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Rock art of Nlaka'pamux : indigenous theory and practice on the British Columbia Plateau Arnett, Christopher Anderson 2016

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ROCK ART OF NLAKA’PAMUX: INDIGENOUS THEORY AND PRACTICE ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PLATEAU  by Christopher Anderson Arnett  B.A., The University of British Columbia 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Anthropology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)  April 2016  © Christopher Anderson Arnett, 2016    ii Abstract The ethnographic and archaeological data on Nlaka’pamux Interior Salish rock art is among the richest of its kind in North America and offers a rare opportunity to study indigenous rock art in the historical and cultural context of its production. Direct historical and cultural continuity offer the advantage of foregrounding indigenous taxonomy and interpretation. With multiple sources available (ethnographic texts, historical texts, archaeological data and localized indigenous knowledge) Nlaka’pamux rock art can be detached from western theory and studied empirically (temporally and spatially) as a material signature of practice within a circumscribed territory.  Nlaka’pamux rock painting, according to oral tradition, is an ancient practice. Many rock paintings visible today appeared on certain landforms after the arrival of Europeans and pathogens (smallpox) on the east coast of North America. Oral traditions state that Nlaka’pamux knew of European presence prior to face to face contact and took active measures to mitigate the impact using culturally prescribed means—speeches, dances and rock painting which occurred at 50 or so locations throughout the territory along travel corridors as early as the 16th century and into the 20th century. In all its phases, Nlaka’pamux rock painting is a pro-active historically contingent act of intervention with protection, demographic revitalization and intergenerational memory in mind.       iii Preface This dissertation is original, unpublished, and independent work by the author. Very small portions of Chapters 2 and 3 appeared in Archaeological Investigations at TSeTSeQU (EbRk-2), an Nlaka’pamux Rock Painting Site on the Stein River, British Columbia. The Midden, Volume 44, No. 3/4, pp. 17-22. 2012.    iv Table of Contents  Abstract	  ....................................................................................................................................................	  ii	  Preface	  .....................................................................................................................................................	  iii	  Table	  of	  Contents	  ..................................................................................................................................	  iv	  List	  of	  Figures	  .........................................................................................................................................	  ix	  Acknowledgements	  ...........................................................................................................................	  xxi	  Chapter	  One:	  They	  Dream	  it	  and	  Write	  It	  ......................................................................................	  1	  Introduction	  ............................................................................................................................................................	  5	  They	  Write	  Their	  Dream	  ....................................................................................................................................	  9	  Universal	  Rock	  Art	  .............................................................................................................................................	  16	  Analogy	  and	  Neuro-­‐Psychological	  Models	  ..............................................................................................	  19	  Historical	  Models	  ...............................................................................................................................................	  23	  The	  Trail	  .................................................................................................................................................................	  26	  Nlaka’pamux	  ........................................................................................................................................................	  32	  sht.ayn	  .....................................................................................................................................................................	  37	  Summary	  ................................................................................................................................................................	  42	  Chapter	  Two:	  An	  Archaeology	  of	  Nlaka’pamux	  Rock	  Painting	  ............................................	  45	  Introduction	  .........................................................................................................................................................	  46	  Nlaka’pamux	  Archaeological	  Chronology	  ...............................................................................................	  47	  Nlaka’pamux	  Rock	  Art	  .....................................................................................................................................	  49	     v Early	  studies/Spences	  Bridge/Stein	  River	  .............................................................................................	  51	  Spences	  Bridge	  (EcRh-­‐6,	  EcRh-­‐8)	  ...............................................................................................................	  53	  Stein	  River	  (EbRj-­‐5,	  EbRk-­‐1)	  ........................................................................................................................	  58	  Ts’paa’nk	  (EdRi-­‐2	  and	  EdRi-­‐	  10)	  .................................................................................................................	  71	  EdRi-­‐2	  .....................................................................................................................................................................	  72	  EdRi-­‐10	  ...................................................................................................................................................................	  76	  Tcutciwi’xa	  (DhRa-­‐2)	  .......................................................................................................................................	  78	  Kwoiek	  (EaRj-­‐80,	  EaRj-­‐81)	  ............................................................................................................................	  83	  Nahatlatch	  Lake	  (EeRk-­‐1),	  Uztlius	  Creek	  (DlRh-­‐1)	  .............................................................................	  87	  Douglas	  Creek	  (EdRm-­‐5)	  ................................................................................................................................	  88	  Summary	  ................................................................................................................................................................	  89	  Integrated	  Rock	  Art	  Archaeology	  Applied	  to	  TSeTSeQU,	  (EbRk-­‐2)	  ..............................................	  90	  Methods	  ..................................................................................................................................................................	  91	  Painting	  Events	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  92	  Surface	  and	  subsurface	  features	  .................................................................................................................	  97	  Initial	  Context	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  100	  Graphic	  Stratigraphy	  .....................................................................................................................................	  112	  Conventional	  motifs	  .......................................................................................................................................	  120	  Surface	  Features	  ..............................................................................................................................................	  137	  Subsurface	  Features	  ......................................................................................................................................	  140	  Summary	  .............................................................................................................................................................	  155	  Chapter	  Three:	  Ethnography	  of	  Nlaka’pamux	  Rock	  Art	  .......................................................	  163	  Introduction	  ......................................................................................................................................................	  163	  Simon	  Fraser	  .....................................................................................................................................................	  169	     vi Franz	  Boas	  ..........................................................................................................................................................	  171	  James	  Alexander	  Teit	  ....................................................................................................................................	  172	  Harlan	  I.	  Smith	  ..................................................................................................................................................	  177	  Charles	  Hill-­‐Tout	  .............................................................................................................................................	  178	  C.	  J.	  Hallisey	  ........................................................................................................................................................	  179	  John	  C.	  Goodfellow	  ..........................................................................................................................................	  181	  Recent	  Ethnographers	  ..................................................................................................................................	  183	  Ethnographic	  Interpretations	  of	  Nlaka’pamux	  Rock	  Art	  Sites	  ....................................................	  184	  Tsaxalis	  (DjTr-­‐4)	  .............................................................................................................................................	  184	  DiRl-­‐6	  ...................................................................................................................................................................	  188	  Harrison	  Lake	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  189	  The	  “Coyote	  Rocks”	  or	  “Mysteries	  "	  (Speks	  ha	  ShenKee-­‐yAp/	  TSee-­‐yA	  ha	  shenKee-­‐yAp	  shm.am	  /s’hhA.	  hha’s	  ha	  shenkee-­‐yap	  shm.am)	  ...................................................................................................	  191	  s’hhA.hha’s	  ha	  shenkee-­‐yap	  shm.am	  .........................................................................................................	  193	  TSee-­‐yA	  ha	  shenKee-­‐yAp	  shm.am	  ..............................................................................................................	  195	  Skaitok	  (EcRh-­‐8)	  .............................................................................................................................................	  197	  s’keehh	  ..................................................................................................................................................................	  210	  ts’paa’nk/EdRi-­‐2,	  EdRi-­‐10	  ...........................................................................................................................	  215	  Stein	  River	  EbRj-­‐4/EbRj-­‐5/EbRk-­‐1	  ........................................................................................................	  219	  EbRj-­‐4	  ...................................................................................................................................................................	  220	  EbRj-­‐5	  ...................................................................................................................................................................	  221	  EbRk-­‐1	  .................................................................................................................................................................	  223	  The	  Place	  Where	  Justice	  Was	  Administered	  (DiRb-­‐17,	  DiRb-­‐18	  and	  DiRb-­‐19,	  DiRr-­‐4,	  DiRb-­‐15	  and	  DiRb-­‐20	  ....................................................................................................................................................	  225	     vii k´ay7ísxnm/	  (DhRa-­‐2)	  ...................................................................................................................................	  228	  zuhh’t/	  ch-­‐chut/nkAowmn	  ...........................................................................................................................	  232	  Thematic	  Interpretations	  of	  Rock	  Art	  from	  Ethnographic	  Sources	  ..........................................	  235	  shhwEY’m	  and	  hha.hhA	  muh	  .......................................................................................................................	  235	  tumulh/ztsmn	  ...................................................................................................................................................	  239	  TSeQU	  ...................................................................................................................................................................	  255	  Rock	  Painting	  and	  atsama	  ...........................................................................................................................	  262	  Archaeological	  Signatures	  of	  Ethnographic	  Practice	  ......................................................................	  269	  Chronology	  ........................................................................................................................................................	  276	  Annie	  York	  and	  Richard	  Daly	  .....................................................................................................................	  279	  Chapter	  4:	  demEEwuh	  (“universal”)	  Theory—Towards	  a	  Perspectivist	  Archaeology	  of	  Non-­‐Material	  Site	  Formation	  ......................................................................................................................	  287	  Introduction	  ......................................................................................................................................................	  287	  demEEwuh	  ..........................................................................................................................................................	  297	  sptaqulh	  ...............................................................................................................................................................	  298	  atsama	  .................................................................................................................................................................	  303	  shAytknmhh	  .......................................................................................................................................................	  307	  hha.hhA	  ................................................................................................................................................................	  311	  Annie	  York	  and	  Richard	  Daly	  on	  demEEwuh/atsama	  .....................................................................	  312	  Accretions	  of	  Knowledge	  .............................................................................................................................	  315	  Community-­‐oriented	  Archaeology?	  ........................................................................................................	  318	  Chapter	  5:This	  Tells	  You	  the	  Way	  the	  World	  is	  Coming	  to.	  ................................................	  326	  Introduction	  ......................................................................................................................................................	  326	  Proto-­‐contact	  America	  ..................................................................................................................................	  327	     viii Smallpox	  .............................................................................................................................................................	  328	  Precognition	  and	  Prophecy	  ........................................................................................................................	  334	  Annie	  York	  on	  the	  Prophets	  and	  Rock	  Art	  ...........................................................................................	  345	  Material	  Signatures	  of	  Practice	  .................................................................................................................	  349	  Intervention	  ......................................................................................................................................................	  356	  A	  Kutenuxa	  Comparison	  ..............................................................................................................................	  368	  Rock	  Art	  on	  the	  Columbia	  River	  ...............................................................................................................	  372	  Extended	  Objects	  in	  Space	  ..........................................................................................................................	  376	  Chapter	  6.	  That	  Indian	  Writing,	  I	  Tell	  You!You	  Gotta	  Be	  Pretty	  Clever	  To	  Know	  All	  Those	  Symbols	  Of	  It.	  .......................................................................................................................................	  382	  The	  Song	  Remains	  the	  Same	  ......................................................................................................................	  396	  Prophecy	  in	  the	  Stein	  ....................................................................................................................................	  401	  Postscript	  ............................................................................................................................................................	  413	  References	  ...........................................................................................................................................	  417	  Appendix	  ..............................................................................................................................................	  459	  Rock	  Paintings	  at	  EbRk-­‐2,	  TSeTSeQU.	  ...................................................................................................	  459	      ix List of Figures Figure 1-1. Nlaka’pamux Territory. Map by John T.T.R. Arnett. ................................................ 32	  Figure 2-1. TSeTSeQU, EbRk-2. Photo by Chris Arnett .............................................................. 45	  Figure 2-2. Nlaka’pamux territory and Salish rock painting sites. Map by John T. T. Arnett. .... 50	  Figure 2-3. Drawings by Carl Purpus of paintings at EbRk-8. After Purpus1892: 234. .............. 51	  Figure 2-4. The“Basket Kettle of Coyote'sWife, ”EcRh-6, 1897. Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg.42761. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................... 54	  Figure 2-5. The“Basket Kettle of the Coyote's Wife” (east side). Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg.42762. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................... 55	  Figure 2-6. The "Coyote Stones" or "Mysteries, "1897. Note Nlaka'pamux road enlarged for cart and wagon traffic in early 1860’s. Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg. 42764. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. ..................................... 56	  Figure 2-7. The“Vulva of the Coyote'sWife, ”1897. The“vulva”is the crack to the lower right of the rock. Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg.42766. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. ................................................................................ 57	  Figure 2- 8. Large boulder with rock paintings, EcRh-8, near Skaitok, Spence’s Bridge, 1897. Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg.54948. Courtesy of the Canadian Museum of History. ....... 58	  Figure 2-9. EbRj-5, 2012. Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................ 59	     x Figure 2-10. Rock paintings at EbRj-5 (left side of hollow), 1897. Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg.42823. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................... 60	  Figure 2-11. Rock paintings at EbRj-5 (right side of hollow), 1897. Paintings occur on speleothem at left (see Figure 3-24) and on shadowed rock surface (Figure 2-12). Photo by Harlan I. Smith. Neg.42822. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. ................................................................................................................ 60	  Figure 2-12. Drawing by Harlan I. Smith of rock painting at EbRj-5. Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. S658. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................... 61	  Figure 2-13. EbRk-1, 2012. Paintings are on the cliff just downstream from active talus slope. Photo by Chris Arnett. .......................................................................................................... 63	  Figure 2-14. John J. Oakes sketching rock painting at EbRk-1, August 1897. Photo by Harlan I Smith. Neg. 42821. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................................ 65	  Figure 2-15. Drawing by Harlan I. Smith of paintings at EbRk-1. Annotations by Teit. Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. S658. Courtesy of the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. ................................................................................................. 66	  Figure 2-16. Dynamited painted boulder (EhRc-90), 2014. Thompson River. Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. .................................................................................................................... 70	  Figure 2-17.spitkwa’uz, EdRi-2, 2013. Paintings are found adjacent to me and further along the base of the cliff as the trail ascends. The 1988-89 excavations occurred in foreground. Photo courtesy of Barbara Arnett. ................................................................................................... 72	     xi Figure 2-18. Drawings of rock paintings on cliff face at EdRi-2. Panel sequence runs left to right along the base of the cliff. After Rousseau et al.1991, Fig.10. Courtesy Mike Rousseau. .. 73	  Figure 2-19.1988/1989 excavations at EdRi-2. Note relationship to “panels” of rock paintings (labeled PA, PB, PC)to excavation units. After Rousseau et al. 1991, Fig. 9. Courtesy Mike Rousseau. .............................................................................................................................. 74	  Figure 2-20. Frontal schematic drawing of rock shelter (EdRi-10) and excavation in relation to rock painting. After Rousseau et al.1991: Fig.16. Courtesy Mike Rousseau. ...................... 77	  Figure 2-21. Excavations at DhRa-2 with stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates. After Copp2006. Courtesy Stan Copp. ............................................................................................................. 81	  Figure 2-22. Map and sketches of rock paintings at EaRj-80 in relation to mountain topography. After Angelbeck and Hall 2008:Figure 68. Courtesy Bill Angelbeck. ................................. 85	  Figure 2-23. Rock paintings at EaRj-80. Note rock feature to left, rock shelter, and thick bands of paint covered by speleothem. After Anglebeck and Hall 2008: Fig. 71. Courtesy Bill Angelbeck. ............................................................................................................................ 85	  Figure 2-24. Map of EaRj-81. After Anglebeck and Hall 2008: Figure 74. Courtesy Bill Angelbeck. ............................................................................................................................ 86	  Figure 2-25. Unit 2, EaRj-81, 2011. Note powdery fragmented red ochre concentration in lower corner of unit next to hearth feature. Photo courtesy of Adrian Sanders. ............................. 87	  Figure 2-26. Rock painting, EdRm-5, 2014. Photo courtesy of Peter Merchant. ......................... 89	  Figure 2-27. Rock Paintings EbRk-2-54 and 55. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett 94	  Figure 2-28. Detail of painting events, Group1, EbRk-2, 2012. DStretch enhancement. Photo by ChrisArnett. ........................................................................................................................... 96	     xii Figure 2-29. Map showing location of EbRk-2, Stein River. The village of Stein is located on the benches at the river mouth. ................................................................................................... 98	  Figure 2-30. EbRk-2 (TSeTSeQU), 2014. Rock shelter and paintings are located on the cliff and boulders (left). Note sandy river terrace, trail and river. Photo by Chris Arnett .................. 99	  Figure 2-31. Geomorphology at EbRk-2, 2010. Note mechanical erosion (collapsed rock shelter). Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................ 103	  Figure 2-32. DStretch-enhanced geomorphology, Group2, 2014. Note collapsed rockshelter. Photo by John Arnett and Chris Arnett. .............................................................................. 104	  Figure 2-33. Speleothem and paintings at EbRk-2, Group 3, 2014. Initial context (above), DStretch enhancement (below). Photo by John Arnett and Chris Arnett. .......................... 107	  Figure 2-34. Painting EbRk-2-136. Initial context (left), DStretch enhancement (right). Portions of the speleothem matrix have fallen or been removed. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................ 108	  Figure 2-35. Multiple paintings incorporated into cracks and speleothem covered surfaces. Initial context (left), DStretch enhancement (right). Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................ 108	  Figure 2-36. Painting EbRk-2-50 with natural iron oxide and speleothem. Initial context (left), DStretch enhancement (right). Photo by Chris Arnett. ....................................................... 109	  Figure 2-37. Painting EbRk-2-118 and natural mineral accretion. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett .................................................................................................................... 110	  Figure 2- 38. Rock Paintings EbRk-2-18 and 19 incorporated into quartzite veins. Initial context (left), DStretch enhancement (right). Photo by Chris Arnett. ............................................. 110	  Figure 2-39. Painting EbRk-2-178. Ungulate in a crescent. Note incorporation of painting into surface features. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ....................................... 111	     xiii Figure 2-40. Rock paintings, EbRk-2. Initial context (above), DStretch enhancement (below). Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................ 113	  Figure 2-41. Painting EbRk-2-100 superimposed on Painting EbRk-2-99. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................ 115	  Figure 2-42. Image enhanced painting EbRk-2-12 (dark red left) and EbRk-2-11 (to right and beneath EbRk-2-12). Photo by Chris Arnett. ...................................................................... 115	  Figure 2-43. Photo mosaic showing graphic stratigraphy with Painting EbRk-2-52 (a “mountain goat” and a “structure”) over an older painting EbRk-2-51 (two “five-pointed stars” joined by a line). DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................. 116	  Figure 2-44. Painting EbRk-2-68, superimposed over Painting EbRk-2-69. DStretch enhancemnet. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................................................. 116	  Figure 2-45. Left arm of painting EbRk-2-24 (“ghost”) overlapps earlier painting EbRk-2-21 (“thick band”). Note linear painting EbRk-2-23 (“earthline”?) overlapping EbRk-2-2-22 (“circle”). DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................. 117	  Figure 2-46. Painting EbRk-2-123overlapping EbRk-2-124. Note lower “ray”of the “sun”superimposed on the“grizzly bear arm.”Note also conformity of design to cracks in the rock. Photo by Chris Arnett .......................................................................................... 118	  Figure 2-47. “TLapEEsht.”Paintings EbRk-2-158 and 159. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................................ 119	  Figure 2-48. “Mountain goat.” Painting EbRk-2-52, DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett .................................................................................................................................. 123	  Figure 2-49."Bighorn sheep.”Painting EbRk-2-192. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................................................................................................. 123	     xiv Figure 2-50."Elk"?Painting EbRk-2-160. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ....... 124	  Figure 2-51. Two ungulates with single body chevron, Painting EbRk-2-150. DStretch enhancement. Photoby Chris Arnett. .................................................................................. 124	  Figure 2-52. Painting EbRk-2-170. Ungulate with three body chevrons. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................ 125	  Figure 2-53.“Ungulate”under arch. Painting EbRk-2-23. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................................................................................................. 126	  Figure 2-54.“Ungulates”under arches. Painting EbRk-2-25. DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................................ 126	  Figure 2-55.“Grizzly bear tracks.”DStretch enhancement. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................... 127	  Figure 2-56."sunulhkAz.”Paintings EbRk-2-98 (top) and EbRk-2-155 (bottom). DStretch enhancement. Photos by Chris Arnett. ................................................................................ 128	  Figure 2-57."sunulhkAz.”From top to bottom: Paintings EbRk-2-1, EbRk-2-18 and EbRk-2-145 and EbRk-2-148 (detail). DStretch enhancement. Photos by Chris Arnett. ....................... 129	  Figure 2-58.“sunulhkAz.”Nahatlatch Lake, (EeRk-1). DStretch enhancement. Photo courtesy of Brian Pegg. .......................................................................................................................... 132	  Figure 2-59. “Horned lizard.” Paintings EbRk-2-13 (top), EbRk-2-117 (right) and EbRk-2-168.............................................................................................................................................. 133	  Figure 2-60."TLapEEsht." Painting EbRk-2-148. ...................................................................... 134	  Figure 2-61. "Ghost" imagery, EbRk-2- 37 (top), EbRk-2-152 (middle left), EbRk-2-24 (middle right) and EbRk-2-31 (bottom). .......................................................................................... 136	     xv Figure 2-62. Entrance to rock shelter showing manuport deposit in foreground, 2009. Excavation unit occurred in light coloured area at entrance to collapsed shelter. Red “pictograph” in right centre is recent (21st century) and has been removed. Photo by Chris Arnett ........... 139	  Figure 2-63. Manuport deposit at EbRk-2, 2009. Photo by Chris Arnett. .................................. 139	  Figure 2-64. Ground surface Unit 3 prior to excavation, EbRk-2, 2009. Note thin surface layer of aeolian sand overlaying darker sediments and rootlets. Darkened rectangle is 30 cm x 50 cm. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................................................................. 142	  Figure 2-65. Northeast corner of Unit 3 to sterile sand 13 cm DBS, EbRk-2, 2009. Note alternating layers of layers of aeloian sand and darker strata, fire altered rock and sand oxidized by fire. Photo courtesy of Adrian Sanders. .......................................................... 143	  Figure 2-66. Northwest corner of Unit 3 showing culture strata to 13 cm DBS, EbRk-2, 2009. Photo courtesy of Adrian Sanders. ...................................................................................... 144	  Figure 2-67. Unit 3 excavation to sterile river sand showing hearth. Note manuports at right surface and subsurface. Photo courtesy of Adrian Sanders. ............................................... 144	  Figure 2-68. Red ochre fragment recovered from EbRk-2. ........................................................ 145	  Figure 2-69. Plot of calcium and iron showing XRF results. Four types of ochre at EbRk-2 are indicated by solid triangle, square, diamond, and star. Low iron samples (not ochre) marked as “x” and others with calcium carbonate as dots. Plot courtesy of Rudy Reimer. ............ 146	  Figure 2-70. Basalt debitage, Unit 3, 6 - 8 cm DBS. .................................................................. 148	  Figure 2-71. Glass shatter, Unit 3, EbRk-2. ................................................................................ 148	  Figure 2-72. Burnt fragment of Pecten carinus. ......................................................................... 150	  Figure 2-73. Dentalia pretiosum bead, Unit 3, 9.5 cm DBS. ..................................................... 151	  Figure 2-74. Prunus ssp. (left) and Rubus spp. Unit 3. ............................................................... 153	     xvi Figure 2-75. Laris occidentalis (western larch) pitch. In situ Unit 3, 6 cm DBS. ...................... 153	  Figure 2-76. Spirally fractured tibia (?) of large land mammal, found with a single piece of fire-cracked cobble at 4 cm DBS in Unit 4 beneath paintings in Figure 2-35. .......................... 155	  Figure 2 -77. Posterior probability distribution of radiocarbon dates from EbRk-2 and EaRj-81.............................................................................................................................................. 161	  Figure 3-1. Copy of Fraser's map by Francis Harper with reference to Tsaxalis. After Hayes 2005:15. Courtesy Derek Hayes. ........................................................................................ 171	  Figure 3-2. James Alexander Teit and Lucy Susanna Antko. Courtesy Nicola Valley Archives Association. ......................................................................................................................... 173	  Figure 3-3. Drawing and notes by James Teit of some rock paintings on “a large granite boulder” (EcRh-90) below the “Coyote Rocks.”The rock was dynamited in the 20th century and fragments with paintings are found on the riverbank (see Figure 2-15). Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. Courtesy of the Anthropology Division, American Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................. 174	  Figure 3-4. Tsaxalis (DjTr-4), overlooking the Fraser River showing various lines incised/sawn into the rock, 2014. Another site with incised quartzite veins is located on the opposite shore (See Mohs 1987). Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................................. 186	  Figure 3-5. Markings at Gilt Creek (DiRi-6), 1946. Carvings have been chalked. Moody Album. Courtesy Royal British Columbia Museum. ....................................................................... 188	  Figure 3-6. TSee-yA ha shenKee-yAp shm.am (The “Basket Kettle of Coyote's Wife”) (EcRh-6), 2013. Speks na shenKee-yAp (The Coyotes Penis is just visible on the upper right). Photo by Chris Arnett. ........................................................................................................................ 191	     xvii Figure 3-7. Drawings by James Teit of rock paintings on s’hhA.hha’s ha shenkee-yap shm.am “Vulva of the Coyote's Wife.” Nlaka’pamux explanations: a, grizzly bear; b, track of grizzly bear; c, pool of grizzly bear; d, fir-branches; e, vulva of Coyote's wife; f, trench with poles; g, Coyote; h, fish; i, arrow; j, cap with fringe; k, otter; l, grave poles; m, insect; n, crossing of trails, sacrifices of food, and pole; o, insect kilazwa’us. (Teit 1900:Plate XX, Fig.13). Note the “duck” figure” to the right of “g. Coyote” perhaps a reference to the white duck, one of his wives (Hanna and Henry 1996:33). Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. T458, Folder2, Courtsey Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History.............................................................................................................................................. 194	  Figure 3-8. Drawings by James Teit of rock paintings on "The Basket Kettle of Coyote's Wife." Explanations: 1, no data; 2 a, tree; b, Juniper-bush; 3 a, Earth, water and trees; 4 a, Catfish; b, a fir-branch.5 a ................................................................................................................ 196	  Figure 3-9. Drawing by James Teit of rock paintings on boulder at EcRh-8, Spences Bridge. After Teit 1896: 229. ........................................................................................................... 199	  Figure 3-10. Rock paintings at Skaitok, EcRh-8, 2014. DStretch enhanced. Note evidence of superpositioning “made by various girls at the time when they reached maturity” (Teit 1896:227). Photo by Chris Arnett. ...................................................................................... 199	  Figure 3-11. Puberty isolation lodge (nhho’hhwuheeyAten) of small fir trees and boughs, Spence’s Bridge, 1914. Photo by James Teit. Neg. 27073. Courtesy Canadian Museum of History................................................................................................................................. 202	  Figure 3-12. Rock paintings of nhho’hhwuheeyAten (isolation lodges) made of fir bows from EcRh-8. After Teit 1896: 229. ............................................................................................ 202	  Figure 3-13. Rock paintings of fir boughs at EcRh-8, Spence’s Bridge. After Teit 1896:229. .. 204	     xviii Figure 3-14. Model wearing fir bough headdress of young woman, 1914. Photo by James Teit. Neg. 27099. Courtesy Canadian Museum of History. ........................................................ 205	  Figure 3-15. Two trenches, two sticks, or the numeral two. After Teit 1900, Plate XX, Fig.16.206	  Figure 3-16. Rock paintings of cross-trails, EcRh-8. After Teit 1896:229. ................................ 206	  Figure 3-17. Rock paintings of unfinished basketry or mats. EcRh-8. After Teit 1896:229. ..... 207	  Figure 3-18. “Snake (“12”) and two dogs (“19”, ”22”), EcRh-8. After Teit 1896:229. ............. 208	  Figure 3-19. DStretch enhanced detail showing figures added to EcRh-8 rock after 1896. Photo by Chris Arnett. ................................................................................................................... 209	  Figure 3-20. Drawing by James Teit of paintings at s'keehh. Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. T458, Section 2. Courtesy Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History................................................................................................................................. 212	  Figure 3-21. Drawing by James Teit of paintings on south face of s’keehh. Photo courtesy of Angela Clyburn. T458, Section 2, Courtesy Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. .............................................................................................................. 213	  Figure 3-22. Drawings by James Teit of rock paintings at ts’paank: EdRi-10 (Fig. 6), EdRi-100 (Fig. 10) and other unidentified locations. Explanations: 6, three men, two of them with feather headdress; 7a, black bear; b, fir-branch; c, snake; d, lakes and river; e, trench and dirt thrown out; 8, Face with tears; 9.beaver; 10, a, trench and poles; b, unfinished basketry or pile of fir branches; c, man; d, ........................................................................................ 215	  Figure 3-23. Possible“avian”imagery at spitkwa’uz, EdRi-2, 2014. Photos by Chris Arnett. .... 218	  Figure 3-24. Granite boulderwith rock carvings, EbRj-4, 1990. Photo courtesy of Paul Schmid.............................................................................................................................................. 219	     xix Figure 3-25. Drawings of animals at EbRj-5 by Harlan I. Smith (left) and Chris Arnett (right) showing relationship of the animals to “the trail that goes over the hill” (Smith 1932). .... 222	  Figure 3-26. "The Place Where Justice Was Administered, "2014. Photo by Chris Arnett. ...... 225	  Figure 3-27. Rock paintings at k´ay7ísxnm (DhRl-2). Similkameen Valley. ............................. 228	  Figure 2-28. Drawing by James Teit of rock paintings at DhRa-2. Photo courtesy Angela Clyburn. T458, Section 2. Courtesy the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. ................................................................................................................... 229	  Figure 3-29.chul-chut. Early 1900’s. The “spirit of the place” paintings were formerly visible in the pool area between the two sets of falls. Photo by J. S. Matthews. AM-54-S-38. Courtesy Vancouver Library Archives. .............................................................................................. 232	  Figure 3-30. Red ochre quarry at Tulmn /ztsmn (Tulameen). 2013. Photo by Chris Arnett. ...... 242	  Figure 3-31. Strata atTulmn showing fine red ochre deposit, 2013. Photo by Chris Arnett. ...... 245	  Figure 3-32. Young woman with face painted with red ochre for puberty training. After Teit 1900: Fig.208. ..................................................................................................................... 248	  Figure 3-33. Nlaka’pamux face paintingAfter Teit 1930, Plate 6. ............................................. 252	  Figure 3- 34. Dog halter. After Smth1899:114. .......................................................................... 258	  Figure 3-35 Drawing by James Teit of paintings on Similkameen Valley boulder (DiRb-2), k, “sun or earth and trees, ” l, m, n, “Vision of an adolescent meaning doubtful.” After Teit 1930: Fig 21. ....................................................................................................................... 266	  Figure 4-1. North American vision quest model. After Atleo 2004:Fig.3. Courtesy UBC Press.............................................................................................................................................. 303	  Figure 5-1. Average rate of occurence/year of structured features of proxy demography on the Plateau. After Campbell 1990, Fig. 6-8. Courtesy Sarah Campbell. .................................. 331	     xx Figure 5-2. Ghost Dance face paintings after Teit 1900:Fig 291. Upper row: 1) clouds, rain, rays, something good descending from above; extension to ear has reference to hearing; 2) same but including symbol of sun; 3) ascending rays of the sun. It may mean prayers or something else ascending; the setting sun or the sun’s rays on the earth; 4) Thought to represent a cloud line or clouds with sun rays ascending, the rising sun, the lower line probably represents the earth. The painting may have some connection with speech; 5) lightning or a rainstorm; 6) cloud line or cloud with rays of the sun shining on its side; 7) the upper line may mean the sky the lower one a cloud, something good descending from above, setting sun (Teit 1930:424). ..................................................................................... 344	  Figure 5-3. Drawing of Nlaka'pamux cosmos by Nau'kwalis of Spences Bridge showing land of the dead (top). After Teit 1900, Fig.290. ............................................................................ 355	  Figure 6-1. TSeTSeQU, EbRK-2, Stein River, 2014. Photo by Chris Arnett. ............................ 384	        xxi Acknowledgements I thank my committee Dr. Andrew Martindale (supervisor), Dr. Bruce Miller and Dr. Michael Blake (committee members) for their unswerving support and guidance in the creation of this work. I picked the best! A special shout-out to my supervisor for going above and beyond the call of duty! I also thank my external examiner Dr. Stephen Silliman, departmental examiner Dr. Jennifer Kramer and university examiner Dr. Paige Raibmon for their insightful and astute comments. There are many others I thank who have helped along the way. First and foremost, I thank my beautiful wife Barbara who has accompanied me to many sites and with whom I share a depth and breadth of experience and knowledge impossible to surpass. My sons John and Carl Arnett also accompanied me on later forays and offered insight and expertise which has enhanced my knowledge. My Mother-in-law Judy Anderson has housed and fed me during these past few years on Point Grey. My parents out in Sooke, John and Norma Arnett, have always encouraged me in what I do. Among others are: Peter Hubley, Willie Nahanee, Paul Schmid, Charles McNaughton, John Corner, Joe Ritlop, Brenda Gould, Doris Lundy, Dan Leen, Grant Keddie, Gerry Freeman, Chief Ruby Dunstan, Grand Chief Bob Pasco, Wendy Wickwire, Michael M’Gonigle, Dana Lepofsky, Ken Lay, John McCandless, Charles Southwell, Rita Haugen, Willie Dick, Ina Dick, Louie Philips, Rosie Fandrich, Willie Justice, Andrew Johnny, Steve Paul, Amy Hance, Mary Anderson, E. Richard Atleo, Mick Hesselin, Mauriri McGlinchey, Stan Copp, Al Mackie, Morgan Ritchie, Adrian Sanders, Bryan Gordon, Michael Klassen, Iain McKechnie, Jesse Morin, Susanne Villeneuve, Nick Waber, David Whitley, Daniel Arsenault, James Keyser, Peter Merchant, Beth Velliky, Stacy Thom, John Hauge