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Genesis and post-ore modification of the migmatized Carmacks Copper Cu-Au-Ag porphyry deposit, Yukon,… Kovacs, Nikolett 2018

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GENESIS AND POST-ORE MODIFICATION OF THE MIGMATIZED CARMACKS COPPER Cu-Au-Ag PORPHYRY DEPOSIT, YUKON, CANADAbyNikolett KovacsB.Sc. (Hons.), Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2015A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF SCIENCEinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES(Geological Sciences)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)August 2018© Nikolett Kovacs, 2018The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, a thesis/dissertation entitled: submitted by in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of in Examining Committee: Co-supervisor Co-supervisor Supervisory Committee Member Additional Examiner Additional Supervisory Committee Members: Supervisory Committee Member Supervisory Committee Member Genesis and post-ore modification of the migmatized Carmacks Copper Cu-Au-Ag porphyry deposit, Yukon, CanadaNikolett KovacsMaster of ScienceGeological SciencesDr. Craig HartDr. Murray AllanDr. James MortensenDr. Greg DippleDr. Alex ZagorevskiiiAbstractThe Carmacks Copper and Minto Cu-Au deposits are hosted within northwest trending, variably metamorphosed, and deformed inliers engulfed by the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith (GMB). The origin of the deposits and their relationship to host rocks have been obscured by post-ore modification processes and their deposit genesis is controversial. Detailed study of the Carmacks Copper deposit indicates that it is hosted by Late Triassic (210.1 ± 5.3 Ma, U-Pb zircon) quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and amphibolite, which form part of the Late Triassic Stikinia arc (Povoas Formation, Lewes River Group). The metamorphic rocks pre-serve an early northwest trending, steeply dipping, penetrative foliation (S1). Hypogene copper mineralization occurs as S1 parallel chalcopyrite stringers. The minimum age of mineralization is 212.5 ± 1.0 Ma, which is the 187Re/187Os age obtained for molybdenite inherited from a miner-alized protolith. The ca. 198 Ma Granite Mountain batholith intrudes the metamorphic rocks and cross-cuts S1 foliation, and thus post-dates mineralization. Emplacement of the batholith (~800°C at 5.5-6.5 kbar) caused partial melting of the metamorphic rocks that resulted in the formation of migmatite and remobilization of sulphides as an immiscible copper sulphide melt. Sulphide melt cooled and crystallized in the migmatite as net-textured bornite and chalcopyrite at 198.6 ± 0.9 Ma (187Re/187Os euhedral molybdenite), which is coeval with crystallization of GMB.The correlative Minto deposit is similarly characterized by net-textured copper sulphides hosted within migmatite; however, it is more digested by the GMB and thus the metamorphic rocks (Povoas Formation, Lewes River Group) are less preserved. The Carmacks Copper and Minto de-posits are herein interpreted as Cu-Au porphyry deposits that were tectonically buried, deformed, and metamorphosed during the amalgamation of Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana terrane, and subse-quently migmatized and further deformed during the emplacement of the GMB. These deposits form part of the Late Triassic Cu-Au porphyry mineralization that correlates with age-equivalent porphyry systems in the Stikine terrane of British Columbia. iiiLay SummaryMetamorphism and deformation can modify the textures and mineralogy of ore deposits and host rocks. An increasing number of sulphide ore deposits around the world are now recog-nized to have been partially melted during metamorphism. These deposits are generally poorly understood because the intensity of deformation and partial melting can destroy primary geologi-cal relationships. Highly metamorphosed and partially melted porphyry copper-gold deposits have not been previously studied. This study investigates an enigmatic copper-gold deposit in central Yukon, describes geological relationships, presents new age and chemical data, and offers a model for the formation of these deposits. This study proposes that these copper-gold deposits originally formed in a similar environment as world-class copper-gold deposits in British Columbia, but were subsequently heated, buried, and partially melted. This model explains many of the unique geolog-ical and textural features associated with these deposits and provides a template for recognizing and exploring for similar systems.ivPrefaceThe author and supervisors, Dr. Murray Allan, Dr. Alexander Zagorevski, and Dr. Craig Hart are responsible for project design and identification of research objectives. Dr. James Mortensen is credited for providing feedback throughout the study and at committee meetings. This thesis consists of four chapters. Chapters 2 and 3 have been prepared as manuscripts for future publication in peer-reviewed international journals. The author is accountable for all the field work, collection of samples, preparation of all analysis, and interpretation of data. All figures and tables are produced by the author unless stated otherwise. Chapter 2 is the first manuscript. Major and trace element geochemistry of rock samples were completed at Bureau Veritas Labs, Vancouver. The modal analysis of digital scans of co-baltinitrite and amaranth red stained slabs, using ImageJ software was completed by the author. All mineral separations for U-Pb dating of zircon was conducted by the author at the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU), Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia (UBC). Isotopic analyses were carried out in The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at The University of British Columbia (UBC). Zircon (U-Th)/He thermometry was conducted at the Arizona Radiogenic Helium Dating Laboratory (ARHDL). Chapter 3 is the second manuscript. Thin sections for petrographic analysis were prepared by Vancouver Petrographics Ltd. Isotopic and trace element analyses of zircon were carried out in The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at The University of British Columbia (UBC). Molybdenite-bearing samples for 187Re/187Os isotopic dating were processed and analyzed by Dr. Rob Creaser at the Canadian Centre for Isotopic Microanalysis (CCIM), Univer-sity of Alberta. The author is responsible for petrographic interpretations of molybdenite samples. The isocon geochemical analysis was conducted by the author. The author is responsible for the interpretation of all data from each analysis under the supervision of Dr. Murray Allan and Dr. Alexander Zagorevski. vTable of ContentsAbstract                                                                                          iiiLay Summary                                                                                    ivPreface                                                                                             vTable of Contents                                                                                 viList of Tables                                                                                     ixList of Figures                                                                                     xList of Symbols                                                                                 xviiiList of Abbreviations                                                                           xixAcknowledgements                                                                             xxiiDedication                                                                                      xxivChapter 1: Introduction to the Carmacks Copper deposit                          11.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2. Research objective and thesis outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Chapter 2: The missing Late Triassic mosaic of Stikinia: Geology of the Carmacks Copper area                                                       132.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2. Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.3. Structural geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.4. Geochemistry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372.5. U-Pb geochronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492.6. (U-Th)/He thermometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682.7. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702.8. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76viChapter 3: Metamorphism, migmatites, and sulphide anatexis: The genesis of the Car-macks Copper Cu-Au-Ag porphyry deposit                                      783.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783.2. Regional geology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793.3. Deposit geology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833.4. Ti-in-zircon thermometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033.5. Mineralization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1163.6. Ore zonation and correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1213.7.  187Re/187Os geochronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1233.8. Hydrothermal alteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1283.9. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373.10. Conclusions and exploration implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151Chapter 4: Conclusions, Exploration Implications, and Recommended Future Work  1574.1. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1574.2. Exploration implications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1634.3. Recommended future work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164Bibliography                                                                                     167viiAppendicies                                                     183Appendix A Scanning Electron Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183Appendix B Structural measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186Appendix C Sample location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190Appendix D QAP Calculations and digital scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193Appendix E Whole-rock lithogeochemical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199Appendix F U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249Appendix G U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254Appendix H U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260Appendix I Zircon trace element data and Ti-in-zircon thermometry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271Appendix J Isocon analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278Appendix K Zircon saturation temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285Appendix L Trench maps  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290viiiList of TablesTable 1.1. Summary table on different deposit types proposed for the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits throughout their history  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Table 2.1. Results of U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analyses of zircons and age calculations.  . . . . . . . . 58Table 2.2. Results of U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons and age calculations.  . . . . . . . . . 66Table 2.3. Zircon (U-Th)/He analytical results.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Table 3.1. Ti-in-zircon analytical results.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108Table 3.2. 187Re/187Os analyses of molybdenite grains from mineralized amphibolite and diatexite migmatite  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127ixList of FiguresFigure 1.1. Regional geological map of central Yukon, Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Figure 1.2. Regional geological map of the Carmacks Copper area, central Yukon, Canada  . . . 6Figure 2.1. Regional geological map of central Yukon, Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Figure 2.2. Regional geological map of the Carmacks Copper area, central Yukon, Canada  . . 18Figure 2.3. Geological map of the Carmacks Copper deposit, west-central Yukon, Canada . . . 20Figure 2.4. Meta-intrusive rocks. (A) Slightly partial melted, massive augite gabbro; (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of augite gabbro; (C) Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, thin section photomicrograph (XPL); (D) Deformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite; (E) Foliated, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Figure 2.5. (A) Field outcrop of interlayered amphibolite (left) and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist (right); (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the interlayered amphibolite and quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist sequence; (C) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the amphibolite; (D) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Figure 2.6. (A) Field outcrop of diatexite migmatite; (B) Diatexite migmatite in drill core; (C) Thin section photomicrograph (PPL; left and XPL; right) of the diatexite migmatite; (D) Thin sec-tion photomicrograph (XPL) of the diatexite with characteristic epidote texture around the silicate grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Figure 2.7. (A) Intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith in the Carmacks Copper area; (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the eastern phase, diorite (LTrEJM1); (C) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the western phase; K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A); (D) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of quartz monzodiorite dike, western phase (LTrEJM3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29xFigure 2.8. Field outcrop of the youngest intrusive phase. (A) Aplite dike in contact with quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist; (B) Quartz monzodiorite dike cross-cut by a boudined, granitic pegmatite; (C) K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite pegmatite  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Figure 2.9. Trench cross-sections of trench TR-91-20 and Discovery trench IV. (A) Thin sec-tion photomicrograph (XPL) showing penetrative foliation in the amphibolite by the alignment of hornblende grains; (B) Thin section photograph (RL) showing the alignment of foliaform copper sulphides in the amphibolite; (C) Crenulation cleavage in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist, Discovery outcrop; (D) Disharmonic rootles, leucosome F2 folds also in quartz-plagioclase-bi-otite-schist, Discovery outcrop; (E) Alignment and deformation of K-feldspar megacrysts in the western phase; (F) Dismembered and folded quartz monzonite dike (LTrEJM3), trench TR-91-20; (G) Folded and boudined quartz monzodiorite, Discovery ourcrop; (H) Granitoid fold hinge with axial planar cleavage. Note the locally boudined and dismembered parts in the centre of the pho-tograph  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Figure 2.10. Contoured equal-angle stereoplot of foliation and fold axes measurements . . . . . 36Figure 2.11. (A) QAP classification of the felsic plutonic rocks. Stained slab is on the left; (B) Western phase, K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite; (C) Western phase, quartz diorite; (D) East-ern phase, diorite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Figure 2.12. Geochemical plots for the felsic plutonic rocks. (A) Alkaline versus subalkaline clas-sification (Irvine and Baragar, 1971); (B) Subdivision of subalkalic rocks (Rickwood, 1989); (C) Alumina saturation in igneous rocks diagram (Barton and Young, 2002); (D) Volcanic rocks modi-fied diagram (Pearce, 1996a); (E) AFM diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971); (F) Tectonic discrim-ination diagram (Harris, 1986); (G) A and I, S, M-type granite differentiation plot (Whalen et al., 1987); (H) MORB-normalized diagram (Pearce, 1983); (I) REE N-MORB normalized diagram (Sun and McDonough, 1989) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42xiFigure 2.13. Geochemical plots for the meta-intrusive and metamorphic rocks. (A) Volcanic rocks modified diagram (Pearce, 1996b); (B) Th-Co discrimination diagram (Hastie et al., 2007); (C) MORB-normalized diagram (Pearce, 1983); (D) REE N-MORB normalized diagram (Sun and McDonough, 1989); (E) Basalt discriminant plot based on high field strengths elements (Wood, 1989); (F) Basalt classification diagram using Ti/V ratios (Shervais, 1982)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Figure 2.14. Harker variation diagrams for the metamorphic and meta-intrusive rocks. . . . . . . 48Figure 2.15. U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite, west-ern phase; (A) Concordia with age calculated from all data points; (B) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Figure 2.16. U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in monzodiorite, western phase. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram; (B) Conventional U-Pb concordia plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Figure 2.17. U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in quartz monzodiorite dike, western phase. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram; (B) Conventional U-Pb concordia plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Figure 2.18. U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in diatexite migmatite. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram; (B) Conventional U-Pb concordia plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Figure 2.19. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of zircon from partial melted quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram of all collected analyses showing distinct age groups; (B) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram of Group I; (C-D) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U his-togram of Groups II and III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Figure 2.20. Summary of thermochronometric data of the Carmacks Copper area . . . . . . . . . . 69Figure 3.1. Regional distribution of the Stikine, Quesnel, and Yukon-Tanana terranes in the north-ern Canadian Cordillera showing the location of porphyry Cu-Au ± Mo deposits  . . . . . . . . . . 81Figure 3.2. Regional geology of the Minto Copper belt showing the locations of the Carmacks Copper, Minto deposits, and Stu prospect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82xiiFigure 3.3. (A) Geological map of the Carmacks Copper deposit; (B) Interpreted bedrock geology and mineralized zones (blue-green) of the Carmacks Copper deposit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Figure 3.4. Paragenetic sequence of magmatic, deformation, and mineralization events at the Car-macks Copper deposit.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Figure 3.5. (A) Drill core showing the difference between the amphibolite and the quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist. The ampibolite is generally darker coloured, and finer grained; (B) Out-crop of interlayeredamphibolite (left) and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist (right). The quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist is brown weathered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Figure 3.6. Photographs showing the textural variations of augite gabbro; protolith of the amphib-olite. (A) Undeformed augite gabbro; (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the undeformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite; (C) Slightly deformed hornblende porphyroblastic am-phibolite; (D) Strongly deformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite. Note deformation along the regional S1 foliation fabric  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90Figure 3.7. (A) Representative intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith showing the textural and mineralogical differences between the two main intrusive phases. The eastern, diorite phase (LTrEJM1; left) and western, granodiorite phase (LTrEJM2, right); (B) Quartz monzodiorite boudined dikes of the latest intrusive phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91Figure 3.8. (A-C) Drill core showing the textural features of the transition zone between the meta-texite and diatexite migmatites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93xiiiFigure 3.9. Metatexite migmatite. (A) Typical appearance of the partial melted quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist; (B) Stromatic layered partial melted quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist; (C-F) Thin section photomicrographs (XPL) showing textural evidence of anatexis in the quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist; (G) Slightly partial melted amphibolite with well-developed melanosome; (H) Strongly partial melted amphibolite with coarse-grained massive texture and numerous leu-cosome veinlets containing chalcopyrite; (I) Pods and folded coarse-grained leucosome in out-crop; (J) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of in-situ leucosome development in the quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite-schist; (K) Thin section photomicrograph (PPL) showing garnet crystals within the leucosome; (L) Folded veinlets of leucosome in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. . . . . 96Figure 3.10. Diatexite migmatite. (A-B) Typical appearance of the diatexite migmatite in drill core showing net-textured copper mineralization; (C-D) Thin section photomicrographs (XPL) of diatexite migmatite with characteristic net-textured copper sulphides; (E) Thin section photo-micrograph (XPL) of typical partial melting textures of the diatexite migmatite; (F) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of narrow epidote at the interface of silicate grains and copper sulphides; (G) Diatexite migmatite with well-developed biotite-rich schlieren; (H) Thin section photomicro-graph (XPL) of the hornblendite with cross-cutting K-feldspar veinlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100Figure 3.11. (A) Calibration of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer after Watson and Ferry, 2007; (B) CL-image of zircon with inclusion; (C) CL-image of zircon with multiple growth domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107Figure 3.12. Geochemical correlation plots of calculated temperatures vs age and selected trace elements. (A) Temperature vs Hf; (B) Temperature vs Age; (C) Temperature vs Th/U; (D) Tem-perature vs Eu/Eu*; (E) Ti vs Hf; (F) Ce/Ce* vs Hf; (G) Eu/Eu* vs Hf; (H) Ti vs U.; (I) Th vs U; (J) Th/U vs Hf; (K) Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patters of zircon (Anders and Grevesse, 1989).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111xivFigure 3.13. Drill cross-section showing the ore body, metal zonation, and sulphide distribution of Zone 7, Main Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118Figure 3.14. Different styles of mineralization of the Carmacks Copper deposit; (A) Disseminated chalcopyrite mineralization in undeformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite; (B) Dissem-inated chalcopyrite mineralization in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist; (C) Thin section photo-micrograph (RL) of disseminated chalcopyrite ± pyrite mineralization; (D) Foliaform chalcopyrite mineralization in the amphibolite; (E) Oxidized foliaform chalopyrite mineralization; (F) Thin section photomicrograph (RL) of the foliaform chalcopyrite-bornite mineralization in the amphib-olite; (G) Net-textured bornite-chalcopyrite mineralization in the diatexite migmatite; (H) Net-tex-tured bornite-chalcopyrite mineralization in the diatexite migmatite; (I-J) Thin section photomi-crograps (RL) of textured bornite-chalcopyrite mineralization in the migmatite; (K) Net-textured mineralization in the migmatite associated with the melanosome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118Figure 3.15. (A) Gold telluride inclusion in bornite within partial melted amphibolite; (B) Gold-sil-ver telluride inclusions in net-textured bornite within diatexite migmatite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120Figure 3.16. Coefficient plots showing the relationship among copper, gold, and  silver grades  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122Figure 3.17. Textural difference between molybdenite grains. (A) In the amphibolite, molybdenite occurs as folded, foliaform veinlets; (B) In the migmatite, molybdenite is coarse-grained and eu-hedral; (C)Thin section photomicrograph (RL) showing xenocrystic, deformed molybdenite with-in partial melted amphibolite; (D) Thin section photomicrograph (RL) of deformed molybdenite within diatexite migmatite; (E-F) Euhedral molybdenite intergrown with net-textured copper sul-phides in the diatexite migmatite; (G) SEM microphotograph showing both xenocrystic and eu-hedral molybdenite grains in the partial melted amphibolite; (H) SEM microphotograph of the xenocrystic molybdenite grains in amphibolite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126xvFigure 3.18. Isocon alteration geochemical plot of the metamorphic rocks after Grant et. al., 1986. (A) Isocon diagram illustrating major element oxide enrichment and depletion; (B) Isocon diagram illustrating metal enrichment and depletion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130Figure 3.19. Series of thin section photomicrographs (PPL) showing the development of potas-sic alteration and the textural changes of alteration biotite (left to right) as it undergoes recrys-tallization in the metamorphic units. (A) Undeformed, augite gabbro; (B) Undeformed, horn-blende porphyroblastic amphibolite also without the presence of primary igneous or alteration biotite; (C) Slightly foliated, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite with anhedral alteration biotite; (D) Amphibolite with anhedral, alteration biotite; (E) Foliated amphibolite with local, recrystallized biotite grains, but generally still dominated by anhedral alteration biotite grains; (F) Strongly foliated amphibolite with recrystallized biotite grains that appear to be primary  igneous biotite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134Figure 3.20. Late stage hydrothermal alteration within the metamorphic and intrusive rocks. (A) Sericite-epidote alteration in the amphibolite, thin section photomicrograph (XPL); (B) Hematite staining of plagioclase grains in monzodiorite with late cross-cutting carbonate vein; (C) Pervasive quartz-hematite alteration within the quartz monzodiorite with late cross-cutting carbonate vein; (D) Pervasive quartz-hematite alteration with late cross-cutting carbonate vein. Note native copper within the late carbonate vein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135Figure 3.21. Paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal alteration. The width of the lines denote rela-tive abundance of minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136xviFigure 3.22. Schematic representation of the Carmacks Copper deposit genesis. (A) Tectonic en-vironment of the Carmacks Copper deposit in the Late Triassic Lewes River arc; (B) Undeformed subvolcanic mafic intrusions and associated volcanic rocks become mineralized in the Late Tri-assic prior to metamorphism and deformation; (C) Regional ductile deformation and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Late Norian modify these lithologies to amphib-olite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and deforms copper sulphides to foliaform stringers; (D) The oldest phase of the Granite Mountain batholith intrudes in the Late Hettangian; (E) The intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith causes partial melting in the quartz-plagioclase-bio-tite schist and remobilization of existing copper sulphides. Migmatite and associated net-textured copper sulphides form; (F-G) Magmatism continues until the Sinemurian; (H) Subsequent ductile deformation event post-dates the intrusion of the latest phase of the GMB; (I-J) The deposit is near surface by Middle Jurassic that leads to the development of extensive of oxide cover; (K) The Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group is deposited on the top of the oxide cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153Figure 4.1. Tectonic evolution of Stikinia in the Carmacks Copper area. (A) Late Triassic tectonic setting of the Carmacks Copper area. The Lewes River arc lies west from the Yukon-Tanana ter-rane. Mineralized volcanic roots of the Lewes River arc are representative of the augite gabbro of the Carmacks Copper deposit; (B) In the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, Stikinia amalgamates to the western margin of Yukon-Tanana. This amalgamation causes ductile deformation and amphi-bolite facies metamorphism in both terranes. As a result of crustal thickening, rocks of Stikinia is imbricated, folded, and buried to greater than 15 km of depths; (C) Extension exhumes Yukon-Ta-nana and the Carmacks Copper area. All thrust boundaries are re-activitated during extension. Slab break-off, delimination drives magmatism. The Granite Mountain batholith intrudes the contact between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana in the Early Jurassic. Syn-tectonic emplacement of the batho-lith causes partial melting in the metamorphic host rocks and remobilization of copper sulphides  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161xviiList of Symbolsδ- Delta notation°- Degrees Celsiusƒ- Fugacityα- Activityμ- Meanπ- Pi, indicates the best fit great circle‰- Per mil., indicates parts per thousand %- Percentageβ- Beta notation, indicates pole to girdleσ- Sigma notation for standard deviationwt %-Weight percentxviiiList of AbbreviationsBC-British ColumbiaCC-Carmacks CopperGMB-Granite Mountain batholithHREE-Heavy Rare Earth ElementsHFSE-High Field Strength ElementsLA-ICPMS-Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass SpectrometerLs-LeucosomeLOI-Loss of IgnitionLREE-Light Rare Earth ElementsLTrEJM1-Monzodiorite, eastern phase LTrEJM2-Granodiorite, western phaseLTrEJM3-Quartz monzonite, aplite, and pegmatite dikesMDRU-Mineral Deposit Research UnitM-MintoMs-MelanosomeMSWD-Mean Square Weight DeviationPCIGR-Pacific Center For Isotopic and Geochemical ResearchPPL-Plane Polarized LightQN-Quesnel terraneSE-Standard ErrorxixSEM-Scanning Electron MicroscopeSD-Standard DeviationST-Stikine terraneS1/S2-FoliationF-Fold REE-Rare Earth ElementRL-Reflected LightUBC-University of British ColumbiauTrP-Upper Triassic Povoas FormationXPL-Cross Polarized LightYT-Yukon-Tanana terraneMineral abbreviationsAu-GoldAuTe-Gold TellurideAg-SilverAgTe-Silver TellurideAuAgTe-Gold-Silver TellurideAug-AugiteBn-BorniteBt-BiotiteCb-CarbonatexxChl-ChloriteCpx-ClinopyroxeneCpy-ChalcopyriteDg-DigeniteEp-EpidoteGr-GarnetHe-HematiteHb-HornblendeKf-K-feldsparMo1-Deformed molybdeniteMo2-Euhedral molybdenitePl-PlagioclaseSer-SericiteQz-QuartzxxiAcknowledgementsI would like to express my sincerest gratitude to everyone who has helped me throughout the course of my studies. Firstly, I would like to thank my supervisors, Dr. Murray Allan, Dr. Alex Zagorevski, and Dr. Craig Hart, who placed their confidence in me and helped me to complete this project. I owe special thanks to all of them for their endless support, engaging discussions, and ex-citement concerning all components of the research. Their guidance has significantly improved the quality of this thesis. I would like to thank Dr. James Mortensen for the valuable and stimulating discussions regarding this research. Jim’s enthusiasm and devotion to teaching is highly appreciat-ed. I sincerely thank Dr. Maurice Colpron from the Yukon Geological Survey who introduced me to Yukon regional geology and tectonics and has provided me advice and encouragement since I started geology. I am grateful for the Geological Survey of Canada, Copper North Mining Corp., and the Mineral Deposit Research Unit for funding this research. The Yukon Geological Survey and the Society of Economic Geologists are thanked for awarding me a student research grant. Many thanks to the staff of The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research for their assistance producing many of the analytical data. I would like to thank Dr. Rob Creaser for producing the 187Re/187Os molybdenite ages.I owe special thanks to Stephen Bartlett who agreed to be my field assistant twice and made the completion of my field work memorable with lively discussions, a positive attitude, and hard work. I would like to thank Esther Bordet for her helpful discussions about regional geology and for providing me geochemical data of the Povoas Formation. I am grateful for the long discussions about thesis life and the time I spent with Kathryn MacWilliam at geology conferences - Yukon Geoscience Forum would have not been the same without her. I am indebted to Venessa Bennett for her friendship, support, and effort to assist my prog-ress. Venessa’s encouragement and devotion to science has significantly improved the way I think xxiias a geoscientist. Special thanks to my friends Erika Cayer, Vedran Pobric, and Sam Cantor. I could not imagine my MSc experience and Vancouver life without any of you. Thank you for everything. I will always be grateful for my best friend Govershat Kor for her friendship and end-less encouragement since day one back in Newfoundland. I would like to thank James for his unwavering support and for bringing a smile to my face, even when I’m looking at Ti-in-zircon thermometry. Lastly, I am so lucky and forever grateful to have amazing parents (Anya and Apa), whose love and support are endless. I could not have not succeeded this journey without each of you, thank you.xxiiiDedicationI dedicate this work to women in geosciences. “SAPERE AUDE…    …DARE TO KNOW      …MERJ TUDNI”     (Horace, Epistularum liber primus)xxiv1Chapter 1: Introduction to the Carmacks Copper deposit1 1  Introduction1 1 1  PreambleDevelopment of the Intermontane terranes outboard of ancestral North America resulted in prolific arc magmatism throughout the northern Cordillera (Nelson et al., 2013). Early Mesozoic arcs are preserved in the Quesnellia and Stikinia terranes, which with the intervening belt of oce-anic Cache Creek terrane constitute the Intermontane terranes. These terranes extend over 2000 km throughout British Columbia and Yukon, and are genetically linked to porphyry Cu ± Au-Ag-Mo deposits in British Columbia. Although the tectonic environment and genesis of these deposits are generally well-constrained in British Columbia, Late Triassic to Early Jurassic copper ± gold deposits are poorly understood in the Yukon. The Minto Copper belt (formely known as the Car-macks Copper belt) in central Yukon is the only currently known area that hosts rocks of similar age and metal tenor to the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic porphyry copper ± (Au-Ag-Mo) deposits of British Columbia. The research presented in this thesis provides new insights into several fun-damental post-ore modification processes associated with the evolution of copper-gold deposits in the northern Canadian Cordillera.The Minto Copper belt is a northwest trending corridor of mineralization in west-central Yukon that includes the Carmacks Copper Cu-Au-Ag deposit (Yukon MINFILE 115I 008), the active Minto Cu-Au mine (Yukon MINFILE 115I 021 and 115I 022), the Stu Cu-Ag prospect (Yukon MINFILE 115I 011), and several other Cu-Au-Ag showings. These occurrences are hosted within variably deformed and metamorphosed inliers within the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith (GMB) (Figure 1.1). It is suggested that these deposits form the northern extension of Cu-Au porphyry mineralization in British Columbia (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). However, the link of these deformed and metamorphosed copper deposits to the porphyry environment has yet to be demonstrated. 2This study adopts a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the timing and geologic envi-ronment of mineralization, post-ore modification, and the tectono-magmatic context of the Car-macks Copper deposit and other ore deposits in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic time interval. The main methods include: (1) 1:5000 scale field mapping, (2) detailed trench mapping, (3) de-tailed drill-core logging, (4) U-Pb zircon geochronology of representative magmatic suites and metamorphic rocks, (5) major and trace element geochemistry, (6) 187Re/187Os geochronology of ore-related molybdenite, (7) (U-Th)/He thermochronology, and (8) zircon saturation thermometry. Integration of these datasets constrains the nature of the Carmacks Copper deposit, which contrib-utes to a greater understanding of Late Triassic and Early Jurassic magmatism and metallogeny in the Yukon, and will serve as a model for comparison with arc-related ore systems overprinted by metamorphism and deformation elsewhere globally. 1 1 2  Regional geological settingThe Carmacks Copper area is located at 62° 20’ N and 136° 41’, ~200 km northwest of Whitehorse in west-central Yukon, within the Canadian Cordillera. The Canadian Cordillera rep-resents one of the world’s classic accretionary orogens (Nelson et al., 2013) that developed along and near the plate margin that separates North America from the Pacific Ocean basin. The eastern part of the orogen contains the autochthonous and parautochthonous rocks of Ancestral North America, whereas the western part comprises allochthonous terranes that show internal geological consistency but differ from the rock assemblages of the adjacent terranes (Monger et al., 1972; Colpron et al., 2007).The northern Canadian Cordillera consists of four large tectonic realms: 1. The Laurentian realm includes the ancestral North American cratonic basement and overlying Paleoproterozoic to Triassic successions; 2. Allochthonous terranes of the peri-Laurentian realm (Intermontane ter-ranes) represent rifted continental margins, arcs, and ocean basins of northwest Laurentian prove-nance; 3. Arctic and NE Pacific realms (N. Alaska and Insular terranes) comprise group of crustal fragments that originated between Laurentia and Siberia; and 4. Coastal realm includes Mesozoic 3to Cenozoic accretionary prisms and seamounts that developed along an active Pacific plate mar-gin (Nelson and Colpron, 2007; Nelson et al., 2013). West-central Yukon is dominated by the peri-Laurentian realm. The peri–Laurentian realm includes the Slide Mountain, Cache Creek, Bridge River, Yukon-Tanana, Quesnel, and Stikine terranes. These terranes were originally bounded on their outboard (oceanward) margin by accre-tionary complexes of the Cache Creek and Bridge River terranes including high pressure meta-morphic rocks, carbonate platforms, and oceanic plateaus that originated far out in the ancestral Pacific Ocean (Nelson and Colpron, 2007). The Yukon-Tanana, Quesnel, and Stikine terranes are thought to be derived from the western Laurentian margin, and were separated from the western Laurentian margin by opening of the Late Devonian to Permian Slide Mountain ocean (Nelson and Colpron, 2007). By the Late Triassic the Slide Mountain Ocean was closed, and the Yukon-Tanana, Stikin-ia, and Quesnellia terranes returned to the margin of ancestral North America (Piercey et al., 2012). After this closure, renewed subduction beneath Stikinia caused voluminous calc-alkaline magma-tism from ca. 230 to 205 Ma coeval with the generation of Mesozoic copper, gold, molybdenum porphyry deposits and related epigenetic mineralization (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). The Carmacks Copper area is located at the most northern, apical junction of Yukon-Ta-nana and Stikine terranes (Figure 1.1). This area is intruded by the Late Triassic – to Early Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The nature of contact between the Yukon-Tanana and Stikinia terranes and the basement to these plutons remain unknown.4Figure 1 1  Regional geological map of central Yukon, Canada after Colpron et al., 2015. QN=Quesnellia, ST=Stikinia, YT-Yukon-Tanana terrane.!(!(!(!(!(!(W135°W 134°W 133°W63°N63°N62°N62°N61°N61°N60°N60°N138°W136°W136°W135°W134°W133°WPlutonic suitesCretaceous & youngerBennett/BrydeLong LakeMintoStikineJurassic and younger layered rocksWhitehorse trough sedimentary rocksCretaceous and youngerTerranesIntermontaneCC - Cache CreekST - StikiniaQN - QuesnelliaYT - Yukon-TananaSM - Slide MountainAncestral N AmericaNAp - NA platform0 25 50km12.5WhitehorseCarmacksCarmacks CopperMintoAishihik batholithHoochekoo faultGranite Mountain batholithDeep-water turbidites and mass-flow conglomerates (Richtofen Fm.)Shallow-marine to fluvial interbedded sandstone, mudstone and conglom-erate with minor limestone (Tanglefoot Fm.)51 1 3  Carmacks Copper area The west-central part of Yukon is characterized by Late Triassic to Early Jurassic granitoid batholiths that have recently been divided into four distinct suites. From oldest to youngest, these include the Stikine suite (218-208 Ma), Minto suite (204-195 Ma), Long Lake suite (192-180 Ma), and Bennett-Bryde suite (178-167 Ma) (Figure 1.1; Colpron et al., 2015). These plutons form the northern extension of plutonic belts and related arc magmatism of Stikinia and Quesnellia in British Columbia. The Carmacks Copper deposit is hosted within variably deformed and meta-morphosed rocks that are engulfed by the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith (Figure 1.2). The eastern flank of the Granite Mountain batholith comprises rocks of the Minto suite, whereas the western flank is composed of distinctly younger rocks of the Long Lake suite (Colpron et al., 2015). Regionally, the Long Lake suite (ca. 192-180 Ma) ranges from quartz monzonite to tonalite in composition and consists of three different phases: medium-grained, equigranular granodiorite, porphyritic granodiorite, and porphyritic granite to quartz monzonite phase. The Minto suite (ca. 204-195 Ma), formerly known as the Klotassin and/or Aishihik suite, ranges from quartz diorite to monzodiorite to tonalite (Joyce, 2016). The contact between the Minto and Long Lake phases of the GMB is mapped 10 km west of the Carmacks Copper deposit (Colpron et al., 2015), and coin-cides with a major magnetic lineament (Sanchez et al., 2013) that is also defined by a linear belt of the Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group. The Granite Mountain batholith is unconformably overlain by mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group – a thick, sheet-like succession that covered much of Yukon southwest of the Tintina fault (Tempelman-Kluit, 1984). Locally, dacite dikes inferred to be coeval with Late Cretaceous volcanism cut the Granite Mountain batholith (Tempelman-Kluit, 1984).6(((44444444444444444444444444444 444444444444@@@@@4 4444444@@444@@444444444444((44@@@@@@@@44@4444444444@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@37000037000038000038000039000039000040000040000041000041000042000042000068900006890000690000069000006910000691000069200006920000693000069300006940000694000069500006950000696000069600000 5 10kmGranite Mountain batholithJurassic and younger layered rocksPlutonic rocksLEGENDLaberge Group sedimentary rocksLewes River Group mac volcanic, hypabyssal rocks with minor sedimentary rocksCretaceous or youngerMcGregor(163-160 Ma)Minto(204-195 Ma)Long Lake(192-180  Ma)Cretaceous or younger(145 Ma and younger)Yukon-Tanana metamorphic rocksUndivided Stikinia volcanic, sedimentary, and plutonic rocksFaults444 Normal faultTranscurrent faultOtherDepositsCarmacks CopperMintoStu±Hoochekoo faultOccurenceFigure 1 2  Regional geological map of the Carmacks Copper area, central Yukon, Canada.71 1 4  Discovery and history of the Carmacks Copper depositProspecting in the Carmacks Copper area began in the early 1900s following the explora-tion rush in the Klondike gold fields. The first copper-gold mineralization (Yukon MINFILE 115I 013) in the Carmacks area was found by G. M. Dawson in 1887 at the Hoocheekoo bluffs along the Yukon River. The subsequent discovery of the Casino Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit in 1965 spurred exploration in the Carmacks area, leading to the discovery of surface mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit in 1970 by J. Grant Abbott during reconnaissance prospecting and geochemical sampling for Archer, Cathro and Associates Ltd. (Abbott, 1971). The deposit was the subject of intermittent exploration from the 1970s to mid-2000s. Exploration was renewed in 2014 and 2015, during the initiation of this research. The Minto deposit was discovered in 1971 by Silver Standard Mines Limited and ASAR-CO, who found anomalous copper in stream sediments and staked the original Minto claims. At the same time, United Keno Hill Limited staked the DEF claims, north of the Minto claims after finding malachite stained rocks (Pearson, 1977; Pearson and Clark, 1979). Extensive trenching and diamond drilling at Minto resulted in the discovery of additional mineralized zones from the 1970s to the early 2000s. In 2005, Capstone Mining predecessor Sherwood Copper Ltd. acquired the Minto property (Pearson, 1977). Development of the project began in the next year, and the first copper-gold concentrates were produced at the Minto mine by 2007. 1 1 5  Previous hypothesis for ore formationHypogene copper mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit was recognized to be hosted within elongate metamorphic inliers that are enclosed within the unmineralized pluton-ic rocks of the Granite Mountain batholith (Abbott, 1971). The lack of good bedrock exposure, obliteration of original fabrics and mineralogy due to ductile deformation and metamorphism, and extensive oxide cover imposed challenges to interpreting deposit genesis, and as a result, in-terpretations have been controversial. The earliest research proposed that the metamorphic inliers 8are potential roof pendants of quartz-biotite/hornblende-feldspar gneiss within the unmineralized batholith (Abbott, 1971). Analogies were made to the porphyry copper model, although it was not-ed that the lack of intense hydrothermal alteration was not typical of porphyry deposits (Abbott, 1971). Al Archer (in Sinclair, 1974; pers. commun., 1975) believed that the foliated zones and related mineralization are remnants of previously mineralized Triassic volcanic rocks that were en-gulfed by the batholith at the time of emplacement. In contrast, Kirkham (1974) proposed that the mineralization may represent a metamorphosed stratiform red-bed copper deposit. Sinclair (1977) suggested that the mineralized zones at both Minto and Carmacks Copper deposits represent poor-ly digested, migmatitic sedimentary or volcanic rocks. He suggested that mineralized zones are pre-metamorphic and that the scarcity of alteration suggests remobilization of sulphides during, or subsequent to migmatization (Sinclair, 1977). Tafti and Mortensen (2003) provided the first geochronological constraints and geochemical characterization of the Carmacks Copper (Williams Creek) and Minto deposits, and concluded that mineralization, deformation, magmatism, and ex-humation took place within a narrow time interval in the Early Jurassic (Tafti, 2005). They pro-posed an ‘arrested porphyry’ model for the formation of the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits, and related the deposits to a typical alkalic porphyry system at an early stage (Tafti, 2005). More recent research on Minto by Hood (2008) suggested an ‘active shear-zone hosted hydrothermal deposit’ model. The range of genetic interpretations for the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits emphasize the difficulty in interpreting the protolith and ore-forming environment. As Pearson and Clark outlined in their concluding sentence, “[t]he Minto and Carmacks Copper deposit cannot be integrated into a single genetic model until the Carmacks Copper deposit is described in detail” (Pearson and Clark, 1979) (Table 1.1).9Author Year Deposit Geological Setting Abbott, J G  1971 Carmacks Copper Roof pendants of volcanic rocks Archer, A R  1973 Carmacks Copper Roof pendants of Triassic andesitic volcanic rocks Kirkham, R V   1974 Carmacks Copper Highly metamorphosed stratiform red-bed copper deposit Tempelman-Kluit, D J  1975 Minto & Carmacks Copper Partially digested remnants of the Pelly Gneiss Gale, R E  1976 Minto In-situ segregation and concentration of sulphides within igneous melt  Sinclair, W D   1977 Minto & Carmacks Copper Partially digested, migmatized remnants of sedimentary or volcanic rocks Pearson, W N , & Clark, A  H  1979 Minto Deformed and metamorphosed, hydrothermal ore deposit or metasedimentary (red-bed copper) Tafti, R  & Mortensen, J K  2005 Minto & Carmacks Copper Arrested alkalic porphyry copper gold deposit Hood, S B  2008 Minto Active shear - zone hosted hydrothermal ore deposit Sack, P J  2016 Stu Similar mineralization style as Carmacks Copper and Minto  Table 1 1  Summary table on different deposit types proposed for the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits throughout their history101 2  Research objective and thesis outline1 2 1  Research objectiveThis thesis is a field-based geological study that documents the geology of the Carmacks Copper deposit and provides a chronological framework for the various magmatic, structural, met-amorphic, and mineralizing events. This research has broader implications for the tectonic evolu-tion of the area, metallogeny of the Minto Copper belt, and for mineral prospectivity associated with Late Triassic to Jurassic plutonic rocks in Yukon. The three core objectives of this thesis are:1  To produce datasets that constrain the age of mineralization and host rocks, the lithol-ogy of mineralized host rocks, and the timing and conditions of post-ore modification processes.2  To evaluate the tectono-magmatic framework for the deposit, to determine the associ-ation, if any, between mineralization and Late Triassic to - Early Jurassic magmatism, and to draw conclusions for further metallogenic and tectonic implications in the area.3  To develop a model for the Carmacks Copper deposit that can be applied to understand similar deposit types and tectonic settings globally.Eight principal datasets are presented in this thesis: (1) the results of 1:5000 scale mapping across the deposit; (2) Four detailed drill-logs, documenting lithological, textural, and mineralog-ical changes, (3) Four detailed trench maps representing major cross-cutting relationships and structural data, (4) detailed zircon U-Pb crystallization ages of 4 magmatic rocks and 1 metamor-phic sample selected on the basis of well-defined cross-cutting relationships observed in the field, (5) bulk rock lithogeochemistry of magmatic and metamorphic lithologie, (6) 187Re/187Os dating of molybdenite to constrain the age(s) of mineralization, (7) (U-Th)/He data to examine the exhuma-tion and cooling history of the area, and (8) results of zircon saturation thermometry determined for the metamorphic rocks to correlate metamorphic events with the thermal behavior of the system.11Finally, this research will highlight features associated with metamorphism and partial melting of copper-gold deposits. 1 2 2  Thesis outlineThe thesis is arranged into four chapters and related appendices. Chapter 1 introduces the geological setting, history, and previous research done on the deposit. Field and analytical data sets, major conclusions, and discussions are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 4 summarizes the conclusions of this study and discusses future exploration implications. Chapter 2 presents the geology, petrography, U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole rock litho-geochemistry, and (U-Th)/He thermometry of the deposit. Geochemistry and petrography are used to characterize the metamorphic rocks, with particular attention paid to relict textures and trace element geochemistry to resolve the protolith(s) of the metamorphic rocks. Laser ablation induc-tively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was utilized to determine the age of metamorphic rocks and to constrain the relative timing of metamorphism and pluton emplacement. Integration of absolute ages derived from conventional chemical abrasion isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) of the igneous rocks with field observations, geochemistry, and petrography, provides the necessary constraints on different igneous phases and constructs the sequence of magmatic events. The integration of (U-Th)/He thermometric results with other available thermochronometric data for the region aims to resolve the low temperature cooling history of the Carmacks Copper area. This chapter serves as a detailed overview of the geology and field relationships, and it establishes the absolute ages of major deformational and magmatic events. The chapter also provides interpretation for the tectonic evolution of the area, relevant for the interaction between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana and Cordilleran tectonics. Chapter 3 presents the genesis of the ore deposit utilizing ore petrography, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, isocon alteration geochemistry, and 187Re/187Os isotopic dating of molybdenite. The chapter examines the metamorphic processes that account for the syn- and post-mineral modifica-12tion of the hypogene ore. The isocon analysis is a quantitative way of evaluating chemical gains and losses in mass transfer related to metasomatic alteration and it is used to aid petrography to detect hydrothermal alteration that may have affected protoliths of the metamorphic rocks. Ti-in-zircon and zircon saturation thermometry is utilized to constrain the temperature of sulphide and silicate anatexis. The 187Re/187Os (rhenium-osmium) chronometer applied to molybdenite was chosen to provide a record of the timing of mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit. Inte-gration of this dataset with the timing of magmatism and deformation constructed in Chapter 2 forms the framework for ore paragenesis. The chapter concludes with a proposed deposit model for the Carmacks Copper deposit and aims to integrate its genesis with the Minto deposit, farther north in the Minto Copper belt.Chapter 4 summarizes the main contributions and conclusions of this research with regard to the current understanding of Late Triassic to - Early Jurassic magmatism, tectonism, and metal-logeny in the Yukon, and suggests where future work will enhance and build on the major findings of this study.13Chapter 2: The missing Late Triassic mosaic of Stikinia: Geology of the Carmacks Copper area2 1  IntroductionStikinia is a long-lived, Devonian to Jurassic island arc terrane that spans over 1300 km along the western margin of the Canadian Cordillera. Stikinia and other terranes such as Quesnel-lia, Cache Creek, Yukon-Tanana, and Slide Mountain make up the Intermontane terrane belt. These terranes developed in the northeastern Pacific peri-Lauretian realm (Nelson et al., 2013) and together represent the largest crustal fragment that was accreted to North America in the Mesozoic (Coney et al., 1980). The Late Triassic to Earliest Jurassic is one of the most interesting geological periods in the tectonic history of Stikinia, during which profound reorganization of Mesozoic ter-ranes took place. This period is associated with a change of character of arc magmatism, emplace-ment of alkalic Cu-Au porphyry deposits (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014), regional deformation and exhumation, and the initiation of regionally extensive Jurassic forearc basins beneath contiguous arc terranes of Stikinia and Quesnellia . The most northern part of Stikinia is surrounded by the Yukon-Tanana terrane, defining a clothes pin-shaped closure in map view (Figure 2.1). This distribution of terranes has generat-ed several geodynamic hypotheses and it is still under debate. Ideas generally split between the oroclinal enclosure (Mihalynuk et al., 1994) and the escape hypothesis (Wernicke and Klepacki, 1988). The oroclinal enclosure models Quesnellia and Stikinia as adjacent arcs joined through the Yukon-Tanana terrane in the hinge zone. The distribution of terranes is explained by the anticlock-wise rotation of Stikinia, resulting in the oroclinal enclosure of the exotic Cache Creek terrane (Mihalynuk et al., 1994). The escape hypothesis presents Stikinia and Quesnellia as continuous arc along the continental margin of Laurentia and invokes the indenter-type model for the arrival of Wrangellia that caused the tectonic removal and northward transition of Stikinia via strike-slip faulting in the early Middle Jurassic (Wernicke and Klepacki, 1988).14Lack of knowledge about the nature of the contact between Stikinia and the enclosing Yu-kon-Tanana terrane precludes unequivocal testing of these models. In British Columbia, the deep-est and thus oldest exposures of the Stikine terrane and its contact with the Yukon-Tanana terrane are obscured by the Cretaceous to Eocene magmatism of the Coast Mountains (Nelson, 2017). In Yukon, the contact relationship between Paleozoic Yukon-Tanana terrane, Paleozoic Takhini assemblage, Middle Triassic Joe Mountain Formation, and the Upper Triassic Lewes River Group still requires further clarification (Mortensen, 1992; Hart, 1997; Bordet, 2017).The Carmacks Copper area in central Yukon is characterized by deformed metamorphic inliers of unknown origin within the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith, which separates Stikinia to the east from Yukon-Tanana terrane to the west. Here we present petrographic descrip-tions, whole-rock geochemistry, and U-Pb zircon age for the metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Carmacks Copper area as evidence that indicates that the metamorphic rocks are part of the Late Triassic volcano-plutonic sequences of Stikinia and represent that deepest exposure of the terrane in the area. We discuss and compare the metamorphic and deformation history with the Yukon-Tanana terrane and place these rocks in the context of Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Canadian Cordillera. 15!(!(!(!(!(!(W135°W 134°W 133°W63°N63°N62°N62°N61°N61°N60°N60°N138°W136°W136°W135°W134°W133°WPlutonic suitesCretaceous & youngerBennett/BrydeLong LakeMintoStikineJurassic and younger layered rocksWhitehorse trough sedimentary rocksCretaceous and youngerTerranesIntermontaneCC - Cache CreekST - StikiniaQN - QuesnelliaYT - Yukon-TananaSM - Slide MountainAncestral N AmericaNAp - NA platform0 25 50km12.5WhitehorseCarmacksCarmacks CopperMintoAishihik batholithHoochekoo faultGranite Mountain batholithDeep-water turbidites and mass-flow conglomerates (Richtofen Fm.)Shallow-marine to fluvial interbedded sandstone, mudstone and conglom-erate with minor limestone (Tanglefoot Fm.)Figure 2 1  Regional geological map of central Yukon, Canada after Colpron et al., 2015. QN-Quesnellia, ST-Stikinia, YT-Yukon-Tanana terrane. 162 2  Geology2 2 1  Regional geologyThe para-autochthonous Yukon-Tanana terrane is the oldest of the Intermontane terranes and is characterized by a strongly deformed basement (Snowcap assemblage), which has been cor-related with the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic Laurentian margin sediments (Colpron et al., 2006). The Snowcap assemblage is overlain and intruded by a sequence of Devonian to Permian magmat-ic arcs, which include the Devono-Mississippian Finlayson assemblage and the Permian Klondike assemblage (Mortensen, 1992; Colpron et al., 2006). Most of the terrane is metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies and it experienced ductile deformation in the early Mississippi-an, Permian, Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Cretaceous (Mortensen, 1992; Dusel-Bacon et al., 2002; Berman et al., 2007; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011; Staples et al., 2016; Clark, 2017).Stikinia in Yukon is composed of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Upper Paleozoic Takhini assemblage, the Middle Triassic Joe Mountain Formation, the Upper Triassic Lewes River Group, and the Lower Jurassic Laberge Group (Hart, 1997; Bordet, 2017). The Lewes River Group is co-magmatic with the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic igneous rocks of the Stikine suite (ca. 218-208 Ma), and is intruded by younger Minto suite (ca. 204-195 Ma), Long Lake suite (ca. 192-180 Ma), and Bennett-Bryde suite (ca. 178-167 Ma) (Colpron et al., 2015). Emplacement of the Juras-sic plutonic suites was partly coeval with the deposition of the Laberge Group, an Early to Middle Jurassic sedimentary forearc basin (Colpron et al., 2015). The Laberge Group was predominantly derived from Late Triassic Stikinia and is dominated by volcanic and plutonic sources (Hart, 1995; Colpron et al., 2015).The Carmacks Copper area is located near the boundary between Stikinia and the western prong of Yukon-Tanana terrane (Figure 2.1). Southwest of the study area, in the Aishihik Lake region, the Yukon-Tanana terrane is characterized by amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the Early Paleozoic Snowcap assemblage locally interlayered with the Mississippian orthogneiss 17of the Simpson Range plutonic suite. These rocks preserve widespread evidence of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic mid-crustal deformation and associated regional amphibolite facies metamorphism (Colpron et al., 2006; Piercey and Colpron, 2009; Clark, 2017). Further northeast in the Carmacks Copper area, the Simpson Range suite is in an unknown contact with the Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group, which is itslelf intruded by the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith. East of the batholith, the Povoas Formation forms an extensive northwest trending belt and con-sists of variably deformed and metamorphosed greenschist and amphibolite facies, augite phyric basalt, volcaniclastic rocks, and hornblende gabbro (Hart and Radloff, 1990). The Granite Moun-tain batholith comprises an eastern Minto phase, which is in probable fault contact with a western Long Lake phase (Colpron et al., 2015) (Figure 2.2). The Minto suite ranges from quartz monzo-diorite to tonalite, whereas the younger Long Lake suite consists of medium-grained, equigranular granodiorite, porphyritic granodiorite, and porphyritic granite to quartz monzonite phases (Joyce, 2016). The Granite Mountain batholith intrudes variably deformed and upper amphibolite facies metamorphic mafic rocks of unknown protolith (see discussion in Chapter 2). The metamorphic rocks preserve evidence of polyphase deformation that in part predate the emplacement of the massive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith. Understanding the origin and age of protoliths and superimposed deformation thus have an important bearing on the pre-Jurassic deformation history of the region and the nature of contact between the Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana terranes.18(((44444444444444444444444444444 444444444444@@@@@4 4444444@@444@@444444444444((44@@@@@@@@44@4444444444@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@37000037000038000038000039000039000040000040000041000041000042000042000068900006890000690000069000006910000691000069200006920000693000069300006940000694000069500006950000696000069600000 5 10kmGranite Mountain batholithJurassic and younger layered rocksPlutonic rocksLEGENDLaberge Group sedimentary rocksLewes River Group mac volcanic, hypabyssal rocks with minor sedimentary rocksCretaceous or youngerMcGregor(163-160 Ma)Minto(204-195 Ma)Long Lake(192-180  Ma)Cretaceous or younger(145 Ma and younger)Yukon-Tanana metamorphic rocksUndivided Stikinia volcanic, sedimentary, and plutonic rocksFaults444 Normal faultTranscurrent faultOtherDepositsCarmacks CopperMintoStu±Hoochekoo faultOccurenceFigure 2 2  Regional geological map of the Carmacks Copper area, central Yukon, Canada.192 2 2  Geology of the Carmacks Copper area The Carmacks Copper deposit area is characterized by felsic plutonic rocks of the Granite Mountain batholith containing north-northwest-trending inliers of foliated and folded metamor-phic rocks of unknown provenance (Figure 2.3). Felsic plutonic rocks of the batholith intrude the Late Triassic Povoas Formation to the east, where it is bounded by the normal, dextral oblique-slip Hoochekoo fault and an unnamed, normal fault. The contact is not exposed. Outcrops of unminer-alized, slightly foliated augite gabbro of the Povoas Formation are located 5 kilometres east of the Carmacks Copper deposit, near the Yukon River (Figure 2.2).Metamorphic inliers in the Carmacks Copper area consist of an interlayered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist (Figure 2.3), which have been affected by upper amphibo-lite facies metamorphism and an early ductile deformation event (D1) expressed as a penetrative NNW-striking and generally steeply dipping foliation (S1). Foliated amphibolite is texturally tran-sitional with a variant of the amphibolite that is variably deformed and hornblende porphyroblas-tic. Undeformed augite gabbro is locally present, but rare in the area. Migmatitic rocks that are compositionally similar to the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist are preferentially developed along the eastern side of the largest 3 km-long, and 20 to 100 m-wide metamorphic inlier. Hypogene copper mineralization is hosted by the metamorphic rocks including the migmatite and pre-dates the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith (Chapter 3).The metamorphic rocks are intruded by the massive phases of Early Jurassic diorite (LTrE-JM1) and granodiorite (LTrEJM2) that postdate D1 deformation. Dikes of aplite, quartz monzonite, and pegmatite (LTrEJM3) cross-cut the above described lithologies, and are themselves locally affected by a late stage of folding and boudinage (Figure 2.3).20810820830790860840850870890900800880 9107809208807708208108908408708607908508307908408208508408308004113004113004115004115004117004117004119004119004121004121004123004123006912700691270069129006912900691310069131006913300691330069135006913500691370069137006913900691390069141006914100691430069143000 100 200 300 40050MetersNCarmacks Copper DepositLEGENDIntrusive RocksUnitsQuartz monzonite, pegmatite, aplite dikesGranodiorite-Western phase LTrEJM1 Monzodiorite-Eastern phase MigmatiteLTrEJM2LTrEJM3Inferred faultContour lines in metresRoads and trailsuTrP Foliated, interbedded schist and amphibolite with local porphyritic sectionsMetamorphic RocksExtent of copper sulphide mineralizationContactsDened intrusiveInferred, approximate intrusiveInferred intrusiveMap extentTrench exposureuTrPZones 12 and 13uTrPLTrEJM2LTrEJM1LTrEJM3Zone 2000SLTrEJM1Zone 1Zone 7Zone 4uTrPAA’B B’Figure 2 3  Geological map of the Carmacks Copper deposit, west-central Yukon, Canada.212 2 2 1  Meta-intrusive rocksRare augite gabbro in the Carmacks Copper deposit is massive to locally foliated, and consists of 40-45% plagioclase, 30-35% clinopyroxene, and 20-25% hornblende (Figure 2.4A-B). Plagioclase is fine-grained (0.3-0.5 mm) and forms anhedral grains that make up the matrix. Augite is medium-grained (0.2-0.5 mm), euhedral to subhedral, and occurs as phenocrysts that are typically poikiolitic with respect to plagioclase. Hornblende is medium-grained (0.2-0.5 mm) and forms subhedral crystals that pseudomorph clinopyroxene. Epidote (5-7%) is locally present as fine-grained (0.05-0.1 mm) anhedral grains that are interstitial to plagioclase and locally form chadacrysts within plagioclase and augite. Accessory minerals include apatite, zircon, titanite, and ilmenite. Rocks in which augite has been completely replaced by hornblende are termed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite (Figure 2.4C-D) to differentiate them from the more pristine lith-ologies. Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite generally contains 60% plagioclase, 30-35% hornblende (after augite), and 5% biotite; however, more melanocratic varieties contain up to 75 % hornblende. Plagioclase is fine-grained (0.3-0.7 mm) and forms anhedral consertal grains. Hornblende has a bimodal size distribution and occurs both as medium-grained (1.5-2 mm) sub-hedral porphyroblasts pseudomorphing augite, and as fine (0.3-0.5 mm), anhedral grains that are interstitial to plagioclase. Hornblende typically forms oikocrysts with respect to plagioclase and epidote (Figure 2.4C). Where amphibolite is foliated, hornblende porphyroblasts are deformed along foliation (Figure 2.4D-E). Biotite is fine-grained (0.2-0.5 mm) and occurs in association with hornblende. Accessory minerals include titanite and zircon.2 2 2 2  AmphiboliteThe amphibolite is fine-grained, foliated, and is interlayered with quartz-plagioclase-bio-tite schist (Figure 2.5A-B). This unit contains 60-65% plagioclase feldspar, 25-35 % hornblende, minor quartz (5 %), and local biotite (10-15 %). Plagioclase is typically medium-grained (0.4-0.5 22mm), anhedral, forms consertal grain boundaries, and commonly exhibits undulatose extinction. Foliation is defined by hornblende and biotite. Hornblende is medium-grained (0.2-1.0 mm), anhe-dral to subhedral, often poikiolitic with plagioclase and/or apatite chadacrysts and generally occurs interstitial to plagioclase. Hornblende pseudomorphs after augite are also common. Biotite forms subhedral to tabular grains commonly mantling hornblende. Where present, quartz is fine-grained (0.2-0.4 mm), rounded, and interstitial to plagioclase. Accessory minerals include fine-grained zircon, apatite, and titanite (Figure 2.5C).2 2 2 3  Quartz-plagioclase-biotite schistThe quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist unit is distinctively brown-weathered at surface and is locally recrystallized to a granoblastic texture. The unit is locally tightly to isoclinally folded, with folds being increasingly disharmonic near intrusive contacts (Figure 2.5A-B) and contains 10-12% quartz, 70-80% plagioclase, and 20-25% biotite (Figure 2.5D). Plagioclase occurs as medium (0.5-1.0 mm), anhedral grains. Quartz forms fine (0.2-0.4 mm) anhedral grains that are interstitial to plagioclase. Biotite has a bimodal size distribution, with medium grains (0.5-1.0 mm) that are subhedral and aligned along foliation, and finer (0.1-0.3 mm), anhedral grains that are typically randomly oriented and occur interstitial to plagioclase. Accessory minerals include apatite and zircon (Figure 2.5D).2 2 2 4  MigmatiteThe migmatite unit is texturally heterogeneous and occurs at the contact of the interlayered metamorphic sequence and the intrusive phase. The neosome (Sawyer, 2008) (Figure 2.6A-B) con-sists of 45-60 % plagioclase, 15-25 % hornblende, 5-10 % biotite, 3-5 % clinopyroxene, and 1-2 % quartz (Figure 2.6C). The majority of the feldspar in the migmatite is albite that forms medium (1.0-2.5 mm), anhedral grains that are rimmed by narrow 0.5-1 mm-wide zones of microcline. The albite grains are commonly surrounded by fine (0.1-0.2 mm) plagioclase subgrains. Hornblende is medium-grained (1.5-2.5 mm), anhedral, and forms oikocrysts that include smaller grains of 23apatite, copper sulphides, and plagioclase. Fine-grained, cuspate-lobate-shaped hornblende (0.2 mm) and quartz (0.2-0.3 mm) typically occur at the triple junction of albite grains, forming tri-angular-shaped, tapering extensions between grain boundaries. Thin layers of myrmekite locally occur at the boundary of quartz and albite. Clinopyroxene is medium-grained (1-1.5 mm) and anhedral. Biotite is fine-grained (0.2-1.0 mm), anhedral, and locally forms narrow films between and surrounding albite grains. Epidote occurs at the interface between the albite and copper sul-phide grains, forming a narrow, (0.05 mm wide) rim and is commonly intergrown with albite (Figure 2.6D). Accessory minerals include apatite, titanite, and epidote. The mineral assemblage of plagioclase ± hornblende ± clinopyroxene within the neosome of the migmatite suggest lower granulite facies metamorphic conditions (Winter, 2010) (Chapter 3). These metamorphic condi-tions overprint the early D1 deformation and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism.24CN15-023-47.00m1cmCpxCpxCpxCpxCpxCN15-023-47.00m0.5mmCpxPlHbCpxPlHbFigure 2 4  Meta-intrusive rocks. (A) Slightly partial melted, massive augite gabbro. Circles out-line augite grains; (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of augite gabbro; (C) Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, thin section photomicrograph (XPL). White dashed circle indicates hornblende porphyroblast pseudomorphing augite; (D) Deformed hornblende porphyroblastic am-phibolite; (E) Foliated, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite. Deformed hornblende porphyro-blasts along S1 foliation are outlined by white dashed lines. XPL=Cross polarized light, Pl=Pla-gioclase, Hb=Hornblende, Cpx=Clinopyroxene.S1S1NK15-014-Z510mmHbHbPlPlEpEpA BCENK15-083-Z1210mmHbClHbPlPlPlHbS1S1D25CN15-022-84.30mHbPlQzEpBtPlHbPlBt0.5mmQzWC-018-269.30m10mm HbZr HbPlPlPl ZrNK15-DS-0020.25mmPlQzBtPlQzPlQzBtFigure 2 5  (A) Field outcrop of interlayered amphibolite (left) and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist (right); (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the interlayered amphibolite and quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist sequence; (C) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the amphibolite; (D) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. XPL=Cross polar-ized light, Bt=Biotite, Pl=Plagioclase, Qz=Quartz, Ep=Epidote, Hb=Hornblende, Zr=Zircon.CDAB261cm0.25mmCpyEpPlBtEpWC-008-174.30mWC-008-174.3m0.5mmBnHbPlBnHbPlBnPlFigure 2 6  (A) Field outcrop of diatexite migmatite; (B) Diatexite migmatite in drill core; (C) Thin section photomicrograph (PPL; left and XPL; right) of the diatexite migmatite; (D) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the diatexite with characteristic epidote texture around the sil-icate grains. XPL=Cross polarized light, PPL=Plane polarized light, Bt=Biotite, Pl=Plagioclase, Ep=Epidote, Hb=Hornblende, Kf=K-feldspar, Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Mo=Molybdenite, Bn=Bornite.A BC D272 2 2 5  Plutonic rocksThe metamorphic rocks are intruded to the east by a medium-grained monzodiorite phase of the Granite Mountain batholith (eastern phase; LTrEJM1) and to the west by a coarse- to me-dium-grained, K-feldspar ± quartz-phyric granodiorite phase (western phase, LTrEJM2) (Figure 2.7). Quartz monzonite, granite pegmatite, and aplite dikes that cross-cut all units described above are grouped as LTrEJM3. The local folding and boudinage of these dikes is the evidence of a sub-sequent phase of ductile deformation. The eastern phase (LTrEJM1) is characterized by monzodiorite with minor diorite and monzonite. These rocks are generally medium-grained and undeformed. A plagioclase porphy-ritic phase (1-2 cm) is commonly gradational with respect to the non-porphyritic phase (Figure 2.7A). The main monzodiorite phase contains 40-60% plagioclase, 15-20% hornblende, 15-25% K-feldspar, 5-15% biotite, and 5-10% quartz. Both K-feldspar and plagioclase occur as medium (1-2 mm), anhedral grains with consertal grain boundaries. Most feldspar grains exhibit undulose extinction. Finer-grained feldspar crystals are common around larger grains and suggest recrystal-lization and deformation. Fine-grained, anhedral quartz is interstitial with respect to plagioclase and K-feldspar. Hornblende is medium-grained (0.7-1.0 mm) anhedral, and is typically embayed or skeletal. Apatite and titanite are the main accessory minerals (Figure 2.7B).The western phase (LTrEJM2) is divided into two distinct lithological groups based on mineralogical differences. The LTrEJM2A group is dominated by granodiorite to quartz monzodi-orite, whereas the other group (LTrEJM2B) consists of tonalite to quartz diorite (Figure 2.7A). The two groups are in gradational contact but are differentiated in the field on the basis that LTrEJM2A is K-feldspar-quartz porphyritic, whereas LTrEJM2B only contains quartz phenocrysts. K-feldspar phenocrysts range in length from 10-20 mm, and are generally randomly oriented, although a weak to moderate tectonic foliation is locally present near the contact with the metamorphic inliers. The LTrEJM2-phase rocks typically contain 40% plagioclase, 25% K-feldspar, 10-12% biotite, and 284-5% hornblende. Quartz is abundant (25-45%) and occurs both as anhedral, coarse grains (1-2 mm) and as interstitial, fine-grains (0.5-0.7 mm). Myrmekitic intergrowths of quartz and feldspar are extensively developed along quartz-plagioclase grain boundaries. The mafic phase includes both biotite (0.5- 1 mm) and hornblende (0.5 mm), but generally, biotite is more abundant. Horn-blende is anhedral, locally poikiolitic, with quartz and epidote chadacrysts. Some of the larger grains also exhibit deformation twinning and undulose extinction. Anhedral, lenticular epidote, and titanite are the main accessory minerals (Figure 2.7C).The LTrEJM3 intrusive phase includes folded and boudinaged dikes of quartz monzonite, granite pegmatite, and aplite. The dikes are commonly 1-5 metres in width, strongly deformed, and typically occur within the metamorphic inliers as cross-cutting dikes. The quartz monzonite dikes are texturally and compositionally similar to the western phase LTrEJM2B and probably form part of the later pulse of magmatism. The quartz monzonite consists of plagioclase (40-50%), K-feldspar (25-40%), quartz (10-25%), and biotite (5-12%) (Figure 2.7D). Plagioclase and K-feldspar form subhedral, coarse grains (2.5-4 mm). Half-corona textures of K-feldspar on pla-gioclase locally occurs. Microperthitic intergrowth is common and it is mainly exposed on the albite twinned plagioclase grains. Quartz is fine-grained (0.5-1 mm), anhedral, and forms consertal grain boundaries that occupy the interstitial spaces between plagioclase and K-feldspar. In a few places, micrographic intergrowth of plagioclase and quartz occurs near the grain boundaries. Bio-tite is subhedral, medium-grained (0.5-1 mm), and occurs interstitially to feldspar grains, locally forming glomeroporphyritic clusters. Aplite dikes are less common and characteristically light pink coloured, fine-grained, sug-ary textured, and lack mafic minerals. The modal mineralogy of aplite is 40% plagioclase, 30% K-feldspar, and 30% quartz (Figure 2.8A).Granitic pegmatite is massive and commonly leucocratic, although 1 to 2 cm-long bio-tite crystals are locally present. The modal mineralogy consists of 50-60% plagioclase, 30-40% K-feldspar, and 10-12% biotite (Figure 2.8B,C).29WC-008-26.50m5mmPlPlPlPlHbHbHbBtBtPlKfEpBtQzNK15-045-Z55mmTR-91-20-0075mmQzPlQzPlBtQzPlBtLTrEJM1 LTrEJM2A LTrEJM2B1cmFigure 2 7  (A) Intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith in the Carmacks Copper area; (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the eastern phase, diorite (LTrEJM1); (C) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the western phase; K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A); (D) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of quartz monzodiorite dike, western phase (LTrEJM3). XPL=Cross polarized light, Bt=Biotite, Pl=Plagioclase, Qz=Quartz, Ep=Epidote, Hb=Hornblende, Kf=K-feldspar.A BC D30LTrEJM3S1/S2Figure 2 8  Field outcrop of the youngest intrusive phase. (A) Aplite dike in contact with quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist; (B) Quartz monzodiorite dike cross-cut by a boudined, granitic pegmatite; (C) K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite pegmatite.AB C312 3  Structural geologyThe Carmacks Copper area preserves two discernable deformation events (D1 and D2) in the metamorphic rocks. The D1 event is characterized by the development of a NNW-trending and steeply dipping foliation (S1) at upper amphibolite facies (Figure 2.9A). The S1 fabric is a continuous foliation defined by hornblende and biotite and it occurs as spaced foliation in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist, defined by leucocratic and melanocratic domains, which are lo-cally recrystallized to a granoblastic texture. In mineralized rocks, S1 is in part defined by elongate blebs of copper sulphides that are parallel to the S1 foliation (Figure 2.9B). D2 is predominantly characterized by transposition of S1, local development of crenula-tion cleavage (S2), as well as disharmonic and rootless F2 folds (Figure 2.9C-D). D2 structures are the best developed in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and migmatite. Leucosome within the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is commonly folded by disharmonic F2 folds. The F2 folds are generally not associated with an axial planar S2 fabric, but are defined by local tight refolding of S1 foliation and compositional layering.The LTrEJM1 and LTrEJM2 intrusive phases are generally undeformed, except near the metamorphic inliers, where a weak alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts and quartz phenocrysts suggest syn-tectonic emplacement (Figure 2.9E). Syn-tectonic emplacement of the Granite Moun-tain batholith is supported by mesoscopic folding of aplite, pegmatite and quartz monzonite (LTrE-JM3) dikes within the metamorphic inliers. These LTrEJM3 dikes occur as foliation parallel, locally dismembered boudins (1-5 m wide) along fold limbs or as rootless fold hinges with wavelength up to 7 metres (Figure 2.9F) with moderately plunging (15-55°) and northwest-trending F2 fold hinges. Northwest-trending, steeply dipping F2 axial planar fabric locally appears to be cross-cut by the rootless granitoid bodies in fold hinges; however, this fabric is actually deflected along the rheologically stronger granitoid bodies (Figure 2.9G-H). The folding and boudinage of these dikes and their temporal relationship to the 32S1/S2 foliation fabric and the massive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith indicates a subse-quent phase of ductile deformation (D2) that outlasted the emplacement of the Granite Mountain batholith.Poles to S1/S2 foliation show a good girdle pattern, and define a moderately northwest-plung-ing fold axis. This is consistent with the measured fold axes of the LTrEJM3 dikes, suggesting a progressive ENE-WSW directed shortening during D2 deformation (Figure 2.10A).Several late, E-W-trending brittle faults cut all previously described rock units and structur-al elements. These faults occur as prominent non-magnetic discontinuities in total magnetic field data. The faults are characterized by zones of hematite-carbonate-epidote-clay ± chlorite alteration where they cut felsic plutonic rocks. Slicken-lines on hematitic or pyrolusite-coated fault surfaces show sub-horizontal plunge (5-30°), indicating the latest movement on these faults is dominated by strike-slip movement. One fault cuts the southern end of zone 7 and the northern tip of zone 4 of the deposit, potentially indicating an apparent ~250 m of sinistral offset (Figure 2.3). 330245mA A’SW NE  Cross-section of trench TR91-20uTrPLTrEJM2LTrEJM3LTrEJM1LTrEJM1uTrPAGIB-C7.03.5(m)5.00245mCross-section of Discovery trench IVB B’SW NELTrEJM3LTrEJM2LTrEJM1LTrEJM2 uTrP(m)HEDF2.5CN15-008-36.58m10mms1s1s1Hb HbHbHbs1S1S110mmS1S1CpyCpyWC-005-254.40mFigure 2 9  Trench cross-sections of trench TR-91-20 and Discovery trench IV. The location of field photographs and thin section photomicrographs are marked on the cross-sections. (A) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) showing penetrative foliation in the amphibolite by the alignment of hornblende grains; (B) Thin section photograph (RL) showing the alignment of foliaform cop-per sulphides in the amphibolite. XPL=Cross polarized light, RL=Reflected light; Cpy=Chalcopy-rite; S1=Foliation.A B34LTrEJM3S2S2S2LTrEJM2AS2S2KfKfF2S2S2S2S2F2S2F2F2 F2S2S2Figure 2 9  cont  Trench cross-sections of trench TR-91-20 and the Discovery trench IV. The lo-cation of field photographs and thin section photomicrographs are marked on the cross-sections. (C) Crenulation cleavage in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist, Discovery outcrop; (D) Dishar-monic rootles, leucosome F2 folds also in quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist, Discovery outcrop; (E) Alignment and deformation of K-feldspar megacrysts in the western phase; (F) Dismembered and folded quartz monzonite dike (LTrEJM3), trench TR-91-20. S2=Foliation, F2=Fold, Kf=K-feldspar.CFED35LTrEJM3S2S2LTrEJM3S2Figure 2 9  cont  Trench cross-sections of trench TR-91-20 and the Discovery trench IV. The location of field photo-graphs and thin section photo-micrographs are marked on the cross-sections. (G) Folded and boudined quartz monzodiorite, Discovery ourcrop; (H) Granitoid fold hinge with axial planar cleavage. Note the locally boudined and dismem-bered parts in the centre of the photograph. S2=Foliation.GH36β pi circleFigure 2 10  Contoured equal-area stereoplot of foliation and fold axes measurements. Black cir-cles are poles to S1/S2 foliation. Black line indi-cates the best fit great circle (π circle) for poles us-ing Bingham distribution. Pole to girdle is shown by β. Blue circles are measured fold axes. 372 4  Geochemistry Major– and trace–element geochemistry on twenty-eight samples of variably mineralized and deformed metamorphic and plutonic rocks from the Carmacks Copper deposit were completed at Bureau Veritas Canada Labs, Vancouver. Samples underwent a lithium borate fusion and a suite of 45 elements was analyzed by ICP-MS. Major element oxides were analyzed by X-ray fluores-cence spectrometry (XRF) (Appendix D). Quality assurance and quality control on data involved plotting concentrations of standard reference materials and sample duplicates against their error envelopes and evaluating if they fall within an acceptable range of two standard deviations from median of standards for each given element and less than 10% deviation, respectively (Appendix D). Plutonic rocks were classified on the basis of their quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclase (QAP) compositions (Le Bas and Streckeisen, 1991), as determined from modal analysis of digital scans of cobaltinitrite and amaranth red stained slabs, using ImageJ software (plagioclase stained red; K-feldspar stained yellow). Samples were mainly collected from diamond drill core for this meth-od (Appendix C). 2 4 1  Plutons2 4 1 1  Modal mineralogyPlutonic rocks of the Carmacks Copper deposit area can be divided into two distinctive groups: the western LTrEJM2 phases are distinctly quartz-rich relative to the rocks of the eastern LTrEJM1 phase (Figure 2.11A).The western phase (LTrEJM2) is further subdivided based on alkali content. Group LTrEJ-M2A rocks are alkali-rich and range from granodiorite to quartz monzodiorite in composition. They are characteristically K-feldspar phenocryst-bearing and are in a gradational contact with rocks of LTrEJM2B group (Figure 2.11B). The LTrEJM2B group ranges compositionally from tonalite to 38quartz diorite and is K-feldspar phenocryst absent, but the quartz phenocrysts are large and up to 1-2 cm in length (Figure 2.11C) The eastern phase (LTrEJM1) is easily distinguishable from the western phase by its lower quartz content. These rocks range from diorite to monzodiorite in composition and are generally finer-grained relative to the western phase (Figure 2.11D).39101010202020303030404040505050606060707070808080909090QA PQuartzoliteQuartz-richGranitoidAlkali-Feldspar GraniteSyenoGraniteMonzoGraniteGranodioriteTonaliteAlkali FSQtz Syenite Qtz DioriteQuartzSyeniteQuartzMonzodioriteQuartzMonzoniteAlkali FS SyeniteSyenite Monzonite Monzodiorite DioriteWestern phaseEastern phaseLTrEJM2BLTrEJM1Western phaseLTrEJM2A2 cm2 cm 2 cmFigure 2 11  (A) QAP classification of the felsic plutonic rocks. Stained slab is on the left; (B) Western phase, K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite; (C) Western phase, quartz diorite; (D) East-ern phase, diorite. Yellow colours on stained slabs correspond to K-feldspar, whereas red colours correspond to plagioclase. Unstained, milky white grains are quartz.CB DA402 4 1 2  GeochemistryIntrusive rocks of the western phase range from quartz diorite to granodiorite to granite in composition, with SiO2 content ranging from 63 to 76%. The total alkalis versus silica discrimi-nation diagram of Irvine and Baragar (1971) reveals that the western phase is subalkaline (Figure 2.12A). There is a wide range of subalkaline samples from high-K to low-K series (Figure 2.12B). All samples are typically peraluminous to weakly metaluminous (Figure 2.12C) with a slightly more fractionated geochemistry (Pearce, 1996a) (Figure 2.12D). The western phase exhibits a calc-alkaline trend with the LTrEJM3 dikes, including granite pegmatite, which plots closer to the alkaline apex of the AFM diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971) (Figure 2.12E). This likely indicates that these dikes represent late, evolved melts related to the western phase. The tectonic discrimina-tion diagrams of Harris (1986) suggest a volcanic island arc, I-type granite affinity (Whalen et al., 1987) (Figure 2.12F-G). Data plotted on the MORB-normalized diagram of Pearce (1983) shows negative Nb relative to Th, and negative Ti signatures, characteristic of magmatic arcs (Figure 2.12H) and strong enrichment of low field strength elements (Ba, Rb, Sr). The western suite is enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE on the REE N-MORB diagram (Figure 2.12I) (Sun and McDonough, 1989), with a few samples of the LTrEJM2B phase showing a distinctive negative Sm anomaly.The eastern LTrEJM1 phase is classified as monzodiorite to monzonite, with SiO2 contents ranging from 53 to 60%. In contrast with the western phase, the eastern phase is alkaline, and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (Figure 2.12A-C). The immobile element Zr/Ti vs Nb/Y diagram (Pearce, 1996a) shows that rocks of the eastern phase are less evolved than those of the western phase, but have similar alkalinity (Figure 2.12D). The tectonic discrimination diagrams of Harris (1986) suggest compositions typical of a volcanic island arc, I-type granite (Whalen et al., 1987), similarly to the western phase (Figure 2.12F-G). MORB-normalized diagrams of Pearce (1983) show typical negative Nb and Ti anomalies (Figure 2.12H) with prominent Ba, K, Sr, moderate Zr and Hf enrichment, typical of a magmatic arc setting. The eastern phase is enriched 41in LREE relative to HREE, similarly to patterns of the coeval western LTrEJM2A phase (Figure 2.12I) (Sun and McDonough, 1989). 42AlkalineSubalkalineNa 2O + K2O %SiO2  % MetaluminousWeakly PeraluminousPeralkalineStrongly PeraluminousCaO/(Na 2O + K2O+CaO) (mol) Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O+CaO) (mol)High-K calc-alkaline seriesMedium KLow KHigh KCalc-alkaline seriesLow-K (tholeiite series)SiO2  % K 2O %Shoshonite seriesEvolvedBasicSub-Alkaline Alkaline Ultra-AlkalineIntermediateGraniteGranodioriteQuartz DioriteAlkali GraniteSyeniteFoid SyeniteMonzoniteDioriteGabbro FoidoliteFoid MonzosyeniteGabbroNb/YZr/TiTholeiiticCalc-alkalineFeO TotalMgONa2O + K2O Hf Ta*3Rb/30Syn-collisionalLate and Post-collisional Volcanic ArcWithin PlateFigure 2 12  Geochemical plots for the felsic plutonic rocks. (A) Alkaline versus subalkaline clas-sification (Irvine and Baragar, 1971); (B) Subdivision of subalkalic rocks (Rickwood, 1989).CFEDA B43Nb (ppm)10000* (Ga/Al) (ppm)A-type granitesOther granites(I, S, and M)MORB (Pearce, 1983)Sr K2O Rb NbBa Th Ta Zr Hf Y Yb CrCe P2O Sm TiO2La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Tb Dy Ho Er Yb LuGdREE N-MORB  Norm (Sun and McDonough, 1989)Figure 2 12  cont  (C) Alumina saturation in igneous rocks diagram (Barton and Young, 2002); (D) Volcanic rocks modified diagram (Pearce, 1996a); (E) AFM diagram (Irvine and Baragar, 1971); (F) Tectonic discrimination diagram (Harris, 1986); (G) A and I, S, M-type granite dif-ferentiation plot (Whalen et al., 1987); (H) MORB-normalized diagram (Pearce, 1983); (I) REE N-MORB normalized diagram (Sun and McDonough, 1989).GHI442 4 2  Metamorphic RocksTwenty-six metamorphic rock samples of the Carmacks Copper area were analyzed: au-gite gabbro, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, amphibolite, and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. The Carmacks Copper metamorphic rocks are divisible into two main groups based on SiO2 content. Group 1 comprises rocks with SiO2 contents of 47-53 %, and includes augite gab-bro, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, and amphibolite. Group 2 includes rocks with SiO2 contents of 57-68 %, which includes quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. Most samples are within the alkaline basalt field on the Zr/Ti versus Nb/Y diagram (Pearce, 1996b). The quartz-plagioclase- biotite schist displays slightly higher Zr/Ti ratio, corresponding to a more evolved geochemical signature (Figure 2.13A). On the Th versus Co diagram (Hastie et al., 2007) most samples plot as basaltic andesite within the calc-alkaline field. The augite gabbro plots as basalt and shows slight variation within the calc-alkaline and island arc tholeiite fields (Figure 2.13B). The quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist displays the lowest Co values, corresponding to the most felsic composition. On the subdivision of subalkalic rocks, the samples range from medium-K calc-alkaline to sho-shonite field, with majority of the rocks plotting between the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series (Figure 2.13C).Harker diagrams (Figure 2.14) further highlight the compositional difference between Group 1 and Group 2, as major element oxides (Al2O3, TiO2, FeO3, MgO, CaO) show a decrease with respect to silica and an increase of K2O towards Group 1. Overall, the augite gabbro, horn-blende porphyroblastic amphibolite, and amphibolite are more mafic, and less alkaline than the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist (Rickwood, 1989).MORB-normalized trace element patterns show an overall enrichment in incompatible el-ements across all lithologies (Pearce, 1983) (Figure 2.13D). All rocks are characterized by high Sr, Rb, K, and Ba. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE) are enriched relative to high-field strength 45elements (HFSE) and are accompanied by distinct negative anomalies of Ta, Nb with lesser de-pletion in Ti. Trace element variation patterns of the two main compositional groups vary enough to permit discrimination on this basis. In general, the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is charac-terized by lower HFSE concentrations than the amphibolite. The exception to this are Hf and Zr, which are more enriched in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. REE profiles display light REE (LREE) enrichment relative to the heavy REE (HREE) across all lithologies (Sun and McDonough, 1989) (Figure 2.13E). The augite gabbro displays the lowest HREE concentrations, but also the widest range of concentrations. The quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist has systematically lower REE concentrations than the Group 1 lithologies. A strong negative Eu anomaly is distinctive in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and otherwise absent in all the other lithologies (Figure 2.13D).Tectonic discrimination using ternary diagrams of Th-Hf-Ta (Wood, 1980) are consistent with calc-alkaline basalts for all lithologies. (Figure 2.13F). On the V versus Ti discriminant plot of Shervais (1982) the samples span the fields of arc basalt to mid-ocean ridge basalts (Figure 2.13G). Based on the overall lithogeochemical character of the amphibolite and the quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist, these units are interpreted to be calc-alkaline basalts and andesites within the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series in a magmatic arc setting. 46High-K and ShoshoniticCalc-AlkalineIsland Arc TholeiiteBasaltsBasaltic Andesite-AndesiteDacite-Rhyolite-Latite-TrachyteTh (ppm)Co (ppm)PhonoliteAlkali RhyoliteRhyolite DaciteAndesite BasalticBasaltFoiditeTephriphonoliteEvolvedIntermediateBasicAlkaline Ultra-AlkalineNb/YZr/TiTrachy AndesiteSub-AlkalineAlkali BasaltSr K2O Rb NbBa Th Ta Zr Hf Y Yb CrCe P2O Sm TiO2MORB (Pearce, 1983)Figure 2 13  Geochemical plots for the meta-intrusive and metamorphic rocks. (A) Volcanic rocks modified diagram (Pearce, 1996b); (B) Th-Co discrimination diagram (Hastie et al., 2007); (C) Subdi-vision of subalkalic rocks (Rickwood, 1989); (D) MORB-normalized diagram (Pearce, 1983). DA BHigh-K calc-alkaline seriesMedium KLow KHigh KCalc-alkaline seriesLow-K (tholeiite series)SiO2  % K 2O %Shoshonite series C47REE N-MORB (Sun and McDonough, 1989)La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Tb Dy Ho Er Yb LuGdV (ppm)Ti (ppm) /1000Low Ti IAB IABMORBOIBTi/V=10Ti/V=20Ti/V=50Ti/V=100N-MORBE-MORB WPTAlk WPBVAB CABVAB IATHf/3 (ppm)Th (ppm) Ta (ppm)Figure 2 13  cont  Geochemical plots for the meta-intrusive and metamorphic rocks. (E) REE N-MORB normalized diagram (Sun and McDonough, 1989); (F) Basalt discriminant plot based on high field strengths elements (Wood, 1989); (G) Basalt classification diagram using Ti/V ratios (Shervais, 1982).GFEQuartz-plagioclase-biotite schist AmphiboliteHornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteAugite gabbroBasalt-Povoas Formation, Lewes River Group48CFEDA BFigure 2 14  Harker variation diagrams for the metamorphic and meta-intrusive rocks.Al 2O3%TiO2%Fe2O3%CaO%Na 2O%SiO2%SiO2%MgO%SiO2%SiO2%SiO2% SiO2%Quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist Amphibolite Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteAugite gabbro492 5  U-Pb geochronologyThree igneous samples from units LTrEJM1, LTrEJM2, LTrEJM3, and one neosome migmatite sample were selected from the Carmacks Copper deposit area on the basis of known field relationships. Uranium-lead zircon ages of these samples were determined using Chemical Abrasion Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) methods. Ura-nium-lead and trace element analysis of zircon of a sample of quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist (containing partial melt) was carried out by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), in order to constrain the age of the protolith and the age of the par-tial melting overprint. This technique allowed for the spatial resolution of zircon chemistry and isotopic ratios within specific growth zones of zircon grains, with internal textural characteristics revealed by SEM-cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. 2 5 1  MethodologyAll mineral separations were conducted at the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU), Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia (UBC). Samples weighting approximately 5 kg were processed by standard jaw crushing and ceramic plate grinding techniques, and heavy mineral concentrates were obtained using the WilfleyTM table, heavy liquids (methylene-iodide), and FrantzTM isodynamic magnetic separator, before hand-pick-ing the least magnetic fraction in ethanol with tweezers under a binocular microscope. Isotopic analyses were carried out in the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at The University of British Columbia (UBC).CA-ID-TIMS: For the three igneous samples and one migmatite sample, approximately 70 zircon grains were handpicked, and seven of the clearest, fracture- and inclusion-free grains were selected. These grains then were mounted in epoxy, polished, carbon-coated, CL-imaged, then carefully plucked from the grain mount and annealed in quartz glass crucibles at 900oC for 60 hours. Zircon grains were processed employing the chemical abrasion (CA-TIMS) single-grain 50fraction U-Pb technique described in detail by Mattison (2005) and Scoates and Friedman (2008). Each single-grain zircon fraction was spiked with a 233-235U-205Pb tracer solution (EARTHTIME ET53%), dissolved in Teflon vessels using HF or HCL. U and Pb were chemically separated from other elements using ion exchange chromatography.Purified U and Pb were mounted on Re filaments, heated under vacuum in the source of the TIMS to ionize both U and Pb. Isotope ratios were measured on a modified single collector VG-54R or 354S thermal ionization mass spectrometer equipped with analog Daly photomulti-pliers. Analytical blanks are 0.2 pg for U and up to 1 pg for Pb. Measured isotopic ratios were corrected for U and Pb fractionation directly on individual runs using EARTHTIME ET535 mixed 233-235U-205Pb isotopic tracer, and NBS-982 reference material at 0.25 ± 0.033 %/amu for Pb. Linear regressions follow the method outlined in Isoplot (Ludwig, 2003). Estimated uncertainties on the U decay constant are presented graphically in Concordia plots, and the decay constant used are those of Jaffey et al. (1971).LA-ICP-MS: Twenty-eight zircons grains with complex zircon morphologies from sample CN15-032-57.91m of quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist were analysed. Prior to analysis, the target grains were examined by CL imaging. Isotopic ratios (U/Pb and Pb/Pb) of the zircon standards and samples were measured using an ESI/New WAVE Research NWR193UC laser ablation system with Coherent ExciStar ArF Excimer laser (wavelength of 193 nm). Zircon surfaces were ablated using a 25 μm diameter laser beam, focused 100 μm above surface, operating at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Laser energies were between 8 mJ/pulse. Two standards, Plesovice (Slama et al., 2007) and Temora (Black et al., 2003) were used and collected every 3 analyses to monitor instrument variability and drift in operating conditions during the session. During ablation, U and Pb isotopes and tracer solution signals were acquired in time-resolved peak-jumping, pulse-counting mode with one point measured per peak using PQVision software. Isoplot v.3.00 of Ludwig (2003) was used to calculate U-Pb ages.512 5 2  ResultsThe CA-ID-TIMS analytical results are in Table 2.1, and the LA-ICP-MS data is presented in Table 2.2. Uncertainties are reported and plotted at the 2σ uncertainty level unless stated oth-erwise. The CL images of grains and associated laser pit locations are in Appendix E and F. All isotopic ages are interpreted from their 206Pb/238U isotopic ratios.2 5 2 1  Felsic intrusive rocksK-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite (Western phase): Sample CN15-031-48.30m is a me-dium-grained, K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite of the western phase of the Granite Mountain batholith (LTrEJM2A). The unit has a weak tectonic foliation close to the margins of the metamor-phic inlier. The sample yielded abundant, high-quality, clear, light pink to yellow, euhedral prisms 200-360 μm long with 2:1 aspect ratio. Back-scatter electron imaging revealed tight oscillatory zoning with local, commonly narrow, bright featureless domains overprinting the oscillatory zones. Grains 1, 5, and 6 display a bright, unzoned, homogeneous core. Grain 2 yields a concordant age of 200.07 ± 0.30 Ma (Figure 2.15A). Grain 1 and 7 are slightly discordant with an age of 208.05 ± 1.9 Ma and 194.08 ± 0.41 Ma, respectively. A weighted average (MSWD = 0.96, probability =0.41) yields an age of 195.14 ± 0.25 Ma [0.13%] 2σ. Six grains fractions with U concentrations between 137 and 253 ppm give a Concordia age of 195.19 ± 0.25 (0.31) [0.38] Ma, which is considered the best estimate for crystallization age (Figure 2.15B-C). Monzodiorite (Eastern phase): Sample WC-008-26.50m is of medium-grained, undeformed hornblende monzodiorite of the eastern phase (LTrEJM1) of the Granite Mountain batholith. Sam-ple WC-008-26.50m yielded abundant, high-quality, translucent, light pink to tan, euhedral zircon prisms 120-200 μm with typical aspect ratios of 3:1. Back-scattered SEM images indicate an inter-nal structure of bright, well-defined cores to the zircons that are mantled by narrow oscillatory and local sector zoning. Most grains had multiple cracks. Grains 2 and 5 are discordant and yield ages of 193.33 ± 0.65 Ma and 194.77 ± 0.44 Ma, respectively. The weighted average (MSWD = 2.5, 52probability = 0.084) age is 195.11 ± 0.19 Ma [0.095%] 2σ (Figure 2.16A). Four grains with low to moderate U concentrations (155-247 ppm) yield a Concordia age of 195.11 ± 0.19 (0.27) [0.34] Ma, which is regarded as the best estimate for crystallization age (Figure 2.16B). Quartz monzodiorite: Sample TR91-20-007 is a foliation-parallel, quartz monzodiorite dike (LTEJM3) that is cross-cut by another pegmatite dike. The sample yielded light pink to yellow zircons of prismatic, stubby, yellow, ~120-240 μm long grains with 3:2 aspect ratios characterized by well-defined oscillatory zoning and local sector zoning. Some of the grains display irregular bright domains that overprint oscillatory zoning. Grains 2 and 3 with moderate U concentrations (201-325 ppm) are slightly discordant with an age of 195.43 ± 0.30 Ma and 195.27 ± 0.35 Ma, respectively (Figure 2.17A). Fractions 1, 4, 5, and 6 with moderate U concentrations (97-307 ppm) yielded concordant analyses with a weighted average (MSWD = 1.4, probability = 0.23) age of 194.34 ± 0.16 Ma [0.0835%] 2σ. The weighted average age using fractions 1, 4, 5, and 6 is 194.34 ± 0.16 (0.25) [0.37] Ma and represents the most precise estimate of the crystallization age (Figure 2.17B). 53193.0193.4193.8194.2194.6195.0195.4195.8196.2box heights are 2σPb loss interpreted206 Pb/238 U date (Ma)Mean = 195.14±0.25  [0.13%]  2σWtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 4 rej.MSWD = 0.96, probability = 0.41CN15-031-48.30m-LTrEJM2A0.02950.03050.03150.03250.03350.204 0.208 0.212 0.216 0.220 0.224 0.228 0.232 0.236207Pb/235U206 Pb/238 U190200210data-point error ellipses are 2σXenocryst Grain with inherited core CN15-031-48.30m-LTrEJM2A195.19 ± 0.25 (0.31) [0.38] MaSee detailed concordia and weighted average plots See expanded plot for detail. Figure 2 15  U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite, west-ern phase; (A) Concordia with age calculated from all data points; (B) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram. Reported age excludes older xenocrystic zircons. AB540.03040.03050.03060.03070.03080.03090.209 0.210 0.211 0.212 0.213 0.214207Pb/235U206 Pb/238 U194196data-point error ellipses are 2σCN15-031-48.30m-LTrEJM2A195.19 ± 0.25 (0.31) [0.38] MaWeighted average 206Pb/238U age MSWD=0.96; n=4Pb loss interpretedFigure 2 15  cont  U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite, western phase; (C) Conventional U-Pb concordia diagram excluding xenocrystic age.C550.03020.03040.03060.03080.208 0.210 0.212 0.214 0.216207Pb/235U206 Pb/238 U192194data-point error ellipses are 2σ WC-008-26.50m-LTrEJM1195.11 0.19 (0.27) [0.34] MaWeighted average 206Pb/238U age MSWD=2.5; n=3Pb loss interpretedInheritance + Pb loss± 192.0192.4192.8193.2193.6194.0194.4194.8195.2195.6196.0box heights are 2σPb lossInheritance + Pb loss206 Pb/238 U date (Ma)Mean = 195.11±0.19  [0.095%]  2σWtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 3 rej.MSWD = 2.5, probability = 0.084WC-008-26.50m-LTrEJM1Figure 2 16  U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in monzodiorite, western phase. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram; (B) Conventional U-Pb concordia plot.AB560.03040.03050.03060.03070.03080.03090.209 0.210 0.211 0.212 0.213 0.214207Pb/235U206 Pb/238 U194196data-point error ellipses are 2σTR91-20-007-LTrEJM3194.34 ± 0.16 (0.25) [0.32] MaWeighted average 206Pb/238U age MSWD=1.42; n=4Inheritance + Pb loss193.0193.4193.8194.2194.6195.0195.4195.8196.2box heights are 2σ206 Pb/238 U date (Ma)Mean = 194.34±0.16  [0.083%]  2σWtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 4 rej.MSWD = 1.4, probability = 0.23TR91-20-007-LTrEJM3Inheritance + Pb lossFigure 2 17  U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in quartz monzodiorite dike, western phase. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram; (B) Conventional U-Pb concordia plot.AB57196.0196.4196.8197.2197.6198.0198.4198.8199.2199.6box heights are 2σMean = 197.41±0.17  [0.086%]  2σWtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 4 rej.MSWD = 1.2, probability = 0.30(error bars are 2σ)206 Pb/238 U date (Ma)WC-002-156.30mXenocrystGrain with inherited core0.03090.03100.03110.03120.03130.03140.03150.210 0.212 0.214 0.216 0.218 0.220207Pb/235U206 Pb/238 U197199data-point error ellipses are 2σWC-002-156.30m197.41 ± 0.17 (0.26) [0.33] MaWeighted average 206Pb/238U age MSWD=1.2; n=4 XenocrystGrain with inherited coreFigure 2 18  U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysis of zircon in diatexite migmatite. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram; (B) Conventional U-Pb concordia plot.AB58Wt U Pb Th 206Pb* mol % Pb* Pbc206PbSample Sample # mg ppm ppm U x10-13 mol 206Pb* Pbc (pg)204PbCN15-031-48 30mT-1 1 0.0386 202 6.7 0.352 10.6412 99.85% 198 1.29 12555T-6 2 0.0551 137 4.3 0.317 9.9278 99.88% 249 0.95 15988T-7 3 0.0353 323 9.9 0.319 14.5755 99.90% 288 1.20 184442-4 4 0.0394 253 7.7 0.305 12.7619 99.93% 397 0.76 255353-2 5 0.0147 255 7.8 0.326 4.8026 99.82% 163 0.70 104623-3 6 0.0111 254 7.8 0.305 3.6147 99.68% 91 0.94 58633-4 7 0.0094 163 5.0 0.275 1.9490 99.35% 44 1.05 2841WC-008-26 50mT-2 1 0.011 155 4.8 0.299 2.2115 99.47% 54 0.97 34832-4 2 0.008 180 5.6 0.308 1.7582 99.30% 41 1.02 26452-5 3 0.014 247 7.6 0.322 4.3983 99.72% 105 1.00 67203-3 4 0.015 162 5.0 0.333 3.0835 99.71% 99 0.74 63633-8 5 0.015 156 4.7 0.281 2.8697 99.58% 68 0.99 4429TR91-20-0072-1 1 0.006 307 9.2 0.214 2.2674 99.55% 63 0.83 41472-2 2 0.007 325 9.9 0.267 2.8747 99.63% 78 0.87 50562-3 3 0.012 201 6.1 0.295 3.1937 99.69% 93 0.81 60032-7 4 0.009 94 2.9 0.299 1.0870 99.25% 38 0.67 2470T-3 5 0.004 200 6.2 0.295 1.0535 99.13% 33 0.76 2120T-7 6 0.007 213 6.5 0.291 1.9536 99.50% 57 0.81 3705WC-002-156 30mT-1 1 0.0386 20 0.7 0.528 1.0299 99.22% 39 0.67 23602-4 2 0.0551 7 0.2 0.348 0.4954 98.96% 28 0.43 17873-3 3 0.0353 14 0.5 0.464 0.6608 98.32% 18 0.93 1102T-3 4 0.0053 53 1.8 0.369 0.3665 97.30% 11 0.84 6843-5 5 0.0072 71 2.3 0.370 0.6672 98.77% 24 0.68 15043-8 6 0.0067 55 1.9 0.442 0.4799 97.96% 14 0.82 908Compositional ParametersTable 2 1  Results of U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analyses of zircons and age calculations. 59208Pb 207Pb 207Pb 206Pb corr Sample Sample # 206Pb 206Pb % err 235U % err 238U % err coef CN15-031-48 30mT-1 1 0.112 0.050542 0.249 0.228580 0.993 0.032801 0.947 0.968T-6 2 0.101 0.050095 0.114 0.217730 0.240 0.031523 0.154 0.926T-7 3 0.102 0.049972 0.111 0.211404 0.302 0.030682 0.240 0.9412-4 4 0.097 0.050016 0.107 0.212020 0.327 0.030744 0.274 0.9523-2 5 0.104 0.050069 0.124 0.212374 0.292 0.030763 0.218 0.9213-3 6 0.097 0.050110 0.159 0.212474 0.425 0.030752 0.361 0.9303-4 7 0.087 0.050038 0.259 0.210867 0.382 0.030564 0.215 0.762WC-008-26 50mT-2 1 0.095 0.049986 0.236 0.211984 0.325 0.030758 0.140 0.7622-4 2 0.099 0.050513 0.281 0.213644 0.407 0.030675 0.229 0.7462-5 3 0.103 0.050058 0.147 0.211621 0.333 0.030661 0.256 0.9083-3 4 0.106 0.050022 0.151 0.211870 0.267 0.030719 0.156 0.8733-8 5 0.090 0.050091 0.189 0.210265 0.421 0.030444 0.339 0.899TR91-20-0072-1 1 0.068 0.049850 0.249 0.210449 0.332 0.030618 0.144 0.7192-2 2 0.085 0.050137 0.188 0.212784 0.294 0.030781 0.158 0.8192-3 3 0.094 0.050110 0.163 0.212488 0.290 0.030754 0.182 0.8592-7 4 0.095 0.050126 0.353 0.211210 0.454 0.030560 0.201 0.665T-3 5 0.094 0.050095 0.349 0.211210 0.459 0.030578 0.218 0.681T-7 6 0.092 0.049982 0.216 0.211077 0.312 0.030629 0.147 0.786WC-002-156 30mT-1 1 0.168 0.050008 0.296 0.216312 0.385 0.031372 0.157 0.7062-4 2 0.111 0.050115 0.480 0.214865 0.559 0.031095 0.162 0.6013-3 3 0.147 0.049932 0.861 0.213851 0.946 0.031062 0.174 0.559T-3 4 0.117 0.049951 1.039 0.214528 1.146 0.031149 0.248 0.5193-5 5 0.119 0.050596 0.520 0.217595 0.607 0.031191 0.189 0.5843-8 6 0.141 0.050285 0.777 0.215677 0.858 0.031107 0.152 0.596Radiogenic Isotope RatiosTable 2 1. cont  Results of U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analyses of zircons and age calculations. 60207Pb 207Pb 206PbSample Sample # 206Pb ± (Ma) 235U ± (Ma) 238U ± (Ma)CN15-031-48 30mT-1 1 220.02 5.76 209.03 1.88 208.05 1.94T-6 2 199.40 2.64 200.02 0.44 200.07 0.30T-7 3 193.67 2.59 194.73 0.53 194.82 0.462-4 4 195.75 2.48 195.25 0.58 195.20 0.533-2 5 198.20 2.89 195.54 0.52 195.32 0.423-3 6 200.11 3.70 195.63 0.76 195.25 0.693-4 7 196.74 6.01 194.28 0.67 194.08 0.41WC-008-26 50mT-2 1 194.36 5.49 195.22 0.58 195.29 0.272-4 2 218.67 6.51 196.61 0.73 194.77 0.442-5 3 197.70 3.41 194.91 0.59 194.68 0.493-3 4 196.02 3.51 195.12 0.47 195.05 0.303-8 5 199.23 4.38 193.78 0.74 193.33 0.65TR91-20-0072-1 1 187.99 5.80 193.93 0.59 194.42 0.272-2 2 201.34 4.37 195.89 0.52 195.43 0.302-3 3 200.11 3.79 195.64 0.52 195.27 0.352-7 4 200.83 8.20 194.57 0.80 194.05 0.38T-3 5 199.42 8.10 194.57 0.81 194.17 0.42T-7 6 194.15 5.02 194.46 0.55 194.48 0.28WC-002-156 30mT-1 1 195.37 6.87 198.84 0.69 199.13 0.312-4 2 200.33 11.13 197.63 1.00 197.40 0.313-3 3 191.84 20.01 196.78 1.69 197.19 0.34T-3 4 192.69 24.15 197.35 2.05 197.73 0.483-5 5 222.46 12.02 199.91 1.10 198.00 0.373-8 6 208.19 18.02 198.31 1.55 197.48 0.30Isotopic AgesTable 2 1. cont  Results of U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analyses of zircons and age calculations. 612 5 2 2  Metamorphic rocksMigmatite: WC-002-156.30m is an undeformed diatexite from the contact between the eastern phase (LTrEJM1) and the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. The sample yielded translu-cent to pink zircons that were separated into two groups: (i) Pink, elongate prismatic, 210 μm long grains with 3:1 aspect ratios and (ii) translucent to pink, stubby, 80-120 μm long grains with 2:1 or 1:1 aspect ratios. Most zircon grains display irregular, featureless, wavy, bright to dull do-mains overprinting primary oscillatory zoning. Four single-grains with low U concentrations (7-55 ppm) yield a weighted average (MSWD=1.2, probability=0.30) isotopic age of 197.41 ± 0.17 Ma [0.086%] 2σ (Figure 2.18A). Two fractions 1 and 5 with low U concentration (20-71 ppm) yield slightly older, but concordant ages of 199.13 ± 0.31 Ma and 198.00 ± 0.37 Ma, respectively. A Concordia age of 197.41 ± 0.17 (0.26) [0.33] Ma is interpreted the best estimate of the crystalliza-tion age for the migmatite (Figure 2.18B). Quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist: Sample CN15-032-57.91m is a fine-grained, partially melted, quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist from which zircons are analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. Three zircon populations were defined based on distinct textural observations (Figure 2.19A). The first group (Group 1) is characterized by stubby 90-150 μm long prisms with 1:2 aspect ratio and sub-hedral face development. These grains are prismatic, subhedral shaped, and have sharply defined, tight to moderate oscillatory zoning with local sector zoning and irregular cracks. Based on these dominant textures, these grains are interpreted as typical igneous zircons (Hoskin and Schalteg-ger, 2003). It is important to note that none of these grains have recrystallized, irregular domains that are typical of metamorphic recrystallization (Corfu et al., 2003). This zircon population has moderate U concentrations (584-179 ppm) and yields a weighted average (MSWD=0.25, proba-bility=0.91) isotopic age of 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma [2.5%] 2σ (Figure 2.19B). Zircons of the second group (Group 2) are characterized by 90-150 μm long subhedral grains with 1:2, 2:1, and 2:3 aspect ratios. These grains are texturally distinctive from Group 1 zir-62cons (Figure 2.19C) in that they are characterized by ovoid and “soccer-ball “shaped zircons with wavy, convoluted, featureless domains mantled by local recrystallized rims. Primary sector and oscillatory zoned grains are typically overprinted by blurred, convoluted zones that exhibit wavy, irregular boundaries and are interpreted to represent progressive stages of metamorphic recrystal-lization (Hoskin and Schaltegger, 2003) (Figure 2.19C). Zircons from this group yield a 198.8 ± 2.7 Ma [1.4%] 2σ weighted average (MSWD=0.32, probability=0.995) isotopic age. The third zircon population contains 90-100 μm long subhedral to anhedral grains with 1:1 aspect ratio. The grains exhibit recrystallized, newly grown domains of homogenous composition. Many of the grains have a series of low-CL and high-CL sinuous zones with internally featureless lobate edge, commonly overgrown by a high-CL, homogenous rim, and then a narrow low-CL rim, interpreted as zones of Pb loss. This population yields a weighted average (MSWD=0.053, probability=0.71) isotopic age of 188.1 ± 4.9 Ma [2.6%] 2σ Ma (Figure 2.19D). Because many of the analyses are of low U concentration (98-178 ppm) zircon (except grain 26, 638 ppm) that cor-respond to recrystallized metamorphic domains (dark CL areas), the isotopic age of these grains is interpreted to represent the timing of Pb loss due to dissolution-precipitation (Appendix G, Figure A.G.2). In summary, sample CN15-032-57.91m has three zircon populations, each with a distinc-tive isotopic age (Figure 2.19E). The oldest 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma age is interpreted to represent the crystallization age of the protolith of the metamorphic host rocks, whereas the age population of 198.9 ± 2.7 Ma is interpreted to record the timing of partial melting overprint of the deposit (see discussion in Chapter 3). The third group with the youngest age population of 188.1 ± 4.9 Ma is attributed to Pb loss due to dissolution-precipitation.63170180190200210220CN15-032-57.91mbox heights are 2Protolith box heights are 2σGroup IGroup IIGroup IIIGroup IGroup IIGroup III185195205215225Group I   Mean = 210.1±5.3  [2.5%]  2σWtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 5 rej.MSWD = 0.25, probability = 0.91box heights are 2σFigure 2 19  U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of zircon from partial melted quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. (A) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram of all collected analyses showing distinct age groups; (B) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram of Group I.AB64165175185195205Group III Mean = 188.1±4.9  [2.6%]  2Wtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 5 rej.MSWD = 0.53, probability = 0.71box heights are 2σ175185195205215Group IIMean = 198.8±2.7  [1.4%]  2σWtd by data-pt errs only, 0 of 17 rej.MSWD = 0.32, probability = 0.995box heights are 2σFigure 2 19  cont  U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of zircon from partial melted quartz-plagioclase-bi-otite schist. (C-D) Weighted mean 206Pb/238U histogram of Groups II and III.CD650123456789170 180 190 200 210 220 230Relative probabilityNumber206Pb/238U ageProtolithPar�al mel�ng event Pb lossGroup IGroup IIIGroup IIFigure 2 19  cont  U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of zircon from partial melted quartz-plagioclase-bi-otite schist. (E) Relative probability histogram showing the age distribution of all three groups.E66Sample 207Pb 206Pb 207Pb 206PbCN15-032-57 91m 235U 2σ 238U 2σ Rho 235U 2σ 238U 2σCN15-032-57 91_1 0.2317 0.0093 0.03337 0.00098 0.30411 211.4 7.9 211.5 6.1CN15-032-57 91_2 0.219 0.023 0.0314 0.0013 -0.11496 197 19 199.0 8.3CN15-032-57 91_3 0.2282 0.0092 0.03257 0.00079 0.073604 206.8 7.6 206.5 4.9CN15-032-57 91_4 0.207 0.012 0.02997 0.00083 0.14028 188.6 9.7 190.2 5.2CN15-032-57 91_5 0.211 0.016 0.0301 0.0011 0.13672 191 13 191.3 7.2CN15-032-57 91_6 0.434 0.013 0.0554 0.0014 0.32508 364.2 9.1 347.6 8.4CN15-032-57 91_7 0.221 0.012 0.0316 0.00092 0.095963 201 10 200.7 5.7CN15-032-57 91_8 0.2234 0.0055 0.03182 0.00073 0.42941 204.4 4.6 201.9 4.6CN15-032-57 91_9 0.218 0.013 0.0326 0.0014 0.036719 199.5 9.5 207.0 8.5CN15-032-57 91_10 0.2097 0.0092 0.03098 0.00081 0.15115 193 8 196.6 5.1CN15-032-57 91_11 0.2119 0.0091 0.03053 0.00086 0.16464 193.2 7.6 193.7 5.4CN15-032-57 91_12 0.208 0.014 0.03073 0.00096 0.18724 191 12 195.0 6.0CN15-032-57 91_13 0.21 0.012 0.02994 0.00093 0.049779 191.1 10 190.5 5.9CN15-032-57 91_14 0.213 0.012 0.03092 0.00092 0.12079 193.2 10 196.2 5.7CN15-032-57 91_15 0.235 0.0097 0.03344 0.00086 0.28331 212.9 8 211.9 5.4CN15-032-57 91_16 0.2212 0.0085 0.03145 0.0008 0.17205 202.1 7.2 199.5 5.0CN15-032-57 91_17 0.218 0.013 0.0308 0.0011 0.13806 198 11 195.5 6.7CN15-032-57 91_18 0.223 0.01 0.03176 0.00084 0.086036 202.5 8.7 201.5 5.3CN15-032-57 91_19 0.2169 0.0085 0.03189 0.00092 0.31801 198.5 7 202.3 5.7CN15-032-57 91_20 0.215 0.0092 0.03211 0.00091 0.20803 196 7.7 203.7 5.7CN15-032-57 91_21 0.217 0.0097 0.03053 0.0009 0.14733 199.3 8.3 193.8 5.6CN15-032-57 91_22 0.209 0.011 0.03126 0.00095 0.31695 191 9.4 198.3 5.9CN15-032-57 91_23 0.2189 0.01 0.03168 0.00083 0.13559 200.4 8.9 201.0 5.2CN15-032-57 91_24 0.212 0.014 0.0315 0.0012 0.23409 194 12 199.8 7.3CN15-032-57 91_25 0.2247 0.01 0.03166 0.0009 0.21644 204.5 8.3 200.9 5.6CN15-032-57 91_26 0.2163 0.0087 0.02956 0.00083 0.35433 198 7.2 187.7 5.2CN15-032-57 91_27 0.2348 0.0066 0.03353 0.00078 0.26098 213.4 5.4 212.5 4.8CN15-032-57 91_28 0.223 0.013 0.02848 0.001 0.13781 204 11 180.9 6.4CN15-032-57 91_29 0.246 0.018 0.032 0.0024 0.56661 222 15 203.0 15Radiogenic Isotope Ratios Isotopic AgesTable 2 2  Results of U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons and age calculations. 67Sample 207Pb 206Pb 207Pb 206PbPlesovice/Temora 235U 2σ 238U 2σ Rho 235U 2σ 238U 2σPlesovice_1 0.3955 0.0088 0.05355 0.0012 0.51388 337.5 6.4 336.1 7.2Plesovice_2 0.3969 0.0086 0.05452 0.0012 0.46454 338.5 6.2 342.1 7.1Plesovice_3 0.3917 0.0086 0.05324 0.0011 0.39289 335.5 6.4 334.7 7.0Plesovice_4 0.3917 0.0089 0.05335 0.0011 0.4394 335.1 6.5 335.3 7.0Plesovice_5 0.3927 0.0092 0.05366 0.0012 0.47113 335.4 6.7 336.8 7.5Plesovice_6 0.3946 0.0089 0.05391 0.0012 0.49781 337.2 6.4 338.3 7.3Plesovice_7 0.3955 0.0092 0.05346 0.0012 0.54114 337.9 6.8 335.5 7.6Plesovice_8 0.3931 0.0096 0.05373 0.0012 0.37501 336.5 7.2 337.2 7.5Plesovice_9 0.394 0.0092 0.05365 0.0012 0.42053 336.2 6.7 336.7 7.2Plesovice_10 0.3966 0.0097 0.05414 0.0012 0.54602 338.4 7.1 339.7 7.3Plesovice_11 0.3919 0.0087 0.05326 0.0012 0.44395 335.7 6.5 334.4 7.2Plesovice_12 0.3964 0.0094 0.05363 0.0013 0.47238 338.4 6.9 336.6 7.7Plesovice_13 0.3914 0.0093 0.05377 0.0012 0.46569 335.2 6.9 337.4 7.4Plesovice_14 0.3963 0.0096 0.05379 0.0012 0.48315 338.2 7 337.6 7.3Plesovice_15 0.3873 0.0093 0.05349 0.0011 0.42409 331.2 6.8 335.8 7.0Plesovice_16 0.399 0.0089 0.05374 0.0012 0.40647 340 6.5 337.3 7.1Plesovice_17 0.3994 0.0095 0.05363 0.0013 0.56515 340.1 6.8 336.6 7.8Plesovice_18 0.394 0.01 0.05372 0.0013 0.5244 335.9 7.3 337.1 7.7Plesovice_19 0.3962 0.0099 0.05427 0.0013 0.54123 337.6 7.2 340.5 7.9Plesovice_20 0.3861 0.0094 0.05323 0.0012 0.47817 330.8 6.9 334.2 7.5Temora2_1 0.494 0.015 0.0661 0.0016 0.28232 406 10 412.5 9.5Temora2_2 0.493 0.014 0.0649 0.0015 0.33235 404.9 9.1 404.9 9.2Temora2_3 0.511 0.015 0.0645 0.0016 0.46815 416.5 9.9 402.9 9.5Temora2_4 0.51 0.012 0.0665 0.0015 0.37487 417.1 8.3 414.6 9.1Temora2_5 0.51 0.014 0.0673 0.0016 0.52754 415.6 9.5 419.8 9.9Temora2_6 0.521 0.017 0.0684 0.0019 0.4281 423 12 425.8 11Temora2_7 0.519 0.015 0.0669 0.0015 0.33983 422.6 10 417.3 9.2Temora2_8 0.528 0.015 0.0702 0.0016 0.33301 428.9 10 437.0 9.6Temora2_9 0.517 0.016 0.0664 0.0016 0.30325 420.5 11 414.3 9.5Temora2_10 0.504 0.017 0.0663 0.0018 0.27262 415 11 413.5 11Radiogenic Isotope Ratios Isotopic AgesTable 2 2  cont  Results of U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons and age calculations. 682 6  (U-Th)/He thermometryZircon (U-Th)/He thermometry was carried out to help constrain the low temperature cool-ing history of the Carmacks Copper area (Table 2.3). Zircon is a widely used (U-Th)/He thermo-chronometer with a closure temperature of ~180°C, making it sensitive to exhumation through crustal depths of about five to ten kilometres (Reiners, 2005) under a typical range of the geother-mal gradient (20-30oC/km). One sample CN15-031-48.30m, from the western phase (LTrEJM2A) of the Granite Mountain batholith was processed and analyzed at the Arizona Radiogenic Helium Dating Laboratory (ARHDL), University of Arizona according to procedures outlined in Reiners (2005). Sample CN15-031-48.30m is a medium-grained, undeformed and unmineralized K-feld-spar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A). The same sample was analyzed with high precision TIMS U-Pb dating and yielded a crystallization age of 195.14 ± 0.25 Ma. The (U-Th)/He of three zircon grains yielded a range from 160.3 ± 4.3 Ma to 168.3 ± 4.5 Ma (Table 2.3). All available thermochronometric data from the Carmacks Copper area are summarized in Figure 2.20. 69Temperature (0C)Time (Ma)300155 157 159 161 163 165 167 169 171 173 175 177 179 181 183 1850187 191189 193 195 197 199 201 203 205 207 209 211 213 215 217Thermochronometry data of the Carmacks Copper area  CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon (Kovacs, 2018) Ar-Ar biotite (Tafti, 2005)Ar-Ar hornblende (Tafti, 2005)U-Pb titanite (Tafti, 2005)U-Th/He zircon (Kovacs, 2018)U-Th/He zircon (Kovacs, 2018)Ar-Ar biotite (Joyce, 2015)CCCCAr-Ar biotite (Tafti, 2005)U-Pb titanite (Tafti, 2005) U-Pb zircon (Hood, 2008)MMMCCCCCCCCCCBurialExhumation160.8 ± 4.3 Ma168.3 ± 4.5 MaExhumationMCCLEGENDCCK-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite LTrEJM2A Carmacks CopperK-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite MintoPegmatite dike Carmacks CopperInterlayered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist1000800600400200100900700500LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon (Kovacs, 2018)CCCC190.8 ± 2.8 Ma192.4 ± 0.90 Ma197.1 ± 1.2 Ma195.6 ± 0.70 Ma191.6 ± 2.1 Ma191.8 ± 0.40 Ma197.8 ± 1.3 Ma195.19 ± 0.25 Ma210.1 ± 5.3 MaFigure 2 20  Summary of thermochronometric data of the Carmacks Copper area. The length of the bars represent associated 2σ errors.Sample_ID pmol He 1σ ± pmol He Ft 238U Th/U  U ppm Th ppmRaw date (Ma)1σ± date (Ma)Corr date (Ma)1σ ± date (Ma)CN15-031-48 30-50 29m 6.11 0.14 0.86 0.30 298.39 87.75 138.42 3.70 160.8 4.3CN15-031-48 30-50 29m 8.56 0.20 0.85 0.35 490.93 166.48 136.69 3.65 160.3 4.3CN15-031-48 30-50 29m 3.56 0.08 0.80 0.35 546.39 188.53 134.63 3.58 168.3 4.5Table 2 3  Zircon (U-Th)/He analytical results.702 7  DiscussionThe Carmacks Copper area is located near the boundary of the Stikine and Yukon-Ta-nana terranes. Previous studies interpreted that the metamorphic rocks in this area are deformed supracrustal rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane that underwent deformation and metamorphism in the Early Jurassic (Tafti, 2005). Data presented in this study demonstrates that the protolith of the metamorphic rocks is Late Triassic in age that experienced Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic mid-crustal deformation, tectonic burial, and exhumation. New interpretations are suggested for the tectonic evolution of the Carmacks Copper area, relevant for the interaction between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana and Cordilleran tectonics. 2 7 1  The origin of the metamorphic rocks The augite gabbro is the protolith of the hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, which is texturally gradational with the amphibolite. Hornblende porphyroblasts locally pseudomorph augite and are progressively deformed and attenuated in the amphibolite. Based on these obser-vations it is suggested that the augite gabbro is the protolith of the amphibolite. Geochemical data supports these observations as the major and trace element signatures of the augite gabbro, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, and amphibolite are indistinguishable. They all plot as calc-alkaline basalts of volcanic arc origin within the high K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series. The quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is interpreted as a calc-alkaline andesite of the same magma source. All lithologies exhibit LREE enrichment and HREE depletion, characteristic of subduction zone environment.The Late Triassic Povoas Formation is in an unexposed contact with the Granite Moun-tain batholith, approximately 5 km east of the Carmacks Copper deposit. The Povoas Forma-tion is characterized by subalkaline tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts and basaltic andesites (Hart and Radloff, 1990; Bordet, 2017). These volcanic rocks are in an intrusive contact with massive, coarse-grained augite phyric basalt, augite gabbro, and medium-grained hornblende gabbro and 71interpreted as consanguineous subvolcanic intrusions (Hart et al., 1990) of the Lewes River arc.The minimum age and deformation of the metamorphic rocks is constrained to be older than GMB phases (i.e., 199 Ma oldest phase) that intrude them. The best age constraint on the protoliths of metamorphic rocks is the 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma age of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist unit (CN15-032-57.91m), which is interpreted to be a calc-alkaline andesite. The presence of ca. 210 Ma rocks is also supported by inheritance age within the Early Jurassic intrusive rocks of the Granite Mountain batholith. A Late Triassic age for the protolith of the metamorphic rocks is fur-ther constrained by a 187Re/187Os molybdenite age of ca. 212 Ma, which represents the minimum age of rocks that hosted Cu-Au-Ag mineralization prior to deformation and intrusion of the Gran-ite Mountain batholith (Chapter 3).The geochemistry of the Carmacks Copper metamorphic rocks is comparable to the volca-nic rocks of the Povoas Formation. The Povoas Formation plots in the basalt to basaltic andesite field in the rock discrimination plot (Figure 2.13A) and are characterized by LREE, Th enrichment and Ti and Nb depletion characteristic of arc setting (Figure 2.13C-D). Samples from the Povoas Formation generally plot in the transitional area of volcanic arc tholeiite and calc-alkaline basalts, whereas rocks of the Carmacks Copper area are within the calc-alkaline field (Figure 2.13E-F) Both units show a wide variation between low-K tholeiite to shoshonite series. The geochemistry and similar trace and REE element patterns, suggest that the coeval rocks (see previous) of Car-macks Copper and Povoas Formation were likely derived from similar subduction-related mag-matic sources. Local differences in the absolute elemental abundance may have been produced by different degrees of partial melting of similar mafic source, different degrees of differentiation of magmas during ascent and emplacement, and/or metasomatic processes. The inferred Late Triassic age of the metamorphic rocks indicates that they are coeval with the Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group and Stikine plutonic suite. Based on the textural and geochemical similarity of the two units, it is concluded that the Carmacks Copper metamor-72phic rocks belong to the Povoas Formation and represent metamorphosed subvolcanic intrusions of the Lewes River arc. The Lewes River Group is correlative to the Late Triassic Stuhini Group in British Co-lumbia. The Stuhini Group is more extensive than the Lewes River Group and preserves a more complete record of temporal changes in the Late Triassic arc (e.g., Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). The majority of the Stuhini Group is characterized by calk-alkaline to shoshonitic mafic to inter-mediate coarse-augite porphyry and bladed feldspar porphyry volcanic flows, pyroclastic rocks and related sediments (Mortimer, 1986). These rocks were emplaced from ca. 230 to 205 Ma, co-eval with Stikine plutonic suite gabbro to granite (Mihalynuk et al., 1999; Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014; Mihalynuk, 2016). This generally homogeneous magmatism is interrupted by a period of silica-undersaturated alkaline magmatism at ca. 215-210 Ma and generation of Cu-Au porphyry deposits (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). The transition to alkaline magmatism in British Columbia is coeval with emplacement of the calc-alkaline to shoshonitic volcanic and plutonic rocks further north, indicating diachroneity in the nature of magmatism along strike in the Late Triassic arc sys-tem. This geochemical change is likely related to diachronous plate reorganization along the Late Triassic arc, prior to emplacement of the voluminous Jurassic plutonic suites.2 7 2  Late Triassic deformation of StikiniaThe metamorphic rocks of the Carmacks Copper area preserve an early deformation that pre-dates the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith. The maximum age of this deformation is constrained ca. 212 Ma as given by the 187Re/187Os ages of deformed molybdenite intergrown with foliaform copper sulphides (Chapter 3). The ca. 199 Ma Minto Phase of the Granite Mountain Ba-tholith (see previous) is undeformed and cuts fabrics in the metamorphic rocks, and thus represents a minimum deformation age. In general, the Late Triassic Stikinia is regarded to be characterised by normal arc magmatism (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014); however, there is sparse evidence for Late Triassic deformation in British Columbia.73Late Triassic deformation is well documented near Telegraph Creek in northwest British Columbia, where Carnian-Norian sedimentary rocks of the steeply dipping and folded Stuhini Group are unconformably overlain by gently to moderately dipping Toarchian Hazelton Group (Brown et al., 1996; Greig, 2014). Similar relationships are preserved throughout Stikinia in north-ern British Columbia, including the McConnell Creek, Toodoggone, and Iskut River areas (Greig, 2014; Nelson, 2018). This deformation thus follows the transition from calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism, and coincides with a brief cessation of arc magmatism, deposition of widespread reefal limestone (Sinwa Formation in British Columbia, Hancock member in Yukon), initiation of exhumation of the Late Triassic plutonic rocks (Mandana member in Yukon), and angular un-conformity prior to initiation of Hazelton Group magmatism and Laberge Group sedimentation (Colpron et al., 2015; Nelson, 2018).2 7 3  Significance of Late Triassic deformation and the nature of Yukon-Tanana-Stikinia boundaryThe relationship between the YTT and Stikinia terranes is long-debated as regional iso-topic studies of metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and magmatic rocks of the Stikine terrane dis-play a primitive isotopic character, and yield more juvenile Sr and Nd signatures than the typical evolved Yukon-Tanana crust (Samson et al., 1989; Mihalynuk et al., 1994). In Yukon, Johnston and Erdmer (1995) interpreted that Yukon-Tanana terrane was underthrust beneath Stikinia, whereas Mortensen (1992) suggested that the contact between these two terranes is stratigraphic and rep-resents a continent-ocean transition. In the study area, the Granite Mountain batholith obscures the stratigraphic and structural relationships between the Yukon-Tanana terrane and Stikinia. Since the Carmacks Copper area is underlain by Late Triassic rocks of the Lewes River Group (see previous), the boundary between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana is inferred to lie to the west, but east of the Mississippian Simpson Range suite (Figure 2.2). This indicates that the Granite Mountain batholith not only intrudes Yukon-Tanana, but also stitches the contact between Stikinia and Yu-kon-Tanana terrane.74Similar to the metamorphic rocks in the Carmacks Copper area, Late Triassic to Early Jurassic mid-crustal deformation and burial of the Yukon-Tanana is well-documented in the Stew-art River region and in eastern Alaska (Dusel-Bacon et al., 2002; Berman et al., 2007). Recent studies on the tectonic evolution of the terrane in the Aishihik Lake region established widespread mid-crustal shearing and deformation (D2) coeval with amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, based on the association of regional garnet + plagioclase + musco-vite ± biotite ± kyanite ± silimanite ± staurolite bearing metamorphic assemblage with S2 (Clark, 2017). The same study also interpreted regional crustal thickening from U-Pb monazite geochro-nology (weighted mean 206Pb/238U crystallization age of 194.24 ± 2.4 Ma; Clark, 2017) and ther-modynamic modelling, suggesting that much of the western Yukon-Tanana terrane was buried to ~7 kbar pressures during this time (Clark, 2017).Deformation (D2) and associated amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Yukon-Tanana is coeval with Late Triassic deformation (D1) and amphibolite facies metamorphism observed in Sti-kinia rocks in the Carmacks Copper area. Both terranes experienced regional tectonic burial in the earliest Jurassic to greater than 15 km (Tafti, 2005), followed by rapid exhumation. The similarity of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic deformation and metamorphism of the Stikine and Yukon-Tanana terranes suggests that they were only linked after ca. 210 Ma and were certainly together by 199 Ma, the age of the stitching Granite Mountain batholith.Similar relationships are observed at the Tally Ho shear zone (THSZ) in southern Yukon, a 40 km-long zone of highly sheared rocks that separates the Lewes River arc of Stikinia to the east from the Nisling Assemblage rocks of Yukon-Tanana to the west (Hart and Radloff, 1990). According to Hart and Radloff (1990) the shear zone experienced at least two phases of defor-mation, one in the Late Triassic that affected both Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana rocks. The Bennett batholith, similarly to the Granite Mountain batholith represents the plutonic linkage between the two terranes because it intrudes the shear zone. Tizzard and Johnston (2004) interpreted the THSZ as an Early Jurassic structure that pre-dates the intrusion of the Early Jurassic Bennett batholith, 75which cross-cuts the shear zone. In addition, they also suggested that mafic and ultramafic rocks within the shear zone represent the exhumed roots of the Lewes River arc, which were thrust over the volcanic rocks of the Lewes River Group (Tizzard and Johnston, 2004). Further age constraints on the Bennett batholith yielded a 178.20 ± 0.05 Ma crystallization age and suggested that ductile deformation was still active within the shear zone during the emplacement of the batholith (Pills-bury, 2016). The tectonic history of Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana, including contractional deformation, amphibolite facies metamorphism, tectonic burial, and exhumation in the latest Triassic to earliest Jurassic, is very similar. Based on this evidence, we propose that these events reflect terrane amal-gamation of Stikinia to Yukon-Tanana. This amalgamation was broadly coeval with the change in nature of magmatism and resulted in crustal thickening and burial of YTT and parts of Stikinia, widespread deformation (brittle-ductile in northern BC and Yukon, ductile in Carmacks Copper area), cessation of Lewes/Stuhini Group magmatism, deposition of limestones (Hancock member and Sinwa Formation), exhumation of the overriding Stikinia (Mandana member) and initiation of marine sedimentation in the Laberge Group.2 7 4  Jurassic exhumation Late Triassic and Early Jurassic collisional orogeny and crustal thickening collapsed by the mid-Early Jurassic in the Carmacks Copper area, as widespread exhumation is well-document-ed during this time (Bennett et al., 2010; Allan et al., 2013; Colpron et al., 2015; Topham et al., 2015; Joyce, 2016). The rocks of Carmacks Copper deposit were at a depth of ~5 km (assuming a geothermal gradient of 20-30 oC/km) below surface by Middle Jurassic time, as indicated by zircon (U-Th)/He dates ranging from 168.3 ± 4.5 Ma to 160.3 ± 4.3 Ma. White mica and biotite 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages (182.1 ± 2.1 and 186.0 ± 1.4 Ma) from the nearby Minto suite of the Granite Mountain batholith and Aishihik batholith suggests similar results (Tafti, 2005; Joyce, 2016). In addition, aluminium in-hornblende barometry of the Early Jurassic Minto suite of the GMB indi-76cates mid-crustal emplacement, in contrast with the much younger Long Lake suite that showed significantly shallower emplacement pressures (3-4 kilobars) (Tafti, 2005; Topham et al., 2015).The regional significance of this exhumation is also indicated by thermobarometric data from amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. These rocks record dynamic burial to 7.5-9.0 kbar in the Early Jurassic, followed by exhumation, as indicated by 40 Ar/39 Ar cooling ages (ca. 185-175 Ma) for hornblende, muscovite, and biotite across the Stewart River area and adjacent YTT in Alaska (Dusel-Bacon et al., 2002; Berman et al., 2007). Regional data also show exhumation of YTT to upper crustal levels by the Early Jurassic with a peak in mica 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar cooling ages at ca. 190 Ma (Bennett et al., 2010; Allan et al., 2013). The Willow Lake, crustal-scale extension fault on the northeast side of the YTT is suggested to have accommodated parts of this regional exhumation (Knight et al., 2013).The deposition of the Mandana and Hancock members of the Whitehorse trough and Sinwa Formation of the Stuhini Group was coeval with Late Triassic deformation and resulting exhuma-tion (Colpron et al., 2015). These sedimentary rocks record the waning stages of the Lewes River and Stuhini arcs. By the Late Jurassic, magmatic activity had waned considerably, and crustal ex-humation of both metamorphic and plutonic rocks ceased. Sedimentation in the Whitehorse trough ended in the Middle Jurassic, as the overlying Upper Jurassic fluvial deposits of the Tantalus For-mation received airborne ash from the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous arc that developed atop the approaching Insular terranes (Colpron et al., 2015).2 8  ConclusionsThe metamorphic rocks of the Carmacks Copper area comprise interlayered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist that preserve an early Late Triassic deformation event and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism that pre-date a partial melting event linked to emplacement of the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith. Mafic metamorphic rocks exhibit a range of transitional textures that link massive augite gabbro to hornblende porphyroblastic am-77phibolite, to fine-grained and foliated amphibolite. This textural and geochemical evidence sup-ports the conclusion that the augite gabbro is the protolith of the amphibolite. The minimum age of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is constrained to ca. 210 Ma and it is concluded that the augite gabbro represents consanguineous subvolcanic intrusions of the Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group of Mesozoic Stikinia. The maximum age of metamorphism and ductile deformation of metamorphic rocks is constrained by the ca. 212 Ma 187Re/187Os age of molybdenite intergrown with copper sulphides parallel to the thorough-going S1 metamorphic fabric. The ca. 199 Ma Minto Phase of the Granite Mountain Batholith is undeformed and cuts fabrics in the metamorphic rocks, and thus represents the minimum age of deformation and metamorphism. This event is expressed in northwest British Columbia as the regionally extensive latest Triassic to earliest Jurassic angular unconformity that places Early Jurassic Hazelton Group strata on strongly deformed Stuhini Group strata, signalling regional tectonic deformation of Stikinia. Coeval Late Triassic contractional de-formation and tectonic burial (15-20 km), followed by rapid exhumation in the Early Jurassic is also well-documented in the adjacent Yukon-Tanana terrane in Yukon, which was stitched to Sti-kinia by the Granite Mountain batholith in the Early Jurassic. Terrane collision is considered the likely cause of Late Triassic deformation recorded by metamorphic rocks in the Carmacks Copper area, and elsewhere in Stikinia and the Yukon-Tanana terrane. This event reflects significant crustal thickening as the Yukon-Tanana terrane and Stikinia were amalgamated in the Late Triassic. 78Chapter 3: Metamorphism, migmatites, and sulphide anatexis: The genesis of the Carmacks Copper Cu-Au-Ag porphyry deposit3 1  IntroductionMetamorphism and deformation obscure original mineralization features of ore deposits and host rocks (Vokes, 2000) leading, to considerable controversy regarding the nature and age of mineralization in many mineral districts. Investigations of the effect of amphibolite facies meta-morphism on ore deposits such as komatiite-hosted Ni, volcanogenic massive sulphides, mafic-ul-tramafic intrusion-hosted Ni-Cu sulphides, and orogenic gold have extensively advanced mineral deposit models (Barnes and Hill, 2000; Mancini and Papunen, 2000; Ridley et al., 2000; Mav-rogenes et al., 2001; Frost et al., 2002; Sparks and Mavrogenes, 2005; Tomkins et al., 2006). In contrast, metamorphosed Cu-Au deposits have not received much research attention, most likely due to their scarcity in the geologic record, and the emphasis was generally placed on the tectonic deformation of ore deposit (Richardson et al., 1986; Bridge, 1993; Mostaghimi, 2016).The Minto Copper belt in west-central Yukon includes the deformed, metamorphosed, and partially oxidized Carmacks Copper and Minto Cu-Au-Ag deposits. Mineralization is hosted by variably deformed and metamorphosed host rocks that have been engulfed by the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith (Abbott, 1971). These deposits were previously included with prolif-ic Mesozoic porphyry Cu-Au mineralization epoch in British Columbia (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014), due to their spatial association with the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith; however, age and petrogenesis of the deposits are obscured by a strong metamorphic overprint. This study focuses on the geological features that demonstrate the structural and meta-morphic modification of host rocks and ore at the Carmacks Copper deposit and discusses the metamorphic conditions responsible for these changes. We present petrographic observations, Ti-in-zircon, and Re-Os data, which constrain the timing of mineralization of the Carmacks Copper deposit with respect to magmatism (see Chapter 2) and metamorphism. We demonstrate that em-79placement of the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith resulted in the partial melting of Late Triassic mineralized host rocks. During melting, copper sulphide minerals were re-precipitated in diatexite migmatite as net-textured domains. The presented geological model is applicable to other ore deposits in the Minto Copper belt, including the Minto deposit. The recognition of these mod-ified geological features helps to understand copper sulphide behaviour in high temperature meta-morphic conditions and provides an explanation to the discordance observed between 187Re/187Os ages of mineralization and crystallization age of host rocks within metamorphosed ore deposits. 3 2  Regional geologyMesozoic calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons of Stikinia and Quesnellia are known to host prolific porphyry Cu-Au ± Ag ± Mo deposits in British Columbia (Nelson et al., 2013; Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014) (Figure 3.1). In Yukon, correlative igneous rocks include the Stikine suite (ca. 218-208 Ma), Minto suite (ca. 204-195 Ma), Long Lake suite (ca. 192-180 Ma), and Bennett-Bryde suite (ca. 178-167 Ma) (Colpron et al., 2015). The Late Triassic to Early Jurassic calc-alkaline batholiths intrude the Stikine and adjacent peri-cratonic Yukon-Tanana terrane. The Carmacks Copper deposit is located near the northern limit of Stikinia, within the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith (GMB).The GMB consists of two phases, one each from the Minto and Long Lake suites that are likely in fault contact in the Carmacks Copper area (Colpron et al., 2015). The Granite Mountain batholith intrudes the contact between mid-Paleozoic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana and Late Triassic rocks of the Stikine terranes. West of the GMB, the Yukon-Tanana terrane is represented mainly by orthogneiss of the Mississippian Simpson Range plutonic suite (Mortensen, 1992). Stikinia in Yukon is composed of volcanic and sedimentary rocks and local subvolcanic intrusions of the Upper Triassic Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group (Hart, 1997). The Povoas Formation in southern Yukon is characterized by variably deformed and greenschist to amphibolite facies augite porphyritic basalt, volcaniclastic rocks, and hornblende gabbro (Hart and Radloff, 1990). 80These are juxtaposed against the batholith by the normal, dextral oblique-slip Hoochekoo fault and an unnamed, normal-sense fault (Figure 3.2). The Granite Mountain batholith contains inliers of deformed and metamorphosed rocks that host Cu-Au-Ag mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit, Minto mine, and Stu prospect (Figure 3.2).81116°W116°W124°W124°W132°W132°W140°W66°N62°N62°N58°N58°N54°N54°N50°N50°N0 100 200 300kmAlaskaYukon NWTBCAlbertaUSAPacificOceaneasternlimitofCordillerandeformationCopper MtAfton/AjaxMount PolleyMount MilliganLorraineGalore CreekRed ChrisMintoCarmacks CopperSchaft CreekKerr KemessFinGibraltarWoodjamHighland Valley BrendaWhitehorseVancouverYTSTQNYTST QNYT Yukon-TananaStikiniaQuesnelliaIntermontaneTERRANESYTSTQNCitiesLEGENDAlkalic porphyry depositsCalc-alkalic porphyry depositsFigure 3 1  Regional distribution of the Stikine, Quesnel, and Yukon-Tanana terranes in the north-ern Canadian Cordillera showing the location of porphyry Cu-Au ± Mo deposits after Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014. ST=Stikinia, QN=Quesnellia, YT=Yukon-Tanana terrane.82(((44444444444444444444444444444 444444444444@@@@@4 4444444@@444@@444444444444((44@@@@@@@@44@4444444444@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@37000037000038000038000039000039000040000040000041000041000042000042000068900006890000690000069000006910000691000069200006920000693000069300006940000694000069500006950000696000069600000 5 10kmGranite Mountain batholithCarmacks CopperMintoStu± Jurassic and younger layered rocksPlutonic rocksLEGENDLaberge Group sedimentary rocksLewes River Group mac volcanic, hypabyssal rocks with minor sedimentary rocksCretaceous or youngerMcGregor(163-160 Ma)Minto(204-195 Ma)Long Lake(192-180  Ma)Cretaceous or younger(145 Ma and younger)Yukon-Tanana metamorphic rocksUndivided Stikinia volcanic, sedimentary, and plutonic rocksFaults444 Normal faultTranscurrent faultOtherDepositsMinto Copper BeltHoochekoo faultCu-Au-Ag ± Mo occurencesFigure 3 2  Regional geology of the Minto Copper belt showing the locations of the Carmacks Copper, Minto deposits, and Stu prospect.833 3  Deposit geologyThe Carmacks Copper deposit is hosted within Late Triassic deformed and metamorphosed rocks which, based on their Late Triassic age, textural characteristics, and comparable geochemi-cal signature, represent volcanic rocks and subvolcanic intrusions of the Povoas Formation, Lewes River Group (Chapter 2). These metamorphic rocks occur as elongate, north-northwest trending inliers within felsic plutonic rocks of the Minto suite phase of the GMB, and have been affected by a Late Triassic ductile deformation event (D1) and associated upper amphibolite facies metamor-phism (Figure 3.3A). Compositionally similar, but texturally distinct migmatitic rocks are present along the strike of the metamorphic rocks and host significant sulphide Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Mineralization is restricted entirely to these metamorphic rocks, and occurs in two distinct forms, both as foliation-parallel chalcopyrite ± pyrite dominant stringers in the metamorphic rocks, and as net-textured bornite and chalcopyrite in migmatitic rocks.Early Jurassic felsic plutonic rocks of the GMB intrude the metamorphic rocks, and thus post-date mineralization and D1 deformation (Figure 3.3B). These plutonic rocks are dominantly undeformed, but locally exhibit weak tectonic foliation near their contacts with the metamorphic inliers. Folded and boudinaged dikes of the youngest intrusive phase of the GMB commonly cross-cut the metamorphic host rocks, which indicates that D2 deformation outlasted the emplacement and crystallization of the batholith during the Early Jurassic (Figure 3.4).84810820830790860840850870890900800880 9107809208807708208108908408708607908508307908408208508408308004113004113004115004115004117004117004119004119004121004121004123004123006912700691270069129006912900691310069131006913300691330069135006913500691370069137006913900691390069141006914100691430069143000 100 200 300 40050MetersNCarmacks Copper DepositLEGENDIntrusive RocksUnitsQuartz monzonite, pegmatite, aplite dikesGranodiorite-Western phase LTrEJM1 Monzodiorite-Eastern phase MigmatiteLTrEJM2LTrEJM3Inferred faultContour lines in metresRoads and trailsuTrP Foliated, interbedded schist and amphibolite with local porphyritic sectionsMetamorphic RocksExtent of copper sulphide mineralizationContactsDened intrusiveInferred, approximate intrusiveInferred intrusiveMap extentTrench exposureuTrPZones 12 and 13uTrPLTrEJM2LTrEJM1LTrEJM3Zone 2000SLTrEJM1Zone 1Zone 7Zone 4uTrPAA’B B’A85Zone 1Zone 7Zone 4Zone 2000SN0 150kmFigure 3 3  (A) Geological map of the Carmacks Copper deposit; (B) Interpreted bedrock geology and mineralized zones (blue-green) of the Carmacks Copper deposit. B86Temperature (oC)Pressure (kbar)Depth (km)wet basalt solidusAb-Ep HornfelsHornblendeHornfels Pyroxene-HornfelsSanidinite24681210GranuliteAmphiboliteZeoliteBlueschistGreenschistPrehnite-Pum-pellyiteEclogitewet granite solidus212.5 Ma 197.5 MaU-Pb CA-ID-TIMS/LA-ICP-MS 187Re/187Os molybdeniteAl-in-hornblende barometry (Tafti, 2005)168 Ma194 Ma(U-Th)/He100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100010203040Cu1D1 GMBCu2D2LTrEJM1,2Ex.195 MaFigure 3 4  Paragenetic sequence of magmatic, deformation, and mineralization events at the Carmacks Copper deposit. Cu1=Foliaform copper mineralization, D1=First deformation event, GMB=Intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith, Cu2=Net-textured copper sulphides associated with partial melting, LTrEJM1,2=Intrusion of the later phases of the Granite Mountain batholith, D2=Second deformation event, Ab-Ep=Albite-Epidote, Ex.=Exhumation of the deposit.873 3 1  Metamorphic host rocksThe metamorphic rocks consist of an interlayered quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and am-phibolite sequence (Figure 3.5A-B) that has been affected by an early Late Triassic ductile defor-mation event (D1) (Chapter 2), expressed as a penetrative north-northwest-striking and generally steeply dipping foliation (S1) (Chapter 2). Foliated amphibolite is texturally transitional into rarely exposed, massive, undeformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite (Figure 3.6A), the proto-lith of which is augite gabbro on the basis of geochemical and textural evidence (Figure 3.6B-D). The protolith of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is interpreted to be a calc-alkaline andesite based on its geochemical signature (Chapter 2). Uranium-lead LA-ICP-MS dating of zircon from the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist yielded an age of 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma, which is interpreted to be the crystallization age of the andesite protolith (Chapter 2). The age, textural, and geochemical evidence suggest that metamorphic rocks of the Carmacks Copper deposit formed part of the Povoas Formation of the Lewes River Group (Chapter 2).3 3 2  Plutonic rocksThree distinct intrusive phases of the GMB are identified in the Carmacks Copper de-posit area based on petrology, geochemistry, and cross-cutting relationships. The eastern side of the deposit is intruded by massive, medium-grained, alkaline monzodiorite with local plagioclase phenocrysts (LTrEJM1) which yielded a 195.11 ± 0.19 Ma U-Pb crystallization age (Figure 3.7A; Chapter 2). The western side of the deposit is intruded by a calc-alkaline, medium- to coarse-grained K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A), which yielded a 195.19 ± 0.25 Ma U-Pb zircon age (Chapter 2). This granodiorite is gradational with a quartz diorite sub-unit (LTrEJM2B). (Figure 3.7A) These western units are characterized by large, tabular K-feldspar megacrysts and quartz phenocrysts, respectively. Generally, all GMB phases are undeformed, although a weak alignment of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and quartz phenocrysts occurs. Dikes of quartz diorite, 88granitic pegmatite and aplite (LTrEJM3) cross-cut the metamorphic host rocks and other massive intrusive phases, and are overprinted by folds and boudinage (Figure 3.7B). These dikes yielded a 194.34 ± 0.16 Ma U-Pb zircon age (Chapter 2).89S1S1CN15-032-45.72m Qz-Pl-Bt schistCN15-029-56.00mCN15-032-60.00mAmphiboliteQz-Pl-Bt schist1cmABFigure 3 5  (A) Drill core showing the difference between the amphib-olite and the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. The ampibolite is generally darker coloured, and finer grained; (B) Outcrop of interlayeredamphibolite (left) and quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist (right). The quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist is brown weathered. S1=Foliation.90CN15-028-34.30m1cmCpxCpxCpxWC-025-247.70m1cmHbHbHbS1S1NK15-014-Z5HbHbHbPlPlPlPl10mmWC-002-379.57m1cmHbHbHbS1S1Figure 3 6  Photographs showing the textural variations of augite gabbro; protolith of the amphibolite. (A) Undeformed augite gabbro; (B) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the undeformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite; (C) Slightly deformed hornblende por-phyroblastic amphibolite; (D) Strongly deformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite. Note deformation along the regional S1 foliation fabric. XPL=Cross polarized light, Cpx=Clinopyroxene, Hb=Hornblende, Pl=Plagioclase.A BC D91TR-91-20LTrEJM3LTrEJM11cmLTrEJM2PlQzKfPlPlQzKfA BFigure 3 7  (A) Representative intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith showing the textural and mineralogical differences between the two main intrusive phases. The eastern, diorite phase (LTrEJM1; left) and western, granodiorite phase (LTrEJM2, right); (B) Quartz monzodiorite boudined dike of the latest intrusive phase. (LTrEJM3) of the Granite Mountain batholith. Qz=Quartz, Kf=K-feldspar, Pl=Plagioclase.923 3 3  MigmatiteMigmatitic rocks locally occur in the interlayered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-bio-tite schist sequence, and are especially abundant on the eastern side of the largest metamorphic in-lier (Figure 3.3). The nomenclature of Sawyer (2008) is applied to describe partially melted rocks (neosome), leucocratic melt (leucosome), melanocratic residuum (melanosome), and unmelted rocks (paleosome). The Carmacks Copper deposit is divided into two texturally distinct mappable sub-units: metatexite and diatexite. The metatexite zone is paleosome-dominant and characterized by amphi-bolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist with locally developed leucosome that is interpreted as in situ and partial melt. The diatexite zone is neosome-dominant and contains massive leucosome with minor schlieren and melanosome. The transition zone from metatexite to diatexite is grada-tional, tens of metres wide, and structurally chaotic (Figure 3.8A-C)931cmHbPlWC-002-382.60m1cmHbPlWC-005-214.94m1cmHbPlWC-002-314.50mFigure 3 8  (A-C) Drill core showing the textural features of the transition zone between the meta-texite and diatexite migmatites. Pl=Plagioclase, Hb=Hornblende.ABC943 3 3 1  Metatexite zoneThe metatexite zone is composed dominantly of fine-grained, partially melted, locally gra-noblastic and stromatic-layered quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist with irregular pods, and common-ly folded, foliation-parallel leucosome (Figure 3.9A-B). The partially melted quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist consists of plagioclase (50-70%), quartz (7-10%), biotite (7-15%), and K-feldspar (~2-5%). Plagioclase is anhedral and forms lo-bate to triangular-shaped boundaries and cusp-shaped films that suggest the migration of melt among grain boundaries (Jurewicz and Watson, 1984; Wolf and Wyllie, 1991; Sawyer, 2008). Finer-grained, triangular quartz (0.2-1.0 mm) with concave edges is common at the triple junc-tion of grains, and are interpreted as interstitial melt (Figure 3.9C-F). Small strings of connected quartz and plagioclase subgrains (i.e., “strings of beads” microstructure described by Holness and Clemens, 1999) are also typical along grain contacts and are typical examples of partial melting microstructures. Fine-grained biotite (0.3-0.4 mm) occurs as chadacrysts within plagioclase or commonly forms tapering extensions in between plagioclase grains (Figure 3.9F). The partially melted amphibolite is less common, but generally it is more felsic, massive, and coarse-grained than its paleosome (Figure 3.9G-H). Hornblende forms continuous bands or glomerophyric anhedral, locally poikiolitic grains with plagioclase and titanite. Plagioclase is an-hedral and forms cuspate tapering extensions in between hornblende grains. Well-developed leu-cosome is rare within the amphibolite; however, partial melting is evident by the occurrence of monominerallic films of biotite and plagioclase. These films in between the reactant minerals are indicative of the presence of anatectic melt that remained in the residual rock (Mehnert, 1973). Intergrowths of plagioclase, biotite, and fine-grained quartz are common at triple junctions. Where present, epidote occurs as an epitaxial rim at the interface between copper sulphides and silicate grains.95Leucosome in the metatexite occurs as coarse-grained, 5-10 cm-wide pods with sharp boundaries and consists of 40% plagioclase, 15% quartz, and 5-7% K-feldspar (Figure 3.9I-J). Disseminated copper sulphides typically occur within leucosome layers. Plagioclase and quartz are anhedral and locally exhibit myrmekitic intergrowths. Medium-grained, subhedral orthopyrox-ene and euhedral garnet locally occur within the leucosome, especially near the contact with paleo-some domains (Figure 3.9K) and considered as the product of incongruent melting. Thin layers of leucosome typically track the S1 foliation and thus follow the geometries of F2 folds (Figure 3.9L). Melanosome in the metatexite is not common. Biotite-rich, 1-2 cm-wide melanocratic selvedges are well-developed around the leucocratic veins, forming monominerallic layers in which biotite is oriented parallel to the contact with the vein and may developed where flow of the melt occurred.96NK15-DS-001QzPlPlPlPlPlPlPlQz10mmBtBtBtBtNK15-DS-001QzPlPlBt PlBtPlPlQz10mmC D1cmLsPaleosomeNeosome1cmFigure 3 9  Metatexite migmatite. (A) Typical appearance of the partial melted quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist; (B) Stromatic layered partial melted quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. White layers are representative of the leucosome (Ls); (C-F) Thin section photomicrographs (XPL) showing textural evidence of anatexis in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist. Red ar-rows indicate cites of partial melting. XPL=Cross polarized light, PPL=Plane polarized light Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Hb=Hornblende, Pl=Plagioclase, Qz=Quartz, Gr=Garnet, Bt=Biotite.A BNK15-DS-004PlPlPlBtBt0.5mmHbHbHbPlBtNK15-101PlPlPlPlHbBtBt0.5mmHbHbE F97WC-025-342.90mMsCpy1cmGWC-025-351.15mLsHbCpy1cmHFigure 3 9  cont  Metatexite migmatite. (G) Slightly partial melted amphibolite with well-devel-oped melanosome; (H) Strongly partial melted amphibolite with coarse-grained massive texture and numerous leucosome veinlets containing chalcopyrite. The slightly partial melted amphibo-lite generally retains its foliation fabric, in contrast with the strongly partial melted one that loses its foliation. Ls=Leucosome, Ms=Melanosome, Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Hb=Hornblende.98NK15-087-Z1GrPlPlHbPlHbPlPlGr10mmGrGrLsMsCN15-024-54.88mQzHbPlPlBtPl0.5mmHbHb PlPlQzLeucosome1cmLeucosomeMac selvedgeLeucosome1cmLeucosomeFigure 3 9  cont  Leucosome in metatexite migmatite. (I) Pods and folded coarse-grained leu-cosome in outcrop; (J) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of in-situ leucosome development in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist; (K) Thin section photomicrograph (PPL) showing garnet crystals within the leucosome; (L) Folded veinlets of leucosome in the quartz-plagioclase-bio-tite schist. Note the mafic selvedges in the hinge zones. XPL=Cross polarized light, PPL=Plane polarized light Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Hb=Hornblende, Pl=Plagioclase, Qz=Quartz, Gr=Garnet, Bt=Biotite.KI JL993 3 3 2  Diatexite zoneThe diatexite zone is characterized by predominantly massive and compositionally and mineralogically homogenous neosome with minor centimetre-scale melanosome and schlieren of residual metamorphic rock. The leucosome is medium-grained and composed of 45-60% pla-gioclase, 15-25% hornblende, 5-10% biotite, 5-15% bornite and chalcopyrite, 3-5% clinopyrox-ene, 1-2% quartz, and 1% epidote (Figure 3.10A-B). Characteristically, all grains have well-devel-oped crystals faces and low dihedral-angle grain boundaries against copper sulphide grains (Figure 3.10C-D), which are the most widely used microstructures for inferring the former presence of melt (Sawyer, 1999; Holness, 2005; Sawyer, 2008). The majority of the feldspar is albitic and forms medium (1.0-2.5 mm), anhedral grains that are rimmed by narrow 0.5-1 mm-wide zones of mi-crocline. The boundaries of albite grains are typically surrounded by fine (0.1-0.2 mm) subgrains. Melt inclusions of hornblende and fine-grained elongate inclusions of glass are locally present in larger plagioclase grains and are an example of melt trapped in minerals that crystallized from the melt. Hornblende and clinopyroxene are medium-grained (1.5-2.5 mm), fractured, and embayed, which are typical textures of reactant minerals that become more corroded as the fraction of the melt increases (Holyoke and Rushmer, 2002; Sawyer, 2008). Hornblende forms oikocrysts to cop-per sulphides, biotite, quartz, and plagioclase (Figure 3.10D). Fine-grained quartz with blocky outline and straight crystal faces (0.2-0.3 mm) locally occurs within hornblende grains. Thin gra-nophyric intergrowths locally occur at quartz-albite grain boundaries. Biotite is fine-grained (0.2-1.0 mm), anhedral, and forms straight faces (i.e., subhedral) where in contact with albite (Figure 3.10E). This microstructure is interpreted to indicate that both biotite and plagioclase crystallized from the anatectic melt (Sawyer, 1999; Sawyer, 2008). Accessory epidote occurs as thin interfacial rims at albite-copper sulphide grain boundaries (Figure 3.10F). Other accessory minerals include euhedral apatite and titanite within plagioclase that typically accumulate at the triple junction of hornblende or plagioclase grains. 100WC-008-174.31mBnMoCpy1cmWC-002-193.55mBnCpx1cmWC-002-156.33mHbEpPl0.5mmHbPlPlBtEpPlCu-sxCu-sxWC-005-254.57mHbCu-sxHbPlPlBtPl0.5mmBtHbEpFigure 3 10  Diatexite migmatite. (A-B) Typical appearance of the diatexite migmatite in drill core showing net-textured copper mineralization; (C-D) Thin section photomicrographs (XPL) of diatexite migmatite with characteristic net-textured copper sulphides. Note the low-angle grain boundaries with the silicate grains. XPL=Cross polarized light, Cu-sx=Copper sulphides Bn=Bor-nite, Mo=Molybdenite, Pl=Plagioclase, Hb=Hornblende, Bt=Biotite, Cpx=Clinopyroxene.CADB101NK15-037-Z2HbKf veinPl0.5mmHbHbHbPlWC-002-148.00mBnMoClCpx1cmWC-002-156.33mHbEpClHbPlPlBtEpPlCu-sxCu-sx10mmFigure 3 10  cont  Diatexite migmatite. (E) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of typical par-tial melting textures of the diatexite migmatite; (F) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of nar-row epidote at the interface of silicate grains and copper sulphides; (G) Diatexite migmatite with well-developed biotite-rich schlieren; (H) Thin section photomicrograph (XPL) of the hornblendite with cross-cutting K-feldspar veinlet. Red arrows indicate sites of partial melting. XPL=Cross polarized light, Cu-sx=Copper sulphides, Bn=Bornite, Mo=Molybdenite, Pl=Plagioclase, Hb=Hornblende, Bt=Biotite, Cpx=Clinopyroxene.HWC-002-156.33mHbCu-sxHbPlPlBtCpxPl0.5mmBtHbGE F102Melanosome domains in the diatexite are enriched in biotite and/or hornblende that vary from millimetre to metre scale (Figure 3.10G). The hornblenditic melanosome contains 80% horn-blende, 7-10% biotite, 10% calcite, 2-4% K-feldspar, and 1-2% quartz (Figure 3.10H). The horn-blendite is dominated by coarse-grained, subhedral to anhedral hornblende that locally occurs as oikocrysts with chadacrysts of biotite and quartz. Few larger-grains of biotite have well-developed straight crystal-face against hornblende. The groundmass consists fine-grained anhedral calcite, quartz, and plagioclase that form interstitial concave-shaped, cuspate-lobate grain boundaries with hornblende. Calcite and quartz are locally intergrown. U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS dating of zircon from the diatexite migmatite yielded a crystallization age of 197.41 ± 0.17 Ma, which is coeval to oldest intrusive phase of the Granite Mountain ba-tholith (Chapter 2). In addition, U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist identified a distinct population of recrystallized zircon domains that yielded an age of 198.8 ± 2.7 Ma and likely records anatexis of the deposit (Chapter 2). This secondary zircon growth is coeval with the crystallization of the GMB, which suggests that anatexis was coeval, and likely the direct result of heating by the Granite Mountain batholith.1033 4  Ti-in-zircon thermometryTi-in-zircon thermometry was employed to evaluate temperature trends with multi-stage zircon growth within sample CN15-032-57.91m. The sample represents an upper amphibolite fa-cies quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist that has undergone variable degrees of partial melting and for which was previously analyzed by U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon dating (Chapter 2). Two distinct zir-con age populations were defined from the previous study, including a population (Group 1) char-acterized by primary igneous textures of oscillatory and locally sector zoned zircons that yielded a weighted average isotopic age of 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma (Chapter 2), and a second population (Group 2) characterized by metamorphic secondary overgrowths on primary igneous textures evident in SEM-CL imaging. Group 2 zircons yielded a weighted average isotopic age of 198.8 ± 2.7 Ma (Chapter 2). Based on these dates and grain characteristics, it was concluded that the oldest popu-lation represents the age of the protolith of the metamorphic host rocks, whereas the distinctively younger age population of 198.8 ± 2.7 Ma records subsequent partial melting event associated with contact metamorphism from the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith (Chapter 2).3 4 1  Ti-in-zircon thermometerThe Ti content of zircon can be used as an indicator of zircon crystallization based on the substitution of Ti4+ for Si4+ (Watson et al., 2006). On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, it is concluded that ~95% of Ti in zircon is in the Si site, and that proportion is dependent of tem-perature (Watson et al., 2006; Ferry and Watson, 2007). The solubility of Ti in zircon is governed by the equilibrium:ZrSiO4 + TiO2 = ZrTiO4 +SiO2 For successful applications of Ti-in-zircon thermometer several criteria must be reached. The thermometer was calibrated for pressure of 10 kbar; hence, zircons forming shallower than this depth are associated with a temperature shift of -5°C/kbar (Watson et al., 2006; Ferry and Watson, 2007). The Ti-in-zircon thermometer applies to systems containing rutile as the thermody-104namic basis of the thermometer is TiO2 (rutile) = TiO2 (zircon). Since rutile is nearly pure TiO2, the activity (αTiO2) ~1 in rutile bearing systems. The solubility of Ti in zircon also depends on activity of SiO2. Revised calibrations show that αSiO2= αTiO2=1, which means if the system of interest contains zircon, quartz, and rutile, the activities of SiO2 and TiO2 is fixed to ~1 (Ferry and Watson, 2007). The thermometer therefore is a function of Ti concentrations and the activities of SiO2 and TiO2 following the equation:Log (ppm Ti-in-zircon) = (5.711 ± 0.072) - (4800 ± 86) / Tzrc (K) - logαSiO2 + log αTiO2Interstitial quartz and rutile are present in the analysed quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist (CN15-032-57.91m) and therefore, all calculations presented herein assumed αSiO2 = 1 and αTiO2 = 1. 3 4 2  Methodology 3 4 2 1  Analytical methodsMineral separates from sample (CN15-032-57.91m) were prepared at the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU), Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of British Columbia (UBC) as discussed in detail in Chapter 2. Twenty zircon grains from this sample were reanalysed at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at The University of British Columbia (UBC). Prior to analysis zircon grains mounted on epoxy pucks were re-ground and polished to their approximate mid-sections and then re-imaged for in-ternal structure at the Electron Microbeam/X-Ray Diffraction Facility at UBC, using a Phillips XI-30 scanning electron microscope (SEM) Robinson cathodoluminescence (CL) detector. An initial phase of imaging took place prior to U-Pb dating (Chapter 2). The second suite of zircon images exposed deeper levels of the zircon grains and consequently show slightly different internal zonation. 105Trace element concentrations were determined in zircon using a Resonetics RESOlution ArF excimer (193 nm) Class I laser coupled to Agilent 7700x quadrupole ICP-MS. Ablations were carried out using a beam energy of 80mJ, energy density of 5 J cm-2, pit diameter of 34 πm, and a pulse rate of 5 Hz for a duration of 40 seconds followed by 20 seconds of gas blank. Typically, two to four spot analyses were chosen on each grains based on textural grain-scale variations observed in CL (i.e., optimizing homogenous areas within each zircon grain). Analytes measured during analysis are listed in Appendix G. Natural zircon reference materials 91500 (n=9), Temora (n=9), and Plesovice (n=9) were also analyzed. Sample standard bracketing was carried out with spot analysis of synthetic glasses NIST 612 (n=16) and 610 (n=7) and natural basalt glass of BCR2G (n=4). Data were reduced using Ilolite software version 3.4 running with Igor Pro using the Trace_Element_Is data reduction scheme. All concentrations are reported in ppm with uncer-tainties of 2σ.3 4 2 2  Error estimation Three main sources are associated with the application of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer (E.B Watson, 2018, pers. comm.):1  Error associated with the calibration of Ti-in-zircon thermometer (i.e., uncertainty as-sociated with the linear regression fit to the calibration datasets used to create the thermometer).2  Analytical error associated with the measurement of Ti in zircon.3  Errors associated with multi-domain and/or large volume sampling of Ti. For the interpretation of this data, two errors were calculated to provide a simple estimate of total uncertainty. The first calculation was based on the analytical errors (2SE) were used to determine the upper and lower limit of uncertainty (in ppm) associated with each analysis. These concentration limits (ppm) were subsequently converted to temperature based on the calculation of Ferry and Watson (2007). The resultant temperatures then provide a reasonable estimate of the 106maximum and minimum temperatures associated with the analytical error for each Ti measure-ment. For data collected at the PCIGR facility, the range in analytical error in terms of final calcu-lated Ti-in-zircon temperature varied from 32°C to 97°C.The uncertainty associated with the calibration of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer were de-rived from Ferry and Watson (2007; Figure 4). Y-axis values were calculated for the data in this study using the following equation:Log (ppm Ti) + log (αSiO2) – log (αTiO2)These values were then projected to the line of 95% confidence envelope, which represents an estimate of thermometer calibrations errors. These graphical projections were then used to esti-mate the temperature range associated with each individual y-axis calculated value (from formula above; Figure 3.11A). This method provides a simple measure of calibration errors associated with the Ti-in-zircon thermometer. For the dataset presented in this study, calibration errors ranged from 47°C to 105°C.In attempt to quantify errors associated with the Ti-in-zircon thermometer, the two error calculations described above were combined to yield a final uncertainty estimate. The resultant er-ror determinations are consistent with the estimates (50-100°C) presented in other literature (Ferry and Watson, 2007; Fu et al., 2008).3 4 2 3  Data filtering Prior to interpretations, the data were filtered by reviewing sample pit locations. All sam-ples with 49Ti ppm greater than 40 ppm were observed to have sampled various inclusion phases (Figure 3.11B). Once these outliers were removed, the CL images of zircons and pit locations were further used to screen out any pit locations that clearly sampled multiple zircon growth domains (Figure 3.11C). Lastly, data were excluded where analytical error (2SE) exceeded 49Ti values. Af-ter filtering the dataset based on prioritization of most homogeneous sampling mediums, tempera-tures were calculated using the equation of Watson and Ferry (2007) (Table 3.1). 107B CFCN15-032-57.91_2Multiple growth zonesHomogeneous mediumCN15-032-57.91_7C Inclusion1.01.31.11.21.40.51.52.53.51400 1200 1000 800 700 6003.02.00.0900log(ppm Ti) + log(αSiO2) - log(αTiO2)α-quartz, rutile reference5 7 9 11 13104/T(K)T (oC)1.31.21.58628831.171.071.331.361.341.11.13750775758781767787825793844856829817837CABFigure 3 11  (A) Calibration of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer after Watson and Ferry, 2007. The grey line shows 95% confidence envelope for the linear fit. Solid black lines show the data from this study; (B) CL-image of zircon with inclusion; (C) CL-image of zircon with multiple growth domains. Yellow circles indicate size and location of laser spot. Circles B and F demonstrates sam-ples that have been discarded due to sampling multiple growth domains. Circle C demonstrates a reliable analysis that sampled homogenous medium.108Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type Ti49 ppm Temp C° Ti49 ppm 2SETi49 ppm 2SE lower limitTi49 ppm 2SE upper limit Y-axisCN15-032-57 91_1 1 oscillatory 22.7 829.19 7.6 15.1 30.3 1.36CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 12.7 768.85 7.6 5.1 20.3 1.10CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 21.6 823.76 9.6 12 31.2 1.33CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 11.8 761.68 7.7 4.1 19.5 1.07CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 15.1 786.13 6.5 8.6 21.6 1.18CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 22.2 826.75 8.1 14.1 30.3 1.35CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 14.8 784.10 7.5 7.3 22.3 1.17CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 13.8 777.07 9.1 4.7 22.9 1.14CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 32 868.27 15 17 47 1.51Analytical errorTable 3 1  Ti-in-zircon analytical results. 109Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type Minimum T C° Maxium T C°Minimum 2SEMaxium 2SEMinimum 2SEMaximum 2SECN15-032-57 91_1 1.00 oscillatory 829 856 0.19 26.81 43.25 59.49CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 758 781 10.85 12.15 93.35 60.34CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 817 837 6.76 13.24 67.20 54.78CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 750 775 11.68 13.32 104.85 64.38CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 775 793 11.13 6.87 65.34 44.50CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 825 844 1.75 17.25 49.27 52.38CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 775 793 9.10 8.90 76.03 52.04CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 767 787 10.07 9.93 107.55 63.01CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 862 883 6.27 14.73 76.24 61.91Thermometry error Total uncertanityZircon ID Spot ID Grain-type Minimum T C° Maximum T C° Minimum 2SE Maximum 2SECN15-032-57 91_1 1 oscillatory 786.13 861.87 43.06 32.68CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 686.34 817.04 82.51 48.19CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 763.31 865.29 60.45 41.54CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 668.51 812.74 93.17 51.06CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 731.92 823.76 54.21 37.63CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 779.22 861.87 47.52 35.13CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 717.16 827.24 66.93 43.14CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 679.59 830.15 97.48 53.08CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 798.30 915.44 69.97 47.17Analytical errorTable 3 1  cont  Ti-in-zircon analytical results. 1103 4 3  ResultsThe 49Ti concentrations of zircon within sample CN15-032-57.91m vary from 12-32 ppm. Corresponding temperatures range from 762°C to 868°C with no statistically demonstrable sub-populations (Figure 3.12A-D). The calculated temperature values with 2σ errors overlap with-in the two groups and do not define discrete populations over trace elements Hf, Th/U, Eu/Eu*, and Ce/Ce*.The Hf concentrations are within a relatively narrow range from 13490 ppm to 16430 ppm. Based on the limited data, it appears that Ti is positively correlated with Hf concentrations in Group 1 zircons (210.1 ± 5.3 Ma), whereas Group 2 zircons (198.8 ± 2.7 Ma) shows negative correlations (Figure 3.12E). The Eu anomalies (0.3-0.8 ppm and 0.3-0.5 ppm) are within a nar-row range, whereas Ce anomalies (7-223 ppm and 27-387 ppm) are scattered for Group 1 and 2, respectively. Generally, Eu and Ce anomalies show positive correlations with Hf concentrations (Figure 3.12F-H).There are two populations of zircon based on the Th-U concentrations. Zircons from Group 1 contain higher Th/U ratios in contrast with Group 2 zircons. Group 1 is characterized by variable U concentrations (485-8110 ppm) and moderate Th concentrations ranging from 86-286 ppm. Group 2 has higher U concentrations (1120-4840 ppm) and comparable Th concentrations (184-209 ppm) (Figure 3.12I-J).Chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns display relatively depleted light REE (LREE) and enriched heavy REE (HREE), sharp positive Ce anomalies, and prominent neg-ative Eu anomalies (Figure 3.12K).111500550600650700750800850900950100012000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000T (0 C)Hf (ppm)oscillatory recrystallized50055060065070075080085090095010000 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2T (0 C)Th/U (ppm)oscillatory recrystallized5005506006507007508008509009501000140 160 180 200 220T (0 C)Age (Ma)oscillatory recrystallized50055060065070075080085090095010000 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1T (0 C)Eu/Eu*oscillatory recrystallizedCADBFigure 3 12  Geochemical correlation plots of calculated temperatures vs age and selected trace elements. (A) Temperature vs Hf; (B) Temperature vs Age; (C) Temperature vs Th/U; (D) Tem-perature vs Eu/Eu*.1120501001502002503003504004500 5000 10000 15000 20000Ce/Ce*Hf (ppm)oscillatory recrystallized00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.90 5000 10000 15000 20000Eu/Eu*Hf (ppm)oscillatory recrystallized051015202530350 5000 10000 15000 20000Ti (ppm)Hf (ppm)oscillatory recrystallized051015202530350 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000Ti (ppm)U (ppm)oscillatory recrystallizedG HE FFigure 3 12  cont  Geochemical correlation plots of calculated temperatures vs selected trace elements. (E) Ti vs Hf; (F) Ce/Ce* vs Hf; (G) Eu/Eu* vs Hf; (H) Ti vs U. 1130501001502002503003504004505000 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000Th (ppm)U (ppm)oscillatory recrystallizedLinear (oscillatory) Linear (recrystallized)00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.180.20 5000 10000 15000 20000Th/UHf (ppm)oscillatory recrystallized0.010.11101001000100001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14La Ce Pr Nd Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb LuSmOscillatoryRecrystallizedI JKFigure 3 12  cont  Geochemical correlation plots of calculated temperatures vs selected trace elements. (I) Th vs U; (J) Th/U vs Hf; (K) Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patters of zircon (Anders and Grevesse, 1989). 1143 4 4  DiscussionZircon typically crystallizes over a range of temperatures after solidus have been exceeded (Harrison et al., 2007). Titanium also varies in concentrations throughout melting, and as such, Ti zonation is typically present within zircons, even in systems with simple geological histories (Harrison and Schmitt, 2007; Timms et al., 2011). Successful application of the Ti-in-zircon ther-mometer to rocks with long or complex histories such as Carmacks Copper requires that the mag-matic compositions in zircons are preserved through subsequent events such as high-grade meta-morphism or alteration. Studies based on a variety of rock-types with different ages and zircon morphologies have shown that there is variability of Ti concentrations within individual zircons in almost all analysed zircons (Fu et al., 2008). The same study demonstrated that there is no consis-tent change in the Ti content between igneous cores and metamorphic overgrowths and that calcu-lated temperatures were essentially the same (Fu et al., 2008). Ion imaging of zircon further shows that high concentrations of Ti are associated with cracks, and that core and rim Ti concentrations away from the cracks are essentially indistinguishable despite the complex internal CL patterns (Harrison and Scmitt, 2007, Figure 3; Timms et al., 2011, Figure 7).Enhanced diffusion of Ti along deformation related pathways such as dislocation and low-angle (<5°) boundaries can also affect Ti concentrations. Recent studies have shown that zir-con can deform crystal plastically in high temperature crustal environments, such as granulite-fa-cies conditions (Timms et al., 2011). Ti-depletion related to plastic deformation can vary by an order of magnitude (2.6-30 ppm) within a single grain that encompasses most of the range reported from natural zircon across variety a rock types, and yields apparent different temperatures that range over a few hundred degrees Celsius using Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Timms et al., 2011). 115An additional concern in this study was the employment of 34 μm diameter ablation pits with 20-30 μm pit depths. Ablations pits with these dimensions likely sampled zircons charac-terized by heterogeneous chemistries (i.e., not uniform Ti distributions). Due to the large size of these pits in three dimensions, resultant ionized material represents mixed chemical domains, rather than discrete homogenous zones. Sampling heterogeneous Ti domains will add significant-ly to the final uncertainty range for each analysis. This was not accounted during determination of uncertainty and therefore error estimates represent minimum values. As an example of the effect of heterogeneous ablation sampling, analysis CN15-032-57.91_26 (Appendix G, Figure A.G.1.,CN15-032-57.91_10, spot C) which is considered to have ablated through multiple recrys-tallized domains (core, rim, and overgrowth) resulted in a temperature calculation ~700oC higher (1584°C) than the temperatures calculated for homogeneous material.Due to multi-domain sampling methodology, the assumed total minimum uncertainty on the Ti-in-zircon thermometer, and the complex geological history of the Carmacks Copper deposit, the resultant temperature data are best interpreted as a high to low temperature range associated with a single crystallization event. Bimodal temperature distributions (i.e., statistically discretely different Ti/Temperature events between the two zircon populations) cannot be demonstrated in this dataset. In the absence of independent Ti mapping of sample CN-15-032-57.91m zircons, the filtered data are best interpreted as the range of crystallization temperature associated with migma-tite formation from ~762°C to 868°C. Thus this temperature range is interpreted to represent the minimum crystallization temperature of eutectic melt. These Ti-in-zircon temperatures overlap with the zircon saturation temperatures for the intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith, which vary from ~632°C to 838°C for Tzr M=1.3(Appendix I). This temperature range is inferred to be representative of magma emplacement temperatures of the Granite Mountain batholith. Since partial melting of the metamorphic rocks was induced at or below the emplacement temperature of the GMB, this temperature range also represents the maximum eutectic temperature of melt. 1163 5  MineralizationMineralization of the Carmacks Copper Cu-Au-Ag deposit occurs within a 3 km–long, north-northwest trending belt that is separated into a northern Main Zone and the southern Zones 2000S, 12, and 13. The Main Zone collectively refers to three separate mineralized centres: Zones, 1, 7, 4, and 2000S (Figure 3.3B) that host bulk of the deposit’s resource of 11.98 Mt of oxide (1.07 % copper, 0.46 g/t gold, 4.6 g/t silver) and 4.34 Mt of sulphide mineralization (0.75 % copper, 0.22 g/t gold, 2.37 g/t silver) (Copper North Mining Corp., 2018). Mineralization in Zones 1 and 7 has an apparent sinistral offset from zones 4 and 2000S by 250 m along a late brittle fault. In Zones 1 and 7, the core of the ore body is defined by a roughly elongate, ellipsoidal shell that is steeply dipping to the east (Figure 3.13). In contrast, the ore body in Zone 4 is flat lying. Three different varieties of hypogene copper mineralization are recognized, with distinct mineralogical and tex-tural characteristics: disseminated, foliaform, and net-textured.3 5 1  Disseminated mineralization Disseminated chalcopyrite and pyrite comprise a minor portion of the hypogene miner-alization and is typical in the undeformed, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite, granoblastic quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist, and augite gabbro (Figure 3.14A-B). Disseminated copper sul-phide minerals also occur in leucosome within the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist unit (Figure 3.14B).Chalcopyrite is fine-grained (0.3-0.7 mm) and occurs as anhedral to wavy, skeletal grains intergrown with also fine-grained (0.1 mm), subhedral pyrite (Figure 3.14C). Few fine-grained (0.1-0.3 mm) pyrrhotite is locally found intergrown with pyrite. Disseminated copper sulphide mineralization is considered to be the least modified by metamorphism because it typically occurs in the undeformed metamorphic lithologies and augite gabbro. This mineralization therefore rep-resents the original unmodified ore that pre-dates early Late Triassic deformation (D1). 1173 5 2  Foliaform mineralizationFoliaform copper sulphides are restricted to the amphibolite and the quartz-plagioclase-bi-otite schist, and occur as chalcopyrite-dominant stringers that parallel the dominant S1/S2 foliation (Figure 3.14D-E). Chalcopyrite is fine-grained (0.3-0.5 mm) and forms elongated anhedral grains. Bornite is less common in the foliaform mineralization, but where present forms fine-grained (0.2-0.5 mm), anhedral, blebby intergrowth with foliaform chalcopyrite (Figure 3.14F). Pyrite intergrown with chalcopyrite is rare, but it is euhedral where present. The foliaform nature of copper sulphides is interpreted as the result of Late Triassic deformation (D1) and associated upper amphibolite facies metamorphism.3 5 3  Net-textured mineralizationIn contrast, mineralization hosted by the migmatite occurs as net-textured intergrowths of bornite and chalcopyrite (Figure 3.14G-H), which comprises as much as 20%-40% of the rock by volume, with typical bornite-chalcopyrite ratios of 3:1. Pyrite is absent in the migmatite. Bornite and chalcopyrite occur together in irregular net-textured domains up to 2–4 mm across forming low interfacial angles that are clearly interstitial with respect to silicate grains (Figure 3.16I-J). Both chalcopyrite and bornite are commonly replaced by digenite along 50 mm-wide fractures and grain margins and is interpreted as the latest copper phase due to secondary oxidation. Net-textured bornite is especially abundant in melanosome, where it typically forms higher-grade (1-2% Cu) domains (Figure 3.14K). The net-textured domains contain numerous inclusions of fine-grained native bismuth, Au-Ag tellurides, and bismuth tellurides. Molybdenite is commonly intergrown with net-textured copper sulphides and occurs as kinked anhedral grains separated along cleavage surfaces (Type 1) or as euhedral undeformed grains (Type 2). The presence of net-textured cop-per sulphides and their low interfacial angles with the silicate grains requires precipitation from a sulphide melt (Hofmann, 1994; Frost et al., 2002; Holness, 2005). Therefore, the net-textured mineralization in the migmatite represents an immiscible sulphide liquid that co-existed with sil-icate melt. 118411600 E411700 E 411800 E411900 E412000 E412100 E412200 E500 RL 500 RL600 RL 600 RL700 RL 700 RL800 RL 800 RL900 RL 900 RL6913800 N 6913900 N6914000 N50 m10050 m100150200250 50 m10015020025030035040050 m10015020050 m100150WC-002WC-008WC-005DDH-1-025DDH-1-005DDH-1-007Bn-Cpy Cpy ± PyK-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite and quartz dioriteVariably plagioclase megacrystic monzodioriteDiatexite migmatiteInterlayered quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and amphiboliteLEGENDuTrPuTrPLTrEJM1LTrEJM2LTrEJM3 Aplite, quartz monzonite, and pegmatite dikesFigure 3 13  Drill cross-section showing the ore body, metal zonation, and sulphide distribution of Zone 7, Main Zone.CpyCpyHbHbWC-025-317.90m1cmFigure 3 14  Different styles of mineralization of the Carmacks Copper deposit; (A) Disseminated chalcopyrite mineralization in undeformed hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite. Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Bn=Bornite, Hb=Hornblende.A1191cmCpyCpyCN15-024-44.50m1cmCpyCpyS1S1WC-002-309.86m1cmCpyCpyS1S1WC-005-254.40mS1S10.25mmCpyWC-005-254.40mCpyBnCpyWC-002-148.0Cpy1cmBnBnCpyBnCpyFigure 3 14  cont  Different styles of mineralization of the Carmacks Copper deposit. (B) Dis-seminated chalcopyrite mineralization in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist; (C) Thin section photomicrograph (RL) of disseminated chalcopyrite ± pyrite mineralization; (D) Foliaform chalcopyrite mineralization in the amphibolite; (E) Oxidized foliaform chalopy-rite mineralization; (F) Thin section photomicrograph (RL) of the foliaform chalcopyrite-bornite mineralization in the amphibolite; (G) Net-textured bornite-chalcopyrite mineralization in the diatexite migmatite. RL=Reflected light, Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Bn=Bornite, Py=Pyrite.GEDBFCpyCpyPyPy10mmCN15-024-54.88mC120WC-002-180.00mCpyCpy1cmHb BtWC-008-174.31mDgBnMoDgCpyCpy0.5mmWC-002-148.00m1cmBnBnCpyWC-008-178.30mDgBnMoBnCpyCpy10mmHeCpyCpyAuAgTeBn30μmWC-008-174.31m10mmAuTeBn20μmWC-002-194.25mIHKJA BFigure 3 14  cont  (H) Net-textured bornite-chalcopyrite mineralization in the diatexite migma-tite; (I-J) Thin section photomicrograps (RL) of textured bornite-chalcopyrite mineralization in the migmatite; (K) Net-textured mineralization in the migmatite associated with the melano-some. Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Bn=Bornite, Dg=Digenite, Py=Pyrite, Mo=Molybdenite, Bt=Biotite, Cpx=Clinopyroxene, Hb=Hornblende.Figure 3 15  (A) Gold telluride inclusion in bornite within partial melted amphibolite; (B) Gold-sil-ver telluride inclusions in net-textured bornite within diatexite migmatite. AuTe=Gold telluride, AuAgTe=Gold-silver telluride, Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Bn=Bornite, He=Hema-tite.1213 6  Ore zonation and correlationsThe sulphide mineral zonation broadly corresponds to host rock-types. A western chalco-pyrite ± pyrite zone correlates to the amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist sequence, and an eastern bornite-chalcopyrite ± digenite zone correlates closely with migmatite host rocks (Figure 3.13). The pyrite content of the deposit is notably low (~1%), and molybdenite is locally present but generally rare at the deposit scale. Gold is principally associated with bornite and oc-curs as 10-20 μm inclusions of electrum or native gold, or more commonly as gold telluride (cala-verite), or solid-solution gold-silver tellurides, as determined by SEM-EDS spectrometry (Figure 3.15A-B) (Appendix A). Silver is present as hessite inclusions in bornite. Because gold and silver are typically associated with bornite, the bornite-chalcopyrite ± digenite zone is precious - metal enriched and the migmatite contains higher copper, gold, and silver grades than the amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist sequence. The overall Cu (%)/ Au (g/t) ratio is 1:1. A copper versus gold grade plot defines a high correlation coefficient (0.92), reflecting the close association of bornite and gold. The copper versus silver and gold versus silver plots show normal correlations and define correlation coefficients of 0.88 and 0.89, respectively (Figure 3.16A-C).122 Log Au (ppm)Log Ag (ppm)0.10.011101002 3 4 5 20 30 2000.1 0.2 1 10Correlation coecient=0.89 Log Ag (ppm)0.11001101002 3 4 50.1 3000.1 0.2 1 10Correlation coecient=0.88Log Total Cu (%)00.2 Log Au (ppm)0.10.011101002 3 4 50.1 3000.1 0.2 1 10Correlation coecient=0.92Log Total Cu (%)00.2BACFigure 3 16  Coefficient plots showing the relationship among copper, gold, and silver grades. (A) Log copper vs log gold grades; (B) Log copper vs log silver grades; (C) Log gold vs log silver grades.1233 7   187Re/187Os geochronologyThe 187Re/187Os (rhenium-osmium) chronometer applied to molybdenite (MoS2) was cho-sen to constrain the timing of mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit because this mineral has been demonstrated to be a very robust chronometer that can survive intense deformation and granulite facies metamorphic overprints (Stein et al., 2000; Stein et al., 2001; Bingen and Stein, 2003). Molybdenite typically contains tens to hundreds of ppm Re, and essentially excludes com-mon Os from its structure during formation. As such, all measured 187Os is considered to be radio-genic, contributing to a precise 187Re/187Os date. Recent advances in instrumentation and chemical procedures now routinely produce individual ages with uncertainties of only 0.4% (Markey et al., 1998; Stein et al., 2001; Markey et al., 2007). Molybdenite is intergrown with copper sulphide minerals and is thus paragenetically relat-ed to hypogene copper mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit. Four molybdenite-bearing samples of hypogene copper mineralization were analyzed for 187Re/187Os isotopic dating at the Canadian Centre for Isotopic Microanalysis (CCIM), University of Alberta, using the method-ology described in detail by Selby and Creaser (2004), Markey et al., (2007), and Markey et al., (1998). The result of the 187Re/187Os age determinations are given in Table 3.2. Age uncertainties are quoted at the 2σ level and includes all known analytical uncertainties in the decay constant of 187Re.3 7 1  Results Diatexite: Sample WC-008-174.31m is of a medium-grained, undeformed diatexite migmatite characterized by net-textured domains of bornite (15%) and chalcopyrite (4-5%) that are interstitial with respect to silicate grains (Figure 3.17B,D). Digenite commonly replaces both bornite and chalcopyrite along 50 µm-wide fractures and grain margins. Hematite forms narrow (10 µm), irregular patches along fractures and the margins of bornite-chalcopyrite–digenite.124Molybdenite forms 1-2 mm-wide aggregates and occurs in two forms. Type 1 molybdenite is medium (1-2 mm), locally sieved-textured, anhedral to subhedral grains that contain inclu-sions of bornite, chalcopyrite, and digenite (Figure 3.17B, D). Characteristically, these grains are kinked and separated along cleavage surfaces with copper sulphides occurring between the cleav-age layers. Lack of deformation in the adjacent Cu-sulphide and silicate grains suggests that these molybdenite crystals were previously deformed and are thus interpreted to be xenocrystic grains incorporated into silicate and sulphide melt. Type 2 molybdenite is medium (1-2 mm) euhedral to subhedral flakes intergrown with copper sulphides (Figure 3.17F). Point counting on the two textural variants of molybdenite indicated that Type 1 (56.3%, n=18) and Type 2 (43.7%, n=14) grains roughly occur in equal proportions. Molybdenite grains that were separated from this sample yielded a 187Re/187Os age of 204.1 ± 0.9 Ma. A replicate analysis yielded an age of 203.8 ± 0.9 Ma. This age is interpreted as a mixed age between Type 1 and Type 2 molybdenite.Amphibolite: Sample CN15-002-84.30Bm is an amphibolite containing partial melt and relict foliation that contains foliaform bornite (2%) locally intergrown with chalcopyrite (1%). Net-textured domains also occur in association with the leucosome, and comprise intergrown bor-nite and molybdenite (Figure 3.17A, C).Molybdenite occurs as foliaform, folded stringers intergrown with bornite and exhibits two distinct forms. Type 1 molybdenite is anhedral, kinked grains (0.2-0.3 mm) that occur as deformed fragments intergrown with copper sulphides (Figure 3.17C-D). Type 2 molybdenite is euhedral to subhedral grains (0.2-0.4 mm) intergrown with copper sulphides (Figure 3.17G). Point counts of molybdenite grains showed that Type 2 molybdenite grains are more abundant (59.7%, n=368) in the sample. Molybdenite separated from this sample yielded a 187Re/187Os isotopic age of 212.5 ± 1.0 Ma. Re-analysis of the same sample to ensure reproducibility of the data gave an 187Re/187Os isotopic age of 212.5 ± 1.2 Ma. This result is interpreted as a mixed age of Type 1 and 2 molyb-125denite. Because the Re distribution between Type 1 and Type 2 molybdenite is unknown, point counts cannot help resolve the degree of age mixing between the populations.Diatexite: WC-002-148.0m is a medium-grained, deformed diatexite characterized by net-textured copper-sulphides dominated by bornite (15%) and lesser chalcopyrite (3-4%). Di-genite (<1 %) locally replaces bornite along margins and fractures. Variably chloritized biotite schlieren also locally contain net-textured bornite.Although molybdenite is not abundant in this sample (~1 %), it is present as both Type 1 and Type 2 (Figure 3.17E) grains that are generally intergrown with copper sulphides. Point counting revealed that there are more Type 2 (62.5%, n=35) than Type 1 (37.5%, n=21) grains. The 187Re/187Os isotopic analysis of molybdenite yielded an age of 198.6 ± 0.9 Ma. Amphibolite: Sample WC-025-459.0m is an undeformed, locally partial melted and re-crystallized amphibolite dominated by disseminated chalcopyrite (5%) intergrown with subhedral pyrite (1 %). Irregular, coarse-grained hornblenditic melanosome also contains abundant copper sulphides. Molybdenite occurs as extremely fine-grained and sparsely disseminated grains of the dominantly euhedral Type 2 (90%, n=2). The 187Re/187Os isotopic analysis of molybdenite yielded an age of 198.5 ± 0.9 Ma. This result is interpreted as the closest age of Type 2 molybdenite, with only minor Type 1 mixing.126WC-002-139.0Bn0.25mmCpyDgMo1Mo1CN15-002-84.30mBnMo1cmWC-002-174.31mBnMoCpy1cmDgWC-002-148.00mBn0.25mmMo2BnMo2CN15-002-84.30mMo10.25mmMo1Mo1WC-008-174.31mBn0.25mmCpyMo2DgMo2Mo2Figure 3 17  Textural difference between molybdenite grains. (A) In the amphibolite, molybdenite occurs as folded, foliaform veinlets; (B) In the migmatite, molybdenite is coarse-grained and eu-hedral; (C)Thin section photomicrograph (RL) showing xenocrystic, deformed molybdenite with-in partial melted amphibolite; (D) Thin section photomicrograph (RL) of deformed molybdenite within diatexite migmatite; (E-F) Euhedral molybdenite intergrown with net-textured copper sul-phides in the diatexite migmatite. RL=Reflected light, Mo1=Xenocrystic molybdenite, Mo2=Euhe-dral molybdenite, Bn=Bornite, Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Dg=Digenite.EADBCF127CN15-002-84.30m200μmMo1 Mo1Mo1CN15-002-84.30mMo1200μmBnMo2Figure 3 17  cont  Textural difference between molybdenite grains. (G) SEM microphotograph showing both xenocrystic and euhedral molybdenite grains in the partial melted amphibolite; (H) SEM microphotograph of the xenocrystic molybdenite grains in amphibolite. Mo1=Xenocrystic molybdenite, Mo2=Euhedral molybdenite, Bn=Bornite, Cpy=Chalcopyrite, Dg=Digenite.G HSample Re (ppm) ± 2σ 187 Re ppm ± 2σ 187 Os ppb ± 2σModel Age (Ma)± 2σ (Ma)CN15-002-84 30m 661.0 2.1 415.5 1.3 1473.0 1.0 212.5 1.0CN15-002-84 30m rpt 677.2 2.1 425.6 1.3 1510.0 5.0 212.5 1.2WC-008-174 31m rpt 439.7 1.4 276.4 0.9 941.3 0.7 204.1 0.9WC-008-174 31m rpt 432.8 1.4 272.0 0.9 925.0 0.7 203.8 0.9WC-002-148 00m 430.0 1.4 270.3 0.9 8957.0 0.6 198.6 0.9WC-025-459 00m 483.2 1.5 303.7 1.0 1006.0 1.0 198.5 0.9Table 3 2  187Re/187Os analyses of molybdenite grains from mineralized amphibolite and diatexite migmatite. Rpt=Re-analysis of sample.1283 8  Hydrothermal alterationTwo distinct ages of hydrothermal alteration are considered: (1) pre-metamorphic metaso-matism that only affected protoliths of the metamorphic host rocks and pre-dates the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith; and (2) post-metamorphic alteration, which is related to fluids exsolved from magmas of the Granite Mountain batholith.3 8 1  Pre-metamorphic metasomatism3 8 1 1  Isocon analysisAlthough, alteration associated with mineralization is not very visible in the metamorphic host rocks due to their mafic, fine-grained, and foliated nature, the widespread presence of biotite makes it reasonable to test if the protolith of the metamorphic rocks was hydrothermally metaso-matized. The isocon method is a quantitative way of evaluating chemical gains and losses in mass transfer related to metasomatic alteration addressed by Gresens (1967) and it was used to aid petrography to detect hydrothermal alteration that may have affected protoliths of the metamor-phic rocks. Only fresh metamorphic rocks that were unaffected by post-magmatic hydrothermal overprints are considered here. The composition-volume relationships in metasomatism can be expressed by Ci A = MO/MA (CO i+∆Ci) (Gresens, 1967; Grant, 2005) where Ci is the concentration of species “i”, “O” refers to the original host rock and “A” to the altered rock, MO and MA are the equivalent masses before and after alteration. Graphically this expression can be shown by plotting the analytical data Ci A against Ci O, in which case the immobile elements define a straight line, the isocon. The slope of the isocon yields the overall change in mass relative to MO. Elements plotting above the defined isocon were gained, whereas those plotting below the isocon are lost during alteration. Twenty-five samples from the amphibolite unit were selected for isocon analysis. Six sam-ples were interpreted as the least altered protolith based on petrography and were used to compare 129to other, potentially altered samples. Both least altered (CO) and altered samples (CA) were aver-aged for each element, and then plotted against each other on a linear diagram. The slope of the isocon then was defined according to Grant (2005) by the (a) clustering of Ci A / Ci O data, (b) best fit of data forming a linear array, (c) priori assumption that certain elements are immobile, and (d) assumption of constant mass and volume loss during assumption of constant volume during alter-ation. Elements TiO2, Zr, Y, and Nb were chosen for the basis of isocon because these elements are known to be essentially immobile during metamorphism (Winchester and Floyd, 1976) and there are only minor (less than 3 ppm) variations in concentrations between the least altered (CO) and altered samples (CA). Once the isocon was defined based on these immobile elements, major and trace elements were plotted for each sample. All data and calculations for isocon analysis is listed in Appendix H.Although some elements show a slight scatter, possibly due to the natural variation within the protolith, major oxides SiO2, K2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and Na2O are gained in most samples, in ad-dition to the ore-related metals Cu, Au, Bi, and Ag. Depleted elements are CaO, MgO, MnO, Mo, and As. Concentrations of P2O5 are scattered both below and above the isocon (Figure 3.18).130Figure 3 18  Isocon alteration geochemical plot of the metamorphic rocks after Grant et. al., 1986. The isocon plots illustrate relative enrichment and depletion of major oxides (wt%) and trace ele-ment (ppm) concentrations in the metamorphic rocks. The X-axis is representative of least altered samples averaged from seven samples. The Y-axis indicates the altered samples. The mass con-servation line (isocon, red dotted line) has a slope=1, and is the reference line showing equal con-centrations in least altered and altered rocks. Elements plotting above this line represent element enrichment, and below this line element depletion. (A) Isocon diagram illustrating major element oxide enrichment and depletion. 0.010.11101000.1 1 10 100C ACOCN15-001-35.10mCN15-005-80.30mCN15-008-36.58mCN15-029-43.50mNK15-083-Z13CN15-002-84.30mNK15-068-Z12isoconLinear (isocon)CaOAl2O3Fe2O3SiO2MgONa2OK2OMnOP2O5131Figure 3 18  cont  Isocon alteration geochemical plot of the metamorphic rocks after Grant et. al., 1986. (B) Isocon diagram illustrating metal enrichment and depletion. 0.010.11101001000100000.1 1 10 100 1000C ACOCN15-001-35.10mCN15-005-80.30mCN15-008-36.58mCN15-029-43.50mNK15-083-Z13CN15-002-84.30mNK15-068-Z12isoconLinear (isocon)Au CuMoAsBiAg1323 8 1 2  PetrographyPre-metamorphic alteration is difficult to identity in the metamorphic host rocks since duc-tile deformation and metamorphism obscures primary textural relationships. Pervasive biotite and rare magnetite are extensively developed in the metamorphic host rocks and absent in the massive intrusive phases. In the deformed metamorphic units, biotite occurs as fine-grained, foliation-par-allel, subhedral to anhedral grains in association with hornblende (Figure 3.19C-E). In most fo-liated lithologies, biotite is recrystallized, which makes it difficult to distinguish from primary igneous biotite (Figure 3.19F). However, the undeformed units (i.e., augite gabbro, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite) generally lack primary igneous biotite (Figure 3.19A-B) and only exhibit anhedral, hydrothermal biotite where the same rocks host copper sulphide mineralization (Figure 3.19C). Based on these textural observations and isocon results, K2O metasomatism affected met-amorphic protoliths prior to D1 deformation, most likely as the result of potassic fluids that were also responsible for hypogene Cu-Au-Ag mineralization.3 8 2  Post-metamorphic metasomatismLate-stage, post-metamorphic hydrothermal alteration related to the intrusion of the Gran-ite Mountain batholith affects both the metamorphic host rocks and felsic plutonic rocks, and can be separated into three paragenetic substages: (1) sericite + chlorite ± hematite ± epidote, (2) per-vasive hematite + quartz, and (3) carbonate ± clay.The sericite + chlorite ± hematite ± epidote alteration assemblage overprints both meta-morphic and felsic intrusive rocks. It is the most apparent in the felsic intrusive rocks as indicat-ed by hematite-stained pink feldspar grains. Sericite and hematite commonly replace plagioclase grains (Figure 3.20A-B). Chlorite is particularly abundant in the metamorphic rocks and prefer-entially overprints biotite. In the felsic intrusive rocks chlorite replaces biotite and hornblende. 133Minor epidote locally replaces plagioclase or occurs as anhedral grains in association with biotite and hornblende.Pervasive hematite + quartz preferentially overprints the felsic intrusive units (LTrEJM1, 2, 3). This alteration includes texturally destructive silicification and hematization that has perva-sively replaces feldspar, giving these rocks a strong pink colouration (Figure 3.20C). The youngest alteration assemblage is characterized by narrow 0.5 – to 1 cm-wide, spo-radically distributed carbonate veins that typically cut igneous units and cross-cut all previous alteration-types. Locally brecciated, generally narrow 2 to 5 cm-wide, carbonate ± clay veins are most extensively developed in the felsic plutonic rocks and contain native copper as a supergene feature (Figure 3.20E). The summary of the hydrothermal alteration assemblages is illustrated in Figure 3.21.134NK15-068-Z12 CN15-005-84.30m CN15-001-35.10mWC-025-247.70mNK15-103HbBtHbBtBtBtHbHbBtMgBtBtBtHbHbHb MgBtHbBtNK15-014-Z5HbHbHbHbHb HbAugAugBt10mm 10mm 10mm10mm10mm10mmS1S1S1Figure 3 19  Series of thin section photomicrographs (PPL) showing the development of potassic alteration and the textural changes of alteration biotite (left to right) as it undergoes recrystallization in the metamorphic units. (A) Undeformed, augite gabbro. Note the absence of primary igneous or alteration biotite; (B) Undeformed, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite also without the presence of primary igneous or alteration biotite; (C) Slightly foliated, hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite with anhedral alteration biotite; (D) Amphibolite with anhedral, alteration biotite; (E) Foliated amphibolite with local, recrystallized biotite grains, but generally still domi-nated by anhedral alteration biotite grains; (F) Strongly foliated amphibolite with recrystallized biotite grains that appear to be primary igneous biotite. PPL=Plane polarized light, Hb=Hornblende, Bt=Biotite, Mg=Magnetite, Aug=Augite.EADB CF135CN15-019-87.12mQz-HeNative copperCb1cmWC-008-179.50mHePlCbPlHeHe1cmNK15-072-Z12Qz-He1cmQz-HeCb veinCN15-005-80.30mHbSerEpPl10mmSerSerPlHbADBCFigure 3 20  Late stage hydrothermal alteration within the metamorphic and intrusive rocks. (A) Sericite-epidote alteration in the amphibolite, thin section photomicrograph (XPL); (B) Hematite staining of plagioclase grains in monzodiorite with late cross-cutting carbonate vein; (C) Perva-sive quartz-hematite alteration within the quartz monzodiorite with late cross-cutting carbonate vein;  (D) Pervasive quartz-hematite alteration with late cross-cutting carbonate vein. Note native copper within the late carbonate vein. XPL=Cross polarized light, Qz=Quartz, He=Hematite, Cb=-Carbonate, Pl=Plagioclase, Ser=Sericite, Ep=Epidote, Hb=Hornblende.136HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATIONPRIMARY STAGE LATE-STAGEBt ± Mg Ser+Cl+He+EpHe+QzCb+ClayMETAMORPHIC LITHOLOGIESIGNEOUS UNITSFigure 3 21  Paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal alteration. The width of the lines denote rela-tive abundance of minerals.1373 9  Discussion3 9 1  Modification of oreThe Carmacks Copper deposit has been modified by deformation and associated amphi-bolite facies metamorphism prior the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith. The intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith occurred at ca. 198 Ma at a pressure of 5.6 ± 0.3 to 6.6 ± 0.5 kbar (Tafti, 2005) corresponding to depth of about 15 km and produced a considerable contact metamorphic aureole in the metamorphic host rocks. The aureole locally reached metamorphic temperatures up to ~838°C (Ti-in-zircon and TZr) that caused localized anatexis that is particularly evident in quartz-plagioclase-biotite-schist. Metatexite migmatites are dominated by paleosome, and therefore, contain evidence where melting has initially occurred. The melt fraction that forms in the migmatite is segregated into the leucosome. Anatectic melt forms films along grain boundaries and small triangular shaped cuspate pockets in between reactant minerals (Sawyer, 1999). In the metatexite, plagioclase, biotite, and quartz are commonly observed as narrow films and tapering extensions. Plagioclase and quartz typically develop cuspate margins with concave edges among grain boundaries, indicative of melt pools. The same minerals also display convex margins because they become more rounded as they dissolve into the melt phase. In-situ leucosomes within the metatexite migmatite that occur as ir-regular pods and locally foliaform layers and are the primary indicators of anatectic melt that has segregated from its residuum but has remained at the site where it formed (Sawyer, 1999; Sawyer, 2008).The leucosome of the diatexite migmatite is dominated by microstructures that result from the crystallization of anatectic melt. Plagioclase is the most voluminous product of felsic anatectic melts, and in the case of the diatexite migmatite, it is the most abundant mineral phase. During the melting of plagioclase, the albite component fractionates into the melt (Bowen, 1913), and thus leucosome generated by partial melting tends to have more sodic plagioclase. In most cases, pla-138gioclase starts to crystallize first, and consequently most microstructures used for the identification of crystallized melt in migmatites involve plagioclase. In the leucosome of the diatexite migmatite, locally well-developed, straight crystal faces of plagioclase against biotite, quartz, hornblende, and copper sulphides are the most recognizable feature for inferring the crystallization from the anatectic melt. It has been documented that within metamorphosed porphyry copper systems, that forma-tion of silicate melt could promote the mobilization of polymetallic melt to the same site due to its low viscosity (Tomkins and Mavrogenes, 2003). Synchronous melting of sulphide assemblages and the silicate host rock is considered the most favorable scenario for incorporating the largest proportion of overall amount of metal in silicate magma (Tomkins and Mavrogenes, 2003), and thus leucosome-enriched migmatites are highly prospective as progenitors of various magmat-ic-hydrothermal deposit-types. Net-textured intergrowths of bornite and chalcopyrite are one of the main textural charac-teristics of the diatexite migmatite and are enriched within the leucosome. A distinctive feature of net-textured domains is the development of low dihedral angle of bornite and chalcopyrite with the silicate grains, which is the primary texture indicative of crystallization from the melt (Frost et al., 2002). Significantly, net-textured copper sulphides mantle unaltered plagioclase and horn-blende (excepting minor and late chlorite, sericite, and carbonate alteration) suggesting that copper sulphide minerals precipitated from sulphide liquid, rather than being introduced at this stage by a hydrothermal fluid. In the latter case, one would not only expect hydrolytic alteration of sili-cate phases, but also replacement of Fe-bearing silicates by sulphide minerals. The interpretation suggested here is that previously mineralized (Cu1) and deformed (D1) metamorphic rocks (i.e., quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and amphibolite) were heated to partial melting conditions near in the thermal aureole of the Granite Mountain batholith, during which copper and trace metals entered a mobile sulphide liquid phase that coexisted with silicate melt, and re-precipitated upon cooling. The most important factor governing the initiation of sulphide melting is the composition 139of the original sulphide assemblage (Tomkins et al., 2006). Sulphide deposits lacking sulphosalts and tellurides may not start to melt until upper amphibolite and granulite facies, but most depos-it-types are capable of generating some sulphide melt within amphibolite facies (Tomkins et al., 2006). Therefore, the presence of tellurides and native bismuth within the net-textured copper sulphides that would have been present in the original ore assemblage may have facilitated eu-tectic melting during anatexis. Since net-textured copper sulphides precipitated after the crystal-lization of silicate melt, the maximum temperature of sulphide anatexis is probably the eutectic temperature of silicate melt, which is considered ~762°C to 838°C from Ti-in-zircon thermometry and zircon saturation temperatures. In addition Al-in-hornblende geobarometry indicates that the emplacement of the GMB that caused sulphide anatexis was at pressures ranging ~5.6 - 6.6 kbar (Tafti, 2005). These pressure and temperature estimates are well within the range of chalcopyrite melting of 850°C at 1 bar (Craig and Kullerud, 1967). The absence of pyrite in the migmatite is interpreted to reflect the increase in metamorphic grade that resulted in the consumption of pyrite (Tomkins et al., 2006) because chalcopyrite + pyrite break down to produce Cu-Fe-S melt. Alternatively, prograde metamorphism of pyrite bear-ing rocks is accompanied by rise in temperature and hence an increase in the activity of sulphur, reaction rates, and an increased potential for sulphur to be lost as a fugitive phase, which results in the formation of pyrrhotite from the decomposition of pyrite by loss of sulphur (Vokes, 1993). Although pyrrhotite is absent in the migmatite, it has been observed associated with an extensive zone of melanosome (hornblendite) north of the Main Zone. Many studies have demonstrated that molybdenite may survive granulite facies metamor-phic conditions without evidence of isotopic resetting in the 187Re/187Os system (Stein and Bingen, 2002; Bingen and Stein, 2003; Bingen et al., 2008). The maximum 187Re/187Os age obtained at Car-macks Copper was 212.5 ± 1.0 Ma, which corresponds to the amphibolite rock sample containing mainly deformed, xenocrystic Type 1 molybdenite. This age, although strictly a minimum age for Type 1 molybdenite growth, overlaps with the inferred 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma zircon age of the protolith. 140In contrast, the migmatite samples dominated by Type 2 euhedral molybdenite that is intergrown with net-textured copper sulphide yields isotopic ages of 198.6 ± 0.9 and 198.5 ± 0.9 Ma. This age overlaps within 2σ error with the age of the migmatite (197.41 ± 0.17 Ma; U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS), the intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith (ca. 198 Ma), and the average estimated age of metamorphic overprint (198.8 ± 2.7 Ma; LA-ICP-MS) of the deposit (Chapter 2). Based on the textural and geochronological evidence, euhedral molybdenite is a younger generation that precipitated from a sulphide melt phase along with the net-textured copper sul-phides. This process accompanied formation of silicate partial melt in metamorphic rocks at ca. 198 Ma, which was triggered by the thermal effect of GMB emplacement. In contrast, deformed molybdenite grains represent an older ca. 213-210 Ma generation that pre-dates D1 ductile defor-mation, and which was entrained as xenocrysts into sulphide and/or silicate melt phases during subsequent anatexis. Since both grain-types are present in the dated rocks and the procedure of 187Re/187Os dating is carried out on a bulk molybdenite separate, the approach yields mixed isoto-pic ages, as opposed to the ages of separate molybdenite generations. These observations further indicate that molybdenite at least partly survived the magmatic temperatures reached during GMB emplacement at Carmacks Copper, whereas copper sulphides were remobilized via a sulphide liq-uid phase and ultimately yielded magmatic sulphide textures (Tomkins et al., 2006). The behavior of the Cu-Mo-Fe-S system during anatexis is not well-documented; however, molybdenite and chalcocite (Cu-Mo-S) can coexist without melting at 800 °C and melt only in the presence of excess sulphur at 1000°C (Grover and Moh, 1969). The partial melting of molybdenite and pyrite may to produce a Mo-Fe-S melt at ~735°C (Grover et al., 1975), but this reaction can only proceed under very high ƒS2, which requires moderately oxidized host rocks that are low in Fe silicates and Fe oxides (Tomkins et al., 2006). Our data demonstrates that molybdenite was part of the original mineral assemblage (chalcopyrite ± pyrite), which suggests that, (1) molybdenite did not react with pyrite or chalcopyrite under anatectic conditions, (2) molybdenite at least partly 141survived partial melting conditions, and (3) the presence of molybdenite did not affect the tempera-ture of melting reactions in the Cu-Mo-Fe-S system.In conclusion, copper sulphide melting commenced at the Carmacks Copper deposit in between 816 ± 12°C (Pattison et al., 2003) and the maximum eutectic temperature of silicate melt 838°C (Ti-in-zircon and TZr) at 5.6 - 6.6. kbars. The Carmacks Copper deposit thus preserves a Late Triassic Cu-Au-Ag mineralized system that was metamorphosed, deformed, and ultimately recycled under anatectic conditions during the Early Jurassic emplacement of the GMB.3 9 2  Deposit modelThe Carmacks Copper deposit has been modified by deformation, amphibolite facies meta-morphism, and localized metamorphic anatexis; therefore, the key to deposit genesis is to unfold these processes and investigate the deposit in its least modified state. Since its discovery in the 1970s, several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the genesis of the deposit. Previous studies attempted to look through the metamorphism and suggested a variety of deposit-types, including copper mineralization in digested Triassic volcanic rocks (A. Archer, pers. commun., in Sinclair, 1974), metasedimentary red-bed copper (Kirkham, 1974), deformed and metamorphosed porphyry copper gold (Pearson and Clark, 1979), iron oxide copper gold deposit (IOCG) (Cap-stone Mining Corp., 2008), deep ‘aborted’ porphyry Cu-Au that formed during the early stage of porphyry Cu-Au mineralization (Tafti, 2005), and a shear-hosted hydrothermal ore deposit gener-ated in the ductile root zones of porphyry systems (Hood et al., 2008).The Carmacks Copper deposit is hosted within a Late Triassic (210.1 ± 5.3 Ma) inter-layered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist sequence of calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity (Chapter 2). The protolith of metamorphic host rocks is interpreted to be mafic intrusions and intermediate volcanic rocks of the Lewes River Group (Figure 3. 22A-B) that has been locally affected by potassic alteration and Cu-Au-Ag mineralization prior to metamorphism. 187Re/187Os 142dates of molybdenite separates indicates that mineralization has a minimum age of 212.5 ± 1.2 Ma. Within the limits of error of the dating techniques, this suggests that mineralization occurred be-tween 211.3 and 215.4 Ma. The pre-deformational origin of the mineralization is further supported by petrographic evidence including presence of inherited, deformed molybdenite in remobilized and deformed sulphides. The sulphur isotopic composition of Carmacks Copper deposit ore is be-tween 0.65‰ to -0.60‰ (Pearson, 1977; Tafti, 2005), consistent with a magmatic source for min-eralizing fluids (Wilson et al., 2007). These values are considered to represent the original isotopic compositions as only disseminated chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite samples within the amphibolite were analyzed (Pearson, 1977; Tafti, 2005). Although ore grades at Carmacks Copper (0.65 % sulphide Cu, 0.178 g/t Au, and 2.32 g/t Ag) may have been modified during metamorphism (e.g., ore is higher grade in the migmatite due to higher concentrations of bornite), the original mineral assemblage of chalcopyrite ± pyrite within the amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and the Cu/Au and Cu/Ag ratios are probably primary.3 9 2 1  Comparison to IOCGIron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) deposits are typically characterized by large extents of associated hydrothermal alteration, abundant brecciation, abundant low Ti-Fe oxides (magnetite and hematite) and Fe-silicates, and consistent ore grades between 0.7 and 1.5 % Cu and <0.5 to >10 g/t Au (Groves et al., 2010). Similar to other deposit types, individual IOCG deposits do not exhibit all of the characteristics. For example, Sossego (Brazil), Ernest Henry (Australia), and Candelaria (Chile) IOCG deposits, which have been used as analogues to Minto, are characterized by a well-developed, complex, multistage alteration pattern, controlled by fault and shear zones (Mathur et al., 2002; Mark et al., 2006; Moreto et al., 2015). Mainly based on the observations at Minto, the most commonly deposit type invoked to explain Carmacks Copper and Minto mineralization is an IOCG. This interpretation was mainly based on, (1) deep emplacement of the Granite Mountain batholith (Tafti and Mortensen, 2003), 143(2) moderately oxidized magma of the Granite Mountain batholith (Tafti, 2005), and (3) wide-spread presence of magnetite in hypogene ore (4) local presence of hematite in the oxide ore, and (5) structurally controlled distribution of ore (i.e., offset of ore zones by late faulting) (Capstone Mining Corp., 2008). Data presented herein and in Chapter 2 can be used to test the IOCG deposit model for the Carmacks Copper and Minto. Deep emplacement of the Granite Mountain batholith cannot be used as a proxy for the emplacement depth of mineralization at Carmacks Copper as the emplace-ment of the GMB postdates mineralization by >10 m.y. Similarly, the oxidation state of the GMB and the widespread presence of alteration hematite (Tafti, 2005; Hood et al., 2008) is irrelevant to the deposit that formed >10 m.y. prior to the emplacement of the GMB. Lastly, the structurally controlled distribution of ore is also not a demonstrably primary feature of either of the two de-posits as ore was melted and remobilized during the emplacement of the GMB. In addition, the intensity and extent of alteration that is common in IOCG deposits is not well-developed at either Minto or Carmacks Copper, and ores are not breccia hosted. As such the IOCG deposit model is not considered viable for Minto and Carmacks Copper deposits.3 9 2 2  Comparison to VMSVolcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) have also been considered as possible an-alogues for Minto and Carmacks Copper deposits by the author. VMS deposits in the northern Cordillera are generally Paleozoic in age and significantly pre-date the mineralization at Car-macks Copper. However, there are also sparse Mesozoic VMS deposits in the northern Cordillera including the Early Triassic Kutcho, Upper Triassic Granduc, Windy Craggy, and Greens Creek, and Middle Jurassic Eskay Creek deposits. There is also extensive evidence of that much of the Triassic magmatism in Stikinia occurred in a marine setting, supported by numerous marine fossil collections and the local presence of pillow basalts, making VMS deposition possible throughout 144Stikinia. Mafic (Cyprus-type) and mafic-siliciclastic (Besshi-type) VMS deposits tend to be rich in Cu and poor in Zn and Pb, and as such could produce a similar metal tenor to Minto and Carmacks Copper. For example, the Late Triassic Granduc deposit in the Late Triassic Stuhini Group (Höy, 1991) is a Cu-rich VMS (1.7 % Cu, 0.1 g/t Au, and 7 g/t Ag). However, Granduc is characterized by Fe-rich mineralogy (chalcopyrite-pyrite-pyrrhotite) and is associated with primitive, tholeiitic basalts (Childe et al., 1994), making it distinct from the Carmacks Copper deposit and its host. In evolved environments, felsic bimodal (Kuroko-type) and felsic siliciclastic (Bathurst-type) VMS deposits have calc-alkaline to peralkaline signature similarly to the host rocks of Car-macks Copper. However, these felsic-dominated deposit types contain high Pb contents, are gener-ally rich in Zn, and have widespread pyrite alteration (Galley et al., 2007). Although VMS cannot be wholly discounted as a precursor for the Carmacks Copper deposit, the lack of Pb and Zn in an otherwise calc-alkaline to shoshonitic sequence is not characteristic of VMS deposits. 3 9 2 3  Comparison to porphyry depositsThe Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits have been previously related to Cu-Au ± Ag porphyry mineralization that is well documented throughout Stikinia and Quesnellia terranes in British Columbia (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). Calc-alkalic and alkalic porphyry mineralization was emplaced from ca. 227 to 178 Ma (Bath et al., 2014), but was especially prolific between ca. 208 and 202 Ma (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). Despite similarities, calc-alkalic porphyry deposits differ significantly in some respects to alkalic porphyry systems. Some of the differences in their general characteristics include foot-print of alteration (large vs small, respectively), nature of associated intrusions (calc-alkaline vs alkaline), and metal tenors (Cu-Au ± Mo vs Cu-Au). More specifically, alkalic deposits are char-acterized by generally low pyrite content and weakly developed phyllic or argillic alteration. In the core of alkalic deposits, calcic and calc-potassic assemblages may also be present proximal to 145potassic alteration, which typically contains abundant biotite and high contents of magnetite. Hy-drothermal quartz is less prominent in contrast to calc-alkalic systems, and in silica-undersaturated deposits, can even be absent. In Cu-rich deposits, Au is commonly associated with bornite and may be present as discrete grains or tellurides. Some alkalic deposits may show elevated Te and PGE concentrations (Werle et al., 1984; Saunders and Tuach, 1991). Sulphur isotopes in sulphides are typically zoned with negative δ34S Sulphide values in the core and near zero values in the peripheries (Wilson et al., 2007; Micko, 2010; Pass, 2010). The ore mineral assemblages, metal tenors, and Cu/Au ratios of Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits resemble those of porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The sulphur isotopic composi-tion (δ34S Sulphide) for sulphides in both deposits are also within the range of porphyry deposits (δ34Ssulphide= 2 and -4‰) (Wilson et al., 2007; Rollinson, 2014). Hypogene mineralization is associated with the development of pervasive biotite alter-ation at Carmacks and with high contents of magnetite at Minto. The deposits have low pyrite content and lack any clay or phyllic alteration. Alteration is quartz absent, which may reflect the silica-undersatured nature of the mineralizing fluids, similarly to their parent magma, although silica-undersatured alkalic intrusions coeval with mineralization are not present in the area. These observations at Carmacks Copper and Minto suggest that an alkalic porphyry mineralization is a viable deposit model for these deposits, prior to their metamorphism and deformation.The calc-alkaline to shoshonitic nature of the host metamorphic rocks are not necessarily at odds with the preferred alkalic deposit model, as mineralization is commonly not restricted to the mineralizing pluton but rather can extend into the older host rocks (e.g., Copper Mountain, Schaft Creek). As such, any pre ca. 212.5 Ma Povoas Group lithologies are potential hosts of mineraliza-tion. The ca. 211.3 to 215 Ma age of the alkali mineralization is older than the especially prolific ca. 208 to 202 Ma porphyry mineralization episode in British Columbia (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014); however, the age of Carmacks Copper is similar to that of the alkalic Galore Creek deposit 146(ca. 210-208 Ma) in northern British Columbia (Lang et al., 1995). This suggests that alkalic por-phyry deposits may be more widespread in the northern Cordillera than previously thought. 3 9 2 4  Comparison to metamorphosed porphyry depositsWorldwide examples of metamorphosed porphyry deposits are rare; however, the Cha-pada Cu-Au porphyry deposit in Brazil is analogous because it is metamorphosed at high grade and is also a wall-rock hosted porphyry Cu-Au deposit (Richardson et al., 1986). The Chapada Cu-Au porphyry deposit (100 million metric tons of 0.44% Cu and 0.35 g/t Au) is hosted within lenses of foliated biotite schist, amphibolite, and muscovite schist of the Cambrian Mara Rosa Sequence. A foliated diorite is separated from the deposit by a mylonite zone that transitions into a porphyritic diorite (Richardson et al., 1986). Discontinuous lenses of the muscovite schist are considered hydrothermal altered equivalents of this diorite, which have intruded geochemically related wall rocks such as the porphyritic amphibolite. The biotite schist is locally porphyroblas-tic with quartzofeldspathic gneissic banding. The foliated amphibolite is locally characterized by plagioclase-phyric sections, suggesting a porphyritic igneous origin. These textural observations along with the geochemical signature of the amphibolite and biotite schist suggest that these rocks would have been shallow, subvolcanic calc-alkaline mafic dikes and andesites, respectively that formed in an arc setting (Richardson et al., 1986). The biotite schist hosts 80% of the ore that occurs as foliaform chalcopyrite, locally inter-grown with pyrite, magnetite, bornite, sphalerite, galena, and gold. Chalcopyrite is foliaform in the host rocks. K2O is enriched and CaO and Na2O are depleted in the host schist relative to the unaltered diorite. Geometric and geobarometric studies of garnet, kyanite, and ilmenite places deformation and metamorphism at Chapada at the high-pressure end of amphibolite facies with a peak temperature estimate of 650 ± 20oC. The δ34Ssulphide values for Chapada rocks cluster around 0 ‰ (0.0, -0.4, and 0.6), which suggests magmatically derived sulphur (Richardson et al., 1986). Although there might be a slight fractionation of sulphur isotopes between chalcopyrite and 147pyrite, at the temperature and metamorphism (640 ± 40°C) of the deposit, Chapada illustrates that these effects are negligible during high temperature metamorphism of deposits. This suggests that sulphur isotopes do not fractionate under high temperature metamorphic conditions and thus can be safely used to reflect source of environment for deposits such as Carmacks Copper and Minto. Other aspects of Chapada that have significant implications to Carmacks Copper are as follows:• Porphyry copper mineralization is not restricted to the mineralizing pluton and can extend into the wall rocks. • Amphibolite facies metamorphism does not alter the geochemical signature of potassic alteration in the host rocks as demonstrated by the enrichment of K2O in the biotite schist relative to the comagmatic, but unaltered diorite. This is particularly important in the case of Carmacks Copper, where the nature of pervasive biotite alteration has been always debated due to recrystallization of biotite grains. • Amphibolite facies metamorphism itself does not change the mineralogy and zonation of sulphides as they display a systematic zonation around Chapada. This is implacable to the metamorphic sequence that did not partial melt at Carmacks Copper as the min-eralogy and sulphide zonation within these rocks are probably preserved. • The local abundance of aluminous minerals such as kyanite and staurolite at Chapada has been suggested to reflect previous advanced argillic alteration. In the case of Car-macks Copper, there are no aluminous metamorphic minerals present, which could be the result of absence of any clay minerals prior to metamorphism. 1483 9 3  Metallogenic relationship to the Minto depositThe Carmacks Copper deposit lies 42 km southeast of the Minto deposit. Midway between the deposits is the Stu Cu-Au ± Ag occurrence, where disseminated chalcopyrite-bornite miner-alization is hosted within moderately dipping, northwest-trending foliated metamorphic rocks, surrounded by unmineralized phases of the Granite Mountain batholith (Sack et al., 2015). Recent studies suggested that mineralization at Stu is similar to that at the Carmacks Copper and Minto (Sack et al., 2015), and thus probably represents the continuation of Cu-Au mineralization be-tween Carmacks Copper and Minto. Undoubtedly, the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits are metallogenically related given their spatial relation and deformed, metamorphosed nature. What has always been challenging; however, is the integration of the two deposits into a single genetic model. The Minto deposit is hosted within strongly foliated biotite-rich granodiorite (Pearson and Clark, 1979; Tafti, 2005; Hood et al., 2008). The age of the mineralized host rocks has been defined as 200-198 Ma by zircon SHRIMP, U-Pb (Hood et al., 2008), and ID-TIMS U-Pb (Tafti, 2005); however, all analysis showed concordant ages between 223 to 207 Ma that have been regarded as inheritance and thus, omitted from the calculations. Hypogene mineralization at the Minto de-posit has been interpreted as Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (196.0 ± 0.8 to 201.8 ± 0.8 Ma) on the basis of 187Re/187Os dating of molybdenite (Hood et al., 2008) and occurs as bornite-chalcopyrite dominant disseminated and interstitial, net-textured copper sulphides (Pearson, 1977; Pearson and Clark, 1979). Similarly to Carmacks Copper, the deposit has low pyrite and molybdenite content and quartz veins are rare. Silver and gold are present as microscopic inclusions within bornite (Pearson, 1977; Pearson and Clark, 1979; Tafti, 2005). Potassic alteration, largely defined by sec-ondary biotite and magnetite, is the most common type of alteration and is thought to be associated with mineralization (Hood et al., 2008). Sulphur isotopes for the Minto deposit range between 0.65 ‰ to-3.2‰ (Tafti, 2005), representative of a magmatic source (Wilson et al., 2007). The Minto de-149posit, similar to Carmacks Copper, shows Cu/Ag and Cu/Ag ratios of 0.85 and 0.92, respectively (Pearson, 1977; Pearson and Clark, 1979).The similarities between the two deposits can be summarized as: (1) Hypogene copper mineralization is hosted within deformed and metamorphosed host rocks, (2) An early ductile de-formation event pre-dates the undeformed intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith, (3) Undeformed K-feldspar megacrystic granodiorite, quartz diorite, and diorite do not host hypogene copper mineralization, (4) Mineralization occurs as net-textured bornite-chalcopyrite in addition to foliaform chalcopyrite ± pyrite at Carmacks Copper, (5) The deposits are characterized by the lack of quartz veins, and low molybdenite and pyrite content, (6) Potassic alteration, largely de-fined by secondary biotite ± magnetite is the most common alteration-type and interpreted to be ore stage, and (7) The age of mineralization, although slightly older (212.5 ± 1.2 Ma) at Carmacks Copper than Minto (201. 8 ± 0.8 Ma) (Hood et al., 2008) is interpreted to be Late Triassic for both deposits, as 187Re/187Os molybdenite geochronology also shows two distinct age populations and grain types at Minto. The slightly younger ages observed at Minto are explained by the mixing of grain types and the limited data available. The geological similarities between the two deposits are striking, but the key to their genetic relationship is actually one of the main difference between two deposits: their host rocks. Whereas at Carmacks Copper, the amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist host majority of hypogene mineralization, at Minto these host rocks are rarely recognized. Although at Minto, there has been a wide range of lithological nomenclature assigned to the host rocks, they all broadly incorporate the same observations described as moderately to strongly foliated, locally gneissic, biotite-rich granodioritic host rock that has distinct, heterogeneous, chaotic texture with common felsic ptygmatic folds (Pearson, 1977; Pearson and Clark, 1979; Tafti, 2005; Hood et al., 2008). 150Herein, we propose that migmatization is the key linking the two deposits and that Minto is a more completely migmatized analogue of Carmacks Copper. These interpretations not only provide the genetic relationship between the two deposits, but also explains many textural features of Minto host rocks and the absence of quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist that would have been completely migmatized. The hypothesis that Minto also represents a mineralized Late Triassic protolith that was subsequently migmatized requires that the 199 and 197 Ma zircon ages obtained for mineralized foliated rocks at Minto represent the age of partial melting and not the crystal-lization age of the protolith. Rather, the abundance of observed 231 to 210 Ma age zircon cores (Tafti, 2005; Hood et al., 2008) more likely reflect the age of metamorphic host rocks and the age of mineralization at both deposits. The Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits and Stu occurrence together represent a Late Triassic belt of Cu-Au-Ag porphyry systems that have been overprinted by amphibolite facies metamorphism and deformation and subsequently partially melted via emplacement of the GMB. The Carmacks Copper deposit locally preserves metamorphic rocks with little to no partial melt-ing, whereas Minto is the completely migmatized remnant of a porphyry Cu-Au-Ag system. The locations of the two deposits have always been informally known as the Carmacks Copper Belt. The authors propose that given the significance of this extensive, underexplored region, the belt now should be formally referred to as Minto Copper Belt. 1513 10  Conclusions and exploration implicationsThe Carmacks Copper is a Late Triassic Cu-Au-Ag porphyry deposit that is hosted with-in an interlayered amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist sequence of the Povoas For-mation of the Lewes River Group, Stikinia (Figure 3.22A). Disseminated chalcopyrite ± pyrite dominant mineralization was modified by a regional, ductile deformation and associated amphi-bolite facies metamorphism in the Late Triassic that resulted in the formation of north-northwest trending, regional fabric and foliaform copper sulphides (Figure 3.22B-C). Deep tectonic burial (15-20 km) due to crustal thickening, and syn-tectonic emplacement of the Granite Mountain ba-tholith resulted in deformation and partial melting of previously mineralized host rocks to form coexisting silicate and sulphide melt phases (Figure 3.22D-H). Copper sulphides reprecipitated in diatexite migmatite as net-textured domains below the solidus temperature of the silicate melt. The Minto deposit represents a more extensively migmatized version of the Carmacks Copper deposit, in which metamorphic host rocks are nearly completely digested. Profound Early Jurassic exhumation of the region exposed the deposits to near surface and caused the extensive oxidation of the area, locally extending 250 m below the surface at the Carmacks Copper deposit (Figure 3.22I-L). This oxidation event is now well-constrained to have occurred sometime between the earliest Middle Jurassic as (U-Th)/He analysis yields a range from 168.3 ± 4.5 to 160.3 ± 4.3 Ma corresponding to crustal depth of 5 kilometres (assuming a geothermal gradient of 20-30 oC/km); and the Late Cretaceous, which marks the deposition of the Carmacks Group that unconformably overlie the oxidized metamorphic and intrusive rocks (Figure 3.22K). This study has several broader implications germane to the Minto Copper Belt and the exploration potential for Mesozoic porphyry systems in the Yukon. The common metallogeny of the two deposits suggests a belt of Cu-Au-Ag mineralization spanning at least 42 km between the deposits. The Stu occurrence is midway between the two deposits and shows many similarities to the Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits in addition to the several other underexplored Cu-Au occurrences that are known within the belt. This study demonstrates that although much of the 152Carmacks Copper type mineralization is probably digested by the mid-crustal plutons of the GMB, there is a great potential for deposits like Minto in between the two deposits. Perhaps the greatest hindrance to implementation of an exploration program targeted at metamorphosed deposits such as Carmacks Copper and Minto is the misidentification of host rocks. The migmatitic character of the ores obscure the textural (and potentially geochemical) characteristics of the protolith, leading to the erroneous interpretation that mineralization is ge-netically related to the GMB. Thus, exploration may have mistakenly focused on Early Jurassic plutonic rocks as opposed to Late Triassic volcanic rocks and coeval intrusions. However, as this study shows interlayered metamorphic lenses (amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist) within the intrusive rocks of the belt and other Late Triassic volcanic sequence and associated subvolcanic intrusions outside of the belt are better exploration targets. Potential areas with Late Triassic volcanic rocks such as the Povoas Formation that forms an extensive belt are likely to be structurally less attenuated and digested by mid-crustal plutons. Mineralization within these rocks are predicted to be dominated by disseminated chalcopyrite-pyrite, and although this probably means lower grades, there is greater continuity tonnage potential due to the absence of structural complexity and anatexis.153mid Norian~212 Ma Late NorianLate Rhaetian Late Hettangian~199 MaLate Triassic-NorianFigure 3 22  Schematic representation of the Carmacks Copper deposit genesis. See description on next page.EADB C154Sinemurian~195 Ma Sinemurian~194 MaSinemurianFigure 3 22  cont  Schematic representation of the Carmacks Copper deposit genesis. See de-scription on next page.F GH155Sinemurian and pre Late CretaceousFigure 3 22  cont  Schematic representation of the Carmacks Copper deposit genesis. See de-scription on next page.IJ156Late Cretaceous-PresentFigure 3 22  Schematic representation of the Carmacks Copper deposit genesis. (A) Tectonic en-vironment of the Carmacks Copper deposit in the Late Triassic Lewes River arc; (B) Undeformed subvolcanic mafic intrusions and associated volcanic rocks become mineralized in the Late Trias-sic prior to metamorphism and deformation; (C) Regional ductile deformation and associated up-per amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Late Norian modify these lithologies to amphibolite and quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and deforms copper sulphides to foliaform stringers; (D) The oldest phase of the Granite Mountain batholith intrudes in the Late Hettangian; (E) The intrusion of the Granite Mountain batholith causes partial melting in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist and remobilization of existing copper sulphides. Migmatite and associated net-textured copper sulphides form; (F-G) Magmatism continues until the Sinemurian; (H) Subsequent ductile de-formation event post-dates the intrusion of the latest phase of the GMB; (I-J) The deposit is near surface by Middle Jurassic that leads to the development of extensive of oxide cover; (K) The Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group is deposited on the top of the oxide cover.K157Chapter 4: Conclusions, Exploration Implications, and Recommended Future Work4 1  ConclusionsThe Granite Mountain batholith contains elongate, northwest trending, and variably de-formed metamorphic inliers that host the Carmacks Copper Cu-Au-Ag deposit. Previous mod-els interpreted the deposit as mineralized volcanic roof pendants (Abbott, 1971; Archer, 1971), metamorphosed stratiform red-bed copper (Kirkham, 1974), deformed and metamorphosed hy-drothermal ore deposit (Pearson and Clark, 1979), and ‘arrested porphyry’(Tafti and Mortensen, 2003; Tafti, 2005) deposit; however, there was no broad agreement on the nature of the mineral-ization, origin of the host rocks and the relationship to the Granite Mountain batholith. Detailed investigation of the metamorphic host reveals that the deposit comprises interlayered quartz-pla-gioclase-biotite schist, amphibolite, and hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite of calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite geochemical affinities. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of zircon in the quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist indicates a 210.1 ± 5.3 Ma crystallization age. The age, li-thology, and geochemical characteristics are consistent with derivation from metamorphosed vol-canic rocks of the Povoas Formation, Lewes River Group, which forms part of the early Mesozoic Stikine-Lewes River arc (Figure 4.1A). Mineralization is hosted by metamorphic rocks and is con-strained to be older than 212.5 ± 1.0 Ma (187Re/187Os molybdenite; Chapter 3). The ore mineralogy and Cu/Au ratios of the Carmacks Copper deposit is consistent with an alkalic Cu-Au porphyry (McMillan et al., 1995). Widespread and pervasive biotite in the metamorphic rocks at Carmacks Copper is interpreted to represent ore-stage potassic alteration.Metamorphic rocks were deformed prior to and synchronous with the intrusion of the Gran-ite Mountain. The oldest phase of deformation (D1) is manifested by the development of northwest trending, steeply dipping, penetrative foliation and associated amphibolite facies metamorphism. The maximum age of deformation (D1) is constrained by deformed molybdenite (>212.5± 1.0 Ma, 158187Re/187Os; Chapter 3) and crystallization age of quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist protolith (210.1 ± 5.3 Ma, U-Pb zircon; Chapter 2) (Figure 4.1B). The Granite Mountain batholith intrudes and cross-cuts foliated metamorphic host rocks, and thus post-dates mineralization (Figure 4.1C). The oldest Granite Mountain batholith intrusive phase yielded ca. 198 Ma crystallization age (U-Pb zircon: Tafti and Mortensen, 2003). This age also constrains the minimum age of D1 deformation. Although most phases of the Granite Moun-tain batholith are undeformed (195.14 ± 0.25 Ma, 195.1 ± 0.1 Ma, U-Pb zircon by CA-ID-TIMS; Chapter 2), dikes of the youngest intrusive phase (194.34 ± 0.16 Ma, U-Pb zircon by CA-ID-TIMS; Chapter 2) are folded and boudinaged by a second ductile deformation event (D2). Ongoing deformation during late magmatic episodes indicates that the emplacement of the Granite Moun-tain batholith was in part syn-tectonic (Figure 4.1B, C).Emplacement of the Granite Mountain batholith (868°C, Ti-in-zircon thermometry: Chap-ter 3) caused partial melting in the metamorphic rocks. Melt from the intrusion was injected into partially molten quartz-plagioclase-biotite schist, which facilitated the formation of diatexite migmatite. The diatexite migmatite yields a 197.41 ± 0.17 Ma crystallization age (U-Pb zircon by CA-ID-TIMS; Chapter 2), that is coeval with emplacement of the Granite Mountain batholith. Metamorphism resulted in remobilization of sulphide minerals and formation of Cu-rich sulphide melt, which was immiscible with the coexisting silicate melt. Evidence of sulphide melt is best preserved in the net-textured bornite-chalcopyrite domains, which mantle silicate grains in the migmatite. Crystallization of sulphide melt occurred by 198.6 ± 0.9 Ma (187Re/187Os molybdenite; Chapter 3), as indicated by dates from samples dominated by euhedral (reprecipitated) molyb-denite intergrown with net-textured copper sulphides.The age dates of re-precipitated molybdenite at the Carmacks Copper deposit are within error of those from the Minto deposit. The Minto deposit is also characterized by net-textured cop-per sulphides hosted within migmatitic rocks; however, it is a more completely migmatized and digested within the GMB. This is in part indicated by a ca. 196 to 201 Ma 187Re/187Os molybdenite 159ages (Hood et al., 2008), which are dominated by recrystallized, euhedral molybdenite. Similar to Carmacks Copper, the Minto deposit ore mineralogy and Cu/Au ratio resemble alkalic Cu-Au porphyry deposits (McMillan et al., 1995). These observations suggests that the Minto Copper Belt is a Late Triassic Cu-Au porphyry district that was extensively intruded and modified by the Early Jurassic Granite Mountain batholith. The Minto Copper Belt is thus the northern continuation of Late Triassic Cu-Au porphyry mineralization that is widespread in the Stikine terrane of British Columbia.The generation of porphyry Cu-Au deposits in British Columbia and Yukon coincides with a major change in tectonic regime. This change is characterized by a transition from calc-alkaline to silica-undersaturated alkaline magmatism at ca. 215-210 Ma (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014) followed by a regionally extensive, albeit commonly cryptic, Late Triassic deformation and un-conformity in Stikinia and Quesnellia (Logan and Mihalynuk, 2014). The Carmacks Copper de-posit preserves metamorphic rocks derived from the calc-alkaline Povoas Formation (210.1 ± 5.3 Ma, U-Pb zircon; Chapter 2), Cu-Au porphyry-style mineralization (>212.5 ± 1.0 Ma, 187Re/187Os; Chapter 3), and Late Triassic deformation (>ca. 198 and <212.5 Ma). Adjacent to the Carmacks Copper area, the Yukon-Tanana terrane records similar Late Triassic to Early Jurassic mid-crustal deformation, burial, and exhumation (Mortensen, 1992; Du-sel-Bacon et al., 2002; Berman et al., 2007; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011; Clark, 2017), which shows that two terranes were amalgamated by the Late Triassic (Figure 4.1B, C). Tectonic thick-ening as a result of amalgamation is the likely cause of the burial of Carmacks and Minto porphyry deposits to >15 km depth, followed by emplacement of the voluminous Jurassic plutonic suites (Figure 4.1B, C). Following burial in the latest Triassic to earliest Jurassic, the Carmacks Copper area was exhumed later in the Early Jurassic. Exhumation is indicated by 182.10 ± 2.1 and 186.04 ± 1.4 Ma white mica and biotite cooling ages from the Minto suite of the Granite Mountain batholith (Tafti and Mortensen, 2003; Joyce, 2016). Regional data also show exhumation of YTT to upper crustal 160levels by the Early Jurassic, with a peak in mica 40 Ar/39 Ar and K-Ar cooling ages at ca. 190 Ma (Bennett et al., 2010; Allan et al., 2013). By Middle Jurassic time, the Carmacks Copper deposit was exhumed to ~5 km depth (assuming a geothermal gradient of 20-30 oC/km), as indicated by zircon (U-Th)/He dates ranging from 168.3 ± 4.5 Ma to 160.3 ± 4.3 Ma. The extensive copper ox-ide zone at Carmacks Copper deposit was likely developed prior to the deposition of the volcanic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Carmacks Group that unconformably overlie the deposit (Grond et al., 1984; Lowey et al., 1986).The evolution of the Carmacks Copper deposit thus can be described as:(1) a Cu-Au porphyry system (212.5 ± 1.0 Ma) that was emplaced into calc-alkaline volcanic and hypabyssal rocks of the Lewes River Group (Figure 4.1A); (2) the deposit and host rocks were tectonically buried, deformed, and metamorphosed (~213-198 Ma; Figure 4.1B); and then (3) intruded by mid-crustal magmas that induced partial silicate melting and remobilization of min-eralization via a sulphide melt phase (198.6 ± 0.9 Ma; Figure 4.1C); followed by (4) exhumation of the deposit to the upper crust; and then subsequent (5) unroofing and exposure to the surface, which led to partial oxidization (168.3 ± 4.5 Ma to 160.3 ± 4.3 Ma); (6) the deposit was covered by the volcanic rocks of the Carmacks Group (~70 Ma), which (7) were eroded leading to exposure of the deposit at the surface and causing additional oxidation.161Lewes River ArcYukon-Tanana ?Yukon-TananaEWLate TriassicFuture Carmacks Copper and Minto5 km10 kmCache Creek/Slide Mountain OceanStikiniaFigure 4.1. (A-B) Tectonic evolution of Stikinia in the Carmacks Copper area. See explanation on the next page.Lewes River ArcYukon-TananaEWAncestral North AmericaDuctile deformation and amphibolite facies metamorphismStikiniaLate Triassic-Early JurassicFuture Carmacks Copper and Minto10 km15 kmAB162extension exhumes YTT and Carmacks Copper-MintoEW15 km20 kmEarly JurassicYukon-TananaFuture Carmacks Copper and Minto10 kmYukon-TananaSlab break-o, delamination StikiniaGMBCFigure 4 1  Tectonic evolution of Stikinia in the Carmacks Copper area. (A) Late Triassic tectonic setting of the Carmacks Copper area. The Lewes River arc lies west from the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Mineralized volcanic roots of the Lewes River arc are representative of the augite gabbro of the Carmacks Copper deposit; (B) In the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, Stikinia amalgamates to the western margin of Yukon-Tanana. This amalgamation causes ductile deformation and amphibolite facies metamorphism in both terranes. As a result of crustal thickening, rocks of Stikinia is imbricated, folded, and buried to greater than 15 km of depths; (C) Extension exhumes Yu-kon-Tanana and the Carmacks Copper area. All thrust boundaries are re-activitated during extension. Slab break-off, delimination drives magmatism. The Granite Mountain batholith intrudes the contact between Stikinia and Yukon-Tanana in the Early Jurassic. Syn-tectonic emplacement of the batholith causes partial melting in the metamorphic host rocks and remobilization of copper sulphides.1634 2  Exploration implications The Carmacks Copper and Minto deposits were recognized as geologically unique targets since their discoveries in the 1970s. Due to the complex post-ore modification processes, the un-derstanding of their genesis was not well established. This study demonstrates that the Carmacks Copper deposit represents a highly modified Late Triassic mineralized system, and thus the explo-ration recommendations based on the project outcomes are as follows:• Hypogene Cu-Au-Ag mineralization formed within Late Triassic rocks of the Povoas Formation and consanguineous intrusions, rather than within Early Jurassic intrusive rocks. Therefore, Late Triassic and older volcanic and plutonic rocks in Yukon form the primary exploration targets. These rocks should be investigated for Cu-Au mineral-ization as they are less structurally dismembered or digested by Early Jurassic plutons.• The metamorphic host rocks of the Carmacks Copper deposit define a northwest trend. It has become apparent that the Minto deposit, located 42 km northwest, represents a more migmatized analogue to Carmacks Copper. Since porphyry deposits are known to occur in small clusters, the Minto Copper Gold Belt is highly prospective for other undiscovered deposits like Carmacks Copper and Minto.• Post-ore faulting is responsible for the apparent dislocation of ore bodies at both Minto and Carmacks Copper. Consequently, finding and following major structures and their kinematics near the deposits may lead to the discovery of additional ore zones.• The area has experienced extensive oxidation leading to formation of supergene cop-per oxides. Presence of copper oxides in otherwise barren GMB may indicate proxim-ity to mineralized metamorphic inliers or to remobilized sulphide ore.1644 3  Recommended future work Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate the importance of the interplay of local magmatism, deformation, and metamorphism, and the capability of these processes to modify ore deposits. Explanations to questions revolving around the genesis of hypogene mineralization at the Carmacks Copper deposit and its genetic relationship to the Minto deposit have been presented in this thesis. However, another important geological aspect of the Carmacks Copper deposit that this thesis did not address is the deep level of oxidation that locally reaches depths of 250 m below the surface. The Carmacks Copper area is situated at the western limits of the Pleistocene McConnell Glaciation (Smith et al., 1986). The area also underwent deep Tertiary weathering, which contrib-uted to the formation and preservation of oxide and supergene enrichment in the region along with the Pleistocene paleoclimatic conditions. There are several other mineral occurrences in the Daw-son Range that are also deeply weathered with a thick oxidized cap including the large tonnage Casino Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit and the Coffee Au deposit (Wainwright et al., 2010). Despite the potential economic importance of this area, the age and history of oxidation is largely unknown and the knowledge of surficial conditions that may have led to this extensive oxidation is limited. Oxidized mineralization has been drilled below the Carmacks Group, suggesting pre-Cre-taceous oxidation in the Carmacks Copper area. Therefore, the oxidation event appears to be rela-tively old and the present land surface is similarly ancient. Paleomagnetic evidence from the Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the Carmacks Group suggests that they were deposited at much low-er paleolatitudes, potentially under very different paleoclimatic conditions that were perhaps more conducive to facilitate reactions for deep levels of oxidation. Results from this work first indicated that the Carmacks Group was displaced northwards by 17.2° ± 6.5° translating to 1900 ± 700 km south of its present position relative to cratonic North America since the Late Cretaceous (Enge-bretson, 1985; Marquis and Globerman, 1988; Johnston et al., 1996). This evidence has been used for the commonly posited hypothesis that the Yukon-Tanana terrane was part of the far-travelled ‘Baja BC’ terrane from 70 to 50 Ma.165In contrast, reconstruction of the Tintina fault and paleomagnetic evidence from other units of the Intermontane Belt support a northward displacement of <1000 km since ~70 Ma (Symons et al., 2003; McCausland et al., 2005). Paleopoles of the Prospector Mountain and Mount Lorne stocks yield a combined northward translation estimate of 330 ± 400 km since ~71 Ma (Symons et al., 2016), which is consistent with the 415 ± 15 geological estimate of Gabrielse et al. (2006). These results suggest that the Yukon-Tanana and Stikine terranes were not part of the Baja BC’s posited translation trek (Symons et al., 2016) and that different paleoclimatic conditions from extreme latitudinal transport could not be responsible for the development of extensive oxidation.Better understanding of the timing and nature of oxidation will improve the implications for regional tectonics and provide further information about the environment that led to the devel-opment of this extensive oxidation in the area. The following studies would significantly improve the current understanding of oxidation in the Carmacks Copper area:1  Supergene and oxide mineralization is poorly constrained at Carmacks Copper deposit. Additional mapping and core logging of oxide mineralization are needed to constrain the primary controlling factors of oxidation. Construction of detailed downhole pro-jection on the distribution of oxides below surface would be useful for the improved definition and geometry of oxidation.2   The present oxide mineral assemblages have not been properly identified; therefore, the detailed petrology, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micros-copy, and electron microprobe analysis of these oxide minerals would be useful for mineral identification.3  The age of the oxidation is poorly constrained and there may have been oxidation prior to or following eruption of the Carmacks Group. Jarosite has been identified within the deposit and can be used to constrain the timing of oxidation. Jarosite has a 40Ar/39Ar closure temperature of jarosite is 143 ± 28°C based on the cooling rate of 100°C per 166million years (Kula and Baldwin, 2011). 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The application of a Th-Hf-Ta diagram to problems of tectonomagmatic clas-sification and to establishing the nature of crustal contamination of basaltic lavas of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Earth and planetary science letters, 50(1): 11-30.183Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for mineral identification and for imaging the internal structure of zircon grains. Prior to analysis, minerals of interest were identified on a petrographic microscope. Samples were carbon coated using the Edwards Auto306 Carbon Evapo-ration System to eliminate electrical charging and to minimize thermal damage. The SEM analyses were completed on a Philips XL30 electron microscope at the University of British Columbia. Minerals were identified by back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging using a Bruker Quantax 200 energy-dispersion X-ray microanalysis system and XFlash 6010 SDD detector at a voltage of 15kV and a 5 μm beam width. The ESPIRIT software was used for spectral investigations. Mount-ed zircon grains were imaged for internal structure using a Robinson cathodoluminescence (CL) detector attached to a Philips XL30 electron microscope. AppendiciesAppendix A Scanning Electron Microscopy184ABFigure A A 1  SEM spectra of elements. (A) K-feldspar rim around plagioclase in migmatite;(B) Native gold grain in partial melted amphibolite. 185CDFigure A A 1  SEM spectra of elements. (C) Gold-silver telluride inclusion in amphibolite; (D) Augite grain in augite gabbro. 186Appendix B Structural measurementTrench Name Trench NameTrench Coordinates Trench Coordinates412013 6913495 412037 6913439 411998 6913683 411931 6913669Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike DipFoliation 357 70 335 62 Foliation 355 65 320 75Foliation 26 20 345 45 Foliation 31 79 321 73Foliation 295 34 345 40 Foliation 285 60 321 81Foliation 330 75 345 55 Foliation 285 62 321 68Fold axes 190 66 0 30 Foliation 288 62 321 74Trench Name Foliation 290 90 321 71Trench Coordinates Foliation 290 90 322 70412064 6913455 412045 6913444 Foliation 292 70 322 74Strike Dip Strike Dip Foliation 294 50 323 63Foliation 135 68 190 79 Foliation 294 50 325 86Foliation 150 60 190 71 Foliation 294 69 325 65Foliation 155 90 305 79 Foliation 295 65 325 65Foliation 160 77 340 60 Foliation 295 75 325 75Foliation 165 80 340 81 Foliation 300 71 325 50Foliation 175 66 345 89 Foliation 300 87 325 66Foliation 175 90 350 73 Foliation 300 75 325 85Fold axes 274 15 286 40 Foliation 300 75 325 50Fold axes 275 48 Foliation 300 68 325 75Sickenlines 315 16 316 55 Foliation 300 76 325 80Trench Name Foliation 300 75 325 86Trench Coordinates Foliation 302 84 325 55412061 6913441 411991 6913416 Foliation 302 87 325 84Strike Dip Strike Dip Foliation 303 83 325 85Foliation 359 79 325 74 Foliation 303 90 326 80Foliation 165 75 325 85 Foliation 303 81 326 70Foliation 300 75 325 85 Foliation 304 79 328 50Foliation 310 85 325 75 Foliation 304 87 328 89Foliation 318 81 325 84 Foliation 305 85 329 79Foliation 320 79 327 79 Foliation 305 79 329 83Foliation 320 85 330 89 Foliation 305 62 329 64EndDiscovery N-S trenchDiscovery Side trenchStart EndTR91-20Start EndEndStartDiscovery trenchStartTable A B 1  Structural measurements187Trench Name Trench NameTrench Coordinates Trench Coordinates412061 6913441 411991 6913416 411998 6913683 411931 6913669Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike DipFoliation 335 87 342 77 Foliation 305 85 330 50Foliation 335 85 342 71 Foliation 305 58 330 60Foliation 335 86 344 64 Foliation 305 86 330 72Foliation 335 84 345 70 Foliation 305 85 330 75Foliation 335 87 345 74 Foliation 305 84 330 70Foliation 335 84 349 86 Foliation 305 84 330 86Foliation 336 71 350 87 Foliation 305 85 330 89Foliation 338 86 350 75 Foliation 305 78 330 90Foliation 339 72 340 84 Foliation 305 88 330 75Foliation 339 82 340 84 Foliation 305 85 330 82Foliation 339 90 340 83 Foliation 305 85 331 70Foliation 340 76 340 78 Foliation 305 60 331 87Foliation 320 77 330 90 Foliation 305 87 331 88Foliation 320 89 330 85 Foliation 307 76 331 86Foliation 321 76 331 82 Foliation 307 67 332 81Foliation 322 74 334 81 Foliation 309 75 332 75Trench Name Foliation 309 85 332 70Trench Coordinates Foliation 310 78 332 82412061 6913441 411991 6913416 Foliation 310 74 334 61Strike Dip Strike Dip Foliation 310 80 335 72Foliation 5 90 325 80 Foliation 310 85 335 37Foliation 305 86 325 73 Foliation 310 62 335 61Foliation 305 88 325 80 Foliation 310 62 335 57Foliation 310 82 327 84 Foliation 310 52 335 72Foliation 315 84 330 72 Foliation 310 80 335 82Foliation 315 87 330 75 Foliation 310 88 335 83Foliation 320 75 332 82 Foliation 310 65 335 76Foliation 320 70 335 82 Foliation 310 78 335 85Foliation 320 65 335 80 Foliation 310 83 335 62Foliation 320 82 335 82 Foliation 310 65 336 72Discovery trench 2Start EndDiscovery trenchStart End EndTR91-20StartTable A B 1  Structural measurements188Trench Name Trench NameTrench Coordinates Trench Coordinates412061 6913441 411991 6913416 411998 6913683 411931 6913669Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike DipFoliation 322 80 320 80 Foliation 312 76 343 84Foliation 322 62 Foliation 314 72 345 73Fold axes 165 25 325 5 Foliation 314 66 345 80Fold axes 320 5 Foliation 315 84 345 82Trench Name Foliation 315 84 319 69Trench Coordinates Foliation 315 55 320 72412061 6913441 411991 6913416 Foliation 315 64 320 85Strike Dip Strike Dip Foliation 315 55 320 85Foliation 130 90 330 88 Foliation 315 82 320 70Foliation 150 80 345 78 Foliation 315 82 320 69Foliation 315 85 350 80 Foliation 315 84 320 75Foliation 320 86 350 80 Foliation 315 72 320 82Foliation 325 83 325 75 Foliation 315 76 320 55Foliation 325 86 340 65 Foliation 315 80 320 75Foliation 328 89 342 85 Foliation 316 66 320 58Fold axes 320 20 357 71 Foliation 317 71 320 89Fold axes 335 45 332 76 Foliation 317 79 320 54Fold axes 340 35 355 59 Foliation 319 62 320 75Fold axes 330 5 324 74 Foliation 311 65 338 85Fold axes 341 5 330 5 Foliation 312 84 340 81Trench Name Foliation 312 57 342 74Trench Coordinates Foliation 312 69 342 88411776 6913920 411729 6913882 Fold axes 317 10 225 50Strike Dip Strike Dip Fold axes 310 30 305 73Foliation 340 75 139 75 Fold axes 320 15 315 70Trench Name Trench NameTrench Coordinates Trench Coordinates411908 6913854 411842 6913818 413066 6911965 413020 6911969Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike Dip Strike DipFoliation 320 76 330 48 Fault 240 20 237 81Discovery trench E-sideTR91-03 TR15-46Start EndStart EndStart EndDiscovery trench 2Start EndTR15-05Start EndTR91-20EndStartTable A B 1  Structural measurements189Trench Coordinates Trench Name412030 6913191 412072 6913214 Trench CoordinatesStrike Dip Strike Dip 412017 6913562 411955 6913554Foliation 325 90 344 81 Strike Dip Strike DipFoliation 326 85 359 70 Foliation 310 81 335 84Foliation 340 89 Foliation 334 71 350 71Trench Name Foliation 335 70 351 86Trench Coordinates Trench Name413215 6911777 413135 6911767 Trench CoordinatesStrike Dip Strike Dip 411797 6913888 411823 6913904Foliation 2 58 335 70 Strike Dip Strike DipFoliation 10 65 10 70 Foliation 300 79 354 51Foliation 345 63 297 72 Foliation 307 70Foliation 345 70 Trench NameTrench Name Trench CoordinatesTrench Coordinates 411874 6913879 411830 6913852411838 6913920 411793 6913897 Strike Dip Strike DipStrike Dip Strike Dip Fold axes 60 80 295 89Foliation 298 70 311 66 Fold axes 280 72 295 70Foliation 298 70 312 71 Foliation 355 81 320 85Foliation 298 69 315 72 Foliation 295 69 322 73Foliation 299 74 315 78 Foliation 295 76 322 75Foliation 300 70 320 79 Foliation 295 80 322 85Foliation 301 74 326 86 Foliation 300 85 325 80Foliation 309 65 330 79 Foliation 305 74 325 87Foliation 310 76 341 89 Foliation 307 65 330 79Foliation 310 79 Foliation 311 73 330 80Foliation 311 75 332 62Foliation 313 80 335 72Foliation 315 81 335 75Foliation 320 82 335 80Foliation 320 75 320 75Foliation 320 77Start EndStartStart EndEndStartTR91-02TR91-22EndStart EndTR15-09TR15-43TR15-19EndStartTable A B 1  Structural measurements190Appendix C Sample locationTable A C 1  Locations for rock and drill-core samples used in this thesisField ID Sample type Location Easting_NAD83UTMZ8Northing_NAD83UTMZ8 Rock-typeCN15-001-35.10m Drill core Zone 2000S 412260 6912907 AmphiboliteCN15-002-84.30m Drill core Zone 2000S 412300 6912926 AmphiboliteCN15-004-78.50m Drill core Zone 2000S 412282 6912956 AmphiboliteCN15-005-80.30m Drill core Zone 2000S 412296 6912963 AmphiboliteCN15-008-36.58m Drill core Zone 2000S 412230 6912959 AmphiboliteCN15-029-43.50m Drill core Zone 13 413157 6911996 AmphiboliteWC-025-304.84m Drill core Zone 1 411939 6913767 AmphiboliteWC-025-247.70m Drill core Zone 1 411939 6913767 AmphiboliteWC-025-317.90m Drill core Zone 1 411939 6913767 AmphiboliteWC-025-351.15m Drill core Zone 1 411939 6913767 MigmatiteNK15-DS-002 Rock sample Discovery outcrop Trench III 412040 6913444 Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B)NK15-DS-005 Rock sample Discovery outcrop Trench III 412040 6913444 Diorite (LTrEJM1)WC-002-117.00m Drill core Zone 1 411819 6913845 Diorite (LTrEJM1)WC-005-279.00m Drill core Zone 1 412034 6913941  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1)WC-008-26.50m Drill core Zone 1 411993 6913923 Diorite (LTrEJM1)WC-008-36.58m Drill core Zone 1 411993 6913923Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)WC-019-155.00m Drill core Zone 1 412080 6913796 Diorite (LTrEJM1)CN15-026-34.50m Drill core Zone 13 413121 6911986 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteNK15-068-Z12 Rock sample Zone 12 TR15-44 413095 6911863 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteNK15-087-Z1 Rock sample Zone 1 411037 6914949 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteCN15-032-57.91m Drill core Zone 13 413036 6912234 Qz-pl-bt schistNK15-028-Z2 Rock sample Zone 2 411600 6917576 HornblenditeNK15-037-Z2 Rock sample Zone 2 411600 6917576 Leucocratic gabbroNK15-051-Z5 Rock sample Zone 5 411073 6914319 Leucocratic gabbroNK15-008-Z2 Rock sample Zone 2 410840 6916690 MigmatiteWC-002-156.33m Drill core Zone 1 411819 6913845 Migmatite191Table A C 1  Locations for rock and drill-core samples used in this thesisField ID Sample type Location Easting_NAD83UTMZ8Northing_NAD83UTMZ8 Rock-typeWC-005-229.00m Drill core Zone 1 412034 6913941 MigmatiteWC-008-168.00m Drill core Zone 1 411993 6913923 MigmatiteWC-025-69.00m Drill core Zone 1 411939 6913767 MigmatiteNK15-014-Z5 Rock sample Zone 5 TR15-23 411473 6913860 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteNK15-080-Z2 Rock sample Zone 2 410783 6916711 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteNK15-083-Z13 Rock sample Zone 13 TR15-44 413045 6911865 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteNK15-DS-004 Rock sample Discovery outcrop Trench III 412040 6913444 Qz-pl-bt schistNK15-DS-008 Rock sample Discovery outcrop Trench III 412040 6913444 Qz-pl-bt schistTR91-20-009 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Qz-pl-bt schistNK15-045-Z5 Rock sample Zone 5 TR15-23 411462 6913850Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)TR91-20-001 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Diorite (LTrEJM1)TR91-20-005 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM3)TR91-20-006 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Pegmatite LTrEJM3TR91-20-012 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B)CN15-034-28.90m Drill core Zone 13 413021 6912194 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteNK15-STU-001 Rock sample Stu property 405980 6919956 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B)NK15-STU-002 Rock sample Stu property 405980 6919956 Diorite (LTrEJM1)NK15-STU-004 Rock sample Stu property 405980 6919956Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)NK15-085-Z13 Rock sample Zone 13 TR15-44 412651 6912609Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)NK15-074-Z12 Rock sample Zone 12 TR15-49 413205 6911720 Diorite (LTrEJM2B)NK15-079-Z2 Rock sample Zone 2 410862 6916691 Diorite (LTrEJM1)NK15-050-Z5 Rock sample Zone 5 TR91-10 412109 6913263 Diorite (LTrEJM1)TR91-20-013 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Diorite (LTrEJM1)NK15-026-Z4 Rock sample Zone 4 412109 6913263 Diorite (LTrEJM1)192Field ID Sample type Location Easting_NAD83UTMZ8Northing_NAD83UTMZ8 Rock-typeNK15-100 Rock sample Unknown 416300 6917208 Augite gabbroNK15-102 Rock sample Zone 15 412166 6913870 TuffNK15-103 Rock sample Zone 15 412166 6913870 Augite gabbroTR91-20-007 Rock sample Trench TR91 411978 6913686 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B)CN15-023-47.00m Drill core Zone 13 413086 6911894 Augite gabbroCN15-023-30.50m Drill core Zone 13 413086 6911894 Augite gabbro NK15-031-Z2 Drill core Zone 2 411600 6917576 VolcaniclasticCN15-033-71.63m Drill core Zone 13 413054 6912206 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphiboliteCN15-031-48.30m Drill core Zone 13 412,976 6,912,203Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)WC-002-148.00m Drill core Zone 1 411819 6913845 MigmatiteWC-008-174.31m Drill core Zone 1 411993 6913923 MigmatiteWC-025-459.00m Drill core Zone 1 411939 6913767 MigmatiteNK15-059-Z1 Rock sample Zone 1 412040 6913444 Diorite (LTrEJM1)NK15-013-Z5 Rock sample Zone 5 TR15-23 411473 6913860 Pegmatite LTrEJM3CN15-028-26.50m Drill core Zone 13 413073 6911994 Quartz diorite  (LTrEJM2B)16NK-020 Rock sample Zone 7 412103 6913312Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)DDH-1-005-1.05m Drill core Zone 1 99688 101511 Diorite (LTrEJM1)NK15-DS-DR Rock sample Discovery outcrop Trench III 412040 6913444 Diorite (LTrEJM1)GA-01-08-278.74m Drill core Zone 7 411924 6913557 Quartz diorite  (LTrEJM2B)GA-05-08-16.22m Drill core Zone 7 411922 6913564Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A)NK15-067-Z1 Rock sample Zone 1 411954 69130402 Quartz diorite  (LTrEJM2B)Table A C 1  Locations for rock and drill-core samples used in this thesis193Sample number AlkFeld Plagioclase Quartzvol  % vol  % vol  %CN15-032-30.00m 0.88 79.84 19.27WC-002-386.86m 8.21 88.5 3.27TR91-20-001 6.27 93.72 0NK15-059-Z1 0.3 59.92 31.17NK15-013-Z5 24.14 61.44 14.41CN15-029-9.50m 1.14 41.87 49.77CN15-032-53.90m 16.84 77.31 5.84CN15-032-32.30m 0 81.79 18.2CN15-032-30.32m 0 75.11 24.88GA-01-08-278.74m 0 70.47 29.53GA-05-08-16.22m 13.3 58.16 28.53CN15-028-26.50m 28.92 49.38 21.68CN15-023-9.20m 21.93 30.19 47.88CN15-029-24.30m 17.91 58.74 23.3516NK-020 16.19 75.39 8.41WC-025-500.05m 1.34 98.66 0WC-008-26.50m 6.9 93.08 0DDH1-005-1.05m 3.36 91.28 5.35WC-025-485.33m 0.85 99.14 0TR91-20-GC 6.75 72.84 21.8716NK-001 13.09 86.9 0CN15-032-81.00m 5.47 88.05 6.47CN15-031-16.90m 10.1 46.86 12.99WC-002-156.33m 16.03 83.96 0CN15-032-69.41m 37.33 55.8 6.85WC-005-283.00m 9.39 90.6 0WC-005-105.20m 0.29 99.7 0WC-002-66.52m 17.96 74.35 0NK15-DS-DR 2.03 97.96 0NK15-047-Z12 5.61 53.23 41.15NK15-085-Z13 36.88 61.25 1.86NK15-013-Z5 16.98 56.95 26.06NK15-067-Z1 4.14 76.78 18.19CN15-031-48.30m 12.17 56.62 31.19TR91-20-006 18.04 70.7 11.25TR91-20-005 36.11 31.77 32.1116.86 56.41 26.71Appendix D QAP Calculations and digital scansAppendix D 1   Analytical data based on the modal analyses of quartz-alkali feldspar-pla-gioclase (QAP) compositionsTable A D 1  QAP calculations of representative felsic igneous samples194Appendix D 2   Digital scans of amaranth red and cobaltinitrite stained slabsFigure A D 2  Stained slabs. Red=Plagioclase, Yellow=K-feldspar, Milky white=Quartz195Figure A D 2  Stained slabs. Red=Plagioclase, Yellow=K-feldspar, Milky white=Quartz196Figure A D 2  Stained slabs. Red=Plagioclase, Yellow=K-feldspar, Milky white=Quartz.197Figure A D 2  Stained slabs. Red=Plagioclase, Yellow=K-feldspar, Milky white=Quartz198Figure A D 2  Stained slabs. Red=Plagioclase, Yellow=K-feldspar, Milky white=Quartz199Appendix E Whole-rock lithogeochemical dataThis appendix is divided into the following parts:A.E.1. Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysesA.E.2. QA/QC charts and tables for standard reference materialsA.E.3. QA/QC charts and tables for sample dupli200Appendix E 1   Whole-rock lithogeochemical dataTable A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysisField ID Rock-type SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O MnO TiO2% % % % % % % % %CN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 48.80 16.91 11.02 6.81 6.04 3.43 2.00 0.11 1.28CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 51.30 17.62 11.74 5.97 2.93 4.28 1.75 0.09 0.91CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 50.50 18.46 8.72 5.33 4.44 3.74 3.49 0.10 1.04CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 51.30 18.43 10.95 5.92 3.33 4.68 1.97 0.12 0.74CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 48.80 18.52 10.43 5.97 4.69 3.44 2.46 0.12 0.81CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 50.00 17.75 11.23 7.55 4.00 3.66 1.90 0.09 0.98WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 49.30 19.24 9.56 9.24 4.39 4.19 1.24 0.11 1.07WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 48.10 18.26 11.11 7.64 5.48 3.89 1.99 0.13 1.19WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 48.30 18.30 12.24 7.93 4.54 4.12 1.79 0.10 1.10WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite 46.70 14.61 12.43 11.19 6.97 3.08 1.08 0.22 1.21NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 63.39 19.07 2.71 3.47 1.12 5.92 1.55 0.05 0.32NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 59.63 21.42 3.57 4.84 1.21 6.89 1.33 0.07 0.42WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 56.30 20.57 5.33 6.02 1.80 6.53 0.97 0.10 0.57WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) 56.20 21.14 4.88 6.25 1.75 6.67 0.91 0.09 0.56WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 56.80 19.99 5.64 5.14 1.98 6.23 1.58 0.11 0.58WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 63.20 16.38 4.87 4.86 1.70 4.49 2.33 0.12 0.53WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 60.00 20.91 3.38 3.91 1.38 6.89 1.60 0.05 0.43CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 51.50 18.25 8.58 6.37 4.03 4.32 1.84 0.13 0.86NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 50.35 21.01 8.03 5.92 3.98 4.64 2.37 0.07 1.17NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 50.82 17.50 9.44 9.24 4.71 1.75 2.28 0.87 0.88CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 57.10 18.46 5.43 4.03 2.88 4.58 2.71 0.05 0.61NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 41.12 12.71 17.46 10.27 11.34 1.93 1.47 0.21 1.63NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 46.76 26.22 4.80 12.50 2.26 3.16 0.95 0.07 0.37NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro 61.46 22.55 1.46 4.85 0.61 8.16 0.67 0.05 0.08NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 42.49 17.37 13.63 4.88 5.60 2.90 2.04 0.15 1.43WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 51.30 19.05 7.01 4.56 3.30 5.45 1.65 0.08 0.71WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 56.70 18.66 5.16 5.20 2.73 5.79 1.40 0.10 0.52WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 53.10 18.39 7.38 6.15 4.30 5.47 1.40 0.11 0.71WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 53.20 18.50 7.58 6.46 3.67 5.66 1.39 0.13 0.59NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 50.79 19.97 8.69 9.26 3.99 4.52 1.15 0.12 0.71NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 58.69 13.56 8.86 7.07 5.38 3.58 1.02 0.17 0.55NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 48.27 18.52 11.01 9.57 5.33 3.42 1.35 0.14 1.19NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 56.74 18.69 5.47 4.00 2.98 4.24 3.29 0.08 0.87NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 67.63 15.67 2.43 2.42 1.54 4.33 2.82 0.04 0.41TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 55.84 20.14 5.19 4.19 3.83 5.35 2.74 0.08 1.02201Field ID Rock-type SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O MnO TiO2% % % % % % % % %NK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 65.99 17.05 3.50 4.02 1.16 5.08 1.82 0.08 0.35TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 56.71 20.98 5.27 6.09 1.94 6.79 1.01 0.10 0.59TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite 75.71 13.63 0.61 0.90 0.12 3.41 4.89 0.02 0.05TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 64.57 20.25 1.53 3.52 0.60 7.18 1.05 0.03 0.19TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 69.65 16.38 2.65 3.95 0.86 4.46 0.83 0.03 0.26CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 52.40 18.49 9.62 4.90 3.59 4.31 2.96 0.09 0.79NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 64.37 17.35 4.48 4.33 1.39 4.87 1.88 0.11 0.45NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 54.30 20.00 6.70 5.09 3.09 5.03 2.88 0.14 0.85NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 64.63 16.93 3.92 3.55 1.90 4.22 2.72 0.08 0.49NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite 62.90 16.59 5.15 4.09 1.98 4.70 3.05 0.12 0.49NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) 59.22 20.49 4.14 4.94 1.56 5.73 1.55 0.08 0.37NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 55.43 20.87 5.78 5.91 2.13 6.57 0.82 0.13 0.59NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 57.94 21.38 2.70 4.16 1.30 7.73 1.02 0.04 0.26TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 59.98 21.34 3.22 4.69 1.39 7.36 1.14 0.08 0.34NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 55.70 21.09 5.25 5.86 1.81 6.83 0.78 0.10 0.57NK15-100 Augite gabbro 48.33 15.85 11.43 10.23 6.42 2.93 1.45 0.21 0.91NK15-102 Tuff 47.30 19.16 9.63 5.47 5.10 3.95 1.43 0.17 1.17NK15-103 Augite gabbro 47.70 17.04 11.77 9.60 5.81 4.23 0.96 0.18 1.25TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 67.70 17.99 1.47 2.55 0.56 5.81 2.06 0.03 0.19CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro 47.10 11.32 11.28 15.72 9.75 1.73 0.69 0.59 0.62CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro 46.50 6.53 8.00 12.65 18.77 0.21 1.31 0.21 0.37NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic 47.58 16.33 11.24 11.03 7.29 3.07 0.72 0.22 1.11CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 52.20 15.06 9.42 8.50 7.02 3.38 1.37 0.23 0.89Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis202Field ID Rock-type P2O5 Cr2O3 Ba LOI Cu Ni Pb SO3 Sr% % % % % % % % %CN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 0.35 0.01 0.02 2.32 0.58 0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.05CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 0.29 <0.001 0.05 1.45 0.74 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.08CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 0.28 <0.001 0.12 2.22 0.71 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.07CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 0.23 0.00 0.10 1.51 0.38 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.07CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 0.19 <0.001 0.09 3.12 1.30 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.08CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 0.26 <0.001 0.05 1.70 0.63 <0.01 <0.01 0.18 0.04WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 0.28 <0.001 0.02 0.90 0.18 0.02 <0.01 0.02 0.07WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 0.29 0.00 0.04 1.52 0.19 <0.01 <0.01 0.03 0.10WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 0.33 0.00 0.04 0.88 0.31 <0.01 <0.01 0.04 0.05WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite 0.25 0.01 0.01 2.16 0.12 <0.01 <0.01 0.07 0.04NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.28 <0.01 0.12 1.25 0.59 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.11NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.19 <0.01 0.13 0.69 0.17 <0.001 <0.001 0.00 0.16WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.28 <0.001 0.08 0.93 0.05 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.17WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.28 <0.001 0.09 0.75 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.19WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.31 <0.001 0.22 0.88 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.16WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.29 <0.001 0.24 0.63 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.10WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.19 <0.001 0.17 0.87 0.08 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.16CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.26 0.01 0.06 2.18 0.42 <0.01 <0.01 0.03 0.06NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.35 <0.01 0.04 1.80 0.47 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.05NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.29 <0.01 0.11 2.02 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.03CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 0.23 0.00 0.10 2.17 0.79 <0.01 <0.01 0.08 0.04NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 0.13 <0.01 0.07 1.67 0.00 0.00 <0.001 0.02 0.01NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 0.69 <0.01 0.07 2.12 0.00 <0.001 <0.001 0.03 0.17NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro 0.05 <0.01 0.09 0.45 0.00 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.22NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 0.80 <0.01 0.17 4.65 2.67 <0.001 <0.001 0.04 0.07WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 0.44 0.00 0.14 2.70 2.75 <0.01 <0.01 0.09 0.13WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 0.32 <0.001 0.14 1.43 0.47 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.15WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 0.53 0.00 0.14 1.44 0.40 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.14WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 0.53 <0.001 0.11 0.93 0.29 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.16NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.31 <0.01 0.04 0.75 0.09 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.06NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.26 0.02 0.05 0.83 0.21 0.00 <0.001 <0.002 0.06NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.28 <0.01 0.02 0.89 0.06 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.04NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.25 <0.01 0.16 1.95 1.33 <0.001 0.00 0.00 0.07NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.19 <0.01 0.25 1.24 0.92 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.06TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.40 <0.01 0.03 1.07 0.26 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.03Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis203Field ID Rock-type P2O5 Cr2O3 Ba LOI Cu Ni Pb SO3 Sr% % % % % % % % %NK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.16 <0.01 0.23 0.81 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.10TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.27 <0.01 0.10 0.62 0.00 <0.001 <0.001 0.00 0.16TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite 0.01 <0.01 0.61 0.34 0.03 <0.001 0.00 <0.002 0.07TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 0.06 <0.01 0.15 0.58 0.02 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.17TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.12 <0.01 0.03 0.75 0.01 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.06CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.21 <0.001 0.14 1.53 0.45 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.04NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.24 <0.01 0.21 0.58 0.00 <0.001 <0.001 0.00 0.08NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.47 <0.01 0.18 1.18 0.39 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.09NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.28 <0.01 0.17 0.71 0.29 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.08NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite 0.29 <0.01 0.27 0.98 0.00 <0.001 0.00 <0.002 0.10NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.21 <0.01 0.10 1.34 0.29 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.11NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.24 <0.01 0.08 1.08 0.01 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.14NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.15 <0.01 0.09 1.94 0.11 <0.001 <0.001 0.02 0.25TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.13 <0.01 0.10 0.79 0.00 <0.001 <0.001 0.00 0.16NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.27 <0.01 0.07 0.83 0.00 <0.001 <0.001 <0.002 0.15NK15-100 Augite gabbro 0.24 <0.01 0.06 1.89 0.01 0.00 <0.001 0.01 0.05NK15-102 Tuff 0.30 <0.001 0.07 5.99 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.03 0.03NK15-103 Augite gabbro 0.41 0.01 0.04 0.84 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.08TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.07 <0.001 0.38 0.92 0.08 <0.01 <0.01 <0.002 0.13CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro 0.18 0.11 0.02 1.01 <0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.00 0.05CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro 0.12 0.22 0.01 4.35 <0.01 0.03 <0.01 0.02 <0.002NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic 0.29 0.03 0.03 1.33 0.01 0.01 <0.001 0.03 0.06CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.27 0.03 0.05 1.61 0.02 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.06Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis 204Field ID Rock-type V2O5 Zn Zr SUM TOT/C TOT/S Ba Be Co% % % % % % PPM PPM PPMCN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 0.07 0.01 0.01 100.02 0.04 <0.02 287.00 2.00 28.00CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 0.05 0.01 0.00 99.48 0.05 <0.02 528.00 2.00 15.20CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 0.05 0.01 0.00 99.52 0.04 <0.02 1331.00 2.00 18.70CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 0.05 0.01 0.00 99.96 0.02 0.03 1039.00 2.00 13.60CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 0.05 0.01 0.00 100.43 0.03 0.02 964.00 1.00 23.20CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 0.05 0.01 <0.002 100.22 0.09 0.71 498.00 <1 23.80WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 0.06 0.01 0.00 99.93 0.02 0.45 288.00 1.00 14.50WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 0.06 0.01 0.00 100.09 0.02 0.26 507.00 3.00 29.00WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 0.06 0.02 0.01 100.25 0.02 0.41 411.00 2.00 23.90WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite 0.07 0.02 0.01 100.26 0.02 0.75 133.00 1.00 19.00NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.01 0.00 0.01 100.18 <0.02 <0.02 1173.00 <1 4.90NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.01 100.84 <0.02 <0.02 1411.00 <1 5.80WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.01 99.75 0.02 <0.02 908.00 4.00 8.40WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.02 99.86 0.03 <0.02 1004.00 <1 8.30WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.02 99.74 <0.02 <0.02 2445.00 2.00 8.70WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.02 0.01 0.01 99.78 <0.02 <0.02 2531.00 2.00 9.00WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.01 0.01 0.01 100.08 0.06 <0.02 1764.00 3.00 7.80CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.05 0.01 <0.002 99.05 0.04 0.06 611.00 2.00 20.00NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.05 0.01 0.00 100.44 0.02 <0.02 528.00 1.00 10.70NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.06 0.09 <0.002 100.23 <0.02 <0.02 1185.00 <1 16.70CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 0.03 0.01 <0.002 99.52 0.05 0.24 901.00 2.00 9.70NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 0.10 0.01 <0.002 100.17 0.09 <0.02 907.00 <1 65.60NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 0.02 0.00 <0.002 100.24 0.02 <0.02 754.00 2.00 13.20NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro 0.01 0.00 <0.002 100.78 <0.02 <0.02 929.00 1.00 2.60NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 0.07 0.02 0.03 99.73 0.03 0.07 1666.00 2.00 51.40WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 0.03 0.01 0.02 100.15 0.03 0.81 1386.00 <1 14.30WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 0.02 0.01 0.01 98.96 0.03 <0.02 1623.00 3.00 11.30WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 0.03 0.01 0.02 99.88 0.03 <0.02 1263.00 1.00 18.10WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 0.03 0.01 0.02 99.43 0.02 <0.02 1195.00 4.00 16.60NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.04 0.01 <0.002 100.55 <0.02 <0.02 507.00 <1 22.00NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.04 0.01 <0.002 100.44 0.02 <0.02 499.00 2.00 18.90NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.06 0.01 <0.002 100.19 <0.02 <0.02 210.00 1.00 25.00NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.03 0.01 0.01 100.53 0.07 <0.02 1731.00 <1 14.00NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.02 0.00 0.01 100.25 0.06 <0.02 2651.00 3.00 5.50TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.05 0.00 0.01 100.32 0.03 <0.02 259.00 1.00 14.00Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis205Field ID Rock-type V2O5 Zn Zr SUM TOT/C TOT/S Ba Be Co% % % % % % PPM PPM PPMNK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.01 0.01 0.01 100.41 <0.02 <0.02 2344.00 2.00 5.80TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.02 100.72 <0.02 <0.02 1062.00 <1 7.80TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite 0.00 <0.001 <0.002 100.49 <0.02 <0.02 6508.00 <1 0.80TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 0.01 0.00 <0.002 99.94 <0.02 <0.02 1569.00 <1 3.10TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.01 0.00 0.01 100.08 <0.02 <0.02 291.00 2.00 3.40CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.04 0.01 <0.002 99.71 0.02 <0.02 1366.00 1.00 14.80NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.01 0.01 0.01 100.40 <0.02 <0.02 2207.00 3.00 6.00NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.03 0.01 0.01 100.57 <0.02 <0.02 1866.00 3.00 14.50NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.02 0.01 0.01 100.13 0.02 <0.02 1786.00 <1 8.90NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite 0.02 0.00 0.01 100.79 <0.02 <0.02 2879.00 1.00 7.70NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.02 0.01 0.01 100.28 <0.02 <0.02 1013.00 4.00 11.20NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.02 99.85 <0.02 <0.02 816.00 2.00 10.70NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.01 0.00 <0.002 99.20 0.20 <0.02 1091.00 1.00 6.90TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.01 0.00 <0.002 100.77 0.03 <0.02 1058.00 2.00 6.50NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.02 0.01 0.01 99.41 <0.02 <0.02 746.00 <1 8.00NK15-100 Augite gabbro 0.06 0.01 <0.002 100.11 0.03 <0.02 714.00 2.00 41.20NK15-102 Tuff 0.04 0.01 0.02 99.95 0.51 <0.02 745.00 3.00 24.00NK15-103 Augite gabbro 0.06 0.01 0.00 99.98 <0.02 <0.02 488.00 2.00 33.60TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.01 0.00 0.01 99.99 0.02 <0.02 3915.00 <1 3.70CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro 0.06 0.03 <0.002 100.25 0.12 <0.02 176.00 2.00 49.30CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro 0.03 0.02 <0.002 99.33 0.26 <0.02 149.00 <1 53.90NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic 0.06 0.01 <0.002 100.47 0.03 <0.02 365.00 <1 36.10CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.05 0.01 0.01 100.20 0.07 <0.02 435.00 2.00 27.00Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis206Field ID Rock-type Cs Ga Hf Nb Rb Sn Sr Ta ThPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMCN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 2.20 19.80 2.10 2.70 115.00 6.00 493.80 0.20 1.00CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 1.70 22.40 1.90 2.80 83.80 4.00 733.00 <0.1 0.90CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 2.80 24.80 1.40 1.70 175.20 6.00 690.50 <0.1 0.50CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 1.10 23.00 1.30 1.50 86.60 5.00 655.90 0.10 0.80CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 2.00 21.70 1.10 1.20 147.00 4.00 757.80 <0.1 0.60CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 2.30 17.70 1.50 1.80 86.70 4.00 518.30 0.10 0.80WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 0.90 20.90 1.90 2.10 41.20 1.00 668.60 0.10 0.90WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 3.70 20.20 1.60 2.00 117.90 1.00 964.80 <0.1 0.80WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 1.70 20.40 1.80 2.90 71.10 2.00 520.90 <0.1 1.40WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite <0.1 17.40 2.10 2.50 13.40 3.00 414.90 <0.1 0.80NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.30 19.50 3.00 1.80 45.00 2.00 1200.00 <0.1 6.60NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.20 22.60 3.10 2.90 24.20 <1 1716.40 0.20 0.60WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 23.70 4.50 4.50 11.30 1.00 1731.30 0.20 0.50WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 24.70 3.80 3.90 13.80 1.00 1863.00 0.10 1.50WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.20 23.30 6.50 6.20 20.70 <1 1549.60 0.20 2.30WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) <0.1 17.80 3.60 13.30 23.90 2.00 980.60 1.00 5.90WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.30 20.80 4.10 3.20 36.30 <1 1549.60 <0.1 0.90CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.50 18.80 1.70 2.70 68.50 3.00 694.50 0.20 1.10NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 4.30 22.20 2.30 2.00 159.40 3.00 593.80 0.10 1.80NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.60 18.60 1.90 2.60 69.00 1.00 512.40 0.20 1.70CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 1.90 19.80 1.40 2.10 116.40 3.00 547.20 0.10 1.20NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 0.30 19.30 1.90 3.00 18.00 2.00 281.60 <0.1 0.50NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 0.40 26.10 0.70 1.60 18.60 <1 1999.90 <0.1 0.60NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro <0.1 16.60 0.50 0.30 3.30 <1 2330.20 <0.1 0.30NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 1.70 27.80 9.10 14.40 96.90 3.00 756.30 0.70 25.10WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 0.50 26.30 6.10 5.90 44.80 2.00 1441.60 0.30 2.70WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 0.20 23.20 4.00 6.30 31.70 1.00 1511.90 0.30 2.50WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 0.20 25.30 4.70 6.90 33.80 2.00 1391.70 0.30 3.10WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 0.20 24.60 4.50 4.70 31.70 2.00 1585.80 0.10 2.20NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.20 21.40 1.80 3.50 26.90 2.00 812.90 0.20 1.30NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.10 18.20 1.40 1.80 22.60 3.00 836.50 0.20 1.60NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.00 19.10 1.70 0.90 73.60 2.00 624.50 <0.1 0.80NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 2.50 21.60 2.50 7.40 152.50 3.00 807.00 0.30 0.90NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 1.50 18.50 3.40 5.50 92.10 1.00 687.20 0.50 6.10TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 8.60 26.50 2.20 2.20 223.00 5.00 487.50 0.20 1.20Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis207Field ID Rock-type U V W Zr Y La Ce Pr NdPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMCN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 1.70 380.00 2.90 73.10 20.10 9.40 20.90 2.83 13.80CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 3.60 272.00 3.90 62.80 20.70 13.70 24.60 3.29 14.30CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 3.00 270.00 23.20 45.70 18.00 9.10 18.50 2.45 10.90CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 1.90 271.00 2.60 43.30 17.70 9.60 18.20 2.43 11.60CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 2.50 290.00 27.40 40.10 14.80 9.60 16.90 2.15 9.60CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 2.20 274.00 14.70 51.60 16.80 6.90 16.50 2.20 10.20WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 2.00 322.00 1.40 60.00 18.40 10.20 21.10 2.79 12.70WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 1.90 316.00 1.10 52.90 17.40 8.30 15.10 2.08 10.10WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 2.80 306.00 1.00 61.40 21.80 8.30 17.70 2.46 12.30WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite 3.40 402.00 5.40 68.20 23.00 8.70 21.00 2.78 13.60NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.80 55.00 3.60 116.40 6.00 19.50 34.70 3.36 12.10NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.40 68.00 <0.5 134.30 8.50 6.00 13.10 1.93 8.20WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.30 119.00 <0.5 177.90 16.40 7.00 18.80 2.74 13.40WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.20 106.00 <0.5 153.00 12.80 16.70 34.40 3.93 16.50WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.20 118.00 <0.5 260.70 13.20 24.80 49.00 5.63 22.00WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 1.20 104.00 <0.5 133.10 19.00 22.80 48.90 6.07 22.90WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.30 69.00 0.60 141.80 3.50 7.70 12.80 1.36 5.50CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 2.40 282.00 3.40 56.90 17.40 10.20 21.70 2.75 12.40NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.80 259.00 1.10 73.40 18.80 8.60 18.20 2.56 11.20NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.30 307.00 1.20 59.80 20.00 11.20 22.90 3.02 12.40CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 2.00 163.00 3.40 55.70 12.80 9.00 17.10 2.06 8.60NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 0.20 576.00 <0.5 42.70 22.90 9.30 21.80 3.73 21.60NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 0.20 144.00 <0.5 16.50 10.60 12.70 22.70 2.98 14.10NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro <0.1 23.00 <0.5 17.60 3.40 1.90 2.90 0.49 2.50NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 4.40 332.00 0.70 336.50 28.50 44.30 81.40 9.27 36.20WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 1.20 171.00 0.80 233.30 16.40 14.90 31.10 3.96 15.70WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 1.40 132.00 0.90 156.00 15.20 12.80 28.20 3.86 16.70WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 1.40 189.00 10.40 179.90 17.50 19.10 39.50 4.86 21.80WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 1.00 180.00 0.60 173.30 18.00 12.50 28.40 3.85 18.10NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.60 210.00 2.30 62.60 18.20 13.10 27.30 3.61 17.00NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 2.30 213.00 1.60 46.00 11.50 7.00 15.30 2.06 8.30NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.10 340.00 1.20 48.30 21.30 7.20 17.90 2.33 11.30NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 1.40 163.00 5.30 95.10 8.60 7.50 15.30 1.94 7.80NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 2.20 73.00 3.40 129.20 9.40 7.70 17.70 2.19 8.90TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 3.20 236.00 2.70 76.50 15.60 8.00 15.40 2.05 9.10Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis208Field ID Rock-type U V W Zr Y La Ce Pr NdPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMNK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.60 69.00 <0.5 126.60 12.00 15.40 30.60 3.76 14.80TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.30 89.00 <0.5 152.50 14.00 14.30 33.20 3.99 16.60TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite 0.20 <8 1.00 20.40 1.00 0.80 1.40 0.13 0.60TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 <0.1 20.00 0.60 41.10 0.90 3.10 4.70 0.49 1.70TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.80 48.00 0.90 104.20 4.30 8.60 16.70 1.20 3.70CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.20 211.00 2.60 42.60 15.00 10.50 20.10 2.43 10.30NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.50 55.00 <0.5 135.30 16.30 16.30 34.10 4.27 17.40NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 1.90 145.00 <0.5 208.10 18.90 19.70 38.60 5.18 21.10NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 1.00 98.00 <0.5 105.90 8.20 24.70 44.30 4.87 17.80NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite 2.60 98.00 0.50 114.20 20.70 21.80 45.60 5.34 24.30NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.40 76.00 0.80 141.10 15.40 19.30 34.70 4.11 14.70NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.40 104.00 <0.5 153.50 13.00 10.00 21.90 2.71 11.60NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.30 58.00 1.00 49.00 5.70 3.50 7.40 1.12 5.40TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.20 55.00 <0.5 52.40 7.90 3.10 8.30 1.42 6.90NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.30 92.00 <0.5 149.50 13.20 17.00 34.50 4.08 17.10NK15-100 Augite gabbro 1.00 323.00 0.80 54.10 19.00 11.20 23.00 3.24 14.70NK15-102 Tuff 1.50 238.00 0.80 161.60 34.60 11.30 29.60 4.22 21.10NK15-103 Augite gabbro 0.20 352.00 0.80 57.70 23.70 9.10 20.80 3.06 15.60TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) <0.1 37.00 0.60 53.60 1.20 2.50 5.50 0.45 2.10CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro 0.40 341.00 1.70 37.90 12.90 4.50 10.50 1.48 6.90CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro <0.1 161.00 <0.5 15.90 6.80 1.30 4.70 0.72 3.80NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic 0.30 319.00 0.50 65.40 22.40 10.80 23.60 3.52 16.30CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.40 280.00 1.20 65.50 17.70 8.00 19.80 2.67 12.50Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis209Field ID Rock-type Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm YbPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMCN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 3.26 1.22 3.68 0.60 3.74 0.77 2.36 0.32 2.20CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 3.70 1.13 3.69 0.63 3.80 0.79 2.27 0.31 2.17CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 3.18 1.06 3.03 0.54 3.24 0.73 1.97 0.29 2.04CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 2.93 1.06 3.09 0.53 3.20 0.71 2.14 0.30 1.97CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 2.32 0.92 2.52 0.43 2.76 0.58 1.74 0.22 1.69CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 2.66 1.05 3.25 0.48 2.96 0.61 1.65 0.27 1.77WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 3.16 1.17 3.33 0.58 3.64 0.74 2.29 0.31 2.04WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 2.94 0.87 3.34 0.57 3.47 0.78 2.20 0.29 1.91WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 3.13 0.98 3.62 0.63 3.89 0.80 2.45 0.32 2.13WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite 3.66 1.32 4.06 0.72 4.55 0.91 2.70 0.37 2.46NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 1.88 0.46 1.45 0.17 0.94 0.20 0.48 0.08 0.55NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 1.59 0.55 1.79 0.25 1.54 0.29 0.90 0.13 0.91WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 3.49 1.09 3.14 0.52 3.18 0.60 1.70 0.22 1.51WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) 3.18 0.92 2.86 0.42 2.31 0.48 1.33 0.16 1.16WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 4.12 0.97 3.39 0.49 2.63 0.51 1.37 0.21 1.40WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 4.29 1.16 3.96 0.59 3.46 0.70 2.17 0.31 2.28WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 1.07 0.42 0.87 0.12 0.79 0.16 0.39 0.06 0.42CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.18 1.06 3.46 0.51 3.10 0.63 1.99 0.29 1.81NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 2.99 0.97 3.74 0.56 3.65 0.68 2.02 0.28 1.92NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.00 1.03 3.67 0.56 3.62 0.70 2.20 0.31 2.11CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 1.92 0.78 2.29 0.34 2.16 0.43 1.29 0.21 1.17NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 5.36 1.57 5.87 0.78 4.67 0.93 2.34 0.32 2.04NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 2.71 0.87 2.51 0.36 2.04 0.39 1.15 0.14 0.96NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro 0.60 0.22 0.66 0.09 0.74 0.11 0.41 0.06 0.37NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 7.05 1.42 6.63 0.84 5.33 0.94 2.58 0.42 2.60WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 3.28 0.92 3.55 0.49 2.82 0.55 1.68 0.22 1.64WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 3.55 0.97 3.11 0.50 2.82 0.53 1.72 0.22 1.57WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 4.36 1.12 3.89 0.57 3.40 0.67 1.93 0.26 1.67WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 4.09 1.02 3.64 0.59 3.12 0.70 1.96 0.27 1.69NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.43 1.20 3.52 0.54 3.39 0.60 1.94 0.27 2.03NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 2.10 0.79 2.41 0.34 2.22 0.41 1.18 0.18 1.22NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.12 1.18 4.18 0.61 3.70 0.85 2.18 0.31 2.03NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 1.77 0.46 1.74 0.23 1.55 0.29 0.74 0.12 0.82NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 2.10 0.38 1.94 0.26 1.59 0.27 0.95 0.14 1.05TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 2.21 0.68 2.88 0.42 2.83 0.60 1.91 0.29 2.04Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis210Field ID Rock-type Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm YbPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMNK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 3.15 0.77 2.66 0.40 2.18 0.45 1.48 0.19 1.35TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 3.61 0.97 3.21 0.44 2.79 0.50 1.38 0.21 1.29TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite <0.05 <0.02 0.21 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.14TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 0.14 0.08 0.16 0.02 0.15 0.03 0.09 0.01 0.14TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.56 0.34 0.74 0.09 0.64 0.14 0.53 0.07 0.57CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 2.27 0.85 2.92 0.42 2.57 0.54 1.63 0.24 1.63NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 4.28 0.95 4.55 0.54 3.42 0.57 1.70 0.25 1.69NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 4.25 1.09 4.17 0.59 3.55 0.65 2.02 0.29 1.98NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 2.96 0.51 2.55 0.30 1.80 0.26 0.76 0.11 0.71NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite 4.35 0.85 4.15 0.53 3.47 0.72 2.23 0.29 2.31NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) 2.51 0.75 2.69 0.36 2.37 0.47 1.47 0.18 1.35NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 2.40 0.77 2.70 0.33 2.11 0.46 1.34 0.18 1.17NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 1.14 0.39 1.35 0.16 0.99 0.21 0.52 0.08 0.46TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 1.86 0.59 1.89 0.24 1.75 0.33 0.88 0.12 0.80NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 3.11 0.88 3.08 0.39 2.66 0.43 1.24 0.20 1.25NK15-100 Augite gabbro 3.29 1.11 3.98 0.54 3.66 0.68 2.05 0.25 1.89NK15-102 Tuff 5.32 1.45 6.02 1.03 6.42 1.36 3.87 0.53 3.86NK15-103 Augite gabbro 4.04 1.44 4.45 0.73 4.43 0.92 2.67 0.34 2.36TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.14 0.13 0.36 0.04 0.29 0.06 0.18 0.02 0.20CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro 1.68 0.77 2.31 0.36 2.47 0.44 1.44 0.19 1.23CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro 0.99 0.33 1.24 0.21 1.31 0.27 0.66 0.10 0.62NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic 3.90 1.30 4.60 0.66 4.43 0.78 2.24 0.34 2.24CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 3.00 1.06 3.54 0.53 3.34 0.64 1.98 0.32 1.90Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis211Field ID Rock-type Lu Mo Cu Pb Zn Ni As Cd SbPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMCN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 0.32 4.30 5798.80 1.10 37.00 18.30 0.90 0.10 <0.1CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 0.35 49.80 7549.50 2.00 27.00 8.30 <0.5 0.10 <0.1CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 0.29 7.00 7020.80 1.40 55.00 8.10 0.80 0.20 <0.1CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 0.28 1.50 3828.80 1.70 38.00 5.40 0.90 0.20 <0.1CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 0.22 6.80 >10000.0 2.20 33.00 7.80 0.60 0.30 <0.1CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 0.27 80.50 5966.00 0.70 39.00 5.90 <0.5 0.20 <0.1WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite 0.32 143.40 1797.50 0.90 26.00 4.50 1.60 <0.1 <0.1WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite 0.29 5.80 1923.80 1.10 45.00 8.50 0.70 0.10 <0.1WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite 0.31 17.00 3199.80 0.70 43.00 9.00 0.70 0.20 <0.1WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite 0.33 88.40 1184.60 0.70 22.00 5.00 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.09 0.40 5733.10 2.00 45.00 2.70 1.30 0.20 <0.1NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.12 0.80 1671.80 3.70 47.00 2.10 1.10 0.20 <0.1WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.23 0.40 479.80 1.50 40.00 2.20 <0.5 0.10 <0.1WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.18 0.70 94.80 1.10 35.00 2.30 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.21 <0.1 1.30 1.50 56.00 2.40 0.50 <0.1 <0.1WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.35 0.20 3.00 1.20 34.00 1.00 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.07 2.50 914.70 1.10 49.00 4.00 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.28 31.00 4154.70 1.40 51.00 4.30 1.20 0.20 <0.1NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.31 18.90 4480.00 0.50 58.00 5.80 <0.5 0.30 <0.1NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.31 1.50 417.40 102.70 390.00 8.50 4.00 2.20 0.20CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 0.19 46.60 7632.10 0.50 50.00 6.00 <0.5 0.30 <0.1NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite 0.31 <0.1 23.90 1.60 49.00 9.40 0.80 <0.1 <0.1NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro 0.15 <0.1 55.00 1.80 21.00 1.60 1.10 <0.1 <0.1NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro 0.05 <0.1 7.50 1.00 7.00 0.50 0.60 <0.1 <0.1NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 0.43 4.10 >10000.0 13.60 151.00 5.30 <0.5 1.90 <0.1WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 0.23 242.30 >10000.0 3.70 90.00 8.00 0.80 0.60 <0.1WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 0.23 2.80 4929.40 2.10 42.00 4.90 <0.5 0.20 <0.1WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 0.27 51.50 4068.90 1.20 55.00 7.60 2.00 0.20 <0.1WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 0.27 2.00 2986.20 1.10 63.00 6.60 1.30 0.20 <0.1NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.32 0.70 857.50 1.30 22.00 2.50 2.20 <0.1 <0.1NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.19 0.40 2168.10 1.10 31.00 9.60 2.10 0.10 <0.1NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.29 1.70 674.20 0.60 26.00 5.50 0.60 <0.1 <0.1NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.11 14.80 >10000.0 0.70 77.00 5.50 <0.5 0.20 <0.1NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.15 21.10 8798.70 1.30 32.00 4.30 1.20 0.20 <0.1TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.28 19.70 2489.50 0.30 40.00 11.50 1.60 <0.1 <0.1Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis212Field ID Rock-type Lu Mo Cu Pb Zn Ni As Cd SbPPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMNK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.22 <0.1 4.20 1.90 41.00 1.40 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.18 0.10 46.50 0.60 36.00 1.80 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite 0.03 0.60 313.00 1.10 6.00 0.40 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 0.02 0.10 169.10 0.30 22.00 1.10 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.10 0.60 80.90 0.60 25.00 1.50 0.70 <0.1 <0.1CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.23 15.90 4424.00 0.50 41.00 6.90 0.90 0.10 <0.1NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.26 <0.1 20.20 1.00 93.00 0.50 0.70 <0.1 <0.1NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.32 0.20 3797.90 2.40 111.00 4.60 1.50 0.10 <0.1NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 0.12 2.80 2865.10 2.20 81.00 2.90 0.90 0.30 <0.1NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite 0.34 0.50 30.60 2.80 32.00 1.00 1.90 <0.1 <0.1NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.22 1.50 2871.20 1.20 53.00 5.70 <0.5 0.20 <0.1NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.17 <0.1 55.50 1.30 62.00 2.10 0.70 <0.1 <0.1NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.08 1.30 1026.70 1.70 37.00 2.70 2.30 0.20 <0.1TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.12 <0.1 8.30 0.80 32.00 1.60 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.23 <0.1 19.00 0.80 36.00 1.80 1.00 <0.1 <0.1NK15-100 Augite gabbro 0.26 0.30 83.10 6.10 77.00 12.20 1.70 <0.1 0.10NK15-102 Tuff 0.53 0.40 126.20 5.00 81.00 11.00 12.00 <0.1 0.70NK15-103 Augite gabbro 0.34 0.20 40.40 1.90 29.00 12.50 1.30 <0.1 <0.1TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) 0.04 1.80 789.80 0.40 20.00 1.30 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro 0.19 <0.1 5.60 1.40 58.00 20.00 1.70 <0.1 0.30CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro 0.09 <0.1 4.80 0.30 93.00 153.70 1.10 <0.1 <0.1NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic 0.33 0.40 119.80 0.40 32.00 26.40 1.20 <0.1 <0.1CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.27 0.90 196.70 0.70 29.00 9.80 0.70 <0.1 <0.1Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis213Field ID Rock-type Bi Ag Au Hg Tl Sc Se TePPM PPM PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMCN15-001-35.10m Amphibolite 3.10 2.30 224.60 0.02 0.40 13.70 <0.5 <1CN15-002-84.30m Amphibolite 24.60 8.70 602.20 <0.01 0.20 6.70 0.80 2.00CN15-004-78.50m Amphibolite 2.10 2.20 264.00 0.02 0.40 6.40 <0.5 <1CN15-005-80.30m Amphibolite 1.60 1.10 106.10 0.02 0.20 7.70 <0.5 <1CN15-008-36.58m Amphibolite 2.80 4.10 1543.60 0.02 0.20 9.10 <0.5 <1CN15-029-43.50m Amphibolite 0.30 3.00 103.10 <0.01 0.30 6.30 3.10 <1WC-025-304.84m Amphibolite <0.1 0.80 55.10 0.02 0.10 6.80 <0.5 <1WC-025-247.70m Amphibolite <0.1 0.70 63.80 <0.01 0.40 8.80 0.80 <1WC-025-317.90m Amphibolite <0.1 1.20 97.60 <0.01 0.20 9.00 1.20 <1WC-025-351.15m Amphibolite <0.1 0.60 34.40 <0.01 <0.1 11.90 <0.5 <1NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) 0.10 1.20 3.30 <0.01 0.10 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 0.10 <0.5 0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 <0.1 4.60 <0.5 <1WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 17.00 0.02 <0.1 4.50 <0.5 <1WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 2.00 <0.01 <0.1 3.70 <0.5 <1WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) <0.1 <0.1 3.60 <0.01 <0.1 3.70 <0.5 <1WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.20 0.40 62.80 <0.01 0.10 1.90 <0.5 <1CN15-026-34.50m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.30 1.80 59.70 0.06 0.10 6.30 1.00 <1NK15-068-Z12 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.20 1.50 90.90 <0.01 0.70 <0.1 0.80 <1NK15-087-Z1 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.80 0.90 16.20 0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1CN15-032-57.91m Qz-pl-bt schist 0.80 2.50 130.60 <0.01 0.20 6.10 3.70 <1NK15-028-Z2 Hornblendite <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-037-Z2 Leucocratic gabbro <0.1 <0.1 2.90 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-051-Z5 Leucocratic gabbro <0.1 <0.1 0.60 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-008-Z2 Migmatite 30.30 4.20 157.30 0.26 0.30 <0.2 3.70 <1WC-002-156.33m Migmatite 25.70 23.00 2018.90 0.02 <0.1 4.10 4.90 4.00WC-005-229.00m Migmatite 0.70 0.90 83.80 0.02 <0.1 4.80 <0.5 <1WC-008-168.00m Migmatite 3.20 2.00 154.80 0.02 <0.1 5.30 <0.5 <1WC-025-69.00m Migmatite 0.40 1.10 96.30 <0.01 <0.1 7.80 <0.5 <1NK15-014-Z5 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.70 0.40 21.30 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-080-Z2 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.70 0.20 17.30 0.03 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-083-Z13 Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 0.20 0.30 23.30 <0.01 0.30 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-DS-004 Qz-pl-bt schist 2.40 1.70 183.30 0.01 0.50 <0.1 1.30 <1NK15-DS-008 Qz-pl-bt schist 41.10 6.60 567.90 0.01 0.20 <0.1 1.20 <1TR91-20-009 Qz-pl-bt schist 0.40 0.40 24.60 <0.01 1.30 <0.1 <0.5 <1Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis214Field ID Rock-type Bi Ag Au Hg Tl Sc Se TePPM PPM PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPMNK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) <0.1 <0.1 0.70 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1TR91-20-005 Quartz monzonite <0.1 <0.1 0.60 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1TR91-20-006 Pegmatite LTrEJM3 <0.1 <0.1 1.00 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 0.20 <0.1 <0.5 <1CN15-034-28.90m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite 1.00 1.80 77.00 <0.01 0.40 5.50 1.40 <1NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) <0.1 <0.1 0.80 <0.01 0.10 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 1.70 1.60 212.50 0.01 0.40 <0.1 0.60 <1NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) 2.00 1.70 49.80 <0.01 0.40 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite <0.1 <0.1 0.60 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 0.10 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 1.90 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) 0.60 0.50 35.30 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) <0.1 <0.1 0.50 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-100 Augite gabbro <0.1 <0.1 2.40 0.02 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1NK15-102 Tuff <0.1 <0.1 2.40 <0.01 <0.1 17.90 <0.5 <1NK15-103 Augite gabbro <0.1 <0.1 2.20 <0.01 <0.1 11.40 <0.5 <1TR91-20-007 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) <0.1 0.20 1.40 <0.01 <0.1 0.60 <0.5 <1CN15-023-47.00m Augite gabbro <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 <0.1 7.30 <0.5 <1CN15-023-30.50m Augite gabbro <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <0.01 0.40 2.90 <0.5 <1NK15-031-Z2 Volcaniclastic <0.1 <0.1 1.70 <0.01 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5 <1CN15-033-71.63m Hornblende porphyroblastic amphibolite <0.1 0.10 10.30 <0.01 <0.1 7.80 <0.5 <1Table A E 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis2154.604.704.804.905.005.105.205.302764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CaOCaO CRM CaO-3SD CaO-2SD CaO+2SD CaO+3SD CaO2.452.502.552.602.652.702.752.802.852.902764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614MgOMgO CRM MgO-3SD MgO-2SD MgO+2SD MgO+3SD MgOAppendix E 2   QA/QC for certified standard reference materials (WP-1)Figure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials 61.0062.0063.0064.0065.0066.0067.0068.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SiO2SiO2 CRM SiO2-3SD SiO2-2SD SiO2+2SD SiO2+3SD SiO216.0016.2016.4016.6016.8017.0017.202764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614Al2O3Al2O3 CRM Al2O3-3SD Al2O3-2SD Al2O3+2SD Al2O3+3SD Al2O34.004.104.204.304.404.504.604.704.802764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614Fe2O3Fe2O3 CRM Fe2O3-3SD Fe2O3-2SD Fe2O3+2SD Fe2O3+3SD Fe2O33.703.904.104.304.504.704.902764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614Na2ONa2O3 CRM Na2O-3SD Na2O-2SD Na2O+2SD Na2O+3SD Na2O1.501.551.601.651.702764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614K2OK2O CRM K2O-3SD K2O-2SD K2O+2SD K2O+3SD K2O0.420.440.460.480.500.520.540.560.580.602764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614TiO2TiO2 CRM TiO2-3SD TiO2-2SD TiO2+2SD TiO2+3SD TiO22160.000.020.040.060.080.100.120.142764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614BaBa CRM Ba-3SD Ba-2SD Ba+2SD Ba+3SD Ba-0.60-0.40-0.200.000.200.400.600.802764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614LOILOI CRM LOI-3SD LOI-2SD LOI+2SD LOI+3SD LOI0.00030.00040.00040.00050.00050.00060.00060.00070.00072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CuCu Median-30% Median-20% Median +20% Median+30% Cu Median0.002230.002730.003230.003730.004230.004730.005230.005730.006230.006732764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614NiNi Median-30% Median-20%Median +20% Median+30% Ni Median0.00030.00040.00040.00050.00050.00060.00060.00070.00072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614PbPb Median-30% Median-20%Median +20% Median+30% Pb Median0.0000.0200.0400.0600.0800.1000.1200.1400.1602764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SrSr-CRM Sr-3SD Sr-2SD Sr+2SD Sr+3SD SrFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference material0.0000.0020.0040.0060.0080.0100.0120.0140.0160.0180.0202764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614Cr2O3CR2O3 CRM Cr2O3-3SD Cr2O3-2SD Cr2O3+2SD Cr2O3+3SD Cr2O30.0090.0110.0130.0150.0170.0190.0212764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614V2O5V2O5-CRM V2O5-3SD V2O5-2SD V2O5+2SD V2O5+3SD V2O52170.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.0070.0080.0092764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ZnZn-CRM Zn-3SD Zn-2SD Zn+2SD Zn+3SD Zn-0.0030.0020.0070.0120.0170.0220.0272764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ZrZr CRM Zr-3SD Zr-2SD Zr+2SD Zr+3SD Zr4004505005506006507007508008502764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614BaBa CRM Ba-3SD Ba-2SD Ba+2SD Ba+3SD Ba0.000.501.001.502.002.502764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614BeBe Median -30 % Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Be Median-13.00-8.00-3.002.007.0012.0017.0022.0027.0032.0037.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CoCo CRM Co-3SD Co-2SD Co+2SD Co+3SD Co0.000.100.200.300.400.500.600.700.802764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CsCs CRM Cs-3SD Cs-2SD Cs+2SD Cs+3SD Cs11.0013.0015.0017.0019.0021.0023.0025.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614GaGa CRM Ga-3SD Ga-2SD Ga+2SD Ga+3SD Ga2.252.452.652.853.053.253.453.653.854.054.252764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614HfHf CRM Hf-3SD Hf-2SD Hf+2SD Hf+3SD HfFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials2180.251.252.253.254.255.256.252764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614NbNb CRM Nb-3SD Nb-2SD Nb+2SD Nb+3SD Nb14.0016.0018.0020.0022.0024.0026.0028.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614RbRb CRM Rb-3SD Rb-2SD Rb+2SD Rb+3SD Rb0.000.501.001.502.002.502764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SnSn Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Median400.0500.0600.0700.0800.0900.01000.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SrSr CRM Sr-3SD Sr-2SD Sr+2SD Sr+3SD Sr-0.200-0.1000.0000.1000.2000.3000.4000.5000.6002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614TaTa CRM Ta-3SD Ta-2SD Ta+2SD Ta+3SD Ta1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ThTh CRM Th-3SD Th-2SD Th+2SD Th+3SD Th0.5000.6000.7000.8000.9001.0001.1001.2002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614UU CRM U-3SD U-2SD U+2SD U+3SD U45.055.065.075.085.095.0105.0115.0125.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614VV CRM V-3SD V-2SD V+2SD V+3SD VFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials2190.150.170.190.210.230.250.270.290.310.330.352764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614WW Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% W Median80.090.0100.0110.0120.0130.0140.0150.0160.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ZrZr CRM Zr-3SD Zr-2SD Zr+2SD Zr+3SD Zr7.09.011.013.015.017.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614YY CRM Y-3SD Y-2SD Y+2SD Y+3SD Y7.09.011.013.015.017.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614LaLa CRM La-3SD La-2SD La+2SD La+3SD La18.020.022.024.026.028.030.032.034.036.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CeCe CRM Ce-3SD Ce-2SD Ce+2SD Ce+3SD Ce2.502.702.903.103.303.503.703.904.104.304.502764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614PrPr CRM Pr-3SD Pr-2SD Pr+2SD Pr+3SD Pr9.010.011.012.013.014.015.016.017.018.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614NdNd CRM Nd-3SD Nd-2SD Nd+2SD Nd+3SD Nd1.52.02.53.03.54.02764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SmSM CRM Sm-3SD Sm-2SD Sm+2SD Sm+3SD SmFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials2200.5000.6000.7000.8000.9001.0001.1001.2002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614EuEu CRM Eu-3SD Eu-2SD Eu+2SD Eu+3SD Eu1.502.002.503.003.502764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614GdGd CRM Gd-3SD Gd-2SD Gd+2SD Gd+3SD Gd0.200.250.300.350.400.450.500.552764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614TbTb CRM Tb-3SD Tb-2SD Tb+2SD Tb+3SD Tb0.200.250.300.350.400.450.500.550.600.652764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614HoHo CRM Ho-3SD Ho-2SD Ho+2SD Ho+3SD Ho0.050.100.150.200.252764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614TmTm-3SD Tm-2SD Tm+2SD Tm+3SD Tm Tm CRM0.600.801.001.201.401.601.802.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614YbYb-CRM Yb-3SD Yb-2SD Yb+2SD Yb+3SD Yb1.201.401.601.802.002.202.402.602.803.003.202764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614DyDY CRM Dy-3SD Dy-2SD Dy+2SD Dy+3SD Dy0.600.801.001.201.401.601.802764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ErEr CRM Er-3SD Er-2SD Er+2SD Er+3SD ErFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials2210.100.120.140.160.180.200.220.240.260.280.302764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614LuLu-CRM Lu-3SD Lu-2SD Lu+2SD Lu+3SD Lu-0.30-0.100.100.300.500.700.901.101.302764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614MoMo CRM Mo-3SD Mo-2SD Mo+2SD Mo+3SD Mo-0.502.505.508.5011.5014.5017.5020.5023.502764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CuCu CRM Cu-3SD Cu-2SD Cu+2SD Cu+3SD Cu0.001.002.003.004.005.006.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614PbPb CRM Pb-3SD Pb-2SD Pb+2SD Pb+3SD Pb0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.0045.0050.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ZnZn CRM Zn-3SD Zn-2SD Zn+2SD Zn+3SD Zn3.004.005.006.007.008.009.0010.0011.0012.0013.002764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614NiNi CRM Ni-3SD Ni-2SD Ni+2SD Ni+3SD Ni0.000.100.200.300.400.500.600.702764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614AsAs Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% As Median0.030.040.040.050.050.060.060.070.072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614CdCd Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Cd MedianFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials2220.030.040.040.050.050.060.060.070.072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SbSb Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Sb Median0.030.040.040.050.050.060.060.070.072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614TlTl Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Tl Median0.150.170.190.210.230.250.270.290.310.330.352764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614SeSe Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Se Median0.030.040.040.050.050.060.060.070.072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614BiBi Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Bi Median0.030.040.040.050.050.060.060.070.072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614AgAg Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Ag Median0.130.180.230.280.330.382764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614AuAu Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Au Median0.0030.0040.0040.0050.0050.0060.0060.0070.0072764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614HgHg Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Hg Median0.030.230.430.630.831.031.231.431.632764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614ScSc Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Sc MedianFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials2230.150.250.350.450.550.650.752764113 2764123 2764134 2764142 NK1614TeTe Median-30% Median-20% Median+20% Median+30% Te MedianFigure A E 2  QA/QC charts for standard reference materials224Sample SiO2 SiO2 CRM SiO2-3SD SiO2-2SD SiO2+2SD SiO2+3SD2764113 64.44 64.50 62.10 62.90 66.10 66.902764123 63.89 64.50 62.10 62.90 66.10 66.902764134 64.77 64.50 62.10 62.90 66.10 66.902764142 64.60 64.50 62.10 62.90 66.10 66.90NK1614 65.00 64.50 62.10 62.90 66.10 66.90SiO2 (wt. %)certified value 64.5standard deviation 0.8K2O K2O CRM K2O-3SD K2O-2SD K2O+2SD K2O+3SD2764113 1.61 1.62 1.53 1.56 1.68 1.712764123 1.61 1.62 1.53 1.56 1.68 1.712764134 1.62 1.62 1.53 1.56 1.68 1.712764142 1.60 1.62 1.53 1.56 1.68 1.71NK1614 1.60 1.62 1.53 1.56 1.68 1.71K2O (wt. %)certified value 1.62standard deviation 0.03Fe2O3 Fe2O3 CRM Fe2O3-3SD Fe2O3-2SD Fe2O3+2SD Fe2O3+3SD2764113 4.36 4.37 4.04 4.15 4.59 4.702764123 4.33 4.37 4.04 4.15 4.59 4.702764134 4.37 4.37 4.04 4.15 4.59 4.702764142 4.27 4.37 4.04 4.15 4.59 4.70NK1614 4.31 4.37 4.04 4.15 4.59 4.70Fe2O3 (wt. %)certified value 4.37standard deviation 0.11TiO2 TiO2 CRM TiO2-3SD TiO2-2SD TiO2+2SD TiO2+3SD2764113 0.49 0.50 0.44 0.46 0.54 0.562764123 0.48 0.50 0.44 0.46 0.54 0.562764134 0.49 0.50 0.44 0.46 0.54 0.562764142 0.58 0.50 0.44 0.46 0.54 0.56NK1614 0.50 0.50 0.44 0.46 0.54 0.56TiO2 (wt. %)certified value 0.50standard deviation 0.02A D 2  QA/QC for standard reference materialsTable A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 225Sample Al2O3 Al2O3 CRM Al2O3-3SD Al2O3-2SD Al2O3+2SD Al2O3+3SD2764113 16.57 16.61 16.07 16.25 16.97 17.152764123 16.43 16.61 16.07 16.25 16.97 17.152764134 16.63 16.61 16.07 16.25 16.97 17.152764142 16.58 16.61 16.07 16.25 16.97 17.15NK1614 16.68 16.61 16.07 16.25 16.97 17.15Al2O3 (wt. %)certified value 16.61standard deviation 0.18MnO MnO CRM MnO-3SD MnO-2SD MnO+2SD MnO+3SD2764113 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.082764123 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.082764134 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.082764142 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08NK1614 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08MnO (wt. %)certified value 0.08standard deviation 8.31E-17CaO CaO CRM CaO-3SD CaO-2SD CaO+2SD CaO+3SD2764113 4.88 4.96 4.63 4.74 5.18 5.292764123 4.87 4.96 4.63 4.74 5.18 5.292764134 4.88 4.96 4.63 4.74 5.18 5.292764142 4.90 4.96 4.63 4.74 5.18 5.29NK1614 4.96 4.96 4.63 4.74 5.18 5.29CaO (wt. %)certified value 4.96standard deviation 0.11P2O5 P2O5 CRM P2O5-3SD P2O5-2SD P2O5+2SD P2O5+3SD2764113 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.202764123 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.202764134 0.18 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.202764142 0.18 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.20NK1614 0.18 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.20P2O5 (wt. %)certified value 0.17standard deviation 0.01Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials226Sample Na2O Na2O CRM Na2O-3SD Na2O-2SD Na2O+2SD Na2O+3SD2764113 4.34 4.33 3.79 3.97 4.69 4.872764123 4.38 4.33 3.79 3.97 4.69 4.872764134 4.33 4.33 3.79 3.97 4.69 4.872764142 4.35 4.33 3.79 3.97 4.69 4.87NK1614 4.28 4.33 3.79 3.97 4.69 4.87Na2O (wt. %)certified value 4.33standard deviation 0.18Ba Ba CRM Ba-3SD Ba-2SD Ba+2SD Ba+3SD2764113 0.06 0.06 0.0000 0.0200 0.1000 0.12002764123 0.06 0.06 0.0000 0.0200 0.1000 0.12002764134 0.07 0.06 0.0000 0.0200 0.1000 0.12002764142 0.06 0.06 0.0000 0.0200 0.1000 0.1200NK1614 0.06 0.06 0.0000 0.0200 0.1000 0.1200Ba (%)certified value 0.06standard deviation 0.02MgO MgO CRM MgO-3SD MgO-2SD MgO+2SD MgO+3SD2764113 2.65 2.65 2.47 2.53 2.77 2.832764123 2.62 2.65 2.47 2.53 2.77 2.832764134 2.66 2.65 2.47 2.53 2.77 2.832764142 2.62 2.65 2.47 2.53 2.77 2.83NK1614 2.57 2.65 2.47 2.53 2.77 2.83MgO (wt. %)certified value 2.65standard deviation 0.06Cr2O3 CR2O3 CRM Cr2O3-3SD Cr2O3-2SD Cr2O3+2SD Cr2O3+3SD2764113 0.005 0.01 0.0010 0.0040 0.0160 0.01902764123 0.005 0.01 0.0010 0.0040 0.0160 0.01902764134 0.005 0.01 0.0010 0.0040 0.0160 0.01902764142 0.01 0.01 0.0010 0.0040 0.0160 0.0190NK1614 0.01 0.01 0.0010 0.0040 0.0160 0.0190Cr2O3 (wt. %)certified value 0.010standard deviation 0.003Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 227Sample LOI LOI CRM LOI-3SD LOI-2SD LOI+2SD LOI+3SD2764113 0.12 0.14 -0.43 -0.24 0.52 0.712764123 0.15 0.14 -0.43 -0.24 0.52 0.712764134 0.17 0.14 -0.43 -0.24 0.52 0.712764142 0.14 0.14 -0.43 -0.24 0.52 0.71NK1614 0.15 0.14 -0.43 -0.24 0.52 0.71LOI (%)certified value 0.14standard deviation 0.19Sr Sr-CRM Sr-3SD Sr-2SD Sr+2SD Sr+3SD2764113 0.07 0.073 0.001 0.025 0.121 0.1452764123 0.07 0.073 0.001 0.025 0.121 0.1452764134 0.07 0.073 0.001 0.025 0.121 0.1452764142 0.08 0.073 0.001 0.025 0.121 0.145NK1614 0.08 0.073 0.001 0.025 0.121 0.145Sr (%)certified value 0.073standard deviation 0.024Cu Cu M M+30% M +20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.0005 0.00050 0.00065 0.00060 0.00040 0.000352764123 0.0005 0.00050 0.00065 0.00060 0.00040 0.000352764134 0.0005 0.00050 0.00065 0.00060 0.00040 0.000352764142 0.0005 0.00050 0.00065 0.00060 0.00040 0.00035NK1614 0.0005 0.00050 0.00065 0.00060 0.00040 0.00035Cu (wt%)Median 0.0005V2O5 V2O5 CMR V2O5-3SD V2O5-2SD V2O5+2SD V2O5 +3SD2764113 0.01 0.016 0.0100 0.0120 0.0200 0.01602764123 0.02 0.016 0.0100 0.0120 0.0200 0.01602764134 0.02 0.016 0.0100 0.0120 0.0200 0.01602764142 0.01 0.016 0.0100 0.0120 0.0200 0.0160NK1614 0.02 0.016 0.0100 0.0120 0.0200 0.0160V2O5 (wt. %)certified value 0.016standard deviation 0.002Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 228Sample Ni Ni M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.00500 0.0050 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.00352764123 0.00400 0.0050 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.00352764134 0.00300 0.0050 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.00352764142 0.00500 0.0050 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.0035NK1614 0.00500 0.0050 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.0035Ni (wt%)Median 0.005Zn Zn-CRM Zn-3SD Zn-2SD Zn+2SD Zn+3SD2764113 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.0082764123 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.0082764134 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.0082764142 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.008NK1614 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.008Zn (wt. %)certified value 0.005standard deviation 0.001Pb Pb M M+30% M +20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0006 0.0004 0.00042764123 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0006 0.0004 0.00042764134 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0006 0.0004 0.00042764142 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0006 0.0004 0.0004NK1614 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0006 0.0004 0.0004Pb (wt%)Median 0.0005Zr Zr CRM Zr-3SD Zr-2SD Zr+2SD Zr+3SD2764113 0.01 0.009 -0.003 0.001 0.017 0.0212764123 0.01 0.009 -0.003 0.001 0.017 0.0212764134 0.01 0.009 -0.003 0.001 0.017 0.0212764142 0.01 0.009 -0.003 0.001 0.017 0.021NK1614 0.01 0.009 -0.003 0.001 0.017 0.021Zr (wt. %)standard deviation 0.009certified value 0.004.Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 229Sample Ba Ba CRM Ba-3SD Ba-2SD Ba+2SD Ba+3SD2764113 646.00 616.00 433.00 494.00 738.00 799.002764123 643.00 616.00 433.00 494.00 738.00 799.002764134 628.00 616.00 433.00 494.00 738.00 799.002764142 612.00 616.00 433.00 494.00 738.00 799.00NK1614 659.00 616.00 433.00 494.00 738.00 799.00Ba (ppm)certified value 616standard deviation 61Ga Ga CRM Ga-3SD Ga-2SD Ga+2SD Ga+3SD2764113 16.10 17.40 11.70 13.60 21.20 23.102764123 18.20 17.40 11.70 13.60 21.20 23.102764134 18.80 17.40 11.70 13.60 21.20 23.102764142 17.20 17.40 11.70 13.60 21.20 23.10NK1614 18.00 17.40 11.70 13.60 21.20 23.10Ga (ppm)certified value 17.4standard deviation 1.9Be Be M M+30% M+20% M-20% M -30 %2764113 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764123 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764134 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764142 2.00 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.35NK1614 2.00 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.35`Be (wt %)Median 0.50Hf Hf CRM Hf-3SD Hf-2SD Hf+2SD Hf+3SD2764113 3.10 3.20 2.30 2.60 3.80 4.102764123 2.90 3.20 2.30 2.60 3.80 4.102764134 3.20 3.20 2.30 2.60 3.80 4.102764142 3.20 3.20 2.30 2.60 3.80 4.10NK1614 3.40 3.20 2.30 2.60 3.80 4.10Hf (ppm)certified value 3.2standard deviation 0.3Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials230Sample Co Co CRM Co-3SD Co-2SD Co+2SD Co+3SD2764113 11.50 11.60 -12.10 -4.20 11.60 35.302764123 13.00 11.60 -12.10 -4.20 11.60 35.302764134 11.50 11.60 -12.10 -4.20 11.60 35.302764142 11.60 11.60 -12.10 -4.20 11.60 35.30NK1614 12.30 11.60 -12.10 -4.20 11.60 35.30Co (ppm)certified value 11.6standard deviation 7.9Nb Nb CRM Nb-3SD Nb-2SD Nb+2SD Nb+3SD2764113 2.50 3.30 0.30 1.30 5.30 6.302764123 2.70 3.30 0.30 1.30 5.30 6.302764134 3.60 3.30 0.30 1.30 5.30 6.302764142 3.30 3.30 0.30 1.30 5.30 6.30NK1614 3.70 3.30 0.30 1.30 5.30 6.30Nb (ppm)certified value 3.3standard deviation 1.0Cs Cs CRM Cs-3SD Cs-2SD Cs+2SD Cs+3SD2764113 0.40 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.60 0.702764123 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.60 0.702764134 0.40 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.60 0.702764142 0.40 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.60 0.70NK1614 0.30 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.60 0.70Cs (ppm)certified value 0.4standard deviation 0.1Rb Rb CRM Rb-3SD Rb-2SD Rb+2SD Rb+3SD2764113 20.80 21.50 14.90 17.10 25.90 28.102764123 21.60 21.50 14.90 17.10 25.90 28.102764134 21.50 21.50 14.90 17.10 25.90 28.102764142 21.30 21.50 14.90 17.10 25.90 28.10NK1614 21.70 21.50 14.90 17.10 25.90 28.10Rb (ppm)certified value 21.5standard deviation 2.2Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 231Sample Sr Sr CRM Sr-3SD Sr-2SD Sr+2SD Sr+3SD2764113 748.00 737.0 504.20 581.80 892.20 969.802764123 782.90 737.0 504.20 581.80 892.20 969.802764134 746.50 737.0 504.20 581.80 892.20 969.802764142 749.00 737.0 504.20 581.80 892.20 969.80NK1614 751.80 737.0 504.20 581.80 892.20 969.80Sr (ppm)certified value 737.0standard deviation 77.6Ta Ta CRM Ta-3SD Ta-2SD Ta+2SD Ta+3SD2764113 0.20 0.200 -0.100 0.000 0.400 0.5002764123 0.20 0.200 -0.100 0.000 0.400 0.5002764134 0.10 0.200 -0.100 0.000 0.400 0.5002764142 0.20 0.200 -0.100 0.000 0.400 0.500NK1614 0.20 0.200 -0.100 0.000 0.400 0.500Ta (ppm)certified value 0.2standard deviation 0.1Th Th CRM Th-3SD Th-2SD Th+2SD Th+3SD2764113 1.70 2.0 1.10 1.40 2.60 2.902764123 2.10 2.0 1.10 1.40 2.60 2.902764134 1.80 2.0 1.10 1.40 2.60 2.902764142 1.90 2.0 1.10 1.40 2.60 2.90NK1614 1.80 2.0 1.10 1.40 2.60 2.90Th (ppm)certified value 2.0standard deviation 0.3U U CRM U-3SD U-2SD U+2SD U+3SD2764113 0.90 0.800 0.50 0.60 1.00 1.102764123 0.90 0.800 0.50 0.60 1.00 1.102764134 0.90 0.800 0.50 0.60 1.00 1.102764142 0.60 0.800 0.50 0.60 1.00 1.10NK1614 0.80 0.800 0.50 0.60 1.00 1.10U (ppm)certified value 0.8standard deviation 0.1Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 232Sample Sn Sn M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.20 0.80 0.702764123 2.00 1.00 1.30 1.20 0.80 0.702764134 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.20 0.80 0.702764142 2.00 1.00 1.30 1.20 0.80 0.70NK1614 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.20 0.80 0.70Sn (ppm)Median 0.5W W M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764123 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764134 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764142 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18NK1614 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18W (ppm)Median 0.25As As M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.60 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764123 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764134 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764142 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18NK1614 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18As (ppm)Median 0.25Cd Cd M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764123 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764134 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764142 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035NK1614 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035Cd (ppm)Median 0.05Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 233Sample V V CRM V-3SD V-2SD V+2SD V+3SD2764113 67.00 86.0 47.00 60.00 112.00 125.002764123 75.00 86.0 47.00 60.00 112.00 125.002764134 71.00 86.0 47.00 60.00 112.00 125.002764142 89.00 86.0 47.00 60.00 112.00 125.00NK1614 88.00 86.0 47.00 60.00 112.00 125.00V (ppm)certified value 86standard deviation 13La La CRM La-3SD La-2SD La+2SD La+3SD2764113 13.00 13.3 9.70 10.90 15.70 16.902764123 13.70 13.3 9.70 10.90 15.70 16.902764134 13.10 13.3 9.70 10.90 15.70 16.902764142 12.50 13.3 9.70 10.90 15.70 16.90NK1614 12.80 13.3 9.70 10.90 15.70 16.90La (ppm)certified value 13.3standard deviation 1.2Ce Ce CRM Ce-3SD Ce-2SD Ce+2SD Ce+3SD2764113 28.90 27.6 19.80 22.40 32.80 35.402764123 28.30 27.6 19.80 22.40 32.80 35.402764134 27.60 27.6 19.80 22.40 32.80 35.402764142 26.70 27.6 19.80 22.40 32.80 35.40NK1614 27.70 27.6 19.80 22.40 32.80 35.40Ce (ppm)certified value 27.6standard deviation 2.6Zr Zr CRM Zr-3SD Zr-2SD Zr+2SD Zr+3SD2764113 116.00 121.0 85.90 97.60 144.40 156.102764123 122.00 121.0 85.90 97.60 144.40 156.102764134 122.10 121.0 85.90 97.60 144.40 156.102764142 118.20 121.0 85.90 97.60 144.40 156.10NK1614 130.70 121.0 85.90 97.60 144.40 156.10Zr (ppm)certified value 121.0standard deviation 11.7Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 234Sample Y Y CRM Y-3SD Y-2SD Y+2SD Y+3SD2764113 12.20 12.5 7.40 9.10 15.90 17.602764123 12.60 12.5 7.40 9.10 15.90 17.602764134 12.80 12.5 7.40 9.10 15.90 17.602764142 12.60 12.5 7.40 9.10 15.90 17.60NK1614 12.90 12.5 7.40 9.10 15.90 17.60Y (ppm)certified value 12.5standard deviation 1.7Pr Pr Pr CRM Pr-3SD Pr-2SD Pr+2SD Pr+3SD2764113 3.52 3.52 3.49 2.71 2.97 4.01 4.272764123 3.62 3.62 3.49 2.71 2.97 4.01 4.272764134 3.49 3.49 3.49 2.71 2.97 4.01 4.272764142 3.35 3.35 3.49 2.71 2.97 4.01 4.27NK1614 3.59 3.59 3.49 2.71 2.97 4.01 4.27certified value Pr (ppm)standard deviation 3.490.26Nd Nd CRM Nd-3SD Nd-2SD Nd+2SD Nd+3SD2764113 15.00 14.3 10.40 11.70 16.90 18.202764123 14.30 14.3 10.40 11.70 16.90 18.202764134 14.40 14.3 10.40 11.70 16.90 18.202764142 14.00 14.3 10.40 11.70 16.90 18.20NK1614 16.00 14.3 10.40 11.70 16.90 18.20Nd (ppm)certified value 14.3standard deviation 1.3Sm SM CRM Sm-3SD Sm-2SD Sm+2SD Sm+3SD2764113 3.02 2.850 1.89 2.21 3.49 3.812764123 2.77 2.850 1.89 2.21 3.49 3.812764134 2.98 2.850 1.89 2.21 3.49 3.812764142 2.71 2.850 1.89 2.21 3.49 3.81NK1614 2.94 2.850 1.89 2.21 3.49 3.81Sm (ppm)certified value 2.85standard deviation 0.32Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 235Sample Eu Eu CRM Eu-3SD Eu-2SD Eu+2SD Eu+3SD2764113 0.78 0.830 0.56 0.65 0.96 1.102764123 0.85 0.830 0.56 0.65 1.03 1.102764134 0.83 0.830 0.56 0.65 1.01 1.102764142 0.82 0.830 0.56 0.65 1.00 1.10NK1614 0.86 0.830 0.56 0.65 1.04 1.10Eu (ppm)certified value 0.83standard deviation 0.09Tb Tb CRM Tb-3SD Tb-2SD Tb+2SD Tb+3SD2764113 0.34 0.40 0.28 0.32 0.48 0.522764123 0.38 0.40 0.28 0.32 0.48 0.522764134 0.40 0.40 0.28 0.32 0.48 0.522764142 0.38 0.40 0.28 0.32 0.48 0.52NK1614 0.41 0.40 0.28 0.32 0.48 0.52Tb (ppm)certified value 0.40standard deviation 0.04Tm Tm CRM Tm-3SD Tm-2SD Tm+2SD Tm+3SD2764113 0.18 0.19 0.10 0.13 0.25 0.282764123 0.20 0.19 0.10 0.13 0.25 0.282764134 0.20 0.19 0.10 0.19 0.25 0.282764142 0.19 0.19 0.10 0.13 0.25 0.28NK1614 0.20 0.19 0.10 0.13 0.25 0.28Tm (ppm)certified value 0.19standard deviation 0.03Yb Yb-CRM Yb-3SD Yb-2SD Yb+2SD Yb+3SD2764113 1.29 1.28 0.71 0.90 1.66 1.852764123 1.42 1.28 0.71 0.90 1.66 1.852764134 1.42 1.28 0.71 0.90 1.66 1.852764142 1.37 1.28 0.71 0.90 1.66 1.85NK1614 1.41 1.28 0.71 0.90 1.66 1.85Yb (ppm)certified value 1.28standard deviation 0.19Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 236Sample Gd Gd CRM Gd-3SD Gd-2SD Gd+2SD Gd+3SD2764113 2.75 2.66 1.88 2.14 3.18 3.442764123 2.74 2.66 1.88 2.14 3.18 3.442764134 2.84 2.66 1.88 2.14 3.18 3.442764142 2.75 2.66 1.88 2.14 3.18 3.44NK1614 2.52 2.66 1.88 2.14 3.18 3.44Gd (ppm)certified value 2.66standard deviation 0.26Dy DY CRM Dy-3SD Dy-2SD Dy+2SD Dy+3SD2764113 2.23 2.26 1.60 1.82 2.70 2.922764123 2.54 2.26 1.60 1.82 2.70 2.922764134 2.19 2.26 1.60 1.82 2.70 2.922764142 2.29 2.26 1.60 1.82 2.70 2.92NK1614 2.49 2.26 1.60 1.82 2.70 2.92Dy (ppm)certified value 2.26standard deviation 0.22Ho Ho CRM Ho-3SD Ho-2SD Ho+2SD Ho+3SD2764113 0.42 0.44 0.26 0.32 0.56 0.622764123 0.43 0.44 0.26 0.32 0.56 0.622764134 0.42 0.44 0.26 0.32 0.56 0.622764142 0.45 0.44 0.26 0.32 0.56 0.62NK1614 0.46 0.44 0.26 0.32 0.56 0.62Ho (ppm)certified value 0.44standard deviation 0.06Er Er CRM Er-3SD Er-2SD Er+2SD Er+3SD2764113 1.30 1.28 0.92 1.04 1.52 1.642764123 1.35 1.28 0.92 0.92 1.52 1.642764134 1.36 1.28 0.92 0.92 1.52 1.642764142 1.30 1.28 0.92 0.92 1.52 1.64NK1614 1.42 1.28 0.92 0.92 1.52 1.64Er (ppm)certified value 1.28standard deviation 0.12Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 237Sample Lu Lu-CRM Lu-3SD Lu-2SD Lu+2SD Lu+3SD2764113 0.20 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.26 0.292764123 0.21 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.26 0.292764134 0.19 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.26 0.292764142 0.18 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.26 0.29NK1614 0.22 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.26 0.29Lu (ppm)certified value 0.20standard deviation 0.03Mo Mo CRM Mo-3SD Mo-2SD Mo+2SD Mo+3SD2764113 0.40 0.52 -0.08 0.12 0.92 1.122764123 0.50 0.52 -0.08 0.12 0.92 1.122764134 0.60 0.52 -0.08 0.12 0.92 1.122764142 0.50 0.52 -0.08 0.12 0.92 1.12NK1614 0.50 0.52 -0.08 0.12 0.92 1.12Mo (ppm)certified value 0.52standard deviation 0.2Cu Cu CRM Cu-3SD Cu-2SD Cu+2SD Cu+3SD2764113 11.40 11.90 -0.40 3.70 20.10 24.202764123 11.30 11.90 -0.40 3.70 20.10 24.202764134 11.30 11.90 -0.40 3.70 20.10 24.202764142 11.90 11.90 -0.40 3.70 20.10 24.20NK1614 11.30 11.90 -0.40 3.70 20.10 24.20Cu (ppm)certified value 11.9standard deviation 4.1Pb Pb CRM Pb-3SD Pb-2SD Pb+2SD Pb+3SD2764113 2.50 2.90 0.20 1.10 4.70 5.602764123 2.70 2.90 0.20 1.10 4.70 5.602764134 2.70 2.90 0.20 1.10 4.70 5.602764142 2.70 2.90 0.20 1.10 4.70 5.60NK1614 3.00 2.90 0.20 1.10 4.70 5.60Pb (ppm)certified value 2.9standard deviation 0.9Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 238Sample Zn Zn CRM Zn-3SD Zn-2SD Zn+2SD Zn+3SD2764113 23.00 24.00 0.00000 8.00 40.00 48.002764123 24.00 24.00 0.00000 8.00 40.00 48.002764134 26.00 24.00 0.00000 8.00 40.00 48.002764142 25.00 24.00 0.00000 8.00 40.00 48.00NK1614 24.00 24.00 0.00000 8.00 40.00 48.00Zn (ppm)certified value 24standard deviation 8Ni Ni CRM Ni-3SD Ni-2SD Ni+2SD Ni+3SD2764113 7.40 8.00 4.70 5.80 10.20 11.302764123 7.20 8.00 4.70 5.80 10.20 11.302764134 7.50 8.00 4.70 5.80 10.20 11.302764142 8.20 8.00 4.70 5.80 10.20 11.30NK1614 7.80 8.00 4.70 5.80 10.20 11.30Ni (ppm)certified value 8.0standard deviation 1.1Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 239Sample Sb Sb M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764123 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764134 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764142 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035NK1614 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035Sb (ppm)Median 0.05Bi Bi M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764123 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764134 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764142 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035NK1614 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035Bi (ppm)Median 0.05Ag Ag M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764123 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764134 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764142 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035NK1614 0.05 0.050 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035Ag (ppm)Median 0.05Sc Sc M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.5 0.5 0.65 0.6 0.4 0.352764123 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764134 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764142 1.10 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.35NK1614 1.40 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.35Sc (ppm)Median 0.50Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 240Sample Au Au M M+30% Me+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764123 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764134 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764142 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18NK1614 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18Au (ppm)Median 0.25Se Se M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764123 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764134 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.182764142 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18NK1614 0.25 0.25 0.33 0.30 0.20 0.18Se (ppm)Median 0.25Hg Hg M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.005 0.005 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.00352764123 0.005 0.005 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.00352764134 0.005 0.005 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.00352764142 0.005 0.005 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.0035NK1614 0.005 0.005 0.0065 0.0060 0.0040 0.0035Hg (ppm)Median 0.005Te Te M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.4 0.352764123 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764134 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.352764142 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.35NK1614 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.35Te (ppm)Median 0.50Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 241Sample Tl Tl M M+30% M+20% M-20% M-30%2764113 0.05 0.05 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764123 0.05 0.05 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764134 0.05 0.05 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.0352764142 0.05 0.05 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035NK1614 0.05 0.05 0.065 0.060 0.040 0.035Median Tl (ppm)0.05Table A E 2  QA/QC calculations for standard reference materials 242Sample SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O MnONK15-051-Z5 61.46 22.55 1.46 4.85 0.61 8.16 0.67 0.05NK15-100 48.33 15.85 11.43 10.23 6.42 2.93 1.45 0.21NK15-051-Z5-D 60.17 21.96 2.26 4.73 0.93 7.91 0.71 0.07NK15-100-D 49.55 16.68 10.32 9.38 4.91 2.90 3.07 0.19Sample P2O5 Ba LOI Sr V2O5 Zn SUM TOT/CNK15-051-Z5 0.05 0.09 0.45 0.224 0.005 0.002 100.78 <0.02NK15-100 0.24 0.06 1.89 0.046 0.062 0.012 100.11 0.03NK15-051-Z5-D 0.05 0.09 0.85 0.213 0.008 0.003 100.15 0.03NK15-100-D 0.27 0.06 2.39 0.048 0.060 0.007 100.65 0.17Sample Ba Co Ga Hf Nb Rb Sr ThNK15-051-Z5 929 2.6 16.6 0.5 0.3 3.3 2330.2 0.3NK15-100 714 41.2 17.2 1.6 1.2 35.1 674.6 2.0NK15-051-Z5-D 933 4.3 17.6 0.7 1.6 4.4 2269.8 <0.2NK15-100-D 716 31.2 16.9 1.3 0.9 75.5 610.4 1.8Sample Zr Y La Ce Pr Nd Sm EuNK15-051-Z5 17.6 3.4 1.9 2.9 0.49 2.5 0.60 0.22NK15-100 54.1 19.0 11.2 23.0 3.24 14.7 3.29 1.11NK15-051-Z5-D 29.6 5.8 1.5 3.6 0.55 2.4 0.57 0.33NK15-100-D 42.8 15.7 9.5 22.0 2.78 12.6 2.93 0.97Sample Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu AuNK15-051-Z5 0.09 0.74 0.11 0.41 0.06 0.37 0.05 0.6NK15-100 0.54 3.66 0.68 2.05 0.25 1.89 0.26 2.4NK15-051-Z5-D 0.13 0.98 0.20 0.57 0.10 0.65 0.09 1.1NK15-100-D 0.48 2.74 0.58 1.76 0.24 1.62 0.26 1.8Sample Ni As ZnNK15-051-Z5 0.5 0.6 7NK15-100 12.2 1.7 77NK15-051-Z5-D 1.4 1.2 16NK15-100-D 9.8 0.9 47Sample Cu Ni Pb Cr2O3 SO3 Zr Be MoNK15-051-Z5 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01 <0.002 <0.002 1 <0.1NK15-100 0.008 0.002 <0.001 <0.01 0.007 <0.002 2 0.3NK15-051-Z5-D <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.01 0.002 <0.002 <1 0.2NK15-100-D 0.015 0.002 <0.001 <0.01 0.006 <0.002 <1 0.1Sample W U Ta Sn Mo Hg Tl ScNK15-051-Z5 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1 <1 <0.1 <0.01 <0.1 <1NK15-100 0.8 1 0.2 <1 0.3 0.02 <0.1 <1NK15-051-Z5-D <0.5 0.2 <0.1 <1 0.2 <0.01 <0.1 <1NK15-100-D 0.5 0.9 0.1 <1 0.1 <0.01 <0.1 <1Sample Cd Sb Bi Ag TeNK15-051-Z5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <1NK15-100 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <1NK15-051-Z5-D <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <1NK15-100-D <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <1Appendix E 3   QA/QC for sample duplicatesTable A E 3  Whole-rock geochemical analysis of rock samples and their field duplicates243024681012140 2 4 6 8 10 12 14CaO0123456789100 2 4 6 8 10MgOA E 3  QA/QC charts for sample duplicatesFigure A E 3  QA/QC for sample duplicates. Yellow lines show 10% and red lines show 20% deviation envelopes from the 1:1 green line.05101520250 5 10 15 20 25Al2O3010203040506070800 20 40 60 80SiO2024681012140 5 10 15Fe2O30123456789100 2 4 6 8 10Na2O24400.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5MnO00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Sr00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5BaFigure A E 3  QA/QC for sample duplicates. Yellow lines show 10% and red lines show 20% deviation envelopes from the 1:1 green line.0123456789100 2 4 6 8 10K2O00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5TiO200.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5P2O5245024681012141618200 5 10 15 20Ga051015202530350 5 10 15 20 25 30 35Co00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Zn00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Hf0123456789100 2 4 6 8 10Nb010203040506070800 20 40 60 80RbFigure A E 3  QA/QC for sample duplicates. Yellow lines show 10% and red lines show 20% deviation envelopes from the 1:1 green line.2460501001502002503003500 50 100 150 200 250 300 350V01020304050600 10 20 30 40 50 60Zr01020304050600 10 20 30 40 50 60Zr05101520250 5 10 15 20 25Y024681012140 5 10 15La00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5SmFigure A E 3  QA/QC for sample duplicates. Yellow lines show 10% and red lines show 20% deviation envelopes from the 1:1 green line.24700.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Eu00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Tb00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Dy00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Ho00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5Yb00.511.522.533.544.550 1 2 3 4 5LuFigure A E 3  QA/QC for sample duplicates. Yellow lines show 10% and red lines show 20% deviation envelopes from the 1:1 green line.2480204060801001201401601802000 50 100 150 200CuFigure A E 3  QA/QC for sample duplicates. Yellow lines show 10% and red lines show 20% deviation envelopes from the 1:1 green line.249CN15-031-48.30 T-7CN15-031-48.30 T-1 CN15-031-48.30 T-6CN15-031-48.30 2-4CN15-031-48.30 3-2 CN15-031-48.30 3-3Appendix F U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS analysisFigure A F  CL images of zircons used for CA-ID-TIMS analysis from sample CN15-031-48.30m250CN15-031-48.30 3-4Figure A F  CL images of zircons used for CA-ID-TIMS analysis from sample CN15-031-48.30m251TR91-20-007 2-1 TR91-20-007 2-2TR91-20-007 2-3 TR91-20-007 2-7TR91-20-007 T-3 TR91-20-007 T-7Figure A F  CL images of zircons used for CA-ID-TIMS analysis from sample TR91-20-007252WC-008-26.50 3-3WC-008-26.50 3-8WC-008-26.50 2-5WC-008-26.50 2-4WC-008-26.50 T-2Figure A F  CL images of zircons used for CA-ID-TIMS analysis from sample WC-008-26.50m253WC-002-156.30 T-1 WC-002-156.30 2-4WC-002-156.30 3-3 WC-002-156.30 T-3WC-002-156.30 3-5 WC-002-156.30 3-8Figure A F  CL images of zircons used for CA-ID-TIMS analysis from sample WC-002-156.30m254Appendix G U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysisFigure A G 1  CL images of analyzed zircons from sample CN15-032-57.91m. Yellow arrow marks the direction of laser track.CN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91m255CN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mFigure A G 1  CL images of analyzed zircons from sample CN15-032-57.91m. Yellow arrow marks the direction of laser track.256CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mFigure A G 1  CL images of analyzed zircons from sample CN15-032-57.91m. Yellow arrow marks the direction of laser track. 257CN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mFigure A G 1  CL images of analyzed zircons from sample CN15-032-57.91m. Yellow arrow marks the direction of laser track. 258CN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91m CN15-032-57.91mCN15-032-57.91mFigure A G 1  CL images of analyzed zircons from sample CN15-032-57.91m. Yellow arrow marks the direction of laser track.2590.02650.02750.02850.02950.03050.03150.185 0.195 0.205 0.215 0.225 0.235 0.245206 Pb/238 U207Pb/235U180190200Concordia Age = 190.0 ±4.7 Ma(95% confidence, decay-const. errs included)data-point error ellipses are 2σFigure A G 2  U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of zircon in sample CN15-032-57.91m. Conventional U-Pb concordia diagram for the third group of zircons. This population yields a weighted av-erage isotopic age of 188.1 ± 4.9 Ma [2.6%] 2σ Ma. Many of the analysed grains are of low U concentration (98-178 ppm) zircon (except grain 26, 638 ppm) and dominated by recrystallized metamorphic domains (dark CL areas). The isotopic age of these grains is interpreted to represent the timing of Pb loss.260207Pb/235Pb 207Pb/235Pb Int2SE 207Pb/235Pb Prop2SE 206Pb/238Pb 206Pb/238Pb Int2SECN15-032-57 91m_1 0.2317 0.0087 0.0093 0.03337 0.00082CN15-032-57 91m_2 0.219 0.023 0.023 0.0314 0.0012CN15-032-57 91m_3 0.2282 0.0086 0.0092 0.03257 0.0006CN15-032-57 91m_4 0.207 0.011 0.012 0.02997 0.00068CN15-032-57 91m_5 0.211 0.015 0.016 0.0301 0.001CN15-032-57 91m_6 0.434 0.011 0.013 0.0554 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_7 0.221 0.019 0.012 0.0316 0.0014CN15-032-57 91m_8 0.2234 0.0045 0.0055 0.03182 0.00053CN15-032-57 91m_9 0.218 0.011 0.013 0.0326 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_10 0.2097 0.0087 0.0092 0.03098 0.00065CN15-032-57 91m_11 0.2119 0.0086 0.0091 0.03053 0.00071CN15-032-57 91m_12 0.208 0.013 0.014 0.03073 0.00083CN15-032-57 91m_13 0.21 0.012 0.012 0.02994 0.00081CN15-032-57 91m_14 0.213 0.012 0.012 0.03092 0.00078CN15-032-57 91m_15 0.235 0.0092 0.0097 0.03344 0.00069CN15-032-57 91m_16 0.2212 0.0079 0.0085 0.03145 0.00063CN15-032-57 91m_17 0.218 0.012 0.013 0.0308 0.00096CN15-032-57 91m_18 0.223 0.01 0.01 0.03176 0.00068CN15-032-57 91m_19 0.2169 0.0096 0.0085 0.03189 0.00095CN15-032-57 91m_20 0.215 0.013 0.0092 0.03211 0.0009CN15-032-57 91m_21 0.217 0.0092 0.0097 0.03053 0.00076CN15-032-57 91m_22 0.209 0.011 0.011 0.03126 0.00081CN15-032-57 91m_23 0.2189 0.0099 0.01 0.03168 0.00067CN15-032-57 91m_24 0.212 0.014 0.014 0.0315 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_25 0.2247 0.0095 0.01 0.03166 0.00075CN15-032-57 91m_26 0.2163 0.0081 0.0087 0.02956 0.00069CN15-032-57 91m_27 0.2348 0.0057 0.0066 0.03353 0.00057CN15-032-57 91m_28 0.223 0.012 0.013 0.02848 0.00091CN15-032-57 91m_29 0.246 0.017 0.018 0.032 0.0024Isotopic Ratios Appendix H U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysisTable A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 261207Pb/235Pb 207Pb/235Pb Int2SE 207Pb/235Pb Prop2SE 206Pb/238Pb 206Pb/238Pb Int2SECN15-032-57 91m_1 0.2317 0.0087 0.0093 0.03337 0.00082CN15-032-57 91m_2 0.219 0.023 0.023 0.0314 0.0012CN15-032-57 91m_3 0.2282 0.0086 0.0092 0.03257 0.0006CN15-032-57 91m_4 0.207 0.011 0.012 0.02997 0.00068CN15-032-57 91m_5 0.211 0.015 0.016 0.0301 0.001CN15-032-57 91m_6 0.434 0.011 0.013 0.0554 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_7 0.221 0.019 0.012 0.0316 0.0014CN15-032-57 91m_8 0.2234 0.0045 0.0055 0.03182 0.00053CN15-032-57 91m_9 0.218 0.011 0.013 0.0326 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_10 0.2097 0.0087 0.0092 0.03098 0.00065CN15-032-57 91m_11 0.2119 0.0086 0.0091 0.03053 0.00071CN15-032-57 91m_12 0.208 0.013 0.014 0.03073 0.00083CN15-032-57 91m_13 0.21 0.012 0.012 0.02994 0.00081CN15-032-57 91m_14 0.213 0.012 0.012 0.03092 0.00078CN15-032-57 91m_15 0.235 0.0092 0.0097 0.03344 0.00069CN15-032-57 91m_16 0.2212 0.0079 0.0085 0.03145 0.00063CN15-032-57 91m_17 0.218 0.012 0.013 0.0308 0.00096CN15-032-57 91m_18 0.223 0.01 0.01 0.03176 0.00068CN15-032-57 91m_19 0.2169 0.0096 0.0085 0.03189 0.00095CN15-032-57 91m_20 0.215 0.013 0.0092 0.03211 0.0009CN15-032-57 91m_21 0.217 0.0092 0.0097 0.03053 0.00076CN15-032-57 91m_22 0.209 0.011 0.011 0.03126 0.00081CN15-032-57 91m_23 0.2189 0.0099 0.01 0.03168 0.00067CN15-032-57 91m_24 0.212 0.014 0.014 0.0315 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_25 0.2247 0.0095 0.01 0.03166 0.00075CN15-032-57 91m_26 0.2163 0.0081 0.0087 0.02956 0.00069CN15-032-57 91m_27 0.2348 0.0057 0.0066 0.03353 0.00057CN15-032-57 91m_28 0.223 0.012 0.013 0.02848 0.00091CN15-032-57 91m_29 0.246 0.017 0.018 0.032 0.0024Isotopic Ratios Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 262206Pb/238Pb Prop2SEError Correlation 206Pb/238U vs 207Pb/235U 207Pb/206Pb 207Pb/206Pb Int2SE 207Pb/206Pb Prop2SECN15-032-57 91m_1 0.00098 0.30411 0.0508 0.0019 0.002CN15-032-57 91m_2 0.0013 -0.11496 0.0516 0.0058 0.0058CN15-032-57 91m_3 0.00079 0.073604 0.0511 0.0021 0.0022CN15-032-57 91m_4 0.00083 0.14028 0.051 0.0029 0.0029CN15-032-57 91m_5 0.0011 0.13672 0.0522 0.004 0.004CN15-032-57 91m_6 0.0014 0.32508 0.0568 0.0015 0.0017CN15-032-57 91m_7 0.00092 0.095963 0.0503 0.0046 0.003CN15-032-57 91m_8 0.00073 0.42941 0.05063 0.00092 0.0011CN15-032-57 91m_9 0.0014 0.036719 0.0483 0.0028 0.0018CN15-032-57 91m_10 0.00081 0.15115 0.0501 0.0023 0.0024CN15-032-57 91m_11 0.00086 0.16464 0.0513 0.0022 0.0023CN15-032-57 91m_12 0.00096 0.18724 0.0496 0.0031 0.0032CN15-032-57 91m_13 0.00093 0.049779 0.0524 0.0031 0.0032CN15-032-57 91m_14 0.00092 0.12079 0.0506 0.0029 0.003CN15-032-57 91m_15 0.00086 0.28331 0.051 0.0019 0.002CN15-032-57 91m_16 0.0008 0.17205 0.052 0.002 0.0021CN15-032-57 91m_17 0.0011 0.13806 0.0528 0.0032 0.0032CN15-032-57 91m_18 0.00084 0.086036 0.0523 0.0025 0.0025CN15-032-57 91m_19 0.00092 0.31801 0.05 0.0022 0.002CN15-032-57 91m_20 0.00091 0.20803 0.0483 0.0026 0.0021CN15-032-57 91m_21 0.0009 0.14733 0.053 0.0025 0.0025CN15-032-57 91m_22 0.00095 0.31695 0.0485 0.0024 0.0024CN15-032-57 91m_23 0.00083 0.13559 0.0513 0.0024 0.0025CN15-032-57 91m_24 0.0012 0.23409 0.0489 0.0031 0.0031CN15-032-57 91m_25 0.0009 0.21644 0.0517 0.0022 0.0023CN15-032-57 91m_26 0.00083 0.35433 0.0525 0.0018 0.0019CN15-032-57 91m_27 0.00078 0.26098 0.0509 0.0013 0.0014CN15-032-57 91m_28 0.001 0.13781 0.0588 0.0036 0.0037CN15-032-57 91m_29 0.0024 0.56661 0.0569 0.0039 0.004Isotopic RatiosTable A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 263207Pb/206Pb207Pb/206Pb Int2SE 207Pb/206Pb Prop2SE 207Pb/235U 207Pb/235U Int2SE 207Pb/235U Prop2SECN15-032-57 91m_1 220 77 80 211.4 7.4 7.9CN15-032-57 91m_2 180 200 200 197 19 19CN15-032-57 91m_3 215 78 81 206.8 7.1 7.6CN15-032-57 91m_4 162 99 100 188.6 9.4 9.7CN15-032-57 91m_5 200 140 140 191 13 13CN15-032-57 91m_6 447 57 61 364.2 8 9.1CN15-032-57 91m_7 190 180 110 201 16 10CN15-032-57 91m_8 213 39 46 204.4 3.7 4.6CN15-032-57 91m_9 110 110 71 199.5 9.2 9.5CN15-032-57 91m_10 156 83 86 193 7.5 8CN15-032-57 91m_11 205 81 84 193.2 7.2 7.6CN15-032-57 91m_12 150 110 120 191 11 12CN15-032-57 91m_13 220 110 110 191.1 9.8 10CN15-032-57 91m_14 160 100 100 193.2 9.8 10CN15-032-57 91m_15 219 75 78 212.9 7.5 8CN15-032-57 91m_16 241 74 77 202.1 6.7 7.2CN15-032-57 91m_17 260 110 120 198 10 11CN15-032-57 91m_18 226 86 89 202.5 8.3 8.7CN15-032-57 91m_19 171 87 79 198.5 8 7CN15-032-57 91m_20 130 110 82 196 11 7.7CN15-032-57 91m_21 281 91 94 199.3 7.9 8.3CN15-032-57 91m_22 145 95 98 191 9.1 9.4CN15-032-57 91m_23 212 90 91 200.4 8.5 8.9CN15-032-57 91m_24 140 120 120 194 11 12CN15-032-57 91m_25 236 85 88 204.5 7.8 8.3CN15-032-57 91m_26 293 74 78 198 6.7 7.2CN15-032-57 91m_27 229 52 57 213.4 4.7 5.4CN15-032-57 91m_28 450 120 120 204 10 11CN15-032-57 91m_29 430 140 140 222 14 15Apparent Age (Ma)Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors.  264206Pb/238Pb206Pb/238Pb Int2SE 206Pb/238Pb Prop2SE  U ppm  U ppm Int2SECN15-032-57 91m_1 211.5 5.1 6.1 295 10CN15-032-57 91m_2 199 7.8 8.3 81.4 2.3CN15-032-57 91m_3 206.5 3.7 4.9 178.5 2.8CN15-032-57 91m_4 190.2 4.3 5.2 107.8 3CN15-032-57 91m_5 191.3 6.5 7.2 98.8 3.3CN15-032-57 91m_6 347.6 6.4 8.4 477 30CN15-032-57 91m_7 200.7 8.9 5.7 252 12CN15-032-57 91m_8 201.9 3.3 4.6 1641 60CN15-032-57 91m_9 207 6.7 8.5 613 47CN15-032-57 91m_10 196.6 4.1 5.1 195.4 8.5CN15-032-57 91m_11 193.7 4.5 5.4 166.8 5CN15-032-57 91m_12 195 5.2 6 100.8 2.3CN15-032-57 91m_13 190.5 5.1 5.9 98.6 2.1CN15-032-57 91m_14 196.2 4.9 5.7 128.9 3.6CN15-032-57 91m_15 211.9 4.3 5.4 373 13CN15-032-57 91m_16 199.5 3.9 5 228.6 4.6CN15-032-57 91m_17 195.5 6 6.7 183.9 6.4CN15-032-57 91m_18 201.5 4.2 5.3 167.9 5.3CN15-032-57 91m_19 202.3 5.9 5.7 663 26CN15-032-57 91m_20 203.7 5.6 5.7 269 24CN15-032-57 91m_21 193.8 4.8 5.6 178.1 5CN15-032-57 91m_22 198.3 5.1 5.9 177 4.9CN15-032-57 91m_23 201 4.2 5.2 171 4.5CN15-032-57 91m_24 199.8 6.6 7.3 271 16CN15-032-57 91m_25 200.9 4.7 5.6 345 14CN15-032-57 91m_26 187.7 4.3 5.2 638 48CN15-032-57 91m_27 212.5 3.5 4.8 584 20CN15-032-57 91m_28 180.9 5.7 6.4 178 10CN15-032-57 91m_29 203 15 15 624 55Apparent Age (Ma)Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 265 Th ppmTh ppm Int2SE  Pb ppm Pb ppm Int2SE Final U/Th RatioFinal U/Th Ratio Int2SECN15-032-57 91m_1 108 5.5 36.6 2.6 2.82 0.1CN15-032-57 91m_2 34.6 1.4 11.5 1.1 2.352 0.086CN15-032-57 91m_3 46.9 1.3 15.09 0.8 3.88 0.1CN15-032-57 91m_4 61.5 2.8 17.8 1.1 1.829 0.056CN15-032-57 91m_5 52.3 2.4 15.5 1.2 1.899 0.062CN15-032-57 91m_6 243 19 135 10 2.035 0.052CN15-032-57 91m_7 133.7 7 40.6 2.9 1.829 0.072CN15-032-57 91m_8 231 10 72.4 3.6 6.95 0.15CN15-032-57 91m_9 39.6 2.7 12.9 2.1 15.9 1.4CN15-032-57 91m_10 134.5 8 38.8 2.5 1.543 0.05CN15-032-57 91m_11 93.3 4.2 26.7 1.4 1.833 0.047CN15-032-57 91m_12 51.3 1.8 14.4 1 1.977 0.051CN15-032-57 91m_13 54.7 1.4 14.98 0.94 1.804 0.04CN15-032-57 91m_14 69 1.7 20.3 1.1 1.868 0.045CN15-032-57 91m_15 319 17 92.5 5.5 1.229 0.033CN15-032-57 91m_16 145.9 4.6 37.1 1.5 1.676 0.041CN15-032-57 91m_17 120.4 5.9 29.7 1.9 1.673 0.058CN15-032-57 91m_18 117.2 3 28.6 1.3 1.584 0.042CN15-032-57 91m_19 369 24 88.7 7 2.028 0.092CN15-032-57 91m_20 200 33 51.4 9.2 1.84 0.1CN15-032-57 91m_21 123.1 4.4 29.1 1.5 1.643 0.052CN15-032-57 91m_22 119.6 5.8 30.6 1.9 1.681 0.05CN15-032-57 91m_23 98.9 3.4 24.2 1.3 1.902 0.042CN15-032-57 91m_24 186 13 41.3 3.1 1.596 0.062CN15-032-57 91m_25 309 17 78.8 5.1 1.245 0.037CN15-032-57 91m_26 217 13 54 3.4 3.05 0.13CN15-032-57 91m_27 51.9 3.2 14.9 1.2 13.02 0.48CN15-032-57 91m_28 121.3 8.6 23.2 1.5 1.577 0.044CN15-032-57 91m_29 502 36 76.4 7.4 1.24 0.058Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors.  266207Pb/235Pb 207Pb/235Pb Int2SE 207Pb/235Pb Prop2SE 206Pb/238Pb 206Pb/238Pb Int2SEZ_Plesovice_1 0.3955 0.0067 0.0088 0.05355 0.00083Z_Plesovice_2 0.3969 0.0065 0.0086 0.05452 0.00077Z_Plesovice_3 0.3917 0.0065 0.0086 0.05324 0.00076Z_Plesovice_4 0.3917 0.0069 0.0089 0.05335 0.00076Z_Plesovice_5 0.3927 0.0072 0.0092 0.05366 0.00088Z_Plesovice_6 0.3946 0.0069 0.0089 0.05391 0.00084Z_Plesovice_7 0.3955 0.0073 0.0092 0.05346 0.00091Z_Plesovice_8 0.3931 0.0078 0.0096 0.05373 0.00088Z_Plesovice_9 0.394 0.0073 0.0092 0.05365 0.00081Z_Plesovice_10 0.3966 0.0079 0.0097 0.05414 0.00084Z_Plesovice_11 0.3919 0.0067 0.0087 0.05326 0.00082Z_Plesovice_12 0.3964 0.0076 0.0094 0.05363 0.00093Z_Plesovice_13 0.3914 0.0074 0.0093 0.05377 0.00086Z_Plesovice_14 0.3963 0.0077 0.0096 0.05379 0.00084Z_Plesovice_15 0.3873 0.0075 0.0093 0.05349 0.00076Z_Plesovice_16 0.399 0.0069 0.0089 0.05374 0.00079Z_Plesovice_17 0.3994 0.0075 0.0095 0.05363 0.00095Z_Plesovice_18 0.394 0.0084 0.01 0.05372 0.00094Z_Plesovice_19 0.3962 0.0081 0.0099 0.05427 0.00097Z_Plesovice_20 0.3861 0.0076 0.0094 0.05323 0.00089Z_Temora2_1 0.494 0.014 0.015 0.0661 0.0012Z_Temora2_2 0.493 0.012 0.014 0.0649 0.0011Z_Temora2_3 0.511 0.013 0.015 0.0645 0.0012Z_Temora2_4 0.51 0.01 0.012 0.0665 0.0011Z_Temora2_5 0.51 0.012 0.014 0.0673 0.0013Z_Temora2_6 0.521 0.016 0.017 0.0684 0.0015Z_Temora2_7 0.519 0.013 0.015 0.0669 0.0011Z_Temora2_8 0.528 0.013 0.015 0.0702 0.0011Z_Temora2_9 0.517 0.014 0.016 0.0664 0.0012Z_Temora2_10 0.504 0.015 0.017 0.0663 0.0015Isotopic Ratios Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 267206Pb/238Pb Prop2SEError Correlation 206Pb/238U vs 207Pb/235U 207Pb/206Pb 207Pb/206Pb Int2SE 207Pb/206Pb Prop2SEZ_Plesovice_1 0.0012 0.51388 0.0535 0.00087 0.0011Z_Plesovice_2 0.0012 0.46454 0.05296 0.00086 0.0011Z_Plesovice_3 0.0011 0.39289 0.05364 0.00095 0.0011Z_Plesovice_4 0.0011 0.4394 0.05297 0.00089 0.0011Z_Plesovice_5 0.0012 0.47113 0.05305 0.00095 0.0011Z_Plesovice_6 0.0012 0.49781 0.05272 0.00088 0.0011Z_Plesovice_7 0.0012 0.54114 0.05391 0.00091 0.0011Z_Plesovice_8 0.0012 0.37501 0.0536 0.0011 0.0012Z_Plesovice_9 0.0012 0.42053 0.05356 0.00098 0.0012Z_Plesovice_10 0.0012 0.54602 0.05309 0.00089 0.0011Z_Plesovice_11 0.0012 0.44395 0.05369 0.00095 0.0011Z_Plesovice_12 0.0013 0.47238 0.05338 0.00098 0.0012Z_Plesovice_13 0.0012 0.46569 0.05216 0.00094 0.0011Z_Plesovice_14 0.0012 0.48315 0.0529 0.00093 0.0011Z_Plesovice_15 0.0011 0.42409 0.0529 0.001 0.0012Z_Plesovice_16 0.0012 0.40647 0.05426 0.00096 0.0011Z_Plesovice_17 0.0013 0.56515 0.05385 0.00092 0.0011Z_Plesovice_18 0.0013 0.5244 0.053 0.001 0.0012Z_Plesovice_19 0.0013 0.54123 0.0531 0.001 0.0012Z_Plesovice_20 0.0012 0.47817 0.0528 0.001 0.0012Z_Temora2_1 0.0016 0.28232 0.0543 0.0015 0.0016Z_Temora2_2 0.0015 0.33235 0.0557 0.0013 0.0015Z_Temora2_3 0.0016 0.46815 0.0571 0.0013 0.0015Z_Temora2_4 0.0015 0.37487 0.0562 0.0011 0.0013Z_Temora2_5 0.0016 0.52754 0.0554 0.0012 0.0014Z_Temora2_6 0.0019 0.4281 0.0557 0.0016 0.0017Z_Temora2_7 0.0015 0.33983 0.0555 0.0014 0.0015Z_Temora2_8 0.0016 0.33301 0.0551 0.0014 0.0015Z_Temora2_9 0.0016 0.30325 0.0566 0.0016 0.0017Z_Temora2_10 0.0018 0.27262 0.0563 0.0019 0.002Isotopic RatiosTable A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 268207Pb/206Pb207Pb/206Pb Int2SE 207Pb/206Pb Prop2SE 207Pb/235U 207Pb/235U Int2SE 207Pb/235U Prop2SEZ_Plesovice_1 330 35 43 337.5 4.9 6.4Z_Plesovice_2 311 35 43 338.5 4.7 6.2Z_Plesovice_3 331 37 45 335.5 4.9 6.4Z_Plesovice_4 312 37 45 335.1 5.1 6.5Z_Plesovice_5 313 39 46 335.4 5.3 6.7Z_Plesovice_6 300 36 43 337.2 5 6.4Z_Plesovice_7 351 37 45 337.9 5.3 6.8Z_Plesovice_8 336 44 50 336.5 5.8 7.2Z_Plesovice_9 330 39 46 336.2 5.3 6.7Z_Plesovice_10 313 36 44 338.4 5.7 7.1Z_Plesovice_11 337 38 45 335.7 5 6.5Z_Plesovice_12 324 39 46 338.4 5.5 6.9Z_Plesovice_13 274 38 45 335.2 5.5 6.9Z_Plesovice_14 303 38 45 338.2 5.7 7Z_Plesovice_15 304 40 47 331.2 5.5 6.8Z_Plesovice_16 358 38 45 340 5 6.5Z_Plesovice_17 343 37 44 340.1 5.4 6.8Z_Plesovice_18 310 40 47 335.9 6 7.3Z_Plesovice_19 307 41 47 337.6 5.9 7.2Z_Plesovice_20 295 40 47 330.8 5.6 6.9Z_Temora2_1 354 58 63 406 9.1 10Z_Temora2_2 404 50 55 404.9 7.8 9.1Z_Temora2_3 448 49 55 416.5 8.6 9.9Z_Temora2_4 426 42 49 417.1 6.7 8.3Z_Temora2_5 403 47 52 415.6 8.2 9.5Z_Temora2_6 390 59 64 423 10 12Z_Temora2_7 392 52 57 422.6 8.7 10Z_Temora2_8 375 52 57 428.9 8.8 10Z_Temora2_9 427 58 63 420.5 9.4 11Z_Temora2_10 400 68 72 415 10 11Apparent Age (Ma)Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 269206Pb/238Pb206Pb/238Pb Int2SE 206Pb/238Pb Prop2SE Approx U ppmApprox U ppm Int2SEZ_Plesovice_1 336.1 5 7.2 785 12Z_Plesovice_2 342.1 4.7 7.1 844 14Z_Plesovice_3 334.7 4.7 7 689 11Z_Plesovice_4 335.3 4.7 7 763 15Z_Plesovice_5 336.8 5.4 7.5 779 13Z_Plesovice_6 338.3 5.1 7.3 786 12Z_Plesovice_7 335.5 5.6 7.6 822 13Z_Plesovice_8 337.2 5.4 7.5 601 11Z_Plesovice_9 336.7 4.9 7.2 760 12Z_Plesovice_10 339.7 5.2 7.3 730 15Z_Plesovice_11 334.4 5 7.2 833 14Z_Plesovice_12 336.6 5.7 7.7 832 19Z_Plesovice_13 337.4 5.3 7.4 697 14Z_Plesovice_14 337.6 5.1 7.3 742 12Z_Plesovice_15 335.8 4.7 7 749 12Z_Plesovice_16 337.3 4.8 7.1 805 18Z_Plesovice_17 336.6 5.8 7.8 1138 43Z_Plesovice_18 337.1 5.8 7.7 686 24Z_Plesovice_19 340.5 6 7.9 816 17Z_Plesovice_20 334.2 5.4 7.5 729 14Z_Temora2_1 412.5 7.1 9.5 174.6 2.9Z_Temora2_2 404.9 6.8 9.2 257.9 4.6Z_Temora2_3 402.9 7.3 9.5 246.5 4.9Z_Temora2_4 414.6 6.5 9.1 382 11Z_Temora2_5 419.8 7.6 9.9 321.4 8.4Z_Temora2_6 425.8 9.1 11 233.7 6.8Z_Temora2_7 417.3 6.7 9.2 304.2 9.6Z_Temora2_8 437 6.9 9.6 281.6 9Z_Temora2_9 414.3 7.2 9.5 187.1 3.3Z_Temora2_10 413.5 8.9 11 198.4 6.7Apparent Age (Ma)Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 270Th ppmTh ppm Int2SE  Pb ppmPb ppm Int2SE Final U/Th Ratio U/Th Ratio Int2SEZ_Plesovice_1 77.9 1.4 41.9 1.3 9.82 0.17Z_Plesovice_2 93.2 3.1 50.4 2.1 9.26 0.22Z_Plesovice_3 68.9 1.9 36.8 1.5 10.06 0.23Z_Plesovice_4 81.1 2.5 42.3 1.7 9.5 0.19Z_Plesovice_5 77.8 1.4 40.9 1.4 9.78 0.18Z_Plesovice_6 79.4 1.4 40.4 1.4 9.63 0.18Z_Plesovice_7 88 1.7 39.9 1.3 9.57 0.19Z_Plesovice_8 66.4 1.4 27.7 1.1 9.95 0.19Z_Plesovice_9 85 1.9 38.5 1.4 9.6 0.19Z_Plesovice_10 82.4 2.4 39.7 1.6 9.07 0.19Z_Plesovice_11 81.9 1.8 39.2 1.4 10.17 0.2Z_Plesovice_12 83.3 2.4 40.2 1.6 9.58 0.19Z_Plesovice_13 66.8 1.7 32.6 1.3 10.26 0.22Z_Plesovice_14 82.1 2 42.7 1.6 9.46 0.2Z_Plesovice_15 80.4 1.4 45.3 1.6 9.6 0.15Z_Plesovice_16 80.7 2.6 46.1 1.9 9.64 0.21Z_Plesovice_17 110.5 4.7 58.4 3 9.82 0.19Z_Plesovice_18 58.9 2.5 30.5 1.6 11.25 0.25Z_Plesovice_19 90 2.7 45.4 2 8.87 0.2Z_Plesovice_20 75.9 1.8 36.8 1.5 9.53 0.17Z_Temora2_1 47.69 0.94 30.9 1.1 3.688 0.071Z_Temora2_2 73.8 2 46.7 1.8 3.502 0.071Z_Temora2_3 104.6 4.6 63.3 3.2 2.57 0.1Z_Temora2_4 149.5 6 75.3 3.4 2.882 0.058Z_Temora2_5 104.6 2.8 63.6 2.2 3.079 0.086Z_Temora2_6 75.2 1.9 43.8 1.7 2.983 0.063Z_Temora2_7 95.4 2.7 56.5 2.2 3.094 0.06Z_Temora2_8 74.1 2.2 53.8 2.1 3.845 0.07Z_Temora2_9 93.6 1.9 61.1 2.1 1.837 0.034Z_Temora2_10 53.2 1.6 35.7 1.7 3.401 0.075Table A H 1  LA-ICP-MS analysis of sample CN15-032-57.91m. Int2SE=Internal 2 standard errors, Prop2SE=Propagated 2 standard errors. 271Appendix I Zircon trace element data and Ti-in-zircon thermometry Appendix I 1   CL images of analyzed zircons from sample CN15-032-57 91mAAABCCDEFABDABA BCN15-032-57.91_1CLCN15-032-57.91_2CN15-032-57.91_3 CN15-032-57.91_4CN15-032-57.91_5 CN15-032-57.91_6Figure A H 1  CL images of analyzed zircons. Yellow circles mark the location of laser beam.272CN15-032-57.91_7 CN15-032-57.91_8CN15-032-57.91_9CN15-032-57.91_11 CN15-032-57.91_12CN15-032-57.91_10BCDAABAB A CB ABACLFigure A H 1  CL images of analyzed zircons. Yellow circles mark the location of laser beam.273CN15-032-57.91_13 CN15-032-57.91_14CLCN15-032-57.91_15 CN15-032-57.91_16CN15-032-57.91_17 CN15-032-57.91_18BACBAB ACBAA ABFigure A H 1  CL images of analyzed zircons. Yellow circles mark the location of laser beam.274CLCN15-032-57.91_19 CN15-032-57.91_20AAFigure A H 1  CL images of analyzed zircons. Yellow circles mark the location of laser beam.275Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type La ppm Ce ppm Pr ppm Nd ppm Sm ppm Eu ppmCN15-032-57 91_1 1 oscillatory 4 26.8 1.38 4.6 2.22 0.48CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 0 41 0.02 0.92 3.08 1.77CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 0.14 16.1 0.189 1.66 2.54 1.73CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 0.02 34.2 0.016 0.96 2.6 0.95CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 0 14.9 0 0.4 1.8 0.47CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 0 19.2 0.129 2.96 7.6 2CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 0 14.44 0.031 0.61 0.89 0.33CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 0 20.8 0.08 1.12 2.39 1.1CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 0 20.5 0.073 3.68 7.6 1.62Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type Gd ppm Tb ppm Dy ppm Ho ppm Er ppmCN15-032-57 91_1 1.00 oscillatory 9.64 3.83 46.6 17.66 96.2CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 20.2 6.53 87 33.8 185CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 16.4 4.66 66.1 28.08 149.9CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 18.2 6.14 86 37.8 199.4CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 8.6 3.07 41 15.93 90.1CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 29.4 9.7 124.5 46.6 232.2CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 7 2.55 36.6 14.91 77.9CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 16 5.74 74 33.6 171.6CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 32 10.45 121.1 45.4 223.9Appendix I 2   Zircon trace element data Table A H 2  Trace element data used for Ti-in-zircon thermometry. The 0 values correspond to below detection limit. 276Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type Tm ppm Yb ppm Lu ppm  Hf ppm Th ppm U ppm CN15-032-57 91_1 1.00 oscillatory 22.83 221.8 49.6 14590 85.5 485CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 46.8 475 106.6 13750 70.5 428CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 38.4 420.7 112.2 16430 64.2 631CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 52.1 572 119.8 14580 285.8 8110CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 20.03 208.2 47.7 14860 208.7 1290CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 53.5 491 111.5 13490 144.4 1040CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 18.58 193.4 41.6 14730 221 1455CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 43.3 475 108.5 15200 442 4840CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 49.3 450 97.5 14180 184.2 1120Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type LaN CeN PrN NdN SmN EuN GdN TbNCN15-032-57 91_1 1 oscillatory 12.54 32.68 11.40 7.48 11.10 6.32 36.10 77.69CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 0.00 50.00 0.17 1.50 15.40 23.29 75.66 132.45CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 0.44 19.63 1.56 2.70 12.70 22.76 61.42 94.52CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 0.06 41.71 0.13 1.56 13.00 12.50 68.16 124.54CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 0.01 18.17 0.00 0.65 9.00 6.18 32.21 62.27CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 0.00 23.41 1.07 4.81 38.00 26.32 110.11 196.75CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 0.00 17.61 0.26 0.99 4.45 4.34 26.22 51.72CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 0.00 25.37 0.66 1.82 11.95 14.47 59.93 116.43CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 0.00 25.00 0.60 5.98 38.00 21.32 119.85 211.97Table A H 2  Trace element data used for Ti-in-zircon thermometry. The 0 values correspond to below detection limit. XN represents chondrite normalized REE values based on Anders and Grevesse (1989) * 1.3596, where X=element.277Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type DyN HoN ErN TmN YbN LuNCN15-032-57 91_1 1 oscillatory 141.21 233.91 445.37 693.92 1003.62 1503.03CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 263.64 447.68 856.48 1422.49 2149.32 3230.30CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 200.30 371.92 693.98 1167.17 1903.62 3400.00CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 260.61 500.66 923.15 1583.59 2588.24 3630.30CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 124.24 210.99 417.13 608.81 942.08 1445.45CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 377.27 617.22 1075.00 1626.14 2221.72 3378.79CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 110.91 197.48 360.65 564.74 875.11 1260.61CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 224.24 445.03 794.44 1316.11 2149.32 3287.88CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 366.97 601.32 1036.57 1498.48 2036.20 2954.55Zircon ID Spot ID Grain-type Ce/Ce* Eu/Eu* Yb/Gd Ce/Sm Th/UCN15-032-57 91_1 1 oscillatory 6.48 0.32 27.80 2.94 0.18CN15-032-57 91_9 3B oscillatory 344.08 0.68 28.41 3.25 0.16CN15-032-57 91_18 7B oscillatory 34.23 0.82 30.99 1.55 0.10CN15-032-57 91_38 15C oscillatory 222.52 0.42 37.97 3.21 0.04CN15-032-57 91_2 2A recrystallized 386.59 0.36 29.25 2.02 0.16CN15-032-57 91_4 2C recrystallized 38.41 0.41 20.18 0.62 0.14CN15-032-57 91_27 11A recrystallized 79.65 0.40 33.38 3.96 0.15CN15-032-57 91_29 12A recrystallized 91.40 0.54 35.87 2.12 0.09CN15-032-57 91_42 18A recrystallized 26.53 0.32 16.99 0.66 0.16Table A H 2  Trace element data used for Ti-in-zircon thermometry. The 0 values correspond to below detection limit. XN represents chondrite normalized REE values based on Anders and Grevesse (1989) * 1.3596, where X=element.278Appendix J Isocon analysisAppendix J 1   Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon calculationsTable A I 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon analysisAverage of unaltered samplesAverage of altered samplesMost altered sampleCO CA average (CO/CA)/CO*100   CA (CN15-008-36 58m)NK15-087-Z1WC-025-304 84mNK15-014-Z5WC-025-351 15mCN15-023-47 00mCN15-033-71 63mNK15-103SiO2 49.23 49.83 2.05 48.8 50.82 49.3 50.79 46.7 47.1 52.2 47.7Al2O3 16.39 18.39 5.40 18.52 17.5 19.24 19.97 14.61 11.32 15.06 17.04Fe2O3 10.37 10.63 9.59 10.43 9.44 9.56 8.69 12.43 11.28 9.42 11.77CaO 10.39 6.82 16.75 5.97 9.24 9.24 9.26 11.19 15.72 8.5 9.6MgO 6.09 4.33 21.32 4.69 4.71 4.39 3.99 6.97 9.75 7.02 5.81Na2O 3.27 3.94 29.07 3.44 1.75 4.19 4.52 3.08 1.73 3.38 4.23K2O 1.25 1.97 40.65 2.46 2.28 1.24 1.15 1.08 0.69 1.37 0.96MnO 0.33 0.11 833.33 0.12 0.87 0.11 0.12 0.22 0.59 0.23 0.18TiO2 0.95 1.01 123.46 0.81 0.88 1.07 0.71 1.21 0.62 0.89 1.25P2O5 0.28 0.28 526.32 0.19 0.29 0.28 0.31 0.25 0.18 0.27 0.41Ba 458.86 579.14 0.10 964 1185 288 507 133 176 435 488Be 1.29 1.36 100.00 1 0.5 1 0.5 1 2 2 2Co 26.01 19.93 4.31 23.2 16.7 14.5 22 19 49.3 27 33.6Cs 0.29 2.37 50.00 2 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.2 0.05Ga 18.71 20.84 4.61 21.7 18.6 20.9 21.4 17.4 16.6 16.9 19.2Hf 1.77 1.70 90.91 1.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 2.1 1 1.8 1.9Nb 2.90 1.84 83.33 1.2 2.6 2.1 3.5 2.5 1.5 4.8 3.3Rb 27.84 107.44 0.68 147 69 41.2 26.9 13.4 7.2 28.7 8.5Sn 1.64 4.00 25.00 4 1 1 2 3 0.5 2 2Sr 610.37 625.30 0.13 757.8 512.4 668.6 812.9 414.9 561.1 563.8 738.9Ta 0.16 0.29 2000.00 0.05 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.3 0.2Th 0.97 0.96 166.67 0.6 1.7 0.9 1.3 0.8 0.7 1.2 0.2U 1.47 2.40 40.00 2.5 1.3 2 1.6 3.4 0.4 1.4 0.2V 316.29 298.00 0.34 290 307 322 210 402 341 280 352W 2.00 7.69 3.65 27.4 1.2 1.4 2.3 5.4 1.7 1.2 0.8Zr 58.81 56.09 2.49 40.1 59.8 60 62.6 68.2 37.9 65.5 57.7Y 19.13 18.60 6.76 14.8 20 18.4 18.2 23 12.9 17.7 23.7La 9.26 9.29 10.42 9.6 11.2 10.2 13.1 8.7 4.5 8 9.1Ce 20.49 19.03 5.92 16.9 22.9 21.1 27.3 21 10.5 19.8 20.8 Unaltered samples279CN15-001-35 10mCN15-005-80 30mCN15-008-36 58mCN15-029-43 50mNK15-083-Z13CN15-002-84 30mNK15-068-Z12SiO2 48.8 51.3 48.8 50 48.27 51.3 50.35Al2O3 16.91 18.43 18.52 17.75 18.52 17.62 21.01Fe2O3 11.02 10.95 10.43 11.23 11.01 11.74 8.03CaO 6.81 5.92 5.97 7.55 9.57 5.97 5.92MgO 6.04 3.33 4.69 4 5.33 2.93 3.98Na2O 3.43 4.68 3.44 3.66 3.42 4.28 4.64K2O 2 1.97 2.46 1.9 1.35 1.75 2.37MnO 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.09 0.14 0.09 0.07TiO2 1.28 0.74 0.81 0.98 1.19 0.91 1.17P2O5 0.35 0.23 0.19 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.35Ba 287 1039 964 498 210 528 528Be 2 2 1 0.5 1 2 1Co 28 13.6 23.2 23.8 25 15.2 10.7Cs 2.2 1.1 2 2.3 3 1.7 4.3Ga 19.8 23 21.7 17.7 19.1 22.4 22.2Hf 2.1 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.3Nb 2.7 1.5 1.2 1.8 0.9 2.8 2Rb 115 86.6 147 86.7 73.6 83.8 159.4Sn 6 5 4 4 2 4 3Sr 493.8 655.9 757.8 518.3 624.5 733 593.8Ta 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.1Th 1 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.8U 1.7 1.9 2.5 2.2 1.1 3.6 3.8V 380 271 290 274 340 272 259W 2.9 2.6 27.4 14.7 1.2 3.9 1.1Zr 73.1 43.3 40.1 51.6 48.3 62.8 73.4Y 20.1 17.7 14.8 16.8 21.3 20.7 18.8La 9.4 9.6 9.6 6.9 7.2 13.7 8.6Ce 20.9 18.2 16.9 16.5 17.9 24.6 18.2Altered samples Table A I 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon analysis280Average of unaltered samplesAverage of altered samplesMost altered sampleCO CA average (CO/CA)/CO*100   CA (CN15-008-36 58m)NK15-087-Z1WC-025-304 84mNK15-014-Z5WC-025-351 15mCN15-023-47 00mCN15-033-71 63mNK15-103Pr 2.77 2.54 46.51 2.15 3.02 2.79 3.61 2.78 1.48 2.67 3.06Nd 12.96 11.71 10.42 9.6 12.4 12.7 17 13.6 6.9 12.5 15.6Sm 3.14 3.00 43.10 2.32 3 3.16 3.43 3.66 1.68 3 4.04Eu 1.14 1.08 108.70 0.92 1.03 1.17 1.2 1.32 0.77 1.06 1.44Gd 3.55 3.45 39.68 2.52 3.67 3.33 3.52 4.06 2.31 3.54 4.45Tb 0.57 0.55 232.56 0.43 0.56 0.58 0.54 0.72 0.36 0.53 0.73Dy 3.63 3.40 36.23 2.76 3.62 3.64 3.39 4.55 2.47 3.34 4.43Ho 0.71 0.71 172.41 0.58 0.7 0.74 0.6 0.91 0.44 0.64 0.92Er 2.17 2.05 57.47 1.74 2.2 2.29 1.94 2.7 1.44 1.98 2.67Tm 0.30 0.29 454.55 0.22 0.31 0.31 0.27 0.37 0.19 0.32 0.34Yb 2.02 1.96 59.17 1.69 2.11 2.04 2.03 2.46 1.23 1.9 2.36Lu 0.30 0.29 454.55 0.22 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.19 0.27 0.34Mo 33.59 23.36 14.71 6.8 1.5 143.4 0.7 88.4 0.05 0.9 0.2Cu 642.81 5471.04 0.01 10000 417.4 1797.5 857.5 1184.6 5.6 196.7 40.4Pb 15.66 1.26 45.45 2.2 102.7 0.9 1.3 0.7 1.4 0.7 1.9Zn 82.29 36.86 3.03 33 390 26 22 22 58 29 29Ni 8.97 8.14 12.82 7.8 8.5 4.5 2.5 5 20 9.8 12.5As 1.68 0.54 166.67 0.6 4 1.6 2.2 0.25 1.7 0.7 1.3Cd 0.36 0.24 333.33 0.3 2.2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Sb 0.11 0.50 2000.00 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.3 0.05 0.05Bi 0.25 4.69 35.71 2.8 0.8 0.05 0.7 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Ag 0.41 3.00 24.39 4.1 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.05 0.1 0.05Au 19.96 384.83 0.06 1543.6 16.2 55.1 21.3 34.4 0.25 10.3 2.2Hg 0.01 0.01 5000.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005Tl 0.06 0.33 500.00 0.2 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Sc 6.47 6.36 10.99 9.1 0.05 6.8 0.05 11.9 7.3 7.8 11.4Unaltered samplesTable A I 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon analysis281CN15-001-35 10mCN15-005-80 30mCN15-008-36 58mCN15-029-43 50mNK15-083-Z13CN15-002-84 30mNK15-068-Z12Pr 2.83 2.43 2.15 2.2 2.33 3.29 2.56Nd 13.8 11.6 9.6 10.2 11.3 14.3 11.2Sm 3.26 2.93 2.32 2.66 3.12 3.7 2.99Eu 1.22 1.06 0.92 1.05 1.18 1.13 0.97Gd 3.68 3.09 2.52 3.25 4.18 3.69 3.74Tb 0.6 0.53 0.43 0.48 0.61 0.63 0.56Dy 3.74 3.2 2.76 2.96 3.7 3.8 3.65Ho 0.77 0.71 0.58 0.61 0.85 0.79 0.68Er 2.36 2.14 1.74 1.65 2.18 2.27 2.02Tm 0.32 0.3 0.22 0.27 0.31 0.31 0.28Yb 2.2 1.97 1.69 1.77 2.03 2.17 1.92Lu 0.32 0.28 0.22 0.27 0.29 0.35 0.31Mo 4.3 1.5 6.8 80.5 1.7 49.8 18.9Cu 5798.8 3828.8 10000 5966 674.2 7549.5 4480Pb 1.1 1.7 2.2 0.7 0.6 2 0.5Zn 37 38 33 39 26 27 58Ni 18.3 5.4 7.8 5.9 5.5 8.3 5.8As 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.25 0.6 0.25 0.25Cd 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.3Sb 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Bi 3.1 1.6 2.8 0.3 0.2 24.6 0.2Ag 2.3 1.1 4.1 3 0.3 8.7 1.5Au 224.6 106.1 1543.6 103.1 23.3 602.2 90.9Hg 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005Tl 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.7Sc 13.7 7.7 9.1 6.3 0.5 6.7 0.5Altered samples Table A I 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon analysis282Average of unaltered samplesAverage of altered samplesMost altered sampleCO CA average (CO/CA)/CO*100  CA (CN15-008-36 58m)NK15-087-Z1WC-025-304 84mNK15-014-Z5WC-025-351 15mCN15-023-47 00mCN15-033-71 63mNK15-103TiO2 0.95 1.01 123.46 0.81 0.88 1.07 0.71 1.21 0.62 0.89 1.25Zr 58.81 56.09 2.49 40.1 59.8 60 62.6 68.2 37.9 65.5 57.7Y 19.13 18.60 6.76 14.8 20 18.4 18.2 23 12.9 17.7 23.7Nd 12.96 11.71 10.42 9.6 12.4 12.7 17 13.6 6.9 12.5 15.6La 9.26 9.29 10.42 9.6 11.2 10.2 13.1 8.7 4.5 8 9.1Ce 20.49 19.03 5.92 16.9 22.9 21.1 27.3 21 10.5 19.8 20.8Pr 2.77 2.54 46.51 2.15 3.02 2.79 3.61 2.78 1.48 2.67 3.06Sm 3.14 3.00 43.10 2.32 3 3.16 3.43 3.66 1.68 3 4.04Eu 1.14 1.08 108.70 0.92 1.03 1.17 1.2 1.32 0.77 1.06 1.44Gd 3.55 3.45 39.68 2.52 3.67 3.33 3.52 4.06 2.31 3.54 4.45Tb 0.57 0.55 232.56 0.43 0.56 0.58 0.54 0.72 0.36 0.53 0.73Dy 3.63 3.40 36.23 2.76 3.62 3.64 3.39 4.55 2.47 3.34 4.43Ho 0.71 0.71 172.41 0.58 0.7 0.74 0.6 0.91 0.44 0.64 0.92Er 2.17 2.05 57.47 1.74 2.2 2.29 1.94 2.7 1.44 1.98 2.67Tm 0.30 0.29 454.55 0.22 0.31 0.31 0.27 0.37 0.19 0.32 0.34Yb 2.02 1.96 59.17 1.69 2.11 2.04 2.03 2.46 1.23 1.9 2.36Lu 0.30 0.29 454.55 0.22 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.19 0.27 0.34Cd 0.36 0.24 333.33 0.3 2.2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Sb 0.11 0.50 2000.00 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.3 0.05 0.05 Unaltered samplesTable A I 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon analysis283CN15-001-35 10mCN15-005-80 30mCN15-008-36 58mCN15-029-43 50mNK15-083-Z13CN15-002-84 30mNK15-068-Z12TiO2 1.28 0.74 0.81 0.98 1.19 0.91 1.17Zr 73.1 43.3 40.1 51.6 48.3 62.8 73.4Y 20.1 17.7 14.8 16.8 21.3 20.7 18.8Nd 13.8 11.6 9.6 10.2 11.3 14.3 11.2La 9.4 9.6 9.6 6.9 7.2 13.7 8.6Ce 20.9 18.2 16.9 16.5 17.9 24.6 18.2Pr 2.83 2.43 2.15 2.2 2.33 3.29 2.56Sm 3.26 2.93 2.32 2.66 3.12 3.7 2.99Eu 1.22 1.06 0.92 1.05 1.18 1.13 0.97Gd 3.68 3.09 2.52 3.25 4.18 3.69 3.74Tb 0.6 0.53 0.43 0.48 0.61 0.63 0.56Dy 3.74 3.2 2.76 2.96 3.7 3.8 3.65Ho 0.77 0.71 0.58 0.61 0.85 0.79 0.68Er 2.36 2.14 1.74 1.65 2.18 2.27 2.02Tm 0.32 0.3 0.22 0.27 0.31 0.31 0.28Yb 2.2 1.97 1.69 1.77 2.03 2.17 1.92Lu 0.32 0.28 0.22 0.27 0.29 0.35 0.31Cd 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.3Sb 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Altered samples Table A I 1  Whole-rock lithogeochemical data used for isocon analysis284Appendix J 2   IsoconFigure A I 2  Isocon line used as a reference line for isocon calculations in Chapter 3Element CO CATiO2 0.95 1.01Zr 58.81 56.09Y 19.13 18.60Nd 12.96 11.71Isocon based on immobile elements0.0010.0020.0030.0040.0050.0060.000.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00C ACoIsocon isoconOther traceelementsLinear (isocon)285Appendix K Zircon saturation temperaturesZircon saturation temperatures are calculated from bulk-rock compositions and provide a minimum temperature estimate of crystallization temperature if the magma was zircon-undersat-urated and a maximum temperature estimate if magma was zircon-saturated (Miller et al., 2003; Watson and Harrison, 1983). The thermometer is based on the relationship of zircon solubility, temperature, and major element composition of melt:DZrzircon/melt = {-3.8-[0.85(M-1)]} + 12900/T,where DZrzircon/melt is the concentration ratio of Zr (ppm) in zircon to Zr in saturated melt, M is a compositional factor accounting for dependence of zircon solubility on SiO2 and peraluminous composition of the melt given by the cation ratio (Na + K + 2Ca)/(Al * Si), and T is the tempera-ture in Kelvins. Rearranging the equation to yield temperature is expressed as:Tzr = 12900 / (2.95 + 0.85M + ln (Zrzircon/ Zrmelt)), where Tzr is the zircon saturation temperature, Zrzircon is the abundance of Zr (assumed at 497646 ppm; Hanchar and Watson, 2003) in zircon, and Zrmelt is the Zr content in ppm measured in melt. Calibrations for zircon concentrations given in Hanchar and Watson (2003) are between 0-3500 ppm.Watson and Harrison (1983) demonstrated that the thermometer applies to a wide range of temperatures (750-1020°C) and water content, in addition to a variety of magmatic composi-tions (silicic through intermediate). Calibrations for M range between 1-1.5 (Watson and Harrison, 1983) based on the original zircon saturation/solubility experiments at temperatures 1020°, 930°, 860°, and 750°C corresponding to M values 1 to 2.0 (Watson and Harrison, 1983). An M=1.3 value is considered for normal peraluminous granites.In many cases, the M parameter works well to determine the zircon saturation temperature; however, the M parameter fails to consistently predict zircon saturation in Fe-free melt at 800°C 286(Baker et al., 2002). Additionally, the presence of halogens can also affect Zr diffusion and zircon dissolution in hydrous metaluminous granitic melts (Baker et al., 2002).The M range from the original experiments by Watson and Harrison (1983) and then the later Harrison and Watson (1983) covers most of the more acidic composition rocks (i.e., gran-ite, granodiorite). However, many other studies found (e.g., Brouand et al., 1990; Hansmann and Oberli, 1991; and von Blackenburg, 1992) that original M calibration range of Watson and Harri-son (1983) does not apply to mineral/melt mixtures of tonalitic and dioritic composition. In many cases, the M calibration range was extrapolated (e.g., M = 2.1 in von Blakenburg, 1992 and M > 1.9 in Hansmann and Oberli, 1991) outside of the original calibration range to apply the thermom-eter for rocks with tonalitic or dioritic composition.For successful application of the thermometer, three criteria must be satisfied: (1) the melt must be Zr saturated (i.e., zircon must be present), (2) H2O contents >1.5 wt% (i.e., intermediate to felsic magmas), and (3) the alkalinity value M must be within the experimentally determined calibration range of Watson and Harrison (1983).Appendix K 1   MethodologyIn this study, three different intrusive phases of the Granite Mountain batholith were in-vestigated to determine the melt temperature of the Granite Mountain batholith. The three intru-sive phases are the eastern diorite to monzodiorite phase (LTrEJM1), the western granodiorite to tonalite phase (LTrEJM2), and the late, quartz monzodiorite and granitic aplite phase (LTrEJM3), which is part of the western (LTrEJM2) phase. U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS dating of zircon on these in-trusive phases yielded crystallization ages of 195.11 ± 0.19 Ma (WC-008-26.50m, eastern phase), 195.19 ± 0.25 Ma (CN15-031-48.30m, western phase), and 194.34 ± 0.16 Ma (TR91-20-007, late LTrEJM3 phase), respectively (Chapter 2).287The eastern phase is alkaline and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous with SiO2 contents ranging from 53 to 60%. The western and the LTrEJM3 phases are calc-alkaline peraluminous to weakly metaluminous with SiO2 contents ranging from 63 to 76% (Chapter 2). Imaging of zircon grains revealed the presence of inherited zircon (Appendix, XY), in-dicating that an unknown proportion of total zircon content in whole rock analyses is associated with xenocrystic zircon. Hence, zircon abundances used for zircon saturation thermometry in this study can be considered an overestimate, and consequently, the resultant thermometer calculations represent maximum temperatures.A total of 19 samples from this study and 27 samples from Tafti (2005) were used for calculations (Appendix I.2). First, zircon crystallization temperatures (Tzr) were calculated using M=1.3, which is the calibration values used in Watson and Harrison (1983). Then, Tzr was esti-mated using values for M (M calculated) from the geochemical analysis of this study and Tafti (2005) as described in detailed in Hanchar and Watson (2003). Where the value of M calculated exceed the calibration range of Watson and Harrison (i.e., M > 1.9), an uncertainty of ± 25°C was applied as suggested in Hanchar and Watson (2003).Appendix K 2   ResultsThe data indicate that the range of derived maximum zircon saturation temperatures for the intrusive phases vary from 632°C to 838°C for Tzr M=1.3 and 620°C to 789 for Tzr M=calculated (Appendix I.2). The calculated M values for the western (LTrEJM2) and late LTrEJM3 are 1.45-1.9, which is within the calibration range of Watson and Harrison (1983). However, as predicted the M calculated values for nine samples from the eastern phase (LTrEJM1), which is dominantly dioritic in com-position fall outside of the calibration range (M calculated LTrEJM1 > 1.9) of Watson and Harrison (1983). The resultant temperature of these samples are interpreted with ± 25°C uncertainty (e.g., Sample WC-008-26.50m, M calculated = 2.02, Tzr calculated = 782 ± 25°C). 288Zircon saturation temperatures (Tzr M=1.3) 632°C to 838°C, are inferred to be representative of magma emplacement temperatures of the Granite Mountain batholith, which represents the maximum eutectic temperature of melt from the metamorphic rocks (quartz-plagiolcase-biotite schist and amphibolite). Additionally, theses zircon saturation temperatures overlap with the Ti-in-zircon temperatures discussed in Chapter 3, and further support that the Granite Mountain batho-lith is the heat source to partial melting. 289Appendix K 3   Zircon saturationTable A J 3  Zircon saturation calculations. Red cells indicate where the calculated M value is over the calibration value of Watson and Ferry, 2006. RT= data from Reza Tafti, 2005; NK= data from this thesis. Author Sample Rock-type Phase_subclass T in K T in °C T in K T in °C Si Al Ca Na K M value Zr (ppm)NK NK15-DS-005 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1051 778 1012 739 0.54 0.23 0.05 0.12 0.02 1.86 134.3NK WC-002-117.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1076 803 1016 743 0.52 0.22 0.06 0.12 0.01 2.13 177.9NK WC-005-279.00m  Plagioclase-phyric diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1063 790 1004 731 0.52 0.23 0.06 0.12 0.01 2.14 153.0NK WC-008-26.50m Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1111 838 1055 782 0.53 0.22 0.05 0.11 0.02 2.03 260.7NK WC-019-155.00m Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1056 783 1023 750 0.55 0.23 0.04 0.12 0.02 1.76 141.8NK TR91-20-001 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1062 789 1002 729 0.52 0.22 0.06 0.12 0.01 2.16 152.5NK NK15-STU-002 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1090 817 1035 762 0.50 0.22 0.05 0.09 0.03 2.04 208.1NK NK15-079-Z2 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1063 790 1006 733 0.51 0.23 0.06 0.12 0.01 2.10 153.5NK NK15-050-Z5 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 972 698 937 664 0.54 0.23 0.04 0.14 0.01 1.87 49.0NK TR91-20-013 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 977 703 941 667 0.54 0.23 0.05 0.13 0.01 1.89 52.4NK NK15-026-Z4 Diorite (LTrEJM1) Eastern phase 1061 788 1005 731 0.51 0.23 0.06 0.12 0.01 2.10 149.5NK NK15-DS-002  Quartz diorite (LTrEJM2B) Western phase 1039 766 1020 747 0.59 0.21 0.03 0.11 0.02 1.57 116.4NK WC-008-36.58m Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) Western phase 1051 777 1007 734 0.59 0.18 0.05 0.08 0.03 1.93 133.1NK NK15-045-Z5 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) Western phase 1046 773 1019 746 0.61 0.19 0.04 0.09 0.02 1.68 126.6NK TR91-20-012 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) Western phase 1030 757 1020 747 0.65 0.18 0.04 0.08 0.01 1.44 104.2NK NK15-STU-001 Quartz monzonite (LTrEJM2B) Western phase 1052 779 1022 749 0.60 0.19 0.04 0.09 0.02 1.72 135.3NK NK15-STU-004 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite (LTrEJM2A) Western phase 1031 758 1011 738 0.61 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.03 1.59 105.9NK NK15-085-Z13 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1038 765 997 724 0.59 0.18 0.04 0.08 0.04 1.90 114.2NK NK15-074-Z12 Diorite (LTrEJM2B) Western phase 1056 783 1021 748 0.55 0.22 0.05 0.10 0.02 1.78 141.1RT 02-RT-2 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1035 762 1007 734 0.62 0.18 0.04 0.07 0.04 1.71 111.0RT 02-RT-8 Granodiorite Western phase 1034 761 1009 736 0.62 0.18 0.03 0.09 0.03 1.65 109.0RT 01-8-113-114 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1035 761 1007 734 0.60 0.19 0.04 0.09 0.02 1.7 110.0RT 01-8-308-309 Granodiorite Western phase 1040 767 1007 734 0.61 0.18 0.04 0.07 0.04 1.77 118.0RT 01-12-282.5-283 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1031 758 1007 734 0.61 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.03 1.64 105.0RT 01-13-162-163 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1023 749 992 719 0.61 0.19 0.05 0.09 0.02 1.75 95.0RT 01-9-256 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1029 756 1005 732 0.62 0.19 0.04 0.09 0.03 1.66 103.0RT 93-A-169-170 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1038 765 1005 732 0.60 0.19 0.05 0.09 0.02 1.77 115.0RT 93-A-326-327 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1059 786 1017 744 0.55 0.22 0.05 0.11 0.02 1.9 147.0RT 93-8-302-304 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1038 764 1017 744 0.62 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.02 1.59 114.0RT 93-E-476-477 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1027 754 996 723 0.61 0.18 0.04 0.08 0.03 1.75 100.0RT 93-G-236-237 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1038 764 1010 737 0.60 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.03 1.7 114.0RT 96-1-310-311 Diorite Eastern phase 1029 756 996 723 0.56 0.21 0.05 0.08 0.03 1.79 103.0RT 96-4-285-286 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1029 756 1003 730 0.62 0.18 0.04 0.08 0.02 1.68 103.0RT 99-6-1 108-109 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1033 760 1007 734 0.62 0.19 0.04 0.08 0.02 1.69 108.0RT 71-17-1111 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1069 796 995 722 0.51 0.22 0.07 0.11 0.01 2.35 164.0RT 90-1-102-115 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1069 796 1015 742 0.52 0.22 0.06 0.12 0.01 2.06 164.0RT 90-1-344-355 Kspar megacrystic granodiorite Western phase 1036 763 1002 729 0.58 0.19 0.04 0.10 0.02 1.78 112.0RT 90-2-338-345 Granodiorite Western phase 1032 758 1014 741 0.63 0.18 0.04 0.07 0.03 1.55 106.0RT 90-3-57-60 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1059 785 1018 745 0.54 0.22 0.05 0.12 0.02 1.87 146.0RT 93-A-205.3 Plagioclase-phyric diorite Eastern phase 1062 789 1017 744 0.55 0.21 0.05 0.10 0.02 1.93 152.0RT 93-C-262 Granite dike Western phase 917 643 904 631 0.66 0.17 0.02 0.09 0.05 1.53 22.1RT 02-RT-3 Aplite dike Western phase 919 646 910 637 0.66 0.18 0.02 0.11 0.02 1.46 22.9RT 02-RT-4 Granite dike Western phase 933 660 925 652 0.65 0.17 0.01 0.11 0.03 1.44 28.5RT 02-RT-7 Aplite dike Western phase 953 680 941 668 0.63 0.18 0.02 0.11 0.03 1.5 38.1RT 93-F-55-57 Granite dike Western phase 933 660 926 653 0.67 0.16 0.01 0.09 0.05 1.42 28.5RT 71-14-1241 Granite dike Western phase 905 632 893 620 0.63 0.20 0.03 0.13 0.01 1.52 18.5M=1 3 M=Calculated Cation fractions290Appendix L Trench mapsThis appendix contains detailed trench maps from the Main Zones, 1 and 7. The locations of the trenches are shown in Figure A.K.1.810820830790860840850870890900800880 9107809208807708208108908408708607908508307908408208508408308004113004113004115004115004117004117004119004119004121004121004123004123006912700691270069129006912900691310069131006913300691330069135006913500691370069137006913900691390069141006914100691430069143000 100 200 300 40050MetersNCarmacks Copper DepositLEGENDIntrusive RocksUnitsQuartz monzonite, pegmatite, aplite dikesGranodiorite-Western phase LTrEJM1 Monzodiorite-Eastern phase MigmatiteLTrEJM2LTrEJM3Inferred faultContour lines in metresRoads and trailsuTrP Foliated, interbedded schist and amphibolite with local porphyritic sectionsMetamorphic RocksExtent of copper sulphide mineralizationContactsDened intrusiveInferred, approximate intrusiveInferred intrusiveMap extentTrench exposureuTrPZones 12 and 13uTrPLTrEJM2LTrEJM1LTrEJM3Zone 2000SLTrEJM1Zone 1Zone 7Zone 4C C’EE’D’DFigure A K 1  Geological map of the Carmacks Copper deposit showing the locations of trench cross-sections.291E E’SWNEuTrPLTrEJM2LTrEJM1LTrEJM3LTrEJM1 uTrPTR91-20 trench II0245m7.03.5(m)5.0D D’SW NELTrEJM2 LTrEJM1uTrPDiscovery trench IIIuTrP0245m2.5(m)NEC C’SW0 2.5 5muTrP LTrEJM2LTrEJM3Discovery trench II3.51.0(m)Figure A K 2  Trench cross-sections from the Main Zone. 

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