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Jat masculinity and deviant femininity in a punjabi romantic epic : exploring gender through Waris Shah's… Mann, Gurinderpal 2018

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JAT MASCULINITY AND DEVIANT FEMININITY IN A PUNJABI ROMANTIC EPIC: EXPLORING GENDER THROUGH WARIS SHAH’S HĪR by  Gurinderpal Mann  B.A., The University of British Columbia, 2004 M.A., Simon Fraser University, 2012  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Asian Studies)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2018  © Gurinderpal Mann, 2018 ii  Abstract  This thesis examines the representation of gender in Waris Shah’s Hīr, a romantic epic (qissā) composed during the late 1700s in Punjab. The author, Waris Shah, a Sufi of the Chishti tradition, lived during the eighteenth century. Hīr portrays the tragic story of the love between Hīr, a young woman of the Siyal clan, and Rāṅjhā, a young man known by his clan name; the story is sometimes called the “Romeo and Juliet” of Punjabi literature. This qissā is set in the rural, feudal plains of Punjab, where multiple clans strove to maintain or improve their status.   In the qissā, Hīr, Waris Shah portrays gender through poetic metaphor, dialogue, character, and plot. I focus primarily on his protagonists, treating each of Hīr and Rāṅjhā as pivotal male and female characters, and secondarily on the character of Sahiti, Hīr’s sister-in-law in the story. I interrogate the gender representation of each character to uncover the social constructs to which Shah subscribed. I will argue that through the plot of the story, the dialogue, and the exchanges between the characters, a multiplicity of forms of gender is articulated. The portrayal of Shah’s main characters forces us to question the idea of gender norm, while recognizing how it functions as a social force. Through his complex characters Shah demonstrates the unorthodox gender is normal in this text. In Part I, I propose an overarching meaning for Shah’s multi-vocality of femininity as tied to the character of Hīr (and secondarily Sahiti), by paying close attention to the language Shah uses in describing her, the arc of her plot which ends in her murder, and her interaction with other women characters. In Part II, I propose an overarching meaning for Shah’s multi-vocal portrayal of masculinity as tied to the character of Rāṅjhā, by attending to descriptions of his appearance, his loss of property and arc that ends in his death, as well as his interactions with other characters. Through these two figures, Hīr and Rāṅjhā, Shah articulates a range of gendered forms, while ultimately adhering to patriarchal norms that are presented alongside other models.     iii  Lay Summary  Written in the late eighteenth century, the qissā (romantic folktale) of Waris Shah’s Hīr is recognized as a landmark Punjabi language text. Often described as India’s equivalent to Romeo and Juliet, the tale focuses on the love of Hīr and Rāṅjhā, the opposition they face, and their eventual deaths. Hīr was written when Punjab found itself within a significantly complex social, political, and religious environment. Despite being written 250 years ago, Waris Shah’s Hīr has retained a prominent presence in Punjabi cultural life. My research focuses on the role of gender in Waris Shah’s Hir, particularly examining how masculinity and femininity are portrayed in the story. More specifically, this thesis examines how Waris Shah illustrates gender through his main characters, and how Shah presents multiple forms of gender identity, while ultimately privileging one of these.  iv  Preface This  thesis  is  original,  unpublished,  independent  work  by  the  author,  Gurinderpal Mann.      v  Table of Contents  Abstract .................................................................................................................................... ii Lay Summary .......................................................................................................................... iii Preface ...................................................................................................................................... iv Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... v Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ viii Note to the Reader ................................................................................................................ viiii Dedication ................................................................................................................................. ix Introduction............................................................................................................................... 1 0.1 Overview of the Tale ...................................................................................................4 0.2 Persian Language in Punjab .........................................................................................5 0.3 The Qissā Genre ..........................................................................................................8  0.3.1 Formal Characteristics…………………………………………………………...10   0.3.2 Performance of Qissā ……………………………………………………………14   0.3.3 Content of the Qissā……………………………………………………………...15 0.4 Versions of the Hīr and Rāṅjhā Narrative ................................................................... 18 0.5 Approach of the Thesis  ............................................................................................. 21 Part I: Hīr ................................................................................................................................ 23 Chapter 1: Docile or Rebellious? ........................................................................................... 24 Chapter 2:  Hīr’s Status and the Question of Intersectionality ................................................ 39 Chapter 3:  The Relevance of Sahiti ...................................................................................... 46 Summary ............................................................................................................................... 52 vi  Part II: Rāṅjhā ........................................................................................................................ 54 Chapter 4: Defining Masculinity through Land Ownership & Jat Identity .............................. 56 Chapter 5: Why Should We Care About Rāṅjhā's Appearance ............................................... 69 Chapter 6: Chauvinism, Misogyny, and Waris Shah's Commitment to Patriarchy  ................. 79 Summary ............................................................................................................................... 87 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 88 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 91                 vii  Acknowledgements  My sincerest thanks to my supervisor, Dr. Anne Murphy; you have been an incredible mentor.  To Dr. Jessica Main and Dr. Adheesh Sathaye, I appreciate all the guidance that you have given me. I would like to express gratitude to Dr. Sharalyn Orbaugh, Dr. Tom Hunter, Mr. Sukhwant Hundal, and Dr. Allison Busch, from whom I have had the pleasure of learning from, as a student and as a Teaching Assistant. To my fellow graduate students in the Department, it has been a joy walking this path with you. Finally, to my sister, mother, and father, thank you for your unconditional love and support.     viii  Note to the Reader:  The translations in this thesis are my own. While in the footnotes I have provided the verses in Gurmukhi Punjabi script, they have been transliterated from the Shahmukhi Punjabi script, in Sabir, Sharif, ed. Hīr Vāriṡ Śāh. Lahore: Progressive Books, 1986.  I shall be referring to the female protagonist as ‘Hīr’, except when using a direct quotation, at which time she shall also be referred to as ‘Heer’.  I shall be referring to landowner/farmer with the word ‘Jat’, except when using a direct quotation, at which time the word shall also be seen as ‘Jatt’.  ix  Dedication To my family.      1  Introduction This thesis seeks to understand how Waris Shah understands gender in his poem, Hīr, belonging to the romantic folktale (qissā) tradition. Relying on Judith Butler’s work on gender and religion, I examine the ways that characters reprimand and praise one another as constitutive of gendered norms. As well, through Butler’s idea of what constitutes a liveable identity, I examine, quite literally, who lives and who dies in Shah’s plot.1 In broad terms, Judith Butler argues that gender “is the mechanism by which notions of masculine and feminine are produced and naturalized.”2 Ellen Armour and Susan St. Ville, based on Butler’s theories, argue that “masculine and feminine gender roles,” are “understood as socially constructed or matters of custom rather than nature.”3 She argues that sex is produced by gender in a way that ties bodies closely to performance. In Hīr, females are portrayed as women and males are portrayed as men. Butler’s understanding allows us to see that Waris Shah’s gender ideology governs the sexual morphology, bodies, performance, and speech of all the characters. In the contemporary period, as Butler asserts there exists “a restrictive discourse on gender that insists on the binary of man and woman as the exclusive way to understand the gender field,” and that this “performs a regulatory operation of power that naturalizes the hegemonic instance and forecloses the thinkability of its disruption.”4 While as I will show this is only partially true in the early modern period, which precedes the period of Butler's concern, her idea of regulation is useful in understanding this pre-modern text.                                                1 Judith Butler, Undoing Gender (New York: Routledge, 2004). 2 Butler stresses that the “norm is not the same as a rule.” Judith Butler, Undoing Gender (New York: Routledge, 2004), 41-42. I will be discussing “norms” rather than “rules” with respect to the narrative Hīr. 3 Ellen T. Armour and Susan M. St. Ville (eds.), Bodily Citations: Religion and Judith Butler (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), 2. 4 Ibid.  2  In this thesis I approach Waris Shah as attempting to intervene in this process through the narrative of Hīr and, in so doing, to authorize specific gender norms within the field of eighteenth century Punjab. Butler, using the metaphor of a policeman calling out a jaywalker, understands that individuals shall be subject to “reprimand” when they do not abide by certain gender norms, which “does not merely repress or control the subject, but forms a crucial part of the juridical and social formation of the subject.”5 Hence, I will look to instances of reprimand, praise, and silence to tease out Waris Shah’s overarching gender norms. Armour and St. Ville have further argued that while gender is “socially constructed,” “the reigning expectations of masculinity and femininity are putatively open to revision.”6 We will see in Hīr both the malleability of gender, and how it is regulated. Waris Shah presents a range of gender identities through his narrative, which provide in some ways a varied range of gendered identities that were available in the world he sought to create through this text. The fact that the characters, in particular the main protagonists of the story are consistently reprimanded throughout the narrative demonstrates that Shah has included a number of gender performances, not all are liveable. Their failure in the story however, particularly when it comes to their union, is due to their inability to completely follow the gender roles as they had been created by others, further confirming that Shah has allowed a number of gender identities to find a place in the story, but privileged one. If gender is a social construct, and norms are created within a society, attributes and behaviours are reinforced within a social climate as to what it is to be masculine and feminine.                                                5 Butler, Bodies that matter, 82. 6 Armour & St. Ville (eds.), Bodily Citations, 2. 3  Through his multi-vocality, Waris Shah shows that the concept of gender can be interpreted in numerous ways. At times, the alterity he presents is identified by other characters in the narrative, and characters are reprimanded or praised for these deviations from the concept of what is considered normal by others in the story. There is evidence in the text that the pastoral climate in which the story’s setting finds itself is one that is patriarchal in nature, where girls are expected by their elders and religious figures to play a subordinate place in the family. Hīr is encouraged by elders in the story to be obedient, compliant with social and religious traditions, and refrain from exercising their desires, particularly in the context of romantic desires. Waris Shah however, through his primary character of Hīr, and secondarily Sahiti as well, is breaking down and defying their social expectations, and carving out different explanations as to what it means to be feminine. The feminine characters that Shah is creating are ones which are rebellious, feisty, and demonstrate no apprehension in fulfilling their desires. They are depicted as both aware and comfortable with their status and do use it to their advantage also, but evidence in the text reveals that they do not passively follow the path, which has been carved out for them by their elders. Hīr is reprimanded for not adhering to the advice of her elders, but this does little to alter her approach. Through these female characters, and Hīr in particular, Shah is showing that the feminine gender can be depicted in a number of ways.  Similar to what Waris Shah does in expressing his version of what it can mean to be feminine is the same approach he takes for his male character, Rāṅjhā. The narrative is set in the background of rural Punjab, where male masculinity was strongly connected to land ownership. Furthermore, the attributes of strength and assertiveness is emphasized in the social setting, as it enhances what is considered to be masculine. Shah however, chooses to make his male 4  protagonist multi-dimensional. In the text, Rāṅjhā is seen as a fashionable “dandy” that is delicate and gentle more so than a muscular young man with brute force. Shah chooses to depict Rāṅjhā as a handsome young man that does not conform to religious and social stereotypes, and he is chastised for his look as well, although he is shrewd enough to use it to his advantage on occasion too. While Shah depicts Rāṅjhā in this manner, he also allows him to fit comfortably within the confines of a more neatly masculinist and chauvinist model as well. 0.1 Overview of the Tale The story of Hīr is generally consistent across versions. It is set on the banks of the river Chenab in East Punjab. Dhīdo Rāṅjhā—Dhīdo as personal name and Rāṅjhā as clan name—lives with his father, brothers, and sisters-in-law. As the youngest of the brothers, he is his father’s favorite son. Waris Shah portrays Rāṅjhā as a handsome young man whose beauty casts a spell on all young women who encounter him, and has Rāṅjhā’s own sisters-in-law swayed by that charm as well. Following the death of his father and having been swindled out of his land and inheritance by brothers, the powerless and empty-handed Rāṅjhā heads off to the village of Jhang. Shah presents Hīr’s legendary beauty, known throughout the region, as Rāṅjhā’s motivation for heading to Jhang. Rāṅjhā must overcome numerous struggles and obstacles before Shah has him successfully arrive in Jhang. There, he meets Hīr and their romance commences.  Hīr is successful in convincing her father to employ Rāṅjhā as their buffalo herder. This gives the lovers ample opportunity to secretly pursue their love. Upon discovery of Hīr’s relationship with their buffalo herder, Hīr’s family, partially influenced by the qāzī (Islamic legal magistrate), quickly arrange her marriage to Saida. Saida is portrayed as belonging to a rich family with plenty of land, and Hīr’s family, for which reason they see Saida as worthy of their daughter. Interestingly, Shah has Rāṅjhā refuse to elope with Hīr, since it is not the honorable 5  thing to do. This sets up a situation in which their love could only succeed if Hīr’s family relented. They do not relent, however, and Hīr is married to Saida. A distraught Rāṅjhā eventually makes his way to Balnath, a yogi, and requesting initiation to become a yogi. Rāṅjhā’s plan is to enter Hīr’s village in disguise. In spite of his followers’ objections, Balnath is swayed by Rāṅjhā’s charm and charisma, and initiates him. Rāṅjhā becomes a yogi and goes in disguise to Hīr’s village. He first encounters Sahiti, Hīr’s sister-in-law, at which time they engage in a lengthy dialogue with each, much of which is overshadowed by their quarreling. Ironically, it is with Sahiti’s assistance that the lovers are able to meet and escape. At this point, the lovers try to convince everyone that their love is divine in nature. Although initially Hir’s family agree, afterwards upon discussion amongst the clansmen, Hīr’s family, described as “intoxicated” by honor, kill her with poison. Rāṅjhā takes his own life when he learns she is gone.    0.2 Persian Language in Punjab  Waris Shah's Hīr is a qissā, representative of a popular genre in the region in the early modern and modern periods. The earliest examples of qissā poetry in Punjab are from the thirteenth century. Amir Khusraw (1254-1325) composed versions of the romances of Laila and Majnun, as well as Shirin and Khusraw in Persian. Both stories originated from the Arab and Persia subcontinents respectively.7 Pritchett stresses that the qissā came to India in its Persian form.8 This form achieved notable popularity and found a place in the Mughal court9 and after the                                                7 Farina Mir, The Social Space of Language (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2010), 7. 8 Frances Pritchett, Marvelous Encounters (Riverdale, Md.: Riverdale Co. Inc., 1985), 1. 9 Ibid. 6  flourishing of Persian qissā in South Asia, the form soon gathered momentum in other languages in South Asia, such as Urdu.10  The Persian language was of fundamental importance in the early modern period in South Asia. Muzzaffar Alam stresses that there had been interaction between South Asian and Persian languages for two millennia, but it was only towards the end of the tenth century that Persian gained a foothold in Punjab due mainly to the Ismaili population there.11 Later on, as Alam claims, Persian’s relationship with India and Punjab grew when Mahmud Ghazni conquered the Punjab region in the eleventh century.12 He made a Persian cultural center there, paving the way for Persian literature to grow.13 According to Alam, the arrival of the Turkish conquerors in Punjab during the twelfth and thirteenth century served to further strengthen Persian language use in northern India and expanded it eastward toward Delhi.14 Beyond the courts, common people and soldiers had a taste for Persian poetry and spread its influence.15 The Sufis also played a prominent role, since their religious centers were an important public meeting place, and worshippers demonstrated a keen interest in understanding Persian, the language of significant religious scriptures.16 This momentum continued, as Persian poetry experienced a considerable lift during the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth century.17 This was predominantly the case during Akbar’s rule. Akbar demonstrated a committed to Iranian                                                10 Pritchett, 2. 11 Muzaffar Alam, “The Culture and Politics of Persian in Precolonial Hindustan, in Literary Cultures in History,” ed. Sheldon Pollack (California: University of California Press, 2003), 132. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid., 132-133. 14 Ibid., 133. 15 Ibid., 147. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid., 158. 7  literature, which led to a significant amount of Persian poets and writers travelling to India.18 In contrast to Iran at that time, where there was fear of persecution, the literary community found a safe harbor under Akbar’s rule in India, as well as considerable praise.19 Persian language in South Asia experienced what Alam has called “Indianization.”20 It was influenced by Indian vernaculars. Persian forms, such as its rich qissā style, developed in a situation of mutual influence between Persian and South Asian vernaculars. This was particularly visible in the case of Hindavi poets. Amīr Khushrao, who was one of the most prominent writers of the fourteenth century and who wrote in Persian, identified his writing as “Hindavi.” Notable poets, such as Munjhan, Jayasi, and Qutban, and writers of Hindavi romance poetry chose features of a Persian poetic genre of rhyming couplets (masnavis) for their works.21  Vernacular languages such as Hindavi appeared in north India during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, developing further during the Mughal Empire in the seventeenth century.22 Mughal courts attracted intellectuals and authors who composed in Persian. According to Shantanu Phukan, the nature of Hindi within the Mughal Empire demonstrates how Persian and Urdu were “each defining the other, and even bleeding into the other.”23 Phukan attributes Persian influence within that period to Sufis, who played a role in expanding the influence of Islam in South Asia. Hindi vernacular was used by the Sufis as a tool to connect with the rural,                                                18 Alam, 159. 19 Ibid. 20 Ibid., 144. 21 Francesca Orsini, “How to do multilingual literary history? Lessons from fifteenth and sixteenth century north India,” The India Economic and Social Review, 49, 2 (2012): 231. 22 Shantanu Phukan, Through a Persian prism: Hindi and Padmāvat in the Muġhal imagination (The University of Chicago, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2000), 35. 23 Ibid. 8  non-elite Hindu community who were not well versed in Persian.24 Sufis produced their material in both Persian and Hindi in order to communicate with the Hindi speaking rural community.25 One could argue that the role Sufis played in spreading Islam facilitated the influence of Persian on Hindi vernacular during the Mughal period.26 As Anne Murphy has argued, the emergence of Punjabi as a literary language is framed by the literary lives of both Persian and Braj, the latter of which provided both a model and a kind of competitor for Punjabi in the eighteenth century.27 Literary genres from both the Persian and Braj literary worlds provided models for Punjabi literary production. 0.3 The Qissā Genre  Romance stories of similar nature to the qissās have enjoyed a long popularity within the Indian context, and played a formative role in the development of north Indian vernaculars. For example the most famous of the romance stories are the Prem-ākhyān, shared in multiple Indian vernaculars28. The Prem-ākhyān were essentially love stories in which characters travel a spiritual journey for their beloved, which reflects a path towards greater “spiritual maturity.” 29  The Prem-ākhyān were written by Sufis during the Pre-Mughal and Mughal periods. Although the Sufis initially shared these stories in the Avadhi dialect, they subsequently shared them in other vernaculars, in particular those being Urdu and Bengali.30 This “hybrid narrative texture”31                                                24 Phukan, 39-40. 25 Ibid., 39. 26 Ibid., 40. 27 Anne Murphy, "Punjabi in the (late) Vernacular Millennium," in Early Modern India: literature and  images, texts and languages, eds. Maya Burger & Nadia Cattoni (Heidelberg Berlin: CrossAsia-eBooks, Forthcoming 2018 or 2019). 28 Phukan, 7. 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid. 9  of the Prem-ākhyān allowed it to be shared in multiple vernaculars and, it can be argued, paved the way for romance literature to be told in other vernaculars besides Persian. In Punjab, romantic qissās garnered a significant amount of interest. Some claim this romantic focus is the hallmark of Punjabi qissās, but they are not unique by any means.  Romantic qissās in Persian go back as far back as c.1000 C.E.32 Qissās became widely published in the nineteenth century and Northern India in particular, in both Hindi and Urdu. In the modern period, the inexpensive price of printed qissās enhanced their attractiveness to the general public.33 The simplicity of qissā, made it available to the masses in India, and the fact that it was shared through performance further enhanced this quality, making it all the more appealing to the layperson. These stories fulfill “the typical oral-literate dynamic of Indian literature.”34 The qissā in comparison to other types of literature did not have a single purpose; Pasha Khan stresses that qissās “always incorporate intertexts of various genres,” making the “hearers eloquent” as well as “prudent.”35 Prior to the twentieth century, when the Urdu novel became popular in the North Indian context, the genre of qissā experienced considerable popularity.36 During the Colonial Period in the nineteenth century, qissās experienced great momentum in the Punjabi language as well.37                                                                                                                                                        31 Phukan, 34. 32 Francesca Orsini, Print and Pleasure: Popular Literature and Entertaining Fictions in Colonial North India (Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2009), 107. 33 Ibid. 34 Ibid., 106. 35 Pasha M. Khan, “A handbook for storytellers: The Ṭirāz al-akhbār and the Qissa Genre” in Francesca Orsini, Tellings and texts: music, literature and performance in North India (Cambridge, U.K.: Open Book Publishers, 2015), 207. 36 Ibid., 185. 37 Mir, 12. 10  0.3.1 Formal Characteristics Qissā narratives are written in rhyme. Waris Shah’s is written in a baint38 metre style. The baint is apparently derived from “Punjabi oral tradition”39 and not from its alleged source, the Persian Mutaqarib, which is the metre used for the qissā in Persian.40 The Punjabi baint is a metre composed of two lines, which possess a Persianate rhythmic scheme.41 Earlier baint examples, such as the versions of Hīr by Muqbil and Ahmad Gujjar, demonstrated a structure arranged by stanzas made by two couplets and ending with a line which would contain the signature (takhallus) of the poet, later conformed more to a masnavi style, arranged by couplets that could be of significant length.42 Observed carefully, even from examples offered already, one can ascertain that Waris Shah’s poetry is more in line with a masnavi style with a longer strain of couplets, which end with Waris Shah offering his signature in the final line of the stanza.  The Punjabi qissā, in general, however differed from the classical types. The classical qissā is typically separated into three sections: the prologue, the main body, and the epilogue.43  This demonstrates the connection of the qissā is actually based onto the original form of the Persian masnavi, recognized by having a prologue (dibachah), in which there is praise for God and the Prophet; then the main par (dastan); and finally, the epilogue (khatimah).44  In general the prologue goes through stages, beginning first with the grandeur of the Lord and the applause of love, the Prophet, those loved by the Prophet, the Sufi saints (Pirs), to finally recognizing the                                                38 Jeevan Deol, “Sex, Social Critique and the Female Figure in Premodern Punjabi Poetry: Varis Shah’s ‘Hīr,’” Modern Asian Studies, 36, no. 1 (2002): 148. 39 Ibid. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 Ibid.  43 Ibid., 147. 44 Ibid.  11  humble poet himself and the world in which the qissā is written.45  This pattern is followed by the introduction of Waris Shah’s Hīr, which begins first with a focus on God and love:  I begin by singing the glory of God, who created this world through love First God fell in love himself, the Prophet his beloved  Love is the status of the Saint and Sage, the man in love shall suffer Blossomed have the gardens of those hearts, who have accepted love46  Further on in the prologue, Waris Shah recognizes the companions of the Prophet:  All four friends of the Prophet are gems, in a world filled with sinners  Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, and Ali, all marvelous in their way Who have trusted in the search of truth, giving themselves to the path of God Those that renounced pleasures, bravo to those men of God47   The poem begins with the author sharing that the poet’s friends requested him to create the poem for their reading and pleasure, for which reason he is embarking on this endeavor.48 This is demonstrated by Waris Shah in the beginning of his poem:                                                  45 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 147. 46Av`l hmd Kdwie dw ivrd kIcy, ieSk kIqw sU j`g dw mUl mIAW pihly Awp hI rb` ny ieSk kIqw, qy mwSUk hY nbI rsUl mIAW ieSk pIr &kIr dw mrqbw hY, mrid ieSk dw Blw rMjUl mIAW iKly iqnHW dy bwg klUb AMdr, ijnHW kIqw hY ieSk kbUl mIAW Sharif Sabir, Hīr Vāriṡ Śāh (Lahore: Progressive Books, 1986), 1, Verse: 1. 47 cwry Xwr rsUl dy cwr gOhr, sB`w ie`k QIN ie`k cVHMdVy nI AbUbkr qy aumr, ausmwn, AlI, Awpo AwpxIN guxIN suhMdVy nI ijnHW isdk XkIn qihkIk kIqw, rwh rb` dy sIs ivkMdVy nI zOk Cf` ky ijnHW ny zuhd kIqw, vwhu vwhu Ehu rb` dy bMdVy nI Sabir, P.2 Verse: 3. 48Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 147. 12  Friends came and posed a question; create a new tale of Hīr The story of this love tale, should be told with beautiful words Through saying marvelous verses, bring together Hīr and Rāṅjhā Sitting together with friends, let us enjoy the love of Hīr and Rāṅjhā49  Waris Shah shares that he is writing at the request of his friends, and below he shares his acceptance of this request:  Obeying the command of friends, a great tale has been composed Through the compilation of correct phrases, a new rose has been plucked  After much pondering of the soul, Farhad has broken the mountain Creating a bouquet of chosen flowers, whose fragrance is like the nectar of roses50  The main section of the poem, or what would be considered the equivalent of the dastan,51 shares a beautiful image of the setting of where the qissā shall take place, and in particular shall describe the attractiveness of the main protagonists, and the beauty is described from the head to the foot of the characters, which is called a sarāpā,52 and is shared by Waris Shah as he describes Rāṅjhā:  What shall we say of Takht Hazara, where Rāṅjhās live joyfully Fashionable, intoxicated young men, each one more handsome than the previous                                                49 XwrW AsW nUM Awix svwl kIqw, ieSk hIr dw nvW bxweIey jI eys pRym dI Jok dw sB iks`w, Fbu sohxy nwl suxweIey jI nwl Ajb bhwr dy iSAr kih ky, rWJy hIr dw myl imlweIey jI XwrW nwl mjwlsW iv`c bih ky, mzw hIr dy ieSk dw pweIey jI Sabir, P.3, Verse 6. 50 hukm mMn ky sj`xW ipAwirAW dw, iksw Ajb bhwr dw joiVAw eI i&krw joV ky KUb drusq kIqw, nvW Pu`l gulwb dw qoiVAw eI buhq jIau dy iv`c qdbIr kr ky, &rhwd phwV nUM PoiVAw eI sB`w dIn ky zyb bxw id`qw, jyhw ieqr gulwb incoiVAw eI Sabir, P.3, Verse: 7. 51 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 147. 52 Ibid. 13  Wearing earrings, rings, and lungis tied at the waist, they look gorgeous What can I say about Takht Hazara, it appears heaven has descended on Earth53  Succeeding this section, the qissā flows into the narrative and story.54 Following the dialogue and story, the qissā concludes by reiterating the beginnings of the qissā and then sharing the time and setting of where it was compiled.55 Waris Shah explains the social and political context in which the qissā was written, as apparent from the following verse:  I am disheartened by my weakness, as the guilty is on the consequence of pain Muslims are afraid of God, and Hajis are afraid of beatings under religious law The Officer worries about soldiers, and servants about wounds inflicted for mistakes Out of all the nation of Punjab, I am most disheartened for Kasoor We worry about our honour, as Moses did about Kohtoor May these warriors go to heaven, and martyrs receive virgins Honorable from outside, but evil inside, like a beating drum from a distance Waris Shah a resident of Judiala, and a student of Makhdoom of Kasoor56  Waris Shah describes the context and the circumstances of Punjab during the time he had compiled his text.                                                 53 ie`k q^q hzwirEN gl` kIcy, ij`Qy rWiJAW rMg mcwieAw eI CYl g`BrU msq ArbylVy nI, suMdr ie`k QIN ie`k svwieAw eI vwly, kokly, muMdyR, mJ` luMgI, nvW TwT qy TwT cVHwieAw eI ikhI is&q hzwry dI AwK s`kW, goieAw bihSq zmIn qy AwieAw eI Sabir, P.4, Verse: 8. 54Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 147. 55Ibid.  56APsos! mYnUM AwpxI nwksI dw, gunwhgwr nUM hSr dy sUr dw ey ienHW momnW O^P Kudwie dw ey, Aqy hwjIAW bYq mwmUr dw ey sUbydwr nUM qlb ispwh dI dw, Aqy cwkrW kwt ksUr dw ey swry mulk pMjwb Krwb ivcoN, mYnMU v`fw APsos ksUr dw ey swnUM Srm hXwau dw ^OP rihMdw, ijvyN mUsw nMU ^OP koh qUr dw ey eynHW gwzIAW krm bigSq hovy, qy ShIdW nUM vwiedw hUr dw ey AYvyN bwhroN Swn, Krwb ivcoN, ijvyN Fol suhwvxw dUr dw ey vwirs Swh vsnIk jMifAwlVy dw, qy Swigrd m^dUm ksUr dw ey Sabir, P.410, Verse: 628. 14  0.3.2 Performance of Qissā The qissā’s popularity, especially within Punjab was particularly due to its role in entertainment.57 This specific attribute of the qissā played a role in ensuring its “longevity.”58 Folk songs and poetry of qissās were performed in the streets of Punjab by youngsters; Mir shows this by quoting Syad Muhammad Latif, who described street activity in Lahore in 1892.59 In addition, Punjabi villages had performers, known as mirasis, who entertained the public. They would play music and sing Punjabi folk songs about qissās; they would perform at cultural events and wedding celebrations.60 Most often, qissās were narrated orally.61  In Mir's words, qissās “were not meant for silent reading,”62 as the material was “intimately linked to scribal, performance, and listening traditions.”63 This allowed qissā to be performed and distributed in multiple social environments.64 Qissās are tailored for oral recitation and performance based on their format and structure; their stories and storylines are straightforward, consisting of actions with dialogue and without long explanations.65 This format was suited to the farming region of Punjab.  Orsini states that the qissā possessed modest tenses and verbs, and the dialogue was frank and straightforward, appealing to an audience that wanted to “understand everything                                                57 Mir, 100. 58 Ibid.  59 Ibid.  60 Ibid.  61 Orsini, Print and Pleasure, 106. 62 Mir, 91. 63 Ibid., 92. 64 Ibid. 65 Orsini, Print and Pleasure, 110. 15  immediately.”66 For these reasons, even during the mass printing of qissā during the Colonial period, as Orsini identifies there was no “transition from oral recitation to silent reading.”67 The climate of Punjab was one in which music and performance played a significant role, and this is something that had an undeniable influence on literature, primarily that of qissā. Mir quotes Charles Swynnerton to stress that “performance of Punjabi literature texts intersected with important social customs,” which was “embedded in the practices of everyday life.”68 The social environment of Punjab was very fertile for the qissā genre to grow, given the role of music and performance. Nowhere was this more evident than the role of spiritualism and devotion. For instance, in the thirteenth century, the shrine of Baba Sheikh Farid was a site at which devotees would come and recite verses and dance.69 The performance of qawalis and sama, songs and dances performed by Sufis and devotees were embedded in the culture of Punjab.70 The role of music played a part in all religions, as the Gurdwaras of the Sikhs functioned in a similar way to the Sufi shrines,71 and it is important to identify that the audiences at these spiritual centres did not belong to any one religion,72 just as the audience of the qissā became to be. 0.3.3 Content of the Qissā  Francesca Orsini explains that the audiences of qissās are “less respectful” to authority figures.  Waris Shah’s Hīr catered to such an audience by portraying members of the religious authority as immoral, dishonest, and corrupt. The following example demonstrates the dialogue that                                                66 Orsini, Print and Pleasure,116. 67 Ibid., 109-110. 68 Mir, 120 (Mir referencing Charles Swynnerton) 69 Ibid., 104. 70 Ibid., 104-105. 71 Ibid., 112. 72 Ibid., 107. 16  Rāṅjhā, the male protagonist, has with the corrupt mullah, who possesses significant power in the village.  Beard of a Sheikh, actions of the devil, attacking those that pass by  Sitting on the platform with the Quran in front, yet committing deceitful acts  You are unaware of good and evil, we are aware of the religious law You bring impurity to this place, thank God for his generosity  Not sparing a donkey, sheep, monkey, married or unmarried woman Oh Waris, mullahs go commit immoral acts in brothels, lying they are farming73   Qissās often take up social issues that their audiences would have been familiar with.  Mir confirms this, claiming that qissā poets (she specifically refers to those writing in Punjabi) chose to create plots and descriptions that would resonate with the lives of the audience; the aim of the qissā writer is not necessarily to create something new, but rather to stay within the confines conventional stories and touch on matters of “contemporary concern.”74  Orsini speaks to this, as well.  Waris Shah’s Hīr does just this: taking up issues that would connect with his audience in eighteenth century Punjab. As a result, an understanding of the social context aids in our understanding of Waris Shah’s version of Hīr. The context was immensely complex, with upheaval in social, political, and religious spheres. In this period, the once powerful Mughal                                                73 dwVHI SyK dI Aml SYqwn vwly, kyhw ruMinHaN jWidAW rwhIAW nUM Ag`y kF` kurwn qy QhyN imMbr, khw A`ifau mkr dIAW PwhIAW nuM  ies plIq qy pwk dw kro vwikP, AsIN jwxdy Srh gvwhIAW nUM  ijhVy QwauN npwk dy ivc viVaN, Sukr r`b dIAW by-prvwhIAW nUM KoqI, Byf, bWdI sBo zrb kF`y, Cf`y kvwrIAW nw ivAwhIAW nUM  vwirs Swh iv`c hujirAW PYl krdy, m`ulW joqry lWvdy vwhIAW nuUM  Sabir, P.18, Verse: 37. 74 Mir, 86. 17  Empire was in decline while Sikh and other martial forces were experiencing growth and resurgence. Shah connects with a resurgent martial ethos with metaphors inspired by battles and conquests.  Following the growth of Islam between the eighth and fourteenth century, Punjab saw the birth and progress of Sikhism during the fifteenth and sixteenth century, after which the Khalsa rule came in the eighteenth century.75 These all played a role in the development of Punjabi society.76 These events serve to explain the “interconnected phases of Punjab culture,” and clarify the “cultural exchange and conflation.”77 This was a period in Punjab during which religious “standards and conventions also underwent change.”78 Punjab experienced political transition during the time Waris Shah wrote his version of Hīr, as successor powers vied for control in a post-Mughal environment. The text's verses show the social and political environment within society in eighteenth century. Punjab was patriarchal in nature, and Waris Shah’s Hīr expresses this patriarchal structure. Men, particularly those in the religious realm, had great power in society and these positions were rarely available to women. It is important to note that the “tribal organization was the chief characteristic of society in medieval Punjab.”79 These tribes or Jat (farming/landowning) clans provided a highly male-controlled culture in the villages. The story of Hīr Rāṅjhā is based in front of the backdrop of three Jat groups or tribes, all of which were honorable in their villages.80                                                  75 I.S. Gaur, Society, Religion and Patriarchy: Exploring Medieval Punjab through Hīr Waris (New Delhi: Manohar, 2009). 34-35. 76 Ibid., 35. 77 Ibid. 78 Ibid., 36. 79 Ibid., 117. 80 Ibid.  18  0.4 Versions of the Hīr and Rāṅjhā Narrative The story of Hīr Rāṅjhā was well-embedded into the cultural history of Punjab prior to Waris Shah’s account, and was well known to Punjabis both in and out of the qissā context.  Long before the story of Hīr Rāṅjhā entered the literary ambit it existed within the margins of the religious and spiritual arena. The mention of Hīr Rāṅjhā can be traced back to Sikhism, by Hari Das Haria during the 1520s-50s, and Bhai Gurdas Bhalla in the 1550s-1635;81 however, it is important to note that these manuscripts are late. Bhai Vir Singh, a Punjabi writer of the modern period, portrayed Rāṅjhā as the tenth Guru in his writings.82  Bhai Vir Singh wrote during the nineteenth century, a period that saw great focus on religious reform in an environment that perceived religious threats. As a result, Bhai Vir Singh’s mention of Rāṅjhā was a personification of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, and through his writing the author expressed a longing for the Guru, who played a pivotal role in reforming and sustaining the religion throughout a period of threat from the Mughal Empire. Outside of the religious context, the story itself had other versions well before Waris Shah. According to Jeevan Deol, the first textual version of the entire story in written form was Hayat Jan Baqi Kolabi’s Masnavi Hīr o Rāṅjhā written in approximately 1581-85.83  This version was written in Persian, reinforcing Frances Pritchett’s claim that the initial qissās in Northern India were in Persian. The first edition of the story of Hīr to be shared in Punjabi was                                                81 Mir, 7. 82 Ibid., 160. 83 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 143. 19  of Damodar Gulati,84 likely in the late sixteenth century, during the rule of King Akbar.  Gulati’s version was soon followed by versions of Ahmad Gujjar and Muqbil.85 Nowhere is the mention of Hīr Rāṅjhā more evident than in the Sufi lyrical tradition, which is said to have come much before Waris Shah’s account of the qissā in the late eighteenth century. References of Hīr Rāṅjhā are found in the poetry of Sufi poet Shah Hussain from the 1530s to 1600,86 and some of the most popular references to Hīr Rāṅjhā till date in Punjabi are found in kāfīs of Bulleh Shah, whose writing had a profound impact on Punjabis. Again, it must be noted that all the manuscript evidence for these is late, from the nineteenth century. Most scholars have indeed interpreted the qissā to be a metaphor for Sufism,87 meaning that the love of the lovers in the qissā is a personification of divine love. A fine example of this symbolism present in Sufi poetry is the following kāfī from Bulleh Shah, in which Hīr is expressing her love for Rāṅjhā.  Uttering Rāṅjhā Rāṅjhā, I have become Rāṅjhā Call me Dhīdo Rāṅjhā, do not call me Hīr  Rāṅjhā is inside me and I in him, no other thought do I have There is no me, there is only him, he himself shows care for him  Whoever lives inside us, only they determine who we are With whom I have fallen in love with, like him I have become  In my hand a staff, buffaloes ahead of me, a coarse blanket on shoulders Take me to Takht Hazara, oh Bulleh, I cannot find shelter at Siyal. 88                                                84 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 143. 85 Ibid.  86 Mir, 160. 87 Ibid., 155. 88 rWJw rWJw krdI, hux mYN Awpy rWJw hoeI   20  As Mir argues, this particular kāfī of Bulleh Shah displays the essence of what it is to be a Sufi and what their objective is: the objective of Hīr in this poem is the same aim which Sufis have, which is “to be united with the beloved-God.”89   The texts by Damodar, Ahmad Gujjar, and Muqbil are the three primary texts of Hīr Rāṅjhā in qissā form in Punjab that predate that of the Waris Shah’s Hīr, although key differences are present in these versions. According to Jeevan Deol's analysis, Gujjar’s vilifies Hīr, as once she is married off against her will to Saida, the rich suitor her parents choose instead of Rāṅjhā, her character no longer plays any active role in the story.90 Relying on Deol’s analysis, one thing that distinguishes Ahmad Gujjar’s version from others is the fact that following the death of Hīr and Rāṅjhā, they live forever on the path of Mecca.91  Muqbil’s version is considered a critique of the Shari’ah, and speaks to the fundamental characteristics of Sufism.92                                                                                                                                                          sd`o mYnUM DIdo rWJw, hIr nw AwKo koeI  rWJw mYN ivc mYN rWJy ivc, ho i^Awl nw koeI  mYN nwhIN auh Awpy AwpxI, Awp kry idljoeI  jo koeI swfy AMdr v`sy, zwq AswfI soeI ijs dy nwl mYN nyhuM lgwieAw, Eho jyhI hoeI  h`Q KUMfI myry A`gy mMgU, moFy BUrw loeI q^q hzwry lY cl` bu`ilHAw, isAwlIN imly nw FoeI Christopher Shackle (ed.), Bullhe Shah Sufi Lyrics (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2015), 248. 89 Mir, 158. 90 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 145. 91 Ibid. 92 Ibid.  21  According to Shackle, Muqbil’s version is certainly the more “simpler eighteenth-century version” of Hīr Rāṅjhā,93 as it does not have the complexities that are presented by Waris Shah. Christopher Shackle has argued, the mullah in Muqbil’s version is described in a positive light, but this is in sharp contrast to the way Waris Shah portrays him.94 In Waris Shah’s version, the mullah is shown to be a “narrow bigot,”95 who taunts Rāṅjhā and expresses discontent on his appearance and morality.96 Furthermore, this section in Waris Shah’s text is, as Shackle has pointed out, “twice as long” as well.97 One of the most significant parts of the story of Hīr Rāṅjhā is when Rāṅjhā decides to become an ascetic, a yogi. Shackle argues that relative to Muqbil’s version, Waris Shah’s dedication to this particular part of the text offers “well over three times the number of lines.”98 Shackle further emphasizes that although Hīr Rāṅjhā is a love story, “less than half” of Shah’s version describes the romantic interactions between the two lovers.99 Waris Shah is more pre-occupied with developing the individual characters, explaining interactions between diverse characters, and discussing the changes and revelations that the characters undergo in the story.  0.5 Approach of the Thesis In his version of Hīr, Waris Shah offers his characters a variety of gender identities, through their actions, their personality, and their appearance. These identities are not always recognized or accepted by diverse characters in the story, and through their chastising of the characters, one                                                93 Shackle, “Transition and Transformation,” 247. 94 Ibid. 95 Ibid. 96 Ibid. 97 Ibid., 251. 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid., 256. 22  sees how particular gender identities can be accepted, and some can be regulated. Shah demonstrates through his characters that gender can be understood and interpreted in different ways, but that not all ways are deemed acceptable. In this way, Waris Shah's male and female characters demonstrate what the male and female norms are. This thesis utilizes the ideas of Judith Butler100 to understand how gender operates in the text to articulate multiple gender formations as well as different kinds of norms and their enforcement. Several key terms of Butler's will be used here. One of these is the idea of "reprimand."101 Shah uses reprimand and praise in his text towards the behavior of his main characters. Similar to how Butler claims that gender norms are made and enforced through the ‘police officer metaphor’, where one is reprimanded for certain types of behavior, and through praise, which is offered for behaviors that are socially accepted. Secondly, it shall be assessed, what kind of lifestyle for the characters leads to a “liveable” situation.102 Here, this involves exploring the various types of behaviors articulated through the plot, and identifying which are defined, in the text, are livable. Through these ideas we see both the multi-vocality of gendered formations in Waris Shah's text, and the limitations on that multi-vocality that are achieved through regulation and reprimand.                                                100 Judith Butler, Undoing Gender (New York: Routledge, 2004). And Judith Butler, Bodies that matter (New York: Routledge, 2011). 101 Butler, Bodies that matter, 82. 102 Butler, Undoing Gender. 23  Part I: Hīr In Part I shall introduce the model I conclude is most persuasive for the character of Hīr, one which addresses the shortcomings earlier scholars' understanding of her. Shah’s Hīr demonstrates a feisty and rebellious nature. She asserts herself to fight for what she wishes. Nonetheless, although she persistently battles to fulfill her objectives, she does not fight directly against the patriarchal culture around her, which she appears to be more than content to be a part of. She is not after social change; she is after love. This analysis allows us to understand what is both rebellious and conservative about Hīr's character.  Shah’s portrayal of Hīr is complicated by his portrayal of other women. Lastly, in the third chapter, I will show how Deol's and Gaur's attention to the character of Hīr, in isolation, limits our understanding of how Waris Shah constructs female characters in his work. The character of Sahiti, among others, is crucial for understanding the operation of gender in the work.  By looking beyond Hīr, and more carefully at Hīr herself, we see that Waris Shah is portraying the contradictory and complex nature of women's place in his world. Women in Hīr embrace available forms of power, through caste and class, however, when they challenge the social constructs of their gender, as created by their social context. This challenging of gender norms leads to their failure, as it did with Hīr, who was successful so long as she stayed within  the realm of what was considered socially acceptable, but where she stepped outside of that domain, society castigated her.    24  Chapter 1: Docile or Rebellious? Waris Shah introduces Hīr’s character as an exquisite beauty, with lengthy verses that stress the extent of her magnificence; however, he provides subtle suggestions within his verses of her rebellious nature, providing a foretelling the kind of role that she shall play in the story.  What can a poet say about Hīr, the moon’s beauty reflects on her forehead Her snakelike tresses like the night orbiting the moon, red skin tone like that of a star  Flower-like eyes like that of a deer, cheeks a sparkling rose Eyebrows appear as arches of Lahore, no end to the beauty Kohl beautifully situated around her eyes, like the marching armies of Punjab upon India She openly paces through the courtyard, as an intoxicated elephant of the emperor The fetching make-up on her face, like the calligraphy in a book The ones that have come with desire to see, they are so fortunate Seeing her would be so auspicious, Waris Shah it would be a great deed103  In describing Hīr, Shah presents a sarāpā, a “head-to-foot description of the heroine.”104 Jeevan Deol stresses that this initial description of Hīr is “everything that one would expect from a Persian sarāpā, plus a liberal sprinkling of distinctly Punjabi elements.”105 Shah describes Hīr’s forehead, and then delicately moves down her body, describing her eyes, her cheeks, and                                                103 kyhI hIr dI kry qwrI& Swier, m`Qy cmkdw husn mqwb dw jI KUnI cUMfIAW rwq ijauN cMn duAwly, surK rMg ijauN rMg Shwb dw jI nYx nrgsI imRg mmolVy dy, gl`HW tihkIAW Pu`l gulwb dw jI BvW vW| kmwn lhOr id`sx, koeI husn nw AMq ihswb dw jI surmW nYxW dI Dwr ivc` P`b irhw, ciVHAw ihMd qy ktk pMjwb dw jI KulHI iqRMjxW iv`c ltkdI hY, hwQI msq ijauN iPry nvwb dw jI ichry sohxy qy Kwl Kq bMdy, KuSKq ijauN hr& ikqwb dw jI ijhVy dyKxy dy rIJvwn Awhy, v`fw vwiedw iqnW dw bwb dw jI clo lYlqul kdr dI kro izAwrq, vwirs Swh iehu kMm svwb dw jI Sabir, P. 27, Verse 56. 104 Aditya Behl, Love’s Subtle Magic: An Indian Islamic Literary Tradition, 1379-1545, ed. Wendy Doniger (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), 23. 105 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 153.   25  the rest of her body. Deol is correct in recognizing the Punjabi elements in this description of Hīr, such as references to fruits, trees, and the Trinjan (Punjabi young women sitting together with spinning wheels in the courtyard) which resonate with a Punjabi audience. He argues that Shah has sexualized Hīr, confirmed through the sarāpā. In Shah’s second introductory verse describing Hīr she is sexualized by offering metaphors to describe her arms, her breasts, her lips, and her navel.   Red lips glittering like gems, chin an apple from overseas Nose sharp line Hussain’s sword, snake like tresses are treasures  Her teeth a string of pearls for swans, like seeds of a pomegranate The Jatti appears as a beautiful portrait, tall as a plant from heaven Neck of a swan and fingers like vegetables, hands cool as a leaf of the Chinaar tree Her arms are rolled butter, chest like fine marble A full chest like silk balls, like apples from the orchard Her navel fragranced by the heaven, her silk-like belly so special   Lips are red like bark, searches to kill those in the bazaar As attractive as the queen fairy, can be seen amongst thousands Walks around carefree, like deer out of a forest  Like the fairy from Lanka, Queen Indra, a beauty appears from the moon Walks dangling with desire, as the army marches from Kandhar A mannequin of China with features of a Roman, like a moon in the wilderness She comes walking smoothly, as a crane comes out of a flock Lovers that approach her, they escape the cutting edge of the sword The love of the girl speaks everywhere, like music playing from strings Galloping like the Qāzīlbash horsemen, running through the bazaars Oh Waris Shah when you place a bet on love, no one is spared in the gamble106                                                106 hoT sur^ XwkUq ijauN lwl cmkx, TofI syb ivlwieqI swr ivcoN nk` AlP husYnI dw ipplw sI, zulP nwg ^zwny dI bwr iv`coN dMd cMby dI lVI ik hMs moqI, dwxy inkly husn Anwr iv`coN ilKI cIn kSmIr qsvIr j`tI, kd` srU bihSq glzwr ivcoN grdn kUMj dI auNglW rvWh PlIAW, h`Q kUlVy brg icnwr ivcoN  26  Waris Shah’s introduction of Hīr is an exceedingly sexualized description, lathered with imagery and metaphors that endlessly discuss the various parts of her body in a suggestive fashion. Shah shows no restraint in describing Hīr through an erotic lens. Deol notes that “in his very first description of her, the poet introduces imagery which removes Hīr from the world of the chaste heroine and transforms her into a sexual being.”107 In the opening introduction of Hīr, Shah has provided the reader an indication as to the type of female protagonist he wishes to portray; one who was not going to be innocent or conservative. Examining the opening verse, one can ascertain, not only has Shah chosen to sexualize Hīr, but he has attempted to demonstrate she is not a girl that shall take a passive approach in exercising her sexuality or her desires, but rather, is cognizant of this fact and ready to execute her lust without restriction. Through his description of Hīr, Waris Shah confirms that not only is Hīr beautiful with great sex appeal, she is someone that is aware of this fact and boasts it in the locale.                                                                                                                                                        bwhW bylxy bylIAW guMinH m`Kx, CwqI sMg mrmr gMg Dwr ivcoN CwqI TwT dI au`BrI pt` KynUM syau bl^ dy cuxy AMbwr ivcoN DuMnI hOd bihSq dw muSk BwrI, pyfU mKmlI ^ws srkwr iv`coN  sur^I hoTW dI loVH dMdwsVy dw, Kojy KqrI kql bzwr iv`coN Swh prI dI BYx pMj – Pul rwxI, gu`JI rhy nw hIr hzwr iv`coN shIAW nwl ltkMdVI mwx – mq`I, ijvyN hrnIAW qRTIAW bwr iv`coN  lMkw bwg dI prI ik ieMdrwxI, hUr inklI cMd dI Dwr iv`coN iPry CxkdI cwau dy nwl j`tI, ciVHAw .gzb dw ktk kMDwr ivcoN puqlI cIKny dI qy nkS rUm vwly, l`Dw prI ny cMd aujwV ivcoN ievyN srkdI AWvdI loVH – lu`tI, ijvyN kUMj qur inkldI fwr iv`coN mQ`y Awx l`gx ijhVy BOr AwSk, inkl jwx qlvwr dI Dwr iv`coN ieSk boldw nF`I dy QwauN QweIN, rwgu inkly zIl dI qwr iv`coN kzl bwS Asvwr jl`wd U^nI, inkl dOiVAW auVd bzwr ivc`oN vwirs Swh jW nYxW dw dwau lg`y, koeI bcy nw jUey dI hwr iv`coN Sabir, P.28-29, Verse: 57. 107 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 154. 27  Shah has dedicated these sarāpās to introducing Hīr’s beauty. Shah does not allow her appearance to encompass who she is. Rather, he consciously gives Hīr arrogance, indicative of her rebelliousness. In the first sarāpā, he mentions she openly paces through the courtyard, as an intoxicated elephant of the emperor; this is a direct contrast to how in verse 111, Hīr is told by the qāzī (Muslim legal magistrate) that girls are supposed to sit obediently in the courtyard with their spinning wheels and occupy themselves with domestic chores, as roaming around outside does not suit girls of respectable families. In this verse below, the qāzī gives Hīr an extensive lesson on how girls belonging to Jat families are supposed to behave, outlining a clear gender role.     Sitting with your red spinning wheel, sing songs about the Chenab River Keep your eyes down in respect, all the elders request you Your father Oh Hīr, is the leader of this village Look at the honour of your parents; they are well to do Jats Roaming outside is not good for Jat girls, messengers are bringing proposals these days We are preparing for a wedding, as the Kheras are as well Oh Waris Shah in a few days, the Kheras marriage party shall come for you108   Through Shah’s initial description of Hīr, he is making his first attempt to allow the character of Hīr to effort to break down gender binaries and what is meant to be feminine. Shah is allowing his female protagonist to come outside of the domain of what is socially meant to be ‘feminine’                                                108 lwl crKVw fwih ky Cop pweIey, kyhy sohxy gIq JnWvdy nI nIvIN nzr ihXw dy nwl rhIey, qYnUM sB` isAwxy &urmWvdy nI cUck isAwl horIN hIry! jwxnI eyN, srdwr qy pYNc igrWv dy nI Srm mwipAW dI vl iDAwn krIey, ielw Swn Xy j`t sdWvdy nI bwhr iPrn nw soNhdw j`tIAW nUM, A`j klH lwgI Gr AWvdy nI eyQy ivAwh dy v`fy-smwn hoey, KyVy pey bxw bxWvdy nI vwirs Swh mIAW cMd roz AMdr, KyVy iml ky jM\ lY AWvdy nI Sabir, P.57, Verse: 111.  28  in the narrative. Shah’s verses introducing Hīr therefore are equally a reflection of her disposition. Shah is as interested in showing Hīr’s nature as he is in revealing her glamour. In contrast, Ishwar Gaur argues that Shah does not simply attempt to show that Hīr is beautiful and a typical object of sexual attraction through his usage of metaphors and similes; he believes Shah intends to describe Hīr’s “female rebellion.”109 As Deol himself highlights, woven into these verses are ample martial metaphors.110 For example, Hīr’s eyebrows appear as arches of Lahore and the kohl in her eyes like marching armies of Punjab. Through this, Shah offers a glimpse into Hīr’s disobedient and aggressive character; as Deol agrees, through them Shah “alludes to her determination.”111 Deol however suggests this “martial imagery” works as a “foreshadow of Hīr’s attacks” on other characters during the initial part of the story.112  Shah’s martial imagery is thus, a representation of Hīr’s feisty personality, which is trying to break down gender norms as presented by Hīr.  In his interpretation of Hīr, Gaur argues she is rebellious based on her resistance to characters representing religious and legal authority in the narrative. He bases his conclusions regarding Hīr’s behavior on the fact that she “does not adhere to the terms set by the ‘elders,’”113 in the context of who she is allowed to marry, or not marry. Gaur emphasizes that Hīr is ready to give her life in her battle to unite with Rāṅjhā,114 suggesting that she is steadfast in persistently pursuing her aims, and willing to be chastised for them if necessary. Hīr is anything but obedient and compliant, which are considered feminine traits according to the qāzī in verse 111, as he                                                109 Gaur, 199. 110 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 153.   111 Ibid. 112 Ibid.   113 Gaur, 207. 114 Ibid.  29  reiterates girls should keep their eyes down in respect.115 Gaur demands that we note the discussions that Hīr has with the qāzī prior to her marriage, which are against her will.116 He asserts that the magnitude of Hīr’s rebelliousness can be identified when “she assumes the role of adversary of the qāzī,”117 who is the legal authority in their religious tradition. During the time leading up to her marriage, Hīr is depicted confronting the qāzī on his actions, and is willing to engage in a religious debate on justifying her actions, a debate that she is shown as having the upper hand on winning.118 Gaur stresses that Hīr is a “rebel daughter” who is “determined to lead her revolt to the logical end,” not willing to compromise her desires or abides by any rules.119 Gaur sees Hīr as a character that “prefers to die on her feet than to live on her knees.”120  Jeevan Deol, in contrast, argues that Waris Shah’s Hīr is placed in “secondary position,” particularly in comparison to Shah’s predecessors, who were more generous in offering Hīr’s character a larger role within the story.121 Deol claims Shah’s Hīr “refuses to fit into the socially constructed image of the female,” yet stresses her character “demurely avoids conflict with social ideology.”122 Deol does not consider Hīr as playing an active role in the story, asserting she is a submissive character. Although Deol recognizes the use of martial imagery, and agrees that Hīr instigates a few attacks on other characters, he argues that following those limited attacks, “she becomes a largely passive character,”123 for which reason Deol also criticizes Shah for his                                                115 Sabir, P.57, Verse: 111. 116 Gaur, 208. 117 Ibid. 118 Ibid. 119 Ibid.  120 Ibid., 11. 121 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 152. 122 Ibid. 123 Ibid., 155. 30  portrayal of Hīr as being uncertain.124 Even for the attacks initiated by Hīr, Deol sees Hīr’s friends playing a more significant role, whereas Hīr’s part receives modest emphasis.125 Deol questions Hīr’s defiance, predominantly in the context of her debates with the qāzī, as he does not see Hīr as “forceful” in her exchanges at all, but rather, portrayed as taking a passive approach, reiterating “traditional discourses of love,”126 where she attempts to explain the love her and Rāṅjhā have for one another.  There are significant problems with Deol's characterization of Hīr as docile, behaving within the bounds of socials conventions. Deol stresses that Hīr is a “conventional romance heroine,”127 however, he does not make his criteria explicit as to what that is, and hence, I shall attempt to construct and summarize his position. Deol implies that Hīr and Rāṅjhā’s relationship is unequal and imbalanced, and influenced by the patriarchal climate in which the story develops. He interprets being overwhelmed by desire as evidence of female inferiority, which is interesting, and evidently, he downplays the instances of anger and violence.  Deol suggests Hīr’s character is “subdued,”128 and questions the equality of her relationship with Rāṅjhā, implying she plays a subordinate role to Rāṅjhā in the qissā. Deol concludes based on Hīr and Rāṅjhā’s initial meeting, where Hīr is first angry but after seeing Rāṅjhā is overwhelmed with desire for him as indicative of inequality in their relationship. His argument is left somewhat vague as he provides little or no evidence for his assertions. He is criticizing Shah, claiming “his                                                124 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 152. 125 Ibid., 155. 126 Ibid., 156. 127 Ibid., 152. 128 Ibid., 145. 31  characterization of Hīr is a deeply ambivalent one.”129 Deol erroneously claims that “Hīr’s companions play the major role in the attack on her uncle Kaido, and her part in the attack is not even mentioned,”130 failing to appreciate that it was an attack led by Hīr. Waris Shah demonstrates how Hīr plans the brutal attack, and through Hīr’s description of how to beat Kaido, he demonstrates the extent of her rage.   Hīr says take him into the closed space, put a rope in his neck With bats and oars of fishermen, completely assault him Grab him from his legs and waist, throw him into a pit Beat him, burn his hut, set ablaze his things and loot him Oh Waris Shah, tear off every hair in his beard131  Waris Shah illustrates how Hīr plans the vicious attack, and through Hīr’s description of how to beat Kaido, shows the extent of Hīr’s fury. Hīr is very specific about the manner in which she expects her friends to attack Kaido, and the verse demonstrates that Hīr’s anger is such, that she would not be satisfied by simply attacking Kaido, but wants to burn his home and belongings, in order to teach him a lesson for committing the mistake of thinking he could attempt to blemish her reputation and get away with it. Deol also does not consider that although Hīr led this attack against Kaido, she had already previously attacked him earlier in the text, when she had caught him spying on her and Rāṅjhā.                                                129 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 145. 130 Ibid., 155. 131 hIr AwiKAw vwV ky plHy AMdr, gl pw rs`w mUMh gu`t G`qo lY ky ku`qky qy ku`Fx mwCIAW dy, DVw DV hI mwr ky ku`t G`qo tMgoN pkV ky lk` iv`c pw j`PI, iksy tobVy dy iv`c su`t G`qo mwr eys nUM lwie ky A`g Ju`gI, swV bwl ky cIz sB lu`t G`qo vwirs Swh mIAW dwVHI iBMnVI dw, jo ko vwl id`sy sB`o pu`t G`qo Sabir, P. 74, Verse: 136.  32   Hīr caught up to him on the way, first deceitfully began talking to him She came close and roared like a beast, her eyes dripping with rage She took off his hat, broke his necklace, threw him to the ground from his waist She grabbed him and slammed him to the ground over her shoulder Oh Waris Shah, the angels from heaven have thrown this devil to the ground132  The way in which Hīr assaults Kaido for spying on her and Rāṅjhā gives a stunning visual of the wrathful nature of Hīr. She is depicted by Shah as a girl that becomes furious when she realizes that someone dared to cross her. The manner in which she is assaulting Kaido is also revealing, as Shah describes her body slamming Kaido over her shoulder, a maneuver which is used by men in traditional Punjabi wrestling. Through this graphic battering by Hīr’s character, Shah depicts her trying to fracture the gender constructions that surround her.  Kaido was spying on Hīr and Rāṅjhā whilst they were together, yet, Shah chooses to have Hīr’s character attack him in this brutal manner, instead of Rāṅjhā. This is a point to be noted, as Hīr is showed as more proud, aggressive and violent in this scene, a sharp contrast to Rāṅjhā who chooses not to do anything.   Deol continues his argument by claiming that when Hīr debates the qāzī, who is threatening her to marry according to the will of her parents, she “is not willing (or perhaps not able) to engage the qāzī on his own terms.”133 I assume what Deol is trying to argue is that she                                                132 imlI rwh iv`c Aw nF`I, pihly nwl Pryb dy ci`tAw sU nyVy Awx ky SINhxI vWgu gj`I, AK`IN roh dw nIr pli`tAw sU isroN lwih topI, gloN qoiV sylHI, lk`oN cwie zmIn qy si`tAw sU pkV zmIN qy mwirAw nwl gu`sy, DobI pt`Vy qy Kys Ci`tAw sU vwirs Swh &irSiqAW ArS auqoN, ies SYqwn nUM izmIN qy si`tAw sU Sabir, P. 43-44, Verse: 87.  133 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 156. 33  does not challenge the qāzī to a greater extent, or more wrathfully defy what he is saying. Deol appears to have overlooked the forceful rhetoric of Hīr, as she dismantles the qāzī’s argument:  The heart of the believer is God’s throne, do not break that qāzī Where Dhīdo and I have reached, the Kheras have no place there I have climbed into the slingshot of love, from where I cannot be lowered For which life should I sell my faith, all shall die in the end As there is no Pir among illiterates, there are no Kings among Liddhars134  Not only does Hīr engage in the acrimonious debate with the qāzī, but speaks to him in a disdainful fashion, having the audacity to educate him on religion and claiming there is no way that she would consider backing away from Rāṅjhā. Hīr’s character is also making an argument about the place of love. She is giving her love for Rāṅjhā the highest status possible, overriding her life, society, and family traditions. Instead of demonstrating a timid approach in front of the qāzī, Hīr defends her love for Rāṅjhā, arguing that it is non-negotiable, and refuses to turn away from Rāṅjhā. Hīr is bringing her and Rāṅjhā’s love within the sphere of something divine. Far from being docile, Hīr is defiant as she is portrayed providing a religious justification for her actions. Hīr demonstrates she shall not conform to any standard of obedience, and in doing so exemplifies the essence of rebelliousness.  Mother! God sent this servant to our home, you are blessed from above To find a man like him, the whole world prays to God                                                 134 klUb -Almomn ArS Al`wh qwlw, kwzI ArS ^udw dw Fwh nwhIN ij`Qy rWJy dy ieSk mukwm kIqw, auQy KyiVAW dI koeI vwh nwhI eyhI cVHI gulyr mYN ieSk vwlI, ij`Qy hor koeI cwVH lwh nwhIN iks jIvxy kwn eImwn vycW, eyhw kOx jo AMq &nwh nwhIN ijvyN rMGVW ivc nw pIr koeI, Aqy il`DVW ivc pwdSwh nwhIN Sabir, P. 117, Verse: 208.  34  Whatever God has desired is occurring, why do you blame me mother The wise have said to the nation, do not bare swords, women and love You should not mock the people of God, who have coloured their clothes in dust Those who carry the load of love, Oh Waris, are not shy of anything135  Living in a highly male-controlled patriarchal society, Hīr chooses to rebel, the consequences for which would be calamitous. This is evident from the response from Hīr’s father, Chuchak, to Hīr’s mother, Malki, when he realizes their daughter has become romantically involved with Rāṅjhā, who herds their buffaloes. Chuchuk says Malki, we should have strangled her at birth You did not give her poison, which is why we get this response today136  Waris thus depicts Hīr living in a setting where girls play a subordinate role to men. Demonstrated by Hīr’s father’s response to her actions, it is a social context in which female infanticide occurred, and an environment where sons were preferred. This intense reference from Hīr’s father, Chuchak, also depicts a setting which severely limits the ability of women to participate in religion, especially non-domestic religious vocations. This is described by Shah in verse 111, where the qāzī tells Hīr to obediently stay home and occupy herself with domestic chores, as roaming around outside does not suit girls of respectable families.                                                135 mwey! rb` ny cwk Gr G`ilAw sI, qyry hox nsIb jy DuroN cMgy eyho ijhy jy AwdmI h`Q Awvx, swro mulk hI r`b QIN duAw mMgy ijhVy rb` kIqy kMm ho rhy, swnUM mwauN ikauN .gYb dy dyieM pMgy kul isAixAW mulk nUM mq` id`qI, qyg, imhrIAW, ieSk nw kro nMgy nhIN CyVIey rb` idAW pUirAW nUM, ijnHW k`pVy ^wk dy iv`c rMgy  ijnHW ieSk dy mwmly isrIN cwey, vwirs Swh nw iksy QIN rihx sMgy Sabir, P. 48, Verse: 96. 136 cUck AwKdw mlkIey jMmdI nUM, gl Gu`t ky kwhy nw mwirE eI  Gu`tI iek dI Gol nw idqIAw eI, Eho A`j soAb inqwirE eI Sabir, P. 49, Verse: 98. 35   Look at the honour of your parents; they are well to do Jats Roaming outside is not good for Jat girls, messengers are bringing proposals these days137  Through the qāzī’s comments, Shah is providing an explicit indication of the social setting in which Hīr finds herself, and what is expected from her. Here, there is a strong contrast made between the courtyard/home and the ‘outside.’ A girl is not supposed to “roam”, and is expected to stay home and control her gaze. The expectations from parents and society is that she obediently follow the wishes of her parents and expel any hopes of following her own wishes, as doing so would be against their honour. However, Hīr’s disregard for her parents’ wishes demonstrates her defiance and rebelliousness nature. She exhibits no hesitation in quarrelling with her mother, who expresses discontent with her disobedience. Mother! Stop this swearing, it is a sin to give swears The woman is the source of divine, killing daughters invites a curse Take me as I am a disgrace, to a place which is evil  Oh Waris Shah, I shall not leave Rāṅjhā, even if my father, grandfather, or great-grandfather say138  Deol bases his assertion that Hīr is submissive on her initial encounter with Rāṅjhā, and how that is illustrated in verse by Waris Shah. Christopher Shackle has an alternative and more plausible interpretation of this scene in comparison to Deol, who argues that Hīr is portrayed as a                                                137 Srm mwipAW dI vl iDAwn krIey, ielw Swn Xy j`t sdWvdy nI bwhr iPrn nw soNhdw j`tIAW nUM, A`j klH lwgI Gr AWvdy nI Sabir, P.57, Verse: 111.  138 AMmW! bs` kr gwlHIAW dyie nwhI, gwlIN id`iqAW v`fVw pwp Awvy nIauN rb` dI pt`xI KrI AOKI, DIAW mwirAW v`fw srwp Awvy lY jwih mYN BIVw-ipt`nI nUM, koeI .gYb dw sUl ky qwp Awvy vwirs Swh nw muVW rMJytVy QoN, Bwvy bwp dy bwp dw bwp Awvy Sabir, P.72, Verse: 132.  36  passive and submissive character by nature. Shackle argues that passage reflects a broader tradition whereby the “poet-heroine is always the suffering human seeker after divine love,” and “the hero-beloved always either the Divine Bridegroom or His earthly representatives.”139 Shackle’s interpretation demonstrates that the scenes in which Hīr is depicted as submissive are more a representation of Sufi elements, and do not disqualify her from her portrayal as an aggressive and defiant girl by nature. Shackle shows Hīr is a Sufi text, but although the characters might be symbolic of Sufism, that does not encompass their entire personality. Based on the following verse, Shackle’s conclusion of Hīr representing the human that is suffering to unite with her love and Rāṅjhā being a representation of the divine does garner some support.  My dear, Hīr, the bed, everything is yours, I give all this life to you I did not swear I plead with you; I did not touch or hit you I plead and fall at your feet; I have given up all for you I come and salute you, why are you acting indifferent No peace in the Trinjan now, having met the Divine Oh Waris who can bother those, for whom God is there140  In isolation, this verse exemplifies an expression of Hīr where she can be construed as being subordinate to Rāṅjhā. Its meaning changes if taken in broader terms. Gaur supports Shackle’s                                                139 Shackle, “Transition and Transformation,” 245. 140 AjI hIr r`qy plMG sB QwauN qyry, Gol GiqauN jIAVw vwirAw eI nhIN gwlH k`FI h`Q jOVnI hW, h`Q lwie nwhIN qYnUM mwirAw eI AsIN imnqW krW qy pYr pkVW, qYQoN GoilAw kOVmw swirAw eI AsIN h`s ky Awx slwm kIqw, AwK kws nUM mkr pswirAw eI suMny pry hYN iqRM\xIN cYn nwhI, A`lHw vwilAW do swnUM qwirAw eI vwirs Swh SrIk hY kOx aus dw, ijs dw r`b ny kMm svwirAw eI Sabir, P. 32-33, Verse: 63.  37  assertion, identifying Shah’s Hīr is a “sufic quest for mystical union with Allah,”141 claiming the characters of Hīr and Rāṅjhā are representations of God and devotee, and that the “entire text is steeped in the non-conformist ambience of Sufism and the bhakti traditions that confronted religious patriarchs such as the qāzī and the mullah,”142 for which there are clear indications, principally the manner in which Hīr and Rāṅjhā confront immoral religious/legal authorities, such as the mullah and qāzī. This is seen by Gaur as a component of her overall rebelliousness. Hīr is portrayed as challenging the religiously orthodox qāzī, who not only advices her but threatens her to do as her parents and religion demands, and to marry a boy of the same social class as her and stay far away from Rāṅjhā. Hīr defends her love for Rāṅjhā and uses religious justifications in the process, all of which only further infuriate the qāzī who simply amplifies his threats, none of which have any impact upon Hīr whatsoever, who sees Rāṅjhā in a divine light. From this standpoint Gaur’s argument does have some support, since Waris Shah’s version undeniably has Sufi elements scattered throughout the text. Shackle’s argument of Hīr Rāṅjhā representing Sufi features provides an explanation as to why Hīr is depicted by Shah as submissive on occasion. This provides an alternative to Deol, who claims she is a submissive character in general, by supporting the assertion that she is a rebellious character by nature, as Gaur argues, but is portrayed by Shah as submissive at times to reflect the Sufi elements of the qissā.   Although Hīr is portrayed as submissive at times to reflect the Sufi aspects of the text, her character’s behavior towards Rāṅjhā overall is not consistently submissive. Hīr does not simply                                                141 Gaur, 106. 142 Ibid. 38  admire and adore Rāṅjhā as a hapless devotee as Deol suggests, but expresses resentment towards him, evidenced in the verse below, where the two lovers are angry with each other due to misunderstandings, and Hīr is attempting to disguise Rāṅjhā and bring him into her home. Their argument appears petty, anything but divine:   Hīr stated, disguise him as a girl and bring him here Keep him hidden from my parents, and do not tell anybody If he argues with me face to face, you judge who is right and wrong Who is right shall be free, and the other shall be chastised  I tried telling that fool, do not waste time, elope with me He did not listen to me, now why is he lamenting Oh Waris Shah, time is such that it cannot be stopped by a prophet143  As mentioned in the verse, Hīr also refers to him as a fool for not recognizing the timely opportunity and eloping with her when they had the chance. The image of Hīr as a devotee of Rāṅjhā and being a rebel co-exist, as she is depicted as someone who is devoted to Rāṅjhā, and claims that he has been sent from heaven for her, and concurrently, she is rebelling with all others around her who are attempting to prevent her from being with him.                                                  143 hIr AwiKAw, Es nUM kuVI krky, bu`kl iv`c lukw ilAwieAw jy myry mwauN qy bwp QIN kro prdw, gl` iksy nw mUl suxwieAw jy Awhmo-swhmxw Awie ky kry JyVw, qusIN munsP hoie mukwieAw jy jyhVy hox s`cy soeI Cu`t jwsx, fn JUiTAW nUM qusIN lwieAw jy mYN AwK Q`kI aus kmlVy nUM, lY ky auT cl, vkq GuswieAw jy myrw AwKxw Es nw kMn kIqw, hux kws nUM fuskxw pwieAw jy vwirs Swh mIAW eyh vkq Gu`Qw, iksy pIr nUM h`Q nw AwieAw jy  Sabir, P.102, Verse: 184.   39  Chapter 2: Hīr’s Status and the Question of Intersectionality Waris Shah describes Hīr as galloping like the Qāzīlbash horsemen, Turkman warriors from the Persian region during the early modern period.144 The confidence Hīr exuberates is very much due to her social class, a position she is very contented in. This adds another layer of complexity to the portrayal of Hīr. Both Deol and Gaur do not recognize that Waris Shah’s martial images speak not only to Hīr’s character but also to her social power, because that is from where she derives her aggressiveness. Her social place has given her a sense of entitlement, and a launching pad to argue for her choices and desires. Shah depicts Hīr as feisty, unwavering, and at times arrogant as well. She has been represented as a girl that does not adhere to social norms. As Gaur has argued, Hīr was within the confines of a patriarchal society that limited her control, and the only way for her to exercise her desires was through rebelling; however, Gaur does not appreciate that although Hīr does choose to rebel, she does not rebel against the social structure as a whole. She claims her high status in her rebellion. Hīr is not simply challenging patriarchal society, but rather triggering the privilege she feels she has claim to. Gaur thus inaccurately concludes that Hīr “initiated a personal struggle against the feudal patriarchal class to which she herself belonged,”145 when in actual fact what Hīr is doing is articulating her desires within it.  The very social framework of the culture Hīr challenges is one that she herself is proud of. The patriarchal culture she was born in offers her power and status that she is very cognizant of, and those around her are aware of this as well, in particular her close friends. We see this when Hīr first encounters Rāṅjhā. When she learns Rāṅjhā has slept upon her bed in her boat,                                                144 Francis Robinson, The Mughal Emperors And The Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran And Central Asia, 1206-1925 (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2007), 183. 145 Gaur, 195. 40  she is furious and reiterates her status and heritage.146 She is enraged at the fact that someone would have the audacity to sleep on her bed, given her status.  Youth is wild under Chuchak’s rule, I have no care for anyone I shall pull and throw him of the bed, where has this king come from147  Hīr is thus as a portrayed as being proud of her heritage and her status, for which reason she unabashedly asks Rāṅjhā his social class when she first meets him. Which is your country, what is your father’s name, and what is your caste?148  Hīr’s consciousness of her social standing and its importance is only enhanced when, after their initial meeting, where she challenges him, she remains curious about Rāṅjhā’s caste and social background, to ensure that the boy that she is falling in love with shares the same status and heritage that she is so proud of. Later, when Kaido deceives her and informs everyone of Hīr’s affair with Rāṅjhā, leading to disrespect towards the family in the village, her friends appeal to her sense of inflated pride, which results in Hīr leading a brutal attack on Kaido.  Hīr’s friends immediately, told the story in her ear Kaido condemns you of being with a servant, and is announcing it The devil is beating this drum openly in the bazaar If this action goes unanswered, then how can you call yourself Hīr149                                                146 Gaur, 195. 147 juAwnI kmlI rwj hY cUcky dw, Avy iksy dI kI prvwh mYnUM mYN qW DrUh ky plMG qoN cwie s`tW, AwieAw ikDroN ieho bWdSwh mYnUM Sabir, P.30, Verse: 59. 148 kOx vqn qy nwm ikAw sWeIAW vy, Aqy jwq dw kOx sdwvnw hYN Sabir, P.34, Verse: 65.  41  Hīr is a proud and arrogant girl that takes her reputation and status seriously, and anyone who endangers this status, she deals with swiftly. This led to Hīr leading her friends to assaulting Kaido, burning his home, and dismantling his positions.  Hīr’s neglect for her family’s honor ignites the wrath of her father, who is shown regretting not murdering Hīr at birth, in verse 75. As we saw described by the qāzī in verse 111 above, girls were expected to stay at home and act in accordance with the wishes of their parents. Girls were to respect their elders and not roam around, particularly when suitors were coming to the house. This concept of honor is a central notion in the story, and the reason why Hīr’s family rationalizes killing her in the end, instead of allowing her to be with Rāṅjhā. Honour and shame was connected to daughters.  The Siyals met together to discuss, respectable men guard their honour Friends! It is a well-known fact, Hīr has given us a bad name There shall be no honour left, if the girl is sent with the buffalo herder Strikes of the tongue, shame from a daughter, mistakes of youth lead to dishonour150  Hīr’s social power allows her to seek what she wants, yet paradoxically, what she has to battle to achieve what she wishes is that same power structure that grants her status. To fully                                                                                                                                                        149 ik`sw hIr nUuM qurq shylIAW ny, jwie kMn dy iv`c suxwieAw eI qYnUM myhxw cwk dw dyie kYdo, iv`c prHy dy Sor mcwieAw eI vWg Fol hrwm SYqwn dy nI, f`gw iv`c bzwr dy lwieAw eI eyhu gl` jy jwsI A`j KwlI, qYN hIr ikauN nwauN sdwieAw eI Sabir, P.73, Verse: 135. 150 isAwlW bYT ky sQ` ivcwr kIqI, Bly AwdmI gYrqW pwldy jI Xwro! gl` mShUr jhwn au`qy, swnUM myhxy hIr isAwl dy jI p`q rhygI nw jy tor idqI, nF`I nwl muMfy mhINvwl dy jI Pt` jIB dy, kwlKW bytIAW dI, AYb jvwnI dy myhxy kwl dy jI Sabir, P.405, Verse: 622. 42  understand her position, an intersectional analysis is required. "Intersectionality" “describe[s] intersection among identity categories” and “capture[s] interrelations among a complex of other variables.”151 Vivian M. May discusses the feminist and race movements, and how white women receive privileges which are not available to black woman, demonstrating “‘white feminists’ troubling loyalty (conscious or unconscious) to race supremacy.”152 White and/or economically privileged woman do play a role in fighting for women's rights, and in Hīr’s case it is class that affords her status. However, unless they do so with a specific consciousness of race and class, they do so within the domain of their privileged role of being white and/or economically privileged.  The impact of an intersectional analysis is necessary for understanding all forms of relative exploitation and hierarchy.  To take the analysis further, for example, Carole Pateman and Charles Mills question, when discussing the issue of exploitation and black Americans, whether or not black Americans benefit from being American citizens globally?153 Blacks do experience exploitation at the national level themselves, in particular because of their history, they argue. However, they are undeniably also beneficiaries of global relationships the United States has with other nations, through which the United States exploits other nations.154 We cannot understand any one position, therefore, until we understand the matrix of social positions that such a position stands in relation to.                                                151 Anna G. Jonasdottir, Valerie Bryson, and Kathleen B. Jones, eds., Sexuality, Gender and Power (New York: Routledge, 2011), 1. 152 Vivian M. May “Intellectual Genealogies, Intersectionality, and Anna Julia Cooper,” in Feminist Solidarity at the Crossroads: Intersectional Women’s Studies for Transracial Alliance, eds. Kim Marie Vaz and Gary L. Lemons (New York: Routledge, 2012), 63. 153 Carole Pateman and Charles W. Millls, “Contract Theory and Global Change: The Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class,” in Sexuality, Gender, and Power, eds. Anna G. Jonasdottir, Valerie Bryson, and Kathleen B. Jones (NewYork: Routledge, 2011), 116. 154 Pateman and Millls, 116. 43  Waris Shah’s Hīr is portrayed within a society where she and other women in general were expected to conform to a standard of a dutiful wife, sister, or daughter; nonetheless these women also at times benefited from the same social structure that at times exploited them. Therefore, Hīr is anything but simple. To understand her in intersectional terms, May suggests, “necessitates engaging with a multidimensional sense of self.”155 As we see in the privilege enjoyed by white women even as they fight for their rights as women (which are denied them), or even by racialized persons in the USA vis-a-vis those in countries exploited by the USA, power is enacted in diverse and differential ways. The Hīr we see in Waris Shah's text fights for her rights to choose who she wants to marry, something seldom an option in the patriarchal society she is portrayed as living in. Yet, Hīr does so while drawing on the privileges associated with the socially superior class that she is born into. Therefore, she cannot be credited, as Gaur does, for attempting to dismantle the patriarchal society that she is part of, as she does not appear to have an issue with her status, but rather, utilizes it to her benefit.  By nature Hīr demonstrates her rebellious personality, however, since she has been granted her power through her family and society, she is also in some terms accepting of the social structure, and chooses to comply at times to preserve the authority she has in society.  Deol’s argument of Hīr’s docility is therefore, not completely dismissed.  Deol interprets Hīr's behavior as a form of submission, delinking it from her negotiation of her status.  It is in these terms that Hīr is portrayed as eventually following her family’s direction and marrying whom they have chosen for her.                                                  155 May, “Intellectual Genealogies,” 60. 44  My dear Rāṅjhā, I tried my best, but I was helpless The qāzī, parents, brothers sent me away, our relationship is over156  The social structure that privileged Hīr is one that she could not completely abandon, and hence married who her family chose for her. So while Hīr is rebellious and arrogant, she is docile concurrently, as this enables her to retain her social power.  Thus while Hīr does dare to rebel, she also does not abandon the benefits of her aristocratic lineage. This is why she reveals a sense of apprehension in breaking social obligations. She initially encourages Rāṅjhā to elope with her, but later demonstrates a hesitation and does not accept his proposal due to the fact that she wishes to do what is socially acceptable.157  Hīr said if I go like this, women shall say an eloped girl has come 158  Hīr wishes for Rāṅjhā to come and take her away following marriage, since that is the more socially acceptable outcome.  An intersectional analysis thus allows us to reconcile the seeming contradictions between Gaur's and Deol's interpretations of Hīr. Hīr’s obstinate nature is therefore partially indicative of her social class, as she considers herself the Hīr of Siyals, bold and audacious to do as she wishes, and relentless against those who stand in her way. Hīr’s class privilege is consequently in many ways the basis for her rebellion, making her discourse one of privilege. She is not arguing                                                156 lY vy rWiJAw vwh mY lwie Qk`I, swfy v`s QIN gl` byv`s hoeI kwzI, mwipAW, zwilmW bMnH torI, swfI qYNfVI dosqI Bs` hoeI Sabir, P.124, Verse: 221.  157 Gaur, 195. 158 hIr AwiKAw, ievyN jy jw vVsW, rMnW AwKsx, auD`lI AweIeyN nI Sabir, P.400, Verse: 615.  45  for a broad social revolution, but is endeavoring to attain her ambitions, and in doing so challenges to use the social structure to her advantage.              46  Chapter 3: The Relevance of Sahiti One assessment of Deol that appears partially accurate is the amount of time that has been dedicated to Hīr in Waris Shah’s version, compared to earlier versions.159 He argues that his predecessor, Muqbil, provided a depiction of Hīr that was much more “comprehensive” and Ahmad Gujjar allows Hīr to “dominate” the first part of the story.160 Shah does spend part of the first half of the story dedicated to demonstrating who Hīr is, whether that is through her encounters with the qāzī, Luddan the boatman, or interactions with her parents in regards to her relationship with Rāṅjhā. There is conversely, relatively limited narrative on the relationship between the two lovers. This assertion is supported by Shackle, who stresses that “less than half” of Waris Shah’s version describes the Hīr and Rāṅjhā’s love story and when Hīr was married to Saida against her wishes.161 Relative to previous versions, Shah's version contains fewer scenes that play a key part in Hīr’s life and character development. Even though Waris Shah has limited the portrayal of Hīr in his qissā, this does not mean that he has not dedicated his story to other female characters. Sahiti, the sister-in-law of Hīr, who has largely been neglected by Gaur and Deol in assessing the qissā, represents a tenacious young woman. Through her, Shah continues his representation of the rebellious girl in the qissā, one who challenges all those around her, while comfortable within the social structure in which she was born.  Pankaj Singh argues Sahiti’s “has been the loudest and most aggressive voice contesting the idle, impatient, intolerant, egoistical, quarrelsome, boastful imposter” Rāṅjhā, and                                                159 Deol, “Sex, Social Critique,” 152.   160 Ibid. 161 Shackle, “Transition and Transformation,” 256. 47  has been presented by Shah as “Fearless and ingenious.”162 Shackle correctly identifies that in Shah’s version, Rāṅjhā has “an immensely extended confrontation” with Sahiti.163 A substantial part of the latter half of Shah’s version is dedicated to Rāṅjhā's confrontation with Sahiti, who is portrayed as being even more full-blooded and vigorous than Hīr at times. As Anne Murphy notes, the dialogues between Sahiti, Rāṅjhā and Hīr “comprises a major component of the narrative: 60 verses, with the scene continuing with further conflict among Hīr, Sahiti, and Rāṅjhā for more than 50 additional verses.”164 Murphy considers Sahiti to be the “the real heroine of the text,” based on the fact that “hers is a strong independent voice,” in the narrative.165 Sahiti, is portrayed as not only holding her own against her sister-in-law Hīr, but depicted as overshadowing her in the argument, evident from when Sahiti enters an argument with Hīr, following a confrontation with Rāṅjhā.   I shall die, and I’ll kill him, and I’ll kill you sister-in-law I’ll weep aloud when my brother comes, and get you beaten I’ll tell my brother about you and that servant, and your past antics You’ll be killed as will the yogi; I’ll spread your dress on the ground As Sita had done to the Raavan, I’ll do such a calamity  I am woman only if I get you kicked out the house, and unite with Baloch Murad I’ll cut off both your heads, and put them in this bowl                                                162 Pankaj K. Singh, Re-Presenting Woman: Tradition, Legend and Panjabi Drama (Nivas, Shimla: The Deputy Secretary Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 2000), 63. 163 Shackle, “Transition and Transformation,” 258. 164 Anne Murphy, “Sufis, Jogis, and the question of religous difference: Individualization in early  modern Punjab through Waris Shah's Hīr,” for a multi-volume edited work that compiles  research conducted in multi-year project on religious individualization at the Max-Weber-Kolleg Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Universität Erfurt, 28. 165 Anne Murphy, "At a Sufi-Bhakti Crossroads: Gender formations in early modern Punjabi Sufi  Literature," submitted to Archiv orientální (Journal of African and Asian Studies), special  issue on Bhakti and literature. 48  Oh Hīr, take care of yourself, I’ll rid you of your intoxication tonight I’ll beat you and have you beaten, dragged out the house from your hair Oh Waris, you’ll be tied from your legs, and your limbs shall be struck166  One of the reasons that Sahiti is depicted as being successful in the story is that she is portrayed by Shah as not challenging social order. She is cognizant of her social role and her social surroundings. As shown in the verse above, she threatens Hīr that she shall tell her brother on her, and she shall suffer dire consequences. Through the verse, Shah is trying to show that Sahiti is knowledgeable about the power that is held by men in the pastoral climate, and how she utilizes that power to her advantage.  The wrath of Sahiti is evident from her encounter with Hīr. She unabashedly challenges Hīr and threatens both her and Rāṅjhā explicitly, and following their argument, it is Hīr who eventually comes to Sahiti for forgiveness.  As students go to a teacher, Hīr goes to Sahiti Forgive all my mistakes, if you do, I fall at your feet God so often forgives sins, there are many men filled with sins Waris comes to facilitate, helping me reconcile with you167                                                166 ieky mrWgI mYN ieky eys mwrW, ieky BwbIey quD mrwiesW nI rovW mwr Bu`bW BweI AwauNdy Qy, qYnUM Kwh-mKwh kutiesW nI cwk lIk lweI qYnUM imly BwbI, gl`W ipClIAW k`F suxwiesW nI ieky mwrIey qUM ieky hyT jogI, eyho G`grI cw ivCwiesW nI sIqw dihsry nwl jo gwh kIqw, koeI vfw kmMf pvwiesW nI rn qwhIN jy GroN kFw qYnUM, mYN murwd bloc hMfwiesW nI isr eys dw v`F ky Aqy qyrw, eys TUTy dy nwl rulwiesW nI  rK` hIry qUM AwpxI jmHw Kwqr, qyrI rwq nUM BMg JVwiesW nI kutwiesW Aqy mrwiesW nI, gu`qoN DrU ky GroN kFwiesW nI vwirs koloN BMnw tMgwiesW nI, qyry ilMg sB cUr krwiesW nI Sabir, P.179-180, Verse: 444.  167 ijvyN murSdW pws jw Fihx qwilb, iqvyN ishqI dy pws nUM hIr hyry  49  Sahiti’s aggressive nature plays a key role in determining the direction of the story.  Her defiance and inability to retreat led her to planning the escape of Hīr and Rāṅjhā, as well as that of her and her lover, Murad.168 She is depicted by Shah as the character that battles aggressively, but also finds a way to succeed under any circumstance; this is confirmed by the fact that unlike Hīr and Rāṅjhā, Sahiti “does not meet a tragic end,” as she is depicted as someone who is able to “transcend the repressive social order.”169 Shah depicts Sahiti as running away with the man she loves, rather than consistently battling to unite with him while living in society. Through Sahiti, Shah is demonstrating the only way in which love can triumph within the social climate presented in the story, since battling for it within that social setting would lead to a tragic end, as it did for Hīr and Rāṅjhā.  Sahiti also, like Hīr, relies upon her sense of her social class in articulating her status. Waris Shah has limited the role of Hīr in the second half, however, has presented a lengthy part of Sahiti. She shares many similarities with Hīr; particularly that she is also a character that derives her power from her social class. Sahiti makes this clear from when she is first introduced in the story.  Rāṅjhā asks who is this girl; [girls reply] she is the daughter of Ajjoo [Sahiti enters and replies] Who are Ajjoo, Bajjoo, Chajjoo, Fajjoo, and Kajjoo Oh Waris Shah, it is the sister-in-law of Hīr, daughter of the King of the Kheras170                                                                                                                                                        krIN sB` qksIr muAwP swfI, pYrIN pvW jy mMnIey nwl myry bKSy in`q gunwh Kudw sc`w, bMdy bhuq gunwh dy Bry byVy vwirsSwh mnwvVw AsW AWdw, swfI sulHw krWvdw nwl qyry Sabir, P. 300, Verse: 472. 168 Singh, 63. 169 Ibid. 170 rWJy pu`iCAw kOx hY eyh n`FI, DI A`jU dI kweI cw AwhuMdI hY AujU bj`U Cj`U, Pj`U Aqy k`jU huMdw kOx hY, qW A`goN AwauNdI hY  50  Through her entrance in the story, she swiftly reminds everyone that she is the daughter of the chief and the village. She is proud of her social status, and this is evident when Sahiti engages in a rancorous argument with Rāṅjhā. Murphy stresses that she “challenges Rāṅjhā in all things, arguing at multiple instances on behalf of women,”171 and uses both historical and social examples to counter his critique of women.172  We have drunk all magic potions, and make crazy the magician  We have contained the likes of Raja Bhoj, you do not know our capabilities Kings jail their own brothers, allowing brothers-in-law to rule Look at the ordeal we gave Rasalu, using our cunning ways Raavan lost his Lanka and became dust, for disguising himself for Sita Yusef was thrown in prison as a prisoner; Sassi tormented those who came on camels Rāṅjhā became a buffalo herder, then a fakir, but the Kheras took Hīr Roda was cut in pieces and thrown in the river, just look at Jalali’s tricks King Fogoo suffered all his life, Marvan became of the servants What happened to Mahinwal and Sohni, just ask those failed in love The Pandavas lost eighteen battles, earned nothing as a result Woman made the Imamzadeh fight, killed the religious ones Oh Waris Shah, who are you yogi, you shall make a payment173                                                                                                                                                        vwirsSwh innwx hY hIr sMdI, DI auh KyiVAW dy bwdSwhuM dI hY Sabir, P.195-196, Verse: 326.  171 Murphy, “Sufis, Jogis,” 28. 172 Sabir, P.220-221, Verse 359. 173 AsIN jwdUAVy Gol ky sB pIqy, krW bwvry jwdUAW vwilAW nUM rwjy Boj ijhy kIqy cw GoVy, nhIN jwxdw swifAW cwilAW nUM sk`y BweIAW nUM krn nPr rwjy, Aqy rwj bhwldy swilAW nUM isrkp` rswlU nUM vKq pwieAw, G`q mkr dy rOilAW rwilAW nuMU M rwvx lMkw lutwieky grd hoieAw, sIqw vwsqy ByK idKwilAW nUM  XUs& bMid iv`c pw zhIr kIqw, ss`I vKq pwieAw aUTW vwilAW nUM rWJw cwr ky mhIN &kIr hoieAw, hIr imlI jy KyiVAW swilAW nUM  rofw v`F ky fkry ndI pwieAw, qy jlwlI dy dyK lY cwilAW nUM PogU aumr bwdSwh Kvwr hoieAw, imlI mwrvx Fol dy rwilAW nUM mhINvwl qUM sohxI rhI eyvyN, hor pu`C lY ieSk dy BwilAW nUM  51  As demonstrated by the verse, the character of Sahiti is stressing the power that women possess, and in making her argument, Shah has Sahiti cite historical examples that allow her to make a cogent and compelling argument as to why women are more powerful than men. Shah depicts Sahiti as a character that is cognizant of her family’s powerful status, for which reason Shackle describes, their dialogue “introduced every argument that could be raised between an ascetic (who is really a lover) and a dutiful woman aware of her family’s rights and respectability.”174  A large portion of Waris Shah’s Hīr is dedicated to the interactions that Sahiti has with Rāṅjhā, as well as Hīr. Sahiti, plays a fundamental role in the bringing together of the two lovers after separation, and she also pursues her own lover in a conservative climate. Waris Shah’s presentation of Hīr in the latter half of his story is somewhat limited. However, he compensates her absence by providing a lengthy part of his narrative to Sahiti, who is presented by him as an equally, if not more feisty and rebellious female. Sahiti is depicted as a character that is arrogant and proud, and it is not surprising for which reason that a majority of the verses that include her presence are ones where she is engaging in some form of quarrel with either Hīr or Rāṅjhā; quarrels in which she almost always retains the upper hand. Similar to Hīr, Sahiti assumes her power through her social status. She is a willing recipient of her social rank and takes every opportunity to utilize this to her benefit. It also allows her to act as the catalyst that re-unites Hīr and Rāṅjhā, and enables her to successfully pursue her own love interest as well.                                                                                                                                                         ATwrW KUhxI ktk lV moey pWfo, fob fwb ky Ki`tAw KwilAW nUM  rMnW mwr lVwey iemwm-zwdy, mwr Gi`qAw pIrIAW vwilAW nUM vwirs Swh qUM jogIAw kOx huMnYN, EVk BryNgw swifAW hwilAW nUM Sabir, P.220-221, Verse: 359. 174 Shackle, “Transition and Transformation,” 258-259. 52  Summary Gaur and Deol have categorized Hīr in significantly different terms. Deol chooses to argue she is a depicted as a passive and sexualized female protagonist. Gaur offers a contrasting perspective, stressing Hīr is rebellious, battling for her Rāṅjhā, and the social structure that she is born into. Shackle offers an alternate view, suggesting the characters are a depiction of the Sufi tradition. Gaur and Deol did not unravel the complexity of Hīr’s character and more importantly, in reaching their conclusions, did not rely on the complete representation of Hīr from the time she is introduced to when she is killed.   Hīr’s complex character can be described neither as completely docile nor completely rebellious. She is depicted by Waris Shah at times as a devotee of Rāṅjhā, personifying Sufi love, as Shackle argues, where the characters of Hīr Rāṅjhā portray features of divine love; nonetheless, consideration of the entire text reflects a Hīr that is much more than a follower of Rāṅjhā, portrayed by Shah as a defiant and rebellious female. However, as rebellious as Hīr is shown to be, she does not rebel against the patriarchal culture she is part of, as Gaur misinterprets, but utilizes it advantageously.   Not only do Gaur and Deol not fully appreciate the nature of Waris Shah’s female, as they oversimplify Hīr, but they do not offer an interpretation of Sahiti, who plays an equally, if not more important female role in Hīr, certainly based on her presence in the latter half of the book. Assessing Hīr and Sahiti more comprehensively, one grasps Waris Shah’s attempt to demonstrate that he depicts his female characters as being rebellious, but nonetheless cognizant that there are some societal obligations that they must abide by if they aim to maintain the power that they have grown to admire.  53   Through his treatment of his female gender, Waris Shah is above all offering a commentary as to what is acceptable behavior and what is not. Shah attempts to praise certain behaviors of Hīr, while reprimand her for others. Certain actions and behaviors are shown by Shah to be “liveable” and acceptable, but others are not. Through the interactions between relationships, Shah further allows different characters to perform their behaviors, particularly Sahiti, and these characters perform actions which are competing with Hīr’s, and Shah decides on which actions shall lead to a successful outcome in the story and which ones shall not.   54  Part II: Rāṅjhā Waris Shah’s characters serve to remind the reader that persons have limited and paradoxical agency towards a gender that is given to them prior to choice: We see this in the portrayal of his character Rāṅjhā.  The concept of land ownership holds major significance in forming Jat caste masculinity, and I shall address this in the first chapter of this Section, where I discuss how masculinity is defined through land ownership and Jat identity, which shall also address the matter of Jat caste. Given the association between land ownership and masculinity, a lack of land challenges Jat masculinity. Rāṅjhā faces this experience of lack throughout the story, as he is considered an unsuitable match for Hīr by her family based on the lack of owning land. In this sense, he is an atypical masculine figure. Rāṅjhā can be seen as a contrast to the brave heroic male that would be considered symbolic of the male protagonist in the qissā, as Deol describes Mirzā, a courageous male character from another prominent Punjabi qissā.175   In the second chapter of Part II, I will discuss how Waris Shah has portrayed Rāṅjhā through his physical appearance.  Through Rāṅjhā’s physical beauty and his sense of fashion, Shah reveals a delicate, attractive, and stylish young man. These qualities are only enhanced as he becomes the subject of male attention in the story, in addition to that of female, particularly when Rāṅjhā encounters Balnath, the leader of the yogis. Rāṅjhā’s appearance breaks down the gender norm as presented in Hīr.  Rāṅjhā is not portrayed as a gallant and brave young man, but rather one that is vain and has a self-absorbed image of himself. This is important as through his                                                175 Jeevan Deol, “To die at the hands of love,” 150. 55  appearance Shah constructs a different gender role for Rāṅjhā, and this portrayal of Rāṅjhā tries to undermine the male gender role created by other masculine characters in the story.   Finally, I will examine how through Rāṅjhā’s arguments with Sahiti and Hīr where he voices support for men and condemns women, Shah portrays Rāṅjhā as also conforming to traditional stereotypes, acting as a man whose sensibilities are chauvinistic and misogynistic. For a significant portion of the text, Rāṅjhā is depicted as quarrelling extensively with Sahiti, and even goes as far as to assault her. Rāṅjhā is also cruel towards Hīr at various points throughout the text as well. Rāṅjhā’s character does embody narrow-minded traits, and has the expectation that women should act in a certain way. Rāṅjhā believes that the obligation of protecting family honour should be the aim of women, and they should not quarrel with men, who as he claims are the superior gender.    56  Chapter 4: Defining Masculinity through Land Ownership & Jat Identity  If you like you can come and see, if you want to ask about our land and wealth176  This dialogue from the film Putt Jattan De (Sons of Farmers) demonstrates the historical importance of land to the Jat male, since it forms Jat identity. It depicts the scene when the male protagonist’s brother goes to arrange his marriage.  Sikata Banerjee states that “patriarchy and male dominance have meant that masculinity has been seen as immutable and natural,”177 in India, when, in fact, “masculinity is historically, politically, and culturally constituted.”178 Similarly, Mrinalini Sinha argues “there is no domain where masculinity necessarily or naturally belongs;”179 and Ronald Jackson and Murali Balaji stress that masculinities have to be examined “within their own domains,”180 As these scholars attest, then, our understanding of masculinity in Hīr must be placed within the context in which Waris Shah’s qissā is written, and must be understood as something that is constructed. With reference to more recent cultural production, Harjant Gill has argued that a Jat’s “identity and status….are inextricably linked to his land and marked on to his physical body though his occupation as a farmer.”181 As Gill identifies, an essential part of the culture in Punjab is land ownership, considered to be the yardstick of Jat masculinity. There is great pride associated with                                                176 cwho qW dyKx Aw skdy ho, koeI zmIn jwiedwd pu`CxI hovy qW–  Jagjeet Gill, dir. Putt Jattan De (Punjab, India: Gill Art, 1983). Film. 177 Sikata Banerjee, Make me a man! : masculinity, Hinduism, and nationalism in India (New York: State University of New York Press, 2005), 7. 178 Ibid, 7. 179 Mrinalini Sinha, “Giving Masculinity a History: Some Contributions from the Historiography of Colonial India,” Gender & History, Vol.11, No.3 (November 1999): 454. 180 Ronald Jackson and Murali Balaji, Global masculinities and manhood (Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2011), 24. 181 Harjant S. Gill, “Masculinity, mobility and transformation in Punjabi cinema: From Putt Jattan De (Sons of Jat Farmers) to Munde UK De (Boys of UK),” South Asian Popular Culture, 10:2 (2012): 113. 57  the Jat male, and this is derived from “their desire to live a dignified life.”182 Gill stresses that Jat masculinity is fundamentally connected to land, and “dispossessing a farmer of his land is framed as equally egregious as sexually violating the women of his family, hence posing a direct challenge to his masculinity.”183  The “celebration of Jat caste identity” occurs through their “patriarchal inheritance of land,”184 the lack of which compromises the construction of the Jat’s masculinity within the Punjabi context. Male pride and their sense of honor and prestige are connected to their land ownership, and preserving that land and honor was considered of utmost importance.  In the cultural setting of Punjab, the construction of Jat masculinity is considered to be the quintessential type of masculinity. A Jat represents “hegemonic masculinity” and the men from other castes “are measured according to their ability to live up to this form of masculinity.”185 Iqbal Sevea argues that “other caste groups are valued according to characteristics that are supposed to mark out a manly Jatt.”186 Therefore, men in the Punjab cultural environment shall be compared to the masculinity of the Jat male, and if they fail to possess many of the characteristics that have been considered in socially creating the ideal male, then they shall be thought to be less of a male, also impacting their ability in being measured a worthy groom by girls and more importantly, her family.  Speaking again about modern film representations, Sevea agrees with Gill’s claim that the “value of other caste groups was judged                                                182 Gill, “Masculinity, mobility,” 113. 183 Ibid. 184 Ibid.  185 Iqbal Sevea, “Kharaak Kita Oi!: Masculinity, Caste, and Gender in Punjabi Films,” BioScope: South Asian Screen Studies 5, 2 (July 2014): 131. 186 Ibid. 58  on the basis of their likeness to Jatts,”187 and the “measure of the manliness,” which they exhibited was based on the benchmark established by the Jat.188 Sevea recognizes that “examining traits of masculinity that are depicted as superior to others, one should not assume that the traits being celebrated are naturally masculine.”189 These qualities that are considered superior in the Punjab context in defining what a ‘man’ should be are culturally constructed, and the culture determined that the benchmark for the quintessential Punjabi male, were the traits associated with a traditional Jat landowner, who was proud, courageous and willing to do what it takes to protect his land and woman. In the Punjab context it just so happened to be the case that “traits associated with the Jatt hero come to assume a hegemonic position.”190 The ability to engage in confrontation and exercise aggression to both protect honor and reach one’s goal are therefore seen as a favourable qualities of the Jat male. According to Sevea, however, it is the case that “there are multiple codes of maleness in society,”191 suggesting that although Jat masculinity was considered to be a certain way, it was something that could be de-constructed or modified both in the Punjab context and outside of it.  As Gaur suggests, the patriarchal Jat order is demonstrated by Hīr’s father, Chuchak Siyal.192 Hīr’s father was the chief overseeing five villages, a significantly larger role than Rāṅjhā’s late father who was chief of only one.193 Upholding this status was considered paramount, and one of the primary ways that this was ensured was through safeguarding that                                                187 Sevea, 137. 188 Ibid. 189 Ibid. 190 Ibid. 191 Ibid., 138. 192 Gaur, 125 193 Ibid., 123. 59  marriages between children occurred with families that possessed a similar status.194 We can see the importance of land ownership in the construction of maleness in Shah's text. For example, the verse below describes when Rāṅjhā addresses his sisters-in-law, when he decides to leave his village after being swindled out of his land by his older brothers.    Rāṅjhā said, my food is gone! What are you asking me You took all of our father’s wealth, you are not my family If you can, like Mansoor, go hang me by the noose You are happy I am leaving, Waris says, why are you shy to say195  Frances Prichett claims, qissā heroes are “nobly born.”196 Rāṅjhā fits that prototype; however, following the death of his father, he was wrongfully disinherited. Rāṅjhā was born into a Jat clan, meaning land possession played an integral role in defining him and his masculinity, the loss of which left him in misery, resulting in him leaving his village of Takht Hazara and eventually going to Hīr’s. The banter between Rāṅjhā and his sisters-in-law demonstrates Rāṅjhā's loss of status, as he has lost his land.    Oh sister in-law! I have nothing, why call me home now First you burn my heart, and then come to apply balm My brothers have estranged me, what is my relation to you197                                                194 Gaur, 125. 195 rWJy AwiKAw! auiTAw irzk myrw, mYQoN BweIE! qusIN ikAw mMgdy ho sWB ilAw jy bwp dw imlK swrw, qusIN swk nw sYx nw AMg dy ho vs l`gjy qW mnsUr vWgU, mYnUM cwie sUlI auqy tMgdy ho iv`coN KuSI hoN AsW dy inklxy qoN, mUMhoN AwKdy gl` ikauN sMgdy ho Sabir, P.13, Verse: 29. 196 Pritchett, 7. 197 BwbI! irzk audws jW ho tuirAW, hux kws nUM Gyr ky TgdIAW ho  60  Rāṅjhā’s loss of land weakens him, compromising his position as a potential suitor. For this reason, when Hīr’s mother realizes she is involved with their herder, Rāṅjhā, she is infuriated, knowing Rāṅjhā does not share their status.  Wait till your brother Sultan knows of this, he is concerned about your marriage You have disgraced your father Chuchak, what use of us spoiling you You have cut off our noses, shamed the home, what was gained through raising you I shall tell that servant to leave tonight; we do not want him to herd our buffaloes Oh my dear! Take off these jewels, there is no use for them Oh Waris Shah, this girl plans on having her limbs cut off 198   This verse below elaborates how Hīr’s father refuses to marry his daughter to Rāṅjhā, and instead aims to marry her in the Kheras, who are of higher status with more land.   We have never married with Rāṅjhās, never had any engagements They are wandering servants, and looking at daughters of Siyals We shall marry with Kheras; all brothers have given that advice 199                                                                                                                                                         pihly swV ky jIau inmwnVy dw, ipCoN Bu`lIAW lwvxy lgdIAW ho BweI swk sn so qusW v`K kIqy, qusIN swk ikAw swfIAW lgdIAW ho Sabir, P.14-15, Verse: 31.  198 qyry vIr sulqwn nUM Kbr hovy, kry i&kr auh qyry mukwvxy dw cUck myhr dy rwj nuUM lIk lweI, kyhw &wiedw mwipAW qwvxy dw nk` v`F ky koVmw gwilE eI, hoieAw lwB eyhw mwipAW jwvxy  dw rwqIN cwk nUM cw jvwb dysW, nhIN SOk hux mhIAW crwvxy dw AmVIey! lwh nI sB gihxy, gux kOx hY gihixAW pwvxy dw vwirs Swh mIAW eys CohrI dw, jIau hoieAw eI ilMg kutwvxy dw Sabir, P.47-48, Verse: 95. 199 nwl rWiJAw kdy nw swk kIqw, nhIN id`qIAW AsW kuVmweIAW vy ikQ`oN rulidAW goilAW AwieAW nUM, idjn eyh isAwlW dIAW jweIAW vy nwl KyiVAW dy eyhw swk kIcY, id`qI mslihq sBnW BweIAW vy Sabir, P.95-96, Verse: 174. 61  This dialogue from Hīr’s father reiterates the importance of land and power in their patriarchal society. In order to live up to his Jat caste masculinity, it was imperative for Rāṅjhā to possess land.  Caste and social structures play a major part in the communal framework in which Hīr and Rāṅjhā fell in love. Paramjit Judge argues “caste could be regarded as the single most structural element of the Indian society.”200  It is important to identify, as Ronki Ram notes, caste discrimination in the Punjab context is different than Hindu Brahmin Society, which is focused more on pollution and purity.201  In Punjab, power “is based on land ownership.”202 There was hence a higher preoccupation with land, status and power in Punjab, rather than considering whether another person or group met the threshold for a certain level of pureness. We can see this emphasis in the interactions that Waris Shah portrays. Thus, when Hīr first encounters Rāṅjhā, she immediately questions his status, who he is, and where he has come from:   I shall roll myself on your path, tell me where you have come from Has someone kicked you out of the house, why are you wandering around? Who have you left behind, for whom are you repentant Which is your country, what is your father’s name, and what is your caste?203                                                 200 Paramjit S. Judge, Mapping social exclusion in India: caste, religion and borderlands  (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 8-9. 201 Ronki Ram, “Untouchability in India with a Difference: Ad Dharm, Dalit Assertion, and Caste  Conflicts in Punjab,” Asian Survey, University of California Press, Vol. 44, No. 6 (November/December 2004): 898. 202 Ibid. 203 Gol Gol G`qI qYNfVI vwt auqoN, bylI d`s dyKW ikDro Awvnw hYN iksy mwxmq`I GroN ki`FEN qUM, ijs vwsqy PyrIAW pwvnw hYN kOx C`f AwieEN ip`Cy imhr vwlI, ijs vwsqy qUM pCoqwvnw hYN kOx vqn qy nwm ikAw sWeIAW vy, Aqy jwq dw kOx sdwvnw hYN Sabir, P.33-34, Verse: 65.  62  Hīr is cognizant of the social structure to which they belong and that Rāṅjhā would have to belong to a certain caste and class to be considered worthy to marry her. When Hīr attempts to persuade her father to hire Rāṅjhā as their buffalo herder, he too, has a preoccupation with Rāṅjhā’s status, family, and where he has come from:  Of which landowner is he a son, what is his caste, and is he considered smart and intelligent Why is he upset with the world, which saints provide him support  He comes here like a leader, like he is someone special  Of which Jats is he a grandson, and what is he lacking204   The importance of caste is argued by Farina Mir, who stresses that it plays a fundamental role in shaping “everyday experience.”205 Mir reminds the reader that Rāṅjhā is even recognized in the story by his caste’s name, Rāṅjhā.206 Mir claims that the issue of caste “is the root cause of conflict in the narrative’s overall plot,”207 since the story demonstrates an “anxiety about social classifications.”208 She argues that in the Hīr Rāṅjhā text, caste “is one of the primary ways in which characters identify themselves and others,”209 and the connection between the person and their caste is “perhaps most closely fused in the character of Rāṅjhā.”210 Caste plays a central role in preventing Rāṅjhā from being with Hīr, as it is the basis for “Hīr’s parents’ rejection” of                                                204 ikhVy cODrI dw pu`qr kOx jwqoN, kyhw Akl SaUr dw kot hY nI kIkoN irzk qy Awb audws kIqw, aus nuM ikhVy pIr dI Et hY nI POjdwr vWgU kr kUc Dwxw, mwr ijvyN nkwry qy cot hY nI iknHW j`tW dw poqrw kOx koeI, ikhVI gl dI eys nUM qrot hY nI Sabir, P.38, Verse: 74.  205 Mir, 124. 206 Ibid., 125. 207 Ibid. 208 Ibid.  209 Ibid.,127. 210 Ibid. 63  him, since they “perceive a gulf between his status and their’s.”211 Although by caste, Rāṅjhā belongs to a Jat family, Mir argues, in the Punjab context, caste functions and relates to a “system of social status and differentiation.”212 Hīr’s parents refuse the match due to the fact that they are of high social status, while Rāṅjhā is a cowherd, of much lower social status.213 Gaur furthers the argument of Mir, stressing the “tribal organization was the chief characteristic of society in medieval Punjab.”214 He claims the “reading of Hīr Waris reveals that its entire canvas has been set on three villages and three dominant Muslim Jat (agriculturalist) communities: Siyals, Rāṅjhās, and Kheras.”215 Rāṅjhā loses his social status in a setting in which “kin dominated social relations.”216 Losing his land meant Rāṅjhā was no longer a zamindar, meaning landowner, and in “the political, social, economic and cultural life of medieval India/Punjab, this zamindar class played a vital role,”217 since they embodied power in society. Gaur identifies that in comparison to Rāṅjhā, Hīr’s family were “of Rajput origin, and claim higher rank than surrounding Jat tribes, to whom they will not give their daughters in marriage,”218 supporting the premise that caste played a defining role in determining social relations. Clan and caste fraternity, or biradari as Gaur defines, plays a critical role in defining the social framework, since medieval Punjab was defined by customary laws.219 According to Gaur, this clan and caste fraternity was controlled through marriage,220 and hence, men who did                                                211 Mir, 128. 212 Ibid.,126. 213 Ibid.,129. 214 Gaur, 116. 215 Ibid., 117. 216 Ibid. 217 Ibid., 119. 218 Ibid., 124. 219 Ibid. 220 Ibid., 125. 64  not fit the social level necessary to marry daughters of those in a higher social class were rejected. It cannot be ignored that the caste structure had a significant part in social framework during medieval Punjab. Anne Murphy confirms that “caste-based systems proliferated across north India in this period,” 221 and this element was a “vivid feature” of the period in which Waris Shah wrote his text.222 For this reason Chuchak Khan, Hīr’s father, a zamindar and chief in their village, did not accept Rāṅjhā, who was simply a peasant working as a herder for Hīr’s family, and furthermore, his clan’s “status had come down to the level of the Jat agriculturalists.”223 Saida Khera, the boy who Hīr’s family chose for her had a considerable amount of land, making him a more worthy suitor for Hīr.    Waris Shah’s Rāṅjhā does not have the vigour or strength that Orsini describes as the hallmark features of the qissā male protagonists of the nineteenth century, which are the focus of her study.224 Rāṅjhā bears a sharp contrast to the male character Mirzā, from one of Punjab’s most popular qissās, Mirzā Sahibaan. Mirzā took away Sahibaan on her wedding day, and is considered to personify the quintessential Jat male in Punjab. Deol notes that Mirzā possessed a great sense of pride and would boastfully assert that “there is no warrior who can defeat me. I will fight off whole armies,”225 and went as far as to claim “God fears me”.226 In contrast, Rāṅjhā did not have the courage to elope with Hīr. Mirzā’s character, in Hafiz Barkhurdar’s (also known as Hafiz Rāṅjhā Barkhurdar) version dated to the late eighteenth century, argued that if he was to                                                221 Anne Murphy, “The periphery at the centre: Configuring Community in Punjab Beyond Aurangzeb and  the Mughal Centre,” in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Special issue edited by Anne Murphy and Heidi Pauwels (University of Washington) entitled “From Outside the Persianate Center: Vernacular Viewson "Alamgir."” Forthcoming in July 2018. 222 Ibid.  223 Gaur, 126. 224 Orsini, Print and Pleasure, 119. 225 Jeevan Deol, “To die at the hands of love,” 150. 226 Ibid.  65  abandon his beloved and she was married elsewhere, then that would be a disgrace to his family.227 Shah's Rāṅjhā makes no active attempt to stop Hīr’s wedding. It can be inferred that since Rāṅjhā’s character was not a zamindar, Shah portrays him as a character whose sense of pride had been eroded. Shah depicts him as a male who lacks a sense of egotism. It is for this reason he is portrayed as having chosen to accept his fate, which is something a traditional Jat male character would not have chosen to do, since it would compromise his sense of manhood. In his discussion on folk qissās of Punjab, Kartar Singh Duggal identifies Rāṅjhā as the “weaker link” between him and Hīr, and advocates “it would indeed have been a different story if Mirzā and Heer had fallen in love.”228  Christopher Shackle does see Rāṅjhā as possessing some courageous attributes, which are associated with ‘Jatness’. Shackle argues that “all Hīr has to do is to fall in love with Rāṅjhā, argue with her parents and their allies, get married off to her Khera husband, then elope with Rāṅjhā,”229 but it is Rāṅjhā who undergoes “two main transformations” in the story, the first was going from being the chief of Takht Hazara’s desired son to a herder for Hīr’s family, and the other was when he had to leave Hīr’s village to become a yogi.230 Shackle’s assertion implies that although Hīr is feisty, Rāṅjhā embodies a deep inner strength that enables him to battle adversity and have the emotional will and mental courage to undergo the transitions that he goes through and face the trails and obstacles that his fate has in store for him. As Shackle describes, Shah depicts Rāṅjhā undergoing major transformations throughout the story, and successfully does so, reflecting that inner strength.                                                 227 Jeevan Deol, “To die at the hands of love,” 147-148. 228 Kartar Singh Duggal, Folk Romances of Punjab (New Delhi: Marwah, 1979), 23. 229 Shackle, “Transition and Transformation,” 250. 230 Ibid.  66  Pankaj Singh argues that Rāṅjhā does not exemplify any sense of courage whatsoever.231 She instead sees those characteristics in Hīr, stressing she is “articulate, resolute, courageous and clear minded,” considering Rāṅjhā on the other hand as “inactive, immature, dependent, timid, and at best pompous, boastful egoist.”232 Singh asserts that he is described as “insane” and “crazy” throughout the book,233 and argues Rāṅjhā “does not seem to grow beyond his childhood role of a darling youngest son of his father.”234 Singh sees Rāṅjhā as a character that fails to grow up, focusing on spending “time playing on the flute and combing his hair” and who throughout the story “continues to be taken care of by those who love him – his father, Hīr and above all the Panj Pirs.”235 Singh asserts Rāṅjhā is depicted as someone that is incapable of solving any of his problems, and “either turns away from them or seeks refuge in the miraculous or in the five Pirs.”236 According to Singh he is handed everything on a platter.  Shackle and Singh both offer valuable insights into the character of Rāṅjhā; however, their arguments possess shortcomings. Shackle argues that all Hīr had to do was argue with her parents and eventually elope with Rāṅjhā, while he is the one undergoing the transformations, implying that he somehow embodies a greater resilience. Shackle fails to consider that it was Hīr that strategically arranged for Rāṅjhā to become her family’s herder, it was her that protected him against her family, Kaido and the qāzī, and most importantly, the one that tactfully derived the plan for Rāṅjhā to become a yogi and come in disguise to see her, after Rāṅjhā fails to initially agree to elope with her. Shackle is hasty in attributing accolades to Rāṅjhā simply for                                                231 Singh, 56.  232 Ibid. 233 Ibid. 234 Ibid. 235 Ibid.  236 Ibid. 67  having gone through life changes. As Singh points out, Rāṅjhā always has someone to support him through those changes.  Singh critiques Rāṅjhā’s character, stressing he barely possesses any respectable characteristics, does not achieve anything through his efforts and is a “timid” individual that “does not have much to recommend him as an admirable character,” as he has not earned “any human endeavors or accomplishments.”237 Singh sees Rāṅjhā’s character embodying a timorous nature, rather than any assertiveness associated with Jat masculinity, which Rāṅjhā arguably demonstrates momentarily when he engages in a debate with the mullah, from whom Rāṅjhā does not appear to be intimidated.    Oh tell us what is a prayer, and how was she produced How many ears, noses does she have, for whom has she been sent How tall and wide is she, and what is her age? How was she created? Oh Waris Shah, how many pegs are there, upon which she is hung238  Rāṅjhā is depicted as taking on of religiously orthodox figures. In a society that is both respectful to and compliant towards religiously orthodox individuals, such as the mullah, Rāṅjhā openly insults him, accusing him of immoral behavior and hypocrisy. Furthermore, in insulting the mullah during an argument, Rāṅjhā is portrayed as daring enough as to question orthodox practices and prayers as well. In having the courage and audacity to challenge religious authority                                                237 Singh, 56. 238 swnUM ds` inmwz hY kws dI jI, kws nwl bnw ky swirAw ny kMn nk` inmwz dy hYn ikqny, mQ`y iknHW dy DuroN ieh mwrIAW ny lMmy k`d cOVI iks hwx hoNdI, iks cIz dy nwl svwrIAw ny vwirs ik`lIAW ikqnIAW aus dIAW ny, ijs nwl ieh bMnH auqwrIAw ny Sabir, P.19, Verse: 39. 68  in an open fashion depict Rāṅjhā as having a bold side to him. Through this example, Rāṅjhā does not recognize authority and does not have any apprehension in opposing it. While this is an audacious stance from Rāṅjhā exhibiting some element of masculinity, he also insults religious authority, through which he outcast himself from that social environment.       69  Chapter 5: Why Should We Care About Rāṅjhā's Appearance? Rosalind O’Hanlon asserts that the “emphases on the manliness of personal restraint” are revealed in how men dress and “elaborate ornaments usually associated with luxury” fall outside of the conventional dress code for what would be considered manly.239 This is but one interpretation, however, of what is "manly."  Rāṅjhā is constructed by Shah as a character that selects to dress fashionable with ornaments. O’Hanlon's argument for a conventional dress code for the man, therefore, completely ignores the fact that conventional is dependent on the social context. As Sylvia Walby stresses, masculinity and femininity is a construct of socialization,240 and hence dependent upon the social framework to which groups belong. Masculinity and femininity in the South Asian context has always been more fluid than the western context.  Subhadra Mitra Channa argues that “masculine and feminine qualities are not separated or dichotomized.”241 While O’Hanlon sees the division between how a man dresses and how a woman dresses quite distinct, that does not necessarily fully reflect the South Asian context from a social or historical standpoint. According to Channa, there is no apparent contradiction of a brave warrior donning women’s clothes for he remains strong and a skilled warrior even as a eunuch dancer.”242 However, having said that, as discussed with Butler, each cultural setting still possesses some form of what it entails to be male and female. The male gender in a cultural setting might possess certain traits which may be considered feminine in a different era, nonetheless, there is a construction of gender in every setting, and there is the expectation that                                                239 Rosalind O’Hanlon, “Manliness and imperial service in Mughal North India.” Journal of the  Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 42, No. 1 (1999): 81. 240 Sylvia Walby, Theorizing Patriarchy (Oxford UK: Basil Blackwell, 1990), 91. 241 Subhadra Mitra Channa, Gender in South Asia: Social Imagination and Constructed Realities (University of Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 8. 242 Ibid. 70  males and females of that period shall conform by those norms. Waris Shah establishes what gender should be in his story, and the norms that are established are done so by his characters. Through their interactions, the reprimands they face, and their failures and successes, Waris Shah is demonstrating what male and female gender should essentially look like.  Rāṅjhā's appearance is, in fact, a major preoccupation in Waris Shah's Hīr, as Jeevan Deol has noted. Rāṅjhā is a pretty boy, whose sexual appeal and suggestiveness captivates all the females that he encounters, and as Deol notes, “it is hardly surprising that sexuality pervades the relationship between Rāṅjhā and his sisters-in-law.”243 His sisters-in-law are evidently overcome by his boyish features and as Deol suggests “the eroticism of his relationship with his sisters-in-law”244 provides an indication of his attractiveness. Deol compares Rāṅjhā’s appeal to the likes of Krishna, which he supports by noting Rāṅjhā’s sexual encounters with Hīr’s girlfriends.245 Shah appears to depict Rāṅjhā with sensual appeal and handsomeness, rather than allowing his character to demonstrate any physical strength.  O’Hanlon cannot argue that the character of Rāṅjhā would not be “considered manly” since what is considered manly in a Western or even modern Indian context would not be the same as what was or is considered masculine in the early modern South Asian setting. Caroline Brettell and Carolyn Sargant point out that Arjun, the protagonist of the Mahbharata dressed as a “eunuch” for a year, with bangles and braided hair, teaching women dancing and singing.246 Brettell and Sargant further note that Hindi Gods such as Shiva and Vishnu possess both male                                                243 Deol, “Social Critique,” 160. 244 Ibid., 161. 245 Ibid., 163. 246 Caroline B. Brettell and Carolyn F. Sargent, Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2009), 278. 71  and female characteristics.247 Hijras do identify with Shiva for this reason, since he is half man and half woman, and Vishnu has “dual gender representations.” Therefore, O’Hanlon might argue that certain types of dress for men were not indicative of maleness, but as Sinha stresses, there is no natural sphere where masculinity resides.248 However, according to the gender boundaries that were defined within the pastoral agricultural climate of northern Punjabi within the medieval period as per Waris Shah’s text, Rāṅjhā’s sense of fashion was not conforming to the surrounding masculine prototype based on the models outlined in the story. Nancy Bonvillain confirms cultural “constructs of gender are conveyed through beliefs and practices that prevail in diverse societal domains.”249 Through Rāṅjhā’s character, Waris Shah has attempted to distort the lines and definitions of gender, as we see in the way Rāṅjhā’s sisters-in-law describe him:  There is talk about you at the riverbanks, and courtyards where women spin their wheels Many girls have been ruined, having fallen in love with you Your black curly tresses are like cobras, suck blood from the chest Oh Waris Shah those who have beautiful brothers in-law, they are finished 250  Rāṅjhā is a stylish, fashionable, and smooth young man. He is portrayed as a “dandy,” which according to the Oxford thesaurus is a “pretty boy” that is “trendy” and a “snappy dresser.251 He is presented by Shah as a cute and frisky boy who knows his ways with women.                                                247 Brettell and Sargent, 278. 248 Mrinalini Sinha, “Giving Masculinity a History: Some Contributions from the Historiography of  Colonial India.” Gender & History. Vol.11, No.3 (November 1999): 454. 249 Nancy Bonvillian, Women and Men: Cultural Constructs of Gender (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001), 231. 250 qyrI pnGtW dy au`qy ipaU peI, DuMmW iqRMjxW dy ivc pweIAW nI Gr bwr ivswr ky ^Awr hoeIAW, JokW pRym dIAW ijnHW nuM lweIAW nI zulPW kuMFIAW kwlIAW honk mMgo, JokW ih`k qy Awx bhweIAW nI vwirs Swh ieh ijnHW dy cMn dyvr, Gol G`qIAW sy BrjweIAW nI Sabir, P.9 Verse: 20. 251 Maurice Waite (ed.), Oxford Paperback Thesaurus 4th ed (Oxford University Press, 2012). 72  He appears well aware of his looks and takes every opportunity to style himself, confirming his preoccupation with vanity. The following taunts from his sisters-in-law almost depict Rāṅjhā as a narcissist, one who has a fixation with his appearance.   Oh you mad young man, why spit on your shoulder With a turban on oiled locks, you roam around the Trinjan Should your food lack salt, you throw the food away You do no work, but eat and wear well, you shall uproot yourself252  Rather than focus on hard work and vigor, Rāṅjhā is portrayed as focusing his concentration on his appearance. He is portrayed by Shah as a lazy and arrogant boy that has a sense of entitlement, and is fascinated with his looks and impressing the women.  Rāṅjhā’s looks and sex appeal do not even spare his sisters-in-law, whom he lures; as he does all other girls he comes across. They engage in debates with him, but there is an underlying sexual tension between them, which is fairly obvious in the following verse, where they are annoyed by the fact that he does not appear to be paying them attention and seems to be curious about Hīr, as news of her beauty has travelled in all directions.   If you don’t like our beauty, then go get the Hīr of Siyal Play your flute and cast the net of love, bring the girl from Siyal You know how to entice females; go get the queen of Kokila If you can’t reach her from the front door, at night go over the back wall Take Waris Shah with you; get her by hook or by crook253                                                252 ATKyilAW Aihl dIvwinAW vy, Qu`kW moiFAW dy auqoN st`nW eyN cIrw bMnH ky BMbVy vwl copV, iv`c iqRMjxW PyrIAW G`qnW eyN rotI KWidAW lUx jy pvy QoVw, cw AMgxy iv`c pwtnW eyN kMm kryN nwhI h`Cw KwieM pihny, jV AwpxI Awp qUM pt`nW eyN Sabir, P.10, Verse: 21. 253 swfw husn psMd nw ilAwvnw eyN, jwih hIr isAwl ivAwih ilAwvIN  73  Shah takes the opportunity to describe his style and swagger, through his altercation with the mullah, who refuses to allow Rāṅjhā in the local Mosque. Through his altercation with the mullah, Shah also provides a subtle indication as to Rāṅjhā’s inability to conform to religious or social norms, a result of which, he is chastised and abused by the mullah.   Mosques are the house of God; we do not allow the lawless here Dogs and ascetics are dirty; we tie them up and beat them You have long locks; we beat the ones with whiskers Clothing too long we rip away and moustache we chop off One who does not know religious rules, we shall hang Oh Waris Shah, enemies of God shall be scolded like dogs254  In their exchange with each other the mullah selects to criticize Rāṅjhā’s appearance and clothing. In insulting Rāṅjhā, the mullah is targeting his appearance, which is outside the ordinary for a religiously orthodox society. Rāṅjhā adorns long hair along with a long moustache, unusual for Muslim boys. Rāṅjhā is more concerned with looking trendy than conforming to any religious or cultural ideals. His clothes are long and baggy. Rāṅjhā’s gentleness and panache is only further elaborated in the story at the point when after initially firing him for becoming involved with Hīr, her father sends a letter to Rāṅjhā’s brothers sharing                                                                                                                                                        vwih vMJlI pRym dI G`q jwlI, kweI nF`I isAwlW dI Pwih ilAwvIN qYNQy vl hY rMnW vlwvxy dw, rwxI koklW mihl qoN lwih ilAwvIN idhyN bUihEN kF`xI imly nwhIN, rwqIN kMD ipCvwiVEN fwih ilAwvIN vwirs swh nUM nwl iljwie ky qy, ijhVw dwau lg`y soeI lw ilAwvIN Sabir, P.10-11, Verse: 23. 254 Gr rb` dy msijdW hoNdIAW nI, ieQy ægYr Srh nhIN vwVIey Eie ku`qw Aqy &kIr plIq hovyN, nwl du`irAW bMn ky mwrIey Eie qwrk ho slvwq dw pty rK`y, lbW vwilAW mwr pCVIey Eie nIvW kpVw hovy qW pwV stIey, lbW hox drwz qW swVIey Eie ijhVw iP`kw AsUl dw nhIN vwik&, auhnUM cw sUlI auqy cwVHIey Eie vwrs Swh ^udw idAW duSmnW nUM, dUroN ku`iqAW vWgU durkwrIey Eie Sabir, P.18-19, Verse: 38. 74  in detail his impression of Rāṅjhā: Hīr’s father in fact compliments the attractiveness of Rāṅjhā to his brothers, and admits the impact he has had on their village. He describes the features of Rāṅjhā and the ornaments he adorns.  Chuchak of the Siyals wrote to Rāṅjhās, this boy is the servant of Hīr The entire village is afraid of the servant, he has a way with the herders We took him on because he was a Jat, we’d beat him if he was a menace Such a young man why did you kick out, he’s not a cripple, lazy or without a hand The boy has attractive hair and earrings in his ears Oh Waris Shah, he knows no one, stays with Hīr day and night255  Waris Shah is portraying Rāṅjhā with a great sense of style. Rāṅjhā wears elaborate ornaments, which enhance his delicate nature and tender appearance.    The Nath saw the very gentle boy, who is so fashionable He is a treasure of beauty, the darling of his parents Some grief has brought him here, gotten into sort of problem The Nath says tell the truth, why you wish to become an ascetic256  Nowhere are Rāṅjhā’s soft and gentle traits more apparent than his encounter with Balnath, the leader of the Nath yogis. Upon losing Hīr, Rāṅjhā travels to the yogis with the hopes                                                255 cUck isAwl ny iliKAw rWiJAW nUM, n`FI hIr dw cwk eyh muMfVw jy swro ipMf frdw Es cwk koloN, isr mwhIAW dy Ehdw kuMfVw jy AsW j`t hy jwx ky cwk lwieAw, deIey qRwh jy jwxIey guMfVw jy ieh gB`rU GroN ikauN ki`FE jy, lMgw nhIN kMmcor nw tuMfVw jy isr soNhdIAW bodIAW nF`Vy dy, kMnIN lwfly dy bMny buMdVw jy vwirs Swh nw iksy nUM jwxdw hY, pws hIr dy rwq idnh huMdVw jy Sabir, P.87-88, Verse: 162. 256 nwQ vyK ky bhuq mlUk cYNcl, Aihl qbHw qy sohxw CYl muMfw koeI husn dI Kwx auSnwk suMdr, Aqy lwflw mwau qy bwp suMdw iksy duK QoN ru`s ky au`T AwieAw, ieky iksy dy nwl pY igAw DMdw nwQ AwKdw d`s KW s`c mYNQy, qUM hYN kyhVy duK &kIr huMdw Sabir, P. 146, Verse: 256. 75  of being initiated by them, so he can then disguise himself as a yogi and go to Hīr’s village without anyone suspecting or recognizing him. Upon seeing Rāṅjhā’s beauty and gentleness, Balnath is taken a back. He is stunned by Rāṅjhā’s attractiveness and his tenderness, for which reason he is skeptical as to why a boy such as Rāṅjhā, so handsome and fashionable, would want to renounce his worldly desires and join the yogis. Balnath continues his dialogue, endlessly praising Rāṅjhā, to the extent that the reader is forced to consider that maybe Balnath himself has developed a sexual attraction to Rāṅjhā.  Bracelets beautify the hands, earrings adorn the ears Your lungi (loincloth) of silk, your hair drenched in fragrance Beautiful rings that are finely cut, kohl decorating the eyes Living life at the cost of parents, why would you want to be an ascetic?257  Balnath describes Rāṅjhā’s hair, his ears, his face, and how he is dressed, along with how his hands and arms are ornamented. Rāṅjhā’s style and tenderness lead to Balnath ultimately deciding, despite facing the wrath of his own yogis who are furious for the recruitment of Rāṅjhā, to initiate him into their group. Balnath’s infatuation with Rāṅjhā is evident to other yogis, who see that Rāṅjhā’s attractiveness was too much for him.   The helpless yogi had mercy, which angered the disciples Their fiery tongues lashed out at him, like sharpened swords Based on the boy’s attractiveness, you are ready to make him a yogi These yogis are attracted to young boys, god has ruined their minds You did not do that for us, who worked so hard for it Oh Waris Shah, those captured by beauty, never realize the truth258                                                 257 h`Q kM|xW phuMcIAW P`b rhIAW, kMnIN J`tkdy sohxy buMdVy nI mJ` p`t dIAW luMgIAW, iKMn auqy, isr iBMny Pulyl dy juMfVy nI isr kocky bwrIAW dwr C`ly, k`jl iBnMVy nYx ncuMdVy nI Kw pIx pihrn isroN mwipAW idEN qusW jyhy &kIr ikauN huMdVy nI Sabir, P.147, Verse: 258. 76  Waris Shah depicts Rāṅjhā as a character whose attractiveness and sex appeal has the ability to win over everyone. Shah enables Rāṅjhā to utilize it as a weapon in attaining his ambitions, as he is able to with Balnath. He follows that approach throughout the story. He is depicted as playing the flute and acting flirtatiously, which mesmerizes women and men.  Shah has delicately placed Rāṅjhā in a role where he uses his looks to reach his goals. For instance, when he aims to go across the river in the beginning, and Luddan the boatman refuses to allow him on the boat despite Rāṅjhā pleading, he is able to appeal to the boatmen’s’ wives, who command them to allow Rāṅjhā in. After first ruthlessly kicking him off of the boat, they return to him and address him as follows:   Grabbing him with both arms, they bring him back on the boat Please forgive the mistake; they brought him back to heaven Like Azrael coming in a dream, he was brought again to paradise Oh Waris Shah, he was bathed and brought to Hīr’s bed259   Rāṅjhā does reflect traits that can be described as "delicate." Kate Teltscher describes effeminacy as a symbol for “weakness, softness, tenderness and aversion to violence;” traits that                                                                                                                                                        258 jogI ho lwcwr jW imhr kIqI, qdoN cyilAW bolIAW mwrIAW nI jIBW swn cVHwie ky igrd hoey, ijauN iqK`IAW qyz ktwrIAW nI  vyK sohxw rUp jtytVy dw, jog dyx dIAW krn iqAwrIAW nI  Trk muMifAW dy lg`y jogIAW nUM, mqW ijMnW dIAW rb` ny mwrIAW nI jog dyx nw mUl inmwixAW nUM, ijnHW kIqIAW imhnqW BwrIAW nI vwirs Swh KuSwmd ey sohixAW dI, g`lW h`k dIAW nw inqwrIAW nI Sabir, P.153-154, Verse: 269. 259 dohW bwhW qoN pkV rMJytVy nUM, muiV Awix byVI iv`c cwiVHAw ny qksIr muAwP kr AwdmI dI, muiV Awix bihSq ivc vwiVAw ny goieAw ^vwb dy iv`c AzrweIl if`Tw, mYnUM Pyr muV ArS qy cwiVHAw ny vwirs Swh nUM qurq nhwie ky qy, bIvI hIr dy plMG qy cwiVHAw ny Sabir, P.23, Verse: 49. 77  were at a traditional level connected with the female.260 His depiction as indicated above, when he encounters the yogis enhances Rāṅjhā’s tender features, which attracted Balnath. Based on Teltscher’s definition, Rāṅjhā’s physical appearance is enough to argue he demonstrates some female qualities, however, Sikata Banerjee identifies that the “British had categorized Indian men as the “effeminate other” by using a gender hierarchy rooted in a specific Anglo-Protestant interpretation of manhood—Christian manliness—defined by values of martial prowess, muscular strength, rationality, and individualism.”261 Like O’Hanlon, Teltscher has defined masculinity based on a ‘Western’ construct and lens. In the South Asian social context, masculinity and femininity may have been seen less rigidly, however, nonetheless, as Butler has suggested, there is a concept of what was male and female, and the fact that characters in Hīr, whether that is the mullah, Balnath, or Hīr’s family members, all consider Rāṅjhā’s appearance out of the ordinary reinforces the claim that he does not fit the traditional stereotype of what was masculine within the narrative. Shah therefore, purposely has created a male protagonist that is attempting to break gender norms, but whether or not he is successful in his endeavor is a different story.  In addition to a lack of land weakening Rāṅjhā’s Jat masculinity, the way Waris Shah chooses to portray his personality compromises any depiction of masculinity in the traditional sense. Particularly in comparison to Hīr, who is feisty and engages in physical altercations with multiple of characters in the story, Rāṅjhā’s personality is one where he shows a reluctance to engage in violent behavior, even when his love for Hīr is attacked. When Hīr is arranged to be                                                260 Kate Teltscher, “'Maidenly and well nigh effeminate': Constructions of Hindu masculinity and religion in seventeenth-century English texts,” Postcolonial Studies, Vol 3, No 2 (2000):159.  261 Banerjee, 3. 78  married, Rāṅjhā hesitates to elope with her (verse 184), and makes no active attempt to protect his love for her or preventing the marriage from occurring. This speaks to the construction of Rāṅjhā’s character’s Jat masculinity or lack thereof, since he takes a passive approach when realizing that Hīr was to be betrothed to Saida, a rich suitor that her family felt matched their social status.  79  Chapter 6: Chauvinism, Misogyny, and Waris Shah’s Commitment to Patriarchy  Waris Shah creates multiple performances of masculinity through the character of Rāṅjhā, as the other chapters in this Part have argued; however, there are aspects of Rāṅjhā’s character that do not contrast far from a traditional male within the narrative of the story.  This provides an indication of the perspective of Waris Shah, and the gendered formations he ultimately endorses. On one side Shah has broken down gender constructs and portrayed Rāṅjhā in a manner that is dissimilar to the masculine ‘Jatness’, yet, when it comes to his social perspectives, Rāṅjhā is depicted as possessing chauvinistic viewpoints, which are indicative of the patriarchal setting of the era. In this way Waris Shah reprimands female characters for their behaviour, and shores up a misogynist perspective.  Jean Chapman argues misogyny to be “the dislike or hatred of females,” and that the “overt kind is when women are hated simply because they are women.”262 Chapman stresses that misogyny “manifests itself in diverse ways: sexual discrimination, objectification and commodification of women, and mental and physical violence and the threat of violence.”263 According to David Gilmore, “misogyny is a complex, multilayered phenomenon involving man’s deepest wells of feeling about woman”264 Gilmore considers misogyny to be driven by greater complexity in comparison to Chapman, claiming that the “inner struggle” that men are undergoing leads to “not only unremitting tension, frustration, and the inevitable aggression                                                262 Jean Chapman, “Violence against Women in Democratic India: Let's Talk Misogyny,” Social Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9/10 (September–October 2014): 50. 263 Chapman, 50.    264 David Gilmore, Misogony: The Male Maladay (Philidelphia: University of Pennsyvania Press, 2009), 222. 80  against the object of desire, but also moral self-doubt,” for which the “woman serves as a convenient and helpless physical object for the aggression.”265 Based on definitions provided by both Chapman and Gilmore, Waris Shah’s portrayal of Rāṅjhā would be considered misogynistic.  Despite being madly in love with Hīr, at least ostensibly, and being the main ‘hero’ of Waris Shah’s text, Shah depicts Rāṅjhā as a chauvinistic male, who deep in his heart holds beliefs which are patriarchal. Rāṅjhā’s chauvinism and traditional male mentality are illustrated in the following verse where he chooses to insult Sahiti and women in general.   Men are good by action, Sahiti, women are enemies to good In comparison to men, you are of a lesser standard  Men are ships of goodness, women are boats of evil They sink the good name of parents, and strip the honour of brothers They cut your flesh and bones, they are axes of butchers They shave your moustache and beard, like scissors of the barber Give your head but save that of the beloved, protect the honour of love What are you fuming about, what have you ever accomplished You quarrel with an ascetic; look at this girl and her sister-in-law Oh Waris Shah, I should hit you on your face, with the sacks of goodness266                                                 265 Gilmore, 222. 266 mrd krm dy nkd hn sihqIey nI, rMnW duSmxW nyk kmweIAW dIAW qusIN eys jhwn ivc ho rhIAW, pMj – syrIAW G`t DVvweIAW dIAW  mrd hYn jhwz nkoeIAW dy, rMnW byVIAW hYN buirAweIAW dIAW mwauN bwp dw nwauN nwmUs fobx, pq`W lwh su`tx BilAW BweIAW dIAW h`f mws hlwl hrwm kp`n, ey kuhwVIAW hYn ksweIAW dIAW lbW lwhuMdIAW swP kr dyx dwVHI, ijauN kYNcIAW AihmkW nweIAW dIAW isr jwey nw Xwr dw isr idc`Y, SrmW rK`Iey AK`IAW lweIAW dIAW nI qUM kyhVI gl` qy eyf sUkyN, gl`W d`s KW pUrIAW pweIAW dIAW AwFw nwl &kIr dy lwauNdIAW nI, KUbIAW dyK innwx BrjweIAW dIAW vwirsswh qyry mUMh nwl mwrW, pMfW bMnH ky sB` BilAweIAW dIAW Sabir, P.214-215, Verse: 353. 81  Though this verse, Rāṅjhā’s character stresses that men are inherently good, and women are evil. He is describing women as perpetrators of immoral acts, and accusing them of stripping men of their honour. He accuses Sahiti and all women of being of lower standard in comparison to him and all men. Based on Chapman’s definition of misogyny, Rāṅjhā’s character is clearly exercising overt misogyny, considering his blatant dislike of women.  In the following response to Sahiti in their quarrel, he continues his insults, and also shares examples which are demeaning to women. Through this exchange the character of Rāṅjhā demonstrates his belief that genders should adhere to some form of stereotype:  Without justice the man is a fruitless tree, a woman is selfish if not faithful A dancer is a barren if not tasteful, a man a donkey if not intelligent Without humanity a man is not a nothing, without the slayer the sword is useless Without patience and prayer a yogi, and without breath one’s life is useless A youth without bravery, a beloved without beauty, and food without salt is useless A moustache without respect, a beard without good deeds, and an army without pay is useless A minister without sense, a priest without prayer, and an accountant without accounts is useless Oh Waris, a woman, fakir, sword, and horse, all four are nobody’s friend267  Through this dialogue Waris Shah chooses to depict Rāṅjhā as seeing men and women falling into specific stereotypes. He is shown to see women, whether it is a woman, wife, dancer, or beloved, as someone that should possess physical beauty and the ability to entice men, as                                                267 Adl ibnW srdwr hY ru`K APl, rMn KudnI hY jy vPwdwr nwhIN inAwz ibnW hY kMcnI bWhb QwvyN, mrd gDw jo Akl dw Xwr nwhIN ibnW AwdmIAq nwhIN iensW jwpy, ibnw Awb kq`wl qlvwr nwhIN sbr, izkr, iebwdqW bwJ jogI, dMmW bwJu jIvn drkwr nwhIN ihMmq bwJ jvwn, ibn husn idlbr, lUx bwJ quAwm svwr nwhIN Srm bwJ mu`CW, ibnW Aml dwVHI, qlb bwJ POjW Br Bwr nwhIN Akl bwJ vzIr, slvwq momn, dIvwn ihswb Sumwr nwhIN vwirs rMn, PkIr, qlvwr, GoVw, cwry Qok eyh iksy dy Xwr nwhIN Sabir, P.213-214, Verse: 352. 82  without having those traits she is inadequate. He is placing the value of woman on their physical characteristics, and in contrast, when describing men, Rāṅjhā is portrayed as expecting them to possess wisdom, sense and intelligence, as if that is expected from their gender. Rāṅjhā is shown to further attack the character of women in his final line, when he claims that women, like horses are nobody’s friends, stressing they are a characterless gender.  Beyond the abuses and insults, the manner in which Rāṅjhā is shown by Waris Shah assaulting Sahiti and her friend during their altercation convinces the reader that Rāṅjhā’s character has misogynistic tendencies, and additionally, this informs the reader that Shah is not condemning these sorts of actions, when establishing the norms within his text, since Rāṅjhā is not chastised for committing these acts.   He beat them both, gave them five to seven blows Pulled their cheeks and tore their blouses, then beat their breasts red Grabbing them by their braids, threw them around the yard Pinched their checks and scratched them, gave them a few on the neck Like an performer does to a bear, beat their behinds with a stick Holding them from their ankles, made them dance like monkeys ‘For God’s sake Jogi Stop’, Hīr is pleading from the inside268  Rāṅjhā is described as not only assaulting Sahiti and her friend, but touching them in sexually invasive ways. This treatment of women expresses a clearly patriarchal position.                                                268 dovyN mwr svwrIAW rwvly ny, pMj sq` pOVIAW lweIAW sU gl`HW pt` ky colIAW kry lIrW, ihkW BMn ky lwl krweIAW sU nwly qoV JMjoV ky pkV gu`qoN, donoN ivhVy dy ivc BvweIAW sU Koh cUMfIAW g`lHW qy mwr huMdW, do do Dox dy mu`F itkweIAW sU ijhw irC` klMdrW Gol pONdw, soty icqVIN lw ncweIAW sU igty lk` tkor ky pkV qRgoN, dovyN bWdrI vWg tpweIAW sU ‘jogI vwsqy rb` dy bs kr jw’, hIr AMdroN AwK CufweIAW sU Sabir, P.285, Verse: 451.  83  Through this rancorous dialogue from Rāṅjhā, Shah expresses patriarchal and chauvinistic values and furthermore, through the passionate beating of Sahiti and her friend, he is promoting those values through the figure of Rāṅjhā. Sahiti is portrayed by Shah as forceful and rebellious, however, in the end of their long altercation through a significant portion of the book, Singh rightly argues that Waris Shah brings “the woman, down on her knees admitting Rāṅjhā’s, the man’s supremacy and regretting her own behavior.”269 Shah has chosen the woman to concede defeat against the male in his narrative, indicating that no matter how assertive she is, she shall be defeated by the male. Shah’s narrative appears to reflect an environment where “little girls are more likely to be told to be quiet and not to make a noise in circumstances where little boys would be expected be boisterous.”270    Sahiti folds her hands in front of you; she is your follower from heart and life I serve you as a slave, constantly on hand and foot I have realized you are a true Pir, my heart and life is yours I have faith in your miracles, which have won us over Everything of mine is yours, including Hīr and all friends I have never listened to another; I am amazed at your great love I only trust the one Allah, and given up on all the rest  I can never compare to you, and Waris Shah, never able to pay back271                                                269 Singh, 63. 270 Sylvia Walby, Theorizing Patriarchy (Oxford UK: Basil Blackwell, 1990), 91. 271 h`Q bMnH ky bynqI kry sihqI, idl jwn QIN cylVI qyrI AW mYN krW bWdIAW vWg bjw i^dmq, inq` pwauNdI rhWgI PyrIAW mYN pIr sc` dw AsW qihkIk kIqw, idl jwn QIN qud qy hIrI AW mYN krwmwq qyrI auqy isdk kIqw, qyry kSP dy hukm ny GyrI AW mYN swfI jwn qy mwl qy hIr qyrI nwly sxy shylIAW qyrI AW mYN AsW iksy dI gl` nw kdy mMnI, qyry iesm Awzm h`b torI AW mYN ie`k iPkr Al`w dw r`K qkvI, hor Fwh Fwh bYTI sB FyrIAW mYN pUrI nwl ihswb nw ho skW, vwirs Swh kI krWgI syrIAW mYN Sabir, P.313-314, Verse 493. 84  Shah does not even allow Rāṅjhā to spare Hīr from his wrathful and demeaning insults. Along with Sahiti, he insults Hīr and the female gender in general. These abuses towards Hīr support Gilmore’s assertion of tension and frustration leading to aggression towards the object of desire. Rāṅjhā is evidently frustrated by the fact that he has not been able to unite with Hīr, and his aggression is appearing in the most flagrant manner towards Hīr. Below are insults, which he aims at both Hīr and her sister-in-law Sahiti.   What are you stirring? What are you scheming against me?  You consider yourselves equal to men, what is so good about you Who do I have except God, while you sisters’ in-law have each other Whoever does good in God’s name, he shall be rewarded in the future  Their future outcome is bad, Oh Waris who commit evil deeds272   The faces of men reveal goodness, the face of women shows evil Men are smart, intelligent and capable, what sense do women have Men are sensible and know contentment, and with contentment stay stable Cunning, deceitful and shrewd, these women have no decency Women in their silk clothes are hateful, while men in the simple dress are noble Oh Waris, men are foreign fruits, while women dried fruits273                                                 272 AMDy gYb ikauN iv`iFAw eI, swfy nwl ikAw ir`kqW cweIAW nI kryN nrW dy nwl brwbrI ikauN, AwK qusW ivc kOx BlAweIAw nI byksW dw koeI nw r`b bwJoN, qusIN dovyN innwx BrjweIAW nI ijhVw r`b dy nWau qy Blw kr sI, A`gy imlxgIAW Es BlweIAW nI Aqy iqnW dw hwl zbUn hosI, vwirs Swh jo krn buirAweIAw nI Sabir, P.222, Verse: 360. 273 mrd swd hn ichry nykIAW dy, sUrq rMn dI mIm mOkUP hY nI mrd Awlm &wzl Azl kwbl, iksy rMn nUM kOx vkUP hY nI sbr Prs hY mMinAw nyk mrdW, eyQy sbr dI vwg mwqUP hY nI  dPqr mkr Pryb qy KcrvweIAW, eynHw ipsiqAW ivc mlPUP hY nI rMn rySmI kp`Vw pihn muslI, mrd jo zkIdwr mSrUP hY nI vwirs Swh vwieqI mrd myvy, Aqy rMn imsvwk dw sUP hY nI Sabir, P.222-223, Verse: 361. 85  We see Waris Shah's Rāṅjhā as one that sees men as good, decent and intelligent; women on the other hand are portrayed as evil, conniving, and hateful. This distinction between women and men is seen further, through the work. Despite the broad range of flaws that the character of Rāṅjhā possesses, Hīr is never depicted by Waris Shah as referring to Rāṅjhā as evil, or conniving. He is not portrayed as having any flaws. Yet Waris Shah selects to allow Rāṅjhā to relentlessly make verbal attacks on the female gender. Rāṅjhā also accuses Hīr of being unfaithful and not being committed to him. The range of consistent insults that Shah directs at women through Rāṅjhā are both excessive and one sided, urging the reader to question Shah’s values. As demonstrated by the verse above, and pointed out by Singh, Shah frequently connects females to “deceit” and “fraud,” yet, Shah does not describe the character of Rāṅjhā or male characters in this manner; the connection with negative traits such as deceitful and fraudulent appear reserved for women.274 Waris Shah does not allow Hīr any way out when it comes to salvaging herself. Rāṅjhā refused to elope with her, and then blames her for marrying Saida. Rāṅjhā is conveniently exempted from taking any responsibility in the situation. Hīr is penalized despite her being the one that attempts to find a way for them to unite, while he passively accepts his fate. Oh Hīr, there is no enjoyment in love, if you elope This creates great trouble, I have heard many stories You deceitfully kept me herding buffaloes; these are the fraudulent ways of women Oh Waris Shah the goldsmiths know what is pure and what is not275                                                274 Singh, 64. 275 hIry ieSk nw mUl suAwd dyNdw, nwl corIAW Aqy auDwilAW dy  ikVW pONdIAW muTy sW dys iv`coN, iks`y suxy mn KUhxIAW gwilAW dy Tg`I nwl qUM mhIN crw ilAwaNu, eyhu rwh ny rMnW idAW cwilAW dy vwirs Swh srwP sB jwxdy nI, AYb KoitAW BMinAW rlwieAW dy Sabir, P.99, Verse: 180. 86  Pankaj Singh argues that the “patriarchal bias of Waris Shah reveals itself frequently in the voice of the omniscient narrator,”276 stressing that “Waris himself is no less eloquent than Rāṅjhā in denigrating women.277 Singh is correct in her assessment, as demonstrated by the verses above; all the shortcomings and obstacles that are faced by Hīr and Rāṅjhā being together are pinned upon the deficiencies in Hīr. Rāṅjhā is never blamed for any of his actions.   Misogyny is not unique to Waris Shah’s Hīr, however, as elements of it exist in other Sufi texts as well.  In his discussion on ascetic Sufi narratives, according to Aditya Behl the “eroticized female body” is a “centerpiece” which allows a man to “progress on his ascetic quest,"278 as the “male subject can be transformed only by using the woman's body as the erotic and aesthetic impetus to draw him out of himself.”279 In Sufi narratives “women were understood as vehicles of ideology”280 that allow men to advance in their spiritual ideology. Behl stresses that “such poetry indicates a deep cultural misogyny in which women's erotic bodies draw the seeker out of himself and on to the path to God, while the women themselves are ultimately sacrificed in the annihilation of the narrative universe.” Hence, features of misogyny have been present in Sufi narratives long before Waris Shah wrote Hīr. There is a difference however, in the way women are being used in previous Sufi narratives, such as the Prem-ākhyān, as described by Behl, where they were used as a tool for spiritual journey, in comparison to the way they are depicted in Shah’s Hīr. In Hīr, the female gender itself is more so attacked, as is their character.                                                 276 Singh, 63.  277 Ibid.  278 Behl, 218. 279 Ibid., 222. 280 Ibid., 182. 87  Summary While Shah has chosen to create a character for Rāṅjhā that represents him as challenging norms within his text, as well as appropriating sexuality to manipulate others, yet his character also expresses patriarchal condemnation of women's character. Shah portrays Rāṅjhā as a male protagonist who does not fully conform to any single typecast in the story, particularly that of the Jat masculine prototype, who would be recognized from land ownership and bravery.    Waris Shah’s portrayal of Rāṅjhā, especially his lack of land ownership and appearance of a “dandy” is breaking down gender norms as created in Shah’s plot, which do not work towards his advantage in the story. His sense of style is shown as failing to conform to traditional and religious customs, for which reason he faces the wrath of the mullah. At the same time, he is clearly alluring to other characters. His unique sense of style allows Rāṅjhā to generate a multivalent sense of what it means to be male in the narrative. His looks are able to entice females, and shown to mesmerize Hīr. Even the leader of the Nath yogis, Balnath is depicted as unable to resist his attraction to Rāṅjhā.   Although Rāṅjhā is portrayed as a character that despises conformity, Shah depicts parts of his behavior as being quite stereotypical for a man as recognized in the storyline. Rāṅjhā shows elements of chauvinism and as a misogynist, when he engages in a debate with Sahiti, voices his support for men, and has spirited arguments with Sahiti, during which time he also assaults her. Waris Shah’s showcasing of Rāṅjhā and degrading Hīr and female characters urges the reader to conclude that Rāṅjhā’s chauvinist voice is echoing the sentiments of Shah.  88  Conclusion Waris Shah’s ability to incorporate the culture and nuances of that time into his qissā is one of the reasons why it continues to hold a place in the hearts of Punjabis 250 years after it was written. In addition to illustrating the landscape and environment of the region, Shah showcases a narrative that discusses gender, social relations, caste, and kinship. Through poetic verses, dialogues, metaphors, and exchanges between characters, Hīr depicts an image of what gender norms look like according to Waris Shah.  The plot focuses on the love story of two primary characters, Hīr and Rāṅjhā, and through the treatment of both by society and characters in the story enable us to ascertain the gender norms which are being reinforced by the narrative. The marginalization and chastisement of Hīr Rāṅjhā in the course of the story demonstrates the social constructs that are being established. Waris Shah creates these complex characters, which stand out in comparison to others in the story, and Shah chooses to establish gender norms through chastising them when they deviate away from the norms he elects to establish.   Jeevan Deol argues that Hīr is a submissive and sexualized female. Ishwar Gaur on the other hand claims that Hīr is a rebellious character that rebels against the patriarchal society. However, both these scholars did not appreciate the complexities of Hīr. Deol does not consider the assertiveness of Hīr and the way that she violently attacks characters that dare come in her way or challenge her status. Deol also does not consider the defiance that she exercises in dialogue with her mother, father and the qāzī, as she persistently refuses to let Rāṅjhā go, even when they threaten her. Deol chooses to emphasize the isolated moments where Hīr is shown to submit to Rāṅjhā in love, which is not consistent throughout the text, and moreover, as Christopher Shackle supports, shows the Sufi nature of the narrative, a tradition Waris Shah 89  himself is part of. Gaur on the other hand amplifies Hir’s sense of rebellion, not questioning the aspect of intersectionality. Hīr most definitely does rebel in the story, but she rebels for love, not against the social structure she is part of. Hīr is both happy and content to be in the social status that she finds herself in, and the text exposes countless occasions where she demonstrates a preoccupation with status, shown particularly when she questions Rāṅjhā’s caste and status. Despite being rebellious and defiant, Hīr constantly loses every battle; she loses Rāṅjhā and is married off, is considered a disgrace every step of the story and in the end is killed by her clan. Utilizing Judith Butler’s concept of reprimand, we can see that Hīr is consistently reprimanded throughout the story, through which Shah demonstrates the social norms established. Through the character of Sahiti, a character which has not been dealt with significantly by scholars, Shah further establishes the female gender norm. In contrast to Hīr, Sahiti is shown as discreetly meeting her lover and never visibly defying her family in any way. Sahiti is comfortably seated in the patriarchal structure, and when she chooses to be with her love, she elopes with him, something Hīr and Rāṅjhā fail to do successfully throughout the story for various reasons. Sahiti understands that she cannot successfully live with her love in the social environment that she is in, and her comprehension of the social norms enables her to make sound strategic decisions.    Like Hir, Rāṅjhā’s character is also presented differently in comparison to other male characters, and through him, Waris Shah is establishing the masculine gender norms in his narrative. Rāṅjhā is reprimanded throughout the story, through which Shah is able to platform what he wants the reader to understand masculinity to be within the context of his narrative. Rāṅjhā is a Jat, belonging to the Rāṅjhā clan. His name itself identifies his caste, through which Shah reinforces the importance of class and status. His sense of status and masculinity are carved through ownership of property. In a pastoral setting the Jat caste are dependent upon land 90  ownership. Rāṅjhā’s lack of land prevents him from being considered a worthy match for Hīr, by family. He is disinherited by his family in the beginning, and this lack of land consistently reprimands him through the story. Hir’s family refuses to accept him and he undergoes one challenge after another to overcome this. Rāṅjhā’s appearance of a “dandy” is interesting. Rāṅjhā is chastised by the mullah for his unorthodox and unconventional appearance; however, there are moments that this look also rewards him in the story, particularly when the leader of the yogis agrees to initiate him, primarily because he felt an attraction to him. Rāṅjhā’s tender, delicate, and charming look is successful in winning over attention. However, in the end, his gentle look and passive nature do not succeed, as in comparison to other qissā heroes, such as Mirzā, who is discussed by Deol, his lack of courage, bravery and strength prevents him from stopping Hir’s marriage and making her his own. Rāṅjhā is not portrayed as strong enough to depict his own fate.   The social norms and sense of gender that Waris Shah demonstrates in his story reveal a patriarchal and misogynist perspective, particularly through the actions of Rāṅjhā. Rāṅjhā and men are rarely spoken against in the story, but Hīr and the female gender in general are consistently disrespected. The sense of loyalty and intelligence of women are constantly questioned. From the manner in which Rāṅjhā is depicted as abusing and assaulting females, especially the character of Sahiti, one can infer the standards that Shah is establishing. 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