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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the wheel/rail transfer mechanism in liquid friction modifier carry-down Hibbert, Morgan John Edwin 2017

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jnyzrstvnying thz lhzzlDgvilirvnsfzr bzxhvnism in aiquiy Frixtionboyizr CvrryByofinbyhoflgan eohn Edwin cibbeflt]IAIncIG ohe pnivefl–ity of ]fliti–h Colu“biaG MKLKA ocEndn np]hdooED di kAmodAg apgadgghEio jaocE mElpdmEhEion ajm ocE DEbmEE jahAnoEm ja AkkgdED nCdEiCEinohe aaculty of bfladuate and ko–tdoctoflal ntudie–Chechanical EngineeflingDocE pidqEmndot ja ]mdodnc Cjgph]dACqancouveflDApflil MKLRc© hoflgan eohn Edwin cibbeflt MKLRAwstrvxtdn the flail fload indu–tfly lifiuid ffliction “odi’efl– CgahB–D afle u–ed on thetop of flail CojmD between the wheelJflail inteflface to fleduce cuflve noi–eGlateflal foflce–G flail weafl and fuel con–u“ptionI ohe ffliction “odi’efl “ay beapplied to the flail via a tflack –ide applicatofl and i– caflflied down by thetflain into cuflved –ection– of the tflack whefle the gfleate–t bene’t i– –eenIA cu–to“ laboflatofly –cale “achine wa– de–igned and built fofl the puflHpo–e of conducting expefli“ent– to –tudy the behavioufl of gah caflflyHdownovefl a laflge nu“befl of wheelJflail inteflaction–I ohe “achine wa– al–o deH–igned –o that the ’l“ tflan–fefl at the wheelJflail inteflaction location couldbe –tudiedIohe u–e of a (uofle–cent agent to enhance the ability to vi–ualize gahcaflflyHdown –howed pflo“i–ing fle–ult–G enabling –“all a“ount– of caflflyHdownthat couldnBt otheflwi–e be –een undefl a“bient light condition– to now be–een undefl (uofle–cenceIlualitative expefli“ent– u–ing the “achine wefle peflfofl“ed –howing thatan incflea–e in the wheel –peed fle–ult– in an incflea–e in the a“ount of ffliction“odi’efl tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail to the wheel at the initial pickup locationGthu– incflea–ing the caflflyHdownI dncflea–ing the applied load had the oppo–itee&ect and fleduced the a“ount of ffliction “odi’efl initially tflan–feflfled fflo“the flail to the wheelG and thu– fleducing the caflflyHdownI ohe pflo’le of thewheel wa– ob–eflved to e&ect the initial tflan–fefl a“ount and the en–uingcaflflyHdown due to highJlow pfle––ufle zone– along the wheelJflail inteflfaceIiierzfvxzohe authofl– of chaptefl M afle hoflgan cibbefltG DflI nheldon bfleen andflepfle–entative– fflo“ gI]I ao–teflI DflI nheldon bfleen and flepfle–entative–fflo“ gI]I ao–tefl pflovided input and –ugge–tion– that –haped the ’nal de–ignof the “achineIohe authofl– of chaptefl N afle hoflgan cibbefltG DflI nheldon bfleen andcatef mah“aniI DflI nheldon bfleen pflopo–ed “ethodologie– to help vi–uHalize fEgomACf R©I catef mah“ani flan –heafl –tfle–– and –heafl vi–co–ityte–t– on the fEgomACf R© pfloductIohe authofl– of chaptefl O afle hoflgan cibbeflt and DflI nheldon bfleenIDflI nheldon bfleen helped to guide the expefli“ent– that wefle cho–en andhow they wefle conductedIohe authofl– of chaptefl P afle hoflgan cibbeflt and DflI nheldon bfleenIDflI nheldon bfleen pflovided analy–i– and po––ible explanation– fofl the fleH–ult– –een in the expefli“ent–Iiiiivwlz of ContzntsAbmnlacn I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I iiPleface I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I iiiNabfe if Cihnehnm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ivFcmn if Nabfem I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I viFcmn if Fcaolem I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I viiAcehiwfedaegehnm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ixDedccancih I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I x1 Chnlidocncih I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LLIL ]ackgflound I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LLIM dnitial me–eaflch lue–tion– and kfleviou– roflk I I I I I I I I LLIN ainal me–eaflch jbjective– I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I N2 Gacbche Demcah I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OMIL Expefli“ental ieed– A hotivation I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OMIM Co“ponent– I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PMIMIL jveflview I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PMIMIM rheelJmail dnteflaction gocation I I I I I I I I I I I I RMIMIN rheel De–ign I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LKMIMIO aoflce beneflation A Contflol I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LMMIMIP hotofl Contflol I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LOMIMIQ DAl dnteflface I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LPMIMIR noftwafle Contflollefl I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LQMIMIS hea–ufle“ent nen–ofl– I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LRMIN Capabilitie– I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LSivivwlz of Contznts3 Genbidm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MKNIL Application of fEgomACf R© I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MKNIM aluofle–cent Additive I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MLNIN Contflol of npeed and kfle––ufle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MONIO Expefli“ental jpeflation I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MP4 Erpelcgehnm & Lemofnm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MROIL dnitial gah CaflflyHdown Expefli“ent– I I I I I I I I I I I I I MROIM gong oefl“ gah CaflflyHdown Expefli“ent I I I I I I I I I I I NOOIN E&ect of npeed on gah CaflflyHdown I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ONOIO E&ect of kfle––ufle on gah CaflflyHdown I I I I I I I I I I I I PO/ Dcmcommcih if Lemofnm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I QLPIL dnitial gah CaflflyHdown Expefli“ent– Di–cu––ion I I I I I I I QLPIM gong oefl“ gah CaflflyHdown Expefli“ent Di–cu––ion I I I I QNPIN E&ect of npeed on gah CaflflyHdown Di–cu––ion I I I I I I I QOPIO E&ect of kfle––ufle on gah CaflflyHdown Di–cu––ion I I I I I I QR0 Cihcfomcih I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I QSQIL meco““ended Change– to hachine I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RKBcbfcialapbs I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RLAppznyixzsA Erpelcgehnaf Plicedole I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RNAIL kfle mun Checkli–t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RNAIM oe–t kflocedufle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RNAIN iofl“al nhut Down kflocedufle I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ROB Belntcah Cihnacn Pancb Cafcofancihm I I I I I I I I I I I I I RPC Cihnlif Cclcocnls Mcbegancc I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RRvaist of ivwlzsMIL hachine capabilitie–I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LTOIL gong tefl“ caflflyHdown condition–I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I NOOIM gong tefl“ caflflyHdown ob–eflvation –tage–I I I I I I I I I I I I I NPOIN E&ect of –peed te–t condition–I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ONOIO E&ect of pfle––ufle te–t condition–I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I POPIL gong tefl“ caflflyHdown ob–eflvation –tage–G –caledI I I I I I I I I QOviaist of FigurzsMIL rheelJflail tflan–fefl “achine I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I QMIM rheelJflail inteflaction locationG fflont viewI I I I I I I I I I I RMIN rheelJflail inteflaction locationG fleafl viewI I I I I I I I I I I I SMIO rheel de–ign I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LKMIP aoflce contflol I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LMMIQ hotofl contflol I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LOMIR DAl inteflface I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LPMIS noftwafle contflollefl I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LQMIT hea–ufle“ent –en–ofl– I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I LRNIL fEgomACf R© application “ethod I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MLNIM mhoda“ineH] excitation and e“i––ion –pectfla I I I I I I I I I MMNIN mhoda“ineH] detection –che“atic I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MMNIO fEgomACf R© mhoda“ineH] –heafl te–t fle–ult– I I I I I I I I MNNIP fEgomACf R© mhoda“ineH] (uofle–cence te–t I I I I I I I I MONIQ khoto diode tfliggefl –en–ofl I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MQOIL dnitial caflflyHdownU dnteflaction #K I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MSOIM ncflatche– on wheel I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I MTOIN dnitial caflflyHdownU dnteflaction #L A #N I I I I I I I I I I I I NKOIO dnitial caflflyHdownU dnteflaction #P A wheel I I I I I I I I I I NLOIP dnitial caflflyHdownU kfle––ufle pflo’le I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I NMOIQ ail“ –plitting I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I NNOIR gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU dnitial application of dflied fEgomACf R© NQOIS gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU Co“pafli–on of fEgomACf R© on wheel NROIT gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU rheel aftefl the expefli“ent I I I I I I NSOILK gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl L I I I I I I I NTOILL gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl M I I I I I I I OKOILM gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl N I I I I I I I OLOILN gong tefl“ caflflyHdownU fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl O I I I I I I I OMOILO E&ect of –peedU mepeatabilityG “anual –peedG a“bient light I OOOILP E&ect of –peedU mepeatabilityG “anual –peedG (uofle–cence I I OPviiaist of FigurzsOILQ E&ect of –peedU mepeatabilityG S “J–G a“bient light I I I I I I OQOILR E&ect of –peedU mepeatabilityG S “J–G (uofle–cence I I I I I I OROILS E&ect of –peedU dnteflaction #KG a“bient light I I I I I I I I I OSOILT E&ect of –peedU dnteflaction #KG (uofle–cence I I I I I I I I I I OTOIMK E&ect of –peedU dnteflaction #L I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PKOIML E&ect of –peedU dnteflaction #N I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PLOIMM E&ect of –peedU dnteflaction #P I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PMOIMN E&ect of –peedU rheel I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PNOIMO E&ect of pfle––ufleU dnteflaction #KG a“bient light I I I I I I I PPOIMP E&ect of pfle––ufleU dnteflaction #KG (uofle–cence I I I I I I I I PQOIMQ E&ect of pfle––ufleU dnteflaction #L I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PROIMR E&ect of pfle––ufleU dnteflaction #N I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PSOIMS E&ect of pfle––ufleU dnteflaction #P I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I PTOIMT E&ect of pfle––ufleU rheel I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I QKPIL rheelJflail contact in –tflaightJcuflve tflack I I I I I I I I I I I QMPIM cydflodyna“ic (uid lubflication I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I QP]IL cefltzian contact “odel –che“atic I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RPCIL jp a“p –che“atic I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RRviiiAxknofilzygzmzntsd would like to thank “y –upeflvi–oflG DflI nheldon bfleenI ci– knowledgeGguidance and expeflience wa– invaluable in caflefully guiding thi– fle–eaflchtowafld– it– conclu–ionI d al–o wi–h to thank DflI bfleen fofl hi– nevefl ending–uppoflt dufling “y ti“e with flegafld– to thi– pfloject and al–o “y pefl–onalendeavoufl– in lifeI ce took a chance on “eG and d a“ foflevefl gflateful thathe did and to have had the ble––ed oppofltunity to woflk with hi“ and leaflnfflo“ hi“Id would like to thank gI]I ao–tefl and inEmC fofl the –uppoflt of thi–fle–eaflchI d would like to thank hflI eohn CotteflG DflI goui–a ntanlakeG DflImichafld ntock and DflI D“itfly but–ulyakIA –pecial thank you to hflI David Elvidge and hflI eoel qandeflhaflelwho pflovided cflitical guidance and a wealth of knowledge in flegafld– to the’nal de–ign of the “achineId would like to thank bfleg kafl–on– and haflku– aenglefl fflo“ the p]C“achine –hop fofl helping “e –o often when it ca“e to “aking and de–igningall the cu–to“ paflt– of thi– “achine that d had to “akeId would like to thank nean ]uxton fofl all the help in “aking the highvoltage co“ponent– fofl the “otofl contflol and all the electflonic– adviceIixDzyixvtiond would like to thank Chfli– and Chfli–tineG feeleyG mena and ainch fofl theiflcontinued –uppoflt in “y life jouflneyI rithout theifl love and –uppoflt dwouldnBt be whefle d a“ nowIxChvptzr FIntroyuxtionFCF Wvxkgrounyoop of flail CojmD ffliction contflol i– widely i“ple“ented in heavy haul flailenviflon“ent– all ovefl the woflld vLSxG including Canadian flail fload whichcon–i–t– of ovefl RMGKKK k“ of tflack and tflan–poflt– “ofle than MRK “illiontonne– of ffleight annually vNxI ohi– top of flail CojmD ffliction contflol ha––hown bene’t– in fleducing cuflve noi–eG lateflal foflce–G and flail weafl in ffleightflail –y–te“– vMG RG SG LKG LPxI gifiuid ffliction “odi’efl– CgahB–D applied tothe top of flail by tflack–ide applicatofl– have been te–ted exten–ively on ioflthA“eflican ceavy haul flailway and ’eld tflial– of the–e gahB– have al–o –hownthat coating the flail –uflface fleduce– fuel con–u“ption by QHT% vNG OG QG LTxIjne –uch gah i– fEgomACf R©G a nonHiewtonian wateflHba–ed –u–Hpen–ion developed by fel–an oechnological Coflpoflation Cnow a paflt of gI]Iao–teflDI fEgomACf R© i– applied to the flail a– a wet ’l“ by a tflack–ideapplicatofl ahead of the appfloaching tflainG the wheel– then pick up the pflodHuct via ’l“ –plitting vPxI ohe fflictional bene’t– of fEgomACf R© i– thencaflflied down Cwhat will be flefeflfled to a– caflflyHdownD the flail via the coatedwheel vTxI dt i– ideal to have a tflack–ide applicatofl located befofle a cuflved–ection of the tflack whefle the gfleate–t need fofl a ffliction “odi’efl exi–t– vLNxIFCG Initivl gzszvrxh fuzstions vny erzviouslorkohe caflflyHdown “echani–“ of a lifiuid ffliction “odi’efl by continuou– wheelJflailinteflaction– ha– been pfleviou–ly –tudied but i– not yet well undefl–tood vLGMKxI Additionally thefle ha– only been a –“all a“ount of fle–eaflch lookinginto the gahB– inteflaction with othefl –ub–tance– in the thifld body layefl1between the wheel and flail vTxI A bettefl undefl–tanding of the caflflyHdownbehavioufl of fEgomACf R© could be a gfleat bene’t in opti“izing the pfloHce–– of u–ing thi– gah and fofl bettefl fiualifying the fflictional bene’t– ofu–ing thi– pfloductI ohi– led to –eveflal initially pflopo–ed fle–eaflch fiue–tion–ULFC2C Initivl gzszvrxh fuzstions vny erzvious lork• Aftefl fEgomACf R© i– applied to the wheelG ovefl what di–tance dowe continue to –ee fflictional bene’t– CcaflflyHdownDZ• rhat i– the i“pofltance of dfly ’l“ tflan–fefl fflo“ wheel to flailZ• rhat afle the in(uence– of vefltical load on caflflyHdownZ• rhat afle the in(uence– of the “ateflialB– phy–ical chaflactefli–tic– Ciecohe–ionJadhe–ionG –uflface wettabilityD on caflflyHdownZ• rhat i– the in(uence of the con–tituent– of the exi–ting thifld bodylayefl on caflflyHdownZ• Can a geneflal “odel be developedZno“e initial fle–eaflch into caflflyHdown had been conducted by gI]I ao–teflu–ing an appaflatu– that con–i–t– of a fla“p with a –teel flollefl that i– flelea–edfflo“ a cefltain height and floll– thflough a patch of wet ffliction “odi’efl atthe ba–e of the fla“p vLQxI ohe fle–ult– fflo“ thi– wefle not vefly conclu–iveand the appaflatu– had –eveflal dflawback–I dt wa– not ea–y to contflol the–peed of the wheel ofl the applied load on the wheelG cfleep2 could not be–i“ulated and only one caflflyHdown inteflaction could be –i“ulatedI aufltheflGthe fle–ult– that wefle obtained did not align with what wa– –een in the ’eldIA –econd appaflatu– called a twinHdi–c “achine ha– al–o pfleviou–ly beenu–ed to conduct wheelJflail inteflaction expefli“ent–I dt ha– –eveflal bene’t–Gincluding independent –peed contflol fofl each wheel Cpfloviding the ability to–i“ulate cfleepD a– well a– contflolling the applied loadI no“e dflawback– withthi– “achine i– that it u–e– two di–c– fofl contact in–tead of the di–cJplanecontact geo“etfly that i– –een in the ’eldI ohe di–c– on the available “aHchine– have a fladii of MP ““G “uch –“allefl than the –ize of a full –cale tflainwheel COQK ““DI ohi– –ize di&eflence could potentially lead to –caling eflHflofl– explaining why the laboflatofly fle–ult– didnBt “atch what i– –een in the’eldI ohe two di–c– al–o afle the –a“e fladii li“iting the ability to peflfofl“caflflyHdown expefli“ent– with clean Cno pfleviou– gah tflan–feflD –ection– of–i“ulated flailI1At the interfvxe of wheel vny rvil resiyes vn intermeyivte lvyer xomprisey of wevrpvrtixles (from wheel or rvil wevr) vny xontvminvnts (levvesA wvterA svny vny oil forexvmple)C ihis is the thiry woyy lvyerC2Creep is v term xommonly usey in the rvil inyustry when the tvngentivl veloxity ofthe xontvxt surfvxe of the wheel is yierent thvn the trvnslvtionvl veloxity of the wheelCCreep oxxurs when the trvin wheel is sliyingCMFCHC Finvl gzszvrxh dwjzxtivzsdt wa– a––e––ed that neithefl of the–e two appaflatu–e– pflovided the necHe––afly functional capabilitie– fofl flunning expefli“ent– that would lead to abettefl undefl–tanding of caflflyHdownIFCH Finvl gzszvrxh dwjzxtivzsoo bettefl undefl–tand the e&ect of caflflyHdown we need to be able to –i“uHlate “ultiple wheelJflail inteflaction– a– it i– de–ifled that the gah pflovidefflictional bene’t– fofl up to Q k“ C~MGKKK wheelJflail inteflaction–DI ohe twoknown appaflatu–e– de–cflibed eaflliefl wefle dee“ed inadefiuateG theflefofle inofldefl to an–wefl the fle–eaflch fiue–tion– po–ed a new “achine need– to be deH–igned that i– capable of peflfofl“ing the flefiuifled opeflation– that will pflovidefuflthefl in–ight into gah caflflyHdownIohe pflincipal objective of thi– fle–eaflch wa– to de–ign and build a new“achine capable of an–wefling fiue–tion– about gah caflflyHdownI ohe –ecHondafly objective wa– to flun –o“e eaflly fiualitative expefli“ent– to validatethe “achine– capabilitie– and pflovide –o“e ba–e level undefl–tanding intocaflflyHdown that will guide futufle fle–eaflch in thi– ’eldINChvptzr Gbvxhinz DzsignGCF Expzrimzntvl czzys & botivvtionohe “otivation behind the de–ign of thi– “achine i– ba–ed on a co“binationof contflollable vafliable– that afle flefiuifled in ofldefl to bettefl undefl–tandpfloduct caflflyHdown a– a fle–ult of wheelJflail inteflactionI io known “achinecuflflently exi–t– that “eet– all the–e flefiuifle“ent– and thu– the need to de–ign–uch a “achine wa– pfle–entedI ohe “ain identi’ed need– wefle developed inconjunction with gI]I ao–tefl vLRx and afle li–ted belowULI ieed to fleplicate the –peed– –een in a full –cale tflain opeflationI ohepfloduct i– u–ed on flail whefle the tflain will fleach –peed– of RK k“Jh C~LT “J–D on –tflaight tflack and PQ k“Jh C ~LQ “J–D in cuflved –ection–IMI ieed to fleplicate full –cale wheel loadI Contact pfle––ufle– at thewheelJflail inteflface can be expected to fleach ~LLKK hkaINI ohe laboflatofly expefli“ental fle–ult– need to –cale and “atch the fleH–ult– –een by a full –cale tflain in the ’eldIOI rheel and flail need independent –peed contflol –o that cfleep can be–i“ulatedIPI De–ifled to have –eveflal wheelJflail inteflaction– whefle the wheel inteflHact– with a new piece of flail C“ofle akin to what i– –een in the ’eldDIkfleviou– –etHup– had only –i“ulated one wheelJflail inteflactionIQI gine of –ight acce–– at the wheelJflail inteflaction location to ob–eflvethe inteflactionIRI De–ifled to –i“ulate up to Q k“ of wheelJflail inteflaction–ISI mepeatable pfloce–– fofl applying the “ateflial to the wheelJflailITI De–ifled to –i“ulate wet ’l“ tflan–fefl and dfly ’l“ tflan–feflILKI luantify the a“ount of pfloduct on the wheelJflailIO2C2C ComponzntsGCG ComponzntsGCGCF dvzrvizfiAn oveflview of the “achine i– pfle–ented in aigufle MILI ohe cut out –ection–wrheelJmail dnteflaction gocation= and wkfle––ufle Contflol= afle pfle–ented inlatefl –ection–I A de–cfliption of all the ite“– i– li–ted belowIP2C2C Componzntsaigufle MILU rheelJflail tflan–fefl “achineI• Bahd maw4 ohe “achine i– built on an indu–tflial –cale woodwoflkingband –aw that ha– been heavily “odi’edI ohe ofliginal band –aw wa–an c]HQKK woodwoflking band –aw “ade by beneflal dndu–tflialI oheband –aw wa– cho–en a– the ba–e of the “achine becau–e of the longcontinuou– “oving (at “etal –uflface of the blade that could flepfle–entQ2C2C Componzntsthe flailI• Qbeef Ginil4 ohi– “otofl wa– added to the “achine to dflive thewheel independently of the flailI dt i– a P hpG LSKK flp“G N pha–e MKS q“otoflI ohi– “otofl wa– –elected becau–e it could pflovide the –peed–flefiuifledI• Lacf Ginil4 ohi– i– the “otofl –upplied with the band –awI dt i– aRIP hpG NOTK flp“G N pha–e MKS q “otoflI• Biome Acl Fche4 Aifl pfle––ufle i– –upplied by a LMK p–i hou–e aifl lineIohi– aifl line wa– alfleady in–talled and available at the in–tallationlocationI• Plemmole Cihnlif4 nee coflfle–ponding –ub–ectionI• Qbeef/Lacf Chnelacncih Ficancih4 nee coflfle–ponding –ub–ectionIGCGCG lhzzlDgvil Intzrvxtion aoxvtionaigufle MIMU rheelJflail inteflaction locationG fflont viewIR2C2C Componzntsaigufle MINU rheelJflail inteflaction locationG fleafl viewIohe wheelJflail inteflaction location i– the pfli“afly point of intefle–t duflingthe expefli“ent–I aigufle– MIM and MIN –how thi– location and the i““ediately–uflflounding co“ponent–I• Qbeef4 ohi– i– the dfliving wheelG which flepfle–ent– the tflain wheelin the expefli“ent–I dt i– “ade fflo“ cLKOP hot flolled –teelI Detail– ofthe wheel de–ign afle de–cflibed in the following –ectionI• Lacf4 ohe band –aw blade flepfle–ent– the flail in the–e expefli“ent–Iohe blade i– “ade of caflbon –teel and i– KIT ““ thickI• Doggs Moppiln Qbeef4 ohi– wheel i– not dfliven and pflovide– a’fl“ –uflface behind the flail at the wheelJflail inteflactionI dt al–o –eflve–a– a conduit to the nofl“al foflce –en–ofl fofl “ea–ufling the applied loadat the wheelJflail inteflfaceI dt i– “ade fflo“ cLKOP hot flolled –teelIS2C2C Componznts• Acl Csfchdel4 owo –en–ofl fleady tie flod aifl cylindefl– Cdouble actingGOHLJM= bofle –izeG PHLJS= wide with a L= –tfloke lengthD afle u–ed to–i“ulate the load at the wheelJflail inteflfaceI Each cylindefl i– capableof geneflating LGPTK lbf at LKK p–iG which i– enough foflce fleach fullpfle––ufle at the wheel J flail inteflfaceI• Acl Csfchdel Blaceen4 ohe two pi–ton– had –lightly di&eflent acHtuation flate–I oo “itigate thi–G a bflacket wa– in–talled tying the twopi–ton flod– togetheflI• Fcheal Lacf Aocde4 ohe bflacket– –uppoflting the dfliving wheel andthe du““y –uppoflt wheel afle both “ounted on a –tainle–– –teel lineaflflail guide to allow fofl –“ooth actuation and fletflaction of the dflivingwheelI• Mpeed Mehmil4 A “agnetic call e&ect –en–ofl “ea–ufle– the –peedof the wheel via the notch in the dfliving –haftI An identical –en–oflCnot –hownD “ea–ufle– the –peed of the band –aw wheel dfliving the flailCband –aw bladeDI• Hilgaf Filce Mehmil4 A MKKK lbf foflce load cell “ea–ufle– the noflH“al foflce at the wheelJflail contact patchI hofle infofl“ation on pageLSI• Dlcpeh Poffes4 A double –heaved –teel pulley fofl u–e with vHbelt–i– u–ed a– paflt of the dflive tflain to connect the wheel “otofl to thewheel –haftI qHbelt– wefle cho–en becau–e the –y–te“ wa– ea–iefl toi“ple“ent than a toothed belt but pflovided bettefl foflce tflan–fefl thana (at beltI• Qbeef Ginil4 ohi– “otofl wa– added to the “achine to dflive thewheel independently of the flailI dt i– a P hpG LSKK flp“G N pha–e MKS q“otoflIT2C2C ComponzntsGCGCH lhzzl Dzsignaigufle MIOU rheel de–ignIohe tflain wheel i– –hown in aigufle MIOI ohe de–ign i– ba–ed on the woflkdone by iaei“i et alI vLMx who u–ed aE “odel– and nu“eflical –i“ulationto –how that a LJP –cale “odel of a tflain wheel undefl –caled loading condiHtion– can achieve the contact –tfle––e– –i“ilafl to what i– –een in a full –caletflain wheelI ohi– fofl“ed the –taflting point fofl the de–ign of the wheel inthi– “achineI ohe ’nal wheel de–ign cho–en wa– appfloxi“ately LJP of afull –cale wheelI A LJP wheel thickne–– would be MR ““G howeveflG an acHtual tflain wheel ha– a –peci’c pflo’le –hape that i– not tflued with fle–pectLK2C2C Componzntsto the axi– of flotation Caigufle PIL –how– an exa“ple of thi– wheel pflo’leDand to “aintain thi– –peci’c –hape dufling eaflly expefli“ent– to “aintaincon–i–tency would flefiuifle con–tant fle–uflfacing of the wheel a– it weafl– duflHing expefli“ent–I ohi– would be an expen–ive and ti“ely pfloce––G –o it wa–decided fofl –i“plicity to –taflt with a (at pflo’le that i– tflued with the –haftaxi–I p–ing a cefltzian contact –tfle–– appfloxi“ation C–ee Appendix ]D it wa–found that a width of LK ““ would pfloduce a contact pfle––ufle up to ~LKKKhka at the wheelJflail inteflaction locationG pfloviding the flefiuifled pfle––ufleflange fofl the expefli“ent–I ohe wheel wa– “ade fflo“ a LT ““ wide di–cCfofl added –tabilityD with a LK ““ wide contact –uflface extending outILL2C2C ComponzntsGCGCI Forxz Gznzrvtion & Controlaigufle MIPU aoflce contflolU CaD kfle––ufle diflection “anage“entI CbD aoflcegeneflating aifl cylindefl–ILM2C2C Componzntsaoflce geneflation at the wheelJflail inteflface and the contflol of thi– actuHation i– done u–ing the pneu“atic –y–te“ –hown in aigufle MIP and de–cflibedbelowI A pneu“atic –y–te“ wa– cho–en becau–e of the hou–e aifl line that wa–alfleady available at the in–tallation –ite “ade thi– the ea–ie–t to i“ple“ent–olutionI• Acl Miolce4 Aifl i– –upplied by a hou–e aifl line capable of pflovidingup to LMK p–i of continuou– aifl pfle––ufleI• Plemmole Leaofanil4 K H MKK p–i line flegulatofl with “anual contflolIohi– wa– cho–en becau–e of the low co–t and ea–e of i“ple“entationI• Mifehicd Pafpem4 aoufl nofl“ally clo–edG MO q DC bfla–– actuated–olenoid valve– with a K H MKK p–i pfle––ufle flatingI Each –olenoid u–e–a –olid –tate flelay to contflol and dflive the –tate of the –olenoid valveIohe–e –olenoid– contflol the diflection of aifl (ow and wefle cho–en beHcau–e of theifl fa–t acting fle–pon–e and ability to actuate without apfle––ufle di&eflenceI• Acl Csfchdelm4 owo double acting lineafl tie flod aifl cylindefl– afleu–ed fofl foflce geneflation at the wheelJflail inteflfaceI Each aifl cylindefli– capable of geneflating LGPTK lbf at LKK p–iG fle–ulting in a total appliedfoflce of NGLSK lbfI ohe–e cylindefl– wefle cho–en becau–e of theifl abilityto fleach load– high enough to geneflate full pfle––ufle at the wheel J flailinteflface and fofl theifl biHdiflectional contflol –o that the wheel couldbe fletflacted fflo“ the flail ju–t a– fiuickly a– it wa– appliedILN2C2C ComponzntsGCGC5 botor Controlaigufle MIQU qaDB– and –uppoflting co“ponent– to contflol the “otofl –peed–Ihotofl –peed contflol on the “achine i– “anaged u–ing vafliable fflefiuencydflive– CqaDD which afle –hown in aigufle MIQ and de–cflibed belowI owodi&eflent qaDB– wefle u–ed becau–e of co–t and availabilityG but in the futufled would fleco““end u–ing two of the –a“e type to “ake i“ple“entation–i“pleflI• Fome Birem4 cigh voltage fiuick fle–pon–e fu–e–I luick fle–pon–e fu–e–wefle –elected fofl added –afetyI• Lacf Ginil PFD4 ]aldofl qnLnk AC qJcz and –en–oflle–– vectoflcontflolG MKS qG N pha–e vafliable fflefiuency deviceI• Qbeef Ginil PFD4 genz nhq iEhA L CdkNLDG P hpG MKS q Npha–e vafliable fflefiuency deviceILO2C2C ComponzntsGCGCK DAf Intzrfvxzaigufle MIRU id DAl “odule and –ignal conditioning electflonic–Iohe DAl and –uppoflting ciflcuit– u–ed to inteflface the “achine to thecontflollefl –oftwafle i– –hown in aigufle MIR and de–cflibed belowU• HC DAQ4 iational dn–tflu“ent– pn]HQKKL hultifunction dJj deviceGLOH]it fle–olution and MK knJ– –a“pling flateI ohe DAl i– u–ed toflecofld all the –en–ofl– on the “achineI ohe digital output– on theDAl afle u–ed fofl –olenoid contflol and fofl contflolling the –peed of the“otofl– via the qaDB–I• Cihnlif Cclcocnls4 ohe qaDB– accept digital –ignal contflol at avoltage of LK q and MO qG –o additional ciflcuitfly i– flefiuifled to boo–tthe DAl digital out –ignal– to level– –u)cient fofl the two qaDB–I neeAppendix C fofl detail–ILP2C2C ComponzntsGCGCL hoftfivrz Controllzraigufle MISU noftwafle inteflface fofl the wheelJflail tflan–fefl “achineIohe contflollefl pflogfla“G de–igned in gabqdErG i– u–ed to –et up expeflHi“ent– and contflol the opeflational pafla“etefl– on the “achineI dt i– –hownin aigufle MIS and de–cflibed belowU• Cscfe Ciohnel4 feep– tflack of the nu“befl of co“plete cycle– of theflailI L cycle = OIOPO “ Cthe length of the band –aw bladeDI p–ed fofltflacking long tefl“ caflflyHdown expefli“ent–I• Hilgaf Filce4 ohe “ea–ufled nofl“al foflce applied at the wheelJflailinteflface a– “ea–ufled by the –en–ofl –hown in aigufle MITI• Loh Nemn4 ohi– button flun– the –tandafld caflflyHdown te–tI ohe “oHtofl– need to be –et to theifl de–ifled –peed befofle pfle––ing thi– buttonIAftefl pfle––ing thi– buttonG the “achine will engage wheel ju–t befoflethe initial pfloduct patch applying the de–ifled pfle––ufle to the flail andthen will fletflact the wheel fflo“ the flail aftefl R wheelJflail inteflacHtion– Cthe “axi“u“ a“ount of wheel and new flail inteflaction– thatthe “achine i– capable ofDI ohe “otofl– afle then powefled down and–toppedI• Mifehicd Mnane4 ntatu– gEDB– di–playing which –olenoid i– activeIohe –olenoid– contflol the diflection of aifl pfle––ufle Caigufle MIPDILQ2C2C Componznts• Gahoaf Mifehicd Cihnlif4 ohe –olenoid– can be contflolled u–ingthe–e button– when flunning expefli“ent– “anually Cwithout pfle–etti“ing and contflolDI• Ginil Mpeed Cihnlif4 npeed contflol and output fofl the two “otofl–Iohe–e contflollefl button– connect to the qaDB– in aigufle MIQIGCGCM bzvsurzmznt hznsorsaigufle MITU gocation– and type– of “ea–ufle“ent –en–ofl– u–ed on the “aHchineIohe pfli“afly “ea–ufle“ent –en–ofl– afle –hown in aigufle MIT and de–cflibedbelowULR2CHC Cvpvwilitizs• Qbeef ahd Lacf Mpeed Mehmil4 hagnetic call e&ect –en–ofl– withLP kcz –a“pling fflefiuency CQQ “–D afle u–ed to “ea–ufle the –peed ofthe wheel and the flailI ohe –a“pling flate of the–e –en–ofl– i– “oflethan adefiuate fofl the –peed– that the “achine will be flun atI• Filce Mehmil4 An aCMNLL MKKK lbf load cell foflce –en–ofl CMK lbfJ“q–en–itivity with ~L “q noi–eD i– placed behind the du““y wheel C–eeal–o aigufle MIND “ea–ufling the applied load at the wheelJflail inteflHfaceI A dflawback i– that thi– –en–ofl only woflk– fofl MJN of the appliedpfle––ufle flange C“ax applied pfle––ufle could be NLPK lbfDI De–pite thi–Gthi– –en–ofl wa– cho–en becau–e of it– low co–t CLJP the pflice of thenext flange upD and it– good fle–olution in the low flangeI ohe initiallyplanned expefli“ent– would only opeflate in a pfle––ufle flange within thi––en–oflB– capabilitie–I df futufle expefli“ent– flefiuifle highefl pfle––ufleG anew –en–ofl can ea–ily be –wapped inI ohe load cell wa– powefled witha P q –upplyIGCH Cvpvwilitizsohe flail and the wheel afle powefled by two independent “otofl–I ohe flaili– powefled by a RIP hpG NOTK flp“ “otofl and the wheel i– powefled by aP hpG LSKK flp“ “otoflI ohi– allow– fofl independent –peed contflol of theflail and wheel allowing fofl expefli“ent– with –“all a“ount of cfleep to bepeflfofl“edI ohe theofletical top –peed fofl an expefli“ent i– LS “J–I S “J– i–the “axi“u“ –peed that an expefli“ent ha– been cuflflently conducted atIowo tie flod aifl cylindefl– opeflating at a pfle––ufle of LKK p–i each pfloduceNLSK lbfI dn thi– –et upG NLPK lbf CLO kiD ovefl a LK ““ line u–ing a cefltziancontact patch would fle–ult in LKNN hka of pfle––ufle at the contact –uflfaceflepfle–entative of a co““on fully loaded ffleight tflainIohe flail –uflface i– OIOPO “ long and the wheel ha– a ciflcu“feflence ofKIPRS “I ohi– allow– fofl R co“plete wheelJflail inteflaction– whefle the wheelinteflact– with a new piece of flailIoable MIL –u““aflize– the “achine– capabilitie–ILS2CHC CvpvwilitizsCigpihehn Denacfmnpeed flange K “J– to LS “J–1dndependent wheelJflail –peed contflolZ te–2aoflce flange K ki to LO ki3iu“befl of wheelJflail inteflaction– R4oable MILU hachine capabilitie–I1iheoretixvl mvximum speeyC ihe highest speey thvt hvs xurrently ween testey is 8m/sC2Allows for the testing of xreepC3Cvpvwle of v higher forxe if v grevter initivl vir pressure sourxe is useyC47 is the mvximum numwer of wheel intervxtions with v previously untouxhey sextionof rvilC After this the wheel will we intervxting with sextions of the rvil thvt hvve vlrevyyween rolley onCLTChvptzr HbzthoysHCF Applixvtion of KEaigACK Lohe fEgomACf R© pfloduct i– analogou– to a hou–e hold paint when it i–wet in tefl“– of textufle and appeaflanceI rhen it dflie–G it feel– like a waxypaint –ub–tance to the touchIaofl the “ajoflity of expefli“ent– fEgomACf R© i– initially applied tothe flail befofle the wheel pa––e– thfloughG initiating the caflflyHdown expefliH“entI Even though the eaflly expefli“ent– to be conducted with thi– “aHchine wefle pfli“aflily fiualitativeG a flea–onably con–i–tent –taflting volu“e offEgomACf R© wa– de–ifled to “ini“ize vafliability in expefli“ental fle–ult–out–ide of the contflolled change in pafla“etefl–Iohe thickne–– of fEgomACf R© to be initially applied wa– detefl“inedby ’nding the thicke–t a“ount of pfloduct that could be depo–ited while“aintaining a con–i–tent thickne–– thfloughout the pfloduct coveflageI ]eHcau–e the flail i– oflientated veflticallyG the pfloduct would inevitably dflipdown fle–ulting in –o“e vafliance in thickne––I A ’nal value of KIP ““ wa–detefl“ined thflough tflial and eflfloflIowo “etal –hi“–G each KIP ““ thickG wefle attached to the flail u–ing a“agnet placed behind to hold the“ tightly in placeI fEgomACf R© wa– libHeflally applied and then the exce–– wa– –cflaped o& the top with a flazofl bladeleaving a con–i–tent height acflo–– the aflea of intefle–tI ohe ’nal di“en–ion–wefle PK ““ long x KIP ““ thickI ohe width of the pfloduct inteflaction i–detefl“ined by the width of the wheelG which i– LK ““I ohe pfloce–– and’nal fle–ult i– –hown in aigufle NILI ohefle wa– –till –o“e –light dflipping ofpfloduct due to the weightG but it wa– con–i–tently –een between application–and dee“ed acceptable fofl the–e eaflly expefli“ent–IMKHC2C Fluorzsxznt Ayyitivzaigufle NILU Application “ethod fofl the intial patch of fEgomACf R©IHCG Fluorzsxznt Ayyitivzkfleviou– fle–eaflch –howed that thefle wefle fflictional bene’t– on flail thathad been expo–ed to a lifiuid ffliction “odi’efl even when the pfloduct apHpeafled to have wofln o& becau–e it could not be –een vi–ually undefl a“bientlight with the naked eyeI ohi– led to the exploflation of othefl vi–ualizaHtion technifiue– fofl the puflpo–e of ob–eflving the caflflyHdown behavioufl offEgomACf R©I mhoda“ineH] wa– –elected a– the (uofle–cent dye to be“ixed in with fEgomACf R© and wa– added at a concentflation of KIKN % byweightI A –ide e&ect of u–ing mhoda“ineH] i– that it tufln– fEgomACf R©fflo“ gfley to puflpleImhoda“ineH] ha– a peak excitation wavelength of PPO n“ and a peake“i––ion wavelength of PRT n“ Caigufle NIMDI A PNM n“ gfleen la–efl wa–u–ed to excite the fEgomACf R©Hmhoda“ineH] –olution with a ’ltefl onMLHC2C Fluorzsxznt Ayyitivzthe ca“efla to i–olate the e“i––ion –pectfla Caigufle NINDIaigufle NIMU mhoda“ineH] excitation Cda–hed blue lineD and e“i––ion C–olidpink lineD –pectfla vMLxIaigufle NINU mhoda“ineH] detection –che“atic vLOxIcatef mah“ani vLOx flan –heafl –tfle–– and –heafl vi–co–ity te–t– co“paflingofliginal fEgomACf R© with fEgomACf R© that had mhoda“ineH] addedIohe fle–ult– –een in aigufle NIO –how no noticeable e&ect on the–e pflopefltie–of fEgomACf R© fflo“ the addition of mhoda“ineH]IMMHC2C Fluorzsxznt Ayyitivzaigufle NIOU nheafl –tfle–– and –heafl vi–co–ity co“pafli–on of fEgomACf R©with and without mhoda“ineH] vLOxIaigufle NIP –how– that by adding mhoda“ineH] to fEgomACf R© it beHco“e– ea–iefl to vi–ualize the pfle–ence of fEgomACf R© pfloviding a valuablebene’t fofl ob–eflving and undefl–tanding pfloduct caflflyHdownIdt –hould be noted that the la–efl u–ed i– highly localized with a veflynaflflow viewing angle which “ay give the appeaflance of le–– pfloduct in the–uflflounding aflea than i– actually tflueIMNHCHC Control of hpzzy vny erzssurzaigufle NIPU na“e –ection of flail –howed in CaD a“bient light and with CbD(uofle–cence –howing the bene’t of (uofle–cence a– a vi–ual aidI ohe light–pot– neafl the top and botto“ of the i“age– afle fle(ection– fflo“ the a“bientlightIHCH Control of hpzzy vny erzssurzohe “otofl– u–ed to dflive the flail and wheel afle both connected to qaDB–Caigufle MIQDI Each “otofl i– flun on QK cz powefl and each “otofl i– capableof changing the fflefiuency C–peedD in KIL cz incfle“ent–I ohe qaDB– aflecontflolled by the –oftwafle contflollefl Caigufle MISDI coweveflG due to the i“Hple“entation of the –oftwafle contflollefl and DAl inteflface electflonic– CaigHufle MIRD the incfle“entJdecfle“ent –tep –ize i– li“ited to KIN to KIO cz Cthefull –peed flange i– K cz to QK czD I ohe actual –peed of the flail and wheelafle “ea–ufled by the –peed –en–ofl– attached to the “achine Caigufle MITDI]ecau–e of the –light vafliability in –tep –eize fofl each qaDG exact –peed“atching fofl the wheel and flail i– often fiuite di)cultI ohe di&eflence canbe a– gfleat a– KIKP “J–IMOHCIC Expzrimzntvl dpzrvtionrhen flunning an expefli“ent the “otofl –peed i– incfle“entally contflolledby the –oftwafle contflollefl until the de–ifled –peed– Ca– flead by the –peed–en–ofl–D afle achievedI At thi– point the “otofl– afle pau–ed –o that thepfloduct can be applied to the flailG the “otofl– afle then fle–u“edG fiuicklyfla“ping up to theifl pfleviou–ly –et –peed –o that the expefli“ent can be flunIohi– “ethod “ini“ize– the potential dflying of the pfloduct befofle wheelJflailinteflactionIohe pfle––ufle i– contflolled u–ing a “anual pfle––ufle flegulatofl Caigufle MIPDIohe pfle––ufle i– the ’fl–t thing that i– –et when flunning an expefli“ent andi– done befofle the “otofl– afle tuflned onI dt ha– no e&ect on the “achineopeflation until the aifl cylindefl– afle activated by the –oftwafle contflolleflIHCI Expzrimzntvl dpzrvtionohe “achine i– –et up –uch that once the pfle––ufle i– –etG the “otofl –peed–have been –et and pau–edG and the pfloduct i– applied to the flail thefle afleonly two –tep– fle“aining fofl flunning an expefli“entU LD ohe “otofl– aflefle–u“ed and allowed to fla“p back up to the de–ifled –peedI MD jnce thede–ifled –peed i– fleached the opeflatofl pfle––e– wmun oe–t= Caigufle MISD to flunthe expefli“entI A photo diode –en–ofl Caigufle NIQD fleading a “aflkefl on theflail tfliggefl– the aifl cylindefl– to engage the wheel onto the flail fle–ulting in RwheelJflail inteflaction– aftefl the pfloduct pickup by the wheel fflo“ the initialapplication patch befofle ’nally di–engaging the wheel fflo“ the flail and–topping the “otofl– bflinging the expefli“ent to a ’ni–hI ohe –a“e tfliggefl–en–ofl i– al–o u–ed to contflol a high –peed ca“efla which can be optionallyattached to flecofld the tflan–fefl of pfloduct at the wheelJflail inteflfaceIdn between the expefli“ent–G the pfloduct i– cleaned o& of the wheel andflail u–ing a “ultiH–tage pfloce––I fEgomACf R© i– watefl –olubleG –o thepfloduct i– initially wa–hed o& with a wet flagI ohi– fle“ove– “o–t of thepfloductI ohe pfloduct i– then co“pletely fle“oved u–ing LKKK gflit and MKKKgflit –andpapefl –o a clean –“ooth –uflface fle“ain–I ohi– wa– the “ethodfleco““ended by gI]I ao–tefl who “anufactufle– the fEgomACf R© pfloductIMPHCIC Expzrimzntvl dpzrvtionaigufle NIQU A photo diode –en–ofl u–ed fofl tfliggefling event–IMQChvptzr IExpzrimznts & gzsultsICF Initivl aFb CvrryByofin Expzrimzntsohe puflpo–e of thi– expefli“ent wa– to conduct initial ba–eline pfloduct caflflyHdown te–t–I Expefli“ent– wefle conducted at a pfle––ufle of MP p–i C~LJOfull tflain pfle––ufleD and a wheelJflail –peed of L “J– C~LJLP full –peedDIfEgomACf R© wa– applied to the flailG the wheel would then pick up thefEgomACf R© undefl pfle––ufle and at –peed and then R wheelJflail inteflacHtion– with a clean flail –uflface each ti“e would occufl befofle the expefli“entendedIohe initial fEgomACf R© application on the flail i– –hown in aigufle NILIno“e –light pooling due to gflavity becau–e the flail i– oflientated veflticallycan be –een neafl the botto“ of the initial patchI ohi– e&ect wa– “ini“izedby u–ing a thin CKIP ““D initial patchI ohe initial di–tflibution patch wa–con–i–tent between expefli“ent– pfloviding con’dence at the potential foflflepeatability in the volu“e of the initial fEgomACf R© patch undefl thewheelJflail contact pathI aigufle OIL –how– the initial fEgomACf R© appliHcation patch aftefl the wheel ha– flolled thfloughI dn all the–e photo– the flaili– “oving fflo“ top to botto“ with fle–pect to the page oflientationI neveflalkey ob–eflvation– about thi– ’gufle can be “adeULI pndefl a“bient light fEgomACf R© i– not vi–ible down the centflehigh pfle––ufle contact patchG but u–ing (uofle–cence you can indeed–ee tflace– of fEgomACf R© in thi– flegion –uppoflting the bene’t ofadding mhoda“ineH] to the pfloduct fofl aiding in vi–ualizationIMI ohe fEgomACf R© that can be –een down the centfle patch ha– di–Htinct line– that appeafl to “atch accofldingly with –“all –cflatche– –eenon the –uflface of the wheel Caigufle OIMDI ohe –cflatche– on the wheelafle floughly LKK “ wideI ohe depth i– unknownINI ohe edge– of fEgomACf R© neafle–t whefle the wheel flolled thfloughafle thickefl than the initial applicationG indicating that the pfloduct wa–MRICFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimznts–fiueezed out fflo“ the wheelJflail contact patch lateflally out towafld–the –ide–IOI ohefle i– a tflail of fEgomACf R© extending foflwafld fflo“ the initialapplication patch indicating that the pfloduct i– al–o pu–hed foflwafldlongitudinally undefl the low pfle––ufle edge– a– the wheel floll– thfloughthe initial application patchIaigufle OILU dnitial caflflyHdown expefli“entG inteflaction #KU CaD A“bientlightI CbD aluofle–cenceI ]ecau–e of the naflflow ’eld of the la–efl u–edG onlya –“all –ection i– illu“inated and can be –atuflatedIMSICFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntsaigufle OIMU uoo“ed in –ection of a clean wheel –howing “inofl –cflatche– onthe –uflfaceI ohe –cflatche– afle floughly LKK “ wide on aveflageIaigufle OIN –how– the fle–ult– fflo“ inteflaction #L and inteflaction #NIohefle afle di–tinct line– of fEgomACf R© fflo“ the edge– of the wheelJflailinteflface without any vi–ible pfloduct down the centfleI ppon clo–efl in–pecHtion it wa– believed that the wheel wa– –lightly cflowned leading to fullpfle––ufle only being developed down the centfle patch of the wheelJflail inteflHfaceI Along the edge– of the wheel full pfle––ufle i– not developed –o in–teadof fEgomACf R© being –fiueezed outG it i– picked up by the wheel alongthe top –uflface edge– and able to be caflflied downI ohe fEgomACf R© i––fiueezed out fflo“ the high pfle––ufle centfle patch and thu– i– not pickedup by the wheel and not caflflied down fofl fuflthefl wheelJflail inteflaction–IAdditionally it appeafl– that le–– pfloduct i– tflan–feflfled fflo“ wheel to flail ininteflaction #N than wa– tflan–feflfled in inteflaction #LIMTICFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntsaigufle OINU dnteflaction #L A #NIaigufle OIO –how– the fle–ult– fflo“ inteflaction #P and what i– left on thewheel aftefl the expefli“ent i– co“pleteI At inteflaction #P thefle i– vefly littlepfloduct that ha– been tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to the flailI dnteflaction– #Qand #R afle not –hown becau–e no pfloduct tflan–fefl wa– ob–eflved on the flailfofl eithefl of the–e inteflaction location–I ohe wheel –how– a concentflationof pfloduct along the edge– a– i– expected fflo“ the cflowning and what wa––een with the tflan–fefl on the flailI ohefle i– al–o –o“e pfloduct –een downthe centfle patch in di–tinct –hoflt –tflaight line–I dt i– believed that thefle afle“icflo –cflatche– in the –uflface of the wheel and pfloduct ha– been –fiueezedinto the–e –cflatche– which behave a– low pfle––ufle flegion– –i“ilafl to thecflowned edge– of the wheelI ohe pfloduct –tay– in the–e cflack– thfloughoutthe expefli“ent and doe– not tflan–fefl to the flail dufling opeflationINKICFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntsaigufle OIOU dnteflaction #P A the wheel aftefl the expefli“ent i– co“pleteIAgainG –atuflation can be –een undefl (uofle–cenceaollowing the–e initial fle–ult– auji’l“ kfle–cale ccn kn pfle––ufle papeflwa– u–ed to bettefl vi–ualize the cflowning of the wheelI ohe pfle––ufle –en–itivepapefl i– placed between the wheel and flail undefl a pfle––ufle of MP p–iI ohefle–ult i– –hown in aigufle OIPI dn thi– exa“ple full pfle––ufle wa– only achievedovefl a TIR ““ centfle width Cthe wheel width i– LK ““DI ohe cflowning wa–not peflfectly unifofl“ along the ciflcu“feflence of the wheelI At point– alongthe wheel –uflface the width of the wheel –uflface whefle full contact pfle––uflewa– achieved wa– a– low a– a SIM““I ohi– pfle––ufle papefl te–t con’fl“– whatwa– –een in the expefli“ent– that the –uflface of the wheel wa– no longefltflued paflallel with the flotation axi– and thu– thefle afle high pfle––ufle andlow pfle––ufle zone– in the wheelJflail contact aflea leading to the way withwhich we –aw fEgomACf R© wa– tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail to the wheelinitiallyINLICFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntsaigufle OIPU kfle––ufle pflo’le of the wheelJflail inteflaction fofl a –ection of thewheelI auji’l“ kfle–cale ccn kn pfle––ufle papefl wa– u–edI ohe papefl i–initially co“pletely white and tufln– fled undefl applied pfle––ufleIA high –peed ca“efla wa– al–o u–ed in thi– expefli“ent flecoflding the iniHtial pfloduct tflan–fefl fflo“ the flail to the wheel at inteflaction #KI aigufle OIQ–how– –eveflal –cfleen –hot– of the pfloce–– cleaflly di–playing ’l“ –plitting andthe fofl“ation of ’la“ent– a– wa– expected vPxINMICFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntsaigufle OIQU nnap–hot– captufled by the high –peed ca“efla –howing the ’l“–plitting action a– the pfloduct i– initially tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail to thewheelI oi“e i– incflea–ing fflo“ L to QI ohe flail i– “oving fflo“ top tobotto“Idn conclu–ion the wheel wa– able to pick up pfloduct fflo“ the flail andfleplicate R wheelJflail inteflaction– di–playing caflflyHdown behaviouflI qeflylittle ofl no fEgomACf R© wa– picked up by the centfle patch of the wheeland tflan–feflfled back to the flail on –ub–efiuent wheelJflail inteflaction–I dncontfla–tG a noticeable a“ount of fEgomACf R© wa– picked up by the wheelalong the edge– and tflan–fefl fflo“ the wheel to flail wa– –een up to andincluding inteflaction #P along the–e edge–I ohi– i– likely due to the –lightNNIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntcflowning of the wheel leading to full pfle––ufle only being developed downthe centfle path which –fiueeze– the pfloduct out dufling inteflaction #KI dt i–only the low pfle––ufle zone– C–peci’cally the wheel edge–D whefle the pfloducti– picked up by the wheelI ohefle wa– no pfloduct ob–eflved on the flail afteflinteflaction– #Q and #RG but thefle wa– –till pfloduct vi–ible on the wheel inthe low pfle––ufle zone– aftefl the R wheelJflail inteflaction– and the co“pletionof the expefli“entIICG aong izrm aFb CvrryByofin Expzrimzntohe puflpo–e wa– to explofle the long tefl“ caflflyHdown behavioufl of dflyfEgomACf R©I kfleviou– expefli“ent– had only explofled L to R wheelJflailinteflaction– –i“ulating a “axi“u“ of OIOPO “ of pfloduct caflflyHdown onthe wheelJflail tflan–fefl “achineI ohi– expefli“ent wa– de–igned to –i“ulateTGKNK wheelJflail inteflaction– fofl a total –i“ulated tflack di–tance of PGROP “on the wheelJflail tflan–fefl “achineIfEgomACf R© wa– thinly applied to a TK““ long –ection along thewheelI ohe a“ount of pfloduct wa– not tightly contflolledG but full andfloughly unifofl“ coveflage wa– the de–ifled goalI ohe pfloduct wa– allowedto aifl dfly at floo“ te“peflatufle fofl NK “inI ohi– wa– the a“ount of ti“eit took fofl the pfloduct to be dfly to touch –uch that the pfloduct did nottflan–fefl a– a wet felt ’l“ undefl light pfle––ufle fflo“ a ’ngeflI ohe flea–oningbehind thi– wa– to flepfle–ent the woflking theofly that fEgomACf R© wouldbe picked up by the wheel at low contact pfle––ufle zone– and would dflyon the wheel befofle expefliencing full contact pfle––ufle in the–e location– a–the tflain wheel entefl– a cuflved flail –ection Caigufle PILDI aigufle OIR –how–the initial fEgomACf R© application on the wheel aftefl it ha– dfliedI oheopeflational condition– fofl thi– expefli“ent afle –hown in oable OILG the wheeland flail wefle –et at the –a“e –peedInpeed C“J–D LITkfle––ufle Cp–iD MPoable OILU npeed and pfle––ufle condition– fofl the long tefl“ pfloduct caflflyHdown expefli“entIaofl thi– expefli“ent the “achine wa– pau–ed at vafliou– inteflval– –o thatphoto– and ob–eflvation– could be flecofldedI ohe flail and wheel wefle cleanedat each of the–e inteflval– Cexcluding the initial application locationDI oheflea–on behind thi– wa– to have the wheel inteflact with a –i“ulated ffle–hNOIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntpatch of flail a– “uch a– po––ibleI ohe ideal –cenaflio would be to clean theflail aftefl each co“plete flevolution of the length of flail COIOPO “D a– thi–would en–ufle the fEgomACf R© on the wheel i– alway– inteflacting with aco“pletely clean and new piece of flailI ohe ti“e inve–t“ent behind thi–opeflation i– con–ideflable and would “ake it di)cult to achieve a long di–Htance in a flea–onable a“ount of ti“eI aofl thi– initial long tefl“ caflflyHdownexpefli“ent an a––u“ption wa– “ade that only cleaning the flail at cefltain–tage– would –till pflovide infofl“ation that wa– –ati–factofly fofl thi– eafllyfiualitative –tageI oable OIM –how– the –tage– dufling the expefli“ent thatthe “achine wa– pau–ed and ob–eflvation– wefle “ade along with wheelJflailcleaning if nece––aflyI# of rheelJmail dnteflaction– Di–tance C“D Cleaned CyJnDK K yMSR LSM yLGRLP LGKTL yNGOSQ MGMLS nPGMNQ NGNNL nTGKNK PGROP noable OIMU ohe –tage– when the “achine wa– pau–ed –o that ob–eflvation–could be “ade and cleaning if nece––aflyI Cleaning of the wheel and flail wa–not needed aftefl NGOSQ inteflaction– a– no fEgomACf R© wa– ob–eflved onthe flail ofl wheel Cexcept the initial application locationDINPIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntaigufle OIRU CaD Cleaned –ection of the wheelI CbD dnitial application of dfliedfEgomACf R© viewed in a“bient lightI CcD qiewed u–ing aluofle–cenceIaigufle OIS –how– the fEgomACf R© coveflage on the wheel aftefl vaflHiou– –tage–I K “ flepfle–ent– the initial fEgomACf R© patch befofle theexpefli“ent i– flunI gooking at the K “G LSM “ and LGKTL “ photo– thefEgomACf R© pfloduct appeafl– to weafl o& “ofle flapidly in the eaflly –tage–of caflflyHdownI Co“pafle thi– with the photo– fofl MGMLS “G NGNNL “ andPGROP “ whefle the flate of pfloduct weafl appeafl– to have decflea–edI ohi– fleH–ult i– flea–onable a– we would expect to –ee a highefl flate of fEgomACf R©weafl on the wheel eaflly on dufling caflflyHdown when thefle i– “ofle pfloductpfle–ent in high pfle––ufle zone–I ohe pfloduct weafl flate would then decflea–eNQIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimznta– fEgomACf R©“o–tly fle“ain– in low pfle––ufle zone– latefl on in the caflflyHdown pfloce––I aigufle OIT –how– thi– pheno“ena a– fEgomACf R© “o–tlyappeafl– in concentflation along the low pfle––ufle edge– of the wheel and downthe “iddle in –uflface –cflatche– on the wheelIaigufle OISU Co“pafli–on at each of the ob–eflvation –tage– of thefEgomACf R© coveflage on the wheelG viewed u–ing (uofle–cenceINRIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntaigufle OITU ohe wheel aftefl the PGROP “ –tage –howing the fle“ainingfEgomACf R© coveflage in the high and low pfle––ufle zone–IAftefl MSR wheelJflail inteflaction– CLSM “D the expefli“ent wa– pau–ed foflin–pection of the wheel and flailI dn addition to the expected weafl of theinitial fEgomACf R© patch on the wheel two othefl intefle–ting pheno“enawefle ob–eflvedU LD fEgomACf R© wa– tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to the flailIohi– can be –een in aigufle OILKI ohe tflan–fefl of wet fEgomACf R© fflo“wheel to the flail wa– ob–eflved pfleviou–ly and wa– expectedG but the tflan–feflof dflied fEgomACf R© fflo“ wheel to flail had not been expefli“entallyob–eflved befofleI MD fEgomACf R© could be –een on the wheel at –econdaflyNSIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntlocation–G di&eflent fflo“ the initial application location indicating that afteflthe wheel wa– tflan–feflfling fEgomACf R© to the flailG thefle wa– then fuflthefltflan–fefl fflo“ the flail to the wheelI dn the ’eld thi– could flepfle–ent wheel–fuflthefl down the tflain picking up fEgomACf R© that had been tflan–feflfledfflo“ the wheel– at the fflont of the tflain to flailI ohi– flail to wheel tflan–feflcan be –een in aigufle OILLIaigufle OILKU fEgomACf R© tflan–feflfled fflo“ wheel to flail aftefl LSM “I CaDA“bient lightI CbD aluofle–cenceINTIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntaigufle OILLU fEgomACf R© pfleviou–ly tflan–feflfled fflo“ wheel to flail nowbeing picked up by the wheel aftefl LSM “I CaD A“bient lightI CbD aluofle–HcenceIAftefl MSR wheelJflail inteflaction– CLSM “D the wheel and flail wefle cleanedfle“oving all tflace– of fEgomACf R©G except fofl the ofliginal applicationlocation which wa– left untouchedI ohe expefli“ent wa– continued and thenpau–ed aftefl LGRLP wheelJflail inteflaction– CLGKTL “D fofl ob–eflvationI A–wa– –een in the pfleviou– –tage fEgomACf R© wa– again being tflan–feflfledfflo“ the wheel to the flail and thi– tflan–feflfled fEgomACf R© wa– thenbeing picked up by the wheel at –econdafly location–G di&eflent fflo“ theinitial application –ite Caigufle OILM A aigufle OILNDI At thi– point the flailand wheel wefle again cleaned fle“oving all tflace– of fEgomACf R© Cexceptat the initial application locationDI At the fle“aining ob–eflvation –tage–CNGOSQ “G PGMNQ “G TGKNK “D no fuflthefl fEgomACf R© wa– ob–eflved toOKIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimznthave tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to the flailIaigufle OILMU fEgomACf R© tflan–feflfled fflo“ wheel to flail aftefl LGKTL “ICaD A“bient lightI CbD aluofle–cenceIOLIC2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimzntaigufle OILNU fEgomACf R© pfleviou–ly tflan–feflfled fflo“ wheel to flail nowbeing picked up by the wheel aftefl LGKTL “I CaD A“bient lightI CbD aluofle–HcenceIdn conclu–ionG a long tefl“ caflflyHdown expefli“ent of fEgomACf R© withTGKNK wheelJflail inteflaction– de“on–tflated dfly ’l“ tflan–fefl and –i“ulated–igni’cantly “ofle wheelJflail inteflaction– than pfleviou–ly conducted vLQxIohe weafl behavioufl of fEgomACf R© wa– ob–eflved and flecoflded at –ix–tage– thfloughout the expefli“entIOMICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownICH Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByofinohe puflpo–e of thi– expefli“ent wa– to explofle the e&ect of –peed on thecaflflyHdown behavioufl of fEgomACf R©I kfleviou– expefli“ent– flun at a“anual feedG at L “J–G and at M “J– pfloduced no ob–eflvable di&eflenceGbut an expefli“ent at O “J– –howed a –light incflea–e in the caflflyHdown offEgomACf R©I ohi– di&eflence wa– the “otivation fofl the following expeflHi“entI aofl thi– expefli“ent two di&eflent –peed– wefle –electedU LD hanualfeed and MD S “J–I ohe wheel and the flail wefle –et to the –a“e –peed and thepfle––ufle wa– –et to MP p–i each ti“eI fEgomACf R© wa– initially appliedto the flail on a PK ““ long patch with a unifofl“ height of KIP ““I ohfleete–t– wefle conducted at each –peed to pflovide a –“all flepeatability co“paflHi–onI lualitatively the flepeat expefli“ent– pfloduced –i“ilafl enough fle–ult–to give con’dence in the expefli“entI aigufle OILO and OILP –how exa“ple–of the flepeat– fofl the “anual –peed te–t at inteflaction #LI aigufle OILQ andOILR –how exa“ple– of the flepeat– fofl the S “J– –peed te–t at inteflaction #LIohe fle“aining inteflaction– fofl each –peed wefle al–o co“pafled and –howed–i“ilafl fiualitative flepeatability but afle not –hown hefleI Each te–t involved–ix unifiue wheelJflail inteflaction–I ohe opeflational condition– afle –hown inoable OINI dn all the i“age– fofl thi– expefli“ent the flail i– “oving fflo“ topto botto“ with fle–pect to the pageInpeed L C“J–D hanual feednpeed M C“J–D Skfle––ufle Cp–iD MPoable OINU npeed and pfle––ufle condition– fofl the e&ect of –peed on caflflyHdown expefli“entIONICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OILOU ohe fle–ult– undefl a“bient light at inteflaction #L fofl each te–tat the “anually fed –peed –howing good expefli“ental flepeatabilityIOOICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OILPU ohe fle–ult– viewed with (uofle–cence at inteflaction #L fofl eachte–t at the “anually fed –peed –howing good expefli“ental flepeatabilityIOPICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OILQU ohe fle–ult– undefl a“bient light at inteflaction #L fofl each te–tat S “J– –howing good expefli“ental flepeatabilityIOQICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OILRU ohe fle–ult– viewed with (uofle–cence at inteflaction #L fofl eachte–t at S “J– –howing good expefli“ental flepeatabilityIohe fle–ult– fofl the “anually fed –peed te–t– agfleed clo–ely with pfleviou–expefli“ent– undefl the –a“e condition–I gooking at aigufle OILS thefle i–no ob–eflved fEgomACf R© down the “iddle of the contact patch and theedge– of the contact patch afle fiuite clean and –tflaightI ]y co“pafli–onG inthe S “J– te–t fEgomACf R© i– ob–eflved down the “iddle of the contactpatch and the edge– of the contact patch afle fiuite jagged and nonHlineaflI dnaddition fEgomACf R© fflo“ the initial application patch i– pu–hed fuflthefldown the flail than what wa– –een in the “anually fed te–t–I aigufle OILT–how– the initial inteflaction location viewed in (uofle–cenceIORICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OILSU dnteflaction #K Ca“bient lightDU ohe flail at the ’fl–t locationwhefle the wheel initially pick– up fEgomACf R©I ohe mail i– “oving fflo“top to botto“I ohe initial fEgomACf R© patch i– pu–hed –o fafl that it–tfletche– acflo–– two i“age– fofl the S “J– te–tI ohi– wa– not –een in the“anually fed te–tIOSICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OILTU dnteflaction #K C(uofle–cenceDU ohe flail at the ’fl–t locationwhefle the wheel initially pick– up fEgomACf R©I ohe flail i– “oving fflo“top to botto“Idn aigufle OIMK the fle–ult– fofl inteflaction #L Cthe ’fl–t caflflyHdown J ’fl–twheel to flail tflan–feflD can be –een fofl both the S “J– and “anually fed te–tIohflee key ob–eflvation– about the S “J– te–t can be “ade in co“pafli–on tothe “anually fed te–tU LD ohefle i– –igni’cantly “ofle fEgomACf R© downthe centfle contact patch in the S “J– te–tI MD ohe edge– of tflan–feflfledfEgomACf R© in the S “J– te–t afle “ofle nonHlineaflI ND ohe –taflt of thetflan–feflfled fEgomACf R© i– latefl than expected in the S “J– te–tI p–ingthe nu“befl L wflitten on the flail a– a flefeflence in the “anually fed te–tfEgomACf R© begin– whefle expected ba–ed on the ciflcu“feflence of thewheel and the di–tance covefled fflo“ inteflaction #KG but in the S “J– te–tit –taflt– latefl than it –hould haveIOTICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMKU dnteflaction #LU kictufle– in a“bient light and (uofle–cence–howing fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl in both S “J– and “anually fed te–tIaigufle OIML –how– the fle–ult– fofl inteflaction #NI ohe fle–ult– afle vefly–i“ilafl to what wa– –een in inteflaction #L with –igni’cantly “ofle fEgomACf R©tflan–feflfled to the flail down the “iddle patch in the S “J– te–t being the“o–t intefle–ting ob–eflvationI ohe –taflting point of fEgomACf R© in the S“J– te–t i– again –een to be latefl than wa– expected ba–ed on the ciflcu“Hfeflence of the wheel and di–tance tflavelledIaigufle OIMM –how– the fle–ult– fofl inteflaction #PI ohe fle–ult– afle –i“Hilafl to what wa– –een in eaflliefl inteflaction– but with a decflea–e in oveflallfEgomACf R© tflan–feflfled a– i– expectedIaigufle OIMN –how– the fle–ult– fofl the wheel aftefl the expefli“ent wa– ’nHi–hed Caftefl R wheelJflail inteflaction–D fofl both the S “J– and the “anuallyfed te–tI ohefle i–nBt an appfleciable di&eflence in the a“ount of fEgomACf R©fle“aining on the wheel aftefl each of the di&eflent te–t–IPKICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMLU dnteflaction #NU kictufle– in a“bient light and (uofle–cence–howing fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl in both S “J– and “anually fed te–tIPLICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMMU dnteflaction #PU kictufle– in a“bient light and (uofle–cence–howing fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl in both S “J– and “anually fed te–tIPMICHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMNU rheel at the end of the expefli“entU kictufle– in (uofle–cence–howing fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl in both S “J– and “anually fed te–tI ionoticeable di&eflence can be –een with pfloduct coveflage on the wheel– at theconclu–ion of each te–tIdn conclu–ionG the flole of –peed doe– appeafl to have an e&ect on the caflflyHdown behavioufl of fEgomACf R©I oe–t– wefle conducted at a “anually fed–peed and at S “J–I ohe S “J– te–t –howed “ofle fEgomACf R© caflflyHdown in the “iddle high pfle––ufle aflea of the wheelJflail inteflaction andthefle wa– “ofle fEgomACf R© pfle–ent on the flail in the latefl inteflaction–Idn the S “J– te–t the fEgomACf R© pfloduct wa– pu–hed fuflthefl along theflail dufling the initial wheelJflail inteflaction Cinteflaction #KDI dn additionPNICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownthe fEgomACf R© pfloduct –taflted it– wheel to flail tflan–fefl location lateflthan expected and the low pfle––ufle edge– wefle not a– clean in co“pafli–onto the “anually fed te–t–I ohe coveflage of pfloduct on the wheel wa– notnoticeably di&eflent between the two te–t–IICI Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByofinohe puflpo–e of thi– expefli“ent wa– to explofle the e&ect of pfle––ufle on thecaflflyHdown of fEgomACf R©I All pfleviou– expefli“ent– wefle flun at anopeflating pfle––ufle of MP p–i which flepfle–ent– ~LJO full tflain pfle––ufleI ohefle–ult– of the S “J– –peed te–t –howed the pfle–ence of fEgomACf R© downthe “iddle patch of the wheelJflail contact inteflfaceI ohi– wa– in contfla–tto lowefl –peed te–t– whefle no fEgomACf R© down the “iddle patch wa–ob–eflvedI dt wa– hypothe–ized that due to the incflea–ed –peed the wheel wa–not in –olid contact with the flail becau–e the layefl of ’l“ at thi– inteflfacehad incflea–edI nince pfleviou– expefli“ent– wefle all conducted at MP p–iG anexpefli“ent to –ee the e&ect of pfle––ufle wa– de–ignedI aofl thi– expefli“entthflee te–t– at MP p–i and S “J– wefle conducted and co“pafled with one te–tat PK p–i C~LJM full tflain pfle––ufleD and S “J–I ohe opeflational condition–afle li–ted in oable OIOI ohe wheel and the flail wefle –et to the –a“e –peedIfEgomACf R© wa– initially applied to the flail on a PK ““ long patch witha unifofl“ height of KIP ““I dn all the i“age– fofl thi– expefli“ent the flail i–“oving fflo“ top to botto“ with fle–pect to the pageInpeed C“J–D Skfle––ufle L Cp–iD MPkfle––ufle M Cp–iD PKoable OIOU npeed and pfle––ufle condition– fofl the e&ect of pfle––ufle caflflyHdown expefli“entIaigufle OIMO –how– the fle–ult– of the flail aftefl the ’fl–t wheelJflail inteflHaction whefle fEgomACf R© i– tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail to the wheelI oheedge– of fEgomACf R© in the initial depo–ition patch afle even “ofle nonHlineafl in the PK p–i te–t when co“pafled to the MP p–i te–tI jthefl than thi–Gnot “uch di&eflence i– ob–eflvedI aigufle OIMP –how– the fle–ult– viewed in(uofle–cenceIPOICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMOU dnteflaction #K Ca“bient lightDU ohe flail at the ’fl–t locationwhefle the wheel initially pick– up fEgomACf R©I ohe flail i– “oving fflo“top to botto“IPPICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMPU dnteflaction #K C(uofle–cenceDU ohe flail at the ’fl–t locationwhefle the wheel initially pick– up fEgomACf R©I ohe flail i– “oving fflo“top to botto“Iaigufle OIMQ –how– the co“pafli–on of the ’fl–t wheel to flail pfloduct tflan–Hfefl Cinteflaction #LD fofl the two pfle––ufle– –tudiedI ohefle i– no cleafl ob–eflvHable di&eflence in the a“ount of fEgomACf R© tflan–feflfled at thi– inteflacHtion howevefl the wheel to flail tflan–fefl doe– begin eaflliefl in the PK p–i ca–eco“pafled with the MP p–i te–tI ohe initial pfloduct depo–ition occufl– “uchclo–efl to when wa– expected ba–ed on the wheel ciflcu“feflence and di–tancetflavelledIAt inteflaction #N –o“e di&eflence i– –een in the a“ount of fEgomACf R©tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to flailI ohefle i– –lightly le–– fEgomACf R©tflan–feflfled in the PK p–i te–t when co“pafled to the MP p–i te–t Caigufle OIMRDIohi– –light di&eflence in tflan–feflfled fEgomACf R© i– –een again at inteflacHtion #P Caigufle OIMSDIPQICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownio ob–eflvable di&eflence i– –een when co“pafling the fle“aining pfloducton the wheel aftefl the MP p–i and PK p–i te–t– Caigufle OIMTDIaigufle OIMQU dnteflaction #L Ca“bient A (uofle–cenceDU ohe ’fl–t wheel toflail tflan–fefl locationIPRICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMRU dnteflaction #N Ca“bient A (uofle–cenceDU ohe thifld wheel toflail tflan–fefl locationIPSICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMSU dnteflaction #P Ca“bient A (uofle–cenceDU ohe ’fth wheel toflail tflan–fefl locationIPTICIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByownaigufle OIMTU rheel at the end of the expefli“entU kictufle– in (uofle–cence–howing the fle“aining fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl in the MP p–i and PK p–i te–t–Idn conclu–ionG the flole of pfle––ufle appeafl– to potentially have an e&ecton the caflflyHdown behavioufl of fEgomACf R©I dncflea–ing the pfle––uflefleduce– the a“ount of pfloduct initially tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail to thewheelG but fuflthefl te–t– afle flefiuifled befofle thi– can be conclu–ively –tatedIQKChvptzr 5Disxussion of gzsultsohe pfli“afly puflpo–e of all the de–igned expefli“ent– wa– to validate the“achine– potential capability fofl an–wefling the fle–eaflch fiue–tion– outlinedinitiallyI ohe –econdafly puflpo–e wa– to gain –o“e in–ight into the–e fle–eaflchfiue–tion– that could help guide the diflection of futufle expefli“ent– whichwill an–wefl the–e fiue–tion– in a “ofle fiuantitative and de’nitive “anneflG a–the–e eaflly expefli“ent– wefle all fiualitative in natufleIrith u–ing a –caled wheel it i– i“pofltant to con–idefl the i“pact of wheel–caling on centflifugal foflce– CEfiuation PILDI dn the expefli“ent– that wefleflunG the –uflface –peed could potentially “atch what wa– –een by a full –caletflainG but becau–e we afle u–ing a LJPth –cale wheelG the centflifugal foflce–acting on the pfloduct could be up to Px gfleatefl than what would be –eenon a full –cale tflainIPc = mv2rCPILDohi– potential e&ect –hould be kept in “ind when analy–ing fle–ult– onthi– –caled “achineI5CF Initivl aFb CvrryByofin ExpzrimzntsDisxussiondnitially when the wheel wa– “achined it wa– done –uch that the –uflface ofthe wheel wa– tflued with fle–pect to the axi– of flotationI Aftefl the initialpfloduct caflflyHdown expefli“ent– it wa– ob–eflved that the wheel had actuallybeco“e cflownedI ohe cflowning “o–t likely occuflfled dufling the “achineco““i––ioning pfloce–– a– the flail wa– initially cuflving undefl the appliedpfle––ufle– and could have cfleated thi– weafl pattefln on the wheelIAftefl ob–eflving the fle–ult– fflo“ the initial pfloduct caflflyHdown expeflHi“ent– it wa– hypothe–ized that thi– unintended cflowning could pflovideadditional infofl“ation that wouldnBt have been gained with a tflued wheelpflo’leI ohe hypothe–i– wa– that a– the wheel flolled thflough the initialQL5CFC Initivl aFb CvrryByown Expzrimznts DisxussionfEgomACf R© patch the pfloduct would be –fiueezed out of the high pfle–H–ufle flegion and only the low pfle––ufle flegion– would pick up pfloduct CaigHufle PILbDI ohe wheel would then tflan–fefl –o“e of thi– wet pfloduct backonto the flailG but eventually what wa– left on the wheel would dfly and fleH“ain on the wheelI rhen the tflain then entefl– a cuflved –ection of flail thebogie –hift– and now a di&eflent paflt of the wheel expeflience– high pfle––uflecontact with the flailI iow thefle i– a layefl of dflied fEgomACf R© in theNfld body layefl between the wheel and flail pfloviding added fflictional beneH’t– –ince the pfloduct i– no longefl –fiueezed out fflo“ thi– inteflaction flegionCaigufle PILcDI ]ecau–e of thi– hypothe–i–G the wheel wa– not fleH“achinedand fuflthefl expefli“ent– wefle flun u–ing thi– cflowned wheel pflo’leIdn fleality the bogie doe– expeflience –o“e lateflal –hifting even along–tflaight pofltion– of tflack –o the pfloduct in the low pfle––ufle flegion– “ightnot have a– “uch ti“e to dfly a– i– hypothe–ized befofle expefliencing the fulltflain pfle––ufleIaigufle PILU CaD mail –howing initial application of fEgomACf R©I CbDrheelJflail inteflaction along a –tflaight –ection of tflack –howing the locationthat fEgomACf R© i– picked up by the wheelI CcD rheelJflail inteflactionalong a cuflved –ection of tflackILKK p–i of applied pfle––ufle fle–ult– in appfloxi“ately full –cale tflain loadand in thi– expefli“ent we only applied MP p–i of aifl pfle––ufle fle–ulting in ~LJOQM5C2C aong izrm aFb CvrryByown Expzrimznt Disxussionfull loadI At –peed– of L “J– Cfull tflain –peed ~LQ “J–DG thi– pfle––ufle wa–enough to –fiueeze the fEgomACf R© out lateflally fflo“ the “ain wheelJflailcontact patchI ohe pfloduct wa– only picked up along the low pfle––ufle edge–of the wheelI dn addition the pfloduct wa– pu–hed foflwafld in the diflectionof wheel tflavel fle–ulting in the length of pfloduct coveflage on the edge– ofthe wheel being ~TK ““ Cthe ofliginal fEgomACf R© patch on the flail wa–PK ““DI ohe wheel coveflage ended up being longefl than the initial appliedpatchI]ecau–e of the cflowning of the wheel Caigufle OIPDG the fle–ultant pfle––ufleat the contact patch would be –lightly highefl than initially pfledicted becau–ethe calculation– wefle done with a LK ““ wide contact patchI ]ecau–eoufl applied pfle––ufle fofl thi– expefli“ent wa– –o “uch lowefl than full –calepfle––ufle and the fle–ult– –howed that the pfloduct –fiueezed outG the di&eflencein the fle–ultant contact patch pfle––ufle wa– uni“pofltant at thi– point intefl“– of the fle–ult– –eenIkfleviou–ly it wa– uncleafl how long the wet ’l“ tflan–fefl –tage la–t– foflGhow “uch pfloduct fle“ain– on the wheel and what the i“pofltance of dfly’l“ tflan–fefl i–I ohe fle–ult– fflo“ thi– initial expefli“ent –how– that thi–“achine i– capable of flunning expefli“ent– that could potentially an–weflthe–e i“pofltant fiue–tion–I5CG aong izrm aFb CvrryByofin ExpzrimzntDisxussionrhefle the othefl expefli“ent– te–ted the wet tflan–fefl behavioufl of fEgomACf R©in pfloduct caflflyHdownG thi– expefli“ent atte“pted to –i“ulate what wouldhappen to the caflflyHdown behavioufl of fEgomACf R© that had dflied Cdfly’l“ tflan–feflD on the wheel befofle being expo–ed to the full pfle––ufle at thewheelJflail inteflaction ovefl a long di–tanceIohe fEgomACf R© wa– –een to weafl fa–tefl in high pfle––ufle flegion– andfle“ained longefl in low pfle––ufle flegion–I At eaflly –tage– in the wheelJflailtflan–fefl inteflaction it wa– –een that fEgomACf R© wa– being tflan–feflfledfflo“ the wheel to the flail and then picked up again by the wheel at location–di&eflent fflo“ the initial application –iteI ohe wheelJflail tflan–fefl had beenob–eflved befofle with wet fEgomACf R© dufling the ’fl–t R inteflaction–G howHevefl thi– tflan–fefl of dflied fEgomACf R© aftefl MSR wheelJflail inteflaction–wa– newI ]ecau–e the expefli“ent flan continuou–ly fflo“ MSR inteflaction–to LGRLP inteflaction– we can not –ay at which point exactly fEgomACf R©wa– no longefl being tflan–feflfled fflo“ wheel to flail and vice vefl–aI rhat weQN5CHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByown Disxussioncan –ay wa– that it wa– –till happening aftefl MSR inteflaction– but then wa–no longefl ob–eflvable aftefl LGRLP inteflaction– and –o pfle–u“ably –topped at–o“e point in that flangeI ohi– expefli“ent –howed that dfly fEgomACf R©can be tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to flail and then back fflo“ the flail towheel pfloviding in–ight into –o“ething that wa– not pfleviou–ly well undeflH–tood vLRxI ohe–e di–tance– flefefl to the di–tance the wheel ha– tflavelled onthe “achineI oo flelate thi– to a full –cale tflain the nu“befl of inteflaction–would –tay the –a“e but the di–tance would be –caled up Px Coable PILDIrhen analy–ing the fle–ult– in flelation to how they tflan–late to a full –caletflain –etHupG the–e –caled up di–tance– need to be con–idefledI jne of thede–ifled “achine objective– wa– to be able to –i“ulate up to Q k“ of full–cale wheelJflail inteflactionI ohe ’fl–t thflee photo– in aigufle OIS –how fleH–ult– fflo“ thi– de–ifled flange Cthe di–tance– li–ted in the photo afle “achinedi–tanceDI autufle expefli“ent– focu–ing on thi– flange with “ofle ob–eflvation–tage– could pflovide “ofle in–ightI# of rheelJmail dnteflaction– hachine Di–tance C“D aull ncale Di–tance C“DK K KMSR LSM TLKLGRLP LGKTL PGOPPNGOSQ MGMLS LLGKTKPGMNQ NGNNL LQGQPPTGKNK PGROP MSGRMPoable PILU Co“pafling expefli“ental di–tance– covefled in the long tefl“caflflyHdown expefli“ent with the full –cale efiuivalentI5CH Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByofinDisxussionlualitatively thefle i– noticeably “ofle fEgomACf R© pfle–ent on the flaildown the centfle flegion of the wheelJflail inteflaction path fofl the S “J– te–twhen co“pafled to the “anually fed te–tIjne potential explanation fofl thi– di&eflence could be obtained fflo“hydflodyna“ic lubflication theoflyI ohe –che“atic fofl a flotating cylindefl ona (at plane i– –hown in aigufle PIMIQO5CHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByown Disxussionaigufle PIMU nche“atic –howing the i“pofltant ele“ent– in hydflodyna“iclubflication theoflyIaofl the in’nite cylindeflHplane geo“etflyG the meynold– efiuation fleduce–toUddx r3dpdx!= QUmdrdxCPIMDUm =U1 F U2MCPINDwhefle hG pG G Um afle hydflodyna“ic ’l“ thickne––G pfle––ufleG vi–co–ityand aveflage –liding –peedI ohe –olution obtained by hafltin in LTLQ vLLx–tate– the followingUr0 = O:TUmRPlCPIODohi– –olution –how– u– the flelation between –liding –peed and ’l“ thickHne–– height in that an incflea–e in –liding –peed fle–ult– in an incflea–e in’l“ thickne––I ohi– could be a po––ible explanation fofl why we –aw gfleateflcaflflyHdown when the –peed of the expefli“ent– wa– incflea–ed but the appliedpfle––ufle wa– kept con–tantI jne key potential pfloble“ with thi– theofly i–that it wa– developed fofl a iewtonian (uid and we know the fEgomACf R©pfloduct to be nonHiewtonianG –howing –heaflHthinning behaviouflI re knowQP5CHC Ezxt of hpzzy on aFb CvrryByown Disxussionthat a– the –heafl flate incflea–e– the vi–co–ity of thi– gah decflea–e–G potenHtially countefling the expected fle–ultant e&ect of incflea–ed –peed on the ’l“thickne––I ohi– would have to be con–idefled befofle tflying to geneflate anaccuflate “odelIAt S “J– the –taflt of the fEgomACf R© at inteflaction #L wa– fuflthefldown the flail than geo“etflically pfledictedI ohi– wa– not –een in the “anuHally fed te–t–I dtB– hafld to get the wheel and flail “oving at the exact –a“e–peedG –o potentially what we afle –eeing i– the e&ect of cfleep Cthe flail i–“oving fa–tefl than the wheel in thi– ca–eDG howevefl if thi– wa– the ca–e onewould expect to –ee thi– delay in fEgomACf R© depo–ition pflopagatingthfloughout the fle“aining inteflaction– getting “ofle pflonounced each ti“eGbut thi– i– not –eenI dn–tead the –taflting depo–it location fofl inteflaction–#M thflough #Q afle con–i–tent with fle–pect to whefle inteflaction #L –tafltedIdf we go back to the hydflodyna“ic lubflication theofly itB– po––ible thatthefle i– –o“e –lipping between the wheel and flail at inteflaction #K wheflefEgomACf R© i– initially tflan–feflfled to the wheelG but aftefl that thefle i–“etal on “etal contact and the two –uflface– “ove in uni–onI ohe e&ecti– not –een a– –tflongly fofl the fle“aining inteflaction– becau–e the thickne––of the fEgomACf R© on the wheel i– con–ideflably thinnefl than the iniHtial application patch fleducing the e&ect– –een by hydflodyna“ic lubflicationtheoflyI ohi– explanation of cfleep occuflfling could be con’fl“ed in a flepeatexpefli“ent u–ing “aflkefl– on the wheel and flail at inteflaction #K along withthe highH–peed ca“eflaIohe a“ount of fEgomACf R© fle“aining on the wheel wa– not noticeHably di&eflent between the two –peed– fflo“ a fiualitative ob–eflvationI jnepo––ible explanation i– that flegafldle–– of the a“ount of fEgomACf R© iniHtially picked upG the only pfloduct fle“aining on the wheel aftefl –eveflalwheelJflail inteflaction– i– in the low pfle––ufle zone– on the wheel whichdoe–nBt expeflience full contact pfle––ufleG thu– fle“aining on the wheel inthe–e location–Iohe fle–ult– of thi– te–t –howed that flunning expefli“ent– at only ~LJOfull –cale tflain pfle––ufle CMP p–iD “ay be pfloducing fle–ult– that wonBt accuHflately fle(ect a full –cale tflain –etupI ohi– pflovided the “otivation to flunexpefli“ent– to detefl“ine the e&ect of pfle––ufle on pfloduct caflflyHdownIQQ5CIC Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByown Disxussion5CI Ezxt of erzssurz on aFb CvrryByofinDisxussionrhen incflea–ing the pfle––ufle fflo“ MP p–i to PK p–i we –ee –lightly le–– wheelto flail tflan–fefl of the pfloduct and thi– i– “ofle noticeable in the latefl inHteflaction–I ohe location of the pfloduct at each inteflaction in the PK p–iG S“J– te–t occufled clo–efl to whefle expected and i– “ofle co“paflable to thelocation fofl the MP p–iG “anually fed te–tI ohi– i– in contfla–t to the MP p–iGS “J– te–t whefle the location of tflan–feflfled fEgomACf R© on the flail ocHcuflfled latefl than expectedI mefeflfling back to Efiuation PIO we –ee that anincflea–e in applied load will fle–ult in a fleduction of ’l“ thickne–– at thewheelJflail inteflactionG which –hould fle–ult in le–– pfloduct picked up by thewheel and le–– wheel to flail pfloduct tflan–fefl at latefl inteflaction–I ohe–einitial expefli“ental ob–eflvation– potentially agflee with the hydflodyna“ic’l“ lubflication theofly “entioned eafllieflI coweveflG thi– again doe– not takeinto account the vi–co–ityHpfle––ufle dependence of the gahG a pflopeflty wecuflflently do not know about with gah u–ed in the–e expefli“ent–Ijnly one te–t at PK p–i wa– conducted at the ti“e of wfliting –o fufltheflexpefli“ent– at PK p–i afle flefiuifled befofle fleading too “uch into the fle–ult–fflo“ thi– –ingle te–tI AlteflnativelyG incflea–ing the pfle––ufle to RP p–i “aybe “ofle bene’cial in ofldefl to –ee a biggefl di&eflence in tflan–fefl a“ountbefofle conclu–ively –aying what e&ect pfle––ufle ha– on the caflflyHdown offEgomACf R©IQRChvptzr KConxlusionA new cu–to“ “achine wa– de–igned and built fofl the puflpo–e of te–ting thecaflflyHdown behavioufl of lifiuid ffliction “odi’efl– u–ed in the ffleight tflainindu–tflyI ohe “achineB– de–ign focu–ed on the wheelJflail inteflaction zoneand wa– built to LJP th the –cale of a ffleight tflain –o that te–ting couldbe flun in a laboflatofly enviflon“entI ohe “achineB– de–ign included –eveflalkey featufle– that wefle identi’ed a– potentially playing cflucial flole– in caflflyHdownU• kfleci–eG full –cale –peed contflol fflo“ K “J– to LS “J– C–peed co““only–een in cuflved –ection– of ffleight flailDI• dndependent –peed contflol fofl the flail and wheelG which pflovide– theability to –i“ulate cfleep C–o that wheelJflail inteflaction can be –i“uHlated fofl both –tflaight and cuflved tflackDI ohe li“itation– fofl cfleepinitiating have yet to be explofledI• kfleci–eG full –cale pfle––ufle contflol at the wheelJflail inteflface fflo“ Khka to LKNN hkaI• Ability to –i“ulate “ultiple wheelJflail inteflaction– fleplicating caflflyHdownI• jptical acce–– to be able to the flecofld ’l“ tflan–fefl at the wheelJflailinteflfaceIp–ing a co“putefl inteflface contflolleflG the “achine de“on–tflated theability to peflfofl“ “ultiple di&eflent expefli“ent– ba–ed on changing vafliable–that de“on–tflated theifl e&ect on lifiuid ffliction “odi’efl caflflyHdownI ohe“achine al–o de“on–tflated good flepeatability a“ong expefli“ent– when thecontflol vafliable– fle“ained unchangedIaluofle–cence wa– u–ed a– a technifiue fofl vi–ualizing depo–ited fEgomACf R©that wa– otheflwi–e too thin to be –een by the unHaided eye undefl a“bientlight condition–I mhoda“ineH] wa– the (uofle–cent tflacefl that wa– added tothe ba–e fEgomACf R© –olutionIQSChvptzr 6C Conxlusionohe –peed of the wheel wa– –hown to have an e&ect on the a“ount ofinitial tflan–fefl of gah fflo“ the flail to the wheelI Expefli“ent– flun at a“anually fed –peed –howed that fEgomACf R© wa– only tflan–feflfled alongthe low pfle––ufle edge– of the cflowned wheel and wa– not tflan–feflfled fflo“the flail to the wheel at the centfle full pfle––ufle flegion of the cflowned wheelIret fEgomACf R© wa– ob–eflved to be tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to theflail on en–uing wheelJflail inteflaction–I rheel to flail tflan–fefl wa– no longeflob–eflved aftefl P inteflaction–G but fEgomACf R© –till fle“ained on the wheelalong the low pfle––ufle edge–I Expefli“ent– flun at a –peed of S “J– –howedan incflea–e in the a“ount of fEgomACf R© tflan–feflfled onto the wheel fflo“the initial application patch on the flailI ohe incflea–e in initial pickup wa––een pfli“aflily in the high pfle––ufle centfle flegionI ohi– led to incflea–ed wheelto flail wet fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl on en–uing wheelJflail inteflaction–I npeeddoe– not appeafl to have an e&ect on the fle–ultant coveflage of pfloduct onthe wheel a– thefle wa– no noticeable di&eflence when co“pafling the wheel–at the conclu–ion of each –peed te–tIohe contact pfle––ufle of the wheel on the flail wa– –hown to have ane&ect on the initial tflan–fefl of gah fflo“ the flail to the wheelI dncflea–ingthe pfle––ufle at the wheelJflail inteflface wa– –hown to fleduce the a“ountof fEgomACf R© that wa– initially tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail to the wheelGfle–ulting in le–– wet fEgomACf R© tflan–fefl fflo“ the wheel to flail on theen–uing wheelJflail inteflaction–IA long tefl“ caflflyHdown te–t of TGKNK wheelJflail inteflaction– –howedthat dfly fEgomACf R© i– tflan–feflfled fflo“ the wheel to the flail and theni– tflan–feflfled fflo“ the flail back to the wheel at latefl inteflaction–I ohi–de“on–tflated the potential fofl a leading tflain wheel to tflan–fefl pfloduct tothe flail that i– then latefl picked up by tflailing wheel– potentially fle–ultingin gfleatefl fEgomACf R© application e)ciency and le–– pfloduct wa–tageIfEgomACf R© wa– –hown to vi–ibly fle“ain on the wheel aftefl –i“ulatingal“o–t Q k“ of wheelJflail inteflaction–Iohe caflflyHdown te–t– peflfofl“ed thu– fafl wefle pfli“aflily fiualitative innatufleG focu–ing on the validating the “achineB– capabilitie– and pflovidingguidance fofl futufle expefli“ent–I A fiuantitative “ethod fofl “ea–ufling thea“ount of pfloduct pfle–ent on the wheel ofl the flail would “ake it po––ibleto develop a “odel flelating the a“ount of pfloduct caflflyHdown to the exHpefli“ental condition– C–peedG pfle––ufleG nu“befl of inteflaction–DI ohe e&ectof pfle––ufle wa– only bflie(y explofled and flefiuifle– fuflthefl expefli“entationbefofle any conclu–ion– can be “adeI jthefl factofl– –uch a– wheel pflo’leGQT6CFC gzxommznyzy Chvngzs to bvxhinzte“peflatufle and “ateflial chaflactefli–tic– could all play a flole in pfloductcaflflyHdown and have yet to be explofledI dt i– fleco““ended that ’eld tflial–afle al–o conducted to validate that what i– –een in the laboflatofly ’nding–IKCF gzxommznyzy Chvngzs to bvxhinz]elow i– a li–t of i“pflove“ent– d would fleco““end be “ade to the “achineU• ohe –peed –en–ofl that “ea–ufle– the flail –peed i– located –uch thatit detect– the hole– that pa–– by on the band –aw wheel that ha– anadju–table tilt angle fofl when the u–efl adju–t– the blade ten–ionI ohi–fle–ult– in needing to adju–t the po–ition of the –en–ofl evefly ti“e theblade i– adju–ted –o that the –en–ofl woflk– coflflectlyI d would fleco“H“end that the –en–ofl i– “oved to the –econd band –aw wheel that i–not adju–tableI• ohe –peed –en–ofl on the wheel –haft flelie– on L notch in the wheel–haftI d would –wap thi– out fofl a di&eflent technology if ’nefl –peed“ea–ufle“ent i– flefiuifledI ohe –a“e fleco““endation applie– to the–peed –en–ofl that i– “ea–ufling the flail –peedI ieithefl –etHup cuflflentlyaccuflately “ea–ufle bflief in–tantaneou– change– in –peed and i– bettefl–uited fofl “ea–ufling aveflage –peed of a pefliod of ti“eI• ohe cuflflent band –aw blade i– only M= wide and once the blade flun––teadyG itB– location i– not what wa– expected when de–igning the“ounting location– fofl the tflain wheelI A– a fle–ultG the wheel had tobe –hifted –lightly o& centfle along the flotating –haft in ofldefl to “akecontact with the flailI p–ing a widefl blade would allow fofl the tflainwheel to be peflfectly centfled between to the two “ounting bflacket–whefle the foflce i– appliedI• ohe way the –oftwafle contflollefl i– wflittenG “otofl –peed– afle changedin incfle“ent– of KIN to KIO czI ohe qaDB– afle capable of changingthe –peed– in incfle“ent– a– low a– KIL czI ohe –oftwafle contflollefland extfla electflonic– could be fleHwoflked –o that ’nefl –peed contflol i–achievedIRKWiwliogrvphyvLx cI ChenG nI aukagaiG tI noneG oI ]anG and AI ia“uflaI A––e––“ent oflubflicant applied to wheel J flail inteflface in cuflve–I WearG NLOUMMS”MNPGMKLOIvMx fI ConnI ray–ide topHofHflail CtoflD ffliction contflol peflfofl“anceInepte“befl MRG MKKPIvNx eI CotteflG DIoI EadieG DI ElvidgeG iI coopeflG eI mobefltG oI hakow–kyGand tI giuI oop of flail ffliction contflolU meduction– in fuel and gfleenHhou–e ga– e“i––ion–I 2((- Cgfferefce gf lhe Aflerfalagfad Heany HamdAssgcaalagfG page– NMR”NNOG MKKPIvOx eI CotteflG DI ElvidgeG tI giuG and eI mobeflt–I ptilization of top offlail ffliction “odi’efl– to fleduce gfleenhou–e ga– e“i––ion– fofl the ffleightflailfload indu–tflyG MKKOIvPx DIeI CoyleG CIrI haco–koG and gIEI ncflivenI ail“H–plitting (ow– infoflwafld floll coatingI J . Fdmad EechG LRLULSN”MKRG LTSQIvQx DIoI EadieG EI ]oveyG and eI falou–ekI ohe flole of ffliction contflol ine&ective “anage“ent of the wheelJflail inteflfaceI page– ONM”OSLG MKKMIvRx DIoI EadieG gI haglalangG ]I qidleflG DI gilleyG and mI mei&I oflack–idetop of flail ffliction contflol at cnI 2((- Cgfferefce gf lhe AflerfalagfadHeany Hamd AssgcaalagfG page– SP”TMG MKKPIvSx DIoI EadieG fIDI jldknowG gI haglalangG oI hakow–kyG mI mei&GkI nflobaG and rI kowellI d“ple“entation of way–ide top of flail fflictioncontflol on noflth a“eflican heavy haul ffleight flailway–I Lhe SeneflhWgrdd Cgfgress gf Jaadoay JesearchG eune MKKQIvTx hI cafl“on and mI gewi–I meview of top of flail ffliction “odi’efl tflibolHogyI Lrabgdggy - Ealeraads, Smrfaces AflerfacesG LKUNULPK”LQMG MKLQIRLvLKx iIEI coopeflG DIoI EadieG ]I qidleflG and oIrI hakow–kyI oop offlail ffliction contflolU gateflal foflce and flail weafl fleduction in a ffleightapplicationI Aflerfalagfad Heany Hamd Shecaadasl Lechfacad Sessagf Hrg-ceedafgsG page– PIRN”PISKG hay MKKNIvLLx cIhI hafltinI gubflication of geafl teethI Efgafeerafg (Lgfdgf)GLKMULLT”LMLG LTLQIvLMx hI iaei“iG uI giG and mI DollevoetI ncaling –tflategy of a new expefliH“ental flig fofl wheelHflail contactI Aflerfalagfad Jgmrfad gf Eechafacad,Aergshace, Afdmslraad afd Eechalrgfacs EfgafeerafgG SG MKLOIvLNx fI jldknowG DIoI EadieG and mI ntockI ohe in(uence of pflecipitationand ffliction contflol agent– on foflce– at the wheelJflail inteflface in heavyhaul flailway–I J Jaad afd Jahad LrafsalG MMRUSQ”TNG MKLMIvLOx cI mah“aniI feltflack detection “ethodI dnfofl“ation wa– co““uniHcated veflballyIvLPx hI moneyG kI nflobaG fIDI jldknowG and mI Da–hkoI Canadian paci’cflailway LKK 2((- Cgfferefce gf lhe Aflerfalagfad Heany Hamd Assgcaa-lagfG page– TN”LKMG MKKPIvLQx gI ntanlakeI ail“ –plitting of lifiuid ffliction “odi’efl fofl“ulation– inthe wheelHflail contactG jctobefl MKLMIvLRx mI ntockG DI ElvidgeG gI ntanlakeG eI qandeflhaflelG and eI CotteflI meH–eaflch objective– and caflflyHdown “achine de–ign flefiuifle“ent–I dnfoflH“ation wa– co““unicated veflbally ovefl a pefliod of –eveflal “eeting–IvLSx mI ntockG fI jldknowG DI hitchellG and eI qandeflhaflelI oop of flail fflicHtion contflol fofl heavy haulU ntatu– and oppofltunitie–I MO MQ iove“beflMKLPIvLTx tI nudaG oI dwa–aG cI fo“ineG oI aujiG fI hat–u“otoG iI pbukataGoI iakaiG hI oani“otoG and tI fi–hi“otoI ohe ba–ic –tudy on fflictioncontflol between wheel and flail Cexpefli“ent– by te–t “achine and –cale“odel vehicleDGI volu“e ddG page NONNOSG MKKNIvMKx kI oe“pleG hI cafl“onG mI gewi–G hI ]ufl–towG and ]I oe“pleI jpti“iH–ation of gflea–e application to flailway tflackI Lhe Lhard AflerfalagfadCgfferefce gf raadoay lechfgdggy2 research, denedgheefl afd eaafle-fafceG page– L”LQG MKLQIvMLx EI oeflpet–chnigG tI kovflozinG and eI Eichofl–tI kolaflization –tandafld–IRMAppznyix AExpzrimzntvl eroxzyurzACF erz gun ChzxklistLI En–ufle that the wheel and flail afle pflopeflly cleaned and fflee of anypfleviou– te–t –a“ple “ateflialI Dj ijo clean the blade while the“achine i– flunningIMI En–ufle that the band –aw table i– cleafl of any tool– ofl debfli–INI d– the qHbelt pflopeflly ten–ionedZOI ohe centefl knob on the top wheel of the band –aw co“e– loo–e afteflopeflationI p–e the cu–to“ tool in–ide the doofl to en–ufle it i– pflopefllytightIPI hake –ufle the blade i– pflopeflly centefled on the wheelIQI Dflain the watefl out of the “ain aifl –upply lineIACG izst eroxzyurzLI jpen up the “ain aifl –upply line and the “anual valve that lead–thflough the ’ltefl to the pfle––ufle flegulatoflI Adju–t the flegulatofl tothe pfle––ufle that you want to applyI jpen up “anual valve adjacentto the flegulatofl to allow aifl to (ow to the –olenoid valve–IMI nwitch on the two “otofl “ain powefl –witche–INI jpen up the gabqdEr contflollefl pflogfla“IOI Click the “otofl enable button– to activate the qaD–IPI p–ing the –peed contflol–G adju–t the –peed– of the rheel and mail“otofl– to the de–ifled levelIQI jnce de–ifled –peed– afle achievedG tufln o& the “otofl– u–ing the “otoflenable button– in the gabqdEr contflolleflIRNACHC cormvl hhut Down eroxzyurzRI Apply the pfloduct to the de–ignated location on the flailISI Click the “otofl enable button–ITI Click wmun oe–t=I ohe te–t will now auto“atically flunI ohe wheel willauto“atically engage onto the flail and di–engage when the expefli“enti– doneILKI rhen the rheel ha– di–engaged fflo“ the mailG click the wntop= buttonto end the pflogfla“IACH cormvl hhut Dofin eroxzyurzLI oufln o& both “otofl –witche– and lock out the –witche– u–ing thelockout lock–IROAppznyix WHzrtzivn Contvxt evtxhCvlxulvtionsrhen two bodie– with cuflved –uflface– afle in contact undefl a foflceG the linecontact change– to an aflea contact and N di“en–ional –tfle––e– afle developedIohe–e –tfle––e– afle contact –tfle––e–G the contact pfle––ufle can be “odelledu–ing a ceflztian contact –tfle–– theoflyIaigufle ]ILU cefltzian contact “odel –che“atic of two cylindefl–IPmax =MPlvC]ILDl =sMPvCL− 1D2=E1 F CL− 2D2=E2L=d1 F L=d2C]IMDPmax = Contact pfle––ufleRPAppznyix WC Hzrtzivn Contvxt evtxh Cvlxulvtions = koi––onB– flatioE = Ela–tic “odulu–d = Dia“etefl of objectP = Applied foflcev = gine contact lengthohe co“ponent– afle all “ade out of a “ild –teel and the following value–wefle u–edU = KINKE = MKR bkad = LTK ““P = NLPK lbf CLO kiDv = LK ““p–ing the above value– in efiuation– ]IL and ]IM fle–ult– in an e–ti“atedcontact pfle––ufle of 1033 GPa at the wheelJflail inteflaction –iteIRQAppznyix CControl Cirxuitry hxhzmvtixohe detail– of the contflol ciflcuitfly –hown in –ection MIMIQ i– pfle–ented hefleIowo ghMNO low powefl fiuad opeflational a“pli’efl– afle u–edG one fofl eachqaD a– each qaD flefiuifle– N –ignal– to be boo–tedI A nonHinveflting conH’guflation i– u–ed fofl each –ignalG the –che“atic i– –hown in aigufle CILIEfiuation CIL i– the gain achieved when u–ing thi– con’guflationIaigufle CILU ionHinveflting op a“p con’guflationIVout = VinL FR2R1CCILDVin = NV in thi– efiuationI ohe genz qaD –ignal boo–t u–e– value– ofR2 = LKU% and R1 = N:SU% fofl a gain of NIQG fle–ulting in Vout = LKV I ohe]aldofl qaD –ignal boo–t u–e– value– of R2 = NNU% and R1 = N:SU% fofl again of TIPG fle–ulting in Vout = MSV IRR


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