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The geology and genesis of the Coffee gold deposit in west-central Yukon, Canada : implications for the… MacWilliam, Kathryn R.G. 2018

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THE GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF THE COFFEE GOLD DEPOSIT IN WEST-CENTRAL YUKON, CANADA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE STRUCTURAL, MAGMATIC, AND METALLOGENIC EVOLUTION OF THE DAWSON RANGE, AND GOLD EXPLORATION MODELS  by KATHRYN R.G. MACWILLIAM BSc (hons.) The University of Aberdeen, 2003 MSc Ohio University, 2006  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Geological Sciences)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) August 2018 © Kathryn R.G. MacWilliam, 2018 ii  The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, the dissertation entitled:  The geology and genesis of the Coffee gold deposit, west-central Yukon, Canada: implications for the structural, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Dawson Range, and gold exploration models  submitted by Kathryn R. G. MacWilliam  in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Geological Sciences  Examining Committee: Dr. Craig J. R. Hart Co-supervisor Dr. Murray M. Allan Co-supervisor  Prof. James K. Mortensen Supervisory Committee Member Prof. Lee A. Groat University Examiner Prof. Bern Klein University Examiner  iii  Abstract  The Coffee gold deposit, located in the Dawson Range, west-central Yukon, Canada, is an example of structurally-controlled, gold-only mineralization with a global resource of ~4 Moz gold. Establishing the controls on ore distribution enhances exploration potential, and provides implications for the tectonic and metallogenic evolution of the northern Cordillera, and global gold deposit models. The controls on ore distribution were identified by drill core logging, field mapping, petrography, and analytical techniques that included geochemistry, shortwave infrared spectroscopy, and geochronology. The results from these analyses allowed the geological and structural framework, and a hydrothermal model for ore formation to be established. Furthermore, a genetic model for hydrothermal events and exhumation within the Dawson Range was developed. Coffee is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, and mid-Cretaceous plutonic rocks. Metamorphic rocks include psammitic to semi-pelitic schist and K-feldspar augen-bearing orthogneiss that were metamorphosed to lower amphibolite in the Permian. Plutonic rocks include biotite granite of the ca. 100 Ma Coffee Creek pluton, and coeval intermediate dykes. The east-trending dextral strike-slip Coffee Creek fault exerts an important control on mineralization, which is disseminated in the wall rock of high order faults and fractures, and ~1m wide breccia corridors. Mineralization comprises auriferous sulphides that are associated with an alteration assemblage of quartz-muscovite-illite-kaolinite-carbonate, which sulphidize host rock muscovite and biotite. Age determinations from hydrothermal white mica constrains mineralization to ca. 97 Ma, and the coexistence of alteration and ore minerals constrains the character of the hydrothermal fluid to ~250°C and pH ~5. Isotope data provides evidence for decoupled metal sources, and low temperature thermochronology constrains the depth of mineralization to ~5km.  iv  Coffee occurs in close spatial and temporal proximity to orogenic gold mineralization. This spatial association, the ore fluid characteristics, and the mid-Cretaceous tectonic regime argues for ore fluids sourced from metamorphic devolatilization of likely siliciclastic rocks at depth. Coffee is interpreted as an epizonal orogenic gold deposit, the result of a regionally significant gold mineralizing event. This interpretation has implications for the metallogeny and exploration of orogenic gold mineralization in the Dawson Range and northern Cordillera, as well as globally.    v  Lay summary  Yukon, northwest Canada is host to numerous mineral showings, occurrences, and deposits of various styles and commodities. Since ca. 2010 more than $750M has been invested in gold exploration in the territory. Establishing the geological controls on gold mineralization can reduce exploration risk, resulting in new discoveries.  The Coffee gold deposit, located in the Dawson Range, west-central Yukon, was discovered in 2009, and has a current global resource of ~4 Moz gold; however, the processes leading to its formation are poorly understood. This research project identifies the ore-controlling features at Coffee and within the Dawson Range, including the geological and structural setting, the chemistry of the ore fluids, and the timing of hydrothermal events and crustal uplift. The project provides a knowledge base for understanding gold mineralization, and offers insight into models for the formation and exploration of gold within Yukon, the northern Cordillera, and globally.  vi  Preface All the data and work presented in this dissertation is the result of my own research carried out at The University of British Columbia, and field work at the Coffee gold deposit, Yukon. All maps and figures presented in this dissertation, unless stated and accordingly referenced, are the result of my own work. Research supervisors Murray M. Allan, Craig J.R. Hart, and committee member James K. Mortensen, provided supervision, advice, and editorial co-authorship on manuscripts. They also provided editorial feedback on drafts of this dissertation. Murray M. Allan and Craig J.R. Hart provided additional samples from the Coffee deposit and other locations in the Dawson Range. These samples are analyzed during this research, and presented and referenced accordingly in the dissertation.  Chapters 1 and 5 of this dissertation are traditional thesis chapters which represent my original work and figures, or figures modified from accordingly cited sources. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are manuscript-style chapters to be submitted to peer-reviewed journals upon completion of this dissertation. Supplementary information for each of these chapters is provided in referenced appendices. A field database outlining sample locations and analysis performed is presented in Appendix A. Some repetition of information between manuscript-based chapters is inevitable; however, avoided where possible. The focus of each manuscript chapter is on different aspects of the geology and genesis of the Coffee deposit, metallogeny of the Dawson Range, and implications for gold deposit models.  Chapter 2  Chapter 2 comprises a manuscript titled “The geological and structural framework for gold ore of the Coffee gold deposit, Dawson Range, west-central Yukon, Canada” by K.R.G. MacWilliam, M.M. Allan, M.G. Sánchez, J.K. Mortensen, and C.J.R. Hart. I am the lead author on this manuscript, and conducted field work and drill core logging, collected samples and carried out all analytical studies, map making, geological modelling, and preparation of the manuscript. Co-authors provided technical advice vii  and suggestions in the field, during analysis, and during manuscript preparation. Supplementary material relevant to this manuscript is provided in Appendix B.  The manuscript presents the geological and structural framework for Coffee, building on structural investigations and ideas at Coffee in 2013 by M.G. Sánchez and M.M. Allan. The manuscript includes a new geological map for the deposit area and surrounding region that was constructed by derivative mapping using outcrop, drill hole, soil geochemistry, radiometric and magnetic data (Appendix B 4). Lithologic descriptions of the map units and host rocks to mineralization are also presented. New U-Pb geochronological results are presented, which constrain the age of host rock units and magmatism.  Chapter 3 Chapter 3 comprises a manuscript titled “Hydrothermal alteration, ore, and fluid characteristics of the Coffee gold deposit, Dawson Range, west-central Yukon, Canada” by K.R.G. MacWilliam, M.M. Allan, J.K. Mortensen, and C.J.R. Hart. I am the lead author on this manuscript and conducted all analysis and interpretation of data. Co-authors provided technical advice and suggestions during analysis and manuscript preparation. Supplementary material relevant to this manuscript is provided in Appendix C.  The manuscript describes the hydrothermal characteristics of the mineralizing system at Coffee. A model for the hydrothermal genesis of Coffee is presented that allows the deposit to be considered in the context of gold deposit models globally.  Chapter 4 Chapter 4 comprises a manuscript titled “Age and low temperature thermochronology constraints on mineralization at the Coffee gold deposit; implications for tectonic-scale controls on mineralization in the Dawson Range, and northern Cordillera” by K.R.G. MacWilliam, M.M. Allan, J.K. Mortensen, C.J.R. Hart, and J.A. Benowitz. I am the lead author on this manuscript, and co-authors viii  provided technical advice and suggestions during manuscript preparation. Supplementary material relevant to this manuscript is provided in Appendix D.  The manuscript considers Coffee in the broader metallogenic context of the Dawson Range, northern Cordillera, and global gold deposit models. This manuscript presents new 40Ar/39Ar and low temperature thermochronological data to constrain the timing of hydrothermal events at Coffee and their relationship to cooling and exhumation. The manuscript provides a review of the metallogeny of the Dawson range, which is integrated with the results presented in previous chapters to produce a district-scale hydrothermal model for mineralization. Regional geochronological and low temperature thermochronological data by MDRU for mineralization at the nearby Longline deposit, and Boulevard and Sugar prospects is also integrated in to the model. This model is used to discuss the implications for exploration, and global gold deposit models. ix  Table of Contents ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................................... iii LAY SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................................ v PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................................. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................... ix LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................................................... xiv LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................................... xvi GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................................................... xxvii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................................................ xxx DEDICATION ....................................................................................................................................................... xxxi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 PROJECT RATIONALE, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AND OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Geological and structural framework ....................................................................................................... 2 1.1.2 Hydrothermal genesis and evolution ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1.3 Metallogeny of the northern Dawson Range ............................................................................................ 3 1.2 PROJECT BACKGROUND AND SUPPORT .................................................................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Previous work ............................................................................................................................................ 4 1.3 SCIENTIFIC AND EXPLORATION IMPLICATIONS ........................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1 Scientific implications ............................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.2 Exploration implications ........................................................................................................................... 5 1.4 TECTONICS, MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENESIS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA ........................................................... 7 1.5 GEOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL SETTING, AND METALLOGENY OF THE DAWSON RANGE .................................................. 14 1.6 OVERVIEW OF THE COFFEE GOLD DEPOSIT ............................................................................................................. 17 1.7 OVERVIEW OF “INVISIBLE” GOLD ......................................................................................................................... 17 1.8 OVERVIEW OF GOLD-ONLY DEPOSIT MODELS .......................................................................................................... 18 1.8.1 Orogenic gold deposits ........................................................................................................................... 19 1.8.2 Reduced intrusion-related deposits ........................................................................................................ 22 1.8.3 Carlin-type gold deposits ........................................................................................................................ 23 1.9 THE MINERAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO DEPOSIT GENESIS ........................................................................................... 25 CHAPTER 2: THE GEOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK FOR GOLD ORE OF THE COFFEE GOLD DEPOSIT, DAWSON RANGE, WEST-CENTRAL YUKON. ............................................................................................................ 27 2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 27 2.2 EXPLORATION HISTORY ...................................................................................................................................... 28 2.3 TECTONIC SETTING ........................................................................................................................................... 29 2.4 REGIONAL GEOLOGY ......................................................................................................................................... 32 2.5 GEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................. 35 2.5.1      Pre-Late Devonian Snowcap assemblage ............................................................................................... 42 2.5.1.1 Psammitic and semi-pelitic schists, and marble (PDS and PDcS) .................................................................... 42 2.5.1.2 Amphibolite and metabasalt (PDmS) .............................................................................................................. 42 2.5.2 Paleozoic ultramafic rocks (P-um) .......................................................................................................... 43 2.5.3 Late Permian Klondike assemblage ........................................................................................................ 43 2.5.3.1 Sulphur Creek suite (PS) .................................................................................................................................. 43 2.5.3.2 Klondike schist (PK) ......................................................................................................................................... 45 x  2.5.4 Mid-Cretaceous Coffee Creek pluton (mKgW and mKghW) ................................................................... 45 2.5.5 Mid-Cretaceous monzogabbro, diorite to granodiorite, and microgranite dykes .................................. 46 2.5.5.1 Microgranite (mKmgW) .................................................................................................................................. 46 2.5.5.2 Diorite to granodiorite (mKdpW and mKdaW) ............................................................................................... 47 2.5.5.3 Monzogabbro (mKgW) .................................................................................................................................... 48 2.6 STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................. 50 2.7 MINERALIZATION STYLES AT COFFEE .................................................................................................................... 56 2.8 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................................................... 59 2.8.1 Structural model for mineralization ........................................................................................................ 59 2.8.2 Influence of host rock on mineralization and deformation style ............................................................ 61 2.9 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................................. 66 CHAPTER 3: HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION, ORE, AND FLUID CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COFFEE GOLD DEPOSIT, DAWSON RANGE, WEST-CENTRAL YUKON, CANADA ............................................................................................. 67 3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 67 3.2 DEPOSIT GEOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................ 68 3.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF ALTERATION AND ORE MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE ......................................................................... 71 3.3.1 Stage 1 – pre-mineralization alteration .................................................................................................. 73 3.3.1.1 White mica chemistry ..................................................................................................................................... 75 3.3.2 Stage 2 – gold ore and ore stage disseminated alteration ..................................................................... 77 3.3.2.1 Alteration mineralogy ..................................................................................................................................... 79 3.3.2.2 White mica chemistry ..................................................................................................................................... 84 3.3.2.3 Ore mineral assemblage ................................................................................................................................. 87 3.3.2.3.1 Pyrite generations ...................................................................................................................................... 87 3.3.3 Stage 3 – breccia-hosted mineralization ................................................................................................. 91 3.3.4 Stage 4 – quartz ± dolomite ± calcite ± feldspar veins ............................................................................ 95 3.3.5 Stage 5 – oxidation ................................................................................................................................. 95 3.4 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERATION ................................................................................................... 97 3.4.1 Lithogeochemistry of host rocks ............................................................................................................. 97 3.4.2 Alteration geochemistry ......................................................................................................................... 98 3.4.2.1 Bulk rock geochemistry ................................................................................................................................... 98 3.4.2.2 Gold and pathfinder elements ...................................................................................................................... 101 3.4.3 Sulphide chemistry and gold deportment ............................................................................................. 103 3.4.3.1 Pyrite element compositions ........................................................................................................................ 105 3.4.3.1.1 Gold solubility .......................................................................................................................................... 107 3.4.3.2 Element distribution in pyrite, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite generations ............................................ 109 3.4.3.2.1 Oxidized sulphides.................................................................................................................................... 112 3.5 ISOTOPIC SIGNATURE OF ALTERATION MINERALS ................................................................................................... 114 3.5.1 Pb isotope results .................................................................................................................................. 115 3.5.2 S isotope results .................................................................................................................................... 118 3.5.3 C and O isotope results ......................................................................................................................... 120 3.6 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................................................. 122 3.6.1 Hydrothermal fluid conditions .............................................................................................................. 122 3.6.2 Gold transport and precipitation .......................................................................................................... 123 3.6.3 Source of metals and ore fluid components .......................................................................................... 125 3.6.4 Hydrothermal model for the Coffee gold deposit ................................................................................. 129 3.6.4.1 Source of gold, arsenic and the ore fluid and relationship to gold deposit models ...................................... 129 3.6.4.1.1 Metamorphic devolatilization as a source of ore fluid components ........................................................ 131 3.6.4.2 Influence of host rock and structure on the distribution of alteration and mineralization .......................... 133 3.7 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 136 xi  CHAPTER 4: AGE AND LOW TEMPERATURE THERMOCHRONOLOGY CONSTRAINTS ON MINERALIZATION AT THE COFFEE GOLD DEPOSIT; IMPLICATIONS FOR TECTONIC-SCALE CONTROLS ON MINERALIZATION IN THE DAWSON RANGE, AND NORTHERN CORDILLERA ................................................................................................................. 137 4.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 137 4.2 TECTONIC SETTING ......................................................................................................................................... 140 4.2.1 Pre-Jurassic rifting and east-dipping subduction .................................................................................. 140 4.2.2 Late Permian to Early Cretaceous west-dipping subduction and collision ............................................ 140 4.2.3 Mid-Cretaceous oblique subduction, transpression, and magmatism .................................................. 141 4.3 REGIONAL GEOLOGY ....................................................................................................................................... 143 4.3.1 Regional thermal evolution – exhumation and cooling ........................................................................ 146 4.4 METALLOGENY OF THE NORTHERN DAWSON RANGE ............................................................................................. 147 4.4.1 Coffee deposit ....................................................................................................................................... 147 4.4.1.1 Geological and host rock age constraints on mineralization ........................................................................ 147 4.4.2 Sugar prospect ...................................................................................................................................... 148 4.4.3 Boulevard and Toni Tiger prospects ...................................................................................................... 148 4.4.4 Longline deposit .................................................................................................................................... 149 4.5 40AR-39AR GEOCHRONOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 150 4.5.1 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 152 4.5.1.1 Coffee ............................................................................................................................................................ 152 4.5.1.2 Sugar ............................................................................................................................................................. 158 4.6 LOW TEMPERATURE THERMOCHRONOLOGY ......................................................................................................... 159 4.6.1 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 160 4.7 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................................................. 166 4.7.1 Age of hydrothermal events.................................................................................................................. 166 4.7.2 Relationship of hydrothermal events to magmatism, crustal depth, exhumation, and cooling ........... 167 4.7.2.1 Structural controls on exhumation and depth of mineralization .................................................................. 172 4.7.3 Genetic model for the Coffee deposit and northern Dawson Range .................................................... 175 4.7.3.1 Source of ore fluid components .................................................................................................................... 175 4.7.3.1.1 Dawson Range batholith and Coffee Creek pluton .................................................................................. 177 4.7.3.2 Fluid conduits ................................................................................................................................................ 181 4.7.4 Comparison with global gold-only deposit models ............................................................................... 183 4.7.5 Distribution and crustal-scale controls on mid-Cretaceous gold-only mineralization in western Yukon and eastern Alaska ............................................................................................................................................. 187 4.8 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 189 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................................. 191 5.1 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS .................................................................................................................... 191 5.1.1 Geological and structural framework ................................................................................................... 191 5.1.2 Genesis and evolution of the hydrothermal system .............................................................................. 192 5.1.3 Metallogeny of the northern Dawson Range ........................................................................................ 193 5.2 IMPLICATIONS FOR GOLD DEPOSIT RESEARCH ....................................................................................................... 194 5.2.1 Deposit classification and gold deposit models .................................................................................... 194 5.2.2 Fluid and metal source .......................................................................................................................... 196 5.2.3 Mid-Cretaceous tectonic regime ........................................................................................................... 196 5.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR EXPLORATION ...................................................................................................................... 198 5.3.1 Lithospheric-scale architecture and fluid source regions ...................................................................... 198 5.3.2 Regional-scale fluid conduits ................................................................................................................ 198 5.3.3 Fluid flow driver and fluid focusing ....................................................................................................... 199 5.3.4 Metal precipitation ............................................................................................................................... 200 xii  5.3.5 Exploration targeting in the northern Cordillera .................................................................................. 200 5.4 FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 202 5.5 CONCLUDING REMARK .................................................................................................................................... 206 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................................................... 207 APPENDIX A : FIELD DATABASE ............................................................................................................................ 223 APPENDIX B 1: EXAMPLE GEOLOGICAL LOGS ....................................................................................................... 253 APPENDIX B 2: HAND SAMPLE PHOTOGRAPHS AND PETROGRAPHIC MICROPHOTOGRAPHS OF ROCK UNITS OBSERVED AT THE COFFEE DEPOSIT .................................................................................................................... 258 B 2.1: PRE-LATE DEVONIAN SNOWCAP ASSEMBLAGE – PSAMMITIC TO SEMI-PELITIC SCHIST (PDS), AND CALCAREOUS SCHIST AND MARBLE (PDCS) .......................................................................................................................................................... 259 B 2.2: METABASALT (PDMS) AND AMPHIBOLITE .............................................................................................................. 262 B 2.3: LATE PERMIAN SULPHUR CREEK SUITE – K-FELDSPAR AUGEN BEARING ORTHOGNEISS (PS) AND METAGABBRO .................... 264 B 2.4: ULTRAMAFIC (P-UM) ......................................................................................................................................... 265 B 2.5: MID-CRETACEOUS COFFEE CREEK PLUTON – BIOTITE GRANITE (MKQW) AND HORNBLENDE QUARTZ MONZONITE ................ 267 B 2.6: MID-CRETACEOUS DYKES – FELDSPAR PHYRIC DIORITE TO GRANODIORITE (MKDPW), APHANITIC DIORITE TO GRANODIORITE (MKDAW), MONZOGABBRO (MKGW), AND MICROCGRANITE (MKMQW) .............................................................................. 269 APPENDIX B 3: LITHOGEOCHEMISTRY, CLASSIFICATION OF MAPPABLE UNITS AND MULTI-PARAMETER MAPPING ............................................................................................................................................................................ 271 B 3.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 271 B 3.2 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................. 271 B 3.2.1 Rock discrimination and classification ................................................................................................... 272 B 3.2.1.1 Lithogeochemistry ............................................................................................................................................. 272 B 3.2.2 Multi-parameter mapping ..................................................................................................................... 273 B 3.2.2.1 Outcrop and drill hole data ............................................................................................................................... 274 B 3.2.2.2 Soil geochemistry .............................................................................................................................................. 274 B 3.2.2.3 Radiometric and magnetic survey data ............................................................................................................. 276 B 3.3 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................................................... 278 B 3.3.1 Host rock discrimination ........................................................................................................................ 278 B 3.3.1.1 Rock units .......................................................................................................................................................... 284 B 3.3.1.1.1 Biotite schist (BtS)...................................................................................................................................... 284 B 3.3.1.1.2 Felsic gneiss (FG)........................................................................................................................................ 284 B 3.3.1.1.3 Mixed gneiss (MxM and MxF) ................................................................................................................... 285 B 3.3.1.1.4 Muscovite-feldspar schist (MsS) and ribbon quartz mylonite (RQM) ........................................................ 285 B 3.3.1.1.5 Amphibole schist (Amph) .......................................................................................................................... 286 B 3.3.1.1.6 Metabasalt (MB) and ultramafic (UM) ...................................................................................................... 286 B 3.3.1.1.7 Granite ....................................................................................................................................................... 287 B 3.3.1.2 Trace element geochemistry ............................................................................................................................. 290 B 3.3.2 Discussion ............................................................................................................................................... 291 B 3.3.3 Multi-parameter mapping ..................................................................................................................... 296 B 3.3.3.1 Results ............................................................................................................................................................... 296 B 3.3.3.1.1 Outcrop and top of drill hole ..................................................................................................................... 296 B 3.3.3.1.2 Soil geochemistry ...................................................................................................................................... 298 B 3.3.3.1.3 Radiometric and magnetic......................................................................................................................... 309 B 3.4 INTERPRETATION ................................................................................................................................................ 313 B 3.4.1 Geological map ...................................................................................................................................... 313 B 3.4.2 3D geological model............................................................................................................................... 315 APPENDIX B 4: RESULTS OF GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………………….318 xiii  APPENDIX B 5: U-PB GEOCHRONOLOGY .............................................................................................................. 336 B 5.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 336 B 5.2 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................. 336 B 5.2.1 Sample preparation ............................................................................................................................... 336 B 5.2.2 U-Pb analysis .......................................................................................................................................... 337 B 5.3 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................................................... 338 B 5.3.1 Biotite granite (CFKG16-18) ................................................................................................................... 338 B 5.3.2 Hornblende quartz monzonite (CFKG16-87) .......................................................................................... 338 B 5.3.3 Foliated feldspar phyric diorite (CFKG15-13) ......................................................................................... 339 B 5.3.4 Diorite .................................................................................................................................................... 339 B 5.3.5 Microgranite .......................................................................................................................................... 340 B 5.3.6 K-feldspar augen-bearing orthogneiss ................................................................................................... 340 B 5.3.7 Micaceous schist .................................................................................................................................... 341 B 5.4 DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................................................................... 342 B 5.4.1 Igneous rocks ......................................................................................................................................... 342 B 5.4.2 Metamorphic rocks ................................................................................................................................ 343 B 5.5 CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 343 APPENDIX C 1: WHITE MICA ELECTRON MICROPROBE RESULTS .......................................................................... 358 APPENDIX C 2: HAND SAMPLE PHOTOGRAPHS, PETROGRAPHIC MICROPHOTOGRAPHS, AND SEM IMAGES OF ALTERATION AND MINERALIZATION .................................................................................................................... 367 C 2.1 DISSEMINATED ALTERATION AND MINERALIZATION .................................................................................................... 368 C 2.2 BRECCIA-HOSTED ALTERATION AND MINERALIZATION ................................................................................................. 370 C 2.3 SEM IMAGES OF PYRITE GENERATIONS .................................................................................................................... 372 APPENDIX C 3: SWIR DATA .................................................................................................................................. 374 APPENDIX C 4: CORESCAN HYPERSPECTRAL DATA ............................................................................................... 387 APPENDIX C 5: LA-ICPMS PYRITE CHEMISTRY RESULTS .....................................................