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Stratigraphic and petrographic characterization of HS epithermal Au-Ag mineralization at the TV Tower… Leroux, Graham M. 2016

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STRATIGRAPHIC AND PETROGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HS EPITHERMAL Au-Ag MINERALIZATION AT THE TV TOWER DISTRICT, BIGA PENINSULA, NW TURKEY    by  Graham M. Leroux B.Sc., the University of Victoria, 2010  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  The Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (Geological Sciences)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2016  © Graham M. Leroux, 2016 ii  Abstract The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Turkey is part of the Western Tethyan Metallogenic Belt, known to be one of the most prospective belts for porphyry and epithermal style copper and gold deposits in the world. However, the limited spatial extent of mineral tenure boundaries around many deposits encumbers the correlation of geological and structural features beyond tenure boundaries and to a district and regional scale. High sulphidation epithermal Ag-Au-Cu and Au-Cu porphyry deposits in the Biga Peninsula are hosted by two temporally discrete magmatic rock formations and are structurally reconfigured by neotectonic faulting. New geological mapping between epithermal and porphyry deposits in the central Biga Peninsula, coupled with petrographic characterization and geochronological constraints on magmatism and mineralization, is used to correlate the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı high sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag-Cu deposits across the TV Tower District and regionally. Identifying prospective magmatic formations and relating structural controls on ore mineralization to regional structures will increase the probability of new discoveries.      iii  Preface In Chapter 1, a review of conceptual and theoretical literature relevant to the current project is summarized by the author.  Chapter 2 is based on work conducted in the field in the Çanakkale Province of Northwestern Turkey and at the University of British Columbia’s Vancouver campus research facility by the author who was responsible for collecting field data and analyzing that data after laboratory analysis.   Geochemical data was produced from field samples by ACME Labs ® in Vancouver. Analysis of that data by the author was carried out using ioGAS computer software. Lithological and structural data collected in the field was analyzed and presented using ArcGIS®, OpenStereo™ and CorelDraw®. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological analytical work was carried out by Janet Gabites at the Pacific Center for Isotopic Research (PCIGR) at The University of British Columbia.  This project benefitted from the collaboration of Pilot Gold Inc. and Alamos Gold Ltd. geologists: Dr. Moira Smith, April Barrios, Will Lepore, Hakan Boran and Methap Ozcan; they were fundamental in establishing a scientific baseline for advancement in field research. Dr. Aleksandar Mišković from the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU) accompanied me in the field for five days in July of 2013 and two days in July 2014. All the fieldwork for this thesis was conducted by the author during two seasons: April 1 – Sept 1, 2013 and June 4 – Aug 29, 2014.   Results contained in this thesis have been presented and published under sponsorship confidentiality until May 1, 2016 as follows:  Technical Reports: Smith, M., Lepore, W., Incekaraoğlu, T., Boran, H., Barrios, A., Leroux, G. M., Ross, K., Büyüksolak, A., Sevimli, A., and Raabe, K., [submitted], High Sulphidation Epithermal Au and Cu-Au Porphyry Mineralization at the Karaayi Target, Biga Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey: Economic Geology, p. 1-35.   Leroux, G. M., Smith, M., Barrios, A., Raabe, K., Lepore, W., Mišković, A. and Hart, C. J. R., 2013, Structural and Geological controls on Epithermal Mineralization at TV Tower and Kirazlı Projects, Çanakkale Province, Northwestern Turkey (Field Report): In: Mišković, A., and Hart, C. J. R. (eds.) Mineral  iv  Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: 1st Technical Meeting Report, Izmir, Aug 23-25, 2013, p. 97 – 126.  Leroux, G. M., Smith, M., Barrios, A., Raabe, K., Lepore, W., Mišković, A., and Hart, C. J. R., 2014, Broadcast from TV Tower: Prospective Volcanic Stratigraphy for Epithermal Mineralization in the Central Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey (Field Report): In: Mišković, A., (eds.) Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: 2nd Technical Meeting Report, Sofia, Aug 24-28, 2014.  Leroux, G. M., The TV Tower Au-Ag-Cu district of the central Biga Peninsula: Stratigraphy, structural architecture and timing of hydrothermal activity: In: Mišković, A., (eds.) Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: Final Technical Meeting Report, Istanbul, Sept 1-2, 2015 p. 85 – 89.  Posters: Leroux, G. M., Smith, M., Barrios, A., Lepore, W., Mišković, A., Hart, C. J. R. and Raabe, K., 2014, Geological Map and Structural Interpretation of TV Tower and Kirazlı Prospects: Gold in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: at: Poster Sessions, AME BC Mineral Exploration RoundUp, January 26, 2014.   Leroux, G. M., Hart, C. J. R., Hart, Mišković, A., Smith, M., Barrios, A., and Lepore, W., 2015, Stratigraphic Mapping and Petrography of Küçükdağ and Kirazlı Epithermal Au-Ag Deposits, NW Turkey: at: Poster Sessions, AME BC Mineral Exploration RoundUp, January 26 – 29, 2015.  Leroux, G. M., 2015, Petrographic Characteristics and Stratigraphic Correlation between Küçükdağ and Kirazlı High Sulphidation Au-Ag-Cu Epithermal Prospects, NW Turkey: at: the Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: Final Technical Meeting, Istanbul, Sept 1-2, 2015.  Leroux, G. M., 2015, MAP: Geology of the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı Epithermal Ag-Au Deposits and the Columbaz Au-porphyry Deposit, Central Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: at: the Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: Final Technical Meeting, Istanbul, Sept 1-2, 2015.   v  Presentations: Leroux, G. M., 2013, Structural and Geological Controls on Epithermal Mineralization at TV Tower and Kirazlı Projects, Çanakkale Province, Northwestern Turkey: at: Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny 1st Technical Meeting, Izmir, August 23-25, 2013.  Leroux, G. M., 2015, Prospective Volcanic Stratigraphy for Epithermal Mineralization in the Central Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: at: the Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: 2nd Technical Meeting, Sofia, Aug 24-28, 2014, and at: Student Presentations, AME BC Mineral Exploration Roundup, January 28, 2015.  Leroux, G. M., 2015, The TV Tower Au-Ag-Cu District of Central Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: Stratigraphy, Structural architecture and timing of hydrothermal activities: at: Mišković, A., (eds.) Mineral Deposit Research Unit’s Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project: Final Technical Meeting, Istanbul, Sept 1-2, 2015 p. 90 - 96.    vi  Table of Contents  Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... ii Preface ......................................................................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................................... vi List of Tables .............................................................................................................................................. viii List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... ix List of Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................... x Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................................... xi Chapter 1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Justification and Objectives ................................................................................................................ 2 1.3 Epithermal Systems: Conceptual Framework ..................................................................................... 3 1.4 Regional Geological Setting ................................................................................................................ 6 1.4.1 Regional Tectonic Setting ............................................................................................................. 7 1.4.2 The Biga Peninsula Basement ...................................................................................................... 9 1.4.3 Cenozoic Magmatism ................................................................................................................. 10 1.5 Mineral Deposits in the Biga Peninsula ............................................................................................ 13 Chapter 2 – Metallogeny of the TV Tower District, NW Turkey ................................................................. 17 2.1 Geological and Metallogenic Setting of the TV Tower District ......................................................... 17 2.1.1 Volcanic Rocks ............................................................................................................................ 20 2.1.2 Intrusive Rocks ........................................................................................................................... 25 2.1.3 Local Stratigraphy Epithermal and Porphyry Mineralization ..................................................... 27 2.2 Hydrothermal Alteration ................................................................................................................... 31 2.2.1 Residual acidic alteration: vuggy quartz .................................................................................... 32 2.2.2 Advanced Argillic Alteration: Quartz, alunite, dickite and kaolinite .......................................... 34 2.2.3 Sericite, chlorite alteration ........................................................................................................ 34 2.2.4 Phyllic Alteration: Quartz, sericite and pyrite ............................................................................ 34 2.2.5 Propylitic Alteration: Chlorite, epidote, calcite, pyrite and magnetite ...................................... 35 2.2.6 Argillic Alteration: Kaolinite, Illite and white clay ...................................................................... 35  vii  2.2.7 Supergene Alteration: Clays and iron oxides ............................................................................. 36 2.2.8 Calcite, Gypsum and Barite Veining ........................................................................................... 37 2.3 Texture and Mineralogy of the Ag-Au HS Epithermal Mineralization .............................................. 37 2.4 Geochemistry .................................................................................................................................... 47 2.4.1 Chemical classification of magmatic rocks................................................................................. 47 2.4.2 REE and multi-element characterization ................................................................................... 49 2.4.3 Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Alteration ................................................................................ 49 2.5 Structural Characteristics of the HS Epithermal and Porphyry Mineralization ................................ 52 2.5.1 Aspects of Structural Analysis .................................................................................................... 52 2.5.2 Local Structural Setting .............................................................................................................. 53 2.6 Timing of Magmatism and Au-Ag-Cu Mineralization in the Central Biga Peninsula ........................ 58 2.6.1 Methodology .............................................................................................................................. 58 2.6.2 Geochronological Constraints on Magmatism and Mineralization ........................................... 58 2.7 Discussion .......................................................................................................................................... 61 2.7.1 Space-Time Relationship of Magmatism and Mineralization in the Biga Peninsula ................. 61 2.7.2 Stratigraphy and Mineralization Correlation ............................................................................. 63 2.7.3 Paragenesis of ore minerals at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits .......................... 64 2.7.4 Structural Evolution ................................................................................................................... 67 Chapter 3 – Conclusions and Mineral Exploration Implications ................................................................. 70 3.1 Conclusions ....................................................................................................................................... 70 3.2 Mineral Exploration Implications ...................................................................................................... 72 References .................................................................................................................................................. 74 Appendix 1: Petrographic Descriptions ...................................................................................................... 82 Appendix 2: List of Geochemical Samples ................................................................................................ 152 Appendix 3: Geochemistry Tables ............................................................................................................ 155 Appendix 4: Geochronological Database of the Biga Peninsula ............................................................... 164 Appendix 5: U/Pb Methodology ............................................................................................................... 179 Appendix 6: U/Pb Isotopic Age Data ......................................................................................................... 181 Appendix 7: Ar/Ar Isotopic Age Data ........................................................................................................ 185   viii  List of Tables  Table 1. Characteristics of end-member epithermal deposit types. ............................................................ 3 Table 2. Alteration and mineralization assemblages of the TV Tower District ........................................... 32 Table 3. Age dates of magmatism and mineralization in the central Biga Peninsula ................................. 59     ix  List of Figures  Figure 1. Conceptual model of epithermal deposits..................................................................................... 5 Figure 2. Simplified geological distribution of metamorphic and magmatic rocks ...................................... 9 Figure 3. Simplified regional stratigraphic column of the Biga Peninsula .................................................. 10 Figure 4. Frequency distribution of U/Pb zircon magmatic ages ................................................................ 12 Figure 5. Magmatic and hydrothermal ages of the Biga Peninsula ............................................................ 15 Figure 6. TV Tower District stratigraphy and regional correlation. ............................................................ 17 Figure 8. TV Tower stratigraphic footwall rock photographs ..................................................................... 20 Figure 9. Petrography of EHFP rock unit. .................................................................................................... 21 Figure 10. Petrography of EDV rock unit. ................................................................................................... 23 Figure 11. Petrography of OKV rock units. .................................................................................................. 24 Figure 12. Petrography of EDT and OGD rock units. ................................................................................... 26 Figure 13. Petrography of Columbaz EHFP subunits .................................................................................. 27 Figure 14. Stratigraphic correlation of the northern TV Tower district ...................................................... 28 Figure 15. Küçükdağ deposit, local rock types ............................................................................................ 30 Figure 16. Kirazlı deposit, local rock units. .................................................................................................. 31 Figure 17. Textural styles of ore mineralization and ore-related alteration. ............................................. 33 Figure 18. Textures of ore-related alteration at Columbaz porphyry......................................................... 36 Figure 19. Mineralized stratigraphy of Küçükdağ and Kirazlı. .................................................................... 38 Figure 20. Petrography of silver zone mineralization. ................................................................................ 39 Figure 21. Petrography of stratiform gold mineralization. ......................................................................... 41 Figure 22. Mineralogy and textures characteristic of hydrothermal breccia mineralization. .................... 43 Figure 23. Mineralogy and textures of vein and micro breccia mineralization. ......................................... 45 Figure 24. Mineralogy and textures of phreatomagmatic mineralization at Kirazlı. .................................. 46 Figure 25. Geochemical classification diagrams. ........................................................................................ 49 Figure 26. Rock/Primitive mantle REE spider plots of intrusive and volcanic rocks normalized values ..... 50 Figure 27. Molar ratio plot (2Ca + Na + K)/Al versus K/Al ........................................................................... 51 Figure 28. Geochemical alteration plot. ..................................................................................................... 51 Figure 29. Structural domain map of the Küçükdağ, Kirazlı, Columbaz and Camelback deposits. ............. 55 Figure 30. U-Pb Concordia and Ar/Ar plateau diagrams for the samples determined in this study. ......... 60 Figure 31. Mineral deposit and magmatic host rock age correlation ......................................................... 63    x  List of Abbreviations  PPL - Plane polarized light    WTMP – Western Tethyan metallogeny project XPL - Cross polarized light    NAFZ – Northern Anatolian fault zone RL - Reflected light    FWFZ – Footwall fault zone FOV - Field of view    HS Epithermal – High sulphidation epithermal  SEM - Scanning electron microscope  IS Epithermal – Intermediate sulphidation epithermal SWIR - Short wave infrared   LS Epithermal – Low sulphidation epithermal PIMA – Portable infrared mineral analyzer  BSE - Back scatter electron CL - cathode luminescence fO2 – Oxygen fugacity LREE – Light rare earth elements    Ab  Albite   Cst  Cassiterite   Kln  Kaolinite Afs  Alkali feldspar  Cv  Covellite   Kfs  K-feldspar  Alu  Alunite   Dck  Dickite   Mag  Magnetite   An  Anorthite  Ele   Electrum   Ms  Muscovite   Anl  Analcime  Eng  Enargite   Nac  Nacrite   Ang   Angelsite  Ep  Epidote   Opx  Orthopyroxene   Au  Native Au  Fsp  Feldspar   Pl  Plagioclase   Aug  Augite   Gn  Galena   Py  Pyrite Bt  Biotite   Gth  Geothite  Qz  Quartz Bsm  Bismuthinite  Gp  Gypsum   Rt  Rutile Brt  Barite   Hall   Halloysite   Scr  Scorodite Cal  Calcite   Hbl  Hornblende   Ser  Sericite Chl  Chlorite  Hem  Hematite   Sp  Sphalerite Clv  Calaverite  Ill  Illite    Ste  Stibioenargite  Cp  Chalcopyrite  Jar  Jarosite  Te  Native Te         Tnt-Ttr   Tennantite - Tetrahedrite          Zrn  Zircon         Mineral abbreviations from Whitney and Evans (2010) with the exception of: Ang, Bsm, Clv, Cp, Hall, Scr, Ste and Te, which were generated by the author for this thesis.    xi  Acknowledgements The conclusions of this work would not have been possible without the generous and continued support of Pilot Gold Inc., Teck Resources Ltd. and Alamos Gold Ltd. It was a genuine pleasure to work with the staff and contractors at these companies. Daily discussions with Pilot Gold geologists Dr. Moira Smith, Hakan Boran, Alper Buyuksolak, Will Lepore, April Barrios, and Ken Raabe have been helpful in keeping this study focused and consistent with the extensive knowledge they have of the study area.  I would like to thank my supervisors Dr. Craig Hart and Dr. Aleksandar Mišković, at the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (MDRU) for their support throughout this project; the manuscript has benefitted greatly from their critiques. Mitacs International and SRK Consulting supported this work in form of an internship and scholarship, respectively, and I thank them for their contributions. I would also like to give a special thank you to my friends and family for the unwavering encouragement and kindness they have shown me over the past three years.   1  Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Epithermal gold, silver and copper deposits are recognized as a significant source of gold formed in the upper crust (Kerrich et al., 2000). They contribute ca. 12% to global resources of gold (Robert et al., 2007) and commonly include economically viable resources of other precious and base metals, including: silver, copper, lead and zinc (Holliday and Cooke, 2007; Simmons et al., 2005). The epithermal environment has been shown to be hydrothermally driven by mineralized porphyry intrusive rocks, therefore delineating the stratigraphic and structural connection between epithermal systems and their porphyry source is fundamental to effective exploration programs.  The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Turkey is a highly prospective region for epithermal and porphyry style mineralization. With over 120 mineral deposits, 15 million ounces equivalent of gold defined and numerous recent discoveries, the region justifiably has garnered attention (Bozkaya et al., 2016; Yiğit, 2012; Smith et al., 2014). The area consists of Cenozoic intrusive and volcanic arc-related rocks including: diorites, quartz diorites, dacites, basalts and epiclastic rocks which unconformably overlie a pre-Cenozoic metamorphic basement rock assemblage. Episodic oceanic subduction, continental collision, spreading and extension related to the interaction between the Eurasian and African tectonic plates since the Cenozoic established the current structural and geological setting (Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Tüysüz, 1999; Okay, 2008). Metallogenic consequence of this tectono-magmatic history was the formation of high, low and intermediate sulphidation (HS, LS and IS) epithermal Au-Ag (±Cu, Pb, Zn) and structurally-connected porphyry Cu-Au (±Mo) deposits that are hosted in Eocene to Oligocene magmatic rock units. The most notable of these deposits includes: the Halilağa porphyry; the Küçükdağ, Kirazlı, Aği Daği HS epithermal and the Kuçukdere LS epithermal deposits.  Küçükdağ and Kirazlı contain over 1 million ounces of gold and 39 million ounces silver (Ferrigno et al., 2012; Hetman et al., 2014). Both deposits have morphological and mineralogical characteristics that suggest a spatial, and potentially structural connection to a porphyry deposit at depth, yet prior to this work, no such relationship had been identified. Isolated, deposit-only studies surrounding these deposits has led to gaps in stratigraphic correlation between deposits. The gaps in knowledge result from individual mineral tenure boundaries being smaller than the alteration footprint of the hydrothermal systems in the region. Lithological and stratigraphic mapping and correlation across mineral tenure boundaries, done as part of this thesis, now characterizes more of the extinct magmatic-hydrothermal systems that caused  2  base and precious metal concentration in the central Biga Peninsula. The resulting data can be used to develop exploration targets at a local scale within restrictive tenure boundaries and more hypothetically, to define areas with a high potential for mineralization at a district and regional scale. The Küçükdağ and Kirazlı deposits are situated in the heart of an emerging and highly prospective district dominated by the epithermal and porphyry style mineralization within in the TV Tower region of central Biga Peninsula. This creates an ideal scenario to examine mineral deposit spatial distributions, temporal evolutions and the relative importance of stratigraphic versus structural control on ore mineralization in the context of a district scale hydrothermal system.  1.2 Justification and Objectives The principal objective of this dissertation is to integrate new geological mapping around the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits with district and regional geological features, to identify and characterize prospective magmatic formations and structures. A joint venture between Pilot Gold Inc. and Teck Resources Ltd. at their TV Tower and Halilağa properties, in conjunction with collaboration from Alamos Gold Ltd. at the Kirazlı deposit has provided access to their current knowledge of Küçükdağ and Kirazlı. This included access to the drill core and field area around these deposits, in order to facilitate the objective. A new 1:10,000 scale geological map of the TV Tower district, including a detailed characterization of stratigraphy and mineralization styles is produced. The stratigraphic relationship between the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı Au-Ag (±Cu) deposits was poorly understood prior to this research, particularly within the context of district epithermal and porphyry gold-copper mineralization. For example, the stratigraphic and structural relationship between the Columbaz porphyry and the high-sulphidation Küçükdağ deposit was not evident, despite being only ca. 1 km from one another. Additionally, previous Ar-Ar and K-Ar age constraints on the timing of district magmatism and mineralization are largely unreliable and have led to numerous disparate geological models that preclude integration into a single exploration model for the region. To address these problems, field, drill core and laboratory studies were designed to define the geological and structural relationship between the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı deposits and correlate those deposits within a district and regional context. Drill core studies were carried out in the field and in the laboratory to characterize deposit lithologies and mineralization styles. The lithologies and mineralization were subsequently examined by optical petrography, lithogeochemistry, U-Pb and Ar-Ar age dating and short wave infrared analyses (Appendix 1). The stratigraphy of the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı epithermal deposits was defined by geological mapping  3  of structural and lithological controls on Au-Ag-Cu mineralization on the surface and in drill core. Characterization of the host rock stratigraphy, alteration types and mineralization styles at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı deposits creates a basis for comparison to other prospective targets in the TV Tower District. Furthermore, by extrapolating the relationships between HS epithermal and porphyry mineralization in the TV Tower District into a regional geological and metallogenic context, exploration programs can rationalize their extent in a given area.  1.3 Epithermal Systems: Conceptual Framework The term epithermal, refers to a depth zoning of ore-mineralization common to the formation these hydrothermal systems (Lindgren, 1933). These deposits are typically products of 100 – 300 °C exsolved magmatic or meteoric hydrothermal fluids in the shallow crust. They are classified within a conceptual framework of sulphidation states indicative of the fugacity of various sulphur ionic species and their sulphide mineral assemblage. Three types are defined: high, intermediate and low sulphidation epithermal deposits (Table 1; Sillitoe 1977; Hedenquist, 1987; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003; Simmons et al., 2005; Robert et al., 2007). Table 1. Characteristics of end-member epithermal deposit types. Epithermal Type High-Sulfidation (HS) Intermediate-Sulfidation (IS) Low-Sulfidation (LS) Main mineralization styles Steep and shallowly inclined replacement bodies, hydrothermal breccias Veins, stockworks Veins, stockworks, disseminated bodies Main proximal alteration types Silicification, vuggy residual quartz, quartz-alunite Silicification, quartz-sericite/illite Silicification, quartz-adularia, illite Main gangue minerals Quartz, alunite, barite Quartz, calcite, manganoan carbonates, rhodonite, adularia Quartz, chalcedony, adularia Sulfide abundance High (10–80 vol.%) Moderate (5–30 vol.%) Low (1–5 vol.%) Sulfidation-state indicators Enargite/luzonite/famatinite Tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, low-Fe, sphalerite Pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, high-Fe, sphalerite Typical metal signature Au-Ag-Cu ± Bi ± Te Ag-Au-Zn-Pb-Mn ± Cu Au ± Ag ± Se ± Mo (Sillitoe, 2015) Low sulphidation (LS) epithermal deposits typically form from meteoric fluids at near neutral pH, with relatively low total S and base metal (Pb, Zn) content, whereas high sulphidation (HS) epithermal deposits typically form from mixed magmatic and meteoric fluids with an acidic pH (< 2), relatively high total S and  4  high base metal content (Cu; White and Hedenquist, 1990). LS epithermal deposits are not structurally connected, either by faults or fractures, to the parental magma chamber which ultimately drives their convection (Sillitoe, 1993; Robert et al., 2007). In contrast, HS epithermal deposits develop directly above or slightly offset from the sub-volcanic porphyritic intrusions they are structurally connected to (White and Hedenquist, 1995; Robert et al., 2007). Intermediate sulphidation (IS) epithermal deposits have an intermediate mineralogy between typical HS and LS epithermal mineral assemblages and form in environments akin to both HS epithermal and LS epithermal (Table 1; Sillitoe, 2015; Einaudi et al., 2003). The epithermal system classification schemes are underpinned by the concept of progressive zoning and association of ore and gangue (i.e. alteration) mineral assemblages and textures as they relate to acid-base equilibria, or more directly, oxidation-reduction reactions between hydrothermal fluids and host rocks (Sillitoe 1977; Hedenquist, 1987; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003; Simmons et al., 2005). A nomenclature based on hydrothermal fluid sulphidation state relates to the source of the hydrothermal fluids (either magmatic or meteoric) and to the thermodynamic environment at their deposition. Further discussions will use the widely accepted classification nomenclature: high-sulphidation (HS), intermediate-sulphidation (IS), and low-sulphidation (LS), which relate mineral assemblages to the concept of sulphidation state.  HS epithermal deposits are commonly rich in pyrite and have a sulphide mineral assemblage dominated by enargite, luzonite, covellite-digenite, famantinite, tennantite-tetrahedrite and orpiment. Their alteration assemblages are typified by alunite, kaolinite (dickite), pyrophyllite and residual vuggy quartz (Arribas, 1995; Sillitoe, 1999). These mineral assemblages are reflective of oxidized, so-called high-sulphur-bearing species (HSO4-, SO42-, and SO2) present in the ore-forming hydrothermal fluid (Einaudi et al., 2003). They most commonly appear in calc-alkaline andesites, dacites and related epiclastic rocks (Simmons et al., 2005).  In general, these deposits are found along magmatic arcs that are dominated by neutral to extensional stress regimes where they are hosted within volcanic rocks that show a wide range in geochemical properties, ranging from calc-alkaline andesite-dacite suites to tholeiitic bimodal basalt-rhyolite suites (Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003). The geometry and size of ore bodies in an epithermal system is dictated by the controls on permeability, lithology and structural framework. Vein, vein swarms, stockworks and fault intersections are examples of structural controls on ore bodies. Hydrothermal breccia and diatreme breccia ore bodies are examples of structural controlled components, while strata-bound ore bodies are examples of the lithologically controlled components (Simmons et al., 2005).  5   Figure 1. Conceptual model of epithermal deposits. Schematic diagram of the typical tectonic environment, structure and fluid sources of: (a) HS epithermal deposits; (b) LS epithermal deposits and; (a and b) IS sulphidation deposits (Caprubi and Albinson, 2007; Taylor, 2007; Sillitoe and Hedenquist, 2003).  6  Common to nearly all HS epithermal deposits and also found in porphyry copper deposits, is the presence of vuggy silicified rocks. These rocks form by leaching of the host rocks by acidic hydrothermal fluids. The resulting lithological expression is referred to as a lithocap and typically consists of horizontal to sub-horizontal layers of residual quartz and hypogene advanced argillic alteration (Figure 1; Sillitoe, 1995). Lithocaps can host Au-Ag-Cu mineralization, as well, the faults and fractures which invariably connect lithocaps to a hydrothermal fluid source, often contain Au-Ag-Cu mineralization. The stratiform style mineralization is the primary expression of lithologically-controlled ore deposition, whereas the position and size of faults and fractures structurally controls ore deposition.  Advanced argillic alteration is characterized by the presence of quartz and alunite with halos of kaolinite and dickite. This type of alteration contains appreciable pyrophyllite and diaspore at greater depths in the HS epithermal deposit model (Figure 1). The transition from lithocap alteration to pyrophyllite-bearing zones reflects the greater abundance of SO2 and HCl-bearing fluids exsolved from an intrusive source at greater deposit depths (Sillitoe, 1999; Hedenquist and Taran, 2013). Where permeable lithological horizons are intersected by fault and fracture sets, hydrothermal fluids infiltrate the country rock and deposit alteration and ore-mineralization mineral assemblages. (Sillitoe, 2010). A genetic link between the HS epithermal environment and underlying porphyry deposits has been observed at numerous deposits, leading to a conceptual framework for the development of a HS epithermal deposit that includes porphyry style mineralization at depth (Figure 1; Arribas, 1995; Sillitoe 1999; Hedenquist and Sillitoe 2003; Simmons 2005; Sillitoe, 2010). In the Biga Peninsula, lithocaps are abundant throughout the Eocene and Oligocene magmatic rocks and their resistive nature controls the topography as they are prominently exposed at the majority of hill tops and mountains. The well-established genetic link between the lithocap, HS, and porphyry system environments makes lithocaps ideal targets for metal exploration, moreover, they commonly preserve the stratigraphic record beneath them. Geological mapping of the stratigraphy, structures and alteration zones that define a given lithocap environment is therefore critical for establishing the prospectivity potential for HS epithermal mineralization within a district.  1.4 Regional Geological Setting The basement rocks of the Biga Peninsula consist of a Paleozoic to Mesozoic, medium to high-grade metamorphic complex unconformably overlain by Cenozoic magmatic rocks that record a gradual change from calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatic assemblages (Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008). The area is situated  7  in an active tectonic region characterized by back-arc extension related to the southward moving Hellenic subduction system (Bonev and Beccaletto, 2007). The spatial and temporal distribution of Cenozoic magmatic rocks shows a southward younging trend defined by two main episodes of magmatism between 41 – 36 Ma and 32 – 22 Ma, both accompanied by ore-mineralization. The most economically important mineral deposits resulting from Cenozoic magmatism include epithermal Au-Ag (±Cu), porphyry Cu-Au (±Mo) and base metal skarn systems (Figure 3).  1.4.1 Regional Tectonic Setting  The Biga Peninsula is a part of the Rhodope-Sakarya Tectonic Block, bounded to the south by the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone, which separates it from the Anatolide-Tauride Block, and to the north by the Intra-Pontide Suture which separates it from the Istanbul and Rhodope-Sakarya blocks (Figure 2, inset; Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Tüysüz, 1999; Bonev and Beccaletto, 2007; Okay, 2008; and Yiğit, 2009). Extension in the northern Aegean region has been continuous since the late Cretaceous and is a result of continuous Hellenic trench retreat (Le Pichon and Angelier, 1981; Jolivet and Brun, 2010; Jolivet et al., 2013). The basement rocks in the Biga Peninsula record ductile syn-orogenic, ductile-brittle and brittle post-orogenic deformation during two distinct periods: an early stage from Paleocene to early Eocene and a later stage from Late Oligocene to Recent (Beccaletto et al., 2007).  Paleocene, NE-SW directed, syn-orogenic ductile kinematics are recorded as mineral stretching lineations in the metamorphic domes in eastern Rhodope-Thrace and the Kemer mica schists of northern Biga Peninsula (Bonev and Beccaletto, 2007; Beccaletto et al., 2007). The non-deformed Karabiga Pluton was emplaced into the Kemer mica schists between 52.7 ± 1.9 Ma and 47.02 ± 0.82 Ma based on U-Pb geochronology on xenotime and zircon respectively, thus establishing the lower limit for post-orogenic extensional ductile shearing (Beccaletto et al., 2007; Altunkaynak et al., 2012). Oligocene to Recent NNE-SSW directed, ductile-brittle and brittle extensional exhumation is recorded in the southern Biga Peninsula by the Kazdağ Massif. There, a two-stage structural evolution consists of: a) late Oligocene-early Miocene, low-angle detachment faulting and subsequent infilling of supra-detachment grabens with epiclastic and volcanic rocks (Küçükkuyu Fm.), and b) Pliocene-Holocene, strike- slip faulting related to the westward propagation of the dextral strike-slip Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) as well as steeply dipping normal faults associated with neotectonic extension (Armijo et al., 1999; Şengör et al., 2005; Cavazza, et al., 2009; Bozkurt, 2001).   8    9  Figure 2. Simplified geological distribution of metamorphic and magmatic rocks of the Biga Peninsula (modified from MTA, 2001). Compilation of select mineral deposits and prospects (modified after Yiğit, 2012). Compilation of relevant geochronological data from various sources listed on figure. Compilation of relevant structural data (modified after Agdemir et al., 1994; Boztepe-Güney et al., 2001; Duru, et al., 2012; Ekinci and Yiğibaş, 2012; Murakami et al., 2005). Map system: ED 1950, UTM Zone 35N; Projection: Transverse Mercator. Geochronological references: 1. Yiğit, 2012; 2. Agdemir et al., 1994; 3. Kuşçu I., 2013; 4. Murakami et al., 2005; 5. Ercan et al., 1995; 6. Unal, 2010; 7. Beccaletto et al., 2007; 8. Aldanmaz et al., 2000; 9. Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; 10. Okay and Satir, 2000; 11. Delaloye and Bingöl, 2000.  Map inset modified after Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Tüysüz, 1999; Bonev and Beccaletto, 2007. Topographic depressions aligned along the NAFZ and related splay faults that propagate westward into the Aegean Sea form pull-apart and composite pull-apart basins (Bozkurt, 2001; Aydin and Nur, 1982; Rojay and Koçyiġit, 2012) such as the Çan and Bayramiç basins. Their movement results in a gently northward dipping regional stratigraphy and displacements along moderately to steeply dipping, dextral-oblique and dextral wrench faults. There are no post-Oligocene metallic mineral prospects in the Biga Peninsula, therefore the late-stage extension of the NAFZ has not established a structurally permissible architecture for subsequent mineralization processes.  1.4.2 The Biga Peninsula Basement Basement rocks of the Biga Peninsula are divided into three groups: i) the Çamlica metamorphic massif, composed of quartz, mica schist with calc-schists, quartzite and slivers of harzburgite (Yilmaz and Karaçik, 2001); ii) the Kazdağ metamorphic massif, composed of gneiss with marble intercalations and meta-ophiolite (Okay and Satır, 2000; Beccaletto et al., 2007), and iii) the Karakaya complex composed of low grade, weakly to strongly deformed Permo-Triassic clastic rocks, carbonates and meta-conglomerates that transition upward into Carboniferous to Permian limestones and debris flows of basalt (Bingöl et al., 1975; Şengör et al., 1984 and Okay et al., 1991; Okay and Altiner, 2004). Prominent exposures of basement rocks occur along a NE – SW directed trend controlled by Oligocene, extensional exhumation-induced, crustal-scale detachment faults in the northern, west-central and southern Biga Peninsula. These structures are related to back-arc extension within the Hellenic subduction system (Bonev and Beccaletto, 2007).  The Çamlica massif in the west-central and northern regions of the Peninsula has protolith ages of 582 ± 30 Ma and 559 ± 17 Ma (Ediacaran; Tunç et al., 2012) and underwent medium to high-grade metamorphism in the latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene (Beccaletto et al., 2007; and references therein). In the south, the Kazdağ massif records a metamorphic history in two stages, an early eclogite facies metamorphism in the Mid Carboniferous (308 ± 16 Ma; Okay et al., 1996) and an amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Oligocene to Early Miocene (Okay and Satır 2000; Duru et al., 2004; Cavazza et al., 2009). The Çamlica and Kazdağ massifs are interpreted to be juxtaposed along a Paleotethyan (Okay et al., 2008) or Intra-Pontide (Duru et al., 2012; Okay and Göncüoğlu 2004) ocean suture; however, recent  10  field-based stratigraphic correlation and geochronology by Tunç et al. (2012) does not support the existence of a suture between the southern and northern Biga Peninsula; rather, they conclude a continuum between the two. The Permian to Triassic Karakaya complex described in detail by Okay and Göncüoğlu (2004) unconformably overlies both the Çamlica and the Kazdağ massifs and marks the top of the basement rock succession; it a useful complex to use for stratigraphic correlation throughout the Biga Peninsula (Figure 4).   Figure 3. Simplified regional stratigraphic column of the Biga Peninsula geology. Modified from Yiğit, 2012 and Duru et al., 2012, and Integrated from sources cited in text. Sources for plutonism geochronology are given on Figure 2 and Appendix 4. 1.4.3 Cenozoic Magmatism The geodynamic setting of magmatism in NW Anatolia is enriched by a compilation and analysis of all available geochronological data published in literature (Appendix 4). This region of NW Anatolia has two zircon-defined magmatic stages defined as 41 and 36 Ma peaking at ca. 39 Ma (Stage 1) and a later stage between 32 and 22 Ma peaking at ca. 24 Ma (Stage 2; Figure 4). Eocene (Stage 1) magmatism is not directly correlated with any discrete tectonic or metamorphic event, whereas Oligocene (Stage 2) magmatism is  11  contemporaneous with well documented extensional exhumation of the Kazdağ Massif in the southern Biga Peninsula.  The onset of Cenozoic magmatic activity in the Biga Peninsula occurred with the emplacement of the Sevketiye pluton (71.9 ± 1.8 Ma; K-Ar muscovite; Delaloye and Bingöl, 2000), Karabiga pluton (52.7 ± 1.9 Ma; U-Pb xenotime; Beccaletto et al., 2007) and Dikmen pluton (51.9 ± 2.6 to 46.6 ± 2.3; K-Ar whole-rock; Yiğit, 2012) into northern exposures of the Çamlica massif. Following these isolated intrusions, two punctuated stages of calc-alkaline to mildly alkaline, plutonic and volcanic activity covered much of the Peninsula. The most recent magmatic products, represented by high-K basalts, crop out near the town of Ezine in the southern Peninsula and range in age from 11.3 – 8.4 Ma (Ercan et al., 1995; Kaymakçi et al., 2007 and Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008). Geochronological data and field relationships suggest that post-collisional magmatic activity commenced with intrusions defined by a calc-alkalic differentiation trend (Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; Ercan et al., 1995). The rocks are represented by shallow intrusions and medium to coarse grained hornblende, feldspar porphyritic andesitic to dacitic lavas intercalated with ignimbrite flows, reworked ash-fall tuffs and ash-block flow deposits (Genç and Yilmaz, 1997). Collectively this assemblage is referred to as the Balikliçeşme Fm (Figure 4).  The Oligocene to Miocene Çan Volcanic Fm. conformably overlies the Balikliçeşme Fm. and consists of andesitic, dacitic, rhyodacitic lavas with a calc-alkaline signature. Efforts to constrain the age of these rocks have all focused on Ar-Ar and K-Ar methods, yielding a range of ages between 23.6 – 34.3 Ma (Krushensky, 1976; Ercan et al., 1995; Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; Yiğit, 2012; and others). The best exposures are found in the central and southern Biga Peninsula, where typically unaltered but locally silicified and argillitized andesites and dacites crop out. Rhyodacitic lavas typically contain pyrite and form discontinuous thin lenses within the andesite and dacite layers. Tuffs are often intensely argillitized and silicified and are favorable horizons for the development of lithocaps, disseminated and infill mineralization styles and propagation of hydrothermal quartz veins. The Oligo-Miocene magmatism records a change in the nature of volcanism from calc-alkaline to more high-K, trachyandesites and dacites with lesser basaltic andesites and basalts (Ercan et al., 1985, 1995; Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; Rojay and Süzen, 2010). The dacites and trachyandesites in this group are referred to as the Kirazlı Volcanics, they are composed of a dark grey, green and black microcrystalline groundmass containing abundant coarse euhedral phenocrysts of vitreous plagioclase, hornblende,  12  biotite, and rare olivine. These rocks yielded late Oligocene ages which overlap in time with the calc-alkaline suite of the Çan Volcanics (Ercan, 1995). The more alkaline trachyandesites to basaltic andesites and basalts have been dated with K-Ar and Ar-Ar methods, yielding ages between 27.6 - 31.4 Ma (Ercan et al. 1985; Ercan et al., 1995).   Figure 4. Frequency distribution of U/Pb zircon magmatic ages in the Biga Peninsula since the Cretaceous. Source data listed in supplementary tables in Appendix 4. The Miocene andesitic to latitic lavas, tuffs, ignimbrites, dacites and rhyodacite crop out immediately west of Etili and around Ayvaçik. These rocks, known as the Behram Volcanics, are split into two groups: i) augite, biotite, plagioclase-phyric andesites and; ii) plagioclase-phyric latites, dacitic to rhyodacitic quartz-phyric lavas and ignimbrites (Borsi et al., 1972). These rocks have been described as high-K trachyandesite to trachyte (Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008), and range between 19.6 and 21.9 Ma (Ercan et al., 1995; Aldanmaz et al., 2000).  The Hüseyinfaki Volcanics assemblage is composed of basalts, trachyandesite dykes and lava flows that cross cut and overlie the Behram volcanics. Excellent exposures are seen around Ayvaçik and on the west flank of Kirazlı. Compositionally, the Hüseyinfaki Volcanics are similar to the Behram Volcanics as  13  described by Altunkaynak and Genç (2008), consisting of mildly alkaline trachyandesites and andesites with abundant intercalated ignimbrites. They are composed of a fine grained, magnetic, feldspar microlitic groundmass with rare augite and olivine phenocrysts. A wide range of ages are reported for this formation, ranging between 15.2 and 19.7 Ma (Aldanmaz et al., 2000; Ercan et al., 1995; Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008). The most recent products of Tertiary volcanism in the Biga Peninsula are olivine basalts near the town of Ezine (Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; Ercan, 1995). Known as the Ezine Volcanics they are characterized by distinctly higher alkalinity. Small exposures occur as fresh, black, basalt dykes and zeolite-filled amygdaloidal lavas. These rocks were described by Alamos, (2007) as basalts with microlitic texture where plagioclase (labradorite), olivine and Ti-augite and augite phenocrysts are set within a groundmass of plagioclase microlites, small pyroxene crystals, opaques, iddingsite and volcanic glass. Age determinations on these basalts show an age range between 8.4 and 11.3 Ma (Kaymakçi et al., 2007; Ercan et al., 1995). 1.5 Mineral Deposits in the Biga Peninsula  Geochronological data suggests mineralization occurred in phases, with at least three porphyry and two epithermal phases (Figure 5). Epithermal type mineral deposits account for 67 of the 128 known mineral deposits, whereas porphyry and skarn deposits account for only 12 and 24, respectively (Yiğit, 2012).  Porphyry deposits are known to be spatially and temporally associated with HS epithermal deposits in the Biga Peninsula. For example, the Halilağa, Camelback, Columbaz, Valley and Hilltop porphyries are located less than 3 km from HS epithermal deposits. These mineralized hydrothermal systems are dominantly hosted in volcano-plutonic complexes with ages that fall into the range of Stage 1 or Stage 2 magmatism classified by zircon crystallization ages (Figure 4). The Hilltop, Valley and Columbaz Au-Cu porphyries were discovered in the TV Tower area in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. These discoveries resulted from the recognition that alteration associated with nearby HS epithermal deposits extended into a porphyry style alteration system (Smith et al., 2016). The porphyries are hosted within quartz, feldspar, hornblende porphyritic diorite, quartz diorite, monzonite and andesite in northern extensions of the composite Kuşçayır pluton. Recent U-Pb age dates from Au-Cu mineralized stocks and barren stocks at the Valley and Columbaz porphyry deposits range between 40.2 and 38.4 Ma, indicating that porphyry style mineralization in the TV Tower District occurred during regional Stage 1 magmatism (Figure 4).  14  The Halilağa porphyry, discovered in 2007, is estimated to be the largest Cu-Au deposit in the Biga Peninsula, with an indicated resource of 1,112,223,000 lbs. Cu and 1,665,000 oz. Au and a nearly equivalent inferred resource (Gray et al., 2012). It is located in the central Peninsula, ca. 15 km north of the Evçiler pluton (Figure 2). Cu-Au mineralization is hosted in quartz, hornblende, feldspar porphyritic andesites, and medium grained diorite, quartz diorite and monzonite dated to between 39.56 ± 0.21 Ma by the Re-Os method on molybdenite and 38.79 ± 0.30 Ma by the U-Pb method on zircon (Brunetti et al., 2015).  The Tepeoba porphyry was discovered in 2002, with a drill hole that shows an average grade of 0.5 % Cu and ca. 1 g/t Au in the upper 100 m, and an average grade of 1 % Cu in the upper 53 m (Murakami et al., 2005). The deposit is located at the southern margin of the Miocene Eybek granodiorite complex and forms a 4 km long and 0.5 to 1 km wide contact metasomatic zone with breccia and Permo-Triassic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of the Kazdağ massif (Murakami et al., 2005; Yiğit, 2012). Mineralized breccia and vein zones in the Permo-Triassic rocks contain pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, gold, bornite, malachite, magnetite and Fe-oxides. Alteration mineralogy is controlled by the host lithology, such that, biotite-rich (potassic) alteration is concentrated in breccia zones, surrounded by sericite, tourmaline, epidote, chlorite and calcite in the metamorphic and sedimentary rock zones (Yiğit, 2012). Re-Os age dates on molybdenite indicate that hydrothermal activity at Tepeoba lasted 0.51 ± 0.23 m.y. and occurred between 25.62 and 25.03 Ma (Murakami et al., 2005). LS epithermal deposits are concentrated in the central and southeast Peninsula and hosted within Eocene and Oligocene magmatic rocks. They are economically important targets because of their potential to host high-grade, low-tonnage deposits, exemplified by Kuçukdere which contains 223,000 oz. Au in 1.406 Mt of ore at 4.92 g/t Au (Koza Gold, 2006). Mineral deposits such as Kışaçık, Koru and Arapucandere are examples of IS epithermal deposits, however, their contribution to precious and base metals reserves is minor relative to HS epithermal and porphyry deposits (Yiğit, 2012).  HS epithermal deposits are by far the most numerous metal deposit types in the Peninsula and some show a transition to a porphyry environment (i.e. Alankoy, Karaayı, hypothesized for Küçükdağ and Kirazlı.) The majority of HS epithermal deposits are clustered in the central Biga Peninsula, where regionally extensive HS alteration zones are comparable to those seen at the world class Yanacocha HS epithermal Au-Ag-Cu deposit in Peru (Sillitoe, 1999). In that region, the Aği Daği, Kirazlı and Küçükdağ deposits are the largest classical examples of HS epithermal Au-Ag-Cu mineralization.   15   Figure 5. Magmatic and hydrothermal ages of the Biga Peninsula. Excluding metamorphic-related ages or older than 66 Ma. Mineral prospect host rock ages are separated according to styles of mineralization. Source data listed in supplementary tables in Appendix 4. The Aği Daği deposit contains an indicated 942,312 oz. Au and 6,687,543 oz. Ag, making it the largest HS epithermal deposit with a resource estimate (Ferrigno et al., 2012). It is hosted in Eocene and Oligocene andesites, dacites, breccia, schists and overburden. Advanced argillic and vuggy silica alteration is pervasive throughout the deposit and directly associated with Au-Ag mineralization. 40Ar/39Ar age dating on alunite separates from advanced argillic alteration zones, yielded an age of 26.4 ± 0.9 Ma (Yiğit, 2012).  The Kirazlı deposit contains an indicated 583,248 oz. Au and 9,295,713 oz. Ag and is comparable in size to Küçükdağ, which contains 470,000 oz. Au and 20,479,000 oz. Ag (Ferrigno et al., 2012; Hetman et al., 2014). These two deposits are located in the TV Tower District of the Biga Peninsula and are hosted in 38.5 to 37.3 Ma basaltic andesites, andesites, breccia, tuffs and epiclastic rocks that were affected by advanced argillic alteration. The age of mineralization at Kirazlı is constrained to 30.7 ± 1.5 Ma by a 40Ar/39Ar age date on alunite from drill core (Yiğit, 2012), whereas at Küçükdağ, this study constrains mineralization to between 29.7 and 29.2 Ma. Interestingly, the HS epithermal Au-Ag (±Cu) mineralization at these two deposits occurred up to ca. 9 years after host rock deposition.  Porphyry and epithermal style mineral deposits are products of Stage 1 magmatism, whereas Stage 2 magmatism produced abundant skarn style mineral deposits (Figure 5). The disparity between skarn mineralization in the Eocene and Oligocene can be explained by examining the known geochronological and structural constraints around three Pb-Zn ± Cu skarn deposits. The Handeresi, Bağirkaçdere and  16  Fırıncıkde Pb-Zn ± Cu deposits are hosted by carbonate layers in Permo-Triassic calcareous schists of the Kalabak Fm which tectonically overlies the Kazdağ Massif in the southeast Peninsula region (Akiska et al., 2013; Aysal et al., 2012).     17  Chapter 2 – Metallogeny of the TV Tower District, NW Turkey 2.1 Geological and Metallogenic Setting of the TV Tower District Punctuated magmatism since Cretaceous time has emplaced a petrographically and geochemically variable sequence of hypabyssal granitoids, andesites, rhyodacitic, dacitic and basaltic andesite lavas intercalated with epiclastic rocks in the central Biga Peninsula (Aysal, 2015; Smith et al., 2014; Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; Dilek and Altunkaynak, 2009). Post Cretaceous magmatic and epiclastic rocks define a regional stratigraphic hanging wall to the pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks which define a stratigraphic footwall (Figure 6).   Figure 6. TV Tower District stratigraphy and regional correlation. Explanation of the geology for the regional stratigraphic column is presented in Figure 3. The Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits are indicated with red boxes within the northern TV Tower district which includes geochronological constraints on crystallization and mineralization. Ar-Ar age dates on alunite constrain the timing of HS epithermal mineralization whereas U-Pb age dates constrain the timing of intrusive and volcanic rock crystallization. The K-Ar age date of the stratigraphic hangingwall may constrain the timing of crystallization or alteration. Central Biga Peninsula Stratigraphy modified from Yiğit, 2012). Geochronology age ‘A’ is from Ercan, 1995 and age ‘I’ is from Yiğit, 2012; all other reported age dates were determined as part of this study.     TV Tower geology is broadly considered in three units, pre- syn- and post-ore mineralization, as they relate to the timing of epithermal and porphyry style mineralization: i) A pre-ore mineralization unit of quartz, mica schists and phyllites, arkosic arenites and quartz pebble conglomerates, which together comprise  18  the footwall; ii) A pre- and syn-ore mineralization Eocene aged magmatic and epiclastic sequence of the hangingwall which consists of diorite, quartz diorite, dacitic-andesite, andesite, dacite volcanics with tuffaceous pyroclastic rock and a lacustrine-fluvial volcanisedimentary sequence; iii) A post-ore mineralization Oligocene aged sequence of the upper most hanging wall which consists of dacites and trachyandesites with dacite crystal tuffs and minor intercalations of sandy to granular epiclastic rocks (Figure 6). The Ediacaran (573 ± 9 Ma) Çamlica Metamorphic massif forms the geological base to Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits (Tunç et al., 2012; Yiğit 2012; Yilmaz and Karaçik, 2001; Smith et al., 2014). These rocks crop out in thin discontinuous slivers at the base of Küçükdağ in the footwall of an ESE-striking, steeply south-dipping normal fault and as continuous exposures east and southeast of Kirazlı (Figure 7). Compositionally they consist of medium to dark grey, well foliated, quartz mica schists and phyllites with rare garnet porphyroblasts. Quartz-augens, stretched quartz veins, boudins, and strong ductile deformation are distinct features of this unit (Figure 8. D, E). Medium to high-grade metamorphism affected the Çamlica massif in the Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene period (Beccaletto et al., 2007; and references therein). Local silicification hardens and seals the schist thus reducing its porosity, however, alteration intensity rarely matches that seen in the overlying volcanic stratigraphy. The true thickness of this unit is unknown due to strong deformation, detached and displaced outcrops and a hidden basal contact, however Tunç, 2012 estimates an apparent thickness of ca. 5000m. The upper contact of the schists and phyllites is unconformably overlain by Permian to Triassic arkosic arenites, quartz pebble conglomerates and polymictic lithic tuffs of the Karakaya complex that were affected by low grade metamorphism (Okay and Göncüoğlu, 2004).  Metamorphic clast-bearing conglomerates are a distinct sub-unit of the basement complex and they are composed of sandy matrix to framework supported, rounded to subrounded pebbly sandstone, white quartz, phyllitic schist, and silica-cemented red jasperiod clasts (Figure 8. A). The upper contact of the conglomerates is gradational into a well-sorted sub-unit consisting of thinly to thickly bedded arkosic arenites (Figure 8.B, C). The arkosic sandstone has a characteristic systematic blocky fracture pattern, weakly disseminated pyrite, <5 modal % quartz grain abundance and a uniform medium grain size. However, it can be strongly altered to a bleached, white to cream coloured variety where only minor quartz-granules, remnant pyritic specs and granular composition can be used as distinguishing features (Figure 8. C). Deformation intensity in the arenites and conglomerates is typically subtle, however, near  19    20  Figure 7. Geological Map the Küçükdağ, Kirazlı high-sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag-Cu epithermal prospects and the Columbaz Au-Cu porphyry prospect. Detailed version of this map is available in the pocket at the back of the thesis.  Kirazlı foliation is tight in a similar fashion to the quartz, mica schists below. Exposures of this sandstone are best observed in Kösrelik Creek between Küçükdağ and Columbaz, where continuous exposures are unconformably overlain by polymictic welded lithic tuffs. The quartz, mica schists and the arkosic arenites located east of Kirazlı are correlated with those south and west of Küçükdağ, forming the stratigraphic footwall of the TV Tower district (Figure 6 and 6A).  Figure 8. TV Tower stratigraphic footwall rock photographs. A: Polymictic quartz-pebble conglomerate. B: Bedded arkosic arenite. C: Fe-Oxide stained fractures typical in massive to thickly bedded intervals. D: Quartz boudins stretched along foliation plane in a quartz-mica schist. E: Tightly folded regions of the quartz-mica schist are convoluted, displaying no observable trend. F: Massive serpentinite with characteristic blocky fracture and soapy sheen. 2.1.1 Volcanic Rocks Rocks of the Balikliçeşme, Çan and Kirazlı formations unconformably overlie the Çamlica massif the TV Tower district (Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008; Ercan et al., 1995). They consist of pre- and syn-ore mineralization phases of Eocene (40.37 – 37.34 Ma) hypabyssal diorite, quartz diorite, andesite and dacite flows, domes and tuffs interlayered with volcanisedimentary wacke (EHFP). This assemblage has ca. 50-50 intrusive and extrusive components and minor sections have pillow textures indicating subaqueous lava deposition (Figure 9 D). The andesites typically contain equigranular-diorite xenoliths and form both auto-brecciated and massive flows (Figure 9 A, B).   21   Figure 9. Petrography of EHFP rock unit. A: Outcrop photo of a blocky, monolithic, auto-brecciated andesite flow. B: Outcrop photo of a coherent porphyritic, diorite xenolithic-rich (inset), sub-volcanic andesite. C: Outcrop photo of fault controlled alteration of the EHFP unit. EHFP is completely replaced by kaolinite-illite-sericite on one side of the fault, leaving the other relatively un-altered. Inset images on either side of the fault show the difference in textures. D: Outcrop photo of a section of apparent pillow formations in a coherent andesite flow. E: Hand sample showing the porphyritic texture of hornblende and plagioclase phenocrysts set in a relatively fresh fine crystalline groundmass. F: Stained slab of E showing the relative abundance of albitic and anorthitic feldspars including the strong selective sericite replacement of primary feldspars (pink phenocrysts). G: Crowded hornblende-plagioclase porphyritic andesite, interlocking crystals are akin to sub-volcanic crystallization. H: XPL image showing a fine grained weakly trachytic groundmass with trace disseminated opaques (magnetite). Euhedral and subhedral phenocryst are typical of this unit. I: XPL image of a plagioclase phenocryst partially replaced by sericite. J: XPL image of a hornblende phenocrysts partially replaced by chlorite and epidote. K: XPL image of a patchy zone of phyllic (quartz, sericite, pyrite) alteration, a feature pervasive proximal to porphyry and HS epithermal mineralization. EHFP is characterized by a light grey to green, weakly magnetic and trachytic groundmass, pitted and embayed quartz phenocrysts and 15 – 30 modal % plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts which are often variably altered with sericite, epidote and chlorite. (Figure 9 E, F, G). In least altered samples, plagioclase phenocrysts are typically 30 - 70 % replaced by sericite, whereas hornblende phenocrysts are typically less than 5 % replaced by epidote and chlorite; although, complete epidote pseudomorphs of  22  hornblende are noted (Figure 9 H, I, J). Strong alteration of EHFP throughout the TV Tower district typically obscures primary textures of this unit (Figure 9 C inset). Phenocryst pseudomorphs and stratigraphic position are used to interpret an EHFP protolith in the absence of fresh or weakly altered outcrops. The Dede Tepe Volcanics form a 50 - 200 m thick package of pre- and syn-ore mineralization interlayered dacitic andesites, andesite breccias and crystal tuffs that conformably overlie the EHFP. This unit hosts HS epithermal mineralization at Kirazlı and is juxtaposed with quartz monzonite of the Camelback porphyry (Figure 7). Three sub-units are identified within the EDV, from top to bottom: i) massive to thickly bedded, greenish grey, auto-brecciated quartz, magnetite, hornblende, feldspar phyric dacitic andesite with a phenocryst assemblage of typically 30 modal % plagioclase and 15 modal % hornblende and a fine grained to aphanitic groundmass. Blebby agglomeratic magnetite and clear quartz grains rarely exceed 5 modal % of the total phenocryst content; ii) buff to white coloured, massive to thickly bedded, plagioclase and quartz crystal rich, dacitic lithic tuff, correlated with lithic tuffs hosting HS epithermal mineralization at Küçükdağ. Quartz grains, constituting up to 5 modal % of the total phenocryst volume, are a ubiquitous feature of this unit; iii) andesite breccia compositionally equivalent to the EDV dacitic andesite flows, characterized by in situ hydrothermal re-brecciation and a mosaic texture cemented by symmetrically zoned pyrite, enargite, quartz, alunite and dickite. This sub-unit is the lowest known stratigraphic host to the ore mineralization at Kirazlı (Figure 6 F).  The post-ore mineralization stratigraphic hanging wall consists of the Oligocene (24.7 ± 0.7 Ma) dacite and trachyandesite of the Kirazlı Volcanics (OKV; Figure 6). This unit conformably overlies the upper stratigraphic successions of lapilli tuff (EQT) and reworked epiclastic rocks (EVS) grouped into the Küçükdağ Volcanic unit (EKDV) at both Küçükdağ and Kirazlı. The OKV forms a greater than 200 m thick sequence of dacitic ignimbrites grading into columnar and blocky dacite and trachyandesite flows. The unit is recognized as two sequences (OKVa and OKVb) separated by a layer of kaolinite and zeolite-rich polymictic lithic tuffs and opaline deposits less than 3 m thick. The lower sequence (OKVb) is characterized by weakly altered blocky flows with a dacite composition and the upper (OKVa) sequence by well-developed columnar jointing and a trachyandesite composition (Figure 11 A, J). OKVb outcrops north of Küçükdağ HS epithermal deposit and overlies the dacitic crystal lapilli tuffs (Map unit: EQT) in the upper stratigraphy there. At the outcrop scale, coherent sections of the OKVb dacites have poorly developed columns but a well-developed flow foliation fabric (Figure 11 J). Fragmental layers comprise the majority of the unit, typically they are auto-brecciated blocky flows. Flow layer boundaries are  often  marked  by  epiclastic  horizons  less  than  20  m  thick.  At  hand  sample  scale,  a  phenocryst  23   Figure 10. Petrography of EDV rock unit. A: Dede Tepe Andesite (EDV) characterized by fine-grained, medium green groundmass, non-magnetic, trace disseminated pyrite, strong epidote, chlorite alteration, and moderate silicification. Vuggy quartz texture develops locally. B: Fine to medium-grained hornblende-feldspar porphyritic andesite. Argillic alteration of felsic phenocrysts and silicified groundmass are common features. C: PPL image of photo F showing a pervasive and patchy distribution of strong phyllic (quartz, sericite, pyrite) alteration. D: PPL image of A showing strong propylitic (chlorite and epidote) altered euhedral hornblende phenocrysts and epidote-albite altered felsic phenocrysts. E: PPL image showing a relict crowded porphyritic texture and selective pyrite replacement of hornblende phenocrysts. F: Silicified, fine-grained, hornblende and feldspar porphyritic, pyrite-bearing, phyllic altered andesite. G: XPL image of C showing the complete replacement of primary phenocrysts by sericite and a strongly quartz, sericite and pyrite altered groundmass. H: XPL image of D showing epidote-albite replacement of primary felsic phenocrysts and epidote-chlorite replacement of mafic phenocrysts. Quartz and sericite alteration of the groundmass is strong in this sample. I: XPL image of E showing a strongly silicified groundmass, quartz pseudomorphs of felsic phenocrysts and selective pyrite, chlorite and quartz replacement of mafic phenocrysts. population of biotite, augite, oligoclase, anorthite is embedded in a fine grained crystalline magnetic groundmass (Figure 11 K, L). Fracture-controlled hematite alteration of variable intensity is pervasive in the groundmass (Figure 11 K, L, O, P). Phenocrysts are selectively affected by zeolite and epidote alteration while the agglomerophyric nature of phenocrysts results in a mottled alteration texture (Figure 11 P, N, R). In thin section, hematite alteration is observed to exploit the trachytic groundmass fabric (Figure 11 M). Oligoclase phenocrysts up to 2 mm in length display simple twins while anorthite phenocrysts are typically normally zoned with albitic rims (Figure 11 Q).   24  OKVa trachyandesite outcrops north of the Kirazlı HS epithermal deposit and conformably overlies polymictic lithic tuffs found atop OKVb. Macroscopically, well-developed columnar joints and entablature zones are the most prominent features of this sub-unit (Figure 11 A). In hand sample, fresh surfaces are grey to dark bluish black, moderately magnetic and have a porphyritic texture (Figure 11 B, F). The least altered sections of the trachyandesite contain ca. 15 modal % of phenocrysts comprised of biotite, augite, alkali and plagioclase feldspar as well as augite set in a trachytic, magnetite-bearing groundmass of microlitic plagioclase and fine grained augite, biotite and alkali feldspar (Figure 11 C, G). Weak alteration is microscopically evident as partial epidote replacement of augite phenocrysts and partial to full replacement of other phenocrysts with zeolite (Figure 11 D, H). Patchy zeolite (analcime) alteration of microlitic feldspar groundmass and selective phenocryst replacement locally develops a blebby texture similar to that observed in the OKVa sub-unit (Figure 11 E, I).    Figure 11. Petrography of OKV rock units. A: Outcop photo of columnar jointed trachyandesite (OKVa). The unit is characterized by trachyandesite flows, auto-breccia and mudflows. Entablature zones are common. B: Hand sample photo of un-altered trachyandesite. Typical appearance has buff coloured weathering surfaces and dark bluish-black fresh surfaces. Phenocryst assemblages are most visible on the weathered surfaces. C: PPL image showing representative abundances, textures and composition of phenocryst and groundmass assemblages. D: PPL image showing partial epidote replacement of augite phenocrysts and partial to full replacement of other phenocrysts with zeolite (analcime). E: PPL image showing patchy zeolite alteration of microlitic feldspar groundmass and selective phenocryst replacement. Biotite is intergrown with plagioclase and forms a trace component in the groundmass. F: Hand sample photo of OKVa with weakly altered selective epidote replacement of phenocrysts. Biotite, pyroxene, alkali and plagioclase feldspar phyric trachyandesite. G: XPL image of C showing interference colour discrimination of augite from feldspar phenocrysts and un-altered fine-crystalline groundmass of lath shaped feldspar. H: XPL image of D showing pyroxene-selective epidote alteration. I: XPL image of E showing un-altered OKVa phenocryst assemblage. J: Outcrop photo of flow foliated section of OKVb dacite. K: Hand sample photo of OKVb with a pervasively hematite stained  25  groundmass. Mafic phenocrysts are selectively altered by white clay minerals. L: Hand sample photo of OKVb showing an indistinguishable composition and texture to photo K ca. 2 km to the east. M: PPL image showing phenocrysts of subhedral K-feldspar, anhedral plagioclase, secondary biotite and opaque magnetite. N: PPL image of diopside phenocryst showing weak greenish colour and high relief, overgrowths of colorless low relief anhedral analcime, partially analcime replaced diopside. O and P: Hand sample photo showing blebby zeolite and epidote alteration and hematite stained fractures. Q: XPL image of B showing crystals of K-feldspar with simple twins, early plagioclase with anorthitic core and albitic concentric overgrowths, birdseye-extinction and interference colours of biotite, hematite staining in the groundmass. R: XPL image of E showing overgrowth of analcime with very low first order interference colours and near isotropic optics, fracture-controlled Fe-oxide staining. 2.1.2 Intrusive Rocks Eocene intrusive stocks crop out south of Kirazlı at Dede Tepe (Map unit: EDT), referred to as the Camelback porphyry (Figure 7). Intrusive rocks at Camelback consist of quartz, biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase phyric quartz diorite to quartz monzonite. In hand sample, amphibole phenocrysts are selectively chlorite and epidote altered while feldspar phenocrysts are altered to white clays and sericite. Distinguishing macroscopic features include: coarse porphyritic texture, ubiquitous trace to 1% disseminated pyrite, patchy zones of residual vuggy quartz, phyllic alteration and abundant quartz veining. In thin section, interlocking plagioclase grains comprise up to 90 % of the total modal mineral proportion. Alteration includes pyrite, chlorite, epidote and biotite pseudomorphs of amphibole phenocrysts while chlorite and sericite partially replace plagioclase phenocrysts and groundmass (Figure 12 B, C, E).  An Oligocene granodiorite stock (Map unit: OGD) crops out north of Kirazlı and consists of a quartz, hornblende, feldspar phyric granodiorite with patchy zones of up to 5 modal % of pyrite and trace chalcopyrite. The stock is exposed as a topographic high ca. 2 km north of Kirazlı and is flanked to the west and south by stratigraphically younger trachyandesite of the Kirazlı Volcanics. The relatively pristine Kirazlı Volcanics were deposited over the variably altered granodiorite stock. Zones of disseminated pyrite and chalcopyrite show variable alteration signatures consisting of hematite groundmass staining, quartz veining, selective white clay alteration of phenocrysts and a weak pervasive quartz-recrystallized groundmass. Away from pyrite and chalcopyrite-rich zones, chlorite and epidote replacement of primary phenocrysts and weak sericite alteration of the groundmass is ubiquitous (Figure 12 A, D, F). Columbaz Sub-Volcanic Rocks, a sub-unit of EHFP The variably altered, pre- and syn- ore mineralization magmatic rocks that form the Columbaz porphyritic intrusion do not intrude the overlying Eocene Küçükdağ Volcanics (Map unit: EKDV) and are treated as a sub-unit of EHFP because their intrusive component is >90 %, whereas typical EHFP has 50:50 intrusive and extrusive components. Drill core and surface exposures show these sub-units are composed of multiple phases of hypabyssal sills, stocks and dykes with a dioritic composition. Contacts observed between petrographically similar phases of silicified diorite-xenolithic, quartz, hornblende, feldspar phyric quartz diorite (EHFP) show no difference in the degree or style of alteration (Figure 13 A, C).   26   Figure 12. Petrography of EDT and OGD rock units. A: Hand sample photo of OGD granodiorite showing the quartz, hornblende, feldspar porphyritic texture. This photo is taken proximal to local concentrations of disseminated pyrite and chalcopyrite and shows characteristic hematite groundmass staining, quartz veining, selective white clay alteration of phenocrysts and a weak pervasive quartz-recrystallized groundmass. B: Crowded feldspar porphyritic quartz diorite to quartz monzonite of the EDT intrusive stock. Here, weak clay and sericite alteration targets phenocrysts and groundmass. C: PPL image of B showing biotite, epidote pseudomorphs and anorthite phenocryst assemblage. D: PPL image of A showing chlorite replacement of primary phenocrysts and weak sericite alteration of the groundmass. E: XPL image of C showing the crowded porphyritic texture and interlocking groundmass. F: XPL image of D showing the high order interference colours of epidote pseudomorphs (after hornblende) and low order blue-grey interference colours of chlorite replacing hornblende. The quartz diorite is greenish grey, with a fine crystalline magnetic groundmass. A euhedral phenocryst assemblage consisting of <2 % quartz, 1-7 % hornblende and 10-20 % alkali and plagioclase feldspar characterizes the intrusive phases of this rock (Figure 13 A, C). Fine-grained diorite dykes typically less than 10 m thick rarely traverse Columbaz and are intensely propylitically and phyllitically altered similar to coarser grained quartz diorite phases (Figure 13 E). A relatively high fracture density and abundant  27  hydrothermal alteration locally obliterates primary mineralogical and textural identifiers within the mineralized zone to a point where alteration assemblages are indistinguishable (Figure 13 B, D).  Figure 13. Petrography of Columbaz EHFP subunits. A: Greenish-grey, hornblende-feldspar porphyritic andesite. Rounded xenoliths of fine grained diorite and pebble-sized quartz-magnetite fragments are sparsely distributed throughout. B: Moderately chlorite-epidote + quartz-sericite-pyrite altered weakly silicified, quartz-magnetite fragment bearing quartz-monzonite. C: Intrusive contact between medium grained and coarse grained hornblende-feldspar quartz-diorite. D: Blocky quartz-epidote-magnetite rich volcanic breccia cement supporting sub-rounded clasts of feldspar-phyric andesite. E: Greenish-grey, fine-grained anhedral feldspar-phyric, non-magnetic diorite. Pervasive disseminated pyrite up to 5% is common. F: Greenish grey very fine grained crystalline groundmass, quartz-hornblende-plagioclase phyric andesite. Hornblende phenocrysts are selectively replaced with quartz-pyrite + epidote, feldspar phenocrysts are selectively replaced by sericite. G: XPL image showing characteristic phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite) alteration of andesite porphyry groundmass. H: XPL image of phenocrysts pseudomorphed by sericite-epidote mantled by pyrite. I: XPL image of strongly quartz-sericite-pyrite + epidote altered groundmass, vuggy texture is partially infilled with quartz. J: XPL image of embayed quartz phenocrysts, the only primary phenocryst to remain un-altered in zones of strong phyllic and argillic alteration.  2.1.3 Local Stratigraphy Epithermal and Porphyry Mineralization Küçükdağ HS Epithermal Deposit Küçükdağ HS epithermal deposit is hosted in a sequence of andesite flows, dacitic lithic tuffs, and fluvial lacustrine strata that lie above a moderately shallow northerly-dipping 1 - 5 m wide shear zone referred to as the footwall fault zone (FWFZ) with an interpreted normal sense of offset (Figure 14). Volcanic rocks below the FWFZ consist of basaltic andesite breccia and welded lithic tuffs barren to mineralization and represent a less prospective component of the local stratigraphy. The deposit stratigraphy consists of 15  28  m to >100 m thick layers of lithologies above and below the FWFZ, which together represent a marker horizon between Eocene (EHFP) and Oligocene (OKV) magmatism in the TV Tower district. The basaltic andesite breccia (EKDV) intersected by drilling beneath the FWFZ at Küçükdağ and exposed at low elevations west of Kirazlı is not mineralized (Figure 15 L). In thin section, the basaltic andesite breccia has a trachytic groundmass and phenocryst composition similar to flow foliated basaltic andesites intersected above the FWFZ. However, primary augite and plagioclase phenocrysts beneath the FWFZ are pervasively altered to chlorite with epidote and sericite, respectively.   Figure 14. Stratigraphic correlation of the northern TV Tower district geology to the local stratigraphy of Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits. Mineralization styles are indicated on the local stratigraphic columns and represent the relative position of occurrence, these styles are discussed in detail in section 2.3 Conformably overlying the footwall andesite is a sequence of welded lithic tuff (EWT) which consists of variably silicified and argillitized, crystal-rich tuffs. These rocks were intersected by drilling immediately below the footwall fault and do not contain economic ore grades. The welded tuff is composed of porous  29  fiamme and rare jasperoid clasts supported in a crystal rich matrix. The upper contact of the welded tuff is marked by the FWFZ, above which lies a < 10 m thick pyritic, micro-brecciated sandstone dipping north along the FWFZ ultimately pinching out to the west and east of the deposit (Figure 15 I, J). Conformably overlying the pyritic micro-breccia is a wedge shaped, polymictic, blebby dacitic tuff with poorly sorted angular light and dark coloured lithic clasts supported in a crystalline tuffaceous matrix. Sedimentary rock strata which lie above the blebby dacitic tuff are the most distinct horizons at Küçükdağ and are correlated with the upper most stratigraphic levels at Kirazlı. Three main expressions are noted: i) well-laminated mudstones and siltstones with sparse rounded lithics and discontinuous soft sediment deformed lignite seams (Figure 15 E); ii) normally graded beds of sandstone and conglomerate with local cross-bedding and soft-sediment deformation such as slumps, load casts, and differential density flame structures (Figure 15 D); iii) weakly graded beds of rounded, polymictic, matrix to clast-supported pebbly and sandy volcanic conglomerate (Figure 15 F). Above the epiclastic rock package is a sequence of interstratified andesites, silty sandstones and tuffaceous volcaniclastic rock that form a stratiform zone with chaotic texture. The chaotically textured, coarsely fragmental andesite is composed of polymictic angular lapilli supported by a fine grained, tuffaceous matrix. It grades into massive to weakly flow foliated porphyritic basaltic andesite with a trachytic plagioclase-rich groundmass and 5-10 modal % magnetite, augite and agglomerophyric plagioclase (Figure 15 C). Locally, orbicular textures are developed in the flow foliated basaltic andesite. In these intervals, zoned alteration of alunite, dickite and kaolinite around monomictic andesite fragments is common. The orbicular andesite is distinguished by concentric light and dark zones of clay alteration zoning around subrounded monomictic andesite fragments and represents the upper limit to silver mineralization (Figure 15 B). The flow foliated basaltic andesite grades into dacitic crystal lapilli tuffs (Map unit: EQT) which mark the upper most lithology at Küçükdağ. The quartz grin crystal lapilli tuff (EQT) is pervasively oxidized with jarosite and goethite with the primary textures often obliterated. Creamy white, intense kaolinite alteration of phenocryst and lithic fragments is common. Quartz grains up to 5 mm across with rounded boundaries, in abundance of <5 % are a distinguishing feature of the EQT unit (Figure 15 A).  Cross-cutting the stratigraphy are up to 100 m wide, matrix-supported polymictic breccia pipes. Angular to sub-rounded fragments range in size from sand to cobble and are composed of the entire locally observed lithologic spectrum. Fragments of the sedimentary rock package can be seen in the breccia more  30  than 100 m below their stratigraphic levels, as well fragments of the metamorphic basement are observed up to 100 m above their stratigraphic levels. Ore mineralization is weak to non-existent in the breccias which ultimately dilutes grade of the principal mineralized zones.    Figure 15. Küçükdağ deposit, local rock types. A: (EQT) Rhyodacite tuff. B: (EKDV) ‘Orbicular’ andesite breccia. C: (EKDV) Pyroxene phyric andesite flow. D: (EVS) Graded siltstone-wacke. E: (EVS) Carbonaceous silt- and mudstone. F: (EVS) Polymictic epiclastic rock. G: (ELT) Lithic tuff. H: (ELT) Blebby lithic tuff. I: Pyrite-network andesite breccia. J: (FWFZ) Footwall fault zone. K: (EWT) Welded tuff. L: (EKDV) Basaltic andesite auto-breccia.  Kirazlı HS Epithermal Deposit  The Kirazlı HS epithermal deposit is within a shallowly north-dipping sequence of hornblende, plagioclase- phyric quartz diorite, andesites and lithic tuffs that is conformably overlain by reworked epiclastic rocks and rhyodacitic tuffs. Thickly layered, massive and autobrecciated hornblende, plagioclase phyric andesite cut by quartz-diorite sills (EDV) unconformably overlies the pre-Cenozoic basement rocks (i.e. Map units: TAS, PSC) and comprise >70 % of the local stratigraphic thickness (Figure 19). In situ volcanic breccias have a stratiform distribution and are generally intersected by drilling stratigraphically lower than massive sections consisting of quartz diorite sills. The volcanic breccia cement is locally replaced by quartz, sericite, alunite, dickite, pyrite, enargite in stratiform zones of Au-Cu ± Ag mineralization at Kirazlı (Figure 16 F). Fine to coarse-grained, massive quartz, biotite, hornblende, plagioclase phyric dacitic andesite and quartz diorite sills conformably overlie, and are intercalated with, the volcanic breccias (Figure 16 E). The surface expressions of this coarse-grained dacitic andesite are easily identifiable in the field, however, fine- 31  grained equivalents resemble tuffaceous rocks in strongly argillitized areas (Figure 16 G). Crystal-rich lithic lapilli tuffs with white and dark grey lithic clasts are intercalated with the massive and brecciated varieties of andesite and increase in thickness upward in stratigraphy. Advanced argillic alteration and epithermal ore mineralization preferentially affects these intercalated tuffaceous horizons at the Kirazlı deposit, representing a lithologically controlled style of mineralization. Overlying the in situ andesite breccias and quartz diorite sills is an epiclastic sequence of laminated mudstones, carbonaceous siltstone, graded polymictic sandy granulestones and clast-supported pebble conglomerates (Figure 16 A-D). These rocks crop out prominently on the summit of Kirazlı Daği and are typically strongly silicified. The granulestones and conglomerates at the Kirazlı HS epithermal deposit have a high permeability that is established by inter-grain fractures. Dickite, alunite and quartz replacement of the cement in graded beds of polymictic sandy granulestone develops preferentially in strata proximal to hydrothermal breccia shoots with a relatively high fracture density or inherent permeability.    Figure 16. Kirazlı deposit, local rock units. A: (EVS) Polymictic pebble conglomerate. B: (EVS) Conglomerate. C: (EVS) Graded bed epiclastic strata. D: (EVS) Carbonaceous sandstone. E: (EDV) Massive porphyritic andesite. F: (EDV) Monolithic volcanic breccia andesite (mosaic breccia texture). G: (EDV) Porphyritic andesite flow.  2.2 Hydrothermal Alteration Hydrothermal alteration is extensive throughout the TV Tower District stratigraphic column and has profoundly modified its primary mineralogical and textural characteristics. The deposit scale distribution of hydrothermal alteration assemblages was critical in identifying the HS epithermal and porphyry mineralization systems and selecting meaningful samples for geochemical and petrographic analyses. Eight alteration assemblages are recognized in the TV Tower District based on detailed observations from the field, drill core, petrography and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopic analyses. They are grouped  32  spatially to reflect their position relative to the Ag-Au ore as: i) ore-related alteration; ii) ore-proximal alteration; and iii) distal alteration (Table 1). Table 2. Alteration and mineralization assemblages of the TV Tower District Alteration  Type Mineral Assemblage Mineralization Spatial Group Deposit Vuggy Quartz Qz, Py Anomalous Au ore-related KCD, KZ Advanced Argillic Qz, Alun, Dck, Pyr, Kln Au:Ag up to 1:7 ore-related KCD, KZ Argillic  Kln, Ill, Smec, Ser, Hall, Mont ca. 0.33 g/t Au and 0.13% Cu distal KCD, KZ, CO, CAM Phyllic Qz, Ser, Py ± anomalous Cu-Au ore-proximal  CO, CAM Propylitic Chl, Ep, Ca, Py, Qz, Mt ± anomalous Cu-Au ore-proximal  CO Sericite-Chlorite Ser, Chl ± anomalous Cu-Au (Ag) ore-distal ubiquitous Supergene Jar, Hm, Sco, Goe, Ill, Kln, Rt Au:Ag up to 1:>1000 ore-proximal KCD, KZ Veins Ca, Gy, Bar n/a n/a KCD   2.2.1 Residual acidic alteration: vuggy quartz The residual vuggy quartz alteration is most evident in dacitic tuffs and epiclastic rocks at upper stratigraphic levels at Küçükdağ, Columbaz and Kirazlı (Map units: ELT, EVS and EKDV). These alteration zones are typically 1 – 20 meters thick and form ledges at the highest-elevation peaks. They are resistant to erosion and have up to 5 modal % disseminated sulfide minerals. The residual vuggy quartz zones intersected by drilling are typically more laterally than vertically extensive and preferentially develop in tuffaceous and epiclastic rocks in the ELT unit.  In hand sample, the alteration is characterized by mineralogy consisting of >90 modal % recrystallized quartz, often being the sole microscopically observable mineral, and a vuggy texture (Figure 17 A, M, N, O, Q, T). At stratigraphic levels above EVS, vugs are void or infilled by white clays illite, kaolinite, goethite, jarosite, halloysite and hematite (Figure 17 A, B, and Figure 18 B). Below EVS the vugs are typically infilled by secondary quartz, alunite, dickite, and minor pyrophyllite in addition to a suite of sulfide and sulphosalt minerals (Figure 17 T).  In thin section, recrystallized quartz grains less than 100 μm in length replace the primary matrix groundmass. The primary phenocrysts and fragments, with the exception of quartz, are leached from the rocks leaving behind a crypto-crystalline outline. Up to 5 modal % sulfide minerals are disseminated    33   Figure 17. Textural styles of ore mineralization and ore-related alteration.   34  throughout the recrystallized quartz grains. Gold, silver and copper is deposited along with the sulphides in the residual vugs (Figure 18 A). 2.2.2 Advanced Argillic Alteration: Quartz, alunite, dickite and kaolinite Quartz, alunite, dickite and kaolinite alteration forms a hydrothermal cement in structurally controlled vertical breccia shoots, as residual vuggy quartz infill, and pervasively throughout the high-grade gold zones at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı. Alunite that forms as mineral infills or cement typically has well-developed crystals observed to be cross-cut by veinlets of bluish dickite (Figure 17 G and Figure 18 B). Quartz, alunite, dickite and kaolinite alteration occurs with assemblages of Ag-Au-tellurides, enargite, tennantite-tetrahedrite and pyrite. (Figure 21 B, D and Figure 22 A, B). This type of alteration is present in nearly all high-grade samples. In a hand specimen, this alteration assemblage is also characterized by infill and replacement textures. At both Küçükdağ and Kirazlı, alunite and dickite have pink and bluish hues, respectively. Characteristics so common that colour is a useful mineralogical indicator in these two hydrothermal systems (Figure 18 C). In thin section, hydrothermal breccia cement of alunite and dickite is observed to consist of discrete aggregates of crystals 20 - 50 μm in size (Figure 21 D and Figure 22 A, G, H). Within this alteration type, dickite veinlets cross-cut alunite infilled vugs and also infill alunite lined vugs, indicating that alunite was deposited paragenetically earlier than dickite (Figure 22 B, C).  2.2.3 Sericite, chlorite alteration  Sericite and chlorite alteration occurs distal to HS epithermal and porphyry mineralization centers at Küçükdağ, Kirazlı and Columbaz. It generally lacks economic concentrations of metals and has a patchy footprint that affects all pre- or syn-ore mineralized rock units. It extends several kilometers laterally from the Columbaz porphyry and the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits. Sericite replacement of primary plagioclase and alkali feldspar phenocrysts. Pervasive chlorite in the groundmass and replacement of amphibole phenocrysts can be observed in hand specimen. In thin section, the feldspar and amphibole phenocrysts are typically between 30 - 60 % replaced by sericite and chlorite, respectively (Figure 9 H, I, F).  2.2.4 Phyllic Alteration: Quartz, sericite and pyrite  Quartz, sericite and pyrite alteration is most prominent in drill cores from sections of EHFP at the Columbaz deposit and in EDV, on the north side of Camelback porphyry. It is characterized by irregular sericite and pyrite stringers typically less than 1 cm thick cross-cut by 1 – 10 mm curviplanar quartz veins  35  (Figure 18 E). The quartz veins are texturally massive at depths greater than ca. 200m, whereas at higher topographic levels, they commonly include bladed quartz after calcite pseudomorphs and display a partially developed crustiform banding. In thin section, phyllic alteration is observed to completely replace both the groundmass and phenocrysts with quartz agglomerates, sericite and disseminated pyrite up to 5 modal % (Figure 18 F).  2.2.5 Propylitic Alteration: Chlorite, epidote, calcite, pyrite and magnetite Chlorite, epidote, calcite and pyrite alteration is the most widespread alteration type in the TV Tower district, found as an ore-related, ore-proximal and distal alteration. It occurs pervasively with variable intensity throughout EKDV, EHFP and EDV stratigraphic units. In hand specimen, pervasive, ore-related chlorite and epidote (propylitic) alteration of EHFP is overprinted by quartz, sericite and pyrite (phyllic) alteration at Columbaz, indicating phyllic alteration is paragenetically later than propylitic alteration (Figure 18 G). However, in thin section, chlorite forms fine-grained drusy coatings on quartz and sericite altered substrate, as well, epidote infills drusy-chlorite cavities, indicating that phyllic alteration occurred paragenetically earlier propylitic alteration (Figure 18 H). In the basaltic andesite unit (EKDV), above the FWFZ at Küçükdağ, calcite rather than epidote infills drusy chlorite cavities.  Weak but pervasive chlorite-rich groundmass alteration is a ubiquitous feature throughout the TV Tower District intrusive and magmatic rocks (Figure 9 E). Magnetite veins with subordinate quartz, chlorite and epidote were intersected by drilling at Columbaz and are typical at that deposit (Figure 17 I). Such alteration typically forms fracture selvages 2 cm thick, containing residual vuggy quartz, pervasive groundmass silicification and local zones of blebby dickite. These veins cross-cut pervasive chlorite and epidote alteration, indicating they were emplaced after pervasive propylitic alteration which affected the District.  2.2.6 Argillic Alteration: Kaolinite, Illite and white clay A white clay mineral assemblage that includes kaolinite, illite, smectite, sericite, halloysite and montmorillonite pervasively replaces the groundmass of EHFP, EDV and intercalated tuffaceous horizons up to 200 m peripheral to the zones of advanced argillic alteration (Figure 18 J). This alteration typically lacks sulphide minerals and is non-metalliferous. It occurs paragenetically later than quartz, cassiterite, barite alteration associated with silver mineralization at Küçükdağ and overprints ore-related alteration assemblages at Columbaz and Kirazlı.   36  In hand sample, this alteration is white to buff in color, pervasively present in the groundmass of volcanic rocks while replacing cement in the TV Tower epiclastic rocks. In thin section, white clays appear transparent and foggy under plane polarized light and fuzzy brownish grey in cross polarized views. Individual crystals are indistinguishable in thin section therefore prompting SWIR analyses to determine the OH-bearing, clay minerals (Appendix 1).   Figure 18. Textures of ore-related alteration at Columbaz porphyry. A: Residual Vuggy Quartz Alteration. B: Advanced Argillic and Fe-oxide Alteration. C: Advanced Argillic Alteration. D: Phyllic Alteration: Quartz-sercite-pyrite. E.  Phyllic Alteration: Quartz-sercite-pyrite. F:  Propylitic Alteration: Chlorite-epidote-sericite   + quartz veins. G: Propylitic Alteration: Chlorite-epidote-sericite. H: Magnetite-chlorite Alteration: magnetite vein network, pervasive chlorite ± dickite. I: Argillic Alteration: Kaolinite-illite-white clays. 2.2.7 Supergene Alteration: Clays and iron oxides Supergene mineral assemblages of jarosite, goethite, scorodite, hematite, illite, kaolinite, rutile, covellite and cassiterite constitute the oxide zones at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı. The oxide blankets are dominantly confined to upper stratigraphic dacitic tuffs, andesites and reworked epiclastic rocks (Map units: EVS, EKDV and EQT), rarely reaching depths of 200 m. At Kirazlı, jarosite, hematite, goethite alteration overprints ore-related quartz, alunite, dickite cemented hydrothermal breccia (Figure 17 B). At Küçükdağ, the upper levels of the gold mineralization and the silver zone are characterized by overprints of  37  dominantly hematite, jarosite and goethite (Figure 17 A, B). An assemblage of hematite and acicular rutile overprint advanced argillic alteration in the silver zone at Küçükdağ and infills open spaces throughout ore-bearing hydrothermal breccia pipes. 2.2.8 Calcite, Gypsum and Barite Veining Veins of calcite, gypsum and barite contain only remobilized sulfides and show no textural or temporal similarities to the alteration associated with either the HS epithermal or porphyry mineralization. Coarse bladed barite veins up to 1.5 cm thick at Küçükdağ exploit earlier enargite and pyrite veins (Figures 16. S and 23. D). Similarly, coarse grained gypsum and calcite veins share a similar jagged and planar morphology however, no crosscutting relationships were observed between the sets. Gypsum and calcite veins carry no sulphide minerals and do not exploit earlier veins or fractures. As such, they are interpreted to be paragenetically younger than the barite veins. 2.3 Texture and Mineralogy of the Ag-Au HS Epithermal Mineralization  Lithologically-controlled stratiform mineralization contributes to >50 % of the metal resources at Küçükdağ and dominates the stratigraphic sequence above the FWFZ (Figure 19). Lithologically-controlled ore distribution displays metal zoning with an upper silver zone hosted by epiclastic rocks (EVS and EKDV) and a lower gold zone featuring a combination of vein, stratiform and hydrothermal breccia mineralization within lithic tuffs (ELT). Structurally-controlled mineralization, in the form of hydrothermal breccia shoots, trend with the near-vertical attitude of major fault set intersections. Interestingly, both lithologically and structurally-controlled mineralization styles abruptly terminate immediately beneath the FWFZ. This suggests that stratigraphy and HS epithermal mineralization at Küçükdağ has been spatially translated relative to its porphyry-style complement (i.e. Columbaz). Four different mineralization styles have been recognized at Küçükdağ, they are: i) Ag stratiform mineralization; ii) Au-Ag-Cu breccia-hosted mineralization; iii) vein-hosted Au-Cu-Ag mineralization, and iv) Au-Cu stratiform mineralization.  Five mineralization styles have been recognized at the Kirazlı deposit: i) high Au-Au-Cu grade, lithologically-controlled stratiform; ii) vuggy silica stratiform zones containing Au and Cu; iii) hydrothermal breccia zones hosting Au, Cu±Ag; iv) phreatomagmatic breccia with gold, copper, lead and zinc, and v) micro-breccia veinlets containing Cu, Ag as well as ‘bonanza’ (> 30 g/t) Au grades. The stratiform mineralization here is primarily hosted by auto-brecciated andesites, lithic tuffs and epiclastic lithologies (ELT, EDV and EVS). These units have been preferentially affected by intense acid leaching, the effect of which is a residual vuggy texture infilled by secondary quartz. High porosity and permeability developed  38  in this alteration zone have been exploited by subsequent mineralizing events. Episodic deposition of gold, silver and copper-bearing sulphides and sulphosalts into previously developed vugs and within the interconnected networks of fractures is the principle characteristic of stratiform mineralization at Kirazlı (Figure 14).    Figure 19. Mineralized stratigraphy of Küçükdağ and Kirazlı. 2.3 1 Ag Stratiform Mineralization The Küçükdağ silver zone is defined by drilling as a 100-125 m thick, flat lying horizon extending over 0.39 km2. The silver grades are typically between 20 and 70 g/t occasionally reaching >500 g/t in fine grained sedimentary lamina containing a combination of quartz, pyrite, alunite, kaolinite, dickite and Ag-Bi-Sb-As-bearing sulphosalts (Figure 20). The bulk of the silver zone mineralization at Küçükdağ occurs as silver-only, except where paragenetically later mineralizing events overprint the zone. At Kirazlı the silver zone is partially eroded and overprinted by Au and Cu-bearing hydrothermal breccias, veins and stratiform gold and copper mineralization.  The timing of silver mineralization at Küçükdağ is paragenetically earlier than the deposition of gold and copper based on the cross-cutting Au and Cu-rich hydrothermal breccias (Smith et al, 2014). Consequently, the gold and copper mineralization events that affect the same stratigraphic layers partially incorporated the silver-bearing sulfides. The alteration in the silver zone is characterized by selective replacement of the host rock by quartz, hematite, rutile, cassiterite, barite, pyrite and bismuth sulphosalts (Figure 20). The ore mineralization   39    Figure 20. Petrography of silver zone mineralization. Mineralogy and textures of silver zone mineralization. A: Veinlets of bismuthinite intergrown with bismuthian tetrahedrite with <1mm wide quartz selvages. B: Bismuthinite with anhedral inclusions of bismuthian tetrahedrite and covellite infill. C: Patchy replacement of residual vuggy quartz texture by acicular rutile and amorphous hematite. Alunite infills open spaces. D:  Banded stibio-bismuthinite intergrown with quartz + alunite. Composite Ag-sulphosalt blebs are unevenly distributed throughout bands. E: Sulphosalt bleb. Rough concentric zoning, Ag-telluride rich core with tetrahedrite grading outwards to bismuthian tetrahedrite. F:  Ag-Te-S phase, possibly cervelleite, intergrown with bismuthian tetrahedrite and tetrahedrite. G: Drusy vug lining and disseminated pyrite + enargite in recrystallized vuggy quartz.  H. Weakly subhedral pyrite and interstitial enargite.  Open spaces and fractures are partially infilled with covellite. I: Rutile crystal with core inclusions of pyrite, cassiterite and smaller rutile crystals. J: Pyrite and interstitial enargite + tennantite-tetrahedrite, representative of the typical sulphide assemblage that replaces the host rock. K: BSE element map of microphotograph J highlighting the distribution of antimony (Sb), used as a proxy for tennantite-tetrahedrite. L: BSE element map of microphotograph J highlighting the distribution of arsenic (As), used as proxy for enargite.    40  assemblage consists of: pyrite, enargite, tetrahedrite, cassiterite, covellite, bismuth sulphosalts, bismuthinite, silver-telluride (Cervelleite?), acanthite and argentite (Figure 20 E, F). Quartz is the most abundant component in this assemblage, commonly observed to comprise greater than 90 vol. % of the altered rocks. Pyrite grains with interstitial enargite selectively replaced host rock fragments and formed subhedral drusy crystalline coatings in vugs (Figure 20 G). Rutile and cassiterite were disseminated throughout the quartz and occur as inclusions and fracture infills (Figure 20 I). Fe-oxide alteration including hematite, jarosite and goethite typically overprints the silver zone. 2.3. 2 Gold Zone: Gold-Copper Stratiform Mineralization High-grade gold and copper mineralization is hosted by andesitic volcanic breccias, andesitic to dacitic lapilli tuffs and minor reworked tuffs (EDV, ELT and EVS). Lithic tuffs (ELT) with highly porous or ‘vuggy’ texture and a silicified matrix are the most typical rocks associated with the stratiform gold and copper mineralization. The tuffs are composed of up to 98 vol. % secondary quartz and display 10 to 20 volume % vug-related porosity. Enargite and pyrite preferentially replace and infill fragments and vugs and distinctly bladed rutile has replaced pyrite. The bulk of this mineralization style occurs below the silver zone and forms a stratiform body within strongly developed vuggy quartz alteration. Typical gold grades range between 5 and 25 g/t with maxima in excess of 100 g/t where veins and micro-breccias occur. Very finely disseminated pyrite and alunite replace the breccia framework clasts. The vugs are lined with enargite, covellite and native gold surrounded by coarse pyrite.  Enargite is petrographically observed in solid solution mixtures with Sb-enargite and tennantite-tetrahedrite, which together form local high-grade copper zones. Enargite is typically hosted within recrystallized quartz grains. Individual enargite crystals are less than 500 µm in length and occur as disseminations within pyrite or as selective replacements of relict phenocrysts and as a vug infill. Enargite and pyrite both have curviplanar and wormy dissolution textures that form an interconnected network Galena occurs in trace amounts within the dissolution voids of enargite and pyrite.  Intense and pervasive silicification and recrystallization of the tuffaceous matrix are demonstrated by highly annealed quartz crystals that form a microscopic network of vugs, many of which are lined with coarse quartz at their inner margins before a sharp transition to dickite and kaolinite dominated cores.   41   Figure 21. Petrography of stratiform gold mineralization. A: Silicification and quartz recrystallization, embayed microcrystalline quartz, pervasive disseminated and corroded pyrite-enargite. B: Vug infill assemblage: blocky enargite, quartz, bladed alunite-quartz + kaolinite-dickite. C: Pyrite + Au-Ag-telluride phases have a similar infill texture. Tennantite-tetrahedrite is partially replaced by a Au-Te-Ag phase (petzite?). D: Hydrothermal alteration of groundmass is domainal and patchy quartz-alunite + dickite-kaolinte. E: Enargite fragment with pyrite + tennantite-tetrahedrite ± cassiterite overgrowths, surrounded by hydrothermal clays + quartz. F: Au-Te-Ag phases interpreted as infill are focussed at margins of blocky enargite. G:  Corroded enargite within pyrite (black). Galena partially infills dissolution vugs and tennantite-tetrahedritte is differentiated to enargite rim. H: Blocky enargite + tetrahedrite inclusions. Gold and Au-Te phases are focussed near fractures. I: Enargite overgrown by pyrite. Fractures infilled with a native Au + minor Te, late-stage fractures are infilled with Te + minor Au. J: Brecciated enargite remobilized in hydro-thermal quartz-alunite ± cassiterite. Phases of Au-Ag-Te (Petzite?) infill sulphosalt cavities. K: Quartz-brecciated enargite has core of gold and auriferous tellurides that replace enargite. L: Enargite overprinted(?) by Ag-Te phase (hessite?). Ag-Te phase surrounded by pyrite, enargite and a halo of S-Cl-Sb + Ag-Te.    42  High-grade gold values are positively correlated with arsenic however, the relationship is not exclusive, as elevated concentrations of arsenic also occur in the absence of significant Au mineralization in some intervals. Lead, silver, and to a lesser extent bismuth also show positive correlations with gold. No silver-bearing minerals have been directly observed within the stratiform gold zone at Kirazlı, yet high-grade silver is encountered locally in the gold zone (Figure 19).  2.3. 3 Gold-Copper-Silver Breccia Mineralization The Küçükdağ gold, copper, and silver-bearing breccia zone is a steeply dipping, narrow feature that cuts across lapilli tuffs and overlying reworked volcanics. It is framework supported and characterized by the presence of relatively angular clasts cemented by an advanced argillic mineral assemblage. The clasts are polymictic, typically reflecting the composition of the host rocks. The hydrothermal breccias of Kirazlı are near vertical shoots that crosscut stratigraphy and increase in width from 5 – 10 m at depths near 200 m, to over 100 m in width at the surface. These breccia shoots crop out extensively at the summit of Kirazlı Daği and constitute the most significant source of ore.  Breccias here are characterized by angular to sub-rounded, sand to cobble-sized fragments and a mineralogically highly variable cement. The cement is composed of quartz, dickite, alunite, illite, jarosite, goethite and scorodite. Silicified vuggy fragments are common and presumably consist of intensely altered equivalents of the host stratigraphy. Zoned Fe-oxides and successive pulses of silica, Fe-sulphides and advanced argillic assemblage suggests an energetically passive environment of formation. Mineral texture relationships observed in the breccias indicate enargite, luzonite and minor tennantite-tetrahedrite are overgrown by alunite in a colloform and comb texture and subsequently brecciated by quartz, dickite and kaolinite. Occasionally, marcasite is observed overprinting enargite, chalcopyrite and bornite (Figure 22 D).  2.3. 4 Gold-Copper-Silver Vein and Micro-breccia Mineralization Sheeted sets of steeply dipping enargite, pyrite, alunite and quartz veins at Küçükdağ have the highest gold contents in the TV Tower district. The veins are 1-15 mm thick and occur in swarms that are hosted by lithic tuffs (ELT) and to a lesser extent by overlying reworked volcaniclastic rocks (EVS). They crosscut earlier pervasive advanced argillic mineral assemblages and contain vuggy silica selvages that permeate into the host rock for ca. 10 times their thickness. Gold concentration ranges between 2 and 10 g/t, although bonanza grades of up to 880 g/t and containing visible gold have been intersected by drilling.  43   Figure 22. Mineralogy and textures characteristic of hydrothermal breccia mineralization. A: Brecciated enargite fragments supported by hydrothermal cement of alunite + kaolinite. B: Massive enargite fragment overgrown by alunite. Kaolinite + quartz further brecciates hydrothermal cement, remobilizing alunite. C: Remobilized dogs-tooth alunite in kaolinite + quartz cement with interstitial hematite + rutile. D: Chalcopyrite ± bornite intergrown with enargite. Blocky, euhedral marcasite overgrows enargite. E: Fractures within enargite banded on fragment margins are infilled with tennantite-tetrahedrite + Ag-Au tellurides phases. F: Element map highlighting the distribution of gold and silver phases in fractures with euhedral quartz. G: Brecciated fragment edge of enargite overprinted by marcasite-pyrite, surrounded by alunite + kaolinite.  H: Hydrothermal cement composed of domainal kaolinite-dickite + alunite.  I: Tennantite-tetrahedrite exsolution from enargite in brecciated massive sulphide fragment. J: Blocky enargite overgrown by zoned alternating marcasite-pyrite +enargite. K: Growth zoning of enargite with marcasite-pyrite. Blackened areas are quartz and kaolinite. L: Element map used as proxy for mineral distributions: Orange = enargite, Green = pyrite, Blue = quartz, Purple = Kaolinite.   44  Micro-breccias at Kirazlı are 1 - 10mm in width and show a high degree of cataclasis. The cement and matrix-supported breccia are composed of 60 % cement, 20 % matrix and 20 % clasts. The matrix is composed of <1 mm sized quartz and pyrite altered host rock fragments and fragmented pyrite. Comminuted blocky fragments of pyrite and quartz are scattered amongst the breccia cement which contains native gold, electrum, calaverite, galena and native-tellurium mineral phases. These ore-bearing minerals occur as trace component in the breccias or form overgrowths on comminuted pyrite grains. Calaverite and native gold are intergrown with one another and show a similar distribution pattern to galena and other Te-bearing sulphosalts. Native gold and electrum are intergrown with Te-bearing sulphosalts. This type of mineralization style is marked by anomalous enrichments of lead and zinc and minor enrichments of silver. However, there is no correlation of arsenic with gold, a feature observed in the gold zone at both Kirazlı and Küçükdağ (Appendix 1). The micro-breccias cross-cut zones with stratiform mineralization and are interpreted to have formed later. Bonanza gold grades are coincident with occurrences of micro-breccia. Therefore, the bonanza gold deposition appears to have occurred with the micro-breccia and took place paragenetically later than the gold and copper deposition typically found in stratiform mineralization zones.  2.3. 5 Gold-Bearing Phreatic Breccia Mineralization The phreato-magmatic breccia units at Kirazlı crosscut the entire stratigraphic column and represent the last stage of mineralization. Relatively deep sections (200 m depth or greater) of this breccia have welded and ragged clast textures and deformed juvenile magmatic clasts suggesting a phreato-magmatic origin. Welded sections are mineralized with pyrite, enargite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and angelsite. Gold grades are highly variable through this unit and range between nil and up to 50 ounces per ton. Disseminated pyrite and enargite that comprise rock-flour matrix are associated with high gold values however, it is where hydrothermal brecciation overprints phreatic brecciation that highest grades are encountered.  The breccia is characterized by matrix to cement-supported, fine sand to lapilli sized, polymictic clasts that are weakly to moderately aligned, elongated and are re-brecciated by hydrothermal fluids and brittle fractures. The majority of the ore-bearing minerals are found within the breccia cement. Brittle fractures and residual quartz vugs are commonly infilled with crystalline dickite, nacrite and minor quartz. Fine grained, strongly recrystallized quartz appears blurred in thin section and intergrown with crystalline dickite and nacrite. Coarse quartz grains are scattered throughout the cemented matrix and partially or completely infill irregular shaped voids.   45   Figure 23. Mineralogy and textures of vein and micro breccia mineralization. A: Inner vein margin, enargite with colloform pyrite.  Bladed alunite forms at the boundary between massive enargite and kaolinite. B: Au-Ag telluride phase is overgrown on enargite margins in contact with alunite-quartz. C: Corona textured prismatic pyrite forming agglomerates overprinting coarse barite. D: Enargite brecciated by coarse bladed barite brecciated blocky enargite. Corona and prismatic pyrite crosscut barite. E: Prismatic pyrite found only in the vein whereas blocky anhedral pyrite is disseminated only in the groundmass. F: Enargite is intergrown with tennantite-tetrahedrite.  G: Colloform pyrite intergrown with blocky enargite within vein cores.  H: Au-Te phase partially replacing enargite in contact with alunite infill layers. I: Recrystallized quartz groundmass of vein host rock. Au-Te phases occur in contact with selective disseminated pyrite grain margins. J: Hydrothermal breccia veinlets cross cut strong quartz pyrite alteration. K: Native gold with minor electrum and Gn + Ag-bearing lead sulphosalts are deposited on the margins of comminuted pyrite grains. L: Red = gold-rich tellurides, purple = pyrite, Yellow = silver-rich tellurides (hessite?), green = Kaolinite, blue = quartz, light blue = alunite.  .   46   Figure 24. Mineralogy and textures of phreatomagmatic mineralization at Kirazlı. A: Residual vuggy quartz texture of matrix. B: Illite, kaolinite and dickite breccia cement with enargite, pyrite and sphalerite grains seen between recrystallized quartz fragments. C: Brecciated enargite with jarosite, pyrite-filled fractures and pyrite on the outer margin of the enargite.  D: Sulphide-composite fragment in quartz and kaolinite hydrothermal cement. Enargite with galena inclusions overgrows pyrite. E: Sphalerite with galena mantle. Enargite and pyrite have equilibrated grain contacts.  Dickite is main component of the hydrothermal cement. F: Cubic pyrite in breccia cement has pyrite overgrowths and interstitial galena + barite. Galena and barite are not intergrown.  G: Weakly developed chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite with minor enargite inclusions. Dickite is the main cement component. H: Pyrite-interstitial enargite-stibioenargite + tennantite-tetrahedrite. Dickite and kaolinite are interstitial to composite sulphosalt grains. I: Elemental proxy for mineral distribution: green = As-bearing sulphosalts, red = pyrite, blue = dickite-kaolinite, white = galena. J: Galena intergrown with embayed sphalerite. Alunite is brecciated by kaolinite.   K: Sphalerite-galena + secondary reaction rim of enargite + stibioenargite + anglesite. L: Elemental proxy for mineral distribution: yellow = kaolinite, pink = pyrite, orange = enargite, purple = galena, blue = sphalerite, green = alunite.   47  Scattered sphalerite crystals within the hydrothermal cement are overgrown and embayed by galena. Sphalerite is subject to weak oxidation that resulted in oxide staining around many sphalerite crystals. Angelsite occurs on the outer rims of galena or as isolated broken fragments. In hand sample, enargite forms dark- and honey-brown (luzonite) crystal aggregates that are not microscopically distinguishable. Blebby inclusions of tennantite-tetrahedrite, <100 µm in size, are found within the enargite crystals. Subhedral, growth-zoned, cubic pyrite occurs in the hydrothermal cement while the sulphosalt assemblage is typically found interstitially. 2.4 Geochemistry Geochemistry of the Küçükdağ – Kirazlı igneous rocks was characterized by analyses from 63 samples selected from the mapped units. Wide range of the loss on ignition values (LOI), from <1 to 19 wt. %, reflects extensive hydrothermal alteration to which the TV Tower district was subjected. Post-ore mineralization dacites and trachyandesites of the Oligocene Kirazlı Volcanics (OKV) are the only consistently unaltered rocks and are classified on a Total Alkali versus Silica diagram (Na2O + K2O versus SiO2). However, the alkalis are observed to be mobile during water-rock interactions in the pre- and syn-ore mineralization Eocene units throughout the TV Tower District. Therefore, a Pearce trace element discrimination diagram was used for anhydrous geochemical classifications of the variably altered Eocene units (i.e. EHFP, EKDV, EDV, EDT) (1996; Figure 25).  2.4.1 Chemical classification of magmatic rocks Eocene intrusive and volcanic units which host porphyry and epithermal mineralization in the northern TV Tower district are classified as andesites, basaltic andesites, basalts, diorite and quartz diorite (Figure 25 A). These plots indicate Zr/Ti and Nb/Y ratios of EHFP generally behave as immobile element ratios and plot in the same location regardless of alteration. However, the Nb/Y ratio in EDV significantly increases within 500 m of the Kirazlı HS epithermal deposit, a result that incorrectly classifies the rocks as trachyandesite and monzonite. The skew in EDV rocks is likely a result of Y depletion associated with ore-related alteration of feldspar and the breakdown of accessory minerals in regions of intense alteration (Van Dongen et al., 2010; Figures 25 C).  Basalt and basaltic andesites (EKDV) above and below the FWFZ at Küçükdağ, are petrographically and geochemically distinct from EHFP and EDV units. The basalt and basaltic andesite flows stratigraphically overlie EHFP and the two units plot as discrete groups on the Y versus Zr discrimination diagram of MacLean and Barrett (1993), suggesting EKDV has a tholeiitic affinity while EHFP displays transitional calc-alkaline series (Figure 25 C).  48    49  Figure 25. Geochemical classification diagrams. A: Trace element discrimination diagram log log (Zr/Ti) vs (Nb/Y) of Pearce (1996). Filled and hollow symbols represent fresh and altered rock, respectively. B: Total Alkali versus Silica diagram of Le Maitre (1984). Dacites and trachyandesites of the OKV unit are the only lithology in the TV Tower not affected by porphyry and epithermal style alteration, therefore in this case, major oxide discriminants are suitable for rock classification. C: Y versus Zr discrimination diagram of MacLean and Barrett (1993). Volcanic rocks above and below the FWFZ at Küçükdağ plot as a distinctly tholeiitic series whereas rocks at Columbaz and Kirazlı are transitional to calc-alkaline series. Notice the altered (hollow symbols) EDV are depleted in Y, as a result, altered samples are skewed left in this plot. One fresh sample from EDV plots similarly to EHFP. The Oligocene OKVa, b units stratigraphically overlie Kirazlı and Küçükdağ. They cover an area greater than 100 km2 immediately north of the deposits. They were emplaced ca. *24.7 Ma and therefore after ore-mineralization and related alteration which occurred ca. 29.7 – 29.2 Ma (*Altunkaynak and Genç, 2008). Geochemically the lower volcanic flow unit (OKVb) plots as a dacite, gradationally transitioning to upper flow layers of trachyandesite characterized by columnar jointed outcrops, laharitic and dacitic tuffs (OKVa; Figure 25 B).  2.4.2 REE and multi-element characterization  The two uppermost stratigraphic units in the TV Tower district (OKVa, b) show the highest light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment while the younger of these two has a strong negative Eu anomaly, indicative of plagioclase fractionation from the melt (Figure 26 A). Stratigraphically below OKV, the basalt and basaltic andesites (EKDV) have weak LREE enrichments and relatively smooth primitive mantle normalized patterns, similar to enriched MORB (Piercy, 2007; Figure 26 C). Transitional to calc-alkaline intrusive an volcanic rock units EHFP, EDV and EDT show strong LREE enrichment akin to a volcanic arc tectonic setting (Figure 26 B, D).  2.4.3 Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Alteration White clay alteration is widespread throughout Eocene rocks in the TV Tower district. This alteration typically bleaches outcrops to a white-cream colour and obliterates primary magmatic textures. A portable near-infrared spectrometer used to differentiate the OH-bearing alteration mineralogies identified: kaolinite, illite, smectite, dickite, alunite, montmorillonite and halloysite as the most typical.  The least altered samples used as benchmarks for assessing alteration were selected based on petrographic observations described in the previous section and the molar ratio plot (2Ca + Na + K)/Al versus K/Al (Warren et al., 2007; Figure 27). On the molar ratio plot, least altered samples do not exhibit Ca and Na depletions typically associated with plagioclase alteration to muscovite (sericite), illite and kaolinite. The quartz diorites, andesites and tuffs (EDV) that host Kirazlı ore-mineralization, are the most altered of all the sampled rocks due to their close proximity to the deposit. They have a pervasive alteration mineralogy of quartz, kaolinite, dickite, illite, sericite, chlorite, alunite and pyrophyllite. The  50   Figure 26. Rock/Primitive mantle REE spider plots of intrusive and volcanic rocks normalized values from Sun and Macdonough (1989). A: Oligocene dacites and trachyandesites of the Kirazlı Volcanics. B: Fresh rock samples from the Eocene quartz diorite at Kirazlı (EDV) and at Camelback (EDT). B: Eocene basalts and basaltic andesites comprising the Küçükdağ Volcanics. D: Eocene diorite, quart diorite and andesites (EHFP) which represent the most widespread magmatic unit in the TV Tower. diorite, quartz diorites and andesites (EHFP) as well as the basalts to basaltic andesites (EKDV) have experienced variable Ca and Na loss reflective of plagioclase alteration to sericite, kaolinite and illite. As expected, the Oligocene dacites and trachyandesites (OKVa, b) do not show evidence of argillic (quartz, kaolinite, illite and chlorite) or advanced argillic (quartz, dickite, alunite and pyrophyllite) alteration signatures which characterize the host Eocene rocks (Figure 27). The Ishikawa Alteration Index (AI; 100 x (K2O + MgO)/(K2O + MgO + Na2O + CaO); Ishikawa et al., 1976) reflects the abundance of chlorite, sericite and feldspar destruction associated with CaO and Na2O depletions. The AI value generally increases toward zones of phyllic alteration, with values >90 near Columbaz and Kirazlı. This trend reverses with progression to advanced argillic alteration, where AI values fall to <50 (Figure 28). This reversal reflects low pH alteration of ferromagnesian minerals (mainly chlorite), K-loss and a change from lower temperature alteration minerals such as muscovite and kaolinite in the distal alteration zones to higher temperature phyllosilicates such as pyrophyllite in ore-proximal zones.   51   Figure 27. Molar ratio plot (2Ca + Na + K)/Al versus K/Al of Warren et al. (2007). The least altered box indicates the region on the plot where rocks will plot if they have undergone little to no changes to their Ca, Na, K or Al content. Altered samples (hollow symbols) will plot toward a region defined by a given mineral composition (i.e. chlorite, kaolinite, illite, K-mica, smectite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, albite and biotite).   Figure 28. Geochemical alteration plot. The AI versus AAAI box plot has indices defined by the Ishikawa Alteration Index (AI; 100 x (K2O + MgO)/(K2O + MgO + Na2O + CaO) of Ishikawa et al. (1976), and the Advanced Argillic Alteration Index (AAAI; 100 x SiO2/SiO2 + (10 x MgO) + (10 x CaO) + (10 x Na2O)) of Williams and Davidson (2004). The plot illustrates the alteration geochemistry characteristics of mineralogical changes associated with advanced argillic alteration zones in high sulphidation systems.  52  The Advanced Argillic Alteration Index (AAAI; 100 x SiO2/SiO2 + (10 x MgO) + (10 x CaO) + (10 x Na2O); Williams and Davidson, 2004) is used to quantify strong SiO2 enrichment and destruction of chlorite, feldspar and carbonate (if present), related to ore related alteration. Thus, the AI vs. AAAI diagram illustrates the geochemical trends characteristics of advanced argillic alteration zones in high sulphidation systems (Figure 28; Hedenquist et al., 1994).  2.5 Structural Characteristics of the HS Epithermal and Porphyry Mineralization General characteristics of exposed structures were recorded, including: strike, dip, rake and pitch of slip lines, nature and sense of fault surfaces where possible. Where indicators on fault surfaces were not sufficient to decide explicitly on a sense of motion the indicators were not analyzed for fault kinematics but were recorded for comparison to related structures where kinematics were unambiguous. Special emphasis was given to structures that were identified as mineralized with gold.  2.5.1 Aspects of Structural Analysis  Brittle faults and related systematic joints are the most prominent structures observed in the field. Faults are discriminated on the basis of their orientation, dimensions and composition. Systematic joint sets are identified as planar structures that cross-cut stratigraphy with repeating sets and lack evidence of motion; they typically mimic the attitude of major faults.  Alteration pathways are identified in the field as discrete zones of intense alteration and well developed residual vuggy quartz textures that are structurally or lithologically controlled. Thickness of alteration pathways range from less than a meter to over ten meters; they are often accompanied by strong oxidation and macro-vug formation. Silica conduits at Küçükdağ and Columbaz prospects generally follow the trends of NW and SW-striking, moderately to steeply dipping faults and fractures. At Kirazlı, silica conduits are steep to vertical and bounded by NW and NE-SW striking faults and fractures that are similar in orientation to comparable features at Küçükdağ and Columbaz (Figure 30).  Hydrothermal Breccia and Veins are identified in the field as channelized brecciation, typically along fractures and faults. Quartz and pyrite are the most common vein infill minerals, whereas hydrothermal breccias have strongly oxidized cement, silicified clasts and silicified vuggy quartz selvage zones. The attitude of veins and hydrothermal breccia are comparable to the attitude of major fault sets. Post ore-mineralization deposition of calcite, quartz, and gypsum veins are not reflective of the structural architecture present at the time of mineralization events, therefore they are only mentioned in the structural analysis here. Hydrothermal breccia measured at the surface of Kirazlı Daği and Çatalkaya Tepe  53  is observed to correspond to the intersection trend established by three of the major fault trends in that area, indicating that these are pre or syn ore-mineralization structures. Intersections of these major structures that host hydrothermal breccia are the best locales for significant ore deposition and certainly at the summit of Kirazlı Daği, structural intersections of this type are ubiquitous. Bedding of volcanic and epiclastic strata that hosts HS epithermal and porphyry mineralization is measured directly in the field and using three-point solutions from drill core intersections. Additionally, bedding in fine grained epiclastic rocks targeted by lithocap-style alteration at the top of Küçükdağ and Kirazlı can be measured indirectly by taking the intersection of silicification cooling joints as the pole to bedding. 2.5.2 Local Structural Setting In the central Biga Peninsula, multiple HS epithermal and porphyry mineralization deposits are recognized (Yiğit, 2009 and 2012). The geometry of fault and fracture sets at these deposits controls the position of where hydrothermal pathways are established. Such pathways are the principle way in which ore-mineralized breccias are formed and ore-bearing minerals are introduced to stratiform horizons. Post ore-mineralization faults have disjointed the stratigraphy and reconfigured many deposits. For example, the Eocene aged Halilağa porphyry ca. 15 km south of Küçükdağ is believed to be truncated by post ore-mineralization faults that removed theoretically high-level porphyry mineralization (pyrite and chalcopyrite), from the hypothesized core-level porphyry mineralization (chalcopyrite and bornite). The Columbaz and Camelback porphyry systems share a similar history in that, HS epithermal mineralization predicted to lie theoretically and stratigraphically above core-level porphyry style ore-related alteration and mineralization, has been displaced northward along moderately dipping, recurring, normal-sense shear zones. Nowhere is this more evident than in drill core from Küçükdağ HS epithermal deposit where a, moderately northeasterly dipping fault zone (FWFZ) sharply truncates all styles of Au, Ag and Cu mineralization (Figure 19 and Figure 30).  Stratigraphy in the TV Tower is classified into domains characterized by local differences in the attitude of their structures (Figure 29). Domains 1 and 2 are characterized by extensive brittle extensional faulting. Many similarities in fault geometry exist in domain 1 and 2, however, variations in fault attitude result in different attitudes of near-vertical, high-permeability fault intersection zones. Domain 3 is reserved for pre ore-mineralization and pre-Cretaceous ductile deformation that acted on the metamorphic basement rocks. Systematic fault sets in the TV Tower area have of three main trends in strike: i) NW-SE; ii) NE-SW; iii) E-W, and a fourth subordinate N-S directed minor fault set.   54   55  Figure 29. Structural domain map of the Küçükdağ, Kirazlı, Columbaz and Camelback deposits. Domain one includes the Küçükdağ HS epithermal, and Columbaz porphyry deposits. Domain two includes the Kirazlı HS epithermal, and Camelback porphyry deposits. Domain three outlines the pre-Cretaceous rocks affected by ductile deformation prior to emplacement of the host rocks to ore mineralization. E-W, normal-sense faults have a mean displacement direction trending N11°W in structural domain 1 (Columbaz-Küçükdağ). Similarly oriented faults in structural domain 2 at Kirazlı, have a mean displacement direction of S36°E, and W25°S at Çatalkaya. Kinematic indicators on E-W oriented faults indicate two senses of motion, one plunging moderately to steeply SW and one plunging shallowly ENE. These two orientations provide evidence for ENE wrench style dextral faulting and SW oblique-slip normal faulting on the E-W structures. A similar comparison on NE-SW faults indicates they have a mean displacement vector trending N, plunging 65° in structural domain 1; whereas in structural domain 2 (Kirazlı and Çatalkaya), NE-SW faults have two distinct displacement vectors which are analogous to the mean displacement observed on E-W faults. In contrast, the NW-SE faults have considerably fewer wrench-type displacement indicators and are typically characterized by normal and oblique-slip kinematic indicators.  2.5.2.1 Domain 1: Küçükdağ and Columbaz Volcanic and epiclastic rocks that host HS epithermal and porphyry mineralization are shallowly tilted to the north at a regional scale. Local variations of bedding exist due to tilting, rotating and brittle deformation associated with faulting. At Küçükdağ and Columbaz, shallowly dipping bed attitudes are preserved in laminated mudstones, siltstones, conglomerates and as a mineral foliation in basalt and basaltic andesites (EKDV). Variations in strike exist over 10’s to 100’s of meters, reflecting a low amplitude wavy depositional setting; however, a well-defined bed attitude average indicates an overall shallow north dipping trend (Figure 29). Massive, autobrecciated, laharitic and columnar jointed dacites and trachyandesites (OKV) that stratigraphically overlie Küçükdağ and Columbaz deposits, dip shallowly northeast (Figure 29). A conformable contact between the overlying dacite (OKV) and lithic tuff (EQT) at the highest stratigraphic levels of mineralization at Küçükdağ is reflected in a gradual transition of northward to northeastward bedding attitudes. At Columbaz and Küçükdağ, alteration pathways have two main orientations: i) striking WNW, dipping steeply NE and; ii) striking SW, dipping steeply NW. NW striking pathways are most pronounced in the field; they are up to five meters wide and are typically bounded by faulted planes. SW striking conduits are typically less than five meters wide and are bounded by joints with little or no evidence of fault motion. Major fault planes have damage zones of cataclastic fault breccia, smoothed surfaces ornamented with grooved lineations and slip-lines, stepped slip-lines, and fault gouge. In general, fault planes are smoothed  56  and have a low amplitude undulation along a strike-parallel axis. Kinematics of the fault surfaces show a range of deformation directionality from dip-slip to strike-slip, all of which can be observed on the E-W trends and NE-SW trends. NW-SE faults however consistently show dip-slip to oblique-slip kinematic indicators. Surrounding Columbaz, planar faults form prominent cliffs, ornamented with cataclastic breccia and extensional slip-lines. Kinematic indicators there, have two observable extensional vectors: one with a dip-slip direction and, one apparently later, with a right-lateral strike-slip direction. Sub-vertical, E-W oriented major fault zones such as that between Columbaz and Küçükdağ also have right-lateral, strike-slip lineations. In local tectonic windows there, remnant dip-slip lineations are observed on structurally sheltered pockets on fault planes that are typically ornamented with strike-slip lineations.  2.5.2.2 Domain Two: Kirazlı-Çatalkaya and Camelback  At the Kirazlı HS epithermal deposit, bedding is best preserved in laminated to thinly bedded epiclastic rocks in the upper deposit stratigraphy (ELT, EVS and EQT). Low amplitude undulations exist over an average axis of 210° where bedding dips shallowly to the northwest and southeast (Figure 29). Bedding planes there, are ornamented with slip-lines and stepped ridges that indicate a reverse sense displacement to the NNE. At Kirazlı, two main trends of structurally-controlled alteration pathways are identified as striking NE-SW and NW-SE. Exposures at Çatalkaya ca. 1 km south of Kirazlı have NNE trending pathways of intense residual vuggy quartz alteration. The distribution of lithocaps in the Çatalkaya area is similar to the attitude of these residual quartz alteration pathways and reflects the dominant NE trend to lithocap distribution in domain two (Figure 7). Breccia pathways at Kirazlı and Çatalkaya used in structural analysis were interpreted as hydrothermal in nature if they consist of a strongly jarosite-goethite-hematite altered matrix, altered sub-rounded to angular clasts, and a matrix to clast-supported texture. Additionally, they have typical alteration minerals including: quartz, alunite, dickite and kaolinite. In general, two main hydrothermal breccia trends are defined as: i) ENE-WSW and; ii) NNE-SSW (Figure 29).  Quartz vein geometry in domain two at the Camelback porphyry, reflects a conjugate fracture set with planes that strike NE and ESE, dipping steeply SE and SSW. In contrast, the orientation of quartz veins at Columbaz and Küçükdağ in domain one is characterized by early quartz veins with anomalous gold values striking E-W, which are cross-cut by a N-S striking vein set barren of base or precious metals (Figure 29).  57  At Kirazlı, two distinct sets of slip-line are evident on fault planes: one that has well-developed dextral strike-slip sense and the other has an oblique-slip, dextral-normal sense. On the north side of Kirazlı the dominant dip direction of faults is NW and NE, whereas on the southern flanks, moderate to steeply SE and SW dipping structures are more typical. On the north side and summit of Çatalkaya, NW and NE dipping fault planes are the most dominant fault attitudes. On the south side, SW dipping faults are conspicuous cliff forming features and often have smoothed, well ornamented slip-lines and grooves. The strike of these fault sets in the vicinity of Kirazlı and Çatalkaya projects directly towards the valley between Sarp and Küçükdağ along low lying river valleys. Domain two extends south from Çatalkaya and encompasses the Camelback porphyry. Major fault sets are grouped into moderate to steep angle oblique-normal and low angle normal faults. Steeply south dipping ESE-striking dextral oblique-slip, normal-sense faults are similar in orientation to the vein network observed at Camelback (Figure 31). SW striking faults are ornamented with slip-lines, grooves and stepped-ridges that indicate multiple reactivated motion on the faults was right- and left-lateral with a minor dip-slip component. Dense fault and fracture sets at Kirazlı point to the importance of structural corridors in the development of the HS epithermal mineralization (Figure 19).The attitude of an intersection defined by three primary fault sets at Kirazlı strikes between 110° and 120° while plunging 76° in a southeasterly direction. This fault intersection attitude structurally controls the position and attitude of ore-bearing hydrothermal and phreato-magmatic breccias. The mineralized breccias are zoned, layered and hydrothermally cemented. Episodic mineralizing events preferentially targeted these near-vertical fault intersections, widening the footprint of individual hydrothermal breccia bodies with each successive episode.  2.5.2.3 Domain 3: Metamorphic basement rocks  Metamorphic basement rocks and thickly bedded arkosic arenites and conglomerates form the foundation for Cenozoic magmatism and volcanism (Map units: PSC, PSP, TQC and TAS). Quartz, mica phyllites and schists have a well-developed mineral schistosity (S1) and a locally well-developed crenulation cleavage (S2). S1 is characterized by dominantly N-S striking foliation planes. On the eastern side of Kirazlı, mineral stretching lineations in the S1 foliation plane are indicative of NW-SE extensional deformation. Such ductile deformation is not present in post-Cretaceous magmatic rocks of the Biga Peninsula and therefore represents pre-Triassic extension. S2 strikes NE, dipping steeply to the NW and documents NW-SE directed compression. Arkosic arenites and quartz-pebble conglomerates that unconformably overlie the quartz, mica phyllites and schists are locally deformed in a ductile fashion.  58  Rocks in structural domain three dip moderately to the SW at a regional scale, which is distinctly different from the consistent north dipping attitude of the Eocene and Oligocene rock units (Figure 29). 2.6 Timing of Magmatism and Au-Ag-Cu Mineralization in the Central Biga Peninsula  2.6.1 Methodology Samples used for U-Pb age determination in this study were collected from mineralized and non-mineralized intrusive and volcanic rocks where cross-cutting and stratigraphic relationships are well defined by drilling and field mapping. These U-Pb dates are used to determine the age of magmatism and porphyry mineralization. Ar/Ar age dates determined from coarse-crystalline alunite intergrown with ore minerals at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı, as well as two U-Pb age dates from the Pirentepe host rocks, constrains the timing of HS epithermal mineralization. For each U-Pb age determination, groups of 10 - 20 zircon grains free of alteration, fractures, inclusions or cores were analyzed using a Thermo Finnigan Element2 single collector, double-focusing magnetic sector ICP-MS at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) in Canada. The concordia age of the Plešovice zircon standard (338 ± 1.0 Ma; Sláma et al., 2008) in the analytical sequence was 337.0 ± 1.7 Ma and the concordia age of the Temora zircon standard (416.8 ± 1.1 Ma; Black et al., 2003) was 416.5 ± 3.1 Ma, both are within error of the accepted values and validate the precision of the ages determined in this study. Final U-Pb Concordia ages were calculated using Isoplot version 3.09 (Ludwig, 2003) at the University of British Columbia. Ar/Ar analyses on alunite was carried out at PCIGR using irradiated alunite separates step-heated at increasing laser powers in the defocused beam of a 10-W CO2 laser. Gas liberated from each step was analyzed using a VG5400-Mass Spectrometer equipped with an ion-counting electron multiplier. Final Ar/Ar plateau ages were calculated using Isoplot ver. 3.09 (Ludwig, 2003) at UBC.  2.6.2 Geochronological Constraints on Magmatism and Mineralization Geochronological constraints of magmatism and mineralization in the central Biga Peninsula are determined from samples of mineralized and non-mineralized rocks at the Halilağa, Valley, Columbaz and Camelback porphyry deposits, as well as the Kunk, Pirentepe, Kirazlı and Küçükdaġ HS epithermal deposits (Table 2). These data augment a regional geochronology dataset which is defined by two periods of magmatism; an early magmatic stage that occurred between 41 and 36 Ma peaking at 39 Ma (Stage 1) and a later stage between 32 and 22 Ma peaking at ca. 24 Ma (Stage 2; Figure 31). The results indicate  59  that in the central Biga Peninsula, porphyry mineralization occurred at the peak of Stage 1 magmatism, whereas HS epithermal mineralization is constrained to within early Stage 2 magmatism. Table 3. Age dates of magmatism and mineralization in the central Biga Peninsula (*Brunetti and Mišković, 2015). Location /Prospect Deposit  Type Age  Type Sample ID Material UTM  North UTM  East Age ± 2σ  (Ma) *Evçiler pluton plutonic HD-29 zircon 4417735 486781 26.1 ± 0.51 *Pirentepe HSE host/pre-mineral PB-2014-061 zircon 4421529 480296 28.4 ± 0.59 *Pirentepe HSE host/pre-mineral PB2013046 zircon 4421349 482697 28.5 ± 0.3 Küçükdağ HSE mineralization GML-2013-96 alunite 4431869 470645 29.2 ± 0.33 Küçükdağ HSE mineralization GML-2013-97 alunite 4432010 470690 29.7 ± 0.42 Kirazlı HSE plutonic GML-2014-293 zircon 4431654 477799 30.8 ± 0.31 Camelback porphyry post-mineral GML-2013-315 zircon 4427402 472036 37.3 ± 0.89 *Halilağa porphyry post-mineral HD-13A-488 zircon 4419112 483431 37.8 ± 0.36 Columbaz porphyry host/pre-mineral GML-2013-231 zircon 4431560 472715 38.4 ± 0.5 Columbaz porphyry host/pre-mineral GML-2013-143 zircon 4428986 469295 38.5 ± 0.44 *Halilağa  porphyry syn/post mineral PB2014106 zircon 4418910 482281 38.8 ± 0.3 *Halilağa porphyry pre/syn-mineral HD-37-112 zircon 4419154 483139 39.4 ± 0.77 Valley porphyry post-mineral GML-2014-332 zircon 4423243 465969 39.5 ± 0.31 *Halilağa porphyry mineralization HD-94 402 moly 4419052 483246 39.6 ± 0.21 *Kunk HSE host/pre-mineral PB2013018 zircon 4418781 483406 40.1 ± 0.34 Valley porphyry syn-mineral GML-2014-331 zircon 4423243 465969 40.2 ± 0.37 Camelback porphyry pre/syn-mineral GML-2014-329 zircon 4427009 473687 40.2 ± 0.34  The Columbaz porphyry is built on and hosted within diorite, quartz diorites and andesites. The age of the andesite is dated at 38.51 ± 0.44 Ma, and 38.35 ± 0.50 Ma from surface samples proximal to the deposit (Figure 30). Southwest of Kirazlı, the Valley and Camelback porphyry prospects are hosted within stocks of the Kuscayir pluton. At Camelback, pre/syn ore-mineralization quartz diorite is dated at 40.19 ± 0.34 Ma which is similar to the 40.17 ± 0.37 Ma pre/syn ore-mineralization quartz diorite at the Valley porphyry and similar to the of the age of Columbaz andesites. Post ore-mineralization quartz diorite at Valley porphyry is dated at 39.53 ± 0.53 Ma, which constrains the timing of porphyry mineralization to between 40.19 – 39.53 Ma; a result that occurs at the peak of Stage 1 magmatism. A southern exposure of the Kirazlı diorite (EDV) is dated at 37.34 ± 0.89 Ma on the north side of the Camelback porphyry.  Approximately 15 km southeast of the TV Tower district, the age of the host rocks at Halilağa porphyry is determined for three samples: a pre/syn ore-mineralization intrusion dated at 39.36 ± 0.77 Ma, a syn/post  60  ore-mineralization intrusion dated at 38.79 ± 0.30 Ma and a post ore-mineralization intrusion at 37.79 ± 0.36 Ma (Brunetti et al., 2015). Additionally, a Re-Os date of 39.56 ± 0.21 Ma obtained from molybdenite within the ore-zone effectively constrains the timing of syn-magmatic porphyry mineralization at the Halilağa porphyry (Brunetti et al., 2015). Approximately 2 km south of Halilağa, host rocks to the Kunk HS epithermal target were dated at 40.14 ± 0.34 Ma (Brunetti et al. 2015). Currently, there are no constraints on the timing of mineralization at Kunk; however the age of the host rocks there, indicates they are part of the same suite of rocks that host the Halilağa, Valley, Camelback and Columbaz porphyry deposits.   Figure 30. U-Pb Concordia and Ar/Ar plateau diagrams for the samples determined in this study. A granodiorite intrusion 2 km north of Kirazlı is dated at 30.79 ± 0.31 Ma, similar result to Yigit’s (2012) Ar/Ar age of 30.7 ± 1.5 Ma on alunite from drill core at the Kirazlı deposit. At Küçükdağ, ca. 5 km west of Kirazlı, the age of mineralization is constrained to 29.69 ± 0.42 and 29.23 ± 0.33 Ma, by two Ar/Ar age dates on coarse grained alunite intergrown with ore minerals. The Pirentepe HS epithermal deposit ca. 2 km north of Halilağa is hosted within a sequence of coarsely porphyritic dacitic andesites dated at 28.54  61  ± 0.30 Ma and 28.36 ± 0.59 Ma. These results constrain the timing of HS epithermal magmatism and mineralization to between 30.79 – 28.36 Ma, occurring in the early stages of Stage 2 magmatism. 2.7 Discussion The TV Tower District has been subjected to extensive textural- and mineralogical-destructive alteration associated with porphyry and epithermal systems, in addition, post ore-mineralization structural reconfiguration makes stratigraphic differentiation of these deposits not obvious. This hinders exploration efforts to expand prospective zones by stratigraphic correlation between known mineral deposits. Detailed stratigraphic and structural field mapping in conjunction with geochemical and petrographic analysis has characterized the differences between Eocene and Oligocene magmatism in this District. Stratigraphic correlation between rocks that host porphyry and HS epithermal mineralization in the TV Tower District are discussed here in the context of a regional metallogeny. 2.7.1 Space-Time Relationship of Magmatism and Mineralization in the Biga Peninsula Stratigraphic definition of porphyry and HS epithermal mineralization in the central Biga Peninsula, aided by new geochronological data and petrographic mineral deposit studies show evidence that porphyry mineralization is older than HS epithermal mineralization (Table 3). Age dating of mineralized and non-mineralized intrusive phases at the Halilağa, Valley, Columbaz, and Camelback porphyry deposits, indicates coeval magmatic crystallization and mineralization occurred between 41 - 39 Ma, during the peak of Stage 1 magmatism (Figure 4). Additionally, Oligocene (*30.7 - 29.23 Ma) ages of alunite separates from the HS epithermal mineralization at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı indicate epithermal mineralization there took place up to 8.8 Ma after porphyry mineralization in the TV Tower (*Ar/Ar on quartz-alunite separate; Yiğit 2012).  A regional compilation of mineral deposit host rock ages in the Biga Peninsula are grouped into four classes: 1. Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) hosts; 2. skarn hosts; 3. porphyry and 4. epithermal deposit hosts (Figure 31). The oldest known porphyry style mineralization host rocks are represented by the Karabiga pluton (Çakirli Cu-Au porphyry) and the 44.3 to 54.5 Ma Dikmen pluton (Dikmen Cu-Mo-Au porphyry) located at northern latitudes (Yiğit, 2012). The youngest are the 21.3 ± 0.3* andesites of the Ayvaçik formation and the Kestanbol Pluton (*K/Ar whole rock analyses by Aldanmaz et al., 2000). The timing of porphyry and epithermal mineralization coincides with the two magmatic stages, whereas only 2 (Cataltepe and Hacidedetepe) of the 24 skarn deposits in the Biga Peninsula are associated with pre-Oligocene intrusions.   62  The paucity of Eocene skarn deposits can be explained in relation to regional scale extensional exhumation of the basement metamorphic complex. The Kazdağ Massif was exhumed and cooled to below 350 and 300 °C between 27 and 24 Ma from peak P-T conditions of 6.9 and 5.7 kbar and 706 and 587 °C (Bonev et al., 2009). During this time the calcareous basement rocks of the Kalabak Fm were exhumed with the Kazdağ Massif from depths of ca. 15 km into the shallow crust and subsequently displaced southeastward along detachment faults (Bonev et al., 2009; Cavazza et al., 2009; Aysal et al., 2012). The 23.94 ± 0.31 Ma post-kinematic Eybek Pluton (U/Pb on zircon; Altunkaynak et al., 2012) intruded the Kalabak Fm and is believed to be the causative intrusion for poly-metallic skarn mineralization (Akiska et al., 2013). Therefore, the paucity of pre-Oligocene skarn deposits in the Biga Peninsula could be explained by the absence of calcareous basement rocks in the shallow crust at that time (ie. Pre-exhumation of calcareous basement rocks). Late Eocene plutonic rocks such as the Kuscayir pluton (40.17 ± 0.37 Ma), the Halilağa stock (39.36 ± 0.77 Ma), Camelback stock (40.19 ± 0.34 Ma), and the Kartaldağ pluton (42.19 ± 0.45 Ma) of the central Biga, all host Cu-Au-Ag porphyry and/or epithermal style mineralization. The stratigraphy hosting the Küçükdağ HS epithermal deposit is built atop 38.5 Ma andesites (EHFP). The same andesite is correlated as the main host to Au mineralization at the Columbaz porphyry ca. 1 km to the south. A conformable sequence of basaltic andesites, lithic tuffs and epiclastic rocks overlies EHFP, therefore its deposition is interpreted to have occurred in the waning of Stage 1 magmatism (ca. 38.5 – 34.5 Ma).  The age of HS epithermal mineralization at Küçükdağ is constrained to between 29.7 – 29.2 Ma; therefore, it was not coeval with the magmatism that deposited the host stratigraphy, rather it occurred ca. 8.8 – 4.8 after deposition of the host stratigraphy and in the initial stages of Stage 2 magmatism. The age of HS epithermal mineralization at Kirazlı is 30.7 ± 1.5* Ma, which is ca. 1 m.y. older than HS epithermal mineralization at Küçükdağ (*Yiğit, 2012), suggesting that epithermal mineralization in this region was punctuated and occurred for at least 1 m.y. Oligocene pluton rocks consisting of equigranular to weakly hornblende-feldspar porphyritic granodiorite, ca. 2 km north of Kirazlı were dated at 30.79 ± 0.31 Ma, similar in age to Oligocene epithermal mineralization at Kirazlı. This similarity suggests that Stage 2 magmatism, starting as early as 30.79 Ma, could have been driver of epithermal mineralization within the central Biga Peninsula. Furthermore, the granodiorite north of Kirazlı contains disseminated pyrite and trace chalcopyrite, indicating that syn-magmatic sulphide mineralization was likely to have occurred. In this sense, the granodiorite represents the most plausible candidate as the magmatic driver of epithermal mineralization at Kirazlı.    63    Figure 31. Mineral deposit host rock ages are grouped into four classes and compared against direct age dating of mineralization (yellow stars), the two U-Pb zircon defined magmatic stages (violet and orange background shade) and reconciled tectonic information from: Armijo et al., 1999; Şengör et al., 2005; Bonev et al., 2006; Bonev and Beccaletto 2007; Cavazza et al., 2009; Altunkaynak et al., 2012; Beccaletto et al., 2007; Bonev et al., 2009; Okay et al., 1996; Jolivet and Brun, 2010; Jolivet et al., 2013; Le Pichon and Angelier, 1981; Okay and Tüysüz, 1999 and Şengör et al., 2005. 2.7.2 Stratigraphy and Mineralization Correlation Mineral deposits in the central Biga Peninsula are hosted by shallow-level intrusions, volcanic and epiclastic rocks that are correlated regionally with the Eocene Balikliçeşme and the Oligocene Çan formations (Figures 3 and 6). The age of host rocks to the Columbaz Au porphyry, located ca. 2 km south of the Küçükdağ HS epithermal deposit, is 38.5 ± 0.44 Ma and the timing of mineralization at the Valley Au porphyry ca. 12 km south of Columbaz is constrained by intrusive cross-cutting relationships to between 40.19 – 39.53 Ma. Additionally, the Camelback Au-Cu porphyry located ca. 5 km south of Kirazlı is constrained by a zircon age of 40.19 ± 0.34 Ma. These three Au (±Cu) porphyry deposits are correlated in time and composition to the Balikliçeşme formation, indicating the Balikliçeşme formation was favorable to porphyry Au mineralization in the Eocene.   64  HS epithermal deposits within a 5 km radial periphery to Eocene porphyry deposits are common throughout the central Biga Peninsula with Küçükdağ and Kirazlı being the largest examples. The intermediate volcanic, tuffaceous and epiclastic host rocks to the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal Au-Ag (± Cu) deposits conformably overlie coherent units of the Balikliçeşme formation and are correlated with the Çan formation. However, the age of mineralization at Küçükdağ is constrained to between 29.7 – 29.2 Ma, which is ca. 8 - 10 Ma younger than the expected age of the host rocks there, based on their conformable contact with the Balikliçeşme formation.  HS epithermal mineralization spatially associated with porphyry deposits has a disparate age relative to the age of porphyry mineralization, despite there being a conformable geological contact between HS epithermal host rocks and the Balikliçeşme formation. This suggests that the porphyry-epithermal relationship in the central Biga Peninsula is one where epithermal mineralization is not genetically related to the known porphyry deposits in the area; rather, epithermal mineralization occurred in the Oligocene, up to 10 Ma after porphyry mineralization.  Given the well-documented genetic link between porphyry and HS epithermal deposits, it stands to reason that the majority of Eocene-aged HS epithermal deposits have been eroded, leaving only their Eocene-aged porphyry deposit roots (ie. Halilağa, Valley, Columbaz, Camelback). In contrast, Oligocene-aged HS epithermal mineralization (ie. Küçükdağ, Kirazlı) is well-preserved by resistive lithocaps, therefore the theoretical Oligocene-aged porphyry deposit roots must also be preserved beneath them. Volcanic and epiclastic rocks observed at both Küçükdağ and Kirazlı prospects have remarkable similarities (Figures 15 and 16). Lithic tuffs (ELT) are similar in composition, are located at stratigraphically equivalent positions and are significant locales for ore deposition (Figure 19; Appendix 1). Fluvial-lacustrine epiclastic rocks (EVS), at mid and upper stratigraphic levels at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı are identical and together with the ELT represent a time-equivalent correlation between the two deposits (Figure 14). The lithologies that underlie epiclastic strata at each deposit (EHFP at Küçükdağ and EDV at Kirazlı) are geochemically distinct; however, their stratigraphic positions and their crystallization ages are similar, suggesting the two are coeval (Figure 14). 2.7.3 Paragenesis of ore minerals at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS epithermal deposits At Kirazlı and Küçükdağ the high-grade silver mineralization occurs at the highest levels of stratigraphy. Silver zone mineralization extends ca. 600 m north of the main gold zone at Küçükdağ and occurs without significant gold grades; whereas at Kirazlı, silver is always found with gold. In zones where hydrothermal  65  breccia and stratiform mineralization overprints silver zone mineralization at Küçükdağ, silver grades are heightened. This suggests that hydrothermal breccia and stratiform gold mineralization, which brought in additional silver, occurred after the main silver mineralization event. However, at Kirazlı, the timing of silver mineralization relative to gold remains ambiguous due to the paucity of silver-bearing mineral phases.  The majority of silver-rich mineralization at Kirazlı occurs in rocks that are nearly completely replaced with recrystallized quartz (Figure 20). Changes in colour and crystal size of quartz is reflective of a relict clastic texture, interpreted to represent lithic tuff and epiclastic protoliths. Zones of massive enargite – tennantite-tetrahedrite are not in textural equilibrium with quartz, suggesting that quartz was not a significant component of the mineralizing fluid responsible for silver-rich mineralization; however, quartz was a major component in pre ore-mineralization alteration of the host rocks.  At Kirazlı, Au, Sn, Sb, Bi and Ti show a positive correlation with high-grade Ag mineralization and at Küçükdağ Cu, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, and Ti anomalies coincide with high-grade Ag mineralization in the absence of Au (Appendix 1). At Kirazlı, tetrahedrite (Sb-phase) is deposited contemporaneously with gold followed closely by cassiterite (Sn-phase). Ag and Bi are known to form sulphosalt minerals such as matildite [AgBiSs] and Aramayoite [Ag(Sb,Bi)Ss], which if present, could explain the Ag-Bi correlation at Kirazlı. At Küçükdağ, the Ag-Bi correlation reflects alteration including bismuthinite and bismuthian-tetrahedrite as a hydrothermal cement and as sulphosalt blebs intergrown with acanthite [Ag2S] and cervellite [Ag4TeS]. High Ti values in the upper stratigraphy at both deposits is likely due to the presence of strong rutile, hematite, quartz alteration that is ubiquitous in the silver zone. Stratiform mineralization zones are commonly characterized by intervals of vuggy quartz alteration (Figure 17). Pyrite, enargite tennantite-tetrahedrite and Sb-rich phases of enargite replace and infill the host rock in these zones (Figure 21). Pyrite forms overgrowths on enargite and both have galena-filled dissolution pathways, presumably from the same dissolution event. High copper grades result from enargite, tennantite-tetrahedrite and stibioenargite and high Au grades result from native Au and telluride mineral phases with the sulphide minerals.  At Kirazlı, High Au and Cu grades in stratiform zones commonly occur independently of one another and Au-bearing phases are consistently paragenetically later than Cu-bearing phases. At Küçükdağ, Au-tellurides are paragenetically later than Cu-rich sulphosalts however, the two mineral groups consistently form together, thereby obscuring direct elemental correlations from geochemistry. Throughout  66  mineralized vuggy silica zones, Au and Cu positively correlate with Ag, As, Sb, Te, and Bi and negatively correlate with Sr, K % and Na % (Appendix 1). Au- and Ag-bearing mineral phases infill microfractures and pits in sulphosalts assemblages suggesting the mineralizing fluid at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı evolved from being rich in Cu (correlated with high As, Sb, Ni, Ag) to being rich in Au (correlated with high Te, Pb and Zn; Appendix 1). Depletions of Sr, K% and Na% are expected throughout zones of advanced argillic alteration due to their mobility the epithermal environment; the relative magnitude of such depletions makes these ideal candidate elements for identifying zones of epithermal related alteration that is distal to ore.  Hydrothermal breccia zones commonly have a layer-zoned, quartz, alunite, dickite and kaolinite cement, and colloform and comb-quartz overgrowths on subrounded fragments (Figure 22; Appendix 1). Sulphide-rich zones, along with previously crystallized hydrothermal cement are re-brecciated and cemented by zoned cement types which include multiple rims of silica, followed by pyrite, coarse pyrite, enargite, dickite and kaolinite. Rims are present primarily on the upper surfaces of clasts, as well, alunite and dickite that infill vugs is unmixed with dickite forming topographically above alunite. Zoned cement, along with relatively little matrix material and lack of exotic clasts, is interpreted to reflect a volcanically-passive environment in which the host stratigraphy was subjected to in-situ episodic brecciation. Diatreme shaped breccia bodies cross cut the stratigraphy at Kirazlı and Küçükdağ. While the funnel-shaped, cylindrical geometry and the paragenetically late timing of these bodies is comparable; differences in their hydrogeological setting could explain why at Küçükdağ the diatreme breccia is largely barren, whereas at Kirazlı it is variably mineralized with Au, Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn. At Kirazlı, feldspar-porphyritic shards and pumice interpreted to be juvenile clasts juxtaposed with sub-angular to rounded, milled clasts is a characteristic feature of the composition (Figure 17). The clasts are supported by a polymictic sulphide-rich matrix with abundant rock flour and kaolinite-quartz-pyrite alteration. At the contacts of the breccia pipes, host rocks are shattered forming in-situ crackle breccias. This suggests that the Kirazlı diatreme breccia bodies represent phreatomagmatic eruptions related to high level porphyry intrusions in the sub-volcanic environment (Tămas and Milésı, 2002). This implies that late-stage Au-Ag-Cu ± Pb, Zn mineralization at Kirazlı results from direct interaction with between a sulphide-rich magma body at depth and an external source of water. Furthermore, the connection to a magma body at depth implies a direct transport pathway for sulphide-bearing hydrothermal fluids into the shallow crust.  At Küçükdağ, paragenetically late matrix-supported breccia bodies crosscut previously mineralized and altered zones of the deposit. This is evidenced by numerous vuggy quartz, tuffaceous, and epiclastic rock  67  clasts reflecting the lithology of the stratigraphic sequence, supported in the milled polymictic breccia matrix. Sulphide-bearing clasts constitute the only mineralized component in the breccia bodies and are not abundant enough to reach economic concentrations of Au, Cu or Ag, therefore they serve to dilute the ore zone at Küçükdağ.  Similar to Kirazlı, the Küçükdağ diatreme breccia bodies have highly-fluidized channels, angular- and highly-milled clasts, are matrix-supported with abundant rock flour and contain fragments of rock displaced 10s to 100s of meters relative to where the breccia intersected that rock. Interestingly, clasts of laminated siltstone intersected at the highest levels of stratigraphy are found in the diatreme breccia ca. 100 m beneath their stratigraphic position, as well, clasts of lithic tuff are found above where they are intersected in stratigraphy. At Küçükdağ, feldspar phyric magmatic clasts are a significant component of the polymictic clast composition; however, they do not have ragged boundaries or a fiamme morphology as observed at Kirazlı, rather they are sub-angular to rounded (milled) with sharp grain boundaries. This suggests that the diatreme breccias at Küçükdağ resulted from pressurized phreatic eruption, excavation and collapse of the host stratigraphy with no direct connection to a magma source. The lack of connection to a magmatic source, such as at Kirazlı, suggests the transport pathway for hydrothermal fluids into the shallow crust was not direct and likely precipitated sulphide minerals prior to eruption. An implication of this is that there could be a sulphide-rich feeder zone beneath the diatreme breccias at Küçükdağ.    2.7.4 Structural Evolution  Propagation of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) westward through the Peninsula initiated as early as 15 Ma and continues to this day, therefore the formation of even the youngest known metallic deposits was not controlled directly by the NAFZ structures. However, the position of deposits is controlled by the NAFZ structures as they serve to disjoint and displace many ore deposits (ex. Halilağa porphyry, Küçükdağ HS epithermal). Eocene porphyry mineralization is structurally repositioned by a regional E-W to WNW-ESE and NE-SW striking normal fault system related to westward propagation of NAFZ splay faults since the Miocene (Armijo et al., 1999; Armijo et al., 2002; Şengör et al., 2005). In light of this, detailed structural and stratigraphic surface maps that clearly outline the position and kinematics of these faults are key to exploration in this region. Auriferous quartz veins with a minimum Oligocene age, occur in these neotectonic splay faults, indicating that these splay faults propagated along earlier formed vein pathways.   Porphyry Au and epithermal Au-Ag mineralization in the Biga Peninsula occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene. This has led the commonly held belief that faulting related to the NAFZ was disparate from  68  porphyry and epithermal deposit formation. However, the orientation of auriferous quartz-infilled faults and hydrothermal breccia pathways measured at and within 10 km of the Columbaz Au porphyry, Küçükdağ and Kirazlı Au-Ag (± Cu) HS epithermal deposits in the central Biga Peninsula, is similar to the orientation of regional WNW-ESE to E-W splay faults (Figure 29). This similarity suggests that same structures that controlled mineralization in the Eocene and Oligocene were reactivated by the propagation of the NAFZ in the Miocene. By this logic, the orientation of neotectonic faulting in the central Biga Peninsula is not disparate from the orientation of the structural controls on porphyry and epithermal mineralization.   Most prominent faulting in the TV Tower District is represented by the recently active NE-SW dextral strike-slip faults and E-W normal-type extensional faults which accommodate motion related to the southern branch of the NAFZ. Volcanic rock packages in the Biga Peninsula show distribution trends similar to the orientation of these prominent structural groups, suggesting these faults, or at least their orientation, played an active role in the location of emplacement of intrusive and related volcanic rocks during Eocene – Miocene time (Figure 2). If this is true, the current NAFZ geometry can be related to the same structural trends that control the distribution of hydrothermal activity and ore deposition in the central Biga Peninsula. WNW-ESE to E-W discontinuous faults connect segments of NE-SW striking wrench faults of the NAFZ and commonly are associated with extensive silica alteration that matches their trend. However, at the time of HS epithermal mineralization in the early Oligocene, the NAFZ was not active in the Biga Peninsula, rather, the structural architecture was a result of NNE-SSW extension related to southern migration of the Hellenic subduction zone (Şengör et al., 2005; Bozkurt, 2001; Jolivet and Brun, 2010).  Vein geometry at the Camelback-Kirazlı and Columbaz-Küçükdağ epithermal systems is reflective of a NNE-SSW extensional stress regime that must have been present during porphyry-related magmatism. At Columbaz, anomalous high gold values in LS-style quartz veins were drill tested in 2014, leading to the discovery of the Columbaz porphyry. The LS textures overprinting porphyry mineralization and alteration at Columbaz could be reflective of a structurally reconfigured, severely telescoped, and multi-stage porphyry-epithermal system.  Advanced argillic alteration and lithocap development at the top of Çatalkaya ca. 1 km south of Kirazlı is coupled with a virtually identical stratigraphy to Kirazlı. Common structural architecture and geological setting spanning the region between Columbaz-Küçükdağ to Çatalkaya-Kirazlı suggests that the two hydrothermal systems were subject to a shared structural and geological history and may represent two  69  prominent feeder zones to an epithermal deposit that has since eroded. When this is considered along with Early Oligocene mineralization ages at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı and the recent discovery of the Columbaz porphyry, Çatalkaya is clearly identified as an under-explored connection of the Kirazlı HS epithermal deposit.  Low angle faulting in structural domain one and two is not coincident with any hydrothermal alteration or mineralization, therefore, it is deemed not directly related to ore deposit architecture. However, brittle failure between bedding planes highlights the significance of such weak zones in the stratigraphy to enhance permeability. Therefore, the timing of permeability enhancing faulting relative to mineralization is a critical component to understand in any mineralized system.  In structural domain 2, SW-striking fault sets at Camelback are ornamented with kinematic indicators documenting reactivated motion. SW-striking fault sets are very well preserved and are often associated with artesian water springs. These two features are consistent with recent to currently active fault zones that have not been subject to burial and fault sealing processes. The geometry and kinematics of SW-striking fault sets are consistent with current N18E directed extension and right-lateral displacement of the Biga Peninsula relative to the European Plate along the NAFZ splay faults (Flerit et al., 2003).  The FWFZ is a near-bedding parallel slip surface interpreted to have normal-sense motion to the NNE based on the extensional tectonic history of the Biga Peninsula since the Cretaceous. Similar low to moderately dipping extensional faults are documented around the Kazdağ Massif and are believed to have accommodated extensional exhumation of that Massif. The Kazdağ Massif was exhumed to the surface between 27 – 24 Ma, therefore it is plausible that the FWFZ was active during that time. The age of HS epithermal mineralization above the FWFZ is 29.7 – 29.2 Ma, therefore, the FWFZ is a post-ore mineralization fault.  Columbaz porphyry lies ca. 2 km south of Küçükdağ and forms a prominent topographic high in the TV Tower district. The most obvious interpretation of the relationship between these two deposits is one that has them share a common genesis, with Küçükdağ forming ca. 300 – 900 m above Columbaz and subsequently being displaced northward along the FWFZ. However, there is no evidence for 300 – 900 m of missing stratigraphy at Columbaz and the age of mineralization at Küçükdağ is ca. 10 Ma younger than the Columbaz host rocks. This suggests the Columbaz porphyry is not genetically related to the Küçükdağ deposit; an implication that warrants exploration for the Oligocene-aged intrusion that presumably was the driver of hydrothermal activity at Küçükdağ.   70  Chapter 3 – Conclusions and Mineral Exploration Implications 3.1 Conclusions Stratigraphic relationships between Küçükdağ, Columbaz and Kirazlı prospects suggest the three areas are part of a comparable stratigraphy that correlates with the Balikliçeşme and Çan formations. The Columbaz porphyry is hosted within, and Küçükdağ is built on, Eocene aged (38.69 – 38.33 Ma), coarse grained, quartz, hornblende and feldspar-phyric hypabyssal diorite and massive to autobrecciated andesite flows characterized by abundant equigranular diorite xenoliths and a trachytic plagioclase rich groundmass. The Camelback porphyry and Kirazlı deposits are hosted in Eocene (37.89 Ma) diorite, massive and auto-brecciated flows of weakly hornblende, feldspar phyric andesites characterized by fine to medium grained, sparsely distributed phenocrysts and ubiquitous hydrothermal alteration. In this sense the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı hydrothermal systems are hosted in two different magmatic assemblages that are similar in age and stratigraphic position. Additionally, age dating of HS epithermal mineralization in the northern TV Tower district at Küçükdağ constrains the timing of mineralization to the Oligocene (29.39 – 29.69 Ma). A result that is ca. 10 m.y. younger than diorite and quartz diorite crystallization at Columbaz and Camelback porphyries and porphyry style mineralization at the Valley porphyry. Rocks that host epithermal and porphyry mineralization are subject to variable hydrothermal alteration, often obscuring primary mineralogical textures and compositions. The most evident alteration zones in the field are the residual vuggy quartz lithocaps that mark the highest-elevation peaks. Lithocap development is known to be directly associated with epithermal style mineralization and undeniably, lithocap development is widespread throughout the TV Tower district (Figure 7). Advanced argillic alteration (quartz, alunite, dickite and pyrophyllite) directly associated with mineralization, is prevalent around Küçükdağ and Kirazlı and to a lesser extent around Columbaz and Camelback. Patchy, ore-proximal and distal alteration assemblages including: argillic (kaolinite, illite and white clay); phyllic (quartz, sericite and pyrite); propylitic (chlorite and epidote); sericite-rich; and supergene alteration variably affect the stratigraphy. Barren, post ore-mineralization veins with a dominant N-S strike, separately composed of quartz, calcite, gypsum, and barite, overprint earlier alteration assemblages.  Litho-geochemical data from Kirazlı and Küçükdağ deposits corroborates the discrimination of mappable intrusive, volcanic and epiclastic rock units that host epithermal and porphyry mineralization. Eocene rocks which host mineralization are classified as diorites, quartz diorites, basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites, dacites and trachyandesites with a dominantly transitional between tholeiitic and calc-alkaline  71  signature. Dacites and trachyandesites (OKV) emplaced after porphyry and epithermal ore mineralization, formed a coherent 400 m sequence of flows, lahar deposits, tuffs and ignimbrites with a high-K, calc alkaline signature. Hydrothermally altered lithologies that host porphyry and epithermal style mineralization have distal (>500 m) and proximal (<500 m) chlorite, epidote and calcite (propylitic) assemblages. Ore-related alteration progresses toward Ca and Na depleted zones defined by a mineralogy of kaolinite, illite and muscovite (phyllitic); alunite, dickite, diaspore and pyrophyllite (advanced argillic alteration) and continues towards pyrophyllite, quartz and sericite assemblages at the inner deposit.  Textural styles and mineralogy of epithermal mineralization at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı are consistent with classification as HS epithermal deposits (Sillitoe, 1993; Sillitoe, 1999; Arribas, 1995; Einaudi et al., 2003; Simmons et al., 2005). Five styles of HS epithermal mineralization are recognized at these deposits: i) stratiform Ag and Ag(Au-Cu); ii) Au-Cu-Ag hydrothermal breccia; iii) Au-Cu-Ag micro-breccia veins; iv) Au-Cu-Ag stratiform and; v) Au ± Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn phreatomagmatic breccia recognized only at Kirazlı. Mineralization styles at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı are similar in that they both exhibit stratiform, lithologically-controlled, gold, silver and copper mineralization that preferentially targeted epiclastic and tuffaceous horizons. Similarly, they both have high-grade gold-copper zones occurring in structurally controlled hydrothermal breccia shoots and host native gold in microbreccia veinlets. On the other hand, phreatomagmatic breccias at Kirazlı are variably mineralized with high-grade gold domains, whereas similar diatreme breccia bodies at Küçükdağ are barren, cross-cut and dilute the ore-zone. Additionally, a defined “Silver Zone” at Küçükdağ is different from the Kirazlı Ag-rich shoots, in that it forms a stratigraphic cover absent of gold and copper mineralization.  The main structures in the TV Tower and Kirazlı prospects are oblique-slip faults with dominant dextral-normal and dextral-wrench components. NE-SW faults are coincident with the regional distribution of magmatic rocks in the Biga Peninsula and likely controlled magmatic distribution and geometry in the Eocene and Oligocene. E-W to WNW-ESE faults show two distinct slip directions, indicating both normal and wrench-type strain. The metamorphic basement rocks are tightly folded, foliated and crenulated. Ductile deformation in the basement rocks is not observed in the overlaying Tertiary volcanics, therefore the ductile deformation recorded by the basement is considered to predate the Tertiary volcanism and ore mineralization. Advancement of the NAFZ from Miocene to the present time has resulted in regional, post-ore mineralization fault system that disjointed Eocene-Oligocene mineral deposits by kilometers over millions of years, considering the current tectonic plate vectors along the NAFZ (Nyst and Thatcher, 2004 and Flerit  72  et al., 2003). At the deposit scale, structural domains one and two show the orientation of mineralized quartz veins closely correspond to the orientation of faults related to NAFZ. In this sense, the post-ore mineralization NAFZ reactivated structures that were present during epithermal mineralization in the Oligocene. Additionally, mineralized hydrothermal breccias at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı occur vertically as shoots at NAFZ fault set intersections and along volcanic strata bedding planes. In this sense, the neotectonic fault sets established by the NAFZ are likely to have reactivated the structural framework present at the time of Eocene to Oligocene porphyry and epithermal mineralization; therefore, they are reflective of Eocene to Oligocene ore-deposit architecture in the Biga Peninsula.  3.2 Mineral Exploration Implications Epithermal systems that lead to economic deposits of gold, silver and copper are inherently disruptive and alterative to the host lithologies. The formation of lithocaps as a result of alteration, is a characteristic common to many of these precious and base metal deposits. In the central Biga Peninsula, many of the highest-elevation peaks are capped by weathering-resistant lithocaps. Therefore, exploration for epithermal deposits is well-guided to assess lithocaps for anomalous concentrations of gold, silver and copper.  Age dating in the Biga Peninsula documents two stages of magmatism that are directly associated with porphyry and epithermal style mineralization. The geochronological dataset in Appendix 4 that defines these stages contains over 300 individual cross referenced dates and currently there are no economic precious or base metal deposits known to exist in rocks younger than 20 Ma. Porphyry and epithermal mineralization is temporally concentrated between 41 – 36 Ma and 32 – 22 Ma, therefore magmatic rocks in the Biga Peninsula with ages that fall into these ranges are inherently more prospective than rocks that do not. These age ranges, as well as the lithologies of rocks types fall within them, correspond with the Eocene Balikliçeşme and Oligocene Çan formations. The Balikliçeşme and Çan formations are regionally extensive and are the most prospective for porphyry and epithermal mineralization within the TV Tower District and regionally across the Peninsula.  Regional geochronological re-setting of many of the K-Ar ages has likely occurred in the Oligocene and is coincident with exhumation of the metamorphic basement. This has led to the incorrect grouping of rock units into assemblages represented by Oligocene magmatism, when in fact, many such rocks are likely Eocene in age. Therefore, definition of magmatic rock ages can only be done with geochronometer systematics that are not susceptible to re-setting (i.e. U/Pb on zircon).    73  The highest-grade gold encountered at Küçükdağ and Kirazlı occurs in thin (less than 10 mm), isolated veins and micro-breccias and as native gold, electrum and calaverite. The structures that host this type of mineralization are reflective of higher-order, fault-related fractures. As a result, the higher-order fracture networks in damage zones to major faults constitute a primary trap for native gold, electrum and calaverite. Therefore, targeting the third- or fourth-order fractures in the damage zones of major faults in a prospective region, is a guided method for high-grade gold exploration in the TV Tower District.  Overprinting relationships of alteration mineral assemblages can obscure definition of a single alteration signature to the rocks. However, discrimination of alteration assemblages within the context of a mineralization style (either porphyry or epithermal) can elucidate a telescoped hydrothermal system. This is valuable because identification of the subtle (often relict) porphyry-specific alteration styles, which are masked by epithermal alteration, could encourage further exploration. For example, nearly three decades of exploration at Columbaz was guided by a LS epithermal model. The model encouraged the targeting of geometrically regular E-W striking, near-vertical, gold-bearing quartz veins and failed to identify the subtle, porphyry style alteration characteristics present in the drill core. After re-logging old drill cores and drilling two new holes at Columbaz, a subtle K-silicate (biotite, magnetite and K-feldspar) alteration was observed to increase in intensity with depth. K-silicate alteration is known to be a porphyry deposit-related alteration style, therefore a third drill hole was planned to target greater depths and the increase in K-silicate alteration. The third hole drilled discovered a new porphyry deposit ca.2 km south of the Küçükdağ HS epithermal deposit and has highlighted that porphyry deposits throughout the central Biga Peninsula can be severely telescoped.    74  References Agdemir, N., Kirikoğlu, M. S., Lehmann, B., Tietze, J., 1994, Petrology and alteration geochemistry of the epithermal Bayla Pb-Zn deposit, NW Turkey: Mineral Deposita, v. 29, p. 366-371. Alamos Gold, 2007, On the Structural Geology of the Kirazlı, Pirentepe and Aği Daği, Çan (Çanakkale), western Turkey: Unpublished internal report originally prepared for Teck-Cominco Madencilik A. Ş. Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey. 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Yilmaz, Y., & Karaçik, Z., 2001, Geology of the northern side of the Gulf of Edremit and its tectonic significance for development of the Aegean grabens: Geodinamica Acta, v. 14, p. 31-43.    82        Appendix 1: Petrographic Descriptions  83   84   85   86   87   88   89   90   91   92   93   94   95   96   97   98   99   100   101   102   103   104   105   106   107   108   109   110   111   112   113   114   115   116   117   118   119   120   121   122   123   124   125   126   127   128   129   130   131   132   133   134   135   136   137   138   139   140   141   142   143   144   145   146   147   148   149   150   151    152         Appendix 2: List of Geochemical Samples   153     154      155        Appendix 3: Geochemistry Tables    156     157    158    159    160     161    162    163    164        Appendix 4: Geochronological Database of the Biga Peninsula  Included Tables: 4.1  Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey  4.2  Compilation of Mineral Prospect Host Rock and Mineralization Age Dates  4.3  Compiled Metamorphic-related Age Data for the Biga Peninsula  4.4  Sources for Geochronological Database Compilation   165  Supplementary Table 4.1 : Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Deposit Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology 549149 26 26.36 0.16 Ar-Ar Mus Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.882775 26.942916 Andesite porphyry 549133 26 26.42 0.15 Ar-Ar Bt Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.877682 26.911498 Granite-granodiorite NKEA07-1 25 11.5 0.21 Ar-Ar WR Akçapınar basalt    40.093000 26.284000 Basalt NKEA07-2 25 8.08 0.14 Ar-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.820000 26.401000 Basalt BPGP-1245 33 35.7 1 Ar-Ar Hb Alankoy intrusive HS Epi Au,Ag 40.030662 26.797858 Granodiorite AVC-2 9 27.89 0.41 U-Pb Zr Avçilar Stock Epi Au 39.589856 26.813889 Granodiorite ZK88 24 40.9 1.1 K-Ar Bt Avşa Island    40.504440 27.511640 Granite TD 71 14 17.1 0.6 K-Ar WR Ayvaçik    39.477621 26.215557 Dyke T 72 14 19.5 0.68 K-Ar Bt Ayvaçik    39.473414 26.102976 Ingimbrite T 67 14 21.5 0.75 K-Ar Bt Ayvaçik    39.568450 26.322955 Lava flow EA 270 5 8.32 0.38 K-Ar WR Ayvaçik    39.666678 26.417096 Basanite TE 55 21 37.3 0.9 K-Ar WR Balikliçeşme    40.298628 27.205905 Andesite 5 3 24.7 2.4 K-Ar WR Balya IS Epi Pb,Zn,Ag 39.760000 27.618000 Andesite 28 3 26.8 1.4 K-Ar WR Balya IS Epi Pb,Zn,Ag 39.760000 27.612000 Andesite 549175 26 25.03 0.15 Ar-Ar Bt Balya Intrusion Skn Pb,Zn 39.736433 27.586899 Feldspar porphyry 549173 26 26.81 0.11 Ar-Ar Ser Balya Skn Pb,Zn 39.736433 27.586899 Dacite EA 37 5 20.3 1.2 K-Ar WR Behram    39.514899 26.340428 Trachyandesite TE 12 21 19.6 0.4 K-Ar WR Behram    39.826459 26.053517 Andesite TE 52 21 21.9 0.6 K-Ar WR Behram    39.649863 27.244761 Andesite ZK84 24 21 0.6 K-Ar Bt Buğdaylı/Gönen    40.103829 27.655792 Dacite TE 22 21 30.4 0.7 K-Ar Hb Çan Volcs    40.131719 25.931927 Andesite TE 19 21 34.3 1.2 K-Ar Hb Çan Volcs    40.185094 25.860614 Andesite GML_315 1 37.27 0.64 U-Pb Zr Çan Volcs Por Au 39.996337 26.672416 Diorite GML_231 1 38.62 0.45 U-Pb Zr Çan Volcs HS Epi Ag,Au,Cu 40.033821 26.680195 Andesite GML_143 1 38.72 0.42 U-Pb Zr Çan Volcs Por Au 40.010513 26.640232 Andesite MTA 8 6 24.7 0.7 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    40.073080 26.659914 Andesite 21 6 24.8 1 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    39.667883 27.244825 Andesite MTA 58 6 27.5 1.1 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    40.045905 26.613160 Andesite MTA 21 6 31.3 1.8 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    40.072933 26.613007 Andesite MTA-3 6 31.8 1.4 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    40.009868 26.613363 Andesite MTA 13 6 32.3 2 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    40.045905 26.613160 Andesite IE13B 24 22.1 0.6 K-Ar WR Danişment (East)    39.870522 27.640260 Granite IE13A 24 23.2 1.1 K-Ar Bt Danişment (East)    39.870522 27.640260 Granite IE2B 24 19.1 1.1 K-Ar WR Davutlar    39.780005 27.954016 Granite IE2A 24 21.6 0.6 K-Ar Bt Davutlar    39.780005 27.954016 Granite GML_329 1 40.37 0.37 U-Pb Zr Dede Tepe Por Au 39.992165 26.691789 Monzodiorite Yigit 1 33 46.6 2.3 K-Ar WR Dikmen Pluton Por Au,Mo,Cu 40.13651127 27.176070 Granodiorite   166  Supplementary Table 4.1: Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Deposit Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology Yigit 2 33 26 51.9 2.6 K-Ar WR Dikmen Pluton Por Au,Mo,Cu 40.136511 27.176070 Granodiorite 549102 24.18 0.21 Ar-Ar Bt Egmir Vol Unit HS Epi Au,Cu 39.579954 27.238261 Andesite 5151 30 20.5 0.2 Rb-Sr Bt Evçiler pluton    39.739053 26.976495 Granitoid 5112 30 20.7 0.2 Rb-Sr Bt Evçiler pluton    39.713254 26.938334 Granitoid SAYD12-4 6 24.8 0.2 Ar-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.829544 26.783269 Granitoid HD-29 2 26.13 0.51 U-Pb Zr Evçiler pluton    39.908917 26.845350 Granitoid 129 19 26.4 0.6 K-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid SAYD12-4 6 28 0.2 Ar-Ar Hb Evçiler pluton    39.829544 26.783269 Granitoid 130 19 28.1 0.6 K-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid 133 19 31.1 1.4 K-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid KO37 12 20.95 4.8 U-Pb Zr Eybek pluton    39.691318 27.095854 Granodiorite 108 19 21.1 0.4 K-Ar Bt Eybek pluton    39.688706 27.089326 Granitoid 108 19 21.2 0.6 K-Ar Hb Eybek pluton    39.688706 27.089326 Granitoid 109 19 23.9 0.5 K-Ar Hb Eybek pluton    39.688706 27.089326 Granitoid SAYD12-5 6 23.94 0.31 U-Pb Zr Eybek pluton    39.684814 27.096857 Granitoid 109 19 24.1 0.5 K-Ar Bt Eybek pluton    39.688706 27.089326 Granitoid KO39 12 25 3.4 U-Pb Zr Eybek pluton    39.691318 27.095854 Granodiorite 107 19 26.6 0.8 K-Ar Bt Eybek pluton    39.688706 27.089326 Granitoid T 76 14 9.7 0.34 K-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.778365 26.307247 Alkali basalt TD 77 14 16.8 0.6 K-Ar Ks Ezine basalt    39.744854 26.326153 Lava flow TE-E-41 21 8.4 0.3 K-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.750291 26.382543 Alkali Basalt TE 48 21 9.5 0.3 K-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.934561 26.052029 Alkali Basalt TE 46 21 10.1 0.2 K-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.934561 26.052029 Alkali Basalt TE-4 21 11 0.4 K-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.925693 26.330653 Alkali Basalt PB2014106 2 38.79 0.3 U-Pb Zr Halilağa Por Cu,Au 39.919421 26.792673 Granitoid PB2014018 2 40.14 0.34 U-Pb Zr Hallaclar  Au 39.918963 26.805829 Dacite SAYD12-6 6 23 0.2 Ar-Ar Bt Hıdırlar granitoid    39.889712 26.885801 Granitoid SAYD12-6 6 23.5 0.4 Ar-Ar Hb Hıdırlar granitoid    39.889712 26.885801 Granitoid KH-53 9 26.33 0.38 U-Pb Zr Hidirlar pluton Skn   39.864927 27.135262 Granodiorite TE 43 21 15.3 0.3 K-Ar WR Huseyinfaki Volcs    39.522523 26.418303 Trachyandesite TE 13 21 18.5 0.4 K-Ar WR Huseyinfaki Volcs    39.494336 26.220843 Trachybasalt IE4A 24 18.9 1.8 K-Ar WR Ilica    39.876544 27.788515 Granite IE4C 24 19.7 1.1 K-Ar K-Ar WR Ilica    39.874011 27.774368 Dyke Granite IE3 24 21.7 0.5 Bt Ilica    39.876544 27.788515 IE5A 24 22.8 0.5 K-Ar Bt Ilica    39.876812 27.760163 Granite SAYD12-7 6 21.9 0.2 Ar-Ar Bt Ilıca granitoid    39.913740 27.825795 Granitoid SAYD12-7 6 22.3 0.2 Ar-Ar Hb Ilıca granitoid     39.913740 27.825795 Granitoid   167  Supplementary Table 4.1: Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Deposit Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology IL-11 15 26.1 1.6 K-Ar Hb Ilıca granitoid    39.916049 27.819986 Granitoid IL-3 15 26.2 0.2 K-Ar Hb Ilıca granitoid    39.916049 27.819986 Granitoid ZK37 24 27.3 0.8 K-Ar WR Işıklı/Biga    40.223898 27.243067 Rhyolite 161 19 39.9 0.8 K-Ar Bt Kapidağ granitoid    40.435458 27.889950 Granitoid 161 19 42.2 1 K-Ar Hb Kapidağ granitoid    40.435458 27.889950 Granitoid 157 19 36.1 0.8 K-Ar Bt Kapidağ pluton    40.498570 27.513337 Granitoid SAGS12-4 6 36 0.2 Ar-Ar Hb Kapidağ pluton    40.489982 27.708441 Granitoid SAGS12-12 6 36.79 0.67 U-Pb Zr Kapidağ pluton    40.489982 27.708441 Granitoid SAGS12-5 6 44.4 0.4 Ar-Ar Bt Karabiga pluton    40.394993 27.225369 Granitoid 149 19 45.3 0.9 K-Ar Bt Karabiga pluton    40.413340 27.244615 Granitoid SAGS12-13 6 47.02 0.82 U-Pb Zr Karabiga pluton    40.394993 27.225369 Granitoid KB90 11 52.7 3.8 U-Pb Xe Karabiga pluton    40.418100 27.267700 Granitoid NKEA07-5 25 9.3 0.35 Ar-Ar WR Karayıy basalt    39.658000 26.427000 Basalt KD-26 23 39.57 0.47 Ar-Ar Ser Kartaldağ LS Epi Au,Cu 40.000365 26.582853 Granitoid KD-25 23 40.8 0.5 Ar-Ar Hb Kartaldağ granitoid    40.028632 26.609823 Granitoid 537 23 40.8 0.36 Ar-Ar Hb Kartaldağ pluton HS Epi Au 40.005343 26.587755 Granodiorite 536 23 42.19 0.45 Ar-Ar Hb Kartaldağ pluton HS Epi Au 40.005343 26.587755 Dacite porphyry 124 19 24.7 0.7 K-Ar Chl Katrandağ granitoid    39.832529 26.795363 Granitoid 122 19 25.5 0.6 K-Ar Hb Katrandağ granitoid    39.832529 26.795363 Granitoid 121 19 27.6 0.6 K-Ar Bt Katrandağ granitoid    39.832529 26.795363 Granitoid KO42 12 19.2 1.8 U-Pb Zr Kestanbol pluton    39.731438 26.244427 Quartz monzonite 302 19 20.5 0.6 K-Ar Hb Kestanbol pluton    39.726751 26.250406 Granitoid 07WZ02 4 21.22 0.09 Ar-Ar Bt Kestanbol pluton    39.773885 26.267103 Tephriphonolite KO41B 12 22.4 2.8 U-Pb Zr Kestanbol pluton    39.731438 26.244427 Quartz monzonite SAYD12-17 6 22.8 0.4 Ar-Ar Hb  Kestanbol pluton    39.724522 26.255366 Granitoid HD-13A 488 2 37.79 0.36 U-Pb Zr Kestane Stock Por Cu,Au 39.921955 26.806113 Quartz monzonite HD-37 112 2 39.36 0.77 U-Pb Zr Kestane Stock Por Cu,Au 39.922318 26.802695 Quartz monzonite GML_293 1 30.79 0.31 U-Pb Zr Kirazlı Intrusive HS Epi   40.034132 26.739795 Granodiorite 542510 26 42.42 0.4 Ar-Ar Mus Kirazlı Pluton HS Epi Au,Cu 40.018650 26.726696 Andesite Porphyry TE 34 21 27.6 0.6 K-Ar WR Kirazlı Volcs    40.073002 26.634115 Trachyandesite TE 54 21 31.1 0.7 K-Ar WR Kirazlı Vols    40.145340 26.729991 Trachyandesite IE6A 24 18.4 0.7 K-Ar WR Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Andesite IE7C 24 21.2 0.8 K-Ar WR Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite IE7A 24 23.2 0.8 K-Ar Bt Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite IE6B 24 23.9 0.6 K-Ar Bt Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite YK-16 9 22.87 0.35 K-Ar n/a Kizildam stock    39.934662 27.441451 Granodiorite YK-16 9 23.6 0.6 U-Pb Zr Kizildam Stock     39.957433 27.425343 Granodiorite  168  Supplementary Table 4.1: Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Deposit Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology NKEA07-6 25 9.97 0.14 Ar-Ar WR Kızılköy Vol unit    39.686000 26.406000 Basalt EA 67 5 21.3 0.6 K-Ar WR Kiziltepe    39.623584 26.283474 Trachyandesite EA418 5 19.7 0.6 K-Ar WR Kovacli dykes    39.557402 26.220138 Trachyandesite EA 77 5 20.5 1 K-Ar WR Koyunevi Ignimbrite    39.575421 26.219936 Rhyolite 549193 26 27.25 0.42 Ar-Ar Bt Küçükdere LS Epi Au 39.526334 27.090870 Dacite porphyry L302 10 32.7 1.4 Ar-Ar Bt Küçükkuyu Fm.    39.564313 26.625563 Tuff KH-19A 9 24 1.6 K-Ar n/a Kurtlar pluton Skn   39.879711 27.227882 Granodiorite KH-22 9 25.1 0.9 K-Ar n/a Kurtlar pluton Skn   39.879711 27.227882 Granodiorite KH-22 9 25.39 0.55 U-Pb Zr Kurtlar pluton Skn   39.879711 27.227882 Granodiorite 136 19 35.7 0.8 K-Ar Hb Kusçayiri    39.940622 26.613446 Granitoid 135 19 38.1 1.8 K-Ar Hb Kusçayiri    39.940622 26.613446 Granitoid 137 19 39.4 0.8 K-Ar Hb Kusçayiri    39.940622 26.613446 Granitoid 549117 26 42.68 0.25 Ar-Ar Bt Kusçayiri HS Epi Au 39.949965 26.616416 Granodirite GML_332 1 38.4 1.1 U-Pb Zr Kusçayiri Stock Por Au,Cu 39.957960 26.601585 Granodiorite GML_331 1 39.11 0.8 U-Pb Zr Kusçayiri Stock Por Au,Cu 39.957960 26.601585 Granodiorite P1011 23 43.34 0.85 Ar-Ar Ks Madendağ pluton LS Epi Au 40.032072 26.567203 Granodiorite 542524 26 26.3 2.5 Ar-Ar Bt Pirentepe pluton HS Epi Au 39.946109 26.789797 Vol porphyry 542525 26 36.9 0.83 Ar-Ar Bt Muratlar pluton HS Epi Au 39.946633 26.790497 Andesite porphry 549127 26 20.83 0.44 Ar-Ar Bt n/a Skn Fe,Cu 39.887317 27.783587 Granodiorite NG-3 9 21.2 0.7 K-Ar WR Namazgah stock Skn   39.894571 27.296045 Leucogranite NG-1 9 23.8 0.7 K-Ar WR Namazgah stock Skn   39.894571 27.296045 Monzogranite NG1 9 24.79 0.38 U-Pb Zr Namzagah Stock Skn   39.894571 27.296045 Monzogranite NÇ-13 9 23.85 0.6 U-Pb Zr Nevruz-Çakiroba Skn   39.970459 27.298124 Quartz monzonite SAGS12-3 6 45.3 0.2 Ar-Ar Bt North Kapıdağ    40.489982 27.708441 Granitoid PB2014061 2 28.36 0.59 U-Pb Zr Pirentepe HS Epi Au 39.942973 26.769367 Andesite PB2013046 2 28.54 0.3 U-Pb Zr Pirentepe HS Epi Au 39.941404 26.797475 Andesite Tuff 549177 26 26.2 5.1 Ar-Ar Hb Samli Skn Fe,Cu 39.827129 27.821896 Granodiorite 549180 26 23.17 0.28 Ar-Ar Bt Samli pluton IOCG Cu,Au 39.827451 27.821446 Granodiorite ZK52 24 22.6 0.8 K-Ar Hb Sarıoluk    40.148784 27.495099 Granite SO-7 9 23.97 0.53 U-Pb Zr Sarioluk pluton HS Epi Au 40.154484 27.452212 Monzogranite L326 10 29.94 0.35 U-Pb Zr Selale    39.580411 26.649557 Granodiorite 542538 26 22.38 0.18 Ar-Ar Bt Serceler pluton HS Epi Cu,Au 40.029995 26.610501 Granitic rock 147 19 71.9 1.8 K-Ar Mus Sevketiye granitoid    40.360026 26.930377 Granitoid TU-84 19 30.42 0.21 Ar-Ar Bt Tayfur Formation    40.386640 26.489000 Vitric tuff TU-84 18 67.9 30.22 Ar-Ar Plag Tayfur Formation    40.386640 26.489000 Vitric tuff 549190 26 24.56 0.16 Ar-Ar Bt Tepeoba stock Por Cu,Mo,Au 39.638748 27.102531 Quartz monzonite 549184 26 24.7 0.15 Ar-Ar Bt Tepeoba stock Por Cu,Mo,Au 39.630373 27.107005 Breccia porphyry continued on next page… 169  Supplementary Table 4.1: Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Deposit Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology 549183 26 28.16 0.34 Ar-Ar Bt Tepeoba stock Por Cu,Mo,Au 39.630373 27.107005 Aplitic granite IET47A 24 19.1 1 K-Ar WR Turplu    39.728798 27.712386 Andesite YS-70 9 25.03 0.62 U-Pb Zr Yapaztepe Stock  IS Epi Pb,Ag 39.989787 27.330854 Granodiorite IE10D 24 20.2 1.1 K-Ar WR Yenice (North)    39.935064 27.259537 Granite IE10A 24 21.4 0.6 K-Ar Bt Yenice (North)    39.935064 27.259537 Granite 111 19 20.1 1.1 K-Ar Hb Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 118 19 20.9 0.5 K-Ar Chl Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 110 19 22.6 0.5 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 113 19 23.5 0.6 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 114 19 24.8 0.6 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid YG-27 9 24 1.2 K-Ar n/a Yenice stock    39.916532 27.259195 Granodiorite ZÇ-11 9 26.53 0.58 U-Pb Zr Zeybekcayiri Stock    39.871492 27.024039 Granodiorite 549132 26 27.2 0.18 Ar-Ar Bt Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.887184 26.919696 Andesite porphyry 549140 26 27.48 0.34 Ar-Ar Mus Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.882775 26.942916 Andesite porphyry 8 3 26.3 2.6 K-Ar WR Balya IS Epi Pb,Zn,Ag 39.760000 27.610000 Andesite ÇMG-4 8 401.4 7.8 U-Pb Zr Bayatlar stock    39.839438 27.323543 Metagranitoid MTA57 6 29.3 1.3 K-Ar WR Çan Volcs    40.045905 26.613160 Andesite 542521 26 14.84 0.11 Ar-Ar Bt Doğançilar pluton HS Epi Au 40.069884 26.905140 Quartz monzodiorite 125 19 27.1 0.6 K-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid 126 19 27.5 0.6 K-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid 131 19 28.1 0.7 K-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid 128 19 36 1.4 K-Ar Chl Evçiler pluton    39.759645 26.684208 Granitoid KO40 12 25.7 3.6 U-Pb Zr Eybek pluton    39.691318 27.095854 Granodiorite TE 14 21 9.9 0.6 K-Ar WR Ezine basalt    39.666678 26.417096 Alkali Basalt 141 19 237.8 4.7 K-Ar Or Gönen granitoid    39.926884 27.823955 Granitoid 142 19 245.2 4.8 K-Ar Mus Gönen granitoid    39.926884 27.823955 Granitoid 144 19 285.7 5.6 K-Ar WR Gönen granitoid    39.926884 27.823955 Granitoid 141 19 310.7 6.3 K-Ar Chl Gönen granitoid    39.926884 27.823955 Granitoid KH-53 9 20.5 0.7 K-Ar n/a Hidirlar pluton Skn   39.864927 27.135262 Granodiorite KH-49 9 23.7 0.83 K-Ar n/a Hidirlar pluton Skn   39.864927 27.135262 Granodiorite IE4B 24 18.4 2.2 K-Ar WR Ilica    39.876544 27.788515 Granite IE5B 24 19.5 1.2 K-Ar WR Ilica    39.876812 27.760163 Granite IL-4 15 25.6 3.8 K-Ar Hb Ilıca granitoid    39.916049 27.819986 Granitoid IL-7 15 28.65 1.18 K-Ar Hb Ilıca granitoid    39.916049 27.819986 Granitoid IL-13 15 37.9 0.2 K-Ar Hb Ilıca granitoid    39.916049 27.819986 Granitoid 162 19 38.3 0.8 K-Ar Bt Kapidağ    40.435458 27.889950 Granitoid 156 19 38.2 0.8 K-Ar Bt Kapidağ pluton     40.498570 27.513337 Granitoid  continued on next page…   170  Supplementary Table 4.1: Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Deposit Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology ÇMG-11 8 401.4 3.7 U-Pb Zr Karaaydın stock    39.752290 27.146454 Metagranitoid KD-1a 23 42.27 0.96 Ar-Ar Bt Kartaldağ LS Epi Au,Cu 40.003884 26.589170 Dacite 542531 26 49.23 0.68 Ar-Ar Ks Kartaldağ LS Epi Au 40.005588 26.584806 Andesite KO43A 12 20.6 4.4 U-Pb Zr Kestanbol pluton    39.731438 26.244427 Quartz monzonite SAYD12-16 6 22.3 0.4 Ar-Ar Bt Kestanbol pluton    39.724522 26.255366 Granitoid IE6C 24 20.7 0.8 K-Ar WR Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite IE7B 24 22.3 0.8 K-Ar WR Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite IE9A 24 23.4 0.6 K-Ar Bt Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite IE9B 24 23.5 0.7 K-Ar Bt Kızıldam    39.926868 27.431444 Granite YK-01 9 21.4 1.1 K-Ar n/a Kizildam stock    39.957796 27.423582 Granodiorite YK-33 9 24.5 0.8 K-Ar n/a Kizildam stock    39.919495 27.429455 Monzogranite 549112 26 39.99 0.27 Ar-Ar Mus Kusçayiri granitoid HS Epi Au 39.968160 26.597187 Andesite 549115 26 40.11 0.28 Ar-Ar Bt Kusçayiri granitoid HS Epi Au 39.964335 26.606202 Andesite NÇ-37 9 24.9 1.6 K-Ar n/a Nevruz-Çakiroba Skn   39.970459 27.298124 Granodiorite 549181 26 22.34 0.59 Ar-Ar Hb Samli pluton IOCG Cu,Au 39.827451 27.821446 Granodiorite 08S49 34 22.42 0.11 Ar-Ar Bt Samli pluton IOCG Cu,Au 39.873511 27.773596 Granodiorite 08S24 34 23.2 0.5 Ar-Ar Hb Samli pluton IOCG Cu,Au 39.820142 27.842125 Diorite YS-31 9 22.8 0.4 K-Ar n/a Soğucak stocks Por   40.011420 27.336499 Monzogranite YS-23 9 23.6 1.2 K-Ar n/a Soğucak stocks Por   40.012559 27.341714 Monzogranite TU-52 18 30.64 0.24 Ar-Ar Bt Tayfur Formation    40.386640 26.489000 Vitric tuff IE10B 24 18.8 1.3 K-Ar WR Yenice (North)    39.935064 27.259537 Granite IE10C 24 21.9 1.1 K-Ar WR Yenice (North)    39.935064 27.259537 Granite 115 19 22 0.5 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 116 19 23.2 0.4 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 117 19 24.5 0.5 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 112 19 29.2 1.6 K-Ar Bt Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid 120 19 47.6 1.4 K-Ar Hb Yenice granitoid    39.965564 27.299743 Granitoid YI-18 8 401.5 4.8 U-Pb Zr Yolindi metagranitoids    40.190068 27.398735 Metagranitoid NA-205 8 389.1 2.6 U-Pb Zr Yolindi stock     40.199019 27.371310 Metagranitoid Ages excluded from statistical definition of age-related magmatic stages for the following reasons:         Red - Questionable quality of measurement and/or uncertain location   Purple - Excessive samples from a non-discriminant site location Orange - Cretaceous and older Blue - Reduce sampling bias of specific locations                Abbreviations used in this table:            Mat = Material Analyzed; Comm = Commodities present at the prospect; DD.dd = Decimal Degrees; LS = Low Sulphidation; IS = Intermediate Sulphidation; HS = High Sulphidation; Epi = Epithermal; IOCG = Iron Oxide Copper Gold; Por = Porphyry; Skn = Skarn; Ap = Apatite; Bt = Biotite; Chl = Chlorite; Ep = Epidote;  Hb = Hornblende; Ks = Potassium Feldspar; Mus = Muscovite; Or = Orthoclase; Plag = Plagioclase; WR = Whole Rock; Xe = Xenotime; Zr = Zircon; n/a = Not Available               214 Total plutonic and volcanic ages, of which, 160 were used for magmatic stage classification in the Biga since the Cretaceous            ---End of Supplementary Table 4.1: Compiled Age Data for Magmatic Rocks of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey---    171  Supplementary Table 4.2: Compilation of Mineral Prospect Host Rock and Mineralization Age Dates  Sample ID Source  Age (Ma) 2σ Lab  Method Mat. Unit Assoc. Deposit  Type Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude  (DD.dd) Lithology AVC-2 9 27.89 0.41 U-Pb Zr Avcilar Stock Epi Au 39.589856 26.813889 Granodiorite BPGP-1083a 33 27.1 1.8 Ar-Ar WR Aği Daği HS Epi Au-Ag 40.014880 26.906141 Vuggy silica and aarg alt. in qz-feldspar pro 549149 26 26.36 0.16 Ar-Ar Mus Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.882775 26.942916 Andesite Por 549133 26 26.42 0.15 Ar-Ar Bt Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.877682 26.911498 Granite-granodiorite with abundant Hb BPGP-1146 33 27.1 0.6 Ar-Ar WR Alankoy Epi system HS Epi Au-Ag 40.030662 26.797858 Vuggy silica and aarg alt. in andesitic lavas BPGP-1245 33 35.7 1 Ar-Ar Hb Alankoy intrusive HS Epi Au-Ag 40.030662 26.797858 Granodiorite GML_231 1 38.62 0.45 U-Pb Zr Çan Volcs  HS Epi Ag-Au-Cu 40.033821 26.680195 Andesite 549101 26 22.77 0.16 Ar-Ar Mus Egmir Volcs HS Epi Au-Cu 39.620289 27.249095 Qz-kln-mus bearing argill. andesi. 549102 26 24.18 0.21 Ar-Ar Bt Egmir Volcs HS Epi Au-Cu 39.579954 27.238261 Weakly argillitized-chloritized andesite 537 23 40.8 0.36 Ar-Ar Hb Kartaldağ pluton HS Epi Au 40.005343 26.587755 Hb-phyric granodiorite 536 23 42.19 0.45 Ar-Ar Hb Kartaldağ pluton HS Epi Au 40.005343 26.587755 Dacite Por GML_293 1 30.79 0.31 U-Pb Zr Kiazli Intrusive HS Epi   40.034132 26.739795 Granodiorite 542510 26 42.42 0.4 Ar-Ar Mus Kirazlı Pluton HS Epi Au-Cu 40.018650 26.726696 Andesite Por (Drill Hole KD-42) 549117 26 42.68 0.25 Ar-Ar Bt Kusçayiri granodiorite HS Epi Au 39.949965 26.616416 Hb rich weakly propyllitized granodirite, fresh, Hb 549115 26 40.11 0.28 Ar-Ar Bt Kusçayiri Volcs HS Epi Au 39.964335 26.606202 Pyrite-Qz veinlets within andesite, stockwork BPGP-1045 33 36.6 1.2 Ar-Ar WR Kusçayiri Volcs HS Epi Au-Ag 39.968045 26.619237 Vuggy silica and aarg alt. in talus breccia 542524 26 26.3 2.5 Ar-Ar Bt Pirentepe pluton HS Epi Au 39.946109 26.789797 Volcanic Por 542525 26 36.9 0.83 Ar-Ar Bt Muratlar pluton HS Epi Au 39.946633 26.790497 Andesite-dacite porphry PB-2014-061 2 28.36 0.59 U-Pb Zr Pirentepe HS Epi Au 39.942973 26.769367 Andesite PB-2013-046 2 28.54 0.3 U-Pb Zr Pirentepe HS Epi Au 39.941404 26.797475 Andesite Tuff SO-7 9 23.97 0.53 U-Pb Zr Sarioluk pluton HS Epi Au 40.154484 27.452212 Monzogranite 542538 26 22.38 0.18 Ar-Ar Bt Serçeler pluton HS Epi Cu-Au 40.029995 26.610501 Granitic rock 542539 26 39.57 0.47 Ar-Ar Bt Serçeler pluton HS Epi Cu-Au 40.030616 26.610263 Granitoid 542537 26 40.8 0.36 Ar-Ar Hb Serçeler pluton HS Epi Cu-Au 40.029789 26.610889 Granodiorite with Hb phenocrysts 5 3 24.7 2.4 K-Ar WR Balya IS Epi Pb-Zn-Ag 39.760000 27.618000 Andesite 28 3 26.8 1.4 K-Ar WR Balya IS Epi Pb-Zn-Ag 39.760000 27.612000 Andesite YS-70 9 25.03 0.62 U-Pb Zr Yapaztepe Stock  IS Epi Pb-Ag 39.989787 27.330854 Granodiorite 549181 26 22.34 0.59 Ar-Ar Hb Samli pluton IOCG Cu-Au 39.827451 27.821446 Bt-phyric granodiorite next to gn-ep Skn  172  Supplementary Table 4.2: Compilation of Mineral Prospect Host Rock and Mineralization Age Dates  Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Lab  Method Mat. Unit Assoc. Deposit  Type Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude  (DD.dd) Lithology 08S49 34 22.42 0.11 Ar-Ar Bt Samli pluton IOCG Cu-Au 39.873511 27.773596 Granodiorite 549180 26 23.17 0.28 Ar-Ar Bt Samli pluton IOCG Cu-Au 39.827451 27.821446 Bt-phyric granite-granodiorite 08S24 34 23.2 0.5 Ar-Ar Hb Samli pluton IOCG Cu-Au 39.820142 27.842125 Diorite BPGP-1007 33 39.4 1.2 Ar-Ar WR Kartaldağ Epi system LS Epi Au-Ag 39.979043 26.386495 Vuggy silica, aarg alt. in Qz-feldspar Por andesite KD-26 23 39.57 0.47 Ar-Ar Ser Kartaldağ Epi system LS Epi Au-Cu 40.000365 26.582853 Granitoid KD-18 23 42.19 0.45 Ar-Ar Bt Kartaldağ Epi system LS Epi Au-Cu 39.999211 26.589959 Dacite 549193 26 27.25 0.42 Ar-Ar Bt Küçükdere LS Epi Au 39.526334 27.090870 Arg. dacite Por, banded calcite veins P1011 23 43.34 0.85 Ar-Ar Ks Madendağ pluton LS Epi Au 40.032072 26.567203 Granodiorite GML_315 1 37.27 0.64 U-Pb Zr Çan Volcs  Por Au 39.996337 26.672416 Diorite GML_143 1 38.72 0.42 U-Pb Zr Çan Volcs  Por Au 40.010513 26.640232 Andesite GML_329 1 40.37 0.37 U-Pb Zr Dede Tepe Por Au 39.992165 26.691789 Monzodiorite C 27 25.03 0.14 Re-Os Mo Eybek pluton Por Cu-Mo-Au 39.646174 27.106906 Vein B 27 25.11 0.14 Re-Os Mo Eybek pluton Por Cu-Mo-Au 39.646174 27.106906 Vein A 27 25.62 0.09 Re-Os Mo Eybek pluton Por Cu-Mo-Au 39.646174 27.106906 Breccia PB2014106 2 38.79 0.3 U-Pb Zr Halilağa Por Cu-Au 39.919421 26.792673 Granitoid 542503 26 26.27 0.19 Ar-Ar Mus Halilaga stock Por Au 39.922857 26.801722 Qz monzonite HD-13A 488 2 37.79 0.36 U-Pb Zr Kestane Stock Por Cu-Au 39.921955 26.806113 Qz monzonite HD-37 112 2 39.36 0.77 U-Pb Zr Kestane Stock Por Cu-Au 39.922318 26.802695 Qz monzonite HD-94 402 2 39.56 0.21 Re-Os Mo Kestane Stock Por Cu-Au 39.920722 26.803967 Qz monzonite GML_332 1 38.4 1.1 U-Pb Zr Kusçayiri Stock Por Au-Cu 39.957960 26.601585 Granodiorite GML_331 1 39.11 0.8 U-Pb Zr Kusçayiri Stock Por Au-Cu 39.957960 26.601585 Granodiorite YS-70 9 23.3 0.8 K-Ar n/a Sogucak stocks Por   40.014431 27.335051 Granodiorite YS-52 9 23.7 1.5 K-Ar n/a Sogucak stocks Por   40.004386 27.339971 Monzogranite 549190 26 24.56 0.16 Ar-Ar Bt Tepeoba stock Por Cu-Mo-Au 39.638748 27.102531 Granodiorite-Qz monzonite Por 549184 26 24.7 0.15 Ar-Ar Bt Tepeoba stock Por Cu-Mo-Au 39.630373 27.107005 Breccia Por with hydrothermal Bt, ml and mo 549183 26 28.16 0.34 Ar-Ar Bt Tepeoba stock Por Cu-Mo-Au 39.630373 27.107005 Fine-grained aplitic granite Yigit_1 33 46.6 2.3 K-Ar WR Dikmen Pluton Por Au-Mo-Cu 40.136511 27.176070 Granodiorite Yigit_2 33 51.9 2.6 K-Ar WR Dikmen Pluton Por Au-Mo-Cu 40.136511 27.176070 Granodiorite  173  Supplementary Table 4.2: Compilation of Mineral Prospect Host Rock and Mineralization Age Dates  Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Lab  Method Mat. Unit Assoc. Deposit  Type Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude  (DD.dd) Lithology SAGS12-5 6 44.4 0.4 Ar-Ar Bt Karabiga pluton Por   40.394993 27.225369 Granitoid 149 19 45.3 0.9 K-Ar Bt Karabiga pluton Por   40.413340 27.244615 Granitoid SAGS12-13 6 47.02 0.82 U-Pb Zr Karabiga pluton Por   40.394993 27.225369 Granitoid KB90 11 52.7 3.8 U-Pb Xe Karabiga pluton Por   40.418100 27.267700 Granitoid 549175 26 25.03 0.15 Ar-Ar Bt Balya Intrusion Skn Pb-Zn 39.736433 27.586899 dark felds. Porph. İntruding dacite Por, fresh 549173 26 26.81 0.11 Ar-Ar Ser Balya Intrusion Skn Pb-Zn 39.736433 27.586899 Dacite 549124 26 22.7 1 Ar-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton Skn Fe-Cu 39.771968 26.763974 Aplite cutting granodiorite 549125 26 28.25 0.17 Ar-Ar Bt Evçiler pluton Skn Fe-Cu 39.771968 26.763974 Hb-Bt-phyric granodiorite KH-53 9 20.5 0.7 K-Ar n/a Hidirlar pluton Skn   39.864927 27.135262 Granodiorite KH-49 9 23.7 0.83 K-Ar n/a Hidirlar pluton Skn   39.864927 27.135262 Granodiorite KH-53 9 26.33 0.38 U-Pb Zr Hidirlar pluton Skn   39.864927 27.135262 Granodiorite NA-307 9 23.3 1.3 K-Ar WR Karadoru stock Skn   40.069875 27.373298 Leucogranite KH-19A 9 24 1.6 K-Ar n/a Kurtlar pluton Skn   39.879711 27.227882 Granodiorite KH-22 9 25.1 0.9 K-Ar n/a Kurtlar pluton Skn   39.879711 27.227882 Granodiorite KH-22 9 25.39 0.55 U-Pb Zr Kurtlar pluton Skn   39.879711 27.227882 Granodiorite NG-3 9 21.2 0.7 K-Ar WR Namazgah stock Skn   39.894571 27.296045 Leucogranite NG-1 9 23.8 0.7 K-Ar WR Namazgah stock Skn   39.894571 27.296045 Monzogranite NG1 9 24.79 0.38 U-Pb Zr Namzagah Stock Skn   39.894571 27.296045 Monzogranite NÇ-13 9 23.85 0.6 U-Pb Zr Nevruz-Çakiroba pluton  Skn   39.970459 27.298124 Qz monzonite NÇ-13 9 23.5 1 K-Ar n/a Nevruz-Çakiroba stock Skn   39.970459 27.298124 Qz monzonite continued on next page…   174  Supplementary Table 4.2: Compilation of Mineral Prospect Host Rock and Mineralization Age Dates  Sample ID Source  Age 2σ Lab  Method Mat. Unit Assoc. Deposit  Type Comm. Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude  (DD.dd) Lithology NÇ-37 9 24.9 1.6 K-Ar n/a Nevruz-Çakiroba stock Skn   39.970459 27.298124 Granodiorite NÇ-14 9 25.6 1.3 K-Ar n/a Nevruz-Çakiroba stock Skn   39.970459 27.298124 Monzogranite 549177 26 26.2 5.1 Ar-Ar Hb Samli Skn Fe-Cu 39.827129 27.821896 Granodiorite, altered, Ks,Bt, 549127 26 20.83 0.44 Ar-Ar Bt unk Skn Fe-Cu 39.887317 27.783587 Hb-rich granodiorite with Act veins 549132 26 27.2 0.18 Ar-Ar Bt Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.887184 26.919696 Andesite Por with Plag phenocrysts 549140 26 27.48 0.34 Ar-Ar Mus Aği Daği intrusion HS Epi Au 39.882775 26.942916 Andesite Por 549112 26 39.99 0.27 Ar-Ar Mus Kuscayir metamorphic suite HS Epi Au 39.968160 26.597187 Andesite with Qz-kaolinite pyrophyllite 579115 26 40.11 0.28 Ar-Ar Ser unk HS Epi Au 39.963652 26.606224 Oxidized pyr-Qz veinlets within andesite, stockwork 8 3 26.3 2.6 K-Ar WR Balya hydrothermal system IS Epi Pb-Zn-Ag 39.760000 27.610000 Andesite KD-1a 23 42.27 0.96 Ar-Ar Bt Kartaldağ  Epi system LS Epi Au-Cu 40.003884 26.589170 Dacite 542531 26 49.23 0.68 Ar-Ar Ks Kartaldağ volcanic unit LS Epi Au 40.005588 26.584806 Andesite YS-31 9 22.8 0.4 K-Ar n/a Sogucak stocks Por   40.011420 27.336499 Monzogranite YS-23 9 23.6 1.2 K-Ar n/a Sogucak stocks Por   40.012559 27.341714 Monzogranite 549122 26 28.44 23.3 Ar-Ar Hb Evçiler pluton Skn Fe-Cu 39.771968 26.763974 Bt-Act-Gn Skn 542521 26 14.84 0.11 Ar-Ar Bt Dogancilar pluton HS Epi Au 40.069884 26.905140 Qz monzodiorite Por with stockworking Ages recorded in blue were excluded from probability density plots to reduce sampling bias of specific locations                  Abbreviations used in this table:          Aarg alt = Advanced Argillic Alteration; Comm = Commodities present at the prospect; DD.dd = Decimal Degrees; LS = Low Sulphidation; Mat = Material Analyzed; IS = Intermediate Sulphidation; HS = High Sulphidation; Epi = Epithermal; IOCG = Iron Oxide Copper Gold; Por = Porphyry; Skn = Skarn; Volcs = Volcanics; Act = Act; Ap = Apatite; Bt = Biotite; Chl = Chlorite; Ep = Epidote; Gn = Gn; Hb = Hornblende; Kln = Kaolinite; Ks = Potassium Feldspar; Mus = Muscovite; Or = Orthoclase; Plag = Plag; WR = Whole Rock;  Xe = Xenotime; Zr = Zircon; n/a = Not Available         91 Total mineral prospect-related ages are compiled in this table, of which 80 were used for probability density plots    ---End of Supplementary Table 4.2: Compilation of Mineral Prospect Host Rock and Mineralization Age Dates---  175   Supplementary Table 4.3: Compiled Metamorphic-related Age Data for the Biga Peninsula Sample ID Source Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology K6 13 21.7 0.5 Ar-Ar Mus Alakeci shear zone 39.714677 26.578763 Two-mica gneiss K9 13 22.5 0.3 Ar-Ar Mus Alakeci shear zone 39.724263 26.580188 Two-mica gneiss K5 13 28.7 0.5 Ar-Ar Bt Alakeci shear zone 39.730207 26.593943 Gneiss MD-1a 23 55 2 Ar-Ar Ser Camlica Metamorphics 40.054462 26.559439 Schist 1A 30 65 0.9 Rb-Sr Phg Çamlıca metamorphics 39.855465 26.349843 Quartz-micaschist 236 30 69 2 Rb-Sr Mus Çamlıca metamorphics 39.903980 26.423293 Quartz-micaschist 1B 30 69 0.9 Rb-Sr Phg Çamlıca metamorphics 39.855465 26.349843 Quartz-micaschist IF 21 16 16.8 3.8 FT Ap Çamlık granitoid 39.608400 27.185200 Granodiorite E84 20 116.6 3.3 Ar-Ar Hb Denizgören ophiolite 39.833818 26.303227 Amphibolite 457A 31 99 6.1 Rb-Sr Phg Elliayak eclogite 39.638223 26.907599 Eclogite 609D 31 100.3 2.8 Rb-Sr Phg Elliayak eclogite 39.591824 26.905850 Eclogite 4328C 29 109.6 2.4 Ar-Ar Plag Ezine peridotite 39.837815 26.301716 Amphibolite 4328C 29 117 1.5 Ar-Ar Hb Ezine peridotite 39.837815 26.301716 Amphibolite 4329C 29 118.3 3.1 Ar-Ar Hb Ezine peridotite 39.837815 26.301716 Amphibolite 951 22 24.8 4.6 U-Pb Zr Kazdag massif 39.689655 26.622339 Metagranite TU21 17 10.2 5 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.583517 26.734373 Gneiss TU15 17 12.2 2.4 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.642812 26.622787 Gneiss TU20 17 13.7 1.4 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.751469 26.818474 Granodiorite TU16 17 14.6 3.8 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.674658 26.926869 Gneiss TU14 17 14.8 2.6 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.672376 26.649268 Gneiss TU12 17 15.8 2.8 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.719167 26.588886 Amphibolite TU17 17 17 2.8 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.681771 26.918955 Gneiss TU19 17 17.7 1.6 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.745862 26.848054 Gneiss 6 31 18 0.2 Rb-Sr Bt Kazdağ Massif 39.689697 26.931196 Gneiss 195B 31 20 0.2 Rb-Sr Bt Kazdağ Massif 39.721249 26.907503 Gneiss TU13 17 20.4 4.8 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.692666 26.614666 Gneiss 2 31 23 0.2 Rb-Sr Mus Kazdağ Massif 39.689697 26.931196 Gneiss 3 31 24 0.3 Rb-Sr Mus Kazdağ Massif 39.689697 26.931196 Gneiss 195B 31 30 0.4 Rb-Sr Mus Kazdağ Massif 39.721249 26.907503 Gneiss 218 7 63.9 1.5 Rb-Sr WR Kemer meta. complex 40.407000 27.056000 Garnet-mica schist 219 7 76 2 Rb-Sr WR Kemer meta. complex 40.405000 27.055000 Garnet-mica schist 226A 7 77.7 1.9 Rb-Sr WR Kemer meta. complex 40.389000 27.061000 Garnet-mica schist 212 7 84.3 1.3 Rb-Sr WR Kemer meta. complex 40.412000 27.062000 Garnet-mica schist 4176C 28 164 17 Ar-Ar Gph Nilufer unit 40.376249 28.120687 Eclogite 4176H 28 203.1 2.9 Ar-Ar Phg Nilufer unit 40.376249 28.120687 Eclogite 11-250 32 559 17 U-Pb Zr Salihler formation 40.420493 27.085343 Quartz-mica schist 11-248 32 565 9 U-Pb Zr Salihler formation 39.896060 26.421740 Eclogite 11-168 32 573 9.3 U-Pb Zr Salihler formation 39.913620 26.443741 Micaschist 11-251 32 582 30 U-Pb Zr Salihler formation 40.357623 27.136375 Quartz-mica schist  continued on next page…    176  Supplementary Table 4.3: Compiled Metamorphic-related Age Data for the Biga Peninsula Sample ID Source Age 2σ Method Mat. Unit/Location Latitude  (DD.dd) Longitude (DD.dd) Lithology 11-208 32 577 20 U-Pb Zr Andiktasi formation 40.361376 27.069781 Metabasite 11-253 32 562 16 U-Pb Zr Geyikli formation 39.527022 26.288624 Micaschist 948 22 248 19 Pb-Pb Zr Kazdag massif 39.67266495 26.95726932 Metagranite 949-3 22 296 11 Pb-Pb Zr Kazdag massif 39.68274511 26.91940044 Biotite rich schist 949-2 22 299 17 Pb-Pb Zr Kazdag massif 39.68274511 26.91940044 Biotite rich schist 949-1 22 418 73 Pb-Pb Zr Kazdag massif 39.68274511 26.91940044 Biotite rich schist K13 29 308 16 Pb-Pb Zr Kazdağ Massif 39.687370 26.839831 Gneiss 1 31 14 0.1 Rb-Sr Bt Kazdağ Massif 39.689697 26.931196 Gneiss TU60 17 14.7 4.4 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.599304 26.640808 Gneiss TU10 17 14.9 5.4 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.731336 26.575522 Ultramylonite TU18 17 16.6 4 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.743683 26.889785 Gneiss 4 31 19 0.2 Rb-Sr Bt Kazdağ Massif 39.689697 26.931196 Gneiss TU11 17 19.3 6.4 FT Ap Kazdağ Massif 39.711467 26.567559 Mylonite Ages excluded from statistical definition of age-related metamorphic events for the following reasons:   Orange - Jurassic or older  Blue - Reduce sampling bias of specific locations              Abbreviations used in this table:         Mat = Material Analyzed; Comm = Commodities present at the prospect; DD.dd = Decimal Degrees; LS = Low Sulphidation;  IS = Intermediate Sulphidation; HS = High Sulphidation; Epi = Epithermal; IOCG = Iron Oxide Copper Gold; Por = Porphyry;  Skn = Skarn; Ap = Apatite; Bt = Biotite; Chl = Chlorite; Ep = Epidote; Hb = Hornblende; Ks = Potassium Feldspar;  Mus = Muscovite; Or = Orthoclase; Plag = Plagioclase; WR = Whole Rock; Xe = Xenotime; Zr = Zircon; n/a = Not Available 52 Total metamorphism-related ages, 33 were statistically interpreted  ---End of Supplementary Table 4.3: Compiled Metamorphic-related Age Data for the Biga Peninsula--- 177  Supplementary Table: 4.4: Sources for Geochronological Database Compilation Source Code  From Tables Source     1 Leroux, G., 2016, Stratigraphic and petrographic chracterization of HS epithermal Au-Ag mineralization at the TV Tower District, Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: Unpublished M.Sc. 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A., Crowe, D. and Esenli, F., 2013, Origin of the Düvertepe kaolin-alunite deposits in Simav Graben, Turkey: Timing and styles of hydrothermal mineralization: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 255, p. 57-78. 21 Ercan, T., Satir, M., Steinitz, G., Dora, A., Sarifakioglu, E., Adis, C., Walter, H.J. and Yildirim, T., 1995, Features of the Tertiary volcanism in the Biga Peninsula and in the islands of Gökçeada, Bozcaada and Tavsan adasi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Dergisi (In Turkish), v. 114, p. 55-86. 22 Erdoġan, B., Akay, E., Hasözbek, A., Satir, M. and Siebel, W., 2013, Stratigraphy and tectonic evolution of the Kazdaġ Massif (NW Anatolia) based on field studies and radiometric ages: International Geology Review, vol. 55, p. 2060-2082. 23 Imer, E. Ü., (2010). Genetic investigation and comparison of Kartaldag and Madendag epithermal gold mineralization in Çanakkale-region. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University. 24 Karacik, Z., Yilmaz, Y., Pearce, J. A. and Ece, Ö. I., 2008, Petrochemistry of the south Marmara granitoids, northwest Anatolia, Turkey: International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 97, p. 1181-1200. 25 Kaymakçi, N., Aldanmaz, E., Langereis, C., Spell, T.L., Gürer, Ö. F. and Zannetti, K.A., (2007).  Late Miocene transcurrent tectonics in NW Turkey: Evidence from palaeomagnetism and 40Ar-39Ar dating of alkaline volcanic rocks.  Geological Magazine, v. 144, p. 379-392 26 Kuṣcu, I., 2009, Metallogenesis of the Tethyan collage: Magmatic association and age of ore deposition in Turkey: in: Mineral Deposit Research Unit internal report on the Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project, University of British Columbia. 27 Murakami, H., Watanabe, Y., Stein, H., 2005, Re-Os ages for molybdenite from the Tepeoba breccia-centered Cu-Mo-Au deposit, western Turkey: Brecciation triggered mineralization: In: Mao, J., Bierlein, F. P (eds), Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Proceedings of the eighth Biennial SGA meeting, Beijing, China, 18-21 August, 2005, p. 805-808.  28 Okay, A. I., and Monie, P., 1997, Early Mesozoic subduction in the Eastern Mediterranean: Evidence from Triassic eclogite in northwest Turkey:  Geology, v. 25, p. 595-598. 29 Okay, A. I., Satir, M., Maluski, H., Siyako, M., Monie, P., Metzger, R., and Akyüz, S., 1996, Paleo- and Neo- Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: Geological and geochronological constraints:  In: A. Yin and Harrison T.M. (eds.) The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, Cambridge University Press. p. 420-441.  30 Okay, A. I., and Satir, M., 2000a, Upper Cretaceous eclogite-facies metamorphic rocks from the Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey: Turkish Journal of Earth Science, v. 9, p. 47-56. 31 Okay, A. I., and Satir, M., 2000b, Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwest Turkey: Geological Magazine, v. 137, p. 495-516. 32 Tunç, İ. O., Yiğitbaş, E., Şengün, F., Wazeck, J., Hofmann, M., and Linnemann, U., 2012, U-Pb zircon geochronology of northern metamorphic massifs in the Biga Peninsula (NW Anatolia-Turkey): new data and a new approach to understand the tectonostratigraphy of the region: Geodinamica Acta, v. 25, no. 3-4, p. 202-225. 33 Yiğit, O., 2012, A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 46, p. 118-148. 34 Yilmazer, E., Güleç N., Kuṣcu, Ī. and Lentz, D. R., 2014, Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of Fe-oxide Cu (±Au) mineralization associated with Ṣamli pluton, western Turkey: Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 57, p. 191-215.     179        Appendix 5: U/Pb Methodology       180   Samples used for LA-ICPMS U/Pb age determination were collected from mineralized and non-mineralized hypabyssal intrusive rocks and their volcanic equivalents. Collection was limited to sites where stratigraphic position is well constrained. Samples were initially processed using a Rhino™ jaw crusher followed by a Bico™ disk grinder equipped with ceramic grinding plates. Mineral separates were prepared using a Wilfley™ wet shaking table fitted with a machined Plexiglass® top followed by heavy liquid separation and Frantz magnetic separation. Zircons were hand-picked with the aid of a binocular microscope from an ethanol solution and mounted on epoxy pucks along with several grains of the 338 ± 1 Ma Plešovice zircon standard (Sláma et al, 2008) and the 416.8 ± 1.1 Ma Temora zircon standard (Black et al., 2003).  Grinding the puck on 1000 grit sandpaper followed by polishing with a 1 μm polishing paste exposed the zircons. After exposure the puck was washed with a dilute HNO3 acid solution, thoroughly rinsed with distilled water and left to air dry in a fume hood. Analysis were performed on a New Wave UP-213 laser ablation system and a ThermoFinnigan Element2 single collector, double-focusing, magnetic sector ICP-MS. Data acquisition and reduction was performed using a protocol developed by PCIGR and MDRU and is briefly described below.   High quality sections of each zircon grain, free of alteration, fractures, inclusions, or cores were selected for analysis. In order to minimize elemental fractionation during the analysis (Košler et al., 2009), ~100 μm line scans at a width of 25 μm were performed rather than spot analyses. Background values were measured with the laser shutter closed for approximately 20 seconds, followed by approximately 45 seconds of data collection with the laser firing.  The time-resolved signals were analyzed using Iolite™, an application extension of the Igor Pro™ scientific graphic, data analysis, image processing and programming software. Background measurements were manually subtracted, whereas propagated analytical errors and isotopic ratios are automatically calculated by Iolite. Corrections for mass and elemental fractionation were made by bracketing analyses of unknown grains with replicate analyses of both the Plešovice zircon standard and Temora zircon standard. A typical analytical sequence consists of four Plešovice zircon analyses followed by two Temora zircon analysis, five unknown zircon analyses, two standard analyses, five unknown analyses, etc., finishing with two Temora zircon standard analyses and four Plešovice zircon standard analyses.   The concordia age of the Plešovice zircon standard in the analytical sequence was 337.0 ± 1.7 Ma and the concordia age of the Temora zircon in-house reference was 416.5 ± 3.1 Ma, both are within error of the accepted values. Final age interpretation and Concordia plotting of the analytical results was done with ISOPLOT software, following the protocol outlined by Ludwig, 2003.    181        Appendix 6: U/Pb Isotopic Age Data    182    183    184      185        Appendix 7: Ar/Ar Isotopic Age Data    186    LAYERED  ROCKS OLIGOCENE Hallaçlar FormationKirazlı Volcanics:High-K, calc-alkaline dacite (OKVa) and trachyandesite (OKVb), columnar and massive ows, autobrecciated and re-worked lava ows.  Quartz, pyroxene, plagioclase and alkali feldspar porphyritic.  Interbedded massive ows and monolithic rounded boulder auto-breccia. EOCENEDacitic to rhyolitic, quartz-grit, crystal-lapilli tuff, re-worked tuff, silt-granulestone, often with laminated colloidal silica. Kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite alteration is common and causes a white to a bleached cream colour appearance, with domains of mottled purplish oxidation.  Küçükdağ Volcanics:Low to medium-K, calc-alkaline, quartz, biotite, pyroxene, feldspar porphyritic basalt and basaltic andesites. Intercalated massive to thickly layered ows and auto-breccia. Typically a strong argillic alteration masks primary textures and selectively alters feldspars at the surface.  Where fresh, trace magnetite blebs are evident, biotite can be well preserved. Laminated, normally-graded, mudstone to pebble conglomerate, colloidal silica, plant fossil and lignite seam bearing siltstone. Silicication, residual vuggy quartz alteration and ore-grade mineralization is present within this unit at Küçükdağ. Soft-sediment deformation structures are common  (slump, load, ame).  Argillic alteration is prominent, often replacing cement with white clays. Crystal-bearing, lithic-lapilli-rich, strongly altered ignimbritic andesite tuff, intercalated with EKDV and EVS. Residual vuggy quartz alteration and ore-grade mineralization is present within this unit at Küçükdağ. Clasts range from 5 mm - 5 cm in a sandy matrix of feldspar crystal, lithics and rare quartz grains.  Over a thickness range of 40 - >150 m the unit can be thickly bedded and poorly graded, massive and unstratified. Preferential, intense alunite-dickite alteration of clasts causes distinct ‘blebby’ appearance.  Balikliçeşme Volcanics Formation:High to low-K, volcanic breccia, ows, pyritic, porphyritic, dacitic-andesites, dacites and rhyolites. Domains of strong silicication are commonly enriched with up to 10 modal % disseminated pyrite. Trace disseminated magnetite is consistently altered to hematite in the damage zone to major structures.  Typically hornblende-poor, and lighter in colour when compared agaisnt EHFP in the eld. Mosiac-type breccia texture is developed at Kirazli with a symmetrical banded and zoned pyrite, enargite, quartz, dickite and alunite cement     Crystal-rich, pumaceous amme, phyllite-clast tuff, intercalated with EHFP breccia and ows. This unit is poorly preserved within the stratigraphic record. Quartz-grit, white clay altered feldspar phenocrysts and granule to bomb-sized rip up clasts of phyllite and schist are diagnostic features.  Medium-K, calc-alkaline, hornblende-feldspar phyric, autobrecciated andesite,  subvolcanic andesite to dacite. Highly differential alteration results in multiple textural expressions.  Where fresh, this rock is medium grey-green with an aphanitic magnetic groundmass.  Euhedral to subhedral feldspar phenocrysts; euhedral amphibole (hornblende) and pyroxene (augite); blebs of agglomeratic ne grained magnetite; clear grains of quartz.   Where altered, which is common, the rock ranges from bleached white-cream to khaki coloured.  Strong argillic-type alteration assemblage.  Quartz grains resist alteration. Where intense alteration has occurred a micro residual vuggy-quartz texture develops. LATE TRIASSICKarakaya Complex, Hodül Unit: Massive to thickly-bedded, light bluish grey, quartz-granule, pyritic, well-sorted, medium-grained arkosic arenite sandstone. Local areas are plastically folded and foliation develops. Thickly-bedded, matrix-supported, polymictic, rounded metamorphic-quartz pebble conglomerate. Medium grey to rusted colour.  Deformed, schistose and sandy matrix supports rounded granules to pebbles of white quartz, phyllitic mica-schists, serpentinite, and sandstone. UPPER PERMIAN to LATE PENNSYLVANIANÇamlica Metamorphics:Well-foliated, phyllite dominated, grey, quartz-augen, micaceous, locally garnetiferrous schist. Deformed, quartz-mica schist are the basement rocks at Kirazlı and .  Within the schist, quartz-augens, and deformed veins Küçükdağare common.  Denizgören Ophiolite:Dark bluish-green, strongly magnetic, variably foliated, serpentine-amphibole rich ultramac rock. Well to poorly foliated, ductily deformed, soapy, amphibolitic and magnetite rich.  Local weak silicification and veinlets of fine-crystalline quartz are common.  Unconformably thrust over quartz-micaschists.INTRUSIVE ROCKS OLIGOCENEGranodiorite: Biotite, quartz, hornblende, feldspar porphyritic, massive, pyrite-bearing, granodiorite. Zones of stockworked quartz veins are locally present.EOCENEQuartz, feldspar, hornblende porphyritic, monzodiorite, quartz-diorite, and minor granodiorite. Quartz, sericite and pyrite alteration is strong locally.  Multi-stage quartz vein stockwork  is common.    4500400038.35 ± 0.50 469000 (mE)                              470000                                        471000                                      472000                                        473000                                      474000                                        475000                                       476000                                       477000               469000 (mE)                                                     470000                                                            471000                                                            472000                                                             473000                                                            474000   KüçükdağColumbazSarpKirazlıA A’B’BC’D’D’C +++++++EDT.............ArUA A’Study Area Map Contact (inferred, approximate, dened)...........................................................................................................................Bedding (inclined, vertical)........................................................................................................................................................... Igneous foliation (inclined, vertical)........................................................................................................................................... Schistosity (inclined, vertical).............................................................................................................................................................Veining (inclined, vertical)...................................................................................................................................................................Jointing (inclined, vertical)............................................................................................................................................................Brittle faulting, downthrown side indicated.................................................................................................................................Slickenside lineation on fault ...........................................................................................................................................................Hydrothermal breccia (inclined, vertical)................................................................................................................................40/39 Argon isotopic age determination site........................................................................................................................Uranium/Lead isotopic age determination site....................................................................................................................Town......................................................................................................................................................................................................Highway................................................................................................................................................................................................Prospect site (epithermal, porphyry)..............................................................................................................................Advanced argillic alteration..........................................................................................................................................................Cross section lines...............................................................................................................................................................Mineral tenure boundary...................................................................................................................................................Whole-Rock geochemistry sample, volcanic stratigraphy...................................................................................................Location MapMajor cities.............................................................................................................................................................................................Plate motions relative to Eurasian Plate.......................................................................................................................................Strike-slip fault, motion sense indicated....................................................................................................................................Subduction zone, direction indicated (active, extinct).........................................................................................................Major normal fault, ticks on downthrown side.......................................................................................................................The Küçükdağ and Kirazlı HS Ag-Au-Cu epithermal and Columbaz Au porphyry prospects in the central Biga Peninsula are hosted within Eocene (40.19 - 37.34 Ma) medium-K,  intermediate andesite, chemically equivalent volcaniclastic rocks  and quartz diorite to monzodiorite. Küçükdağ and Kirazlı share the following similarities: Ÿ hosted in hydrothermally brecciated structures and locally permeable stratigraphy of similar age and stratigraphic position, Ÿ ore mineralogy of enargite - sulphosalts - covellite - pyrite - native gold - electrum, Ÿ prominent vuggy-quartz - alunite - dickite - pyrophyllite - kaolinite alteration assemblage,Ÿ lithocap development within permeable and porous volcaniclastic rocks. Kirazlı however, has mineralization hosted in diatreme-like  phreatomagmatic breccia. The age of mineralization at Küçükdağ is constrained by ⁴⁰Ar/⁹Ar ages of 29.69 ± 0.42 and 29.23 ± 0.33 Ma. on hydrothermal alunite intergrown with covellite, pyrite, tennantite-tetrahedrite and enargite in the hydrothermal-cemented brecciated ore zone. North of Kirazlı, pyrite ± chalcopyrite-bearing feldspar-hornblende phyric granodiorite (OGR; 30.79 ± 0.31 Ma) crosscuts the Balikliçeşme Volcanics (EHFP) and is overlain by the Kirazlı Volcanics (OKV), indicating that OKV is younger than OGR. An ⁴⁰Ar/⁹Ar age of 42.42 ± 0.40 Ma (Kuşçu, 2009) on muscovite from pyrite-bearing hornblende feldspar phyric andesite (EDV) in drill hole KD-57 at Kirazlı indicates that the conformably-overlain volcano-sedimentary upper stratigraphy is Eocene in age. The volcano-sedimentary stratigraphy at Küçükdağ (EKV; EQT; EKDV; EVS; ELT) conformably overlies EHFP dated at 38.35 ± 0.5 Ma which, similarly to Kirazlı, indicates deposition beginning in Eocene. The 40.19 ± 0.34 Ma Dede Tepe pluton (Camelback; EDT) is overlain by EDV and is traversed by conspicuous multi-stage quartz veining, contains anomalous grab-sample gold values (up to 0.4 g/t) and has a similar petrography and age to the 40.17 ± 0.37 Ma Valley Au-Cu Porphyry ~7.5 km east of the map area. The Columbaz Au porphyry target is composed of bonanza-grade Au-bearing quartz veins with a dominant WNW-ESE strike dipping steeply to the south and pervasive background gold values of 0.1 - 0.6 g/t  Au. (increasing at depth) in a strongly magnetite-altered, stacked andesite dome complex.  GEOLOGICAL SUMMARYUArUUU38.51 ± 0.44 38.35 ± 0.50 0 (m from origin) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 60000 0100 100200 200300 300400 400500 500600 600700 70065004429000 (mN) 4430000 4431000 4432000 4433000 4434000meters above sea levelSarp Columbaz Küçükdağ00100200300400500600700800900500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500010020030040050060070080090040004432000 4431000 4430000 4429000 4428000 (mN) 4433000 +++++++++++++++++++vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvKirazlıB B’A’A0100200300400500600700-100-2008000 500 1000 1500 3500 5000 5500 60004000 8000 8500 90000100200300400500600700-100-2008006500 7000 75002000 2500 30000100200300400500600700-100-2008000100200300400500600700-100-2008000 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500XXXXXXXXX X XX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXvvvv .... ....... .. vKüçükdağKirazlıSarp/Columbaz Camelback vvvvvvvvvDC C’D’vvvvvvvvv... ......... .....38.51 ± 0.44 UU37.34 ± 0.89 UAr29.23 ± 0.3329.69 ± 0.4230.79 ± 0.31 UARABIAN PLATE0 400kilometersDead Sea FaultEURASIANPLATEANATOLIANPLATEAFRICAN PLATEBlack SeaAegean SeaNorth Anatolian Fault ZoneIntra-Ponde SutureIzmir Ankara SutureAegean Arc AthensVardar Suture IstanbulIzmirNWest Anatolian Extensional ProvinceTurkeyBulgariaGreeceProject Location40.19 ± 0.34 UU468000                                       469000                                       470000                                        471000                                       472000                                        473000                                      474000                                        475000                                        476000                                       477000                                       478000468000                                       469000                                       470000                                        471000                                       472000                                        473000                                       474000                                        475000                                        476000                                       477000                                       478000   4427000                                      4428000                                     4429000                                      4430000                                     4431000                                     4432000                                      4433000                                     44340004427000                                      4428000                                     4429000                                      4430000                                     4431000                                     4432000                                      4433000                                     4434000Geology of the Küçükdağ and Kirazlı Epithermal Ag-Au and the Columbaz Au-Porphyry Deposits, Northwest TurkeyMapping, U-Pb Geochronology and Digital Cartography by: Graham M. Leroux, Mineral Deposit Research Unit  LEGEND                                                                                                     GEOLOGICAL SYSMBOLS vv vv v+++++++OGROKVa,bEQTEKDVEVSELTEDVEBTEHFPTASTQCPSCPSPLOCATION MAP                                                                                                     X: 472653Y: 4433757X: 470760Y: 4431795Interbedded volcaniclasc sandstone, siltstone, tuffaceous conglomerate. Flow-layered, autobrecciated basalt, interlayered with volcaniclasc rock. n = 102x = 270/11Nn = 11x = 315/22NSARP DAĞIKÜCÜKDAĞ TEPEGML_2013_450Dextral wrench faulng on undulose fault plane1mGML-2013-231Dextral-oblique normal faulng.X: 475474Y: 4428887X: 468953Y: 4430068Dextral oblique slip, normal faulng on southwest Sarp.Autobrecciated andesite, source of zircon for U-Pb age dang.CD-008 346.5m Phyllic CD-008, 239.3m PropyliticCD-008 346.5m Quartz-sericite-pyrite (phyllic) alteraon and chlorite-epidote-quartz (propylic) alteraon at Columbaz. Hypabyssal andesite, source of zircons used for U-Pb age determinaon. Dextral wrench faulng,undulose fault plane. X: 475845Y: 4430165Low angle dextral wrench faulng of lithocap on east aspect of Kirazlı  X: 475882Y: 4430122OKVOKVEQTEQTEKDVEKDVEVSEVSEVSEDVEDVEHFPEBTTASTQCPSCPSPEDTOGROGROGREDVEDVEDVEHFPTASEBTEBTTASEBTEHFPEVSELTPSC4°48´Magnetic Declination    Approximate mean magnetic declination for centre of map in August 2014 is 4°48´ ± 0° 19´, with a secular variation of 0° 6´ east per annum.True North Scale 1:15,000(meters)0 400 800 1200 1600 2000Projection: Universal Transerve Mercator (UTM)Datum: European 1950 Zone 35N TASTQCEDTOGRTASTQCPSCEHFPEBTEDVEBTELTEKDVEKDVEVS EQTOKVPSCPSCTASPSCEKDVELTEQTEBTEHFPEBTEVSEKDVPSCEDVEDVEHFP EHFPEBTPSCTASTASPSCTQCTQCEVSEKDVTQCTASEBTmeters above sea levelCamelbackREFERENCES(Modified after Okay et al., 1996; Okay & Tüysüz, 1999; Bonev & Beccaletto, 2007)Kuscu, I., 2009, Metallogenesis of the Tethyan collage: Magmatic association and age of ore deposition in Turkey: in: Mineral Deposit Research Unit          internal report on the Western Tethyan Metallogeny Project, UBC.Okay, A. I., Satır, M., Maluski, H., Siyako, M., Monie, P., Metzger, R., & Akyüz, S., 1996, Paleo- and Neo- Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: Geological           and geochronological constraints: In: A. Yin & Harrison T.M. (eds.) The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, Cambridge University Press. p. 420-441. Okay, A, I., and Tuysuz, O., 1999, Tehtyan sutures of northern Turkey: In: Durand, B., Jolivet, L., Horvath, L., Serranne, M., (eds), The Mediterranean Basins:           Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen: Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 146, p. 475-515.Bonev, N., & Beccaletto, L., 2007, From syn- to post-orogenic Tertiary extension in the north Aegean region: constraints on the kinematics in the eastern           Rhodope-Thrace, Bulgaria-Greece and the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey: In: Taymaz, T., Yilmaz, Y. & Dilek, Y. (eds) The Geodynamics of the Aegean and           Anatolia, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol. 291, p. 113-142.FWFZ

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