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Algonquin Ekwânamo matrix project : "a place to interface", for elders, indigenous scientists/non-indigenous… Robinson, Jocelyne Virginia 2015

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ALGONQUIN EKWÂNAMO MATRIX PROJECT: “A PLACE TO INTERFACE”, FOR ELDERS, INDIGENOUS SCIENTISTS/NON-INDIGENOUS SCIENTISTS, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND WESTERN SCIENCE SYSTEMS   by Jocelyne Virginia Robinson  B.F.A., Emily Carr Institute of Art & Design, 2003 M.A., Simon Fraser University, 2006  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Cross-Faculty Inquiry in Education)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)   December, 2015 © Jocelyne Virginia Robinson, 2015         ii Abstract This research is consistent with literature that states there are inequities relating to the under-representation of Indigenous students in the subjects of math, science and technology in education as compared to Non-Indigenous people in Canada. The analysis of nine in-depth interviews and the process of documentary explores two questions that this thesis aims to address: From the perspectives and dialogues of three Elders, three Indigenous scientists, and three Non-Indigenous scientists who have contemplated the ways to address the tensions between Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems: What are the educational possibilities, challenges, and benefits of having these systems interface? How can art, technology and dialogue be mediums for exploring the interface between these systems so that Indigenous learners may be motivated to participate in both knowledge systems? An interplay between three theoretical, methodological frameworks of Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008a, 2008b), Irwin in A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) and through the development of a fourth theoretical, methodological framework the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project shape this research. Four themes emerged from this analysis: [1] Language and Story as Tools for Critical Thinking [2] Culture and Ecological Mindfulness in Kinships with Nature and All Living Entities [3] Identity and Relevance in Education as Seeing Ourselves in Academia [4] Presence and Wholistic Learning From the Heart. Four A’s Strategies emerged from the in-depth interviews in relation to the four themes that may incite new ways for building complementary relationships in science education: The first is Activating Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Knowledge Encounters Through Dialogue; second is Aligning Indigenous Knowledge Interfaces Through Dialogical Strategies; third is Applying Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science Interfacing Through Co-created Strategies in Bohmian Dialogue and First Nations Circles; and fourth is Anticipating Innovative Knowledge Enhancements through decentralized think tank groups that align with Indigenous culturally competent ways for accessing well being. This research study helped develop the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project’s theoretical and methodological framework that foreground the need to address the global ecological crisis through meaningful dialogue, respectful relationships and a new science paradigm that reflects wholistically art, science, diverse philosophies and perspectives.  iii Preface  This dissertation is an original, unpublished, and independent work by Jocelyne Robinson. This work is approved by:   The University of British Columbia Behavioral Research Ethics Board   Certificate number H11-02751 January 26, 2013     iv Table of Contents Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii	Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii	Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv	List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. viii	Glossary ........................................................................................................................................ ix	Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ x	Chapter 1: Research Overview .....................................................................................................1	1.1 Positioning Indigenous Knowledge, Western Science. ........................................................ 2	1.2 Animating the United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples ............. 3	1.3 Location of Researcher: Expanding Stories, Sustaining Inquiry in a Living Education ...... 4	1.4 Encounters, Indigenous Knowledge in Contemporary Science Education .......................... 7	1.5 Research Purpose and Research Questions ........................................................................... 9	1.6 Navigating Cultural Identity Through Problem Posing in Academia ................................... 9	1.7 Navigating Indigenous Performatives in Western Historical Academic Discourse ........... 11	1.8 Coming to Know Wholistically in Education ..................................................................... 12	1.9 Under Representation of Indigenous Students in Math, Science and Technology ............. 13	1.10 The need to address: Indivisibility of Art, Science and Technologies in Public Spaces .. 14	1.11 Western Knowledge Systems, Indigenous Knowledge, Worldviews in Relation ............ 16	1.12 Multiple “lookings”, Integrating the Theoretical Frameworks: Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008); A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008); Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007/1980) and the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project. ..................................................... 17	1.13 Scenario I: Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008): Educating the Heart, Mind, Body and Spirit ................................................................................................................................... 18	1.14 Scenario II: A/r/tography (Irwin & de Cosson, 2004): Rendering Self Through Art-Based Living Inquiry ........................................................................................................................... 19	1.15 Scenario III: Wholeness and the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007), “Holomovement” (Bohm, 2007) ............................................................................................................................ 21	1.16 About the Chapters ........................................................................................................... 24	Chapter 2: Theoretical Frameworks / Circling the Updrift Currents in Education Exploring Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science in Academia ...................................27	v 2.1 Ekwânamo Dream ............................................................................................................... 28	2.2 The Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project a Labyrinthine Zero Space ............................. 28	2.3 Coming to Know” Wholistically in Education ................................................................... 39	2.4 Language and Interpretation: “How Knowing Looks” Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Contemporary Science Education ......................................................................................... 43	2.5 Habits of Interpretation and Reflexivity: Indigenous Knowledge Performatives .............. 46	2.6 Emancipatory Citizenships: Enacting Accountability, Transparency in Education ........... 49	2.7 Expanding Stories, Sustaining Inquiry in a Living Education ............................................ 50	2.8 Creativity-Indigenous Knowledge and Science: “Coming to Know” Through Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008), A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) and the AEMP ................................................................................................... 51	2.9 Riding on a Indigenous Storywork Convection Current… ................................................. 52	2.10 Riding Between the Convection Currents… ..................................................................... 53	2.11 Soaring Updrift and Gliding Downdrift – Implicate/Explicate Convection Currents ...... 55	2.12 Sowing Together the Seeds of Four Theoretical Frameworks .......................................... 63	Chapter 3: Riding the Convection Currents of a Trickster Wind Heading Who Knows Where? Art-Based, Place-Based Meaning- Making in Science Education / Research Methodology .................................................................................................................................66	3.1 Creating an Indigenous Methodology ................................................................................. 67	3.2 Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix: A Labyrinthine of Multiple Lookings ............................... 68	3.3 Animating Theory, Praxis and Practice .............................................................................. 71	3.4 Structure, Pattern, Process and the Creative Methodology ................................................. 73	3.5 Three Theoretical Frameworks Developed in the AEMP Research Process ...................... 75	3.6 The Vision of a Labyrinthine Zero Space/ Emergent -Convergent .................................... 78	3.7 Methods............................................................................................................................... 79	3.8 Ethical Considerations/Protocols ........................................................................................ 80	3.9 Sowing the Seeds of an Indigenous Knowledge Methodology .......................................... 81	3.10 Grandmother Moon’s Breath (Dream/Song) .................................................................... 87	Chapter 4: Journey Begins at the Nine Tributaries Where The Story of Grandmother Moon and Mother Earth Carving an Interfacing Landscape of the Mind ............................92	4.1 Jocelyne Narrator/Witness at the Big Water ....................................................................... 92	vi 4.2 Alanis Obomsawin Tributary .............................................................................................. 93	4.3 Basil Johnston Tributary ..................................................................................................... 95	4.4 Richard E. Atleo Tributary ................................................................................................. 97	4.5 Georgia Kyba Tributary ...................................................................................................... 98	4.6 David Close Tributary ....................................................................................................... 100	4.7 John B. Herrington Tributary ............................................................................................ 101	4.8 F. David Peat Tributary ..................................................................................................... 102	4.9 Stephan Harding Tributary ............................................................................................... 104	4.10 Chris Clarke Tributary .................................................................................................... 106	4.11 The Forming of the Big Water-Kitchi Nibí .................................................................... 107	4.12 How Grey Jay Trickster Came To Balance The Constants of Wisdom and Wonder! ... 108	4.13 Grey Jay Trickster Circles the Big Water Kitchi Nibí .................................................... 110	Chapter 5: Language and Story As Tools for Critical Thinking and Culture .....................112	5.1 Tensions between Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems ........ 113	5.2 Philosophical Differences between Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science .......... 116	5.3 Role of Language in Science ............................................................................................ 120	5.4 The Language of Indigenous Science Systems Hold Inherent Ways of Knowing ........... 123	5.5 Critical Thinking ............................................................................................................... 127	5.6 Grey Jay Trickster Returns to the North Wind at the Big Water Kitchi Nibí ................... 130	Chapter 6: Culture and Ecological Mindfulness with Nature and All Living Entities .......134	6.1 Ecological Crisis and the Need for Dialogue .................................................................... 135	6.2 Implicate Order, Great Mystery Participatory Thought Through Dialogue ..................... 139	6.3 Impactful Historical Junctures Influencing What Counts As Science .............................. 141	6.4 New Trajectories in Science: Relativity and Quantum Theory ........................................ 147	6.5 Reverence and Mindful Relationships With Nature ......................................................... 150	6.6 Gaia An Understanding of the Earth As Alive ................................................................. 152	6.7 Grey Jay Trickster Returns to the East Wind at the Big Water Kitchi Nibí ..................... 163	Chapter 7: Identity and Relevance As Seeing Ourselves in Academia .................................166	7.1 Jocelyne/narrator: Richard Atleo ...................................................................................... 171	7.2 Jocelyne/narrator: Basil Johnston ..................................................................................... 171	7.3 Jocelyne/narrator: Alanis Obomsawin .............................................................................. 173	vii 7.4 Jocelyne/narrator: As David Close ................................................................................... 174	7.5 Jocelyne/narrator: John Herrington ................................................................................... 176	7.6 Jocelyne/narrator: Georgia Kyba ...................................................................................... 178	7.7 Jocelyne/narrator: Stephan Harding .................................................................................. 178	7.8 Jocelyne/narrator: Chris Clarke ........................................................................................ 179	7.9 Jocelyne/narrator: F. David Peat ....................................................................................... 180	7.10 Grey Jay Trickster Returns to the South Wind at the Big Water Kitchi Nibí ................. 191	Chapter 8: Presence and Wholistic Learning from the Heart ...............................................194	8.1 Grey Jay Trickster And The Year of Light ....................................................................... 195	8.2 My Journey to Algonquin Territory .................................................................................. 197	8.3 A Call for new Paradigms in Science Education Building on the Work of Pioneers of Indigenous Education .............................................................................................................. 199	8.4 Charting New Waters Through Multiple Lookings .......................................................... 201	8.5 Story of Assum! ................................................................................................................ 216	8.6 Grey Jay Trickster Returns to the West Wind at the Big Water Kitchi Nibí .................... 223	Chapter 9: Conclusion ...............................................................................................................226	9.1 Journey Coming Full Circle with Grey Jay Trickster and the Participants ...................... 226	9.2 Contribution: Four Themes and 4A’s ............................................................................... 227	9.3 The 4 A’s! ......................................................................................................................... 228	9.4 Reflections of the Journey Witnessing the Participants’ Perspectives ............................. 231	9.5 AEMP: Inclusivity of Indigenous Perspectives and Knowledges in Science Education .. 234	9.6 Challenges ......................................................................................................................... 237	9.7 Building an Architecture of Hope For the Future: An overview of the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project Research ....................................................................................... 240	References ...................................................................................................................................250	Appendices ..................................................................................................................................273	Appendix A. Kenojévis Poem ................................................................................................. 273	Appendix B. Broad Introductory Questions ........................................................................... 274	  viii List of Figures Figure 1.1 Indigenous Storywork Theoretical Principles ............................................................. 19	Figure 1.2 A/r/tography Theoretical Principles ............................................................................ 21	Figure 1.3 Bohm Implicate Order Theoretical Principles ............................................................. 22	Figure 1.4 Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Theoretical Principles of Breath ................................. 24	Figure 2.1 Pedagogical AdDress ................................................................................................... 36	Figure 2.2 [Re]served Land .......................................................................................................... 40	Figure 2.3 Industrial Dress ............................................................................................................ 42	Figure 2.4 Dancing To The Songs Of The Universe .................................................................... 44	Figure 2.5 Dancing To The Songs of The Universe Image Corresponds to the Sphere in Figure 2.4.................................................................................................................................................. 45	Figure 3.1 Dancing To The Songs of The Universe Image Corresponds to the Sphere in Figure 2.4.................................................................................................................................................. 83	Figure A.1 Old Boat on Kenojévis River .................................................................................... 273	   ix  Glossary Aboriginal:  Aboriginal peoples include person of Indian, Inuit, or Métis descent regardless of where they reside and whether or not their names appear on an official register. The term “Aboriginal” fails to reflect the distinctions among First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples, who have their own histories, cultures and language. So an attempt has been made to limit use of the term… to instances where a global term is appropriate. Indian peoples commonly identify themselves by distinct nation names such as Mi’kmaq, Dene or Haida and as First Nations. In the international context, the term comparable to Aboriginal peoples is Indigenous peoples. (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 2010, p.107)  Algonquin and Algonkian:  The Algonquin are Aboriginal peoples in Canada, whose home communities are located in western Québec and adjacent Ontario, centering on the Ottawa River and its tributaries. Algonquin people are closely related to Ojibwa and Odawa, with whom they form the larger cultural group known as the Anishinaabeg — also known as Anishinaabek, or Anishinaabe in the singular. Algonquin should not be confused with Algonquian, or Algonkian, which is used to describe a much larger group, which includes the Anishinaabeg, as well as the Innu and Cree. (Canadian Encyclopedia, 2015)   Intertranslatory: In this thesis I propose the term to mean the translation of knowledge through an art-based research as a “witness” and as a participant at an interface between Indigenous Knowledge systems (the participants) and Western science systems (the participants) in the production of new knowledge insights.  Wisdom Keepers & Wonder Keepers:  In this thesis I view Wisdom keepers and Wonder keepers simultaneously as those Elders embued with the wisdom to sustain our nations and the wonder to anticipate the generative nature of traditional knowledge through the rich embodiment of their languages shared in narrative, story, song, ceremony etc. The Elders in this research context have a unique global presence that offer a complementary knowledge to those Elders held in local communities.  x Acknowledgements There are numerous people that I wish to thank for supporting me on this journey.  My untmost gratitude belongs to the Musqueum people who have provided the space to learn and study on their traditional and unceded territory on which the University of British Columbia is located.  I am grateful to my Elders who have passed during the time of this thesis Dorothy Polson, Lucy Rogers, Maryanne Polson. To my family, my parents, Dave McKenzie and Margaret Polson and my siblings. I convey my wholehearted gratitude to my children, Jennifer and her husband Arnaud for my wonderful grandchildren Kijaté and Kijigaté, Claire for your thoughtful surprises, Carrie for your songs and theatrical humour, Dave for your creative philosophies, Randy for wonderful walks and talks, Mckenzie for all emergency technical things and big hugs, Rodney for letting me read your stories.  It was truly an honor to have Jo-ann Archibald, Rita Irwin, F. David Peat for my research committee. Jo-ann thank you for your wisdom and patience, Rita your creative guidance, David for your commitment to honoring our place on Turtle Island. I am grateful for the support that I received from the UBC Cross Faculty Inquiry Department and UBC Education Studies for the interdisciplinary support in creating an arts-based dissertation.  I am grateful to my friends and colleagues, Vanneau Neeshum, Louise Grenier, Glenda Lavallee, Darelene Willier, Susan Balfour, Shirley Hardman, Amy Parent, Heather Commodore, Georgia Martin, Alannah Young and Art Napoleon, Marylin Driscol, Trudy Wood, Mary Stewart, Karen Myer, Peter Cole, Jan Hare, Ethel Gardner, Mary Bryson, Charlene Morton, Colleen Hawkley, Kerry Charney, Carmen Radut, Nilofar Shidmehr, Emma Kivisild. I am grateful for the Graduate Entrance Scholarship, UBC Four Year Fellowship, SSHRC Award, Cordula and Gunter Paetzold Fellowship, Harry E. Taylor Canadian Indigenous Graduate Prize, Shirley M. Wong Memorial Graduate Award, Gladys C. Crawford First Nations Bursary, Gina Blondin Memorial Graduate Award, the Faculty of Graduate Studies Awards, Indspire Awards, Verna Kirkness Award, The Margaret Hayes Memorial Award and Timiskaming First Nation.  I extend my thanks to the participants of this research and all people working to create a space to interface for Elders, Indigenous -Non Indigenous scientists, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems.  xi Dedication  Walk gently on the ground of today for it lies just beneath the ever- changing ground of tomorrow and just above the delicate surface of the past.    Jocelyne Robinson Old Boat on the Kenojévis River In an old abandoned wooden boat I travelled far. As the warm air rushed by, I imagined charting the waters of the Kenojévis River with my father’s compass. Outside the boat I roamed the tall grasses where I played with buzzing bees in the sunlight. At days end I stood at the shore awaiting father’s return. One step! two steps! cupping my hands around his solid arm. Our shifting gaits swung in rhythm to the dancing breezes. I never knew the day would come when I would be given his old compass. I would be left to navigate my life, education, and community on my own. I remember observing closely the little liquid air bubble shifting back and forth as the arrow turned magically in new directions. Although I was inquisitive as a child, I had never enjoyed school but home was indeed a bright and happy place. School was like being shipwrecked in a foreign land. The water was too cold, too deep, too high and very muddy. I no longer heard the bees, lost my compass and my role. I searched for many years for this compass, but could only imagine myself outside the boat without my old compass. Over the years I found the bees have returned, I never did find my dad’s compass again but I did find my own compass for the first time. That compass was inside me for so long, as it is with many of our brothers and sisters who find themselves outside the boat. This research is about reclaiming our space inside the boat and the magical journeys we can chart, if we can find within ourselves to balance the compass bubble, navigate beyond our local water tributaries, far above the ocean depths, to breathe in and out the four winds and their shifting constants of ‘wisdom and wonder’! So it is, that without language there is “no” identity, without identity there is “no” culture, without culture there is “no” relevance, without relevance there is “no” presence. In its’ stead let us say “more” there is language “more” there is identity, “more” there is culture, “more” there is relevance, “more” there is presence and there within lies an Indigenized academy.  To my father for allowing me freedom to play… To my mother for the gift of belonging on this earth To my children, family and friends for bringing meaning to my life… To my grandchildren children for their gift of hope… To my colleagues in education for their bringing purpose to my life… And that’s what catching bees is all about… 1 Chapter 1:   Research Overview   Tensions often surface when trying to bring together Indigenous Knowledge, especially that which is articulated by Indigenous Elders, with Western forms of education such as science. This dissertation examines the nature and characteristics of Indigenous Knowledge as articulated by Indigenous scholars such as the wholistic approach to learning, the importance of Indigenous language, and the need to engage in land-based experiences. How can Elders and Indigenous and Non-Indigenous scientists’ perspectives inspire new guiding principles that include organizing and structuring an educative process while honoring Indigenous pedagogy, ontologies, epistemologies, and connectedness to land?  Furthermore, how would these systems honor the notion of the inherent relationship to all things, both implicitly as individual and explicitly as collective voices?  How would these perspectives contribute to the awareness of the need to create sensitive tools that embody a wholistic and less fragmented pedagogy? How can the perspectives of Elders, Indigenous and Non-Indigenous scientists help inspire designs for a living curriculum? Moreover, what if Indigenous Knowledge and connectedness to place and spirit were acknowledged while contributing to all levels of a contemporary education system?  A relevant question to ask is: can Indigenous Knowledge have a fundamental role in Western science curriculum that would enable Indigenous students to participate in their science context as well as the Western science context? Glen Aikenhead professor at the College of Education, University of Saskatchewan writes on the Council of Ministers of Education Canada’s (CMEC) vision: …the CMEC’s vision for scientific literacy in Canada can effectively apply to both Eurocentric and Aboriginal contexts, once Indigenous Knowledge is recognized as foundational. The Framework can be expanded (enhanced) to embrace Canada’s three founding nations. (Aikenhead, 2006a, pp. 387-399)        This dissertation identifies the need to interface/develop regenerative tools to build new relationships among and between knowledge systems so that science becomes an inclusive and wholistic learning experience that also reflects the importance of Indigenous language, and the need to engage in land-based experiences. In this research I will use the term Indigenous “throughout as it may be considered by some to be the most inclusive term”, (Kesler, 2009, p.4). however where a different term is used within the research/literature I will use the term used within the original document. 2        1.1 Positioning Indigenous Knowledge, Western Science.             Current literature relating to the relationship between Western Science and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) reveals the need for a ‘complementary’ approach to create respectful ways to include Indigenous Knowledge in science education (Barnhardt & Kawagley, 1998, p.1). Indigenous Knowledge Systems include dynamic, flexible, and less fragmented educational pedagogies. The following quotes by Marie Battiste and Jo-ann Archibald offer a contextual landscape for contemplating on the current education system as it relates to the acknowledgement of the (IK) issue. The authors offer a grounding position for engaging with (IK) in the conceptual and cultural frameworks of this dissertation.  In those few exceptional places, communities, schools, colleges, universities, workplaces that have acknowledged the IK issue, the struggle becomes developing “transsystemic” analysis and methods, of reaching beyond the distinct systems of knowledge of Eurocentrism, Indigenous…to create fair and just educational systems and experiences. This is part of the ultimate educational struggle—the future horizon of education—a regeneration of new relationships among and between knowledge systems, as scholars competent in both knowledge systems seek to converge and reconcile them. Only when these analysis and methods in thought and behavior are made can we create truly ‘higher’ educational systems that are a place of connectedness and caring, a place that honors the heritage, knowledge, and spirit of every Indigenous student and contributes to the building of transsytemic knowledge for all students. (Battiste, 2008, p.90)  As educators, we need to continue sharing our experiences, reflections, and perspectives about cultural frameworks that facilitate a process of learning about and appreciating Aboriginal knowledge and epistemology. (Archibald, 2001, p. 2)        I begin this section by identifying the ways Indigenous Knowledge is taken up as a research field as in Barnhardt and Kawagley’s description of the Native Ways of Knowing.  The study of Indigenous Knowledge systems as they relate to education can be categorized into three broad interrelated research themes: (1) documentation and articulation of Indigenous Knowledge systems (2) Delineating epistemological structures and learning/cognitive processes associated with 3 Indigenous ways of knowing (3) Developing and assessing educational strategies integrating Indigenous and Western Knowledge ways of knowing. (Barnhardt & Kawagley, 2005b, p. 17)        Furthermore, I identify as key to my research the Tri-Council Policy Statement’s view on research involving Aboriginal Peoples that states:    Aboriginal Peoples have distinct perspectives and understanding embodied in their cultures and histories… Aboriginal Peoples have a unique interest in ensuring accurate and informed research concerning their heritage, customs and community. (Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 1998, p. 56)  This chapter on research involving Aboriginal peoples in Canada, including Indian (First Nations), Inuit and Métis peoples, marks a step toward establishing an ethical space for dialogue on common interests and points of difference between researchers and Aboriginal communities engaged in research. (Canadian Institutes of Health and Research, p. 109)  1.2 Animating the United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples   Since the General Assembly’s adoption of the United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP, September, 13, 2007) the rights of Indigenous Peoples’ within international, customary and treaty law present important possibilities. Among the opportunities that have surfaced as a result of Canada’s endorsement of the UNDRIP (Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2010) are the rights of Indigenous people to practice and develop their own systems of education. This is illustrated in Article 14 of the Declaration which states: “Indigenous People have the right to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning” (UNDRIP, 2007). Encompassed within the UNDRIP (2007) rights to education we must further consider that any advancement in education for First Nations students must be from the perspective that the social determinants of health are interconnected to human rights to health, safe environment, medication, spirituality, and social development.   During my study for a Master degree in education I began the development of a research model named the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project (AEMP). This thesis research develops more fully through the three AEMP frameworks that will be discussed in the subsequent dissertation sections. The right to develop this research model is significant to the AEMP 4 because it reinforces the notion that Indigenous people are actively developing their own cultural pedagogy. The AEMP as a research tool for animating “Indigeneity” (Waldron, 2003) in research contributes to both the Western academic structure, as well as emerging Indigenous structures of academia. The development of Indigenous academia within and throughout Western structures of education presents an opportunity for Indigenous and non-Indigenous educators to interface. The interfacing may foster the development of fairness, justice and equity in academia. Perhaps in this meeting place the Declaration becomes more than persuasive as it becomes a practiced norm in academia. The importance of practicing Indigenous rights in academia has been persuaded in Article 14 of the Declaration and thereby strengthens the ability of Western and Indigenous educators to interface at the junction of two systems of education that together have the ability to develop beneficial human rights as Indigenous rights in education. This dissertation petitions a responsibility to implement the UNDRIP (2010) as more than a persuasive document. This dissertation seeks to address the need for a global voice for Indigeneity across all disciplines particularly those of art, science education and technology.        In Process and Reality Alfred North Whitehead states that every science must devise its own instruments (Whitehead, 1978, p.11). What then are the tools of our sciences? Today the world we live in is looking more like a giant public lab.  Art, science and technology have become a matrix for giant hermeneutic labs for education and systemic leisure. Apart from their distinct branches of knowledge it is hard to tell where art ends and science begins. This statement may seem simple but it has enormous implications as educational institutions partner with communities on the topics of art and science and technology. This introduces an economic factor that could leave many in unequal footings. However, can this be a moment in history when the relationships between Western science and Indigenous science interface through less fragmented art, science and technological realities? Is it possible to revitalize the Indigenous traditional notions of community education?        1.3 Location of Researcher: Expanding Stories, Sustaining Inquiry in a Living Education        As a witness to the increasingly hard won developments of Indigenous Rights in education and human rights locally/globally, I hope through this dissertation and the AEMP to utilize my experiences as an Indigenous woman, mother, educator and artist to develop 5 innovative research tools and conversations that will benefit Indigenous Peoples. The disconnection we currently see in Indigenous communities is a result of Government policies that either never provided, or took away spaces of Indigeneity and human rights. My perspective as a witness to the development of Indigenous Peoples gaining basic rights such as the right to vote and sequentially the articulated rights found in the (UNDRIP, 2007), animates my goal to link the Elder to the youth, the educator to the student and thus to link the insights of my experience to both. This research proposes to examine how spaces of Indigeneity and human rights are indivisible to the notion of creating better education for Indigenous youth.  Furthermore, this research would revitalize the involvement of Elders by sustaining their generational continuity in the use of Indigenous Knowledge and the systems used in animating their knowledge.         Throughout this dissertation, I employ a transsystemic viewing of my research of a ‘coming to know’ akin to Life Lived Like a Story: Life Stories of Three Yukon Native Elders (Cruikshank, 1990a, p. 1). As the interview stories and my stories are seamlessly shared and evolve they are told in keeping for the next generation. It is in this vein of coming to know that Indigenous scholars may carve an integrated space to the best of their abilities simultaneously foreshadowing their own distinct theoretical, philosophical, epistemological, and ontological frameworks for designing pedagogical space. The notion of an expanding story provides not only a subtle integration, but a profound acknowledgement of Canada’s historical legacy of subjugational relations ‘about’ ‘for’ Indigenous Peoples and their worldviews. It always astonishes me when I reflect on how our people didn’t yet have the right to vote when I was born. Federal voting including Aboriginal people was established in 1960 and voting in provincial elections varied across Canada. Voting in British Columbia was established in 1949 and other provinces later.  This fact informs the social relations that shape my experiences in all aspects of my life and intergeneratively those of my children.  In my/our movement towards Indigenous self-determination there have been many life-changing acts, laws and reports created on our behalf and other times in unfair discursive arenas. How I absorb, transmit, and interpret knowledge today is influenced by the historical interruptions that I/we experienced and inherited.  The list below offers a chronological glimpse of the historical events that shape my/our experiences with the historical and science issues that exist today. 6 The 1949, Aboriginal Veterans, the forming of the Special joint committee of Parliament on the Indian Act, 1948 Northern American Indian Brotherhood, the 1951 revision of the Indian Act, 1960 Indians win the right to vote, 1966 the Hawthorn Report, 1969 White Paper,1969 Indian agents withdrawn from reserves, 1970 White Paper withdrawn via Red Paper, 1971 Formation of National Indian Brotherhood, 1973 Beginnings of Indian Control of Indian Education, 1981-82 Constitutional recognition of Indians, Métis and Inuit and protections, 1983 Penner Report-on self-government, 1984 Bill C31 Rights of Indian women,1991-6 the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (Cassidy, 2005, pp. 53-56)        These historical events have silenced so many of our Elders. This silence introduced an intergenerational gap between the wholistic Indigenous Knowledge system of our Elders and the Western scientific system that in turn affected all aspects of our worldview and education. As I reflect on this gap further, I am compelled to ask questions about our Elders as the Knowledge keepers. How then did the late Algonquin Elder William Commanda’s role as carrier of three sacred Wampum Belts of historic and spiritual importance fair in the discourse of transsystemic pedagogies of law and by extension pedagogies of education? How then, does customary law fair in light of Canada’s recent endorsement of the United Nations Declaration on Indigenous Rights (INAC, 2010)?  How then does pedagogy fair in the re-thinking of our policy making in light of Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples’ acceptance of the Prime Minister’s apology on the Residential Schools legacy (INAC, 2008)? How then does our Indigenous experience in education fair in all disciplines especially in science, math, and technology?       Madeleine MacIvor in “Redefining Science Education for Aboriginal Students” aptly links her concerns for the under-representation of Aboriginal students in science and technology by offering a cautionary question posed by the late Vine Deloria Jr. of which he relates:   Because of the under-representation of our peoples in the sciences, and the great need for scientific and technological skills within our communities, efforts to encourage Aboriginal participation in school science is crucial. However, those of us committed to Aboriginal education must remember the questions posed by Vine Deloria Jr.: ‘How does what we receive in our educational experience impact preservation and sensible use of our lands and how does it affect the continuing existence of our tribes? (MacIvor, 1995, p. 74)    7 Perhaps the question is an invitation not so much to answer in a cumulative way but rather in a sustained renewal of inquiry.        Throughout my education I endeavored to create educational spaces that counter the insupportable lack of representation of our Indigenous youth in the area of science and technology. I perceived the need to employ a creative process in designing educational frameworks to bridge the gap between Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science. I knew then as I do now that in an Algonquin worldview once you say that you will do something then you must do it to the best of your abilities.  Furthermore, Douglas Cardinal in “Architecture as a Living Process” echoes my sentiments for researching. He writes that having learned to live in harmony with the land, himself and his people, it led him to a whole different way of applying his university training. He also relates that the Elders urged him to understand the creative process (Cardinal, 1998, pp.1- 2).   1.4 Encounters, Indigenous Knowledge in Contemporary Science Education        It is clear that how the next generation of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students relate to one another in the future depends in many ways upon the foundation we lay as researchers with a capacity to influence curricula. The language, interpretations and interfacing of Indigenous Knowledge in contemporary science education are dependent upon the kinds of encounters we create now.       During my work with students as an on call teacher in Prince George, and as an Indigenous support staff in the Greater Vancouver School District in B.C. I realized that Indigenous students were under-represented as confirmed in Canadian Aboriginal Science and Technology Society’s media advisory authored by Philip McCloskey (2007) in the areas of science and technology. This knowledge led me back to school with a view that I might one day design First Nations’ curriculum that would be relevant to Algonquin and Indigenous students while further enhancing Indigenous Knowledge mobilization strategies across a wider scope of disciplines and audiences. To further carry out these goals to renew and reconcile my pedagogical experiences I continued my pursuits in education studies. Before entering my studies in the UBC Cross Faculty Inquiry in Education CFI  Faculty of Education PhD program, I graduated from Emily Carr University of Art and Design with a Bachelor of Fine Arts; and 8 from Simon Fraser University in the First Nations Curriculum Studies Program with a Master’s Degree. During my studies I became aware of how the late Elder William Commanda (Ojigkwanong, Morning Star) has employed technology as an effective tool for communicating across nations. William Commanda’s philosophical vision to foster racial harmony and peace building amongst all nations is evidenced in his efforts to promote respect and reverence for Mother Earth and the elements.  His work is featured in the documentaries “Circle of all Nations Documentary” and in “Encounter With an Algonquin Seer, Documentary” as stated by Thumbadoo (2014, p.2). Elder Commanda’s efforts for racial harmony are brought into focus in both documentaries. Elder Commanda’s goals to advocate restorative justice, and forgiveness, echoes his long-standing efforts to promote intercultural understandings and awareness of Canada’s Aboriginal legacy (Thumbadoo, 2014, p.2).  Elder Commanda’s gift for educating the heart and mind across nations runs parallel to how I view my work in educational environments.         As a student in the Cross-Faculty Inquiry in education PhD program at UBC I am attracted to the philosophies of working and inquiring across disciplines as an “enactment”, (Varela, 1999, p.17) of spiritual, intellectual, social, innovative, collaborative educative, “nurturant” citizenships (CFI, 2015).  While being mindful that Indigenous Knowledge systems are distinct and are not mirror images of other knowledge systems; openings now exist for bringing about a hybrid practice that situates research as a within/against movement toward a positional cultural politics (Lather, 2006, p. 41). To some extent this communicates the “Circle of all Nations” attitude for working together for establishing a circle of “Fairness” and a just contemporary collaborative education system of citizenship (Saul, 2008, p.321). There is no doubt in my view that the recent “Truth and Reconciliation Government Apology” (Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, 2008) bears the essence of a new trajectory for deep healing of a “punctum”.  Michael Fried describes “Barthe’s Punctum” as a term used by the philosopher Roland Barthes to refer to “whatever that photograph may contain that engages and—Barthes’s verbs—“pricks” or “wounds” or “bruises” a particular viewer’s subjectivity in a way that makes the photograph in question singularly arresting to him or her,”(Fried, 2005, p.539). It is a deep learning curve for re-interpreting one’s reality of what it means to educate through the heart and mind.  Knowledge in these environments becomes co-creative praxis and practices. With the ever growing emergence of new technologies, I am attentive to the possibilities that art, science 9 and technology might be a positive way to bridge understandings between Indigenous ways of seeing and doing in the context of contemporary learning policies.    1.5 Research Purpose and Research Questions  From the perspectives of Indigenous Elders and Indigenous/Non-Indigenous scientists who have contemplated ways to bring Indigenous science and Western science systems together:  a. What are the educational possibilities, challenges, and benefits of having these systems interface?  b. How can art, technology and dialogue be mediums for exploring the interface between these systems?       1.6 Navigating Cultural Identity Through Problem Posing in Academia        As I considered the question, “How can Indigenous Knowledge systems and Western Science systems be brought together so that science education is more meaningful to Indigenous learners? I reflected on these words and those of the immanent professor Joe Kincheloe who was a Canada Research Chair at the Faculty of Education at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. Kincheloe explored the blurred boundaries between critical epistemological, ontological knowledge productions and human agency as they converge around questions of identity. According to Kincheloe the notion of “critical ontology insists that one who researches engages inevitably with ideological forces that shape pedagogical consciousness’ (Kincheloe, 2003, pp. 47-64). In this research I affirm that, the participation of Indigenous researchers in education provides a counter to the historical, colonial, ideological forces encountered within the Western Science Systems and may further enhance an appreciation for the complexity of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. This view becomes a generative, expanded, and interconnected, conscientious way of being human and for enhancing human agency.  In a sense this research approach is a dynamic, complex enterprise in the process of becoming an epistemological, ontological and “pedagogical address” for accessing and producing knowledge (see Figure 2.3). 10 How I orient myself as a person is linked to my identity as an Algonquin woman, mother, artist, researcher, and educator influenced by an Algonquin worldview and Western society. Eber Hampton, retired professor and former President at the First Nations University of Canada offers a critical stance for how knowledge production begins within the framework of Indigenous worldviews. Hampton relates:  To educate ourselves and our children, we must start with who we are, with the traditions, the values, and ways of life that we absorbed as children of the people. An elder told me, I am just one day old. This connects our past and future. The child within to the elder we hope to become. The identity of Indian people is that which links our history and our children to this day, now. (Hampton, 1995, p. 22)   I affirm the sentiments asserted in Paulo Friere’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed, that one must critically “problem pose” in education as it is constantly being remade in praxis (Friere, 2007, p. 84). Taking Friere’s words to heart I view this dissertation as a wholistic arts-based storytelling research that employs a creative performative for problem posing in research.  The citation graphy listed below demonstrates metaphorically the tight rope that we walk as students trying to establish an authentic voice among the rigid boundaries of academic performatives. Furthermore, I borrow from Michael Marker’s statement on Indigenous academic performatives in relating a similar concept of the filtering of story through the language of academia. Although Marker is referring to the filtering of a crude language used in Indigenous trader societies, Indigenous storytelling does have similar receptions in academia. Marker relates:  It is this syncretism of Indigenous narrative that is so contentious and so problematic within academia. That is when Indigenous people speak in storytelling ways that blur conventional distinctions between rationality and ethnopoetics they are dismissed both as not being colorful and “pure” enough…at the same time not “truthful” enough to be taken seriously with regard to what counts as evidence and cogency in universities, courts of law and public opinion. … for Aboriginal people this blending of older ways of seeing and knowing with contemporary awareness and technological skills offers a sustaining and transformative education. (Marker, 2009, p.29)    11 1.7 Navigating Indigenous Performatives in Western Historical Academic Discourse         The document Report on learning in Canada: Redefining How Success is Measured in First Nations, Inuit and Métis Learning cites the “First Nations Center. Regional Health Survey Cultural Framework” (2005), that emphatically describes the limited application of understanding Euro-American psychological and scientific culture has on understanding Indigenous Intelligence.  What we have been pursuing as Indigenous peoples, since our involvement in education in the contemporary experience, is attempting to measure up to their definition of intelligence. To be as productive as they are. As successful as they are, to be as intelligent as they are. In doing so, we have lost the encompassing nature of our definition of intelligence-Indigenous Intelligence. (Canadian Council on Learning, 2007, p. 11)         On the topic of academic performativity Denzin and Lincoln in the Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies offer a compelling description on the historical schemes that have taken place in quantitative and qualitative research throughout the past century onto this century:  In North America, qualitative research operates in a complex historical field that crosscuts at least eight historical moments. These moments overlay and simultaneously operate in the present. We define them as the traditional (1900-1950); the modernist, or golden, age (1950-1970); blurred genres (1970-1986); the crisis of representation (1986-1990); the postmodern, a period of experi-mental and new ethnographies (1990-1995); postexperimental inquiry (1995-2000); the methodologically contested present (2000-2008); and the future (2008-), which is now. (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008, p.4)  Many critical methodologies and Indigenous scholars are in the eighth moment, performing culture as they write it, understanding that the dividing line between performativity (doing) and performance (done) has disappeared. (Conquergood,1998, p.25). But even as this disappearance occurs, matters of racial injustice remain. The indigenous other is a racialized other. (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008, pp. 4-5)        As Denzin and Lincoln, further relate:  The eighth moment asks that the social sciences and the humanities become site for critical conversations about democracy, race, gender, class, nation-states, globalization, freedom, and community. (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008, p. 4)  12  In proposing a conversation between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous discourses, we are mindful of several difficulties. First, the legacy of the helping Western colonizing Other must be resisted. (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008, p. 5)  This entails a keen “lookout” for the modern colonial “helping” mindset that rushes in all to quickly to speak on our behalf.  In a sense this is how I’ve come to know as an Aboriginal woman, mother, artist, researcher, and educator facing an inherited bifurcational history within a contemporary mainstream educational system that is just beginning to challenge the discourses passed down through European colonialism.   1.8 Coming to Know Wholistically in Education        On the nature of knowledge I am in complete solidarity with the views put forth in the introduction of the policy document “ A Wholistic Framework for Aboriginal Policy Research”.  Indigenous scholars draw on experience and traditional teachers to address Indigenous epistemologies from a gendered position (Castellano 1993; Medicine 1998; Monture Angus 1995,1999; Moreton-Robinson 1998)… The challenge today is to highlight Indigenous epistemology and means of knowledge validation in policy-based research and in policy implementation and practice. The key to policy success can be measured by the degree to which policy design and implementation conforms to this epistemology and the degree to which culturally appropriate research practices are used in the process of scholarship of discovery to these means and ends…  Aboriginal research must begin with a serious examination of the historical and political influences that have guided research up to that point. Any wholistic framework for Aboriginal policy research will only be legitimate if it employs the holisitic attitude to which it subscribes. This integrity is the foundation that will bring substance and form into the research act. (Kenny, 2004, p. 3)        The Critical and Indigenous Methodologies Handbook (2008) briefly defines theoretically who we are now as, “being in the eighth moment state of discourse as race, class, gender, and community is being discussed within social sciences and the humanities” (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008, p 8). Enacting wholistic attitudes in the eighth moment must include a desire that postmodernists concede to distinct responsibilities as participatory “knowers” in Indigenous 13 scholarly spaces, where we must have a “cultural interface” (Nakata, 2007, p.9) and promote new paradigm proliferations (Lather, 2006, p. 36) for respectful research engagement within and beyond the on going “contested stories” (Smith, 2006, p.33) of academia.  Keith Basso in Wisdom Sits in Places (1996) reminds us of the inextricable links Indigenous people have to the land, it resonates with my context for researching in these contested spaces. Basso relates, “when places are actively sensed, the physical landscape becomes wedded to the landscape of the mind, to the roving imagination, and where the mind may lead to is anybody’s guess ”(Basso, 1996, p.107).  Therefore, Basso references the need to develop wholistic policies that render all aspects of one’s being.  1.9 Under Representation of Indigenous Students in Math, Science and Technology        Current literature supports the long-term concerns about the under representation of Indigenous students enrolled in math, science and technology. As UBC is a research-intensive university, I thought I should look at what was being done to sustain enrollment for non-Indigenous students in one area of the sciences. As it turned out a good place to start was to visit Carl Weiman, Weiman’s Science Initiative’s (CWSEI, 2007-2015) concentrates on pedagogical research with a focus on learning and information technology. Weiman’s research is critical to the development of more ‘creative and critical thinkers’ and therefore more innovative solutions for problem posing in academic subjects.  As Weiman listened to my plight about the under representation of Indigenous students I sensed a sympathetic ear as he shared the latest software PhET/Interactive Simulations (University of Colorado at Boulder, 2015) that was developed to aid under-graduate students in physics at Boulder Colorado and UBC. As I explored Weiman’s Science Initiative (CWSEI, 2007-2015) further I became interested in the technology of the “clicker” personal response system in teaching. I was intrigued by the possibility of peer learning dynamics as group inquiry and response questions unfold in classroom environments. It occurred to me, it would be no surprise to any competent Algonquin Elder that long fact-bearing lectures would fail to produce effective facilitation of learning. Peer learning motivates students to become hard thinkers, to integrate key concepts, for a surviving knowledge base.  To some extent I see useful correlations between certain aspects of the Wieman’s Science Initiative (2007-2015), such as the peer interactions of the “clicker inquiry” response system (absorbing 14 collective knowledge) and technological reinforcements “ PhET Interactive Simulations” (doing, gaining confidence) (University of Colorado Boulder, 2015). The value of this integrated learning style is that it becomes localized (relevant) integrated and effective (motivational). To that degree there is a benefit, although, Indigenous Elders would likely use a mixture of contemporary tools and draw on a wider network of knowledge. Hence Elders as they integrate story, song, ceremony, technologies, and eco-knowledge are keenly adept at integrating long-term / short term memory in their pedagogy. Elders have a particular sense in prompting community learning as it works well against the singling out of an individual before the student has gained confidence in the subject. Prior knowledge in this sense becomes distributed fluidly and in flux to benefit all. Learning how we learn and finding supportive technology to  “optimize a sophisticated pedagogical content knowledge”(Weiman, 2008, p.7) in one’s discipline is an avenue I embrace. Weiman’s notion of developing educative tools to encourage ‘hard thinkers’ matches the need on a broader level for a ‘harder thinking’ approach to co-designing of science curricula. This has the potential to maximize further an Indigenous sustainable equity scheme.  1.10 The need to address: Indivisibility of Art, Science and Technologies in Public Spaces        If one considers science as a public enterprise, we must also ask who are the participants in the Western science public lab and can we recognize science as a public enterprise? Indigenous people are under-represented in areas of math, science and technology; thereby they are not participants in the public enterprise of science. I highlight a number of the successful stories that “lab-like” worlds conceive.  A term used by the Citizen Science Alliance (2015).  “Citizen Science” is a collaboration of scientists, software developers and educators who collectively develop, manage and utilize internet based citizen science projects in order to further science itself, and the public understanding of both science and of the scientific process. These projects use the time, abilities and energies of a distributed community of citizen scientists who are our collaborators. (Citizen Science Alliance, 2015)  The “Gallaxy Zoo” (Citizen Science Alliance, 2015) organization an example of citizen science uses images from NASA’s Hubble Telescope to classify data that more than 250,000 volunteers have helped classify galaxy shapes drawn from NASAS Hubble Telescope. Among the many 15 volunteers in this organization is a Dutch school teacher who discovered an object now called “Voorwerp”. Surely the mystery and beauty of science comes alive in this lab-like picture. Another organization is the Lottolab, (Lotto, 2015) organization designed by scientist Beau Lotto. The lottolab studio’s focus is on how we see (Lottolab, 2015). “The Bee Matrix” virtual meadow is one example of how public education, art, science and technology have coalesced seamlessly. The “Seeing Bees See Project” has been exhibited as a living installation at several galleries and museums where experiments on color vision take place, and on a smaller scale students become involved in installation art and science (Lottolab studio, 2015).  The common theme in all these educational networks is their “distributive” capacities enabling the processing of data at record speed across disciplines in local, and global communities. Furthermore, the notion of a “public science” or “citizen science” may hold untold potentials for incorporating local/global “Indigenous science” through art-based inquiry.  This presents two fundamental concerns for Indigenous Peoples. The first question to ask is; has Indigenous Knowledge been given a fundamental role in Western science curriculum that would enable Indigenous students to participate in their science context as well as the Western science context? How do Indigenous students participate nationally or globally under the current status of Indigenous Rights? In my view we had better prepare our students with the critical and motivational skills to participate in such global pedagogies.  A powerful way to imagine Canada’s three founding nations is to acknowledge that science is a public affair that must include all citizens, especially First Nations, Inuit and Métis.       The quote below by John Dewey, in Art as Experience, presents a useful analogy for interpreting aesthetic experience that can shed light on how we interpret meaning in science.  An experience has pattern and structure, because it is not just doing and undergoing in alternation, but consists of them in relationship. To put one’s hand in the fire that consumes it is not necessarily to have an experience. The action and its consequence must be joined in perception. This relationship is what gives meaning; to grasp it is the objective of all intelligence. The scope and content of the relations measure the significant content of an experience. (Dewey, 1934, p. 44)        If we seek an aesthetic education as these organizations point to in their collaborative projects, then should we not ask who decides what the actions and their consequences will be? 16 As Indigenous people inherit a different background from their past experiences of Indigenous Knowledge, relations between experiencing and doing has a different breadth than that of Western Science. Why not attend to a more meaningful science education, one that appreciates new patterns and structures in favor of a wider scope of meaning for science, one that can be grasped through alternative perceptions between the relationship of Indigenous and non-Indigenous science. In some ways one of the most influential sociologists of this century, Bruno Latour writes about “finding a place on the political and scientific chessboard” that may offer useful insights for alternative approaches to the way science is interpreted (Latour, 2004, p.5).  Latour poses the question of how to bring the sciences to democracy and to rethink spaces between nature and society. He proposes instead a constitution of a collective, a community that combines humans and non-humans, and the extension of the experiences of the sciences.         In The Politics of Nature, Latour states “why not conceive of the convocation quite simply as the reunification of things, people, objects and subjects” (Latour, 2004, p.57). Perhaps one must consider then that the Indigenous lab has always been open and has an ancient held system of observing through trial and error and oral recording that has worked for centuries. Therefore, our artistic, scientific and technological convocations are termed in “All My Relation” and are inextricably embedded in the land and the land in us. Therefore, how we gather in the name of science must reflect who conceives of experience and how it is perceived and acknowledged.  1.11 Western Knowledge Systems, Indigenous Knowledge, Worldviews in Relation        In a concrete sense one of the most evident clefts that exists in education is the under-representation of Indigenous students in high school science and mathematics courses. According to Professor Glen Aikenhead there is an under representation of Aboriginal students in high school science and mathematics courses. Aikenhead affirms:  … inquiry, problem solving and decision making all take place within Indigenous Knowledge, but students’ abilities are anchored in a different cultural worldview. Life-long learning and a sense of wonder about the world are cherished priorities in both Aboriginal and Eurocentric cultures, but in different culture-based ways. (Aikenhead, 2006, p.390)  17 …This under representation defines ethical problem of equity and social justice for the rest of Canada (Battiste; 2002, DIAND, 2002; Ignas, 2004; MacIvor 1995; RCSP, 1996 … two main causes: the disproportionately high level of poverty in Aboriginal communities, and the foreign nature of school science and mathematics for many (but not all) Aboriginal students due to culture clashes. (Aikenhead, 2006, pp.387)  … there is a need for the Council of Ministers of Education Canada to adopt a more encompassing and multi-science context (Ogawa, 1995) for enhanced and meaningful science for Aboriginal learners. (Aikenhead, 2006, p.389)         Furthermore, on a broader spectrum a knowledge gap exists within a Eurocentric system that does not yet appreciate the complexity, and fluidity of Indigenous Knowledge systems, languages, worldviews and their dynamic interconnectedness.   1.12 Multiple “lookings”, Integrating the Theoretical Frameworks: Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008); A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008); Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007/1980) and the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project.        Some of the ways that this dissertation’s in-depth interviews contribute to filling the knowledge gap would be to open and sustain conversations that are meaningful to Indigenous learners. In other words, “How can Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems be brought together so that Science education is more meaningful to Indigenous learners?” I argue that one must be given the opportunity to apply ‘creative intelligence’ for interpreting, researching morally, effectively, and meaningfully. I employ a ‘looking’ through the lens of the AEMP theoretical framework (Figure 1.4) (discussed later) by illustrating the breathing matrix’s shifting quadrants and their ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ constants that gingerly interweave the different theoretical and methodological scenarios. In using the term scenario I acknowledge the way Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008); A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay 2008),1 Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007), and the AEMP integrate the power of story. Furthermore, the following scenarios serve as descriptors within a distinct contextual body of work in the AEMP that encompasses a phenomenological, heuristic and powerful opportunity to interface.                                                 1 See A/r/tography six principles further articulated in Springgay et al., 2008 in Irwin & Springgay from xix-xxxiii; Springgay et al., 2005, pp.897-912; Sinner et al., 2006, pp. 2006. 18       Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) exhibits a creative process within a “Indigenous Storywork Trickster space” similar to a “third space”(Irwin et al., 2004), a holographic space within the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007, p. 225), in the AEMP, a breathing matrix space provides an innovative dimension for Indigenous “multiple lookings” which inform/transform the way we may view theory and praxis in educational pedagogy. These scenarios unfold in and across hidden and visible boundaries where dialogical and dialectical happenings are suspended long enough to absorb and share new knowledge. For the purposes of this thesis whenever the term “multiple lookings” is referred to it is meant to include the creative process that includes  Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008), A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Implicate Order (Bohm 2007) and the Dream/ Narrative, Dream/Story and Dream/Song simultaneously.  These three dream aspects further accommodate the complexity of the unfolding research and will be revisited in this research journey.   1.13 Scenario I: Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008): Educating the Heart, Mind, Body and Spirit        I acknowledge and share a distinct but general Indigenous worldview that values ‘storytelling’, metaphor and the quadrants for educating the heart, mind, body and spirit.  Archibald’s metaphoric cedar basket story and its lessons on reciprocity are shared in my Indigenous metaphor of a ‘breathing skin matrix’ whereby knowledge is entering and leaving and sometimes being suspended for knowledge absorption and expansion. Archibald’s reverence and respect for story and the Elders is familiar to the notions of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ that often accompany Elders who share knowledge from the ancestors.  Indigenous Knowledge is understood as place-based, relational, and process oriented. The language that we use has far reaching implications in our interpretations of what constitutes science. The beauty of this interfacing scenario is that I can imagine Archibald’s seven principles of respect, responsibility, reverence, reciprocity, holism, interrelatedness and synergy as it exists within my own educational, pedagogical experiences, and in the research on the perspectives of Indigenous Elders, Indigenous scientists and non Indigenous scientists (see Figure 1.1). By interfacing these principles in the AEMP (to be discussed later), and the in-depth interviews, this may contribute to unique and shared perspectives that would reduce the knowledge gap between Indigenous 19 Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems.    Figure 1.1 Indigenous Storywork Theoretical Principles  1.14 Scenario II: A/r/tography (Irwin & de Cosson, 2004): Rendering Self Through Art-Based Living Inquiry        Irwin’s introduction A/r/tography, A Metonymic Métissage (Irwin, 2004, pp.27-38) reveals a notion of researching through rendering self through art-based living inquiry is analogous to my research process as an artist, researcher, and educator that understands research as a living entity ‘breathing matrix’. The ‘breathing matrix’ boundaries for interfacing of self and other come alive as they meet in a third space or suspended space where knowledge productions 20 reside temporarily for interpretations.  The notion of hybrid practice becomes evident in the movement between Indigenous science and Western science, difference and similarities converge and diverge in a metaphoric language. For Irwin, “métissage” is a metaphor and for myself ‘breathing matrix is a metaphor. A/r/tography’s (Irwin, 2004, pp.27-38) adherence to notions of art-based practices of emergence, evolving and flexible processes resonates well in the AEMP rhythms for engaging in aesthetic inquiry-based processes for meaning, and interpretation for understanding in education and pedagogy.        In A/r/tography as Living Inquiry Through Art and Text (Springgay, Irwin, Kind, 2005) propose six principles for living inquiry in research: contiguity, living inquiry, openings, metaphor/metonymy, reverberations and excess. Perhaps the metaphoric oscillating walls of the breathing matrix may be contiguous spaces. The flexible, emerging and evolving nature of A/r/tography research practices are vibrantly performed in the AEMP design and poetic narrative. Irwin’s conception for “métissage as a metaphor for research practices at the borderlands or third space, where fabrics of similar/dissimilarity are interwoven and intrawoven in dialogical spaces of convergence and respectful divergences” (Irwin, 2004, p.29) resonates well with the ‘breathing matrix’ as it embodies a versatile function for informing arts-based research across diverse forms of literacy, visual and performative enactments (see Figure 1.2). Converging Irwin’s principles into the in-depth interview research analysis enhances the aesthetic gap in education research that pertains to Indigenous Knowledge. 21  Figure 1.2 A/r/tography Theoretical Principles  1.15 Scenario III: Wholeness and the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007), “Holomovement” (Bohm, 2007)        Bohm’s (see Figure 1.3) deep scientific and philosophical work on the nature of reality and consciousness as an undivided whole in the “Implicate/Explicate Order (Bohm, 2007, p. 182) parallels the living, moving, implicit, explicit, unfolding, enfolding breathing matrix in an ever-expanding way. Bohm’s view of the role of consciousness and reality in the undivided Holomovement (Bohm, 2007, p.190-191) also mitigates the rigid boundaries of Western scientific views of consciousness and reality. Bohm’s emphasis on the orders of thought (Bohm, 1994, p. 69) as processes of unfolding and enfolding orders whereby the parts are in the whole as 22 the whole are in the parts emulates the relational quality found in Indigenous worldviews relationship and reciprocity. Bohm’s view that science had become fragmented (Bohm, 2005, p. 36) from art and philosophy draws awareness to the un-fragmented wholistic processes Indigenous people have in their worldviews.  Bohm’s concept of the dialogue process in Bohm on Dialogue (2010, p.17) bore a similarity to Native talking-circles, in that one must be able to hold many points of view in suspension (Bohm, 2010, p 22-23). The notion that dialogue is not to impose knowledge but to be open to absorb new thought from the whole is consistent with my Indigenous ways of coming to know. 2   Figure 1.3 Bohm Implicate Order Theoretical Principles                                                  2 The placing of the principles in this particular group was a way to combine important aspects of several books by Bohm that would pertain to the “multiple lookings” of the AEMP.  23   This thesis research evolves heuristically within a complex journey of living inquiry in an arts-based research that unfolds in a dynamical, flexible interplay within three theoretical, conceptual frameworks of “multiple lookings” and through the development of a fourth theoretical framework, the AEMP shape the research study illustrating their coherence as process and a tool that critically awakens inquiry for understanding in new and generative ways.        The analysis of nine in-depth interviews and the process of making a documentary video create a story that is animated by their creative interface with Grey Jay Trickster at nine tributaries. The nine tributaries represent metaphorically where stories are told and new waters (new research) are carved out into the land. The four winds, the sky, the earth and the moon enable the shifting landscapes to form four new bodies of water, symbolically representing the research findings of four themes and their four strategies for integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Western Science learning spaces. Throughout the thesis and as researcher, I simultaneously act as  ‘witness’ to the shared stories and as narrator of three creative dreamscapes as Grey Jay Trickster in an omniscient power shifts in and out pulling on the constants or strings of wisdom and wonder crossing through the blurred boundaries of three creative dreamscapes: namely the Dream/ Narrative (p. 28), Dream/ Story (p.108-109), (p.87-88). 3 In a sense the research landscape is performed within and without the AEMP by the dreamscapes and the interplay between the principles embodied within the theoretical principles in “multiple lookings”.        This research promotes a wholistic learning approach that integrates transsytemic and diverse ways for educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit across disciplines and cultures. The thesis employs an Indigenous lens that aims to develop an appreciation for the complexity, fluidity of Indigenous systems, languages and worldviews and their dynamic interconnectedness to all living entities. At the core of this thesis is the understanding that as Canada’s historical events including the enforcement of discriminatory legislation and policies such as the Indian Act and Residential schools (Indian Act, 1867) have silenced many of our Elders; this research opens the space for dialogues in the spirit of reconciliation. Furthermore, any advancement in education for Indigenous students must be from the perspective that there are social determinants of health interconnected to human rights, health, safe environment, spirituality, and social                                                 3 The pages noted refer to my thesis. 24 development. From this historical perspective we must widen the aperture for countering the under-representation of Indigenous students in subjects of math, science and technology and for building future Indigenous/Non-Indigenous encounters in education.     Figure 1.4 Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Theoretical Principles of Breath  1.16 About the Chapters  The first chapter is like the moment when you are purchasing your ticket for a journey. You locate yourself and others within a living inquiry. Work is prepared for navigating the research journey by exploring the contextual background to the problems and issues between Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems and the under-representation of Indigenous students in math, science and technology. Three scenarios and the model or “multiple 25 lookings” mark the way forward for coming to know and imagine a new paradigm for engaging in wholistic science education.  The second chapter is like the moment when you have embarked on your journey and begin to wonder why you thought it necessary. The AEMP theoretical influences for this thesis are explored. Key to this deliberation is the notion that Indigenous Knowledge is a valuable, wholistic knowledge system that may be complemented by Bohm’s Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) scientific and philosophical work centered on understanding the nature of reality and of consciousness as inseparable from the whole. The “multiple lookings” that include Jo-ann Archibald’s Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) theoretical principles for making meaning from stories in educational settings and Rita Irwin’s A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) theoretical principles for coming to know through living inquiry in research altogether offer a much needed liberation of thought across disciplines and nations.  The third chapter is like the moment when you begin to follow the journey map. The creative methodological concept and the research methodology are discussed. The AEMP dynamical, flexible conceptual framework for an educational methodology, model and vision begins to cohere with the theoretical framework and purpose of this thesis. Through the AEMP emergent and convergent ways of being are reflected in “multiple lookings” and the AEMP enabling dialogues to meet the challenging and contested spaces within academia. The fourth chapter is like the moment you arrive and find yourself in a new landscape. Grey Jay Trickster is there curious and excited to meet you. Grey Jay Trickster becomes acquainted with the participants. You as readers are invited to this research landscape where nine tributaries converge with the Big Water mobilized by through the spirit of song, narrative, story, and dream. Here you experience the anticipation Grey Jay Trickster has in drawing from the constants of wisdom and wonder. The fifth chapter is like a new body of water carved out by the sharing of the participants’ stories. As Grey Jay Trickster rides the current of a soft North Wind’s Breath over the waters the theme of Language and Story as Tools for Critical Thinking emerges. As the nine participants share their perspectives about Western Science and Indigenous Knowledge, a rich conversation about language, story and critical thinking becomes linked to the need to address the global crisis. 26 The sixth chapter is like a new body of water carved out by the sharing of the participants’ stories. As Grey Jay Trickster rides the current of a soft East Wind’s Breath over the waters the theme of Culture and Ecological Mindfulness Through Kinships with Nature. As the nine participants share their perspectives about Western Science and Indigenous Knowledge, the importance of culture and the link to mindful kinships with all of nature is explored. The seventh chapter is like a new body of water carved out by the sharing of the participants’ stories. As Grey Jay Trickster rides the current of a soft South Wind’s Breath over the waters the theme of Identity and Relevance in Education Through Seeing Indigenous People in the System. As the nine participants share their perspectives about Western Science and Indigenous Knowledge, narratives about how identity and relevance has played a role in how Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science Systems are viewed.  The eighth chapter is like a new body of water carved out by the sharing of the participants’ stories. As Grey Jay Trickster rides the current of a soft West Wind’s Breath over the waters the theme of Presence and Wholistic Learning From the Heart is discussed as the nine participants share their perspectives about Western Science and Indigenous Knowledge.  The ninth chapter is like making your way back home with the tacit knowledge and insights that you carry forth in anticipation of new journeys in the future. You access the benefits of Western Science but wonder about lack of soul and spirit. Your wisdom tells you that the global crisis calls for meaningful dialogue and respectful relationships between all entities. In this new landscape a new science paradigm that reflects wholistically art, science and spirituality in science education is possible. You then realize that AEMP is not a one person or one time project but a life long process for engaging in the development of well being in a circle of all nations. The 4A’Z Strategies for Elders, Science Educators, Community, and Government are: [1] Activating Indigenous/Non Indigenous Knowledge Encounters Through Dialogue [2] Aligning Indigenous /Non-Indigenous Knowledge Interfaces Through Dialogical Strategies and [3] Applying IK and WS Interfacing Through co-created Strategies and Dialogue  [4] Anticipating Innovative Knowledge Enhancements. As if in reflection Grey Jay Trickster comes back one more time to explore the new waters traversed throughout the research journey. Grey Jay Trickster comes back one more time and watches, listens and keeps his/her ears and eyes open to see at that new terrain carved out by the flowing waters of the research journey.   27 Chapter 2:   Theoretical Frameworks / Circling the Updrift Currents in Education Exploring Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science in Academia  This chapter begins with the poem called Ekwânamo Dream that becomes the metaphor or an architectural learning space. In this space there are rooms and in this thesis analysis takes place as we enter the room that leads to the Big Water or research. It is as though the theoretical frameworks form the riverbanks that hold the water flowing from the tributaries (participants’ individual perspectives) into the big water or research and participants perspectives (collective). As the water flows along the way the sediments are carried along and reveal from time to time. It is similar to the theoretical principles that flow through the thesis. Following this I discuss the AEMP as metaphor of a labyrinthine space (see p. 61). The chapter further discusses the different ways of coming to science education. Coming to know wholistically, through habits of interpretation and reflexivity as performatives, through emancipatory citizenships for encacting accountability and transparency in education. The notion of creativity in Indigenous Knowledge and Science are discussed through a short description of how I came to appreciate the theoretical frameworks as “multiple lookings” and why they are relevant to the AEMP theoretical framework. The four theoretical frameworks are woven together and further reinforce their interconnectedness. This study draws upon the works of several Indigenous scholars whose scholarship discusses the way that Indigenous Knowledge and philosophy shapes science education. The discussions also include the works of Non-Indigenous scholars that engage with critical epistemological, ontological, dialogical and theoretical frameworks.  The work also addresses the role of Elders as knowledge keepers and the role of science educators in facilitating the development of science education that is shaped by Indigenous Knowledge, art, technology, and Indigenous language. The aim is to explore the question of how Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science Systems can be brought together so that science education is more meaningful to Indigenous learners. It is in this sharing spirit that I discuss four theoretical frameworks that will show how they may become spaces to connect Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science Systems.  The quality of myth is employed as the Trickster moves in and out between the Dream/Narrative and the multiple rooms, Dream/Story a room within the dream narrative, Dream/Song a song that honors the participants, the four winds, and the research journey. 28   2.1 Ekwânamo Dream I dreamed of an Indigenous learning space where double curved walls of oscillating patterns of breath emanated beyond the center where I stood. The rooms were filled with art from every nation and they were visible from all perspectives. At the center where I stood, elders told children stories and with each story a new symbiotic pattern began to form another wall to balance the last. I should have been content to stay because from my vantage point all the rooms were visible. But I could not feel the movement of the walls unless I followed the curves beyond the center. I left the safety of the center and stepped into a room where I experienced the smells of a newly created cedar basket. In another room I saw the brilliant colors of a beaded pair of moccasins, then again in another room I felt the swishing of tightly woven snowshoes on the winter snow. Around one curve I drank water from a spring and ate berries from a fragrant field. I followed the sound to one room where there was a sound of dancers feet dancing in rhythm with a drumbeat. Then to my surprise I looked around and saw another room and found that it was completely empty. From the center where I started all rooms had appeared visible except this room. Why was this room empty? What motivated me to leave the center? I had no awareness of an empty room. There was my answer. I needed to contribute and belong to this beautiful living process of breathing, moving, and creating space. Ekwânamo the Algonquin word for breath is a metaphoric word that evokes a source that is living, breathing, spiritual, architectural, learning space that moves within us and beyond us reaching into the heart of an interconnected world. I find myself riding the convection currents of a Trickster wind riding on a breathe of air! (Robinson, 2015)  2.2 The Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project a Labyrinthine Zero Space   The AEMP is a dynamical, flexible theoretical and conceptual framework for an educational methodology, model and vision. AEMP may also be described as a Labyrinthine Zero Space (see p.60) involving emergent and convergent ways of being that reflect a creative story. The AEMP is a model based on a metaphoric dream/journey (as illustrated above) that reflects an Indigenous architectural learning space, story, complex concept and worldview. The AEMP became a space to analyze the in-depth interviews on the perspectives of Indigenous Elders, Indigenous scientists and non-Indigenous scientists who have contemplated about how Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science can interface. It is a space to explore current 29 perceptions relating to diverse worldviews operating at the interface between the dominant Western science paradigm and Indigenous Knowledge or ways of “coming to know” a term used by Leroy Little Bear in the forward of Native Science, Natural Laws of Interdependence by (Cajete, 2000, p. x).        This dream guides my journey and enables a multiplicity of “lookings”, and “interpretations” that interpenetrate all aspects of my life as a mother, artist, researcher, and educator. The AEMP learning space interweaves aspects of three theoretical concepts to form an innovative matrix from which a complimentary and challenging art-based work develops. The complex matrix of the four theoretical frameworks will be brought together seamlessly in the AEMP as a dynamical methodological structure that interfaces and integrates an Indigenous wellness model and the following principles: the Ekwânamo narrative; Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) seven principles of respect, responsibility, reciprocity, reverence, holism, interrelatedness, and synergy; Irwin in A/r/tography’s (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) six principles of contiguity, living inquiry, openings, métissage-metonym, reverberations and excess; Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007) ‘mutual participation” (Bohm, 2010, p. 102) and the unfolded and enfolded orders of thought as a wholistic system; and the AEMP theoretical framework principles (Figure 1.4) of breath, labyrinthine, convergence, emergence, simultaneity, integrity, hybridity, subtle energy, attractors, wisdom, and wonder animated by a living labyrinthine methodology of language, culture, identity and relevance. It is a methodology that evolves heuristically in the course of research, one that sustains a unique creative network design for integrating transsytemic, diverse ways of coming to know, and for educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit across disciplines and cultures. The AEMP in its most volatile state reflects the sacred hoop’s healing elements and the alliances necessary for maintaining balance in one’s life and community. The AEMP may provide a living research methodology for exploring the vast spectrum of concepts and their relationships to the methodological re-presenting of science, art and technology in new and less fragmented ways.        The AEMP in its physical form is a designed illustration bound by a two-dimensional surface of text/image. It is a theoretical, fluid, dynamic three-dimensional space that will facilitate in-depth interviews and will be pieced together to form a documentary.  When I first designed the AEMP I was trying to come to know David Bohm’s theory of the Implicate Order (2007) as it might reflect on my worldview.  I was enthralled by the deep 30 connection between the wisdom of our Elders and the wonders of Einstein and visa versa. In a sense my research is a living, breathing field of inquiry and performative enactment of processes of knowing, knowledge production and their ongoing renewals and rituals. The ritual of ‘asking’ takes place in a time when many Elders enact the ‘memories’ that were silenced for so long, but not forgotten.  I was intrigued by Bohm’s attention to Indigenous worldviews in relation to physics and art as stated by Nichol in the following quote.  Art and creativity, however, must not be restricted to any particular discipline. Indeed, suggests Bohm, history indicates that a failure to understand that creativity is essential to the whole of life can lead to a “mechanical, repetitious order in society at large. (Nichol, 2005,p. xxxiii)        Indigenous worldview in its wholistic sense is replete with dynamic movements of cyclical orders of creativity that are less fragmented. I remembered reading that Einstein thought that math was a language nature uses to describe her wonders.  Einstein, having read James Clerk Maxwell’s equations imagined riding alongside a beam of light. Imagination and not method alone produced the revolutionary equation E=MC2 that changed the way we view space and time. According to Isaacson, Einstein believed in a God who would not play dice by allowing things to happen by chance (Isaacson, 2007, p. 4). In the years that followed several of Einstein’s contemporaries David Bohm, Werner Heisenberg, Neils Bohr and others have offered insights on the ambiguous nature of quantum reality, as noted by the physicist David, F. Peat.  1- Heisenberg discovered the Uncertainty Principle which says we can never know with a hundred percent certainty both the position and speed of an electron. He interpreted this as meaning that when you make a measurement of one you disturb the other. Neils Bohr countered that the idea of “possessing” a speed or a position only applies in the large scale and not at the quantum level.  He suggested it should be called “The Ambiguity Principle”. (E-Conversation, Peat, 2011)  2- When Bohr and Heisenberg discussed the nature “of quantum reality” Heisenberg said that the reality lies in the mathematics. Bohr countered that when we discuss the mathematics we use ordinary language, which contains subtle assumptions about space, time and causality. In other words “we are suspended in language”. Bohm followed on from Bohr by pointing out that European “subject-verb-object” languages mirror classical physics of well-defined objects in space and time interacting via forces. He proposed that 31 quantum theory needed a verb-based language “the Rheomode”. In the final year of his life discovered this in the Algonkian family of languages. (E-Conversation, Peat, 2011)        After becoming familiar with David Bohm’s, David Peat’s work, and Walter Isaacson’s book Einstein: His Life and Universe (2007), I thought perhaps, if Einstein was free to imagine his journey of riding on a beam of light, then even though one’s creations can’t all be paradigm shifts as E=MC2, there is value in the movement of creative thought that holds unknown potentialities. I imagine riding alongside a Trickster convection current, on a breathe of air, ever balancing the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. In a sense the AEMP is a theoretical and methodological tool that may reflect the ontological, epistemological, axiological, and pedagogical connections encompassed in the term “All My Relations”. In order to appreciate the AEMP model as it relates to the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) and the analogy of E=MC2 and S=MC2, it is worth visiting a passage from David Peat’s book Blackfoot Physics in which he describes “subtle energy”(Peat, 2002, p.136) the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) and the Holomovement (Bohm, 2007, p.191). David Peat describes “energy ” as an equivalent term to say subtle energy.  Peat puts forward an interesting connection that was made during his encounter with Native Sa’ke’j Henderson on Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007), and one that has the potential to accommodate a wider appreciation of Native perceptions of reality.  Sa’ke’j Henderson explained how a certain gourd contained the whole world. Here it is possible to make connections between Indigenous science and some recent ideas in Western science. In the 1960’s physicist David Bohm began to develop what he called the Implicate (or enfolded) order. Bohm has argued that while the classical physics of Newton described what could be called the surface of reality, by contrast, quantum mechanics has forced us to move to deeper levels of perception of the world. …Bohm suggested that, in its deepest essence, reality, or “that which is,” is not a collection of material objects in interaction but a process or a movement, which he calls the holomovement—the movement of the whole… For Bohm, the gourd that Sa’ke’j Henderson carries is the explicate or surface manifestation of an underlying implicate order. Within that implicate order the gourd enfolds, and is enfolded by, the entire universe. Thus, within each object can be found the whole and, in turn, this whole exists within each part. (Peat, 2000, pp. 140-141)        The AEMP in its partial, (concrete, quantitative, classical physics, gross, manifest, large scale) perspective accepts the view E=MC2, in its ‘whole’, (abstract, qualitative, quantum 32 mechanical, subtle, spirit, quantum level) perspective, it accepts S=MC2 in relation to ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ with “S” meaning spirit. Could ‘Wisdom’ be a surface reality, by contrast, could ‘Wonder’ be part of a deeper reality of the movement of the whole?  In the AEMP, measurement is always a moving approximation in relation to the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. If imagined further the AEMP points to an infinite inquiry among the dynamic moving of spirit and matter always in a flux phase toward and away from the constants ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’.       The AEMP structure may be viewed as a “labyrinth” or “breathing matrix”.  In my view the AEMP “breathing matrix’s” metaphoric equation reflects the current view by many scientists that Einstein is both right and wrong in his views in the realm of quantum physics. Although Einstein led the way to quantum mechanics, he resisted the ‘mysterious’ nature that it presented. Hence the phrase, “God would not play dice with the universe”(Isaacson, 2007, p. 4), I posit, perhaps “God does not play dice with the universe” in a one-at-a-time perspective but in an-all-at-once perspective of a “subtle energy” God does play dice with the universe when the time is right. The following words by Vine Deloria Jr. echo the contemporary notion of relativity as he relates:  Western Science also has the idea of relativity, but the concept was initially applied only in theoretical physics to explain the relationship of space, time, and matter. Gradually scientists have moved from philosophical physics to apply the concept of relatedness to biological phenomena and environments. Now many scientists believe that all things are related, and some articles primarily coming from people in physics, now state flatly that all things are related. The proposition, however still seems to be an intellectual concept that lacks the sense of emotional involvement. (Deloria, 1997, p. 42)         In some ways Deloria extends this view further in relating that current scientists are only now accepting the notion that the earth is “alive” (Deloria, 1999, p. 42). An example of this would be the Gaia theory introduced by the scientist James Lovelock. The Gaia theory proposes that the earth is a living self-organizing system (Lovelock, 2009, p. 105).  I also envisioned Bohm’s concept of thought as a system as he proposed that …body, emotion, intellect, could be viewed as “one unbroken field of interpenetrating parts that mutually inform thought as a system: concrete as well as abstract, active as well as passive, collective as well as individual” (Nichol, forward, 1994.p xi). Essentially the ‘breathing air’ is always fluctuating in the animated spaces of being or not being viewed as an all at once and a one at a time, part in the whole, whole in the 33 part system. “Breath” as a living entity is symbiotic, oscillating, it is [in]formation, [per] [form]ative, that reflects the moving thought process. In some ways the ‘breathing air’ cones behave as sensory apparatus that in their two dimensional static state appear pointed but in their animated state appear curved and stretched in space and time by the dynamical movements of their correlates: these perceptions can be shaped as objectivities and subjectivities, conscience and subconscience, local and global that are at play in the complex finite and infinite tensions of ‘Wisdom and Wonder’. Hence, AEMP reciprocal ‘up’ ‘down’ cones function as symbolic orientations for the constants ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ in their kinesthetic tensions of relationships and processes.        I draw close attention to the boundaries where interfacing occurs as the core becomes a shifting center of matter and energy liberated by the balance between the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. The AEMP learning is a wholistic space, worldview, of ‘breathing air’, whose resonating patterns effectively enables me to interpret the rhythmic sounds for coming to know self and other in my own terms of reference. The AEMP narrative below is a poetic expression of my Algonquin worldview and my research methodology as it is revealed through the creative expressions of space and matter, Indigenous relationships and processes.        For Indigenous peoples the source of language transcends the boundaries of ordinary space and time thereby extending this volatility to a wider expanse. Perhaps these fluid boundaries are part of a tacit language similar to what theoretical physicist F. David Peat describes in Blackfoot Physics as “active silence”. Peat equates the term with a “vacuum state” in physics and an infinite ocean of energy potentials and nothingness (Peat, 2000, p.74). As an artist I believe this same kind of “active silence” takes place in the ‘manifesting’ of meaningful art. Art animated in this way holds much potential. The skills necessary for holding the potentials in process long enough to reach ‘the right time” is an ongoing quest always in relationship with “All My Relations”.        The axiological quality of my art often depends on an “active silence” that exists between my direct alliances with the land and the cosmos and “All My Relations”. Furthermore, engaging in active silence in the AEMP as an Indigenous methodology can align with art based performative text as in Tom Barone’s cogent argument for art-based inquiry text as it equates with the tensions between balancing ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’, quantitative (fact-oriented), qualitative (non-factual-oriented), centripetal (fact-oriented) and centrifugal (non-fact-oriented) 34 forces that create ambiguity.  These forces allow for Indigenous qualitative (subjective), quantitative (objective) descriptions of story that are fact and metaphor simultaneously as in the AEMP. The AEMP and its constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ when viewed as complementary to the influential educator theorist Tom Barone’s description of an art-based performance text, enables the ‘artifact’ status to become an active energy in form and content, that functions, and is shaped by the characteristics of both being viewed as centripetal/fiction and centrifugal/ non fiction simultaneously (Barone, 2008, p.109).  …Indeed, Iser (1993) argues…In an act of fictionalizing, “reproduced reality is made to point to a “reality” beyond itself, while the imaginary is lured into form.” In the production of a work of fiction, “extra-textual reality merges into reality” (Barone, 2008, p.3). (Barone, 2008, p.109)  …But an adequate understanding of the manner in which text of creative nonfiction operates requires an acceptance of the inevitability of ambiguity.” (Barone, 2008, p.109)             I draw connections between the Algonquin breathing walls of the Ekwânamo narrative from Indigenous Knowledge. The images of the narrative are at once paralleled with Bohm’s analogy of the multiple looking framework principles. The AEMP narrative provides an open space for metaphoric “art-based” text to enter into a dialectic conversation between Indigenous Knowledge and Western scientific knowledge and worldviews. The “implicate and explicate” orders move in an ongoing dynamic flux between identity and diversity as they are interwoven in space. All worldviews are moving in and out from an “implicate” and “explicate” order perhaps “contiguous” and “interrelated” space. How we negotiate our place in science and technology depends on how we view our place in the implicate order and to a large extent where we view ourselves in the “story” of humankind. The view of “art” from every nation, visible from all perspectives, evokes Indigenous Knowledge and “All My Relations”. In the AEMP narrative I refer to the Elder and children at the center where symbiotic stories are told that constantly change the relations of the breath curved walls much like the “reverberations” in Arts Based Educational Research Dissertations: Reviewing the Practices of New Scholars (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224). A “synergetic” (Archibald, 2008) imagery is evoked in the AEMP descriptions of “story” as a “living”, breathing space. The story continues to be in flux and its shape is dependent upon the voices or breath that animates it. Thus the “reciprocity” (Archibald, 2008) is 35 evoked by the interdependency of voice and breath. The passage that alludes to leaving the safety of the center, where all appeared visible, relates to the notion of the contributor/ participator not unlike the mutual participation Bohm’s (2005, p.137) and “a community of enquirers ” (Springgay, 2008, p.75) in Communities of A/r/tographic Practices” Being with A/r/tography (Springgay et al., 2008).  As the observer it was not enough to stay in the center, there was a motivation to go beyond belonging and into contributing both collectively and individually in search for “holism”. This move beyond the center also evokes our need to animate change locally and globally through technology in both Indigenous and Western Science. Thus, “responsibility” and ‘mutual participation’ in Indigenous and Western Science is an emerging co-evolving inquiry through “metaphor”. Therefore, story, theoria, praxis, poesis, Indigenous Knowledge, science, art, technology interface, inter/intra penetrate and become ongoing dynamic and multi-versed implicit/explicit dialogues and for interpreting complex methodological data.        Whether we refer to Neils Bohr’s “ambiguity principle”, Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007), Barone’s ambiguity in “creative non-fiction film”(Barone, 2008, p. 109), or Deloria’s “energy for spirit”(Deloria, 1999 p. 43) we appear to be living in a century either blessed or “plagued” by ambiguity and the struggle to unify everything. Might we consider that in a labyrinthine methodology there may be a room (Zero space, see p. 60) for the emergence/ convergence of Indigenous Science and Western Science. The Ekwânamo Dream /Narrative evokes metaphorically such a learning space.  The most succinct way to view the role of quality of myth is employed as the Trickster moves in and out between the Dream/Narrative and the multiple rooms, Dream/Story a room within the dream narrative, Dream/Song, a song that honors the participants, the four winds, and the research journey. 36    The Pedagoical AdDress (Robinson, 2008, see Figure 2.1) sculpture reflects in practice the praxis of the AEMP as an inseparable endeavor in the experience of coming to know in education. An important aspect of the theoretical nature of the AEMP is the attention to self and other in relation to experiences of coming to know in education. The Pedagogial AdDress (Robinson, 2008) invites the viewer and myself to engage in self and other theoretical modes of knowing. In my role as an artist and a student in the UBC PhD program I had the opportunity to integrate an art-based inquiry in my class called Narrative Inquiry. The piece called “Pedagogical Figure 2.1 Pedagogical AdDress 37 AdDress” helped me understand and express my knowledge through a rewarding and relevant source for interpreting and enacting knowledge in education. The Pedagogical Ad/Dress was my approach to exploring my place in education as a dynamical and complex enterprise in the process of becoming an epistemological, ontological and “pedagogical address” for accessing and producing knowledge. The piece was a reflective piece that expressed my sentiments about the education that I had growing up. I knew that the narrative that I wanted to present would need to draw on the wholistic ways of coming to know that were relevant to my life. This was also a chance to test out the theoretical concepts that I was considering for research. I was aware of David Bohm’s work on the Implicate Order (2007) and was intrigued by Narrative Inquiry “as a way to represent experiences” (Leggo, 2004, p. 97) and “poetry in social science research” (Leggo, 2008, p.168) as ways of coming to know in research.  When I began thinking about how I might express narrative inquiry in research and pedagogy from an Algonquin point of view, I wondered how I might do that all the while drawing from some of the theoretical concepts that I was being introduced to at UBC. I knew that Aboriginal worldview included the notions of being in relation to all living entities on the land. I knew that I had to somehow synthesize my past knowledge with my present knowledge to venture forth with an open mind to the future. I started writing little passages of my childhood memories on paper bags. The little passages led to a pedagogical theme. The theme was to become part of the sculpture. I decided to take the narratives that I wrote on paper bags and transform them into small passages that would be difficult to read without a lens.  Hence I created a bouquet of magnifying glasses for those who wanted to read the stories hidden behind the circles on the dress. The dress top is knitted recycled mylar and the structure of the bottom of the dress is made of chicken wire. The little narratives are in tiny print that requires one to use the magnifying lens in order to read. Each little circle holds a short narrative of an experience at school.  This process reminded me of a metaphor for taking a closer look at the whole as in Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007). I started to play with the concept of inside personal space, and outside public space and how this scenario had played out in my life. As a child I remembered the fixed curriculum and the overarching glow of power that loomed inside the institutions that I had come to know. Some of the paper bag passages reveal certain aspects that affect how I interact with the world. I grew up playing in nature daily. This attributed a great deal to my creativity as a 38 sculptor. My childhood school experiences have affected some of my school behavior even to this day. I wrote my narratives on paper bags to avoid writing on lined papers because my memories of learning to write were not really pleasant experiences. I was an excellent speller and could read in both French and English. I knew that I had somewhat of an accent and some of the words I used were different from those my teacher used. I went to school with the confidence that my family instilled, but by the time I finished my first day at school I felt alienated and out of place. I would have accepted my differences had they not been a cause for constant reprimands. I knew that I was well understood and admired at home, but this was no consolation to a child that had to spend numerous years in a school where “you don’t measure up”. I loved to learn and my biggest hurdle was not to grasp the information but to realize that I had a right to learn and contribute.  Therefore it was a pleasant experience to be given the opportunity to fuse Narrative Inquiry (Leggo, 2004, p.97) with other theoretical forms of inquiry in unconventional ways. In my research I address the topic of how we can create a living curriculum that includes a relation to all entities and proves relevant to First Nations learners so that they may choose to participate in education.  I have entertained the concept of an architectural space and Indigenous learning space that would be developed in an interdisciplinary way. I had been reading Elizabeth Ellsworth’s work called Media, Architecture, and the Moving Subject of Pedagogy (2000). Ellsworth writes about the learning self and the transformative and embodied experience of living through or inhabiting architectural space.   Grosz considers architecture, like shelter or clothing, to be a ‘measure of reality’s incompleteness.’ To compensate for its own incompleteness, reality demands our participation in various forms of making and doing, including the conception and creation of architecture. By involving us in the design of interfaces between inside and outside that are available to us only through embodied experiences of living through or inhabiting architectural space (Grosz & Eisenman, 2001, pp. 178-179). (Ellsworth, 2005, p.124)   Architecture, like making, Grosz says, produces objects as the correlate of the intellect. As the facilitator and actualizor of envelopes of passage into and through spaces between, architecture holds the potential for providing educators with material correlates of the moving, sensational experience of the learning self. To the extent that architecture deals in movement, sensation, and the progression of time toward an unpredictable future, it holds the potential to 39 produce spaces and times that are catalysts for rethinking pedagogy. (Ellsworth, 2005, p. 125)  What does embodiment mean in relation to our self knowing and knowing of other in shared spaces and how does it fit within contemporary social theories? As an Aboriginal woman I am interested in the transitional spaces. The sculpture ‘pedagogical Ad/Dress represents a metaphor for the self as an inhabited space holding an address that is never quite complete and always being added to. The sculpture opens a space for the mind to complete the unfinished spaces with the mind. The word ad /dress alludes to many connotations such as the masked or private self that carries a particular knowledge that is based on past experiences and is in constant negotiation with the present day narratives taking place. These narratives hold the potential for a living pedagogy of the future. This may be a place where knowledge can be expressed in alternative ways to just text alone. As Ellsworth’s (2005) suggests, we are learning selves in motion. Although on a more complex scale the architectural learning spaces of the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project Narrative is the learning space that integrates self and other in the interplay of the three theoretical influences interfacing heuristically within. The transitional spaces are made available through the borrowing and interfacing of the theoretical influences but sustain my own theoretical insights.   2.3 Coming to Know” Wholistically in Education      The telling of stories, like singing and praying, would seem to be almost ceremonial act, an ancient and necessary mode of speech that tends the earthly rootedness of human language. For narrated events, as Basso reminds us, always happen somewhere. And for oral culture, that locus is never merely accidently to those occurrences. The events belong, as it were, to the place, and to tell the story of those events is to let the place itself speak though the telling. (Abram, 1997, p. 163)   I grew up in North Western Quebec in a small logging town along the Kenojévis River where my father worked as a foreman for the Canadian International Pulp Company. I can still see, smell, hear, and feel the sensations of the flying bark chips at the Kenojévis River in the spring as the logs ran down the river where I watched the logging activities.  For many years these memories inspired my artwork with wood and sawdust. Both my parents were Algonquin with my father having some Scottish background.  I remember the thundering crash as the 40 pitoons rolled, disappeared and popped up like bobbing heads in the river. In the winter the logs (pitoons) became architectural sculptures, colonial forts made of six foot river ‘pitoons’ for imagining the divided cultures of French and Algonquin at play. In many ways by extension I absorbed tacitly (Polyani, 1974, p.160) many of our Algonquin ways of being with relatives of the nearby Timiskaming and Pikogan reserves.         Figure 2.2 [Re]served Land 41 In the art piece [Re]served Land (Robinson, 2005, see figure 2.2) I allude to the attachment to land. The installation title is a form of parody on the mobility of the land parcel that Aboriginal people were given to live on. I wanted to allude to the absurdity of the idea that the two elements that produce one another (man and nature) can be dominated without definite destructive effects. The sawdust land parcel has a rope that signifies my mobility as an Algonquin woman and the relocation of our people. I intentionally place the land parcel in front of the wall text to allow an ambiguity of subject matter by inviting the viewer to first experience the subtle aesthetics of the sawdust covered trees. The viewer then catches a glimpse of the text that then juxtaposes the past and fuses the future at an interface between nature and human behavior.  In Industrial Dress, (Robinson, 2005, see figure 2.3) I allude to my mother as a dress maker and my father’s work in the logging industry. It is a response to the hybrid identities in all aspects of life. How an Algonquin and Scottish foreman and an Algonquin seamstress were to find their answers to sustaining their livelihood in a French Canadian community would some day become the questions to my own questions for surviving. The memorial to my parents is reflected in the positive aspect of the elegant dress while the discomfort of wearing a sawdust dress reflects the ecological aspects that we face today. The expressions of environmental and cultural issues have double edged meanings and consequences. 42  Figure 2.3 Industrial Dress   The sculptures and the materials marry the concepts of interrogating for understanding the fragmented social, cultural, and ecological interface of the Quebec culture that I grew up in. The attention to ecological concerns has been a consistent theme embedded within my work and cannot be viewed as separate from my relationship to the earth or my enactments in educational spaces. In other words how I ‘do’, ‘know’ is inextricably linked to how I interpret the past and 43 choose to create in the future.  These reflections offer a lens to view my early years as a student in education in deep contrast to my Algonquin ways of knowing. In The Two Cultures C.P. Snow suggested that divisions of our culture create insensitivities that are unnecessary and that imaginative experience in arts and science is essential in educational change (C.P. Snow, 1964, p.100). Although Snow refers to the communication gaps between scientists and non-scientists, the notion of sensitivity applies to Indigenous encounters with the linear language of Western Science.   2.4 Language and Interpretation: “How Knowing Looks” Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Contemporary Science Education        To counter the alienating knowledge encounters that I experienced, I sought to encourage my family to embrace their heritage and value their distinct role in education. My aim in life and education is to emulate in essence the statement Living Life Like a Story, Life Stories of Three Native Yukon Elders (Cruckshank, 1990a, p. 1) in education as I journey striving for a “good life” (Archibald, 2008); thinking the highest thoughts (Cajete, 2000, p. 372), good mind”(Miller, 2007, p.26) that my children and others may absorb further the values gifted for the next generation.        How the next generation of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous students relate to one another in the future depends in many ways upon the foundations we lay as researchers with a capacity to influence curricula. My journey in the Cross Faculty Inquiry in education field has sustained my quest to counter the persistent struggles that I have in accepting the narrow modes for communicating in mainstream knowledge systems. Within these openings my knowledge is a hybrid knowledge practice existing in mainstream education within a wholistic knowledge praxis of Indigenous Knowledge philosophies. I view my research as a place for “transdisciplinary” (Nicolescu, 2007, p1); modes for capacity building in institutional and community networks where Indigenous epistemologies, Indigenous art, science and technology might interface in positive ways to foreground our cultural teachings and traditions, past, present and future, in academic settings (Robinson & Balfour, 2009, p. 220).  The art sculpture Dancing to the Songs of the Universe (Robinson, 2007, see figure 2.4 and 2.5) highlights my interpretation of citizenry and offers a keen view on the way education 44 can be represented. The role of technology can have a vast community for communicating from the breath of an ancient wisdom out to the world to meet the local/global challenges of this century. The sculpture was designed in a public space outside the TongJi High School in Shanghai, China (News xinhuanet, 2007, UBC edify, 2010). Figure 2.4 Dancing To The Songs Of The Universe     45  Figure 2.5 Dancing To The Songs of The Universe Image Corresponds to the Sphere in Figure 2.4  In many ways the sculpture represents the generative process that occurs in education settings. The reflective stainless steel leaf that the Mother Earth sphere rests on is metaphoric for the need for reflective experiences to nourish the interconnectedness amongst people. The leaf symbolizes the dynamic cycles of renewal and balance thereby observing and participating mutually in the dancing songs of the universe in rhythm, beauty, harmony and balance with our living Mother Earth (Woodland Cultural Centre Exhibition, 2012). The way art can enhance and 46 facilitate knowledge is evidenced by the passages above but how can technology be used for the same purposes. The Métis architect Douglas Cardinal relates the positive ways technology may also be a useful tool for integrating Indigenous Knowledge in education. Cardinal in “Architecture as a Living Process” relates that an Elder said “You have to face the future with a drum in one hand and a computer in the other.” (Cardinal, 1998, p. 4).” These reflections inspire me to integrate a wholistic blend of concepts, creativity, interpretation, questioning, and dreaming processes in all aspects of my studies and practices in education settings.  With the ever growing emergence of new technologies, I am attentive to the possibilities that art, science and technology might be a positive way to bridge understandings between Indigenous ways of seeing and doing in the context of a contemporary learning environment and education policies. Another positive aspect of technology is exemplified by the Interactive Video/Transcript Viewer I.V.T application that was developed by UBC’s First Nations House of Learning Director Linc Kesler for use as open source software (Kesler, 2015). The program allows for a more functional way to view archives and their transcripts for academic purposes. This technology holds many promises for the protection of Indigenous storytelling and allows for new and innovative blends of Indigenous Science and Western Science perspectives to be respectfully accessed.   2.5 Habits of Interpretation and Reflexivity: Indigenous Knowledge Performatives         In the book Engaging Minds, Knowing Structures a passage on perception offers useful insights that complement my understanding of the knowledge systems and the theoretical frameworks of this thesis.  Perception implies interpretation, and ability to interpret hinges on experience---meaning that perception is mainly learned. (Davis, Sumara, Kapler; 2000, p. 31)  A preponderance of neurological and sociological evidence supports the conclusion that we are not free to select directly what enters consciousness any more than we are free to choose heart rates and body temperatures. However, just as these phenomena can be indirectly manipulated (by, for example, engaging in particular physical or imagined activities), consciousness can be indirectly affected. The key is to understand that the role of consciousness is not to control but orient. Analogous to a teacher in a classroom or a television station in a community, consciousness plays a vital role in affecting what 47 happens next by shining the spotlight on certain possibilities while ignoring others. (Davis, et al., 2000, p. 34)   In a sense I see the way an Indigenous epistemological philosophy such as ‘All My Relations’ has an inherent way to orient knowledge and perception that shines a spotlight on interconnectedness with all of nature. Indigenous Peoples are distinct communities within a vast knowledge system that spans all geographies and the cosmos. Indigenous Peoples Science practices and knowledge reflects a robust and an extended history of observing the world, landscapes, and cosmos through experience.  How we interpret our experiences has a lot to do with how “ the knowing beings look”. The quote below brings into focus a question highlighted by late Vine Deloria Jr. who aptly related that all experiences are related to some aspects of life and thus have value and teachings; that we “cannot misexperience anything; we can only misinterpret what we experience” (Deloria, 1999, p. 46).  In other words, education might be recast, not so much as helping people to know what they don’t know, but as noticing what they haven’t noticed. Education, that is, might be conceived in terms of affecting perception about pointing to certain aspects of the world in a deliberate attempt to foster different habits of interpretation. So framed, education is about an ongoing expansion of one’s perceptual world.  It is an unending process of interrogating perspectives, positionings, and points of view… Its all about how knowing looks. (Davis, Sumara, Kapler, 2000, p.35)         If in contemporary mainstream education it is all about “ ‘how knowing looks’ as a partial and becoming praxis, then what are the implications for imagining how Indigenous knowing is in its relational, complex, dynamical, distinct, reciprocal and concrete network systems for looking? Hence the “being looking” and “how knowing is looking” must maintain a praxis drawn from a wider spatial conception of reality. The philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein related  “Like everything metaphysical the harmony between thought and reality is to be found in the grammar of the language”(Hans-Johann Glock, 1996, p.186).  In light of Wittgenstein’s view, how then does one perceive of thought and reality descriptions and their application to those found in Indigenous worldview of language as a living process, a  “kinesthetic knowing” or coming to know in “All My Relations”? Although Indigenous people have always known the implications of “utterance”, contemporary Indigenous scholars have brought new insights to the philosophical discourse on what the source of thought and reality is to Indigenous people. The 48 acknowledging that most Indigenous languages are verb-based and thus facilitate the language of quantum physics offers profound implications for how one interprets thought or reality and how communicating in science education may become complementary in nature. Marie Battiste illustrates succinctly the way Indigenous languages are linked to Indigenous Knowledge systems:  Indigenous languages are not only vital links to Indigenous Knowledge; they are also descriptive of Indigenous peoples’ relationships with their eco-systems. Fundamental to Indigenous Knowledge is the awareness that beyond the immediate sensible world of perception, memory, imagination, ability, or medicine is derived and on which Indigenous peoples; depend to survive and flourish. This way of knowing has been continually transmitted in the oral tradition from the spirits to the Elders and from the Elder to the youth through spiritual teaching. (Battiste, 2000, p. 49)        In Blackfoot Physics (2002) written by theoretical physicist and science writer F. David Peat, Peat relates the words of Rupert Ross that captures the essence of ‘coming to know’ in Indigenous worlds.  Ross reveals that Native knowledge is not ‘given’ but it is growing up learning by his/herself through contact with nature and society by observing, watching, listening and dreaming (Peat, 2000, p.59). How then must Indigenous Knowledge be integrated in educative spaces?  Martin Nakata’s description of “Indigenous knowing” offers a critical stance to how one comes to know by relating Pohlhaus’s thoughts on an Indigenous Standpoint theory. Pohlhaus reveals the need to critically engage in the discursive spaces.  Standpoint accounts, then, depend on reflexivity and the distinction between experience and the standpoint”. (Pohlhaus, 2002). Bringing the situation of ourselves as ‘knowers’ into the frame does not make ourselves the focus of study but will “involve investigating the social relations which we as ‘knowers’ know (Pohlhause, 2002, p. 287). This will also involve knowing where to look, and which social relation might be informing our knowledge (Nekata, 2007, p. 11).   The scholars mentioned thus far and a passage from Gregory Cajete’s book Native Science: Natural Laws of Interdependence (2000), provides a comprehensive but not exhaustive scheme for situating the future this research and for integrating the conceptual question and conceptual framework discussions.  49 Coming–to-know” is the best translation for education in Native traditions. There is no word for education, or science, or art in most Indigenous languages. But, a coming –to-know, a coming-to-understand, metaphorically entails a journey, a process, a quest for knowledge, and understanding. There is then a visionary tradition involved with these understandings that encompasses harmony, compassion, hunting, planting, technology, spirit, song, dance, color, number, cycle, balance, death and renewal”. (Cajete, 2000, p.65)  2.6 Emancipatory Citizenships: Enacting Accountability, Transparency in Education        No other time in the history of Canada and extending worldwide has there been such an explicit invitation for creating a new emancipatory trajectory in research than exists since Canada’s endorsement of the UN Declaration of Indigenous Rights (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2010d).  Never before has there existed implicitly/explicitly, locally/globally at such magnitudes a proliferation of discourse on citizenship and Indigenous Knowledge. Chief Shawn Atleo, former Chief of the Assembly of First Nations in Canada states in a public announcement that this is “a chance to press the reset button on our relationships between Indigenous peoples and the rest of Canada (Assembly of First Nations, 2010). Furthermore, this is an opportunity to demonstrate accountability, transparency, and responsibility toward building on our hard won successes and for educators this pertains to education policies, curriculum models and designs.  Although the UN Declaration of Indigenous Rights (2007) is a guide it is not law binding therefore this means that like any tool for communicating; it is only as good as you make it.  How we enhance relationships and create laws and policies must be guided by the desire for transformative and mutually participative assemblies.  Therefore, without the necessary enactments to move researchers to answer the call for mobilizing understandings of Indigenous Knowledge/Science; the understandings of what, how and why Indigenous Knowledge/ Science and Western Science can be brought together would be to ignore the importance to whom it matters and to whom it benefits. Moreover, this acknowledgment would be the binding medium for creating more meaningful science for Indigenous learners and all bodies that seek to integrate diverse, transystemic, knowledge systems for shared capacity building networks and enterprises. “Coming to know” in these modes corresponds well to the need for Indigenous scholars to carve out distinct phenomenological place-based but inclusive theoretical, philosophical, frameworks to counter 50 the consequential historical legacy of marginalized peoples and their subjugated experiences in and beyond education settings.        There are threads that correspond well to Linda T. Smith’s articulation of the complexity Indigenous people are presented with in ‘coming to know’ inclusively in a fundamentally relational worldview. The arguments of different Indigenous peoples based on spiritual relationships to the universe, to the landscape and stones, rocks, insects and other things, seen and unseen, have been difficult arguments for Western systems of knowledge to deal with or accept. These arguments give a partial indication of the different worldviews and alternative ways of coming to know, and of being, which still endure within the Indigenous world… The values, attitudes, concepts and language embedded in beliefs about spirituality represent, in many cases, the clearest contrast and mark of difference between Indigenous peoples and the West. It is one of the few parts of ourselves which the West cannot decifer, cannot understand. (Smith, 2006, p.74)      2.7 Expanding Stories, Sustaining Inquiry in a Living Education  The AEMP research provides a unique opportunity to employ problem posing in academia to counter the insupportable lack of representation of our Indigenous youth in the area of science and technology and how it remains so today. How the theoretical frameworks can be used to analyze the research data using an interdisciplinary approach to bridging the gap between Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science meant that I would need to draw on my Algonquin worldview and fuse together other theoretical influences. In a sense I had to build an architectural learning space that would chart the unknown waters of an arts-based inquiry leading to a new story in science education.   I was influenced by Douglas Cardinal’s work then as I am now in relating a passage from his presentation called Architecture as a Living Process (Cardinal, 1998). Cardinal relates that having learned to live in harmony with the land, his people led him to a whole different way of applying his university training. He also relates that the Elders urged him to understand the creative process.  The Elders said that from the Great Spirit’s fingertips to the edge of the Universe is what we don’t know, we don’t even know. That’s what is yet to be discovered. They said that knowledge-that power over your life-isn’t really what you know. It’s that world out there that you don’t know, that you don’t  51 even know. That abyss, that void is the place where all creativity occurs-that is the creative world. (Cardinal, 1998, p .3)  My Elders said to me. “You know, do you want to play in that small little world of which you know, or do you want to explore the vast universe, that unknown world out there?”. They said, “Now where does a warrior play-in this little world here of which you know, or this vast world of which you know nothing about? The small little world of which you know is no place for a warrior. A warrior stands on that world and is willing to leap off that world. That’s the land of the eagle. That’s where creativity occurs, because that’ s where all possibility occurs. There’s no possibility in this world of what you already know.  (Cardinal, 1998, p. 8)  … And the Elders said to me, “You must be responsible.” …We have this tremendous power of creativity. But we have to be responsible. …“If you have a vision and you have a dream, you can make it happen. But you have to do it in a certain way.” You declare your vision very powerfully, you declare like an oath, like an oath to the Creator. You declare this vision very powerfully. And all you have to do is keep your word, and that vision occurs, that vision happens. But the problem with us human beings is we don’t keep our word. (Cardinal, 1998, p.4)    When Cardinal relates that possibilities occur in the unknown universe, it is possible to see the comprehensive worldview that Indigenous knowledge encompasses. In a sense Cardinal’s “ land of the eagle” may resemble Bohm’s “Holomovement” (Bohm, 2005, p. 197) as that unknown space.   2.8 Creativity-Indigenous Knowledge and Science: “Coming to Know” Through Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008), A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) and the AEMP     I have the humbling experience, like a leaf coming off a convection current riding along side a Trickster interweaving three theoretical frameworks, Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008), A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007), through the fourth conceptual framework AEMP thereby keeping my word and furthermore illustrating their coherence as theoretical processes of inquiry.  52      I begin by providing a brief description of the three academic scholars and their theoretical works as introductory scaffolding for understanding their role within the AEMP theoretical framework.   2.9 Riding on a Indigenous Storywork Convection Current…         Jo-ann Archibald, Q’um Q’um Xiiem, from the Sto:lo Nation in South Western B.C., is the Associate Dean for Indigenous Education at the University of British Columbia, B.C.. Archibald was the recipient of the Canadian national education award from the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation. She is the author of Indigenous Storywork: Educating the Heart, Mind, Body and Spirit (Archibald, 2008). I first learned about Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) as a captivated listener during Archibald’s storytelling of the book.  As Archibald talked about her journey with Coyote Trickster to visit the Elders to learn about the core of Indigenous stories she related the importance of finding a respectful place for stories and storytelling in education and curricula. The Elders had taught her seven principles for using stories in education contexts. The seven principles form a Sto:lo and Coast Salish theoretical framework for making meaning from stories and for using story in education settings. Archibald’s exquisite metaphor for Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles unfolds as the strands of a cedar basket that she created as a way to give back what she learned thereby educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit.  Archibald relates:    “Storywork” principles are like strands of a cedar basket. They have distinct shape in themselves, but when they are combined to create story meaning, they are transformed into new designs and also create the background that shows the beauty of the design… The “Storywork” principles are respect, responsibility, reverence, reciprocity, holism, interrelatedness, and synergy. (Archibald, 2008, preface)        Although the theoretical principles of Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) all apply indirectly to the AEMP framework principles and the core areas of language, culture, identity, and relevance, there are times when particular principles are more emphasized.  The overall ethical nature of the Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles of respect, reverence, responsibility and reciprocity are important principles for the data collection and analysis of this 53 thesis as the  ‘witnessing’ through narrative, story and song enfold as research. The Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles of synergy, interconnectedness and interrelatedness supports well the AEMP framework principles for incorporating other perspectives and frameworks for coming to know in science education. The AEMP illustrates a synergy through the co-existence of three other theoretical frameworks through intermittent applications of their principles. The principles of interconnectedness and interrelatedness are key attributes that I share in my Algonquin worldview and hence support the notion of “All My Relations”. The principle of holism is shared among all the four theoretical frameworks, in Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) and the AEMP there is a direct relationship to storytelling from an Indigenous perspective that holds mind, body, spirit, and heart as simultaneously connected in a “All My Relations” kind of worldview.  2.10 Riding Between the Convection Currents…         Rita L.  Irwin is a professor and former Associate Dean of Teacher Education at UBC Irwin is a national and international author and editor of several books on education.  I first became interested in the book A/r/tography: Rendering Self Through Arts-Based Living Inquiry (Irwin & de Cosson, 2004) when I applied to UBC as a graduate student in the Cross Faculty Inquiry in Education (CFI) Program. A/r/t/ography is an arts-based methodology that was developed as a result of a culmination of communities of practice by a small group of arts based researchers, professors and their graduate students (Sinner, Leggo, Irwin, Gouzouasis, Grauer, 2006, p. 1224). One of the leading professors in this group is Rita Irwin. Irwin relates the ways A/r/tographers come to know and do research in education. Irwin’s work proposes six principles for living inquiry in research: contiguity, living, inquiry, openings, metaphor-metonymy, reverberations and excess. A/r/tography can also be thought of as an arts-based hybrid, practice based form of methodology that is underpinned by three elements namely: literary, visual and performative (Sinner, Leggo, Irwin, Gouzouasis, Grauer, 2006, p. 1223). Furthermore, there are four aspects that reflect arts-based research practices that apply aesthetics and education practices, inquiry-based processes, quest for meaning, and aim to interpret for understanding through emergence, evolving, flexible processes (Sinner, Leggo, Irwin, Gouzouzsis, Grauer, 2006, pp. 1223-1233). 54       A crucial extension of my journey in education at UBC was my undertaking of an audited seminar offered by Rita Irwin. This became a rich and vibrant opportunity to put into practice my understandings, inquiries, interpretations, and communities of art practice under an a/r/tographic lens. Below are two excerpts that follow from “A/r/tography as Métissage: As Living Inquiry”(Irwin, 2004, p. 28) that reveal the rich and complex dialogical, intellectual, artistic research spaces that complement the AEMP.  The original image is a metaphor for the borderlands of my experience as an artist-researcher-teacher. Yet the image on the cover stands as a metonymic representation of this experience. The in-between spaces narratively explored through image and text create a complex mix of ideas within curriculum and leadership that generate caring for the creation of self through aesthetic excursions and incursions experienced in the recursive inquiry of a/r/tography. (Irwin, 2004, p.35)  …If we conceive of researching, teaching, and art-making as activities that weave in and through one another—an interweaving and intraweaving of concepts, activities, and feelings—we are creating fabrics of similarities and difference. Where two would be inclined to dialogic opposition, a third space offers a point of convergence—yet respect for divergence—where differences and similarities are woven together. (Irwin, 2004, pp.28-29)  …From a socio-cultural perspective, métissage is a language of the borderlands, of English-French, of auto-biography- ethnography, of male-female. Metaphorically, these borderlands are acts of métissage that strategically erase the borders and barriers once sustained between the colonizer and the colonized. (Irwin, 2004, p.29)         Although the theoretical principles of A/r/tography (Irwin, 2004, p. 31) all apply indirectly to the AEMP framework principles and the core areas of language, culture, identity, and relevance, there are times when particular principles are more emphasized. A/r/tography principles of metaphor and metonomy offer support to the AEMP framework principles of hybridity, convergence and emergence by emphasizing research through self, educator and artist in the process of  ‘theorizing phenomena through aesthetic experiences’ and the ‘valuing of living inquiry’ (Irwin, 2004, p.31). The A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) theoretical principles of openings and contiguity support well the AEMP framework principles and core aspects of language, culture, identity and relevance as they operate contiguously through 55 openings of the three other theoretical frameworks that may be held in suspension for gaining insights while remaining within the AEMP theoretical framework.  The A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) theoretical principle that applies most consistently in the AEMP is the principle of living inquiry, as this principle ensures the relevancy of research in relation to self and other as put forth by Rita Irwin in A/r/tography: Rendering Self Through Arts-Based Living Inquiry. In this book, we share a number of artist-researcher-teacher accounts of their work as they attempt to integrate theoria, praxis and poesis, or theory/ research, teaching/learning, and art/making (see also de Cosson 2000, 2001, 2002, Irwin 1999, Irwin et al. 1998; Irwin, Mastri, and Robertson 2000; Irwin, Rogers, and Reynolds 2000; Irwin et al. 2001; Springgay 2002a, 2002b; Springgay and Irwin in press; Springgay et al. 2002; Wilson et al. 2002). (Irwin, 2004, p. 28)  2.11 Soaring Updrift and Gliding Downdrift – Implicate/Explicate Convection Currents   David Bohm was a Fellow of the Royal Society and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birbeck College, University of London. In the second half of the 20th century David Bohm was known as one of the most influential and eminent physicists and had been a protégé of Einstein during his early years. Bohm’s contributions extend across disciplines in the fields of quantum mechanics, theoretical physics, philosophy, and neuropsychology.        Bohm’s cross disciplinary contributions and philosophy are evidenced in the many work that he authored such as Quantum Theory (1951), Causality and Chance in Physics (1957), Wholeness and the Implicate Order (2007), The Special Theory of Relativity (1965), Thought as a System (1994), The Undivided Universe (1993), On Creativity (2005), On Dialogue (2010) to name a few. I first learned about David Bohm as I was strolling past a local bookstore where a copy of Bohm On Creativity (2005) was on display in the window. I was in a Masters Program at Simon Fraser University and had earlier completed a Bachelor Degree in Fine Arts and Sculpture and so I decided to have a peek at the book. I quickly became absorbed in Bohm’s work as I read the preface that had be written by the Native American Leroy Little Bear. Little Bear had drawn a link between Native American concepts and ways of knowing that complemented Bohm’s perceptions of quantum physics.  Over the years since I first read Wholeness and the Implicate Order, I have come to really appreciate David Bohm’s openness to the “new”, to “difference”, and to “possibilities” arising out of boundary crossings into different disciplines, cultures, and ways of knowing, as well as his appreciation 56 of science as art and beauty. Blackfoot philosophy includes ideas of constant motion/constant flux, of all creation consisting of energy waves and imbued with spirit, of everything being animate, of all of creation being interrelated, of reality requiring renewal, and of space as a major referent. There are similarities between Blackfoot and other North American Indians …(Leroy, Little Bear in Bohm, 2005, pp. viii-ix)  From that moment forward I was inspired to engage in other literature by Bohm.  I became familiar with the writing of a colleague of Bohm, the well-known theoretical physicist F. David Peat who co-authored a book with Bohm called Science, Order and Creativity (Bohm, Peat, 1987). Peat had proposed the idea that a group of scientists and Native Elders participate in a circle talk (Peat, 2007, p120). This became the first circle talk that Bohm had with Native Canadians and was organized by the Fetzer Institute and held in Kalamazoo. Bohm’s view of dialogue had a deep similarity to Native American ‘talking circles’. Bohm had been running dialogues in other places previous to this encounter.  Jo-ann Archibald in Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) offers an apt description of talking circles. A talking –circle concept is used to discuss aspects or share individual understandings of a story. Sitting in a circle is symbolic of the notion that all are equal and that what is said is respected. Some [open ended] questions may be asked [by the teacher] in relation to the concepts of the lesson unit, but the purpose of these questions is not to check the comprehension. It is expected that children and adults may not understand all of a story. That is all right. With discussion and engagement in the story’s aspects, understanding may increase (Archibald, 2009, p.115)   Bohm’s meaning of dialogue differs from the usual meaning where discussion is used in a back and forth relation. In On Dialogue (Bohm, 2010) Bohm describes dialogue.  “Dialogue” comes from the Greek word dialogos. Logos means “the word,” or in our case we would think of the “meaning of the word”. And dia means “through”-it doesn’t mean “two”. A dialogue can be among any number of people, not just two. Even one person can have a dialogue within himself, if the spit of the dialogue is present. The picture or image that this derivation suggests is of a stream of meaning flowing among and through us and between us. This will make possible a flow of meaning in the whole group, out of which may emerge some new understanding. It’s something new, which may not have been in the starting point at all. It’s something creative. And this shared meaning is the “glue: or “cement” that holds people and societies together. (Bohm, 2010, pp. 6-7)  In the context of Bohm’s vision of dialogues and the context of First Nation talking circles I see 57 how understanding can be shared in a sensitive way that can emerge without falling into the usual competitive pitfalls but instead incite a unifying purpose. Bohm’s scientific and philosophical work also centered on understanding the nature of reality and of consciousness as inseparable from the whole. In Wholeness and the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007). Bohm suggests that we consider the nature of all matter as a  “stream of consciousness” (Bohm, 2005, p. 14). Bohm’s suggestion brings awareness to the movement of thought and is the key to understanding and knowledge that informs in a more coherent way.   This flux of awareness is not precisely definable, and yet it is evidently prior to the definable forms of thoughts and ideas which can be seen to form and dissolve in the flux, like ripples, waves and vortices in a flowing stream. As happens with such patterns of movement in a stream some thoughts recur and persist in a more or less stable way, while others are evanescent.   In this flow, mind and matter are not separate substances. Rather, they are different aspects of one whole and unbroken movement. In this way we are able to look on all aspects of existence as not divided from each other, and thus we can bring to an end the fragmentation implicit in the current attitude toward the atomic point of view, which lead us to divide everything from everything in a thoroughgoing way. (Bohm, 2007, p.14)  In some way this research aims to draw upon the stream of consciousness (Bohm, 2007, p. 14) that flows from the tributaries (the participants perspectives in the interviews) in such a way that also touches upon the Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles of synergy and interrelatedness as the participants stories are explicated they are really drawn from the implicate order through the participant’s stories, my story, and the reader’s story indirectly. In order to describe Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007) it is worth taking a glance at another principle of Bohm’s work on the concept of the Holomovement (Bohm, 2007) Bohm collaborated with Karl7, a professor of psychology and psychiatry at Standford University on the concept of Holomovement . Bohm described the Holomovement (Bohm, 2007) as:  The content or meaning that is ‘enfolded’ and ‘carried’ is primarily an order and a measure, permitting the development of a structure.   To generalize so as to emphasize undivided wholeness, we shall say that what ‘carries’ an implicate order is the holomovement, which is an unbroken and undivided totality. Thus, the holomovement is undefinable and immeasurable. 58 (Bohm, 2007.p.191)   In the Holomovement (Bohm, 2007) or the stream of consciousness (Bohm, 2007, p. 14) is suggesting a new way may be opened for a worldview in which consciousness and reality would not be fragmented from each other. In the forward of Bohm’s book Thought as a System Lee Nichol describes Bohm’s view on thought as a system.  The essential relevance of Bohm’s redefinition of thought is the proposal that ‘body, emotion, intellect, reflex, and artifact are now understood as one unbroken field of mutually informing thought. All of these components interpenetrate one another to such an extent, says Bohm that we are compelled to see ‘thought as a system’-concrete as well as abstract, active as well as passive, collective as well as individual (Nichol in Bohm, 1994, p. xi).  Bohm’s description of thought as a system has relevance to this thesis as the interviews bring together two disparate systems of thought in Western Science and Indigenous Science through collective and individual knowledge sources. The movement of thought holds a potential for new perspectives in science and the importance of Bohmian-style dialogue opens a space where Western Science and Indigenous Science may complement each other through a comprehensive Indigenous knowledge system. One example of such a complement can be found in the exploration of Bohm’s Implicate Order concept in relation to an Indigenous worldview expressed in the philosophy of “All My Relations”. In Wholeness and the Implicate Order (2007) Bohm offered several examples to describe implicate and explicate orders as in the ink droplet and the hologram examples below.   Ink Droplet Example: A more striking example of implicate order can be demonstrated in the laboratory, with a transparent container full of a very viscous fluid, such as treacle, and equipped with a mechanical rotator that can ‘stir’ the fluid very slowly but very thoroughly. If an insoluble droplet of ink is placed in the fluid and the stirring device is set in motion, the ink drop is gradually transformed into a thread that extends over the whole fluid. The latter now appears to be distributed more or less at ‘random’ so that it is seen as some shade of grey. But if the mechanical stirring device is now turned in the opposite direction, the transformation is reversed, and the droplet of dye suddenly appears, reconstituted. (Bohm, 2007, pp.188-189)  59 Hologram Example:  (The name is derived from the Greek words ‘holo’ meaning ‘whole’, and ‘gram’ meaning ‘to write’. Thus, the hologram is an instrument that, as it were, ‘writes the whole’.) Coherent light from a laser is passed through a half-silvered mirror. Part of the beam goes on directly to a photographic plate, while another part is reflected so that it illuminates a certain whole structure. The light reflected from this whole structure also reaches the plate, where it interferes with that arriving there by a direct path. The resulting interference pattern which is recorded on the plate is not only very complex but also usually so fine that it is not even visible to the naked eye. Yet, it is somehow relevant to the whole illuminated structure, though only in a highly implicit way. (Bohm, 2007, p. 183)       In both examples Bohm alludes to the relationship of parts to the whole and the whole to the parts that also exemplifies a similar relationship in some Indigenous philosophies on the nature of reality as in all things being related in parts to the whole and whole to the parts.  It may follow then that Bohm’s concept of the Implicate Order (2007), the Holomovement (2007) and Dialogue (2010) opens new possibilities for the Western Science of quantum physics and the ancient Indigenous Knowledge Systems to interface.  Although the theoretical principles of Bohm’s Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007, p.129) all apply indirectly to the AEMP framework principles and the core areas of language, culture, identity, and relevance, there are times when particular principles are more emphasized. The concept of wholeness and implicate order as it relates to the concepts of ‘constant flux’ and ‘energy waves’ is well explained by Leroy Little Bear and also lend themselves adequately to the AEMP framework.   The constant flux notion results in a ‘spider web’ network of relationships. In other words, everything is interrelated. If everything is interrelated, then all of creation is related. If human beings are animate and have spirit, then ‘all my relations’ must also be animate and must also have spirit. What Blackfoot refer to as ‘spirit’ and energy waves are the same. All creation is a spirit. (Little Bear, 2005, p. ix)  Bohm’s view of the undivided relationship between art, science and creativity (Bohm, also aligns with A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) principles of ‘living inquiry’ and ‘contiguity’ as they echo the concept of relatedness and flux that is happening within the AEMP through the participants perspectives and my individual (thoughts, spirit, energies) informing research, 60 stories, dream, narrative, song and the Trickster. The key contribution that Bohm’s theoretical work contributes to AEMP framework is the concept of connectedness of all matter as that which is visible and invisible, objective and subjective in nature.  The Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) that is full of energy and flux is explicated in the visible reality through the sharing of thoughts and stories reflecting art, science and creativity.   The role of art here is therefore not to provide a symbolism, but rather to teach the artistic spirit of sensitive perception of the individual and particular phenomena of one’s own psyche. This spirit is needed if one is to understand the relevance of general scientific knowledge to his own special problems, as well as to give effect to the scientific spirit of seeing the fact about one’s self as it is, whether one likes it or not, and thus helping to end conflict. (Bohm, 2005, pp. 38-39)  Although the theoretical principles aforementioned may interface in varying degrees with both Western and Indigenous Science find spaces to converge.  To gather in the AEMP space is to enter a living matrix for interfacing on many levels of theory, research, and art-based practices mindful of keeping the “highest thoughts”. The zero space invites complexity and diversity of thought. To gather in the AEMP is to extend my dreamscape and the dreamscapes of others that journey before me. I propose this is a story for “now” but in a sense in zero space it is anticipatory in nature to the future.  The labyrinthine space echoes the voice of the participants through interviews, the expansion of literature, and my voice as witness for interpreting understanding across the fluid boundaries carried by story, myth, song and dialogue. The Dream/ Narrative employs the space for the participants’ interviews to converge and emerge anew inside the Dream Story and Dream Song space where they are given the breathing space or creative energy to move freely in an otherwise often rigid institutional space of academia.  I draw a link between the metaphor of zero space or universal flux, or Holomovement, (Bohm, 2007,p.247) in the (Western sense and Indigenous Sense) as in “the Great Mystery”, “All My Relations”, spirit and energy, where knowledge may “connect” or be “attracted” to the Big Water (research space) to engage in a living implicate order in the movement of our thoughts. In this sense the participants become “attractors” through their breath (interviews dialogues) moving through an open system as in the Collective Consciousness (Bohm, 2005, p. xxxii) 61 mutual participation (Bohm, 2010, p. 102) or participatory thought (Bohm, 1994, p. 113) not just as a representations of a textual reality but more as wholistic experiences drawn from an immense reality of “All My Relations”.  In order to fully appreciate the sense of zero space and the notion of attractors in the AEMP I draw on the wonderful analogies offered by David Peat in Blackfoot Physics (2002). In Blackfoot Physics (2002) David Peat made an interesting set of speculations about the eye-link –consciousness processes to light and the different approaches Western Science and in Indigenous Science follow. Both may arrive at accurate measurements but as this thesis has been aiming to show, the Indigenous approach is directed more toward a relationship in holism rather than to harness energy to gain control over. Peat relates “at the physiological level the eye will accommodate itself to a very faint object---and that a single photon of light is an atomic event that takes place within stars eons ago” (Peat, 2002, p. 210). Peat further explicates that the energy released as photons from distant stars reach the eye where quantum processes occur as unfolding activities within the brain or consciousness (Peat, 2002, p. 211). Peat draws a succinct connection to the way Indigenous Knowledge of the Indigenous ancient peoples were able to connect to a zero space in a wholistic way. This is an important distinction as it links the subjective (qualitative) and the objective (quantitative) sense of knowledge acquisition.  Curiously enough, Einstein’s theory of relativity tells us, that with respect to the light ray, the time taken for the journey from star to eye is zero—no time at all. Suppose that you were to travel along a similar path to measure the journey by your watch. The faster you go the more your watch would slow down until, at the speed of light, the watch would not tick at all, thus the time you would measure for this vast journey would be ‘no time. In an analogous fashion the distance that you would measure in this journey would also be zero. As far as the photon is concerned, the distant star and the eye consciousness of the Mayan astronomer are in intimate contact. (Peat, 2002, p.211)  In order to appreciate the notion of zero point as a space in the AEMP it is worth looking at zero space as it may reveal further convergences in the future for Western Knowledge and Indigenous Knowledge Systems based on a simple agreement of the irreducibility that zero space implies.  62 The quantum mechanical version of this story tells us that between the star and the eye of the astronomer there is an irreducible link. Indeed, quantum theory emphasizes that this (photon-link eye-consciousness) and the star are an irreducible whole. Another way of thinking about this is that, according to quantum field theory, a photon cannot be emitted unless something is already there to receive the emission. Indeed, it is not so much that the photon leaves the star and enters the eye, but rather that eye-consciousness and star lose their separate distinctions within an overall quantum process. Indigenous Science tells us that all movement is part of a greater movement. (D. Peat, 2002, p. 211-212)  In a sense everything is related in an irreducible way.   In order to appreciate the notion of attractors in the AEMP it is worth looking at the way both Western Science views attractors and the way Indigenous Science may view attractors as it was well put in Blackfoot Physics (Peat, 2002). Peat states, in Western physics there is a development of the idea of the “strange attractor,” a region that attracts the behaviour of a system toward it.  This attractor behaves in such a way that is not mechanical but rather applies a subtle influence on the system so that it weaves and dances around it, free but never escaping the influence (Peat, 2000, p 203). Peat speculates that the strange attractor is ‘an expression of all the interaction and relationships within a complex system and its environment. This lead Peat to wonder “whether a strange attractor of time could be generated out of the rhythms and relationships within the world of nature and spirit” (Peat, 2000, p. 204). In this vein Peat offered a great example of how such a notion would be possible. Here again is another example of convergence between Western quantum physics and Indigenous Science and also fits the expression of the “attractor” as participant’s breath (voice) is released into the zero space of the AEMP. The moment of time of the ceremony is like a stone thrown into a still pond that creates a ripple that will spread out even wider, and so the ripples of the ceremony reach into the distant future and call back into the past. They reach us in our ”now” and call us to prepare and move forward to meet the ceremony. In the paradox of cyclic time this moment did not exist until the ceremony began, but once it had been created it made its influence felt within the cycle so time that stretches back to the days, weeks, and year that precede the ceremony. (Peat, 2000, p.204)    The Dream/Narrative, Dream Story, Dream/ Song and the participants’ breath and my own as well as the literature that extend our voices diverge, converge, emerge in inquisitive 63 spaces that vibrate, oscillate and disappear and re-emerge. It is a dynamic labyrinthine space for multiple ‘lookings’ where the research becomes animated by the relational networks of subtle energies. The AEMP is a place where dialogue engenders sustained sensitive textualities for engaging in more meaningful, harmonious, learning enactments of optimally emancipatory educational dwellings.   2.12 Sowing Together the Seeds of Four Theoretical Frameworks  The AEMP is a zero space for Indigenous / non-Indigenous knowledge keepers, scientists, scholars, researchers, educators, and communities to gather long enough to ride the Trickster convection currents where deep healing and deep teaching dwell. I suggest that one can use the AEMP principle of connection in such a way that the scientific metaphors of perceptions such as the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007, p.129), Holomovement (Bohm, 2007, p.247) absolute zero of the quantum (Peat, 2000, p. 194) encompass a zero space that enables “multiple lookings” to be explicated. The Zero space metaphor can be described as: The Ekwânamo dream narrative and the Dream story and dream song bringing together not only the thesis structure for analysis of the participants’ interviews but a worldview. The Dream narrative rooms are like a labyrinthine space that enable the researcher and the reader to access different rooms or perceptions. The Ekwânamo Dream/ story of the Beehive metaphor enable the imagining of a creative space that lends itself to the metaphors of zero space or labyrinthine. Perhaps if one considers the Ekwânamo Dream narrative as rooms that flow within our imagination and that they also become intertextually accessible in our everyday classical physical world. Perhaps we can consider the Algonquin Dream Story of the girl and the bees as a metaphor for an imagined quantum world of a zero space. A purely imaginative way to build on the concept of zero space is to think of the relationship the bees and the Algonquin girl have within and without the architectural space of the hive. As Peat related:   The entire visible universe, with its planets, stars, and galaxies, is no more than a tiny fluctuation upon an immense sea of nothingness, that boundless zero-point energy. The stars and planets are like clouds in the air; clouds that form in a distance appear as solid patterns in the sky, but, when we fly into them, dissolve into an insubstantial mist. Within the “zero” of the quantum field is the totality of the creative energy in the cosmos. Out of this same void many 64 physicist believe that the universe was born. The universe we believe was created within the Big Bang. (Peat, 2002, p.194)  As the Dream/story can lead one to imagine the rooms as gaps in a circle, or entries in a bee hive as a universe, a bee entrance with thin walls that move with the distinct qualities of light photons driven by their particle excitations. When inside the bees must be able to sensitize between the inner and outer spaces of the cloud of bees outside the hive as though they anticipate their future yields. I imagine energy unbound by the forces of visible reality. The bees access the ordinary light waves unmarked by their sensitivity arranged themselves in ways that make the necessary anticipation of their yield accessible. I imagine the tiny order of space where particles and electrons live independently as though it were a closet or beehive with the encased substance of the hive walls influenced by gravity and light. Perhaps the Dream song is a breath cloud or wind that sustained this thesis journey but like the wind it will find new space to enter in the next generation.    The AEMP speaks to the mindfulness of our place in relation to all living entities. One cannot properly account for the trouble the world is in today. In an Indigenous philosophical view change and flux are necessary in the propagation of the species and their kind. It is not just a matter of convenience nor an undulating depth of perception but also the acts of ‘abstractification’ that fulfill the desires wants and needs of humankind. As Bohm states, we all have a human need to assimilate our experiences (Bohm, 2005, p.33). This may imply that in synthesizing we are also creating and thus it is important to pay attention to the movement of our thoughts so that we know what is being created. Irwin in A/r/tography’s theoretical principle of reverberations (Irwin & Springgay, 2008, p. xxx) exemplifies the metaphor given above that describes the process of ripples that spread out in cycles of time and space. In the Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) the theoretical principle of interconnectedness exemplifies the story process that enables inquiry that also interweaves in cycles of time and space. Moreover, it is important to see our participation in thought. One cannot refute the well-known fact that up to now humankind appears to have inherited the capacity of rather “bifurcational” reasoning. It is what frames our very existence and has influenced our stewardship of Mother Earth. To set mind and matter apart it would seem, would violate the principles of physics in an evolution of time and matter. Perhaps as physicists are now 65 suggesting we are living in a big soup of “gravity” and activity. I wonder, how do the invisible and visible forces unbind reality? Is there an Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007,p. 186) such as by Bohm suggests that complement Indigenous notion of “All My Relations” philosophies and epistemologies? Are we forever tied to “Karl Popper’s notion of falsifiability as being the ultimate test of a proper scientific theory”(Peat, 2000, p. 252)?  The AEMP points to a complex but complementary notion that accepts that falsifiability is practical for predictions, however limited and thus anticipation through a creative force may hold a far more comprehensive and complementary space for knowledge acquisitions. Hence the qualitative nature of an Indigenous Science may complement the Western Science view in such a way that may engender new creative forces for understanding in science. It seems in a quantum world then that there is access to the intimate energy of eons ago in the experiencing of light.  Even though photon detection in Western Classical Science seems more often filtered through the concrete examination of bifurcational phenomena through mechanical devices such as telescopes or large particle colliders, perhaps resolving to create a match between reality and consciousness belongs to the aesthetic enveloped architectural casings of the waxy consciousness of a zero space. As time progresses I see more ways Indigenous worldview holds many possibilities for interfacing in relational sites of inquiry in all disciplines of education.       66 Chapter 3:   Riding the Convection Currents of a Trickster Wind Heading Who Knows Where? Art-Based, Place-Based Meaning- Making in Science Education / Research Methodology   This chapter is an examination on the nature and characteristics of Indigenous Knowledge as articulated by Indigenous scholars about the wholistic approach to learning, the importance of Indigenous language, and the need to engage in land-based knowledge to help shape an Indigenous methodology for learning. This chapter evolves around the question, how can the Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008), a/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007), and AEMP theoretical model provide a basis for the development of an Indigenous methodology. This chapter is an examination on the nature and characteristics of Indigenous Knowledge as articulated by Indigenous scholars about the wholistic approach to learning, the importance of Indigenous language, and the need to engage in land-based knowledge to help shape an Indigenous methodology for learning. This chapter evolves around the question, how can the “multiple lookings” of the AEMP theoretical model provide a basis for the development of an Indigenous methodology that may address the underrepresentation of Aboriginal students in science disciplines.   The AEMP gathering space of laybrinthine breathing walls as “spaces where participants’ voices became animated in research as story and art, and living inquiry. Grey Jay Trickster provides a place in the AEMP methodology to overlap with the diverse, interfaces between the four winds or research themes and is mobilized by the balance the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. The chapter weaves together the way this arts-based inquiry methodology enables the discussions on Western Science worldview and Indigenous worldview and touches on my Algonquin ancestry while contemplating on how we perceive our realities.   Grandmother Moon Song evokes the water medicine and helps put the research together in a good way, as does a reminder of the ‘best practices’ and protocols for researchers engaging with humans. At the core of this thesis methodology there is a perspective for including Indigeneity in education and dialogue about the serious environmental state that exists today. Wholism and the nature of ‘All My Relations’ and the Universal flux that Indigenous people understand may share some aspects with contemporary quantum physics such as Bohm’s Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007).  67 Three theoretical frameworks were described in reference to their various phases of the research process and their creative energy may promote better methods of retention of Indigenous students in science education. These modes for arts-based inquiry of the “multiple lookings” became tools for meaning making, understanding theory in the shared space of AEMP.  Although these methodologies shared the complementary and important understandings of interconnectedness of living inquiry in research methodologies as well as a sustained conversation of the challenges that exist.   3.1 Creating an Indigenous Methodology         This study searches for ways that Indigenous Knowledge, arts-based, and science methodologies may be combined to address these tensions. The following words by Elder William Commanda and former Honorable Lieutenant Governor Steven Point situate a grounding position to begin my journey:  Indigenous peoples always knew Mother Earth was the greatest teacher and healer and her stones, her soil, her water’s, her plants and her animals brought us deep teaching and deep healing over the centuries. Our sacred relationship with Mother Earth has been defiled across the globe and today we see the disasterous consequences everywhere, every day we do not feel safe either …join our energies to transform hearts and minds to a deeper understanding of the complex issues we all need to grapple with together or Life on Turtle Island. “Megwetch”(Commanda, 2010)  The Honorable Lieutenant Governor Steven Point aptly recognizes that Aboriginal people have fought bravely the new challenge called education, even though they often appeared to be “fighting shadows in the wind, and sometimes fighting themselves.” But there are survivors of these struggles, and a new generation of fighters are emerging as time passes. There are also winners. The fact that conferences like this one are being held with such clear vision and wisdom is a sign of boundless energy…(Malreddy, 2008, p. 9)        During a recent trip to Quebec I was visiting my Auntie Dorothy when I asked her if she could tell me a story. She recounted her story in Algonquin, then Cree and English. Her passing this year has made me treasure the story that much more. As Auntie spoke she related her seasonal journey to the bush with her family. She began with the place name first followed by 68 her family and their names. Throughout the story Auntie spoke about those who had to go ahead to prepare the way. The trek was across rapids and through the bush to set the snares and set up camp. Auntie also related that they didn’t stay in one place too long. Everything depended on nature as it presented itself to them along the way. As Auntie continued her story later she spoke of the ways she was taught to hunt and prepare food. The teachings passed down to her by her parents were evident in the way she lived to pass on her knowledge to her family and community. Auntie’s wisdom as an Aboriginal woman was robust both in the political realm and the community setting. Auntie’s knowledge of the bush was particularly evident by her ease at winning numerous beaver-skinning trophies and contests. I’ve lost count! I began with this little vignette by my Elder Auntie as it guided my journey remembering her methodology for teaching as I engaged in research. I was reminded of the wisdom and wonder she promoted as she shared her skills for interfacing, interpreting, integrating and extending Indigenous Knowledge in the community as well as at home.   3.2 Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix: A Labyrinthine of Multiple Lookings        When I first designed the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project I was trying to come to know David Bohm’s theory of the Implicate Order as it might reflect on my worldview and the formation of an Indigenous methodology. Bohm’s theory of the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) when brought into a metaphor of the AEMP methodology that opens the door to an interfacing between the worldview that Bohm’s quantum physics of the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) suggests and the Indigenous worldview that I have as an Indigenous person with an Algonquin ancestry. Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007) relating to the way we order our realities influences how the thesis structure is brought together in a movement of parts to whole methodology. In contrast to Western Science Systems the AEMP research methodology that is aligned with the complex nature of Indigenous worldview as it aims to integrate the idea that the qualitative metaphysical orders of reality are not separate from the quantitative orders of reality. The movement from the subjective and objective representations of my role as a witness (researcher), artist AEMP, educator (narrator in research stories) to the stories and my own journey are influenced by the example of the hologram metaphor that Bohm speaks of in the Implicate Order (Bohm 2007). The rooms of the AEMP provides a mental image or metaphor not unlike Bohm’s 69 metaphors for the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) that suggests that our worldviews and our languages influence our realities and the way we perceive reality. The rooms or breath walls enable the AEMP methodology to unfold or explicate the participants’ stories and my own story about the importance of creating dialogue so that science education becomes wholistic and relevant to Indigenous students. Dream/Narrative, Dream/ Story, Dream/ Song form a methodology matrix filled with the participants’ stories, in such a way that shifts back and forth as each story interconnects from an individual story to collective story. AEMP employs a place based knowledge methodology as each participant’s story is given acknowledgement about their history to the land they are from in Chapter 4. An important aspect of this thesis methodology is that by integrating a wholistic Indigenous worldview approach an interface between Western Science Systems and Indigenous Science Systems may unfold through dialogue about the problematic role of the language of Western Science for describing the contemporary science and its link to the underrepresentation of Indigenous students in science disciplines. The AEMP methodology having an Indigenous worldview approach integrates the understanding that the hidden metaphysical world of energy and spirit are not separate from the visible reality but are interconnected in an irreducible wholistic way through language. Attention to the participants’ perspectives through story enables their individual implicate orders of thought to become explicated in a larger collective story of the AEMP.        I was intrigued by Bohm’s insights as David Peat relates, Bohm “was struck by the  perfect bridge” between the Algonquin language and worldview in relation to his own exploratory philosophy (Peat, 2000,p 238). Bohm had struck upon a tremendous insight into human thought quantum theory, relativity and his Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) that they were part of the everyday life and the speech of the Blackfoot, Micmaq, Cree and Ojibwaj (Peat, 2000,p 238).  I asked my Elder Auntie Maryanne to translate the word for breath in Algonquin and she replied “Ekwânamo”.  In a sense my research is a living, breathing field of inquiry and performative enactment of processes of knowing, knowledge production and their ongoing renewals and rituals. The ritual of ‘asking’ takes place in a time when many Elders enact the ‘memories’ that were silenced for so long, but not forgotten.  I reflect in using the term ritual as research articulated well by Shawn Wilson in Research as Ceremony (Wilson, 2008) who invokes ‘ceremony’ and ‘ritual’ as research methodology. I was also intrigued by Bohm’s 70 attention to Indigenous worldview in relation to physics and art. Furthermore, I thought perhaps if Einstein was free to imagine his journey of riding on a beam of light, then even though one’s creations can’t all be paradigm shifts as E=MC2, there is value in the movement of creative thought that holds unknown potentialities. The thesis methodology employs the metaphors that evoke the Trickster riding alongside a Trickster convection current, dancing on a breath of air, ever balancing the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. In a sense the AEMP is an aesthetic methodology that reflects the ontological, epistemological, axiological, pedagogical connections encompassed in the term “All My Relations”. In its ‘one-at-a-time’ perspective it accepts the view E=MC2, in its ‘all-at-once’ perspective it is S=MC2 in relation to ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. An equivalent term to say subtle energy is spirit. The AEMP measurement is always an approximation in relation to the constants of ‘Wisdom” and “Wonder’. If imagined further it points to an infinite inquiry among the dynamic moving of spirit and matter and thought always in relation to the universal flux toward and away from the quantitative and the qualitative elements not unlike the ever expanding realms of quantum physics. Perhaps like the wave-particle duality (Peat, 2000,p 233) that is found in the physicist Neil Bohr’s “Complementarity Principle” of quantum physics one may find a home in the breathing walls of the AEMP labyrinthine structure or “breathing matrix”.  If one can envision that there is relatedness between the visible and hidden realities and are all encompassed within a wholistic worldview.    Niels Bohr suggested that within the quantum world science had to adopt what he called complementary descriptions- rather than having a single descriptions that exhausts the phenomenon in question, science has to employ complementary, mutually contradictory, accounts. The world, at the subatomic level, does not accord with the traditional way our English-Latin-Greek language structures reality. (Peat, 2000, p 233)  In my view the AEMP metaphoric equation S=MC2 reflects Einstein’s views that “God does not play dice with the universe”(Isaacson, 2007, p. 4) in a one-at-a-time perspective but in an-all-at-once perspective a subtle energy does play dice with the universe when the time is right. It is the back and forth glimpses of an all at once view to an individual view that enables a better appreciation of the irreducibility of relatedness in Indigenous methods for understanding.        The AEMP is a methodology that employs the metaphor of “breath” is always fluctuating in the animated spaces of being that views the relationships of the part to the whole and the 71 whole to the parts system. “Breath” as a metaphor evokes a living entity that is symbiotic, oscillating, it is [in]formation, [per] [form]ative, reflects the moving thought process. In some ways the breathing matrix design structure behaves as a sensory apparatus that in its two dimensional static state appears pointed just as you visibly see it but in its animated state it is hidden curved and stretched in space/ time by the dynamical movements of their of thoughts. As the participants shared stories their ‘objectivities and subjectivities, conscience/subconscience, local/global came into play in the complex finite/infinite tensions of ‘Wisdom and Wonder’. Hence, AEMP reciprocal ‘up’ ‘down’ cones function as symbolic orientations for the constants ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ as their kinesthetic tensions of relationships and processes move. I draw close attention to the boundaries where interfacing occurs, as the core becomes a shifting center of energy liberated by the balance between the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’. At the core of this thesis methodology there is a conscious attention to the importance of holism that exists in the Indigenous worldview that does not separate the aspects of heart, mind, body and spirit from the fields of art and science or any discipline.   3.3 Animating Theory, Praxis and Practice         The AEMP is the story of an imagined dream that reflects a complex concept and worldview. This dream guides my journey exploring the methodological framework of Indigenous Storywork, (Archibald, 2008); A/r/tography (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) and Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007). The AEMP space enables a multiplicity of ‘lookings’ and interpretations that interpenetrate all aspects of my life as a mother, artist, researcher, educator in the contexts of “All My Relations” and the cosmos. Though the AEMP design illustration is bound by a two-dimensional surface of text/image in this paper, I can also engage with the matrix in a fluid, dynamic three-dimensional visual by using computer animation. The AEMP has the quality of a transparency that enables one to overlap the changing nested shapes of self and other; hence the core becomes a multidimensional shifting view to linger at the interface with other worldviews or concepts. As the ‘W’(wisdom) and ‘W’(wonder) become animated the AEMP geometry becomes string-like and less rigid enabling the interfacing contexts to engage in an oscillating motion through the less than smooth boundaries where implicate and explicate dialogue can take place.  The looking and knowing here becomes a volatile space to critically explore the self and 72 others in educational contexts and their worldviews. The AEMP in its most volatile state reflects the sacred hoop, its healing elements and the alliances necessary for maintaining balance in one’s life and community.   Furthermore, the AEMP methodology also attends to the important role of the language of science and the nature of its inseparability as a form of inquiry when trying to describe quantum physics or Indigenous Science. This attention to how language shapes the field of science is precisely how Indigenous Science is an important source for those who desire to integrate Indigenous Knowledge in Science education. In the documentary The Language of Spirituality the influential linguist Dan Moonhawk Alford aptly describes the language dilemma that exists for describing quantum physics and furthermore Indigenous Knowledge. Alford employs the term “Heisenburg’s lament” thereby alluding to the quantum physicist Werner Heisenburg’s assertion about the limits of language for describing the new science of quantum physics (Dellaflora, 2005). Physicist David Peat relates an interesting account of how quantum physicists Neils Bohr and Werner Heisenberg tackled the tricky matter of “language” for describing quantum reality.  Bohr believed that Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle meant that quantum reality was basically ambiguous, owing to the language being used in classical physics (Peat, 2000, p. 46).  Physicist David Bohm’s work on creating the artificial language called the Rheomode (Bohm, 2007, p.38) provides an example of his attempt to accommodate the language of science with a verb-based language. Bohm related that ‘rheo’ is from a Greek verb, meaning to flow (Bohm 2007, p. 39). Bohm had been working on creating a new mode of language where the verb rather than the noun would be emphasized. Bohm thought that the traditional subject-verb-object structure had tacit implications that lead to fragmentation of thought and thus would lead to incorrect conclusions. Bohm looked at the way language shapes our worldviews and this implied that the language of science was fragmented. This thesis methodology aims to enhance the language of science through careful attention to the ways Indigenous Scientists and Western Scientists think about the role of language as inseparable from Indigenous worldview and thus requires an attention to the holism.    In Blackfoot Physics Peat illustrates the relationship of verbs in relation to Indigenous Science.  When I get into a deep question with Leroy he will remark, “Well, in Blackfoot we say...” and produce a pattern of sound for me. Or he may pause and sing to himself very softly as he tries to discover a way of putting the vibrations, and 73 all that they convey, into the particular linguistic structures demanded of English. (Peat, 2000, p. 222)  The Algonquin peoples are concerned with the animation of all things within their process-vision of the cosmos; verbs are therefore the dominant feature of their language, some of them having well over one thousand different endings. (Peat, 2000, p. 223)  The Dream/Narrative, Dream/Story and Dream/Song are also fluid boundaries for this research methodology through stories that perform as a multi-voiced and holding a generative quality that is always in flux. For Indigenous peoples the source of language transcends the boundaries of ordinary space and time thereby extending this volatility to a wider expanse. This thesis methodology proposes the crossing of fluid boundaries between a Western Science System and an Indigenous Science System through the participants’ sharing about their science perspectives and this includes the tacit implications that accompany their stories.  3.4 Structure, Pattern, Process and the Creative Methodology   The AEMP as a versatile methodology enables one to interface or overlap it as individual or as multiple stories in relation to the ‘W’ (wisdom), and ‘W’ (wonder) aspects. The fluid boundaries become at times chaotic only to become organized in a new way. Virtually this methodology comes alive in its diversity and versatility by the interfacing of dynamic and multi-versed implicit/explicit dialogues.        For my research methodology I envisioned the interface and integration of an Indigenous wellness model, the cardinal directions and the Ekwânamo narrative. I was inspired to draw on the principles of the Indigenous Storywork’s (Archibald, 2008) seven principles of respect, responsibility, reciprocity, reverence, holism, interrelatedness, and synergy; Irwin in A/r/tography’s (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224) six principles of contiguity, living inquiry, openings, métissage-metonym, reverberations and excess; and Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) ‘mutual participation’ and the unfolded and enfolded orders of thought as a wholistic system for bringing to fruition a Dream/story and a Dream song to help shape the research methodology process.   In the AEMP narrative I refer to the Elders and children at the center where symbiotic stories are told that constantly change the relations of the breath curved walls much like the 74 “reverberations” in A/r/tography, (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224). A synergetic (Archibald, 2008,p.125) imagery is evoked in the AEMP descriptions of story as a living, breathing space. The co-evolving hybrid space integrates a complex body of principles heuristically building new synergetic relationships for understandings about Indigenous Science and Western Science.  The story continues to be in flux and its shape is dependent upon the voices or breath that animates it. Thus the reciprocity (Archibald, 2008, p. 125) is evoked by the interdependency of voice and breath of the participants and my voice as researcher.  The passage that alludes to leaving the safety of the comfortable center where all appeared visible relates to the notion of the contributor, participator not unlike Bohm’s mutual participation (2010) and Irwin in A/r/tography’s (Springgay et al., 2008) ‘living inquiry’.  As the observer it was not enough to stay in the center, there was a motivation to go beyond belonging and into contributing both collectively and individually in search for holism. This move beyond the center also evokes our need to animate change and assimilate our knowledge in technological ways locally and globally in both Indigenous Science and Western Science. There is an importance of responsibility and mutual participation (Bohm, 2005, p. 135) in caring for Mother Earth that is shared by the participants in an emerging co-evolving inquiry through the metaphors, story, myth and song. In a sense the Dream/Narrative aims to integrate the stories of the participants perspectives about science by the connected movements of their breath as voice and the breath as wind or cardinal directions in such a way that enables the reader to enter into the sacred space of the story of this thesis evolving in mutual participation with the Trickster and the constant tensions of wisdom and wonder, spirit and energy.        In the Dream /Narrative (p.28) structure I as a researcher enter one particular room and in this process I watch the dancer and listen to the sounds that are known to have developed before language. The oscillating breathing patterns reflects that all living things are in a constant process of flux and renewal such as the cycles of life and seasons. I also wanted breath to represent a way of being. I believe that this interface is part of a new era whereby Indigenous leaders, Elders and scholars will be known as the ‘ultimate’ interface to launch a direct path to some of the world’s deepest questions about space. One of the reasons is due in part because of our “interrelationships” with all beings. This is to say that our relationship with the curriculum of life is not limited to material existence itself.  75 3.5 Three Theoretical Frameworks Developed in the AEMP Research Process   The role of Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles of respect, responsibility, reciprocity, reverence, holism, interrelatedness, and synergy within the AEMP were integral to the thesis framework but also in different aspects of the thesis analysis. The successful integration of Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles was evidenced in numerous ways. At the initial stage of the research when engaging in the research /participant relationship each principle informed indirectly the protocols for a respectful, responsible, synergetic space for the in-depth interviews. During the research analysis these principles were also accessed such as the principle of reverence for the research process, I consistently practiced an Indigenous way of working by always making time to set out tobacco in gratefulness for gifts of knowledge. I employed the principle of responsibility by making sure the participants were informed through the reading out of the consent form and research process. I accessed the principle of reciprocity for dialogues by practicing the skills of listening to the participants’ stories without interruption or judgment. On another level the stories explored reciprocity of our place in nature. The principle of holism and interrelatedness ran through the thesis as Indigenous philosophies of All My Relations were discussed by the participants and in the text that expanded on their dialogues.  Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008) principles were important tools for meaning making to create a new story from the AEMP thesis.  The role of A/r/tography, (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224) principles of contiguity, living inquiry, openings, métissage-metonym, reverberations and excess within the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project were integral to the thesis framework but also in different aspects of the thesis analysis. The successful integration of A/r/tography (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224) principles were evidenced in numerous ways.  The AEMP research analysis employs a “hybrid space for inquiring through art, and writing” (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224) as the participants stories are integrated into the Dream/Narrative aesthetic space as well as my story as artist, researcher, and educator. Employing an arts based research enabled me to create an alternative research format that was aligned with my Algonquin worldview. Creating a thesis in this way made it possible to engage in a more process-oriented form of inquiry that offered as in the A/r/tography principle of “openings” (Sinner et al., 2006, p.1224) a more open and creative way to engage in dialogue 76 with the participants and to give an Indigenous perspective of the notion of “witnessing” as researcher translating their stories “textually, visually and performatively (Finley, 2003, p. 283)” in (Sinner et al., 2006, p. 1225). The A/r/tography (Springgay et al., 2006) principles of convergence and divergence play a role in the diverse perspectives and stories of the participants bear similarities and differences in thought.  The A/r/tography principle (Sinner et al., 2006) of métissage as an act of “interdisciplinarity” is echoed by the varied disciplines that inform the thesis interviews and my background as an artist, researcher and educator. The A/r/tography (Sinner et al., 2006) principle of metaphor enables powerful abstractions of thought for new understandings. The A/r/tography (Sinner et al., 2006) principle of contiguity reflects my role as I inquire as artist, researcher and educator moving in between the participants’ stories and my own story and our perspectives about Western Science Systems and Indigenous Science Systems. A/r/tography (Sinner et al., 2006) principles enable me to acknowledge the experiences of self and other while simultaneously honoring my personal way of knowing, doing and making living inquiry that aligns with the holism of my Indigenous worldview. A/r/tography (Sinner et al., 2006) principles were important tools for understanding theory as textual, visual and dialogical based information for creating this thesis. The role of Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007) principles of mutual participation (Bohm, 2005, p.137) and the unfolded and enfolded orders of thought within the AEMP were integral to the thesis framework but also in different aspects of the thesis analysis.  The successful integration of the Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) principles was evidenced in numerous ways. The complementary interrelations between the holism of Indigenous Science and the holism that is possible with quantum physics enabled an opening space for the participants’ stories to converge and emerge inspite of their disparate knowledge systems. Bohm’s attention to the language of quantum physics and the verb-based languages of many Indigenous Knowledge systems brought another opening to discuss the need for a more sensitive language in science that will motivate Indigenous students enter the disciplines of science, math and technology. Bohm’s attention to thought as a system of process was an important way to link the notion that the source of the ecological crisis we are living in derives from the fragmentation of thought that renders false understandings. An understanding that Bohm related that also informs this thesis format is that art, science and spirit should not be treated as separated but instead they are all part of a whole consciousness (Bohm, 2005, p.145). The Holomovement (Bohm, 2007, pp.190-191) 77 has the resemblance of the Indigenous worldview that views the cosmos as an inseparable from the visible world in which we live in. The metaphor of the Labyrinthine Zero space in the AEMP is analogous to the Holomovement (Bohm, 2007, p.191) Bohm’s view of proprioception (Bohm, 1994, pp.121-123) as a way of being attentive to how thought produces a result outside of ourselves (Bohm, 1994, p. 123) echoes the Indigenous view on the nature of reality that all living entities are in relationship to each other. Bohm’s principle of mutual participation (Bohm, 2005 p.135-136) evokes a similar Indigenous view of all things related and also shapes the way quantum physics is understood Dream/Narrative, Dream/Story and Dream/Song as metaphoric architectural learning spaces where the participants implicate stories are explicated are given expression by the theory of the implicate and explicate order view. For example the stories of the participants and my story are all part of an implicate order as they all share the space where thought becomes enfolded inward in the universal flux but when the stories are explicated or unfolded they are brought into text and image. The explicate order is dominant in physics while in the implicate order everything is enfolded into everything (Bohm, 2007, p. 225). Bohm’s viewed that relativity theory and quantum theory concur, that both suggest a need to view the world as undivided whereby all parts of the universe includes both the observer and the instruments used are part of one totality (Bohm, 2007, p. 13). This totality resembles the universal flux that Indigenous people understand. Bohm’s view that a particular style of dialogue was needed that emphasized a flow of meaning among and between groups where new understanding may emerge (Bohm, 2010, p.7). This thesis treats the participants’ stories with this understanding. Although the flow of meaning appears to be limited to the one to one dialogues that I had with each participant, there is a simulation of dialogue when the stories are brought together in such a way that permits attention to all perspectives. The Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007) principles were important tools for engaging in dialogue with an open mind and to create a new story from the research.  The role of Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project principles of labyrinthine, breath convergeance- emergence, simultaneity, integrity, hybridity, subtle energy, attractors, and the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ animated by the labyrinthine methodology of heart, mind, body, and spirit were integrated in my research methodology in numerous ways. The AEMP principles of emergence and convergence convey the ongoing need for Indigenous and Non/Indigenous relationships to interface about how to make science more relevant to 78 Aboriginal learners so that they want to be present in schools was sustained.  The simultaneous integratation of a mulit-voiced analysis, of self as researcher, artist and other participants, and the voice of three other theoretical perspectives bridged a creative space to engage in the Ekwânamo landscape for an Indigenous learning space and wellness model. Simultaneously, through a muli-voiced research analysis, a creative hybrid learning space of subtle energies (mysteries, unknown), attractors (participants) form an engaging inquiry that aims to build a new story in science education. The AEMP principles complemented the tools of the “multiple lookings” and their principles that aim to build a new story in science education.  3.6 The Vision of a Labyrinthine Zero Space/ Emergent -Convergent         Indigenous Storywork (Archibald, 2008), A/r/tography, (Irwin & Springgay, 2008), Bohm’s Implicate Order (Bohm, 2007), and the AEMP theoretical influences applied to the in-depth interviews analysis has provided a living research that reaches a vast spectrum of concepts and their relationships to the re-presenting of science, art, and technology in new and less fragmented ways. The thesis themes explored Western and Indigenous Science in a dynamical methodological structure that flexibly enabled the fluid intercrossing of knowledge through varying aspects of the “multiple lookings” principles as they evolved heuristically in the course of research as stories that were analyzed in an Indigenous methodology. The principles aforementioned principles interfaced with both Western and Indigenous Science concepts in similar sense implied by Vizenor:  The truth about stories is that that’s all we are. You can’t understand the world without telling a story, the Anishinabe writer Gerald Vizenor tells us. There isn’t any center to the world but a story. (King, 2003, p. 32)        In using an Indigenous methodology I extend the dreams of others that journey before me in sharing the Ekwânamo gathering space of laybrinthine breathing walls as “spaces where participants voices became animated in research as story and art, and living inquiry. The story of now… To gather in the AEMP space is to enter a living matrix for interfacing on many levels of theory, research, and art-based practices mindful of keeping the “highest thoughts”. The zero space or mystery or the unknown invites complexity and diversity of thought. The space echoes 79 the voice of community practices for interpreting understanding across the fluid boundaries of the divergent, convergent, emergent inquisitive spaces that vibrate, oscillate disappear and re-emerge. It is a dynamic labyrinthine multiple ‘lookings’ where thought becomes animated by the relational networks of subtle energies. The AEMP is a place where dialogue engenders sustained sensitive textualities for capturing more meaningful, harmonious, kinaesthetic learning enactments of modern emancipatory educational dwellings. The AEMP is a zero space for Indigenous/non-Indigenous Knowledge keepers, scientists, scholars, researchers, educators, and communities to gather long enough to ride the Trickster convection currents where deep healing and deep teaching dwell.       3.7 Methods        This dissertation titled the Ekwânamo Matrix Project: A Place to Interface for Elders, Indigenous Scientists and Non-Indigenous Scientist, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems includes in-depth interviews of nine research participants.  Participants include three Elders, three Indigenous scientists, three non-Indigenous scientists, and myself as researcher, witness to stories, and narrator of stories. The participants will be introduced in later chapters.  The Indigenous scientists and non-Indigenous scientists include those that have shown an interest in the topic of Indigenous Knowledge systems either through publications or significant conversations on Indigenous Knowledge systems. The participants were contacted by inviting them to participate in my research by e-mail and by phone.  The research method that I employed includes conducting video recorded in-depth interviews of one to two hours, of which some pieces were used for a film documentary. Participants signed a consent form that included the purpose, and the broad questions. Also included in the same form participants signed a consent allowing me to use their images and interviews for the purpose of my research dissertation and the final product of the documentary. The research participants had an opportunity to withdraw at any time from the research study. They were honored for their time by offering them a gift of an Aboriginal print. Upon completion of the thesis and the film, the film was presented to the participants before any public screening.  80 The transcripts of the in-depth interviews were sent to the participants for verification. Participants did not ask for revisions. The interviews were conducted at the participants’ preferred places such as the interviewees’ place of work or home.  Skype recording was used when it was not possible to interview in person. I transcribed the footage from the interviews myself, as I wanted to maintain the ‘witness’ aspect of story relationship and integrity. The transcription analysis of the project data was a means to interface the voices of the interviewees seamlessly within the Algonquin Ekwânamo Matrix Project theoretical framework and its principles. The videos were also edited into a creative two- minute short documentary film, which created a face to face representation that added to the data analysis aesthetically. The documentary attempts to highlight the challenges and the possibilities that exist when Indigenous Knowledge systems and Western Science systems interface.  The documentary attempts to reflect the importance of art, science, and technology as a medium for exploring the interface between Indigenous and Western Science learning systems.         These modes of expression (art-based methodological performatives) helped to facilitate education mobilization between the restrictive borders of text-based, Western knowledge methods and Indigenous methodological frameworks of engaging in pedagogy. The interview stories open rich possibilities for improving future pedagogy through stories that receive and give back (Archibald, 2008, p. 3).  3.8 Ethical Considerations/Protocols        This thesis was carried out within the ‘best practices’ and protocols for researchers engaging with humans. Throughout the study I was aware of the guiding principles of the Tri-Research Council of Canada Research SSHRC Ethics Board (REB) policies for conducting research with humans.  I aimed to align my research practices with the ethical considerations laid out in this document.       My protocols included notifying the research participants of the aims, methods, and anticipated benefits as well as his/her right to abstain from participation in the research and his/her right to terminate at any time his/her participation; and knowledge dissemination of the research findings and outcomes afterwards. The most important Indigenous cultural protocols that I employed were the principles of respect, reciprocity, reverence and responsibility 81 throughout the in-depth interview process. The participant stories were respected by following the protocols of Indigenous talking circles where one allows the sharing of story without interruptions or judgments. The principle of reciprocity with nature was integrated into the thesis work by engaging in Indigenous practices of smudging, laying out tobacco or pouring water on the earth before starting the interviews and during the writing process of the thesis. I followed the principle of reverence for the stories that were shared by thanking the participants for their gift of knowledge. The principle of responsibility for bringing the participants’ stories together in a meaningful way meant that I had to give each participant a unique space within the AEMP story. An introduction about each of the participants and their disciplines was created in order to appreciate their expertise in their disciplines. This thesis follows an important protocol for engaging in culturally competent ways by touching upon through text and interview the remembrance of the historical disruptions that occurred with the period of residential schools and the colonial enterprises that influence the context of our stories today.  3.9  Sowing the Seeds of an Indigenous Knowledge Methodology   The in depth interviews touched on personal and international discussions that developed a wider yet significant discussion about the old, new and future demands of Indigenous perspectives for including Indigeneity in education.  The research focused on Elders, Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who want to negotiate and re-think the place of Indigeneity in our education system and communities. The in-depth interviews offered a sensitive, multi-voiced, multi-faculty, fluid and dynamic space that acknowledged, recognized, respected and valued each distinct knowledge system.  The interview stories offered an awareness of the need for effective facilitation of learning that motivates students to become hard thinkers and integrate key concepts, for an enduring knowledge base that is reflective of Indigenous ways of ‘coming to know’.        In this complex journey of living inquiry through arts-based research in education the quest for understanding in new and generative ways is critically awakened by the successes of sharing insights through dialogue and the challenges of what counts as research. Indigenous Knowledge Systems were acknowledged valuable and at times complementary to Western Science Systems but the lens each applies does not always eclipse to create a balance.  82   The hallmark of an arts-based inquiry research process is its proclivity to living both inside and outside of the research. Research in this vein occupies emancipatory spaces that cannot be expressed simply through notions of research subjects/objects but more as living human co-contributing researchers. The study has a positive potential for community engagement and for building capacity networks across disciplines and cultures. The successes of an arts-based inquiry research process enabled a dialogue on the challenges and complementarities to develop new strategies for engaging with Indigenous Knowledge in education settings.       The complimentary aspects and the challenges of Indigenous philosophies on the interconnectedness of all things brought to life the varying insights of the participants’ worldviews and their disciplines.  The AEMP draws on connections to Bohm’s concept of thought as system and process that lends itself to Indigenous philosophies of “interconnectedness” that were echoed in other ways by the participants’ stories. There are convergences and diversions in these philosophies that cannot be addressed within this research space. One methodological challenge was that the participants were in dialogue with me as a researcher, narrator, witness, artist, however they were not in dialogue with one another at one place and time except in their new acquaintance with each other through the analysis themes. One convergence that binds the research participants and anyone who accesses this thesis is Bohm’s view that body, emotion and intellect, could be viewed as one unbroken field of interpenetrating parts that mutually inform thought as a system: concrete as well as abstract, active as well as passive, collective as well as individual.  83  Figure 3.1 Dancing To The Songs of The Universe Image Corresponds to the Sphere in Figure 2.4   In order to better appreciate the creative and subtle nuances brought forth in the unfurling fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth chapters of this thesis research and analysis, the image above (see Figure 3.1) represents a theoretical model that corresponds to the theoretical frameworks mentioned in chapter three but also includes the three short texts Dream/Narrative (p.28), the Dream/Story (p.108), the Dream/Song (pp. 86-87), and a brief review of the methodological influences noted in the early chapters supply a ‘creative intelligence’ for interpreting the research, morally, effectively and meaningfully. Each form an integrated source for the research journey formed within the AEMP metaphoric, methodological, theoretical, architectural learning space. Beginning with a brief review of the research theoretical and art-84 based influences provides valuable consortia for drawing on a multiplicity of “looking” and interpretations. The earlier framework images are metaphorically represented by the surrounding designs echoed in different sizes. This image design helps one to step into the full story at a slower pace than arriving through the framework images that synthesize rapidly the frameworks.       The Dream/Narrative, Dream/Story, Dream/Song, guides my journey and extends the multiplicity of “lookings”, and “interpretations” to all aspects of my life as a mother, artist, researcher, and educator. The AEMP learning space interweaves aspects of four theoretical concepts to form an innovative matrix from which a complimentary and challenging art-based research work develops. The AEMP dynamical methodological framework, Dream/Narrative  interfaces and integrates an Indigenous wellness model that offers a multidimensional (hybrid) viewing; and the following theoretical principles: breath, labyrinthine, convergence, emergence, simultaneity, integrity, hybridity, subtle energy, attractors, anticipatory, wisdom, and wonder animated by a living labyrinthine methodology of language, culture, identity and relevance; Indigenous Storywork’s (Archibald, 2008) seven principles of respect, responsibility, reciprocity, reverence, holism, interrelatedness, and synergy; A/r/tography’s (Irwin & Springgay, 2008) six principles of contiguity, living inquiry, openings, métissage-metonym, reverberations and excess and Bohm’s Implicate Order (2007) ‘mutual participation’ and the unfolded and enfolded orders of thought as a wholistic system. The AEMP is a theoretical and methodological framework that evolves heuristically in the course of research, one that sustains a unique creative network design for integrating transsytemic, diverse ways of coming to know, and for educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit across disciplines and cultures. The AEMP in its most volatile state reflects both the sacred hoop’s healing elements (heart, mind, body, spirit) and the alliances necessary for maintaining balance in one’s life and community. On the other hand the AEMP builds on knowledge that is land based and sustains an anticipatory rhythmic temporality that is a generative, wholistic and relational inquiry.  The AEMP is expressed simultaneously as an aesthetically dynamical and flowing form that incorporates both fiction/non-fiction, qualitative-non qualitative. The AEMP may provide a living research methodology for exploring the vast spectrum of concepts and their relationships to the methodological re-presenting of science, art and technology in new and less fragmented ways. The Dream/Narrative as viewed in the earlier chapters now provides both an interwoven theoretical and art-based methodological framework and for analyzing the in-depth interviews on the perspectives of Indigenous Elders, Indigenous 85 scientists and non-Indigenous scientists who have contemplated about how Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science can interface.        The AEMP labyrinthine journey as living inquiry performs an integration of a Dream/Narrative, a Dream/Story and a Dream/Song that simultaneously corresponds to each other. The Ekwânamo Dream /Narrative metaphorical architectural learning space and the AEMP framework embody the four research themes of (1) Language and Story as Tools for Critical Thinking and Culture; (2) Culture & Ecological Mindfulness in Kinships With Nature and All Living Entities; (3) Identity & Relevance as Seeing Ourselves in Academia; and (4) Presence & Wholistic Learning From the Heart. The Story/Dream (How the Trickster Grey Jay Came to Balance the Constants of Wisdom and Wonder!) and (Grandmother Moons’ Breath Song) are embodied in the AEMP simultaneously drawing forth an active, emerging, converging learning space from which a living inquiry can dwell. This learning space emerges as a hybrid living inquiry base for exploring the perspectives of Indigenous Elders and Indigenous/Non Indigenous scientists in contemplation of the educational possibilities, challenges, and benefits of creating an interface through the mediums of dialogue, art, and technology on the subject of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Western Science Systems.          The participants’ responses to general research questions (Appendix B) through in person and Skype interviews provided a rich body of Knowledge for opening discussions on the need to create dialogues for addressing the issue of the under-representation of Indigenous students in science and technology in higher education. Dialogue on the role that Western Science and Indigenous Knowledge play in education creates a pathway to assemble at a critical juncture in our relationships with our shared global environment.  Many now suggest that it is imperative that we find new sustainable ways to relate to local and global environments.  In The Weather Makers, Tim Flannery delineates the severe ways that we are changing the climate and the implications for life on earth.  When we consider the fate of the planet as a whole, we must be under no illusions as to what is at stake. Earth’s average temperature is around 15°C, and whether we allow it to raise by a single degree, or 3°C, will decide the fate of hundreds of thousands of species, and most probably billions of people. Never in the history of humanity has there been a cost benefit analysis that demands greater scrutiny. (Flannery, 2005, p. 170)  86 Flannery (2005) argues that the implications for the Alaskan village Shishmaref community of 600, climate change has altered their main food sources such as caribou and seal creating economic and cultural negative impacts, “its inhabitants look set to become the first climate change refugees” (Flannery, 2005, p.286).          The AEMP suggests that the metaphoric constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’ can be the driving forces that perpetuate creative energy and movements for promoting better methods of retention of Indigenous students in science education. The AEMP learning space opens wide the doors for negotiating generative discussions on Indigenous epistemology and the reciprocal nature of our environment. The creative mediums of this research framework and its theoretical influences mentioned earlier may ease the transient subtleties thereby mobilizing the hidden surface of Indigenous Knowledge to the fore.  An Indigenous flow of wisdom and wonder pouring into the interface between Indigenous Science and Western Science creates a growing appreciation for complimentary relationships that promote more relevant ways of knowing for Indigenous students. The creative mediums of art, technologies, and dialogue also promote the sustainment of language, cultural identity, relevance and presence thereby creating more wholistic understandings to meet the possibilities, challenges, and benefits of having the Western Science System and the Indigenous Science interface.       Two overarching factors exist within this research quest as explored in this research analysis. One crucial factor is the serious environmental state in which we all must partake.  A need to interface/develop regenerative tools to build new relationships among and between knowledge systems so that science becomes inclusive and wholistic learning experience that reflects the importance of Indigenous Knowledge and the need to engage in land based experiences. An emerging co-evolving inquiry through this research analysis becomes an anticipatory conversation about the possibilities, challenges, benefits and responsibilities of mutual participation in Indigenous Science and Western Science. The other factor is that the overarching environmental state in which we all partake in, is inextricably linked to the crucial inquiry taking place in this thesis about how to bring Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science Systems together so that science education is more meaningful to Indigenous learners and moreover that both Indigenous learners and Non-Indigenous learners who seek to engage in science may think critically about their relationship within the environment we all share. 87       The Dream/Narrative, the Dream/Story, the Dream/Song, each form an integrated source for the research journey formed within the AEMP, metaphoric architectural learning space. Through the symbiotic walls of breath AEMP, I (we) move through the research with the Grey Jay Trickster who catches the air drifts moving ever higher balanced by the constants of ‘Wisdom’ and ‘Wonder’.  The wisdom gleaned from the research participants and the wonder that lay ahead as I absorbed their conversations remained suspended in my mind, heart, body and spirit as I waited for a new door to open. These are heuristic learning spaces that grew out the 'suspended' knowledge that unfolded in unique rhythmic temporality, that is, when the time was right (subtle energies). How did I know the time was right?  From the Dream/Song I knew the time was right and from the Dream/ Narrative, ‘And from where I stood the walls became visible’, from the Dream/Narrative, a new Dream/Story emerged that facilitated the journey through the research analysis. This chapter is an invitation for you to join me on a journey through the animated living labyrinthine journey along the moving symbiotic walls that lead us to nine interconnected worlds and my own to the Big Waters of academic scholarship and research where four new bodies of water form the research themes. A Dream/Song carried by the wind as Grey Jay Trickster rides the up and down drifts drawing the ever rhythmic and anticipatory strings that tie our relationship with the earth. As the Grey Jay Trickster rides the shifting air currents pulling and pushing the ‘wisdom’ and ‘wonder’ constants, knowledge becomes an anticipatory, relational and dynamical inquiry.'       The Dream/Song, Grandmother Moon’s Breath acknowledges my identity as Anishinabe. As the four winds shift and influence the ocean, so too does it anticipate and honor the waters/medicines ensuring that knowledge is shared in a good way.  As the song makes its acquaintance with the heart, mind, body and spirit, the drum is ever beating as I (we) begin to envision the landscape and journey ahead.   3.10 Grandmother Moon’s Breath (Dream/Song)  GRANDMOTHER MOON’S BREATH (DREAM/SONG)  JOCELYNE ROBINSON 2015  Breath   Nésay  Breathing  Tinéynamo My name is Grandmother Mother Moon’s Breath  niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis nésaywin nDishnikas I am Anishinabe Ndinishanbioniin 88  Hello Wind   Kwey Nodin Hello My Grandmother Moon Kwey niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis  My Grandmother Moon niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis In the moonlight egee-shigaték   We hear your breath  nodanan-nan edashidnéy-namowin  In the moonlight together we swim around a circle between the four winds, North Wind, East Wind, South Wind, West Wind egee-shigaték, kikishbadigaymin mamwee newin eow-jinwék, kiednook, wabanok, shiownook,   Grandmother Moon help (us) with your water medicine  To share my (our) breath in a good way niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis weedookooshinan mamwe nibi kidimini-namweek  Grandmother Moon Through your wisdom,  niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis mamwee kigikendimween kitchi kwenatch  Grandmother Moon Through your wonder niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis kitchi kwenatch  Grandmother Moon  niKokomisminan dibik-kakizis Through the water medicine Earth and Sky are new  mamwee nibi, kijojominan aki shidish ish-pimik oshka-matséy  CREATOR    THANK YOU       KIJEYMINDO MEGWETCH MOTHER EARTH   THANK YOU    KIJOJOMINAN AKI MEGWETCH FATHER SKY  THANK YOU   KIDADMINAN ISHPIMIK MEGWETCH GRANDMOTHER MOON THANK YOU NIKOKOMISMINAN DIBIK-KAKIZIS MEGWETCH GRANDFATHER SUN  THANK YOU  KIMOOSHOOMNAN KIZIS MEGWETCH NORTH WIND  THANK YOU    KIEDNISI MEGWETCH EAST WIND  THANK YOU WABANISI MEGWETCH SOUTH WIND  THANK YOU  SHIOWNIS MEGWETCH WEST WIND  THANK YOU  GABIOWNOWISI MEGWETCH        As I (we) greet Grandmother Moon, I (we) listen to her breath. I (we) ask that she help us with her medicine as I (we) are about to gather together between the four winds to share our breath in a good way. The Algonquin culture as with many other nations I (we) celebrate and give thanks for the nibí (water) and hold it in high regard as an important medicine. Throughout this research journey nibí is present in the Dream/Song; Dream/Story and Dream/Narrative 89 AEMP theoretical framework disturbing, stirring, stimulating the ever changing movements through the passages between the poetic Dream/Narrative as both the Western scientific and the Indigenous Knowledge interface creating new nibí /medicines for change. In an all at once view or collective view at the centre or Big Water4, Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science are carried from their one at a time view (individual tributaries) by the element ‘nibí ‘ ‘H2O’ influenced by the wind (breath). A convergence of metaphor and reason carve a one at a time view (tributaries) of space as the all at once view of the Big Water suspends knowledge of the participants as the four research themes (research analysis/new bodies of water) emerge around the consensus for the need for dialogue through education to take place. Song, story, water/wind/ breath make their acquaintance with the heart, mind, body and spirit. While the drum is ever beating I (we) open the door to one of many possible rooms (perspectives) stepping into its landscape where a Dream/Story (How the Grey Jay Trickster Came to Balance the Constants of Wisdom and Wonder!) emerges from the Dream/Song (Grandmother Moon’s Breath) as the rhythmic cycles of the moon and ocean influence the water and winds. A land based learning through Dream/Story integrates, unfolds as a young Algonquin child in her daily wanderings in nature listens to a symphony of bees while feeding them clover. The child decides to join them in their diet of clover and is lulled asleep by the warm sun and singing bees.  Here the Grey Jay Trickster is brought to life and continues to emerge simultaneously through the ever changing landscape where the Dream/Narrative, Research/ Findings, Dream/ Story, Dream/Song are suspended and sometimes contained providing a tool for interpreting through the lens of my Indigenous way of knowing. Just as the child turns the jar of bees upside down, she symbolically mimics the shifting of worldviews she must negotiate in order to anticipate the future. She is given the gift of knowledge as she is brought inside the beautiful architecture of a beehive. In the beehive she observes the anticipatory nature of the bees in their rhythmic cycles. The bees succinctly integrate their internal and external environment between the hive and the sun in wholistic, reciprocal, relationships of respect and responsibility. The young child is given a responsibility to generate the knowledge that she has learned. As she shares the knowledge with her family and community she is reminded that the Grey Jay Trickster will always be hungry for knowledge thereby constantly pulling on the constants of ‘wisdom’ and ‘wonder’ in movements                                                 4 The word Ekwânamo is an Algonquin word meaning ‘breath” that can be found in the Lemoine Algonquin dictionary. However a different translation is used for the Grandmother moon song. 90 of knowledge going in and out of balance in relation to people as individuals, community and environment. Not unlike the hive community, each must anticipate the reciprocation of the other in relation to the earth and each other.      As we follow the nibí along the nine tributary spaces again we meet the Grey Jay Trickster at each tributary. The Grey Jay Trickster who is hungry for knowledge spends his/her time inquiring about each participants’ knowledge thereby symbolically introducing his/her role by trying to capture the knowledge of the research participants through his/her curiosity and inquisitiveness.  Just as the nine tributary spaces carve individual and unique paths that are influenced by their breath spaces, each leads to a new path forming a Big Water where knowledge is shared and influenced by the stories/ research of the nine participants performed though the AEMP Dream/ Narrative/ four research themes, Dream /Story, Dream/Song learning spaces.        As we journey along, Grandmother Moon is influencing the tides and winds forming new walls and waters by each participants’ breath/ words. It is as though the participant’s nine breath’s move Big Waters in their tributaries as they join at the centre where ---diverse, dialogical, dialectical conversations meet and interface in between the four winds. A Big Water (research) influenced by the moving "constants" of wisdom and wonder move about in tensions. These diverse tensions surface as the tensions of the moon: a force controlling the ocean tides through gravity, the Grey Jay Trickster: With omnipotent qualities masterfully traverses the realms of knowledge that encompass the AEMP Dream/ Narrative/ Dream/ Story, Dream /Song, and the four research themes of learning spaces. When one or the other of these tensions becomes unbalanced the consequences are that a marked deficit is formed leaving a path that can nurture innovative discourse for wholistic traditional knowledge systems.        The AEMP learning space, Dream/Narrative of the symbiotic walls are interconnected through Dream/Story (How Grey Jay Trickster Came To Balance the Constants of Wisdom and Wonder! and Dream/Song and carry a unique creative network that enables I (we) to kinesthetically join the Big Water at the centre.  With the nine unique tributaries travelling along their symbiotic walls of breath to the centre dialogues interface bringing to life four new bodies of water (four themes) or responses to this thesis namely, from the perspectives of Indigenous Elders and Indigenous/Non Indigenous scientists who have contemplated ways to bring Indigenous Science and Western Science Systems together: What are the educational 91 possibilities, challenges, and benefits of having these systems interface? How can art, science, technology, and dialogue be mediums for exploring the interface between these systems? The questions grew out of the concerns I had during my early studies and my work in schools in British Columbia, Canada regarding the underrepresentation of Indigenous students in science and technology. Here at the centre three previously mentioned theoretical and methodological influences of the “multiple lookings” frameworks and principles surface within the AEMP in an interface of the participants voice, breath as living inquiry. The Ekwânamo/breath, Grandmother Moon Song lyrics evoke the water medicine in relation to Earth and Sky in a ritual cycle of renewal not unlike the metaphoric alchemical AEMP breathing walls of an architectural learning space. Through the AEMP context, a rendering, breathing process is established into research through story, song, film and the narratives of the nine participants animated by their unique perspectives (breath) facilitating a moving dialogue, namely: Alanis Obomsawin, Richard E. Atleo, Basil Johnston, David Close, Georgia Kyba, John B. Harrington, F. David Peat, Stephan Harding and Chris Clarke. The AEMP (interfacing of diverse perspectives and their potential for dialogue about the challenges and complementariness in Western Science and Indigenous Science acknowledges the importance for creating more relevant, wholistic and sustainable places for learning. The research learning identified some of the benefits not only for Indigenous students in the sciences and other related disciplines but also for all students seeking to complement their knowledge with an Indigenous sensitivity to Indigenous Knowledge and the ecological environment.  One cannot help but wonder about the many wisdoms and wonders Indigenous Knowledge upholds beneath the hidden waters of the Indigenous landscapes of the mind. As you visit each “Place” along the journey you discover who the research participants are followed by the research themes/findings. Let me take you to this landscape.   92 Chapter 4:   Journey Begins at the Nine Tributaries Where The Story of Grandmother Moon and Mother Earth Carving an Interfacing Landscape of the Mind  Drums beating…  Note: A constant flux in the landscape enables me as a researcher to continue narrating the ongoing story, while simultaneously acting as a witness/actor facilitating the knowledge within the landscape at the center where the participants’ stories unfold. As the symbiotic walls of the AEMP Dream/Narrative moves each participant enters the room that forms the tributaries of flowing knowledge that connects to the centre (Big Water- Kitchi Nibí). Grey Jay Trickster moves from the edge of each tributary at the Big Water s/he is curious to know who the nine participants are. The nine participants of this research are introduced as Grey Jay Trickster reads the nine participants’ short biography. This also locates the participants in the Dream/Narrative. Grandmother Moon influences the back and forth flows of the participants’ stories and the text that expands their stories. As Grey Jay Trickster is able to shift in and out from different realms or rooms, the reader too moves in and out across all the realms of song, narrative, story, and the research landscapes. The movement of Grey Jay Trickster across the different rooms of the research AEMP Dream/Narrative, Dream/ Story, Dream/Song enables the weaving together of the voices of the participants, my voice as narrator, witness, artist, and researcher across disciplines as though suspended in an Indigenous worldview. As Grey Jay Trickster is away in another realm s/he returns to find that the landscape has formed four new bodies of water. As these new waters are formed, the four winds become themes that Trickster names. The four themes will follow later in the their perspective chapters.             Over many years the waters have been moving in and out tracing the patterns for a new landscape. Mother Earth’s resonating heartbeat pulses as Grandmother Moon influences every symbiotic wall of breath breathing in and out a new landscape.  From the Big Water (research) nine tributaries converge at a centre forming reflective bodies of the water.  4.1 Jocelyne Narrator/Witness at the Big Water  Drums beating…        Perched upon the edge of the Big Water a Grey Jay Trickster ruffles the dew from his/her feathers as s/he notices all the figures in the distance. Grey Jay Trickster has a curious nature, always motivated through his/her fascination for capturing wonder and his yearning for capturing the wisdom to use it.  Grey Jay Trickster settles on the bank of the water/nibí.  “ Kwey egishebawâgag (good morning)! I am Grey Jay Trickster, surely you have heard of me? Many years ago a young child in our territory dreamed me into existence as she lived with the bees.  93 Why I am a cultural hero. Don’t listen to them when they say I am always hungry! Or mischievous! By the way what is your name? What is in your hand? I am Jocelyne Robinson and I will be at the Big Water “ Kitchi Nibí” as a witness to my brothers and sister’s stories so that they can be passed down to the next generation. I am bringing my story to the Big Water where it will become part of a larger story.  Grey Jay: How did you get here?       I am an international artist who has worked nationally and internationally as a sculptor and performance artist.  Nationally I was a finalist shortlisted in Canada’s largest First Nation’s Public art commission for the University of Regina. My work was one of 24 international artists featured in the  ‘Sculpture’ magazine for participating in the Bellevue Washington Biennale Outdoor Exhibition. My art called Dancing to the Songs of the Universe became the first Canadian permanent public art sculpture to be mounted in Shanghai, China.  The sculpture was created for the commemoration of TongJi High School’s 100th anniversary. Recently my work expanded to include short documentary film. One of my films was screened in several Vancouver film theatres. The film “From Pushes to Pugilistic Passion”, profiles the story of a young Algonquin boxing coach and university student that incorporates his traditional background into his style of coaching. My goals in education have been fuelled by my experiences pursuing studies at the Emily Carr Institute of Art & Design and Curriculum Studies at SFU and my practice as an artist working in public & environmental art. I would like to help improve accessibility to the Algonquin language, quality of life, and a sustainable environment through capacity building in institution and community networks where language, culture and identity and science are linked to education through Indigenous Knowledge. These experiences reinforced a quest for addressing new relationships to counter historic inequities inherited by First Nations peoples in education.   4.2 Alanis Obomsawin Tributary  Drums beating…  Note: Another breathing symbiotic wall of the AEMP Dream/Narrative moves as Alanis Obomsawin enters the room that formed the first tributary flow of knowledge connecting to the centre (Big Water- Kitchi Nibí).  Perched upon the edge of the tributary of the Big Water, Grey Jay Trickster ruffles the dew from his/her as s/he notices a figure in the distance. Grey Jay Trickster has a curious nature, 94 always moving through his/her fascination for capturing wonder and his yearning for capturing the wisdom to use it.  Grey Jay Trickster settles on a tree stump just beside the figure standing beside the nibí.  “Kwey egishebawâgag (good morning)! I am Grey Jay Trickster, surely you have heard of me? Many years ago a young child in our territory dreamed me into existence as she lived with the bees.  Why I am a cultural hero. Don’t listen to them when they say I am always hungry! Or mischievous! By the way what is your name? What’s in your hand?” Alanis: I am Alanis Obomsawin and this is a camera that I use to tell our stories. The tool allows many people from many nations to hear the stories. I will be going to the Big Water to join my brothers and sisters to share my story.  Grey Jay Trickster: Oh yes, I read about you once.  Alanis: Oh what did it say? Grey Jay Trickster:  Pointing his/her beak line by line Grey Jay reads on….       Obomsawin’s work attests to her vision in film throughout the years. An article posting in the Canadian Encyclopedia Historica Canada describes well Obomsawin’s work and biographical profile. Obomsawin was born near Lebanon New Hampshire of the Abenaki Nation. Obomsawin was raised on the Odanak Reserve near Sorel, Québec, and in Trois-Rivières. In the late 1950s Alanis resided in Montreal. Her professional performances included signing and storytelling for audiences located in diverse settings such as schools festivals and televisions but also at reserves and prisons. Obomsawin was sought after by the National Film Board and was hired by NFB Producers Wolf Koeing and Bob Verall in 1965.  Shortly, after directing her first film in 1971 titled, Christmas at Moose Factory, Obomsawin became a permanent staff member of the NFB (Williams & Pick, Wuttunee, 2015). White Obomsawin has directed many films that center on Canadian First Nations’ social injustices that, he claims, would otherwise be unvoiced in Canada. Obomsawin’s work in documentary has been described consistently as a political but also as performative documentary. Jerry White who was at the time Assistant Professor in the Department of Film/Media Studies at the University of Alberta presented a picture of how Obomsawin’s films can be viewed as performative documentary. White in North of Everything: English Canadian Cinema since 1980. (2002, p. 370) relates: What we can see in Obomsawin’s films is a refusal to acknowledge where the “documentation” ends and the “recreation” or “agitation” begins. This blurriness is on display in films as different as Kaneshsatake (which sometimes 95 features candid-eye moments followed by images with Obomsawin’s passionate voice-over)…  Lewis in Alanis Obomsawin: Visions of a Native Film Maker (2006) relates:  In almost all her films, Obomsawin tells stories that are political in subject and activist in origin, and, as a result, it is not difficult to situate her work within one of the main frameworks for political documentary. (Lewis, 2006, p.58)        Whether one is taking up Obomsawin’s work in the capacity of film, song, storytelling, or activism, it is clear that Obomsawin is present in her work and that there is always a concise knowledge that belongs in the realm of education. The film When All the Leaves are Gone (Obomsawin, 2010) is a creative story melded in mixture of autobiography, fiction and fable. In the film a young Wato experiences the bullying by her classmates in an all white school in the 1940s. As Wato endures the malevolence of her school environment Wato reflects on her early years on the reserve. Wato retreats into the realm of magical dream. When All the Leaves are Gone is a testament to the struggle and political voice that is being carried by Obomsawin’s films and that offer an important contribution to Canadian cinema through a First Nation perspective.  4.3 Basil Johnston Tributary  Drums beating…  Note: Another breathing symbiotic wall of the AEMP Dream /Narrative moves as Basil Johnston enters the room that formed the second tributary flow of knowledge connecting to the centre Big Water-Kitchi Nibí).  Perched upon the edge of the tributary of the Big Water as Grey Jay Trickster ruffles the dew from his/her as s/he notices a figure in the distance. Grey Jay Trickster has a curious nature, always moving through his fascination for capturing wonder and his yearning for capturing the wisdom to use it.  Grey Jay Trickster settles on a tree stump just beside the figure standing beside the nibí. “ Kwey egishebawâgag (good morning)!  I am Grey Jay, surely you have heard of me? Many years ago a young child in our territory dreamed me into existence as she lived with the bees. Why I am a cultural hero. Don’t listen to them when they say I am always hungry! Or mischievous! By the way what is your name? What’s in your hand?” 96 Basil Johnston: I am Basil Johnston and I tell our stories!  I am carrying a book. The book allows many people from many nations to read our stories. I will be going to the Big Water to join my brothers and sisters to share my story.  Grey Jay Trickster: Oh yes, I read about you once.  Basil Johnston: Oh what did it say? Grey Jay Trickster:  Pointing his beak line by line Grey Jay Trickster reads on….       Kimberley Bruce  comprehensively related Johnston’s life and career. Johnston is a fluent speaker, scholar, and teacher of the Anishinaabe language. Johnston received an Honorary Doctorates from the University of Toronto and Laurentian University.  Basil H. Johnston was born on the Wasauksing First Nation in Ontario, Canada. He is a member of the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation (formerly known as the Cape Croker Band of Ojibwa). He attended St. Peter Claver’s Indian Residential School in Spanish, Ontario. Later Johnston attended the Garnier Residential School for Indian Boys earning a secondary school education. Johnston graduated valedictorian from Garnier and went on to Loyola College in Montreal where he earned a B.A. Johnston received his Secondary School Teaching Certificate from the Ontario College of Education in 1962. He took a position teaching history at the Earl Haig Secondary School in North York. Johnston was invited to the Ethnology Department of the Royal Ontario Museum where he worked toward recording the Ojibwa (Anishinaabe) heritage, especially language and mythology (Bruce, 2002, p. 201-202). Johnston’s numerous books, essays, articles, and audio language programs have contributed to the understanding of Ojibway culture through language.  Among the books that Johnston has written are Ojibway Heritage (1976), Moose Meat and Wild Rice (1978), Tales the Elders Told: Ojibway Legends (1981), Ojibway Ceremonies, (1987) Indian School Days, (1988), Tales of Anishinaubaek (1993), The Bear Walker and other stories (1995), The Manitous (1995), Crazy Dave (1999) and others (Bruce 2002, p. 201-202). Johnston employs humor consistently in his literature as Thomas King the Native Pulitzer Prize winner in The Truth About Stories relates:  Basil Johnston as, the Anishinabe storyteller, in his essay “How Do We Learn Language?” describes the role of comedy and laughter in stories by reminding us that Native peoples have always loved to laugh …But behind and beneath the comic characters and the comic situations exists the real meaning of the story… (King, 2003, p.23)  97       In essence Johnston has brought the wisdom necessary not only to live the language but to count as inseparable the notion of what it is to “Think Indian”. Johnston writes cogently as he asserts in Think Indian. And though it is difficult and impossible for youth and today’s generation to live as their ancestors once lived, the Native people today can do more, and must do more, than merely study culture in school or discuss them in the abstract. They must live out those ancient principles and make them part of their lives insofar as circumstances allow. To do so is to “Think Indian”. (Johnston, 2011, p.189)  4.4 Richard E. Atleo Tributary   Drums beating…  Note: Another breathing symbiotic wall of the AEMP Dream/Narrative moves as Richard Atleo enters the room that formed the third tributary flow of knowledge connecting to the centre (Big Water- Kitchi Nibí).  Perched upon the edge of the tributary of the Big Water as Grey Jay Trickster ruffles the dew from his/her as s/he notices a figure in the distance. Grey Jay Trickster has a curious nature, always moving through his/her fascination for capturing wonder and his/her yearning for capturing the wisdom to use it. Grey Jay Trickster settles on a tree stump just beside the figure standing beside the nibí. “ Kwey egishebawâgag (good morning)!  I am Grey Jay, surely you have heard of me? Many years ago a young child in our territory dreamed me into existence as she lived with the bees.  Why I am a cultural hero. Don’t listen to them when they say I am always hungry! Or mischievous! By the way what is your name? What’s in your hand?” Richard Atleo: I am Richard Atleo and this is a book that I use to tell our stories. The tool allows many people from many nations to read our stories. I will be going to the Big Water to join my brothers and sisters to share my story.  Grey Jay Trickster: Oh yes, I read about you once.  Richard Atleo: Oh what did it say? Grey Jay Trickster:  Pointing his beak line by line Grey Jay   reads on….       E. Richard Atleo, also by his Nuu-chah-nulth name Umeek, is hereditary whaling chief. Atleo (Umeek) taught in the First Nations Studies Department at Malaspina University College (now Vancouver Island University). Atleo’s work as Research Liaison at the University of 98 Manitoba and Associate Adjunct Professor at the University of Victoria in British Columbia and as co-chair of the Scientific Panel for Sustainable Forest Practices in Clayquot Sound affirms the longstanding contributions he has made to developing alternative approaches for viewing the ongoing environmental crisis and its relationship to education. Atleo eloquently expounds the possibilities that may exist when distinct Nuu-chah-nulth philosophies and mythical stories and current day Western Science are brought into co-existence. In Tsawalk: A Nuu-chah-nulth Worldview (Atleo, 2004), and in Principles of Tsawalk: An Indigenous Approach to Global Crisis (Atleo, 2011) a Nuu-cha-nulth ontology and understanding of the universe emerges as an integrated and orderly whole, conveyed as heshook-ish-everything is one.         Atleo’s diverse sphere of work includes working in the field of social work, elementary school teaching, as principal, as federal ministerial assistant, as assistant superintendent of education, lecturer and Research Associate in Anthropology at UBC, and as a visiting assistant professor of resource and environmental management at Simon Fraser University.  …Umeek argues that contemporary environmental and political crises and the ongoing plight of Indigenous peoples reflect a world out of balance, a world in which Western approaches to sustainable living are not working. Nuu-chal-nulth principles of recognition, consent, and continuity, by contrast, hold the promise of bring greater harmony, where all life forms are treated with respect and accorded formal constitution recognition. (Atleo, 2011, Back Cover)  4.5 Georgia Kyba Tributary   Drums beating…  Note: Another breathing symbiotic wall of the AEMP Dream/Narrative moves as Georgia Kyba enters the room that formed the fourth tributary flow of knowledge connecting to the centre (Big Water- Kitchi Nibí). Another breathing symbiotic wall forms a tributary flow of knowledge.   Perched upon the edge of the tributary of the Big Water Grey Jay Trickster ruffles the dew from his/her as s/he notices a figure in the distance. Grey Jay Trickster has a curious nature, always moving through his/her fascination for capturing wonder and his yearning for capturing the wisdom to use it.  Grey Jay Trickster settles on a tree stump just beside the figure standing beside the water/ nibí. “ Kwey egishebawâgag (good morning. I am Grey Jay Trickster, surely you have heard of me? Many years ago a young child in our territory dreamed me into existence 99 as she lived with the bees.  Why I am a cultural hero. Don’t listen to them when they say I am always hungry! Or mischievous! By the way what is your name? What’s in your hand? Georgia Kyba: I am Georiga Kyba and this is a report that I helped put together to help, promote, incorpora