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Annotation of the human odontoblast cell layer and dental pulp proteomes and N-terminomes Abbey, Simon 2017

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ANNOTATION OF THE HUMAN ODONTOBLAST CELL LAYER AND DENTAL PULP PROTEOMES AND N-TERMINOMES  by Simon Abbey  B.Sc., Queen’s University, 1989 D.M.D., The University of British Columbia, 1997  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE in The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (Craniofacial Science) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)   July 2017  © Simon Abbey, 2017 ii  Abstract The proteome and N-terminome of the human odontoblast cell layer was identified for the first time by shotgun proteomic and terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) N-terminomic analyses, respectively, and compared with that of human dental pulp stroma from 3rd molar teeth. After reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, >170,000 spectra from the shotgun and TAILS analyses were matched by four search engines to 4,888 and 12,063 peptides in the odontoblast cell layer and pulp stroma, respectively. Using the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, I identified 895 and 2,423 unique proteins in these tissues at an FDR of ≤ 1 %. In the odontoblast cell layer proteome I found proteomic evidence for dentin sialophosphoprotein, which is cleaved into dentin phosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein, proteins that are important in dentin mineralization. Further, 222 proteins of the odontoblast cell layer were not found in the pulp, suggesting many of these proteins are synthesized preferentially by odontoblasts. I also found minor differences in the odontoblast cell layer between the dental pulp proteomes of older and younger donors. The human dental pulp stroma proteome was expanded by 974 new proteins, not previously identified among the 4,123 proteins identified in our previous dental pulp study (Eckhard et al., 2015). Thus, by exploring the proteome of the odontoblast cell layer and expanding the known dental pulp proteome, we found distinct proteome differences when compared with each other and with dentin. The mass spectrometry raw data and metadata have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ˂PXD006557˃.    iii  Lay Summary Dental pulp comprises the central pulpal stroma and the odontoblast periphery. We hypothesized each expresses different proteins. We removed dental pulp tissue from freshly extracted teeth and separated these layers. Protein from each of these samples was broken down into its constituent peptides and these were identified using mass spectrometry. Using software parent proteins were identified from peptides which were unique to individual human proteins. We thus identified 4,888 peptides in the odontoblast sample and 12,063 peptides in the pulp stroma. 222 proteins were found only in the odontoblast sample, suggesting they are synthesized by odontoblasts. We also found differences in the odontoblast cell layer proteomes between older and younger donors. In summary we expanded the human dental pulp proteome by 974 new proteins not previously found in our previous dental pulp study. We also found proteome differences between the odontoblast cell layer and the pulp stroma.  iv  Preface Dr. Overall and I met in early 2014 to discuss this research project. The Overall lab is involved in the human proteome project and Dr. Overall was interested in taking me on as a graduate student to do proteomics on human dental pulp, adding this tissue to others already being studied in the lab. The terminal amine isotopic labelling of substrates (TAILS) protocol had been developed in the Overall lab previously and we discussed using it on dental pulp tissue (Kleifeld et al., 2011a). Dr. Eckhard had removed one dental pulp from a tooth extracted by Dr. Mathew several months earlier, as a pilot project.  The project began in May 2014. The first phase was collecting the pulp tissue. Dr. Mathew and I coordinated this that summer; I travelled to his office, where he extracted the donor wisdom teeth. I developed the technique for removing the pulp tissue from these teeth and freezing them on dry ice immediately. Together, Dr. Mathew and I collected all pulps studied in this research and in our previous study: he extracted the teeth, I then removed the tooth pulp tissue and froze it in GuHCl buffer. We obtained pulp tissue from a total of 16 donors over the course of the summer.  Dr. U. Eckhard and I worked closely together that summer. We did all experiments together for donors 1-10 of 16 total. Dr. Eckhard worked very closely with me for the first run of the experiment (donors 1 and 2) and for the remainder of the summer I did all the experiments for donors 3-10 with Dr. Eckhard close-by for clarification and consultation.  I was responsible for planning and implementing the histological component of this research, preparing a pulp, sectioning it, and staining it. We had other sections done by the UBC Wax-it service. I did all histology under the guidance of Dr. G. Tharmarajah. During the summer of 2015 I did initial analysis of LC-MS/MS data for all 16 pulp donors. I prepared spreadsheets of the data for further software analysis by Dr. Eckhard. v  At this point, Dr. Overall decided to divide the project in two. For donors 1, 2 and 11-16 Drs. Eckhard and G. Marino performed all further experiments to process the pulp proteins for LC-MS/MS analysis, did the analysis of these spectra, and prepared the figures for the first paper published from this data (Eckhard et al., 2015). For this first paper, I removed and did initial work on all pulp tissue used, and performed approximately 20 % of the experiments to process this tissue through PreTAILS and TAILS workflows. I also performed initial data analysis using Excel, reviewed the final manuscript, made edits and consulted from an endodontic perspective. I was also responsible for the histology image used in this paper.  Through 2015 and 2016, I performed detailed software analysis on my LC-MS/MS data from donors 3-10, samples for which I had done the experimental work and analysis. In performing the analysis of MS spectra I worked closely with Dr. U. Eckhard and he did the final analysis to prepare our data for publication. I took the 5 day long Trans-Proteomic Pipeline introductory course given by the Seattle Institute of Systems Biology in the fall of 2015. Following this, I understand and can use all the software we employed to analyze our LC-MS/MS data, but my understanding of proteomics is not at the level of Dr. Eckhard and he was critical to final preparation of my data.  In 2016 and 2017 I organized my data for publication, prepared the figures, and wrote the manuscript for a second paper that has been submitted to the Journal of Dental Research. Myself and Dr. Eckard share first author status on this paper.   I presented new research posters, each serving as a landmark for my progress in this project, in every year of my program, January 2015, 2016, and 2017. At this year’s research day poster competition I received the M.Sc. student award. Our research project received ethical approval from the UBC Clinical Research Ethics Board (certificate # H13-03006). vi  Table of Contents  Abstract ........................................................................................................................................ ii Lay Summary ............................................................................................................................. iii Preface ......................................................................................................................................... iv Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables ................................................................................................................................x List of Figures ............................................................................................................................ xi List of Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... xii Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ xiii Dedication ................................................................................................................................. xiv Chapter 1: Introduction .............................................................................................................1 1.1 Basic science background to project ........................................................................ 1 1.1.1 Proteomics............................................................................................................. 1 1.1.2 Transcriptomics .................................................................................................... 1 1.1.3 Post-translational protein modifications ............................................................ 2 1.1.4 Protein variability with time ................................................................................. 2 1.1.5 The Human Proteome Project ............................................................................ 3 1.2 Dental pulp .................................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1 Tooth structure ...................................................................................................... 3 1.2.2 Odontoblast function within the pulp organ ...................................................... 4 1.3 Literature review of related studies ........................................................................... 5 1.3.1 Pääkkönen et al. 2005 ............................................................................................. 5 vii  1.3.1.1 Two dimensional (2D) Gel electrophoresis .................................................. 6 1.3.2 Wei et al. Cell culture study ................................................................................ 7 1.3.3 Jágr et al. dentin and dental pulp studies ......................................................... 8 1.3.3.1 Jágr et al. Dentin proteomics .......................................................................... 9 1.3.3.2 The Dentin proteome is relatively small ........................................................ 9 1.3.3.3 Eckhard et al 2014 the dental pulp proteome ............................................ 11 1.3.3.4 Eckhardt et al., 2014 data analysis ............................................................. 11 1.3.3.5 Practical applications of proteomics research ........................................... 12 1.3.3.6 Organic matrix of dentin ................................................................................ 13 1.3.3.7 Dentin participation in the immune response? .......................................... 14 1.3.4 Eckhard et al., 2015 ........................................................................................... 15 1.3.4.1 Currently the definitive study in pulp proteomics ...................................... 15 1.3.4.2 Missing proteins .............................................................................................. 15 1.3.4.3 Patterns of peptide N-terminus modifications ............................................ 16 1.3.4.4 Novel cleavages identified by TOPFINDER tool ....................................... 17 1.4 Research goals ........................................................................................................... 17 Chapter 2: Body of Thesis ......................................................................................................19 2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 19 2.2 Materials and methods .............................................................................................. 20 2.2.1 Pulp harvest procedure and protein extraction .............................................. 20 2.2.2 Histological analysis........................................................................................... 21 2.2.3 TAILS N-terminomics......................................................................................... 21 2.2.4 Mass spectrometry ............................................................................................. 23 viii  2.2.5 Data analysis....................................................................................................... 24 2.2.6 Bioinformatics analysis ...................................................................................... 24 2.3 Results ......................................................................................................................... 25 2.3.1 Protein extract sample summary ..................................................................... 25 2.3.2 Proteomic workflow and statistical analysis of mass spectra data ............. 25 2.3.3 Protein identifications......................................................................................... 27 2.3.4 Comparison with other tissue matrisomes ..................................................... 29 2.3.5 Proteomic evidence of four ‘missing’ proteins ............................................... 33 2.4 Discussion ................................................................................................................... 37 2.4.1 Progress in pulpal proteomics .......................................................................... 37 2.4.2 Odontoblasts and tooth development ............................................................. 38 2.4.3 Mineralization proteins and donor age ............................................................ 39 2.4.4 Key findings from my research......................................................................... 39 Chapter 3: Conclusion .............................................................................................................42 3.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................... 42 3.2 Comparing our preTAILS shotgun + TAILS protocols to 2D gel separation ..... 42 3.3 Proteomics data analysis .......................................................................................... 43 3.4 Pulp sample mass ...................................................................................................... 44 3.5 Practical applications of proteomic research ......................................................... 45 3.6 Large numbers of proteins to assess ...................................................................... 47 3.7 Dentin and bone are related tissues ....................................................................... 47 3.8 Our samples are enriched, not pure for tissue types ............................................ 48 3.9 Future directions: cell culture studies and western blot analysis ........................ 48 ix  3.10 Final comments .......................................................................................................... 49 Bibliography ...............................................................................................................................50 Appendices .................................................................................................................................54 Appendix A Peptide spectra matches ................................................................................. 54 Appendix B Natural and Neo-N-termini .............................................................................. 55 Appendix C Odontoblast proteins ........................................................................................ 56 Appendix D Age differences in odontoblast proteins ........................................................ 60 Appendix E Matrisome comparison..................................................................................... 76  x  List of Tables Table 1. Pulp protein sample data ........................................................................................... 26 Table 2. Proteins found only in the odontoblast protein samples ....................................... 56 Table 3. Young odontoblast proteins ...................................................................................... 60 Table 4. Mature odontoblast proteins ..................................................................................... 66 Table 5. Odontoblast proteins found in both age groups ..................................................... 71 Table 6. Core matrisome proteins ........................................................................................... 76 Table 7. Matrisome-associated proteins................................................................................. 80 xi  List of Figures Figure 1. Protein extraction and histological confirmation ................................................... 28 Figure 2. TAILS workflow and Peptide Classification ........................................................... 30 Figure 3. Unique peptides, protein N-termini and proteins identified ................................. 32 Figure 4. Comparison of dental pulp proteomic studies ...................................................... 34 Figure 5. Four proteins we identified that were previously unidentified (neXtProt) ......... 36 Figure 6. Peptide spectra matches found by the four search engines .............................. 54 Figure 7. Numbers of Neo-N-Termini and Classification of Natural N-termini ................. 55  xii  List of Abbreviations EDTA – Ethyldiamine tetra-acetic acid FDR – False discovery rate  GuHCl – Guanadinium hydrochloride buffer HUPO – Human proteome organization HPP – Human proteome project LC-MS/MS – Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LPS – Lipopolysacharide, an endotoxin released by Gram negative bacteria MALDI-TOF-MS – Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry MS – Mass spectrometry neXtProt - (http://www.nextprot.org) m/z – Mass/Charge ratio  TAILS – Terminal Amine Isotopic Labelling of Substrates TPP – Transproteomic pipeline software package for analysis of MS data UniProt – (http://www.uniprot.org)  xiii  Acknowledgements Many thanks to Drs. Chris Overall and Ulrich Eckhard for their support and assistance in conducting this research project, also to all members of the Overall Lab, Dr Tharmarajah for her help with the histology component of my project, and to the members of my thesis committee. Thanks also to the Canadian Forces for sponsoring me during the initial months of my research, and to the Canadian Academy of Endodontics for their financial support of my project.  xiv  Dedication Dedicated to my children Dylan, Julian, Bronwyn and Elijah 1  Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Basic science background to project 1.1.1 Proteomics Proteomics is a burgeoning area of scientific research aimed at identifying the individual proteins found in tissues. It is the large-scale study of proteins. To some degree it is an evolution from genomics, the deciphering and characterization of the human and other genomes. But while genomics examines the fixed blueprint of chromosomal DNA, proteomics attempts to understand and quantitate active processes of gene regulation and expression in both health and disease (Anderson and Anderson, 1998). The goal of the International Human Proteome Project (HPP) is mapping the entire human proteome to improve our understanding of human cellular biology and facilitate development of diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and preventive medical applications. Approximately 20,300 genes are identified in the human genome which code for proteins (Paik et al., 2012). The goal of the HPP is to identify at least one protein from each of these genes in at least one human tissue.   1.1.2 Transcriptomics Proteins are difficult molecules to characterize because of the ubiquity of protein modifications, both at the post-transcriptional RNA level and post-translational protein level. These are independent processes. Transcriptomics is the branch of life science between genomics and proteomics: the study of nucleotide chains of mRNA isolated from tissue. The genome codes for a set of basic protein building blocks, but this is only the starting point and biological processes modify these to create the almost infinite functionality required for life. Transcriptomics reveals changes that occur between mRNA transcription and protein translation. It is estimated that post-transcriptional RNA modifications are responsible for as many as a 5-fold increase in 2  proteins as the number of genes alone (potentially coding for as many as 100,000 proteins (Sharon et al., 2013).   1.1.3 Post-translational protein modifications Once proteins are translated, post-translational modifications always occur. This may be as simple as cleavage of the N-terminal methionine residue, may involve other internal cleavages, or consist of different modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, or the removal of signal peptides. There are over 300 known post-translational modifications which are estimated to produce in the order of 10 times more final protein products than the approximately 100,000 (from transcriptomics ) translated peptide sequences,  creating in the order of 1,000,000 different proteins (Beck-Sickinger and Mörl, 2006; Zhao and Jensen, 2009). These modified proteins may be isoforms of a protein family with similar but related functions, or a translated polypeptide may be cleaved into several proteins with independent functions. For example, following translation dentin sialophosphoprotein is cleaved and folded into dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, and dentin glycoprotein, each with independent functions within the dentin matrix (Hargreaves et al., 2012; Jágr et al., 2012). Such a discrete cleavage into three proteins with different but related roles is probably uncommon, but evidence shows that a single translated protein can be modified in many different ways so that the different final protein products may appear in different tissues and have different functions.  1.1.4 Protein variability with time A final layer to the complexity of proteomics is its mutability with time. Although epigenetics has demonstrated that changes in chromosomes can affect gene expression the genome is fixed and does not change throughout the life of an organism. Genetics is the basic blueprint from which the infinite adaptability and complexity of proteomics is created downstream through 3  transcription, translation and post-translational modifications. Protein expression changes constantly depending on the needs of a cell and biologic demands placed on tissues. Some proteins are common, for example type I collagen is frequently a component of extracellular matrix. As such Type I collagen is a relatively stable element within these tissues. However, other proteins may be more reactive, may be needed only in small quantities or at rare intervals, for example due to a stressful event or lack of a nutrient. These latter proteins will be more difficult to identify.  1.1.5 The Human Proteome Project The basic strategy of the human proteome project is to do proteomic studies on as many tissues as possible in order to identify as many proteins as possible. The dental pulp is an accessible tissue that could contribute significantly to this work. Some work has already been done on human pulp proteomics, which I will review. I will also discuss dentin proteomics because the odontoblast layer of dental pulp generates dentin. Thus, pulp and dentin proteomics are closely related and it is beneficial to be familiar with both in the study of dental pulp.  1.2 Dental pulp 1.2.1 Tooth structure The dental pulp is the soft tissue core of a tooth. Developmentally, the human tooth is created from an infolding of dental epithelium and ectomesenchymal tissue, where the epithelial layer produces ameloblasts, which form the enamel layer of a developing tooth. These cells subsequently undergo programmed cell death when enamel formation is complete. At the same time, mesenchymal tissue, interior to the forming enamel, develops into odontoblasts, which begin to produce dentin; unlike ameloblasts, odontoblasts remain vital and persist following 4  tooth eruption. Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body, while dentin is the second. This is a function of their mineral content: enamel is 96 % inorganic, 4 % water and organic matrix, while dentin is 70 % inorganic, 20 % organic matrix, 10 % water (Hargreaves et al., 2012). The line between dentin and the soft tissue pulp is demarcated by the odontoblast layer, which forms the outermost layer of the pulp abutting the predentin. Predentin is the initial stage of new dentin formation, consisting of mineralized dentin organic matrix newly formed by odontoblasts. Odontoblasts form a continuous unicellular layer of columnar cells at the pulp-dentin border, and these cells extend processes into the dentinal tubules.   1.2.2 Odontoblast function within the pulp organ Odontoblasts perform many roles in the dental pulp organ. Odontoblasts probably communicate with pulp neurons since the odontoblast process penetrate into the dentinal tubules and may be responsible for detecting stimuli that cause tooth sensation. However, histology studies have shown that axons penetrate the odontoblast layer and also enter dentinal tubules, although probably not as deeply as the odontoblast processes. These nerve fibers could also be responsible for dental sensation. Dental nerve fibers also play a defensive role in initiating pulpal inflammatory responses following stimulation by bacterial toxins, e.g. Lipopolysacharide (LPS), through the release of neuropeptides (Henry and Hargreaves, 2007). Odontoblasts could be responsible, or involved in the initiation of this neuropeptide release. Odontoblasts are also known to be the primary cell type responsible for dentin formation, maintenance and repair. Odontoblasts can be renewed and regenerated throughout life, as new dental pulp stem cells are stimulated to differentiate to replace odontoblasts that have been destroyed by advancing carious lesions, trauma, etc. (Hargreaves et al., 2012).  5  1.3 Literature review of related studies Prior to our group’s work there are only two published studies that directly examine human dental pulp proteomics in vivo; several other studies examined pulp tissue culture proteomics in vitro, and several more looked at dentin proteomics.   1.3.1 Pääkkönen et al. 2005 Pääkkönen et al. 2005 analyzed pulp tissue prepared in a similar manner to me from extracted wisdom teeth, but examined both the mRNA gene transcripts, and tissue sample protein extract (Pääkkönen et al., 2005). Also of note Pääkkönen’s group divided pulp tissue samples into two groups: 1) those from healthy wisdom teeth and 2) those from carious wisdom teeth. Pääkkönen’s study was commendable in that it attempted to find proteomic differences between healthy and diseased tissues so that proteins could be identified which are expressed under different conditions. By characterizing both the transcriptome, using cDNA microarrays, and the proteome, using 2D gel electrophoresis and MS analysis, the authors hypothesized that differences would be found between healthy pulps and carious pulps. This makes intuitive sense since caries bacteria stimulate pulp tissue to form tertiary dentin and initiate activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems.   Some differences were found in transcription, but the heterogeneity of samples meant these differences may well have appeared stochastically. In terms of mRNA, they found evidence that 396 genes were expressed in at least one sample of the 1081 cDNAs screened. This was assessed by fluorescence level for a given cDNA, which was quantified to indicate if the gene was transcribed or not, and if this signal was 5x this base level for expression it was classified as ‘highly expressed.’ But for calculating differences between carious and heathy tooth structure a difference of 1.4x was considered to represent a ‘true difference.’ These 6  factors are somewhat arbitrary, but the data produced shows that the same proteins may be active in both samples but more are transcribed in either healthy or carious pulp depending on the gene. This shows that biologic function is not only influenced by the presence or absence of proteins but by their relative numbers and proportions. The proteomics analyses found evidence of 96 proteins. In terms of our results, these numbers are very small. Individual cells probably require as many as 10,000-30,000 proteins at a given point in time to carry out their biological functions (Alberts et al., 2002). Thus, by identifying only 96 proteins, approximately 1 % or less of the total proteome, they had a low chance of finding differences caused by pulpal response to caries. Of these 96 proteins, only 12 were translated from the expressed cDNAs and none from the highly expressed cDNAs that had been identified in the transcriptomics portion of the study. Before we can confidently move into an area where we can identify differences in proteomics between diseased and healthy tissues, we should ideally establish a consistent baseline, e.g. multiple studies from multiple centers find the same or a similar proteome for healthy dental pulp, and this should be a large proteome in the order of 10,000 plus proteins so we can be confident most of the proteins found in the dental tissue are represented. Also, proteomics is even now not quantitative and differences in the number of peptides found may reflect relative differences in peptide stability under experimental conditions as well as the number of parent proteins expressed in the tissue sample.   1.3.1.1 Two dimensional (2D) Gel electrophoresis Pääkkönen’s study used 2D gel electrophoresis to separate proteins based on their mass and isoelectric points. Briefly proteins are solubilized and electrophoresed based on isoelectric point; these gel samples are then loaded onto SDS-PAGE gels where they are subjected to another electric field and move through the gel at a rate inversely proportional to their mass. There was no difference found between the protein spots on the healthy pulp gel compared with the 7  carious pulp gel, so expression of these 96 proteins was approximately the same in both samples. The authors suggested this could be because the carious pulp samples they selected were from teeth that had only small or moderate sized carious lesions, meaning inflammation would be limited and localized to a small area of the pulp leaving the majority of pulp tissue in a healthy condition. The final phase of 2D gel proteomics is to cut each protein dot from the gel, digest the protein into peptide fragments, and put these through MS to produce spectra which can identify the parent protein. This technique is effective at identifying proteins since the mass, isoelectric point, and MS peptide identification, can all be used to confirm the protein is correctly identified. However, it is laborious, and proteins must be present in sufficient quantities to appear as a stained spot on the gel to be identified. Typically studies of this nature identify hundreds of proteins, where complete tissue proteomes are probably in excess of 10,000 proteins.  1.3.2 Wei et al. Cell culture study Wei et al. took a very different approach in studying pulp proteomics (Wei et al., 2008). The authors took a tissue culture of dental pulp stem cells, and induced these with β-glycerophosphate, which stimulates dental pulp stem cells to differentiate into odontoblasts. This is an important step in the formation of reparative dentin when new odontoblasts are required to replace cells destroyed by rapidly advancing caries. Induced cell culture protein extract was compared to non-induced control culture and protein spots were compared on 2D gels using immunofluorescence to identify differences in expression. Spots that were over- or under-expressed in the induced cell culture were excised from the gels, dissolved, put through trypsin digest and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. 23 proteins were identified to be up or down regulated in cultured dental pulp stem cells induced to develop into odontoblasts. The authors grouped these as cytoskeletal proteins, nuclear proteins, calcium binding proteins, proteins 8  involved in matrix synthesis, metabolic enzymes, cell signaling or proteins with unknown functions. This is a commendable study, showing how different environmental conditions change protein expression. However, this is a tissue culture study and in vivo conditions are understood to be much more complicated than a single cell line being exposed to a single stimulus. Also of note, authors in many proteomics papers categorize proteins found as belonging to certain sub-groups of proteins. This implies the functions of proteins identified are well understood. But multiple functions are usually ascribed to given proteins, and this list tends to expand with time. The same protein, or different isoforms of a protein, may perform varying functions in different tissues. Thus, assigning a functional role to a given protein identified in a tissue is somewhat arbitrary. For example, Wei lists Vimentin as being a cytoskeletal protein. Vimentin has been identified in this role, but the UniProt website (http://www.uniprot.org) lists multiple other functions, including double stranded RNA binding, glycoprotein binding, identical protein binding, keratin filament binding, C-protein terminus binding, scaffold protein binding, a structural constituent of cytoskeleton, and a structural constituent of eye lens. Thus vimentin’s exact function within this cell line under this stimulus is uncertain.  1.3.3 Jágr et al. dentin and dental pulp studies Two further papers I will review are from Jágr et al (Eckhardt et al., 2014; Jágr et al., 2012). They used extracted wisdom teeth, taking five teeth from five donors, ages 22-23. The technique they used to separate dentin from pulp, enamel and cementum was to first scrape away the cementum layer and soft tissue remnants with an iron spatula, and then to remove the coronal part of the tooth by cutting away the crown beneath the cemento-enamel junction. Following these procedures, the tooth roots were crushed in a jaw vice. Finally pulp and dentin fragments were separated manually with cotton pliers and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The first study is an analysis of the dentin proteome, the second of the pulp proteome. These proteomes 9  are related since dentin is understood to by synthesized by pulp.  As Eckhardt states in the second paper in this series, their objective was not only to “create a. . .list of proteins present in human dental pulp tissue,” but also to “study the proteins in the pulp-dentin complex.” Several other studies have been done on dentin proteomics (Chun et al., 2011; Park et al., 2009) ,but Jágr et al’s is the most comprehensive. Finally, in this chapter I will briefly discuss a review paper (Jágr et al., 2014).   1.3.3.1 Jágr et al. Dentin proteomics The first of their papers examines the dentin proteome (Jágr et al., 2012). Frozen dentin fragments were pulverized into powder, which were extracted with GuHCl, demineralized with EDTA, and finally subjected to gel separation. Jágr used 2D gel separation of dentin proteins where previous dentin proteome studies had used 1D gel separation. This contributed to improved annotation of proteins through more peptide identifications. Gel protein analysis is advantageous in that it produces some quantitative information where my research, to be discussed later, is purely qualitative, e.g. showing the protein was present but giving no indication of its relative proportion within the total tissue protein. Jágr et al. are also aware that proteins with high pH values are not separated well on gels, nor are proteins with high or low molecular weight. Following the 2D gel separation technique protein dots were removed, dissolved, trypsin digest was performed followed by LC-MS/MS analysis.   1.3.3.2 The Dentin proteome is relatively small Dentin is potentially an advantageous tissue to do proteomics on since the number of proteins in dentin may be less than in most soft tissues. The mineralized tissue component of dentin is non-vital so it can be expected that dentin organic matrix is fairly consistent, made up from a limited number of proteins laid down as a lattice during the initial stages of dentin synthesis. 10  Importantly, these proteins probably have minimal turnover, due to tissue non-vitality, whereas the vital dental pulp proteome in all likelihood changes dynamically, both during development and in response to environmental changes caused by caries, trauma etc. Jágr et al. compare their results with the two other dentin proteomics studies cited above and stated the top 10 most abundant proteins found in dentin were “approximately” the same in all three studies. Despite this somewhat vague conclusion this is a primary goal of proteomics research: to find correlation between different studies of the same tissue. They were able to find 289 proteins but 20 were removed from the total because they were likely contaminant proteins, keratins etc. Keratin could have come from skin, despite careful gloved handling of tissues, in sufficient quantities to appear on experimental gels. An issue with Jágr et al’s study, and many proteomic studies, is purity of sample. Experimental teeth were crushed and the soft tissue components removed, but because odontoblast processes extend into dentin, pulpal soft tissue is an integral component of dentin hard tissue and very difficult to remove. Also, the separation of soft and hard tissue components with tissue pliers may be where many of these putative contaminants originated in the sample, since smaller fragments would have been difficult to see and remove. For example, the authors identified three enamel proteins—ANXA1, ANXA2 and ANXA5—that are probably contaminants from enamel that became accidentally incorporated into the sample. This is always an issue with proteomics, proteins identified in tissue samples cannot be specifically tagged to cells or tissue regions unless radiolabeled antibodies to individual proteins are made, which can later be localized using tissue histology. For example, immune response proteins were identified in this study, suggesting dentin is a more biologically active tissue than is thought, but these proteins could also have come from fragments of dental pulp tissue in the original dentin sample.  11  1.3.3.3 Eckhard et al., 2014 the dental pulp proteome The second half of this study examined the dental pulp tissue from the original crushed wisdom tooth roots (Eckhardt et al., 2014). The manner in which pulp samples were obtained, crushing the roots in a vice and removing the hard tissue fragments, could have created considerable contamination of sample with dentin, cementum and even enamel fragments.  Moreover these procedures would have involved significant trauma to pulp tissue and encouraged natural proteolysis, possibly reducing the final yield of proteins, e.g. caspase activity associated with apoptosis.  Eckhardt et al. performed a good analysis of the proteins they found in pulp and compare these to the proteins previously found in their dentin samples. They also include a thorough review of dental pulp literature and drew attention to examples of specific proteins found in both their and other studies. For example, they highlighted vimentin and nestin (which we also found in our 2015 study) (Eckhard et al., 2015; Eckhardt et al., 2014).  1.3.3.4 Eckhardt et al., 2014 data analysis A criticism of this research is that the LC-MS/MS analysis is not up to current standards. They used Mascot thresholds for determining the true hits, a Mascot score ≥ 20 to identify a peptide and ≥ 60 to identify a protein. The current standard is to start with the search software, e.g. Mascot, but then input this search engine data into higher level software, e.g. the TPP, to assess the number and quality of mascot hits for specific peptides in determining FDR for both peptides and proteins (in our study we used FDR ≤ 1 % for both). This is not wrong per se but does not conform to current HPP standards (Deutsch et al., 2016a). Using their data analysis protocols they found 342 pulp proteins.   12  1.3.3.5 Practical applications of proteomics research In their introduction, Eckhardt et al., made an effort to relate their proteomic research to clinical application for regeneration and repair of the pulp dentin complex (Eckhardt et al., 2014). The ‘why’ and ‘where will this take us’ are valid questions in proteomic research, but clinical applications are still largely conjectural and, at this stage, proteomics is more molecular anatomy than becoming applied molecular science. We need to understand the anatomy before we can understand function and the anatomy is very complicated as I discuss in this thesis. I do not feel we are on the verge of discovering some critical protein that will revascularize the pulp-dentin complex in regenerative endodontic therapy and the authors mislead the reader somewhat in suggesting they were.  Eckhardt et al. show a Venn diagram (Fig. 2) illustrating 37 proteins shared by pulp and dentin tissues which are not present in the plasma. They concluded “these proteins might be candidates to participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex and thus have potential in future regenerative approaches.” This is a misrepresentation of their data. Any of the proteins in the pulp tissue could be important for regeneration, since it is the pulp which produces the dentin. Dentin contains growth factors that stimulate the pulp to differentiate and lay down dentin (Hargreaves et al., 2012). But the authors seem to infer that a Venn overlap indicates an anatomical relationship where the proteins are working side by side to create new dentin. Eckhardt et al. made a brief attempt to justify their claim that their research is important to improve regenerative therapy in discussing a cell culture study comparing the proteomes of bovine dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells, finding 5 proteins that were upregulated in the dental stem cells compared with the other two stem cell populations (Mrozik et al., 2010). Eckhardt et al. identified two of these in their research: ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hyrdrolase isozyme L1 and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1. However, G6PD is a basic enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, active in all cells, 13  Eckhardt et al., did not discuss how this protein could be important for regenerative therapy. These experiments are significant efforts to better understand proteomics, how protein expression changes across related cell types and within cell types under changing conditions. However, I feel it is important to not overstate the short term impact of proteomics—which is still firmly in the realm of basic science—or proteomics may lose credibility. Jágr et al. also published a broader review in “Proteomics of Human Teeth and Saliva” which discusses pulp and dentin in some depth and their relationships with other tooth components and the importance of saliva (Jágr et al., 2014). I mention this paper because the authors discuss caries, the commonest disease of teeth, and highlight how much remains unknown about why some individuals are caries resistant while others are caries susceptible.  Jágr et al., propose this may well be due to protein antibacterial agents or proteins which protect tooth surfaces in some way. These could be components of saliva or dentinal fluid. Elucidating other protein mechanisms of caries resistance or caries susceptibility could lead to clinical applications or at least to better understanding of cariology and epidemiology. Individual variation in the ability of saliva to buffer bacterial acids which cause caries is well understood, but there could be additional pulpal elements, potentially proteins, which also confer caries resistance.  1.3.3.6 Organic matrix of dentin The role the organic matrix of dentin plays in initiating and regulating dentin mineralization is understood on a conceptual level but not in detail. For example, Jágr et al. discuss how some matrix proteins are thought to act as nucleators, attracting hydroxyapatite crystal formation around them, while other proteins act as inhibitors to mineralization, possibly maintaining patency of dentinal tubules (Jágr et al., 2014). Clinical endodontics shows many examples of how mineralization can go awry, for example root canal calcification, formation of pulp stones, 14  sclerotic dentin. Dentin and root canals are highly variable structures. They go on to highlight many pathological processes within dentin already understood to involve problems with proteins. Collagens are the major protein component of dentin, comprising 85-90 % of its organic structure. Collagen type I is a simple protein made up of X-gly-X repeats, but it’s combinations with other forms of collagen and 3-D molecular structure quickly make it a very complicated lattice upon which hydroxyapatite can be laid down. Collagen types III, V, VI, XI, XII are all understood to be components of dentin organic matrix. Minor protein components of dentine may be just as important in affecting its biological properties. For example, defects in dentin sialophosphoprotein, the most abundant non-collagenous protein found in dentin, are associated with dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III. Dentin sialophosphoprotein is thought to stimulate mineralization of dentin but dentin sialophosphoprotein is also found in non-mineralizing tissues where it must perform other functions (Jágr et al., 2014).   1.3.3.7 Dentin participation in the immune response? Jágr et al. 2014 hypothesize dentin protein components of the immune response may contribute to caries prevention. But the evidence level is weak to make this supposition. Can the immune response of the dentin-pulp complex prevent caries? Caries can progress slower or faster in different individuals and this may be related to pulpal immune response, but it would be difficult to design a study which standardized patient bacterial flora, diet and oral hygiene—known strong risk factors, so that significant dentin-pulp complex immune protein effects could be observed. Jágr et al. discuss all of the dental pulp’s cellular constituents, their role in dentin regeneration, immune response, and tooth sensation and how the neural component of dental pulp is vital to function in many ways. For example, denervated teeth have been shown to have diminished survival, confirming important cooperation between odontoblasts and/or other pulpal 15  cells, and nerve fibers. In addition to fibroblasts, the dental pulp stroma interior to the odontoblast layer is made up of many immune cells: dendritic cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal cells including dental pulp stem cells, which are one of the potential stem cell populations to allow pulp regeneration/ revascularization therapy.  1.3.4 Eckhard et al., 2015 1.3.4.1 Currently the definitive study in pulp proteomics The largest pulp proteomics study to date, was published by our group in 2015 (Eckhard et al., 2015). We found 4332 proteins at an FDR ≤ 1 %, making it by far the most extensive pulp proteomics study to date. This was a proteomics oriented study, aimed at identifying the largest number of proteins possible with high confidence using multiple search engines and the TPP, closely adhering to HPP mass spectrometry guidelines for the standardization of data interpretation in protein identification worldwide (Deutsch et al., 2016a). Most of the techniques I employed in my research protocols were developed in this research so the body of my thesis is in many ways part two of this 2015 study.   1.3.4.2 Missing proteins Eckhard et al. discuss the problem of persistent missing proteins. After numerous high quality, large scale proteomics studies, more than 12 % of predicted proteins remain undetected, likely due to one of six possible factors. Missing proteins remain unfound because they either: 1) appear only in organs or regions difficult to study, 2) are expressed only during certain developmental stages (e.g.. prenatally), 3) are expressed only under unusual stress conditions at which times it is difficult to take tissue samples, 4) are present in very small numbers and so below detectability with current technology, 5) lack tryptic cleavage sites to produce peptides of manageable size for LC-MS/MS detection (e.g. peptides which are too long to be processed 16  predictably), or 6) share sequence homology with other proteins. This last possibility is an interesting dilemma where the same tryptic peptide may originate from several different proteins. In such situations, the TPP counts the redundant peptide as contributing to confirming all potential source proteins, but additional non-redundant peptides are required to confirm that each specific protein is present. Thus, if a ‘missing’ protein has only tryptic cleavage sites which produce peptides shared with other proteins, and lacks a specific non-redundant peptide which can originate only from the missing protein, then it will not be positively Identified with proteomics using trypsin digest peptides, even though it’s redundant peptides are present in the samples.  1.3.4.3 Patterns of peptide N-terminus modifications Eckhard et al. performed a thorough analysis of modifications to identified peptides which show patterns applicable to human proteomics in general, for example they found that where the N-terminus was an Alanine, Serine, or Threonine residue it was almost always acetylated, whereas for Glycine, Lysine and Valine residues N-termini were typically free. Eckhard et al. discuss the complex biology of dental pulp, being comprised of fibroblasts, plasma proteins and other proteins derived from red and white blood cells, e.g. cathepsin K from neutrophil lysosomes. Dentin sialophosphoprotein was also identified in the pulp samples and attributed this to the presence of odontoblasts. The paper discusses how ideally proteins should be identified with several high quality peptide spectra matches and for the best confirmation such peptide spectra are compared to the spectra of synthetically derived reference peptides. The analysis of peptides identified is very detailed and reveals many interesting products, for example proteins were identified with unprocessed signal peptides. These signal peptides indicate the protein is marked to be secreted. So these proteins were identified somewhere 17  between translation and secretion (when the signal peptide is usually removed by signal peptidases)(Eckhard et al., 2015).   1.3.4.4 Novel cleavages identified by TOPFINDER tool This study shows the power of our preTAILS shotgun combined with TAILS analysis examining semi-ArgC peptide cleavage products in expanding the proteome of dental pulp. We discovered many internal N-termini indicating novel cleavages, many of which we were able to map with the web tool TOPFINDER developed by our group. This is a data analysis tool that contains information on existing evidence for novel termini, so our N-terminal peptides could be confirmed as previously identified, or if not they could be added to the database. This is an important collaborative tool into post-translational modifications; individual protein products which undergo enzymatic cleavage to form multiple proteins with independent biologic activity.   1.4 Research goals My research was fairly large in scope, examining the dental pulps of 26 wisdom teeth from 9 donors. The primary goal of my study was to separate the central pulp tissue from the odontoblast cell layer to produce an odontoblast enriched sample and a pulpal stroma sample. Then by using techniques developed in our earlier study (Eckhard et al., 2015), I hoped to demonstrate differences in the proteomes of these two tissues, reflecting their different functional roles in the dentin-pulp complex. My secondary goals were to continue our earlier research by confirming and further annotating the pulp stroma proteome and, hopefully, identify some proteins classified as ‘missing’ within the neXtProt database (http://www.nextprot.org). I also wanted to take advantage of the fact that our donors age ranged from 15 to 39 years, a period during which wisdom teeth complete their development, meaning they shift from the late developmental period of rapid dentin formation and root completion, to the adult period of dentin 18  maintenance. By comparing the younger pulps, i.e. ≤ 20 years, to the mature pulps, i.e. > 20 years, I hoped to find proteomic differences that reflected this shift. This would give me multiple data sets to compare, pulp stroma to odontoblast, young to mature, young stroma to old stroma etc.  By subdividing and comparing the proteomes of these different groups I hoped to gain insight into the biology of dental pulp through patterns and/or differences I identified.  _________________________________________________________ 19  Chapter 2: Body of Thesis  2.1  Introduction The human dental pulp organ is the terminal developmental stage of the embryologic dental papilla from which the mesenchymal tooth elements, pulp and dentin, originate. As such the dental pulp is responsible for the various developmental stages of dentin and then dentin maintenance throughout life. Upon tooth eruption, the dental pulp establishes neural communication with the trigeminal ganglion, which allows tooth sensation, for example to temperature, pressure, pH, and osmotic forces. The dental pulp also responds to various events and stresses that may occur in the life of the tooth, e.g. caries, trauma, occlusal disturbances (Hargreaves et al., 2012; Kumar, 2011). Thus, knowledge of the pulp proteome should lead to improved understanding of pulpal function at a molecular level, and this has potential for clinical translation e.g. to reduce chronic dentinal sensitivity, or to encourage pulpal regeneration.  Cell protein expression dynamically changes depending on the current needs of the cell and the cell’s role within tissue. Furthermore, different regions of an organ are specialized to perform specific functions. Thus, the odontoblast layer is responsible for producing and maintaining dentin, synthesizing proteins in common with other mineralized tissues, and unique proteins with roles in mineralization, most notably the dentin-specific dentin sialophosphoprotein (MacDougall et al., 1997), whereas the pulpal stroma is responsible for supplying nutrients and removing metabolites from the odontoblast cell layer and also maintaining the nerve and blood supply to the pulp. No proteomic analysis has been performed to date on odontoblasts, due in part to their low cell numbers and unique monolayer distribution in the pulp chamber. Moreover, few proteomics studies have been performed on pulp or dentin and these have mostly utilized 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis. Thus, the odontoblast proteome is unknown and our previous 20  reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of human dental pulp represents the largest data set of any dental tissue to date (Eckhard et al., 2015). Here we developed a technique to extract odontoblast cell layer protein for proteomic analysis from the limited numbers of cells present in the human odontoblast layer. We compared this proteome with paired analyses of healthy dental pulps from prophylactic 3rd molar extractions.  2.2 Materials and methods 2.2.1 Pulp harvest procedure and protein extraction  Informed consent was obtained from patients according to protocols approved by the University of British Columbia Clinical Research Ethics Board. Human dental pulps were collected from healthy, caries-free 3rd molars of two female and seven male patients, ranging from 15 to 39 years of age (Table 1). All extractions were prophylactic. Immediately after extraction, the teeth were partially sectioned vertically or axially with a high-speed dental turbine under water spray, to minimize heating or traumatizing pulp tissue, and split in two with a dental elevator exposing the pulp. Using sterile curettes and barbed broaches, tissue from the pulp chambers and coronal thirds of root canals was harvested and placed in 250 µL of protein denaturant solution (8 M GuHCl) and transported on dry ice. After weighing the pulp samples, 8 M GuHCl was added to 500 µL and the samples were stored at -80 °C. For sample preparation, the pulps were homogenized using an Ultra-Turrax (IKA Works, Inc.) in 8 M GuHCl and further extracted for 90 min at 22 °C—conditions under which pulp proteins, including proteases, are denatured and inactivated. Dental pulp protein was collected by chloroform/methanol precipitation and dissolved in 500 µL of 8 M GuHCl, as described previously (Eckhard et al., 2015). The protein concentration was determined using the Bradford assay (Bio-Rad) with bovine serum albumin as a standard. To extract protein from the odontoblast cell layer after removal of the pulp stroma 21  we employed a modified crucible technique that we had pioneered previously (Tjäderhane et al., 1998) and had used to show that human odontoblasts remain firmly attached to the dentin and so can be cultured for several days upon addition of culture medium. Following a similar procedure, the four decoronated and depulped 3rd molars, consisting of the root trunk apical to the cementoenamel junction and the attached tooth roots, were vertically mounted in beading wax to create a closed system where the canal foramina were occluded. The pulp chambers and root canal systems were filled with ~100 µL 8 M GuHCl denaturant solution and the odontoblast cell layer protein, with potentially some nonmineralized dentin matrix proteins, was extracted overnight at 22 ºC (Fig. 1A). Following two 50 µL 8 M GuHCl washes, the denaturant solution and washes were pooled for each donor, and processed as described above for the pulp stroma samples.  2.2.2 Histological analysis The pulp from tooth #48, donor 5 was fixed in 4 % paraformaldehyde in PBS overnight at 4 °C. The sample was subsequently washed four times with PBS, dehydrated through a graded series of ethanol washes, and cleared with xylene. The sample was then embedded in paraffin blocks and cut into serial sections of 12 μm thickness. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and digital image recording were performed by Wax-it Histology Services at the University of British Columbia to confirm the amount of the odontoblast cell layer remaining on typical pulp samples (Fig. 1B).  2.2.3 TAILS N-terminomics Protein N-termini enrichment by TAILS was performed as follows (Fig. 2) (Kleifeld et al., 2011b): samples were reduced in 5 mM dithiothreitol (30 min, 65 °C) to allow cysteine carbamidomethylation using 15 mM iodoacetamide (45 min in the dark, room temperature). 22  Excess blocking reagent was quenched by adding 10 mM dithiothreitol (30 min, room temperature). The pH was then adjusted to 6.5, to allow reductive dimethylation of primary amines, with 40 mM heavy formaldehyde (13CD2O in D2O; Cambridge Isotopes) and 20 mM sodium cyanoborohydride (overnight at 37 °C). Importantly, blocking of primary amines was performed at the whole protein level before trypsin digest. Thus, protein alpha amines of free protein N-termini were labeled, thereby allowing for their enrichment and discrimination by TAILS from internal tryptic peptides. Following overnight incubation, 20 mM heavy formaldehyde and 20 mM cyanoborohydride were readded (2 h, 37 °C) to ensure complete amine labeling. Reactions were then quenched using 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8 (30 min, 37 °C), and reagents and salts removed by chloroform/methanol protein precipitation (Wessel and Flügge, 1984). Polypeptide pellets were dissolved in 50 mM NaOH, adjusted to pH 7.5 with 100 mM 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-ethanesulfonic acid, 250 µL, diluted 1:1 with HPLC-grade water, and digested with mass spectrometry‐grade trypsin (Trypsin Gold, Promega) at 100:1 (w/w) protein:enzyme ratio. Following overnight incubation at 37 °C, digestion efficiency was confirmed with SDS-PAGE. 10 % of the tryptic digest was analyzed by shotgun proteomics “preTAILS” analyses (~50 μg protein). To separate trypsin-generated internal and C-terminal peptides and to allow for enrichment of the N-terminome, the TAILS samples were adjusted to pH 6.5 and water-soluble HPG-ALD polymer (http://flintbox.com/public/project/1948/) was added (5x peptide mass w/w) in 20 mM sodium cyanoborohydride, pH 6.8 (37 °C, overnight) to covalently link the tryptic peptides via their free primary alpha amines to the polymer. The coupling reaction was quenched with 100 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 6.8 (30 min, 37 °C), and both the naturally blocked (e.g. acetylated or pyro-Glu) and experimentally labeled N-terminal peptides (dimethylated N-terminal peptides) were collected by ultra-filtration (Amicon Ultra-0.5, MWCO 10 kDa). The internal tryptic and C-terminal peptides covalently bound to the polymer remained trapped on the filter. All blocked N-terminal peptides comprising 23  the N-terminome (TAILS) and shotgun (preTAILS) samples were desalted using C18 STAGE-tips (Rappsilber et al., 2007) and frozen in liquid nitrogen until analysis by LC-MS/MS according to (Eckhard et al., 2015).  2.2.4 Mass spectrometry Peptide samples after C18 STAGE-tip purification were analyzed using an Accurate Mass G6550A quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer (Agilent), coupled on-line to a nanoflow HPLC (Agilent 1200 Series) with a Chip Cube nanospray ionization interface (Agilent). A high capacity HPLC-Chip (Agilent) with 160 nL enrichment column and a 0.075 mm x 150 mm analytical column (Zorbax 300SB-C18, 5 μm) was used. Each sample was loaded on the enrichment column at a flow rate of 4 μL/min (buffer A; 0.1 % formic acid) and with a 4 μL injection flush volume. After that, a 110.2 min gradient was established at 300 nL/min; first from 0 % to 5 % buffer B (99.9 % acetonitrile, 0.1 % formic acid) over 2 min, then from 5 % to 45 % buffer B over 78 min, then increased to 60 % over 10 minutes, and brought in one step (0.1 min) to 95 % buffer B, held at 95 % for 20 min, and then reduced to 3 % buffer B again (0.1 min) to recondition the column for the next analysis. Peptides were ionized by electrospray ionization at 1.8 kV, and MS-analysis was performed in positive polarity with precursor ions detected between 300 and 2000 m/z. The top three ions per scan were selected for collision induced dissociation (CID) using a narrow exclusion window of 1.3 atomic mass units and at a MS/MS scan rate of two spectra per second. The collision energy was adjusted automatically depending on the charge state of the parent ions, and precursor ions were then excluded for 30 s from further CID. The LC-MS/MS system was controlled by Mass Hunter version B.02.01 (Agilent).  24  2.2.5 Data analysis Agilent LC-MS/MS raw data were converted to mgf and mzXML files using MSConvertGUI (Chambers et al., 2012) so that the acquired spectra could be matched to peptide sequences in the human UniProt protein database (http://www.uniprot.org, release 2013_10) using four dedicated search engines, Mascot v2.4 (Perkins et al., 1999), X! Tandem CYCLONE TPP 2011.12.01.1 (Craig and Beavis, 2004), MS-GF+ v10072 (Kim and Pevzner, 2014), and Comet 2015.01 rev 0 (Eng et al., 2013). Search criteria were set at a semi-ArgC cleavage pattern using the same parameters as in our earlier study (Eckhard et al., 2015). Identified peptide-spectrum-matches (PSMs) were statistically evaluated using PeptideProphet (Keller et al., 2002), and combined using iProphet (Shteynberg et al., 2011) within the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) v4.8.0 PHILAE (Deutsch et al., 2015); a 1 % false discovery rate (FDR) cut-off was applied. Peptides were assigned to proteins using the ProteinProphet (Nesvizhskii et al., 2003) module within TPP, and protein probability was set to ≥ 0.95, equivalent to a FDR of ≤ 1 %. Where peptides matched multiple protein sequences, ProteinProphet chose one protein entry as representative.  2.2.6 Bioinformatics analysis For a peptide to be classified as a valid N-terminus it required both a blocked N-terminus and a C-terminal arginine. Note that while trypsin normally cleaves C-terminal of both arginine and lysine residues, lysines in the TAILS workflow were dimethylated at the protein level and so were protected from trypsin cleavage. Blocked true N-termini were classified as those with either: 1) an N-terminus carrying a heavy dimethyl label, indicative of a free amino terminus before trypsin digest, or 2) an acetylated N-terminus or pyro-glutamate N-terminus, both of which are enzymatically mediated modified N-termini. Two other blocked N-terminal peptides were selected for by the TAILS protocol, but do not necessarily represent protein N-termini as 25  they mainly result from spontaneous N-terminal cyclization of glutamine (Gln->pyro‐Gln) or carbamidomethylated cysteine (Cys -> pyro-Cys). These cyclizations are known side-reactions of tryptic peptides under the applied experimental conditions, but are useful to improve protein identification since they are valid predominantly internal peptides. Protein identifications of so-called “missing” proteins were based on neXtProt classes PE2-PE5 (www.nextprot.org, release 2014-09-19) and rechecked against release 2017-04-12. Thus, due to the risk of missed assignment of internal tryptic peptides commencing with a cysteine or glutamine as N-termini, this stringency of analysis excludes potential bona fide natural N-termini commencing with Gln or Cys from being further considered.   2.3 Results 2.3.1 Protein extract sample summary The homogeneity of the central pulp stroma and its separation from the majority of the odontoblast cell layer was confirmed by histology (Fig. 1B,C). As the pulp tissue sample contained proportionally a very small number of remnant odontoblasts, the proteomic data needs be interpreted with this minor caveat. A total of 39 LC-MS/MS analyses were performed: 10 of the odontoblast cell layer and 29 of pulp stroma (Table 1).  2.3.2 Proteomic workflow and statistical analysis of mass spectra data Categorization of the N-terminome confirmed high enrichment of N-terminal peptides by TAILS from the internal semi-Arg(C) peptides (Fig. 2) and the figure also shows the relative proportions of the various N-terminal peptides. Figure 3 provides an overview of the numbers of peptides and proteins identified at the various steps in the bioinformatics workflow. Thus, the PSM matches by each of the 4 search engines in the pulp stroma (12,063 nonredundant peptides) and odontoblast cell layer (4,888 nonredundant peptides) before statistical modeling using the 26  TPP are shown in Figure 3A,D. The PSM identifications were then statistically verified using PeptideProphet for the preTAILS shotgun and TAILS N-terminomic analyses and combined  Table 1. Pulp Protein Sample Data  Table 1. Tooth donor sex, age, and corresponding number of acquired LC-MS/MS shotgun preTAILS and TAILS data sets of donor dental pulp and odontoblast cell layer protein. Numbers of unique peptides and total peptides are the sum of PreTAILS shotgun + TAILS peptides from each donor sample identified by all of the four search engines (Mascot, X! Tandem, MS-GF+, and Comet) and having a PeptideProphet output with an FDR ≤ 1 %.   27  using iProphet for the pulp stroma (total of 11,314 peptides; 2-way Venn diagrams) and odontoblast cell layer (4,648) (Fig. 3A,D; 2-way Venn diagrams). From positional information, the total numbers of protein N-termini were calculated after using iProphet to combine the data sets (Fig. 3B,E; 2-way Venn diagrams), which were assigned to parent proteins from direct interpolation of the peptide data (Fig. 3C,F). Finally, true protein identifications were assigned by ProteinProphet at an FDR ≤ 1 % (Fig. 4A-C). TAILS is highly sensitive. Thus, despite the odontoblast cell layer proteome being prepared from a very small number of dentin-adherent odontoblasts and detached tubules after removal of the pulp stroma, we identified one third as many odontoblast proteins (895) as pulp stroma proteins (2,423) (Fig. 4C).   2.3.3 Protein identifications The identification of 2,974 pulp proteins here (Fig. 4A), when combined with our earlier study (Eckhard et al., 2015), have greatly expanded the annotation of the pulp proteome by 5,097 unique proteins (Fig. 4B). This represents a major contribution to the total known pulp protein numbers identified by mass spectrometry (5,190), as revealed by comparing our combined annotation with two earlier studies from other groups (Fig. 4A,B). However, these previous  studies were made using 2D gel proteomics performed with one search engine alone and without statistical modeling at a FDR < 5 % (Eckhardt et al., 2014; Pääkkönen et al., 2005). Note, that due to the increased stringency applied in the identification of peptides and proteins by statistical modeling in our multistep bioinformatics pipeline, the total numbers of peptides and proteins confidently identified was reduced from that initially obtained using search engines alone (see Fig. 3A,C,D,F).  Comparison of our odontoblast cell layer proteome data with a previous dentin proteome report (Jágr et al., 2012) reveals similarities and differences between the proteins found in the odontoblast cell layer and dentin (Fig. 4C). We also compared the odontoblast cell layer  28    Figure 1. Protein extraction and histological confirmation (A) Protein extraction steps (i to iv) applied to the dental pulp and odontoblast cell layer of third molars in this study. (B) H & E stain of axial section of pulp tissue from distal root of tooth #48, donor 5. The majority of the odontoblast layer remained attached to the dentinal walls, but in some areas remnants of odontoblast layer were found attached to the pulp tissue. Bar, 600 μm. (C) High power detail of boxed area in B. Bar, 100 μm.     29   proteomes of donors younger/older than 20 years, showing differences, but with the caveat that undersampling may have skewed this comparison (Fig. 4D). Appendix Figure 6 shows the total peptide spectra matches for the four search engines. Appendix Figure 7 shows the breakdown of naturally occurring N-termini, compared with neo-N-termini that are the result of unknown proteolytic processing or incidental cleavages. Almost two thirds of N-termini are classified as neo-N-termini in both the odontoblast and pulpal stromal samples, indicating proteolytic events that are as yet unexplained. A similar pattern was seen with N-termini in our earlier study (Eckhard et al., 2015). Appendix Table 1 lists the 211 proteins found in the odontoblast sample (Fig. 4C) that were not identified in the pulpal stroma or dentin. Appendix Tables 3, 4, 5 list proteins found in the young pulp odontoblast sample versus those found in the mature pulp odontoblast sample, and those proteins found in the odontoblast samples of both young and mature pulps (Fig. 4D). Uploaded to ProteomeXchange are the complete peptide and protein lists and all mass spectrometry data from each experiment and mass spectrometry analysis under the PXD identifier ˂PXD006557˃  2.3.4 Comparison with other tissue matrisomes We compared the extracellular matrix proteins found in the odontoblast cell layer and the dental pulp with tissue distributions of other extracellular matrix proteins in the so called “matrisome” (Naba et al., 2016) (Appendix Tables 3 and 4). Dentin is a unique human connective tissue and one that has dentin specific proteins, such as dentin sialophosphoprotein (MacDougall et al., 1997), as well as proteins common to mineralized bone, e.g. osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and dentin matrix protein 1. NeXtProt and Peptide Atlas do not list dentin sialophosphoprotein as having been identified by mass spectrometry. Here, we identified the highly charged dentin sialophosphoprotein in the odontoblast cell layer by both N-terminal 30   Figure 2. TAILS workflow and Peptide Classification31   Figure 2. (A) TAILS workflow. 1. Tissue samples were extracted in 8 M GuHCl denaturant buffer. 2. Denatured protein (in blue) schematic shows the N-terminal peptide in red. 3. N-terminal -amines of peptides and -amino groups of lysine side chains were dimethylated with isotopically labelled formaldehyde. The denatured proteins were trypsinized, cleaving C-terminal to arginine residues only as the lysines were blocked. 4. ~10 % of the sample was directed for preTAILS shotgun proteomic analysis. 5. To enrich for protein N-terminal peptides, the HPG-ALD polymer was used to covalently bind and remove the internal tryptic peptides. 6. Upon subsequent ultrafiltration, the blocked N-terminal peptides were collected in the unbound fraction whereas the internal tryptic peptides bound to the polymer were retained on the filter. 7. preTAILS shotgun proteome and TAILS N-terminome samples. 8. Samples submitted for LC-MS/MS analysis. 9. Bioinformatic analyses of the aquired peptide fragmentation spectra. (B) Classification of peptides identified by preTAILS shotgun and TAILS N-terminome analyses showing the high enrichment of N-terminal peptides by TAILS (red) from the internal tryptic and C-terminal peptides (blue). PSM, Peptide Spectra Match, whereby LC-MS/MS spectra are matched by search engine software to the mass-to-charge-ratio (m/z) and the fragmentation pattern of a peptide sequence in the Uniprot database by the four search engines shown. The pie chart shows the relative proportions of the five main types of N-terminal peptide identified: peptides with experimental conjugated dimethylation (denoted as ‘free’, unblocked natural N-termini), natural acetylation (predominantly at positions 1 and 2 of the protein chain), or the three common N-terminal cyclizations of glutamate (pyroE), glutamine (pyroQ) or cysteine (pyroC).   peptides and shotgun tryptic peptides. Confirming our recent report (Eckhard et al., 2015), we also identified dentin sialophosphoprotein in dental pulp by N-terminal and internal tryptic peptides, where dentin sialophosphoprotein most likely derives from the remnant odontoblasts in the dental pulp sample. Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, dentin matrix protein 1 were not identified in the odontoblast cell layer, possibly reflecting completed dentin formation in the portion of the donor tooth analyzed at the age sampled. 32   Figure 3. Unique peptides, protein N-termini and proteins identified    33    Figure 3. Compares unique peptides, protein N-termini, and proteins identified in odontoblast cell layer and pulpal stroma extracts. The 4-way Venn diagrams show the peptide and protein identifications filtered by PeptideProphet to a FDR ≤ 1 % from the 4 search engines; the 2-way Venn diagrams show the unique peptides, protein N-termini, and proteins identified by the preTAILS and TAILS analyses and analyzed by iProphet to a FDR ≤ 1 %. The number of proteins shown in the 2- and 4-way Venn diagrams is an estimate extrapolated from the peptide data with an ~ FDR ≤ 5 % at this initial step in the bioinformatic pipeline we used.    2.3.5 Proteomic evidence of four ‘missing’ proteins We found proteomic evidence for 4 of the current 3,134 proteins listed as ”missing proteins” in the neXtProt knowledge base (Fig. 5), the official knowledge base of the Human Proteome Project of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) (Deutsch et al., 2016). Missing proteins are defined as those without protein existence (PE) at the protein level (PE1), whereas PE2 proteins have only been detected by transcript evidence alone. Figure 5 shows four high confidence, previously unidentified (PE2) or only recently identified (PE1), proteins we found in the dental pulp samples. The high confidence, FDR ≤ 1 %, TAILS peptides are shown in red, whereas peptides found by preTAILS shotgun analyses are shown in blue. Biological replicates, i.e. finding the same peptide in different donors, increase the probability that a protein has been identified, as do technical replicates, i.e. finding the peptide multiple times in the same donor (Deutsch et al., 2016). Thus, the effectiveness of an orthogonal technique, such as TAILS, is revealed in increasing proteome coverage and identifying unique peptides and proteins, which were not found in shotgun proteomics approaches (Fig. 5). The four “found” missing protein candidates are: uncharacterized protein C14orf105 (Q9NVL8), existence is  34         Figure 4. Comparison of dental pulp proteomic studies    35   Figure 4. (A) Comparison of our present analyses with the 3 previous dental pulp proteomics studies in the literature. The left column (pink/yellow) is the sum of two 2D gel studies (452 proteins). The green and blue bars are protein numbers from our recent (Eckhard et al. 2015) and present study after ProteinProphet analysis, FDR ≤ 1 %. In A and B we used ProteinProphet to identify proteins with an FDR ≤ 1 % using all 39 odontoblast (10) + pulpal stroma (29) data sets combined, which gave 2,974 unique proteins for dental pulp. In comparison, when the odontoblast cell layer and pulpal stroma data sets were assessed individually (10 vs. 29 data sets) fewer proteins are identified (e.g. panel C) as less peptide evidence is used to generate the statistical model in each of the separate analyses. (B) Overlap in total proteins identified by the 4 studies. The present study identified 955 proteins not previously identified in dental pulp. (C) Venn diagram showing a comparison of the odontoblast cell layer proteome with dental pulp stroma and a proteomic analysis of dentin by Jágr et al. 2012. When the 10 data sets from the odontoblast cell layer (≤ 20 years and > 20 years) were combined for ProteinProphet analysis (FDR ≤ 1 %) 895 proteins were identified. (D) Comparison of the odontoblast proteome of pulps from donors younger than age 20 with those of donors older than 20 after ProteinProphet analyses (FDR ≤ 1 %). Each data set for the two age groups were considered separately (2 vs. 8 data sets) generating a total of 893 unique proteins identified.  based on evidence at the transcript level (PE2); axonemal dynein heavy chain 6 (Q9C0G6), existence is based on evidence at the protein level (PE1); leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 (Q6ZRR7), existence is based on evidence at the transcript level (PE2); and WD repeat- containing protein KIAA1875 (A6NE52), an entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at the protein level (PE1), but for which there is no functional information available. Of these dynein heavy chain 6 is noteworthy as this protein is considered to be a force generating protein of respiratory cilia with ATPase activity involving microtubules and so may play transport roles in the long odontoblast process extension in dentinal tubules.  36   Figure 5. Four proteins we identified that were previously unidentified (neXtProt)    37  Figure 5. Four proteins we identified that had not been previously identified by proteomic analyses. The relative position of the high confidence N-terminal (red) and internal tryptic (blue) peptides identified with a FDR ≤ 1 %. N, number of biological replicates; subscript, donor identifier numbers (see Table 1) in which the peptide was identified; n, number of technical replicates in which the peptide was identified. Numbers indicate amino acid residue position. PE1, neXtProt protein existence 1, where the protein has been identified at the protein level (e.g. by antibodies), but in the examples shown, not previously by mass spectrometry; PE2, neXtProt protein existence 2, where the protein has been identified at the transcript level only. (A) Protein C14orf105 (PE2 neXtProt), two different nested N-terminal peptides were identified starting at position 19 or position 23 and both extending to Arg30. (B) Axonemal dynein heavy chain 6, (PE1 neXtProt), identified with two high confidence peptides found 3 times in 2 donors. (C) Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 (PE2 neXtProt) was identified by a single peptide, but this was found 21 times in 8 donors, giving high confidence of the protein identification. (D) WD repeat-containing protein KIAA1875 (PE1 neXtProt), 4 high confidence peptides were found in 3 donors. Note: only the highest confidence peptides (FDR ≤ 1 %) are shown. R (in blue), arginine.   2.4 Discussion 2.4.1 Progress in pulpal proteomics Despite the limited amount of odontoblast cell layer sample, we generated high quality spectra sufficient to identify nearly 900 human odontoblast cell layer proteins, the first such analysis of odontoblasts. Moreover, our present proteome analysis of human dental pulp in combination with our previous study (Eckhard et al., 2015) has identified in total 5,097 human dental pulp proteins (FDR <1 %), and represents the largest data set of human pulp stroma proteome to date. Unlike pulp stromal fibroblasts, odontoblasts have a specialized role producing and maintaining the mineralized organic matrix of human dentin, yet, odontoblast cell function is incompletely understood. For example, how odontoblasts participate in pulp sensation or 38  secrete dentinal fluid into dentinal tubules remain open questions. Indeed, the odontoblast process that extends into dentinal tubules has no biologic equivalent (Hargreaves et al., 2012). We found that the odontoblast layer had a distinct proteomic composition in comparison with both the adjacent dentin and pulp stromal tissue. This confirmed functional differences between these two areas of the dental pulp. In addition to fibroblasts, resident immune and stem cells, the pulp stroma also contains cells of other tissues, e.g. blood vessels and nerve axons. Thus, these cells also contribute proteins to the dental pulp proteome in addition to extracellular matrix proteins and proteins secreted or shed from the pulp fibroblasts, as listed in the accompanying appendices and in the uploaded publically accessible proteome data sets in the ProteomeXchange database.  2.4.2 Odontoblasts and tooth development The primary role of the odontoblasts and pulp in childhood is tooth development, i.e. formation, eruption and continued root growth, whereas, in adulthood, the role shifts to dentin maintenance. The donor ages (15-39) here enabled limited observation of differences in the pulp proteome across several developmental stages of the 3rd molar teeth we collected. Developmental timing is variable, but the clinical crown of 3rd molars is usually completed between ages 12-16, erupting between age 17-21, with root development completed by 18-25 years (Nelson, 2015). Therefore, we divided our samples into two groups, ≤ 20 years and > 20 years. In the first group, with an actual donor age of 15 to 19, active developmental processes of the root apical region were taking place, with continued rapid deposition of secondary dentin in the clinical crown. However, in the root trunk and coronal one third of the root from where we extracted the odontoblast cell layer proteins, the majority of dentin formation was complete. In the second group, donor ages 27, 30 and 39, all tooth development processes were complete. Although our study had a relatively small sample size, proteins found in the age subgroups 39  examined may direct further study as to their possible roles in tooth development (Appendix Table 2).  2.4.3 Mineralization proteins and donor age Dentin sialophosphoprotein, the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin extracellular matrix and important in dentin mineralization, was identified only in the younger pulps, indicating active mineralization in these teeth versus older teeth, as expected. However, other mineralized extracellular matrix proteins were not identified in the limited amount of human odontoblast cell layer sampled in the root trunk and upper third of the root, e.g. dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein I, osteonectin, osteocalcin, and osteopontin (Hargreaves et al., 2012). Some proteins are recalcitrant to mass spectrometry due to an unfavorable distribution of acidic residues, which do not favor ionization, or of the basic residues that are cleaved by trypsin in proteomic workflows. Alternatively, the absence of evidence for these proteins may be due to the resting state of the odontoblast cell layer present in the coronal one third of the root canals extracted, which may not have been expressing these proteins after root formation here was completed. Although age-related changes in the proteins of the odontoblast cell layer were evident, further analyses at appropriate donor age and developmental stage may be required to identify other mineralized extracellular matrix proteins in odontoblasts by mass spectrometry. In comparison, the peptide and protein identifications comparing younger and older donors for the pulpal stroma was highly overlapped revealing little to no significant proteome changes with age (data not shown, Abbey et al. 2017, unpublished).  2.4.4 Key findings from my research Appendix Table 1 lists the 211 proteins that were found exclusively in the odontoblast cell layer when compared with the pulp stroma and dentin proteomes. Of these, we identified proteins that 40  have been associated with neural function, e.g. neuroplastin (Q9Y639) (Beesley et al., 2014), DMX-like protein 2 (Q8TDJ6) (Nagano et al., 2002), and advillin (Q8NEN9) (Marks et al., 1998), all of which were found only in the odontoblast sample; this may reflect odontoblast sensory roles or the close association between the odontoblast layer and nerve endings which cross over the cell free zone to terminate in the odontoblast layer (Hargreaves et al., 2012). Exclusive to the odontoblast tissue sample, we also found retinal guanylyl cyclase (Q02846), which has been associated with vision (Duda et al., 1999). This protein as well, as olfactory and taste receptor proteins we identified previously (Eckhard et al., 2015), may play roles in dentin sensation mediated by odontoblasts, neurons or both. Odontoblasts also perform a secretory role, producing a constant distal flow of dentinal fluid that moves from the pulp down the dentinal tubules. Several ion transport and secretion-related proteins were found only in the odontoblast samples, for example: inositol 1,4,5-triphosphaste receptor type 1 (Q14643), which has been shown to regulate epithelial secretion of electrolytes in mice (Park et al., 2013); lactotransferrin (P02788), an iron binding anion-transport protein secreted in tears (Azkargorta et al., 2015) and breast milk (Giansanti et al., 2016); and salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoprotein 1/2 (P02810), a major component of human saliva (Wu et al., 2014)—any one of which may be components of, or involved with the secretion of, dentinal fluid. Discovery studies such as this one inform on the biology of the odontoblast and pulp, and may suggest, for example, possible cellular roles in the timing of the formation of dentin matrix, mediating tooth sensation, and secretion of dentinal fluid. Future studies may also show how the pulp proteome responds and adjusts to different events in the lifecycle of a human tooth and clarify the contribution of individual proteins in pulp function and in pulp to odontoblast cell-cell signalling. Although proteomic analyses of dentin in the past have generated limited protein identifications, present ongoing analysis of human dentin using modern high accuracy mass 41  spectrometers promise to also increase molecular knowledge of the dentin proteome and potentially reveal new dentin-specific proteins, some or all of which are derived from odontoblasts. This will increase knowledge of how the pulpal stroma and odontoblast layer cooperate in the formation and biology of this unique mineralized tissue.  42  Chapter 3: Conclusion 3.1 Overview I successfully extracted protein from the odontoblast cell layer remaining on the walls of the pulp chambers using our crucible technique to enrich for the odontoblast proteome. This is the first time a distinct proteome has been shown to exist for the odontoblast cell layer and the 222 unique dental pulp proteins found to exist only in this layer can guide future research in discrete odontoblast functions. I expanded the dental pulp proteome annotation by identifying four previously missing proteins that had not been detected before at the protein level. These findings are an important contribution to the Human Proteome Project.  I also succeeded in expanding annotation of the pulpal stroma tissue by 955 unique proteins using similar techniques to those used in our earlier study (Eckhard et al., 2015). All of these findings expand our knowledge of protein function and human biology, and, more specifically, pave the way to better understanding of dental pulp biology.   3.2 Comparing our preTAILS shotgun + TAILS protocols to 2D gel separation  In total, I identified 2974 pulp proteins in the combined samples (preTAILS shotgun + TAILS for the odontoblast + pulp stroma samples). Combined with our 2015 paper, this produces the largest human dental pulp protein annotation to date, of 5097 distinct proteins. These large numbers of proteins, compared with earlier outdated 2D gel proteomics investigations, are due to our TAILS and preTAILS techniques examining the entire tissue protein extract while gel studies analyzed only the limited areas of gels where protein dots appeared. The gel separation technique is valid and effective, as discussed in chapter 1, and proteins were found in dentin through these studies, which I did not identify in the odontoblast cell layer, specifically osteonectin, osteocalcin, and dentin matrix protein I (Jágr et al., 2012). However, gel studies 43  have more limitations than advantages since proteins that are few in number will be lost by this technique. Our techniques rely completely on the liquid chromatography separation and MS identification of peptides. With 2D gel separation, one has the additional confirmation of a given protein due to molecular weight and charge migration behavior as well as LC-MS/MS identification. However, this is not always the case, since many proteins appear in gels in fragments due to enzyme mediated or incidental cleavage (Jágr et al., 2012).   3.3 Proteomics data analysis Previous studies on pulp proteomics have primarily used threshold values built into the Mascot search engine to differentiate true peptides and proteins among the m/z ratios of MS spectra. We used several search engines: Mascot v2.4, X! TANDEM CYCLONE TPP 2011.12.01.1, MS-GF+ V10072, and Comet 2015.01 rev 0. All these search engines use different valid algorithms to match spectra to peptides, so more peptides will be identified if the spectra are reviewed by more search engines. Figure 3A, D shows how peptides were identified by search engines, showing that different search engines produce different results. A given spectra might be slightly under the threshold for positive identification for one search engine but above it with another. Thus, peptides and proteins identified by more than one search engine are identified with greater certainty; TPP calculates this by combining all search engine data with iProphet. Our LC-MS/MS data was put through stringent analysis by TPP to conform to HUPO standards of peptide and protein identification, which are being improved and standardized with time and were recently reviewed in the Journal of Proteome Research (Deutsch et al., 2016). One problem in comparing different proteomic studies is that different sets of data are interpreted in different ways, so that results are not directly comparable; hence, the standards initiative of the HPP and the protein identification guidelines are updated annually. Note that I strictly adhered to current HPP guidelines in this thesis work, using multiple search engines, processing their 44  results with PeptideProphet, combining these results with iProphet, and finally processing the iProphet data with ProteinProphet. This data processing workflow compiles all the spectra and their confidence levels to calculate net FDR for peptides and proteins. For example, for a given protein we might have two high quality spectra indicating peptides with an FDR ≤ 1 %, three others with a less perfect match having an FDR ≤ 5 % and five more with an FDR ≤ 15 %. For the best estimate of whether or not the protein is present the TPP considers all of these peptides in calculating a net FDR for the protein. In the study by Eckhardt et al. 2014, peptides were considered valid if they exceeded a Mascot threshold score of 20 (Mascot was the single search engine they used); this works reasonably well for peptides, but then proteins were confirmed if they exceeded a protein score of 60. This would also work fairly well in the 2D gel study since only a small number of proteins were present in the sample. The Mascot program however, is designed to make peptide spectra matches, not statistically match large numbers of peptides to large numbers of proteins. Our protocols removed false positives and more accurately determined proteins with an FDR ≤ 1 %. Using more search engines, I was able to identify more peptides, and by using a stringent software analysis I removed many questionable spectra and their matched peptides, to retain only peptides and proteins for which there was a high confidence level of being present, below FDR ≤ 1 %.  3.4 Pulp sample mass Also of note is my sample size. Eckhardt et al. used 5 wisdom teeth, from which only the canal pulp was removed; thus, their samples did not contain pulp chamber pulp as in our research where we combined all sections of pulp tissue. They quoted the weight of only one pulp as being approximately 2.5 mg in weight. Our study examined the pulps of 26 teeth from 9 donors with a combined pulp weight of 1024 mg. Using greater sample size and doing more LC-MS/MS analyses (39 in total) was part of the reason I identified more peptides and annotated more 45  proteins. Also, my technique to remove the pulp tissue immediately after extraction and place the tissue in GuHCl buffer on dry ice proved effective at maintaining tissue protein integrity until samples were denatured and analyzed under experimental conditions. My high yield of proteins annotated shows cellular self-destructive processes of apoptosis were slowed or prevented. Finally, what is probably the main advantage of my approach is that the previous work by Eckhardt et al. used outdated 2D gel separation technology followed by individual tandem MS analyses for individual proteins (cut from their gels), while we used multiple LC-MS/MS analyses for individual donors with at least two from each donor (one preTAILS shotgun, one TAILS). Each of my LC-MS/MS analyses revealed 100s to 1000s of peptides, whereas in studies by Eckhardt et al., Jágr et al., their trypsinized dissolved gel segments would reveal only one or a few proteins that migrated together on the 2D gel separation. Thus, I used orthogonal techniques that provided high mass accuracy identification and I performed more experiments, allowing me to annotate a much higher number of proteins than were found in the previous 2D gel proteomics studies.  3.5 Practical applications of proteomic research Proteomics is a relatively new dimension of biological research and scientists are eager to reach forward to potential practical applications of our expanding knowledge of specific proteins found in tissues. Such applications may still be some way in the future, however, due to: 1) the complexity of protein function; 2) the large numbers of proteins found in tissues; and 3) the degree of poorly understood proteolytic processing that has been shown to occur (Appendix Fig 7). Small changes in protein numbers or proportions probably result in significant biologic changes, but it is difficult to quantify and assess the relative importance of these. For example, earlier I discussed that Mrojik et al. 2015 found 5 proteins that were upregulated in dental stem cells compared with the two other stem cell populations; Eckhardt et al. identified two of these 46  up-regulated proteins in their own research; I found these same two proteins, plus two of the other three identified by Mrojik et al., (Tryptophan-tRNA synthetase, and G6PD) but I did not find Ribonucleosidase diphosphonate reductase M1 chain (RIR1_Bovin), listed in UniProt (http://www.uniprot.org) as a bovine herpes virus protein. Eckhardt et al. supports Mrojik et al.’s hypothesis that these proteins, up-regulated compared with two other in vitro stem cell cultures, are thus important for dentin regeneration. But G6PD is a basic enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, active in all cells. There is no rationale that adding more G6PD to a devitalized root canal system will encourage pulpal regeneration. Several pulp proteomics papers feature tables showing which categories of proteins were identified in their studies, e.g. immune function, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, catalytic activity (Eckhard et al., 2015; Eckhardt et al., 2014). This is useful from the perspective of reviewing categories of protein action, but it requires pigeonholing proteins into performing specific, discrete tasks, which is rarely the case. A protein such as collagen type I has a discrete function, it is a structural protein found throughout extracellular matrix tissue and is usually found tightly wound in a triple helical conformation, made possible by its glycine rich composition. However even type I collagen can also be found as gelatin when not in this triple helical form, and its function changes. Reviewing the UniProt and NeXtProt websites for information on the function of specific proteins often shows that a given protein has been identified by different studies involved in many different processes. Jágr et al’s discussion of caries resistance due to proteins is interesting and I propose these could be secreted in dentinal fluid.  To test such a hypothesis, first we would need a method to collect dentinal fluid from caries prone and caries susceptible individuals. The proteomes of these fluids could be compared and significant differences might be observed.   47  3.6 Large numbers of proteins to assess  The other problem we encounter as techniques improve is that we find more proteins and the body of data gets bigger. For example Eckhardt et al. identified 37 proteins in pulp and dentin that were not also found in a plasma proteome used for comparison. They discuss in some detail these 37 proteins and suggested they may be good candidates for future endodontic regenerative therapies (Eckhardt et al., 2014). Is this a reasonable possibility? In our study, we found 2,426 proteins in pulp tissue and 895 in the odontoblast cell layer. These proteins are summarized in the supplemental tables and online at ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ˂PXD006557˃.  I do not propose we found thousands of proteins that should be investigated as potential protein co-factors that will improve endodontic regenerative treatments. Due to space limitations we cannot even discuss the possible functions of all identified proteins. And my numbers are probably still far from the actual number expressed in vivo in tissues, thought to number in excess of 10,000. We were however successful in expanding the pulp proteome by nearly a 1000 proteins not found in our earlier study, and, more importantly, we were able to separate the odontoblast cell layer from the pulp stroma and characterize different proteomes in the two tissue samples (Eckhard et al., 2015). This produces important and novel information regarding the proteins expressed by odontoblasts, which are responsible for dentin production and mineralization, proteins that would either not be expressed or be expressed in smaller numbers by the fibroblast rich pulpal stroma. By annotating the proteins found in different tissues, we enlarge our understanding of these tissues and their biologic function.  3.7 Dentin and bone are related tissues My research can guide future investigations into odontoblast function and the mechanics of dentin production, which may segue into the broader field of bone metabolism, since dentin and bone are closely related. One can consider the dentin-pulp complex as a closely related model 48  for osteoblast-bone metabolism. The odontoblast unicellular layer is well defined on the pulpal periphery against the pre-dentin border and as we showed, it is possible to analyze this layer. Osteoblasts on the other hand, are distributed throughout bone and separating the proteins produced only by osteoblasts would be more challenging.  3.8 Our samples are enriched, not pure for tissue types A caveat for my data interpretation is that the pulp stroma sample includes a minor degree of contaminant odontoblasts that detached with the pulp and their cellular proteins will contribute to the pulp stroma data sets. Similarly, when I extracted protein from the odontoblast cell layer remaining on the dentin walls, potentially some protein from the nonmineralized dentin was also extracted. However, this is not considered a major issue as the predentin was originally derived from the odontoblast cell layer. Thus, odontoblast protein contaminants are probably present in the pulpal stroma sample, just as some pulpal stroma proteins are present in the odontoblast sample. Our research could be complemented by odontoblast cell culture studies to see how these proteomes differ from actual tissue extracts, and use these as controls to see how odontoblast protein synthesis could be influenced by different stimulants, e.g. TGF-β, BMP-1. However, recovering odontoblasts from the dentin is technically impossible due to the long odontoblast process embedded in the dentin. In any case, cells in culture behave differently to cells in situ and so proteomic analyses of detached cells will also differ.  3.9 Future directions: cell culture studies and western blot analysis  Odontoblast cell culture studies would also be useful to confirm the presence of certain proteins in this cell line, e.g. that they do not in fact originate from a nearby cell type. We identified several proteins that have been associated with neural function and sensation: neuroplastin (Q9Y639), DMX-like protein 2 (Q8TDJ6), advillin (Q8NEN9), and retinal guanylyl cyclase 49  (Q02846), all present only in the odontoblast cell layer sample. These may be involved in the process of odontoblast mediated dental sensation, or the proteins may originate from nerve axons also present in the odontoblast enriched tissue sample. Raising antibodies to these proteins and performing western blot analyses of odontoblast cell cultures or immunohistochemistry could be used confirm if these proteins are indeed synthesized by odontoblasts, potentially leading to improved understanding of how odontoblasts and nerve tissue interact to produce dental sensation.  3.10 Final comments With an estimated 10,000 or more proteins in each cell of the body, much work remains to be done before we can understand fully when proteins are individually expressed, up- or down-regulated, how and why they are modified, and how they interact with one another to create biologic function and life. This research has taken a step forward and answered several questions: e.g. that the odontoblast cell layer has a proteome distinct from that of the pulp stroma, proteomic confirmation that dentin sialophosphoprotein is synthesized in the odontoblast layer; but has also highlighted other questions, e.g are the sensation related proteins we found in the odontoblast cell layer sample active in the odontoblast or do they derive from adjacent nerve fibers? And regardless of their location do they in fact function to produce sensation or do they perform other tasks? By mapping out the protein geography of the human body we may someday be able to travel far beyond the confines of the limited scientific understanding of protein function where we are now. 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Modification-specific proteomics: Strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques. Proteomics 9, 4632–4641.    54  Appendix A   Peptide spectra matches                         A B n = 145,402 n = 25,391  Figure 6. Peptide spectra matches found by the four search engines (A) pulp stroma and (B) odontoblast cell layer samples. This data is the product of the raw LC-MS/MS spectra, translated by MSconvertGUI, and fed into search engines to identify peptide spectrum matches. Results were subsequently assessed and validated by PeptideProphet within the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to ensure a ≤ 1 % false discovery rate (FDR). 55  Appendix B  Natural and Neo-N-termini   Figure 7. Numbers of Neo-N-Termini and Classification of Natural N-termini   56  Appendix C   Odontoblast proteins  Table 2. Proteins found only in the odontoblast protein samples  211 proteins identified only in the odontoblast cell layer sample and not in stroma or dentine (from Jágr et al  2012). (Data also shown in  Figure 4C).Protein labeled Red is found only at transcript level PE2 according to neXtprotProtein labeled Red bold was identified as a candidate missing protein, but did not satisy all criteria to be classified as a found missing protein211 UniProt ID Probability Full protein name1 Q9Y639 0.9933 Neuroplastin2 Q9Y4D7 0.9962 Plexin-D13 Q9Y3D6 0.9894 Mitochondrial fission 1 protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=FIS1 PE=1 SV=24 Q9Y2Z4 0.9544 Tyrosine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=YARS2 PE=1 SV=25 Q9Y2J8 1.0000 Protein-arginine deiminase type-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PADI2 PE=1 SV=26 Q9Y2I6 0.9708 Ninein-like protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=NINL PE=1 SV=27 Q9Y2H0 0.9844 Disks large-associated protein 48 Q9Y2G9 0.9938 Protein strawberry notch homolog 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SBNO2 PE=2 SV=39 Q9Y2G4 0.9624 Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 610 Q9Y259 0.9923 Choline/ethanolamine kinase OS=Homo sapiens GN=CHKB PE=1 SV=311 Q9Y257 0.9937 Potassium channel subfamily K member 6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KCNK6 PE=1 SV=112 Q9UQQ1 0.9901 N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein13 Q9UPW8 0.9524 Protein unc-13 homolog A OS=Homo sapiens GN=UNC13A PE=2 SV=414 Q9UPN3 0.9999 Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, isoforms 1/2/3/5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MACF1 PE=1 SV=415 Q9UP83 0.9588 Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 516 Q9UNH5 0.9607 Dual specificity protein phosphatase CDC14A17 Q9UNF0 0.9938 Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 218 Q9ULC6 0.9843 Protein-arginine deiminase type-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PADI1 PE=1 SV=219 Q9UKY1 0.9521 Zinc fingers and homeoboxes protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ZHX1 PE=1 SV=120 Q9UJC3 0.9739 Protein Hook homolog 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HOOK1 PE=1 SV=221 Q9UHX3 0.9682 Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E222 Q9UBB9 0.9659 Tuftelin-interacting protein 11 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TFIP11 PE=1 SV=123 Q9P2J2 0.9757 Protein turtle homolog A24 Q9P2E5 0.9763 Chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase25 Q9P1W3 0.9970 Transmembrane protein 63C OS=Homo sapiens GN=TMEM63C PE=2 SV=126 Q9P0X4 0.9791 Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I27 Q9P0J1 0.9975 [Pyruvate dehydrogenase [acetyl-transferring]]-phosphatase 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDP1 PE=1 SV=328 Q9NZ53 0.9924 Podocalyxin-like protein 229 Q9NY15 0.9823 Stabilin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=STAB1 PE=1 SV=330 Q9NVN3 0.9772 Synembryn-B31 Q9NUU7 0.9713 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX19A32 Q9NRD8 0.9651 Dual oxidase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DUOX2 PE=1 SV=233 Q9HCL2 0.9875 Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPAM PE=1 SV=334 Q9HA92 0.9685 Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=RSAD1 PE=2 SV=235 Q9H9Y4 0.9967 GPN-loop GTPase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPN2 PE=2 SV=236 Q9H9V9 0.9538 JmjC domain-containing protein 437 Q9H9D4 0.9945 Zinc finger protein 408 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ZNF408 PE=1 SV=138 Q9H3R0 0.9686 Lysine-specific demethylase 4C39 Q9H2G9 1.0000 Golgin-45 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BLZF1 PE=1 SV=240 Q9H2D6 0.9925 TRIO and F-actin-binding protein41 Q9H299 0.9688 SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SH3BGRL3 PE=1 SV=142 Q9C0K0 0.9972 B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11B43 Q9C040 1.0000 Tripartite motif-containing protein 244 Q9BXP2 0.9682 Solute carrier family 12 member 9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLC12A9 PE=1 SV=145 Q96Q05 0.9696 Trafficking protein particle complex subunit 946 Q96PF1 0.9728 Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase Z OS=Homo sapiens GN=TGM7 PE=2 SV=147 Q96NL6 0.9964 Sodium channel and clathrin linker 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SCLT1 PE=2 SV=248 Q96JH8 0.9997 Ras-associating and dilute domain-containing protein49 Q96IT1 0.9633 Zinc finger protein 49650 Q96FT7 0.9591 Acid-sensing ion channel 451 Q96EK7 0.9598 Constitutive coactivator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma OS=Homo sapiens GN=FAM120B PE=1 SV=152 Q96EH3 0.9575 Mitochondrial assembly of ribosomal large subunit protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MALSU1 PE=1 SV=153 Q96DZ1 0.9977 Endoplasmic reticulum lectin 154 Q96CN9 0.9965 GRIP and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GCC1 PE=1 SV=157     UniProt ID Probability Full protein name55 Q96A99 0.9964 Pentraxin-456 Q969T7 0.9809 7-methylguanosine phosphate-specific 5'-nucleotidase57 Q969S9 0.9903 Ribosome-releasing factor 2, mitochondrial58 Q92994 0.9995 Transcription factor IIIB 90 kDa subunit59 Q92985 1.0000 Interferon regulatory factor 760 Q92959 0.9631 Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLCO2A1 PE=1 SV=261 Q92805 0.9675 Golgin subfamily A member 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GOLGA1 PE=1 SV=362 Q92729 0.9766 Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase U63 Q92574 0.9744 Hamartin64 Q8WXH0 0.9851 Nesprin-265 Q8WWY3 0.9535 U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Prp31 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRPF31 PE=1 SV=266 Q8TEU7 0.9555 Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 667 Q8TEA8 0.9933 D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DTD1 PE=1 SV=268 Q8TE73 0.9517 Dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal OS=Homo sapiens GN=DNAH5 PE=1 SV=369 Q8TDV2 0.9599 Probable G-protein coupled receptor 148 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPR148 PE=2 SV=270 Q8TDJ6 0.9775 DmX-like protein 271 Q8TD26 0.9517 Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CHD6 PE=1 SV=472 Q8TC90 0.9817 Coiled-coil domain-containing glutamate-rich protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CCER1 PE=2 SV=173 Q8TAX7 0.9999 Mucin-7 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MUC7 PE=1 SV=274 Q8NEN9 0.9722 PDZ domain-containing protein 8 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDZD8 PE=1 SV=175 Q8NE09 0.9753 Regulator of G-protein signaling 2276 Q8ND04 0.9727 Protein SMG877 Q8NCN4 0.9938 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF169 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RNF169 PE=1 SV=278 Q8NBJ5 0.9832 Procollagen galactosyltransferase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=COLGALT1 PE=1 SV=179 Q8N3K9 0.9993 Cardiomyopathy-associated protein 5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CMYA5 PE=1 SV=380 Q8N3C0 0.9740 Activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ASCC3 PE=1 SV=381 Q8N2S1 0.9996 Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LTBP4 PE=1 SV=282 Q8IZD2 0.9640 Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2E83 Q8IWV8 0.9944 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR284 Q8IVS8 0.9816 Glycerate kinase85 Q86W26 0.9764 NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 10 OS=Homo sapiens GN=NLRP10 PE=1 SV=186 Q86VL8 0.9538 Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 287 Q86UT6 0.9975 NLR family member X188 Q86UP2 0.9933 Kinectin89 Q86SQ4 1.0000 G-protein coupled receptor 12690 Q7Z7L9 0.9881 Zinc finger and SCAN domain-containing protein 291 Q7Z6K5 0.9561 Isoform C15orf38-AP3S2 of UPF0552 protein C15orf38 OS=Homo sapiens GN=C15orf3892 Q7Z6I6 0.9894 Rho GTPase-activating protein 3093 Q7Z402 0.9927 Transmembrane channel-like protein 7 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TMC7 PE=2 SV=194 Q76LX8 0.9581 A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 13 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ADAMTS13 PE=1 SV=195 Q76I76 0.9970 Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SSH2 PE=1 SV=196 Q6ZSJ9 0.9986 Protein shisa-6 homolog97 Q6ZN55 0.9933 Isoform 2 of Zinc finger protein 574 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ZNF57498 Q6UWH4 0.9620 Protein FAM198B99 Q6Q0C0 0.9516 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRAF7 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TRAF7 PE=1 SV=1100 Q6P1N0 0.9806 Coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing protein 1A101 Q6NY19 0.9871 KN motif and ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 3102 Q6NSI1 0.9907 Putative ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 26-like protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANKRD26P1 PE=5 SV=2103 Q6EKJ0 0.9953 General transcription factor II-I repeat domain-containing protein 2B104 Q63HM1 0.9994 Kynurenine formamidase105 Q5U651 1.0000 Ras-interacting protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RASIP1 PE=1 SV=1106 Q5T7M4 0.9969 Adipolin (Protein FAM132A OS=Homo sapiens GN=FAM132A PE=2 SV=2)107 Q5T4B2 0.9995 Probable inactive glycosyltransferase 25 family member 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CERCAM PE=2 SV=1108 Q5RHP9 0.9768 Glutamate-rich protein 3109 Q5H9L4 0.9888 Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 7-like110 Q58EX7 0.9995 Puratrophin-1111 Q53GL7 0.9936 Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 10 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PARP10 PE=1 SV=2112 Q53EQ6 0.9814 Tigger transposable element-derived protein 5113 Q4LDE5 0.9883 Sushi, von Willebrand factor type A, EGF and pentraxin domain-containing protein 1114 Q496Y0 0.9550 LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING finger protein 3115 Q16760 0.9969 Diacylglycerol kinase delta116 Q16538 0.9619 Probable G-protein coupled receptor 162117 Q16363 0.9720 Laminin subunit alpha-458    UniProt ID Probability Full protein name118 Q15819 0.9933 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=UBE2V2 PE=1 SV=4119 Q15435 0.9758 Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 7120 Q14790 0.9992 Caspase-8121 Q14643 0.9551 Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1122 Q14194 1.0000 Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CRMP1 PE=1 SV=1123 Q13618 0.9594 Cullin-3124 Q13585 0.9570 Melatonin-related receptor OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPR50 PE=1 SV=3125 Q13242 0.9816 Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SRSF9 PE=1 SV=1126 Q13085 0.9912 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1127 Q08174 0.9676 Protocadherin-1128 Q08043 0.9787 Alpha-actinin-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACTN3 PE=1 SV=2129 Q02846 0.9780 Retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GUCY2D PE=1 SV=2130 P80511 0.9907 Protein S100-A12 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A12 PE=1 SV=2131 P78562 1.0000 Phosphate-regulating neutral endopeptidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=PHEX PE=1 SV=1132 P78415 0.9978 Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=IRX3 PE=2 SV=3133 P69891 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit gamma-1134 P60763 0.9990 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RAC3 PE=1 SV=1135 P57721 0.9933 Poly(rC)-binding protein 3136 P55283 0.9988 Cadherin-4137 P53609 0.9869 Geranylgeranyl transferase type-1 subunit beta138 P53420 0.9765 Collagen alpha-4(IV) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL4A4 PE=1 SV=3139 P49736 0.9722 DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MCM2 PE=1 SV=4140 P49641 0.9944 Alpha-mannosidase 2x141 P43355 0.9752 Melanoma-associated antigen 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MAGEA1 PE=1 SV=1142 P43034 0.9540 Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=PAFAH1B1 PE=1 SV=2143 P42345 0.9988 Serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR OS=Homo sapiens GN=MTOR PE=1 SV=1144 P35125 0.9864 Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 6145 P33241 0.9822 Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LSP1 PE=1 SV=1146 P28300 0.9933 Protein-lysine 6-oxidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=LOX PE=1 SV=2147 P26447 0.9970 Protein S100-A4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A4 PE=1 SV=1148 P24158 0.9829 Myeloblastin OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRTN3 PE=1 SV=3149 P22888 0.9991 Lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor150 P21912 0.9953 Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=SDHB PE=1 SV=3151 P21802 0.9568 Isoform 10 of Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FGFR2152 P20160 1.0000 Azurocidin OS=Homo sapiens GN=AZU1 PE=1 SV=3153 P17858 1.0000 6-phosphofructokinase, liver type OS=Homo sapiens GN=PFKL PE=1 SV=6154 P17844 1.0000 Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DDX5 PE=1 SV=1155 P16157 0.9663 Ankyrin-1156 P13796 0.9967 Plastin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LCP1 PE=1 SV=6157 P13727 0.9991 Bone marrow proteoglycan OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRG2 PE=1 SV=2158 P13497 0.9860 Isoform BMP1-5 of Bone morphogenetic protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BMP1159 P0CW18 0.9850 Serine protease 56 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRSS56 PE=1 SV=1160 P0CB43 0.9644 Protein HGH1 homolog161 P0C7T7 0.9679 Putative uncharacterized protein FRMD6-AS1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FRMD6-AS1 PE=5 SV=1162 P0C0S5 1.0000 Histone H2A.Z163 P09972 1.0000 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C OS=Homo sapiens GN=ALDOC PE=1 SV=2164 P09917 0.9991 Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ALOX5 PE=1 SV=2165 P09488 0.9920 Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1166 P09467 0.9933 Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FBP1 PE=1 SV=5167 P09131 0.9596 P3 protein168 P08887 0.9767 Interleukin-6 receptor subunit alpha169 P08514 0.9942 Integrin alpha-Iib170 P08311 1.0000 Cathepsin G OS=Homo sapiens GN=CTSG PE=1 SV=2171 P08246 1.0000 Neutrophil elastase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ELANE PE=1 SV=1172 P05164 1.0000 Myeloperoxidase173 P05141 0.9976 ADP/ATP translocase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLC25A5 PE=1 SV=7174 P05129 0.9986 Protein kinase C gamma type OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRKCG PE=1 SV=3175 P04628 0.9701 Proto-oncogene Wnt-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=WNT1 PE=1 SV=1176 P02814 0.9933 Submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3B OS=Homo sapiens GN=SMR3B PE=1 SV=2177 P02810 0.9933 Salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoprotein 1/2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRH1 PE=1 SV=2178 P02788 1.0000 Lactotransferrin179 P02100 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit epsilon OS=Homo sapiens GN=HBE1 PE=1 SV=2180 P01877 0.9991 Ig alpha-2 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHA2 PE=1 SV=3181 P01761 0.9927 Ig heavy chain V-I region SIE OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=159    Table 2: These proteins are likely to be highly expressed or only expressed by odontoblasts. Proteins are listed with their Uniprot ID, protein probability from TPP analysis of PSM data, and full protein name.     UniProt ID Probability Full protein name182 P01591 0.9933 Immunoglobulin J chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGJ PE=1 SV=4183 P00966 0.9999 Argininosuccinate synthase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ASS1 PE=1 SV=2184 P00748 1.0000 Coagulation factor XII OS=Homo sapiens GN=F12 PE=1 SV=3185 O95816 0.9914 BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BAG2 PE=1 SV=1186 O94844 0.9999 Rho-related BTB domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RHOBTB1 PE=1 SV=2187 O75821 0.9933 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G OS=Homo sapiens GN=EIF3G PE=1 SV=2188 O75718 0.9916 Cartilage-associated protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=CRTAP PE=1 SV=1189 O75427 0.9965 Leucine-rich repeat and calponin homology domain-containing protein 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LRCH4 PE=1 SV=2190 O75366 0.9533 Advillin191 O75145 1.0000 Liprin-alpha-3192 O75127 0.9883 Pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTCD1 PE=1 SV=2193 O60814 1.0000 Histone H2B type 1-K194 O60271 1.0000 C-Jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 4195 O60240 0.9972 Perilipin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PLIN1 PE=1 SV=2196 O43707 1.0000 Alpha-actinin-4197 O43613 0.9624 Orexin receptor type 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HCRTR1 PE=2 SV=2198 O43312 0.9944 Metastasis suppressor protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MTSS1 PE=1 SV=2199 O15511 0.9920 Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5200 O15439 0.9697 Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4201 O15417 0.9999 Trinucleotide repeat-containing gene 18 protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=TNRC18 PE=1 SV=3202 O14939 0.9994 Isoform PLD2B of Phospholipase D2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PLD2203 O14732 0.9865 Inositol monophosphatase 2204 O00445 1.0000 Synaptotagmin-5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SYT5 PE=2 SV=2205 E7EW31 0.9805 Proline-rich basic protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PROB1 PE=2 SV=2206 A8MW92 0.9996 PHD finger protein 20-like protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PHF20L1 PE=1 SV=2207 A8MTW9 0.9916 Putative uncharacterized protein ENSP00000380674 OS=Homo sapiens PE=5 SV=2208 A7MCY6 0.9688 TANK-binding kinase 1-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TBKBP1 PE=1 SV=1209 A7E2V4 0.9665 Zinc finger SWIM domain-containing protein 8210 A6H8Y1 0.9726 Transcription factor TFIIIB component B'' homolog211 A1KZ92 0.9947 Peroxidasin-like protein60  Appendix D   Age differences in odontoblast proteins                       Table 3. Young odontoblast proteins  331UniProt IDProbability Protein Description1 Q9Y6U3 1.0000 Adseverin OS=Homo sapiens GN=SCIN PE=1 SV=42 Q9Y6C2 1.0000 EMILIN-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=EMILIN1 PE=1 SV=23 Q9Y639-1 0.9918 Neuroplastin, isoform 14 Q9Y5I2-3 0.9534 Protocadherin alpha-10, isoform 35 Q9Y4F1-2 0.9611 FERM, RhoGEF and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 1, isoform 26 Q9Y3B8 0.9918 Oligoribonuclease, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=REXO2 PE=1 SV=37 Q9Y3A5 0.9910 Ribosome maturation protein SBDS OS=Homo sapiens GN=SBDS PE=1 SV=48 Q9Y2Z0-2 0.9918 Protein SGT1 homolog, isoform 29 Q9Y2J8 1.0000 Protein-arginine deiminase type-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PADI2 PE=1 SV=210 Q9Y2J2-2 0.9918 Band 4.1-like protein 3, isoform 211 Q9Y281 0.9918 Cofilin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CFL2 PE=1 SV=112 Q9Y230 0.9918 RuvB-like 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RUVBL2 PE=1 SV=313 Q9UN36-3 0.9918 Protein NDRG2, isoform 314 Q9UKK9 0.9918 ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase OS=Homo sapiens GN=NUDT5 PE=1 SV=115 Q9UK22 0.9886 F-box only protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FBXO2 PE=1 SV=216 Q9UJW0-3 0.9846 Dynactin subunit 4, isoform 317 Q9UGM5-2 0.9918 Fetuin-B, isoform 218 Q9UBR2 0.9512 Cathepsin Z OS=Homo sapiens GN=CTSZ PE=1 SV=119 Q9UBQ7 1.0000 Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase OS=Homo sapiens GN=GRHPR PE=1 SV=120 Q9UBQ5 0.9910 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit K OS=Homo sapiens GN=EIF3K PE=1 SV=121 Q9P1W3 0.9991 Transmembrane protein 63C OS=Homo sapiens GN=TMEM63C PE=2 SV=122 Q9NZW4 1.0000 Dentin sialophosphoprotein OS=Homo sapiens GN=DSPP PE=1 SV=223 Q9NZJ9 0.9918 Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=NUDT4 PE=1 SV=224 Q9NZ53-2 0.9592 Podocalyxin-like protein 2, isoform 225 Q9NVS9 0.9735 Pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=PNPO PE=1 SV=126 Q9NVA2 1.0000 Septin-11 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEPT11 PE=1 SV=327 Q9NUU7 0.9886  ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX19A28 Q9NUP9 0.9902 Protein lin-7 homolog C OS=Homo sapiens GN=LIN7C PE=1 SV=129 Q9NUL5-3 0.9918 Repressor of yield of DENV protein, isoform 330 Q9NR56-2 0.9894 Muscleblind-like protein 1, isoform 231 Q9NQC3-2 0.9918 Reticulon-4, isoform 232 Q9NPJ3 0.9918 Acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 13 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACOT13 PE=1 SV=133 Q9HB96 0.9915 Fanconi anemia group E protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=FANCE PE=1 SV=134 Q9H8L6 0.9886 Multimerin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MMRN2 PE=1 SV=235 Q9H4A4 0.9918 Aminopeptidase B OS=Homo sapiens GN=RNPEP PE=1 SV=236 Q9H3P7 0.9782 Golgi resident protein GCP60 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACBD3 PE=1 SV=437 Q9H0E2 1.0000 Toll-interacting protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=TOLLIP PE=1 SV=138 Q9C040-2 1.0000 Tripartite motif-containing protein 2, isoform 239 Q9BU02-2 0.9918 Thiamine-triphosphatase, isoform 240 Q9BS40 1.0000 Latexin OS=Homo sapiens GN=LXN PE=1 SV=241 Q9BRF8-2 0.9918 Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase CPPED1, isoform 242 Q99983 1.0000 Osteomodulin OS=Homo sapiens GN=OMD PE=1 SV=143 Q99832 0.9918 T-complex protein 1 subunit eta OS=Homo sapiens GN=CCT7 PE=1 SV=244 Q99715-4 0.9964 Collagen alpha-1(XII) chain, isoform 445 Q99623-2 0.9918 Prohibitin-2, isoform 246 Q99584 0.9918 Protein S100-A13 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A13 PE=1 SV=147 Q99439-2 0.9918 Calponin-2, isoform 248 Q99436 0.9918 Proteasome subunit beta type-7 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMB7 PE=1 SV=149 Q96MC2 0.9782 Dynein regulatory complex protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DRC1 PE=2 SV=250 Q96KP4 1.0000 Cytosolic non-specific dipeptidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=CNDP2 PE=1 SV=2Proteins found in the odontoblast cell layer samples from donors < 20 (N  = 1, n  = 2). (Data also shown in  Figure 4D).61      UniProt ID Probability Protein Description51 Q96HC4-2 0.9918 PDZ and LIM domain protein 5, isoform 252 Q96G03 0.9918 Phosphoglucomutase-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PGM2 PE=1 SV=453 Q96F85-2 0.9806 CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1, isoform 254 Q96EM0 0.9918 Trans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase OS=Homo sapiens GN=L3HYPDH PE=1 SV=255 Q96CN9 0.9918 GRIP and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GCC1 PE=1 SV=156 Q96C86 0.9918 m7GpppX diphosphatase OS=Homo sapiens GN=DCPS PE=1 SV=257 Q96C19 0.9727 EF-hand domain-containing protein D2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=EFHD2 PE=1 SV=158 Q969T7-2 0.9846 7-methylguanosine phosphate-specific 5'-nucleotidase, isoform 259 Q92747 0.9918 Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A OS=Homo sapiens GN=ARPC1A PE=1 SV=260 Q92729 0.9960 Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase U OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTPRU PE=1 SV=261 Q8WVM8 0.9999 Sec1 family domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SCFD1 PE=1 SV=462 Q8TEA8 0.9918 D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DTD1 PE=1 SV=263 Q8TC59-2 0.9683 Piwi-like protein 2, isoform 264 Q8TAX7 0.9997 Mucin-7 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MUC7 PE=1 SV=265 Q8NE09-2 0.9790 Regulator of G-protein signaling 22, isoform 266 Q8NBS9-2 0.9918 Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 5, isoform 267 Q8NA70 0.9657 Protein FAM47B OS=Homo sapiens GN=FAM47B PE=2 SV=268 Q8N4P3-2 0.9918 Guanosine-3',5'-bis(diphosphate) 3'-pyrophosphohydrolase MESH1, isoform 269 Q8IW45-2 0.9918 ATP-dependent (S)-NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase, isoform 270 Q86UP2-2 0.9918 Kinectin, isoform 271 Q6UWY5 1.0000 Olfactomedin-like protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=OLFML1 PE=1 SV=272 Q6QNY1 0.9918 Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 subunit 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BLOC1S2 PE=1 SV=173 Q6NZI2 1.0000 Polymerase I and transcript release factor OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTRF PE=1 SV=174 Q5VWZ2-2 0.9918 Lysophospholipase-like protein 1, isoform 275 Q5SSJ5-2 1.0000 Heterochromatin protein 1-binding protein 3, isoform 276 Q496Y0-2 0.9822 LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING finger protein 3, isoform 277 Q2TB90-2 0.9778 Putative hexokinase HKDC1, isoform 278 Q2TAA2 0.9918 Isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase 1 homolog OS=Homo sapiens GN=IAH1 PE=1 SV=179 Q16658 1.0000 Fascin OS=Homo sapiens GN=FSCN1 PE=1 SV=380 Q16555 1.0000 Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DPYSL2 PE=1 SV=181 Q16401-2 0.9910 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 5, isoform 282 Q16186 0.9918 Proteasomal ubiquitin receptor ADRM1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ADRM1 PE=1 SV=283 Q15819 0.9918 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=UBE2V2 PE=1 SV=484 Q15436 0.9918 Protein transport protein Sec23A OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEC23A PE=1 SV=285 Q15435-2 0.9774 Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 7, isoform 286 Q15427 0.9918 Splicing factor 3B subunit 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SF3B4 PE=1 SV=187 Q15185 1.0000 Prostaglandin E synthase 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTGES3 PE=1 SV=188 Q15181 0.9918 Inorganic pyrophosphatase OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPA1 PE=1 SV=289 Q15063-2 1.0000 Periostin, isoform 290 Q15005 0.9918 Signal peptidase complex subunit 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SPCS2 PE=1 SV=391 Q14697-2 0.9918 Neutral alpha-glucosidase AB, isoform 292 Q14517 0.9934 Protocadherin Fat 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FAT1 PE=1 SV=293 Q14204 0.9918 Cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DYNC1H1 PE=1 SV=594 Q14203-2 0.9918 Dynactin subunit 1, isoform p13595 Q14103-2 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0, isoform 296 Q14019 1.0000 Coactosin-like protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=COTL1 PE=1 SV=397 Q13642-1 0.9836 Four and a half LIM domains protein 1, isoform 198 Q13618-3 0.9806 Cullin-3, isoform 399 Q13445 0.9918 Transmembrane emp24 domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TMED1 PE=1 SV=1100 Q13418 0.9918 Integrin-linked protein kinase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ILK PE=1 SV=2101 Q13409-2 0.9894 Cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 2, isoform 2B102 Q13404-8 0.9918 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1, isoform 6103 Q13283 0.9990 Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=G3BP1 PE=1 SV=1104 Q13242 0.9634 Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SRSF9 PE=1 SV=1105 Q12874 0.9918 Splicing factor 3A subunit 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SF3A3 PE=1 SV=1106 Q09028-3 0.9918 Histone-binding protein RBBP4, isoform 3107 Q08257 1.0000 Quinone oxidoreductase OS=Homo sapiens GN=CRYZ PE=1 SV=1108 Q07157-2 0.9918 Tight junction protein ZO-1, isoform short62      UniProt ID Probability Protein Description109 Q04837 0.9918 Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=SSBP1 PE=1 SV=1110 Q04760-2 0.9918 Lactoylglutathione lyase, isoform 2111 Q03154-2 0.9902 Aminoacylase-1, isoform 2112 Q02846 0.9657 Retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GUCY2D PE=1 SV=2113 Q02543 0.9918 60S ribosomal protein L18a OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL18A PE=1 SV=2114 Q01995 0.9894 Transgelin OS=Homo sapiens GN=TAGLN PE=1 SV=4115 Q00688 0.9886 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FKBP3 PE=1 SV=1116 Q00577 1.0000 Transcriptional activator protein Pur-alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=PURA PE=1 SV=2117 P78562 1.0000 Phosphate-regulating neutral endopeptidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=PHEX PE=1 SV=1118 P78417-3 0.9918 Glutathione S-transferase omega-1, isoform 3119 P68363 1.0000 Tubulin alpha-1B chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=TUBA1B PE=1 SV=1120 P63244 0.9918 Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GNB2L1 PE=1 SV=3121 P63220 0.9918 40S ribosomal protein S21 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS21 PE=1 SV=1122 P62913 0.9918 60S ribosomal protein L11 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL11 PE=1 SV=2123 P62879 1.0000 Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GNB2 PE=1 SV=3124 P62873 1.0000 Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GNB1 PE=1 SV=3125 P62826 1.0000 GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran OS=Homo sapiens GN=RAN PE=1 SV=3126 P62280 0.9894 40S ribosomal protein S11 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS11 PE=1 SV=3127 P62195 1.0000 26S protease regulatory subunit 8 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMC5 PE=1 SV=1128 P61163 0.9992 Alpha-centractin OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACTR1A PE=1 SV=1129 P61160-2 1.0000 Actin-related protein 2, isoform 2130 P61086-2 0.9910 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 K, isoform 2131 P60520 0.9790 Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GABARAPL2 PE=1 SV=1132 P59998 1.0000 Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ARPC4 PE=1 SV=3133 P55795 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HNRNPH2 PE=1 SV=1134 P55283-2 0.9918 Cadherin-4, isoform 2135 P55011-3 0.9918 Solute carrier family 12 member 2, isoform 2136 P54920 0.9918 Alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=NAPA PE=1 SV=3137 P54819-2 0.9918 Adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial, isoform 2138 P54132 0.9918 Bloom syndrome protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=BLM PE=1 SV=1139 P54098 0.9816 DNA polymerase subunit gamma-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=POLG PE=1 SV=1140 P52907 0.9989 F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CAPZA1 PE=1 SV=3141 P52272-2 0.9918 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M, isoform 2142 P51991 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HNRNPA3 PE=1 SV=2143 P50991-2 0.9894 T-complex protein 1 subunit delta, isoform 2144 P50990 0.9918 T-complex protein 1 subunit theta OS=Homo sapiens GN=CCT8 PE=1 SV=4145 P50897 1.0000 Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPT1 PE=1 SV=1146 P50453 1.0000 Serpin B9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINB9 PE=1 SV=1147 P50395-2 1.0000 Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta, isoform 2148 P49914 0.9918 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase OS=Homo sapiens GN=MTHFS PE=1 SV=2149 P49773 1.0000 Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HINT1 PE=1 SV=2150 P49755 0.9918 Transmembrane emp24 domain-containing protein 10 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TMED10 PE=1 SV=2151 P49720 0.9989 Proteasome subunit beta type-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMB3 PE=1 SV=2152 P49588 0.9918 Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic OS=Homo sapiens GN=AARS PE=1 SV=2153 P48739-2 0.9878 Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta isoform, isoform 2154 P48637-2 1.0000 Glutathione synthetase, isoform 2155 P48059-2 0.9918 Isoform 2 of LIM and senescent cell antigen-like-containing domain protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LIMS1156 P47914 0.9634 60S ribosomal protein L29 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL29 PE=1 SV=2157 P47897 0.9995 Glutamine--tRNA ligase OS=Homo sapiens GN=QARS PE=1 SV=1158 P43652 1.0000 Afamin OS=Homo sapiens GN=AFM PE=1 SV=1159 P43243 0.9918 Matrin-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MATR3 PE=1 SV=2160 P43034 0.9689 Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=PAFAH1B1 PE=1 SV=2161 P42566 0.9918 Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15 OS=Homo sapiens GN=EPS15 PE=1 SV=2162 P41250 0.9918 Glycine--tRNA ligase OS=Homo sapiens GN=GARS PE=1 SV=3163 P41222 0.9918 Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTGDS PE=1 SV=1164 P40939 0.9918 Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=HADHA PE=1 SV=2165 P39023 0.9758 60S ribosomal protein L3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL3 PE=1 SV=2166 P38646 0.9918 Stress-70 protein, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSPA9 PE=1 SV=263      UniProt ID Probability Protein Description167 P38606 1.0000 V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATP6V1A PE=1 SV=2168 P37802 0.9918 Transgelin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TAGLN2 PE=1 SV=3169 P36957 0.9918 Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=DLST PE=1 SV=4170 P35555 0.9894 Fibrillin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FBN1 PE=1 SV=3171 P35244 0.9918 Replication protein A 14 kDa subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPA3 PE=1 SV=1172 P35237 1.0000 Serpin B6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINB6 PE=1 SV=3173 P32969 0.9894 60S ribosomal protein L9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL9 PE=1 SV=1174 P31949 0.9918 Protein S100-A11 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A11 PE=1 SV=2175 P31948 0.9918 Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=STIP1 PE=1 SV=1176 P31946-2 1.0000 Isoform Short of 14-3-3 protein beta/alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=YWHAB177 P31942-2 0.9918 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H3, isoform 2178 P31939 1.0000 Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATIC PE=1 SV=3179 P30626-2 1.0000 Sorcin, isoform 2180 P30086 1.0000 Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PEBP1 PE=1 SV=3181 P30084 0.9918 Enoyl-CoA hydratase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ECHS1 PE=1 SV=4182 P29762 1.0000 Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CRABP1 PE=2 SV=2183 P29218 0.9999 Inositol monophosphatase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=IMPA1 PE=1 SV=1184 P28838-2 1.0000 Isoform 2 of Cytosol aminopeptidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAP3185 P28074 1.0000 Proteasome subunit beta type-5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMB5 PE=1 SV=3186 P27816-2 1.0000 Microtubule-associated protein 4, isoform 2187 P27797 0.9918 Calreticulin OS=Homo sapiens GN=CALR PE=1 SV=1188 P27348 1.0000 14-3-3 protein theta OS=Homo sapiens GN=YWHAQ PE=1 SV=1189 P26599-2 1.0000 Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, isoform 2190 P26022 1.0000 Pentraxin-related protein PTX3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PTX3 PE=1 SV=3191 P25789 0.9918 Proteasome subunit alpha type-4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMA4 PE=1 SV=1192 P25786-2 0.9918 Proteasome subunit alpha type-1, isoform long193 P25705 1.0000 ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATP5A1 PE=1 SV=1194 P25686-2 0.9918 DnaJ homolog subfamily B member 2, isoform 2195 P24752 0.9672 Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACAT1 PE=1 SV=1196 P23396 1.0000 40S ribosomal protein S3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS3 PE=1 SV=2197 P22626 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HNRNPA2B1 PE=1 SV=2198 P22352 0.9918 Glutathione peroxidase 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPX3 PE=1 SV=2199 P22061-2 1.0000 Protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase, isoform 2200 P21912 0.9918 Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=SDHB PE=1 SV=3201 P21796 0.9918 Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=VDAC1 PE=1 SV=2202 P21266 0.9918 Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GSTM3 PE=1 SV=3203 P20929 0.9795 Nebulin OS=Homo sapiens GN=NEB PE=1 SV=4204 P20711-2 0.9733 Isoform 2 of Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase OS=Homo sapiens GN=DDC205 P20073-2 1.0000 Annexin A7, isoform 2206 P19652 1.0000 Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ORM2 PE=1 SV=2207 P18583-10 0.9918 Protein SON, isoform J208 P17987 1.0000 T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=TCP1 PE=1 SV=1209 P17980 0.9918 26S protease regulatory subunit 6A OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMC3 PE=1 SV=3210 P17931 0.9918 Galectin-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LGALS3 PE=1 SV=5211 P17858 1.0000 6-phosphofructokinase, liver type OS=Homo sapiens GN=PFKL PE=1 SV=6212 P17844 1.0000 Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DDX5 PE=1 SV=1213 P17174 0.9878 Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic OS=Homo sapiens GN=GOT1 PE=1 SV=3214 P16930 0.9918 Fumarylacetoacetase OS=Homo sapiens GN=FAH PE=1 SV=2215 P16455 0.9918 Methylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferase OS=Homo sapiens GN=MGMT PE=1 SV=1216 P16152 1.0000 Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CBR1 PE=1 SV=3217 P15153 0.9918  Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2218 P15121 1.0000 Aldose reductase OS=Homo sapiens GN=AKR1B1 PE=1 SV=3219 P14868 0.9918 Aspartate--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic OS=Homo sapiens GN=DARS PE=1 SV=2220 P14866 0.9918 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L OS=Homo sapiens GN=HNRNPL PE=1 SV=2221 P14618 1.0000 Pyruvate kinase PKM OS=Homo sapiens GN=PKM PE=1 SV=4222 P14550 1.0000 Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)] OS=Homo sapiens GN=AKR1A1 PE=1 SV=3223 P14174 1.0000 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor OS=Homo sapiens GN=MIF PE=1 SV=4224 P13942-2 0.9790 Collagen alpha-2(XI) chain, isoform 264      UniProt ID Probability Protein Description225 P13804 1.0000 Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ETFA PE=1 SV=1226 P13693 0.9918 Translationally-controlled tumor protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=TPT1 PE=1 SV=1227 P13667 0.9918 Protein disulfide-isomerase A4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDIA4 PE=1 SV=2228 P13473-2 0.9910 Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2, isoform LAMP-2B229 P11766 1.0000 Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ADH5 PE=1 SV=4230 P11498 0.9918 Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=PC PE=1 SV=2231 P11413-2 0.9812 Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, isoform long232 P11233 0.9918  Ras-related protein Ral-A233 P11142-2 1.0000  Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, isoform 2234 P10644 0.9918 cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRKAR1A PE=1 SV=1235 P0CG47 1.0000  Polyubiquitin-B236 P0C869-6 0.9918 Cytosolic phospholipase A2 beta, isoform 5237 P0C7T7 0.9588 Putative uncharacterized protein FRMD6-AS1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FRMD6-AS1 PE=5 SV=1238 P0C0L4 1.0000  Complement C4-A239 P09972 1.0000 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C OS=Homo sapiens GN=ALDOC PE=1 SV=2240 P09874 0.9918 Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PARP1 PE=1 SV=4241 P09493-3 1.0000  Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, isoform 3242 P09488 0.9918  Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1243 P09467 0.9918 Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FBP1 PE=1 SV=5244 P08697-2 1.0000 Alpha-2-antiplasmin, isoform 2245 P08603 1.0000 Complement factor H OS=Homo sapiens GN=CFH PE=1 SV=4246 P08134 0.9918  Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoC247 P08133 1.0000 Annexin A6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANXA6 PE=1 SV=3248 P0DMV9 1.0000  Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1B249 P07858 0.9665 Cathepsin B OS=Homo sapiens GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=3250 P07738 1.0000 Bisphosphoglycerate mutase OS=Homo sapiens GN=BPGM PE=1 SV=2251 P07108-6 0.9918 Acyl-CoA-binding protein, isoform 6252 P06744-2 1.0000 Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, isoform 2253 P06737-2 1.0000 Glycogen phosphorylase, liver form, isoform 2254 P06733 1.0000 Alpha-enolase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ENO1 PE=1 SV=2255 P05186-2 0.9918 Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme,  isoform 2256 P05090 0.9918 Apolipoprotein D OS=Homo sapiens GN=APOD PE=1 SV=1257 P04843 0.9918 Dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPN1 PE=1 SV=1258 P04632 1.0000 Calpain small subunit 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CAPNS1 PE=1 SV=1259 P04438 0.9910 Ig heavy chain V-II region SESS OS=Homo sapiens PE=2 SV=1260 P04430 0.9918 Ig kappa chain V-I region BAN OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1261 P04424-2 0.9719 Argininosuccinate lyase, isoform 2262 P04217 1.0000 Alpha-1B-glycoprotein OS=Homo sapiens GN=A1BG PE=1 SV=4263 P04208 0.9998 Ig lambda chain V-I region WAH OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1264 P04207 0.9996 Ig kappa chain V-III region CLL OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=2265 P04080 0.9918 Cystatin-B OS=Homo sapiens GN=CSTB PE=1 SV=2266 P02814 0.9918 Submaxillary gland androgen-regulated protein 3B OS=Homo sapiens GN=SMR3B PE=1 SV=2267 P02810 0.9918 Salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoprotein 1/2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRH1 PE=1 SV=2268 P02792 1.0000 Ferritin light chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=FTL PE=1 SV=2269 P02774-3 1.0000 Vitamin D-binding protein, isoform 3270 P02763 0.9989 Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ORM1 PE=1 SV=1271 P02753 1.0000 Retinol-binding protein 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RBP4 PE=1 SV=3272 P02649 0.9918 Apolipoprotein E OS=Homo sapiens GN=APOE PE=1 SV=1273 P01861 0.9996 Ig gamma-4 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHG4 PE=1 SV=1274 P01859 1.0000 Ig gamma-2 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHG2 PE=1 SV=2275 P01857 1.0000 Ig gamma-1 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHG1 PE=1 SV=1276 P01781 1.0000 Ig heavy chain V-III region GAL OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1277 P01762 0.9918 Ig heavy chain V-III region TRO OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1278 P01761 0.9918 Ig heavy chain V-I region SIE OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1279 P01719 0.9918 Ig lambda chain V-V region DEL OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1280 P01624 0.9996 Ig kappa chain V-III region POM OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1281 P01623 1.0000 Ig kappa chain V-III region WOL OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1282 P01616 0.9918 Ig kappa chain V-II region MIL OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=165        UniProt ID Probability Protein Description283 P01612 0.9918 Ig kappa chain V-I region Mev OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1284 P01023 1.0000 Alpha-2-macroglobulin OS=Homo sapiens GN=A2M PE=1 SV=3285 P01009 1.0000 Alpha-1-antitrypsin OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINA1 PE=1 SV=3286 P00966 1.0000 Argininosuccinate synthase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ASS1 PE=1 SV=2287 P00918 1.0000 Carbonic anhydrase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CA2 PE=1 SV=2288 P00748 1.0000 Coagulation factor XII OS=Homo sapiens GN=F12 PE=1 SV=3289 P00558 1.0000 Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PGK1 PE=1 SV=3290 P00505 0.9918 Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=GOT2 PE=1 SV=3291 O95865 1.0000 N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DDAH2 PE=1 SV=1292 O95861-2 0.9918 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase 1, isoform 2293 O95816 0.9910 BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BAG2 PE=1 SV=1294 O95777 0.9918 N-alpha-acetyltransferase 38, NatC auxiliary subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=NAA38 PE=1 SV=3295 O95372 0.9918 Acyl-protein thioesterase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LYPLA2 PE=1 SV=1296 O94979-2 0.9910 Protein transport protein Sec31A, isoform 2297 O94903 0.9918 Proline synthase co-transcribed bacterial homolog protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=PROSC PE=1 SV=1298 O94760 0.9918 N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DDAH1 PE=1 SV=3299 O75935-3 1.0000 Dynactin subunit 3, isoform 3300 O75915 0.9918 PRA1 family protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ARL6IP5 PE=1 SV=1301 O75874 1.0000 Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] cytoplasmic OS=Homo sapiens GN=IDH1 PE=1 SV=2302 O75746 0.9918 Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLC25A12 PE=1 SV=2303 O75396 0.9649 Vesicle-trafficking protein SEC22b OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEC22B PE=1 SV=4304 O75369-2 1.0000  Filamin-B,isoform 2305 O75367-2 1.0000  Core histone macro-H2A.1, isoform 1306 O75131 0.9846 Copine-3307 O60664-2 0.9782 Perilipin-3, isoform 2 308 O60271-2 1.0000  C-Jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 4, isoform 2309 O60234 0.9918 Glia maturation factor gamma OS=Homo sapiens GN=GMFG PE=1 SV=1310 O43707-2 1.0000 Alpha-actinin-4, Isoform ACTN4ISO311 O43598-2 0.9910 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-phosphate N-hydrolase 1, isoform 2312 O43488 1.0000 Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=AKR7A2 PE=1 SV=3313 O43390-2 0.9854 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R, isoform 2314 O15511-2 0.9918 Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5, isoform 2315 O15428 0.9918 Putative PIN1-like protein316 O15144 1.0000 Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ARPC2 PE=1 SV=1317 O15061-2 1.0000 Synemin318 O14980 0.9918 Exportin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=XPO1 PE=1 SV=1319 O14979-2 0.9918 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D-like, isoform 2320 O14907 0.9918 Tax1-binding protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TAX1BP3 PE=1 SV=2321 O14818-4 0.9997 Proteasome subunit alpha type-7, isoform 3322 O14744 0.9918 Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRMT5 PE=1 SV=4323 O14576-2 0.9822 Cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 1, isoform 2324 O00629 0.9918 Importin subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KPNA4 PE=1 SV=1325 O00299 1.0000 Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CLIC1 PE=1 SV=4326 O00231-2 0.9918 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 11, isoform 2327 O00159-3 0.9836 Unconventional myosin-Ic, isoform 3328 O00148 1.0000 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX39A329 B4E2M5 0.9918 Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 66 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANKRD66 PE=2 SV=2330 A6NHG4 0.9918 D-dopachrome decarboxylase-like protein331 A6NDU8 0.9504 UPF0600 protein C5orf51 OS=Homo sapiens GN=C5orf51 PE=1 SV=166  Table 4. Mature odontoblast proteins    Proteins found only in odontoblast cell layer samples from donors > 20 (N = 2, n = 8). (Data also shown in Figure 4D). UniProt ID Probability Protein Description1 Q9Y6U3-2 1.0000 Adseverin, isoform 22 Q9Y4Y9 0.9921 U6 snRNA-associated Sm-like protein LSm5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LSM5 PE=1 SV=33 Q9Y4D7-2 0.9707 Plexin-D1, isoform 24 Q9Y3D6 0.9895 Mitochondrial fission 1 protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=FIS1 PE=1 SV=25 Q9Y2Z4 0.9502 Tyrosine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=YARS2 PE=1 SV=26 Q9Y2H0-1 0.9866 Disks large-associated protein 4, isoform 27 Q9Y2G9 0.9926 Protein strawberry notch homolog 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SBNO2 PE=2 SV=38 Q9Y2E4 0.9837 Disco-interacting protein 2 homolog C OS=Homo sapiens GN=DIP2C PE=2 SV=29 Q9Y259 0.9727 Choline/ethanolamine kinase OS=Homo sapiens GN=CHKB PE=1 SV=310 Q9Y257 0.9968 Potassium channel subfamily K member 6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KCNK6 PE=1 SV=111 Q9UQQ1-2 0.9885 N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein, isoform 212 Q9UQP3 1.0000 Tenascin-N OS=Homo sapiens GN=TNN PE=1 SV=213 Q9UQ80 0.9635 Proliferation-associated protein 2G4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PA2G4 PE=1 SV=314 Q9UQ16-2 0.9984 Dynamin-3, isoform 215 Q9UPW8 0.9829 Protein unc-13 homolog A OS=Homo sapiens GN=UNC13A PE=2 SV=416 Q9UPV0-2 0.9999 Centrosomal protein of 164 kDa, isoform 217 Q9UPN3-2 0.9590 Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, isoforms 1/2/3/5, isoform 218 Q9UP83-2 0.9635 Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 5, isoform 219 Q9UNS2 0.9937 COP9 signalosome complex subunit 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=COPS3 PE=1 SV=320 Q9UNH5-2 0.9647 Dual specificity protein phosphatase CDC14A, isoform 221 Q9UNF0-2 0.9947 Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 2, isoform 222 Q9UMS4 0.9937 Pre-mRNA-processing factor 19 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRPF19 PE=1 SV=123 Q9ULC6 0.9924 Protein-arginine deiminase type-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PADI1 PE=1 SV=224 Q9UL46 0.9997 Proteasome activator complex subunit 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSME2 PE=1 SV=425 Q9UKY1 0.9801 Zinc fingers and homeoboxes protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ZHX1 PE=1 SV=126 Q9UJ70-2 0.9838 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase, isoform 227 Q9UHX3-2 0.9601 Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E2, isoform 228 Q9UHD8-5 0.9994 Isoform 5 of Septin-9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEPT929 Q9UFH2-2 0.9991 Dynein heavy chain 17, axonemal, isoform 230 Q9P2P6 0.9840 StAR-related lipid transfer protein 9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=STARD9 PE=1 SV=331 Q9P2J2-2 0.9608 Protein turtle homolog A, isoform 232 Q9P2E9-2 1.0000 Ribosome-binding protein 1, isoform 133 Q9P2E5-2 0.9852 Chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase, isoform 234 Q9P265 0.9997 Disco-interacting protein 2 homolog B OS=Homo sapiens GN=DIP2B PE=1 SV=335 Q9P0X4-4 0.9870 Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I, isoform 436 Q9P0J1 0.9993 [Pyruvate dehydrogenase [acetyl-transferring]]-phosphatase 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDP1 PE=1 SV=337 Q9NZJ4-2 0.9953 Sacsin, isoform 238 Q9NZB8-6 0.9621 Molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein 1, isoform 239 Q9NY15 0.9658 Stabilin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=STAB1 PE=1 SV=340 Q9NVN3-1 0.9688 Synembryn-B, isoform 141 Q9NVA2-2 0.9998 Septin-11, isoform 242 Q9NRX4-2 0.9921 14 kDa phosphohistidine phosphatase, isoform 243 Q9NR99 0.9655 Matrix-remodeling-associated protein 5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MXRA5 PE=2 SV=344 Q9HCL2 0.9749 Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPAM PE=1 SV=345 Q9HCK4-2 0.9502 Roundabout homolog 2, isoform 246 Q9HA92 0.9918 Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=RSAD1 PE=2 SV=247 Q9H9Y4 0.9954 GPN-loop GTPase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPN2 PE=2 SV=248 Q9H9D4 0.9935 Zinc finger protein 408 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ZNF408 PE=1 SV=149 Q9H3T3-3 0.9998 Semaphorin-6B, isoform 250 Q9H3R0-2 0.9698 Lysine-specific demethylase 4C, isoform 251 Q9H2G9 0.9999 Golgin-45 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BLZF1 PE=1 SV=252 Q9H2D6-2 0.9644 TRIO and F-actin-binding protein, isoform 353 Q9H299 0.9670 SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SH3BGRL3 PE=1 SV=154 Q9H251-2 0.9587 Cadherin-23, isoform 267     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description55 Q9GZX5 0.9999 Zinc finger protein 350 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ZNF350 PE=1 SV=356 Q9C0K0-2 0.9984 B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11B, isoform 257 Q9C0H9-2 0.9999 SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1, isoform 258 Q9BZZ2-2 0.9990 Sialoadhesin, isoform 259 Q9BYB0-2 0.9603  SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein 360 Q9BXN1 1.0000 Asporin OS=Homo sapiens GN=ASPN PE=1 SV=261 Q9BX69 0.9574 Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CARD6 PE=2 SV=262 Q9BV73-2 0.9987 Centrosome-associated protein CEP250, isoform 263 Q9BPX3 0.9909 Condensin complex subunit 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=NCAPG PE=1 SV=164 Q99715 1.0000 Collagen alpha-1(XII) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL12A1 PE=1 SV=265 Q96S55-2 0.9638 ATPase WRNIP1, isoform 266 Q96RW7-2 0.9998 Hemicentin-1, isoform 267 Q96PF1 0.9716 Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase Z OS=Homo sapiens GN=TGM7 PE=2 SV=168 Q96P70 0.9947 Importin-9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=IPO9 PE=1 SV=369 Q96NL6 0.9960 Sodium channel and clathrin linker 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SCLT1 PE=2 SV=270 Q96M86 0.9631 Dynein heavy chain domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DNHD1 PE=2 SV=271 Q96KP4-2 0.9947 Cytosolic non-specific dipeptidase, isoform 272 Q96JQ0 1.0000 Protocadherin-16 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DCHS1 PE=2 SV=173 Q96JH8-1 0.9991 Ras-associating and dilute domain-containing protein, isoform 174 Q96IT1-2 0.9867 Zinc finger protein 496, isoform 275 Q96HQ2-2 0.9890 CDKN2AIP N-terminal-like protein, isoform 276 Q96HB5-2 0.9881 Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 120, isoform 277 Q96FT7-2 0.9632 Acid-sensing ion channel 4, isoform 278 Q96EH3 0.9541 Mitochondrial assembly of ribosomal large subunit protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MALSU1 PE=1 SV=179 Q96DZ1-2 0.9979 Endoplasmic reticulum lectin 1, isoform 280 Q96DT5 0.9984 Dynein heavy chain 11, axonemal OS=Homo sapiens GN=DNAH11 PE=1 SV=381 Q96AX9-10 0.9936 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIB2, isoform 1082 Q96AC6 0.9579 Kinesin-like protein KIFC2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KIFC2 PE=2 SV=183 Q96A99-2 0.9999 Pentraxin-4, isoform 184 Q969S9-2 0.9966 Ribosome-releasing factor 2, mitochondrial, isoform 285 Q92994-3 0.9980 Transcription factor IIIB 90 kDa subunit, isoform 386 Q92985-2 1.0000 Interferon regulatory factor 7, Isoform B 87 Q92959 0.9650 Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLCO2A1 PE=1 SV=288 Q92917 0.9628 G patch domain and KOW motifs-containing protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPKOW PE=1 SV=289 Q92817 0.9671 Envoplakin OS=Homo sapiens GN=EVPL PE=1 SV=390 Q92805 0.9670 Golgin subfamily A member 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GOLGA1 PE=1 SV=391 Q8WZ42-1 1.0000 Titin, isoform 192 Q8WXI7 0.9975 Mucin-16 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MUC16 PE=1 SV=293 Q8WXH0-2 0.9794 Nesprin-2, isoform 294 Q8WUA2 0.9937 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase-like 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPIL4 PE=1 SV=195 Q8TEY5-2 0.9991 Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4, isoform 296 Q8TDY2-2 0.9957 RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1, isoform 297 Q8TDX9-2 0.9970 Polycystic kidney disease protein 1-like 1, isoform 298 Q8TC90 0.9560 Coiled-coil domain-containing glutamate-rich protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CCER1 PE=2 SV=199 Q8TBE0-2 0.9710 Bromo adjacent homology domain-containing 1 protein, isoform 2100 Q8NI27-2 0.9680 THO complex subunit 2, isoform 2101 Q8NG06 0.9610 Tripartite motif-containing protein 58 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TRIM58 PE=2 SV=2102 Q8NFU4 0.9855 Follicular dendritic cell secreted peptide OS=Homo sapiens GN=FDCSP PE=1 SV=1103 Q8NF91-4 0.9997 Nesprin-1, isoform 4104 Q8NDA2-3 0.9999 Hemicentin-2105 Q8ND90 0.9595 Paraneoplastic antigen Ma1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PNMA1 PE=1 SV=2106 Q8ND04-2 0.9938 Protein SMG8, isoform 2107 Q8NCN4 0.9881 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF169 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RNF169 PE=1 SV=2108 Q8NBJ5 0.9923 Procollagen galactosyltransferase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=COLGALT1 PE=1 SV=1109 Q8N7J2-2 0.9814 APC membrane recruitment protein 2, isoform 2110 Q8N6Y0 0.9713 Usher syndrome type-1C protein-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=USHBP1 PE=1 SV=1111 Q8N3C0 0.9961 Activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ASCC3 PE=1 SV=3112 Q8N2S1 0.9956 Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LTBP4 PE=1 SV=2113 Q8N2C7-2 0.9693 Protein unc-80 homolog, isoform 2114 Q8N108-16 0.9879 Mesoderm induction early response protein 1, isoform 6115 Q8IZD2-2 0.9738 Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2E, isoform 2116 Q8IWY9-1 0.9976 Codanin-1, isoform 1117 Q8IWV8-4 0.9917 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR2, isoform 468     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description118 Q8IWA0 0.9978 WD repeat-containing protein 75 OS=Homo sapiens GN=WDR75 PE=1 SV=1119 Q8IVS8-2 0.9756 Glycerate kinase, isoform 2120 Q8IVL1-10 0.9652 Neuron navigator 2, isoform 10121 Q8IVF4 0.9931 Dynein heavy chain 10, axonemal OS=Homo sapiens GN=DNAH10 PE=1 SV=4122 Q8IUX7 1.0000 Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=AEBP1 PE=1 SV=1123 Q86YV0-2 0.9919 RAS protein activator like-3, isoform 2124 Q86XR2-2 0.9920 Niban-like protein 2, isoform 2125 Q86VL8-3 0.9640 Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2, isoform 3126 Q86UT6-2 0.9991 NLR family member X1, isoform 2127 Q7Z7L9-3 0.9885 Zinc finger and SCAN domain-containing protein 2, isoform 3128 Q7Z6M4 0.9989 mTERF domain-containing protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MTERFD2 PE=1 SV=3129 Q7Z6I6-2 0.9905 Rho GTPase-activating protein 30, isoform 2130 Q7Z4H8 0.9704 KDEL motif-containing protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KDELC2 PE=1 SV=2131 Q7Z3K6-2 0.9739 Mesoderm induction early response protein 3, isoform 2132 Q7KZF4 1.0000 Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SND1 PE=1 SV=1133 Q76I76 0.9961 Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SSH2 PE=1 SV=1134 Q71U36-2 1.0000 Tubulin alpha-1A chain, isoform 2135 Q6ZSJ9-2 0.9991 Protein shisa-6 homolog, isoform 2136 Q6ZRR7 0.9844 Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LRRC9 PE=2 SV=2137 Q6UVK1 0.9619 Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CSPG4 PE=1 SV=2138 Q6PIJ6 0.9825 F-box only protein 38 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FBXO38 PE=1 SV=3139 Q6P1N0-2 0.9839 Coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing protein 1A, isoform 2140 Q6P1J9 0.9905 Parafibromin OS=Homo sapiens GN=CDC73 PE=1 SV=1141 Q68DN1 0.9844 Uncharacterized protein C2orf16 OS=Homo sapiens GN=C2orf16 PE=2 SV=3142 Q63HM1-2 0.9994 Kynurenine formamidase, isoform 2143 Q5VUA4-2 0.9982 Zinc finger protein 318, isoform 2144 Q5VTR2 0.9700 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase BRE1A OS=Homo sapiens GN=RNF20 PE=1 SV=2145 Q5VST9-2 1.0000 Obscurin, isoform 2146 Q5U651 1.0000 Ras-interacting protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RASIP1 PE=1 SV=1147 Q5T4B2 0.9921 Probable inactive glycosyltransferase 25 family member 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CERCAM PE=2 SV=1148 Q5T011-5 0.9813 Protein SZT2, isoform 3149 Q5SNT2 0.9703 Transmembrane protein 201 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TMEM201 PE=1 SV=1150 Q5RHP9-2 0.9695 Glutamate-rich protein 3, isoform 2151 Q5JT82 0.9974 Krueppel-like factor 17 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KLF17 PE=1 SV=1152 Q58EX7-2 0.9987 Puratrophin-1, isoform 2153 Q53GL7 0.9929 Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 10 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PARP10 PE=1 SV=2154 Q53EQ6-2 0.9810 Tigger transposable element-derived protein 5, isoform 2155 Q4LDE5-2 0.9753 Sushi, von Willebrand factor type A, EGF and pentraxin domain-containing protein 1, isoform 2156 Q27J81-2 0.9925 Inverted formin-2, isoform 2157 Q16822 0.9973 Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [GTP], mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=PCK2 PE=1 SV=3158 Q16760-2 0.9949 Diacylglycerol kinase delta, isoform 1159 Q16555-2 1.0000 Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, isoform 2160 Q16363-2 0.9777 Laminin subunit alpha-4, isoform 2161 Q15878-2 0.9987 Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E, isoform 2162 Q15772-1 0.9997 Striated muscle preferentially expressed protein kinase, isoform 1163 Q15751 0.9959 Probable E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HERC1 PE=1 SV=2164 Q15233-2 0.9992 Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein, isoform 2165 Q15063 1.0000 Periostin OS=Homo sapiens GN=POSTN PE=1 SV=2166 Q15019 0.9999 Septin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEPT2 PE=1 SV=1167 Q14974 1.0000 Importin subunit beta-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KPNB1 PE=1 SV=2168 Q14790-2 0.9991 Caspase-8, isoform 2169 Q14764 0.9761 Major vault protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=MVP PE=1 SV=4170 Q14315-2 0.9926 Filamin-C, isoform 2171 Q14191 0.9968 Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase OS=Homo sapiens GN=WRN PE=1 SV=2172 Q14011 1.0000 Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=CIRBP PE=1 SV=1173 Q13585 0.9866 Melatonin-related receptor OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPR50 PE=1 SV=3174 Q13370 0.9982 cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase B OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDE3B PE=1 SV=2175 Q13228-2 1.0000 Selenium-binding protein 1, isoform 2176 Q13191-2 0.9534 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL-B, isoform Truncated 1177 Q13085-2 0.9847 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, isoform 2178 Q12931 0.9999 Heat shock protein 75 kDa, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=TRAP1 PE=1 SV=3179 Q12765-2 0.9954 Secernin-1, isoform 2180 Q08043 0.9864 Alpha-actinin-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACTN3 PE=1 SV=269     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description181 Q07065 1.0000 Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CKAP4 PE=1 SV=2182 Q05707-2 1.0000 Collagen alpha-1(XIV) chain, isoform 2183 Q04323-2 0.9981 UBX domain-containing protein 1, isoform 2184 Q02388-2 0.9749 Collagen alpha-1(VII) chain, isoform 2185 Q01082-2 0.9738 Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1, isoform short186 Q00587-2 0.9778 Cdc42 effector protein 1, isoform 2187 Q00341 0.9971 Vigilin OS=Homo sapiens GN=HDLBP PE=1 SV=2188 P98161-2 0.9874 Polycystin-1, isoform 2189 P98160 1.0000 Basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSPG2 PE=1 SV=4190 P80511 0.9916 Protein S100-A12 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A12 PE=1 SV=2191 P78527-2 0.9998 DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, isoform 2192 P78509-2 0.9819 Reelin, isoform 2193 P78415 0.9963 Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=IRX3 PE=2 SV=3194 P69891 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit gamma-1195 P62917 1.0000 60S ribosomal protein L8 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL8 PE=1 SV=2196 P62306 0.9947 Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein F OS=Homo sapiens GN=SNRPF PE=1 SV=1197 P62269 0.9958 40S ribosomal protein S18 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS18 PE=1 SV=3198 P61626 0.9989 Lysozyme C OS=Homo sapiens GN=LYZ PE=1 SV=1199 P60983 0.9997 Glia maturation factor beta OS=Homo sapiens GN=GMFB PE=1 SV=2200 P56945-2 0.9833 Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance protein 1, isoform 2201 P55735 0.9716 Protein SEC13 homolog OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEC13 PE=1 SV=3202 P54727-2 0.9987 UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog B, isoform 2203 P53609-2 0.9707 Geranylgeranyl transferase type-1 subunit beta, isoform 2204 P51991-2 0.9947 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, isoform 2205 P51608-2 0.9947 Isoform B of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MECP2206 P49736 0.9566 DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MCM2 PE=1 SV=4207 P49641-1 0.9842 Alpha-mannosidase 2x, isoform 1208 P46063 0.9947 ATP-dependent DNA helicase Q1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RECQL PE=1 SV=3209 P43355 0.9741 Melanoma-associated antigen 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MAGEA1 PE=1 SV=1210 P41091 0.9926 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 3, isoform 2211 P40692 0.9997 DNA mismatch repair protein Mlh1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MLH1 PE=1 SV=1212 P37837 1.0000 Transaldolase OS=Homo sapiens GN=TALDO1 PE=1 SV=2213 P36578 0.9755 60S ribosomal protein L4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL4 PE=1 SV=5214 P36542-2 0.9591 Isoform Heart of ATP synthase subunit gamma, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATP5C1215 P35232 0.9926 Prohibitin OS=Homo sapiens GN=PHB PE=1 SV=1216 P35125-2 0.9879 Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 6, isoform 2217 P33241 0.9843 Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LSP1 PE=1 SV=1218 P31943 0.9563 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H OS=Homo sapiens GN=HNRNPH1 PE=1 SV=4219 P30153 0.9958 Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 65 kDa regulatory subunit A alpha isoform OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPP2R1A PE=1 SV=4220 P30050 0.9942 60S ribosomal protein L12 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL12 PE=1 SV=1221 P30044-2 0.9947 Peroxiredoxin-5, mitochondrial, isoform Cytoplasmic + peroxisomal222 P28300 0.9947 Protein-lysine 6-oxidase OS=Homo sapiens GN=LOX PE=1 SV=2223 P27695 0.9964 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase OS=Homo sapiens GN=APEX1 PE=1 SV=2224 P27348 0.9947 14-3-3 protein theta OS=Homo sapiens GN=YWHAQ PE=1 SV=1225 P26447 0.9950 Protein S100-A4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A4 PE=1 SV=1226 P25705-2 1.0000 ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, isoform 2227 P25398 1.0000 40S ribosomal protein S12 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS12 PE=1 SV=3228 P24158 0.9833 Myeloblastin OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRTN3 PE=1 SV=3229 P23142 1.0000 Fibulin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FBLN1 PE=1 SV=4230 P22626-2 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, isoform A2231 P21817-2 0.9991 Ryanodine receptor 1, isoform 2232 P20908 0.9984 Collagen alpha-1(V) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL5A1 PE=1 SV=3233 P20160 1.0000 Azurocidin OS=Homo sapiens GN=AZU1 PE=1 SV=3234 P18135 1.0000 Ig kappa chain V-III region HAH235 P16157-10 0.9812 Ankyrin-1, isoform Er9236 P14625 1.0000 Endoplasmin OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSP90B1 PE=1 SV=1237 P14618-2 1.0000 Pyruvate kinase PKM, isoform M1238 P14314-2 0.9997 Glucosidase 2 subunit beta, isoform 2239 P13861 0.9947 cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRKAR2A PE=1 SV=2240 P13796 0.9979 Plastin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LCP1 PE=1 SV=6241 P13727 0.9993 Bone marrow proteoglycan OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRG2 PE=1 SV=2242 P13497-4 0.9615 Isoform BMP1-5 of Bone morphogenetic protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=BMP1243 P12270 0.9979 Nucleoprotein TPR OS=Homo sapiens GN=TPR PE=1 SV=370     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description244 P12107-2 0.9960 Collagen alpha-1(XI) chain, isoform B245 P11277-2 1.0000 Spectrin beta chain, erythrocytic, isoform 2246 P11216 0.9997 Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form OS=Homo sapiens GN=PYGB PE=1 SV=5247 P11142 1.0000 Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSPA8 PE=1 SV=1248 P11137-3 0.9609 Microtubule-associated protein 2, isoform 3249 P11047 1.0000 Laminin subunit gamma-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAMC1 PE=1 SV=3250 P10619 0.9722 Lysosomal protective protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=CTSA PE=1 SV=2251 P0CB43 0.9551 Protein HGH1 homolog, isoform 2252 P0C0L4-2 1.0000 Complement C4-A, isoform 2253 P09960-2 0.9916 Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase, isoform 2254 P09936 0.9999 Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=UCHL1 PE=1 SV=2255 P09917 0.9988 Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ALOX5 PE=1 SV=2256 P09104 0.9998 Gamma-enolase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ENO2 PE=1 SV=3257 P08621-2 0.9802 U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70 kDa, isoform 2258 P08603-2 1.0000 Complement factor H, isoform 2259 P08572 0.9999 Collagen alpha-2(IV) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL4A2 PE=1 SV=4260 P08514-2 0.9976 Integrin alpha-Iib, isoform 2261 P08311 1.0000 Cathepsin G OS=Homo sapiens GN=CTSG PE=1 SV=2262 P08246 1.0000 Neutrophil elastase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ELANE PE=1 SV=1263 P08133-2 1.0000 Annexin A6, isoform 2264 P07998 0.9527 Ribonuclease pancreatic OS=Homo sapiens GN=RNASE1 PE=1 SV=4265 P07332-2 0.9819 Tyrosine-protein kinase Fes/Fps, isoform 2266 P06753-2 1.0000 Tropomyosin alpha-3 chain267 P06312 0.9998 Ig kappa chain V-IV region268 P06310 1.0000 Ig kappa chain V-II region RPMI 6410 OS=Homo sapiens PE=4 SV=1269 P06309 0.9999 Ig kappa chain V-II region GM607 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens PE=4 SV=1270 P05997 0.9684 Collagen alpha-2(V) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL5A2 PE=1 SV=3271 P05186-3 1.0000 Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme, isoform 3272 P05164-3 1.0000 Myeloperoxidase, isoform H7273 P05129 0.9983 Protein kinase C gamma type OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRKCG PE=1 SV=3274 P05109 1.0000 Protein S100-A8 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A8 PE=1 SV=1275 P04628 0.9905 Proto-oncogene Wnt-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=WNT1 PE=1 SV=1276 P04217-2 0.9999 Alpha-1B-glycoprotein, isoform 2277 P02788-2 0.9999 Lactotransferrin, isoform DeltaLf278 P02730 1.0000 Band 3 anion transport protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLC4A1 PE=1 SV=3279 P02549-2 1.0000 Spectrin alpha chain, erythrocytic 1, isoform 2280 P02458-1 0.9995 Collagen alpha-1(II) chain, isoform 1281 P02100 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit epsilon OS=Homo sapiens GN=HBE1 PE=1 SV=2282 P02042 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit delta OS=Homo sapiens GN=HBD PE=1 SV=2283 P01877 0.9990 Ig alpha-2 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHA2 PE=1 SV=3284 P01780 0.9942 Ig heavy chain V-III region JON OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1285 P01775 0.9947 Ig heavy chain V-III region LAY OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1286 P01764 0.9942 Ig heavy chain V-III region VH26 OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1287 P01700 0.9947 Ig lambda chain V-I region HA OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1288 P01699 0.9947 Ig lambda chain V-I region VOR, isoform 2289 P01611 1.0000 Ig kappa chain V-I region Wes OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1290 P01596 0.9999 Ig kappa chain V-I region CAR, isoform 2291 P01591 0.9942 Immunoglobulin J chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGJ PE=1 SV=4292 P01009-2 0.9993 Alpha-1-antitrypsin, isoform 2293 P00568 0.9947 Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=AK1 PE=1 SV=3294 P00488 0.9932 Coagulation factor XIII A chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=F13A1 PE=1 SV=4295 O95996-2 0.9969 Adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2, isoform 2296 O95714 0.9872 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HERC2 PE=1 SV=2297 O95602 0.9676 DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=POLR1A PE=1 SV=2298 O95072-2 0.9954 Meiotic recombination protein REC8 homolog, isoform 2299 O95071 0.9888 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=UBR5 PE=1 SV=2300 O94915 0.9823 Protein furry homolog-like OS=Homo sapiens GN=FRYL PE=1 SV=2301 O94913 0.9569 Pre-mRNA cleavage complex 2 protein Pcf11 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PCF11 PE=1 SV=3302 O76003 0.9999 Glutaredoxin-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GLRX3 PE=1 SV=2303 O75970-2 1.0000 Multiple PDZ domain protein, isoform 2304 O75821 0.9947 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G OS=Homo sapiens GN=EIF3G PE=1 SV=2305 O75718 0.9666 Cartilage-associated protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=CRTAP PE=1 SV=1306 O75427 0.9997 Leucine-rich repeat and calponin homology domain-containing protein 4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LRCH4 PE=1 SV=271    Table 5. Odontoblast proteins found in both age groups   UniProt ID Probability Protein Description307 O75366-2 0.9513 Advillin, isoform 2308 O75145-2 0.9999 Liprin-alpha-3, isoform 2309 O60884 0.9916 DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DNAJA2 PE=1 SV=1310 O60522-2 0.9750 Tudor domain-containing protein 6, isoform 2311 O60506-2 0.9544 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q, isoform 2312 O60240 0.9961 Perilipin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PLIN1 PE=1 SV=2313 O43861-2 0.9585 Probable phospholipid-transporting ATPase IIB, isoform 2314 O43681 0.9958 ATPase ASNA1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ASNA1 PE=1 SV=2315 O43525 0.9586 Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KCNQ3 PE=1 SV=2316 O43312 0.9692 Metastasis suppressor protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MTSS1 PE=1 SV=2317 O15439-2 0.9905 Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4, isoform 2318 O15417 0.9859 Trinucleotide repeat-containing gene 18 protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=TNRC18 PE=1 SV=3319 O15354 0.9947 Probable G-protein coupled receptor 37 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GPR37 PE=1 SV=2320 O15260-2 0.9726 Surfeit locus protein 4, isoform 2321 O15049 0.9968 NEDD4-binding protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=N4BP3 PE=1 SV=3322 O14939-2 0.9975 Isoform PLD2B of Phospholipase D2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PLD2323 O14732-2 0.9792 Inositol monophosphatase 2, isoform 2324 O00410 0.9849 Importin-5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=IPO5 PE=1 SV=4325 O00338-2 0.9581 Sulfotransferase 1C2, isoform long326 O00186 0.9883 Syntaxin-binding protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=STXBP3 PE=1 SV=2327 H7BZ55 0.9911 Putative ciliary rootlet coiled-coil protein-like 3 protein OS=Homo sapiens PE=5 SV=2328 B2RTY4-2 0.9912 Unconventional myosin-Ixa, isoform 2329 A8MTW9 0.9990 Putative uncharacterized protein ENSP00000380674 OS=Homo sapiens PE=5 SV=2330 A7MCY6 0.9534 TANK-binding kinase 1-binding protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TBKBP1 PE=1 SV=1331 A6NMB1 0.9926 Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 16 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SIGLEC16 PE=2 SV=3332 A6NKG5 0.9675 Retrotransposon-like protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RTL1 PE=2 SV=3333 A6H8Y1-6 0.9648 Transcription factor TFIIIB component B'' homolog, isoform 6334 A1KZ92-2 0.9837 Peroxidasin-like protein, isoform 2Proteins found in all odontoblast cell layer samples (N = 3, n = 10). (Data also shown in Figure 4D). UniProt ID Probability Protein Description1 Q9Y6G5 0.9993 COMM domain-containing protein 10 OS=Homo sapiens GN=COMMD10 PE=1 SV=12 Q9Y5Z4 0.9918 Heme-binding protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HEBP2 PE=1 SV=13 Q9Y5X3 0.9918 Sorting nexin-5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SNX5 PE=1 SV=14 Q9Y490 1.0000 Talin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TLN1 PE=1 SV=35 Q9Y285 0.9918 Phenylalanine--tRNA ligase alpha subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=FARSA PE=1 SV=36 Q9NRN5 1.0000 Olfactomedin-like protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=OLFML3 PE=2 SV=17 Q9NPH2-2 0.9918 Inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1, isoform 28 Q99497 1.0000 Protein DJ-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PARK7 PE=1 SV=29 Q96IU4 0.9918 Alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 14B OS=Homo sapiens GN=ABHD14B PE=1 SV=110 Q96CX2 1.0000 BTB/POZ domain-containing protein KCTD12 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KCTD12 PE=1 SV=111 Q92530 0.9918 Proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=PSMF1 PE=1 SV=212 Q8N8S7-2 0.9852 Protein enabled homolog, isoform 213 Q8N1G4 0.9918 Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 47 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LRRC47 PE=1 SV=114 Q86U42-2 0.9918 Polyadenylate-binding protein 2, isoform 215 Q86SQ4-2 0.9798 G-protein coupled receptor 126, isoform 216 Q16643 0.9918 Drebrin OS=Homo sapiens GN=DBN1 PE=1 SV=417 Q16181 1.0000 Septin-7 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SEPT7 PE=1 SV=218 Q15691 0.9918 Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MAPRE1 PE=1 SV=319 Q15582 1.0000 Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TGFBI PE=1 SV=120 Q15149-2 1.0000 Plectin, isoform 221 Q15113 1.0000 Procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PCOLCE PE=1 SV=222 Q15084-2 1.0000 Protein disulfide-isomerase A6, isoform 223 Q15056-2 0.9918 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H, isoform short24 Q14624-2 1.0000 Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, isoform 272     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description25 Q13813-2 1.0000 Spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1, isoform 226 Q13561-2 1.0000 Dynactin subunit 2, isoform 227 Q09666 1.0000 Neuroblast differentiation-associated protein AHNAK OS=Homo sapiens GN=AHNAK PE=1 SV=228 Q07954 0.9870 Prolow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LRP1 PE=1 SV=229 Q07507 1.0000 Dermatopontin OS=Homo sapiens GN=DPT PE=2 SV=230 Q07021 0.9918 Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=C1QBP PE=1 SV=131 Q06830 1.0000 Peroxiredoxin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRDX1 PE=1 SV=132 Q06828 1.0000 Fibromodulin OS=Homo sapiens GN=FMOD PE=1 SV=233 Q05682-2 0.9918 Caldesmon, isoform 234 Q04446 1.0000 1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme OS=Homo sapiens GN=GBE1 PE=1 SV=335 Q03252 1.0000 Lamin-B2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LMNB2 PE=1 SV=336 Q02952-2 1.0000 A-kinase anchor protein 12, isoform 237 Q01518-2 1.0000 Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1, isoform 238 Q01469 0.9918 Fatty acid-binding protein, epidermal OS=Homo sapiens GN=FABP5 PE=1 SV=339 Q00839-2 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, isoform short40 Q00610-2 1.0000 Clathrin heavy chain 1, isoform 241 P84243 1.0000 Histone H3.3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=H3F3A PE=1 SV=242 P80748 1.0000 Ig lambda chain V-III region LOI OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=143 P78371 1.0000 T-complex protein 1 subunit beta OS=Homo sapiens GN=CCT2 PE=1 SV=444 P69905 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=HBA1 PE=1 SV=245 P68871 1.0000 Hemoglobin subunit beta OS=Homo sapiens GN=HBB PE=1 SV=246 P68402-2 0.9918 Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit beta, isoform 247 P68104 1.0000 Elongation factor 1-alpha 148 P63241 1.0000 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-149 P63104 1.0000 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta OS=Homo sapiens GN=YWHAZ PE=1 SV=150 P62942 0.9918 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP1A OS=Homo sapiens GN=FKBP1A PE=1 SV=251 P62937 1.0000 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPIA PE=1 SV=252 P62805 1.0000 Histone H4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HIST1H4A PE=1 SV=253 P62701 0.9999 40S ribosomal protein S4, X isoform OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS4X PE=1 SV=254 P62258 1.0000 14-3-3 protein epsilon OS=Homo sapiens GN=YWHAE PE=1 SV=155 P62140 1.0000 Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPP1CB PE=1 SV=356 P61978-2 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, isoform 257 P61313-2 0.9918 60S ribosomal protein L15, isoform 258 P61158 0.9918 Actin-related protein 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACTR3 PE=1 SV=359 P61088 0.9830 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N OS=Homo sapiens GN=UBE2N PE=1 SV=160 P60981 1.0000 Destrin OS=Homo sapiens GN=DSTN PE=1 SV=361 P60660-2 1.0000 Myosin light polypeptide 6, isoform smooth muscle62 P60174-1 1.0000 Triosephosphate isomerase, isoform 263 P57721-2 0.9918 Poly(rC)-binding protein 3, isoform 264 P55084 1.0000 Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=HADHB PE=1 SV=365 P55072 1.0000 Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase OS=Homo sapiens GN=VCP PE=1 SV=466 P52565 1.0000 Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ARHGDIA PE=1 SV=367 P51884 1.0000 Lumican OS=Homo sapiens GN=LUM PE=1 SV=268 P51610-2 1.0000 Host cell factor 1, isoform 269 P50454 1.0000 Serpin H1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINH1 PE=1 SV=270 P49591 0.9902 Serine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic OS=Homo sapiens GN=SARS PE=1 SV=371 P49189 1.0000 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase OS=Homo sapiens GN=ALDH9A1 PE=1 SV=372 P48681 1.0000 Nestin OS=Homo sapiens GN=NES PE=1 SV=273 P48643 0.9902 T-complex protein 1 subunit epsilon OS=Homo sapiens GN=CCT5 PE=1 SV=174 P48047 0.9918 ATP synthase subunit O, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATP5O PE=1 SV=175 P47756-2 1.0000 F-actin-capping protein subunit beta, isoform 276 P47755 1.0000 F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CAPZA2 PE=1 SV=377 P46940 0.9918 Ras GTPase-activating-like protein IQGAP1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=IQGAP1 PE=1 SV=178 P46821 1.0000 Microtubule-associated protein 1B OS=Homo sapiens GN=MAP1B PE=1 SV=279 P46781 0.9910 40S ribosomal protein S9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPS9 PE=1 SV=380 P46108-2 1.0000 Adapter molecule crk, isoform Crk-I81 P45974-2 0.9918 Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 5, isoform short82 P43686-2 1.0000 26S protease regulatory subunit 6B, isoform 283 P40926 0.9918 Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=MDH2 PE=1 SV=384 P40429 0.9918 60S ribosomal protein L13a OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPL13A PE=1 SV=285 P40227-2 0.9918 T-complex protein 1 subunit zeta, isoform 286 P40121-2 1.0000 Macrophage-capping protein, isoform 287 P38919 0.9998 Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-III OS=Homo sapiens GN=EIF4A3 PE=1 SV=473     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description88 P36955 1.0000 Pigment epithelium-derived factor OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINF1 PE=1 SV=489 P35579 1.0000 Myosin-9 OS=Homo sapiens GN=MYH9 PE=1 SV=490 P32119 1.0000 Peroxiredoxin-2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRDX2 PE=1 SV=591 P31930 0.9918 Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=UQCRC1 PE=1 SV=392 P31323 0.9989 cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRKAR2B PE=1 SV=393 P31150 1.0000 Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha OS=Homo sapiens GN=GDI1 PE=1 SV=294 P30740 0.9918 Leukocyte elastase inhibitor OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINB1 PE=1 SV=195 P30101 1.0000 Protein disulfide-isomerase A3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDIA3 PE=1 SV=496 P30049 1.0000 ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATP5D PE=1 SV=297 P30043 1.0000 Flavin reductase (NADPH) OS=Homo sapiens GN=BLVRB PE=1 SV=398 P30041 1.0000 Peroxiredoxin-6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PRDX6 PE=1 SV=399 P29401-2 1.0000 Transketolase, isoform 2100 P28482-2 0.9918 Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, isoform 2101 P27824 1.0000 Calnexin OS=Homo sapiens GN=CANX PE=1 SV=2102 P27708 0.9918 CAD protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=CAD PE=1 SV=3103 P27361-2 0.9918 Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, isoform 2104 P26641 0.9918 Elongation factor 1-gamma OS=Homo sapiens GN=EEF1G PE=1 SV=3105 P26368-2 0.9918 Splicing factor U2AF 65 kDa subunit, isoform 2106 P26038 1.0000 Moesin OS=Homo sapiens GN=MSN PE=1 SV=3107 P25788-2 0.9918 Proteasome subunit alpha type-3, isoform 2108 P25311 1.0000 Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein OS=Homo sapiens GN=AZGP1 PE=1 SV=2109 P24821-4 1.0000 Tenascin, isoform 2110 P23528 0.9918 Cofilin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CFL1 PE=1 SV=3111 P23284 0.9918 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B OS=Homo sapiens GN=PPIB PE=1 SV=2112 P23246-2 1.0000 Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, isoform short113 P22392-2 1.0000 Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, isoform 3114 P22314 1.0000 Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=UBA1 PE=1 SV=3115 P21980-2 0.9910 Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2, isoform 2116 P21810 1.0000 Biglycan OS=Homo sapiens GN=BGN PE=1 SV=2117 P21333-2 1.0000 Filamin-A, isoform 2118 P20774 1.0000 Mimecan OS=Homo sapiens GN=OGN PE=1 SV=1119 P20700 1.0000 Lamin-B1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LMNB1 PE=1 SV=2120 P19827 1.0000 Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ITIH1 PE=1 SV=3121 P19823 1.0000 Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ITIH2 PE=1 SV=2122 P18669 1.0000 Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PGAM1 PE=1 SV=2123 P18206-2 1.0000 Vinculin, isoform 1124 P17655 1.0000 Calpain-2 catalytic subunit OS=Homo sapiens GN=CAPN2 PE=1 SV=6125 P13797 1.0000 Plastin-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PLS3 PE=1 SV=4126 P13639 1.0000 Elongation factor 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=EEF2 PE=1 SV=4127 P13611-2 1.0000 Versican core protein, isoform V1128 P13489 1.0000 Ribonuclease inhibitor OS=Homo sapiens GN=RNH1 PE=1 SV=2129 P12814-2 1.0000 Alpha-actinin-1, isoform2130 P12236 0.9994 ADP/ATP translocase 3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLC25A6 PE=1 SV=4131 P12111-4 1.0000 Isoform 4 of Collagen alpha-3(VI) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL6A3132 P12110 1.0000 Collagen alpha-2(VI) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL6A2 PE=1 SV=4133 P12109 1.0000 Collagen alpha-1(VI) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL6A1 PE=1 SV=3134 P11021 1.0000 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSPA5 PE=1 SV=2135 P10909-2 1.0000 Clusterin, isoform 2136 P10809 1.0000 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSPD1 PE=1 SV=2137 P10412 1.0000 Histone H1.4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HIST1H1E PE=1 SV=2138 P09651-2 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, isoform A1-A139 P09525 1.0000 Annexin A4 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANXA4 PE=1 SV=4140 P09417 1.0000 Dihydropteridine reductase OS=Homo sapiens GN=QDPR PE=1 SV=2141 P09382 1.0000 Galectin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LGALS1 PE=1 SV=2142 P09211 1.0000 Glutathione S-transferase P OS=Homo sapiens GN=GSTP1 PE=1 SV=2143 P08865 1.0000 40S ribosomal protein SA OS=Homo sapiens GN=RPSA PE=1 SV=4144 P08758 1.0000 Annexin A5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANXA5 PE=1 SV=2145 P08670 1.0000 Vimentin OS=Homo sapiens GN=VIM PE=1 SV=4146 P08123 1.0000 Collagen alpha-2(I) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL1A2 PE=1 SV=7147 P07996 1.0000 Thrombospondin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=THBS1 PE=1 SV=2148 P07910-2 1.0000 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, isoform C1149 P07900-2 1.0000 Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha, isoform 2150 P07741-2 1.0000 Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, isoform 274     UniProt ID Probability Protein Description151 P07737 1.0000 Profilin-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PFN1 PE=1 SV=2152 P07585 1.0000 Decorin OS=Homo sapiens GN=DCN PE=1 SV=1153 P07437 1.0000 Tubulin beta chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=TUBB PE=1 SV=2154 P07355 1.0000 Annexin A2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANXA2 PE=1 SV=2155 P07339 1.0000 Cathepsin D OS=Homo sapiens GN=CTSD PE=1 SV=1156 P07305 0.9918 Histone H1.0 OS=Homo sapiens GN=H1F0 PE=1 SV=3157 P07237 1.0000 Protein disulfide-isomerase OS=Homo sapiens GN=P4HB PE=1 SV=3158 P06727 1.0000 Apolipoprotein A-IV OS=Homo sapiens GN=APOA4 PE=1 SV=3159 P06703 1.0000 Protein S100-A6 OS=Homo sapiens GN=S100A6 PE=1 SV=1160 P06576 1.0000 ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=ATP5B PE=1 SV=3161 P06396-3 1.0000 Gelsolin, isoform 3162 P05155 0.9918 Plasma protease C1 inhibitor OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPING1 PE=1 SV=2163 P05141 0.9994 ADP/ATP translocase 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SLC25A5 PE=1 SV=7164 P04908 1.0000 Histone H2A type 1-B/E165 P04792 1.0000 Heat shock protein beta-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=HSPB1 PE=1 SV=2166 P04434 0.9996 Ig kappa chain V-III region VH (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens PE=4 SV=1167 P04433 1.0000 Ig kappa chain V-III region VG (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1168 P04406 1.0000 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase OS=Homo sapiens GN=GAPDH PE=1 SV=3169 P04196 1.0000 Histidine-rich glycoprotein OS=Homo sapiens GN=HRG PE=1 SV=1170 P04083 1.0000 Annexin A1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ANXA1 PE=1 SV=2171 P04075-2 1.0000 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, isoform 2172 P04040 1.0000 Catalase OS=Homo sapiens GN=CAT PE=1 SV=3173 P04004 1.0000 Vitronectin OS=Homo sapiens GN=VTN PE=1 SV=1174 P04003 0.9918 C4b-binding protein alpha chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=C4BPA PE=1 SV=2175 P02794 0.9918 Ferritin heavy chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=FTH1 PE=1 SV=2176 P02790 1.0000 Hemopexin OS=Homo sapiens GN=HPX PE=1 SV=2177 P02787 1.0000 Serotransferrin OS=Homo sapiens GN=TF PE=1 SV=3178 P02766 1.0000 Transthyretin OS=Homo sapiens GN=TTR PE=1 SV=1179 P02765 1.0000 Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein OS=Homo sapiens GN=AHSG PE=1 SV=1180 P02760 1.0000 Protein AMBP OS=Homo sapiens GN=AMBP PE=1 SV=1181 P02751-10 1.0000 Fibronectin, isoform 10182 P02750 0.9918 Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein OS=Homo sapiens GN=LRG1 PE=1 SV=2183 P02749 1.0000 Beta-2-glycoprotein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=APOH PE=1 SV=3184 P02743 1.0000 Serum amyloid P-component OS=Homo sapiens GN=APCS PE=1 SV=2185 P02679-2 1.0000 Fibrinogen gamma chain, isoform Gamma-A186 P02675 1.0000 Fibrinogen beta chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=FGB PE=1 SV=2187 P02671-2 1.0000 Fibrinogen alpha chain, isoform 2188 P02647 1.0000 Apolipoprotein A-I OS=Homo sapiens GN=APOA1 PE=1 SV=1189 P02545 1.0000 Prelamin-A/C OS=Homo sapiens GN=LMNA PE=1 SV=1190 P02511 0.9918 Alpha-crystallin B chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=CRYAB PE=1 SV=2191 P02461-2 1.0000 Collagen alpha-1(III) chain, isoform 2192 P02452 1.0000 Collagen alpha-1(I) chain OS=Homo sapiens GN=COL1A1 PE=1 SV=5193 P01876 1.0000 Ig alpha-1 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHA1 PE=1 SV=2194 P01871-2 1.0000 Ig mu chain C region, isoform 2195 P01860 1.0000 Ig gamma-3 chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGHG3 PE=1 SV=2196 P01834 1.0000 Ig kappa chain C region OS=Homo sapiens GN=IGKC PE=1 SV=1197 P01772 1.0000 Ig heavy chain V-III region KOL OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1198 P01766 1.0000 Ig heavy chain V-III region BRO OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1199 P01717 1.0000 Ig lambda chain V-IV region Hil OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1200 P01714 0.9918 Ig lambda chain V-III region SH OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1201 P01706 0.9994  Ig lambda chain V-II region BOH202 P01703 0.9918 Ig lambda chain V-I region NEWM OS=Homo sapiens PE=1 SV=1203 P01042-2 1.0000 Isoform LMW of Kininogen-1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=KNG1204 P01024 1.0000 Complement C3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=C3 PE=1 SV=2205 P01019 1.0000 Angiotensinogen OS=Homo sapiens GN=AGT PE=1 SV=1206 P01011 1.0000 Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINA3 PE=1 SV=2207 P01008 1.0000 Antithrombin-III OS=Homo sapiens GN=SERPINC1 PE=1 SV=1208 P00915 1.0000 Carbonic anhydrase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=CA1 PE=1 SV=2209 P00751 1.0000 Complement factor B OS=Homo sapiens GN=CFB PE=1 SV=2210 P00747 1.0000 Plasminogen OS=Homo sapiens GN=PLG PE=1 SV=2211 P00738 0.9910 Haptoglobin OS=Homo sapiens GN=HP PE=1 SV=1212 P00734 1.0000 Prothrombin OS=Homo sapiens GN=F2 PE=1 SV=2213 P00450 1.0000 Ceruloplasmin OS=Homo sapiens GN=CP PE=1 SV=175   Tables 3-5: All proteins identified in the odontoblast cell layer sample are grouped according to the age of the donor tissue, (3) ≤ 20 years for young pulp, (4) > 20 years for mature pulp, (5) Proteins found in both young and mature pulp tissues. Proteins are listed with their Uniprot ID, protein probability from TPP analysis of PSM data, and full protein name.    UniProt ID Probability Protein Description214 P00441 1.0000 Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] OS=Homo sapiens GN=SOD1 PE=1 SV=2215 P00367 0.9918 Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial OS=Homo sapiens GN=GLUD1 PE=1 SV=2216 P00338-2 0.9918 L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, isoform 2217 O95336 1.0000 6-phosphogluconolactonase OS=Homo sapiens GN=PGLS PE=1 SV=2218 O94875-10 0.9918 Sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2, isoform 10219 O94844 0.9862 Rho-related BTB domain-containing protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=RHOBTB1 PE=1 SV=2220 O60814 0.9999 Histone H2B type 1-K221 O60493-2 0.9918 Sorting nexin-3, isoform 2222 O43396 0.9918 Thioredoxin-like protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TXNL1 PE=1 SV=3223 O15143 0.9918 Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B OS=Homo sapiens GN=ARPC1B PE=1 SV=3224 O14950 1.0000 Myosin regulatory light chain 12B225 O14773 1.0000 Tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=TPP1 PE=1 SV=2226 O00445 0.9717 Synaptotagmin-5 OS=Homo sapiens GN=SYT5 PE=2 SV=2227 O00151 1.0000 PDZ and LIM domain protein 1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=PDLIM1 PE=1 SV=4228 B9A064 1.0000 Immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 576  Appendix E  Matrisome comparison Table 6. Core matrisome proteins   Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GLYCOPROTEINSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular basement membraneRetinal blood vessel basement membrane Inner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary metastatic colon cancer Liver metastasis from colon cancerHighly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftHighly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular basement membraneRetinal blood vessel basement membrane Inner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary metastatic colon cancer Liver metastasis from colon cancerPoorly metastatic melanoma xenograftHighly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftHighly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftPROTEOGLYCANSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular basement membraneRetinal blood vessel basement membrane Inner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary metastatic colon cancer Liver metastasis from colon cancerPoorly metastatic melanoma xenograftHighly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftHighly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftEMILIN1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL11A2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 BGN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1FN1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL14A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HSPG2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LAMA4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL18A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LUM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LAMA5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL1A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRELP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LAMB2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL1A2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ASPN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LAMC1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL22A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DCN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1NID1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL2A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VCAN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1NID2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL3A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 OGN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1TGFBI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL4A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRG4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1TNC* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL4A2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRG2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1VTN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL4A3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRG3 1 1 1 1VWA1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL4A5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FMOD 1 1 1 1 1LAMA2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL5A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CHADL 1 1 1 1FBN1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL5A2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 OPTC 1 1 1FBN2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL6A2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IMPG1 1 1 1FGA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL6A3* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PODN 1 1 1FGG 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL4A4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HAPLN1 1 1 1LAMB1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL4A6* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Acan 1 1TINAGL1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL9A3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Chad 1TNXB* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL12A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Spock3 177    Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXAGRN* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL5A3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LAMA3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL6A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1FGB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL7A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Igfbp7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL8A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1DPT 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL10A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1POSTN* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL11A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1PXDN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL19A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1FBLN5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL16A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Efemp1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL15A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1MFAP2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL9A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ECM1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL27A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LTBP2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL24A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ELN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL9A2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1EMILIN2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL23A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1FBLN2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL13A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LTBP1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL8A2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Ltbp4* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Col6a5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LAMA1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Col6a6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1PAPLN* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL25A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1VWF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL28A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1AEBP1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL21A1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1HMCN1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL17A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1THSD4* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL26A1 1 1 1 1SRPX* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COL20A1* 1 1 1MFGE8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Col6a4 1Lamc2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1THBS1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Mfap5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Vwa5a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1MATN2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1HMCN2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Colored cells indicate protein has been identified in tissueMFAP4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Protein identified in this study, columns for pulp stroma and odontoblast cell layer samplesEMILIN3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Proteins identified by sources reviewed in Hynes et al.  2016LAMB3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (color indicates member subtable)SBSPON 1 1 1 1 1 1178    Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXLAMB4 1 1 1 1 1 1Emid1* 1 1 1 1 1 1CILP 1 1 1 1 1 1MMRN2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1FBLN1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Npnt* 1 1 1 1 1 1COLQ* 1 1 1 1 1 1ABI3BP* 1 1 1 1 1 1EFEMP2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1PCOLCE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1LTBP3* 1 1 1 1 1 1IGFBP3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1MXRA5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  TINAG 1 1 1 1 1  LAMC3 1 1 1 1 1SPON1 1 1 1 1 1 1SRPX2 1 1 1 1 1MGP 1 1 1 1GLDN 1 1 1 1FNDC1 1 1 1 1SNED1 1 1 1 1 1LGI4 1 1 1 1MMRN1 1 1 1 1FGL2 1 1 1 1THBS2 1 1 1 1FRAS1 1 1 1NTN4  1 1 1IGFALS 1 1 1 1Dmbt1 1 1 1FBN3 1 1 1 1OTOG 1 1 1 1Thbs3 1 1 1 1Sparc 1 1 1Wisp2 1 1 1SVEP1 1 1 1 1VWA9 1 1 179    Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXNTN3 1 1 1FBLN7 1 1Matn4 1 1Cilp2 1 1 1Bmper 1 1IGFBP5 1 1IGFBP4 1 1Tnn 1 1 1 1CTGF 1 1CYR61 1 1FNDC8 1MFAP3 1RELN 1 1 1VWCE 1LGI1 1MEPE 1MFAP1 1PXDNL 1 1SPARCL1 1Igfbp6 1Kcp 1Matn1 1Ndnf 1Ntn1 1Pcolce2 1Thbs4 1 1CRELD1 1DSPP 1 1 1ECM2 1 1 1VWA5B1 1COMP 1SPON2 1SPP1* 1TNFAIP6 1VWDE 1AW551984 180  Table 7. Matrisome-associated proteins     Matrisome-associated proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes.ECM RegulatorsPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular basement membraneRetinal blood vessel basement membrane Inner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary metastatic colon cancer Liver metastasis from colon cancerPoorly metastatic melanoma xenograftHighly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftHighly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftECM-affiliated proteinsPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular basement membraneRetinal blood vessel basement membrane Inner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary metastatic colon cancer Liver metastasis from colon cancerPoorly metastatic melanoma xenograftHighly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftHighly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftSecreted FactorsPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular basement membraneRetinal blood vessel basement membrane Inner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary metastatic colon cancer Liver metastasis from colon cancerPoorly metastatic melanoma xenograftHighly metastatic melanoma xenograftPoorly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftHighly metastatic mammary tumor xenograftSERPINH1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1TGM2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HCFC1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1AMBP* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA6* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1TIMP3  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F13A1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LGALS1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1PZP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LGALS3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FLG2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1CTSD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LMAN1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1PLG 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LGALS9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 EGFL7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1SERPING1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CXCL12 1 1 1 1 1 1ITIH2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A10 1 1 1 1 1 1Loxl1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CSPG4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A16 1 1 1 1 1 1ITIH5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C1QC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HRNR 1 1 1 1 1CTSB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sftpd 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MEGF6 1 1 1 1 1KNG1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANGPTL2 1 1 1 1 1Itih1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LGALS8 1 1 1 1 1 1 TGFB1 1 1 1 1 1 1SERPINE2* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C1QB 1 1 1 1 1 1 FLG 1 1 1 1HTRA1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLXNB2 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANGPTL6 1 1 1 1F2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA3B 1 1 1 1 1 1 CHRD 1 1 1 1CTSG 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FCN3* 1 1 1 1 1 TNFSF13 1 1 1 1A2M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MUC16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S100A7 1 1 1 181    Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXF9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HPX 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HCFC2 1 1 1 1ADAMTSL1* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA3 1 1 1 1 1 1 IL16 1 1 1ITIH4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LGALS4 1 1 1 1 1 INHBE 1 1 1ADAMTSL4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C1QA 1 1 1 1 1 FGF2 1 1 1LOXL2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PLXND1 1 1 1 1 1 WNT2B 1 1 1PLOD1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Colec12 1 1 1 1 S100a13 1 1 1 1 1HRG 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MUC2 1 1 1 1 Chrdl1 1 1 1SERPINC1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sema3c 1 1 1 1 CRLF3 1 1 1 1Serpinf2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CLEC18A 1 1 1 NRG2 1 1PLOD3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Frem2 1 1 1 1 CXCL14 1 1CSTB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C1QL3 1 1 1 INHBC 1 1SERPINB1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C1QL2 1 1 1 FRZB 1 1ITIH3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C1QTNF5  1 1 1 IL17D 1 1LOXL3 1 1 1 1 1 1 GPC4 1 1 1 1 S100A14 1 1Serpina3k 1 1 1 1 1 1 Plxdc2 1 1 1 TCHH 1 1SERPINB6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MUC5B 1 1 1 1 MEGF8 1 1PRSS1 1 1 1 1 1 CLEC11A 1 1 1 LEFTY1 1 1ELANE 1 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA6D 1 1 LEFTY2 1 1MMP9 1 1 1 1 1 CSPG5 1 1 CCL21 1 1SERPINA1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA7A 1 1 MST1 1 1SERPINA3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA4C 1 1 1 PF4V1 1 1ADAM9 1 1 1 1 1 CLEC18B 1 1 WNT11 1 1SERPINF1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LGALS7 1 1 TGFB2 1 1Serpind1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COLEC11* 1 1 ANGPTL4 1 1SERPINB12 1 1 1 1 1 MUC13 1 1 S100A2* 1 1LOXL4 1 1 1 1 1 PLXNC1 1 1 1 BMP7 1ADAM10 1 1 1 1 1 MUC4* 1 1 CCBE1 1Lox 1 1 1 1 1 1 REG4 1 1 CHRDL2 1LEPRE1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ANXA13 1 1 EGF 1MMP14 1 1 1 1 1 FCN1 1 1 GDF7 1P4HA1* 1 1 1 1 1 GREM1 1 1 PPBP 1PLOD2 1 1 1 1 1 C1QL4 1 WNT9A 1MMP12 1 1 1 1 LGALS2 1 CCL28 1AGT 1 1 1 1 1 1 MUC1 1 CRNN 1TGM3 1 1 1 1 MUC20 1 NRG3 182   Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXTGM1 1 1 1 1 MUC6 1 1 WNT6 1MMP2 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA3F 1 CXCL1 1BMP1* 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA4D 1 GDF10 1TGM5 1 1 1 1 Anxa9 1 CXCL3 1Mug2 1 1 1 1 Clec14a 1 WNT7A 1Serpina1a 1 1 1 1 Frem1 1 Nrg1 1Serpina1b 1 1 1 1 Itln1 1 Pf4 1CTSS 1 1 1 1 Sftpa1 1 Rptn 1TIMP1* 1 1 1 1 Sftpb 1 Scube2 1SERPINB9 1 1 1 1 1 1 Sftpc 1 Insl5 1F10 1 1 1 1 C1qtnf9 1 BMP3 1PAPPA 1 1 1 ITLN2 1 WNT5B 1ADAMTSL5 1 1 1 MBL2 1 GDF15 1MMP23B* 1 1 1 1 GPC1 1 NGF 1CST3 1 1 1 GPC6 1 C1QTNF9B 1CD109 1 1 1 1 MUC12 1 CCL18 1SERPINB3 1 1 1 PLXDC1 1 1 CRLF1 1C17orf58 1 1 1 PLXNA1 1 CXCL5 1Serpina3m 1 1 1 PLXNB1 1 S100A12 1 1Serpina1d 1 1 1 C1QTNF2 1 S100P 1ST14 1 1 1 CLC 1 CBLN1 1ADAMDEC1 1 1 1 CLEC12A 1 CBLN4 1F12 1 1 1 1 MUC19 1 1 1 CCL19 1CTSA 1 1 1 1 1 SEMA3A 1 CXCL13 1F13B 1 1 1 SEMA4A 1 FGF9 1LEPREL2* 1 1 1 1 SEMA4B 1 SFRP1 1MMP1 1 1 1 C1qtnf7 1 Angptl1 1CTSZ 1 1 1 1CTSF 1 1 1SERPINB8 1 1 1NGLY1 1 1 1  PLAU 1 1 1  EGLN1 1 1 1 1 Colored cells indicate protein has been identified in tissueP4HA2 1 1 1  Protein identified in this study, columns for pulp stroma and odontoblast cell layer samplesCST6 1 1 1 1 1  Proteins identified by sources reviewed in Hynes et al.  2016LPA 1 1  (color indicates member subtable)183   Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXADAM8* 1 1MMP7 1 1SERPINA5 1 1CSTA 1 1SERPINB4 1 1MMP28 1 1SULF1 1 1ADAM19 1 1Mmp19 1 1Serpina3n 1 1FAM20B 1 1Ky 1 1SLPI 1 1ADAM15 1 1HTRA3 1 1MMP11 1 1ADAMTS12 1 1CTSH 1 1SERPINA4 1 1 1HABP2 1 1SERPINA10 1 1TLL1 1 1ADAM12 1ADAMTS13 1 1ITIH6 1ADAMTSL2 1CTSK 1CTSV 1PRSS12 1ADAMTS16 1ADAMTS5 11810010H24Rik 1Adamts17 1Adamts9 1Hyal2 1Adam7 184    Tables 6 & 7. ECM core matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins identified in dental pulp and the odontoblast cell layer and other tissues according to Hynes et al., 2016. Colors are used only to clarify subgroupings, e.g. one per column, with red indicating a protein identified in our pulp and/or odontoblast cell layer samples.   Core matrisome proteins identified by TAILS N-terminomics and preTAILS shotgun proteomics in this study compared with other tissue matrisomes. ECM GPPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXCOLLAGENSPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXPGPulp stromaOdontoblast cell layerGlomerular BMRetinal BV BMInner limiting membraneLens capsule Normal lung Normal colon (mouse)Normal colon (human)Normal liverPrimary colon cancer Liver metastasis from CCHighly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MXPoorly metastatic MTXHighly metastatic MTXLeprel1 1Mep1a 1Serpinb1a 1FAM20C 1HPSE2 1ADAMTS10 1HPSE 1MMP10 1MMP3 1SERPINB7 1SERPINB10 1SERPINB5 1TLL2 1CTSL 1F7 1Adam23 1SERPINE1 1Try10 1PLAT 1ADAM17 1AI182371 1CTSC 1P4HTM 1

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