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Understanding adaptation and social-ecological change in Chilean coastal communities Tam, Jordan 2016

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UNDERSTANDING	  ADAPTATION	  AND	  SOCIAL-­‐ECOLOGICAL	  CHANGE	  	  IN	  CHILEAN	  COASTAL	  COMMUNITIES	  by	  Jordan	  Tam	  B.A.,	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  2005	  M.A.,	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  2010	  	  A	  THESIS	  SUBMITTED	  IN	  PARTIAL	  FULFILLMENT	  OF	  THE	  REQUIREMENTS	  FOR	  THE	  DEGREE	  OF	  DOCTOR	  OF	  PHILOSOPHY	  in	  THE	  FACULTY	  OF	  GRADUATE	  AND	  POSTDOCTORAL	  STUDIES	  (Resource	  Management	  and	  Environmental	  Studies)	  THE	  UNIVERSITY	  OF	  BRITISH	  COLUMBIA	  (Vancouver)	  June	  2016	  ©	  Jordan	  Tam,	  2016	  ii	  Abstract	  In	  recent	  decades,	  attempts	  have	  been	  made	  to	  integrate	  social	  and	  ecological	  dimensions	  of	  change	  into	  understandings	  of	  resource	  sustainability,	  yet	  challenges	  persist.	  Complex	  dynamics	  in	  social-­‐ecological	  systems	  fuel	  these	  challenges,	  rendering	  it	  difficult	  to	  anticipate	  and	  address	  problems	  arising	  from	  development	  or	  environmental	  change.	  This	  dissertation	  examines	  the	  ability	  of	  common-­‐pool	  resource	  (CPR)	  theories	  to	  address	  and	  realize	  sustainable	  management.	  Traditionally,	  CPR	  systems	  have	  been	  understood	  as	  a	  set	  of	  design	  principles	  for	  managing	  resources,	  especially	  single-­‐resource	  regimes	  wherein	  local	  drivers	  of	  change	  are	  known.	  However,	  most	  CPR	  settings	  are	  embedded	  in	  complex	  systems	  and	  affected	  by	  drivers	  at	  global	  to	  local	  scales.	  This	  recognition	  has	  led	  many	  scholars	  to	  champion	  adaptation	  as	  the	  way	  forward,	  but	  significant	  confusion	  remains	  over	  key	  concepts,	  including	  adaptive	  capacity.	  	  Focusing	  on	  Chile’s	  small-­‐scale	  fishers	  and	  divers,	  I	  explore	  how	  user	  adaptations	  and	  sociocultural	  shifts	  in	  response	  to	  globalization	  can	  threaten	  the	  resilience	  of	  Chile’s	  celebrated	  territorial	  user	  rights	  regime.	  I	  develop	  a	  typology	  of	  user	  motivations,	  and	  explain	  how	  these	  intersect	  with	  user	  adaptations	  and	  expand	  our	  ability	  to	  create	  more	  robust	  management.	  By	  studying	  the	  concrete	  adaptation	  behaviours	  of	  marine	  users,	  I	  also	  demonstrate	  how	  adaptive	  capacity	  is	  a	  proactive	  process	  and	  behaviour-­‐specific,	  contrary	  to	  assessment	  methods	  that	  emphasize	  generalizability.	  Similarly,	  by	  measuring	  social	  learning	  as	  the	  propensity	  of	  individuals	  to	  attend	  to	  social	  information,	  I	  show	  how	  social	  learning	  may	  not	  be	  uniformly	  positive	  (and	  may	  even	  be	  negative)	  for	  social-­‐ecological	  outcomes,	  counter	  to	  expectations	  in	  contemporary	  resource	  literatures.	  Finally,	  it	  is	  generally	  assumed	  that	  common	  understanding	  of	  resource	  dynamics	  will	  improve	  the	  kinds	  of	  collective	  action	  that	  ensures	  the	  success	  of	  iii	  CPRs.	  Results	  suggest	  that	  other	  variables	  may	  be	  more	  important	  (e.g.,	  migrant	  population),	  and	  the	  positive	  role	  of	  common	  understanding	  requires	  further	  testing	  using	  clear	  measures.	  Overall,	  the	  results	  of	  this	  dissertation	  suggest	  a	  need	  to	  attend	  to,	  and	  account	  for,	  a	  broader	  set	  of	  potentially	  significant	  social	  and	  psychological	  variables.	  Adopting	  a	  more	  precise	  and	  critical	  eye	  regarding	  human	  factors,	  as	  endeavoured	  in	  this	  study,	  may	  help	  the	  science	  of	  social-­‐ecological	  sustainability	  progress	  more	  capably	  and	  effectively.	  	  iv	  Preface	  This	  research	  was	  made	  possible	  by	  the	  contributions	  of	  many	  individuals.	  As	  a	  whole,	  this	  dissertation	  draws	  from	  two	  separate	  surveys	  designed	  and	  administered	  in	  Chile	  in	  2013.	  This	  work	  was	  approved	  by	  UBC’s	  Behavioural	  Research	  Ethics	  Board	  (certificate	  number:	  H12-­‐03130).	  	  I	  designed	  the	  research	  and	  the	  instruments.	  Overall,	  however,	  Drs.	  Kai	  Chan	  and	  Terre	  Satterfield	  contributed	  throughout	  the	  dissertation	  process	  and	  were	  consulted	  regularly	  to	  improve	  the	  problem-­‐framing,	  general	  research	  design,	  and	  instrument	  design;	  their	  advice	  has	  been	  indispensable.	  I	  also	  received	  valuable	  feedback	  and	  advice	  in	  aspects	  of	  the	  survey	  design.	  I	  designed	  the	  core	  of	  each	  survey.	  These	  were	  refined	  with	  the	  help	  of	  Drs.	  Terre	  Satterfield,	  Kai	  Chan,	  Stefan	  Gelcich,	  and	  Timothy	  Waring.	  Dr.	  Stefan	  Gelcich	  was	  key	  in	  providing	  numerous	  reviews	  of	  both	  survey	  instruments	  as	  the	  in-­‐country	  host	  for	  my	  research,	  and	  also	  helped	  scope	  and	  orient	  the	  fieldwork.	  Dr.	  Timothy	  Waring	  provided	  instrumental	  guidance	  in	  the	  design	  of	  the	  ‘social	  learning	  game’	  that	  is	  the	  core	  of	  Chapter	  4.	  	  Administration	  of	  the	  survey	  was	  conducted	  by	  me,	  along	  with	  a	  number	  of	  assistants	  including:	  Camila	  Vargas;	  Javiera	  Espinosa;	  Matías	  Guerrero;	  Marcelo	  Galvez;	  Maria	  Ignacia;	  and	  Andres	  Jacques.	  The	  aforementioned	  assistants	  also	  helped	  translate	  the	  survey	  and	  the	  results	  from	  English	  to	  Spanish,	  and	  vice	  versa,	  and	  Antonia	  Perez	  and	  Jennifer	  Romero	  Valpreda	  provided	  additional	  help	  with	  translation.	  	  v	  I	  conducted	  the	  analysis	  for	  every	  chapter,	  but	  received	  advice	  and	  direction	  from	  my	  committee	  throughout.	  I	  also	  received	  R	  programming	  support	  and	  assistance	  from	  Gerald	  Singh	  and	  Caitlin	  Millar,	  especially	  in	  the	  lasso	  regression	  and	  t-­‐test	  analyses	  in	  Chapter	  5.	  	  I	  wrote	  the	  vast	  majority	  of	  this	  dissertation.	  However,	  I	  received	  invaluable	  contributions,	  comments,	  and	  reviews	  throughout	  from	  my	  committee:	  Drs.	  Terre	  Satterfield,	  Kai	  Chan,	  Stefan	  Gelcich,	  and	  Timothy	  Waring.	  Chapters	  1	  and	  7	  aside,	  all	  chapters	  were	  written	  with	  the	  intent	  of	  publication,	  however,	  none	  have	  been	  published	  at	  present.