Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Snow sport head injury : characterization of clinical presentation and design of a relevant head impact… Stuart, Cameron Andrew 2017

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
24-ubc_2017_may_stuart_cameron.pdf [ 7.41MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 24-1.0345635.json
JSON-LD: 24-1.0345635-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 24-1.0345635-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 24-1.0345635-rdf.json
Turtle: 24-1.0345635-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 24-1.0345635-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 24-1.0345635-source.json
Full Text
24-1.0345635-fulltext.txt
Citation
24-1.0345635.ris

Full Text

SNOW SPORT HEAD INJURY: CHARACTERIZATION OF CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DESIGN OF A RELEVANT HEAD IMPACT APPARATUS  by CAMERON ANDREW STUART B.A.Sc., The University of British Columbia, 2014   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Biomedical Engineering)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2017 © Cameron Andrew Stuart, 2017   ii  Abstract With head injury being the leading cause of death from skiing and snowboarding in North America, a better understanding of the mechanisms at play and improved preventative measures are necessary. Safety certification standards exist for snow sport helmets in an effort to evaluate potential technologies as well as ensure helmets offer protection to the user. However, current protocols are seen to be oversimplifications of real world head impacts, particularly from skiing and snowboarding. The purpose of this work is to mechanistically characterize snow sport head injury and design a test apparatus capable of representing these real world head impact scenarios. In an effort to characterize the fall mechanisms and injuries of snow sport head impact, a clinical investigation was performed. A 6 year retrospective clinical case review yielded a database of 760+ incidents for which basic demographic information, gross mechanism detail, nature and severity of injuries sustained and helmet use data was collected. In addition to epidemiological insight, the database highlighted the need for a revised standard testing protocol through observation of several general fall scenarios, a high prevalence of concussion (considered a low-energy injury) and the majority of impacts occurring to snow or ice surfaces. This information, in conjunction with existing biomechanics literature, informed the design of a helmet testing apparatus capable of recreating snow sport head impact mechanisms. Through a formal design process involving stakeholder discovery, development of design requirements, concept generation and evaluation, and detailed design, a final apparatus was decided upon and fabricated. To investigate if the test apparatus was capable of satisfying the requirements set forth, namely impact velocity and repeatability, verification testing was performed. Recommendations are made for conditions that remained either partially met or unmet. To address the need for an improved understanding of snow sport head injury mechanisms in the context of helmet testing, clinical data and existing literature was used. As a result, a test apparatus capable of more representative impact testing protocols was developed. Aspects of this work can be adopted by the head injury research and helmet standards communities in order to improve design and evaluation of preventative equipment.  iii  Preface This thesis was written entirely by the author, Cameron Stuart. Dr. Peter Cripton guided the development of the clinical study methodologies, acted as a consultant for the design portion of this work and revised this thesis. The clinical study methodology and data collection was also guided by Dr. Jeff Brubacher. Data collection for the clinical study was conducted by the author, Cameron Stuart, as well as Lawrence Yau and Ryan Yip. Clinical study data analysis and all aspects of the design, fabrication and testing of the test apparatus was performed by Cameron Stuart.  Study methodology outlined in Chapter 2 was reviewed and approved by the UBC Clinical Research Ethics Board under study # V14-03449. A version of the data presented in Chapter 2 has been submitted to the a peer reviewed journal for consideration for publication. A portion of Chapter 4 has been submitted to an international conference for consideration to be published in the conference proceedings.  iv  Table of Contents  Abstract....................................................................................................................................... ii Preface ...................................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... iv List of Tables ........................................................................................................................... viii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................ xi List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. xvi Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. xvii Dedication ................................................................................................................................ xix 1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Motivation .................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Biomechanics of Head Injury ....................................................................................... 1 1.2.1 Relevant Anatomy ................................................................................................ 2 1.2.2 Types of Injury ...................................................................................................... 6 1.2.2.1 General Types ................................................................................................... 6 1.2.2.1.1 Skull Fracture ............................................................................................... 6 1.2.2.1.2 Vascular and Intracranial Injuries ................................................................. 7 1.2.2.1.3 Facial Injury ................................................................................................. 7 1.2.2.1.4 Superficial and Other Minor Injuries ............................................................. 7 1.2.2.2 Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ................................................................................ 8 1.2.2.2.1 Shearing of the Brain ................................................................................... 8 1.2.2.2.2 Coup/Contre-Coup ....................................................................................... 9 1.2.2.2.3 Skull Fracture and Flexure ..........................................................................10 1.2.3 Injury Thresholds .................................................................................................11 1.2.4 Snow Sport Specific Fall Mechanics ....................................................................12 1.3 Helmets and Standards ..............................................................................................13 1.3.1 Standardized Testing and Safety Certification......................................................14 1.4 Objectives and Scope .................................................................................................15 2.0 CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SNOW SPORT HEAD INJURY .....................................................................................................................................17 2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................17 2.2 Methods ......................................................................................................................19 v  2.2.1 Inclusion Criteria ..................................................................................................19 2.2.2 Exclusion Criteria .................................................................................................19 2.2.3 Vancouver General Hospital ................................................................................19 2.2.4 Lions Gate Hospital..............................................................................................21 2.2.5 Office of the British Columbia Coroner .................................................................22 2.2.6 Chart Review .......................................................................................................22 2.2.7 Data Analysis .......................................................................................................22 2.3 Results ........................................................................................................................23 2.4 Discussion ..................................................................................................................27 2.5 Strengths and Limitations............................................................................................30 2.6 Conclusions ................................................................................................................30 2.7 Implication of Clinical Database on Standardized Testing ...........................................31 3.0 DESIGN OF A CLINICALLY REPRESENTATIVE SNOW SPORT TEST APPARATUS .32 3.1 Apparatus Design .......................................................................................................32 3.1.1 Stakeholders ........................................................................................................33 3.1.2 Needs Identification .............................................................................................35 3.1.2.1 Clinical Study Outcomes ..................................................................................37 3.1.3 Specifications.......................................................................................................37 3.1.3.1 Requirements ...................................................................................................37 3.1.3.2 Evaluation Criteria ............................................................................................38 3.1.4 Functional Decomposition ....................................................................................39 3.1.5 Concept Generation .............................................................................................39 3.1.6 Concept Evaluation ..............................................................................................40 3.1.6.1 Winnowing........................................................................................................40 3.1.6.2 Pugh Charts .....................................................................................................40 3.1.6.3 Quantitative Evaluation of Integrated Concepts ................................................42 3.1.6.3.1 Analytical Hierarchical Process ...................................................................42 3.1.6.3.2 Integrated Concepts ....................................................................................42 3.1.6.3.3 Weighted Decision Matrix ...........................................................................43 3.1.7 Design in Detail ....................................................................................................45 3.1.7.1 Spring Design ...................................................................................................46 3.1.7.2 Control of the Spring ........................................................................................50 3.1.7.2.1 Lever-Arm Concept .....................................................................................51 vi  3.1.7.2.2 Gear Concept .............................................................................................52 3.1.7.2.3 Selected Spring Control Concept ................................................................52 3.1.7.3 Support Structure .............................................................................................57 3.1.7.4 Control of the Headform ...................................................................................59 3.1.7.4.1 Ball arm Design Considerations ..................................................................59 3.1.7.4.2 Alternative Design Considerations ..............................................................60 3.1.7.4.3 Selected Head Control Mechanism Concept ...............................................63 3.1.7.5 Guide Rail and Bearing Mount..........................................................................65 3.1.7.5.1 Linear Bearing Selection .............................................................................65 3.1.7.5.2 Selected Guide Rail and Bearing Mount Concepts......................................69 3.1.7.6 Additional Design Components ........................................................................70 3.1.7.6.1 Headform Containment ...............................................................................70 3.1.7.6.2 Velocity Measurement ................................................................................70 3.1.7.6.3 Impact Surface Maintenance and Characterization .....................................70 3.1.7.7 Hybrid III Head Modifications ............................................................................71 3.2 Final Design ................................................................................................................74 3.3 Fabrication ..................................................................................................................76 4.0 VERIFICATION OF A SNOW SPORT HEAD IMPACT TEST APPARATUS ..................78 4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................78 4.2 Methods ......................................................................................................................80 4.2.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................80 4.2.2 Experimental Verification Testing .........................................................................81 4.2.3 Instrumentation ....................................................................................................82 4.2.4 Analysis ...............................................................................................................83 4.2.5 Spring Rate Investigation .....................................................................................83 4.3 Results ........................................................................................................................83 4.4 Discussion ..................................................................................................................88 4.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................95 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................96 5.1 Future Work and Recommendations ...........................................................................96 5.1.1 Apparatus Modifications .......................................................................................96 5.1.2 Instrumentation Modifications ..............................................................................97 5.1.3 Further Testing ....................................................................................................97 vii  6.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 100 6.1 Summary .................................................................................................................. 100 6.2 Strength and Limitations ........................................................................................... 101 6.2.1 Strengths ........................................................................................................... 101 6.2.2 Limitations ......................................................................................................... 101 6.3 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 102 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 103 Appendix A: Stakeholder Communications ............................................................................. 112 Skype Call with Peter Halldin ............................................................................................... 112 Call with Irving Scher ........................................................................................................... 113 Notes From ASTM F08 Meeting .......................................................................................... 115 Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation ............................................................................. 118 Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 118 Brainstorming ...................................................................................................................... 125 Concept Evaluation ............................................................................................................. 127 Concept Feasibility Calculations .......................................................................................... 137 Pugh Charts ........................................................................................................................ 138 Analytical Hierarchical Process............................................................................................ 153 Integrated Concepts ............................................................................................................ 155 Weighted Decision Matrices ................................................................................................ 158 Component-by-Component Evaluation ............................................................................ 158 Appendix C: Detailed Design .................................................................................................. 170 Spring Parametric Analysis .................................................................................................. 170 Support Plate Analysis ........................................................................................................ 172 Buckling Calculations for Support Structures ....................................................................... 174 Appendix D: Product Specification .......................................................................................... 184  viii  List of Tables Table 1: Basic descriptive statistics for the snow sport head injury database (MAIS = Maximum AIS) ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 Table 2: Summary of relevant stakeholders as well as their relation to the project and main considerations ........................................................................................................................................... 34 Table 3: Summary of the identified needs and the relevant stakeholders to that need ................ 35 Table 4: Summary of evaluation criteria and a short description of its relevance .......................... 38 Table 5: Pugh chart showing the first iteration of evaluation of the "Hold Headform Relative to Ground" function. The purple column represents the datum for this iteration. ............................... 40 Table 6: Summary of evaluation criteria weightings as determined using the AHP ...................... 42 Table 7: Weighted Decision Matrix highlighting evaluation of each integrated concept ............... 43 Table 8: Solidworks Simulation iterations showing stress investigation of several configurations and analysis parameters. ........................................................................................................................ 68 Table 9: Summary of the design requirements of the snow sport head impact apparatus. ......... 81 Table 10: Test results highlighting the varied test parameters, the desired velocity and measured velocity. Note: all tests were performed at 90 degrees to horizontal ............................. 83 Table 11: Revisiting the comprehensive list of design requirements and identification of status. .................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Table 12: High speed image sequence (over 35 ms at 5 ms intervals) highlighting triggering of the head release mechanism and linear translation of the headform with very little rotation between release and impact. The test involved a frontal impact at 2.47 m/s with video sampled at 2000 Hz. ................................................................................................................................................ 91 Table 13: Test matrix describing test configurations for verification of biomechanically relevant outcome measures. Each test described will involve three impacts within +/- 5% of the prescribed impact velocity. ..................................................................................................................... 98 Table 14: Requirements, metrics and justification for the test apparatus based on the needs statements. .............................................................................................................................................. 118 Table 15: Comprehensive list of concepts as well as results of winnowing. Concepts highlighted in green indicate those that passed to the next stage of evaluation while red indicates elimination of that concept. ................................................................................................................... 127 Table 16: 1-1 Hold Headform Relative to Ground (Datum) ............................................................. 138 Table 17: 1-2 Hold Headform Relative to Ground ............................................................................. 139 ix  Table 18: 1-3 Hold Headform Relative to Ground ............................................................................. 140 Table 19: 2-1 Induce Known Acceleration to Headform Relative to Ground ................................ 141 Table 20: 2-2. Induce Known Acceleration to Headform Relative to Ground ............................... 141 Table 21: 3-1. Control Headform Orientation at Impact ................................................................... 142 Table 22: 3-2. Control Headform Orientation at Impact ................................................................... 143 Table 23: 4-1. Contain Headform Within Test Zone ......................................................................... 144 Table 24:4-2. Contain Headform within Test Zone ........................................................................... 145 Table 25: 5-1. Adjust Impact Orientation of Headform (Constrained tube and robot excluded based on previous Pugh analysis) ....................................................................................................... 146 Table 26: 5-2. Adjust Impact Orientation of Headform ..................................................................... 146 Table 27: 6-1. Release Headform from Test Apparatus prior to Impact ........................................ 147 Table 28:6-2. Release Headform from Test Apparatus prior to Impact ......................................... 148 Table 29: 7-1. Quantify Headform Impact Velocity ........................................................................... 149 Table 30: 7-2. Quantify Headform Impact Velocity ........................................................................... 150 Table 31: 8-1. Maintain consistent impact surface between tests .................................................. 151 Table 32: 8-2. Maintain consistent impact surface between tests .................................................. 152 Table 33: Analytical Hierarchical Process ranking rubric (121) ...................................................... 153 Table 34: AHP showing the raw rank for each evaluation criteria .................................................. 153 Table 35: Normalized rankings and overall weightings for each evaluation criteria using the AHP .................................................................................................................................................................. 154 Table 36: Summary of concept fragments chosen for each integrated concepts ........................ 155 Table 37: Sketches and schematics of each integrated concept ................................................... 156 Table 38: Summary of scoring rubrics for each of the evaluation criteria in the component-by-component scoring ................................................................................................................................. 158 Table 39: Component based scoring for the Inverted Pendulum concept .................................... 161 Table 40: Component based scoring for the Flywheel with Clutch concept ................................. 162 Table 41: Component based scoring for the Linear Spring concept .............................................. 163 Table 42: Component based scoring for the Freefall Drop concept ............................................... 164 Table 43: Component based scoring for the Pulley System concept ............................................ 165 Table 44: Component based scoring for the Inverted Pendulum with Spring concept ............... 166 Table 45: Component based scoring for the Winch concept........................................................... 167 Table 46: Component based scoring for the Electromagnet concept ............................................ 168 x  Table 47: Parametric Analysis of Phase 1 - Moment at which the Spring is at Preload and Static. Bold values represent manipulated variables .................................................................................... 170 Table 48: Parametric Analysis of Phase 2 - Moment at which the spring reaches a displacement of zero. Bold values represent manipulated variables ...................................................................... 170 Table 49: Spring Parametric Analysis Pase 3 - Moment at which the head first makes contact with the ground. Bold values represent manipulated variables....................................................... 171 Table 50: Simple beam bending analysis for design of support plates to fix the spring and winch .................................................................................................................................................................. 172 Table 51: General buckling calculations for support structures. Cross-sectional areas are taken from 80/20 geometry specifications ..................................................................................................... 175 Table 52: Buckling calculations for using threaded rods and nuts. Note: the difference from the previous analysis is the use of the effective cross-sectional area .................................................. 175 Table 53: Buckling calculations for support structures using 80/20. Cross-sectional areas are taken from 80/20 geometry specifications .......................................................................................... 177 Table 54: Bill of materials for the construction of the snow sport head impact simulator. Assorted hardware is not included. ...................................................................................................................... 177 Table 55: Parametric analysis using the principles of projectile motion to understand head impact angle and velocity from a representative ski or snowboard fall forward ........................... 180 Table 56: Test matrix and results from the acceleration calibration impact testing comparing known accelerations to data from a sensor with an unknown sensitivity. All data was post processed with a 1000Hz filter ............................................................................................................. 181 xi  List of Figures Figure 1: Cross Section of the outermost layers of the human head (source: Gray's Anatomy - 20th US ed.) ............................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 2: Sagittal section of the human skull (source: Gray's Anatomy - 20th US ed.) ............... 4 Figure 3: Cross section illustrating the anatomy of the brain (left) and regional map (right) (Source: Left - http://www.livescience.com/ and Right - http://adhd-treatment-options.blogspot.ca/ ) ................................................................................................................. 5 Figure 4: Diagram illustrating the basic structure of a neuron. (Source: www.brainhq.com) ....... 6 Figure 5: Injury cause by rotational acceleration of the brain. A) Mechanism and resulting deformation. B) Neuronal damage caused by the shearing force induced by rotation (Source: A - http://www.medicalexhibits.com/ B - http://studydroid.com/ ) ...................................................... 9 Figure 6: Illustration of a coup/contre-coup type brain injury cause by primary and secondary (rebound) brain impacts. The red indicates areas of cerebral contusion. The arrows represent how the force of the focal impact is dispersed through the whole brain (Source: www.allaboutconcussion.info/concussion) ................................................................................10 Figure 7: The 10 most selected scenarios: falling head first (n = 44) (A); falling sideways (edge catching) (n = 29) (B); crossing skis (n = 18) (C); falling backward (imbalance) (n = 22) (D); user collides with another immobile or less rapid user (n = 41) (E); self-fall, followed by a collision with obstacle (n = 35) (F); jump forward (n = 33) (G); jump backward (n = 23) (H); snowboarder falling head first (n = 15) (I); and snowboarder falling backward (n = 16) (J). Image taken from Bailly et. al., 2016 ......................................................................................................................13 Figure 8: Guide wire and drop monorail schematics exemplifying test apparatuses used for linear impact testing in standardized testing protocols. This image is taken from the ASTM F08 standard.(76) ............................................................................................................................15 Figure 9: Flowchart describing inclusion and exclusion for cases identified at Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia .........................................................................21 Figure 10: Flowchart describing inclusion and exclusion for cases identified at Lion’s Gate Hospital, North Vancouver, British Columbia .............................................................................22 Figure 11: Characterization of all injuries suffered based on the AIS categories. Note: In some cases, multiple injury types were reported and coded with each individual injury being represented in this figure. ..........................................................................................................24 Figure 12: Prevalence of reported head impact location for all documented cases. ..................24 Figure 13: Prevalence of reported head injury mechanism for all documented cases................25 xii  Figure 14: Forest plot illustrating age and gender adjusted odds ratio analysis for the odds of suffering an MAIS 2+ head injury per gross mechanism descriptor ...........................................26 Figure 15: Forest plot illustrating age and gender adjusted odds ratio analysis for the odds of suffering a concussion per head impact location .......................................................................26 Figure 16: Forest plot illustrating age and gender adjusted odds ratio analysis for the odds of suffering an MAIS 2+ head injury per head impact location .......................................................27 Figure 17: A 3D rendering of the final impact apparatus design. ...............................................33 Figure 18: Schematic showing the apparatus orientation used to develop the geometric equations applied in the parametric analysis. Note: this diagram does not show the energy of system, only the geometric considerations of the system at different orientations .....................46 Figure 19: Energy states used to set up the parametric model to estimate head impact velocity .................................................................................................................................................47 Figure 20: Sketch of the example scenario involving the headform being released from 0.5m above the ground with a 0.1m spring deflection. .......................................................................49 Figure 21: Screenshot of the MSC Adams analysis configuration and a time plot showing the head velocity, acceleration and displacement over time. ...........................................................50 Figure 22: Design sketches for spring loading via lever arm concepts. A) represents the sketch pertaining to the magnet concept while B) is specific to the pull cord concept. ..........................51 Figure 23: Schematic showing the hand winch and wire cable combination ..............................53 Figure 24: Solidworks Simulation results showing plate strain from a 5000 N point load applied at the center. The left image illustrates the analysis on a ¼” plate while the right image shows a ½” plate. Four 30 mm by 30 mm fixtures at each corner were included. ....................................54 Figure 25: Comprehensive analysis of the top plate on which the winch is mounted. The color map illustrates the Von Mises stress on the plate (Max 240 GPa; 1.15 SF). The fixtures and two bolt loads on the bottom surface of the plate are shown in the bottom left image ......................55 Figure 26: Solidworks simulation results showing a stress map for maximum loading (5 kN) of the spring base plate. The maximum stress was found to be 172 GPa. ....................................56 Figure 27: 3D model of the final design for the spring control mechanism .................................57 Figure 28: Schematic drawings illustrating concepts for the bottom frame design. ....................58 Figure 29: Integrated spring control mount and bottoms support structure including the pivot arms to facilitate angled impacts. The shaft collars are highlighted in blue. ...............................59 Figure 30: Monorail guide follower, ball arm and headform. Note: the ball arm is partially inside the headform. ............................................................................................................................60 Figure 31: Scissor grab mechanism concept sketch to control and release the headform .........61 xiii  Figure 32: Spring Clamp Release mechanism to control and release the headform ..................62 Figure 33: Head release mechanism concepts..........................................................................63 Figure 34: Profiles of the three plates that make up the main platform for the head release mechanism. ..............................................................................................................................64 Figure 35: 3D rendering of the slide clamp design ....................................................................64 Figure 36: Final design of the head control mechanism. Note: the sphere recommends the approximate geometry of a helmeted headform ........................................................................65 Figure 37: Free body diagram to determine the necessary geometry of the bearing mount. Although several iterations were performed in an attempt to optimize the moment arms, this particular calculation uses a horizontal distance of 0.3 m for the head with the bearings spaced 0.11 m apart. .............................................................................................................................66 Figure 38: Free body diagram for the bearing mount incorporating a counter mass. .................66 Figure 39: Revised free body diagram and calculation for estimating the force imparted on the release mechanism by the head. ..............................................................................................67 Figure 40: 3D rendering for the final design of the bearing mount (including the head control mechanism) and counter-mass .................................................................................................70 Figure 41: Demonstration of the SnowPak tool to measure the snow hardness as different snow layers. Image taken from www.snowpak.net. ............................................................................71 Figure 42: Instrumentation mounting bracket designed by Diversified Technical Systems (Seal Beach, CA) ...............................................................................................................................72 Figure 43: Head base plate design to seal the headform and to act as a mounting surface for the instrumentation bracket .......................................................................................................73 Figure 44: Custom gaskets made to keep moisture from entering the headform during on-slope testing .......................................................................................................................................73 Figure 45: A view of the instrumentation mounted inside the Hybrid III headform. This configuration allows for the headform to be used for testing without being attached to external cables. ......................................................................................................................................74 Figure 46: Complete integrated rendering of the final design for the snow sport head impact simulator. A semi-transparent headform was inserted to visualize issues with head placement. .................................................................................................................................................75 Figure 47: Schematic of the final design including the main steps to performing a test .............76 Figure 48: In-lab testing of the final apparatus design. ..............................................................77 Figure 49: On-snow testing at Cypress Mountain of the final apparatus design. Alan Nursall (Alan Nursall Experience, Daily Planet Television Show) is shown with the production crew. ...77 xiv  Figure 50: Schematic of a test apparatus used in a snow sport helmet impact attenuation test. This image was taken from the Canadian Standards Association standard Z263.1-14 Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets. (72) ......................................................79 Figure 51: A side view of the test apparatus being verified. .......................................................81 Figure 52: Still frame extracted from high speed video (2000 fps) of the headform prior to impact. The test involved frontal impact at 90 degrees with a spring deflection of 0.08m equating to 4.43 m/s at impact. ................................................................................................................85 Figure 53: Time versus linear resultant acceleration for a 4.43 m/s frontal impact. The first spike represents triggering of the apparatus and the second spike represents the primary impact event. No filter was applied to this data .....................................................................................86 Figure 54: The test apparatus shown at variable angles (90 degrees to 15 degrees; 15 degree intervals). ..................................................................................................................................87 Figure 55: Force versus position for compressive loading of the spring using an Instron materials testing machine. A linear line of best fit is applied with the equation shown in the figure. ........................................................................................................................................88 Figure 56: Still frames taken from the high speed video analysis to investigate the vertical displacement of the apparatus ..................................................................................................93 Figure 57: Solidworks simulation illustrating the displacement on the winch mount plate from a 5000 N force acting at the point of the wire rope leaving the winch. The plate is 0.25 inches thick and was found to deflect a maximum of 11.6mm .................................................................... 173 Figure 58: Solidworks simulation illustrating the displacement on the winch mount plate from a 5000 N force acting at the point of the wire rope leaving the winch. The plate is 0.5 inches thick and was found to deflect a maximum of 1.63mm .................................................................... 174 Figure 59: A plot of vertical displacement versus time to investigate the potential energy of the apparatus when lifted off the ground. The data was collected using high speed video and TEMA motion analysis software. The maximum vertical displacement was found to be 27.6 mm ...... 183 Figure 60: Specifications for the Dutton Lainson WG2000 Worm Gear Winch ........................ 184 Figure 61: Dimensions for the Dutton Lainson WG2000 Worm Gear Winch ............................ 185 Figure 62: Specifications for 1.4" Wire Rope from McMaster Carr ........................................... 186 Figure 63: Wichard Snap Shackle product specifications ........................................................ 187 Figure 64: 80/20 extruded aluminum spec sheet - 30 mm by 30 mm t-slotted profile .............. 188 Figure 65: Specifications for 80/20 inside corner brackets ...................................................... 189 Figure 66: Specifications for flange mounted shaft collars (taken from McMaster-Carr) .......... 190 Figure 67: Pivot joint specifications (taken from 80/20) used to facilitate angled impacts ........ 191 xv  Figure 68: Zinc-coated, steel compression springs selected for use in the head release mechanism ............................................................................................................................. 192 Figure 69: Linear bearing's selected (KGNZ-16PP). Taken from http://www.schaeffler.com/remotemedien/media/_shared_media/08_media_library/01_publications/schaeffler_2/catalogue_1/downloads_6/kxkbz_us_us.pdf .................................................. 193 Figure 70: Specifications for the 80/20 gusseted inside corner bracket ................................... 194 Figure 71: Specifications for the 80/20  inside corner bracket ................................................. 195 Figure 72: Sepcification of the central shaft. Taken from McMaster Carr ................................. 196 Figure 73: Specifications for a Tylaska T5 Snap Shackle. Taken from http://www.tylaska.com/index.php/snap-shackles/t5/ ............................................................... 197   xvi  List of Abbreviations AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale COG Center of Gravity CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid DAQ Data Acquisition System HIC Head Injury Criterion HIII Hybrid III (headform) LGH Lions Gate Hospital MAIS Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score mTBI Mild Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Traumatic Brain Injury VGH Vancouver General Hospital xvii  Acknowledgements As I am sure many students before me have experienced, graduate studies are an opportunity for self-exploration. Through this, support networks become extremely apparent and the realization of how far these stretch is very humbling. First, I cannot thank my family enough for their continued encouragement. No matter how hectic life is, a family dinner to help forget the week’s challenges always seems to remedy the mind. Even if explaining my thesis work puts you to sleep, I will always value the unique support you always offer. Meg, you represent so many things in my life. I admire your intellect and appreciate that you are always willing to consult with me, even for the simplest of problems. You push me to make the most out of every situation and are always the one to encourage life balance when I get too intense. Thank you for helping me machine parts, cooking me dinner and listening when I need to tell you how much I hate soldering. Peter, it has been an absolute pleasure working alongside you over the years. You have mentored me in so many respects and have always provided opportunity whenever you are able. I am lucky to have had you as my supervisor as I truly felt this project was one we accomplished together. I am very lucky to be surrounded with brilliant individuals within the lab group as well as outside. As my clinical supervisor, Jeff Brubacher’s expertise and modesty were invaluable; from shadowing in the ED on Halloween to paper edits while on vacation. The technical consult of Darrin Richards and Tom Whyte brought a well-rounded approach to this work as well as an enthusiasm that never waned. The OIBG lab group is a fantastic collection of individuals who can offer both technical expertise as well as many laughs over lunch; I will miss our podcast style breaks. Kurt McInnes in particular was always available to consult and helped a great deal in the fabrication phase of this work. To all of my friends outside of the lab; a huge thank you for putting up with my work related rambling. Having such a diverse group of amazing friends really keeps one grounded; something I hope to have gained from your friendship. From powder days and beach weddings to campfires and coffee dates, I am fortunate to have such great people in my life. xviii  There are many other people who have helped me along the way and I offer my sincere thanks for your influence. This work would not have been possible without these support networks and I have been very fortunate to benefit from their expertise and friendship.  xix  Dedication  ~To Jan and Gav~ For standing by my every decision; informed or not.1  1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation Sport-related head injuries have become a significant problem around the world with considerable short and long term effect to the individual and the healthcare system. With national databases seen to grossly underestimate the scale of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from sport, generally due to unreported injury or inclusion of only the most severe (categorized by loss of consciousness), epidemiologists are left to informed prediction.(1) In fact, injuries involving loss of consciousness are estimated to only account for 8% to 19% of sport-related head injury, meaning approximately 1.6 million to 3.8 million athletes suffer these injuries every year in the United States alone.(1–3) Depending on the sport, the severity of the head injury can vary, with concussion being most prevalent in sports such as American football, soccer and rugby and more severe injury risk in equestrian and pedal cycling.(4–18) Although dependent on the sport, head injury has been observed to account for up to 50% of all sport injuries.(19) In North America, skiing and snowboarding are popular winter activities with 650 resorts recording over 75.9 million visits each year. (20)  Head injury in these sports has proved slightly less prevalent than in other sports but still represents 9% to 47% of all reported injuries.(21–29) Like many other sports, snow sport helmets have been adopted to protect users against head injuries. However, literature available on helmet effectiveness for snow sports is mixed, with several studies finding little to no benefit.(30–33) Additionally, few studies exist that examine the mechanics of how snow sport participants are injured and how that may affect injury outcome (34–36) The focus of this introduction is to familiarize the reader with the relevant anatomy and biomechanics of head injury as well as give a brief introduction to helmet testing. The following chapters further elaborate on the specific background for that section as well as detail the clinical, design and verification aspects to this work. 1.2 Biomechanics of Head Injury Concussion, often referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)1, is derived from the Latin concutere, meaning to shake violently. Such injuries generally result from an impact occurring during a fall, a sport-related incident, or a motor vehicle accident, but can also be caused by a                                                           1 It is contested whether concussion is synonymous with mTBI but for the purposes of this report, it will be considered to be. 2  blast accident where the head interacts with a pressure wave. In the United States, 1.5 million people are reported to experience a traumatic brain injury each year, with approximately 75% of those classified as mild (37). In addition to the negative impact on the quality of life of individuals, TBI has been estimated to cost the US healthcare system $17 billion each year (37). Although mTBI is a common research topic, consensus has yet to be reached on formal criteria for diagnosis and classification. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons defines a concussion to be “a clinical syndrome characterized by immediate and transient alteration in brain function, including alteration of mental status and level of consciousness, resulting from mechanical force or trauma”(38). However, several other international working groups and associations have defined mTBI differently, making epidemiological investigation difficult (39). Causing such discrepancies is the variability in clinical presentation, leading some definitions to incorporate language which suggests possible mechanisms. One such definition is “a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces” (40). Similar to the definition of mTBI, consensus on a specific mechanism of concussion has yet to be achieved. However, researchers seem to agree that no single mechanism is responsible for all mTBI injuries. Coup/contre-coup, skull flexure and relative rotation of the brain inside the skull are three popular theories of the cause of such injury. Head injuries due to an explosive blast are also of significant concern to those in the military. In understanding how the brain is injured, innovators have developed ways of attenuating injurious forces and with such a high prevalence of mTBI, it remains a common focus of current research and development. The objective of this section is to describe the current understanding of these mechanisms, discuss the implications this has had on preventative measures being taken and to identify the direction of future work. 1.2.1 Relevant Anatomy As the name suggests, TBI is an injury to the brain, but several specific structures can be further defined to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury. The outermost layers of the human head include a layer of skin containing hair follicles and sebaceous glands (exocrine glands which secrete an oily substance), followed by a highly vascularized subcutaneous layer made up of fat and connective tissue. Next, thin layers of epicranial aponeurosis, areolar connective tissue and periosteum (or pericranium) provide separation from the previous layers of the scalp and provide nutrition to the underlying skull. An illustration of these layers can be 3  seen in Figure 1.  Although quite thin, these structures (in addition to hair) offer a small amount of cushioning in the event of an impact (41).  Figure 1: Cross Section of the outermost layers of the human head (source: Gray's Anatomy - 20th US ed.) The human skull is made up of several bones which are generally subdivided into neurocranium and viscerocranium (or splanchnocranium) by their embryological origins. The neurocranium can be described in layman’s terms as the collection of bony structures which encase the brain as well as the brainstem and include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid bones. The more superior of these structures are also known as the calvaria, or skullcap. This region is important as the bone structure is made up of two plate-like layers (known as the external and internal tables) and an internal spongy layer (known as diploe) which contains red bone marrow. Of particular note is the foramen magnum (Latin for ‘great hole’) which is a large opening in the occipital bone that allows passage of the spinal cord: an extension of the medulla oblongata (41).  The 14 bones supporting the face are generally categorized as the viscerocranium. Interfaces of bone, called sutures, define all joints of skull bones with the exception of the mandible. Figure 2 illustrates a cross section of the human skull and highlights several of the main bones. These rigid structures provide a significant amount of protection to the brain as well as house and facilitate function of several structures of sensory systems such as the auditory, gustatory, olfactory and visual (41).  4   Figure 2: Sagittal section of the human skull (source: Gray's Anatomy - 20th US ed.) Within the skull and surrounding the brain and spinal cord are three layers of tissue known as the meninges. Dura mater is the tough, outermost layer, which consists of a periosteal layer attached to the inner skull and a meningeal layer which interfaces with the arachnoid mater. Arachnoid mater is the delicate middle layer which is avascular and has small processes which extend inward to become continuous with a third layer: the pia mater. The pia mater is a delicate layer which tightly envelopes the surface of the brain tissue, following its fissures and contours. Of particular significance to head trauma are the extradural and subarachnoid spaces. The extradural space is a potential space and lies between the inner cranial bone and the periosteal membrane of the dura mater. In the event of head trauma, this space often fills with blood (41). The subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as blood vessels and lies between the arachnoid and pia layers (41). The CSF is of particular significance as it suspends the brain, preventing compression of cranial nerve roots and blood vessels, and acts as a damper for impact protection (42). Figure 1 illustrates these layers and their location.  The brain itself is made up of several regions including the cerebrum (right and left hemispheres), diencephalon (epithalamus, dorsal thalamus, and hypothalamus), cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata, which each serve a different function. The cerebrum is further divided into lobes known as frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Figure 3 illustrates the major anatomy of the brain as well as the regions of the cerebrum. The midbrain and cerebellum are important structures in understanding mTBI as these regions control alertness and responsiveness. As is common in concussion-type injuries, the injured person may 5  experience loss of consciousness as well as suffer from post-traumatic amnesia, which suggests damage to these structures (39).   Figure 3: Cross section illustrating the anatomy of the brain (left) and regional map (right) (Source: Left - http://www.livescience.com/ and Right - http://adhd-treatment-options.blogspot.ca/ ) Examining brain tissue on a cellular level reveals the building blocks of signal transmission: neurons. The human brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons with about 15% of those found in the cerebral cortex and about 70% found in the cerebellum (43). Similar to most cells, neurons contain a nucleus, a membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes and other typical structures; however, its distinguishing morphologic characteristic is its long shape. Some neuron specific structures include dendrites, an axon, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier and presynaptic terminals. The finger-like projections on either end of the structure (presynaptic terminals and dendrites) act as the interfaces between two neurons and facilitate transmission of the electro-chemical signal. The long axon connecting the cell body (soma) and synaptic terminals is encased in an insulating material called myelin sheath. The stimulus is transferred down the axon by way of an action potential (a propagating electrical impulse controlled by voltage-gated ion channels). As these structures allow for the transfer of information (both motor and sensory), damage can be catastrophic to basic function (43). 6   Figure 4: Diagram illustrating the basic structure of a neuron. (Source: www.brainhq.com) 1.2.2 Types of Injury Although several potential injuries exist involving the associated anatomy of the head and face, certain mechanisms are more relevant to snow sports. For several of these injury types, biomechanical thresholds have been established to understand the severity of impacts as well as informing design of protective equipment. 1.2.2.1 General Types Although each injury involves specific characteristics to consider in diagnosis, the nature of high energy trauma often involves multiple different injuries.  1.2.2.1.1 Skull Fracture Skull fracture injuries are generally characterized by a moderate to high energy, focal, blunt force to the head. Due to the skull’s spherical nature and rigidity, impact energy is often focused on a small area, increasing the risk of fracture.  Given the high energy nature of snow sports in combination with the potential for head impact with hard surfaces, fracture of the skull is possible. These surfaces may include ice, tree’s, sport equipment, other participants etc. Through experimental testing (both cadaveric and anthropomorphic test devices (ATD’s)) as well as finite element analysis, skull fracture thresholds have been investigated. One of the most widely accepted injury threshold investigations, known as the Wayne State tolerance curve, defines Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) for various injury types.(44) With peak linear acceleration as the metric, the IARV for a 5% risk of suffering a skull fracture is 180 g’s.(44) 7  1.2.2.1.2 Vascular and Intracranial Injuries Although vascular intracranial injuries are sometimes associated with mTBI described in detail in section 1.2.2.2 below), they can also occur independently. These types of injuries are generally quite serious as damage to the brain’s blood supply or sinuses may result in life threating consequences. Vascular and intracranial injuries can include laceration, thrombosis and traumatic aneurysm of arteries, veins and sinuses. Laceration is generally caused by high energy blunt trauma or interaction with other structures.  Trauma to the head can also result in intracranial hemorrhage and is generally categorized to be a cerebral hemorrhage (within the brain) or extra-cerebral (outside of the brain but within the skull). Extra-cerebral hemorrhage is further broken down into epidural (between the dura mater and the skull), subdural (between the dura and the arachnoid mater) and subarachnoid (between the arachnoid and pia mater). These injuries are generally characterized by tearing, laceration or aneurysm of the surrounding vasculature.  1.2.2.1.3 Facial Injury Injuries to the face and its structures are quite common, particularly in activities involving forward travel which leave the individual susceptible to face/head first impact. Facial fracture often occurs to the nose, orbits, mandible, maxilla and teeth. One particular type of skeletal injury, categorized as a LeFort fracture, is defined through three levels of severity. LeFort I involves horizontal maxillary fracture, LeFort II involves pyramidal fracture and LeFort III is characterized by craniofacial dysjunction.(45) Nerve and vessel injuries can also occur and are generally caused by blunt force or interaction with sharp objects. Eye injuries are generally associated with abrasion/laceration to the outermost structures (ie. cornea, iris) or from blunt trauma causing conjunctival hemorrhage or periorbital hematoma. Dislodged or fractured teeth are also often a result of blunt trauma. 1.2.2.1.4 Superficial and Other Minor Injuries Superficial injuries are those that occur on or to the outermost surface of the head and can include lacerations, abrasions and contusions. Lacerations are characterised by tearing or cutting of the skin while abrasions are typically involve wearing away or scraping of the skin. These injury types can be caused by interaction with sports equipment (ie. edge), the environment (ie. trees) or a frictional surface (ie. snow/ice). A contusion involves the rupture of capillaries in the skin or underlying tissue, resulting in discoloration, and is usually caused by a mild, blunt force (ie. low energy fall). Soft tissue strains and sprains are another example of a 8  minor injury and are characterised by various grades of tearing of the fibres that make up the tissue. Although less common in the head and face, these types of injury can be caused by abrupt and unexpected movements that elongate these tissues beyond their tensile limits. As these injuries, in the context of the head and face, are generally of low severity and the mechanism can vary, specific injury thresholds have not been developed.  1.2.2.2 Mild Traumatic Brain Injury To understand the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), one must first understand that the overarching mechanism of the injury is a force imparted on the brain which transfers kinetic energy almost instantaneously (46). Such a force can take two possible forms: contact and inertial. While both of these can occur when the head is struck by (or strikes) a surface, inertial forces can only occur independently when the head experiences impulsive motions without being struck (47). Focal and diffuse brain injuries are the result of these forces with the severity and nature depending on the magnitude and specific brain dynamics. In general, several factors influence the injury outcome such as size, shape and geometry of the skull, density and mass of neural tissue, thickness of the scalp and skull, and impulse direction and magnitude (46). The following sections identify the current understanding of the mechanisms of mTBI. It should be noted that although this section focuses on the mechanical responses, brain injury cannot be characterised without also considering cognitive and pathological responses. 1.2.2.2.1 Shearing of the Brain One mechanism that has become increasingly popular in concussion research involves a rotational impulse experienced by the brain, resulting in tissue damage due to shearing. As the brain is suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, it has the ability to move relative to the skull. In a potentially injurious event (ie. impact), the force vector may be transmitted through an axis that is eccentric to the center of gravity of the brain. If this occurs, the impulse causes rotation of the brain within the skull as well as impact with the internal surface of the skull (see coup/contre-coup below). Given the physical properties of the human brain, its tissue deforms more readily in response to shear forces (47). Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), which is a widespread, multifocal stretching and shearing of the brain’s axons, has been identified as a result of this relative motion and can present clinically with varying severities (48). DAI injuries are common in motor vehicle accidents where the occupant experiences a sudden change in the head’s inertial forces, even in the absence of impact (49,50). In addition to the cerebral white mater, the brain stem (considered to include the 9  medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain) can also be injured by rotational acceleration. As the foramen magnum provides passage to the spinal cord, which is an extension of the medulla oblongata, through the occipital bone of the skull, a significant shear force is applied to the structures of the brainstem when rotation is experienced (39,51). On the cellular level, the axons are susceptible to damage due to the nature of their long, fragile structure. When loaded in shear and tension, the axons can be twisted and torn, eventually leading to cell death (46). Figure 5 illustrates these responses on both macro and micro scales.    Figure 5: Injury cause by rotational acceleration of the brain. A) Mechanism and resulting deformation. B) Neuronal damage caused by the shearing force induced by rotation (Source: A - http://www.medicalexhibits.com/ B - http://studydroid.com/ ) As discussed in the anatomy section above, loss of consciousness has been predicted to be a result of injury to the midbrain and cerebellum. Furthermore, it has been observed that rotational acceleration of the brain correlates to loss of consciousness when compared to purely linear acceleration (52). 1.2.2.2.2 Coup/Contre-Coup One of the long-standing and still relevant explanations of the mechanics of mTBI is the concept of the brain impacting the inner surface of the skull in coup and contre-coup interaction. As a result of an imposed linear or rotational impulse, the brain has a tendency to move within the skull. If the impulse is of sufficient magnitude, the brain can impact the inner skull; this is denoted as the primary, or ‘coup’, injury.(52,53) The elastic nature of brain tissue in combination with the pressure gradient of cerebrospinal fluid induced by the initial impact can cause a rebound, resulting in a secondary impact with the inner skull directly opposite to the initial impact: the contre-coup injury. Figure 6 illustrates this response. Cerebral contusions, when the pia is stripped or torn from the surface of the brain, are a result of these interactions. They present clinically as lesions or hematomas and can have further implications such as increased intracranial pressure (54). Subdural hematomas are the most common result of this injury type 10  and can be a consequence of damage to cortical veins and arteries, large-contusion bleeding, and tearing of bridging veins between the brain’s tissue and Dural sinuses.(55)  Figure 6: Illustration of a coup/contre-coup type brain injury cause by primary and secondary (rebound) brain impacts. The red indicates areas of cerebral contusion. The arrows represent how the force of the focal impact is dispersed through the whole brain (Source: www.allaboutconcussion.info/concussion) Previous research on the coup/contre-coup mechanism has focused on characterisation and determination of specific incidents which may lead to both or only coup injuries occurring. It has been observed that coup/contre-coup injuries generally transpire when a moving head contacts an unyielding surface and occurs predominantly in temporal and frontal regions (56). In the case when a blunt force is applied to a resting yet movable head, a coup injury at the point of impact (rarely paired with a contre-coup) is the result (56). It is rare that coup or contre-coup injuries occur solely from rapid deceleration of the moving head through forces in the neck or due to interaction with an airbag (56). It has also been observed that contre-coup cerebral contusions are generally more clinically severe than coup contusions (57). 1.2.2.2.3 Skull Fracture and Flexure Trauma to the skull is the result of impact with a surface or object, and as such, usually results in contact injuries. When the impact energy is high enough, bone of the skull can flex or fracture, causing focal injury to the brain at the point of deformation. This focal injury often presents clinically as intracranial lesions or hemorrhaging, typically in the epidural space, which may cascade to an increase in intracranial pressure (47,54). Epidural bleeding is generally associated with trauma to the skull and underlying meningeal vessels but may present occasionally in the absence of fracture (55). In some cases, bone stresses can propagate 11  through the skull (ie. the smooth, elastic cranial vault) and present as fracture at a location different than the point of impact such as the irregularly, rigid base of the skull (47,58). Although these types of injury are generally associated with more severe brain injury, mTBI can also occur. Radiological investigation has observed the probability of intracranial lesion, an indication of mTBI, to increase five times with presentation of skull fracture (59). Cerebral lacerations can also result from skull fracture, presenting as ruptured blood vessels and bleeding into the brain and subarachnoid space (54). These injuries are often the result of a fall from considerable height (56). As skull fracture is relatively easy to recreate in a laboratory setting, biomechanics research has been able to investigate thresholds for such an injury. In one investigation, cadaveric skulls were dropped to develop an understanding of the probability of skull fracture in the adult population (44).  Known as the Wayne State Tolerance Curve, this study employed commonly used biomechanical metrics such as the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and resultant peak acceleration to create curves for the probability of skull fracture (44). As an example, these curves identify a resultant peak acceleration of 180 Gravities2, or a HIC of 700, to correspond to a 5% risk of skull fracture (44). The HIC quantifies head impact severity by incorporating time of acceleration exposure and acceleration magnitude (60). These injury metrics are important for innovators as they help to define design requirements for injury prevention equipment such as helmets. 1.2.3 Injury Thresholds One area of particular interest to biomechanical engineers is characterisation of injury thresholds. By defining injury response as it correlates to metrics such as peak linear and rotational acceleration, improved mTBI prevention technology can be developed and standardised. The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) is an example of a specially derived injury metric which has been adopted as a way to quantify head impact severity by incorporating peak linear acceleration and duration of impulse.(61) One step further than this are Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARV’s) which utilize testing of cadaveric material and ATD’s to correlate measurable quantities (ie. acceleration) to injury risk. In the context of helmet testing, a peak resultant acceleration of 180 g corresponds to a 5% chance of skull fracture while a HIC of 700 correlates to a 5% risk of an AIS ≥4 brain injury.(62) It is important to realize that these values                                                           2 One ‘gravity’ is defined as the gravitational acceleration constant (9.81 m/s2). As such, multiple gravities (or “g’s”) are just a multiple of the gravitational acceleration constant. 12  are not meant to define the exact threshold that these injuries occur but rather report a magnitude at which these injuries have been observed. Early research investigating rotational acceleration has predicted 1800rad/s2 to be the threshold at which concussion occurs, but this has been criticized for being too vague and inaccurate.(53) Another approach being investigated uses strain as the predictive metric for mTBI and has been validated through finite element models.(63,64) Such a method has been proposed to be used in the future to drive design of equipment to prevent mTBI. In a publication from Stanford University, an injury biomechanics lab is measuring brain dynamics through an instrumented mouth guard and correlating the results to clinically-diagnosed concussion.(65) The goal of this study is to aid clinicians in identifying mTBI as early as possible through characterised injury metrics as well as to quantify the mechanics of injury to inform safety equipment design.  Tissue-level injury thresholds are another aspect for which biomechanics literature is able to offer insight. Bain et. al. (2000) determined a strain of 0.14 to be a conservative threshold for morphological changes in the white mater using a guinea pig model.(66) Unfortunately, such thresholds are limited as live experimental animal models are difficult to scale to humans and cadaveric brain tissue is not mechanically representative of live tissue.  1.2.4 Snow Sport Specific Fall Mechanics Given that both skiing and snowboarding are activities performed on snow slopes, many of the same environmental conditions and obstacles are encountered, leading to similar characteristics of fall mechanics. However, the two activities are distinctly different in the equipment used and therefore planes of balance necessary. As such, fall mechanics have a number of inherent similarities and differences. In a prospective study by Bailly et. al. (2016), a survey was given to injured snow sport participants with a series of illustrations representing possible fall scenarios.(67) The scenarios were generated from analysis of one hundred crash videos found in online searches, from which 18 distinct fall circumstances were pictorialized.  The ten most selected mechanisms are illustrated in Figure 7.(67) 13   Figure 7: The 10 most selected scenarios: falling head first (n = 44) (A); falling sideways (edge catching) (n = 29) (B); crossing skis (n = 18) (C); falling backward (imbalance) (n = 22) (D); user collides with another immobile or less rapid user (n = 41) (E); self-fall, followed by a collision with obstacle (n = 35) (F); jump forward (n = 33) (G); jump backward (n = 23) (H); snowboarder falling head first (n = 15) (I); and snowboarder falling backward (n = 16) (J). Image taken from Bailly et. al., 2016 Although it is possible to have variation within these individual scenarios, they serve as a general representation and allow for a basic categorization to allow for further interpretation. For many of these, the incident is characterized by an abrupt disturbance causing the participant to approach the ground at an oblique angle with their general momentum being linear. For mechanisms that are characteristically distinguished, biomechanical studies have been performed to better understand the kinematics. One scenario in particular is known as the back-edge trip and is a snowboard specific mechanism which involves the snowboard’s back edge acting as a pivot causing the individual to rotate backwards towards the ground. Using clinical data, multibody computer models and ATD reconstructions, researchers have been able to characterize this phenomenon and understand that the kinematics of the head at impact differ significantly from the linear impact in current helmet standards.(68–70) It is this detailed understanding that enables improved, more realistic testing protocols and injury prevention technology. 1.3 Helmets and Standards Helmets are one mode of head injury prevention that has proven to be effective in mitigating severe head injury.(71) However, it is important to distinguish between severe head injury and mTBI. Most modern day helmets are designed and tested to attenuate energy from linear 14  acceleration and offer little protection from rotational inertia. Thus, shearing and tearing forces caused by rotational inertia may not be attenuated. Furthermore, the certification standards that exist to ensure quality and effectiveness are designed for severe head injuries such as skull fracture and do not incorporate testing to investigate the helmet’s ability to prevent against less severe injuries such as mTBI. Several research groups around the world, including the Neuronic Engineering group at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm, Sweden) and The Engineering Science, Computer Science and Imaging Laboratory (ICube) at the University of Strasbourg (Strasbourg, France), are investigating this aspect of helmet certification with the aim to incorporate rotational acceleration in the test protocol. By applying current head injury research to re-evaluate current helmet certification criteria, helmet designers will be encouraged to develop new technology which is more effective in preventing both linear and rotational injury. This approach is already taking effect with a few new technologies emerging, such as MIPS™ (www.mipshelmet.com) and 6D (www.6dhelmets.com), which attempt to reduce the effects of rotational acceleration on the brain. 1.3.1 Standardized Testing and Safety Certification In an effort to reduce the risk of harm for consumers and establish consensus amongst industry stakeholders, standards organizations have developed and published testing protocols. For sport helmets, the most recognized organizations include the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), the Snell Foundation (Snell) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The protocols developed involve tests and requirements for several different aspects related to the helmet’s safety such as stability, field of sight, shock absorption, toughness, retention and the ability to protect against penetration. In addition to these tests, a number of other requirements are defined and may include compatibility of construction materials (ie. use of cleaners, biocompatibility, finishes etc.), documentation (ie. materials used) and design necessities (ie. projections, retention strap design etc.).  To tests the helmet’s ability to mitigate injury from blunt trauma by absorbing energy, certification protocols prescribe an impact test and define a kinematic threshold that the helmeted impact must stay below. For many standards to date, this involves a linear drop apparatus (illustrated in Figure 8) where an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) headform impacts an anvil with a linear accelerometer mounted at the centre of gravity (COG) of the headform. The headform is dropped from a defined height and the acceleration is measured 15  over time. For an array of test scenarios, the peak linear acceleration (in the direction of gravity) is noted and the helmet is considered to have passed if this value is less than the threshold required in the standard. In general this threshold is between 250g and 300g, depending on the organization.(72–75) Although there are small discrepancies between additional prescribed tests, the linear impact protocol is consistent across most standards. Regardless of the sport, these test protocols are oversimplifications of real world fall scenarios.  Figure 8: Guide wire and drop monorail schematics exemplifying test apparatuses used for linear impact testing in standardized testing protocols. This image is taken from the ASTM F08 standard.(76) 1.4 Objectives and Scope The overarching objective of this work is to advance the current understanding of snow sport head injury to improve prevention of real world injuries. To achieve this, two phases have been defined. The main objective of the first phase of this work is to characterize the nature and severity of head injuries suffered while skiing or snowboarding. Secondarily, helmet use and the implications on injury outcome will be investigated. By relating injury outcome data through retrospective medical record review with sport specific kinetic and kinematic characteristics from existing literature, the relevant biomechanics of head trauma in snow sport accidents can be deduced. This information is directly relevant to both helmet certification protocols as well as development of technology to mitigate head injury. Benefit can be realised through prevention of head injury on both individual and societal levels. 16  The objective of the second phase of this work is to design a snow-sport-specific test apparatus capable of representing injurious real world head impacts. From the data collected in phase one of the project in conjunction with existing biomechanics literature, an improved and detailed understanding of the mechanics of head impact during skiing and snowboarding will be established. This understanding will then inform design requirements and evaluation criteria. A series of impact tests will be performed in order to verify the apparatus meets the requirements set forth.   17  2.0 CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SNOW SPORT HEAD INJURY3  2.1 Introduction With approximately 650 ski resorts in North America seeing over 75.9 million visits per year, skiing and snowboarding are identified as the second most practiced winter sports in Canada.(20,77,78) Due to several factors, including high speeds and variable conditions, snow sports also have a high incidence of injuries. Head injuries in particular account for approximately 50% of all snow sports injuries and are the leading cause of fatality for participants.(29,79) Although helmets have been found to protect users against severe head injury such as skull fracture, little is known about skiing- and snowboarding-specific injury mechanisms and their implications on head injury severity.(34–36)  With the established efficacy of helmets in protecting against severe head injury, manufacturers are faced with the challenge of tailoring technology for anticipated impact scenarios.(71) Activity specific helmet standards are one method to set performance requirements for manufacturers. Several organizations world-wide have published certification standards to define performance requirements for helmets used in snow sports.(72–75) Although slight protocol and threshold differences exist between organizations, most standards involve evaluation of the helmet’s ability to attenuate energy transmission, prevent penetration and stay on the user’s head.  For all current standards, the energy attenuation test involves a perpendicular impact to a helmeted anthropomorphic headform while measuring linear acceleration at the center of gravity. Linear drops are performed from 1.0-2.0 meters (approx. 4.5-6.3 m/s impact velocity) in each of these standards with maximum peak head acceleration threshold of 250-300 gravities (g’s; where 1g is equal to gravitational acceleration).(72–75) Although helmets used for snow sports are certified using such standards, most of the impact attenuation testing protocols are similar to those used in testing bicycle, motorcycle, football, hockey and other sport helmets and by virtue of impact surface (metal, not snow), may not be biomechanically representative of typical snow sport impacts.(80)                                                            3 This chapter has been submitted to a peer reviewed journal for consideration to be published pending peer review. 18  In a study by Scher et. al., typical velocities of intermediate snowboarders were found to be 30.9 km/h (8.6 m/s), on average.(81) In a separate study, skiers wearing helmets were found to be travelling 45.8 km/h (12.7 m/s), on average.(82) In the event of a crash at these velocities, oblique impact is likely because the tangential velocity is large in contrast to the normal velocity and is generally not dissipated unless the person interacts with another object. This can cause significant rotational acceleration which has been identified as a potential cause of concussion. Understanding the role of rotational acceleration in causing head injuries is important in order to develop future injury mitigation technologies.(19,83–85)   To date, most literature aiming to characterize snow sport head injury has done so with an epidemiological focus and only a few studies have aimed to understand the mechanism of injury. In a recent prospective study by Bailly et al. (2016), crash analysis was combined with a medical survey in an effort to identify at-risk demographics and describe the mechanism of snow sport head injury.(67) Although this research is commendable, it was limited by the lack of a detailed medical diagnosis and broad classification of injury severity as well as failure to capture severe head injuries. Therefore, it has limited ability to identify specific scenarios which require attention.   Other studies investigating snow sport head injury have broadly identified mechanisms using descriptors such as direction of fall, impact surface, general injury type and treatment category.(70,79,86,87) Such studies bring valuable understanding but often lack resolution of reporting, are not relevant to present day snow sports or lack detailed correlation of mechanism to injury severity.  By relating injury outcome data through retrospective medical record review with sport specific kinetic and kinematic characteristics from existing literature, relevant biomechanics of head trauma in snow sport accidents can perhaps be deduced. This information is directly relevant to helmet certification protocols as well as development of novel helmet and other technologies to mitigate head injury.  The purpose of this study is to describe the severity and mechanisms of real world head injuries that occurred while participating in recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding and that resulted in a visit to the Emergency Department or transfer to the Coroner. As a secondary focus, helmet use and their implications on injury outcome will be investigated. 19  2.2 Methods A retrospective, multi center chart review of snow sport head injuries over 6 years (January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014) was performed. The study methods were reviewed and approved by the University of British Columbia Clinical Research Ethics Board. Vancouver General Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia; VGH), Lions Gate Hospital (North Vancouver, British Columbia; LGH) served as the main study centres as they are in close proximity to the local snow sport recreation sites and service most severe trauma for the Greater Vancouver Area and the so-called Sea-to-Sky Corridor between Vancouver and the Whistler Blackcomb ski resort. Records were identified from the Regional Emergency Department Database and hospital patient care information systems. After eligible patients were identified, medical charts were requested from the appropriate medical records department. The BC Coroner’s Office records were also accessed.   2.2.1 Inclusion Criteria All incidents related to skiing and snowboarding, which resulted in head or face trauma, and were treated at either study center were included. Charts were pulled for cases that presented to the Emergency Department (ED) between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. In addition, incidents presenting to either emergency department which involved head impact but did not result in head injury were included. Skiing and snowboarding fatalities concluding head injury as the cause of death were also included.  2.2.2 Exclusion Criteria Those who sustained head injuries but were not associated with active participation in skiing or snowboarding activities were excluded from this analysis. An example of an injurious incident that is not considered active participation would be falling in the ski resort parking lot. 2.2.3 Vancouver General Hospital Given that only basic patient and clinical presentation data was available electronically at VGH through the ED database, relevant cases were flagged using keyword identifiers. The ED database included general patient descriptors including name, birthdate, and medical reference number (MRN) as well as clinical information including chief complaint, triage code. Cases were initially flagged for the keywords ski*4, snow*, Whistler*, Grouse*, Cypress*, Seymour*,                                                           4 The asterisk (*) is recognized by the database software as an indicator of the previous characters being the prefix of a word and will recognize any words including that prefix regardless of the additional characters (ie. searching ski* will identify skiing) 20  Manning*, Sun Peaks*, and Big White* in any of the ED database fields. A secondary search was conducted which further flagged the cases including the keywords scalp*, facial*, face*, head*, concussion*, TBI*, mTBI*, mild trauma*, brain*, eye*, neck*, nose*, nasal*, jaw*, collar bone*, collarbone*, mandible*, multisystem trauma*, and *MS blunt*. Cases flagged in both of the keyword searches were considered to be ‘high yield’ cases. For the cases that were only flagged in the primary search (ie. Sport and/or location descriptors), further investigation was done using the VGH Patient Care Information System (PCIS); an electronic database which includes information regarding  admissions, discharges, transfers, orders (lab & x-ray) and results as well as clinical documentation such as assessments, flow sheets, medication administration, plans of care, and clinical notes. A ‘medium yield’ subset of these cases was created for cases which, upon PCIS investigation, had indication of a CT Head ordered or mention of head trauma in consult reports. The remaining charts were considered ‘low yield’. Paper charts were requested and reviewed for all high and medium yield cases identified. Low yield cases were then further filtered in the ED database to identify cases that resulted in the patient being admitted. This list was then further scrutinized using PCIS where all documentation was reviewed for any indication of head trauma and the identified cases were included in the chart review. Figure 9 illustrates the number of cases included and excluded through each stage of record identification.                                                                                                                                                                                             21   Figure 9: Flowchart describing inclusion and exclusion for cases identified at Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia 2.2.4 Lions Gate Hospital As the emergency department at LGH utilizes electronic medical records in some aspects of reporting, identifying relevant cases and extracting data was much more streamlined. All ski and snowboard related cases were first identified using the ‘Accident Code’ and ‘Accident Description’ fields in the electronic search. The ‘Chief Complaint Description’ and ‘Discharge Diagnosis Description’ fields were then independently queried to filter for trauma involving the head or facial regions. From the combined list, duplicate cases were removed. All physical records of the included cases were then interrogated to extract data. Figure 10 illustrates the process of record identification and the number of cases included. 22   Figure 10: Flowchart describing inclusion and exclusion for cases identified at Lion’s Gate Hospital, North Vancouver, British Columbia 2.2.5 Office of the British Columbia Coroner Incident summaries related to skiing or snowboarding over the study period were provided by the BC Coroner’s Office. Each case was investigated and only those with head trauma as the cause of death were included. 2.2.6 Chart Review From the three records sources, a database was constructed using a standard data entry form with focus on information pertaining to the mechanism of fall, injury severity and helmet use. Information collected included demographic data (ie. gender, age in years, height and weight if recorded), any incident specific data (ie. nature, level of control prior to the incident, location, ability level, helmet use) as well as relevant information pertaining to the head injury such as diagnosis, additional injury, relevant history, medical imaging reports and notes from physicians, nurses or consultants. All reviewers were trained for consistency and regular meetings were held to reach consensus for issues that arose. 2.2.7 Data Analysis Once the data was collected, injuries were scored using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The AIS is an anatomically-based, consensus-derived global injury severity scoring system 23  developed and administered by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.(88) General descriptive and odds ratio (adjusted for age and gender) statistics were generated to characterize the database and to understand the relationships between head injury severity, helmet use, demographic and injury mechanism.  To address our primary objective, we compared the odds of moderate and severe head injury (AIS > 2 or 3, respectively) in helmeted versus un-helmeted skiers. Additionally, prevalence of each injury type, frequency of particular injury mechanisms and prevalence of specific head injury characteristics statistics were generated. Generalized linear regression models were generated using ‘R’ statistical software (R Core Team, Vienna, Austria).(89) 2.3 Results The database includes 766 cases of snow sport head injury identified over 6 winter seasons. Table 1 presents general descriptors of the database. This included twelve fatalities which met the inclusion criteria.  Table 1: Basic descriptive statistics for the snow sport head injury database (MAIS = Maximum AIS) Category Statistic Descriptor Total Percent of Total Cases Included Overall Cases Included 766 100.0% Gender Male 522 68.1% Female 242 31.6% Discipline No. of Skiing 302 39.4% No. of Snowboarding 464 60.6% Location Whistler 207 27.0% Local Mountains (Cypress, Grouse, Seymour) 363 47.4% Other Locations 196 25.6% Injury MAIS2+ Head/Face 198 25.8% MAIS3+ Head/Face 43 5.6% Helmet Helmet Use 422 55.1% Helmet Not Used 226 29.5% Not Recorded 118 15.4%  As all of the injuries sustained were scored using the AIS, these values were used to differentiate injury types (Figure 11). Concussion was the most commonly diagnosed injury, representing 62.7% of all injuries. The majority of concussive injuries noted were scored as either minor (AIS=1) or moderate (AIS=2) with presence of loss of consciousness being the differentiator.(88) Headache, scalp injury (8.4%) and brain stem/cerebellum/cerebrum injury (5.2%) were the next most common head injuries while skin/subcutaneous/muscular facial injuries represented 16.4% of diagnosed injuries (categorization consistent with the AIS). 24   Figure 11: Characterization of all injuries suffered based on the AIS categories. Note: In some cases, multiple injury types were reported and coded with each individual injury being represented in this figure. To further characterize head impact, impact location prevalence is presented in Figure 12. Impact location was not recorded for 57.4% of all cases. In the remaining cases, the most common site of impact was to the occipital region (49.6%), while face/frontal, side and top represented 35.5%, 12.0% and 2.8% of the reported impact locations, respectively.   Figure 12: Prevalence of reported head impact location for all documented cases. Gross injury mechanisms observed in the medical records were found to fit within six general categories including edge catch, fall from height, jump impact, impact with object, impact with person and simple fall. In 97.5% of cases, this general categorization was achieved. Additional descriptors were used to further categorize these mechanisms and include variables such as 62.7% 8.4% 5.2% 1.4% 0.5% 2.3% 8.0% 16.4% 0.3% Injury Characteristics ConcussionHeadache; scalp injuryBrain stem, cerebellum, cerebrumSkeletal, headVessels and intracranial, headInternal organs, faceSkeletal and joints, faceSkin/Subcataneous/muscle, faceNot further specified15.1% 21.1% 5.1% 1.2% 57.4% Impact Location Prevalence Face/FrontalOccipitalSideTopUnknown25  impact surface, self-reported speed, height of fall, difficulty of run and fall direction. Figure 13 outlines the prevalence of each of these mechanisms.   Figure 13: Prevalence of reported head injury mechanism for all documented cases. Age and gender adjusted odds ratios were calculated with the aim of understanding the interplay between injury mechanisms, severity and helmet use. The likelihood of sustaining an MAIS 2 or higher head injury with different injury mechanisms was studied. Compared to edge catch, the following mechanisms were more likely to result in MAIS 2 or higher head injury: impact with object (OR 2.44; P=0.05; 95% CI 1.14-5.56), jump impact (OR 3.18; P=0.01; 95% CI 1.48-7.26) and fall from height (OR 4.69; P=0.05; 95% CI 1.44-16.23).  8.7% 2.9% 14.6% 13.2% 6.9% 51.2% 2.5% Injury Mechanism Prevalence Edge CatchFall from HeightJump ImpactImpact with ObjectImpact with PersonSimple FallUnknown26   Figure 14: Forest plot illustrating age and gender adjusted odds ratio analysis for the odds of suffering an MAIS 2+ head injury per gross mechanism descriptor It was also observed that, compared to occipital impact, the likelihood of concussion was lower with frontal/face impact (OR 0.17; P=0.01; 95% CI 0.10-0.28) and side (OR 0.44; P=0.01; 95% CI 0.21-0.99) impact. No significant influence was observed for the top impact location.   Figure 15: Forest plot illustrating age and gender adjusted odds ratio analysis for the odds of suffering a concussion per head impact location Similar analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between head impact location and injury severity using MAIS 2+ head injury as a threshold. No statistically significant odds ratios were observed however, side and face/frontal impact locations showed a trend of an increased risk of MAIS 2+ head injury compared to occipital impact. 1.33 1.57 2.44 3.18 4.69 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Odds Ratio of Suffering an MAIS 2+ Injury per Mechanism (Reference - Edge Catch) Simple Fall, NFSImpact with PersonImpact with Object *Jump Impact **Fall from Height **P=0.05; **P=0.01; ***P=0.001 0.31 0.44 0.17 -1 0 1 2Odds Ratio of Suffering a Concussion per Impact Location (Reference - Occipital) Top ImpactSide Impact *Face/Frontal Impact ****P=0.05; **P=0.01 ***P=0.001 27    Figure 16: Forest plot illustrating age and gender adjusted odds ratio analysis for the odds of suffering an MAIS 2+ head injury per head impact location In investigating the influence of helmet use, it was observed that helmet users who presented to the ED are 0.47 (P=0.05; 95% CI 0.23-0.95) times as likely to suffer an MAIS 3+ head injury (which excludes concussion) compared to those who are not wearing a helmet. When the injury threshold is reduced to MAIS 2+ (which includes concussion), helmet use correlates to an increase risk by 1.10 (not significant; 95% CI 0.75-1.62; age and gender adjusted) times. This finding suggests that helmets are more effective at reducing more severe head injuries but offer insignificant benefit in preventing mild traumatic brain injuries. In this sample of snow sport participants reporting to the ED, wearing a helmet trends towards an increased risk of concussion by 1.28 times (not significant; 95% CI 0.91-1.80), compared to not wearing a helmet. In this analysis the sample of skiers and snowboarders we studied was biased as they only visited the ED because they had a concussion or concussion-like symptoms. The results could be confounded by the fact that any people who were wearing a helmet and who hit their head but did not have concussion symptoms did not report to the ED.  2.4 Discussion In an effort to characterize snow sport head injury, real world clinical data was used with the goal of determining trends that may be addressed by improved preventative measures. As with many sports, injury mechanisms cannot be characterized by a single scenario and are often complex. We found that injury type and mechanism have significant variation even when generalized (Figure 11 and Figure 13). However, this investigation identified important trends. 0.54 2.21 1.78 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5Odds Ratio for Suffering an MAIS 2+ Head Injury per Impact Location (Reference - Occipital) Top ImpactSide ImpactFrontal/Face Impact*P=0.05; **P=0.01 28   One important aspect of an impact test is the surface that the headform collides with. Current test standards use various geometries of steel anvils and modular elastomer programmer (MEP) pads. These surfaces allow for a repeatable surface on which the impact can take place but are markedly different than snow or ice found on a ski hill. Since ‘simple falls’ and ‘jump impacts’ represent 65.8% of the cases, and these mechanisms very likely result in head to snow/ice contact, there is support for helmet testing using an impact surface more similar to snow. This is supported by Bailly et. al. (2016), Dressler et. al. (2012) and Scher et. al. (2006) who conclude that helmet efficacy should be evaluated through impact with a snow surface.(67,81,90) The variable nature of snow based on environmental factors and the difficulty of maintaining representative conditions in a laboratory suggest that an in-field test apparatus could be utilized.  To understand the relationship between injury mechanism and injury severity, odds ratios were calculated.  The likelihood of an MAIS 2+ head injury as a result of fall from height and jump impact was observed to increase 4.69 and 3.18 times, respectively, when compared to the edge catch mechanism (Figure 14). Given the high energy nature of these mechanisms and their association with higher severity injuries, it is apparent that a high velocity test is necessary. Some may argue that such a test is already represented in many test standards. However, with an observed average travelling velocity of 8.6 m/s – 12.7 m/s, versus 5.4 m/s – 6.3 m/s in standardized test protocols, skiers and snowboarders are likely exposed to much higher head impact velocities than used in testing standards, particularly when falling from height or jumping.(72–75,81,82)  Previous studies found kinematic thresholds for concussion between 53g and 169g for linear impacts, and 5022 rad/s2 – 7600 rad/s2 for rotational acceleration.(91–98) Certification standards evaluate a helmet’s ability to attenuate linear acceleration, with the threshold for passing being between 250g and 300g for a 1.5m-2.0m drop. Clearly current tests are more representative of high energy injuries (ie. skull fracture) suffered from linear mechanisms. Mertz et. al. found that a 50% risk of adult skull fracture correlates with a peak linear acceleration of 262g.(62) The notion that current helmets are designed for high severity, linear mechanisms is further supported by the finding that there is no significant difference in the risk of concussion for helmeted compared to unhelmeted snow sport participants. A recent meta-analysis concluded that no statistically significant relationship exists between helmet use and a risk of 29  concussion.(99) Since 62.7% of injuries suffered in our study were concussions, justification can be made for the addition of a lower velocity impact test, to supplement a higher velocity impact test, which is more representative of the types of real world head impacts that result in a concussion.   Although information on impact velocities and angles was limited in this retrospective record review, current literature and video analysis provides insight into these head impact characteristics. An impact angle of 30 degrees was the most common scenario for motorcycling and equestrian head impacts which have similar tangential velocities to skiing and snowboarding.(100,101) Recommendation of an oblique helmet test in safety certification protocols is common in recent literature since pure radial (oriented towards the centre of gravity of the head) impact is rare in real world head impact.(19,102) A recent study used a full-body anthropomorphic test device to simulate a snowboarder experiencing a ‘back-edge trip’, a mechanism that is likely to result in significant normal velocity. The head impact angle in this experiment was still found to be 50 degrees to the slope.(69,81). Such oblique impacts result in eccentric loading and induce rotation of the head, a mechanism that has been observed to result in diffuse axonal injury.(103) The high frequency of oblique impact can be further confirmed by observing video footage available on the internet (www.YouTube.com and other sites).  By investigating impact location prevalence and association with injury severity, a deeper understanding of mechanism is achieved. Nearly half of all reported head impacts in our study were to the occipital region, and the likelihood of suffering a concussion from an occipital impact was 5.88 times higher than for a face/frontal impact. Thus, attention must be paid to optimizing protective measures to this area. In contrast, the odds ratio of suffering an MAIS2+ head injury (which excludes less severe concussions) from an occipital impact (reference face/frontal impact) was found to be 0.56 (95%CI:0.31-1.01;P=0.1). This may suggest occipital head impact being a more frequent occurrence at lower energy.  For cases where it was reported, helmets were used 65.2% of the time for participants in this study. Helmet efficacy for severe head injury was confirmed: the risk of an MAIS 3+ injury for helmet users was cut in half (OR = 0.47). However, no significant benefit was observed for helmet users in preventing MAIS 2+ head injuries, which includes AIS 2 concussions. With helmets currently being designed for an acceleration threshold of 250g – 300g, perhaps it is not 30  surprising that helmets provide no significant benefit against injuries that occur at lower thresholds (concussions reportedly occur with head acceleration around 53g - 167g).(93–95,97,98) This is consistent with other observational studies which found that helmets offer little protection against concussion.(99) Such findings validate the necessity of current helmet testing protocols incorporating a high threshold pass/fail criteria but also emphasize the need for a lower energy test that is more representative of less severe but more common injury. 2.5 Strengths and Limitations The biggest limitation of this work is its retrospective nature which limited our ability to definitively determine high resolution injury mechanisms. Nevertheless, we believe that the general mechanisms reported were accurate and that unreported mechanisms were consistent with this distribution. Additionally, this study only captures those with injuries that required medical attention and does not capture snow sport participants who hit their head but did not sustain a significant injury. The case summaries provided by the BC Coroner’s office included limited mechanism of injury detail. As such, these cases were only included if head trauma could be confirmed as cause of death.  Unlike many retrospective studies, this is the first to characterize real world snow sport head injury and investigate the influence of gross mechanism and helmet use on the nature and severity of injuries sustained. We captured a large number of cases with a wide range of injury severities and consulted radiographic images and written records. Through construction of a multi-centre database including over 750 cases of head trauma over 6 winter seasons, an accurate characterization of snow sport head injury is made.  2.6 Conclusions This investigation to characterize clinical snow sport head injury confirms that such events are complex in nature and not represented by a single mechanism. A high prevalence of concussion supports the need to improve preventative measures to reduce risk of lower severity injuries. Further, investigation of helmet effectiveness showed reduced risk of more severe injury but no benefit in protecting against lower severity injuries such as concussion. By understanding the gross mechanism of injury, appropriate evaluation of such preventative measures and especially evaluation of concussion-specific prevention can likely be achieved. Such findings can be directly related to the improvement of safety equipment and re-evaluation of certification standards. 31  2.7 Implication of Clinical Database on Standardized Testing From this clinical data, it is now possible to make informed recommendations as to possible modifications to existing standardized safety testing protocols. These suggestions will also act as requirements for the design of a relevant helmet testing apparatus in successive chapters of this document. It is worth noting that these recommendations are meant to complement existing test protocols. The major findings and recommendations based on the clinical database include:  High prevalence of simple falls and jump impacts supports impact testing using a surface more similar to snow.  Increased risk of MAIS 2+ injury from high velocity mechanisms indicate a need for a higher velocity impact test.  A high prevalence of concussion, an injury considered to have a relatively low biomechanical threshold, suggest the need for a lower velocity impact test and research focused on novel helmet designs that are designed to lower the potential for concussion specifically (with a lower pass/fail threshold) Existing biomechanical and epidemiological literature will be used to recommend additional apparatus requirements in the following section.32  3.0 DESIGN OF A CLINICALLY REPRESENTATIVE SNOW SPORT TEST APPARATUS 3.1 Apparatus Design Given the observations from the clinical dataset, as well as additional evidence in existing literature, it is apparent that real-world snow sport head injury is more complex than is currently represented through helmet testing protocols. The clinical work supported the consideration of impacting surfaces more similar to snow, incorporation of a high velocity impact more representative of travelling speeds that skiers and snowboarders may fall at as well as a lower velocity impact that is more likely to be representative of incidents resulting in concussive injury. Although these clinical findings can aid determination of apparatus requirements, existing literature and interviews with key stakeholders are necessary to understand the full scope of the requirements the test device must be designed around.  In an effort to make testing more relevant to the sports for which the certified helmets are designed for, alternative test protocols and apparatuses have been developed. Many of these methods aim to incorporate rotational acceleration through eccentric or oblique impacts as well as incorporating a surrogate neck. One general method to achieve this is to perform drop impacts, both constrained and free fall, onto an angled impact platen.(104–107) Protocols involving a headform dropping onto a moving surface have also been identified as more representative of specific impact scenarios such as bicycle and motorcycle accidents.(108–110) To represent impacts more similar to head-head or shoulder-head contact, linear impactors and pendulum impacts protocols have been developed.(92,111–117)  As helmet evaluation moves more towards test protocols that are more similar to real-world events for many sports, snow helmet certification protocols remain oversimplified. The first step toward improved testing methods is to understand the mechanics of head impact. In an observational study performed on a ski resort, skiers and snowboarders were determined to be travelling 45.8 (12.7 m/s) and 30.9 km/n (8.6 m/s) on average, respectively.(81,82) Through principles of projectile motion, we can infer that such travelling velocities may result in impact angles of 20 to 35 degrees and resultant velocities of 10 m/s to 14 m/s (see Appendix C: Detailed Design). For certain mechanisms, such as a back-edge trip, head velocity at impact was found to be approximately 125% of the tangential velocity at the time of fall initiation.(69)  33  The following chapter outlines the design process followed to identify the need, define requirements, generate and evaluate concepts, design and construct an in-field helmet test apparatus that is representative of head injury scenarios. The design proceeded in accordance with principles documented in chapter 2.0 including the findings supporting testing on a surface more similar to snow as well as additional high and low velocity tests to represent more realistic impact scenarios for which severe injury and concussion can occur. The objective of this work is to propose a final design of a test apparatus capable of headform impact representative of real world snow sport head impact scenarios. The final design selected and fabricated involves a large compression spring to accelerate a carriage that is capable of releasing the headform at a specified distance prior to impact. The spring is loaded using a hand winch and wire rope. A 3D model rendering of the final design is shown below in Figure 17.   Figure 17: A 3D rendering of the final impact apparatus design. 3.1.1 Stakeholders In an effort to identify and consider all relevant needs, all stakeholders and their interests were investigated. Table 2 summarizes the identified stakeholders and their relevance to the project scope. 34  Table 2: Summary of relevant stakeholders as well as their relation to the project and main considerations Stakeholder Relation Main Considerations Helmet users Direct impact given they are using the technology that has been deemed appropriate for protecting against severe head injury; this can be further divided into recreational and competitive users. Safety Regulatory bodies (ASTM, EN, CPSC, CSA, Snell etc.) (73–76,118) Adoption or endorsement of test protocols Safety, conformity, ease of implementation, impact to industry, injury threshold validity,  difficulty to pass test Helmet companies Designing and marketing helmet technology to consumers Safety, ease of implementation, cost of test, difficulty to pass test, impact to industry Researchers Use of protocol to investigate new technology or conduct parallel research with standardized methods. Investigation of injury thresholds Safety, relevance of test, ease of implementation, injury threshold validity, cost of test 3rd Party test facilities Performing test protocol and certifying helmet design for companies. Ease of implementation, repeatability, cost of test Government Currently no legislation that helmets sold in Canada need to be certified; potential support for mode of increasing safety of helmet without influencing industry and adoption Safety, impact to industry, influence on consumer uptake Hospitals/Clinics/Medical Patrol Treating head injuries from snow sport activities Safety, influence on consumer uptake Families of helmet users Concern with helmet use and potential buyer Safety Ski Resorts Snow sport participants pay to use the resorts. The ski resorts have safety staff and protocols of their own as well as being concerned with liability. Their facilities may also be used for testing. Safety, location of test, user experience, liability  35  3.1.2 Needs Identification Champions in the major stakeholder groups were contacted and interviewed to gain insight into the main needs of the stakeholder groups. Dr. Irv Scher, a biomedical consultant and Chairman of the ASTM F27 Committee on Snow Skiing, served as a stakeholder champion from the perspective of the regulatory bodies. Dr. Peter Halldin, CTO of MIPS and Assistant Professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, was consulted to offer an industry and researcher perspective. Further discussion with Mr. Darrin Richards and Dr. Peter Cripton gave additional insight into other perspectives that were not accounted for in the formal interviews. Notes from these discussions can be found in Appendix A: Stakeholder Communications. To further capture the perspective of the regulatory organizations, the ASTM - F08 Sports Equipment and Facilities was attended In November of 2014. Notes taken from this conference can also be found in Appendix A: Stakeholder Communications. This primary research proved extremely valuable in developing a comprehensive set of needs to base the apparatus design from. Secondary research entailed understanding current standardized and research based test protocols. Safety standards from organizations including the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), ASTM International, the Snell Foundation, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) were studied to understand the commonalities and differences. In addition, impact testing apparatuses used for research were studied to gain a perspective on possible future directions of safety performance testing. General categories for such apparatuses included devices which perform drops with a neck surrogate, drops onto a moving surface, angled surface impacts, linear impactors, impact pendulums and projectile tests. Throughout this research, it was important to translate findings into clear and concise ‘needs statements’ for which to begin to construct the basic requirements of the test device. A comprehensive list of the discovered needs can be found in Table 3 along with the most relevant stakeholders. Table 3: Summary of the identified needs and the relevant stakeholders to that need Need Most Relevant Stakeholder(s) Device must fit inside an automobile Regulatory bodies, researchers, 3rd party test facilities Device must be representative of traumatic head injury (or injuries) suffered while participating in snow sports  Helmet users, families of helmet users, regulatory bodies 36  Need Most Relevant Stakeholder(s) Device must be able to endure summer and winter conditions at high altitudes Regulatory bodies, researchers, 3rd party test facilities Tests must be repeatable (impact velocity, orientation, acceleration); a consideration of this will be the snow characteristics changing after impact Regulatory bodies, 3rd party test facilities, researchers Device must not damage other test equipment (ie. Headform, Data Acquisition hardware (DAQ) , accelerometers) 3rd party test facilities, researchers Device must be easy and quick to assemble and disassemble 3rd party test facilities, researchers Device must be transportable under the power of two people 3rd party test facilities, researchers Device must allow for mounting of a camera 3rd party test facilities, researchers Camera mount must be adjustable to visualize point of impact 3rd party test facilities, researchers Impact surface conditions must be quantifiable (ie. hardness, granularity, moisture content, crystal structure etc.) 3rd party test facilities, researchers, regulatory bodies Impact velocity must be quantifiable  3rd party test facilities, researchers, regulatory bodies User must be able to initiate test manually 3rd party test facilities, researchers Testing must not permanently damage set up location (within reason; ie. Drilling rock) Ski resorts Device must have the ability to be constructed on various slope angles 3rd party test facilities, researchers Headform must be restrained from escaping the immediate vicinity of the test device 3rd party test facilities, researchers Test can be performed by 1 person 3rd party test facilities, researchers Tests can be repeated within 3 minutes 3rd party test facilities, researchers, regulatory bodies 37  Need Most Relevant Stakeholder(s) Device must not cause harm to anyone 3rd party test facilities, researchers, ski resort Device must allow for adjustment of impact angle 3rd party test facilities, researchers, regulatory bodies 3.1.2.1 Clinical Study Outcomes As defined in chapter 2.0, several findings from the retrospective clinical study can be used as needs to incorporate in the apparatus design. To summarize, those needs include:  Need for impact testing using a surface more similar to snow.  Need for a higher velocity impact test more similar to travelling speeds of snow sport participants.  Need for a lower velocity impact more similar to the biomechanical threshold for concussion 3.1.3 Specifications 3.1.3.1 Requirements To turn each needs statement into a measurable requirement, it is necessary to consider the apparatus design from an engineering perspective. These requirements are used to evaluate concepts based on the defined metrics and their importance to the final performance of the apparatus. Each need’s statement was broken down individually into one or several specific requirements of the apparatus and then a metric was determined based on current practise in standardized testing, existing research, industry expectation or intuition. An example of a requirement, its defined metric and justification includes:  Time between same-series tests must be short  Justification: Many certification standards require a defined maximum amount of time between tests to investigate the helmets toughness. This may also be necessary to ensure impact surface does not change significantly between tests  Metric Threshold: 180 seconds (3 minutes)  Reference: CSA Z263.1-14 Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets - Toughness Test (119) The most deterministic requirements set forth include: 38   The apparatus must allow for variable impact velocity  The apparatus must allow for variable impact angle  The apparatus must be portable (broken down into several more specific requirements)  The headform should be able to collect linear and rotational kinematics  The apparatus must allow for variable head impact locations Further elaboration of these requirements, their metrics and justification can be found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation, Table 14.  3.1.3.2 Evaluation Criteria To allow for objective evaluation of each concept, evaluation criteria were developed based on the needs identified by the stakeholder discovery. These criteria were then used in conjunction with Pugh Charts and Weighted Decision Matrices (see sections 3.1.6.2 and 3.1.6.3.3). Overall, nine criteria were decided upon which are summarized in Table 4.  Table 4: Summary of evaluation criteria and a short description of its relevance Evaluation Criteria Descriptor Cost Overall cost of all necessary components for testing Precision The ability of the test apparatus to perform a single, exact test with the parameters defined (incl. impact angle, velocity, head orientation) Weight Overall mass of all included components Ease of Use The ease of each test with regard to resetting, initiating, performing, collecting data, verifying conditions etc. Durability The ability of all test components to resist breaking or deteriorating as well as changing in variable conditions (ie. Temperature, wind, precipitation etc.). Consideration as to the how critical failure is should be taken into account Set-Up Time The total time it takes to set up and take down the apparatus (does not include time between tests) Size The total volume of all of the necessary test equipment Repeatability The ability of the test apparatus to perform repeat impacts with the same parameters Safety The safety factors as they relate to the public surrounding the device and the operators of the device (could include changes to the environment (open pit from testing). May also involve influence on the environment in the long term.  39  3.1.4 Functional Decomposition Now that design requirements have been set and evaluation criteria defined, an in-depth understanding of the basic fundamental function of the device can be outlined. From these top level functions, concept fragments can be generated independently and then combined to form integrated solutions. This method allows for the most creative solutions for each basic function without concern, at least initially, for compatibility. The top level functions identified are: FR1: Hold headform relative to ground FR2: Induce known acceleration to headform relative to ground FR3: Control headform orientation at impact FR4: Contain headform within test zone FR5: Adjust impact orientation of headform FR6: Release headform from test apparatus prior to impact FR7: Quantify headform impact velocity FR8: Maintain consistent impact surface between tests 3.1.5 Concept Generation To explore several different ways to address the functions outlined in the functional decomposition (Section 3.1.4), two general methods of brainstorming were applied. These included an initial individual brainstorming and a subsequent structured group brainstorm.(120,121) As an initial step in individual brainstorming, concepts for each function identified were generated without assistance or critical evaluation of any kind. Following this, a second step of revisiting each function and using research for conceptualization was used. Research included drawing inspiration from existing mechanisms that shared related functionality through investigating mechanism patents and using internet searches and mechanism encyclopedia’s. (122) Basic internet searches for words describing key functions were also used to identify unfamiliar mechanisms. A comprehensive list of all of the ideas generated can be found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation. To take advantage of the knowledge and experience of individuals in the Orthopaedic and Injury Biomechanics Lab Group, a group brainstorming session was held which involved 1 post-doctoral student, 2 PhD candidates, 1 research engineer and 1 professor. The structure of the session was formed around the eight top level functions and creative, unconventional ideas were encouraged. This session proved to be very valuable in generating a wide variety of 40  solutions. A comprehensive list of all of the concepts generated can be found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation. 3.1.6 Concept Evaluation For each of the top level functions, several concepts were generated, necessitating evaluation to eliminate some of the ideas that may not be feasible or do not meet the requirements. To formalize this process, tools such as winnowing, Pugh charts and weighted decision matrices were used.(121,123) 3.1.6.1 Winnowing This process entails screening each concept on a top level for each of feasibility, requirements and technical readiness and eliminating the concepts with the least chance of success. To investigate feasibility, the idea is scrutinized to understand if it could offer the general performance necessary of the apparatus. At this stage, basic calculations or drawing were used to understand if the idea was physically possible (see Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation). Next, each requirement is revisited to understand if the concept can satisfy it. Lastly, the technical readiness is evaluated by understanding if the necessary technology for construction and operation of the concept is available. If a concept fails to pass any one of these stages, the concept is eliminated from further consideration. Table 15 in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation shows each concept sorted by function and the result of each stage of winnowing. 3.1.6.2 Pugh Charts Pugh charts were used as a tool to compare and rank the remaining concepts. In situations where the best option was not trivial, research and further calculation was performed. An example of a Pugh chart is seen below in Table 5 with all of the charts being found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation. In each Pugh chart, all concepts were evaluated against a ‘datum’ concept and determined to be better (‘+’), worse (‘-‘) or the same (‘S’). Table 5: Pugh chart showing the first iteration of evaluation of the "Hold Headform Relative to Ground" function. The purple column represents the datum for this iteration. Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Cost S + S + + + + - + + 41  Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Precision S S S S S - - S - - Weight S + S S S S + + + + Ease of Use S S S S S S + S S + Durability S - - - - S - - - - Set-Up Time S S S - - S + S S S Size S + S S - S + + + S Repeatability S - - - S - - S - - Safety S S S S S S - - - - Σ+ - +3 +0 +1 +1 +1 +5 +2 +3 +3 ΣS - 4 7 5 5 6 0 4 2 2 Σ- - -2 -2 -3 -3 -2 -4 -3 -4 -4 Net Score - 0 -2 -2 -2 -1 +1 -3 -1 -1 Rank - 2nd 4th 4th 4th 3rd 1st 5th 3rd 3rd  In general, concepts are combined into integrated solutions before evaluating them. Given the high number of concepts that came out of the winnowing process, this step was completed on the concept fragments. This allowed for a thorough investigation of each concept and how it compared to other concepts. One criticism of using concept fragments at this stage is that synergies between ideas are not taken into account and a combination of all of the highest ranked concepts may not necessarily be ideal. For this design, given the high number of concepts passing the winnowing stage, Pugh charts are being used to further cull the concepts generated. As such, concepts were eliminated if they were consistently in the bottom third of the rankings so as to not eliminate concepts that may be more synergistic that another slightly higher ranked idea. 42  3.1.6.3 Quantitative Evaluation of Integrated Concepts The next step was to combine concept fragments into several integrated solutions which were then assessed using Weighted Decision Matrices (WDM). A WDM is a tool that can quantitatively assess an integrated solution using weightings for each evaluation criteria. This first requires an objective way of determining those weightings which was achieved using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). 3.1.6.3.1 Analytical Hierarchical Process To determine the weight of each evaluation criteria relies on relative importance, the Analytical Hierarchical Process was utilized. A table showing the raw rank assigned for each comparison as well as the complete table of normalized values can be found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation. Table 6 shows the weightings as determined through the AHP. Table 6: Summary of evaluation criteria weightings as determined using the AHP Evaluation Criteria Weight Weight (%) Cost 0.02 2.24 Precision 0.22 21.62 Weight 0.04 3.91 Ease of Use 0.08 8.28 Durability 0.07 7.44 Set-Up Time 0.09 8.52 Size 0.04 3.63 Repeatability 0.25 24.98 Safety 0.19 19.40  3.1.6.3.2 Integrated Concepts Using the concept fragments that passed the Pugh Chart phase of evaluation, integrated concepts were created. At this stage, the top level function of “induce a known acceleration to the headform” was found to be the most deterministic function and as such, integrated concepts were generated based on the eight concepts that remained for this function. Full descriptions and sketches of the final eight integrated solutions can be found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation and can be summarized, based on the most deterministic concept fragment (mode of accelerating the headform), as:  Inverted Pendulum (gravity)  Flywheel with Clutch (powered)  Loaded Spring (linear) 43   Freefall Drop  Pulley System (4:1)  Inverted Pendulum (torsional spring)  Winch  Electromagnet 3.1.6.3.3 Weighted Decision Matrix Similar to the Pugh Charts described earlier, WDM column headers were populated with each integrated concept with two sub columns for each displaying the assigned score and the weighted score. The first row header was filled with the evaluation criteria with the second column of row headers being filled with the associated weighting. To ensure the input scores for the WDM were as objective as possible, each integrated concept was broken down into a list of anticipated components. This allowed for each component to be taken into account for evaluation criteria which necessitated a more detailed scoring (ie. cost, weight, durability etc.). For each criterion, a specific scoring system from 1 to 6 was defined. These criteria-specific scoring rubrics as well as the component breakdown summary can be found in Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation. Based on the component-by-component scoring, overall criterion scores were generated and input into the weighted decision matrix. After all scores were multiplied by the weightings, the Loaded Linear Spring concept emerged as the best concept. Given the extensive evaluation process, the decision to proceed with detailed design for the linear spring was made. Table 7 illustrates the full WDM. Table 7: Weighted Decision Matrix highlighting evaluation of each integrated concept Evaluation Criteria Descriptor Overall Weight Concepts Inverted Pendulum (gravity) Flywheel w Clutch (powered) Loaded Spring (linear) Freefall Drop Pulley System (4:1) Inverted Pendulum (spring) Winch Electro-magnet Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Cost Overall cost of all necessary components for testing 0.02 8 0.18 5 0.11 6 0.13 7 0.16 7 0.16 6 0.13 4 0.09 6 0.13 44  Eval. Crit. Descriptor Overall Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Precision The ability of the test apparatus to perform a single, exact test with the parameters defined (incl. impact angle, velocity, head orientation) 0.22 5 1.08 7 1.51 8 1.73 3 0.65 7 1.51 7 1.51 5 1.08 3 0.65 Weight Overall mass of all included components 0.04 4 0.16 1 0.04 6 0.23 8 0.31 2 0.08 6 0.23 3 0.12 0 0 Ease of Use The ease of each test with regard to resetting, initiating, performing, collecting data, verifying conditions etc. 0.08 5 0.41 5 0.41 7 0.58 7 0.58 5 0.41 5 0.41 8 0.66 3 0.25 Durability The ability of all test components to resist breakage and as well as changing in variable conditions (ie. Temperature, wind, precipitation etc.). Consideration as to the how critical failure is should be taken into account 0.07 6 0.45 6 0.45 7 0.52 6 0.45 7 0.52 7 0.52 6 0.45 6 0.45 Set-Up Time The total time it takes to set up and take down the apparatus (does not include time between tests) 0.09 6 0.51 1 0.09 5 0.43 6 0.51 5 0.43 5 0.43 4 0.34 4 0.34 45  Size The total volume of all of the necessary test equipment 0.04 7 0.25 1 0.04 5 0.18 7 0.25 5 0.18 7 0.25 3 0.11 3 0.11 Repeatability The ability of the test apparatus to perform repeat impacts with the same parameters 0.25 3 0.75 7 1.75 8 2.00 3 0.75 5 1.25 7 1.75 7 1.75 5 1.25 Safety The safety factors as they relate to the public surrounding the device and the operators of the device (could include changes to the environment (open pit from testing). May also involve influence on the environment in the long term. 0.19 3 0.58 5 0.97 7 1.36 5 0.97 5 0.97 5 0.97 5 0.97 2 0.39 Net Score - 4.37 5.36 7.16 4.62 5.50 6.21 5.56 3.56 Rank - 7th 5th 1st 6th 4th 2nd 3rd 8th  3.1.7 Design in Detail The final design decided upon from the evaluation was based around a linear spring to accelerate the headform to a known acceleration. Other concepts to satisfy the additional top level functions include:  A rail mounted ball arm to hold the headform relative to the ground and manipulate the orientation  A large pad to control the headform within the test zone Eval. Crit. Descriptor Overall Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight Score Weight 46   A displacement controlled release mechanism to allow the headform to detach from the apparatus prior to impacting the ground  Integration of the acceleration signal to determine impact velocity  Raking of the impact surface for consistency The next step was to perform a detailed analysis of each aspect to optimize performance and synergies.  3.1.7.1 Spring Design One of the first design parameters to consider was the spring itself as the specifications (namely force and geometry) directly influence other aspects of the apparatus. As a first step, research was conducted on spring parameters to grasp what is available in regards to spring constant, the ratio of maximum compressed length to uncompressed length and diameter. Given the desire to perform tests at a multitude of impact speeds, a spring with a small compressed/uncompressed length ratio is preferred to allow for precise adjustment of stored energy. With a basic understanding of what was available, a parametric analysis of the head kinematics at various stages of the test was performed with the manipulated parameters including spring constant, distance compressed, rail length and apparatus angle. The geometric equation for the apparatus orientation was set up based on the schematic shown in Figure 18 and Equation 1. Figure 19 illustrates the energy states that were used in the analysis.  Figure 18: Schematic showing the apparatus orientation used to develop the geometric equations applied in the parametric analysis. Note: this diagram does not show the energy of system, only the geometric considerations of the system at different orientations 47  Equation 1: Geometric equations used to determine the potential energy in the parametric analysis ℎ𝑒 = 𝑙𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑙 + 0.5𝑚 ∗ tan(𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑙𝑔𝑒) + 𝑦ℎ′                   𝑦ℎ′ = 𝑙𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑙 ∗ sin(𝜃𝑟) − 0.5 ∗ cos (𝜃𝑟)    Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Figure 19: Energy states used to set up the parametric model to estimate head impact velocity Conservation of energy was applied at three time points in the test to understand the energy states and head kinematics at each stage. It was assumed that all kinetic energy of the spring is transferred to the head. Frictional losses on the rail were assumed to be accounted for by applying a 5% reduction in the final head velocity calculated at each. The general equation applied at each phase is show in Equation 2 where KE represents the kinetic energy, PE represents the potential energy and E represents the total energy. Equation 2: Conservation of energy applied to the linear spring apparatus 𝐸𝑇𝑜𝑡 = 𝑃𝐸𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 + 𝐾𝐸𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 + 𝑃𝐸𝑆𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 + 𝐾𝐸𝑆𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 Potential energy of the spring was calculated by Equation 3. Equation 3: Potential energy of a spring 𝑃𝐸𝑆𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 =12𝑘𝑥2 Further, the total energy of the head can be expressed through a combination of kinetic and potential energy. Equation 4 and Equation 5 show these relationships where ‘m’ is the mass, ‘g’ is the gravitational constant, ‘h’ is the height and ‘v’ is the velocity. Equation 4: Potential energy of the headform. Note: The equation found in Figure 18: Schematic showing the apparatus orientation used to develop the geometric equations applied in the parametric analysis 𝑃𝐸𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 = 𝑚𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑔ℎ𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝 + 𝑚𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑔ℎ𝑢𝑛𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑑 48  Equation 5: Kinetic energy of the headform 𝐾𝐸𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 =12𝑚𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑣ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑2  For the first phase, the total energy of the system was calculated at the moment the spring was at maximum compression. Since the system is being held static, its kinetic energy is zero. This state is represented by Equation 6. Equation 6: Total energy of the system at maximum spring compression 𝐸𝑇𝑜𝑡 = 𝑃𝐸𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑,1 + 𝑃𝐸𝑆𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔,1 Once the total energy in the system was calculated, it became possible to solve for the velocity of the headform once the spring was unloaded. Phase 2 represented the moment at which the spring reached zero displacement and the headform is still in contact with the spring.  Using the total energy from the previous phase, and the fact that the potential energy of the spring is zero, it was possible to solve for the head’s velocity as shown in Equation 7. Equation 7: Solving for the velocity of the headform when the spring is a displacement of zero 𝑣ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑.2 = √2(𝐸𝑇𝑜𝑡 − 𝑃𝐸ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑,2𝑚) Phase 3 was defined as the moment the head impacts the ground and therefore all of its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. Again, the velocity of the headform at this stage was calculated as shown in Equation 8. Equation 8: Solving for the velocity of the headform at the instant it first contacts the ground 𝑣ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑.3 = √2(𝐸𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑚) The full parametric analysis can be found in Appendix C: Detailed Design. The main benefit from this analysis was being able to identify the necessary spring characteristics to achieve a head impact speed of 10 m/s. This led to choosing a spring with a constant of 50 kN/m, an uncompressed length of 0.35 m, an outer diameter of 0.1 m and a fully compressed length of 0.164 m. To allow for easier integration, closed, squared and ground ends were selected. This configuration was available and also satisfied the need for a long range of displacement to reach more precise forces, and therefore velocities. 49  A variety of slope angles, firing angles, maximum forces and apparatus heights were explored with the above spring configuration being able to achieve the maximum impact velocity within the range of its capability. As an example, with a perpendicular firing angle on a 15 degree slope from a height of 0.5 m above the ground, the spring would need to be deflected 0.1 m (resulting in a spring force of 5000 N) and would achieve an impact speed of 10.33 m/s (see Figure 20).  Figure 20: Sketch of the example scenario involving the headform being released from 0.5m above the ground with a 0.1m spring deflection. In an effort to further validate the kinematics of this model, MSC Adams software was utilized. A simple model including a 3D scan of the hybrid III headform, a linear rail, a rigid ball arm with linear constraint to the rail and a rail mounted, linear spring was constructed. A solid-to-solid contact type was used at the spring/ball arm interface and friction was applied at the ball arm/rail joint (μ_static = 0.6; μ_dyna = 0.3). Although simplified, this analysis verified that achieving the 10 m/s impact speed was possible and gave insight into the influence of friction coefficient. Results of the Adams model were comparable to the parametric analysis conducted with the exception that the computer simulation was slightly more accurate in applying frictional losses and therefore estimated the necessary drop height to be slightly higher. 50   Figure 21: Screenshot of the MSC Adams analysis configuration and a time plot showing the head velocity, acceleration and displacement over time. 3.1.7.2 Control of the Spring Following the selection of the spring, a means of controllably loading and releasing it must be designed. From the parametric analysis, it became evident that considerable spring forces will be necessary to achieve high velocity impacts. As such, safely depressing and unloading the spring is of paramount concern. Additional considerations include placement of the spring, loading the spring linearly (without eccentricity), supporting the mechanism which loads/unloads the spring and mounting the spring to the apparatus. In approaching where to place the spring in relation to the apparatus, several concepts were generated. It was realised that a spring could be used to either push or to pull the headform to the desired velocity and therefore could be placed above or below the head. In addition, brainstorming was conducted for specific mechanisms to load and unload the spring in a controlled manner. From this concept generation it became apparent that in order to pull the 51  head to the desired velocity (spring below the headform), additional components would be necessary to load the spring linearly and to couple the extended spring to the head. For these reasons, mounting of the spring below the head was dismissed. From the mechanisms generated, simple research into existing components as well as basic order of magnitude calculations were required.  3.1.7.2.1 Lever-Arm Concept In investigating the feasibility of using a lever arm in combination with some method of holding the applied force static to achieve the desired spring compression, an understanding of the required geometry was necessary. Figure 22 shows sketches for the pulling and pushing force necessary to implement the magnet (A) or pull cord (B) concepts while Equation 9: Calculations to determine necessary force for the magnet lever concept (Figure 22, sketch A) and Equation 10 show the relevant calculations.  Figure 22: Design sketches for spring loading via lever arm concepts. A) represents the sketch pertaining to the magnet concept while B) is specific to the pull cord concept. Equation 9: Calculations to determine necessary force for the magnet lever concept (Figure 22, sketch A) 𝑀1 = 𝐹1 ∗ 𝑙1;  𝑀2 = 𝐹2 ∗ 𝑙2;   𝑙1 =15𝑙2 →  𝑀1 = 𝐹1𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 ∗ 𝑙1;   𝑀2 = 𝐹2𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 ∗ 𝑙2;   𝑀1 = 𝑀2  ∴  𝐹1 = 5𝐹2 Equation 10: Stress calculation to determine stress in a rod used to apply force on a lever mechanism (Figure 22, sketch B) 𝐹𝐶 =15𝐹𝐴;   𝐹𝐴 = 5𝑘𝑁;   𝐼𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑙𝑦 𝐹𝐴 + 𝐹𝐵 + 𝐹𝐶 = 0;   5𝑘𝑁 + 1𝑘𝑁 = −𝐹𝐵 = −6𝑘𝑁 𝜎 =𝐹𝐴=5𝑘𝑁𝜋 ∗ (0.0064𝑚2 )2 = 158𝑀𝑃𝑎   𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎14"𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑜𝑑;    𝜎 = 39.5𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎12"𝑟𝑜𝑑 Based on this analysis, it became apparent that the length of the lever arm would need to be relatively large in order to accommodate the displacement and high force necessary for the desired velocity.  In investigating the threaded rod that the applied force would act through (seen to be the most likely element of the mechanism to fail), it was found that the tensile stress was well within the capabilities of readily available materials. 52  3.1.7.2.2 Gear Concept Upon investigation into the use of gear ratios to achieve mechanical advantage, it was found that worm gears offer several benefits over spur gears. These include worm gears being non-back driveable as well as achieving a high gear ratio in a small volume. Further investigation into current worm gear applications illuminated existing hand winch systems utilizing worm gears which were also capable of high loads. Another aspect of this concept would be to identify a rope that could withstand the peak force imparted by the string. This rope would allow for fast release of the load by including a trigger release mechanism in series between the crank and the tensioned cables loading the spring. Given wire rope is often used in high load lifting scenarios, this seemed an obvious choice if this method of spring loading was selected. In consideration of implementing a worm driven power-screw, number of components, mounting of the power screw collar and release of the load were investigated. By removing the spur gears and driving the worm gear itself with a crank, the number of components could be reduced. The force could also be applied precisely and safely. One significant disadvantage to this system was found to be the mechanism of release under load. In addition, having the power screw through the central axis of the spring would limit the ability to incorporate a central rail that the head carriage travels on. 3.1.7.2.3 Selected Spring Control Concept Based on the above discussion and calculation, a worm gear, hand winch with wire rope was selected based on its proven reliability in similar situation. With wire rope being available in various diameters and working load capacities, selection of the hand winch was deemed to be more important to specify first. Upon researching several possibilities, a Dutton-Lainson WG2000 Worm Gear Winch was selected. With a 2000 lbf (8896.44 N) load rating, a safety factor of 1.78 is achieved (additional safety factor likely incorporated into the product load limit). This option was also inexpensive and readily available. Details of this particular product can be found in Appendix D: Product Specification. With a single reel winch selected, a single strand of wire rope must be specified to take the 5000 N load of the spring. Through research of safe working limits, 1/4” Steel, 6x19 wire rope was selected. In the specification sheet that the capacity includes a safety factor of 5 (see Appendix D: Product Specification). It is anticipated that a trigger mechanism be incorporated 53  between the spring load and the hand winch which also allows for multiple, parallel wire rope segments to act in loading the spring itself (see Figure 23). As used in current impact testing equipment used in the OIBG lab, a high load snap shackle will serve as the trigger mechanism (see Appendix D: Product Specification). It was originally anticipated that a conventional snap shackle would suffice but upon further investigation, these are not rated for release under load and therefore a trigger snap shackle was selected (see Appendix D: Product Specification).  Figure 23: Schematic showing the hand winch and wire cable combination The next aspect to the design is the structures supporting the spring. As shown in Figure 23, parallel wire rope segments will be incorporated to disperse the force of the spring. Given the concern of loading the spring eccentrically, having the wire rope segments attached to the free floating bottom spring platform via threaded fasteners will allow for micro adjustment once the spring is mounted. For symmetry and adjustability, 4 parallel wire rope segments were designed for. A rigid plate incorporated into the main structure of the apparatus will provide a fixed surface to load the spring against and facilitate clamping of a central rail. Finally, the wire rope can be swaged with compression sleeves and thimbles to provide reliable connection points.  In order to mount the fixed end of the spring and the winch, plates were designed. A parametric analysis investigating a simplified beam bending scenario and Solidworks simulations were performed to optimize the material properties and geometry (see Appendix C: Detailed Design). Simple geometries were utilized whenever possible. Additionally, Solidworks Simulation was used to investigate the top plate in particular as it would be subjected to the force of the loaded spring through the single wire rope and the winch. Analysis of ¼” and ½” plate designs are 54  shown in Figure 24 This analysis aided optimization of the plate geometry, particularly in finding that the thickness of the top plate must be at least 0.5 inches to prevent significant deflection at the max spring load.   Figure 24: Solidworks Simulation results showing plate strain from a 5000 N point load applied at the center. The left image illustrates the analysis on a ¼” plate while the right image shows a ½” plate. Four 30 mm by 30 mm fixtures at each corner were included. Given this plate design was identified as a possible point of failure given the high loads, a more detailed simulation was performed. With wire rope pulling downwards, an eccentric (from the center of the winch spool) distributed force along the front edge of the winch mount is experienced in the plate. Additionally, two upward and equal loads act on the plate through the two rear bolts. These changes were reflected in another simulation of the most extreme loading conditions (see Figure 25). The maximum displacement for this design was determined to be 0.90 mm. 55   Figure 25: Comprehensive analysis of the top plate on which the winch is mounted. The color map illustrates the Von Mises stress on the plate (Max 240 GPa; 1.15 SF). The fixtures and two bolt loads on the bottom surface of the plate are shown in the bottom left image The plate fixed to the bottom surface of the spring which acts as an interface between the wire rope and the spring was also determined to be a potential point of failure and therefore required analysis to specify the necessary material and geometry. Similar to the top plate analysis, Solidworks Simulation software was utilized to understand the implication of the specific loading scenario. A simple circular geometry with holes for the central rail and four eye bolt attachments was modeled and an elastic support connector matching the rate (50 kN/m) and spring base geometry was applied. Equal forces were applied to circular areas around the four eye bolts and the simulation was run with a fine mesh. Several iterations of the material and thickness informed the selection of ¼” 6061 aluminum which resulted in maximum stress of 172 GPa (minimum safety factor of 1.60). Figure 26 illustrates the results of the stress analysis, 56   Figure 26: Solidworks simulation results showing a stress map for maximum loading (5 kN) of the spring base plate. The maximum stress was found to be 172 GPa. Lastly, a support structure must be designed to support the spring load between the plate that the hand winch is mounted on and the plate the spring is loaded against. To determine the geometry needed in this compressive application, buckling calculations were performed based on the cross sectional areas of cylindrical rod, threaded rod and extruded aluminum (80/20). A spreadsheet showing the parametric analysis performed can be found in Appendix C: Detailed Design. Due to its ease of assembly, corrosion resistance and low weight, 80/20 extruded aluminum was used in this design. The analysis concluded that 30 series (30 mm x 30 mm) T-slotted profile will be more than sufficient (safety factor of 15.1 for a single 1 m length). For the purpose of securing the plates to the supports and to provide further structural integrity, inside corner brackets were added to each corner (see Appendix D: Product Specification). The outcome of this analysis resulted in the spring and top frame assembly illustrated in Figure 27. 57   Figure 27: 3D model of the final design for the spring control mechanism 3.1.7.3 Support Structure Following from the design of the frame to support the spring, design of a support structure for the base of the apparatus, below the spring, was necessary. Requirements of the bottom structure are to hold the spring frame and headform control mechanism off the ground, serve as a mount for the central rail and facilitate variable oblique impact. Although this structure does not bear significant loads caused by the spring, it is necessary to make the structure rigid and durable to support the head release carriage and rail. 80/20 was again selected for its ease of assembly, weight and corrosion resistance.  With the vertical supports selected, the focus was then placed on a means to mount the central shaft that will act as a bearing surface for the head control mechanism. With a natural mounting point for the top of the shaft being the bottom plate of the spring support structure, design of a bottom mount is necessary. This led to conceptualization of a bottom support structure as depicted in Figure 28.  58   Figure 28: Schematic drawings illustrating concepts for the bottom frame design. Given that the head control mechanism would impact the base structure with considerable momentum, it was decided that a more complete plate structure would be best suited (the image on the left of Figure 28 as opposed to the image on the right). With that said it is also important to leave and opening in the plate for the head to travel freely to the ground without interacting with any support structures. To mount the central shaft to the bottom and spring plates, shaft collars were selected from McMaster Carr (specifications can be found in Appendix D: Product Specification). These collars can be fixed to the plates with some tolerance to allow for minor adjustments. As the nature of the apparatus is to impart a linear impulse to the headform control mechanism through a loaded spring via a portable, lightweight structure, it is logical that oblique impact be facilitated by altering the angle of the entire apparatus relative to the ground. The simplest way to secure the apparatus in a tiled configuration would be the addition of lockable pivot arms on the rear of the structures support frame. Using 80/20 pivot components (specifications found in Appendix D: Product Specification) and additional extruded aluminum (30 mm x 30mm T-slotted), two swing arms were designed for this purpose. Again, aluminum components were selected based on their resistance to oxidation and relatively low mass. The full bottom support structure integrated with the spring and upper support frame is illustrated in Figure 29. 59   Figure 29: Integrated spring control mount and bottoms support structure including the pivot arms to facilitate angled impacts. The shaft collars are highlighted in blue. 3.1.7.4 Control of the Headform The next challenge was to design the mechanism that allows for control of the headform in the loading and firing phase as well as release prior to impacting the ground.  3.1.7.4.1 Ball arm Design Considerations From the evaluation phase, the concept that emerged was to use a ball arm and a linear bearing on a monorail. Use of a ball arm is common in helmet testing as it allows for easy adjustment and fixation of the head in the three rotational degrees of freedom about the COG of the head. In the Orthopaedic and Injury Biomechanics Lab, a ball arm is used in conjunction with a guide follower system on a linear monorail as a test apparatus that adheres to most 60  standardized helmet testing protocols (see Figure 30).  This design allows for the ball arm to be fixed under the chin of the ATD head with the center of the ball being near to the COG of the head. A single axis accelerometer (sensing axis being parallel to the drop axis) can then be mounted at the center of the ball to measure the severity of the impact.  Figure 30: Monorail guide follower, ball arm and headform. Note: the ball arm is partially inside the headform. One unanticipated challenge that was faced when looking to implement a ball arm with the Hybrid III headform was that the instrumentation needed to make the head free from external cables (ie. DAQ, accelerometers, power supply) would be mounted in the same place the ball sits for the linear monorail design. Additionally, if the ball arm penetrated the envelope of the headform, breakaway prior to impact would not be possible in all orientations. Given these concerns, the ball arm design was reconsidered. A possible solution would be to mount the ball arm to the external surface of the Hybrid III headform. This would achieve manipulation in three rotational degrees of freedom and a breakaway mechanism could be designed into the shaft of the ball arm. However, any additional mass still attached to the headform after breakaway is unacceptable as it will change the mass moment of inertia of the head; something that would be of great concern to the research and standards community. 3.1.7.4.2 Alternative Design Considerations As an alternative, the ball arm design was abandoned and other solutions were investigated.  Two concepts that emerged from brainstorming including a scissor grab mechanism and a 61  spring loaded clamp as seen in Figure 31 and Figure 32. A benefit to designing the head control mechanisms as standalone offers the benefit of the head being free from rigid attachment to the carriage. With that said, interaction with structures during deployment, fast release of the headform, precision in holding the head in the desired orientation and quick test reset must be considered moving forward.  Figure 31: Scissor grab mechanism concept sketch to control and release the headform 62   Figure 32: Spring Clamp Release mechanism to control and release the headform Although both concepts offer means to quickly release the head at a desired displacement from when the spring reaches its neutral position and reset the test swiftly, there was concern that the scissor grab mechanism would not get out of the way of the headform quickly enough, causing rotation of the head. For this reason, the spring clamp mechanism was investigated further. Elaborating on the design of the spring clamp mechanism, examination of potential clamping methods was necessary. In order to apply a constant inward radial force to the head, a means of constraining the slide bars is necessary. As shown in Figure 33, set interval (hard stop or constraint pin) or infinite interval concepts were generated. Given the adjustability of using a threaded rod and nut to loosen or tighten the clamp slide, this concept was selected. 63   Figure 33: Head release mechanism concepts 3.1.7.4.3 Selected Head Control Mechanism Concept With the spring clamp mechanism selected, detailed design was undertaken. The components of the design include the support plate, the clamp slides, the threaded rod and nut, and the spring. Given that the clamp slide must be free to slide radially but be constrained in the axial direction, a multilayer approach to the support plate was taken. This would allow for easy fabrication of complex geometries using a waterjet and easy assembly using common fasteners. A 3-layer plate assembly was chosen using 0.25” thick 6061 aluminum. With a slightly larger slot width on the middle plate, a single degree of freedom is provided for the sliding clamps. The three layers were fixed together using six circumferential fasteners with wing-nuts for easy assembly. Ninety degree channels were cut into the top of the slots in the middle and top plates to allow for the spring to be compressed radially and then locked into place with threaded rod with a ninety degree bend (see Figure 34). 64   Figure 34: Profiles of the three plates that make up the main platform for the head release mechanism. Based on the need to translate freely out of the way once triggered, the material selected for the slide clamps must be low friction as well as light and corrosion resistant. A material that satisfies all of these requirements as well as being commonly used in biomechanical apparatuses due to its low wear, machinability and radio-transparent nature is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE; http://www.polytechindustrial.com/products/plastic-stock-shapes/uhmw-polyethylene). For these reasons, UHMWPE was chosen as the material for the clamp slides (seen in Figure 35).  Figure 35: 3D rendering of the slide clamp design In selecting the springs, the most important requirement was to push the slide clamps out of the way quickly to prevent interaction with the headform. As such, the spring must be stiff and allow for compression over a relatively large distance to allow for a full range of adjustment (ie. for a helmeted and unhelmeted head). Zinc coated (moderate corrosion resistance), steel springs with a rate of 26.5 lbs/in (4.64 kN/m) and the ability to compress 4.29 cm.  The threaded rod used to lock the spring in place was 10-24 steel and a flanged nut was used to constrain the slide clamp. The nut also served as a means to adjust the radial location of the 65  slide clamp and therefore secure or loosen the head in place. A 3D rendering of the head control mechanism can be found in Figure 36.  Figure 36: Final design of the head control mechanism. Note: the sphere recommends the approximate geometry of a helmeted headform 3.1.7.5 Guide Rail and Bearing Mount The final aspect in the design of the snow sport head impact test apparatus is to define the method of constraining the head control mechanism to an axial motion. With a rail system emerging as the best solution for this, previous aspects of the design have been made to accommodate a centrally mounted rail. As such, a means for the head carriage to be attached and translate on the rail was necessary.  3.1.7.5.1 Linear Bearing Selection The biggest consideration in designing for linear motion of the head control mechanism is the forces imparted due to the impulse when the loaded spring is released. As an initial step, Saint Venant’s principle was considered so that alignment of the bearings with the shaft and necessary bearing spacing is incorporated optimize force transmission and therefore prevent jamming of the bearings. The principle suggests that the distance between bearing pairs be at least 3 times the diameter of the shaft.(124) Next, an understanding of the forces that the bearing system must take was investigated using a free body diagram and force/moment balance (shown in Figure 37). To investigate the worst case scenario, the trigger event was analyzed instantaneously with the inertial reaction force of the headform being equal to the spring force (assuming a horizontal rigid beam between the two).  66   Figure 37: Free body diagram to determine the necessary geometry of the bearing mount. Although several iterations were performed in an attempt to optimize the moment arms, this particular calculation uses a horizontal distance of 0.3 m for the head with the bearings spaced 0.11 m apart. This analysis was iterated in an attempt to optimize the distance between the bearings and the distance away from the central shaft that the head is placed. It was found that by decreasing the horizontal distance of the head placement (vertical reaction force) and increasing the vertical distance of the bearings, the horizontal reaction forces acting on the bearings is reduced.  It became apparent that large bearings were necessary to satisfy the radial load rating required and as such, alternative means of balancing the moment were investigated. By incorporating a counter mass on the opposite side of the rail to the head control mechanism, the moment from the head’s vertical inertial force could be balanced effectively (shown by the free body diagram in Figure 38 and Equation 11).  Figure 38: Free body diagram for the bearing mount incorporating a counter mass. Equation 11: Force and moment balance for the bearing mount configuration ∑ 𝐹𝑥 = 𝐹𝑅1 − 𝐹𝑅2 = 0        ∑ 𝐹𝑦 = 𝐹𝐻 + 𝐹𝑚 − 𝐹𝑠 = 0  ∑ 𝑀𝑜 = (𝐹𝐻 ∗ 0.2𝑚) − (2 ∗ 𝐹𝑅 ∗ 0.055𝑚) − 𝐹𝑚 ∗ 0 Once the counter-mass concept was incorporated, more standard bearing designs could be considered. As such, a self-aligning, linear ball bearing with housing was selected which has a 648 lb (3042 N) dynamic limit (specifications shown in Appendix D: Product Specification). The final geometry of the bearing mount involves the bearings being placed 0.23 m apart vertically (measuring from the center of each bearing) with the center of the head control platform (point 67  at which the head’s reaction force is applied) being 0.2 m in the horizontal direction. This horizontal distance was mimicked for the counter-mass. It was later realized that this analysis was extremely conservative given the force and moment balance (shown in Figure 37) considered the static scenario. In an effort to estimate more realistic forces, an analysis to understand the acceleration of the whole head release mechanism system was conducted. This acceleration was then used to calculate a more accurate inertial force that the headform imparts on the release mechanism plate (shown in Figure 39 and Equation 12). This analysis illustrated that the inertial force of the head during triggering is significantly less than the previous conservative estimate and a safety factor of 2.10 was determined for the radial load on the bearings.  Figure 39: Revised free body diagram and calculation for estimating the force imparted on the release mechanism by the head. Equation 12: Calculations to determine the bearing load and safety factor using Newton's law. 𝐹𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑 = 𝑚ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 ∗ 𝑎𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 = (5𝑘𝑔) ∗ (333.3𝑚𝑠2) = 1666.7𝑁 ∑ 𝑀 = (1.67𝑘𝑁) ∗ (0.2𝑚) − 2 ∗ 𝐹𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 ∗ (0.23𝑚2) →  𝐹𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 1449.3𝑁 (2.10 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟)  The final consideration for this aspect of the design includes investigation of the stress and strain in the head control mechanism to minimize stress and therefore deflection, which may cause unwanted acceleration and/or shifting of the head’s orientation prior to impact. This was achieved using the Solidworks Simulation tool (Table 8). The simulation was set up to include a point load applied at the center of the head control plate and a fixture at the surface on which the bearings were mounted. As a first step, a simplified geometry was analysed using 6061 aluminum. With the findings of this analysis illustrating a significant deflection in the plate, the study was iterated to include the exact geometry and manipulate the mesh size as well as add 68  features such as trusses and brackets to stiffen the structure. In the later iterations, more focal bearing fixtures (vs. the whole bearing mount plate) were included. Table 8: Solidworks Simulation iterations showing stress investigation of several configurations and analysis parameters. Simplified Geometry; Coarse Mesh; Surface Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 32.3 mm  Simplified Geometry; Coarse Mesh; Surface Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 0.60 mm  Simplified Geometry; Coarse Mesh; Surface Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 0.60 mm  Simplified Geometry; Coarse Mesh; Surface Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 0.89 mm  Exact Geometry; Fine Mesh; Surface Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 0.34 mm  Exact Geometry; Fine Mesh; Focal Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 3.88 mm 69   Exact Geometry; Fine Mesh; Focal Fixtures; Max. Disp. = 3.43 mm   As a result of this analysis, two trusses were added to the head control/bearing mount design to increase rigidity. Additionally, 80/20 brackets were added to both mount the head control mechanism to the bearing plate and increase rigidity. Specifications for these brackets can be found in Appendix D: Product Specification. 3.1.7.5.2 Selected Guide Rail and Bearing Mount Concepts Additionally, two aluminum 80/20 brackets were added to mount the head control mechanism to the bearing plate and increase rigidity. Specifications for these brackets can be found in Appendix D: Product Specification. A custom steel plate acts as a rigid interface between the head control mechanism and linear bearings. Two self-aligning, linear ball bearings with closed housing (Schaffer; KGNZ-16PP) were selected based on their profile, availability and load limit. Fasteners with a smaller diameter than the holes pre-drilled in the bearing were used to allow for shaft alignment before securing. The central shaft was selected to be a 1” diameter, anodized aluminum linear shaft (see Appendix D: Product Specification) and as such the bearings selected accommodate a 1” diameter. The counter-mass includes a customized steel plate with two cylindrical A36 hot rolled steel masses mounted 0.2 m from the bearing plate. A 3D rendering of the final design is shown in Figure 40.  70   Figure 40: 3D rendering for the final design of the bearing mount (including the head control mechanism) and counter-mass 3.1.7.6 Additional Design Components 3.1.7.6.1 Headform Containment As the cable-free headform is anticipated to be travelling 10 m/s at impact, an oblique impact may result in significant excursion from the test apparatus. For the safety of those performing the testing as well as nearby snow sport participants, the headform must be contained. As determined in the evaluation, a padded barrier around the perimeter of the impact area will be used for containment. Simple aluminum frames will be fixed to the back of the pads so they can be securely placed in the snow. 3.1.7.6.2 Velocity Measurement Velocity measurement is an important aspect of helmet testing standards as multiple impacts are performed which all must be within a certain percentage (defined as +/- 5% for most certification standards) of the desired velocity. The concept that was selected involves integration of the linear resultant acceleration prior to impact. This method will involve development of a post processing algorithm to give an impact velocity shortly after the test is performed. High speed video of the impact will be used to validate this method. 3.1.7.6.3 Impact Surface Maintenance and Characterization  One challenge of on-snow testing is the variability in the impact surface. Although snow testing is important to recreate a real-world impact scenario, maintenance and characterization of the surface must be considered. The concept that was selected to do this involves a prescribed raking protocol of the impact surface. Following removal of excess loose snow from the top of the surface using a shovel, two passes of a standard aluminum, fine tooth rake will be 71  performed without addition of force (ie. only the mass of the rake). Additionally, the snow surface will be characterized using a tool designed to measure snow hardness (www.SnowPak.net; Fraser Instruments Ltd., Vancouver, BC). A snow profile will be dug within a 1 m radius of the impact site and the tool will be used to generate a hardness profile for the first 0.3 m of the snowpack. This will allow for comparison of hardness to tests performed in other areas with different snow-packs. Figure 41 shows the SnowPak tool being using on a snow profile.  Figure 41: Demonstration of the SnowPak tool to measure the snow hardness as different snow layers. Image taken from www.snowpak.net. 3.1.7.7 Hybrid III Head Modifications Although the headform is not directly associated with the design of the test apparatus, several modifications had to be made in order for it to function as a free motion headform (all instrumentation mounted inside the head). The steps involved sourcing the appropriate power supply and cables for the DAQ, modification and calibration of accelerometers, fabrication of an instrumentation mounting bracket, fabrication of a base plate and addition of multiple gaskets. Given Diversified Technical Systems (DTS; Seal Beach, CA) were in the process of developing the appropriate hardware to convert existing Hybrid III ATD headform’s into a free motion headform’s, much communication was necessary to provide insight into this particular application. An engineering drawing was provided by DTS for the instrumentation mounting bracket. Given its complex design, fabrication of this part was contracted out. Figure 42 illustrates the mounting bracket design. 72   Figure 42: Instrumentation mounting bracket designed by Diversified Technical Systems (Seal Beach, CA) Additional hardware specified and purchased from DTS necessary to arm and power the DAQ system included a USB Interface Kit, an Extended Battery Stack and several cables. Once implemented, this system allowed for arming of the DAQ, removal of all external cables, data to be collected during testing once a pre-defined acceleration threshold is exceeded, reconnection to a computer and download of the test data. One further step to equip the headform with the appropriate accelerometers was to significantly shorten the cables so as to not influence the overall mass of the head (ie. 15-20 ft. of cable for each of the 3 sensors). In doing this, the sensitivity of the sensor changes due to the new cable resistance. To recalibrate the sensors once the cables were cut, repeated linear headform drops were conducted with a cut cable accelerometer mounted in the same axis as an accelerometer with a known sensitivity. Five drops were conducted from two different drop heights and the accelerations were compared. Average sensitivities and standard deviations were calculated for the repeated impacts. All standard deviations for the calculated sensitivities were found to be less than 0.001 mV/g. Data from the calibration testing can be found in Appendix C: Detailed Design.  As the Hybrid III headform is designed to either fix a ball arm mount or cervical neck to the region under the jaw, a custom plate was designed to both seal the hole in the headform and serve as a flat, secure surface to mount the instrumentation mounting bracket on. As such, a simple design was employed which included 4 holes to mount it to the headform and four holes 73  for the instrumentation bracket to be mounted to the base plate (Figure 43). The two smaller holes are for dowel pins to locate the proper orientation of the instrumentation bracket.  Figure 43: Head base plate design to seal the headform and to act as a mounting surface for the instrumentation bracket To keep moisture from the electronics inside the head during on-slope testing, it was important to design and fabricate seals for the openings in the head. To do this, rubber matting was purchased and custom shapes were cut to fit the exact geometry of the openings (Figure 44). These gaskets are held in place by compressive forces imparted by the mating structures and fasteners.  Figure 44: Custom gaskets made to keep moisture from entering the headform during on-slope testing As a result of this work, an isolated headform free from external cables was made possible. The overall configuration of the mounted DAQ and sensors can be seen in Figure 45. 74   Figure 45: A view of the instrumentation mounted inside the Hybrid III headform. This configuration allows for the headform to be used for testing without being attached to external cables. 3.2 Final Design Once all of the detailed design was completed, it was important to combine all of the components to detect any issues in integration. This was first done by creating a 3D model of all components (excluding hardware) and building a geometrically accurate apparatus in a virtual space. This process was extremely valuable to understand general form, identify overlap in tolerances and visualize constrained movements (ie. head carriage on rail; pivoting arms to lean structure back). A complete 3D rendering can be seen in Figure 46. 75   Figure 46: Complete integrated rendering of the final design for the snow sport head impact simulator. A semi-transparent headform was inserted to visualize issues with head placement. To perform a test using the apparatus, a short procedure is followed. First, the headform should be armed using the Slice DAQ software and disconnected from all cables. It can then be places in the desired orientation within the slide clamps. Once the headform is in place, the slide clamps can be pushed radially toward the center, engaging the springs, until the 90 degree bend in the bolt can be located in the plate channel. The slide clamps can then be adjusted by loosening or tightening the flanged bolts. Next, string tethers should be tied to the bolt ends located in the plate channels. The strings can then be cut to the same length and tied to the trigger release bar. This trigger release bar is then moved up or down the structural supports according to the desired point at which the headform is to be released. To seat the head release mechanism to the base of the spring, a static lanyard should be strung between the carriage and the snap shackle trigger. Lastly, the desired angle of impact should be set by leaning the apparatus back on the pivot arms at the desired angle. Once all wire rope lanyards are looped through the carabiner, the carabiner should then be connected to the snap shackle trigger. The system is now ready to be wound. This is done by cranking the hand winch slowly until the compression gage reaches the desired value. The apparatus can then be fired by inserting the release pin into the snap shackle trigger. The basic steps to perform a test are shown in Figure 47. 76    Figure 47: Schematic of the final design including the main steps to performing a test 3.3 Fabrication Like many mechanical designs, a mix of commercially available and custom components are necessary for the physical structure to be built. As such, a full bill of materials was generated to outline the components needed for fabrication of the final design (see Appendix C: Detailed Design). The total cost of materials for this apparatus is approximately $2015.49 CAD (approximate due to variations in currency conversion). All labour, with the exception of swaging for the wire rope ($157.14; Pro-Tech Yacht Sales, Vancouver, BC) and fabrication of the instrumentation mounting bracket ($580.00; work performed by the UBC Mechanical Engineering Machine Shop), was completed independently. Machining processes for this design included waterjet cutting, milling, cutting (band saw), drilling, tapping, filing, swaging, bending and grinding as well as the use of hand tools for assembly. Figure 48 and Figure 49 show the completed design being tested in the OIBG lab while shows on snow testing, respectively. 77   Figure 48: In-lab testing of the final apparatus design.   Figure 49: On-snow testing at Cypress Mountain of the final apparatus design. Alan Nursall (Alan Nursall Experience, Daily Planet Television Show) is shown with the production crew.  78  4.0 VERIFICATION OF A SNOW SPORT HEAD IMPACT TEST APPARATUS5 4.1 Introduction Use of standardized testing for sport helmets dates back to 1961 where impact attenuation efficacy was investigated performing guided drops.(125–127) Although original efforts were to design protocols that would be representative of real-world impact scenarios, many simplifications were made in adapting such events to a laboratory setting. These simplifications are even more apparent for sports which involve variable impact conditions such as skiing and snowboarding.  Current snow sport helmet certification testing is generally characterized by a linear impact of a helmeted anthropomorphic test device headform to a metal anvil from heights of 1.5 m – 2.0 m (5.4 m/s – 6.3 m/s). Acceleration in the drop axis, at the head at the center of gravity, is measured and compared to a prescribed pass/fail threshold. (72–75) Figure 50 illustrates a schematic of a test apparatus to be used in such shock absorption tests. (72) With only small variations in the acceleration threshold defined in these standards (250 g – 300 g peak linear acceleration), the magnitude of most standards criteria  is representative of severe head injury such as skull fracture.(62) Although higher severity, linear injuries are important to prevent against, head injury suffered from snow sports participation includes a spectrum of mechanisms and severities including minor and more severe concussions; arguably something test standards should reflect.                                                            5 A portion of this chapter has been submitted to the an international conference for consideration to be resented and be published in the conference proceedings. 79   Figure 50: Schematic of a test apparatus used in a snow sport helmet impact attenuation test. This image was taken from the Canadian Standards Association standard Z263.1-14 Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets. (72) Although many studies investigate the epidemiology of snow sport head injury, this lacks specific information detailing the mechanism of fall and correlations between mechanism and injury severity. Bailly et. al. (2016) performed a prospective study for which snow sport participants who reported to several trauma centers were surveyed to understand the nature of the accident.(67) This investigation found the top three mechanisms to be falls (54%), user-user collisions (18%) and jumps (15%) while collisions with obstacles was found to be the most common mechanism associate with severe TBI.(67) This is supported by the findings in chapter 2.0 that found jump impacts, falls from height and impact with objects to be associated with an increased risk of moderate, or worse, head injury. Further, clinical data presented in chapter 2.0 reported a high prevalence of concussive injuries among the injured ski and snow population. With a better understanding of real-world snow sport head impact, kinematic scenarios can be developed to inform the design of more relevant test apparatuses and protocols. High tangential velocities suggest testing should include oblique impacts at variable angles as well as higher velocity impacts. As concussion was found to have a high prevalence, an injury that is associated with a lower energy threshold (ie. 53 g - 169 g; 5022 rad/s2 – 7600 rad/s2), a lower velocity test should also be incorporated.(91–98) As mechanisms associated with head to snow contact (ie. falls, jump impacts and falls from height) were found to be the most prevalent of all 80  mechanisms, an argument for helmet testing to be performed on snow is made. Finally, to represent kinematics that are relevant to all injury types and severities (for the primary impact event), an anthropomorphic test device headform that is unconstrained at impact should be used. In a study by Mills and Gilchrist (2008), the influence of the neck in head impacts was investigated through full-body ATD, helmeted, head first impacts. It was observed that the neck had no influence on the head’s kinematics in the first 40 ms of the impact and that the force experienced by the helmet was equal to the acceleration of the headform multiplied by the mass of the headform.(128) With head to snow impulse duration generally being 10 ms – 20 ms, use of an untethered, free motion headform is found to be appropriate.(90) The objective of this work is to investigate the test apparatus outlined in chapter 3.0 for its suitability in representing snow sport head impact. Suitability will be evaluated based on the design requirements and the associated metrics set forth in chapter 3.0. Design requirements will be verified or contested by performing a series of tests. Through verification of this design, a test apparatus capable of representative head impact will be confirmed and aid in improved evaluation of snow sport head protection. 4.2 Methods 4.2.1 Apparatus The test apparatus to be verified is described in detail in chapter 3.0 of this report and Is based on mechanics identified to be relevant to snow sport head injuries through clinical and biomechanical data. These include variable impact velocities between 3.6 m/s and 10 m/s, variable impact angles and impacts with snow-like surfaces (achieved by making the test device portable). The apparatus employs a large compression spring that can be loaded by way of a precision worm gear winch. Once the spring is loaded to the desired load, corresponding to a specific impact velocity, it can be released under load with a trigger snap shackle. A carriage, which holds the headform in the desired orientation, is accelerated by the spring and translates along a central rail. Once the carriage reaches a pre-defined height above the impact surface, a spring mechanism on the carriage is triggered, releasing the headform and allowing it to travel the remaining distance in free fall. Figure 51 shows the overall construction of the apparatus. The apparatus was designed to satisfy the novel requirements listed in Table 9 and will be evaluated accordingly.  81   Figure 51: A side view of the test apparatus being verified. Table 9: Summary of the design requirements of the snow sport head impact apparatus. Protocol Requirement Justification Metric Variable impact angle High tangential, travelling velocities leading to oblique impact 15 degrees to 90 degrees (15 degree increments) High velocity impact test High average travelling speeds result in high velocity head impact 10 m/s Low velocity impact test High prevalence of concussion (low energy injury) 3.6 m/s Impact with snow surface High prevalence of head to snow  mechanisms Pass/fail Unconstrained headform impacts Measurement of biomimetic (primary impact) response Pass/fail 4.2.2 Experimental Verification Testing In order to verify that the test apparatus is able to meet the overall requirements listed above as well as those detailed in section 3.1.3.1, including head orientation at impact and impact velocity, a test matrix was developed. All tests were performed at 90 degrees to the ground and the impact surface was a hard linoleum ground covered by a 2” low-density foam pad. Once at least two fiducial markers, placed on the headform over the temple and the apex of the temporal region (side), were manually selected in the software, absolute velocity for each point and 82  angular displacement and velocity of the rigid body are automatically calculated. Impact location is quantified by comparing the relative angular displacement of the two points, compared to a fiducial marker placed on the apparatus support structure, at the time the head is released and the time of impact. In addition to investigating these parameters, repeatability was investigated through three successive tests for each configuration. In order to be deemed repeatable in the context of this testing apparatus, the following criteria are to be satisfied for the three consecutive tests:  Impact velocity must be within +/- 5%  Impact location on the head must be within a 2 cm radius To investigate the angles for which the apparatus is capable of being used, it was set up in several scenarios from 90 degrees (to the horizontal) to 15 degrees, at 15 degree intervals. Angle was measured between the ground and the most posterior support structure on the apparatus. 4.2.3 Instrumentation Given the overall aim to have the test apparatus be portable for on-slope testing and facilitate high velocity, oblique impacts, instrumentation was selected to allow for all components to be contained within the headform and free from cable attachments. A Hybrid III ATD (Humanetics, Plymouth, MI) was modified to include a rigid aluminum plate and several gaskets to seal the headform from exposure to moisture. A DTS Slice Nano Data Acquisition System (DAQ) (Diversified Technical Systems, Seal Beach, CA) was fixed to a custom mounting bracket and installed inside the head near the center of gravity. Three, single-axis, Endevco accelerometers (7264C-2K, Meggitt PLC, Christchurch, UK) were mounted near the COG on the custom mounting bracket and connected to the SliceNano DAQ. The instrumentation mounted in the Hybrid III headform can be seen in Figure 45 in section 3.1.7.7. Using a DTS USB Interface Kit (Diversified Technical Systems, Seal Beach, CA), and SliceWare DTS software (Version 1.06.0491), the sensors were armed to a circular buffer with an acceleration trigger threshold of 30 g, all cables were detached and the headform was sealed. Data was collected at a rate of 20 kHz. Following the test, the DAQ was plugged back in and data 0.5 seconds pre-trigger (exceeding a 30 g threshold) and 2.0 seconds post-trigger was downloaded. Post processing was done using Matlab software (Natick, MA). Signal conditioning  and data filtering was consistent with SAE J211.(129) Once the data was filtered, resultant linear acceleration was calculated and plotted to determine the peak value. 83  4.2.4 Analysis Impact velocity was measured using post-test analysis of high speed video (sampled at 2000 frames per second) of the sagittal plane was performed using TEMA motion tracking software (Linkoping, Sweden). Fiducial markers on the ATD were then used to determine the number of pixels per meter. This calibration was applied to measure the velocity of the headform in the 10 frames prior to impact. Relative orientation of fiducial markers was tracked and impact location was compared across the three trials. This method also allowed for impact angle to be quantified and compared by observing the trajectory of the markers. Each requirement set forth with respect to angle, velocity and location was investigated to ensure desired values and range was achieved. For all measured variables (angle, location, velocity), standard deviation and percent from the desired value was calculated for repeated impact scenarios. 4.2.5 Spring Rate Investigation In an effort to verify the spring rate defined by the manufacturer matches the actual spring rate of the spring, testing was performed. The spring was loaded in a materials testing machine (Instron 8800; Norwood, MA). The program involved position controlled loading of the spring to a maximum of 40 mm, relative to the preload compression. A linear line of best fit on a plot of load vs. displacement was used to determine the slope, and therefore spring rate. 4.3 Results In total, twenty-one tests were performed in seven different orientations. The test matrix performed as well as the average impact velocities and standard deviations is shown in Table 10. Figure 52 shows a still frame just prior to impact captured from the high speed video for a test performed with a spring deflection of 0.08 m. Table 10: Test results highlighting the varied test parameters, the desired velocity and measured velocity. Note: all tests were performed at 90 degrees to horizontal Test No. Head Orientation Desired Impact Velocity (m/s) Spring Deflection (m) Measured Impact Velocity (m/s) Average Measured Impact Velocity (m/s) Meas. Vel. Standard Deviation (m/s) Percent Deviation from Mean 1 Frontal 3.60 0.030 2.3754 2.509 0.152 6.1% 2 Frontal 3.60 0.030 2.6753 3 Frontal 3.60 0.030 2.4777 4 Frontal 5.00 0.045 2.3994 2.393 0.028 1.2% 5 Frontal 5.00 0.045 2.3623 84  Test No. Head Orientation Desired Impact Velocity (m/s) Spring Deflection (m) Measured Impact Velocity (m/s) Average Measured Impact Velocity (m/s) Meas. Vel. Standard Deviation (m/s) Percent Deviation from Mean 6 Frontal 5.00 0.045 2.4164    7 Frontal 6.30 0.060 3.094 3.094 0.116 3.7% 8 Frontal 6.30 0.060 2.9776 9 Frontal 6.30 0.060 3.2094 10 Frontal 8.15 0.080 4.2677 4.344 0.082 1.9% 11 Frontal 8.15 0.080 4.3342 12 Frontal 8.15 0.080 4.4311 13 Side 5.00 0.045 3.2024 3.046 0.192 6.3% 14 Side 5.00 0.045 3.1033 15 Side 5.00 0.045 2.8318 16 Occipital 5.00 0.045 2.8055 2.949 0.160 5.4% 17 Occipital 5.00 0.045 3.1216 18 Occipital 5.00 0.045 2.9202 19 Crown 5.00 0.045 3.2764 3.106 0.162 5.2% 20 Crown 5.00 0.045 3.0874 21 Crown 5.00 0.045 2.9537  85   Figure 52: Still frame extracted from high speed video (2000 fps) of the headform prior to impact. The test involved frontal impact at 90 degrees with a spring deflection of 0.08m equating to 4.43 m/s at impact. Linear acceleration data in three axes was collected and the resultant linear acceleration was calculated. Figure 53 illustrates a time plot of the resultant linear acceleration for the test shown in Figure 52. The two peaks in the plot represent the impulse of the spring acting on the head release mechanism and the head impacting the ground, respectively. The peak linear resultant acceleration for this test was found to be 185.06 g’s.  86   Figure 53: Time versus linear resultant acceleration for a 4.43 m/s frontal impact. The first spike represents triggering of the apparatus and the second spike represents the primary impact event. No filter was applied to this data The configurations highlighting the capability of the apparatus to be set up for testing at oblique angles are shown in Figure 54. 020406080100120140160180200-0.01 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.11Linear Resultant Acceleration (g) Time (s) Linear Resultant Acceleration vs Time - Frontal - 90 deg. - 0.08m Spring Deflection Linear Resultand Accel (g)87        Figure 54: The test apparatus shown at variable angles (90 degrees to 15 degrees; 15 degree intervals). In investigating the spring rate using the materials testing machine, a spring rate of 47.47 kN/m was determined. Figure 55 illustrates the spring’s force response from position controlled loading. 88   Figure 55: Force versus position for compressive loading of the spring using an Instron materials testing machine. A linear line of best fit is applied with the equation shown in the figure. 4.4 Discussion All requirements for the design of this apparatus are revisited in Table 11. Further elaboration of unmet requirements is discussed in subsequent paragraphs. Table 11: Revisiting the comprehensive list of design requirements and identification of status. Requirement Metric Status Comments Measure Lower Threshold Upper Threshold Test apparatus/ equipment must be carried by two people. Overall Mass N/A 50 kg (25kg each) Met The overall mass of the apparatus is 43.6 kg without the mass of necessary tools for assembly Test apparatus/ equipment must be transported in a car and on a chair lift. Overall Volume (all pieces) N/A 0.8 m3 (~25 ft3) Met The overall volume is 0.22 m3 Test apparatus can be assembled by 1 person Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Met  Test can be performed by 1 person Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Met All verification testing was performed by 1 person Apparatus can be assembled/ disassembled quickly. Total assembly time N/A 45 min Met Due to the modular nature, the apparatus can be assembled/ disassembled in y = 47.467x - 135.54 R² = 0.9999 050010001500200025000 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50Spring Force (N) Spring Compression (mm) Instron Spring Rate Investigation 89  <15 min. Requirement Metric Status Comments Time between same-series tests must be short Total time between impacts N/A 3 min Unmet Although the test itself can be performed and reset within this time, the critical path is downloading data and re-arming the DAQ. Current time between tests is <5 min. Apparatus must allow for variable impact angle Impact angle 15° 90° Met The lean arms accommodate virtually any impact angle between 15° and 90°. Apparatus must allow for variable impact locations on the head. This must include those locations detailed in the CSA snow helmet standard. Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Met Virtually any impact location can be accomplished given the freeform nature of the headform and the clamp design Apparatus must allow for variable impact speeds Impact Velocity 3.6 m/s 10 m/s Partially met Due to loss of energy during firing, the top end range was not met. Test must be initiated manually when desired Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Met Accomplished using a snap shackle Apparatus must have the ability to measure the impact velocity (within 5cm of impact) Percent deviation -0.5% of impact velocity +0.5% of impact velocity Partially met Collected data allows for acceleration integration to determine velocity however, this can be improved Apparatus must be capable of repeatable velocity at impact Percent deviation between tests -5% m/s +5% m/s Partially met Velocity repeatability has been confirmed but can be improved Apparatus must be capable of repeatable impact locations Radial distance between tests N/A 2cm Partially met Qualitatively confirmed but further testing is required for confirmation 90  Requirement Metric Status Comments Apparatus must be capable of repeatable impact angle Angle difference between tests -2.5° +2.5° Partially Met Qualitatively confirmed but further testing is required for confirmation Headform must not escape the near vicinity of the apparatus after impact Radial distance from impact site N/A 1m  Met Padding to contain the headform will be used Apparatus must be able to be set up on variable impact angles Slope angles to accommodate 0° 30°  Partially met Further on-snow testing needed to confirm Apparatus must be able to be set up on uneven surfaces Max surface height difference N/A 5cm  Partially met Further on-snow testing needed to confirm Apparatus must have a camera mount Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Unmet To be recommended for future work Apparatus camera mount must be adjustable to visualize the point of impact Distance in XY axes -2.5cm +2.5cm Unmet To be recommended for future work Test protocol must allow for characterization of impact surface (snow) as it pertains to the impact Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Met Objective snow hardness measurement tool to be used. Apparatus and test protocol must not permanently damage test site Time required to return test site to original conditions N/A 10 min Met Confirmed during on-snow testing Apparatus and test protocol must not permanently damage test equipment Pass/Fail  Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Met Confirmed during on-snow testing Apparatus must be able to endure variable temperatures Ambient Temp. -30°C 30°C Partially met Further testing at more extreme temperature needed to confirm Apparatus must not harm anyone using or near to the apparatus Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Partially met Formal safety protocol to be developed 91  Requirement Metric Status Comments Apparatus must be affordable (independent of headform and instrumentation) Total Cost (CAD) $0 $5,000 Met Final apparatus cost $2752.63 (not including labour) In investigating the repeatability of the impact velocity, three trials for each test scenario were conducted and the average values and standard deviations calculated. The standard deviations were then compared to the average value to determine the percent difference for one standard deviation. In general, most scenarios resulted in repeatable impact velocity within approximately 5% of the average value. It is expected that once modifications are made to ensure all of the spring’s energy is transferred to the headform, the repeatability of the impact velocity will be further improved. To gain an understanding of the repeatability of the impact location, high speed video was used to understand the kinematics of the head while the head release mechanism was triggered. By using motion tracking software and fiducial markers on the headform, rotation of the head can be quantified. However, due to the unreliable nature of this mechanism, this metric was not possible to measure for many tests.  Qualitatively, it was observed that when the head release mechanism triggered, the headform was projected linearly downwards with very little rotation (see Table 12). One the reliability issues are corrected, high speed video in two planes will allow for relative motion of the head to be investigated in detail. It was also found that initial placement of the head in the clamps introduced more variability than post-release of the head and therefore, an accurate, repeatable method of placing the head must be developed. Table 12: High speed image sequence (over 35 ms at 5 ms intervals) highlighting triggering of the head release mechanism and linear translation of the headform with very little rotation between release and impact. The test involved a frontal impact at 2.47 m/s with video sampled at 2000 Hz.     92       Impact angle was another aspect of the protocol that was investigated through static placement of the apparatus in the desired orientation. Due to the lean arms being capable of 180 degrees rotation as well as translation in the vertical axis of the apparatus, virtually any impact angle between 15 and 90 degrees can be accomplished. In a laboratory setting with a hard, impenetrable floor, the lean arms were found to slip out at lower angles however, on snow-testing will allow for the arms to penetrate into the snow to secure the rig. To further investigate the repeatability of the apparatus angle, high speed video of each test angle increment should be performed to determine the vector that the headform approaches the ground on. The most apparent unmet requirement from this test series is the overall magnitude of the impact velocity not being near to the theoretical value calculated using conservation of energy. For the four different spring displacements tested (0.03 m to 0.08 m), the measured impact velocity was at least 30% lower than the expected value. This discrepancy necessitates review of the possible modes of energy loss in the system. As mentioned, after triggering the apparatus, the spring imparts a significant impulse and due to the rig not being rigidly tethered to the floor, the spring accelerates the head mechanism down as well as the apparatus as a whole up. Even with sandbags being employed to increase the mass of the system, the spring was still able to impact a substantial upwards impulse to the test frame. This mode is considered to be the biggest attribute of energy loss. Figure 56 illustrates the vertical displacement by comparing two time points in the firing sequence. Secondarily, friction in the linear bearings is also anticipated to contribute to less than theoretical impact velocities. 93   Figure 56: Still frames taken from the high speed video analysis to investigate the vertical displacement of the apparatus To confirm the primary mode of energy loss, high speed video investigating the vertical displacement was performed to allow for the energy to be calculated for the apparatus to be raised. For a 4.47 m/s, frontal impact, the apparatus was found to travel 27.6 mm in the vertical direction. Using the equation for potential energy, this was found to be equal to 29.9 J. Compared to the overall potential energy in the spring (~160 joules when compressed 0.08 m), the energy loss from moving the mass of the apparatus was found to be approximately 20% of the total energy. This analysis is shown in Appendix C: Detailed Design.  Characterization of the spring involving position controlled loading using a materials testing machine determined that the actual rate of the spring is 47.47 kN/m despite being specified to have a rate of 50 kN/m. This finding provides additional justification as to why the theoretical impact velocity does not match the experimental value. For a test where the spring is compressed 0.08 m, this is equal to a 202 N difference and in turn approximately 8 J of potential energy in the spring (~5% of the spring’s total energy). With this improved understanding of the actual spring rate, more accurate spring forces can be predicted to achieve the desired load. To address the significant energy loss from these two modes, design modifications should be considered. The largest recovery of energy will be realised by rigidly, or effectively, tethering the 94  apparatus to the ground to prevent movement. In a laboratory setting, this can be accomplished by physically mounting the apparatus to a plate of significant mass, as is prescribed in current test standards.(119) For field testing, more creative means must be employed. This could be a combination of digging and packing the base of the apparatus into the snow as well as using snow pickets/flukes with static cable to act as anchors. Finally, to reduce the friction in the linear bearings, a maintenance schedule to inject new lubricant must be followed and the central shaft must be inspected for burrs or scratches.  Several partially met requirements listed above involve further investigation (as outlined in Table 11) and modifications to the existing design in order to confirm they have been addressed. Other unmet requirements include minimal time between tests and inclusion of a camera mount and can be dealt with through familiarity with test protocols and minor additions to the apparatus. Although it was not defined as a requirement of this test apparatus design, the ability to measure and collect data pertaining to the rotational kinematics of the head is important for a full understanding of the impact severity. As noted in section 1.2.2.2, rotational inertia imparted on the head can result in significant injury. With current helmet technology not investigating the rotational response of the head during impact, it is important that future research and certification standards adopt testing protocols that represent both linear and rotational injury mechanisms. Integration of angular rate sensors in the headform and oblique impact testing will allow for an improved understanding of the rotational kinematics. As the end goal for this test apparatus is for integration into safety certification testing for snow sport helmets, it is also necessary to verify that the kinematics the rig is capable of producing are representative of clinical injury observed. To do this, further testing is necessary to compare the impact responses in several different scenarios to injury threshold data from existing literature. As an example, consider a snowboarder is involved in a high energy jump impact in which their helmet is cracked. The patient is diagnosed with multiple, diffuse, small haemorrhagic lesions. The haemorrhagic lesions are consistent with diffuse axonal injury, indicating that a significant rotational acceleration induced a shearing force on the brain. Existing biomechanics literature has found that average falls of this nature result in a peak head velocity of approximately 10.3 m/s perpendicular to the snow as well as a peak tangential velocity of 13.9m/s. [21] Biomechanical thresholds for DAI have been estimated between 8 krad/s2 and 20 krad/s2.(103,130,131) Through impact testing on snow surfaces at impact 95  velocities upwards of 10 m/s, rotational kinematics can be measured and compared to these DAI threshold values to confirm the test apparatus is truly representative of such scenarios. 4.5 Conclusion Through verification testing of an apparatus design to recreate injurious ski and snowboard head impacts, the first steps in proposal of a revised protocol for improved snow sport helmet testing are achieved. Modifications to the apparatus as well as additional tests will further strengthen confidence in the proposed design. Overall, implementation of a clinically informed helmet testing protocol will give researchers and manufacturers an effective tool to understand the influence of changes to the technology and ultimately improve protective measure for snow sport participants.  96  5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Future Work and Recommendations Although this work aims to present justification for re-evaluation of current snow sport helmet certification testing protocols through clinical data, suggest a test apparatus design that is capable of better representing real-world head injury mechanisms and verify the requirements, a number of considerations must be made for future work. 5.1.1 Apparatus Modifications As shown through the verification testing performed in chapter 4.0, the apparatus was able to meet most of the major requirements with the exception of impact velocity magnitude for which design modifications are suggested. Further steps are necessary to verify partially met requirements with emphasis on repeatability of impact location and testing at variable angles. The most important modification is to ensure that energy stored in the spring be more efficiently transferred to acceleration of the headform. To do this, an improved method of tethering the apparatus to the ground is necessary. This can be accomplished by a mounting plate of significant mass (more appropriate in a lab setting) or by digging the apparatus or anchors into the ground (for on-snow testing) which are rigidly attached to the rig. With the current means of seating the head control carriage against the lower spring plate being a static cord, an improve method of achieving this could be considered. This may involve breakaway cables, capable of being set a prescribed height, to hold the carriage up. As the head release mechanism was found to occasionally stick and therefore not release all clamp arms simultaneously, alternative designs may be considered. Plastic inserts to reduce the friction of the spring loaded threaded rod or rigid fixtures attached to the bent threaded rod ends could trigger the mechanism more reliably.  Other physical modifications to the apparatus may include additional supports to the pivot arms to improve overall rigidity of the structure. Support bars between the two pivot arms as well as between each pivot arm and the main structure would allow for stable attachment while still allowing for full range of movement. Also, to more easily determine the angle of the device with respect to gravity, an inclinometer could be fixed to one of the platforms. By addition threaded pivot feet to the base of the apparatus, small adjustment can be made for uneven surfaces. To improve the risk of pinch points and the overall safety of the apparatus, the upper and lower frames can be enclosed in removable plexi-glass. 97  To address these deficiencies as well as further improve the design of the apparatus, several modifications can be made with respect to the measurement and capture of the event. To allow for real time impact velocity feedback, a velocity gate can be added to the apparatus. In addition, a camera mount on the device would allow for easy capture of the impact. As one limitation of this device is its inability to produce meaningful secondary or tertiary impacts given the head being free of the any neck, or torso, an adaptation could be made to allow for a surrogate neck to be incorporated. One possibility would be to design an independent carriage that could replace the head release carriage. Such a design could remain tethered to the rail or break away with a follower mass representative of the torso’s inertia. 5.1.2 Instrumentation Modifications As mentioned, rotational kinematics are an important consideration for the future of helmet testing given current certification standards only measuring and prescribing thresholds for linear kinematics. To do this, angular rate sensors should be incorporated into the headform. Given the current accelerometer block can already accommodate three angular rate sensors in addition to the three linear accelerometers, integration will be simplified. Generally, these sensors have a long cable which needs to be cut in order to minimize additional weight inside the headform. It is important to ensure that proper calibration of these sensors is carried out after the cables have been cut. Due to the modular nature of the Slice Nano DAQ currently used in the headform, one DTS bridge stack, capable of accommodating three strain based signals, can be added to collect the additional data. The same post processing as is used for the linear accelerometer signals can be applied to the angular rate sensor output data. However, the Matlab code will need to be modified to include calculation of the resultant angular rate. 5.1.3 Further Testing With several partially met requirements, extensive additional testing is necessary for full verification of the design. As suggested in Section 4.0, the focus of this testing should be to confirm efficacy of the proposed modifications to address the issue of energy being lost in movement of the rig during firing. This can be done by performing a test matrix similar to the one found in section 4.0. To investigate repeatability of impact location, high speed video in the sagittal and frontal planes should be used in conjunction with motion tracking. With two points being tracked in each plane, relative motion can be accurately quantified from the moment the head is released to the moment of impact. In further confirming the apparatus’ ability to vary 98  impact angle, repeated tests at various angles should be performed with high speed video in the sagittal plane to compare the angle of the apparatus to the headform’s trajectory. Given the apparatus requirements were investigated in a lab setting, the next step is to conduct similar testing on hill to ensure that the full range of requirements are satisfied in a less controlled environment. Next, and perhaps most importantly, the apparatus must be tested in conjunction with the isolated headform to recreate injurious impacts. With biomechanics literature currently available which characterises various head injuries through kinematic thresholds, testing with a surrogate headform allows for improved understanding of the circumstances of each injury. Using this apparatus, investigative testing should be performed to determine the influence of impact velocity, angle and surface on the head kinematics and therefore, the injury type and severity. Table 13 outlines a possible test matrix to be followed to understand the influence of various test parameters on reported injury outcomes. Table 13: Test matrix describing test configurations for verification of biomechanically relevant outcome measures. Each test described will involve three impacts within +/- 5% of the prescribed impact velocity. Test No. Head Orientation Impact Velocity (m/s) Impact Angle (deg.) 1 Frontal 3.6 90 2 Side 3.6 90 3 Occipital 3.6 90 4 Crown 3.6 90 5 Frontal 3.6 60 6 Side 3.6 60 7 Occipital 3.6 60 8 Crown 3.6 60 9 Frontal 6.3 90 10 Side 6.3 90 11 Occipital 6.3 90 12 Crown 6.3 90 13 Frontal 6.3 60 14 Side 6.3 60 15 Occipital 6.3 60 16 Crown 6.3 60 17 Frontal 10 90 18 Side 10 90 19 Occipital 10 90 20 Crown 10 90 21 Frontal 10 60 22 Side 10 60 99  Test No. Head Orientation Impact Velocity (m/s) Impact Angle (deg.) 23 Occipital 10 60 24 Crown 10 60  Lastly, extensive data will need to be collected with the snow hardness tool described in section 3.1.7.6.3 in order to characterize the snow pack as it relates to different test scenarios. As there is no data available to date that correlates the output of the tool (measured in Pascals) to known snow characteristics, this database will need to be established within the context of impact testing. 100  6.0 CONCLUSION 6.1 Summary The overarching objective of this work is to advance the current understanding of snow sport head injury to improve prevention of real world injuries. To accomplish this, justification was provided for re-evaluation of current snow sport helmet testing standards and a test apparatus capable of more representative snow sport head impacts is proposed.   To accomplish the first objective, a 6-year retrospective clinical case study was performed, investigating snow sport head injuries that were reported to two major trauma centers as well as the BC Coroner’s Office. Several mechanism categories were observed and related to injury severity in addition to the frequency of specific injury types being highlighted. Overall, snow sport head injury mechanisms were observed to be complex, particularly in relation to impact velocity, angle and surface, and cannot be represented through a single impact scenario.  To address the second objective, this clinical data, in conjunction with existing biomechanics literature, was used to inform the design of a test apparatus to better represent the possible pre-impact kinematics as well as impact surface characteristics of such head impacts. Through stakeholder discovery and secondary research, an informed list of needs was generated. For design application, this list was converted into requirements with measureable metrics. With an understanding of the top level functions of the apparatus, the next step involved generating as many concepts as possible and then evaluating those through established design tools such Pugh charts and Weighted Decision Matrices. From this objective process, a full integrated design was selected and detailed design commenced. Each major component was broken down to understand the critical design elements for which failure analysis was necessary. Utilizing engineering principles and stress analysis software, a final design was decided upon and fabricated.  The final design features a large, stiff spring (50 kN/m) that can be compressed to a prescribed displacement that correlates to a desired impact velocity. A head control mechanism, which is free to translate axially along a central rail, is then seated against the loaded spring. To release the spring force and accelerate the head control mechanism, a trigger snap shackle is used. At a predefined distance from the ground, the head control mechanism releases the headform to allow for an untethered impact. The portable design allows for variable impact velocity, angle 101  and head orientation. Verification testing confirmed that the many of the major requirements set forth at the beginning of the design process were met as well as highlighted a few aspects of the design that require modification in order to satisfy the remaining requirements. 6.2 Strength and Limitations 6.2.1 Strengths As current helmet certification standards represent single, oversimplified impact scenarios, informed re-evaluation is necessary. A significant strength of this work is the use of clinically relevant head injury data from skiing and snowboarding to understand the most relevant mechanisms of injury. Through a large clinical case study, relationships between injury severity and nature, helmet use and mechanism were investigated. By forming a basis for how head injuries occur on the slopes, a novel approach to the design of a helmet test apparatus and protocol was performed, drawing from real-world clinical and biomechanics data. The final apparatus that emerged from this process is capable of repeatable, on-snow testing, which enables helmet evaluation on the exact surfaces which head injuries occur on. In the end, a verified, relevant and novel test apparatus is proposed for use in development and evaluation of head protection equipment, ultimately improving snow sport participant safety.  6.2.2 Limitations Challenges in implementation and interpretation of this work are both inherent based on the nature of the study and design as well as being a result of decision made as issues arose. The retrospective nature of the clinical study limited the resolution of data available and could only be addressed with a prospective study design. In some cases, data was unavailable however, existing data is believed to be representative of the spectrum of the sample. In addition, because the clinical study focused on those snow sport participants who reported to emergency departments, only the injured population could be investigated. Despite this, a full spectrum of injury severities were represented and meaningful conclusions were be made about injury characteristics and correlation with mechanism and helmet use.  In the design and construction of a test apparatus to represent real world snow sport head impact scenarios, limitations are generally associated with design decisions and were therefore considered at length and justified. As is the case with many test protocols, the proposed apparatus simplifies snow sport head impact to a linear trajectory prior to impact. Back edge trip mechanisms are an example of a fall scenario that cannot be truly represented using this test apparatus. This is accepted as a limitation as it is difficult to represent all possible mechanisms 102  with a single apparatus. With that said, it is necessary to include such mechanisms for a comprehensive understanding of helmet performance. Additionally, the proposed apparatus allows for an untethered headform which can undergo rotation. This is often criticised for not representing natural impact response of the head and to be more representative it should incorporate “tethering” by the neck and additional loading, via the neck, by the torso (ie. follower mass). Given that this test method is only meant to represent the primary impact and the fact that the first 40 ms of head impact are said to be uninfluenced by the presence of the neck or torso, this was dismissed.(128)  Specific design limitations include higher than ideal overall mass, some parts being made from steel and predisposed to rust, a high number of fasteners and the design not including some of the aspects of in-lab test apparatuses (ie. velocity gate, remote test reset and trigger, camera mount etc.). These elements were all considered and determined to be unrealistic for an on-snow test apparatus, cost inhibitive and/or necessary for overall safety. To address some of these, recommendations were made in section 5.0. 6.3 Conclusion By characterizing snow sport head injury by way of clinical data and existing literature, common mechanisms of injury were determined. This data also highlighted the need for current helmet testing standards to be re-evaluated given their oversimplification. With additional stakeholder discovery, a comprehensive list of design requirements for an apparatus capable of recreating injurious head kinematics was generated. Following a formal design process, several concepts were considered with the final design including a compression spring to accelerate an isolated headform at the ground at various angles and velocities. Through verification testing, confirmation of the design requirements met and modification recommendations for those unmet were made. The outcome of this work is a test apparatus that is capable of improving the design and evaluation of head protection through impact testing which is more representative of real world snow sport head injury scenarios.   103  Bibliography 1.  Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Wald MM. The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21(5):375–378.  2.  Collins MW, Iverson GL, Lovell MR, McKeag DB, Norwig J, Maroon J. On-field predictors of neuropsychological and symptom deficit following sports-related concussion. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13(4):222–229.  3.  Schulz MR. Incidence and Risk Factors for Concussion in High School Athletes, North Carolina, 1996-1999. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):937–44.  4.  Hasler RM, Gyssler L, Benneker L, Martinolli L, Schötzau A, Zimmermann H, et al. Protective and risk factors in amateur equestrians and description of injury patterns: A retrospective data analysis and a case-control survey. J Trauma Manag Outcomes. 2011;5(1):4.  5.  Ball CG, Ball JE, Kirkpatrick AW, Mulloy RH. Equestrian injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years of major traumatic injuries. Am J Surg. 2007 May;193(5):636–40.  6.  Hootman JM, Dick R, Agel J. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. J Athl Train. 2007;42(2):311.  7.  Gessel LM, Collins CL, Dick RW. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):495.  8.  Kemp SP, Hudson Z, Brooks JH, Fuller CW. The epidemiology of head injuries in English professional rugby union. Clin J Sport Med. 2008;18(3):227–234.  9.  Brooks JHM. Epidemiology of injuries in English professional rugby union: part 1 match injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Oct 1;39(10):757–66.  10.  Mcintosh AS, Mccrory P, Finch CF, Best JP, Chalmers DJ, Wolfe R. Does Padded Headgear Prevent Head Injury in Rugby Union Football?: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Feb;41(2):306–13.  11.  Boden BP, Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE. Concussion incidence in elite college soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(2):238–241.  12.  Fuller CW. A six year prospective study of the incidence and causes of head and neck injuries in international football. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Aug 1;39(Supplement 1):i3–9.  13.  Andersen TE. Video analysis of injuries and incidents in Norwegian professional football. Br J Sports Med. 2004 Oct 1;38(5):626–31.  14.  Andersen TE. Mechanisms of head injuries in elite football. Br J Sports Med. 2004 Dec 1;38(6):690–6.  15.  Naunheim RS, Ryden A, Standeven J, Genin G, Lewis L, Thompson P, et al. Does soccer headgear attenuate the impact when heading a soccer ball? Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(1):85–90.  104  16.  Babbs CF. Biomechanics of Heading a Soccer Ball: Implications for Player Safety. Sci World J. 2001;1:281–322.  17.  Sikic M, Mikocka-Walus AA, Gabbe BJ, McDermott FT, Cameron PA, others. Bicycling injuries and mortality in Victoria, 2001–2006. Med J Aust. 2009;190(7):353–6.  18.  Shankar PR, Fields SK, Collins CL, Dick RW, Comstock RD. Epidemiology of High School and Collegiate Football Injuries in the United States, 2005 2006. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Mar 26;35(8):1295–303.  19.  McIntosh AS, Andersen TE, Bahr R, Greenwald R, Kleiven S, Turner M, et al. Sports helmets now and in the future. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Dec 1;45(16):1258–65.  20.  United States - number of skier visits 2000-2014 [Internet]. statista.com. 2014 [cited 2014 Oct 23]. Available from: http://www.statista.com/statistics/206544/estimated-number-of-skier-visits-in-the-us-since-2000/ 21.  Machold W, Kwasny O, Gäler P, Kolonja A, Reddy B, Bauer E, et al. Risk of injury through snowboarding. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2000;48(6):1109–1114.  22.  Hagel BE, Meeuwisse W, Mohtadi N, Fick G. Skiing and Snowboarding Injuries in the Children and Adolescents of Southern Alberta. Clin J Sport Med. 1999;9:9–17.  23.  Made C, Elmqvist L-G. A 10-year study of snowboard injuries in Lapland Sweden. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(2):128–133.  24.  Xiang H, Kelleher K, Shields BJ, Brown KJ, Smith GA. Skiing- and Snowboarding-Related Injuries Treated in U.S. Emergency Departments, 2002: J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care. 2005 Jan;58(1):112–8.  25.  Hagel BE, Pless IB, Platt RW. Trends in emergency department reported head and neck injuries among skiers and snowboarders. Can J Public Heal Can Santee Publique. 2003;458–462.  26.  Lamont MK. Ski field injuries: The snowboarders. In: Skiing trauma and safety: Tenth volume [Internet]. ASTM International; 1996 [cited 2017 Mar 25]. Available from: http://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP37918S.htm 27.  Shealy JE, Sundman PD. Snowboarding injuries on alpine slopes. In: Skiing trauma and safety: Seventh international symposium [Internet]. ASTM International; 1989 [cited 2017 Mar 25]. Available from: http://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP19456S.htm 28.  Davidson TM, Laliotis AT. Snowboarding injuries, a four-year study with comparison with alpine ski injuries. West J Med. 1996;164(3):231.  29.  Weber CD, Lefering R, Hofman M, Dienstknecht T, Pape H-C. Major trauma in winter sports: an international trauma database analysis. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg [Internet]. 2015 Nov 10 [cited 2016 Aug 3]; Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00068-015-0596-7 105  30.  Hagel BE. Effectiveness of helmets in skiers and snowboarders: case-control and case crossover study. BMJ. 2005 Feb 5;330(7486):281–0.  31.  Mueller BA, Cummings P, Rivara FP, Brooks MA, Terasaki RD. Injuries of the head, face, and neck in relation to ski helmet use. Epidemiol Camb Mass. 2008;19(2):270–6.  32.  Rødven A, Ekeland A, Sulheim S. Injury rates and injury types in alpine skiing, telemarking, and snowboarding. J ASTM Int. 2005;2(5):1–9.  33.  Shealy JE, Johnson RJ, Ettlinger CF. Head trauma and helmet usage in alpine skiing. In: 16th International Society of Skiing Safety Conference. Niigata, Japan; 2005. p. 17–23.  34.  Ackery A, Hagel BE, Provvidenza C, Tator CH. An international review of head and spinal cord injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding. Inj Prev. 2007 Dec 1;13(6):368–75.  35.  Sulheim S, Holme I, Ekeland A, Bahr R. Helmet use and risk of head injuries in alpine skiers and snowboarders. Jama. 2006;295(8):919–924.  36.  Russell K, Christie J, Hagel BE. The effect of helmets on the risk of head and neck injuries among skiers and snowboarders: a meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J. 2010 Mar 9;182(4):333–40.  37.  Centers for Disease Control. CDC - Reports and Fact Sheets - Traumatic Brain Injury - Injury Center [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Jan 12]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/factsheets_reports.html 38.  AANS. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons - Concussion [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jan 12]. Available from: https://www.aans.org 39.  Frost C. Anatomy of the Concussion: More Serious than Meets the Eye? 2011 [cited 2015 Jan 9]; Available from: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/honors_et/48/ 40.  McCrory P. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Aug 1;39(Supplement 1):i78–86.  41.  Drake RL, Vogl W, Mitchell AWM, Gray H. Gray’s anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone; 2005.  42.  Squire LR, editor. Fundamental neuroscience. 4th ed. Amsterdam ; Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press; 2013. 1127 p.  43.  Kalat JW. Biological psychology. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning; 2001. 551 p.  44.  Mertz HJ, Prasad P, Nusholtz G. Head injury risk assessment for forehead impacts [Internet]. SAE Technical Paper; 1996 [cited 2015 Jan 19]. Available from: http://papers.sae.org/960099/ 106  45.  Gaillard F. Le Fort fracture classification | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org [Internet]. Radiopaedia. [cited 2017 Mar 26]. Available from: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/le-fort-fracture-classification 46.  Shaw NA. The neurophysiology of concussion. Prog Neurobiol. 2002;67(4):281–344.  47.  Meaney DF, Smith DH. Biomechanics of Concussion. Clin Sports Med. 2011 Jan;30(1):19–31.  48.  Smith DH, Meaney DF, Shull WH. Diffuse axonal injury in head trauma. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2003;18(4):307–316.  49.  Adams JH, Doyle D, Ford I, Gennarelli TA, Graham DI, McLellan DR. Diffuse axonal injury in head injury: definition, diagnosis and grading. Histopathology. 1989;15(1):49–59.  50.  Gennarelli TA. Mechanisms of brain injury. J Emerg Med. 1993;11(Supp 1):5–11.  51.  Ropper AH, Gorson KC. Concussion. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(2):166–172.  52.  Ommaya AK, Gennarelli TA. Cerebral concussion and traumatic unconsciousness correlation of experimental and clinical observations on blunt head injuries. Brain. 1974;97(4):633–654.  53.  Ommaya AK, Hirsch AE. Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. J Biomech. 1971 Jan;4(1):13–21.  54.  Moore KL. Clinically oriented anatomy. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. 1164 p.  55.  Schmitt K-U, editor. Trauma biomechanics: accidental injury in traffic and sports. 3rd ed. Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. 249 p.  56.  Dawson SL, Hirsch CS, Lucas FV, Sebek BA. The contrecoup phenomenon. Hum Pathol. 1980 Mar;11(2):155–66.  57.  Nahum AM, Melvin J, editors. Accidental injury: biomechanics and prevention. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2002. 637 p.  58.  McELHANEY JH, HOPPER JR RH, NIGHTINGALE RW, Myers BS. Mechanisms of basilar skull fracture. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12(4):669–678.  59.  Bruns JJ, Jagoda AS. Mild traumatic brain injury. Mt Sinai J Med J Transl Pers Med. 2009 Apr;76(2):129–37.  60.  Gadd C. National Research Council Publication. 1961;No. 977:141 –144.  61.  Eppinger R, Sun E, Bandak F, Haffner M, Khaewpong N, Maltese M, et al. Development of improved injury criteria for the assessment of advanced automotive restraint systems - II. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; 1999.  62.  Mertz HJ, Irwin AL, Prasad P. Biomechanical and scaling bases for frontal and side impact injury assessment reference values. Stapp Car Crash J. 2003;47:155.  107  63.  Kleiven S. Evaluation of head injury criteria using a finite element model validated against experiments on localized brain motion, intracerebral acceleration, and intracranial pressure. Int J Crashworthiness. 2006 Jan;11(1):65–79.  64.  Kleiven S. Predictors for traumatic brain injuries evaluated through accident reconstructions. SAE Tech Pap. 2007;(2007-22-0003).  65.  Carey B. Stanford researchers measure concussion forces in greatest detail yet. Stanford News [Internet]. 2015 Jan 6; Available from: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2015/january/measure-concussion-forces-010615.html 66.  Bain A, Meaney D. Tissue-level thresholds for axonal damage in an experimental model of central nervous system white matter injury. 2000;122(6):615–22.  67.  Bailly N, Afquir S, Laporte J-D, Melot A, Savary D, Seigneuret E, et al. Analysis of Injury Mechanisms in Head Injuries in Skiers and Snowboarders: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Aug;1.  68.  Bailly N, Llari M, Donnadieu T, Masson C, Arnoux PJ. Head impact in a snowboarding accident. Scand J Med Sci Sports [Internet]. 2016 May [cited 2016 Aug 3]; Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sms.12699 69.  Richards D, Carhart M, Scher I, Thomas R, Hurlen N. Head kinematics during experimental snowboard falls: implications for snow helmet standards. Ski Trauma Saf 17th Vol ASTM STP [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2014 Dec 8];1510. Available from: http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/scholar.cgi?JAI101406 70.  Nakaguchi H, Tsutsumi K. Mechanisms of snowboarding-related severe head injury: shear strain induced by the opposite-edge phenomenon. J Neurosurg. 2002;97(3):542–548.  71.  Cripton PA, Dressler DM, Stuart CA, Dennison CR, Richards D. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: Head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts. Accid Anal Prev. 2014 Sep;70:1–7.  72.  Canadian Standards Association. Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets. Mississauga, Ont.: Canadian Standards Association; 2014.  73.  F08 Committee. F2040-11 - Specification for Helmets Used for Recreational Snow Sports [Internet]. ASTM International; 2011 [cited 2014 Dec 8]. Available from: http://www.astm.org/doiLink.cgi?F2040 74.  EN1070:2007 - Helmets for alpine skiers and snowboarders. European Committee for Standardization (CEN); 2007.  75.  Snell RS-98 – Standard for Protective Headgear for Recreational Skiing and Snowboarding. Snell Memorial Foundation; 1998.  76.  F08 Committee. F1446-15b - Standard Test Method for Equipment and Procedures Used in Evaluating the Performance Characteristics of Protective Headgear. ASTM International; 2015.  108  77.  Ifedi F, Statistics Canada. Sport participation in Canada, 2005. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2008.  78.  Quick Facts [Internet]. SkiCanada.org. 2013 [cited 2013 Nov 30]. Available from: http://www.skicanada.org/about-us/quick-facts/ 79.  Levy AS, Hawkes AP, Hemminger LM, Knight S. An analysis of head injuries among skiers and snowboarders. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2002;53(4):695–704.  80.  Cripton P, Dressler D, Dennison C. Helmet Testing, Design, Standards, Regulations and Efficacy: A literature review for Snow- and Ice-sports. Prepared for Speed-Skate Canada and Alpine Canada; 2012.  81.  Scher I, Richards D, Carhart M. Head injury in snowboarding: evaluating the protective role of helmets. J ASTM Int JAI [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2013 Nov 29];3(4). Available from: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20073028201.html 82.  Shealy JE, Ettlinger CF, Johnson RJ, others. How fast do winter sports participants travel on alpine slopes. J ASTM Int. 2005;2(7):12092–12098.  83.  Yamazaki J, Gilgien M, Kleiven S, McIntosh AS, Nachbauer W, Müller E, et al. Analysis of a Severe Head Injury in World Cup Alpine Skiing: A Case Report. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 Sep;1.  84.  Hoshizaki TB, Post A, Oeur RA, Brien SE. Current and Future Concepts in Helmet and Sports Injury Prevention: Neurosurgery. 2014 Oct;75:S136–48.  85.  Benson BW, McIntosh AS, Maddocks D, Herring SA, Raftery M, Dvorak J. What are the most effective risk-reduction strategies in sport concussion? Br J Sports Med. 2013 Apr;47(5):321–6.  86.  Siu TL., Chandran K., Newcombe R., Fuller J., Pik JH. Snow sports related head and spinal injuries: an eight-year survey from the neurotrauma centre for the Snowy Mountains, Australia. J Clin Neurosci. 2004 Apr;11(3):236–42.  87.  Koyama S, Fukuda O, Hayashi N, Endo S. Differences in Clinical Characteristics of Head Injuries to Snowboarders by Skill Level. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Dec 1;39(12):2656–61.  88.  Abbreviated Injury Scale. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine; 2005.  89.  R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing [Internet]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2008. Available from: http://www.R-project.org 90.  Dressler D, Richards D, Bates E, Van Toen C, Cripton P. Head and Neck Injury Potential With and Without Helmets During Head-First Impacts on Snow. In: Johnson RJ, Shealy JE, Greenwald RM, Scher IS, editors. Skiing Trauma and Safety: 19th Volume [Internet]. 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959: ASTM International; 2012 [cited 2014 Dec 8]. p. 235–49. Available from: http://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP104525.htm 109  91.  Broglio SP, Schnebel B, Sosnoff JJ, Shin S, Feng X, He X, et al. Biomechanical Properties of Concussions in High School Football: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Nov;42(11):2064–71.  92.  Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Tucker AM, Casson IR, Waeckerle JF. Concussion in professional football: reconstruction of game impacts and injuries. Neurosurgery. 2003 Oct;53(4):799-812; discussion 812-814.  93.  Mihalik JP, Bell DR, Marshall SW, Guskiewicz KM. Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: an investigation of positional and event-type differences. Neurosurgery. 2007;61(6):1229–1235.  94.  Duma SM, Manoogian SJ, Bussone WR, Brolinson PG, Goforth MW, Donnenwerth JJ, et al. Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players. Clin J Sport Med. 2005;15(1):3–8.  95.  McIntosh AS, Patton DA, Fréchède B, Pierré P-A, Ferry E, Barthels T. The biomechanics of concussion in unhelmeted football players in Australia: a case–control study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(5):e005078.  96.  Rowson S, Duma SM, Beckwith JG, Chu JJ, Greenwald RM, Crisco JJ, et al. Rotational Head Kinematics in Football Impacts: An Injury Risk Function for Concussion. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 Jan;40(1):1–13.  97.  McAllister TW, Ford JC, Ji S, Beckwith JG, Flashman LA, Paulsen K, et al. Maximum Principal Strain and Strain Rate Associated with Concussion Diagnosis Correlates with Changes in Corpus Callosum White Matter Indices. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 Jan;40(1):127–40.  98.  Rowson S, Duma SM. Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 Aug;39(8):2130–40.  99.  Sone JY, Kondziolka D, Huang JH, Samadani U. Helmet efficacy against concussion and traumatic brain injury: a review. J Neurosurg. 2016 May 27;1–14.  100.  Richter M, Otte D, Lehmann U, Chinn B, Schuller E, Doyle D, et al. Head injur mechanism on helmet-protected motorcyclists: prospective multicenter study. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care. 2001;51(5):949–58.  101.  Harrison TI, Mills NJ, Turner MS. Jockeys`head injuries and skull cap performance. In: IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, 1996. Dublin, Ireland; 1996.  102.  McIntosh AS, Lai A, Schilter E. Bicycle Helmets: Head Impact Dynamics in Helmeted and Unhelmeted Oblique Impact Tests. Traffic Inj Prev. 2013 Jul 4;14(5):501–8.  103.  Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE, Tomei G, Wiser R, Graham D, Adams J. Directional Dependence of Axonal Brain Injury due to Centroidal and Non-Centroidal Acceleration. In 1987 [cited 2017 Jan 29]. Available from: http://papers.sae.org/872197/ 110  104.  Bourdet N, Mojumder S, Piantini S, Deck C, Pierini M, Willinger R. Proposal of a new motorcycle helmet test method for tangential impact. [cited 2017 Mar 23]; Available from: http://www.ircobi.org/wordpress/downloads/irc16/pdf-files/65.pdf 105.  Lon C, Christian S. A new helmet testing method to assess potential damages in the Brain and the head due to rotational energy [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:755562 106.  Finan JD, Nightingale RW, Myers BS. The Influence of Reduced Friction on Head Injury Metrics in Helmeted Head Impacts. Traffic Inj Prev. 2008 Oct 7;9(5):483–8.  107.  Willinger R, Deck C, Halldin P, Otte D. Towards advanced bicycle helmet test methods. In: Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2014 [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017 Mar 23]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Caroline_Deck/publication/268640602_Towards_advanced_bicycle_helmet_test_methods/links/5474a8680cf245eb436dec00.pdf 108.  Pang TY, Thai KT, McIntosh AS, Grzebieta R, Schilter E, Dal Nevo R, et al. Head and neck responses in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts: a novel laboratory test method. Int J Crashworthiness. 2011;16(3):297–307.  109.  Halldin P, Gilchrist A, Mills NJ. A new oblique impact test for motorcycle helmets. Int J Crashworthiness. 2001 Jan;6(1):53–64.  110.  Aldman B, Lundell B, Thorngren L. Non-perpendicular impacts - An experimental study on crash helmets. In: Proceedings of the 1976 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 1976.  111.  Newman JA, Beusenberg MC, Shewchenko N, Withnall C, Fournier E. Verification of biomechanical methods employed in a comprehensive study of mild traumatic brain injury and the effectiveness of American football helmets. J Biomech. 2005;38(7):1469–81.  112.  National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment. STANDARD PNEUMATIC RAM TEST METHOD AND EQUIPMENT USED IN EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTECTIVE HEADGEAR AND FACE GUARDS - NOCSAE DOC (ND) 081-14m15 [Internet]. NOCSAE; 2016 [cited 2016 Nov 1]. Available from: http://nocsae.org/wp-content/files_mf/1458844362ND08114m15PneumaticRamTestMethod.pdf 113.  Post A, Karton C, Hoshizaki TB, Gilchrist MD. Analysis of the protective capacity of ice hockey helmets in a concussion injury reconstruction. In: IRCOBI Conference [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017 Mar 23]. p. 72–80. Available from: http://www.ircobi.org/wordpress/downloads/irc14/pdf_files/17.pdf 114.  Post A, Oeur A, Hoshizaki TB, Gilchrist MD. The influence of centric and non-centric impacts to American football helmets on the correlation between commonly used metrics in brain injury research. Proc IRCOBI Dublin Irel Sept. 2012;10–14.  115.  Rousseau P, Post A, Hoshizaki TB. The effects of impact management materials in ice hockey helmets on head injury criteria. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part P J Sports Eng Technol. 2009 Dec 1;223(4):159–65.  111  116.  Rousseau P. The Influence of Neck Compliance and Head Displacement on Impact Dynamics of a Hybrid III Head. University of Ottawa (Canada); 2008. 81 p.  117.  Kis M, Saunders FW, Kis Sr M, Irrcher I, Tator CH, Bishop PJ, et al. A Method of Evaluating Helmet Rotational Acceleration Protection Using the Kingston Impact Simulator (KIS Unit). Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23(6):470–477.  118.  Canadian Standards Association. Z 263.1-14 Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets. Canadian Standards Association; 2014. Report No.: Z263.1-14.  119.  CAN-CSA-Z263.1-08 Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets. Canadian Standards Association (CSA); 2008.  120.  Lehrer J. Groupthink: The Brainstorming Myth. The New Yorker. 2012 Jan 30;22–7.  121.  Ostafichuk P, Hodgson A, Fengler M. The Engineering Design Process: An Introduction for Mechanical Engineers. 2nd ed. University of British Columbia; 2013.  122.  Sclater N. Mechanisms and mechanical devices sourcebook. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 546 p.  123.  Hollins B, Pugh S. Successful product design: what to do and when. London ; Boston: Butterworths; 1990. 167 p.  124.  Slocum A. Fundamentals of Design: Topic 10 - Bearings [Internet]. 2008 Jan 1; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Available from: http://pergatory.mit.edu/resources/FUNdaMENTALs%20Book%20pdf/FUNdaMENTALs%20Topic%2010.PDF 125.  Odelgard B. The development of head, face, and neck protectors for ice hockey players. In: Safety in ice hockey [Internet]. ASTM International; 1989 [cited 2017 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP24051S.htm 126.  Levy ML, Ozgur BM, Berry C, Aryan HE, Apuzzo MLJ. Birth and Evolution of the Football Helmet. Neurosurgery. 2004 Sep;55(3):656–62.  127.  Becker E. Helmet development and standards. In: Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma: Clinical and Biomedical. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press; 1998.  128.  Mills N, Gilchrist A. Oblique impact testing of bicycle helmets. Int J Impact Eng. 2008;35.  129.  SAE J211 Instrumentation for Impact Test - Part 1: Electronic Instrumentation. SAE International;  130.  Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE. Biomechanics of acute subdural hematoma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 1982;22(8):680–6.  131.  Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE. Clinical rationale for a haed injury angular acceleration criterion. In: Head Injury Mechanisms: the need for an angular acceleration criterion. Washington, DC; 1989. p. 5–8.   112  Appendix A: Stakeholder Communications Skype Call with Peter Halldin Date: December 11, 2014 @ 08:00 PST (17:00 CET) Attendance: Peter Halldin (Assistant Professor, KTH; CTO MIPS), Peter Cripton (Professor and Associate Head, UBC), Cam Stuart (MASc Cand., UBC) Purpose: Discuss snow sport relevant helmet testing protocol thesis project and the potential for collaboration. Minutes:  Cam: brief background and introduction to thesis project (see attached proposal)  Peter H. has been working on an unfunded study with the FIS for a couple of years o Competitive skiing snow properties most similar to ice o Perhaps just higher velocity linear drops may suffice for competition helmets?  Peter H. has done some snow sport helmet testing at a resort to mimic real world conditions o Found competition helmets to have a low friction and therefore low rotational accelerations (helmet design to be round and smooth)  Peter H. and Svein K. hoping to continue helmet work in other sport scenarios (ie. snowboarding, ski cross etc.)  What causes rotation if not tangential force from friction? o Recreational helmets: anchor points (ie. Cameras or goggle anchor points)  Great interest in collaboration o Either work in parallel on similar aspects of the investigation and compare the approaches/results or work on individual aspects of the study that would complement each other o Improve funding application with international collaboration  Funding possibilities o Peter H. has some funding from the FIS to conduct a small study but funding limited o Worthwhile looking into Canadian skiing and snowboarding organisations/federations as well as ‘Own the Podium’ initiative. o Possibility of funding from NOCSAE?  Svein Kleiven is working to validate an FEA snow model. Difficulty in coefficient of friction etc.  o Real accidents are important to inform this o Could our clinical study help to inform this by characterising a ‘real ski accident’?  It would be interesting to have a mobile test apparatus incorporated into testing standards o Challenge of making the testing feasible for industry and realistic that standards organisations adopt such a protocol. o Could design an on hill certification test 113  o How could we get address the challenge of geographically variable snow characteristics?   Peter H. has investigated variation in snow surface friction properties o Competition snow has a low friction coefficient  Certification testing requirements and insights o Impact surface for certification test is very important (ie. Surface needs to represent snow impact) o Reproducible, simple and cheap  Peter H. looking to collect video footage from both competition and recreational accidents  What is the best instrumentation for such testing? o 9 accel array; angular rate sensor (helmet dependent?)  The new DTS sensor is (Slice Pro) is meant to be better for ~100g impacts  Peter H. is the CTO for MIPS o Very popular (particularly in Europe); effective reduction of rotational acceleration Action:   Cam will put together a research proposal to send to Peter H. prior to the next skype call in the middle of January. Once a better understanding of the test methods proposed is achieved, we will discuss the approach and how to improve it.   Everyone will brainstorm ideas for collaboration.  Schedule a meeting in the New Year (middle of January) Possible Collaborative Projects:  Peter H. has a great amount of understanding of the impact surface (snow) properties and helmet testing protocols which could inform the design phase of the process. We could elaborate on his on snow testing (ie. Protocol, apparatus design)  With different variations of test equipment (ie. Drop rail with a basket, impactor, monorail, drop tower, linear drive…etc.), a comparison of different test methods/approaches could be achieved. Call with Irving Scher Date: December 16, 2014 @ 09:40 PST Attendance: Irving Scher (Principal and Biomechanical Engineer, Guidance Engineering), Bethany Suderman (Associate Biomechanist, Guidance Engineering), Peter Cripton (Professor and Associate Head, UBC), Cam Stuart (MASc Cand., UBC) Purpose: Discuss snow sport relevant helmet testing protocol thesis project and the potential for collaboration. Meeting Minutes:  Introduction to Cam’s thesis (see attached proposal) 114   Beth: sent ISSS abstract   NEISS database and Sugarbush study o Working with Jake Shealy o Sugarbush – ‘case controlled prospective study’  Looking at head injuries from the ski hill  Limited as serious injuries are sent to hospital and not treated at the hill o Serious head injuries in 20-75% of cases w/ helmet use o NEISS Database analysis found a ~62% drop in skiing/snowboarding head injury in longitudinal investigation  Robert Kennedy (lawyer) – external council representing Whistler Blackcomb  ACTION: would be interesting to try and think how our study could benefit from or be informed by data/collaboration with this study  Irv: advocate of sport specific helmet testing and interested in the many mechanisms that lead to head injury o Found in research that there was a significant rotational acceleration induced even prior to impact (ie. Snowboard backwards trip study with Exponent)  Irv: agrees with the need to identify the best instrumentation and headforms for such a study o NOCSAE, HIII, Angular rate, accelerometers, Kistler device o Also mentioned several different test apparatus that are currently used and the need to identify the best for this type of testing (ie. Linear impactor, moving anvil, angled anvil, guiderails loose, HIII neck on carriage, loose wires, drop) o How many different test/apparatus’ are necessary?  10 year study with the National Ski Area Association o Every 10 years, select ski hills give ski patrol reports, allowing for investigation of injury o Canadian equivalent to NSAA is the Canada West Ski Areas Association  Swiss and Austrian groups performing good quality ski safety research  International Society for Skiing Safety (ISSS) o Worthwhile group to develop ski safety network o This year’s meeting in Cortina, Italy o Student Scholarships can help subsidize travel o Abstracts due yesterday but they may still accept  ASTM F27 similar in the sense of getting more familiar with the ski safety community but F08 is the helmet specific group o Looking at things such as AT bindings/boots, alpine gear, jump design  Roald Bahr and involvement with ACL study  Emphasis on pre-impact kinematics and how that influences the head/brain in the primary and tertiary impacts  Peter: hesitant to use current brain models without further validation  Terry Smith is working on angular acceleration prior to impact (angular impact) 115   Research question: How can subsequent impact be addressed in testing protocol? Situational variability for severity Action:   Cam will put together a research proposal to send to Irv prior to the next skype call in the New Year. Once a better understanding of the test methods proposed is achieved, we will discuss the approach and how to improve it.   Everyone will brainstorm ideas for collaboration.  Cam will look into the ISSS with the potential of attending the next meeting in Italy (March 2015)  Schedule a meeting in the New Year Possible Collaborative Projects:  The involvement that Irv has had with the ’10 year study’ and the ‘Sugarbush/NCHS’ study may help to identify relevant injury mechanisms and strengthen the evaluation of the current test protocol.  Irv has many contacts in the NSAA (and potentially the CWSAA) which may be helpful to utilize some of their injury data. Ultimately, this could bring better resolution to injury mechanisms  Long term, a prospective study could be undertaken for which specific injury mechanism information could be gathered Notes From ASTM F08 Meeting Date: November 13-15, 2014 Location: New Orleans, LA\ Football - SI Variable? (football testing) - Progressive weakening using steel anvil - EN drop ring v. constraint (NOCSAE) o Argument that the drop ring is not a good way to measure rotational acceleration - Mg Head no easy to use for ASTM football standard - Adding rotational acceleration Motorcycle - ACT esting – helmet, chem., toys - BRG sports - New motorcycle standard – still linear w/ no rot. - DOT standard? 400g req. – dwell time? Functionally 250g - Issues: rot. Accel., additional metrics (>300g), youth, neck brace compatibility, freestyle, breakaways, max limit for retention, compliant impact surface (relevant to skiing), low energy threshold 116  - *soccer proposal for rot. Accel. - *rotational acceleration sub-committee - Rotational acceleration (alpha) vs rotational velocity (omega) - Injuries of people that impact below the test line Shirtsleeves - MLSH heaform? - Southern Impact Research Centre - Azimuth – angle from sag. Plane - Need for e-bike helmet standard o Based on average speed difference - Stephanie Bonin – MEA – cadaveric v. headform for helmet def. o CoG for instrumentation in cadavers?  Resolved accel. To CoG o *HIII v. cadaver was not statistically different for acceleration o Fracture? o Why cap type helmet? o Living v. cadaveric brain mass and how brain flop effects o NOCSAE headform? - Chris Whitnall o Draft for CSA hockey o Issues for rotational acceleration  Headform weight, shape, moment of inertia, instrumentation capability (array set up, angular rate (delta omega) – noisy) o Repeatability o How do you hit the head? (sport specific) o Risk of concussion – what in the acceleration curves causes a rotational acceleration injury? o Threshold o Neck… - *material properties changing over time (ie. elastic neck) - Peter Halldin o Rotational Test Methods (CTO of MIPS) o 5-10 m/s, 30 to 60 degrees, hard impact surface o WG11 – working group in Europe o HIII head – no neck (check study comparing HIII w/ to w/o neck and cadaver) o Strain to aid in defining threshold  Increased duration of rotational acceleration no acceptable…ehy? o Black box model for threshold determination o Attend WG11 March 2015 – Germany o *Basket for Peter’s drop rail? (EU meeting) - 12 manufacturers implementing MIPS - Test method for testing MIPS efficacy (20-66% reduction in strain) o Published thesis? 117  - MIPS using Svein Kleiven’s KTH finite element model - $9.50 per helmet decreasing with volume - Dr. Peter Cripton o *what about 3D printing test equipment? Vertebrae? o Snow sport task force F08.53 Committee Meeting - *variable mass headforms being implemented - Playground surfaces @ 200g w/ HIC 700 - Roy Burek - E-mail Chris Whitnall re: CSA and Thom Parks - Time duration of impulse to be considered o Maddux - HECC – meeting (ISO) in Florida Dec. 3-5  118  Appendix B: Design Phase Documentation Requirements Table 14: Requirements, metrics and justification for the test apparatus based on the needs statements. Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Measure Lower Threshold Upper Threshold Storage and Handling (mass) Test apparatus/ equipment must be carried by two people. Given the goal of the apparatus is to be used for field testing, the apparatus must be carried up a chairlift by 1-2 people Overall Mass N/A 50 kg (25kg each)   Storage and Handling (volume) Test apparatus/ equipment must be transported in a car and on a chair lift. Given the goal of the apparatus is to be used for field testing, the apparatus must fit in a vehicle and on a chair lift in order to get the equipment. Overall Volume (all pieces) N/A 0.8 m3 (~25 ft3) http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/cars/types/exterior-and-cargo-comparison.htm Useability (assembly personnel) Test apparatus can be assembled by 1 person Given the goal of the apparatus is to be used for field testing, the apparatus must be easily assembled. Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail   119  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Useability (test personnel) Test can be performed by 1 person Although the protocol may be expedited with additional assistance, the test should be possible with 1 person Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail   Useability (assembly time) Apparatus can be assembled/ disassembled quickly. The in-field test duration should not be limited by assembly of the apparatus. Weather changes may necessitate quick disassembly. Total assembly time N/A 45 min   Useability (test time) Time between same-series tests must be short Many certification standards require a defined maximum amount of time between tests to investigate the helmets toughness. This may also be necessary to ensure impact surface does not change significantly between tests Total time between impacts N/A 3 min Eg. CSA Recreational alpine skiing and snowboarding helmets - Toughness Test (30-90s) 120  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Functional (impact angle) Apparatus must allow for variable impact angle To be most representative of real world snow sport head impact, impact angle must be variable. This is justified by video analysis of real world accidents as well as parametric analysis of the influence of traveling speed on impact angle. Increments of 10 degrees are acceptable. Impact angle 15° 90°   Functional (impact location) Apparatus must allow for variable impact locations on the head. This must include those locations detailed in the CSA snow helmet standard. All tests detail prescribed and unprescribed test locations on the headform. This ability would also allow for better representation of real world head impact. Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Existing helmet standards Functional (impact velocity) Apparatus must allow for variable impact speeds More representative of real world snow sport head impact as justified in section 2.0. Impact Velocity 3.6 m/s 10 m/s See section 2.0 121  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Functional (test trigger) Test must be initiated manually when desired To ensure that the instrumentation is prepared and the battery life is maximized, manual, remote triggering is necessary (ie. Headform held stationary until test is initiated) Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail   Functional (quantify velocity) Apparatus must have the ability to measure the impact velocity (within 5cm of impact) To be consistent with standards, impact velocity will be used to confirm impact energy and therefore must be measured accurately Percent deviation -0.5% of impact velocity +0.5% of impact velocity Existing helmet standards Functional (repeatability of velocity) Apparatus must be capable of repeatable velocity at impact To be consistent with test standards and to be able to perform tests efficiently (ie. No repeats), impact velocity must be repeatable and predictable Percent deviation between tests -5% m/s +5% m/s Existing helmet standards 122  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Functional (repeatability of impact location) Apparatus must be capable of repeatable impact locations To be consistent with test standards and to be able to perform tests efficiently (ie. No repeats), impact location must be repeatable and predictable Radial distance between tests N/A 2cm Existing helmet standards Functional (repeatability of impact angle) Apparatus must be capable of repeatable impact angle To be consistent with test standards and to be able to perform tests efficiently (ie. No repeats), impact angle must be repeatable and predictable Angle difference between tests -2.5° +2.5°   Functional/ Durability (contain headform) Headform must not escape the near vicinity of the apparatus after impact To prevent the free motion headform from being damaged, to expedite multiple tests and to prevent injury to nearby people, the headform should not be allowed to escape the vicinity of the test apparatus Radial distance from impact site N/A 1m   123  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Functional (ground angle) Apparatus must be able to be set up on variable impact angles To allow for testing to take place on several different areas on the ski hill, it will need to be set up on various slope angles Slope angles to accommodate 0° 30°  http://www.gondyline.com/angle-of-ski-trails.php Functional (uneven surface) Apparatus must be able to be set up on uneven surfaces To allow for testing to take place on several different areas on the ski hill, it will need to be set up on uneven snow surfaces Max surface height difference N/A 5cm    Functional (camera mount) Apparatus must have a camera mount To capture video of the impact (HS or otherwise), a camera mount is necessary. Preference to isolated designs. Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Can allow for impact speed verification Functional (camera mount adjustability) Apparatus camera mount must be adjustable to visualize the point of impact As the impact location and direction may be variable, the camera angle and location must be adjustable Distance in XY axes -2.5cm +2.5cm   124  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Functional (snow characteristics) Test protocol must allow for characterization of impact surface (snow) as it pertains to the impact With the impact surface being an important part of how energy is experienced by the head, characterizing the necessary parameters that relate to the impact is necessary . Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail External device used: http://www.snowpak.net/ Durability (damage to test area) Apparatus and test protocol must not permanently damage test site To ensure good stakeholder relations and maintain consistent test conditions, long lasting damage to the test site is not permitted Time required to return test site to original conditions N/A 10 min   Durability (damage to test equipment) Apparatus and test protocol must not permanently damage test equipment To maintain consistent and valid tests, test equipment must not be damaged during testing. Consideration must be taken to insure all equipment is being tested within the defined limits. Safe guards should also be put in place to minimize interaction of equipment with other apparatus structures. Pass/Fail  Pass/Fail Pass/Fail   125  Need Category Requirement Justification Metric Reference Durability (temperature) Apparatus must be able to endure variable temperatures Testing may be performed in the winter or in the summer and therefore should be able to endure a variety of temperature ranges Ambient Temp. -30°C 30°C   Safety (personal) Apparatus must not harm anyone using or near to the apparatus Safe operation with all potential hazards identified and mitigated within reason. This may include sharp surfaces, trip hazards, projectiles, pinch points etc. Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Pass/Fail Mechanism safeguards Ie. Minimum radius, distance between moving members Desirable (cost) Apparatus must be affordable (independent of headform and instrumentation) In order to make testing accessible to those interested, the device must not be too expensive to build or purchase. Total Cost (CAD) $0 $5,000   Brainstorming Basic structure of Group Brainstorming Session Date: Tuesday, October 4th, 2017 @12:00pm Location: 5th Flr., East Conference Room, Blusson Spinal Cord Centre Attendance: Dr. Peter Cripton, Ingmar Fleps, Angela Melnyk, Hannah Gustafson Rules: 126  1) No stupid ideas 2) Speak your mind (all ideas; from very simple to very technical) 3) Open conversation Format: - Quick explanation of project - Summarize functional decomposition - Go through functional decomposition one-by-one o 2-3 mins for each person to write down all the ideas individually o 5-7 mins to go around the table and list each idea o 4-5 mins to build on listed ideas - Brainstorm integrated solutions Functional Decomposition - Hold headform relative to ground - Initiate headform acceleration relative to ground - Control headform orientation at impact - Contain headform within test zone - Adjust impact orientation of headform - Release headform from test apparatus prior to impact - Quantify headform impact velocity - Maintain consistent impact surface between tests 127    Concept Evaluation Table 15: Comprehensive list of concepts as well as results of winnowing. Concepts highlighted in green indicate those that passed to the next stage of evaluation while red indicates elimination of that concept. Function Concept Winnowing Comments Feasibility Requirements Technical Readiness  Hold headform relative to ground  Rail with Hard Stop Y Y Y  Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Y Y Y  Suspension cables on a drop frame Y Y Y  Mesh bag Y Y Y May have slight influence on impact (ie. Friction, standoff, surface irregularity Table/shelf Y Y Y  Clamp Y Y Y  Hold with hands Y Y Y  Magnet Y Y Y  Adhesive Y Y Y  128  Air foil Y N Y Jet turbine air velocity ~500m/s (7000hp motor required); mass biggest consideration Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Y Y Y  Function Concept Winnowing Comments Induce known acceleration to headform relative to ground Engage clutch from flywheel (flywheel could be brought up to speed via a hand crank, power drill, rip cord, counter weight…) Y (See below for calc) Y Y Mass of motor a consideration Hydraulic impact ram Y N Y Failed on mass and size requirement Pneumatic impact ram Y N Y Failed on mass and size requirement Chemical reaction (ie. Airbag) Y Y Y  Loaded spring (linear or pendulum (could use a linear spring for the pendulum or a torsional spring)) Y Y Y See calculation below (used Adams simulation) Freefall drop Y Y Y For 10 m/s, a drop height of ~5.1m Trebuchet with late deploy Y N Y Unpredictable impact location and requires a significant horizontal distance. Used online simulator (http://virtualtrebuchet.com/#simulator) Inverted pendulum (pole) Y Y Y  129  Electric motor driven (linear drive) Y N Y Cannot reach the necessary impact speed Electromagnet (railgun) Y N Y F=i (current) * L (length of rail) * B (magnetic field); car battery = 12V (~45Ahrs; 45 A for 12hr); dangerous for the current necessary to project the headform mass Electromagnet (solenoid) Y Y Y  Slingshot (either pushing or pulling to the ground) Y N Y Cannot get the necessary propulsion force from bungee/elastic cords alone Spinning disc with a high friction cable that gets quickly tensioned (similar to a clutch) Y Y Y  Blast of air/water Y N Y Cannot achieve enough force with air; water too heavy to carry and difficult to source onsite. Throw (human powered) Y N Y Not repeatable within the impact velocity requirement Pulley system with mechanical advantage Y Y Y  See-saw launch Y Y Y  Zipline (gravity) Y N Y Spring force alone cannot induce high enough magnitude 130  acceleration; Not contained in test area Using a T-Bar mechanism (already at the ski hill) Y N Y Spring force alone cannot induce high enough magnitude acceleration Sled (pull line or gravity) Y N Y Not contained in test area Winch Y Y Y  Function Concept Winnowing Comments Control headform orientation at impact Pendulum with rotation axis height adjustment Y Y Y  Mesh bag tethered to rotation axis Y Y Y Centripetal acceleration could be used to seat the headform and maintain orientation;  Constrained tube (Linear cannon with release of headform at desired orientation) Y Y Y Impact would need to be soon after deployment Extendable pole (inverted pendulum) that is manually controlled Y Y Y  Set screws Y Y Y  Linear bearing Y Y Y  Breakaway pins Y Y Y  131  Air foil Y N Y Failed because the irregularity of the headform would cause unpredictable rotation of headform Foils to induce laminar flow (ie. Dart feathers) Y N Y Too much variability in impact site and stability is related to velocity Robot Y Y Y  Guided free fall (throw) Y N Y Not repeatable for impact location Electric Field Y N Y Susceptible to perturbation causing inconsistent impact location; high power requirement Basket Y Y Y  Release close to ground Y Y Y Minimum distance? Function Concept Winnowing Comments Contain headform within test zone Plexi glass  Y Y Y  Netting Y Y Y  Tether to the headform Y Y Y  Mounted on rail Y Y Y  Padding Y Y Y  Person to catch Y Y Y  Electric Field Y N Y Large power requirement causing high mass 132  Magnet Y N Y Extremely strong (expensive) magnet necessary to overcome; may damage DAQ Dog Y N Y Likely cause damage to the headform Box Y Y Y  Elastic Y Y Y  Air/water/snow blast Y N Y Required equipment for strong enough blast is too heavy and voluminous Snow barrier Y Y Y  Controlled environment (ie. Halfpipe) Y N Y Limits place testing can take place; construction of a barrier using natural elements (below) may be an alternative Shunting mechanism (ie. J shape) Y Y Y  Blanket Y Y Y  Glue Y N Y Not strong enough on their own; may be helpful in conjunction with another concept Velcro Y N Y Not strong enough on their own; may be helpful in conjunction with another concept 133  Function Concept Winnowing Comments Adjust impact orientation of headform Ball arm secured with fasteners Y Y Y  Cage that releases/drops away before impact Y Y Y  Freefall release in desired impact orientation Y Y Y Allows for variable impact locations but is not repeatable Suspension cables Y Y Y  Constrained tube Y Y Y  Mesh bag (placed in bag in desired orientation) Y Y Y  Clamp Y Y Y  3D Printed part Y Y Y Standardized for each defined impact location Wedges Y Y Y Concern about repeatability Magnets Y N Y Placing magnets on the head will change the mass properties and create surface irregularity leading to variability Robots Y Y Y  Set screws (x-mas tree stand) Y Y Y  Locking Hinge Y Y Y  134  Power screw (2 DOF) Y Y Y May need to use in combination with another concept 6 DOF arm (ask Kurt)     Air foil N N Y Perturbation causes significant movement Function Concept Winnowing Comments Release headform from test apparatus prior to impact Manual release (trigger, cable pull) Y Y Y  Shear pin at desired velocity Y Y Y  Trip wire that engages release mechanism Y Y Y  Free fall (release at top of drop height) Y Y Y  Release mechanism triggers at specified distance (eg. finite length of cord that when tensioned, pulls pin) Y Y Y  Gravitational release (for rotational means of acceleration)   Y Cannot conceptualize Exit blast tube Y Y Y  Push off table Y Y Y  Release from hands Y Y Y  Guide ends (ie. Rail) Y Y Y  135  Launcher (ball launcher) Y Y Y  String cut Y Y Y  Stop air flow Y Y Y  Release C-clamp via impulse to screw Y Y Y Would need another mechanism to  Function Concept Winnowing Comments Quantify headform impact velocity Velocity gate (optic) Y Y Y  Integrate resultant linear acceleration Y Y Y  Shear pin that breaks at known force (ie. Force exerted at velocity threshold) Y Y Y Question as to the error range for failure and how that compares to the allowable range of velocity (ie. %5) Video replay and marker analysis Y N Y Not possible to perform analysis on the hill to determine if the test was valid. Radar gun/ultrasonic motion sensor Y Y Y  Burst membrane Y Y Y  Stopwatch/visual Y N Y Not precise enough Sensors (force, accelerometers on apparatus) Y Y Y Would be time intensive to verify the velocity for each test Validation protocol with a look up Y N Y Variability in environmental 136  table conditions introduces too many variables to anticipate Time/height calc Y N Y Not precise enough Function Concept Winnowing Comments Maintain consistent impact surface between tests Rake impact area Y Y Y  Move apparatus finite amount laterally Y Y Y  Deposit finite amount of nearby snow over impact surface Y Y Y  Develop protocol for impact site preparation (include prescribed radius from impact point; test of compaction, granularity, moisture content, hardness?, angle) Y Y Y  Hardness gauge (Fraser) Y Y Y  Temperature controlled chamber Y N Y Defeats purpose of in-field testing Flatrod (consistent profile) Y Y Y  Blow snow over site Y N Y Inconsistent and unnatural characteritics/profile Don’t maintain; characterize Y Y Y  Surrogate material Y N Y Defeats purpose of in-field testing  137  Concept Feasibility Calculations Flywheel Energy Calc: - E=(1/2)*I*omega^2 - Let’s say we can get the flywheel to a speed of 1500 rpm (25 rps = 157 rad/s) with a cordless power drill - For a 10 m/s drop, we need the headform to have an energy of 252.5 joules (K=(1/2)mv^2) - This means our moment of inertia (I) needs to be at least (given ideally, Eflywheel transferred to Ehead): o 252.2 Joules = (1/2) * I * 157 rad/s^2 o I = 0.020 kg*m^2 - Approximate flywheel as a hollow cylinder (inside radius = 5cm; outside radius = 8cm; I=(1/2)*mass*(R1^2 + R2^2)) o 0.020 Kg*m^2 = (1/2)*mass*(0.08m^2 + 0.05m^2) o Mass = 4.494 kg - Note: This calculation is an ideal situation in which no energy is lost when transferred from the flywheel to the headform. It also does not account for potential energy of the headform. AirFoil Force Calc - Resource : http://www.physics.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/beachball.pdf - Force required to hold up head form (ie. Overcome gravity)  F = ma = 5.05kg * 9.81 m/s2 = 49.54 N - Approximate headform as a sphere with diameter of 15 cm -  Freefall drop height calc 138  - Assume no air drag - Kinetic energy = 1/2 * m * v2; potential energy = mgh - KE = PE (conservation of energy); 1/2 mv2=mgh; mass cancels; v = 10 m/s - Height (for 10 m/s impact speed) = v2/2g = 100/2*9.81m/s2  height = 5.097m Linear spring on monorail calc (used Adams simulation)  Airjet Propulsion Force Calc  Pugh Charts Table 16: 1-1 Hold Headform Relative to Ground (Datum) Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Cost S + S + + + + - + + Precision S S S S S - - S - - Weight S + S S S S + + + + Ease of Use S S S S S S + S S + 139  Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Durability S - - - - S - - - - Set-Up Time S S S - - S + S S S Size S + S S - S + + + S Repeatability S - - - S - - S - - Safety S S S S S S - - - - Σ+ - +3 +0 +1 +1 +1 +5 +2 +3 +3 ΣS - 4 7 5 5 6 0 4 2 2 Σ- - -2 -2 -3 -3 -2 -4 -3 -4 -4 Net Score - 0 -2 -2 -2 -1 +1 -3 -1 -1 Rank - 2nd 4th 4th 4th 3rd 1st 5th 3rd 3rd Table 17: 1-2 Hold Headform Relative to Ground Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Cost - - - - - - S - - - Precision + + + + + + S + + + Weight - - - - - - S - - - Ease of Use - - - - S - S S S S Durability + + + + + + S + S + Set-Up Time - - - - - - S - - - Size - - - - - - S - - - Repeatability + + + + + + S + + + Safety + + + + S + S + + + 140  Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Σ+ +4 +4 +4 +4 +3 +4 - +4 +2 +4 ΣS 0 0 0 0 2 0 - 1 3 1 Σ- -5 -5 -5 -5 -4 -5 - -4 -4 -4 Net Score -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 - 0 -2 0 Rank 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd - 1st 3rd 1st Table 18: 1-3 Hold Headform Relative to Ground Evaluation Criteria Rail with Hard  Stop Tensioned tether with release pin (similar to drop rail) Suspension cables on a drop frame Suspended Mesh bag Table/shelf Clamp mounted on post Hold with hands Magnet Adhesive Pole with bowl (ie. T-Ball stand) Cost S S - + - + + S + S Precision S - - - S S - S - S Weight - S S S - S + S S S Ease of Use S S S S S S + S S S Durability S S S - + S - S - S Set-Up Time + + S + S S + S - S Size S S S S - S + S S S Repeatability S - - - - - - S - - Safety + + + + - + - S + + Σ+ +2 +2 +1 +3 +1 +2 +5 - +2 +1 ΣS 6 5 5 3 3 6 0 - 3 7 Σ- -1 -2 -3 -3 -5 -1 -4 - -4 -1 Net Score +1 0 -2 0 -4 +1 +1 - -2 0 Rank 1st 2nd 3rd 2nd 4th 1st 1st - 3rd 2nd 141   From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include table/shelf, adhesive and suspension cables on a drop frame. Table 19: 2-1 Induce Known Acceleration to Headform Relative to Ground Evaluation Criteria Flywheel and Clutch (power drill) Flywheel and Clutch (hand crank/ripcord) Chemical Reaction Loaded Spring Gravity Drop Inverted Pendulum  Powered Disc with Cable Pulley System (powered) Seesaw Launch Winch Cost S + - + + + S + + S Precision S S - + + + S + - S Weight S S + + + + + + + S Ease of Use S - S - S S S S - S Durability S - - + + S S - - - Set-Up Time S - S S S S S S + S Size S S + + - S + + S S Repeatability S S - S S S S S - S Safety S - - S S S S - - S Σ+ - +1 +2 +5 +4 +3 +2 +4 +3 0 ΣS - 4 2 3 4 6 7 3 1 8 Σ- - -4 -5 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -5 -1 Net Score - -3 -3 +4 +3 +3 +2 +2 -2 -1 Rank - 6th 6th 1st 2nd 2nd 3rd 3rd 5th 4th  Table 20: 2-2. Induce Known Acceleration to Headform Relative to Ground Evaluation Criteria Flywheel and Clutch (power drill) Flywheel and Clutch (hand crank/ripcord) Chemical Reaction Loaded Spring Gravity Drop Inverted Pendulum  Powered Disc with Cable Pulley System (powered) Seesaw Launch Winch Cost - - - - S S - S - - 142  Evaluation Criteria Flywheel and Clutch (power drill) Flywheel and Clutch (hand crank/ripcord) Chemical Reaction Loaded Spring Gravity Drop Inverted Pendulum  Powered Disc with Cable Pulley System (powered) Seesaw Launch Winch Precision - + - S S S + S - + Weight S S + + S S + + + - Ease of Use S - S S S S + + + + Durability - - - - S S - - - - Set-Up Time S - S S S S S - + S Size + S + + S S + + S - Repeatability S S - S S S S - - + Safety - - - S S S - - - - Σ+ +2 +1 +2 +3 - 0 +4 +3 +3 +3 ΣS 4 4 2 4 - 9 2 3 1 1 Σ- -3 -3 -5 -2 - 0 -3 -3 -5 -5 Net Score -1 -2 -3 +1 - 0 +1 0 -2 -2 Rank 3rd 4th 5th 1st - 2nd 1st 2nd 4th 4th  From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include flywheel (manual), chemical reaction and seesaw launch. Table 21: 3-1. Control Headform Orientation at Impact Evaluation Criteria Inverted Pendulum w/height adjust Mesh Bag (rotating) Constrained Tube Set Screws Linear Bearing Breakaway Pin Robot Release close to ground Basket Ball arm Cost S + - + S - - S S S Precision S S - S S S S - S S Weight S + - S S S - + S S 143  Evaluation Criteria Inverted Pendulum w/height adjust Mesh Bag (rotating) Constrained Tube Set Screws Linear Bearing Breakaway Pin Robot Release close to ground Basket Ball arm Ease of Use S S - - S S + + + S Durability S - - - S - - S S S Set-Up Time S + S S S S - S - S Size - + - + S - - S S S Repeatability S - - S S - + - S S Safety S S + S S - + - S S Σ+ 0 +4 +1 +2 0 0 +3 +2 +1 - ΣS 8 3 1 5 9 4 1 4 7 - Σ- -1 -2 -7 -2 0 -5 -5 -3 -1 - Net Score -1 +2 -6 0 0 -5 -2 -1 0 - Rank 3rd 1st 6th 2nd 2nd 5th 4th 3rd 2nd - Table 22: 3-2. Control Headform Orientation at Impact Evaluation Criteria Inverted Pendulum w/height adjust Mesh Bag (rotating) Constrained Tube Set Screws Linear Bearing Breakaway Pin Robot Release close to ground Basket Ball arm Cost - S - S - - - S - - Precision + S S + + - + - + + Weight - S - S - S - S - - Ease of Use S S - - S S - S S S Durability + S S + - - - + + + Set-Up Time S S - S + S - S + + Size S S - + S S - + - - 144  Repeatability + S - + + S + - + + Safety S S + S S - + - S S Σ+ +3 - +1 +4 +3 0 +3 +2 +4 +4 ΣS 4 - 2 4 3 5 0 4 2 2 Σ- -2 - -6 -1 -3 -4 -6 -3 -3 -3 Net Score +1 - -5 +3 0 -4 -3 -1 +1 +1 Rank 2nd - 7th 1st 3rd 6th 5th 4th 2nd 2nd  From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include constrained tube, breakaway pin and robot. Table 23: 4-1. Contain Headform Within Test Zone Evaluation Criteria Netting Plexi Glass Tether Rail Mount Padding Person to Catch Box Elastic Shunting  Mechanism Blanket Snow Barrier Cost S S + - S + S S - S + Weight S - + - S + - S - S + Effectiveness S - S + S - S - + S - Ease of Use S S S S S - S S S S - Durability S - S + S - - S + S - Set-Up Time S S S - S + S S - S - Size S - S - S + - S - - + Repeatability S S S + S - S S + S S Safety S - S + + - S - + S - Σ+ - 0 +2 +4 +1 +4 0 0 +4 0 +3 ΣS - 4 7 1 8 0 6 7 1 8 1 Σ- - -5 0 -4 0 -5 -3 -2 -4 -1 -5 145  Net Score - -5 +2 0 +1 -1 -3 -2 0 -1 -2 Rank - 7th 1st 3rd 2nd 4th 6th 5th 3rd 4th 5th Table 24:4-2. Contain Headform within Test Zone Evaluation Criteria Netting Plexi Glass Tether Rail Mount Padding Person to Catch Box Elastic Shunting  Mechanism Blanket Snow Barrier Cost - - S - - + - - - - + Weight - - S - - + - - - - + Effectiveness S - S + S - S - + S - Ease of Use S S S S S - S S S S - Durability S - S + S - - S + S - Set-Up Time S S S - S + S S - S - Size S - S - - + - S - - + Repeatability S S S + S - S S + S S Safety S - S + S - S - + S - Σ+ 0 0 - +4 0 +4 0 0 +4 0 +3 ΣS 7 3 - 1 6 0 5 5 1 6 1 Σ- -2 -6 - -4 -3 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -5 Net Score -2 -6 - 0 -3 -1 -4 -4 0 -3 -2 Rank 3rd 6th - 1st 4th 2nd 5th 5th 1st 4th 3rd  From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include box, elastic, blanket and plexi glass. 146  Table 25: 5-1. Adjust Impact Orientation of Headform (Constrained tube and robot excluded based on previous Pugh analysis) Evaluation Criteria Ball arm w Fasteners Dropaway Cage Freefall Suspension Cable Power Screw Mesh Bag Clamp 3D Printed Part Wedges Set Screws Locking Hinge Cost S S + + S + + S + + + Weight S S + S + + S + S + + Precision S S - - S - S S - S S Ease of Use S + S S S S S S - S S Durability S S - - S - S - - - S Set-Up Time S S + - S S - S - S S Size S S + + S + S + S + S Repeatability S S - - S - - - - - S Safety S S - S S - - - - S S Adjustability S + + - - + S - S S - Σ+ - +2 +5 +2 +1 +4 +1 +2 +1 +3 +2 ΣS - 8 1 3 8 2 6 4 3 5 7 Σ- - 0 -4 -5 -1 -4 -3 -4 -6 -2 -1 Net Score - +2 +1 -3 0 0 -2 0 -5 +1 +1 Rank - 1st 2nd 5th 3rd 3rd 4th 3rd 6th 2nd 2nd Table 26: 5-2. Adjust Impact Orientation of Headform Evaluation Criteria Ball arm w Fasteners Dropaway Cage Freefall Suspension Cable Power Screw Mesh Bag Clamp 3D Printed Part Wedges Set Screws Locking Hinge Cost - - S - - - - - - - - Weight - - S - - - - - - - - 147  Evaluation Criteria Ball arm w Fasteners Dropaway Cage Freefall Suspension Cable Power Screw Mesh Bag Clamp 3D Printed Part Wedges Set Screws Locking Hinge Precision + + S + + + + + + + + Ease of Use S + S - S S - + - S S Durability + + S + + + + + + + + Set-Up Time - S S - S S S S S - S Size S S S S S S S - S S S Repeatability + + S + + + + + + + + Safety + + S + + + + + + + + Adjustability + + S S - + S - S + S Σ+ +5 +6 - +4 +4 +5 +4 +5 +4 +5 +4 ΣS 2 2 - 2 3 3 3 1 3 2 4 Σ- -3 -2 - -4 -3 -2 -3 -4 -3 -3 -2 Net Score +2 +4 - 0 +1 +3 +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 Rank 3rd 1st - 5th 4th 2nd 4th 4th 4th 3rd 3rd  From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include suspension cables, clamp, and wedges. Table 27: 6-1. Release Headform from Test Apparatus prior to Impact Evaluation Criteria Manual Release (Trigger, cable)  Shear Pin Trip Wire Release from Hands Exit Blast Tube Push off Table Distance Dependent Guide Ends String Cut Stop Air Flow C-clamp impulse Cost S + S + - + S + - - - Weight S S S + - + S + S - - Precision S S S - S - S S S - - 148  Evaluation Criteria Manual Release (Trigger, cable)  Shear Pin Trip Wire Release from Hands Exit Blast Tube Push off Table Distance Dependent Guide Ends String Cut Stop Air Flow C-clamp impulse Ease of Use S S S S + S S + + S S Durability S + S - S - S + - - S Set-Up Time S S S + S - S S S - - Size S - S + - + S + S - - Repeatability S + + - S - + - - - S Safety S S S - - - S - - + - Σ+ - +3 +1 +4 +1 +3 +1 +5 +1 +1 0 ΣS - 5 8 1 4 1 8 2 4 1 3 Σ- - -1 0 -3 -4 -5 0 -2 -4 -7 -6 Net Score - +2 +1 +1 -3 -2 +1 +3 -3 -6 -6 Rank - 2nd 3rd 3rd 5th 4th 3rd 1st 5th 6th 6th  Table 28:6-2. Release Headform from Test Apparatus prior to Impact Evaluation Criteria Manual Release (Trigger, cable)  Shear Pin Trip Wire Release from Hands Exit Blast Tube Push off Table Distance Dependent Guide Ends String Cut Stop Air Flow C-clamp impulse Cost - - - + - S - S - - - Weight - - - + S S - S - - - Precision S - - - - - S S - - - Ease of Use S S S S S - S S S S S Durability - - - - - S - S - S - Set-Up Time + S S + - S S S S - + Size - - - S - - - S - - - 149  Evaluation Criteria Manual Release (Trigger, cable)  Shear Pin Trip Wire Release from Hands Exit Blast Tube Push off Table Distance Dependent Guide Ends String Cut Stop Air Flow C-clamp impulse Repeatability S - - - - - - S - - - Safety + S S - - - + S + - S Σ+ +2 0 0 +3 0 0 +1 - +1 0 +1 ΣS 3 3 3 2 2 4 3 - 2 2 2 Σ- -4 -6 -6 -4 -7 -5 -5 - -6 -7 -6 Net Score -2 -6 -6 -1 -7 -5 -4 - -5 -7 -5 Rank 2nd 5th 5th 1st 6th 4th 3rd - 4th 6th 4th  From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include stop air flow, exit blast tube, string cut, push off table and c-clamp impulse. Table 29: 7-1. Quantify Headform Impact Velocity Evaluation Criteria Velocity Gate Integrate Shear Pin Radar Gun Sensors Burst Membrane Cost S + - S S - Weight S + - - S - Precision S - - - S - Ease of Use S - - S - - Durability S + S S S - Set-Up Time S - - + S - Size S + - - S - Repeatability S - - S S - Safety S S - S S - 150  Evaluation Criteria Velocity Gate Integrate Shear Pin Radar Gun Sensors Burst Membrane Σ+ - +4 0 +1 0 0 ΣS - 1 1 5 8 0 Σ- - -4 -8 -3 -1 -9 Net Score - 0 -8 -2 -1 -9 Rank - 1st 4th 3rd 2nd 5th  Table 30: 7-2. Quantify Headform Impact Velocity Evaluation Criteria Velocity Gate Integrate Shear Pin Radar Gun Sensors Burst Membrane Cost - S - - S - Weight - S - - S - Precision + S S + + - Ease of Use + S + + + S Durability S S - + S - Set-Up Time S S - + - - Size - S - - S - Repeatability + S S S + - Safety S S - S S - Σ+ +3 - +1 +4 +3 0 ΣS 3 - 2 2 5 1 Σ- -3 - -6 -3 -1 -8 Net Score 0 - -5 +1 +2 -8 151  Evaluation Criteria Velocity Gate Integrate Shear Pin Radar Gun Sensors Burst Membrane Rank 3rd - 4th 2nd 1st 5th  From the above Pugh charts, we can exclude the concepts that were consistently ranked low. These include shear pin and burst membrane. Table 31: 8-1. Maintain consistent impact surface between tests Evaluation Criteria Rake Move Apparatus Deposit new snow Protocol Flatrod Hardness Gauge Characterize Cost S + + - S - - Weight S + + + S S S Precision S - - + S + + Ease of Use S - - - S S - Durability S + + S S - - Set-Up Time S - S - S S - Size S + + S S + S Repeatability S - - + S + + Safety S - S S S S S Σ+ - +4 +4 +3 0 +3 +2 ΣS - 0 2 3 9 4 3 Σ- - -5 -3 -3 0 -2 -4 Net Score - -1 +1 0 0 +1 -2 Rank - 3rd 1st 2nd 2nd 1st 4th  152  Table 32: 8-2. Maintain consistent impact surface between tests Evaluation Criteria Rake Move Apparatus Deposit new snow Protocol Flatrod Hardness Gauge Characterize Cost - S S - S - - Weight - S S - - - - Precision + + S + + + + Ease of Use + - S - S + S Durability S - S - S - - Set-Up Time S - S - S S - Size S + S - S + - Repeatability + S S + + + + Safety S - S S S S S Σ+ +3 +2 - +2 +2 +4 +2 ΣS 4 3 - 1 6 2 2 Σ- -2 -4 - -6 -1 -3 -5 Net Score +1 -2 - -4 +1 +1 -3 Rank 1st 2nd - 4th 1st 1st 3rd  153  Analytical Hierarchical Process This method of determining the weight of each evaluation criteria relies on relative importance. All criteria were put as both row and column headers with the table’s diagonal (intersecting box where the row and column are the same criteria) being populated with the value ‘1’. Next, each criteria was compared to all others and scored from 1-9 based on the relative importance as seen in Table 33.  Table 33: Analytical Hierarchical Process ranking rubric (121)  Value Ranking 1 Equally important 3 Slightly more important 5 Moderately more important 7 Much more important 9 Absolutely more important  When the criterion was determined to be more important than another criterion, the ranking value was entered in the box corresponding to the row of the more important criteria and the column of the less important criteria. Once this comparison was completed for each combination, the remainder of the boxes were filled in with the inverse value of the partner comparison (ie. precision is much more important than cost so the box where precision is the row header and cost is the column header was entered as 7 while the box with cost as the row header and precision as the column header was entered as 1/7). Table 34 shows the raw rank assigned for each criteria.  Once the ranking table was filled in, each value was then normalized by dividing each value by the sum of the column that value belonged to. Next, all of the rows were summed. The final weight was then determined by dividing each of the row totals by the sum of the row totals column.  Table 34: AHP showing the raw rank for each evaluation criteria Evaluation Cost Precisio Weigh Ease Durability Set- Size Repeatabilit Safety 154  Criteria n t of Use Up Time y Cost 1.00 0.14 0.33 0.20 0.33 0.20 0.33 0.14 0.20 Precision 7.00 1.00 3.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 1.00 1.00 Weight 3.00 0.33 1.00 0.33 0.33 0.20 1.00 0.14 0.20 Ease of Use 5.00 0.20 3.00 1.00 3.00 0.33 3.00 0.20 0.33 Durability 3.00 0.20 3.00 0.33 1.00 3.00 3.00 0.20 0.33 Set-Up Time 5.00 0.20 5.00 3.00 0.33 1.00 3.00 0.14 0.20 Size 3.00 0.20 1.00 0.33 0.33 0.33 1.00 0.14 0.20 Repeatability 7.00 1.00 7.00 5.00 5.00 7.00 7.00 1.00 1.00 Safety 5.00 1.00 5.00 3.00 3.00 5.00 5.00 1.00 1.00 Total 39.00 4.28 28.33 18.20 18.33 22.07 28.33 3.97 4.47  Table 35: Normalized rankings and overall weightings for each evaluation criteria using the AHP Evaluation Criteria Cost Precision Weight Ease of Use Durability Set-Up Time Size Repeatability Safety Row Total Weight Weight (%) Cost 0.026 0.033 0.012 0.011 0.018 0.009 0.012 0.036 0.045 0.202 0.02 2.24 Precision 0.179 0.234 0.106 0.275 0.273 0.227 0.176 0.252 0.224 1.945 0.22 21.62 Weight 0.077 0.078 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.009 0.035 0.036 0.045 0.352 0.04 3.91 Ease of Use 0.128 0.047 0.106 0.055 0.164 0.015 0.106 0.050 0.075 0.745 0.08 8.28 Durability 0.077 0.047 0.106 0.018 0.055 0.136 0.106 0.050 0.075 0.669 0.07 7.44 Set-Up Time 0.128 0.047 0.176 0.165 0.018 0.045 0.106 0.036 0.045 0.766 0.09 8.52 Size 0.077 0.047 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.015 0.035 0.036 0.045 0.327 0.04 3.63 Repeatability 0.179 0.234 0.247 0.275 0.273 0.317 0.247 0.252 0.224 2.248 0.25 24.98 Safety 0.128 0.234 0.176 0.165 0.164 0.227 0.176 0.252 0.224 1.746 0.19 19.40 Total 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 9.000 1   155  Integrated Concepts Table 36: Summary of concept fragments chosen for each integrated concepts  Descriptor Top Level Functions Hold headform relative to ground Induce known acceleration to headform relative to ground Control headform orientation at impact Contain headform within test zone Adjust impact orientation of headform Release headform from test apparatus prior to impact Quantify headform impact velocity Maintain consistent impact surface between tests A Inverted Pendulum (gravity) Clamp Inverted Pendulum Ball Arm Tether to Headform Ball Arm w Fasteners Trip Wire Sensors (meas. Vel.) Move Laterally B Flywheel w Clutch (powered) Rail w Hard stop Flywheel/Clutch (powered) Basket Netting Cage (drops away) Guide Ends Velocity Gate Hardness Gauge/Protocol C Loaded Spring (linear) Ball Arm (rail) Loaded Spring (linear) Release close to grnd/ball arm Padding Ball Arm w Fasteners Release Mechanism @ Spec. Distance Integrate Acceleration Rake Impact Area D Freefall Drop Magnet (Solenoid) Freefall Mesh Bag Snow Barrier Mesh Bag (in desired orientation) Manual Release (Solenoid) Velocity Gate Move Laterally E Pulley System (4:1) Rail w Hard stop Pulley System Basket/Set Screws Person to Catch Set Screws Trip Wire Radar Gun Flat rod F Inverted Pendulum (spring) Clamp Inverted Pendulum (torsional spring) Ball Arm Tether to Headform Ball Arm w Fasteners Shear Pin/Trip Wire Integrate Acceleration Rake Impact Area G Winch Tether w Release Pin Winch Motor Release close to grnd/linear bearing Netting 3D Printed Part Guide Ends Velocity Gate Deposit Snow 156   Descriptor Top Level Functions Hold headform relative to ground Induce known acceleration to headform relative to ground Control headform orientation at impact Contain headform within test zone Adjust impact orientation of headform Release headform from test apparatus prior to impact Quantify headform impact velocity Maintain consistent impact surface between tests H Electromagnet Magnet (Solenoid) Electromagnet (Rail Gun) Linear Bearing Snow Barrier Locking Hinge Shear Pin/Trip Wire Radar Gun Characterize/Move Laterally  Table 37: Sketches and schematics of each integrated concept A  B  157  C  D  E  F  158  G  H   Weighted Decision Matrices Component-by-Component Evaluation  Table 38: Summary of scoring rubrics for each of the evaluation criteria in the component-by-component scoring Cost Level Breakdown ($) 1 <10  Volume Level Breakdown (ft^3) 1 <0.2 2 10-50  2 0.2-0.5 3 50-100  3 0.5-1 4 100-200  4 1-2 5 200-500  5 2-5 6 500-1000  6 5-10                                    159  Weight Level Breakdown (kg) 1 <0.5  Set Up Time (min) 1 <1 2 0.5-1  2 1-5 3 1-2  3 5-10 4 2-5  4 10-20 5 5-10  5 20-45 6 10-25  6 45+        Ease of Use Breakdown (Qualitative) 1 very easy and fast 2 very easy but more time consuming 3 moderatelty difficult and more time consuming 4 moderately difficult and quite time consuming 5 difficult and quite time consuming 6 extremely difficult and time consuming        Precision 1 Extremely precise (+/- 1%) 2 Fairly precise (+/- 2.5%) 3 Moderately precise (+/- 5%) 4 Moderately imprecise (+/- 7.5%) 5 Fairly imprecise (+/- 10%) 6 Extremely imprecise (+/- 15%)                                                                160  Durability 1 Most durable; no moving parts; easy to fix; no critical parts 2 Quite durable; few moving parts; moderately easy to fix; no critical parts 3 Fairly durable;  few moving parts; moderately easy to fix; few critical parts 4 Mediocre durability; several moving parts; moderately easy to fix; few critical parts 5 Not very durable; many moving parts; moderately easy to fix; several critical parts 6 Least durable; many moving parts;difficult to fix; many critical parts        Repeatability 1 Extremely repeatable (+/- 1%) 2 Fairly repreatable (+/- 2.5%) 3 Moderately repreatable (+/- 5%) 4 Moderately unrepreatable (+/- 7.5%) 5 Fairly unrepreatable (+/- 10%) 6 Extremely unrepreatable (+/- 15%)                                                                              161  Safety 1 Very Safe to Operators and Public; No Extra Measures 2 Moderately Safe to Operators; Very Safe to Public; No Extra Measures 3 Moderately Safe to Operators; Moderately Safe to Public; Some Extra Measures 4 Moderately Safe to Operators; Moderately Safe to Public; Some Extra Measures 5 Dangerous to Operators; Moderately Safe to Public; Many Extra Measures 6 Dangerous to Operators; Dangerous to Public; Many Extra Measures  Table 39: Component based scoring for the Inverted Pendulum concept  Inverted Pendulum (gravity) Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set Up Time Volume Weight Cost Long pole (rigid) 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 6 3 Clamp 2 1 2 1 2 Hinge release mechanism 3 2 2 2 4 Tether cable 2 1 1 1 1 Ball arm 1 2 2 2 4 Additional sensor to measure velocity 3 2 1 1 4 162  Power supply for sensor 3 1 2 2 2 Trip Block 2 2 4 3 2 Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set Up Time Volume Weight Cost Special Set Up Eq. shovel (trip block)     2     1 3 2 3  Table 40: Component based scoring for the Flywheel with Clutch concept   Flywheel w Clutch (powered) Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Net 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 Support frame for net 2 2 4 3 2 Rail (~2m) 3 3 6 5 5 Basket 2 2 3 3 4 Power Drill 2 1 4 3 4 Guide Follower 3 1 3 3 4 Cable 2 1 2 1 2 Flywheel 2 3 4 5 3 Clutch Plates 3 2 2 2 4 Shaft 2 2 3 3 3 Shaft Mounts 2 2 4 3 2 rot. Bearings (x2) 3 2 2 3 3 163  Assembly Frame 2 2 5 4 3 Velocity Gate 3 2 3 2 4 Power Supply for Vel. Gate 3 1 2 2 3 Rail stop block 2 2 1 1 2 Various hardware 1 2 1 1 2 Hardness Gauge 3 2 2 1 4 lubricant 1 1 1 1 1 pulley 2 1 1 1 1 Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Special Set Up Eq. shovel/column tool     2     1 3 2 3  Table 41: Component based scoring for the Linear Spring concept   Loaded Spring (linear) Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Padding 2 1 2 1 2 2 4 2 2 Support frame for padding 2 2 4 3 2 rigid shaft (~2m) 3 3 6 5 5 pulley 2 1 1 1 1 crank 2 2 2 2 3 164  linear spring (high stiffness) 3 2 2 2 5 ball arm 1 2 2 2 4 shaft collar (low fric) 3 1 3 3 4 cable 2 1 2 1 2 spring mount 1 1 2 2 2 lubricant 1 1 1 1 1 Special Set Up Eq. shear pins     1     1 1 2 2 rake 2 1 2 2 2  Table 42: Component based scoring for the Freefall Drop concept   Freefall Drop Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost solenoid (5kg force) 3 4 3 4 2 2 2 1 4 pole (5.5m; rigid; not rail stiffness) 4 3 5 4 5 solenoid cable 2 1 2 1 2 velocity gate 3 2 3 2 4 power 3 1 2 3 3 165  source mesh bag 1 2 2 1 2 stabilizing posts 2 2 3 2 2 mount for solenoid 1 1 1 1 2 Special Set Up Eq. shovel     2     1 3 2 3  Table 43: Component based scoring for the Pulley System concept   Pulley System (4:1) Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost rigid shaft (~3m) 3 3 3 2 3 3 6 6 4 pulley (x5) 2 2 2 3 3 basket 2 2 3 3 4 shaft collar 3 1 3 3 4 spring pins 3 2 1 1 3 cable (double length) 2 1 2 1 3 trip block (mounted on shaft) 2 2 3 3 2 flatrod 2 1 2 1 2 radar gun 2 1 4 4 5 mechanism in shaft collar 3 2 1 1 2 166  mount for pulley system 1 1 1 1 2 lubricant 1 1 1 1 1 Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Special Set Up Eq. person to catch     1     - 1 - 2  Table 44: Component based scoring for the Inverted Pendulum with Spring concept   Inverted Pendulum (spring) Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost pendulum frame 3 2 2 2 3 2 4 4 4 pendulum arm (~1.5m) 3 3 4 3 3 torsional spring (high stiffness) 3 2 2 2 5 crank 2 2 2 2 3 clamp 1 1 2 1 2 ball arm 1 2 2 2 4 tether cable 2 1 1 1 1 trip block 2 2 4 3 2 shaft 2 1 3 3 3 rot. Bearing 3 2 2 2 4 gear mech. Engage 3 1 2 2 4 167  Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Special Set Up Eq. shear pin     1     1 1 2 2 rake 2 1 2 2 2 shovel (trip block/frame) 2 1 3 2 3  Table 45: Component based scoring for the Winch concept   Winch Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost tether 3 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 release pin mech 2 1 1 1 2 winch motor 4 1 4 4 6 netting 2 1 2 1 2 net frame 2 2 4 3 2 3D printed parts (~6) 3 2 4 2 2 velocity gate 3 2 3 2 4 power for vel. Gate 3 1 2 2 3 frame for winch 2 2 3 4 4 pulleys (x2) 2 2 2 2 2 shaft (~2m; low fric) 3 3 6 5 5 shaft collar 3 1 3 3 4 168  3d printed part mount 1 1 1 1 2 mechanical stop 2 2 2 2 2 power supply for winch  4 2 4 4 4 cable 2 1 2 1 2 Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Special Set Up Eq. shovel (impact surf.)     2     1 3 2 3  Table 46: Component based scoring for the Electromagnet concept   Electromagnet Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost capacitor bank 5 3 3 4 4 1 5 4 3 railgun rails 2 2 2 3 2 insulated wire 2 - 1 1 2 locking hinge mechanism (x2) 3 2 2 2 2 rail mount box 2 1 4 2 2 metal frame for headform 2 2 3 3 2 shaft (~1.5m; low fric) 3 3 5 5 4 trip collar 2 2 3 3 2 radar gun 2 1 4 4 5 169  magnet 1 2 1 1 3 railgun frame 2 2 4 4 2 power source to charge railgun 4 2 3 5 4 shaft collar 3 1 3 3 4 Components Item Safety Repeatability Durability Precision Ease of Use Set up Time Volume Weight Cost Special Set Up Eq. snow characterization tools     3     2 2 2 4 shear pins 1 1 1 2 2 shovel 2 1 3 2 3 safety equipment to handle railgun 1 1 3 2 3 170  Appendix C: Detailed Design  Spring Parametric Analysis Table 47: Parametric Analysis of Phase 1 - Moment at which the Spring is at Preload and Static. Bold values represent manipulated variables Deflection (m) Spring Rate (N/m) Spring Preload (N) Rail Length (m; to bottom of unloaded spring) Distance btwn Bearing and Head COG (m) Slope Angle (deg) Rail Angle to Horizontal (deg) Effective Height (m) Friction Loss (5% Etot; kinetic) PE Head (J) KE Head (J) PE Spring (J) Head Velocity (m/s) 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 90 1.73 16.80 85.90 0 250 0 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 45 1.62 16.51 80.20 0 250 0 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 60 1.77 16.88 87.67 0 250 0 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 15 1.03 15.05 51.08 0 250 0 0.12 50000 6000 1.5 0.5 15 60 1.79 22.43 88.53 0 360 0 0.08 50000 4000 2 0.5 15 60 2.19 13.41 108.26 0 160 0 0.09 50000 4500 2 0.5 15 15 1.16 12.99 57.36 0 202.5 0 0.1 50000 5000 0.5 0.3 15 90 0.68 14.19 33.71 0 250 0  Table 48: Parametric Analysis of Phase 2 - Moment at which the spring reaches a displacement of zero. Bold values represent manipulated variables Deflection (m) Spring Rate (N/m) Spring Preload (N) Rail Length (m; to bottom of unloaded spring) Distance btwn Bearing and Head COG (m) Slope Angle (deg) Rail Angle to Horizontal (deg) Effective Height (m) Remaining Height (m) Vertical Distance Traveled (m) PE Head (J) KE Head (J) PE Spring (J) Ideal Head Velocity (m/s) 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 90 1.73 1.63 0.10 80.95 254.95 0.00 10.05 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 45 1.62 1.55 0.07 76.70 254.95 0.00 10.05 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 60 1.77 1.68 0.09 83.38 254.95 0.00 10.05 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 15 1.03 1.01 0.03 49.80 254.95 0.00 10.05 171  Deflection (m) Spring Rate (N/m) Spring Preload (N) Rail Length (m; to bottom of unloaded spring) Distance btwn Bearing and Head COG (m) Slope Angle (deg) Rail Angle to Horizontal (deg) Effective Height (m) Remaining Height (m) Vertical Distance Traveled (m) PE Head (J) KE Head (J) PE Spring (J) Ideal Head Velocity (m/s) 0.12 50000 6000 1.5 0.5 15 60 1.79 1.68 0.10 83.38 365.94 0.00 12.04 0.08 50000 4000 2 0.5 15 60 2.19 2.12 0.07 104.83 163.96 0.00 8.06 0.09 50000 4500 2 0.5 15 15 1.16 1.13 0.02 56.21 206.96 0.00 9.05 0.1 50000 5000 0.5 0.3 15 90 0.68 0.58 0.10 28.75 254.95 0.00 10.05  Table 49: Spring Parametric Analysis Pase 3 - Moment at which the head first makes contact with the ground. Bold values represent manipulated variables Deflection (m) Spring Rate (N/m) Spring Preload (N) Rail Length (m; to bottom of unloaded spring) Distance btwn Bearing and Head COG (m) Slope Angle (deg) Rail Angle to Horizontal (deg) Effective Height (m) Vertical Distance Traveled (m) Friction Loss (5% Etot; kinetic) PE Head (J) KE Head (J) PE Spring (J) Ideal Head Velocity (m/s) Head Velocity after Frictional Losses (m/s) 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 90 1.73 1.73 16.80 0.00 335.90 0.00 11.53 11.24 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 45 1.62 1.62 16.58 0.00 331.65 0.00 11.46 11.17 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 60 1.77 1.77 16.92 0.00 338.33 0.00 11.58 11.28 0.1 50000 5000 1.5 0.5 15 15 1.03 1.03 15.24 0.00 304.75 0.00 10.99 10.71 0.12 50000 6000 1.5 0.5 15 60 1.79 1.79 22.47 0.00 449.32 0.00 13.34 13.00 0.08 50000 4000 2 0.5 15 60 2.19 2.19 13.44 0.00 268.79 0.00 10.32 10.06 0.09 50000 4500 2 0.5 15 15 1.16 1.16 13.16 0.00 263.17 0.00 10.21 9.95 0.1 50000 5000 0.5 0.3 15 90 0.68 0.68 14.19 0.00 283.71 0.00 10.60 10.33  Assumptions made for this analysis include: - Impact occurs a horizontal distance of 50 cm from base of rail 172  - The mass of the head and ball arm is 5.05 kg - Ideal Spring (no losses and transfer all PE to KE of head) - Frictional losses on the rail are accounted for by applying a 5% reduction in final velocity Support Plate Analysis  Table 50: Simple beam bending analysis for design of support plates to fix the spring and winch  Variable Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Material Aluminum 6061 Aluminum 6061 Aluminum 6061 Aluminum 6061 Young's Modulus 69000000000 69000000000 69000000000 69000000000 Mat. Prop. Source Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Height (m) 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 Length (m) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Depth (m) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 Cross Sectional Area (m^2) 0.0025 0.005 0.0025 0.0025 Force (N; point force) 6000 6000 6000 6000 Leftmost distance to Force (m) 0.2 0.2 0.24 0.28 Force to Rightmost Distance (m) 0.2 0.2 0.16 0.12 I (cross sectional; m^4) 2.08333E-08 1.66667E-07 2.08333E-08 2.08333E-08           Max Deflection (m) 0.005565217 0.000695652 0.005277147 0.00446276  173   Figure 57: Solidworks simulation illustrating the displacement on the winch mount plate from a 5000 N force acting at the point of the wire rope leaving the winch. The plate is 0.25 inches thick and was found to deflect a maximum of 11.6mm 174   Figure 58: Solidworks simulation illustrating the displacement on the winch mount plate from a 5000 N force acting at the point of the wire rope leaving the winch. The plate is 0.5 inches thick and was found to deflect a maximum of 1.63mm Buckling Calculations for Support Structures  175  Equation 13: Buckling calculation for cylindrical rods 𝐹𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 =𝜋𝐸𝐼(𝐾𝐿)2   𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒   𝐼 =𝜋𝑟44 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎 𝑟𝑜𝑑 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐾 = 0.5 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 Table 51: General buckling calculations for support structures. Cross-sectional areas are taken from 80/20 geometry specifications Variable Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Scenario 6 Force (spring; N) 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 Material Description Aluminum 6061 Aluminum 6061 Steel; stainless Steel; stainless Titanium Alloy Titanium Alloy Material Serial No.             Yield Strength (Pa) 255000000 255000000 260000000 260000000 825000000 825000000 Young's Modulus (Pa) 69000000000 69000000000 2E+11 2E+11 1.14E+11 1.14E+11 Radius of Support (cylinder; m) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Cross Sectional Area (m^2) 0.000314159 0.000314159 0.000314159 0.000314159 0.000314159 0.000314159 Applied Stress (Pa) 19098593.17 19098593.17 19098593.17 19098593.17 19098593.17 19098593.17 I (cross sectional; smallest; m^4) 7.85398E-09 7.85398E-09 7.85398E-09 7.85398E-09 7.85398E-09 7.85398E-09 Length Factor 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Length of Support (m) 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 Critical Force (N) 133714.5682 85577.32364 387578.4585 248050.2134 220919.7213 141388.6217 Source for Mat. Properties Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials Mechanics of Materials  Table 52: Buckling calculations for using threaded rods and nuts. Note: the difference from the previous analysis is the use of the effective cross-sectional area Using Threaded Rod and Nuts - Use Equivalent Tensile Stress Area (Shigleys, pg. 412) Variable Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Force (spring; N) 6000 6000 6000 6000 Material Description Steel; stainless (3/8" Steel; stainless Steel; stainless Steel; stainless 176  dia) (3/8" dia) (3/8" dia) (3/8" dia) Variable Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Material Serial No. Home depot Home depot Home depot Home depot Yield Strength (Pa) 260000000 260000000 260000000 260000000 Young's Modulus (Pa) 2E+11 2E+11 2E+11 2E+11 Nominal Diameter (m) 0.009525 0.009525 0.0127 0.0127 Pitch (m) 0.0015875 0.0015875 0.001953846 0.001953846 H Value 0.001374815 0.001374815 0.00169208 0.00169208 Pitch Diameter (m) 0.008493889 0.008493889 0.01143094 0.01143094 Minor Diameter (m) 0.008150185 0.008150185 0.01100792 0.01100792 Effective Diameter (m) 0.008322037 0.008322037 0.01121943 0.01121943 Eff. Radius of Support (cylinder; m) 0.004161018 0.004161018 0.005609715 0.005609715 Cross Sectional Area (m^2) 5.43938E-05 5.43938E-05 9.88625E-05 9.88625E-05 Effective Cross Sectional Area (m^2) 5.43938E-05 5.43938E-05 9.88625E-05 9.88625E-05 Applied Stress (Effective; Pa) 110306759.7 110306759.7 60690373.45 60690373.45 I (cross sectional; smallest; m^4) 2.35444E-10 2.35444E-10 7.77773E-10 7.77773E-10 Length Factor 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Length of Support (m) 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 Critical Force (N) 11618.71588 7435.978163 38381.57275 24564.20656 Source for Mat. Properties Shigleys and Mechanics of Materials Shigleys and Mechanics of Materials Shigleys and Mechanics of Materials Shigleys and Mechanics of Materials    177  Table 53: Buckling calculations for support structures using 80/20. Cross-sectional areas are taken from 80/20 geometry specifications Variable Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Scenario 6 Force (spring; N) 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 Material Description 80-20 80-20 80-20 80-20 80-20 80-20 Material Serial No. 40-8080-Black-FB 40-4045-Lie-Black-FB 40-4045-Lie-Black-FB 30-3030 25-2525 25-2525 Yield Strength (Pa) 241000000 241000000 241000000 241000000 241100000 241100000 Young's Modulus (Pa) 70326500000 70326500000 70326500000 70326500000 70326500000 70326500000 Cross Sectional Area (m^2) 0.002357 0.0005541 0.0005541 0.0003144 0.0002746 0.0002746 Applied Stress (Pa) 2545608.825 10828370.33 10828370.33 19083969.47 21849963.58 21849963.58 I (cross sectional; smallest; m^4) 1.70571E-06 4.462E-08 4.462E-08 2.732E-08 1.77E-08 1.77E-08 Length Factor 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Length of Support (m) 1 1 1.5 1 1 0.7 Critical Force (N) 4735697.314 123882.0281 55058.67916 75850.67252 49141.90716 100289.6065 Source for Mat. Properties https://8020.net/shop/40-4045-lite-black-fb.html  Table 54: Bill of materials for the construction of the snow sport head impact simulator. Assorted hardware is not included. Item Material Quantity  Unit Cost  Unit  Total Cost  Currency Source Comments 30mm x 30mm T Slotted Profile - Four Open Slots Aluminum 11  $ 0.24  Inch  $ 105.60  USD 80-20 40" sections 30 Series 4 Hole - Inside Corner Bracket with Single Support Aluminum 36  $ 2.95  Each  $ 106.20  USD 80-20   M6 Slide-in Economy T-Nut - Centered Thread Steel 60  $ 0.27  Each  $ 16.20  USD 80-20   2 Hole Pivot Joint - 30 Series Zinc 2  $ 17.75  Each  $ 35.50  USD 80-20   Wire Rope - for Lifting, 1/4" Steel 1  $ 38.00  25'  $ 38.00  USD McMaster   178  Diameter Carr Item Material Quantity  Unit Cost  Unit  Total Cost  Currency Source Comments Heavy Duty Wire Rope Thimble - for Lifting, Galvanized Steel, for 1/4" Rope Diameter Steel 9  $ 0.67  Each  $ 6.03  USD McMaster Carr   Wire Rope Compression Sleeve - for Lifting for Steel Rope, Zinc-Plated Copper, for 1/4" Rope Diameter Copper 2  $ 8.12  Pckg (5)  $ 16.24  USD McMaster Carr   Hex Drive Rounded Head Screw, Black-Oxide Alloy Steel, M6 x 1 mm Thread, 14 mm Long Steel 2  $ 9.97  Pckg (100)  $ 19.94  USD McMaster Carr   Triangle-Shaped Threaded Connecting Link, Type 316 Stainless Steel, 3/8" Thickness, Not for Lifting Steel 1  $ 24.34  Each  $ 24.34  USD McMaster Carr   Steel Eyebolt with Shoulder - for Lifting, 3/8"-16 Thread Size, 5/8" Thread Length Steel 4  $ 3.15  Each  $ 12.60  USD McMaster Carr   1" dia. Annodized Aluminum 6061 Shaft Aluminum 1  $ 113.58  Each  $ 113.58  USD McMaster Carr   Flange-mounted Shaft Support Steel 2  $ 50.74  Each  $ 101.48  USD McMaster Carr   1" Square 6061 Aluminum Bar Aluminum 1  $ 0.91  Inch  $ 25.48  CAD Metal Supermarket 28" section 1/4" 6061 Aluminum Plate Aluminum 1  $ 183.69  Each  $ 183.69  CAD Metal Supermarket 45"x27" 0.188" 6061 Aluminum Plate Aluminum 1  $ 117.46  Each  $ 117.46  CAD Metal Supermarket 51"x17" 1/4" A36 Hot Rolled Steel Plate Steel 2  $ 15.87  Each  $ 31.74  CAD Metal Supermarket 12"x4" 179  Mounted Linear Ball Bearing, Self Aligns, 1" Shaft Diameter, 2-13/16" x 3-1/4" x 2-3/16" Various 2  $ 92.88  Each  $ 185.76  USD McMaster Carr   Tylaska T5 Trigger Snap shackle Stainless Steel 1  $ 280.00  Each  $ 155.40  CAD Pro-Tech Yacht    WG2000 Worm gear winch Various 1  $ 84.99  Each  $ 84.99  USD Dutton Lainson Company   3/4" Impact-Resistant UHMW Polyethylene Sheet UHMWPE 1  $ 19.14  Each  $ 19.14  USD McMaster Carr 6"x12" 18-8 Steel Threaded Rod Steel 1  $ 1.22  Each  $ 1.22  USD McMaster Carr 3' section Steel Compression Spring Stainless Steel 1  $ 7.83  Pckg (6)  $ 7.83  USD McMaster Carr   18-8 Stainless Steel Flange Nut Stainless Steel 6  $ 3.80  Each  $ 22.80  USD McMaster Carr   25 Series 8 Hole - Inside Corner Bracket Aluminum 1  $ 5.35  Each  $ 5.35  USD McMaster Carr   25 Series 8 Hole - Gusseted Inside Corner Bracket Aluminum 1  $ 7.45  Each  $ 7.45  USD McMaster Carr   Coil Spring Retainers Steel 3  $ 15.79  Each  $ 47.37  CAD North Shore Off-Road Center   1/2" 6061 Aluminum plate Aluminum 1  $ 81.94  Each  $ 81.94  CAD Metal Supermarket 11"x20" 2" Steel Round A36 Steel 1  $ 16.27  Each  $ 16.27  CAD Metal Supermarket 4" 0.120" A1011 Hot Rolled Steel Sheet A1011 Steel 1  $ 13.81  Each  $ 13.81  CAD Metal Supermarket 8" x 8" Static Cordlette Nylon 1  $ 8.40  Each  $ 8.40  CAD MEC 4'  180  Table 55: Parametric analysis using the principles of projectile motion to understand head impact angle and velocity from a representative ski or snowboard fall forward Height (m) Travelling Velocity (m/s) Slope Angle (deg) Slope Angle (rad) Vx1 (m/s) Vy1 (m/s) ax1 (m/s) ay1 (m/s) Time to Impact (s) Vx2 (m/s) Vy2 (m/s) V Impact (m/s) Impact Angle (rad) Impact Angle (deg) 1.4 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.53 9.00 5.24 10.41 0.53 30.21 1.45 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.54 9.00 5.33 10.46 0.53 30.65 1.5 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.55 9.00 5.42 10.51 0.54 31.08 1.55 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.56 9.00 5.51 10.56 0.55 31.50 1.6 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 9.00 5.60 10.60 0.56 31.90 1.65 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.58 9.00 5.69 10.65 0.56 32.30 1.7 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.59 9.00 5.78 10.69 0.57 32.69 1.75 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.60 9.00 5.86 10.74 0.58 33.07 1.8 9 0 0.00 9.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.61 9.00 5.94 10.78 0.58 33.44 1.6 9.5 0 0.00 9.50 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 9.50 5.60 11.03 0.53 30.53 1.6 10 0 0.00 10.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 10.00 5.60 11.46 0.51 29.26 1.6 10.5 0 0.00 10.50 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 10.50 5.60 11.90 0.49 28.08 1.6 11 0 0.00 11.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 11.00 5.60 12.34 0.47 26.99 1.6 11.5 0 0.00 11.50 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 11.50 5.60 12.79 0.45 25.98 1.6 12 0 0.00 12.00 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 12.00 5.60 13.24 0.44 25.03 1.6 12.5 0 0.00 12.50 0.00 0.00 9.81 0.57 12.50 5.60 13.70 0.42 24.14 1.6 9 5 0.09 8.97 0.78 0.00 9.81 0.66 8.97 6.39 11.01 0.53 30.47 1.6 9 10 0.17 8.86 1.56 0.00 9.81 0.75 8.86 7.17 11.40 0.51 28.95 1.6 9 15 0.26 8.69 2.33 0.00 9.81 0.84 8.69 7.93 11.77 0.48 27.38 1.6 9 20 0.35 8.46 3.08 0.00 9.81 0.93 8.46 8.68 12.12 0.45 25.75 1.6 9 25 0.44 8.16 3.80 0.00 9.81 1.01 8.16 9.41 12.45 0.42 24.07 1.6 9 30 0.52 7.79 4.50 0.00 9.81 1.10 7.79 10.10 12.76 0.39 22.35  181  Table 56: Test matrix and results from the acceleration calibration impact testing comparing known accelerations to data from a sensor with an unknown sensitivity. All data was post processed with a 1000Hz filter Test No. Drop Height (m) Control Accel. Peak Accel (m/s^2) Unknown Accel. Raw Unknown Signal (mV) Calculated Sensitivity (mV/g) Average Unknown Sensitivity (mV/g)  Standard Deviation (mV/g) 1 1.02 P80371 -546.5 P80374 55.20944 0.101024 0.1014 0.0005 2 1.02 P80371 -530.3 P80374 53.68442 0.101234 3 1.02 P80371 -535.3 P80374 54.0705 0.10101 4 1.02 P80371 -510.8 P80374 51.8988 0.101603 5 1.02 P80371 -531.4 P80374 54.43728 0.102441 6 0.57 P80371 -384.3 P80374 39.37051 0.102447 0.1008 0.0010 7 0.57 P80371 -457.2 P80374 46.05934 0.100742 8 0.57 P80371 -314.6 P80374 31.58134 0.100386 9 0.57 P80371 -324.3 P80374 32.74924 0.100984 10 0.57 P80371 -325.9 P80374 32.48863 0.099689 11 1.02 P80371 -548.8 P80373 47.9066 0.087293 0.0888 0.0047 12 1.02 P80371 -573.9 P80373 49.85888 0.086877 13 1.02 P80371 -562.9 P80373 49.6485 0.088201 14 1.02 P80371 -585.7 P80373 49.5896 0.084667 15 1.02 P80371 -507 P80373 49.16885 0.09698 16 0.50 P80371 -312.6 P80373 27.60962 0.088323 0.0880 0.0010 17 0.50 P80371 -317.1 P80373 27.81158 0.087706 18 0.50 P80372 -310.7 P80373 27.0374 0.087021 19 0.50 P80373 -320.9 P80373 28.01354 0.087297 20 0.50 P80371 -309 P80373 27.7106 0.089678 21 0.57 P80371 -315.6 P80375 27.29996 0.086502 0.0873 0.0005 22 0.57 P80371 -334.1 P80375 29.11714 0.087151 23 0.57 P80371 -313.2 P80375 27.4521 0.08765 24 0.57 P80371 -327.4 P80375 28.66073 0.08754 25 0.57 P80371 -324.5 P80375 28.47479 0.08775 182  Test No. Drop Height (m) Control Accel. Peak Accel (m/s^2) Unknown Accel. Raw Unknown Signal (mV) Calculated Sensitivity (mV/g) Average Unknown Sensitivity (mV/g)  Standard Deviation (mV/g) 26 1.00 P80371 -563.2 P80375 49.41884 0.087747 0.0874 0.0013 27 1.00 P80371 -535.7 P80375 46.05495 0.085972 28 1.00 P80371 -529.9 P80375 46.67194 0.088077 29 1.00 P80371 -506.5 P80375 43.69684 0.086272 30 1.00 P80371 -461.7 P80375 41.26266 0.089371  183   Figure 59: A plot of vertical displacement versus time to investigate the potential energy of the apparatus when lifted off the ground. The data was collected using high speed video and TEMA motion analysis software. The maximum vertical displacement was found to be 27.6 mm 𝑃𝐸𝑟𝑖𝑔 = (𝑚𝑟𝑖𝑔 + 𝑚𝑠𝑎𝑛𝑑) ∗ 𝑔 ∗ ℎ𝑟𝑖𝑔 𝑃𝐸𝑟𝑖𝑔 = (50𝑘𝑔 + 60𝑘𝑔) ∗ 9.81𝑚𝑠2∗ 0.0276𝑚 𝑃𝐸𝑟𝑖𝑔 = 29.8 𝐽 1301351401451501551601651701930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Vertical Displacement (mm) Time (ms) 184  Appendix D: Product Specification   Figure 60: Specifications for the Dutton Lainson WG2000 Worm Gear Winch 185   Figure 61: Dimensions for the Dutton Lainson WG2000 Worm Gear Winch 186   Figure 62: Specifications for 1.4" Wire Rope from McMaster Carr 187   Figure 63: Wichard Snap Shackle product specifications 188   Figure 64: 80/20 extruded aluminum spec sheet - 30 mm by 30 mm t-slotted profile 189   Figure 65: Specifications for 80/20 inside corner brackets 190   Figure 66: Specifications for flange mounted shaft collars (taken from McMaster-Carr) 191   Figure 67: Pivot joint specifications (taken from 80/20) used to facilitate angled impacts 192   Figure 68: Zinc-coated, steel compression springs selected for use in the head release mechanism 193   Figure 69: Linear bearing's selected (KGNZ-16PP). Taken from http://www.schaeffler.com/remotemedien/media/_shared_media/08_media_library/01_publications/schaeffler_2/catalogue_1/downloads_6/kxkbz_us_us.pdf 194   Figure 70: Specifications for the 80/20 gusseted inside corner bracket 195   Figure 71: Specifications for the 80/20  inside corner bracket 196   Figure 72: Sepcification of the central shaft. Taken from McMaster Carr 197   Figure 73: Specifications for a Tylaska T5 Snap Shackle. Taken from http://www.tylaska.com/index.php/snap-shackles/t5/ 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.24.1-0345635/manifest

Comment

Related Items