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The establishment and expansion of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in British Columbia, 1974-2016. Leggett, Shannon Kelley 2017

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THE ESTABLISHMENT AND EXPANSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE (IB) IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1974-2016. by Shannon Kelley Leggett  B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1991 B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1992  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Social Studies Education)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  September 2017  © Shannon Kelley Leggett, 2017  ii Abstract  This qualitative historical context case study examines the factors that influenced the establishment and expansion of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in British Columbia (BC) from 1974-2016.   This study’s historical case, the IB in BC from 1974-2016, was examined through documents and 24 interviews, in the context of international IB policies and experience, as well as the BC educational environment (including BC Ministry of Education policy, University of British Columbia policy, population demographics, and local school configurations).  The period 1974-2016 was chosen as 1974 was the date that the first IB school in BC was established, and because the International Baccalaureate Organization provided registration data on BC schools through October of 2016. After an overview of the history of the establishment of the IB in BC, the findings were organized into the “factors/reasons” that influenced the establishment and expansion of the IB. These included the impact of the Global Education movement, the IB philosophy, its curriculum and pedagogy, legislative factors, economic factors, tertiary education policies, and alumni reflection/programme reputation.  These findings were followed by an analysis of how the new 2015 BC Curriculum (BCEd Plan) impacted and could continue to impact the IB in BC.  Overall, the IB was established and expanded in BC in this time period as the various school stakeholders who adopted it were looking for a well-developed, cyclically reviewed, externally accountable curriculum.  Though the IB is expensive to implement and is often academically demanding, its expansion was encouraged by various legislative and administrative changes that helped it to become an attractive curricular option.  The history of the IB in BC has implications for educational reform initiatives elsewhere in Canada and internationally.  iii Lay Summary  This study explores the factors that contributed to the establishment and expansion of the International Baccalaureate in BC as a curricular alternative from 1974-2016.  It utilizes documents and interviews from BC and internationally to try to understand the reasons for the changes in the BC. The IB was established and expanded due to the impact of the Global Education movement, the IB philosophy, its curriculum and pedagogy, legislative and economic factors, tertiary education policies, and programme reputation.  The IB in BC was also analyzed in the context of the 2015 BC curriculum changes.  The IB was established and expanded in BC as the school stakeholders who adopted it were looking for a well-developed, cyclically reviewed, externally accountable curriculum.  Though the IB is expensive to implement and can be academically demanding, its expansion was encouraged by legislative and administrative changes that helped it to become an attractive curricular option.    iv Preface  The research carried out for this thesis was reviewed by the University of British Columbia’s Behavioral Research Ethics Board.  This study, numbered H16-01261 and titled “The International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme in British Columbia, 1974-2016,” was approved June 27, 2016 with Dr. Peter Seixas as the Principal Investigator.  I was wholly responsible for the identification and design of the research program, the performance of the research, and the analysis of the research data, with review and guidance from the supervisory committee.    v Table of Contents  Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………. ii Lay Summary…………………………………………………………………………………... iii Preface…………………………………………………………………………………………... iv Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………….  v List of Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………… x Glossary………………………………………………………………………………………… xi Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………….  xvii Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………… xviii Chapter 1 Introduction and Conceptual Framework…………..…………………………… 1 1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.2 The International Baccalaureate (IB): an Overview…………………………………………. 5 1.3 Positioning the Researcher……………………………………………………….…………. 11 1.4 The IB in Canada and British Columbia……………………………………………………. 15 1.5 Framing the Research Problem……………………………………………………………... 23 1.6 Thesis Overview……………………………………………………………………………. 25 Chapter 2 A Review of the Literature…………………………………………………….….. 27 2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………...………….. 27 2.2 The International Baccalaureate……………………………………………………….…… 28 2.3 School Stakeholder Curriculum Choice…………………………………………………….. 41 2.4 The IB and Academic Achievement………………………………………………………... 45 2.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………..… 54  vi Chapter 3 Methodology…………………………………………………………………..…… 56 3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….…… 56 3.2 Research Design…………………………………………………………………………….. 56 3.3 Data Collection……………………………………………………………………….…….. 58  3.3.1 Document Selection…………………………………………………………...….. 58  3.3.2 Participant Interviews…………………………………………………………..… 58   3.3.2.1 Participant Sample……………………………………………………… 59   3.3.2.2 Participant Recruitment……………………………………………..….. 60   3.3.2.3 Participant Interview Process…………………………………………… 61 3.4 Analysis of the Data………………………………………………………………………… 62 3.5 Ethical Considerations…………………………………………………………………...…. 64 3.6 Strengths and Limitations of the Research Design……………………………………...….. 65 3.7 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..…… 66 Chapter 4 The Establishment of the IB in British Columbia…………………………..…... 67 4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….…………………… 67 4.2 British Columbia Education in the 1970s Neo-Progressive Era and its Impact on the Implementation of the First IB Programmes in BC………………………………………….…. 67 4.3 The Establishment of the IB in BC: the 20th Century “Pioneer” Schools…………………... 72 4.4 The Establishment of the Continuum in BC Schools………………………………………. 93 4.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………… 100 Chapter 5 Findings: Factors for the Expansion of the IB in BC……………………..…… 101 5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….………………….. 101  vii 5.2 The impact of an Increased Interest in Global Education on the Implementation of the IB in BC…………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 102 5.3 Attractiveness of the IB Philosophy………………………………………………………. 103 5.4 Pedagogical Reasons…………………………………………………………………..…..  111  5.4.1 IB Curricular Appeal…………………………………………………………..… 111   5.4.1.1 Specific Aspects of the IB Curriculum that are Appealing……………  111   5.4.1.2 The Rigor of the IB………………………………………………….… 114   5.4.1.3 Conclusion Regarding Curricular Appeal…………………………..…. 120  5.4.2 Finding Resources to Implement the Programmes…………………………..….. 121  5.4.3 Professional Development and Teacher Implementation of the IB……………... 123   5.4.3.1 IB Professional Development Opportunities……………………...…..  123   5.4.3.2 IB Professional Development Challenges………………………...…... 127   5.4.3.3 IB and Tertiary-Level Teacher Education…………………………….. 128   5.4.3.4 IB Professional Development Conclusion…………………………..… 129  5.4.4 Staffing Challenges in IB Public Schools……………………………………….. 130 5.5 Legislative Reasons………………………………………………………………..……… 132 5.6 Economic Reasons………………………………………………………………………… 137  5.6.1 Paying for the IB Programme…………………………………………………… 137 5.6.2 The Independent School Act and its New School Funding Formula……………. 139 5.6.3 “Open Enrollment” and a New Provincial Funding Formula for Public Schools. 142 5.7 Tertiary Education-Related Reasons…………………………………………………..…..  150  5.7.1 The IB and “Dual Credit”………………………………………………….……. 150  5.7.2 The IB and University Entrance………………………………………………… 152  viii 5.8 Alumni Reflection/Programme Reputation Reasons……………………………………..  156 5.9 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..…….. 160 Chapter 6 The Future of the IB in BC as Related to the 2015/16 BC Curriculum Change162 6.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………...…… 162 6.2 Overview of the BC Ministry of Education Curriculum Changes: BCEd Plan…………… 163 6.3 The Place of the IB in the BCEd Plan: Successes and Challenges for the IB Programme in its Alignment with the New Curriculum………………………………………………………..... 165  6.3.1 Provincial Curriculum Redesign………………………………………….……..  165   6.3.1.1 The IB and BC Curriculum Before the BCEd Plan…………………… 165   6.3.1.2 Bill 36 in BCEd Plan Allowed for Curriculum Delivery Flexibility….  166   6.3.1.3 BC Curriculum Implementation and the Use of Technology IB overlap167   6.3.1.4 IB Approaches to Learning (ATL) and the BC Curriculum Core Competencies………………………………………………………………………………….. 168   6.3.1.5 IB Approaches to Teaching (ATT) skills and the New BC Curriculum. 173   6.3.1.6 Specific Example of the Overlap Between the IB and BCEd Curricula. 176   6.3.1.7 Continued negotiations between the IB and BC Ministry of Education. 177   6.3.1.8 Conclusion Regarding the Overlap of the IB and New BC curriculum. 178  6.3.2 Provincial Assessment Redesign………………………………………….…….. 179  6.3.3 Graduation Program Redesign…………………………………………….…….. 183 6.4 The Future of the IB in BC………………………………………………………………... 186  6.4.1 BC: a Leader for Others……………………………………………………….… 186  6.4.2 IB Philosophy and Curriculum are Attractive, but are they for every Student?.... 187  6.4.3 Future IB Teacher Opportunities in and outside BC………………………..…..  190  ix  6.4.4 IB Bureaucracy and the Expansion of the IB……………………………..……..  191  6.4.5 How to Increase Access to the IB When it is so Expensive?................................. 192 6.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………… 197 Chapter 7 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….…….  199 7.1 Conclusion Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 199 7.2 The Place of the IB as a Curricular Choice in British Columbia………………………...... 199 7.3 Significance of the Research……………………………………………………….……… 204 7.4 Implications for Future Research…………………………………………………...……..  205 7.5 Some Final Thoughts………………………………………………………………..…….. 206 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 208 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………...……….. 234  Appendix 1 Expansion of IB Programme Enrollment in BC 1974-2016……………... 234  Appendix 2 Table of Growth of IB Schools in BC Year by Year, Independent/Public. 235  Appendix 3 “Facilitating the Transition Among the IB Programmes” Diagram……… 244  Appendix 4 Initial Contact Letter to Interviewees…………………………………….  245  Appendix 5 List of Interviewees………………………………………………………. 247  Appendix 6 Consent Form for Interviewees…………………………………………... 250  Appendix 7 Questions for Interviewees……………………………………………….. 253  Appendix 8 Final Consent Form for Interviewees…………………………………….  254  Appendix 9 Increase in Public vs. Independent Schools in BC 1974-2016 ………….. 256  Appendix 10 UBC Dual Credit for IB Courses as of December 2015………………... 257  Appendix 11 Requests from BCAIBWS re IB Courses for BC Dogwood Credit…….  258    x List of Abbreviations   Approaches to Learning — ATL British Columbia Association of International Baccalaureate World Schools —  BCAIBWS Career-related Programme — CP Conseil Scolaire Francophone de la Colombie-Britannique — CSF “Creativity, Action, Service” – CAS  Diploma Years Programme —DP Extended Essay — EE  Full Time Equivalent — FTE Higher Level — HL International Baccalaureate — IB International Baccalaureate North America — IBNA International Baccalaureate Organization — IBO Middle Years Programme — MYP MyEducation BC —  MYED BC Primary Years Programme — PYP Standard Level — SL  Theory of Knowledge — TOK     xi Glossary Approaches to Learning (ATL): Five skill categories (communication, social, self-management, research, thinking) that are the foundation for learning in the IB continuum.1 BCAIBWS: The provincial association of British Columbia Association of International Baccalaureate World Schools. BCEd Plan: The new BC curriculum as of 2015/16.2 As of 2015/16 it is also synonymous with the Dogwood Diploma. Candidate: The term used to refer to a DP student who is in the process of trying to earn the DP diploma. Candidate school: An IB “candidate” school is one that is in the process of becoming authorized.3 Career-related Programme (CP): An alternate graduation path programme with a careers-focus. It began to be offered in 2012. Continuum: A school/s that offer more than one IB programme.  A partial continuum school/schools offers more than one programme, and a full continuum school/schools offers the PYP/MYP/DP and/or CP. Core: For DP candidates to receive their IB Diploma, they must successfully complete a 4000-                                                1 "Approaches to Learning (ATL)," IB Middle Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=m_0_mypxx_guu_1409_1_e&part=3&chapter=4. 2 BC's Education Plan," Education and Training, last modified 2015, accessed August 3, 2017, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/support/bcs-education-plan. 3 BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016 (Bethesda, Maryland: IBO, 2016).    xii word Extended Essay (EE), Theory of Knowledge (TOK) course, and “Creativity, Action, Service” (CAS).4 Core Competencies: The skills that the new BCEd Plan has identified as being transdisciplinary skills: Communication, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Positive Personal & Cultural Identity, Personal Awareness and Responsibility, Social Responsibility.5 CSF (Conseil Scolaire Francophone de la Colombie-Britannique): Schools in BC that are part of the French-speaking board.  They do not include French immersion schools (those are part of the local English school boards). Dogwood diploma: “A certificate granted to a student who meets high school graduation requirements [in BC]. Also known as the British Columbia Certificate of Graduation (1995/96).”6  Synonymous with the “BC Graduation Program.”  As of 2015/16 synonymous with the “Building Student Success” BCEd Plan new curriculum. Diploma Years Programme (DP): The graduation programme offered over two years for the last two years of high school (in BC that is Grade 11 and 12).  It was the first IB programme and it began to be offered in 1968. Dual Credit: “credit for secondary school graduation that is also recognized for transfer of credit in courses and programs in post-secondary institutions.”7                                                 4 "Core Requirements: Extended Essay, Theory of Knowledge and Creativity, Action, Service Subject Brief," International Baccalaureate Organization, 2011, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/recognition/core_2011.pdf. 5 "Core Competencies: Critical Thinking," BC's New Curriculum, last modified 2016, accessed July 27, 2017, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/competencies. 6 Ministry of Education, Skills and Training Annual Report July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1997, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1997). 7 Ministry of Education 1998/99 Annual Report, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1999),  xiii Dual Track: A school that offers the DP and the BC Dogwood diploma graduation path programs. Externally credentialed: “External Credential: External courses, programs and credentials are developed and/or offered outside the BC school system. Students who successfully complete external courses, programs, or credentials approved by the ministry earn credit toward Grade 12 graduation.”8 Full Time Equivalent (FTE): A term associated with a BC “School Age Student.” “Calculated based on 8 courses being one FTE (full time equivalent.) Each full course (four credits) is funded as 0.125 of an FTE, up to 8 courses. A base minimum of 0.5 FTE is provided for secondary school age (non-graduated) students.”9 Higher Level (HL): A term associated with the DP: full DP candidates must take three HL courses that have many more contact hours (240)/more academic demands than the other Standard Level (SL) courses). IBNA: IB North America, the largest, fastest growing IB region.  As of 2016 it is known as IBA (IBAmericas). Independent school: “A school in BC established as an alternative to the public school system is required to operate according to the Independent School Act and falls within the jurisdiction of the Office of the Independent Schools… [in contrast to the terminology in] Ontario: The                                                 8 Ibid. 9 "FTE: School Age Student," Glossary, last modified 2016, accessed August 7, 2017, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/legislation-policy/glossary.  xiv Ministry of Education uses the phrase private schools when referring to alternatives to the public school system.”10 Independent School Act: An act passed by the BC government in 1996 that provided for increased public funding of independent schools. Interested school: A school has expressed “interest” in the IB but has “not yet started the authorization process.”11 International Mindedness: A pervasive aspect of the IB continuum that involves multilingualism, international understanding, and global engagement.12 IB or IBO: The “IBO” was the title of the IB international education foundation until it underwent a reorganization in 2007 and became known as the “International Baccalaureate (IB).”  The term “IB” can refer to the overall educational organization, any of the four programmes, as well as components within each of those programmes. The term “International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO)” or “ibo.org” is used when citing copyrighted materials.13 IB World School: A school that offers any of the IB programmes (PYP, MYP, DP, CP).                                                 10 Robin Hinnell, "Is there a difference between private and independent schools? Parent answers & comments," Our Kids, accessed July 10, 2017, http://www.ourkids.net/school/community-question.php?id=8. 11 BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016 (Bethesda, Maryland: IBO, 2016).   12 Christine Amiss, Robert Harrison, and Carol Inugai-Dixon, "Inspiring International Mindedness through the IB Continuum," Power point, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2015, http://www.ibo.org/contentassets/477a9bccb5794081a7bb8dd0ec5a4d17/inspiringinternationalmindednessibaem2011final.pdf. 13 Stephen D. Lapan, Research Essentials, Content Technologies, 2014, accessed July 12, 2017,  https://books.google.ca/books?id=HyI6aUu98REC&pg=PT75&lpg=PT75&dq=2007+name+change+reorganization+of+international+baccalaureate&source=bl&ots=gHtlcrHp3r&sig=uHJjIN2kQ6h6H5I8F_iS09OHI_k&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjH-8CCkYDVAhUQzWMKHRbgBv4Q6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=2007%20name%20change%20reorganization%20of%20international%20baccalaureate&f=false.  xv Learner Profile: Ten attributes that IB students are encouraged to be across the IB continuum: inquirers, knowledgeable, thinkers, communicators, principled, open-minded, caring, risk-takers, balanced, reflective.14 Middle Years Programme (MYP): The IB programme offered to Grades 6-10.  It began to be offered in 1994. MyEducation BC (MYED BC): an online system set up by the BC government whereby teachers, administrators, and parents can see grades, attendance and other selected information about a student. Open enrollment: A BC provincial policy that allows for students to go to any school in the province, not just the one in their local school or district catchment area.15  Pamoja: The online IB authorized course provider.16 Partnership schools: When a singular IB programme spans two different schools e.g. in Vancouver an Middle Years Programme starts in two elementary schools (Elsie Roy and Lord Roberts) and ends in a high school (King George Secondary school). Primary Years Programme (PYP): The IB programme offered in elementary schools from K-5. It began to be offered in 1997.                                                 14 "The IB Learner Profile," IB as a District or National Curriculum, last modified 2016, accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.ibo.org/benefits/learner-profile/. 15 Daniel J. Brown, School Choice Under Open Enrollment, Kelowna, BC: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education (SAEE), 2004, accessed August 7, 2017, 9, https://books.google.ca/books?id=NdbJY5-wEDAC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=School+Choice+Under+Open+Enrollment+Daniel+J+Brown&source=bl&ots=CIwBY7Q96f&sig=MCuwHuRT4rcaYq18zeijvMrVoH8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBqNm0j8bVAhULwGMKHcNDCIUQ6AEIMjAD#v=onepage&q=School%20Choice%20Under%20Open%20Enrollment%20Daniel%20J%20Brown&f=false. 16 "Home Page," Pamoja, accessed July 29, 2017, http://www.pamojaeducation.com/.  xvi Standard Level (SL): A term associated with the DP: full DP candidates need to take three HL courses and the rest are SL courses that have fewer (150) contact hours/fewer academic demands.   xvii Acknowledgements  I would like to acknowledge the Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy at the University of British Columbia for their encouragement of me as a student and educator.  I would like to thank my supervisory committee for their guidance and support throughout my coursework and thesis completion.  Dr. Peter Seixas was my inspiration when I first became a Social Studies teacher and his Historical Thinking Concepts are at the core of much of what I try to do as an educator: I would not have pursued nor been able to complete my Masters of Arts without his thoughtful support, even after he retired.  Dr. Penney Clark’s history of Canadian education course planted the seed for the topic of this thesis, and in the process of being my supervisor she challenged me to become a better writer: I cannot thank her enough for her fastidious feedback.  My professor and Graduate Advisor Dr. Anne Phelan engaged me in thought-provoking intellectual inquiry, reminded me of the importance of “care” in the pedagogical process, and taught me how important it is to recognize that “life is a dance.”  I would like to thank the interviewees and Emily Vanderkamp at the IBO in Bethesda, MD, without whom this research would not have been possible.  Finally, I would like to thank my daughter Marie, my parents Dr. John C. Leggett and Iris Leggett, my friends, former students, and colleagues for their influence and supportive encouragement.     xviii Dedication  For my daughter Marie Leggett-Vasilieva, without whose support (“You Can Do It, Mama!!!”), patience (“I am just going to ignore that you just said that to me….!”), and humour (making up and singing the “Back It Up!” song with me, amongst many other moments of levity), this would not have been possible!   All things are possible until they are proved impossible; even the impossible may only be so, as of now.  ~ Pearl S. Buck  1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Conceptual Framework 1.1 Introduction In a competitive academic environment in British Columbia, students have been choosing to not complete the regular BC Dogwood Diploma courses,17 and instead have registered in advanced academic curricula that are “externally credentialed”18 by the BC government, such as the International Baccalaureate (IB) programme.19  The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) began to implement the first IB programme in the 1960s, offering a “global perspective” curriculum with multi-faceted pedagogical and curricular connections leading to an advanced diploma. The IB has been a curricular option in British Columbia since 1974, with enrolment particularly expanding20 after certain educational changes: in 1995 the BC Ministry of Education’s Graduation Program recognized the IB Diploma Programme (DP) beyond offering “special courses” to attaining provincial course authorization status with many of its courses being able to fulfill required graduation credits; the Independent School Act of 1996 led to some non-state schools being able to better afford to offer the IB as some received provincial funding;                                                 17 “Dogwood Diploma: a certificate granted to a student who meets high school graduation requirements.  Also known as the British Columbia Certificate of Graduation (1995/96).” Ministry of Education, Skills and Training Annual Report July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1997, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1997), 80. 18 “External Credential: External courses, programs and credentials are developed and/or offered outside the BC school system.  Students who successfully complete external courses, programs, or credentials approved by the ministry earn credit toward Grade 12 graduation,” Ministry of Education 1998/99 Annual Report, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1999), 37. 19 In these curriculum documents, the BC government is referring to one of the four IB curricular options, the Diploma Programme (DP). "Getting Credit to Graduate: International Baccalaureate," BC Ministry of Education, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/support/graduation/getting-credit-to-graduate/international-baccalaureate. The word “programme” is spelt with British spelling when it is referring to the “IB programme” as that is how the International Baccalaureate Organization spells it; otherwise, the spelling of “program” (American, sometimes/often Canadian spelling) will be utilized.  Sometimes articles/organizations that are cited mix the two spellings, so the spelling that is in the original text will be used. 20 See Appendix 1.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," Unpublished raw data, International Baccalaureate Organization, Bethesda, MD, October 2016.  2 in 1998 DP students were able to obtain “dual credit”21 at more universities than ever before including, for the first time, all faculties at the University of British Columbia (UBC)22; in 2002 funding for school districts changed and “open enrollment”23 allowed students to be able to move out of their catchment area (both within the district the student resided in as well as to other districts) to a school they preferred (e.g. those with special programs like the IB), and those schools received more funds based on the number of students, and the number of courses those students were taking.  As of 2016, there were 62 IB programmes offered in 45 BC schools.24 As well, there were 2825 more schools that were “candidate”26 or had “interested”27 IB school status.28 The IB offers four programmes: the Primary Years Programme (PYP) from Grades K-5, the Middle Years Programme (MYP) from Grades 6-10, the Diploma Programme (DP) in Grades 11 and 12, and Career-related Programme (CP), an alternative to the DP that is offered in Grades 11 and 12.  The DP was the first IB programme, internationally, in Canada, and in BC, and continues to be the largest: of the 289 secondary schools in BC,29 in 2016 the DP was offered in 28 of them, with                                                 21 “Dual Credit: credit for secondary school graduation that is also recognized for transfer of credit in courses and programs in post-secondary institutions.” Ministry of Education 1998/99 Annual Report op. cit., 37.  22 "Minutes of November 18, 1998, Vancouver Senate Secretariat, Senate and Curriculum Services, The University of British Columbia," University of British Columbia, November 18, 1998, http://senate.ubc.ca/sites/senate.ubc.ca/files/downloads/va_minutes_november1998.pdf. 11962. 23 “Open enrollment” is a provincial policy that allows for students to go to any school in the province, not just the one in their local school or district catchment area. Daniel J. Brown, School Choice Under Open Enrollment, Kelowna, BC: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education (SAEE), 2004, accessed August 7, 2017, 9, https://books.google.ca/books?id=NdbJY5-wEDAC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=School+Choice+Under+Open+Enrollment+Daniel+J+Brown&source=bl&ots=CIwBY7Q96f&sig=MCuwHuRT4rcaYq18zeijvMrVoH8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiBqNm0j8bVAhULwGMKHcNDCIUQ6AEIMjAD#v=onepage&q=School%20Choice%20Under%20Open%20Enrollment%20Daniel%20J%20Brown&f=false. 24 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," Unpublished raw data, International Baccalaureate Organization, Bethesda, MD, October 2016. 25 Ibid. 26 An IB “candidate” school is one that is in the process of becoming authorized. Ibid. 27 A school has expressed “interest” in the IB but has “not yet started the authorization process.” Ibid. 28 If a school offers one of the four IB programmes, it is considered an “IB school.” 29 Peter Cowley and Stephen Easton, Report Card on British Columbia's Secondary Schools 2015 (Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 2015),  https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/british-columbia-secondary-school- 3 that number having nearly doubled since 2008.30  Interestingly, it is difficult to ascertain how many specific students are registered in the IB in BC or in any country.  As Tristan Bunnell stated in his 2011 study of the MYP, “It is impossible to ascertain the exact number of young people undertaking the MYP as many schools do not enter students for certification and external moderation.”31  This would be the same for the PYP.  DP students have registration numbers that they obtain in November of their 2nd year of the DP (Grade 12), and the IBO has registration statistics, but those registration numbers can fluctuate (e.g. students can drop out of sitting an exam in a specific subject) depending on the time of year that those statistics are requested.  However, according to the official statistics from the IBO in Bethesda, MA, the number of registered DP students in BC has gone from 661 in 1990 (the 1st date that data was made available) to 1676 students in 2015.32 This thesis focuses on the factors that influenced the establishment and expansion of the IB in British Columbia from 1974-2016.  It analyzes a wide variety of primary and secondary source materials including government legislation, school board minutes, interviews with key educators, and academic journals and books on the IB.                                                                                                                                                         rankings-2015.pdf 33-36. And "Diploma Programme Schools (Public and Private) in British Columbia, Canada," Find an IB World School, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed Sept 21, 2016, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/find-an-ib-school/?SearchFields.Region=&SearchFields.Country=CA&SearchFields.State=BC&SearchFields.Keywords=&SearchFields.Language=&SearchFields.BoardingFacilities=&SearchFields.SchoolGender=&SearchFields.ProgrammeDP=true. 30 See Appendix 1. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 31 Tristan Bunnell, "The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme after 30 Years: A Critical Inquiry," Journal of Research in International Education, 10, (2011): 263, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1475240911423604. 32 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," unpublished raw data, International Baccalaureate Organization, Bethesda, MD, July 2016.  4 The primary goal of this thesis is to analyze the factors that led to its establishment and expansion in both public and independent33 BC schools, and to hypothesize the future trajectory based on the history as well as current trends of the IB in the province. In order to do this, qualitative research was conducted in the form of a historical context case study of the IB in British Columbian schools from 1974-2016.  The IB has been usefully characterized as having “Three Generations:”34 1. “The Age of Heroes” (1960s-early 1980s) when educational pioneers forged a path to implement this unique international curriculum; 2. “The Age of Organization” (early 1980s-early 2000s) where the IB managed themselves better with standards, evaluations and applications with the goal of producing quality assured management; 3. “The Age of Influence” (mid 2000s on) where the IB influences a wide variety of public and private35 national, state/provincial, and local (city) educational systems.  For example, as of 2014 many of the public schools in the country of Ecuador were on track to having enacted or were adopting the IB.36 As of 2014, Chicago Public Schools (CPS) housed more IB schools than any other school district in the US, with more than 15 000 students in attendance.37  In Nova Scotia any student who wants to take the DP can enroll                                                 33 “A school in BC established as an alternative to the public school system is required to operate according to the Independent School Act and falls within the jurisdiction of the Office of the Independent Schools… [in contrast to the terminology in] Ontario: The Ministry of Education uses the phrase private schools when referring to alternatives to the public school system.” Robin Hinnell, "Is there a difference between private and independent schools? Parent answers & comments," Our Kids, accessed July 10, 2017, http://www.ourkids.net/school/community-question.php?id=8. 34 Leo Boissy, interview by Shannon Leggett, Vancouver, BC., July 8, 2016. 35 Term to describe non-state schools. For example, a British definition is “An independent school supported wholly by the payment of fees.” An American definition is “A school supported by a private organization or private individuals rather than by the state.” "Private School," Oxford Living Dictionaries: English (London: Oxford University Press, 2017), https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/private_school.  36 President of Ecuador joins a ceremony for 56 new IB World Schools," News About the IB, December 2, 2014, http://www.ibo.org/news/news-about-the-ib/president-of-ecuador-joins-a-ceremony-for-56-new-ib-world-schools/.  37 "Mayor Emanuel, CPS Announce City-Wide Expansion of International Baccalaureate Programme: Expansion Creates IB Campuses Pairing Elementary and Wall-to-Wall IB High Schools, Creating the Largest IB Network in the Country," Chicago Public Schools news release, April 21, 2014,  http://cps.edu/News/Press_releases/Pages/PR1_04_21_2014.aspx.  5 in it and the province will pay for it.38  The province of British Columbia recognizes the value of the IB both formally and informally: it is formally recognized as having external credential status,39 and informally, as I will show part of the new 2015/2016 BC “Building Student Success” BCEd Plan curriculum40 has adopted aspects of the IB curriculum.  This chapter will begin with describing an overview of the IB.  This will be followed by my description of myself as a researcher. I will then provide an overview of the evolution of the IB in Canada and BC. Subsequently, I will describe my research problem and guiding questions, and the chapter will conclude with a summary of the chapters of the thesis. 1.2 The International Baccalaureate (IB): an Overview When a mobile, transnational commuting culture developed in the post-war era, there was a need for “Education for globally mobile children, such as those with parents in the diplomatic corps… [that catered] to both national and international perspectives.”41  The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) or IB42 is a                                                  38 "Nova Scotia IB Practices," In Education and Early Childhood Development: Nova Scotia, Province of Nova Scotia, 2016, accessed July 12, 2017,  https://ib.ednet.ns.ca/IB-in-NS/practices. 39 “Students can earn external credentials by taking courses, programs or activities that fall outside the normal B.C. school curriculum. An example might be graduation credits for Grades 10, 11 or 12 given to students who have completed B.C. Conservatory of Music training. Because these courses are developed and offered outside the B.C. school system, they must meet specific criteria in order to be authorized as an external credential course – this includes the same (or greater) level of depth, breadth, and rigour as would be found in Ministry-developed Grade 10, 11 or 12 courses, as well as an evaluation component that assesses the intended learning outcomes. Organizations offering these kinds of courses must also: Be governed by a provincial, national or international body; Have certified instructors; Be non-discriminatory and offer credentials that are available to a significant number of students throughout B.C.” "External Credentials," BC Ministry of Education, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/support/graduation/getting-credit-to-graduate/external-credentials.  40 “BC's Education Plan," Education and Training, last modified 2015, accessed August 3, 2017, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/support/bcs-education-plan. 41 Ian Hill and Susan Saxton, "The International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme: An International Gateway to Higher Education and beyond," Higher Learning Research Communications 4, (2014): 43, http://www.hlrcjournal.com/index.php/HLRC/article/view/123. 42 The “IBO” was the title of the IB international education foundation until it underwent a reorganization in 2007 and became known as the “International Baccalaureate (IB).”  The term “IB” can refer to the overall educational organization, any of the four programmes, as well as components within each of those programmes. The term  6 a non-profit educational foundation offering…highly respected programmes of international education that develop the intellectual, personal, emotional and social skills needed to live, learn and work in a rapidly globalizing world. Schools must be authorized, by the IB organization, to offer any of the programmes.43  The IB was first implemented in Geneva, Switzerland.44 Its official Mission Statement, created in 1996,45 articulated the unique purpose of the organization since its founding:  The International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.46  The DP was the first IB programme that was offered, and the teaching of it began in 1968.  By the end of the year, the DP was offered in twelve schools in ten countries.47  The IB expanded internationally through private and public educational institutions primarily due to the “denationalization” of national education systems48 at the end of the 20th century. The United                                                                                                                                                        “International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO)” or “ibo.org” is used when citing copyrighted materials. Stephen D. Lapan, Research Essentials, Content Technologies, 2014, accessed July 12, 2017,  https://books.google.ca/books?id=HyI6aUu98REC&pg=PT75&lpg=PT75&dq=2007+name+change+reorganization+of+international+baccalaureate&source=bl&ots=gHtlcrHp3r&sig=uHJjIN2kQ6h6H5I8F_iS09OHI_k&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjH-8CCkYDVAhUQzWMKHRbgBv4Q6AEINjAC#v=onepage&q=2007%20name%20change%20reorganization%20of%20international%20baccalaureate&f=false. 43 "About the IB," International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/.  44 “The IB: an historical perspective," Power point. International Baccalaureate Organization, 2015, accessed July 12, 2017, 12, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/digital-tookit/presentations/1503-presentation-historyoftheib-en.pdf.  45 Ibid. 46 "What is an IB Education?" The IB Programme Continuum of International Education, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/digital-tookit/brochures/what-is-an-ib-education-en.pdf. 47 “The IB: an historical perspective," op. cit. NB. Three different reputable sources give different numbers of schools and countries, so I chose to use the IB’s own source. 48 Julia Resnik, "The Denationalization of Education and the Expansion of the International Baccalaureate," Comparative Education Review 56, (May 2012): 248-69, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/661770?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.  7 States became the largest IB provider;49 Canada is the second largest IB and DP provider,50 and as of 2013 was the largest on a per capita basis.51  As of September 2016, the IB had over a million students52 in 4543 IB World53 schools in 5894 programmes worldwide.54  Although the number of students who were taking the IB globally was a small percentage of those enrolled in public or private school systems internationally, according to Tarc “…[the] IB’s influence extends beyond the number of its users. IB has a significant and growing presence in policy and curricular reform and in the media.”55  Since it was founded, the IB has expanded the number of programmes it offers to create curricula designed for students aged 3-19. The DP, the first IB programme, was instituted with the goal   …to provide a challenging and comprehensive education that would enable students to understand and manage the complexities of our world and provide them with skills and attitudes for taking responsible action for the future. Such an education was rooted in the belief that people who are equipped to make a more just and peaceful world need an education that crosses disciplinary, cultural, national and                                                 49 "Facts about IB Programmes and Schools," Facts and Figures, International Baccalaureate Organization, last modified September 29, 2016, http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/facts-and-figures/. The US also has the most number of Diploma Programmes, "The IB Diploma Programme Statistical Bulletin: May 2016 Examination Session," International Baccalaureate Organization, October, 2016, accessed July 12, 2017,  http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/Utils/getFile2.cfm?source=/ibis/occ/home/subjectHome.cfm&filename=dSpace%2Fen%2Fd%5Fx%5Fdpyyy%5Fstb%5F1605%5F1%5Fe%2Epdf. 12. 50 "Facts about IB Programmes and Schools," op.cit. Canada has the second largest number of Diploma Programmes, "The IB Diploma Programme Statistical Bulletin: May 2016 Examination Session," op. cit.,11. 51Marc Abrioux and Jill Rutherford, Introducing the IB Diploma Programme (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 18.  52 "Benefits of the IB." International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/benefits/. 53 “In order to offer one or more International Baccalaureate® (IB) programmes of education, schools must complete an authorization process. Once they have been authorized, they are known as “IB World Schools.” "Become an IB World School," International Baccalaureate Organization, last modified 2016, http://www.ibo.org/become-an-ib-school/. 54 "Facts about IB Programmes and Schools," op. cit. 55 Paul Tarc, Global Dreams, Enduring Tensions: International Baccalaureate in a Changing World (New York: Peter Lang, 2009), 6, https://books.google.ca/books?id=OFUX-MvwveAC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=Paul+Tarc,+Global+Dreams,+Enduring+Tensions:+International+Baccalaureate+in+a+Changing+World&source=bl&ots=TWbYuh16Rx&sig=lxFUegbPvauMjVNoqYtTd4ntfWQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirkZO6woXVAhUP3GMKHXkqDIMQ6AEIPTAE#v=onepage&q=Paul%20Tarc%2C%20Global%20Dreams%2C%20Enduring%20Tensions%3A%20International%20Baccalaureate%20in%20a%20Changing%20World&f=false.   8 geographical boundaries.56  The IB expanded its offerings from just having a graduation (DP) programme to include four age/grade-based components in what has become the “IB continuum:57” PYP (1997), MYP (1994), DP (1968), and CP (2012).58  A unifying concept of the continuum is the “Learner Profile” that contains ten attributes that IB students are encouraged to be: inquirers, knowledgeable, thinkers, communicators, principled, open-minded, caring, risk-takers, balanced, reflective. 59  The Learner Profile was created to help to fulfill a key aim of the IB:  to develop internationally minded people who, recognizing their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world…these attributes… can help individuals and groups become responsible members of local, national and global communities.60  Another unifying concept of the continuum is the Approaches to Learning (ATL), five skill categories (communication, social, self-management, research, thinking) that  …provide a solid foundation for learning independently and with others. ATL skills help students prepare for, and demonstrate learning through, meaningful assessment. They provide a common language that students and teachers can use to reflect on, and articulate on, the process of learning.61                                                 56 "What is an IB Education?" op. cit. 57 "Teaching More than One IB Programme," IB Programmes, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/teach-more-than-one-ib-programme/. 58 "Career-related Programme." International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/career-related-programme/. There are two schools in Canada that offer the Careers Programme as of September 2016, one in London, Ont, and the other in Edmonton, AB. "Career-related Programme: Find an IB World School Canada," International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/find-anibschool/?SearchFields.Region=&SearchFields.Country=CA&SearchFields.State=&SearchFields.Keywords=&SearchFields.Language=&SearchFields.BoardingFacilities=&SearchFields.SchoolGender=&SearchFields.ProgrammeCR=true. 59 "The IB Learner Profile," IB as a District or National Curriculum, last modified 2016, accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.ibo.org/benefits/learner-profile/. 60 "What is an IB Education?" op. cit. 61 "Approaches to Learning (ATL)," IB Middle Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=m_0_mypxx_guu_1409_1_e&part=3&chapter=4. ATL existed in the PYP and MYP programmes as “transdisciplinary skills” before the DP programme.  It was introduced to the DP programme in 2015. Approaches to Teaching and Learning (ATL) in the International Baccalaureate (IB)  9  A final pervasive concept in the IB is the idea of “International Mindedness,” which is supposed to be incorporated in some way into the curricula and to pervade the greater IB educational community. It focuses on two main components: multilingualism and international understanding, and global engagement.  The IB explains  Education for international mindedness relies on the development of learning environments that value the world as the broadest context for learning.  IB World Schools share educational standards and practices for philosophy, organization, and curriculum that can create and sustain authentic global learning communities.62  Each of the four programmes has its own unique culminating assessments in addition to specific curricula.63  At the end of Year 5 (Grade 5), the PYP64 has an “Exhibition” for the community where students present their collaboratively created inquiry projects that delve into “real life issues or problems.”65  The MYP66 has two possible projects: for students who complete the MYP in Year 3 or 4 (Gr 8 or 9), students have to complete a Community Project, and for those who complete it in Year 5 (Grade 10), they do a Personal Project.67 These                                                                                                                                                        Diploma Programme. International Baccalaureate Organization, 2014, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/digital-tookit/flyers-and-artworks/approaches-to-teaching-learning-dp-en.pdf. 62 Christine Amiss, Robert Harrison, and Carol Inugai-Dixon, "Inspiring International Mindedness through the IB Continuum," Power point, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2015, http://www.ibo.org/contentassets/477a9bccb5794081a7bb8dd0ec5a4d17/inspiringinternationalmindednessibaem2011final.pdf. 63 See Appendix 3. Stratford Hall independent School in Vancouver has a clear flow chart that shows some of the similarities and differences between the PYP, MYP, and DP. Stratford Hall. "The Primary Years Programme (PYP) Curriculum Handbook 2016.2017," stratfordhall.ca: 55, accessed July 12, 2017, 5, https://www.stratfordhall.ca/uploaded/PYP_Handbook_2016.2017_FINAL.pdf.  64 For more on the PYP curriculum see here. "PYP Curriculum," Primary Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/primary-years-programme/curriculum/. 65 “PYP Assessed Curriculum," Primary Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/primary-years-programme/curriculum/assessed-curriculum/. 66 For more detail on the specifics of the MYP programme, see here."MYP Curriculum," Middle Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/middle-years-programme/curriculum/. 67 "MYP Project," Middle Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/middle-years-programme/curriculum/myp-projects/.  10 presentations are also shared with the community.  The DP curriculum68 has externally and internally moderated summative assessments for each of its courses, and has a unique component known as the “Core:”69 for full DP candidates to receive their IB diploma, they must complete a 4000-word Extended Essay (EE), engage in and complete the Theory of Knowledge (TOK)70 course that makes connections between all of the components of the DP, and complete CAS (“Creativity, Action, Service”)71 that helps IB students evolve as learners “through experiential learning.”72  Not all students who take DP courses get the IB diploma: some students choose to be “Course” students, opting out of completing all of the Core and mandatory curricular components of the DP; instead, they can take individual courses of their choice, and get “certificate” credit for each of them.73  Finally, an alternative IB graduation programme is the Career-related Programme (CP)74 which focuses on career-related education topics, and its mandatory components are part of what is known as the CP Core: “the reflective project, service learning, personal and professional skills, and language development.”75                                                 68 For more on the specifics of the Diploma Programme, see here. "Diploma Programme: Curriculum, Assessments, Resources," Diploma Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017,  http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/. 69 "Core Requirements: Extended Essay, Theory of Knowledge and Creativity, Action, Service Subject Brief," International Baccalaureate Organization, 2011, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/recognition/core_2011.pdf. And for specifics re passing and credit see "General Regulations: Diploma Programme," IB Diploma Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/become-an-ib-school/dp-general-regulations-en.pdf. 6.  70 "Theory of Knowledge." IB Diploma Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/curriculum/theory-of-knowledge/. 71 "Creativity, Activity, Service," IB Diploma Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/curriculum/creativity-activity-and-service/.  72 Hill and Saxton, op. cit., 46.  73 The nomenclature for “certificates” has recently changed to “Partial Diploma” or “Course,” but many people still refer to the taking of individual courses without the Core subjects as “doing certificates.” 74 For more on the Career-related programme, see here. "Career-related Programme: Curriculum, Assessment, Resources." Career-related Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017http://www.ibo.org/programmes/career-related-programme/. 75 "Assessment and Exams: Career-related Programme," Career-related Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/career-related-programme/assessment-and-exams1/.  11 The IB essential components of the Learner Profile, ATL, International Mindedness, the PYP Exhibition, the MYP Project, and the DP or CP externally and internally moderated summative assessments and the Core, amongst other aspects, differentiate the IB from the BC Dogwood Diploma curriculum, although many of the content and skills objectives from the BC curriculum are used in the PYP and MYP (and potentially some of those in the DP and CP) curricula as the IB programmes were designed to be flexible so educational systems around the world could be adapted to fit into them. The IB components also differentiate it from other academic external credential graduation programs available in BC, like the Advanced Placement (AP) program, that offer year long, individual high school courses with intensive content and skills by subject.76  1.3 Positioning the Researcher  I approached this research from my experience working in the IB as: a DP History teacher in IB World Schools (first on my practicum at West Vancouver Secondary School in BC from 1991-92, and then at the International School of Prague [ISP], CZ from 1998-2015); Social Studies/Group 377 department chair at ISP; an external examiner for all of the assessment                                                 76 Andrew Arida, UBC Associate Registrar, recently used the analogy, “AP is a la carte, while the IB is the Chef’s Menu.” Andrew Arida, "IB Students & First-year University Performance: The UBC Undergraduate Admissions Model," (lecture, Kay Meek Theatre, West Vancouver, BC, December 8, 2015).  In 2014 the AP introduced the AP Capstone program that, in addition to the individual external credential courses, offers students the opportunity to, for example, complete a research essay similar to the Extended Essay. "AP Capstone Overview," The College Board, accessed July 12, 2017, https://advancesinap.collegeboard.org/ap-capstone. Burnaby School District, which is the only Greater Vancouver school district that does not offer the IB (it stopped offering it in 2005 [See Appendix 2]), added the Capstone program to its AP program in 2014. Wanda Chow, "AP Capstone Program Coming to Burnaby," Burnaby Now, last modified October 3, 2013, http://www.burnabynow.com/news/ap-capstone-program-coming-to-burnaby-1.1899304.  School districts can have schools that offer both the IB and AP Capstone program; for example, West Vancouver School District does. "Programs: Our Schools," West Vancouver Schools, accessed July 12, 2017, http://westvancouverschools.ca/our-schools. 77 “Group 3: Individuals and Societies” in the DP refers to one of the six “Groups” of subjects that a full IB Diploma student must take.  It was known at one time as “Humanities,” but the subjects have slightly changed from a traditional Humanities curriculum. "Individuals and Societies," IB Diploma Programme, International Baccalaureate  12 components of DP History; a workshop leader who trains DP History teachers;78 and a co-author of one of the DP History companion texts that was published by Oxford University Press in 2015.79 For the 2016-17 school year I taught secondary school BC Dogwood Diploma Social Studies courses in a non-IB school in North Vancouver, BC.  Many of the staff had taught the IB (and some had been IB students themselves), and as the new BC Social Studies curriculum that was fully implemented in September 201680 had some similarities regarding curricular framework. In some ways it was like teaching the IB, but without any externally examined summative assessments (save Language Arts 1281).  For the 2017-18 school year, when I was finishing my thesis, I was hired at an IB continuum school to teach MYP English (Language and Literature) 8 and Social Studies (Individuals and Societies) 9 & 10, Dogwood Diploma English 11, and to help to implement the Diploma Programme teaching DP History 11.  The ability to be able to directly compare and contrast my experiences as a Grade 7-12 educator in BC teaching at both non-IB and IB schools in 2016-17 provided an additional perspective. My first experience teaching the IB was at a public secondary school whose students were mostly born and raised in West Vancouver, one of the wealthiest communities in Canada.  In contrast, the International School of Prague was a private international school that had a                                                                                                                                                        Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/curriculum/individuals-and-societies/.  78 I work for several workshop providers; this is one example of my biography. "Workshop Leader Biographies: Shannon Leggett," Ibicus, last modified 2015, https://www.ibicus.org.uk/contact-us/leader-biographies/shannon-leggett.  79 "Biography: Shannon Leggett," Amazon.com, last modified 2015, https://www.amazon.com/Shannon-Leggett/e/B00QCDA4S2.  80 Some BC schools started to offer aspects of the new curriculum on a voluntary basis beginning in 2015-16. 81 For the 2016/17 school year, the only mandatory external exam was a Language Arts 12, or for the French language board CSF schools, French 12 and Language Arts 12. "Provincial Exam Transition Year," BC's New Curriculum: Path to Graduation, BC Ministry of Education, last modified September 2016, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/graduation-info.      13 student body that came from over 70 different countries with a mixed socio-economic demographic: along with those families who privately paid the substantial fees, there were scholarship students, as well as those who attended the school because their parent was transferred to the city so the company would pay the tuition as part of the benefits package.  Both schools only offered the DP (not the other programmes in the IB continuum) as the administration and boards of both schools preferred a non-IB curriculum to feed into the DP. The various positions that I have held with the IB have allowed me to examine it from multiple perspectives.  A strength of the IB is that it offers a holistic, international curriculum with a global perspective that has external accountability regarding assessment, and a well-developed curriculum review framework; a weakness is that it has been viewed as being financially exorbitant to implement, and, especially at the DP diploma level, some have seen it as too arduous in its demands, for both students and teachers. When I returned to British Columbia and undertook my MA in the Department of Curriculum & Pedagogy at UBC, my supervisor, Dr. Peter Seixas, connected me with instructors in UBC’s International Baccalaureate Educator Program.  As well, I continued to lead IB teacher training workshops, but instead of doing them in Europe and the Middle East, I led them all over North America, and discovered that the educators I was meeting had quite different experiences regarding implementing the IB due to the specific state and provincial requirements that they were dealing with.  I also took a History of Canadian Curriculum course, and realized that there had never been a study of the factors for the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC, so I enthusiastically chose it as the topic for my research as it was an opportunity to do original research.  Studying curriculum and pedagogy at UBC in 2015/16 occurred at a unique time in British Columbia’s educational history as the Ministry of Education implemented a new  14 curriculum (BCEd Plan) that overlapped the IB curriculum in many ways.  Consequently, in addition to analyzing the factors for why BC schools have adopted the IB, I wanted to examine the impact of the new “Building Student Success”82 curriculum in regards to the development of the IB in BC. For the 2016/17 school year I had the opportunity to teach the new SS7-10 BC curriculum, and the old SS11/History 12 BC curriculum in a non-IB independent school, while at the same time continuing to lead DP workshops and continue IB professional development.  This experience put me in a unique position to be able to compare and contrast the new BC and IB curricula, and other curricula from throughout North America. Even though I have significant ties to the IB, I would not say that I went about conducting my research as an “advocate.”  In my research, and particularly while I was conducting the interviews of various IB practitioners, I found myself to be involved in discussions that critically analyzed the IB.  The interviewees had the option to be anonymous when giving their statements, so this allowed for candid testimony.  As opposed to a researcher who was not familiar with the IB, I had an “insider” advantage, and therefore knew some critical questions to ask.  As an insider, there was always the danger of a biased standpoint; but being aware of those risks helps, in some measure, to counteract them. Even though I am employed by the IB, I was not limited regarding how I constructed my argument.                                                     82 "BC's New Curriculum," Building Student Success, BC Ministry of Education, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/.   15 1.4 The IB in Canada and British Columbia  As of 2016, Canada had the second largest number of IB World Schools in the world with 367 of them established between 1974 and 2016.83  Starting in 1965, efforts were made to encourage the IB in Canada, “In June 1965, no fewer than 16 teachers were dispatched from Geneva to visit schools in Canada and the US.”84  The first Canadian IB school was the private85 international school Lester B Pearson United World College (UWC) of the Pacific in Victoria, BC which opened in 1974.86  The first Canadian public school that offered the IB was also in BC: R.E. Mountain Secondary School in Langley in 1979.87  As of 2016 Quebec had the largest number of IB programmes in Canada with 146,88 with Ontario second with 101 programmes.89                                                   83 Of Canada’s 356 IB schools, as of September 2016 there were 171 DP schools, 171 MYP schools, 81 PYP schools, and 2 Career-related Programme schools. "Canada,” International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed September 21, 2016, http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/the-ib-by-country/c/canada/.  84 Tristan Bunnell, "The Global Growth of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme over the First 40 Years: A Critical Assessment," Comparative Education 44, no. 4 (2008): 414, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03050060802481439. 85 It is called “private” even though it is in British Columbia as that is what the appropriate term was when the school was created, and it was created before the 1996 BC Independent School Act that called non-public schools “independent” schools. 86 Even though it offers the DP to high school age students, as a United World College http://www.uwc.org/about  it is certified by the BC Ministry of Advanced Education (Colleges and Universities), not the BC Ministry of Education. Désirée McGraw, "President and Head of Pearson College Notes for Village Gathering," Pearson College UWC: President's Update: January 2017 (blog), entry posted January 17, 2017, http://www.pearsoncollege.ca/presidentblog/?565741594151654252475C54525A41725B5B52605847417973090400. 87 Winston Churchill High School in Alberta was another public school that offered the DP in 1979. "Canada IB Profile." IB Americas Regional Profile, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2010, http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/ancasterhigh/files/2010/12/Canada_CountryProfile.pdf. 1.  88 "Find an IB World School: Quebec," International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed September 21, 2016, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/find-an-ib-school/?SearchFields.Region=&SearchFields.Country=CA&SearchFields.State=QC&SearchFields.Keywords=&SearchFields.Language=&SearchFields.BoardingFacilities=&SearchFields.SchoolGender. As well, “Canada is unusual in that it has a greater number of MYP programmes than DP programmes, largely due to the strength of the MYP in Quebec where it provides access to the Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP) or pre-university 6th form college.” Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit., 19.  89 "Find an IB World School: Ontario," International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed September 21, 2016, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/find-an-ib-school/?SearchFields.Region=&SearchFields.Country=CA&SearchFields.State=ON&SearchFields.Keywords=&SearchFields.Language=&SearchFields.BoardingFacilities=&SearchFields.SchoolGender=  16 As of 2016, 4590 BC schools offered 62 IB programmes.91 The largest IB programme in BC is the DP: 28 schools have it with three more being “candidate” schools92 and three being “interested.”93  The first BC school to offer the MYP was Glenlyon Norfolk School, an independent school in Victoria: it had been a DP school since 1996, and began to offer the MYP in 2002 and the PYP in 2004.94 As of 2016 19 schools offered the MYP,95 with four more being “candidate” schools” and six others being “interested.”96  The Kindergarten-Grade 5 Primary Years Programme (PYP) first began to be offered in BC in 2003 at Stratford Hall, an independent school in Vancouver;97 and as of 2016 there were 15 schools that offered it,98 with four “candidate” and six “interested” schools.99 Currently no BC schools offer the Careers Programme (CP), but four have registered official interest.100  The vast majority of IB World Schools are in the Lower Mainland;101 there are only seven schools located elsewhere in BC, and                                                 90 As of the start of the 2016/17 school year, Highland Secondary School (Comox Valley, Vancouver Island) was still authorized as an IB World School, but it did not offer the DP. Comox School District, "International Baccalaureate Program," Highland Secondary: Programs and Services, last modified September 2016, accessed July 23, 2017, https://www.sd71.bc.ca/School/highland/Programs/IB/Pages/default.aspx. 91 "Find an IB World School: British Columbia," International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed September 21, 2016, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/find-anibschool/?SearchFields.Region=&SearchFields.Country=CA&SearchFields.State=BC&SearchFields.Keywords=&SearchFields.Language=&SearchFields.BoardingFacilities=&SearchFields.SchoolGender= 92 See Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 93 Ibid. 94 "A Brief History of Glenlyon Norfolk School," Explore GNS, Glenlyon Norfolk School, accessed July 12, 2017, http://www.mygns.ca/explore-gns/history. 95 See Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 96 Ibid. 97 Ibid. 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid. 100 Ibid. 101 Ibid.  According to the B.C. Geographical Names Information System or BCGNIS site, “‘The Lower Mainland’…is used to refer to the entire area west of Chilliwack and south of Whistler,” William Boei, "Just What Constitutes the 'Lower Mainland?'" Vancouver Sun, January 22, 2009, http://www.vancouversun.com/Just%20what%20constitutes%20Lower%20Mainland/1207993/story.html?__lsa=5793-66fa However, more schools outside of these two areas are in the process of becoming IB schools: see Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit.  17 they are in or near Greater Victoria, Comox (east central Vancouver Island),102 and Kamloops (in the BC Interior).103 The BC IB programmes can also be categorized into those schools that conduct them in English or in French.  As of 2016 BC’s French language board, Conseil Scolaire Francophone de la Colombie-Britannique (CSF), funded five schools that provide a variety of IB programmes: École André-Piolat in North Vancouver (MYP); École Gabrielle-Roy in Surrey (MYP/DP)104; École secondaire Jules-Verne in Vancouver (DP); École Victor-Brodeur in Victoria (DP); and École des Pionniers-de-Maillardville in Port Coquitlam (MYP/DP).105  There is also one non-CSF French-immersion school that is in the West Vancouver School Board, École Cedardale, that offers the PYP in a French immersion setting: in July 2016 it became “the first French Immersion elementary school in the province to combine the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme with French Immersion programming.”106 Multiple IB programmes can be offered at the same school, so this is why the number of programmes is not the same as the number of schools.  The PYP is present in K-5 schools.  This can be implemented in different configurations: in a primary K-3 school such as Cypress Park Primary School in West Vancouver,107 or K-7 at West Bay Elementary School and École                                                 102 Highland Secondary School in Comox made a decision to not offer the DP in the 2016/17 school year, but it is still an authorized IB World School. Comox School District, "International Baccalaureate Program," Highland Secondary: Programs and Services, op. cit. 103 See Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 104 “The Gabrielle-Roy school has been in existence since 1998 and offers educational services in French from Kindergarten to Grade 12 to the Francophone population of the municipalities of Surrey, North Delta, Cloverdale and White Rock. As a regional secondary school, it also hosts students from Delta, Langley, Chilliwack, Abbotsford and Mission. Located in urban Surrey, the school has occupied the current premises since January 2004.” Translated from the French by Google Translate. "Gabrielle-Roy: école du monde," École Gabrielle-Roy, CSF, accessed July 12, 2017, https://gabrielleroy.csf.bc.ca/. 105 "Find an IB World School: British Columbia," op. cit.  106 " École Cedardale IB PYP," West Vancouver Schools, accessed July 12, 2017, http://westvancouverschools.ca/programs/ecole-cedardale-ib-pyp. 107 “IB Primary," West Vancouver Schools, accessed July 12, 2017,  http://westvancouverschools.ca/programs/ib-primary.  18 Cedardale in West Vancouver,108 and Southlands Elementary School in Vancouver.109  According to Bob Poole, a senior administrator in IB North America who participates in the authorization of IB World Schools,  The official PYP is pre K through 5. If schools continue the PYP – they have developed it for grades 6 and 7 – we won’t/can’t tell them they can’t do that, but it is not something that we have sanctioned or not sanctioned. We recognize them as offering the PYP through grade 5. Something called PYP in grade 6 and 7 is not recognized by us as the PYP and properly should be called something else. (But we recognize unofficially that there could be some sense to it). Better for kids of that age to begin the MYP.110  The MYP is present in BC schools in both 3 and 5 year programmes, though the latter is the preferable IB model. The MYP can be in an elementary, middle (e.g. Grade 6-8 in Abbotsford Middle School in Abbotsford111) or high school. The MYP can start in an elementary school, and continue in a high school e.g. Elsie Roy Elementary School and Lord Roberts Elementary School in Vancouver start the MYP in Gr 6 and 7, and it ends at their IB partner school, King George Secondary School, in Grade 10.112  As Bob Poole clarified, For complete recognition by the IB, it needs to be a 5 year programme. Fewer years are acceptable, but students will not be considered as having completed the MYP as the MYP is a 5 year programme. Schools can offer it to fewer grades, and both students and schools will benefit, but the full 5 year programme is the standard.113  The DP is present in BC schools in two-year programmes for Grades 11 and 12.  Bob Poole adds, “…the DP at Lester B. Pearson UWC [in Victoria] is more like Grade 12 and 13 as                                                 108 Ibid. 109 "International Baccalaureate Program K-7." Vancouver School Board, accessed July 12, 2017, https://www.vsb.bc.ca/programs/international-baccalaureate-program-k-7. 110 Bob Poole, "PYP and MYP in BC Schools," E-mail message to author, July 10, 2017.  111 "The IB Middle Years Programme," Abbotsford Middle School, accessed July 12, 2017, http://abbymiddle.sd34.bc.ca/node/2937. 112 "International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme." King George Secondary School, accessed July 12, 2017, http://go.vsb.bc.ca/schools/kinggeorge/Programs/myp/Pages/default.aspx. 113 Poole, "PYP and MYP in BC schools," op. cit.   19 kids can go to Pearson from Grade 11 from Canadian high schools.”114   Students in the PYP can, but do not necessarily go into an MYP school. At Southridge School, an independent school in Surrey, all students are enrolled in the PYP and MYP.115  All of the students at École Cedardale in West Vancouver are enrolled in the PYP, but they are also in the French immersion programme. Interestingly, most of them continue to the French immersion secondary school, Sentinel Secondary School, that does not offer the MYP or DP.116 École Cedardale PYP students could go to Rockridge’s Middle Years Programme, but the vast majority stay with their cohort and go to Sentinel.117 Sometimes the programmes do feed into each other: most of the students who go to West Bay Elementary School in West Vancouver go to Rockridge Secondary School that has the MYP.  However, interestingly, some choose to go to West Vancouver Secondary School that does not offer the MYP, but has a locally-developed pre-IB Grade 10 programme that feeds into their Diploma Programme (DP).118 In Vancouver, all of the PYP students at Southlands Elementary School attend non-IB local high schools as there is not a close MYP option, although there is parent interest in establishing a programme close to Southlands.119 Students in the MYP can, but do not necessarily, go into a school with the DP.  For example, most Rockridge Secondary School students do not transfer to the DP at West                                                 114 Ibid.  However as noted earlier, Pearson College UWC is not considered to be under the BC Ministry of Education jurisdiction; it is under the authority of the BC Ministry of Advanced Education. Désirée McGraw, "President and Head of Pearson College Notes for Village Gathering," Pearson College UWC: President's Update: January 2017 (blog), entry posted January 17, 2017, http://www.pearsoncollege.ca/presidentblog/?565741594151654252475C54525A41725B5B52605847417973090400. 115 As Southridge does not offer the DP, their IB experience ends there if they remain at the school.  116 Chris Kennedy, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver School Board, West Vancouver, BC., July 5, 2016. 117 Kirsten Dixon, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver, BC, July 8, 2016.  118 Kennedy, interview, op. cit. 119 Little, "Southlands PYP," op. cit.   20 Vancouver Secondary School; instead, they choose to stay and graduate from Rockridge, and many take AP courses.120  Richmond has had a similar situation where students in the MYP at Hugh Boyd Secondary School do not necessarily transfer to the DP at Richmond Secondary School.  David Miller, Richmond Secondary School’s DP Coordinator, explained: …we had initially anticipated that many Middle Years Programme students from Hugh Boyd would transfer to Richmond High to finish their IB education in the Diploma Programme.  That has not turned out to be the case -- no more than 2 or 3 per year.   The Diploma Programme at Richmond High is open to students from across the District, and indeed the region. That said, the overwhelming majority of our students complete Grade 8-10 at Richmond High, or at one of the Secondary Schools closest in geographic proximity to our school (Palmer, Burnett and MacNeill).    As such, transfers from Hugh Boyd to the Diploma Programme at Richmond High are no more common than transfers from McMath, Steveston-London, McNair, McRoberts or Cambie.  I suspect that there are two reasons that students from Palmer, MacNeill and Burnett are more likely to attend the Diploma Programme at Richmond High: 1) simple geographic proximity; and 2) they are more likely to know somebody in their family/community activities/from elementary school who is attending/has attended Richmond High and/or will be entering the Diploma Programme at the same time. It is worth noting that 2) clearly derives from 1).  As for why students from further afield are less likely to transfer to Richmond High for the Diploma Programme, I think the additional distance is a disincentive, and I suspect the premise [wanting to graduate with their friends] is bang-on.   I think of this as the neighborhood school effect -- and it suggests that loyalty to friends & investment in a particular community is something students and families value more than loyalty to and investment in a particular educational brand.121   Abbotsford Middle School (Gr 6-8) IB students can go to Abbotsford Senior (Gr 9-12) Secondary School, but as of 2016 Abbotsford Middle School had its own 3 year Middle Years                                                 120 Kennedy, interview, op. cit. 121 David Miller, "Query about Richmond's IB programme," E-mail message, July 14, 2017.   21 Programme,122 and if students wanted to continue the IB at Abbotsford Senior Secondary School, they took pre-IB Honors classes in Grades 9 and 10 to prepare for the DP.123 Carson Graham Secondary School in North Vancouver,124 and two French language board schools, École Gabrielle-Roy in Surrey125 and École des Pionniers-de-Maillardville in Port Coquitlam126 are notable for having the MYP and DP in the same high school: in these schools everyone does the MYP, but not everyone does the DP.127  In BC as of 2016, independent schools were the only schools to host full continuum programmes (offering the PYP/MYP/DP and/or CP): there were six complete or full continuum programmes.128  BC had five partial continuum programmes (having more than one programme): three in public schools and two in independent schools.129 Bob Poole clarified, “Independent schools in BC often offer the continuum, but it is not required and not always present in independent schools in other parts of the country or the world.”130  British Columbia’s IB schools include internationally esteemed IB programmes that are singled out for acclaim.  In the “Public IB World Schools Serve Culturally and Economically Diverse Communities” section of the 2010 Canada IB Profile, Britannia Secondary School in Vancouver was lauded:  Britannia [which celebrated its centennial in 2008] became an IB World School in                                                 122 "The IB Middle Years Programme," Abbotsford Middle School, op. cit. 123 "International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme," Abbotsford Senior Secondary School, accessed July 12, 2017,  http://abbysenior.sd34.bc.ca/programs/international-baccalaureate-diploma. 124 "International Baccalaureate," Carson Graham Secondary, accessed July 12, 2017, https://www.sd44.ca/school/carson/ProgramsServices/IB/Pages/default.aspx. 125 "Gabrielle-Roy: école du monde." École Gabrielle-Roy, accessed July 12, 2017, https://gabrielleroy.csf.bc.ca/. 126 L’école des Pionniers de Maillardville," ’École des Pionniers de Maillardville, accessed July 12, 2017, https://pionniers.csf.bc.ca/. 127 Jennifer Tieche and Liz Thornhill, interview by Shannon Leggett, North Vancouver, BC., July 19, 2017. And Jean-Phillipe Schall, interview by Shannon Leggett, Surrey, BC. July 18, 2016.  128 See Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 129 Ibid. 130 Poole, "PYP and MYP in BC schools," op. cit.  22 1991, implementing the Diploma Programme…the school serves a highly heterogeneous community, with students who come from low-income or refugee backgrounds as well as recent immigrants. The school’s international focus has also drawn families from higher-income families, providing a world-class school for all members of the community. In addition to arts and theater classes, the school offers courses on South and East Asian history, Mandarin and French. It has sponsored annual trips to China and Japan, and collaborates on Vancouver’s annual world music festival. Britannia has a reputation for high academic achievement, and has succeeded in expanding learning options for its students.131  In British Columbia each school district receives funding from the province to run its programmes, and it is up to the district’s discretion if and how much it will fund the process of authorizing and paying annual fees to the IB, as well as paying other fees such as students sitting for exams. The IB’s programmes can be considered to be costly for a school/district: in addition to the school authorization costs, there are many other fees.132  For example, annual DP exam fees alone can be in the tens of thousands of dollars,133 and it can cost approximately $3000 USD134 for one teacher at one training workshop, leading one IB educator to call the IB a “platinum programme.”135 In BC it is rare to have more than one IB school in a district, but there are some that have multiple IB schools; for example, as of 2016 Vancouver offered the IB in the most schools with four IB programmes in six schools: one Primary Years Programme (Southlands Elementary School), one Middle Years Programme (Elsie Roy and Lord Roberts Elementary Schools feeding into King George Secondary School) and two Diploma Programme (Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School and Britannia Secondary School).  West Vancouver School District (WVSD) offered the most number of IB programmes with five in five schools                                                 131 “Canada IB Profile," IB Americas Regional Profile, (2010): 3, http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/ancasterhigh/files/2010/12/Canada_CountryProfile.pdf.  132 "Fees and Services," Become an IB School, International Baccalaureate Organization, last modified 2016. http://www.ibo.org/become-an-ib-school/fees-and-services/. 133 Cora Pickering, interview by Shannon Leggett, Vancouver, BC., July 9, 2016. 134 As BC educators tend to attend workshops in the US as relatively few are offered in Canada. 135 Brenda Ball, interview by Shannon Leggett, Vancouver, BC., July 6, 2016.   23 (three PYP: Cypress Park Primary School, West Bay Elementary School, École Cedardale;136 MYP: Rockridge Secondary School; DP: West Vancouver Secondary School). 137 Even though they could be capable of doing so, WVSD will not move all of the district’s schools over to becoming IB World Schools for various reasons including wanting to offer a variety of educational options, as well as the fact that the district considers the cost of running the IB in so many schools to be cost-prohibitive.138  In contrast, North Vancouver School District offers four IB programmes in three schools (PYP at Capilano Elementary School and Queen Mary Elementary School, and the MYP/DP at Carson Graham Secondary School), and as those schools have reached capacity, they are exploring whether it’s feasible to open programs in more schools.139 As of 2016 BC there was a wide variety of ways that the IB has been implemented in the 45 BC IB World Schools that offer it.  The ways that the IB has been configured in different schools demonstrates its adaptability to different school stakeholder (student, parent, teacher, administration, school board) needs.   1.5 Framing the Research Problem In this section I will discuss the research problem by outlining the major research question, four hypothetical responses that help to frame the research, three sub-questions, and the purpose of this study. British Columbian students who are looking for academically challenging educational                                                 136 Authorized as of July 2016. " École Cedardale Elementary," Find an IB World School, accessed July 23, 2017,  http://www.ibo.org/en/school/050957. 137 "Find an IB World School: British Columbia," op. cit. 138 Kennedy, interview, op. cit. 139 Kathleen Barter, interview by Shannon Leggett, North Vancouver, BC., July 18, 2016.   24 programs that are inquiry-based and externally moderated have the IB as an option.  The IB is now offered in all Greater Vancouver school districts (save Burnaby) and continues to be adopted in other districts in the province.  This leads directly to my major research question: What were the factors that influenced the establishment and expansion of the IB in British Columbia from 1974-2016?  A starting point for responding to the question includes four categories: first, the attraction of its philosophy and holistic curriculum led schools and districts to offer it.  Second, various governmental legislative changes regarding graduation equivalency credit, the expansion of independent schools that offered rigorous academic programs, the ramifications of the open enrollment policy, and changes in school funding encouraged the expansion of the IB.  Third, universities offered preferential admission to IB students as it has been determined that they come to university well prepared academically due to the rigor of the DP, its emphasis on time management, and critical thinking skills. Finally, IB graduates’ overall positive perception of the IB has led to its increased popularity.  These broad categories provided an initial framework for my investigation. They arose from my experience teaching the IB, as well as role as a leader in DP teacher professional development.  In the informal, unsystematic discussions I have been involved in over the years, these categories emerged as ones that could be investigated. My research will question, refine, and revise these ideas based on the evidence compiled from a wide variety of primary and secondary sources that helped me to revise and substantiate this initial set of ideas.  Several sub-questions follow from the major research question: -Why did school stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, universities) start to advocate for the adoption of the IB in their schools? What philosophical, socio-political, and economic changes affected this over time?  25 -How does the IB align with the new BC Ministry of Education’s 2015/16, and 2016/17 curriculum changes, and what successes and challenges does the alignment present? -What have been some of the challenges associated with implementing the IB in BC? There are several purposes to this study.  First, its aim is to chronicle the history of an important educational innovation in the history of BC education, and acknowledge those who have and/or continue to partake in it.  Second, it is to critically examine the factors that have both helped and hindered its expansion, particularly as related to contemporary educational changes that have and are occurring in the province at the end of the 20th century and in the first two decades of the 21st.  Third, this research could offer scholars further investigating the IB in BC or in other jurisdictions rich evidence to analyze and possibly inspire their work.  Fourth, it could assist schools who are considering undertaking the candidacy and authorization process, and/or those who are reviewing whether to keep it.  Finally, this study will contribute to the discussions regarding the future of educational policies in BC regarding philosophy, practical pedagogy, and the affordability of and equity of access to externally credentialed special programmes. 1.6 Thesis Overview  This chapter has provided an overview of the history of the IB in Canada, described the establishment of the IB in public and independent schools in BC (while also adding a contemporary context), and framed the research problem. The following chapter is the literature review that focuses on three concepts: the International Baccalaureate, school stakeholder curriculum choice, and academic achievement.  Chapter Three describes the methodology utilized in this thesis.  Chapter Four gives an overview of the history of the establishment of the IB in BC, answering the research question/sub-questions: what were the factors that influenced  26 the establishment of the IB in BC, and why did school stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, universities) start to advocate for the adoption of the IB in their schools?  It starts to examine the philosophical, socio-political, and economic changes that occurred over time. Chapter Five analyzes the evidence and answers the research question/sub-questions: what were the factors that influenced the expansion of the IB in BC; why did school stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, universities) start to advocate for the adoption of the IB in their schools; what philosophical, socio-political, and economic changes affected this over time; and what have been some of the challenges associated with implementing the IB in BC? Chapter Six builds on what was discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 by looking at specific pedagogical, curricular and economic factors at the end of that time frame.  As a part of this, it examines another research sub-question: how does the IB align with the new BC Ministry of Educations 2015/16, and 2016/17 curriculum changes, and what successes and challenges does this alignment present. Chapter Seven concludes the thesis.    27 Chapter 2 A Review of the Literature 2.1 Introduction There is a small, but growing amount of literature on the International Baccalaureate (IB).  My research study will discuss the literature regarding three concepts: the International Baccalaureate itself, school stakeholder curriculum choice, and academic achievement.  The literature on the International Baccalaureate provides an overview of why the IB was created, and how the IB is implemented in different jurisdictions around the world.  It shows some of the factors for the establishment and expansion of the IB, both in Canada and abroad.  One can, and to an extent I do directly, compare and contrast the findings in these studies with my own conclusions regarding the factors for the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC. The literature on school stakeholder curriculum choice provides background and context for my analysis of the factors leading to the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC.  This literature looks at how the IB has become a “choice” for schools in Canada and abroad due to its academic, philosophical, and social benefits.  It looks at positive and negative ramifications for jurisdictions that have chosen the IB, and these findings will be considered as I explore the reasons why the IB has become a curricular choice in BC.   The literature on academic achievement is essential for providing a context for answering the research question.  It provides a broader field within which to examine the IB among other academically rigorous programmes.  The fact that the IB emphasizes academic achievement is appealing to schools internationally.  Even though there are concerns that it is too rigorous, and that it can cause academic streaming to occur in the schools that offer non-IB options, it is clear  28 that the IB’s challenging, externally moderated academic programmes are a factor for the IB’s expansion in BC. The research that is analyzed in this paper mostly focuses on studies of the IB that have taken place and/or have been produced in the United States, UK, Australia, and Canada.   2.2 The International Baccalaureate (IB) There is a growing amount and variety of literature on the International Baccalaureate (IB).  In addition to a plethora of studies commissioned by the IB itself to demonstrate how well it delivers student-centered programmes that teach critical thinking skills,140 there are a number of journals and books that discuss and analyze it.  One of the most important current pieces available to assist in understanding the IB is Abrioux and Rutherford’s Introducing the IB Diploma Programme.141   This work breaks the IB down into its essential components by looking at the specific ways that one of the programmes, the Diploma (Graduation) Programme (DP), has been implemented throughout the world since its inception in 1968.  Its references to American and Canadian examples, as well as contrasting ones in other countries, are well described and linked to research in the field up to 2012.  This source provided important background and context for my findings, particularly regarding the impact the IB has had on national school systems throughout the world.  I found its summary of the IB in the US to be particularly useful for my research.  For example, it stated:                                                 140  There are many articles in the International Education Research Database (The Hague: International Baccalaureate, 2016), https://ibdocs.ibo.org/research/index.php.  One of the more oft-cited ones is Robert Swartz and Carol McGuinness, Developing and Assessing Thinking Skills Project, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2014, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/ib-research/continuum/student-thinking-skills-report-part-1.pdf. In addition, as I am an IB workshop leader, I have access to the Online Curriculum Centre (OCC) which is set up to support those who work in the IB community.  On the OCC there is an “IB research” section under “Support Areas,” and there, as of July 2017, there were 339 IB-produced research-related documents. "IB Research," Online Curriculum Centre (OCC): Support Areas, accessed July 15, 2017, http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/View/template.cfm?menu=506. 141 Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit.  29 With 778 IB diploma programmes (September 2012), the United States is the country with the largest number of schools offering the DP and this is increasing.  Students in US schools represent 50% of the total number of DP candidates worldwide.  However, these numbers do not mean that the DP is present throughout all sectors of American society.  Some 2% of high schools offer the programme in the United States.142  However, they go on to say that even though the IB was only in 2% of US high schools, there has been an extraordinary growth of the IB, most notably that 90% of the schools offering the DP are public schools.143  They conclude that the main reasons for its expansion in the US are due to the “DP itself—internationally focused curriculum, breadth, rigour, flexibility, learning skills, values, reflection on learning to learn--…college credit…”144   They compare and contrast the IB’s growth in the US with Canada, stating that there are some significant differences.  While they state that the adoption of the IB in the US is mostly due to a desire for educational reform, they argue that in Canada the IB’s establishment and expansion has not primarily been for this reason as Canadian schools have performed very well on international tests like the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests.145  Consequently, the authors conclude that the IB has expanded in Canada  on the basis of shared values with the mission statement: international mindedness, support for involvement and responsibility through international organizations (the first Canadian school to adopt the DP was the Lester B Pearson United World College of the Pacific, named after the Canadian Nobel Peace laureate), and the official policy of multiculturalism.  The other official policy of bilingualism in the same way contributes to the adoption of IB programmes in Canada, in particular perhaps outside of Quebec since there are significant francophone communities and many francophone or French immersion schools across the country.146                                                   142 Ibid., 16. 143 Ibid. 144 Ibid., 17. 145 Ibid., 18. 146 Ibid.  30 The bilingualism statement, however, can be countered as even though the IB offers its programmes in French, there is, unfortunately, a lack of IB teacher and student support materials in French.  Publishers have not identified it as a market that can warrant the publication of such resources as relatively few schools around the world offer the IB in French.147 Consequently, the lack of IB support materials in French is a significant challenge for French language IB schools, in Canada and abroad.  This aspect of their study could be important to examine when analyzing whether there could end up being a plateau or even decline in the number of IB schools in BC and Canada in the future.148 When Abrioux and Rutherford analyze why Canadian schools have adopted the DP, they state that public and private schools “…are now recognizing the educational and business opportunities provided by introducing the DP.”149  They go on to assert that a possible reason for the expansion of the IB in Canada is due to Canada’s non-federal, decentralized education model,150 and that there is “strong public funding for DP in public schools, with students not paying much (if anything) for a DP education which is generally provided for by school district funds.”151  This 2012 finding can be seen to be partially true as of 2016: even though the province of Nova Scotia has a province wide policy regarding full public funding for an IB education if it is desired,152 in British Columbia, funding decisions regarding the IB are made on a district level, and as of 2016 there were few BC school districts that offered the IB for free. Tristan Bunnell’s 2008 study, "The Global Growth of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme over the First 40 Years: A Critical Assessment,"153 is also an overview of                                                 147 Interviewee 10.  148 Ibid. 149 Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit.,19. 150 Ibid. 151 Ibid. 152 "Nova Scotia IB Practices," op. cit. 153 Bunnell, "The Global Growth…First 40 Years…,” op. cit.  31 the history of the DP, but in a format appropriate for an education journal.  It is an essential examination of the growth of the IB, particularly in the context of my thesis as some of the factors that it identifies regarding why the IB has grown internationally (particularly in North America) relate to the IB’s growth in British Columbia.  For example, he cites the pro-active nature of the IB’s efforts to expand in Canada, “In June 1965, no less than 16 teachers were dispatched from Geneva to visit schools in Canada and the US.”154  Bunnell went on to state that until 1980 the IB was expanding faster in Canada than the US due to the fact that Canada did not offer the Advanced Placement (AP) system155 so there was interest in some school jurisdictions to offer college preparatory courses, and that the Lester B. Pearson United World College of the Pacific, which was a DP school, was an example for other schools to utilize if they wanted a model to emulate .156  An interesting point that Bunnell made for a possible reason for the IB’s expansion in the US was due to the “lack of a uniformly national curriculum,”157 and this would be in concurrence with Abrioux and Rutherford’s finding about Canada.158  Bunnell did discuss that some schools have rejected the IB, and noted Spahn’s 2001 study that stated “138 US schools have abandoned it (the DP) since 1975, mainly through a lack of parental interest.”159  He did not provide a similar statistic for Canada, and I have not been able to find any research that states or discusses such a statistic.  However, what this study examines regarding reasons why schools would drop the IB could be important to examine when analyzing why some BC schools have dropped, or are considering dropping it.  In his 2008 study, Bunnell noted that the Middle Years Programme (MYP), as of the year                                                 154 Ibid., 414. 155 Ibid., 415. 156 Ibid. Note: Bunnell makes an error stating that Lester B. Pearson was in Toronto: it is in Victoria, BC. 157 Ibid. 158 Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit., 19. 159 Blake A. Spahn, America and the International Baccalaureate (Suffolk, UK: John Catt, 2001). Cited in Bunnell, "The Global Growth…First 40 Years…,” op. cit., 46.  32 of his study, was offered in 69 countries, and that 60% of those schools were in the US and Canada; however, at the time it was unclear why this was the case, and he called for a scholarly investigation to be undertaken regarding the reasons for this.160  He himself took up that call, and did a study of the MYP in 2011.161  He found that as of August 2011 70% of MYP schools were in the US, Canada and Australia,162 and when he stated that 60% of international MYP students who submitted their work to be externally moderated were from Canada (it is not mandatory that students have their work moderated by the IB, but they need to do so to get the official MYP certificate), he subjectively described the reason being that this showed “a level of maturity in that country.”163  However, he did not elaborate on this reasoning further, which is a weakness in his conclusion as he did not offer any proof for his assertion that Canadian MYP students are more “mature” than MYP students in other jurisdictions. My research will examine some of the reasons why the MYP has been adopted in BC which could provide a basis for research in other jurisdictions, but additional research should be done regarding why the MYP has expanded in Canada.  A final point that Bunnell made in his 2011 study about the MYP in Canada can be countered in the BC context.  He stated, “In Canada, 90 per cent of MYP schools offer only that sole IB programme.”164 In the BC context this is not the case as the MYP is offered in many different types of schools (elementary, middle, high school), and sometimes it is the only programme in that school, but it is more likely that the MYP is in a school that also has the PYP                                                 160 Bunnell, op. cit., 418. 161 Tristan Bunnell, "The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme after 30 Years: A Critical Inquiry," Journal of Research in International Education, 10 (2011): 261-74, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1475240911423604. 162 Ibid., 267. 163 Ibid. 164 Ibid., 266.  33 or DP, or has the BC Dogwood Diploma program.165 Schools that have the MYP can also offer the AP: of the 19 BC schools that offer the MYP, 5 of them offer AP.166 Bunnell conducted a third study in 2010167 that specifically focused on the IB and observed that there was a change in the International Baccalaureate Organization that shifted its focus to being “anglo-centric” instead of being “internationally-minded:” As the globally branded “IB World”—re-launched with a new logo and corporate identity in 2007—has become more concentrated, it also has become more North American-centric.  It is undeniably Anglo-centric.  In July 2009, the United States, Canada, England and Australia accounted for 61 percent of the IB World presence.168  Bunnell’s 2010 study went on to probe whether the IB is really “international” if it has become “imbalanced”169 due to the fact that that there are so many IB schools in the US.170  He put the dominance of the US in the IB organization in context: To put the activity in the United States into perspective, the bloc of schools there in April 2009 was almost four times the size of the second largest bloc, which was in Canada. There are more schools in the U.S. bloc than in the combined IB Latin America (IBLA), which is comprised of 28 countries; and IB Africa, Europe, and Middle East, which is comprised of 82 countries. Moreover, there were five times as many American students entered for the May 2008 IBDP examination as for Canadian students, and 15 times as many as in England, the country with the second most IBDP schools. By March 2009, 31 percent of all PYP schools, 42 percent of all MYP providers, and 35 percent of all IBDPs were located in the United States.171                                                  165 See Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 166 As of 2016, Brockton School, Hugh Boyd Secondary School, Island Pacific School, Rockridge Secondary School, and Southridge School offered the AP. "International Secondary Schools (outside US) with AP." International. Last modified 2016. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://international.collegeboard.org/programs/search-international-ap-schools. 167 According to his page at the University of Bath, Tristan Bunnell has published 16 works specifically on the IB, and many others on international education that refer to it. Tristan Bunnell, "Profile: Dr. Tristan Bunnell," Visiting Staff University of Bath, last modified July 23, 2017. http://www.bath.ac.uk/education/staff/tristan-bunnell/. 168 Tristan Bunnell, "The International Baccalaureate in the United States: From Relative Inactivity to Imbalance," The Educational Forum, 75, (2010): 66, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131725.2010.528717. 169 Ibid., 67. 170 Ibid. 171 Ibid., 69.  34  This is related to my research as one of the appeals of the IB is its “international mindedness,” so it could be useful to examine how the growing American dominance of the IB organization impacts the expansion of the IB in BC.   Hill and Saxton’s work172 also examines the factors for the establishment and expansion of the IB, but in contrast to Bunnell’s willingness to criticize the IB, their piece tended to utilize evidence that was favorable to the IB. The authors write an often glowing summary of the history, philosophy, and qualitative results of the International Baccalaureate’s Diploma Programme (DP).  Their goal is to prove that the DP produces graduates who:   •Develop critical thinking skills, holistic learning, life-long education, and affective education via community service;   • Foster international mindedness, an appreciation of multiple perspectives, promotion of intercultural understanding, and consideration of solutions to major global issues leading to world peace; and   • Offer a globally recognised university entrance qualification, thus facilitating student mobility across frontiers.173  The philosophical “construct” of the IB’s constructivist program is described, as well as elements of its practical organization.  It cites elements of the IB, such as requiring two languages in the DP, as well as studies from educational consultants, institutes, and tertiary learning institutions, to try to prove that IB students are “better/best prepared” to be successful in university and beyond.   However, some of Hill and Saxton’s claims are not fully substantiated.  For example, they stated that “the focus on international mindedness embedded in the DP curriculum grew in importance and appeal, thus expanding the IB’s community from internationally mobile students                                                 172 Hill and Saxton, op. cit. 173 Ibid., 44.  35 to a large following in US public schools, which is a pattern that continues.”174  However, they provide no evidence proving that the IB has expanded, particularly in the US, due to the “international mindedness” aspect.   The article claims that IB students are better prepared than non-IB students to do well academically at university.  However, the article does not acknowledge the fact that many IB schools are “selective,” both academically and financially, regardless of whether they are public or private. The rhetoric of the IB is that it should be accessible to all, but if one cannot afford to pay to get into it, or does not achieve the minimum “cut off score,”175 then a tracking system is created; hence, a reason why IB students may do better is not necessarily just because of the programme itself, but because they have been tracked to be most of the “strongest” students academically.  There is a central omission in this article: by focusing so much on university entrance and academic success data, “the IB Programme…[satisfies] ‘the most stringent university entry requirements so that it would become a recognized passport to higher education,’”176 it loses sight of the greater goal of creating “autonomous lifelong learners”177 who will “help to create a better world.”178  Not only do aspects of the IB like CAS in the DP, and community service in all of the other IB programmes, encourage students to actively engage in the world around them, but the coursework also encourages students to pursue meaningful projects after graduation, as well as partaking in occupations that fulfill the IB mission.179  This aspect should be an essential                                                 174 Ibid., 45. 175 "Selective Enrollment High Schools," Office of Access and Enrollment, August 1, 2015, accessed September 28, 2015. http://cpsoae.org/apps/pages/index.jsp?uREC_ID=72696&type=d&termREC_ID=&pREC_ID=123085. 176 Hill and Saxton, op. cit., 50. 177 Ibid., 45. 178 Ibid., 51. 179 Examples of this are noted every month in the IB World Magazine http://www.ibo.org/en/news/ib-world/ such as Katie Wright, "New Study Looks at IB Alumni," News About IB Students, April 2, 2015, accessed September 28, 2015, http://www.ibo.org/en/news/news-list/new-study-looks-at-ib-alumni/  36 component addressed in their article. Finally, the authors state “that there isn’t significant longitudinal data for much of what is claimed in the article other than university academic performance, but they claim that anecdotal evidence regarding post-graduate employment and life satisfaction is sufficient, concluding: Until there is research…the anecdotes will have to suffice—and until there are assessment tools that measure the value of compassion, cultural awareness, critical thinking, ethical decision making, confidence, internationalization in thought and deed and the other qualities and characteristics embedded in an IB programme, we will just have to appreciate the efforts of the early visionaries as we watch, with pride and awe, our young IB graduates develop into fine human beings who ‘help to create a better world’, as asserted in IBO’s Mission Statement.180   Their study is important to examine when looking at the various benefits and drawbacks of the IB programmes in BC. Culross and Tarver conducted a study of an American “laboratory school on a major college campus”181 that decided to implement the Diploma Programme. Its experience reveals that those who were interviewed (former students, parents, teachers) perceived that there were a wide variety of benefits that the IB provides a school, both academically and socially, though there can be some drawbacks: Students who chose to participate in IB did so to gain an advantage in the college admissions process, particularly at selective institutions and to better prepare themselves for college study. IB students see IB classes as providing a more conducive learning environment that broadens their horizons, increases their breadth and depth of knowledge, and improves their writing skills and their study habits. The program is perceived to be quite challenging, but not over- whelming…Effects on students’ social lives are perceived to be minimal. Friends had a positive influence on enrollment in IB, even more than parents and teachers. Wanting to be with friends, as well as drawing from friends for support, were reasons for choosing IB.…With respect to their parents’ views of IB, there is a                                                 180 Hill and Saxton, op. cit., 51. 181 Rita R. Culross and Emily T. Tarver, "Teacher and Student Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Program," Journal of School Choice, 1, no. 4 (2007), 55, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/15582150802098670?journalCode=wjsc20.  37 mixed perception, with about half supportive and about half having reservations about the program. Those who are supportive tend to be seeking an advanced learning experience for their children that will advantage them in the college admissions process. Those who express concerns about the program feel the students’ increased workload impacts negatively on family time and the students’ extracurricular activities, such as sports…. School faculty have a generally positive view of the IB program…They perceive IB as focusing more on global issues, requiring higher level thinking skills, applying learning, developing links between concepts, and covering a broader spectrum of topics. They view IB as requiring substantial preparation for teachers, but view their colleagues (both IB and non-IB teachers) as positive about the experience.182 Culross and Tarver’s study offers guidance for various school stakeholders regarding how to best address the rigorous demands of the program by instituting open lines of clear and continuous communication with parents and students about the DP’s goals, expectations, and benefits, and to actively seek direct connections to tertiary institutions regarding the IB students and their secondary school programme.183 The study also recognizes that there can be a division in a school, of both staff and students, between those in the DP and not, so there must be a conscious effort to recognize and integrate these communities.184  Finally, they recommended that there should be an ongoing, external evaluation of the pros/cons of the IB on the school/district, including a rigorous review from a parent organization that could assure “parents and students that a high quality education is in place.”185  This study could be important to examine in the BC context when doing a cost/benefit academic analysis of the IB.   Doherty and Shield,186 and Dixon et al.187 considered the impact of schools adopting the IB using Australian examples that specifically focus on how the IB impacts teachers’ curriculum                                                 182 Ibid., 57. 183 Ibid., 60. 184 Ibid. 185 Ibid., 60-61. 186 Catherine Doherty and Paul Shield. "Teachers' Work in Curricular Markets: Conditions of Design and Relations between the International Baccalaureate Diploma and the Local Curriculum," Curriculum Inquiry 42 (2012): 414-41, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467873X.2012.00596.x?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=rcui20.  38 design, particularly when those teachers have to deliver both the IB and the Australian curricula concurrently.  These studies could be important to examine when comparing/contrasting how British Columbian teachers/administrators have also started to try to align teaching the IB and the new BC curriculum.  Some of the IB literature is now starting to focus on the continuum of the IB programmes, and whether they are fully in sync as the DP was instituted first in 1968, and then the MYP in 1994, followed by the Primary Years Programme (PYP) in 1997 and Career-related Programme (CP) in 2012.188  Bunnell’s 2011 MYP study summarized the continuum concept,  …three [not yet four as the CP began in 2012] programmes … each of which is distinct, yet comprising a ‘whole’ (www.ibo.org). Within each, there is an emphasis on a ‘general education’, seen as ‘the development of powers of the mind or ways of thinking which can be applied to new situations’ (quoted in Peterson, 1972: 40).189  Stephen Taylor noted the disconnect between the inquiry-based approaches of the PYP and MYP versus the “high-stakes terminal assessment of the DP,” and advocated ways for those who implement the DP to find a way to continue to use inquiry in their teaching practices.190  This study will be important to examine when examining how well the continuum is working in the BC schools that have all or parts of it. The IB continuum creates continuity between the different programmes in several                                                                                                                                                        187 Mary Dixon et al., The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Alignment with the Australian Curriculum and Australian Qualifications Framework: Final Report, International Baccalaureate Organization, July 17, 2014, http://ibo.org/globalassets/publications/ib-research/dp/australiancurriculumanddpfinalreport.pdf. 188 “Programmes," International Baccalaureate Organization, last modified 2016, http://www.ibo.org/en/programmes/.  The Career-related programme began in 2012, and is only offered in a limited number of jurisdictions internationally.  As of 2016 it was not offered in BC, though there have been discussions about it. Bob Poole, Interview, North Vancouver, BC., July 6, 2016. 189 Tristan Bunnell, "The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme after 30 Years…" op. cit., 261. 190 Stephen Taylor, "(Re)defining Inquiry for International Education," International School (Fall/Spring 2014): 43. http://www.johncatt.com/downloads/is17_1/offline/download.pdf.   39 different ways, and one of them is the Learner Profile.  Billig et al. did an interesting study191 on the implementation and impact of it in the US in five high schools, particularly regarding the consistency of interpretation of the meaning of the ten attributes (inquirers, knowledgeable, thinkers, communicators, principled, open-minded, caring, risk-taking, balanced, reflective).  Interestingly, they found that the definition and interpretation was similar overall192 to how the IB defined them in 2013 save “risk-taking,” where it was more often defined as taking risks regarding interpreting evidence with multiple perspectives, than dealing with uncertainty by being resourceful.193  A key point was that there were few ways given from the schools regarding how to assess the attributes or how school policies addressed them directly.194  As the Learner Profile is one of the most significant components of the IB that differentiates it from other specialized curricular programming options, the findings of this study are valuable for those who are interested in examining how the IB can be implemented in different, even inconsistent ways despite its unifying purpose.  Although an examination of how the Learner Profile is utilized in schools in BC could be a part of research for the factors that have led to the expansion of the IB in BC, it could be an interesting field of future research in and of itself.   One of the key challenges for the IB is that even though it is based on an “international mindedness” philosophy, and that schools have widely varying socio-economic differences, there is perhaps a move towards Western, neo-liberal ideas and teaching methodologies.  Matthew Newton explored this in a research project at the University of Melbourne,195 particularly looking                                                 191 Shelley H. Billig et al., Diploma Programme: Case Studies of Learner Profile Implementation and Impact in the United States, (Bethesda, MA: International Baccalaureate Organization, July 2014), http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/ib-research/dp/lpintheusfullreportfinal.pdf.  192 Ibid., 141. 193 Ibid., ii. 194 Ibid.,144. 195 Matthew Newton, "The International Baccalaureate in its Fifth Decade: Cosmopolitan Ideals, Neoliberal Reality," Master's thesis, University of Melbourne, 2014,  40 at the Career-related Certificate (IBCC).  He warned, “While the IBCC may represent a commendable effort to bridge the academic-vocational divide, it could also be indicative of a new trend of capitulation to a ‘human capital’ agenda rather than one of cultivating tolerance, international-mindedness and cosmopolitanism.”196 As the IB continues to expand in BC, this study could be instructive regarding analyzing whether new aspects of the IB such as the Career-related Programme truly coincide with the underlying tenets of it, and effect the expansion of the IB in BC.     The literature on the IB continues to grow concurrently with its international expansion. Within the last ten years there have been dozens of studies produced, particularly in faculties and schools of education around the world.   There is a need for more studies as the IB expands in many different jurisdictions.  The nature of the IB can shift to accommodate those differences, but there will be an ongoing tension between the drive for internal consistency (respecting standardization, credibility and reliability of achievement) and the pressure for diversity and accommodation.  Thus, current and future research will have an important role in monitoring and analyzing those tensions during a period of expansion.                                                                                                                                                             https://www.academia.edu/7400140/The_International_Baccalaureate_in_its_Fifth_Decade_Cosmopolitan_Ideals_Neoliberal_Reality. 196 Ibid., 43.  41 2.3 School Stakeholder Curriculum Choice  The literature regarding school stakeholder (student, parent, teacher, administration, school board) curriculum choice regarding the IB is an expanding field.   Taylor and Porath’s study197 examined a survey of IB graduates from public high schools in urban BC who reflected on their experiences in the IB as the schools they attended chose to offer the IB.  Their study mentioned that the IB was one of the few educational options for gifted students (even though the DP was not specifically designed as a gifted programme).198 Despite the fact that their conclusions were in favor of the IB Diploma Programme option, they cited a study by Carolyn Callahan199 who argued that the DP was perhaps not the best choice for all gifted high school students, and “cautioned parents and educators to consider the ‘effectiveness and appropriateness of [the IB DP] as compared to other curricula that have been developed or might be developed for secondary gifted students.’”200 They concluded that graduates found the IB to be quite challenging, but that they became better critical thinkers, were more internationally-minded, and that they were well-prepared for post-secondary life. They argued that a key reason that the DP was chosen as a graduation program was that it would help them “be admitted to the postsecondary institutions of their choice, and that they will be well prepared for postsecondary studies.”201 In their interviews, the IB alumni stated that they felt well                                                 197 Mary Lee Taylor and Marion Porath, "Reflections on the International Baccalaureate Program: Graduates’ Perspectives," The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education XVII, no. 3 (2006): 149-158, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ746052.pdf. 198 Ibid., 150. 199 Carolyn M. Callahan, Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs for Talented Students in American High Schools: A Focus on Science and Mathematics, Storrs, Conn: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, 2003, http://nrcgt.uconn.edu/research-based_resources/callahan/. 200 Ibid., 22. Cited in Taylor and Porath, op. cit., 150. 201 Taylor and Porath, op. cit., 150.  42 prepared for tertiary education, and what can come afterwards, “Of the respondents, 87.5% credited the IB Program for helping them to pursue their career goals thus far.”202  Conley et al. produced a study203 that concurs with this.  The intent of their three phase study was to look at the impact of the DP on “college readiness by examining the academic and non-academic preparation of students who participated in the DP in high school.”204 They collected data from two groups of students who were in at the University of Oregon, one group who had been in schools that had chosen to offer the IB and another who had not offered it to look at the impact of a school choosing to offer the IB to its students in contrast to schools that did not.  They found that IB students were “better prepared for college on both academic and non-academic factors.”205  They found them to be better prepared to be able to adjust to the more rigorous expectations and work load, particularly regarding time management; they also knew how to best prepare for final, cumulative exam assessments.206   Their findings corroborated the findings of another study by Coca et al.207 that looked at students who had graduated from Chicago public high schools from 2003-2007, comparing and contrasting those who went to schools that had chosen to offer the IB versus those that had not.                                                 202 Ibid., 153. 203 David Conley et al., International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Examining College Readiness (Bethesda, Maryland: International Baccalaureate Organization, May 2014), http://www.ibo.org/contentassets/d74675437b4f4ab38312702599a432f1/ib_diploma_programme_examining_college_readiness_2014_0715_000.pdf. 204 Ibid., iv. 205 Ibid., 21. 206 Ibid. “This multimethod study sought to answer a complex question about student readiness. As in any study that delves deeply into an issue that has not been well studied, the study’s results should be interpreted with attention to several important limitations. First, the generalizability is limited by the study’s exclusive focus on IB students who attended the University of Oregon’s Robert D. Clark Honors College from 2005 to 2012. Second, the study should be viewed through the lens of case study research models and methods. Third, response rates to CampusReady restrict generalizability of the findings when viewed in isolation from other data sources contained in the study. Fourth, the study does not control for implementation variation of the IB Diploma Programme at the local high school level nor high school teacher effectiveness among IB and non-IB courses.” Ibid. 207 Vanessa Coca et al., “Working to My Potential: The Postsecondary Experiences of CPS Students in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme,” Chicago Postsecondary Transition Project at the University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research, March 2012, https://consortium.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/IB%20Report1.pdf.  43 Coca et. al. found that the “supportive, tight-knit community of peers and teachers”208 helped them get through high school, defending the IB as the best curricular choice for those schools that had the option.  They stated: The stories these students tell of their own experiences in college defy what previous research suggests we should expect of them. They described college courses as an experience that they felt they were prepared – perhaps even over-prepared – for academically. They described their strong academic skills, especially related to analytical writing, and consistently cited academic behaviors and mindsets (e.g., work ethic, motivation, time management, and help-seeking) as sources of strength in the transition to college-level work. Although we are limited in making strong causal attributions by our data, IBDP students’ own attributions suggest how particular dimensions of their high school experiences may have shaped their preparation for college. The IBDP students whom we interviewed repeatedly described the rigor and workload of their courses, as well as the depth and quality of their relationships with teachers and peers, as key elements of their experiences in IB.209   These findings held up given various controls for their data.  For example, the researchers found,  The effects of the IBDP are dramatic. Not only are IBDP students more likely to attend a four- year college, as well as a more selective four-year college, but they are also more likely to persist for two years in a four-year college. These effects exist even when we control for selection by comparing IBDP students to similarly high-achieving students who did not enroll in IBDP.210   These controls included taking into consideration the socio-economic background of those studied: IB students in college describe a confidence in their academic ability rarely seen in studies of first-generation, low-income, racial/ethnic minority college students. Not only did they feel they could keep up with their more advantaged peers, they felt they could eclipse them. Indeed, the IB program in Chicago appears to have accomplished something very rare in urban education: it took economically and socially disadvantaged students and radically changed their long-term educational prospects by making them world-class learners with an arsenal of academic skills.211                                                   208 Ibid., 50. 209 Ibid. 210 Ibid., 25. 211 Ibid., 52.  44 However, the study also identified weaknesses with the IB as a curricular school choice.  Particularly it focused on the fact that the IB has not influenced the “social capital gap” meaning that students were “missing critical information and support around important questions and tasks of college search, application, and choice,”212 though the study doesn’t say how or why that this would affect IB students more than non-IB students in the schools that were studied.  The study also noted that a shocking 38% of students who enrolled in the pre-DP Gr 9 programmes as part of an IB cohort had withdrawn from the cohort by Gr 11 thereby never starting the DP.213  The study’s authors recommended, “…if the IBO intends to expand IB programming in urban areas, there must be careful consideration paid to the experience of students who intend to enroll in the IBDP throughout all four years of high school. “214  Catherine Doherty’s study analyzed the multifaceted appeal and impact of the expansion of the IB in Australia as more and more schools were choosing it as a curricular option, and it was being considered as a model for a proposed Australian Certificate of Education.215  It is a powerful piece, particularly regarding a summary of the main strengths and disadvantages of the literature that it had analyzed, It is produced as both attractive and repellent: attractive in the ambitious sights it sets, and the promise of advantages to reap beyond graduation; repellent in the way it discourages certain types of students from choosing it, which in turn makes it a more attractive enclave to those it fits.216    She concludes with an argument against adopting an externally developed international curriculum:                                                  212 Ibid., 53. 213 Ibid., 54. 214 Ibid., 55. 215 Catherine A Doherty, "The Appeal of the International Baccalaureate in Australia’s Educational Market: A Curriculum of Choice for Mobile Futures." Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 30, no. 1 (2009)  http://eprints.qut.edu.au/27571/1/27571.pdf. 216 Ibid., 13.  45 What gets lost in this public debate around ‘choice’ is the previous moral sensibility that argued curriculum should be developed locally to address local needs. Population mobility erodes this to some extent as localities become more permeable, fluid and entangled, however the import of an internationally designed and examined curriculum seems to be an over-reaction and an abrogation of the responsibility of a civil society to debate and design its own template for citizenship.217    This argues in favour of those who prefer state-developed educational programmes.  This study will be useful to examine how the IB might have been used as a template for some such programmes, such as in British Columbia in its 2015/2016 Building Student Success curriculum redesign. There are many reasons why various school stakeholders choose the IB for their schools.  Even though there are drawbacks to the programme, the majority of studies indicate that the schools that had the opportunity to choose it were satisfied with the results in multifaceted ways.  As the literature continues to grow regarding the relatively new field of IB and school stakeholder (student, parent, teacher, administration, school board) curriculum choice, there is likely to be more research that is done that is critical of the IB.  My research hopes to contribute to the field by critically analyzing the impact of schools choosing the IB in BC. 2.4 The IB and Academic Achievement The concept of “academic achievement” and its wider implications is an important aspect of the appeal of the IB.  The IB has a reputation for being focused on high academic achievement due to its use of inquiry-based learning methodologies, which can produce more academically astute, critical thinking students, and for its academic rigor, particularly in the DP. Regarding its encouragement of academic rigor, Justin Snider wrote a piece for Columbia                                                 217 Ibid.  46 University’s Hechinger Institute that analyzed whether the IB and AP were “truly rigorous.”218  He stated, “To many people, they are synonymous: ... rigor and IB.”219 but went on to argue that such claims had to be proven, and he went on to try to do so.  He stated that universities have recognized that it is rigorous, and that “because admissions officers at selective colleges, faced with unprecedented numbers of applicants, began expecting serious students to have taken the most challenging courses available to them,”220 the numbers enrolled in the IB “skyrocketed”221 in the years right before his 2009 study. After analyzing various specific factors, he concludes that “well-taught…IB courses foster… ‘higher-order thinking and habits of mind’...  If there is indeed rigor in American classrooms, it’s a safe bet you’ll see it in most…IB courses.”222 Abrioux and Rutherford discussed how the IB has been connected with US public schools, as well as charter,223 and more frequently, magnet schools.224  They stated that the IB has not only encouraged academic achievement, but also social equality in the magnet schools that had the DP: Through high schools, IB magnet schools and/or IB magnet programmes in public schools throughout the country, the IB may be credited with having made a modest but real contribution in some school districts towards desegregation, the inclusion of minorities, and a reduction of socio-economic difference.225                                                 218 Justin Snider, "AP and IB Courses: Are They Truly Rigorous?" Understanding and Reporting on Academic Rigor: A Hechinger Institute Primer for Journalists, June 2009, 21-24, http://hechinger.tc.columbia.edu/primers/Hechinger_Institute_Rigor_Primer.pdf. 219 Ibid., 21. 220 Ibid. 221 Ibid. 222 Ibid., 23. 223 “Charter schools receive public funding for a 3-5 year period, and they are responsible for meeting standards and objectives as set out in their specific charter (http://wwwuschargerschoolcenter.org/).  This may involve addressing the unique needs of a community or a particular emphasis in curriculum and subject areas…They remain extremely diverse in their student population, in the nature of the focus for achievement, and in pedagogy, and several of them offer the DP, including schools which offer the diploma.” Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit., 16. 224 “Magnet schools constitute another alternative to traditional public schools (http://www.magnet.edu/). These schools ‘draw’ a selected student population from a school district or county, for a course of study with a more broad focus, such as the arts, or science.  Students have to meet entrance requirements (such as tests), and the vision of many magnet schools matches the IB mission since they bring together talented students from different ethnic or socio-economic backgrounds for challenging educational programmes.” Ibid. 225 Ibid., 16-17.  47  They also cited a New York Times article that stated that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provided sizeable funding for low income and minority students to be enrolled in the DP, trying to encourage equity of enrollment in academically challenging programmes.226  Abrioux and Rutherford state that the DP is being adopted due to its “academic rigor and its values,” and for “its increasing challenge and opportunities for ‘average kids.’”227  They conclude citing Jay Mathews and Ian Hill’s 2005 book, Supertest: How the International Baccalaureate Can Strengthen Our Schools, “[introducing the DP was] a way to invigorate and revitalize public high schools that…were beginning to realize that they produced too many thinly educated graduates not ready for college.”228  They discuss that the IB’s academic rigor is recognized by thousands of US colleges, and that DP students are offered scholarships and college credit to enter 2nd or 3rd year university if they excel in their courses.229 Abrioux and Rutherford address a frequently-expressed concern that the DP can be seen as being too difficult academically, for example stating that it has been a challenge for some schools to get students to undertake the compulsory study of a second language; however, they state that the IB has tried to deal with this issue by introducing ab initio languages.230 Yuan and Le’s study of six national and international math and language exams (including DP exams) versus US state exams measured the extent to which deeper learning 231 occurred, which was defined as “the mastery of core academic content, critical-thinking,                                                 226 Ibid., 17. 227 Ibid. 228 Ibid. 229 Ibid., 18. 230 Ibid., 17. 231 Kun Yuan, Kun and Vi-Nhuan Le, Measuring Deeper Learning through Cognitively Demanding Test Items: Results from the Analysis of Six National and International Exams: Results from the Analysis of Six National and International Exams, (Washington DC: RAND Corporation, 2014, http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR483/RAND_RR483.sum.pdf.  48 problem-solving, collaboration, communication, and ‘learn-how-to-learn’ skills.”232  It concluded that the DP exam had “greater cognitive demand”233 and was one of only two of the various standardized tests that they examined that attained the goal of achieving “deeper learning.”  They expressed how difficult it is to develop such assessments overall234 so the IB was held in high regard. The academic appeal of the DP is a component of Wendy J. Baker’s Masters in Education thesis on the IB in Ontario235 that concurred with Taylor and Porath, citing the appeal of the IB as it helped students achieve higher test scores and improved their academic abilities.236 Baker goes on to discuss the fact that increased test scores appeal to school stakeholders, not only regarding an enhanced academic reputation, but also due to increased funding as educational budgets are partially determined by the number of students enrolled in a school, and students tend to move to schools offering academically-challenging programmes like the DP.237 A limitation of Baker’s research is its case study approach.  She clearly laid out the weaknesses of her research design and how she tried to address it: A limitation of this study is the assumption that one cannot generalize from a case study (Merriam, 1988). Indeed, this study is bounded by public schools in Ontario, and I do not intend to draw conclusions which can be generalized to other Canadian provinces. The IBDP is a “globally available product that can only be animated through the particularities of local school systems” (Doherty, 2013, p. 383). Therefore, it is the locality which gives the IBDP meaning. As such, the study is also limited by the selection of only one school from one school board; namely the TDSB. This may call into question whether the study can be generalized across Ontario. I have attempted to mitigate this limitation by including participants who have understandings of the IBDP across the                                                 232 Ibid., iii. 233 Ibid., 39. 234 Ibid., 30, 40. 235 Wendy J. Baker, "Curricular Choice in Ontario Public Secondary Schools: Exploring the Policy and Practice of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme," Master's thesis, University of Western Ontario, 2014. http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/1969/. 236 Ibid., 104. 237 Ibid., 105.  49 province.238  Regardless of the fact that Baker expressed concern that her findings may not be applicable outside of Ontario, her findings did concur with those that had already been noted in Tarc and Beatty’s paper on the DP in Ontario.239  They note in their abstract, “As with previous studies, most students are quite positive about the DP experience, particularly in terms of academic preparation for university.”240   Their findings state that the DP prepared students academically by instilling in them exemplary work habits, the curriculum encouraged critical thinking, and that the support that they received from those delivering the DP, both socially and academically, was essential to help them complete the stressful workload and get the Diploma.241  These studies seem to concur with Daniel J. Brown’s 2004 study242 of the impact of the policy of “open enrollment” in BC, a piece that involves the themes of school choice and academic achievement.  Brown states that one reason why students left their district catchment areas was to be able to attend the IB due to its academic appeal.  He quoted one BC principal as stating, “Specialty programs such as the International Baccalaureate, … had attracted students away from his school.243  Brown went on to state the attraction of schools offering academically challenging programmes like the IB, “…when a cross section of 52 parents in British Columbia was asked what they considered to be important when choosing schools for their children, their responses could be categorized as academic achievement, student care/discipline, and shared values.”244  Brown’s finding was corroborated by a contemporary newspaper article regarding                                                 238 Ibid., 64. 239 Paul Tarc and Luke Beatty, "The Emergence of the International Baccalaureate Diploma in Ontario: Diffusion, Pilot Study and Prospective Research," Canadian Journal of Education 35, (2012): 341-75. http://journals.sfu.ca/cje/index.php/cje-rce/article/view/1114. 240 Ibid., 341.  241 Ibid., 361.  242 Brown, op. cit. 243 Ibid., 74. 244 Ibid., 22.  50 the expansion of the IB in a couple of jurisdictions in the Lower Mainland of Greater Vancouver.245 The academic appeal of the IB is supported in most literature that has been written on it. Going beyond the academic strengths of the DP, does the PYP’s inquiry based approach lead to stronger student academic achievement?  Lucy Haddock’s study246 examined this impact of the PYP by surveying public school teachers using the McGill Strategic Demands of Inquiry Questionnaire (MSDIQ) as well as the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test 2.0 (FCAT 2.). The study concluded that participants believed (and saw through increased testing scores) that there was stronger student achievement with inquiry-based teaching, and that PYP teachers were more effective at delivering it than non-IB trained teachers as they felt that the professional development that the IB offered the teachers helped to make their programs stronger.247   Does the MYP encourage stronger student academic achievement? Alexander Arsic’s MA thesis explored Self-Directed Learning (SDL) as demonstrated in five MYP English-language high schools in Montreal, and if it could lead to better learning environments, and, in turn, academic success.248 He found that it was, concluding, “I believe that learning activities that allow more learner control, such as the IB Personal Project, should be imitated and mandatory throughout formal public education. These learning/teaching strategies are readily available online and even within the schools, so it would be an easy adaptation for QEP [Quebec                                                 245 Jane Seyd, "Enrolment up in North Vancouver, West Vancouver Schools International Students, New Programs All Boost Numbers," North Shore News, November 2, 2014, http://www.nsnews.com/news/enrolment-up-in-north-vancouver-west-vancouver-schools-1.1491814. 246 Lucy C. Haddock, "A Comparison of Teacher's Beliefs of the Use of Inquiry Teaching, Origin of Knowledge of Inquiry Teaching, and Student Achievement between International Baccalaureate and Non-International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme Schools," PhD diss., University of Central Florida, 2014, http://etd.fcla.edu/CF/CFE0005342/Haddock_Lucy_dissertation_July_2014.pdf. 247 Ibid., 104-105. 248 Alexander Arsic, "Self-directed Learning in an International Baccalaureate High School Class," Master's thesis, Concordia University, 2014, http://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/978971/4/Arsic_MA_F2014.pdf.  51 Education Program] to implement.”249  In contrast to Arsic’s study general learning and teaching strategies in the MYP and their impact on academic achievement, Conrad Hughes looked specifically at the new MYP external assessments. There have been discussions of whether the MYP’s assessment structure focuses too much on academic performance given the shift to the optional eAssessment.  Hughes examined the concern regarding the shift to preparing students for externally moderated exams from previously being focused on competence performance.   Hughes’ study250 looks at this through the lens of examining the role of feedback.  It also analyzes the decision of the MYP to offer the eAssessment, which seems to philosophically contradict the inquiry-based nature of the MYP by offering an optional “high-stakes examination.”251  It recommends that the IB should not conform to the pressure of training students for performance-based assessments in the future, but that feedback in the MYP should still focus on competence-based learning,  If students are working towards narrow performance indicators such as those that naturally and inevitably arise from item-response examinations, this will surely encourage feedback on performance rather than feedback on competence, leading to discussions on how students should do, execute, perform, respond, and react rather than how they might engage, try, learn about learning, position themselves and choose.252  This summarizes an important debate that is occurring in BC MYP and DP schools as well regarding how to best transition between the inquiry-based MYP and the examinations-focused DP.                                                  249 Ibid., 72. 250 Conrad Hughes, "A Critical Analysis of the International Baccalaureate’s Middle Years Programme Assessment Design with Particular Focus on Feedback," Journal of Research in International Education 13, (November 28, 2014): 203-17, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1475240914550783. 251 Ibid., 215. 252 Ibid.  52 One study did not necessarily agree that it was primarily the IB curriculum that was responsible for a student’s academic success.  Donna Pendergast, Shelley Dole, and Damian Rentoule’s study examined student experiences in MYP and DP in an international school and found that it was primarily the teacher who was the determinant of the classroom experience, and therefore, of the student academic success.253  However, they point out that “…teachers who demonstrate evidence of discourse aligned to IB vision/philosophy are still vital to any potential change process as they are the keepers of good practice,”254 indicating that one can’t necessarily separate what the teacher is doing from the philosophy of how they are doing it, and in this case, utilizing the IB’s various programmes. The implementation of an IB programme in public schools can create a two-tiered educational system.  As argued in Paul R. Carr and Brad J. Porfilio’s study of Chicago Public Schools,255 they interpreted that implementation of the IB, amongst other superior academic programs, were mostly for the wealthy256 while the impoverished areas of the city suffered.  However, in Anna R Saavedra did a study on the academic impact of enrollment in DP schools, examining Chicago Public Schools (CPS)257 regarding academic achievement and the likelihood of graduating, and/or going on to a tertiary education.  The findings were that being in the IB greatly increased student academic achievement, and therefore the likelihood of graduation and/or going on to college, so it was argued that providing IB programmes in public schools was                                                 253 Donna Pendergast, Shelley Dole, and Damian Rentoule, "Teacher Dependent Discourse Patterns: Variations in Student Discourse Roles in an International Baccalaureate School - a Mathematics Focus," International Schools Journal, 33, (April 2014): 16-25. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/97103900/teacher-dependent-discourse-patterns-variations-student-discourse-roles-international-baccalaureate-school-mathematics-focus. 254 Ibid., 23. 255 Paul R. Carr and Brad J. Porfilio, "The Obama Education Files: Is There Hope to Stop the Neoliberal Agenda in Education?" Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education 4, (2011): 1-30. http://digitalcommons.buffalostate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1031&context=jiae. 256 Ibid., 8. 257 Anna R. Saavedra, "The Academic Impact of Enrollment in International Baccalaureate Diploma Programs: A Case Study of Chicago Public Schools," Teachers College Record 116 (2014): 1-40. http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=17406.  53 a good investment.  One of the key questions of my study is what are the challenges associated with implementing the IB, and part of that is whether the IB is truly beneficial after a cost-benefit analysis is conducted by a school and/or district, and this was examined in this study.  The conclusions based on her calculations seemed to be conclusive about the post-high school benefits of being in the academically-challenging IB, “…my results suggest that the net present value of lifetime earnings induced by IB Diploma Program enrollment is approximately $34,020 ($162,000*0.21), which amounts to a benefit-cost ratio of approximately 78 to 1 [($34,020/($217*two years of IB enrollment)].258 Another study at John Hopkins Institute for Education Policy in 2015 praised Saavedra’s study’s results, and added that there were positive effects whether or not a student received the full IB Diploma.259  CPS now has more IB programmes than any other district in the US.  An important point was made in the study calling for further examination of the difference in academic achievement between selective and non-selective elementary and middle schools,                                                  258 Ibid., 28-29. Here are some more specific findings from her calculations: “In 2010, the average cost-per-student for implementing the IB Diploma Program and related preparation courses in CPS high schools, and for permitting eligible students to take IB Diploma examinations, was approximately $217 ($650,000/3,000).  The Economic Policy Institute estimates that on average, workers without a high-school diploma make approximately $22,000 per year and high-school graduates with no college education, on average, make approximately $29,000 per year (Mishel, Bernstein, & Shierholz, 2009). Therefore, assuming a 40-year work span and a 3% discount rate, the net present value of the lifetime earnings gap is approximately $162,000. I find that IB enrollment increases the probability of high-school graduation by approximately 21% and that my result is extremely robust to high degrees of selection bias. Therefore my results suggest that the net present value of lifetime earnings induced by IB Diploma Program enrollment is approximately $34,020 ($162,000*0.21), which amounts to a benefit-cost ratio of approximately 78 to 1 [($34,020/($217*two years of IB enrollment)].  This calculation is clearly an underestimate of the benefits of investment in the IB Diploma Program, as it does not take into account additional individual lifetime earning benefits caused by the effect of enrollment in the IB Diploma Program on college enrollment—people with “some college” on average, make approximately $33,000 per year (Mishel et al, 2009). Nor does not take 29 into account the social gains of increasing high-school graduation rates, including increased tax payments, and savings in public health and prison expenditures (Levin, et al 2007).” Ibid. 259 David Steiner and Ashley Berner, "Chicago’s Use of the International Baccalaureate: An Education Success Story That Didn’t Travel," Johns Hopkins School for Education Institute for Education Policy, October 14, 2015, http://education.jhu.edu/archives-SL/edpolicy/commentary/Int_Bacc.  54 What remains to be seen, however, is whether the non-selective IB elementary and middle schools that are now in place in Chicago’s most disadvantaged neighborhoods change the academic trajectories of the students who enter them, and whether this model proves sufficiently compelling for other districts to take notice.260    The issue of being a selective versus non-selective IB school, and the impact that being either of them has on academic achievement, could be important to examine in the BC context. 2.5 Conclusion As the IB is “young” in the field of curriculum studies, there is relatively little literature on it; however, what can be found regarding the concepts of the International Baccalaureate program, school stakeholder curricular choice, and academic achievement has provided my study with evidence from a variety of perspectives, from the BC context and abroad.  My research will add to the literature on the International Baccalaureate.  For the most part, my own conclusions regarding the factors for the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC are in agreement with those I have analyzed regarding the aspects of the IB that many of the studies have found to be appealing, such as its philosophy and specific programme components.  My own conclusions are also in agreement with some of the challenges presented in the studies, particularly regarding how to measure the effectiveness of the IB continuum (particularly as this is a relatively new concept in BC and there are so few schools that offer it), and that there could be a difficulty in effectively offering new programmes like CP. My research will add to the literature on school stakeholder (student, parent, teacher, administration, school board) curriculum choice as it examines the IB’s academic, philosophical,                                                 260 Ibid.  55 and social benefits, and why schools around BC have been choosing to implement the IB.  My research also agrees with some of the studies regarding the challenges some schools face when implementing the IB curricula, including why some schools have dropped it, with the costliness of the IB programmes being a key factor.  My research will add to the literature on academic achievement: there is a consensus that the IB’s reputation for achievement is a key factor in the growth of the programme. My study will examine how this has played out in BC schools.  There is also consensus of concern that the programme is perhaps too rigorous, and that it can cause academic “dual track” streaming in the schools that offer non-IB options.  However, it is clear that the IB’s rigorous, externally moderated, cyclically-reviewed, and therefore accountable academic programmes are a factor in the IB’s expansion around the world, in North America, as well as in BC.    56 Chapter 3 Methodology 3.1 Introduction  This chapter reviews the methodological approach for this research. This is a qualitative historical context case study, in which the “case” is the IB in BC.  The hope is that a study of the development of the IB in BC will yield insights for the study of its development in other jurisdictions.   This study utilizes Denzin and Lincoln’s qualitative research definitional description:  Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials—case study; personal experience; introspection; life story; interview; artifacts; cultural texts and productions; observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts—that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals’ lives. Accordingly, qualitative researchers deploy a wide range of interconnected interpretive practices…it is understood, however, that each practice makes the world visible in a different way. Hence there is frequently a commitment to using more than one interpretive practice in any study.261   3.2 Research Design The research topic is an historical context case study of the IB in BC.  The case study design has been defined in various ways.262 However, this case study doesn’t fit any of their definitions.  This study has an historical case, the IB in BC from 1974-2016, which is going to be                                                 261 Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, "Introduction: Entering the Field of Qualitative Research," Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, edited by Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 1998), 5, http://web.fmk.edu.rs/files/blogs/2010-11/MI/Research_Method/denzin_&_lincoln_intro.pdf.  262 Sharan B. Merriam, Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach, (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing, 1998); Robert E. Stake, "The Case Study Method in Social Inquiry," Educational Researcher 7, (1978): 5-8.; Robert E. Stake, “Qualitative Case Studies," in The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, edited by Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, 433-66. 3rd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE publication, 2005); Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods (Applied Social Research Methods), 4th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2009); Bent Flyvbjerg, "Case Study," in The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, edited by Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, 301-16. 4th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE publications, 2011).  57 examined through documents and interviews, in the context of international IB policies and experience, as well as the BC educational environment. The “historical context” design can be defined as per Schensul:  Context refers to the external characteristics of the situation to be studied that are situated outside the individual, group, or even institution or community that are the focus of interest.  Historical context refers to past conditions, which influence the present…The historical context refers to political, social, environmental, and cultural decisions or events occurring over time that can be described and linked to the situation under study….263  This study will examine these historical context factors with regard to the IB internationally, and the BC school environment (including BC Ministry of Education policy, population demographics, and local school configurations).  The bound time period is “1974-2016” as 1974 was the date that the first IB school in BC was established, and 2016 was chosen because the International Baccalaureate Organization provided registration data on BC schools through October of that year.264 An historical context case study design is the ideal approach to answer my major research question, “What were the factors that influenced the establishment and expansion of the International Baccalaureate (IB) in British Columbia from 1974-2016?”  as British Columbia’s IB historical experience can be seen as an instructive model regarding how the IB can evolve and expand in other jurisdictions.                                                      263 Jean J. Schensul, "Historical Context," The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2008), 392-393. 264 See Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit.  58 3.3 Data Collection This study analyzed a wide variety of primary and secondary sources that contain both quantitative and qualitative data.  The data that I used can be grouped into documents and interviews.  3.3.1 Document selection  I accessed both publicly available and privately requested265 documents. Examples of the types of documents used include enrollment data for BC IB schools, IB data tables, a transcript of a UBC presentation to a secondary school on the IB programme and university admissions, BC Ministry of Education Annual Reports, BC legislative Acts regarding education, BC school board memoranda, minutes from UBC Senate meetings, books on the IB from experts in the field, newspaper articles, published academic studies, school and district websites, and theses and dissertations on similar topics.  The evidence obtained from each of these documents was synthesized and integrated into creating the argument regarding the various factors that have led to the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC. 3.3.2 Participant Interviews  This study tried to include as many IB educators who have played a significant role in the development of the IB in BC as possible.  Those who participated were part of the first group of educators who implemented the IB in BC (whose contact information I was able to locate), and those who have played a significant role in the development of policy in as many schools as                                                 265 The privately requested documents are specific statistical documents that I requested from the International Baccalaureate Organization regarding BC IB enrolment. They are available to anyone who requests them.  They have requested that the names of the “candidate” and “interested” schools remain anonymous.  59 possible.  At least one school in every district that has an IB programme and many of the independent schools were contacted to determine if they were interested in participating.  Some of my queries were not answered. More evidence from schools on Vancouver Island and from the interior of BC, as well as more independent schools, would have provided additional geographic and socio-economic balance; that could be something that future research can examine.  However, I do not believe that if I had chosen a different sample that the answers to the research question would have been significantly different as I was able to attain a wide array of opinions regarding the topics analyzed. 3.3.2.1 Participant Sample My primary source interview evidence included 24 qualitative semi-structured audio-recorded interviews of BC professionals with knowledge of the IB.   I sought out educators with a range of experience, purposefully including those with a diversity of expertise, longevity of involvement, centrality in district or provincial decision-making, and high rank in school hierarchies. The interviewees can be categorized as former/current IB teachers, administrators, and consultants.  The teachers were able to offer practical insights about the reality of how the IB is implemented.  The administrators were able to share their perspective on aspects of programme implementation that teachers were aware of, as well as aspects that they did not know e.g. school and district budget issues, and district/provincial curricula issues.  The IB consultants had the broadest perspective on the programme as they were able to compare and contrast many programmes across the province, as well as provide comparisons to programmes outside BC.    60 3.3.2.2 Participant Recruitment When I began my investigations into the topic, I received data from the International Baccalaureate Organization’s head office in Bethesda, MA that stated many particulars about the schools in BC that offered the IB through July 2015.266  I also requested and received updated information from the IBO through October 2016.267  From this I looked up the school websites online and sent email queries to various school and school district IB Coordinators and administrators.  I tried to choose a variety of schools demographically: although the vast majority of IB schools are in Greater Vancouver, I also reached out to schools in the BC Interior as well as on Vancouver Island.  As I was working with people in the IB as a graduate student at UBC, I was also given the names of people to contact who have been involved with the IB organization in BC, have been or are administrators in various IB programmes across the province, or have spoken in the media as an authority on the IB programme, so I also contacted them by email. My initial contact letter included an explanation of the details of my study.268   The interviewees were chosen because they could provide me with evidence and data to help me answer my question on the basis of their roles in the establishment, development and growth of the IB, in BC and abroad. I sought out interviews with educators in IB schools from varied socio-economic backgrounds as I have a list of all of the IB schools in BC.  As I initially had 17 interviewees from various schools from across the province, I had not intended to use the “snowball” or “chain referral” sampling technique as described by Biernacki and Waldorf,   The method yields a study sample through referrals made among people who share or know of others who possess some characteristics that are of research                                                 266 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 267 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 268 For the Initial Contact Letter please see Appendix 4.  61 interest.  The method is well suited for a number of research purposes [that]…require the knowledge of insiders to locate people for the study.269   However, in the process of conducting my interviews I was encouraged by some of the interviewees to contact some other IB educators who I had not previously considered, so I did end up supplementing my initial contact list using the snowball sampling technique. I subsequently received responses from most of the people I had sent queries to, and I set up appointments to interview them, either in person or on the phone.  The list of interviewees who participated in this study can be found in the Appendix.270   As a part of that appointment confirmation, I sent them a Consent Form, which they signed and gave to me.271   3.3.2.3 Participant Interview Process.  The interview protocol and questions for this study were as follows.  In a semi-structured format, I asked the participants the same opening question, and then followed up with several other questions.272  I audio recorded the interviews as well as took notes so I was able to signpost/time and mark key points made in the interview.  As well, I wrote down important points that led to follow up questions.  I transcribed the interviews, and verified with the interviewees, through sending them their transcripts, that the information was accurate.  Most interviewees made brief revisions so that the transcript accurately reflected their positions.  Finally, they all signed a Final Consent Form to give me permission to use their transcript.273                                                   269 Patrick Biernacki and Dan Waldorf., "Snowball Sampling: Problems and Techniques of Chain Referral Sampling." Sociological Methods and Research 10 (1981): 141,  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/004912418101000205?ssource=mfr&rss=1. 270 For the list of interviewees please see Appendix 5. 271 For the Consent Form please see Appendix 6. 272 For interview questions see Appendix 7. 273 For the Final Consent Form please see Appendix 8.  62 I have kept and will keep the records confidential.  The recordings and transcripts have been securely stored. I did not directly name any of those whom I quoted in my paper, except those who gave explicit permission for me to do so; instead, I referenced them in the text regarding their position e.g. administrator, cited them in the footnotes with an anonymous interview number, and provided a list of names of all of those I interviewed in the Appendix, thereby ensuring that individual identities were protected.  I knew the interviewee’s name, occupation, and school that they work at/worked for.  All of the people I interviewed are or have been educators involved with the IB, though some have since gone on to work at university, as educational consultants, or have retired. They were aware that I am completing my MA on the topic of the factors that influenced the establishment and expansion of the IB in British Columbia from 1974-2016.  3.4 Analysis of the Data The evidence that was obtained from the sources is explored in Chapters 4, 5, and 6. Chapter 4 analyzes some of the reasons for the initial establishment of the IB in BC. Chapter 5 was organized into “factor/reason” sections as per Schensul274 that answered the research questions: impact of the Global Education movement, philosophical, pedagogical, legislative, economic, tertiary education, and alumni reflection/programme reputation.  These analytical factor topics are also often used when organizing a history essay in the MYP and DP, so this is why I gravitated to this organizational structure as I gathered my evidence.  Chapter 6 analyzes how the BC Ministry of Education curriculum changes that began in 2015 have affected and could affect the expansion of the IB in BC by analyzing specific components of the BCEd Plan. I                                                 274 Jean J. Schensul, op. cit., 392.  63 clustered the interview data and documents both in terms of the factors that have been stated and chronologically, and how the two were integrated emerged in my research process.  I had initially thought that a possible periodization of the data would be: 1. the first 12 high schools that established the IB from 1974-1990; 2. From 1990-2002 only 3 more high schools adopted it (I would try to examine why the expansion was so slow); 3. In 2003/2004 the first PYP (Primary Years Programme) and MYP (Middle Years Programmes) were established; 4. In a very short period of time from 2003-2006 the number of K-12 schools and programmes offering the IB expanded;275 5. the BC “IB boom” began in 2007 as the number of IB authorized schools and programmes276 went from 16 schools/18 programmes to 45 schools/62 programmes (with an additional 10 candidate schools277 with 11 programmes, and 18 “interested”278 schools with 19 programmes279) as of July 2016. This periodization was still valid and was used for my overview of the IB’s establishment in BC in Chapter Four save that I chose to overview and define all of the IB programmes that were established in the 20th century as BC IB “pioneer” schools.  In my Findings chapter the evidence was first organized in analytical sections and sub-sections, and within each of those I followed a chronological approach. This organization was utilized as it created a clearer explanatory framework. This study attempted to be reliable by looking at a wide variety of types of data and perspectives.  However, due to the nature of this Masters level research, and the restrictions on my time as a full time graduate student and teacher, the number of people who I was able to                                                 275 See Appendices 1 and 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 276 There can be multiple IB programmes at one school. See Appendices 1 and 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 277 Schools in the process of the IB authorization process. 278 A school has expressed “interest” in the IB but has “not yet started the authorization process.” 279 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. These statistics do not include the five schools that stopped being authorized by the IB as of July 2016.  64 interview was limited.  Future studies are encouraged to take into account a wider number of socio-economic, and geographic perspectives. The trustworthiness and credibility of this study is based upon using established qualitative research methods for historical context case studies.  Audio recorded interviews and interviewee-approved transcripts were used in order for this study to be credible. As this research was conducted using commonly used methods and established methodologies, it can claim to be credible.  This study went through a rigorous process of review by my supervisory committee. There can be a question of how transferable the results of this study are to other contexts.  Shenton stated that it can be difficult to transfer qualitative results due to the specific context of the interviewees in the research, “…after perusing the description within the research report of the context in which the work was undertaken, readers must determine how far they can be confident in transferring to other situations the results and conclusions presented.”280  As with all qualitative research, attempts to transfer conclusions from this case study to other situations should be done with attention to differing contextual factors, and always with caution. 3.5 Ethical Considerations An extensive ethics review process was undertaken for this thesis.  Those I interviewed signed consent forms in order for me to be able to use the evidence that they provided. The data they provided was secured.  Those I interviewed provided evidence that is credible as they have ongoing reputations as having expertise in the IB field.                                                 280 Andrew Shenton, "Strategies for Ensuring Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Projects." Education for Information 22 (2004): 70, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/452e/3393e3ecc34f913e8c49d8faf19b9f89b75d.pdf.  65 I tried to alleviate some ethical issues regarding being candid in my findings by not interviewing anyone who could be in a position to influence my opinion e.g. as my employer.  I also tried to be careful in the interviews to not ask leading follow up questions.  Kvale notes that research can be skewed in favor of the presuppositions of the researcher.281  In my situation, however, I purposefully gathered data from a wide variety of perspectives, both in the documents I examined and the evidence that was presented by the interviewees, to try to avoid presenting one viewpoint on the factors for the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC.  3.6 Strengths and Limitations of the Research Design  An historical case study approach has a strength of being able to reveal the continuity and change that can occur over time, examining how decisions made in the past effect more recent and contemporary policy decisions.   The methods utilized in this study were comprehensive, and the data collection was widely varied so as to, according to Merriam (1998), triangulate the data regarding validity and reliability.282  My credibility as a researcher trained as a historian is also a strength as I tried to look at the IB objectively utilizing a wide variety of evidence. I came to this study with over 20 years of IB experience (see Chapter 1), as a participant who is both a proponent and critic of the IB.  One limitation of this study is that some of those who were interviewed were reflecting on their experience with the IB, and some of those memories were from several decades earlier.  Consequently, all of the interview quotations should be read with this caution in mind.                                                  281 Steiner Kvale, "Dominance Through Interviews and Dialogues," Qualitative Inquiry 12 (June 1, 2006): 480-500, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077800406286235. 282 Merriam, op. cit.  66 Another limitation of this study is that one cannot necessarily generalize the findings from this study to other jurisdictions as it draws on evidence that is specific to British Columbia.  However, there are some factors that do have universal resonance, such as the fact that the high fees that the IB charges to run the programmes can make it cost-prohibitive.   Another limitation was that some of the evidence from the interviewees relied on their recollection of events, and these are innately subjective.  As well, if the recollection is several decades after the fact, issues regarding the accuracy of memory can be a factor; consequently, I tried to corroborate all of the evidence I utilized with reliable sources.  A final limitation was that the final selection of interviewees depended upon their availability in a busy time of the school year, and so, as with most interview research, was not entirely under the control of the researcher. 3.7 Conclusion   This chapter overviewed the methodological approach that I took with this research.  It has explained and justified my historical context case study approach, as well as outlined the nature of the data collection and how that evidence was utilized including ethical considerations.  It ended by reflecting on the strengths and limitations of the methodology for this specific study.  The following chapter will present an overview of the establishment of the IB in BC.    67 Chapter 4 The Establishment of the IB in British Columbia 4.1 Introduction This chapter gives an overview of the establishment of the IB in BC. First, it overviews the progressive educational philosophy that was appealing in many BC schools in the 1970s, and then looks at how Dave Barrett’s NDP government made changes that ended up resulting in teachers being able to explore various curricular options, including the IB. Second, it gives a brief history of the “pioneer” IB World Schools in BC at the end of the 20th century, and the districts that hosted those schools.  Finally, it looks at the IB continuum, and how and why it came to be established in BC. This chapter answers the research questions/sub-questions: what were the factors that influenced the establishment of the IB in BC, and why did school stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, universities) start to advocate for the adoption of the IB in their schools?  It starts to examine the philosophical, socio-political, and economic changes that occurred over time, but these will be analyzed in more detail in Chapter 5. 4.2 British Columbia Education in the 1970s Neo-Progressive Era and its Impact on the Implementation of the First IB Programmes in BC Elements of progressive education re-appeared in Canadian education in the 1960s and 70s: this was known as the “neo-progressive” era. Some elements of the neo-progressive era synced with the IB’s philosophy regarding its student and teacher centered, inquiry based programming, and were perhaps part of the inspiration for BC educators to try to adopt the IB in their schools in the late 1970s/early 1980s.  68 In 2008 educational historian George S. Tomkins defined the onset of the neo-progressive era in Canada:  By the late 1960s, subject-centered and vocationally oriented curriculum reforms were being superseded by a neo-progressive child-centred and teacher-centred thrust that reflected a new era of decentralization…. It was in Ontario, in Living and Learning, better known as the Hall-Dennis Report …[where] neo-progressivism came to be epitomized…. The progressive stance…was summed up in a preamble entitled “the truth shall make you free.”283  There isn’t one definition for “progressive” education.  As described by Deborah Gorham:  As historian William J. Reese comments, “Historians of progressivism encounter a mansion with many rooms, often awkwardly inhabited by individuals with diverse philosophical, political, and ideological perspectives.” Indeed, it is easier to define what progressive educators opposed than what they supported. Twentieth century educational reformers themselves generally avoid the term “progressive” in favour of others, including “new,” “free,” “child-centred,” and “alternative,” but all those inhabiting the progressive “mansion” universally condemned traditional learning by rote. They were committed to transforming school classrooms from stark spaces inhabited by quiet rows of children whose obedience was often enforced by the threat of corporal punishment to places where children were free to move about and to “learn by doing.284   The IB’s inquiry-based approach can be seen to be in sync with the philosophy of the progressive and neo-progressive movement.  The IB identifies itself as a “progressive” curriculum, stating that by the 1960s the founders of the IB285 saw that the traditional educational approach should be replaced with a progressive one:                                                    283 George S. Tomkins, A Common Countenance: Stability and Change in the Canadian Curriculum (Vancouver, BC: Pacific Educational Press, 2008), 276. 284 Deborah Gorham, "The Ottawa New School and Educational Dissent in Ontario in  the Hall-Dennis Era," Historical Studies in Education 21 (Fall 2009): 105, http://historicalstudiesineducation.ca/index.php/edu_hse-rhe/article/viewFile/2129/2272. 285 "The IB: An Historical Perspective," op. cit.  69 Traditional    Progressive  Memorisation    Critical analysis Same content for all   Student choice Hermetic subjects   Transdisciplinarity IQ tests    Range of skills testing Didactic    Constructivism Teacher-centred   Child-centred Academic intelligence  Education of the whole child Norm-referenced   Criterion-referenced Machine-scored tests   Translation (languages)  AV and AL (languages) Closed classrooms   Open plan rooms National perspective   Multiple perspectives.286    The IB specifically cites four educators for their influence on the creation of their curriculum: John Dewey’s “tapping into students’ natural curiosity,” A. S Neill’s focus on “students developing in an environment free of constraints,” Jean Piaget’s insight that “academic intelligence develops in children through a cognitive cycle,” and Jerome Bruner who advocated that “learning by doing and self-discovery of information makes students better problem solvers.”287As stated by Kevin House, a University of Bath graduate student who has critically analyzed the IB, the IB is “a values-based curriculum and assessment provider whose reputation is rooted in the progressive educationalist tradition…”288  House quoted James Cambridge, the former Head of Research Projects with the International Baccalaureate Research Unit and a Visiting Research Fellow at the University of Bath,289 who stated that the Diploma Programme (DP) has progressive elements, “…the CAS programme and the Learner Profile represent efforts                                                 286 Ibid. 287 Ibid. 288 Kevin House, "The Elephant in the Room: A Critical Examination of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme’s Policy Discourse." University of Bath Working Papers Series International and Global Issues for Research (June 2015): 4, http://www.bath.ac.uk/education/documents/working-papers/examination-international-baccalaureate-diploma-policy-discourse.pdf. 289 "James Cambridge Profile," Home, last modified 2016, accessed August 21, 2017, https://sites.google.com/site/globaleducationtoday/home/james-cambridge-profile.  70 to educate for ‘character.’”290  Kimberley Daly et. al.’s study291 of the MYP cited Dowden’s 2007 study292 when discussing the IB’s philosophical connection to progressivism and neo-progressivism:  Dewey (1936) and other American progressives such as Hopkins (1941, 1954), Dressel (1958), along with Neo-Progressives such as Lounsbury and Vars (1978) and Beane (1997), all emphasized that the subject matter of the curriculum should be both personally meaningful to the learner and be of substantive value to society.293 In British Columbia in the 1960s-70s, some schools adopted elements of an approach that focused on being child-centered, “Outside Ontario, neo-progressivism was most strongly evident in western Canada. The British Columbia Teachers’ Federation produced its own report, Involvement—The Key to Better Schools, which reflected the same progressive spirit as Living and Learning.” 294 In the early 1970s a newly elected BC provincial government was interested in implementing some neo-progressive educational reforms. From September 1972 until December 1975, the New Democratic Party (NDP) Premier, Dave Barrett, the so-called “Allende of the North,”295 broke with many of the policies of the previous 20 years of conservative Social Credit governance, and introduced what BC education critic Crawford Killian described as “legislation                                                 290 James Cambridge, "The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme and the Construction of Pedagogic Identity: A Preliminary Study," Journal of Research in International Education 9 (2010): 207,  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1475240910383544?journalCode=jria. In House, op. cit.,16. 291 Kimberley Daly, Gordon Brown, and Chandra McGowan, Curriculum Integration in the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme: A Literature Review, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2012, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/ibresearch/curriculumintegrationinthemypeng.pdf 292 Tony Dowden, "Relevant, Challenging, Integrative and Exploratory Curriculum Design: Perspectives from Theory and Practice for Middle Level Schooling in Australia," Australian Educational Researcher 34 (July 2007): 51-71, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227102430_Relevant_challenging_integrative_and_exploratory_curriculum_design_Perspectives_from_theory_and_practice_for_middle_level_schooling_in_Australia. 293 Ibid., 59. In Daly, Brown, and McGowan, op. cit., 7. 294  Gorham, op. cit., 278. 295 David P. Ball, "Dave Barrett's Rich Legacy to British Columbians," The Tyee (Vancouver, BC), August 30, 2012, https://thetyee.ca/News/2012/08/30/Dave-Barrett/.  71 by thunderbolt,”296 introducing 367 bills297 that were mostly socialistic in nature, including some educational bills that can be considered to be neo-progressive. He notably established the Resource Board298 that integrated Health, Education and Social Services,299 and eliminated corporal punishment in schools,300 which allowed for more socio-emotional support for students inside and outside the classroom.  He also created the Nis’ga School Board,301 which led to the beginning of the implementation of neo-progressive ideals in their community to help them “to think critically about events and institutions.”302 Barrett put more funding into education:303 the BC education budget increased from $486,651,658 in the 1973/74 budget to $754,200,000 in the 1975/76 budget.304  UBC Professor Philip Resnick noted that BC school boards were given more autonomy with how they could spend their funds.305 Such funding increases allowed for school boards to allocate more money for such budgetary line items as professional development, which                                                 296 Stephen Hume, "Canada 150: By Bringing NDP to Power, Dave Barrett Turned Victoria on Its Head," Vancouver Sun, March 22, 2017, http://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/canada-150/canada-150-by-bringing-ndp-to-power-dave-barrett-turned-victoria-on-its-head. 297 Ball, op. cit. 298 “The Resource Boards for Social Services functioned similar to School Boards – locally elected representatives steered the direction of services and responded to community needs.” Diana Guenther, "Services for At-Risk Youth in BC: Moving from Dysfunction to  Effective Support," Policy Note (Canadian Centre of Policy Alternatives BC Office), September 12, 2012, http://www.policynote.ca/services-for-at-risk-youth-in-bc/. 299 Carol Pickup comment in Ball, op. cit. 300 Charlie Smith, "The Art of the Impossible Reveals Why Ex-NDP Premier Dave Barrett Governed in a Hurry," The Georgia Straight, November 12, 2012, http://www.straight.com/article-831611/vancouver/art-impossible-reveals-why-former-ndp-premier-dave-barrett-governed-hurry. 301 Allen Seager, "Book Review: The Art of the Impossible: Dave Barrett and the NDP in Power, 1972-1975," BC Studies 178 (Summer 2013), http://www.bcstudies.com/?q=book-reviews/art-impossible-dave-barrett-and-ndp-power-1972-1975. 302 Kieran Egan, "The Roles of Schools: The Place of Education," Teachers College Record 93 (Summer 1992): 134. In Stéphane Lévesque, "Journey into the World of the School: High School Students' Understandings of Citizenship in BC and Quebec," PhD diss., University of British Columbia, 2001, 82, https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0055566. 303 Philip Resnick, "Social Democracy in Power: The Case of British Columbia." BC Studies 34 (Summer 1977): 7, http://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index.php/bcstudies/article/view/923/960. 304 Ibid., 10. Note: Resnick also says that the BC Ministry of Education also could be seen as having “reactionary” tendencies in this period: “But ideologically, education continued to be at the service of capitalism, and the Department of Education could even brag about its success in securing such monuments to reactionary thought as Kenneth Clark's "Civilization" series for the classrooms.” Ibid 17. 305 Ibid., 17.  72 allowed teachers to investigate new teaching ideas,  including implementing new programmes like the IB. The neo-progressive educational movement began to end in some BC schools in the late 1970s, coinciding with the conservative Social Credit party’s return to power.  There was a return to focusing on more traditional methods.  As stated by J. Donald Wilson: Towards the end of 1976 an article on education in British Columbia appearing in the Vancouver Sun suggested: “The political kudos all lie in a return to the Three R’s” (21) …. [In the late 1970s] Retrenchment became the order of the day…The excitement of the late sixties was replaced by an atmosphere of disillusionment (33) …. Clearly schools have not delivered on the promises of the sixties...”Back to the basics” has become a genuine cri de coeur for many parents.306  However, this retrenchment did not take place in all BC schools, particularly those that had started to explore implementing the IB Diploma Programme (DP).  The DP focused on academic rigor, which was being called for by those who wanted a “Back to the Basics” approach. Interestingly, the DP delivered an academically challenging curricula using a progressive, inquiry-based approach. 4.3 The Establishment of the IB in BC: the 20th Century “Pioneer” Schools The end of the 20th century can be considered to be the IB World School “pioneer” period in BC.  From 1974-1996, 14 schools (12 public, 2 independent) investigated and then chose to implement the IB programme in their schools. Of those initial 14 schools, four eventually                                                 306 J. Donald Wilson, "From the Swinging Sixties to the Sobering Seventies," In Precepts, Policy and Process: Perspectives on Contemporary Canadian Education, edited by Hugh A. Stevenson and J. Donald Wilson (London, ON: Alexander Blake, 1977), 34.  73 dropped it,307 and one of them transferred the authorization between schools.308 But the rest of the initial schools continued to build their programmes, and played an influential role in the eventual establishment of the 45 IB World schools, additional six candidate schools, and 13 interested schools as of July 2016.309 During the height of the neo-progressive era in BC, the first Canadian IB programme was established: Lester B. Pearson United World College (UWC) of the Pacific near Victoria, the capital of the province.  However, as a part of the United World College movement, it was not under the jurisdiction of the BC Ministry of Education (like other schools in the province), but of the BC Ministry of Advanced Education (colleges and universities). Regardless, its IB programme inspired the establishment of others in BC. The UWC system was founded in 1962 with a unique mission, “UWC makes education a force to unite people, nations and cultures for peace and a sustainable future.”310  Lester B. Pearson College of the Pacific was only the second UWC school in the world (as of 2016 there were 16).311  All UWC schools teach the IB Diploma Programme (DP).312  Former Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson personally helped to establish the school after his visit to the UWC College of the Atlantic in Wales in 1969.  He said:  Students will be welcomed without regard to race, religion or politics and we intend to establish scholarships so that the students who attend the College will be                                                 307 Kelowna Secondary in Kelowna in 1995, Belmont Senior Secondary in Sooke in 1998, Prince George Secondary in Prince George in 2002, and Burnaby South Secondary in Burnaby in 2004. See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 308 Hillside Secondary School in West Vancouver transferred its authorization to West Vancouver Secondary School when the former became a Middle School, and the latter a Senior Secondary School in 1988. Ibid. 309 Ibid. 310 "Mission," UWC Home Page, accessed July 24, 2017, http://www.uwc.org/. 311 "UWC History and Founding Ideas," UWC Homepage, last modified September 2016, accessed July 24, 2017, http://www.uwc.org/history. 312 "What Is UWC?" About UWC, accessed July 24, 2017,  http://www.uwc.org/about.  74 from all levels of society and will be genuine representatives of their own peoples. This system … could become a revolutionary force in international education.313 He was the Honorary Chairman of a committee to create the College of the Pacific, but died in 1972 before his vision was realized; soon after his death, the decision was taken that the college would be named after him in memoriam “Lester B Pearson College of the Pacific.”  The school opened in September 1974 to 100 students, and as of 2016 it accepted up to 200 students each year.314 Even though it is mostly separate from the BC educational system (there is some provincial support, but no grant money315), it has been granted external credential status by the BC Ministry of Education.316  Tony Macoun, Director and Head of College at Pearson from 1986-1993, on the founding Board of the International Baccalaureate North America (IBNA) organization and its President for two years, and as of the 2016-17 school year was the Chairman of the Board at Pearson College, stated the impact that the first IB World Schools had on the establishment and expansion of the IB, in BC and abroad: [I want to] celebrate the role of independent schools.  UNIS [United Nations International School in New York City, authorized as an IB World School in1971], Washington IS [Washington International School in Washington DC, authorized in 1977], Pearson College [in Victoria, authorized 1974], and Ashbury College [in Ottawa, authorized 1975] were the first IB Diploma schools in the USA and Canada… The first Public High School in North America was Francis Lewis in NYC [which joined in 1978]317 and Sir Winston Churchill High School in Calgary in 1979. Without the freedom to experiment and take risks enjoyed by the independent sector, the story of the start and spread of the IB in North                                                 313 "History of Pearson College." Us: Pearson College UWC, last modified 2017, accessed July 24, 2017, http://www.pearsoncollege.ca/p/?pgn=Us&subpgn=OurStory&pn=CollegeStory. 314 Ibid. 315 Jeff Bell, "A College for the World: Pearson College Attracts Deserving Students from All over the Globe," Times Colonist, http://www.timescolonist.com/a-college-for-the-world-pearson-college-attracts-deserving-students-from-all-over-the-globe-1.28932. 316 "Pearson College (Lester B. Pearson College of the Pacific)," Organizations Offering Approved External Credentials, accessed July 24, 2017,  http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/support/graduation/getting-credit-to-graduate/external-credentials/organizations-offering-approved-external-credentials/pearson-college. 317 "How the DP Arrived in the US." IB World, March 2016, 30-33. http://ferretronix.com/flewis/IB_World_March_16_p30-31.pdf.  75 America would have been very different. Only when the ground work had been done for recognition of the IB by both education authorities and post-secondary institutions did Public Schools join and participate. But that is what pioneering is all about!318 The first BC public school to offer the IB was R.E. Mountain in Langley, a municipality located 46 km southeast of Vancouver.  As of the 2016/17 school year, the Langley School District had 21 586 students319 with approximately 200 of them being IB students.320 As indicated by its IB World School number (#148), it was also amongst the first IB World Schools to be accredited internationally when it adopted the DP in October 1979.321  The candidacy and authorization process can take years, so the idea for establishing the IB had its roots during the neo-progressive era in BC. R.E. Mountain offered and continues to offer the IB in addition to the regular BC Graduation (Dogwood) diploma program.  As of 2016 it was the only IB school in Langley, and its Diploma Programme draws students from all over the district because of it.322  As of 2015 the school was over capacity: it was built for 750 students, but had 1200 students.323 The school board had set a maximum IB cohort number of 90 students, but due to having so many applications for the programme, that number expanded to 100 for the Year 1 cohort for the 2016/17 school year.324  Unlike some other school districts in the province, Langley’s school board has not allowed students to come from other districts as enrolment in the district has increased rapidly since 2008.325  There is pressure on Langley to accept students from other                                                 318 Tony Macoun, interview by Shannon Leggett, North Vancouver, BC. October 2, 2016.  319 "Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 35 (Langley)," School District No. 35 (Langley): School District Profile, accessed July 24, 2017, 1, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd35-langley.pdf. 320 Cora Pickering, interview by Shannon Leggett, Vancouver, BC., July 9, 2016. This is an approximate number as not all students who register to take the DP in Year 1 of the programme end up writing their exams in May of Year 2. 321 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 322 Pickering, interview, op. cit. 323 Ibid. 324 Ibid. In the DP, Year 1 is the 1st year of the programme, and Year 2 is the 2nd year.  In BC, Year 1 is synonymous with Grade 11, and Year 2 with Grade 12. 325 "Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 35 (Langley)," op. cit.  76 school districts, such as the one to its west, Surrey. As of 2016/17, Surrey was BC’s largest school district with 71 838 students,326 and its rapid expansion over the previous 15 years327 has caused it to go beyond its educational infrastructure capacity.328 However, due to the fact that Langley will not allow students from outside its district to attend its schools: if a Surrey student wants to take the IB and lives on the eastern border of Surrey, instead of commuting a kilometre/5-10 minutes to R.E. Mountain, they have to commute 20 km/45 minutes southwest through traffic to Semiamhoo’s IB programme in White Rock, south Surrey.  Due to the high cost of housing and living in Greater Vancouver, some families have purchased properties out in Langley, and some of them have specifically chosen homes in R.E. Mountain’s catchment to guarantee that their children can get an IB education, which has contributed to the school being overcapacity.329  Due to this situation, it was announced in the fall of 2016 that the school will be moving into a new, larger facility,330 which could lead to an expansion of the IB cohort at their school. A concern, noted in the Langley Special Education Inquiry Report in 2008, is that one perception of the programme is that it is potentially exclusive: “There is an international baccalaureate program at R.E. Mountain Secondary School. Although not specifically designed for gifted students, the program is generally oriented toward those who are academically talented.”331  To get into the DP, students have to write an entrance exam to their “Pre-IB 9” and                                                 326 “Student Enrolment (2016/17)," School District No. 36 (Surrey): School District Profile, accessed July 25, 2017, 1, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd36-surrey.pdf. 327 Ibid. 328 Crawford Killian, "BC's Biggest School District Faces Cuts as Enrolment Grows," The Tyee, https://thetyee.ca/News/2010/05/12/SurreySchoolsFaceCuts/. 329 Pickering, interview, op. cit. 330 "New High School Announced for Willoughby," FLRE Home, last modified September 19, 2016, http://flre.ca/new-high-school-announced-for-willoughby/. 331 Langley Special Education Inquiry Report Programs and Services for Students with Special Needs: Report of Public Inquiry Findings, January 2008, 7, https://bctf.ca/uploadedFiles/Issues/Inclusive_education/LangleySpecialEdInquiry/report.pdf.   77 “Pre-IB 10” programmes332 where there are 80 spots available in each.333 The number of spots for the DP is limited by the Langley School Board as it contributes to the funding of the programme for each student, though students do pay some fees.334 The IB programme at R.E. Mountain is so popular that there are discussions of offering other IB programmes at different sites.335 Shortly after R.E. Mountain became an IB World School, Semiahmoo Secondary School in White Rock, south Surrey, was authorized in June 1980.336 Semiahmoo and Surrey School District held a special 35th anniversary event to commemorate the school and district’s history with the IB in October 2015.  One of the Surrey School Trustees, an IB alumni himself, spoke at the event: On December 15th… I attended the IB 35th anniversary at Semiahmoo Secondary, where I was pleased to speak as an alumni of the program from back in the first few years of the program. It was great to see some of the hard-working teachers that make the program what it is.337   As of the 2015/16 school year, Semiahmoo had the 2nd largest DP enrolment in the province with 168 students registered as candidates.338  Due to the popularity of the school’s IB philosophy,                                                 332 "Pre IB 9 Entrance Exam at Mountain," Programs: R.E. Mountain, last modified July 2016, https://remss.sd35.bc.ca/event/pre-ib-9-entrance-exam-at-mountain/. 333 "Diploma Programme: R.E. Mountain," PowerPoint, Langley Schools, July 2016, 9, https://remss.sd35.bc.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/30/2016/01/IB-Parent-Night-2016-ppt-2.pdf. 334 Ibid. 335 In July 2017 Fraser Valley Elementary School became a PYP IB World School. As Jenna Gibson, an administrator at the school posted, “We are so proud to be offering this type of quality educational experience to our community.” Jenna Gibson, "An IB World School: Fraser Valley Elementary School," Fraser Valley Elementary (blog), entry posted July 6, 2017, http://fves.bc.ca/an-ib-world-school/. 336 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 337 Bob Holmes, "December 15, 2015," Bob Holmes: Surrey School Trustee (blog), entry posted December 30, 2015, http://www.bobholmes.ca/2015/12/. 338 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit.  78 and the fact that enrollment continues to increase in Surrey339 and neighbouring districts Langley340 and Abbotsford,341 as of the fall of 2016 Surrey School District was in the authorization process for a second IB programme, the MYP, to be offered at Johnston Heights Secondary School (it began the authorization process in 2013, and in 2015/16 it offered the programme to Grades 8-10 while in that process).342  Students will have the opportunity to complete the MYP and transfer to Semiamhoo and take the DP,  or complete the MYP and continue with the BC Dogwood Diploma and/or AP offerings at Johnston Heights.343  Semiahmoo’s programme, which is open to any applicant from inside Surrey and outside its borders, is so popular that it has a long waiting list.  One of the reasons for this is that its students achieve IB scores much higher that the international average,344 and its graduates go on to some of the top universities in the world such as Harvard, Cambridge, London School of Economics, Princeton, and Columbia.  As stated by their DP Coordinator, Karine Guezalova, “As of May 2015 our IB students received $650 000 in scholarships and bursaries to attend universities in Canada and the US.”345  Despite the fact that it is the biggest school district in BC, there have not been discussions regarding opening more IB programmes in School District 36 (Surrey).346  In addition to Semiamhoo and Johnston Heights, Surrey has one CSF public school, École                                                 339 “Student Enrolment (2016/17),” School District No. 36 (Surrey), op. cit. 340 "Student Enrolment (2016/17),” School District No. 35 (Langley), op. cit. 341 "Student Enrolment (2016/17),” School District No. 34 (Abbotsford)," School District No. 34 (Abbotsford): School District Profile, accessed July 25, 2017, 2, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd34-abbotsford.pdf. 342 "IB Middle Years Programme (MYP)," JH Current, accessed July 25, 2017, https://jhcurrent.wordpress.com/information-about-myp/.It completed its authorization in March 2017. "Johnston Heights Secondary," Find an IB World School, accessed July 25, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/en/school/050271/.  343 As of the 2016/17 school year only one student from Johnston Heights transferred to Semiamhoo, but students have transferred from many schools from around the district, and outside of Surrey. Karine Guezalova, "Semiahmoo," E-mail message, July 17, 2016.  344 For the May 2017 examinations, DP students scored far higher than the international average, with one student scoring an internationally rare perfect score of 45. Karine Guezalova, "Tips," E-mail message, August 16, 2017. 345 Ibid. 346 Ibid.  79 Gabrielle Roy, that offers the MYP and DP for free to its French-speaking students who come from across the south and southeastern Lower Mainland,347 and three independent schools that offer it.348 Abbotsford Senior Secondary School, 71 km southeast of Vancouver, undertook the authorization process and became BC’s 4th IB World School in June 1982.349  Abbotsford, a school district that enrolled 19 500 students as of 2016/17,350 offers two IB programmes: the DP and MYP. Abbotsford Senior Secondary has had a Diploma programme that has had a cohort average of about 40 DP candidates annually, with the highest number being 53 as of 2015.351 As of 2012 it also offered the MYP: every student at Abbotsford Middle School (Gr 6-8) was registered in the programme with no extra fees charged to parents.352 The district spoke of the programme with great enthusiasm:  “Abbotsford Middle is proud to work with the IB organization in delivering one of the most recognized programs in the world,” notes Principal Ian Levings. “This program aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect....” “The Abbotsford School District congratulates Principal Levings and his staff for gaining accreditation in the Middle Years Programme and becoming an IB World School. It is not easy to gain this accreditation, so this is culmination of a lot of hard work and extra effort,” says Board of Education Chair John Sutherland. “This programme is yet another opportunity for students in our district to receive one of the best educations in the world, and is supported by the Board’s Strategic Plan.353                                                 347 As far east as Chilliwack, which is 80 km east/a 3 hour round trip bus ride. Schall, interview, op. cit. 348 See “Surrey” in “Cities” column in in Appendix 2.  "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016,"op. cit. 349 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 350 “Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 34 (Abbotsford)," op. cit. 351 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 352 "International Baccalaureate Comes to Abbotsford Middle," News Hub, last modified July 12, 2012, http://www.sd34.bc.ca/news/international-baccalaureate-program-comes-abbotsford-middle. 353 Ibid.  80 This school is also one of the few in Canada mentioned in the “Canada IB: IB Americas Regional Profile” for its innovative work regarding its student-driven alternative energy program.354 One of the most well-known Diploma Programmes, both in BC and internationally, began at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School in the Vancouver School Board (VSB) in the fall of 1983.355 Stan Copland, who became the school’s first DP Coordinator, brought the idea to the staff of the school in the early 1980s after he had attended a conference where he heard about the IB.356  A small group of teachers that included Bob Poole, Isobel Willard, and Leo Boissy created a steering committee357 to try to lobby for the programme by applying to the principal, and then the school board, to offer the programme.358 These teachers were attracted to the IB for various reasons.  Leo Boissy, a DP Math teacher who was new to Churchill at the time, and who later became the DP Coordinator at Britannia Secondary School on the eastside of Vancouver, recalled the reasons why he thought that the IB was implemented at Churchill, from his perspective as a teacher who joined the cadre of teachers who had been working on implementing it:                                                   354 “Abbotsford Middle School, an IB World School in British Columbia, is pioneering an alternative energy model, striving to be the first school in Canada to use a combination of three alternative energy sources to substantially reduce power consumption.  As a result of a meeting between the school’s environmental club and the school district’s manager of energy consumption, the school district agreed to finance a project which will combine a wind turbine, solar panels, and a human-powered generator to provide energy for two computers and ten monitors.  This project will not only reduce energy consumption for these computer stations by up to 75%, it will also serve as a learning tool for students.  It is hoped that the school will be a model for efficient energy use in the community and in other schools, and become “a seed for a whole new generation,” according to the school district’s manager of energy consumption.  Principal Jim McDonald believes the project reflects the school’s IB principles: “the key theme is to develop global citizens…and roles students can develop at the community level, reducing the carbon footprint.” “Canada IB Profile," op. cit. 5. 355 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 356 Poole, interview, op. cit. 357 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 358 Isobel Willard, interview by Shannon Leggett. Vancouver, BC. July 10, 2016.   81 It would be self-serving to suggest that I held the philosophical aspects of the proposed IB program in my heart during our steering committee meetings, but I suspect that I was more focused on the logistics of making the IB DP work at Churchill, especially in the Maths department. The academic rigor of the DP certainly attracted us, and I can agree with Bob Pearmain's assessment of the value of global education and inquiry in the DP. Beyond this I'd be stretching my memory to say that the efforts of the Barrett government had a special influence on our decision to offer the DP. Teachers are generally very practical and task-oriented so the details of implementation would have been important. Bob Pearmain, Bob Poole and Stan Copland, the IB Coordinator at the start, may have weighed the grander aspects of the IB more than I.  Overall, I think we saw the DP as a valuable experience for Churchill students, just as we at Britannia saw this when we made our application in 1990.359 Bob Poole, who was on the initial team that developed and implemented the IB, added his perspective on why Churchill implemented the IB: I think that the climate for change throughout the decade before our decision and the willingness to try new approaches was one aspect of the decision, but as Leo said the school was also interested in the IB for what it offered in what was already a very good school.  We weren’t in need of improvement, but there was a progressive mind set in the school amongst a good proportion of the staff and a willingness to open doors to ideas and programs such as IB that would lead to an even better school, one with a broader mandate than just meeting provincial goals.  So to a certain extent the introduction of the IB was a creature of the time, but perhaps more a creature of a fairly unique group of teachers and admin who were willing to look ahead to potentially better things.360  Their first proposal to the board was defeated as it was deemed to be too expensive.361  There was an election and the more ideologically conservative board was replaced by a liberal one; however, it also rejected their proposal as it was deemed to be an “elite program” that should not get special funding.362  There was another election, and the board became more conservative again, but support for the program came from progressive VSB Trustee Pauline Weinstein.  She                                                 359 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 360 Bob Poole, "Question re the IB in BC in the 1970s," e-mail message, July 26, 2017. 361 Poole, interview, op. cit. 362 Ibid.  82 was able to convince the rest of the board to support it,363 including future Canadian Prime Minister Kim Campbell who was the Vancouver School Board Chair.364 The board agreed to fund its implementation and pay for all of the annual costs associated with the DP.365  Bob Pearmain was brought in as principal as he was interested in being an administrator at a school that offered the IB as a curricular option; however, his perspective was, “My job was not to spend too much time with the IB as there were many different programmes at Churchill. Everyone in a comprehensive school is important.  I was the principal of Winston Churchill, not the principal of the IB.”366  Churchill had its first IB graduates in 1986, and its IB programme came to be seen as exemplary internationally: in 1986 Bob Pearmain was asked to attend a conference in Paris representing a Canadian example of an operational, well-functioning, public school IB programme.  From there he went on to become the first public school Chairman of the Heads Representative Committee for the Standing Conference of Heads of IBO schools and member/Secretary of the IBO International Executive Committee from 1989-92,367 and first public school President of the IBNA board from 1993-2002.368  In each of those positions he was an advocate for the IB’s expansion in public schools internationally, “I became representative of the public school embrace of the IB as public schools began to dominate the IB organization in                                                 363 Bob Pearmain, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver, BC. July 20, 2017. 364 The Right Honorable Kim Campbell, Canada's 19th Prime Minister. "Municipal: Political Life." Quick Facts & Timeline. Accessed July 25, 2017. http://www.kimcampbell.com/timeline. 365 As of 2015/16, students pay some of the fees for it. Bob Poole, interview, op. cit. 366 Pearmain, interview, op. cit. 367 Alexander Duncan Campbell Peterson, Schools Across Frontiers: The Story of the International Baccalaureate and the United World Colleges (Chicago: Open Court, 2003), 297, https://books.google.ca/books?id=nTUjMNjNo3EC&pg=PA297&lpg=PA297&dq=bob+pearmain&source=bl&ots=ikxOYQWkM3&sig=ZDJT2N3rOQ9O2ODkECW5D4sSg8Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjp-LKo5ZjVAhXmy1QKHf38BQkQ6AEISzAH#v=onepage&q=bob%20pearmain&f=false.  Note: the table makes an error stating “Winston Churchill High School, Alberta.” 368 Ian Hill, "IB Regional Offices," In The International Baccalaureate: Pioneering in Education. The International Schools Journal Compendium, edited by Mary Hayden, 133-46, (Woodbridge, UK: John Catt, 2010), 137, https://books.google.ca/books?id=buQONXyJF1sC&pg=PA137&lpg=PA137&dq=bob+pearmain&source=bl&ots=wlEJ1kLbZa&sig=ikCX9nCsadl0506I_8oN8fVQnKQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjp-LKo5ZjVAhXmy1QKHf38BQkQ6AEIQTAF#v=onepage&q=bob%20pearmain&f=false  83 North America, and IBNA was the biggest IB market and was rapidly expanding.”369 He continued to reflect on why he felt that the IB was successful at Churchill: What happened at Churchill with Isobel, Bob, Leo, other teachers who became examiners, workshop leaders, and worked throughout N America and internationally…that cemented the programme. There were always people who were ready to take over when someone retired. It was great for a teacher and student to feel a part of a larger movement, and that is the greatest strength of the IB… And it was a great school improvement model. Churchill became a star, in part, because of the IB.  IB teachers did not just teach IB courses, but they also taught non-IB, BC curriculum courses.  What the IB teachers got from teaching in the IB curriculum, including the professional development, they used in all of their teaching, benefitting all of the kids in the school.370   Bob Poole, who started to work for the IB full time in 2002, went on to become, amongst many other things, the Regional Development Specialist for the IB Americas (IBA) region,371 and focused on many initiatives, including IBA ones with universities, governments and associations regarding recognition and credit equivalency, and he has a similar role on the IB Global Recognition team.372 He summarized some of the reasons why students would take the IB, at Churchill and other IB World Schools:  The IB’s primary focus these days is as a provider of an “international education”.  The emphasis is on international mindedness, and skills for lifelong learning.  The IB Diploma’s primary goal is not about gaining credit at university although that can be a benefit of participation in the DP.  Participation in the programmes leads to skills that you can count on to be successful when you get to University, and participation in it can help in the admissions process.373… In the 1980s the focus of the IB DP was on preparation for university.  But that was then: the IB has changed considerably in its goals since then with 3 other programs and a much greater focus on skills, inquiry, international mindedness and much else.374                                                 369 Pearmain, interview, op. cit. 370 Ibid. 371 The term “IB Americas (IBA)” replaced the previous regional organization’s title “IB North America (IBNA)” in the early 21st century, and represents all of the Americas. 372 "CAWS: Bob Poole." California Association of IB World Schools (CAWS) Guest Speakers 2011. Last modified 2011. Accessed July 25, 2017. http://c-aws.com/Information/Speaker/2011/BobPoole.aspx. 373 Poole, interview, op. cit. 374 Bob Poole, "VSB IB History Query," E-mail message, July 26, 2016.   84 The programme continued to expand at Churchill, reaching its peak in 2007 with nearly 200 students.  However, those numbers decreased related to reduced school board funding limiting the numbers who could take it to 135 in 2007.375  As of 2015 it had the 5th largest number of registered DP students in BC with 123.376   The Diploma Programme became so popular at Churchill that discussions began regarding making a unique move: to offer the DP in another secondary school in the Vancouver School District.  A referendum occurred in May 1990 to see if there was public support for an expensive initiative to establish a second IB programme in Vancouver School District. Britannia Secondary School, established in 1908 on the eastside of Vancouver, applied so it could offer a rigorous, internationally-minded curriculum to students who would not likely be exposed to such a programme due to their socio-economic situation.377  The initiative passed, and Leo Boissy (DP Math teacher at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School) was selected to become the DP Coordinator.  He fast tracked the application to the IB378 and the programme started in September 1991.379  It is upheld as one of the most unique public school IB programmes in the world: it was one of two in Canada that was highlighted in the IBO’s “IB Canada 2010” profile regarding “Public Schools Serve Culturally and Economically Diverse Communities.”380  However, their Diploma Programme never grew to be the size of Churchill’s, and one of the key factors for this is that many of its students come from one of the most socio-economically challenged communities in the province and in Canada, the Downtown Eastside, perhaps making                                                 375 Isobel Willard, "IB at Winston Churchill," E-mail message, July 23, 2017.  376 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 377 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 378 This was before the extensive IB authorization process was implemented in the 2000s. Ibid. 379 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 380 “Canada IB Profile," op. cit., 3.  85 the school not be as appealing a draw for parents and students.381  As of 2015, Britannia had 23 registered Diploma candidates.  Additionally, in late 2015 it was put on a list of potential schools to be closed due to budget shortfalls and declining enrolments, leaving the status of its IB programme in limbo.382  The VSB subsequently opened a Middle Years Programme (MYP) in 2006 that was shared between Lord Roberts Elementary School and King George Secondary School.383 In 2008 Elsie Roy Elementary School also became affiliated with King George’s Middle Years Programme.384  Theirs is the only full 5 year Middle Years Programme in the BC public school system that is shared between an elementary and high school. In 2013 the VSB opened a Primary Years Programme (PYP) at Southlands Elementary School.385  Gary Little, when he was Associate Superintendent for the South Area of Vancouver, worked with Bob Poole to open the programme for this community, which includes a high proportion of Musqueam First Nation indigenous students. The programme’s curriculum benefits not only the Musqueam nation, but the greater school stakeholder community (see Chapter 6). Another justification for implementing the PYP at Southlands was to prevent parents in the district from moving their children to the independent school system…and losing the provincial funding that would go with them.  As the Vancouver School Board Chair Patti Bacchus said to CTV News in 2013, “We are in a form of competition now. We’re funded per student so when we lose students we lose the funding. And it diminishes our ability to provide a range of                                                 381 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 382 Ibid. In the fall of 2016 the school was taken off of the list of schools to be closed. Tracy Sherlock, "Britannia Secondary Saved From Closure," Vancouver Sun, last modified September 16, 2016, accessed July 25, 2017, http://vancouversun.com/news/local-news/britannia-secondary-school-saved-from-closure. 383 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 384 Ibid. 385 Ibid.  86 programs and staffing.”386  According to PYP Coordinator Fiona Stroh, “A lot of our applications come across boundaries. They’re from various parts of Vancouver387 and they've decided they want to seek out the IB.”388   As of 2016, the Vancouver School Board, with a total student enrollment of 52, 246,389 had the most IB World Schools (six) of any district in BC.390  Richmond Secondary became the 7th BC IB World “pioneer” secondary school when it chose to implement the IB programme. Richmond Secondary (at the time a senior secondary), located south of the Fraser River from Vancouver, began offering the DP in 1984.391 Remigio “Remi” Vicente was the DP Coordinator who led a team of teachers to expand it to become one of the top academically-achieving Diploma Programmes in BC and internationally.  As recognition for that accomplishment, he received the Prime Minister’s Award for Teaching Excellence in 2008, where he was recognized for, amongst other things, his “Outstanding Achievement” as he “transformed the International Baccalaureate program from an elite program to one that is open to everyone.”392  Richmond had the third largest Diploma Programme in BC as of 2015, and has consistently enrolled over 140 students annually since 2008393 in a district that has 20, 845 enrolling students.394   Unlike in Langley and Vancouver, Richmond accepts                                                 386 Shannon Paterson, "Public Schools Get Creative to Keep Parents from Going Private," Vancouver Sun, last modified June 11, 2013,  http://bc.ctvnews.ca/public-schools-get-creative-to-keep-parents-from-going-private-1.1321544. 387 In order to apply to be in one of the district’s four IB programmes, one must be a resident of Vancouver School District. Willard, interview, op. cit. 388 Paterson, "Public Schools Get Creative," op. cit. 389 "Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 39 (Vancouver)," School District No. 39 (Vancouver) School District Profile, accessed July 25, 2017, 2, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd39-vancouver.pdf. 390 See “Vancouver” under “City” column in Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 391 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 392  "Remigio Vicente Year 2008: British Columbia Certificate of Achievement Recipient," Prime Minister's Awards for Teaching Excellence, last modified May 26, 2011, https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/pmate-ppmee.nsf/eng/wz01461.html. 393 BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016, op. cit.  394 "Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 38 (Richmond)," School District No. 38 (Richmond) School District Profile, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, 2,  87 applications from both inside and outside of its district, and a Formal IB Intake Assessment helps to determine who enters the programme.395 David Miller, the DP Coordinator stated, “In the 2016/17 school year, of the 150-170 applicants, we only said no to 3.”396 Those in charge of the DP at Richmond Secondary try to make sure that balance in a student’s life is the most important measure of the “success” of its programme; as stated on their IB Diploma “Resources for Students” website: It is important to remember that although the IB Diploma Programme at Richmond Secondary School is for everybody, it is not for everyone.  Sometimes we lose sight of the fact that that the IB Diploma Programme simply represents one Graduation pathway available to students at Richmond Secondary School, and that achieving academic excellence in the provincial Dogwood Graduation Program is also an exceptionally challenging undertaking.  Every year there are students in the IB Diploma who struggle with its demands. If that student is you, speak to your parents, to your Counsellor, or to Mr. Miller. We’ll find a solution that works for you. Always keep in mind that at Richmond Secondary School, the chief way that we evaluate success in the IB Diploma Programme is through the lens of the IB Learner Profile, and the central importance that it assigns to balance in a student’s life.397 Due to school stakeholder interest in the IB, Richmond opened a MYP school at Hugh Boyd Secondary in 2013.398  Some students leave that school when the MYP ends in Grade 10, and transfer to Richmond Secondary to do the DP, but most MYP graduates choose to remain with their Hugh Boyd cohort and graduate from there.399  There have been some informal discussions                                                                                                                                                        http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd38-richmond.pdf. 395 "Apply." RHS IB Diploma Programme. Last modified 2016. Accessed July 26, 2017. https://rhsib.wordpress.com/apply/. 396 David Miller, interview by Shannon Leggett, Richmond, BC., July 18, 2017.  397 "Resources for Students," RHS IB Diploma Programme, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, https://rhsib.wordpress.com/richmond-secondary-school-new/resources-for-students/. 398 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 399 Miller, interview, op. cit.  88 about offering IB programmes at other schools.400 For example, there could be a Middle Years Programme that starts at an elementary school in Richmond and then ends at Richmond Secondary, like the Vancouver School Board elementary/high school programme model at Elsie Roy/Lord Roberts/King George.  There could also be a K-12 continuum school model implemented between Richmond Secondary School and an elementary Primary Years Programme to a Middle Years Programme at that school ending at Richmond Secondary.  However, according to David Miller, those discussions were preliminary and informal as a part of their IB Self Study process.  If the MYP were to be introduced at Richmond Secondary, the expectation would be that it would be school-wide, but that the school would remain dual-stream (IB and BC Dogwood Diploma) in Grades 11 and 12.401  In West Vancouver, located northwest of Vancouver across Burrard Inlet, it was an administrator who had the idea to offer the IB in his school district. West Vancouver Secondary School (WVSS) Principal Arnie Smith was doing his Masters on the IB, and he suggested to the West Vancouver School Board that the district offer unique programs at the three high schools, with Hillside Secondary School offering the IB.402  It was authorized in June 1985.403 In the “WV School Report” section of the West Vancouver Report (published by The Corporation of the District of West Vancouver) in December 1987, the DP was promoted as a “Special                                                 400 Ibid. 401 David Miller, "Query about Richmond's IB programme," e-mail message, July 26, 2017.  402 Hilary Matts, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver, BC., July 11, 2016.  403 Interestingly, in the IBO’s statistics it says that WVSS was authorized in 1985, but according to an interview with Hilary Matts, and the “WV School Report,” it was Hillside Secondary that had it as of 1987. WV School Report (West Vancouver, BC), "Seniors' Connection," December 1987, 1-8. Accessed July 26, 2017, 7, http://archives.westvancouver.ca/PDFs/0230-02.0025.DWV.pdf.  89 Education” offering that “challenges gifted students to reach their full potential.”404  The Report went on to say: Marion Langdale, resource teacher at Hillside Secondary for the gifted student and coordinator of the International Baccalaureate program, pointed out that it is only in recent years the Ministry of Education has recognized the need to provide special education courses for the gifted student.405   West Vancouver Secondary School was authorized as a DP school in 1988406 as it became a Senior Secondary School and Hillside a Middle School; it is now a Gr 8-12 secondary school, and continues to offer the DP. It has the 4th largest Diploma Programme in the province, with 132 candidates in the 2015/16 session,407 and it offers an academically successful programme.408 West Vancouver School District invested in offering more IB programmes at other schools: West Bay Elementary School in 2007 (PYP), which was the first public school Primary Years Programme east of Ontario,409 Cypress Park Primary School in 2011 (PYP), Rockridge Secondary School in 2014 (MYP), and École Cedardale in 2016 (PYP), the only French immersion PYP school in BC.410  West Vancouver School District Superintendent Chris Kennedy noted that the international aspect of the IB has been attractive to school district stakeholders, including the international community, and that the IB has been “driving good practice [in the district] … encouraging a rethinking of what teaching and learning looks like.”411  Most PYP students from West Bay and Cypress Park attend Rockridge as it is the high school                                                 404 WV School Report (West Vancouver, BC), "Seniors' Connection," op. cit. 405 Ibid. 406 “West Vancouver Secondary School IB School Profile." West Vancouver Secondary School. Last modified 2013. Accessed July 26, 2017. http://go45.sd45.bc.ca/schools/westvancouver/students/Documents/Documents/WVSS%20IB%20and%20School%20Profile.pdf. 407 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 408 “West Vancouver Secondary School IB School Profile," op. cit. 409 Kennedy, interview, op. cit. 410 See “West Vancouver” under the “Cities” column to find WVSD IB World Schools. See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 411 Kennedy, interview, op. cit.  90 that they feed into.  As in Richmond, some of those students in the PYP and some students in the MYP at Rockridge transfer to West Vancouver Secondary to take the DP, but most remain with their Rockridge cohort and graduate with their peers taking the BC Dogwood and/or AP courses.412  West Vancouver, with a 2016/17 student population of 7, 293 students,413 had the greatest number of IB World Schools (five) proportionately to the number of its enrolling students in BC.414  However, it is unclear if they will implement new programmes.  As stated by Chris Kennedy, “Why don’t we have the IB at every school?  Its principles are great, but there is a different choice and flavors for each school... each school is unique.”415 Despite the fact that its IB schools have waiting lists, as of 2016 they still accepted out of district applications.416  Port Moody Senior Secondary School, located east of Vancouver in Port Moody, which is in the Coquitlam School District, was authorized to offer the DP in October 1986, and since 2008 it has had the largest Diploma Programme in BC.417  The school initially adopted the IB as the principal, Ron MacPherson, wanted the school to offer something unique and looked at the DP.  However, it was approved by the Coquitlam School Board before teachers had been consulted, so it was a “steep learning curve” for those who implemented it.418  However, the DP was open to anyone in the district with interest, and 30 students signed up from a population of about 1000 students.419  One of its main attractions was and is the small class sizes and                                                 412 Chris Kennedy email, July 13, 2017. 413 “Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 45 (West Vancouver)," School District No. 45 (West Vancouver) School District Profile, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 201, 2, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd45-west-vancouver.pdf. 414 See “West Vancouver” under the “Cities” column to find WVSD IB World Schools. See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 415 Kennedy, interview, op. cit. 416 Ibid. 417 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 418 Les Philips, interview by Shannon Leggett, July 8, 2016.  419 Ibid.  91 individualized support, particularly in 2016 when the district had 33, 033 students.420  As of 2016, acceptance to Port Moody’s Diploma Programme was limited by the school board, but it remains the largest Diploma Programme in the province with each grade’s cohort being around 200 since 2008421 (though there have been up to 500 applicants for those spots422).  It also has a pre-IB programme that is used as a model for schools around the province and internationally. As of 2016 its DP Coordinator, Sean Lenihan, is the chair of the provincial IB organization of schools, BCAIBWS (British Columbia Association of International Baccalaureate World Schools),423 and is a leader of collaboration amongst all BC IB schools, as well as playing a decisive role in negotiations between the IB and the BC Ministry of Education.424  Coquitlam School District has not opened another IB programme, but there have been discussions of doing so.425 École des Pionniers-de-Maillardville, a CSF school in Port Coquitlam, offers the MYP and DP for free to its French-speaking students who come from the district, and outside of it.426 The last BC IB “pioneer” school (that opened in the 20th century and remains in existence)427 was also the first independent school in the BC Ministry of Education domain to offer the IB: Glenlyon Norfolk School in Victoria, the capital of BC located on Vancouver Island.428  The school was founded in 1913 by two women as an all-girls school, with a                                                 420 "Student Enrolment (2016/17) School District No. 43 (Coquitlam)," School District No. 43 (Coquitlam) School District Profile, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, 2, http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/profiles/profile-sd43-coquitlam.pdf. 421 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 422 Les Philips, interview, op. cit. 423 "Executive Members 2016," BCAIBWS Executive 2016, last modified 2016, http://www.bcaibws.ca/executive.html. 424 Poole, interview, op. cit. 425 BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016, op. cit. 426 Schall, interview, op. cit. 427 See Appendix 2. BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016, op. cit. 428 Interestingly, both Pearson College and Glenlyon Norfolk School are in Victoria, BC’s provincial capital.  92 “dedication to a rigorous education in academics, arts, and values.”429 It added a boys school in 1933, and the two schools amalgamated in 1986 and became a K-12 co-educational school.430 It was authorized to offer the DP in July 1996, and then went on to offer the MYP in July 2004, and PYP in February 2007, making it the first registered IB continuum school in the province,431 and one of the few in Canada.432 It became the model for the independent school continuum programs that were implemented soon afterwards at Stratford Hall in Vancouver (PYP 2003, DP 2005, MYP 2009),433 and Mulgrave School in West Vancouver (DP 2006, PYP 2007, MYP 2009),434 as well as many BC IB schools, public and independent. Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education recognized the school’s Middle Years Programme as producing “notable units of work.”435  As of 2015 it had the biggest Middle Years and Diploma Programmes of any independent school, registering 65 Diploma candidates in 2015, and 78 MYP students for external examinations in 2016.436   Interestingly, right after Glenlyon Norfolk School was established, another Vancouver Island school, Belmont Senior Secondary, a public school located in Sooke, 38 km west of                                                 429 "History of GNS," About GNS, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, http://w3w.mygns.ca/mygns/about-gns/history-of-gns. 430 Ibid. 431 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. A “continuum” school is one that offers at least three of the four IB programmes. "Teaching More than One IB Programme," op. cit. 432 One of 15 as of 2017. "Our IB Advantage," GNS Home, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, http://www.mygns.ca/our-ib-advantage Interestingly one school in Canada, the Victoria School of the Arts in Edmonton, offers all four programmes. "Victoria School of the Arts: Edmonton, AB," Find an IB World School: Canada, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/en/school/000950/. 433 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 434 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. Interestingly, both Tony Macoun from Pearson College, and Isobel Willard from Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School, played an essential role as administrators in establishing the IB at Mulgrave (see biographies of Interviewees in Appendix 5). 435 "An IB World School," GNS Home, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, http://w3w.mygns.ca/mygns/about-gns/an-ib-world-school. 436 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit.  Note: registering MYP students for external examinations is optional and as of 2016 few BC MYP schools did it.  93 Victoria, dropped the DP.437  However, since then other schools in Greater Victoria and Vancouver Island have joined it: Aspengrove in Nanaimo, Dwight School Canada Society (as of 2016 known as Brookes Shawnigan Lake438), and one CSF public school, École Victor Brodeur, that offers the DP for free to its French-speaking students who mostly come from the diplomatic and military families that are located in the provincial capital and nearby military bases.439  Despite the fact that Highland Secondary School in Comox did not offer the IB in 2016/17,440 it seems likely that the IB will continue to expand in the near future on Vancouver Island, as there are two schools in the middle of the candidacy process, and four others, including a CSF school, have registered an interest.441 4.4 The Establishment of the Continuum in BC Schools The IB has developed a “continuum” of IB education whereby students from K-12 would do their education in IB World Schools.  One of the reasons that the IB is seen as an attractive pedagogical program is because schools (singular, or in combination with others) have started to adopt that continuum of IB education.  This is particularly prevalent in independent schools,442 but is also occurring between public elementary, middle and high schools in BC. The opportunity to offer a continuum of IB education is a reason for the establishment and expansion of IB World Schools in BC.                                                 437 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 438 The Dwight School Canada became known as “Brookes Shawnigan Lake” in 2016 when the school joined the Brookes Education Group.  The DP authorization transferred to the new school incarnation. "A New Chapter: Introducing Brookes." Times Colonist. Last modified August 9, 2016. Accessed July 26, 2017. https://www.pressreader.com/canada/times-colonist/20160809/282299614557565. 439 Schall, interview, op. cit. 440  "International Baccalaureate Program." Highland Secondary, op. cit. 441 "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 442 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit.  94 Despite the fact that the MYP was designed and introduced in 1994 to be a “pre-IB course to meet the needs of students aged 11-16 with a focus on six ‘needs’: global, intellectual, personal, physical, creative, social,”443 the vast majority of BC DP public schools do not have a MYP lead in programme, but the vast majority of independent schools with the DP do.444 This situation could be caused by many factors, but several interviewees cited the costliness of the IB being a factor. Some schools, both public and independent, that only offer the DP have/can require a “pre-IB” programme to help selected Gr 9 and/or 10 students prepare for the skills that are required in various DP courses.  These school-based programs are not officially authorized by the IB.  These pre-IB courses are more arduous than the regular Dogwood courses, and even the MYP courses,445 so some schools have adopted grading adjustment structures for the students; for example, at Port Moody Secondary: IB Foundations offers Art, English, French, Mandarin, Japanese, Spanish, Social Studies, Mathematics and Science. Each IB Foundations course will include the material required for the BC Dogwood programme course, but because of the selected nature of the students, the learning environment will be distinctly different and more emphasis will be placed on higher level skills including research, writing, problem-solving and working in cooperative groups. The grades in IB Foundations courses are adjusted to reflect the same achievement levels required for BC Dogwood courses. Thus students will not be penalized through lower marks by taking on the challenges offered by the IB Foundation courses.446 As the DP was created before the PYP and MYP, there can be a discontinuity between them.  As one DP Coordinator interviewee stated, “The MYP [and PYP] is inquiry based…but to                                                 443 “The IB: an historical perspective," op. cit. 444 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. Abbotsford Middle School has a Middle Years Programme in Grades 6 to 8.  Students from this programme can eventually enroll in the DP at Abbotsford Senior Secondary School.  The three public schools that have a Middle Years Programme that directly feeds into a Diploma Programme are at Carson Graham Secondary School in North Vancouver, École Gabrielle Roy in Surrey, and École des Pionniers-de- Maillardville in Port Coquitlam. 445 Interviewee 15.  Several interviewees have stated that students tend to be better prepared for the DP if they go into it from in-house developed pre-IB courses than from a Middle Years Programme at another school.  Interestingly, the NVSD interviewees felt that Carson Graham has implemented a Middle Years Programme that fits well into its Diploma Programme.  The interviewees from continuum schools felt the same way. 446 Grade 9 Course Selection 2016-17, Port Moody, BC: Port Moody Secondary School, 2016,12, http://www.sd43.bc.ca/school/portmoody/Port%20Moody%20Times/Grade%209%20Course%20Planning%20Selection%20Booklet%202016-2017%20February%202016.pdf  95 then go into the DP: there is a huge break.  It is exams based.  It will be very interesting to see what a public school continuum experience is like.”447  This comment was made by a person whose school received some MYP students who came from a different school, so they felt that those who had been in their school’s pre-IB programme were better prepared for the DP in their school, but that could also be a school culture/expectations issue.448  As well, this school had a pre-Extended Essay component to their programme: students wrote a 1000 word research paper in Gr 9, and 2000 word research paper in Gr 10, so they felt prepared to take on the 4000 word Extended Essay in the DP.449  The MYP does not offer this type of assessment; instead, students undertake creating a Personal Project (and there is an optional e-portfolio and e-assessment).450 At one MYP/DP school they found that there was a lack of continuity between the programmes, particularly in Math, so they had to offer a separate advanced math option.451  On the other hand, in North Vancouver School District (NVSD), Carson Graham’s Secondary School’s MYP/DP partial continuum model is designed so that the co-coordinators can work together to make the programmes cohesive. They see that the MYP and a pre-IB programme are not mutually exclusive, and that everyone at Carson Graham is being taught the skills needed for the DP in their Middle Years Programme as kids are “learning how to learn.”452 Jennifer Tieche added, “They DO the DP skills in the MYP. In a continuum school, the staff comes together to teach and assess ATL as a continuing thread, and start to teach the DP skills in Gr 8 such as critical thinking and time management.”453 In addition to the two programmes being in the same school, in 2009 the NVSD opened a Primary Years Programme at Capilano Elementary School that                                                 447 Interviewee 15.   448 Ibid. 449 Interviewee 15.   450  "eAssessment MYP." MYP Assessment and Exams. Last modified 2016. Accessed August 9, 2017. http://www.ibo.org/programmes/middle-years-programme/assessment-and-exams/. 451 Interviewee 10. 452 Thornhill, interview, op. cit. 453 Tieche, interview, op. cit.  96 feeds into Carson Graham; hence, the district has the first full public school continuum programme in the province. In 2015 they added a second Primary Years Programme at Queen Mary Elementary School, which also feeds into Carson Graham.  As several interviewees noted, the students who are entering Carson Graham from those programmes, because they are well-versed in the language and inquiry-based curricula, are very well-prepared for the MYP, and, in turn, for the DP.  There are several non-PYP schools that also feed into Carson Graham, so it can be a challenge to “catch them up” with the language and nature of the IB, but once they get it, the MYP runs very well.454 At Mulgrave School, which is an independent continuum school, there is not a great feeling of there being a “break” between the MYP and DP;  their view of the continuum is to “enhance, extend, and enrich”455 with as many curricular options as possible that can be integrated in a backwards-designed model.  As the Head of School John Wray stated, “To see the nature of learning evolve from Kindergarten to Grade 12 is quite humbling…and inspiring, as students are engaged with the methodologies and pedagogies within the IB continuum curriculum framework…it is ubiquitous.”456  Interestingly, due to the nature of how the IB World public school programmes can be organized between two different schools, it can be difficult to achieve the true “full” continuum whereby the IB students in those programmes would get official completion certificates from the IB instead of district-generated “official” IB certificates e.g. the five year PYP (K-Gr 5) and five year MYP (Gr 6-Gr 10) leading into the two year DP (Gr 11-12).457  For example, in all of the BC public PYP elementary schools, those schools choose to offer the PYP from K-Gr 7 instead of K-Gr 5.  As of 2016, since all of the BC PYP public elementary schools go to Grade 7, and                                                 454 Thornhill and Tieche, op. cit. 455 Gordon MacIntyre, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver, BC. July 5, 2016. 456 John Wray, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver, BC. July 4, 2016. 457 Poole, "PYP and MYP in BC schools,” op. cit.  97 those students go into “partnership”458 IB secondary schools that are Grade 8-12, it is not possible to offer the full five year MYP that ends in Grade 10; hence, they offer an abbreviated three year Middle Years Programme.  This is the situation in the PYP to MYP partnership model in North and West Vancouver School Districts.  There is a full five year Middle Years Programme that begins in two elementary schools in Vancouver (Lord Roberts and Elsie Roy), and ends in a high school (King George Secondary), but those students do not attend either a Primary Years Programme or Diploma Programme in a partnership school.459   A reason why no BC public schools have offered the full continuum is due to the cost of paying for programmes in multiple schools; for example, the MYP being offered in two schools e.g. the elementary and high school.460  However, Bob Poole states that “schools creating a partnership that leads to a 5 year programme get a significant discount.”461  It seems likely that if BC public schools will continue to create partnerships to create partial or full continuums, it will be the less expensive model of an elementary PYP, three year MYP, and two year DP unless more funding becomes available to interested public school districts. To create continuity within a programme, as well as between programmes, can require extensive planning time between teachers, and some public (e.g. École Cedardale Elementary School, Rockridge Secondary School, Carson Graham Secondary School) and independent schools (e.g. Mulgrave School) have been able to adjust their schedules to include weekly teacher planning time in their schedules. In North Vancouver there is a district administrator who oversees the IB programmes and has regular meetings with teachers, coordinators, and                                                 458 “Partnership school:” when a singular IB programme spans two different schools e.g. in Vancouver an Middle Years Programme starts in two elementary schools (Elsie Roy and Lord Roberts) and ends in a high school (King George Secondary school). 459 Poole, "PYP and MYP in BC schools,” op. cit. 460 “In districts where the 5-year programme needs to be split between two schools such as Roberts or Roy and George, then the MYP elementary schools would only pay 10% of the fee.” Ibid. 461 Ibid.  98 administrators to discuss the progress of the various programmes.462 As Carson Graham has two MYP/DP “partial continuum” co-coordinators, they have the opportunity to meet with MYP and DP teachers twice a month to coordinate their planning.  According to those coordinators, these meetings generate rich horizontal and vertical curricular discussions; for example, at one meeting teachers went to other departments and gave feedback on their curricular scope and sequence, so they became better aware of the greater IB curricular framework.  One of the co-coordinators, Jennifer Tieche, commented on the impact of adding collaboration time into the timetable as a part of IB programme delivery, “Collaboration time had not been built into the timetable [pre-IB at Carson] to be able to just talk about learning…and teaching people.  The conversation [came to be about] more than just subject matter, but also about teaching people and how to help them learn, to do, to understand…”463    According to Gordon MacIntyre, Deputy Head at Mulgrave, there is an informal organization of full IB continuum schools in BC, and he was tasked with leading and coordinating their local (Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island) continuum efforts: he works with principals and IB coordinators to make sure that the IB learning is well developed and progressive PK-12.464  Their goal is to broaden this network and connect internationally with continuum schools.  The IB has recognized that continuum schools are unique: they don’t want special status, but there is an awareness that running all three programmes has issues that are different from a school with a single program or separate programs.  For example: there is the potential to be continually in a process of self-study if the five-year IB programme reviews are not coordinated.  As well, one interviewee stated: “A challenge can be that the next chapter of a                                                 462 Barter, interview, op. cit. 463 Tieche, interview, op. cit 464 MacIntyre, interview, op. cit.  99 roll out could happen a year after an evaluation visit, so you are trying to show competencies against old outcomes, but at the same time plan and shape the curriculum moving forward.  People are juggling multiple scope and sequences at the same time, and trying to make sure that student learning is progressive and linear.”465   Draft continuum standards have been developed and are being piloted by the IB.466 Erin Albright, the head of post authorization services for the IBO, was brought in to speak at the first IB Continuum Schools Conference in BC that was held at Mulgrave April 9 2016: her keynote was about the growing recognition of the unique situation of continuum schools, and that transitions need to be improved between the programmes through workshops, training, programme standards, and evaluation practices.467  The opportunity to offer an IB World School continuum of education is appealing as a pedagogical option as there is a common philosophy, vocabulary, and mostly similar assessments.  Due to this, the number of continuum schools continues to expand internationally, and Canada/BC follow this trend.  In Canada as of 2016, there were 14 full continuum programmes in one school, and more offered across schools.468 As of July 2016 in BC there were five partial continuum schools469 and six full continuum schools.470 When one looks at the ten schools that are in the candidacy process for being authorized to implement new IB programmes as of 2016, four of them were adding programmes that would make them a partial or full                                                 465 Martin Jones, interview by Shannon Leggett, West Vancouver, BC. July 5, 2016.  466 "The Future of IB Programme Evaluation," IB Africa, Europe and Middle East Regional Conference: Rome 2014, last modified October 2014, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/contentassets/71f2f66b529f48a8a61223070887373a/the-future-of-programme-evaluation---andrew-atkinson.pdf. 467 MacIntyre, interview, op. cit. 468 On the “Find an IB World School: Canada” website, one can only see the continuum offered in one school.  One cannot tell if a programme could lead into another school on the IB website e.g. West Bay Elementary School’s PYP feeding into Rockridge’s MYP (feeder school information used in this thesis was obtained from interviewees and school websites [though most websites do not mention feeder schools]). "Canada: Find an IB World School,” op. cit. 469 One public (Carson Graham Secondary) two independent (Southridge School and Brockton School), and two CSF (Ecole des Pionniers-de-Maillardville and Ecole Gabrielle Roy). 470 All of the full continuum schools are independent: Glenlyon Norfolk School, Stratford Hall, Mulgrave School, Meadowridge School, Aspengrove School, St. John’s School.  100 continuum school/s.471  Even though full continuum schools only existed in independent schools as of 2016, several interviewees commented that what North Vancouver School District has implemented regarding having PYP elementary schools feed into a MYP/DP high school could be the example to follow for other school districts in the future. It seems likely that there will continue to be a growth of continuum schools in BC. 4.5 Conclusion: The reason for BC schools establishing IB programmes ranges from groups of teachers or administrators having a philosophical or practical academic interest in them, to a school board decision that a school was told to implement.  The neo-progressive philosophy and NDP policies of the 1970s in BC helped to inspire some educators to explore new pedagogical teaching trends, including the IB.  At the end of the 20th century, 14 “pioneer” schools (two independent, 12 public) in the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island chose to implement the DP as they were attracted by, amongst other things, its philosophy of international mindedness and its rigorous curriculum.  Four of these schools ended up dropping their programmes, while the others continued, with one becoming an IB continuum school, and others connected to IB programmes in other schools in their districts.  The factors that have affected the continued development of the IB in BC schools will be analyzed in Chapter 5.                                                   471 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit.  101 Chapter 5 Findings: Factors for the Expansion of the IB in BC 5.1 Introduction This chapter analyzes the factors for the expansion of the IB in BC.  First, it examines the impact that the Global Education movement in the 1970s/80s had on schools choosing the IB as a curricular option.  Second, it looks at various aspects of the IB’s pedagogical philosophy, and its appeal to BC schools that shared its values. Third, it analyzes the IB curriculum in detail regarding specific aspects of the various programmes that are appealing, the pros/cons of the rigour of the programme (particularly the DP), and the opportunities and challenges that the IB presents regarding resourcing, professional development, and staffing.  Fourth, it looks at various legislative decisions that have been made in BC that have impacted the IB, and that to a great extent those decisions have encouraged its expansion.  Fifth, it analyzes the economic benefits and difficulties regarding implementing an IB programme. Sixth, one of the main appeals of the DP is that it is a challenging university preparatory curriculum, and the advantages and disadvantages that this entails are analyzed.  Finally, it analyzes alumni reflections, and the IB’s reputation as a factor that could encourage the expansion of the IB in BC.  This chapter answers the research questions/sub-questions: what were the factors that influenced the expansion of the IB in BC; why did school stakeholders (teachers, administrators, parents, universities) start to advocate for the adoption of the IB in their schools; what philosophical, socio-political, and economic changes affected this over time; and what have been some of the challenges associated with implementing the IB in BC?  102 5.2 The Impact of an Increased Interest in Global Education on the Implementation of the First IB Programmes in BC  The increased interest in the Global Education movement played a role in the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC. According to Dr. Karen Mundy from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), interest in Global Education in Canada began to grow in the 1970s in the wake of new federal multicultural policies472 and new international development education initiatives.473  There also came to be a focus on international awareness in some Canadian educational jurisdictions.  Mundy cited the 1968 Hall-Dennis Report for Ontario’s Department of Education stating that it called for  …Ontario to use education for human betterment at home and around the world… [and] the importance of promoting understanding, tolerance, and friendship among nations, recognition of the United Nations, and of Canada’s role in the world.474   However, Mundy continued on to note that the adaptation of such themes into the curricula of the different provinces remained limited, save courses like Ontario’s Grade 13 Geography World Issues course in 1978.475  For educators who wanted to teach a curriculum that was infused with such values, the IB seemed to be a good curricular “fit.”  As stated in the IB Mission Statement: The International Baccalaureate® aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.                                                 472 History of Global Education in Canada, by Karen Mundy, July 21, 2017, 18, http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/cidec/UserFiles/File/Research/UNICEF_Study/UNICEF_chap3.pdf.  473 Ibid., 19. 474 Ibid., 20. 475 Ibid.  103 These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.476 Bob Pearmain, the administrator who implemented one of British Columbia’s first IB programmes at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School in Vancouver in 1983, recalled: What philosophically effected the decision to implement the IB at Churchill was the increased internationalization in education…of the world… We had an understanding that we were a part of a world that was shrinking…the IB provided us the opportunity to think outside of BC and on a global scale. That was, to me, one of the most exciting aspects of the IB.477  Isobel Willard, who was the Diploma Programme (DP) Biology teacher at Churchill at the time, and later became Churchill’s DP Coordinator,478 put the Global Education aspect of the reason for why Churchill adopted the IB in a contemporary light: I was excited to hear about the IB program that Stan Copland [the DP Coordinator] introduced to the school because it was a comprehensive program that addressed educating the whole child. I appreciated the emphasis on life-long learning and on teaching what is now labelled as '21st century skills', which are beneficial well beyond high school. The CAS program was also important as I am a firm believer in student's engaging in the communities beyond their classroom, both locally and internationally.479 5.3 Attractiveness of the IB Philosophy  The IB’s philosophy was a key factor in the establishment and expansion of the IB in BC schools and school districts. As found in several of the studies mentioned in the Literature Review Section 2.2, in an increasingly globalized society, the IB has appealed to many educational school stakeholders, including some Canadian and, more specifically, British                                                 476 "Mission." International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 24, 2017. http://www.ibo.org/about-the-ib/mission/. 477 Pearmain, interview, op. cit. 478 She was later hired to be one of the Senior School administrators who implemented the DP at Mulgrave School, an independent school in West Vancouver. Willard, interview, op. cit. 479 Willard, "IB at Winston Churchill," email, op. cit.  104 Columbian ones, for its international perspective.  According to Paul Ellis, who worked for the International Baccalaureate Africa/Europe/Middle East region (IBAEM) for several years and has authorized IB World Schools internationally, Canadians have adopted the Diploma Programme   on the basis of shared values with the IB mission statement: international mindedness, support for involvement and responsibility through international organizations (the first Canadian school to adopt the DP was the Lester B Pearson United World College of the Pacific, named after the Canadian Nobel Peace Prize laureate), and the official policy of celebrating multiculturalism.480    As several interviewees stated, the global mindedness aspect of the IB, of which multiculturalism is an essential part, was a key reason why the teachers at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School in Vancouver implemented the IB in 1983.  The international mindedness aspect of the IB is one if not the most important draw of the programme, depending on the demographics of the community.  Several administrators said that the IB is an attractive option in schools with a large international population, both settled and transient. Jean-Philippe Schall, the DP Coordinator at École Gabrielle Roy, a Conseil Scolaire Francophone de la Colombie-Britannique (CSF) school in south Surrey, stated, “International mindedness…we have 45-50 different languages in our school as our students are from all over the world (Africa, Europe, S. America), and our teachers are also from all over the world. The school has a great international character: it’s a big family.”481 As a part of having the philosophy of international mindedness at the core of the IB programmes, the IB developed the idea of “global contexts for education” so “IB World Schools share educational standards and practices for philosophy, organization and curriculum that can                                                 480 Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit.,14, 18.   481 Schall, interview, op. cit.  105 create and sustain authentic global learning communities.”482 There are two ways that the global contexts are encouraged: through multilingualism and intercultural understanding, and global engagement.483  As stated by the IB,  …learning to communicate in a variety of ways in more than one language is fundamental to the development of intercultural understanding… Intercultural understanding involves recognizing and reflecting on one’s own perspective, as well as the perspectives of others.  To increase intercultural understanding, IB programmes foster learning how to appreciate critically many beliefs, values, experiences, and ways of knowing.  The goal of understanding the world’s rich cultural heritage invites the IB community to explore human commonality, diversity, and interconnection.484 The multilingualism aspect of the IB’s philosophy as an approach has been appealing to BC school stakeholders as a reason to adopt the IB.  Since its founding in 1968, the IB has been bilingual in English and French (adding Spanish in 1993).485 This can make the IB appealing to school stakeholders in countries that are officially bilingual, like Canada. According to Ellis, “The… [Canadian] official policy of bilingualism… contributes to the adoption of IB programmes in Canada, in particular outside of Quebec since there are significant francophone communities and many francophone or French immersion schools across the country.”486  In British Columbia, public schools in both the English and Francophone (CSF) school boards offer the IB: as of 2016 there were 26 English public schools, one French-immersion school, and five CSF schools, with another CSF elementary school expressing interest.487 Unlike in other provinces in Canada, there are no independent French language schools that offer the IB.488 In the CSF schools, the Board has determined that students do not have to pay any IB fees, and this                                                 482 "What is an IB Education?" op. cit., 6. 483 Ibid. 484 Ibid. 485 “The IB: an historical perspective," op. cit.,12. 486 Abrioux and Rutherford, op. cit.,18. 487 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 488 Schall, interview, op. cit.  106 policy can be related to their interpretation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Minority Language Educational Rights Section 23;489 hence, any child who has had a parent who went to a French school gets to attend a CSF school for free.490  Interestingly, it can be a challenge to be a CSF and IB World school regarding multiculturalism; as stated by Schall, “In a minority francophone school there is a cultural side that has to be taught as well as the IB, and the language/culture and academics have to be well balanced so as to not overwhelm our students.”491  Regardless of this challenge, the CSF continues to fully fund the five schools that host seven IB programmes, and has expressed an interest in opening a programme at another CSF school.492 British Columbian schools have played an important international role in the continued expansion of the IB, some being exemplary models of the IB philosophy as well as continuing to play a role in developing it with the IB organization, as noted by a Vancouver School Board (VSB) memorandum from September 9, 2011:  Staff and administrators from the (VSB) schools have played a very significant role internationally in IB committees, professional development, curriculum development and so on. The VSB has thus been a key player in fostering the mission statement of the IB and leading the way as a model for international education in the public system. We have clearly demonstrated to the rest of the world that IB can work in the public system.493…. The IB programmes are excellent educational programs with values that match the district’s core purpose and values.494                                                  489 "Minority Language Educational Rights Section 23: What it Says." Fundamental Freedoms: The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Accessed July 27, 2017. http://www.charterofrights.ca/en/20_00_01. 490 Schall, interview, op. cit. The CSF has the right to charge fees, but has chosen not to do so. Jean-Phillipe Schall, email, July 31, 2017. 491 Ibid. 492 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. 493 "Item 5: International Baccalaureate (IB) in Vancouver," From Senior Management to Committee III, Interoffice Memorandum VSB (Vancouver School Board), (September 11, 2011): 2, http://www.vsb.bc.ca/sites/default/files/11Sept14_op_commIII_item5.pdf.  494 Ibid., 3.   107 North Vancouver School District states the history of their interest in the IB on their website, and why its international, academic, and philosophical appeal led the district to implement it in 2009:  The International Baccalaureate Organization’s …original purpose was to…provide schools with a common pre-university curriculum, a common set of external examinations, and a diploma recognized by universities around the world. The IBO does not own or manage any schools; it works with more than 3,900 schools in 148 countries…. Over 1,139,000 students worldwide are enrolled in IB Programmes.  The IB Programmes encourage students to become active, compassionate, and lifelong learners who understand and practise global citizenship…As the IBO grew, the North Vancouver School District was attracted to the philosophy and methods of the IB Programmes.495  Jennifer Tieche, co-coordinator of the MYP/DP at Carson Graham Secondary School in North Vancouver, reflected on how the IB enhanced what was already happening in their school, “The Carson Graham philosophy matched the IB philosophy: it celebrated differences and being inclusive…people are free to be who they are in our space…there are multiple perspectives.”496  Her co-coordinator colleague, Liz Thornhill added, “The IB gives a language for what we have already done at our school…there is great open mindedness…The best way to celebrate each kid is the MYP Personal Project: it’s a big show and tell.  When you walk about the gallery…it’s pretty powerful e.g. a First Nation [indigenous] student who learned how to weave from her auntie has her exhibit next to another kid who learned how to compost…The philosophy of the IB is good practice.”497  The IB philosophy also appeals to independent schools, both for its academic rigor, and its global perspective vision.  Mulgrave School, an independent school in West Vancouver, had a DP graduate who received a perfect “45” score on her IB examinations in May 2015 (one of five                                                 495 "International Baccalaureate Programmes," Programs and Services, last modified 2016, http://www.sd44.ca/ProgramsServices/IB/Pages/default.aspx. 496 Tieche, and Thornhill, interview, op. cit. 497 Tieche, and Thornhill, interview, op. cit.  108 in Canada and 160 students internationally of the 141,830 students who wrote exams that session).498  John Wray, Head of School, stated at the time, The IB programme is renowned for providing a broad and well-rounded international education alongside a rigorous academic programme, and Jolee’s academic and non-academic achievements are a great testament to the success of this philosophy.499  Some schools find the IB philosophy appealing, but do not want to pay to implement the programmes. It is an expensive decision to decide to offer the IB at a school, so some school districts try to find a way to disseminate the IB philosophy to its teachers without having to go through the expensive candidacy and authorization process.  One school district sent 17 grade 9 and 10 teachers to MYP training in Vancouver in order to learn about the programme: this did not just include those teachers in the pre-IB programme, but non-IB teachers as well so they could also benefit from learning the IB’s best practice e.g. how to put the Learner Profile500 into practice, and to use Approaches to Learning (ATL ) skills501 in their teaching, which ended up matching the Core Competencies of the new 2015/16 BC Ministry of Education curriculum.502  The influence of having a CAS503 programme in a secondary school also has an impact on the students who are not in the IB, for in one school’s experience they felt that it created an entire                                                 498 Karem Planas, "Mulgrave Student Achieves a Perfect Score in IB Diploma 2015 Examination - One of Only 160 Students Worldwide," News: ISABC (Independent Schools Association of British Columbia, last modified July 15, 2015. http://www.isabc.ca/news/mulgrave-student-achieves-perfect-score-ib-diploma-2015-examination-one-only-160-students. 499 Ibid. 500 "The IB Learner Profile," op. cit. 501 "Approaches to Learning (ATL)," IB Middle Years Programme, International Baccalaureate Organization, accessed July 12, 2017, https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=m_0_mypxx_guu_1409_1_e&part=3&chapter=4. ATL existed in the PYP and MYP as “transdisciplinary skills” before the DP.  It was introduced to the DP in 2015. Approaches to Teaching and Learning (ATL) in the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme. International Baccalaureate Organization, 2014, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/digital-tookit/flyers-and-artworks/approaches-to-teaching-learning-dp-en.pdf. 502 There are three broad Core Competencies that have subcategories. Those three categories, as of September 2016, had the following subcategories: Communication, Thinking (Creative, Critical), Personal and Social (Positive Personal & Cultural Identity, Personal Awareness and Responsibility, Social Responsibility).   "Core Competencies" BC's New Curriculum, last modified 2016. Accessed July 27, 2017, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/competencies. 503 Creativity, Action, Service. "Creativity, Activity, Service," IB Diploma Programme, op. cit.  109 school culture of service.504  This is an appeal of offering an IB programme in a dual track school.505 However, several interviewees stated that in contrast to the perspective that the IB programme’s philosophy should/will create a “community” of “tolerant” learners engaging in intercultural understanding, it can instead create a culture whereby the IB cohort can be seen as an elitist, segregated segment of the school population in a dual track school that gets special attention due to relatively small class sizes and more teacher feedback (due to the nature of some parts of the programme being externally assessed by the IB). This was also found in some of the studies in the Literature Review in Chapter 2. Several interviewees stated that students in the IB cohort can become isolated due to the sometimes overwhelming demands of the DP, so some of those students do not participate in many school activities other than those required by the programme’s specific volunteering and participation in specific Creativity, Action, and Service activity (CAS) requirements.  By creating this isolated cohort, the IB, as a part of the practical implementation of its programmes, can be seen as creating something antithetical to the IB’s philosophical point of creating a greater community of learners engaging in intercultural understanding.  One interviewee stated that his administration feels that the IB can be an elitist programme, and that is one factor regarding why their school is not considering adding another IB programme to the school, and is not advocating for more programmes to be implemented in its feeder schools.506 Overall the response to the IB philosophy in BC schools has been positive, which is a key reason why the IB has continued to expand in BC.  As one administrator stated about its popularity:                                                 504 Pickering, interview, op. cit. 505 A school that offers the DP and the BC Dogwood diploma graduation path programs. 506 Interviewee 24.  110 It is due to the values that are associated with IB programme, its pedagogical approach, and its educational values framework.  Parents and teachers like the inquiry and key skills development (that is not so much about content knowledge), and its strong core values; for example, the Learner Profile appeals to parents, teachers, and students.  Critical thinking engages them to be internationally minded, which is inspiring and enriching.507 Some schools already had school cultures that embraced tolerance, and exhibited many aspects of the Learner Profile, so the addition of the IB was a seamless philosophical fit.508 Finally, one public school administrator shared this insight on how his opinion of the IB programme changed for various reasons, including the philosophical appeal of the IB: Prior to assuming the Principal’s position at Sir Winston Churchill, my relationship with the IB bordered on inimical.  Churchill’s Diploma Programme was one of two District IB programmes (i.e., open to students from throughout Vancouver) that captured some of the most academically capable students Tupper [Sir Charles Tupper Secondary School in Vancouver] had.  You can imagine that this was not something well received by either me or my colleagues at Tupper as we tried to create a neighbourhood school that was as noted academically as it was in the areas of career education, ELL programs and special education offerings.   What struck me almost immediately and quickly changed my opinion of the DP following my transfer (particularly as I got to know much more about the programme) was how good it was for the students it served: global perspectives; inter-disciplinary thinking; service to community; and social responsibility, to name but a few elements. What was equally striking was the effect the IB DP had on the staff.  The collaboration that happened and the support teachers of the DP provided one another was exemplary.  My own belief at the time was that the IB had helped fashion a professional culture that truly was second to none in the Vancouver system.509                                                    507 MacIntyre, interview, op. cit. 508 Tieche and Thornhill, interview, op. cit. 509 Little, interview, op. cit.  111 5.4 Pedagogical Reasons 5.4.1 IB Curricular Appeal 5.4.1.1 Specific Aspects of the IB Curriculum that are Appealing The appeal of the IB’s curricular framework has played a role in the expansion of the IB in BC. Many of those involved in the IB noted that the international mindedness component of the curriculum could inspire rich, authentic educational experiences, both within the programme e.g. with the MYP personal project, CAS in the DP, or throughout schools that offer both IB and non-IB options.  For example, at Richmond Secondary there is the “Global Perspectives” programme in Grade 12,  …a program where students embark on humanitarian trips to provide aid for those in developing countries. The Global Perspectives team of 2012/2013 will be assisting the Samoa government to repair damages caused by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. This represents the 19th annual project since the programme’s conception.510   The programme was developed, according to DP coordinator David Miller, as a “parallel, but separate stream of international-mindedness within the school, which is more development-oriented… [the courses] amplify each other.”511  The IB programmes are flexible so they can be individualized to meet a school or district’s particular curricular interests.512  It can also be offered in French: in BC it is offered in five CSF schools and one French immersion public school.513 It is flexible enough that a student can complete one component of the IB e.g. PYP or MYP, and go into the regular BC graduation                                                 510 "Global Perspectives Program," Richmond Secondary School, accessed July 27, 2017, https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Richmond%20Secondary%20School&item_type=topic. 511 David Miller, email, July 28, 2017. 512 "Programmes, " International Baccalaureate, op. cit. 513 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. It is also offered in Spanish, but no BC school offers this alternative.  112 Dogwood514 diploma program and/or take another externally credentialed programme like AP.  The IB Primary Years Programme overlaps with the new 2015 BC curriculum as it integrates indigenous ways of knowing into the curriculum;515 as one PYP coordinator stated, “The PYP programme of inquiry helps infuse aboriginal content into the curriculum…Global citizens, international citizens, and looking through the indigenous lens: the PYP curriculum gives you licence…and a vessel.”516   There are opportunities for IB students to connect with their peers from different schools around the region.  For example, as Leo Boissy, one of the teachers who was part of the roll out of the DP at one of the first IB schools in BC, Sir Winston Churchill Secondary, reflected,   Early in the IB’s existence in BC when it was just DP public schools in the Lower Mainland, there was a good effort to organize things for kids to bring schools together; for example, at PMSS [Port Moody Senior Secondary] there was something called Profound Pursuit (a version of Trivial Pursuit), but it was interactive so kids would run up and get questions, and play: it was an evening to bring kids together.  Britannia had the World Music Programme…. there was an IB Olympics Day at Churchill…these were events that would bring kids together once or twice a year.517    There is also the future possibility that some BC schools will be at the forefront of beginning to offer the newest IB curricular option: the Careers Programme (CP) graduation diploma.518  As of 2016, four schools had declared official “interest” with the IB,519 and Bob Poole, a Development Specialist for the IBO, said that he has had informal discussions about it                                                 514 “Dogwood Diploma: a certificate granted to a student who meets high school graduation requirements.  Also known as the British Columbia Certificate of Graduation (1995/96).” Ministry of Education, Skills and Training Annual Report July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1997, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1997), 80. 515 https://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/awp_moving_forward.pdf 516 Kirsten Dixon, interview, op. cit.  517 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 518 "Career-related Programme,” op. cit. 519 See Appendix 2. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of October 2016," op. cit. It is also offered in Spanish, but no BC school offers this alternative.  113 with several schools in BC.520  One school thought that it could be a great curricular fit with a digital field, such as creating a connection between a DP Film course and a professional organization like Vancouver Film School, which could then possibly lead to a student graduating with professional skills and certification, and be able to get work in a digital field right away instead of having to take additional post-secondary course work.521  However, there are some challenges that the CP presents.  One interviewee stated, “We looked at it and on the surface it looks like a great fit, but… you have to take [at least] two IB DP courses:522 that work takes an intellectual level to produce, and the kids who would do Careers are not academic.”523  Another added, “When you look at the CP and why schools aren’t adopting it, a key reason is the language piece… [students who would likely take CP] don’t want to learn a second language.”524  Finally, many of the courses that CP offers can be found in the Dogwood diploma, so it would not make sense to pay the money to the IB and do the extra paperwork when you can do much of the same program for free in BC: it seems like a better fit at a school where there is no alternative to the IB programme.525 Another reason why the CP may not be offered at schools is related to the fact that some IB courses can’t be offered in some public schools because there aren’t the minimum number of students required by the school board to run a class.  At one school both DP History and DP Economics were not offered as there were not the minimum 20 students registered in the course for the 2014/15 school year.526  Schools that have too small an enrollment to offer a variety of                                                 520 Poole, interview, op. cit. 521 Interviewee 24. 522 "What You Need to Know about the Career-related Programme (CP)," IB Presentations, last modified 2016, accessed July 27, 2017, slide 12, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/digital-tookit/presentations/cp-general-presentation-en.pdf. 523 Interviewee 9. 524 Interviewee 24. 525 Interviewees 7 and 24. 526 Interviewee 15.  114 courses usually tell the students what will be offered, and they have to either agree or not take the Diploma Programme e.g. one school was only able to offer three possible Higher Level (HL) subjects (English, History, Biology) and then a few other Standard Level (SL) options to complete the Diploma.527  However, some students can opt to take some courses online through Pamoja, the online IB authorized online course provider,528 if they are able to make that work with their learning style and schedule.  5.4.1.2 The Rigor of the IB One of the main challenges of offering the IB is the rigor of some of their curricular offerings, particularly in the DP, and, to some extent, MYP.  This was a main theme of many of the studies in the Literature Review in Chapter 2, and was also expressed by the vast majority of interviewees. Despite a few coordinators and administrators saying that it is a “myth” that the IB is too difficult, and the fact that several interviewees said that they work hard to dispel rumours about the DP being “too hard, no time for anything else, no time for friends,”529 the vast majority of those interviewed state that it can be too arduous, particularly in comparison to the BC Dogwood diploma graduation program.  Even though the new BC curriculum is quite similar in philosophy to the IB curriculum, particularly regarding the Core Competencies being similar to the ATL skills530 as underlying core concepts, and the overall focus on using an inquiry-based                                                 527 Interviewee 10.  As a part of the full Diploma Programme, students must choose three HL subjects, and then the rest can be SL. "International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Standard Level and Higher Level Courses," IB Publications, last modified 2015, accessed July 29, 2017,  http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/recognition/slhl-brief-en.pdf. 528 "Home Page," Pamoja, accessed July 29, 2017, http://www.pamojaeducation.com/. 529 Interviewee 7. 530 The 2016/17 BC Curriculum Core Competencies are: Communication, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Positive Personal & Cultural Identity, Personal Awareness and Responsibility, Social Responsibility "Core Competencies: Critical Thinking,” op. cit., and the IB ATL (Approaches to Learning) are: Thinking Skills, Communication Skills, Social Skills, Self-Management Skills, Research Skills. "Approaches to Teaching and  115 learning methodology, the pressure to submit something that is externally examined, like the personal project in MYP or the DP assessments, can be much more work than what is demanded provincially,531 for students and teachers.  The differences between the MYP/DP and Dogwood graduation programs of study have come to be particularly different as there is little provincial oversight or accountability for Dogwood program delivery.532 As of September 2016, there were no longer any externally moderated provincial exams save Language Arts 12 in English board schools, and French 12 plus Language Arts 12 in CSF schools,533 and the new BC curriculum has few prescribed skills assessments with rubrics that are assessed.534  Even though programmes like the MYP can be demanding, one interviewee stated a possible result in regards to the inquiry process:  The MYP forces examination and to look at one’s work with different eyes…to think deeply and reflect…it can stretch [both students and teachers] out of their comfort zone…the MYP is more inclusive and students demonstrate learning in different ways…you can’t hire tutors [to create and present the inquiry-based projects], so students take ownership of their learning and communicate their learning differently to their parents…it's a great opportunity.535  The DP subject demands are more rigorous than the Dogwood courses, and this curricular appeal is one of the reasons for the expansion of the IB in BC.  David Miller, the DP Coordinator at Richmond Secondary School, stated that with the DP the IB has created a Vygotsky-esque Zone of Proximal Development,  The IB…what it demands of kids…is at the boundaries of their cognitive abilities at their age…The IB is able to identify just exactly what they are capable of learning, making decisions to stay in the zone of proximal growth….                                                                                                                                                         Learning (ATL) in the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme," IB Programmes, last modified 2014, accessed August 4, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/digital-tookit/flyers-and-artworks/approaches-to-teaching-learning-dp-en.pdf. 531 Interviewee 12. 532 Interviewee 7. 533 "Provincial Exam Transition Year," BC's New Curriculum: Path to Graduation, BC Ministry of Education, last modified September 2016, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/graduation-info. 534 "BC's New Curriculum," Building Student Success, last modified 2016, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/. 535 Interviewee 12.  116 To someone familiar with the Programme, it would be evident that the IB’s assessment practices are critical to creating the conditions to generate this effect, in particular 1) the use of Grade Boundaries that articulate specific descriptions of achievement; and 2) external moderation, which provides a profound disincentive for teachers to either artificially inflate a student's grade and/or reward strong work habits/effective lobbying/wonderful personalities. Because the Grade Boundaries articulate what a student needs to be able to do in order to achieve a certain grade, the only thing the teacher needs to evaluate in IB is performance. This is a vital element, easily overlooked. The reality is that students and their approach to the teacher, their classmates & their studies creates a dynamic that interferes with accurate assessment. But in IB, because teachers are aware that their assessment is being assessed itself, they go to great lengths to ensure that their assessment is accurate initially. Even still, their bias/belief in the abilities of their students is so strong that they overpredict by about 2.6 points per student per Diploma, if I recall Andrew Arida's [UBC Admissions Associate Registrar and expert in IB programme regarding UBC admissions/First Year student performance] research correctly.536 So it is key that the IB provides teachers, through Coordinators, with annual feedback on the accuracy of their assessment. This mechanism allows teachers the opportunity to examine their own assessment practices, and adjust accordingly to increase their accuracy and, equally important, become aware of their own biases.537 As the DP can be considered too rigorous, students need to decide, and are often counseled in Gr 10 & 11, whether they would do better in the regular Dogwood program. Due to its rigorous externally moderated courses, students can be granted 1st or 2nd year university equivalency for the top grades they may get in those subjects by many tertiary institutions like UBC.538  As it can be challenging to get into tertiary institutions like UBC, some students feel like they would have an “edge” if they took rigorous courses like the IB.  However, it is not                                                 536 Andrew Arida’s UBC presentation to BC high schools stated this point. Andrew Arida, "IB Students & First-year University Performance: The UBC Undergraduate Admissions Model," (lecture, Kay Meek Theatre, West Vancouver, BC, December 8, 2015).   537 Miller, interview, op. cit. 538 See Appendix 10. Andrew Arida, "IB Students & First-year University Performance,” op. cit.  117 always the case that students/parents look at a school’s IB scores539 and enroll in an IB secondary school when looking for academic rigor that could give them that “edge.” When students and parents are making decisions about what high school to attend, they sometimes consider the Fraser Institute’s ranking of secondary schools that is mostly based on their grade 10-12 provincial exam results.540  However, what the 2015 report does not include were the results of those writing DP exams as students registered in the DP were exempt from writing grade 11 subject provincial exams due to the IB’s externally credentialed status.541 Consequently, some BC students in IB World Schools, who are often considered to be the “crème de la crème” academically, enroll in the DP and often do well on those exams, but those scores are not included in that Report’s rankings.542  Consider that the highest ranking that an IB World School received in 2015 was St. John’s School, an independent school in Vancouver with the continuum programme, which was ranked 10th.543 The highest ranked public DP secondary school was Richmond Secondary School at 52nd.544 Given that the Dogwood program is considerably less rigorous than the DP, it is clear that this ranking does not accurately reflect the nature of how strong a school is academically; however, this is not made clear in the report, in the media, or in any public school board or independent school publications. Consequently, this ranking can affect student and parent decisions to attend a school, which could affect the funding of the                                                 539 An example of what a school district would publish about its IB exam results in order to inform school stakeholders of the school’s DP achievement. “West Vancouver Secondary School IB School Profile,” op. cit.  Not all schools do this: this would be a choice made by the school board. 540 The Fraser Institute is an “independent, non-partisan research and educational organization based in Canada” that uses academic testing statistical data to compare and contrast schools within a province. "Report Card on British Columbia's Secondary Schools 2015," Fraser Institute.org., last modified May 2015, 5-6, https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/british-columbia-secondary-school-rankings-2015.pdf.  Interestingly, now that there are no longer any BC provincial exams in BC save Language Arts 12 for English language schools, and French 12/English 12 for CSF students, it is unclear how they will calculate their rankings. 541 Grade 12 English language students did have to write Language Arts 12, and CSF students had to write the French 12 and English language 12 exams to get their Dogwood diplomas. Jean-Philippe Schall, email August 1, 2017. 542 Interviewee 9. 543 "Report Card on British Columbia's Secondary Schools 2015," op. cit., 33. 544 Ibid., 34.  118 school, the nature of the offerings of the programme overall (less funding, fewer course offerings), and, ultimately, the expansion of the IB in BC.  The rigor of the DP in contrast to the Dogwood program, and its impact on getting into a preferred tertiary institution, is examined in more detail in section 5.7 of this Findings chapter. Despite—or because of—the rigor, it can be a challenge to accommodate all the students who are interested in taking the DP in a public school (not only in districts that allow applications from outside their district, but from within it).  In all public schools, the school board contributes at least partially to each student’s participation in the programme, so the majority of boards have caps on the numbers of students who can enroll in the DP as it is costly.545  A unique situation is in North Vancouver School District where the board does not put a cap on the numbers that enter the programme: all students in a PYP (as of 2016 there were two, Capilano Elementary and Queen Mary Elementary) and MYP school (Carson Graham Secondary) are enrolled in those programmes, and anyone who wants to take the DP at Carson Graham can apply.  There is a selection process regarding if the programme is the best academic “fit” for the student, but the school board has not put a cap on registration numbers.546 As of 2016 the school accepted out of district applications, which contributed to the school being at capacity: those interviewed attribute this situation to be partially due to the popularity of the MYP and DP.  Regarding payment of fees, it is also notable to restate that the four CSF schools that offer the DP do not have student enrollment caps, and cover all of the students’ DP fees.547 Some school stakeholders have expressed concern regarding the DP’s selectivity. As the DP can end up enrolling the academically strongest students who seek the rigorous challenge of                                                 545 "Fees: Diploma Programme," IB Assessment Fees and Services, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017. http://www.ibo.org/become-an-ib-school/fees-and-services/assessment-fees-and-services/. 546 Barter, interview, op. cit. 547 Schall, interview, op. cit.  119 the DP, it can be seen as “elitist.”  Several interviewees commented that the IB can create a two track system in a school. One interviewee stated, “The IB appeals to our clientele: it’s like a private school in a public system.”548 Another interviewee stated that the current administrator at their school thought that the DP can be elitist.549 One interviewee discussed how they are trying to deal with this situation, “It started as an elite programme, and we made changes to make it more acceptable to take certificates [instead of the full Diploma] and show the community the value of the IB…. The IB cohort [is] finding a way to be balanced, and there is less stigma to being an ‘IB kid.’ “550  The DP, despite its rigor, was not designed to be for the “elite.”  As one interviewee said, “The longer we have run the programme, we have seen a change from the few who were prepared to go into the IB to wear ‘The IB: It’s So Hard!’ as a badge of honour for ‘the Few, the Proud,’ to them seeing its inclusivity and accessibility because of all of the support they would get, from their teachers, administrators and peers.”551  Some schools demonstrate how the IB is accessible to all by accepting all types of learners into the DP, including those who are in Learning Support, and dedicate resources to support them, though independent schools tend to be able to afford more resources and support services for such students.552  One administrator interviewee had a broad view of the programme concluding that any C+/B student can succeed in the DP, so it should not be seen as elitist and exclusive.553  While it is debatable as to whether the DP can be elitist, it seems that in most dual track (offers IB and Dogwood) schools in BC it                                                 548 Interviewee 8. 549 Interviewee 24. 550 Interviewee 7. 551 Interviewee 6. 552 Interviewee 3. 553 Interviewee 11.  120 seems clear that the DP, as David Miller stated of Richmond Secondary’s non-exclusive programme, “is for everybody, [but] it’s not for everyone.”554  5.4.1.3 Conclusion Regarding Curricular Appeal  Schools choose the IB as a curricular option because, in general, the programme has an outstanding reputation, and that is connected to the hard work that goes into it, by the students and teachers, and the fact that that work is accountable externally. As stated by Chris Kennedy, Superintendent in West Vancouver, “On Professional Development days IB and non-IB teachers learn from each other….and parents talk on the soccer field about the excellent quality of the programme and their child’s experience.”555 Despite the fact that there is a lot of administrative paperwork (which can be reduced using online systems such as managebac556), an immense amount of time giving feedback to students, particularly on student “reflections” that occur in almost every unit in every course in every grade (as well as doing your own as teachers, done so formally at the PYP and MYP levels), and the pressure to get your students “through the DP” with seemingly little time compared to the IB’s required contact hours, and get the students to achieve the scores that the students (and parents and schools) want, overall teachers love the curricular model and the nature of the students they get to work with because of it.  Several public school interviewees stated that if a teacher does not want to teach the IB, their school board/union can and does transfer that teacher to a non-IB school.  As stated by Andrew Arida, who is a UBC Admissions Associate Registrar and expert in the IB regarding UBC                                                 554 "Resources for Students," RHS IB Diploma Programme, last modified 2016, accessed July 26, 2017, https://rhsib.wordpress.com/richmond-secondary-school-new/resources-for-students/. 555 Kennedy, interview, op. cit. 556 Thornhill, interview, op. cit. For more information on Managebac, see Faria Education Group. "Home," ManageBac, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, https://www.managebac.com/.  121 admissions/First Year student performance, and has done in depth studies of IB students for several years, observed, “It's a program in which students who love to learn are being taught by teachers who love to teach…When you've got passionate educators and engaged students, that is remarkable in and of itself."557  Regarding the overall, curricular appeal of the IB itself and why it is likely that more BC schools will adopt it, Bob Pearmain, one of BC’s original IB administrators who has witnessed its evolution for 35 years, stated, “I think that the IB programme has a proven track record.  It has had its stumbles and faults.  [But] it is not a static programme: they are always doing something new.  Since I have left they have developed an online programme [Pomoja] and Career-related programme.  It is not stuck in a rut, so that is its strength.”558 5.4.2 Finding Resources to Implement the Programmes A key factor when a school considers adopting the IB is whether it can find and afford resources to effectively implement it.  For the PYP and MYP, the resources that are used in the local curriculum e.g. the BC curriculum can be utilized.  However, for the DP there is a need to obtain specialized resources as those courses are more advanced than the BC Dogwood Diploma courses.   Consequently, it seems likely that the PYP and MYP can continue to be implemented in BC schools, and that the number of schools that offer these programmes is likely to expand, if one were to only examine this factor regarding additional line item budget items for resources. However, the additional resource costs could be considered to be a factor that can inhibit additional schools, particularly public schools, from adopting the DP in the future.                                                 557 Tim Johnson, "Is the International Baccalaureate Program Right For Your Kid, "Canadian Living, September 3, 2014, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.canadianliving.com/life-and-relationships/family/article/is-the-international-baccalaureate-program-right-for-your-kid. 558 Pearmain, interview, op. cit.  122 For those public and independent schools offering the IB, there are many English language resources available.  In addition to resource lists that the IB has put together,559 a quick search of “International Baccalaureate” on Amazon.com produces approximately 1500 English language results.560   Consequently, an English language IB World School is only limited by its budget regarding how many they can purchase; however, “only” is quite different given the budgetary realities of each school and district that offers the IB.   The CSF and French-immersion IB World Schools face a unique dilemma: a lack of French language sources to use to teach the curriculum.  Despite the IB being an officially trilingual institution (English, French, Spanish), as the government of France has rejected offering the IB at the state level (as they perceive their baccalauréat to be sufficient),561 publishers have not invested in translating key resources from English into French,562  likely due to the fact that the French language IB market is considered to be too small to be profitable. It has been particularly difficult finding French-language texts in Math and Science.563 BC schools have looked to DP schools in Quebec for resources, but because their students are in the CEGEP (Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel) system that is the equivalent of a Gr 12 and first year university college, those resources can be too difficult for younger students in BC to                                                 559 "Resources for Teachers," Primary Years Programme, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/primary-years-programme/resources-for-teachers/. "Resources for Teachers," Middle Years Programme, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/middle-years-programme/resources-for-teachers/. “Resources for Teachers," Diploma Programme, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/resources-for-teachers/. “Resources for Teachers," Career-related Programme, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/career-related-programme/resources-for-teachers/. 560 "Search: International Baccalaureate," Books, accessed July 30, 2017,  https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_2/143-0901654-0589148?url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-keywords=international+baccalaureate. 561 Interviewee 10. 562 Interviewees 10, 13, 22. 563 Interviewee 10.  123 understand.564  Also, some of the students in French schools may not even speak French at home, so they may not have the vocabulary to understand the math and science terminology; consequently, those classes can become first about teaching French literacy, and then about the content, which can make it more difficult for a student to find success in the programme.565 Due to the challenges that can occur regarding finding resources e.g. the English language schools being able to afford to purchase specific DP resources, or the CSF schools being able to find them at all, this can be a deterrent regarding some BC schools choosing to adopt the IB.  5.4.3 Professional Development and Teacher Implementation of the IB Programme  5.4.3.1 IB Professional Development Opportunities  One attraction of the IB is the professional development available to teachers.  In addition to being initially trained at a conference, a wide variety of opportunities for continued training as well as other ways to get involved are available.  Teachers can be trained to join external moderation teams and become examiners. Teachers are encouraged to become examiners as it is an excellent way to find out how work that is produced in one’s subject field is assessed.566 However, being an examiner is a rigorous process in itself due to the nature of the moderation process in e-marking:567 during every examination session some IB examiners can and do “fail                                                 564 Interviewee 10. 565 Ibid. 566 "Becoming an IB Examiner," Professional Development, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/jobs-and-careers/become-an-examiner-or-assessor/. 567 "IB Assessment Principles and Practices: A Guide to Assessment for Teachers and Examiners," DP Assessment, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017,  124 moderation” if their marking is not seen to be consistent with the senior team’s moderation decisions in a given subject.  However, even if they fail in one session, it does not prevent them from retraining and trying again in another one.  Despite the stress that can come with this experience, examining is the most popular form of IB professional development other than attending conferences. Teachers can also get professional development experience by participating in the curriculum review process which occurs in different time period cycles in the different programmes.  For example, in the DP: All DP curriculums are reviewed on a seven-year teaching cycle to ensure that each is fit for purpose in a changing world and incorporates the latest educational research and lessons learned from a thorough evaluation of the existing curriculum. Courses are either reviewed individually or together with other subjects in their group. DP curriculum review and development is an in-depth and inclusive process, drawing on the information and expertise from a wide range of resources.568   As Brenda Ball, Senior School Administrator and DP Coordinator at Brockton School in North Vancouver stated, “Change is good: it gives you more tools in the toolbox.”569  All interviewees agreed with the sentiment of one who is relatively new to the IB who said that IB professional development offerings have been the best professional development she has had in her nearly 40 years of experience.570  One interviewee expressed how they appreciated the expectations of following a programme that is externally monitored which makes a teacher feel more accountable to do a great job; as well, it is an opportunity to network with teachers, both within the province and with those from around North America, if not the world.571                                                                                                                                                         http://www.ibo.org/contentassets/4d92e48d38a4415a87e11555e143a39f/assessment-guide-for-teachers-and-coordinators-en.pdf. 568"A Guide to Curriculum Development," International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, last modified 2014, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/recognition/rec4122recognitioncurriculumbrief-5web.pdf.  569 Ball, interview, op. cit. 570 Interviewee 15. 571 Ball, interview, op. cit.  125 The IB offers teachers extensive, and ever growing opportunities for professional development beyond going to workshops, being examiners or being involved in curriculum development (as a teacher could do with the BC curriculum).  Teachers can become trained to go on site visits to see if a school should be authorized, or be a part of a five-year self-study team that visits authorized schools.572  As Leo Boissy, former DP Coordinator at Britannia Secondary School in East Vancouver, reflected,  It was great to get out to see other schools in the US and elsewhere, and see how they are managed; for example, I went to Staten Island and visited a school like Britannia that was inner city socio-economically.  It had many challenges and had also been successful, but it shows that the IB programme belongs in all kinds of schools…You make connections through examination, curriculum development and teacher training around the world with people from different backgrounds.  You can get tunnel vision if you are only in one area geographically…it was a positive advantage to my school as I brought what I learned back into the classroom, and had more confidence and knowledge than I would have otherwise.573 Teachers can become involved with the BCAIBWS organization as it holds AGMs, as well as professional development roundtables.  There was a time when the organization was dominated by DP teachers and their specific issues, which was difficult for the PYP and MYP school representatives when they started to attend meetings in the early 2000s.  It was also a challenge when independent schools joined, especially as there was some conflict after the province decided to partially fund independent schools.574 Finally, the CSF schools have sometimes found it difficult to find commonality with the other schools as their schools have unique dilemmas given the unique language and culture policies their schools have to                                                 572 Fiona Clark, "Working Through the Five-Year Self-Evaluation," IB Africa, Europe and Middle East Regional Conference: Rome 2014, last modified October 16, 2014, accessed August 21, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/contentassets/71f2f66b529f48a8a61223070887373a/fiona-clark.pdf. See this link for these and other opportunities "IBEN Role Requirements," IB Educator Network, last modified July 2016, accessed August 21, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/en/jobs-and-careers/ib-educator-network/iben-role-requirements/. 573 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 574 Interviewee 22.  126 implement.575 However, there are now opportunities for each of the programmes to meet individually,576 including offering “Round Tables” “where experienced IB subject teachers offer help to other BC school IB teachers who may be new to the programme or are dealing with syllabus changes.”577  BCAIBWS also provides IB teachers and administrators with the opportunity to make connections between public and independent schools, demonstrated by the mixture of public and independent schools represented on the Board,578 the joint Innovation Partnership579 that was granted by the province, and other joint projects that have been undertaken by various IB World Schools.  One of the main successes regarding professional development and the IB is with the increased number of schools that have adopted the IB, there is a larger local base of schools “to collaborate, pool resources, and strengthen the programmes collectively.”580 This collaboration can straddle public and independent school lines.  For example, teachers from Carson Graham Secondary School in North Vancouver, and two schools in West Vancouver, Rockridge Secondary School and Mulgrave School, applied together in 2015 and received a BC Innovation Partnership Grant as a part of the new 2015 BC curriculum’s “K-12 Innovation Strategy.”581  According to Kathleen Barter, the North Vancouver School District administrator in charge of the IB, the grant was meant to create a system that could help teachers to                                                  575 Schall, interview, op. cit. 576 "Events," Welcome to BCAIBWS, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://www.bcaibws.ca/index.html. 577 Boissy, interview, op. cit. 578 "BCAIBWS Executive," Schools/Workshops, last modified July 15, 2016, http://www.bcaibws.ca/executive.html. 579 "Communicating Student Learning," K-12 Innovation Partnership, last modified 2016, accessed July 31, 2017, http://k12innovation.ca/projects/communicating-student-learning-2/. 580 MacIntyre, interview, op. cit. 581 "Innovation in Schools to Benefit Students and Teachers," Ministries: Education. last modified July 4, 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2016EDUC0017-000229. "Communicating Student Learning," K-12 Innovation Partnership, last modified 2016, accessed July 31, 2017, http://k12innovation.ca/projects/communicating-student-learning-2/.  127 focus on identifying and reporting out on the ATL skills.  Using teacher collaboration through Pro D, guest speakers, and department groups, together the three schools examined what the ATLs look like in each discipline.  The reporting out of the ATL is interim based, not in MYED BC.  And is still a work in progress—we have also met with the Ministry of Education to establish a MYED version of it.582   This partnership continued to exist as of 2016.583  Additionally, three schools, Carson Graham, Rockridge, and King George Secondary School in Vancouver collaborated with the Ministry of Education to create a new provincial reporting system that seamlessly links MYP reporting to the provincial student information system, MYED BC.  It is based on MYP levels associated with the four criteria of each subject and the ATL skills; Abbotsford Middle School and Hugh Boyd Secondary School in Richmond were scheduled to start using this reporting system in September 2016.584  As stated by Kathleen Barter who directed this project, “The MYP IB report allows schools to report out on IB standards and Approaches to Learning [ATL], and meet the Ministry of Education reporting order.”585  Finally, the independent IB continuum schools have regular meetings that Mulgrave’s Deputy Head of School, Gordon MacIntyre, said  “has led to some rich professional development.”586  5.4.3.2 IB Professional Development Challenges Due to the curriculum review cycle, teachers are supposed to go for professional development retraining when a new curriculum is implemented in order to understand how to teach the new curriculum and mark the new assessment/s; this can be costly. The cost of sending teachers/administrators to these sessions (that are mostly held in the US) can run                                                 582 Barter, interview, op. cit. 583 Ibid. 584 Ibid. 585 Ibid. 586 MacIntyre, interview, op. cit.  128 between $3000 and $4000 (or more, depending on the exchange rate587), so sometimes a school may not be able to afford to pay for teachers to do other professional development activities other than re-training.  One benefit regarding professional development is that the BCAIBWS organization has been running IB teacher training workshops in Vancouver twice a year since the mid 1990s,588 so schools within the province can save some money by sending teachers to these local conferences.589 There has been a call for “districts to recognize IB training as a discrete qualification”590 to teach in IB World Schools so that teachers who will teach the IB will have demonstrated that they have received an IB teaching credential, such as those offered by UBC’s Teacher Education Programme,591 or will be guaranteed to be trained before the IB teaching contract begins. 5.4.3.3 IB and Tertiary-Level Teacher Education UBC is one of three universities in North America, and the only one in Canada, that has a Faculty of Education Teacher Education Program with an IB student teacher cohort.592  As the IB programme is highly specialized, this credential can lead to better employability (as one has a wider range of subjects one can teach), and the IB teaching credential is nationally and                                                 587 Interviewee 15.  588 Interviewees 18 and 22. 589 "Workshops," Home, last modified July 2016, http://www.bcaibws.ca/july2017.html. 590  Little, interview, op. cit. 591 "International Baccalaureate," Bachelor of Education Program, last modified 2016, accessed July 30, 2017, http://teach.educ.ubc.ca/bachelor-of-education-program/international-baccalaureate/. 592 "UBC’s International Baccalaureate Educator Stream Canada’s Only IB-recognized Teacher Education Program," Bachelor of Education Program: International Baccalaureate, last modified 2015, accessed August 7, 2017, http://teach.educ.ubc.ca/bachelor-of-education-program/international-baccalaureate/.UBC is in the process of creating an M Ed in IB programme to train currently working professionally certified teachers how to teach the programme in order to increase employability and diversify the subjects one can teach. "Pro-D Announcement | M.Ed. in Curriculum Studies | International Baccalaureate (IB) Education," UBC Faculty of Education Professional Development & Community Engagement (PDCE), (2015), http://pdce.educ.ubc.ca/pro-d-announcement-m-ed-in-curriculum-studies-international-baccalaureate-ib-education/.  129 internationally transferable and recognized.  As Isobel Willard, who in 2016 was an instructor at UBC teaching student teachers in the IB programme, stated: The UBC IB teacher education program started in the 2013/14 school year.  I came from Mulgrave for the 2014/15 school year to start the teacher training for the Diploma Programme (DP).  It has had a high subscription but limited numbers, and the TEO (Teacher Education Office) has had a high subscription for the DP as its the advantage of another ticket and feedback from colleagues…its quality education taught the IB way so it’s very successful, especially as the DP lines up regarding ways of learning and knowing, and the international component, which is an asset.  The IB Programme at UBC is known year to year with good word of mouth. The MYP is also offered and the PYP had to create 2 classes.  The TEO is limiting it due to financial considerations; for example, two teachers, and I had a class of 32.593 As of 2016 several districts hire Teachers on Call specifically for their IB programmes, and it is from this pool of teachers that they look to hire future IB teachers in their district.594  5.4.3.4 IB Professional Development Conclusion IB professional development is quite different from that undertaken by non-IB teachers in BC.  While there are a set number of professional development days in BC, what occurs on those days is up to the school and the school/district is not accountable to the province regarding what is done.   It is more extensive in the IB for many reasons, but a key reason is that because it externally moderates students, teachers and administrators annually and as a part of a curriculum review cycle and accreditation process, those involved have to keep up to date with the latest guidance and trends.  The IB professional development can be seen as too arduous for some, but the majority of interviewees believe that it is beneficial and makes the IB an appealing curricular option.                                                 593 Willard, interview, op. cit. 594 Barter, interview, op. cit.  130 5.4.4 Staffing Challenges in IB Public Schools One of the challenges of a public school being able to successfully implement and continue to run an IB programme is maintaining properly trained staff in a public school system that shifts its teachers between IB and non-IB schools. There are concerns, particularly regarding when a new teacher begins teaching the IB curriculum.  There are valid school stakeholder concerns if a teacher is given an IB position (particularly a DP one, where the result of the final assessments can affect university acceptance) and hasn’t been trained.  This can occur, for example, if the school district has cut funding for teacher training.  It can also occur when a teacher has been shifted to an IB job due to seniority clauses in the union contract that was negotiated between the teacher union and the school board, and has not had time to be trained.595  For example, at Southlands Elementary School, it was difficult to implement the PYP  as teachers would go to an IB workshop and be trained, and then at the end of the year, due to the nature of the contract that had been negotiated between the union and the Vancouver School Board regarding seniority, teachers could be laid off or transferred, and new teachers would come in and have to be trained again.596 Costs like this could prevent the IB from expanding, or from continuing to exist, particularly due to educational funding cuts such as the ones the Vancouver School Board was dealing with in July 2016.  Interestingly, there can also be a problem when the IB is introduced into a public school and a teacher does not want to teach it, which can be related to the fact that they do not want to change their teaching style and do the ongoing professional development required to teach the IB. There is a valid concern on the part of teachers that the IB is documentation-heavy,                                                 595 Interviewees 11, 21, 22. 596 Interviewees 11 and 21.  131 particularly in the PYP and MYP where teachers have to, for example, fill out detailed lesson and unit planning documents that are submitted to the IB. For example, it can be a challenge in the PYP regarding time management when one has to teach six week units of inquiry that require planning, teaching, and reflecting, and to make sure that there aren’t longer units in the fall resulting in the spring units being too short (though a PYP coordinator can help by meeting with the grade teams regularly to help them to keep on track).597  Such extensive documentation is not required of teachers teaching Dogwood courses.  Teachers teaching IB courses are not paid more for having to do this extra documentation. Consequently, this inequity of required duties in job descriptions and compensation can cause some teachers to not want to teach the IB.598 If a public school teacher is offered an IB position and doesn’t want to teach it, then they go somewhere else in the district .599 How can a district determine who is offered an IB position? In North Vancouver, a former superintendent negotiated terms into the contract as of 2016 where IB teaching positions were granted first by skill set, and secondly by seniority.600 A negative consequence for teachers can be that those teachers who leave their school can be made “surplus,” and could displace people in other jobs if they have seniority. This situation can disrupt the culture of the school the teacher is leaving and joining.  If a teacher does not have seniority, they could be relegated to the Teacher on Call list.  Even though school districts are paying the IB to implement their programmes, and teachers/schools are being externally moderated, IB teacher qualifications are not always given priority.  Finally, there is the difficulty of what happens when an IB Coordinator or an administrator leaves their position.  DP Coordinators often have to work into the summer as that is when IB grades are posted, and                                                 597 Interviewee 13. 598 Interviewee 12. 599 Interviewees 8, 12, and 21. 600 Barter, interview, op. cit.  132 students find out if they got into their university of choice: it is the DP Coordinators (as well as counselors) who call the universities and advocate on behalf of their students to get in.601  As stated by an interviewee:  Every time a coordinator or a principal retires it is like reinventing the wheel. They don't understand the percentage equivalents for the point system or the concessions vis-à-vis the Ministry. It takes at least two years to get them on the page, if they are interested. Principals [in some districts] …can change every two years...it can be exhausting! ... and not in the students’ best interests.602  When a school board is looking at budgetary line items to cut to balance a budget, one of the areas considered is “professional development training.”  Public school districts that annually shift their employees between non-IB to IB schools incur more costs, so it could be part of the reason to cut the IB programme in their district, thereby potentially hindering the expansion of the IB in BC public schools. 5.5 Legislative Reasons  When the IB was first offered in BC schools it was considered to be a “special program”603 that could contribute to a student’s BC graduation course requirements as an elective, and it was specially noted on transcripts.604 In 1995 the BC Ministry of Education created a new Graduation Program that went from being “course” to “credit” based.605  It created new “Foundation Studies” graduation “requirements” that DP courses qualified for.606  It was felt that DP courses “offer students’ opportunities to expand and accelerate some or all of their educational                                                 601 Interviewee 9. 602 Interviewee 22. 603 Handbook of Procedures 1995-96: Provincial and Scholarship Examinations and Transcripts (incl Graduation Program), (Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Education, 1995), 24. 604 Ibid. 605 Ibid., 56. 606 Ibid., 62-67.  133 programs.”607  The BC Ministry of Education’s Annual Report for 1995/96 went further in justifying its authorization of the IB: BC students outperformed students from around the world in programs offering advanced standing in college…a greater proportion of students in BC than in North America were awarded International Baccalaureate diplomas (93% vs 78%)608…. [IB courses] meet internationally recognized standards of achievement…ensure credit portability and are directly relevant to pursuing further education; they are recognized with equivalency standing at many universities around the world.  The rapid expansion in recent years of IB…courses offered in secondary programs reflects the [BC educational] systems’ growing responsiveness to students’ needs for a broadened scope of education and training.609   Several of the interviewees for this thesis were part of the group that lobbied the Ministry of Education to get this recognition.  As Bob Poole stated:  Brita Gunderson-Bryden was our key contact at the Ministry, and it was through her that we were successful in gaining recognition for the DP.  There was great cooperation between the Ministry and the BC Association of IB World Schools (BCAIBWS)610 in this work.  I was the Chair of the Association at the time.611   The BC Ministry of Education granted DP courses new provincially authorized course codes that were used on graduation transcripts.612  IB students who would write DP exams in May of their Grade 12 year usually still completed the equivalent BC course provincial exams in June, “Most students enrolled in…IB courses in subjects for which there is a Grade 12 examination will wish to successfully complete the Grade 12 course and write the provincial examination.”613  Many                                                 607 Ministry of Education, Skills and Training 1995/96 Annual Report, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1996), 25. 608 Ibid., 8. 609 Ibid., 37. 610 BCAIBWS was formed in the mid 1980s to represent the interests of BC IB World Schools.  It was recognized by the BC government as an “educational society” in the late 1980s. Bob Poole, interview, op. cit. 611 Poole, email, op. cit. 612 Handbook of Procedures 1996-97: Provincial and Scholarship Examinations and Transcripts (incl Graduation Program), (Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Education, 1996), 49-53. 613 Handbook of Procedures 1995-96: Provincial and Scholarship Examinations and Transcripts (incl Graduation Program), op. cit. Interestingly, this language changed in the 1996/97 Handbook, “Most students enrolled in an…IB course with a related provincially examinable course must complete the provincially examinable course as well.” Handbook of Procedures 1996-97: Provincial and Scholarship, op. cit., 45.  134 teachers taught the IB and provincial Dogwood diploma614 course content in combination (as was recommended by the province615): DP students took their six IB course exams616 in May and then revised for the equivalent provincial course exams in June, potentially sitting for 21 exams in two months!617  Grades were submitted for both IB and Dogwood courses for BC graduation transcripts.618  Particularly as writing all of the exams was a difficult academic strain on students, the number of schools offering the Diploma Programme barely expanded in the 1990s.619  In 1998/99 “dual credit”620 began to be offered for externally credentialed courses like the DP.  Although DP graduates took advantage of this financial and academic opportunity, the number of schools offering the DP did not start to grow noticeably until 2008, so this may not have been an essential factor in the IB’s expansion in BC; however, the IB school authorization process can take several years, so perhaps several schools and districts did begin to look into this advantage provided by the IB due to this change. In 2004, a new BC Graduation Program began that included a change that contributed to the expansion of the IB.  Provincial exams were only required for three Grade 10 subjects (Language Arts, Science, Math), Social Studies 11 (SS11), and Language Arts 12.621 Some                                                 614 “Dogwood Diploma: a certificate granted to a student who meets high school graduation requirements.  Also known as the British Columbia Certificate of Graduation (1995/96).” Ministry of Education, Skills and Training Annual Report July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1997, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1997), 80. 615 Handbook of Procedures 1996-97: Provincial and Scholarship, op. cit., 45. 616 Each IB course has Paper 1, 2 and 3 components: each “paper” is a separate exam and has varying levels of difficulty and amounts of time that can be expended e.g. it can take up to three days for an IBDP student to finish one IB course’s exams.  However, DP candidates do not have to complete all 3 papers for every course that they take: it depends on the courses that they select. "Understanding DP Assessment," Programmes, last modified 2016, accessed July 31, 2017, http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/assessment-and-exams/understanding-ib-assessment/. 617 For example, a student could write six Paper Ones, six Paper Twos, and three Paper Threes (Ibid.) in addition to six provincial exams, for a total of 21 exams! 618 Handbook of Procedures 1996-97: Provincial and Scholarship, op. cit., 45. 619 See Appendix 1. "BC Schools IB Statistics as of July 2015," op. cit. 620 “Dual credit: credit for secondary school graduation that is also recognized for transfer of credit in courses and programs in post-secondary institutions.” Ministry of Education 1998-99 Annual Report, (Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1999), 37. 621 The Graduation Program 2004, (Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Education, 2003),10.  135 Grade 11 DP courses (History, Geography) were recognized as being equivalent to Social Studies 11, so DP students did not have to write the SS11 provincial exam; however, Language Arts 12 still had to be written.622  Some students, both IB and non-IB, continued to write provincial exams in provincial or equivalent DP courses in order to qualify for scholarships;623 as of 2014/15, DP exam results qualified students for provincial scholarships.624 As of 2016, the only BC provincial exam that DP students had to write was Language Arts 12, but this can be written in January or April of the second semester of Grade 12 instead of having to continue school after IB exams are completed in May.625  This is for all English language IB schools: students from CSF IB schools have to write both the provincial Language Arts 12 and French 12 exams.626 The IB document “A Look at Canadian Provincial Practices” summarizes the DP/provincial exam equivalency627 situation as of 2006/07: BC allows students to replace the provincial examination with the IB program in all core subjects…BC will award provincial scholarships on the basis of IB results628…. IB courses fulfill graduation requirements. However, IB students must write the English 12 provincial exam but are exempt from all other provincial exams…IB full Diploma students can qualify for provincial scholarships on the basis of their IB marks…IB students in the French Immersion Programme can meet requirements for the French Immersion Certificate through the IB Diploma Programme and by taking IB courses in French. In addition, students may also qualify for the IB Bilingual Diploma.629                                                 622 "British Columbia," In Secondary Education in Canada: A Student Transfer Guide 9th Edition 2004-05, 1-38, Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC), 2005, last modified 2005, 11-23 http://www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/184/transfer-guide-2004-05.pdf.  623 The Graduation Program 2004, op. cit.,10. 624 Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program 2015/16, (Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Education, 2015), 109. See also "Provincial Scholarships Program Information for Students." Support: Kindergarten to Grade 12. Last modified 2015. Accessed July 31, 2017. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/k-12/support/provincial-scholarships. 625 Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program 2015/16, op. cit., 2. 626 Schall, interview, op. cit. 627 Bob Poole clarified the definition of equivalency based on his work with the IBO and working with the Ministry, “Be careful using the word “equivalent” as it can be loaded politically…. “equivalent” can lead to an interpretation of better or worse or different, so it’s better to say “It meets the goals expected.” Poole, interview, op. cit. 628 "A Look at Canadian Provincial Practices: International Baccalaureate," A Look at Canadian Provincial Practices, last modified 2007, 1, https://ridleycollege.myschoolapp.com/ftpimages/180/download/A_Look_at_Canadian_Provincial_Practices.pdf. 629 Ibid., 2.   136  As of 2016 there were negotiations occurring between the IB and the BC Ministry of Education to get DP students exempted from writing Language Arts 12, and for CSF students French and English 12.630  As of the 2014/15 BC Graduation Program, the BC Ministry of Education granted DP point scores a BC provincial equivalency regarding GPA calculations and scholarship decisions as follows: an IB “3” = 70% (C+), “4” = 76% (B), a “5” = 86% (A-), a “6” = 90% (A) and a top score of “7” =96% (A+).631  DP students, if they are full Diploma candidates, write six DP exams,632 and they need 24 points to get their DP diploma (a perfect score is 45, but that is a rarity internationally).633 Andrew Arida, UBC Associate Registrar & Director, Student Recruitment and Undergraduate Admissions, explained what IB/Dogwood equivalency can look like from a university admissions perspective:  An IB student with a 28 on anticipated scores (excluding the three additional points [on TOK and Extended Essay]) or a 29 on their final IB score (including the additional points)634 is likely to perform at UBC at the same level as a BC high school student with an admission average of 87% (87% being the level required to achieve an A in the BC system).635                                                   630 See Appendix 11. 631 This IB/provincial grade equivalency is shown and explained here, "West Vancouver Secondary School IB School Profile," op. cit. UBC uses the same equivalency to determine university entrance: please see "Applicants with International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement Courses," Vancouver Academic Calendar 2016/17, last modified 2016, http://www.calendar.ubc.ca/vancouver/?tree=2,279,0,0. 632 “General Regulations: Diploma Programme," IB Diploma Programme, last modified April 2014, accessed July 31, 2017, 8, http://www.ibo.org/globalassets/publications/become-an-ib-school/dp-general-regulations-en.pdf. 633 "Understanding DP Assessment," op. cit. 634 “In the DP, students receive grades ranging from 7 to 1, with 7 being highest. Students receive a grade for each DP course attempted. A student’s final Diploma result score is made up of the combined scores for each subject. The diploma is awarded to students who gain at least 24 points, subject to certain minimum levels of performance including successful completion of the three essential elements of the DP core. The theory of knowledge (TOK) and extended essay (EE) components are awarded individual grades and, collectively, can contribute up to 3 additional points towards the overall Diploma score.  Creativity, Action, Service – the remaining element in the DP core – does not contribute to the points total but authenticated participation is a requirement for the award of the diploma.” "Understanding DP Assessment." "Understanding DP Assessment," op. cit. 635 Arida, "IB Students & First-year University Performance,” op. cit.  137 Consequently, DP students tend to have higher GPAs, which make it easier for them to get into their preferred tertiary institutions, win provincial scholarships, and receive dual credit. These factors make taking the DP more attractive to both academically motivated and financially challenged students.  Between 2005 and 2015 the number of BC DP schools more than doub