UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Structural, mineralogical and fluid evolution of the Shahumyan intermediate sulphidation vein deposit,… Yarra, Dharani Raja 2017

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


24-ubc_2017_september_yarra_dharani.pdf [ 74.25MB ]
JSON: 24-1.0354449.json
JSON-LD: 24-1.0354449-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 24-1.0354449-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 24-1.0354449-rdf.json
Turtle: 24-1.0354449-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 24-1.0354449-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 24-1.0354449-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Structural, Mineralogical and Fluid Evolution of the Shahumyan Intermediate Sulphidation Vein Deposit, Kapan District ArmeniabyDharani Raja YarraB.Sc (Hons), Brock University, 2013A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF SCIENCEinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES(Geological Sciences)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA(Vancouver)August 2017© Dharani Raja Yarra, 2017iiAbstractThe Kapan District located in the Syunik province of SE Armenia is part of the Lesser Caucasus. The district consists of multiple vein type deposits that were emplaced in the Middle-Upper Jurassic. The Shahumyan deposit is the only actively producing deposit within the district. Understanding vein geometry, and hydrothermal fluid evolution is fundamental in establishing the genesis and exploration significance within an epithermal vein district, providing both near mine and district scale targets.Over 120 veins of varying thicknesses (20cm to 3 m) are identified at the Sha-humyan deposit. The veins are sub-vertical, south-dipping and trend east to northeast. Veins comprise of small bends, extensional jogs, soft and hard linked step-overs, pinch and swell structures and cymoid loops. These features are observed along both strike and down-dip of individual veins and contain higher metal grades relative to the rest of the vein. Along strike and down-dip connectivity of these structural features define high-grade ore-shoots within mineralized veins.Three main hydrothermal stages associated with mineralization are defined: Stage 1, pyrite, fine grained quartz ±chlorite; Stage 2a & b, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphaler-ite, galena, sulfosalts, Au-Ag tellurides, fine and coarse white quartz, ±calcite; Stage 3; calcite, quartz, pyrite. Au-Ag-Pb tellurides are associated with localized brecciation. Tellurides are predominantly present in fractured sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena. Based on textures and fluid inclusion studies, Au-Ag-Pb tellurides are linked to boiling mechanisms.  The epithermal event at The Shahumyan deposit is characterised by punctu-ated periods of hydrothermal brecciation interspersed with more quiescent periods when coarsely banded vein material was precipitated. Localized brecciation provide increased fluid permeability and ideal fluid pathways for mineralizing fluids. Localized brecciation corresponds with continued propagation or re-opening of the fracture-vein system. Localized boiling is interpreted to be the primarily driver for Au-Ag telluride precipitation.iiiLay SummaryThe economic potential of a mineral deposit is determined by their metal con-tent (gold, silver, copper, zinc and lead) and ratio’s. Gold significantly increases the value of these deposits making them economic to mine. These metals are carried in hydrothermal solution and precipitate due to changing physical and chemical condi-tions, such as temperature, pressure and acidity. This project tries to identify the trans-port pathways within the earth’s crust which, these hydrothermal solutions travelled through and constrains the physical and chemical conditions which caused these met-als to precipitate. The results of this project would help the Shahumyan deposit to become more economic by helping local geologists to target areas for high precious metal (gold and silver) to base metal (copper, zinc, lead) ratios.ivPreface  An introduction is presented in Chapter 1, where research concepts and ob-jectivrs are outlined. A summary and discussion of the research results, implications and suggested future work is present in Chapter 5. Chapter 2 reviews the tectonic and regional geology of the Lesser Caucasus and the Kapan Volcanic Zone in addition to economic history of the Kapan District and its exploited metals. Chapters 3 and 4 in-clude a presentation of quantitative and qualitative data collected to answer objectives outlined in Chapter 1 in addition to data interpretation.  The author is responsible for all of the structural measurements, descriptive data collected and for the selection of the following analytical samples: (1) shortwave infrared spectroscopy; (2) X-ray diffraction; (3) microprobe / SEM; (4) lithogeochemi-cal; (5) fluid inclusion microthermometry; and (6) Ar/Ar and K/Ar geochronology. The author is responsible for the generation of all figures and tables, unless otherwise noted. Analytical methods 2-3 were undertaken at UBC by the author with assistance from Jenny Lai and Edith Czech.  Methods 1 and 5 were undertaken at UBC with the assistance of Farhad Bouzari and Murray Allan. The preparation of lithogeochemical samples was performed by the author at the MDRU lab and analyzed at Acme Labs, Vancouver, Canada.  Samples for Ar/Ar geochronological analyses were partially prepared at UBC by the author and sent to the University of Geneva, Geneva Switzerland and analysed by Dr. Richard Alan Spikings. Samples for K/Ar geochronological analyses were par-tially prepared at UBC and sent to Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen, Hungary for K/Ar analyses and analysed by Drs. Zsolt Benkóand Zoltán Pécskay undertook K/Ar analyses.  Data analysis and modelling of analytical results, and structural measurements was carried by the author, using ioGAS®, ArcGIS®, Leapfrog®, OpenStereo™ and Geochemists Workbench® computer software. vAbstract ....................................................................................................................... iiLay Summary ............................................................................................................. iiiPreface  ............................................................................................................... .......ivTable of Contents.........................................................................................................vList of Tables ............................................................................................................... ixList of Figures ..............................................................................................................xAbbreviations ............................................................................................................. xiiAckowledgements .................................................................................................... xiii1. Introduction  ........................................................................................................... 11.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 11.1.1 Objectives ..............................................................................................31.2 Conceptual Framework.....................................................................................71.2.1 Epithermal Deposits- Intermediate Sulphidation ....................................71.2.2 Hydrothermal Alteration in Epithermal Deposits ................................... 92. Geology of the Lesser Caucasus  and Kapan District ...................................112.1 Tectonic and Geologic Setting, Lesser Caucasus ...........................................112.1.1 Geology of the Somkheto-Karabakh Volcanic Zone (SKVZ)  .............. 142.1.2 Structural Regimes, Caucasus ............................................................ 152.1.3 Metallogenic Overview, Lesser Caucasus ........................................... 172.2 Geology of the Kapan District ......................................................................... 212.2.1 Cenozoic-Paleogene Complex  ...........................................................222.2.2 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Complex....................................222.2.3 Middle Jurassic Complex .....................................................................232.3 Lithogeochemistry of Middle Jurassic Volcanic rocks .....................................252.4 Structural Trends, Kapan District ....................................................................302.4.1 Folding and Bedding Trends ................................................................ 312.5 Mineralized Veins within the Kapan District ....................................................332.5.1 Centralni ..............................................................................................332.5.2 Noreshenik  ..........................................................................................362.5.3 Arachadzor...........................................................................................362.5.4 Barabtoom and Gyangibut  ..................................................................37Table of Contentsvi3. Mineralization Paragenesis and Structural Evolution of the Vein System at Shahumyan ..............................................................................................................383.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................383.2 Vein Mineralogy and Textures .........................................................................393.2.1 Ore Minerals  .......................................................................................393.2.2 Gangue Minerals and Textures ............................................................423.2.2.1 Major Gangue ................................................................................423.2.2.2 Minor Gangue ................................................................................443.3 Mineralization Paragenesis.............................................................................443.3.1 Stage 1 ................................................................................................ 463.3.2 Stage 2 .................................................................................................473.3.3 Stage 3 ................................................................................................ 493.4 Centralni and Noreshenik Vein Mineralogy ................................................... 493.4.1 Centralni.............................................................................................. 493.4.2 Noreshenik  .......................................................................................... 513.5 Vein Geometry, Shahumyan  ..........................................................................523.5.1 South Zone (Vein 17 and 20) ................................................................543.5.2 Middle Zone (Vein 34-33, 57) ...............................................................553.5.3 North Zone (Vein 35)  ..................................................................563.5.4 High Grade Ore Shoots .......................................................................563.6 Discussion ......................................................................................................583.6.1 Hydrothermal Stages ...........................................................................583.6.2 Vein Geometry  ................................................................................... 603.6.3 Vein and Oreshoot Formation .............................................................. 614. Fluid Characterization, Alteration and Fluid Inclusions ..................................654.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................654.2 Hydrothermal Alteration, Shahumyan ............................................................ 664.2.1 Least Altered Rocks, (Barabatoom Volcanics) .....................................674.2.2 Distal Alteration Assemblage ...............................................................674.2.3 Intermediate Alteration Assemblage ....................................................704.2.4 Proximal Alteration Assemblage ..........................................................704.2.5 Lithocap Alteration ............................................................................... 714.3 Mineral Compositions ..................................................................................... 714.3.1 White Mica Group ................................................................................72vii4.3.2 Chlorite Group......................................................................................734.3.3 Kaolinite Group ....................................................................................734.4 Geochemistry of Alteration Assemblages .......................................................744.4.1 Mass Transfer Calculations..................................................................754.4.1.1 Major Elements Mass Transfer .......................................................774.3.1.2 Base and Precious Metal Mass Transfer .......................................784.3.1.3 Trace Elements and REE Mass Transfer .......................................784.4.2 Molar element ratio diagrams and alteration trends.............................794.4.3 Alteration Discussion ...........................................................................804.5 Fluid Inclusions  ..............................................................................................834.5.1 Fluid Inclusion Petrography .................................................................844.5.2 Fluid Inclusion Results ........................................................................ 894.5.3 Fluid Characteristics- Fluid inclusions.................................................. 914.6 Physiochemical Constraints ...........................................................................934.6.1 Fluid Chemistry, pH and Temperature .................................................934.6.2 Constraints on Te and S Fugacities .................................................... 985. Summary and Discussion ................................................................................. 1045.1 Vein Mineralogy, Alteration and Fluid Inclusions ........................................... 1045.2 Vein Geometry and Ore Shoots, Shahumyan............................................... 1065.3 Discussion  ................................................................................................... 1075.4 Conclusions ...................................................................................................1135.5 District Scale Exploration Implications ...........................................................1145.6 Future Work: ..................................................................................................118References ............................................................................................................. 120Appendix 1: Lithogeoeochemistry ....................................................................... 138Appendix 2: Geochronology: Ar-Ar and K-Ar ..................................................... 147Appendix 3: Alteration Analysis ........................................................................... 153Appendix 3a: Whole Rock Geochemistry for Alteration Analysis  ...................... 154Appendix 3b: Alteration Mass Balance ............................................................... 173Appendix 3c: Shortwave Infrared ....................................................................... 180Appendix 3d: Illite-Sericite Microprobe Results .................................................. 187Appendix 3e: Chlorite Microprobe Results .........................................................202Appendix 4: Fluid Inclusion Study.......................................................................208viiiAppendix 4a: Fluid Inclusion Results .................................................................209Appendix 4b: Fluid Inclusion Petrography.......................................................... 218Appendix 5: Underground Vein Maps .................................................................. 221Appendix 6: Ore Petrography ..............................................................................234ixTable 1.1: Characteristics of Epithermal subtypes................................................................... 5Table 2.1: Known historical exploration and mining within the Kapan District....................... 34Table 3.1: Paragenetic table of hydrothermal stages and textures at Shahumyan............... 46Table 3.2: Paragenetic table of hydrothermal stages at Centralni East................................. 50Table 3.3: Paragenetic table of hydrothermal stages at Noreshenik..................................... 50Table 4.1: Summary of observed fluid inclusion assemblages.............................................. 84Table 4.2: Physiochemical parameters of mineralizing fluids............................................... 100List of TablesxFigure 2.1: Location map of the Caucasus............................................................................ 12Figure 2.2: The Meghri-Ordubad and Kapan ore districts...................................................... 17Figure 2.3: Metallogenic ages, Lesser Caucasus.................................................................. 18Figure 2.4: A geologic map of the Kapan district.................................................................... 19Figure 2.5: A simplified stratigraphic section of Kapan District.............................................. 20Figure 2.6 (A-B): Major and trace element diagram of Middle Jurassic volcanic units.......... 27Figure 2.7 (A-H): C1 chondrite-normalized REE plots-Middle Jurassic..............................28Figure 2.8: Bedding and structural trends within the Kapan District....................................31Figure 2.9: Orientation data of mineralized veins within the Kapan district.........................35Figure 3.1: A plan view map of Shahumyan veins............................................................43Figure 3.2 (A-C): Vein samples from Shahumyan............................................................45Figure 3.3 (A-F): Photomicrographs and SEM imagery of vein samples............................48Figure 3.4: A cymoid vein structure in Vein 20.................................................................52Figure 3.5 (A-D): Observed vein textures in Shahumyan veins.........................................57Figure 3.6: Vein 17 drift back map: mineralogy, texture, structure, assays..........................59Figure 3.7: (A-E): Schematic of isolated fault model and examples...................................62Figure 4.1: A schematic of alteration assemblages..........................................................66Figure 4.2: (A-H): Photomicrographs and pictures of alteration at Shahumyan...................69Figure 4.3: (A-C): Characterizing alteration: SWIR and Geochemistry...............................73Figure 4.4: (A-C): Mass balance graphs..........................................................................77Figure 4.5: Photomicrographs of FIA’s............................................................................85Figure 4.6: (A-D): Photomicrographs of FIA’s. , continued................................................87List of FiguresxiFigure 4.7: Petrography of FIA’s.....................................................................................88Figure 4.8: Homogenization temperature vs salinity graph for all measured FIA’s...............90Figure 4.9: Activity diagram for principal phases in an MgO-Al2O-SiO2-H2O system..........95Figure 4.10: Activity-pH diagram highlighting fluid pathways at Shahumyan ......................97Figure 4.11:  Sulfide and telluride equilibrium in ƒTe2/ƒS2 space.....................................101Figure 5.1: A schematic model for boiling fluids induced by water table drop.....................112Figure 5.2: Schematic diagram of fault block offset in the Kapan district ...........................116xiiCy:    Mica and/or ClayPy:    Pyrite Cpy: Chalcopyrite Pg:   Plagioclase Sph: Sphalerite Tt-Tn(?): Tetrahedrite/ TennantiteTe (?): Telluride of unknown compositionHe: Hessite Ga: Galena Au: GoldAg: SilverCu: CopperZn: ZincPb: LeadQtz(1): Fine grained quartzQtz(2):  Prismatic/euhedral quartz Ca: CalciteF: FluoriteHb:  HornblendChl:  Chlorite -T: Transmitted light (postscript, e.g XPL-T)-RL:    Reflected light (postscript, e.g XPL-RL)XPL:  Cross polarized lightPPL:  Plane  Polarized light AbbreviationsFIA: Fluid Inclusion Assemblageswt% Weight percentequiv. equivalent T:TemperatureTe: Eutectic TemperatureTh: Temperature of HomogenizationTm: Temperature of Final Meltinglog a: Log Activity ƒ: FugacityMa: Mega AnumLS: Low SulphidationIS: Intermediate SulphidationHS: High SulphidationREE: Rare Earth ElementsLREE: Light Rare Earth ElementsHREE: Heavy Rare Earth ElementsHFSE: High Fields Strength ElementsLILE: Light Ion Lithofile ElementsSWIR: Shortwave InfraredXRD: X-ray DiffractionSEM: Scanninc electron microscopeSAB: South Armenia BlockSKVZ: Somkheto Karabakh Volcanic ArcSASZ: Sevan-Akera Suture zone IAES: Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zoneKVZ: Kapan Volcanic Zonexiii The Author would like to thank the many Sponsors of the Western Tethyan Project, most especially Dundee Precious Metals. It was a genuine pleasure to work with the staff and contractors at Dundee Precious Metals. I would like to thank Dr. Aleksandar Mišković and Dr. Craig Hart for putting the project together and for their contributions and discussions for the duration of the project, as well as the opportunity to work on the project.  Special thanks to committee members Dr. Murray Allan, Dr. Ken Hickey for their insights, discussions, and mentorship. Many thanks to Dr. Farhad Bouzari, Dr. Richard Tosdal for their contribution and in depth discussions during the project. A personal thanks to Sara Jenkins and Arne Toma for their never ending tech-nical support and patience in helping with the necessary tools and software needed to conduct research. My heartfelt thanks to my fellow colleagues and friends at the University of Brit-ish Columbia and the Western Tethyan project:  Kaleb Boucher, Graham Leroux, Pau-la Brunetti, Jelena Zivanovic, Fabien Rabayrol; Dragan Dragic, Erde Bilir, and many others at the Mineral Deposits Research Unit and the department of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences.  I would not have made it this far without your continued sup-port, friendship and our numerous inebriated insights. I am truly thankful to have met you and shared a large part of my life and time over the past several years. Finally, no amount of thanks would be sufficient in encompassing the gratitude and love I feel for my family, who have always supported me. Ackowledgements11.1 IntroductionShallow hydrothermal mineral deposits form in most metallogenic belts; how-ever, only some have sufficient primary metal enrichments to be an economic ore body. In shallow hydrothermal environments, ore bodies are irregular in shape and are strongly influenced by zones of high permeability, which are either structurally or lithologically controlled (Brathwaite et al., 2001, Oliver et al., 2001 and Simmons et al., 2005).  Epithermal veins are shallow hydrothermal ore bodies are a result of cir-culating hydrothermal fluids through interconnected fault and fracture systems (Cox, 2005, Simmons et al., 2005, Micklethwaite et al., 2010 and Micklethwaite et al., 2010). Therefore, epithermal veins provide insights into how hydrothermal fluid pathways, responsible for ore bodies are generated in shallow crustal levels.Some epithermal veins develop in normal faults in extensional environments (Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003 and Christie et al., 2007). Hydrothermal fluid flow with-in these structures is governed by hydraulic gradients and interconnections between fluid pathways (Sibson, 1996 and Cox, 2005). The presence of irregularities, jogs and intersections within normal faults localise pathways for hydrothermal fluids to be focused and concentrated (Sibson, 1996, Rowland and Sibson, 2004, Cox, 2005 and Faulkner et al., 2010). The presence of highly permeable conduits combined with an efficient ore deposition mechanism is critical to forming economically viable ore shoots within epithermal veins (Simmons and Browne, 2000; Berger et al., 2003; Cox, 2005, Simmons and Brown, 2006 and Micklethwaite, 2009). Mechanical changes at-tributed to fault rupturing events (earthquakes) directly influence physical processes, and therefore physicochemical parameters such as: pressure, acidity and salinity that affect vein and alteration mineralogy. Identifying favourable structural pathways and 1. Introduction 2their effect on physicochemical parameters based on vein and alteration mineralogy is key to understanding epithermal vein’s and ore shoot formation. Vein and ore-shoot geometry, mineral assemblages help constrain hydrothermal fluid characteristics, which are fundamental to exploration because they characterize an epithermal vein system. The Kapan District is located in the Syunik province of SE Armenia is consid-ered to have formed during a Mesozoic metallogenic event (Mederer et al, 2013). The district comprises multiple vein deposits that have been exploited since the 1800s with the production estimated at 370,000 tonnes of Cu since 1953. (Table 1.1). The Shahumyan deposit is the only actively producing locality in the Kapan district with an indicated and inferred resource of 15.87 Mt at cut off grades of 2.72 g/t Au, 48.5 g/t Ag, 0.5% Cu, 1.82% Zn and 0.1% Pb (White et al., 2015). The Shahumyan deposit is a strongly structurally controlled epithermal vein system hosted in an Early-Middle Jurassic volcanic rock suite, characterized by porphyritic andesites, dacites, volcanic flows and volcaniclastic rocks. Previous geological studies in the district were con-ducted by Soviet geologists from 1950-1990’s and most recently by Mederer et al. (2013, 2014). The Shahumyan polymetallic vein deposit represents an ideal case in which to study local and district scale structures involved in localizing hydrothermal fluid flow and to study the relationships between mineralogical variations and structur-al features. Shahumyan has similar characteristics to the world class Creede, USA; Acupan, Phillipines; and Morococha, Peru, epithermal vein districts.The current geologic datasets at the actively mined Shahumyan deposit suf-ficiently augments the data collected as part of this thesis in order to model structur-al and hydrothermal fluid evolution. A detailed structural and mineralogical analysis is used to constrain the physicochemical parameters of hydrothermal fluids at the Shahumyan deposit. Combined mineralogical, textural, structural, geochemical and 3microthermometric data obtained from selected samples and field observations are used to propose a model for epithermal vein formation. Tectonic and fluid assisted fracturing (hydraulic) processes are examined, where earlier structures, reactivated and reopened in association with boiling processes, play a significant role in vein filling and ore deposition.1.1.1 ObjectivesThe objectives of this thesis are to: (1) Establish an alteration and mineral par-agenesis to characterize occurrences of Au-Ag rich ore zones within veins; (2) Identify key structural controls on fluid flow and mineralization at the deposit scale and devel-op a genetic evolution model of vein geometry at Shahumyan; (3) Define physiochem-ical parameters of hydrothermal fluids responsible for economic mineralization.1) The Kapan district contains numerous vein deposits which are princi-pally base metal rich; however, Shahumyan unique to other deposits in the district contains anomalously high Ag:Au ratios in addition to abundant base metals. The alteration assemblages at the Shahumyan deposit also slightly differ, indicating different fluid chemistry from other veins within the district. Vein mineralogy and alteration assemblages record the fluid evolution within hy-drothermal deposits and are important aspects in identifying key hydrothermal stages responsible for high-grade mineralization. Alteration minerals formed as a function of hydrothermal fluid flow reflect the geochemical composition of ore-forming fluids. Mineralization paragenesis was characterized by employing petrographic stud-ies accompanied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microprobe analyses. Samples were taken from drill core and underground mapping sta-4tions. Thirty two polished thin sections were used in the petrographic study at Shahumyan. Additionally, five vein samples from the Noreshenik deposit and three vein samples from the Centralni deposit were used in a comparative study between the three deposits. From the forty one samples taken, ten rep-resentative samples were further described using the SEM and microprobe, to identify telluride and sulphosalt species. Sixty rock samples comprising the Middle Jurassic suite were evaluated for pe-trography, rock classification, and alteration analyses from drill core and surface samples. These sixty samples were further supplemented by the Dundee Pre-cious Metal sample database and data from Mederer et al. (2013). An alteration study was conducted on forty of the sixty samples comprising of the Baraba-toom unit, which hosts the Shahumyan deposit. The alteration study consisted of petrographic analysis of alteration assemblages followed by Shortwave In-frared (SWIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to confirm observed min-erals and or identify minerals indistinguishable through petrographic analyses. Furthermore, whole-rock analyses were used for mass balance calculations and determine elemental gains and losses between identified alteration as-semblages and least altered host rock. 2) Epithermal mineralization is typically localized in fault-fracture systems and related zones of brecciation that are developed in the brittle portion of the crust. These fault fracture systems are regarded as fluid conduits for mineraliz-ing fluids. These systems experience episodic fluid flow which is penecontem-poraneous with fault propagation events (Sibson, 1981; Sibson, 1987; Fossen and Rotevatn, 2016) related to earthquake rupture processes. Mineralization in these systems concentrates at specific structural sites where local dilation has occurred within the fault systems. Deposit geometry and structural frame-5work of vein systems are therefore fundamental to understanding the deposit genesis and hydrothermal evolution, because changes in vein orientation, mor-phology and texture highlight vein opening events which constrain fluid flow High Sulphidation Intermediate Sulphidation Low SulphidationTectonic setting Extensional and compressive island arcExtensional continental compressive island arcExtensional continental island arc, back arcGenetically related igneous rocks Calc-alkaline, andesite-rhyodaciteCalc-alkaline, andesite-rhyodacite locally rhyoliteCalc-alkaline to alkaline, rhyolite-basalt, basalt trachyteMajor metals Au-Ag, Cu, As-Sb Ag-Au, Zn, Pb, Cu Au± AgMinor metals Zn, Pb, Bi, W, Mo, Sn, Hg Mo, As, Sb Zn, Pb, Cu, Mo, As, Sb, HgOre mineralsEnargite, luzonite, famantinite, covellite, acanthite, stibniteSphalerite (low-Fe), galena, Ag-sulfosalts, acanthite, sulfosalts, chalcopyrite, tellurides Ag-sulfosalts, sphalerite (high Fe), galena, sulfosalts ,chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, selenides, telluridesOre mineral abundance10-90 vol.% 5-20 vol. % <1-2 vol. % and up to 20 vol. %Gangue minerals Quartz-barite Quartz, carbonates (Mn, Mg) Chalcedony, quartz, carbonate Mineral texturesFine to massive, residual quartzCrustiform, comb-quartz, fine-massive Crustiform, carbonate replacement texturesPrincipal alterationQuartz-alunite, quartz-pyrophyllite,dickite,kaoliniteSericite/illite, adularia (uncommon) Illite, smectite, adularia, roscoeliteFluid temperatures 100° to >400° 200° to 300° 150° to 300°Fluid salinities <5wt% NaCl 0-23 wt% NaCl <3.5 wt% NaClFluid composition Magmatic, acidic, oxidized Magmatic ± meteoric, near-neutral, reducedMeteoric ± magmatic, near-neutral, reduced-oxidizedFormation depth Shallow 0 to >300m Deep, 300-800m (> 1000m) Shallow,<300mCompiled from: Buchanan (1981), White and Hedenquist (1990), Cooke and Simmons (2000), Hedenquist et al. (2000), and Sillitoe and Hedenquist (2003)Table 1.1 - Characteristics of Epithermal Subtypesand thus mineral precipitation. Identifying key structural controls on fluid flow and mineralization by establishing a structural framework and grade distribu-tion within individual veins, provides mine geologists better tools to target highly economic ore shoots and model the vein system at the Shahumyan deposit. In-tegrating and comparing the structural framework of Shahumyan deposit veins with district wide veins (Centralni and Noreshenik deposits), will promote better exploration targets for the Kapan district.  This objective is accomplished by detailed underground drift mapping of Sha-humyan veins. Shahumyan veins were studied by evaluating mine level maps, longitudinal sections, cross-sections, and geometry of interconnecting struc-Table 1.1: Characteristics of Epithermal subtypes: low sulphidation, intermediate sulphidation and high sulphidation deposits. Compiled from Buchanan (1981), White and Hedenquist (1990), Cooke and Simmons (2000), Hedenquist et al. (2000), Sillitoe and Hedenquist (2003). 6tures. This was followed by detailed mapping at accessible underground levels and stopes at 1:100 scales. Three zones (South, Middle, North) consisting of five veins were chosen for detailed mapping. These veins were selected due to mine accessibility of each vein at different depths and their spatial distribu-tion within the mine. Within each vein the distribution of hydrothermal stag-es, textural and structural variability were examined and mapped. Longitudinal sections showing thickness and grade distribution were created from channel assay database, provided by Dundee Precious Metals. 3) Mineralization paragenesis and alteration mineral assemblages pro-vide a basis for modelling and determining hydrothermal fluid conditions during mineralization. Changes in physicochemical conditions such as temperature, pressure, salinity, pH and eH are effective mechanisms for precious metal pre-cipitation (Zhu et al., 2011, Cooke et al., 2001; Cooke et al., 1996; Spycher and Reed, 1989). These geochemical and physicochemical parameters help geolo-gists determine the environment of formation and provides a genetic model for district and regional scale exploration program for similar deposits. Hydrothermal fluid chemistry and temperature of mineralizing fluids at Sha-humyan were constrained by a fluid inclusion analysis. Seven suitable sam-ples were chosen from thirty two polished thin sections originally used for the mineralization paragenesis study. Homogenization temperatures and salinity data were collected in accordance to the hydrothermal stages outlined by the paragenetic study. Doubly polished thick sections (100μm thickness) were pre-pared for the chosen samples. 71.2 Conceptual Framework1.2.1 Epithermal Deposits- Intermediate SulphidationEpithermal deposits are products of circulating magmatic or magmatic-mete-oric fluids at 100-300°C and form in the upper portions of the crust (1-2 km). They were originally defined by Lidgren (1933), who classified such deposits largely by their mineralogy and textures, as well as interpreted a depth and temperature of formation. Understanding of epithermal systems has improved and are now further classified based on: fluid chemistry, alteration and gangue mineralogy and purely descriptive observations (Hayba et al., 1985; Heald et al., 1987; Berger and Henley, 1989). The current classification scheme is based on the stability of sulphur bearing minerals (i.e., sulphur and oxygen fugacity), which gives insights into the chemical state of hydrothermal fluids.  Three subtypes of epithermal deposits are recognized based on the fluid characteristics: low-sulphidation (LS), intermediate-sulphidation (IS) and high-sulphidation (HS) (Table 1.1; Hedenquist et al., 2000; Einaudi et al., 2003; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003; Gemmell, 2004; Sillitoe, 2008).LS-epithermal deposits are products of near-neutral meteoric waters that formed distal to hypabyssal intrusions. HS epithermal deposits in contrast, are dominantly a product of magmatic fluids, and formed proximal to sub-volcanic intrusions and are related to porphyry deposits. Unlike the HS-epithermal and LS-epithermal schemes which existed in the original epithermal classification, the intermediate sulphidation scheme was recently recognized as a hybrid between the high- and low-sulphidation types (Hedenquist et al., 2000) and expanded on by Einaudi et al. (2003), Sillitoe and Hedenquist (2003) and Gemmel (2004). IS-epithermal deposits have a spatial and temporal association with both high-sulphidation and low-sulphidation deposits. Ac-cording to Einaudi et al (2003) and Sillitoe and Hedenquist (2003), IS-epithermal de-8posits form from near-neutral (pH ~6), reduced, moderately saline (5-20 wt % NaCl), and moderate temperature (150-300oC) fluids. Intermediate sulphidation deposits typ-ically contain characteristics of both HS and LS epithermal systems. IS-epithermal systems have fluid characteristics akin to both magmatic and meteoric fluids, with ore and alteration mineralogies reflective of both LS and HS epithermal systems.IS-epithermal deposits are typically sulphide-rich and may contain hydrother-mal phases characteristic of the high-sulphidation subtype, although lacking enargite. They are generally silver- and base metal-rich with high Ag:Au ratios (10:1 to >100:1). Sulphide assemblages in IS-deposits include Fe-poor sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chal-copyrite, and tetrahedrite-tennantite. Silver occurs as Ag-bearing sulphosalts (Einaudi et al., 2003), argentiferous galena or as Ag-tellurides (i.e. hessite and empressite) and gold may occurs as electrum or Au-tellurides (i.e. petzite, sylvanite). Changes in the mole percent FeS of sphalerite coexisting with pyrite or pyrrhotite reflects the variability of the sulphidation state in a given system and as such provides useful information in classifying an epithermal deposit (Scott and Barnes, 1971; Czamanske, 1974; Einaudi et al., 2003). The mole percent FeS of sphalerite in IS-epithermal systems typically vary from <1 to 10, however, values up to 20 have been reported (e.g. Creede; Barton et al., 1977; Einaudi et al., 2003). These values are contrasted with mole percent FeS reported for HS-systems (0.05 to 1.0) and LS-systems (20 to 40) deposits (Scott and Barnes, 1971; Czamanske, 1974; Einaudi et al., 2003).Mineral precipitation in hydrothermal deposits results from changes in physical and or chemical variables such as temperature, pressure, salinity, acidity and redox state, as well as ligand concentration (e.g. chloride, bisulphide; Cooke and McPhail, 2001). These variables can be directly affected by processes such as cooling, pres-surization, boiling, fluid mixing and water-rock interaction (Cooke and McPhail, 2001; Reed and Plumlee, 1992; Seward, 1989; Spycher and Reed; 1989; Drummond and 9Ohmoto, 1985; Reed and Spycher, 1985). These processes have been linked to tec-tonic events such as fracturing and faulting (Weatherley and Henley, 2013; Wilkinson and Johnson, 1996; Boullier and Robert, 1992; Sibson et al., 1988). Hydrothermal fluids tend to reuse transport pathways such as veins, thus recording hydrothermal evolution of the vein system.1.2.2 Hydrothermal Alteration in Epithermal DepositsHydrothermal alteration is a result of fluid-rock interaction controlled by per-meability, temperature, pressure, and fluid and rock composition. Permeability is an important factor for hydrothermal fluid transport and is as important for mineralization as it is for alteration. Permeability within a system is maintained by repeated hydraulic fracturing and tectonic ruptures or a combination of both. The temperature of hydro-thermal fluids can be inferred from the presence of temperature-dependant hydro-thermal clay minerals (Steiner, 1968; Browne, 1978). Illite-smectite is stable below ~140°C, sericite/illite is stable above ~220oC, and muscovite above ~300oC; these stabilities also vary depending on the acidity (pH) of hydrothermal fluids. Pressure can directly affect the formation of hydrothermal minerals. Boiling and throttling are two physical mechanisms which are a direct result of pressure changes. Boiling zones can be recognized by the presence of bladed calcite and in some cases, increased quartz content and adularia are precipitated within veins (Brown and Ellis, 1970; Keith and Muffler, 1978; Keith et al., 1978). It is difficult to classify intermediate sulphidation deposits as they may have alteration assemblages and sulphidation states from both high and low sulphidation deposits as the system evolves.HS-epithermal deposits are primarily characterized by quartz-alunite-kaolinite (advanced argillic) proximal to ore and sericitic alteration (argillic) surrounding the advanced argillic alteration (Heald et al 1987; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). Further-10more, argillic alteration can be mineralogically zoned, with kaolinite nearer to ore and smectite further away (Heald et al., 1987; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). Lithocaps consisting of quartz-alunite alteration require pH <2 to mobilize alumina (Stoffregen, 1987) and alunite forms at a pH of 2-3 (Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). Propylitic alter-ation is the most distal assemblage and is characterized by the presence of chlorite, epidote and calcite which are indicative of alkaline fluid conditions.LS-epithermal deposits are characterized by dominantly sericitic alteration that borders  silicified zones near veins. In some instances the sericitic alteration grades into an argillic assemblage consisting of illite and/or illite/smectite. In other cases the sericitic assemblage grades into a propylitic assemblage (Heald et al., 1987). Addi-tionally, proximal to veins fine grained adularia and/or chlorite are disseminated with the wall rock (Heald et al., 1987; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003; Browne, 1978).112.1 Tectonic and Geologic Setting, Lesser CaucasusThe Caucasus region is in the central part of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and is composed several main tectonic units such as the Greater Caucasus, the Lesser Caucasus and an intermontane region called the Transcaucasus (Figure 2.1).  The Lesser Caucasus is oriented northwest and is composed of three main zones; from southwest to northeast, they are the South Armenia Block (SAB), the Sevan-Akera Suture zone (SASZ) and the Eurasian plate margin  (Milanovsky, 1986, Sosson et al., 2010; Mederer et al., 2013). Paleomagnetic studies (Bazhenov et al., 1996 and Meijers et al., 2015) and paleogeographic reconstructions (Barrier and Vri-elynck, 2008; Knipper and Khain, 1980; Monin and Zonenshain, 1987; Sengor et al., 1988) indicate the SAB to be a Gondwanian terrane. The SAB is composed of a meta-morphic basement covered by Paleozoic sediments, Mesozoic volcanic and sedimen-tary formations, and Paleogene and Neogene detrital volcanogenic rocks (Sosson et al., 2010). There are two separate views of the geodynamics of the SAB; where, Barrier and Vrielynck (2008), Sosson et al. (2010), Hässig et al. (2013a, 2013b), and Hässig et al. (2015) group the SAB together with the Eastern Anatolian platform and interpret it as the northern portion of the Tauride microcontinent since the Jurassic. In contrast, Adamia et al. (1981), Golonka (2004), Alavi (1991) and Adamia et al. (2011) propose the SAB terrane to be part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone.  Both views, however agree that the SAB is of Gondwanan origin. The Lesser Caucasus is a segment of the Tethyan orogenic belt, and is the con-sequence of north-northeast to eastward-verging Jurassic-Cretaceous subduction of the Neotethys oceanic crust beneath the Eurasian plate (Kazmin et al., 1986 and Rol-2. Geology of the Lesser Caucasus  and Kapan District12TurkeyIranGeorgiaRussiaArmeniaAzerbaijanPaleotethysNeotethys INeotethys IGreater CaucasusTrans-CaucasusLesser CaucasusPontidesAnatolide Tauride Block South Armenia Block (SAB) - Central Iran DomainMetamorphosed basementLower-Middle Jurassic volcanic rocksJurassic volcaniclastic rocksCretaceous volcanic rocksCretaceous volcaniclastic rocksJurassic-Cretaceous plutonic rocksOphiolitic rocksSuture zones FaultsLegendPorphyry occurrences & depositsEpithermal occurrences & depositsNeotethys IKapan and Meghri-Ordubad districtsGedabek districtAlaverdi districtStudy AreaSomkheto Karabakh Volcanic ZoneKapan Volcanic Zone50kmEurasian PlateMediterrenean Sea500 kmPontidesPersian GulfRed SeaBlack SeaAfrican Arabian PlateLesser CaucasusAlborzIndian OceanIndian SutureIndianPlateCaspian SeaTethyan Metallogenic Belt Deposit belts/DistrictsGreater CaucasusZagrosFigure 2.1: Location map of the Caucasus and major epithermal and porphyry ore deposits. Major tectonic sutures and Meso-zoic volcanic units are also highlighted. 13land et al., 2011). This subduction event resulted in increased volcanic activity during the Bajocian–Bathonian (170-166 Ma) to the Kimmeridgian (157-152 Ma) (Kazmin et al., 1986, Achikgiozyan et al., 1987, Lordkipanidze et al., 1989, and Mederer et al., 2013) followed by collisional deformation and magmatism (Mederer et al., 2013). The subduction of Neotethys oceanic crust was followed by Late Cretaceous collision with the Gondwana-derived SAB (Rolland et al., 2009a and Rolland et al., 2009b, Meijers et al., 2015a-b). The east-verging subduction of the Neotethys crust and the Cenozoic convergence which continued between the Eurasian and Arabian plates resulted in an Eocene magmatic climax followed by collisional deformation and magmatism from the Oligocene to the Pliocene (Khain, 1975, Gamkrelidze, 1986, Kazmin et al., 1986, Lordkipanidze et al., 1989 and Sosson et al., 2010). The SASZ are tectonized ophiolitic complexes that separate the SAB from the Eurasian margin (Adamia et al., 1977; Maghakyan et al., 1985). The ophiolitic com-plexes were obducted onto the SAB between 88 and 83 Ma (Galoyan et al., 2007; Rolland et al., 2010; Sosson et al., 2010). The ophiolitic complexes overlay blueschist to amphibolite facies rocks (Rolland et al., 2009a; Sosson et al., 2010). The SASZ is correlated with the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAES) of Northern Anatolia and with the unnamed ophiolites within the Iraninan Zagros range (Galoyan et al., 2009; Rolland et al., 2009a). The SASZ is absent or unidentified in southeast Armenia between the Kapan Volcanic Zone and the Meghri-Ordubad and Bargushat Plutons. The tectonic zone separating the composite plutons and the Kapan Zone is identified as the Ankhavan-Zangezur fault zone and locally as the Khustup-Giratakh fault zone (Moritz et al., 2015). It includes ultramafic rocks, gabbro, spilite, andesite and radi-olarite of the Zangezur tectonic melange. This is imbricated with Late Precambrian to early Cambrian metamorphic rocks and Devonian and Permian limestones and terrigenous sedimentary rocks which are interpreted as the remains of an ophiolite (Khain, 1975; Knipper and Khain, 1980; Belov, 1981). Hassig et al. (2013a) correlate 14the Zangezur ophiolites with the Sevan-Akera ophiolites, although direct relationships are hidden by Cenozoic molasse and volcanic rocks (Moritz et al., 2015).The Eurasian plate margin of the Lesser Caucasus can be further sub-divided into the Somkheto-Karabakh and the Kapan volcanic zones (Gevorkyan and Aslanyan, 1997). Both developed during the northeast subduction of the Neotethys oceanic crust below the Eurasian margin and has similar geological and tectonic characteristics to one another and are interpreted as one single volcanic arc (Kazmin et al., 1986) dis-placed by northeast-trending strike-slip faults as described elsewhere in the region (Kazmin et al., 1986; Jackson, 1992; Kopp, 1997). It has also been proposed that the Eastern Pontides in Turkey and the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone in Iran are western and southeastern extensions respectively, of the SKVZ and KVZ in the Lesser Caucasus (Adamia et al., 1981; Kazmin et al., 1986; Yilmaz et al., 2000; Golonka, 2004, Alavi, 2007 and Adamia et al., 2011).2.1.1 Geology of the Somkheto-Karabakh Volcanic Zone (SKVZ) The SKVZ is approximately 350 by 75 km and encompasses southern Georgia to northern Armenia, Nagarno-Karabakh, and ends in Azerbaijan. The SKVZ zone is composed of a Hercyninan basement of Lower Permian (293 ± 7 Ma: Bagdasaryan et al., 1978) covered by Jurassic shales, and clastic rocks (Nikishin et al., 2001). Thick volcanic sequences were deposited upon the sediments, starting in the Aalenian (Lower Jurassic) and reached its peak during the Bajocian-Bathonian (Kazmin et al., 1986; Mederer et al., 2013). Overlying the Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks are Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks alternating with calcareous sedimen-tary and volcaniclastic rocks (Kazmin et al., 1986). Locally the Upper Jurassic- Lower Cretaceous rocks unconformably overlie the Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Mederer, 2013). Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene volcanic rocks unconformably overlie the 15Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous rocks (Aslanyan, 1958; Bagdasaryan and Melkon-yan, 1968).2.1.2 Structural Regimes, CaucasusSince the Late Cretaceous several tectonic regimes dominated, alternating be-tween compression and extension, resulting in continuous reactivation along previ-ously formed structural features. Paleostress investigations by Saintot and Angelier (2002), Avagyan et al. (2010) and McCann et al. (2010), reveal several main tectonic episodes within the Caucasus since the Mesozoic.•	 During the Mesozoic to Paleocene, the Caucasus was under both compressional and extensional regimes. Compressional events were propagated by northward subduction of the Neotethys oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian margin. Extensional regimes dominated locally during compressional relaxation. •	 During the Paleocene-Eocene, a transpressional event with an east to southeast trending σ1 developed.•	 Previously formed north-northeast to northeast-trending faults were inverted and correspond to the accretion of the Transcaucasian terranes during the transpressional event. •	 During the Late Eocene a north-northeast to northeast oblique extension to trans-tensional event resulted in reactivation of existing faults. •	 Towards the Late Eocene north-northeast to northeast trending compression characteristics are apparent. 168590000 8595000 8600000 8605000 8610000 8615000 8620000 8625000432000043200004325000432500043300004330000433500043400004340000434500043500004350000435500043550008590000 8595000 8600000 8605000 8610000 8615000 8620000 862500043350004345000Quaternary sedimentary cover rocksQuarternary volcanic rocks (basalt) Pliocene volcanic rocks and interbedded sediments Undifferentiated Eocene-Oligocene felsic plutonic rocks Undifferentiated Eocene mafic plutonic rocksUpper-Middle Eocene mafic to ultramafic rocks (Peridotite, Olivine Gabbro, Pyroxenite)Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks (andesite-basalt)Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous undifferentiated volcanic rocks &Interbeded sediments and limestoneLower Cretaceous plutonic rocksLower-Middle Jurassic Volcanics (andesite to rhyodacite)Devonian sedimentary rocks (metamorphosed)Upper Permian sedimentary rocks and limestoneLegend0km ´2.5 2015105Vein Deposit/ Prospect (Au, ±Cu, ±Zn)Porphyry Deposit/ Prospect (Cu, Mo)Vein Deposit/ Prospect (Zn, Cu, Pb, ±Au, ±Ag)Major Structures (Unknown Fault type: Oblique-Normal?)Agarak Major Thrust Faults *Unobserved unconformity HankasarKadjaranAitkisShikahoghFig 2.2.1 Inset: Kapan District Khustup-Giratagh fault,AygedzorvMisdagTey-LichkvazDiakhchayAnkhavan-Zangezur Fault ZoneKapan Volcanic ZoneMeghri Ordubad and Bargushat PlutonsTsavski Intrusive StockUnconformity Unconformity Unconformity Figure 2.2: The Meghri-Ordubad and Kapan ore districts in the southern portion of Lesser Caucasus. The Meghri-Ordubad district is hosted by the composite Meghri-Ordubad and Barguchat plutons intruded into the Gondwana-derived South Armenia Block (SAB). The Kapan district and the Shikahough prospect are part of the Kapan zone.  The Khustup-Giratagh dextral fault (KGF) is a major tectonic break between the Kapan zone and the South Aremenia Block. Proterozoic basement rocks, Devonian metasediments and Upper Permian sediments and carbonates are part of an ophiolitic sequence obducted on the SAB during the collision between the SAB with the Eurasian Margin. Adopted from: Bairamov et al., 2008, Bingöl, 1989, Emami et al., 1993, Gudjabidze, 2003, Kharzyan, 2005 and Lotfi et al., 1993. 17•	 The youngest event is the compressional regime with south-south-east trending σ1 that currently affects the northwestern Caucasus; under this oblique compression. The Kapan Volcanic Zone (KVZ) in southeastern Armenia (Figure 2.2) is be-lieved to be displaced from the SKVZ by a sinistral strike-slip fault (Kazmin et al., 1986; Hassig et al., 2013 and Moritz et al., 2015). The sinistral strike-slip fault coin-cides with the Vorotan River valley and will herein be referred to as the Vorotan fault. The Vorotan fault is a part of the Arrarat-Araks conjugate fault system, which dom-inates southeast Armenia (Mkrtchian, 1969). The dextral Arrarat and sinistral Araks faults constitute a major conjugate fault system within a pure-shear setting (Mkrtchian, 1969) consisting of multiple smaller conjugate faults such as the sinistral Vorotan fault propagating from the larger Arrarat and Araks faults. The KVZ is within a large north-trending anticlinorium with shallow (20o-40o) dipping limbs and slightly plunges to the southeast (Azaryan, 1978 Avanesyan et al., 1990; Tumanyan, 1992; Avanesyan et al., 1992).2.1.3 Metallogenic Overview, Lesser CaucasusThe Lesser Caucasus hosts multiple mining districts that are present in Geor-gia,  Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran. Two main metallogenic epochs are identified based on geochronological data of mineral deposits (Kekelia et al. 2004; Melkonyan and Akopyan 2006; Babazadeh et al., 2007; Moon et al., 2001, Mortiz et al., 2012, Moritz et al., 2013)  (Figure 2.3): 1) the Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous epoch is related to the long-lasting Jurassic-Cretaceous subduction of the Neotethys oce-anic crust  beneath the Eurasian margin; and 2) the Oligocene to the Late Miocene event associated with accretion of the SAB with the Eurasian Margin. The Mesozoic mineralization can be sub-divided into: (i) Middle Jurassic Au-Cu porphyry deposits; 18Yarra, 2014Mederer et al., 2013KapanMaIntrusivesZircon-Plagioclase-Whole RockU-Pb, Rb-Sr, K-ArMineralization-AlterationSericite-Illite-Whole Rock K/Ar, Ar/ArMineralizationMolybdenum-PyriteRe-Os  20 40 60 120 140 160 180 190JurassicCretaceousPaleogeneNeogene(ii) Middle to Upper Jurassic Cu, and barite-bearing polymetallic deposits; (iii) Upper Jurassic Fe skarn deposits; and (iv) Lower Cretaceous porphyry Cu deposits. The Cenozoic mineralization can be subdivided into: (i) Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Cu-Mo and Cu-Au porphyry deposits; and (ii) epithermal Cu-Au mineralization (Jamali and Mehrabi, 2014). Cenozoic mineralization resulted from Eocene back-arc mag-matism in the Adjara-Trialeti belt and collision magmatism of the Zangezur-Ordubad region (Moritz et al., 2015). Mesozoic deposits  include; the Teghout Cu deposit within the Alaverdi deposit (Amiryan et al., 1987; Melkonyan and Akopyan, 2006); the Gedabek,Chovdar and Gosha epithermal and Cu-Au porphyry districts in Western Azerbaijan (Babazadeh Figure 2.3: Magmatic, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization ages of the Lesser Caucasus. Two main metallogenic events are identified: one between 170-130mya and another between 50-18mya. Data from: Moritz et al., 2015; Melkonian et al., 2014; Mederer et al 2013; Hovakimyan and Tayan, 2008; Zohrabyan, 2005; Babazadeh et al., 1990; Karamyan, 1962; Karamyan, 1978; Pijyan,1975; Mkrtchyan et al., 1969; Movsesyan and Isaenko, 1974; Karamyan, 1978; Amiryan, 1984; Achik-giozyan et al., 1987.19CentralniShahumyanArachadzorBadalayurtNoreshenikGyandhzibutBarabatoom386140008614000861600086160008618000861800086200008620000 8622000 8624000 862600043400004340000434200043420004344000434400043460004346000434800043480004350000435000043520004354000861200086120000 2 4 51kmLegendDip MeasurementsGalidzor and Katar Formation (andesite to basaltic rocks)Vachagan Formation (andesitic basalts to rhyolites)Barabatoom Formation (andesite-dacitic rocks)Undierentiated Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanic complexAlluvial SedimentsoConrmed  FaultsUnconrmed FaultsHistorically Operated MineActive Operating MineAxial TraceBashkend FaultBarabatoom  FaultKhotanan  FaultMets-Magarin FaultSayad-Kar Fault70o75o78o80o85oet al., 1990 and Hemon et al., 2012); the Shikahogh Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, 20 km south of the Kapan district (Achikgiozyan et al., 1987); the Madneulli Au-Cu-Figure 2.4: A geologic map of the Kapan district within the Kapan Volcanic Zone. Shahumyan is the only operating mine within the district. Centralni and Barabatoom have been previously exploited for Cu and polymetallic ore (Au, Cu, Zn, Pb), respectively. Arachadzor-Badalayurt and Noreshenik have been operated at a smaller scale with several producing and exploratory drifts. Gyandhzibut and An-tarashat are long standing prospects, identified but never fully explored. The map is compiled from numerous soviet maps, and ground-truthed during present study. Compiled from: Schmidt et al., 1985; Achikigiozyan et al., 1987.2051 Ma131 Ma134 Ma136 Ma138 Ma166 MaQuaternary volcaniccomplexPaleogene volcaniccomplexUpper Jurassic- Lower Cretaceous volcanic complexMiddle Jurassic volcanic complexMiddle Jurassic Volcanic SuiteHost’s MineralizationUndierentiated Upper Jurassic- Lower Cretaceous Volcanic ComplexGalidzor-Katar FormationHosts Centralni Eastbase metal veinsChinakchi FormationBarabatoom Formation162Ma ± 5 (K-Ar Host rock) Hosts Shahumyan mineralizationsub-parallel vein swarmVachagan FormationHosts Centralni East - Noreshenik mineralization veins and stockworkArpalykh FormationModied From Achikigiozyan et al. (1987), Zohrabyan (2005) and Mederer et al. (2013)Modied from Schmidt et al. 1985Formation NameMiddle Jurassic SuiteIntrusive AgesKapan Stratigraphy ?Disseminated Mineralization?Autobreccia, Hyloclastite, Pillows (andesite-basalts)Lava Flows- Sub Volcanic IntrusionsVolcaniclastic rocks ?Mineralization Ages 1.2.3.Centralni East  Centralni West Shahumyan 39Ar/40Ar Hydrothermal Muscovite 161.78 ± 0.79Ma     144.7 ± 4.2Ma     156.14 ± 0.79Ma     39Ar/40Ar Hydrothermal AluniteRe-Os PyriteFrom: Mederer et al. (2013)Zn-Pb VMS- epithermal-porphyry district in Georgia (Gialli et al., 2012; Mortiz et al., 2012); the Au-Cu-Zn-Pb Mehmana epithermal-porphyry district (Vardanyan, 2011; Vardanyan, 2008); polymetallic vein Toukhmanuk deposit and the high sulphidation and polymetallic intermediate-sulphidation deposits of the Kapan district (Mederer et al., 2013).  Eocene back-arc magmatism in the Adjara-Trialeti belt comprises epithermal deposits in the Zod district (Konstantinov et al., 2010; Kozerenko, 2004); the polyme-tallic Megradzor deposit (Amiryan and Karapetyan, 1965; Kovalenker et al., 1990); and the recently discovered high-sulphidation Amulsar deposit (www.lydianinternational.co.uk). A major ore-deposit cluster of the Zangezur-Ordubad region formed during Figure 2.5: A simplified stratigraphic section based on the district geology map (Figure 2.4). Compiled from: Schmidt et al., 1985; Achikigiozyan et al., 1987; Zohrabyan, 2005, Mederer et al., 2013. 21the Cenozoic following the collision of the SAB with Eurasia (Moritz et al., 2015). Cu-Mo porphyry prospects and deposits such as the  Kadjaran and Agarak Cu-Mo-Au porphyry districts (Karamyan, 1978; Mkrtchian, 1969) are hosted by the Meghri and Bargushat plutons (Moritz et al., 2015). Associated epithermal deposits of lesser eco-nomic interest are hosted by volcanic and plutonic rocks (Amiryan, 1984; Babazadeh et al., 1990). Moritz et al. (2015) identify the Cenozoic porphyry deposits of the Zange-zure-Ordubad region to be significantly enriched in Mo with respect to the older Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous porphyry deposits hosted within the SKVZ. Prior Re-Os molybdenite dating by Mortiz et al. (2013) reveal two main porphyry events within the Zangezur-Ordubad region; the first in the Eocene and the second in the Late Oligo-cene. The Zangezur-Ordubad porphyry cluster is believed to extend into the Alborz/Arasbaran and Urumieh-Dokhtar/Kerman belts which include epithermal prospects and related Cu-Mo porphyry deposits such as the Sungun deposit (Calagari, 2003 and Calagari 2004), Saunajil (Hosseinzadeh et al., 2008), Haftcheshmeh (Hassanpour et al., 2011) and Masjed-Daghi (Akbarpour, 2005) porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits  (Ja-mali et al., 2010, Aghazadeh et al., 2015, Hassanpour et al., 2015 and Simmons and Moazzen, 2015; Moritz et al., 2015). 2.2 Geology of the Kapan DistrictThe Kapan district is located in the Syunik province of southern Armenia (Fig-ure 2.4). The district is 15 by 12 km and consists of multiple vein deposits mined inter-mittently since the 1800’s by French expats and then the Soviet Union from the 1960’s to 1990’s and most recently by Armenian and Canadian companies. Geologically the Kapan district is within the KVZ and has similar geologic and structural characteristics. Stratigraphy of the KVZ (Figure 2.5)  closely correlates to the SKVZ and can similarly be split similarly into the Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous and Pa-22leogene volcano-magmatic complexes which are overlain unconformably by Quater-nary basenite flows (Mederer et al., 2013) . 2.2.1 Cenozoic-Paleogene Complex The Paleogene magmatic complex dominates the western part of the Kapan district and unconformably overlays the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous complex. The Paleogene magmatic complex is composed of andesitic to rhyolitic lava flows and breccia flows in the lower portion and with volcaniclastics interlayered with dirty lime-stone lenses dominate the upper portion (Mederer et al., 2013) which unconformably overlay the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous rocks.Intrusive rocks within Paleogene complex consist of green-gray gabbro and gabbro to diorite dikes. Green-gray gabbro is very fine grained with an ophitic porphy-ritic texture and is composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, hornblende and trace olivine. The gabbro dikes are highly magnetic and have chilled margins and occasionally contain millimeter-sized carbonate veins and calcite amygdules. Green-gray gabbro dikes are observed throughout the district. They are typically north to northeast-trend-ing and reflect existing fault-vein architecture. Mederer et al. (2013) dated a pyrox-ene-hornblende gabbro intrusive stock from the Mt Khustup region, approximately 10 km southeast of Shahumyan to 50.82 ± 0.51Ma, which may correlate with gabbro dikes within the Kapan district.  Black-white diorite dikes have a peppered appearance and unlike the gabbroic dikes are not magnetic and are uncommon within the district. They have a fine to medium grained granular texture composed of plagioclase, pyrox-ene, quartz, and minor mica.  2.2.2 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous ComplexThe Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous complex comprises of Upper Oxford-23ian  to Lower Aptian lava flows (~163-125Ma), and volcaniclastic layers of basaltic to andesitic composition which unconformably cover the Middle Jurassic rocks (Achiki-giozyan et al., 1987; Zohrabyan, 2005). Volcanic rocks within the complex are relative-ly fresh with little to no hydrothermal alteration, and are easy to differentiate from the Middle Jurassic rocks within the Kapan district (Figure 2.2.3A-B).Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous intrusive rocks are not observed with-in the Kapan district; however, the Tsavski intrusive stock outcrops in the southern part of the Kapan Volcanic Zone. Its multiple phases are dated to the Lower Creta-ceous (138-131Ma) (Mederer et al., 2013). The Tsavski stock is characterized as a hornblende-biotite granodiorite and biotite-hornblende monzodiorite (Mederer et al., 2013), and is approximately 7-10km south of the Kapan district.2.2.3 Middle Jurassic ComplexThe Middle Jurassic complex is comprised of Bajocian to Bathonian lava flows, flow breccias, hyaloclastites, and volcaniclastics of basaltic to rhyolitic but dominantly andesitic in composition (Akopyan, 1962; Cholahyan et al., 1972; Mederer et al., 2013; Mederer et al., 2014).  Interbedded fossil bearing calcareous sedimentary and volca-niclastic rocks confirm an early Bajocian to Callovian age (170.3±1.4 to 163.5±1.0 ) (Aslanian, 1958; Hakobyan 1962; Azaryan, 1978; Avanesyan et al., 1990; Avanesyan et al., 1992). Sub-volcanic and sub-aerial quartz-dacite units such as the Barabatoom formation yield a 162 ± 5 Ma K-Ar age (Sarkisyan, 1970; Zhorbyan, 1975 and 2005). The Middle Jurassic complex is further sub-divided by Soviet geologists based on bulk composition into the: Galidzor-Katar, Chinakchi, Vachagan, and Barabatoom forma-tions. It is difficult to identify the contacts between these formations as they composi-tionally grade into one another (Figure 2.7 C-F). The Galidzor-Katar formation is characterized by lava flows, lava breccias and 24interlayered tuff members of basaltic composition. Coherent flows within the forma-tion are characterized by subhedral plagioclase, hornblende phenocrysts and round-ed quartz phenocrysts within an aphanitic matrix, consisting of plagioclase microliths, and microcrystalline quartz and hornblende. Rocks from this formation also contain minor disseminated sulphide alteration (pyrite). The Galidzor-Katar formation is the lowermost formation within the Middle Jurassic complex in the Kapan district with an approximate thickness of 600m (Achikgiozyan et al., 1987: Soviet Mapping). The Chinakchi formation is characterized by volcaniclastic deposits which in-clude tuff and tuff breccias of rhyolitic to dacitic compositions. This formation has been described by Soviet geologists as quite discontinuous within the region with varying thickness 0-90m (Achikgiozyan et al., 1987: Soviet Mapping). The Vachagan formation is characterized by volcanic flows, lava breccias and interbedded volcaniclastics of basaltic-andesite composition. Coherent flows with-in the formation are characterized by anhedral plagioclase phenocrysts of varying amount (up to 10 vol%) have a glomeroporphyritic textures within an aphanitic matrix consisting of microliths of plagioclase and microcrystalline quartz and hornblende; an-hedral hornblende phenocrysts are also present, but rare. The Vachagan formation is approximately 300m thick within the Kapan district (Achikgiozyan et al., 1987: Soviet Mapping). Alteration minerals within these rocks primarily consist epidote and chlorite imparting the rocks a greenish hue. Argillic alteration is present locally and consists of white mica minerals replacing plagioclase. The Barabatoom formation is characterized by volcanic flows, sub-volcanic intrusions and interlayered volcaniclastics of quartz-rich andesites. The formation is largely interpreted as a sub-volcanic dome intruded into the Vachagan and Galid-zor-Katar formations (Achikgiozyan et al., 1987). However, subaerial volcanic flows are also observed at Shahumyan, south of the Centralni deposits and in the Gyan-25gibute exploration area. This formation is unique in that it contains large euhedral bipyramidal quartz phenocrysts ranging up to 15% by volume. In addition, the unit contains varying amounts sizes of plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. Crystal morphology of the bi-pyramidal quartz phenocrysts range from euhedral to rounded, suggesting resorption of crystals due to the quartz being in disequilibrium with the surrounding magma. Plagioclase and hornblende phenocryst abundance ratio varies, with some areas having a higher amount of hornblende whereas others, plagioclase. Plagioclase and hornblende phenocryst size varies between 0.50 - 2 cm, and are gen-erally euhedral when not altered.  Bi-pyramidal quartz phenocrysts indicate a source magma that formed at depth ~3GPa where bi-pyramidal β-quartz is most stable. With magma ascent, β-quartz is unstable and will recrystallize to form α-quartz, but retain the β-quartz crystal form.Intrusive rocks associated with the Middle Jurassic magmatic complex were not identified in the study area. However, Achikgiozyan et al. (1987) identified a gabbro-di-orite intrusion during a drilling campaign south of the town of Kapan. Furthermore, recent fieldwork by Mederer et al. (2013) identified a sub-vertical polymict pebble dike containing rounded clasts of biotite bearing equigranular tonalite with a proposed average age of 165.6 ± 1.4 Ma (n=11). Mederer et al. (2013) suggests a tonalitic intru-sive body to be present at depth, as a source to tonalite within the pebble dike. 2.3 Lithogeochemistry of Middle Jurassic Volcanic rocks Sixty samples of drillcore and outcrop samples were analysed for whole rock geochemistry, of which nineteen were determined to be least altered and are used to classify the Middle Jurassic Complex geochemically. From the nineteen samples, eight samples are from the Barabatoom formation, seven samples from the Vacha-gan formation and four samples from the Galidzor-Katar formation. Samples from the 26Chinakchi formation were too weathered/altered to justify for whole rock geochemistry analyses. Supplementary data of samples from the Middle Jurassic complex are used (e.g. Mederer et al., 2013 and Galoyan et al., 2009) for comparison. Major elements data were recalculated on an anhydrous basis, and plotted in Figure 2.3.1A. Using the volcanic TAS classification diagram of LeMaitre (1992), the Galidzor-Katar forma-tion samples plot in the basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite fields, the Vachagan formation rocks plot in the dacites and rhyolites fields and the Barabatoom formation rocks are primarily classified as dacite with some samples falling within the andesite and rhyolite field. Fluid mobile elements such as large ion lithophile elements (LILE) may be redistributed and mobilized during hydrothermal alteration, our classifications and interpretations are largely based on high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), which are less affected by hydrothermal fluids (Rollinson, 1993). Pearce (1996) and Winchester and Floyd (1977) are used to successfully clas-sify rocks more accurately.The Pearce (1996) trace element classification diagram (Figure 2.6 B) is used to cross-check the classifications made using the LeMaitre (1989) TAS major element diagram of  the Middle Jurassic Volcanic rocks. The Galidzor-Katar volcanics plot within the basalt field, the Vachagan volcanics plots in the andesite/basaltic-andesite to rhyolite-dacite fields and the Barabatoom volcanics plot in the basalt and andesite/basaltic-andesite fields. Both classification diagrams reveal similar trends; where the Galidzor-Katar formation is mafic, the Vachagan formation is felsic and the Baraba-toom formation is of intermediate composition to the two other formations.  Trace element data is normalized and plotted on multi-element diagrams for petrogenetic interpretation. C1 chondrite-normalized rare earth multi-element plots of Middle Jurassic volcanic and intrusive rocks are shown in Figures 2.3.2 (A-D). All rocks within the Middle Jurassic volcanics have relatively flat REE patterns in the C1 27Nb/YZr/TiEvolvedBasicIntermediateRhyolite DaciteAlkali RhyolitePhonoliteTephriphonoliteFoiditeUltra-AlkalineAlkalineSub-AlkalineTrachyteTrachyAndesiteAndesite Basaltic- AndesiteAlkaliBasaltBasalt0.0010.010.110.002 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.2 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 100 200Basaltic Trachy-andesiteTrachybasaltTephrite/BasaniteTrachyandesiteTrachyteTrachydaciteRhyoliteDaciteAndesitePhonotephriteTephriphonolitePhonoliteBasaltNa 2O +K 2O (%)SiO2 (%)FoiditeBasaltic Andesite15. 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0 75.0 80.0Barabatoom FormationBarabatoom Formation (Mederer et al., 2013)Galidzor-Katar FormationVachagan FormationFigure 2.6 A-B: Major and trace element diagram of Middle Jurassic volcanic units. Mederer et al., 2013 whole-rock and trace element data is used as a comparison with dataset produced in present study. Least altered samples are used for classifying volcanic rocks to avoid metasomatic effects. (A) SiO2 (%) vs Na2O + K2O (%) graph classify Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks as basaltic andesite to rhyolite in composition. TAS classification diagram by LeMaitre (1992); (B) Zr/Ti vs Nv/Y graph classi-fy Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks as basalt to rhyolite dacite (Pearce, 1996).28Jurassic plutonic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Barabatoom rocks (Yarra, 2015)La    Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Yb Lu10010Jurassic plutonic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Barabatoom rocks (Yarra, 2015)La    Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Yb Lu10010Jurassic plutonic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Vachagan rocks (Yarra, 2015)La    Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Yb Lu10010Jurassic plutonic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Galidzor-Katar rocks (Yarra, 2015)La    Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Yb Lu10010Barabatoom rocks (Yarra, 2016)Barabatoom rocks (Mederer, 2013)Lower-Middle Jurassic Volcanics (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Sr K2O Rb Ba Th Ta Nb Ce P2O5 Zr Hf Sm TiO2 Y Yb0.1110100 Galidzor-Katar rocks (Yarra, 2016)Lower-Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Sr K2O Rb Ba Th Ta Nb Ce P2O5 Zr Hf Sm TiO2 Y Yb0.1110100Vachagan Formation (Yarra, 2016)Lower-Middle Jurassic Volcanics (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Sr K2O Rb Ba Th Ta Nb Ce P2O5 Zr Hf Sm TiO2 Y Yb0.1110100ppmppmppmppmJurassic plutonic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Barabatoom Volcanics (Yarra, 2016)Lower -Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks (Galoyan et al., 2009; Mederer et al., 2013)Sr K2O Rb Ba Th Ta Nb Ce P2O5 Zr Hf Sm TiO2 Y Yb0.1110100Figure 2.7(A-H) C1 chondrite-normalized rare-earth element plots comparing Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks and Middle to Upper Jurassic intrusive rocks. (E-H) N-Morb normalized trace element spider di-agram comparing Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks and Middle to Upper Jurassic intrusive rocks. This study’s is compared with data from Mederer et al., 2013, and Galojan et al., 2013. C1 Chondrite and N-MORB values taken from Sun and McDonough (1989). 29chondrite normalized diagram. Mederer et al. (2013) observed that rhyolite and to-nalite samples have negative Eu anomalies whereas andesite, dacite and basalt sam-ples have positive Eu anomalies. The Galidzor-Katar formation rocks contain no Eu anomalies, except for sample DCC_S004 which has a Tb anomaly. The Tb anomaly is interpreted as an analytical anomaly because Tb does not naturally vary significant-ly from other HREE’s. The Vachagan formation has a negative Eu anomaly and the Barabatoom formation generally has a positive Eu anomaly with minor enrichment in HREE’s (Yb and Lu). The absence of an Eu anomaly can be explained either by min-imal plagioclase crystal fractionation during ascent of magma which would be expect-ed from a hydrous magma and/or by an elevated oxgen fugacity in the magma which would lead to more Eu3+ than Eu2+ and result in less Eu2+ substitution for Ca in pla-gioclase (Hanson, 1980). The negative Eu anomaly is indicative of early plagioclase fractional crystallization as Eu2+ substitutes for Ca into plagioclase (Hanson, 1980). The positive Eu anomaly in the Barabatoom formation and the negative Eu anomaly of the Vachagan formation likely indicates the two formations are genetically related, this signature can be produced with plagioclase loss and accumulation through fractional crystallization, respectively.  N-MORB normalized plots of Middle Jurassic volcanics are shown in Figures 2.3.2 (E-H). All samples from the Middle Jurassic complex have characteristics which are typical for subduction-related environments such as negative Nb and Ta anom-alies and enrichment in LIL fluid mobile elements such as K, Rb or Ba relative to N-Morb. Incompatible elements such as Hf and Zr are relatively more enriched with-in the Vachagan formation than the Barabatoom or Galidzor-Katar rocks. Vachagan and Barabatoom rocks have a negative Ti anomaly and a positive Ti anomaly in the Galidzor-Katar rocks, indicating it is enriched in Galidzor-Katar rocks. Middle to Upper Jurassic intrusive rock analyses (data from Galoyan et al., 2009 and Mederer et al., 2013) have similar trends to the Vachagan formation; however, all elements are rela-30tively more enriched within the intrusive rocks compared to the volcanics.  2.4 Structural Trends, Kapan DistrictMajor faults within the Kapan district (Figure 2.8) are long lived faults that have episodically reactivated since their formation, evidenced by large damage zones (5-20m) adjacent to these faults. These major faults trend north and northeast and will herein be referred to as Fault Set 1 (F1) and Fault Set 2 (F2), respectively.F1 faults are north trending oblique faults. Some examples of these faults are the Metz-Magarin and Sayad-Kar faults. The Metz-Magarin is a major fault running through the center of the Centralni area separating it into Centralni East and West deposits. It intersects the Bashkend fault in the north, and previous studies have it mapped to intersect the Barabatoom fault in the south. The Metz-Magarin fault has a damage zone varying between 10-30 m in thickness at surface and up to 70 m at depth. It strikes north and is generally sub vertical with a variable dip between 65-90° to the west. Soviet literature indicates a normal offset by approximately 150-300m. The Sayad-Kar fault has a 20m thick damage zone and dips 60-75° towards the east, Soviet literature indicates a normal offset ranging between 10m to 100m calculated based on offset volcanic layers.F2 faults are northeast trending normal faults that predominantly dip 55-85° to the northwest. Examples of these major northeast faults include the Khotanan, Bashkend and Barabatoom faults. The Khotanan fault is situated north of Arachadzor steeply dips northwest (70- 80°), Soviet geologists indicate a normal offset of approx-imately 300m. The fault damage zone varies between 5-15m. The Bashkend fault is situated north of Centralni has a 30-40m damage zone and strikes northeast and dips 70-80° to the northwest with an interpreted normal offset of approximately 150m. The Barabatoom fault is located northwest of Shahumyan and strikes northeast and dips 3160-70° towards the northwest with a vertical offset of 400-500m.  In addition to F1 and F2 sets, a smaller southeast and east striking oblique F3 faults (normal-dextral faults) are observed locally. F3 faults are smaller than F1 and F2 sets and vary from 5m up to 50m in length and 5cm to 3m in width, and variably dip (65-85°) south to southwest. The dextral component of F3 is interpreted based on limited kinematic indicators and might therefore not represent the original phase of movement. Kinematic indicators when present, are interpreted based on slickenlines (chlorite, clay) and slickensides (calcite). 2.4.1 Folding and Bedding TrendsVolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks within the Kapan district have tilted due to regional and district scale folding. Bedding is best preserved within the volcano-sedi-mentary members and their contact with volcanic flows within the Kapan region. Bed-ding measurements were discriminated into three separate domains (Figure 2.8). Do-main 1 dips approximately 20-30o to the NE; domain 2 dipping at approximately 20-30o to the southwest; and domain 3 with bedding measurements dipping approximately 30-40° to the SE. The resulting architecture reveals a broad antiform with a southwest trending hinge.Previous structural studies (e.g Davis, 2006; and Wood et al., 2007) propose, large-scale folding to be a D1 event, that occurred before the formation of Fault Set 2. However, bedding measurements of volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous and Paleogene complexes have similar bedding trends to measurements within the Middle Jurassic complex indicating that folding likely oc-curred after the deposition of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous and Paleogene complexes. Furthermore, the folding event would have incorporated after the em-placement of southeast to east striking faults and mineralized veins (F3 faults) which 32Figure 2.8: Bedding and structural trends within the Kapan District. Three bedding domains are ob-served: a northeast dipping domain (red); a southwest dipping domain (blue); and a southeast dipping domain (green). This bedding architecture results in a gentle fold with a southeast trending axial hinge. Major faults compiled from historic datasets reveal three main trends: northwest, north and northeast trending faults, only some faults have been ground-truthed. 252022253430382038203833283022253028254720212130244030305302525202025121525202520152525182510252520251020303020201030101540203030303030203030302040202520302030353030Aoooooooooooooooooooooooooo oo o ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooCentralniShahumyanArachadzorBadalayurtNoreshenikGyandhzibutBarabatoomoBedding MeasurementUnconrmed Faults Conrmed Faults Anticline Axial TraceNormal Faults Maximum density: 26.0% 351.4/71.0(pole)171.5/19.0(plane)NPoles to Bedding Planes Maximum density: 37.2% 240.0/71.0(pole)60.0/19.0(plane)NMaximum density: 46.1% 283.6/59.9(pole)103.6/30.1(plane)Nn = 68NE FaultsDistrict FaultsMean dir: 316.2°95% conf: ± 2.9°n = 72NW Faults North Faultsn = 77Mean dir: 356.7°95% conf: ± 2.9°Mean dir: 45.5°95% conf: ± 2.8°8614000 861600086160008618000861800086200008620000 8622000 862400043440004346000434800043500004350000435200043540008612000SW dipping domain NE dipping domainSE dipping domain33were dated to Middle-Upper Jurassic (161.78 ± 0.79 to 156.14 ± 0.79 Ma; Mederer et al., 2013).The Kapan antiform is much younger and can be correlated to regional scale folds within the Lesser Caucasus and Trans Caucasus because of regional deforma-tion during the collision and obduction of the SAB with the Eurasian plate in the Pa-leocene (Sosson et al., 2010). Sosson et al. (2010), Saintot et al., bracket the folding event in the Lesser Caucasus between the Eocene to Miocene. The Kapan antiform is likely a part of the larger mega-anticlinorium that trends northwest to north within the Lesser Caucasus.2.5 Mineralized Veins within the Kapan DistrictMineralization within the Kapan district is characterized by vein stockworks and narrow (10cm to 2m) subparallel vein clusters. The district has been continuously ex-ploited since the 1800’s from surface workings and more advanced underground drift workings in recent times (Table 2.1). Veins within the district trend northeast to east and northwest, and dip steeply to the north and south (Figure 2.9). The district has been known for its Cu rich veins at Centalni, Barabatoom, Arachadzor-Badalayurt and Gyangibute; however, Noreshenik and Shahumyan are better known for their polyme-tallic (Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, Ag) ore. Metal zonation within the district is generally Cu rich in the west, changing progressively to higher Zn,Pb, Au, Ag to the south and southeast (Mederer et al., 2013)2.5.1 Centralni The Centralni vein system comprises the East and West deposits; Centralni East was an open pit operation and is characterized by stockwork veining; Centralni West was an underground operation characterized by subparallel east-west vein sets 34similar to Shahumyan. Centralni East and West are separated by the north-trending Mets-Magarin oblique (normal) fault dipping 70-80° to the west.  Centralni West veins strike east-west and steeply dip 60°-80° to the south. Locally, mineralization is observed to replace porous and permeable volcaniclastic layers (Mederer et al., 2013). Mederer et al. (2013) has described vein textures to be variable, from hydraulic breccia textures with fragmented sulphides to massive sulphide zones within veins. The main economic minerals at Centralni West consist of chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite, tennantite-tetrahedrite and galena within a quartz rich gangue (Mederer et al., 2013). Trace quantities of tellurobismuthite, hessite, petzite, tetradymite, wittchenite, emplectite and native gold are also reported by Achikigiozyan et al. (1987) and Khachaturyan (1958). Vein thick-nesses varied from minor veinlets (<1cm) to 1m thick veins. Alteration at Centralni West consists of host rocks altered to sericite, chlorite, carbonate and epidote (Meder-er et al., 2013). Ar/Ar dating of hydrothermal muscovite/sericite from Centralni West (Mederer et al., 2013) yielded a mineralization age of 161.78 ± 0.79 Ma.      Centralni East is primarily characterized by stockwork veining at surface and sub-parallel veins similar in architecture to Centralni West dominate at depth. Textures found within veins include: crustiform, colloform, hydraulic breccia and comb quartz textures. Primary sulphide assemblage at Centralni East includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, colusite, tennanite-tetrahedrite, galena and specular hematite. Trace minerals found Deposit Mineralization Type Previous Work Mined Resource Vein Minerals Mineralization TypeNoreshenik-BadalayurtCu-rich Polymetallic veins 8 Adits->100 DDH- 30,000 m 110,565 t @ 0.87% Cu (4 veins) Py,Cpy,Sph,Ga Veins Arajadzor Cu,Polymetallic 2 Adits, 30DDH - >10,000 m 656,786 t @ 3.6% Cu (4 Zones) Py,Cpy,(Bo,En?) West: Veins; East: Veins and disseminationCentralni Cu, Anamolous Au Very Extensive  (UG +Surface) ~27.8Mt @ 1.23% Cu Py,Cpy,Cc,Bo,En Veins, stockwork, disseminationBarabatoom Cu, Polymetallic Very Extensive  (UG +Surface) Missing Py,Cpy,Sph,Ga Veins and disseminationAntarashat 30DDH- >12,000m Py,Cpy,Sph,Ga Veins and disseminationDzorastan-GyandzhibutCu, Anamolous Mo 1 adit, 5DDH- 1,900m Py,Cpy,Mo Dissemination and veinletsProspectProspectCu, Polymetallic, ± MoTable 2.2: Known historical exploration and mining within the Kapan District. References (N K Kurbanov & Schmidt,1985 Achikgiozyan et al., 1987- Map)35at Centralni East include enargite, bornite, sphalerite, covellite, renierite, germanite and native gold (Beaumont, 2006; Khachaturyan; 1958). Gangue minerals found with-in veins include quartz, with barite and gypsum present locally. Stockwork vein thick-nesses vary between 2cm to 25cm, larger veins are uncommon but veins can be up LegendDip Measurements Mineralized VeinsoConrmed  FaultsUnconrmed FaultsHistorically Operated SitesActive Operating MineAnticline axial trace0 2 41kmBashkend FaultBarabatoom  FaultKhotanan  FaultMets-Magarin FaultSayad-Kar Fault70o75o78o80o85on=297n=74n=32n=119n=29n=17CentralniShahumyanArachadzorBadalayurtNoreshenikGyandhzibutBarabatoomFigure 2.9: Orientation data of mineralized veins within the Kapan district, displayed on an equal area Schmidt net. Bedding domains are also plotted on each stereonet: red for the northeast dipping do-main and blue for the southwest dipping domain. The dashed line represents the axial trace of the anticline. It should be noted that vein data is not restored to horizontal based on bedding trends. 36to 50cm thick. Sericite, dickite-kaolinite, diaspora characterize alteration minerals at Centralni East (Khachaturyan, 1958) residual quartz is also observed. 2.5.2 Noreshenik  The Middle Jurassic volcaniclastics around the Noreshenik area dip approxi-mately 20-30° to the northeast. Upper Jurassic rocks and Quaternary basalts lie un-conformably over altered Middle Jurassic rocks. Mineralized Noreshenik veins are located north of Shahumyan and east of Arachadzor and are hosted within Middle Jurassic andesites. A minor offshoot/splay of the Bashkend fault cuts through the vein system and strikes northeast and steeply dips to the north to northwest (75-80°). Min-eralized veins at Noreshenik trend northwest and dip steeply to the North (60-75°). Major vein minerals at Noreshenik include chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite with quartz, and calcite as the main gangue mineral. Vein thicknesses varied from small veinlets (1cm) to larger veins (0.50-1m). Alteration of country rocks consisted of sericite/illite, chlorite and epidote. K-Ar dating of hydrothermal illite yielded an age of 158 ± 4.2 Ma (This Study, Yarra, 2015). Several veins at Noreshenik were mined by small scale methods through several exploration and production adits present in the area. Miner-alization within Noreshenik veins is considered to be highly inconsistent along strike and down-dip extents of individual veins and were considered uneconomic for further exploitation. 2.5.3 Arachadzor Arachadzor is located 4km north of the Centalni deposit and is located near the Arachadzor village. Similar to Centralni, Arachadzor also contains both sub-par-allel vein clusters and stockwork type mineralization. Subparallel veins trend west to northwest and moderately dip towards the northeast (45-70°). Major vein minerals 37consist of chalcopyrite, pyrite with minor sphalerite and galena within a quartz-car-bonate gangue. Vein thicknesses vary between minor <1cm veinlets to larger veins (0.5m-1m). Alteration at Arachadzor is similar to Centralni, with alteration envelopes containing: sericite, chlorite, dickite-kaolinite, epidote and residual quartz. 2.5.4 Barabtoom and Gyangibut  Barabatoom is located south of Centralni and can be seen from the Kapan town center. Local geologists have indicated Barbatoom was once an open pit mine which was subsequently infilled and used for commercial purposes. Veins at Barabtoom have two distinct trends; an east-west trend and a north-south trend which include chalcopyrite and pyrite as the primary ore minerals within a quartz rich gangue.Gyangibute is located 4 km northwest of Centralni. Veins at Gyangibute are vertical to subvertical dipping both north and south (80-90°) and trend east to south-east. Vein thicknesses at Gyangibute vary from minor veinlets to veins (1cm to 25cm) consisting of pyrite and chalcopyrite with quartz as the main gangue. 383.1 IntroductionThe Shahumyan deposits is characterized by three main hydrothermal stag-es within a subparallel anastomosing vein cluster composed of over 120 individual mineralized veins.  Shahumyan has an indicated and inferred resource of 15.87 Mt at cut off grades of 2.72 g/t Au, 48.5 g/t Ag, 0.5% Cu, 1.82% Zn and 0.1% Pb (White et al., 2015). Economic mineralization within individual veins is discontinuous and metal proportions are highly variable, confirmed by White et al. (2015). Shahumyan is a base metal rich (Cu-Zn) deposit with anomalously high Ag and Au values, particularly with high Ag:Au ratios. Vein samples have average Ag and Au ratios from 20-40 to ~1000. A closer look at high Ag:Au ratio zones in veins, reveals a second precious metal oreshoot within base metal rich veins. Faults and joints propagate as curvilinear surfaces that have undulating or cor-rugated shapes. Many mineral districts have vein patterns resembling the Shahumyan vein system. For example anastomosing faults and veins in the Creede district Colora-do (Stevens and Eaton, 1975); the veins of the Fresnillo district, Mexico, (Gemmel et al., 1988); Acupan vein system, Phillipines (Cooke et al., 1996). Anastomosing veins represent stress interplay between faults and are important for exploration and mining of vein-type ore deposits. Bends and other irregularities in veins have been used to predict areas of enhanced vein thickness to identify ore-shoots (Hulin, 1929; Conolly, 1936; Newhouse, 1940). Detailed mapping of underground workings and a comprehensive paragenetic 3. Mineralization Paragenesis and Structural Evolution of the Vein Sys-tem at Shahumyan39study to identify hydrothermal stages was undertaken at Shahumyan. With the goal of unravelling the relationship between the anastomosing nature of veins and high Ag:Au ratios found at Shahumyan. This chapter also examines mineralization paragenesis of the Centralni and Noreshenik deposits providing a comparative analysis of other mineralized veins exploited within the Kapan district.3.2 Vein Mineralogy and Textures3.2.1 Ore Minerals Pyrite [FeS2] is ubiquitous within the deposit and is found in abundance both in wallrock alteration and vein assemblages. Pyrite associated with wallrock alteration replaces hornblende and pyroxene. Pyrite alteration is observed to be euhedral-sub-hedral and disseminated. Pyrite textures observed within veins include: sieved sub-eu-hedral pyrite, blebby anhedral pyrite rimming sub-euhedral sieved grains or intergrown with other sulphides. Blebby pyrite grains are most commonly found to be intergrown with chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Blebby pyrite commonly contains inclusions of chal-copyrite, sphalerite and in rare instances tellurium minerals. Rare occurrences of py-rite needles are observed, with individual crystals having high aspect ratios. The tex-ture is likely a function of accelerated growth or unimpeded growth of pyrite. Richards (1995) suggests this texture is present in low temperature hydrothermal deposits and is found as free growing crystals within cavities. Sulphur isotope studies by Mederer et al. (2013) indicate pyrite δ34S values mostly ranging from 4.9-6.4‰ CDT. Chalcopyrite [CuFeS2] is abundant within veins and accompanied by sphaler-ite. Blebby-anhedral crystals are intergrown with sphalerite and pyrite. Chalcopyrite can be replaced by tetrahedrite/tennantite (sulphosalts) species. Chalcopyrite exso-lution (chalcopyrite disease) is common within sphalerite, occurring as sub-micron 40round-elongate blebs, preferentially present along growth zones of honey brown sphalerite. Microscopic fractures containing chalcopyrite and telluride minerals cut through honey brown and yellow sphalerite. Macroscopically, chalcopyrite occurs as individual sulphide bands representative of crustiform texture alternating with sphaler-ite and/or quartz.  Sulpher isotopes taken from Chalcopyrite grains have δ34S values ranging between 3.1 and 5.1‰ CDT (Mederer et al. 2013).Sphalerite [(Zn,Fe)S] is the  third most abundant sulphide mineral at Sha-humyan. Three generations of sphalerite are identified through petrography: dark opaque sphalerite; red to honey brown sphalerite; and light yellow sphalerite. Sphaler-ite crystals are anhedral-subhedral to fine grained, euhedral sphalerite is rare but pres-ent. Some sphalerite crystals contain growth bands containing alternating dark (or-ange-brown) and light (yellow/white- light orange) bands, boundaries of these growth bands are commonly diffused but can be sharp and distinct. Honey brown and dark opaque sphalerite preferentially contain chalcopyrite disease which is absent within yellow sphalerite. Yellow sphalerite tends to enclose honey brown sphalerite and use it as a nucleus. Studies at the Creede district by Hayba et al. (1997) indicate that these growth zones may correspond to abrupt changes in composition, temperature or salinity of hydrothermal fluids. Dark-opaque sphalerite is commonly intergrown and/or contains inclusions of telluride minerals and chalcopyrite. Dark-opaque sphaler-ite is chiefly found within secondary fractures present within honey brown or yellow sphalerites. Sulphur isotopes in sphalerite yield δ34S values between 3.7 and 4.3‰ CDT (Mederer et al. 2013). Galena [PbS] is rarely observed and does not constitute a major part of eco-nomic ore at Shahumyan. It is primarily intergrown with sphalerite and chalcopyrite. In rare occurrences sulphosalts (tetrahedrite/ tennantite) tend to replace galena along micro fractures or grain boundaries. Altaite and hessite are intergrown with galena and 41in rare occurrences replace galena.  Sulphosalt species (tetrahedrite-tennantite) have been identified using the SEM in trace amounts. Sulphosalts are present as submicroscopic inclusions in chalcopy-rite, sphalerite and galena. They are present as replacement rims around sphalerite and galena grains and rarely around chalcopyrite. Because of their minor abundance, their paragenetic relationship with the other minerals is unclear.Telluride species [(Au,Ag,Bi,Pb)xTey] have been identified using the SEM and reflected light microscopy. Tellurides are present within brecciated wallrock or as infill within fractures in sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and pyrite. They can also be found as inclusions in pyrite or chalcopyrite in association with yellow-sphalerite. Telluride minerals occasionally contain inclusions of brecciated crystals of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. All tellurides species with the exception of hessite are microscopic (<0.05mm). Pure tellurium inclusions in sulphides were identified by Mederer et al. (2013) but not so the present study. Hessite (Ag2Te) is the most common telluride mineral observed. Hessite is com-monly accompanied by sylvanite, petzite and in some samples coloradoite. Petzite (Ag3AuTe2) and sylvanite (Au,Ag-Te2) calavarite (AuTe2)  are found along fractures in hessite or intergrown with hessite grains. They also occur by themselves as sub-mi-cron inclusions within chalcopyrite pyrite or dark opaque sphalerite. Differentiation be-tween sylvanite and calavarite was made difficult due to their submicron sizes.  Altaite (PbTe), is associated with galena and hessite and rarely associated with sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Coloradoite (HgTe), is rare and has only been observed in one sam-ple in contact with hessite, along grain boundaries. Trace amounts of native tellurium is found in pyrite and chalcopyrite.All tellurides identified are spatially associated with each other microscopical-42ly and macroscopically. This is to be expected as they likely precipitated coevally or due to unstable conditions. Afifi et al. (1988) noted that intergrowths of hessite and petzite are usually a product of the decomposition of 𝒳-phase (Ag11-𝒳Au1+𝒳Te6) at 120oC. Based on petzite distribution and textures this is the most likely scenario at Shahumyan where petzite is usually observed to be intergrown with hessite or found along hessite rims or within fractures.  3.2.2 Gangue Minerals and Textures3.2.2.1 Major GangueQuartz-1 is white in color massive to equigranular fine to medium grained. It is ubiquitous in all veins at Shahumyan, but varies in abundance along vein segments. It ranges from 5% which is limited to a thin selvage between vein opening and wallrock to 50-70% quartz rich zones which comprise a majority of the vein. In thin section, Quartz-1 has undulose extinction, and can appear to be cryptocrystalline with sac-charoidal (jigsaw) textures. Saccharoidal and cryptocrystalline textures indicate rapid deposition of quartz. However, in some cases these textures may also indicate recrys-tallization of massive quartz. Quartz-2 is prismatic-euhedral quartz and is associated with comb quartz and flamboyant and/or feathery textures. In thin section, individual quartz crystals contain zoning patterns with minor inclusions of sulphide preferentially along growth bands, these inclusions range between <1µm - 3µm. The presence of sulphide inclusions along growth zones indicate sulphides and Quartz-2 precipitat-ed coevally. Carbonates are ubiquitous in most veins at Shahumyan; however, their abundance varies between vein segments. Carbonate is significantly more abundant within the southern portion of the deposit (veins 17, 20 20a, 33, 34) and decreases in abundance towards the north (veins 50, 35 and 5). Calcite is the most abundant within the carbonate assemblage however rhodochrosite is also observed locally and 438623000E8624000E4343000N4344000N4345000N500m0 North Dipping VeinsSouth Dipping VeinsFaultsVeins 17, 20, 20aVeins: 33, 34, 57 Vein: 35North ZoneCentral ZoneSouth Zone?Figure 3.1: A plan view map of Shahumyan veins, projected from 760 level (760 masl). Both north and south dipping veins are present within the deposit. Three zones are looked at in more detailed: South Zone (purple) containing Veins 17, 20 and 20a; Central Zone (green) containing Veins 33,34 and 57; and the North Zone (black) containing Vein 35. The deposit is displaced by north trending faults. 44kutnohorite (Ca(Mn,Mg,Fe)[CO3]2) was recognized by Mederer et al. (2013 and 2014). Carbonate abundance ranges from <5% to 50% in mineralized veins. Pure carbon-ate (calcite) are also observed to crosscut all earlier hydrothermal stages. Isotopic concentration of late calcite is variable ranging from 7.7 to 15.4‰ VSMOW for δ18O and from -3.0 to 0.7‰ VSMOW for δ13C, with a positive correlation trend in δ13C vs δ18O space (Mederer et al., 2013). Mederer et al., (2013) propose an influence of meteoric waters mixing with magmatic waters in the waning stages at Shahumyan, depositing massive calcite. Minor GangueFluorite at Shahumyan is green in color and is a late stage mineral accompany-ing massive carbonate. Hydrothermal apatite is identified by Mederer et al. (2014) as a minor gangue mineral along with fluorite. Sericite (illite/clay) is the primary alteration mineral along vein selvages, it is also found as interstitial fill within brecciated veins between calcite, sulphide, and quartz grains. Chlorite is found in trace amounts in a quartz-pyrite rich assemblage. When present, it has a radiating structure and displays clear to light green and light green to medium green pleochroism in plane polarized light with second order anomalous dark blue birefringence. X-ray diffraction and mi-crobeam data (Appendix 2) reveal clinochlore to ripidolite chlorite compositions.       3.3 Mineralization ParagenesisShahumyan is characterized by over one hundred subparallel veins with widths up to 3m in thickness and 300-500m along strike length Figure 3.1. Spatial distribution of individual hydrothermal mineral bands (stages) vary along strike making it difficult to trace one band to the next within individual veins (Figure 3.2 A-C). Therefore, the relative timing of hydrothermal stages are differentiated solely by mineralogy and tex-45tures rather than crosscutting relationships usually observed in a typical paragenetic studies. The progression of hydrothermal stages and individual minerals within each stage is shown in Table  3.1 and discussed below.3 cm 3 cmAltered Wallrock (Andesite)Stage 2a Chalcopyrite,Sphalerite,PyriteStage 1: Quartz-PyriteStage 2a & 2b: Coarse Crystalline Quartz, illiteStage 3: White Quartz / Carbonate (Mg-rich Calcite)Stage 3: Amorphous Grey Quartz (Chalcedony)ABC3cm3cm3cm 3cmTellurideFigure 3.2 A-C: Vein sampl s from Shahumyan. (A) Sampl  contains all three stages observed at Shahumyan including colloform banding of sphalerite and chalcopyrite.  Hydrothermal stages in this sample young towards the center of the vein, this is not always the case in Shahumyan veins. (B) Two high grade samples consisting of Au-Ag tellurides filling in small microfractures in sphalerite. Wallrock clasts in the sample are completely altered to sericite/illite. (C) Sample showing all three main hydrothermal stages at Shahumyan. 46GangueQuartz(1)Quartz (2)CalciteFluoriteIlliteMineralization PyriteChalcopyriteSphaleriteGalenaTetrahedrite- TennantiteHessitePetziteColoradoiteAltaiteTexturesMassiveCrustiformColloformQuartz-CombBrecciaWall Rock AlterationQuartzChloriteSericite/IlliteStage 2a Stage 2b Stage 3Stage 1?Honey Brown Light Yellowmineral  OpaqueChalcedonyCalciteSylvanite/CalavariteKaoliniteShahumyan (n= 30)Table 3.1: Paragenetic table of hydrothermal stages, textures and alteration observed at Shahumyan3.3.1 Stage 1Stage 1 is characterized mainly by abundant white quartz-pyrite (Quartz-1) veinlets and bands within larger veins. This stage contains trace chlorite and sericite/illite and is considered uneconomic. Within larger veins this hydrothermal stage is typically <1cm to 5cm wide and is present between the vein-wallrock interface. This stage is also observed as isolated quartz-pyrite veinlets (1-5cm) that occur adjacent to major veins, and have a quartz-sericite alteration halo. This hydrothermal stage can 47be found as small veins within breccia clasts in larger veins. This would indicate that Stage 1 is paragenetically the earliest. 3.3.2 Stage 2Stage 2 is broken into two sub stages: Stage 2a and Stage 2b. Stage 2a con-tains significantly higher proportion of base metal sulphides compared to Stage 2b. Stage 2b contains relatively greater amounts of precious-metal mineralization. Stage 2a is primarily composed of chalcopyrite-sphalerite-pyrite ±galena within a coarse quartz (Quartz-2) gangue. Textures present in this stage include drussy-comb quartz, and crustiform of alternating chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and quartz. Breccias composed of angular to subrounded fragments of adjacent wallrock are suspended within the quartz-sulphide matrix, with colloform bands forming around such clasts. Breccia frag-ments vary in size ranging from 1 cm sized fragments up to 50cm. Breccia fragments containing truncated Stage 1 veins are observed. On this basis, it is interpreted that Stage 2a followed quartz-pyrite veins of Stage 1. At deposit scale Stage 2a is volumet-rically more abundant the northern veins (Vein 5, 35 etc) than southern veins.Stage 2b primarily consists of Au-Ag-Pb-Hg-Bi tellurides (Figure 3.3 A-F) and sulphosalts are associated with dark-opaque sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Fine apha-nitic quartz (Quartz 1) is the principal gangue mineral in addition to fine grained calcite present locally. Tellurides minerals fill in microfractures of brecciated honey brown-yel-low sphalerite, galena and rarely chalcopyrite. Hessite contains inclusions of sphaler-ite, pyrite and chalcopyrite grains. Telluride minerals are intergrown or found as in-clusions in dark opaque sphalerite. In decreasing abundance hessite (Ag2Te), petzite (Ag3AuTe2) and sylvanite (Ag,Au)Te2 characterize the telluride assemblage with al-taite (PbTe),  coloradoite (HgTe), and unidentified Bi-Sb-Te minerals found in trace amounts. Macroscopically this brecciation event is indistinguishable within the vein, 48Petzite/SylvaniteHessiteSphaleriteColoradoiteHessiteChalcopyriteSphaleriteChalcopyrite60µm300µm 300µmReected LightPlane-polarizedBack ScatterDark  Sphalerite(Fractures)Same View Yellow SphaleriteDark  Sphalerite(Fractures)Yellow SphaleriteChalcopyritePyriteTellurides(Hessite,Petzite,Sylvanite)Sphalerite (with Chalcopyrite exsolution)HessitePetzite/SylvaniteHessitePetzite/Sylvanite200µm 300µmSphalerite (with Chalcopyrite exsolution)Reected Light Reected LightBack Scatter100µmA BC DE FFigure 3.4 A-F: Photomicrographs and SEM imagery of vein samples. (A) Hessite [Ag2Te] containing petzite/sylvanite [Ag3AuTe2/ (Au,Ag)2Te4] inclusions, fills a micro-fracture in sphalerite containing chalcopyrite disease. (B) Similar to (A), Hessite containing petzite/sylvanite and coloradoite it also in-cludes brecciated sphalerite grains. (C) Transmitted light photomicrograph of Figure (D) both images together show yellow sphalerite crosscut by later stage fractures filled in with dark opaque sphalerite. Associated with dark-opaque sphalerite are Au-Ag tellurides (hessite, petzite-sylvanite). (E and F) SEM images of tellruides in sphalerite and chalcopyrite. (F) Brecciated grains of sphalerite and chal-copyrite cemented by hessite. 49as it is overprinted by subsequent Stage 3 brecciation. 3.3.3 Stage 3Stage 3 comprises of massive quartz (Quartz 1), coarse crystalline calcite, fluorite and grey amorphous quartz (chalcedony). Sulphide floats and breccia clasts of Stage 1 and Stage 2 are suspended in massive crystalline quartz-carbonate. The presence of sulphides and wall rock clasts suspended in quartz-carbonate gangue in-dicates the possibility of mechanically transportation of earlier stages during Stage 3. At deposit scale this stage is more abundant by volume % in the southern veins com-pared to the northern veins. In thin section it is clear that calcite veins crosscut earlier quartz-sulphide-telluride assemblages. Its relative abundance decreases towards the northern veins. 3.4 Centralni and Noreshenik Vein Mineralogy The Centralni and Noreshenik areas are located to the northeast and north-west of Shahumyan respectively, and fall outside of the Shahumyan mine boundary. These localities are characterized by east trending veins with similar mineralogy to the Shahumyan veins. Several vein samples were collected from drill core to establish a paragenetic sequence in relation to Shahumyan. 3.4.1 CentralniCentralni is subdivided into two mines: Centralni West and Centralni East. Cen-tralni West is an underground mine characterized by subparallel vein sets similar to Shahumyan, as well as localized massive sulphide lenses found in the tuff layers and Centralni East is an open pit deposit characterized by stockwork veining and dissemi-nated mineralization. The two deposits are separated by the Metz Magarin fault which 50variably dips (65-90o) west and is suggested to have a normal offset of approximately 150-300m (Soviet Historic Data, personal communication). Economic minerals observed by Mederer et al. (2014) at Centralni West in-clude chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite, tennantite-tetrahedrite and galena within a quartz rich gangue. Trace minerals of telluro-bismuthinite, hessite, petzite, tetradymite, wittichenite, emplectite and native gold have also been reported by Achikigiozyan et al. (1987) and Khachaturyan (1958). At Centralni East, main ore minerals include chalcopyrite, pyrite as observed in this study. Mederer et al. (2014) also identified colusite, tennanite-tetrahedrite, galena and specular hematite within veins. Trace minerals found at Centralni East include enargite, bornite, sphalerite, covellite, renierite, germanite and native gold and silver (Beaumont, 2006; Khachaturyan; 1958). The paragenesis of the deposit is displayed in Table 3.2. Textures within individual veins and the stockwork include: crustiform, hydraulic breccia and comb-quartz textures. Gangue minerals include quartz, with mi-QuartzStage 2Stage 1MineralCentralni East (n= 4)PyriteChalcopyriteBariteGypsumChloriteQuartzStage 2Stage 1MineralNoreshenik (n= 5)PyriteChalcopyriteSphaleriteCalciteStage 3SericiteChloriteTable 3.2: Paragenetic table of hydrothermal stages and asso-ciated minerals at Centralni EastTable 3.3: Paragenetic table of hydrothermal stages and associated minerals at Noreshenik51nor amounts of barite and gypsum present locally. Vein thicknesses in the stockwork varies between 2cm to 25cm; less commonly, veins extended to 50cm. At Centralni West sulphur isotope values (δ34S) range from 4.9 to 6.1‰ CDT and 2.0 to 4.4‰ CDT for pyrite and chalcopyrite respectively (Mederer et al., 2014). Pyrite at Centralni East has δ34S values between 3.3 and 6.5‰ CDT (Mederer et al., 2014). Alteration at Centralni East primarily consists of sericite, dickite-kaolinite, diaspore (Khachaturyan, 1958) and residual quartz. Key differences in mineralogy at Centralni compared to Shahumyan is the lack of bismuth rich minerals (emplectite, wittichenite, tetradymite) and the gangue and al-teration assemblages such as sericite, dickite-kaolinite, diaspore, and residual. Addi-tionally barite and gypsum are also two minerals present at Centralni in greater abun-dance than at Noreshenik and Shahumyan, whereas previous reports have reported minor amounts of barite but have not been identified in the present study.  3.4.2 Noreshenik Minor quartz-pyrite veins are commonly observed at Noreshenik, pyrite is pri-marily euhedral cubic and occasionally blebby. Quartz-pyrite veins are crosscut by quartz-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-pyrite veins. Ore minerals at Noreshenik are mainly sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Crustiform and massive sulphide textures dominate and locally hydrothermal breccia consists of sulphide and wallrock clasts cemented by quartz-calcite. Major gangue minerals include quartz and calcite while minor gangue includes chlorite, sericite and trace hematite. The paragenesis of Noreshenik veins is shown in Table 3.3.Key differences in mineralogy at noreshenik compared to Shahumyan include hydrothermal sericite (higher crystallinity) as opposed to hydrothermal illite/sericite (lower crystallinity) found at Shahumyan and the lack of precious metal (Au-Ag) min-52eralization and telluride minerals.  3.5 Vein Geometry, Shahumyan Individual veins at Shahumyan contain base and precious metal mineralization along strike and dip of a vein; coexisting, localized high grade ore shoots rake (plunge along vein plane) sub-vertical and sub-horizontally within individual veins. Current workings and exploratory drilling indicate vein lengths of 300-500m along strike and vertical continuity of 300m. Veins at Shahumyan are segmented by post mineral fault-ing making it difficult to ascertain true lengths of individual veins due to their discon-tinuity. Veins anastomose and comprise of small bends, extensional jogs, soft and hard linked step-overs, pinch and swell structures, vein deflections and cymoid loops (Figure 3.4 A). W ESph, Cpy, Ga, ± Au-Ag tellurides30cmQuartz, carbonate (calcite, rhodochrosite)Quartz-Pyrite30cmFigure 3.5: A cymoid vein structure in Vein 20 showing brecciated wallrock clasts cemented by Stage 2a and Stage 2b minerals. Wallrock clasts contain Stage 1 quartz-pyrite veins.  53Within structurally controlled vein deposits such as the Shahumyan deposit, hydrothermal fluid flow through host rocks is governed by hydraulic gradients and in-terconnected fluid pathways between discontinuities (Sibson, 1996; Cox, 2005). How-ever the presence of irregularities, jogs, and intersections within these mineralized structures localize fluid pathways for hydrothermal fluids to be focussed and concen-trated (Faulkner et al., 2010; Cox, 2005; Rowland and Sibson 2004; Sibson 1996). The presence of highly permeable conduits combined with an efficient ore deposition mechanism, is critical in order to produce economic-grade deposit (Micklethwaite, 2008; Simmons and Brown, 2006; Cox, 2005; Simmons and Browne, 2000). It is therefore crucial in understanding the nucleation and propagation of faults, and how these processes influence vein growth and ore-shoot formation at Shahumyan.  Shahumyan veins were studied by evaluating mine level maps, longitudinal sections, cross-sections, and geometry of interconnecting structures. This preliminary study was followed by detailed mapping at accessible underground levels and drifts at 1:100 scales. Three zones (South, Middle, North) consisting of five veins were chosen for detailed mapping. These veins were selected due to mine accessibility at different depths and their spatial distribution within the mine. Within each vein the dis-tribution of hydrothermal stages, textural and structural variability were examined and mapped. Longitudinal sections showing thickness and grade distribution are created from channel assay database, provided by Dundee Precious Metals. Structural data is plotted and analysed using Open Stereo (Grohmann et al., 2011) and corroborated with Stereonet 9 (Allmendinger et al., 2013), any structural data herein will be given as dip-direction/dip (278o/90o). All collected data and maps of mapped veins are outlined in greater detail in Appendix 5. 543.5.1 South Zone (Vein 17 and 20)The south zone comprises of Vein 17 and Vein 20 and mapped at levels 690 and 670 (masl). In map view, both Veins 17 and 20 have irregular undulations along strike imparting an anastomosing geometry with frequent changes in orientation. However, when considered as a whole, both veins approximately strike northeast and dip to the southeast (Vein 20:164o/78o; Vein 17:143o/60o), with Vein 17 dipping more shallowly than Vein 20. Vein 17 is significantly thicker (0.50m to 3.0m) than Vein 20 (0.20m to 1m). Veins 17 and 20 are abundant in quartz carbonate gangue comprising up to 30-60% of the vein. The vein-wallrock interface contains no evidence of slip such as gouge or mineral fibers but does contain in-situ breccia (jigsaw breccia) lo-cally. Therefore, initial propagation of veins was likely purely dilational (tensional) with no lateral slip component. Towards the center of the veins 17 and 20, smaller faults (~10cm thick) displace mineral bands dextrally and are sub-parallel to perpendicular to mineral bands. Although rare, oblique-slip (dextral-normal) slickensides are pres-ent; indicated by quartz and calcite mineral fibers along exposed fault-vein surfaces. Gouge is also present within these smaller faults, containing rock flour, aphanitic/brec-ciated quartz-calcite and minor amounts sulphide Several vein segments of Vein 20 strike to the northwest and steeply dip to the southwest these veins are relatively less mineralized than the main vein segment; similarly assay results from these segments are much lower than the main vein. Larger northwest striking post mineral faulting crosscut existing veins and have a mean orientation of 235o/72o. These faults mainly dextrally offset of veins in map view. Displacement associated with these faults ranges from 10cm to 10-20m as seen in Vein 20 (L690). Northeast trending gabbro dikes typically crosscut veins but in some cases are parallel to veins. Gabbro dikes strike north to northeast with a mean orientation of 250o/56o. 553.5.2 Middle Zone (Vein 34-33, 57)The middle zone consists of Veins 34-33 and 57, mapped on levels 760, 748 and 735 (masl). Similar to veins in the south zone veins 34-33 and 57 have an anas-tomosing geometry with frequent changes in orientation, as a whole they strike ap-proximately east-west. When looked at individually, Vein 57 has a mean orientation of 140o/76o while Veins 33-34 has two sub-populations (east striking, 175o/82o and a southeast striking, 200o/80o). Mineralization within these sub-population vein seg-ments are quite similar with similar assay values. Furthermore, small segments along the main vein, drastically change in dip magnitude varying from 45-80o and direction from south to north or vice versa. These changes are absent in Vein 57. These drastic changes in dip occur with changes in dip-direction and at the edges of cymoid loops these variations sometimes correspond with change in vein textures and breccias be-tween the two vein segments in question. Veins 33-34 are excellent examples of the fractal nature of cymoid loops, where both Veins 33 and 34 are interpreted as individ-ual divergent branches propagating from a single larger vein. Mineralogically, Veins 34-33 and 57 contain 5-20% quartz-cabronate gangue, with the remaining composed of quartz-chalcopyrite-sphalerite and galena. Quartz-carbonate gangue in the middle zone is volumetrically low relative to Veins 17 and 20 in the south zone.F3 faults described in the previous chapter are identified in the middle zone. F3 faults strike east to southeast and can therefore be subdivided into F3a and F3b sets, respectively. The east striking F3a set has a mean orientation of 190o/60o and characterized as normal faults with a dextral kinematic sense indicated by slicken fi-bers (calcite and quartz) and slickensides (chlorite-zeolites) this fault set is observed in the more prevalent in the Middle Zone than the South Zone. Measured slickensides rake between 15-25º southwest (n=5) (~205-215º/60º). The east striking fault set has a similar orientation to mineralized veins and is considered syn-mineralization faulting 56which likely reactivated multiple times since their formation. Fault material contains significant amounts (1-2%) of pyrite and chalcopyrite in addition to fault gouge and quartz-carbonate material.The southeast striking F3b set has a mean orientation of 250o/82o and identi-fied as normal faults and in map view displaces veins dextrally. However no kinematic indicators are seen along the fault surface. Therefore, the F3b faults are inferred as normal faults. Fault material consists of fault gouge (rock flour, clay, and hydrothermal mica) and minor carbonate and pyrite. 3.5.3 North Zone (Vein 35) In the north zone Vein 35 is mapped on level 740 (masl). Vein 35 trends east to southeast with a mean orientation of 198o/83o.  Only a single fault set is identified in the north zone and strikes north to northeast with a mean orientation of 266o/70o. Mineralogically, Vein 35 has significantly less quartz-carbonate gangue than both the south and/or middle zones, making up <1% to 5% of vein material with the rest com-posed of quartz-chalcopyrite-sphalerite and galena. Additionally there is also an in-crease in chalcopyrite/pyrite and sphalerite ratios with relatively more chalcopyrite and pyrite in the north zone than the other two zones.3.5.4 High Grade Ore ShootsGold and silver grades within Shahumyan veins is irregular, with high grade Au-Ag mineralization hosted in discontinuous ore shoots. Based on drift mapping these oreshoots are associated with pinch and swell features, bends and cymoid loops. These structural features contain crustiform banding of quartz-sulphides and hydro-thermal breccias (Figure 3.5 A-D). 57A BC D5cm20cm20cm5cmFigure 3.6: Observed vein textures. (A) Brecciated vein pod within a vein, Stage 2a crustiform sphalerite chalcopyrite clasts cemented by Stage 3 quartz-carbonate. (B) Base metal rich vein char-acterized by crustiform banding of alternating chalcopyrite-sphalerite mineral bands. (C) Early Stage 2 breccia cementing quartz-pyrite stage veins and wallrock with Stage 2 sphalerite and quartz. (D) Vein containing crustiform sulphide bands and displaying multi-stage brecciation.58Each vein examined contains discontinuous high-grade ore shoots which rake sub-vertically and sub-horizontally within the vein. The two general orientation of these ore shoots are: 1) east to west alignment of mineralization pods of higher Au-Ag-Cu-Zn grade which extend 10-25 m horizontally and weakly plunge (10-20o) to the west; and 2) steeply plunging shoots, accommodated by cymoid loops and localized hydro-thermal breccia zones extend 20-100m vertically and have a narrow geometry (5-10m thickness) (Figure 3.6). In contrast, the veins themselves have continuous economic base metal mineralization extending 200-500m along strike and dip of the vein. Vein segments with sharp dip and strike changes and strongly brecciated zones tend to have increased Au-Ag grade. However, intersections between faults and extensional fractures only rarely host high Au-Ag grade ore. Vein deflections observed along strike of veins are junctions between two individual, differently oriented veins segments. Vein segments of different orientation and thickness but with similar hydrothermal fill are linked. This would indicate vein segments opened simultaneously and were sub-sequently linked through further vein propagation. 3.6 Discussion3.6.1 Hydrothermal Stages Vein mineralogy at Shahumyan has two main economic ore stages: a base metal stage (Stage 2a) and a precious metal stage (Stage 2b). Stage 2a consists of chalcopyrite, sphalerite (honey brown and yellow), and galena as its main economic minerals. Stage 2b consists of chalcopyrite, opaque sphalerite, sulphosalts, and Au-Ag tellurides as its main economic minerals. Stage 2a is characterized by crustiform colloform and quartz-comb textures while Stage 2b is characterized by localized brec-ciation of Stage 1 and Stage 2a sulphides and vein segments.     59Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate Breccia Crustiform Gabbro Legend*Map of drift backZn (%) Au (ppm)<1%<1-5%<5-10%>10%<1ppm<1-5ppm<5-10ppm>10ppm10mZinc Assay (%)Au Assay (ppm)South Zone: Vein 17 Level 690 masl862385086239008623950Level 69030m10mLongitudinal Cross SectionFlattened to Verticaln=17Max Density: 22.5%at 134.3o/59.3o (pole)Figure 3.7 A detailed plan view of Vein 17’s vein mineralogy, texture, structural features, and metal content (Au, Zn). High grade zones are as-sociated with breccia’s and crustiform textures which are typically associated with cymoid loops, and sudden changes in strike and dip of the vein segment. A long section of the vein collapsed to vertical sows contoured Au values normalized to vein thickness which reveals sub-hori-zontal and sub-vertical ore shoots within the mineralized vein. 603.6.2 Vein Geometry Epithermal veins commonly form in extensional terranes, which are active ei-ther during the relaxation phase following compressional regimes or in back-arc rift settings. Epithermal gold deposits are strongly structurally controlled where miner-alization is intimately linked with contemporaneous faulting and volcanism (Begbie et al., 2007; Cox, 2005; Cooke and Simmons, 2000; Páez et al., 2011; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). Undulating, veins at Shahumyan can be associated with fracture and vein prop-agation as through-going fluid pathways form by vein linkage during the development of a hydrothermal system (Sibson, 2001). These sub-vertical veins are tensional in nature, but whether they opened as pure extensional or extensional-shear veins is unknown. A homogeneous host rock and absence of older crosscutting features make it difficult to determine a sense of opening due to a lack of piercing points. However, overall vein geometry (dilational jogs, cymoid geometry and horse tail terminations) and presence of oblique slickensides indicate that these veins likely propagated or evolved in an extensional to transtensional (normal-dextral) regime during the miner-alizing event. An absence of sub horizontal (flat) veins or faults at Shahumyan, and the presence of a sub-vertical extensional/open-space filled veins indicates a vertical principal stress (σ1). The corresponding least and intermediate stresses axes (σ3 and σ2, respectively) are contained within the plane perpendicular to σ1 where σ2 is east to northeast directed and σ3 is north to northwest directed. This stress regime typically defines an extensional regime. However, with the presence of dextral geometries of veins and a dextral-normal kinematic indicators (slickensides) suggest a transition-al regime influenced the evolution of Shahumyan veins. The principal stress would therefore be sub-vertical with the corresponding least and intermediate stresses are sub-horizontal. These stress regimes have been identified to exist in the Lesser and 61Trans- Caucasus during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous by McCann et al. (2010) and Saintot et al. (2006).3.6.3 Vein and Oreshoot FormationExtensional fault systems grow and evolve as a consequence of local stress-es. Such fault systems begin as tensional fractures perpendicular to the direction of extension producing individual and non-interacting fracture meshes (Trudgill and Cartwright, 1994; Faulds and Varga, 1998; Walsh et al., 2003, Wallier, 2009). With continued extension, individual fractures continue to propagate along strike and begin to overlap and develop curvilinear geometry that mechanically link with one another, forming a dense network of highly permeable conduits for fluid flow (Faulds et al., 2010, 2006; Wallier, 2009; Micklethwaite and Cox, 2004) (Figure 3.7 A). These high-ly permeable conduits are the focus of continued deformation which are soft-linked at first (Figure 3.7B), where there is no physical connection between segments and create relay ramps, but later become hard linked once segments become physically linked (Fossen, 2010; Walsh et al., 2003; Peacock et al., 2002; Peacock and Sander-son, 1991) (Figure 3.7C).  This could result in abandonment of unlinked and smaller structures, as stress is focussed along the newly formed and continuously deform-ing, linkage zone (Faulds and Varga, 1998; Trudgill and Cartwright, 1994; Acocella et al., 2000; Wallier, 2009). These linkages between structures manifest as fault bends, step-overs, relay ramps or cymoid loops; which, allow for a more localized and repet-itive fluid flow (Faulds et al., 2010, 2006; Wallier, 2009; Micklethwaite and Cox, 2004; Trudgill and Cartwright, 1990).  In many metalliferous vein deposits these linkage zones also contain the most highly mineralized and prolific parts of the deposit due to the channeled metal-bearing fluid flow because of increased permeability (Mick-lethwaite, 2009; Wallier, 2009; Cox et al., 2005; Cox and Ruming, 2004; Micklethwaite and Cox, 2004; Sibson 2000). 6220cmHeavilyFracturedZonesMinor Veins(Py,Qtz/Cal)S185o/80oPolymetallic VeinN20cm10cm20cmExtensional VeinsDirection of PropogationAcommodation Zone Wing Cracks -Horse Tail structuresZone of BrecciationCymoid Loopskzky kxAlong strike and vertical permeability,limited horizontal permeabilitykxkzkyFracture/vein tip damage zones -Vertical permeabilityNIsolated Vein segmentConnected-Anastomosing VeinHighly permeable uid path waysHigh grade Ore Shoot ABCDEFigure 3.8: (A) a 2-D schematic of the isolated fault model in an extensional setting (Model after, Pollard et al., 1982; Cartwright et al., 1995; Childs et.al 1995l; Coqie et al., 2000; Rowland and Simmons ,2012). In-teraction of adjacent faults result in several structural features such as cymoid loops, wing cracks, horse tails, and soft-hard linked accommodation zones. (B) 3-demensional schematic representation of idealized vein formed from a complex segmented fault/vein ar-ray. The red outline indicates the anastomosing na-ture of the veins at Shahumyan. The blue arrows highlight horizontal fluid pathways along highly per-meable zones typically found at the intersecting connections of adjacent segments, resulting in either sub-horizontal (blue) oreshoots. High vertical fluid permeability and fluid flow are highlighted in red, and result in narrow vertical ore-shoots. (C): Horse tail structural feature indicative of soft linkage of adjacent veins. (D) Anastomosing nature of veins at Shahumyan. (E): Wing crack and an accommo-dation zone along a minor vein segment subparallel to a major vein.  The accommodation zone is characterized by brecciation and heavy fracturing. 63Cymoid loops can be described as vein bifurcations which bind or cement con-vex shaped lenses of wallrock fragments within hydrothermal vein material. The term cymoid loops had been coined by McKinstry (1948) and has been described in nu-merous epithermal districts (e.g., Hauraki, New Zealand: Begbie et al.,2007; Cayllo-ma, Peru; Echavarria et al., 2006; Pachuca, Mexico: Thornburg 1945; Grass Valley, California; Johnston, 1940). They have been further described in detail by Marma and Vance (2011) in the Gold Circle district of Midas, Nevada. Marma and Vance (2011) identified three main end-members of cymoid loops: 1) vein-vein cymoid loops, with both branches of the cymoid contain a vein; 2) vein-structure cymoid loops, where one branch of the cymoid loop contains vein material and the other does not and 3) struc-ture-structure cymoid loops, where both branched fractures contain no vein material. Each manifestation is a representation of a halted process towards the formation of a full cymoid loop (vein-vein cymoid). Cymoid loops accompanied by localized brec-ciation generally indicate the highest grade measured in vein segments; this is doubly true if a sharp change in dip and strike are also observed. All three end members are observed at Shahumyan. The crossings of cymoid loop branches described above form nodes and rep-resent the intersection of extension and/or shear veins and fractures (Marma and Vance, 2010). As a result, the nodes are highly fractured and intrinsically conducive to fluid flow, therefore producing high grade ore shoots. Micklethwaite and Cox (2004), Rowland and Simmons (2012) and Rowland and Sibson (2004) illustrate the effect of structures on permeability within an active volcanic-hydrothermal setting. After initial linkage of the main driving structure, permeability along the entire fault zone is in-creased, fluid flow along the main structure occurs diffusely along the entire breadth of the interconnected fractures. However, this is not maintained due to sealing from min-erals precipitating from cooling hydrothermal fluids.  Fluid flow is therefore localized within the intersection of interconnected faults or at fault tips and generally is protract-64ed through the fractures being continuously reactivated over varied time scales. The intersection zones consequently provide hydrothermal fluids enhanced permeability and sub-vertical conduits that allow for prolonged mineral and metal deposition need-ed to create high grade ore shoots. Similarly, fault tip interaction can also occur along dip, therefore the along strike and along dip interaction produces a 3D curviplanar fault geometry (Faulkner et al., 2010; Mickethwaite, 2009; Walsh et al., 1999; Childs et al., 1996). Uniquely interconnecting faults along dip of the main rupture zone result-ing in sub-horizontal conduits rather than a sub-vertical conduit seen in along strike interaction. Therefore, given the correct fault geometry high grade ore shoots can be either sub-vertical or sub-horizontal. 654.1 IntroductionChanges in physicochemical conditions such as temperature, pressure, salini-ty, pH and eH of hydrothermal fluids are effective mechanisms for precious and base metal precipitation (Zhu et al., 2011, Cooke et al., 2001; Cooke et al., 1996; Spycher and Reed, 1989, 1986) and are therefore important factors to consider for fluid evo-lution within an ore deposit. Temperature and salinity of mineralizing fluids are mea-sured through fluid inclusion studies. Acidity (pH), sulphur and tellurium fugacities are inferred based on chemical analysis of alteration, and sulphide minerals (sericite/illite/mica, chlorite, sphalerite) and sulphide, telluride mineral relationships (stability fields), respectively. At Shahumyan, mineralized veins are primarily base metal rich with localized zones enriched in Au-Ag. Vein mapping and petrographic work reveal Au-Ag telluride minerals are enriched in brecciated vein zones. As discussed in previous chapters (Chapter 3.0) high grade Au-Ag oreshoots rake vertically and sub-horizontally within a vein. Cooke and McPhail (2001) suggested magmatic volatile condensation as an effective mechanism for high-grade telluride ore-formation in tellurium rich epithermal deposits; however, in tellurium poor epithermal deposits, boiling is likely to be the prin-cipal depositional processes. In the first scenario, tellurium is initially concentrated in magmatic volatiles, which condense into precious metal bearing chloride rich waters reacting with dissolved gold and silver species to deposit telluride minerals such as calaverite (AuTe2) and hessite (Ag2Te). In the latter case during boiling, aqueous tel-lurium species fractionate into a gaseous phase as HTe-(aq). Condensation of gaseous HTe-(aq) results in saturation and subsequent precipitation of telluride minerals (Cooke 4. Fluid Characterization, Alteration and Fluid Inclusions66and McPhail, 2001; Tombros et al., 2010). In epithermal systems, certain alteration minerals (i.e. anhydrite, rhodonite, chlorite, epidote, carbonates, hydrothermal clays) are effective indicators of paleo-tem-peratures and/or mineral depositional processes, such as: mixing, boiling, throttling, and wall-rock interaction. An example of this, is steam-heated alteration assemblages which typify host-rocks reacting with acidic waters produced by condensation of va-pours from boiled geothermal waters. Detailed mapping of alteration assemblages around veins could help discriminate gas conduits from water conduits and could pro-vide a vector towards high-grade ore-shoots in underground epithermal vein mining operations, such as at Shahumyan. 4.2 Hydrothermal Alteration, ShahumyanThe Barabatoom andesites host the Shahumyan deposit and are ubiquitously Polymetallic Vein (Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, Ag) ProximalIntermediateDistalQuartzsericite/illitepyrite± crystallinekaoliniteIllite, chlorite, pyrite± carbonateChloriteEpidote±illite±Carbonate (Calcite)± pyriteGangue: Quartz,carbonate± uorite, ±gypsum, Kaolinite,illite, quartz, ±chlorite, ±pyrophyllite  ± Na/K-aluniteHypogeneSupergenePresent Surface3mVein 1Vein 21mAcid Sulphate alterationFigure 4.1: A schematic of alteration assemblages observed and mapped at Shahumyan. 67altered. Three main alteration assemblages are identified, with all three assemblages partially overprinting one another. Alteration overprinting is in large part due to fissure veins being used as conduits throughout the lifetime of the evolving hydrothermal sys-tem. Alteration haloes are the end-product of prolonged and varied water-rock inter-action. The three alteration assemblages are classified based on mineral assemblage extending laterally and vertically outward from veins into country rock, beginning with the proximal assemblage, intermediate assemblage and distal assemblages. (Figure 4.1)4.2.1 Least Altered Rocks, (Barabatoom Volcanics)The Shahumyan deposit is hosted in the Barabatoom volcanic group consisting of andesite and andesitic-dacite subvolcanic and volcanic rocks. The Barabatoom an-desite-dacites are unique within the Kapan District as they contain bipyramidal quartz crystals ranging from 0.5cm to 5cm with the exception of the interlayered volcaniclas-tics, which contain mechanically weathered, subrounded to rounded quartz eyes (<0.1-2cm). Bipyramidal quartz within the andesite-dacite are subhedral to euhedral with some crystals showing resorption and/or alteration rings. In decreasing abundance plagioclase, hornblende and pyroxene phenocrysts are also present. Plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts vary in size (1-10mm) and relative abundance (10-35%), py-roxene phenocrysts are small (1-2mm) with a relative abundance of 1-2%. Locally, hyaloclastite has been reported (Mederer et al., 2013) indicating a sub-aqueous en-vironment was present periodically during the deposition of the Barabatoom andes-ite-dacites.4.2.2 Distal Alteration AssemblageThe distal assemblage is characterized by a chlorite, illite/smectite, pyrite, epi-681cm1cmCAEGB1cmFHDProximal  + Silicious IntermediateSerPyIlQtzIlPyPlagPyIlChlQtzCalPlag (+Il, +Cal)Plag (+Cal)EpKao69dote and minor calcite (Figure 4.2C,G,K,L) and is texturally-preserving. Distal alter-ation assemblage halos enclose epithermal veins, proximal, and intermediate alter-ation envelopes. Due to the dense array of veins at Shahumyan, one vein’s distal alteration envelope may overlap or merge with the distal assemblage of an adjacent vein, making it difficult to approximate the extent of this assemblage. Even the least altered volcanic rocks in the deposit contain trace amounts of this assemblage. The Barabatoom andesites-dacites altered to this assemblage have a pale to intense green hue. Hornblende, pyroxene and accessory biotite are partially to completely replaced by chlorite, pyrite, epidote and to a lesser degree, leucoxene. Pyrite and leucoxene grains have an anhedral blebby morphology and are disseminated within the relict mafic mineral. Chlorite replaces the rims of hornblende crystals and is pres-ent within the rock matrix. Euhedral plagioclase crystals are partially altered to illite/smectite showing a sieve or dusted texture. Illite-smectite alteration is most prevalent at the rims of plagioclase crystals but also occurs within plagioclase crystal cores. Mineralogically destructive mineralogically distal assemblages are only observed lo-cally and primarily only show epidote-chlorite alteration. Accumulations of epidote are primarily observed around mafics, and feldspars and primary quartz phenocrysts to a lesser degreeFigure 4.2: (A) Proximal alteration assemblage characterized by quartz-sericite-pyrite adjacent a quartz-pyrite-sphalerite vein. Adjacent the proximal assemblage is the intermediate alteration zone characterized by sericite-chlorite-pyrite. (B) Intermediate alteration zone characterized by chlorite and pyrite after hornblende, sericite/illite after plagioclase. (C) Distal alteration assemblage characterized by pyrite, chlorite after hornblende, and epidote alteration rims around hornblende. (D) Microphoto-graph of the proximal alteration assemblage. Illite and quartz crystals altering groundmass with seric-ite alteration with kaolinite altering sericite. (E&F) Microphotograph of the intermediate alteration as-semblage. Illite and pyrite alteration after plagioclase. Chlorite-pyrite and illite alteration after hornblende. (G) Photomicrograph of the distal alteration assemblage.  Bipyramidal quartz phenocryst with an epidote and calcite alteration rim. (H) Photomicrograph of the distal alteration assemblage. Plagioclase twins and broken plagioclase phenocryst showing sieved-mottled texture with illite and calcite alteration after plagioclase. Abbreviations: Ser: Sericite Kao: Kaolinite Qtz: Quartz Py: Pyrite Il: Illite Chl: Chlorite Plag: Plagioclase Cal: Calcite Ep: Epidote.704.2.3 Intermediate Alteration AssemblageThe assemblage is characterized by sericite, illite, pyrite, chlorite, ±kaolinite, ±calcite and is weak to moderately texturally destructive (Figure 4.2 B,E,F,H,J). The alteration envelope extends 50cm to 300cm away from the mineralized vein.  Bound-aries between the intermediate-proximal assemblages and the intermediate-distal assemblages are indistinct with one assemblage grading into the other. The interme-diate assemblage differs from the proximal assemblage with an increase in chlorite and calcite abundance and a decrease in sericite/illite abundance. Primary igneous mafic minerals are replaced by chlorite, sericite/illite, pyrite and minor carbonate (cal-cite). Chlorite partially to completely alter hornblende and biotite crystals imparting a moderate to strong green coloration on the andesite-dacites. Pyrite blebs are found within hornblende crystals. Very fine grained sericite/illite partially alters biotite and plagioclase crystals resulting in a sieved texture. Very fine grained calcite crystals are disseminated within the groundmass, but are more frequently observed in feldspar crystals (plagioclase). Calcite is rare in intermediate alteration assemblage but occurs more abundantly near late stage calcite rich veins.4.2.4 Proximal Alteration AssemblageThe proximal alteration is characterized by a quartz-sericite/illite-pyrite ±kaolin-ite mineral assemblage (Figure 4.2 A,D,I) and is moderate to intense texturally de-structive of host rock. The width of this zone varies with vein width and ranges from 1 to 100cm from the edge of the vein. Very fine grained to medium grained sericite/illite alter primary igneous feldspars and mafic minerals, resulting in a bleached white color to the altered host rock. Fine grained disseminated anhedral quartz crystals are ob-served in groundmass and feldspar rims. An intense zone of silicification is localized and confined to <0.1-2cm narrow zones from vein margin. This zone is dominated by 71quartz (70-80%) with minor amounts of sericite (5-10%) and disseminated pyrite (5-10%). Pyrite occurs as small cubic euhedral and irregular grains disseminated within the groundmass and as aggregates replacing hornblende and biotite. Aggregates of pyrite are also present within relict feldspar crystals. Kaolinite is rare but occurs locally within the proximal assemblage and vein gangue. Spatial distribution of kaolinite along mineralized veins is not well understood due to its sparse occurrence. From mineral relationship and petrographic evidence, kaolinite overprints sericite-illite alteration in-dicating that kaolinite formed after sericite-illite alteration. It is most easily identified in samples through shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. 4.2.5 Lithocap AlterationLithocap alteration is present in the eastern part of Shahumyan, above the northern mine entrance. The alteration is distinguished by intense silicification, K-al-unite and Na-alunite, diaspore, kaolinite, dickite, and minor hematite and pyrite. Two generations of alunite are observed: a clear to pinkish coarse grained potassium rich alunite in vugs replacing host rocks; and a very fine grained pinkish white Na-rich alunite found exclusively within fractures. Mederer (2013, unpublished) proposes Na-rich alunite as the precursor to K-rich alunite.  All alteration minerals are identified through SWIR and XRD analyses. The clay minerals, kaolinite, diaspore and dickite overprint plagioclase phenocrysts completely and quartz primarily replaces ground-mass. The lithocap alteration found at Shahumyan is representative of acid-sulfate alteration. 4.3 Mineral CompositionsAlteration minerals identified through petrographic studies are confirmed using SWIR and XRD analyses, particularly to distinguish between various white-mica and 72chlorite species. Mineral crystallinity of sericite/illite has been frequently linked with hy-drothermal alteration intensity and in turn temperature (i.e. Merriman and Frey, 1999; Ji and Browne, 2000; Harraden et al., 2013 and etc); where, poorly crystalline miner-als are associated with weak hydrothermal alteration and low temperatures while the opposite is true for highly crystalline sericite/mica. Additionally, alteration mineral sta-bilities are sensitive to pH, temperature and exsolution of gases (e.g. fugacity increase or decrease) due to boiling (Simmons and Browne, 2000), and identifying the correct species can lead to constraining such conditions.4.3.1 White Mica GroupAll identified alteration zones at Shahumyan show varying degrees of white-mi-ca alteration (Figure 4.2 D, E, F, G). The white-mica group refers to a group of fine-grained phyllosillicate minerals that includes: illite, paragonite, muscovite and phengite. It is found in a wide variety of rocks due to weathering or hydrothermal alteration. All white micas are spectrally characterized by a prominent absorption feature between 2180-2228nm and two secondary peaks close to 2344 and 2440nm (Figure 4.3 A). The wavelength range indicates a compositional variation from paragonitic (2180 nm), muscovitic (2200 nm) to phengitic (2228 nm). A Dundee Precious Metals SWIR data-set is used in conjunction with one collected during this study to identify prevalent white-mica populations within the deposit. At Shahumyan, white-mica features range between 2,190 to 2,210 nm, consisting of two populations; one concentrated at 2,198 nm and one at 2,207 nm. The 2,198 nm population is relatively more enriched in Zn (> 0.5% Zn) than the 2,207 nm population. In some cases, progressive transition from K-rich illite to phengite indicate alteration vectoring to high-grade ore (Meunier, 2005; Murakami et al., 2005). At Shahumyan white-mica compositions does not directly vec-tor towards higher grades or identify a specific hydrothermal; however, white-mica composition do vary between K-rich and relatively more Fe-rich white-micas. Sericite 73crystallinity, is calculated by comparing the depth of the 2200 nm and the 1900 nm features in SWIR analyses and is confirmed through XRD analyses by analysing the Full Wavelength Half Maximum (FWHM) of the 2ᶿ feature. At Shahumyan, samples containing sericite show increasing crystallinity with depth for white mica (sericite-il-lite). 4.3.2 Chlorite GroupChlorites are part of the phyllosillicate group containing Al, Mg and Fe end members; spectrally Mg and Fe can be identified with Mg-OH and Fe-OH absorption features. The spectral positions of the Mg-OH and Fe-OH features depend on the Fe content. Low or High iron content leads to displacement of absorption feature position to either shorter or longer wavelengths (respectively) (Figure 4.3 B). XRD and SWIR analyses of chlorite at Shahumyan indicates Mg-Fe rich chlorite, indicating that chlorite com-position is typically clinochore (rapidolite- a subtype of clinochlore). Chlorite replaces mafic minerals in groundmass and hornblende phenocrysts (Figure 4.2 F, J, K).4.3.3 Kaolinite GroupKaolinite is rare but observed locally within the proximal assemblage and vein gangue.  From mineral relationship and petrographic evidence, kaolinite overprints sericite-illite alteration indicating that kaolinite formed after sericite-illite alteration. It is most easily identified in samples through shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. Kaolinite crystallinity is linked with hydrothermal alteration intensity similar to seric-ite-illite crystallinity and is calculated from SWIR analysis by comparing depths of the 2180nm and 2160nm doublet feature (Figure 4.3 C). At Shahumyan kaolinite crystal-linity ranges from moderate to well crystalline, kaolinite crystallinity is highest within the lithocap assemblage. Kaolinite is observed to replace sericite/illite within proximal 74and intermediate alteration assemblages (Figure 4.3C).4.4 Geochemistry of Alteration AssemblagesZoned hydrothermal alteration assemblages surrounding ore deposits is the mineralogical expression of compositional gradients and temperature centered on hy-drothermal fluid pathways, and in turn relate to processes that form economic ore deposits. These compositional gradients in the sense of gains and losses relative to country rock can vector towards mineralization as shown by previous studies, using trace pathfinder elements and base metals (As, Sb, Hg, Tl, Cu, Zn, Pb) (e.g. White and Hedenquist, 1990,1995; Carlile et al., 1998; Hedenquist et al., 2000). Whole-rock geochemical studies were widely applied to VHMS (e.g. Gemmell and Large, 1992; Whitford and Ashley, 1992; Callahan, 2001; Gemmell and Fulton, 2001; Large et al., 2001a-c) and orogenic gold deposits (e.g. Eilu et al., 1997) and more recently porphy-ry-epithermal deposits (e.g. Booden et al., 2011; Warren et al., 2007; Gemmell, 2007; Mauk and Simpson, 2007; Bouzari and Clark., 2006; Leavitt and Arehart, 2005) to evaluate compositional gradients associated with hydrothermal alteration.To classify and evaluate alteration zones and gradients, lithogeochemical anal-yses of least altered rocks are compared with representative samples from identified alteration assemblages: proximal (n=13); intermediate (n=13); distal (n=13). In addi-tion, three samples from the Mederer et al (2013) sample dataset are used to eval-uate geochemical characteristics of least altered samples. Samples from the current study were sent as two separate batches and analysed at Acme Labs, Vancouver British Columbia, Canada. A detailed procedural and analytical framework is outlined in Appendix 1. All samples are taken from the Barabatoom group and are limited to coherent volcanic rocks. Interbedded volcaniclastic layers and samples containing vein vol% greater than 10% within a single sample are avoided as they would not ac-75curately represent mass changes within the host rocks.4.4.1 Mass Transfer CalculationsLeast mobile elements are identified through examination of the concentration ratio of the element between least-altered and altered rocks. Titanium (Ti) and Alumi-num (Al) are the least mobile; however Al is chosen as the reference species because it shows least mobility/variation across the different assemblages. Mass change cal-culations of all mobile constituents is performed between identified alteration zones and least altered rocks using the modified Gresens (1967) equation (Eqn 4.3.1) (War-ren et al., 2007; Grant, 1986):  (Eqn 4.1): Δ𝓧 = [(𝓧Ai/𝓧Bi) x 𝓧B] - 𝓧.Awhere 𝓧A and 𝓧B are the concentrations of an element in fresh and altered rocks, respectively, and (𝓧Ai/𝓧Bi) is the ratio of the concentration of least mobile constitu-ent in unaltered and equivalent altered rock. The modified equation varies from the original as it conserves volume changes and in effect removes any impact of volume change between least-altered and altered rocks. This calculation calculates the ab-solute mass change between an alteration assemblage and least altered rocks and is most useful for major oxides and metals. However in the case of trace elements and REE’s the absolute change is negligible and to identify any trends, a relative mass change percentage must be calculated. Relative mass change percentage is calculated by normalizing mass change values to least mobile element such as Al. Additionally a 95% confidence interval for each trace and rare earth element has been calculated to determine if the calculated mass change is significant enough to indicate true mobility of the element. An element is considered immobile if the 95% confidence interval intersects the zero relative mass % line. These elements are highlighted in Figure 4.4 A-C.76K/Al(18Ca+13Na)/2Si+7Al+4(Fe+Mg)0 1.000.6000.5000.4000.3000.2000.1001.000.6000.5000.4000.3000.2000.100Hornblende,PlagioclaseNo AlterationChlorite/Epidote, lliteIllite, ChloriteChlorite, KaoliniteIllite, KaoliniteLegendKaolinite, ChloriteMuscoviteIlliteK-SparLeast Altered RocksChlorite-Epidote K-Metasomatism Montmorillonite ParagoniteAway from hydrothermal uidsCloser to hydrothermal uids0100200300400500600No Alteration Carbonate Kaolinite-DickiteMontmorillonite Chlorite (Fe-Mg)Sericite K-IlliteNa-Illite(Paragonite)Shahumyan SWIR Data n=2422600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400KaoliniteDickiteWavelength (nm)ReflectanceC600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400EpidoteChloriteWavelength (nm)ReflectanceB600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400IlliteSericiteWavelength (nm)ReflectanceADn=43Figure 4.3: (A-C) Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) response for minerals observed at Shahumyan; Sericite-Illite(A), Chlorite-Epidote(B), and Kaolin-ite-Dickite(C). (D) A molar element ratio diagram is used to graphically evaluate alteration trends observed at Shahumyan. Least altered rock sam-ples or samples further away from the hydrothermal fluids would plot closer to 1.0 on the x-axis. Molar element ratio diagram and relevant indices after Urqueta et al. (2009). Histogram compiles all SWIR analyses at Shahumyan.77-50-30-101030507090110130150 BeRbBaVCoGaSrYZrNbCsLa CePr Nd SmEu Gd TbDy Ho Er Tm Yb LuHfTaTh URelative Mass Change (%)Trace and REEs0100020003000400050006000700080009000Ag As AuBiCdCuHgPbZnMetals-50050100150200SiO2Fe2O3CaOMgONa2OK2OMnOTiO2SRelative Mass Change (%)Major ElementsRelative Mass Change (%)26111,630 14,597>15,00013,018>11,597-77-55196218HREEsLREEsMobile:95%Conf Int: Immobile: ProximalIntermediateDistalProximalIntermediateDistalProximalIntermediateDistalA BCFigure 4.4: (A) Relative mass balance of major elements in the proximal (red), intermediate (yellow), and distal (green) assemblages. (B) Relative mass balance of precious and base metals in observed alteration assemblages. (C) Relative mass balance of trace and REE’s in observed alteration assem-blages. Major Elements Mass TransferAll major elements (Si, Fe, Mg, K, Mn) with the exception of Ca and Na are high-er in altered rocks relative to least altered rocks (Figure 4.4 A). Addition of Si, Fe, and K is greatest in the proximal assemblage and least in the distal alteration assemblage. A 95% confidence interval analyses indicates K, as immobile in the distal assemblage. Compared to least altered rock, Mg content is highest in the distal assemblage and decreases toward the proximal assemblage. This reflects progressively increasing 78abundance of chlorite towards the distal assemblage. Calculated confidence intervals indicate all elements are significantly mobile except for Ti which has already been dis-cussed in previous sections to be another least mobile element along with Al. Ca and Na are lower in altered rocks compared to least altered rocks, both show significant loss in the proximal assemblage and least loss in the distal assem-blage. A 95% confidence interval analyses indicates Na is immobile in the intermedi-ate and distal assemblages compared to least altered rocks. Base and Precious Metal Mass TransferMetal concentrations are higher in altered rocks compared to least altered rocks; with highest concentrations found in the proximal assemblage and lowest con-centrations in the distal assemblage (Figure 4.4 B). Absolute mass change values indicate Zn as the most significant increase compared to least altered rocks followed by Cu, Pb, Au and Ag. However, relative mass change values show Cd to be signifi-cantly added compared to least altered rocks followed by Zn, Au, Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu and As. The primary host mineral for cadmium is sphalerite but may also be hosted in minor amounts by galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite (Schwartz, 2000). The Cd/Zn ratio in sphalerite is dependent on ligand activities, pH and temperature of ore forming fluids (Schwartz, 2000). Calculated confidence intervals indicate all metals with the exception of Pb to significantly vary from least altered rocks in all assemblages. The Pb concentration in distal assemblages is similar in abundance to least altered rocks. Trace Elements and REE Mass TransferSignificant mass changes in trace elements are limited to Be, V, Ba, Co, Rb and Sr (Figure 4.4 C-D). Additionally, HREEs seem to be added in alteration zones and LREEs are removed in alteration zones. Calculated confidence intervals (95%) 79indicate only some REEs to be mobile and others are immobile regardless of relative mass change values. REE concentrations are well within variance and therefore are presumed to be natural variation within the rock and not likely related to hydrothermal alteration. Barium and rubidium both show progressively higher net gains towards veins and reflect K net gains. The REEs can be transported in form of fluoride and chloride complexes in nearly neutral-pH fluids (Wood, 1990; Van Middlesworth and Wood, 1998) which can explain the mobility of Ce, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. 4.4.2 Molar element ratio diagrams and alteration trendsMass transfer effects are evaluated graphically and related to associated alter-ation minerals using molar element ratio calculations from whole-rock geochemical data which are fundamentally similar to the Pearce element ratio techniques of Stan-ley and Madeisky (1994). Molar element ratio diagrams eliminate volume changes when comparing hydrothermally altered rocks to protoliths and express geochemical analyses to mineral stoichiometries of hydrothermal minerals (Stanley and Madeisky, 1994; Madeisky, 1996). This allows geochemical trends to be related to alteration mineralogy and zonation identified from field observations. The molar element ratio di-agram evaluating hydrothermal alteration must reflect protolith composition as such a (K/Al) Pearce element ratio has been plotted against an alteration index for andesites: [(18Ca+13Na)/(2Si+7Al+4(Fe/Mg)] outlined by Urqueta et al. (2009) (Figure 4.3 D). This index is composed of two separate indices:  (18Ca+13Na) and [2Si+7Al+4(Fe/Mg)]. When plotted against each other the plagioclase-hornblende line will have a control line slope of 1.0 and the epidote control line will have a slope of 2.67. Stoichiometric node points for hornblende, plagioclase for unaltered andesites and kaolinite, chlorite, K-feldspar, biotite, muscovite, paragonite, montmorillonite and illite for altered andesites can be plotted using this index. 80The (K/Al) vs [(18Ca+13Na)/(2Si+7Al+4(Fe/Mg)] plot (Figure 4.3 D) is used to illustrate compositional and spatial trends of alteration zones encompassing mineral-ized veins at Shahumyan. In the diagram, unaltered or least altered rock occur closest to (1,0) and potassic altered rocks occur at (0,1). Muscovite plots at (0, 0.33), illite plots between 0.2 and 0.33 on the K/Al axes. Kaolin group minerals and chlorite will plot at (0,0). Mixtures of chlorite, illite and or kaolinite which are seen in epithermal deposits plot on the line between 0.2 and 0. This index does not properly distinguish between chlorite and kaolinite group minerals. The overall trend observed in this plot is an increasing K-metasomatism trend associated with the proximal alteration zone. The principal mass change components associated with base and precious metal mineralization are K, Si and Fe.  In addition to compositional and spatial trends the plot also delineates K-metasomatism intensity.4.4.3 Alteration DiscussionAt Shahumyan, alteration minerals progressively replace hornblende, biotite and plagioclase as confirmed from petrography. This sequence employs primary con-trol on alteration mineralogy and whole rock geochemistry of host rocks. Igneous horn-blende in the proximal assemblage is completely destroyed and replaced by sericite/illite, chlorite and blebby pyrite whereas distal assemblages show a chlorite, epidote and pyrite assemblage. The chlorite-epidote (distal) alteration front likely progressed during higher temperature fluids and has been overprinted by K-metasomatism, and white-mica minerals at lower temperatures or at lower pH. This is evidenced by the sericite/illite replacement of chlorite which can be represented by the chemical reac-tion in Eqn 4.5.1 where chlorite is being replaced by sericite/illite with an influx of po-tassium-rich fluids. The liberated iron reacts with H2S within hydrothermal fluids to cre-ate pyrite, in addition to pyrite formed from hornblende-chlorite alteration. Furthermore 81hornblende has been reported to alter directly into interlayered chlorite-illite at lower temperatures of formation compared to chlorite alteration (Rahman, 1995; Schardt et al., 2001); which, represents the intermediate alteration assemblage at Shahumyan.  Eqn 4.23(Mg,Fe2+)5 Al2Si3O10 (OH)8 + 2K+ + 28H+ → Chlorite (Clinochlore)2KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 +3SiO2+ 15Mg2+ + 15Fe2+ +24H2OSericite-Illite                                         QuartzIgneous plagioclase is progressively destroyed by K-metasomatism, leading to loss of Na and Ca and gain of K. Significant loss of both elements reflects the de-struction of hornblende and plagioclase in the proximal assemblage which decreases in the intermediate and distal assemblages. A progressive destruction of igneous pla-gioclase would result in Na and Ca loss and replacement by white mica minerals such as sericite or illite (Eqn 4.5.2) or paragonite. Illite and sericite contain K, and parago-nite contains Na. Partial substitution of K into plagioclase could produce interlayered paragonite and K-illite; which, has been identified through SWIR analyses. Proximal assemblages contain narrow silicified zones with higher vein abundance, and dissem-inated sulphides (pyrite, ± chalcopyrite) which explain the increase in Si and Fe. The proximal assemblage is intensely sericite/illite altered and explains the increase in K, potassium reduces significantly in the intermediate and distal assemblages, which is reflected by sericite-illite content in these assemblages. The significant loss of Ca in the proximal assemblage is attributed to complete destruction of plagioclase and horn-blende. Although rare, calcite is observed to replace relict plagioclase after K-metaso-matism alteration. It should be noted that although late stage calcite precipitation is prevalent within veins and veinlets of proximal assemblages it does not offset the net 82loss of calcium within the altered rocks. Eqn 4.33NaCaAl4Si8O24 +8H+(aq) + 4K+(aq)  → Plagioclase4KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 + 12 SiO2 + 3Na+(aq) + 3 Ca+(aq)Sericite-Illite                                                 QuartzThe abundance of epidote in the distal assemblage of veins at Shahumyan can be interpreted to be a consequence of lack of dissolved CO2 with fluids, which stabi-lized epidote early in the hydrothermal system. Alternatively, if CO2 had been present in abundance, calcite would be chemically stable over epidote. Formation of epidote is also temperature dependant (220 to 340°C). K-metasomatism alteration also affects Sr, Ba, V, Co and Rb, where Sr shows mass loss and Ba, Rb and V are enriched. Sr shows progressively lower net loss away from veins and reflects Na loss from plagioclase. Ba and Rb are relatively immobile elements and show inherent enrichment relative to least altered rocks; however, Ba could be significant gained if carbonates are present in samples. Cobalt content may be attributed its substitution in Mg Chlorite. Vanadium has been observed in numer-ous deposits (e.g., Porgera, Emperor, Tuvatu; Corbett, 2005) to substitute into white mica group minerals. High concentrations of vanadium (>17 wt% V) and potassium crystallize roscoelite, a vanadium rich muscovite (Fleet et al., 2003). Kaolinite is observed to replace sericite-illite through petrographic studies, however its fineness and minor abundance makes it difficult to identify optically but is easily identified by XRD and SWIR. Hydrothermal kaolinite has been reported to form with increasing acidity of hydrothermal fluids in epithermal deposits (Zhu et al., 2011). 83Acidic fluids (i.e., H+ metasomatism) can react with sericite/illite to form kaolinite as shown in reaction Eqn 4.5.3. It is also possible to form kaolinite from plagioclase. An increase in acidity of hydrothermal fluids due to fluid-rock interaction can occur once the buffering capacity of the host rock is diminished.  Buffering capacity of the host rock is determined by the feldspars (plagioclase) present in the rock. In the proximal alteration assemblage plagioclase has been predominantly altered to sericite/illite, thus reducing the ability of fluids to be buffered and precipitating trace amounts of ka-olinite. Boiling is another function by which kaolinite can overprint sericite/illite or pla-gioclase. Kaolinite overprinting indicates hydrothermal fluids evolved to acid-sulphate composition (H2S oxidation) as opposed to near-neutral pH fluids which are required to form sericite/illite (Henley and Hedenquist, 1986; DeRonde and Blattner, 1988). Eqn 4.4 2KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 + 2H+(aq) +3H2O → 2K+(aq) + 3Al2Si2O5(OH)4                                                                    Sericite-Illite                             Kaolinite4.5 Fluid Inclusions Fluid inclusion data provide an estimate of prevailing fluid temperature and salinity during hydrothermal activity which produced Cu-Zn-Pb and Au-Ag telluride mineralization at the Shahumyan deposit. A paragenetic study of Shahumyan veins identified three stages:(Stage 1) a pre-ore Stage, (Stage 2) a main stage; which is subdivided into Stages 2a and 2b, and (Stage 3) a post-ore stage. Stage 2a is pre-dominantly base metal rich consisting of Cu, Zn, and Pb mineralization and Stage2b is observed to contain Au- Ag telluride mineralization in addition to Cu, Zn and Pb mineralization. A total of thirty-four samples are used in paragenetic studies; of which, six samples containing representative hydrothermal stages of Stage 2a, 2b and 3 are chosen for fluid inclusion work. It should be noted that each of these samples contain multiple hydrothermal stages, which is a result of continuous hydrothermal fluid trans-84Mineral Fluid Inclusion TypeObserved FrequencyLiquid %Vapor %Solid %Boiling (Y/N)Inclusion MineralsCommentsQuartz Isolated Common 90-95 5-10 0 NPrimary Common 90-95 5-10 0 NPseudo-Secondary Common 90-95 5-10 0 NHoney Brown SphaleritePrimary 1 Abundant 0 0 100 N CpyPrimary 2 Very Rare 85-95 5-15 0 NPseudo Secondary Common 90-95 5-10 0 NSecondary 1 Rare 0-5 95-1000 Y Within same  trailSecondary 2 Rare 85-95 5-15 0 YYellow SphaleritePrimary Very Rare 85-95 5-15 0 NPseudo Secondary Common 90-95 5-10 0 NSecondary 1 Rare 0-5 95-1000 Y Within same trailSecondary 2 Rare 85-95 5-15 0 YDark SphaleritePrimary Adundant 0 0 100 N CpyCalcite Isolated Common 90-95 10-5 0 NPseudo-Secondary Rare 90-95 10-5 0 Nport throughout the lifetime of the system due to repeated vein opening (see Chapter 3).4.5.1 Fluid Inclusion PetrographyPrimary, isolated, pseudo-secondary, and secondary fluid inclusions are clas-sified using Roedder’s (1984) textural criteria. Primary inclusions occur along growth surfaces in crystals, isolated inclusions are distributed randomly within the cores of crystals or between growth planes, pseudo-secondary inclusions crosscut growth planes and occur along minor fractured within a crystal but do not extend to the edges of a crystal, and finally secondary inclusions occur in secondary healed fractures per-meating from the edges of a crystal, crosscutting primary inclusions. Inclusions are observed in three different minerals: quartz, calcite and sphaler-ite which are sub-divided by color into: honey-brown sphalerite, yellow sphalerite and Table 4.1: Summary of observed fluid inclusion assemblages and their characteristics 85dark-sphalerite. Coarse crystalline quartz is present in all three hydrothermal stages; however, it is difficult to identify different quartz generations solely from petrography. Cathodoluminescence is a method that can further differentiate specific quartz gen-erations; however, it is not pursued in this study. Honey-brown sphalerite is abundant in stage 2a and increasingly declines into stage 2b, relative to yellow/pale sphaler-ite. Pale-yellow sphalerite, progressively increases toward the end of stage 2a and into stage 2b. Dark sphalerite is present late in stage 2b and overprints earlier hon-ey-brown sphalerite and pale-yellow sphalerite, it is primarily present along fractures within earlier sphalerites. Dark sphalerite is intergrown with and/or contains inclusions of Au-Ag telluride minerals and is assumed to be paragenetically linked. Dark sphaler-ite is non-translucent which makes it difficult to identify any assemblages with the exception of solid chalcopyrite inclusions, identified through reflected petrography. A BC DFigure 4.5 (A) pseudo-secondary L-V assemblage in honey brown sphalerite (B) primary L-V assem-blage in honey-brown sphalerite (C) Primary solid fluid inclusions in honey brown sphalerite (D) pseu-do secondary fluid inclusions in yellow sphalerite. 86Calcite is abundant in stage 3 and represents the waning stages of the hydrothermal system.In total, 210 inclusions, within 75 assemblages are measured across all miner-als and are further summarized in Table 4.1. Fluid inclusions sizes range from <2-14 μm (long axis) and <1-4 μm (short axis), larger inclusions (>6μm, short axis) are quite rare, and are limited to primary or isolated inclusions. Sphalerite crystals tend to be zoned and show primary solid and primary liquid-vapour rich inclusions present along growth planes (Figure 4.5 A,B). Primary solid inclusions are predominantly found in honey-brown sphalerite and dark sphalerite, and are composed of chalcopyrite (Fig-ure 4.5 C). Pseudo-secondary assemblages within sphalerite are primarily oriented sub-parallel to perpendicular to growth planes and tend to terminate or propagate from the middle of a mineral grain and are liquid-vapour rich (Figure 4.5 D). Both quartz and calcite predominantly contain isolated and pseudo-secondary inclusions with liquid-vapour inclusions (Figure 4.6 A, B, C, D). Growth zones in both quartz and calcite contain primary inclusions with isolated inclusions in the cores of crystals. Secondary inclusions are observed in sphalerite crystals and tend to show boil-ing features (Figure 4.7 B). Vapour-rich inclusions and liquid-vapour rich inclusions occur in a single FI assemblage trail. The presence of multi-phase (liquid-vapour) and single-phase (vapour) inclusions within a single assemblage trail suggests that vapour and liquid coexisted (i.e. fluid was boiling) at the time of trapping. Secondary inclusions are observed in both honey brown and yellow sphalerite; however, are un-identified in calcite and quartz. Secondary assemblages are observed to propagate from fractures containing dark-sphalerite and Au-Ag tellurides and crosscut earlier honey-brown and yellow sphalerite crystals (Figure 4.7 A). This paragenetic evidence would therefore indicate that these secondary assemblages represent an environ-ment in which dark-sphalerite and Au-Ag tellurides were deposited. 87Measured homogenization temperatures represent minimum fluid trapping conditions within fluid inclusions unless the assemblage has been identified as a boil-ing assemblage in which case the measured homogenization temperature represents the exact trapping temperatures. If boiling is not evident in observed assemblages a pressure correction is needed in order to obtain real formation temperatures. How-ever, there is a lack of an independent geothermometer or geobarometer such as sulphur isotopic data to apply a pressure correction. Therefore all measurements in-dicated are minimum trapping conditions, with the exception of boiling assemblages. Post-entrapment modification of several fluid inclusion assemblages are observed. These assemblages have not been analysed as they may record post entrapment conditions rather than original fluid conditions. Measured fluid inclusion assemblages within calcite are limited to isolated assemblages rather than primary or pseudo-sec-A BDCFigure 4.6 (A) Secondary FI assemblage with both L-V and V-L rich inclusions within a single FI trail in sphalerite (B) isolated L-V assemblage in calcite (C) Both isolated and pseudo secondary L-V as-semblage in quartz (D) pseudo secondary and isolated L-V inclusions in calcite.88ondary assemblages in order to avoid leakage. Leakage refers to a loss of trapped fluid within the inclusion as a result of the heating and cooling experiments which lead to incorrect measurements. Fracture (Filled with Tellurides + Sulfosalts)AB Figure 4.7 (A) Paragenetic se-quence of boiling fluid inclusions associated with Au-Ag tellurides found in fracture. Boiling fluid in-clusion assemblages (green dashed line) are considered secondary as they propagate from fractures extending across the entire grain and subsequent-ly in filled with dark opaque sphalerite and tellurides. Boiling assemblages also crosscut ear-lier pseudo-secondary and pri-mary assemblages (blue dashed lines). These boiling as-semblages contain both liq-uid-vapor rich inclusions and low density, vapor-liquid rich in-clusions. Presence of both va-por rich and liquid-vapor rich inclusions is indicative of phase separation (boiling). (B) Vapor rich in-clusion within a FI inclusion trail containing both L-V and V-L rich inclusions. 894.5.2 Fluid Inclusion ResultsAll pseudo-secondary and primary isolated inclusions measured show relative-ly similar liquid-vapour ratios with typical liquid fill percentages ranging from 85-95%, indicating that trapped fluids are homogeneous within individual assemblages (Dia-mond, 2003). In contrast liquid-vapour ratios strongly vary within secondary assem-blages indicating that fluids were inhomogeneous and likely in disequilibrium.    The eutectic temperatures (Te) measured in all inclusions assemblages aver-age approximately -21.6°C. Eutectic temperatures of -21.6°C are representative of a simple NaCl-H2O system (Borisenko, 1977 and Crawford, 1981) therefore the Na-Cl-H2O system is used to model salinities and temperatures (Th).Freezing experiments are conducted on sphalerite, quartz and calcite and are summarized in (Figure 4.8 A). Salinities are calculated from measured final ice-melt-ing temperature (Tm) in the H2O NaCl system using algorithms from Bodnar (1993). Salinities measured in primary and pseudo-secondary inclusions hosted in quartz and calcite range between 1.6 wt.% and 6.0 wt.% NaCl equiv. Salinities within both yel-low and honey-brown sphalerite range between 4.0 wt.% to 6.6 wt.% NaCl equiv. However, secondary assemblages identified as boiling assemblages in yellow and honey-brown sphalerite range between 8.4 wt.% and 13.3 wt.% NaCl equiv. which are significantly higher than non-boiling assemblages. Homogenization temperatures (Th) measurements are conducted on sphaler-ite, quartz and calcite and are summarized in (Figure 4.8 B). Temperature (Th) mea-surements for isolated inclusions within calcite range between 78°C and 150°C. Primary, isolated and pseudo-secondary inclusions in quartz have large variation of homogenization temperatures between 109°C and 275°C, with a median of 140°C. Measurements from primary and pseudo-secondary inclusions within honey-brown 90sphalerite range between 171°C and 278°C with the median at 250°C Primary and pseudo-secondary measurements from yellow sphalerite range between 110°C and 250°C, with the median at 150°C. Homogenization temperatures of secondary fluid inclusions in honey-brown sphalerite ranges between 116°C and 134°C. Homogeni-Simplied ParagenesisTellurides (Au-Ag)QuartzHB-Sphalerite (Pyrite, Chalcopyrite) Yellow-Sphalerite (Pyrite, Chalcopyrite, Galena) Calcite0246810121470 120 170 220 270Salinity NaCl equiv (wt%)Homogenization Temperature (Th Co)Evidence for BoilingCalcite (Stage 3)Sphalerite Honey Brown (Stage 2a)Quartz (Stage 2 + 3)Sphalerite Yellow (Stage 2b)4.1-6.0 % NaClABTH (Co) vs NaCl equiv (wt%)Homogenization Temperature (Th C°)Salinity NaCl equiv (wt%)BoilingCooling/PressurizationIsothermal MixingHeating/DepressurizationIsothermal MixingSurface Fluid DilutionFigure 4.8: (A) homogenization temperature vs sa-linity graph for all FIA’s hosted in quartz, honey brown sphalerite, yellow sphalerite and calcite from studied hydrothermal stages in precious and base metal veins. Arrows depict evolution of fluids and relate to precipitation processes as shown in (4.4.4B). The orange arrow interprets cooling fluids precipitating quartz, yellow and honey brown sphalerite at a steady salinity. The purple arrow in-fers possible mixing with meteoric waters resulting in dilution and drop in temperature precipitating calcite, quartz and yellow sphalerite. The red dashed arrow infers boiling of existing hydrothermal fluids to drynesss in an open system, resulting in elevated salinities. 91zation temperatures of secondary fluid inclusions in yellow sphalerite ranges between 120°C and 148°C. 4.5.3 Fluid Characteristics- Fluid inclusionsSalinity (wt.% NaCl equiv.) vs temperature of homogenization (Th) data is plot-ted in Figure 4.8 (A,B) to identify the depositional processes such as boiling or effer-vescence, fluid mixing and simple cooling (Wilkinson, 2001). Boiling in a simple Na-Cl-H2O system can occur as a result of temperature increase, a pressure decrease or a combination of these. Effervescence in contrast would indicate the fluids contained additional volatiles such as CO2. Boiling or effervescence results in the production of vapour and in open systems loss of volatiles (i.e. H2O, H2S, CO2 etc.) and partitioning of salts into the liquid-like phase. The residual liquid is more saline than the original fluid before boiling. Additionally, because of adiabatic cooling the liquid phase may also undergo cooling. Fluid mixing can be identified by significant salinity variations, as hydrothermal brines can be diluted by surface-meteoric waters or existing hydro-thermal fluids can increase in salinity by influx of magmatic brines or by mechanical mixing of coexisting liquid and vapour.  FI assemblages in honeybrown sphalerite homogenize between 278°C and 170°C with a population peak at 250°C and a salinity between 4-6 wt. % NaCl equiv. Yellow sphalerite, paragenetically deposits after honey-brown sphalerite has Th mea-surments of 110°C and 250°C, with a population peak at 150°C. Temperatures mea-sured in quartz crystals, range from 109 to 275°C. Measured salinity in both yellow sphalerite and quartz crystals have similar range to honeybrown sphalerite. The over-lap in temperature and salinity ranges allows the assumption that quartz is continu-ously being deposited in with sphalerite. Petrographic observation of sphalerite inclu-sions in quartz and vice-versa support this assumption. A gradual cooling trend for 92base-metal precipitation beginning at approximately 270°C and ending at approxi-mately 130°C is interpreted. FI assemblages in Stage 3 calcite and quartz have Th values between 78.4°C and 150.4°C with salinity measurements ranging from 1.6 to 6.0 wt. % NaCl equiv. A decrease in salinity from approximately 5.0 wt. % NaCl to 3.0 wt. % NaCl equiv. is cor-related to a decrease temperature from 150°C to 100°C. This is interpreted as result of fluid mixing and dilution, precipitating Stage 3 quartz and carbonate. It can be ar-gued that (Stage 3) carbonate could have condensed from a low-salinity condensate from boiling which is observed at Shahumyan. However, such processes would leave textural evidence such as bladed or plumose calcite which are absent. Additionally Stage 3 carbonate veins cut Stage 1 and Stage 2 veins indicating it is not related to an earlier stage. The presence of calcite within the veins at Shahumyan could indicate that CO2 could be a significant component within fluid inclusions. However, clathrate formation during freezing measurements was not observed in any inclusions; this indicates that CO2 concentration within fluids is likely <1.5 mol% (≤0.01m) (Diamond 2001). It is important to identify CO2 within a system because its presence has a strong effect on measured ice melting temperatures and significantly depresses the melting point of ice. This will result in overestimation of the fluid salinity, particularly in the low-salin-ity range (Catchpole et al., 2011; Hedenquist and Henley, 1985). However low CO2 concentration in fluids as is the case at Shahumyan therefore has little effect on the salinity correction. Boiling assemblages are readily identified as secondary fluid inclusion as-semblages in honeybrown and yellow sphalerite and absent in late stage calcite and quartz. Salinities calculated for boiling assemblages (LV-rich) are relatively higher (8.4wt.% - 13.3 wt.% NaCl equiv.) than primary and pseudo-secondary assemblages 93in the same minerals. Fluid inclusions measured in boiling assemblages are LV-rich, low density V-rich inclusions are observed but impossible to measure due to the in-ability to observe phase changes. Boiling assemblages are paragenetically linked to Au-Ag tellurides and are interpreted to represent depositional conditions for Au-Ag mineralization. An absence of a distinct boiling trend (as shown in Figure 4.9 b) could indicates that boiling was localized and periodic within Shahumyan veins. Localized periodic boiling can be a result of localized faulting and/or fracturing assisted by buildup of pore-fluid pressures in a hydrostatic regime.  4.6 Physiochemical Constraints 4.6.1 Fluid Chemistry, pH and TemperatureActivity-activity and temperature-pH diagrams are constructed using the Geo-chemists Workbench package (Bethke and Yeakel, 2014) using a modified LLNI thermodynamic database (modified after SOLTHERM database: Spycher and Reed, 1990a, 1990b; Reed and Spycher, 1992) to explain the formation of hydrothermal minerals in response to water-rock interaction (alteration assemblages). Figure 4.9 shows the stabilities of common phyllosilicates minerals observed at Shahumyan plotted as a function of K+, Mg2+, and H+; assuming fluids are quartz-H2O saturated at temperatures 300°C and 250°C. The diagrams use a white-mica and chlorite base system that plots mineral relationships in an Mg2+/(H+) 2 and K+/H+ space. Sericite/Illite activity, chlorite activity, K, Na and CO2 concentrations are estimated and/or calculated from microprobe and fluid inclusion data to construct Figure 4.9. Temperature and salinity ranges for each stage are constrained from fluid inclu-sion measurements. Stage 2a temperatures (Th) responsible for base-metal mineral-94ization are approximately 250°C (270-230°C) with an average salinity of 4.8 wt% NaCl equiv. Stage 2b fluids responsible for both precious and base-metal mineralization are approximately 150°C (170-130°C) and have a higher salinity range between 8.4 and 13.3 wt% NaCl equiv . These temperatures and salinity ranges are used in the activity and temperature-pH plots for each stage.The activity of sericite/illites was determined using the relationship equation outlined by Bird and Norton (1981):a(ms) = (XK+, A)(XAl3+,M(2))2(XAl3+,T10)(XSi4+,T1m)(XSi4+,T2)2(XOH-)2  Electron microprobe analyses of sericite-illite grains from vein and vein-alteration as-semblages yields an average a(ms) value of 0.55. Sericite grains tend to have similar a(ms) values. However in distal assemblages, a(ms) values are lower, though the actual activity chosen has very little effect on the mica stability field in the activity diagram, unless it is low (<0.1).Microprobe analyses reveal that chlorite compositions are typically clinochlore (rapidolite- a subtype of clinochlore). The average activity of clinochlore from the il-lite-chlorite and vein chlorite have been calculated to an average value of 0.023 by as-suming aCh= (XMg)5, where XMg=Mg/(Mg+Fe+Mn+Al(octohedral)) (Cooke et al., 2001). The clinochlore stability field shown in Figure 4.9 for achlinochore =1-0.02, behaves similarly to amuscovite, where a change in achlinochore has little to no effect on chlorite stability field in the constructed diagram.        At 300°C (Figure 4.9) the log (aMg2+/a(H+)2) is estimated to range between 4-5 and the log (aK+/aH+) ranges between 2.0-3.0. Interaction of hydrothermal fluids with surrounding andesitic host rock increases log (aMg2+/(aH+)2), resulting in chlo-rite formation. With decreasing temperatures, the stability lines of clinochlore-kaolin-ite-sericite move up (i.e. increased log (aMg2+/(aH+)2)) making it increasingly difficult for hydrothermal fluids to precipitate chlorite in the host rock and allowing sericite/illite 95to preferentially form. Additionally, decreasing temperatures move stability lines for kaolinite-sericite-K-feldspar (increasing log (aK+/aH+)) to the right, indicating kaolin-ite-sericite-K-feldspar may precipitate from relatively more alkaline fluids. Assuming that fluid compositions stayed the same based on the narrow salinity range observed from fluid inclusion data; the dominant mineral assemblage at higher temperatures 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 701234567log a (Mg2+ /(H+ )2)loga(K+/H+)ClinochloreKaolinite Sericite K-feldsparHydrothermal uids in veinsFluids interacting with host andesite250o300oModel ParametersaIllite :  0.55aChlorite:0.001Temperature: 300o, 250oH2O + Quartz Saturated (i.e: aH2O , aQuartz= 1.0)aclinochlore= 1 to 0.02aSer= 0.35Figure 4.9: Activity diagram for principal phases in an MgO-Al2O-SiO2-H2O system. Stability fields at 300oC in solid lines, and 250oC in dashed lines. Field 1 represents possible fluid conditions entering the Shahumyan vein system. Pathway between Field 1 and Field 2 represents fluid-rock interaction with the Barabatoom andesite-dacite, which locally raises aMg2+ and allows chlorite and sericite/illite to form. At lower temperatures (250oC) a much higher aMg2+  is needed to form chlorite, suggesting that chlorite more readily formed at high temperatures and sericite/illite forms at lower temperatures. Mod-el parameters are discussed in text. Both chlorite and sericite/illite formation are also function of pH.96(chlorite-sericite) would switch to a dominantly kaolinite-muscovite rich assemblage at lower temperatures. The composition of mineralizing fluids vary between the sericite and kaolinite stability fields as both minerals are present. Kaolinite is however less abundant within alteration mineral assemblages relative to sericite/illite. Kaolinite, as described in previous sections occurs prevalently in brecciation zones linked with el-evated Au-Ag mineralization. This could therefore indicate that deposition of kaolinite at Shahumyan is not simply a function of temperature (cooling) and may also indicate fluctuations in fluid pH (H+ metasomatism) and/or composition (aK+/aH+ ratios).          As highlighted within the fluid inclusion studies, the absence of clathrate forma-tion in all Stage 2 fluid inclusion assemblages limit the concentration of CO2 in fluid to less than 0.01m (Hedenquist and Henley, 1985; Ulrich and Bodnar, 1988). For Stage 2 fluids carbonate concentration (mCO2-) is assumed to be ≤0.01m, because there is a lack of clathrate formation and a lack of calcite within the stage. Low carbonate concentration is also reflected by the formation of epidote in the propylitic halo. If sufficient carbonate was present carbonate would have formed in lieu of epidote as discussed in previous chapters. The presence of massive euhedral calcite in Stage 3 likely indicates an increase in CO2- and Ca2+ in fluids responsible for Stage 3 mineral assemblages (values for this stage are not been calculated).  An estimate for a(K+), needed to calculate K+ mineral fields as a function of pH, is calculated based on the average salinity of chloride waters at Shahumyan (~4-6 wt% NaCl equiv for Stage 2a, 8-12 wt% NaCl equiv. for Stage 2b). This is combined with the assumption that Na/K ratios are 10:1in hydrothermal fluids (Cooke et al., 1996). This ratio is appropriately within the range of values reported for geothermal waters discharged from wells in New Zealand, North America, the Phillipines and Iceland (Na+/K+ = 4.9-19.4; Henley, 1984a). Concentrations of 0.068-0.1 mNa and 0.007-0.01 mK+ are estimated for Stage 2a fluids and 0.14-0.20 mNa and 0.014-0.020 mK for Stage 2b fluids. The Debeye-Huckle extended equation is used to calculate the ac-97tivities of average Na+ and K+ concentrations to use within the pH-Temperature GWB model: log aNa+ = -1.25 (mNa = 0.09) and log aK+ = -2.3 (mK = 0.009) for Stage 2a fluids assuming fluids were at 300oC. For stage 2b fluids Na and K activities were cal-culated to: log aNa+ = -0.92 (mNa+ = 0.17) and log aK+ = -1.93 (mK+ = 0.017) assuming fluids were at 150oC.Mineralizing fluids at Shahumyan are estimated to vary between 5.5-6.5 pH, based on observed mineral relationships between sericite (illite), chlorite, quartz and kaolinite. Figure 4.10 is created based on estimated and calculated fluid constituent pHT (°C)0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14050100150200250300 ClinochloreKaoliniteMuscovite-SericiteSericite-IlliteIllite-SmectiteReducing Illite crystallinity with temperatureaK+ = 0.005aK+ = 0.01aK+ = 0.1aIllite :  0.55H2O + Quartz Saturated (i.e: aH2O , aQuartz= 1.0)logaMg2+/H+2 = 5.0 (lower values precipitate pyrophyllite)aK+: 0.005 , 0.01, 0.1Model ParametersStage 1Stage 2bStage 2a Figure 4.10: An activity-pH diagram showing a potential pathway taken by fluids at Shahumyan. Ini-tial neutral to slightly acidic fluids are inferred based Log (aK/aH) values estimated in Figure 4.9. Model parameters are discussed in text.98parameters highlighted above and summarized in (Table 4.2). An increase in ak shifts the kaolinite-sericite/illite stability fields to lower pH; ak+ values calculated based on flu-id inclusion data constrain the ak+ to 0.05 to 0.1, thus limiting the pH ranges achieved at Shahumyan. The narrow pH range inferred indicate that hydrothermal fluids fluctu-ated between the sericite-chlorite fields at high temperatures (>290oC) while at lower temperatures they fluctuated between the sericite-kaolinite fields. Stage 2b hydother-mal fluids have been interpreted to result from boiling of high density fluids relatively rich in Na+ and K+ which resulted in a lower pH than Stage 2a fluids.      4.6.2 Constraints on Te and S FugacitiesThermochemical conditions of ore formation at the Shahumyan deposit is de-termined from several factors, including the mutual stability and composition of miner-als in each stage and the ionic content of various species in the ore-forming solution. Constraining the thermochemical environment of ore deposition will help estimate the composition of mineralizing fluids in an ore-forming environment. This helps predict likely precious metal transporting species and discuss potential depositional process-es at Shahumyan. The mineral paragenesis outlined in previous chapters are dis-cussed as separate events. However it is likely that each stage is part of a continuum of hydrothermal processes throughout the entire hydrothermal history. This interpreta-tion is based on overlapping Th values from fluid inclusion studies (this study) and iso-tope values (Mederer et al., 2013). Sulphur fugacity for Stage 2a can be determined from the FeS content of sphalerite coexisting with pyrite (Barton and Toulmin, 1966; Scott and Barnes, 1971; Barton and Skinner, 1979) based on the relationship defined by Barton and Skinner (1979) (Eqn 4.5.1). The Fe mole percent content of sphalerite coexisting with pyrite at Shahumyan is 0.19 to 0.29 and is calculated from microprobe measurements (n= 3) made on yellow sphalerite by Matveev et al. (2006).99Log XFe(sphalerite)= 7.16 - 7730/T - ½ log ƒ   (Eqn 4.5)Where T is temperature in degrees Kelvin and XFe(Sphalerite) is the mole fraction of Fe in sphalerite. Sphalerite color and its FeS content are intimately linked; Fe content is the primary cause of color variance of sphalerite (Craig and Vaughan, 1990). The Fe con-tent of the sphalerite (FeS) is controlled by the activity of sulphur and fluid temperature (Craig and Vaughan, 1990) where increasing Fe content (mol % FeS, Fe2+ & Fe 3+) in sphalerite partly relates to an decrease in sulphur fugacity (Leptit et al., 2003). An average Th of 175oC (minimum temperature) measured for pale yellow sphalerite was used to determine sulphur fugacity. Sulphur fugacities calculated based from the Barton and Skinner (1979) equation, range between (-14.66 to -15.03 log ƒS2). These values represent sphalerite precipitated towards the end of Stage 2a; therefore calculated ƒS2 values do not represent the entirety of Stage 2a. Honeybrown sphalerite interpreted to precipitate earlier in Stage 2a would have higher FeS values. In Stage 2b dark opaque sphalerite would indicate higher FeS values which in turn would indicate lower ƒS2 values. The mole percent FeS of sphalerite in intermediate-sulphidation systems typ-ically vary from < 1 to 10 mol%, however values up to 20 mol% have been reported (e.g. Creede Deposit; Barton et al., 1977; Einaudi et al., 2003). Contrarily, high-sulphi-dation deposits have FeS contents of 0.05 to 1 mol %, and low sulphidation deposits yield 20 to 40 mol % FeS (Einaudi et al., 2003; Czamanske, 1974; Scott and Barnes, 1971). An increase in FeS mole percent in sphalerite reflects decreasing sulphur fu-gacity at a given temperature. This would therefore indicate that as sulphur fugacity increases towards the end of Stage2a or beginning of Stage 2b, precipitating low Fe-Sphalerites (yellow sphalerite). Telluride geochemistry is important as Au-Ag tellurides dominate the Au-Ag rich 100ore zones in Shahumyan veins, free gold is rarely observed. The presence of telluri-um indicates magmatic sources for mineralizing fluids (Cook et al., 2009; Cooke and Bloom, 1990). Tellurium fugacities can be inferred from telluride mineral assemblag-es, using mineral relationships and mineral equilibria between sulphide-telluride as-semblages such as: sphalerite-pyrite-hessite-altaite-galena or sphalerite-pyrite-hes-site-petzite- sylvanite-calaverite-coloradoite assemblages (Afifi et al., 1988; Zhang and Spry, 1994).Fugacity-fugacity plots (Figure 4.11a-c) modified from Afifi et al (1988) and Zhang and Spry (1992, 1995) are used to estimate fluid conditions during telluride deposition. At Shahumyan, tellurides are interpreted to be deposited between 140-160oC. Sulphur fugacity and tellurium fugacity are used to constrain fluid conditions during sulphide and telluride deposition. Oxygen fugacity is ignored since all common oxides observed (hematite, goethite) are unstable with respect to sulphides and/or tellurides (Afifi et al., 1988).  In these diagrams, hessite stability with respect to sil-ver, electrum and/or argentite define the minimum ƒTe2-ƒS2 conditions required for the stability of other telluride minerals (Afifi et al., 1988), therefore minimum ƒTe2 values required for the formation of other tellurides are set by the stability of hessite at any ƒS2 vs T condition. Fluids that deposit tellurides must enter a region above the hessite Stage 1 Stage 3a bSulfur Fugacity (ƒS2) - ~-10.0 to -15.03 ~-14.66  to -15.03 -Te Fugacity (ƒTe2) - ~-20 to -18 ~-14 to -11 -Temperature (°C) 300-270* 270-175 175-145 140-78.4Salinity NaClequiv (wt.%) 4-6 8.4-13.3 1.56-4mNa+ 0.068-0.1 0.14-0.20 0.068-0.1mK+ 0.007-0.01 0.014-0.020 0.007-0.01pH 5.5-6.5* 5.5-6.5 4.5-6.5 5.5-6.5[CO2] (mol/L) <0.01 <0.01 -Stage 2*No uid inclusion data collected, estimated based on geochemical modelsTable 4.2: Physiochemic l param ters of mineralizing flui s for observ d hydrothermal stages. 101stability field for a given ƒS2, whereas fluids that do not deposit tellurides are restrict-ed to cooling paths in the telluride undersaturated field (Afifi et al., 1988). This pro-vides an initial basis for distinction of cooling paths resulting in telluride-bearing and telluride-free ore assemblages. Three main ƒTe2-ƒS2 diagrams are used (250o, 200o and 150oC) (Figure 4.11a-c) constructed from thermodynamic databases provided by Chang (1992), Zhang and Spry (1994a,b) and Afifi et al (1988).The presence of hessite in equilibrium with altaite in stage 2b (150 oC) suggests a minimum log ƒTe2= -10.0. The common occurrence of galena in relation to altaite in-dicates low Te2 fugacities, for the majority of Stage 2. Local increases in log ƒTe2 and or 200o C 150o C250o Clog fTe2-8-10-12-14-16-18-20-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8Bn +PyCcpPyHgAg2SAg 2TeHgTeHgSPbSPbTeAuAuTe2TexlSphalerite0.05 - 6.55 mol% FeSSphalerite0.05 - 6.55 mol% FeSSphalerite0.05 - 6.55 mol% FeSlog fTe2-10-12-14-16-18-20-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8TexlHgTeHgSAuAg2SBn +PyCcpAg2TeAuTe2HgPo PyPbSPbTePoAg2Te (y)log fS2 log fS2log fS2log fTe 2-24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12-10-12-14-16-18-20TexlHgTeHgSAuAg2SBn +PyCcpAg2TeAuTe2HgPo PyPbSPbTeAg2Te(y)StutziteStutzite0.24 mol % FeS Pale Yellow SphaleriteAB CFigure 4.11:  Sulfide and telluride equilibrium in ƒTe2/ƒS2 space. Diagonally stripped fields indi-cate potential fluid conditions for ore-deposition while cross-hatched fields indentify stable miner-als observed in hydrothermal stages. Abrevia-tions: Bn: Bornite, Py: Pyrite; Cpy: Chalcopyrite; Po: Pyrhotite. Modified from (Pals and Spry 2003; Zhang; 1992; Kovalenker et al., 1991; Afifi et al., 1988(a/b)). FeS mol% content in sphalerite con-straints the stability fields in each diagaram. (A) Stability diagram at 250oC, this diagaram rep-resents Stage 1 and 2a; (B) Stability diagram at 200oC, this diagaram represents Stage 2a; (C) Stability diagram at 150oC, this diagaram rep-resents Stage 2a and 2b. 102log ƒH2(g) or a decrease in  log fH2S are the most likely causes for the observed distribu-tion of altaite and galena. Similarly coloradoite which is also present in low abundanc-es is a result of increased ƒTe2 and likely an increase in aHg. However, the absence of cinnabar indicates aHg and ƒH2S values are relatively low. An absence of tellurium-bear-ing minerals indicate extremely low ƒTe2 and high ƒH2S in Stage 2a and relatively higher ƒTe2 and lower ƒH2S in Stage 2b. From these observations one can conclude that log ƒTe2 during telluride deposition ranged between -13.0 and -14.0 at 150oC.        Several models (e.g McPhail, 1995; Larocque et al.,1997; Cooke and McPhail, 2001) suggest that tellurium is transported preferentially in vapour (Te2(g) and H2Te(g)) rather than as an aqueous phase. Usually as an precious metals telluride complex or even tellurium-sulphur, tellurium-alkali metals and halides. Numerical simulations by Cooke and McPhail (2001) revealed that the only mechanism capable of tellurium deposition is condensation of Te2(g) and H2Te(g) into precious metal rich waters. Tellu-ride minerals at Shahumyan may therefore have precipitated (at least in part) in re-sponse to cooling of boiled vapours which show high aTe2. Additionally, other chemical parameters that may have contributed to telluride deposition include pH and aqueous Au and Ag concentrations. Changes in pH affect the relative stabilities of HTe- and H2Te(aq) and drive precipitation of tellurides by the following reactions.H2Te(aq) = HTe-(aq)+H+(aq)                                                                 (Eqn: 4.6)H2Te(aq) + 2Ag(HS)2-(aq) + 2H+ = Ag2Te(s) + 4H2S(aq)                             (Eqn: 4.7)2HTe-(aq) + Au(HS)2-(aq) +3H+ = AuTe2(s) +2H2S(aq) + 1.5H2(aq)                       (Eqn: 4.8)For the above reactions, a pH decrease is associated with both hessite deposi-tion (Eqn: 4.7) and calaverite deposition (Eqn: 4.8) (Cooke and McPhail, 2001). A pH decrease is possible at Shahumyan; however, evidence of boiling (e.g. multi-phase FI assemblages and crustiform bands) complicates this process. Boiling of fluids would 103result in an increase of pH due to CO2- effervescence, and is a function of high [CO2-/H+] and [CO2-/∑SO4] or [CO2-/∑H2S] ratios. However, Cole and Drummond (1986) indi-cate that for fluids with low [CO2-/H+] and [CO2-/∑SO4], the pH increase is negligible. It has previously been established (Chapter 4.0) that CO2- concentrations at Shahumyan for stage 2 hydrothermal fluids are minimal, as evidenced by lack of carbonates during Stage 2a and only minor amounts in Stage 2b and from a lack of chaltrate formation within fluid inclusions. Therefore, because of low [CO2-/H+] and [CO2-/∑SO4] or [CO2-/∑H2S], fluid pH did not increase as a function of boiling at Shahumyan. Because pH is inferred to remain neutral or slightly acidic at Shahumyan carbonate (calcite) would not be favourable to precipitate. A lack of carbonate would therefore not buffer fluids becoming more acidic as a function of sulphide precipitation. H2S species would ex-olve more readily thus dropping the S fugacity, and potentially decrease pH temporar-ily in localized areas and precipitating sulphides.1045.1 Vein Mineralogy, Alteration and Fluid InclusionsThe three main alteration assemblages at Shahumyan are characterized as proximal, intermediate and distal. Each assemblage is classified based on changes in alteration intensity and mineral assemblages and relative distances to individual mineralized veins. The proximal assemblage is predominantly characterized by quartz, sericite-il-lite and pyrite with minor kaolinite. Intermediate assemblages are characterized by sericite, illite, pyrite, chlorite, ±kaolinite, ±calcite. The distal assemblage is character-ized by chlorite, illite-smectite, pyrite, epidote and minor calcite. Compared to least altered host rocks, Si, K and Fe are major contributors to mass gain in the proximal assemblage and less so in the intermediate and distal assemblages. Mg gain is sig-nificantly higher in the distal assemblages decreases towards the proximal assem-blage. Ca and Na have relatively higher mass loss in the proximal assemblage and less so in the distal assemblages. All metals show a mass increases in the proximal assemblages which decrease in the intermediate and proximal assemblages. The extent of alteration envelopes at Shahumyan is dependant on the vein size, with distal alteration assemblages from one vein interpreted to overlap the distal assemblage of another. Three main hydrothermal stages are identified through vein mineralogy in Sha-humyan veins: Stage 1, Stage 2a-b, and Stage 3. Stage 1 is a pre-ore stage compris-ing economically barren quartz pyrite veins. The stage with most significant economic contribution in Shahumyan veins is Stage 2 and is further divided into two substages; a base metal stage (Stage 2a) and a precious metal stage (Stage 2b). Stage 2a is characterized by honey-brown sphalerite, yellow sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, sul-5. Summary and Discussion105fosalts and rarely pure tellurium, hosted in predominantly a quartz-rich gangue with minor sericite/illite. Yellow sphalerite overgrows honey brown sphalerite cores, indicat-ing that it is paragenetically later. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions in honey brown sphalerite reveal homogenization temperatures ranging between 285°C and 170°C with a population peak at approximately 260°C. Salinity ranges are narrow and range between 4.5 and 8.0 NaCl wt% eqv. with a population average at 5.7 NaCl wt% eqv. Average homogenization temperatures collected from honey brown sphalerites are generally higher than those collected from yellow sphalerites. Salinity measurements, like homogenization temperatures are relatively lower in yellow sphalerites than in honey brown sphalerites.  Stage 2b is characterized by black opaque sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and telluride minerals. Silicate gangue minerals are not abundant in this stage; when pres-ent the gangue is characterized by quartz, calcite, sericite/illite and kaolinite. Black-opaque sphalerite contains inclusions of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and telluride minerals that crosscut honey brown and yellow sphalerites. Black opaque sphalerite and Au-Ag tellurides are observed to infill fractures in the earlier base metal sulphides of Stage 2a. Infilled fractures are common in earlier sphalerites and less so in chalcopyrite. Microfractured sulphide clasts are cemented by quartz, sulphides and/or tellurides is interpreted to be a localized brecciation event in veins. Secondary fluid inclusion assemblages in Stage 2b minerals propagate from fractures containing opaque sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and Au-Ag telluride min-erals; thus, directly linking precious metal mineralizing event to these fluid inclusion assemblages.  Secondary fluid inclusion assemblages contain both liquid-rich and vapour-rich two-phase inclusions; the two inclusions indicate phase separation of hy-drothermal fluids into a vapour during inclusion entrapment. The process of phase separation of a gas phase principally consisting of water vapour from a simple wa-ter-salt fluid; either, because of sudden increase in temperature, or sudden decrease 106in pressure and is referred to as boiling (Roedder, 1984; Henley et al., 1984). Ho-mogenization temperatures of boiling fluid inclusions average approximately 132°C. Salinities of boiling assemblages are relatively higher than non-boiling assemblages averaging 11.0 NaCl wt% eqv. Measurements were only possible in liquid-rich two phase inclusions as phase changes were unnoticeable in vapour-rich inclusions. Stage 3 is characterized by quartz, massive calcite, chalcedony, fluorite and Mn-Mg carbonate (rhodochrosite, magnoan calcite). Stage 3 is the last and final stage of the in Shahumyan veins. Stage 3 quartz-carbonates are typically brecciated and contain clasts or rafts of earlier hydrothermal stages and wall rock in addition to me-chanically-transported sulphide grains. Mechanical transport is inferred based on the grain/crystal morphology and the presence of jigsaw breccia clast textures and wide-spread fracturing into wall rock. Jigsaw breccia textures indicate brecciation of wall rock and or hydrothermal bands through implosion within a dilatational zone (Sibson 1986). Similar breccia textures are observed in previous stages but are most promi-nent in Stage 3.  Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusion assemblages in cal-cite range between 78°C and 150°C with a population peak at approximately 130°C. Average salinity of inclusions in calcite is 3.5 NaCl wt% eqv. relatively lower than inclusions in sphalerite. Microthermometric measurements recorded in calcite show a decrease in both temperature and salinity, indicating a mixing trend as suggested by Wilkinson (2010). This interpretation is corroborated by carbon and oxygen isotopes from Stage 3 calcite and quartz (Mederer et al. 2013).  5.2 Vein Geometry and Ore Shoots, ShahumyanVeins at Shahumyan have an anastomosing vein geometry (i.e. anastomosing, undulating etc) both along strike and vertical dip. This geometry is associated with isolated fracture propagation as through-going fluid pathways form via linkage during 107the development of a tectonic and hydrothermal systems (Sibson, 2001). Sub-vertical veins at Shahumyan are principally tensional in nature with open space textures such as comb quartz and open space infill. Stage 1 and lesser Stage 2 hydrothermal bands are dextrally displaced in veins, additionally slickensides and slickenlines between vein and wallrock interface, show dextral shear component features locally. Underground drift mapping of veins reveals an overall vein trend of east to northeast and dipping to the south. Smaller vein segments comprising a larger vein, trend northeast, east, and northwest, and dip steeply to the south or north. Sha-humyan veins are approximately 300-500m laterally and 300-400m along dip. Veins locally intersect with neighboring veins to form a vein mesh and make it difficult to de-termine the true extent at depth of any individual vein. Sudden changes in strike and/or dip occur between linking northeast, east and/or northwest trending vein segments. These sudden changes in orientation locally have associated hydrothermal breccias. These linkages between structures manifest as fault bends, step-overs, relay ramps, dilatational jogs or cymoid loops; which allow for dilation, increased permeability, and more localized and repetitive fluid flow (Faulds et al., 2010, 2006; Wallier, 2009; Mick-lethwaite and Cox, 2004; Trudgill and Cartwright, 1990).   5.3 Discussion Epithermal deposits form in the shallow (<2km) and low to moderate tempera-ture (~<400) hydrothermal systems that develop in volcanic arcs. Epithermal deposits can be rich in both precious (Au, Ag) and base metals (Cu, Zn, Pb).  Epithermal ore-bodies occur in a diversity of shapes that reflect the influence of structural and litho-logical controls, most commonly in the form of steep veins (Simmons et al., 2005). The total precious metal content of some epithermal deposits is substantial (e.g. ~1200t Au and ~7000t Ag, Pueblo Viejo, Dominican Republic, Simmons et al.,2005) and in 108some deposits, veins locally have bonanza Au grades (>30g/t Au; Sillitoe, 1993). Most epithermal ores are within a spectrum of Au-rich (Ag/Au =<10, locally <1) to silver-rich (Ag/Au = ~20-200) deposits. Shahumyan is principally Ag-rich and locally Au-rich with individual assay Ag/Au ratios averaging between 20-30.  Some epithermal deposits are Cu-bearing (Au-Ag-Cu) with high to intermedi-ate sulphidation state mineral assemblages such as alunite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, energite, luzonite, famantinite, orpiment; and others are characterized by Ag-Pb-Zn with low to intermediate sulphidation mineral assemblages dominated by adularia, calcite, illite, chlorite, rhodochrosite, tennantite, tetrahedrite and Fe-poor sphalerite. Both Au-Ag-Cu and Ag-Pb-Zn type deposits form predominantly in calc-alkaline volca-nic-magmatic arcs resulting from convergent plate movements and plate subduction (Sawkins, 1990; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). Au-Ag ± Te epithermal deposits are also common and are more-closely related to alkaline volcanic rocks derived from oxidized, hydrous mafic magmas (Richards, 1995; Jensen and Barton, 2000) (e.g., Cripple Creek, Ladolam, Emperor, Porgera etc.); however, Au-Ag ± Te deposits have also been associated with calc-alkaline volcanic rocks (e.g. Kassiteres, Acupan etc.). Shahumyan contains Cu-Zn-Pb base metal rich veins with localized Au-Ag rich zones and are hosted in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks (andesite-dacite). Other exam-ples of similar deposits are: the St Demetrios deposit and the St Barbara prospect in the Kassiterres-Sapes district, Greece; the Creede deposit, Colorado; or the Acupan deposit in the Philippines. Based on observed mineral relationships between sericite (illite), chlorite, quartz and kaolinite, mineralizing fluids at Shahumyan are estimated to vary between 5.5 and 6.5 pH. Based on the narrow pH range inferred, hydrother-mal fluids likely fluctuated between the sericite-chlorite fields at high temperatures (>290oC), at lower temperatures they fluctuated between the sericite-kaolinite fields. Vein mineralogy at Shahumyan, consists of: pyrite, chalcopyrite Fe-rich sphalerite, Fe-poor sphalerite, galena, Au-Ag-Pb tellurides and tetrahedrite-tennantite. This as-109semblage represents intermediate sulphidation depositsFluid salinities in intermediate sulphidation deposits range between 0 and 23 wt.% NaCl equiv; whereas, low sulphidation deposits generally have a fluid salinities <2 wt.% NaCl equiv.; (Simmons et al., 2005; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). At Sha-humyan salinities ranging between 1.6 and 13.3 NaCl wt% equiv. This range would characterize Shahumyan as an intermediate sulphidation deposit. Telluride geochemistry is important as Au-Ag tellurides dominate the Au-Ag rich ore zones in Shahumyan veins, free gold is rarely observed. Au-Ag telluride minerals could precipitate through different mechanisms boiling, mixing, throttling, cooling of magmatic vapours (Cooke and McPhail, 2001; Cooke et al., 1996). Each process is characteristic geochemically, texturally and/or structurally; for example: boiling could produce bladed calcite, colloform bands among other textures and throttling would occur in structural pinch points in a fluid pathway. Identifying the process responsible for Au-Ag telluride deposition would allow for better targeting and exploration within the district and deposit.  The presence of tellurium indicates magmatic sources for mineralizing fluids (Cook et al., 2009; Cooke and Bloom, 1990). Several models (e.g McPhail, 1995; La-rocque et al.,1997; Cooke and McPhail, 2001) suggest that tellurium is preferentially transported in vapour (Te2(g) and H2Te(g)) rather than in an aqueous phase. Based on numerical simulations Cooke and McPhail (2001) suggest condensation of Te2(g) and H2Te(g) vapors into precious metal rich waters is the most effective process for telluride deposition. Telluride minerals at Shahumyan may therefore have precipitated (at least in part) by condensation of boiled vapors which have a relatively high aTe2. At Shahumyan fluid inclusion measurements and petrographic observations provide the only evidence for Au-Ag tellurides precipitation via boiling, as no physical textures such as bladed calcite, colloform bands and other boiling textures are ob-110served. Rare occurrences of kaolinite in association with Au-Ag rich zones are the only significant mineralogical indicator for Stage 2b, besides Au-Ag tellurides. It is unclear whether kaolinite directly relates to Stage 2b Au-Ag tellurides due to its sparse nature. Kaolinite may be rare because it changes into illite/muscovite in alkaline conditions (Huang, 1993). Alkaline conditions could have dominated the hydrothermal system in the waning stages of the system, (Stage 3) during the formation of massive calcite. At Shahumyan Au-Ag telluride minerals are observed to be more abundant in structural zones by ~1-2 vol% relative to adjacent vein zones. Au-Ag rich zones are character-ized by an increased abundance of microfractures (microbrecciation). Examples of favorable structural zones at Shahumyan include: node points in cymoid loops, pinch and swell structures and relay dilation zones. These zones are interpreted to have formed through the isolated fault model (Chapter 3). Normal fault relay structures form at all scales as isolated fractures that interact with adjacent fracture planes during growth. Their successive growth and destruction represent the most efficient way for faults to lengthen and concurrently be mineralized through hydrothermal fluid movement. These relay structures are not only paths for lateral fluid flow but the well-developed damage zone also makes them excellent con-duits for sustained vertical fluid flow. Increased permeability and repetitive fluid flow in structurally favorable zones can explain the two main ore shoots identified in Shahumyan veins: 1) steep to moder-ately (>60°) raking ore shoots; and 2) shallow (20-30°) raking ore shoots gently plung-ing to the east. High fluid permeability due to increased microfractures in these zones is interpreted to have been the primary reason for vertical and sub-horizontal semi continuous ore shoots. The formation of microfractures in a relatively coherent sealed vein would create negative space and thus drop pressure allowing hydrothermal fluids to flow through and deposit hydrothermal minerals. This drop-in pressure could initiate localized boiling of small fluid reservoirs, and result in fluids boiling to dryness and in-111creased salinity in measured boiling assemblages. Similar trends have been observed by Simmons and Browne (1997) at the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal system and at the Hokko Prospect, Japan by Scott and Watanabe (1998) among others. Rapid boiling of fluids in the upper 2 km of the crust typically occurs in a closed system where the total heat content of the rising fluid (liquid and steam combined) remains constant but the mass ratio of liquid to steam decreases as temperature and pressure decrease (Henley et al., 1984). These conditions would result in an in-crease in salinity by 25-30% from the onset of boiling at 3000C to discharge at 1000C (Simmons and Browne, 1995; Hedenquist and Henley 1985). A 25 to 30% increase in salinity of Shahumyan fluids at ~4.0 wt% NaCl equiv. would not produce the salinities observed in boiling assemblages at Shahumyan, and therefore cannot be a viable process to explain the data.Open system boiling occurs in a fracture dominated system where fracture permeability enables separation of liquid and steam allowing for substantially higher salinities (Simmons and Browne, 1997) through prolonged intermittent boiling. Sa-linities will especially increase if the liquid is immobilized either in fluid reservoirs, isolated vein segments or in pores adjacent to fractures as steam is lost (Simmons and Browne, 1997). Open system boiling could therefore explain the high salinities at Shahumyan; in which, high salinity fluids are trapped in secondary inclusions in early sphalerite (Stage 2a).It should be noted that, all Stage 2a fluid inclusions assemblages are liquid rich (~90-10 L-V), with no boiling evidence. This observation could indicate that hydrother-mal fluids were below the hydrostatic boiling temperatures and pressures and that fluids ascended under steady state conditions; with sulphides precipitating through simple cooling. Boiling is therefore likely initiated when the hydrothermal system is over pressured and fluids are above the hydrostatic boiling curve.   112Fluid pressures can increase if permeability in fractures is decreased through formation of a hydrothermal seal by precipitating minerals. This limits fluid ascent and movement and locally builds pressure. Additionally, the boiling curve could drop below ascending fluids, thus initiating boiling. The water table is intimately linked with the boiling curve, where a drop in the water table would similarly result a drop in the boiling curve. A drop in the water table can be initiated by either climate, topographic or tectonic effects. Examples of climatic effects include tidal changes or glacial activity which effect the water table. Examples of topographic effect includes drainage of a large water body maintaining the water table such as a caldera filled lake or sudden and rapid geological uplift. Tectonic effects include earthquakes as the principal ex-Temperature oC0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350depth (m)05001000150020002500depth (m)5000100015002000Hydrostatic H2O Boiling Curve, 0 wt% NaCl equiv. Circulating-ascending hydrothermal uid (ascent rate: 5x106 m/s)Drop in water Table Drop  boiling curveOriginal Boiling CurveNon-boiling uids precipitation through simple cooling Fluids below boiling curveBoiling FluidsFigure 5.1: A schematic model for boiling fluids induced by water table drop. The fluid ascending curve (orange) is shown to be below the hydrostatic H2O boiling curve, thus inhibiting boiling. Fluids have a simple cooling path and precipitate minerals, as interpreted from fluid inclusion data. As fluids reach 200-220oC, a sudden drop in the water table would place the fluids to the right of the hydrostat-ic boiling curve. Pore fluid pressures are thus over pressured and initiate boiling at ~150-170 oC. A drop in water table can be caused by sudden topographic changes or through seismic events or a combination of the two.113amples. Seismic activity causes stress related water table fluctuations. Seismically in-duced water level fluctuations are called hydroseisms, which are commonly observed following earthquakes. At Shahumyan either rapid uplift or seismic activity or a com-bination of the two processes is likely responsible for a drop in the water level. Major faults in the Kapan district could represent the trigger for a seismically induced water table drop. Uplift can be attributed to the formation of an arc associated with intense magmatism and volcanism. At El Indio, Chile and at Fresnillio, Mexico a drop in the water table and initia-tion of boiling in the system produced acid-sulfate fluids responsible for steam heated blankets. These acid-sulfate fluids produce an alteration assemblage consisting of quartz, kaolinite, alunite and pyrophyllite. At Shahumyan, this alteration assemblage is observed in the lithocap covering the deposit and could further corroborate the in-terpretation of a drop in the water table. The schematic diagram (Figure 5.1) shows the potential path for rising fluids below the hydrostatic boiling curve; as fluids reach ~1600C a sudden drop in the water table would change the elevation of the boiling curve and which could initiate boiling deeper in the system. 5.4 Conclusions•	 The Shahumyan deposit is classified as an Intermediate Sulphidation epithermal vein deposit with structurally controlled Au-Ag rich ore shoots. •	 Mineralization occurs in anastomosing east-west striking veins which have a normal-dextral sense of movement.•	 Shahumyan polymetallic veins contain two main Au-Ag rich oreshoots in Cu-Zn-Pb rich veins. The two ore shoots are: narrow sub-vertical oreshoots and sub-horizontal oreshoots. These ore shoots are characterized by dilation 114zones in the anastomosing veins and can be characterized by pinch and swell veins, cymoid loops (nodes), step over structures and relay ramps. Often ac-companying these dilational structures are microbreccia textures.  •	 Au-Ag mineralization is characterized by Au-Ag tellurides such as petzite, sylvanite and hessite which infill fractures in microbreccia. •	 Petrographic observations identify boiling evidence linked to Au-Ag tel-lurides.   Boiling is interpreted to have initiated with a sudden drop in the water table either due to rapid uplift or seismic activity or a combination of the two.•	 Based on microthermometric measurements in sphalerite and quartz, mineralizing hydrothermal fluids at Shahumyan range between 285oC and 120 oC and are slightly acidic (5.5-6.5 pH). •	 As fluids cooled from approximately 285oC to 150oC, base metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb are deposited. Between 150 oC and 20 oC, physical processes such as boiling changed physiochemical conditions; Te fugacity exceeded S fugacity and precipitated telluride minerals in lieu of other sulphide minerals. •	 Deposition of Au-Ag telluride minerals initiated principally as a function of condensing boiled vapors in localized brecciated zones. Telluride minerals precipitated from hydrothermal fluids at approximately 150o C, as evidenced by microthermometric measurements of boiling assemblages linked to Au-Ag telluride hosting fractures.  •	 Massive calcite deposition marks the waning stages of the hydrothermal system and was precipitated as a function of mixing. 5.5 District Scale Exploration ImplicationsThe Kapan ore district is typified by northeast to east and northwest trending 115steep to moderately dipping (60-85o) copper rich to polymetallic (Au-Ag-Zn-Cu-Pb) rich veins. Based on geochronological data, Mederer et al. (2013) suggests distinct magmatic-hydrothermal events to be responsible for mineralization in the different vein systems (Centralni West, Centralni East and Shahumyan). Radiometric age dating (Ar-Ar) of hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with mineralization estimates 161.78±0.79 Ma(hydrothermal muscovite) to 156.14±0.79Ma (alunite) for mineraliza-tion (Mederer et al., 2013). Structural and vein mineralogy from different vein systems presented in the current study, provides evidence for an interconnected fracture sys-tem hosting mineralization. Six main vein systems have been exploited in varying degrees within the district: Centralni, Barabatoom, Arachadzor-Badalayurt, Noreshe-nik and Shahumyan, of which Shahumyan is the only operating min. Understanding the extent and displacement of the different vein systems allows geologists to target for economic mineralization within a district which has been over exploited since the 1800’s. The Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Complex comprising of volcanic, volcanoclastic and intercalated carbonaceous sediments unconformably overlay the middle Jurassic complex. Mineralized veins and associated hydrothermal alteration does not extend or permeate into the Upper Jurassic Complex rocks. Thus, restricting mineralization to the Middle Jurassic Volcanic Complex.  Bedding measurements within the district reveal an anticline with a southeast trending axial hinge. Sosson et al. (2010), Saintot et al., bracket folding events in the Lesser Caucasus between the Eocene to Miocene, linking them to the SAB collision with Eurasia and subsequent collision of Arabia with Eurasia between the Late Creta-ceous to Paleocene. Bedding measurements in the Kapan district, of the Middle Ju-rassic volcaniclastic rocks and Middle Jurassic to Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous unconformity are similar. Furthermore, bedding measurements the Upper Juras-116N S5oTot 10oTot 15oTotnortheast-southwest compressionsoutheast trending hinge20oTotuplifterosionreference surfacePresent Surface1 2 3 41234Arachadzor-BadalayurtCentralniBarabatoomShahumyanFault Block RotationFolding and UpliftPresent day Erosion1 2 3 4anticlineUnconformity Mineralized veinsMiddle Jurassic ComplexPaleogene  & Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Complex  Figure 5.2: Schematic diagram of fault blocks in the Kapan district. Rotation of fault blocks affect ex-isting veins differently at different portions of the district. Veins to the south east would experience much less erosion compare to veins in the northwest. sic-Lower Cretaceous and Paleogene unconformity also has similar measurements to the lower unconformity. Therefore, the principal compression and subsequent folding event of the Paleogene is inferred to be responsible for the anticline present in the Ka-pan district. The anticline is part of a larger anticlinorium in the Lesser Caucasus and synclinorium in the Trans Caucasus with similarly trending axial hinge lines.   All veins system identified in the district except for Gyandzhibut veins are locat-ed along the northeast limb. As established above, mineralization in the district is re-117stricted to the Middle Jurassic; therefore, subsequent folding in the Paleocene would have rotated and tilted mineralized veins. If bedding is restored back to sub-horizontal, northeast trending, south dipping Shahumyan veins would become steeper, while any north to northeast dipping veins in the district (Arachadzor, Noreshenik) would be-come slightly shallower (60º-70º  50º -60º). Two major fault-sets, the F1 and F2 are identified in the district.  North trending oblique (normal-dextral) F1 set and the northeast trending normal F2 set.    Both, F1 and F2 crosscut mineralized veins and offset the Middle Jurassic and the Upper Ju-rassic-Lower Cretaceous Complexes. Mineralized veins which have been crosscut by F2 and F1 faults cannot be traced from one side of the fault damage zone to the other, it is unknown whether mineralized veins terminate at these faults or if they continue. Damage zones of both fault sets contain discontinuous disseminated mineralization observed at fault-vein intersections. Disseminated mineralization within fault damage zones could indicate that these faults acted as major conduits for fluid flow provid-ing mineralizing fluids for veins. However, it could also indicate existing mineralized veins crosscut by through going faults, which subsequently incorporated mineraliza-tion through mechanical degradation of veins over repeated fault reactivation events and/or through remobilization. F2, northeast striking faults in the district impart a fault block or bookshelf type fault architecture in the district. It is evident that faulted blocks have rotated/tilted, shallowing to the northwest. A lack of measurements on reference beds (piercing points) and their continuous reactivation make it difficult to determine the magnitude of fault block rotation and in turn the rotation of mineralized veins. A normal-fault architecture indicates northwestern blocks as hanging wall blocks and southeast blocks as footwall blocks. A simplified schematic is shown in Figure 5.2 to indicate the evolution and the general geometry of fault blocks in the district.   Rotated fault blocks are interpreted to vertically offset the vein systems in such 118a way where deeper vein segments are tilted to the northwest and shallower por-tions towards the southeast. This is further evidenced in vein mineralogy where sul-phide and gangue of Arachadzor and Centralni (located more to the NW) contain sulphides requiring higher temperatures and sulphidation states and therefore deeper conditions. Barabatoom and Shahumyan (located to the SE) on the otherhand con-tain calcite, Mg-calcite, minor Mn-carbonates and sulphides requiring relatively lower sulphidation states. This interpretation would thus suggest that a majority of the vein system to the north may have hosted Au-Ag grades in veins on par with Shahumyan, making the district significantly more endowed than current estimates. Erosion is likely the major culprit in the missing upper portion of the district as would be expected in a 165 Ma old deposit. Based on proposed architecture in the district, future explora-tion in the district for Au-Ag veins should focus in to the southeast of the Shahumyan deposit. Base metal mineralization is also expected to increase at depth for veins at Shahumyan. Further research is required to constrain structural aspects for the pro-posed interpretation. 5.6 Future Work:•	 Establish a better structural understanding of large fault systems fault para-genesis of the Sayed Kar, Barabatoom and such fault systems in the Kapan district would help in identifying paleo-stress conditions. •	 Identifying the Early- Middle Jurassic age paleo stress conditions would greatly contribute to a better understanding of the Middle Jurassic tectonic environment in The Lesser Caucasus. and would allow for a more precise structural interpretation of similarly aged deposits..•	 A more detailed stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of different veins at Shahumyan could help further constrain fluid source and evolution at 119Shahumyan. Furthermore, similar work in the district would allow for com-parison of the different vein systems mined in the Kapan District. •	 A more detailed geochronological and geochemical study of the Lower-Mid-dle Jurassic to Upper Jurassic lower Cretaceous volcanic units.   •	 Identify whether the TSAVSKI intrusive complex south of the Kapan district have a genetic relationship to mineralization in the Kapan District. 120Abdel-Rahman, A. F. M., 1995. Chlorites in a spectrum of igneous rocks: mineral chemistry and para-genesis. Mineralogical magazine, 59(1):129-141.Achikgiozyan, S.O., Zohrabyan, S.A., Karapetyan, A.I., Mirzoyan, H.G., Sargisyan, R.A., Zaryan, R.N., 1987. The Kapan Mining district. Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR. 198 pp, (in Russian).Acocella, V., Gudmundsson, A., & Funiciello, R. 2000. Interaction and linkage of extension fractures and normal faults: examples from the rift zone of Iceland. Journal of Structural Geology, 22(9):1233-1246.Adamia, S., Zakariadze, G., Chkhotua, T., Sadradze, N., Tsereteli, N., Chabukiani, A., & Gventsadze, A. 2011. Geology of the Caucasus: a review. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 20(5):489-544.Adamia, S.A., Chkhotua, T., Kekelia, M., Lordkipanidze, M., Shavishvili, I., Zakariadze, G. 1981. Tectonics of the Caucasus and adjoining regions: implications for the evolution of the Tethys ocean. Journal of Structural Geology 3:437–447.Adamia, S.A., Lordkipanidze, M.B., Zakariadze, G.S. 1977. Evolution of an active continental margin as exemplified by the Alpine history of the Caucasus. Tectonophysics 40:183–199.Afifi, A. M., Kelly, W. C., & Essene, E. J. 1988. Phase relations among tellurides, sulfides, and oxides; Pt. II, Applications to telluride-bearing ore deposits. Economic Geology, 83(2):395-404.Afifi, A. M., Kelly, W. C., & Essene, E. J. 1988. Phase relations among tellurides, sulfides, and oxides; I, Thermochemical data and calculated equilibria. Economic Geology, 83(2):377-394.Aghazadeh, M., Hou, Z., Badrzadeh, Z., & Zhou, L. 2015. Temporal–spatial distribution and tectonic setting of porphyry copper deposits in Iran: Constraints from zircon U–Pb and molybdenite Re–Os geochronology. Ore Geology Reviews, 70:385-406.Akbarpour, A., Gholami, N., Azizi, H., & Torab, F. M. 2013. Cluster and R-mode factor analyses on soil geochemical data of Masjed-Daghi exploration area, northwestern Iran. Arabian Journal of Geoscienc-es, 6(9):3397-3408.Akopyan, V.T., 1962. Stratigraphy of Jurassic and Cretaceous suites of South-Eastern Zangezur. Arme-nian Academy of Sciences SSR, 265 (in Russian).Alavi, M., 1991. Sedimentary and structural characteristics of the Paleo-Tethys remnants in northeast-ern Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103:983–992.Alavi, M., 2007. Structures of the Zagros fold–thrust belt in Iran. American Journal of Science 307:1064–1095.Allmendinger, R. W., Cardozo, N. C., and Fisher, D., 2013, Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors & Tensors: Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 289.References121Amiryan, S.H., Pidjyan, G.H., Faramazyan, A.S., 1987. Mineralization stages and ore minerals of Teghut ore deposit. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences) 40:31–44 (in Russian).Amiryan, S.O. and Karapetyan, A.I. 1965. Mineral composition of the ores of Megradzor gold deposit. In Eksperimental’ nometodicheskiye issledovaniya rudnykh mineralov (Experimental-Procedural In-vestigations of Ore Minerals). Nauka Press, 215-222.Aslanian, A.T. 1958. Regional Geology of Armenia. Yerevan: Haipetrat Publishing House, 430 (in Rus-sian).Avagyan, A., Sosson, M., Karakhanian, A., Philip, H., Rebai, S., Rolland, Y., & Davtyan, V. 2010. Recent tectonic stress evolution in the Lesser Caucasus and adjacent regions. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 340(1):393-408.Avanesyan, A.S., Leven, E., Uspenskaya, E.A. 1990. About exposure of Middle Jurassic suites in the river Vorotan (Kapan anticlinorium, Lesser Caucasus). Izvestia Nauki O Zemle. Proceedings of the Na-tional Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences,43:64–68 (in Russian).Avanesyan, A.S., Leven, E., Uspenskaya, E.A. 1992. New data about Callovian rocks of Kapan anticlino-rium (the Lesser Caucasus). Izvestia Nauki O Zemle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Armenia, Earth Sciences, 45:69–73 (in Russian).Azaryan, N.R. 1978. Determination of Bathonian suites in Kapan Anticlinorium. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences, 31:8–15 (in Russian).Azaryan, N.R. 1978. Determination of Bathonian suites in Kapan Anticlinorium. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences, 31:8–15 (in Russian).Babazadeh, V. M., Ramazanov, V. G., Mammadov, Z. I., Ismailova, A. M. & Abdullayeva, Sh. F. 2007. Geological-geophysical and geochemical fundamentals of the model of ore-magmatic systems of porphyry-copper deposits of the Kedabek ore district. Proceedings of Scientific Session Dedicated to 100th Anniversary of Academician M. A. Kashkai. Baku, 58–84.Baba-Zadeh, V.M., Makhmudov, A.M., Ramazanov, V.G. 1990. Copper-porphyry and molybdenum-por-phyry deposits. Azerneshr, Baku (in Russian).Bagdasaryan, G.P., Ghoukassyan, R.K., Kazaryan, K.B. 1978. Comparative study of the age of old meta-morphic schists in the Hakhoum River Basin (Armenian SSR) by means of K-Ar and Rb- Sr techniques, in: Geochronology of the Eastern-European Platform and Junction of the Caucasian-Carpathian Sys-tem. Nauka, 47–58 (in Russian).Bagdasaryan, G.P., Melkonyan, R.L. 1968. New data about petrography and geochronology of some volcanogenic and subvolcanic formations of Alaverdi region. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences) 21, 93–101 (in Russian).Barrier, E., Vrielynck, B. 2008. Palaeotectonic Maps of the Middle East. CGMW.Barton Jr, P. B., & Skinner, B. J. 1979. Sulfide mineral stabilities.Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 2:278-403.122Barton, P. B., & Toulmin, P. 1966. Phase relations involving sphalerite in the Fe-Zn-S system. Economic Geology, 61(5):815-849.Barton, P. B., Bethke, P. M., and Roedder, E. 1977. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part III, Progress toward interpretation of the chemistry of the ore-forming fluid for the OH Vein. Economic geology, 72:1-24.Bazhenov, M.L., Burtman, V.S., Levashova, N.L. 1996. Lower and Middle Jurassic paleomagnetic results from the south Lesser Caucasus and the evolution of the Mesozoic Tethys Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 141:79–89.Beaumont, C. 2006. Feasibility study in to the potential exploitation of Gold from the Central Mine open pit waste dumps, Kapan, Southern Armenia. Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Exeter, UK.Begbie, M. J., Spörli, K. B., & Mauk, J. L. 2007. Structural Evolution of the Golden Cross Epithermal Au-Ag Deposit, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 102(5):873-892.Belov, A. 1981. Tectonic evolution of the Alpine folded domain in Paleozoic. Proceedings of Geological Institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR 347, 1–212 [in Russian].Berger, B. R., and Henley, R. W. 1989. Advances in the understanding of epithermal gold-silver depos-its, with special reference to the western United States. Economic Geology Monograph, 6: 405-423.Berger, B.R., Tingley, J.V., Drew, L.J. 2003. Structural Localization and Origin of Compartmentalized Flu-id Flow, Comstock Lode, Virginia City, Nevada. Economic Geology, 98:387-408.Bethke, C.M. and Yeakel, S., 2014, The Geochemist’s Workbench, release 10.0.4, Aqueous Solutions LLC, Champaign, IL, USA.Bird, D. K., & Norton, D. L. 1981. Theoretical prediction of phase relations among aqueous solutions and minerals: Salton Sea geothermal system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45(9): 1479-1494.Bodnar, R. J. 1993. Revised equation and table for determining the freezing point depression of H 2 O-NaCl solutions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57(3):683-684.Booden, M. A., Smith, I. E., Black, P. M., & Mauk, J. L. 2011. Geochemistry of the Early Miocene volcanic succession of Northland, New Zealand, and implications for the evolution of subduction in the South-west Pacific. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 199(1):25-37.Borisenko, A. S. 1977. Study of the salt composition of solutions in gas-liquid inclusions in minerals by the cryometric method. Soviet Geology and Geophysics, 18(8):11-18.Boullier, A. M., and Robert, F. 1992. Palaeoseismic events recorded in Archaean gold-quartz vein net-works, Val d’Or, Abitibi, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Structural Geology, 14(2):161-179.Bouzari, F., & Clark, A. H. 2006. Prograde evolution and geothermal affinities of a major porphyry copper deposit: the Cerro Colorado hypogene protore, I Región, northern Chile. Economic Geology, 101(1):95-134.123Brathwaite, R.L., Cargill, H.J., Christie, A.B and Swain, A. 2001. Controls on the distribution of veining in andesite- and rhyolite-hosted gold-silver epithermal deposits of the Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand. Mineralium Deposita, 36:1-12.Browne, P. R. L. 1978. Hydrothermal alteration in active geothermal fields. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 6:229-250.Browne, P. R. L. 1978. Hydrothermal alteration in active geothermal fields. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 6:229-250.Browne, P.R.L., and Ellis, A.J. 1970. The Ohaki-Broadlands hydrothermal area, New Zealand: Mineralo-gy and related geochemistry: American Journal Science.  269:97-131.Calagari, A. A. 2003. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic–phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(7):767-780.Calagari, A. A. 2004. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz veinlets in the porphyry copper deposit at Sun-gun, East-Azarbaidjan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 23(2):179-189.Callahan, T., 2001, Geology and host-rock alteration of the Henty and MountJulia gold deposits, west-ern Tasmania: Economic Geology, 96: 1073–1088.Carlile, J.C., Davey, G.R., Kadir, I., Langmead, R.P., and Rafferty, W.J., 1998, Discovery and exploration of the Gosowong epithermal gold deposit, Halmahera, Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 60:207–227.Catchpole, H., Kouzmanov, K., Fontboté, L., Guillong, M., & Heinrich, C. A. 2011. Fluid evolution in zoned Cordilleran polymetallic veins—Insights from microthermometry and LA-ICP-MS of fluid inclu-sions. Chemical Geology, 281(3):293-304.Childs, C., Nicol, A., Walsh, J. J., & Watterson, J. 1996. Growth of vertically segmented normal faults. Journal of Structural Geology, 18(12):1389-1397.Cholahyan, L.S., A., S.M., Sarkisyan, R.A., 1972. About the lithology of volcaniclasts of the Upper Bajo-cian of the left bank or the river Kavart. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences) 25:36–41 (in Russian).Christie, A.B., Simpson, M.P., Brathwaite, R.L., Mauk, J.L., Simmons, S.F. 2007. Epithermal Au-Ag and Related Deposits of the Hauraki Goldfield, Coromandel Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geol-ogy, 102:785-816.Cole, D. R., & Drummond, S. E. 1986. The effect of transport and boiling on Ag/Au ratios in hydrother-mal solutions: a preliminary assessment and possible implications for the formation of epithermal precious-metal ore deposits. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 25(1):45-79.Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Spry, P. G., & Voudouris, P. 2009. Understanding gold-(silver)-telluride-(sel-enide) mineral deposits. Episodes, 32(4):249-263.124Cooke, D. R., and McPhail, D. C. 2001. Epithermal Au-Ag-Te mineralization, Acupan, Baguio district, Philippines: numerical simulations of mineral deposition. Economic Geology, 96:109-131.Cooke, D. R., McPhail, D. C., and Bloom, M. S. 1996. Epithermal gold mineralization, Acupan, Baguio District, Philippines; geology, mineralization, alteration, and the thermochemical environment of ore deposition. Economic Geology. 91:243-272.Cooke, D.R. and Bloom, M.S., 1990, Epithermal and subjacent porphyry mineralization, Acupan, Ba-guio district, Phillipines: A fluid-inclusion and Paragnetic study: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 35:297-340.Cooke, D.R., and Simmons, S.F., 2000, Characteristics and genesis of epithermal gold deposits, Reviews in Economic Geology, 13:221–244.Corbett, G. J. 2005. Epithermal Au-Ag deposit types–implications for exploration. In Proexplo Confer-ence Peru.Cox, S., Knackstedt, M., Braun, J. 2001. Principles of Structural Control on Permeability and Fluid Flow in Hydrothermal Systems. Reviews in Economic Geology. 14:1-24.Cox, S.F., 2005. Coupling between deformation, fluid pressures, and fluid flow in ore-producing hydro-thermal systems at depth in the crust. Economic Geology, 100:39-75.Craig, J. R., & Vaughan, D. J. 1990. Compositional and textural variations of the major iron and base-met-al sulphide minerals. In Sulphide deposits their origin and processing, Springer Netherlands, 1-16.Crawford, M. L. 1981. Phase equilibria in aqueous fluid inclusions. Short course in fluid inclusions: applications to petrology, 6:75-100.Czamanske, G. K., and Rye, R. O. 1974. Experimentally determined sulfur isotope fractionations be-tween sphalerite and galena in the temperature range 600 degrees to 275 degrees C. Economic Geol-ogy, 69:17-25.Czamanske, GK. 1974. The FeS content of sphalerite along the chalcopyrite-pyrite-bornite sulfur fugac-ity buffer. Economic Geology, 69: 1328-1334.Czamanske, GK.1974. The FeS content of sphalerite along the chalcopyrite-pyrite-bornite sulfur fugac-ity buffer. Economic Geology, 69:1328-1334.Davis, B.K. 2006. Report on the Geology of the Kapan Area with a Focus on the Shahumyan Deposit - Observations and Interpretations Based on a Visit in September 2006. Unpublished report for Dundee Precious Metals.DeRonde, C. E., & Blattner, P. 1988. Hydrothermal alteration, stable isotopes, and fluid inclusions of the Golden Cross epithermal gold-silver deposit, Waihi, New Zealand. Economic geology, 83(5):895-917.Diamond, L. W.2003. Introduction to gas-bearing, aqueous fluid inclusions.Fluid Inclusions: Analysis and Interpretation, 32:101-158.Drummond, S. E., & Ohmoto, H. 1985. Chemical evolution and mineral deposition in boiling hydrother-mal systems. Economic geology, 80(1):126-147.125Drummond, S. E., and Ohmoto, H. 1985. Chemical evolution and mineral deposition in boiling hydro-thermal systems. Economic geology, 80:126-147.Echavarria, L., Nelson, E., Humphrey, J., Chavez, J., Escobedo, L., & Iriondo, A. 2006. Geologic evolution of the Caylloma epithermal vein district, southern Peru. Economic Geology, 101(4):843-863.Eilu, P., Mikucki, E.J., and Groves, D.I. 1997. Wall-rock alteration and primary geochemical dispersion in lode-gold exploration: Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits Short Course Series, 1:65.Einaudi, M. T., Hedenquist, J. W., and Inan, E. E. 2003. Sulfidation state of fluids in active and extinct hydrothermal systems: transitions from porphyry to epithermal environments. Special Publication-So-ciety of Economic Geologists, 10:285-314.Faulds, J. E., & Varga, R. J. 1998. The role of accommodation zones and transfer zones in the regional segmentation of extended terranes. Special Papers-Geological Society of America, 1:46.Faulds, J. E., Coolbaugh, M. F., Benoit, D., Oppliger, G., Perkins, M., Moeck, I., & Drakos, P. 2010. Struc-tural controls of geothermal activity in the northern Hot Springs Mountains, western Nevada: The tale of three geothermal systems (Brady’s, Desert Peak, and Desert Queen). Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 34:675-683.Faulds, J. E., Coolbaugh, M. F., Vice, G. S., & Edwards, M. L. 2006. Characterizing structural controls of geothermal fields in the northwestern Great Basin: A progress report. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 30:69-76.Faulkner, D. R., C. A. L. Jackson, R. J. Lunn, R. W. Schlische, Z. K. Shipton, C. A. J. Wibberley, and M. O. Withjack. 2010. A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones, Journal of Structural. Geology, 32:1557–1575.Faulkner, D. R., Jackson, C. A. L., Lunn, R. J., Schlische, R. W., Shipton, Z. K., Wibberley, C. A. J., & With-jack, M. O. 2010. A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones. Journal of Structural Geology, 32(11):1557-1575.Fleet, M. E., Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., & Zussman, J. (Eds.). 2003. Rock-Forming Minerals: Micas. Geo-logical Society of London.Fossen, H. 2010. Deformation bands formed during soft-sediment deformation: Observations from SE Utah. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27(1):215-222.Fossen, H. and Rotevatn, A. 2016. Fault linkage and relay structures in extensional settings – a review. Earth-Sciences Reviews, 154:14-28.Frost, B. R., Mavrogenes, J. A., & Tomkins, A. G. 2002. Partial melting of sulfide ore deposits during medium-and high-grade metamorphism. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(1):1-18..Galoyan, G., Rolland, Y., Sosson, M., Corsini, M., Billo, S., Verati, C., Melkonyan, R., 2009. Geology, geo-chemistry and 40Ar/39Ar dating of Sevan ophiolites (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia): Evidence for Jurassic Back-arc opening and hot spot event between the South Armenian Block and Eurasia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 34:135 – 153.126Galoyan, G., Rolland, Y., Sosson, M., Corsini, M., Melkonyan, R., 2007. Evidence for superposed MORB, oceanic plateau and volcanic arc series in the Lesser Caucasus (Stepanavan, Armenia). Comptes Ren-dus Geoscience, 339:482 – 492.Gamkrelidze, I., 1986. Geodynamic evolution of the Caucasus and adjacent areas in Alpine time. Tec-tonophysics, 127:261–277.Garofalo, P. S., Fricker, M. B., Günther, D., Bersani, D., & Lottici, P. P. 2014. Physical-chemical properties and metal budget of Au-transporting hydrothermal fluids in orogenic deposits. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 402(1):71-102.Gemmell, J. B. 2007. Hydrothermal alteration associated with the Gosowong epithermal Au-Ag depos-it, Halmahera, Indonesia: Mineralogy, geochemistry, and exploration implications. Economic Geology, 102(5):893-922.Gemmell, J.B. 2004. Low and intermediate-sulfidation epithermal deposits, ARC- AMIRAP, Australia, 57-63.Gemmell, J.B., and Fulton, R., 2001, Geology, genesis, and exploration implications of the footwall and hanging-wall alteration associated with the Hellyer volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Tasmania, Australia: Economic Geology, 96:1003–1035.Gemmell, J.B., and Large, R.R. 1992. Stringer system and alteration zones underlying the Hellyer volca-nic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Tasmania, Australia: Economic Geology, 87:620–649.Gevorkyan, R., Aslanyan, A. 1997. Armenia, in: Moores, E.M., Fairbridge, R.W. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology. Chapmann and Hall, London, 26–34.Gialli, S., Moritz, R., Popkhadze, N., Gugushvili, V., Migineishvili, R., Spangenberg, J. 2012. The Mad-neuli Polymetallic Deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Georgia: A Transitional System with Magmatic Input in a Submarine Environment, in: Hedenquist, J.W., Fontboté, L. (Eds.), Integrated Exploration and Ore Deposits, Proceedings SEG 2012 Conference, Lima, Peru. p. Poster 38.Golonka, J. 2004. Plate tectonic evolution of the southern margin of Eurasia in the Mesozoic and Ce-nozoic. Tectonophysics, 381:235–273.Grant, J.A. 1986. The isocon diagram—a simple solution to Gresens’ equation for metasomatic alter-ation, Economic Geology, 81:1976–1982.Grohmann, C.H. and Campanha, G.A.C. 2010. OpenStereo: open source, cross-platform software for structural geology analysis. Presented at the AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA.Hakobyan, V. T.1963. Stratigraphy of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the north-eastern part of Zangezour, Academy of Science Ar menian SSR. Yerevan (in Russian).Hanson, G.N. 1980 Rare earth elements in petrogenetic studies of igneous systems. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 8:371-406.127Hassanpour, S., & Afzal, P. 2013. Application of concentration–number (C–N) multifractal modeling for geochemical anomaly separation in Haftcheshmeh porphyry system, NW Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6(3):957-970.Hassanpour, S., Alirezaei, S., Selby, D., & Sergeev, S. (2015). SHRIMP zircon U–Pb and biotite and horn-blende Ar–Ar geochronology of Sungun, Haftcheshmeh, Kighal, and Niaz porphyry Cu–Mo systems: evidence for an early Miocene porphyry-style mineralization in northwest Iran. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 104(1):45-59.Hässig, M., Rolland, Y., Sahakyan, L., Sosson, M., Galoyan, G., Avagyan, A., & Müller, C. 2015. Multi-stage metamorphism in the South Armenian Block during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous: Tec-tonics over south-dipping subduction of Northern branch of Neotethys. Journal of Asian Earth Scienc-es, 102:4-23.Hässig, M., Rolland, Y., Sosson, M., Galoyan, G., Müller, C., Avagyan, A., & Sahakyan, L. 2013. New structural and petrological data on the Amasia ophiolites (NW Sevan–Akera suture zone, Lesser Cau-casus): insights for a large-scale obduction in Armenia and NE Turkey. Tectonophysics, 588:135-153.Hässig, M., Rolland, Y., Sosson, M., Galoyan, G., Sahakyan, L., Topuz, G., & Müller, C. 2013. Linking the NE Anatolian and Lesser Caucasus ophiolites: evidence for large-scale obduction of oceanic crust and implications for the formation of the Lesser Caucasus-Pontides Arc. Geodinamica acta, 26(3-4):311-330.Hayba, D. O. 1997. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part V, Epithermal mineralization from fluid mixing in the OH Vein. Economic Geology, 92(1):29-44.Hayba, D. O., Bethke, P. M., Heald, P., and Foley, N. K. 1985. Geologic, mineralogic, and geochemical characteristics of volcanic-hosted epithermal precious-metal deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology, 2:129-167.Heald, P., Foley, N. K., and Hayba, D. O. 1987. Comparative anatomy of volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits; acid-sulfate and adularia-sericite types. Economic Geology, 82:1-26.Hedenquist, J. W., & Henley, R. W. 1985. The importance of CO 2 on freezing point measurements of fluid inclusions; evidence from active geothermal systems and implications for epithermal ore deposi-tion.Economic geology, 80(5):1379-1406.Hedenquist, J. W., & Houghton, B. F. 1987. Epithermal gold mineralisation and its volcanic enviro-ments. The earth resources Foundation the University of Sydney Taupo Vol. Zone, New Zealand, 15-21.Hedenquist, J. W., Arribas, A., and Gonzalez-Urien, E. 2000. Exploration for epithermal gold deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology, 13:45-77.Hemley, J. J. 1959. Some mineralogical equilibria in the system K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. American Journal of Science, 257(4):241-270.128Hemon, P., Moritz, R., Ramazanov, V. 2012. The Gedabek Epithermal Cu-Au Deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Western Azerbaijan: Geology, Alterations, Petrography and Evolution of the Sulfidation Fluid States, in: Hedenquist, J.W., Fontboté, L. (Eds.), Integrated Exploration and Ore Deposits, Proceedings SEG 2012 Conference, Lima, Peru. p. Poster 50.Henley, R., 1984a, Chemical structure of geothermal systems, Chapter 2 in: Henley, R. W., Truesdell, A. H. and Barton, P. B., Fluid - mineral equilibria in hydrothermal systems, Reviews in Economic Geology, Vol. 1 (Robertson, J., series editor), Society of Economic Geology, 9 – 280.Henley, R. W., & Hedenquist, J. W. (1986). Introduction to the geochemistry of active and fossil geo-thermal systems. Guide to the Active Epithermal Systems and Precious Metal Deposits of New Zea-land: Monograph Series Mineral Deposits, Berlin, Gebruder Borntraeger, (26):129-145.Henley, R. Wo. 1984b. Hydrolysis reactions in hydrothermal fluids, Chapter 6 in: Henley, R. W., Trues-dell, A. H. and Barton, Po Bo, Fluid-mineral equilibria in hydrothermal systems, Reviews in Economic Geology, Vol 1 (Robertson, J., series editor), Society of Economic Geologists, 65-82.Henley, R.W. 1985. Ore transport and deposition in epithermal environments, In Stable Isotopes and Fluid Processes in Mineralization; eds Hubert, H., Golding, S. and Ho, S.E., Geol Dept. and Univ. Exten-sion of Western Australia Publ, 23:51-69.Hosseinzadeh, G., Mouayed, M., Kalagari, A.A., Hajalilou, B., Moazen, M. 2008. Studies of petrography and petrogenesis of Incheh intrusive body, east of Heris, East-Azarbaijan, 189-206.Jackson, J. 1992. Partitioning of Strike-Slip and Convergent Motion Between Eurasia and Arabia in East-ern Turkey and the Caucasus. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97:12471–12479.Jamali, H. and Mehrabi, B. 2015. Relationships between arc maturity and Cu-Mo-Au porphyry and related epithermal mineralization at the Cenozoic Arasbaran magmatic belt. Ore Geology Reviews, 65:487-867.Jamali, H., Dilek, Y., Daliran, F., Yaghubpur, A., & Mehrabi, B. 2010. Metallogeny and tectonic evolu-tion of the Cenozoic Ahar–Arasbaran volcanic belt, northern Iran. International Geology Review, 52(4-6):608-630.Johnston Jr, W. D. 1940. The gold quartz veins of Grass Valley, California (No. 194). United States Gov-ernment Printing Office.Karamyan, K.A. 1978. Geology, structure and condition of formation copper-molybdenum deposits of Zangezur ore region. Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, 179 pp, (in Russian), Yerevan.Karapetyan, A.I., Amiryan, S.H., Azizbekynam, S., Altunyan, A.Z., Melkonyan, R.L., Guyumjyan, O.P., Paronikyan, V.O., Nalbandyan, E.M., Kaplanyan, P.M., Galstyan, A.R., Grigotyan, L.A., Zohrabyan, S.A. 1982. Predicting- Metallogenic map of the Alaverdi-Shamlugh-Akhtala ore junction. Unpublished re-port of National Academy of Sciences of Armenian SSR, Institute of Geological Sciences.Kazmin, V., Sbortshikov, I., Ricou, L.E., Zonenshain, L., Boulin, J., Knipper, A. 1986. Volcanic belts as markers of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic active margin of Eurasia. Tectonophysics, 123:123–152.129Keith, T. E., & Muffler, L. J. P. 1978. Minerals produced during cooling and hydrothermal alteration of ash flow tuff from Yellowstone drill hole Y-5.Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 3:373-402.Keith, T.E.C., White, D.E., and Beeson, M.H. 1978. Hydrothermal alteration and self-sealing in Y-7 and Y-8 drill holes in northern part of Upper Geyser basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: U.S. Geo-logical Survey Professional Paper, 1054:26.Kekelia, S., Kekelia, M., Otkhmezuri, Z., Özgür, N., Moon, C. 2004. Ore-forming systems in volcanogen-ic- sedimentary sequences by the example of base metal deposits of the Caucasus and East Pontic Metallotect. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, 129:1–16.Khachaturyan, E.A. 1958. About mineralogical composition of the ores of Kapan copper deposit. Izves-tia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences) 11:25–40 (in Russian).Khain, V. 1975. Main stages of tectonic-magmatic evolution of the Caucasus. Geotectonics, 1:13–27.Knipper, A.L., Khain, E.V. 1980. Structural position of ophiolites of the Caucasus. Ofioliti Special Issue, 2:297–314.Konstantinov, M., Kryazhev, S., Ustinov, V. 2010. Characteristics of the ore-forming system of the Zod gold-tellurium deposit (Armenia) according to isotopic data. Geochemistry International, 48:946-949.Kopp, M.L. 1997. Lateral escape structures in the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt (in Russian). Russian Academy of Sciences Transactions, 506:1–314.Kovalenker, V. A., Zalibekyan, M. A., Laputina I. P., Malov, V. S., Sandomirskaya, S.M., Garas’ko M. I., Mkhitaryan D. I.  1990. Sulfide-Telluride Mineralization of the Megradzor ore Field, Armenia, Interna-tional Geology Review, 32:705-72.Kozerenko, S.V. 2004. Hydrothermal system of the Zod gold sulfide deposit, Armenia: Ore sources and formation conditions. Geochemistry International 42:188–190.Large, R.R., Allen, R.L., Blake, M.D., and Herrmann, W. 2001a. Hydrothermal alteration and volatile element halos for the Roseberry K lens volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, western Tasmania, Economic Geology, 96:1055–1072.Large, R.R., Gemmell, J.B., Paulick, H., and Huston, D.L. 2001b. The alteration box plot: A simple ap-proach to understanding the relationship between alteration mineralogy and lithogeochemistry asso-ciated with volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits, Economic Geology, 96:957–971.Large, R.R., McPhie, J., Gemmell, J.B., Herrmann, W., and Davidson, G.J. 2001c. The spectrum of ore deposit types, volcanic environments, alteration halos, and related exploration vectors in submarine volcanic successions: Some examples from Australia, Economic Geology, 96:913–938.Larocque, A.C.L., Stimac, J.A., and Siebe, C. 1997. An epithermal-like vapor-phase assemblage in pum-ice from Volcàn Popocatépetl, Mexico [abs.], Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 29.130Le Maitre, R. W. 1989. A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms. Recommendations of the IUGS Commission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Oxford: BlackwellLeach, T., & Corbett, G. 2008. Fluid mixing as a mechanism for bonanza grade epithermal gold forma-tion. In Paper presented at the Terry Leach Symposium, 17.Leavitt, E. D., & Arehart, G. B. 2005. Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Midas epith-ermal gold system, Nevada. In 2005 New Zealand Minerals and Mining Conference Proceedings, 142-149.Lepetit, P., Bente, K., Doering, T., & Luckhaus, S. 2003. Crystal chemistry of Fe-containing sphalerites. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 30(4):185-191.Lindgren, W., 1933. Mineral Deposits, 4th ed. McGraw Hill, New York and London. 930 pp.Lordkipanidze, M., Meliksetian, B., Djarbashian, R. 1989. Mesozoic-Cenozoic Magmatic Evolution of the Pontian-Crimean-Caucasian Region, in: Rakus, M., Dercourt, J., Nairn, A. (Eds.), IGCP project n_198: Evolution of the northern margin of Tethys. Mémoire de la Société Géologique de France, Paris. 154(2) of Nouvelle Série: 103–124.Madeisky, H. E. 1996. A lithogeochemical and radiometric study of hydrothermal alteration and metal zoning at the Cinola epithermal gold deposit, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Geology and ore deposits of the American Cordillera, 3:1153-1185.Maghakyan, R., Zakariadze, G., Dmitriev, L., Kolesov, G., Korovina, M. 1985. Geochemistry of the Juras-sic-Lower Cretaceous volcanic assemblage of northern Armenia. Volcanology and Seismology, 3:39–53 (in Russian).Marma, J.C., and Vance, R.B. 2010. Importance of Cymoid loops and Implications for Exploration and Development of Epithermal Gold Silver Veins in the Gold Circle District, Midas, Nevada. Geological Society of Nevada Symposium Publications, 777-793.McKinstry, H. E. 1948. Mining Geology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.McPhail, D. C. 1995. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous tellurium species between 25 and 350°. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59(5):851-866.Mederer, J. 2013. Regional setting, geological context and genetic aspects of polymetallic hydrother-mal ore deposits from the Kapan ore district, southern Armenia: a contribution to the Mesozoic island arc metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus, Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva.Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Ulianov, A., and Chiaradia, M., 2013. Middle Jurassic to Cenozoic evolution of arc magmatism during Neotethys subduction and arc-continent collision in the Kapan Zone, southern Armenia. Lithos, 177:61-78.Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Zohrabyan, S., Vardanyan, A., Melkonyan, R., and Ulianov, A. 2014. Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. Ore Geology Reviews, 58:185-207.131Meijers, M. J., Smith, B., Kirscher, U., Mensink, M., Sosson, M., Rolland, Y., Müller, C. 2015. A paleo-latitude reconstruction of the South Armenian Block (Lesser Caucasus) for the Late Cretaceous: Con-straints on the Tethyan realm. Tectonophysics: 644:197-219.Meijers, M. J., Smith, B., Pastor-Galán, D., Degenaar, R., Sadradze, N., Adamia, S., Langereis, C. G. 2015. Progressive orocline formation in the Eastern Pontides–Lesser Caucasus. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 428: Special Publications428-8.Meijers, M.J.M., Vrouwe, B., van Hinsbergen, D.J.J., Kuiper, K.F., Wijbrans, J., Davies, G.R., Stephenson, R.A., KaymakcI, N., Matenco, L., Saintot, A. 2010. Jurassic arc volcanism on Crimea (Ukraine): Implica-tions for the paleo-subduction zone configuration of the Black Sea region. Lithos, 119:412–426.Melkonyan, R.L., Akopyan, M. 2006. Some aspects of the interrelations between magmatism and ore formation: Evidence from oxygen isotope data on oremagmatic systems, Armenia. Petrology, 14:413–420.Meunier, A. 2005. Clays, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin.Micklethwaite, S., & Cox, S. F. 2004. Fault-segment rupture, aftershock-zone fluid flow, and mineraliza-tion. Geology, 32(9):813-816.Micklethwaite, S. 2009. Mechanisms of faulting and permeability enhancement during epithermal mineralization: Cracow goldfield, Australia. Journal of Structural Geology. 31:288-300Micklethwaite, S., Ford, A., Witt, W., Sheldon, H. 2015. The where and how of faults, fluids, and perme-ability – Insights from fault stepovers, scaling properties, and gold mineralization. Geofluids. 15:240–51.Micklethwaite, S., Sheldon, H.A., and Baker, T. 2010. Active fault and shear processes and their impli-cations for mineral deposit formation and discovery. Journal of Structural Geology. 32:151-165.Milanovsky, E.E., 1968. Neotectonics of the Caucasus. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian).Mkrtchian, S. S. 1969. Geology of the Armenian SSR (Vol.IX - Mineral Waters). Academy of Science of the Armenian SSR, Institute of Geological Sciences, Yerevan (in Russian).Monin, A.S., Zonenshain, L.P. 1987. History of the Ocean Tethys. Moscow Institue of Oceanology (in Russian).Moon, C. J., Gotsiridze, G., Gugushvili, V., Kekelia, M., Kekelia, S., Migineishvili R., Othkhmezuri, Z., Ozgur, N. 2001. Comparison of Mineral Deposits between Georgian and Turkish sectors of the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt. In: A. Piestrzynski (ed.), Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Pro-ceedings. 6th Biennial SGA, Krakow, Poland. 309–312.Moritz, R., Rezeau, H., Ovtcharova, M., Tayan, R., Melkonyan, R., Hovakimyan, S., and Putlitz, B. 2015. Long-lived, stationary magmatism and pulsed porphyry systems during Tethyan subduction to post-collision evolution in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus, Armenia and Nakhitchevan.Gondwana Research.132Moritz, R., Selby, D., Ovtcharowa, M., Mederer, J., Melkonyan, R., Hovakimyan, S.E., Tayan, R., Pop-khadze, N., Gugushvili, V., Ramazanov, V. 2012. Diversity of geodynamic settings during Cu, Au and Mo ore formation in the Lesser Caucasus: new age constraints, in: Proceedings 1st triennial EMC meeting, Frankfurt, Germany, 745.Murakami, T., Inoue, A., Lanson, B., Meunier, A., & Beaufort, D. 2005. Illite-smectite mixed-layer min-erals in the hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks: II. One-dimensional HRTEM structure images and formation mechanisms. Clays and Clay Minerals, 53(5):440-451.Nikishin, A.M., Ziegler, P.A., Panov, D.I., Nazarevich, B.P., Brunet, M.-F., Stephenson, R.A., Bolotov, S.N., Korotaev, M.V., Tikhomirov, P.L. 2001. Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the Scythian Plat-form-Black-Sea-Caucasus domain, in: Ziegler, P., Cavazza, W., Robertson, A., Crasquin-Soleau, S. (Eds.), Peri-Tethys Memoir 6: Peri-Tethyan Rift/Wrench Basins and Passive Margins. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle. 186:295–346.Oliver, N.S., Bons, P.D., 2001. Mechanisms of fluid flow and fluid-rock interactions in fossil metamor-phic hydrothermal systems inferred from vein-wallrock patterns, geometry and microstructure. Geo-fluids, 1:137.Páez, G. N., Ruiz, R., Guido, D. M., Jovic, S. M., & Schalamuk, I. B. 2011. Structurally controlled fluid flow: High-grade silver ore-shoots at Martha epithermal mine, Deseado Massif, Argentina. Journal of Structural Geology, 33(5):985-999.Peacock, D. C. P., & Parfitt, E. A. 2002. Active relay ramps and normal fault propagation on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Journal of structural geology, 24(4):729-742.Peacock, D. C. P., & Sanderson, D. J. 1991. Displacements, segment linkage and relay ramps in normal fault zones. Journal of Structural Geology, 13(6):721-733.Pearce, J. A. (1996). A user’s guide to basalt discrimination diagrams. In: Wyman, D. A. (ed.) Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Applications for Massive Sulphide Exploration. Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, 12:79–113.R. J. (1988). Systematics of stretching of fluid inclusions; II, Barite at 1 atm confining pressure. Econom-ic Geology, 83(5):1037-1046.Reed, M. H., and Spycher, N. F. 1985. Boiling, cooling, and oxidation in epithermal systems: a numerical modeling approach. Reviews in Economic Geology. 2:249-272.Reed, M., and Plumlee, G. 1992. Collapse of acid waters into boiling hydrothermal systems and the origin of late stage pyrite and related kaolinite. In Water-Rock lnteraction: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Water-Rock lnteraction, 1083-1086.Richards J.P. 1995. Alkalic-type epithermal gold deposits a review. In: Thompson JFH (ed) Magmas, Fuids and ore deposits. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Series, 23: 367-400.Roedder, E. 1984. Fluid inclusions- P. H. Ribbe Ed. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, 12:12-45.133Rolland, Y., Billo, S., Corsini, M., Sosson, M., Galoyan, G. 2009a. Blueschists of the Amassia- Stepanavan Suture Zone (Armenia): linking Tethys subduction history from E-Turkey to W-Iran. International Jour-nal of Earth Sciences, 98:533–550.Rolland, Y., Galoyan, G., Bosch, D., Sosson, M.,Corsini, M., Fornari, M., Verati, C. 2009b. Jurassic back-arc and Cretaceous hot-spot series In the Armenian ophiolites – Implications for the obduction pro-cess. Lithos, 112:163–187.Rolland, Y., Galoyan, G., Sosson, M., Melkonyan, R., Avagyan, A. 2010. The Armenian Ophiolite: insights for Jurassic back-arc formation, Lower Cretaceous hot spot magmatism and Upper Cretaceous obduc-tion over the South Armenian Block. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 340:353–382.Rolland, Y., Sosson, M., Adamia, S., Sadradze, N. 2011. Prolonged Variscan to Alpine history of an active Eurasian margin (Georgia, Armenia) revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating. Gondwana Research, 20:798–815.Rollison, H. 1993. Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation: Longman Scien-tific & Technical, Harlow, 352.Rose, A.W. and Burt, D.M. 1979. Hydrothermal alteration. In: H.L. Barnes (Editor) Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., 789.Rowland, J. V., & Sibson, R. H. 2004. Structural controls on hydrothermal flow in a segmented rift sys-tem, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand.Geofluids, 4(4):259-283.Rowland, J.V., Sibson, R.H. 2004. Structural controls on hydrothermal flow in a segmented drift system, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geofluids, 4:259-283.Saintot, A., & Angelier, J. 2002. Tectonic paleostress fields and structural evolution of the NW-Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary. Tectonophysics, 357(1):1-31.Sarkisyan, R.A. 1970. About the presence of different age subvolcanic dacite quartz porphyries in Ka-pan ore field. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences, 23:13–17 (in Russian).Schardt, C., Cooke, D. R., Gemmell, J. B., and Large, R. R. 2001. Geochemical modeling of the zoned footwall alteration pipe, Hellyer volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Western Tasmania, Australia. Economic Geology, 96(5):1037-1054.Schwartz, M.O. 2000. Cadmium in Zinc Deposits: Economic Geology of a Polluting Element, Interna-tional Geology Review, 42:445-469.Scott, S. D., & Barnes, H. L. 1971. Sphalerite geothermometry and geobarometry. Econ. Geol, 66(653), 69.Scott, S. D., and Barnes, H. L. 1971. Sphalerite geothermometry and geobarometry. Economic. Geolo-gist 66(653), 69.Sengör, A.M.C., Altiner, D., Cin, A., Ustaömer, T., Hsü, K.J. 1988. Origin and assembly of the Tethyside orogenic collage at the expense of Gondwana Land. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 37:119–181.134Seward, T. M. 1989. The hydrothermal chemistry of gold and its implications for ore formation: boiling and conductive cooling as examples. Economic Geology. 6:398-404.Sibson, R. H. 1996. Structural permeability of fluid-driven fault-fracture meshes. Journal of Structural Geology, 18(8):1031-1042.Sibson, R. H. 1981. Fluid flow accompanying faulting: field evidence and models, in D. W. Simpson and P. G. Richards, eds., Earthquake prediction: an international review: American Geophysical Union Maurice Ewing Series, 4:593– 603.Sibson, R. H. 1996, Structural permeability of fluid-driven fault fracture meshes: Journal of Structural Geology, 18:1031– 1042.Sibson, R. H., Robert, F., & Poulsen, K. H. 1988. High-angle reverse faults, fluid-pressure cycling, and mesothermal gold-quartz deposits. Geology, 16:551-555.Sibson, R.H. 1987. Earthquake rupturing as a mineralizing agent in hydrothermal systems. Geology, 15:701-704.Sillitoe, R.H., Hedenquist, J.W., 2003. Linkages between volcanotectonic settings, ore-fluid composi-tion, and epithermal precious-metal deposits. Society of Economic Geologists, 101:315-343Simmonds, V., Moazzen, M.  2015. Re–Os dating of molybdenites from Oligocene Cu–Mo–Au miner-alized veins in the Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (northwest Iran): implications for understand-ing Cenozoic mineralization in South Armenia, Nakhchivan, and Iran. International Geology Review, 57:290–304.Simmons, S. F., & Brown, K. L. 2006. Gold in magmatic hydrothermal solutions and the rapid formation of a giant ore deposit. Science, 314(5797):288-291.Simmons, S.F., and Browne, P.R.L. 2000. Hydrothermal minerals and precious metals in the Broad-lands-Ohaaki geothermal system: Implications for understanding low-sulphidation epithermal envi-ronments. Economic Geology, 95:971-999.Simmons, S.F., White, N.C., and John, D.A. 2005. Geological characteristics of epithermal precious and base metal deposits. Economic Geology, 29:485-522.Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. 2007. The Favona Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposit, Waihi, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 102(5):817-839.  Sosson, M., Rolland, Y., Müller, C., Danelian, T., Melkonyan, R., Kekelia, S., Adamia, S., Babazadeh, V., Kangarli, T., Avagyan, A., Galoyan, G., Mosar, J., 2010. Subductions, obduction and collision in the Less-er Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), new insights. Geological Society, London, Special Publica-tions, 340:329–352.Spycher, N. F., and Reed, M. H. 1989. Evolution of a broadlands-type epithermal ore fluid along alter-native PT paths; implications for the transport and deposition of base, precious, and volatile metals. Economic Geology, 84:328-359.135Stanley, C. R., and Madeisky, H. E. 1994. Lithogeochemical exploration for hydrothermal ore deposits using Pearce element ratio analysis. Alteration and alteration processes associated with ore-forming systems: Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes, 11:193-211.Steiner, A., 1968. Clay minerals in hydrothermally altered rocks at Wairakei, New Zealand. Clays and Clay Minerals, 16(3):193-213.Steiner, A. 1968. Clay minerals in hydrothermally altered rocks at Wairakei, New Zealand. Clays and Clay Minerals, 16:193-213.Stoffregen, R. E. 1987. Genesis of acid-sulfate alteration and Au-Cu-Ag mineralization at Summitville, Colorado. Economic Geology, 82:1575-1591.Thornburg, C.L., 1945, Some applications of structural geology to mining in the Pachuca-Real del Mon-te  area,  Pachuca  silver  district,  Mexico. Economic Geology. 40:283-297.Trudgill, B., and Cartwright, J. 1994. Relay-ramp forms and normal-fault linkages, Canyonlands Nation-al Park, Utah. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 106(9):1143-1157.Tumanyan, G.A., 1992. Peculiarities of structure and position of Kapan anticlinorium. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Armenia, Earth Sciences) 45:3– 11 (in Russian).Van Middlesworth, P. E., and S. A. Wood. 1998. The aqueous geochemistry of the rare-earth elements and yttrium. Part 7. REE, Th and U contents in thermal springs associated with the Idaho batholith [J]: Appl. Geochem., 13:861–884.Vardanyan, A., 2011. Geological Setting of the Drmbon Copper-Gold Deposit, Nagorno Karabakh Re-public, Lesser Caucasus, in: Abstract Volume, 9th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, 11-13 November 2011, Zurich, 135–136.Vardanyan, A.V., 2008. Geological structure of Drmbon gold-copperpyrite deposit and peculiarities of its structure. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Armenia, Earth Sciences, 61:3–13 (in Russian)Wallier, S. (2009). The geology and evolution of the Manantial Espejo epithermal silver (-gold) deposit, Deseado Massif, Argentina, Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.Walsh, J. J., Bailey, W. R., Childs, C., Nicol, A., & Bonson, C. G. (2003). Formation of segmented normal faults: a 3-D perspective. Journal of Structural Geology, 25(8):1251-1262.Warren, I., Simmons, S. F., & Mauk, J. L. (2007). Whole-rock geochemical techniques for evaluating hy-drothermal alteration, mass changes, and compositional gradients associated with epithermal Au-Ag mineralization. Economic Geology, 102(5):923-948.Weatherley, D. K., and Henley, R. W. 2013. Flash vaporization during earthquakes evidenced by gold deposits. Nature Geoscience, 6:294-298.White, G., Titley, M., Bennett, J., O’Connor, M., 2015. Technical Report Shahumyan Project, kapan, Republic of Armenia. NI 43-101.136White, N.C., Hedenquist, J.W., 1990. Epithermal environments and styles of mineralization: Variations and their causes and guidelines for exploration. J Geochem Explor 36: 445-474.White, N.C., Hedenquist, J.W. 1995. Epithermal gold deposits. Styles, characteristics and exploration. Society of Economic Geology, News 23: 1-13.Whitford, D.J., and Ashley, P.M. 1992. The Scuddles volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Western Australia: Geochemistry of the host rocks and evaluation of lithogeochemistry for exploration: Eco-nomic Geology, 87:873–888.Wilkinson, J. J. 2001. Fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits. Lithos, 55(1):229-272.Wilkinson, J.J., Johnston, J.D. 1996. Fluid pressure fluctuations, phase separation and gold precipita-tion during seismic fracture propagation. Geology, 24:395–398.Winchester, J. A. and Floyd, P. A. 1977. Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements. Chemical Geology, 20:325–343.Wood, D., Noble, M. 2008. Initial observations and interpretations of mapping from the Shahumyan and Centralni polymetallic vein deposits, Kapan, Armenia. JIGSAW Geoscience for Dundee Precious Metals.Wood, D., Noble, M., Standing, J., Outhwaite, M. 2008. Observations and interpretations from mapping in the Kapan region, Armenia. Unpublished report. JIGSAW Geoscience for Dundee Precious MetalsWood, S. A. 1990. The aqueous geochemistry of the rare-earth elements and yttrium 2, Theoreti-cal predictions of speciation in hydrothermal solutions to 350°C at saturation water vapor pressure. Chemical Geology. 88:99–125.Yilmaz, A., Adamia, S., Chabukiani, A., Chkhotua, T., Erdoˇgan, K., Tuzcu, S., Karabiyikoˇglu, M., 2000. Structural Correlation of the Southern Transcaucasus (Georgia)-Eastern Pontides (Turkey). Geological Society, London, Special Publications 173:171–182.Zhang, X. 1992. The geochemistry and mineralogy of the Gies gold-silver telluride deposit, central Montana. Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. Paper 10164, (Unpublished)Zhang, X., & Spry, P. G. 1994. Calculated stability of aqueous tellurium species, calaverite, and hessite at elevated temperatures. Economic Geology, 89(5):1152-1166.Zhang, X., & Spry, P. G. 1994. Petrological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope studies of the Gies gold-silver telluride deposit, Judith Mountains, Montana. Economic Geology, 89(3):602-627.Zhu, Y., An, F., and Tan, J. 2011. Geochemistry of hydrothermal gold deposits: a review. Geoscience Frontiers, 2:367-374.Zohrabyan, S.A. 1975. About subvolcanic nature of Barabatoomian quartz andesite dacite of Kapan ore field. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, Earth Sciences) 33:16–26 (in Russian).137Zohrabyan, S.A. 2005. New Concepts on Stratigraphy of Middle Jurassic Sediments in Southeastern Zangezur. Izvestia Nauki O Zemle (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Ar-menia, Earth Sciences) 58:17–22 (in Russian).138Appendix 1: LithogeoeochemistryThis appendix contains analytical data. The preparation of lithogeochemical samples was performed by the author at the MDRU lab and analyzed at Acme Labs, Vancou-ver, Canada. The results are discussed in 2.139Sample Name DCS-S058 DCS-S059 DCS-S060 DCS-S061 DCS-S062Hole ID SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190Sequence Barabatoom Barabatoom Barabatoom Barabatoom BarabatoomDeposit Shahumyan Shahumyan Shahumyan Shahumyan ShahumyanRock Type QA QA QA QA QADepth 188.7 203.7 207.5 211.4 225.9Easting 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18Northing 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18DatumSiO2% 63.600886 62.972564 64.622944 63.267746 64.929563Al2O3% 17.1079 17.887233 16.823328 17.436678 17.296897Fe2O3% 6.23352 6.578095 6.152532 6.065877 5.825654CaO% 3.54393 2.829985 1.922666 3.652571 1.779473MgO% 4.240059 4.298985 5.223243 4.761387 4.618155Na2O% 4.039658 3.359257 3.418073 2.500272 3.961445K2O% 0.464086 1.220566 1.036103 1.500163 0.847368MnO% 0.32697 0.421257 0.384533 0.391347 0.317763TiO2% 0.400802 0.388853 0.373852 0.391347 0.381316P2O5% 0.04219 0.043206 0.042726 0.032612 0.042368Total (Oxides) 94.81 92.58 93.62 91.99 94.41Ba (ppm) 40 67 69 73 49Be (ppm) 3 0.5005 1 3 0.5005Co (ppm) 11.9 11.4 13.5 12.2 11.9Cs (ppm) 1.4 1 0.4 0.9 3.4Ga (ppm) 11.7 11.7 12.2 11.6 13Hf (ppm) 0.6 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.9Nb (ppm) 1.7 3.4 1.9 0.8 1.3Rb (ppm) 6.9 19 16.2 23.5 14.8Sn (ppm) 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005Sr (ppm) 193.7 83.4 53.8 53.9 87Ta (ppm) 0.0505 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2Th (ppm) 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1005 0.1005U (ppm) 0.0505 0.0505 0.0505 0.0505 0.0505V (ppm) 154 119 133 138 132W (ppm) 1.6 0.5 5.7 0.25005 0.6Zr (ppm) 28.7 38.2 29.3 28 30Y (ppm) 13.6 10.9 12.1 13.1 10.2La (ppm) 2.3 1.7 2.3 2.4 1.7Ce (ppm) 6.2 4.7 6.1 5.6 4.1Pr (ppm) 0.88 0.66 0.82 0.78 0.63Nd (ppm) 4.5 3.7 4.3 4.2 3Sm (ppm) 1.47 0.98 1.15 1.29 0.99Eu (ppm) 0.55 0.43 0.62 0.67 0.35Gd (ppm) 1.63 1.36 1.62 1.69 1.33Tb (ppm) 0.33 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.23Pulkovo 1942 GK 8140Sample Name DCS-S058 DCS-S059 DCS-S060 DCS-S061 DCS-S062Dy (ppm) 2.01 1.81 1.73 2.15 1.6Ho (ppm) 0.42 0.37 0.4 0.4 0.35Er (ppm) 1.38 1.03 1.28 1.23 1.04Tm (ppm) 0.23 0.18 0.22 0.23 0.18Yb (ppm) 1.7 1.29 1.56 1.54 1.44Lu (ppm) 0.29 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.23Mo (ppm) 0.2 0.0505 0.1 0.0505 0.0505Cu (ppm) 70 9.9 15.1 216.8 53.4Pb (ppm) 14.8 30.6 4.7 10.9 2.7Zn (ppm) 524 795 163 1046 436Ni (ppm) 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6141Sample Name DCS-S063 DCS-S064 DCS-S081 DCC_S004 DCC_S007Hole ID SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR338 CEDDE-07 CEDDE-07Sequence Barabatoom Barabatoom Barabatoom Galidzor-Katar Galidzor-KatarDeposit Shahumyan Shahumyan Shahumyan Centralni CentralniRock Type QA QA QA BA BADepth 229 241.3 918.5 75.1 193.6Easting 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623841.46 8619231.40 8619231.40Northing 4342802.18 4342802.18 4343053.22 4345699.65 4345699.65DatumSiO2% 64.101201 62.839158 63.397255 54.696663 67.114788Al2O3% 17.061763 17.657912 17.353034 17.07005 14.705274Fe2O3% 6.367599 6.37074 7.219952 15.25749 8.138573CaO% 1.934729 3.179944 5.103217 0.213242 0.434333MgO% 4.889976 4.536575 3.604736 9.361339 4.353671Na2O% 4.018284 3.581506 2.263439 1.396737 3.660807K2O% 0.882322 1.085305 0.513465 0.522444 0.599793MnO% 0.318911 0.303885 0.125747 0.533106 0.237849TiO2% 0.382694 0.401563 0.37724 0.895618 0.692865P2O5% 0.042522 0.043412 0.041916 0.053311 0.062048Total (Oxides) 94.07 92.14 95.43 93.79 96.7Ba (ppm) 105 52 32 40 43Be (ppm) 1 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005Co (ppm) 12.7 15.4 13.4 36.1 13.4Cs (ppm) 1.2 0.8 4.1 1.3 0.2Ga (ppm) 11.7 12.5 12.9 16.5 12.2Hf (ppm) 0.7 1.3 0.6 0.9 1.1Nb (ppm) 1.1 2.6 1.4 4.2 2.2Rb (ppm) 13.7 18.9 8.7 8.3 10.4Sn (ppm) 0.5005 0.5005 1 0.5005 0.5005Sr (ppm) 49.5 83.8 120.4 10.8 31.6Ta (ppm) 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.2Th (ppm) 0.1005 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.7U (ppm) 0.0505 0.0505 0.0505 0.1 0.3V (ppm) 128 156 125 460 178W (ppm) 0.7 0.7 0.25005 1.5 0.7Zr (ppm) 27.6 30.1 28.5 29.1 53.6Y (ppm) 10.6 12.9 14.1 6.2 13.8La (ppm) 1.7 2.5 2.3 1.9 3.5Ce (ppm) 4.7 5.7 5.3 3.4 8.6Pr (ppm) 0.69 0.89 0.75 0.43 1.15Nd (ppm) 3.2 4.7 4.2 2 5.9Sm (ppm) 1.06 1.3 1.22 0.52 1.44Eu (ppm) 0.41 0.51 0.53 0.21 0.52Gd (ppm) 1.43 1.62 1.78 0.72 1.99Tb (ppm) 0.28 0.32 0.33 0.45 0.32Pulkovo 1942 GK 8142Sample Name DCS-S063 DCS-S064 DCS-S081 DCC_S004 DCC_S007Dy (ppm) 1.73 2.08 2.16 1.17 2.23Ho (ppm) 0.37 0.42 0.48 0.28 0.53Er (ppm) 1.19 1.27 1.54 0.83 1.72Tm (ppm) 0.22 0.24 0.24 0.15 0.28Yb (ppm) 1.37 1.57 1.67 1.06 1.73Lu (ppm) 0.25 0.26 0.29 0.17 0.28Mo (ppm) 0.2 0.0505 0.3 0.0505 0.3Cu (ppm) 137.7 271.4 65.1 263.7 3.4Pb (ppm) 9.4 20.9 0.5 1.8 2.2Zn (ppm) 286 895 59 255 118Ni (ppm) 2.1 1.6 1.5 23.2 5.8143Sample Name DCC_S030 DCC-S023 2014_SR_01 2014_SR_11 2014_SR_13Hole ID CEDDE-05 CEDDE-02 Surface Surface SurfaceSequence Galidzor-Katar Galidzor-Katar Vachagan Vachagan VachaganDeposit Centralni Centralni Kapan Kapan KapanRock Type BA BA A A ADepth 232.4 243.5Easting 8619064.54 8619121.59 8615550.16 8615294.35 8615142.23Northing 4346100.26 4345841.84 4351914.20 4352214.15 4352576.05DatumSiO2% 58.398744 54.453356 75.832306 73.442288 74.336283Al2O3% 17.320774 19.723512 12.56679 14.198161 12.909943Fe2O3% 12.77865 11.872098 4.130703 3.677222 4.914107CaO% 0.334903 0.538202 0.986436 0.418795 1.84279MgO% 5.232862 7.133812 0.431566 0.367722 0.33316Na2O% 3.715332 4.474462 4.551993 6.48621 4.549714K2O% 0.962847 0.474884 1.037813 0.837589 0.562207MnO% 0.460492 0.422119 0.051377 0.030644 0.041645TiO2% 0.743066 0.854791 0.339088 0.449438 0.437272P2O5% 0.052329 0.052765 0.071928 0.091931 0.072879Total (Oxides) 95.55 94.76 97.32 97.9 96.05Ba (ppm) 142 43 39 42 34Be (ppm) 0.5005 0.5005 2 0.5005 1Co (ppm) 28.2 26.6 4.2 2.7 6.6Cs (ppm) 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.8 2.3Ga (ppm) 14.5 17.5 12.5 11.4 9.2Hf (ppm) 0.7 0.9 3.2 3.2 2.4Nb (ppm) 1.5 2.7 3.1 3.1 2.1Rb (ppm) 16 8.8 10.5 20.9 14.7Sn (ppm) 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005Sr (ppm) 37.9 56.2 60.9 100.2 59.2Ta (ppm) 0.0505 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1Th (ppm) 0.3 0.3 1.1 1.2 0.9U (ppm) 0.0505 0.0505 0.5 0.4 0.2V (ppm) 386 414 10 63 71W (ppm) 1.3 1.1 0.25005 0.25005 0.25005Zr (ppm) 22.9 26.2 114.7 116.3 88Y (ppm) 9.9 10.2 33.8 31.3 31.9La (ppm) 1.5 2.3 5.6 4.9 5.9Ce (ppm) 3.8 5.2 12.7 13.4 12.6Pr (ppm) 0.57 0.73 2.07 1.75 2.03Nd (ppm) 3.2 3.8 10.4 8.5 9.9Sm (ppm) 0.99 1.06 3.34 2.82 3.03Eu (ppm) 0.44 0.43 1 0.76 0.77Gd (ppm) 1.37 1.53 4.68 4.13 4.21Tb (ppm) 0.26 0.28 0.86 0.76 0.74Pulkovo 1942 GK 8144Sample Name DCC_S030 DCC-S023 2014_SR_01 2014_SR_11 2014_SR_13Dy (ppm) 1.94 1.88 5.43 4.74 4.73Ho (ppm) 0.46 0.37 1.23 1.12 1.08Er (ppm) 1.46 0.98 3.69 3.32 3.16Tm (ppm) 0.21 0.18 0.58 0.5 0.49Yb (ppm) 0.97 1.35 3.86 3.37 3.12Lu (ppm) 0.21 0.18 0.6 0.52 0.47Mo (ppm) 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3Cu (ppm) 12.5 56.3 6.3 34.4 11Pb (ppm) 5.1 2.9 1.5 2 2.2Zn (ppm) 225 264 91 82 73Ni (ppm) 6.9 9.5 1.4 2.2 2.8145Sample Name 2014_SR_22 DNS_027 DNS_039 DNS_043Hole ID Surface NEDDE001 NEDDE001 NEDDE001Sequence Vachagan Vachagan Vachagan VachaganDeposit Kapan Noreshenik Noreshenik NoreshenikRock Type A BA BA BADepth 179.3 219.3 235.5Easting 8614930.09 8621449.74 8621447.65 8621445.87Northing 4347806.20 4348762.01 4348740.83 4348725.20DatumSiO2% 71.58625 69.628229 71.718539 68.353883Al2O3% 14.243667 14.587272 14.905798 14.298075Fe2O3% 5.150846 5.860113 4.330176 5.753839CaO% 1.618837 1.281243 0.67659 3.558295MgO% 2.838221 3.213611 2.466951 3.09323Na2O% 1.818564 2.940559 3.185177 3.450141K2O% 2.081362 1.722327 2.040179 0.800346MnO% 0.063072 0.168032 0.052045 0.086524TiO2% 0.504573 0.514598 0.541272 0.529959P2O5% 0.094607 0.084016 0.083273 0.075708Total (Oxides) 95.13 95.22 96.07 92.46Ba (ppm) 91 94 101 48Be (ppm) 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005 0.5005Co (ppm) 12.8 12.5 12 11.6Cs (ppm) 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.5Ga (ppm) 13.1 12.3 12.9 12.5Hf (ppm) 2.5 3.3 3.4 3.3Nb (ppm) 2.5 3.1 3 2.8Rb (ppm) 24.8 39.7 35.8 13.5Sn (ppm) 0.5005 0.5005 1 0.5005Sr (ppm) 94 25.8 24.6 75.2Ta (ppm) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2Th (ppm) 0.7 1.4 1.4 1.2U (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6V (ppm) 106 82 85 83W (ppm) 0.25005 0.25005 0.25005 0.25005Zr (ppm) 93.9 119.7 120.8 111.9Y (ppm) 33.8 28.8 30.8 28.9La (ppm) 5.6 2.2 4 4.8Ce (ppm) 12.4 5.7 9.2 11.9Pr (ppm) 1.9 0.8 1.52 1.78Nd (ppm) 9 4.1 7.4 8.4Sm (ppm) 3.1 1.6 2.82 2.74Eu (ppm) 0.89 0.47 0.79 0.78Gd (ppm) 4.07 2.51 3.95 3.74Tb (ppm) 0.79 0.63 0.74 0.73Pulkovo 1942 GK 8146Sample Name 2014_SR_22 DNS_027 DNS_039 DNS_043Dy (ppm) 5.3 4.49 4.73 4.82Ho (ppm) 1.21 1.15 1.1 1.12Er (ppm) 3.67 3.83 3.45 3.37Tm (ppm) 0.55 0.58 0.54 0.52Yb (ppm) 3.66 3.93 3.55 3.47Lu (ppm) 0.58 0.63 0.6 0.52Mo (ppm) 0.0505 0.4 1.4 0.3Cu (ppm) 127 61.9 10.3 8.7Pb (ppm) 0.4 18.7 4.5 3.8Zn (ppm) 62 181 162 46Ni (ppm) 4.7 3.9 4.3 4.3147Appendix 2: Geochronology: Ar-Ar and K-ArThis appendix contains analystical data. This appendix is not discussed in detail in this thesis. Samples for Ar/Ar geochronological analyses were partially prepared at UBC by the author and sent to the University of Geneva, Geneva Switzerland and analysed by Dr. Richard Alan Spikings. Samples for K/Ar geochronological analyses were par-tially prepared at UBC and sent to Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen, Hungary for K/Ar analyses and analysed by Drs. Zsolt Benkóand Zoltán Pécskay undertook K/Ar analyses.148Sample 2014-SR-021AStep40Ar/39Ar ±1 37Ar/39Ar ±1 36Ar/39Ar ±1 40Ar*/39Ark ±140Ar(mol) 40Ar* (%) 39Ark (%) Age(Ma) ±2 K/Ca ±230.490 0.07078 0.00791 0.00089 0.01642 0.00035 25.637 0.119 5.420E-15 84.08 15.34 149.62 1.33 54.38 12.3027.227 0.07077 0.00516 0.00198 0.00474 0.00069 25.826 0.215 2.064E-15 94.86 6.54 150.68 2.41 83.36 64.1127.154 0.06278 0.00441 0.00096 0.00293 0.00050 26.288 0.160 3.177E-15 96.81 10.10 153.27 1.78 97.58 42.4327.484 0.05929 0.00544 0.00052 0.00378 0.00020 26.366 0.082 6.752E-15 95.93 21.20 153.70 0.91 79.03 15.0027.656 0.06755 0.00339 0.00151 0.00523 0.00054 26.108 0.172 2.442E-15 94.40 7.62 152.26 1.92 126.84 113.1328.182 0.07254 0.00892 0.00102 0.00509 0.00036 26.678 0.127 4.242E-15 94.66 12.99 155.45 1.42 48.23 11.0727.445 0.07317 0.02205 0.00241 0.00385 0.00084 26.308 0.259 1.551E-15 95.85 4.88 153.38 2.90 19.51 4.2626.310 0.07086 0.00103 0.00189 0.00378 0.00064 25.193 0.202 1.863E-15 95.76 6.11 147.14 2.26 416.21 1522.8327.925 0.06897 0.00679 0.00192 0.00685 0.00060 25.900 0.188 1.938E-15 92.75 5.99 151.10 2.10 63.31 35.8428.321 0.14872 0.00332 0.00330 0.00678 0.00166 26.317 0.509 9.921E-16 92.92 3.02 153.43 5.69 129.71 258.1627.221 0.07687 0.01239 0.00226 0.00616 0.00064 25.400 0.203 1.956E-15 93.31 6.20 148.30 2.27 34.71 12.64Alunite J=0.0033730±5.4E-6 Total Fusion Age 152.04±0.72 MaPlateau Age 153.83±1.05 Ma Inverse Isochron Age 149.63±6.03 MaSample SR_S025BStep40Ar/39Ar ±1 37Ar/39Ar ±1 36Ar/39Ar ±1 40Ar*/39Ark ±140Ar(mol) 40Ar* (%) 39Ark (%) Age(Ma) ±2 K/Ca ±224.149 0.06159 0.03304 0.00079 0.00884 0.00021 21.537 0.083 4.703E-15 89.18 9.83 126.73 0.95 13.02 0.6221.913 0.04876 0.02396 0.00058 0.00250 0.00023 21.175 0.083 6.485E-15 96.63 14.95 124.68 0.95 17.95 0.8722.670 0.05870 0.02607 0.00049 0.00189 0.00012 22.113 0.068 9.323E-15 97.54 20.77 130.00 0.77 16.50 0.6223.791 0.05878 0.03052 0.00092 0.00236 0.00029 23.095 0.103 5.052E-15 97.07 10.72 135.57 1.17 14.09 0.8523.464 0.05711 0.03087 0.00098 0.00203 0.00023 22.868 0.088 4.650E-15 97.46 10.01 134.28 0.99 13.93 0.8823.462 0.06420 0.03519 0.00133 0.00100 0.00037 23.169 0.127 3.362E-15 98.75 7.24 135.98 1.44 12.22 0.9224.148 0.05637 0.03094 0.00108 0.00282 0.00050 23.317 0.159 2.510E-15 96.55 5.25 136.82 1.79 13.90 0.9724.556 0.06734 0.03990 0.00103 0.00362 0.00029 23.490 0.109 3.602E-15 95.66 7.41 137.79 1.23 10.78 0.5623.717 0.06370 0.03031 0.00081 0.00242 0.00046 23.005 0.149 3.282E-15 96.99 6.99 135.05 1.68 14.19 0.7631.946 0.11406 0.06290 0.00282 0.03404 0.00098 21.892 0.297 1.659E-15 68.52 2.62 128.75 3.38 6.84 0.6124.497 0.06399 0.02639 0.00155 0.01598 0.00068 19.777 0.206 2.046E-15 80.73 4.22 116.70 2.35 16.29 1.91Alunite, J=0.0034040±5.4E-6 Total Fusion Age 131.04±0.55 MaWeighted Mean Age 135.73±1.19 Ma Inverse Isochron Age 131.94±3.34 MaMass discrimination 0.9794±0.051. Data are corrected for blanks, interfering nucleogenic reactions and decay of 37Ar and 39Ar.Irradiated for 12 hours at Oregon State University, TRIGA, CLICIT, 39Ar/37Ar 6.73E‐4, 36Ar/37Ar 2.64E‐4, 40Ar/39Ar 1.01E‐3, 38Ar/39Ar 1.138E‐2.Steps highlighted with bold text are included in the calculation of the weighted mean age and the plateau age.Samples heated with a IR‐CO2 laset for 30 seconds, with 5 minutes cleaning with a ST101 and AP10 getter in a stainless teel extraction line.Data collected with an Argus mass spectrometer. Multi collection with 1E11Ω Faraday (40Ar) and 1E12Ω Faradays (39Ar. 38Ar. 37Ar. 36Ar).149153.83 ± 1.05 Ma1441451461471481491501511521531541551561571581591601611621630 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Cumulative 39Ar Released (%)Age (Ma)COPY OF 2014-SR-021A ALUNITE.AGE   >>>   GE74-10-2014-SR-021A-alu   >>>   MDRU PROJECTAr-Ages in Ma   WEIGHTED PLATEAU153.83 ± 1.05TOTAL FUSION    152.04 ± 0.72NORMAL ISOCHRON 152.16 ± 5.85INVERSE ISOCHRON149.63 ± 6.03MSWD2.11Sample Info     Alunite AnalysisWestern TethysMileticIRR  =  GE74J  =  0.0033730 ± 27.578 ± 18.08860040020002004006008001000120014001600180020000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Cumulative 39Ar Released (%)K/CaCOPY OF 2014-SR-021A ALUNITE.AGE   >>>   GE74-10-2014-SR-021A-alu   >>>   MDRU PROJECTAr-Ages in Ma   WEIGHTED PLATEAU153.83 ± 1.05TOTAL FUSION    152.04 ± 0.72NORMAL ISOCHRON 152.16 ± 5.85INVERSE ISOCHRON149.63 ± 6.03Sample Info     Alunite AnalysisWestern TethysMileticIRR  =  GE74J  =  0.0033730 ± 0.00000.00050.00100.00150.00200.00250.00300.00350.00400.00450.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.05039Ar / 40Ar36Ar / 40ArCOPY OF 2014-SR-021A ALUNITE.AGE   >>>   GE74-10-2014-SR-021A-alu   >>>   MDRU PROJECTAr-Ages in Ma   WEIGHTED PLATEAU153.83 ± 1.05TOTAL FUSION    152.04 ± 0.72NORMAL ISOCHRON 152.16 ± 5.85INVERSE ISOCHRON149.63 ± 6.03MSWD1.35Sample Info     Alunite AnalysisWestern TethysMileticIRR  =  GE74J  =  0.0033730 ± 135.73 ± 1.19 Ma1101131161191221251281311341371400 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Cumulative 39Ar Released (%)Age (Ma)COPY OF SR-S025B ALUNITE.AGE   >>>   GE74-10-SR-S025B-alu   >>>   MDRU PROJECTAr-Ages in Ma   WEIGHTED PLATEAU135.73 ± 1.19TOTAL FUSION    131.04 ± 0.55NORMAL ISOCHRON 135.35 ± 4.37INVERSE ISOCHRON131.94 ± 3.34MSWD4.44Sample Info     Alunite AnalyseWestern TethysMileticIRR  =  GE74J  =  0.0033790 ± 12.758 ± 1.34045678910111213141516171819200 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Cumulative 39Ar Released (%)K/CaCOPY OF SR-S025B ALUNITE.AGE   >>>   GE74-10-SR-S025B-alu   >>>   MDRU PROJECTAr-Ages in Ma   WEIGHTED PLATEAU135.73 ± 1.19TOTAL FUSION    131.04 ± 0.55NORMAL ISOCHRON 135.35 ± 4.37INVERSE ISOCHRON131.94 ± 3.34Sample Info     Alunite AnalyseWestern TethysMileticIRR  =  GE74J  =  0.0033790 ± 0.00000.00050.00100.00150.00200.00250.00300.00350.00400.00450.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.06039Ar / 40Ar36Ar / 40ArCOPY OF SR-S025B ALUNITE.AGE   >>>   GE74-10-SR-S025B-alu   >>>   MDRU PROJECTAr-Ages in Ma   WEIGHTED PLATEAU135.73 ± 1.19TOTAL FUSION    131.04 ± 0.55NORMAL ISOCHRON 135.35 ± 4.37INVERSE ISOCHRON131.94 ± 3.34MSWD1.31Sample Info     Alunite AnalyseWestern TethysMileticIRR  =  GE74J  =  0.0033790 ± 150Sample Name Analysed Mineral Size Fraction K%40Arrad [cm-3 STP*g-1] 40Arrad (%) K/Ar age [Ma] Sericite-Crystallinity FWHM2014_UG_S021 Sericite <2µm 4.23 2.47626 x 10^-5 59 144.7 ± 4.2 2.278 0.4332014_UG_S021 Sericite <10µm 3.46 2.08276 x 10^-5 57 148.5 ± 4.4 2.278 0.4332014_DNS_021 Sericite <2µm 6.56 4.21000 x 10^-5 75 158.0 ± 4.2 1.703DCC_S009 Sericite <2µm 5.41 3.34061 x 10^-5 48 152.2 ± 4.9 2.383 0.193DCC_S009 Sericite <10µm 4.35 2.93808 x 10^-5 80 165.9 ± 4.2 2.383 0.193DCS_S077 Sericite <2µm 1.27 8.00389 x 10^-5 29 155.5 ± 7.4 1.056 0.228XRD Results for K-Ar and Ar-Ar Geochronology*Samples have been treated by ethylene-glycol before XRD analyses.2014_UG_S021 : The <2 μm size fraction consist of predominantly illite, minor kaolinite, quartz and pyrite. Smectite is present only in trace amount.  In the < 10 μm fraction the proportion of the pyrite and quartz is slightly elevated.2014_DNS_022: The sample consists of illite and chlorite. Quartz and pyrite are present in minor quantity 2014_DNS_021: The sample consists of predominantly well crystallized illite and pyrite in trace amount. In the < 10 μm fraction beside illite quartz, calcite and pyrite are present DCC_S009: The sample consists of illite and chlorite. The relative proportion of illite is slightly higher. Quartz occurs in trace amount. In the < 10 μm fraction the relative proportion of the quartz is higher, still, minimal.DCS _S077: The predominant mineral phase in this sample is chlorite, and in lesser amount illite. In the coarse grained fraction (<10 μm) quartz and feldspar are present in minor amount.2014_SR_021A: The predominant mineral phase in this sample is K-Alunite and in lesser amounts Na-alunite, kaolinite and illiteSR_S025B: The Predominant mineral phase in this sample is Na-Alunite and in lesser amounts kaolinite and illite.XRD Results for K-Ar and Ar-Ar Geochr nol gy*Samples have been treated by ethylene-glycol before XRD analyses.2014_UG_S021: The <2 μm size fraction consist of predominantly illite, minor kaolinite, quartz and pyrite. Smectite is present only in trace amount.  In the < 10 μm fraction the proportion of the pyrite and quartz is slightly elevated.2014_DNS_022: The sample consists of illite and chlorite. Quartz and pyrite are present in minor quantity 2014_DNS_021: The sample consists of predominantly well crystallized illite and pyrite in trace amount. In the < 10 μm fraction beside illite quartz, calcite and pyrite are present DCC_S009: The sample consists of illite and chlorite. The relative proportion of illite is slightly higher. Quartz occurs in trace amount. In the < 10 μm fraction the relative proportion of the quartz is higher, still, minimal.DCS _S077 : The predominant mineral phase in this sample is chlorite, and in lesser amount illite. In the coarse grained fraction (<10 μm) quartz and feldspar are present in minor amount.2014_SR_021A: The predominant mineral phase in this sample is K-Alunite and in lesser amounts Na-alunite, kaolinite and illiteSR_S025B: The Predominant mineral phase in this sample is Na-Alunite and in lesser amounts kaolinite and illite.151152153Appendix 3: Alteration AnalysisThis appendix contains analytical data. The preparation of lithogeochemical samples was performed by the author at the MDRU lab and analyzed at Acme Labs, Vancou-ver, Canada. Further data analysis and interpretation is performed by the author, the results are discussed in 4.154Appendix 3a: Whole Rock Geochemistry for Alteration Analysis 155Sample Name DCS-S018 3-54 5-16 KN-2-82-1Hole ID SHDDR0418Database Yarra (2016) Mederer (2013) Mederer (2013) Mederer (2013)Alteration Least Altered Least Altered Least Altered Least AlteredDepth 148.4Easting 8623432.62 8624374.00 8624458.00 8621513.00Northing 4344477.11 4343297.00 4342347.00 4342020.00Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 61.2 57.76 63.81 58.38Al2O3 (%) 16.76 17.59 17.47 16.4Fe2O3 (%) 5.86 5.12 4.35 6.16CaO (%) 5.43 5.63 5.31 4.03MgO (%) 2.96 2.37 1.95 3.27Na2O (%) 3.19 2.76 3.5 3.26K2O (%) 0.26 1.05 0.3 1.08MnO (%) 0.22 0.1 0.2 0.06TiO2 (%) 0.34 0.41 0.34 0.39P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.05Cr2O3 (%) 0.0005V2O5 (%) 0.024LOI (%) 3.32 6.68 1.78 6.1TOT/C (%) 0.27TOT/S (%) 0.27Total (%) 99.99 99.55 99.09 99.18Ba (ppm) 44 49 54 50Be (ppm) 0.5 N/A N/A N/ACo (ppm) 12.2 9 7 12Cs (ppm) 0.7 2.7 0.8 1.5Ga (ppm) 11.9 14 14 13Hf (ppm) 1.1 1.36 1.29 0.9Nb (ppm) 0.05 1.1 1 0.7Rb (ppm) 3.6 21 5 19Sn (ppm) 0.5Sr  (ppm) 149.3 156 249 53Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.06Th (ppm) 0.15 0.4 0.4 0.3U (ppm) 0.05 0.2 0.2 0.1V (ppm) 110 106 65 145W (ppm) 0.7Zr (ppm) 31.1 44 39 28Y (ppm) 14.1 11 9 12Pulkovo 1942 GK 8156Sample Name DCS-S018 3-54 5-16 KN-2-82-1La (ppm) 1.9 4.1 3.6 1.9Ho (ppm) 0.44 0.4 0.34 0.46Er (ppm) 1.26 1.03 0.88 1.37Tm (ppm) 0.23 0.15 0.15 0.2Yb (ppm) 1.6 1.07 1.13 1.53Lu (ppm) 0.27 0.17 0.16 0.21Mo (ppm) 0.3 0.6 0.001 0.3Cu (ppm) 31.8 11 8 8Pb (ppm) 1.8 2.6 1.9 0.8Zn (ppm) 57 37 36 37Ni (ppm) 1.5 4 6 0.001As (ppm) 5.8 2 6 4Cd (ppm) 0.05Sb (ppm) 0.05 0.3 0.3 0.6Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.001 0 0.1Ag (ppm)Au (ppm)Hg (ppm)157Sample Name DCS-S047 DCS-S048 DCS-S056 DCS-S057Hole ID SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Proximal Proximal Proximal ProximalDepth 88.9 94.3 165.7 176.1Easting 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18Northing 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 63.2 59.8 58.6 60.2Al2O3 (%) 15.98 15.82 16.41 16.64Fe2O3 (%) 5.33 5.76 6.34 6.27CaO (%) 1.36 2.09 1.74 0.77MgO (%) 2.03 4.07 5.19 5.32Na2O (%) 5.17 3.21 1.99 1.93K2O (%) 1.14 0.97 1.33 1.75MnO (%) 0.22 0.34 0.45 0.4TiO2 (%) 0.34 0.34 0.37 0.38P2O5 (%) 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04Cr2O3 (%) 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.002V2O5 (%) 0.024 0.024 0.024 0.026LOI (%) 4.76 5.75 6.14 5.51TOT/C (%) 0.3 0.49 0.32 0.13TOT/S (%) 3.62 3.56 2.47 2.13Total (%) 100.46 100.39 100.18 100.29Ba (ppm) 74 60 77 118Be (ppm) 0.5 2 0.5 0.5Co (ppm) 10.5 11.6 14.3 13.8Cs (ppm) 0.3 0.2 1 1Ga (ppm) 9.4 10.8 13.3 13.4Hf (ppm) 1 0.8 1 1Nb (ppm) 0.05 0.05 2.6 2Rb (ppm) 21.4 18.2 23.7 31.6Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Sr  (ppm) 58.7 41.5 46.5 33.9Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.2 0.2Th (ppm) 0.15 0.15 0.2 0.2U (ppm) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05V (ppm) 112 115 146 138W (ppm) 0.6 1.2 0.25 0.6Zr (ppm) 28.1 26.5 30.1 30Y (ppm) 12.2 11.8 11.2 11.4Pulkovo 1942 GK 8158Sample Name DCS-S047 DCS-S048 DCS-S056 DCS-S057La (ppm) 1.6 2.1 2.4 1.1Ho (ppm) 0.38 0.45 0.4 0.37Er (ppm) 1.17 1.29 1.29 1.25Tm (ppm) 0.2 0.21 0.2 0.2Yb (ppm) 1.31 1.57 1.38 1.52Lu (ppm) 0.24 0.28 0.22 0.24Mo (ppm) 0.05 0.2 0.2 0.2Cu (ppm) 30.9 209.6 33.6 28.5Pb (ppm) 51.1 15.2 8.2 6.1Zn (ppm) 999 1932 2381 3077Ni (ppm) 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6As (ppm) 286 143.7 87.6 38.7Cd (ppm) 7.5 15.2 18.8 23.4Sb (ppm) 0.8 0.2 0.05 0.05Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.05Ag (ppm) 0.4 2.1 0.6 0.6Au (ppm) 147.6 211.3 48.9 85.4Hg (ppm) 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.08159Sample Name DCS-S061 DCS-S065 708482 708218 708224Hole ID SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR-0285 SHDDR-0460 SHDDR-0460Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Proximal Proximal Proximal Proximal ProximalDepth 211.4 250.8 86 95 127Easting 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623669.46 8623666.49 8623666.02Northing 4342802.18 4342802.18 4343410.19 4344438.88 4344423.15Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 58.2 62.1 61.5 69 71.2Al2O3 (%) 16.04 15.84 15.01 11.92 11.86Fe2O3 (%) 5.58 5.7 6.28 6.21 6.22CaO (%) 3.36 0.47 0.71 0.47 0.5MgO (%) 4.38 5.63 5.53 0.78 0.6Na2O (%) 2.3 3.05 0.64 0.18 0.15K2O (%) 1.38 1.2 2.14 2.68 2.6MnO (%) 0.36 0.27 0.44 0.05 0.03TiO2 (%) 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.23 0.28P2O5 (%) 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03Cr2O3 (%) 0.0005 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.0005V2O5 (%) 0.024 0.022 0.028 0.021 0.014LOI (%) 5.54 5.11 6.57 5.68 5.24TOT/C (%) 0.74 0.06 0.17 0.15 0.1TOT/S (%) 2.36 2.62 3.71 6.24 5.6Total (%) 100.14 100.26 100.09 99.9 99.98Ba (ppm) 73 81 129 151 137Be (ppm) 3 1 0.5 0.5 0.5Co (ppm) 12.2 10.9 14.5 11.2 10.9Cs (ppm) 0.9 0.3 0.7 1.4 1.7Ga (ppm) 11.6 11.4 11.4 13.9 11.7Hf (ppm) 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.2Nb (ppm) 0.8 1 0.6 0.5 1Rb (ppm) 23.5 21 34.5 43 44.5Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 2Sr  (ppm) 53.9 37.6 11.7 15.4 18.8Ta (ppm) 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05Th (ppm) 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.3U (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.2 0.2V (ppm) 138 131 148 104 78W (ppm) 0.25 1.3 0.7 1.4 1.2Zr (ppm) 28 27.3 24.6 20.1 38.3Y (ppm) 13.1 9.5 12 10.2 16.9Pulkovo 1942 GK 8160Sample Name DCS-S061 DCS-S065 708482 708218 708224La (ppm) 2.4 1.7 2 2.1 2.9Ho (ppm) 0.4 0.34 0.43 0.37 0.65Er (ppm) 1.23 1 1.31 1.12 1.86Tm (ppm) 0.23 0.2 0.2 0.18 0.27Yb (ppm) 1.54 1.24 1.39 1.16 1.92Lu (ppm) 0.29 0.21 0.24 0.2 0.31Mo (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.5 2.2 2.4Cu (ppm) 216.8 15.3 55.5 464.3 745.1Pb (ppm) 10.9 24.8 301.4 126.8 297.2Zn (ppm) 1046 400 1445 10001 6768Ni (ppm) 1.5 1.4 7.1 4.5 3.4As (ppm) 163 100.5 91.1 297.4 68.6Cd (ppm) 8.8 2.9 9.7 151.2 46.6Sb (ppm) 0.05 0.1 0.8 6 1Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.6 0.4Ag (ppm) 1.9 2 0.6 5.2 10Au (ppm) 134.4 181.5 31.2 126.6 282.6Hg (ppm) 0.03 0.03 0.08 1.64 0.8161Sample Name 708376 708203 708522 708350 DCS-S016Hole ID SHDDR-0394 SHDDR-0313 SHDDR-0285 SHDDR-0364 SHDDR0418Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Proximal Proximal Proximal Proximal IntermediateDepth 167 213 320 378 107.4Easting 8623031.21 8623684.10 8623667.55 8623061.54 8623432.62Northing 4344540.22 4344574.53 4343520.09 4344424.52 4344477.11Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 66.1 70.9 61 63.1 62.7Al2O3 (%) 12.03 10.91 13.84 12.99 16.1Fe2O3 (%) 7.51 6.03 8.73 7.56 6.62CaO (%) 0.3 0.76 0.3 0.44 0.44MgO (%) 1.98 0.59 4.93 2.04 3.66Na2O (%) 0.15 0.19 0.67 1.53 1.26K2O (%) 2.42 2.56 2.04 2.28 2.67MnO (%) 0.21 0.05 0.24 0.23 0.29TiO2 (%) 0.25 0.25 0.32 0.28 0.32P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04Cr2O3 (%) 0.0005 0.0005 0.003 0.0005 0.005V2O5 (%) 0.011 0.014 0.026 0.01 0.02LOI (%) 8.15 5.13 6.93 5.73 5.54TOT/C (%) 0.88 0.15 0.06 0.06 0.05TOT/S (%) 5.84 4.71 4.65 5.85 3.2Total (%) 99.53 100.07 99.66 100.08 100.08Ba (ppm) 177 161 175 175 170Be (ppm) 0.5 3 0.5 2 2Co (ppm) 5.4 8.1 12.2 5.9 12Cs (ppm) 0.8 1.4 1 1 2.1Ga (ppm) 11.2 11.3 12.8 13.1 11.3Hf (ppm) 1.1 1.1 0.7 1.1 1Nb (ppm) 0.9 1.5 0.2 1.1 0.05Rb (ppm) 40.4 36.4 29.6 33.8 46.2Sn (ppm) 2 2 3 4 0.5Sr  (ppm) 19.5 12.5 14.2 13.8 35.8Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Th (ppm) 0.15 0.4 0.15 0.15 0.15U (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05V (ppm) 46 89 147 60 96W (ppm) 0.7 2.2 1.2 0.9 0.9Zr (ppm) 30.8 36.7 20.8 29.3 27.3Y (ppm) 17 15.5 11.2 15.6 9.3Pulkovo 1942 GK 8162Sample Name 708376 708203 708522 708350 DCS-S016La (ppm) 2.8 1.8 0.7 2 1.6Ho (ppm) 0.67 0.53 0.43 0.59 0.3Er (ppm) 1.97 1.59 1.27 1.89 1.05Tm (ppm) 0.31 0.25 0.2 0.28 0.17Yb (ppm) 2.1 1.64 1.3 2.06 1.37Lu (ppm) 0.34 0.26 0.21 0.32 0.22Mo (ppm) 0.5 5.8 0.3 0.5 0.5Cu (ppm) 190.4 933.8 43.7 1495 116.8Pb (ppm) 14.9 330.1 3.4 43.4 18.6Zn (ppm) 1174 10001 277 10001 547Ni (ppm) 0.6 2.9 5.5 0.6 1.4As (ppm) 309.5 82.6 39.6 228.2 65.4Cd (ppm) 8.1 100.5 1.4 183.6 3.7Sb (ppm) 0.7 11.1 0.5 1.3 0.3Bi (ppm) 0.05 1.1 0.7 0.1 0.05Ag (ppm) 2.4 7.9 7.7 19.6 0.5Au (ppm) 124.9 160.5 618.8 738.4 55.4Hg (ppm) 0.06 1.05 0.11 0.34 0.02163Sample Name DCS-S019 DCS-S022 DCS-S025 DCS-S049 DCS-S051Hole ID SHDDR0418 SHDDR0418 SHDDR0418 SHDDR190 SHDDR190Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate IntermediateDepth 167.6 227.4 310.3 97.4 129Easting 8623432.62 8623432.62 8623432.62 8623848.18 8623848.18Northing 4344477.11 4344477.11 4344477.11 4342802.18 4342802.18Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 62.3 63 62.7 62.4 60.5Al2O3 (%) 16.44 16.4 16.88 15.42 16.52Fe2O3 (%) 5.71 6.19 5.39 6.14 6.78CaO (%) 2.12 0.56 0.39 0.71 1MgO (%) 4.35 4.06 5 4.31 3.91Na2O (%) 2.95 1.51 1.81 1.21 4.24K2O (%) 1.04 2.29 1.75 2.4 1.15MnO (%) 0.31 0.25 0.26 0.45 0.35TiO2 (%) 0.32 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.35P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04Cr2O3 (%) 0.004 0.0005 0.0005 0.004 0.003V2O5 (%) 0.021 0.025 0.025 0.023 0.025LOI (%) 4.04 5.51 5.4 5.9 4.97TOT/C (%) 0.08 0.07 0.04 0.23 0.2TOT/S (%) 1.2 2.81 1.7 3.3 3.16Total (%) 100.18 100.58 100.4 100.38 100.81Ba (ppm) 105 206 126 149 76Be (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2Co (ppm) 12 12.5 11.6 12.4 12.8Cs (ppm) 1.5 1.8 1.5 1 0.2Ga (ppm) 12.8 13.8 13.4 11 10.3Hf (ppm) 1.1 1.3 0.9 0.8 1Nb (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Rb (ppm) 18.3 35.3 28.7 38.1 17.8Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Sr  (ppm) 122.6 38.7 35.1 19.9 37.1Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Th (ppm) 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15U (ppm) 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.1V (ppm) 116 137 123 128 128W (ppm) 0.8 1 0.8 0.7 0.7Zr (ppm) 32.9 30.1 31.5 26.6 26.5Y (ppm) 16.2 10.5 14.5 10.6 11Pulkovo 1942 GK 8164Sample Name DCS-S019 DCS-S022 DCS-S025 DCS-S049 DCS-S051La (ppm) 2.6 2.4 1.6 3.6 1.7Ho (ppm) 0.55 0.34 0.51 0.36 0.38Er (ppm) 1.5 1.09 1.49 1.12 1.28Tm (ppm) 0.24 0.19 0.23 0.17 0.18Yb (ppm) 1.8 1.49 1.68 1.52 1.22Lu (ppm) 0.31 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.22Mo (ppm) 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.05Cu (ppm) 65.3 34.4 35.6 80 23.6Pb (ppm) 6.9 17.1 123.2 13.8 16.6Zn (ppm) 661 424 406 2091 1352Ni (ppm) 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6As (ppm) 25.1 58.1 28.6 97.2 121.9Cd (ppm) 5.1 2.6 2.3 14.8 11.1Sb (ppm) 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.1Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Ag (ppm) 0.5 1 0.3 1.8 1.1Au (ppm) 33.9 63.7 9.2 82.6 96.7Hg (ppm) 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.03165Sample Name DCS-S053 DCS-S055 DCS-S059 DCS-S064 DCS-S067Hole ID SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate IntermediateDepth 141.7 155 203.7 241.3 171.5Easting 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18Northing 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 60.9 61.5 58.3 57.9 60Al2O3 (%) 15.48 16.17 16.56 16.27 16.01Fe2O3 (%) 6.57 6.42 6.09 5.87 6.18CaO (%) 1.91 0.43 2.62 2.93 1.98MgO (%) 3.83 4.72 3.98 4.18 4.79Na2O (%) 2.93 2.81 3.11 3.3 2.2K2O (%) 1.16 1.67 1.13 1 1.53MnO (%) 0.39 0.34 0.39 0.28 0.4TiO2 (%) 0.33 0.37 0.36 0.37 0.35P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04Cr2O3 (%) 0.003 0.0005 0.002 0.004 0.0005V2O5 (%) 0.024 0.028 0.025 0.024 0.025LOI (%) 5.31 5.49 5.53 5.42 5.19TOT/C (%) 0.29 0.08 0.48 0.56 0.37TOT/S (%) 2.76 3.22 3.14 2.76 2.36Total (%) 100.27 100.46 100.11 99.82 100.41Ba (ppm) 73 135 67 52 107Be (ppm) 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 0.5Co (ppm) 11.7 12.4 11.4 15.4 12.7Cs (ppm) 2 0.5 1 0.8 0.8Ga (ppm) 10.3 13.6 11.7 12.5 11.9Hf (ppm) 0.8 1 1.2 1.3 0.9Nb (ppm) 0.05 7.3 3.4 2.6 3.6Rb (ppm) 17.9 25.3 19 18.9 25.6Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Sr  (ppm) 89.5 31.9 83.4 83.8 40.5Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3Th (ppm) 0.15 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2U (ppm) 0.05 0.3 0.05 0.05 0.1V (ppm) 121 140 119 156 135W (ppm) 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 3.5Zr (ppm) 26.4 29.2 38.2 30.1 32.1Y (ppm) 13.7 13.5 10.9 12.9 11.3Pulkovo 1942 GK 8166Sample Name DCS-S053 DCS-S055 DCS-S059 DCS-S064 DCS-S067La (ppm) 2.8 3.2 1.7 2.5 3.7Ho (ppm) 0.47 0.49 0.37 0.42 0.37Er (ppm) 1.38 1.48 1.03 1.27 1.25Tm (ppm) 0.24 0.24 0.18 0.24 0.21Yb (ppm) 1.56 1.55 1.29 1.57 1.64Lu (ppm) 0.25 0.29 0.24 0.26 0.28Mo (ppm) 0.2 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.2Cu (ppm) 7.5 54.8 9.9 271.4 21.5Pb (ppm) 4.8 6.1 30.6 20.9 5.7Zn (ppm) 151 159 795 895 1921Ni (ppm) 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7As (ppm) 68 105.2 47.6 39.8 65.1Cd (ppm) 0.1 0.3 6.9 8.2 15.4Sb (ppm) 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Ag (ppm) 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.7Au (ppm) 78 65.2 21 53.8 73.3Hg (ppm) 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.06167Sample Name 708423 708206 DCS-S017 DCS-S020 DCS-S021Hole ID SHDDR-0174 SHDDR-0313 SHDDR0418 SHDDR0418 SHDDR0418Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Intermediate Intermediate Distal Distal DistalDepth 123 250 130.1 173.6 223.4Easting 8623671.73 8623682.24 8623432.62 8623432.62 8623432.62Northing 4343188.08 4344549.38 4344477.11 4344477.11 4344477.11Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 60 61.4 61.2 62.2 61.5Al2O3 (%) 16.31 16.58 16.59 16.86 16.4Fe2O3 (%) 6.12 5.98 5.29 5.56 5.67CaO (%) 2.43 2.93 2.9 2.58 2.36MgO (%) 3.94 3.59 3.76 3.74 4.13Na2O (%) 4.4 2.84 3.3 4.62 4.24K2O (%) 0.58 0.95 0.67 0.31 0.36MnO (%) 0.27 0.26 0.45 0.27 0.28TiO2 (%) 0.35 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03Cr2O3 (%) 0.002 0.0005 0.0005 0.003 0.004V2O5 (%) 0.025 0.021 0.023 0.022 0.021LOI (%) 5.32 4.85 5.01 3.28 4.18TOT/C (%) 0.59 0.19 0.41 0.06 0.12TOT/S (%) 0.5 1.08 1.32 0.91 0.95Total (%) 100.46 100.1 100.72 100.16 100.12Ba (ppm) 42 65 48 57 43Be (ppm) 0.5 0.5 2 2 2Co (ppm) 12.6 9.5 10.1 11.7 11.9Cs (ppm) 5 4.3 5.9 0.7 0.3Ga (ppm) 11.9 13 12.4 10.9 11.2Hf (ppm) 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.2 0.8Nb (ppm) 0.5 0.8 0.05 0.05 0.05Rb (ppm) 11.4 15.4 14.5 4.5 5.1Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Sr  (ppm) 96.4 96.3 96.4 178.8 143.6Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Th (ppm) 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15U (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05V (ppm) 137 127 98 117 125W (ppm) 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.8Zr (ppm) 28.1 28.5 29.6 31.6 29.3Y (ppm) 13.2 11.7 15 13.2 13.5Pulkovo 1942 GK 8168Sample Name 708423 708206 DCS-S017 DCS-S020 DCS-S021La (ppm) 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.1Ho (ppm) 0.48 0.45 0.5 0.43 0.47Er (ppm) 1.45 1.28 1.5 1.37 1.33Tm (ppm) 0.23 0.2 0.25 0.24 0.23Yb (ppm) 1.54 1.47 1.78 1.72 1.79Lu (ppm) 0.27 0.26 0.29 0.31 0.25Mo (ppm) 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.05Cu (ppm) 48.7 28.4 56.5 37.8 22.1Pb (ppm) 3.6 4.2 151.6 9.3 3.8Zn (ppm) 635 207 298 131 129Ni (ppm) 2.6 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.5As (ppm) 13.4 32.7 10.3 16.1 26.1Cd (ppm) 6.4 1.3 1.7 0.05 0.05Sb (ppm) 0.2 0.2 0.05 0.1 0.1Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Ag (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.05Au (ppm) 18.4 13.1 6.3 4.1 3.4Hg (ppm) 0.02 0.005 0.01 0.005 0.005169Sample Name DCS-S023 DCS-S024 DCS-S026 DCS-S046 DCS-S058Hole ID SHDDR0418 SHDDR0418 SHDDR0418 SHDDR190 SHDDR190Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Distal Distal Distal Distal DistalDepth 244.5 296.8 365.3 69.3 188.7Easting 8623432.62 8623432.62 8623432.62 8623848.18 8623848.18Northing 4344477.11 4344477.11 4344477.11 4342802.18 4342802.18Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 59.8 62 61.6 60.9 60.3Al2O3 (%) 16.8 16.57 16.55 15.48 16.22Fe2O3 (%) 5.74 5.17 5.27 5.82 5.91CaO (%) 3.68 1.57 2.02 2.64 3.36MgO (%) 3.98 4.64 4.15 3.74 4.02Na2O (%) 2.27 2.58 3.11 4.01 3.83K2O (%) 0.61 1.36 1.27 0.67 0.44MnO (%) 0.25 0.24 0.2 0.37 0.31TiO2 (%) 0.33 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.38P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04Cr2O3 (%) 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.003V2O5 (%) 0.022 0.022 0.02 0.024 0.026LOI (%) 6.59 5.04 4.75 4.63 4.17TOT/C (%) 0.53 0.27 0.3 0.52 0.25TOT/S (%) 1.06 1.25 1.05 1.73 1.19Total (%) 100.81 100.59 100.04 100.41 100.07Ba (ppm) 47 92 84 40 40Be (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 3Co (ppm) 11.7 10.4 11.7 12.5 11.9Cs (ppm) 2.2 1.1 2 0.8 1.4Ga (ppm) 12.7 12.3 10.5 10.5 11.7Hf (ppm) 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.6Nb (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 1.7Rb (ppm) 9.9 21.5 18.5 12.1 6.9Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5Sr  (ppm) 88.7 44.4 80 78.1 193.7Ta (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Th (ppm) 0.15 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.2U (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05V (ppm) 113 122 113 102 154W (ppm) 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.5 1.6Zr (ppm) 30.8 33.8 28.4 26.2 28.7Y (ppm) 15 15 13.6 13.9 13.6Pulkovo 1942 GK 8170Sample Name DCS-S023 DCS-S024 DCS-S026 DCS-S046 DCS-S058La (ppm) 1.9 2 1.7 1.9 2.3Ho (ppm) 0.45 0.56 0.44 0.49 0.42Er (ppm) 1.46 1.51 1.52 1.44 1.38Tm (ppm) 0.24 0.29 0.24 0.22 0.23Yb (ppm) 1.72 1.96 1.92 1.65 1.7Lu (ppm) 0.29 0.31 0.3 0.25 0.29Mo (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.3 0.05 0.2Cu (ppm) 52.1 7.4 9.6 9.5 70Pb (ppm) 3.8 9.1 7 16.6 14.8Zn (ppm) 97 131 116 196 524Ni (ppm) 1.2 1 1.3 1.2 1.5As (ppm) 19.7 42.4 53.3 71.7 10.7Cd (ppm) 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.05 4.4Sb (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.3 0.3 0.2Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05Ag (ppm) 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1Au (ppm) 2.5 13.5 14 29.7 11.7Hg (ppm) 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005171Sample Name DCS-S060 DCS-S062 DCS-S063 DCS-S066 DCS-S081Hole ID SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR190 SHDDR338Database Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016) Yarra (2016)Alteration Distal Distal Distal Distal DistalDepth 207.5 225.9 229 356.8 918.5Easting 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623848.18 8623841.46Northing 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4342802.18 4343053.22Datum*Least MobileSiO2 (%) 60.5 61.3 60.3 53.8 60.5Al2O3 (%) 15.75 16.33 16.05 15.47 16.56Fe2O3 (%) 5.76 5.5 5.99 10.25 6.89CaO (%) 1.8 1.68 1.82 0.44 4.87MgO (%) 4.89 4.36 4.6 8.54 3.44Na2O (%) 3.2 3.74 3.78 3.7 2.16K2O (%) 0.97 0.8 0.83 0.18 0.49MnO (%) 0.36 0.3 0.3 0.23 0.12TiO2 (%) 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.36P2O5 (%) 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04Cr2O3 (%) 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.007 0.005V2O5 (%) 0.025 0.022 0.024 0.036 0.024LOI (%) 5.22 4.97 4.73 6.6 4.2TOT/C (%) 0.33 0.3 0.36 0.29 0.18TOT/S (%) 2.76 1.47 2.17 4.09 2.29Total (%) 100.33 100.43 100.33 100.21 100.54Ba (ppm) 69 49 105 21 32Be (ppm) 1 0.5 1 1 0.5Co (ppm) 13.5 11.9 12.7 32.1 13.4Cs (ppm) 0.4 3.4 1.2 0.1 4.1Ga (ppm) 12.2 13 11.7 13.1 12.9Hf (ppm) 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.6Nb (ppm) 1.9 1.3 1.1 1.7 1.4Rb (ppm) 16.2 14.8 13.7 2.9 8.7Sn (ppm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 2 1Sr  (ppm) 53.8 87 49.5 55.5 120.4Ta (ppm) 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1Th (ppm) 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.5 0.2U (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05V (ppm) 133 132 128 196 125W (ppm) 5.7 0.6 0.7 13.2 0.25Zr (ppm) 29.3 30 27.6 26.9 28.5Y (ppm) 12.1 10.2 10.6 8.3 14.1Pulkovo 1942 GK 8172Sample Name DCS-S060 DCS-S062 DCS-S063 DCS-S066 DCS-S081La (ppm) 2.3 1.7 1.7 1 2.3Ho (ppm) 0.4 0.35 0.37 0.3 0.48Er (ppm) 1.28 1.04 1.19 1.11 1.54Tm (ppm) 0.22 0.18 0.22 0.19 0.24Yb (ppm) 1.56 1.44 1.37 1.15 1.67Lu (ppm) 0.27 0.23 0.25 0.18 0.29Mo (ppm) 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.5 0.3Cu (ppm) 15.1 53.4 137.7 37.6 65.1Pb (ppm) 4.7 2.7 9.4 2 0.5Zn (ppm) 163 436 286 218 59Ni (ppm) 1.6 1.6 2.1 13.4 1.5As (ppm) 44.5 40.2 44.3 21.2 7.6Cd (ppm) 0.5 4.1 1.2 0.8 0.05Sb (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.5 0.05 0.05Bi (ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.3Ag (ppm) 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.1 0.05Au (ppm) 31.1 26.5 89.7 8.6 16.9Hg (ppm) 0.005 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.005173Appendix 3b: Alteration Mass Balance174Element Least Altered Proximal Intermediate DistalSiO2 (%) 60.2875 63.4538 61.0462 60.4538Al2O3 (%) 17.0550 14.2531 16.2415 16.2792Fe2O3 (%) 5.3725 6.4246 6.1585 6.0631CaO (%) 5.1000 1.0208 1.5731 2.4400MgO (%) 2.6375 3.3131 4.1785 4.4608Na2O (%) 3.1775 1.6277 2.6592 3.4262K2O (%) 0.6725 1.8838 1.4862 0.6892MnO (%) 0.1450 0.2531 0.3262 0.2831TiO2 (%) 0.3700 0.3138 0.3400 0.3423P2O5 (%) 0.0625 0.0346 0.0385 0.0385Cr2O3 (%) 0.0005 0.0014 0.0023 0.0030V2O5 (%) 0.0240 0.0206 0.0239 0.0239LOI (%) 4.4700 5.8646 5.2669 4.8746Total (%) 99.9900 100.0792 100.3123 100.3662TOT/C (%) 0.2700 0.2777 0.2485 0.3015TOT/S (%) 0.2700 4.1046 2.3992 1.7108Ba (ppm) 49.2500 122.1538 105.6154 55.9231Be (ppm) 0.5000 1.1538 0.7692 1.1538Co (ppm) 10.0500 10.8846 12.2308 13.5000Cs (ppm) 1.4250 0.9000 1.7308 1.8154Ga (ppm) 13.2250 11.9462 12.1154 11.9308Hf (ppm) 1.1625 0.9308 1.0000 0.8692Nb (ppm) 0.7125 0.9462 1.4269 0.7269Rb (ppm) 12.1500 30.8923 24.4538 11.4846Sn (ppm) 0.5000 1.3462 0.5000 0.6538Sr  (ppm) 151.8250 29.0769 62.3846 97.6846Ta (ppm) 0.0625 0.0808 0.1192 0.0769Th (ppm) 0.3125 0.1885 0.1885 0.1923U (ppm) 0.1375 0.0846 0.0885 0.0500V (ppm) 106.5000 111.6923 127.9231 127.5385W (ppm) 0.7000 0.9615 0.9615 2.0731Zr (ppm) 35.5250 28.5077 29.8077 29.2846Y (ppm) 11.5250 12.8923 12.2538 12.9308La (ppm) 2.8750 1.9692 2.4923 1.9846Ce (ppm) 7.5250 4.7846 5.5077 5.0615Pr (ppm) 0.9775 0.7115 0.8054 0.7392Nd (ppm) 5.0750 3.8385 4.1000 3.8769Sm (ppm) 1.4750 1.2123 1.2162 1.2546Eu (ppm) 0.5825 0.4946 0.5931 0.5638Gd  (ppm) 1.6900 1.6900 1.6769 1.6954Tb (ppm) 0.3025 0.3200 0.3108 0.3169Dy (ppm) 1.6925 2.1015 1.9469 2.0077Average175Element Least Altered Proximal Intermediate DistalHo (ppm) 0.4100 0.4623 0.4223 0.4354Er (ppm) 1.1350 1.4031 1.2823 1.3592Tm (ppm) 0.1825 0.2254 0.2092 0.2300Yb (ppm) 1.3325 1.5485 1.5154 1.6485Lu (ppm) 0.2025 0.2585 0.2608 0.2700Mo (ppm) 0.3003 0.9962 0.2346 0.1808Cu (ppm) 14.7000 343.2692 61.3769 44.1462Pb (ppm) 1.7750 94.8846 20.9308 18.1000Zn (ppm) 41.7500 3807.8462 788.0000 214.1538Ni (ppm) 2.8753 2.5846 1.5769 2.3692As (ppm) 4.4500 148.9615 59.0846 31.3923Cd (ppm) 0.0500 44.4385 6.0154 1.0154Sb (ppm) 0.3125 1.7423 0.1615 0.1423Bi (ppm) 0.0378 0.2577 0.0500 0.0731Ag (ppm) 0.0500 4.6923 0.6308 0.2038Au (ppm) 1.8000 222.4692 51.1000 19.8462Hg (ppm) 0.0050 0.3354 0.0281 0.0073176Element Proximal (∆X) Intermediate  (∆X) Distal (∆X)SiO2 (%) 17.9296 3.8591 3.0605Al2O3 (%) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000Fe2O3 (%) 2.5280 1.1028 1.0050CaO (%) -3.9354 -3.4499 -2.5570MgO (%) 1.1214 1.7519 2.0608Na2O (%) -1.3853 -0.3906 0.4207K2O (%) 1.7231 0.8939 0.0488MnO (%) 0.1427 0.1988 0.1524TiO2 (%) 0.0052 -0.0127 -0.0108P2O5 (%) -0.0201 -0.0221 -0.0222Cr2O3 (%) 0.0011 0.0019 0.0026V2O5 (%) 0.0004 0.0011 0.0012LOI (%) 2.7196 1.0685 0.6488Total (%) 22.2380 5.4123 5.2378TOT/C (%) 0.0648 -0.0083 0.0474TOT/S (%) 4.9632 2.2607 1.5427Ba (ppm) 105.9138 61.8960 9.2420Be (ppm) 0.9332 0.3073 0.7067Co (ppm) 2.9269 2.8068 4.1999Cs (ppm) -0.2718 0.3891 0.4564Ga (ppm) 1.3921 -0.5114 -0.7163Hf (ppm) -0.0141 -0.1137 -0.2551Nb (ppm) 0.4362 0.7857 0.0606Rb (ppm) 26.8365 13.6167 -0.1264Sn (ppm) 1.2662 0.0254 0.1910Sr  (ppm) -118.4848 -86.4308 -49.9700Ta (ppm) 0.0306 0.0629 0.0184Th (ppm) -0.0747 -0.1146 -0.1094U (ppm) -0.0311 -0.0444 -0.0851V (ppm) 25.6440 27.9048 27.5650W (ppm) 0.5377 0.3131 1.5387Zr (ppm) -0.3958 -4.2457 -4.8613Y (ppm) 4.5035 1.3415 1.9980La (ppm) -0.4369 -0.2441 -0.7998Ce (ppm) -1.6066 -1.7140 -2.2332Pr (ppm) -0.0937 -0.1286 -0.2050Nd (ppm) -0.3210 -0.7569 -1.0260Sm (ppm) 0.0289 -0.1950 -0.1639Eu (ppm) 0.0175 0.0441 0.0062Gd  (ppm) 0.4100 0.0740 0.0812Tb (ppm) 0.0948 0.0243 0.0286Dy (ppm) 0.9260 0.3512 0.4082Absolute Mass Change (Average)177Element Proximal (∆X) Intermediate  (∆X) Distal (∆X)Ho (ppm) 0.1679 0.0333 0.0456Er (ppm) 0.6140 0.2116 0.2879Tm (ppm) 0.0967 0.0373 0.0582Yb (ppm) 0.5831 0.2601 0.3918Lu (ppm) 0.1159 0.0714 0.0798Mo (ppm) 1.1427 -0.0532 -0.1103Cu (ppm) 455.7070 49.9042 31.5090Pb (ppm) 126.9621 19.8269 17.0031Zn (ppm) 5094.7397 792.0305 183.6080Ni (ppm) 0.3451 -1.2187 -0.3403As (ppm) 181.4254 57.9813 28.7250Cd (ppm) 60.4216 6.3061 1.0171Sb (ppm) 2.2208 -0.1425 -0.1623Bi (ppm) 0.3195 0.0148 0.0387Ag (ppm) 6.2253 0.6205 0.1660Au (ppm) 278.5820 52.3624 19.2462Hg (ppm) 0.4712 0.0248 0.0027178Element Proximal (∆X) 95% Conf Inter (∆X) 95% Conf  Distal (∆X) 95% ConfSiO2 (%) 29.7402 15.1748 6.4012 2.1724 5.0765 1.6783Al2O3 (%) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000Fe2O3 (%) 47.0544 18.4888 20.5274 4.8333 18.7061 15.1624CaO (%) -77.1646 9.4169 -67.6452 10.7291 -50.1376 11.6413MgO (%) 42.5161 41.1469 66.4209 9.1067 78.1363 29.6264Na2O (%) -43.5968 26.4661 -12.2924 17.4762 13.2405 13.2815K2O (%) 256.2228 85.6042 132.9268 53.4644 7.2500 28.6941MnO (%) 98.4472 53.1472 137.1286 27.3691 105.1209 32.0569TiO2 (%) 1.4042 2.8118 -3.4391 3.2808 -2.9284 4.1253P2O5 (%) -32.1649 8.2110 -35.3797 3.2096 -35.5356 3.1608Cr2O3 (%) 229.7367 167.4099 380.2514 185.7654 523.9377 197.8140V2O5 (%) 1.5798 12.3272 4.7221 5.0755 4.8279 10.5676LOI (%) 60.8403 20.1655 23.9039 6.4144 14.5149 11.9177Total (%) 22.2403 9.7195 5.4128 1.4512 5.2383 1.5694TOT/C (%) 23.9899 66.1507 -3.0818 39.7261 17.5542 28.2357TOT/S (%) 1838.2224 487.3200 837.2846 198.8100 571.3614 198.4643Ba (ppm) 215.0534 77.8554 125.6771 55.5963 18.7654 27.3847Be (ppm) 186.6394 138.9030 61.4577 61.4819 141.3374 89.5205Co (ppm) 29.1231 14.8982 27.9288 7.4295 41.7900 33.5994Cs (ppm) -19.0766 25.8129 27.3078 54.1316 32.0246 64.4438Ga (ppm) 10.5265 11.1863 -3.8668 4.3389 -5.4162 4.0989Hf (ppm) -1.2119 15.2764 -9.7785 7.9634 -21.9474 9.8120Nb (ppm) 61.2235 61.8940 110.2748 171.2138 8.5061 61.6128Rb (ppm) 220.8768 69.9042 112.0717 47.0825 -1.0402 25.5901Sn (ppm) 253.2350 167.4320 5.0743 1.4441 38.2092 49.7356Sr  (ppm) -78.0404 5.5433 -56.9279 12.0131 -32.9129 17.0220Ta (ppm) 49.0063 44.4042 100.6373 104.3069 29.4828 38.7861Th (ppm) -23.8930 22.8121 -36.6697 13.4411 -35.0148 17.9954U (ppm) -22.5961 31.3946 -32.2675 27.3793 -61.8743 0.5791V (ppm) 24.0789 15.9787 26.2017 7.5421 25.8827 14.3320W (ppm) 76.8176 63.3897 44.7356 61.6478 219.8075 298.7107Zr (ppm) -1.1140 15.4420 -11.9513 4.6277 -13.6842 2.3511Y (ppm) 39.0759 23.7509 11.6397 9.0056 17.3365 9.0786La (ppm) -15.1975 17.4084 -8.4900 14.6512 -27.8180 7.4966Ce (ppm) -21.3506 14.6755 -22.7776 10.2599 -29.6767 7.4511Pr (ppm) -9.5899 17.2854 -13.1594 10.9877 -20.9729 8.4558Nd (ppm) -6.3244 16.5362 -14.9146 9.9132 -20.2176 8.6011Sm (ppm) 1.9575 18.9265 -13.2204 9.4050 -11.1100 8.4193Eu (ppm) 3.0115 19.0729 7.5772 24.2296 1.0684 19.8246Gd  (ppm) 24.2602 21.2909 4.3761 9.3667 4.8022 11.1577Tb (ppm) 31.3383 22.0940 8.0191 9.2525 9.4683 10.8312Dy (ppm) 54.7095 28.5966 20.7505 8.8756 24.1171 10.6991Relative Mass Change (Average and 95% Confidence Intervals)179Element Proximal (∆X) 95% Conf Inter (∆X) 95% Conf  Distal (∆X) 95% ConfHo (ppm) 40.9499 27.3219 8.1171 9.7912 11.1223 8.7356Er (ppm) 54.0930 28.3646 18.6415 8.0766 25.3663 7.1799Tm (ppm) 53.0045 24.0979 20.4361 8.7361 31.8982 7.1631Yb (ppm) 43.7612 23.3330 19.5184 6.6744 29.4008 8.1925Lu (ppm) 57.2317 22.8087 35.2686 6.9183 39.4128 8.7956Mo (ppm) 380.5681 444.8773 -17.7267 28.1008 -36.7345 28.1784Cu (ppm) 3100.0477 2266.5272 339.4846 261.5987 214.3467 134.0676Pb (ppm) 7152.7919 5315.2686 1117.0078 942.8909 957.9188 1221.4415Zn (ppm) 12202.9693 7239.2901 1897.0790 862.7873 439.7796 181.9536Ni (ppm) 12.0032 46.4871 -42.3875 6.2175 -11.8360 67.0022As (ppm) 4076.9758 1598.0998 1302.9502 413.4788 645.5051 249.0348Cd (ppm) 120843.2380 89543.4630 12612.2955 5802.6999 2034.1563 1672.0171Sb (ppm) 710.6487 834.6986 -45.5845 20.7883 -51.9253 25.4462Bi (ppm) 846.3670 709.9626 39.1713 1.9128 102.5660 99.1735Ag (ppm) 12450.6856 7873.4411 1240.9937 548.4676 331.9728 245.1687Au (ppm) 15476.7773 8114.0523 2909.0246 907.6611 1069.2332 716.6842Hg (ppm) 9423.4038 7878.1565 495.1139 234.6826 53.5095 48.2277180Appendix 3c: Shortwave InfraredThis appendix contains analytical data collected using the SWIR facility at MDRU, UBC under the guidance of Farhad Bouzari and Murray Allan. The results are used to identify alteration minerals and their spectral properties in the SWIR portion of the light spectrum. The results are discussed in Chapter 4. 181Sample Name DCS-S016 DCS-S017 DCS-S018 DCS-S019 DCS-S020Mineral 1 Illite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChloriteMineral 2 IntChlorite Paragonite Illite Illite Illitew2200 2199.67 2188.17 2201.06 2199.85 2198.82width2200 33.696 29.653 31.273 35.013 27.268hqd2200 0.351 0.213 0.0611 0.147 0.112w2250 2249.86 2252.4 2257.86 2255.41 2253.18hqd2250 0.179 0.174 0.149 0.273 0.198w2350 2342.41 2345.79 2351.13 N/A 2343.48hqd2350 0.227 0.199 0.199 N/A 0.217width2350 37.656 38.761 36.46 N/A 36.04hqd1900 0.404 0.386 0.178 0.305 0.277Crystallinity index 0.869 0.552 0.343 0.481 0.402Sample Name DCS-S021 DCS-S022 DCS-S023 DCS-S024 DCS-S025Mineral 1 IntChlorite Illite IntChlorite IntChlorite IlliteMineral 2 Illite IntChlorite Kaolinite Illite IntChloritew2200 2192.78 2199.47 2208.03 2187.71 2199.21width2200 27.387 31.466 27.42 26.277 33.96hqd2200 0.107 0.245 0.226 0.145 0.17w2250 2253.04 2251.3 2254.09 2252.41 2249.62hqd2250 0.211 0.173 0.245 0.234 0.0563w2350 2340.02 2338.14 2342.92 2336.82 2346.99hqd2350 0.203 0.22 0.34 0.232 0.102width2350 37.339 36.242 38.182 37.5 37.893hqd1900 0.261 0.258 0.342 0.236 0.203Crystallinity index 0.409 0.953 0.66 0.612 0.834182Sample Name DCS-S026 DCS-S046 DCS-S047 DCS-S048 DCS-S049Mineral 1 IntChlorite IntChlorite Illite IntChlorite IlliteMineral 2 Kaolinite Illite IntChlorite Illite IntChloritew2200 2207.19 2200.13 2198 2194.62 2200.89width2200 33.265 30.324 34.012 31.991 34.196hqd2200 0.173 0.0861 0.164 0.188 0.247w2250 2254.49 2253.61 2250.31 2251.38 2250.58hqd2250 0.0924 0.126 0.0582 0.139 0.122w2350 2338.11 2340.85 2342.79 2339.69 2343.91hqd2350 0.156 0.13 0.106 0.178 0.182width2350 36.406 36.043 36.561 36.186 38.084hqd1900 0.371 0.145 0.109 0.2 0.216Crystallinity index 0.466 0.595 1.505 0.941 1.142Sample Name DCS-S051 DCS-S053 DCS-S055 DCS-S056 DCS-S057Mineral 1 IntChlorite Illite Illite Illite IlliteMineral 2 Illite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChloritew2200 2197.73 2194.28 2198.43 2193.5 2199.19width2200 32.336 32.207 33.461 30.715 32.742hqd2200 0.19 0.209 0.219 0.275 0.236w2250 2251.19 2252.26 2250.23 2252.84 2250.03hqd2250 0.139 0.129 0.106 0.174 0.102w2350 2342.12 2341.2 2341.74 2340.14 2341.25hqd2350 0.16 0.159 0.145 0.239 0.143width2350 36.919 37.631 34.538 40.207 35.84hqd1900 0.185 0.36 0.234 0.321 0.206Crystallinity index 1.023 0.581 0.939 0.858 1.144183Sample Name DCS-S058 DCS-S059 DCS-S060 DCS-S061 DCS-S062Mineral 1 IntChlorite Illite IntChlorite Illite IntChloriteMineral 2 Illite IntChlorite Illite IntChlorite Illitew2200 2193.9 2193.11 2195.73 2193.64 2194.76width2200 30.095 30.613 30.644 31.807 28.308hqd2200 0.176 0.276 0.305 0.228 0.226w2250 2251.4 2251.08 2251.3 2251.56 2253.09hqd2250 0.173 0.15 0.24 0.101 0.233w2350 2342.46 2342.06 2338.38 2335.36 N/Ahqd2350 0.224 0.187 0.297 0.14 N/Awidth2350 36.739 35.51 35.558 36.564 N/Ahqd1900 0.392 0.38 0.337 0.267 0.368Crystallinity index 0.448 0.727 0.904 0.856 0.615Sample Name DCS-S063 DCS-S064 DCS-S065 DCS-S066 DCS-S067Mineral 1 IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChloriteMineral 2 Illite Illite N/A N/A Illitew2200 2193.16 2193.21 N/A N/A 2194.81width2200 28.16 29.519 N/A N/A 30.67hqd2200 0.24 0.256 N/A N/A 0.269w2250 2252.72 2250.22 2251.74 2252 2251.06hqd2250 0.241 0.207 0.271 0.187 0.23w2350 N/A 2337.23 2335.71 2335.25 2345.28hqd2350 N/A 0.219 0.262 0.181 0.29width2350 N/A 33.518 34.387 35.262 37.417hqd1900 0.326 0.345 0.286 N/A 0.274Crystallinity index 0.737 0.743 N/A N/A 0.982184Sample Name DCS-S081 DCC_S001 DCC_S004 DCC_S007 DCC_S024Mineral 1 Epidote Illite IntChlorite IntChlorite IntChloriteMineral 2 Illite Kaolinite Illite N/A N/Aw2200 2197.32 2207.63 2208.24 2207.54 N/Awidth2200 29.279 31.521 23.371 27.446 N/Ahqd2200 0.0724 0.146 0.124 0.135 N/Aw2250 2254.03 2249.58 2255.01 2252.295 2253.45hqd2250 0.171 0.0443 0.197 0.12065 0.171w2350 2342.56 2350.6 N/A N/A 2345.84hqd2350 0.278 0.0814 N/A N/A 0.181width2350 37.265 38.619 N/A N/A 35.558hqd1900 0.16 0.173 0.196 0.1845 0.102Crystallinity index 0.453 0.845 0.629 0.737 N/ASample Name DCC_S030 DCC-S023 2014_SR_01 2014_SR_04 2014_SR_11Mineral 1 IntChlorite IntChlorite Illite Kaolinite IlliteMineral 2 N/A N/A N/A Dickite N/Aw2200 N/A N/A 2210.21 2208.3 2210.37width2200 N/A N/A 26.81 30.651 30.74hqd2200 N/A N/A 0.058 0.479 0.118w2250 2254.63 2254.64 2241.1 N/A 2240.94hqd2250 0.242 0.241 0.028 N/A 0.105w2350 2346.55 2344.76 2352.16 2313.39 2350.01hqd2350 0.251 0.247 0.017 0.106 0.0893width2350 35.025 35.833 25.466 37.525 32.989hqd1900 0.185 0.175 0.136 0.185 0.181Crystallinity index N/A N/A 0.427 2.585 0.655185Sample Name 2014_SR_13 2014_SR_22 2014_SR_26 2014_SR_29 2014_SR_33Mineral 1 Illite Illite Topaz Dickite AspectralMineral 2 N/A IntChlorite Dickite N/A N/Aw2200 2209.66 2207.74 2207.46 2205.55 N/Awidth2200 29.56 34.057 31.624 34.03 N/Ahqd2200 0.149 0.278 0.164 0.417 N/Aw2250 2243.34 2250.18 N/A 2256.28 2241.1hqd2250 0.129 0.164 N/A 0.0409 0.028w2350 2312.83 2346.38 2328.43 2353.38 N/Ahqd2350 0.107 0.199 0.0262 0.119 N/Awidth2350 40.02 38.049 37.174 27.37 N/Ahqd1900 0.21 0.393 0.1 0.115 0.625Crystallinity index 0.711 0.707 1.643 3.644 N/ASample Name 2014_SR_34 2014_SR_35 DNS_027 DNS_039 DNS_043Mineral 1 Aspectral Aspectral Muscovite Illite IntChloriteMineral 2 N/A N/A N/A N/A Illitew2200 2210.54 2208.07 2204.82 2208.5 2208.35width2200 19.56 27.499 31.03 31.468 34.497hqd2200 0.0632 0.0497 0.151 0.206 0.187w2250 2248.17 2248.66 N/A N/A 2252.38hqd2250 0.0623 0.0489 N/A N/A 0.188w2350 2353.73 2337.27 2347.4 2345.37 N/Ahqd2350 0.0624 0.0486 0.0699 0.117 N/Awidth2350 31.79 29.544 34.956 36.078 N/Ahqd1900 0.1 0.152 0.112 0.146 0.22Crystallinity index 0.631 0.327 1.339 1.411 0.849186Sample Name 708482 708218 708423 708224 708226Mineral 1 Illite IntChlorite Illite Illite IntChloriteMineral 2 FeChlorite Illite N/A N/A N/Aw2200 2199.49 2194.25 2199.05 2194.56 N/Awidth2200 36.313 32.215 32.723 35.451 N/Ahqd2200 0.401 0.185 0.171 0.486 N/Aw2250 N/A 2251.53 N/A N/A 2247.61hqd2250 N/A 0.12 N/A N/A 0.0164w2350 2343.4 2338.31 2338.66 2340.73 N/Ahqd2350 0.195 0.133 0.066 0.234 N/Awidth2350 38.508 36.936 35.221 40.154 N/Ahqd1900 0.444 0.332 0.136 0.408 0.625Crystallinity index 0.902 0.557 1.253 1.192 N/ASample Name 708376 708203 708206 708522 708350Mineral 1 Illite Illite FeChlorite Illite IlliteMineral 2 N/A Kaolinite Illite IntChlorite IntChloritew2200 2198.4 2207.99 2195.83 2203.86 2200.25width2200 34.279 31.667 31.09 32.694 33.254hqd2200 0.355 0.35 0.187 0.185 0.263w2250 N/A N/A 2250.74 2250.66 2249.77hqd2250 N/A N/A 0.161 0.113 0.142w2350 2344.38 2335 2336.28 2336.58 2341.84hqd2350 0.168 0.116 0.156 0.139 0.158width2350 38.651 39.363 38.693 36.605 37.023hqd1900 0.243 0.115 0.341 0.184 0.244Crystallinity index 1.461 3.039 0.549 1.005 1.078187Appendix 3d: Illite-Sericite Microprobe ResultsThis appendix contains analytical data collected using the Microprobe facility at UBC under the guidance of Edith Czech and Jenny Lai.  The results are used to identify sericite/illite compositions and model fluid compositions. The results are discussed in Chapter 4. 188Sample DCC_S017 DCC_S017 DCC_S017 DCC_S017Grain 1 2 3 4Spot Count (n) 6 4 10 9SiO2 49.6638 49.8838 49.4129 43.4201Al2O3 33.5186 33.9723 33.3124 29.3684TiO2 0.0889 0.0802 0.3148 0.2972Cr2O3 0.0120 0.0074 0.0106 0.0154FeO 1.1566 1.0620 1.1382 3.4203MnO 0.0097 0.0120 0.0126 0.0540MgO 0.8474 0.8540 0.8583 3.5579CaO 0.2068 0.1790 0.1808 0.1050Na2O 0.7291 0.8036 0.7524 0.4342K2O 8.5394 8.4455 8.5348 6.8170Cl 0.0798 0.0699 0.0348 0.0721Total 94.9685 95.4758 94.5967 87.6146Si 3.2642 3.2565 3.2583 3.1418Al IV 0.7358 0.7435 0.7417 0.8582Al VI 1.8609 1.8704 1.8473 1.6343Ti 0.0044 0.0039 0.0157 0.0167Cr 0.0006 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008Fe 0.0636 0.0580 0.0628 0.2070Mn 0.0005 0.0007 0.0007 0.0033Mg 0.0830 0.0832 0.0844 0.3811Ca 0.0146 0.0125 0.0128 0.0081Na 0.0930 0.1016 0.0961 0.0601K 0.7161 0.7034 0.7180 0.6265OH* 1.9669 1.9706 1.9890 1.9772F 0.0242 0.0217 0.0071 0.0116Cl 0.0089 0.0077 0.0039 0.0111TOTAL 8.8377 8.8358 8.8383 8.9381Y total 2.0140 2.0183 2.0115 2.2433X total 0.8237 0.8175 0.8268 0.6948Al total 2.5967 2.6140 2.5891 2.4925Fe/Fe+Mg 0.2168 0.2057 0.2125 0.1772Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0042 0.0055 0.0059 0.0073Total Al 2.5967 2.6140 2.5891 2.4925Mg-Li 0.0821 0.0814 0.0844 0.3811Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.7924 -1.8078 -1.7681 -1.4072x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.7356 0.7285 0.7396 0.8006Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 228.5956 226.7126 229.6725 246.0337189Sample DCC_S026A DCC_S026A DCC-009 DCC-009Grain 5 6 7 8Count 6 9 2 4SiO2 38.0806 37.0555 48.5105 48.2471Al2O3 26.3830 25.4329 31.7980 32.3783TiO2 0.0927 0.1890 0.1123 0.1288Cr2O3 0.0212 0.0052 0.0233 0.0159FeO 11.9606 13.1886 2.3794 2.2003MnO 0.3307 0.3337 0.0374 0.0119MgO 8.1766 8.7734 1.1410 1.0381CaO 0.2820 0.0566 0.0636 0.0391Na2O 0.0783 0.0786 0.1768 0.1432K2O 5.3237 4.6298 10.5153 10.5276Cl 0.0278 0.0602 0.0382 0.0228Total 90.8156 89.9028 94.8443 94.8752Si 2.7634 2.7249 3.2516 3.2313Al IV 1.2366 1.2751 0.7484 0.7687Al VI 1.0375 0.9478 1.7639 1.7872Ti 0.0049 0.0111 0.0057 0.0065Cr 0.0014 0.0003 0.0012 0.0008Fe 0.7977 0.8962 0.1334 0.1233Mn 0.0224 0.0231 0.0021 0.0007Mg 0.9712 1.0618 0.1140 0.1037Ca 0.0207 0.0044 0.0046 0.0028Na 0.0104 0.0107 0.0230 0.0186K 0.4659 0.4047 0.8990 0.8993OH* 1.9836 1.9701 1.9853 1.9716F 0.0130 0.0229 0.0104 0.0259Cl 0.0034 0.0071 0.0043 0.0026TOTAL 9.3321 9.3601 8.9469 8.9428Y total 2.8352 2.9403 2.0204 2.0221X total 0.4969 0.4198 0.9266 0.9207Al total 2.2742 2.2229 2.5123 2.5558Fe/Fe+Mg 0.2277 0.2256 0.2696 0.2719Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0097 0.0110 0.0078 0.0027Total Al 2.2742 2.2229 2.5123 2.5558Mg-Li 0.9712 1.0618 0.1140 0.1037Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -0.2125 -0.0175 -1.6228 -1.6568x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.6394 0.5704 0.9184 0.9189Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 202.8203 184.3292 277.5903 277.7153190Sample DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009Grain 9 10 11 12 13Count 3 3 2 2 2SiO2 48.2986 47.9569 48.1588 59.0856 58.4235Al2O3 32.8958 32.3705 32.2387 25.9957 25.7680TiO2 0.0316 0.0066 0.1264 0.0670 0.0883Cr2O3 0.0297 0.0353 0.0000 0.0514 0.0000FeO 1.9967 1.9716 2.2902 1.2731 1.3999MnO 0.0329 0.0068 0.0068 0.0238 0.0000MgO 0.9177 0.9816 1.0597 0.5140 0.5824CaO 0.0679 0.0747 0.0364 0.0952 0.0990Na2O 0.1563 0.1956 0.2221 5.8061 5.8240K2O 10.5652 10.1021 10.4876 5.2054 5.2406Cl 0.0234 0.0761 0.0846 0.0233 0.0389Total 95.0960 93.8680 94.7185 98.1804 97.5344Si 3.2225 3.2359 3.2312 3.6897 3.6736Al IV 0.7775 0.7641 0.7688 0.3747 0.3806Al VI 1.8094 1.8102 1.7807 1.5755 1.5782Ti 0.0016 0.0003 0.0064 0.0033 0.0044Cr 0.0016 0.0019 0.0000 0.0024 0.0000Fe 0.1114 0.1112 0.1284 0.0700 0.0783Mn 0.0018 0.0004 0.0004 0.0013 0.0000Mg 0.0912 0.0988 0.1060 0.0504 0.0581Ca 0.0048 0.0054 0.0026 0.0062 0.0066Na 0.0202 0.0256 0.0288 0.6771 0.6750K 0.8992 0.8694 0.8977 0.4368 0.4510OH* 1.9804 1.9719 1.9888 1.9898 1.9819F 0.0170 0.0194 0.0016 0.0076 0.0140Cl 0.0027 0.0087 0.0096 0.0026 0.0041TOTAL 8.9414 8.9232 8.9509 8.8876 8.9057Y total 2.0171 2.0228 2.0219 1.7030 1.7189X total 0.9243 0.9004 0.9291 1.1201 1.1326Al total 2.5870 2.5744 2.5495 1.9503 1.9588Fe/Fe+Mg 0.2748 0.2645 0.2738 0.3454 0.2938Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0080 0.0015 0.0014 0.0047 0.0000Total Al 2.5870 2.5744 2.5495 1.9503 1.9588Mg-Li 0.0912 0.0988 0.1060 0.0504 0.0581Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.6946 -1.6983 -1.6455 -1.5009 -1.4956x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.9194 0.8829 0.9201 0.4564 0.4712Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 277.8635 268.0606 278.0495 153.7836 157.7579191Sample DCS-S029 DCS-S029 DCS-S029 DCS-S029 DCS-S029Grain 14 15 16 17 18Count 6 5 7 4 6SiO2 49.5559 50.2807 50.5997 50.6682 50.2241Al2O3 34.9137 35.9601 34.8508 35.2408 35.3933TiO2 0.0542 0.0524 0.0522 0.0531 0.0565Cr2O3 0.0014 0.0060 0.0152 0.0128 0.0206FeO 0.3631 0.3066 0.3743 0.3194 0.3479MnO 0.0102 0.0334 0.0425 0.0213 0.0228MgO 0.6118 0.6631 0.7303 0.7307 0.6378CaO 0.1250 0.1615 0.1363 0.1987 0.1813Na2O 0.4626 0.4558 0.3798 0.3881 0.3985K2O 8.6151 9.0729 8.6647 8.7442 8.9803Cl 0.0768 0.0179 0.0269 0.0243 0.0589Total 94.8934 97.0726 95.9511 96.5345 96.3828Si 3.2398 3.2173 3.2665 3.2541 3.2363Al IV 0.7602 0.7827 0.7335 0.7459 0.7637Al VI 1.9316 1.9298 1.9185 1.9217 1.9248Ti 0.0027 0.0025 0.0025 0.0026 0.0027Cr 0.0001 0.0003 0.0008 0.0006 0.0011Fe 0.0199 0.0164 0.0202 0.0172 0.0187Mn 0.0006 0.0018 0.0023 0.0012 0.0012Mg 0.0594 0.0632 0.0703 0.0699 0.0612Ca 0.0088 0.0111 0.0094 0.0137 0.0125Na 0.0590 0.0565 0.0475 0.0484 0.0499K 0.7184 0.7409 0.7136 0.7162 0.7380OH* 1.9702 1.9855 1.9812 1.9702 1.9811F 0.0213 0.0126 0.0159 0.0271 0.0124Cl 0.0085 0.0019 0.0030 0.0027 0.0064TOTAL 8.8003 8.8226 8.7852 8.7915 8.8101Y total 2.0142 2.0140 2.0146 2.0132 2.0097X total 0.7862 0.8086 0.7706 0.7783 0.8004Al total 2.6918 2.7125 2.6520 2.6676 2.6884Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1278 0.1016 0.1118 0.0986 0.1173Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0139 0.0508 0.0491 0.0299 0.0326Total Al 2.6918 2.7125 2.6520 2.6676 2.6884Mg-Li 0.0594 0.0632 0.0703 0.0699 0.0612Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.9085 -1.9090 -1.8934 -1.9009 -1.9021x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.7580 0.7877 0.7637 0.7690 0.7805Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 234.5942 242.5720 236.1295 237.5566 240.6280192Sample DCS-S029 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011Grain 19 20 21 22 23Count 8 2 2 3 3SiO2 50.2713 49.8393 49.9916 50.0904 49.5764Al2O3 36.0303 32.0942 32.8544 31.2705 32.3961TiO2 0.0613 0.0343 0.0034 0.0308 0.0312Cr2O3 0.0171 0.0277 0.0000 0.0000 0.0099FeO 0.3016 1.6948 1.3996 1.8470 1.5629MnO 0.0132 0.0206 0.0481 0.0080 0.0412MgO 0.6382 0.9248 0.8398 1.2111 0.9263CaO 0.1589 0.1453 0.0865 0.1729 0.1767Na2O 0.4679 0.1645 0.1707 0.2748 0.1722K2O 9.1880 9.9960 9.9961 9.8132 10.0479Cl 0.0294 0.0342 0.0226 0.0687 0.0547Total 97.2399 95.1326 95.4221 94.9488 95.0877Si 3.2139 3.3024 3.2895 3.3278 3.2857Al IV 0.7861 0.6976 0.7105 0.6722 0.7143Al VI 1.9291 1.8090 1.8376 1.7761 1.8163Ti 0.0029 0.0017 0.0002 0.0015 0.0016Cr 0.0009 0.0015 0.0000 0.0000 0.0005Fe 0.0161 0.0939 0.0770 0.1026 0.0867Mn 0.0007 0.0012 0.0027 0.0005 0.0023Mg 0.0608 0.0914 0.0824 0.1200 0.0915Ca 0.0109 0.0103 0.0061 0.0123 0.0125Na 0.0580 0.0211 0.0218 0.0354 0.0221K 0.7494 0.8449 0.8390 0.8315 0.8495OH* 1.9840 1.9632 1.9955 1.9584 1.9746F 0.0128 0.0329 0.0020 0.0339 0.0193Cl 0.0032 0.0038 0.0025 0.0077 0.0061TOTAL 8.8288 8.8749 8.8667 8.8800 8.8830Y total 2.0105 1.9986 1.9998 2.0008 1.9989X total 0.8182 0.8763 0.8669 0.8792 0.8842Al total 2.7151 2.5066 2.5481 2.4483 2.5306Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1059 0.2533 0.2416 0.2309 0.2425Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0190 0.0057 0.0168 0.0020 0.0128Total Al 2.7151 2.5066 2.5481 2.4483 2.5306Mg-Li 0.0608 0.0914 0.0824 0.1200 0.0915Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.9093 -1.7123 -1.7577 -1.6715 -1.7257x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.7941 0.8525 0.8444 0.8489 0.8543Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 244.2665 259.9294 257.7478 258.9636 260.4227193Sample DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011Grain 24 25 26 27 28Count 1 2 1 4 2SiO2 45.9225 49.8003 50.8991 49.1619 48.7466Al2O3 29.6579 32.6312 32.2721 32.4925 32.0779TiO2 0.0235 0.0678 0.0022 0.0242 0.0397Cr2O3 0.0000 0.0000 0.0723 0.0149 0.0000FeO 1.9595 1.8998 2.1012 1.7051 1.6132MnO 0.0514 0.0137 0.0446 0.0249 0.0138MgO 1.0572 0.8748 1.3243 0.9584 0.8031CaO 0.0969 0.1061 0.0882 0.1388 0.1424Na2O 0.5149 0.2067 0.3875 0.3951 0.2619K2O 9.5532 9.9995 9.1961 9.8075 10.0976Cl 0.2361 0.0342 0.1870 0.1567 0.0635Total 89.0826 95.7003 96.5746 95.0364 94.0305Si 3.2744 3.2804 3.3120 3.2677 3.2761Al IV 0.7256 0.7196 0.6880 0.7323 0.7239Al VI 1.7670 1.8140 1.7872 1.8132 1.8171Ti 0.0013 0.0034 0.0001 0.0012 0.0020Cr 0.0000 0.0000 0.0037 0.0008 0.0000Fe 0.1169 0.1047 0.1143 0.0948 0.0907Mn 0.0031 0.0008 0.0025 0.0014 0.0008Mg 0.1124 0.0859 0.1285 0.0950 0.0805Ca 0.0074 0.0075 0.0061 0.0099 0.0102Na 0.0712 0.0264 0.0489 0.0510 0.0341K 0.8689 0.8401 0.7633 0.8316 0.8656OH* 1.9693 1.9823 1.9794 1.9493 1.9563F 0.0021 0.0138 0.0000 0.0331 0.0365Cl 0.0285 0.0038 0.0206 0.0177 0.0072TOTAL 8.9480 8.8827 8.8545 8.8995 8.9015Y total 2.0006 2.0087 2.0362 2.0070 1.9915X total 0.9474 0.8740 0.8183 0.8925 0.9100Al total 2.4926 2.5336 2.4752 2.5455 2.5409Fe/Fe+Mg 0.2549 0.2746 0.2355 0.2499 0.2649Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0129 0.0036 0.0105 0.0071 0.0042Total Al 2.4926 2.5336 2.4752 2.5455 2.5409Mg-Li 0.1124 0.0859 0.1285 0.0946 0.0799Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.6458 -1.7052 -1.6702 -1.7157 -1.7236x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8733 0.8589 0.7774 0.8355 0.8759Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 265.5096 261.6439 239.7951 255.3626 266.1846194Sample DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 29 30 31 32 33Count 3 4 7 2 2SiO2 50.2521 49.6138 49.3509 47.3839 48.6422Al2O3 31.7035 32.1155 34.3052 32.6085 33.0179TiO2 0.0191 0.0527 0.0129 0.0245 0.0044Cr2O3 0.0298 0.0075 0.0043 0.0321 0.0000FeO 1.8475 1.8153 0.5101 0.6142 0.4357MnO 0.0423 0.0344 0.0452 0.0361 0.0155MgO 1.0979 0.9477 0.6940 0.7013 0.7569CaO 0.0891 0.0843 0.0962 0.0878 0.1180Na2O 0.1801 0.2217 0.2082 0.2117 0.2197K2O 10.0469 10.1672 9.7431 9.0604 9.2804Cl 0.0568 0.0804 0.0168 0.0372 0.0198Total 95.4728 95.2423 95.1867 90.9887 92.6971Si 3.3195 3.2909 3.2427 3.2545 3.2736Al IV 0.6805 0.7091 0.7573 0.7455 0.7264Al VI 1.7883 1.8012 1.8998 1.8939 1.8926Ti 0.0009 0.0026 0.0006 0.0013 0.0002Cr 0.0016 0.0004 0.0002 0.0018 0.0000Fe 0.1020 0.1008 0.0280 0.0350 0.0245Mn 0.0024 0.0019 0.0025 0.0022 0.0009Mg 0.1080 0.0938 0.0679 0.0721 0.0759Ca 0.0063 0.0060 0.0068 0.0066 0.0085Na 0.0231 0.0285 0.0266 0.0282 0.0286K 0.8467 0.8602 0.8168 0.7932 0.7966OH* 1.9710 1.9694 1.9565 1.9538 1.9576F 0.0226 0.0215 0.0416 0.0417 0.0401Cl 0.0064 0.0091 0.0019 0.0045 0.0023TOTAL 8.8793 8.8955 8.8501 8.8344 8.8306Y total 2.0033 2.0008 2.0000 2.0063 1.9968X total 0.8760 0.8947 0.8501 0.8281 0.8338Al total 2.4688 2.5103 2.6571 2.6395 2.6190Fe/Fe+Mg 0.2435 0.2594 0.1466 0.1637 0.1219Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0113 0.0100 0.0406 0.0331 0.0157Total Al 2.4688 2.5103 2.6571 2.6395 2.6190Mg-Li 0.1080 0.0938 0.0671 0.0721 0.0732Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.6829 -1.6959 -1.8686 -1.8555 -1.8670x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8580 0.8726 0.8567 0.8303 0.8480Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 261.4096 265.3031 261.0463 253.9898 258.7300195Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 34 35 36 37Count 2 1 2 3SiO2 47.7956 49.2850 48.9424 48.6130Al2O3 33.1023 33.4064 33.8920 33.3691TiO2 0.0146 0.0000 0.0403 0.0246Cr2O3 0.0321 0.0300 0.0236 0.0071FeO 0.5059 0.3296 0.4245 0.4163MnO 0.0155 0.0000 0.0086 0.0115MgO 0.6760 0.7940 0.6450 0.7262CaO 0.1088 0.1499 0.1241 0.1802Na2O 0.1760 0.2279 0.2575 0.2764K2O 9.6123 9.3717 9.3661 9.3401Cl 0.0295 0.0266 0.0384 0.0503Total 92.2884 93.8798 93.8822 93.1554Si 3.2448 3.2758 3.2516 3.2583Al IV 0.7552 0.7242 0.7484 0.7417Al VI 1.8924 1.8930 1.9054 1.8940Ti 0.0007 0.0000 0.0020 0.0012Cr 0.0017 0.0016 0.0012 0.0004Fe 0.0288 0.0183 0.0235 0.0234Mn 0.0009 0.0000 0.0005 0.0007Mg 0.0684 0.0787 0.0639 0.0727Ca 0.0080 0.0107 0.0088 0.0130Na 0.0233 0.0294 0.0332 0.0360K 0.8316 0.7945 0.7937 0.7980OH* 1.9498 1.9426 1.9701 1.9644F 0.0468 0.0544 0.0255 0.0298Cl 0.0035 0.0030 0.0044 0.0057TOTAL 8.8587 8.8274 8.8323 8.8394Y total 1.9959 1.9928 1.9965 1.9924X total 0.8628 0.8346 0.8358 0.8470Al total 2.6476 2.6172 2.6538 2.6357Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1479 0.0944 0.1311 0.1219Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0142 0.0000 0.0074 0.0114Total Al 2.6476 2.6172 2.6538 2.6357Mg-Li 0.0654 0.0774 0.0639 0.0727Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.8620 -1.8747 -1.8795 -1.8687x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8712 0.8549 0.8341 0.8473Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 264.9321 260.5651 255.0012 258.5367196Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 38 39 40 41Count 2 1 3 2SiO2 49.9998 49.8842 49.3793 49.2263Al2O3 33.1851 34.6031 32.8556 33.4719TiO2 0.0029 0.0441 0.0442 0.0695Cr2O3 0.0193 0.0342 0.0256 0.0385FeO 0.4492 0.3232 1.1466 1.1591MnO 0.0000 0.0344 0.0057 0.0000MgO 0.8706 0.6601 0.8723 0.9893CaO 0.2474 0.0602 0.1076 0.1001Na2O 0.2880 0.1907 0.1907 0.1617K2O 8.7437 9.7785 9.6757 9.9209Cl 0.0324 0.0202 0.0247 0.0040Total 94.0679 95.7482 94.4711 95.2412Si 3.3029 3.2503 3.2782 3.2460Al IV 0.6971 0.7497 0.7218 0.7540Al VI 1.8875 1.9078 1.8497 1.8476Ti 0.0001 0.0022 0.0022 0.0034Cr 0.0010 0.0018 0.0013 0.0020Fe 0.0250 0.0176 0.0636 0.0639Mn 0.0000 0.0019 0.0003 0.0000Mg 0.0859 0.0641 0.0863 0.0972Ca 0.0176 0.0042 0.0077 0.0071Na 0.0370 0.0241 0.0246 0.0207K 0.7370 0.8127 0.8195 0.8344OH* 1.9483 1.9740 1.9674 1.9786F 0.0481 0.0238 0.0298 0.0209Cl 0.0036 0.0022 0.0028 0.0004TOTAL 8.7913 8.8363 8.8552 8.8763Y total 1.9997 1.9953 2.0035 2.0142X total 0.7916 0.8410 0.8518 0.8622Al total 2.5846 2.6575 2.5715 2.6016Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1111 0.1077 0.2119 0.1973Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0000 0.0487 0.0026 0.0000Total Al 2.5846 2.6575 2.5715 2.6016Mg-Li 0.0857 0.0641 0.0863 0.0972Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.8624 -1.8861 -1.7836 -1.7802x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.7979 0.8592 0.8422 0.8677Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 245.3074 261.7177 257.1730 264.0086197Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 42 43 44 45Count 1 3 1 5SiO2 50.1089 48.6797 50.4347 49.3679Al2O3 33.5562 31.8771 33.7569 32.4672TiO2 0.0120 0.0747 0.0408 0.0017Cr2O3 0.0513 0.0284 0.0385 0.0128FeO 0.8143 1.2431 0.5736 0.4816MnO 0.0000 0.0309 0.0000 0.0220MgO 0.7944 1.1884 0.8927 0.8981CaO 0.0381 0.0892 0.0639 0.0931Na2O 0.0934 0.1905 0.1592 0.1855K2O 10.2086 9.8295 10.0632 9.1649Cl 0.0153 0.0099 0.0000 0.0362Total 95.8840 93.4700 96.3203 92.7980Si 3.2783 3.2797 3.2799 3.3109Al IV 0.7217 0.7203 0.7201 0.6891Al VI 1.8661 1.8116 1.8675 1.8763Ti 0.0006 0.0038 0.0020 0.0001Cr 0.0027 0.0015 0.0020 0.0007Fe 0.0446 0.0700 0.0312 0.0271Mn 0.0000 0.0017 0.0000 0.0013Mg 0.0775 0.1194 0.0865 0.0900Ca 0.0027 0.0065 0.0045 0.0068Na 0.0118 0.0249 0.0201 0.0242K 0.8519 0.8449 0.8348 0.7833OH* 1.9587 1.9502 1.9390 1.9818F 0.0396 0.0487 0.0610 0.0140Cl 0.0017 0.0011 0.0000 0.0042TOTAL 8.8578 8.8850 8.8529 8.8097Y total 1.9913 2.0088 1.9936 1.9955X total 0.8664 0.8762 0.8593 0.8142Al total 2.5877 2.5319 2.5876 2.5654Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1826 0.1844 0.1325 0.1154Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0000 0.0113 0.0000 0.0212Total Al 2.5877 2.5319 2.5876 2.5654Mg-Li 0.0775 0.1186 0.0822 0.0900Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.8209 -1.7361 -1.8343 -1.8478x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8848 0.8943 0.8901 0.8462Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 268.5914 271.1258 270.0028 258.2378198Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 46 47 48 49Count 2 2 3 1SiO2 48.9583 49.7275 49.6893 49.6366Al2O3 33.3021 34.2319 34.1169 34.6829TiO2 0.0198 0.0304 0.0133 0.0123Cr2O3 0.0000 0.0129 0.0242 0.0385FeO 0.4594 0.6028 0.5885 0.5257MnO 0.0069 0.0138 0.0275 0.0206MgO 0.6640 0.6992 0.7070 0.6878CaO 0.0634 0.0412 0.0643 0.0860Na2O 0.2518 0.1846 0.2093 0.2637K2O 9.5314 9.8580 9.8499 9.8173Cl 0.0279 0.0105 0.0107 0.0016Total 93.3519 95.6325 95.4764 95.8880Si 3.2718 3.2533 3.2558 3.2356Al IV 0.7282 0.7467 0.7442 0.7644Al VI 1.8952 1.8931 1.8907 1.9004Ti 0.0010 0.0015 0.0007 0.0006Cr 0.0000 0.0007 0.0013 0.0020Fe 0.0257 0.0330 0.0323 0.0287Mn 0.0004 0.0008 0.0015 0.0011Mg 0.0661 0.0682 0.0691 0.0668Ca 0.0045 0.0029 0.0045 0.0060Na 0.0326 0.0234 0.0266 0.0333K 0.8125 0.8226 0.8232 0.8163OH* 1.9827 1.9534 1.9625 1.9761F 0.0141 0.0455 0.0363 0.0237Cl 0.0032 0.0012 0.0012 0.0002TOTAL 8.8381 8.8498 8.8509 8.8552Y total 1.9884 2.0009 1.9965 1.9996X total 0.8497 0.8489 0.8544 0.8556Al total 2.6234 2.6399 2.6349 2.6648Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1406 0.1639 0.1590 0.1501Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0066 0.0104 0.0208 0.0191Total Al 2.6234 2.6399 2.6349 2.6648Mg-Li 0.0661 0.0644 0.0680 0.0668Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.8681 -1.8579 -1.8563 -1.8700x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8530 0.8578 0.8601 0.8544Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 260.0480 261.3490 261.9557 260.4473199Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 50 51 52 53Count 2 1 2 1SiO2 49.6636 49.2333 48.1017 49.4139Al2O3 33.9532 33.4576 31.9916 33.5914TiO2 0.0228 0.0148 0.0091 0.0000Cr2O3 0.0386 0.0000 0.0278 0.0000FeO 0.5137 0.5663 0.8233 0.6205MnO 0.0189 0.0310 0.0310 0.0103MgO 0.7058 0.7754 0.8940 0.6800CaO 0.0645 0.0884 0.1278 0.0774Na2O 0.1582 0.2569 0.1816 0.1760K2O 9.7824 9.3751 9.2541 10.1046Cl 0.0198 0.0057 0.0468 0.0024Total 94.9988 93.8045 91.4934 94.6765Si 3.2636 3.2699 3.2849 3.2654Al IV 0.7364 0.7301 0.7151 0.7346Al VI 1.8933 1.8891 1.8602 1.8819Ti 0.0011 0.0007 0.0005 0.0000Cr 0.0020 0.0000 0.0015 0.0000Fe 0.0283 0.0315 0.0469 0.0343Mn 0.0011 0.0017 0.0018 0.0006Mg 0.0692 0.0768 0.0909 0.0670Ca 0.0046 0.0063 0.0094 0.0055Na 0.0202 0.0331 0.0241 0.0226K 0.8199 0.7942 0.8060 0.8517OH* 1.9857 1.9994 1.9935 1.9997F 0.0121 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000Cl 0.0022 0.0006 0.0054 0.0003TOTAL 8.8395 8.8334 8.8412 8.8635Y total 1.9948 1.9998 2.0018 1.9837X total 0.8447 0.8336 0.8394 0.8798Al total 2.6297 2.6192 2.5753 2.6165Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1447 0.1453 0.1688 0.1693Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0160 0.0263 0.0169 0.0083Total Al 2.6297 2.6192 2.5753 2.6165Mg-Li 0.0692 0.0768 0.0909 0.0670Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.8628 -1.8552 -1.8111 -1.8470x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8608 0.8395 0.8500 0.8844Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 262.1541 256.4526 259.2561 268.4781200Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 54 55 56 57Count 1 2 5 1SiO2 48.8032 47.3644 48.6728 49.5892Al2O3 33.1637 30.8471 33.1000 32.9212TiO2 0.0028 0.1106 0.0408 0.0520Cr2O3 0.0000 0.0128 0.0000 0.0213FeO 0.7591 1.5006 1.1324 1.5037MnO 0.0447 0.0292 0.0227 0.0790MgO 0.7319 1.1526 0.7945 1.0770CaO 0.1093 0.0872 0.0747 0.0516Na2O 0.1762 0.2508 0.2515 0.1728K2O 9.4971 9.7422 9.8734 10.1316Cl 0.0428 0.0941 0.0337 0.0419Total 93.3308 91.4482 94.0842 95.7748Si 3.2663 3.2765 3.2508 3.2644Al IV 0.7337 0.7235 0.7492 0.7356Al VI 1.8826 1.7909 1.8565 1.8187Ti 0.0001 0.0058 0.0020 0.0026Cr 0.0000 0.0007 0.0000 0.0011Fe 0.0425 0.0874 0.0633 0.0828Mn 0.0025 0.0017 0.0013 0.0044Mg 0.0730 0.1190 0.0790 0.1057Ca 0.0078 0.0065 0.0054 0.0036Na 0.0229 0.0335 0.0326 0.0221K 0.8108 0.8601 0.8411 0.8507OH* 1.9951 1.9330 1.9779 1.9675F 0.0000 0.0558 0.0183 0.0278Cl 0.0049 0.0112 0.0038 0.0047TOTAL 8.8422 8.9084 8.8812 8.8917Y total 2.0008 2.0084 2.0021 2.0153X total 0.8415 0.9001 0.8791 0.8764Al total 2.6162 2.5144 2.6057 2.5544Fe/Fe+Mg 0.1839 0.2103 0.2232 0.2196Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0281 0.0105 0.0091 0.0253Total Al 2.6162 2.5144 2.6057 2.5544Mg-Li 0.0730 0.1161 0.0790 0.1057Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.8374 -1.6961 -1.7899 -1.7290x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8413 0.8918 0.8569 0.8736Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 256.9241 270.4471 261.1023 265.5819201Sample DNS_S037 DNS_S037Grain 58 59Count 2 1SiO2 50.2197 49.3426Al2O3 32.4061 33.5501TiO2 0.0742 0.0082Cr2O3 0.0107 0.0000FeO 1.4309 1.4409MnO 0.0464 0.0000MgO 1.1685 0.7951CaO 0.0620 0.0712Na2O 0.1717 0.1791K2O 9.9899 9.9134Cl 0.0117 0.0145Total 95.7344 95.4198Si 3.2991 3.2505Al IV 0.7009 0.7495Al VI 1.8085 1.8557Ti 0.0037 0.0004Cr 0.0006 0.0000Fe 0.0787 0.0794Mn 0.0026 0.0000Mg 0.1144 0.0781Ca 0.0044 0.0050Na 0.0219 0.0229K 0.8370 0.8330OH* 1.9690 1.9766F 0.0297 0.0218Cl 0.0013 0.0016TOTAL 8.8717 8.8744Y total 2.0084 2.0135X total 0.8633 0.8609Al total 2.5094 2.6051Fe/Fe+Mg 0.2029 0.2521Mn/Mn+Fe 0.0166 0.0000Total Al 2.5094 2.6051Mg-Li 0.1144 0.0781Fe+Mn+Ti-AlVI -1.7236 -1.7759x= (K+|Fe-Mg|) 0.8727 0.8343Temperature (Battaglia, 2004) 265.3493 255.0518202Appendix 3e: Chlorite Microprobe ResultsThis appendix contains analytical data collected using the Microprobe facility at UBC under the guidance of Edith Czech and Jenny Lai.  The results are used to identi-fy chlorite compositions and model fluid compositions. The results are discussed in Chapter 4. 203Label DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-009 DCC-09# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Count 1 1 6 6 2 2 3Deposit Centralni Centralni Centralni Centralni Centralni Centralni CentralniArea Wallrock Wallrock Vein Vein Vein Wallrock WallrockSiO2 27.8382 27.6738 27.1031 27.0786 26.7364 27.0073 26.9550TiO2 0.0419 0.0000 0.0145 0.0119 0.0094 0.0353 0.0208Al2O3 21.7989 20.1969 19.1619 19.0663 18.3845 21.0490 20.8885Cr2O3 0.1040 0.0000 0.0038 0.0267 0.0000 0.0345 0.0612Fe2O3 2.4245 1.4742 0.5155 0.5233 0.0243 1.5400 1.3557FeO 20.5874 21.5666 24.5863 24.3498 26.8536 21.8197 22.9705MnO 0.8374 0.7068 0.8506 0.8194 0.8297 0.7838 0.8076MgO 14.5768 15.6240 15.5704 15.6375 14.9376 15.0202 14.6345CaO 0.0119 0.0511 0.0380 0.0217 0.0311 0.0521 0.0885Na2O 0.0000 0.0314 0.0048 0.0020 0.0156 0.0145 0.0185K2O 0.1284 0.1226 0.0339 0.0284 0.0040 0.0429 0.0511H2O* 11.6483 11.5006 11.3982 11.3693 11.2636 11.4687 11.4634TOTAL 99.9978 98.9480 99.2808 98.9348 99.0897 98.8679 99.3152Si 5.6906 5.7432 5.6930 5.7032 5.6913 5.6221 5.6162AlIV 2.3094 2.2568 2.3070 2.2968 2.3087 2.3779 2.3838AlVI 2.9814 2.7081 2.4446 2.4443 2.3052 2.8111 2.7678Ti 0.0064 0.0000 0.0023 0.0019 0.0015 0.0055 0.0033Cr 0.0168 0.0000 0.0006 0.0044 0.0000 0.0057 0.0101Fe3+ 0.3730 0.2302 0.0809 0.0828 0.0039 0.2413 0.2124Fe2+ 3.5196 3.7432 4.3271 4.2897 4.7869 3.7987 4.0032Mn 0.1450 0.1242 0.1514 0.1462 0.1495 0.1382 0.1425Mg 4.4419 4.8336 4.8747 4.9097 4.7393 4.6610 4.5457Ca 0.0026 0.0114 0.0086 0.0049 0.0071 0.0116 0.0197Na 0.0000 0.0253 0.0039 0.0016 0.0129 0.0117 0.0148K 0.0670 0.0649 0.0181 0.0153 0.0022 0.0228 0.0271OH* 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000Total 35.5537 35.7409 35.9122 35.9008 36.0086 35.7076 35.7467Fe/Fe+Mg 0.4670 0.4512 0.4745 0.4710 0.5026 0.4643 0.4812Chlorie T (°C )-AlIV 14O 1.1547 1.1284 1.1535 1.1484 1.1544 1.1889 1.1919T (°C)-Cathelineau (1988) 309.8665 301.4022 309.4796 307.8480 309.7600 320.8929 321.8457Fe+2 (14O) 1.7598 1.8716 2.1635 2.1449 2.3935 1.8993 2.0016Mg+2  (14O) 2.2210 2.4168 2.4373 2.4549 2.3696 2.3305 2.2729AlIV (Jowett, 1991) 1.1989 1.1720 1.2004 1.1950 1.2046 1.2338 1.2387T (°C)-Jowett (1991) 313.4478 304.8818 313.9428 312.2181 315.2667 324.5917 326.1501204Label DCC-009 DCC_S026A DCC_S026A DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011# 8 9 10 11 12 13Count 2 15 10 5 5 2Deposit Centralni Centralni Centralni Noreshenik Noreshenik NoreshenikArea Wallrock Vein Vein Vein Vein VeinSiO2 26.9722 26.4501 26.6760 26.2713 26.4478 26.9696TiO2 0.0034 0.0330 0.0308 0.0281 0.0218 0.0218Al2O3 20.5647 20.2545 20.4611 21.2009 21.2595 21.1918Cr2O3 0.0613 0.0132 0.0142 0.0037 0.0243 0.0000Fe2O3 1.1985 1.0351 0.9724 1.0671 1.1868 1.3485FeO 22.6544 22.4906 22.0955 25.3833 23.8690 23.4721MnO 0.7878 0.6240 0.5695 0.7599 0.7152 0.8001MgO 15.0125 15.1404 15.4310 13.4641 14.2510 14.5648CaO 0.1358 0.0188 0.0274 0.0678 0.0966 0.0772Na2O 0.0296 0.0242 0.0095 0.0111 0.0000 0.0125K2O 0.0726 0.0505 0.2623 0.0029 0.0108 0.0000H2O* 11.4356 11.2679 11.3496 11.3849 11.4239 11.5275TOTAL 98.9282 97.4022 97.8993 99.6452 99.3068 99.9857Si 5.6348 5.6065 5.6129 5.5165 5.5341 5.5899AlIV 2.3652 2.3935 2.3871 2.4835 2.4659 2.4101AlVI 2.7193 2.6907 2.7091 2.7828 2.7954 2.7872Ti 0.0005 0.0052 0.0049 0.0045 0.0034 0.0034Cr 0.0101 0.0022 0.0024 0.0006 0.0040 0.0000Fe3+ 0.1885 0.1615 0.1524 0.1684 0.1870 0.2102Fe2+ 3.9589 3.9978 3.8940 4.4654 4.1771 4.0695Mn 0.1394 0.1122 0.1014 0.1349 0.1268 0.1405Mg 4.6747 4.7913 4.8444 4.2087 4.4448 4.5001Ca 0.0304 0.0043 0.0062 0.0151 0.0217 0.0171Na 0.0238 0.0197 0.0077 0.0092 0.0000 0.0100K 0.0386 0.0273 0.1386 0.0016 0.0058 0.0000OH* 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000Total 35.7842 35.8123 35.8609 35.7912 35.7660 35.7379Fe/Fe+Mg 0.4701 0.4646 0.4549 0.5240 0.4953 0.4874Chlorie T (°C )-AlIV 14O 1.1826 1.1967 1.1935 1.2418 1.2329 1.2051T (°C)-Cathelineau (1988) 318.8459 323.4089 322.3730 337.9005 335.0644 326.0835Fe+2 (14O) 1.9794 1.9989 1.9470 2.2327 2.0885 2.0347Mg+2  (14O) 2.3374 2.3957 2.4222 2.1044 2.2224 2.2500AlIV (Jowett, 1991) 1.2284 1.2421 1.2380 1.2932 1.2814 1.2525T (°C)-Jowett (1991) 322.8704 327.2379 325.9313 343.5395 339.7556 330.5582205Label DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011# 14 15 16 17 18 19Count 2 5 1 3 3 5Deposit Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik NoreshenikArea Vein Vein Vein Vein Vein VeinSiO2 27.0392 26.7565 26.4140 26.5314 26.3133 26.3441TiO2 0.0053 0.0245 0.0561 0.0251 0.0241 0.0317Al2O3 21.6876 20.9419 20.7231 21.5093 21.5522 21.0026Cr2O3 0.0191 0.0138 0.0306 0.0114 0.0037 0.0100Fe2O3 1.7766 1.1222 0.7270 1.0879 1.2715 1.1897FeO 22.8918 23.4453 23.9204 24.6868 25.1158 24.0118MnO 0.7200 0.8112 0.7054 0.7294 0.6636 0.7989MgO 14.0767 14.6857 15.0969 14.0829 13.3003 13.9599CaO 0.0922 0.0834 0.0472 0.0656 0.0557 0.0749Na2O 0.0176 0.0515 0.0291 0.0272 0.0199 0.0146K2O 0.0099 0.0121 0.0173 0.0123 0.0008 0.0005H2O* 11.5345 11.4591 11.4215 11.5065 11.4104 11.3450TOTAL 99.8702 99.4071 99.1887 100.2756 99.7314 98.7838Si 5.5937 5.5806 5.5340 5.5123 5.5095 5.5498AlIV 2.4063 2.4194 2.4660 2.4877 2.4905 2.4502AlVI 2.9089 2.7473 2.6635 2.7972 2.8501 2.7845Ti 0.0008 0.0038 0.0088 0.0039 0.0039 0.0050Cr 0.0032 0.0023 0.0051 0.0019 0.0006 0.0017Fe3+ 0.2761 0.1763 0.1146 0.1702 0.1996 0.1886Fe2+ 3.9620 4.0891 4.1913 4.2895 4.4069 4.2331Mn 0.1262 0.1433 0.1252 0.1283 0.1177 0.1428Mg 4.3417 4.5658 4.7150 4.3615 4.1464 4.3815Ca 0.0205 0.0186 0.0106 0.0146 0.0124 0.0169Na 0.0140 0.0416 0.0236 0.0219 0.0162 0.0120K 0.0052 0.0065 0.0092 0.0065 0.0004 0.0003OH* 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000Total 35.6586 35.7947 35.8670 35.7956 35.7543 35.7662Fe/Fe+Mg 0.4939 0.4830 0.4773 0.5055 0.5260 0.5025Chlorie T (°C )-AlIV 14O 1.2031 1.2097 1.2330 1.2438 1.2453 1.2251T (°C)-Cathelineau (1988) 325.4655 327.5840 335.0839 338.5718 339.0271 332.5401Fe+2 (14O) 1.9810 2.0446 2.0956 2.1448 2.2035 2.1166Mg+2  (14O) 2.1708 2.2829 2.3575 2.1808 2.0732 2.1907AlIV (Jowett, 1991) 1.2508 1.2570 1.2801 1.2934 1.2967 1.2743T (°C)-Jowett (1991) 330.0162 331.9679 339.3417 343.6006 344.6548 337.4931206Label DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011# 20 21 22 23 24 25Count 3 2 8 6 3 5Deposit Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik NoreshenikArea Vein Vein Vein Vein Vein VeinSiO2 26.1072 26.7034 26.8125 27.2850 27.4836 26.4527TiO2 0.0301 0.0182 0.0089 0.0260 0.0056 0.0263Al2O3 21.1708 21.2026 20.8156 20.5096 20.8425 21.7578Cr2O3 0.0074 0.0153 0.0095 0.0224 0.0971 0.0251Fe2O3 0.9150 1.3081 1.2377 1.4139 1.6360 1.4323FeO 26.3711 23.6227 23.9318 23.4042 23.3099 25.2275MnO 0.7818 0.7633 0.8090 0.8330 0.7319 0.6636MgO 13.0554 14.2223 14.3216 14.5786 14.4025 13.0382CaO 0.0866 0.1160 0.0815 0.0825 0.1005 0.0882Na2O 0.0063 0.0386 0.0073 0.0260 0.0286 0.0077K2O 0.0130 0.0000 0.0015 0.0012 0.0124 0.0175H2O* 11.3651 11.4521 11.4384 11.4862 11.5558 11.4557TOTAL 99.9097 99.4623 99.4755 99.6684 100.2062 100.1925Si 5.4939 5.5707 5.6025 5.6740 5.6774 5.5150AlIV 2.5061 2.4293 2.3975 2.3260 2.3226 2.4850AlVI 2.7619 2.8049 2.7475 2.7221 2.7762 2.8851Ti 0.0048 0.0028 0.0014 0.0040 0.0009 0.0042Cr 0.0013 0.0025 0.0016 0.0037 0.0159 0.0041Fe3+ 0.1447 0.2054 0.1947 0.2212 0.2545 0.2243Fe2+ 4.6499 4.1215 4.1823 4.0706 4.0264 4.4025Mn 0.1392 0.1349 0.1432 0.1468 0.1280 0.1171Mg 4.0881 4.4228 4.4605 4.5193 4.4350 4.0504Ca 0.0195 0.0259 0.0182 0.0184 0.0223 0.0196Na 0.0051 0.0312 0.0060 0.0209 0.0228 0.0062K 0.0071 0.0000 0.0008 0.0007 0.0065 0.0093OH* 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000Total 35.8217 35.7520 35.7562 35.7276 35.6886 35.7230Fe/Fe+Mg 0.5399 0.4945 0.4953 0.4871 0.4913 0.5335Chlorie T (°C )-AlIV 14O 1.2531 1.2147 1.1988 1.1630 1.1613 1.2425T (°C)-Cathelineau (1988) 341.5424 329.1732 324.0562 312.5493 311.9909 338.1438Fe+2 (14O) 2.3250 2.0607 2.0911 2.0353 2.0132 2.2013Mg+2  (14O) 2.0440 2.2114 2.2303 2.2596 2.2175 2.0252AlIV (Jowett, 1991) 1.3063 1.2629 1.2472 1.2104 1.2089 1.2946T (°C)-Jowett (1991) 347.7064 333.8604 328.8418 317.1182 316.6341 343.9777207Label DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011 DNS_S011# 26 27 28 29 30 31Count 2 2 2 2 1 1Deposit Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik Noreshenik NoreshenikArea Vein Vein Vein Vein Vein VeinSiO2 27.1129 26.4296 26.5815 26.7790 24.8498 26.7912TiO2 0.0289 0.0336 0.0112 0.0000 0.0097 0.0150Al2O3 21.0851 21.2675 21.3485 21.0312 21.0457 21.0046Cr2O3 0.0556 0.0249 0.0629 0.0039 0.0112 0.0460Fe2O3 1.5124 0.9144 1.2962 1.1185 1.3632 1.1717FeO 23.3248 24.3150 24.4744 23.6493 28.8140 23.6451MnO 0.8377 0.8189 0.6743 0.7658 0.4779 0.8996MgO 14.3346 14.4765 13.7551 14.7751 9.4896 14.4580CaO 0.1438 0.1275 0.0744 0.0733 0.0434 0.1304Na2O 0.0052 0.0220 0.0400 0.0000 0.0375 0.0438K2O 0.0148 0.0056 0.0000 0.0167 0.0049 0.0049H2O* 11.5221 11.4787 11.4477 11.4898 10.8532 11.4747TOTAL 99.9775 99.9138 99.7660 99.7024 97.0001 99.6849Si 5.6194 5.5075 5.5476 5.5723 5.4679 5.5799AlIV 2.3806 2.4925 2.4524 2.4277 2.5321 2.4201AlVI 2.7930 2.7457 2.8201 2.7471 2.9501 2.7550Ti 0.0045 0.0053 0.0017 0.0000 0.0016 0.0023Cr 0.0092 0.0041 0.0104 0.0006 0.0019 0.0076Fe3+ 0.2357 0.1435 0.2037 0.1752 0.2257 0.1836Fe2+ 4.0434 4.2374 4.2717 4.1156 5.3025 4.1186Mn 0.1471 0.1445 0.1192 0.1350 0.0891 0.1587Mg 4.4294 4.4968 4.2789 4.5831 3.1127 4.4888Ca 0.0320 0.0285 0.0166 0.0163 0.0102 0.0291Na 0.0042 0.0178 0.0324 0.0000 0.0320 0.0354K 0.0078 0.0030 0.0000 0.0088 0.0028 0.0026OH* 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000 16.0000Total 35.7063 35.8264 35.7547 35.7817 35.7286 35.7817Fe/Fe+Mg 0.4914 0.4935 0.5113 0.4835 0.6398 0.4894Chlorie T (°C )-AlIV 14O 1.1903 1.2463 1.2262 1.2139 1.2660 1.2101T (°C)-Cathelineau (1988) 321.3404 339.3552 332.8998 328.9217 345.7202 327.6994Fe+2 (14O) 2.0217 2.1187 2.1358 2.0578 2.6512 2.0593Mg+2  (14O) 2.2147 2.2484 2.1395 2.2915 1.5563 2.2444AlIV (Jowett, 1991) 1.2380 1.2948 1.2762 1.2612 1.3291 1.2579T (°C)-Jowett (1991) 325.9371 344.0372 338.1035 333.3171 354.9679 332.2774208Appendix 4: Fluid Inclusion Study209Appendix 4a: Fluid Inclusion ResultsFluid inclusion analyses was conducted by the author on selected vein samples. This appendix contains analytical data collected to identify minimum homogenization tem-peratures of precipitating minerals in each hydrothermal stage. Methodology and re-sults are discussed in Chapter 4. 210# Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence1 1 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Elongated 6.82 N/A 109.6 Y2 2 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Elongated 9.44 N/A 126 Y Y3 2 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Elongated 5.65 N/A 114.7 Y Y4 3 UGS_S011a QTZ PS 90 10 Planar Elongated 8.75 N/A 124.95 3 UGS_S011a QTZ PS 95 5 Planar Elongated 8.6 N/A 124.66 4 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.15 -11.2 135.3 15.17 Y Y7 4 UGS_S011a SPH S 95 5 Tabular Equant 3.54 -9 130.5 12.85 Y Y8 4 UGS_S011a SPH S 95 5 Tabular Equant 4.62 -8.2 133.2 11.93 Y Y9 5 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.1 -8.5 152.9 12.28 Y Y10 5 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.1 -8.4 144.7 12.16 Y Y11 5 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.2 -8.5 143.2 12.28 Y Y12 5 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.34 -9 148 12.85 Y Y13 6 UGS_S011a QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 2 -3 150.6 4.9614 6 UGS_S011a QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 2.35 -2.5 139.9 4.1815 7 UGS_S011a SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 3.06 -3.8 136.1 6.16 Y16 7 UGS_S011a SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 3.2 -2.5 135.5 4.18 Y17 8 UGS_S011a SPH S 90 10 Tabular Equant 6.73 -8.2 148.2 11.93 Y Y18 9 UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated N/A 145.719 10 UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated -3.5 108.9 5.7120 11 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular  Elongated 4.5 N/A 111 Y21 11 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 4.3 N/A 131.1 Y22 11 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 4.3 N/A 152.6 Y23 12 UGS_S012b SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 3.5 -2.5 283.5 4.18 HB24 12 UGS_S012b SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 4.33 -3 285.5 4.96 HB25 12 UGS_S012b SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 4.5 -3.1 287.7 5.11 HB26 13 UGS_S012b SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 4 -2.5 237 4.18 HB27 13 UGS_S012b SPH PS 80 20 Tabular Equant 5.04 -4.1 224.3 6.59 HB28 13 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 3 N/A 234.1 HB29 13 UGS_S012b SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded -4.33 -2.7 191.7 4.49 Y30 14 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 7.49 -2.4 256.8 4.03 HB31 14 UGS_S012b SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Elongated 7.84 -2.5 261.4 4.18 HB32 14 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 4.66 N/A 276.5 HB33 15 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 2.12 -3.1 179.9 5.11 Y211Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence34 16 UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 7.96 -3.1 178.1 5.1135 16 UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Equant Planar 3.68 -2 162.1 3.3936 16 UGS_S012b QTZ PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 4.53 -3.7 161.2 6.0137 16 UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Equant Planar 5.11 -2.3 164.3 3.8738 17 UGS_S012b CAL I 90 10 Equant Planar 6.95 -2.2 147.1 3.7139 17 UGS_S012b CAL I 90 10 Equant Planar 17.18 -2 153.6 3.3940 18 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Angular 5.53 -2.7 185.1 4.49 Y41 19 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Angular 2.94 -2.3 239.5 3.87 Y42 19 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Angular 3.6 -2.5 239.1 4.18 Y43 19 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Angular 5.54 -1.9 239.8 3.23 Y44 19 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Angular 3.68 -2.2 240 3.71 Y45 19 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Angular 2.67 -2.1 239 3.55 Y46 20 UGS_S012b QTZ I 90 10 Angular 1.78 -3.1 168.5 5.1147 21 UGS_S012b CAL I 90 10 Angular 1.98 -1.98 122.6 3.3648 22 UGS_S012b CAL I 90 10 Angular 3.87 -0.9 106.1 1.5749 23 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 3.38 -3.2 251.3 5.26 HB50 23 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 6.72 -3.5 257 5.71 HB51 23 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 11.24 -2.9 255.7 4.80 HB52 23 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 3.9 -2.9 249.9 4.80 HB53 24 UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 7.72 -3.5 170.7 5.71 HB54 25 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular 4.1 -2.1 128.9 3.5555 25 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular 4.1 -2 131.4 3.3956 25 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ PS 90 10 tabular 4.4 -1.9 131.5 3.2357 25 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular 4.6 -2.2 130.2 3.7158 25 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular 4.8 -2.1 131.1 3.5559 25 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular 4.2 -2 129.9 3.3960 26 2014_UGS_S012A SPH I 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.1 -3.4 154.4 5.56 Y61 26 2014_UGS_S012A SPH I 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.2 -3.1 148.5 5.11 Y62 27 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Equant 3.2 -2.5 138.5 4.1863 27 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Equant 5.72 -2.7 148.9 4.4964 27 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.1 -3.1 137.8 5.1165 27 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Equant 3.1 -3 140.1 4.9666 28 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.2 -2 146.4 3.39212Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence67 28 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 90 10 Tabular Equant 3.8 -2.1 138.5 3.5568 29 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 7.41 -1.7 145.2 2.9069 29 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.3 -1.9 130.7 3.2370 29 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.29 -2 132.8 3.3971 29 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.56 -1.6 133.9 2.7472 29 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.85 -1.75 135.5 2.9873 29 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.23 -1.85 137 3.1574 30 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 90 10 Equant Planar 4.5 -2.5 144.6 4.1875 30 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 90 10 Equant Planar 4.02 -2.3 142 3.8776 31 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 90 10 Tabular Equant 8.51 -2.4 129.9 4.0377 31 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.25 N/A 128.178 33 2014_UGS_S012A CAL I 85 15 Equant Planar 4.46 -2.8 78.4 4.6579 34 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Equant 2.9 -2.1 229.4 3.5580 34 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Equant 3 -2.3 210.9 3.8781 35 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.4 -2.1 156.6 3.5582 35 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.29 -2.4 167 4.0383 36 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Equant Planar 5.63 -2.4 135.7 4.0384 36 2014_UGS_S012A CAL PS 90 10 Equant Planar 5.2 -2.3 141.3 3.8785 37 2014_UGS_S012A QTZ I 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.62 -2 190.9 3.3986 38 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.86 -1.5 133 2.57 Y87 38 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.31 -2 132.8 3.39 Y88 38 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabulae Rounded 3.84 -1.8 132.4 3.06 Y89 39 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Equant 4.21 -3.6 212.7 5.86 HB90 39 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Equant 4.1 -3.5 211.8 5.71 HB91 39 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Equant 4.9 -3.4 243.2 5.56 HB92 40 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 95 5 Tabular Equant 7.32 -2 132.1 3.39 Y93 40 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 95 5 Tabular Equant 4.32 -2.1 136.2 3.55 Y94 41 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Equant 12.04 -4 229.2 6.45 Y95 41 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Equant 5.07 -3 222.6 4.96 Y96 42 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Equant 8.23 -3.2 199.2 5.26 Y97 43 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 80 20 Tabular Equant 12.21 -3.3 259.2 5.41 Y98 43 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.2 -3.1 240.4 5.11 Y99 44 2014_UGS_S012A SPH S 95 5 Tabular Equant 5.18 -6.9 134.4 10.36 HB Y213Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence100 44 2014_UGS_S012A SPH S 95 5 Tabular Equant 4.02 -7.1 139.2 10.61 HB Y101 44 2014_UGS_S012A SPH S 95 5 Tabular Equant 3.59 -6.9 129.2 10.36 HB Y102 44 2014_UGS_S012A SPH S 95 5 Tabular Equant 3.9 -7 131.5 10.49 HB Y103 45 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 5.4 -4.8 250.8 7.59 Y104 45 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.61 -3.6 228.8 5.86 Y105 45 2014_UGS_S012A SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 4.81 -3.8 226.3 6.16 Y106 46 2014_UGS_S008 SPH S 85 15 Tabular Rounded 6.83 -5.8 116.2 8.95 HB Y107 46 2014_UGS_S008 SPH S 95 5 Tabular Rounded 2.21 -6 118.1 9.21 HB Y108 46 2014_UGS_S008 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.28 -5.5 113.1 8.55 HB Y109 47 2014_UGS_S008 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.3 -5.3 133.2 8.28 HB Y110 47 2014_UGS_S008 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.95 -5.5 124.3 8.55 HB Y111 48 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.56 -3.9 139.9 6.30112 48 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.26 -3.5 130.2 5.71113 48 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 95 5 Tabular Rounded 2.04 N/A 126.7114 48 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.27 N/A 123.2115 49 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Equant 2.75 -3.4 144.2 5.56116 49 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 2.43 -3.3 148.3 5.41117 49 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 3.12 -3.5 147.9 5.71118 50 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P 80 20 Tabular Rounded 4.03 -3.4 259.7 5.56 HB119 50 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.33 -3.5 240.5 5.71 HB120 50 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P 80 20 Tabular Rounded 4.44 -3.7 254.6 6.01 HB121 51 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.35 -3.5 223.5 5.71 HB122 52 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 7.03 -3 169.1 4.96 Y123 53 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.2 -4.1 145.8 6.59 Y124 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 4.37 -3.8 150.1 6.16125 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.33 N/A 148.5126 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.2 -3.6 141.2 5.86127 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 3.2 -3.5 143.4 5.71128 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.5 -3.4 142.3 5.56129 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 2.8 -3.6 144.2 5.86130 54 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3 -3.7 141.3 6.01131 55 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.27 N/A 137.3132 55 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.94 -2.6 146.8 4.34214Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence133 55 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.9 -2.8 147.2 4.65134 55 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.66 N/A 144.8135 55 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.37 -2.5 145.2 4.18136 55 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.62 -2.9 148.3 4.80137 56 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ I 90 10 Equant Planar 5.32 -3.6 146.7 5.86138 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 5.11 -3.6 147.6 5.86139 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 6.65 -3.5 147.3 5.71140 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 5.56 -3.5 146.9 5.71141 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 6.42 -3.7 148.1 6.01142 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 2.99 -3.6 147.8 5.86143 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 4.47 -4.2 153.2 6.74144 57 2014_UGS_S008 QTZ PS 90 10 3.61 -4 150.1 6.45145 58 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 24.19 -3.5 190.4 5.71 Y146 58 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Elongated 16.16 -3.2 181.8 5.26 Y147 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 23.29 -3.1 214.9 5.11 HB148 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 21.61 -3.3 219.9 5.41 HB149 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 22.2 -3.3 206.3 5.41 HB150 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 90 10 Prismatic Elongated 18.34 -3.7 167.4 6.01 Y151 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 90 10 Prismatic Elongated 15.28 -3.5 199.7 5.71 Y152 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 28.32 -2.9 182.4 4.80 Y153 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 70 30 Prismatic Elongated 28.17 -4 181.9 6.45 Y154 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 29.4 -3.7 177.5 6.01 Y155 59 2014_UGS_S008 SPH P-I 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 24.1 -3.1 183.1 5.11 Y156 60 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.79 -3.7 176.2 6.01 Y157 60 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 6.68 -3.8 174.2 6.16 Y158 60 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 7.22 -3.3 171.1 5.41 Y159 60 2014_UGS_S008 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 7.86 -2.9 179.2 4.80 Y160 61 2014_UGS_S012b CAL I 90 10 Planar Equant 7.94 -2.3 128.8 3.87161 61 2014_UGS_S012b CAL I 90 10 Planar Equant 3.83 -2.1 128.4 3.55162 62 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.19 -3.1 146.5 5.11163 62 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.58 -3 147.1 4.96164 62 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.67 -3.1 146.9 5.11165 62 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.7 -3 145.7 4.96215Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence166 62 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.53 -2.9 141.1 4.80167 62 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.02 -3.3 137.3 5.41168 63 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 8.72 -1.9 128.9 3.23169 63 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.21 -2 134.2 3.39170 63 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.29 -2 138.2 3.39171 64 2014_UGS_S012b CAL I 80 20 Planar 3.02 -2 88.9 3.39172 64 2014_UGS_S012b CAL I 85 15 Planar 2.36 -2.1 90.2 3.55173 64 2014_UGS_S012b CAL I 80 20 Planar 2.97 -2.1 88.3 3.55174 65 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Planar Rounded 3.31 -2.4 127.3 4.03175 65 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Planar Rounded 2.35 -2.8 128.9 4.65176 65 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Planar Rounded 3.29 -2.8 127.9 4.65177 65 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Planar Rounded 5.45 -2.4 125.4 4.03178 65 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Planar Rounded 3.29 -2.2 128.3 3.71179 65 2014_UGS_S012b CAL PS 90 10 Planar Rounded 3.8 N/A 123.5180 66 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ I 90 10 Planar Rounded 4.47 -2.9 143 4.80181 66 2014_UGS_S012b QTZ I 90 10 Planar Rounded 3.76 -2.8 141.2 4.65182 67 2014_UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 5.71 -3.1 139.6 5.11 Y183 67 2014_UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.78 -3 139.9 4.96 Y184 67 2014_UGS_S012b SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.32 -3.1 141.8 5.11 Y185 68 2014_UGS_S006 QTZ I 90 10 Planar Equant 4.66 -3.3 212.5 5.41186 68 2014_UGS_S006 QTZ I 80 20 Planar Equant 3.92 -3.5 201.9 5.71187 68 2014_UGS_S006 QTZ I 90 10 Planar Equant 2.93 -3.3 205.3 5.41188 68 2014_UGS_S006 QTZ I 90 10 Planar Equant 3.05 -3.2 199.6 5.26189 69 2014_UGS_S006 QTZ I 90 10 Planar Rounded 4.48 -3.1 271.2 5.11190 69 2014_UGS_S006 QTZ I 90 10 Planar Rounded 4.24 -2.9 278.9 4.80191 70 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.94 -3.4 258.4 5.56 HB192 70 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 90 10 Tabular Rounded 4.02 -3.6 260.1 5.86 HB193 70 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 85 15 Tabular Rounded 3.77 -3.6 257.2 5.86 HB194 71 2014_UGS_S006 SPH P 85 15 Prismatic Elongated 27.18 -3.3 242.3 5.41 HB195 71 2014_UGS_S006 SPH P 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 13.9 -3.6 230.3 5.86 HB196 71 2014_UGS_S006 SPH P 80 20 Prismatic Elongated 10.82 -3.5 232.3 5.71 HB197 71 2014_UGS_S006 SPH P 75 25 Prismatic Elongated 8.5 -3.2 245.1 5.26 HB198 72 2014_UGS_S006 SPH P 75 25 Prismatic 5.94 -3.2 272.2 5.26 HB216Assemblage Sample Name Mineral Type L % V % Morphology Size (A-AXIS) T(mIce) Th Salinity Sphalerite Color Boiling Evidence199 72 2014_UGS_S006 SPH P 90 10 Prismatic 3.48 -3.3 269.8 5.41 HB200 73 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 85 15 Prismatic 6.35 -3.7 277.7 6.01 HB201 73 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 90 10 Prismatic 3.58 -3.4 275.6 5.56 HB202 73 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 85 15 Prismatic 11.12 -3.5 298.2 5.71 HB203 73 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 85 15 Prismatic 8.94 -3.2 272.6 5.26 HB204 73 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 90 10 Prismatic 7.35 -3.4 278.1 5.56 HB205 73 2014_UGS_S006 SPH PS 90 10 Prismatic 3.47 -3.6 267.9 5.86 HB206 74 2014_UGS_S006 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.34 N/A HB Y207 74 2014_UGS_S006 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.87 N/A HB Y208 74 2014_UGS_S006 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.22 N/A HB Y209 75 2014_UGS_S006 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 2.93 N/A HB Y210 75 2014_UGS_S006 SPH S 90 10 Tabular Rounded 3.56 N/A HB Y217Bin Sphalerite HB Boiling Quartz Stage 3 Carbonate Spahlerite Y0 0 0 0 0 02 0 0 0 1 04 0 0 12 22 96 34 0 41 8 238 3 0 7 0 1010 0 5 0 0 012 0 6 0 0 014 0 5 0 0 016 0 1 0 0 0>16 0 0 0 0 0Total 37 17 60 31 42Bin Sphalerite HB Boiling Quartz Stage 3 Carbonate Spahlerite Y50 0 0 0 0 070 0 0 0 1 0100 0 0 1 4 1120 0 7 6 12 1140 0 11 41 15 13160 0 1 10 1 4180 1 0 1 0 11200 1 0 4 0 4220 6 0 3 0 4240 9 0 0 0 6260 12 0 0 0 2280 9 0 2 0 0300 1 0 0 0 0>300 0 0 0 0 0Total 39 19 68 33 46218Appendix 4b: Fluid Inclusion PetrographyFluid includion petrography was conducted by the author on selected vein samples prior to microthermometric measurements. This appendix contains observational data used to identify fluid inclusion assemblages as discussed in Chapter 4. 219Growth PlanesSecondary-Boiling FI-AssmeblagePseudo-Secondary FI-AssmeblagePrimary-Isolated FI-AssemblagesABCA B CHoney Brown SphaleriteYellow SphaleriteDark-Opaque SphaleriteQuartzCalciteFracturesSph-YSph-DarkHesFracture500µm220Mineral Fluid Inclusion TypeObserved FrequencyLiquid %Vapor %Solid %Boiling (Y/N)Inclusion MineralsCommentsQuartz Isolated C 90-95 10-5 0 NPseudo-Secondary C 90-95 10-5 0 NHoney Brown SphaleritePrimary 1 A 0 0 100 N CpyPrimary 2 VR 85-95 15-5 0 NPseudo Secondary C 90-95 10-5 0 NSecondary 1 R 5-0 95-1000 Y Within same  trailSecondary 2 R 85-95 15-5 0 YYellow SphaleritePrimary VR 85-95 15-5 0 NPseudo Secondary C 90-95 10-5 0 NSecondary 1 R 0-5 95-1000 Y Within same trailSecondary 2 R 85-95 15-5 0 YDark SphaleritePrimary A 0 0 100 N CpyCalcite Isolated C 90-95 10-5 0 NPseudo-Secondary R 90-95 10-5 0 NSummary of Observed Fluid Inclusion Assemblages221Appendix 5: Underground Vein MapsUnderground vein maps were produced by author during the 2013-2014 field season. All underground mapping was conducted at a 1:100 scale and show drift backs. All measured structural features are shown on map and are formatted to dip direction/dip.  222Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendZn (%) Au(ppm)<1%<1-5%<5-10%>10%<1ppm<1-5ppm<5-10ppm>10ppmZinc Assay (%)Au Assay (ppm)South Zone: Vein 17 Level 690862385086239008623950Level 690Scale:1:200N=17Max Density: 22.5%at 134.3o/59.3o (pole)223138/70260/50150/60130/80200/75149/60 161/68132/71146/60146/75142/67123/80260/9043432504343240434323043432204343210862381086238208623830862384086238508623860862387086238808623890862390086239104343260Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 17 Level 670Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm224160/57160/63163/72194/87 149/62134/70140/56147/89188/77125/44226/80189/76225/84225/84189/768623700862375086238004343240434326043432804343300Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 20-Part 1Level 690Scale:1:200225147/89188/77154/83136/82176/77179/69 170/65195/52148/62133/66152/77153/72147/76128/84225/84189/76268/70270/70270/70 157/85288/7486238008623850434328043433004343320Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 20-Part 2Level 690Scale:1:200226148/62152/77153/72147/76160/70148/70140/7570/28068/27264/74236/75250/51255/55121/78258/42284/76112/37190/54290/55862395043433004343320434334043433608623900Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 20-Part 3Level 690Scale:1:200227258/42284/76112/37190/54290/55230/74245/74228/74157/46210/64121/75347/89342/90225/70220/72146/76228/75229/73163/81270/70278/80150/86147/86 170/8686240008624050434334043433604343380Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 20-Part 4Level 690Scale:1:2002288643690.008643590.004323740.004323750.004323760.004323770.004323780.008643680.008643710.008643700.008643730.008643720.008643660.008643650.008643640.008643630.008643620.008643610.008643600.00202/76 173/75161/77160/76196/73224/51200/60211/63164/79 218/7663/58161/81 224/29167/74200/81174/8414/71170/90149/72170/56184/76201/71228/83155/65199/73277/84179/74188/85173/85197/85165/82200/82210/80195/70217/73190/59203/85187/78205/55234/73112/73234/62193/69149/6755/73195/65184/41186/45Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 33-34 Level 735Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm2298623690.008623680.008623710.008623700.008623730.008623720.004323740.004323750.004323760.004323770.004323780.008623660.008623650.008623640.008623630.008623620.008623610.008623600.008623590.00211/62177/39171/52256/80225/26260/74185/57153/70163/62 167/60173/73 176/6845/83188/53 181/44 355/84202/63355/8470/86167/88161/861/76205/85169/5613/88214/88160/77185/65181/83178/85194/86209/72150/86200/84198/61203/48211/78Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendSouth Zone: Vein 33-34 Level 748Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm2304344480434446086232408623260862328086233008623320245/78290/74198/8927/85206/83205/90211/75200/89 340/74326/6871/77240/73208/81268/61200/88190/80261/78333/73295/55197/88196/88185/88190/72Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendNorth Zone: Vein 35 Level 740Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm2318623640.004343800.004343820.004343840.004343860.008623660.008623680.008623700.008623720.008623740.004343780.00006/8314/8214/82360/73154/62130/70146/75138/77220/78128/74224/72145/69142/77147/72140/78261/7344/70125/87116/75225/68225/54105/66Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendMiddle Zone: Vein 57 Level 735Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm2324343800.004343820.004343840.004343860.008623660.008623680.008623700.008623720.008623740.00123/72145/75150/6357/50230/35137/73220/50130/77220/80127/85119/73Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendMiddle Zone: Vein 57 Level 748Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm2334343840.004343820.004343800.008623600.008623640.008623660.008623680.008623700.008623720.00Sphalerite-Chalcopyrite-PyriteQuartz-Carbonate (calcite)Breccia Crustiform Gabbro LegendMiddle Zone: Vein 57 Level 760Scale:1:200Zn (%) Au(ppm)<1%1-3%3-5%5-10%<1ppm1-5ppm5-10ppm>10ppm234Appendix 6: Ore PetrographyOre petrography was conducted by the author on selected vein and host rock samples. This appendix contains observational data used to produce the Shahumyan vein paragenesis, discussed in Chapter 3. A representative subset of 20 samples out of 41 samples is presented in this appendix.235Glossary Cy:    Mica / Clay, indistinguishable using optical microscopy likely sericite and or illite or a            combination. Py:    Pyrite Cpy: Chalcopyrite Pg:   Plagioclase Sph: Sphalerite Tt-Tn(?): Tetrahedrite/ Tennantite (solid solution of unknown composition)Te (?): Telluride of unknown compositionHe: Hessite Ga: Galena Qtz(1): Cryptocrystalline to sacchroidal fine grained quartzQtz(2):  Prismatic/euhedral quartz Ca: CalciteF: FluoriteHb:  HornblendChl:  Chlorite  -T: Transmitted light (postscript, e.g XPL-T)-RL:    Reflected light (postscript, e.g XPL-RL)XPL:  Cross polarized lightPPL:  Plane  Polarized lightBlebby:   texture comprising scattered small clots irregularly shaped with a bubble like        texture. Exsolution: Process through which an initially homogeneous solid solution separates                            into two different crystalline mineralsChalcopyrite Disease : consists of a multitude of submicron - micron- sized blebbs of       Chalcopyrite concentrated along fracture so rims or in relatively         iron-rich bands of sphalerite Crystals.                  : Observed inconsistently / lower confidence     : Observed consistently/ high confidence236Sample LocationsHole ID Depth(m) Easting(GK) NorthingGK)SHDDR020 139.5 8623436.72 4344456.78SHDDR247 192.8 8623189.94 4344158.62SHDDR0231 382.45 8623434.90 4344152.75SHDDR0233 324.3 8623426.91 4344074.63Vein 20a 712 8624014.36 4343370.66SHDDR0177 321.9 8623831.34 4343457.51SHDDR0177 321.9 8623831.34 4343457.51SHDDR0190 150.2 8623848.18 4342802.18Vein 20a 712 8624003.48 4343365.02Vein 17 703 8623850.32 4343252.01Hole ID Depth(m) Easting(GK) Northing(GK)SHDDR0231 99.3 8623434.90 4344152.75SHDDR0016 235.8 8623433.99 4344397.96Vein 17 703 8623897.69 4343285.30SHDDR0403 107.85 8624158.48 4342816.55SHDDR0129 308.4 8623429.13 4344344.89SHDDR0129 194.9 8623429.13 4344344.89Vein 13 703 8623539.17 4344756.28CEDDE06 146.9 8619465.00 4346080.00CEDDE05 222.3 8619087.90 4346087.50CEDDE07 225.5 8619120.40 4345708.00237Sample ID:  UG_S01Sample taken from an exposed underground vein 20aE approximately ~1.5m in width from level 712.  Handsmaple Description: Sample shows massive honey colored sphalerite inter-grown with chalcopyrite, pyrite and minor amounts of ga-lena. Late stage calcite vein cutting sulphide assemblage.    Mineralogy:Mineral Relative% Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 30% Massive euhedral light brown in ppl-dark grey in xpl. Cpy as replacement/exsolution and intergrown. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 10% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py-sph. Also present as replacement/exsolution in py and sph (cpy-disease)Galena (Ga) 10% Blebby anhedral and intergrown with sphalerite. Ga contains py inclusions. Strongly distinguised by its pinkish white color and triangular pits.  Pyrite (Py) 7% Masisve anhedral blebbs occur as individual grains or intergrown with Sph, Cpy, Ga. Tt-tn and cpy sparsely replaces py Tetrahedrite (Tt-Tn) tr Partial-complete replacement of cpy.  partial replacement of sphalerite is occasionally observedQuartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 20% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartzQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 20% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Calcite (Ca) 5% Interstial with sulphide and qtz assemblages. Also late stage vein material. Coarse grained with distinct cleavage. Mica/clay (Cy) tr Difficult to differentitate clays Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblag-es. Summary and InterpretationThis sample is represented by both coarse and fine grained quartz. Coarse grained prismatic quartz is spatially associated (in contact)with sulphide mineralization, often sulphide blebbs are observed inside the quartz indicating the sulphides percipitated coevally with the quartz. Pyrite is euhdral-disseminated to anhedral-bleb-by. Anhedral-blebby pyrite is intergrown with chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Chalcopyrite is intergrown with pyrite and is associat-ed with sphalerite as either replacement rims near Sph boundar-ies and as submicron replacement bodies known as chalcopyrite disease. Partial replacement of chalcopyrite by sulfosalts (tetrahe-drite-tennantite) is common, while partial replacement of sphaler-ite is rare in this sample but  present.  Calcite is present as late stage interstial infill, often shows perfect cleavage. Hydrothermal mica/ clay is also observed to be interstial fill. Fig 1: XPL scanned thinsectionThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphGaTt-TnCaMica-Clay238SphA BFig 2A:  Fine grained quartz present closest to the wallrock, precedes prismatic quartz (quartz-2) growth that may show euhedral open growth textures.  Quartz -(2) stage is associated with sulphide mineralization (Sph, Chalcopyrite). Fig2B: Sphalerite is in-tergrown with galena and chalcopyrite. Galena shows triangular pits due to poor polishing. Chalcopyrite appears to be growing inbetween galena grains. Qtz(2)Qtz(1)GaSphCpy239Sample ID:  UGS_S020: Sample taken from an exposed underground vein 17, level 703.  This sample was taken from the inner core of the vein. Handsample Description  Smokey white-grey quartz and calcite matrix contains embayed sulphide floats. anhedral pyrite-sphalerite and chalcopyrite are present. Summary and InterpretationSphalerite is hevaily fractured and brecciated, fragments of sphaler-ite are embayed in a quartz-calcite rich matrix. Calcite is present as interstial infill between quartz-sulphide assemblages.. Qtz(2) grains show random orientation of growing, in contrast to other samples which show a unidirectional orientation of growth into open space. Quartz grains may have grown in suspension rather than from wall-rock interface. Disseminated euhedral pyrite present in sample does not show any relationship with other sulphide minerals. Chalcopyrite is present as massive grains in contact with pyrite and sphalerite. Chalcopy-rite disease is observed within sphalerite.  Small grains of galena (1-5 microns) are in contact with  sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 5% Anhedral blebbs of light brown in ppl-dark grey in xpl. Cpy as replacement/exsolution and intergrown. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 5% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py-sph. Also present as replacement/exsollution in py and sph (cpy-disease)Pyrite (Py) 3% Anhedral blebbs- euhedral disseminated crystals. occurs as individual grains or interrown with sph, cpy, ga. Tt-tn and cpy replaces Py along fractures and rims.  Galena (Ga) tr Anhedral blebbs intergrown with cpy and sph. Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 50% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartzQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 20% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Calcite (Ca) 5% Interstial with sulphide and qtz assemblages. Also late stage vein material. Coarse grained with distinct cleavage. Mica/clay (Cy) 5% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Fig 3: XPL scanned thinsectionThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphGaTt-TnCaMica-Clay240CaCySphCaSphCaCpyPyGaA BCQtz(1)Qtz(2)Qtz(2)Fig 4A(PPL-T):  late stage calcite and Mica/Clay alteration interstial to earlier quartz-sulphide phases.  Sphalerite associated with quartz-2,   Fig4B: Quartz 2 filing in open fractures in quartz-1 matrix, similar mineral associations to Fig 4A. Fig4C: Galena,pyrite and chalcopyrite intergrown together. Galena is distinguished by its piskish white color and often contains triangular pit marks. 241Sample ID:  UG_S007 Sample was taken close to vein-selvage and vein core interface from  vein 17, level 703Handsample Description:Chalcopyrite rich vein, sample retreived from pug-filled vein. Pyrite and chalcopyrite intergrown with sphalerite. Interstial quartz-carbonate.  Description and Interpretation Micron sized sphalerite inclusions seen in Qtz(2) indicates sphalerite likely percipitated coevally with Qtz(2). Unknown sulfosalt (Tt-Tn?) is replacing chalcopyrite and ocassionally sphalerite this is rarely seen in pyrite but present.  New hydrothermal fluids may have been introduced at a later stage, inducing disequillibrium with existing sulphide assemblages. Re-sulting in replacement of Chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 10% Fractured / subhedral light brown Sph intergrown with cpy and py. Rarely shows Cpy disease.  Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 22% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py. Pyrite (Py) 23% Cumulate anhedral-subhedral pyrite assemblages, intergrown with Sph. Intergrown Cpy-Py boundaries show Tt-Tn replacement.  Tetrahedrite (Tt-Tn) 8% Primarily replacing Cpy  and occasionally replacing Sph. Bornite(Bo) Tr Replacing Tt-Tn and Cpy in pyrite. Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 22% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz.Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 8% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with Sph and Cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz).Calcite (Ca) 3% Interstial with sulphide and Qtz assemblages. Also late stage vein material. Coarse grained with distinct cleavage. Mica/clay (Cy) tr Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. ?Fig 5: XPL scanned thinsectionThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphTt-TnBoCaMica-Clay242Tt-TnTt-TnPy SphSphPyCpyPyPySphSph PyCpyTt-TnCyQtz(2)SphQtz(2)SphA BC DEFig 6A(PPL-R):  Tetrahedrite replacing/ forming along fractures in pyrite, tetrahedrite similarly present in sphalerite. Chalcopyrite disease present in sphalerite, and as inclusions(?) in pyrite. Fig 6B (PPL-R): Tetrahedrite-Tennantite present in fractures in sphaler-ite and pyrite, and surrounds both Py, and Sph.  Chalcopyrite is present inbetween sph and Tt-Tn grain boundaries (replacement). Fig6C: Pyrite and Sphalerite intergrown with chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite, Tt-Tn present in pyrite pits or along fractures. Fig6D: Coarse grained blebby-anhedral pyrite associated with quartz-2, mica/clay as late stage interstial material. Fig6E: Quartz-2 showing inclusions of micron sized Sph. Tt-Tn243Sample ID:  DCS_S029Hole ID: SHDDR020Depth: 139.55Assay: 0.017% Cu, 0.145%Zn, 0.22ppmAu, 5ppm AgHandsample Description: Wallrock is strongly sericite-pyrite altered, primary lithol-ogy texture is eliminated. Quartz-carbonate vein with pyrite, ± chalcopyrite selvage cutting though host rock. Summary and InterpretationWallrock is Intensely altered; undifferentiated mica/clay alteration replace plagioclase and overprint aphanitic matrix. Silica alteration shows quartz rimming pyrite and plagioclase grain boundaries. Pyrite is most abundant while other sulphides are minor constituents. This vein sample was examined because it was identified as a seperate vein type during field observation. However petrographic analyses revealed it to contain similar sulphide mineralogies as main stage sulphide veins but at lower relative abundances.  This may indicate that sulphide rich veins initially identified in field are infact similar to main stage veins. I interpret this to indicate that  certain veins were closed to subsequent hydrothermal fluids.   Mineralogy:Mineral Relative% Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 17% Anhedral blebbs- euhedral disseminated crystals. occurs as individual grains or interrown with sph, cpy, ga. Tt-tn and cpy sometimes shows replacement of py Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 2% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py-sph. Also present as replacement/exsollution in py and sph (cpy-disease)Sphalerite (Sph) 1% Massive euhedral light brown in ppl-dark grey in xpl. Cpy as replacement/exsolution and intergrown. Tetrahedrite (Tt-Tn) tr Partial-complete replacement of cpy.  Galena (Ga) tr Blebby anhedral and intergrown with sphalerite. Ga contains py inclusions. Strongly distinguised by its pinkish white color and triangular pits.  Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 25% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartzQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 13% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Calcite (Ca) 5% Interstial with sulphide and qtz assemblages. Also late stage vein material. Coarse grained with distinct cleavage. Mica/clay (Cy) 2% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. WallrockPlagioclase (Pg) 6% Plagioclase phenocrysts partial-complete replacement by clay ± carbonate Quartz (Qtz(3)) 6% Embayed quartz phenocryst. Rimmed with carbonate,pyrite/sericiteAphanitic Matrix 15% VFG plagioclase quartz and relict hornblende replaced by pyriteWall AlterationMica/Clay 6% Replacing primary Pg and present as very fine grained overprint in matrix. Shows radial growth ocassionally. Quartz 2% Rimming plagioclase and pyrite grains present in wallrock. Fig 7: XPL scanned thinsection244SphGaPyQtzGaPyGaPyQtz(2)Qtz(1)PyCpyPyCpy SphA BC DEFig 8A: Anhedral Sphalerite, Pyrite and Galena grains embayed in quartz-2 matrix, sphalerite shows moderately intense chalco-pyrite disease. Fig8B: Magnified image of Fig8B, shows galena and pyrite intergrowth textures. Fig8C: Quartz-2 fills fractures in quartz-1 matrix. Disseminated subhedral pyrite present in quartz-1 vein matrix, higher concentrations of pyrite present in frac-tures filled with quartz-2. Fig8D: heavily fractured brecciated pyrite partially cemented  by chalcopyrite. Fig8E: Heavily fractured pyrite intergrown with sphalerite. Chalcopyite disese is moderate-intense in sphalerite.  245Sample ID: UG_S016 Sample was taken from vein-wallrock interface from exposed underground Vein 13 on level 703 at the Sha-humyan mine.  Fig 9: XPL scan of thin sectionHandsample Description: Sampled from vein-wallrock interface. Wallrock is intense-ly sericite, pyrite altered. Apahnitic ground mass. Vein contains prismatic smoky-white quartz with a sulphide (pyrite, sphalerite) suture. Fluorite is also present locally. Late stage carbonate veining in wallrock resulted in brec-ciated wallrock.    Summary and InterpretationSample is unique as it contains interstial fluorite along with inters-tial mica/clay and calcite. Euhedral-subhedral prismatic quartz crys-tals indicate growth towards empty space (comb-quartz texture) with pyrite in the suture. The sample shows typical crustiform and quartz-comb textures found in other samples. Tetrahedrite/Tennan-itie (?) are associated with sphalerite and chalcopyrite as with other samples. Wallrock is intensely altered relict plagioclase crystals completely altered into mica/clay?  Mineralogy:Mineral Relative% Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 12% Massive euhedral light brown in ppl-dark grey in xpl. Cpy as replacement/exso-lution and intergrown Pyrite (Py) 14% Masisve anhedral blebbs- euhedral disseminated crystals. occurs as individual grains or interrown with sph, cpy, ga. Tt-tn and cpy sometimes shows replace-ment of py Chalcopyrite 2% Intergrown with Sph and as sub-micron anhedral blebbs in Sph (Cpy-disease). Tetrahedrite-Tennantite (Tt-Tn) tr Unknown sulfosalt (Tetrahedrite-Tennantite?) partially replaces sphaleriteQuartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 4% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartzQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 30% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Calcite (Ca) 10% Interstial with sulphide and qtz assemblages. Also late stage vein material. Coarse grained with distinct cleavage Mica/clay (Cy) 6% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages Fluorite (F) tr Interstial to quartz and sulphide assemblage. Greenish tint in hand sampleWallrock Assemblage: Quartz, relict plagioclase 20% Intensely altered, alteration products are near indistinguishableThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PySphCpyTt-TnCaFluoriteMica-Clay??246PySphQtz(2)Qtz(2)Qtz(1)CaQtz(2)Qtz(1)CaSphPyA BCFig 10A:  Prismatic quartz (quartz-2) show openspace frowth textures (Comb-quartz), pyrite is found in the suture. Sphalerite is also associated with this phase. Fig 10B:  fine grained quartz phase precedes prismatic quartz growth towards open space. Quartz-1 zone is fractured and filled with subhedral calcite. Subhedral pyrite present in overprinting in quartz-1 zone. Fig 10C: Quartz-1 shows quartz-2+sphalerite+pyrite vein cutting it along with late stage calcite infilling a fracture. Fig 10D: Prismatic quartz with a sulphide inclusion (unknown) showing growth zoning and excellent zone zone of fluid inclusion analysis. Fig 10E: Sphalerite grain replaced by Cpy and Tt-Tn(?)SphTt-TnCpyQtzSulphide  inclusionDE247Sample ID:  UGS_S012BSample collected from an exposed underground vein,  Vein 20a on Level 712 from the Shahumyan mine. Fig 11:  XPL scanned thinsection Hand Sample: Massive honeybrown-grey sphalerite with interstial car-bonate. Intergrowth with cpy and pyrite. Massive sphaler-ite inconatct with white-smokey prismatic quartz (comb quartz) and carbonate layer. Interstial mica?  anomalous in sample.  Summary and InterpretationUnknown telluride (Te?) is replacing(?) a sphalerite grain within a pyrite  grain. Late stage euhedral calcite with good cleavage infills veinlets or is interstial to quartz-sulphide assemblage. Sphalerite is honey brown in color and shows growth zone bands similar to sphalerite in other veins. Pyrite is intergrown with sphalerite, it also occurs in fractures present in sphalerite (remobilized). Chalcopyrite is also present in fractures in sphalerite. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 30% Massive zoned euhedral light brown in ppl-dark grey in xpl..  Cpy disease is present in sphalerite. Cpy filling fractures in sph. Zoning in sphalerite is strongly  associated with cpy disease. Pyrite (Py) 15% Masisve anhedral blebbs- euhedral disseminated crystals. occurs as individ-ual grains or interrown with sph, cpy, ga. Tt-tn and cpy sometimes shows replacement of py. Pyrite along with cpy occurs in fractures present in sphalerite.Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 10% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py-sph. Also present as replacement/exsolution in py and sph (cpy-disease)Tetrahedrite-Tennantite(Tt-Tn) 1% Present as anhedral-blebby replacement bodies in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Unknown Telluride (Te?) tr Partial replacement of sphalerite (?)Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 1% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartzQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 20% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Calcite (Ca) 15% Present as interstaial ,material in quartz or late stage veins cutting both sul-phide and quartz assemblages. Fine grained to euhedral crystals showing perfect cleavage. Mica/Clay 5% Very fine grained mica/clay (indistinguishable). Present as interstial material. Thinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphTt-TnTe?CaMica-Clay248SphCpySphPySph Sph PyTe?PyCpySphCaSphSphPyA BC DE FFig 12A:  Chalcopyrite and pyrite filling fracture in zoned sphalerite.  Fig 12B:  Pyrite intergown with sphalerite Fig 10C: Quartz-1 shows quartz-2+sphalerite+pyrite vein cutting it along with late stage calcite infilling a fracture. Fig12C: Unknown tellurides along with sphalerite as inclusions in pyrite. Fig12D: Fractured/broken pyrite cemented by chalcopyrite. Fig12E: Late stage car-bonate vein infilling vein. Late stage carbonate vein contains embayed floats of fractured sulphide and quartz-2. Fig12F: Zoned sphalerite. 249Sample ID:  SHDDR_247Hole ID: SHDDR0247Depth: 192.85Assay: 0.0025%Cu, 0.0157%Zn, 0.1ppmAu, 4.5ppmAgHandsample Description:Intensely sericite-pyrite altered host rock with a quartz-pyrite vein. Host rock is a Plag-phyric dacite.Summary and InterpretationIntesely altered wallrock with a minor sulphide veinlet. Altered wallrock consists of chlorite, mica/clay, pyrite ± bi-otite(?)  of hornblende and matrix; chlorite and mica/clay alteration of plagioclase.  Late stage calcite veinlets cut through wallrock.  Sulphosalts and tellurides were not observed in the vein. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative% Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 7% Masisve anhedral blebbs- euhedral disseminated crystals. occurs as individ-ual grains or interrown with sph, cpy, ga. Tt-tn and cpy sometimes shows replacement of py. Pyrite along with cpy occurs in fractures present in sphalerite.Sphalerite (Sph) tr Massive zoned euhedral light brown in ppl-dark grey in xpl..  Cpy disease is present in sphalerite. Cpy filling fractures in sph. Zoning in sphalerite is strongly  associated with cpy disease. Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 10% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Calcite (Ca) 7% Present as interstaial ,material in quartz or late stage veins cutting both sul-phide and quartz assemblages. Fine grained to euhedral crystals showing perfect cleavage. Mica/Clay 5% Very fine grained mica/clay (indistinguishable). Present as interstial material. Wallrock Assemblage Plagioclase (Pg) 7% Relict euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts completely replaced by mica/clay and minor cabronate. Partially altered plagioclase grains show numerous growth rims with core altered to mica/clay.  Quartz 4% Embayed quartz with pyrite and mica/clay alteration lining fractures and rim. Aphanitic Matrix 40% altered plagioclase and quartz Relict mafics 1% Altered mafics (Hornblende) minor constituents. Alteration Mica-Clay 15% Replacing plagioclase. Very fine grained, undistingusiable between clay and muscovite. Biotite alteration may be present( dark and very fine grained )Chlorite 3% Present in matrix and  often rimming plagioclase and hornblende grainsPyrite 3% euhedral pyrite present in altered hornblende grainsFig 13: XPL scanned thinsection250HbPgHbPyPyQtz(1)CaCaSphPyQtz(2)Sph PyQtz(1)PgA BC DEFig 14A:  Intensely altered matrix. Pyrite replacing core of hornblende, chlorite and mica/clay as a thin replacement rim around hornblende. Plagioclase is completely replaced by  mica/clay at the rim and possibly albite(?) at its core, anomalous pyrite is pres-ent in Pg core. Plagioclase grains occassionally show growth zoning. Matrix is mainly composed of cryptocrystalline quartz and altered feldspar(plag).  Fig 14B: Shows large hornblende phenocryst completely replaced by chlorite, clay, biotite and pyrite. Fig 14C: Late stage calcite vein cutting through hostrock matrix. Fig 14D(XPL),14E(PPL): Sphalerite present primarily in quartz rich zone, pyrite present at quartz-carbonate vein interface and in quartz rich part of the vein. PyQtz(2) Ca251Sample ID:  DCS_S041Hole ID: SHDDR0231Depth: 382.4Assay: 0.0047%Cu, 0.014%Zn, 0.02ppmAu, 0.5ppmAgHandsample Description:Intensely altered host rock, containing plagioclase phenocrysts, and embayed quartz eyes in an aphenitic groundmass. Quartz-Pyrite vein cutting through host rock. Summary and InterpretationSample is very similar to SHDDR_247 in terms of vein and alteration. Plagioclase and hornblende and quartz phe-nocrysts are much large than in sample  SHDDR_247. This sample is relatively more plagioclase rich compared to SHDDR_247. Intesely altered wallrock with a sulphide veinlet. Altered wallrock consists of chlorite, mica/clay, pyrite ± biotite(?)  of hornblende and matrix; chlorite and mica/clay alteration of plagioclase.  Sulphosalts and tellurides were not observed in vein. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative% Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 25% Masisve anhedral blebbs- euhedral disseminated crystals. occurs as individ-ual grains or interrown with sph, cpy, ga. Tt-tn and cpy sometimes shows replacement of py. Pyrite along with cpy occurs in fractures present in sphalerite.Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 13% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with sph and cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz)Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 1% Very fine grained anhedral quartz. Calcite (Ca) 10% Present as interstaial ,material in quartz or late stage veins cutting both sul-phide and quartz assemblages. Fine grained to euhedral crystals showing perfect cleavage. Wallrock AssemblagePlagioclase (Pg) 5% Relict euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts completely replaced by mica/clay and minor cabronate. Quartz 3% Anhedral-rounded embayed quartz present in matrix. carbonate/clay alter-ation present in fractures and along the grain boundary. Mica-Clay 10% Replacing plagioclase. Very fine grained, ungistingusiable between clay and muscovite. Aphanitic Matrix 30% altered plagioclase, quartz and mafic minerals Relict Hornblende tr Altered hornblende (skeleton left) AlterationMica-Clay 15% Replacing plagioclase. Very fine grained, undistingusiable between clay and muscovite. Biotite alteration may be present( dark and very fine grained )Chlorite 3% Present in matrix and  often rimming plagioclase and hornblende grainsPyrite 3% euhedral pyrite present in altered hornblende grainsFig 15: XPL scanned thinsection252Py PgPyCaPyA BCFig 16A: Vein-wallrock interface, vein selvage shows prismatic quartz gowing towards open space. Euhedral pyrite inclusions in both quartz-2 and calcite. Wallrock is intensely altered, plagioclase phenocrysts are completely replaced by mica/clay. Fig 16B (PPL): Euhedral pyrite with interstial mica/clay. Fig 16C (XPL):Plagioclase phenocrysts in host rock replaced by albite (?) mica/clay and calcite and pyrite. CaPyCy253Sample ID:  DCS_S008Hole ID: SHDDR0233Depth: 324.35Assay: 0.0063%Cu, 0.1094%Zn, 0.04ppmAu, 0.5ppmAgSummary: Brecciated host rock with chalcopyrite-pyrite vein,  minor anomalous sphalerite.   Summary and InterpretationMassive chalopyrite intergrown with pyrite and sphalerite. Despite the high amount of chalcopyrite, the bulk assay value for the me-ter of drill core associated with this sample shows very little Cu%. Bornite is interpreted to be replacing pyrite (?). Interstial mica/clay infill between sulphide assemblages.    Mineralogy:Mineral Relative% Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 1% Fractured / subhedral light brown Sph intergrown with cpy and py. rare inclusions of tetrahedrite. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 38% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py. Pyrite (Py) 33% Cumulate anhedral-subhedral pyrite assemblages, intergrown with Sph. Tetrahedrite inclusion/replacement zones in pyrite Tetrahedrite (Tt-Tn) tr Present primarily in pyrite and cpy grains as inclusions or replacement Bornite(Bo) tr rarely replacing pyrite (?)Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 1% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz.Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 19% Prismatic/euhedral quartz associated with Sph and Cpy. Shows open space growing textures (comb-quartz).Mica/clay (Cy) 5% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Fig 17: XPL scanned thinsectionThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphTt-TnBrMica-Clay? ?254Py CpyPyCpySphPyCyQtz(2)PyCpyBnA BDCFig 18A: Sphalerite pyrite and chalcopyrite are intergrown with each other, chalcopyrite fills fractures in pyrite. Fig 18B/C: Chalco-pyrite and pyrite are intergrown, pyrite shows inclusions of Te? and bornite. Bornite appears to be replacing chalcopyrite inclu-sions in pyrite. Fig 18D: interstial mica/clay in prismatic quartz-sulphide(pyrite) assemblage.  Fig 18C255Sample ID: DCS_S034Hole ID: SHHDR0129Depth: 194.9Assay: 0.1604% Cu, 0.2341% Zn, 0.68ppm Au, 16.9ppm AgHandsample Description:Euhedral-subhedral sphalerite, intergrown with anhe-dral-blebby chalcopyrite and pyrite.  Interstial quartz-car-bonate. Anomalous mica/clay may be present Summary and InterpretationLarge sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite vein with interstial calcite and mica/clay. Sulfosalts are primarily present as par-tial-complete replacement of chalcopyrite or sphalerite. Fractures in sphalerite ar e infilled with chalcopyrite or calcite. Small variations seem to be present witin the sulfosalt minerals observed, futher analysis is required to differentiate between these phases. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 30% Cumulate anhedral-subhedral pyrite assemblages, intergrown with Sph. Tetrahedrite inclusion/replacement zones in pyrite Sphalerite (Sph) 25% Fractured / subhedral light brown Sph intergrown with cpy and py. rare inclusions of tetrahedrite. Growth zoning is present (dark brown-honey-brown). Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 30% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py. Also present as sub-mi-cron anhedral-blebbs in Sph. Also infills fractures in Sph Tetrahedrite (Tt-Tn) 4% Present primarily in pyrite and cpy grains as inclusions or replacement. Rare-ly occurs as replacement in sphalerite around rims or fractures. Calcite(Ca) 5% Fine -coarse grained, coarse grained crystals show clevage. Mica/clay (Cy) 3% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Associated with fine grained calcite.  Fig 19: XPL scanned thinsection256SphPyPyCpySphCpyPyCpyCyTt-TnCyPyCpyTt-TnQtz(2)SphSphTt-TnCaPyA BC DEFig 20A: Pyrite intergrown and as inclusions in sphalerite. Chalcopyrite present as replacement rims and as infill in sphalerite. Fig 20B: A higher magnification of Fig 2A, showing chalcopyrite filled fractures in sphalerite and pyrite inclusions in sphalerite. Fig 20C: Chalcopyrite as interstial filling in heavily fractured pyrite, Tetrahedrite-Tennantite (?) partial- complete replacement of chalcopyrite. Fig 20D: Chalcopyrite intergrown with pyrite. Tt-Tn shows partial replacement of chalcopyrite. Mica/clay present interstial to sulphides. Fig 20E: Sphalerite graons showing partial rimm of chalcopyrite, Tt-Tn appears associated with sphalerite. Late stage calcite infilling/plugging veins and fractures in sphalerite. Tt-TnCy257Sample ID: DCS_S037Hole ID: SHDDR129Depth: 308.5Assay: 0.8574% Cu, 3.9947% Zn, 0.76ppm Au, 24ppm Ag Handsample DescriptionSulphides filling in brecciated wallrock near vein. cu-mulate blebby pyrite has high aspect ratios surrounded by relatively dark colored sphalerite. Wallrock intensely altered with mica and minor carbonate replacing pla-gioclase. Pristmatic smokey quartz present similar to other vein samples (top right- Fig 21)Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 22%Pyrite (Py) 18% Large anhedral to cumulate blebby grains with high aspect ratios.  Pyrite is intergrown but also as inclusions in Sph.  Sph surrounding Py. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 3% Present as anhedral blebbs intergrown with Py or as inclusions. A majority of Cpy in the sample is primarily present in Sph as replace-ment/exsolution in Sph (Cpy disease) Tetrahedite (Tt-Tn) 3% Primarily associated with Cpy. Partially-completely replacing Cpy, Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 33% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) overprin or cut this stage Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 10% Prismatic/euhedral quartz shows open space growth textures (comb-quartz).Calcite (Ca) 6% Fine grained, cleavage is not present. Mica-Clay 4% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Associated with fine grained calcite.  Summary and InterpretationThe sample shows pyrite partially intergrown with sphalerite. The pyrite grains show a high aspect ratio architecture.  The pyrite likely formed in veinlets/fractures which were then subsequently filled with Sph. Sphalerite is intensely replaced with chalcopyrite disease.  Chalcopyrite -blebbs tend to be present along a preferential region in sphalerite. This prefernce may indicate the varying chemistry in hydrothermal fluids. Furrther analysing the sphalerite chemistry along these growth zones will allow us to approximate hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Tt-Tn as with other samples is associated with Cpy and Sph and are sub-micron in size.    Fig 21: XPL scanned thinsection258Fig 22A: PPL- Zoned sphalerite showing inclusions/replacement bodies of chalcopyrite along preferential planes. Fig  22B- RL,PPL same as Fig 22A. Fig22C: Pyrite and sphalerite intergrown. Pyrite grains have a high aspect ratio, with sphalerite percipitating around pyrite. Fig 22D: An atypical texture of Cpy-disease (rods) in sphalerite, Tt-Tn? is replacing Cpy blebbs. Fig 22E: Both types of Cpy-disease textures, rounded blebbs and rods occur in this sphalerite grain which show zones of rich and poor Cpy-disease. SphSph (cpy rich)SphCpyCpyCpySph (cpy rich)SphPySphSphCpyTt-TnPySphA BC DE259Sample ID: DCS_003AHole ID: SHDDR0403Depth: 107.9Assay: 0.174%Cu, 0.1087%Zn, 0.51ppmAu, 28.3ppm AgHandsample Description: Disseminated- Blebby chalcopyrite, pyrite, and minor sphalerite with interstial quartz and carbonate. Late stage  vein cutting through sulphide assemblageSummary and InterpretationBornite appears to be replacing sulfosalts/ chalcopyrite inclusions in pyrite, unclear if it is a supergene processes. Sulfosalts appear to be replacing chalcopyrite present within pyrite. Several variations in sulfosalts seem to be present,  friebergite is likely one of them, the others were left as Tt-Tn.  Wall rock is intensely altered  by car-bonate, quartz , pyrite, chlorite ±mica/clay.  Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 20% Disseminated euhedral to large anhedral-blebby grains. Bornite present in Py. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 10% Present as anhedral blebbs intergrown with Py (also present as inclu-sions). Replaced by bornite and friebergite(?). Cpy partially replaces Sph in sample. Sphalerite (Sph) 3% Anhedral grains, replaced by Cpy and rarely Tt-Tn. Tetrahedite (Tt-Tn) 1% Primarily associated with Cpy. Partially-completely replacing Cpy, Uncertain of identification. SEM analysis required. Replaces Cpy Friebergite ? (Fr)Bornite (Bo) tr% Partial- complete replacement of Cpy/Tetrahedrite-Tennantite Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 20% Prismatic/euhedral quartz shows open space growth textures (comb-quartz).Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 10% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) overprin or cut this stage Calcite (Ca) 15% Subhedral moderate clavage present. Mica-Clay 10% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Associated with fine grained calcite.  Fig 23: XPL scanned thinsectionThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphTt-TnBoFrCaMica/Clay? ?260PyBoCpyFr? PyPySphPlag(altered)PyPlagPyA BC DEFig 24A: Pyrite grain containing inclusions of Tt-Tn and Bo, Tt-Tn appears to replace chalcopyrite and in turn bornite replaces Tt-Tn. Fig 24B: Chalcopyrite vein with an inclusion of pyrite and unknown tellurides (likely freibergite). Fig 24C: Pyrite intergrown with sphalerite, chalcopyrite shows replacement rims and blebs in sphalerite. Fig 24D: XPL -Chlorite, Pyrite, Carbonate, Clay altered plagioclase phenocrysts. Weak pleochroism (light green-moderate green) within plagioclase crystal is interpreted to be a result of weak chlorite alteration. The phenocryst is surrounded by very fine grained quartz. Fig 24E: PPL of Fig 24D. Tt-Tn?CpyQtzQtz261Sample ID:  DCS_S015BHole ID: SHDDR0016Depth: 235.85m Assay: 0.172%Cu, 5.74%Zn, 46.4ppmAu, 2200ppm AgFig 25: XPL scanned thinsectionHandsample Description:Subhedral- blebbby, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite with interstial quartz carbonate gangue make up the vein. Wallrock is intensely altered (sericite/clay). Sulphides occur in the suture along with interstial carbonate, vein selvage is primarily white cloudy quartz with pyrite. Summary and InterpretationChalcopyrite found as large anhedral grains intergrown with pyrite and sphalerite. It is also found as replacement/inclusion blebbs in sphalerite (chalcopyrite disease), or as veins in sphalerite. Tellurides are present in pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite as replacement bodies along grain boundaries or along fractures. Calcite occurs as late stage infill   Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 12% Disseminated euhedral to large anhedral-blebby grains. Inter-grown with sph and py. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 10% Present as anhedral blebbs intergrown with Py and Sph. Cpy par-tially replaces Sph in sample, ocassionally fills fractures in Sph. Sphalerite (Sph) 22% Subhedral grains intergrown with pyrite and Cpy, Cpy also replaces Sph. Zones of Cpy disease present.  Tetrahedite (Tt-Tn) 1% Found to be partially- completely rpelacing Cpy/Py and rarely found in Sph. Unknown Telluride (Te?) Tr associated with chalcopyrite, sphalerite and pyrite found as inclu-sions in sphalerite, or as replacement bodies in pyrite and chalco-pyrite along grain boundaries and fracturesQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 15% Prismatic/euhedral quartz shows open space growth textures (comb-quartz).Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 5% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) overprin or cut this stage Calcite (Ca) 5% Fine grained, cleavage is not present. Mica-Clay 2% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphi-des and quartz assemblages. Associated with fine grained calcite.  WallrockPlagioclase + Mafics (Matrix) ~14% Very fine grained, completely altered? (mica/calcite)Plagioclase (Phenocryst) ~2% relict plagioclase replaced by mica/clay and minor carbonate. Quartz (Embayed) ~1% embayed quartz in matrix, altered in fractures and rim  Alteration Mica/Clay ~2% partial to complete replacement of matrix and phenocrysts in wallrock Calcite ~2% partial replacement in matrix and phenocrysts. Pyrite ~1% euhedral cubic-subhedral  pyrite grains present in altered plagioclase grains in the wallrock. 262CpyPySphSphPyCpySphPySphCaA BC DEFig 26A: Pyrite filled fracture in sphalerite, pyrite and chalcopyrite intergrown with sphalerite. Fig 26B: Chalcopyrite intergrown with chalcopyrite. Pyrite and chalcopyrite intergrown with each other. Fig 26C: Pyrite intergrown with sphalerite, unknown Tellu-ride (Te?) associated with pyrite. Chalcopyrite replacement in sphalerite (cpy-disease). Fig 26D: SXPL- Calcite infilling brecciated sphalerite grain.Te?263Sample ID:  DCS_S054Hole ID: SHHDR0190Depth: 150.25Assay: 0.183% Cu, 2.308% Zn, 376.5ppm Au, 100ppm AgFig 27: XPL scanned thinsection Handsample Description: Blebby and fracture filled hessite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. Interstial quartz-carbonate. late stage calcite filled fractures. Highest observed grade of all examined drillcore.  Summary and InterpretationTellurides in section are large enough to be identified as large anhedral bodies of hessite with inclusions of altaite (?) coloradoite (?), and replacement by petzite (?).  The very high Au and relatively high Ag-values likely correspond with petzite(?) and hessite. Hessite grains contain inclusions of sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. This relationship between hessite and sph,cpy,py indicates that hessite likely percipitated at a later stage.  Thinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphTt-TnHeTe?CaMica/ClayMineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 15% Subhedral grains intergrown with pyrite and Cpy, Cpy also replaces  Sph. Zones of Cpy disease present.  Pyrite (Py) 12% Disseminated euhedral to large anhedral-blebby grains. Intergrown with sph and py. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 10% Present as anhedral blebbs intergrown with Py and Sph. Cpy partially replaces Sph in sample, ocassionally fills fractures in Sph. Hessite 7% Large grain of hessite with inclusions of Py, Sph and unknown telluride mineral.  Hessite present in fractures.Tetrahedite (Tt-Tn) 3% Found to be partially- completely replacing Cpy/Py and rarely found in Sph. Unknown Telluride (Te?) tr Sylvanite? Coloradoite? SEM work is necessary to identify TellurideQuartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 10% Prismatic/euhedral quartz shows open space growth textures (comb-quartz).Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 35% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) overprin or cut this stage Calcite (Ca) 5% Fine grained, cleavage is not present. Mica-Clay 2% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphi-des and quartz assemblages. Associated with fine grained calcite.  264SphHeTe?HeSphCaCpyPy Tt-TnHeSphPyCpyA BD DFig 28A: PPL-Hessite interstial with brecciated sphalerite vein, unknown telluride (Te?) replacing hessite. Sphalerite showing chal-copyrite disease. Fig 28B: XPL- sphalerite inclusion in hessite, interstial calcite present between the two sphalerite grains. Fig 28C: Fractured and brecciated pyrite cemented by chalcopyrite, Tt-Tn partially replacing chalcopyrite. Fig 28D: XPL- Large anhedral hessite grain interstial to/ inclusions of sphalerite, unknown telluride mineral replacing hessite, anhedral disseminated pyrite present in quartz gangue.  CyTe?265DFA BECFig 29A: Large grain of Hessite observed under reflected light, shows slight chemical variations, Fig 29B is an enlarged version of the red box in Fig 29A showing coloradoite (HgTe); Fig 29C hessite with inclusions/ replacement bodies of Pb and Au tellurides; Fig 29D shows Au telluride minerals along fractures and boundaries replacing hessite. Fig 29E and Fig 29F are elemental maps showing the distribution of Te and Ag in the FOV, native Te is observed in Fig 29EHeSphCoPet/SylHeHe HeSphSphHePet/SylCo266Sample ID:  DCS_S038AHole ID: SHDDR0231Depth: 99.2-99.4mAssay: 1.81%Cu, 6.58%Zn, 0.72ppmAu, 42.6ppmAgFig 30: XPL scanned thinsection Handsample Description: Sulphide selvage (pyrite) in contact with moderate-ly altered wallrock. Sphalerite intergrown with pyrite. Quartz-carbonate  infill at vein suture.Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural DescriptionsSphalerite (Sph) 20% Subhedral-blebby grains partial replacement by Cpy (disease) and rarely Tt-Tn. Shows growth zoning represented by varying colorations (honey-brown to greyish-brown) . Pyrite (Py) 16% Disseminated euhedral grains to large anhedral-blebby cumulates intergrown with Cpy, Sph. Pyrite also present in fractures. Tt-Tn replaces py ocassionally.  Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 12% Intergrown with Py, replaced by Tt-Tn, replaces/exsolution from Sph Tetrahedrite (Tt-Tn) 4% replaces Py and Cpy, rarely sph at rims. Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 12% Prismatic/euhedral quartz shows open space growth textures (comb-quartz).Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 20% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) overprin or cut this stage Mica/Clay 2% Interstial infill, fine grained difficult to distingusih between clay/micaCalcite (Ca) 6% Finegrained to euhedral grains with good clevage. Present in veins cutting sul-phide and Qtz(1) assemblage. WallrockPlagioclase (phenocryst) (Pg) 3% Pg phenocrysts observed with moderate to strong replacement (mica/clay)Matrix (Plag+Hb+Qtz) 13% Moderate alteration some are partially preserved (Fig A)Alteration Mica/Clay 5% Complete replacement to dusting of plagioclase. Summary and Interpretation Vein selvage contains prismatic quartz with distinct growth zones, with great fluid inclusion assemblages in addition to massive pyrite intergrown with sphalerite. Quartz contains small inclusions of sul-phide indicating it likely perciptated at similar times to sphalerite. Wallrock is moderately altered plagioclase grains show fine grained clay alteration (dusting). Tetrahedrite (?) replaces chalcopyrite be-ginning at grain boundaries. Thinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphTt-TnCaMica/Clay ?267Qtz(2)Qtz(2)Tt-TnPyCpyPySphSphSphQtzCaA BC DFig 31A: Plagioclase grains partially-completely altered, mica/clay alteration. Fig31B: Pyrite intergrown with chalcopyrite, Tt-Tn replacing chalcopyrite. Fig31C: Vein filled with quartz and calcite cutting through a zoned sphalerite grain. Fig 31D: Prismatic quartz showing growth zones (outlined) and associated with pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite.268    2 4 6 8 10 12 14keV0102030405060 cps/eV S  S  Te  Te  Te  Ag  Ag  Ag  Zn  Zn     2 4 6 8 10 12 14keV0102030405060 cps/eV S  S  Te  Te  Te  Au  Au  Au  Au  Ag  Ag  Ag BlueRedDA BPeaks: Zn-S-Ag-TeSphECFig 32A: Spot analysis locations shown, spectra are shown in  Fig 32B and Fig 32C .  Fig 32B: AgTe mineral (Hessite) also contains Zn and S contaminants from the sphalerite surrounding it; Fig 32C: Hesiste (AgTe) grain with no contaminants; Fig 32D: elemen-tal map showing the distibution of Ag in the FOV; Fig 32E: elemental map showing distribution of Zn (sphalerite) in the FOV. It shows the partial replacement of sphalerite by silver tellurides; Fig 32F is a grain of galena surrounded by sphalerite and chalco-pyrite.FAg-TeGaSphSphCpyCpy269Sample ID:  DCS_S095AHole ID: SHDDR0177Depth: 321.9Assay: 0.0363%Cu, 1.93%Zn, 0.14ppmAu, 3ppmAgFig 33: XPL scanned thinsection Handsample Description:Intergrown anhedral-blebby sph, and minor cpy. Interstial infill of quartz and carbonate, Minor mica/clay may be present. Summary and InterpretationPyrite present as both large subhedral blebbs and as disseminated anhedral- grains. Mica/clay is interstial to quartz-sulphide as-semblages. Sphalerite-chalcopyrite and pyrite show similar rela-tionships to other thinsections observed already (e.g. DCS_S034, DCS_S008). Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Pyrite (Py) 25% Cumulate anhedral-subhedral pyrite assemblages, intergrown with Sph. Tetrahedrite inclusion/replacement zones in pyrite Sphalerite (Sph) 20% Fractured / subhedral light brown Sph intergrown with cpy and py. rare inclusions of tetrahedrite. Growth zoning is present (dark brown-honey-brown). Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 5% Anhedral heavily pitted blebbs intergrown with py. Also present as inclu-sions/replacement in Py and Sph. Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 30% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) assemblages often cut this stage. Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 5% Coarse grained quartz intergrown with Sph and Cpy.  Calcite(Ca) 5% Fine grained, cleavage is not present. Mica/clay (Cy) 5% Very fine grained mica/clay, difficult to differentitate. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Associated with fine grained calcite.  Thinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtz(1)Qtz(2)PyCpySphMica/Clay270SphPySphPyCpySphPyPy+SphCyQtz(2)A BC DFig 34A: Sphalerite intergrown with pyrite. Sphalerite shows chalcopyrite disease. Fig34B: Sphalerite intergrown with pyrite, chalcopyrite present as inclusion in pyrite and as Cpy disease in sphalerite.p Fig34C: Sphalerite intergrown with pyrite. Sphalerite shows chalcopyrite disease. Fig 34D (XPL): Interstial mica/clay (Cy) infill between sulphide and quartz assemblages. 271Sample ID:  DCS_S095BHole ID: SHDDR0177Depth: 321.8Assay: 0.0363%Cu, 1.93%Zn, 0.14ppmAu, 3ppmAgFig 35: XPL scanned thinsectionHandsample Description Smokey white quartz vein cutting through brecciated sulphide assemblage. Sulphide assemblage consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite cemented by carbon-ate Summary and InterpretationDCS_S095B is taken from same interval as DCS_S095A, and shows similar sulphide textures however, the sample shows a quartz vein crosscutting sulphide assmeblage.  Quartz present in the vein shows two stages of quartz (fine-grained and coarse grained). Coarse grained quartz in this section does not show prismatic growth, and is randomly oriented.Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural Description Sphalerite (Sph) 20% Euhedral-subhedral light brown Sph intergrown with py. Growth zoning is present (dark brown-honeybrown). Pyrite (Py) 25% Anhedral blebby pyrite assemblages, intergrown with Sph.Chalcopyrite (Cpy) tr Present as inclusions/replacement in Py and Sph. Quartz (1) (Qtz(1)) 30% Very fine grained irregular anhedral quartz, showing undulose extinction calcite and sulphide and Qtz(2) assemblages often cut this stage. Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 5% Coarse grained quartz associated with disseminated pyrite blebbs. random orientation as opposed to open space growth observed in other samples.  Calcite(Ca) 5% Fine grained, cleavage is not present. Mica/Clay(1) (Cl1) 5% Whitish very fine grained, cut/overprinted by (Cl2) alteration. Interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Mica/Clay (2)(Cl2) 5% Yellowish very fine grained mica alteration interstial to sulphides and quartz assemblages. Primary pathway through fractures and hydrothermal flow zones.   272A BC DFig 36A: Sphalerite intergown with pyrite. Chalcopyrite present as replacement blebbs in sphalerite and as inclusions in pyrite. Fig 36B: Zoned sphalerite showing submicron inclusions/replacement of chalcopyrite in the honey brown zone with none present in zone 1 of sphalerite.  Fig 36C: Chalcopyrite inclusions in pyrite, calcite and clay present as interstial infill between sulphide assemblages. Fig 36D: fractured sphalerite and rounded pyrite grains present in an interstial mi-ca/clay rich matrix. Fractures in sphalerite in-filled with calcite.  SphPyCpySph (zone2)Sph (zone1)SphPyCaCyCpy273Sample ID: DCC_S009Hole ID: CEEDE07Depth: 225.55Assay: N/AFig 37: Scanned thinsectionHandsample Description:Quartz-sulphide chlorite vein hosted in andesite. Host rock contains porphryritic 0.5-1.5mm hornblende and altered plagioclase grains in a aphinitic matrix. Plagioclase grains are altered to clay and chlorite. Hornblende show pyritic alteration. Vein contains large grains of pyrite and chalcopyrite in a quartz-chlorite gangue. Minor interstial calcite is also present Description and InterpretationThis sample has been taken from Centralni West along with two other samples: DCC_S026A and DCC_S017. All three samples show Cu mineralization, as opposed to the polymetallic type mineralization observed in samples thus far. Alteration assemblages are very similar to samples from Shahumyan, showing a sericite/illite, quartz assemblage overprinting the initial chlorite rich assemblage. This sample shows hydrothermal chlorite within the quartz-sulphide vein which may indicate higher temperature fluids. The hydrothermal chlorite within the vein shows a radiating crystal morphology and has a blueish-purple interference color which may indicate higher Fe- content. Chlorite in the host rock completely replaces mafic minerals (hornblende) and is considerably has a more bluish interference color com-pared to the vein chlorite. Pyrite grains are brecciated, and also present along minor veinlets/ fractures. Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural DescriptionsPyrite (Py) 11 Anhedral blebbs. Pyrite is also present infilling fractures  Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 20 Replacing hornblende?Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 14 Prismatic coarse grained quartz associated with sulphides. show open-space growing (comb quartz)Mica/Clay 7 Fine grained, replacing plagioclase grains and rimming hornblende grains Calcite (Ca) 3 Interstial material between quartz, and sulphide grainsChlorite (Chl) 8 Present as radial fiberous grains in vein WallrockAmphibole (phenocryst) (Hb) tr minor relict amphiboles, a majority is completely altered to chlorite and dessimi-nated pyrite. Plagioclase tr minor relict plagioclase present, a majority of primary plagioclase is completely altered to mica/clay. Quartz 5 very fine grained, present in matrix. overprinted/ altered with mica/clayAlteration Chlorite (Chl) 15 complete-partial replacement of mafics Epidote (Ep) tr Complete-partial replacement of mafic minerals. Mica/Clay 15 Complete to partial replacement of plagioclase and mafic grains. 274A BC DFig 37A: XPL- Plagioclase altered to mica-clay, amphiboles completely replaced by Fe-rich chlorite. Fe-rich chlorite also rims pla-gioclase grains. Fig 36B: PPL view of Fig 36A. Fig 36C:  Radial Fe-rich hydrothermal chlorite is present within vein material and is interstial to prismatic quartz. Fig 36D: Hornblende altered to epidote and chlorite.CyPgQtz(2)ChlChlCyQtz(2)ChlQtz(2)Hb (Altered) 275Sample ID: DCC_S026AHole ID: CEDDE05Depth: 222.35Assay: N/AFig38: Scanned thinsectionHand Sample Description: Quartz sulphide vein,  hosted in andesite. Host rock is strongly fractured and subsequentially mineralized. Chalcopyrite is anhedral and very coarse grained, where-as pyrite is subhedral to anhedral and medium to coarse grained. Hostrock fragments within the vein appear to be initially chlorite altered and subsequently strongly silici-fied.Description and InterpretationSulphide vein within an andesite hostrock, the hostrock is not observed in this sample. Chlorite is interpreted to be part of vein material which likely precipitated from hydro-thermal fluids. The bluish-purple interfernce color suggests the chlorite has a higher Fe-content. Hydrothermal sericite/clay is found to be interstrial between quartz and sulphide grains. Thinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtzPyCpyCaChlMica/ClMineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural DescriptionsPyrite (Py) 20 Subhedral-euhedral crystals, heavily fractured and slightly higher reflectance than Py2  and occurs as inclusions or is intergrown with Cpy Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 23 Disseminated to large anhedral grains heavily pitted with a slightly lower reflec-tance than Py. Associated with Py grains which are either intergrown or occur as inclusions.Quartz (Qtz) 40 Medium to coarse grained crystals showing undulose extiction Calcite (Ca) 2 Medium sized interstial grains between sulphide and quartz grains. Mica/Clay (Cl) 8 Fine to medium grained crystals showing radial textures  Chlorite (Chl) 7 Accumulation of radial aggregates of chlorite, likely Fe rich ??276Fig 39A: (PPL) Chlorite and mica/clay alteration overprinitng quartz grains. Fig 37B: XPL-microphotograph of Fig 37A, second order blue- purple interference color indicates Fe-rich chlorite. Fig 37C: Two stages of pyrite present, Cpy is interpreted to be the later stage with inclusions of  sub- euhedral Py grains. Fig 37D: Medium to coarse grained muscovite. 277Sample ID: DCC_S017Hole ID: CEDDE06Depth: 146.9Assay: N/AFig40: Scanned thinsectionHandsample Description: A sulphide vein within an andesite hostrock.  Andesite is strongly silicified with minor sericite/clay alteration. Chal-copyrite is anhedral and coarse grained whereas pyrite is subhedral and medium grained. Pyrite and chalcopyrite appear to be interstial . Description and InterpretationSulphide vein within an andesite hostrock. Hostrock adjacent to vein strongly altered into a quartz, sericite/illite  assemblage. Sul-phide assemlage includes primarily pyrite and chalcopyrite. Two different assemblages of pyrite may be present, distinguised by their morphology and relationship with chalcopyrite.  Early stage pyrite tends to be cubic euhedral-subhedral grains and occur as inclusions within chalcopyrite. Chlorite is found in trace amounts as fracture infill. Sericite/clay is ubiquitous within matrix as an al-teration mineral. It is often found to be replacing relict plagioclase grains, as fracture fill and interstial material Mineralogy:Mineral Relative % Textural DescriptionsPyrite (Py) 8 Euhedral-subhedral pyrite as inclusions in Cpy.  Pyrite also occurs as disseminat-ed grains in host rock, often present in relict plagioclase and amphibole grains. Chalcopyrite (Cpy) 25 Replacing hornblende?Quartz (2) (Qtz(2)) 8 Prismatic coarse grained quartz associated with sulphides. show open-space growing (comb quartz)Calcite (Ca) 2 Present as interstial infill between grains and as veins cutting pyrite grains. WallrockPlagioclase 12 Relict plagioclase, completely altered to mica/clayQuartz 25 Ubiquotous fine anhedral grains present in matrix.  AlterationMica/Clay 18 Very fine grained muscovite and illite intermixed replacing primary plagioclase grains. Muscovite also present as medium-coarse grainsChlorite tr present along fractures within replict plagioclase and weakly replacing pla-gioclase grainsThinsection Paragenetic SequenceMineral                    timeQtzPyCpyMica/ClayChlorite?278Fig 41A: (XPL-TRS) Chalcopyrite-pyrite vein, qith fine grained quartz as gangue.  Vein selvage contains euhedral coarse crystalline quartz (comb quartz), wallrock present shows intense alteration. Plagioclase in wallrock is completely replaced by mica/clay, unclear whether finegrained muscovite (sericite) or illite or both .  Desseminated pyrite is also present in the wallrock.  Fig 38B: Fine- medium grained muscovite alteration


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items