal reliability (e.g., Cronbach’s alpha = .79 averaged across 50 studies; Hofmann, Gawronski, Gschwendner, & Schmitt, 2005) and test-retest reliability (median value of r = .56 across nine studies; Nosek, Greenwald, & Banaji, 2007). With respect to predictive validity, a meta-analysis of 122 studies encompassing 184 independent samples and 14 900 participants found a mean r = .27 for prediction of behaviours, judgments and physiological responses across a diverse range of psychological research (Greenwald et al., 2009). Moreover, IAT measures are relatively robust to procedural variations (Greenwald et al., 1998) and differences in participants’ familiarity with IAT stimuli (Dasgupta, McGhee, Greenwald, & Banaji, 2000).   	 	 61	Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI; Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1979) The Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI; Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1979) is a standardized, multifaceted measure of sexual function consisting of 254 items divided into ten subscales: Information, Experience, Drive, Attitudes, Psychological Symptoms, Affects, Gender Role, Fantasy, Body Image and Satisfaction. The DSFI Experience subscale was used in this study to measure participants’ degree of sexual experience. It comprises 24 items with each inquiring whether the respondent has ever engaged in a specific sexual act, ranging from kissing to anal sex. Scores range from 0 to 24, with a higher score indicating a broader spectrum of lifetime sexual experience. The DSFI Experience subscale has been found to possess good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, range = .60 – .97) and good test-retest reliability (r, range = .76 – .91) (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1979). For this study’s sample, the DSFI Experience subscale was found to possess excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.97).  Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA; Ryder et al., 2000) The Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) was administered to measure the degree to which participants have acculturated to mainstream North American culture and adhered to their heritage culture. A description of the VIA can be found in section 2.2.2 of the previous chapter. In this study’s sample, both cultural dimensions of the VIA were found to possess good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .92 for heritage dimension and .85 for mainstream dimension).   3.2.3 Procedure  Participant recruitment was conducted through two means: the University of British 	 	 62	Columbia Department of Psychology HSP System and the online crowdsourcing website, Amazon Mechanical Turk.  In both systems, the study was described to entail a computer reaction time task with sexual stimuli and questionnaires inquiring about one’s sexuality and demographics. Participants were also informed of the three inclusion criteria for participation: fluency in English, ages 18 or older and comfort with sexual material. Individuals interested in participating were directed to click on a link, which would take them to the study.  On the study website, participants first encountered the consent form, which assured the confidentiality of their responses and their right to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. As the order of the questionnaires and IAT was counterbalanced, half of the participants completed the IAT first and the other half the questionnaires first. Upon submitting their completed questionnaires and IAT online, participants received a debriefing form, which provided further details about the study and contact information for the investigators in the event participants wanted to ask questions or express concerns. After the debriefing, those who participated through the HSP System were awarded with course credits, and those who participated through Amazon Mechanical Turk were awarded $1 USD. No identifying information was collected from the participants at any point during this study. All procedures were approved by the UBC Behavioural Research Ethics Board.   3.2.4 Data analysis  All data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. IAT data was collected with the software Inquisit created by Millisecond Software (Version 5.0.5.0.; Millisecond Software, 2016).  Inquisit scores participant responses according to the 	 	 63	improved scoring algorithm described in Greenwald, Nosek and Benaji (2003). In this algorithm, slow trials (i.e., latency > 10,000 ms) were eliminated and block means were calculated without these latency scores. Data from subjects who responded to 10% or more of trials with latency that is less than 300ms were considered invalid and eliminated from the dataset (n = 28). With regards to error trials, Inquisit requires participants to correct an error response before proceeding to the next trial. When calculating total D score, the sum of the error response latency and the corrected response latency is used as the scored latency for such trials.  In order to examine if explicit sexual attitudes differ by gender or ethnicity (i.e., European and Chinese), a two-way ANCOVA was conducted. A second two-way ANCOVA was performed to determine if implicit sexual attitudes also varied by gender or ethnicity. Next, four Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed to assess the relationships between explicit and implicit sexual attitudes for European men, European women, Chinese men, and Chinese women. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the predictive value of bidimensional acculturation on explicit and implicit sexual attitudes above and beyond demographic variables in Chinese men and women. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was also used to assess whether implicit sexual attitudes predicted range of sexual experience over and above explicit sexual attitudes and relevant demographic variables in European participants and Chinese participants separately. Procedures described in Study 1 for Type I error rate control and effect size calculations were also applied to Study 2.   	 	 64	3.3 Results   3.3.1 Gender and ethnic differences in implicit and explicit sexual attitudes The assumptions of ANCOVA include: 1) independence of observations, 2) homogeneity of variances, 3) normality, 4) homogeneity of regression slopes, 5) linearity, and 6) homoscedasticity. The first assumption was satisfied by the experimental design. With respect to the second, third, and fourth assumptions, the performed ANCOVA test was robust to violation as participants were randomly discarded from the larger cells to ensure that the analyses had cells of nearly equal sizes, (i.e., the n of the largest cell is no more than about 1.5 times the n of the smallest cell) (Leech et al., 2005; Levy, 1980; Pituch & Stevens, 2015). The fifth and sixth assumptions were tested and found intact.  Participant education and age were included as covariates to control statistically for their effects, as previous research has demonstrated these demographic variables to predict sexual attitudes (Mercer et al., 2013; Twenge, Sherman, & Wells, 2015).  With respect to explicit sexual attitudes as assessed by SOS total score, the two way ANCOVA revealed a significant effect of ethnicity, F(1, 594) = 52.84, p < .001, partial ɳ2 = .082, with European participants reporting more positive explicit sexual attitudes than Chinese participants, Mdiff = 12.63, Cohen’s d = 0.63.  No significant main effect of gender, F(1, 594) = 0.18, p = .67, partial ɳ2 = 0, or interaction effect was found, F(1, 594) = 0.07, p = .78 ɳ2 = 0. Please see Figure 3.     	 	 65	Figure 3. Ethnic difference in explicit sexual attitudes as measured by SOS total score  	   In regards to implicit sexual attitudes as assessed by IAT D score, the two way ANCOVA revealed a significant effect of ethnicity, F(1, 594) = 6.48, p = .01, partial ɳ2 = .011 with European participants found to have more positive implicit sexual attitudes than Chinese participants, Mdif f= .01 Cohen’s d = 0.23.  No significant main effect of gender, F(1, 594) = 2.86, p = .11 ɳ2 = .005, or interaction effect was found, F(1, 594) = 2.86, p = .10, ɳ2 = 0. Please see Figure 4.  	 	 66	Figure 4. Ethnic difference in implicit sexual attitudes as measured by IAT D score   3.3.2 Correlations between implicit and explicit sexual attitudes The assumptions of Pearson product-moment correlation include: 1) variables measured at the interval or ratio level, 2) linearity, and 3) normality. The first assumption was satisfied by the experimental design. The second and third assumptions were tested and found intact. A positive correlation between explicit and implicit sexual attitudes was found for European women, r(163) = .22, p = .004 as well as for Chinese women, r(163) = .22, p = .004.  Implicit and explicit sexual attitudes were not correlated for European men, r(163) = .13, p = .10, or Chinese men, r(109) = - .05, p = .60.   	 	 67	3.3.3 Bidimensional acculturation as predictors of sexual attitudes The assumptions of multiple hierarchical regression include: 1) the dependent variable should be measured on a continuous scale, 2) there should be two or more independent variables measured on a continuous or categorical scale, 3) independence of observations, 4) linearity, 5) homoscedasticity of residuals, 6) absence of multicollinearity, and 7) normality. The first three assumptions were satisfied by the experimental design. The latter four assumptions were tested and found intact. Please see Table 3 for bivariate correlations of the variables included in the regressions.   Table 3. Bivariate correlations of all variables   	 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Mean age in years —- .30** .17 -.16 .07 -.12 2. Mean education level in years .51** —- .11 -.06 .15 -.23*† 3. VIA Mainstream .03 .03 —- .24* .42** -.08 4. VIA Heritage .09 .11 .07 —- -.01 .16 5. SOS .18*† .08 .34** -.14 —- -.05 6. IAT .06 -.04 .06 -.08 .22** —-  Note: Chinese men’s correlations are listed in the top diagonal, and Chinese women’s correlations are listed in the bottom diagonal. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. † = not significant after FDR correction.  To determine the ability of bidimensional acculturation to predict explicit sexual attitudes, two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, one for Chinese male participants and the other for Chinese female participants. For both analyses, demographic variables previously found to predict sexual attitudes, i.e., education and age (Mercer et al., 2013; Twenge et al., 2015), were included in the first step. Mainstream acculturation,  heritage culture adherence and their interaction term were entered in the second step.  	 	 68	For Chinese men, the full model of age, education, mainstream acculturation, and heritage culture adherence to predict explicit sexual attitudes was statistically significant. The addition of mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence to predict explicit sexual attitudes led to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above age and education (∆R2 = .20, p < .001, f2  = 0.25). Mainstream acculturation, β = .46, p <.001, independently predicted explicit sexual attitudes above and beyond age and education, but neither heritage culture adherence, β = - .21, p = .03,  nor the interaction term,  β = .02, p = .85,  did.  Specifically, greater mainstream acculturation was associated with more positive explicit sexual attitudes. Please see Table 4.   Table 4. Predicting explicit sexual attitudes as measured by SOS total score in Chinese men and women in relation to bidimensional acculturation as measured by VIA total score   Chinese men  Chinese women Variable  β SE R2 ∆R2  β SE R2 ∆R2 Step 1:           Age  .04 0.55    .19*† 1.23    Education  .15 0.65 .03 .03  -.02 1.05 .02 .03 Step 2:           Heritage culture adherence -.21*†  1.20    -.11 1.27    Mainstream acculturation .46*** 1.15    .30** 1.27    Mainstream * Heritage  .02 .72 .23*** .20***  .08 .98 .17*** .13*** Note: n = 109 Chinese men, n = 163 Chinese women. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. † = not significant after FDR correction.  	 	 69	With respect to Chinese women, the full model of age, education, mainstream acculturation, and heritage culture adherence to predict explicit sexual attitudes was statistically significant. The addition of mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence to predict explicit sexual attitudes led to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above age and education (∆R2 = .13, p < .001, f2 = 0.15). While mainstream acculturation independently predicted explicit sexual attitudes above and beyond age and education, β = .30, p < .01, neither heritage culture adherence, β = - .11, p = .15, nor  the interaction term β = .08, p = .28, did. Specifically, higher mainstream acculturation was associated with more positive sexual attitudes. Please see Table 4. To determine the ability of bidimensional acculturation to predict implicit sexual attitudes, two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, one for Chinese male participants and the other for Chinese female participants. Again, for both analyses, participant education and age were included in the first step and mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence were entered in the second step.  For Chinese men, the full model of age, education, mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence to predict implicit sexual attitudes was not statistically significant. The addition of mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence to predict implicit sexual attitudes did not lead to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above age and education (∆R2 = .06, p = .06, f2 = 0.06). Mainstream acculturation, β = - .08, p = .45, heritage culture adherence, β = .14, p = .16, and their interaction term, β = - .14, p =.14, did not emerge as significant individual predictors of implicit sexual attitudes above and beyond age and education. Please see Table 5. 	 	 70	Table 5. Predicting implicit sexual attitudes as measured by IAT D score in Chinese men and women in relation to bidimensional acculturation as measured by VIA total score  Chinese men  Chinese women Variable  β SE R2 ∆R2  β SE R2 ∆R2 Step 1:          Age  -.01 0.01    .10 0.02   Education  -.03 0.01 .06 .06*†   -.09 0.02 .01 .01 Step 2:          Heritage culture adherence .14 0.03    -.06 0.02   Mainstream acculturation -.08 0.03    .04 0.02     Mainstream *Heritage  -.14 0.02 .06 .04  .07 0.02 .02 .01 Note: n = 109 Chinese men, n = 163 Chinese women. *p < .05. † = not significant after FDR correction.  For Chinese women, the full model of age, education, mainstream acculturation, and heritage culture adherence to predict implicit sexual attitudes was not statistically significant. The addition of mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence to predict implicit sexual attitudes did not lead to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above age and education (∆R2 = .01, p = .58, f2 = 0.01). Mainstream acculturation, β = .04, p = .64, heritage culture adherence, β = -.06, p = .49, and their interaction term β = .07, p = .41, did not emerge as significant individual predictors of implicit sexual attitudes above and beyond age and education. Please see Table 5.      	 	 71	3.3.4 Implicit sexual attitudes as predictor of range of sexual experience The assumptions for multiple hierarchical regression were reviewed above and using the same methods for assumption testing, no violations were found for this set of analyses. Bivariate correlations are reported in Table 6.   Table 6. Bivariate correlations of all variables  Variable  1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Mean age in years —- .35*** -.15* .11 -.03 .27*** 2. Mean education level in years .24** —- .06 .10 -.14*† .21** 3. Participant Gender  -.25** .01 —- .00 -.13*† .12 4. SOS -.08 .04 .01 —- .13*† .26*** 5. IAT D Scores -.01 .03 .03 .18** —- .12 6. DSFI-Experience -.09 -.01 .13* .18** .15** —-  Note. Chinese participants’ correlations are listed in the top diagonal, and European participants’ correlations are listed in the bottom diagonal. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. Gender dummy coded as: Male = 0, Female = 1. † = not significant after FDR correction.  To determine the ability of implicit sexual attitudes to predict range of sexual experience over and above explicit sexual attitudes, two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, one for Chinese participants and the other for European participants. For both analyses, demographic variables previously found to predict sexual experience, i.e., gender (Petersen & Hyde, 2010), education (Laumann, 1994), and age (Twenge et al.,2015), were included in the first step, explicit sexual attitudes was entered in the second step, and implicit sexual attitudes was entered in the third and final step.   Among European participants, the full model of gender, age, education, explicit sexual attitudes, and implicit sexual attitudes to predict range of sexual experience was 	 	 72	statistically significant. The addition of explicit sexual attitudes to the prediction of sexual experience led to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above gender, age, and education, such that more positive explicit sexual attitudes was associated with a wider range of sexual experience (∆R2 = .03 , p  = .01, f2 = 0.03). The addition of implicit sexual attitudes to the prediction of sexual experience also led to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above explicit sexual attitudes, gender, age, and education, such that more positive implicit sexual attitudes was associated with a larger range of sexual experience (∆R2 = .01 , p < .001, f2 = .01). Please see Table 7.   Table 7. Predicting Sexual Experience as measured by the DSFI experience subscale in the European and Chinese samples in Relation to Sexual Attitudes 	 Chinese 	 European Variable  β SE R2 ∆R2 	  β SE R2 ∆R2 Step 1: 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	Age .25*** 0.23 	 	 	 -.06 0.03 	 	Education .11 0.26 	 	 	 .00 0.14 	 	Gender  .15* 1.08 .11*** .11*** 	 .12* 0.65 .14 .02 Step 2: 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	SOS .22*** 0.03 .16*** .05*** 	 .18*** 0.14 .23*** .03*** Step 3: 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	IAT D Scores .13* 1.54 .17*** .02*** 	 .12* 1.05 .26*** .01**  Note: n = 326 European participants, n = 272 Chinese participants. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001   For Chinese participants, the full model of gender, age, education, explicit sexual attitudes, and implicit sexual attitudes to predict range of sexual experience was also 	 	 73	statistically significant. The addition of explicit sexual attitudes to the prediction of sexual experience led to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above gender, age, and education, such that more positive explicit sexual attitudes was associated with a wider range of sexual experience (∆R2 = .05, p < .001, f2 = 0.05). The addition of implicit sexual attitudes to the prediction of sexual experience also led to a statistically significant increase in R2 over and above explicit sexual attitudes, gender, age, and education, such that more positive implicit sexual attitudes was associated with a larger range of sexual experience (∆R2 = .02, p < .001, f2 = 0.02). Please see Table 7.   3.4 Discussion 3.4.1 Implicit and explicit sexual attitudes among Chinese and European men and women  This study found European participants reporting more positive explicit sexual attitudes, as indexed by the SOS, and implicit sexual attitudes, as assessed by the IAT, than Chinese participants. The finding that European individuals endorsed more positive explicit sexual attitudes compared to their Chinese counterparts is consistent with previous literature (Ahrold & Meston, 2010; Meston et al., 1998). This disparity is likely a reflection of various social, religious and cultural differences. For example, Confucianism, a humanistic religion that has had a profound influence on Chinese culture, tends to view sexuality in a negative light (Shim, 2001) and may be one reason behind the more sexually conservative stance in Chinese individuals.  Two major schools of thought have emerged on the nature of implicit - explicit attitudes and my results can be interpreted in these two ways. The single-representation 	 	 74	account considers implicit and explicit attitudes to be a unitary construct and attributes differences between them to the method of measurement (Fazio & Olson, 2014). Specifically, this perspective suggests that implicit measures, such as the IAT, tap into attitudes before conscious control can be initiated, whereas explicit measures, such as questionnaires, tap into attitudes after they have been altered by intentional processes. From this perspective, our results support the interpretation that previously found differences in sexual attitudes between Eastern and Western cultures likely reflect a true attitudinal difference. That is, the difference found in implicit sexual attitudes between European and Chinese individuals demonstrate that these disparities exist independent of cultural variations in response biases. Interestingly, the European - Chinese difference in explicit sexual attitudes was of a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.63), whereas only a small effect size in difference was found for implicit sexual attitudes (Cohen’s d = 0.23). When these effect sizes are considered conjointly with results from statistical significance testing, our findings indicate that European individuals do hold more positive attitudes towards sex than their Chinese peers, but that the magnitude of difference may be exaggerated by response biases when such attitudes are explicitly measured. Contrary to the single-representation account, the dual-representation account considers implicit and explicit attitudes to be distinct constructs (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995; Strack & Deutsch, 2004). Several researchers in this camp conceptualize implicit attitudes as associative-based (i.e., the association between the attitude object with an emotional valence) and explicit attitudes as belief-based (i.e., built on propositions that are deemed valid). For example, Strack and Deutsch (2004) posited in their reflective-impulsive model that explicit attitudes, as part of the reflective system, stem from 	 	 75	facts and values held by the individual, whereas implicit attitudes, as part of the impulsive system, result from simple associations between stimuli through repeated learning trials.     The dual-representation account of implicit-explicit attitudes suggests that my finding of the European - Chinese difference in implicit sexual attitudes is independent of and entirely novel from previous research on explicit sexual attitudes. Through this theoretical lens, my results suggest that compared to Chinese individuals, European individuals have both more positive emotional valence and propositionally structured beliefs related to sexuality, which may reflect more positive early and current sexual experiences, respectively.   Contrary to my hypothesis, I did not find a gender difference in explicit or implicit sexual attitudes in either Chinese or European participants. This is in contrast to previous literature, which has mostly found men to endorse more positive explicit sexual attitudes (Geer, Judice, & Jackson, 1994) and implicit sexual attitudes (Geer & Robertson, 2005). Instead, my findings appear to corroborate the emerging trend that gender differences in sexual attitudes may be diminishing (Peterson & Hyde, 2010; 2011). This phenomenon can be attributed to advancements in gender equality. According to social structural theory, psychological gender differences, including those in attitudes and values, are a result of gender differences in power (Eagly & Wood, 1999). Traditionally, men have been the breadwinner in heterosexual relationships and in many societies, the role of breadwinner has been associated with greater power, compared to the role of caregiver often allocated to women (Eagly & Wood, 1999). In recent decades, the gender gap in power is closing, as evidenced by greater gender parity in economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political representation (Leopold, Ratcheva, & Zahidi, 2016). For Chinese individuals in particular, the introduction of the one-child policy has inadvertently further 	 	 76	advanced gender equality in China, as daughters no longer had to compete with sons for family resources and parental attention (Kim, Brown, & Fong, 2017). Our finding of the absence of gender difference in implicit and explicit sexual attitudes may be one of many consequences arising from the shift towards gender equality in China and worldwide, as consistent with social structural theory.   3.4.2 Correspondence between explicit and implicit sexual attitudes My hypothesis that explicit and implicit sexual attitudes would not be correlated was partially supported. Specifically, no correlations were found for Chinese and European men, but a small, positive association was present among Chinese and European women. The observed small to no correlations are unsurprising from both the single-representation and dual-representation accounts of implicit - explicit attitudes. From the first perspective, significant explicit-implicit correspondence is expected only when there is little motivation or insufficient cognitive resources to engage in impression management and control responses on explicit attitudinal measures (Nosek, 2005). However, in the present study, participants were likely both motivated to engage in impression management, as sexual attitudes are a sensitive topic, and had the cognitive resources to do so if they followed our instructions to complete the study in an environment without distractions. From the dual-representation account, the little to absence of correspondence observed in this study is often expected, as implicit and explicit attitudes are theorized to be distinct constructs (Nosek, 2005). The gender disparity in explicit - implicit attitudinal correspondence, where a small, positive correlation was found in women and no correlation was found in men, was an unexpected, novel finding with respect to sexual attitudes, although the same asymmetry has 	 	 77	been found with respect to self-esteem (Pelham et al., 2005) and trait anxiety (Egloff & Schmukle, 2004). This result may reflect a gender difference in the degree of importance assigned to sexual attitudes. Karpinski and colleagues (2005) found importance of the attitudinal object to be a moderator of implicit-explicit attitudinal correspondence, such that stronger correspondence is observed for important subjects. Although gender differences in the perceived importance of sexual attitudes have not been directly investigated, it is conceivable that women place greater weight on sexual matters than men, given that sexual behaviours carry more consequences for them in at least two ways: greater parental investment in the event of a pregnancy (Buss, 1999) and a higher risk of encountering negative social judgement due to the sexual double standard (Mollen & Mootz, 2013; Zaikman & Marks, 2014).  Another potential explanation of this unexpected finding concerns gender differences in response style. Previous research has shown that correspondence in explicit and implicit attitudes increases when one takes a more affective approach to explicit measures, where a larger focus is on one’s feelings about the attitudinal object, compared to a solely cognitive approach, where only thoughts and beliefs are considered (Smith & Nosek, 2011). Given the literature that points to girls being socialized to relate to their emotions more positively (Chaplin & Aldao, 2013) and women having superior emotional insight (Thayer & Johnsen, 2000), it is conceivable that the higher implicit - explicit correspondence observed among women in this and other studies stems from better incorporation of feelings when completing self-report measures. However, it is important to note that research studies on gender differences in emotions have not always found consistent results. For example, while some studies have found women to experience more intense emotions than men (Fujita, Diener, & 	 	 78	Sandvik, 1991), another study demonstrated that when retrospective bias was minimized, women and men showed no difference in emotional intensity (Barrett, Robin, Pietromonaco, & Eyssell, 1998). More research is needed to clarify the nature of gender differences in emotionality and how it may be related to implicit - explicit attitudinal correspondence.    3.4.3 Bidimensional acculturation as predictors of sexual attitudes   Based on previous findings on the effects of bidimensional acculturation on sexual attitudes in East Asians, I hypothesized that heritage cultural adherence and mainstream acculturation would predict explicit and implicit sexual attitudes in Chinese women and men. This hypothesis was only partially supported. With regards to explicit sexual attitudes, I found that mainstream acculturation, but not heritage culture adherence, provided significant explanation above and beyond age and years of education for both Chinese men and women, with higher mainstream acculturation predictive of more positive explicit sexual attitudes. However, neither heritage culture adherence nor mainstream acculturation predicted implicit sexual attitudes in Chinese men and women.  Whereas this study found the same result for Chinese women and men, past studies reported a gender difference, such that East Asian women’s explicit sexual attitudes depended on the interaction between mainstream acculturation and heritage culture adherence (Ahrold & Meston, 2010; Brotto et al., 2005). Brotto and colleagues (2005; 2007) attributed the gender difference to Confucian values being more restrictive on female sexuality. However, as noted in the previous section, recent decades have witnessed significant steps taken towards gender equality worldwide, but particularly in China (Kim et al., 2017) and my finding of an absence of gender difference with respect to bidimensional 	 	 79	acculturation may be another reflection of this social change.  The inconsistencies in our results compared to past findings may also be due to differences in the samples used. My study focused on Chinese participants, rather than East Asians more broadly. When taken into consideration that East Asian cultures are not homogenous and in fact diverge in important ways (Study 1; Zhang et al., 2005), it is not surprising my results on Chinese participants do not correspond to those based on heterogeneous East Asian samples.   Contrary to my hypothesis, acculturation did not significantly add to the explanatory model for implicit sexual attitudes. One possible explanation of this finding concerns the timing in the formation of implicit attitudes. A growing body of research is demonstrating that implicit attitudes are likely to develop in early childhood (Cvencek, Greenwald, & Meltzoff, 2011) and then remain largely stable (Baron & Banaji, 2006). As such, in order for acculturation to influence implicit sexual attitudes, exposure to the mainstream culture would have to occur in early childhood, an experience that is unlikely to characterize all of the Chinese participants in the present study since two-thirds were born in East Asia. Furthermore, acculturation is not completed at the initial exposure to the mainstream culture, but rather is a process of continuous change brought on by repeated contact with individuals from different cultural origins (Redfield, Linton, & Herskovits, 1936) and a phenomenon that unfolds throughout an immigrant’s life. Therefore, even if individuals did emigrate during early childhood, the impact of acculturation likely would not be fully realized until after the sensitive period of implicit attitude formation.     	 	 80	3.4.4 Sexual experience predicted by implicit sexual attitudes  In support of my hypothesis, implicit sexual attitudes provided significant explanation for a range of sexual experience, as measured by the DSFI Experience subscale, for both European and Chinese individuals above and beyond age, years of education, gender, as well as explicit sexual attitudes. Specifically, more positive implicit sexual attitudes predicted a greater range of sexual experiences.  The prediction of sexual experience from implicit sexual attitudes was expected based on the Motivation and Opportunity as Determinants (MODE) Model of behaviours, which postulates that implicit attitudes would exert a greater influence on behaviour when there is a lack of cognitive resources or motivation to behave in a deliberate manner (Fazio & Olson, 1994). Given sexual encounters often involve some degree of sexual arousal, which increases motivation to have sex at the expense of other considerations (Ariely & Loewenstein, 2005), sexual situations are likely conducive for implicit attitudes to guide behaviour. My results support this idea.  3.4.5 Limitations  This study is characterized by limitations that may affect the conclusions that have been drawn. My use of voluntary samples renders the results susceptible to self-selection bias. Most of the participants in this study were undergraduate students and therefore younger, more educated, and of higher socioeconomic status than the general population. This limits the potential generalizability of findings. Another limitation of the present study is that the relation between bidimensional acculturation and sexual attitudes was investigated using only an explicit measure of bidimensional acculturation. Although it is possible that 	 	 81	bidimensional acculturation was not found predictive of implicit sexual attitudes due to the early formation and relative stability of implicit cognition, it is also conceivable that this finding is simply the product of the correspondence in measurement tool, such that when two constructs are measured in a similar way, a relation between them is more likely found (Payne, Burkley, & Stokes, 2008).   3.4.6 Future directions   In addition to addressing the above limitations, future research can build on the present study’s results in multiple directions. Although gender was not the primary focus of my study, the unexpected gender differences and similarities that emerged warrant further empirical attention. For example, I found no gender difference in explicit or implicit sexual attitudes, which I posited as a consequence of increased gender equality. Future work can test this explanation by examining gender differences in explicit and implicit sexual attitudes in countries with different levels of gender parity. This explanation can also be tested using participants from the same country by evaluating gender differences between segments of the population that have been demonstrated to differ in views on gender equality, such as those who are politically conservative versus liberal (Ciabattari, 2001). Moreover, research can extend our finding of implicit sexual attitudes being predictive of range of sexual experience by delineating the types of sexual behaviour best explained by implicit sexual attitudes. One potential research direction to explore, as informed by the Mode Model (Fazio & Olson, 2014), is risky sexual behaviours (e.g., one-night-stands) engaged under the influence of alcohol (Scott-Sheldon, Carey, & Carey, 2010), which depletes cognitive resources.   	 	 82	3.4.7 Conclusions  This study is the first to adopt a dual approach for examining ethnocultural differences in sexual attitudes. It found that European individuals hold more positive implicit and explicit sexual attitudes than their Chinese peers. This corroborates previous findings that relied only on self-report measures. A dual approach was also applied to elucidate the relation between bidimensional acculturation and sexual attitudes. In both Chinese men and women, mainstream acculturation was found predictive of explicit sexual attitudes, but neither facet of acculturation predicted implicit sexual attitudes. The lack of predictive power of bidimensional acculturation on implicit sexual attitudes supports the idea that implicit attitudes may be more immutable and remain a strong driving force behind cultural variations in sexual behaviours, even as explicit attitudes may become more Westernized. Although gender was not the primary focus of the present study, two unexpected findings emerged. Specifically, the well-established pattern of men reporting more positive sexual attitudes was absent and a novel gender difference was uncovered, such that women showed a small, positive explicit-implicit attitudinal correlation while no relationship was found in men. Lastly, this study found that implicit sexual attitudes predicted a range of sexual experience above and beyond explicit sexual attitudes, highlighting the utility of implicit cognition in improving our understanding of important sexual outcomes. Ideally, the present collection of findings would encourage other researchers to also adopt a dual approach toward addressing other important questions in the field of cross-cultural sex research.      	 	 83	Chapter 4.  Study 3: Ethnicity, sexual arousal and the derogation effect  4.1 Introduction   Several replication studies have called into question the robustness of relationship maintenance mechanisms across conditions. For example, with respect to inattention to attractive others, Maner and colleagues (2009) reported two experiments demonstrating that this effect emerged only when participants were primed with the goal of mating. Success in replicating the derogation effect has also been inconsistent. In another multi-study paper, Visserman and Karremans (2014) examined whether single and romantically involved participants would exhibit the derogation effect in the evaluation and the recall of an attractive alternative’s positive and negative qualities (e.g., tardiness, helpfulness). Consistent with the derogation effect, they predicted that attached participants would evaluate the alternative’s negative qualities as more negative and their positive qualities as less positive, as well as recall less of their positive qualities and more of their negative qualities. To their surprise, single and romantically involved participants in the first study did not differ in their recall or evaluation of positive traits or negative traits of the attractive alternative. Visserman and Karremans (2014) found partial support for the derogation effect in their second study after tweaking the method (i.e., participants were no longer told they would interact with the alternative). Specifically, single and attached participants differed in their evaluation of the alternative’s negative qualities in the predicted direction, but other results remained non-significant. Their third study manipulated the attractiveness level of the alternative and found that participants in relationships recalled more negative qualities for the attractive alternative. Attractiveness of the alternative did not affect recall of positive qualities or evaluations of positive or negative qualities. Moreover, relationship quality was 	 	 84	not correlated with evaluation or recall among attached participants in any of the three studies.  In direct contradiction to the relationship maintenance process of inattention to attractive others, van Dillen, Papies and Hofmann (2013) found that participants in a relationship displayed more attention to attractive faces than to unattractive faces, but that single participants did not differ in their attention towards attractive versus unattractive faces. To determine the robustness of the derogation effect, Study 3 tests for it using methods based on Ritter and colleagues (2010), which found a derogation effect. These methods were used by another study, which also observed the derogation effect (Meyer et al., 2011). Study 3 additionally addressed whether the derogation effect would be observed in men, since the majority of participants in previous studies were women (e.g., 70% and 66% in the two studies reported in Ritter et al., 2010; 75% and 66% in the two studies reported in Cole et al., 2016). Furthermore, Miller (1997) found men paid more attention to attractive others compared to women and van Dillen and colleagues (2013) found the reverse derogation effect in their study that focused on men. I hypothesized that Study 3 would replicate the derogation effect in women and men of European descent, with the latter exhibiting a smaller effect.  Given the absence of cross-cultural research on the derogation effect, the present study examined this relationship maintenance mechanism in individuals of Chinese and European descent, whose cultures are expected to differ with respect to relational mobility with the latter experiencing more freedom to initiate and terminate relationships. Based on this cultural difference, as well as previous research on the positive illusion (Endo et al., 2000) and inattention to attractive alternatives (Ma, Zhao, Tu, & Zheng, 2015), I 	 	 85	hypothesized that the derogation effect would be absent among Chinese men and women, but present in their peers of European descent.  The fields of human sexuality and close relationships operate largely independently, despite the fact that most dyadic sexual behaviour occurs in the context of ongoing romantic relationships (Willetts, Sprecher, & Beck, 2004). As a step towards integrating the literature, this study examined the influence of sexual arousal on the derogation effect. The state of sexual arousal has been shown to affect decision-making and judgment, such that a wider range of sexual partners and activities becomes appealing, ethics related to sexual activity become less concerning, and risks of sexual activity are trivialized (Ariely & Loewenstein, 2006). In essence, sexual arousal is thought to narrow the focus of motivation to create tunnel-vision with the goal of sex eclipsing others, including upholding one’s romantic relationship. In this vein, I hypothesized that sexual arousal would neutralize the derogation effect. Given that both men and women think about sex on an hourly basis (Fisher, Moore, & Pittenger, 2012) inclusion of sexual arousal may afford the study of the derogation effect better external validity.   4.2 Method   4.2.1 Participants In order to determine the sample size needed for this study, a priori power analysis for ANCOVA was conducted using G*Power software (version 3.1.9.2; Faul, Erdfelder, Lang & Buchner). Based on this analysis, a total of 128 participants are needed for statistical power of .8 for detecting a medium effect size (f = .25).  A total of 787 people participated in this study. From this initial sample, 141 were excluded due to identification with an ethnicity other than of European or Chinese descent, 	 	 86	identification with a sexual orientation other than heterosexual or bisexual, being in a romantic relationship of less than one year, or missing data with respect to ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or relationship status. Of the 646 remaining participants, 3 univariate outliers were identified using adjusted boxplots (Hubert & Vandervieren, 2008) and removed. In order to create a balanced ANCOVA design that was robust to assumption violations, 359 participants were randomly discarded from the larger cells so that the ratio of the largest to smallest cell size was within the ratio of 1.5 (Leech et al., 2005). The final sample comprised of 284 participants and their demographic information is reported in Table 8. Participants that were deemed ‘in a relationship’ had to have been dating their partner for at least 12 months.               	 	 87	Table 8. Participant demographic information Variable European Women - Single     (n=35) European Women - In a Relation-ship    (n=35) Chinese Women -Single      (n=35) Chinese Women - In a Relation-ship     (n=30) European Men - Single       (n=35) European Men - In a Relation-ship     (n=35) Chinese Men - Single         (n=35) Chinese Men - In a Relation-ship     (n=23) Age, years, mean (SD)*** 22.71 (5.96) 30.86 (10.25) 19.77 (1.78) 21.53 (3.43) 24.00 (6.27) 39.40 (14.44) 20.77 (2.13) 21.96 (2.74) Education, years, mean (SD)** 14.74 (3.27) 14.79 (2.06) 13.97 (1.27) 15.47 (1.87) 14.97 (2.24) 16.06 (3.37) 14.56 (1.78) 14.05 (4.70) Sexual Orientation (% of each group)**                 ExclusivelyHetero- sexual (0) 65.7 62.9 65.7 73.3 77.1 80.0 91.4 68.2 Other 34.5 37.2 34.3 26.6 22.9 20.0 8.7 31.8 Relationship Length, months, mean (SD)***   82.86 (79.51)   34.10 (26.26)   124.09 (113.06)   45.13 (66.64)  Note: Significant group difference at *p < .05, **p < .01, and ***p < .001. Participants were provided an image and description of the Kinsey Scale (Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, Sloan, 1948) and asked to report where they fell on the scale. 0 was considered exclusively heterosexual, and all other scores were considered as other.      	 	 88	4.2.2 Measures   Demographics.   The demographics survey (see Appendix B) enquired about participant sex, ethnicity, age, relationship status, duration of current romantic relationship, number of children, country of birth, country of residence, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, educational level, household income, and English language comprehension ability. Evaluation of opposite-sex others task (Ritter et al., 2010).  This computerized task is based on the method used by Ritter and colleagues (2010) and Meyer and colleagues (2011), whereby a derogation effect was found. Attractiveness in these studies and the present investigation is defined as the potential for an individual to be considered as a romantic partner. For this task, participants were asked to indicate for 20 coloured photographs whether they found the pictured individual to be a potential romantic partner by pressing the ‘yes’ or ‘no’ button on the computer screen. Specifically, the instructions read, “Please indicate with a yes or no if you would consider this person to be a potential partner, irrespective of your current relationship.” The 20 photographs were presented individually and under no time pressure. Participants were required to respond before the next photograph was presented. Scores on this task ranged from 0 to 20, with the maximum score of 20 indicating that the participant considered individuals in all 20 photos as potential partners. This task employed high-resolution, standardized photographs from The Chicago Face Database (CFD; Ma, Correll, & Wittenbrink, 2015), a database of male and female faces of varying ethnicity between the ages of 17 and 65. Photos in the CFD have been rated by 1087 participants on physical attractiveness and used in previous studies on physical 	 	 89	attractiveness (e.g., Hehman, Sutherland, Flake, & Slepian, 2017). For this study, 40 photos were chosen from the CFD that comprised the ten most attractive European women, Asian women, European men and Asian men. Each participant thus rated photographs of 20 opposite sex individuals, with 10 being European and the other 10 being Asian.  Although my task was created after the one used by Ritter and colleagues (2010), it does differ in notable ways. First, participants in this study rated 20 attractive photos, whereas those in the earlier study rated 40 attractive and 40 unattractive photos. While I obtained photos from the Chicago Face Database, which included attractiveness ratings from 1087 participants, the earlier study used photos evaluated in a pilot study by an unknown number of participants. Ritter and colleagues (2010) did not report the ethnicity of the individuals in their photos, but this aspect of their photos almost certainly differed from mine, which was 50% of Asian individuals and 50% of European individuals. .  Manipulation check  In order to determine the effectiveness of the experimental manipulation to induce sexual arousal, participants were asked to rate their degree of sexual arousal by clicking on a 100-point slider scale (0 = not at all, 50 = moderately, 100 = very strongly) immediately after the experimental manipulation and before the evaluation of opposite-sex others task. Two questions inquiring about degree of disgust and fear were added to the manipulation check as an attempt to obscure the study’s hypotheses to participants and minimize the possibility of demand characteristics. Please see Appendix C.     	 	 90	4.2.3 Procedure Participant recruitment was conducted through two means: the University of British Columbia Department of Psychology HSP System and the online crowdsourcing website, Amazon Mechanical Turk.  In both systems, the study was described to entail questionnaires and computerized tasks, the latter of which may contain sexually explicit photos. Participants were also informed of the three inclusion criteria for participation: fluency in English, ages 18 or older, and comfort with sexual material. Individuals interested in participating were directed to click on a link, which took them to the study. On the study website, participants first encountered the consent form, which assured the confidentiality of their responses and their right to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. After giving their consent, participants first completed the demographics questionnaire. Next, they were informed that the remainder of the study must be completed in one sitting and encouraged to take a break before proceeding, if needed. At this time, participants were randomly assigned to the control or experimental condition. In both conditions, participants were informed that they were about to view a series of photographs and instructed to pay close attention to each photograph for the entire duration of its display. Participants in the experimental condition received additional instructions that asked them to refrain from masturbation during the task. Participants pressed a ‘start’ button whenever they were ready to begin viewing photographs. Those assigned to the experimental condition viewed 10 photographs that depicted sexual acts between a man and a woman. Photographs were displayed one at a time, each for four seconds. Those in the control condition also 	 	 91	viewed 10 photographs presented in the same manner, except the photographs did not contain any sexual content.  The photographs shown in the control and experimental conditions are from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008), a database containing 956 photos that has been widely used in psychological research. While each photo in the IAPS has been rated for affective valence, arousal, and dominance, the IAPS did not collect information on how sexually arousing the photographs are. Thus, a pilot study was conducted to identify appropriate photos to include in this study. Participants (N = 94) for this pilot study were recruited through the UBC Department of Psychology HSP System. These participants viewed 80 photographs from the IAPS, with half of them depicting a sexual act between a man and a woman and the other half containing no sexual content, and rated each photograph on how sexually arousing they found it. Results were analyzed separately for Chinese men (n =23), Chinese women (n = 28), European women (n = 38), and European men (n = 33). The ten photographs deemed the most sexually arousing for each participant group were shown in the present study’s experimental condition to the corresponding participant group. Selection of photographs for the control condition followed the same procedure, except that photographs were chosen based on their lack of effect on sexual arousal. Photographs in the experimental and control conditions did not differ (i.e., p > .05) with respect to emotional valence, arousal, and dominance scores for all four participant groups.  After viewing the 10 photographs as part of either the control or experimental condition, all participants completed the manipulation check followed by the evaluation of opposite-sex others task.  	 	 92	Upon completing the study, participants received a debriefing form, which provided further details about the study and contact information of the investigators for asking questions or expressing concerns. After the debriefing, those who participated through the HSP System were awarded with one course credit, and those who participated through Amazon Mechanical Turk were awarded $1 USD. No identifying information was collected from the participants at any point during this study. All procedures were approved by the University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board.   4.2.4 Data analysis All data analyses were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. To determine if the derogation effect was present and if it differed by gender, ethnicity (i.e., European or Chinese), or experimental condition, a four-way ANCOVA was performed on participants’ scores from the evaluation of opposite-sex others task. Procedures described in Study 1 for Type I error rate control and effect size calculations were also applied to the results of Study 3.  4.3 Results    4.3.1 Effectiveness of IAPS photos in provoking sexual arousal   An independent t-test conducted on ratings of sexual arousal, as determined  by the manipulation check, revealed that participants in the experimental condition were more sexually aroused than those in the control condition immediately before completing the evaluation of opposite-sex others task, t(244) = -9.498, Mdiff = -33.093, p < .001, Cohen’s d = -1.160.  	 	 93	4.3.2 The roles of gender, ethnicity, and sexual arousal on the derogation effect  The assumptions of ANCOVA include: 1) the covariate and dependent variables should be measured on a continuous scale, 2) the independent variables should consist of two or more categorical, independent groups, 3) independence of observations, 4) homogeneity of variances, 5) normality, 6) homogeneity of regression slopes, 7) linearity, and 8) homoscedasticity. The first three assumptions were satisfied by the experimental design. With respect to the fourth, fifth, and sixth assumptions, the performed ANCOVA test was robust to violation, as participants were randomly discarded to ensure that the analyses had cells of nearly equal sizes, (i.e., the n of the largest cell is no more than about 1.5 times the n of the smallest cell) (Levy, 1980; Pituch & Stevens, 2015). The seventh and eighth assumptions were tested and found intact.  Participant age was included as a covariate to statistically control for its effect as previous research has demonstrated it to be related to attraction to others (Antfolk, 2017).  Regarding the derogation effect, as assessed by the number of opposite-sex photos rated as attractive, the four way ANCOVA revealed significant main effects of participant ethnicity, F(1, 218) = 33.537, p < .001, partial ɳ2 = .133, and participant gender, F(1, 218) = 56.250, p < .001, partial ɳ2 = .205. These main effects were qualified by a significant interaction between gender, ethnicity, and relationship status, F(1, 218) = 4.774, p = .03, partial ɳ2 = .021. There was a significant simple two-way interaction between relationship status and ethnicity for men, F(1, 218) = 8.433, p = .004, partial ɳ2 = .037, but not for women, F(1, 218) = .139, p = .710, partial ɳ2 = 0. Further analysis of the significant simple interaction revealed a significant simple simple main effect of relationship status for European men F(1, 218) = 6.025, p = .015, partial ɳ2 = .027, but not for Chinese men F(1, 	 	 94	218) = 2.837, p = .094, partial ɳ2 = .013. Specifically, European men in a relationship found more photos as attractive, compared to single European men, Mdiff = 2.872, p = .013, Cohen’s d = 0.489, but this difference was not observed for Chinese men, Mdiff = 2.126, p = .088, Cohen’s d = 0.409. Please see Figure 5.   Figure 5. Significant participant ethnicity × relationship status interaction for mean number of photos rated as attractive among European men, but not Chinese men.   The four way ANCOVA revealed a second significant interaction between relationship status and arousal level, F(1, 218) = 4.406, p = .037, partial ɳ2 = .020. Follow-up 	 	 95	analysis indicated a simple main effect of arousal level on relationship status F(1, 238) = 6.206, p = .013, partial ɳ2 = .025. Specifically, single participants in the experimental condition rated more photos as attractive than those in the control condition, Mdiff= 2.446,  p = .013, Cohen’s d = 0.461, but this difference was not observed for participants in a   relationship, Mdiff = -.934, p = .380, Cohen’s d = 0.159. Please see figure 6.   Figure 6. Significant participant relationship status × experimental condition interaction for mean number of photos rated as attractive.   	 	 96	4.4 Discussion    4.4.1 Gender and ethnic differences in the derogation effect   Based on previous research that has found the derogation effect in European participants (Johnson & Rusbult, 1989; Ritter et al., 2010; Meyer et al., 2011) and reduced relationship maintenance mechanisms among East Asian participants (Endo et al., 2000; Ma et al., 2015), I hypothesized that this study would find a derogation effect in European men and women, with a smaller effect observed in men, but not in Chinese participants. Unexpectedly, the derogation effect was not found in any of the four groups. Instead, a reverse derogation effect was observed in European men, where those in a romantic relationship of at least one-year were more likely than their single counterparts to find opposite-sex others attractive. This is surprising given that the evaluation of opposite-sex others task employed in this study is fashioned after the one used by Ritter, Karremans and van Schie (2010), which did detect a derogation effect and thus was subsequently used by Meyer and colleagues (2011) to study the neural basis of the derogation effect.  Nonetheless, my method was not completely identical to the one used by Ritter and colleagues (2010) and these differences, which were reviewed in the methods section, may account for the absence of the derogation effect in the present investigation.  The finding of a reverse derogation effect, while inconsistent with relationship maintenance, can be interpreted through the lens of psychological reactance. This theory, first proposed by Jack Brehm (1966), posits that people respond negatively when their freedom to choose is threatened and will often increase efforts to maintain a sense of freedom and autonomy. According to reactance theory, people would find something more desirable if they are unable to have it (Brehm, 1966). Reactance theory is considered a 	 	 97	fundamental psychological theory, having withstood decades of testing for many aspects of human behaviour (Mead, 2007). In the field of relationship science, psychological reactance has been observed as the “Romeo and Juliet effect” (Driscoll, Davis, & Lipetz, 1972), where members of a romantic couple desire each other more as the their relationship becomes more forbidden through parental interference. Notably, opposite results have also been found (“social network effect”; Felmlee, 2001). More recently, psychological reactance has also been linked to evidence supporting the “forbidden fruit” hypothesis, which postulates that when attention to attractive alternatives is restricted, the alternatives become especially enticing, having been endowed a taboo quality (DeWall, Maner, Deckman, & Rouby, 2011). The reverse derogation effect observed in this study may be the latest example of psychological reactance manifesting in behaviours related to romantic relationships. That is, those in relationships may be more likely to perceive individuals as attractive than those who are single, simply because they are not supposed to. One possible explanation for the appearance of psychological reactance in this study is the inclusion of alternatives from another ethnicity, given that interracial dating carries an extra layer of social taboo (Bobo, 2004). My finding of the reverse derogation effect among only European men is consistent with research that suggests psychological reactance is more robust in individualistic cultures. For example, studies have revealed that psychological reactance is positively correlated with personality characteristics more typical of individualistic cultures, such as autonomy, dominance, and independence (Buboltz, Woller, & Peper, 1999; Dowd & Wallbrown, 1993; Dowd, Wallbrown, Sanders, & Yesenosky, 1994). Freedom to make personal decisions has also been found less crucial to those from collectivist cultures (Iyengar & Lepper, 1999). 	 	 98	More recently, Jonas and colleagues (2009) demonstrated that compared to their individualistic peers, people from collectivistic cultures tend to respond with less reactance when their individual freedom is threatened, but with stronger reactance when the threat is directed at the freedom of their ingroup. Research on gender differences in psychological reactance has yielded more mixed results. While some studies have found no evidence for gender differences (Dowd, Trutt, & Watkins, 1992; Hong, Giannakopoulos, Laing, & Williams, 1994), others have reported that men exhibit higher levels of reactance (Joubert, 1990; Loucka, 1990; Seemann, Buboltz, Jenkins, Soper, & Woller, 2004) and experience a smaller decrease in reactance with age, compared to women (Hong et al., 1994). Our finding of a reverse derogation effect is also consistent with a more robust gender difference, i.e. men have more extramarital affairs than women (see Petersen & Hyde, 2010 for a meta-analytic review).  A differential emphasis on novelty could also be driving the reverse derogation effect, with European men in long-term relationships finding others more attractive because they differ from a familiar long-term partner. For single individuals, novelty is the norm and thus may be less prized. Multiple lines of research converge on the hypothesis that novelty is attractive, at least sexually. Laboratory studies have consistently documented a decline in sexual arousal in response to familiar sexual stimuli (e.g., erotic film clip), while novel stimuli lead to the opposite effect (Both, Laan, & Everaerd, 2011). Research on long-term relationships has found that increased relationship duration is associated with less frequent sexual activity (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Kinsey et al., 1953), with sexual boredom and over-familiarity as possible reasons behind this decline (Sims & Meana, 2010; Tunariu & Reavey, 2003). Moreover, investigations of the content of sexual fantasies reveal that they 	 	 99	often involve someone other than one’s long-term partner (Hicks & Leitenberg, 2001). Lastly, the common occurrence of extradyadic sexual behaviour, ranging from 23 to 29% for men and 12 to 23% for women (Traeen, Holmen, & Stigum, 2007; Wiederman, 1997), also fits the hypothesis that novel partners tend to be more sexually alluring than those who are familiar. Indeed, increased sexual responsiveness to a novel and receptive mating partner, i.e., the Coolidge Effect, has been documented in many animal species, including, snails, flies, and rats (Ventura-Aquino et al., 2018). This is especially apparent for males, who gain a clearer selective advantage from fertilizing multiple females. Literature on sex and cultural differences in novelty-seeking are consistent with my finding of the reverse derogation effect among European men only. While both men and women find novelty arousing (Both et al., 2001; Morton & Gorzalka, 2015), there is indirect evidence to suggest that the effect of novelty is stronger in men. Compared to women, men desire a greater number of sex partners (Schmitt, Shackelford, Duntley, Tooke, & Buss, 2001), fantasize about more people (Ellis & Symons, 1990), and are more willing to have a one-night-stand (Clark & Hatfield, 1989). Given that individuals of European descent report a higher number of past sexual partners, including one-night-stands, and estimate a higher number of future sexual partners than their Asian peers (Meston & Ahrold, 2010, Meston et al., 1996), my finding is also consistent with the notion that the novelty effect is more robust among individuals of European descent. However, as reviewed earlier in this dissertation, such ethnic and gender differences in sexual behaviour can also be attributed to other phenomenon, such as endorsement in Confucian values (Frenier & Manicini, 1996) and the sexual double standard (Mollen & Mootz, 2013; Zaikman & Marks, 2014).   	 	100	4.4.2 Impact of sexual arousal on attractiveness of others    Given that this study did not replicate the derogation effect, my hypothesis that sexual arousal would neutralize the derogation effect could not be tested. Instead, I observed that single participants, but not those in relationships, found more opposite-sex others attractive when they were sexually aroused. My finding replicates previous studies that indicate individuals tend to find attractive others even more attractive in a state of sexual arousal (Istvan, Griffith, & Weidner 1983). The unique outcome from my study is the mitigating influence of relationship status on the impact of sexual arousal, i.e. the identification of a novel relationship maintenance mechanism. The study of relationship maintenance has largely focused on processes that neutralize the threat from attractive others, bad behaviours from one’s partner, and within the very nature of interdependence in a romantic relationship (Agnew & VanderDrift, 2015). The threat of sexual arousal has remained unexamined, despite evidence suggesting it as an important cause of infidelity (Emmers-Sommer, Warber, & Halford, 2010). Zhang and colleagues (2017)’s recent study is the closest to examining sexual arousal in relation to relationship maintenance. For their experiment, participants were asked to imagine either enjoying food with a friend or a passionate sexual encounter with an attractive stranger before their attention to attractive others was measured. Consistent with my finding, the single participants in the sexual condition showed more attention to attractive others compared to their peers in the control condition, while no effect was found among those in relationships. However, this study construed their manipulation as a prime for the goal of mating and did not consider the role of sexual arousal in the interpretation of their results, despite the fact that imagining sex is an established technique for inducing sexual arousal in the laboratory (Goldey, & van Anders, 2012).  	 	101	4.4.3 Limitations  This study is characterized by limitations that may affect the conclusions that have been drawn. The photos used in the experimental condition depicted sexual acts between a man and a woman and therefore in order to effectively induce sexual arousal, only bisexual and heterosexual participants were included in this study. Thus the results may not generalize to homosexual individuals. Furthermore, an important departure of this study from the methods of previous investigations is the use of opposite-sex targets that were of a different ethnicity than the participant. Although this allowed European and Chinese respondents  to rate the same set of photographs, our results may have been influenced by attitudes towards interracial dating.   4.4.4 Future directions  In this study, I evaluated for the derogation effect explicitly by asking participants to rate opposite-sex individuals as potential partners. Given the potential bias introduced by social desirability, it would be important for future research to employ implicit measures of attraction. Efforts aimed at replicating the reverse derogation effect would shed light on the reliability and generalizability of this unexpected finding. If successfully replicated, future research is encouraged to investigate psychological reactance and partner novelty as potential opposing forces to relationship maintenance, such as testing whether manipulations of perceived freedom to pursue alternatives or the taboo nature of infidelity affects the attractiveness of potential alternatives. Similar replication work is needed for the novel finding that the influence of sexual arousal on attraction to others is dependent on relationship status.   	 	102	4.4.5 Conclusions  According to the derogation effect, romantically involved individuals tend to devalue the attractiveness of others as a strategy to protect their current relationship. I did not observe this phenomenon in my study and instead found that European men in relationships rated more opposite-sex targets as attractive than their single peers. Relationship status did not affect the ratings of European women or Chinese participants of either gender. The present study also found that sexual arousal increased attraction to others in single individuals, but not those in relationships. Although the impact of sexual arousal on attraction has been documented, the effect of relationship status is novel. This suggests a relationship maintenance mechanism devoted to neutralizing the influence of sexual arousal that, to my knowledge, has not been detected before, but fits with the evidence of sexual arousal being an instigator of infidelity and thus a potent threat to relationships. Future work that integrates the literature on romantic relationships and human sexuality would be well poised to investigate this phenomenon.                   	 	103	Chapter 5.  General discussion   5.1 Summary of results  Much like other areas of psychological research, sexuality appears to be examined   primarily through a Western lens. This was evident in the latest volume of the three leading sexuality journals, where 90.14% of first authors were from universities in Western countries (45.63% in the United States) and 83.96% of the studies used participants from Western countries (43.31% of which were from the United States). This is troubling given that the goal of sex research is to understand human sexuality, not only Western sexuality.  In response to the dearth of diversity in sex research, ethnocultural variations in sexuality have become the focus of an increasing number of studies, with a notable portion of them approaching this subject by comparing individuals of Asian and European descent. This literature, which encompasses sexual behaviour, attitudes, beliefs, and functioning, has consistently found Asians to be more sexually conservative than Westerners. Specifically, those of Asian descent are less sexually experienced, hold more negative and restrictive attitudes towards sex, and have lower sexual function. Importantly, these variations demonstrate that findings from studies conducted in the West do not necessarily reflect Asian sexuality or, more broadly, human sexuality. The disparities delineated between Asian and Western sexuality are especially compelling when one considers that the majority of the Asian participants were actually living in North America. While this collection of research has delineated some important ethnocultural sexual disparities and similarities, it is plagued by significant limitations. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to address these limitations, with each of the three studies designed to tackle a specific shortcoming.  	 	104	In Study 1, the common practice of merging individuals from different Asian ethnicities into one participant group was evaluated by comparing Japanese-, Korean- and Chinese-Canadian women on their overall sexual function, as well as its domains: desire, subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, and satisfaction. The results challenged the assumption of Asian sexual homogeneity that underlies this practice by demonstrating that Japanese-, Chinese- and Korean-Canadian women diverge from each other with respect to their sexual function and show discrepant patterns of differences when compared to European-Canadian women. Indeed, Chinese-Canadian women were found to be more similar to European-Canadian women in their sexual functioning than Korean-Canadian women.  Study 2 is the first to adopt a dual approach for examining ethnocultural differences in sexual attitudes. It aimed to ameliorate the overreliance on self-report measures in cross-cultural research by measuring sexual attitudes in European and Chinese individuals using the Implicit Association Test, a computer-administered task that measures implicit attitudes by determining the strength of association between concepts, in addition to a questionnaire. Both methods found the well-documented trend of Chinese individuals endorsing more negative sexual attitudes, lending confidence that this is a genuine ethnocultural difference, rather than a product of response bias. This study also found a gender difference in the correspondence between explicit and implicit sexual attitudes, divergent predictive patterns of bidimensional acculturation on explicit and implicit sexual attitudes, and finally, that implicit sexual attitudes uniquely predict sexual experience above and beyond explicit sexual attitudes.  	 	105	Integrating the fields of sex research and relationship science, Study 3 is the first to examine the derogation effect in a non-Western culture and whether this relationship maintenance mechanism is influenced by sexual arousal. Surprisingly, our results did not replicate the derogation effect in Chinese men, Chinese women, European men or European women. Instead, European men were found to exhibit a reverse derogation effect, where those in relationships were more likely to find opposite-sex individuals attractive, compared to their single counterparts. Moreover, sexual arousal was observed to increase the attractiveness of opposite-sex others to single individuals, but not those in long-term relationships. Although the influence of sexual arousal on attraction was previously documented (Istvan et al., 1983), the effect of relationship status is novel and suggests that a relationship maintenance mechanism may operate to thwart the threat of sexual arousal, which has never been identified before.  5.2 Limitations   Cross-cultural research is vulnerable to unique types of bias to which monocultural research is immune (Pena, 2007). As such, an important goal of cross-cultural research is to establish cultural equivalence, of which the most basic type is construct equivalence, i.e., the construct holds comparable meaning across cultures. The other two types of equivalence, metric equivalence (Poortinga, Van de Vijver, & Van Hemert, 2002) and scalar equivalence (Boehnke et al., 2014), are only possible when construct equivalence has been established. Without construct equivalence, cross-cultural comparison has little empirical utility (Berry, 1969). Unfortunately, cross-cultural sex research, like many other areas of cross-cultural study, has devoted little effort to establishing equivalence. Of the constructs that were 	 	106	examined in this dissertation, female sexual function is the only construct that has undergone equivalence testing, which found evidence of construct equivalence between American and Japanese women (Takahashi, Inokuchi, Watanabe, Saito, & Kai, 2011), but not between American and Chinese women (Chang, Chang, Chen, & Lin, 2009). To shed light on the latter finding, Dang, Chang and Brotto (2017) reported that Chinese women tend to describe their experience of sexual desire in relational terms, rather than with respect to genital sensations or sexual intercourse. Based on this finding, the authors suggest that Western-based female sexual function questionnaires, with their tendency to present sexual desire items alongside questions on genitalia and intercourse, may prime Chinese women to answer sexual desire items in these terms and underreport their levels of sexual desire. This small body of literature casts doubt on whether the pattern of differences and similarities found in sexual function between European-, Japanese-, Korean-, and Chinese-Canadian women in Study 1 are meaningful. Without any information on cultural equivalence with respect to the constructs examined in the other two studies, it is impossible to ascertain the validity of the conducted comparisons.  Another limitation inherent in all three studies is the use of voluntary samples, rendering results susceptible to self-selection bias. Previous research has demonstrated that participants in sexuality studies tend to be less inhibited and display less sex guilt compared to those who do not volunteer (Strassberg & Lowe, 1995), calling into question the generalizability of findings based on self-selection. The degree of selection-bias cannot be ascertained, as it is unknown how many viewed the studies online and decided not to participate. Study 2 and 3 attempted to mitigate the limitations of Study 1 associated with using a 	 	107	sample comprising undergraduate students and Asian participants that live abroad by recruiting participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk in addition to the University of British Columbia Department of Psychology HSP System. However, most of the participants in Study 2 (i.e., 76%) and 3 (i.e., 69%) were University of British Columbia undergraduate students, who were younger, more educated, and had higher socioeconomic statuses than the general population. As a result, the findings of all three studies may not apply to the general population.  5.3 Clinical implications  Findings from the three studies in this dissertation hold several important clinical implications, bearing in mind the limitations identified in the previous section. By highlighting the differences in sexual function between East Asian women, Study 1 invites clinicians to consider the diversity of their East Asian clients presenting for sexual difficulties and possibly other disorders as well. Importantly, this would mean that clinicians who have experience in treating Chinese patients might not be culturally competent to work with clients from other East Asian backgrounds.  Similar to the use of the Asian comparison group in sex research, authors of psychotherapy literature in and outside of sex therapy often write about how to work with Asian clients. Examples of this literature include ‘Psychotherapy and counselling with Asian American clients: A practical guide’ (Hong, 2001), ‘Assessing sexual dysfunction in Asian clients” (Woo, Fok-Trela, & Brotto, 2014), and ‘Transference and empathy in Asian American psychotherapy: cultural values and treatment needs’ (Chin, 1993). This practice assumes that “Asian” individuals are a homogenous group when they present for 	 	108	psychotherapy and obscures any potential differences between Asian cultures. Based on Study 1, I encourage clinicians to instead consider generating and using psychotherapy literature that acknowledges the diversity of Asian clients by treating each ethnicity separately. Some notable works that exemplify this practice include, ‘Review of Chinese sex attitudes and applicability of sex therapy for Chinese couples with sexual dysfunction’ (So & Cheung, 2005), ‘Guidelines and Strategies for cross-cultural counseling with Korean American clients’ (Kim, 2005), and ‘The person-centered approach in Japan: Blending a Western approach with Japanese culture’ (Mikuni, 2015).  While Study 1 focused on sexual function, Study 2 investigated sexual attitudes. Changing sexual attitudes is a common goal of sex education and therapy, with the hope that such modifications would lead to beneficial behavioural outcomes, such as reduction in risky sexual behaviour and improvement in sexual function. Findings from Study 2 may help clinicians and educators by drawing their attention to the possibility that social desirability may obscure people’s report of their sexual attitudes and that meaningful work with sexual attitudes may more likely occur in an open, non-judgmental environment. Study 2 also points to the potential value of going beyond ethnicity to assess for degree of acculturation, as it may provide additional information about students’ and patients’ explicit sexual attitudes. Knowledge about acculturation level may also help sex educators identify Chinese students who are more likely to be sexually active, as well as help therapists identify couples who are more likely to experience sexual difficulties. Furthermore, Study 2 informs educators and clinicians that Chinese individuals who report higher mainstream acculturation and positive sexual attitudes may continue to hold implicit sexual attitudes that are more negative, which may predict sexual behaviour.  	 	109	The unexpected finding of a reverse derogation effect in Study 3 suggests that attraction to others may warrant more attention in couples counselling than previously indicated by the literature on the derogation effect. For couples in therapy who are distressed by extradyadic attraction, the clinician can consider using this finding of a reverse derogation effect to normalize the experience, which may be therapeutic for those who interpret this attraction to others as an indicator that the relationship or themselves are flawed. For couples that deem attraction to others as inherently problematic and want it addressed through therapy, the two interpretations of the reverse derogation effect offered in chapter four point to at least two different ways of addressing this issue. If it is the product of psychological reactance, couples may find it helpful to reduce attraction to others by making this experience less taboo in their relationship. One possible way to do so would be to talk more openly to each other about attraction to other people. Another may be to renegotiate the relationship rules of fidelity to allow behaviours that are previously forbidden, such as checking out or flirting with other people. For clinicians working with couples who are interested in the latter option, there is growing literature to suggest that those in consensual non-monogamous relationships are similar to their monogamous peers with respect to psychological well-being and relationship quality (Moors, Matsick, & Schechinger, 2017; Seguin et al., 2016). Alternatively, if the reverse derogation effect is the result of partner novelty, clinicians can recommend couples inject novelty in their relationship by trying new activities together. This strategy has been found to be associated with feelings of being in love (O’Leary, Acevedo, Aron, Huddy & Mashek, 2012) and increased sexual desire (Ferreira, Fraenkel, Narciso, & Novo, 2015) in long-term relationships. Lastly, finding of the reverse derogation effect among only European men invites clinicians to be more aware of 	 	110	how two (or more) individuals may experience their shared relationship differently and thus encounter disparate challenges in maintaining the same relationship, especially when the partners differ in gender and ethnicity.  Given that many of the findings in this dissertation are novel and have never been reported before, it is important that their clinical implications are considered in light of the study limitations. More research is necessary to evaluate how robust these findings are and before they can responsibly inform clinical practice.   5.4 Future directions   This dissertation delineated disparities and similarities in sexuality between European and East Asian individuals that warrant further investigation. While I have proposed culture as a potential mechanism for these observed differences, such as the endorsement of Confucian values as an explanation for divergences in sexual function in Study 1 and sexual attitudes in Study 2, additional research is necessary to confirm that something ‘cultural’ about the compared groups produced the differences reported in this dissertation. This can be done by designating specific cultural and non-cultural ingredients as mediators in correlational studies or independent variables in experiments (Matsumoto & van de Vijver, 2012). Some notable examples of these ‘unpackaging studies’ can be found in the work done by Woo and colleagues on sexual desire (2011; 2012), Koo and colleagues (2012) on sexual attitudes and Fong and Goetz (2010) on sociosexuality.  It is noteworthy that recent research has devoted more attention to the relationship between acculturation and sexuality of Asian individuals living in Western countries. There is accumulating evidence that acculturation is an important predictor of a myriad of sexual outcomes (Ahrold & Meston, 2008; Brotto et 	 	111	al., 2005; Koo, Stephens, Lindgren, & George, 2012; Meston & Ahrold, 2010; Morton & Gorzalka, 2013; Woo & Brotto, 2008; Woo et al., 2011; Xie, & Galliher, 2018). While these studies are important in that they lend support to the notion that documented sexual differences are at least partially propelled by cultural forces, they do not elucidate which facets of Asian or Western culture are actively shaping the sexuality of emigrated Asian individuals or are responsible for the disparities observed between Asian and Western cultures. It is recommended that future research treat these studies as a springboard to unpackaging cultural differences. Information gathered on the relative contributions of heritage culture adherence and mainstream acculturation in the prediction of sexual outcomes can help guide the search for potential underlying cultural variables to be tested.  The decision to compare individuals of East Asian and European descent in all three studies of this dissertation was driven by the goal of addressing limitations inherent in  the current literature on Asian – Western sexuality. For the majority of research that was reviewed in the introduction chapter, the decision to compare individuals of Asian and European descent appears to stem from the dramatic increase in Asian population in the country where the study took place. For example, Brotto and colleagues (2007) provided statistics on the size of the Chinese community in Canada and the United States as reasons for why Asian Canadians were chosen for cross-cultural comparison. Similarly, Lam and colleagues (2008) attributed their decision to compare Asian and European American youths to the fact that Asian Americans are the fastest growing ethnic minority group in the United States. Other studies provide little reason for focusing on Asian sexuality except to say that there is little known about this group (e.g., Namiki et al., 2011; Schuster et al., 1998). Such approaches to selecting which ethnocultural groups to compare are useful for revealing 	 	112	differences and similarities between the groups being compared. However, their utility stops there. For the sexual similarities that have been found, it is impossible to ascertain their degree of universality and whether they characterize human sexuality. The documented sexual disparities cannot shed light on the pattern of differences to be expected across other ethnocultural groups. For sex researchers that want to understand something broader about human sexuality than the groups they compare in a given study, I encourage them to follow guidelines for culture selection delineated by researchers in cultural psychology. Their overarching recommendation is that the selection process be guided by a cultural research question. One approach is to begin by first identifying what cultural dimension to investigate and then selecting cultures known to differ on that variable, but are otherwise as similar as possible (Heine, 2012). For example, to investigate how interdependence shapes sexual behaviour, select two cultures that significantly differ on this dimension, such as Asian and Western, and evaluate whether these groups differ in their sexual behaviour. On the other hand, if one’s research aim is to explore the degree of universality of a particular phenomenon, such as the gender differences in sexual attitudes consistently found in Western samples (Petersen & Hyde, 2010), then it would make for a more effective comparison to select cultures that are maximally different on as many theoretically relevant cultural dimensions as possible. If cross-cultural similarity were found in such comparison, it would serve as more compelling evidence for universality (Heine, 2012). Collaborations with researchers in cultural psychology would be one way for sex researchers to learn these and other important approaches to studying culture.  The field of cross-cultural sex research may also benefit from the recognition that the groundwork for cross-cultural work, i.e. establishment of equivalence, is largely incomplete. 	 	113	Without this crucial step, results from my dissertation and any future findings will hold unknown validity. One way to work towards cultural equivalence is the creation of valid instruments for cross-cultural comparisons. When designing such a measure, researchers can consider taking one of two approaches: decentering and convergence (Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997). As prescribed by Werner and Campbell (1970), cultural decentering entails developing an instrument simultaneously in cultures to be compared and only retaining the overlapping items for the study. In the convergence approach, instruments are independently developed within the cultures to be compared and all versions of the instrument are then administered in each culture. The administration of multiple versions of the same instrument, although more time and labor intensive, offers clearer information on the universal and cultural specific aspects of a construct (Cheung, Cheung, Leung, Ward, & Leung, 2003).   Findings from my dissertation encourage future research to reconsider using the ‘Asian’ comparison group, relying on self-report measures, and treating sexuality and relationship research as separate fields. Instead, cross-cultural sex research is recommended to strive towards recognizing the diversity that exists within minority groups, employing new methods to replicate results from self-report studies, and collaborating with researchers in relationship science. By continuing to find ways to improve, the field of cross-cultural sex research will indeed evolve, rise above challenges, and flourish.      	 	114	References Abbott, D. M., Harris, J. E., & Mollen, D. (2016). The impact of religious commitment on women’s sexual self-esteem. Sexuality & Culture, 20(4), 1063-1082. doi:10.1007/s12119- 016-9374-x Abraham, M. (1999). Sexual abuse in South Asian immigrant marriages. Violence Against Women, 5(6), 591-618. doi:10.1177/10778019922181392 Abramson, P. R., & Imai-Marquez, J. (1982). The Japanese-American: A cross-cultural, cross-sectional study of sex guilt. Journal of Research in Personality, 16(2), 227–237. doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(82)90078- 2 Adamczyk, A., & Cheng, Y.A. (2015). Explaining attitudes about homosexuality in Confucian and non-Confucian nations: Is there a ‘cultural’ influence? Social Science Research, 51, 276-289. doi.10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.10.002 Agnew, C. R., & VanderDrift, L. E. (2015). Relationship maintenance and dissolution. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.),	APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology (pp. 581 – 604). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  Ahrold, T. K., & Meston, C. M. (2010). Ethnic differences in sexual attitudes of US college students: Gender, acculturation, and religiosity factors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(1), 190-202. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9406-1   Ahrold, T. K., Farmer, M., Trapnell, P. D., & Meston, C. M. (2011). The relationship among sexual attitudes, sexual fantasy, and religiosity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(3), 619-630. doi:10.1007/s10508-011- 9782-9 Alexander, M. G., & Fisher, T. D. (2003). Using the bogus pipeline to examine sex differences in self-reported sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 27-35. 	 	115	 doi:10.1080/00224490309552164  Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (1992). Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2(2), 113-133. doi:10.1207/s15327582ijpr0202_5 Antfolk, J. (2017). Men’s and women’s youngest and oldest considered and actual sex partners.   Evolutionary Psychology, 15(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1177/1474704917690401 Ariely, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2006). The heat of the moment: The effect of sexual arousal on sexual decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19(2), 87-98. doi:10.1002/bdm.501 Arnett, J. J. (2008). The neglected 95: Why American psychology needs to become less American. American Psychologist, 63(7), 602-614. doi:10.1037/0003- 066X.63.7.602 Babchishin, K. M., Nunes, K. L., & Hermann, C. A. (2013). The validity of Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of sexual attraction to children: A meta-analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(3), 487-499. doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-0022-8  Baldwin, J. D., Whiteley, S., & Baldwin, J. I. (1992). The effect of ethnic group on sexual activities related to contraception and STDs. Journal of Sex Research, 29(2), 189–205.doi.org/10.1080/00224499209551642 Banse, R., Seise, J., Zerbes, N. (2001). Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: Reliability, validity, controllability of IAT. Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle Psychologie, 48(2), 145-160. doi.org/10.1026//0949-3946.48.2.145  	 	116	Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). The development of implicit attitudes: Evidence of race evaluations from ages 6 and 10 and adulthood. Psychological Science, 17(1), 53-58. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01664.x  Barrett, L. F., Robin, L., Pietromonaco, P. R., & Eyssell, K. M. (1998). Are women the “more emotional” sex? Evidence from emotional experiences in social context. Cognition & Emotion, 12(4), 555-578. doi:10.1080/026999398379565 Baumeister, R. F., & Twenge, J. M. (2002). Cultural suppression of female sexuality. Review Of General Psychology, 6(2), 166-203. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.166 Bendixen, M., Asao, K., Wyckoff, J. P., Buss, D. M., & Kennair, L. E. O. (2017). Sexual regret in US and Norway: Effects of culture and individual differences in religiosity and mating strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 246-251. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.054 Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological),  57(1), 289-300. doi:10.2307/2346101 Bernardi, R. A. (2006). Associations between Hofstede’s cultural constructs and social desirability response bias. Journal of Business Ethics, 65(1), 43-53. doi:10.1007/s10551-005-5353-0  Berry, John W. 1969. On cross-cultural comparability. International Journal of Psychology,  4(2),119-128. doi: 10.1080/00207596908247261 Bhopal, R. (2004). Glossary of terms relating to ethnicity and race: For reflection and debate. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health), 58(6), 441-445. doi:10.1136/jech.2003.01346 	 	117	Birnbaum, G. E., & Gillath, O. (2006). Measuring subgoals of the sexual behavioral system: What is sex good for? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(5), 675-701. doi:10.1177/0265407506065992 Bobo, L. (2004). Inequalities that endure? Racial ideology, American politics, and the peculiar role of the social sciences. In A. Krysan & A. E. Lewis (Eds.), AThe changing terrain of race and ethnicity. (pp. 13-42). New York, NY: Russell Sage.  Boehnke, K., Arnaut, C., Bremer, T., Chinyemba, R., Kiewitt, Y., Koudadjey, A. K., & ... Neubert, L. (2014). Toward emically informed cross-cultural comparisons: A suggestion. Journal Of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(10), 1655-1670. doi:10.1177/0022022114547571 Borg, C., de Jong, P. J., & Weijmar Schultz, W. (2010). Vaginismus and dyspareunia: Automatic vs. deliberate disgust responsivity. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(6), 2149–2157. doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01800.x. Boyer, S. C., Pukall, C. F., & Holden, R. R. (2012). The relationship between female sexual arousal and response bias in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia. Journal of Sex Research, 49(6), 519-532. doi:10.1080/00224499.2011.604747 Bradley, M.M. & Lang, P.J. (2007). The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in the study of emotion and attention. In J.A. Coan & J.J.B. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment (pp. 29-46). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.  Brauer, M., van Leeuwen, M., Janssen, E., Newhouse, S. K., Heiman, J. R., & Laan, E. (2011). Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with 	 	118	hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(4), 891–905. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9820-7. Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York, NY: Academic Press. Brotto, L. A., Chik, H. M., Ryder, A. G., Gorzalka, B. B., & Seal, B. N. (2005). Acculturation and sexual Function in Asian women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34(6), 613–626. doi.org/10.1007/s10508-005- 7909-6 Brotto, L. A., Woo, J. S. T., & Ryder, A. G. (2007). Acculturation and sexual function in Canadian East Asian men. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(1), 72–82. doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00388. Brown, R. A. (1990). Chinese character education in Japan and South Korea. Language and Communication, 10(4), 299-309. doi:10.1016/0271-5309(90)90015-4 Brown, N. R., & Sinclair, R. C. (1999). Estimating number of lifetime sexual partners: Men and women do it differently. Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 292-297.   doi:	10.1080/00224499909551999 Buboltz, W. C., Woller, K. M. P., & Pepper, H. (1999). Holland code type and psychological reactance. Journal of Career Assessment, 7(2), 161-172. doi:10.1177/106907279900700205 Buss, M. D. (1999). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind (2nd ed.). London, UK: Pearson Education. Cain, V. S., Johannes, C. B., Avis, N. E., Mohr, B., Schocken, M., Skurnick, J., & Ory, M. (2003). Sexual functioning and practices in a multi-ethnic study of midlife women: Baseline results from SWAN. Journal of Sex Research, 40(3), 266–276. doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552191 	 	119	Canache, D., Hayes, M., Mondak, J. J., & Wals, S. C. (2013). Openness, extraversion and the intention to emigrate. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(4), 351-355. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.02.008 Chang, C., Lee, C., & Weng, J. (2011). Is the secularization hypothesis valid? A panel data   assessment for Taiwan. Applied Economics, 43(6), 729-745.   doi:10.1080/00036840802599826  Chang, S., Chang, T., Chen, K., & Lin, H. (2009). Developing and validating a Taiwan version of the Female Sexual Function Index for pregnant women. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6(6), 1609-1616. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01247.x Chang, S. C. H. (2012). Effect of perpetrator and victim ethnicity in perception of sexual assault: Is it stereotyping? University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.  Chen, C., Lee, S., & Stevenson, H. W. (1995). Response style and cross-cultural comparisons of rating scales among East Asian and North American students. Psychological Science, 6(3), 170-175. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00327.x Chaplin, T. M., & Aldao, A. (2013). Gender differences in emotion expression in children: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 139(4), 735-765. doi:10.1037/a003073 Cheung, F. M., Cheung, S. F., Leung, K., Ward, C., & Leong, F. (2003). The English version   of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural   Psychology, 34(4), 433-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022103034004004  Chi, X., van de Bongardt, D., & Hawk, S.T. (2015). Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: Gender differences in prevalence and correlates. Journal of Sex Research, 52(5), 532–542. doi:10.1080/00224499.2014.914131. 	 	120	Chin, J. L., Liem, J. H., Ham, M. D. C., & Hong, G. K. (1993). Transference and empathy in   Asian American psychotherapy: Cultural values and treatment needs. Westport, CT,   US: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.  Ciabattari, T. (2001). Changes in men’s conservative gender ideologies. Gender & Society,  15(4): 574-591. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/089124301015004005  Clark, R.D., & Hatfield, E. (1989). Gender differences in receptivity to sexual offers. Journal  of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 2(1), 39–55. doi:10.1300/J056v02n01_04 Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., & Leung, L. (1991). Sexual practices of heterosexual Asian-American young adults: Implications for risk of HIV infection. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20(4), 381-391. doi:10.1007/BF01542618 Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Cole, S., Trope, Y., & Balcetis, E. (2016). In the eye of the betrothed: Perceptual downgrading of attractive alternative romantic partners. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(7), 879-892. doi:10.1177/0146167216646546 Crisp, C., Vaccaro, C., Fellner, A., Kleeman, S., & Pauls, R. (2015). The influence of personality and coping on female sexual function: A population survey. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(1), 109-115. doi:10.1111/jsm.12735 Cvencek, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2011). Measuring implicit attitudes of 4-year-olds: The preschool implicit association test. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109(2), 187-200. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.11.002 	 	121	Cyranowski, J. M., & Andersen, B. L. (1998). Schemas, sexuality, and romantic attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1364-1379. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.74.5.1364  Czopp, A. M., Monteith, M. J., Zimmerman, R. S., & Lynam, D. R. (2004). Implicit attitudes as potential protection from risky sex: Predicting condom use with the IAT. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2-3), 227-236. doi.org/10.1026//0949-3946.48.2.145  Dang, S., Chang, S., & Brotto, L. A. (2017). The lived experiences of sexual desire among Chinese-Canadian men and women. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 43(4), 306-325. doi:10.1080/0092623X.2016.1149129 Dasgupta, N., McGhee, D., Greenwald, A., & Banaji, M. (2000). Automatic preference for   White Americans: Eliminating the familiarity explanation. Journal of Experimental   Social Psychology, 36(3): 316-328. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1999.1418  Davidson, J. K., Moore, N. B., & Ullstrup, K. M. (2004). Religiosity and sexual responsibility: Relationships of choice. American Journal of Health Behavior, 28(4), 335-346.  https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.5993/AJHB.28.4.5 Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1979). The DSFI: A multidimensional measure of sexual functioning. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 5(3), 244-281. doi:10.1080/00926237908403732 DeWall, C. N., Deckman, T., Maner, J. K., & Rouby, D. A. (2011). Forbidden fruit: Inattention to attractive alternatives provokes implicit relationship reactance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 621-629. doi:10.1037/a0021749 	 	122	Dion, K., & Dion, K. (1996). Cultural perspectives on romantic love. Personal Relationships, 3(1), 5-17. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.1996.tb00101.x Dosch, A., Belayachi, S., & Van der Linden, M. (2016). Implicit and explicit sexual attitudes: How are they related to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction in men and women? Journal of Sex Research, 53(2), 251-264. doi:0.1080/00224499.2014.1003361 	Dowd, E. T., Trutt, S. D., & Watkins, J., C E. (1992). Interpretation style and reactance in counselor's social influence. Psychological Reports, 70(1), 247-254. doi:10.2466/PR0.70.1.247 Dowd, E. T., & Wallbrown, F. (1993). Motivational components of client reactance. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71(5), 533-538. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1993.tb02237.x Dowd, E.T., Wallbrown, F., Sanders, D., & Yesenosky, J. M. (1994). Psychological reactance and its relationship to normal personality variables. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(6), 601-612. doi:10.1007/BF02355671 Driscoll, R., Davis, K. E., & Lipetz, M. E. (1972). Parental interference and romantic love: The Romeo and Juliet effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24(1), 1-10. doi:10.1037/h0033373 Durant, L. E., Carey, M. P., & Schroder, K. E. (2002). Effects of anonymity, gender, and erotophilia on the quality of data obtained from self-reports of socially sensitive behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 25(5), 439-467. doi:10.1023/A:1020419023766  	 	123	Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408-423. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.6.408 Ebert, I.D., Steffens, M.C., & Alexandra Kroth. (2014). Warm, but maybe not so  competent? Contemporary implicit stereotypes of women and nen in Germany.  Sex Roles, 70(9), 359–375. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-014-0369-5 Egloff, B., & Schmukle, S. C. (2004). Gender differences in implicit and explicit anxiety measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(8), 1807-1815. doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.002 Ellis, B., & Symons, D. (1990). Sex differences in sexual fantasy: An evolutionary  psychological approach. Journal of Sex Research, 27(4), 527–555. doi:10.1080/00224499009551579 Emmers-Sommer, T. M., Warber, K., & Halford, J. (2010). Reasons for (non)engagement in infidelity. Marriage & Family Review, 46(6-7), 420-444. doi:10.1080/01494929.2010.528707 Emmers-Sommer, T. M., Allen, M., Schoenbauer, K. V., & Burrell, N. (2018). Implications of sex guilt: A meta-analysis. Marriage & Family Review, 54(5), 417-437. doi:10.1080/01494929.2017.1359815 Endo, Y., Heine, S. J., & Lehman, D. R. (2000). Culture and positive illusions in close relationships: How my relationships are better than yours. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(12), 1571-1586. doi:10.1177/01461672002612011 	 	124	Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2014). The MODE Model: Attitude-behavior processes as a function of motivation and opportunity. In J. W. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope. (Eds.), Dual-process theories of the social mind (pp. 155 – 171). New York, NY: The Guildford Press. . Felmlee, D. H. (2001). No couple is an island: A social network perspective on dyadic stability. Social Forces, 79(4), 1259-1287. doi:10.1353/sof.2001.0039 Ferreira, L. C., Fraenkel, P., Narciso, I., & Novo, R. (2015). Is committed desire intentional?   A qualitative exploration of sexual desire and differentiation of self in couples.   Family Process, 54(2), 308-26. doi: 10.1111/famp.12108  Fingarette, H. (1972). Confucius: The secular as sacred. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Fisher, M. P. (1997). Living religions (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall. Fisher, W. A. (1998). The sexual opinion survey. In	T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, & W. L. Yarber (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures, (pp. 218–223). New York, NY: Routledge Fisher, T. D., Moore, Z. T., & Pittenger, M. J. (2012). Sex on the brain? An examination of frequency of sexual cognitions as a function of gender, erotophilia, and social desirability. Journal of Sex Research, 49(1), 69-77.  doi: 10.1080/00224499.2011.565429 Fisher, W. A., White, L. A., Byrne, D., & Kelley, K. (1988). Erotophobia - erotophilia as a dimension of personality. Journal of Sex Research, 25(1), 123-151. doi:10.1080/00224498809551448 	 	125	Fiske, A. P. (2002). Using individualism and collectivism to compare cultures: A critique of the validity and measurement of the constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 78-88. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.78 Fong, K. E., & Goetz, A. T. (2010). Mating strategies along narrowing definitions of   individualism and collectivism. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural   Psychology, 4, 128 – 141. doi:	10.1037/h0099294		Ford, C. S., & Beach, F. A. (1951). Patterns of sexual behavior. New York, NY: Harper. Frenier, M. D., & Mancini, K. (1996). Vietnamese women in a Confucian setting: The causes of the initial decline in the status of East Asian women. In K. Berry (Ed.), Vietnam’s women in transition (pp. 21 - 37). New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press Fujita, F., Diener, E., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(3), 427-434. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.427 Geer, J. H., Judice, S., & Jackson, S. (1994). Reading times for erotic material: The pause to reflect.  Journal of General Psychology, 121(4), 345-352. doi:10.1080/00221309.1994.9921208 Geer, J. H., & Robertson, G. G. (2005). Implicit attitudes in sexuality: Gender differences. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34(6), 671-677. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-7923-8 George, W. H., Davis, K. C., Norris, J., Heiman, J. R., Stoner, S. A., Schacht, R. L., Hendershot, C. S., & Kajumulo, K. F. (2009). Indirect effects of acute alcohol intoxication on sexual risk-taking: The roles of subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(4), 498-513.  doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9346-9 	 	126	Goldey, K. L., & van Anders, S. M. (2012). Sexual arousal and desire: Interrelations and responses to three modalities of sexual stimuli. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(9), 2315-2329. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02845. Gravel, E. E., Young, M. Y., Darzi, C. M., Olavarria-Turner, M., & Lee, A. M. (2016). Premarital sexual debut in emerging adults of South Asian descent: The role of parental sexual socialization and sexual attitudes. Sexuality & Culture, 20(4), 862- 878. doi 10.1007/s12119-016- 9362-1. Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102(1), 4-27. doi:0.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4 Greenwald, A. G., & Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 1022-1038. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.79.6.1022  Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480.  doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464 Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 197-216. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197 Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 17-41. doi:10.1037/e633982013-155   	 	127	Grunbaum, J. A., Lowry, R., Kann, L., & Pateman, B. (2000). Prevalence of health risk  behaviors among Asian American/Pacific Islander high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27(5), 322-330. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00093-8 Hakstian, A. R., Roed, J. C., & Lind, J. C. (1979). Two-sample T-2 procedure and the assumption of homogeneous covariance matrices. Psychological Bulletin, 86(6), 1255-1263. doi.10.1037/0033-2909.86.6.1255 Hair, J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education International.  Hamamura, T., Heine, S. J., & Paulhus, D. L. (2008). Cultural differences in response styles: The role of dialectical thinking. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(4), 932-942. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.034 Hamilton, B. L. (1977). An empirical investigation of the effects of heterogeneous regression slopes in analysis of covariance. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37(3), 701-712. doi:10.1177/001316447703700313  Hammond, K. J., & Richey, J. L. (2015). The sage returns: Confucian revival in contemporary China. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.  Harvey, Peter (2013). An introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, history and practices (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  Hehman, E., Sutherland, C., Flake, J., & Slepian, M. (2017). The unique contributions of perceiver and target characteristics in person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(4), 513-529. doi:10.1037/pspa0000090 Heine, S. (2010). Cultural Psychology. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, G. Lindzey, & A. E. Jongsma. (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.  	 	128	Helgason, A. R., Fredrikson, M., Adolfsson, J., & Steineck, G. (1995). Decreased sexual capacity after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer impairs quality of life. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 32(1), 33-39 Herdt, G. H. (1984). Ritualized homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Hicks, T. V., & Leitenberg, H. (2001). Sexual fantasies about one's partner versus someone else: Gender differences in incidence and frequency. Journal of Sex Research, 38(1), 43-50. doi:10.1080/00224490109552069 Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(10), 1369-1385. doi:10.1177/0146167205275613 Hofmann, W., Gschwender, T., & Schmitt, L. C. M. (2008). Implicit and explicit attitudes and interracial interaction: The moderating role of situationally available control resources. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11(1), 69-87. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430207084847 Homma, Y., Saewyc, E. M., Wong, S. T., & Zumbo, B. D. (2013). Sexual health and risk behaviour among East Asian adolescents in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 22(1), 13-24. doi:10.3138/cjhs.927 Hong, S. M., Giannakopoulos, E., Laing, D., & Williams, N. A. (1994). Psychological reactance: Effects of age and gender. Journal of Social Psychology, 134(2), 223-228. doi:10.1080/00224545.1994.9711385 	 	129	Horan, R. F. & DiClemente, R. J. (1993) HIV knowledge, communication, and risk behaviors among White-, Chinese-, and Filipino-American adolescents in a high prevalence AIDS epicenter: A comparative analysis. Ethnicity & Disease, 3(2), 97– 105.  Hou, S.-I., & Basen-Engquist, K. (1997). Human immunodeficiency virus risk behavior among White and Asian/Pacific Islander high school students in the United States: Does culture make a difference? Journal of Adolescent Health, 20(1), 68– 74. doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(96)00323- 0 Huang, K., & Uba, L. (1992). Premarital sexual behavior among Chinese college students in the United States. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 21(3), 227-240. doi:10.1007/BF01542994 Huberman, J. S., Suschinsky, K. D., Lalumière, M. L., & Chivers, M. L. (2013). Relationship between impression management and three measures of women’s self- reported sexual arousal. Canadian Journal Of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 45(3), 259-273. doi:10.1037/a0033397 Hubert, M., & Vandervieren, E. (2008). An adjusted boxplot for skewed distributions. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 52(12), 5186-5201. doi:10.1016/j.csda.2007.11.008. Huberty, C. J., & Petoskey, M. D. (2000). Multivariate analysis of variance and covariance. In H. E. A. Tinsley & S. D. Brown (Ed.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling (pp. 183-208). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.  Inquisit (Version 5.0.5.0) [Computer software]. (2016) Seattle, WA: Millisecond Software 	 	130	Irwin, H. (1993). Belief in the paranormal: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 87(1), 1-39.  Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 349-366. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.349  Johnson, D. J., & Rusbult, C. E. (1989). Resisting temptation: Devaluation of alternative partners as a means of maintaining commitment in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 967-980. doi:10.1037/0022- 3514.57.6.967 Johnson, A. M., Wadsworth, J., Field, J., Wellings, K., & Anderson, R. M. (1990). Surveying sexual attitudes. Nature, 343(6254), 109 doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279586.003.0004  Jonas, E., Graupmann, V., Kayser, D. N., Zanna, M., Traut-Mattausch, E., & Frey, D. (2009). Culture, self, and the emergence of reactance: Is there a “universal” freedom? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(5), 1068-1080. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2009.06.005 Jonason, P. K., & Fisher, T. D. (2009). The power of prestige: Why young men report having more sex partners than young women. Sex Roles, 60(3), 151-159.  doi:10.1007/s11199-008- 9506-3 Joubert, C. E. (1990). Relationship among self-esteem, psychological reactance, and other personality variables. Psychological Reports, 66(3), 1147-1151. doi:10.2466/pr0.1990.66.3c.1147 Kaltenmark, M. (1969). Lao Tzu and Taoism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University 	 	131	Press. Karpinski, A., Steinman, R. B., & Hilton, J. L. (2005). Attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between implicit and explicit attitude measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(7), 949-962.  https://doi.org/10.1037/e633912013-681 Kennedy, A. M., & Gorzalka, B. B. Asian and non-Asian attitudes towards rape, sexual  harassment, and sexuality. Sex Roles, 46(7-8), 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020145815129 Kim, A. E. (2000). Korean religious culture and its affinity to Christianity: The rise of Protestant Christianity in South Korea. Sociology of Religion, 61(2), 117-133. doi:10.2307/3712281 Kim, K. (2017). Confucianism and modernization in East Asia: Critical reflections. Secaucus, NY:  Palgrave Macmillan. Kim, Y. (2005). Guidelines and strategies for cross‐cultural counseling with Korean   American clients. Journal of Multicultural Counselling and Development, 33(4),   217-231. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2005.tb00018.x  Kim, H., & Markus, H. R. (1999). Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(4), 785-800. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.77.4.785  Kim, S. W., Brown, K. E., & Fong, V. L. (2017). How flexible gender identities give young women advantages in China’s new economy. Gender and Education, 1-19. doi:0.1080/09540253.2016.1274380 Kinsey, A.C., Pomeroy, W.B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. 	 	132	Kinsey, A.C., Pomeroy, W.B., Martin, C.E., & Gebhard, P.H. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the   Human Female. Philadelphia, PA, US: W.B. Saunders.   Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Hood, R. W. (1990). Intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation: The boon or bane of contemporary psychology of religion? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29(4), 442-462.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1387311  Kitayama, S., Park, H., Sevincer, A. T., Karasawa, M., & Uskul, A. K. (2009). A cultural task analysis of implicit independence: Comparing North America, Western Europe, and East Asia. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(2), 236-255. doi:10.1037/a0015999 Kocsor, F., Rezneki, R., Juhász, S., & Bereczkei, T. (2011). Preference for facial self- resemblance and attractiveness in human mate choice. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(6), 1263-1270. doi:10.1007/s10508-010- 9723-z Kontula, O., & Haavio-Mannila, E. (2009). The impact of aging on human sexual activity and sexual desire. Journal of Sex Research, 46(1), 46-56. 10.1080/00224490802624414 Koo, K. H., Stephens, K. A., Lindgren, K. P., & George, W. H. (2012). Misogyny,  acculturation, and ethnic identity: Relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(4), 1005-1014. doi: 10.1007/s10508-011-9729-1 Koo, D.H. (2013). A Case study on the classification systems of world regions: Characteristics and implications. National Geographic Society. 47(4), 415–426. doi:0.1016/j.ijid.2013.09.014 	 	133	Kuo, W.-H., & St. Lawrence, J. S. (2006). Sexual behaviour and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Comparison between White and Chinese American young people. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 8(4), 335–349. doi.org/10.1080/13691050600784518. Kyong-Dong, K. (2017). Confucianism and modernization in East Asia: Critical reflections.   Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.  Lalwani, A. K., Shavitt, S., & Johnson, T. (2006). What is the relation between cultural orientation and socially desirable responding? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1), 165-178. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.90.1.165 Lam, A. G., Russell, S. T., Tan, T. C., & Leong, S. J. (2008). Maternal predictors of noncoital sexual behavior: Examining a nationally representative sample of Asian and White American adolescents who have never had sex. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(1), 62-73. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9223-1 Landor, A.M., & Halpern, C.T. (2016). The Enduring significance of skin tone: Linking skin tone, attitudes towards marriage and cohabitation, and sexual behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(5), 986-1002. doi:10.1007/s10964-016- 0456-8 Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Laumann, E. O. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.  Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 	 	134	Leopold, T. A., Ratcheva, V., & Zahidi, S. (2016). The global gender gap report 2016. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs350  Levy, K. J. (1980). A Monte Carlo study of analysis of covariance under violations of the assumptions of normality and equal regression slopes. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 40(4), 835-840. doi:10.1177/001316448004000404 Li, Y., Zhen, Q., Lu, P., Wang, Y. & Li, X. (2002) The sexual, knowledge, attitudes and behavior among adolescents by gender. Practical Preventive Medicine 9(1), 1–3.  Liang, Z., He, J., Yang, B., Zhong, Y. & Mao J. (2009) Sexual behaviour and relative factors among rural high school students in Henan province. Chinese Journal of School Health 30(6), 502–503.  Liang S. & Jiang D. (2006) Knowledge, attitudes and practice related AIDS among 2562 secondary students. Chinese Journal of Health Education 22(7), 493– 495.  Lianjun, P., Aixia, Z., Zhong, W., Feng, P., Li, B., & Xiaona, Y. (2011). Risk factors for low sexual function among urban Chinese women: A hospital-based investigation. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8(8), 2299-2304. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02313. Lipset, S. M. (1990). The values of Canadians and Americans: A reply. Social Forces, 69(1), 267-272. doi:10.1093/sf/69.1.267 LoPiccolo, J., & Friedman, J. M. (1988). Broad-spectrum treatment of low sexual desire: Integration of cognitive, behavioral, and systemic therapy. In S. R. Leiblum & R. C. Rosen (Eds.), Sexual desire disorders (pp. 107-144). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. Lytle, M. C., De Luca, S. M., & Blosnich, J. R. (2014). The influence of intersecting identities on self harm, suicidal behaviors, and depression among lesbian, gay, and 	 	135	bisexual individuals. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 44(4), 384-391. doi:10.1111/sltb.12083 Ma, D.S., Correll, J., & Wittenbrink, B. (2015). The Chicago Face Database: A free stimulus set of faces and norming data. Behavior Research Methods, 47(4), 1122-1135. doi:10.3758/s13428-014-0532-5 Ma, Q., Ono-Kihara, M., Cong, L., Xu, G., Zamani, S., Ravari, S. M., & Kihara, M. (2006). Sexual behavior and awareness of Chinese university students in transition with implied risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 6(1), 232. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-232  Ma, Q., Ono-Kihara, M., Cong, L., Xu, G., Pan, X., Zamani, S., Ravari, S. M., Zhang, D., Homma, T., & Kihara, M. (2009). Early initiation of sexual activity: A risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 111-120.  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-111 Ma, Y., Zhao, G., Tu, S., & Zheng, Y. (2015). Attentional biases toward attractive alternatives and rivals: Mechanisms involved in relationship maintenance among Chinese women.PLoS One, 10(8), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136662 MacFarquhar, R., & Schoenhals, M. (2006). Mao’s last revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Maestripieri, D., Klimczuk, A., Traficonte, D., & Wilson, M. C. (2014). Ethnicity-related variation in sexual promiscuity, relationship status, and testosterone levels in men. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 8(2), 96–108. doi.org/10.1037/h0099130 	 	136	Maner, J. K., Gailliot, M. T., & Miller, S. L. (2009). The implicit cognition of relationship maintenance: Inattention to attractive alternatives. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(1), 174-179. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.08.002 Masumori, N., Tsukamoto, T., Kumamoto, Y., Panser, L. A., Rhodes, T., Girman, C. J., Lieber, M. M., & Jacobsen, S. J. (1999). Decline of sexual function with age in Japanese men compared with American men — results of two community-based studies. Urology, 54(2), 335-344.doi:10.1016/s0090-4295(99)00108-9 Matsumoto, D., & Van de Vijver, F. (2012) Cross cultural research methods. In H. M. Cooper (Ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, (pp. 621-642). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association  May, R. M. (1997). The scientific wealth of nations. Science, 275(5301), 793-796. doi:10.1126/science.275.5301.793 Maykovich, M. K. (1976). Attitudes versus behavior in extramarital sexual relations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 38(4), 693-699. McCrae, R. R., Zonderman, A. B., Costa Jr, P. T., Bond, M. H., & Paunonen, S. V. (1996). Evaluating replicability of factors in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Confirmatory factor analysis versus Procrustes rotation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 552-556. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.552 Mead, N. L. (2007). Reactance. In Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Retrieved from: doi:10.4135/9781412956253.n433.  Mercer, C. H., Tanton, C., Prah, P., Erens, B., Sonnenberg, P., Clifton, S., ... & Copas, A. J. (2013). Changes in sexual attitudes and lifestyles in Britain through the life course 	 	137	and over time: findings from the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal).  Lancet, 382(9907), 1781-1794. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62035-8 Meston, C. M., & Buss, D. M. (2007). Why humans have sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(4), 477- 507. doi:10.1007/s10508-007- 9175-2  Meston, C. M., Heiman, J. R., Trapnell, P. D., & Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Socially desirable responding and sexuality self-reports. Journal of Sex Research, 35(2), 148-157. doi:10.1080/00224499809551928 Meston, C. M., Trapnell, P. D., & Gorzalka, B. B. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in sexuality: Variations in sexual behavior between Asian and non-Asian university students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(1), 33–72. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02437906 Meston, C. M., Trapnell, P. D., & Gorzalka, B. B. (1998). Ethnic, gender, and length of residency influences on sexual knowledge and attitudes. Journal of Sex Research, 35(2), 176-188. doi:10.1080/0022449980955193159 Meyer, M. L., Berkman, E. T., Karremans, J. C., & Lieberman, M. D. (2011). Incidental regulation of attraction: The neural basis of the derogation of attractive alternatives in romantic relationships. Cognition & Emotion, 25(3), 490-505. doi:10.1080/02699931.2010.527494 Mikuni, M., (2015). The Person-Centered Approach in Japan: Blending a Western approach   with Japanese culture. Manchester, UK: PCCS Books.  Miller, R. S. (1997). Inattentive and contented: Relationship commitment and attention to alternatives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(4), 758-766. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.73.4.758 	 	138	Minnis, A., Steiner, M., Gallo, M., Warner, L., Hobbs, M., van der Straten, A.,… & Padian, N. (2009). Biomarker validation of reports of recent sexual activity: Results of a randomized controlled study in Zimbabwe. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(7), 918-924. doi:aje/kwp219 Moors, A., & De Houwer, J. (2006). Automaticity: A theoretical and conceptual analysis.   Psychological Bulletin, 13(2), 297-326. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.297 Moors, A. C., Matsick, J. L., & Schechinger, H. A. (2017). Unique and shared relationship   benefits of consensually non-monogamous and monogamous relationships: A review   and insights for moving forward. European Psychologist, 22(1), 55-71.   doi:10.1027/1016-9040/a000278  Morton, H., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2013). Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: Differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(8), 1615-1625. doi:10.1007/s10508-013- 0180-3 Morton, H., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2015). Role of partner novelty in sexual functioning: A review. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 41(6), 593-609.  doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2014.958788 Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., & Griffin, D. W. (1996). The self-fulfilling nature of positive illusions in romantic relationships: Love is not blind, but prescient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1155-1180.  doi:10.1037/0022- 3514.71.6.1155 Nadal, K. L., & Corpus, M. J. H. (2013). “Tomboys” and “baklas”: Experiences of lesbian   and gay Filipino Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(3), 166-175.   doi: 10.1037/a0030168  	 	139	Nakagawa, S. (2004). A farewell to Bonferroni: The problems of low statistical power and publication bias. Behavioral Ecology, 15(6), 1044-1045. doi:10.1093/beheco/arh107 Namiki, S., Carlile, R. G., Namiki, T. S., Fukagai, T., Takegami, M., Litwin, M. S., & Arai, Y. (2011). Racial differences in sexuality profiles among American, Japanese, and Japanese American men with localized prostate cancer. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8(9), 2625–2631. doi.org/10.1111/j.1743- 6109.2011.02362. Namiki, S., Kwan, L., Kagawa-Singer, M., Tochigi, T., Ioritani, N., Terai, A., ... & Litwin, M. S. (2008). Sexual function following radical prostatectomy: A prospective longitudinal study of cultural differences between Japanese and American men. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 11(3), 298-302. 60 doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4501013 Nederhof, A. J. (1985). Methods of coping with social desirability bias: A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15(3), 263-280. Ng, M. L., & Lau, M. P. (1990). Sexual attitudes in the Chinese. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19(4), 373- 388. doi:10.1007/BF01541932 Nguyen, H. V., Koo, K. H, Davis, K. C., Otto, J.M., Hendershot, C. S., Schacht, R. L.,   George, W. H., Heiman, J. R., & Norris, J. (2012). Risky sex: Interactions among   ethnicity, sexual sensation seeking, sexual inhibition, and sexual excitation. Archives   of Sexual Behavior, 41(5), 1231-1239. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9904-z	 Nobre, P. J., Wiegel, M., Bach, A. K., Weisberg, R. B., Brown, T. A., Wincze, J. P., & Barlow, D. H. (2004). Determinants of sexual arousal and the accuracy of its self-estimation in sexually functional males. Journal of Sex Research, 41(4), 363-371. doi:10.1080/00224490409552243 	 	140	Nosek, B. A. (2005). Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 134(4), 565-584.  doi:10.1037/0096-3445.134.4.565 Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test at  age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Frontiers of Social Psychology. Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of higher mental processes (pp. 265-292). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press. Nosek, B. A. &  Smyth, F. L. (2007). A multitrait-multimethod validation of the Implicit  Association Test. Experimental Psychology, 54, 14-29.   https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169.54.1.14  O’Leary, K. D., Acevedo, B. P., Aron, A., Huddy, L., & Mashek, D. (2011). Is long-term   love more than a rare phenomenon? If so, what are its correlates? Social   Psychological and Personality Science, 3(2), 241 – 249.   https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550611417015  Oishi, S., Lun, J., & Sherman, G. D. (2007). Residential mobility, self-concept, and positive affect in social interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(1), 131-141. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.93.1.131 Padian, N. S., Aral, S., Vranizan, K., & Bolan, G. (1995). Reliability of sexual histories in heterosexual couples. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 22(3), 169-172.  doi:	10.1097/00007435-199505000-00008. Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self- enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1197-1208. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1197  	 	141	Payne, B. K., Burkley, M. A., & Stokes, M. B. (2008). Why do implicit and explicit attitude tests diverge? The role of structural fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 16-31. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.16 Pelham, B. W., Koole, S. L., Hardin, C. D., Hetts, J. J., Seah, E., & DeHart, T. (2005). Gender moderates the relation between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(1), 84-89. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2003.10.008 Pena, E. D. (2007) Lost in translation: Methodological considerations in cross-cultural research. Child Development, 78(4), 1255-1264. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01064.x Peng, A., Qi, X., Huang, X., Wu, J., & Shi S. (2004) Study on the sexual knowledge and attitudes of 1341 school girls in Wuhan. Chinese Journal of School Health 25(5), 543–544. Petersen, J. L., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). A meta-analytic review of research on gender differences in sexuality, 1993 – 2007. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 21-38. doi:10.1037/a0017504 Petersen, J. L., & Hyde, J. S. (2011). Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors: A review of meta-analytic results and large datasets. Journal of Sex Research, 48(2-3), 149-165. doi:10.1080/00224499.2011.551851 Pew Research Center (2010). Global Religious Futures. Retrieved from   http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries Pituch, K. A., & Stevens, J. P. (2015). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences: Analyses with SAS and IBM’s SPSS. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.  	 	142	Poortinga, Y. H., Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Van Hemert, D. A. (2002). Cross-cultural equivalence of the Big Five: A tentative interpretation of the evidence. In R. R. McCrae, J. Allik (Ed.), The Five-Factor model of personality across cultures. (pp. 281–302). New York, NY: KluwerAcademic/Plenum Publishers.  Pregadio, F. (2008). The encyclopedia of Taoism.  London, UK: Routledge. Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, M. J. (1936). Memorandum for the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1), 149-152. doi:10.1525/aa.1936.38.1.02a00330 Regnerus, M. (2007). Forbidden fruit: Sex & religion in the lives of American teenagers. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  Richardson, J. T. E. (2011). Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 135-147. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001 Richardson, D., & Goldmeier, D. (2005). Premature ejaculation - does country of origin tell us anything about etiology? Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2(4), 508–512. doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.00074. Richman, W. L., Kiesler, S., Weisband, S., & Drasgow, F. (1999). A meta-analytic study of social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional questionnaires, and interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 754-775. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.5.754 Ritter, S. M., Karremans, J. C., & van Schie, H. T. (2010). The role of self-regulation in derogating attractive alternatives. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(4), 631-637. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.02.010 	 	143	Rosen, C. Brown, J. Heiman, S. Leiblum, C. Meston, R. Shabsigh, D. Ferguson, R D., & Agostino, R. (2000). The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A 62 multidimensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 26(2), 191-208. doi:10.1080/009262300278597.  Ruan, F.F. (1991) Sex in China: Studies in sexology in Chinese culture. New York, NY: Plenum Runkel, G. (1998). Sexual morality of Christianity. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 24(2), 103-122. doi:10.1080/00926239808404924 Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., & Paulhus, D. L. (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self-identity, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(1), 49-65. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.79.1.49 Schlenker, B. R., & Britt, T. W. (1999). Beneficial impression management: Strategically controlling information to help friends. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), 559-573. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.559 Schmitt, D.P., Shackelford, T.K., Duntley, J., Tooke, W., & Buss, D.M. (2001). The desire  for sexual variety as a key to understanding basic human mating strategies. Personal  Relationships, 8(4), 425–455. doi:10.1111/j.1475–6811.2001.tb00049.x Schuster, M. A., Bell, R. M., & Kanouse, D. E. (1996). The sexual practices of adolescent virgins: Genital sexual activities of high school students who have never had vaginal intercourse. American Journal of Public Health, 86(11), 1570- 1576. doi:10.2105/AJPH.86.11.1570 	 	144	Schuster, M. A., Bell, R. M., Nakajima, G. A., & Kanouse, D. E. (1998). The sexual practices of Asian and Pacific Islander high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 23(4), 221–231. doi.org/10.1016/S1054- 139X(97)00210-3 Scott-Sheldon, L. A., Carey, M. P., & Carey, K. B. (2010). Alcohol and risky sexual behavior among heavy drinking college students. AIDS and Behavior, 14(4), 845-853. doi:10.1007/s10461-008-9426-9 Seemann, E. A., Buboltz, W. C., Jenkins, S. M., Soper, B., & Woller, K. (2004). Ethnic and gender differences in psychological reactance: The importance of reactance in multicultural counselling. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 167-176. doi:10.1080/09515070410001728316 Séguin, L. J., Blais, M., Goyer, M., Adam, B. D., Lavoie, F., Rodrigue, C., & Magontier, C.   (2016). Examining relationship quality across three types of relationship agreements.   Sexualities, 20(1), 86 – 104. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460716649337  Shim, Y. H. (2001). Feminism and the discourse of sexuality in Korea: Continuities and changes. Human Studies, 24(1/2), 133-148. doi:	10.1023/A:1010775332420 Sims, K.E. & Meana, M. (2010). Why did passion wane? A qualitative study of married  women's attributions for declines in sexual desire. Journal of Sex and Marital  Therapy, 36(4), 360–380. doi:10.1080/0092623X.2010.498727 Smith, C. T., & Nosek, B. A. (2011). Affective focus increases the concordance between implicit and explicit attitudes. Social Psychology, 42(4), 300-313.  doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000072 Smith, P. B. (2004). Acquiescent response bias as an aspect of cultural communication style. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 35(1), 50-61. doi:10.1177/0022022103260380 	 	145	So, H., & Cheung, F. M. (2010). Review of Chinese sex attitudes & applicability of sex therapy for Chinese couples with sexual dysfunction. Journal of Sex Research, 42(2), 93-101. doi: 10.1080/00224490509552262 Song, S., Zhang, Y., Zhou, Y., Liu, Y., & Xu, S. (2006) Comparison on sex knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and demand between common high school students and occupational high school students. Maternal and Child Health Care of China 4, 507–509. South Korea National Statistical Office. (2015). Religion organizations’ statistics. [Data file]  Retrieved from http://kostat.go.kr/portal/eng/index.action Spector, I. P., & Carey, M. P. (1990). Incidence and prevalence of the sexual dysfunctions:  A critical review of the empirical literature. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19(4), 389–408. doi: 10.1007/BF01541933. Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology eview, 8(3), 220-247. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0803_ Strassberg, D. S., & Lowe, K. (1995). Volunteer bias in sexuality research. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24(4), 369-382. doi:10.1007/BF01541853 Sun, L., Cao, L., Wang, J., & Wei, L. (2004). Analysis of sexual behaviours of occupational school students and its contributing factors. Chinese Journal of School Health, 25(3), 302-304. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. 	 	146	Takahashi, M., Inokuchi, T., Watanabe, C., Saito, T., & Kai, I. (2011). The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): Development of a Japanese version. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8(8), 2246-2254. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02267. Tanner, W. M., & Pollack, R. H. (1988). The effect of condom use and erotic instructions on attitudes toward condoms. Journal of Sex Research, 25(4), 537-541. doi:10.1080/00224498809551481 Thayer, J., & Johnsen, B. H. (2000). Sex differences in judgement of facial affect: A multivariate analysis of recognition errors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 41(3), 243-246. doi:10.1111/1467-9450.00193 Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J., & Rasinski, K. (2000). The psychology of survey response. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Tourangeau, R., & Yan, T. (2007). Sensitive questions in surveys. Psychological Bulletin, 133(5), 859-883. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.5.859 Traeen, B., Nilsen, T., & Stigum, H. (2006). Use of pornography in traditional media and on  the Internet in Norway. Journal of Sex Research, 43(3), 245–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490609552323 Tung, W. C., Cook, D. M., Lu, M., &Yang, W. (2013). HIV knowledge and behavior among Chinese college students in China and the United States. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 35(9), 1171-1183. doi:10.1177/0193945913486201 Tung, W.C., Cook, D.M., & Lu, M. (2012). Sexual behavior, decisional balance, and self- efficacy among Chinese college students in the United States. Journal of American  College Health, 60(5), 367-373. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2012.663839	Tung, W.C., Cook, D.M., & Lu, M. (2011). Sexual behavior, stages of condom use, and self- 	 	147	efficacy among college students in Taiwan. AIDS Care, 23(1), 113-120. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2010.498863 Tung, W.C., Hu, J., Davis, C., Tung, W.K., & Lin, Y.M. (2008). Knowledge, attitudes and  behaviors related to HIV and AIDS among female college students in  Taiwan. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(3/4), 361-375. doi: 10.1080/10911350802068102  Tung, W.C., Ding, K. & Farmer, S. (2008). Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to   HIV and AIDS among college students in Taiwan. Journal of the Association of   Nurses in AIDS Care, 19(5), 397-408. doi: 10.1016/j.jana.2008.04.009		Tunariu, A.D., & Reavey, P. (2003). Men in love: Living with sexual boredom. Sexual and  Relationship Therapy, 18(1), 63–94. doi:10.1080/1468199031000061272 Twenge, J. M., Sherman, R. A., & Wells, B. E. (2015). Changes in American adults’ sexual behavior and attitudes, 1972–2012. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(8), 2273-2285. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0540-2 UBC Alma Mater Society (2017). Academic experience survey. Retrieved from:  http://www.ams.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/044-18-Academic-Experience-Survey-Presentation.pdf Uskul, A. K., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2008). Ecocultural basis of cognition: Farmers and fishermen are more holistic than herders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(25), 8552- 8556. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803874105 	 	148	Van Dillen, L. F., Papies, E. K., & Hofmann, W. (2013). Turning a blind eye to temptation: How task load can facilitate self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(3), 427-443. doi:10.1037/a0031262 Van de Vijver, F.J.R., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.  Ventura-Aquino, E., Fernández-Guasti, A., Paredes RG. (2018). Hormones and the Coolidge   effect. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 476, 42-48.   doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.09.010.  Visserman, M. L., & Karremans, J. C. T. M. (2014). Romantic relationship status biases the processing of an attractive alternative’s behavior. Personal Relationships, 21(2), 324-334. doi:10.1111/pere.12035 Wang, Q. (2004). The emergence of cultural self-constructs: Autobiographical memory and self-description in European American and Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 40(1), 3-15. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.1.3 Wang, R., Hempton, B., Dugan, J. P., & Komives, S. R. (2008). Cultural differences: Why do Asians avoid extreme responses? Survey Practice, 1(3), 1-10.  doi:10.1007/s11575-011-0111-2 Wang, L., Wang, N., Wang, L., Li, D., Jia, M., Gao, X., Qu, S., Qin, Q., Wang, Y. & Smith, K. (2009). The 2007 estimates for people at risk for and living with HIV in China: Progress and challenges. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 50(4), 414-418. doi:	10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181958530 	 	149	Warnecke, R. B., Johnson, T. P., Chávez, N., Sudman, S., O'rourke, D. P., Lacey, L., & Horm, J. (1997). Improving question wording in surveys of culturally diverse populations. Annals of Epidemiology, 7(5), 334-342.  doi: 0.1016/s1047-2797(97)00030-6  Weiming, T. (2000). Implications of the rise of “Confucian” East Asia. Daedalus, 129(1), 195-218.  Werner, O., & Campbell, D. (1970). Translating, Working through Interpreters and the Problem of Decentering. In: R., Naroll & R., Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of cultural anthropology. New York, NY: American Museum of National History. West, S.L., Vinikoor L.C., & Zolnoun, D. (2004). A systematic review of the literature on female sexual dysfunction prevalence and predictors. Annual Review of Sexual Research, 15(1), 40–72. doi: 10.1080/10532528.2004.10559819 Wiederman, M.W. (1997). Extramarital sex: Prevalence and correlates in a national survey.  Journal of Sex Research, 34(2), 167–174. doi:10.1080/00224499709551881 Wiegel, M., Meston, C., & Rosen, R. (2005). The female sexual function index (FSFI): Cross-validation and development of clinical cutoff scores. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 31(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1080/00926230590475206 Willetts, M. C., Sprecher, S., & Beck, F. D. (2004). Overview of sexual practices and  attitudes within relational contexts. In J. H. Harvey, A. Wenzel, & S. Sprecher (Eds.), The handbook of sexuality in close relationships (pp. 57-85). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. 	 	150	Wright, T. M., & Reise, S. P. (1997). Personality and unrestricted sexual behavior: Correlations of sociosexuality in Caucasian and Asian college students. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(2), 166-192. doi:10.1006/jrpe.1997.2177 Woo, J. S., Brotto, L. A., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2009). The role of sexuality in cervical cancer screening among Chinese women. Health Psychology, 28(5), 598-604.  doi: 10.1037/a0015986 Woo, J. S. T., Brotto, L. A., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2011). The role of sex guilt in the relationship between culture and women’s sexual desire. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 385–394. doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010- 9609-0 Woo, J. S., Brotto, L. A., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2012). The relationship between sex guilt and sexual desire in a community sample of Chinese and Euro-Canadian women. Journal of Sex Research, 49(2-3), 290-298. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2010.551792 Woo, J. S. T., Brotto, L. A., & Yule, M. A. (2010). Do East Asian and Euro Canadian women differ in sexual psychophysiology research participation? Journal of Sex Research, 47(4), 345–354. http://doi.org/10.1080/00224490902999294 Woo, J. S. T. Fok-Trela, A., & Brotto, L. A. (2014). In L. Benuto, N. S. Thaler, & B. Leany   (Eds.), Guide to psychological assessment with Asian Americans (pp. 61-75). New   York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media.   Woo, J. S. T., Morshedian, N., Brotto, L. A., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2012). Sex guilt mediates the relationship between religiosity and sexual desire in East Asian and Euro-Canadian college-aged women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(6), 1485– 1495. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012- 9918-6 	 	151	Woo, J. S. T., & Brotto, L. A. (2008). Age of first sexual intercourse and acculturation: Effects on adult sexual responding. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(3), 571–582. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00740 Wu, J., Xiong, G., & Shi, S. (2007). Study on sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of adolescents. Chinese Journal of Child Health Care. 15(2), 120–124.  Xie, T., & Galliher, R. V. (2018). Acculturation and language use in intimate and sexual   relationships among Chinese bilinguals. Asian American Journal of Psychology.   doi:	10.1037/aap0000116	 Xu, S., Song, S., Zhou, J., Zhang, Y. & Liu, Y. (2007). Analysis on sex knowledge, attitude, behaviour and demand in middle school students in Beijing Haidian district. Modern Preventive Medicine, 34(2), 17. Xue, F., Sun, Z., Lin, S., & Zheng, G. (2008). Survey on awareness of AIDS-related knowledge and sexual behaviours among middle school students in Lucheng district, Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province. Disease Surveillance, 23(10), 610–612. Yang, Y., Harkness, J. A., Chin, T. Y., & Villar, A. (2010). Response styles and culture. In Harkness, J., Braun, M., Edwards, B., Johnson, T., Lyberg, L., Mohler, P., Pennell, B., & Smith, T. (Eds.), Survey methods in multinational, multiregional, and multicultural contexts (pp. 203- 223). Marblehead, MA: John Wiley & Sons. Yang, L. & Yu, B. (2000). Analysis of sexual health education for junior high school pupils in Dalian. Chinese Journal of School Health, 21(2), 106–107. Youn, G. (2001). Perceptions of peer sexual activities in Korean adolescents. Journal of Sex Research, 38(4), 352-360. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490109552106 	 	152	Yule, M., Woo, J. S. T., & Brotto, L. A. (2010). Sexual arousal in East Asian and Euro-Canadian women: A psychophysiological study. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(9), 3066–3079. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01916 Yuki, M., Schug, J. R., Horikawa, H., Takemura, K., Sato, K., & Yokota, K. (2007). Development of a scale to measure perceptions of relational mobility in society. CERSS Working Paper 75, Center for Experimental Research in Social Sciences, Hokkaido University. Yuki, M., Schug, J. R., Horikawa, H., Takemura, K., Sato, K., Yokota, K., & Kamaya, K. (2008). Development of a scale to measure perceptions of relational mobility in society. Unpublished manuscript. Hokkaido University. Zaikman, Y., & Marks, M. J. (2014). Ambivalent sexism and the sexual double standard. Sex  Roles, 71(9-10), 333-344. doi:	10.1007/s11199-014-0417-1	Zhang, K., Li, D., Li, H. & Beck, E.J. (1999). Changing sexual attitudes and behaviour in China: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. AIDS Care 11(5), 581–589. doi:10.1080/09540129947730 Zhang, Y. B., Lin, M., Nonaka, A., & Beom, K. (2005). Harmony, hierarchy and conservatism: A cross-cultural comparison of Confucian values in China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. Communication Research Reports, 22(2), 107-115. doi:10.1080/00036810500130539 Zhang, Y., Song, S., Liu H., Hong, J. & Zhou, Z. (2004). Knowledge, attitude and practice  about sex among middle school students in Beijing. Chinese Journal of School Health, 25(4), 392–393.  	 	153	Zhang, Q., Maner, J. K., Xu, Y., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Relational motives reduce attentional adhesion to attractive alternatives in heterosexual university students in China. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(2), 503-511. doi:10.1007/s10508-016-0759-6 Zhao G., Zhang X., Zhou M., Wang L., Guo S., & Xue L. (2005). Study on reproductive health situation, knowledge, attitude and practice and health needs of middle school students in rural China. Maternal and Child Health Care of China, 17, 2251–2253. Zheng, W., Zhou, X., Zhou, C., Liu, W., Li, L., & Hesketh, T. (2011). Detraditionalisation and attitudes to sex outside marriage in China. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 13(5), 497- 511. doi:10.1080/13691058.2011.563866 Zhi, Y. (2008). Survey on AIDS health education among middle school students in a county of Henan province. Journal of Zhengzhou University (Medical Sciences), 43(1), 109–112. Zhou, Y., Song, S., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., & Liu, H. (2005). A survey of reproductive health KSP and need among senior high school pupils. Maternal and Child Health Care of China, 20 (1), 102–104. Zhu, C., Wang J., Zhou, Z., & Li F. (2009). Investigation on sex behaviours among secondary school students in Guangzhou City. Chinese Journal of School Doctor, 3, 294–296.  Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., & Scott, A. B. (1999). The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 889-919. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00077 Zuo, X., Lou, C., Gao, E., Cheng, Y.,Niu, H., & Zabin, L. S., (2012). Gender differences in adolescent premarital sexual permissiveness in three Asian cities: Effects of gender-	 	154	role attitudes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(3), S18-S25. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.001                   	 	155	Appendices  Appendix A. Demographics Survey Demographics:			1.	Sex:		Male	 	 Female			2.	Age:	__________________		3.	Ethnicity	(circle	one):		A.Caucasian/White	B.	Chinese	(from	China)		 		C.	Chinese	(from	Taiwan)									D.	Japanese	 	 	E.	Korean		 				F.	Chinese	(from	Hong	Kong)																		G.	Other:	_____________			4.	Country	of	Birth:	__________________________________________________		5.	Number	of	Years	Living	in	Canada:	___________________________________		6.	Number	of	Years	of	Formal	Education	(counting	from	grade	1):	_____________		7.	Annual	Household	Income:	__________________________________________		8.	English	Language	Reading/Comprehension	Ability	(please	circle):		1	 	 2	 	 3	 	 4	 	 5												Poor	 	 	 										Fair	 	 	 	 Excellent	 	(Difficulty	Reading/	 	 (Some	Difficulties	Reading/	 	 (No	Difficulties	Reading/	Comprehending	Written			 Comprehending	Written	 	 	 Comprehending	Written	English)	 	 	 English)		 	 	 	 English)	 9.	Sexual	Orientation	(please	circle):		0	 	 	1	 	 			2	 	 					3	 	 						4	 	 							5	 																						6	Exclusively	 	 	 	 													Bisexual	 	 	 	 																								Exclusively	 	Heterosexual	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 																						Homosexual	 			 	 	156	Appendix B. Demographics Survey  1.	Gender	(please	circle):		 	 	 Male					/				Female					/				Other	 		2.	Age:	__________________		3.	Ethnicity	(please	circle):		 	 Caucasian	(White)					/					Chinese			4.	Country	of	Birth:	__________________________________________________		5.	Country	of	Residence:	__________________________________________________		6.	Number	of	Years	of	Formal	Education	(counting	from	grade	1):	_____________		7.	Annual	Household	Income:	__________________________________________		8.	English	Language	Reading/Comprehension	Ability	(please	circle):		1	 	 2	 	 3	 	 4	 	 5												Poor	 	 	 										Fair	 	 	 	 Excellent	 	(Difficulty	Reading/	 	 (Some	Difficulties	Reading/													(No	Difficulties	Reading/		Comprehending	Written		 Comprehending	Written	 													Comprehending	English)	 	 	 English)		 	 	 	 Written	English)			9.	What	is	your	sexual	orientation?	Please	circle	below:		0	 	1	 	 			2	 	 					3	 	 						4	 	 							5	 																						6	Exclusively	 	 	 	 					Bisexual	 	 	 	 												Exclusively	Heterosexual	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 																							Homosexual	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 																						10.	How	religious	are	you?	Please	circle	below:		0	 				1	 	 			2	 	 					3	 	 						4	 	 							5	 																						6	Low	Religiosity/		 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 High	Religiosity/	Not	Religious		 	 	 	 	 	 	 												Strongly	Religious																					11.		What	is	your	current	relationship	status?	Please	circle	below:		1	 2	 3	 4	 5	 6	 7		 	157	Single	 Committed	Relationship	 Common-Law	 Married	 Separated	 Divorced	 Widow/	Widower		12.	If	you	are	in	a	relationship,	how	many	months	have	you	been	in	your	current											relationship?		________________			13.		Do	you	have	any	children?	 YES	 	 NO			 a.		If	YES,	how	many?		 _______________			                 	 	158	Appendix C. Manipulation Check How are you feeling right now? Please indicate how strongly you are experiencing the following emotions by moving the slider on the 100-point scale provided below each emotion, where 0 indicates ‘not at all,’ 50 indicates ‘moderately,’ and 100 indicates ‘very strongly.’   1.  Disgust   2. Sexual Arousal   3. Fear         

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.24.1-0371260/manifest

Comment

Related Items