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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Manual or digital : a study comparing the process of three-dimensional scanning and printing theatre… Saranchuk, Charlene Nicole 2016

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MANUAL OR DIGITAL: A STUDY COMPARING THE PROCESS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCANNING AND PRINTING THEATRE PROPERTIES TO THE PROCESS OF CREATING THEATRE PROPERTIES BY HAND  by  Charlene Nicole Saranchuk B.A., Simon Fraser University, 2013   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF FINE ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES  (Theatre)   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2016  © Charlene Nicole Saranchuk, 2016  ii Abstract This paper documents the process undertaken in researching the viability of the creation of three-dimensional (3D) printed props in lieu of handmade props, more specifically a handmade Italian Commedia dell’Arte mask for the character of Scaramuccia (Scaramouche). With the guidance from resident prop master, Lynn Burton, I was able to create two handmade papier mâché masks through the process of casting a negative of a plasticine mask and then papier mâchéing both that negative cast and the plasticine mask. Through the use of a NextEngine 3D Laser Scanner, a plethora of online resources, and trial and error work with a number of 3D software editing products (NextEngine ScanStudio, MeshLab, Autodesk Meshmixer, netfabb Basic, Autodesk Memento, 3D Studio Max Design, and MakePrintable.com), I have been able to create a 3D model of this mask, which I then attempted to print using the FlashForge Creator Pro 3D printer.   iii Preface  This thesis is original, unpublished, independent work by the author, Charlene Nicole Saranchuk.  I prepared the final design and built the masks described herein. With assistance for the handmade masks from the head of properties, Lynn Burton, and assistance with three-dimensional troubleshooting from Bradley Powers, I created and finished all mask pieces shown in the pictures. I photographed or screen captured all photographs included herein, aside from the research picture, which provided the basis for my mask design, the Simplify3D settings screenshots, and all other photographs and logos, whose copyright belongs to their respective owners. My supervisor for this thesis project and advisor throughout my master’s program was Bradley Powers. The members of my supervisory committee are Bradley Powers and Robert Gardiner.  iv Table of Contents Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... ii Preface............................................................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... iv List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vi List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... vii Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ ix Dedication ........................................................................................................................................x Introduction ......................................................................................................................................1   Three-Dimensional Printing History .........................................................................................1 Preliminary Research .......................................................................................................................3   Mask Research ...........................................................................................................................3   3D Printer Research ..................................................................................................................3 Handmade Mask ..............................................................................................................................7   Sculpting ....................................................................................................................................7   Casting .....................................................................................................................................11   Mask Making with a Negative Mask Cast ................................................................................20 Positive Mask .................................................................................................................................24 Rubber Latex Mask Attempt ..........................................................................................................26 Three-Dimensional Printed Mask ..................................................................................................30   3D Scanning and 3D Model Editing ........................................................................................30   Printing a Mask........................................................................................................................38 Conclusion .....................................................................................................................................45 Works Cited ...................................................................................................................................51 Appendices .....................................................................................................................................52   Appendix A: FlashForge Creator Pro Dual Extrusion 3D Printer ...........................................52   Appendix B: Simplify3D Printing Software ............................................................................54 v   Appendix C: SemiFlex™ 3D Printing Filament ......................................................................55   Appendix D: Scaramuccia Mask Sketches ..............................................................................56   Appendix E: NextEngine 3D Laser Scanner ...........................................................................57   Appendix F: NextEngine ScanStudio Software .......................................................................59   Appendix G: Simplify3D Printer Settings ...............................................................................60   vi List of Tables Table 1 Time Spent Sculpting .............................................................................................10 Table 2 Time Spent Creating Each Two-Part Plaster Mask Cast .......................................19 Table 3 Approximate Time Spent Building a Papier Mâché Mask from a Plaster Cast Negative .................................................................................................................23 Table 4 Approximate Time Spent Building a Papier Mâché Mask from a Sculpted Plasticine Positive  .................................................................................................25 Table 5 Time Spent Building a Rubber Latex Mask ..........................................................29 Table 6 Time Spent 3D Scanning and 3D Model Editing ..................................................37 Table 7 3D Mask Printing Time and Labour Hour Estimates ............................................43   vii List of Figures Figure 1 Venetian Carnival Mask (Scaramouche), Italy ........................................................4 Figure 2 Day One of Sculpting - Part One .............................................................................8 Figure 3 Day One of Sculpting - Part Two ............................................................................8 Figure 4 Day Two of Sculpting ..............................................................................................9 Figure 5 Finished Plasticine Sculpt of the Scaramuccia Mask ..............................................9 Figure 6 Completed Sculpt with Metal Sheet Dam ..............................................................12 Figure 7 Plaster Cast #1 Side A............................................................................................13 Figure 8 Plaster Cast # 1 Ready for the Dish Soap Application and Side B of the Plaster Cast ........................................................................................................................14 Figure 9 Plaster Cast #1 Side B ............................................................................................15 Figure 10 Plaster Cast #1 and Plasticine Mask ......................................................................15 Figure 11 Hard Cardboard Support for Plaster Cast #2 and Petroleum Jelly Coverage ........17 Figure 12 Plaster Cast #2 Side B Messier Plaster Casting .....................................................18 Figure 13 Papier Mâché Negative and Positive Mask Making in Progress ...........................20 Figure 14 Papier Mâché Mask Made on Plasticine Positive (left) and Papier Mâché Mask Halves Made in the Two-Part Negative Casts (right) ............................................21 Figure 15 Finished Papier Mâché Mask Made in the Two-Part Negative Casts ...................22 Figure 16 Positive Mask Removed from the Face Mold........................................................24 Figure 17 Mold Containing a Drying Layer of Rubber Latex and Cheesecloth (left) and Mold Containing a Single Dried Rubber Latex Layer (right) ................................26 Figure 18 Rubber Latex Mask Halves Strapped Together and Curved Brush Tool in Foreground .............................................................................................................27 Figure 19 Rubber Latex Mask and the Remnants of It's Expanding Foam Interior ...............28 Figure 20 Positive Mask in Supine Position Ready for Scanning ..........................................30 Figure 21 Positive Mask in a Straightforward Position Ready for Scanning .........................31 Figure 22 Scan #1 in the Process of Fusing in ScanStudio ....................................................32 Figure 23 Scan #1 Post-Fusing in ScanStudio .......................................................................32 Figure 24 Scan #1 Unsuccessful Hole Filling in MeshLab ....................................................33 viii Figure 25 Scan #2 Unsuccessful Hole Filling in Autodesk Meshmixer ................................35 Figure 26 3D Model Editing in Autodesk Memento ..............................................................36 Figure 27 Large Gaps in the Interior Mesh of the Mask in Autodesk Memento ...................36 Figure 28 3D Printed Spool Holder ........................................................................................39 Figure 29 Unsuccessful Mask Print with Pilling ....................................................................40 Figure 30 28 Hours and 51 Minutes into Printing the Body of the Scaramuccia Mask .........41 Figure 31 64 Hours and 47 Minutes into Printing after Running Out of Filament ................41 Figure 32 Seven-Eighths of the Body of the Scaramuccia Mask with Support Structures ....42 Figure 33 Seven-Eighths of the Body of the Scaramuccia Mask ...........................................45   ix Acknowledgements  I offer many thanks to the staff and faculty in the Department of Theatre and Film whom have helped me along the way. Thank you to Dr. Hallie Marshall for allowing me access to her mask collection early on in this process. I would also like to offer a special thank you to my supervisor Bradley Powers for allowing me to take on this project and for his insight, guidance, and genuine interest in all aspects of this process. Another very special thank you goes to head of properties, Lynn Burton, for all of her guidance, assistance, and support throughout the mask making processes and for allowing me the use of the space, supplies, and tools in the prop shop. Thank you to my thesis committee Professors Bradley Powers and Robert Gardiner for their invaluable advice and support.   In addition, I would like to offer a huge thank you to Nicole Bairstow and the rest of my friends who have helped me throughout this process by providing me with their undying support and humour through the good times and the bad.  I would like to acknowledge and thank the University of British Columbia for granting me a Faculty of Arts Graduate Award.  I am forever grateful to my family, especially Gregory, Sharon, and Ryan Saranchuk, who have provided their unwavering support through the process of chasing my creative dreams, and my grandparents, who afforded me with the opportunities to achieve more than I ever could on my own.   x Dedication   To those who picked me up along the way.  1 Introduction  While it is obvious that the process for the creation of one mask is exponentially quicker using the traditional methods, it is unclear as to whether this will remain true for the creation of multiple masks, which is why the goal of this thesis project is to ascertain whether or not three-dimensional printing (3D printing) is a viable replacement for traditional props making techniques used in the process of creating multiple identical props. This thesis project more specifically focuses on the manufacturing of duplicate theatre masks. To minimize the number of variables between the process of hand-making a mask and 3D printing a mask, the mask for Scaramuccia (Scaramouche), a stock character from Italian Commedia dell’Arte plays, was used as the constant for this comparison. The following is an account of the processes that I navigated to obtain a copy of the mask that I created using both manual and digital replication techniques.  Three-Dimensional Printing History  Chuck Hull who, through the process known as Stereolithography (SLA) printed a small plastic cup, invented the first successful three-dimensional (3D) printer in 1983 (Duffy). Since the invention of 3D printing, various other 3D printing processes have emerged, including a 3D printing process called Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is the process used by the FlashForge Creator Pro printer. While SLA, FDM, and multiple other 3D printing processes – Digital Light Processing (DLP), and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) ("Types of 3D Printers") – have existed for decades (Lipson and Kurman 68), it is only within the past five years that this technology has become financially accessible to the general public with a price drop of 95% (Bilton). The price tag and learning curve associated with the 3D printing process are two reasons why 3D printed props have only recently become an option for theatres. Another reason 2 is the preference for trusted traditional methods, that are known to work, as often prop masters and their builders do not have time during the lead up to a show to try to figure out how to make a 3D printed prop successfully. This project is set out to compare the process of making a handmade prop to that of a 3D printed prop to obtain a further understanding as to why 3D printed props are not used for replication more frequently made in theatre productions.    3 Preliminary Research Mask Research  At the beginning of this project, I required a mask that was complicated enough for it to involve some in-depth sculpting for the traditional mask making portion of this project, but that was also simplistic enough that it would not involve highly complicated 3D printing processes. After deliberating between various cultural masks from Asia and Europe, I settled on the Commedia dell'Arte mask for Scaramuccia (see figure 1). The shape of this mask, with a few minor modifications to the nose, eyes, and cheeks, allowed for two-part masks to be created as part of this project; therefore, producing masks made from two different prop-making processes, 3D printed and handmade, that can be equally compared.  3D Printer Research  While I was finding what mask would best suit the requirements for my project, I was also researching which 3D printer would best suit a prop shop. To find a 3D printer that was ideal for a prop shop, I read a multitude of review websites and blogs about various printers and used the information found on them to ascertain which 3D printer would provide the best functionality for a prop shop in terms of ease of use, print quality, reliability, customer service support, software, print bed size, printer footprint, and price. I also worked with the assumption that the prop master was an average prop master with some operational knowledge of machines, 3D mechanics, and 3D modelling, but that they were not an expert in 3D printing or modelling and would have relatively standard, for props, printing size needs. These guidelines narrowed down the field of 3D printers and quickly removed printers that were more than $3500, built from scratch, provided no customer support, and received a large number of bad reviews for 4  Figure 1. Venetian Carnival Mask (Scaramouche), Italy; "Mask: Secrets and Revelations;" Michigan State University Museum; East Lansing, MI; Michigan State University Museum; Web Exhibition; 13 Apr. 2016. print quality, reliability, and general usage problems. Narrowing down the field, I found the FlashForge Dreamer. However, after some talks with the company and a discussion with my 5 thesis advisor, Bradley Powers, we decided to go with the slightly more expensive, by forty American Dollars under their educational pricing program – available for schools, governments, and government agencies – FlashForge Creator Pro (see appendix A), as it is an open source machine and is a slightly better quality machine than the FlashForge Dreamer. After coming to a decision on what type of printer to buy, I made sure that buying from FlashForge's American website was the best and cheapest option around for buying in Canada. As their educational pricing, which contained a three-month warranty, could not be beat anywhere, we went about going through the proper official channels to buy the FlashForge Creator Pro for the University of British Columbia's Department of Theatre and Film.   We also bought a 3D slicing program, Simplify3D (see appendix B), as most of the reviews for FlashForge abhorred the software that came with the printer, but championed Simplify3D as a replacement for FlashForge's 3D slicing software, ReplicatorG. I was able to find the Simplify3D software available for download at the most inexpensive price from a Canadian company that specializes in 3D printing technologies, ImaginationTechnology.ca, so we subsequently bought the software download from them.  Concurrently with buying a 3D printer and 3D slicing software, I was also investigating printer filaments for 3D printers. As the printed mask required a decent amount of flexibility, the type of filament that the mask was made of could not be completely rigid or break easily. Through my online research, I discovered a filament product called SemiFlex™ by a company called NinjaTek (see appendix C), which claims to have 20% greater tensile strength than PLA and 900% elongation, and it sounded like a great fit for 3D printing a mask. I found another Canadian company, Thorstad Computers, from whom we bought three spools of SemiFlex™ after ascertaining that they had the cheapest price for SemiFlex™ spools. 6  As the department already had a computer available for me to use, with all of the researching and ordering necessary to begin the 3D printing process finished, we waited for everything to arrive.   7 Handmade Mask  Having already decided which character form the masks for this project would take, I set about making a handmade mask that I could compare to the 3D printed mask. I decided to make a papier mâché mask for the comparison, as it provides the right amount of flexibility required in theatre masks while still maintaining the shape of the mold that it was born from and a rigidity that can bear the wear and tear of a theatrical performance. To obtain a solid papier mâché mask, I sculpted plasticine, cast plaster, and papier mâchéd a mask into formation until I was left with a completed papier mâché mask of Scaramuccia.  Sculpting  To plan my sculpting, I first drew a rough sketch to provide a rough guide of what I planned to sculpt out of the plasticine (see appendix D). Initially to sculpt the form of Scaramuccia and shape the mask, I started by building up plasticine around a face mold that was lying on a flat board. Starting with the base of the mask, I warmed the plasticine up under the heat lamps that the theatre's prop shop has for occasions when room temperature and the sculptor's hands are cold, as warm plasticine is much easier to sculpt than cold plasticine. After the plasticine was warmed up, I contoured the basic shape of the mask with a slightly pointy nose (see figure 2), using my hand and clay tools from the prop shop, and continued to shape the long nose for Scaramuccia (see figure 3). On the following day, I added large nostrils to the nose, created deep eye sockets, thickened the bridge of the nose, and began to sculpt the brows and nose ridge (see figure 4). From days three through to six, I added large cheeks, thickened the eye sockets and brows, and continued the nose ridge down to the tip of the nose (see figure 5). Throughout my time sculpting, I had to ensure, to the best of my ability, that there were as few  8  Figure 2. Day One of Sculpting - Part One   Figure 3. Day One of Sculpting - Part Two 9  Figure 4. Day Two of Sculpting   Figure 5. Finished Plasticine Sculpt of the Scaramuccia Mask 10 undercuts as possible, as undercuts would complicate the layout of my plaster molds and could require the creation of more than two molds to make a complete mask, if they were too sharp. With guidance from the department's prop master, Lynn Burton, I made sure that the only undercuts that existed were the large ones at the eye sockets, which could be worked around by splitting the face into two equal halves when casting the plaster molds. Table 1   Time Spent Sculpting   Day Date Task Time Sculpting     Begin mask sculpting by 1hr 20mins 1 1/11/2016 contouring the mask's body 1hr 32mins     and long nose 1hr 15mins     Add nostrils, deep eye 1hr 16mins 2 1/12/2016 sockets, nose bridge, brows, 0hrs 44mins     and nose ridge 1hr 25mins 3 1/13/2016 Add cheeks; thicken eye 1hr 0mins 4 1/14/2016 sockets and brows; lengthen 1hr 46mins 5 1/15/2016 nose ridge; and ensure 1hr 30mins 6 1/21/2016 minimal undercuts 0hrs 48mins Total     12hrs 36mins  As shown in the table 1, the total time that it took me to sculpt out the mask for Scaramuccia was twelve hours and twenty-six minutes. Standard breaks were taken into consideration and are not a part of the calculations detailed in this table. The rounded times of January 13 and January 15 are estimates of my time spent sculpting, due to human error with a stop watch and a day when the stop watch was not functioning properly; however, I tried my best to make the times for these two days as accurate as possible. Based on the calculation shown in table 1 and taking into consideration the fact that my availability only allowed for short lengths of time for sculpting, which required multiple periods of heating the plasticine under the heat lamps and stretched my sculpting out over the span of six days, it is quite possible that a sculptor 11 working a standard eight-hour shift with no distractions could have taken only two days to complete the progress shown in figures 2 through 5.  Casting  With the plasticine version of the mask completed, I set about making plaster casts for the mask, with assistance of our resident prop master, Lynn Burton. First, I created a dam out of sheet metal pieces, to split the mask into two sides (see figure 6); used a cardboard box containing foam support blocks, to help keep the plasticine mask flat during the plaster process; and slathered the mask with dish soap, to act as a release agent for when it came time to remove the mask from the plaster mold. Once those were completed, through Lynn's prior experience with plaster casting, she taught me how to make a plaster cast by mixing Plaster of Paris with water until the dry ingredients breakup at a certain consistency in the mixing container, which is a helpful trick as, like with baking, things do not always mix to the same consistency each time due to a variety of controllable and uncontrollable factors among the ingredients, such as age of the materials, chemical makeup, room temperature, and the general temperature and condition of the materials that are being mixed together. The technique that Lynn taught me for mixing Plaster of Paris with water was to sprinkle the Plaster of Paris over the water surface. This step alone has many variables to take into consideration, such as the overall surface area of the water, the amount of Plaster of Paris powder that drops into the water with each shake, and where the powder lands in the water. Through science, we know that if you add large clumps of a solid chemical to a liquid, there is a slower reaction time between the solid chemicals and liquid, as the greater the surface area that is in contact between a solid reactant and a liquid, the faster the solid reactant's particles can mix and react with the liquid's particles (BBC UK) and establish it's 12  Figure 6. Completed Sculpt with Metal Sheet Dam 13 exothermic reaction (Royal Society of Chemistry). After we mixed the Plaster of Paris with the water, to the right consistency, and we felt the plaster slurry getting thicker, we began to slather it on to one side of the plasticine mask. While we were covering the mask, we made sure to cover all parts of the masks with at least an inch of plaster sludge, to try to guarantee that the mold would not have any weak spots. Near the end of the covering process, when the plaster began to become less malleable, we smoothed the top of the plaster into a flatter surface, to make working with the mold easier later, as the plaster mold will lie flatter and not be wobbly if the surface that it rests on is flat. Letting the first casting dry over the weekend (see figure 7), we came back on Monday morning to a plaster cast that was dry and ready for it's second side to be cast in plaster (see figure 8).   Figure 7. Plaster Cast #1 Side A 14  Figure 8. Plaster Cast # 1 Ready for the Dish Soap Application and Side B of the Plaster Cast  In an attempt to create a tight seal between the two plaster casts, I removed the metal dam and carved two divots into Side A of the cast to create a basic locking mechanism that would prevent the two sides from slipping apart and allow them to lock together nicely. Lynn and I, then went through the same process of slathering on the dish soap, mixing the Plaster of Paris, and spreading the plaster over the mask in the same fashion, as we did with Side A, for Side B, all while trying to maintain a proper edge between the two plaster casts (see figure 9).   After permitting the second cast to dry overnight, Lynn and I set about trying to separate the two casts. Unfortunately, the two casts sealed themselves together quite tightly, but after some chipping, a lot of prying, and the concurrent use of two small prybars, we were finally able  15  Figure 9. Plaster Cast #1 Side B   Figure 10. Plaster Cast #1 and Plasticine Mask 16 to separate the two molds from one another (see figure 10). Having separated the two parts of the first mask mold from one another and removed the plasticine mask, we noticed that there were a few minor air pockets in the plaster cast, which I was able to patch up using spackling paste and my gloved fingers to spread the paste into the holes. In addition, after removing the molds from the plasticine, it is advised to let the plaster molds dry for at least one to two days, as they were still moist to the touch right after their initial exposure to air.  As shown in the background of figure 10, we were also able to salvage the plasticine mask and after I made a few minor repairs and bent the nose back to where it originally was, Lynn and I set about making a second mold of the mask. By creating a second mask mold, a prop master who is trying to make duplicates of a prop, would then be able to build two individual, but nearly identical masks, simultaneously without having to disrupt the process of the other. Due to our struggle in separating the two molds from the first casting, we decided that using petroleum jelly, which Lynn has used before as a releasing agent, might be a better choice over the dish soap, as the dish soap seemed to get absorbed by the plaster and was not overly helpful in the separation process. We also decided that the metal dam would benefit from more support during the plaster casting, so I created a support for the dam out of hard cardboard and attached it to the dam by means of duck tape (see figure 11). The plaster casting process was then the exact same for the second plaster cast as it was for the first, aside from attempting to fill in the eye sockets of the mask better than the first time around, which was beneficial with the end result needing minimal spackling paste added to the eye socket region of the mold.   I did make one of the plaster casts without Lynn's assistance and based off of that experience I have to suggest that plaster casting is easier as a pair, or at the very least needs more structure around the mold to stop the plaster from running over the edges. With two people, one  17  Figure 11. Hard Cardboard Support for Plaster Cast #2 and Petroleum Jelly Coverage 18 could pour and place the plaster, while the other can stop the plaster from falling down into areas where it does not need to go and move it towards areas that it needs to go, quicker than one person could. Overall, doing the plaster casting with one person is messier (see figure 12). Thus, if you have two people available or at least more support to stop the plaster flow, it is highly suggested to use one of these options or both. Between Side A and Side B of the second casting, I left the metal dam in between the two molds, but, as the first mold could support the dam, removed the hard cardboard. In the end, the separation of the two molds for the second casting went a lot smoother than that of the first casting, but because of the metal dams remaining, there was a larger space in between the two molds where the metal support dam had taken up space, so it is a bit of a trade-off between keeping the metal dam in and taking it out. After taking the  Figure 12. Plaster Cast #2 Side B Messier Plaster Casting 19 Table 2   Time Spent Creating Each Two-Part Plaster Mask Cast Day Date Linear Time Spent on Cast #1 Linear Time Spent on Cast #2 1 2016-02-12 5hrs 0mins 0hrs 0mins 2 2016-02-15 3hrs 15mins 0hrs 0mins 3 2016-02-17 2hrs 30mins 3hrs 30mins 4 2016-02-22 0hrs 0mins 3hrs 30mins 5 2016-02-23 0hrs 0mins 2hrs 45 mins Total Linear Time 10hrs 45mins 9hrs 45mins Total Labour Time 14hrs 15mins 16hrs 15mins second plaster cast apart, patching up the air holes with spackling paste, and letting the molds dry, both of the casts were ready for the papier mâché portion of the project.  Overall, the total linear time that it takes to cast one two-part plaster mask cast, looking at table 2, is between ten hours and forty-five minutes and nine hours and forty-five minutes, but as much of this work was completed by two people these numbers need to be increased, since there is an additional labour cost if two people work on casting a mold versus one person, so instead it actually takes an average of fifteen hours and fifteen minutes in labour hours for two props builders to make one two-part plaster cast. The hour time difference between the first cast and the second cast, is partially due to the fact that the first two-part cast was more difficult to separate, but it also has a little to do with the idea that Lynn and I were familiar with the casting process at this point, so there was less time spent trying to figure things out and more time spent getting the casting completed. Neither of these calculations include the one to two days of drying that each mold required, but those are linear days in the process, not days of work, for while the casts dry there is no additional labour required.   20 Mask Making with a Negative Mask Cast  Making a papier mâché mask, with the mask negatives that Lynn and I made in the previous chapter, I used the following standard mask making process. First, I prepped the molds with a layer of petroleum jelly. Then, I took the molds and used a white glue and water mixture that was about the consistency of thick cream to attach pieces of brown paper towel into all the crevices of the molds in a papier mâché style of pasting (see figure 13). After laying down two layers of papier mâché brown paper towel and letting it dry over night, I noticed that there were parts of the mask that were coming away from the mold. To fix these problems, I used a sharp utility knife to cut through the two layers of the mask in the areas that were not attached, and  Figure 13. Papier Mâché Negative and Positive Mask Making in Progress 21 then repaired the mask with more layers of brown paper towel papier mâché in those areas. I discovered through this process that the papier mâché held on to the mold better in areas where the paper towel was pasted around the edge of the mask part of the mold, so that it was not simply trying to cling to the sides, but also to the corner, which seemed to work a lot better. I left my patch jobs to dry overnight and they seem to have worked the way that I was hoping they would. Subsequently, I laid down another two layers of brown paper towel to add more strength to the mask. Once those layers had dried, I slowly removed each mask half from their respective molds, so as not to cause any damage to the mask half.   Once the mask halves were removed from each mold, I then set about figuring out how to attach them together as they were wild looking around the edges (see figure 14). After some thought, I decided to cut off much of the excess paper that was plaguing the edges of the halves.   Figure 14. Papier Mâché Mask Made on Plasticine Positive (left) and Papier Mâché Mask Halves Made in the Two-Part Negative Casts (right) 22  Figure 15. Finished Papier Mâché Mask Made in the Two-Part Negative Casts From there, I made inward snips roughly a quarter of an inch apart towards the edge of the mask portion of each half and used those inward snips to aid in bending the hardened paper towel in line with the mask shape, in essence creating tabs that pointed towards the other mask half when the halves were placed side-by-side. Finding a decent fit for the two halves, I papier mâchéd overtop of the junction between the two halves to form a solid layer of papier mâché all along the edge of the two halves and set it aside to dry, while making sure that its drying position was not unknowingly pushing the two halves together in a way that would form an unsmooth finish between the two halves. Once the junction layer was dry, I added an additional exterior layer to the other patches that I made earlier, when parts of the first two layers detached from the mold. I then sanded and patched up any rough edges to make it wearable. Overall, this is a sturdy mask and, aside from lightly stuffing the nose with some paper towel to help it retain its rigidity, this mask is performance ready (see figure 15). 23 Table 3  Approximate Time Spent Building a Papier Mâché Mask from a Plaster Cast Negative Day Date Time Spent 1 2/29/2016 1hr 30mins 2 3/1/2016 2hrs 0mins 3 3/2/2016 0hrs 30mins 4 3/4/2016 0hrs 30mins 5 3/7/2016 1hr 30mins 6 3/8/2016 5hrs 0mins 7 3/10/2016 0hrs 30mins Total   11hrs 30mins  Looking at the time spent building a papier mâché mask from a two-part plaster cast negative (see table 3), it took roughly eleven hours and thirty minutes of labour time. However, I would argue that any masks made through the papier mâché process that I undertook for the negative mask in a subsequent round of mask making should take a prop builder less time to construct, as they should learn from their previous experience about how to keep the paper towel attached to the mask mold, which could reduce this build time by up to two hours, making it take only nine and a half hours instead of eleven and a half hours. A prop builder would also not have to think about how to attach the two mask halves together, which would cut down on even more of the build time. Thus, learning from these challenges or even passing their knowledge on to other prop builders should reduce the time required for additionally made papier mâché masks.   24 Positive Mask  The positive mask briefly mentioned in the last chapter (see figure 14), was made in the same basic papier mâché way as the negative mask, but instead it had two layers of wet white tissue paper, four layers of both white and brown paper towel papier mâché, and was created directly on the salvaged version of the plasticine Scaramuccia mask used throughout the previous chapter. After removing the mask and plasticine from the face mold (see figure 16), I undertook the painstaking task of removing as much of the plasticine from the mask as I could. At one point, this meant that I had to slice the bottom side of Scaramuccia's nose open and pick the plasticine out before patching up the hole and a small portion of the surrounding area with two    Figure 16. Positive Mask Removed from the Face Mold 25 Table 4  Approximate Time Spent Building a Papier Mâché Mask from a Sculpted Plasticine Positive Day Date Time Spent 1 2/24/2016 2hrs 0mins 2 2/26/2016 0hrs 45mins 3 2/29/2016 1hr 0mins 4 3/1/2016 0hrs 30mins 5 3/2/2016 0hrs 30mins 6 3/4/2016 1hr 0mins 7 3/7/2016 0hrs 45mins Total   6hrs 30mins layers of papier mâché. With most of the plasticine removed, I cut, sanded, and patched the edges of the positive mask before it was complete.  Building a papier mâché mask overtop of the salvaged version of the Scaramuccia mask positive took approximately six hours and thirty minutes (see table 4). When comparing the build time of this mask, built over sculpted plasticine, to the build time for the mask built in the plaster cast negatives, there is five hours difference, but as discussed in the previous chapter, at least two hours of that time could be removed, if during the process the mask did not need to be fixed. However, that would still leave three hours of time difference between the two version of the papier mâché Scaramuccia mask. Nevertheless, if you were trying to make duplicates for this mask, it would be counterproductive to the process to have to try and replicate the same mask out of plasticine every time a prop builder made the mask, which is why the plaster casting process is a much better option for making prop duplicates.   26 Rubber Latex Mask Attempt  For the purposes of accurate 3D scanning, I needed to create a robust structure that would be as true to the plasticine Scaramuccia mask as possible. As I knew that I would end up destroying the plasticine mask in the process of making a positive mask and that the plasticine would be too fragile to reposition for the various scans, I attempted to create a very accurate version of this mask out of rubber latex mask using the second plaster cast. For the first step, I spread rubber latex over the mask portion of each mold half (see right mold in figure 17). As a second step, I added two layers of a cheesecloth and rubber latex combination overtop of the initial rubber latex layer (see left mold in figure 17). After the rubber latex finished drying, I cut off the surplus rubber latex hanging over the edges of each mask half, pushed the excess   Figure 17. Mold Containing a Drying Layer of Rubber Latex and Cheesecloth (left) and Mold Containing a Single Dried Rubber Latex Layer (right) 27 cheesecloth into the interior portion of the mask, and strapped the two halves together using tape and two bungee cords (see figure 18). I then used the curved brush tool, visible in the middle of figure 18, which I made out of a curved piece of wire and the head of an old brush to squish rubber latex into the tip of the nose and along the edges where the two halves of the mask meet. After I completely covered the edge with rubber latex, to the best of my ability, I set this cast to the side and placed it in front of a fan, which was blowing on it off and on for about four days. Once the mask was seemingly dry, I sprayed expanding foam into the interior of the mask, from as far down the nose as the spray nozzle could reach to the base of the mask, and left it over the weekend to cure. Returning after the weekend, I cut away the excess expanding foam, pried apart   Figure 18. Rubber Latex Mask Halves Strapped Together and Curved Brush Tool in Foreground 28  Figure 19. Rubber Latex Mask and the Remnants of It's Expanding Foam Interior 29 the two mold halves with two small prybars, and removed the rubber latex mask from the molds. Then, I cleaned up the latex mask with water and a dentist pick, for the remaining plaster bits, before cutting away the bits of rubber latex that remained along the seam and applying a final coat of rubber latex to the loosely attached nose tip and all along the seam of the mask halves. The following day, I, unfortunately, noticed that for some reason the expanding foam was actually shrinking (see figure 19) and causing the rubber latex mask to collapse inwards. To try to prevent more bowing of the rubber latex mask, I removed the main face section from the mask, as illustrated in figure 19. However, in spite of supporting the face section of this mask with foam, to provide structure, this mask became misshapen and is a rather grim representation of the mask it once was, which is why I did not use it for its intended purpose of 3D scanning. Table 5  Time Spent Building a Rubber Latex Mask Day Date Time Spent 1 2/24/2016 4hrs 30mins 2 2/26/2016 1hr 15mins 3 2/29/2016 1hr 30mins 6 3/4/2016 0hrs 30mins 7 3/7/2016 2hrs 45mins 8 3/8/2016 1hr 0mins Total   11hrs 30mins  It took eleven and a half hours to build the unsuccessful rubber latex mask (see table 5). However, as this mask lends itself to a greater amount of accuracy, as the rubber latex can take in a greater amount of definition than the papier mâché masks ever could, since they become more inaccurate as their number of layers increases, especially with the mask made from the sculpted plasticine, if the expanding foam worked like it should have, this would have made a good mask to scan from.  30 Three-Dimensional Printed Mask 3D Scanning and 3D Model Editing  Initially, I was going to use the rubber latex mask, from the previous chapter, but as it was misshapen, I decided to use the negative Scaramuccia mask created from the negative mask molds. Using the NextEngine 3D Scanner (see appendix E) at the MakerLabs studio in downtown Vancouver, I went about the task of scanning the negative mask. However, despite the scanner having a part gripper for holding the part being scanned steady, the negative mask would not stay still enough during the scanning process for the scanner to scan a clear enough imagine. The resulting scans had a lot of digital noise and contained ghosting from scan to scan, as the machine went about its sixteen-part 360° scan of the mask. Thus, on the following day, I chose to scan the positive Scaramuccia mask instead, as unlike the negative mask, the positive mask lies flatter in a supine position (see figure 20), due to the fact that the positive mask was   Figure 20. Positive Mask in Supine Position Ready for Scanning 31  Figure 21. Positive Mask in a Straightforward Position Ready for Scanning built against a flat board, while the negative mask was patched together with a priority for smooth fit between the two halves and not whether or not it would stay upright in a supine position.  To obtain a more complete scan of the positive Scaramuccia mask, I scanned the mask from two separate 360° views. One of these views was of the mask in a supine position with the nose upright (see figure 20), while the other view was of the mask in a straightforward position with the nose pointing out horizontally (see figure 21). The settings that I used for each scan were to scan 360° in 16 divisions in high definition for a light target scanned from a wide angle. After these two scans were finished, using the ScanStudio software (see appendix F) that comes with the scanner, I trimmed the scanner's rotating base out of the scans, aligned the scans by matching six of the well-defined bumps and ridges present in each scan, and fused the two scans together (see figure 22). On the following day, I tried to use the ScanStudio program to fill in the  32  Figure 22. Scan #1 in the Process of Fusing in ScanStudio   Figure 23. Scan #1 Post-Fusing in ScanStudio 33 minor holes that were left in the mask after the fusing process (see figure 23), but the computer that the MakerLabs studio has for use with the 3D scanner crashed twice while attempting to fill the holes. The computer also stopped projecting the program onto the computer screen twice while I was trying to use the polish tool. Over the course of my time working with the ScanStudio program during those two days, the program and the computer both crashed multiple times, while performing various tasks; crashing at least five times on one day alone. Due to the unreliability of the MakerLabs computer and the ScanStudio program, I saved the scan as a Stereolithography (STL) file – one of the standard file types used by 3D printers – in the hope that I could fill the holes with a program suggested by a number of blogs online called MeshLab. On the following day, I downloaded the MeshLab program and attempted to fill the holes present in the 3D mesh. However, according to the MeshLab program, there were 89,440 holes present in the mesh, which I attempted to fill using the program but, unfortunately, I was unsuccessful with filling the holes (see figure 24).  Figure 24. Scan #1 Unsuccessful Hole Filling in MeshLab 34  The process of 3D printing requires a 3D model that is "watertight," meaning that there are no holes present in the 3D model's digital mesh – a pattern of triangular shapes that form the "skin" of the model – that could cause the 3D slicing program, which digitally slices up the 3D model into multiple layers for the 3D printer to print out one on top of the other, to consider a layer incomplete. If a 3D model is not "watertight," it causes errors in the slicing process and the printer will not print properly.  As the first scan's files were slowing down or crashing every computer I had available to work with, I went back to the MakerLabs studio to attempt a second scan. This time around, most of the settings remained the same with each scan being a 360° scan in 16 divisions for a light target scanned from a wide angle, but instead of scanning in high definition, I scanned in standard definition (180 Points/Inch2). Since this second scan was less detailed than the first scan, the MakerLabs computer was able to keep up with the ScanStudio software better than it could with the first scan. Using the ScanStudio program, I was therefore able to attempt to patch the holes in the 3D model. Nevertheless, I was still unsuccessful in filling the holes, as the program believes that the mask's eye sockets are supposed to be filled in and it filled in the back of the mask a lot further out than it practically should have. The buff, splice, and surface tools, found in ScanStudio, were also unsuccessful in helping to fix the holes or turn the 3D model into a form that would allow for Computer-Aided Design software, like AutoCAD or Vectorworks, to help in editing the mask's mesh. I also tried to fill the holes in two other 3D printing programs, Autodesk Meshmixer (see figure 25) and netfabb Basic, but they were as unsuccessful as the ScanStudio program.  As I was having obvious difficulties getting the second scan to a point where it could be printable, I returned to the MakerLabs studio to scan the mask for a third time. The settings that I  35  Figure 25. Scan #2 Unsuccessful Hole Filling in Autodesk Meshmixer used for the third scan were the same as the settings that I used for the second scan, but this time in addition to the two 360° scans, I also made five single panel scans to help provide coverage for the areas missed during the 360° scans. I aligned all of these scans together, using the marks that I made in pencil crayon on the mask prior to the third scan, which made aligning a lot easier than it was with the second scan.  During my time at the MakerLabs studio, one of the employees for the studio suggested that I use an Autodesk program called Memento to solve my problems. On the following day, I used Autodesk Memento to fix most of the holes and particles, sculpt, and bridge together the 3D mesh (see figure 26). I had varying degrees of success with each of these tools, but overall using Autodesk Memento was a success. However, this still left the 3D model with a few large gaps along the interior of the mask (see figure 27). Using the website MakePrintable.com – a free 3D model repair service with an online program that will fix a 3D model that you upload to their site – I was able to obtain a 3D model that, while it still had its flaws, was in a state that looked  36 Figure 26. 3D Model Editing in Autodesk Memento   Figure 27. Large Gaps in the Interior Mesh of the Mask in Autodesk Memento potentially printable. Over the next few days, I tried to get this file to print while also trying to personally fix the 3D model using 3ds Max, which in the end demanded too much from the computer that I used, as it slowed down the computer greatly. The first model repair by 37 MakePrintable.com was unprintable, but for my second attempt at using this repair service, I followed one of their suggestions to orientate the model with the largest mass closer to zero on the Z-Axis. This change seemed to have helped the program understand that it did not need to fill the space around the interior of the nose with as much infill. Using this repaired model, I was then able to slice off the nose while filling in the sliced plane. However, I did notice that while MeshLab allowed me to slice part of the mask mesh and fill in the plane, it would not allow the user to return to slice along this exact plane while keeping the second side of the plane instead first side. This inaccuracy would lead to some problems with printing a crooked nose, but as this was the best option that I was able to find for slicing off the nose and leaving a filled in plane, I moved on to attempting to get the model to print in the 3D printer.  Table 6  Time Spent 3D Scanning and 3D Model Editing Day Date Time Spent 1 3/14/2016 3hrs 0mins 2 3/15/2016 6hrs 30mins 3 3/19/2016 4hrs 30mins 4 3/20/2016 3hrs 15mins 5 3/21/2016 5hrs 0mins 6 3/22/2016 9hrs 0mins 7 3/23/2016 4hrs 0mins 8 3/24/2016 5hrs 0mins 9 3/26/2016 4hrs 15mins 10 3/27/2016 10hrs 45mins 11 3/28/2016 3hrs 30mins 12 3/29/2016 6hrs 30mins 13 3/30/2016 2hrs 0mins 14 3/31/2016 1hr 0mins 15 4/1/2016 2hrs 0mins Total   70hrs 15mins 38  As evidenced in the above paragraphs and in table 4, this process took a fair amount of time to work out. While some of this time could potentially be reduced by using a computer with a faster processor and larger amount of memory, a lot of the time would still be used to try to fill the proper holes in the mesh, as current 3D mesh editing programs, like Autodesk Meshmixer, MeshLab, do not understand how to differentiate between the wanted and unwanted holes in the mesh of an organic object that contains holes, such as the Scaramuccia mask. Thus, meaning that the process would still require the same amount of struggling to fill in the correct holes of the 3D model, even if the computer used had a better processor and memory size.  Printing a Mask  Preceding any attempts to print a prop, I would suggest that a prop master allow themselves a week to set up and fiddle with their 3D printer, as not all printers print in the same fashion and, like any standard machine, they require their own fine-tuning to get the printer to print nicely. I would also recommend using the Thingiverse website – a free online library of files for 3D printable objects made by people from around the world – to find 3D models that are known to print well, to run through and understand the 3D printing process before attempting your required print.   Before I could start to print with the SemiFlex™ material, I needed to print off a spool holder that fit the dimensions for the hole in the SemiFlex™ filament's plastic spool, as the spool holders that came with the FlashForge Creator Pro were too large. Finding the file for a FlashForge Creator Pro compatible spool holder in the Thingiverse library, I printed it out using the blue Polylactic Acid (PLA) filament that came with the printer (see figure 28).  39  Figure 28. 3D Printed Spool Holder  With the spool holder problem out of the way, I used the printer settings for printing with NinjaFlex on a FlashForge Creator Pro that I found by a person that goes by the name prototype.build that specified that the extruder temperature should be 215°C with the build platform temperature at 30°C, the feed rate at 600mm/min, the travel feed rate at 6000mm/min, and the retraction at 2mm (prototype.build). As these settings were for a slightly different type of material it is understandable that aside from the extruder temperature, which I had to increase by ten degrees, and the travel feed rate, which I had to slow down to 1800mm/min, these settings worked for printing test prints. Since these adjusted settings worked for the test prints, it seemed logical to continue using them. Regrettably, that was the wrong assumption as the mask print did not want to print as evidenced by the pilling that was occurring during the raft portion of the 40 print (see figure 29). However, with a few modifications of decreasing the travel feed rate, which is called the default print speed in Simplify3D, to 1200mm/min, I was finally able to get the mask to print successfully (see appendix G). Unfortunately, this mask print printed over the weekend and, while it was printing great on Saturday evening (see figure 30), at some point between Saturday evening and Monday morning the printer ran out of filament and as 3D printers don't stop printing when they run out of filament, the extruder continued to follow its  Figure 29. Unsuccessful Mask Print with Pilling 41  Figure 30. 28 Hours and 51 Minutes into Printing the Body of the Scaramuccia Mask   Figure 31. 64 Hours and 47 minutes into Printing after Running Out of Filament 42 dictated path and print non-existent filament (see figure 31). Sadly, because the print got spotty when the printer was running low on filament (see figure 32), like ink printers get when they're running low, there is no simple way to start over with the same print along the path that the extruder was on. Had someone been around to notice that the printer was running low on filament, it is possible that they could have paused the print, loaded a new spool of filament, and continued the printing process, but, alas, that was not the case. After loading a new spool of the SemiFlex™ filament to the printer, I attempted to print the nose portion of the mask, as the printer printed approximately seven-eighths of the body of the mask over the weekend. Strangely, after printing the body of the mask, the printer was having great difficulty in extruding filament through the extruder nozzle. Thinking that it was simply something stuck in the nozzle   Figure 32. Seven-Eighths of the Body of the Scaramuccia Mask with Support Structures 43 head from when the printer ran out of filament, I set about taking apart the extruder head, so that I could clean it. I was able to clean the extruder head using a beading needle to go through the nozzle, and a wire brush for the exterior, but even that was not able to fix the printer, as when I tried to print a 3D model that I knew had worked prior to the extrusion problems, it had problems printing between the last few layers of the raft base and the 3D model. After attempting to try to get anything to print for a few days, by making adjustments to the settings to slow down the travel speed of the extruder, among other various potential solutions, my thesis advisor helped me by taking apart the printer to various states until he noticed that the fans attached to the extruder heads, which are meant to cool down the extruder motors, do not work. We cannot say with certainty if they were ever working, but personally, I think that they were at one time working as, up until this point, both extruders on the printer were working quite well. Luckily, the 3D printer was still under warranty, so we were able to get the parts we needed sent to us, but as we already spent a week trying to fix the 3D printer the time allotted for this project was over.  Overall, as demonstrated in table 5, it takes roughly eighty-nine hours and fifty-four minutes of linear time to 3D print both parts of the Scaramuccia mask. These are not exact measurements of the time required for printing as they are using the estimates made by the Simplify3D program, which I did not test for accuracy; however, based off the program's estimation for the smaller prints, made prior to attempting the Scaramuccia prints, I believe that they are accurate estimations. There is always the possibility that the estimations for the smaller  Table 7   3D Mask Printing Time and Labour Hour Estimates Mask Part Print Times Labour Hours Body of Mask 67hrs 52mins 1hr 40mins Nose 22hrs 2mins 0hrs 45mins Total 89hrs 54mins 2hrs 25mins 44 prints were fairly accurate, because the program had a smaller margin of error to deal with; nevertheless, I would argue that the accuracy for even the larger prints is quite high, as the program knows exactly how fast the extruder head is going from the beginning of the print to the end. For a prop builder to deal with the launch, observation, and end of a 3D print that is ready for printing, two hours and twenty-five minutes of labour are ideal (see table 7), but as 3D printers can print through the evening and weekend this may be reduced depending on the ability of the prop builder to monitor the print throughout the lengthy print time. The only possible variable to add to these print times is if the printer was manually paused during printing to change the spool of filament, which does not take too long and would be necessary if the filament was running low.   45 Conclusion  While unfortunate time constraints on my thesis, like time constraints on a theatre production, do not allow for me to continue printing this Scaramuccia mask out of SemiFlex™ material, I would argue that even getting the model to a point of being able to print seven-eighths of one part of the mask proves that, through determination and the right combination of printer settings, this mask can be 3D printed (see figure 33).  When comparing the time required for sculpting the plasticine and the plaster casting to the time required for setting up the 3D printer, 3D scanning a prop, and editing a 3D model, the difference between the two processes is quite noticeable. The traditional mask making preparation took twelve and a half hours to sculpt the plasticine into the desired form and fifteen   Figure 33. Seven-Eighths of the Body of the Scaramuccia Mask 46 hours and fifteen minutes of labour for two people to make one cast, which equals twenty-seven hours and forty-five minutes of labour prep time before a papier mâché mask can be made. Even with the day or two of drying time that each mold requires, before they feel like they are ready to be used, these days are essentially the same as letting the 3D printer print while the prop builder works on another project. This is because the prop builder is not required for anything other than to make sure that the molds are placed in an arid climate, where they can dry completely, which could be achieved during clean up time for the casting process. This is why I would argue against adding this twenty-four to forty-eight hour period to the total labour time required for the mask making set up. In comparison, the 3D printing preparation of 3D scanning and 3D model editing took seventy hours and fifteen minutes, which does not even take into account the possibility of requiring a day or a week to set up the 3D printer properly. Twenty-seven hours and forty-five minutes of set up for traditional mask making is still less than half of the seventy hours and fifteen minutes needed to set up the 3D printer to print a mask. If modifications necessitated the need for new masks, there is a possibility that a prop builder could figure out a way to modify the existing masks or molds in a way that would suit the necessary alterations without having to re-sculpt and re-cast the mask, but I believe that this is one of the few benefits to 3D printing. This is especially true if the modification requires scaling the mask differently, as that is a relatively simple change for a 3D model, whereas a handmade mask could require casting a completely different set of molds, which would inevitably double the traditional mask making set up time, making the difference in labour between the manual and digital processes about fifteen hours, if scaling the 3D model takes approximately fifteen minutes. Nonetheless, a prop master is still relying heavily on the fact that the 3D printer will work properly every time that it prints, if it is going to take over seventy hours to set up a print, in addition to the two hours and twenty-five 47 minutes of estimated labour time required to set up, check in on, and clean up after a 3D print, as there is the potential for the process to not work whatsoever or to print improperly at any point of the printing process. At the same time, there is also the potential for the sculpting, casting, or papier mâché not to work either.  In a comparison between the two processes, three-dimensional scanning and printing versus sculpting, casting, and mask making, it is important to compare the labour time required to make a mask, as well as the linear time. For, while it takes a prop builder approximately eleven and a half labour hours to build a complete papier mâché mask from a plaster cast negative, it would take only two hours and twenty-five minutes of labour time to print one mask, over five times less labour time, it is more complicated than that. As, although, a 3D printer can print with minimal supervision, while a prop builder works on another project, only stopping occasionally to keep an eye on the printer's progress, which means that 3D printing requires less official labour time to print out each mask, it does require eighty-nine hours and fifty-four minutes of linear time to print, whereas a prop builder only requires eleven and a half hours to build a papier mâché mask from a plaster cast negative. Over the span of time when the 3D printer is printing, eighty-nine hours and fifty four minutes, a prop builder with standard eight-hour shifts could potentially make two completed masks, along with approximately three-quarters of another mask, which means that they could make more masks in total over the same length of time. There is always going to be the potential that either of these processes, manual and digital, will not work or that they will take less time or longer, that is the essence of creating things; things are not always going to end up the way that you expected. Nevertheless, humans are adaptable creatures, they can learn tricks to speeding up processes, and multi-tasking, 48 whereas computers and technology have one speed and cannot learn how to speed up the process, aside from programming changes, but even then, certain processes have their limitations. For example, the SemiFlex™ filament will not allow for printing to be too fast, as otherwise the extruded filament becomes stringy and will not print well. Even if, computers could adapt their speed and learn quicker ways to 3D print, it is hard to ignore the fact that a human was able to easily create two individual papier mâché masks, while editing on the fly, fixing the problems that occurred during the process, when a 3D printer is unable to edit on the fly without a human present. Moreover, that does not even take into account any operational errors, like those evidenced in the chapter on the three-dimensional printed mask, when the printer is broken and unable to print. While there is a chance for human error on the handmade mask side, as well, I would argue that humans are still far greater at adapting to situations and mishaps than a 3D printer is, at least at this point in three-dimensional printer history.   Therefore, based on time requirements for set up and adaptability, while I see the benefits that 3D printers can provide by printing a prop while a prop builder is not working or working on another project, I do not believe that 3D printers, scanners, and mesh repair programs are at a point where they can completely replace humans in the prop building universe. Another one of the few possible benefits that I currently see for using a 3D printer, aside from the ability to build a prop while a more complicated task is being performed by a prop builder, is the flat rate of pay for the printer, but even then there are inevitable maintenance fees and downtime, as exhibited in this project, when the printer is essentially a paperweight, to also take into account; ordering a replacement printer costs money and takes at least a few weeks to ship and potentially go through customs. Whereas, if a prop builder were to get injured or ill, they could potentially be replaced by another prop builder, who could potentially perform as good of a job building props 49 as the prop builder that they replace. With all of this evidence stacked against 3D printers, while I believe that there are great benefits to having a 3D printer around in a theatre's prop shop, I do not believe that a 3D modeller and a 3D printer could directly replace even a minimally experienced prop builder.  Aside from the computer processing limitations for the 3D model editing process and the unavoidable time limitation for this project, an additional limitation for this project was the location, requirements, and availability of the NextEngine 3D Scanner and computer at the MakerLabs studio in downtown Vancouver. Being in downtown Vancouver was a limitation, as it was not conducive to multi-tasking since the studio was not close to my classes, the prop shop at the University of British Columbia (UBC), or even a second computer that I could use to write my thesis. If the 3D scanner was at UBC, I could have potentially begun a scan at the beginning of the day, prior to the start of one of my classes, and returned after my class to continue working on the scan. Using the MakerLabs' 3D scanner was also a limitation because before using their scanner, they required me to take their two-hour 3D printer and scanner class, which in the end I did not find overly helpful. I already knew about most of the things that the instructor told me during class about 3D printers and while the instructor was able to teach me some information about the NextEngine 3D Scanner and the NextEngine ScanStudio program, he was not overly knowledgeable about 3D scanners overall. MakerLabs also has set hours when their members can visit to use their machines, which restricted when I could use their scanner and computer, as they were only open for members everyday for nine hours, between noon and 9pm. There were also times when I went to the MakerLabs studio and an employee was teaching the 3D printer and scanner class or there was already someone using the computer attached to the scanner. Most times this was only a minor inconvenience for no more than a few minutes, but when they were 50 teaching their class, I waited close to an hour before I could continue working on their computer.  For future research, it would be interesting to determine if two SemiFlex™ prints will actually attach well enough for a stage worthy prop, as that could have potentially been another problem for this project, if I was able to print both the nose and the body of the Scaramuccia mask. There is also the question about whether or not a SemiFlex™ print can be painted or if you would have to order the filament in your desired colour, instead of a generic white, like I did for this project, which is as conducive to painting as white walls. It is possible that, if the SemiFlex™ print does not take paint well, the addition of an adhesive like contact cement to the surface of the mask could help achieve the bond between the paint and the mask, but that in itself could create adverse chemical reactions In the future, it would be fascinating to execute this project building a 3D model from scratch instead of using a 3D scanner, which would run along the same lines of how the plasticine mask came to fruition in this project. I imagine that modelling from scratch would solve a lot of the problems that I ran into during the 3D scanning and model editing process, but it would more than likely also bring up its own problems to troubleshoot based off of CAD program limitations or the limitations of the 3D artist. It would also be interesting to research this application for props with less organically shaped and more substantially structured objects, as I believe that 3D scanners and printers would excel more in applications printing thicker props with fewer structural undercuts, like those found in Scaramuccia's nose and eye sockets.   51 Works Cited BBC UK. "Rate of Reaction 3 - Explosions and Catalysts." BBC - GCSE Bitesize. The BBC, 2014. Web. 20 Apr. 2016. Bilton, Nick. "Disruptions: On the Fast Track to Routine 3-D Printing." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 17 Feb. 2013. Web. 9 Apr. 2016. Duffy, Andrew. "A Brief History of 3D Printing." Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia Network Inc., 28 Aug. 2015. Web. 9 Apr. 2016. Lipson, Hod, and Melba Kurman. Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2013. Google Books. Web. 9 Apr. 2016. prototype.build. "3D Printer (FlashForge Creator Pro) & Print Settings." Prototype.Build: 3D Printing & Prototyping. prototype.build, 2016. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. Royal Society of Chemistry. "Plaster of Paris." Royal Society of Chemistry - Learn Chemistry. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016. Web. 16. Apr. 2016. "Types of 3D Printers or 3D Printing Technologies Overview." 3DPrintingfromscratch. 3DPrintingfromscratch, 2016. Web. 9 Apr. 2016.   52 Appendices Appendix A: FlashForge Creator Pro Dual Extrusion 3D Printer   The Creator Pro is the latest addition to FlashForge’s Creator family. Based on proven design of the Creator X chassis, the Pro is now enclosed. So you can print ABS better and more efficient than ever. The upgraded three-point platform leveling system is now more intuitive than ever. And the all-new heat resistant build platform support is now made of highly-durable metal. Guaranteed not to deform means more time printing and more fun. And a thicker Z-axis rod provides a more steady and precise movement. Every new addition and improvement syncs together in harmony. It simply works.  53 Key Features and Improvements: - Sturdy metal frame is substantially more stable than the Creator's original wood frame. - Warp-resistant 6.3mm aluminum build platform remains perfectly level under the stress of high heat. - New heat-resistant metal platform supports replace plastic supports. - New heavy-duty (10mm) z-axis guide rod ensures steady and precise movement. - New acrylic cover encloses the chamber to insulate and protect ABS prints. - New LED light illuminates the build chamber. - New integrated LCD screen and button board functions error-free.  Package Contains: - FlashForge Creator Pro. - 2 spool holders. - 2 spools of filament (net weight: 2.2 pounds per spool, material and color randomly selected). - 2 filament guide tubes. - Accessory bag containing nuts, screws, and hex wrench set. - Power supply cable. - USB cable. - End stop switch cable (spare part). - Acrylic covers kit.  - 4GB SD card (contains software, test sample files and user manual).  Dimensions: - Overall dimensions: 320 x 467 x 381 mm. - Packing dimension: 590 x 470 x 580 mm.   Software: - ReplicatorG - Compatibility: Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux - Print from SD card or over USB - Input file type: STL, gcode  Printing: - Build envelope: 225 x 145 x 150 mm. - Build volume: About 5 liters - Layer thickness: 0.1-0.3 mm. (adjustable) - Nozzle diameter: 0.4 mm.  Materials: - Works well with 1.75 mm ABS and PLA   54 Appendix B: Simplify3D Printing Software   Simplify3D Software provides industry-leading 3D printing software that transforms digital computer files into stunning and precise three-dimensional physical models. Compatible with nearly all desktop 3D printers, the all-in-one software suite integrates every step in the 3D printing process.  System Requirements: - Intel Pentium 4 or higher processor - 2GB or more of RAM - Windows XP or greater - Mac OS X 10.6 or greater - Ubuntu Linux 12.10 or greater - OpenGL 2.0 capable system   55 Appendix C: SemiFlex™ 3D Printing Filament    The best combination of flexibility and firmness. SemiFlex™ 3D printing filament boasts flexibility, strength and reliability for your 3D printing projects. The slightly more rigid composition vs. traditional NinjaFlex allows for increased tensile strength. In some cases the more rigid composition supports ease of printing in certain printers.  Key Features: - 900% elongation provides significant flexibility - 40% greater tensile strength vs. the most flexible products; 20% greater than PLA - Patented low friction exterior allows for smooth feeding - Consistent diameter and material properties providing reliable, high quality prints - Chemical resistant to many industrial materials, including naphtha, ASTM Oils #1-3, petroleum and freon - Adheres to most build platform materials (painter’s tape can help) - REACH and RoHS 2002/95/EC Directive compliant - Applications: snap-fit parts, high resolution text, active hinges - Shore Hardness = 98A  Printing Guidelines: - Extruder Temperature:  225°C – 235°C  - Platform Temperature: 80°C – 110°C Glue and/or blue painters tape is suggested if not using a heated bed.  - Print Speed:   - Top and bottom layers: 10-20 mm/sec (600-1200 mm/min)  - Infill speeds: 15-35 mm/sec (900-2100 mm/min) - Layer 2+ use cooling fan if available.  56 Appendix D: Scaramuccia Mask Sketches       57 Appendix E: NextEngine 3D Laser Scanner      NextEngine delivers an unprecedented combination of power and affordability. At 0.005 inch accuracy, it rivals systems costing 10 times the price. It's not a cheaper 3D Scanner. It's a better scanner that costs less. Compared with many $25,000+ scanners, NextEngine's data fidelity is far cleaner. No more annoying pops and spikes that take hours to edit out. The surface data is so clean, you can just use it straight from the scanner. The secret behind this big change is new technology invented by NextEngine. An all-new electro-optical architecture and sophisticated new algorithms use an array of lasers to scan in parallel. Result: higher point throughput and much better data fidelity.  58    59 Appendix F: NextEngine ScanStudio Software     Included standard with every Scanner is NextEngine's powerful ScanStudio application. It manages your scanner hardware, refines your data, and assembles it into a healed 3D mesh model. To support Ultra HD resolution the processing capacity of ScanStudio has been increased 5X. Previously, scanned models were limited to 5 million measured points. Now 25 million points can be used to define the scan objects shape.  Minimum System Requirements: - Windows 7 / 8  - 2.5 GHz Quad CPU - 16 GB RAM - Fast CPU - 40 GB Drive  60 Appendix G: Simplify3D Printer Settings   61  62  63  64  65  66  67  68  69  70  71   

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