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Tracing colonial animal trade and husbandry using stable isotope analyses Guiry, Eric 2016

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        TRACING COLONIAL ANIMAL TRADE AND HUSBANDRY USING STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSES  by   ERIC GUIRY  B.Sc. (Honors), Anthropology, Lakehead University, 2008 B.Sc. Natural Science, Lakehead University, 2008 M.A., Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2012   A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Anthropology)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)   September, 2016  © Eric Guiry 2016       Abstract Domestic animals, particularly cattle and pigs, were a cornerstone of European colonial projects around the globe (ca. 1500-1900 AD). Livestock husbandry and trade provided not only a source of food, labour, and raw materials for daily life, but also held symbolic significance as a factor in establishing colonial group identity.  This dissertation uses stable isotope analyses to reconstruct domestic animal trade and husbandry practices associated with the global expansion of European colonial activities into the New World between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Research has been divided into three standalone projects, each designed to make a significant contribution to the current literature in the field of isotopic-zooarchaeological analyses.  These projects are unified through a common theme of exploring the social roles of animal husbandry and trade and, together, provide a cohesive demonstration of how historical and isotopic faunal records can be integrated to advance archaeological interpretations of human-animal interactions. Paper 1 presents the first stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope study of faunal remains from the unique archaeological context of a shipwreck (the William Salthouse, sunk in 1841), which provides an outstanding opportunity to assess how faunal isotopic patterns at archaeological consumption sites would be influenced by inclusion of animal products acquired through long-distance transportation. Paper 2 presents a stable carbon and nitrogen isotope study of domestic livestock and meat trade in nineteenth-century Upper Canada (now Ontario). This is the first large-scale isotopic analysis of historical faunal remains in North America and shows how consumption of foreign and local animal products can be linked with different groups of people to reveal social dimensions of meat trade in urban settings. Paper 3 presents stable carbon and ii      nitrogen analyses of faunal remains for the seventeenth-century shipwreck La Belle, associated with La Salle’s famous attempt to colonize the mouth of the Mississippi River. This study reconstructs pig husbandry practices in the context of detailed firsthand historical accounts to show that for La Salle’s colonists, domestic animal husbandry likely reflected significant cultural importance, rather than economic and subsistence factors.    iii      Preface This dissertation is organized into three parts: Part 1 (Chapter 1) is an Introduction, Part 2 (Chapters 2-4) is composed of three case studies forming the main body, and Part 3 (Chapter 5) is a summary and conclusion of the work presented. For Part 2, the three studies forming Chapters 2, 3, and 4 have been written as journal articles for publication and have already been published, have been submitted for peer-review, or will be submitted for peer-review in the near future. All research presented in this dissertation is the original work of the author, Eric Guiry. Relevant permits and permissions for destructive sampling were acquired where appropriate. Research Ethics approval was not required.  Chapter 2 is adapted from a multi-authored article entitled, “Tracing historical animal husbandry, meat trade, and food provisioning: A multi-isotopic approach to the analysis of shipwreck faunal remains from William Salthouse, Port Phillip, Australia”, published in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (volume 1, pages 21-28) in 2015. The co-authors on this article are Mark Staniforth, Olaf Nehlich, Vaughan Grimes, Colin Smith, Bernice Harpley, Stephane Noël, and Michael Richards. I collected the samples in Melbourne, Australia, with help from Bernice Harpley, and extracted the collagen in Colin Smith’s laboratory at La Trobe University. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were performed at Memorial University under the supervision of Vaughan Grimes. Olaf Nehlich assisted with sulfur isotope analyses in the Archaeology Isotope Laboratory at the University of British Columbia under the supervision of Michael Richards. Mark Staniforth and Stephane Noel were consulted for historic details regarding nineteenth-century Canadian canal infrastructure. I collected, prepared, analyzed all samples, interpreted the data, and wrote the paper. iv      Chapter 3 is adapted from a multi-authored manuscript entitled, “Isotopic analyses reveal geographical and socioeconomic patterns in historical domestic animal trade between wheat and maize agricultural regions in eastern North America” that has been prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. I am principle author on this paper and the co-authors are Paul Szpak and Michael Richards. Paul Szpak provided technical assistance with the mixing model used in this study. The analyses were conducted in the Archaeology Isotope Laboratory at the University of British Columbia under the supervision of Michael Richards, who also facilitated access to samples from Archaeological Services Incorporated. I collected, prepared, and analyzed all samples, interpreted the data, and wrote the paper. Chapter 4 is adapted from a multi-authored manuscript entitled, “Animal husbandry and colonial adaptive behavior: Isotopic insights from the La Belle shipwreck fauna” that has been prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. I am the principle author on this paper and my co-author is Michael Richards. The analyses were conducted in the Archaeology Stable Isotope Chemistry Laboratory at the University of British Columbia under the supervision of Michael Richards. I collected, prepared, and analyzed all samples, interpreted the data, and wrote the paper. See the acknowledgements section of this dissertation for additional information on assistance received from non-co-authors.   v      Table of Contents Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... ii Preface ........................................................................................................................................ iv Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. ix List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. x Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................... xii Dedication ................................................................................................................................ xiv Chapter 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Research Aims....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Historical Animal Husbandry and Trade in Zooarchaeology ............................................... 1 1.3 Stable Isotope Theory............................................................................................................ 3 1.4 Stable Isotope Approaches to Historical Human-Animal Relations ..................................... 6 1.5 Research Design .................................................................................................................... 9 Chapter 2 Tracing Historical Animal Husbandry, Meat Trade, and Food Provisioning: A Multi-Isotopic Approach to the Analysis of Shipwreck Faunal Remains from the William Salthouse, Port Phillip, Australia. ................................................................................................. 13 2.1 Synopsis .............................................................................................................................. 13 2.2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 13 2.3 Historical Context ............................................................................................................... 15 2.4 Stable Isotope Ecology ........................................................................................................ 17 2.5 Previous Isotopic Research ................................................................................................. 19 2.6 Methods ............................................................................................................................... 20 2.7 Results ................................................................................................................................. 22 2.8 Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 23 vi      2.9 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 27 Chapter 3 Isotopic Analyses Reveal Geographical and Socioeconomic Patterns in Historical Domestic Animal Trade Between Wheat and Maize Agricultural Regions in Eastern North America ................................................................................................................................. 38 3.1 Synopsis .............................................................................................................................. 38 3.2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 39 3.4 Research Design .................................................................................................................. 42 3.5 Methods ............................................................................................................................... 45 3.6 Results ................................................................................................................................. 46 3.7 Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 47 3.8 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 50 Chapter 4 Animal Husbandry and Colonial Adaptive Behavior: Isotopic Insights from the La Belle Shipwreck Fauna ................................................................................................................. 55 4.1 Synopsis .............................................................................................................................. 55 4.2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 55 4.3 Historical and Archaeological Context ............................................................................... 58 4.4 Stable Isotope Background.................................................................................................. 60 4.5 Methods ............................................................................................................................... 62 4.6 Results ................................................................................................................................. 63 4.7 Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 67 4.8 Summary and Conclusion ................................................................................................... 71 Chapter 5 Summary and Conclusion ....................................................................................... 76 5.1 Research Objectives in Review ........................................................................................... 76 5.2 Summary of Major Findings ............................................................................................... 76 5.3 Future Research ................................................................................................................... 78 5.4 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................................................... 80 vii      References ................................................................................................................................. 82 Appendix Tables ..................................................................................................................... 132   viii      List of Tables Table 2.1 Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope data from pigs and cattle loaded aboard the William Salthouse in the form of salt meat. ...................................................................... 29 Table 2.2 Temporal and contextual information for British and French pig data from post A.D. 1000................................................................................................................................... 30 Table 4.1 Average stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for animal groups from La Belle and Fort St. Louis. ............................................................................................................. 72   ix      List of Figures Figure 2.1 Maps showing the route and final resting place of the William Salthouse .................. 31 Figure 2.2 Inspection markings on a cask head from a barrel of salt beef excavated at the William Salthouse Shipwreck site in Port Phillip, Australia. ......................................................... 32 Figure 2.3 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values from William Salthouse pig and cattle remains. ............................................................................................................................. 33 Figure 2.4 Stable sulfur and carbon isotope values from William Salthouse pigs ........................ 34 Figure 2.5 Stable sulfur and nitrogen isotope values from William Salthouse pigs ..................... 35 Figure 2.6 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of pigs from the William Salthouse and those from historical and medieval pigs husbanded in major livestock production and victualing regions in Europe. ............................................................................................ 36 Figure 3.1 Map showing locations of Upper Canada Historical sites considered in this study. ... 52 Figure 3.2 Bottom panel: bivariate plot of δ13C and δ15N values for cattle with comparative Eastern US data from published literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015). Top panel: SIAR (Parnell, et al. 2010) density histograms showing % dietary contributions from C4 plants for different urban and rural cattle groups from Upper Canada alongside contemporary livestock (combined pigs and cattle) from US sites including animals from the steamboat Heroine and literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015). ................................................................. 53 Figure 3.3 Bottom panel: bivariate plot of δ13C and δ15N values for pigs (bottom) analyzed in this study. Top: SIAR (Parnell, et al. 2010) density histogram showing % dietary contributions from C4 plants for different urban and rural pig groups from Upper Canada alongside contemporary livestock (combined pigs and cattle) from US sites including animals from the steamboat Heroine and from published literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015). ................................................................................................................................ 54 Figure 4.1 Map showing locations for the shipwreck, La Belle and Fort Saint Louis. ................. 73 Figure 4.2 Average stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for faunal remains from La Belle and Fort St. Louis. ............................................................................................................. 74 x      Figure 4.3 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values from a serially sampled pig adult left first incisor belonging to mandible bone sample SUBC 10268. .............................................. 75   xi      Acknowledgments Detailed acknowledgements for each manuscript can be found at the end of this section. Here I would like to recognize the motivational, intellectual, technical and financial support of the many organizations, colleagues, friends and family members that have helped me prepare this dissertation. Encouragement from my parents, Ruth and Steve Guiry, my partner, Shannon Montgomery, and my siblings Jake, Abby, and Emma Guiry, have helped me maintain the drive necessary to complete this work. Special thanks are also due to Reba MacDonald for her analytical assistance, Paul Szpak and Andrew Martindale for their mentorship, Bryn Lethem and Joe Hepburn for graphical assistance, and Shannon Montgomery for editorial help. Financial support has been provided by the following scholarships and grants: a Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Doctoral CGS Fellowship, an Australian Endeavour Fellowship, a UBC Four Year Fellowship, a Wenner-Gren Foundation Dissertation Fieldwork Grant, a Society for Archaeological Sciences Student Research Grant, and a Smallwood Foundation Grant, as well a generous support from my PhD Supervisor, Michael Richards.  Last, and certainly not least, I wish to express my sincere gratitude for the innumerable ways not listed in which my supervisor, Prof. Michael Richards, has helped make this work possible. His effort, patience, and mentorship are deeply appreciated and have played an important role in my recent intellectual development. xii      Chapter 2 Acknowledgments: This work benefited from the help of several people. Thanks are due in particular to Alison Pye of Memorial University and Susan Lawrence of La Trobe University. Sampling permission and assistance were generously provided by the staff at Heritage Victoria. This project has also benefited from funding provided by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Smallwood Foundation (Newfoundland), and the Endeavour Fellows Program (Australia). Olaf Nhelich’s contribution was funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG: NE1666/1-1). Chapter 3 Acknowledgments: Funding: SSHRC, Wenner-Gren Foundation, Society for Archaeological Science. Technical and intellectual support: Reba MacDonald, Paul Szpak (University of British Columbia); Eric Tourigny (Leicester University). Samples: Ron Williamson, Suzan Needs-Howarth, Caitlin Colman, Alexis Dunlop (Archaeological Services Inc.); Martin Scott (Golder Associates); Juliet Brophy (Louisianan State University); Denna Dorchenzo (Ontario Heritage Trust); Dan Provo, Jeff Briely (Oklahoma Historical Centre);  Kevin Crisman (Texas A&M);  Janet Bachelor, Eliza Brandy (Toronto Region Conservation Authority). Chapter 4 Acknowledgments: Sampling permissions and other assistance were provided by Susan DeFrance (University of Florida), Brad Jones and Jeff Durst (Texas Historical Commission and the Bullock Texas State History Museum), Eric Ray (Museum of the Coastal Bend), and Reba MacDonald, Paul Szpak, and Joe Hepburn (University of British Columbia). Funding was provided by the Wenner-Gren Foundation, the Social Science and Humanities Research Council, and the Society for Archaeological Sciences.   xiii      Dedication This work is dedicated to Derek and Della Malivoire. I would not be where I am today if not for their care, patience, encouragement, and wisdom.  xiv      Chapter 1  Introduction 1.1 Research Aims The aim of this dissertation is to demonstrate the utility of stable isotope analyses for reconstructing domestic animal trade and husbandry1 practices associated with the global expansion of European colonial activities into the New World2 between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. In particular, this research seeks to answer three specific questions using individual case studies designed to advance this broader goal: (1) How did developments in transportation impact isotopic patterns in archaeological fauna? (2) How do cultural variables, such as social status, influence the distribution of imported animal remains in urban archaeological contexts? (3) Can information about animal diets be used to assess the cultural significance of raising livestock? 1.2 Historical Animal Husbandry and Trade in Zooarchaeology The husbandry and trade of domestic animals have played an important role in both anthropological and archaeological research (Bogan and Robinson 1987; Reitz and Wing 1999; Russell 2011). This body of research developed in the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries around the central theme of reconstructing animal domestication and human subsistence practices in different environmental and economic contexts (Reitz and Wing 1999) and continues to make important contributions to our understanding of the evolution of animal husbandry, trade, and other uses (e.g.,Greenfield, et al. 1988; Marean and Kim 1998; Rick and Lockwood 1 Animal Husbandry here is used to denote the domestication, management, and care of domestic animals by humans. 2 New World here is used to refer to areas outside those traditionally visited and/or settled by Europeans.  1                                                                  2013; Steadman 1995; Zeder and Hesse 2000). Another important research theme that developed later focuses on reconstructing social and symbolic aspects of animal husbandry and trade (Gerritsen 2000; Gosden and Marshall 1999; Gumerman Iv 1997; Miracle 2002; Russell 2011; Twiss 2012). The primary means of addressing questions about animal husbandry and trade is through zooarchaeological analyses of animal remains (Reitz and Wing 1999). This approach uses morphological analyses of archaeological animal bones and teeth (e.g., identifying species, size, age, and sex) to infer changes in the development and husbandry of domestic animals or the movement of their products between different locations (Reitz and Wing 1999). In the context of evidence from other parts of the archaeological record, zooarchaeological data are then interpreted to explore economic, environmental, and social patterns in past human-animal relations (for review see Reitz and Wing 1999; Russell 2011). Historical zooarchaeology3 emerged as a distinct research area in the 1960s (Guilday 1970; Olsen 1964; Parmalee 1960). Despite slow growth early on, the discipline has undergone rapid development in recent years and is now well established (Broderick 2014; Landon 2009; Thomas and Fothergill 2014). Historical faunal analyses have led to important advances in understanding how the breeding, husbandry, and trade of domestic animals interacted with key cultural and environmental processes throughout the medieval and modern era (ca. 1500-1900 AD; e.g., Bowen 1998; Landon 1996; Lawrence and Tucker 2002; Milne and Crabtree 2001; Puputti 2008; Reitz 1992; Reitz, et al. 2006; Reitz and Waselkov 2015; Sportman, et al. 2011; Sportman 2014). Significant studies have, for instance, not only revealed new information about the historically 3 The term “historical zooarchaeology” is used primarily in North America to identify a field of study focusing on analyses of faunal remains from time periods during or after European contact (i.e., 1492). The term post-medieval zooarchaeology (or archaeozoology) is used in Europe to refer to faunal analyses for the same time periods.  2                                                                  undocumented roles of animals in human society (e.g., Albarella 1997; Thomas 1999), but have also actively challenged established historical narratives (e.g., Albarella 1999; Allard 2015; Thomas 2005).  Building on this progress, recent work has emphasized the considerable scope for expanding our understanding of animal husbandry and trade in the recent past through the integration of traditional zooarchaeological approaches with new techniques in the archaeological sciences (for review see Landon 2009). Early work combining historical zooarchaeological and other scientific approaches (Klippel 2001; Landon 1993) demonstrated immense potential for synergy in addressing questions beyond the scope of traditional approaches, such as the seasonality of livestock births or the relative origins of animal products. Moreover, these pioneering studies provided the first demonstration of how historical contexts are ideally suited not only for the application of new archaeological sciences but also for experimenting with new scientific techniques and interpretive approaches. Studies by Landon (1993) and Klipple (2001), for instance, provided striking examples of how the historical record can transform ordinary archaeological contexts into semi-controlled experiments where documentary sources help to better constrain research design and data interpretation (Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012; see Katzenberg, et al. 2002 for earlier discussion of the value of historical context in human anlyses).  1.3 Stable Isotope Theory In this dissertation I use stable carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and sulfur (δ34S) isotope analyses of bone collagen to reveal patterns in past animal diets. In advance of discussing the potential for stable isotope analyses in historical archaeology, it is useful to review some basic theoretical tenets for the interpretation of stable isotope data. This section is intended as a general overview 3      of key concepts in isotope ecology focusing on δ13C and δ15N analyses in archaeology (δ34S is reviewed in Chapter 2). For each study (Chapters 2, 3, and 4), an additional in-depth review of specific factors for relevant archaeological contexts is given.  Stable isotope analyses in ecology and archaeology proceed on two main premises (for review see Lee‐Thorp 2008). The first is that, ‘you are what you eat’. In other words, because animal tissues are constructed using building materials (e.g., amino acids and other molecules) taken from the foods they eat, archaeologically preserved tissues such as collagen from bone provides an opportunity to directly analyze past diets. The second premise is that certain foods can have distinctive isotopic compositions. This means that biological tissues from the archaeological record such as bone collagen can preserve evidence for the different kinds of foods eaten by a human or animal based on the isotopically distinctive ‘signatures’ of their dietary components.  Collagen from bone4 is the most abundant organic molecule available from archaeological remains and, for this reason, has become the preferred material for archaeological bone chemistry. The process by which bone collagen forms and is remodeled has important implications for how it ‘records’ isotopic dietary signatures. Because bone remodels slowly over the life of an individual, the molecules composing the collagen within are gradually exchanged with new materials. In this way, the isotopic dietary signature recorded in bone collagen provides a long-term averaged perspective of dietary intake (e.g., over 20 years for humans; Hedges, et al. 2007; Ubelaker, et al. 2006). Collagen from primary tooth dentine differs from bone in that it does not remodel over the life of an individual and, instead, records dietary signatures over the discrete interval of time during which the tooth formed (Bocherens, et al. 1994; Hillson 2005; 4 The composition of bone is roughly 75% inorganic (i.e., mineral) and 25% organic. In fresh bone, approximately 90% of the organic fraction is collagen. 4                                                                  Sealy, et al. 1993). Another important interpretive factor is that some molecules from dietary protein, particularly amino acids, are preferentially used during the construction of collagen (Ambrose and Norr 1993; Tieszen and Fagre 1993). For this reason, under normal nutritional circumstances bone collagen stable isotope values will reflect the protein component of diet more strongly than dietary lipid and carbohydrate intake (Ambrose and Norr 1993; Tieszen and Fagre 1993).  Archaeological interpretation of bone collagen stable isotope values typically relies mainly on a few key isotopic variables. For δ13C, the most important isotopic relationship is between C3 (e.g., most shrubs, trees, and many agricultural crops) and C4 (mainly tropical grasses including maize, sugar cane, and millet) photosynthetic pathways (Tieszen 1991). Differing physiological adaptions (e.g., for water conservation) used by plants with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways result in a consistent pattern in discrimination against the heavier carbon isotopes (13C) such that they produce low and high δ13C values, respectively (Tieszen 1991). This means that dietary trends focusing on isotopcially (and economically) distinctive plants, such as maize or millet, can be identified in past diets (DeNiro and Epstein 1978; Van der Merwe and Vogel 1978). Another archaeologically important variable has been an apparent δ13C shift in foods from terrestrial (lower values) and certain aquatic (higher values) environments, which reflects differences in the prevailing source of carbon taken in by plants (i.e., dissolved bicarbonates vs. atmospheric carbon dioxide) at the base of the food web (Chisholm, et al. 1982). This has been most commonly observed in relation to marine dietary intake (Chisholm, et al. 1982; Tauber 1981). For δ15N, the main archaeological relevance is for distinguishing between different positions in a food web, or trophic level (i.e., plant, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore) (DeNiro and Epstein 1981). A stepwise enrichment, on the order of 3-5‰, in heavier 15N occurs as nutrients move 5      upward between trophic levels and this relationship has allowed some researchers to argue for differences in the relative carnivory based on bone collagen δ15N values (for review see Szpak, et al. 2012). However, as there can be substantial variation δ15N values at the soil-plant level of the nitrogen cycle at the base of a terrestrial food web, it is crucial to establish a baseline for local isotopic variation prior to interpretation of local human or animal dietary signatures (Szpak 2014). Archaeological studies typically rely on δ15N values from spatially and temporally ‘local’ herbivores for their baseline values (Katzenberg 1989). Another important use of δ15N values in archaeological interpretation is for identifying the consumption of aquatic protein (Schoeninger, et al. 1983). Whereas terrestrial ecosystems usually have only three trophic levels (i.e. autotroph, herbivore, carnivore), aquatic environments may have up to five steps due to additional levels of carnivory. For this reason, high δ15N values can provide a distinctive marker for consumption of high trophic level aquatic animal protein (Schoeninger, et al. 1983). 1.4 Stable Isotope Approaches to Historical Human-Animal Relations Recently, there has been a sharp increase in the application of stable isotope analyses, as well as other scientific techniques, to historical faunal remains (e.g., ZooMS; Fisher and Thomas 2012; Guiry in review; Guiry and Gaulton 2016; Guiry, et al. 2014; Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012; Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012; Guiry, et al. 2015; Guiry, et al. 2016; Harvey, et al. 2016; Reitsema, et al. 2015; Tourigny, et al. 2015). In the context of archaeological provenance studies, which often focus on sourcing abiotic materials (e.g., lithic, glass, and ceramics; Gratuze 1999; Kennett, et al. 2002; Robertshaw, et al. 2010), the remains of animals and their products provide a uniquely suited material for tracing past trade (Szpak, et al. 2014; Szpak, Millaire, et al. 2015). Because some animal tissues actively remodel (i.e., bone; Hedges, et al. 2007), while others grow incrementally (i.e., hair, fingernails, teeth; Fuller, et al. 2006; Hobson and Sease 1998), 6      these tissues can provide a dichromic record, or biography, of chemical signatures from feeding practices and the local environment throughout an individual animal’s life history. Therefore, when animals are moved between regions with isotopically distinctive foods, dietary information from faunal stable isotope analyses can also become an indicator for meat trade and animal mobility. Guiry and colleagues (2012) have recently argued that the particular strengths of stable isotope analytical techniques are ideally suited for expanding the scope of zooarchaeological approaches to major questions about animal husbandry and trade in the historical period. This is because many of the key developments in human-animal relations over the past 500 years have involved changes to how animals were stocked, fed, and transported. For instance, with the onset of the Age of Sail in the mid-late sixteenth century and subsequent improvements to canal and rail transportation systems in the nineteenth century, domestic animals and their products began routinely moving across immense distances at unprecedented speeds (Migaud 2011; Pate 2005). Other processes connected with industrialization, which produce byproducts used as livestock feed, allowed for enormous growth, centralization, and standardization of animal husbandry operations (Pate 2005). In this context, new legislative actions by various governments began to regulate the ways in which animals could be processed, thereby further impacting animal husbandry and trade (English 1990; Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012). While some aspects of these novel historical processes may be detectable using traditional zooarchaeological techniques, others will not. For instance, while long distance animal trade may be implied in cases where animal bones are found in transportation contexts (e.g., a shipwreck deposit of salt-meat barrel; Brophy and Crisman 2013; English 1990; Migaud 2011), there may be little 7      evidence for animal origin at terrestrial sites where food remains from various sources have been thoroughly mixed (e.g., Lawrence and Tucker 2002; Noël 2003).  In New World archaeological contexts, a small but steadily evolving body of research has begun to explore the potential for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope-based reconstructions of animal husbandry and trade practices during the historical period (for post-medieval and earlier medieval European work, see Hamilton and Thomas 2012; Hammond and O’Connor 2013; Millard, et al. 2013; Müldner, et al. 2014; Müldner and Richards 2005, 2007; Nelson, et al. 2012). Broadly, this research falls into two categories. The first set of studies has used environmental patterns in the natural abundance of isotopically distinctive C3 and C4 plants (Stewart, et al. 1995; Still, et al. 2003; Tieszen 1991) to identify instances of livestock trade. In these studies, animals that have stable carbon isotope values that do not fit with local natural and/or agricultural flora are interpreted as evidence for trade of animal products. Klipple’s (2001) study of cattle bones from an eighteenth-century sugar plantation on the Caribbean Island of St. Kitts was first to use stable carbon isotope analyses to distinguish between animals imported from different locations based on their consumption of isotopically distinct fodders. Similar patterns have been identified and explored more extensively during stable carbon and nitrogen isotope investigations of cattle and sheep remains at urban historical centers in colonial Georgia, USA (Reitsema, et al. 2015) and Melbourne, Australia (Guiry, et al. 2014).  The second major theme in previous isotopic-zooarchaeological investigation of historical animal husbandry and trade has focused on the dietary flexibility of specific domesticates. Unlike herbivores, the dietary adaptability of domestic omnivores makes them amenable to eating a wider range of human waste byproducts, which can be isotopically distinctive. Therefore, in historical contexts where animal keepers were presented with a choice between 8      feeding animals different types of isotopcially distinctive foods (e.g., spent grain at a brewery or meat offal at an abattoir), stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses may be able to identify a variety of animal husbandry practices which are not otherwise observable in the archaeological or historical records. For instance, a stable carbon and nitrogen isotope study of fauna from historical fishing sites in Newfoundland (Canada) identified patterns in the consumption of imported salt-meat and locally raised swine based on the isotopically distinctive diets of local animals raised on fisheries byproducts (Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012). Additional stable isotope work at Newfoundland fishing sites has also allowed for the exploration of undocumented trends in the seasonality of livestock reproduction (Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012; Guiry, et al. 2016) as well as related waste-management practices (Guiry and Gaulton 2016). 1.5 Research Design While this new body of research in ‘historical isotopic-zooarchaeology’ has demonstrated some of the potential for stable isotope analyses to contribute new evidence for the roles of animals in historical contexts, there are two key areas that will be expanded with this dissertation: (1) the effect of colonial transportation on animal isotopic variation and, (2) the social roles of animals and their products.  Previous studies have focused almost completely on either animal production sites or animal consumption sites, with little consideration for the critical period of transportation in between. This omission is particularly problematic because the movement of animals and their products from a supply/production region to a demand/consumption region is one  process by which they are economically and socially transformed as both commodities and symbols (Foster 2008; 9      Gosden and Marshall 1999). Furthermore, the same process of moving animals between different areas generates the isotopically distinctive patterns that are used to draw archaeological inferences. In this context, a lack of information about how historical trade influences isotopic patterns in archaeological animal remains hinders the interpretation of the social and economic role of animal husbandry and trade. Therefore, new analyses of well-contextualized historical transportation sites will be highly valuable. The impact of long-distance transportation processes on archaeological faunal assemblages has rarely been addressed, even in traditional zooarchaeological analyses, due to the scarcity of faunal collections that can be definitively attributed to the process of trade transportation. This likely reflects the relatively low archaeological visibility of the act of transporting trade materials. Archaeological shipwrecks, however, offer an important exception and can provide well-preserved faunal assemblages with excellent contextual information (Migaud 2011). For this reason, shipwrecks can provide a valuable context in which to explore the impact of animal transportation on the archaeological isotopic record.  Chapter 2 presents a stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope study of Canadian salt-meat remains from the 1841 wreck of the William Salthouse. This work is the first to explore an isotopic record from shipwreck fauna and addresses key interpretive issues with long-distance shipments of livestock and their products, such as the inclusion of animals from multiple source regions and different husbandry operations as well as, more generally, the typical level of isotopic variation present in an individual shipment of animal products.  The second focus of this dissertation is to explore the potential for stable isotope analyses of historical faunal remains to contribute new interpretations for the social role of animals and their 10      products. Previously published isotopic-zooarchaeology work has focused largely on ecological and economic aspects of meat trade and animal production. Whereas factors such as the origins of meat products or foods used to raise livestock in particular contexts may have important economic implications, their social meanings are often less clear. This dearth of consideration for social variables in previous work most likely reflects small sample sizes, which prevent the kinds of larger multisite comparative studies that are better suited to addressing complex social processes. However, with a carful research design and larger sample sizes, stable isotope analyses of faunal remains can be adapted to exploring social practices. Chapter 3 presents a stable carbon and nitrogen isotope study of archaeological faunal remains from nineteenth-century contexts in and around the urban center of York, Upper Canada (present day Toronto in Southern Ontario). This is the first study to use stable isotope analyses of animal remains to explore the social dimensions of food consumption practices in historical archaeology and reveals patterns between the consumption of imported pork products between upper- and lower-status households.  The final paper in this dissertation explores the social significance of animal husbandry in a brief but highly detailed historical episode and is intended to showcase key strengths offered by stable isotope analyses with respect to expanding the scope of archaeological investigation of cultural processes in historical contexts. In some cases, the historical record provides unusually rich contextual detail that can allow for specific testing of social hypotheses which would not normally be possible for archaeological research. This is sometimes the case when important historical events transpire with unexpected or tragic outcomes, prompting participants and observers to write about specific experiences and explanations for what had happened.  These events can also then generate significant, long-term public interest which may, in turn, inspire 11      substantial archaeological efforts, such as has been the case in the excavations of L'Anse aux Meadows (Ingstad 1977), Jamestown (Kelso 2006), the remains of the Franklin Expedition (Beattie and Geiger 1987), and the Mary Rose shipwreck (Rule 1982).  Chapter 4 presents a stable carbon and nitrogen isotope study of faunal remains from the seventeenth-century shipwreck La Belle. These faunal remains come from animals specifically described in historical accounts and that were part of La Salle’s famed (and failed) attempt to establish a French colony in Texas. The association between samples and detailed historical accounts provides a clear interpretive context in which to explore contrasting social and economic rationales for colonists’ surprising devotion to swine husbandry.  The specific aims of the papers presented in Chapters 2-4 differ and therefore each required a unique set of sampling and analytical procedures that were customized to a specific set of questions, species, analyses, and historical contexts. Therefore, instead of using prefacing chapters for each of these subjects, relevant background information for the stable isotope ecology, sampling and analytical procedures, and environmental context for each study are included separately in their respective chapter content.        12      Chapter 2  Tracing Historical Animal Husbandry, Meat Trade, and Food Provisioning: A Multi-Isotopic Approach to the Analysis of Shipwreck Faunal Remains from the William Salthouse, Port Phillip, Australia. 2.1 Synopsis Salted meats were an important food-stuff throughout recent centuries, not only as a protein source during long distance voyages but also in New World colonies. They were often used in conjunction with locally husbanded animals in areas where it was possible to raise European livestock. Isotope analysis can potentially be used to determine the sources and relative contributions of imported vs. local meats. This paper explores the stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values of bone collagen from barreled salt pork and beef products (n=18) recovered from the wreck site of the William Salthouse, a British ship that sank in 1841 while undertaking the first ever attempt at trade between Canada and Australia. Results show a pronounced heterogeneity in animal life histories and highlight a need for better understanding of variation in animal husbandry practices in major livestock production centers during the historical period.  2.2 Introduction Stable isotope analyses of human and faunal bone can help in understanding past diet and mobility in prehistory and are now routinely applied in a variety of archaeological research areas (Lee‐Thorp 2008). Stable isotopic techniques are as yet, however, underutilized in historical and maritime archaeology. This is particularly the case for research on human-animal relations, a field of study that is growing rapidly in prehistoric archaeology. Recent discussion has highlighted the fact that many novel forms of human-animal relations were caught up in parallel 13      social and economic processes of change throughout the historical period and could be detectable using stable isotope analyses (Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012). This is because shifting practices in historical animal husbandry and trade should have produced new and distinctive patterns in animal diet and movement.  A trend in the developing literature has been a focus on the use of stable isotope analyses to understand aspects of food provisioning at colonial sites via animal husbandry and/or long distance trade of livestock and animal products aboard seagoing vessels (Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012; Klippel 2001; Varney 2003). While this work has been successful, it has proceeded despite a limited knowledge of the nature of stable isotopic variation that might be expected in traded animal products. Future studies of human-animal relations at historical sites could be aided by an understanding of the potential dietary variability amongst animals raised in particular livestock producing regions and shipped to various colonies around the globe. Such an understanding may be obtained through analyses of the remains of animals that had been drawn into this shipping trade network that have known geographical and temporal origins based on historical records. An ideal source of such remains would be the faunal collections deriving from salt meat barrels recovered from shipwreck sites. Ships might be thought of as a temporary nexus for animal cargo that may be sourced from multiple locations near the point of departure and destined for dissemination to, and use at, potentially diverse sites of consumption upon completion of their seafaring journey. Recent research (Migaud 2011) which compiled information on such collections suggests that there are, in fact, a large number (over 30) of such potential sites to work with.  This paper presents the first study of stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values from faunal remains (n=18) recovered from a historical shipwreck, the William Salthouse. Carrying a 14      large commercial supply of barreled salt pork, beef, and fish from Montréal, Canada, the William Salthouse sank in 1841 while entering Port Phillip Bay near Melbourne, Australia (Staniforth 2000). Results are discussed in the context of previous historical faunal stable isotope work and demonstrate that animals transported in a single load of cargo could have relatively heterogeneous diets and probably had multiple origins. Findings illustrate the value of applying sulfur in conjunction with carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and highlight the potential for conducting similar studies on other shipwreck faunal collections. 2.3 Historical Context In 1841, the William Salthouse, a British trading vessel, was sailing between two very different colonial centers, Montréal, Canada and Melbourne, Australia when it made a fatal maneuver. During its final approach the ship collided with a submerged rock and eventually scuttled on a sand bar near the entrance of Port Phillip Bay (Staniforth 1997). (Figure 2.1). Periodic shortages of foodstuffs and other goods in the fledgling settlement of Melbourne during the late 1830s and 1840s meant that high profits could be made by ship owners willing to dispatch vessels to this new colony in Australia (Staniforth 2000). Though acting illegally, in contravention of the British Navigations Act, this may have been the incentive behind Green and Company of Liverpool’s decision to divert one of their vessels, the William Salthouse (under consignment to R.F. Maitland and Company), to transport goods valued at 12,000 pounds sterling from Montréal to Melbourne. The wrecksite of the William Salthouse was rediscovered in 1982 and underwent underwater excavations in 1983 and 1991 by the Maritime Archaeology Unit (MAU) of the Victoria Archaeology Survey (now Heritage Victoria; Staniforth and Vickery 1984). A number of 15      research projects have been undertaken on the material culture recovered from the site (Staniforth 2007) including the analyses of the casks (Staniforth 1987), salt meat faunal remains (English 1991; English 1990), and bottles (Morgan 1990; Peters 1996).  The ship’s cargo included at least 1086 ‘casks’ of various sizes of which 375 contained salt pork and 176 contained salt beef. Branded, cut, and/or stenciled markings on the lids of salt beef and pork barrels (Figure 2.2) indicate that their contents were of ‘prime’ or ‘prime mess’ quality and were inspected between December 1840 and April of 1841 by inspectors in Montréal (Staniforth 2000). This does not, however, necessarily mean that the pigs and cattle processed and packaged into these barrels were raised in the immediate vicinity. The inspection dates inscribed upon salt pork barrel lids suggest that these goods were part of stock received by R.F. Maitland and Company during late May and early June of 1841 and imply that they were already months old when taken on as cargo by the William Salthouse. Recent archival research has shed further light on the potential range of origins of the salt pork cargo aboard the ship. Shortly before the voyage, R.F. Maitland and Company took consignment of two shipments of salt pork from the barge Oswego (May 29th, 90 barrels; June 2nd, 67 barrels), one from the barge Kingston (June 5th, 15 barrels), and one from the barge Victoria (June 10th, 64 barrels; Staniforth 2000). These shipments were transported via the Lachine canal indicating that they were probably sourced from pig husbandry operations to the west of Montréal. The completion of the Welland (in 1829), Rideau (in 1832), and Miami & Erie (which opened the way from Toledo to Cincinnati in 1840) canals also meant that salt meat products could have been relatively easily transported from further west and south than ever before. In fact, new archival research suggests that pork products reaching Montréal may have come from as far away as Cincinnati (Ohio), which at the time was also sometimes known as "Porkopolis" as it 16      was the chief hog packing city in the USA (see also Brophy and Crisman 2013; Pate 2005:65; Pond 2003:6). This journey would have required more than 1000 miles of travel by the existing river, canal, and lock systems.  Pigs and pork products played a pivotal role during European settlement of the Great Lakes region and other farming areas to the south (e.g., James 1997:28; Pate 2005). The popularity of pig husbandry stemmed mainly from their capacity to eat virtually anything, from hunting and livestock offal to domestic and agricultural waste, as well as behavioral flexibility which also allows these animals to forage for their own food during leaner times (James 1997:28). With the growth in feedlots for livestock adjacent to industrial sources of edible food waste (e.g. distilleries) in the early 19th C., pigs could also be raised in relatively large numbers with more homogeneous diets (Pate 2005). These assets made pork a key source of protein and a valuable trade item that could be produced in either small or large husbandry operations. Archaeologically, however, this versatility means that the husbandry practices employed in raising a particular animal that has been traded can be difficult to determine.  2.4 Stable Isotope Ecology Stable isotope based paleodietary reconstructions are built on the premises that different foodstuffs can have distinctive isotopic compositions and that humans and animals are biologically constructed from molecules derived from the foods they have eaten. Numerous reviews of stable isotope theory for archaeology exist (see Lee‐Thorp 2008; Nehlich and Richards 2009; Richards, et al. 2003) but it is worth reiterating some of the key tenets related to bone collagen, the focus in this study, and stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope ecology.   17      Collagen is the primary protein component of bone. Relative to other bodily tissues, bones remodel or ‘turnover’ at a slower pace and, for this reason, the isotopic values in bone collagen records a relatively long-term (up to 20 years in humans; Hedges, et al. 2007; Wild, et al. 2000) average of dietary information. In addition, where dietary protein intake is nutritionally sufficient the stable isotope values of bone collagen will primarily reflect the protein component of diet (Ambrose and Norr 1993; Tieszen and Fagre 1993). Stable carbon (13C/12C; δ13C) and nitrogen (15N/14N; δ15N) isotope values are expressed as per mil (‰) values relative to the VPDB and AIR standards. Plants (and their animal consumers) with C4 and C3 photosynthetic pathways in terrestrial ecosystems produce isotopically heavier and lighter δ13C values, respectively (DeNiro and Epstein 1978; Schwarcz and Schoeninger 1991). C3 plants dominate the flora of temperate regions such as Northern Europe (Van Klinken, et al. 2002) while most archaeologically relevant C4 plants are tropical grasses such as maize (corn), sugar cane, and millet (Tieszen 1991). In addition to photosynthetic pathways, plant δ13C values can also be influenced by environmental and physiological factors such as forest canopy cover and irradiance  (Ehleringer, et al. 1986; Vogel 1978), temperature (Tieszen 1991), aridity and water stress (Farquhar and Richards 1984), altitude (Körner, et al. 1988), and salinity (Guy, et al. 1980).  Stable nitrogen isotope values increase by 3-5‰ with each step up a food web allowing for the differentiation of herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous diets (DeNiro and Epstein 1981; Hedges and Reynard 2007). Forming the base of the trophic web, most autotrophs take inorganic nitrogen in soil which can have variable δ15N values (for a review see Szpak 2014) in response to factors such as water stress (Heaton, et al. 1986), salinity (Heaton 1987), soil ammonia volotization (Mizutani, et al. 1985), altitude (Mariotti, et al. 1980), and the nature and quantity of 18      local bacterial activity (Van Klinken, et al. 2002). As the number of trophic levels in marine and freshwater ecosystems can be significantly greater than in terrestrial ecosystems, δ15N values can also provide a means of distinguishing between terrestrial and aquatic diets (Schoeninger, et al. 1983).  Stable sulfur isotope values (34S/32S; δ34S) in bone collagen reflect dietary methionine sources. Methionine is an essential amino acid with δ34S values that primarily derive from the soluble sulfur (in soil, bedrock, and local water) taken up by plants at the base of a food web (Brady and Weil 1996). For this reason, δ34S values have been used as a record of where an individual sourced foods during growth and turnover of their bone collagen (e.g., Bollongino, et al. 2013; Richards, et al. 2003; Richards, et al. 2001).  2.5 Previous Isotopic Research During the historical period at many New World permanent and seasonal sites it was common for settlers or visitors to rely at least partially on imported animal products (e.g., Landon 2009; Lawrence and Tucker 2002; Noël 2011; Simons and Maitri 2006; Tourigny 2009). Previous research on animal trade and husbandry in New World contexts has been able to effectively exploit isotopic variation produced by pronounced shifts in human-animal relations during this period (Ellerbrok 2014; Guiry, et al. 2014; Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012; Klippel 2001; Varney 2003). A trend binding most of these studies is that they rely on δ13C and δ15N data, which are normally reserved for reconstructing dietary intake and do not necessarily record evidence for geographical sources of meat products.  In these cases, however, they could be used for determining imported foodstuffs because the imported animal products were fed food that had different carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures than would be expected for local livestock 19      and wild game. These imported animals therefore had dietary signatures that were anomalous within their respective environmental, cultural, or economic contexts that, in conjunction with the historical written and archaeological records, allowed for the identification of instances of long distance animal trade5.  This previous emphasis on the use of δ13C and δ15N data for detecting whether or not animals were imported or locally raised at New World colonial sites may seem surprising given the existence of techniques that are more explicitly oriented towards reconstructing human and animal mobility and migration such as δ34S and stable oxygen (δ18O; e.g., White, et al. 1998) and radiogenic strontium ( 87Sr/86Sr; seeBentley 2006) isotope analyses. There are probably a number of factors behind this phenomenon such as the relatively low cost (compared to other isotope measurements) of δ13C and δ15N analysis and the fact that animal remains are often analyzed only as a baseline for human dietary reconstructions. Another issue could be that the tissue (enamel from teeth) that  is generally most reliable for 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O analyses may occur less frequently in the remains of salt meat products. On the other hand, δ34S analysis is becoming more accessible and can be applied to bone collagen. This study is the first to assess the applicability of δ34S analyses for reconstructing animal mobility patterns in an historical context. 2.6 Methods Though a significant number of casks have been preserved on the William Salthouse wrecksite, relatively small-scale excavations have produced a limited faunal collection from which we 5 It remains possible, though unlikely in their respective historical contexts, that some variation in livestock stable isotope values could also reflect animals raised locally using imported fodder or plant grown using imported fertilizers.  20                                                                  sampled 18 specimens. Sample selection proceeded based on available contextual information and minimum number of individual counts per barrel and aimed to acquire bone samples from as many individual animals as possible. Sampled bones were free of residual soft tissues and fat. Original notes from English’s (1991; 1990) faunal analyses were unavailable. For this reason, in some cases it was not always possible to ensure that specimens selected derive from separate animals based on archaeological contextual details alone. However, when isotopic differences between specimens are considered alongside contextual information, it appears that all specimens derive from separate individuals originating from at least nine different barrels. Collagen extraction followed well-established procedures (Nehlich and Richards 2009; Richards and Hedges 1999) and took place at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. Samples of bone weighing between 150 and 300 mg were abraded to remove surface contamination and then demineralized in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid at 4°C. The resulting collagen pseudomorphs were gelatinized on a heating block at 70°C in a pH ~3 solution for 48 h. Gelatin residues were purified using 5-8 μm Eeze filters (and for sulfur analyses, 30 kDa ultrafilters) before freezing and lyophilisation in a freeze dryer.  Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements took place in the CREAIT stable isotope laboratory at Memorial University of Newfoundland. One milligram subsamples of collagen were analyzed using a Carlo Erba NA 1500 Series II elemental analyzer coupled via continuous flow to a Thermo Delta V Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Based on replicate analyses of Elemental Microanalysis Standard B2155 (casein protein; n=4) the instrumental error (1σ) for δ13C and δ15N measurements in this run was ±0.05 ‰ and ±0.12 ‰, respectively. Stable sulfur isotopes were measured in the University of British Columbia’s Department of Anthropology Stable Isotope Laboratory. Four milligram samples of ultrafiltered collagen were combusted with 21      ~1mg of V2O5 on an Elementar vario MICRO cube elemental analyzer coupled to an Isoprime 100 isotope ratio mass spectrometer following procedures outlined by Nehlich and Richards (2009). Stable sulfur isotopes analyses of small bone collagen samples (relative to other published studies – i.e., usually c. 10 mg with conventional elemental analyzers with gas chromatographic separation) was achieved using the Temperature Programmed Desorption column in the MICRO cube elemental analyzer (Elementar Analysesysteme GmbH, Hanau, Germany), which allows for the separation of combusted gases without any influence of their weight percentages. Additionally the SO and SO2 gases can be released from the column at the same time, producing a more focused peak with a small baseline and no tailing. Based on replicate analyses (n=4) of international sulfur standards, IVA Casein Protein and  NIST 1577b bovine liver, the standard deviation for δ34S measurements was ±0.3 ‰ for this run. Measurements on an internal mammalian bone collagen standard (n=3) produced a standard deviation (1σ) of ±0.4 ‰. Collagen integrity was assessed using collagen yield, elemental carbon to nitrogen ratio, and elemental percent concentration criteria. Briefly, stable isotope values are considered valid when associated with a collagen yield above 2%, an atomic C:N ratio between 2.9 and 3.6, and elemental concentrations above 18% and 6% for carbon and nitrogen, respectively (DeNiro 1985; Van Klinken 1999), and between 0.15% and 0.35% for sulfur (Nehlich and Richards 2009).  2.7 Results Stable isotope values and collagen quality data from pigs and cattle are given in Table 2.1 and Figures 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5. All samples produced acceptable collagen integrity criteria. One pig 22      sample, LTU 31, produced a higher S% value and should be interpreted with caution. Pigs (n=16) produced average δ13C and δ15N values of −21.4±1.9 ‰ and +5.9±1.0 ‰, respectively. When LTU 26 (a probable partially C4 fed animal with δ13C and δ15N values of −15.8 ‰ and +6.4 ‰, respectively) is removed6, these values have a range of 3.9 ‰ for δ13C and 3.8 ‰ for δ15N and are consistent with a predominantly C3 oriented diet with varying quantities of plant and animal protein intake. The two cattle produced indistinguishable δ13C values of −21.9 ‰ and δ15N values of +3.7 ‰ and +3.9 ‰ indicating that they were pastured and foddered on C3 plants. Animals produced a wide range of δ34S values between +4.5 ‰ and +13.2 ‰ (average +8.8 ±2.8 ‰). Excluding two samples7 with the highest values (~+13 ‰), all pigs cluster into one of two significantly different groups (One Way ANOVA, Post Hoc Bonferroni test, P < 0.05) with average δ34S values of +9.9±0.8 ‰ (n=9; Figure 2.4 and 2.5, white diamonds) and 4.7±0.3 ‰ (n=4; Figure 2.4 and 2.5, grey diamonds). Two cattle specimens produced δ34S values of +8.8 and +7.2 ‰. 2.8 Discussion Stable carbon isotope evidence shows that pork and beef products loaded aboard the William Salthouse derive mostly from pigs and cattle that were fed diets based on C3 and, to some extent, C4 derived proteins. LTU 26 is an exception amongst the group and clearly consumed significant amounts of C4 based foods, probably deriving from maize. The large range in pig δ15N values, spanning at least one and possibly two trophic levels, suggests that these pigs were husbanded in areas with very different δ15N baseline values and/or that feeding practices were probably 6 This outlier falls more than two standard deviations from the group δ13C mean 7 These outliers fall more than two standard deviation from the δ34S mean for group A, B, and combined AB 23                                                                  variable within or between regions with some animals having a more herbivorous diet while others consuming larger amounts of animal protein.  Based on the nature of this faunal assemblage we can assume that these pigs were husbanded more or less contemporaneously or within the timespan of a year or two (probably between 1839 and 1841). For this reason, variation in the stable isotope composition of pig diets probably reflects differences between separate pig husbandry operations and their local environments. In this dataset, for instance, such differences in animal husbandry practices are most stark in the relative quantity for C3 and C4 plants incorporated in pig diets. This is significant in the context of a shipwreck faunal assemblage for two reasons. First, it shows that animals from a small window of time and relatively confined geographical region could have diverse dietary life histories. The implication here is that the variation in animal husbandry seen in animal products from a site may have little to do with changes in animal husbandry practices (e.g., differences in food types and feeding regimes) over time. Second it demonstrates that ships became a muster point for animals produced in different husbandry regimes. This means that, at sites on the receiving end of shipping based supply chains, one can expect a greater degree of variability in pork stable isotope values which could be transferred to their human consumers.  These findings have wider implications for interpreting stable isotope dietary information from pig and salt pork remains in colonial and other historical contexts. For example, it is interesting to consider these data in relation to the growing corpus of historical stable isotope values from pig remains excavated in other colonial contexts (Ellerbrok 2014; Guiry, et al. 2014; Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012; Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012; Varney 2003). For instance, the remains of pork products from the 17th to 19th C. sites of Dos de Cheval and Ferryland in Newfoundland, Canada, which are thought to represent pigs raised in Europe over a multi-century timescale, 24      have a much more restricted range of δ13C values (Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012). Indeed, data presented here shows a wider range for pig δ13C signatures (even without the outlier, LTU 26) than all combined values known from archaeological pork remains from Europe’s major livestock producing and victualing regions during both the Medieval and Post Medieval periods (Figure 2.6 and Table 2.2; n=31, δ13C range = 1.8 ‰, mean = −21.5±0.5 ‰ and δ15N range =+5.8 ‰, mean = +7.7±1.3 ‰). This makes sense given the relatively restricted temperate environmental and climatic conditions in major livestock husbandry areas of Northern Europe - mainly favoring the growth of C3 plants - which became provisioning stops for colonial seafarers on route to New World destinations (e.g., Mannion 2000; Mannion 2001). This stands in contrast to the situation in North America where the greater land area, a large range of climatic conditions, and well-known use of C4 cultigens such as maize as an animal fodder could produce greater heterogeneity in animal stable isotope values. The implication here is that we now have positive evidence to support the expectation that salt meat provisions deriving from North American sources will produce a wider array of isotope values (particularly δ13C) in comparison with those of major livestock producing regions in Europe, which were commonly drawn upon for salt meat provisions by colonial supply ships. There is also analytic value in further exploring these data in relation to 19th C. faunal data from Melbourne, Australia, the intended destination of salt pork cargo aboard the William Salthouse. Such a comparison allows for some consideration of the would-be (hypothetical) question, ‘how might such data be interpreted if they were derived from salt pork remains that, rather than spoiling aboard the ill-fated the William Salthouse, had completed their voyage and been consumed and discarded in Melbourne?’ Figure 2.7 shows the stable isotope data from salt pork remains recovered from the William Salthouse in the context of previously published values from 25      pigs (n=9) as well as local omnivores (rats [n=7] and dogs [n=4]) and herbivores (ovicaprids [n=4] and cattle [n=4]) from an urban 19th C. faunal assemblage recovered from Commonwealth Block site in Melbourne’s city center (Guiry, et al. 2014). While pig remains from the Commonwealth Block site could derive from imported animals, their stable isotope values (n=9; average δ13C of −19.7±1.5 ‰ and δ15N of +9.7±2.0 ‰) are consistent with the modern and archaeological isotopic baseline, showing a C3 dominated diet (with some C4 inputs) as well as variable but always elevated δ15N values. Salt pork remains from the William Salthouse have δ13C and δ15N values which are, for the most part, much lower than pigs, and even herbivores, from the Commonwealth Block site (significantly so for δ15N; One Way ANOVA, Post Hoc Bonferroni test, P < 0.05) and would be relatively easily distinguishable as non-local animals. On the other hand, when considered together, pig stable isotope values from both sites form a continuum and if certain salt pork bones from the William Salthouse, such as LTU40, had been collected and analyzed from the Commonwealth Block site it would not be possible to differentiate them from local animals based only on δ13C and δ15N data. This comparison highlights the potential problems with using dietary stable isotope information only to interpret geographical origin of faunal remains.  Stable sulfur isotopes add a complementary line of evidence to our analyses of pork products from the wrecksite of the William Salthouse, allowing us to consider whether varying pig husbandry practices were maintained in different regions. While δ34S values cannot be used to assess the specific origins of these pigs in the absence of archaeological baseline data from their potential regions of husbandry, they can still be used to estimate the number of the husbandry locations as well as to examine dietary variation between them.  26      Stable sulfur isotope data indicate that these pigs were raised in at least two areas with distinctive δ34S baselines (+4.7±0.3 ‰ [n=4] and +9.9±0.8 ‰ [n=9], respectively) and possibly three. Assuming that animal feed was not imported from other regions (either terrestrial or aquatic), this means that animal products taken on as cargo by the William Salthouse were probably obtained from farms in multiple regions. This fits well with the available historical information indicating that R.F. Maitland and Company had accepted salt meat shipments from at least three barges (see above) on route from multiple origins west of the Lachine canal up river of Montréal on the Upper St. Lawrence just prior to the provisioning of the William Salthouse.  We might expect that some of the dietary variation evident in pig δ13C and δ15N values would reflect animals raised in different regions with differing isotopic baselines or distinctive husbandry practices. In that context, it is surprising to note that both of the main groups of pigs, as defined by clustering δ34S values (Figure 2.3 white vs. grey diamonds), produced a similar range of δ13C and δ15N values suggesting that pig husbandry practices in both regions could have been equally diverse - based mostly on C3 food chains with varying quantities of animal protein intake spanning one trophic level. In the possible third group of δ34S values are two specimens, LTU 26 and 31 (Figure 2.4 and 2.5, black diamonds), with similar δ15N values and very high and low δ13C values, respectively. If these animals were husbanded in the same region it would demonstrate an extreme intraregional isotopic difference in pig feeding practices. It is also possible that these animals originate from different regions with a similar δ34S baseline. 2.9 Conclusion Though this dataset is derived from only one site, it demonstrates that shipwreck faunal assemblages are a valuable resource for stable isotopic reconstructions aimed at understanding 27      variability in the life histories of animals and human-animal relations in different parts of the world, both at and between the point of animal husbandry (exporter) and consumption of animal products (importer). Results provide an interesting historical snapshot indicating that: 1) historical pig husbandry practices in northeastern North America varied in the types of foods used as fodder; 2) that animal products loaded aboard a single ship bound for long distance trade could derive from animals with a relatively wide range of dietary life histories and origins; and 3) that stable isotope based reconstruction of animal trade and husbandry at colonial sites that sourced some of their meat products from North American suppliers may be more complex relative to other livestock production regions, such as Europe.  Beyond archaeological subsistence reconstructions, it should be pointed out that similar stable isotope based work on historical animal husbandry and human mobility could also have more direct applications to understandings of deeper cultural processes. For instance, recent historical analyses (e.g., Anderson 2002; Silverman 2003) have put increasing emphasis on understanding the ways in which indigenous peoples and colonial settlers and visitors interacted with and raised animals in the New World during the historical period as a means of uncovering important evidence for shifting inter- and intra-cultural norms and identities. In this context, future stable isotope analyses of faunal remains from shipwrecks, representing animals of relatively well-known origins and temporality, might contribute to wider debates on human experience in colonial times.  28      Table 2.1 Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope data from pigs and cattle loaded aboard the William Salthouse in the form of salt meat. Asterisks indicate stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values averaged from duplicate analyses. Lab No. Species Bone Side δ13C δ15N δ34S %col %N %C %S C:N LTU 26 Pig Os Coxa  −15.8 +6.4 +12.9 18.7 44.1 16 0.28 3.2 LTU 27 Pig Os Coxa  −19.4 +6.8 +10.1 20.5 42.9 15.5 0.32 3.2 LTU 28 Pig Mandible   −23.1 +4.6 +10.2 13.4 43.9 15.1 0.30 3.4 LTU 29 Pig Mandible L  −19.7 +5.9 +9.1 13.1 45.1 16.2 0.25 3.2 LTU 30* Pig Mandible L  −21.9 +6.2 +9.6 10.8 43.4 15.5 0.27 3.3 LTU 31 Pig Skull  −23.2 +6.9 +13.2 5.9 44.8 15 0.41 3.5 LTU 32 Cow Vertebra L  −21.9 +3.7 +8.6 22.6 43.5 15.7 0.27 3.2 LTU 33 Pig Ulna L  −21.8 +4.2 +10.5 19 44 16.1 0.26 3.2 LTU 34 Pig Mandible L  −21.9 +6.3 +11.0 18.1 43.7 15.6 0.26 3.3 LTU 35 Pig Mandible L  −21.8 +4.9 +10.6 18.9 41.2 14.9 0.27 3.2 LTU 36 Pig Mandible L  −22.1 +5.2 +9.0 16.6 40.6 14.4 0.27 3.3 LTU 37 Pig Skull   −23.2 +5.1 +9.0 2.4 42.7 14.7 0.22 3.4 LTU 38 Pig Scapula  −20.7 +6.2 NA 11.6 36.7 13 NA 3.3 LTU 39 Pig Tibia R  −22.3 +5.1 +5.1 23.4 42.9 15.2 0.25 3.3 LTU 40 Pig Tibia R  −21.9 +8.1 +4.5 19.5 41.9 14.7 0.28 3.3 LTU 41 Pig Mandible L  −22.7 +6.9 +4.6 9.5 33.6 11.5 0.23 3.4 LTU 42 Cow Femur  −21.9 +3.9 +7.2 20.2 42.9 15.3 0.25 3.3 LTU 43 Pig Madible L  −20.8 +5.3 +4.5 12.5 43.2 15.1 0.26 3.4    29      Table 2.2 Temporal and contextual information for British and French pig data from post A.D. 1000 as shown in Figure 4. St. Giles and Wharram Percy data are from (Müldner and Richards 2005); Fisher Gate and Tanner Row data are from (Müldner and Richards 2007); Besançon data are taken from (Bocherens 1991); and Mary Rose data are taken from (Tripp, et al. 2006). Site Time Period Number of Pigs  St. Giles (UK) 12th-15th C. 4 Wharram Percy (UK) Later Medieval 6 Fisher Gate (UK) 10th-12th C. High Medieval 5 Fisher Gate (UK) 13th-16th C. Later Medieval 7 Fisher Gate (UK) 1538-late 16th C. Post-medieval 1 Tanner Row (UK) 10th-12th C. High Medieval 4 Tanner Row (UK) 13th-16th C. Later Medieval 2 Besançon (France) 14th C. 1 Mary Rose (UK) 1545 1   30       Figure 2.1 Maps showing the route and final resting place of the William Salthouse (modified from Google Earth).   31       Figure 2.2 Inspection markings on a cask head from a barrel of salt beef excavated at the William Salthouse Shipwreck site in Port Phillip, Australia. Drawing by Jeff Hewitt (Staniforth 1987). Reproduced with permission.   32       Figure 2.3 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values from William Salthouse pig and cattle remains. Pigs and cattle are shown as diamonds and crosses, respectively. Color corresponds with stable sulfur isotope groupings.   33       Figure 2.4 Stable sulfur and carbon isotope values from William Salthouse pigs (color corresponds with stable sulfur isotope groupings).   34       Figure 2.5 Stable sulfur and nitrogen isotope values from William Salthouse pigs (color corresponds with stable sulfur isotope groupings).   35       Figure 2.6 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of pigs from the William Salthouse and those from historical and medieval pigs husbanded in major livestock production and victualing regions in Europe. European salt pork values are taken from pigs raised in Europe and imported to Newfoundland, Canada as shown in Guiry and colleagues (2012)(5 and 15 individuals from Ferryland and Dos de Cheval respectively; includes an additional 11 new unpublished values from the latter site). Post Medieval and Medieval European pigs derive from a number of sites in England and France as shown in Table 2.2.   36       Figure 2.7 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of salt pork remains from the William Salthouse and those from select historical fauna remains from meals consumed in the 19th C. at the Commonwealth Block site in Melbourne, Australia (Guiry, et al. 2014). For contextualization, comparative data from other fauna from the Commonwealth Block site are shown, including omnivores (rats [n=7] and dogs [n=4]) that inhabited the site as well as select herbivorous livestock (ovicaprids [n=4] and cattle [n=4]) with ‘local’ stable isotope signatures.   37      Chapter 3  Isotopic Analyses Reveal Geographical and Socioeconomic Patterns in Historical Domestic Animal Trade Between Wheat and Maize Agricultural Regions in Eastern North America 3.1 Synopsis Domestic animals played a vital role during the development of European colonial settlements in New World contexts. Over the past 40 years, historical zooarchaeologists have made significant contributions to key questions about the social, economic, and nutritional dimensions of domestic animal use in North American colonial contexts; however, techniques commonly employed in faunal analyses do not offer a means of assessing many key aspects of how animals were husbanded and traded. In this paper we develop an ‘isotopic-zooarchaeology’ approach to assessing the social and economic importance of meat trade and consumption of local and foreign animal products in northeastern North American. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of 310 cattle and pigs from 18 rural and urban archaeological sites in Upper Canada (present day Southern Ontario, Canada; ca. 1790-1890 AD) are compared with livestock from contemporary American sources to quantify the importance of meat from different origins at rural and high and low status urban contexts. Results show significant differences between urban and rural households in the consumption of ‘local’ animals and meat products acquired through long-distance trade. A striking pattern in urban contexts provides new evidence for the social significance of meat origins in historical Upper Canada and highlights the potential for isotopic-zooarchaeological approaches to reveal otherwise-hidden evidence for social and economic roles of animals in North American archaeology.   38      3.2 Introduction Stable isotope analyses of ancient human and animal tissues hold substantial, yet under-recognized, potential to provide archaeological insights into historical processes. This potential is particularly significant in the context of the world-wide expansion of European activities and industrialization (c. AD 1500-1900) that have fostered the profound global environmental, economic, and social changes which shape our contemporary world. While many historical and post-medieval archaeological studies have used stable isotope analyses of human remains to document changing diet, mobility, and residency patterns during this period (Beaumont, et al. 2013; Katzenberg, et al. 2002; Sparks 2012; Ubelaker and Owsley 2003), materials from the animals that were directly involved with, and in some cases the focus of, socioeconomic and technological innovations have received comparatively little attention (Guiry, et al. 2014; Guiry, et al. 2015; Klippel 2001; Reitsema, et al. 2013; Tourigny, et al. 2015). Isotopic patterns associated with a wide range of past events are recorded in different ways by animal species with divergent behavioral and ecological niches and this potential breadth of ‘isotopic perspectives’ can be used to explore past subsistence, mobility, and environmental changes that may not be recorded in human tissues (Guiry 2013; Guiry and Gaulton 2016; Szpak, et al. 2012; Szpak, et al. 2013). The archeological record is a particularly rich source of faunal remains and is well positioned to provide novel contexts in which to approach both long-standing and emerging questions about shifting historical economic practices, social processes, and human impacts on the environment (Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012). In this paper we explore the utility of faunal stable isotope values as a record of large-scale patterns in agriculture and socioeconomic change in recent centuries in eastern North America.  39      Agricultural adaptability was often key to the success of colonial endeavors and, therefore, subsistence innovation and flexibility were necessarily a vital interface between Europeans and their New World environments (e.g., Dugmore, et al. 2007; Dugmore, et al. 2012). Many of the earliest experiments with European New World colonization occurred along the western margins of the North Atlantic and these have become the focal point for archaeological and historical research seeking to understand the dynamic interplay between European attempts to transplant their culturally familiar agricultural systems, on the one hand, and adoption of New World resources, on the other (e.g., Anderson 2002; Reitz and Waselkov 2015). In North America, a change in emphasis from traditional European crops such as wheat to New World crops such as maize is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally important European agricultural adaptations (Staller, et al. 2006), one which underpins significant differences in isotopic composition between European and North American populations to this day (Nardoto, et al. 2006; Wagenmakers, et al. 1993). However, historical documentation suggests that the earliest European settlers in some areas did not embrace maize agriculture (e.g., McInnis 1984). In particular, settlers of what became York (est. 1793) and later Toronto (in 1834; hereafter Toronto) and its surrounding environs in Upper Canada between the 1790s and 1890s (est. 1791, later changed to Canada West [1841-1867], and now Ontario [1867-present]) developed a wheat-based agriculture regime (e.g., Lewis 1975; McCalla 1978), thereby ending at least 1500 years of maize-dominated cultivation by indigenous peoples in the area (e.g., Katzenberg 2006; Katzenberg, et al. 1995; Schwarcz, et al. 1985). Here, we undertake the first large-scale isotopic study of historical archaeological domestic animals in North America to explore economic and especially social practices associated with major agricultural shifts between culturally (Indigenous, Canadian, and American) and 40      geographically (Upper Canada and the United States of America [hereafter America]) distinct groups in the eastern Great Lakes Basin (Figure 3.1). We compare bone collagen stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from 310 late eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century (1790s to 1890s) pigs and cattle from urban sites associated with different social classes in Toronto as well as sites in its rural environs to test hypotheses about the potential for animal-based dietary and mobility information to verify historical accounts and address new socio-economic questions. In particular, we hypothesized that: 1) different agricultural systems founded on wheat (Upper Canada) and maize would leave a geographically patterned isotopic record in the remains of livestock, and 2) this distinction could be used to explore both (i) the extent to which maize agriculture was utilized or discarded by settling Europeans in Upper Canada and (ii) the economic (trade) and social (i.e., values assigned to fresh vs. salt pork) roles of animals and their products during the evolution North American trading networks (see Section 3.4).  3.3 Isotope Background Stable isotope analyses are based on the premise that the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) atoms incorporated to form biological tissues are taken directly from foods eaten by consumers. Some foods have distinctive isotopic compositions and it is therefore possible to distinguish between certain dietary regimes based on the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values of animal tissues, in this case, archaeological bone collagen (for review see Lee‐Thorp 2008). Relatively little change occurs in δ13C values as C atoms are passed up successive trophic levels in a ‘food chain’; for this reason, broad differences between plants using C3 (lower δ13C values) and C4 (higher δ13C values) photosynthesis can be recorded in the tissues of humans and animals that consume C that is predominantly taken from one or the other (DeNiro and Epstein 1978; 41      O'Leary 1988). In this study we are interested in exploring the importance of maize, a New World C4 cultigen, relative to traditional European crops such as wheat, oats, and barley as well as locally available natural resources which are predominantly C3 plants. Other factors such as consumption of some kinds of aquatic foods can also produce higher δ13C values (Chisholm, et al. 1982) but these are less relevant in our study context which is focused on a terrestrial temperate region. The δ15N values of consumer tissues become significantly higher, increasing by 3-4 ‰, as N is passed between trophic levels (DeNiro and Epstein 1981). This stepwise enrichment of 15N in consumer tissues can be a useful indicator of relative carnivory and also consumption of upper trophic level marine foods (Post 2002). A variety of environmental factors, however, can also create variability in δ15N values in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and, for this reason, baseline information from herbivore δ15N values is necessary for interpreting trophic level (e.g., Szpak 2014). 3.4 Research Design Research Questions Historical analyses suggest that maize agriculture, though long established in the region by indigenous communities at the time of European settlement (Katzenberg 2006), was not embraced by settlers and instead preference was given to C3 plants such as wheat, oats, and peas (McInnis 1982, 1984, 1987). In the same period in the US, however, maize continued to be widely cultivated and maintained an important role as source of animal feed, especially for fattening livestock (i.e., pigs and cattle) (e.g., Pate 2005). While farms in Upper Canada usually raised some livestock, particularly pigs, for market sale to generate income (e.g., Lewis 2001; 42      Lewis and Urquhart 1999; McCalla 1985a, b), their southern counterparts in America produced larger quantities for commercial sale and, with coinciding advances in canal and rail transport systems, much of this surplus was traded north to urban centers like Toronto, in the form of barreled salt pork and beef (McCalla 1979; McInnis 1982; Pate 2005). In the temperate terrestrial environment of Upper Canada, δ13C values from domestic herbivores and omnivores should provide a means of identifying animals raised locally (i.e., lower δ13C values from C3 plant consumption) and animals imported from America (i.e., higher δ13C values reflecting some C4 plant intake). In this context, we compare δ13C and δ15N values from cattle (n=144) and pigs (n=124) collected from: 1) urban sites (n=5) in Toronto, and 2) rural sites (n=13) in the region (Figure 3.1) in order to assess the extent to which European settlers had either integrated or disused maize as a crop staple. In this context we also tested two related hypotheses: 1) If historical analyses (e.g., McInnis 1984) indicating that settlers preferred to cultivate wheat over maize as their agricultural staple are correct then there will be a lower proportion of C4-fed animals identified in Upper Canada rural contexts, where animals were locally produced, relative to their urban counterparts in Toronto, where there was more access to imported animal products from the US. 2) If there was a historical preference for superior quality of fresh, as opposed to preserved, meats then, within urban contexts, C4-fed animals (i.e., likely imported as salt meat from America) would be found in lower frequency at higher-status sites relative to lower-status sites due to greater access to market goods for wealthier households.    43      Sampling Strategy We focus on cattle and pigs because these species were the most important domesticates for settlers from economic and dietary perspectives (McInnis 1987; Reitz and Waselkov 2015) and were also highly visible and symbolically valued animals within a European social framework (Anderson 2002; Landon 2009). Both species were preferentially fattened on maize (when available) and used to produce barreled salt meat for long-distance trade (Pate 2005).  Samples were selected based on minimum number of individual estimates per species for archaeologically distinct contexts. For higher status sites (urban middle and upper class), samples were collected from domestic refuse associated with a series of seven homes at two sites in wealthy neighborhoods (ASI 2012a, b). Lower status (working and lower class) sites are represented by samples from two houses in poorer areas as well as a hospital (ASI 2014a, b; HHI 2011). As a baseline for locally raised livestock we collected samples from thirteen contemporaneous rural agricultural homestead sites distributed mostly within 25 km around the outskirts of Toronto. For a comparison with contemporary livestock from America, we sourced baseline values from the literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015) and also analyzed bones (n=11) recovered from salt meat barrels on the steamboat Heroine, which was wrecked on the Red River in 1838 while transporting cargo from Cincinnati, Ohio, to Fort Towson, Oklahoma (Crisman, et al. 2013). These bones are mainly from intact salt-pork barrels packed by Alfred S. Reeder Packers Cincinnati in 1837 (Brophy and Crisman 2013) and are representative of a key American livestock region that produced salt meats which could have been traded north to Upper and Lower Canada via the Miami-Erie canal during the nineteenth century (Guiry, et al. 2015; Pate 2005).   44      3.5 Methods Following a modified Longin protocol (Beaumont, et al. 2010; Longin 1971), cleaned animal bone samples (100-400mg) were soaked in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), with periodic solution changes until the sample was demineralized (usually 1-3 weeks). Samples were then rinsed to neutrality in pure water and treated several times with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in an ultrasonic bath (15 min intervals) until visible reactions ceased (i.e., the solution remained clear; usually within 1 hour). Samples were again rinsed to neutrality with Type I water and then refluxed in a 10−3 M HCl (pH ~3) solution at 75°C for 48 hours. The soluble collagen solution was then further purified using 45−90 μm mesh filters (Elkay Laboratory Products, Basingstoke, UK) and 30 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filters (Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY, USA) to remove larger particulates and low molecular weight contaminants, respectively (Brown et al. 1988). The solutions containing the >30 kDa fraction were then frozen for 24 h and lyophilized for 48 h.  Stable isotope analyses were performed in duplicate on 0.5 mg samples of collagen using an Elementar vario MICRO cube elemental analyzer coupled to an Isoprime isotope ratio mass spectrometer in continuous flow mode. C and N isotopic compositions were calibrated relative to VPDB and AIR using USGS40 and USGS41. Analytical accuracy and precision were assessed using internal methionine, modern seal collagen, archaeological caribou collagen, and archaeological walrus collagen standards. Collagen integrity was assessed using elemental C and N concentrations as well as C to N ratios (Ambrose 1990). For statistical analyses, we used a K-means cluster analysis (Hartigan and Wong, 1979) of δ13C values for pigs from Upper Canada to aggregate C3- and C4-fed group members. The cluster analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Mac OS X (IBM_Corp 2014). Cattle and pig dietary contributions from C3 and C4 45      plants were estimated using a single-isotope mixing model in the SIAR (Stable Isotope Analyses in R) package (Parnell, et al. 2010) in R 3.0.3 for Mac OS X (R Core Development Team, 2007). Parameters for C3 and C4 input were set at −26.0±2.0 ‰ and −12.0±1.0 ‰, respectively. The trophic enrichment factor for collagen was set at +3.7±1.6 ‰ (Szpak, et al. 2012). Carbon concentrations in C3 and C4 plants were assumed to be the same.  3.6 Results Stable isotope and elemental concentration data are presented in full in Appendix Table 1 and are summarized in Appendix Table 2 and Figure 3.2 and 3.3. Collagen integrity indicators vary, with most samples (90 %) producing values in the acceptable range for C/N (2.9-3.6) and elemental C (>18%) and N (>6%) concentrations (Ambrose 1990). Figure 3.2 shows that cattle at rural sites (n=81) produced no evidence for C4 dietary inputs (C4 contribution: 3−10%, 95% credibility interval) and had uniformly low δ13C values averaging −21.6±1.1 ‰ and δ15N values averaging +6.7±0.8 ‰. Pigs from rural sites (n=65) had similarly low δ13C values averaging −21.2±0.9 ‰ and δ15N values averaging +6.9±1.6 ‰ indicating that they also had no significant maize-based dietary inputs (C4 contribution: 7−15%, 95% credibility interval). All pigs from the steamboat Heroine (n=8), on the other hand, show clear evidence for significant C4 (probably maize) dietary inputs (C4 contribution: 39−62%, 95% credibility interval) with higher δ13C values averaging −14.7±2.9 ‰ and δ15N values averaging +6.5±1.1 ‰. Only two cattle and one horse were analyzed from this site but, together with published values from cattle from several other historic contexts around eastern America (Reistema et al. 2015), these also produced δ13C (n=30; average = −15.1±1.7 ‰) and δ15N (n=30; average = +4.5±1.4 ‰) values indicating a high reliance on C4 plants (C4 contribution: 48−57%, 95% credibility interval; Figure 3.2). This difference between livestock from rural Upper Canada and Cincinnati (the largest pork producer 46      in North America at this time; Pate 2005), with lower and higher δ13C values, respectively, supports the premise that C4 maize dietary input can be a useful marker for livestock origin in C3 wheat-dominated Upper Canada. Relative to rural sites, pigs (n=59) at urban sites produced a much wider range of δ13C values, averaging −20.2±2.5 ‰ (range = −22.9 to –11.4 ‰) but had similar δ15N values averaging +6.9±1.6 ‰. This variability reflects the presence of a significantly different group of pigs (n=11; K-means cluster analysis) with higher δ13C values (average = −15.5±2.0 ‰; range = −18.4 to –11.4 ‰) that consumed between 46 and 64% C4 foods (95% credibility interval; Figure 3.3), which are primarily localized to a series of higher status homes (AjGu-49) in a relatively affluent area. Urban cattle (n=63), however, do not follow this trend and, like their rural counterparts, have uniformly low δ13C values averaging −21.6±0.9 ‰ with δ15N values that are also similar, averaging +7.0±0.8 ‰.  3.7 Discussion  Livestock δ13C values (n=146) at rural sites around Toronto show an overwhelming dominance of C3 dietary input and support historical interpretations (McCalla 1978; McInnis 1984) suggesting that European settlers in Upper Canada focused on wheat rather than maize agriculture. In this context, it is worth pointing out that butchery marks as well as element types for samples that did produce δ13C values indicative of C4-feeding at rural sites (SUBC 9189, cattle rib, and 9279, pig vertebra) were consistent with common salt meat cuts suggesting that they most likely represent the occasional purchase of imported commercial meat products from offsite sources, rather than locally raised animals. The near-complete absence of C4-fed livestock 47      is particularly interesting because it was still possible (and perhaps even profitable) to cultivate maize on a limited basis as a valuable source of feed for fattening livestock (McInnis 1982).  Given our large sample size (146 rural cattle and pigs) and broad geographical coverage (c. 200 km around the western margin of Lake Ontario) we believe that this pattern is representative of agricultural practices across this region of Upper Canada and, therefore, it appears that the exclusion of maize cultivation (i.e., in comparison with data from earlier time periods, e.g., Katzenberg 2006) was pervasive throughout a large geographical area. This finding provides a unique isotopic context, both temporally and spatially, in eastern North America. An important implication for the absence of C4 feeding in locally raised animals is that it can allow for clearer interpretations of the presence and archaeological distribution of imported maize-fed animal products in different urban socioeconomic contexts.  Analyses of remains from beef and pork consumed in different social contexts in the urban centre of Toronto provide contrasting evidence for the trajectories and origins of meat products from cattle and pigs in nineteenth-century Upper Canada. Nearly all cattle from urban contexts, regardless of the social statuses associated with their respective sites, produced δ13C values indicative of a C3-based diets and fall comfortably within the range observed for rural animal production sites in the local region. A single individual (SUBC 5048) from a lower status site produced a higher δ13C value indicative of C4-fed animal and indicates that beef from maize-fed cattle did occasionally find its way to the markets of Toronto. From a social perspective, the isotopic similarity between cattle remains from rural and upper and lower status urban households suggests that locally produced beef was accessible and preferable to members of diverse social classes and that the origin of beef products (insofar as is 48      detectable through our isotopic analyses) may not have carried significant social value for people living in nineteenth-century Upper Canada. Given the adverse effects that salt-based preservatives can have particularly on beef flavor and texture, we would anticipate a historical preference among all social groups for fresh beef when possible. In this context, our results may simply reflect the fact that nineteenth-century cattle production in Upper Canada was sufficient to satisfy both rural and urban needs and, therefore, there was no need to rely on imported meat products as might occur early on during the establishment of colonial centres.  From an economic perspective, this finding is significant in that it provides negative archaeological evidence for the mobility of cattle, one of the most important colonial domesticates, between two key regions of European New World activity.   In contrast to cattle, maize-fed pigs made up an appreciable portion of the urban pork assemblage and differed markedly between sites of different social statuses. At lower status sites, nearly all pork remains had δ13C values indicative of a C3-fed diet suggesting that less wealthy urban people probably consumed pork from locally raised pigs. At higher status sites, a significant proportion (>20%) of pig remains show high δ13C values and clearly had diets incorporating a significant amount of C4 foods, most likely maize. It therefore appears that, while imported pork products did not make up a significant portion of the pigs consumed in all urban areas, they were frequently consumed by wealthier members of society.  The association of C4-fed pigs with wealthier sites contradicts our hypothesis (Section 3.4) and could suggest that they were perceived as a higher status food item, perhaps because of the fact that they were likely imported (and therefore exotic) or due to a preference for the qualities of 49      pork from pigs finished on maize8, which can impart differing flavor profiles and fat content (Calkins and Hodgen 2007). Consumption of salt pork may also, in part, reflect access to pork on a more regular basis. While pigs can be slaughtered year round, it is possible that those who could afford it purchased salted pork for the convenience and ease of regular access.   With respect to the potential for using well-contextualized historical archaeological sites as a venue for testing isotopic interpretive methods, these results are interesting as they present an example which may be useful for interpreting meat trade and consumption patterns in the deeper past where historical records are unavailable. For example, bearing in mind issues with the use of analogy in archaeological interpretation (Wylie 2002), the finding that isotopically detectable differences in animal origins may be connected with social status of different communities within a single settlement could provide a useful basis for approaching social status in relation to foods origins, and food trade more generally, in more ancient contexts. This would be particularly useful in contexts where the use of C3 and C4 plants varied between different agricultural centers in the ancient world, such as maize-based regions in North America or millet-based regions in Asia.  3.8 Conclusion From a wider angle, the evidence for an overwhelming dominance of C3-fed domesticates at all historical Euro-Canadian rural sites represents a profound shift, both temporally and geographically, in the way incoming settlers engaged with their new agricultural landscape in the eastern Great Lakes Basin. In contrast to previous indigenous maize-based agricultural regimes 8 It is possible that maize could have been imported from America for the purpose of feeding pigs but this interpretation would not be parsimonious in the historical context of Upper Canada, where maize agriculture could be locally practiced. 50                                                                  (Katzenberg 2006), European settlers chose a different path – wheat agriculture. Our isotopic evidence is in line with historical analyses suggesting that wheat came to monopolize agricultural land under European cultivation (McCalla 1978); however, the complete absence of maize in livestock diets at all rural sites provides surprisingly clear insight into the pervasive nature of this shift in agricultural regimes.  The sharp distinction between agricultural practices in Upper Canada, where new introduced C3 crops monopolized farm fields, and more southerly regions of eastern North America, where maize agriculture continued to play an important role, provides a new opportunity to explore historical processes linked with animal husbandry and meat consumption. Here we used this relationship to consider broad trends in local as well as international meat trade among groups of differing economic and social statuses in nineteenth-century Toronto and were surprised to find that wealthier individuals consumed more imported salt-meat products (as opposed to fresh meats) than their less wealthy counterparts. This unexpected finding inverted our expectations about how animals and their products were valued socially in the past and serves to highlight the immense potential for testing hypotheses about relationships between humans and animals during the profound socio-economic developments associated with the rise of the industrial era. In this context, the roles of livestock, which were ubiquitous in urban spaces until the early 20th century, underwent continued economic, social, and legal evolution, particularly in response to changing transportation infrastructure, globalizing economic markets, and new norms for how people should and could relate to animals (Kheraj 2013; Pate 2005; Ritvo 1994). Given the considerable importance of historical human-animal relations as precursors to present-day ontologies about how humans mediate their relations to animals (Armstrong Oma 2010; Ingold 1994; Knight 2005; Puputti 2008), increased work in this area could be highly productive.  51       Figure 3.1 Map showing locations of Upper Canada Historical sites considered in this study. Sites are labeled as follows:  [1] Ashbridge (AjGt-1), [2] Trull (AlGq-67), [3] CH36 (AlGr-315), [4] Graham (AjGs-370), [5] Lewis (AlGu-365), [6] Edgar (AlGu-196), [7] Hall (AlGw-68), [8] Dolson (AkGx-80), [9] Landmart (AkGw-474), [10] Edwards (AjGw-470), [11] Henry (AhGw-123), [12] Yeager, [13] Loretto (AgGs-326), [14] Bell (AjGu-68), [15] Bishop’s Block (AjGu-49), [16] Dollery (AjGu-81), [17] 327-333 Queen St. (AjGu-63), [18] Toronto General Hospital (AjGu-51).  52      \  Figure 3.2 Bottom panel: bivariate plot of δ13C and δ15N values for cattle with comparative Eastern US data from published literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015). Top panel: SIAR (Parnell, et al. 2010) density histograms showing % dietary contributions from C4 plants for different urban and rural cattle groups from Upper Canada alongside contemporary livestock (combined pigs and cattle) from US sites including animals from the steamboat Heroine and literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015).  53       Figure 3.3 Bottom panel: bivariate plot of δ13C and δ15N values for pigs (bottom) analyzed in this study. Top: SIAR (Parnell, et al. 2010) density histogram showing % dietary contributions from C4 plants for different urban and rural pig groups from Upper Canada alongside contemporary livestock (combined pigs and cattle) from US sites including animals from the steamboat Heroine and from published literature (Reitsema, et al. 2015).   54      Chapter 4  Animal Husbandry and Colonial Adaptive Behavior: Isotopic Insights from the La Belle Shipwreck Fauna  4.1 Synopsis Changing social and economic practices had an important role for human adaptive strategies in colonial contexts and sometimes had profound consequences for emerging societies. In this study we use insights from stable isotope analyses, as well as other historical and archaeological evidence, to investigate the social and economic roles of French animal husbandry as an adaptive strategy for the settlers taking part in La Salle’s famous expedition (1684-1688) to colonize the mouth of the Mississippi River. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of pig bones and other faunal remains from the shipwreck, La Belle and associated Fort Saint Louis on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico are used to evaluate specific historical accounts for colonists’ animal husbandry practices and show that a large swine population was sustained primarily on meat from local hunting activities. In this context we argue that the substantial efforts involved in raising pigs mainly on other animal products makes little economic sense and instead we offer a more parsimonious social explanation. This study provides the first example of how stable isotope analyses of animal husbandry practices can contribute to understanding social processes in historical archaeology.   4.2 Introduction Understanding human adaptive behavior in colonial contexts has become an important research theme not only in the historical era (e.g., Graham, et al. 2007:28; McEwan 1986) but in all time periods and contexts (e.g., Dugmore, et al. 2012; Kirch 1997). This is because adaptive strategies 55      developed by new immigrants could have profound implications for the success or failure of a colony and could also set the stage for long-term trends in cultural change (e.g., Blanton 2003; Dugmore, et al. 2007). For new arrivals in many early colonial contexts, animal husbandry and related subsistence activities represented the frontline of articulation between their culture and their new environment (Landon 2009; Reitz 1992; Reitz and Waselkov 2015). For this reason, the choices involved in animal husbandry practices are likely to reflect key social and economic processes, which may be less visible in other areas of the archaeological and historical record (e.g., Anderson 2002).  Archaeological excavations of the seventeenth-century shipwreck La Belle (41MG86; hereafter LB) (Bruseth and Turner 2004) and associated temporary settlement of Fort Saint Louis (41VT4; hereafter FSL) (Bruseth, et al. 2004) in present-day Texas provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore in detail the decisions made by a group of European settlers while adapting to an unfamiliar setting in the New World (Figure 4. 1). These sites represent the first few years (1684 to 1688) of French settlement on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico and preserve evidence for La Salle’s famed attempt to colonize the mouth of the Mississippi River (Carlin and Keith 1997; Carrell 2003; Davis and Bruseth 2000; Durst 2009; Gilmore 1973, 1986; Keith, et al. 1997; Weddle 2001).  Archaeological and historical sources reveal an impressive wealth of evidence for what happened during La Salle’s expedition. A remarkable series of first-hand accounts from historical participants (Cavelier 1861; Douay 1881; Joutel 1998; Meunier 1998; Minte 1987; Talon 1987)9 describe how colonists’ behaved opportunistically, taking advantage of whatever new resources 9 Some of these accounts, particularly Cavelier’s are thought to be less reliable (e.g., see Foster 1998:28). In this paper we lean most heavily on the more widely respected accounts of Henri Joutel as he was the expedition biographer and wrote most comprehensively about daily life for colonists at FSL. 56                                                                  were readily at hand, particularly when it came to subsistence (Joutel 1998:60-61, 76-77, 79-81, 99, 123-125; Talon 1987:226-228,232-233). These historical reports are complemented by analyses of faunal remains and point to a diet heavily reliant on the bounty of local wild fauna (Bruseth and Turner 2004; Bruseth, et al. 2004; DeFrance 2011; Meissner 2003). However, historical documents also clearly outline a contrasting scenario in which new colonists went to surprising lengths to maintain some of their traditional European subsistence practices. In particular, these sources emphasize how settlers allocated significant resources to swine husbandry despite the local abundance of wild foods (Joutel 1998:123-125; Talon 1987:226-228,232-233). In the context of La Salle’s expedition objective, the dual subsistence focuses on both wild and domestic resources seem at odds with one another. Unfortunately, relatively little archaeological evidence remains for us to directly explore these animal husbandry practices or to confirm associated historical accounts. In this paper, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of faunal remains to assess whether husbandry practices for animals recovered from La Salle’s expedition are consistent with those described in associated historical accounts. In particular, a key recurring detail in the historical record is that the colonists’ pig husbandry operation was supported primarily on meat from local hunting activities, especially from bison (Joutel 1998:122, 128, 129, 140, 149). If historical pig husbandry practices in the first years of settlement involved feeding pigs mainly on bison and other meat, we might expect a distinctive isotopic signature in the remains of associated pigs, which were available from the LB for analyses. We use these data to investigate the contrasting cultural and economic rationales behind the colonists’ animal husbandry and subsistence activities. 57      4.3 Historical and Archaeological Context Recent archaeological excavations (Bruseth and Turner 2004; Bruseth, et al. 2004) and historical analyses have provided a rich source of data to reconstruct the events of La Salle’s expedition (Bruseth and Turner 2004; Foster 1998; Galloway 1987; Meyrieux 2016; Weddle 1987b, 1991, 2001, 2014; Weddle 1972, 2009; Wood 1984). In March 1684, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle obtained backing from French King, Louis XIV to lead an expedition by sea into Spanish Territory in the Gulf of Mexico with the objective of establishing a French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River. La Salle embarked on his journey from the French port of La Rochelle in July, 1684 with 280 people and four ships loaded with the supplies they would need to establish their new colony. Through an overwhelming series of misfortunes many of these would-be settlers as well as La Salle himself perished, not having reached their intended destination. The demise of La Salle’s expedition had important consequences not only for those who accompanied him, but also for the global struggle between colonial powers seeking to control valuable New World territories (Foster 1998:4,6,22-23; Weddle 1987a; 1991:1,6-8). By January 1685, after an arduous journey across the Atlantic Ocean and through the Caribbean Islands, La Salle’s expedition had made it to the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico (Galloway 1987; Joutel 1998; Meunier 1998; Minte 1987). Shortly after, with only 180 colonists and one ship (LB) remaining, La Salle managed to establish an encampment near present day Matagorda Bay, roughly 700 km west of their intended destination (Joutel 1998:95)(Figure 4.1). La Salle and his crew were experiencing great difficulty locating the mouth of the Mississippi and by June, 1685 he had ordered the construction of a more substantial, but still temporary, settlement a few kilometers up a nearby river (Joutel 1998:101). Though relations with local Karankawa peoples had quickly soured (Joutel 1998:93-94; Meunier 1998:186-186; Minte 1987:112-113) 58      and there was a chronic shortage of building materials (Joutel 1998:102-103), colonists were able to construct a temporary base of operations, FSL, from which La Salle would launch expeditions by land to search for the Mississippi River (Joutel 1998:102-152).  FSL was situated on high ground adjacent to Garcitas Creek (several km north of Matagorda Bay) (Bolton 1915; Gilmore 1973; Tunnell 1998) in a grassland environment but colonists could also travel to a mosaic of nearby habitats, including coastal estuaries, rivers, and woodland groves to access an abundant and diverse range of edible wild plants and animals. (Joutel 1998:123-129; McAlister and McAlister 2004; Talon 1987:226-228, 232-233; Weniger 1987). They also supplemented these foods with agricultural products, such as maize, acquired through occasional trade with the Caddoan peoples to the northeast. Aside from pigs, their own attempts to grow crops and raise livestock were often unsuccessful (Joutel 1998:102, 112, 129, 140-141, 147; Talon 1987:232). The expedition’s last ship, LB, was lost the following year, in February 1686 (Bruseth and Turner 2004; Joutel 1998:135-138; Weddle 2001). The LB had recently been loaded with some of the settlers as well as livestock (mainly pigs), supplies, and provisions (particularly cured bison meat) from FSL and her captain was instructed to follow La Salle and a party of his men (who were on land) up the coastline of Matagorda Bay during one of many expeditions to find the Mississippi River. When the party turned inland to explore the area, the LB was instructed to lay anchor and await their return. La Salle’s delayed return ignited a grim cascade of misfortunes which led to the scuttling of LB and the loss of most of her crew, supplies, and livestock.  Over the next couple of years the remaining population of colonists at FSL dwindled while La Salle continued launching expeditions to find the Mississippi River. Eventually, in January 1687, 59      La Salle and a group of men attempted to trek north to Canada to find help.  On this journey La Salle was killed in a mutiny and ultimately only 6 men would make it home to France (Foster 1998; Weddle 1987a). The 20 or so remaining colonists continued on for a year, but all except a handful of children were massacred by a group of Karankawa peoples probably around Christmas, 1688, ending the French occupation of FSL (Talon 1987; Weddle 1987b:214, 216; Weddle 1972). Given the great historical significance of La Salle’s attempt to colonize the Mississippi, LB received substantial archaeological attention after its discovery in 1996 (Arnold 1996a, b; Bruseth and Turner 2004; Weddle 2001, 2014). Excellent preservation as well as its meticulous coffer-dam excavation led to the recovery of a large number of well-preserved artifacts as well as some faunal remains which can be directly linked to these historical accounts. Around the same time, renewed excavations at FSL also produced a wealth of artifacts as well as a large but highly fragmented faunal collection (Bruseth, et al. 2004). 4.4 Stable Isotope Background Biological tissues such as animal flesh and bone are constructed from materials obtained through dietary intake, some of which have distinctive stable isotope compositions. This process of incorporating molecules from diet into bodily tissues means that we can analyze the stable isotope composition of materials preserved in archaeological bone to explore past diet (Lee‐Thorp 2008). In this paper we focus on stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values in bone and tooth dentine collagen, which primarily reflect dietary protein intake (Ambrose and Norr 1993; Tieszen and Fagre 1993). Bone remodels slowly over the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects a long-term dietary average (Hedges, et al. 2007). Collagen from the primary 60      dentine in teeth is laid down in discreet consecutive intervals perpendicular to a tooth’s growth axis and therefore preserves a diachronic record of diet over the timeframe in which a tooth was formed (Gage, et al. 1989; Guiry, et al. 2016; Hillson 2005).  In terrestrial environments, δ13C values are often used to distinguish between diets that relied heavily on plants with either C3 (lower values) or C4 (higher values) photosynthetic pathways. In the regional context of FSL and LB (Joutel 1998:123-129; McAlister and McAlister 2004; Weniger 1987), both types of plants would be available with more C3 species in inland forests and more C4 species in local grasslands. A third photosynthetic pathway, CAM, which produces a more variable range of δ13C values falling between those  C3 and C4 plants (but closer to the C4 end) is also present in some species that were economically useful such as the prickly pear (Weniger 1987). Diets incorporating significant quantities of marine protein can also produce higher δ13C values (Chisholm, et al. 1982).  Unlike δ13C, δ15N values increase significantly (between 3-5 ‰) between ascending steps in a foodchain (DeNiro and Epstein 1981) and, for this reason, can help identify an animal’s trophic level (i.e., autotroph [plants], primary consumer [herbivores], secondary consumer [carnivores]). In marine ecosystems there are additional levels of carnivory, which in most cases can help differentiate marine and terrestrial diets (Schoeninger, et al. 1983). The environmental baseline for δ15N values varies depending on a wide range of factors (Szpak 2014) and, notably, can be elevated in drier environments (Schwarcz, et al. 1999) such as some of the areas near the LB and FSL sites (Joutel 1998:123-129; McAlister and McAlister 2004; Weniger 1987).  61      4.5 Methods Sampling Strategy We selected samples from faunal collections from both the wreck of LB and the site of FSL. From the LB we analyzed 13 pig bones (minimum number of individual count [MNI] = 5) as well as a selection of other domestic (n=4) and wild (n=19) animals in order to provide baseline values for interpreting pig diets. For one pig, we also conducted serial sampling (n=25) perpendicular to the tooth growth axis to assess how diet varied over time. We were also able to analyze a limited sample of bison (n=2) from FSL, despite extremely bone poor faunal bone preservation at this site (Bruseth, et al. 2004). It is possible that bone samples from FSL could be from the later Spanish occupation at the site and therefore may date to a slightly later time period (ca. 1685-1726). Where possible, samples were collected with a view to minimizing potential for analyzing the same individual multiple times (i.e., based on element, age, or pathology). We also gave sampling preference to older individuals, when available, using fusion and dental evidence (Silver 1963; Tonge and McCance 1973) in order avoid trophic shifts reflected in the milk-feeding signal from nursing animals (Balasse, et al. 2001; Guiry, Noël and Tourigny 2012).  Isotopic Analysis Collagen extractions followed well established procedures (Beaumont, et al. 2010; Brown and Bowen 1998). Bone samples (100-400 mg) were soaked in 0.5 M HCl at 4°C until the mineral component had dissolved and were then rinsed to neutrality in type I water. Samples were then solubilized in a 10−3 M HCl (pH ~3) solution at 75°C for 48 h and subsequently purified using 45-90 μm Ezee filters and 30 kDa ultrafilters (Brown, et al. 1988). The remaining solutions were then frozen and freeze dried for 48 h. Collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions were 62      measured in duplicate using a Vario MICRO cube elemental analyzer coupled to an Isoprime isotope ratio mass spectrometer at the Archaeology Isotope Laboratory, University of British Columbia. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were calibrated to VPDB and AIR using USGS40 and USGS 41. Bovine liver (NIST 1577c) as well as internal methionine and collagen standards were used to monitor analytical accuracy and precision. Carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N between 2.9 and 3.6) as well as elemental carbon (%C > 18%) and nitrogen (%N > 6%) percent values were used to assess collagen integrity (Ambrose 1990).   Serial sampling of an individual pig tooth (from mandible SUBC 10268) followed procedures outlined by (Guiry, et al. 2016) with modifications following Rossman and colleagues (2015). Bone powder samples (~2 mg) were demineralized in silver capsules using 100 μL of 0.1 M HCl overnight at 4°C, allowing time for unwanted carbon from the mineral phase of bone to evolve off as CO2 gas. The residual solution was then heated in an oven at 65°C for 5 h to evaporate residual solution, leaving the desired organic fraction of the bone behind. Each silver capsule was then enveloped within a tin capsule for stable isotope analyses to aid in the combustion process. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions were measured and collagen integrity was assessed using the same procedures as for bone collagen extractions above.  4.6 Results Isotopic and elemental compositions are summarized in Table 4.1 (full results are provided in Appendix Tables 3 and 4) and shown in Figures 4.2 and 4.3. For our environmental baseline, we have also included relevant data from wild species from other colonial contexts in the local region from a similar time period (Hard and Katzenberg 2011). Wild terrestrial and aquatic fauna produced a wide distribution of δ13C and δ15N values, which are broadly consistent with their 63      respective niches in a semi-arid subtropical coastal environment. These baseline values provide important reference points for assessing historical hypotheses about pig diets. Bison (n=7) have very high δ13C (−9.4±1.4 ‰) and δ15N (+7.6±0.7 ‰) values showing a heavy reliance on C4 grasses which falls in line with the expected foraging ecology of herbivores in the local area (Hard and Katzenberg 2011; Mauldin 2015). White-tailed deer (n=5) have lower δ13C (−20.2±0.8 ‰) and δ15N (+6.0±1.1 ‰) values suggesting that they had probably been hunted in a forest or other C3 environment. Various turtle species are described as an important food source in the local area in historical documents (Joutel 1998:128; Migaud 2011; Talon 1987) and show a tighter cluster (n=5) of δ13C (−16.8±1.4 ‰) and δ15N (+7.5±1.0 ‰) values that fall between bison and deer. Marine fish (n=7) specimens produce variable but generally lower δ13C (−13.6±2.4 ‰) and higher δ15N (+12.3±2.9 ‰) values. Although one of these specimens is from an Atlantic cod, and so almost certainly represents historically imported salt fish remains, it is possible that other specimens could represent taphonomic inclusions added to the site at a later date. Wild fowl (n=8) produced a wide range of δ13C (−26.3 to −14.4 ‰) and δ15N (+7.7 to +9.2 ‰) values reflecting different species’ diverse terrestrial and freshwater aquatic habitat preferences. In contrast to wild species, which largely reflect a dietary influence from C4 or marine foods, domestic herbivores (n=4) have lower δ13C (−21.5±0.3 ‰) and δ15N (+7.2 ±1.8 ‰) values. These animals likely represent individuals that are specifically referenced in historical accounts (Joutel 1998:59, 73, 112) that were brought along with the colonists in hopes of establishing a breeding population when they eventually reached the Mississippi River. While it is possible that these animals were obtained during a provisioning stop in Hispaniola or elsewhere (Douay 1881:209; Joutel 1998:55-57, 59-61, 63-64; Minte 1987:87-92), it also seems more likely that 64      they were carried along from France. This is supported by their very low δ13C values which are similar to those of contemporaneous domestic herbivorous livestock raised in temperature Europe (Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012; Kennedy 1988) and inconsistent with known Caribbean values from around this time (Klippel 2001; Varney 2003).  In the context of our faunal isotope baseline, the sample of pig specimens (n=13) shows a remarkable range of variation spanning +13.9 ‰ in δ13C (−22.3 to −8.4 ‰) and +6.4 ‰ in δ15N (+5.1 to +11.4 ‰) (see Figure 4.2). For a relatively small sample of bones from a single species within the same archaeological site this variation is extreme but has a straightforward explanation within the framework of available historical documentation for the LB, specifically, and La Salle’s wider expedition more generally. In particular, the bimodal distribution apparent in this variation reflects a mix of two groups of pigs (see below) that were likely raised in separate places under different animal management regimes, with lower and higher stable isotope values corresponding with husbandry in an Old and New World setting, respectively. First, there are five pigs (group 1, Figure 4.2) with very low δ13C (-21.1±1.1 ‰) and δ15N (+5.4±0.2 ‰) values which are similar to values from contemporaneous pigs in France and other temperate C3-dominated areas of Europe (Guiry, Noël, Tourigny, et al. 2012; Kennedy 1988) and, therefore, probably represent the remains of preserved salt meats brought along as provisions for the journey. A second group of eight pigs (group 2 in Figure 4.2) have very high δ13C (−10.4±0.7 ‰) and δ15N (+11.2±0.8 ‰) values which are inconsistent with a European origin but fit well with a meat-heavy diet focused on the C4-oriented terrestrial fauna local to FSL. In fact, this finding is what we had anticipated based on the historical record, which indicates that at least eight pigs from the breeding stock at FSL had been loaded aboard the LB just prior to her final departure (Joutel 1998:112, 136). It is also important to note that, because 65      the sample population for group 2 (with an MNI of at least three) includes both older and younger individuals and produced a narrow range of δ15N values (+11.2 to +11.4 ‰) it is unlikely that these dietary signatures reflect a nursing signal.  Having identified pigs that were likely part of the FSL-raised swine population (first generation) described in the historical accounts of La Salle’s expedition (Joutel 1998:112), we can now explore aspects of the colonist’s animal husbandry practices – particularly the claim that these animals were sustained primarily on meat, especially that of bison (Joutel 1998:122, 128, 129, 140, 149). Bison from our baseline dataset consistently produced the highest δ13C values of any of the species from LB and FSL and, consequently, we would expect a diet focusing primarily on bison meat to be distinguished by similarly high δ13C values and δ15N values that are approximately one trophic position (i.e., 3-4 ‰) higher than bison. Indeed, as Table 4.1 and Figure 4.2 shows, the second group of pigs has average δ13C and δ15N values that are within 1 ‰ of the value anticipated for a diet primarily composed of bison.  Serial analyses along the length of an adult pig’s first incisor (Figure 4.3, Appendix Table 4) provide further insight into the content and level of dietary variation involved in the colonists’ pig husbandry. Pig first incisors generally begin formation at the crown around 4 to 5 months after birth, long after pigs would have been weaned at FSL (between 4 and 6 weeks of age; Joutel 1998:143, 149), and is completed at the root around the 13th-14th month (Frémondeau, et al. 2012; Tonge and McCance 1973). Our diachronic stable isotope series from this tooth should, therefore, record approximately 9 months of dietary intake. Figure 4.3 shows surprisingly little variation in δ15N values (a span of 2 ‰; range = +9.8 to +11.8 ‰) and moderate variation in δ13C (a span of 4 ‰; range = −12.5 to −8.5 ‰) values over this period of time. Aside from sample increments 9 through 12, where a temporary dietary shift is apparent, no large changes 66      occur between samples over the length of the tooth indicating that pig husbandry practices, at least in terms of feeding were isotopically similar over time. These findings further support the interpretation that bison meat was the staple food for pigs raised by La Salle’s colonists as outlined in the historical record. 4.7 Discussion Our isotopic evidence confirms not only that pigs were fed bison meat from a young age but that this husbandry practice was probably sustained over a considerable period. These isotopic data allow us to more thoroughly explore the question of why La Salle’s colonists chose to maintain a substantial pig husbandry operation despite their apparent dietary preference for other locally abundant resources (Bruseth, et al. 2004; DeFrance 2011; Joutel 1998:60-61, 76-77, 79-81, 99, 107, 114-115, 123-125; Meissner 2003; Talon 1987:226-228,232-233).  As La Salle was away much of the time, searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River, most of the daily operations at the temporary settlement of FSL were overseen by Henri Joutel, La Salle’s trusted companion (Foster 1998:23; Meyrieux 2016). Fortunately, Joutel was also the expedition biographer and took a keen interest in documenting many of the colonists’ subsistence activities (Foster 1998:4, 24-25).  There would have been compelling reasons for Joutel and the other colonists to focus initial efforts on pig husbandry during the process of establishing a base of operations at FSL. This would obviously be particularly prudent from Joutel’s perspective after he and the colonists experienced a brief food shortage early on (Joutel 1998:114). Even when it became clear to the colonists that bison meat could be attained in large quantities (Joutel 1998:114-117, 123, 130, 139) and would be able to fully satisfy their nutritional needs, Joutel’s concern for keeping the 67      colonists active (Joutel 1998:139-141) during long periods of waiting for news from La Salle would also explain the importance of continued pig husbandry10, which would provide idle colonists with tasks to perform such as tending, feeding, and guarding the swine.  Food security and Joutel’s belief in keeping colonists exercised, however, do not seem to provide a complete justification for large-scale pig husbandry when we consider associated costs, both in time and risk, as well as other counterproductive factors. For one, the voracious appetites of growing pigs and the fact there were so many of them (at least 75 after less than two years) (Douay 1881:275; Joutel 1998:122, 140, 151; Talon 1987:233) indicates that substantial resources were likely allocated to raising pigs. The evidence provided by our isotopic analyses of pig remains from LB are key to confirming Joutel’s explanation for how the colonists managed to husband such a large population of pigs – they were fed a copious amount of meat, especially that of bison (Joutel 1998:122, 128, 129, 140, 149). In light of this, it follows that a second counterpoint would be the substantial risks that were assumed in local bison hunting activities, many of which ended in loss of human life or injury as a result of poor navigation (Joutel 1998:119) and attacks from the local peoples (Joutel 1998:118, 121,141-142, 147-148) or the bison themselves (Joutel 1998:117-118; Talon 1987:228). A third point would be the destructive nature of pigs, which it seems were not fenced in for a lack of timber, and therefore were free to ruin gardens (Joutel 1998:147), run amok (Joutel 1998:140, 143), and even attack and maim colonists (Joutel 1998:145). In fact, substantial effort was expended over time just in order to collect enough wood (also a dangerous activity) to construct a small fence around the colonist’s garden to prevent pigs from ruining their crops (Joutel 1998:147). A final point would be the excessive quantity of pigs that had been raised, which outnumbered settlers three to one after just 10 Although Joutel (1998:139-141) does not explicitly reference pig husbandry as a means of dealing with idleness, it seems a likely tactic, when he notes that, “In the end, only our husbandry mattered.”(p140)   68                                                                  two years. This bloated swine population was not only probably far more than would have been needed to sustain a self-regenerating breeding stock or maintain food security for a dwindling population, it was likely larger than would have been feasible to relocate to La Salle’s next intended settlement (FSL was only ever intended as a temporary base).   Given the setbacks, risks, and costs associated with raising pigs based primarily on hunted animal meat, it is further interesting that Joutel, seemingly always keen to describe colonists’ dietary activities (Meyrieux 2016), rarely mentioned the slaughter and consumption of pigs. In the context of zooarchaeological data from FSL, which show a marked dearth of pig bone (<0.2% of the vertebrate NISP for French contexts) (Bruseth, et al. 2004; Meissner 2003) it would appear that Joutel’s silence on pig eating reflects the reality of the situation.  Whereas pig husbandry appears to have made less sense economically, it may have held important cultural significance.  Though much sacrifice and effort were devoted to the expensive and unnecessary endeavor of proliferating and then maintaining a large swine population, from the colonists’ perspective pig husbandry likely provided important symbolic and social benefits that balanced these costs. In an environment lacking most of the material culture that colonists had left behind in France, pigs may have provided an important cultural link with tradition and custom. The extreme costs associated with gathering building materials (e.g., 30 men died of exertion in the first month’s collection of lumber) (Joutel 1998:105) and the loss of much of their cargo (Joutel 1998:55, 98, 122, 135) meant that most of the raw materials and infrastructure required to rebuild a familiar cultural environment were absent. In this context, despite the effort 69      that husbandry required, pigs could have provided colonists with a measurable means of maintaining their connection, symbolic11 as it was, with their European origins.  While the social and symbolic importance of changing diet/cuisine and associated practices have received increasing recognition in historical archaeology (e.g, Allard 2015; Milne and Crabtree 2001; Schweitzer 2014), the symbolic role of animal husbandry has received less consideration, with the bulk of discussion focusing on its relation to economic and subsistence processes (for review Landon 2009). Nevertheless, there are clear examples in which animal husbandry was held up as crucial symbol of European identity. For instance, in colonial New England animal husbandry was regarded a key feature for superimposing European ideals onto Native American groups (Silverman 2003). The symbolic importance of animal husbandry in early colonial contexts is also strongly implied by the frequency with which the earliest colonial enterprises focused on transplanting traditional livestock rearing systems into a wide range of New World settings (e.g., Reitz 1992). The strength of this association, however, appears to dissipate with settlement age, as people begin to experiment with and accept new food ideas (Reitz and Waselkov 2015). In this context, the strong devotion to pig husbandry by colonists at FSL during the first years of settlement fits well with broader observations of an initial adherence to traditional subsidence practices.  11 The construct of symbolism (implying a conscious representation of meaning), rather than practice (implying a habit formed of reassurance/normalcy through tradition), is used here as the sheer size of the pig husbandry enterprise at FSL evident in the historical record suggests that these activities were probably conscious and of special meaning. However, it should be noted that the concept of practice might also underpin some of these activities. 70                                                                  4.8 Summary and Conclusion Stable isotope analyses can provide an important means of exploring past animal husbandry practices and movements. In this paper we have used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data to assess key claims about how animals were raised during one of the earliest attempts to colonize the southern reaches of North America. Data from pigs excavated from LB support historical accounts suggesting that La Salle’s colonists raised at least some of these animals largely on bison meat. The costs associated with this practice, as well as other contextual factors, suggest that relatively large scale pig husbandry was driven primarily by its cultural significance, rather than economic or subsistence necessities. Stable isotope-based reconstructions of animal husbandry are relatively new in historical archaeology and have not previously been used to assess the social roles of animals in the process of cultural adaptation. In this context, our study demonstrates some of the potential which stable isotope analyses can unlock in historical faunal collections. In particular, our results emphasize how, in contexts where faunal remains may be directly attributed to particular documented events, stable isotope analyses can provide a powerful tool for reconstructing past events linked with individual life histories. In turn, information from animal diets can be useful for testing hypotheses and evaluating specific detailed historical claims not only about human economic and subsistence activities but also about broader cultural questions.   71      Table 4.1 Average stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for animal groups from La Belle and Fort St. Louis. Domestic herbivores include values from cattle, sheep and goats.  Wild animal baseline groups include select data from the literature as per Appendix Table 3 (Hard and Katzenberg 2011).  Animal Taxon n= δ13C‰ δ15N‰ Pigs (all) 13 −14.5 ± 5.5 +9.0 ± 3.0 Pigs (group 1) 5 −21.1 ± 1.1 +5.4 ± 0.3 Pigs (group 2) 8 −10.4 ± 0.7 +11.3 ± 0.1 Domestic herbivores 4 −21.5 ± 0.3 +7.2 ± 1.8 Bison 7 −9.4 ± 1.4 +7.6 ± 0.7 White-tailed deer 5 −20.2 ± 0.8 +6.0 ± 1.1 Turtles 5 −16.8 ± 1.4 +7.5 ± 1.0 Alligators 3 −7.0 ± 1.7 +8.3 ± 0.7 Geese/swans 4 −20.2 ± 1.2 +7.7 ± 1.9 Wild turkeys 3 −12.5 ± 2.1 +7.3 ± 0.7 Marine fish 7 −13.6 ± 2.4 +12.3 ± 2.9   72       Figure 4.1 Map showing locations for the shipwreck, La Belle and Fort Saint Louis.   73       Figure 4.2 Average stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for faunal remains from La Belle and Fort St. Louis. Average values for some wild animal baseline groups include select data from the literature as per Appendix Table 3 (Hard and Katzenberg 2011).   74       Figure 4.3 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values from a serially sampled pig adult left first incisor belonging to mandible bone sample SUBC 10268.Stable carbon isotope values for samples with unacceptable C:N values are not shown.     75      Chapter 5  Summary and Conclusion  5.1 Research Objectives in Review The goal of this research has been to employ stable isotope techniques to expand the scope of archaeological research on animal husbandry and trade during the global spread of European colonial activities between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Previous research in this area had been limited in two important ways, by only focusing on: (1) production and consumption contexts and (2) economic and environmental interpretations. In this context, the first objective of this dissertation was to establish a baseline for isotopic variation (based on diversity in husbandry practices or husbandry environments) which is incorporated into trade networks via animal products that have transported over long distances. Building on this information, the second objective of this dissertation was to use stable isotope information about animal trade and husbandry to interpret the social role of animals and their products.  5.2 Summary of Major Findings The first study (Chapter 2) addressed the question of how long-distance movement of animal products may contribute to patterning in faunal stable isotope values at archaeological sites where animals have been consumed. Understanding the influence of long-distance trade on animal stable isotope values is of great significance because it is through the act of transportation that trade items, including animal products, can gain or change social meaning (Gosden and Marshall 1999). This study presented stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analyses for a sample of pig and cattle bones from salt-meat casks recovered from the 1841 shipwreck site of the William Salthouse. Supplier labels on the salt-meat casks provided exceptional 76      spatiotemporal control for interpreting isotopic results. Significant isotopic variation was found in this sample and likely reflected the sourcing of animals from separate farm locations where they had been husbanded in different ways. Because these highly variable values represent a single shipment of salt meat, our results provide a baseline for isotopic variation in traded animal products  with important global implications for future research at historical archaeological sites that may have hosted consumption of North American salt-meat products (e.g., Guiry, et al. 2014).  The second study (Chapter 3) uses stable isotope analyses of historical faunal remains to identify and interpret social patterns in the consumption of animal products. This paper presents stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values from a large assemblage of cattle and pig remains from 18 sites in York, Upper Canada (now Toronto, Ontario). Analyses of fauna from rural assemblages demonstrated a consistent signature for locally raised animals that, due to geopolitical boundaries for inter-regional agriculture practices, are distinctive from their counterparts raised south of the American border. Because American stockyards were the largest in North America, and supplied Upper Canada with imported meat products, this isotopic difference has important implications. In particular, it can be used as an isotopic signature for separating ‘local’ from imported ‘foreign’ faunal remains in nineteenth-century urban archaeological deposits. In this context, a comparison of stable isotope signatures of animals from upper and lower status urban sites revealed differences between social preferences for meat products. However, the unexpected finding of a stronger association between salt-meat consumption and higher status sites overturned assumptions about the historical values associated with meats from different origins.  The final project (Chapter 4) focuses on showing how closer integration between historical records and stable isotope analyses of faunal remains can enhance archaeological interpretations 77      of the social role of animals. This study presented stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for faunal remains from a well-documented shipwreck and associated temporary settlement to evaluate specific historical claims about peculiar animal husbandry practices maintained by colonists from La Salle’s expedition to establish a French settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi River (1684-1688). Results showed that pigs had been raised on meat from local hunting expeditions and suggest colonists invested significantly in swine husbandry. In contrast, historical accounts and other archaeological evidence indicate that colonists preferred to eat local wild resources and did not rely heavily on pigs as a food source. In this context, stable isotope results from fauna allow for a deeper consideration of the relative importance of cultural and economic rationales for the role of livestock at the colony and point to an elevated social value of practicing animal husbandry.  5.3 Future Research Stable isotope analyses of archaeological faunal remains can provide an important tool for quantifying the dietary and mobility patterns associated with historical animal husbandry practices and trade. Building on past studies, which have used stable isotope techniques to explore the economic and environmental dimensions of historical animal husbandry and trade, this dissertation has attempted to show how it is also possible to use isotopic data to make inferences about social practices involving animals. In particular, this dissertation has relied on large sample sizes, careful baseline reconstructions, and the integration of detailed historical records to help overcome some of the obstacles that have prevented previous isotopic-zooarchaeological work from exploring the social roles of animal husbandry and trade. This work could be carried further in at least three ways: (1) with larger sample sizes, (2) a wider range of isotopic techniques, and (3) multi-tissue analyses. 78      First, although these analyses have generated the largest historical faunal isotope dataset to date, additional sampling of fauna in targeted contexts would allow for more in-depth interpretations. While the smaller size of faunal assemblages associated with some sites (e.g., in Chapters 2 and 4) would prevent further analyses, ongoing excavations in other areas could allow for significantly larger samples. In particular, a recent boom in historical archaeological excavations by private sector Cultural Resource Management firms and other archaeological interest groups in the Greater Toronto Area continue to uncover new animal remains that could be used to explore historical-era social patterns in meat trade and consumption in new contexts. A careful selection of additional samples from other types of urban sites associated with different social variables such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, profession or other factors could significantly enhance the conclusions drawn in Chapter 3.  Second, the addition of data from other isotopic techniques (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen, and strontium), which are useful for reconstructing human and animal mobility (Bentley 2006; Lightfoot and O’Connell 2016; Nehlich 2015; Reynard, et al. 2015), could add further evidence for the interpretation of animal trade and movement. For instance, as shown with the use of stable sulfur isotope analyses (in addition to carbon and nitrogen) in Chapter 2, the incorporation of alternative lines of isotopic evidence can increase the resolution of animal mobility. In the studies presented in Chapters 2-4, most interpretations have been based to some degree on the number of different groups of livestock that could be identified. Therefore, these might be improved through the addition of complementary isotopic analyses as well as more advanced statistical applications such as principal components analyses.  Third, using fine-grained sampling techniques such as micro-milling (e.g., Tomaszewicz, et al. 2015), it is possible to make high resolution interpretations of animal husbandry practices though 79      stable isotope analyses of serial samples from teeth (Guiry, et al. 2016). Because serial sampling analyses can provide an intra-individual basis for detailed dietary life-history reconstructions (as shown in Chapter 4), they offer a unique diachronic perspective on how living animals behaved through time. This is significant because evidence for how individual animals lived is rarely visible in the zooarchaeological record, but could have important potential to address recent calls to move towards an understanding of animals not only as objects but also as subjects (living acting beings) in the archaeological past (Argent 2010; Knight 2005; Szpak, et al. 2014). In this context, there is significant potential to address new questions about how social relations between humans and animals have evolved through time in different urban and rural areas in the context of nineteenth-century Upper Canada and elsewhere (Kheraj 2013). Given the immense importance of historical human-animal relations as precursors to present-day ontologies about how humans can, or should, relate to animals (Armstrong Oma 2010; Ingold 1994; Puputti 2008), increased work in this area could be highly productive.  5.4 Concluding Remarks A key theme of this dissertation has been to highlight the tremendous potential of the integration of stable isotope and historical records for advancing archaeological interpretations of the social roles of animal husbandry and trade during the colonial expansion of European activities in the New World. More generally, however, this research may also provide useful case studies for earlier time periods. To date, few studies, irrespective of temporal or geographical focus, have begun to tackle the problem of how to effectively use stable isotope techniques to address questions about the social role of animals in the archaeological past (for exception, see Szpak, Chicoine, et al. 2015; Szpak, et al. 2014). In this context, the trends in fauna-oriented stable isotope research appear to follow, but lag significantly behind, now well-established theoretical 80      directions in traditional zooarchaeological research programs, which have moved towards stressing the social and symbolic importance of animals in archaeological contexts. It is, therefore, hoped that this dissertation provides useful examples for how a carefully designed, multi-sited isotopic-zooarchaeology program can provide appreciable new insights into past social processes.   81      References Albarella, Umberto  1997 Size, power, wool and veal: zooarchaeological evidence for late medieval innovations. 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SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 4131 Loretto AgGs-326 R   Cattle Calcaneus Right 11 -21.3 6.7 44.3 14.6 3.5 4132 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 11 -23.6 6.6 42.2 14.3 3.5 4133 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 12 -22.0 6.9 41.3 13.8 3.5 4134 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 10 -22.3 7.1 41.0 14.3 3.4 4135 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 8 -22.1 5.8 41.3 13.4 3.6 4136 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 4 -22.9 6.7 40.3 13.7 3.5 4137 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 8 -23.5 7.1 39.5 11.5 4.0 4138 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 5 -21.0 6.0 43.4 14.0 3.6 4139 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 3 -22.6 7.5 41.0 13.6 3.5 4140 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 7 -22.4 7.0 41.2 11.4 4.2 4148 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Cattle Tibia Left 9 -20.2 7.3 40.9 13.3 3.6 4146 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Pig Ulna Left 5 -22.7 8.3 40.0 12.1 3.9 4147 Loretto AgGs-326 Rural  Pig Ulna Right 10 -12.9 9.0 37.5 10.8 4.1 9273 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Cattle Cranium No Data 12 -21.8 6.9 40.2 14.1 3.3 9274 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Cattle Femur Left 6 -22.0 5.5 39.8 13.9 3.3 9275 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Cattle Phalanx No Data 5 -22.0 6.7 40.0 14.0 3.3 9276 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Pig Humerus Left 8 -21.3 7.0 40.4 14.0 3.4 9277 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Pig Humerus Left 11 -21.0 6.2 40.2 14.3 3.3 9278 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 11 -22.1 5.0 40.4 14.0 3.4 9279 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Pig Vertebra NA 7 -17.8 8.1 40.7 14.1 3.4 9280 Henry AhGw-123 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 3 -22.1 4.5 39.4 13.2 3.5 9255 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Cattle Vertebra NA 7 -21.8 7.2 39.8 14.0 3.3 9256 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 11 -20.9 8.0 40.4 14.3 3.3 132      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 9257 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Cattle Scapula Right 14 -21.9 7.4 37.0 13.2 3.3 9258 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Cattle Scapula Right 11 -21.0 7.3 40.4 14.4 3.3 9259 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Cattle Rib Left 8 -21.2 7.2 40.1 14.3 3.3 9261 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Cattle Carpal Left 5 -21.5 7.5 39.7 14.1 3.3 9253 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 4 -21.3 7.5 40.3 13.9 3.4 9254 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Pig Metacarpal Left 7 -20.1 7.0 40.4 14.2 3.3 9260 Graham AjGs-370 Rural  Pig Astragalus Right 4 -21.0 8.0 40.0 14.1 3.3 9135 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Carpal Left 10 -22.9 6.1 41.4 14.8 3.3 9136 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Innominate Right 9 -21.4 7.2 41.0 14.8 3.2 9137 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Femur Indeterminate 3 -22.7 6.7 34.9 10.6 3.8 9141 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Cranium Left 7 -22.8 4.7 40.5 14.1 3.3 9142 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Rib Left 12 -22.1 7.2 41.3 15.0 3.2 9147 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Sesamoid Indeterminate 8 -22.6 5.0 40.6 14.6 3.2 9150 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Maxilla Right 1 -23.1 5.1 36.8 11.8 3.6 9152 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Rib Indeterminate 4 -22.4 7.5 38.0 12.6 3.5 9153 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Rib Indeterminate 1 -22.8 5.8 39.2 13.0 3.5 9154 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Cattle Metatarsal Right 2 -23.1 5.7 38.4 12.7 3.5 9138 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 12 -22.4 6.6 41.8 14.8 3.3 9139 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 11 -21.3 6.1 41.4 14.7 3.3 9140 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 8 -20.2 4.7 41.0 14.5 3.3 9143 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 9 -19.9 7.2 40.0 14.5 3.2 9144 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 5 -21.4 8.0 40.2 14.0 3.3 9145 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 15 -20.2 6.4 40.7 14.8 3.2 9146 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 1 -20.9 6.6 37.7 12.8 3.4 9148 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 11 -22.4 6.2 40.2 14.6 3.2 9149 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 8 -21.0 6.6 39.8 14.3 3.3 9151 Ashbridge AjGt-1 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 15 -21.0 6.5 40.4 14.6 3.2 9199 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Radius Right 2 -23.2 8.7 26.5 5.7 5.4 133      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 9201 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Ulna Right 8 -20.7 7.2 39.5 14.0 3.3 9202 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Humerus Right 9 -21.3 5.9 39.9 14.2 3.3 9203 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Phalanx No Data 3 -22.1 6.6 38.2 13.6 3.3 9204 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Humerus Left 2 -23.1 7.4 33.8 9.5 4.1 9205 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Humerus left 2 -21.5 6.1 38.7 13.4 3.4 9206 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Humerus left 8 -21.9 6.3 40.1 14.2 3.3 9208 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Cattle Scapula Right 5 -21.4 5.5 39.5 13.9 3.3 9200 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 1 -20.1 8.6 36.5 12.7 3.4 9207 Edwards  AjGw-470 Rural  Pig Maxilla Right 13 -20.5 5.9 41.1 14.6 3.3 9210 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Cattle Mandible left 10 -22.0 7.1 40.8 14.5 3.3 9211 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus left 9 -22.5 6.0 40.1 14.3 3.3 9213 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Cattle Femur No Data 13 -22.3 6.6 40.1 14.3 3.3 9214 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Cattle Premolar left 9 -21.9 6.5 39.7 14.2 3.3 9216 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Cattle Calcaneus Right 14 -22.4 6.6 41.0 14.7 3.3 9218 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Cattle Scapula Right 15 -22.6 6.3 43.5 15.3 3.3 9209 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Pig Mandible Left & Right 12 -21.3 5.4 39.5 14.0 3.3 9212 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Pig Mandible Left & Right 3 -21.2 5.8 38.3 13.4 3.3 9215 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Pig Humerus left 11 -21.6 5.2 39.9 14.1 3.3 9217 Landmart H2 AkGw-474 Rural  Pig Maxilla Right 4 -21.1 4.9 41.4 14.2 3.4 9175 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Femur No Data 8 -20.8 5.7 39.2 14.0 3.3 9184 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Mandible left 3 -22.8 6.8 36.2 11.0 3.8 9188 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Mandible left 1 -22.8 6.8 35.4 11.2 3.7 9191 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Radius Right 7 -21.5 6.4 39.7 14.3 3.3 9193 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Maxilla No Data 2 -21.8 6.5 38.1 13.2 3.4 9195 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Mandible left 10 -21.1 5.9 39.1 14.1 3.2 9198 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Long bone No Data 10 -22.1 6.6 39.8 14.3 3.2 9172 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Mandible No Data 4 -20.7 6.1 38.4 13.2 3.4 9173 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Long bone No Data 11 -22.3 6.2 40.0 14.4 3.2 134      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 9174 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Rib left 17 -21.6 6.9 40.0 14.4 3.2 9178 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Long bone No Data 13 -20.7 7.9 40.1 14.3 3.3 9180 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Rib Right 1 -21.3 7.9 37.9 13.0 3.4 9181 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle or Horse Rib Right ND -23.8 5.3 23.4 5.8 4.7 9186 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Rib No Data 11 -22.0 8.1 39.9 14.1 3.3 9189 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Cattle Rib Right 10 -17.0 6.9 40.2 14.5 3.2 9176 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Maxilla No Data ND -24.8 6.0 40.7 8.1 5.8 9177 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Humerus Right 2 -20.7 5.4 39.8 14.1 3.3 9179 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Maxilla left 5 -21.1 4.5 39.5 14.2 3.2 9182 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Ulna Right 1 -22.4 6.1 39.2 12.0 3.8 9183 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 12 -22.1 6.6 39.5 13.9 3.3 9185 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 12 -20.2 8.6 39.6 14.2 3.3 9187 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 14 -21.1 4.8 40.0 14.2 3.3 9190 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Mandible left 8 -21.0 5.0 38.7 13.8 3.3 9192 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Maxilla Right 4 -20.9 5.3 34.4 11.5 3.5 9194 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Humerus left 5 -20.6 8.8 39.3 13.7 3.3 9196 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Ulna Right 8 -21.0 5.8 40.3 14.4 3.3 9197 Dolson AkGx-80 Rural  Pig Humerus No Data 13 -20.2 7.1 39.3 14.0 3.3 7048 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Cattle Cranium No Data 7 -22.5 6.1 42.4 14.2 3.5 7049 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Cattle Cranium Left 15 -22.4 6.5 43.3 14.8 3.4 7050 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Cattle Cranium No Data 10 -23.3 7.7 43.0 13.7 3.6 7082 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 5 -23.3 5.0 42.3 13.6 3.6 7083 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 12 -22.1 6.6 42.3 14.5 3.4 7084 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 8 -21.3 5.6 42.1 14.0 3.5 7085 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 11 -21.1 5.1 42.1 14.6 3.4 7086 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 10 -21.6 5.8 42.3 14.2 3.5 7087 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 5 -21.9 6.2 39.3 12.7 3.6 7088 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 9 -21.1 6.4 42.9 14.6 3.4 135      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 7089 Trull AlGq-67 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 9 -22.4 5.1 42.3 14.5 3.4 9219 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Carpal Right 4 -22.1 8.0 42.0 14.3 3.4 9220 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Tibia Right 1 -23.2 8.3 37.9 11.2 3.9 9222 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Metatarsal Right 3 -24.8 7.6 35.7 9.0 4.6 9225 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Scapula Right 6 -22.2 7.0 42.5 15.0 3.3 9226 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Metatarsal Left 3 -25.2 7.0 33.7 6.4 6.1 9228 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Ulna No Data 6 -23.4 5.8 42.5 14.7 3.4 9229 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Cattle Ulna No Data 4 -22.3 5.6 42.8 14.9 3.3 9221 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 7 -22.2 5.1 42.7 15.0 3.3 9223 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 7 -22.4 6.0 42.7 14.8 3.4 9224 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Pig Mandible Right 4 -21.4 7.1 42.3 14.5 3.4 9227 CH36 AlGr-315 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 2 -21.2 8.4 41.2 13.9 3.4 7091 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Cattle Radius Right 17 -22.9 6.2 43.2 14.5 3.5 7092 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Cattle Carpal Right 5 -23.8 6.7 42.6 13.3 3.7 7093 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Cattle Lower incisor Left 12 -22.4 7.5 43.0 14.6 3.4 7094 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Cattle Mandible Right 6 -23.4 6.2 42.3 13.2 3.7 7095 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Cattle Mandible Left 4 -22.6 5.9 41.4 13.1 3.7 7113 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Radius Right 9 -22.0 4.8 43.0 14.1 3.6 7114 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Metacarpal Left 12 -22.7 4.9 42.1 13.7 3.6 7115 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Phalanx Indeterminate 18 -21.7 5.3 42.3 14.9 3.3 7116 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Maxilla Right 6 -22.2 5.2 41.7 13.2 3.7 7117 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Maxilla Right 8 -22.0 7.5 41.7 13.3 3.7 7118 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Tibia Right 4 -22.3 7.5 40.7 11.9 4.0 7119 Edgar AlGu-196 Rural  Pig Femur Right 4 -23.6 6.1 41.5 11.9 4.1 9262 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Radius Right 5 -19.8 7.1 40.2 14.2 3.3 9263 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Radius Left 11 -21.0 5.7 40.0 14.2 3.3 9264 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Radius Right 16 -21.1 6.5 40.1 14.4 3.3 9265 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Femur Left 6 -21.0 7.4 39.4 14.0 3.3 136      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 9266 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Humerus Right 14 -21.7 6.1 40.0 14.3 3.3 9267 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Humerus Left 13 -21.1 6.1 40.1 13.9 3.4 9268 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Cattle Humerus Right 8 -20.5 8.6 40.0 14.1 3.3 9269 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 6 -21.3 6.9 39.9 14.0 3.3 9270 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 6 -20.9 5.7 40.2 14.0 3.4 9271 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 2 -21.3 6.1 39.4 13.5 3.4 9272 Lewis AlGu-365 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 3 -20.1 7.8 39.2 13.6 3.4 9233 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Humerus Left 10 -20.8 7.7 43.3 15.2 3.3 9234 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Humerus Left 8 -20.7 7.1 43.1 15.1 3.3 9235 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Humerus Right 5 -18.6 7.5 42.7 14.9 3.3 9236 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Humerus Right 6 -20.8 7.5 42.2 14.5 3.4 9237 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Humerus Right 16 -20.9 6.6 43.4 15.3 3.3 9238 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 14 -21.9 7.1 43.3 15.3 3.3 9239 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Left 16 -21.4 6.3 43.1 15.3 3.3 9240 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 3 -21.6 7.0 42.8 14.9 3.3 9241 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 7 -21.6 7.1 43.3 15.3 3.3 9242 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 15 -21.4 7.6 43.5 15.5 3.3 9243 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Left 13 -21.8 6.3 43.3 15.4 3.3 9244 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 8 -21.4 6.5 39.9 14.1 3.3 9245 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Right 18 -20.6 7.0 40.2 14.5 3.2 9246 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Cattle Femur Indeterminate 5 -18.8 8.1 40.4 14.2 3.3 9230 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 9 -19.6 5.1 43.3 15.0 3.4 9231 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Mandible Left 7 -20.1 7.7 42.9 14.9 3.3 9232 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Mandible Left & Right 3 -20.8 7.2 41.8 14.4 3.4 9247 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Tibia Left 5 -21.1 7.3 40.1 14.0 3.3 9248 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Scapula Right 1 -21.2 7.3 37.8 12.6 3.5 9249 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Humerus Right 7 -21.7 8.5 39.3 13.8 3.3 9250 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Humerus Right 3 -20.7 5.7 40.3 14.0 3.4 137      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 9251 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Scapula Right 6 -20.9 7.0 40.0 13.9 3.3 9252 Hall AlGw-68 Rural  Pig Scapula Right 2 -20.4 6.9 40.7 14.2 3.3 5134 Yeager Site Unknown Rural  Pig Astragalus Left 11 -19.7 5.0 40.8 14.5 3.3 5135 Yeager Site Unknown Rural  Pig Astragalus Left 7 -20.0 6.3 40.5 14.4 3.3 5138 Yeager Site Unknown Rural  Pig Mandible No Data 6 -20.9 5.1 40.3 14.1 3.3 5126 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban L  Cattle Lower incisor Left 11 -21.4 7.9 41.5 14.8 3.3 5127 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor Left 11 -19.7 6.4 41.6 14.7 3.3 5128 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor Left 11 -21.6 7.7 42.0 15.0 3.3 5129 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor Left 12 -21.8 7.1 41.7 14.8 3.3 5130 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor Left 12 -22.0 6.6 41.7 14.9 3.3 5131 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor Left ND -21.7 6.4 41.7 14.8 3.3 5176 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 9 -22.0 6.5 41.0 14.5 3.3 5177 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 11 -22.3 7.4 41.1 14.6 3.3 5178 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 4 -21.8 7.7 40.6 14.6 3.3 5179 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 12 -21.6 8.0 40.3 14.4 3.3 5180 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 10 -21.9 7.5 40.7 14.7 3.2 5181 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 14 -22.3 7.0 40.8 14.7 3.2 5182 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Cattle Lower incisor No Data 13 -21.5 7.0 40.7 14.8 3.2 5084 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 15 -20.2 8.1 40.2 13.8 3.4 5085 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 13 -21.5 5.5 41.3 14.5 3.3 5086 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 13 -21.6 8.2 41.6 14.6 3.3 5087 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 12 -21.1 5.2 41.3 14.6 3.3 5088 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 16 -21.4 5.8 40.8 14.4 3.3 5089 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 14 -18.5 5.3 41.0 14.5 3.3 5109 TGH09 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 16 -18.4 8.3 39.5 13.7 3.4 5144 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Mandible No Data 14 -21.4 4.7 41.4 14.6 3.3 5145 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Mandible Left 11 -21.6 8.9 38.3 13.1 3.4 5146 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Mandible Right 14 -20.4 9.2 42.1 14.8 3.3 138      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 5147 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Mandible Right 13 -20.5 5.0 41.3 14.4 3.3 5148 TGH10 AjGu-51 Urban Lower Pig Mandible Right 7 -14.9 8.3 41.0 14.2 3.4 9155 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Left 11 -19.0 5.2 39.5 14.1 3.3 9157 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Radius Right 10 -21.7 7.3 36.3 13.0 3.3 9158 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Radius Right 0 -23.8 6.0 37.5 10.6 4.1 9160 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 11 -21.3 7.3 40.1 14.4 3.2 9161 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 11 -21.7 7.0 40.2 14.5 3.2 9162 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 19 -21.3 5.8 41.1 14.8 3.2 9163 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 12 -21.7 6.9 39.5 14.3 3.2 9164 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 8 -22.0 6.4 39.6 14.2 3.3 9165 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 10 -21.6 6.2 40.0 14.4 3.2 9166 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 10 -21.6 7.2 40.3 14.6 3.2 9167 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 10 -21.7 6.9 39.4 14.2 3.2 9168 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 8 -21.7 7.5 39.9 14.4 3.2 9169 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Cattle Mandible Right 20 -22.3 6.7 40.5 14.6 3.2 9156 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Pig Maxilla Left 14 -21.0 7.5 40.7 14.5 3.3 9170 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Pig Scapula Left 11 -22.2 6.9 39.5 13.9 3.3 9171 327-333 Queen AjGu-63 Urban Lower Pig Scapula Left 14 -22.3 6.2 40.6 14.5 3.3 5027 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Right 11 -21.6 7.8 41.2 14.7 3.3 5031 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur No Data 7 -22.3 5.9 40.8 14.3 3.3 5032 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur No Data 4 -22.1 7.3 38.6 13.3 3.4 5034 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Right 5 -20.8 6.2 34.9 12.0 3.4 5035 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Left 9 -22.2 6.9 40.4 14.3 3.3 5036 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Left 3 -22.3 8.0 40.4 13.9 3.4 5037 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur No Data 5 -21.7 7.1 40.7 14.2 3.3 5038 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur No Data 10 -21.4 7.3 39.7 14.0 3.3 5046 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Left 7 -21.7 7.6 39.8 14.0 3.3 5047 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Right 6 -19.3 7.4 39.4 13.8 3.3 139      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 5048 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Right 8 -12.7 5.7 39.9 14.1 3.3 5049 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Left 10 -21.4 6.9 41.1 14.4 3.3 5051 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Left 2 -21.4 6.1 39.1 12.7 3.6 5058 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Right 14 -22.3 6.7 41.5 14.6 3.3 5061 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Cattle Femur Left 7 -21.8 7.7 40.7 14.2 3.4 5045 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Left 8 -20.7 6.3 40.5 14.2 3.3 5052 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Right 7 -22.9 6.1 40.5 14.2 3.3 5053 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Left 6 -21.3 7.2 40.5 13.9 3.4 5062 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Pig Ulna Left 4 -21.8 5.6 40.3 13.9 3.4 5066 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Pig Cranium No Data 4 -23.2 5.0 40.3 11.8 4.0 5067 Dollery AjGu-81 Urban Lower Pig Mandible No Data 8 -21.6 5.6 40.5 14.1 3.3 7139 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Humerus Left 10 -22.6 5.8 41.3 14.0 3.5 7140 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur No Data 12 -22.6 6.7 42.1 14.5 3.4 7141 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 14 -22.9 6.2 42.8 14.3 3.5 7142 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur No Data 14 -21.3 8.2 43.3 14.8 3.4 7143 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 16 -21.3 5.7 43.5 15.1 3.4 7144 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 12 -22.5 7.3 42.7 14.9 3.3 7145 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 15 -21.1 7.9 41.8 14.9 3.3 7146 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Right 12 -21.5 7.8 41.8 14.6 3.3 7147 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Radius Right 16 -22.1 6.7 43.2 14.7 3.4 7148 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Radius No Data 11 -21.7 7.9 40.1 13.4 3.5 7149 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Ulna Left 10 -21.4 8.9 41.0 13.6 3.5 7150 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 13 -21.4 7.4 42.1 14.4 3.4 7151 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 14 -22.5 5.8 41.9 13.7 3.6 7152 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 14 -22.3 7.3 43.0 14.9 3.4 7153 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Right 16 -21.9 5.0 43.0 14.8 3.4 7154 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 17 -22.0 6.1 41.9 14.3 3.4 7155 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur No Data 18 -21.9 7.2 42.5 14.9 3.3 140      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 7156 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Left 14 -20.3 8.9 41.8 14.6 3.3 7157 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur No Data 15 -21.8 8.4 46.1 15.8 3.4 7158 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Cattle Femur Right 16 -22.5 6.1 41.9 14.2 3.4 7081 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Fibula Right 15 -21.6 5.4 42.5 14.8 3.3 7237 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Metapodial No Data 11 -22.5 9.6 41.8 14.9 3.3 7238 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Femur Right 12 -22.5 8.1 42.8 15.8 3.2 7239 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Tibia Left 10 -22.6 8.8 41.6 14.3 3.4 7240 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Mandible Right 5 -14.6 8.3 41.0 13.3 3.6 7241 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Mandible Right 11 -20.3 7.0 44.6 15.2 3.4 7242 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 15 -20.5 7.8 42.6 15.8 3.1 7243 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 16 -14.3 7.6 42.0 16.9 2.9 7244 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 10 -21.4 6.0 36.4 12.3 3.4 7245 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Ulna Right 10 -20.7 7.3 42.3 15.0 3.3 7246 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 16 -14.0 9.9 41.4 15.6 3.1 7247 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 15 -17.2 8.1 43.9 15.4 3.3 7248 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 17 -21.6 5.7 42.0 15.5 3.2 7249 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 17 -20.6 5.9 41.8 15.4 3.2 7250 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 11 -20.4 5.4 42.5 15.2 3.3 7251 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 17 -21.4 8.6 42.0 16.3 3.0 7252 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 19 -20.0 7.1 42.6 15.5 3.2 7253 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 16 -21.8 6.3 42.6 15.4 3.2 7254 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 16 -21.0 7.9 43.9 16.0 3.2 7255 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Humerus Left 3 -23.5 5.0 41.6 12.3 3.9 7256 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Ulna Left 10 -15.5 9.8 40.6 13.8 3.4 7257 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Humerus Left 3 -23.5 7.2 42.4 12.2 4.1 7258 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Humerus Left 10 -16.3 10.0 42.6 13.8 3.6 7259 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Humerus Right 15 -15.6 8.4 42.3 14.9 3.3 7260 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Fibula No Data 10 -21.2 8.3 43.8 15.1 3.4 141      SUBC Site Bordon No. Site Type Site Status Common Name Element Side % Col. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 7261 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Radius Left 5 -23.4 8.0 41.7 12.9 3.8 7262 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Humerus Right 9 -22.3 6.1 43.1 13.5 3.7 7263 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 7 -22.5 7.2 41.4 12.7 3.8 7264 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Radius Left 12 -22.1 5.8 43.4 14.7 3.4 7265 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Left 14 -20.7 5.5 43.7 16.0 3.2 7266 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Calcaneus Right 8 -21.1 4.8 40.9 14.4 3.3 7267 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Mandible Left 12 -21.9 4.1 41.2 15.4 3.1 7268 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Tibia Right 13 -21.0 4.9 42.9 14.6 3.4 7269 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Tibia Right 13 -20.7 7.6 42.1 16.5 3.0 7270 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Femur Left 12 -11.4 8.2 44.7 15.5 3.4 7271 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Femur Left 9 -19.8 4.6 41.4 14.7 3.3 7272 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Mandible Left 11 -21.4 7.7 41.9 14.8 3.3 7273 Bishop's Block AjGu-49 Urban Upper Pig Mandible Right 7 -21.9 3.9 40.4 15.3 3.1 7023 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Cattle Metacarpal Right 12 -22.4 5.8 42.9 15.2 3.3 7024 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Cattle Metacarpal Indeterminate 10 -22.8 7.2 42.2 14.8 3.3 7025 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Cattle Metacarpal Right 8 -23.9 7.5 41.7 12.7 3.8 7120 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Cattle Vertebra NA 7 -23.2 7.5 41.7 13.0 3.7 7121 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Cattle Rib Right 3 -21.9 7.0 39.0 12.5 3.6 7133 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Pig Femur Right 12 -22.9 6.7 41.9 14.4 3.4 7134 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Pig Vertebra NA 10 -21.6 6.2 41.2 13.3 3.6 7135 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Pig Femur Right 9 -21.5 6.0 41.9 13.9 3.5 7136 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Pig Femur Right 9 -21.2 7.4 42.3 14.2 3.5 7137 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Pig Radius Right 8 -21.5 4.8 41.2 13.7 3.5 7138 Bell AjGu-68 Urban Upper Pig Humerus Left 11 -20.3 8.0 42.2 14.2 3.5   142      Table A2. List of average stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for animal groups analyzed in Chapter 3. Taxon Site n= δ13C‰ δ15N‰ Cattle Ashbridge 9 −22.6±0.6 +6.0±1.0 Pig Ashbridge 10 −21.1±0.9 +6.5±0.9 Cattle CH36 4 −22.5±0.6 +6.6±1.1 Pig CH36 4 −21.8±0.6 +6.7±1.4 Cattle Dolson 12 −21.1±1.4 +6.8±0.8 Pig Dolson 10 −20.9±0.5 +6.2±1.5 Cattle Edgar 1 −20.7 +7.2 Pig Edgar 3 −22.1±0.5 +5.0±0.3 Cattle Edwards  6 −21.5±0.7 +6.3±1.0 Pig Edwards  2 −20.3±0.2 +7.2±1.9 Cattle Graham 6 −21.4±0.4 +7.4±0.3 Pig Graham 3 −20.8±0.6 +7.5±0.5 Cattle Hall 14 −20.9±1.0 +7.1±0.5 Pig Hall 9 −20.7±0.6 +7.0±1.0 Cattle Henry 3 −21.9±0.1 +6.3±0.8 Pig Henry 5 −20.9±1.8 +6.2±1.5 Cattle Landmart H2 6 −22.3±0.3 +6.5±0.4 Pig Landmart H2 4 −21.3±0.2 +5.3±0.3 Cattle Lewis 7 −20.9±0.6 +6.8±1.0 Pig Lewis 4 −20.9±0.6 +6.6±0.9 Cattle Loretto 9 −22±1.0 +6.7±0.5 Cattle Trull 3 −22.7±0.5 +6.8±0.8 Pig Trull 8 −21.8±0.7 +5.7±0.6 Pig Yeager Site 3 −20.2±0.6 +5.5±0.7 Cattle 327-333 Queen 12 −21.5±0.8 +6.7±0.7 Pig 327-333 Queen 3 −21.8±0.7 +6.9±0.6 Cattle Dollery 15 −21±2.4 +7.0±0.7 Pig Dollery 5 −21.7±0.8 +6.2±0.7 143      Taxon Site n= δ13C‰ δ15N‰ Cattle Toronto General Hospital 13 −21.6±0.7 +7.2±0.6 Pig Toronto General Hospital 12 −20.1±2.0 +6.9±1.7 Cattle Bell 3 −22.4±0.4 +6.7±0.7 Pig Bell 6 −21.5±0.8 +6.5±1.1 Cattle Bishop's Block 20 −21.9±0.7 +7.1±1.1 Pig (all) Bishop's Block 33 −19.7±2.6 +7.1±1.5 Pig (C4) Bishop's Block 8 −14.9±1.8 +8.8±0.9 Pig (C4 removed) Bishop's Block 25 −21.1±0.8 +6.6±1.6 Cattle All rural 81 −21.6±1.1 +6.7±0.8 Pig All rural 65 −21.1±0.9 +6.3±1.2 Cattle All urban 63 −21.6±1.4 +7.0±0.8 Pig All urban 59 −20.2±2.5 +6.9±1.6 Cattle Urban Upper 23 −21.9±0.6 +7.0±1.1 Pig Urban Upper 39 −20±2.8 +7.0±1.7 Pig (C4) Urban Upper 8 −14.9±1.8 +8.8±0.9 Pig (C3) Urban Upper 31 −21.3±0.8 +6.6±1.5 Cattle Urban Lower 28 −21.3±1.8 +7.1±0.7 Pig Urban Lower 20 −20.8±1.8 +6.7±1.4 Pig K-Mean C4 Group 11 −15.5±2.0 +8.6±0.8 Pig K-Mean C3 Group 114 −21.1±0.8 +6.4±1.3   144      Table A3 Stable isotope and elemental composition data for animal bones analysed as part of Chapter 4. *data sourced from the literature (Hard and Katzenberg 2011). Fort Saint Louis (41VT4) samples are for from mixed French and Spanish colonial contexts dating between 1685 and 1726 and Mission Refugio (41RF1; a colonial site in a similar coastal region approximately 80km to the southwest) samples are from Spanish colonial contexts dating between 1794 and 1830.  Lab no. Artifact ID Site Taxon Common Name Element Side δ13C‰ δ15N‰ C:N %C %N Col %. SUBC-7040 3940 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Scapula L −19.9 +5.5 3.3 41.7 14.6 14.6 SUBC-7041 4991 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Scapula L −20.3 5.0 3.4 42.6 14.4 14.0 SUBC-7042 10226 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Scapula L −9.6 +11.3 3.4 41.5 14.3 11.5 SUBC-7345 3720 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Femur R −20.6 +5.3 3.4 42.4 14.5 12.8 SUBC-7346 6571 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Femur R −10.9 +11.2 3.5 42.5 14.0 20.4 SUBC-7347 7624 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Tibia R −10.1 +11.3 3.4 42.5 14.8 12.9 SUBC-7348 7766 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Tibia R −11.7 +11.3 3.5 43.2 14.2 11.7 SUBC-7349 10781 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Tibia  L −22.0 +5.7 3.4 41.9 14.4 15.0 SUBC-10263 7088 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Humerus L −22.3 +5.3 3.5 27.0 9.1 11.2 SUBC-10265 10618 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Maxilla R −10.3 +11.2 3.5 34.4 11.5 11.1 SUBC-10266 10814 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Scapuala L −10.1 +11.1 3.4 62.1 21.3 15.1 SUBC-10267 11310 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Humerus R −9.9 +11.2 3.4 42.9 14.6 15.9 SUBC-10268 7721-0 La Belle Sus scrofa Pig Mandible L&R −9.9 +11.2 3.3 42.5 14.8 19.1 SUBC-7352 7553 La Belle Bos cf. tarus Cattle or Bison Calcaneus  R −21.8 +4.9 3.5 42.8 14.3 14.3 SUBC-7353 11045 La Belle Caprinae Sheep or Goat Femur R −21.5 +9.1 3.6 42.3 13.6 10.4 SUBC-10270 3477 La Belle Caprinae Sheep or Goat Femur L −21.5 +7.7 3.3 41.9 14.7 18.6 SUBC-10271 5969 La Belle Caprinae Sheep or Goat Femur L −21.2 +6.9 3.4 42.3 14.6 5.6 SUBC-7354 10594 La Belle Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed Deer Cranium L −20.6 +5.7 3.4 42.4 14.7 12.7 SUBC-7355 10578-1.2 La Belle Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed Deer Antler R −20.0 +4.7 3.4 43.7 15.1 19.0 SUBC-7368 3442 La Belle Terrapene ornata Box Turtle 7th pleural   −16.6 6.0 3.5 43.2 14.4 11.4 SUBC-7369 6417 La Belle Terrapene ornata Box Turtle 7th pleural   −16.5 +7.9 3.5 43.8 14.6 11.8 145      Lab no. Artifact ID Site Taxon Common Name Element Side δ13C‰ δ15N‰ C:N %C %N Col %. SUBC-7370 6084 La Belle Terrapene ornata Box Turtle Vertebra  −18.8 +8.6 3.6 43.3 14.1 22.9 SUBC-7372 3676 La Belle Testudine Large Tutle sp. Shell  −16.7 +7.1 3.4 42.6 14.5 13.1 SUBC-7371 6593 La Belle Emydidae Pond Turtle sp. Peripheral  −15.0 +7.7 3.5 42.9 14.4 13.4 SUBC-7350 7181 La Belle Bison bison Bison Calcaneus  R −8.4 +7.5 3.3 43.3 15.2 15.8 SUBC-7351 4950 La Belle Bison bison Bison Metatarsal  R −8.3 +7.4 3.4 42.7 14.8 15.1 SUBC-10383  Fort St. Louis Bison bison Bison   −9.2 +8.5 3.5 50.0 16.4 1.7 SUBC-10384  Fort St. Louis Bovinae Bovid   −10.0 +7.2 3.5 40.7 13.7 2.1 SUBC-7367 7131 La Belle Anserini Goose Sternum  −19.7 +9.1 3.5 42.6 14.2 13.0 SUBC-7366 10041 La Belle Anas Platyrhynchos Mallard Coracoid L −26.3 9.0 3.5 43.8 14.7 11.5 SUBC-7365 7584 La Belle Meleagris gallopavo Wild Turkey Scapula L −14.4 +7.6 3.5 43.2 14.4 11.8 SUBC-7363 10393 La Belle Gadus morhua Cod Post-temporal  R −15.5 +16.2 3.6 39.5 12.8 4.9 SUBC-7357 2474 La Belle Ariopsis Felis Hardhead Catfish Pectoral spine R −14.1 +10.2 3.4 42.8 14.6 9.3 SUBC-7358 2477 La Belle Ariopsis Felis Hardhead Catfish Pectoral spine R −15.2 +14.1 3.5 42.2 14.0 8.8 SUBC-7359 4780 La Belle Ariopsis Felis Hardhead Catfish Pectoral spine R −16.5 +14.2 3.5 42.1 14.1 14.1 SUBC-7360 6196 La Belle Ariopsis Felis Hardhead Catfish Pectoral spine R −9.6 +7.7 3.3 43.3 15.4 12.8 SUBC-7364 4766 La Belle Luthanus cf. campechanus Northern Red Snapper Vetebra  −11.7 +10.4 3.4 42.2 14.5 8.0 SUBC-7356 2982 La Belle Aetobates narinari Spotted Eagle Ray Dentary  −12.6 13.0 3.4 43.6 15.0 14.0 RF1-47F*  Mission Refugio Anserinae   Geese/swans   −18.8 +9.5 3.4    RF1-52F*  Mission Refugio Anserinae   Geese/swans   −21.2 +6.2 3.4    RF1-53F*  Mission Refugio Anserinae   Geese/swans   −21.2 +5.8 3.2    RF1-34F*  Mission Refugio Bison bison  Bison   −9.3 +6.2 3.5    RF1-39F*  Mission Refugio Bison bison  Bison   −12.1 +7.9 3.3    RF1-46F*  Mission Refugio Bison bison  Bison   −8.3 +8 3.4    RF1-24F*  Mission Refugio Meleagris gallapavo   Wild Turkey   −10.3 +6.4 3.3    RF1-30F*  Mission Refugio Meleagris gallapavo   Wild Turkey   −12.7 +7.7 3.4    RF1-21F*  Mission Refugio Odocoileus virginianus   White-tailed Deer   −21.3 +5.2 3.2    RF1-23F*  Mission Refugio Odocoileus virginianus    White-tailed Deer   −19.4 +7.3 3.4    RF1-28F*  Mission Refugio Odocoileus virginianus    White-tailed Deer   −19.8 +6.9 3.2    VT4-15F*  Fort St. Louis Alligator rnississippiensis  Alligator   −18.7 +7.7 3.2    146      Lab no. Artifact ID Site Taxon Common Name Element Side δ13C‰ δ15N‰ C:N %C %N Col %. VT4-18F*  Fort St. Louis Alligator rnississippiensis  Alligator   −16.9 +8.1 3.2    VT4-20F*   Fort St. Louis Alligator rnississippiensis  Alligator     −15.4 +9.1 3.2         147      Table A4 Stable isotope and elemental composition data for the serially sample pig tooth analyzed in Chapter 4 SUBC no. δ13C‰ δ15N‰ %C %N C:N 10268.01 −10.8 +11.2 32.5 10.8 3.5 10268.02 −11.1 +11.3 21.2 6.8 3.6 10268.03 −10.7 +11.7 28.3 9.3 3.5 10268.04 −10.7 +11.5 24.8 8.3 3.5 10268.05 −10.9 +11.4 24.6 8.0 3.6 10268.06 −11.0 +11.5 41.8 13.7 3.6 10268.07 −11.3 +11.7 31.3 10.2 3.6 10268.08 −10.8 +11.5 24.8 8.3 3.5 10268.09 −9.3 +10.8 31.3 10.7 3.4 10268.10 −9.5 +10.4 33.0 11.1 3.5 10268.11 −9.0 +9.9 22.5 7.6 3.4 10268.12 −8.5 +9.7 23.9 8.1 3.5 10268.13 −11.5 +11.3 32.9 10.7 3.6 10268.14 −11.4 +11.3 32.7 10.7 3.6 10268.15 −11.5 +11.2 33.0 10.7 3.6 10268.16 −11.7 +11.5 32.6 10.6 3.6 10268.17 −11.4 +11.4 32.0 10.4 3.6 10268.18 −12.3 +11.6 32.0 10.1 3.7 10268.19 −12.4 +11.6 32.5 10.5 3.6 10268.20 −12.4 +11.6 26.6 8.5 3.6 10268.21 −12.6 +11.3 32.9 10.5 3.7 10268.22 −11.8 +11.2 32.0 10.5 3.6 10268.23 −10.8 +11.3 32.5 10.5 3.6 10268.24 −10.6 +11.2 33.1 10.5 3.7 10268.25 −13.6 +11.4 35.6 9.8 4.2  148  

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