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High-order resonant power converters for battery charger applications Shafiei, Navid 2017

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up tothe yhw“gez owting fioltwgeB xut wlso “esponz to the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion pe“iozD It iswlso impo“twnt to flo“k wt high effiyienyy wnz flith lofl sflityhing noise wnz yhw“ging yu““ent“ippleDjhis flo“k stuzies ziffe“ent p“oxlems “egw“zing ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“s flith flize fioltwge“egulwtion ws xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB wnz infiestigwtes the wppliywtion of nofiel highCo“ze“ “esonwntpofle“ yonfie“te“s (fou“th wnz fthCo“ze“) wnz mozulwtion st“wtegies wt fiw“ious pofle“ lefielsDWs w solution fo“ high pofle“ wppliywtionsB this flo“k “st int“ozuyes w moziez full x“izgeaaC “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ z“ifien xy xoth fiw“iwxle f“equenyy wnz phwse shift mozulwtionDjhe p“oposez mozulwtion st“wtegy wlong flith the moziez “esonwnt yi“yuit e–hixits e–yellentpe“fo“mwnye fo“ w Ikl “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“B flithout twking wzfiwntwge of xu“st mozest“wtegyD jhe seyonz pw“t of this flo“k int“ozuyes w nofiel fthCo“ze“ aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“fo“ mezium pofle“ lefiel wppliywtionsB thwt ywn “egulwte the xwtte“y fioltwge f“om new“ ze“ooutput fioltwgeB ze“o output yu““ent to mw–imum output pofle“D W OKFl zesign e–wmplezemonst“wtes w flize output fioltwge “egulwtion flith mw–imum effiyienyy of OL;D FinwllyBiiVwstrvxtw fou“th o“ze“ aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is p“oposez fo“ eleyt“iy fiehiyles flith “oofCtop solw“photofioltwiy pwnelsB flhiyh ywn not only “egulwte the xwtte“y fioltwge in w flize “wngeB xut wlsot“wyk the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion fo“ e–t“wyting the mw–imum wfiwilwxle pofle“ f“om the flpwnelD Wll “esults f“om this flo“k hwfie xeen yon“mez e–pe“imentwllyB flhiyh highlight thee–yeptionwl “egulwtion ywpwxility of the p“oposez “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s wnz mozulwtionteyhniquesDiiierefvxejhis flo“k is xwsez on “esew“yh pe“fo“mez wt the Zepw“tment of [leyt“iywl wnz Yompute“[nginee“ing of the knifie“sity of X“itish Yolumxiw xy dwfiiz ihweiB unze“ the supe“fiision ofZ“D cw“tin e“zonezDYhwpte“ G yontwins moziez po“tions of te–t f“om wll xeloflClistez puxliywtionsDfo“tions of Yhwpte“ H hwfie xeen puxlishez wt the I[[[ [ne“gy Yonfie“sion Yong“ess wnz[–po ([YY[) wnz in the I[[[ j“wnswytions on fofle“ [leyt“oniys qGB HsP• dD ihweiB cD e“zonezB cD Y“wyiunB cD [zingtonB wnz YD XottingB rHigh pofle“ aaCxwtte“y yhw“ge“P flize “egulwtion using phwseCshift fo“ “eyofie“y mozeB8 in IEEE EnyrgyConvyrsion Congryss unx Efiposition (ECCE)B HFGJB ppD HFIMCHFJHD• dD ihweiB cD e“zonezB cD Y“wyiunB YD XottingB wnz cD [zingtonB rXu“st moze elimiCnwtion in highCpofle“ aaC “esonwnt xwtte“y yhw“ge“ fo“ eleyt“iy fiehiylesB8 IEEE hrunsAuwtions on dowyr ElywtroniwsB fiolD IGB noD HB ppD GGMICGGNNB FexD HFGLDfo“tions of Yhwpte“ I hwfie xeen puxlishez wt the I[[[ Wppliez fofle“ [leyt“oniys YonCfe“enye wnz [–position (Wf[Y) wnz in the I[[[ j“wnswytions on fofle“ [leyt“oniys qIB JsP• dD ihweiB cD e“zonezB mD [xe“leB reutput “eytie“ wnwlysis in pw“wllel wnz se“iesCpw“wllel “esonwnt yonfie“te“s flith pu“e ywpwyitifie output lte“B8 in IEEE Uppliyx dowyrElywtroniws Conzyrynwy unx Efiposition (UdEC)B HFGJB ppD OCGID• dD ihweiB cD e“zonezB rImp“ofiing the “egulwtion “wnge of [l xwtte“y yhw“ge“s flithaICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“sB8 IEEE hrunsuwtions on dowyr ElywtroniwsB fiolD IFB noD LBifierefvxeppD IGLLCIGNJB June HFGKDfo“tions of Yhwpte“ J hwfie xeen puxlishez wt the I[[[ Wppliez fofle“ [leyt“oniys YonCfe“enye wnz [–position (Wf[Y) qKsP• dD ihweiB cD e“zonezB YD XottingB cD Y“wyiunB wnz cD [zingtonB rFou“th o“ze“aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ flize output fioltwge “egulwtionB8 in IEEE Uppliyx dowyrElywtroniws Conzyrynwy unx Efiposition (UdEC)B HFGKB ppD GJLMCGJMGDjflo pwpe“s “elwtez to flo“k in p“og“essB zesy“ixez in Yhwpte“ K hwfie xeen puxlishez wtI[[[ [ne“gy Yonfie“sion Yong“ess wnz [–po ([YY[) wnz I[[[ Wppliez fofle“ [leyt“oniysYonfe“enye wnz [–position (Wf[Y) qLB MsP• dD ihweiB cD e“zonezB iD hD YofieB cD Y“wyiunB wnz YD XottingB rWyyu“wte mozelingwnz zesign of aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith plwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“sB8 in IEEE EnyrgyConvyrsion Congryss unx Efipo (ECCE)B HFGKB ppD KJLNCKJMID• dD ihweiQ iD WD W“efw“B cD WD iwketB wnz cD e“zonezB rHigh effiyienyy aaC yonfie“te“zesign fo“ unifie“swl xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB8 in IEEE Uppliyx dowyr Elywtroniws Conzyrynwyunx Efiposition (UdEC)B HFGLB ppD HKLGCHKLLDWs “st wutho“ of the wxofieCmentionez puxliywtionsB the wutho“ of this thesis zefielopezthe theo“etiywl yonyepts wnz fl“ote the mwnusy“iptsB zefielopez simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwlplwtfo“msB wnz “eyeifiez wzfiiye wnz teyhniywl suppo“t f“om Z“D cw“tin e“zonez wnz his“esew“yh tewmB in pw“tiyulw“ f“om Z“D iwmuel hoxe“t Yofie flho yont“ixutez to the speyiyoptimizwtion wlgo“ithm fo“ “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ zesignD WlsoB the wutho“ “eyeifiez wzfiiyewnz teyhniywl suppo“t fo“ the p“wytiywl size of fofle“ [leyt“oniys Zefielopment (p“ototyping)f“om ZeltwCg jeyhnologies enginee“s (cw“iwn Y“wyiunB Yh“is XottingB wnz cu““wy [zington)Dfiivwle of ContentsVwstrvxt D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D iierefvxe D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D ifiivwle of Contents D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D fiiaist of ivwles D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D –aist of Figures D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D –icomenxlvture D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D –i–Vxknofileygements D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D ––iF Introyuxtion D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGDG cotifiwtion D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGDH bite“wtu“e hefiiefl D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LGDHDG Fi–ez Input loltwge ZYCZY fofle“ Yonfie“te“ D D D D D D D D D D D D D LGDHDH lw“iwxle Input loltwge ZYCZY fofle“ Yonfie“te“ D D D D D D D D D D D GFGDI Yont“ixutions of the mo“k D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHGDJ Zisse“twtion eutline D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GIG Wurst boye Zliminvtion in High eofier aaC gesonvnt Wvttery Chvrgers GKHDG ieyonzw“y bewkwge Inzuytwnye [ffeyt on mize hegulwtion D D D D D D D D D D GOfiiivwle of ContentsHDH ioft iflityhing in Fi–ez F“equenyy fhwse ihift Wpp“owyh D D D D D D D D D D D HKHDI Zesign of [–pe“iment cethozology (Zo[) D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D HOHDIDG cw–imum eutput loltwge hegulwtion D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D HOHDIDH High fw“t bowz [ffiyienyy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IFHDIDI ioft iflityhing Yonzition D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IGHDJ hesonwnt fofle“ Yonfie“te“ Zesign D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IMHDK iimulwtion wnz [–pe“imentwl hesults D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D JGHDL iummw“y D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D KGH Improving the gegulvtion gvnge of Zk Wvttery Chvrgers fiith aICH gesBonvnt Converters D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D KIIDG Yompw“ison of aICH wnz aaC hesonwnt jopologies D D D D D D D D D D D D D KJIDH cultiChesonwnt aICH hesonwnt Yonfie“te“ flith w donCIzewl j“wnsfo“me“ D D KLIDI hesonwnt F“equenyies of the aICH jopology D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LIIDIDG iho“t Yi“yuit hesonwnt F“equenyy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LJIDIDH epen Yi“yuit hesonwnt F“equenyy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LKIDJ ieyonzw“y bewkwge Inzuytwnye [ffeyt on the aICH hesonwnt Yonfie“te“ D D D LLIDK Zesign of [–pe“iment cethozology (Zo[) D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LMIDKDG cinimum extwinwxle eutput loltwge D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LNIDKDH hesonwnt Yi“yuit Yu““ent D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LOIDKDI ioft iflityhing epe“wting Yonzition D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LOIDL hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s Zesign D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MHIDLDG aICH Zesign D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MJIDLDH aaC Zesign D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MLIDM iimulwtion wnz [–pe“imentwl hesults D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MNIDN Yompw“ison of the aaC wnz aICH ws w Xwtte“y Yhw“ge“ D D D D D D D D D D D NJfiiiivwle of ContentsIDO iummw“y D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NNI Fourth dryer aIC gesonvnt Converter for ek Wvttery Chvrger vpplixvBtions D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D OFJDG fhotofioltwiy cozule Yhw“wyte“istiys D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D OHJDH itewzy itwte Wnwlysis of aIC hesonwnt Yonfie“te“ D D D D D D D D D D D D D D OKJDI hesonwnt fofle“ Yonfie“te“ Zesign D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GFFJDJ [–pe“imentwl hesults wnz jheo“y lwlizwtion D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GFIJDK iummw“y D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GFO5 Conxlusions D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGHKDG Yonylusions wnz Yont“ixutions D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGHKDGDG Xu“st coze [liminwtion in High fofle“ aaC hesonwnt Xwtte“y Yhw“ge“ GGHKDGDH Imp“ofiing the hegulwtion hwnge of [l Xwtte“y Yhw“ge“s flith aICHhesonwnt Yonfie“te“s D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGIKDGDI Fou“th e“ze“ aIC hesonwnt Yonfie“te“ fo“ fl Xwtte“y Yhw“ge“ wppliCywtions D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGJKDGDJ ipeyiy Wywzemiy Yont“ixutions D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGKKDH Futu“e mo“k D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGMVppenyixes D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHFV Glossvry D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHGW Hvry hfiitxhing versus hoft hfiitxhing D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHHXDG Hw“z iflityhing D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHHXDH ioft iflityhing D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHIXDI Ziffe“enye Xetfleen pli wnz pYi D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHJfiiiiivwle of ContentsC gesonvnt eofier Converters for hoft hfiitxhing D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHKD Zffixienxy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHNZDG [ffiyienyy Ywlyulwtion D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHNZDH Highe“ [ffiyienyy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHNWiwliogrvphy D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GIFi–aist of ivwlesHDG do“mwlizez fw“wmete“s hwnge wnz ieleytez lwlue D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IHHDH cozeling hesults of the do“mwlizez aaC hesonwnt Yonfie“te“ D D D D D D D D IIHDI aaC f“ototype flwtfo“m fw“wmete“s D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D JGHDJ Yomponents of hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s flwtfo“ms D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D JHIDG do“mwlizez fw“wmete“s hwnge wnz ieleytez lwlue D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MFIDH aaC wnz aICH hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s fw“wmete“s D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MLIDI Yomponents of hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s flwtfo“ms D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MOJDG aIC f“ototype flwtfo“m fw“wmete“s D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GFHJDH Yomponents flwtfo“m of the aIC hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s D D D D D D D D D D D D GFJ–aist of FiguresGDG (w) fu“e [leyt“iy lehiyle flith “oofCtop fl pwnel flith possixle input sou“yes( E© inziywtes the mwin input sou“ye of [l f“om WY sou“ye outletB wnz F©inziywtes the pofle“ f“om w solw“ fl pwnelB flhiyh ywn p“ofiize up to sefie“wlhunz“ez flwtts (eDgD JFFl ) pofle“D)B (x) the gene“wl xloyk ziwg“wm of xwtte“yyhw“ge“sB flhiyh w“e employez to t“wnsfe“ the pofle“ f“om tflo input sou“yes tow “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“y pwyk in w pu“e [l flith w “oofCtop fl pwnelD D D D D D HGDH (w) Yhw“ging yyyle p“ole fo“ w single bewzCWyiz xwtte“y inyluzing heyofie“yhegionB (x) Yhw“ging yyyle p“ole fo“ w single bithiumCIon xwtte“y yellB (y)Zesi“ez lCI plwne fo“ w unifie“swl xwtte“y yhw“ge“ (eDgD OLFl xwtte“y yhw“ge“)Djhe g“wy w“ew highlights lCI plwne “egulwtion issues of yu““ent stwteCofCthe w“tteyhnologiesD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IGDI (w)jhe full x“izge yonfie“te“B wnz (x) the xu“st moze p“inyiple of ope“wtionD D KHDG (w) Full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy wnz the pw“wsitiy ywpwyiCtwnyes E©B (x) jhe effeyt of the pw“wsitiys ywpwyito“s on the fioltwge gwin yu“fiesF©B aaC fioltwge gwin issues 3©B (y) aaC lCI plwne highlighting “egulwtion isCsuesB wnz (z) xu“st moze wnz its issuesP High f“equenyy osyillwtion zue tothe inte“wytion xetfleen pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes (ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye wnzziozes junytion) wnz the “esonwnt yi“yuit 4©B xwtte“y yhw“ging yu““ent “ipple 5©D GL–iaist of FiguresHDH Full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy wlong flith pw“wsitiy elements(inyluzing ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyesB t“wnsfo“me“ elementsB wnzoutput “eytie“ ziozes junytion ywpwyitwnyes)D 1© inziywtes thwt the pw“wCsitiy ywpwyitwnyes in the seyonzw“y size of the yi“yuit ywuses unflwntez osyilClwtion wnz the “egulwtion issue fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D 2© inziywtesceiF[js Z“winCiou“ye effeytifie ywpwyitwnyes thwt shoulz xe zisyhw“gez yomCpletely zu“ing zewz time inte“fiwlsD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D HFHDI (w) jhe xloyk ziwg“wm of the aaC hesonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie outputlte“B wnz (x) WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D HGHDJ (w) jhe WY equifiwlent yi“yuit in sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionB (x) jhe WY equifiwlentyi“yuit in open yi“yuit yonzitionD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D HHHDK do“mwlizez “esonwnt f“equenyy ws w funytion of lowzez quwlity fwyto“ fo“ zifCfe“ent yonstwnt fiwlues of as wnz au S G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D HJHDL jhe wmplituze of squw“e flwfiefo“m hw“moniys ws w funytion of zuty yyyleD D D HLHDM cwin flwfiefo“ms of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in –ez f“equenyy phwse shiftmozeD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D HMHDN cultifiw“iwte stwtistiywl zesign methozology “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aaC “esoCnwnt yonfie“te“P (w) loltwge gwin slope su“fwye fie“sus au wnz asB (x) Input “esConwnt yi“yuit yu““ent “wtio fie“sus au wnz fSB (y) fhwse of the input impezwnyefie“sus au wnz fSB (z) jhe yi“yulwting yu““ent wmplituze unze“ sho“t yi“yuityonzitions fie“sus au wnz asD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IJHDO FHW wnwlysis of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ au S GB wnz as S KB flithyonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwget“wnsfe“ funytion (Mv)B (x) cwgnituze of input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent (ISs) )B(y) fhwse of the input impezwnye (<)D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D IOHDGF f“ototype test plwtfo“m of the “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sD D D D D D D D D D D D JH–iiaist of FiguresHDGG iimulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ xwtte“y fioltwge fie“sus f“equenyyD D D JIHDGH [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in fiw“iwxle f“equenyymozeB (w) k ′iat S GHFk DC wnz evut S Ikl (x) k′iat S OFk DC wnz evut S Fl Bwnz (e) k ′iat S Fk DC wnz I′iat S MVD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D JJHDGI [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in –ez f“equenyy phwseshift mozeB (w) k ′iat S HFk DC wnz I′iat S JOKV (x) B k′iat S JKk DC wnzI ′iat S HVB wnz (y) k′iat S Fk DC wnz I′iat S HV D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D JKHDGJ lCI plwne oxtwinez f“om the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s xy employing zigitwlhyx“iz mozulwtion teyhnique (jhe g“een zwshez w“ew is oxtwinez xy FFfi)D JLHDGK [ffiyienyy yu“fies of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ wt ziffe“ent –ez output fioltwgesD JMHDGL jhe effeyt of input fioltwge fiw“iwtion on the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ope“wtion inthe mw–imum output pofle“ yonzition (evut S Ikl )B (w) kpu S ILFk DCB wnzk ′iat S GHFk DCB (x) kpu S ILFk DCB k′iat S GNFk DCB (y) kpu S JJFk DCBk ′iat S GHFk DCB wnz (z) kpu S JJFk DCB k′iat S GNFk DCD D D D D D D D D D D JNHDGM jhe xu“st moze issues in the full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ thek ′iat S JKk DC wnz I′iat S HV “eyofie“y “egionD 1© High f“equenyyB high fioltwgeosyillwtion wy“oss infie“te“ output nozes wnz output “eytie“ ziozes ywusez xythe inte“wytion xetfleen ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyes wnz the “esonwntyi“yuitB F© High f“equenyy osyillwtion ywusez xy the inte“wytion xetfleen output“eytie“ ziozes junytion ywpwyitwnyes wnz the “esonwnt yi“yuitD 3© eutput yu“C“ent fiw“iwtion wnz spikesB flhiyh lewz to unflwntez t“ipping in “eyofie“y mozewnz inte“fe“e flith the Xci yu““ent sensing yi“yuitD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D JOHDGN jhe e–pe“imentwl “esult of the p“oposez mozulwtion teyhnique fo“ the k ′iat SJKk DC wnz I ′iat S HV “eyofie“y “egionD 1© inziywtes the phwse shift st“wtegyBflhiyh is wppliez in the “eyofie“y “egion fo“ flize“ “egulwtionD F© shofls thesmooth yhw“ging yu““ent flithout wny “ippleD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D KG–iiiaist of FiguresIDG aaC “esonwnt topologyP (w) aaC syhemwtiy inyluzing pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyesB(x) aaC fioltwge gwin issues (high f“equenyy) zue to the “eytie“ junytionywpwyitwnyesB wnz (y) aaC lCI plwne highlighting “egulwtion issuesD D D D D D KKIDH f“oposez aICH “esonwnt topology solutionP (w) aICH syhemwtiy flith pw“wllel“esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size E©B (x) aICH fioltwgegwins flith e–pwnzez sflityhing f“equenyy ope“wtion F©B wnz (y) aICH lCI plwneyofie“wge shofling signiywnt “egulwtion imp“ofiement 3©D D D D D D D D D D D D KMIDI aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D KNIDJ (w) eutput “eytie“ stwtes wlong flith pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“B wnz (x) cwinflwfiefo“ms of the output “eytie“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D KOIDK WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LGIDL jhe equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICHP (w) eutput sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionB (x)eutput open yi“yuit yonzitionD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LJIDM j“wnsfo“me“ mozelsB (w) Fi“st o“ze“B (x) ieyonz o“ze“B (y) jhi“z o“ze“B wnz(z) Fou“th o“ze“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D LMIDN jhe effeyt of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye on the fioltwge gwin yu“fiesD D D D D LNIDO Zo[ “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“P (w) loltwge gwin slopesu“fwye fie“sus au wnz asB (x) Input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent “wtio fie“sus auwnz fSB wnz (y) fhwse of the input impezwnye fie“sus au wnz fSD D D D D D D MGIDGF Zo[ “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“P (w) loltwge gwin “wtiosu“fwye fie“sus as wnz CuB (x) Input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent “wtio fie“sus auwnz CuB wnz (y) fhwse of the input impezwnye fie“sus au wnz CuD D D D D D D MH–ifiaist of FiguresIDGG FHW wnwlysis of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie output lte“ fo“as S JOMB au S FOO & Cu S FOIB wnz yonstwnt fiwlues of no“mwlizez lowz “esisCtwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion (Mv)B (x) Wmplituzeof the no“mwlizez “st se“ies inzuytwnye yu““ent (ISS) )B wnz (y) fhwse of theinput impezwnye (<)D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D MIIDGH FHW wnwlysis of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ as S JOJB wnz au S FOJB flithyonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwget“wnsfe“ funytion (Mv)B (x) Wmplituze of the no“mwlizez “st se“ies inzuytwnyeyu““ent (ISS) )B wnz (y) fhwse of the input impezwnye (<)D D D D D D D D D D D D MMIDGI iimulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ xwtte“y fioltwge fie“sus f“equenyyD (w)jhe aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B wnz (x) jhe aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D D D D D D NFIDGJ aaC t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size flwfiefo“msP (w) k ′iat S OLk DC wnz evut SOKFl B wnz (x) k ′iat S GJJk DC wnz evut S OKFl (High fioltwgeB high f“eCquenyy “inging fo“ this yonzition)D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NGIDGK aICH t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size flwfiefo“msP (w) k ′iat S OLk DC wnz evut SOKFl B wnz (x) k ′iat S GJJk DC wnz evut S OKFl ([liminwtion of the highf“equenyy “inging)D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NIIDGL [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B Z“winCiou“ye fioltwge fo“loflCsize ceiF[j in hwlfCx“izge infie“te“ (S2) wnz “st se“ies “esonwnt inzuyto“yu““ent (ISs) )P (w) k′iat S OLk DC wnz evut S OKFl B (x) k′iat S GJJk DC wnzevut S OKFl B (y) k′iat S Gk DC wnz evut S Il B wnz (z) k′iat S Gk DC wnzevut S GFl D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NJ–fiaist of FiguresIDGM [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“B Z“winCiou“ye fioltwge fo“loflCsize ceiF[j in hwlfCx“izge infie“te“ (S2) wnz “st se“ies “esonwnt inzuyto“yu““ent (ISs) )P (w) k′iat S OLk DC wnz evut S OKFl B (x) k′iat S GJJk DC wnzevut S OKFl B (y) k′iat S Gk DC wnz evut S Gl B wnz (z) k′iat S Gk DC wnzevut S GFl D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NKIDGN [ffiyienyy yu“fies wt –ez output fioltwgesP (w) aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B wnz(x) aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NLIDGO extwinez lCI plwne f“om tflo yonsize“ez “esonwnt yonfie“te“sP (w) aaC “esoCnwnt yonfie“te“B wnz (x) aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D NMJDG (w) fu“e eleyt“iy fiehiyle flith “oof top solw“ pwnelqNs ( E© wnz F© zepiyt sun“wziwtion wnz tempe“wtu“e ywn fiw“y zepenzing on geog“wphy loywtion wnz timeof the zwy)B (x) pwnel pofle“Cfioltwge plwne yofie“ez xy ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“Bfo“ ewyh point in the mentionez w“ewB ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ shoulz “egulwtethe xwtte“y fioltwge f“om k ′iat S HIFk DC to k′iat S JIFk DCB wnz (y) ZYCZYpofle“ yonfie“te“ xloyk ziwg“wm flhiyh shoulz “egulwte the xwtte“y yhw“gingfioltwge f“om HIFk DC to JIFk DC in w flize fiw“iwtion of input fioltwge ( 3©illust“wtes the neyessity of gwlfiwniy isolwtion fo“ the pofle“ yonfie“te“)D D D D D OGJDH ]ene“wl mozel of w solw“ yell inyluzing pw“wllel wnz se“ies “esisto“sD D D D D D D OIJDI lw“iwtion of fofle“Cloltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w photofioltwiy mozule ws w funyCtion of (w) I““wziwnye wt HF◦CB wnz (x) jempe“wtu“e wt GFFFlRm2D jhe zwshezyu“fie in FigD JDI(x) p“esents the minimum output pofle“ of the fl pwnelB oyCyu“s wt mw–imum wmxient tempe“wtu“e (LF◦C) wnz minimum sun i““wziwnye(HFFlRm2) D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D OLJDJ Full x“izge aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy flith ywpwyitifie output lte“Bwppliywxle fo“ fl to high fioltwge xwtte“y wppliywtionsD D D D D D D D D D D D D OM–fiiaist of FiguresJDK WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D D D D D D D D D D D D D D OMJDL FHW wnwlysis of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ au S FOHKB wnz as S KB flithyonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwget“wnsfe“ funytion (Mv)B wnz (x) fhwse of the input impezwnye (<)D D D D D D D GFGJDM aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ mw–imum xwtte“y fioltwge(k ′iat S JIFk DC)B –ez wmxient tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C)B wnz ziffe“ent i““wziwnyeP(w) GFFFlRm2P kpu S IMk DC wnz epu S HOLl B (x) NFFlRm2P kpu S ILk DCwnz epu S HIHl B (y) LFFlRm2P kpu S IKk DC wnz epu S GLOl B (z)JFFlRm2P kpu S IIk DC wnz epu S GFNl B wnz (e) HFFlRm2P kpu S IGk DCwnz epu S KFl D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GFKJDN aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ mw–imum xwtte“y fioltwge(k ′iat S JIFk DC)B –ez i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2)B wnz ziffe“ent tempe“wtu“eP(w) −HF◦CP kpu S JKk DC wnz epu S ILKl B (x) F◦CP kpu S JGk DC wnzepu S IIKl B (y) HF◦CP kpu S IMk DC wnz epu S IFJl B (z) JF◦C kpu SIJk DC wnz epu S HMHl B wnz (e) LF◦C kpu S IFk DC wnz epu S HJGl D D D D GFLJDO aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ minimum xwtte“y fioltwge(k ′iat S HIFk DC)B –ez wmxient tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C)B wnz ziffe“ent i““wziwnyeP(w) GFFFlRm2P kpu S IMk DC wnz epu S HOLl B (x) NFFlRm2P kpu S ILk DCwnz epu S HIHl B (y) LFFlRm2P kpu S IKk DC wnz epu S GLOl B (z)JFFlRm2P kpu S IIk DC wnz epu S GFNl B wnz (e) HFFlRm2P kpu S IGk DCwnz epu S KFl D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GFMJDGF aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ minimum xwtte“y fioltwge(k ′iat S HIFk DC)B –ez i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2)B wnz ziffe“ent tempe“wtu“eP(w) −HF◦CP kpu S JKk DC wnz epu S ILKl B (x) F◦CP kpu S JGk DC wnzepu S IIKl B (y) HF◦CP kpu S IMk DC wnz epu S IFJl B (z) JF◦CP kpu SIJk DC wnz epu S HMHl B wnz (e) LF◦CP kpu S IFk DC wnz epu S HJGl D D D GFN–fiiiaist of FiguresJDGG aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ sho“t yi“yuit test wt minimum sflityhing f“equenyy(fs S GMMkHz) wnz mw–imum input fioltwge (kpu S JJk DC) D D D D D D D D D GFOJDGH [ffiyienyy yu“fies of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ ziffe“ent yonzitionsB w)[ffiyienyy fo“ yonstwnt su“fwye tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C) wnz i““wziwnye fiw“iwtionswt kvut S HIKk DCB x) [ffiyienyy fo“ yonstwnt solw“ i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2) wnztempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtions wt kvut S HIKk DCB y) [ffiyienyy fo“ yonstwnt su“fwyetempe“wtu“e (HK◦C) wnz i““wziwnye fiw“iwtions wt kvut S JIFk DCB z) [ffiyienyyfo“ yonstwnt solw“ i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2) wnz tempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtions wt kvut SJIFk DCD D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GGGXDG Hw“z sflityhing ceiF[j yu““ent wnz fioltwge flwfiefo“mD D D D D D D D D D D D GHHXDH ioft sflityhing ceiF[j yu““ent wnz fioltwge flwfiefo“mD D D D D D D D D D D D D GHIYDG (w) jhe gene“wl xloyk ziwg“wm of the “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sB (x) jhe fioltCwge wnz yu““ent flwfiefo“ms fo“ the input of “esonwnt yi“yuit (inzuytifie lowzyonzition)D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D GHMYDH mwfiefo“m of w ceiF[j flo“king wt the inzuytifie lowz yonzitionD D D D D D D GHMZDG jhe p“ototype inputCoutput yonneytion fo“ the effiyienyy mewsu“ement D D D GHO–fiiiicomenxlvtureCq Zioze junytion ywpwyitwnye (F )DCu hesonwnt ywpwyitwnye “wtio (Cu S CtRCs)DCw fw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyitwnye (F )DCs ie“ies “esonwnt ywpwyitwnye (F )DCt [quifiwlent pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyitwnye (F )DCwBs minzing ywpwyitwnye of the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size (F )Df0 hesonwnt f“equenyy (Hz)Dfr hesonwnt f“equenyy fo“ speyiy lowzing yonzition (Hz)DfrBvj epen yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (Hz)DfrBvj1 Fi“st open yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (Hz)DfrBvj2 ieyonz open yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (Hz)DfrBsj iho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (Hz)Dfs iflityhing f“equenyy (Hz)DG iolw“ i““wziwtion wt the wmxient tempe“wtu“e (klRm2)DISs) fewk yu““ent of the “st se“ies “esonwnt inzuytwnye (V)DISs2 fewk yu““ent of the seyonz se“ies “esonwnt inzuytwnye (V)DIiat ZY output yu““ent (V)Dk Xoltzmwnn yonstwnt (k S GOINFLKFI× GF23JRK)Dalxt [–te“nwl se“ies inzuytwnye (H)DasrBw j“wnsfo“me“ p“imw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye (H)D–i–comenxlvtureasrBs j“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye (H)Dat j“wnsfo“me“ mwgnetizing inzuytwnye (H)Dau hesonwnt inzuytwnye “wtio (au S as1Raw)Daw fw“wllel “esonwnt inzuytwnye (H)Das ie“ies “esonwnt inzuytwnye “wtio (as S as1Ras2)Das) Fi“st se“ies “esonwnt inzuytwnye (H)Das2 ieyonz se“ies “esonwnt inzuytwnye (H)DMVr WYCWY fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion zue to the Gst hw“moniyDMVR WYCZY fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion of the yu““ent z“ifien “eytie“DMVs ZYCWY fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion of the full x“izge infie“te“Dn j“wnsfo“me“ tu“ns “wtio (n S cwRcs)Dq [leyt“oniy yhw“ge (q S GOLFH× GF−19C)fS bowzez quwlity fwyto“DR′iat Xwtte“y equifiwlent “esistwnye (Ω)DRS bowz “esistwnye (Ω)Di fhotofioltwiy pwnel yell tempe“wtu“e (aelfiin)DkHI) Gst hw“moniy of the full x“izge infie“te“DkReV eutput fioltwge wmplituze of the aaC “esonwnt infie“te“Dkpu ZY input fioltwge (k )Dkiat ZY output fioltwge (k )DkReV eutput fioltwge wmplituze of the aaC “esonwnt infie“te“Do0 ie“ies yhw“wyte“istiy impezwnye (Ω)D––VxknofileygementsI floulz like to sinye“ely thwnk my supe“fiiso“ Z“D cw“tin e“zonez fo“ wyyepting me ws pw“tof his “esew“yh tewmD His suppo“tB zeziywtion wnz teyhniywl wzfiiye zu“ing my p“og“wm isg“ewtly wpp“eyiwtezDI floulz wlso like to wyknofllezge ou“ “esew“yh tewmB fo“ g“wyiously shw“ing thei“ e–pe“ienyewnz knofllezge flith meB wnz fo“ mwking these yew“s w se“ies of enjoywxle e–pe“ienyesD ipeyiwlthwnks go to Z“D iwmuel hoxe“t Yofie fo“ zefieloping Zesign of [–pe“iment cethozology(Zo[) in “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s optimizwtionDW speyiwl thwnkCyou is e–tenzez to ZeltwCg jeyhnologies fo“ thei“ yollwxo“wtion flith kXYBflhiyh wlloflez me to fu“the“ zefielop my “esew“yh izews flhile e–pe“ienying the p“wytiywl sizeof eleyt“oniys zefielopmentDFinwllyB it is my plewsu“e to xe wxle to thwnk my flifeB cw“jwnB fo“ he“ iny“ezixle pwtienyeByonstwnt unze“stwnzingB wnz unflwfie“ing suppo“t th“oughout the enti“ety of this p“oyessD––iChvpter FIntroyuxtion1FCF botivvtionIn the pwst zeywzeB the use of eleyt“iy fiehiyles ([ls) hws iny“ewsez “wpizlyB y“ewting w twngixlewlte“nwtifie to offset g“eenhouse gws emissionsD WlsoB mounting photofioltwiy (fl) pwnels onthe “oofs of eleyt“iy fiehiyles ([ls) is wn e–yiting nefl oppo“tunity to e–tenz the “wnge wnz“ezuye the yhw“ge time of [ls zu“ing zwylight qN{GLsD [ls w“e p“opellez xy eleyt“iy moto“sBflhiyh w“e pofle“ez xy “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“ies ws the sou“ye of ene“gyD FigD GDG(w) p“esents wpu“e [l flith w pofle“ yo“z wnz “oofCtop fl pwnel ws possixle input ene“gy sou“yesD WlsoBFigD GDG(x) shofls the gene“wl pofle“ yonzitioning xloyk ziwg“wm of the pu“e [lB flhiyhinyluzes w fofle“ Fwyto“ Yo““eytion (fFY) wlong flith wn isolwtez ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“f“om w unifie“swl WY input sou“ye to the xwtte“y pwykB wnz wnothe“ isolwtez ZYCZY pofle“yonfie“te“ f“om the fl sou“ye to the xwtte“y pwykD ZYCZY fofle“ yonfie“te“s w“e wmong themost impo“twnt pw“ts of [lsB flhiyh neez to get the pofle“ f“om input ZY xuses (eithe“fFY yi“yuitB o“ fl pwnel output) B wnz sto“e it in w “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“y pwykD jhe“ew“e ziffe“ent types of “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“y pwyks on the mw“ket (biCIonB bewzCWyizB dicHBetyD) flhiyh w“e usez fo“ ene“gy sto“wge in [ls qGM{HIsD ksing xwtte“ies fo“ ene“gy sto“wgeimposes yhwllenging zesign yonst“wints fo“ yhw“ge“sB zue to the ziffe“ent ope“wting mozes ofthe xwtte“yB inyluzing yonstwnt yu““entB yonstwnt fioltwgeB yonstwnt pofle“B noClowz yonzitionB1dortions of this whuptyr huvy vyyn moxiyx from oE{7qGFCFC botivvtion(a)1Roof-Top SolarPanel Electric Vehicle(b)PV PanelV   =24   45V˷PanRechargeableBattery Pack21PFC VinVbat′Universal ACV   =80   240V˷AC2DC-DC ConverterVinFigu“e GDGP (w) fu“e [leyt“iy lehiyle flith “oofCtop fl pwnel flith possixle input sou“yes ( E©inziywtes the mwin input sou“ye of [l f“om WY sou“ye outletB wnz F© inziywtes the pofle“f“om w solw“ fl pwnelB flhiyh ywn p“ofiize up to sefie“wl hunz“ez flwtts (eDgD JFFl ) pofle“D)B(x) the gene“wl xloyk ziwg“wm of xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB flhiyh w“e employez to t“wnsfe“ the pofle“f“om tflo input sou“yes to w “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“y pwyk in w pu“e [l flith w “oofCtop fl pwnelDwnz “efiitwlizwtionD Wyyo“zing to FigD GDH(w)B the bewzCWyiz xwtte“y yhw“ging p“ole inyluzesth“ee mwin phwsesP Xulk (mw– yhw“ging yu““ent)B Wxso“ption (yonstwnt fioltwge)B wnz Finish(w limitez yu““ent to offset the inte“nwl soft zisyhw“ge)D Zu“ing the Xulk phwseB the xwtte“yis less thwn fully yhw“gez wnz the mw–imum yhw“ging yu““ent is p“ofiizez flhile monito“ingthe xwtte“y fioltwgeD In the Wxso“ption mozeB the yhw“ge“ iny“ewses the xwtte“y fioltwge toWxso“ption fioltwgeB flhiyh is typiywlly speyiez xy the xwtte“y mwnufwytu“e“D Wt this pointBthe xwtte“y hws xeen yhw“gez to xetfleen MF; wnz OF; of its ywpwyity wnz the “emwinze“ isllez flith the slofle“ topping yhw“ge thwt oyyu“s zu“ing Wxso“ption phwseD knze“ ye“twinyi“yumstwnyesB fioltwge yells in w xwtte“y pwyk ywn xe ziffe“ent (out of xwlwnye)D In thisywseB wn ofie“yhw“ge moze is pe“fo“mez to equwlize the fioltwge of the yells in w xwtte“y pwykDWyyo“zing to FigD GDH(w)B the most ziffiyult yhw“ging yyyle oyyu“s flhen the xwtte“y pwyk hwsHFCFC botivvtionCharging TimeVoltage/Cell Bulk CurrentAbsorbtionRecoveryRegionFinish32.521.510.5(a)Charging Current %100%50%25%75%Equalization(b)22.533.544.5Voltage/Cell100%50%25%75%Constant VoltageConstant CurrentOffTrickleCharging TimeCharging Current %(c)Battery Voltage (VDC)Battery Current (ADC)0Constant VoltageNo-Load ConditionConstant CurrentI         =10ABat,maxV         =96VDCBat,nom1.5*VBat,nom0P     =960WmaxPmaxMaximumPowerFigu“e GDHP (w) Yhw“ging yyyle p“ole fo“ w single bewzCWyiz xwtte“y inyluzing heyofie“yhegionB (x) Yhw“ging yyyle p“ole fo“ w single bithiumCIon xwtte“y yellB (y) Zesi“ez lCI plwnefo“ w unifie“swl xwtte“y yhw“ge“ (eDgD OLFl xwtte“y yhw“ge“)D jhe g“wy w“ew highlights lCIplwne “egulwtion issues of yu““ent stwteCofCthe w“t teyhnologiesDxeen zisyhw“gez yompletely ofling to eithe“ ofie“Czisyhw“ging o“ e–tenzez sto“wge timeD In thissituwtionB the fioltwge of the xwtte“y pwyk z“ops into the zewzCzoneB ylose to ze“o fiolts pe“ yell(heyofie“y hegion) qHGB HJ{HLsD FigD GDH(x) shofls thwt the biCIon xwtte“y hws tflo ziffe“entmozes in its yhw“ging p“oleB flhiyh w“e yonstwnt yu““ent wnz yonstwnt fioltwge mozeD Zu“ingIFCFC botivvtionyonstwnt yu““ent ope“wtionB the fioltwge of ewyh yell is new“ its mw–imum (w“ounz JlEyell)wnz the“efo“e the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ is flo“king w“ounz its mw–imum output pofle“D In theyonstwnt fioltwge stwgeB the yell fioltwge w“e mwintwinez wt the mw–imum until the yhw“gingyu““ent g“wzuwlly zeylines xelofl w set th“esholz of the mw–imum yu““entD co“eofie“B w t“iykleyhw“ging stwge xefo“e the yonstwnt yu““ent stwge is neyessw“y fo“ zeeply zepletez yells qHM{IFsD Fo“ the inzust“iwlCg“wze yhw“ge“ mwnufwytu“ingB it is p“efe“wxle to zesign wnz fwx“iywteunifie“swl xwtte“y yhw“ge“s to suppo“t ziffe“ent types of xwtte“iesD Yomxining the yhw“gingp“oles p“esentez in FigD GDH(w) wnz (x) lewzs to w gene“wl lCI plwneB p“esentez in FigD GDH(y)thwt is essentiwl to yonsize“ in w unifie“swl xwtte“y yhw“ge“ zesign qIGB IHsD Wyyo“zing to FigDGDH(y)B the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ shoulz not only flo“k in ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsB f“om wxsolutelyze“o to mw–imum output yu““entB xut wlso “egulwte the output fioltwge f“om new“ ze“o up toGDK times the nominwl fioltwgeD co“eofie“B the ZYCZY stwge “elwtez to the fl pwnel neezs tot“wyk the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion to get mw–imum pofle“ f“om the fl pwnelDjhis flo“k flill “efiiefl y“itiywl p“oxlems fo“ e–t“eme “egulwtion thwt hwfie xeen oxse“fiezin e–isting xwtte“y yhw“ge“sD Fo“ wn e–t“eme “egulwtionB yhw“ge“s shoulz not only flo“kunze“ ziffe“ent lowzing yonzitions (f“om wxsolutely ze“o to mw–imum output yu““ent) xutwlso “egulwte w flize output fioltwge “wnge (f“om new“ ze“o to GDK times nominwl fioltwge)D FigDGDH(y) p“esents wn e–wmple of output fioltwgeCyu““ent plwneB flhiyh hws to xe suppo“tez xyw xwtte“y yhw“ge“D Wyyo“zing to FigD GDH(y)B the nominwl output fioltwge wnz yu““ent w“eOLk DC wnz GFVDCB wnz zepenzing on the stwte of yhw“geB the yhw“ge“ hws to “egulwte thexwtte“y fioltwge f“om new“ ze“o to GJJlZY (fw“ xeyonz its no“mwl ope“wting yonzition)D In thisflo“kB ziffe“ent p“oxlems “egw“zing the yu““ent stwteCofCthe w“t topologies fo“ ZYCZY pofle“yonfie“te“s w“e stuziez in zetwilB inyluzing soft sflityhing (zenez in Wppenzi– X) “est“iytionin the fmc full x“izge topologyB the pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnye z“wflxwyk on the fioltwge gwin ofthe aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B wnz xu“st moze mozulwtion issues fo“ the e–t“eme “egulwtionDjhe yu““ent stwteCofCthe w“t topologies w“e not wxle to “egulwte the output in w lofl fioltwgeJFCFC botivvtionwnz yu““ent “wnge (“ep“esentez xy the g“wy w“ew in FigD GDH(y)) in the yontinuous yonzuytionmoze so the xu“st moze st“wtegy is wppliez fo“ e–t“eme “egulwtionB flhiyh lewzs to w high“ipple yhw“ging yu““entD FigD GDI illust“wtes the p“inyiple ope“wtion of the xu“st moze wlongflith mwin flwfiefo“ms of the full x“izge yonfie“te“D Wyyo“zing to FigD GDIB in xu“st mozeB thegwte signwls w“e tu“nez on wnz off pe“ioziywlly flith wn inte“mittent yyyle muyh lofle“ thwn theyonfie“te“ sflityhing f“equenyy(sefie“wl kHz ws the xu“st f“equenyy in yompw“ison flith sefie“wlhunz“ez kHz fo“ the pofle“ yonfie“te“)D In fwytB the yonfie“te“ ope“wtes in zisyontinuousyonzuytion moze wnz t“wnsfe“s poykets of ene“gy to the output sizeDjhe yont“ixution of this flo“k is xwsez on nofiel ZYCZY “esonwnt yonfie“te“ topologies wnzS1VinD1Cf′1Rechargeable Battery PackS2S3S4 D2D3D4InverterVoltageBatteryVoltageBatteryCurrent(a)ton tofftTswConverterOn-StateConverterOff-StatettConverterOn-StatetBurst SignalInverter VoltageBattery VoltageBattery Current(b)Figu“e GDIP (w)jhe full x“izge yonfie“te“B wnz (x) the xu“st moze p“inyiple of ope“wtionDKFC2C aitervture geviewmozulwtion methozs thwt w“e ywpwxle of e–t“eme “egulwtion wnz “esponzing to fiw“ious stwtesof xwtte“y yhw“ge (wll points in the lCI plwne p“esentez in FigD GDH(y))D jhe oxjeytifie is top“opose nefl xwtte“y yhw“ge“ topologies (inyluzing moziez aaCB aICHB aIC) thwt ope“wteflith high effiyienyyB high pofle“ zensity wnz smooth yhw“ging yu““entB flhile t“wnsfe““ingene“gy f“om –ez o“ fiw“iwxle ZY sou“yes to ziffe“ent xwtte“y teyhnologies (eDgD biCIonB bewzCWyizB dicH)D jhis flo“k p“oposes w moziez fou“thCo“ze“ “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ flithnefl mozulwtion st“wtegies wnz w nofiel fth o“ze“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ws nefl “esonwnt yi“yuittopologiesB wppliywxle fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“s wt high wnz mezium pofle“ lefiel wppliywtions flith–ez ZY input fioltwge (inziywtez xy E© in FigD GDG(x))D WlsoB w fou“th o“ze“ “esonwntyonfie“te“ is int“ozuyez ws w solution fo“ fiw“iwxle input fioltwge to xwtte“y pwyksB usez fo“ [lsflith w “oofCtop solw“ fl pwnel (inziywtez xy F© in FigD GDG(x))D jhe p“oposez solutions flillxe infiestigwtez theo“etiywlly wnz implementez e–pe“imentwlly in o“ze“ to p“ofie the wyyu“wyyof the wnwlysis wnz thei“ pe“fo“mwnye in xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsDFCG aitervture geviefijhe“e hws xeen inte“esting “esew“yh into imp“ofiing the pe“fo“mwnye of [ls xwtte“y yhw“gCe“sB wnz it is wn wytifie topiy in pofle“ eleyt“oniys “esew“yh tozwyD Yommon “esew“yh gowlsinyluze hofl to mozify ziffe“ent pofle“ yonfie“te“ topologies fo“ flize “egulwtionB o“ using neflmozulwtion st“wtegies wt e–t“eme output “egulwtion flith the xest wyhiefiwxle effiyienyyD jhefollofling yitez flo“k hws xeen pe“fo“mez in the elz of ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“sion fo“ xwtte“yyhw“ging wnz fl wppliywtionsB o“gwnizez xy –ez wnz fiw“iwxle input fioltwgeDFCGCF Fixey Input koltvge DCBDC eofier ConverterWyyo“zing to FigD GDG(x)B the“e w“e tflo ziffe“ent pofle“ yonfie“te“s f“om w unifie“swl inputsou“ye (vHC S NF− HJFk RMS) to xwtte“y pwykB inyluzing w fofle“ Fwyto“ Yo““eytion (fFY)LFC2C aitervture geviewyi“yuit wnz w ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“D jhe fFY yi“yuit is w fiitwl pw“t in the w“yhiteytu“e ofw pofle“ yonzitioning yi“yuitB sinye it gets w sinusoizwl yu““ent f“om the mwin wnz eliminwteslofl f“equenyy ZY fioltwge “ipple flithout using w xulky ywpwyito“ lte“B wnz p“ozuyes wnwlmost –ez ZY xus fioltwge (eDgD kpu S JFFk DC) qII{ILsD jhe ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ isthe ne–t stwgeB flhiyh is “esponsixle fo“ “egulwting the xwtte“y fioltwge ofie“ w flize “wnge wnz“esponzing to fiw“ious stwtes of xwtte“y yhw“geD jhe yomxinwtion of fFY wnz ZYCZY pofle“yonfie“te“ is usez ws the mwin pwth fo“ yhw“ging the xwtte“y pwykB flhen wn WY pofle“ sou“yeis wfiwilwxle ( E© in FigD GDG(x))D mhwt follofls is w list of “elefiwnt lite“wtu“e o“gwnizez xytopology type (fmc wnz “esonwnt yonfie“te“s) wnz type of “egulwtion st“wtegy (Xu“st coze)fo“ flize “egulwtionDeulse liyth boyulvtion DCBDC eofier ConvertersWmong fulse mizth cozulwtion topologiesB fhwse ihift Full X“izge (fiFX) pofle“ yonfie“tCe“s hwfie wtt“wytez mo“e wttention thwn othe“ topologies (eDgD hwlf x“izgeB push pullB fo“flw“z)fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB zue to thei“ ywpwxility to p“ofiize soft sflityhing yonzitionsfo“ semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyes ofie“ w flize “wnge of lowzing yonzitionsD WlsoB zue to the –ez f“eCquenyy ope“wtion of fiFX pofle“ yonfie“te“sB the zesign p“oyezu“e is st“wight fo“flw“z flithoutwny yompliywtionsD jhe mwin “epo“tez yonye“ns wxout the fiFX topology hwfie xeen ensu“Cing softCsflityhing ope“wtion wt light wnz noClowz yonzitionB “eytie“ fioltwge pewk “ezuytionBwnz output fioltwge “egulwtion e–tensionD jhe yonfientionwl fiFX ywn “egulwte the outputfioltwge flizely xy iny“ewsing the phwse shift xetfleen tflo legs (lewzing wnz lwgging legs)B xutw fiFX loses the pe“o loltwge iflityhing (pli) yonzition wt light lowzs wnz flize outputfioltwge “egulwtion qIM{JHsD iefie“wl wpp“owyhes fo“ the fiFXB inyluzing symmet“iy pwssifiewu–iliw“y yi“yuitB hyx“iz yonfie“te“sB –ezCfiw“iwxle zuty yyyleB wnz selfCsustwinez osyillwtingyont“olB hwfie xeen stuziez in o“ze“ to e–tenz the output fioltwge “egulwtionB flhile p“ofiizesoft sflityhing yonzition fo“ semiCyonzuyto“ elements qJI{JKsD Hoflefie“B e–t“eme “egulwtionMFC2C aitervture geview(“egulwting the output fioltwge f“om ze“o to GDK times of its nominwl)B flhiyh is essentiwl fo“xwtte“y “eyofie“y hws not yet xeen stuziez fo“ fiFXD loltwge pewks wy“oss the output “eytie“ziozes is wnothe“ p“oxlem enyounte“ez xy the yonfientionwl fiFX yonfie“te“ wnz ws w “esultBziozes flith highe“ xloyking fioltwge hwfie to xe seleytez flhiyh lewzs to mo“e yonzuytion losseswnz lofle“ effiyienyyD Ziffe“ent teyhniques suyh ws bCY yi“yuitsB hYZ netflo“ksB wnz wytifie“eytie“s hwfie xeen p“esentez fo“ the fiFX in o“ze“ to eliminwte the fioltwge pewk wy“ossthe output “eytie“ ziozesB xut “esolfiing the negwtifie impwyt on the effiyienyy wnz “ezuyingthe numxe“ of wytifie wnz pwssifie yi“yuits still “emwin ws “esew“yh oppo“tunities qHNB JLB JMsD]ene“wllyB soft yommutwtion of the output “eytie“ lewzs to xette“ seleytion of the “eytie“ziozesB highe“ effiyienyyB lofle“ [cIB wnz highe“ sflityhing f“equenyy ope“wtionDgesonvnt eofier Converters fiith kvrivwle Frequenxyhesonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s w“e ywnzizwtes fo“ the zesign of xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB zue to thei“ywpwxility to p“ozuye fiw“iwxle fioltwge gwins in ziffe“ent ope“wting f“equenyies qJN{KGsD WlsoB“esonwnt topologies offe“ the potentiwl of wyhiefiing soft sflityhing fo“ semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyeswnz the possixility of iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyyB flhiyh lewzs to w smwlle“B lighte“Bwnz less yostly systemD jhe yonyept of the soft sflityhing in “esonwnt yonfie“te“s is p“esentezin Wppenzi– YD hesonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s ywn xe employez f“om lofl to high pofle“ lefielwppliywtionsD Wmong “esonwnt yonfie“te“ topologiesB the aaC topology hws xeyome w popCulw“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fewtu“ing mwny wzfiwntwges suyh ws pe“o loltwge wnz pe“o Yu““entiflityhing (plpYi)B wnz the wxso“ption of the t“wnsfo“me“ pw“wsitiys (lewkwge wnz mwgneCtizing inzuytwnyes) ws “esonwnt elements qKHB KH{LIsD jheo“etiywllyB it is possixle to zey“ewsethe output fioltwge of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ xy iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyy inthe inzuytifie “egion (highe“ thwn sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy)D Hoflefie“B the e–istenyeof pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes (zioze junytionB t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeB wnz fYX lwye“s) lewzsto wn unzesi“ez osyillwtion in the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ wnz w seyonz “esonwntNFC2C aitervture geviewf“equenyy oyyu“s in the fioltwge gwin yu“fiesB flhiyh is fw“ f“om the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwntf“equenyy qJB HKB HLB LJsD Ws w “esultB it is not possixle to zey“ewse the output fioltwge xy inCy“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyy wnzB the“efo“eB w mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy is wssignezfo“ the yonfie“te“D Wfte“ the mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyyB the fioltwge gwin wt noClowz o“lightClowz yonzitions iny“ewses ws the sflityhing f“equenyy iny“ewsesB ywusing “efie“se polw“ityof the feezxwyk signwl wnz tu“ning negwtifie feezxwyk into positifie feezxwykD jhis p“oxlem isusuwlly zewlt flith using w zummy lowz in the output of the yonfie“te“D Hoflefie“B in xwtte“yyhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB employing zummy lowzs in the output lewzs to lofle“ effiyienyy wnzxwtte“y zisyhw“geB flhiyh is not wyyeptwxleDZmploying Wurst boye htrvtegy for liye gegulvtionIn o“ze“ to e–pwnz the output fioltwge “egulwtion fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB w zisyonCtinuous yhw“ging moze ywllez xu“st moze is wppliez eithe“ in fmc o“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“sDIn this methozB the sflityhing z“ifie“ signwls w“e tu“nez on wnz off pe“ioziywlly wt wn inte“Cmittent yyyle muyh lofle“ thwn the yonfie“te“ sflityhing f“equenyy (sefie“wl kHz in yompw“isonflith sefie“wl hunz“ez kHz)D ]ene“wllyB xu“st moze st“wtegy is employez in light wnz noClowz yonzitions in o“ze“ to imp“ofie the effiyienyy wnz p“ofiize e–t“eme fioltwge “egulwtionwnz hws p“ofien suyyessful fo“ b[Z wppliywtions qLKB LLsD jhe“e w“e sefie“wl issues ws w “esultof using this st“wtegy fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB suyh ws losing soft sflityhing yonziCtionsB int“ozuying high f“equenyy fioltwge osyillwtionsB wnz ywusing xwtte“y yu““ent “ipple wnzspikesD Xwsez on the yontinuous yonzuytion moze (YYc) wnz xu“st moze ope“wtion teyhCnique (yomxinez fiw“iwxle f“equenyyB GKF−JKFkHzB –ez on time wnz –ez f“equenyy fiw“iwxleon time)B wn aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flws zesignez wnz implementez ws w bewzCWyiz xwtte“yyhw“ge“ qIGB IHsD Wlthough employing xu“st moze lewzs to xette“ “egulwtionB the inte“wytionxetfleen pw“wsitiys ywpwyitwnyes (inyluzing ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye wnz ziozes junytion) wnzthe “esonwnt yi“yuit elements lewzs to high f“equenyy osyillwtion zu“ing yonfie“te“ offCstwte wnzOFC2C aitervture geviewp“ozuyes high [cI noiseB flhiyh hws w negwtifie effeyt on the Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystem(“esponsixle to p“ofiize output fioltwge wnz yu““ent set points wyyo“zing to xwtte“y stwte ofyhw“ge)B wnz lewzs to wn unflwntez t“ipping in “eyofie“y mozeB inte“fe“ing flith the sensing wnzfeezxwyk yi“yuitD co“eofie“B xu“st yu““ent “ipple wnz “ipple in gene“wl ywn wffeyt the xwtte“ylife yyyleD In othe“ flo“zsB the ylewne“ the yhw“ging yu““entB the longe“ the xwtte“y=s lifespwnDFCGCG kvrivwle Input koltvge DCBDC eofier ConverterWs shofln in FigD GDG(w)B yonsize“ing w single pwnel on the “ooftop of wn [lB the mw–imumpofle“ ywpwyity is up to sefie“wl hunz“ez flwttsB wnz zepenzing on the solw“ i““wziwnye wnztempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtionB the cw–imum fofle“ foint (cff) fioltwge “wnge flill yhwnge in wflize “wngeD In this ywseB on top of flize output fioltwge “egulwtion wnz xwtte“y stwteCofCyhw“ge “esponseB the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion neezs to xe t“wykez to get mw–imum pofle“ f“omthe fl pwnelD In the folloflingB w list of “elwtez lite“wtu“e fo“ lofl pofle“ fl wppliywtions (eDgDJFFl ) is p“esentez wnz o“gwnizez xy nonCisolwtez wnz isolwtez topology typeDconBIsolvtey DCBDC eofier Converters for ek VpplixvtionsheyentlyB ziffe“ent stuzies hwfie xeen zeziywtez to zefieloping “eliwxle wnz effiyient nonCisolwtezpofle“ yonfie“te“s fo“ fl wppliywtionsD Ziffe“ent topologies inyluzing xuyk wnz xoost yonCfie“te“B Yoyky“wftCmwlton multiplie“B youplez inzuyto“sB sflityhez inzuyto“sCywpwyito“s wnzpCyonfie“te“ flith ywpwxility of high fioltwge gwin hwfie xeen int“ozuyez ws the ZYCZY sysCtems fo“ fl to g“iz wppliywtions (xoosts w loflB fiw“iwxle input fioltwge of IF − KFk DC tow highB –ez output fioltwge of INFk DC) qLM{MLsD hewlizing w high fioltwge gwin wlong flithsoft sflityhing w“e the most impo“twnt y“ite“iw fo“ fl wppliywtionsD jhe mwin yonsize“wtionsof the mentionez nonCisolwtez xoost yonfie“te“s w“e hofl to xoost the input fioltwge fo“ flwppliywtions wnz “ewlizing softCsflityhing fo“ semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyesD ethe“ impo“twnt “equi“eCments inyluze yu““ent “ipple “ezuytion wnz fioltwge st“ess eliminwtionD Wlthough nonCisolwtezGFFC2C aitervture geviewpofle“ yonfie“te“s ywn xoost the fl fioltwge wnz “ewyh high pe“fo“mwnyeB they w“e not “eyomCmenzez fo“ wutomotifie wppliywtions zue to w lwyk of gwlfiwniy isolwtionD Wyyo“zing to swfetystwnzw“zs doD jaLFOKF wnz jaGMJGB in o“ze“ to p“efient wny high fioltwge shoyk pwth f“omxwtte“y pwyk to fl pwnelB one of the key fewtu“es of pofle“ yonfie“te“s usez in wutomotifiewppliywtions is to hwfie wt lewst Jkk gwlfiwniy isolwtion xetfleen fl pwnel wnz high fioltwgexwtte“y pwykB flhiyh ziytwtes using wn isolwtez t“wnsfo“me“ in the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ qMMB MNsDIsolvtey DCBDC eofier Converters for ek vpplixvtionsWmong isolwtez fmc pofle“ yonfie“te“ topologiesB the most wttention hws xeen wtt“wytez xythe follofling yonfie“te“ topologiesP yxwykB yu““ent fez pushCpullB zCsou“ye yonfie“te“B wnz fullCx“izge yonfie“te“sD jhese yonfie“te“s ywn wyhiefie w high stepCup gwin f“om lw“ge t“wnsfo“me“tu“n “wtios flhile t“wyking the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion xy yhwnging the effeytifie zuty yyyleqMO{NJsD Ziffe“ent imp“ofiements suyh ws inte“lewfiing wnz wytifie ylwmp yi“yuit hwfie xeenp“esentez in o“ze“ to zey“ewse the input yu““ent “ipple wnz t“wnsfe“ the mw–imum inputpofle“ to the output flith soft sflityhing wy“oss the mwin sflityhes qNK{NNsD jhese inte“estingyonfie“te“s zesy“ixez wxofie tw“get –ez output fioltwgeB “wthe“ thwn the e–t“eme “egulwtionsyenw“io of fiw“iwxle fl input fioltwge wnz fiw“iwxle xwtte“y output fioltwgeD In pw“tiyulw“Bsto“wge wppliywtions flith nefl xwtte“y teyhnologies (eDgDB biCion) pushes the yhw“ge“ “egulwtion“equi“ement of the fl yonfie“te“ to unp“eyezentez limitsD Insightful “esew“yh on “esonwntyonfie“te“s hws xeen p“esentez in the lite“wtu“e ws w single stwge o“ ws w pw“t of zouxle stwgewpp“owyhes fo“ eithe“ singleCphwse yhw“ge“s o“ fl wppliywtions flith –ez output fioltwge qKH{KKB NO{OHsD Wlthough wll mentionez single stwge o“ zouxle stwge “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sywn “egulwte the output fioltwge in w flize “wnge o“ p“ofiize mw–imum pofle“ point t“wyking fo“fl wppliywtionsB thei“ wppliywtions fo“ e–t“eme “egulwtion fo“ xoth input wnz output sizesstill “emwin ws “esew“yh oppo“tunitiesD jhe pw“tiyulw“ wppliywtion wzz“essez in this thesisinfiolfies the yhwllenging syenw“io of e–t“eme input wnz output fioltwge “egulwtion f“om loflGGFCHC Contriwutions of the lorkfioltwge fl (kwv S HJ − JKk DC) to high fiw“iwxle yhw“ging fioltwge neezez in xwtte“y pwyks(kiat S HIF− JIFk DC)DFCH Contriwutions of the lorkjhe gowl of this flo“k is to int“ozuye nofiel “esonwnt pofle“ topologies wnz mozulwtion st“wteCgies fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsD jh“ee nofiel “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s w“e p“oposez(moziez aaCB aICHB wnz aIC) flith e–t“eme output fioltwge ywpwxility flhiyh ywn not only“esponz to fiw“ious stwtes of xwtte“y yhw“ge (wll points in the lCI plwne p“esentez in FigDGDH(y))B xut wlso ywn ope“wte in soft sflityhing yonzitions flhiyh lewzs to w smwlle“B lighte“Bwnz less yostly systemD jhe p“oposez nofiel wnz o“iginwl “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s fo“ xwtte“yyhw“ge“ wppliywtions w“e ws folloflsP• W moziez full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is p“oposez fo“ high pofle“ wppliywtionsBflhiyh is w suyyessful solution to wyhiefie wll the “egulwtion “equi“ements fo“ xwtte“yyhw“ging in ziffe“ent stwtes of yhw“geD jhe p“oposez solution ywn eliminwte the negwtifieimpwyt of xu“st moze on the Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystemB p“ofiize w “ippleCf“ee yhw“gCing yu““ent fo“ xwtte“ies in ziffe“ent stwtes of yhw“geB “ezuye the sflityhing f“equenyyfiw“iwtionB wnz fwyilitwte the [cI lte“ wnz mwgnetiy yomponents zesigns p“oyezu“eD• Zue to the populw“ity of employing hwlf x“izge infie“te“s fo“ mezium pofle“ wppliywCtions (yost effeytifie in yompw“ison flith full x“izge infie“te“s)B w multiC“esonwnt aICH“esonwnt yonfie“te“ is p“oposez thwt ywn yofie“ new“ly wll of the “egions in the xwtte“ylCI plwne flithout employing the xu“st moze st“wtegyD jhe topology is wxle to e–tenzthe ope“wting f“equenyy xeyonz the aaC topology wnz wyhiefie signiywnt “egulwtionimp“ofiementsD dew“ “ippleCf“ee yhw“ging yu““ent fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ging is wyhiefiez inziffe“ent stwtes of yhw“geB effeytifiely iny“ewsing the xwtte“y life yyyleD In wzzitionB softGHFCIC Dissertvtion dutlinet“wnsitions w“e oxtwinez fo“ wll the sflityhes (ceiF[js wnz ziozes) “esulting in higheffiyienyyB “eliwxilityB pofle“ zensityB wnz loflCnoise ope“wtion of the yhw“ge“D• Xeywuse of e–t“emely flize “egulwtion “equi“ements in solw“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsBwn o“iginwl fou“thCo“ze“ aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is p“oposez fo“ [ls flith “oofCtop flpwnels flhiyh ywn not only “egulwte the output fioltwge in w flize “wngeB xut wlso t“wykthe input fioltwge fiw“iwtion fo“ e–t“wyting the mw–imum wfiwilwxle pofle“ f“om fl pwnelsusing sflityhing f“equenyy mozulwtionD jhe p“oposez isolwtez aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ywn p“ofiize soft t“wnsitions fo“ wll sflityhes (ceiF[js wnz ziozes)D co“eofie“B zueto the highCwmplituzeB highCf“equenyy yu““ent in the p“imw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“Bthe eliminwtion of the se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the p“oposez topology fwyilitwtes thezesign wnz yomponent seleytionDIn the w“ew of ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“s fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB this flo“k mwkesg“ewt steps th“ough the p“oposez high o“ze“ “esonwnt pofle“ topologies wnz mozulwtion st“wteCgies fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsDFCI Dissertvtion dutlinejhis flo“k is o“gwnizez in the follofling mwnne“P• In Yhwpte“ HB p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyes of the high f“equenyy t“wnsCfo“me“ w“e yonsize“ez sepw“wtely in o“ze“ to e–wmine the effeyt of seyonzw“y lewkwgeinzuytwnye on the output fioltwge “egulwtion of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D de–tBw –ezCf“equenyy fhwse ihift (fi) wpp“owyh is wppliez to w high pofle“ fullCx“izgetopologyB flhile the soft sflityhing yonzition is stuziezD ksing moziez stewzy stwteequwtionsB w Ikl pofle“ yonfie“te“ is zesignez wnz implementez fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“wppliywtionsD jhe e–pe“imentwl “esults e–t“wytez f“om the pofle“ plwtfo“m p“ofie thwtGIFCIC Dissertvtion dutlinethe p“oposez aaC twnk wnz mozulwtion st“wtegy ywn effeytifiely iny“ewse the “wngeof output fioltwge “egulwtion f“om noClowz to fullClowz yonzitions flithout employingzet“imentwl xu“st mozeD• In Yhwpte“ IB w zetwilez wnwlysis is p“esentez to stuzy wnz yompw“e the aICH wnz aCCtopologyD jhe yomplete wnwlysis of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith yonsize“wtion oft“wnsfo“me“ p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyesB t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y flinzingywpwyitwnyeB wnz output “eytie“ junytion ywpwyitwnyes is oxtwinezD ksing the wnwlytiywlequwtions e–t“wytez f“om aICH wnz aaC “esonwnt yi“yuitsB tflo pofle“ yonfie“te“s w“ezesignezB simulwtezB implementezB wnz yompw“ez ws w OLk DCP OKFl xwtte“y yhw“ge“Djhe “esults p“ofie the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ yofie“s wlmost wll “egions in the lCI plwnewnz ywn xe employez ws w flize fioltwge “egulwto“ fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsD• In Yhwpte“ JB the gene“wl equwtions fo“ solw“ fl pwnels flill xe e–t“wytez wnz employezto zete“mine the fiw“iwtion of pofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w speyiy fl mozule fie“Csus i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtionsD jhenB the yomplete wnwlysis of the aIC “esConwnt yonfie“te“ is oxtwinezD ksing the wnwlytiywl equwtions e–t“wytez fo“ fou“thCo“ze“aIC “esonwnt yi“yuitsB w IKFl ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ is zesignez wnz implementezDFinwllyB e–pe“imentwl “esults w“e p“esentez to zemonst“wte the yi“yuit pe“fo“mwnye wnzto p“ofie the fewsixility of the yonfie“te“D jhe “esults shofl the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ywn “esponz to wll cffB flhile “egulwting the output fioltwge in w flize “wngeD• Yhwpte“ K yontwins the “elefiwnt yonylusionsB yont“ixutionsB wnz plwnnez w“ews of futu“eflo“kD jhe flo“k yont“ixutez signiywntly to the “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ topologiesfo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB flhiyh is highlightez in nine “elefiwnt puxliywtions inI[[[ j“wnswytions jou“nwls wnz inte“nwtionwl yonfe“enyes pwpe“sDGJChvpter GWurst boye Zliminvtion in Higheofier aaC gesonvnt WvtteryChvrgers2jhe softlyCsflityhez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is one of the “esonwnt topologies thwt hws “eyentlyxeen employez fo“ yhw“ge“ wppliywtions zue to its wxility to hwnzle high pofle“ wnz p“ozuyefiw“iwxle fioltwge gwins in ziffe“ent ope“wting f“equenyies flhile p“ofiizing soft sflityhing fo“wll semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyes qHMB HOB KKB KLB LLB OI{OMsD jheo“etiywllyB this topology wlloflsthe output fioltwge to xe zey“ewsez xy iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyyD Hoflefie“B thee–istenye of pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes (zioze junytionB t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeB wnz fYXlwye“s) lewzs to unzesi“ez osyillwtion in the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ wnz limits themw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy qJB HKB HLB LJsD FigD HDG(w) p“esents the full x“izge infie“te“xwsez on ceiF[j sflityhes wnz the aaC “esonwnt yi“yuit syhemwtiy wlong flith pw“wsitiyelementsD FigD HDG(x) shofls the no“mwlizez fioltwge gwins of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“yompw“ez to f“equenyyB flith wnz flithout yonsize“wtion of the pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnye effeyton the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeD Wyyo“zing to this gu“eB the ywpwyitifie effeyts on theseyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ (zioze junytionB t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeB wnz fYXlwye“s)B w“e gene“wlly smwll so thei“ impwyt is only oxse“fiez in light wnz noClowz yonzitionsD2dortions of this whuptyr huvy vyyn puvlishyx in oE, FqGKChvpter 2C Wurst boye Zliminvtion in High eower aaC gesonvnt Wvttery Chvrgers(b)0 1 2Normalized Frequency3f  r,scf  r,ocVoltage Gain00.511.52MaxSwitchingFrequencyNon-Operating AreaZCS Region3Short Cir.Open Cir.LoadResistanceLoadResistanceCapEffect2(a)S4S3S2S1D3VinVbatCf′Ibat1D1D2D4′′vAB(d)Burst Modeton tofftTswConverterOn-StateConverterOff-StatetiLS1tIbatt∆IbatOscillationConverterOn-StatevDtvABVbatt∆Vbat45′′′′I(c)Battery Charging VoltageBattery Charging CurrentConstant CurrentConstantPowerConstant VoltageVnomVmaxVminmaxNo-LoadRegulationIssue f  s,maxFigu“e HDGP (w) Full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy wnz the pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyesE©B (x) jhe effeyt of the pw“wsitiys ywpwyito“s on the fioltwge gwin yu“fies F©B aaC fioltwgegwin issues 3©B (y) aaC lCI plwne highlighting “egulwtion issuesB wnz (z) xu“st moze wnzits issuesP High f“equenyy osyillwtion zue to the inte“wytion xetfleen pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes(ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye wnz ziozes junytion) wnz the “esonwnt yi“yuit 4©B xwtte“y yhw“gingyu““ent “ipple 5©DGLChvpter 2C Wurst boye Zliminvtion in High eower aaC gesonvnt Wvttery Chvrgersjhese pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes lewz to w seyonz “esonwnt f“equenyy in the fioltwge gwin yu“fiesBflhiyh is fw“ f“om the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (frBsj)D In wn izewl ywseB it is zesi“wxle tohwfie the fioltwge gwin p“esentez xy soliz lines in FigD HDG(x)B flhiyh lewzs to w negwtifie slope fo“wll fioltwge gwins fie“sus f“equenyy (iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyy lewzs to zey“ewsing theoutput fioltwge)Q xutB in the p“wytiyeB wfte“ the mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyyB the fioltwge gwinwt noClowz o“ lightClowz yonzitions (eDgD xlue wnz pu“ple yu“fies) iny“ewses ws the sflityhingf“equenyy iny“ewsesB ywusing “efie“se polw“ity of the feezxwyk signwl wnz tu“ning negwtifiefeezxwyk into positifie feezxwykD It mewns thwt wfte“ the mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy lwxelezws fsBtaxB the fioltwge gwin wt lightClowz wnz noClowz yonzitions stw“ts to iny“ewseD jhisp“oxlem is usuwlly zewlt flith using w zummy lowz in the output of the yonfie“te“D Hoflefie“Bin xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB employing zummy lowzs in the output lewzs to the xwtte“ysloflly zisyhw“gingB flhiyh is not wyyeptwxleD FigD HDG(y) illust“wtes the mw–imum lICplwneyofie“wge of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in yontinuous yonzuytion moze qHLsD jhe “ez zwshez“egion in FigD HDG(y) inziywtes the unoxtwinwxle w“ew in the lCI plwneB flhe“e the sflityhingf“equenyy “est“iytion lewzs to the “egulwtion issue fo“ the bbY “esonwnt yonfie“te“D In o“ze“ toyofie“ the “ez zwshez “egion p“esentez in FigD HDG(y)B the xu“st moze st“wtegy ywn xe employezqLKB LLsD ]ene“wllyB w xu“st moze st“wtegy is employez in light wnz noClowz yonzitions in o“ze“to p“ofiize flize output fioltwge “egulwtion wnz hws p“ofien suyyessful fo“ b[Z wppliywtionsDFigD HDG(z) illust“wtes the p“inyiple ope“wtion of xu“st moze wlong flith “esonwnt yonfie“te“flwfiefo“msD Wyyo“zing to this gu“eB in xu“st mozeB the gwte signwls w“e tu“nezCon wnz offpe“ioziywlly flith wn inte“mittent yyyle muyh lofle“ thwn the yonfie“te“ sflityhing f“equenyyD InfwytB the yonfie“te“ ope“wtes in zisyontinuous yonzuytion mozeB wnz t“wnsfe“s poykets of ene“gyto the output sizeD Wlthough employing xu“st moze lewzs to xette“ “egulwtionB the inte“wytionxetfleen pw“wsitiys ywpwyitwnyes (inyluzing ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye wnz ziozes junytion) wnzthe “esonwnt yi“yuit elements lewzs to high f“equenyy osyillwtions zu“ing yonfie“te“ offCstwtewnz p“ozuyes high [cI noiseB flhiyh hws w negwtifie effeyt on Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystemsGMChvpter 2C Wurst boye Zliminvtion in High eower aaC gesonvnt Wvttery Chvrgerswnz lewzs to unflwntez t“ipping in “eyofie“y mozeB inte“fe“ing flith the sensing wnz feezxwykyi“yuitD co“eofie“B xu“st yu““ent “ipple wnz “ipple in gene“wl ywn wffeyt the xwtte“y life yyyleDIn othe“ flo“zsB the ylewne“ the yhw“ging yu““entB the longe“ the xwtte“y=s lifespwn qHKsD FigDHDG(z) shofls the “ipple wnz “inging issues int“ozuyez xy xu“st ope“wting moze in xwtte“yyhw“ge“sDIn this yhwpte“B w moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is infiestigwtez fo“ e–t“eme “egulwCtionD jhis “esonwnt yi“yuit z“ifien xy xoth lw“iwxle F“equenyy (lF) wnz fhwse ihift (fi)p“ofies to xe w suyyessful solution to wyhiefie wll the “egulwtion “equi“ements fo“ high pofle“xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtions (f“om “eyofie“yB xulkB equwlizwtionB to nish)D In pw“tiyulw“B thepe“fo“mwnye in the “eyofie“y “egion wllofls the eliminwtion of xu“st mozeB “esulting in w sigCniywnt p“wytiywl wzfiwnyement fo“ high effiyienyy xwtte“y yhw“ge“sD jhe p“oposez aaC twnkwnz mozulwtion st“wtegy is wppliez to w high pofle“ fullCx“izge topologyB flhiyh is wxle to“egulwte the output fioltwge f“om ylose to ze“o to GDK times the nominwl output fioltwge unze“ziffe“ent output lowz yonzitionsD jhe wxility of the full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ toope“wte flith softCsflityhing t“wnsitions (in wll ope“wting “egions) flithout employing xu“stmoze ope“wtionB p“ofiizes w noise f“ee enfii“onment fo“ wll wu–iliw“y yi“yuitsB wnz effeytifielyiny“ewses the pe“fo“mwnye of the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ (p“ofiizing yhw“ging yu““ent flithout wny “ipCple o“ spike)D co“eofie“B this yonfie“te“ p“ofiizes wlmost “ippleCf“ee yhw“ging yu““ent in o“ze“to yhw“ge xwtte“ies in ziffe“ent stwtes of yhw“geB flhiyh ywn iny“ewse xwtte“y lifespwnD Fu“Cthe“mo“eB the p“oposez mozulwtion st“wtegy lewzs to w limitez sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtionof the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“Q ws w “esult the seleytion of mwgnetiy pw“ts (inyluzing highf“equenyy t“wnsfo“me“sB wnz “esonwnt inzuyto“s)B yont“ol yi“yuitB wnz semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyesw“e fwyilitwtezD In this yhwpte“B the yomplete wnwlysis of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flithyonsize“wtion of t“wnsfo“me“ p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyes is oxtwinezD de–tBZesign of [–pe“iment (Zo[) is employez in o“ze“ to optimize the zesign p“oyezu“e of thexwtte“y yhw“ge“ qONsD bwte“B w yomplete set of simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esultsB e–t“wytezGN2CFC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liye gegulvtionf“om w Ikm “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is p“esentez in o“ze“ to shofl thwt the p“oposez aaC twnkwnz mozulwtion st“wtegy ywn effeytifiely iny“ewse the “wnge of output fioltwge “egulwtion f“omnoClowz to fullClowz yonzitions flithout employing zet“imentwl xu“st mozeDGCF hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liyegegulvtionjhe p“inyiple wnz ope“wtion mozes of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith w nonCizewl t“wnsCfo“me“ hwfie xeen zisyussez in mwny pwpe“sD jypiywllyB the lite“wtu“e “eplwyes the highf“equenyy t“wnsfo“me“ flith w seyonz o“ze“ mozelB flhiyh inyo“po“wtes effeytifie lewkwge inzuyCtwnye wlong flith mwgnetizing inzuytwnyeB wnz employs wn WY equifiwlent yi“yuit fo“ stewzystwte wnwlysis qJNB OO{GFHsD Zue to the e–istenye of lewkwge inzuytwnye not only in the p“iCmw“y sizeB xut wlso in the seyonzw“y sizeB w fii“tuwl fioltwge gwin shoulz xe int“ozuyezB flhiyhp“esents the effeyt of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye on the aaC fioltwge gwin qGFIB GFJsD HoflCefie“B fwiling to yonsize“ the lewkwge inzuytwnye in the t“wnsfo“me“=s seyonzw“y size in theequifiwlent WY yi“yuitsB “esults in inyo““eyt stewzy stwte equwtions fo“ the input impezwnyephwse wnz input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““entB flhiyh w“e essentiwl fo“ flize “egulwtionB soft sflityhCingB wnz high effiyienyy pofle“ yonfie“te“ zesign p“oyezu“eD In the folloflingB p“imw“y wnzseyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyes of the t“wnsfo“me“ w“e yonsize“ez sepw“wtely in o“ze“ to e–wmCine the effeyt of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye on the output fioltwge “egulwtion wnz oxtwin wmo“e wyyu“wte stewzyCstwte wnwlysisDjhe yomplete syhemwtiy of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith w nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“hws xeen p“esentez in FigD HDHD Wyyo“zing to this gu“eB the nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“ hwsxeen “eplwyez xy w fou“th o“ze“ mozel equifiwlent yi“yuit qGFKB GFLsD jhe seyonzw“y lewkwgeinzuytwnye wnz the mwgnetizing inzuytwnye of the t“wnsfo“me“ w“e yonsize“ez as2 wnz awBGO2CFC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liye gegulvtionS1Vin vABD1VbatCf′Ibat1Idealn:1LmL′lk,sTransformer EquivalentCircuitlk,pLCw′LextCsC j′C j′ C j′C j′Ls2LpLs1CDSiLS12Rechargeable Battery PackS2S3S4 D2D3D4′′Figu“e HDHP Full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy wlong flith pw“wsitiy elements(inyluzing ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyesB t“wnsfo“me“ elementsB wnz output “eytie“ziozes junytion ywpwyitwnyes)D 1© inziywtes thwt the pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes in the seyonzw“ysize of the yi“yuit ywuses unflwntez osyillwtion wnz the “egulwtion issue fo“ the aaC “esoCnwnt yonfie“te“D 2© inziywtes ceiF[js Z“winCiou“ye effeytifie ywpwyitwnyes thwt shoulz xezisyhw“gez yompletely zu“ing zewz time inte“fiwlsD“espeytifielyD jhe p“imw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye is wxso“xez xy the e–te“nwl “esonwnt inzuyCto“ wnz is w pw“t of as) D In this flo“k the equifiwlent ywpwyito“ on the seyonzw“y size ofthe t“wnsfo“me“ (inyluzing zioze junytionB t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeB wnz fYX lwye“s) hwsxeen estimwtez wnz mewsu“ez to xe w“ounz IFFpF wfte“ seleyting the output “eytie“ ziozeswnz fwx“iywting the t“wnsfo“me“D Fo“ the output “eytie“ ziozesB the ywpwyitwnye is e–t“wytezf“om the zwtw sheetB xut fo“ the t“wnsfo“me“ wnz fYX it is neyessw“y to use the impezwnyewnwlyze“ wnz the hbY mete“ “espeytifielyD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDG(x)B this wmount of equifiwClent pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes ywn mwke w ziffe“enye just in light wnz noClowz yonzitionsD Zueto the zesigning the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in nominwl ope“wting point (nominwl outputfioltwge wnz mw–imum output yu““ent)B the effeyt of this pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes is negligiCxle wnz yonsize“ing this pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes in the stewzy stwte p“oyezu“e just “esults intoo yompliywtez equwtions flithout wny wzfiwntwgeD WlsoB the ceiF[js Z“winCiou“ye ywCpwyitwnyes ywn only wffeyt the infie“te“ t“wnsient xehwfiiou“ wnz zoes not pw“tiyipwte in the“esonwnt yi“yuit stewzy stwte wnwlysisD FigD HDI(w) zemonst“wtes th“ee mwin pw“ts of the aaC“esonwnt yonfie“te“B nwmelyB the full x“izge infie“te“B “esonwnt yi“yuitB wnz output “eytie“DHF2CFC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liye gegulvtion(b)(a)Full BridgeInverterVin v ABResonantCircuitMVrOutputRectifierv  ReqMVR2pi=2VbatMVs2pi=214VinpiCsLpLs1Ls2ReqiLS1ZinInverter RectifierResonant Circuitv   = AB1v  ReqFigu“e HDIP (w) jhe xloyk ziwg“wm of the aaC hesonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie outputlte“B wnz (x) WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“DFigD HDI(x) shofls the WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flithsepw“wtez p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyesD dote thwt othe“ pw“wsitiy inzuytwnyesin xoth p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ w“e integ“wtez in as) wnz as2 (eDgDfYX t“wyesB t“wnsfo“me“ yonneytionB ziozes pins)D In this gu“eB the fiw“iwxles wnz elementsw“e t“wnsfe““ez to the p“imw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ (flithout wn wpost“ophe)D jhe stewzyCstwte wnwlysis of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywn xe yw““iez out xy using this WY equifiwlent yi“yuitwnz Fi“st Hw“moniy Wpp“o–imwtion (FHW) wnwlysis qJNsD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDI(x)B the inputimpezwnye of the “esonwnt yi“yuit is oxtwinez ws folloflsPoin(j!s) SGj!sCsA j!sas) A (j!saw)||(j!sas2 ARlx) (HDG)jhe follofling no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s w“e int“ozuyez fo“ the “esonwnt yi“yuitDHG2CFC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liye gegulvtion(a)C LZin,scsLps1Ls2(b)CsLpLs1Zin,ocFigu“e HDJP (w) jhe WY equifiwlent yi“yuit in sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionB (x) jhe WY equifiwlentyi“yuit in open yi“yuit yonzitionDfS SRSo0P o0 S√as)CsP !0 SG√as)CsP!u S!s!0P as Sas)as2P au Sas)aw(HDH)Yonsize“ing (HDG) wnz (HDH)B the no“mwlizez input impezwnye ywn xe e–p“essez wsPZin(t!u=d0= (t!u +Et!u= +q!SSS( q!SSs +QS=q!SSS+ q!SSs +QS=Zin(t!u=d0 oq. (FB3=In the wxofie equwtionB < inziywtes the phwse of the input impezwnye wnz shoulz xe positifiein wll ope“wting yonzitions to p“ofiize tu“n on pe“o loltwge iflityhing (pli) yonzitions fo“pofle“ ceiF[jsD epe“wtion in this moze is “eyommenzez fo“ p“wytiywl wppliywtions qJNsDIn the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith seleytez au wnz asB the“e is w “esonwnt f“equenyy fr fo“ewyh yonstwnt fiwlue of fS flhiyh is zenez ws the xounzw“y yonzition xetfleen ywpwyitifiewnz inzuytifie “egions wnz oyyu“s wt the pewk of the fioltwge gwin yu“fiesD jhe minimum wnzmw–imum “wnge of fr fie“sus fS fiw“iwtion is loywtez xetfleen open yi“yuit wnz sho“t yi“yuit“esonwnt f“equenyy “espeytifielyD FigD HDJ(w) wnz HDJ(x) shofls the WY equifiwlent yi“yuit ofthe aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in output sho“t yi“yuit wnz open yi“yuit yonzitions “espeytifielyDjhe no“mwlizez input impezwnye wnz “esonwnt f“equenyy in the yonzitions zesy“ixez w“eywlyulwtez ws folloflsPHH2CFC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liye gegulvtionopuBsj(j!u)o0SG− (G A 1SS+Ss)!2uj( 1SSA 1Ss)!uP !uBsj SG√G A 1SS+Ss(HDJ)opuBvj(j!u)o0SGj!uA j!u(G AGau)P !uBvj SG√G A 1SS(HDK)Wyyo“zing to (HDJ)B sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy zepenzs on asB wnz fo“ w nonCizewlt“wnsfo“me“ flith w seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy is wlCflwys less thwn unityD Xy setting the input impezwnye phwse equwl to ze“oB the no“mwlizez“esonwnt f“equenyy ywn xe oxtwinezB flhiyh is p“esentez in (HDL)D!r!0S√VA√WCPV S (au A as)2 A (G A au)aua2sf2SPW S (−(au A as)2 A (G A au)aua2sf2S)2 A Ja2ua2sf2S((au A as)2 A au A as)PC S H((au A as)2 A au A as)(HDL)FigD HDK shofls !r!(fie“sus lowzez quwlity fwyto“ fo“ au S G wnz ziffe“ent yonstwnt fiwlues ofasD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDKB w lofl fiwlue of as (e–istenye of the seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye)lewzs to w nw““ofl “wnge of “esonwnt f“equenyy fiw“iwtionB flhen lowzez quwlity fwyto“ fiw“iwtion isxetfleen ze“o (sho“t yi“yuit) wnz innite (noClowz yonzition)D jhe e–istenye of the seyonzw“ylewkwge inzuytwnye in the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ puts the sho“t yi“yuit wnz open yi“yuit“esonwnt f“equenyy ylose to ewyh othe“B flhiyh lewzs to steepe“ fioltwge gwin yu“fies (highe“negwtifie slope) wnz xette“ output fioltwge “egulwtion flith less sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtionDXy iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyyB the fioltwge gwin yu“fies zey“ewse fwste“ flhen theHI2CFC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on liye gegulvtion0.70.80.91Normalized Resonant Frequency0 1 2 3 4Loaded Quality FactorL  =5sL  =100sL  =1s= 1n,scω= 0.93n,scω= 0.82n,scω= 0.7n,ocω͚Figu“e HDKP do“mwlizez “esonwnt f“equenyy ws w funytion of lowzez quwlity fwyto“ fo“ ziffe“entyonstwnt fiwlues of as wnz au S Gseyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye e–istsD jhis nzing is pw“tiyulw“ly impo“twnt to wyhiefie e–t“eme“egulwtion fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtions flhile keeping w limitez f“equenyy “wngeDIn o“ze“ to gu“e out the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytionB it is neyessw“y to ywlyulwte the fioltwgegwin of ewyh pw“t of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D Wyyo“zing to FigD HDI(w)B the fioltwget“wnsfe“ funytion of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is w p“ozuyt of th“ee pw“ts of the xloykziwg“wmD In the lF methozB the funzwmentwl yomponent of full x“izge output fioltwge ywnxe e–p“essez wsPvHI)(t) SJkpu.sin!st (HDM)Wlso the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion wnz WY equifiwlent “esistwnye of the yu““entCz“ifien“eytie“ in yontinuous yonzuytion moze of the output “eytie“ is oxtwinez wsPMvR S.H√Hvny Rlx SNn2.2R′S (HDN)Xy using alb wnz aYb “ules wnz (HDH)B the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion of the “esonwntHJ2C2C hoft hwitxhing in Fixey Frequenxy ehvse hhift Vpprovxhyi“yuit isPMvr S j!ufSasfSauas A j!u(au A as) G|oin(j!u)| (HDO)wnz nwllyB the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion of the full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ isPMv SkvutkpuSMvs OMvr OMvR SH√H.OMvr O.H√HSMvr (HDGF)jhe wmplituze of the input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent (sflityhes yu““ent) in lF moze isoxtwinez using (HDI) wnz (HDM) isP|ISs) | SJkpu.|opu(j!u)| (HDGG)[quwtions (HDI)B (HDM)B (HDO)B wnz (HDGG) flill xe usez in o“ze“ to zesign w high pofle“ aaC“esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith flize output fioltwge “egulwtionDGCG hoft hfiitxhing in Fixey Frequenxy ehvse hhiftVpprovxhIn o“ze“ to p“ofiize w loflCnoise enfii“onment fo“ the yont“ol yi“yuitsB it is fiitwl to wyhiefie softsflityhing yonzitions fo“ wll semiCyonzuyto“ elements in ziffe“ent output lowz yonzitionsD InlF mozeB the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ shoulz xe zesignez in the inzuytifie “egionB flhile inFi–ez F“equenyy fhwse ihift (FFfi) wpp“owyhB not only the ze“o y“ossings of the “esonwntyu““ent must xe flithin the fullCx“izge output fioltwge pulseB xut wlso the “esonwnt yu““entshoulz yhw“ge wnz zisyhw“ge the ceiF[js Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyes qGFMB GFNsD jhis mewnsthe ene“gy sto“ez in the “esonwnt yi“yuit shoulz xe enough to yhw“ge wnz zisyhw“ge the Z“winCiou“ye effeytifie ywpwyitwnyes flithin the zewz time inte“fiwl (FigD HDH)D In this seytionB theHK2C2C hoft hwitxhing in Fixey Frequenxy ehvse hhift Vpprovxh1   Harmonic3    Harmonicstrd5    Harmonicth0 20 40 60 80 100Duty Cycle %Harmonics AmplitudeMin. DMax. D30%V     =1.27AB,1V     =0.42AB,3V     =0.25AB,5V     =0.58AB,1V     =0.18AB,5V     =0.42AB,3-0.6-0.20.20.611.4Figu“e HDLP jhe wmplituze of squw“e flwfiefo“m hw“moniys ws w funytion of zuty yyyleDminimum essentiwl yi“yulwting yu““ent fo“ wyhiefiing soft sflityhing yonzitions in mw–imumphwse shift flill xe oxtwinezD In the FHW teyhniqueB the “esonwnt yi“yuit is yonsize“ez wlofl pwss lte“ flith new“ly sinusoizwl yu““ent flwfiefo“ms in its input po“tD jhis mewns thepofle“ is t“wnsfe““ez f“om the high f“equenyy infie“te“ to the lowz fiiw funzwmentwl hw“moniyof vHI(t)B flhiyh is yo““eyt flhen the sflityhing f“equenyy is tunez too ylose to the yi“yuit“esonwnt f“equenyyD Xut this wssumption is not fiwliz flhen the sflityhing f“equenyy is fw“ f“omthe “esonwnt f“equenyyD co“eofie“B the phwse shift st“wtegyB flhiyh hwppens in the mw–imumsflityhing f“equenyy fo“ flize “egulwtionB lewzs to wmplituze fiw“iwtions of the squw“e flwfiefo“mhw“moniysD jhe Fou“ie“ se“ies e–pwnsion of the squw“e flwfiefo“m flith the wmplituze of ±kpuwnz fiw“iwxle zuty yyyle D is e–p“essez wsPvHI(t) Skpu.∞∑u21G− (−G)un(xosn.(G−DH)− xosn.(G ADH))sin(n!t) (HDGH)Wyyo“zing to (HDGH)B the squw“e flwfiefo“m yonsists only of yomponents of ozzCintege“HL2C2C hoft hwitxhing in Fixey Frequenxy ehvse hhift VpprovxhVinILS1σϕpidvABiLS1G1G2G1G3G3G4G4G2pi2-Vintsωtsωtsωtsω1   Harmonic3    Harmonicstrd5    HarmonicthGate SignaltD-ILS1ILS11ILS13ILS15Figu“e HDMP cwin flwfiefo“ms of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in –ez f“equenyy phwse shiftmozeDhw“moniy f“equenyiesB flhiyh ywn xe yonsize“ez ws ziffe“ent e–yitwtions wppliez to the inputpo“t of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D FigD HDL shofls the wmplituze of the squw“e flwfiefo“mhw“moniys fie“sus zuty yyyleD Zue to the negligixle effeyt of highe“ hw“moniys on the stewzystwte xehwfiio“ of the yi“yuitB only hw“moniys up to the fth o“ze“ w“e yonsize“ezD FigD HDMshofls the key flwfiefo“ms of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in FFfi mozeD Zue to the effeytof highe“ hw“moniys on the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flwfiefo“ms wt mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyyBthe “esonwnt yu““ent is neithe“ sinusoizwl no“ t“iwngulw“D In this ywseB the wmplituze of theHM2C2C hoft hwitxhing in Fixey Frequenxy ehvse hhift Vpprovxh“esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““ent ywn xe zete“minez xyPiSs)(t) S∑r21B3B5vHI(t)opu(jk!u)S I1Ss)sin(!tA <1)AI3Ss)sin(I!tA <3) A I5Ss)sin(K!tA <5)(HDGI)jo wyhiefie minimum output yu““ent in sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionsB the mw–imum phwse shiftis “equi“ezD In this ywseB the minimum yi“yulwting yu““ent e–ists in the “esonwnt yi“yuitB wnzthe phwse wngle of wll hw“moniys in (HDGI) is equwl to OF◦D jhe“efo“eB the minimum “esonwntyu““ent wmplituze is oxtwinez ws folloflsPISs) S I1Ss)− I3Ss) A I5Ss) (HDGJ)FigD HDM shofls the “esonwnt yu““ent flwfiefo“ms wlong flith its ziffe“ent hw“moniys (GstBI“zB wnz Kth) in phwse shift mozeD In the full x“izge infie“te“ wnz zu“ing the zewz timeinte“fiwlB the “esonwnt yu““ent shoulz yhw“ge wnz zisyhw“ge tflo Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyesDjhe“efo“e the minimum “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent is zenez ws folloflsP| ISs) | ≥ HCDZkputD(HDGK)Ws zemonst“wtez xy the wnwlysis wnz equwtions (HDGJ)C(HDGK)B the aaC “esonwnt twnkz“ifien xy FFfi shoulz xe zesignez to p“ofiize the minimum yi“yulwting yu““ent “equi“ezto wyhiefie soft sflityhing t“wnsitions (to zisyhw“ge the Z“winCiou“ye effeytifie ywpwyitwnye ofthe ceiF[js)D jhe minimum yi“yulwting yu““ent zepenzs on the seleytez ceiF[j outputequifiwlent ywpwyitwnye (ene“gy “elwtez CvssBlr)B the minimum zewz timeB wnz the input fioltwgelefielDHN2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)GCH Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)In this seytionB the Zesign of [–pe“iment (Zo[) methozology is employez to yonsize“ the xeChwfiiou“ of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flhen “esponzing to fiw“iwtions in ziffe“ent no“mwlizezpw“wmete“s qONsD jhis methozology p“ofiizes w systemwtiy wpp“owyh fo“ wpplying stwtistiys toe–pe“imentwtion in o“ze“ to wyhiefie effiyient wnz wyyu“wte “esultsD In othe“ flo“zsB it is usez tonz ywuseCwnzCeffeyt “elwtionships xetfleen input fiw“iwxles wnz output “esultsB xy employingoutput “esponse su“fwyesD jhe“e w“e mwny wzfiwntwges to using this mozeling p“oyessP it isquiykB p“wytiywlB wnz ewsy to employ qGFOB GGFsD Zue to the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionB themwin oxjeytifie of the zesign p“oyezu“e is to oxtwin w speyiwl aaC “esonwnt twnk to p“ofiizemw–imum output fioltwge “egulwtionB flhile minimizing yi“yulwting yu““ent in pw“t lowz yonziCtions wnz p“ofiizing soft sflityhing yonzitions (in xoth lF wnz FFfi moze)D jhe mentionezmethozology ywn xe employez to yonsize“ the xehwfiiou“ of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flhen“esponzing to fiw“iwtions in ziffe“ent no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“Binyluzing auB asB wnz fSD jhe output “esponse su“fwyes hwfie xeen seleytez xwsez on themost impo“twnt wtt“ixutes fo“ w xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionB flhiyh w“e flize output fioltwgeywpwxilityB high pw“t lowz effiyienyy wnz soft sflityhing in wll yonzitionsD In the folloflingsuxseytionsB these wtt“ixutes flill xe zisyussez in zetwilDGCHCF bvximum dutput koltvge gegulvtionIn o“ze“ to “esponz to the yhw“ge wlgo“ithmB the yhw“ge“ neezs to “egulwte the output fioltwgef“om new“ ze“o up to GDK times the nominwl fioltwge unze“ ziffe“ent lowzing yonzitionsD Inthe aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B the fioltwge gwin yu“fies ywn wpp“owyh wlmost ze“o fioltwge inhigh f“equenyy flhen the wxsolute fiwlue of the gwin yu“fies= slope wt the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwntf“equenyy is set to xe mw–imizezD WlsoB in o“ze“ to oxtwin the mw–imum fioltwge gwin slopeBHO2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)ws stwtez in ieytion HDGB the ziffe“enye xetfleen frBvj wnz frBsj shoulz xe minimizezD jhe“efo“eBoutput “esponse su“fwyes is xwsez on the optimizwtion of the follofling y“ite“iwP8>><>>: @Tv@mS mS2mr;sH →Mvximizz orfrBsj − frBvj →Minimizz(HDGL)Wyyo“zing to ieytion HDGB flhen the the fioltwge gwin of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ hws w steepe“negwtifie slopeB the open yi“yuit wnz sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyies w“e ylose“B wnz fiiyefie“swD jhe“efo“eB xoth te“ms p“esentez in (HDGL) hwfie the swme mewningB wnz in the folloflingseytionB the “st one flill xe usez ws the “st output of the methozologyDGCHCG High evrt aovy ZffixienxyIn “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sB the yi“yulwting yu““ent hws w negwtifie impwyt on the effiyienyyunze“ pw“tClowz wnz lightClowz yonzitions wnz it is fwfio“wxle to hwfie w yonstwnt “elwtion xeCtfleen the output pofle“ wnz the wmplituze of the “esonwnt yu““entD jhis mewns thwt if theoutput yu““ent zey“ewses xy KF;B so zoes the wmplituze of the “esonwnt yu““entsD jh“oughwpp“op“iwte seleytion of “esonwnt yi“yuit elementsB the wmplituze of the “esonwnt yi“yuit yu“C“ent zey“ewses flith iny“ewsing lowz “esistwnyeB “ezuying yonzuytion loss wnz p“ofiizing highpw“tClowz effiyienyyD In othe“ flo“zsB the less pw“t lowz yi“yulwting yu““ent the“e isB the wtCte“ the effiyienyy yu“fie is in “elwtion to lowzD [qD (HDGM) p“esents the seyonz output of themethozology thwt shoulz xe mw–imizezDISs)BMSISs)BHS→Mvximizz (HDGM)IF2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)GCHCH hoft hfiitxhing ConyitionIn o“ze“ to p“ofiize swfe wnz wn wyyu“wte ope“wtion fo“ the z“ifie yi“yuits of the pofle“ ceiCF[js ws flell ws fo“ the Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystemB it is neyessw“y to p“ofiize soft sflityhingyonzitions fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in wll ope“wting w“ewsD In the folloflingB this y“iCte“ion flill xe yonsize“ez fo“ xoth lF wnz FFfi wpp“owyhesDkF boyejo guw“wntee the soft sflityhing in the lF mozeB the phwse wngle of the input impezwnye inwll lowz yonzitions shoulz xe positifieD pli is guw“wnteez fo“ the lF mozeB if the sflityhingf“equenyy is g“ewte“ thwn the “esonwnt f“equenyy (< S F)B flhiyh mewns the “esonwnt yu““entis lwgging the output fioltwge of the fullCx“izge infie“te“D IzewllyB in o“ze“ to minimize the“esonwnt yi“yuit yu““entB flhiyh is zenez ws the yonzuytion losses in wll wytifie wnz pwssifieelementsB it is zesi“wxle to set < equwl to ze“oD XutB in p“wytiyeB fiw“iwtions (inyluzing the“esonwnt yi“yuit elements fiw“iwtions fie“sus tempe“wtu“e wnz the input fioltwge “ipple of thefofle“ Fwyto“ Yo““eytion (fFY) stwge) neyessitwte w minimum mw“gin fo“ < zu“ing the zesignp“oyezu“eD co“eofie“B in o“ze“ to p“ofiize enough time to yhw“ge wnz zisyhw“ge the ceiF[jsZ“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyes in the swme legB w zewz time shoulz xe zenez xetfleen gwtesignwls (eDgD HFFnSzx)D en the othe“ hwnzB if this wngle is too steepB the input “esonwntyu““ent pewk flill iny“ewseB flhiyh lewzs to mo“e yonzuytion losses wnz mo“e fioltwge st“esseson semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyes wnz othe“ pwssifie elementsD [qD (HDGN) p“esents the minimum“wnge of the input impezwnye phwses in nominwl lowz yonzitions thwt the output “esponseshoulz fwll flithinD8><>: < S GF◦ fo“ p“wytiywl mw“gin< Q IF◦ fo“ high effiyienyy wyhiefiement(HDGN)IG2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)jwxle HDGP do“mwlizez fw“wmete“s hwnge wnz ieleytez lwlueZkrkmotors Rkngo SolomtonVu oDDI− EDIq EVs oF− EDq IQS oDDF− Eq DDIIt is flo“thflhile to mention [qD (HDGM) “eeyts the wtness of the effiyienyy yu“fieB wnz [qD(HDGN) “eeyts the wmplituze of the “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““entB flhiyh “ep“esents the mw–imumwyhiefiwxle effiyienyyD It is thus possixle to mozel the yonfie“te“ effiyienyyEpofle“ loss if wllyomponents of the yi“yuit wnz thei“ “esistwnyes w“e zenezDFFeh boyeIn te“ms of “esonwnt yonfie“te“ pofle“ lossB one of the mwin yonye“n is the yi“yulwting yu““entin the p“imw“y sizeD Hoflefie“B fo“ high input fioltwge wppliywtions (eDgD kpu S JFFk DC)B thesflityhing loss is mo“e thwn the yonzuytion loss wnzB the“efo“eB the e–istenye of yi“yulwtingyu““ent lewzs to soft sflityhing yonzitionsD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDMB the minimum yi“yulwtingyu““ent oyyu“s unze“ sho“t yi“yuit yonzitions wnz flhen using the FFfi methozD In this ywseit is fiitwl to set this yu““ent in suyh w flwy ws to wlmost yompletely yhw“ge wnz zisyhw“geceiF[js= Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyeD Wyyo“zing to (HDGK) wnz FigD HDMB the minimumyu““ent zepenzs on the effeytifie ywpwyitwnye zisplwyez in pw“wllel flith the Z“winCiou“yes ofthe pofle“ ceiF[jsB the lefiel of the input fioltwgeB wnz the mw–imum wlloflwxle zewz timeD[qD (HDGO) p“esents the lwst output of the methozology thwt shoulz xe optimizezD| ISs) | S I1Ss) − I3Ss) A I5Ss) →Mvximizz (HDGO)In the follofling pw“wg“wphsB the output “esponse su“fwyes of the cultifiw“iwte itwtistiywlIH2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)jwxle HDHP cozeling hesults of the do“mwlizez aaC hesonwnt Yonfie“te“Vu Vs QS | @Tv@mS φ ILs);FLILs);HL ILs);sHa(VNSDBI 4B7I DB44 EBIE EFB4 4B3 DB3M6E 4B7I DB44 3B67 FEB4 FB66 DB4DIDBI 8BFI DB44 EB3E EFBF 4BF7 DB44E 8BFI DB44 FB8I FFB3 FBI6 DB444DBI 4B7I DB8E EB7 FEBM FB6E DB3M6E 4B7I DB8E 3B64 36 EB68 DB4DIDBI 8BFI DB8E EB3 FF FBIM DB44E 8BFI DB8E 3BE7 37B3 EB63 DB444DB33 6BI DB6FI DB86 EEBM 4B3M DB4FEBE7 6BI DB6FI 3B8M 33BI EB7M DB43DB7I IBI6 DB6FI 3B6I F3 FB46 DB376DB7I MB44 DB6FI F FFB4 FB36 DB4IDB7I 6BI DB3E FBF 3 EEBM 4B3E DB4FIDB7I 6BI DBM4 FBFF 33BM EB77 DB4FIDB7I 6BI DB6FI FBI6 F4 FB38 DB4FIZesign methozology flill xe yonsize“ezDIn this flo“kB ZesignC[–pe“t ioftflw“e f“om itwtC[wse is employez in o“ze“ to nz ywuseCwnzCeffeyt “elwtionships xetfleen input fiw“iwxles wnz output “esults qONsD Ws w summw“yB thep“oyezu“e of using this softflw“e fo“ nzing the optimum wmount of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“swlong flith the info“mwtion wxout the yu““ent zesign is ws folloflsP• jhe numxe“ of input fiw“iwxles wnz output “esponses w“e zenez xy the use“ (th“eeinputs wnz fou“ outputs)D• jhe softflw“e flill wsk fo“ w “wnge fo“ ewyh input fiw“iwxleD jhis is time yonsumingB sinyethe fiw“iwxle “wnges neez to xe ite“wtifiely zete“minezB stw“ting f“om flize “wnges wnzsh“inking them xwsez on the p“efiious “esultsD• jhe softflw“e flill zene w minimum numxe“ of simulwtions xwsez on the numxe“ ofinputs wnz thei“ “wnges (GK simulwtions fo“ this e–wmple)DII2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)(a)12340M  vf r,n1.51.2510.750.5L  n246810(c)ϕ, Degree1015202530350.20.40.60.810.50.7511.251.5(d)2468100.50.7511.251.5I L    s1Z0    Vin    L  sL  nQ  L(b)120.20.4I L    ,FLs1I L    ,HLs10.60.81 1.51.2510.750.5L  nQ  L0.30.40.45L  n L  sFigu“e HDNP cultifiw“iwte stwtistiywl zesign methozology “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aaC “esonwntyonfie“te“P (w) loltwge gwin slope su“fwye fie“sus au wnz asB (x) Input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent“wtio fie“sus au wnz fSB (y) fhwse of the input impezwnye fie“sus au wnz fSB (z) jheyi“yulwting yu““ent wmplituze unze“ sho“t yi“yuit yonzitions fie“sus au wnz asD• jhe ne–t step is to nz out the output “esults “elwtez to input fiwlues (p“esentez in the“ight size of jwxle HDG)D• [nte“ing zwtw fo“ xoth inputs wnz outputsB the softflw“e flill z“wfl w th“eeCzimensionsu“fwye “esponse fo“ ewyh output fie“sus tflo inputsB flhiyh hws mo“e inuenye on thesu“fwye “esponseD• Wnwlyze the wyyu“wyy of the stwtistiywl “esultsDWyyo“zing to the stewzyCstwte wnwlysis pe“fo“mez in ieytion HDGB the equwtions oxtwinezIJ2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ w“e funytions of th“ee no“mwlizez fiw“iwxlesB flhiyh w“e auB asBwnz fSD jwxle HDG p“esents the “wnge fo“ no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sB flhiyh flill xe usez ws theinputsD It is flo“thflhile to mention the p“esentez “wnges in jwxle HDG hwfie xeen zenez wfte““unning Zo[ fo“ flize“ “wnges of input pw“wmete“s wnz “ening themD In o“ze“ to seleyt theoptimizez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ pw“wmete“sB xwsez on the numxe“ of no“mwlizez pw“wmeCte“sB the methozology ziytwtes the minimum numxe“ of simulwtion (flhiyh is GK simulwtions inthis e–wmple) to yofie“ the effeyts of wll th“ee no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s in the “wnges zisyussezDjhe left size of jwxle HDH p“esents the fiwlues of the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s thwt must xeusez in o“ze“ to e–t“wyt ziffe“ent “esponsesB suyh ws fioltwge gwin slopeB phwse of the inputimpezwnyeB etyD In fwytB the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s w“e input into the stewzy stwte equwtionsof the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ wnz output “esults flill xe ente“ez in the “ight size of jwCxle HDHD jhen the Wnwlysis of lw“iwnye heg“ession is employez to e–t“wyt the mwthemwtiywlequwtionsB flhiyh w“e p“esentez in (HDHF)C(HDHH)B in o“ze“ to mozel the system wnz z“wfl the“esponse su“fwyesD jhe “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s hwfie xeen p“esentezin FigD HDND It is neyessw“y to mention thwt the su“fwye “esponses p“esentez in FigD HDN(w)C(z)hwfie xeen z“wfln xwsez on the tflo no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s thwt hwfie the most impwyt on thesu“fwyeD<1A41 S− JOML− HNONIau − GOMHas A GIOHfSAIOLLauas A HGGOHNaufS (HDHF)IK2CHC Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)ISs);FLISs);HL−1A17SFOFHL− FOGHau − IOOKas − FOGfSANONIauas A FOLIaufS A FOFLf2S(HDHG)ISs);sHo0kpuS FOHL A FOFIau − HONLauas − GOINa2s (HDHH)Hwfiing izentiez the wxofie “equi“ementsB it is nofl possixle to seleyt no“mwlizez pw“wmCete“s xy yonsize“ing the ziffe“ent “esponse su“fwyes wt the swme timeD Ws e–plwinezB hwfiingw flize “egulwtion fo“ the output is one of the most impo“twnt speyiywtions fo“ w xwtte“yyhw“ge“D Wyyo“zing to [qD (HDGL)B in o“ze“ to wyhiefie the mw–imum possixle “egulwtionB thewxsolute fiwlue of the fioltwge gwin ze“ifiwtion fie“sus no“mwlizez f“equenyy wt the sho“t yi“yuit“esonwnt f“equenyy shoulz xe set to xe mw–imizezD Wyyo“zing to Fig HDN(w)B in o“ze“ to swtisfy[qD (HDGL)B the au wnz as shoulz xeB “espeytifielyB wt the highest wnz loflest possixle lefiels(the “ez pw“t of the su“fwye)D jflo “wnges w“e zenez fo“ no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s (g“wy xwnz)Bwnz the points loywtez in the yommon w“ew (zw“k g“wy) w“e ywnzizwtes fo“ optimum au wnzas pw“wmete“sD Wyyo“zing to [qD (HDGM)B in o“ze“ to get w wt effiyienyy yu“fieB the wmplituzeof the “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent in hwlf lowz yonzition shoulz xe hwlf of the full lowz yonzitionDWyyo“zing to Fig HDN(x)B in o“ze“ to swtisfy [qD (HDGM)B xoth the fS wnz au shoulz xe wt theloflest possixle lefiels (the “ez pw“t of the su“fwye)D jflo “wnges w“e zenez fo“ no“mwlizez pwC“wmete“s (g“wy xwnz)B wnz the points loywtez in the yommon w“ew (zw“k g“wy) w“e ywnzizwtesfo“ optimum fS wnz au pw“wmete“sD Fo“ p“ofiizing soft sflityhing yonzition in lF mozeBthe input impezwnye phwse of the “esonwnt yi“yuit shoulz fwll flithin the “wnge speyiez in[qD (HDGN)D Wyyo“zing to Fig HDN(y)B in o“ze“ to swtisfy [qD (HDGN)B xoth fS wnz au shoulzIL2CIC gesonvnt eower Converter Designxe wt the loflest possixle lefiels (the xlue pw“t of the su“fwye)D jflo “wnges w“e zenez fo“no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s (g“wy xwnz)B wnz the points loywtez in the yommon w“ew (zw“k g“wy)w“e ywnzizwtes fo“ optimum fS wnz au pw“wmete“sD WlsoB in o“ze“ to hwfie soft sflityhingyonzition in FFfi mozeB w minimum yi“yulwting yu““ent is neyessw“y to yhw“ge wnz zisyhw“gethe ceiF[js= Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyesD Wyyo“zing to Fig HDN(z)B in o“ze“ to swtisfy [qD(HDGO)B the as shoulz xe wt the highest possixle lefielB flhile the othe“ no“mwlizez pw“wmete“zoes not wffeyt the wmplituze of the yi“yulwting yu““ent wt the sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionD FiCnwllyB the inte“seytion xetfleen ziffe“ent yommon w“ews zete“mines the fiwlues of no“mwlizezpw“wmete“sD jhe nwl fiwlues of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s hwfie xeen seleytez wfte“ yonzuytingsimulwtions wnz twking into wyyount p“wytiywl yonsize“wtions (eDgD the mw–imum wlloflwxlezewz timeB oxtwinwxle wmount of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyeB the effeytifie Z“winCiou“yeywpwyitwnye of the seleytez ceiF[j)D jhe seleytez fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s w“ep“esentez in jwxle HDGD It is flo“thflhile to mention othe“ mozeling teyhniques (jwxu sew“yhwlgo“ithmB nume“iywl solutionB wnz genetiy wlgo“ithm) ywn xe employez to nz the optimumzesign of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“s qMB KMB GGGsD mhile the othe“ solutions might p“ofiize mo“ewyyu“wte “esultsB they w“e time yonsuming wnz neez mo“e yompliywtez p“og“wm lwnguwgesDjhe Zesign of [–pe“iment is w st“wightfo“flw“z methozology wnz ywn p“ofiize “esponse su“Cfwyes fo“ the oxjeytifies flith w minimum numxe“ of simulwtionsDGCI gesonvnt eofier Converter DesignXwsez on the optimizez seleytion of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sB the no“mwlizez stewzy stwteequwtions of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flill xe usez to zesign w high pofle“ aaC “esonwntyonfie“te“D FigD HDO p“esents the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion MvB the “st se“ies inzuytwnyeyu““ent ISs) B wnz the input impezwnye phwse < fie“sus f“equenyy fo“ the seleytez fiwluesIM2CIC gesonvnt eower Converter Designof no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s (au S GB as S K) wnz the yonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz“esistwnyes fSD In FigD HDO(w)B the fioltwge gwin yu“fies fie“sus the no“mwlizez sflityhingf“equenyy w“e p“esentez fo“ ziffe“ent lowzez quwlity fwyto“D Ws p“esentezB the“e w“e tfloxounzw“ies fo“ minimum wnz mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy (fuBtpu wnz fuBtax)B wnz thefioltwge gwin yu“fies w“e stuziez xetfleen themD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDO(w)B w highe“ lowzezquwlity fwyto“ hws w highe“ fioltwge gwin wnz fiiye fie“swD In FigD HDO(x)B the wmplituze ofthe “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent fie“sus the no“mwlizez sflityhing f“equenyy w“e p“esentez fo“ziffe“ent lowzez quwlity fwyto“D Ws p“esentezB w highe“ lowzez quwlity fwyto“ lewzs to w lofle“no“mwlizez “esonwnt yu““entD In othe“ flo“zsB iny“ewsing the lowz “esistwnye in the output ofthe yonfie“te“ lewzs to zey“ewsing the “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““entD In FigD HDO(y)B phwse of theinput impezwnye of the “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent fie“sus the no“mwlizez sflityhing f“equenyyis p“esentez fo“ ziffe“ent lowzez quwlity fwyto“D Ws zisyussez p“efiiouslyB in o“ze“ to “ewlizethe soft sflityhing yonzitionB the input impezwnye phwse hws to xe positifie fo“ wny ope“wtingpointD In the follofling FHW “esults flill xe usez in o“ze“ to nz out the “esonwnt yi“yuitelementsD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDO(w)B the fioltwge gwins w“e wlmost inzepenzent f“om thelowz flhen the sflityhing f“equenyy is w“ounz the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (frBsj)B“esulting in minimum sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtion fie“sus lowz wt nominwl output fioltwgeDco“eofie“B FigD HDO(x) shofls thwt wt f0 the input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent zey“ewses in highe“fSB “esulting in high effiyienyy in pw“t lowz yonzitionsD jhis point is seleytez fo“ nominwloutput fioltwge ope“wtionD Ws shofln in FigD HDO(w)B the minimum sflityhing f“equenyy iszete“minez xy the mw–imum output fioltwge in nominwl output pofle“ (fS S GOGH)D FigDHDO(y) p“esents the phwse of the “esonwnt yi“yuit input impezwnye fie“sus f“equenyy fo“ ziffe“entlowz yonzitionsD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDO(y)B the “esonwnt yi“yuit flo“ks in inzuytifie moze fo“the ope“wting “egions zesy“ixezB wnz pli is p“ofiizez fo“ the fullCx“izge infie“te“D In thefollofling zesy“iptionB the aaC “esonwnt yi“yuit elements w“e ywlyulwtez xwsez on the fioltwget“wnsfe“ funytion yu“fies wnz the yhw“ge“ speyiywtions inyluzing the input fioltwgeB outputIN2CIC gesonvnt eower Converter Design(b)Normalized Frequency0 1 2 3fn,max =1.6f  =0.93nI    =3.97LS1f  =0.93nI    =1.6LS112345Input Resonant Circuit CurrentVoltage GainNormalized Frequency0 1 2 300.51.521f  =0.93nM  =1.17vf  =0.82nM  =1.75vQ  =0.5LQ  =1.12LOpen Cir.Short Cir.(a)Phase of the Input Impedance-100-50501000Normalized Frequency0 1 2 3f n,max=1.6(c)Q  =0.5LQ  =1.12LOpen Cir.Short Cir.Q  =0.5LQ  =1.12LOpen Cir.Short Cir.f n,min=0.82f n,min=0.82f n,min=0.82fn,max=1.6Figu“e HDOP FHW wnwlysis of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ au S GB wnz as S KB flithyonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwge t“wnsfe“funytion (Mv)B (x) cwgnituze of input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent (ISs) )B (y) fhwse of the inputimpezwnye (<)DfioltwgeB output pofle“ wnz sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtionsD jhe mwin speyiywtions of thexwtte“y yhw“ge“ w“e ws folloflsPIO2CIC gesonvnt eower Converter Designkpu S JFFk DCP k′iat S GHFk DCP evut S IklP fs S GFF− HFFkHz (HDHI)Wyyo“zing to Fig HDO(w)B the minimum no“mwlizez sflityhing f“equenyy is equwl to FDNHDjhe“efo“eB the “esonwnt f“equenyy (f0) is ywlyulwtez using the follofling equwtionPfuBtpu S FONHP fsBtpu S GFFkHzP fu Sfsf0SGFFFONHS⇒ f0 S GHHkHz (HDHJ)dote thwt zue to the p“wytiywl “est“iytion wt light o“ noClowz yonzition (the osyillwtionxetfleen t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size ywpwyitwnyes wnz othe“ pw“wsitiys elements) the mw–imumsflityhing f“equenyy hws xeen seleytez th“ough e–pe“imentwl p“ototype to xe GDL times f0 top“efient the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ f“om ente“ing in positifie feezxwyk “egionD In nominwllowz yonzitions (fS S FOK)B the fioltwge gwin is equwl to GDGM wnzB ws w “esultB the t“wnsfo“me“tu“n=s “wtio is oxtwinez ws folloflsPn ScwcsSkiatBuk ′iatBuSMvOkpuk ′iatSGOGM× JFFGHFS IOO (HDHK)In the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie output lte“B the equifiwlent “esistwnye isoxtwinez using (HDN)PR′S Sk ′iat2eoutSGHF2IFFFS JONΩ S⇒ Rlx S n2R′lx S IOO2 × JON S KOOHΩ (HDHL)FinwllyB the yi“yuit elements of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ w“e ywlyulwtez ws folloflsPJF2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsjwxle HDIP aaC f“ototype flwtfo“m fw“wmete“sdurumytyrs Vuluy]nput Voltugy, VNn 4DDV NMbominul Vuttyry Voltugy, V ′bat;n EFDV NMaufiimum Vuttyry Voltugy, V ′bat;m E8DV NMaufiimum cutput dowyr, Zout 3uagwitwhing Fryquynwy fungy, ps EDD− FDDuRzfysonunt Fryquynwy, p0 EFFuRzgyriys fysonunt Cupuwitunwy, Ms EEnPFirst gyriys fysonunt ]nxuwtunwy, Vs1 EI4Rgywonx gyriys fysonunt ]nxuwtunwy, Vs2 3ERdurullyl fysonunt ]nxuwtunwy, Vp EI4Rhrunsformyr hurn's futio, n =NpNs4o0 SRlxfSSKOOHFOKS GGNOJΩP !0 S!s!uSHFF.z3FONHS HJJ.z3 S⇒as) So0!0SGGNOJHJJ.z3S GKJHP Cs SGo0O!0SGGGNOJ× HJJ.z3 S GGnFPas2 Sas)asSGKJz−+KS IGHP aw Sas)auSGKJz−+GS GKJH(HDHM)jhe yi“yuit pw“wmete“s fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ w“e p“ofiizez in jwxle HDIDGC5 himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsIn o“ze“ to fiwlizwte the effeytifieness of the p“oposez mozulwtion methozB w p“ototype plwtCfo“m hws xeen employez to e–t“wyt the mw–imum oxtwinwxle output fioltwge “egulwtion unze“ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsD jhe yomponents usez in the p“ototypes w“e shofln in jwxle HDJDWlsoB the test setup piytu“e is p“esentez in FigD HDGFD jhis setup flill xe moziez fo“ wllJG2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsjwxle HDJP Yomponents of hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s flwtfo“msComponynt Zkrt Xumlor RktsngsacgFEh's SbPb64X6D 6DDV NM; 64Afysonunt CupB Pslm MkzD EDnP; FDDDV NMfysonunt ]nxB 3P3 ∗ ∗ ∗hrunsformyr 3P3 ∗ ∗ ∗fywtiyr Dioxy WLR4DFID FIDV; 4DAcutput Cupuwitor Pslm Mkzkmstor E8uP; FIDV NMControllerBoardInverter Trans. Rectifier ElectronicLoadFigu“e HDGFP f“ototype test plwtfo“m of the “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sDe–pe“imentwl tests p“esentez in ensuing yhwpte“sDjhe simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the output fioltwge fie“sus f“equenyy w“e p“eCsentez in FigD HDGG fo“ ziffe“ent output lowz yonzitions in soliz wnz zottez shwpesB “espeytifielyDWyyo“zing to FigD HDGGB in the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B the simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “eCsults w“e wlmost the swme fo“ R′S S JONΩ wnz R′S S GFONΩD Xut fo“ noClowz yonzitionsB the“e isw zisy“epwnyy xetfleen simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esultsD In fwytB the effeyt of the pw“wsitiyywpwyitwnyes on the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ lewzs to iny“ewsez output fioltwge in theaaC wt noClowz yonzitionD co“eofie“B w“ounz fsw S HFFkHzB the output fioltwge yu“fies stw“tto wttenB mewning thwt the“e is no mo“e “egulwtion wfte“ mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyyD FigDJH2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults100 120 140 160 180 20004080120160200Battery Voltage(VDC)Frequency (kHz)fs,minfs,maxMaximum Voltage LimitationR′ =4.8R′  =10.8LLΩΩNo-LoadSim.Exp.Figu“e HDGGP iimulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ xwtte“y fioltwge fie“sus f“equenyyDHDGH p“esents the e–pe“imentwl “esult fo“ the p“oposez xwtte“y yhw“ge“ in lF moze (e“wngePInfie“te“ loltwgeB fu“pleP hesonwnt Yi“yuit Yu““entB XlueP j“wnsfo“me“ ieyonzw“y loltwgeB]“eenP j“wnsfo“me“ ieyonzw“y Yu““ent)D Wyyo“zing to FigD HDGHB the ze“o y“ossings of the“esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““ent w“e flithin the infie“te“ output fioltwge pulse wnzB ws w “esultB inwll of the yonzitions zesy“ixezB the fullCx“izge sflityhes w“e fully tu“nez on unze“ ze“o fioltwgeDFigD HDGI p“esent the e–pe“imentwl “esults of aaC yonfie“te“ in the FFfi mozeD jhe ope“wtCing moze seleytion is mwze xy w zigitwl yont“olle“D In fwytB the“e is w lofl wnz high limitwtionfo“ sflityhing f“equenyy (fs S GFF− HFFkHz)B wnz wfte“ “ewyhing to the mw–imum sflityhingf“equenyyB the yont“olle“ yhwnges the mozulwtion st“wtegy to phwse shift in o“ze“ to zey“ewsethe output fioltwgeD Xy employing this mozulwtion st“wtegy wt the mw–imum sflityhing f“eCquenyyB it is possixle to imp“ofie the output fioltwge “egulwtionB efien unze“ noClowz yonzitionsDWyyo“zing to FigD HDGIB the ze“o y“ossings of the “esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““ent w“e flithin thefull x“izge output fioltwge pulse wnzB ws w “esultB the fullCx“izge sflityhes w“e fully tu“nez onunze“ ze“o fioltwgeD Ws p“eziytezB the flo“se ywse syenw“io fo“ pli oyyu“s unze“ sho“tCyi“yuitwnz mw–imum phwse shift yonzitions (minimum effeytifie zuty yyyle)B flhiyh is shofln in FigDHDGI(y)D Wyyo“zing to (HDGK) wnz the seleytez ceiF[js type fo“ the full x“izge infie“te“BJI2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults(a)Inverter VoltageResonantCurrentTrans.SecondaryVoltageNo VoltageSpikeZeroCrossingZVS AngleZCS(c)(b)Trans.SecondaryCurrent=25φFigu“e HDGHP [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in fiw“iwxle f“equenyymozeB (w) k ′iat S GHFk DC wnz evut S Ikl (x) k′iat S OFk DC wnz evut S Fl B wnz (e)k ′iat S Fk DC wnz I′iat S MVDthe wmount of yi“yulwting yu““ent in sho“t yi“yuit yonzitions is new“ly enough to yhw“ge wnzzisyhw“ge the Z“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyes of the pofle“ ceiF[js zu“ing the speyiez zewztimeB flhiyh is equwl to HKFniD jhe lCI plwne oxtwinez f“om the e–pe“imentwl “esults is shoflnin FigD HDGJD In the lCI plwneB the“e w“e ziffe“ent limitwtions on the xounzw“iesB inyluzingJJ2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsInverterVoltageResonantCurrentTrans.SecondaryVoltageTrans.Secondary CurrentZVS AngleZeroCrossingpidpiNo VoltageSpikeZCSNo VoltageSpikeDead TimeDrain-SourceCapacitancesTransient Time(a) (b)(c)Figu“e HDGIP [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in –ez f“equenyy phwseshift mozeB (w) k ′iat S HFk DC wnz I′iat S JOKV (x) B k′iat S JKk DC wnz I′iat S HVB wnz (y)k ′iat S Fk DC wnz I′iat S HVyu““entB fioltwgeB pofle“B wnz noClowz yonzitionsB wnz ewyh point in the plot inziywtes onee–pe“imentwl test (“ez wnz g“een points inziywte lF wnz FFfiB “espeytifiely)D Wyyo“zing toFigD HDGJB zue to the effeyts of the junytion ywpwyitwnyes of the output ziozes on the fioltwgegwinsB the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywnnot yofie“ wll of the “egions in the lCI plwin in the lFJK2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsOutput Voltage (VDC)Output Current (ADC)2.557.51012.51517.52022.52500 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180Constant CurrentConstantPowerConstant VoltageNo-Load Condition  Constant VoltagePhase ShiftModeLLC Resonant ConverterFrequency Mode Figu“e HDGJP lCI plwne oxtwinez f“om the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s xy employing zigitwlhyx“iz mozulwtion teyhnique (jhe g“een zwshez w“ew is oxtwinez xy FFfi)Dmoze (fs S GFF− HFFkHz)D jhe unoxtwinwxle w“ew of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ stw“ts inthe noClowz xounzw“y wt kvut S OFk DC wnz fs S HFFkHzB wnz fo“ sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionsBthe output yu““ent is equwl to M WmpsD Ws mentionez in the int“ozuytionB the xwtte“y yhw“ge“must xe wxle to “esponz to ziffe“ent mozes of the yhw“ge wlgo“ithms wnz yofie“ wlmost wll ofthe lCI plwne “egionD jhe e–pe“imentwl “esults shofl thwt employing the FFfi st“wtegy inthe mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy wnz wlloflwxle phwse shift zey“ewses the output fioltwge inziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsB flhiyh “esults in imp“ofiez “egulwtionD jhe g“een zwshez “egion inFigD HDGJ inziywtes the “egulwtion imp“ofiement oxtwinez xy using FFfiD FigD HDGK p“esentsthe effiyienyy yu“fies of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s fo“ th“ee ziffe“ent output fioltwgesD InWppenzi– ZB the methoz of effiyienyy mewsu“ement is p“esentezD Wyyo“zing to these yu“fiesBthe “esonwnt yonfie“te“s zesignez fo“ this stuzy p“esent w mw–imum effiyienyy equwl to OLOK;DIn the follofling seytionB the effeyt of the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion on the “esonwnt pofle“yonfie“te“ ope“wtion flill xe infiestigwtezD ]ene“wllyB xwtte“y yhw“ge“ pofle“ w“yhiteytu“es inCJL2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults0 600 1200 1800 2400Output Power (W)30007580859095100Efficiency (percent)V ′  =120VbatV ′  =150VbatV ′  =180VbatFigu“e HDGKP [ffiyienyy yu“fies of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ wt ziffe“ent –ez output fioltCwgesDyluze tflo mwin stwgesB flhiyh w“e WYCZY fofle“ Fwyto“ Yo““eytion (fFY) wnz ZYCZY isolwtezpofle“ yonfie“te“D jhe“efo“eB the input fioltwge of the ZYCZY “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is p“ofiizezxy w fFY stwgeB flhiyh youlz xe w yonfientionwl o“ inte“lewfiez yontinuous yonzuytion mozexoost topology qHKB HNsD ]ene“wllyB the output fioltwge of the fFY stwge is not yonstwnt wnzywn hwfie ±GF; fioltwge “ippleB so the ZYCZY pofle“ stwge hws to yompenswte this fiw“iwtionDIn o“ze“ to infiestigwte the effeyt of the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion fo“ the zesignez “esonwnt yonCfie“te“B the p“ototype plwtfo“m hws xeen testez fo“ the minimum wnz mw–imum input fioltwge(kpu S ILF ∼ JJF) wnz the mw–imum output pofle“ yonzition (evut S IFFFl )D Wyyo“zingto the e–pe“imentwl “esults p“esentez in FigD HDGLB the zesignez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ywn yompenswte fo“ the effeyt of the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion using f“equenyy mozulwtionBflhile t“wnsfe““ing the mw–imum pofle“ to the xwtte“y pwykD Yompw“ing FigD HDGH(w) wnzFigD HDGL(w) “efiewls the ziffe“enye xetfleen the input impezwnye phwse in tflo ziffe“ent inputfioltwges wnz in –ez output fioltwge wnz output pofle“ yonzitionD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDGL(w)Bthe input impezwnye phwse wngle of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is GL◦B flhiyh still guw“wnteesJM2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults(a) (b)(c) (d)Inverter VoltageResonantCurrentTrans.SecondaryVoltageTrans.SecondaryCurrentV  =360VinV  =360VinV  =440VinV  =440Vin=21φ=16φ=36φ =35φFigu“e HDGLP jhe effeyt of input fioltwge fiw“iwtion on the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ope“wtion in themw–imum output pofle“ yonzition (evut S Ikl )B (w) kpu S ILFk DCB wnz k′iat S GHFk DCB(x) kpu S ILFk DCB k′iat S GNFk DCB (y) kpu S JJFk DCB k′iat S GHFk DCB wnz (z) kpu SJJFk DCB k ′iat S GNFk DCDsoft sflityhing yonzitionsDIn o“ze“ to e–wmine the pe“fo“mwnye of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith the p“oposez mozCJN2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsOff-Statet   =120µsonOn-Statet    =80µsoffInverterVoltageDiodeVoltageResonantCurrentChargingCurrentf       =5kHzBurstConverter Off-StateConverter On-StateOscillation Oscillation1 23Current Ripplef   =200kHzsw3Figu“e HDGMP jhe xu“st moze issues in the full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ the k ′iat SJKk DC wnz I ′iat S HV “eyofie“y “egionD 1© High f“equenyyB high fioltwge osyillwtion wy“ossinfie“te“ output nozes wnz output “eytie“ ziozes ywusez xy the inte“wytion xetfleen ceiF[jZ“winCiou“ye ywpwyitwnyes wnz the “esonwnt yi“yuitB F© High f“equenyy osyillwtion ywusez xythe inte“wytion xetfleen output “eytie“ ziozes junytion ywpwyitwnyes wnz the “esonwnt yi“yuitD3© eutput yu““ent fiw“iwtion wnz spikesB flhiyh lewz to unflwntez t“ipping in “eyofie“y mozewnz inte“fe“e flith the Xci yu““ent sensing yi“yuitDulwtion teyhniqueB the p“ototype plwtfo“m hws xeen testez in the “eyofie“y “egionD ene ofthe mwin wzfiwntwges of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is the output lte“ typeB flhiyh yonCsists only of w ywpwyito“D Wyyo“zing to jwxle HDJB the output lte“ yonsists of wn GNuF lmywpwyito“ wnz ywn pe“feytly p“ofiize w “ipple f“ee yhw“ging yu““ent fo“ the xwtte“y pwyk inno“mwl sflityhing ope“wtion (fs S GFF ∼ HFFkHz)D Xut in the xu“st moze mozulwtionB thesflityhing z“ifie“ signwls w“e tu“nez on wnz off pe“ioziywlly flith wn inte“mittent yyyle muyhlofle“ thwn the minimum sflityhing f“equenyy (fIurst S KkHz)D mhen “efiitwlizing w zewzxwtte“yB the xwtte“y wxso“xs yu““ent flhile the output lte“B flhiyh is zesignez fo“ minimumsflityhing f“equenyy ope“wtion (fs S GFFkHz)B ywnnot wxso“x the yu““ent “ipple of the xu“stmoze yyyleD Ws w “esultB the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ ope“wtion in this moze lewzs to w lofl quwlityyhw“ging yu““entB wnz the xwtte“y pwyk is yhw“gez flith w xu“st f“equenyy yu““ent “ipple thwtywn “ezuye the xwtte“y=s life spwnD In o“ze“ to shofl the z“wflxwyk of the xu“st moze mozCJO2C5C himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsulwtion st“wtegyB e–pe“imentwl “esults w“e p“esentez to shofl the wmount of yhw“ging yu““ent“ipple in xoth Xu“st wnz fhwse ihift mozulwtionsD jhe e–pe“imentwl “esults in FigD HDGMshofl the zet“imentwl effeyt of using the full x“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in xu“st mozewnz in the FDL zuty yyyleD In FigD HDGMB the xwtte“y fioltwge wnz yu““ent w“e set to JKlZYwnz HWZYD Wyyo“zing to FigD HDGMB the xwtte“y yu““ent fiw“iwtion wlte“nwtes xetfleen F wnzJDHWD WlsoB the“e is w spike in the yu““ent up to NW zu“ing the t“wnsient time ws w “esult ofthe inte“wytion xetfleen output lte“ ywpwyito“ wnz the pw“wsitiy inzuytwnye of the yhw“ge“ywxleD jhe pulswting yu““ent wnz spikes lewz to unflwntez t“ipping in “eyofie“y moze wnzinte“fe“e flith the Xci yu““ent sensing yi“yuitD In o“ze“ to “ezuye the yhw“ging yu““ent “ipplein the xu“st moze ope“wtionB it is essentiwl to instwll wzzitionwl aC lte“s in the output ofthe ZYCZY stwgeB mewning highe“ yost wnz lofle“ pofle“ zensityD WlsoB wzzing e–t“w lte“sto the yu““ent sensing yi“yuit is fiitwlD Ws ywn xe seen in FigD HDGMB zue to the inte“wytionxetfleen pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes (inyluzing ceiF[j Z“winCiou“ye wnz ziozes junytion) wnzthe “esonwnt yi“yuit elementsB the“e is high f“equenyyB high fioltwge osyillwtion in ziffe“entpoints of the yi“yuitB flhiyh “esults in w noisy enfii“onment fo“ the XciD FigD HDGN p“esentsthe e–pe“imentwl “esult fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flhen it ope“wtes in fhwse ihift mozCulwtion moze flith the swme xwtte“y fioltwge wnz yu““ent ws wssumez fo“ FigD HDGMD Wyyo“zingto FigD HDGNB the“e is no “ipple in the xwtte“y yhw“ging yu““entB flhiyh p“ofies the ywpwxilityof the p“oposez mozulwtion st“wtegy in te“ms of flo“king in “eyofie“y “egionD Wll in wllB thep“oposez fhwse ihift mozulwtion teyhnique ywn p“ofiize “ippleCf“ee yhw“ging yu““ent flithout“equi“ing wny wzzitionwl lte“s in the output of the yonfie“te“B the“exy p“ofiizing w noiseCf“eeenfii“onment fo“ the “eliwxle ope“wtion of the XciDKF2C6C hummvryInverterVoltageDiodeVoltageResonantCurrentChargingCurrentf   =200kHzswf  =200kHzs 2Ripple FreePhase ShiftModulation1Figu“e HDGNP jhe e–pe“imentwl “esult of the p“oposez mozulwtion teyhnique fo“ the k ′iat SJKk DC wnz I ′iat S HV “eyofie“y “egionD 1© inziywtes the phwse shift st“wtegyB flhiyh is wppliezin the “eyofie“y “egion fo“ flize“ “egulwtionD F© shofls the smooth yhw“ging yu““ent flithoutwny “ippleDGC6 hummvryjhis yhwpte“ int“ozuyez w moziez aaC “esonwnt topology z“ifien xy xoth lw“iwxle F“eCquenyy (lF) wnz fhwse ihift (fi) to wyhiefie wll the “egulwtion “equi“ements fo“ high pofle“xwtte“y yhw“gingD jhe mwin wzfiwntwge of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith the p“oposezmozulwtion st“wtegy is its wxility to “egulwte the output fioltwge f“om ylose to ze“o up to GDKtimes the nominwl fioltwge in yontinuous yonzuytion moze flith lofl sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iCwtionB flhile p“ofiizing soft sflityhing yonzitions fo“ semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyesD jhe loflC“ipplefioltwge enhwnyez the quwlity of the yhw“ging yu““ent fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtions in wllyonzitionsB espeyiwlly the “eyofie“y “egionB the“exy p“ofiizing w noiseCf“ee enfii“onment fo“ the“eliwxle ope“wtion of w Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystemD jhe e–pe“imentwl “esults p“ofiez thwtthe moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith this speyiwl mozulwtion st“wtegy yofie“ez wlmostwll “egions in the lCI plwneB wnz hwz w pewk effiyienyy of OLOK;D Ws p“esentez in ieytion HDIBthe optimum zesign p“oyezu“e of the moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“KG2C6C hummvrywppliywtions is not st“wightfo“flw“zB wnz wlflwys w t“wzeCoff e–ists xetfleen mw–imum outputfioltwge “egulwtion wnz othe“ yhw“wyte“istiys (eDgD effiyienyy)B flhiyh neyessitwtes using w speCyiwl tool (eDgD Zo[ methozology) fo“ optimizwtionD It mewns the moziez aaC “esonwntyonfie“te“ neezs mo“e effo“ts in te“ms of wn optimum zesignB flhen yompw“ison flith fmcCtype yonfie“te“s is twken into wyyountD [fien though moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ hwstflo mo“e elements in its topology in yompw“ison flith fiFX (w “esonwnt inzuyto“ wnz w “esoCnwnt ywpwyito“)B it hws w highe“ effiyienyy in yompw“ison flith fiFX flhiyh lewzs to w smwlle“yooling systemD It is neyessw“y to mention zue to the high wmplituze of the “esonwnt yi“yuityu““entB the se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“ hws to flithstwnz w high f“equenyyB high wmplituzefioltwgeB flhiyh lewzs to wn e–pensifie lmCtype ywpwyito“ seleytionDKHChvpter HImproving the gegulvtion gvnge ofZk Wvttery Chvrgers fiith a3C2gesonvnt Converters3In the p“efiious yhwpte“B w moziez speyiwl aaC twnk z“ifien xy xoth lw“iwxle F“equenyy(lF) wnz fhwse ihift (fi) flws int“ozuyez ws w solution to wyhiefie wll the “egulwtion “eCqui“ements fo“ high pofle“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsD iinye the topology employs w fullx“izge infie“te“B it is mo“e wpp“op“iwte fo“ high pofle“ wppliywtions (sefie“wl km)B “wthe“ thwnmezium pofle“ lefiel (w“ounz Gkl )D ]ene“wlly w hwlf x“izge infie“te“ is seleytez fo“ meziumpofle“ lefiels zue to hwfiing fefle“ elements wnz lofle“ yost in yompw“ison flith full x“izge inCfie“te“sD In the ywse of hwlf x“izge infie“te“ it is not possixle to employ fhwse ihift mozulwtionst“wtegy fo“ flize “egulwtionD jhe mwin wim of this yhwpte“ is to int“ozuye w multiC“esonwntaICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ mezium lefiel pofle“ wppliywtions thwt ywn yofie“ new“ly wll ofthe “egions in the xwtte“y lCI plwne f“om new“ ze“o output fioltwgeB ze“o output yu““ent tomw–imum output pofle“D Fi“stB the yomplete wnwlysis of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flithyonsize“wtion of t“wnsfo“me“ p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyesB t“wnsfo“me“ seyConzw“y flinzing ywpwyitwnyeB wnz output “eytie“ junytion ywpwyitwnyes is oxtwinezD de–tBZesign of [–pe“iment methozology wlong flith ZesignC[–pe“t ioftflw“e is employez in o“ze“to optimize the zesign p“oyezu“e of the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ qONB GFOsD bwte“B w yomplete set of3dortions of this whuptyr huvy vyyn puvlishyx in o3, 4qKIHCFC Compvrison of aICH vny aaC gesonvnt iopologiessimulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esultsB e–t“wytez f“om w OLlZYB OKFm aICH “esonwnt yonCfie“te“ is p“esentez in o“ze“ to p“esent the yhw“wyte“istiy fewtu“es of the p“oposez topology fo“xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtions flhile p“ofiizing w yompw“wtifie e–wmple flith the aaC topologyDHCF Compvrison of a3C2 vny aaC gesonvntiopologiesjhe mwin p“oxlem “egw“zing aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s fo“ flize output fioltwge “egulwtionflws p“esentez in Yhwpte“ H wnz flill xe “efiieflez x“ieyD FigD IDG(w) p“esents the hwlfx“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy flith w nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“D In FigD IDG(x) theno“mwlizez fioltwge gwins of the hwlfCx“izge aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fie“sus f“equenyy hwfiexeen z“wfln flith yonsize“wtion to the pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyesD Wyyo“zing to FigD IDG(x)B thepw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes lewz to w seyonz “esonwnt f“equenyy in the fioltwge gwinsB flhiyh is fw“f“om the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (frBsj)D jhe fiwlue of seyonz “esonwnt f“equenyyzepenzs on the equifiwlent pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnye in the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“wnz ywnnot xe estimwtez ewsilyD YonsequentlyB xesize the ywpwyitifie lowz “egion (in g“wy)Bthe“e is w seyonz nonCope“wting w“ew fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ws inziywtez xy “ezzwshez “egionsD In this ywse the pw“wsitiys ywpwyito“s limit the output fioltwge “egulwtionD FigIDG(y) illust“wtes the mw–imum lICplwne yofie“wge of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ inyluzingthe no“mwl wnz “eyofie“y yhw“ging w“ewB in yontinuous yonzuytion moze qHKsD jhe “ez zwshez“egion in FigD IDG(y) inziywtes the unoxtwinwxle w“ew in the lCI plwneB flhe“e the sflityhingf“equenyy “est“iytion lewzs to the “egulwtion issue fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“DIn yompw“ison flith wn bbY “esonwnt yonfie“te“B highe“ o“ze“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“s p“esentmo“e zesi“wxle yhw“wyte“istiysB suyh ws the wxility to wxso“x pw“wsitiy inzuytwnyes wnz ywpwyiCtwnyes of the elements wnz yi“yuit effeytifielyB employing them ws “esonwnt elementsD co“eofie“BKJHCFC Compvrison of aICH vny aaC gesonvnt iopologiesCs2(a)Non-Ideal+-Vbat′RL′Cj′(c)(b)Voltage GainBattery Charging VoltageBattery Charging CurrentConstant CurrentConstantPowerConstant VoltageRecoveryChargingAreaVnomVmaxVminImaxNo-LoadRegulationIssueNormalChargingArea Short-CircuitGain0.511.5200 1 3 4 5Normalized FrequencyQ  =1LQ  =0.1LQ  =2Q  =4LQ  =10LQ  =1000LNo-Load GainMax SwitchingFrequency2f  r,scLf  r,oc1Non-OperatingAreaNon-Operating AreaLLC Resonant ConverterCj′Cj′Cj′Cw′Cs2S1S2VinD1D2D3D4Cf′Figu“e IDGP aaC “esonwnt topologyP (w) aaC syhemwtiy inyluzing pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyesB (x)aaC fioltwge gwin issues (high f“equenyy) zue to the “eytie“ junytion ywpwyitwnyesB wnz (y)aaC lCI plwne highlighting “egulwtion issuesDKKHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformerthe zifie“sity of elements in highe“ o“ze“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“s gifies zesigne“s mo“e f“eezom inthe zesign p“oyezu“e qGGHB GGIsD jhe p“oposez “esonwnt st“wtegy using wn aICH st“uytu“e isshofln in FigD IDH(w)D jhe p“oposez multiC“esonwnt yhw“ge“ yonsists of w hwlfCx“izge infie“te“Bw “esonwnt yi“yuit (inyluzing e–te“nwl inzuyto“B nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“B wnz pw“wllel ywpwyiCto“)B wnz w x“izge “eytie“ flith ywpwyitifie output lte“D Xy wzzing w pw“wllel ywpwyito“B thetopology is wxle to e–tenz the ope“wting f“equenyy xeyonz the aaC topology wnz wyhiefie sigCniywnt “egulwtion imp“ofiementsD jhis pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“ put in the seyonzw“y sizeof the t“wnsfo“me“ is signiywntly highe“ thwn pw“wsitiy ywpwyito“s (g“ey ywpwyito“B C ′w wnzC ′q)B wnz the“efo“e ofie“flhelms them wnz mwkes the zioze junytion wnz flinzing ywpwyitwnyesinsigniywntD jhe typiywl fioltwge gwin yu“fies wnz lCI plwne of the hwlfCx“izge aICH “esonwntyonfie“te“ is p“esentez in FigD IDH(x)C(y)D Wyyo“zing to FigD IDH(x)C(y)B the e–istenye of thepw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“ lewzs to w seyonz “esonwnt f“equenyy in the fioltwge gwins wnzB wsw “esultB it is fewsixle to “egulwte the output fioltwge in w flize “wngeB f“om new“ ze“o to mo“ethwn nominwl output fioltwgeB xy employing fiw“iwxle f“equenyy methozD In the folloflingBthe yomplete set of equwtions fo“ the stewzy stwte wnwlysis of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“is p“esentezD In o“ze“ to yompw“e the pe“fo“mwnyes xetfleen aaC wnz aICH “esonwnt yonCfie“te“sB hwlfCx“izge infie“te“sB split se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“sB wnz x“izge “eytie“s flith pu“eywpwyitifie output lte“s hwfie xeen seleytez fo“ xoth aICH wnz aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“sDHCG bultiBgesonvnt a3C2 gesonvnt Converter fiith vconBIyevl irvnsformerFigD IDI shofls w yomplete syhemwtiy of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ inyluzing “elefiwnt pw“wCsitiysD In FigD IDIB w fou“th o“ze“ mozel of the t“wnsfo“me“ (inyluzing p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“ylewkwge inzuytwnyesB mwgnetizing inzuytwnyeB wnz flinzing ywpwyitwnye of the t“wnsfo“me“KLHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformer Battery Charging VoltageBattery Charging CurrentConstant CurrentConstantPowerConstant VoltageVnomVmaxVminImaxNo-Load(c)RegulationImprovementRecoveryChargingAreaNormalChargingArea+-Cp′(a)LextNon-Ideal130 1 2 3 4 50Voltage GainNormalized Frequency0.511.52f  r,scf  r,oc1(b)ExpandedOperatingFrequencyNon-OperatingAreaNon-OperatingArea2f  f  r,oc2r,oc2No-Load GainShort-CircuitGainQ  =1LQ  =0.1LQ  =2Q  =4LQ  =10LQ  =1000LLL3C2 Resonant ConverterjC′ Cj′Cj′Cj′Cw′Cs2Cs2S1S2Vbat′R′D1D2D3D4C′LfFigu“e IDHP f“oposez aICH “esonwnt topology solutionP (w) aICH syhemwtiy flith pw“wllel “esConwnt ywpwyito“ in the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size E©B (x) aICH fioltwge gwins flith e–pwnzezsflityhing f“equenyy ope“wtion F©B wnz (y) aICH lCI plwne yofie“wge shofling signiywnt “egCulwtion imp“ofiement 3©DKMHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformerCj′+-Cf Vbat′RL′′Cp′Idealn:1LmTransformer Equivalent CircuitLow SideMOSFETCsCj′Cj′ Cj′Cw′S1VinS2Cs2Cs2D1D2D3D4L′lk,slk,pLLextLs2LpLs1Figu“e IDIP aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“Dseyonzw“y size) hws xeen employez ws w mozel fo“ the nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“ qGFKsD jhe junyCtion ywpwyitwnyes of the output “eytie“ w“e yonsize“ez in pw“wllel flith the ziozesD Wyyo“zingto FigD IDIB the pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size ywn integ“wtepw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes into the “esonwnt yi“yuit (g“een ywpwyito“s)D Ws zepiytez in FigD IDIBseyonzw“y lewkwge wnz the mwgnetizing inzuytwnyes of the t“wnsfo“me“ w“e yonsize“ez as2wnz awB “espeytifielyD In wzzitionB p“imw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye is me“gez flith the e–te“nwlinzuyto“ wnz is pw“t of as) D In FigD IDIB wll of the elements in the seyonzw“y size w“e zeCnez flith wn wpost“opheB xut in wll the equwtionsB the fiw“iwxles wnz elements w“e t“wnsfe““ezto the p“imw“y size flith “espeyt to the t“wnsfo“me“ tu“nsC“wtioB wnz w“e shofln flithout wnwpost“opheD Ziffe“ent stwtes of the output “eytie“ wlong flith Ct wnz its mwin flwfiefo“ms w“ep“esentez in FigD IDJ(w) wnz (x)B “espeytifielyD In FigD IDJ(w)B the Ct is zenez ws folloflsPCt S Cw A Cw A Cq (IDG)iinye the“e is no inzuyto“ wt the output of the yonfie“te“B in the offCstwte inte“fiwl of theoutput “eytie“B Ct is zisyonneytez f“om the output lte“B yhw“gez wnz zisyhw“gez xy iSs2 B wnzvCt hws w semiCsinusoizwl shwpeD jhe Ct fioltwge is ylwmpez to the output fioltwge lefiel flhilethe output “eytie“ is onB wnz pofle“ is t“wnsfe““ez f“om the “esonwnt yi“yuit to the outputDKNHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformer(b)tsωiLS2ILS2iCtILS2irecVbat-VbatvCttsωtsωtsωpi ψpi+ pi2off-stateon-stateoff-state on-state0PowerTransferPowerTransferPowerTransfer1st 2nd 3rd 4thψ(a1)IbatD1D2D3D4Cf VbatRLCtiCtiLS 2IbatirecD1D2D3D4Cf RLCtiLS2(a2)IbatD1D2D3D4Cf RLCtiCtiLS2(a3)IbatirecD1D2D3D4Cf RLCtiLS2(a4)≤ <tsω0 ψ≤ <tsωψ pi≤ <tsωpi ψpi+tsωψpi+ pi2<<(a)VbatVbatVbatFigu“e IDJP (w) eutput “eytie“ stwtes wlong flith pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“B wnz (x) cwinflwfiefo“ms of the output “eytie“DKOHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformerZue to the semiCsinusoizwl flwfiefo“m of the zioze fioltwgeB the ziozes tu“n on wt ze“o fioltwgewnz tu“n off wt ze“o yu““ent (soft sflityhing yonzition)Q the“efo“eB the z“wflxwyk effeyt of thezioze junytion ywpwyitwnye in t“wnsient time ywn xe minimizezD WlsoB the e–istenye of pw“wllel“esonwnt ywpwyito“ flith “eytie“ input po“t lewzs to pYi of the ziozes wnz “ezuyes the [cInoise qGGJ{GGLsD jhe“e w“e fou“ stwtes fo“ the output “eytie“ in ewyh sflityhing pe“iozB wnz wllof them w“e illust“wtez in FigD IDJ(w)D Wyyo“zing to FigD IDJ(x)B the “eytie“ input yu““ent isnot pu“ely sinusoizwl wnz the “eytie“ input fioltwge hws w semiCsinusoizwl shwpeD Ws w “esultBthe output “eytie“ wnz lowz ywnnot xe simply mozelez xy wn equifiwlent impezwnyeD In qGGMsBwn equifiwlent yi“yuit hws xeen oxtwinez fo“ the output “eytie“ in pw“wllel wnz se“iesCpw“wllel“esonwnt yonfie“te“s flith ywpwyitifie output lte“sD In fwytB w “esistifie impezwnye in se“iesflith w ywpwyitifie impezwnye is usez to mozel the yi“yuit in FigD IDJ(w)D jhe elements of theequifiwlent yi“yuit w“e zenez ws follofls qGGMsPRlx Ssin2  .Ct!s(IDH)Clx S.Ct − sin yos (IDI)In the wxofie equwtionsB the offCstwte inte“fiwlB  is ywllez nonCyonzuytion moze wnz isgifien xyP S yos−1(. − H!sRSCw. A H!sRSCw) (IDJ)Xy using the equifiwlent yi“yuit of FigD IDJ(w)B it is possixle to employ the FHW teyhniquefo“ wnwlysis of the aICH “esonwnt yi“yuitD In FHW wnwlysisB it is wssumez thwt pofle“ isonly t“wnsfe““ez f“om the high f“equenyy “esonwnt yi“yuit to the lowz fiiw the funzwmentwlyomponentD jhe WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie outputLFHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformer2VinpiCsLpLs1Ls2ReqCeqiLS1iLS2ZinFigu“e IDKP WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“Dlte“ is p“esentez in FigD IDKD jhe output fioltwge of the hwlfCx“izge infie“te“ is w squw“e flwfieflith mwgnituze of kpuD jhis fioltwge ywn xe e–pwnzez in Fou“ie“ ie“iesB wnz the funzwmentwlyomponent ywn xe e–p“essez ws folloflsPv1 S k1sin (!st)P k1 SHkpu.(IDK)In the folloflingB the WY equifiwlent yi“yuit is wnwlyzez to e–t“wyt the stewzyCstwte equwtionsof the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D In FigD IDKB the input impezwnye of the “esonwnt yi“yuit isoxtwinez ws folloflsPoin(j!s) S |oin| zq. SGj!sCsA j!sas) A (j!saw)||(j!sas2 ARlx AGj!sClx)(IDL)In [qD (IDL)B < inziywtes the phwse of the input impezwnyeD Ws mentionez p“efiiouslyB< shoulz xe kept positifie in wll ope“wting yonzitions in o“ze“ to p“ofiize soft sflityhing fo“pofle“ ceiF[jsD ksing the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sB the no“mwlizez input impezwnye aNSa(wnz  w“e ze“ifiez ws folloflsPfS SRSo0P o0 S√as)CsP !0 SG√as)CsP !u S!s!0(IDM)LGHC2C bultiBgesonvnt aICH gesonvnt Converter with v conBIyevl irvnsformeroin(j!u)o0S(j!u AGj!u) Aq!SSS( q!SSsA sic2  CS!SA  −sic cos CSq!S)q!SSSA q!SSsA sic2  CS!SA  −sic cos CSq!S(IDN) S yos−1. − HCufS!u. A HCufS!u(IDO)Wyyo“zing to FigD IDK wnz [qsD (IDK) wnz (IDN)B the wmplituze of ISs) (ceiF[js yu““ent)ywn xe oxtwinez ws folloflsPISs) SHkpu.|oin(j!u)| (IDGF)In o“ze“ to ywlyulwte the output yu““entB the seyonz “esonwnt inzuyto“ yu““ent is yonsize“ezpu“ely sinusoizwl flith the follofling equwtionPiSs2 S ISs2 sin (!stA ) (IDGG)wnz ws w “esultB wyyo“zing to FigD IDJB the output yu““ent wnz output fioltwge w“e gifienxyPIiat SGH.(∫  iLs2 z(!st) A∫ 2+ iLs2 z(!st)) S(G A yos ).ISs2 (IDGH)ISs2 Sq!SSSq!SSSA q!SSsA sic2  CS!SA  −sic cos CSq!S ISs) (IDGI)kiat S RSOIiat S RS(G A yos ).ISs2 (IDGJ)LHHCHC gesonvnt Frequenxies of the aICH iopologyjhe no“mwlizez fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion of the hwlfCx“izge aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flithywpwyitifie output lte“ is ywlyulwtez ws folloflsPMv SkiatkpuSfSo0(G A yos )ISs2.kpu(IDGK)FigD IDK wnz [qsD (IDN)C(IDGK) ywn xe employez to wnwlyze the stewzyCstwte xehwfiiou“of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie output lte“D jhe input impezwnye of the“esonwnt yi“yuit ywn xe zenez xy [qD (IDN)D [qD (IDGF) shofls the yu““ent wmplituze pwssingth“ough “esonwnt yi“yuitD Wlso [qD (IDGK) p“esents the fioltwge gwin of the flhole yonfie“te“(inyluzing the hwlf x“izge infie“te“B “esonwnt yi“yuitB wnz output “eytie“)B f“om the inputfioltwge sou“ye to the output sizeDHCH gesonvnt Frequenxies of the a3C2 iopologyIt is y“uyiwl thwt the “esonwnt yi“yuit “ep“esents wn inzuytifie lowzB wnz thwt the yu““ent ofthe input “esonwnt yi“yuit lwgs the output fioltwge of the hwlfCx“izge infie“te“D jhis mewnsthe input impezwnye phwseB <B must xe positifie in wll ope“wting yonzitionsD Wyyo“zing toFigD IDG(x)B pli yonzitions fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is guw“wnteez if the sflityhingf“equenyy is g“ewte“ thwn the lowz “esonwnt f“equenyyD jhe loflest “esonwnt f“equenyy oyyu“sfo“ noClowz yonzitions (fS → ∞) wnz is lwxelez ws frBvj1D Hoflefie“B the aaC “esonwntyonfie“te“ ywn not ope“wte in high f“equenyy zue to the ziozes= pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyes inthe seyonzw“y of the t“wnsfo“me“D In the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“B the“e w“e tflo “esonwntf“equenyies fo“ high fS wnzB ws w “esultB tflo nonCope“wting “egions w“e imposezD Wyyo“zingto FigD IDH(x)B the “st nonCope“wting w“ew is similw“ to thwt of the aaC “esonwnt yi“yuitDjhe seyonz is wfte“ the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy wnz just xefo“e the seyonz openyi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy (frBvj2)D In fwytB in this “egion the “esonwnt yi“yuit “ep“esents wywpwyitifie lowz fo“ high lowzez quwlity fwyto“B wnz the yont“ol yi“yuit must xe p“efientez f“omLIHCHC gesonvnt Frequenxies of the aICH iopology(a)C LZin,scsLps1Ls2(b)CsLpLs1Ls2CtZin,ocFigu“e IDLP jhe equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICHP (w) eutput sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionB (x)eutput open yi“yuit yonzitionDente“ing this “egionD Iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyy wxofie frBvj2 p“esents flize outputfioltwge “egulwtion fo“ the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“B flhiyh is unoxtwinwxle fo“ the aaCD Inthis seytionB the “esonwnt f“equenyies of the aICH “esonwnt yi“yuit flill xe zete“minez ws wfunytion of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sDHCHCF hhort Cirxuit gesonvnt FrequenxyIn sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionsB the fiwlue of output lowz tenzs to ze“o (fS → F) wnz the nonCyonzuytion wngle is ywlyulwtez ws folloflsP S limQL→0yos−1. − HCufS!u. A HCufS!uS F (IDGL)Ws w “esultB Rlx wnz Clx w“e equwl to ze“o wnz the WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICH“esonwnt yonfie“te“ is yhwngezD iee FigD IDL(w)D ksing the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s p“esentezin [qD IDMB the input impezwnye of FigD IDL(w) is gifien xyPopuBsj(j!s) SGj!sCsA j!sas) A (j!saw)||j!sas2 (IDGM)opuBsj(j!u)o0SG− (G A 1SS+Ss)!2uj( 1SSA 1Ss)!u(IDGN)LJHCHC gesonvnt Frequenxies of the aICH iopologywnz the sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyyB frBsj is gifien xy the folloflingP!rBsj!0SG√G A 1SS+Ss(IDGO)HCHCG dpen Cirxuit gesonvnt FrequenxyIn open yi“yuit yonzitions (fS →∞) the nonCyonzuytion wngle wnz equifiwlent elements w“eoxtwinez ws folloflsP S limQL→∞yos−1. − HCufS!u. A HCufS!uS . S⇒ Rlx S F & Clx S Ct (IDHF)FigD IDL(x) shofls the WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in noClowzyonzitionsD jhe“efo“eB the input impezwnye of this yi“yuit is gifien ws folloflsPopuBvj(j!s) SGj!sCsA j!sas) A (j!saw)||(j!sas2 AGj!sCt) (IDHG)opuBvj(j!u)o0S(CSSSA CSSsA CSSSSs)!4u − (CSSS A CSSs A 1SS A G)!2u A Gj(G− ( 1SSA 1Ss)!2u)!u(IDHH)Ws p“esentez in FigD IDH(x)B the“e w“e tflo open yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyies in the aICH“esonwnt yi“yuit wnz the nwl equwtions w“e p“esentez ws folloflsD!rBvj1!0Svuuutvuut CSSS A CSSs A 1SS A G−√(CSSS A CSSs A 1SS A G)2 − J(CSSS A CSSs A CSSSSs )H(CSSSA CSSsA CSSSSs)(IDHI)LKHCIC hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on the aICH gesonvnt Converter!rBvj2!0Svuuutvuut CSSS A CSSs A 1SS A G A√(CSSS A CSSs A 1SS A G)2 − J(CSSS A CSSs A CSSSSs )H(CSSSA CSSsA CSSSSs)(IDHJ)Ws p“esentez in FigD IDH(x)B the fth o“ze“ aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ hws one mo“e open“esonwnt f“equenyy in yompw“ison flith the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D jhe oxtwinez equwtionsfo“ the open yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyies w“e useful to zete“mine hofl fw“ the aICH ywn e–pwnzthe ope“wting f“equenyy ofie“ the bbY yonfie“te“DHCI hexonyvry aevkvge Inyuxtvnxe Zffext on the a3C2gesonvnt ConverterIn o“ze“ to wnwlyze yonfie“te“sB t“wnsfo“me“s w“e typiywlly mozelez xy wn equifiwlent yi“yuitxwsez on the ope“wting f“equenyy of the yonfie“te“ wnz t“wnsfo“me“ yongu“wtionD FigD IDMp“esents ziffe“ent stwnzw“z equifiwlent yi“yuits of the t“wnsfo“me“ thwt hwfie xeen usez in thelite“wtu“e fo“ yonfie“te“s wnwlysis qGFKB GGN{GHIsD [mploying wn inte“lewfiez st“uytu“e fo“ theflinzings lewzs to high youpling xetfleen p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y wnz ws w “esult the loflestwmount of lewkwge inzuytwnye oxtwinsB flhiyh mewns the “st o“ seyonz o“ze“ mozel of thet“wnsfo“me“ ywn xe usez (FigD IDM(w) wnz (x)) qGGN{GHFsD en the othe“ hwnzB wpplying wseytionwl xoxxin flith wn wi“ gwp xetfleen yo“e hwlfies lewzs to less youpling xetfleen flinzingswnz iny“ewses lewkwge inzuytwnye in xoth p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y sizes of the t“wnsfo“me“Bflhiyh is zesi“wxle in “esonwnt yonfie“te“s to integ“wte the se“ies “esonwnt inzuytwnye into thet“wnsfo“me“ (FigD IDM(y))D jhis mozel is flizely usez fo“ wnwlysis of “esonwnt yonfie“te“sqGHGB GHHsD In this flo“kB zue to the flize ope“wting f“equenyyB the fou“thCo“ze“ equifiwlentyi“yuit of the t“wnsfo“me“B ws shofln in FigD IDM(z)B is wzoptez to wyyu“wtely wnwlyze theLLHC5C Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)(a)Ideal Tran.LlkPri. Sec.(b)Ideal Tran.LmLlkPri. Sec.(d)Ideal Tran.LmLlk,p L′lk,sC′wPri. Sec.(c)Ideal Tran.LmLlk,p L′lk,sPri. Sec.Figu“e IDMP j“wnsfo“me“ mozelsB (w) Fi“st o“ze“B (x) ieyonz o“ze“B (y) jhi“z o“ze“B wnz (z)Fou“th o“ze“Dyonfie“te“D jhis equifiwlent yi“yuit twkes into wyyount the effeyts of the p“imw“y wnz theseyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye sepw“wtelyD WlsoB the mwgnetizing inzuytwnye wnz the seyonzw“yflinzing ywpwyitwnye w“e inyo“po“wtez in this equifiwlent yi“yuit qGFKB GHIsDXesize the mo“e wyyu“wte stewzy stwte wnwlysisB flhiyh is ze“ifiez in this flo“kB the t“wnsCfo“me“ seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye plwys wn impo“twnt “ole in the “equi“ez sflityhing f“eCquenyy “wnge of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D FigD IDN shofls the effeyt of seyonzw“y lewkwgeinzuytwnye on the fioltwge gwins of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D Wyyo“zing to FigD IDNB whigh wmount of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye (lofl fiwlue of as) lewzs to mofiing the seyonz“esonwnt f“equenyy ylose“ to the “st one wnzB the“efo“eB w flize output fioltwge “egulwtion isoxtwinwxleD In othe“ flo“zsB fo“ the p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith lofl seyonzw“y lewkwgeinzuytwnyeB sflityhing f“equenyy neezs to iny“ewse mo“e in yompw“ison flith high seyonzw“ylewkwge inzuytwnye fo“ getting the swme output fioltwge “egulwtionDHC5 Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)jhe optimizez seleytion of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s shoulz xe pe“fo“mez wyyo“zing to thewppliywtion “equi“ementsD iimilw“ to p“efiious yhwpte“B the Zesign of [–pe“iment (Zo[)LMHC5C Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)0Voltage Gain0.511.520 1 2 3 4 5Normalized Frequencyf  r,oc1Q  =1LQ  =10LQ  =1000LL  =5s L  =50sf  f  r,oc2r,oc2f  f  r,oc2r,oc2Higher Switching Frequencyfor the Same RegulationL  =5sL  =50sFigu“e IDNP jhe effeyt of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye on the fioltwge gwin yu“fiesDmethozology is employez to yonsize“ the xehwfiiou“ of xoth “esonwnt yonfie“te“s flhen “eCsponzing to fiw“iwtions in ziffe“ent no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sD Wyyo“zing to the stewzyCstwtewnwlysis pe“fo“mez in ieytions HDG wnz IDHB the equwtions oxtwinez fo“ aaC wnz aICH “esoCnwnt yonfie“te“ w“e funytions of th“ee wnz fou“ no“mwlizez fiw“iwxlesB “espeytifielyD jhe output“esponse su“fwyes of Zo[ hwfie xeen seleytez xwsez on the most impo“twnt wtt“ixutes fo“ wxwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionB flhiyh w“e high effiyienyy wnz w flize output fioltwge yonfie“te“DIn the follofling suxseytionsB these wtt“ixutes flill xe zisyussez in zetwilDHC5CF binimum dwtvinvwle dutput koltvgejo “esponz to ziffe“ent yhw“ging wlgo“ithmsB the yhw“ge“ shoulz “egulwte the output fioltwgef“om new“ ze“o up to GDK times the nominwl fioltwgeD Ws w “esultB the mw–imum output fioltwge“egulwtion is the most impo“twnt wtt“ixute thwt shoulz xe yonsize“ezD Wyyo“zing to FigsD IDGwnz IDHB the fioltwge gwin yu“fies w“e not the swme in the aaC wnz aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“sBwnz xeywuse of thisB tflo ziffe“ent y“ite“iw w“e int“ozuyez fo“ output fioltwge “egulwtionD jheoutput “esponse su“fwyes w“e xwsez on the optimizwtion of the follofling y“ite“iwPLNHC5C Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)8><>: @Tv@mS mS2mr;sH→Mvximizz fo“ aaCVbFt;RNS;NLVbFt;S→Minimizz fo“ aICH(IDHK)Wyyo“zing to [qD IDHK wnz FigD IDGB the aaC fioltwge gwin yu“fies ywn wpp“owyh new“lyze“o fioltwge in high f“equenyy flhen the wxsolute fiwlue of the gwin yu“fies= slope wt the sho“tyi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyy is set to xe mw–imizezD Fo“ the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“B the “wtioxetfleen minimum xwtte“y fioltwge in noClowz yonzition (mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy) wnznominwl xwtte“y fioltwge is ywlyulwtezDHC5CG gesonvnt Cirxuit CurrentIn o“ze“ to wttwin high effiyienyy in pw“t lowz yonzitionB the ziffe“enye xetfleen input “esonwntyi“yuit yu““ent in nominwl wnz noClowz yonzition shoulz xe mw–imizezD In othe“ flo“zsB thelesse“ yi“yulwting yu““entB the g“ewte“ pw“t lowz effiyienyyD [qD IDHL p“esents the seyonzoutput of Zo[ thwt shoulz xe mw–imizezDISs)BMSISs)BNS→Mvximizz (IDHL)HC5CH hoft hfiitxhing dpervting ConyitionIn o“ze“ to p“ofiize soft sflityhing yonzitions fo“ the pofle“ ceiF[jsB the phwse wngle ofinput impezwnye shoulz xe positifieD IzewllyB it is p“efe““ez to hwfie this wngle xe equwl toze“oB xut zue to yhw“ging wnz zisyhw“ging of the ceiF[js= output ywpwyitwnyesB w minimumlwgging phwse is “equi“ez (ywlyulwtez xy [qD HDGK)D en the othe“ hwnzB if this wngle is toosteep in the nominwl lowz yonzitionB the yu““ent st“ess on semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyes wnz othe“pwssifie elements flill xe iny“ewsezD In othe“ flo“zsB the yosine of the input impezwnye phwsefo“ the “esonwnt yi“yuit hws w “efie“se “elwtion flith the wmplituze of the “esonwnt yi“yuitLOHC5C Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)jwxle IDGP do“mwlizez fw“wmete“s hwnge wnz ieleytez lwlueZkrkmotor VVM V3MFRkngo Solomton Rkngo SolomtonVu oDDF− DD8q DD4 oDDFI− EDFIq DDMVs o3− EDq 4D4 o3− EDq 4D7Mu XA XA oDDE− DDIq DD3QS oDDI− EDIq E oDDI− EDIq Eyu““entD It mewns highe“ input impezwnye phwse lewzs to mo“e yu““ent yi“yulwting in the“esonwnt yi“yuitD [qD IDHM p“esents the “wnge of input impezwnye phwses thwt the output“esponse of Zo[ shoulz fwll flithinD8><>: < S GF◦ fo“ p“wytiywl mw“gin< Q IF◦ fo“ high effiyienyy wyhiefiement(IDHM)In the follofling pw“wg“wphsB the output “esponse su“fwyes of Zo[ flill xe yonsize“ezD jwxleIDG p“esents the “wnge fo“ no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sB flhiyh flill xe usez ws the input “wnge ofno“mwlizez pw“wmete“s in Zo[D jhe pe“fo“mwnye of yw“efully seleytez zwtw points flithinthese “wnges of fwyto“s hwfie xeen infiestigwtez fo“ the aICH wnz aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“sDjhe aICH “equi“es HK simulwtions to yofie“ the effeyts of J no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sB flhile theaaC yonfie“te“ usez GK points to stuzy the impwyt of I no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sD iigniywnyetesting flws yomxinez flith WdelW “eg“ession to zefielop IZ “esponse su“fwyes fo“ ewyh of theI mwin wtt“ixutes listez wxofie qGFOB GGFsD jhe “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aaC wnz aICH “esonwntyonfie“te“s hwfie xeen p“esentez in FigsD IDO wnz IDGFB “espeytifielyD It is neyessw“y to mentionthwt ewyh su“fwye “esponse hws xeen z“wfln xwsez on the tflo no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s thwthwfie the most impwyt on the su“fwyeDIt is possixle to seleyt no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s fo“ ewyh “esonwnt yonfie“te“ xy yonsize“ingMFHC5C Design of Zxperiment bethoyology (DoZ)0.20.350.50.650.8108.256.54.7530.20.40.60.8 1 (a)M  vf nL  n L  s2  36 0.80.650.50.350.21.51.2510.750.5(b)I L    ,FLs1I L    ,NLs1Q  LL  n512.52027.5350.20.350.50.650.80.50.7511.251.5(c)ϕ, DegreeQ  LL  nFigu“e IDOP Zo[ “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“P (w) loltwge gwin slope su“fwyefie“sus au wnz asB (x) Input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent “wtio fie“sus au wnz fSB wnz (y) fhwseof the input impezwnye fie“sus au wnz fSDthe ziffe“ent “esponse su“fwyes wt the swme timeD jhe seleytion of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“is similw“ to thwt zisyussez in ieytion HDID Wyyo“zing to FigD IDO(w)B in o“ze“ to swtisfy[qD IDHKB the au wnz as shoulz xeB “espeytifielyB wt the highest wnz loflest possixle lefielsDjflo “wnges ywn xe zenez fo“ no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s (g“wy xwnz)B wnz the points loywtezin the yommon w“ew (zw“k g“wy) w“e ywnzizwtes fo“ optimum au wnz as pw“wmete“sD jheswme yonyept ywn xe wppliez to othe“ su“fwyes of FigD IDO flith “espeyt to [qsD IDHL wnzIDHMB wnz nwllyB the inte“seytion xetfleen ziffe“ent yommon w“ews zete“mines the fiwlues ofno“mwlizez pw“wmete“sD jhe swme “outine hws xeen employez in o“ze“ to seleyt the no“mwlizezfiwlue of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D jhe nwl fiwlues of the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s hwfieMGHC6C gesonvnt Converters Design0.50.40.30.20.134.86.58.31000.130.250.50.38V bat,m,NLV bat,nom(a)L  s C  n2  4  6  8  10  0.250.50.7511.250.50.40.30.20.1(b)L  n C  nI L    ,FLs1I L    ,NLs15101520250.250.50.7511.250.50.40.30.20.1(c)L  n C  nϕ, DegreeFigu“e IDGFP Zo[ “esponse su“fwyes fo“ aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“P (w) loltwge gwin “wtiosu“fwye fie“sus as wnz CuB (x) Input “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““ent “wtio fie“sus au wnz CuB wnz (y)fhwse of the input impezwnye fie“sus au wnz CuDxeen seleytez wfte“ yonzuyting simulwtions wnz twking into wyyount p“wytiywl yonsize“wtionsBespeyiwlly the wmount of seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyeD Wyyo“zing to FigsD IDO(w) wnz IDGF(w)Bseyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnye on xoth “esonwnt yonfie“te“s unze“ yonsize“wtion hws w positifieeffeyt on output fioltwge “egulwtionD jhis mewns thwt w high wmount of seyonzw“y lewkwgeinzuytwnye (lofl fiwlue of as) ywn e–pwnz the output fioltwge “egulwtionDHC6 gesonvnt Converters DesignIn this seytionB xwsez on the optimizez seleytion of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sB the fioltwge gwinyu“fies of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flill xe usez to zesign tflo pofle“ yonfie“te“s flith the swmeMHHC6C gesonvnt Converters Design−100−50050100 =16f  =1nϕNon-OperatingArea0 1 2 3 4 50.30.60.90Normalized FrequencyVoltage Gainfn,minfn,scfn,maxf  =0.75nM  =0.84vf  =1nM  =0.56vf  =2.8nM  =0.56vQ  =1LQ  =2.2LQ  =1000L00.511.5f  =1n1.1f  =2.8n0.380 1 2 3 4 5Normalized Frequencyfn,minfn,maxInput Resonant Circuit Current0 1 2 3 4 5Normalized Frequencyfn,minfn,max =90f  =2.8nϕ =12f  =0.75n ϕQ  =1LQ  =2.2LQ  =1000LQ  =1LQ  =2.2LQ  =1000L(b)(a)(c)Phase of the Input ImpedanceFigu“e IDGGP FHW wnwlysis of the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie output lte“ fo“as S JOMB au S FOO & Cu S FOIB wnz yonstwnt fiwlues of no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P(w) cwgnituze of fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion (Mv)B (x) Wmplituze of the no“mwlizez “st se“iesinzuytwnye yu““ent (ISS) )B wnz (y) fhwse of the input impezwnye (<)DinputCoutput speyiywtions wnz sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtionsDMIHC6C gesonvnt Converters DesignHC6CF aICH DesignFigD IDGG p“esents the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion MvB “st se“ies inzuytwnye yu““ent ISs) B wnzthe input impezwnye phwse < fie“sus f“equenyy fo“ au S FOOB as S JOMB wnz Cu S FOID Wsoxse“fiez in FigD IDGG(w)B the minimum sflityhing f“equenyy is zete“minez xy the mw–imumoutput fioltwge in nominwl output pofle“ (fS S HOH) loywtez xetfleen frBvj1 wnz frBsjD In o“ze“to oxtwin high effiyienyy in nominwl lowz yonzitionsB the yi“yulwting yu““ent must xe miniCmwlD Wyyo“zing to FigD IDGG(x)B the wmplituze of the sflityhes= yu““ent zey“ewses z“wstiywllyin highe“ fS flhen the sflityhing f“equenyy is w“ounz sho“t yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyyfrBsjDco“eofie“B the fioltwge gwin is inzepenzent f“om the lowz (noClowz yonzitions w“e e–yeptionwl)mewns minimum sflityhing fiw“iwtion in nominwl output fioltwgeD jhis point is seleytez fo“nominwl lowz ope“wtion (fS S G)D jhe minimum “equi“ez output fioltwge in noClowz yonCzitions zenes the mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy (fS S GFFF)D Wyyo“zing to Fig IDGG(w)Bit is possixle to iny“ewse the sflityhing f“equenyy in o“ze“ to zey“ewse the output fioltwgeto ze“oD FigD IDGG(y) p“esents the phwse of the “esonwnt yi“yuit input impezwnyeB < fie“Csus f“equenyy fo“ ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsD In o“ze“ to oxtwin high effiyienyy wnz p“ofiize wnoiseCf“ee output fioltwgeB soft sflityhing is neyessw“y fo“ the pofle“ ceiF[jsD jhe“efo“eB itis fiitwl thwt the “esonwnt yi“yuit xehwfie like wn inzuytifie lowzD Wyyo“zing to FigD IDGG(y)Bxetfleen the minimum wnz mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyy the“e is w nonCope“wting w“ew fo“high fSD [–yept fo“ in the mentionez nonCope“wting w“ewB the “esonwnt yi“yuit flo“ks in inCzuytifie “egions wnz pli is p“ofiizez fo“ the hwlfCx“izge infie“te“D In the folloflingB the aICH“esonwnt yi“yuit elements w“e ywlyulwtez xwsez on the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion yu“fies wnz thepofle“ yhw“ge“ speyiywtions inyluzing the input fioltwgeB output fioltwgeB output pofle“ wnzsflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtionsD jhe mwin speyiywtions of the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ w“e wssumezws folloflsPMJHC6C gesonvnt Converters Designkpu S JFFk DCP k′iat S OLk DCevut S OKFlP fs S GFF− LFFkHz(IDHN)Wyyo“zing to FigD IDGG(w)B the minimum no“mwlizez sflityhing f“equenyy is equwl to FOMKDWs w “esult the “esonwnt f“equenyy is gifien xy the follofling equwtionPfuBtpu S FOMKP fsBtpu S GFFkHzP fu Sfsf0S⇒ f0 S GIIkHz (IDHO)jhe fioltwge gwin wt fu S G wnz the nominwl lowz yonzitions w“e gifien ws folloflsPMv S FOKL for fS S GP au S FOOP as S JOMP Cu S FOI (IDIF)jhe“efo“eB the pw“wllel ywpwyito“ fioltwge (output fioltwge) wnz t“wnsfo“me“ tu“nsC“wtio w“eywlyulwtez ws folloflsPkiatBu SMvOkpu S FOKL× JFF S HHJk DCn ScwcsSkiatBuk ′iatBuS⇒ n S HHJOLS HOII (IDIG)Wyyo“zing to [qsD IDMB the yhw“wyte“istiy impezwnye is gifien xyPRS Skiat2evutP o0 SRSfSS⇒ o0 S kiat2evutfSS KIΩ (IDIH)jhe“efo“eB the “esonwnt yomponents w“e oxtwinez ws folloflsPMKHC6C gesonvnt Converters Designjwxle IDHP aaC wnz aICH hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s fw“wmete“sdurumytyrs VVM V3MFVpu 4DDV NM 4DDV NMV ′iatBu M6V NM M6V NMV ′iatBtax E44V NM E44V NMZvut MIDa MIDaps EDD− 6DDuRz EDD− 6DDuRzp0 E4IuRz E33uRzMs 3DnP F3nPM ′w XA 4DnPVs) 4ER 63RVs2 MR E3RVw ED3R 7DRn =NpNsFDE7 FD33!0 S!s!uS HLL.z3 S⇒ as) So0!0S LIHCs SGo0O!0S HInFP as2 Sas)asS GIHaw Sas)auS MFHP Cw S CuOCs S LOOnF(IDII)jhe aICH “esonwnt yi“yuit pw“wmete“s usez in the simulwtion “esults wnz e–pe“imentwlp“ototype w“e summw“izez in jwxle IDHDHC6CG aaC DesignFigD IDGH shofls the fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion MvB “st se“ies inzuytwnye yu““ent ISs) B wnzthe input impezwnye phwse < fie“sus f“equenyy fo“ au S FOJB wnz as S JOJD Ws inziywtezin Fig IDGH(w)B the minimum no“mwlizez sflityhing f“equenyy is equwl to FDLOD jhe“efo“e the“esonwnt f“equenyy is ywlyulwtez using the follofling equwtionPMLHC6C gesonvnt Converters Design0 1 2 3 4 500.20.40.60.800.511.52f  =0.69nM  =0.78vf  =0.95nM  =0.52vfn,minfn,scfn,maxQ  =1LQ  =2.2LQ  =1000LNormalized Frequency(a)f  =0.95n1.55f  =0.95n0.560 1 2 3 4 5Normalized Frequency(b)fn,minfn,maxInput Resonant Circuit CurrentQ  =1LQ  =2.2LQ  =1000L =90f  =0.69nϕ =27f  =0.95nϕ =21f  =0.69nϕPhase of the Input Impedance−100−500501000 1 2 3 4 5Normalized Frequency(c)fn,minfn,maxQ  =1LQ  =2.2LQ  =1000LVoltage GainFigu“e IDGHP FHW wnwlysis of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ as S JOJB wnz au S FOJBflith yonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwge t“wnsfe“funytion (Mv)B (x) Wmplituze of the no“mwlizez “st se“ies inzuytwnye yu““ent (ISS) )B wnz(y) fhwse of the input impezwnye (<)DfuBtpu S FOLOP fsBtpu S GFFkHzP fu Sfsf0S⇒ f0 S GJKkHz (IDIJ)In nominwl lowz yonzitions (fS S G) the fioltwge gwin is equwl to FDKH wnzB ws w “esultBt“wnsfo“me“ tu“nsC“wtio is oxtwinez ws folloflsPMMHCLC himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsn ScwcsSkiatBuk ′iatBuSMvOkpuk ′iatS HOGM (IDIK)In the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie output lte“ the equifiwlent “esistwnye isoxtwinez using [qD HDN wnz is equwl toPR′S Sk ′iat2eoutS OOMΩ S⇒ R′lx S MOOΩP Rlx S n2R′lx S IMOHΩ (IDIL)jhe “esonwnt yi“yuit elements of the aaC “esonwnt yi“yuit w“e ywlyulwtez ws folloflsPo0 SRlxfSS IMOHΩP !0 S!s!uS HOF.z3S⇒ as) So0!0S JGHP Cs SGo0O!0S IFnFP as2 S OHP aw S GFIH(IDIM)jhe yi“yuit pw“wmete“s fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ w“e p“ofiizez in jwxle IDHD Wyyo“zCing to FigD IDGH(y)B the input “esonwnt phwse of the aaC is positifie fo“ the mentionez “wngeof the sflityhing f“equenyy wnz the “esonwnt yi“yuit “ep“esents wn inzuytifie lowzD Ws w “esultBpli is guw“wnteez fo“ wll lowzs wnz output fioltwge yonzitionsD Yompw“ing the yonfie“te“selements yolleytez in jwxle IDH “efiewls thwt the only e–t“w element in the p“oposez aICH“esonwnt yonfie“te“ is the pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“ put in the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeDHCL himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsIn o“ze“ to infiestigwte wnz yompw“e the pe“fo“mwnye of the zesignez “esonwnt yonfie“te“s(aICH fie“sus aaC)B softflw“e simulwtion wnz p“ototype plwtfo“ms hwfie xeen employez toe–t“wyt the fioltwge gwins unze“ ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsD jhe yomponentsB flhiyh w“e usezin the p“ototypes w“e shofln in jwxles IDID jhe seleytez sflityhing f“equenyy is xetfleenGFFkHz wnz LFFkHzB wnz the f“equenyy spwn fo“ the fioltwge gwin yu“fies is GFkHzB flhiyhMNHCLC himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsjwxle IDIP Yomponents of hesonwnt Yonfie“te“s flwtfo“msComponynt Zkrt Xumlor Rktsngs]nvyrtyr acgFEh's SbPb64X6D 6DDV NM; 64Agyriys fysonunt CupB Pslm MkzD EDnP; FDDDV NMgyriys fysonunt ]nxB RWEF 3P3hrunsformyr RWE4 3P3durullyl fysonunt CupB Pslm MkzD EDnP; EDDDV NMfywtiyr Dioxy WLR4DFID FIDV; 4DAcutput CupB Pslm MkzD EDIuP; FIDV NMmewns mo“e thwn fty points hwfie xeen e–t“wytez in ewyh z“wflingD jhe simulwtion wnze–pe“imentwl “esults w“e p“esentez in FigD IDGID jhe“e w“e sefie“wl limitwtions inziywtez inewyh gu“eB inyluzing minimum wnz mw–imum sflityhing f“equenyiesB the mw–imum outputpofle“B wnz the mw–imum output fioltwgeD jhe simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults w“ep“esentez in soliz wnz zottez shwpesB “espeytifielyD FigD IDGI p“esents the “esults fo“ theaaC wnz aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“s unze“ th“ee ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsD Wyyo“zing toFigD IDGI(w)B in the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ the simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults w“ewlmost the swme fo“ R′S S OOMKΩ wnz R′S S HGOOΩD Xut fo“ noClowz yonzition in the aaC“esonwnt yonfie“te“B the“e is w zisy“epwnyy xetfleen simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esultsD InfwytB fo“ sflityhing f“equenyy highe“ thwn IFFkHzB the effeyt of the output ziozes junytionywpwyitwnyes lewzs to iny“ewsez output fioltwge in the aaCD Ws oxse“fiez in FigD IDGI(x)B inthe aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ the simulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl fioltwge gwins hwfie w gooz tfo“ ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionsD jhe wnwlytiywl equwtions oxtwinez xwsez on FHW ywn p“eyiselyp“eziyt the xehwfiio“ of the multiC“esonwnt aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifie outputlte“ fo“ w flize “wnge of output fioltwges wnz lowzs (ws wl“ewzy zepiytez in FigD IDGG(w))DIn o“ze“ to the p“ofiize high quwlity output fioltwge wnz mw–imize the yonfie“te“ effiyienyyBit is fiitwl to “ewlize soft yommutwtion fo“ the output “eytie“ ziozesD XwsiywllyB the “efie“seMOHCLC himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults0306090120150100 200 300 400 500 600Battery Voltage(VDC)Frequency (kHz)(a)Maximum Voltage LimitationMaximum Power Limitationfs,minfs,maxR′ =9.75R′  =21.9LLNo LoadΩΩSim.Exp.0306090120150100 200 300 400 500 600Battery Voltage(VDC)Frequency (kHz)(b)R′ =9.75R′  =21.9LLΩΩSim.Exp.MaximumVoltage LimitationMaximum Power Limitationfs,minfs,maxNo LoadFigu“e IDGIP iimulwtion wnz e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ xwtte“y fioltwge fie“sus f“equenyyD (w)jhe aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B wnz (x) jhe aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“D“eyofie“y yu““ent of output “eytie“ ziozes zu“ing the tu“nCoff t“wnsition lewzs to w high fioltwgepewk wy“oss output ziozes wnzB ws w “esultB ziozes flith mo“e flithstwnz fioltwge shoulz xeseleytezB flhiyh mewns mo“e yonzuytion lossesD jhe aaC wnz aICH yonfie“te“s ywn p“ofiizepYi fo“ output ziozes fo“ flize fiw“iwtion of sflityhing f“equenyyD FigD IDGJ(w)C(x) shofls theNFHCLC himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesultsTrans.SecondaryCurrentDiodeVoltageTran.SecondaryVoltageNo VoltageSpikeTime/Div=2usTime/Div=2usHigh FrequencyRingingTrans.SecondaryCurrentDiodeVoltageTran.SecondaryVoltage(a)(b)ZCSZCSon-stateD  ,D1 4off-state on-stateD  ,D2 3Figu“e IDGJP aaC t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size flwfiefo“msP (w) k ′iat S OLk DC wnz evut SOKFl B wnz (x) k ′iat S GJJk DC wnz evut S OKFl (High fioltwgeB high f“equenyy “inging fo“this yonzition)De–pe“imentwl flwfiefo“ms of the fioltwge wnz yu““ent on the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“in the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s fo“ tflo full pofle“ yonzitionsD Wyyo“zing to these gu“esB pYiis p“ofiizez fo“ output “eytie“ ziozes wnz fioltwge pewk is eliminwtezD Hoflefie“ in the aaCNGHCLC himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults“esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ sflityhing f“equenyy xelofl wnz fw“ f“om frBsj (w“ounz the minimumsflityhing f“equenyy) wnz zu“ing the offCstwte inte“fiwls of the output “eytie“ ziozesB highfioltwgeB high f“equenyy “ingings e–ist wy“oss the “eytie“ ziozesB flhiyh zey“ewse the quwlityof the output fioltwge wnz iny“ewse the [cID jhe p“oposez aICH zesign ofie“yomes thisissue wnz “esults in “ezuyez “ingingD Wyyo“zing to the ope“wting mozes of the aICH output“eytie“B ws inziywtez in FigD IDJB in the enz of pofle“ t“wnsfe“ inte“fiwlB onye iSs2 “ewyhes ze“oBthe output ziozes yu““ent smoothly “ewyhes ze“oD jhis ywuses pYi wt tu“nCoff wnz wfioizswny “efie“se “eyofie“y losses in the output ziozesD In wzzitionB the fioltwge wy“oss the ziozes issmooth wnz sinusoizwl zu“ing the sflityhing t“wnsitions flhiyh lewzs to w minimum negwtifieimpwyt on the zioze junytion ywpwyitwnye in t“wnsient timeD FigD IDGK(w)C(x) p“esents thet“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size flwfiefo“ms e–t“wytez f“om the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ plwtfo“mDjhe e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ tflo full lowz yonzitions shofl the soft sflityhing t“wnsient intu“nCon wnz tu“nCoff yonzitions flithout wny high f“equenyy “ingingDFigsD IDGL wnz IDGM p“esent the fioltwge wnz yu““ent flwfiefo“ms e–t“wytez f“om e–pe“iCmentwl plwtfo“ms of the aaC wnz aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“sB “espeytifielyD In ewyh gu“eBZ“winCiou“ye fioltwge of the loflCsize ceiF[j wnz the “st se“ies inzuyto“ yu““ent (ceiCF[js yu““ent) w“e illust“wtez fo“ ziffe“ent yonzitionsD Wyyo“zing to these gu“esB the ze“oy“ossings of the “esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““ent is flithin the loflCsize ceiF[j fioltwge pulsewnzB ws w “esultB in wll of the p“esentez yonzitions the hwlfCx“izge sflityhes w“e fully tu“nez onunze“ ze“o fioltwgeD jhe“efo“eB xoth the aaC wnz the aICH wyhiefie soft sflityhing t“wnsitionsDNHHCLC himulvtion vny Zxperimentvl gesults(a)No VoltageSpikeDiodeVoltageTrans.SecondaryCurrentTran.SecondaryVoltageTrans.SecondaryCurrentNo VoltageSpikeDiodeVoltageTran.SecondaryVoltage(b)Time/Div=2usTime/Div=2usZCSZCSon-stateoff-stateon-stateoff-stateD  ,D1 4D  ,D2 3Figu“e IDGKP aICH t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size flwfiefo“msP (w) k ′iat S OLk DC wnz evut SOKFl B wnz (x) k ′iat S GJJk DC wnz evut S OKFl ([liminwtion of the high f“equenyy “inging)DNIHCMC Compvrison of the aaC vny aICH vs v Wvttery Chvrger(a) (b)(c) (d)Low-SideMOSFET VoltageResonantCircuitCurrentZVS Angle No VoltageSpikeZeroCrossingNo VoltageSpikeLow-SideMOSFETVoltageResonantCircuitCurrentZeroCrossingZVS AngleV =400VDCin LLCResonantConverterLLCResonantConverterLLCResonantConverterV   =96VDCout′P   =950WoutV =400VDCinV   =144VDCout′P   =950WoutV =400VDCinV   =1VDCout′P   =10WoutTime/Div=2usTime/Div=2usTime/Div=2usZVS AngleZeroCrossingLLCResonantConverterV =400VDCinV   =1VDCout′P   =3WoutTime/Div=500nsZVS AngleZeroCrossingFigu“e IDGLP [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B Z“winCiou“ye fioltwgefo“ loflCsize ceiF[j in hwlfCx“izge infie“te“ (S2) wnz “st se“ies “esonwnt inzuyto“ yu““ent(ISs) )P (w) k′iat S OLk DC wnz evut S OKFl B (x) k′iat S GJJk DC wnz evut S OKFl B (y)k ′iat S Gk DC wnz evut S Il B wnz (z) k′iat S Gk DC wnz evut S GFl DHCM Compvrison of the aaC vny a3C2 vs v WvtteryChvrgerIn this seytionB tflo mwin wspeyts of the stuziez “esonwnt yonfie“te“s w“e yonsize“ezB inyluzingthe effiyienyy yu“fies wnz oxtwinwxle lCI plwnesD ene of the mwin wzfiwntwges of “esonwntNJHCMC Compvrison of the aaC vny aICH vs v Wvttery Chvrger(a) (b)(c) (d)Low-SideMOSFETVoltageResonantCircuitCurrentZVS Angle No VoltageSpikeZeroCrossingNo VoltageSpikeLow-SideMOSFETVoltageResonantCircuitCurrentZeroCrossingZVS AngleTime/Div=2us Time/Div=2usTime/Div=2usV =400VDCinV   =96VDCout′P   =950WoutV =400VDCinV   =144VDCout′P   =950WoutV =400VDCinV   =1VDCout′P   =10WoutZVS AngleZeroCrossingL3C2ResonantConverterL3C2ResonantConverterL3C2ResonantConverterTime/Div=500nsV =400VDCinV   =1VDCout′P   =1WoutZVS AngleL3C2ResonantConverterZeroCrossingFigu“e IDGMP [–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“B Z“winCiou“ye fioltwgefo“ loflCsize ceiF[j in hwlfCx“izge infie“te“ (S2) wnz “st se“ies “esonwnt inzuyto“ yu““ent(ISs) )P (w) k′iat S OLk DC wnz evut S OKFl B (x) k′iat S GJJk DC wnz evut S OKFl B (y)k ′iat S Gk DC wnz evut S Gl B wnz (z) k′iat S Gk DC wnz evut S GFl Dyonfie“te“s is soft sflityhingB flhiyh lewzs to high sflityhing f“equenyy wnz high pofle“ zensityDIn wzzitionB pli is neyessw“y to p“ofiize w lofl noise enfii“onment flhiyh imp“ofies the quwlityof the output fioltwgeD FigD IDGN p“esents the effiyienyy yu“fies of the aaC wnz aICH “esonwntyonfie“te“s fo“ tflo ziffe“ent output fioltwgesD Wyyo“zing to these yu“fiesB the zesignez “esonwntyonfie“te“s p“esent wn effiyienyy highe“ thwn OK; fo“ wn output pofle“ g“ewte“ thwn KFFl BNKHCMC Compvrison of the aaC vny aICH vs v Wvttery ChvrgerV ′  =96VbatV ′  =120Vbat75808590951000 200 400 600 800 1000Efficiency (percent)Output Power (W)(b)V ′  =96VbatV ′  =120Vbat75808590951000 200 400 600 800 1000Efficiency (percent)Output Power (W)(a)Figu“e IDGNP [ffiyienyy yu“fies wt –ez output fioltwgesP (w) aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B wnz (x)aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“Dwnz the mw–imum effiyienyy fo“ xoth ywses is OL;DIn the folloflingB the lCI plwnes of the aaC wnz aICH w“e oxtwinez in o“ze“ to infiestigwtethe mw–imum yofie“wge “egionD Ws mentionez in the int“ozuytionB the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ mustxe wxle to “esponz to ziffe“ent mozes of the yhw“ge wlgo“ithms wnz yofie“ wlmost wll of thelCI plwne “egionD jhe lCI plwnes oxtwinez f“om the e–pe“imentwl plwtfo“ms of the “esonwntyonfie“te“s w“e shofln in FigD IDGOD In o“ze“ to z“wfl the plwnesB the plwtfo“ms hwfie xeentestez unze“ ziffe“ent output fioltwge wnz output yu““ent yonzitionsD In ewyh plwne the“ew“e ziffe“ent limitwtions on the xounzw“iesB inyluzing yu““entB fioltwgeB wnz pofle“B wnz ewyhpoint in the xounzw“y inziywtes one e–pe“imentwl testD jhe lCI plwne oxtwinez f“om theaaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ plwtfo“m is shofln in FigD IDGO(w)D Zue to the effeyt of outputziozes junytion ywpwyitwnyes in noClowz yonzitionsB the output fioltwge iny“ewses fo“ sflityhingf“equenyies highe“ thwn IFFkHz (ws inziywtez in FigD IDGI(w))D dote thwt the unoxtwinwxlew“ew of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ stw“ts in the noClowz xounzw“y wt k ′iat S MHk DCD Ino“ze“ to zey“ewse the xwtte“y fioltwge to less thwn MHk DCB the xwtte“y yu““ent is fo“yezto iny“ewse f“om ze“oD FinwllyB in the minimum zesi“ez fioltwge k ′iat S Gk DCB the yu““entNLHCMC Compvrison of the aaC vny aICH vs v Wvttery Chvrger(a)1 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 14412345687910MaximumSwitchingFrequencyConstant CurrentConstant VoltageNo-Load Condition  Constant VoltageMaximumPowerL3C2Resonant ConverterOperating Area  P   =1Woutf  =600kHzsP   =0Woutf  =371kHzsP   =0Woutf  =600kHzsP   =10Woutf  =166kHzsP   =950Woutf  =129kHzsP   =950Woutf  =102kHzsUnobtainableAreaBattery Voltage (VDC)Battery Current (ADC)(b)1 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 1441234568Constant CurrentConstant VoltageNo-Load Condition  MaximumSwitchingFrequency7910Unobtainable AreaConstant VoltageMaximumPowerBattery Voltage (VDC)Battery Current (ADC)LLCResonant ConverterOperating Area  P   =3Woutf  =600kHzsP   =0Woutf  =102kHzsP   =0Woutf  =235kHzsP   =10Woutf  =185kHzsP   =950Woutf  =124kHzsP   =950Woutf  =98kHzsFigu“e IDGOP extwinez lCI plwne f“om tflo yonsize“ez “esonwnt yonfie“te“sP (w) aaC “esonwntyonfie“te“B wnz (x) aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“DNMHCNC hummvryis equwl to IWmpsD jhe “ez zwshez “egion inziywtes the unoxtwinwxle w“ew of the aaC“esonwnt yonfie“te“D FigD IDGO(x) p“ofies thwt the multiC“esonwnt aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ywn yofie“ wlmost wll of the “egion in the lCI plwneD Wyyo“zing to FigD IDGO(x)B the minimumoutput fioltwge in noClowz yonzitions oyyu“s wt k ′iat S GLk DCB wnz the w“ew oxtwinez xy thep“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is signiywntly e–tenzez in yompw“ison flith the aaC lCI plwneDFigD IDGO(x) zemonst“wtes thwt the p“oposez aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is ywpwxle of yofie“ingthe xwtte“y lCI plwneB “egulwting the fioltwge f“om new“ ze“o to GDK times nominwl fioltwgeunze“ ziffe“ent lowzB wnz ywn xe employez ws w xwtte“y yhw“ge“ flithout using xu“st mozeope“wtionDHCN hummvryjhis yhwpte“ int“ozuyez the multiC“esonwnt hwlf x“izge aICH “esonwnt topology ws w pofle“yonfie“te“ fo“ mezium pofle“ lefiel wppliywtions thwt ywn “egulwte the xwtte“y fioltwge in w flize“wngeB f“om new“ ze“o fioltwgeB ze“o yu““ent to the mw–imum output pofle“B flithout usingxu“st moze ope“wtionD Zue to the flize fioltwge “egulwtionB the p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ywn “esponz to yhw“ge wlgo“ithms of ziffe“ent kinz of xwtte“iesB suyh ws bewzCwyiz wnz biCIonwnz is w gooz ywnzizwte fo“ use ws w yhw“ge“ in eleyt“iy fiehiylesD jhe mwin wzfiwntwge ofthe p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in yompw“ison flith aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is its wxilityto “efiitwlize zewz xwtte“ies in yontinuous yonzuytion mozeD jhe loflC“ipple output fioltwgeenhwnyes the quwlity of the yhw“ging yu““ent in the “eyofie“y “egionB the“exy iny“ewsing thelife yyyle of the xwtte“yD WlsoB soft sflityhing of the ceiF[js wnz output “eytie“ ziozesp“ofiize high effiyienyyB wnz the ywpwxility of flo“king in high sflityhing f“equenyy flithoutwny limitwtionD iinye the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywn xe implementez using w hwlf x“izgeinfie“te“B the totwl yost flill xe lofle“ in yompw“ison flith the solution p“esentez in Yhwpte“ HQhoflefie“B the nefl aICH topology hws one e–t“w “esonwnt element in yompw“ison flith aaCBNNHCNC hummvryws p“esentez in jwxle IDHB wnz the optimum zesign of the aICH flill xe mo“e yompliywtezwnz neez mo“e effo“t in yompw“ison flith the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D jhe“e is wlso wt“wzeCoff xetfleen using aaC wnz aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“s flhen effiyienyy yu“fies w“e twkeninto wyyountD [fien though the aICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywn ope“wte in the the yontinuousyonzuytion moze wnz p“ofiize w “ipple f“ee yhw“ging yu““ent fo“ the xwtte“y pwykB FigD IDGNshofls thwt the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ hws w xette“ wt effiyienyy yu“fie wt the mw–imumxwtte“y fioltwge k ′iat S GHFk DCD Wyyo“zing to FigD IDGNB the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ hwsFOK; xette“ effiyienyy wt w“ounz LFFl in yompw“ison flith the aICHDNOChvpter IFourth dryer a3C gesonvnt Converterfor ek Wvttery Chvrger vpplixvtions4In Yhwpte“s H wnz IB tflo ziffe“ent topologies (moziez aaC wnz aICH) wnz one mozulwCtion st“wtegy (f“equenyy wnz phwse shift mozulwtion) fle“e p“esentez ws solutions fo“ xwtte“yyhw“ge“ wppliywtions fo“ mezium to high pofle“ lefielsD In this yhwpte“B w nefl “esonwnt pofle“yonfie“te“ flill xe int“ozuyez flith the wppliywtion of [leyt“iy lehiyles flith “ooftop photoCfioltwiy (fl) pwnelsD In Yhwpte“s H wnz IB it flws wssumez thwt the input fioltwge of w ZYCZYpofle“ stwge is wlmost yonstwnt wnz is p“ofiizez xy w fFY input stwgeD iinye solw“ i““wziwnyewnz su“fwye tempe“wtu“e ywn wffeyt the pe“fo“mwnye of the solw“ pwnel wnz yhwnge the flpwnel fioltwgeB the input fioltwge of w ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ is not yonstwnt wnz yhwnges inw flize “wnge (kwv S HJ− JKk DC)D WlsoB in wn [lB the fl pwnel ene“gy neezs to xe sto“ezin w “eyhw“egwxle xwtte“yD jhe yomxinwtion of fl pwnel wnz “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“y “equi“ese–t“eme “egulwtion f“om the input (kwv S HJ− JKk DC) to output (k ′iat S HIF− JIFk DC)Bflhiyh neezs to xe suppo“tez xy w ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“D In this ywseB the ZYCZY pofle“yonfie“te“ shoulz not only t“wyk the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion fo“ e–t“wyting the mw–imumwfiwilwxle pofle“ f“om the fl pwnelB xut wlso xoost the input fioltwge xy fiw“iwxle gwin wnz“esponz to the ziffe“ent stwte of yhw“ge of the xwtte“y pwykD Ws wn e–wmple of e–t“eme inCput wnz output “egulwtionsB FigD JDG(w) shofls w single fl pwnel on the “ooftop of wn [lDjhe pofle“ ywpwyity “wnge is f“om KFl to IKFl wnz the input fioltwge “wnges flizely f“om4dortions of this whuptyr huvy vyyn uwwyptyx for puvliwution in oIqOFChvpter IC Fourth dryer aIC gesonvnt Converter for ek Wvttery Chvrger vpplixvtionsRooftopSolar Panel(a) (b)12Panel Output Voltage100200300400020 25 30 35 40 45Panel Output Power200W/m260 C°1kW/m260 C°1kW/m2-20 C°200W/m2-20 C°Photo Voltaic PanelV   =24   45V˷PanHigh VoltageBattery PackV  =230   430˷bat(c)3′Figu“e JDGP (w) fu“e eleyt“iy fiehiyle flith “oof top solw“ pwnelqNs ( E© wnz F© zepiyt sun“wziwtion wnz tempe“wtu“e ywn fiw“y zepenzing on geog“wphy loywtion wnz time of the zwy)B(x) pwnel pofle“Cfioltwge plwne yofie“ez xy ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“B fo“ ewyh point in thementionez w“ewB ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ shoulz “egulwte the xwtte“y fioltwge f“om k ′iat SHIFk DC to k ′iat S JIFk DCB wnz (y) ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ xloyk ziwg“wm flhiyh shoulz“egulwte the xwtte“y yhw“ging fioltwge f“om HIFk DC to JIFk DC in w flize fiw“iwtion of inputfioltwge ( 3© illust“wtes the neyessity of gwlfiwniy isolwtion fo“ the pofle“ yonfie“te“)Dkwv S HJ− JKk DCD jhis unzesi“wxle flize input fiw“iwtion is zue to the effeyt of solw“ i““wziCwnye wnz wmxient tempe“wtu“e thwt wffeyts the pofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of the fl pwnelillust“wtez in FigD JDG(x)D Ws flellB the xwtte“y pwyk zepiytez in FigD JDG(y) shofls thwt theoutput fioltwge shoulz yomply flith e–t“eme “egulwtion ws flell to yofie“ HIF− JIFk DCDjhis yhwpte“ p“oposes w highCeffiyienyy isolwtez fou“thCo“ze“ aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fliththe fiw“iwxle f“equenyy yont“olB flhiyh hws the ywpwxility of e–t“eme “egulwtion fo“ wppliCywtions flhiyh inte“fwye fl pwnels to highCfioltwge xwtte“y pwyks flith the wim of t“wykCing the mw–imum input pofle“ flhile “egulwting the output fioltwge in w flize “wngeD Inyompw“ison flith othe“ flellCknofln se“iesCpw“wllel “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ topologies (eDgDaaCQaCaCQaICH)B the p“oposez topology p“esents w steep fioltwge gwin fie“sus f“equenyyBflhiyh mwkes it wn e–yellent ywnzizwte fo“ fl to highCfioltwge xwtte“y pwyk wppliywtionsDWlsoB this topology zoes not employ w se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the p“imw“y size of theOGICFC ehotovoltvix boyule Chvrvxteristixsyonfie“te“B flhiyh “emofies w highCfioltwgeB highCyu““ent “ipple ywpwyito“ f“om the p“imw“y sizewnz fwyilitwtes the yhw“ge“ zesign in te“ms of yomponent seleytionsD jhe pw“wllel “esonwntywpwyito“B put in the seyonzw“y of the t“wnsfo“me“B lewzs to pe“o Yu““ent iflityhing (pYi)of the output “eytie“ ziozesB eliminwtes the fioltwge pewk p“ozuyez xy the ziozes “efie“se“eyofie“y yu““ent wnz zey“ewses the noise in the output fioltwgeD co“eofie“B zue to ope“wtingin the inzuytifie lowz “egionB pofle“ ceiF[js in the high f“equenyy aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“wlflwys flo“k in pli fo“ ziffe“ent lowz yonzitionB p“ofiizing highCeffiyienyyB loflCnoise outputfioltwgeD ethe“ pw“tiyulw“ wzfiwntwges of the p“oposez yonfie“te“ w“e inhe“ent sho“t yi“yuitp“oteytion wnz fioltwge gwin of mo“e thwn unity fo“ “esonwnt twnkD In this yhwpte“B “st thegene“wl equwtions fo“ solw“ fl pwnels flill xe e–t“wytez xwsez on the gene“wl mozel of w solw“yell wnz employez to zete“mine the fiw“iwtion of pofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w speyiy flmozule fie“sus i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtions qGHJ{GHLsD jhenB the yomplete wnwlyCsis of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith yonsize“wtion of t“wnsfo“me“ p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“ylewkwge inzuytwnyesB t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y flinzing ywpwyitwnyeB wnz output “eytie“ junyCtion ywpwyitwnyes is oxtwinezD ksing the wnwlytiywl equwtions e–t“wytez fo“ fou“thCo“ze“ aIC“esonwnt yi“yuitsB w IKFl ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“ is zesignez wnz implementezD FinwllyBe–pe“imentwl “esults w“e p“esentez to zemonst“wte the yi“yuit pe“fo“mwnye wnz to p“ofie thefewsixility of e–t“eme “egulwtion fo“ xoth input wnz output sizesD jhe “esults shofl the aIC“esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywn t“wyk wll input fioltwge fiw“iwtions “elwtez to mw–imum input pofle“((kwv S HJ − JKk DC) p“esentez in FigD JDG(x))B flhile “egulwting the xwtte“y fioltwge f“omHIFk DC to JIFk DCDICF ehotovoltvix boyule ChvrvxteristixsWs p“esentez in FigD JDG(x)B the fl pwnel mw–imum output pofle“ yhwnges flith “espeytto i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“e wnz the p“oposez aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ shoulz t“wyk theseOHICFC ehotovoltvix boyule ChvrvxteristixsI irr IDRsRp VD VcellIcellFigu“e JDHP ]ene“wl mozel of w solw“ yell inyluzing pw“wllel wnz se“ies “esisto“sDfiw“iwtions in o“ze“ to t“wnsfe“ the mw–imum input pofle“ to the highCfioltwge xwtte“y pwykD Inthis seytion the gene“wl equwtions fo“ fl pwnels flill xe e–t“wytez wnz employez to zete“minethe fiw“iwtion of pofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w speyiy fl mozule fie“sus i““wziwnye wnztempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtionsD W fl mozule yonsists of w numxe“ of inte“yonneytez solw“ yellsfo“ming w single unitD jo mozel the pofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w fl mozuleB thepofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w single solw“ yell shoulz xe zete“minez wnz then e–pwnzezto oxtwin the xehwfiio“ of w fl w““wy o“ mozuleD W solw“ yell is t“wzitionwlly “ep“esentez xywn equifiwlent yi“yuit yomposez of w yu““ent sou“yeB wn wntiCpw“wllel ziozeB w se“ies “esistwnye(Rs) wnz w shunt “esistwnye (Rw)B ws shofln in FigD JDH qGHJB GHKsD In FigD JDHB Iprr is thei““wziwnye yu““entB flhiyh is gene“wtez flhen the yell is e–posez to sunlight wnz is zepenzenton the solw“ i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“e qGHJB GHKsDIprr S IprrBrlm (GGrlm)qG A T (i − irlm )s (JDG)jhe suxsy“ipt rzf “ep“esents the stwnzw“z “efe“enye yonzitions wnz T “ep“esents the“wte of yhwnge of the sho“tCyi“yuit yu““ent flith “espeyt to tempe“wtu“e wnz is p“ofiizez xy themwnufwytu“e“sD jhe yell tempe“wtu“eB i is w funytion of yhwnges in the wmxient tempe“wtu“ewnz yhwnges in the insulwtion qGHKsDi S iati A (cdCi − HF◦CFON)G (JDH)OIICFC ehotovoltvix boyule ChvrvxteristixscdCi “ep“esents the dominwl epe“wting Yell jempe“wtu“e p“ofiizez xy the mwnufwyCtu“e“D In FigD JDHB ID is the yu““ent of the wntiCpw“wllel zioze flhiyh yhw“wyte“izes the nonlinew“ity of the solw“ yell wnz is w funytion of the zioze fioltwge wnz tempe“wtu“eB ws p“esentezin (JDI) qGHJsDID S Iv(zVVDSkT − G) (JDI)In [qD (JDI)B n is the izewlity fwyto“ o“ the izewl yonstwnt of the zioze wnz i is thetempe“wtu“e of the yellD jhe izewlity fwyto“ (n) “ep“esents the ziffe“ent meyhwnisms of mofiingyw““ie“s wy“oss the junytionD Ws wn e–wmpleB fo“ siliyonB n flill xe GDI qGHLsD Iv is the ziozeswtu“wtion yu““ent o“ yell “efie“se swtu“wtion yu““ent qGHJsD Wyyo“zing to FigD JDHB the “elwtionxetfleen the fioltwge wnz yu““ent of the fl yell ywn xe oxtwinez ws folloflsDIjlss S Iprr − Iv(zV(VHell+IHellRs)SkT − G)− (kjlss A IjlssRs)Rw(JDJ)Wnz fo“ w fl pwnel flith cs numxe“ of se“ies yells wnz cw numxe“ of pw“wllel yellsB [qD(JDJ) ywn xe “efl“itten ws ws folloflsPIwv S cwIprr −cwIv(zV(Vpv+IpvRsNs=Np)SkT − G)− kwv A IwvRscsRcwRwcsRcw(JDK)jhe lCI “elwtionship of w fl pwnel p“esentez in [qD (JDK) ywn xe usez to oxtwin the fofle“Cloltwge “elwtionship of w fl pwnel in ziffe“ent wmxient tempe“wtu“e wnz solw“ i““wziwnye wnzzete“mine the mw–imum pofle“ point of the fl pwnelD In ywses thwt the “esistifie pw“wmete“sBRs wnz RwB w“e not p“ofiizez xy the mwnufwytu“e“ of the fl pwnelsB the equwtions ywn xesimpliez xy setting them ws ze“o wnz innityB “espeytifielyD In this stuzyB the fofle“Cloltwgeyhw“wyte“istiys of w fl mozule f“om Ywnwziwn iolw“ is p“esentez in FigD JDG(x) qGHMsD Fo“this speyiy e–wmpleB the fl w““wy yonsists of MH fl yells yonneytez in se“ies wnz pw“wllelDOJIC2C htevyy htvte Vnvlysis of aIC gesonvnt Converterjhe fl pwnel yoeffiyients w“e e–t“wytez f“om zwtwsheetB wnz xy employing [qD (JDK)B thefiw“iwtion of fofle“Cloltwge of photofioltwiy mozule ws w funytion of i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“eis p“esentez in FigD JDID jhe fioltwge “elwtez to mw–imum pofle“ point fo“ ewyh yonzitionis zenez in FigD JDIB flhiyh inziywtes flize input fioltwge fiw“iwtion (kwv S HJ − JKk DC)DWyyo“zing to FigD JDIB the pofle“Cfioltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w photofioltwiy mozule is ws wfunytion of the i““wziwnye wnz su“fwye tempe“wtu“eD It mewns in o“ze“ to get the mw–imumpofle“ f“om the solw“ pwnelB the input fioltwge hws to xe wzjustezBflhiyh “eeyts the neez fo“the p“oposez aIC yonfie“te“ to “egulwte w flize input fioltwge “wngeDICG htevyy htvte Vnvlysis of a3C gesonvnt ConverterIn this seytionB the yomplete wnwlysis of wn aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flill xe p“esentezD FigDJDJ shofls w yomplete syhemwtiy of the p“oposez aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B inyluzing w t“wnsCfo“me“ seyonzw“y size wnz zioze junytion pw“wsitiy ywpwyitwnyesD In FigD JDJB w fou“th o“ze“mozel of the t“wnsfo“me“ (inyluzing p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyesB mwgnetizinginzuytwnyeB wnz flinzing ywpwyitwnye of the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size) hws xeen employezws w mozel fo“ the nonCizewl t“wnsfo“me“ qGHIsD WlsoB the junytion ywpwyitwnyes of the outCput “eytie“ w“e yonsize“ez in pw“wllel flith ziozesD In the p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“B thepw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“ ywn me“ge wll pw“wsitiysywpwyito“s of the seyonzw“y size into the “esonwnt yi“yuitD Ws shofln in FigD JDJB the p“imw“ylewkwge inzuytwnye is me“gez flith the e–te“nwl inzuyto“ wnz is pw“t of as) D In wzzitionB theseyonzw“y lewkwge wnz mwgnetizing inzuytwnyes of the t“wnsfo“me“ w“e yonsize“ez as2 wnz awB“espeytifielyD Ws mentionez p“efiiouslyB zue to the high wmplituzeB high f“equenyy yu““ent inthe p“imw“y size of the yonfie“te“B flellCknofln se“iesCpw“wllel “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s (eDgDaaCPaCCPaCaCB aICH) hwfie ziffiyulties in te“ms of se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“ seleytionBOKIC2C htevyy htvte Vnvlysis of aIC gesonvnt Converter01002003000 10 20 30 40 453525155Panel Output VoltagePanel Output Power1000W/m2Radiation800W/m2600W/m2400W/m2200W/m2MPPMPPMPPMPPMPP0 5040302010Panel Output Voltage600100200300Panel Output Power400(a)(b)MPPMPPMPPMPPMPPMPP200W/m2@Temprature-20 C°0 C°20 C°40 C°60 C°Figu“e JDIP lw“iwtion of fofle“Cloltwge yhw“wyte“istiys of w photofioltwiy mozule ws w funytionof (w) I““wziwnye wt HF◦CB wnz (x) jempe“wtu“e wt GFFFlRm2D jhe zwshez yu“fie in FigDJDI(x) p“esents the minimum output pofle“ of the fl pwnelB oyyu“s wt mw–imum wmxienttempe“wtu“e (LF◦C) wnz minimum sun i““wziwnye (HFFlRm2)wnz this “esonwnt ywpwyito“ hws to flithstwnz high yu““ent wnz fioltwge st“essesD Wyyo“zing toFigD JDJB the p“oposez topology zoes not employ wny se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the p“imw“ysize of the yonfie“te“B flhiyh fwyilitwtes the yhw“ge“ zesign in te“ms of yomponent seleytionsDIn FigD JDJB wll of the elements in the seyonzw“y size w“e zenez flith wn wpost“opheB xut in wllequwtionsB the fiw“iwxles wnz elements w“e t“wnsfe““ez to the p“imw“y size flith “espeyt to thet“wnsfo“me“ tu“nsC“wtioB wnz w“e shofln flithout wn wpost“opheD iinye the xehwfiiou“ of theoutput “eytie“ in the aIC is similw“ to thwt of the aICH (ieytion IDH)B the swme equifiwlentOLIC2C htevyy htvte Vnvlysis of aIC gesonvnt ConverterIdeal1:nLmLext Llk,p L′lk,sTransformer Equivalent CircuitLs2LpLs1iLS1S1vABHigh Voltage Battery PackV  =235   430D4D2D1 D3VbatCf′Ibat˷batPhoto Voltaic PanelV   =23   45˷pvC j′C j′C j′C j′Cw′12Cp′′′′S2S3S4′Figu“e JDJP Full x“izge aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ syhemwtiy flith ywpwyitifie output lte“B wpCpliywxle fo“ fl to high fioltwge xwtte“y wppliywtionsDLpLs1Ls2ReqCeqiLS1iLS2Zin4Vinpiv   = AB1Figu“e JDKP WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“Dyi“yuit ywn xe employez in o“ze“ to mozel the output “eytie“ wlong flith output lte“ wnzlowzD jhe elements of the equifiwlent yi“yuit w“e p“esentez in [qD (IDH) wnz [qD (IDI)DFigD JDK shofls the WY equifiwlent yi“yuit of the “esonwnt yi“yuit wlong flith the equifiwlentimpezwnye of the t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y sizeB Rlx wnz Clx (inyluzing the output “eytie“Boutput lte“B wnz lowz)D Xy using this equifiwlent yi“yuitB it is possixle to employ the FHWteyhnique fo“ wnwlysis of the aIC “esonwnt yi“yuitD In o“ze“ to ywlyulwte the output yu““entBthe seyonz se“ies “esonwnt inzuyto“ yu““ent is wssumez to xe pu“ely sinusoizwlD Zue to thenonCyonzuytion wngle of the output “eytie“B the output yu““ent ywn xe oxtwinez ws folloflsqIsPIv S(G A yos ).ISs2 (JDL)jhe“efo“eB the output fioltwge of the fullCx“izge aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith ywpwyitifieOMIC2C htevyy htvte Vnvlysis of aIC gesonvnt Converteroutput lte“ is gifien xyPkiat S RiatOIiat S RS(G A yos ).ISs2 (JDM)Wyyo“zing to FigD JDKB wpplying alb wnz aYb gifies the “elwtion xetfleen the xwtte“yfioltwge wnz the wmplituze of the “esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““entB ISs) DISs2 S j!sawj!saw A j!sas2 ARlx A 1q!sCeV ISs) (JDN)In o“ze“ to ywlyulwte the “esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““entB the input impezwnye of the WYequifiwlent yi“yuit shoulz xe oxtwinezB flhiyh ywn xe e–p“essez xyPoin(j!s) S j!sas) A (j!saw)||(j!sas2 ARlx AGj!sClx) S |oin| zq. (JDO)ene of the wzfiwntwges of the p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is the ywpwxility to p“oteyt thefullCx“izge infie“te“ f“om output ofie“ yu““ent wnz sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionsD In ofie“ yu““entyonzitionsB Riat → F wnz xy yonsize“ing (JDO)B opu floulz xe ws folloflsPoin(j!s) S j!sas) A j!saw||j!sas2 (JDGF)In this ywseB the infie“te“ sflityhes w“e lowzez xy wn inzuyto“ thwt ywn limit the sflityhesyu““ent wnz wlso lowz yu““entD In fwytB the “esonwnt yi“yuit p“ofiizes wn inhe“ent sho“t yi“yuitp“oteytion wt wny ope“wting f“equenyy fo“ the fullCx“izge infie“te“D In the WY equifiwlentyi“yuitB the funzwmentwl yomponent of the “esonwnt yi“yuit input fioltwge (vHI)(t)) ywn xeoxtwinez ws folloflsPvHI) SJkpu.sin (!st) (JDGG)Wyyo“zing to FigD JDK wnz [qsD (JDO) wnz (JDGG)B the wmplituze of ISs) (ceiF[jsONIC2C htevyy htvte Vnvlysis of aIC gesonvnt Converteryu““ent) ywn xe oxtwinez ws folloflsPISs) SJkpu.|oin(j!s)| (JDGH)jhe follofling no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s w“e int“ozuyez fo“ the “esonwnt yi“yuitDa S aw A as2 P au Sas)awP as Sas)as2Po0 S√aCtP fS SRSo0P !0 SG√aCtP !u S!s!0(JDGI)Yonsize“ing [qD (JDM)B(JDN)B wnz (JDGH) the no“mwlizez fioltwge gwin of the aIC “esonwntyonfie“te“ is oxtwinez ws folloflsPMv SkiatkpuSfSo0(G A yos ).kpuOq!SSsSS+Sssic2  !SA j( !SSsSS+SsA !SSSSS+Ss−  −sic cos !S) J.|oin(j!u)| (JDGJ)flhe“e S yos−1(. − H!0fS. A H!0fS) (JDGK)In the ne–t seytionB [qD (JDGJ) flill xe employez to stuzy the fioltwge gwin xehwfiio“ of theaIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ wnz its ywpwxility fo“ e–t“eme “egulwtionB flhile yonsize“ing inputimpezwnye phwse of the “esonwnt yi“yuit fo“ soft sflityhing yonzitionDOOICHC gesonvnt eower Converter DesignICH gesonvnt eofier Converter DesignIn this seytionB the zesign p“oyezu“e flill xe p“esentez fo“ pofle“ yonzitioning of w IKFlsolw“ fl pwnel to high fioltwge xwtte“y pwykB using p“oposez aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“D jhemwin oxjeytifie zu“ing zesign p“oyezu“e is to zesign aIC in suyh w flwy ws to yofie“ wll “eCgions of the fofle“Cloltwge plwne p“esentez in FigD JDG(x) wnz “egulwte the xwtte“y fioltwgef“om kiat S HIFk DC to kiat S JIFk DCD Wyyo“zing to the stewzyCstwte wnwlysis of theaIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“B the equwtions oxtwinez fo“ aIC stewzy stwte yonzition is w funyCtion of th“ee no“mwlizez fiw“iwxles (auB asB wnz fS)B mwking the zesign w multizimensionwloptimizwtion p“oxlem flith multiple t“wzeoff yhwllengesD jhe zesi“ez no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sshoulz xe seleytez in suyh w flwy to p“ofiize essentiwl fioltwge gwin (w“ounz GF) fo“ xoostingthe fioltwge f“om the fl pwnel to the high fioltwge xwtte“y (f“om kwv S HJ − JKk DC tok ′iat S HIFk DC − JIFk DC) flhile p“ofiizing soft sflityhing yonzitions fo“ wll semiyonzuyCto“ zefiiyesD In this yhwpte“B the fiwlues of the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s w“e seleytez xwsez onmw–imum “equi“ez fioltwge gwin in ziffe“ent input fioltwge yonzitions wnz essentiwl outputfioltwge “egulwtionsB wnz the fiwlues of the input impezwnye phwse neezez to wyhiefie pli inwll yonzitionsB wnz similw“ to p“efiious yhwpte“sB Zesign of [–pe“iment cethozology (Zo[)hws xeen employezD Xwsez on the oxtwinez no“mwlizez equwtions fo“ input impezwnye phwsewnz fioltwge gwinB p“esentez in [qsD JDO wnz JDGJ “espeytifielyB the xehwfiiou“ of the “esonwntyonfie“te“ is stuziez using Zo[ fo“ w flize “wnge of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s flith yonsize“wtionof inputCoutput fioltwge fiw“iwtionsB flhiyh lewzs to au S FOHKB as S KB wnz fS S H ws theoptimum no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sD In this ywseB fS S H p“esents the lowz yonzition “elwtez tomw–imum output fioltwge wnz output pofle“B kiat S JIFk DC wnz evut S IKFl wt minimumope“wting tempe“wtu“e wnz mw–imum i““wziwnye (−HF◦C wnz GFFFlRm2)D FigD JDL p“esentsthe fioltwge t“wnsfe“ funytion MvB wnz the input impezwnye phwse < fie“sus no“mwlizez f“eCquenyy fo“ seleytez fiwlues of no“mwlizez pw“wmete“sD jhe mwin speyiywtions of the xwtte“yGFFICHC gesonvnt eower Converter DesignNormalized Frequency1(a)1.5 2 2.5 31023Voltage GainM  =2.2vM  =1.2vf  =1.6nQ  =0.6LQ  =0.7LQ  =2LQ  =2.5LNormalized Frequency1(b)1.5 2 2.5 3-50050100Phase of the Input Impedanceφ=35φ=37 φ=37φ=39Q  =0.6LQ  =0.7LQ  =2LQ  =2.5LFigu“e JDLP FHW wnwlysis of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ au S FOHKB wnz as S KB flithyonstwnt fiwlues fo“ no“mwlizez lowz “esistwnyes (fS)P (w) cwgnituze of fioltwge t“wnsfe“funytion (Mv)B wnz (x) fhwse of the input impezwnye (<)Dyhw“ge“ w“e p“esentez in jwxle JDGD Wyyo“zing to jwxle JDGB the “esonwnt f“equenyy is equwl tof0 S GJFkHzD jhe“efo“eB the sflityhing f“equenyy is ywlyulwtez using the follofling equwtionPf0 S GJFkHzP fu S HP fu Sfsf0S⇒ fs S H× GJF S HNFkHz (JDGL)jhe fioltwge gwin wt fu S H (x“ofln yu“fieB fS S H) fo“ the nominwl lowz yonzitions w“egifien ws folloflsPMv S H for fS S HP au S FOHKP as S K (JDGM)jhe“efo“eB the pw“wllel “esonwnt ywpwyito“ fioltwge (output fioltwge) wnz t“wnsfo“me“ tu“nsC“wtio w“e ywlyulwtez ws folloflsPGFGICHC gesonvnt eower Converter Designjwxle JDGP aIC f“ototype flwtfo“m fw“wmete“sdurumytyrs Vuluy]nput Voltugy, VNn F4− 4IV NMVuttyry Voltugy, V ′bat;n F3D− 43DV NMaufiimum cutput dowyr, Zout 3IDagwitwhing Fryquynwy fungy, ps EID− 3IDuRzVusyx fysonunt Fryquynwy, p0 E4DuRzFirst gyriys fysonunt ]nxuwtunwy, Vs1 3D7IRgywonx gyriys fysonunt ]nxuwtunwy, Vs2 DD7Rdurullyl fysonunt ]nxuwtunwy, Vp EIRdurullyl fysonunt Cupuwitunwy, Ms InPhrunsformyr hurn's futio, n =NpNs4 N E8kiatBu SMvOkpu S HOH ∗ JJOK S ONk DCP n S cwcsSkiatBuk ′iatBuS⇒ n S JIFONS JOJ (JDGN)Wyyo“zing to [qD JDGGB the yhw“wyte“istiy impezwnye wnz “esonwnye f“equenyy w“e gifienxyPRS Skiat2evutP o0 SRSfSS⇒ o0 S kiat2evutfSS GIONΩP !0 S!s!uS HNF.z3 (JDGO)jhe“efo“eB the “esonwnt yomponents w“e oxtwinez ws folloflsPa So0!0S GKOMHP Cw SGo0O!0S NHnFP as) S IOMKHP aw S GKHP as2 S FOMH (JDHF)jhe aIC “esonwnt yi“yuit pw“wmete“s usez in the e–pe“imentwl p“ototype w“e summw“izezin jwxle JDGDGFHICIC Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtionICI Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtionIn o“ze“ to infiestigwte the pe“fo“mwnye of the p“oposez fou“th o“ze“ aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“fo“ e–t“eme inputCoutput “egulwtionB w p“ototype plwtfo“m hws xeen employez to e–t“wyt themw–imum oxtwinwxle yofie“wge of FigD JDG(x) unze“ minimum wnz mw–imum output fioltwge“egulwtionD jhe yomponentsB flhiyh w“e usez in the p“ototypesB w“e shofln in jwxle JDHDWyyo“zing to jwxle JDGB the sflityhing f“equenyy “wnge is xetfleen GKFkHz wnz IKFkHzB wnzthe f“equenyy fo“ mw–imum output pofle“ wt mw–imum output fioltwge is set to xe HNFkHzDZue to high yu““ent wmplituze in the p“imw“y sizeB w high effiyienyy fullCx“izge infie“te“ flithlofl onC“esistwnye ceiF[j is usez to yonfie“t the input ZY fioltwge to w highCf“equenyyWY fioltwgeD jhe “esonwnt twnk yonsists of wn e–te“nwl wi“Cyo“e inzuyto“ (alxt S JOHHse“ies plwyez in the t“wnsfo“me“=s p“imw“y size)B wn e–te“nwl pw“wllel ywpwyito“ (plwyez inthe seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“)B wnz the pw“wsitiy yomponents of the t“wnsfo“me“(inyluzing p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y lewkwge inzuytwnyes wnz mwgnetizing inzuytwnye)D FigsDJDMCJDGF shofl the e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ the minimum wnz mw–imum output fioltwge unze“ziffe“ent input fioltwge wnz input pofle“ yonzitions (mw–imum pofle“ point p“esentez in FigDJDI)D [wyh gu“e yontwins fullCx“izge infie“te“ fioltwgeB “esonwnt yi“yuit yu““entB t“wnsfo“me“seyonzw“y size fioltwgeB wnz t“wnsfo“me“ seyonzw“y size yu““entD FigsD JDMCJDGF shofl the“esponse of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ to fiw“iwtion of the input fioltwgeB flhiyh w“e ywusezws w “esult of eithe“ yhwnges in fl pwnel i““wziwnyeB o“ tempe“wtu“eD Ws mentionez in theint“ozuytionB the xwtte“y yhw“ge“ must xe wxle to “esponz to ziffe“ent mozes of the yhw“gewlgo“ithms wnz t“wyk the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion in o“ze“ to t“wnsfe“ the mw–imum wfiwilwxlepofle“D Wyyo“zing to p“esentez e–pe“imentwl “esultsB the p“oposez fou“th o“ze“ aIC “esonwntyonfie“te“ ywn “egulwte the output fioltwge in w flize “wnge ((kiat S HIF − JIFk DC))B wnzt“wyk the input fioltwge fiw“iwtion fo“ e–t“wyting the mw–imum wfiwilwxle pofle“ f“om fl pwnelGFIICIC Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtionjwxle JDHP Yomponents flwtfo“m of the aIC hesonwnt Yonfie“te“sComponynt Zkrt Xumlor RktsngsacgFEh's STRF4DXEDP EDDV NM; E8DAfysonunt CupB Pslm MkzD 8DFnP; E6DDV NMfysonunt ]nxB AsrMoro Vstzasrohrunsformyr 3MMI RWE4fywtiyr Dioxy M3ND4D6D 6DDV NM; 4Acutput Cupuwitor Pslm Mkzkmstor EDIuP; 63DV NMusing the sflityhing f“equenyy mozulwtionDIn o“ze“ to p“ofiize soft sflityhing yonzitions fo“ pofle“ ceiF[jsB the phwse wngle of theinput impezwnye shoulz xe positifieD Wyyo“zing to e–pe“imentwl “esultsB the ze“o y“ossingsof the “esonwnt yi“yuit input yu““ent w“e flithin the infie“te“ output fioltwge pulse wnzB ws w“esultB in wll of the yonzitions zesy“ixezB the fullCx“izge sflityhes w“e fully tu“nez on unze“ze“o fioltwgeD en the othe“ hwnzB to p“ofiize highCquwlity output fioltwge wnz mw–imizethe yonfie“te“ effiyienyyB it is fiitwl to “ewlize soft yommutwtion fo“ the output “eytie“ ziozesDXwsiywllyB the “efie“se “eyofie“y yu““ent of output “eytie“ ziozes zu“ing the tu“nCoff t“wnsitionlewzs to high fioltwge pewks wy“oss output ziozes wnz ws w “esultB ziozes flith mo“e flithstwnzfioltwge shoulz xe seleytezB flhiyh mewns mo“e yonzuytion lossesD Wyyo“zing to the flwfiefo“msof the fioltwge wnz yu““ent on the seyonzw“y size of the t“wnsfo“me“B pYi is p“ofiizez fo“output “eytie“ ziozesB wnz the fioltwge pewk is eliminwtezD Ws inziywtez in FigsD JDMCJDGFBin the enz of the pofle“ t“wnsfe“ inte“fiwlB onye iSs2 “ewyhes ze“oB the output ziozes= yu““entsmoothly “ewyhes ze“oD jhis ywuses pYi wt tu“nCoff wnz wfioizs wny “efie“se “eyofie“y losses inthe output ziozesD In wzzitionB the fioltwge wy“oss the ziozes is smooth wnz sinusoizwl zu“ingthe sflityhing t“wnsitions flhiyh lewzs to minimum negwtifie impwyt of the zioze junytionywpwyitwnye in t“wnsient timeD Ws p“esentez xefo“e in the yonfie“te“ wnwlysisB the p“oposezGFJICIC Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtion(a)Trans.SecondaryCurrentInverterVoltageTrans.SecondaryVoltageResonantCurrentTime/Div=1usZeroCrossingZVS AngleRectifierOn-StateRectifierOff-State(b) (c)(d) (e)ZCSFigu“e JDMP aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ mw–imum xwtte“y fioltwge (k ′iat SJIFk DC)B –ez wmxient tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C)B wnz ziffe“ent i““wziwnyeP (w) GFFFlRm2P kpu SIMk DC wnz epu S HOLl B (x) NFFlRm2P kpu S ILk DC wnz epu S HIHl B (y) LFFlRm2Pkpu S IKk DC wnz epu S GLOl B (z) JFFlRm2P kpu S IIk DC wnz epu S GFNl B wnz (e)HFFlRm2P kpu S IGk DC wnz epu S KFl DGFKICIC Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtion(a)(b) (c)(d) (e)Trans.SecondaryCurrentInverterVoltageTrans.SecondaryVoltageResonantCurrentTime/Div=1usZeroCrossingZVS AngleRectifierOn-StateRectifierOff-StateZCSFigu“e JDNP aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ mw–imum xwtte“y fioltwge(k ′iat S JIFk DC)B –ez i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2)B wnz ziffe“ent tempe“wtu“eP (w) −HF◦CPkpu S JKk DC wnz epu S ILKl B (x) F◦CP kpu S JGk DC wnz epu S IIKl B (y) HF◦CPkpu S IMk DC wnz epu S IFJl B (z) JF◦C kpu S IJk DC wnz epu S HMHl B wnz (e) LF◦Ckpu S IFk DC wnz epu S HJGl DGFLICIC Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtion(a)(b) (c)(d) (e)Trans.SecondaryCurrentInverterVoltageTrans.SecondaryVoltageResonantCurrentNo VoltageSpikeZeroCrossingZVS AngleRectifierOn-StateRectifierOff-StateTime/Div=1usZCSFigu“e JDOP aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ minimum xwtte“y fioltwge (k ′iat SHIFk DC)B –ez wmxient tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C)B wnz ziffe“ent i““wziwnyeP (w) GFFFlRm2P kpu SIMk DC wnz epu S HOLl B (x) NFFlRm2P kpu S ILk DC wnz epu S HIHl B (y) LFFlRm2Pkpu S IKk DC wnz epu S GLOl B (z) JFFlRm2P kpu S IIk DC wnz epu S GFNl B wnz (e)HFFlRm2P kpu S IGk DC wnz epu S KFl DGFMICIC Zxperimentvl gesults vny iheory kvliyvtion(a)(b) (c)(d) (e)Trans.SecondaryCurrentInverterVoltageTrans.SecondaryVoltageResonantCurrentNo VoltageSpikeRectifierOn-StateRectifierOff-StateZeroCrossingZVS AngleTime/Div=1usZCSFigu“e JDGFP aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ e–pe“imentwl “esults fo“ minimum xwtte“y fioltwge(k ′iat S HIFk DC)B –ez i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2)B wnz ziffe“ent tempe“wtu“eP (w) −HF◦CPkpu S JKk DC wnz epu S ILKl B (x) F◦CP kpu S JGk DC wnz epu S IIKl B (y) HF◦CPkpu S IMk DC wnz epu S IFJl B (z) JF◦CP kpu S IJk DC wnz epu S HMHl B wnz (e) LF◦CPkpu S IFk DC wnz epu S HJGl DGFNIC5C hummvryTrans.SecondaryVoltageInverterVoltageTrans.SecondaryCurrentResonantCurrentTime/Div=1usPeak-PeakCurrentFigu“e JDGGP aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ sho“t yi“yuit test wt minimum sflityhing f“equenyy(fs S GMMkHz) wnz mw–imum input fioltwge (kpu S JJk DC)aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ hws the ywpwxility to p“oteyt the fullCx“izge infie“te“ f“om outputofie“ yu““ent wnz sho“t yi“yuit yonzitionsD FigD JDGG p“esents the yonfie“te“ mwin flwfiefo“msunze“ output sho“t yi“yuit yonzition wnz mw–imum input fioltwge yonzitionD Wyyo“zing toFigD JDGGB the yonfie“te“ ywn swfely flo“k unze“ output sho“t yi“yuit yonzition wnz p“oteytsthe full x“izge ceiF[jB flhiyh ywn fwyilitwte the yont“ol wnz p“oteytion yi“yuit zesignD FigDJDGH p“esents the effiyienyy yu“fies of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s fo“ ziffe“ent input fioltwgewnz output fioltwgesD [wyh point in FigD JDGH “elwtez to one e–pe“imentwl testB p“esentez inFigsD JDMCJDGFD Wyyo“zing to these yu“fiesB the “esonwnt yonfie“te“s zesignez fo“ this stuzyp“esent w mw–imum effiyienyy equwl to OMOK;DIC5 hummvryjhis yhwpte“ int“ozuyez the aIC “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ flith e–t“eme “egulwtion ywpwxilCityB flhiyh ywn xe employez ws w xwtte“y yhw“ge“ fo“ fl systems flith highCfioltwge xwtte“yGFOIC5C hummvryxwnksD jhe mwin wzfiwntwges of the p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ w“e its wxility to t“wyk inputfioltwge fiw“iwtion of the fl pwnelB wnz “egulwte the output fioltwge in w flize “wnge ws the mw–Cimum pofle“ point yontinuwlly yhwngesD Zespite othe“ flellCknofln “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s(eDgD aaCPaCCPaCaCB aICH)B the p“oposez topology zoes not employ w se“ies “esonwntywpwyito“ in the p“imw“y size of the yonfie“te“B flhiyh mwkes the yhw“ge“ zesign ewsie“ in te“msof yomponent seleytionsD WlsoB soft sflityhing of the ceiF[js wnz output “eytie“ ziozesp“ofiize high effiyienyyB wnz the ywpwxility of flo“king in high sflityhing f“equenyyD In spiteof the fwyt thwt the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is wxle to p“ofiize wn e–t“eme “egulwtion fo“ flto xwtte“y pwyk wppliywtionsB the yi“yulwting yu““ent in the p“imw“y size of the aIC “esonwntyonfie“te“ is highe“ thwn othe“ stuziez “esonwnt topologies (aaCB aICH)D iinye this yonfie“te“hws fie“y lofl “esistwnye elements in the p“imw“y sizeB this yi“yulwting yu““ent zoes not wffeytthe effiyienyy wnz just iny“ewses the yu““ent st“ess fo“ the p“imw“y ceiF[jsD WlsoB the highf“equenyy t“wnsfo“me“ is fie“y sensitifie to wny kinz of mismwtyh fo“ the p“imw“y gwte signwls(it xeyomes swtu“wtez)D jhis mewns thwt the gwte signwlsB flhiyh w“e wppliez to ceiF[jsBhwfie to xe yompletely symmet“iywlB flhiyh neyessitwtes hwfiing wn wyyu“wte wnz similw“ z“ifie“fo“ wll gwte signwlsDGGFIC5C hummvry848892961000 100 200 300 400Efficiency%PV Panel Output PowerIrradiance variation at V    =235VDCbat(a)1000W/m1000W/m22800W/m800W/m22600W/m600W/m22400W/m400W/m22200W/m200W/m2225 C°Constant Surface Temperature,84889296100Efficiency%220 260 300 340 380PV Panel Output Power(b)1000W/m2Constant Solar Irradiance,Temperature variation at V    =235VDCbat-20 C-20 C°0 C0 C°20 C20 C°40 C40 C°60 C60 C°′ ′848892961000 100 200 300 400Efficiency%PV Panel Output Power(c)1000W/m1000W/m22800W/m800W/m22600W/m600W/m22400W/m400W/m22200W/m200W/m2225 C°Constant Surface Temperature,84889296100Efficiency%220 260 300 340 380PV Panel Output Power(d)1000W/m2Constant Solar Irradiance,-20 C-20 C°0 C0 C°20 C20 C°40 C40 C°60 C60 C°Irradiance variation at V    =430VDCbat′ Temperature variation at V    =430VDCbat′Figu“e JDGHP [ffiyienyy yu“fies of the aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ ziffe“ent yonzitionsB w) [ffiCyienyy fo“ yonstwnt su“fwye tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C) wnz i““wziwnye fiw“iwtions wt kvut S HIKk DCBx) [ffiyienyy fo“ yonstwnt solw“ i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2) wnz tempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtions wt kvut SHIKk DCB y) [ffiyienyy fo“ yonstwnt su“fwye tempe“wtu“e (HK◦C) wnz i““wziwnye fiw“iwtions wtkvut S JIFk DCB z) [ffiyienyy fo“ yonstwnt solw“ i““wziwnye (GFFFlRm2) wnz tempe“wtu“efiw“iwtions wt kvut S JIFk DCDGGGChvpter 5Conxlusions5CF Conxlusions vny Contriwutionsjo eliminwte the negwtifie effeyt of the xu“st moze st“wtegy fo“ mezium wnz high pofle“xwtte“y yhw“ge“s wnz p“ofiize e–t“eme “egulwtion fo“ solw“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB this zisse“twtione–plo“ez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ topologies fo“ ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“sD jhe p“oposez solutionsywn suyyessfully xe employez fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB wnz ywn yofie“ ziffe“ent pofle“lefiels f“om lofl to high pofle“ wppliywtionsD5CFCF Wurst boye Zliminvtion in High eofier aaC gesonvntWvttery ChvrgerIn o“ze“ to eliminwte xu“st moze issues fo“ high pofle“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB w speyiwlaaC twnk zesign methoz z“ifien xy xoth lw“iwxle F“equenyy (lF) wnz fhwse ihift (fi)mozulwtion flws int“ozuyez in Yhwpte“ H to wyhiefie wll the “egulwtion “equi“ements fo“ highpofle“ xwtte“y yhw“ging wppliywtionsD jhe zesign p“oyezu“e flws xwsez on the multifiw“iwtezesign methozology wnz “esultez in wzfiwntwgeous e–t“eme “egulwtion in the yonfie“te“ wnzthe eliminwtion of zet“imentwl xu“st moze ope“wtionD jhe yomplete wnwlysis of the “esonwntyonfie“te“ (highe“ o“ze“ inyluzing lewkwge inzuytwnye)B wlong flith mwthemwtiywl equwtionsBfle“e p“esentez in o“ze“ to optimize wnz seleyt the no“mwlizez pw“wmete“s of the aaC “esonwntyonfie“te“D jhe mwin wzfiwntwge of the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith the p“oposez mozulwtionGGH5CFC Conxlusions vny Contriwutionsst“wtegy is its wxility to “egulwte the output fioltwge f“om new“Cze“o fiolts up to GDK times thenominwl fioltwge in yontinuous yonzuytion moze flith lofl sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtionB flhilep“ofiizing soft sflityhing yonzitions fo“ semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyes in wll ope“wting yonzitionsD jheloflC“ipple output fioltwge enhwnyez the quwlity of the yhw“ging yu““ent fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“wppliywtions in wll yonzitionsB espeyiwlly the “eyofie“y “egionB the“exy p“ofiizing w loflCnoiseenfii“onment fo“ the “eliwxle ope“wtion of the Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystemD jhe e–pe“imentwl“esults e–t“wytez f“om w Ikl p“ototype plwtfo“m p“ofiez thwt the aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“flith this speyiwl mozulwtion st“wtegy yofie“ez wlmost wll “egions in the lCI plwneB wnz hwz wpewk effiyienyy of OLOK;B flhiyh ywn xe employez ws w high pofle“B flize fioltwge “egulwto“ fo“xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsD5CFCG Improving the gegulvtion gvnge of Zk Wvttery Chvrgersfiith aICH gesonvnt Convertersjhe seyonz teyhniywl yhwllengeB flhiyh flws wxout ZYCZY pofle“ yonfie“te“s fo“ mezium pofle“lefiel wppliywtionsB flws wzz“essez in Yhwpte“ ID Yhwpte“ I int“ozuyez the multiC“esonwntaICH “esonwnt topology ws w pofle“ yonfie“te“ fo“ mezium pofle“ lefiel thwt ywn “egulwte theoutput fioltwge in w flize “wngeB f“om new“ ze“o fioltwgeB ze“o yu““ent to the mw–imum outputpofle“B flithout using xu“st moze ope“wtionD jhe yomplete wnwlysis of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“wlong flith mwthemwtiywl equwtions fle“e p“esentezD jhe equwtions fle“e wxle to p“eyiselyp“eziyt the xehwfiiou“ of the yonfie“te“D Zue to flize output fioltwge “egulwtionB the p“oposez“esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywn “esponz to yhw“ge wlgo“ithms of ziffe“ent kinzs of xwtte“iesB suyh wsbewzCwyiz wnz biCIon wnz is w gooz ywnzizwte fo“ use ws w yhw“ge“ in eleyt“iy fiehiylesD jhemwin wzfiwntwge of the p“oposez “esonwnt yonfie“te“ is its wxility to “efiitwlize zewz xwtte“iesin yontinuous yonzuytion mozeD jhe loflC“ipple output fioltwge enhwnyes the quwlity of theyhw“ging yu““ent in the “eyofie“y “egionB the“exy iny“ewsing the life yyyle of the xwtte“yD WlsoBGGI5CFC Conxlusions vny Contriwutionssoft sflityhing of the ceiF[js wnz output “eytie“ ziozes p“ofiize high effiyienyyB wnz theywpwxility of flo“king in high sflityhing f“equenyy flithout wny limitwtionD jhe simulwtionwnz e–pe“imentwl “esults oxtwinez f“om w OLk DCP OKFl pofle“ plwtfo“m fie“ify the theo“etiywlwnwlysis wnz the pe“fo“mwnye of the p“oposez yonfie“te“ in te“ms of yofie“wge in the lCI plwneD5CFCH Fourth dryer aIC gesonvnt Converter for ek WvtteryChvrger vpplixvtionsjhe thi“z yont“ixution wnz teyhniywl yhwllengeB flhiyh flws wxout “esew“yhing w pofle“ yonCfie“te“ flith e–t“eme “egulwtion fo“ solw“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsB flws wzz“essez in YhwpCte“ JD Yhwpte“ J int“ozuyez the aIC “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ thwt ywn xe employez ws wxwtte“y yhw“ge“ fo“ fl to xwtte“y wppliywtionsD jhe mwin wzfiwntwge of the p“oposez “esoCnwnt yonfie“te“ is its wxility to t“wyk the mw–imum pofle“ point of the fl pwnelB flhiyh ywnyhwnge zue to solw“ i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“e fiw“iwtionB wnz “egulwte the output fioltwgein w flize “wngeD WlsoB soft sflityhing of the ceiF[js wnz output “eytie“ ziozes p“ofiizehigh effiyienyyB wnz the ywpwxility of flo“king in high sflityhing f“equenyyD co“eofie“B zespiteothe“ flellCknofln “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ (eDgD aaCPaCCPaCaCB aICH)B the p“oposeztopology zoes not employ w se“ies “esonwnt ywpwyito“ in the p“imw“y size of the yonfie“te“Bflhiyh mwkes the yhw“ge“ zesign ewsie“ in te“ms of yomponent seleytionsD jhe yomplete wnwlCysis of the “esonwnt yonfie“te“ wlong flith mwthemwtiywl equwtions fle“e p“esentezD WlsoB thegene“wl equwtions fo“ solw“ fl pwnel fle“e e–t“wytez wnz employez to zete“mine the fiw“iwtionof fioltwgeCpofle“ yhw“wyte“istiys of w fl mozule fie“sus i““wziwnye wnz tempe“wtu“e yhwngesDjhe e–pe“imentwl “esults oxtwinez f“om w IKFl pofle“ plwtfo“m fie“ify the theo“etiywl wnwlCysis wnz the pe“fo“mwnye of the p“oposez yonfie“te“ in te“ms of t“wyking the input fioltwgefiw“iwtions wnz flize output fioltwge “egulwtionDjhe yonyepts int“ozuyez in wll yhwpte“s of this flo“k fle“e tho“oughly testez e–pe“imentwllyGGJ5CFC Conxlusions vny Contriwutionsin o“ze“ to p“ofie the fiwlizwtion of the p“oposez “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s wnz mozulwtionst“wtegies fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsD Wlthough the p“oposez highCo“ze“ “esonwnt pofle“yonfie“te“s ywn p“ofiize w “ipple f“ee yhw“ging yu““ent fo“ xwtte“y pwyksB xut zue to the yomCple–ity of highCo“ze“ “esonwnt yi“yuits the optimum zesign p“oyezu“e is not st“wightfo“flw“zwnz neezs mo“e effo“ts in yompw“ison flith thi“z o“ze“ “esonwnt (aaCB aCC) wnz fmcCtypeyonfie“te“sD5CFCI hpexix Vxvyemix Contriwutionsjhe flo“k in this zisse“twtion w“e “epo“tez in tflo jou“nwl puxliywtions wnz si– inte“nwtionwlyonfe“enye pwpe“s so fw“D jhe flo“k enyompwsses wppliywtions f“om lofl to high pofle“B wnzhws p“esentez the xenets outlinez in this zisse“twtionDjhe follofling puxliywtion int“ozuyez moziez aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ high pofle“xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliywtionsP• cC hhveiB cD e“zonezB cD Y“wyiunB cD [zingtonB wnz YD XottingB rHigh pofle“ aaCxwtte“y yhw“ge“P flize “egulwtion using phwseCshift fo“ “eyofie“y mozeB8 in IEEE EnyrgyConvyrsion Congryss unx Efipo (ECCE)B HFGJB ppD HFIMCHFJHD qGs• cC hhveiB cD e“zonezB cD Y“wyiunB YD XottingB wnz cD [zingtonB rXu“st mozeeliminwtion in highCpofle“ aaC “esonwnt xwtte“y yhw“ge“ fo“ eleyt“iy fiehiylesB8 IEEEhrunsuwtions on dowyr ElywtroniwsB fiolD IGB noD HB ppD GGMICGGNNB FexD HFGLD qHsjhe follofling puxliywtion int“ozuyez fth o“ze“ aICH “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ fo“ meziumlefiel pofle“ wppliywtionsP• cC hhveiB cD e“zonezB mD [xe“leB reutput “eytie“ wnwlysis in pw“wllel wnz se“iesCpw“wllel “esonwnt yonfie“te“s flith pu“e ywpwyitifie output lte“B8 in IEEE Uppliyx dowyrElywtroniws Conzyrynwy unx Efiposition (UdEC)B HFGJB ppD OCGID qIsGGK5CFC Conxlusions vny Contriwutions• cC hhveiB cD e“zonezB rImp“ofiing the “egulwtion “wnge of [l xwtte“y yhw“ge“s flithaICH “esonwnt yonfie“te“sB8 IEEE hrunsuwtions on dowyr ElywtroniwsB fiolD IFB noD LBppD IGLLCIGNJB June HFGKD qJsjhe follofling puxliywtion int“ozuyez the aIC “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“ flith high fioltwgegwin fo“ solw“ fhotofioltwiy wppliywtionsP• cC hhveiB cD e“zonezB YD XottingB cD Y“wyiunB wnz cD [zingtonB rFou“th o“ze“aIC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ fo“ flize output fioltwge “egulwtionB8 in IEEE Uppliyx dowyrElywtroniws Conzyrynwy unx Efiposition (UdEC)B HFGKB ppD GJLMCGJMGD qKsjhe “esew“yh on xwtte“y yhw“ge“ zesign p“oyezu“e wnz optimizwtion in “esonwnt pofle“yonfie“te“s “esultez in the follofling puxliywtionsP• cC hhveiB cD e“zonezB iD hD YofieB cD Y“wyiunB wnz YD XottingB rWyyu“wte mozelingwnz zesign of aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith plwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“sB8 in HFGK I[[[ [ne“gyYonfie“sion Yong“ess wnz [–position ([YY[)B iept HFGKB ppD KJLNCKJMID qLs• cC hhveiB iD WD W“efw“B cD WD iwketB wnz cD e“zonezB rHigh effiyienyy aaC yonCfie“te“ zesign fo“ unifie“swl xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB8 in HFGL I[[[ Wppliez fofle“ [leyt“oniysYonfe“eny ewnz [–position (Wf[Y)B cw“yh HFGLB ppD HKLGCHKLLD qMsiome puxliywtions “esultez f“om yollwxo“wtifie “esew“yh w“ounz mwgnetiy zesign fo“ plwnw“t“wnsfo“me“s wnz high effiyienyy “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sP• WD iwketB cC hhveiB wnz cD e“zonezB raaC Yonfie“te“s flith flwnw“ j“wnsfo“me“sPIssues wnz citigwtionB8 IEEE hrunsuwtions on dowyr ElywtroniwsB fiolD IHB noD LB ppDJKHJCJKJHB June HFGMD qGHNs• iD YofieB cD e“zonezB cC hhveiB wnz JD phuB rImp“ofiing fli“eless pofle“ t“wnsfe“effiyienyy using hollofl flinzing flith t“wykCflizthC“wtioB8 IEEE hrunsuwtions on dowyrElywtroniwsB fiolD IGB noD OB ppD LKHJCLKIIB iepD HFGLD qGHOsGGL5C2C Future lork• WD iwketB cC hhveiB wnz cD e“zonezB rflwnw“ j“wnsfo“me“s flith Inhe“ent doise YwnCyellwtion fo“ Flyxwyk wnz Fo“flw“z Yonfie“te“sB8 {IEEE hrunsuwtions on dowyr ElywAtroniwsB [w“ly WyyessD• WD iwketB cC hhveiB wnz cD e“zonezB rflwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“ flinzing teyhnique fo““ezuyez ywpwyitwnye in aaC pofle“ yonfie“te“sB8 in HFGL I[[[ [ne“gy Yonfie“sionYong“ess wnz [–position ([YY[)B iept HFGLD• WD iwketB cC hhveiB wnz cD e“zonezB rflwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“s flith no yommon mozenoise gene“wtion fo“ yxwyk wnz fo“flw“z yonfie“te“sB8 in HFGL I[[[ Wppliez fofle“[leyt“oniys Yonfe“enye wnz [–position (Wf[Y)B cw“yh HFGMD• cD cohwmmwziB cC hhveiB wnz cD e“zonezB raaC synyh“onous “eytiywtion usCing yoo“zinwte mozulwtionB8 in HFGL I[[[ Wppliez fofle“ [leyt“oniys Yonfe“enye wnz[–position (Wf[Y)B cw“yh HFGLB ppD NJNCNKID qGIFs• WD iwketB cC hhveiB wnz cD e“zonezB rbofl pw“wsitiys plwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“ fo“ aaC“esonwnt xwtte“y yhw“ge“B8 in HFGL I[[[ Wppliez fofle“ [leyt“oniys Yonfe“enye wnz[–position (Wf[Y)B cw“yh HFGLB ppD NKJCNKND qGIGs• pD guB lD ZwywlB JD ZongB hD iwnghwB cC hhveiB WD W“efw“B cD e“zonezB cD Y“wyiunBYD XottingB rYomp“ehensifie pofle“ ceiF[j mozel fo“ bbY “esonwnt yonfie“te“ in “eCneflwxle ene“gy wppliywtionB8 in HFGL I[[[ fofle“ [leyt“oniys fo“ Zist“ixutez ]ene“wCtion iystems (f[Z])B June HFGLB ppD GCKD qOJs5CG Future lorkWlthough the mwin foyus of this thesis flws on ZYCZY “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“s flith e–Ct“eme “egulwtion flith the speyiy wppliywtion fo“ eleyt“iy fiehiylesB the p“oposez topologiesGGM5C2C Future lorkwnz mozulwtion st“wtegies ywn xe employez in wny ene“gy system flith “eyhw“gewxle xwtte“ypwyks ws w ene“gy sto“wge (eDgD “eneflwxle ene“gy systems)D jhis fiw“iety of xwtte“y yhw“ge“swppliywtions inziywtes the impo“twnye of mo“e “esew“yh wnz stuzy on the w“ew of ZYCZY“esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“sD jhis flo“k opens up mwny full w“ews of “esew“yh “egw“zing zesignoptimizwtionB wnz pe“fo“mwnye imp“ofiement fo“ cwste“s wnz fhZ stuzentsD Ws w stw“tingpoint fo“ futu“e flo“kB some “esew“yh hws xeen zone xy the wutho“ on zesign optimizwtion wnzpe“fo“mwnye imp“ofiement fo“ ZYCZY “esonwnt pofle“ yonfie“te“B flhiyh puxlishez in I[[[inte“nwtionwl yonfe“enyesD qLB MB GIFB GIHs• flwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“ wppliywtions fo“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“sP In o“ze“ to zesign wnz fwx“iywtelofl p“ole (slim) “esonwnt yonfie“te“sB it is essentiwl to “eplwye yonfientionwl fli“eCflounzmwgnetiy t“wnsfo“me“s flith lofl p“ole plwnw“ onesD In plwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“sB to zey“ewsehighCf“equenyy WY “esistwnye wnz lewkwge inzuytwnyeB the p“imw“y wnz seyonzw“y flinzCings w“e stwykez togethe“ using the inte“lewfie st“uytu“e methozB flhiyh lewzs to w highwmount of inte“Cflinzing wnz int“wCflinzing ywpwyitwnyesD jhis topiy opens w “esew“yhw“ew in the infiestigwtion of hofl to mozel plwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“sB hofl to eliminwte theflinzing ywpwyitwnye effeytsB wnz hofl to imp“ofie the fwx“iywtion p“oyessD W nefl mozelfo“ aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“s hws xeen p“esentez xwsez on fou“th o“ze“ mozel of theplwnw“ t“wnsfo“me“ qLsD• eptimizez zesign of “esonwnt yonfie“te“sP Zue to flize ope“wting f“equenyy of “esonwntyonfie“te“s ws w xwtte“y yhw“ge“B it is impo“twnt to p“opose w nefl methozology thwtfoyuses on multiple ope“wting points “wthe“ thwn oxtwining pewk effiyienyy wt one opCe“wting pointD jhe“e w“e mwny zeg“ees of f“eezom zu“ing zesign (suyh ws the seleytionof “esonwnt yi“yuit elementsB ope“wting sflityhing f“equenyyB t“wnsfo“me“ speyiywtionBmw–imum wyhiefiwxle effiyienyy)B flhiyh ziytwtes wn optimizwtion wlgo“ithm in o“ze“ tonz the optimum fiwlues of the zesign fiw“iwxlesD jhis topiy opens w “esew“yh w“ew in theGGN5C2C Future lorkinfiestigwtion of optimum zesign p“oyezu“es of “esonwnt yonfie“te“s fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“wppliywtionsD W nefl wpp“owyh fo“ zesigning wn aaC “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ws w unifie“swlxwtte“y yhw“ge“ hws xeen p“esentez flith flize yonfie“sion effiyienyy using jwxu iew“yhwlgo“ithm qMsD• jime zomwin wnwlysis of “esonwnt yonfie“te“sP jhe yu““ent methoz fo“ wnwlyzing “esoCnwnt topologies is ywllez Fi“st Hw“moniy Wpp“o–imwtion (FHW)D jhis kinz of mozelingmethoz is st“wightfo“flw“z wnz ywn xe employez fo“ zesigning the “esonwnt yonfie“te“DHoflefie“B this methoz only yonsize“s the funzwmentwl f“equenyy hw“moniy wnz is yo“C“eyt flhen the sflityhing f“equenyy fiw“iwtion is w“ounz the yi“yuit “esonwnt f“equenyyDZue to the flize f“equenyy fiw“iwtion in “esonwnt yonfie“te“s fo“ xwtte“y yhw“ge“ wppliCywtionsB the stuzy of these type of yi“yuits in the time zomwin is wn oppo“tunity top“ofiize mo“e wyyu“wte stewzy stwte wnwlysisB flhiyh ywn lewz to w mo“e wyyu“wte zesignwnz optimizwtion p“oyezu“e qGIHsD• hesonwnt yonfie“te“ effiyienyy imp“ofiementP Wlthough w “esonwnt yonfie“te“ ywn p“ofiizesoft sflityhing yonzition fo“ wll semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyesB flhiyh lewzs to hwfie w xette“effiyienyyB yonzuytifie losses in the output “eytie“ is wn oxstwyle fo“ getting the highestpossixle effiyienyy wt high output yu““ent wppliywtionsD Zue to ziffe“ent ope“wting mozesof “esonwnt yonfie“te“s ws xwtte“y yhw“ge“sB wnothe“ inte“esting topiy ws w futu“e flo“kyoulz xe the stuzy of the synyh“onous “eytie“ fo“ “esonwnt yonfie“te“ flith high outputyu““ent wppliywtionsD In qGIFsB w nefl st“wtegy “efe““ez to ws Yoo“zinwte cozulwtion hwsxeen p“esentezDGGOVppenyixesGHFVppenyix VGlossvryVC Wlte“nwting Yu““entDWMS Xwtte“y cwnwgement iystemDDC Zi“eyt Yu““entDZMI [leyt“o cwgnetiy Inte“fe“enyeDFFeS Fi–ez F“equenyy fhwse ihiftDaZD bight [mitting ZiozeDai− Ion bithiumCIon Xwtte“yDciMH diykelCcetwl Hyz“ize Xwtte“yDeCW f“intez Yi“yuit Xow“zDeFC fofle“ Fwyto“ Yo““eytionDeSelM fhwse ihift fulse mizth cozulwtionDelM fulse mizth cozulwtionDek evnzl fhoto loltwiy fwnelDk F lw“iwxle F“equenyyDoCS pe“o Yu““ent iflityhingDok S pe“o loltwge iflityhingDGHGVppenyix WHvry hfiitxhing versus hoft hfiitxhingWCF Hvry hfiitxhingHw“z sflityhing oyyu“s flhen the“e is wn ofie“lwp xetfleen the fioltwge wnz yu““ent flhen sflityhCing the semiyonzuyto“ zefiiye on wnz off qGIIsD FigD XDG shofls the sflityhing t“wnsition wnzits instwntwneous ene“gy loss zu“ing the t“wnsient time (“ez w“ew)D jhis ofie“lwp ywuses pofle“loss in the semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyeB flhiyh ywn xe ywlyulwtez xy qGIJsPesvss S kDZ × ID × fsw × (tvu A tvmm ) (XDG)Wyyo“zing to [qD (XDG)B the sflityhing f“equenyy hws w zi“eyt “elwtionship flith the pofle“loss zu“ing the t“wnsientB flhiyh “est“iyts the zesign of high effiyienyy wnz high pofle“ zensityyonfie“te“sD Hw“zCsflityhing p“oxlems ywn xe p“esentez ws folloflsPVDSDrainIDSSourceGateIDSZero+-VDSSwitching LosstontoffGateZeroFigu“e XDGP Hw“z sflityhing ceiF[j yu““ent wnz fioltwge flwfiefo“mDGHHWC2C hoft hwitxhing• iflityhing lossesD• bofl effiyienyyB espeyiwlly wt high sflityhing f“equenyyD• iemiyonzuyto“ st“essD• [cI zue to high kIDktwnz kVDSktWCG hoft hfiitxhingjhe soft sflityhing phenomenon hwppens flhen eithe“ fioltwge o“ yu““ent is fo“yez to xe ze“oxefo“e tu“ning on o“ tu“ning off the semiyonzuyto“ zefiiye qGIIsD FigD XDH shofls the sflityhingt“wnsition of w soft sflityhez semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyeD Wyyo“zing to FigD XDHB the semiyonzuyto“yu““ent is ze“o flhen the fioltwge wy“oss the zefiiye yhwnges f“om its mw–imum to ze“oB o“ fiiyefie“swD Zue to the eliminwtion of ofie“lwp xetfleen the semiyonzuyto“ fioltwge wnz yu““entBthe semiyonzuyto“ pofle“ loss is eliminwtez wnz it is possixle to zesign high effiyienyy pofle“yonfie“te“s flhiyh ywn xe “un wt highe“ f“equenyyDVDS IDSZeroDrainSourceGateIDS+-VDSNo OverlapGateZeroFigu“e XDHP ioft sflityhing ceiF[j yu““ent wnz fioltwge flwfiefo“mDGHIWCHC Differenxe Wetween okh vny oChWCH Differenxe Wetfieen okh vny oChIn o“ze“ to p“ofiize soft sflityhing fo“ w semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyeB eithe“ the fioltwge o“ the yu““entof the zefiiye hws to xe ze“o zu“ing t“wnsitionD Ws xoth nwmes imply eithe“ fioltwge o“ yu““entflithin the t“wnsisto“ is ze“o xefo“e sflityhing oyyu“sD Fo“ the pe“o loltwge iflityhing (pli)Bthe semiyonzuyto“ flill xe tu“nez on wt ze“o Z“winCiou“ye fioltwge to eliminwte the tu“n onsflityhing lossD Fo“ pe“o Yu““ent iflityhing (pYi)B the semiyonzuyto“ flill xe tu“nez off wtze“o Z“win yu““ent to eliminwte the tu“n off sflityhing loss qGIIsDGHJVppenyix Cgesonvnt eofier Converters for hofthfiitxhingW “esonwnt moze pofle“ yonfie“te“ offe“s the potentiwl of wyhiefiing soft sflityhing yonzitionsfo“ semiyonzuyto“ zefiiyes wnz the possixility of iny“ewsing the sflityhing f“equenyyB flhiyhlewzs to w smwlle“B lighte“B wnz less yostly system qGIKsD mith w “esonwnt yi“yuit in thepofle“ pwthB the sflityhes ywn xe yongu“ez to ope“wte wt eithe“ ze“o yu““ent o“ fioltwgesflityhingB g“ewtly “ezuying thei“ st“ess lefielsD WlsoB the “esonwnt sine flwfie minimizes highe“f“equenyy hw“moniysB thus “ezuying noise lefiels wnzB sinye the yi“yuit nofl “equi“es inzuytwnyewnz ywpwyitwnyeB pw“wsitiy elements ywn xe integ“wtez into the “esonwnt yi“yuit “wthe“ thwnzet“wyt f“om yi“yuit 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