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Evaluating spatial and temporal variability in British Columbia human palaeodiet : a meta-analysis of… Hepburn, Joseph Christophe 2016

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EVALUATING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA HUMAN PALAEODIET: A META-ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND NEW STABLE ISOTOPE DATA by  Joseph Christophe Hepburn  B.A., Simon Fraser University, 2013  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Anthropology)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2016  © Joseph Christophe Hepburn, 2016   ii  Abstract This study presents a meta-analysis of all available archaeological human carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from British Columbia (BC). Overall, isotope signatures for the coast demonstrate a heavy marine specialization consistent with archaeological and ethnographic reconstructions of Northwest Coast diet. Within this marine specialization, the data for coastal BC demonstrate a high degree of regional dietary variability, although high trophic level marine prey species are of ubiquitous importance. No large-scale dietary shifts are present for the coast, with consistent carbon and nitrogen δ-values across the entire timespan represented. Notable outliers exist throughout the coast, with three individuals possessing fully terrestrial diets in regions with otherwise heavily marine diets. In the BC interior diets are much more variable, representing a range between purely terrestrial to mixed marine (anadromous fish) and terrestrial. Along salmon-bearing rivers, the apparent marine component of diet is positively correlated with downstream proximity to the ocean.   iii  Preface This thesis is original, unpublished, independent work by the author, Joseph C. Hepburn. Data were aggregated from published works and original analyses as attributed in Appendix A, but all statistical analyses are solely the author’s own.  iv  Table of Contents  Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii	  Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii	  Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv	  List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... vi	  Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... vii	  Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................1	  Chapter 2: Traditional Perspectives on Northwest Coast Diet .................................................3	  2.1	   Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Characterization .......................................................... 3	  2.2	   Archaeological and Zooarchaeological Reconstruction .................................................... 4	  2.3	   The Development of Isotopic Palaeodiet Studies in British Columbia. ............................ 6	  2.4	   Present Expectations .......................................................................................................... 7	  Chapter 3: Stable Isotope Analyses ..............................................................................................9	  3.1	   Methods............................................................................................................................ 10	  3.2	   Integrity ............................................................................................................................ 11	  3.3	   Cooperation with the British Columbia Coroners Service .............................................. 11	  Chapter 4: BC Human Isotope Data ..........................................................................................13	  4.1	   Coastal BC Human Isotope Data ..................................................................................... 15	  4.2	   Interior BC Human Isotope Data ..................................................................................... 17	  4.3	   Limitations of Current Data ............................................................................................. 19	  Chapter 5: Analysis .....................................................................................................................20	  5.1	   Inter-Regional Variability ................................................................................................ 21	  v  5.1.1	   Non-Parametric ANOVA and MANOVA ................................................................ 21	  5.1.2	   Fraser and Thompson Rivers .................................................................................... 23	  5.2	   Temporal Variability and Trends ..................................................................................... 24	  5.2.1	   Temporal Variability in Carbon Isotope Values ....................................................... 24	  5.2.2	   Temporal Variability in Nitrogen Isotope Values .................................................... 25	  Chapter 6: Discussion ..................................................................................................................26	  6.1	   Spatial Variability in Isotope Values ............................................................................... 26	  6.2	   Temporal Variability in Isotope Values ........................................................................... 27	  6.3	   Statistical Limitations of Palaeodietary Modeling ........................................................... 27	  Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusion .......................................................................................29	  Bibliography .................................................................................................................................30	  Appendices ....................................................................................................................................33	  Appendix	  A ............................................................................................................................... 33	  Appendix B Summary Statistics for Coastal Regions .............................................................. 42	  Appendix C Summary Statistics for Interior Regions .............................................................. 43	   vi  List of Figures  Figure 1 Distribution of sites analyzed in the present study ......................................................... 13	  Figure 2. Plot of all 143 individuals with both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. ......... 14	  Figure 3. Boxplot of all carbon stable isotope values for coastal individuals .............................. 16	  Figure 4. Boxplot of all nitrogen stable isotope values for coastal individuals ............................ 16	  Figure 5. Boxplot of all carbon stable isotope values for individuals from the BC Interior ........ 18	  Figure 6. Boxplot of all nitrogen stable isotope values for individuals from the BC Interior ...... 18	  Figure 7. Carbon isotope values along the Fraser and Thompson Rivers. ................................... 23	  Figure 8. Plot of carbon stable isotope values by radiocarbon age. .............................................. 24	  Figure 9. Plot of nitrogen stable isotope values by radiocarbon age. ........................................... 25	   vii  Acknowledgements I would first like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Michael Richards for his support, guidance, and advice throughout my degree, and the opportunities he has provided me. I would also like to thank Drs. Michael Blake and David Pokotylo for their guidance and feedback on this thesis and throughout my degree. I am thankful to Dr. Brian Chisholm for the advice and discussion he has offered throughout my degree. Thanks to the UBC Archaeological Isotope group, Ale, Catherine, Christina, Eric, Jess, Liz, Megan, Paul, Reba, and others. I have benefitted greatly from your advice, input, and support. Much support and camaraderie has also been provided by my friends and colleagues in the department, from the 2013 500 cohort, and beyond. The same is true of my friends outside the department, thank you for all your support.  Finally, I am grateful for the support, advice, and motivation provided by my family, this would not have been possible without you. You have been instrumental throughout my academic career, and will continue to guide my future endeavours.   For all those I’ve missed, thank you, your support goes unmentioned but not unnoticed.    1 Chapter 1: Introduction   Much of the research evaluating pre-contact subsistence economies of the Northwest Coast (NWC) and Northwest Plateau of North America, including coastal and interior British Columbia (BC), has traditionally been heavily dependent on ethnographic data, and indirect measures of diet and subsistence, such as zooarchaeology. Such approaches rely on the circumstantial reconstruction of diet, and may be vulnerable to taphonomic, methodological, and analytical biases (eg. Cannon 2000; McKechnie 2013). Of particular note on the NWC is what Monks (1987) terms “salmonopia,” the overemphasis of salmon as a keystone food source. The general understanding of NWC subsistence has gradually shifted from one of homogeneity to one capturing a great deal of regional heterogeneity.  In contrast, stable isotope measurements of human bone can provide a direct measure of diet, although this is mainly biased towards identifying protein sources in diets over many years.  This thesis will focus on stable isotope evidence of human diet from published and newly produced isotope data for humans from BC, Canada.  It seeks to examine stable isotope data at intra-regional and inter-regional levels; establishing a regional framework to examine variability in isotopic signatures of diet in BC. This will be accomplished through a large-scale meta-analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen values of bone collagen from archaeological human burials across BC. The analysis of these two stable isotopes in bone collagen provides a direct measure of diet through a decade scale average signature of the qualities of protein in an individual’s diet (Hedges et al. 2007). Building upon early research by Chisholm et al. (1983b), Lovell et al. (1986), and Chisholm (1987), with the inclusion of later work including subsequent work by Chisholm published in Arcas Consulting (1994), Brown (1996), Arcas Consulting (1999), and elsewhere, this paper will present a broad overview of all available stable isotope   2 values from archaeological burials in BC. In addition to the meta-analysis of published stable isotope values, new archaeological values are introduced from ongoing work with the British Columbia Coroners Service (BCCS). The first analysis of these data is the broad evaluation of archaeological and ethnohistoric conclusions regarding the stability and ubiquity of marine-intensive subsistence economies. The second component of analysis is an examination of the long-term variability of isotopic dietary signatures in order to shed light on the continuity and change of pre-contact subsistence practices in BC.       3 Chapter 2: Traditional Perspectives on Northwest Coast Diet 2.1 Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Characterization  Ethnographic literature for the NWC of North America frequently highlights the importance of marine subsistence patterns. Across the NWC, villages predominantly clustered around productive streams and rivers frequented by anadromous fish (Drucker 1963; Goddard 1924; Kehoe 1981; Matson 2003). The relatively small role played by terrestrial game resources is attributed to the abundance of marine resources and technological advancements facilitating large scale procurement while maintaining sustainable populations of prey species (Matson and Coupland 1995; Suttles 1951; Tooker and Fried 1983). Typical of all anthropologists who worked on the NWC, Drucker (1963:35) states that “fishing was the basis of the Northwest Coast economy,” echoing Goddard (1924:19) who decades earlier wrote: “the natives of the Northwest Coast depended for their chief food supply on fish.”  Even reviews sensitive to the importance of plant resources state “the importance of [terrestrial] meat was insignificant with their great dependence upon fish” (Rivera 1949:20-21).  Until recently, most ethnographic and archaeological discussions of NWC economies, were largely unanimous in declaring that salmon were the central resource. Mitchell and Donald (1988:301) are unambiguous in their statement that “as a resource, salmon are the most singular feature of the Northwest Coast environment.”  In an economy he previously described as marine-dominant, Wayne Suttles (1951:114) later stated that “salmon were the most important fish caught;” perhaps due to their ubiquitous presence in “nearly every stream” with some rivers having salmon “present for much of the year” (Suttles 1978:25). In his ethnographic review of NWC cultures represented archaeologically, Matson (2003:3) states “fish, particularly Pacific salmon, are clearly the most important resource” across the NWC.   4  In both primary and secondary ethnographic accounts, there is a tendency to use ambiguous language when describing the dietary importance of gathered plants. Suttles’ (1978:23) Handbook of North American Indians: Northwest Coast states that “foods of animal origin may have contributed more in volume and in calories to native diet, but vegetable foods must have been essential to a healthful diet” (emphasis added). However, stable isotope analysis of bone collagen reflects only contributions from dietary protein, a nutrient not abundant in most plant foods in western North America (Ambrose and Norr 1993; Deur and Turner 2005; Norton et al. 1984; Rivera 1949). Thus, while Drucker (1963:53) and others may have erred in the suggestion that plants in NWC diets were “comparatively few and unimportant,” the ability of this present study to validate such a claim is limited.     2.2 Archaeological and Zooarchaeological Reconstruction  The reconstruction of past human diets has always featured prominently in BC archaeology, from the early scientific efforts of Charles Hill-Tout and Harlan Smith in the late nineteenth-century through to the present day. Hill-Tout remarked that the Great Fraser Midden, later known as the Marpole Midden or c̓əәsnaʔəәm “exceeds in mass and area the largest middens of Denmark” and further emphasized the important role of marine foods in the region (Hill-Tout 1895:103). Marine foods have long held an important role along the NWC, with conservative estimates placing the technological shift to intensive marine subsistence economies along the NWC at 8,000 BP (Kehoe 1981). Zooarchaeological evidence for this early marine specialization is present at Chuck Lake, Alaska (Pauketat 2012). The faunal assemblage for the Chuck Lake Site was 95% fish by NISP, with Ackerman et al. (1985) concluding that fish were the most important resource, followed by marine mammals, with a low frequency of terrestrial mammals of any type. In terms of direct dietary reconstruction, isotopic data from On Your   5 Knees Cave, Alaska demonstrate a diet of primarily marine protein in the region at 10,300 calBP (Dixon et al. 1997). This marine-primary subsistence pattern appears steady in the archaeological record, with antecedents to what has been termed the Developed Northwest Coast Pattern being well established along the Coast by 5,000 BP (Matson and Coupland 1995).   This concordance of ethnographic and archaeological sources has resulted in the success of the so-called “Developed Northwest Coast Pattern” as a model for pre-contact NWC societies. This model has been argued to be very robust through time, as reflected by the deep persistence of its traits in the archaeological record of the NWC (Ames 1998; Carlson 1998; Erlandson et al. 1998). Despite the common archaeological pattern of periodic upheavals in subsistence economy as a result of shifting resource availability, as with the spread of maize agriculture, or introduction of markedly different subsistence bases, as with Neolithic Western Europe, the NWC Pattern was stable in its general form for at least 5,000 years (Blake 2015; Richards et al. 2003). While resource fluctuations are inevitable, diminished harvests of one marine species appear to have been buffered by increased harvests of other marine species, and only more rarely, terrestrial prey species (McKechnie 2013).   Marine resources, particularly salmon, have dominated ethnographic and archaeological models of NWC diet. However, in evaluating the generalization of these models, it is becoming apparent that there is much more variability in regional diets than previously accounted for. Recent work has revealed greater species diversity (Cannon 2000; McKechnie 2013), and a greater heterogeneity in the development and specialization of local subsistence economies than is anticipated by broad regional models (Cannon et al. 2011; McMillan et al. 2008). In recognition of these developments, isotopic analysis provides a useful means to re-evaluate wide-scale and long-term variability in subsistence economies.    6 2.3 The Development of Isotopic Palaeodiet Studies in British Columbia.  Most of the archaeological human stable isotope data from BC originated from the work and collaborations of Brian Chisholm, Henry Schwarcz, and Erle Nelson. A major source of the data presented in this paper is Chisholm’s 1987 doctoral dissertation and accompanying database (Chisholm, pers comm.). Recently, Schwarcz, Chisholm, and Burchell (2014) revisited Chisholm’s dissertation with the publication of a revised and expanded dataset, with the notable inclusion of previously unpublished δ15N values.  Early work in isotopic palaeodietary reconstruction in BC came about as an attempt to systematize stable carbon isotope values as a means of determining the relative dietary intake of marine vs. terrestrial protein (Chisholm et al. 1982). BC provided an excellent region to evaluate this technique due to the total absence of C4 agriculture, and insignificant dietary contribution of wild C4 plants or consumers. Using endpoints of -13‰ δ13C for pure marine consumers, and -20‰ δ13C for pure terrestrial C3 consumers, Chisholm et al. (1982) created a linear mixing model to determine the relative dietary contribution of marine or terrestrial protein. Subsequently, Chisholm et al. (1983b) employed this mixing model to calculate the marine dietary contribution for 48 archaeological human burials from the BC coast. The minimum marine protein intake for all adult individuals was estimated to be approximately 80%, with over a third of individuals showing 95-100% marine protein intake. The authors noted the lack of definitive ethnographic and archaeological data on protein consumption for comparison with their results, a frequent problem when evaluating dietary models.   Lovell et al. (1986) applied this technique in an examination of salmon consumption in the BC interior. The study evaluated 44 archaeological human burials from 21 sites along the Fraser, Thompson, and Columbia rivers (see Figure 1), with a primary goal of examining differential access to salmon. This is made possible by the anadromous life cycle of salmon in   7 this region, whereby fish returning to spawn in freshwater streams and rivers possess a marine isotopic signature distinctly more negative than the terrestrial and freshwater signals of other prey in the region. Along the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser River, the authors estimated marine protein consumption ranging from approximately 60% at sites near the Fraser-Thompson confluence near Lytton, BC (Figure 1) decreasing to approximately 45% further inland. At a broader scale this was also visible, with ranges from 60% marine consumption to 10% marine consumption correlating well with inland distance along rivers. Overall, intra-site dietary homogeneity was assessed to be high, with no sex differences visible. Subsequent publications, including Chisholm’s 1987 doctoral dissertation, expanded upon this technique of estimating relative marine dietary input, and by extension, the importance of marine subsistence economies. Subsequent stable isotope palaeodietary publications in BC were primarily associated with cultural resource management site reports.  2.4 Present Expectations   From ethnographic accounts and archaeological reconstructions, it is evident that marine resources played an important role in diet of populations on the coast. The role of terrestrial mammal hunting on the coast appears to have been primarily economic; however some ethnographic sources state that terrestrial mammals still played a minor, if undesirable, dietary role (Hodgetts and Rahemtulla 2001). What remains disputed is the precise degree of diversity in marine species exploited; some models place singular emphasis on keystone species, while others propose a more diffuse resource base (Ames and Maschner 1999; Matson and Coupland 1995). It is probable that, while maintaining an overall marine focus, regional diets were variable in terms of both focus and breadth. Therefore, an unambiguously marine, but strongly variable, isotopic dietary signal is to be expected from a broader perspective. While the interior region of BC has no well-attested biases against the consumption of terrestrial mammals, it is   8 reasonable to assume that anadromous fish would contribute substantially to diet in whatever quantity was available. Overall, a diverse, but unambiguously marine signature is to be expected in coastal regions, while interior regions are likely to be primarily terrestrial, with the exception of regions with ready access to spawning salmon.     9 Chapter 3: Stable Isotope Analyses Stable isotope analyses provide a number of advantages over more traditional indirect measures of diet employed in archaeology. Palaeodietary reconstruction using stable isotope analysis is rooted in the fact that dietary protein is the primary constituent of bone collagen. Analysis of human bone collagen reveals an averaged input from protein consumption spanning approximately the last 10 to 25 years of a person’s life, depending on the skeletal element sampled (Hedges et al. 2007). This averaging effect is what lends a valuable life-historical perspective to stable isotope palaeodietary research. For reviews of carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics in palaeodietary reconstruction, see Katzenberg ( 2008) and Lee-Thorp (2008). Accurate palaeodietary reconstruction using carbon and nitrogen isotopes requires baseline data from contemporaneous fauna, as dietary isotope pools are part of dynamic systems involving environmental variability or anthropogenic activity (Chisholm 1989; Szpak 2014). Therefore, this present study is limited to broad measures of continuity and similarity, and cannot provide meaningful statements regarding the relative importance of specific prey species.  Of particular importance for the present research is the ability to differentiate between marine and terrestrial protein consumption using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. In the case of carbon isotope values, marine carbon (i.e. dissolved inorganic carbonate) is enriched by ~7‰ relative to terrestrial carbon (i.e. atmospheric CO2) (Craig 1953). Prior to European contact, BC lacked C4 plants of dietary importance, whether domesticated or wild. The practical implications of this are that lower δ13C values (~–21‰) represent exclusively terrestrial protein consumption, while higher δ13C values (~–12‰) represent exclusively marine protein consumption. Nitrogen isotope values are representative of relative trophic position, with a stepwise enrichment in δ15N values of 3-5‰ from diet to consumer, allowing the differentiation of different protein consumption patterns (Deniro and Epstein 1981; Hedges and Reynard 2007;   10 Schoeninger and DeNiro 1984). The more extended nature of marine and freshwater trophic webs dictates that marine prey species possess higher δ15N values than terrestrial prey species. Therefore, the consumption of marine or terrestrial protein can be differentiated using nitrogen isotope values in consumers, with terrestrial omnivory typified by δ15N values of approximately 10‰, while marine diets can result in δ15N values of up to 17-20‰ (Schoeninger et al. 1983). 3.1 Methods The data reviewed in this paper come from a variety of sources and reflect long-term methodological developments in the field of stable isotope analyses. Values obtained from Chisholm (1987), Arcas Arcas Consulting (1994), Arcas Arcas Consulting (1999), and Schwarcz et al. (2014) primarily reflect results obtained using a collagen extraction method called a modified Longin (1971) method, specifically termed “The Grootes Method,” as described in Chisholm et al. (1983a) and outlined in detail in Chisholm (1987). The Grootes method involves demineralization with 0.1 N HCl, followed by an overnight lipid removal step using 0.1 N NaOH, followed by gelatinization at 90°C in pH 3 HCl. After filtration and oven-drying, samples were combusted in evacuated tubes with a CuO catalyst. Analysis occurred at three institutions: McMaster University using a VG 202D instrument, the University of British Columbia (UBC) using a VG-Prism instrument, and the University of Kyushu using an Europa ANCA-SL instrument (Schwarcz et al. 2014).  Samples processed more recently in the course of collaborations on casework for the BCCS employed a different modification of the Longin (1971) method, following Richards and Hedges (1999). Sample preparation for these samples occurred at UBC and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. Sample preparation in these cases involves mechanical decontamination followed by demineralization at 4°C in 0.5 mol HCl. After demineralization was complete, samples were solubilized at 75°C in pH 3 HCl for 48   11 Hours. Subsequently, samples were prefiltered using 60-90 µm Ezee-Filters (Elkay Laboratory Products, UK), followed by ultrafiltration using 30 kDa Microsep ultrafilters (Pall Corporation). The >30 kDa fraction was then lyophilized, weighed into tin capsules, and analyzed on an VarioMicro Cube (Elementar, Germany) elemental analyzer coupled and IsoPrime IRMS (Isoprime, UK) in the case of UBC, and a Flash elemental analyzer and Delta V IRMS (Thermo Finnigan, USA) in the case of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.  3.2 Integrity Studies of modern bone collagen have yielded a suite of parameters used to evaluate collagen degradation in archaeological bone samples and ensure the integrity of samples (Ambrose 1990; DeNiro 1985; Harbeck and Grupe 2009; van Klinken 1999).  Bone is approximately 22% collagen by weight in vivo, as such, overall collagen yields provide an initial means of estimating bone preservation before isotope measurements are taken (van Klinken 1999). A standard practice today is the calculation of atomic C:N ratios using measurements of the total carbon and nitrogen content of combusted samples. Determination of in vivo C:N ratios by DeNiro (1985) established a range of 2.9-3.6 as acceptable values for well-preserved bone. Sample data possessing C:N ratios outside this range should be discarded (see Chapter 4.3). Because the present study relies mostly on data from published sources, data regarding collagen yields and C:N ratios were not available for all samples. While data on analytical precision are not directly attributable to individual samples, Schwarcz et al. (2014) estimate analytical precision at ±0.1‰ for δ13C and ±0.2‰ for δ15N measurements. Wherever possible, samples were excluded from analyses if the data present failed to meet integrity criteria.  3.3 Cooperation with the British Columbia Coroners Service In 2011, the Identification and Disaster Response Unit (IDRU) of the BCCS approached Dr. Michael Richards at the UBC Archaeological Isotope Lab regarding the utility isotopic   12 characterization of unidentified remains. The IDRU was established in 2006 and is tasked with assisting local coroners in identification, as well revisiting investigations with previously unidentified human remains. An effective methodology has been established whereby remains undergo preliminary characterization using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, with subsequent radiocarbon dating on a longer-term basis. This partnership provides a practical application of archaeological data in modern unidentified remains investigations, facilitating the identification and proper disposition for both modern and archaeological human remains. Isotope values from human remains definitively radiocarbon dated to be archaeological from this work (n=8) are used in the present study and can be found in Appendix A  These new values represent an ongoing contribution towards the isotopic reconstruction of past human diets in BC.     13 Chapter 4: BC Human Isotope Data The present study encompasses a total of 332 archaeological or early post-contact individuals from coastal and interior regions of BC. These individuals originate from approximately 731 documented archaeological sites. Regional affinity is organized by semi-arbitrary regions following modified conventions established in previous work (eg. Chisholm 1987; Schwarcz et al. 2014). Figure 1 shows the distribution of sites.   Figure 1. Distribution of sites analyzed in the present study. An initial assessment of available individuals from coastal and interior regions with both carbon and nitrogen isotope data (n = 143) (Figure 2) reveals that although most coastal and                                                 1 This number is approximate due to incomplete legacy site documentation, missing Borden Number attribution, or forensic recovery of remains.    14 many interior samples cluster in a range consistent with consumption of high trophic level marine prey, a number of outliers show values consistent with mixed marine/terrestrial consumption, all the way to fully terrestrial C3 consumers.  Subsequent discussion will explore regional and temporal variability in greater depth. A detailed summary of all values is in Appendix A  while summary statistics for coastal and interior regions are in Appendix B  and Appendix C  respectively.  Figure 2. Plot of 143 individuals with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values.   15 4.1 Coastal BC Human Isotope Data A total of 233 archaeological individuals from coastal BC have been compiled for analysis here, with 119 individuals having both carbon and nitrogen data, and the remaining 114 having only carbon isotope data available. For the purposes of the present analysis, individuals are organized by broad regional affiliation, as most documented archaeological sites have too few individuals to contribute meaningfully to inter-site comparisons. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results for all coastal BC individuals are summarized by region in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively. Median δ13C values are between –13 and –14‰ for Central Coast, Fraser Delta, Gulf Islands, Haida Gwaii, North Coast, Salish Sea, and Fraser Delta regions, suggesting a high degree of inter-regional homogeneity. These carbon isotope values are consistent with the consumption of primarily marine foods. However, in line with previous observations from Figure 2 regarding a gradient of outliers extending to values consistent with terrestrial C3 consumers, a negative skew in carbon isotope values is visible in Figure 3.  Nitrogen isotope ratios cluster less densely on an inter-regional level, with seven out of nine coastal geographic regions possessing median nitrogen δ-values between 17 and 20‰. In these seven regions, dietary specialization towards high trophic level marine fish or marine mammals is likely. It is important to note that the presence of significant outliers (Figure 3) in the distributions of carbon isotope values impacts measures of variability, particularly for the Gulf Islands, and Salish Sea regions. For this reason, central tendency and variability should be assessed by way of median values and interquartile range, as seen in Figure 3 & Figure 4, and Appendix B  .    16  Figure 3. Boxplot of all carbon stable isotope values for coastal individuals, subdivided by geographic region. The distribution of carbon isotope values for most regions indicates an almost entirely marine origin of dietary protein. The regional exceptions to this pattern are Northern Vancouver Island, and Western Vancouver Island. In addition to this broader pattern, outliers are present in nearly every region. While this present study lacks definitive data to define a threshold for purely terrestrial protein consumption, δ13C values of approximately 20‰ are a likely indicator of largely terrestrial protein consumption.   Figure 4. Boxplot of all nitrogen stable isotope values for coastal individuals, subdivided by geographic region. The distribution of nitrogen isotope values demonstrates a greater degree of variability than seen in carbon isotope values, but this is not unexpected. All regions show distributions consistent with marine and aquatic protein consumption. In light of consistently marine carbon isotope values, the variability in nitrogen values reflects regional diversity in marine dietary niches.    17 4.2 Interior BC Human Isotope Data For the interior region of BC, a total of 86 archaeological individuals were aggregated from the literature, with 24 individuals having both carbon and nitrogen isotope data, and the remaining 62 having only carbon isotope data. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope results for all individuals from interior BC are summarized by region in Figures 5 and 6 respectively. Summary statistics by region can be found in Appendix C  , and as with coastal individuals, a summary of all values can be found in Appendix A  Taken as a whole, the median stable isotope values for interior individuals are  –16.3‰ for carbon, and 17.7‰ for nitrogen. Nitrogen values remain high in the interior, but this is not surprising in light of the conclusions reached by Lovell et al. (1986) that salmon contributed substantially to the diet of individuals along major salmon-bearing rivers. It is also likely that aquatic fish were an additional source of high trophic level dietary protein. When the data are parsed more finely, a difference between sites adjacent to salmon bearing rivers and isolated sites becomes apparent, as explored further in Section 5.1.2.     18  Figure 5. Boxplot of all carbon stable isotope values for individuals from the BC Interior, subdivided by geographic region. Carbon isotope values are lower than those seen for Coastal regions, and show a greater degree of variability. Overall, the range of Interior carbon isotope values is consistent with the consumption of a mixture of terrestrial and marine protein.   Figure 6. Boxplot of all nitrogen stable isotope values for individuals from the BC Interior, subdivided by geographic region. It is important to note that nitrogen values are only available for 28% of individuals from the Interior, therefore extrapolation from these values should be conservative. Nitrogen values from the Interior are consistent with the consumption of terrestrial protein, in addition to freshwater or marine protein. However, the Lower Fraser Canyon possesses nitrogen values consistent with solely aquatic or marine protein consumption.     19 4.3 Limitations of Current Data A full assessment of the integrity of compiled data is not possible due to the incomplete nature of existing published data. As such, strict quality controls as established by DeNiro (1985) could not be implemented on all data from published sources. Wherever atomic C:N ratios were available, data were excluded if they fell outside the established 2.9-3.6 range. A total of 29 coastal individuals were excluded from the present study on this basis. An additional 197 coastal individuals, in addition to all 79 interior individuals from published sources, possess no known C:N ratios. However, all new data produced by the author and others in the course of work with the BCCS was subjected to all possible checks of integrity, as outlined in Chapter 3:. In addition, care has been taken to select only isotope values directly measured (i.e. using an IRMS apparatus) for palaeodietary reconstruction, given the problematic nature of δ13C values obtained during process of AMS 14C dating. The presence of strong outliers is notable in several regions, but in the absence of definitive grounds for exclusion for others, no data have been removed arbitrarily.   20 Chapter 5: Analysis Analysis of the present cases is conducted along both regional and temporal scales. Because of the substantially marine focus of coastal, and to some extent interior BC subsistence economies, analysis begins in Section 5.1 with an assessment of inter-regional variability. Following this, Section 5.2 explores the temporal variability in stable isotope values in BC. For the present purposes, carbon and nitrogen δ-values are primarily examined separately in statistical testing, due to the limited number of individuals with bivariate carbon and nitrogen measurements. However, it is important to note that the biogeochemical processes underlying the distribution of these isotopes frequently result in bivariate relationships. While present analyses are limited, multivariate analyses are more appropriate going forward, as more data become available.  In this section, the emerging models of coastal and interior diet will be evaluated statistically. The threshold for significance for all tests herein is α=0.05.  Agreeing well with existing reconstructions of Coastal diets, Section 4.1 indicates a strongly marine diet across all coastal regions. The relative homogeneity in carbon isotope values in coastal regions suggests a marine origin of the majority of dietary protein, while variability in nitrogen isotope values indicates diversity among regions within this marine specialization. In terms of Interior diets, Section 4.2 shows a more uncertain and mixed dietary composition, with carbon and nitrogen isotopes both suggesting the consumption of terrestrial prey in addition to substantial amounts of aquatic or marine prey. Lovell et al. (1986) have suggested a spatial component to this variability with proximity to the ocean dictating a more substantial dietary contribution from salmon. Temporal interpretations are limited thus far, but if timelines from the literature discussed in Chapter 2: are valid, then these patterns are likely stable over time.   21 5.1 Inter-Regional Variability 5.1.1 Non-Parametric ANOVA and MANOVA Because of the limited nature of the present data, not all groups are normally distributed and all analyses of variance have been conducted using non-parametric tests.  Initial Kruskal-Wallis tests of heterogeneity between all regions with suitable sample sizes, for both coastal and interior individuals indicate statistically significant variation between regions for both carbon (χ2=179.277, DF=14, n=319, p<0.001) and nitrogen (χ2=59.826, DF=12, n=143, p<0.001) isotope values.  For the BC coast, inter-regional variability is significant (α=0.05) when evaluating carbon and nitrogen δ-values on a bivariate basis using permutational MANOVA (F=7.435, DF=7, n=148 r2=0.274, α<0.001), as well as with univariate K-W tests for carbon (χ2=41.946, DF=7, n=233, p<0.001) and nitrogen (χ2=38.822, DF=6, n=119, p<0.001). Therefore, carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the Coast as a whole are not statistically homogeneous.  Interior samples are likewise statistically significantly variable between regions in both carbon (χ2=14.050, DF=6, n=86, p=0.029) and nitrogen (χ2=11.113, DF=5, n=24, p=0.049) isotope values. The preceding tests simply indicate statistical heterogeneity in carbon and nitrogen across the Coast and Interior, but do not provide insight regarding the magnitude or source of variability between regions. Pairwise post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests, the results of which are shown in Table 1, provide a measure of statistical comparison between individual regions for both carbon and nitrogen values. A significant result in these tests, indicated by green hatched shading, indicates that the two regions evaluated are statistically significantly different. It is important to note that this section assesses inter-regional variability on a pseudo-synchronic basis; meaning the isotope values are grouped by region without taking temporal differences into consideration. To evaluate the statistical soundness of this method, Section 5.2 will evaluate temporal patterning in carbon and nitrogen isotope values for Coastal BC.    22  Haida Gwaii         Haida Gwaii C N North Coast        North Coast   C N Central Coast       Central Coast     C N Gulf Islands      Gulf Islands       C N Salish Sea     Salish Sea         C N Fraser Delta    Fraser Delta           C N Lower Fraser Canyon   Lower Fraser Canyon             C N Middle Fraser Canyon  Middle Fraser Canyon               C N Thompson River Thompson River                 C N Interior BC                   Table 1. Matrix of pairwise Mann Whitney U Test significance values for isotope values with modified Bonferroni adjustment. Green hatched shading indicates a significant difference in carbon or nitrogen isotope values between regions. To assess the role of salmon-bearing rivers in the Interior region, sites along the Fraser and Thompson rivers are grouped separately from the remaining regions in the Interior. Carbon isotope values do not differ significantly between Coastal regions, with the exception of the Gulf Islands and Salish Sea regions.  23 5.1.2 Fraser and Thompson Rivers As noted in Section 4.2, there appears to be a relationship between isotope signatures and proximity to the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, both major salmon-bearing rivers. Broadening the spatial perspective adopted by (Lovell et al. 1986), isotope values from individuals buried within the immediate height-of-land surrounding the Fraser, Thompson, or South Thompson Rivers were analyzed in greater detail. To move beyond a rank-ordered inter-comparison of sites as conducted by Lovell et al. (1986) and allow an examination of the magnitude of spatial influence on diet, the effect of the downstream distance to the ocean from each site was evaluated. As shown in Figure 7, carbon isotope values are weakly correlated with distance from the ocean (r=0.637, r2=0.406, F=60.126, p<0.001). As distance upriver increases, carbon isotope values trend downwards, indicating an increased dietary contribution from terrestrial or freshwater foods.  Figure 7. Carbon isotope values along the Fraser and Thompson Rivers.    24 5.2 Temporal Variability and Trends This section will explore the relationship between stable isotope values and radiocarbon age for Coastal BC. Given the greater dispersion of carbon and nitrogen δ-values found in the interior, a more regional model is required, and statistical analyses will be limited to coastal regions..  5.2.1 Temporal Variability in Carbon Isotope Values A total of 68 coastal individuals and 16 individuals from the interior have been directly radiocarbon dated. Plotting carbon isotope values against un-calibrated radiocarbon age (Figure 8) reveals a relatively stable pattern across approximately 5000 years. No meaningful statistically significant relationships (i.e. α=0.05, r2>0.01) exist between radiocarbon age and carbon isotope values at an intra-regional level. For the coast as a whole, less than 10% of variability in isotope values can be attributed to radiocarbon age  (r=0.284, r2=0.08, n=68 F=5.808, p=0.019). This directly demonstrates the long-term stability of predominantly marine diets in coastal BC.   Figure 8. Plot of carbon stable isotope values by radiocarbon age.   25  5.2.2 Temporal Variability in Nitrogen Isotope Values A total of 33 coastal and 11 interior individuals with nitrogen data have been radiocarbon dated. Plotting nitrogen isotope values against un-calibrated radiocarbon age (Figure 9) reveals a distribution with properties similar to the distribution of δ13C values against time. Intra-regionally, no statistically significant and meaningful relationships exist between δ15N values and age.  For the coast as a whole, there is no significant or substantial relationship between δ15N and radiocarbon age across the 5000-year period represented (r=0.083, r2=0.007, n=38, F=0.247, df=1, p=0.622). Using all available coastal carbon and nitrogen data, these results show no linear temporal patterning of δ-values, and therefore no large-scale linear dietary shifts away from high trophic level marine species.  Figure 9. Plot of nitrogen stable isotope values by radiocarbon age.   26 Chapter 6: Discussion  6.1 Spatial Variability in Isotope Values Overall, coastal isotope values present a picture of marine-intensive subsistence, but with a greater degree of statistical nuance both within regions, and across the Coast than was anticipated when taking into account other models of NWC diet. While carbon isotope values were statistically heterogeneous at an inter-regional level for the Coast, their overall distribution still functionally supports the conclusion of homogeneity in the importance of marine resources. Much of the inter-site coastal variability presented in Figure 3 Figure 4 is likely due to regional differences in marine prey species. However, reconstruction of the exact nature of these differences is outside the scope of this present work; the necessary faunal baseline for comparison with human values would require a substantial number of new isotope measurements of faunal remains from each region of interest. Extending to the interior region, it is apparent that anadromous fish, particularly salmon, play a substantial dietary role. Upriver distance from the ocean correlates with lower carbon isotope values, as shown in Figure 7, indicating the presence of a gradient of marine resource availability or intensity of exploitation. However, it is also likely that freshwater fish played an important dietary role, as suggested by elevated nitrogen isotope values even in regions with lower carbon isotope values. Beyond this initial assessment, a more critical approach is necessary in establishing ecological variability in isotope signatures prior to further dietary reconstruction (Orchard and Szpak 2015).  One area where this present analysis falls short is the exploration of anomalous values, such as those from Hesquiat Harbour (DiSo-1) at –19‰ δ13C and 9.2‰ δ15N, Somenos Creek (DeRw-18) at –18.3 ‰ δ13C and 10.3‰ δ15N, or the forensic case S-EVA 22563 from the Salish Sea at –16.5‰ δ13C and 12‰ δ15N. These individuals originate from securely archaeological burial contexts, or have been directly radiocarbon dated (Boehm 1974; Calvert 1980). Anomalous terrestrial C3 values   27 like these have been attributed to the presence of nonlocal migrants from inland regions (Schwarcz et al. 2014). Despite the predominance of marine diets along the Coast, this explanation does not fully take into account the trend of outlying individuals with varying degrees of mixed marine/terrestrial diets (see Figure 2). A life-historical approach to analyzing the full range of these individuals with mixed or solely terrestrial diets has the potential to shed light on dietary differences and stratification, and potentially human mobility.  6.2 Temporal Variability in Isotope Values It is noteworthy that this study did not detect statistically meaningful temporal trends in isotope values.  This may indicate that within the broad marine specialization of Coastal peoples, prey diversity and harvesting tactics remained consistent. The examination of temporal trends in stable isotope values largely validates archaeological interpretations based on faunal analysis and ethnographic analogy about the NWC. That is to say, the marine-intensive subsistence economy of the NWC Pattern was established in its general form by at least 5000 BP and has been stable thereafter (Ames 1998; Carlson 1998; Erlandson et al. 1998). Any further approaches using this method should take into account any potential temporal biases in the geographic origin of samples under analysis. However, the robusticity of such modeling would benefit from the integration of a greater number of isotope values from directly dated individuals.  6.3 Statistical Limitations of Palaeodietary Modeling  With any kind of statistical modeling, it is important to remain aware of potential sources of error or bias stemming from both the data used, and the statistical models themselves. In the case of the present analyses, bias begins with burial practices. Differential burial treatments as a product of status are well documented, potentially leading to the inhumation of a non-representative cross-section of populations under study. For example, ethnographic accounts suggest the widespread use of “degrading burial” practices for slaves, such as deposition in the ocean (Donald 1997: 179; 314).   28 Conversely, those of high status may have been preferentially buried in shell middens, resulting in their overrepresentation archaeologically (Burchell 2006).  Taphonomy is an underlying factor to consider, especially in light of coastal BC’s predominantly evergreen forests, which favour and sustain an acidic soil environment (Jungen and Lewis 1978; Matyssek 1986). Bone does not preserve well in acidic soils, and is therefore seldom found on the NWC except in shell middens, which provide a more alkaline environment (Lyman 1994:422; White and Hannus 1983). Finally, the large rate of attrition seen with increasingly data intensive tests is highly problematic, and tests better able to accommodate missingness are necessary for future work.    29 Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusion The goal of this work was to provide a summary of existing archaeological stable isotope data from BC, and serve as a baseline for future research in the region. By aggregating all available published isotope data and integrating isotope data gained through forensic casework, more meaningful explorations of BC palaeodiet were made possible. At present, this encompasses stable isotope data from 332 archaeological individuals from both coastal and interior regions of BC. At such a broad regional scale, the data have been used to simultaneously demonstrate the robust marine diet among coastal peoples, while also demonstrating diversity within and among these same groups.  This work provides a basis from which to examine variability in BC subsistence economies at a broad scale. The present assessment of spatial dietary variability demonstrates a large degree of heterogeneity, both intra-regionally and inter-regionally. Despite this variability, the data indicate a primarily marine diet across the coast, and a substantial marine dietary contribution from anadromous fish in the interior. Presently, no clear patterning of inter-regional differences is present, but exploration of these differences in more detail would be a useful subject for future research. An inter-regional exploration of prey species isotope values is a necessary step for such analyses exploring the diversity of resource use. Despite regional variability, isotope values are very stable temporally for both carbon and nitrogen over a period of approximately 5000 years. 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American Antiquity 48(2):316-322.     33 Appendices  Appendix	  A	  	  	  Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Gulf Islands Esquimalt DcRu-52 Jan-89 -13.3    610 440 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Welbury Point DfRu-42 44-59 -12.6   F 1260 80 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 SFU 1 -14.2 17.1  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 SFU 2 -12.9 18.8  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 SFU 4 -14.0 19.6     Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 SFU 5a -14.9 16.2  PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 SFU 6 -13.1 17.1 2.9 PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 SFU 7 -12.8 18.7  PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 BCPM 1 -14.0 17.1 2.9 F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Helen Point DfRu-8 BCPM 2 -13.2 18.2  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 84-12 -13.8 15.3   4920 220 Chisholm Pers. Comm. Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 85-1 -18.7    1710 190 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 85-10a -20.4      Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 85-13 -12.4   M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 85-16 -12.4      Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 85-9a -12.3   M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-1 85-9b -16.5      Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-12 -13.5 15.3 3.5 M 5170 220 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-23 -13.1 18.3 2.9 M 4580 550 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-23a -12.7   PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-27 -13.3   F 3260 200 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-30a -12.8   M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-31 -12.4 18.3 2.9 F 4320 220 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-33 -12.7   F 4430 170 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-34a -13.0 17.1 2.9 M 2580 180 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-34b -13.5   F 4320 150 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-34c -12.8    3370 280 Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-41 -13.2   PM 3940 140 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-43 -17.4   PF 3050 150 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-44 -14.2 16.5 3.0 M 1420 90 Schwarcz et al 2014   34 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-46 -12.8   M   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 84-47 -12.8      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-1 -12.0    4070 150 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-2 -12.8      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-4 -12.8   M 1340 150 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-7 -12.9   F   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-8 -13.3      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-9a -12.5   M   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-9b -16.5      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-12 -11.9    1460 130 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-13 -12.4   M   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-14 -12.1      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-15 -12.6   F   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-16 -12.3   M   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-17 -12.7   M 3520 170 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-19 -12.9   F   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-20 -12.5      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-21 -13.0   M   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-22 -12.8    4165 60 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-23 -13.2      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-24 -13.0   F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-26 -12.6   F   Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-27 -13.3      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-29b -12.7      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-30 -12.8    3750 160 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-32 -12.7      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-34 -13.7      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-35 -12.7      Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-36 -13.0   F 3600 160 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-37 -13.7   F 3380 150 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 85-38 -13.4   M 3630 140 Chisholm 1986 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 8936/58-4 -13.4      Schwarcz et al 2014 Gulf Islands Pender Canal DeRt-2 86-21 -13.3      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 1 -13.8   M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 3 -13.0 18.0  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 4 -13.6 17.6  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 5 -13.5 18.8  M   Schwarcz et al 2014   35 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 6 -13.5 17.3  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 7 -13.2 17.9  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 8 -13.4 16.2  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 10 -13.4 19.2  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 13 -14.2 16.9  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 15 -13.5 15.2  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 16 -13.7 17.1  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 20 -13.5 19.6     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 23 -13.9 17.1     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Crescent Beach  DgRr-1 27 -13.4 18.6     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 10 6214k -13.5      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 18 2368 -13.9 17.4     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 28 144 -12.7 19.3     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 3 part 37 -13.3 18.4     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 4 814 -13.3      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 6 #MS 5 -13.0 17.9     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 96 #2368 -13.8 18.2     Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta St. Mungo DgRr-2 97 #2897 -13.6      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 13 -14.0      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 23 -13.9   F 2810 70 Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 24 -13.7   M 2720 80 Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 25 -14.4 17.6 2.9 F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 27 -15.3      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 10a -15.0      Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 15e -14.1   M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1 H 29 -13.2 16.5   1770 120 Chisholm Pers. Comm. Fraser Delta Beach Grove DgRs1  -15.8    2810 70 Chisholm Pers. Comm. Fraser Delta White Rock   -15.9      Chisholm Pers. Comm. Fraser Delta Belcarra  DhRr-6  -13.3 18.3   2190 90 Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast Boardwalk Site GbTo-31 328 -14.1      Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast Boardwalk Site GbTo-31 330 -13.9      Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast Lachane Site GbTo-33 455 -13.0    2295 50 Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast Lachane Site GbTo-33 467 -13.0      Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast Baldwin Site  GbTo-36 509 -13.2      Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast Baldwin Site  GbTo-36 515 -12.7      Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast  GgTj-6 2D-48 -13.5      Schwarcz et al 2014 North Coast  GgTj-6 3D-23 -14.0      Schwarcz et al 2014   36 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Haida Gwaii Haans Island FgTw-5 73-14 -13.0 19.0 3.1    Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Bluejackets Creek FlUa-4 17 -11.7 19.2 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Naden Harbour FlUd s59-23 -12.4      Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Naden Harbour GaUa-2 83-29 -18.8   M 1230 60 Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Kung IR GaUd-1 57-6(1) -12.9 19.0 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Kung IR GaUd-1 57-6(2) -13.7 20.1 3.6    Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Yaku GbUg-2 71-101 -13.5      Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Langara Island GbUg-Y s47-4(1) -13.0 20.2 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Langara Island GbUg-Y s47-4(2) -12.8 21.0 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Haida Gwaii Dead Tree Point   -11.6      Chisholm Pers. Comm. Central Coast Claatse Bay FcSx-1 73-6(1) -13.0 23.3 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Claatse Bay FcSx-1 73-6(2) -13.4 19.1 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 6818 -11.7 19.3 3.0    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 7549 -14.5 19.3 3.1    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 13027 -13.3 18.4 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 1-13D-1 -14.9 20.1 3.4    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 11-1A-2 -13.7 19.4 3.0    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 4-B-1 -13.1 19.4 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 4-G-3 -13.4 19.1 3.0 F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 4-G-5 -13.5 18.2 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 4-G-6 -13.1 19.4 3.0    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 5-11P-1 -12.7 20.2 2.9 M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-1 -13.0 19.2     Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-2 -12.8 19.4  M 4975 130 Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-3 -12.9 20.2  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-4 -14.5 17.4     Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-6 -13.0 19.7  PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-7 -12.6   M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-8 -16.9      Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-9 -13.6   PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-10 -12.8 19.5  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 77-12 -14.7   PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 78-1 -13.1 20.2  M 2530 160 Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 8-12A-1 -13.9 19.5 3.0 PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 9-3B-2 -14.5 18.4 3.1 PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-G-1 -13.5 18.8  PF   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-G-2 -13.4 19.2  PM 4680 160 Schwarcz et al 2014   37 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-G-4 -13.0 19.1  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-G-8 -13.6 17.7  PF 4885 125 Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-H -12.5 19.9  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-I -13.0 18.6     Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 4-J-1 -13.0 19.7  F 4390 160 Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 FS 2-12E-1 -13.8   F 4480 125 Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 9-1-22 -11.7      Chisholm 1986 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 9-1-24 -14.5      Chisholm 1986 Central Coast Namu ElSx-1 9-1-39 -13.3   F   Chisholm 1986 Central Coast McNaughton Isl. ElTb-10 1 -13.4 18.1 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Kwatna Inlet FaSu-6 1 -13.5 19.7     Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Kwatna Inlet FaSu-9 3 -14.3      Schwarcz et al 2014 Central Coast Kimsquit FeSr-10 7 -13.6 19.3  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Western Vancouver Island Hesquiat Harbour DiSo-1 e.u. 18 L. 9c -19.0 9.2 3.6    Schwarcz et al 2014 Western Vancouver Island Hesquiat Harbour DiSo-9 e.u. 9 L. 5b  -14.4 19.7 3.1    Schwarcz et al 2014 Salish Sea Bliss Landing EaSe-2 1 -13.8 20.2 2.9    Schwarcz et al 2014 Salish Sea Bliss Landing EaSe-2 2 -12.5 17.4 2.9 M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Salish Sea Bliss Landing EaSe-2 3 -13.1 19.0 2.9 M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Lower Fraser Canyon Milliken DjRi-3 1 -17.1 19.7     Schwarcz et al 2014 Lower Fraser Canyon Milliken DjRi-3 2 -15.3 20.2   1170 120 Schwarcz et al 2014 Lower Fraser Canyon Milliken DjRi-3 3 -15.5 20.5   890 120 Schwarcz et al 2014 Lower Fraser Canyon Milliken DjRi-3 7 -15.7 20.3   970 130 Schwarcz et al 2014 Lower Fraser Canyon Milliken DjRi-3  -15.9 20.0   1060 130 Schwarcz et al 2014 Lower Fraser Canyon Esilao Village DjRi-5 1 -20.6 19.8   450 60 Schwarcz et al 2014 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 15 -13.9 16.7 3.0 F 1720 70 Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 16 -16.6 13.2 2.9    Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 17 -14.8 16.0 3.4 F   Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 18 -13.6 19.5 3.0    Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 20a -13.8 17.3 3.0 F 1560 70 Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 20b -14.6 16.0 3.6    Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 22a -18.3 10.3 3.3 M 1775 60 Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 22b -13.7 17.5 3.0 F   Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 22c -14.8 18.2 3.2    Brown 1996 Salish Sea Somenos Creek DeRw-18 23 -14.6 17.5 3.2  1530 60 Brown 1996 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G1 -13.2   F 1430 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G2 -13.2   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G3 -13.2   M 1500 50 Arcas 1999   38 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G4 -15.5   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G5a -13.9   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G7 -13.8   M 1280 70 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 G8a -14.3   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 B1 -14.6   M 1670 100 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 B2 -13.5   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 B3 -14.1   M 1520 70 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 F4a -13.4 17.8  M 3680 80 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 F4b -13.0 17.3  M 4120 120 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C8 -14.9   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C12 -13.3   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C14 -13.9      Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C15 -13.6      Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C16 -14.1   F 1260 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C17 -12.6 18.0  F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C18 -13.5 17.8  F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C19 -13.6 16.9  F 2060 90 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C21 -13.9      Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C23 -14.2 18.6  F 1350 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C24 -14.5 16.9  F 1520 50 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 C25 -14.1      Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 S2 -12.6   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 S3 -13.9   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 S5 -14.1      Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D12b -14.1   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D14 -13.3 16.8  M 3880 50 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D16 -13.8 18.7  M 3800 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D23 -13.7 17.9  F 1550 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D26 -14.0   F 1150 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D30 -13.5   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D31 -13.7      Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D33 -12.9   M 1400 50 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D34b -13.6   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D35 -13.7   M   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D37 -13.4   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D38 -13.3   F   Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D39 -12.3   M 1410 60 Arcas 1999   39 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D40 -13.4   F 1160 50 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Tsawwassen DgRs-2 D48 -12.2   PM 3500 60 Arcas 1999 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B1 -13.1 19.4     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B2 -13.4 18.7     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B4 -13.2 19.7  F   Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B6 -13.5 19.3  PM   Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B7 -13.1 18.3  PM   Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B11 -13.3 19.2     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 B12 -13.2 19.8     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR1 -13.3 19.9     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR2 -13.5 18.8     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR3 -13.6 19.3     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR8 -13.3 18.6     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR9 -13.7 20.2     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR10 -13.7 18.9     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Departure Bay DhRx-16 SHR11 -13.4 18.8     Arcas 1994 Salish Sea Buckley Bay DjSf-13   -13.1 18.2 3.1  2240 50 Golder 1998 Gulf Islands Walker Hook DfRu-2 1 -12.9 17.4  F 972 43 Wilson 2004 Cariboo Alexis Creek FaRt 1  -18.2 11.2     Schwarcz et al 2014 Cariboo Alexis Creek FaRt 1  -16.2      Schwarcz et al 2014 Kootenay Creston DgQd 2 1 -20.0   M   Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Grand Forks DgQo 2 1 -17.1      Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Grand Forks DgQo 2 2 -16.9      Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Brilliant  DhQj 1 1 -14.6      Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Brilliant  DhQj 1 3 -15.7      Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Brilliant  DhQj 1 4 -16.9      Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Vallican DjQj 1 1 -16.8 20.7     Schwarcz et al 2014 Kootenay Vallican DjQj 1 2 -17.0 17.5     Schwarcz et al 2014 Kootenay Vallican DjQj 1 3 -18.4 9.0   1250 120 Schwarcz et al 2014 Kootenay Vallican DjQj 1 4 -16.4 17.6   1250 120 Schwarcz et al 2014 Kootenay Vallican DjQj 1 5 -15.7 18.2     Schwarcz et al 2014 Okanagan Kelowna   1 -19.0   F   Chisholm 1986 Okanagan Kelowna   2 -17.5   F   Chisholm 1986 Okanagan Kelowna  EaQu 6  -19.2   F   Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Arrow Lakes EaQl 10  -16.1      Chisholm 1986 Thompson-Nicola Nicola EaRf 6 B 78 -16.1      Chisholm 1986 Kootenay Canal Flats EbPw 1  -19.4 11.7     Schwarcz et al 2014   40 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 1 -23.7   M   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 2 -22.0   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 3 -15.7   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 4 -15.5   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 5 -16.0      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 6 -15.8   F 740 130 Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 8 -15.9   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 8b -19.4      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 9 -15.8   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 10 -16.6      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 11 -15.8      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 12 -16.2       Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 13 -15.7   M   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 14 -14.6   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 16 -16.2   M   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Nicoamen River EbRi 7 18 -15.1      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Monte Creek  EdQx 20   -16.5      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Cache Creek EdRh 1 A -16.3      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Cache Creek EdRh 1 F -15.8      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Cache Creek EdRh 1 H -17.7      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Cache Creek EdRh 1 Ha -19.0      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Cache Creek EdRh 1 I -15.6      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Basque EdRh 26  -20.9      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Canyon Spences Bridge EdRh 53  -15.7   F   Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Hat Creek EdRk 3 B1 -16.1      Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Hat Creek EdRk 3 B2 -15.3      Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EdRl 22  -15.6   M   Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Bell Site EeRk 4 19-B1-1 -16.1    1250 100 Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EeRl 6 6-B1-1 -15.4   F   Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EeRl 18  -15.2 18.1  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Middle Fraser Canyon Fountain EeRl 19 B1-1 -15.6   M 450 70 Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Fountain EeRl 19 B2-25 -15.5   F 450 70 Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EeRl 80  -15.8 17.7  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EeRl 167  -15.1 18.8  F   Schwarcz et al 2014 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EeRl 169   -15.4 18.7  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet EeRl 192 4 -15.6      Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Lillooet   -19.3 12.2     Schwarcz et al 2014   41 Region Site Borden No.  Burial/ID No. δ13C δ15N C:N Sex Date BP  ± Reference Thompson Valley Chase EeQw 1 B3 -16.1   M   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Chase EeQw 1 B4 -16.5   M   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Chase EeQw 1 B5 -18.3      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Kamloops   -13.2      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Kamloops EeRb 10  -20.0      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Kamloops EeRc 8 1 -17.6 16.5  M   Schwarcz et al 2014 Thompson Valley Kamloops  CCB 8 -16.4   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Kamloops  CCB 14 -15.9      Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Kamloops  CCB 18 -16.3   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Gore Creek EeQw 48 CMC 1085 -19.4   M 8340 115 Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Squilax EfQv 10  -16.9   F   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Adams Lake EgQw 66  -16.9   M   Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Clinton EgRk 2 CC B-12 -16.7      Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Clinton EiRm 7 A -17.2 13.8  M 4950 170 Schwarcz et al 2014 Middle Fraser Canyon Clinton EiRm 7 B -17.1 13.9  PM   Schwarcz et al 2014 Cariboo Green Lake EiRh 4 B79 -17.6      Chisholm 1986 Okanagan Penticton   -15.7      Chisholm 1986 Okanagan Peachland   -16.7      Chisholm 1986 Shuswap Lee Creek  CCB 30 -16.5   M   Chisholm 1986 Thompson Valley Savona  CCB 1 -16.4   F   Chisholm 1986 Middle Fraser Canyon Seton Lake   -14.9      Chisholm 1986 Okanagan Keremeos DhQw 35 2006-8B -16.5 16.4  F 640 40 Copp 2006 Cariboo   S-EVA 25709 -23.1 16.6 3.1  707 18 BCCS Archaeological Western Vancouver Island  S-EVA 25711 -14.2 16.6 3.1  445 15 BCCS Archaeological lSalish Sea   S-EVA 22563 -16.5 12.0 3.2  331 22 BCCS Archaeological Gulf Islands   S-EVA 20212 -13.3 18.0 3.2  1497 24 BCCS Archaeological Northern Vancouver Island  S-EVA 22560 -15.6 14.4 3.2  380 22 BCCS Archaeological Gulf Islands   S-EVA 24033 -12.7 18.3 3.2  887 20 BCCS Archaeological Kootenay   S-EVA 25710 -22.3 13.0 3.1  2202 20 BCCS Archaeological Salish Sea   S-EVA 22562 -12.2 19.0 3.2  2143 23 BCCS Archaeological      42  Appendix B  Summary Statistics for Coastal Regions  Region N Minimum Maximum Mean Median IQR Skewness Central Coast δ13C  40 -16.9 -11.7 -13.5 -13.4 0.8 -1.28 δ15N 31 17.4 23.3 19.3 19.3 0.9 1.66 Fraser Delta δ13C 33 -15.9 -12.7 -13.8 -13.6 0.6 -1.55 δ15N  21 15.2 19.6 17.8 17.9 1.4 -0.41 Gulf Islands δ13C 65 -20.4 -11.9 -13.4 -12.9 0.7 -3.00 δ15N 17 15.3 19.6 17.5 17.4 1.5 -0.35 Haida Gwaii δ13C 10 -18.8 -11.6 -13.3 -13.0 1.3 -2.50 δ15N 6 19.0 21.0 19.8 19.7 1.4 0.60 North Coast δ13C 8 -14.1 -12.7 -13.4 -13.4 1.0 -0.08 δ15N 0            Northern Vancouver Island δ13C 1   -15.6      δ15N 1   14.4      Salish Sea δ13C 73 -18.3 -12.2 -13.8 -13.6 0.8 -2.15 δ15N 40 10.3 20.2 17.8 18.3 1.8 -2.04 Western Vancouver Island δ13C 3 -19.0 -14.2 -15.9 -14.4  -1.72 δ15N 3 9.2 19.7 15.2 16.6  -1.11      43  Appendix C  Summary Statistics for Interior Regions  Region   N Minimum Maximum Mean Median IQR Skewness Cariboo δ13C  4 -23.1 -16.2 -18.8 -17.9 5.4 -1.53 δ15N 2 11.2 16.6 13.9 13.9    Kootenay δ13C 14 -22.3 -14.6 -17.4 -16.9 2.6 -1.21 δ15N 7 9.0 20.7 15.4 17.5 6.5 -0.41 Lower Fraser Canyon δ13C 6 -20.6 -15.3 -16.7 -15.8 2.5 -1.98 δ15N 6 19.7 20.5 20.1 20.1 0.6 0.05 Middle Fraser Canyon δ13C 17 -19.3 -14.9 -16.0 -15.6 1.0 -2.02 δ15N 7 12.2 18.8 16.2 17.7 4.9 -0.47 Okanagan δ13C 6 -19.2 -15.7 -17.4 -17.1 2.8 -0.31 δ15N 1 16.4 16.4 16.4      Shuswap δ13C 1   -16.5      δ15N 0            Thompson-Nicola δ13C 38 -23.7 -13.2 -16.9 -16.3 1.8 -1.53 δ15N 1 16.5 16.5 16.5       

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