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The Kulleet Bay mass grave Parsley, Colleen 2018

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The Kulleet Bay Mass Grave by  Colleen Parsley   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Anthropology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  June 2018  © Colleen Parsley, 2018 The following individuals certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies for acceptance, a thesis/dissertation entitled:  The Kulleet Bay Mass Grave  submitted by Colleen Parsley  in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology  Examining Committee: Darlene Weston Supervisor  Bruce Granville Miller Supervisory Committee Member  n/a Supervisory Committee Member David Pokotylo Additional Examiner  ii  Abstract This bioarchaeological study was undertaken in partnership with Stz’uminus First Nation and draws on forensic and osteological methodologies for the analysis of 153,386 cremated human bones found buried together in a mass grave. Archaeological context is integrated with the bioarchaeological results to understand the various dimensions of a mass cremation grave discovered during 2004 sewer line excavations in the traditional ancient Stz’uminus village of Kulleet Bay. Analyses of the thermally altered skeletal bone indicate fleshed bodies were intensely cremated with sustained temperatures. Vertical gradation of temperature altered matrices were observed in the stratigraphic profile. Archaeological and osteological evidence point to an in situ cremation event of fleshed corpses who suffered a mass death, radiocarbon dated to 2407 cal BP. Skeletal pathologies consistent with poor health and also potentially related to disease processes are perhaps indirect evidence of the agent of mass death. No evidence of conflict or natural environmental disaster is present to support alternative causes. This mass death event correlates precisely to the transition from Locarno to Marpole Phases ca. 2400 BP. Radiocarbon dated wood samples and a lack of artifacts dating from 2400 BP to the post contact period support a period of abandonment following the cremation event, when trees re-established in this locality within the village. Corpse treatment and mortuary processes related to the grave construction highlight social dimensions of the survivors’ attitudes, who possibly viewed the dead not as enemies or ‘foe’ but as contaminated, resulting in a mortuary treatment outside the norm of traditional Coast Salish funerary practice.   iii  Lay Summary This work seeks to explain the presence of a mass grave found in an archaeological site located in the Stz’uminus ancient village of Kulleet Bay in Ladysmith, British Columbia. The mass grave contains the cremated remains of at least 65 people who died in a mass death event 2,407 years before present. The evidence presented here shows the most likely cause of the mass death event is related to disease. Timing of the mass death suggests it may be related to a major cultural shift documented on the Northwest Coast 2,400 years ago. iv  Preface Presented in this thesis is the original, independent, and unpublished work by the author, Colleen Parsley. The archaeological fieldwork was conducted in 2004 during a larger project (2003-2005) by a private sector archaeological consulting company. The portion of fieldwork under study involved the author who acted as a full-time field supervisor and participated in all aspects of the fieldwork except the fieldwork immediately prior to the discovery. Methods employed during the field work (2004-2005) were the sole responsibility of the company owner and his part-time field director, but at times and where possible, were modified by the author, Colleen Parsley. Archaeological materials from this project were removed to private sector facilities between 2003-2005. The federal government terminated the project in 2005 and eventually the Stz’uminus materials were transferred to the Royal BC Museum where they were stored in an unanalyzed state. In 2013, Chief Elliott of Stz’uminus First Nation contacted Colleen Parsley to discuss the need for the archaeological project to resume and bring closure to the community. Stz’uminus First Nation and the author co-developed research objectives in 2013 that were approved by Chief and Council (December 11, 2013). Stz’uminus First Nation was responsible for obtaining field records from the company who conducted the fieldwork. Field records were produced by several former employees (including Colleen Parsley) and included photographs, field notes, and maps. In December 2014, Colleen Parsley coordinated the transfer and transport of ancestral materials from the Royal BC Museum to a Stz’uminus operated warehouse turned into archaeological lab facility. The methods developed for processing, identification, cataloguing, and analysis and all research associated with the post-field study were designed and completed by Colleen Parsley. Processing and cataloguing of the human remains was completed 2014-2015 by Colleen Parsley with assistance from Laura Termes (Aquilla v  Archaeology) and Arthur Jim (Stz’uminus First Nation). Laura Termes completed the faunal identifications. All analyses of human remains and communication of the study results, including all written material presented here, has been the sole work of Colleen Parsley. The University of British Columbia Behavioral Research Ethics Board approved this study and issued Certificate of Approval H15-02487 on December 2, 2015.    vi  Table of Contents  Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii Lay Summary ............................................................................................................................... iii Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iv Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables ................................................................................................................................ ix List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... xi List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. xiv Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................................xv Dedication .................................................................................................................................. xvii Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................1 1.1 Ancient Coast Salish Mortuary Culture .......................................................................... 2 1.2  Cremation ........................................................................................................................ 6 1.3 Ancient Coast Salish Cremation Practices ...................................................................... 7 1.4 Mass Graves .................................................................................................................... 9 1.5 Stz’uminus First Nation Archaeological History .......................................................... 10 Chapter 2: Materials and Methods ............................................................................................11 2.1 Guiding Principles of the Stz’uminus Origins Project .................................................. 11 2.2 Previous Stz’uminus Archaeology and the 2003-2005 Sanitary Sewer Project ........... 12 2.3 Materials ....................................................................................................................... 15 2.4 Human Remains Identification from the Mass Cremation Feature .............................. 15 2.4.1 Cataloguing Cremains ............................................................................................... 15 vii  2.4.2 Quantifying Individuals Present ............................................................................... 17 2.4.3 Biological Age and Sex ............................................................................................ 17 2.4.3.1 Mortuary Profile.................................................................................................... 18 2.4.4 Pathology .................................................................................................................. 20 2.4.5 Identification of Thermal Alteration Signatures ....................................................... 21 2.4.5.1 Bone colour ........................................................................................................... 21 2.4.5.2 Fracture ................................................................................................................. 22 2.4.6 Radiocarbon Dating .................................................................................................. 23 2.4.7 Artifact Identification................................................................................................ 23 2.4.2 Fauna Identification .................................................................................................. 23 Chapter 3: Results........................................................................................................................24 3.1 Archaeological Context of the Mass Grave .................................................................. 24 3.1.1 Artifacts..................................................................................................................... 26 3.1.2 Faunal Remains ......................................................................................................... 27 3.2 Cremated Individuals .................................................................................................... 27 3.2.1 MNI ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.2.2 Mortuary profile ........................................................................................................ 29 3.2.3 Pathologies ................................................................................................................ 31 3.3 Taphonomy of Cremains and Thermal Patterns ........................................................... 32 3.3.1 Cremation Temperature and Bone Colour ............................................................ 32 3.3.1.1 Thermally Induced Bone Fracture Patterns .......................................................... 35 3.4 Chronology of the Mass Grave ..................................................................................... 36 Chapter 4: Discussion ..................................................................................................................38 viii  Chapter 5: Conclusion .................................................................................................................49 Works Cited ..................................................................................................................................51 Appendix A Additional Tables – Cremated Human Remains .................................................. 64 Appendix B Artifacts ................................................................................................................ 67 Appendix C Faunal Remains .................................................................................................... 74  ix  List of Tables Table 1. Kulleet Bay mass grave study framework. ....................................................................... 2 Table 2. Summary of NWC mortuary traditions and archaeological chronology. ......................... 4 Table 3. Cremated human remains reported from NWC archaeological sites. .............................. 7 Table 4. Guiding framework for the Stz’uminus Origins Project. ................................................ 11 Table 5. Age ranges identifiable with cremains and used in the mortuary profile. ...................... 20 Table 6. Temperature dependent colour and related changes to heat altered bone. ..................... 22 Table 7. Temperature dependent colour changes of burnt bone.. ................................................. 22 Table 8. Frequencies of burnt and unburnt artifacts from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. .............. 26 Table 9. Degree of burning within the fauna sample from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ............. 27 Table 10. Cremated remains identified to skeletal region from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ...... 28 Table 11. Age and sex estimations of unique individuals from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ...... 28 Table 12. Kulleet Bay mass grave life table. ................................................................................ 30 Table 13. Kolmogrov-Smirnov test results of the Kulleet Bay mass grave.................................. 30 Table 14. Type and frequencies of pathologies present in the Kulleet Bay mass grave. .............. 31 Table 15. Counts of bone according to temperature related colour from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ............................................................................................................................................. 33 Table 16. Proportions and types of thermal fractures on the cremains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ............................................................................................................................................. 35 Table 17. Radiocarbon results from cremated human bone samples taken from the Kulleet Bay mass grave.. ................................................................................................................................... 37 Table 18. Radiocarbon results from wood associated with the mass cremation grave ................. 37 Table 19. Estimated mortality age distributions from comparative Coast Salish populations. .... 40 x  Table 20.  Tally of field bags filled with cremains from the mass grave. .................................... 66 Table 21. Tally of cremains found in salvage units. ..................................................................... 66 Table 22. Precontact artifact types recovered from the mass grave. ............................................ 69 Table 23. Artifact frequencies according to era. ........................................................................... 69 Table 24. Historic artifact types. ................................................................................................... 69 Table 25. Diagnostic descriptions of historic artifacts. ................................................................. 73 Table 26. Identified fauna from the mass grave. .......................................................................... 74 Table 27. NISP and MNI per species. ........................................................................................... 74    xi  List of Figures Figure 1. Transition of mortuary types over time (BP) on the Northwest Coast. ........................... 5 Figure 2. Locations of NWC mortuary cremation features. ........................................................... 9 Figure 3. Study location in Kulleet Bay, Ladysmith, British Columbia. ...................................... 10 Figure 4. Locations of the mass grave, sewer line and Kulleet Bay Road. .................................. 14 Figure 5. Machine trenching just south of KB 10. ........................................................................ 14 Figure 6. Piled cremains after machine excavation. ..................................................................... 14 Figure 7. Profile drawing of the Kulleet Bay mass grave west trench wall. ................................. 24 Figure 8. Salvage EU 1 of the Kulleet Bay mass grave, southwest wall. ..................................... 25 Figure 9. Planview of in situ cremains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave in EU 1. ..................... 25 Figure 10. Distribution of cremains in each unit of the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ........................ 26 Figure 11. Relative proportions of burning within the fauna sample from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ............................................................................................................................................. 27 Figure 12. Refit cremains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ....................................................... 29 Figure 13. Kulleet Bay mass grave mortality profile compared to model populations. ............... 30 Figure 14. Expanded diploë. ......................................................................................................... 32 Figure 15. Porotic hyperstosis (PH) on the ectocranial surface. ................................................... 32 Figure 16. Periosteal reactive bone. .............................................................................................. 32 Figure 17. Some examples of osteoarthritis. ................................................................................. 32 Figure 18. Relative proportions and types burnt bone from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ........... 33 Figure 19. Relative proportions of burning according to skeletal region from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. .................................................................................................................................... 34 xii  Figure 20. Distribution of temperature altered bone colour in units from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. ............................................................................................................................................. 34 Figure 21. Fracture patterns amongst skeletal regions identified in the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 36 Figure 22. Radiocarbon results from the Kulleet Bay mass grave wood and bone samples. ....... 37 Figure 23. Comparative mortality profiles from False Narrows, Tsawwassen. ........................... 40 Figure 24. DgRw-17:5262. Quartz microlith core. ....................................................................... 68 Figure 25. DgRw-17: 5224. Quartz microlith. .............................................................................. 68 Figure 26. DgRw-17:5257. Quartz microlith. ............................................................................... 68 Figure 27. DgRw-17:5336. Quartz microlith. ............................................................................... 68 Figure 28. DgRw-17:5219. Obsidian microlith from Obsidian Cliffs, Oregon. ........................... 68 Figure 29. DgRw-17: 5219. Obsidian microlith from Obsidian Cliffs, Oregon. .......................... 68 Figure 30. DgRw-17:5208. CTH antler foreshaft. ........................................................................ 70 Figure 31. DgRw-17:5331. Antler CTH piece. ............................................................................. 70 Figure 32. DgRw-17:5216. Burnt bone zoomorphic fish head. .................................................... 70 Figure 33. DgRw-17:5206. Unburnt bone pendant. ..................................................................... 70 Figure 34. DgRw-17:5214. Burnt bone point. .............................................................................. 70 Figure 35. DgRw-17:5312. Miscellaneous burnt bone artifact..................................................... 70 Figure 36. DgRw-17:5264. Type II diamond point. ..................................................................... 71 Figure 37. DgRw-17:5251. Faceted slate point. ........................................................................... 71 Figure 38. DgRw-17:5353. Hexagonal slate point. ...................................................................... 71 Figure 39. DgRw-17:5250. Faceted slate point. ........................................................................... 71 Figure 40. DgRw-17:5301. Portion of carved antler zoomorphic frog......................................... 71 Figure 41. Ground stone bead. ...................................................................................................... 71 xiii   xiv  List of Abbreviations SFN – Stz’uminus First Nation (formerly Chemainus First Nation) I.R. 13 – Indian Reserve #13 NWC – Northwest coast MNI – Minimum number of individuals IAM – Internal auditory meatus ED – Expanded diploë PH – Porotic hyperstosis CTH – Composite toggling harpoon  xv  Acknowledgements I am deeply grateful for the support of  Stz’uminus First Nation. Chief John Elliott and councillors Harvey Seymour, Peter Seymour, Kevin Frenchy, Tim Harris, Herb Seymour, Terry Sampson, Ann Jack, Shawna Seymour, and Roxanne Harris provided the leadership to mandate this study supported by Administrator Ronda Jordan who tirelessly worked to get the data needed and to support the creation of the Stz’uminus lab.  During the ‘lost’ years things seemed hopeless for bringing any justice to Stz’uminus and to their ancestors who did not ask to be disturbed. This study would not have happened without the strength of my dear friend Arthur (John) Jim. George Harris provided kindness and support during that time of hardship. The counsel of my husband, Brian Kehoe, helped me through the exhausting fight for this story to be told.  My archaeological mentor, Brian Vivian, helped me develop the strength and sense of who I am as an archaeologist and encouraged my pathway to graduate work. He taught me that as archaeologists we have special responsibilities that cannot be abandoned when the going gets tough. Thank you for always being there for me when I need you. In 2005 John Elliott asked me for a tour of what was found on the side of the road and nine years later he is a strong community leader willing to take the risk and responsibility to partner this project, he achieved political consensus, then found and the resources for us to complete this crazy journey. I would like to thank Grant Keddie at the Royal BC Museum for risks undertook to accept these collections in 2008 against orders, as without this we could not have done this research. Thank you for dedicating several days of labour to help me inventory the collections, then kindly provide the professional transportation needed to repatriate these materials safely back to Stz’uminus First Nation.  xvi  The department of Anthropology faculty at UBC has been incredibly generous with time, expertise and resources. I would like to thank UBC for providing some funding for the Stz’uminus Origins Project through the Hampton Grant, and sincerely thank Darlene Weston for co-writing the application and agreeing to be lead researcher for the funding. I would like to thank Michael Richards for his generous funding for radiocarbon dates and valuable feedback and critical comments about interpretation of these results. Thank you to Kirsten Bell for the valuable insights about anthropology, archaeology, and ethics. My committee has been wonderful and I would like to sincerely acknowledge and thank Bruce Miller for some key advice. Dr. Weston has been such a bright light, going beyond the requirements of any graduate supervisor to enable my academic growth and success in this research. I will be forever grateful that you agreed to take me on as your (not-so-easy) student, for your freely shared time and expertise, teaching me not only about bones but also for disentangling and illuminating how the culture of academia works. I have so thoroughly enjoyed the opportunity to spend the last chapters of this journey with you. xvii  Dedication This is for Stz’uminus people whose deep history will now finally start to be known.  Huy ch q’a for your patience Stz’uminus mustimuhw. 1  Chapter 1: Introduction  Hundreds of individual ancient human ancestors from ‘traditional’ and rare burial contexts were excavated 2003-2005 during construction for a sewer line right of way at the ancient archaeological site DgRw-17, a continuously occupied Stz’uminus First Nation village in Kulleet Bay, Ladysmith, British Columbia (Figure 1). Among these mortuary features, a mass grave of cremated individuals was uncovered. Following the removal of the ancestral remains, all the archaeological material was transported to private consultant facilities in 2005. The Stz’uminus community was promised and expected a study to be completed and the human remains from their ancestors were to be returned for reburial. After a decade, Stz’uminus First Nation confronted this situation by instigating a project for the community that would repatriate their ancestors, design and co-lead their own archaeological study and rebury their ancestors with their archaeological belongings once data collection was completed. This thesis focuses on only one of the burial features from the Kulleet Bay site (DgRw-17): a mass grave that was partially excavated and contains the cremated remains of at least 65 individuals. This research investigates whether this mortuary feature represents a single mass burial event of individuals who had the same cause of death due to a catastrophic event, or if this grave represents the deposition of cremated individuals in the same locality over a longer period as part of previously undocumented Coast Salish mortuary practice.  No oral tradition currently exists within Stz’uminus First Nation relaying any community memory of this grave (pers. com Jim, A.; Harris, G.; late Chief P. Seymour, 11/2014). No references in archaeological or related literature can be found that describe cremation of multiple individuals buried in a mass graves. These absences in both indigenous and archaeological knowledge together suggest this is not an established or known burial tradition of any Coast Salish or indigenous community.  Throughout time mass graves have had associations with disease outbreak, natural disaster, warfare, and  genocide (Haglund, 2005; Osterholtz, et al., 2014), which leads to the conclusion that 2  these burial types invoke a transcendent icon of human catastrophe. Culture collapse is a well-documented recurring phenomenon throughout history and figures prominently in stories about the demise of societies (Tainter, 1988). This study presents research on a unique ancient burial feature currently unknown anywhere else in North America. There are no reported archaeological mass graves in Canada, let alone mass cremation graves, and overall mass grave sites are exceedingly rare (e.g., Crow Creek [Willey, 1982, 1990]; Cahokia Mound 72 [Ambrose et al., 2003; Thompson, 2013]; Tatham Mound [Hutchinson, 1996, 2006]). This work seeks to detect the underlying processes and circumstances (Table 1) that produced a cremation mortuary feature encountered in the Kulleet Bay archaeological site, DgRw-17. This study seeks to answer the following research question: did a catastrophic event cause mass death and departure from traditional mortuary treatment to expedite processing and disposal of corpses in a mass grave?   Theme of Inquiry Objective Goal Grave type Number of people  Mortuary processes Context of grave in situ or secondary Were they buried here or moved here? Is this grave intact or disturbed? Population demography Mortuary profile Population healthy or in crisis? Cremation processes Thermal evidence  Cremation in place or elsewhere? Chronology Is there one or multiple death dates? What are these dates? When did the people die? Comparative analysis to relevant sites Integration of archaeological context data with bioarchaeological data  Differences or similarities to evidence elsewhere?  Table 1. Kulleet Bay mass grave study framework. 1.1 Ancient Coast Salish Mortuary Culture  The diachronic trajectory of Coast Salish mortuary culture knowledge can be characterized as very uneven. Coast Salish archaeological and mortuary culture is synthesized in Table 2. Little has been published about Northwest Coast (NWC) mortuary archaeology in recent decades due to the influence of processual archaeology, which tended to objectify bones as things rather than once living tissue from the body of a once living person, a perspective offensive to descendants (Arnold & Jeske, 2014). Early researchers sought to explain culture change through biological distance studies as  evidence of migration, giving rise to population diffusion (e.g., cranial studies focusing on 3  population replacement theories to explain different shapes in artificial cranial modification) (Boas, 1891; Hill-Tout and Maud, 1978). Indigenous experiences of archaeologists taking ancestral remains without permission is historically documented by Bouchard et al. (2006) who describe Franz Boas selling skeletal material; Cole, (1982) documents unscrupulous grave robbing by museums, and Jonatis (1999) writes about theft of the Whaler’s Shrine at Yuquot. The practice persists such as at Kulleet Bay where ancestral remains were used for study (Hickok 2013); highlighting the ongoing ethical impairment of the discipline.  Such practice serves colonial interests and runs counter to indigenous efforts to assert cultural authority, establish rights based on permanence of place intertwined with ancestral lineages in deep time, it is no wonder that osteologists are not welcome in many communities (Hoffmann, 2000).  YR BP Cultural Phase Diagnostic Material Culture Features Settlement, Technological Trends Mortuary Treatment 1400-1850 Developed Coast Salish Small triangular shaped dart/arrow points, less sculpture, cranial modification. Ground stone/bone emphasized, trench embankments indicate increased warfare; marine subsistence emphasized, large scale food storage. Above ground placement: rock shelter, canoe, grave house, cairn. 2400-1800 Marpole Artificial cranial modification, ‘Marpole’ style unilateral antler harpoon points, fixed unilateral barbed antler harpoon points, nipple topped hand mauls, stone and bone sculpture, nephrite celts, ground slate points, biconically perforated stones, triangular chipped points. Large scale villages and architecture, elites, corporate art production, marine subsistence emphasized, large scale food production and storage, increase in ground tool technology, reduction in chipped stone. Midden interment & subsurface cairns; dentalia with burials, large above ground cairns and mounds. 3200-2400 Locarno Labret wear, obsidian /quartz microlith technology, composite valve toggling and bilateral barbed harpoons, ground slate faceted points, Gulf Islands Complex, stemmed chipped points, thick ground slate knives, celts, bird bone needles, shaped abrasive stones. Chipped stone tools dominates, introduction of ground stone technology. Both land and marine focused subsistence, increasing sedentism. Social differentiation evident. Midden interment & subsurface cairn; beads with burials. 3200-4500 Charles Distinctive styled bone pendants, unilateral and bilateral harpoon points, ground slate faceted points, Gulf Islands Complex ‘whatzit’, stemmed chipped points. Emphasis on land fauna subsistence, chipped stone technology. Midden interment. 4500+ Old Cordilleran Large bifaces, leaf-shaped projectile points and cobble tools. Land mammal subsistence emphasized.  Mobile hunting and gathering, chipped stone technology. Unknown. 4  Table 2. Summary of NWC mortuary traditions and archaeological chronology. Summarized from Burley, 1980; Carlson, 1996, 2014a,b; Cybulski, 1992; Mathews, 2006; Matson, 2010, 2014;Mitchell, 1968, 1990; Mitchell and Pokytylo, 2014; Thom, 1995.   Production of knowledge about Coast Salish burial traditions has a tendency to focus on two interconnected aspects of mortuary evidence: displays of wealth (Coupland et al., 2016) and exotic material (Burley, 1980), potentially biasing how Coast Salish interment of the dead is represented.  Differential amounts of wealth objects in NWC mortuary contexts are attributed to social stratification and are often used as evidence of trajectory towards cultural complexity (Burley, 1980; Thom, 1995; Brown, 1996). Complexity in the past continues to dominate  explanations of mortuary variability identified in archaeological evidence (Coupland et al., 2016); however, other researchers (Curtin 2002) have shown this alone does not have sufficient explanatory power to account for all mortuary expressions seen in archaeological contexts. Corpse treatment, placement, memorialization and regional differences are demonstrated to be important dynamics but have been applied only to ‘normal’ archeological mortuary contexts. Normative burial, also known as ‘good’ death, is often where funerary practice follows dedicated traditional pathways that contrast to ‘bad’ deaths or non-normative burial, those facing atypical circumstances at death and whose burial pathway may follow a different trajectory (Robb 2013). The majority of NWC burial contexts are interpreted through the lens of social complexity, however, this unduly limits understanding of diverse NWC mortuary practices. Exceptions are works that explore themes of violence and warfare (Cybulski, 1992, 2013) mortuary variability, cremation and manner of death (Curtin, 2002, 2008), the fallacy of cranial modification and migration (Beattie, 1981, 1985), mortuary landscapes and monumentality (Mathews, 2006, 2014) and whether gender or other social dimensions influence grave goods (Burchell, 2003, 2006).  The diachronic trajectory of diverse mortuary traditions (Figure 1) parallels other cultural shifts observed from archaeological material evidence that are thought to be driven by the rise of 5  social complexity commencing during Locarno times and culminating within the Marpole Phase 2400-1500 (or 1000) BP (Matson and Coupland, 2003; Mitchell, 1990; Thom, 1995). Little is known about the mortuary traditions prior to 3300 BP as few sites are known: Tsawwassen (J. Curtin, 1991), St. Mungo (Calvert, 1970), Glenrose Cannery (Beattie, 1981; Styles, 1976), Pender Island (Carlson, 1986, 1993; Weeks, 1986), and possibly Shell Beach (Lake et al., 2004). Locarno-era (3300-2400 BP) mortuary features include subsurface burials and one ossuary is reported (Curtin, 2002). Marpole Phase (2400-1800 BP) mortuary contexts include bluff cremation interments, and midden subsurface interments, some elaborately constructed requiring costly expenditures  with non-local weath items  (Brown, 1996; Burley, 1988; Curtin, 1991). Mounds and cairns appear during a transition from Marpole to the Developed Coast Salish Phase (or Late Period 1800-1400 - contact), evidenced by large above ground structures containing individual interments often cremated and sometimes with extensive grave goods ( Mathews, 2006; 2014; Thom, 1995) best known from the Scowlitz site 1600-1000 cal BP (Lepofsky, et al., 2000).  During the Late Period (1500 - 1000 BP to contact), the dead were placed above ground (Cybulski, 1992) on platforms built into trees, within canoes hoisted up into trees or within small mortuary sheds or houses, and in caves and rock crevices especially among islands.    Figure 1. Transition of mortuary types over time (BP) on the Northwest Coast. 6  1.2  Cremation Unification of fire and death in the act of cremation has occurred on every continent by innumerable ancient societies (for a global history of cremation refer to Davies and Mates, 2005; in Neolithic Europe and Roman Empire see Andrews and Bellow, 2012; during the Bronze and Iron Ages see Oestigaard, 2013; McKinley, 2013; in the U.S. Southeast Woodland Period 3000-1000 BP and Mississippian cultures 1000-Contact (Anderson and Mainfort, 2002); in the Mid-East and among Hohokam in the Southwest during pre-classic (475-1150 AD) and classic periods (1150-1450/1500 AD) (Cerezo-Roman, 2015) [Binford and Quimby, 1972], Pliestocene Alaska (Potter et al., 2011) as well as Mexico, Australia, and Asia (Mays, 1998).  Cremation cross-culturally is the intentional burning of a corpse post-mortem. According to Duday (2009), cremation is defined as treatment of a corpse with fire as a social process. Cremation encompasses many sub-processes, movements and pathways (Quinn et al., 2014). Burning of the dead is an intentional culturally-specific mortuary treatment involving fleshed and de-fleshed bodies, primary and secondary mortuary contexts (Duday, 2009), above ground and below ground deposits (J.I. McKinley, 2013), and single to co-mingled individuals (Curtin, 2008). Burning a corpse hastens the decomposition process and reduces the remains to a “clean” and “pure” state, it is a method of corpse disposal used cross-culturally for those who may be considered corrupted or contaminated (Rakita and Buikstra, 2005). Cremation has been practiced as both an act of ancestor veneration and ancestor violation (Duncan, 2005) and is often a performative spectacle and witnessing of the visual transformation through fire and smoke of a corpse (or corpses) from the fleshed once-living person, to clean bone and ash (Williams, 2004).  When a corpse is cremated, thermal dynamics influenced by temperature, intensity, duration, fuel source, the environment and the context within which the cremation is occurring, may cause differential burning (Symes, 2008). At 350C° the skeleton of a body begins to char, turning a black 7  colour (Curtin, 2002; Mays, 1998; McKinley, 2013; Shipman et al., 1984; Walker et al., 2008). Temperatures above this become explosive and the bone begins to thermally fracture and change colour from grey to blue. Heat sustained above 800° causes bone to calcine, turn white in colour, and by this time, fragmentation of the bone is extreme (Walker et al. 2008). Burnt human and animal bone may enter the archaeological record from various and divergent intentional and unintentional actions (Bennett, 1999). Incidental burning of mortuary features can only occur in shallow mortuary contexts less than 10cm in depth (Bennett, 1997; McKinley, 2013).  1.3 Ancient Coast Salish Cremation Practices Cremation of the dead in Coast Salish regions of the NWC is not well understood. Burned human remains are documented (Table 3, Figure 2) in midden interments, cairns and mounds, and in ossuaries (A. J. Curtin, 2002). Uncertainty underlies reporting of archaeological burnt human bone in this region, as (1) mortuary traditions are infrequently studied; (2) cremation is not acknowledged as a NWC culture ‘trait’; and (3) archaeological investigators lack familiarity with the processes of cremation. Cremated remains are reported within cairns and mounds across the landscape of southern Coast Salish communities (Smith and Fowke, 1901). Interpretations vary, with some hypothesized to be secondary interments based on the lack of associated burning evidence within or around the grave, while others are interpreted as cremated in situ. Archaeological Site Reference Namu (Curtin, 1984) Departure Bay (Howe, 1994) False Narrows Ossuary (Curtin, 2002) Long Harbour (Hall and Haggarty, 1981) Somenos Creek (Brown, 1996) Comiaken Mound (Brown, 1996) Saanich Peninsula  (Smith & Fowke, 1901) Rocky Point (Mathews, 2014) Table 3. Cremated human remains reported from NWC archaeological sites. 8  The False Narrows site on Gabriola Island contain 143 individuals housed in multiple cave bluff and crevice features and is the only known ossuary on the NWC (Curtin, 2002). Most of the comingled remains are cremated and the majority show evidence of post-mortem dismemberment and comingling indicating a place for secondary interments used from 3300-1500 cal. BP (Curtin, 2002). Dismemberment, violent trauma and disease were found to be in much higher proportions in the bluff assemblages compared to those found in nearby contemporaneous midden interments at the False Narrows site less than one kilometer away, leading to the interpretation manner of death was the underlying cause of differential mortuary treatment of these individuals. This work stands as an important step forward in conceptualizing NWC mortuary pathways; away from a fixation on prestige burials as symbolic of class and rank (Curtin, 2002).   9  Figure 2. Locations of NWC mortuary cremation features.  1.4 Mass Graves Mass graves are typically associated with contemporary catastrophe and expedient disposal of corpses from a mass death event (Haglund, 2005) or where more than three people are buried as the result of extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary execution (Haglund et al., 2001). Catastrophic agents may include epidemic disease, warfare or natural disaster (Haglund et al., 2001). Definitions are drawn from contemporary politico-legal frameworks and forensics investigations associated with genocide and other criminal acts (Haglund et al., 2001).  Drawing on bioarchaeological mortuary theory, Komar (2008) defines an archaeological mass grave as more than 10 bodies present and most importantly, ‘foe’ agency in the creation of the burial is needed. Identification of agency is accomplished by evaluating signs of veneration (‘friendly’) versus violation (‘foe’) by those responsible for producing the grave and placing the dead within it. Detection of friendly and foe burials requires reconstructing past processes through careful analysis to identify details of grave construction, corpse treatment and placement (Komar, 2008). Labour-intensive grave construction, attention to body placement, adherence to funerary tradition, inclusions with the deceased signify ‘friendly’ agency, while expediency, erratic co-mingling of bodies disregarding body position, lack of burial inclusions, departure from funerary tradition, and spatial distance from the community signal ‘foe’ agency (Komar, 2008).   Drawing from Komar (2008), a mass grave will be defined as containing the in situ osteological remains of more than 10 people in a primary interment with osteological and/or archaeological evidence of either a catastrophic event or ‘interment of other’. Socio-political exclusion based on difference may be symbolized  as non-normative mortuary processes that can include violent trauma, lack of funerary process, corpse treatment consistent with conflict or societal collapse or natural disaster assemblages such as epidemics, where bodies may be buried in a mass 10  grave due to spiritual or biological contamination in which case this treatment may be considered cleansing for the community (Duncan, 2005; Shay, 1985).  1.5 Stz’uminus First Nation Archaeological History Stz’uminus First Nation is a Coast Salish Hul’qumi’num speaking community whose territory is situated on eastern Vancouver Island between Dodd’s Narrows in the north and the Chemainus River valley to the south (Figure 3). The main localities where Stz’uminus people presently reside is within the traditional villages of Kulleet Bay and Thuq’min (Shell Beach) located on Indian Reserve #13, a 1085 ha of the large peninsula facing east to Stuart Channel within the Salish Sea. Figure 3. Study location in Kulleet Bay, Ladysmith, British Columbia. 11  Chapter 2: Materials and Methods  2.1 Guiding Principles of the Stz’uminus Origins Project A post-colonial framework for the investigation of the ancestral human remains from the Shell Beach and Kulleet Bay sites was developed in 2013 to redress some of the harms brought to the Stz’uminus community from the 2003-2005 sewer line project. Termed the Stz’uminus Origins Project, the goal of this project was to envision a way forward for and with the Stz’uminus descent community, where power was vested to control decisions, access, and guide the work in a way deemed culturally appropriate. The leadership of Stz’uminus First Nation co-developed a culturally appropriate framework under which this study could occur, specified with goals and conditions as outlined below (Table 4). Goals  The study was envisioned to serve future Stz’uminus generations  The study was for the children of the community, and will serve to remind them of who they are and where they come from (origins)  The work bridged a compromise of two needs identified by the community: 1) learn and increase cultural knowledge about the past 2) rebury and put the ancestors back to rest.  Conditions  Bring the ancestors and all Stz’uminus archaeological cultural property from the sewer line project home to Stz’uminus territory.  Establish space within the full control and access of Stz’uminus First Nation to conduct a bioarchaeological study  Creation of a Stz’uminus archaeological lab facility to house and work on the cultural materials in a secured and environmentally controlled space with an open-door policy to all Stz’uminus community members to ensure community connection and involvement  Train and employ Stz’uminus members to conduct work in the Stz’uminus lab  All decision-making power is vested with Stz’uminus First Nation and this responsibility is undertaken by those members most intimately involved in the project for smaller decisions and with Chief and Council for larger decisions.  Table 4. Guiding framework for the Stz’uminus Origins Project.   The project involved the identification of and data collection from all artifacts, ancestral remains, and fauna excavated from Kulleet Bay and the re-analysis of ancestral remains from Shell Beach. Stz’uminus chose and funded archaeological laboratory space that was spiritually safe and accessible within their core territory. Data collection commenced January 2014 and effectively 12  ceased on October 24, 2015, when the ancestors from Shell Beach (DfRw-1) were reburied in the Shell Beach cemetery, and November 7, 2015, when the ancestors from Kulleet Bay and five ancestors from three other archaeological sites in Stz’uminus territory were reburied in the Kulleet Bay cemetery.  2.2 Previous Stz’uminus Archaeology and the 2003-2005 Sanitary Sewer Project The Shaman`s Pool petroglyph at the north end of Kulleet Bay (Newcombe, 1932) and a limited shoreline survey (Acheson et al., 1975; Cassidy and Cranny, 1974) were the only works to document Stz’uminus archaeological heritage prior to the federal sewer project.  Indian Reserve land is federal jurisdiction and is the most vulnerable to archaeological destruction given the lack of national legislation to protect archaeological sites in Canadian. No effort has ever been made to document the size, scope, significance or chronology of any of these Stz’uminus village locations. This was the state of knowledge about Stz’uminus archaeological heritage when the federally funded capital works project got underway to install a new sanitary sewer system to the homes located on I.R. #13. Residents of Kulleet and Thuq’min, like indigenous people across Canada, for generations have struggled with persistent systemic poverty and a lack of adequate housing and infrastructure (Macdonald and Wilson, 2016; Mitchell, 1976). Failing septic systems were identified in the 1990’s as an urgent problem contributing to poor health conditions from effluent on the ground surface near homes and found to be contaminating the nearby productive traditional shellfisheries, vitally depended upon by Stz’uminus residents, located within both Thuq’min and Kulleet Bays (B. Thom & Fediuk, 2009). Planning studies for the sewer project commenced with two archaeological impact assessments (AIA)  (Hewer, 1999,  2001). Unfortunately, neither study tested the archaeological boundaries of Kulleet Bay, where only seven soil probes were placed, or at Shell Beach, where no subsurface tests occurred before archaeologists permitted large machine excavators to remove 13  archaeological deposits (Hewer, 2001). The Shell Beach portion of the sewer line was constructed in 2003-2004 and the Kulleet Bay portion in 2004-2005.  On July 24, 2003, machine excavation commenced at Shell Beach and human remains were identified soon after (Lake, fieldnotes July 28, 2003) in  addition to house remains and a wet component dated to at least 5,400 years BP (Lake et al, 2004). Despite the significant impact on the cultural material at the site, there was no effort to avoid, stop, or re-think the destruction. In September 2004, the sewer line excavations commenced in Kulleet Bay and due to its larger site size, destruction of cultural material magnified. For example, the project managers approved blasting of a buried sandstone bedrock ridge in the sewer line right-of-way (RoW), resulting in the devastating destruction of vast areas of surrounding archaeological material (Parsley, fieldnotes Feb 15-22, 2005). A “major ash burnt bone feature” found near KB10 (Parsley, fieldnotes November 4, 2004) was recognized only after most of it was scooped out and dumped in piles on the west bank of the trench (Figures 4-6). A subsequent two-week investigation revealed that the piles of excavated material consisted of wet ash and human cremains.  Fortunately, the trench excavations had not removed the entire feature and a grid of units was established to hand excavate the remaining layers in 10cm levels (Figure 4). The wet weather exacerbated the already saturated matrix, affected by the creek drainage nearby. All excavated materials were screened through ¼ inch mesh. As the quantity of burnt human bone encountered and recovered increased, it became clear that this feature was a mass grave.  However, conflicting interpretations ensued and a 50 x 50 cm excavation unit was dug in the west wall of the trench in attempt to bolster an alternative interpretation that the feature was a hearth (Bond, fieldnotes, December 3, 2004 in author’s possession). Shortly afterwards, the archaeological project was shut down, funding was withdrawn, Stz’uminus ancestral and archaeological materials were removed to private consulting facilities in Victoria, B.C., and there was little indication that post-excavation study would be completed.  14   Figure 4. Locations of the mass grave, sewer line and Kulleet Bay Road. Inset shows salvage units.  Figure 5. Machine trenching just south of KB 10.  Figure 6. Piled cremains after machine excavation.  15  2.3 Materials Materials analyzed included a pallet of 10 banker boxes containing 116 field bags filled with archaeological deposits. These consisted mostly of water screened cremated human bone, artifacts and faunal remains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave.   2.4 Human Remains Identification from the Mass Cremation Feature Identification of human bone was completed using a Bone Clones© cast of an adult male Asian individual, the closest comparison for North American indigenous populations, procedures using Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), and illustrations from  Bass, 2005 and White, et al., 2011. 2.4.1 Cataloguing Cremains The cataloguing of comingled cremains involved the use of methods described by Curtin (2002; 2008). However, attempts to identify refits across the feature were not done, as this would only provide the number of fragments per element, which is redundant beyond skeletal region and not a valuable contribution to further understanding the feature. Each of the 116 bulk screened field bags contained thousands of bone fragments, many <4 mm in size. Rather than catalogue each bone fragment, a process and method was established based on provenience and the ‘nearest neighbour’ principle, where it was assumed a spatial relationship existed within each bag correlating to the original deposition, cremation and subsequent salvage excavation of the individual ancestor. This theoretically assumes the cremains within each bag will have both an increased likelihood of several pieces of the same bone being present and a higher chance of the bone belonging to a unique individual. Each bulk field bag of cremains was reviewed according to this principle and fragments of individual elements were tallied before cataloguing. This also allowed individual fragments of the same element to be refit where possible. Matched sets were identified based on multiple criteria including provenience within the same bag (nearest neighbor), burn colour, size and morphological characteristics of the remains.  16  Any bones missed during water screening or bulk sampled (i.e., not screened in the field) were screened in the lab using custom built nested screens with mesh ranging from <22mm, 12-22 mm, 4-12 mm, and < 4mm. Those cremains already water screened were screened again and larger pieces were measured with digital calipers. All ash and bone dust was kept and bagged separately. All fragments identifiable to element and then skeletal region in each bag were sorted, where possible, to element, size and colour in this order. Discrete individuals found within each bag were separated from those bones of different biological ages and conjoined with any substantial refits. Each unique individual was assigned a tentative Kulleet Bay Individual number (KBI-#) and any possible associations and additional refits based on size, age, burn pattern, and morphology were connected and further compared across the feature for matches to age, size, burn pattern and any other corroborating visible evidence such as robusticity, and weathering.  Once all possible refit opportunities were exhausted, all identifiable unique KBI sets were entered into a Microsoft Excel database catalogue according to their field provenience, which included unit, depth, date and field recorder comments. Fragment size was coded as follows: 1=identifiable pieces and larger fragments >20 mm; 2=medium fragments 12-22 mm in size; 3=small fragments 4-12 mm in size. The purpose of recording fragment size is to reconstruct thermal processes resulting in fracturing and fragmentation of skeletal remains (see section 3.3.2).  Those identifiable bones that were not associated with a unique individual were sorted according to element, fragment size, colour and fracture pattern, recorded in the database and counted and grouped according to provenience. Each bone fragment was examined to score burn colour, weighed to 0.1 g using a digital scale, measured using digital calipers, scored for fracture pattern and carefully inspected under 10x lit magnification for any evidence of dog or rodent gnawing, weathering, trauma, or pathology. Identified elements were grouped into more manageable condensed skeletal regions of cranial, vertebrae, thorax, shoulder girdle, arm, hand, pelvic girdle, 17  leg, foot, hand/foot, long bone and unidentified (Duday 2009) for comparative analysis in SPSS© statistical software (IBM Corp, version 23.0, 2015).  2.4.2 Quantifying Individuals Present Accurate representation of individuals in a comingled cremation only partially excavated is problematic because the true size of the grave and the number of people within it remains unknown. The destruction of bone from the cremation process limits the visibility of identifiable bone, reducing quantification of those individuals recovered from the trench (Mays, 1998). Conventional determination of the minimum number of individuals (MNI) involves counting the most represented same-sided element (i.e., left femur) to arrive at the minimum number of persons present (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994; White et al., 2011). In cremation contexts, this method is less reliable due to the reduced number of identifiable bones and consequent reduction in the ability to accurately identify left and right sides (Fairgrieve, 2007). Several researchers (Bass and Jantz, 2004; Fairgrieve, 2007; Mayes, 1998;McKinley,1993) have attempted to tackle this issue of under-quantification by using skeletal weight as a proxy for MNI. One problem with this method is the ‘missing bone phenomena’ (Mays, 1998; McKinley, 2013) perhaps caused by the reduction of trabecular bone to dust when incinerated (Mays, 1998). This method has not gained wide acceptance as weights of cremated remains for an individual adult can vary from 100 to 3000g (McKinley, 2013).  2.4.3 Biological Age and Sex  Juvenile and fetal individuals were assessed for age based on morphological and metric characteristics (Schaefer et al. 2009; Scheuer and Black 2000). Problems with identifying children in the archaeological record is a well known phenomena ( Bass and Jantz, 2004; Chamberlain, 2000; Lewis, 2006;). No research has been published that evaluates how cremation impacts the identification of children in co-mingled cremation contexts, however as juveniles are often underrepresented in other archaeological burial contexts, it can be logically assumed additional 18  thermal destruction from cremation will further compound the visibility bias, further reducing the ability of researchers to successfully identify immature remains. Ageing techniques for adults were applied to teeth, ribs, cranial sutures, and aspects of the auricular surfaces of os coxae. Teeth were aged using methods described by Ubelaker (1989) and Schmidt (2008), the latter specifically for cremated teeth. Methods for scoring dental attrition followed Lovejoy (1985) and for cranial sutures Meindl and Lovejoy (1985) and the composite method established by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) where observable.  Destructive thermal combustion drastically fractions skeletal elements, consequently compounding constraints of basic identifications and estimation of age/sex.  Portions of the pubis, mandible, mastoid and supraorbital ridge with attributes available for sex estimation were rarely present. Where observable, the data was recorded but such extreme fragmentation reduces accuracy and is considered less reliable due to this key limitation of the data.   2.4.3.1  Mortuary Profile Individual age at death estimates allow for the study of population mortality (Martin, et al., 2013). Trends are identifiable by plotting age-at-death in a life table, a mathematical tool used to calculate survivorship, mortality, and probability of death for given age sets (Chamberlain, 2006).  The biological age of bone elements used to determine the MNI quantified the minimum age ranges used for comparisons to model Level 5 West populations best suited to pre-industrial societies (Coale and Demeny 1983) and were modified to more closely resemble the limited age ranges identifiable in bioarchaeological contexts (0-4; 5-9;10-14;15-17;18-25; 26-35; 36-45; 46+) (Weston, 2012a). The deaths at these various age cohorts are used to construct a mortuary profile of the population (Chamberlain 2006). Two types of mortality profiles compared for past populations are attritional and catastrophic burial assemblages. Attritional burial assemblages representing ‘normative’ death in pre-Contact societies are typified by a high death rate for infants followed by declining death rates for children, which stabilizes during early adulthood then increases again 19  gradually through mid-mature adulthood (Chamberlain, 2009). Catastrophic burial assemblages involve populations facing disaster or crisis and destabilized mortality where individuals die at higher than expected rates (Chamberlain, 2006). Stable (attritional) and unstable (catastrophic) mortality patterns can be predictably observed at population-level scales, but are not reflective of the more resilient living population as attritional mortality profiles do not reflect the demographic characteristics of the living resilient survivors, as cemeteries are populated with the less resilient individuals that succumbed to death (Gowland and Chamberlain, 2005; Margerison and Knüsel, 2002; Wood et al., 1992). Catastrophic mortuary profiles are the result of sudden death at a population scale, impacting all age groups within a population indiscriminately and may provide insight into the living demographics of ancient societies (Chamberlain, 2006; Gowland & Chamberlain, 2005). For instance, epidemic disease and natural disaster may result in a mortuary profile with a higher number of juveniles compared to a ‘normal’ or attritional burial assemblage. Warfare may be detected in a mortuary profile when a disproportionately high number of younger adult males are present or if young adult women are missing due to capture (Osterholz et al., 2014). Determining the mortality profile of any given population requires comparison of age cohort distributions between attritional and catastrophic assemblages. This is done with a life table, a demographic tool used to model probability of death (Chamberlain, 2006). Life tables are statistically derived from census surveys that plot age at death data in populations to identify survivorship and probability of mortality at any given age (Coale and Demeny, 1983).  The Kolmogrov-Smirnoff test measures maximum divergence between cumulative frequency of two populations (Chamberlain 2006) and is used for paleodemographic comparisons to detect difference (Gowland & Chamberlain, 2005). Due to the taphonomic and destructive force of the cremation pyre (Bontrager & Nawrocki, 2008; Symes, 2008; Ubelaker, 2009), paleodemographic data for cremains is limited and prevents the use of fine-grained biological age categories (Kurila, 20  2015). Accordingly, simplified age categories were used (Table 5). Model life tables for males and females were averaged to produce one death rate for both sexes, and age cohorts calculated at every five years in the model tables were reduced to match the broader age ranges available in the Kulleet Bay sample.  Age 0-1 Fetal, perinate, neonate, and infant. 1-9 Child 10-19 Adolescent 20+ Adult  Table 5. Age ranges identifiable with cremains and used in the mortuary profile. Based on (Schaefer et al., 2009).  The age at death (dx) data for the mortuary groups are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smirnov test (K-S test) [Weston, 2012a] to examine the differences between two samples proportionally divided into ordinal categories. The observed difference is calculated from the population data of two independent samples. These samples consist of the 1) the Kulleet Bay mass grave individuals and 2) the model group from life tables compiled by Coale and Demeny (1983) from non-industrialized attritional and catastrophic populations with demographic death rates comparable for pre-industrialized archaeological populations.  0.05 level =1.36 √ n1+n2                                  n1*n2  critical d =.168742 2.4.4 Pathology Pathologies are important for identifying possible health and disease patterns in past populations and these were identified using methods and reference material described by Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin (1998), Ortner (2003), Grauer (2012) and comparative evidence in the non-cremated Kulleet Bay and Shell Beach burial assemblages. The identification of pathologies in cremations is contingent upon mortuary tradition, where burial practice affects the observability of pathology (Reinhard and Fink 1994). Fuel types that produce lower combustible temperatures also increase the likelihood of observing identifiable pathology compared to co-mingled, secondary cremations, or hotter cremation contexts that produce intense fracturing 21  (Reinhard and Fink 1994). According to Reinhard and Fink (1994), the only pathology less susceptible to taphonomic and mortuary practice is porotic hyperostosis, as no differences were observed between the number of examples seen in interred and cremated individuals. Pathologies identified included expanded diploë, porotic hyperstosis, cribra orbitalia, periosteal reaction; and osteoarthritis and age-related disease. Criteria for identification of expanded diploë, porotic hyperstosis and cribra orbitalia followed those outlined by Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin (1998), Lynnerup et al., (2005), Mensforth and Lovejoy (1978), and Walker et al. (2009). Methods outlined by Weston (2012b) were used to identify periosteal reactive bone. Definitions and criteria for osteoarthritis were drawn from Rogers and Waldron, 1995. 2.4.5 Identification of Thermal Alteration Signatures Considerable research has been undertaken on burnt archaeological bone. Such studies have sought to solve issues like those faced by this study such as whether human bones were fleshed, green or dry at the time of cremation (Baby, 1954; Binford, 1972; Symes et al., 2008); intentional vs incidental burning of archaeologically buried bone (Bennett, 1999); thermal fracture pattern comparisons between buried animal and human cremations (Whyte, 2001) relationship of bone colour to burning temperature ( Mays, 1998; Shipman et al., 1984; Walker et al., 2008); attributes of burning signature on bone from fleshed cremations (Symes et al., 2008), and thermal induced changes in body position as it relates to tissue shielding of bones (DeHaan, 2008).  2.4.5.1  Bone colour Visual assessment of bone colour was completed according to Shipman et al. 1984, Symes 2008, and Walker et al. 2008 (Tables 6 and 7). Temperature assessment follows (Symes, 2008; Walker et al., 2008) and structural and biological changes uses Mays (1998).   Colour of Bone Temp C ° Structural and Biological Changes of Bone  22  Dark Brown 200-300 Water Driven off (dehydration). Black 300   Black to Grey/Blue 350-750 Collagen pyrolizes; shrinkage at 700.  Blue/Grey/White 800+  Purple 1100+  Table 6. Temperature dependent colour and related changes to heat altered bone.  Stage Fire Altered State Colour C°  Munsell*  Range Median Bone Tooth I Unburned Neutral white, pale yellow, yellow 20-285  185 10YR8/4 2.5Y8/4 II Smoked Reddish brown, very dark grey brown, neutral dark grey, reddish yellow 285-525  440 7.5YR8/3 10YR3/1 III Charred Neutral black, w/ medium blue and reddish yellow appearing 525-645  525 10YR7/2 5PB3/1 IV Calcined Neutral white (dominant), light blue grey, light grey 645-940  745 N9.5/0 N9.5/0 V Calcined Neutral white, medium grey and reddish yellow 940+ n/a N9.5/0 N9.5/0 Table 7. Temperature dependent colour changes of burnt bone. Based on Shipman et al., 1984. * A colour identification system developed by Albert H. Munsell using measurements scored for chroma, value and hue sold as Munsell© Soil Colour Chart.  2.4.5.2  Fracture  Differentiation between ‘dry’ bone and ‘wet bone was completed using Bennett, 1999; Buikstra 1989, Karr and Outram, 2012. Criteria to define breakage patterns when fleshed are found in Table 7. These include transverse fractures, splintering and/or delamination, burn-line fractures, warping, and shrinkage (Symes, 2008; ) as opposed to limited diversity of fractures, limited shrinkage, lack of warping and the dominance of shallow longitudinal fractures with stepped edges when dry (Bennett, 1999; Binford, 1972; Buikstra, 1989; Whyte, 2001; Symes, 2008).  Stage Description Type 1 On long bones. Regular, predictable structural failure along grain of bone, parallel to osteon canals. May be helical/spiral. Longitudinal 2 Extends from longitudinal fracture transversely across bone shaft. Intersects other longitudinal fractures. Step 3 Fire consumes transversely as it travels up the shaft. Transect haversion canals. Tissue & pugilistic posture may hamper on one side. Similar to step fractures. Transverse 4 Superficial – like cracked china. Patina (Crazing) 5 Splintering/Delamination Splintering/Delamination 6 Separates burned from unburned bone. Burn Line Fractures 7 Heating then cracking as soft tissues shrink pulling brittle thermally altered bone surface (also called muscle shrinkage lines). Concentric rings less common. Often occurs on femur shaft.  Curved Transverse Table 7. Fracture typology used for scoring Kulleet Bay cremation feature from (Symes et al. 2008:42-46).  23  2.4.6 Radiocarbon Dating Five human bone samples (>3.0 g.) from cremated right petrous temporal bones were chosen to ensure dating of unique individuals and five associated wood samples obtained from the cremation field bags of the same units and levels were sent to the Groningen Institute of Archaeology for radiocarbon dating. Burnt bone radiocarbon dates were calibrated using Intcal13 (Reimer et al., 2013) for terrestrial species as per instruction from Groningen (pers. com. J. van der Plicht, 06/05/2015). Wood samples (1.0+ g.) submitted came from the same units and levels of the bone samples and were calibrated using Calib 7.1.0 (Stuiver et al., 2016). Groningen indicated that δ13 does not affect apatite (carbonate) and asserted calibration for the marine reservoir effect was not appropriate (pers. com. J. van der Plicht 06/05/2015). However, uncertainty persisted as discrepancies in a blind test on cremated bone by Olsen et al. (2008) speculated the differences may be related to δ13 (Olsen, et al., 2008; pers. com. M. Richards 10/06/2015). To further pursue this issue it was decided that the associated wood from the feature could serve as control samples and test for δ13 differences.  2.4.7 Artifact Identification Artifacts associated with the mass cremation feature were described according to physical and stylistic attributes and material types derived from the chronological pattern of material culture for the southeast coast of Vancouver Island (and south NWC) used by previous archaeological studies, e.g. Duke Point (Murray, 1982); Pender Canal (R. Carlson, 1993); Montague Harbour (D. Mitchell, 1968); False Narrows (Burley, 1988), and Crescent Beach (Matson, 2010a).  2.4.2 Fauna Identification Fauna identifications were completed using local comparative collections loaned from the Vancouver Island University (VIU) Biology department and the Shell Beach (DfRw-1) faunal specimens returned from the University of Victoria (UVIC). In addition, textual sources were consulted, e.g.  Cannon, 1987; Crockford, 2009; Gilbert, 1980; and Olsen, 1972. 24  Chapter 3: Results 3.1 Archaeological Context of the Mass Grave The grave feature is situated approximately 25 m inland from the shore under a wild rose and grass field that gently slopes towards the Kulleet Bay road cut, just east of the trench (Figures 4; 8-10). The grave is most visible in the stratigraphic profile of the west wall of the trench (Figures 7-9) and extends for approximately 4 m in a northerly direction. Undisturbed stratified burnt bone deposits are visible in the deeper strata of the profile.   Figure 7. Profile drawing of the Kulleet Bay mass grave west trench wall. The stratigraphy (Figure 9) is described from the top uppermost layer (I) as homogenous redeposited shell midden matrix, which varies from 40-60 cm in depth from the surface. Below is an intact layer (II) of calcined human bone and tan ash with a small amount of burnt shell. 25  The upper portion of this layer is burnt white with underlying bone predominantly blue coloured. Below, a very black deposit of charred burnt bone and charcoal (III) is found. Interspersed through this layer III are large boulders and at the interface between this layer and the one below, highly oxidized fire altered rock is present. Layer IV is a uniform horizontal 5 cm layer of tan clay that underlies the cremated remains. Layer V is a greasy, black shell-free layer. Layer VI is sterile tan heavier silt with some clay constituent in the matrix.  The lens of cremated human bone starts approximately 40 cm below surface and at most is a 55 cm thick layer of primarily human bone. The trench was gridded off for hand excavation in 10 cm layers of any remaining intact cremation strata and of the cremated human bone left in situ, the densest portion was found in EU 1, in the southwest portion of the trench, with an average of 20 cm deposits in EU’s 2, 4 and 8 and very little remaining in EU’s 9, 10, 11 and 13. Figure 10 shows the cremated remains found in each salvage unit. No cremated remains were recovered from EU’s 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14.  The southwest corner of the trench and EU 1 was least machine excavated with a small hump of unexcavated, articulated human bone visible in situ as fragmented cranial remains in three clusters, suggestive of corpse alignment. In association with the three portions of crania were large boulders of unknown significance. The highest proportion of cremated remains was excavated from EU 1.  Figure 8. Salvage EU 1 of the Kulleet Bay mass grave, southwest wall.  Figure 9. Planview of in situ cremains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave in EU 1. 26   Figure 10. Distribution of cremains in each unit of the Kulleet Bay mass grave. Following the completed salvage excavation of units 1-14, a 0.5 x 0.5 m unit was excavated into the west wall of the trench (EU 15). This was the only hand controlled unit from the surface to sterile deposits underlying the mass grave and provides detailed resolution of the stratigraphic composition not visible in the salvage zone of the trench. This unit also contains a proportionately high number of cremated remains.   3.1.1 Artifacts Pre-Contact artifacts recovered from the mass grave (n=158) are described in Appendix B. Temporally diagnostic artifacts fell into categories of Early/Charles 1.3%, Locarno 7.6%, and historic 34.3 % with the remaining undiagnostic to period. Very few artifacts were burnt (Table 8).  Thermal Alteration of Artifacts  Frequency Percent  Not Burnt 147 93.0 Burnt 11 7.0 Total 158 100.0 Table 8. Frequencies of burnt and unburnt artifacts recovered from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 27  3.1.2 Faunal Remains A total of 923 faunal remains recovered from the mass grave are presented in Appendix C. Burnt fauna total 70.5% but interestingly only 20% are burned to temperatures above 300° C (Table 9, Figure 11). Degree of Burning Frequency Percent  Unburned 273 29.5 Dark Brown 200-300 C 464 50.2 Black 300-350 C 83 9.0 Grey/Blue/White 350-750 C 91 9.8 White 800-1100 C 14 1.5 Total 925 100.0 Table 9. Degree of burning within the fauna sample from the Kulleet Bay mass grave.  Figure 11. Relative proportions of burning within the fauna sample from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 3.2 Cremated Individuals A total of 15,386 human bone fragments were identified from machine excavated piles, salvage units excavated by trowel and one 50 x 50 cm unit (Table 10, Appendix D). A total of 5,882 (38.3%) bone fragments could not be identified to element, however, 95% were identifiable to skeletal region (table 10). The majority of remains unidentifiable to element consisted of cranial vault fragments (n=4,758 or 30.9%). Hand and foot bone frequency totals 1,372 representing 8.9% of the 15,386 28  cremated bones identified. Other very small bones such as auditory ossicles (incus: n=4; malleus: n=4) and hyoid fragments (n=10) were also found (Appendix D). The proportion of smaller bone elements, such as carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, are relatively frequent within the sample, indicating consistency with the hypothesis the individuals were cremated in situ (McKinley, 2013). Skeletal Region Frequency Percent  Cranial 8763 57.0 Vertebrae 2115 13.7 Thorax 1165 7.6 Shoulder Girdle 218 1.4 Arm 220 1.4 Hand 856 5.6 Pelvic Girdle 182 1.2 Leg 269 1.7 Foot 479 3.1 Hand/Foot 523 3.4 Long Bone 439 2.9 Unidentified 157 1.0 Total 15386 100.0 Table 10. Cremated remains identified to skeletal region from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 3.2.1 MNI A minimum of 65 individuals were identified from the excavated portion of the mass grave. The most frequently sided element was the left petrous temporal (n=57). Distinctive ages of cremains offered additional insight into the MNI with the addition of eight juvenile individuals, distinct from those represented by the 57 left petrous temporals (Table 11).  Despite the thousands of small fragments, many elements were identifiable and could be matched to create a set thought to represent at least parts of an individual (Figure 12).  Age (Y) Category Number of Individuals Male (?) Female (?) 0-1 11 - - 10-19 5 - - 20+ 44 2 1 Total 65 2 1 Table 11. Age and sex estimations of unique individuals from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 29   Figure 12. Refit cremains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. The recovered cremains represent only a sample of the mass grave, as precise boundaries are still unknown. It is likely cremains related to these, and additional individuals, persist in unexcavated areas to the west of the sewer line trench. Weights were recorded and total 43,806.48 g (43.8 kg) according to sorted provenience, element, and fragment size.              Of the 65 individuals identified, 21 or 32.30% were juveniles and 44 or 67.69 % were adults. Middle aged to old aged adults were present in the mass grave but refined aging of adults was constrained to size, morphology and observed degenerative osteological changes and osteoarthritis related pathologies (Table 12).  3.2.2 Mortuary profile The Kulleet Bay mass grave provides a life table (Table 12) for comparison to both catastrophic and attritional groups (Table 13). The following hypotheses were tested using the K-S test: H0 = There is no difference between the Kulleet Bay mass grave mortuary profile and the model population attritional profile. H1 = There is a difference between the observed values of the Kulleet Bay mass grave mortuary profile and the attritional profile. Using the alpha level 0.05 requires the following adjustments to calculate the d value: 0.05 level =1.36 √ n1+n2                                 n1*n2  critical d =.168742 30    Age (Years) Category Kulleet Bay Mass Grave dx Cumulative % dx Model Catastrophic dx Cumulative % dx D (observed difference) 0-1 11 0.169231 2840 0.0284 0.140831 1-9 5 0.246154 18920 0.2176 0.028554 10-19 5 0.323077 18900 0.4066 -0.08352 20+ 44 1 59340 1 0 Total 65  100,000   Age (Years) Category Kulleet Bay Mass Grave dx Cumulative % dx Model Attritional dx Cumulative %dx D (observed difference) 0-1 11 0.169231 27600 0.276 -0.10677 1-9 5 0.246154 15760 0.4336 -0.18745 10-19 5 0.323077 4730 0.4809 -0.15782 20+ 44 1 51910 1 0 Total 65  100,000   Table 13. Kolmogrov-Smirnov test results of the Kulleet Bay mass grave.  Figure 13. Kulleet Bay mass grave mortality profile compared to model populations. In the 1-9 age category, the greatest observed difference d value is -.18745 (Table 13, Figure 13) exceeds the critical d value of .168742 between the Kulleet Bay and model attritional 010203040506070800-1 1-19 19-45%DeathsAge ClassKB Mass GraveModel AttritionalModel CatastropheAge class (x) No. Deaths (Dx) % Deaths (dx) % Survive (lx) Prob. Death (qx) Person-yrs in age class (Lx) Person-yrs remaining (Tx) Expectancy of Life (ex) 0-1 11 16.92307692 100 0.169230769 91.53846154 562.3076923 5.623076923 1-19 10 15.38461538 83.07692308 0.185185185 301.5384615 470.7692308 5.666666667 19-45 44 67.69230769 67.69230769 1 169.2307692 169.2307692 2.5 Table 12. Kulleet Bay mass grave life table. 31  populations suggesting these two groups in the 1-9 age distribution have the maximum difference and these two populations are not similar. The observed value of D (-.18745) exceeds the critical value of D (0.167742) and shows maximum difference between the model attritional and Kulleet Bay populations indicating rejection of the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is retained.There are no observed differences between the model catastrophic and Kulleet Bay populations, suggesting they have similar profiles. This reveals the Kulleet Bay mass grave age-at-death (dx) distribution is measurably similar to a catastrophic mortuary population.  3.2.3 Pathologies Extreme fragmentation of the skeletal remains reduced observable evidence of trauma and pathologies (Table 14) that may be present on the cremains (Reinhard & Fink, 1994). Observed pathologies fell into three groups (Figures 14-17),: increased vascularization, periosteal reactive bone, and osteoarthritis (and age-related degenerative evidence). Pathology Frequency Percent  Expanded Diploë 189 1.2 Porotic Hyperstosis 129 .8 Cribra Orbitalia 11 .1 Porosity (post cranial) 5 .0 Osteoarthritis 121 .8 Degenerative Bone (probable osteoarthritis)  24 .2 Periosteal Reactive Bone 86 .6 Lytic Lesion 17 .1 Sinusitis 1 .0 Otitis Media 15 .1 Antemortem Tooth Loss 13 .1 Multiple Pathologies (i.e. Cribra Orbitalia and Sinusitis) 4 .0 Porotic Hyperstosis/Expanded Diploë (both) 6 .0 Total 621 4.1 Total 15386 100.0 Table 14. Type and frequencies of pathologies present in the Kulleet Bay mass grave. Where observed, diploë canals were larger in size and more profuse resulting in an expanded and thickened cranial bone (figure 12). Macroscopically larger diploë thickness on adult vault fragments when measurable (i.e. inner and outer table was complete enough) ranged from 1-12 mm 32  in thickness with a mean of 7.29 mm. Other observed pathologies frequently associated with pre-industrial societies include cribra orbitalia, osteoarthritis, sinusitis (Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin, 1998) and otitis media (Flohr & Schultz, 2009).   3.3 Taphonomy of Cremains and Thermal Patterns 3.3.1 Cremation Temperature and Bone Colour Of the bone recovered from the mass grave, 14,257 skeletal remains (93%) display evidence of thermal colour alteration (Table 15 and Figure 18). Colour alteration from burning shows that temperatures of the pyre burned 9,525 of the skeletal pieces (58.4%) to temperatures between 350-1100°C, indicating the heat of the pyre was substantial and sustained (Shipman et al., 1984; Walker et al., 2008). A small proportion of the  Figure 14. Expanded diploë.  Figure 15. Porotic hyperstosis (PH) on the ectocranial surface.   Figure 16. Periosteal reactive bone.  Figure 17. Some examples of osteoarthritis. 33  skeletal remains (6.7%) were unburnt. The three most frequent identified thermal colours according to skeletal region are displayed in Figure 18.  Bone Colour and Temperature Frequency Percent  Unburned no temperature 1038 6.7 Dark Brown (200-300C) 4732 30.8 Black (300-350C) 1369 8.9 Black/Grey/Blue (350-750C) 5122 33.3 Blue/Grey/White (800+C) 2973 19.3 Purple (1100+C) 61 .4 Total 15295 99.4                    Not scored  .6 Total 15386 100.0 Table 15. Counts of bone according to scored temperature related colour from the Kulleet Bay mass grave.  Figure 18. Relative proportions and types burnt bone from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. The pattern and distribution of temperature-altered bone (see Figure 19) shows that the upper portions of the body burned at higher temperatures than elements from the lower body. The spatial distribution of the burnt bone according to temperature (see Figure 20) indicates clustering in EU’s 1,2, 4 and 15.  34   Figure 19. Relative proportions of burning according to skeletal region from the Kulleet Bay mass grave.   Figure 20. Distribution of temperature altered bone colour in units from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 35   3.3.1.1 Thermally Induced Bone Fracture Patterns The most frequently observed fracture types in the mass grave assemblage were transverse breaks representing 11,944 or 85% of all observed bone fractures (Table 14). The next most frequent fracture pattern was longitudinal, observed in 1,495 or 10.6% of the bone fractures and found almost exclusively on 1,311 cranial fragments, representing 9.3% of all fractures observed. More than one type of thermal fracture may be present on the same bone and thus categories of these scored combinations found that transverse and splintering/delamination was the third most frequently observed category, seen on 385 fragments or 2.7% of all observed fractures. If this category is added to the transverse category, this results in a total of 12,329 bones with strictly transverse and transverse combination patterns, representing 87.5% of all observed fractures. Transverse and longitudinal fractures were present in each skeletal region, but overall little variation of fracture pattern was found and many of the types were rarely present (Table 16, Figure 21). No patterns could be detected among colour and fracture variables (Figure 21).     Fracture Type Frequency  Percent             Curved/Transverse 1 .0 Burn Line 3 .0 Step/Patina 5 .0 Patina/Crazing 11 .1 Splinter/Delamination 15 .1 Step 18 .1 Unobservable 235 1.5 Missing 720 4.7 Longitudinal 1595 10.4 Transverse 12795 83.1 Total 15386 100.0 Table 16. Proportions and types of thermal fractures on the cremains from the Kulleet Bay mass grave.  36   Figure 21. Fracture patterns amongst skeletal regions identified in the Kulleet Bay mass grave. 3.4 Chronology of the Mass Grave Four radiocarbon dates (Table 17) cluster together with a maximum range (including standard deviation) of 2210-2990 years BP and one outlier date of 5330 years BP. Sample GrA 63038 was noted by the lab as small and it produced a poor-quality measurement resulting in a large error range of ± 150 years. Possibly the outlier date relates to an earlier cultural component disturbed by the construction of the mass grave, however, radiocarbon dates north of this feature are yet to support this age as valid (Parsley, in prep). Excluding the questionable dates (GRA 63038 and GRA 63045), the range of ‘good dates’- 2210-2505 years BP - produce a median age of 2346 years BP. The mean ages range 2346-2470 years BP, averaging 2407 years BP. The dates from wood (Table 18) provide new information about a recent period not observed in the cremated bone or archaeological data, showing young wood dates relating to a period that post-dates the mass grave cremation feature. The fifth date, 2432 cal BP (GrA 64282), matches the middle of the mean range for the ‘good’ dates on the cremated bone (Figure 23). This confirms the cremation date was a single 37  event and resolves the δ13 issue as per the assertion by the Groningen lab. The mean calibrated date (using INTCAL and excluding the problematic dates) is 2,397 cal BP for the mass death event.    Figure 22. Radiocarbon results from the Kulleet Bay mass grave wood and cremated bone samples. KBI Sample Lab Code Radiocarbon Years Error Cal BP* (Median Probability) DgRw-17:177 GrA 63037 2325 +/- 30 2344 DgRw-17:129 GrA 63038 2840 +/-150 2991 DgRw-17:146 GrA 63040 2475 +/- 30 2582 DgRw-17:152 GrA 63042 2240 +/- 30 2229 DgRw-17-154 GrA 63045 5330 +/- 40 6108 Table 17. Radiocarbon results from cremated human bone samples taken from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. *Intcal (terrestrial species) was used in calibration as per Groningen Archaeological Institute instruction. Kulleet Bay Sample Lab Code Age BP Error +/- δ13 95.4 (2 sigma) cal BP   Calibrated*(Median Probability) DgRw-17 -MCF-7 GrA 64054 495 30 -23.33 501 - 548 525 DgRw-17 -MCF-8 GrA 64055 610 30 -25.40 547 - 654                       602 DgRw-17 -MCF-9 GrA 64367 600 30 -25.49 577 - 653                      0.742 (% Prob)                 604 DgRw-17 -MCF-10 GrA 64057 680 30 -22.55 561 - 596                      0.365 (% Prob)                                                      634 - 680                      0.635 (% Prob)                       652 DgRw-17 -MCF-11 GrA 64282 2410 30 -23.24 2350 - 2497                    0.856 (% Prob)                           2432 Table 18. Radiocarbon results from wood associated with the mass cremation grave. *Using Calib Rev7.1.0, Reimer and et. al. 2013.   38  Chapter 4: Discussion The mass grave contains the cremated skeletal remains of at least 65 individuals evidenced by 15,386 burnt bone fragments. All skeletal regions were represented although post-cranial regions are present in lower frequency than cranial bones. No patterning among the regions can be identified in terms of frequencies. This suggests complete bodies were placed into the grave, however, it must be remembered the trench is but a sample of the feature and this does not mean individuals were completely recovered as the spatial extent of the feature is still unknown.  Due to their small sizes, bones of the hands and feet, the hyoid and the ear canal are often overlooked and less likely to be recovered during archaeological excavation or collection or transport for funerary processes (Duday, 2009; J.I. McKinley, 2013). The presence and frequency (12.1 %) of small hand and foot bones, hyoids, and auditory ossicles reveal the bodies were placed and not moved before or following the cremation event. Further support for this comes from comparison to the False Narrows site, where only 3.24% hand and foot bones were identified among the 159,323 human remains from the ossuary (Curtin, 2002:156). The False Narrows sample is more than 10 times the sample size of the Kulleet Bay mass grave, yet these small bones were found at nearly four times the frequency than at False Narrows.  The most frequently identified bone from the Kulleet Bay mass grave was the internal auditory meatus (IAM), from the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The IAM is located inside the cranium and is frequently found to survive thermal destruction in cremation mortuary contexts (McKinley, 2013). The 57 IAMs were primary evidence for the estimation of MNI, but their anatomical location inside the cranium also serves another interpretive function. The density of the IAM and its protected position is critical to the interpretation of found fetal remains. As a fetus’ IAMs are presumably in utero during the cremation event, protection via tissue shielding from the mother’s womb and the fetus’ own cranium would have occurred. Differential burning patterns on 39  duplicate fetal IAMs was found and allowed for the addition of several individuals to the MNI count otherwise not identifiable through traditional MNI methods.  The innominate is rarely preserved in cremations, and this feature is no exception thus eliminating the ability to provide clarity on adult ages and sex. Stages of tooth eruption and attrition normally available, are not in cremation contexts as teeth shatter during, also eliminating this as a possible avenue for assessing age. With this host of restrictions from thermal destruction, the ability to assess the true number of juveniles is hampered. Given the high proportion of juveniles identified in this study, the true number of juveniles in the mass cremation grave is likely higher.  The frequency of juveniles (32.3%) identified in this grave was statistically compared to attritional and catastrophic populations. K-S test.results show the mass grave mortuary profile is dissimilar to attritional mortality profiles and most similar to catastrophic profiles. Ages of the cremains are based on bone fragments, thus limiting age refinements and this necessitated collapsing the age cohort ranges to broader ranges than typically completed for paleodemographic study. The lack of refined age distribution has a smoothing effect on the mortality curve; yet despite this, a significant pattern is clearly present. Another pitfall of cremation mass graves is that they are unknown elsewhere and thus comparative mortuary profiles are not available.  As little bioarchaeology and even less paleodemography has been done on the NWC, mortality profiles for comparable Coast Salish populations are limited. Normative burial sites from the False Narrows village studied by Gordon (1974) (not the ossuaries studied by Curtin [2002]) and the Tsawwassen burial assemblage studied by Curtin (1991) are the closest populations available for comparison (Table 19, Figure 23). An obvious drawback to this comparison is the truncated age distributions to match the Kulleet Bay mass grave population. This has the effect of reducing the range of age cohorts otherwise at the False Narrows Village and Tsawwassen but allows for the broader comparison to the Kulleet Bay mass grave group. One possible way to address this in future research would be to calculate a juvenility index (Bocquet‐Appel & Naji, 2002) of comparative demographic 40  populations. The curves show the comparable populations are nearly identical to each other but different from the Kulleet Bay mass grave population. While questions of whether these populations are attritional or catastrophic have not been raised previously, it appears attritional mortality profiles were assumed by researchers. The full paleodemographic re-analysis of the comparative populations is beyond the scope of this work.  However, if the assumption of attritional profiles is maintained, it makes sense these two comparative population curves closely match. Age Class X # of Deaths Dx % of Deaths dx Tsawwassen 0-1 8 9.19 1-19 21 24.13 19-45 58 66.66 Total 87  99.9 Age Class X # of Deaths Dx % of Deaths dx False Narrows Village 0-1 6 7.89 1-19 22 28.9 19-45 48 63.15 Total 76  99.9 Table 19. Estimated mortality age distributions from comparative Coast Salish populations. Estimated age data is derived from Gordon (1974) and Curtin (1991) and plotted into the same age distributions for comparison with the Kulleet Bay mass grave population.   Figure 23. Comparative mortality profiles from False Narrows (derived from Gorden), Tsawwassen (derived from Curtin).  010203040506070800-1 1-19 19-45KB Mass GraveFalse Narrows VillageTsawwassen41  Both the juvenile and adult age cohorts from the Kulleet bay mass grave population deviate from both comparison population suggesting a different mortality pattern. The deviance from relevant population comparisons lends some support to the assertion the Kulleet Bay mass grave population is a catastrophic mortality profile.               Evidence of pathology and trauma is present on the cremains but in low frequencies. The pathologies most observed are expanded diploë (ED) 1.2 % and porotic hyperstosis (PH) .8% and periosteal reactive bone .6% and comprise only 2.6% of the cremains. In fact, there is no way to determine whether pathologies scored on multiple fragments belonged to the same individual given the comingling and thermal fragmentation. Like porotic hyperstosis, periosteal reactive bone is linked to disease process but not exclusively. Inflammation of the periosteum may be a reaction to trauma or infection among other things (Weston, 2012b) and results in the creation of new woven bone variably expressed as raised plaques or striae that over time becomes remodeled and may be lamellated in appearance.   ED and PH are associated with poor health stemming from either infection, disease or iron-deficient anemias and result in increased vascularity of the cranial vault to stimulate red blood cell production to offset deficiencies needed by the body for healthy function (Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin, 1998; Walker et al., 2009). Other exogenous pathological processes, such as those associated with chronic scalp infections and cranial modification, result in bone necrosis are visually indistinguishable from PH (Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin, 1998; Walker, et.al, 2009). PH is the outer expression of ED as the body produces more hemoglobin, which can only happen in bone marrow, and at the expense of new bone formation as Walker et al. (2009) have shown the body incapable of producing marrow when iron deficient; rather it is triggered by anemia from the lack of important vitamins such as B12 required for producing sufficient red blood cells (Walker et al., 2009). Causes of hemoglobin disorders include blood loss, increases in red blood cell destruction, generalized anemias (Aufderheide and Rodriguez-Martin, 1998) caused from congenital 42  disease such as sickle cell anemia; infections that feed off and rob iron in the blood; parasites that prevent the uptake of iron; and lack of dietary nutrients resulting in lack of iron intake or other vitamins such as B12 that are required for iron absorption (ibid.); or as in immune response by the body to sequester iron to starve pathogens (Mensforth and Lovejoy, 1978; Walter et al., 1997). Frustratingly, direct causes of such hemoglobin disorders are not identifiable from skeletal remains but it is clear such non-genetic pathways of these pathologies are synergistically interrelated  to constitutional factors, diet and infectious disease (Mensforth and Lovejoy 1978) and these health and disease processes are intimately connected to dietary health, sanitation, genetics, and ecology (Katzenberg, 2012). Artificial cranial modification can also cause porosity on the outer table of crania indistinguishable from PH (Aufderheide, and Rodriguez-Martin, C, 1998). However, during the Locarno Phase, people of the South Coast did not practice intentional artificial cranial modification (Beattie, 1981). Unintentional flattening of the occipital region from cradleboarding would be expected to result in patterns of porosity strictly localized to occipital cranial fragments. PH is observed on cranial vault fragments so this etiological pathway of body modification can be eliminated, thus strengthening the case for a biological trigger.  Evidence of trauma associated with violence or conflict is best known from the Crow Creek site (Willey, 1982) and at the bluffs at False Narrows (Curtin, 2002), however, no parallel evidence of trauma was identified in the Kulleet Bay mass grave. Overall, the observed pathologies are consistent and commonly occur within ancient skeletal populations with the exception of the observed high frequency of ED. ED was present in only two cases at the Tsawwassen site (Curtin, 1991), one case is reported from the False Narrows site (Curtin, 2002), one case is reported from Hesquiat Harbour (Cybulski, 1978), no cases were reported at Namu (Curtin, 1984) or from the normative burial contexts at False Narrows (Gordon, 1974). The comparatively high number of observed cremains with ED in the Kulleet Bay mass grave, and co-43  occurrence of ED and PH may indicate infection and/or other disease processes amongst the 65 individuals in the mass grave.  Curtin (2002) linked manner of death to the unique mortuary treatment at False Narrows due to interpersonal violence identified from cranial trauma among 12.8% of the adolescent and adult individuals and 13% of the population who displayed evidence of treponemal infection. The pathologies present amongst the people placed in the Kulleet Bay mass grave display a drastically different pattern than that found at False Narrows. The underlying circumstances at both sites may be both biological in nature, but the pathways to death appear divergent.  The actions of the living, and the post-mortem treatments they performed upon the dead, are detectable through thermal signatures. Fracture patterns of burnt bones are critically important to the identification of primary versus secondary internments and fundamental to establishing archaeological context and interpretation of past actions (Baby, 1954; Binford, 1972; Buikstra, 1989; Bennett, 1999; Symes, 2008; Karr and Outram, 2012; Thurman and Willmore, 1982). Burning of fleshed ‘green’ corpses as opposed to skeletal remains subjected to burning after soft tissue decomposition (Bennett, 1999; Symes, 2008) may be differentiated. This is crucial for reconstructing events, processes and actions surrounding and immediately following the mass death. The question is whether the dead were placed in a pit and cremated after natural excarnation or placed within the grave shortly after death and cremated relatively quickly. Transverse breaks occur when the bone is ‘green’ and are most indicative of fleshed cremation, but other fractures such as delamination, checking, patina and crazing are also indicators (Baby, 1954; Bennett, 1999; Binford, 1972; Buikstra, 1989; Karr and Outram, 2012; Symes, 2008; Thurman and Willmore, 1982). The results show 87.5% of the bone fractures are transverse (green) and only 0.1% are step (dry) fractures, indicating uniform treatment of the bodies and suggest the dead were placed in the grave and cremated around the time of the mass death. The length of time required for a bone to lose its freshness and begin exhibiting dry fractures when broken is dependent upon ambient conditions 44  and may take a few days under hot conditions or several weeks for extremely cold and frozen conditions (Karr & Outram, 2012). As long cold frozen periods are uncommon in Kulleet Bay, it further suggests that the bodies were placed into the grave and cremated within a very short period after death. Of the 93% of burnt cremains, the colour changes seen in 53% of the human bone are consistent with temperatures that ranged from 350-1100°C. Fifty-three percent of all the cremains were burnt above 350⁰C, resulting in the transformation of the corpse to skeletonized calcined bones, McKinley’s (2013) main criterion for cremation. In modern crematories where cremation occurs in a closed environment, it takes 1.5 hours at temperatures above 750-800°C to fully cremate a body versus experimental open pyres, where cremation requires a period of 6-7 hours to fully oxidize the body with the presence of an attendant (McKinley, 2013). Multiple attendants were probably required for monitoring a pyre built for 65 people at Kulleet Bay. A small proportion of the skeletal remains (6.7%) were unburnt and is not uncommon in archaeological cremations, as portions of the body placed on the periphery of the pyre may fall during the open-air combustion. In addition, factors like wind, rain and other aspects of the weather may contribute to burning variability (McKinley, 2016). The differential presence of soft tissue that when present, creates a secondary fuel source (Walker et al., 2008), may also creating burning variability by allowing the upper portion of the body to burn hotter. The data indicate the pyre was sustained for a considerable time in order to achieve the high temperatures identified.   Achieving high temperatures and thorough destruction of soft tissues through cremation has been linked to hygenic disposal of ‘dangerous’ flesh (McKinley, 2016). In the Uxbridge ossuary a deposition of cremated representing individuals possibly infected with tuberculosis were subjected to differential treatment through cremation (Pfeiffer, 1986) and this is also the implication at False Narrows where cremation is used differentially as mortuary treatment to those infected with disease. Purification and cleansing are key motivators in cases where fire is applied to mass death scenarios 45  as a solution to protect the living from perceived or real dangers of biological contamination or the decomposition of many corpses (Flohr Sørensen & Bille, 2008). Archaeological context results show stratified vertical temperature gradation visible in the burnt and oxidized colours of the lower half of the trench indicating an in situ pyre. The uppermost and hottest portions of the cremation are most burnt and oxidized, with tan ash and calcined white human bone being the primary constituents underlain with blue bone at the interface between black charred and white calcined bone. The black charred bone and horizontal lens of sterile silt/clay underlying the cremated remains show this was the base of the pyre and evidently did not reach temperatures exceeding 300°C. The silt/clay strata, which forms the base and lining of the grave (IV), was devoid of any cultural material. Immediately underlying this clay lining, is a “Stein layer” (V), a commonly identified black, greasy shell-free cultural deposit found at the base of stratified shell matrix archaeological sites on the NWC and often comprising the basal cultural component of stratified shell midden sites (Stein, 1992). The presence of a Stein layer below the silt/clay lining of the grave suggests this grave was excavated into and intruded upon pre-existing archaeological deposits.  The west portion of the grave is visibly intact but not uniform across the trench to the east, where the same cremation deposits are not visible in the east wall. Hand excavated units (Figure 10) attempted to recover information and cremated bone from the base of the grave and found variably reduced quantities of cremated bone and only small discrete patches of charcoal and ash, especially to the east where cremated bone diminished and no definitive east or north boundary was found. The machine may have unevenly removed the base of the grave in these units, destroying any evidence of a boundary.  However, the historic construction of Kulleet Bay Road immediately proximal to the east wall of the trench is likely the main cause of lack of grave visibility in the north and east areas of the trench. The scale of the historic disturbance was substantial as it appears a ~5-8 metres wide swath (E-W) of the landform (estimated to be ~2m in elevation) was removed and graded resulting 46  in the road cut present today. This most certainly also redistributed historic materials and is likely the origin of redeposited, disturbed midden evident as layer I.  Artifacts and faunal remains do not match the burning patterns or the temporality of the human remains, suggesting disassociation from the mass cremation (Appendix B). The absence of associated burnt artifacts and faunal remains suggest food and grave inclusions were not offered. A sudden event would account for the lack of mortuary inclusions. Possible causes of sudden mass death include natural disaster and conflict. Catastrophic natural disaster may present a range of extreme events and types of evidence in the archaeological record. Such themes have been explored by investigations to correlate natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions (Oetelaar & Beaudoin, 2005), earthquakes and tsunamis (Budhwa, 2002; Hutchinson and McMillan, 1997; Ludwin et al., 2005; McMillan and Hutchinson, 2002), climate change (Lepofsky, Lertzman, Hallett, & Mathewes, 2005) to cultural collapse, hypothesized as an agent of cultural change in ancient British Columbia (Clark, 2000, 2013; Hayden, 1991; Hayden and Mathewes, 2009; Hayden and Ryder, 2010; Ian Kuijt, 2001). Despite efforts, a direct causal link between natural disasters and catastrophic archaeological evidence (i.e. mass death) of cultural collapse has not been firmly established. The Makah village of Ozette is the only archaeological case of mass death clearly caused by natural disaster (Aronstam, 1975). A mudslide buried a village under 3 metres of clay one night around 500 BP effectively preserving all the organic cultural materials in a wet context (McMillan, 1999), subsequently formed the main subject of focus, rather than catastrophic mass death.  Cultural complexity on the NWC emerged 2,400 years ago (Mitchell, 1990; Carlson, 1993; Matson, et al., 2003; Matson, 2010a; b, among others), and this abrupt change is differentiated from previous cultural patterns detected archaeologically (Burley, 1979, 1980, Matson, 2010a, b; Mitchell, 1968, 1971, 1990 among others). Mitchell (1971) argues for intrinsic in situ cultural evolution as opposed to Borden’s population replacement theory (Borden, 1979). Burley (1979) and Beattie (Burley and Beattie, 1987) assert population movements and displacement were the source of 47  changes. Others argue this change was more nuanced in timing and spread (Clark, 2013) and the shift could be due to extrinsic factors(s) such as climate change (Lepofsky et al., 2005; D. Mitchell, 1971) possibly linked to resource depression (Butler & Campbell, 2004) or tectonics (Clark, 2006; Clark, 2000; Lepofsky et al., 2005), but evidence directly linking these theories is lacking. Despite documented environmental history of disasters and climate change on the NWC, no extrinsic archaeological evidence directly relating to regional culture change on the coast has been found. Stratigraphic archaeological evidence such as tsunami deposits, volcanic ash as visible at other archaeological sites, or a capping of sterile mud such as at Ozette should be present if natural disaster was the agent of death at Kulleet Bay and no such evidence has been found. The radiocarbon dates suggest a timeline for the mass grave that could be most broadly interpreted as 2210-2505 years BP. Neither the mortuary profile, thermal taphonomy of the cremation, nor the depositional or contextual archaeological evidence supports the use of the mortuary feature over three centuries as these patterns would be all much different. If the mean probability range is averaged, this narrows to 2346-2470 BP: a small interval consistent with a single event that occurred sometime within the 124 year span. This averaging produces a single date of 2407 BP. Questions were raised about the availability and applicability of isotopes in carbonate and subsequent calibration for the marine reservoir effect in marine–adapted communities (pers. com. Richards, M. 02/06/2015). The wood dates confirmed carbonate is not affected by δ13 and cremated human bone does not require marine reservoir correction.  The later wood dates relate to a more recent period of re-vegetation proceeding a prolonged period of abandonment following the cremation event. No Stz’uminus or Coast Salish oral tradition may be located that refers to cremation as a burial practice, a mass death event, or any specific cultural knowledge that may shed light on this particular burial feature of Kulleet Bay (pers. com 48  Arthur Jim, George Harris, late Chief Peter Seymour, 11/2014). The presence of pre-2400 archaeological deposits typical of densely occupied locations indicate this place was an occupation site prior to the mass death. Re-forestation of such localities can only occur if avoidance and abandonment of the area was sustained following the mass cremation event. The lack of any Marpole or Developed Coast Salish (2400-Contact) artifacts or radiocarbon dates support this. The presence of mixed post-contact artifacts associated with the historic road construction shows the pattern of avoidance changed immediately following the Contact period. This is not surprising given the catastrophic population collapse caused from the 1791-1792 smallpox epidemics (Boyd, 1985; Harris, 1994) that devastated Coast Salish communities and caused massive social disruption in community memory and the transmission of pre-contact cultural knowledge (Harris, 1994). 49  Chapter 5: Conclusion This study integrated bioarchaeological and contextual data from a mass grave of cremated individuals to show a mass death event occurred in the Stz’uminus community of Kulleet Bay ca. 2407 cal BP years ago. At least 65 people were burned on a constructed open pyre in an excavated grave attended by those living who were tasked with disposing the dead.  The grave was excavated and lined with sterile yellow silts used to prepare the base of the pyre. The colours displayed on heat-altered bone in stratigraphic matrices in the pyre deposits show a stratified vertical direction of increasing graduated temperatures from the base of the pyre. Relatively large proportional frequencies of small bones substantiate the stratigraphic evidence of a primary interment in situ mortuary feature. Heat altered transverse fractures are the dominant fracture type, accounting for 87.5% of all cremains from this mortuary feature, indicating the corpses were fleshed when cremated.  No evidence of warefare or conflict was found and it is doubtful enemies would invest such energy and resources for ‘foe’ funerary treatment requiring extensive resources to achieve such high cremation temperatures. Environmental natural disaster such as earthquakes, tsunamis and climate change evidence causally linked to culture change during this period has yet to be located or marshalled elsewhere within the region.  A higher than expected presence of expanded diploë pathology found on the cremains may be linked to a bodily defense against infectious disease (i.e., low red blood cells, robbing iron required for pathogens); it is inferred that a biological pathogen is the cause of a catastrophic event that resulted in the cremation mass grave. The mortuary profile supports this conclusion as infectious disease is indiscriminate to age and would result in a high proportionate death rate for children and adolescents. Further, this explanation makes most sense in terms of the mortuary treatment evidenced by this mass grave. A mass death immediately overwhelms any community to perform traditional ‘normal’ death rites for each person and when the death toll reaches 65 (or more) people. 50  Further, if disease was the cause of death, cremation is a practical and sanitary way to address biological contamination and protect survivors from infected corpses.  The lack of oral tradition about this event is not surprising. If social memory of the event was not completely eroded, the lack of knowledge  may be a result of profound social changes triggered by this event. The absence of Marpole and Developed Coast Salish artifacts signals cultural disruption and avoidance lasting nearly 2,400 years. It appears that once the mass cremation event was completed, a long period of abandonment of this area around the grave in Kulleet Bay occurred (other localities in the Bay were occupied during the Marpole era). The four radiocarbon dates on wood relate to a period where forests regenerated at the mass grave location indicating avoidance by people, just prior to contact. It is understandable why this place would be avoided and why no subsequent occupation occurred here. Disruption in social memory from contact-era mass death caused by epidemics that swept through Kulleet Bay during the mid-1700’s to the 1860’s is possibly why no present memory or oral tradition of this ancient catastrophe survives.  The timing and estimated cause of the mass cremation grave occurs precisely at the fulcrum of transition between the Locarno and Marpole Phase at 2400 cal BP, suggesting regional changes in cultural patterns may may have involved community-level population collapse.  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N KB 10   Left IAM I Remains consist of cranial, ulna, radius, femur, innominate and fibula fragments. Cranial suture closure and teeth based estimate ~20 years old.  N/A 126 31 EU 15 80-100  Left IAM I-V Frontal very thin and gracile, ribs, metacarpals. Adolescent < 16 yrs. N/A 127 52 EU 1 80-100  Left IAM II, IV, V Frontal and cranial vault fragments thinner with different burning pattern on inner and outer tables, mandible, clavicle, scapula, hand elements. Age estimated 13-16 years.  N/A 128 61 Pile #5, #8, EU 1, EU 2, EU 15 80-120  Left IAM II-V Cranial, teeth, teeth, foot phalanges and unidentified. Age estimated to 11-14 years old.  N/A 129 101 EU 1, EU 4 80-100  Left IAM IV-V About 10 years old. This person was radiocarbon dated. Many cranial fragments refit.  Cribra orbitalia 130 45 EU 1, EU 15 80-100  Alternate II, IV, V Teeth, patella, mastoid, metacarpal heads and sacrum all fall into age category of 6-8 years old. Distinctive age within the grave not found amongst left IAMs.  N/A 131 29 EU 1, EU 12, Pile #3, Pile #8 80-100 Left IAM II-V Child aged 4-6 years. Cranial, teeth, rib, vertebra present. N/A 132 40 EU 1, EU 4, Pile #3, Pile #4 110-110 Left IAM II-V Cranial fragments, cranial ossicle, vertebrae. Child aged ~3 years. Green staining. N/A 133 58 EU 1, Pile #1, Pile #8,  80-100 Alternate mostly V Teeth, humerus, rib, vertebrae, cranial vault, mandible and zygomatic are aged 2-3 years.  N/A 134 23 EU 4, Pile #8 100-110 Alternate II, IV, V Teeth clusters at 18 months-2 years. Possible lesions, eburnation, porosity 135 19 EU 1, EU 15, Pile #8 65-75 Alternate II-V A right fragment of an IAM and another too small to side. Teeth, sacrum, vertebrae, hand phalanxes indicate this individual is 1-2 years and has duplicate teeth to KBI-134.  Possible reactive bone. 136 26 EU 1, EU 4, Pile # 3, Pile #5 80-110 Left IAM II, IV, V Infant based on cranial, teeth, vertebrae, ribs, hand phalanx. N/A 137 25 EU 1, EU 13, Pile #1, Pile #3 80-100 Left IAM I, II, IV, V Neonate based on cranial, teeth, distal hand phalanx. N/A 138 22 EU 1, EU 4, EU 8, Pile #2 80-110 Alternate I-II, IV, V These remains belong to a neonate, 36-40 weeks. Cranial, phalanxes, ribs, mandible femur and humerus present. Age measurements from humerus and femur.  N/A 139 36 EU 1, EU 2, Pile #4,  80-120 Left IAM   Neonate based on cranial, teeth, vertebrae, scapula, humerus, ulna, radius, femur. N/A 140 7 Pile #3 n/a Left IAM II, IV, V 5-7th fetal month. N/A 141 3 Pile #5,Pile #8 n/a Left IAM V 5th fetal month. N/A 65  Kulleet Bay Individual Total Cremains Provenience Depth cm (below datum)  MNI criteria Colour Stage of Cremation Osteobiography Pathology 142 7 Pile #5 n/a Alternate I,II Cranial, mandible, humerus and un-sided IAM establish this as a fetus between 23-27 weeks. N/A 143 6 EU 1, EU 15 80-100 Left IAM IV,V 24-30 fetal weeks. IAMs, rib, radius, and clavicle. N/A 144 5 EU 15 60-65 Left IAM IV Refits of mastoid, zygomatic process and IAM. Large and long mastoid. Lambdoid suture stage 1. Young adult.  N/A 145 1 EU 15 60-65 Left IAM II IAM N/A 146 2 EU 15 65-75 Left IAM IV IAM, Probable male. Radiocarbon dated.  N/A 147 2 EU 15 65-75 Left IAM II IAM N/A 148 2 EU 1 100-110 Left IAM II IAM N/A 149 1 EU 1 100-110 Left IAM V IAM N/A 150 1 EU 1 100-110 Left IAM II IAM N/A 151 1 EU 1 100-110 Left IAM III IAM N/A 152 2 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM IV IAM. Probable female. Radiocarbon dated. N/A 153 1 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 154 1 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM IV Adult IAM. Radiocarbon dated.  N/A 155 2 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 156 1 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 157 6 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM III,IV Adult IAM. Possible male. N/A 158 2 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 159 1 EU 1 80-100 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 160 1 EU 4 80-100 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 161 2 EU 4 100-110 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 162 1 EU 4 100-110 Left IAM V Adult IAM. N/A 163 1 EU 4 100-110 Left IAM IV Adult IAM. N/A 164 1 EU 4 100-110 Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 165 2 EU 4 100-110 Left IAM IV Adult IAM. N/A 166 1 EU 5 100-110 Left IAM V Adult IAM. N/A 167 1 EU 13 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 168 2 Pile 1 n/a Left IAM V Adult IAM. N/A 169 1 Pile 2 n/a Left IAM V Adult IAM. N/A 170 1 Pile 2 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 171 2 Pile 3 n/a Left IAM I Adult IAM. N/A 172 1 Pile 3 n/a Left IAM V Adult IAM. N/A 173 2 Pile 3 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 174 2 Pile 3 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 175 2 Pile 3 n/a Left IAM II, IV Adult IAM. N/A 176 1 Pile 4 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 66  Kulleet Bay Individual Total Cremains Provenience Depth cm (below datum)  MNI criteria Colour Stage of Cremation Osteobiography Pathology 177 2 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM IV, V Adult IAM. Radiocarbon dated.  N/A 178 2 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 179 1 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM II, III Adult IAM. N/A 180 1 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM II Adult IAM. N/A 181 2 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM II,IV Adult IAM. N/A 182 2 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM II,III Adult IAM. N/A 183 1 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM III Adult IAM. N/A 184 2 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM IV Adult IAM. N/A 185 1 Pile 8 n/a Left IAM III Adult IAM. N/A 186 2 No Provenience n/a Left IAM IV Adult IAM. N/A 187           Adult IAM. N/A 188 32 EU 15  60 Alternate III-IV Frontal cranial remains are doubles of other adolescent remains from the nearest neighbours. Cranial, patella, teeth, ulna all support age of 16-18 years.  Cribra orbitalia in r. orbit. 189 4 EU 1, no provenience 80-100 Alternate IV From a faunal bag. Double elements to KBI 141, 143 and different burning pattern than KBI 142. Mid-term fetus.  N/A 65 =Total MNI Table 20. MNI using left internal auditory meatus and unique ages.  Mass Grave Provenience Small Bag Large Bag EU 1 3 21 EU 2 5 1 EU 4 2 7 EU 5 4 0 EU 8 5 0 EU 9 1 0 EU 11 2 0 EU 12 2 0 EU 13 2 0 EU 15 (field named ‘E1’) 3 2 Pile 2 7 0 Pile 3 7 1 Pile 4 5 0 Pile 5 3 1 Pile 6 1 0 no pile 7   Pile 8 3 6 No Provenience 14 8 TOTAL 69 47  Excavation Unit N Percent            39 .3 20-35m N 41 .3 25-30m N 9 .1 25-35m N 942 6.1 30-35m N 63 .4 EU1 6133 39.9 EU11 53 .3 EU12 32 .2 EU13 36 .2 EU15 1601 10.4 EU2 380 2.5 EU4 1306 8.5 EU5 150 1.0 EU8 158 1.0 EU9 Salvage 2 .0 4441 28.9 Total 15386 100.0  Table 21.  Tally of field bags filled with cremains from the mass grave. Table 22. Tally of cremains found in salvage units. 67  Appendix B  Artifacts Most pre-contact artifacts from the mass cremation grave were undiagnostic to chronological period (n=90), but of those that were diagnostic, two non-sequential chronological periods emerged: Locarno (3300-2400 BP) and historic material dating to the 1870’s-1920’s. Artifacts characteristic of the Marpole period or Developed Coast Salish era are absent. Obsidian sourcing (Hughes, 2016) traced the raw material to Obsidian Cliffs, a commonly identified source  for all archaeological NWC eras except the later period of Developed Coast Salish (1800-Contact) (Carlson, 1994; Connolly et. al, 2015). Obsidian Cliffs and Newberry obsidian sources from Oregon were exchanged almost exclusively northward extending to include the southern Salish Sea region (Connolly et. al, 2015:184) and the presence of Obsidian Cliffs obsidian at Kulleet Bay supports the dating of the pre-contact artifact assemblage to pre-2400 years BP. The historic material indicates a domestic assemblage and perhaps a structure from the presence of machine cut square nails, household objects and items of personal adornment. The bullet casings are consistent with a domestic assemblage as many indigenous families traded for guns in the early contact era for use in traditional hunting. As only 7% of the pre-contact artifacts were burnt, it suggests that they were not grave goods placed with the corpses or part of the cremation process, as grave inclusions would match the burn patterns on the skeletal remains that were so intensely pyrolyzed. One of the diagnostic artifacts, a carved pendant representing a fish, was burned to stage IV and is the only artifact possibly worn by one of the deceased cremated individuals (Figure 36).  Obsidian lithics were analyzed by Geochemical Research Laboratory and sourced to Obsidian Cliffs in Oregon (Hughes, 2016). Of the artifacts recovered from the feature only 11 (7%) were thermally altered and 147 did not receive any thermal alteration (table 7).   68        Figure 24. DgRw-17:5262. Quartz microlith core.  Figure 25. DgRw-17: 5224. Quartz microlith.  Figure 26. DgRw-17:5257. Quartz microlith.  Figure 27. DgRw-17:5336. Quartz microlith.  Figure 28. DgRw-17:5219. Dorsal view of obsidian microlith from Obsidian Cliffs, Oregon.  Figure 29. DgRw-17: 5219. Ventral view of obsidian microlith from Obsidian Cliffs, Oregon. 69  Pre-Contact Artifacts Frequency Percent  Unmodified 8 5.1 Abrader 9 5.7 Adze 1 .6 Anchor stone 1 .6 Antler Wedge 2 1.3 Awl 1 .6 Bead 1 .6 Bone Needle 1 .6 Bone Pendant 2 1.3 Bone Point 5 3.2 Bone Tool 8 5.1 Composite Harpoon 2 1.3 Debitage 7 4.5 Decorated Antler 1 .6 Decorated Bone 3 1.9 Faceted Stone Bead 1 .6 Hammerstone 1 .6 Microblade Core 1 .6 Nodule 4 2.5 Obsidian Flake 1 .6 Obsidian Microblade 1 .6 Projectile Point 9 5.7 Quartz Flake 3 1.9 Quartz Microblade 2 1.3 Shaped Antler tool 1 .6 Slate Knife 2 1.3 Tine Tool 2 1.6 Unifacial Lithic 2 1.3 Utilized Flake 2 1.3 Whatzit 2 1.3 Worked Antler 1 .6 Worked Bone 14 9.5 Total 101 100.0 Table 23. Precontact artifact types recovered from the mass grave. Table 24. Artifact frequencies according to era.  Period Frequency Percent  Historic 54 34.2 Locarno 12 7.6 Charles 2 1.3 Precontact Unknown Era 90 57.0 Total 158 100.0 Artifact Type Material Frequency Percent Microblade   Quartz 2 1.3 Obsidian 1 0.6 Microblade Core Quartz 1 0.6 Flake Quartz 3 1.9 Obsidian 1 0.6 Total  8 5.0 Table 9. Microliths from the Kulleet Bay mass grave. Historic Artifact Type Frequency Percent Bottle 3 5.6 Bottle? 1 1.9 Bullet Casing 6 11.1 Button 3 5.6 Dish 3 5.6 Glass Fragment 1 1.9 Marble 2 3.7 Nail 25 46.3 Paddle Jacket Decoration 1 1.9 Plastic 1 1.9 Plate 1 1.9 Ring 1 1.9 Roofing 1 3.8 Roofing? 2 3.7 Strapping? 1 1.9 Tinfoil 1 1.9 Total 54 100.0 Table 25. Historic artifact types. 70   Figure 30. DgRw-17:5208. CTH antler foreshaft.  Figure 31. DgRw-17:5331. Antler CTH piece.  Figure 32. DgRw-17:5216. Burnt bone zoomorphic fish head.  Figure 33. DgRw-17:5206. Unburnt bone pendant.   Figure 34. DgRw-17:5214. Burnt bone point.  Figure 35. DgRw-17:5312. Miscellaneous burnt bone artifact. 71   Figure 36. DgRw-17:5264. Type II diamond point.  Figure 37. DgRw-17:5251. Faceted slate point.  Figure 38. DgRw-17:5353. Hexagonal slate point.  Figure 39. DgRw-17:5250. Faceted slate point.  Figure 40. DgRw-17:5301. Portion of carved antler zoomorphic frog.  Figure 41. Ground stone bead.  72  The historic artifacts indicate this was a domestic site occupied ca. 1870’s-early 1900’s (table 8). Square cut, machine made nails; ceramics, thick olive coloured bottle glass, and roofing material from perhaps more recent decades were identified. Personal items such as buttons, a man’s ring and a paddle from a historic paddle jacket historically worn by Coast Salish people as dance wear were analyzed. Several of the shell casings are centre-fire cartridges with preserved headstamps from ammunition produced by the Union Metallic Cartridge Company signified by “U.M.C” and Winchester Repeating Arms Company “W.R.A” (Logan, 1959;Anon, 2006).  Based on diagnostic headstamps on the shell casings, this ammunition for large rifles was produced between 1873-1920’s and was presumably a household item in many post-contact Coast Salish and Stz’uminus homes. A button stylistically diagnostic to the 1880-1890 era supports the date range for this component. The nails recovered (43% of all historic materials) are all machine cut square nails varied in size (framing, finishing size etc.) but most are the Type B machine cut that date from 1800’s-1900’s (Visser, n.d.). The frequency of nails found and other historic materials such as the ceramics, personal items and roofing materials suggest a domestic structure may have been located nearby during the 1870’s-1920’s. Arthur Jim recalled small simple shed-roof cedar structures built around the turn of the century to house families, some with dirt floors that often were burned down in the mid-late 20th C due to dereliction (pers. com. Arthur Jim, 09/09/2015).      73   Catalogue # Diagnostic and Contextual Description DgRw-17:5200 Bullet cartridge, complete. Centre fire. Headstamp says, "W.R.A. Co ...44 WCF". This means Winchester Repeating Arms Company (WRA) 44 caliber with centre fire. Manufactured ca. 1873-1887 and was the first centre fire cartridge for Winchester. Williamson (1952) provides Winchester Catalogue of cartridges which state this particular headstamp was manufactured in 1873. East quadrant of EU 5 has noted disturbance with tinfoil identified at this level. West side of unit seems intact (?) and the cartridge found on the west side of unit. Other artifacts from this unit & level include microblades and projectile point. Possibly from the transition of disturbed to intact deposits in this unit. DgRw-17: 5201 Bullet cartridge. Headstamp says, "W.R.A. Co ...44 WCF". From salvage piles. DgRw-17: 5202 A 40-60 bullet cartridge. Headstamp says, " W.R.A. Co....40-60 WCF". Winchester Repeating Arms Company (with centre fire). Larger gun for larger game. Does not date as early as 1873. Ca. 1880's -1920's. Has red staining on body below headstamp.  Salvage context. DgRw-17: 5203 A 45-60 cartridge. Headstamp says, "U.M.C." a "S" and "H" are located opposite each other on either side of the fired pin. "45-60" below this. Means Union Metallic Cartridge Company which operated between 1867-1912. According to 'oldammo.com/july06.htm', UMC did not produce headstamps until the 1880's. This cartridge therefore ca. 1880-1912. DgRw-17: 5204 Bullet cartridge, no headstamp. Found in EU 15, clearly disturbed strata 35-45 cm below surface and above the cremation strata.  DgRw-17: 5205 Round metal button (12.02 x 5.62 mm) with stamped design on front. Rusted back. Relief design is a flower with a snake wrapped around the base. Paraphrasing from Colleen Miller, owner of Button Button, ‘it is likely a common women's button ca. 1880's-1890's called an ‘Austrian Tiny’ due to the less than 15 mm size. These buttons were not manufactured in Canada and assembled by women at home using often several metals per button with thousands of different motifs and used by the dozen on women's clothing in late 19th C and early 20th C. Flowers of this type were often called Ranunculus, even though they don’t appear to look like that flower in real life’ (pers. com. Aug 15/2014). Recovered in salvage. Table 26. Diagnostic descriptions of historic artifacts from the mass grave.  74  Appendix C Faunal Remains The top five identified species, number of identified specimens (NISP%) that shows relative abundance of species within the sample, and the MNI for each is presented in table 23. Common Name Frequency Percent Common Name Frequency Percent  Herring 145 15.7 Small land mammal 3 .3 Bird 135 14.6 Dabbling duck 2 .2 Land mammal 125 13.5 Deer Mouse 2 .2 Fish 91 9.9 Medium bird 2 .2 Salmon 75 8.1 Medium Duck 2 .2 Dog 73 7.9 Mink 2 .2 Deer 44 4.8 Plainfin Midshipman 2 .2 Medium land mammal 32 3.5 Raptor 2 .2 Dogfish 30 3.3 Small Gull 2 .2 Flatfish sp. 12 1.3 White-winged scoter 2 .2 Rockfish 12 1.3 Bufflehead 1 .1 Small-medium land mammal 11 1.2 Common Loon 1 .1 Sea Mammal 10 1.1 Common Murre 1 .1 Mallard 9 1.0 Duck 1 .1 Perch sp. 9 1.0 Greenling sp. 1 .1 Ruffled Grouse 9 1.0 Large duck 1 .1 Unidentified 9 1.0 Large gull 1 .1 Medium duck 7 .8 Midshipman 1 .1 Ratfish 7 .8 Northwestern Crow 1 .1 Mammal 6 .7 Pileated Woodpecker? 1 .1 Pile Perch 6 .7 Raven 1 .1 Hake 5 .5 Red Necked Grebe 1 .1 n/a 5 .5 Sculpin 1 .1 Canis sp. 4 .4 Sculpin sp. 1 .1 Medium-large land mammal 4 .4 Skate 1 .1 Songbird 4 .4 Small duck 1 .1 Elk 3 .3 Western Red Squirrel 1 .1 Pacific Hake 3 .3    Total    923 100.0 Table 27. Identified fauna from the mass grave. Species NISP% MNI Herring 15.7 25 Salmon 8.1 n/a Dog 7.9 5 Deer 4.8 2 Dogfish 3.2 n/a Total  36.5  Table 28. NISP and MNI of mass grave fauna. 

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