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Economizing education : fee-paying ESL students in a public high school Deschambault, Ryan 2015

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   ECONOMIZING EDUCATION:  FEE-PAYING ESL STUDENTS IN A PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL   by  RYAN DESCHAMBAULT    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF   DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY   in   THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES   (Language and Literacy Education)       THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)   November 2015   © Ryan Deschambault, 2015ii  ABSTRACT  The reliance upon international students in Canadian education has resulted in a growth in research investigating students’ and institutions’ academic, social, cultural, pastoral, and (English) language learning experiences from a range of research perspectives and methodological approaches. Cumulatively these studies have resulted in more informed, better designed, and more reflexive programs and services. However, the majority of research has been conducted in tertiary settings, and thus overlooks the increasingly salient role of international students in K-12 public education in Canada, particularly in secondary schools. This year-long, ethnographic multiple case study examined the category of fee-paying international students (FIS) at the pre-tertiary level as it was realized across multiple actors, sites, and dimensions of the public education system. Broadly situated in a language socialization paradigm, the study first identifies how residency, funding, and English language function as key discursive resources in portrayals of FIS as they occur in K-12 education policy texts and in stakeholder accounts of FIS-related practices. The focus on policy and practices is followed by an analysis of four focal students’ experiences as FIS, which begins with a consideration of students’ homestay, socioeconomic, and (English) language circumstances outside of school. The analysis then concentrates on the most significant cultural process for FIS students’ school-based socialization: ‘getting out of ESL’. It highlights the situated, contingent nature of the process as it was constructed across school- and classroom-specific practices and interactions, but more consequentially, it describes how students’ economizing of the process of ‘getting out of ESL’ was central to their learning, to their varied trajectories, and thus was inextricably linked to the category of FIS.           Through the multi-level account of the significance and impact of the category of FIS in a Canadian K-12 public educational setting, and the complexity that characterizes FIS socialization in that setting, the findings of the study underscore the fundamental, though often iii  unacknowledged, relationship between the internationalization of K-12 public education and ESL services, teaching, and learning. In demonstrating how this relationship between FIS and ESL is relevant for students, teachers, and schools, the study identifies an important area for future research in applied linguistics.                                         iv  PREFACE  This study has undergone an ethical review process which was approved on April 26, 2011 by the University of British Columbia Behavioural Research Ethics Board. The Human Ethics Certificate #H11-00511 for “Fee Paying International ESL Students’ Socialization in Canadian Classrooms” expired November 03, 2015. The International Student Policy (BCMoE, 2001b), shown as Appendix D, has been reprinted with the permission of the British Columbia Ministry of Education. This dissertation is original, unpublished, independent work by the author, R. Deschambault.   v  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... ii PREFACE ...................................................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ v LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ xii LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................... xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................... xiv KEY TO ABBREVIATED REFERENCES TO DATA ............................................................... xv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................... xvi DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................... xx   CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................. 1 1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Focus on BC: Neoliberalization and Marketization of BC Public Education ............ 3 The present situation in BC ...................................................................................... 4  1.2 Statement of the Research Problem ...................................................................................... 6 1.2.1 Research Questions ..................................................................................................... 8  1.3 Outline of the Dissertation .................................................................................................... 8  CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMING ...................... 10 2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 10 2.2 Overview of Relevant Literature ........................................................................................ 10 2.2.1 ESL High Schoolers and ‘Transnational’ Students in North America ..................... 12 ESL high schoolers ................................................................................................ 12 Transnational students ........................................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Overseas Education: ‘Capitalizing’ (on) ESL in Education Markets ....................... 15 Geography.............................................................................................................. 16 Educational and applied linguistics ....................................................................... 17 2.2.3 ‘Unexamined and Overlooked’: From Overseas Study to FIS ................................. 18 2.2.4 FIS in BC: Provincial Policy, Marketizing Discourse, and Learning English ......... 22 Provincial policy .................................................................................................... 22 Marketizing discourse ............................................................................................ 23 Learning English .................................................................................................... 24 2.2.5 Summary ................................................................................................................... 25 2.3 Theoretical Framing ............................................................................................................ 26 2.3.1 (Second) Language Socialization ............................................................................. 26 L2 LS in superdiverse settings ............................................................................... 27 Multidirectionality, contingency, and appropriative practices in L2 LS ............... 30 2.3.2 FIS Socialization in Multiscalar, Polycentric Markets ............................................. 31 Polycentricity ......................................................................................................... 35 Timescales ............................................................................................................. 35 Indexicality ............................................................................................................ 36 2.3.3 Summary ................................................................................................................... 37 vi  2.4 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 37  CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND METHODS ........................................................ 38 3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 38 3.1.1 Research Traditions .................................................................................................. 38 3.1.2 Social Constructionist Approaches to Methodology and Researcher Reflexivity.... 40 3.2 Research Context, Participants, and Methods ..................................................................... 42 3.2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 42 3.2.2 Educational Context in BC, 2011-2012 .................................................................... 42 3.2.3 Quondam High School ............................................................................................. 43 QHS in the larger school district ........................................................................... 44 English language learners at QHS ......................................................................... 44 Fee-paying international students at QHS ............................................................. 46 ELL classes at QHS ............................................................................................... 47 ESL Department at QHS ....................................................................................... 50 ELL Department vs. English Department ..................................................... 50 3.2.4 Participants ............................................................................................................... 52 Key gatekeeper participants at QHS ...................................................................... 52 Non-focal participants at QHS............................................................................... 54 Mr. Whee’s class (ELL Writing) ................................................................... 55 Ms. Jay’s class (ELL Socials) ....................................................................... 58 Mrs. Bee’s class (ELC) ................................................................................. 59 QHS principal ............................................................................................... 61 Non-focal participants not from QHS.................................................................... 61 Summary of non-focal participant data generation ............................................... 61 Focal FIS students ................................................................................................. 63 Summary of focal participant data sources .................................................. 64 3.2.5 Data Generation Procedures ..................................................................................... 65 Participant observation .......................................................................................... 65 Mr. Whee’s class........................................................................................... 67 Ms. Jay/Mr. Nobli’s class ............................................................................. 68 Mrs. Bee/Ms. Edm’s class............................................................................. 68 ESL test days ................................................................................................. 68 Fieldnotes ............................................................................................................... 68 Interviews .............................................................................................................. 69 Formal interviews with focal FIS students ................................................... 71 Formal interviews with non-focal participants ............................................ 71 Email reports .......................................................................................................... 71 Audiorecorded classroom interaction .................................................................... 72 Questionnaire ......................................................................................................... 74 Documents ............................................................................................................. 74 3.2.6 Data Management ..................................................................................................... 75 3.2.7 Analysis of Data ....................................................................................................... 77 Transcription .......................................................................................................... 79 ‘Critical’ discourse analysis ................................................................................... 80 vii  3.2.8 Quality ...................................................................................................................... 83 3.3 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 85  CHAPTER FOUR: CONSTRUCTING FIS IN BC EDUCATIONAL POLICY ......................... 86 4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 86 4.1.1 BC Education (Policy) in Local, National, and International Marketplaces ............ 87 4.1.2 Theoretical Framework and Analytic Approach ...................................................... 88 4.1.3 Background for the Present Chapter ......................................................................... 91 4.2 Constructing FIS: “International Students” and the Policy Nexus ..................................... 92 4.2.1 BC Ministry of Education Policy Glossary Definition of “International Students” 92 Residency status..................................................................................................... 94 (In-)Eligibility for state funding ............................................................................ 95 Paragraph 1 .................................................................................................. 95 Paragraph 2 .................................................................................................. 96 Paragraph 3 .................................................................................................. 96 Summary ....................................................................................................... 97 English language learning...................................................................................... 98 4.2.2 FIS ≠ ELL: Distinguishing Residency, Funding, and (English) Language           Learning .................................................................................................................. 101 4.2.3 Summary ................................................................................................................. 102 4.3 Discursive (Policy) Shifts: Expanding the Range of “International Student” .................. 103 4.3.1 Removal of ‘official language’ ............................................................................... 104 4.3.2 On the Change in Policy from ISP to ESOGF ........................................................ 105 Policy titles .......................................................................................................... 107 Policy statements and rationales .......................................................................... 107 The education-migration nexus ........................................................................... 110 Guardianship .............................................................................................. 113 Ordinarily resident ..................................................................................... 114 4.3.3 Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Economizing Logics and (Languacultural)           Agendas .................................................................................................................. 116 4.3.4 ‘Neoliberal’ (Language) Socialization, Socializing ‘Neoliberal’ (Language) ....... 119 4.3.5 Summary ................................................................................................................. 122 4.4 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 123  CHAPTER FIVE: CONSTRUCTING FIS IN BC EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE .................... 125 5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 125 5.1.1 Analytic Orientation ............................................................................................... 126 5.2 Flipping the Advent of FIS in BC: Building Policy from Practice ................................... 127 5.2.1 Variations on Three Notions: Residency, Funding, and (English) Language ........ 130 Residency ............................................................................................................. 130 Constructing FIS through “needs” and “infrastructure” .......................... 131 Funding ................................................................................................................ 133 (English) Language .............................................................................................. 133 5.2.2 Summary ................................................................................................................. 134 5.3 Constructing FIS in the Pateo District and at QHS: Residency, Funding, and  viii        Language ........................................................................................................................... 135 5.3.1 Residency: Homestay and ‘Other’ Living Arrangements ...................................... 135 IEP administrator’s accounts ............................................................................... 136 QHS principal’s and teachers’ accounts .............................................................. 140 QHS student accounts .......................................................................................... 141 Summary .............................................................................................................. 143 5.3.2 Funding: Timetables, Cash Cows, and Pressure ..................................................... 144 IEP administrator’s accounts ............................................................................... 144 QHS principal’s and teachers’ accounts .............................................................. 146 QHS student accounts .......................................................................................... 151 Summary .............................................................................................................. 154 5.3.3 Language(s): L1 Use vs. ELL ................................................................................. 155 District-level accounts ......................................................................................... 155 QHS principal’s and teachers’ accounts .............................................................. 161 QHS principal ............................................................................................. 161 Mr. Whee .................................................................................................... 163 Ms. Jay ........................................................................................................ 164 QHS student accounts .......................................................................................... 166 Thin-Man .................................................................................................... 166 Summary .............................................................................................................. 169 5.4 Conclusion: Indexing Socialization through the Discursive Construction of FIS ............ 169  CHAPTER SIX: CONSTRUCTING FIS IN PERSONS (FIS PROFILES) ............................... 172 6.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 172 6.1.1 Analytic Orientation: A Narrative Account of Narrative Accounts ....................... 172 6.2 Ellen .................................................................................................................................. 173 6.2.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 173 6.2.2 Residency ................................................................................................................ 174 6.2.3 Funding ................................................................................................................... 176 6.2.4 Language................................................................................................................. 178 English language learning before and outside QHS ............................................ 178 China .......................................................................................................... 178 Canada........................................................................................................ 178 Language use at home in Canada ........................................................................ 179 6.3 Moon ................................................................................................................................. 179 6.3.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 179 6.3.2 Residency ................................................................................................................ 180 6.3.3 Funding ................................................................................................................... 182 6.3.4 Language................................................................................................................. 184 English language learning before and outside QHS ............................................ 184 China .......................................................................................................... 184 Canada........................................................................................................ 185 Language use at home in Canada ........................................................................ 185 6.4 Zeejay ................................................................................................................................ 186 6.4.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 186 ix  6.4.2 Residency ................................................................................................................ 187 6.4.3 Funding ................................................................................................................... 190 6.4.4 Language................................................................................................................. 192 English language learning before and outside QHS ............................................ 192 China .......................................................................................................... 192 Canada........................................................................................................ 193 Language use at home in Canada ........................................................................ 194 6.5 WoW ................................................................................................................................. 194 6.5.1 Background ............................................................................................................. 194 6.5.2 Residency ................................................................................................................ 196 6.5.3 Funding ................................................................................................................... 198 6.5.4 Language................................................................................................................. 199 English language learning before and outside QHS ............................................ 199 Korea .......................................................................................................... 199 Canada........................................................................................................ 200 Language use at home in Canada ........................................................................ 200 6.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 200 6.6.1 Backgrounds ........................................................................................................... 201 6.6.2 Residency ................................................................................................................ 202 6.6.3 Funding ................................................................................................................... 202 6.6.4 Language................................................................................................................. 203 6.6.5 Summary ................................................................................................................. 204  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONSTRUCTING FIS IN PERSONS (ELLEN AND MOON) .............. 205 7.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 205 7.1.1 Data Sources ........................................................................................................... 206 7.2 Getting out of ESL: Ellen ................................................................................................. 207  7.2.1 Timetable and “no pression” .................................................................................. 207 7.2.2 Material Implications of Course Planning: “in ESL I didn’t got the credits” ........ 208 7.2.3 Missing the Last Exit: Implementing change to maximize return on investment .. 210 7.2.4 “Everyone should point where’s the invisible line” ............................................... 214 7.2.5 Summary ................................................................................................................. 217 7.3 Getting out of ESL: Moon ................................................................................................ 218  7.3.1 Timetable and “I got four ESL on my schedule” ................................................... 218 7.3.2 From ESL to ‘Regular’ Science: “I need to catch up”............................................ 223 7.3.3 From “I can’t bear the stuff we learned” to “I can’t understand what’s the article is said” ................................................................................................................................. 225 7.3.4 A New Invisible Line: The “test in the library” ..................................................... 229 7.3.5 Summary ................................................................................................................. 233 7.4 Conclusion: Getting out of ESL as Socialization into ESL .............................................. 234  CHAPTER EIGHT: CONSTRUCTING FIS IN PERSONS (ZEEJAY) .................................... 236 8.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 236 8.1.1 Data Sources and Analytic Orientation: Description and Rationale ...................... 236 8.2 Getting out of ESL: Zeejay ............................................................................................... 237  x  8.2.1 Timetable and “if I cannot get out of ESL it would affect my regular class” ........ 237 8.2.2 Early-year ESL Exit Tests ...................................................................................... 240 November test ...................................................................................................... 242 8.2.3 ELL Writing: Mr. Whee’s Class ............................................................................. 243 Princess Mononoke and “Life” ............................................................................ 243 The “test in the library” ....................................................................................... 254 The Poetry Project ............................................................................................... 257 8.2.4 Year-end ESL Exit Tests ........................................................................................ 263 ESL Department test ............................................................................................ 263 English Department test ....................................................................................... 263 8.2.5 “Just integratiate”.................................................................................................... 264 Administrative inconsistencies and distributed learning ..................................... 267 8.3 Conclusion: Getting out of ESL as Socialization into ESL .............................................. 271  CHAPTER NINE: CONSTRUCTING FIS IN PERSONS (WOW) ........................................... 272 9.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 272 9.2 Getting out of ESL: WoW ................................................................................................ 272 9.2.1 “I’m studying really hard now” and Timetable ...................................................... 272 9.2.2 Early-year ESL Exit Tests ...................................................................................... 275 September and November tests ........................................................................... 275 The “test in the library” ....................................................................................... 276 9.2.3 ELL Writing: Mr. Whee’s Class ............................................................................. 277 Negotiating Princess Mononoke .......................................................................... 277 Negotiating a ‘diligent self’ with peers ............................................................... 281 The Poetry Project ............................................................................................... 283 9.2.4 ELL Socials: Ms. Jay and Mr. Nobli’s Class ......................................................... 286 Ms. Jay ................................................................................................................. 286 “Is that the loudest you can speak” ............................................................ 286 Famous Canadian project .......................................................................... 289 Mr. Nobli ............................................................................................................. 291 Group work ................................................................................................. 292 Doing diligence........................................................................................... 296 9.2.5 Year-end ESL Exit Tests ........................................................................................ 297 ESL Department test ............................................................................................ 297 Test.............................................................................................................. 297 Results ......................................................................................................... 297 English Department test ....................................................................................... 301 Test.............................................................................................................. 301 Results ......................................................................................................... 302 Rallying around WoW ......................................................................................... 302 9.3 Conclusion: Getting out of ESL as Socialization into ESL .............................................. 305  CHAPTER TEN: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ..................................................... 307 10.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 307 10.2 Summary and Recapitulation of Principal Findings ....................................................... 307 xi  10.3 Contributions to Theory, Methods, and the Literature ................................................... 315 10.4 Implications for FIS at QHS, in the Pateo District, and (Potentially) Beyond ............... 320 10.5 Qualities and Limitations ................................................................................................ 323 10.6 Directions for Future Research ....................................................................................... 324 10.7 Concluding Questions ..................................................................................................... 327  REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 330  APPENDIX A. ENGLISH DEPARTMENT ELL EXIT TEST ............................................. 366 APPENDIX B.  DETAILED SUMMARY OF FOCAL FIS STUDENT DATA ................... 369 APPENDIX C.  QUESTIONNAIRE FOR NON-FOCAL STUDENT PARTICIPANTS ..... 371 APPENDIX D.  INTERNATIONAL STUDENT POLICY (BCMOE, 2001b)...................... 372 APPENDIX E.  CUSTODIANSHIP DECLARATION (CIC, n.d.) ....................................... 375 APPENDIX F.  MOON: ELL ENGLISH ESSAY ................................................................. 377 APPENDIX G.  ZEEJAY: “LIFE” ESSAY ............................................................................ 379 APPENDIX H.  ZEEJAY: “CHINESE INTERNATIONAL STUDENT IN CANADA”     ESSAY .......................................................................................................... 382 APPENDIX I.  ZEEJAY: EXTRACURRICULAR ESSAY RESPONSE ............................ 386 APPENDIX J.  HAIKU WORKSHEET (ELL WRITING) ................................................... 387 APPENDIX K.  UNDERLIFE IN ELL WRITING: “FUCK ALL” ....................................... 388 APPENDIX L.  EXAMPLES OF TEACHER-CREATED HANDOUTS (MS. JAY) .......... 391 APPENDIX M.  FAMOUS CANADIAN BIOGRAPHY PROJECT (INSTRUCTIONS) ..... 394 APPENDIX N.  FAMOUS CANADIAN BIOGRAPHY PROJECT (WOW AND MJ) ....... 395 APPENDIX O.  MAURYAN EMPIRE LECTURE NOTES HANDOUT (MR. NOBLI) .... 400 APPENDIX P.  PRE- AND POST-MINI LECTURE ACTIVITY EXAMPLES (MR.     NOBLI) ......................................................................................................... 401 APPENDIX Q.  VOCAB LIST / COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (MR. NOBLI) ........... 402 APPENDIX R.  TRANSCRIPT CONVENTIONS ................................................................. 403        xii  LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Total Classroom and Testing Observation Time by Month ....................................... 55 Table 3.2 Mr. Whee’s ELL Writing Class: Focal and Non-focal Student Participants .............. 57 Table 3.3 Ms. Jay’s ELL Socials Class: Focal and Non-Focal Student Participants.................. 60 Table 3.4 Summary of Type, Source, and Amount of Data Generated with Non-Focal  Participants.................................................................................................................. 62 Table 3.5 Focal FIS’ Age, Birthplace, Length of Residence, Living Situation, and ELL   Status ........................................................................................................................... 64 Table 3.6 Summary of Focal Participant Data Sources .............................................................. 65 Table 3.7 Amount and Distribution of Whole-Class Audio-Recordings .................................... 73  Table 4.1 Residency Status, Eligibility for State funding, and English Language Learning ..... 94 Table 4.2 Change in BCMoE Stance on International Students: Old and New Rationales...... 108  Table 5.1 FIS as ‘Unaccounted for’ ELL Learners................................................................... 160  Table 7.1 Ellen’s Timetable at QHS ......................................................................................... 207 Table 7.2 Moon’s Timetable at QHS (September) ................................................................... 218 Table 7.3 Moon’s Timetable at QHS (November) ................................................................... 224 Table 7.4 Moon’s Timetable at QHS (mid-January) ................................................................ 229  Table 8.1 Zeejay’s Timetable at QHS....................................................................................... 238  Table 9.1 WoW’s Timetable at QHS ........................................................................................ 275                         xiii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.1 Changes to QHS’ ELL Testing Regime ..................................................................... 52  Figure 4.1 BCMoE Policy Glossary: “International Students” (screen shot: ~Oct. 2012) .......... 93 Figure 4.2 Section 82 of the BC School Act (p. c-66; current as of August 2013)...................... 94 Figure 4.3 Student Statistics 2013/14-Public & Independent Schools Combined: Headcount . 101 Figure 4.4 BCMoE Policy Glossary: “International Students” (screen shot: ~Oct. 2014) ........ 103  Figure 5.1 Pateo School District Student Statistics (screen shot: BCMoE, 2014a) ................... 159  Figure 8.1 My Favourite Character ............................................................................................ 245 Figure 8.2 “Life” [Outline]......................................................................................................... 246 Figure 8.3 “Life” [Nikolai Ostrovsky] ....................................................................................... 252 Figure 8.4 “Syllable Zoo” .......................................................................................................... 257 Figure 8.5 Poetry Booklet (Zeejay) ............................................................................................ 261  Figure 9.1 Poetry Booklet (WoW) ............................................................................................. 285  Figure 10.1 FIS Socialization in Policy, Practices, and Persons .................................................. 314                           xiv  LIST OF ACRONYMS BC British Columbia BCMoE   British Columbia Ministry of Education CIC Citizenship and Immigration Canada ELL English Language Learner (used interchangeably with ESL) ESL English as a Second Language (used interchangeably with ELL) FIS Fee-paying International Student (or fee-paying ESL student) IEP International Education Program (refers to program in the Pateo School District) QHSPr Quondam High School Principal  MrsB Mrs. Bee (English Language Center Teacher)  MsJ Ms. Jay (ELL Socials Teacher; ESL Department Head)  MrN Mr. Nobli (ELL Socials Teacher)  MrW Mr. Whee (ELL Writing Class Teacher)                      xv  KEY TO ABBREVIATED REFERENCES TO DATA  Fieldnotes  Examples: (a) Cfn29Ja12:13-33; (b) Gfn02Ju12:13-33; (c) Tfn25Ma12:13-33  C fn 29 Ja 12: 13-33 ELL Socials (Ms. J/Mr. N) fieldnotes Date January Year Atlas.ti line number  G fn 02 Ju 12: 13-33 ELL Writing (Mr. Whee) fieldnotes Date June Year Atlas.ti line number  T fn 23 Ma 12: 13-33 ESL Exit Tests  fieldnotes Date May Year Atlas.ti line number  Classroom data  Examples: (a) ZJtMrW09Mr12 [55:00-55:35]; (b) RDbiMrW01F12 [43:57-44:28];  (c) mcMrN02A12:264-290 [22:35-23:11]  ZJ t MrW: 09 Mr 12 [55:00-55:35] Zeejay T-Mic Mr. W’s class Date March Year Timespan in audio file  RD bi MsJ 01 F 12 [43:57-44:28] Me Binaural mic Ms. J’s class Date February Year Timespan in audio file  mc MrN 02 A 12: 264-290 [22:35-23:11] Main class mic Mr. N’s class Date April Year  Atlas.ti line number Timespan in audio file  Interviews  Example: QHSPRI2:329-426[10:08-11:51]  QHSPr I2: 329-426 [10:08-11:51] QHS principal Interview number (included only when >1 interview with participant)  Atlas.ti line number Timespan in audio file  Note: In cases where the participant being discussed is consistent throughout a section or Chapter, the portion of this code which refers to the participant is omitted. (e.g., I2:455-461)  Email reports  Example: ER27N11:24-32  ER 27 N 11: 24-32 Email Report Date November Year Atlas.ti line number xvi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The completion of this dissertation owes so much to the goodwill, generosity, and support of many people. Because it is impossible to adequately recognize each of them here, even as I thank some of the significant people in the pages below I am mindful that there remain many unnamed others as well. First and foremost, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to Bessie, Bone, Ellen, Moon, Wanda, Dane, WoW, and Zeejay – the focal students who taught me so much during my time at QHS. I will be forever grateful to these amazing individuals for putting up with me, in addition to my questions and emails, for the entire 2011-2012 school year. Getting to know them through this research has been both my privilege and a great reward. I am also grateful to the participating students, teachers, and administrators at QHS, as well as the participating members of the Pateo School District’s International Education Program and the BC Ministry of Education. Together, the perspectives and insights of each of these focal and non-focal participants helped me glimpse the complex ways in which international education is intertwined with K-12 public education – in classrooms, in schools, in the district, in the province, and beyond.   Words cannot express the amount of respect and appreciation I have for my supervisor Dr. Steven Talmy, who has been an extraordinary mentor and unfailing source of support in my development as a scholar and educator. At the same time that he has managed to draw my attention to, as well as encourage and facilitate my participation in, the scholarly, professional, and service activities central to academic life, he has done so affably and with tremendous patience – always with an eye on my well-being and the best interests of my family. Thank you Steven! I would also like to acknowledge Drs. Patsy Duff and Margaret Early, who, as members of my supervisory committee, have offered critical questions and insightful comments that have xvii  helped me to refine the thesis, and better understand its depth, impact, and potential. I would also like to extend a warm thank you to my university examiners, Drs. Ken Reeder and Amy Metcalfe, as well as my external examiner Dr. Linda Harklau, for their interest in my work and helpful suggestions when thinking about how best to strengthen the presentation of different aspects of the study for wider audiences.     Many people in the LLED community have played highly influential roles in my development and successes thus far. Dr. Geoff Williams, as head of LLED in the early years of my PhD program, was instrumental to my taking on various instructor roles, as well as my involvement in activities at the department and faculty-level (not to mention my parsing of clauses [!]). Most recently, Dr. Anthony Paré has offered timely advice and institutional perspective that has been essential for navigating the final stages of the program. I need also to recognize, with warmest thanks, Anne Eastham and Chris Fernandez, Teresa O’Shea and Lia Cosco, Anne White and Angela MacDonald, and Laura Selander and Laurie Reynolds – for their words of encouragement and help with navigating forms and deadlines, but most of all for being all-around great people. Thank you!  I owe so very much to the students, staff, administration, and instructors in the UBC-Ritsumeikan Programs – with whom I have the privilege of working during the entirety of my PhD studies. Drs. Ken Reeder, Sandra Zappa-Hollman, Reg D’Silva, Bill McMichael, and Ms. Sheri Wenman deserve special mention for their generosity, mentorship, and sharing of expertise as I moved from the periphery to a more central position in the program over the years. Drs. Martin Guardado and Diane Potts also deserve special mention here for being such good listeners (and talkers!), for rides on rainy days, for teaching me so much about teaching, about LLED, and about how to manage the multiple demands of the PhD program.  I am fortunate to have been in LLED’s PhD program alongside some remarkable peers and colleagues as well. Unique among them is (now Dr.) Meike Wernicke-Heinrichs, whose xviii  sophistication, sense of humour, and open-mindedness have been a constant source of inspiration and support during my program. I must also acknowledge my close colleagues Won Kim and Bong-gi Sohn, who have taught me so much about friendship, equity, and 정. Together with Rae Lin, Meike and Won and Bong-gi have played a vital role in my academic trajectory: through countless stimulating conversations, always generous and constructive feedback, and by forming a “circle of niceness” (Thesis Whisperer, 2013) in which I had/have the freedom to be fearless, open, and honest when discussing ideas. Thank you Meike, Won, Bong-gi, and Rae! I would be remiss if I did not mention Drs. Mi-Young Kim and Ji Eun Kim, who, in addition to our shared academic interests have shown infinite kindness to my family; Dr. Jongmun and Ms. Junghee Kim for their genuine care for Noah and Noelle, and for being incomparable 선배 to both Jungeun and me; and fellow LLEDers Dr. Amanda Wager, Michael Trottier, Nasrin Kowkabi, Dr. Pete Hill, and Dr. Joel Heng Hartse for their patient listening to and sharing of stories, and the many memorable insights that resulted. I’d also like to thank Tim Anderson, for camaraderie when it counted and for the (fast!) ride home from Kelowna. It is also necessary for me to recognize that this study was partially supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and other, UBC-based grants and fellowships for graduate students. Among those at UBC, I wish to specifically acknowledge the Faculty of Education’s Graduate Student Research Grant and the Department of Language and Literacy Education’s Mary Ashworth Memorial Graduate Scholarship in Education as timely and important sources of funding. Most importantly, though, I am deeply appreciative of the many opportunities made possible to me through the UBC-Ritsumeikan Programs.  So many members of my family, some more proximal than others, have supported me in reaching this point. I will be forever indebted to my mom and dad for the senses of curiosity, perseverance, and courage they have fostered in me, and for being so perfectly reassuring xix  throughout the entire PhD; Dad, I miss you and wish I could have shared the completion of this degree with you in person. Special thanks also go to my sisters Somer and Amy, for their endless encouragement, interested questions, and marathon Skype sessions! I need also to recognize the ongoing support of my parents- and sister-in-law, 아버지, 어머니, 그리고 정미 누나, for warmly welcoming us on multiple occasions during the program, always at our convenience and not theirs, and for laughing and learning with Noah and Noelle. Lastly, I need to say the biggest thanks to the three people who have endured the many phases of me that have come along with the demands of the PhD process. I am so very thankful to 우리 Noah and Noelle – for unclosing my spirit, for keeping me close to solid earth, for helping me truly comprehend the meaning of 아빠 힘 내세요, and for showing patience beyond their years all those times dad needed to work on his ‘dissy’. And to my partner and 우리 노아, 노엘이 엄마 정은, for agreeing to this degree in the first place, for being an honest and always unassuming companion and teacher, and without whose love and trust I could never have made it to the end. xx          To Gileen, her many flags, and the sun over Giant’s Tomb         1  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  International education is critical to Canada’s success. In a highly competitive, knowledge-based global economy, ideas and innovation go hand in hand with job creation and economic growth. In short, international education is at the very heart of our current and future prosperity.           (Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, 2014, p. 4)  B.C.’s education system is among the world’s best and, while we’ve always counted on it to prepare our children and youth for the future, we’ve barely begun to tap its potential to support our economic growth. With rapid economic expansion in Asia Pacific countries, more parents than ever before want their children to receive an English-language education – and we have growing opportunities to attract and retain a much higher number of international students.  (Government of BC, 2012b, p. 14)  1.1 Background In the 2013 calendar year, almost 400,000 international students were studying in Canadian educational institutions, a number that has more than tripled since 1994 (Citizenship and Immigration Canada [CIC], 2015a). This number, and its steady increase, coincide with the mobilization of national level policies that recognize international education as a key driver of Canada’s future prosperity and recommend various ways to recruit an ever greater number of international students (Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, 2012, 2014).   While at the national level the largest percentage of international students attend tertiary-level institutions, in 2012 almost 41,000 international students in Canada were studying at the elementary or secondary grade levels (CIC, 2013a).1 In British Columbia (BC), the province in which this study was conducted, there are approximately 17,000 elementary and secondary international students, 77% of whom study in public schools (BC Ministry of Education                                                           1 The numbers reported here for pre-tertiary students are based on a 2013 publication by CIC (2013a). This publication has since become unavailable, though numbers for 2011 are still available (CIC, 2012). One potential explanation for the change in availability is that, since 2011, the CIC has changed the categories under which it reports numbers of pre-tertiary foreign students. Whereas in 2011, students’ level of study was accounted for in published statistics (i.e., “Foreign students present on December 1st by gender and level of study”, CIC [2012; emphasis added]), in the newest CIC reports the identifier “level of study” has been replaced with “age” (i.e., “International students with a valid permit on December 31st by gender and age, 1994 to 2013”, CIC [2015b]). Though the change is perhaps to allow for a larger range for comparison (i.e., 1994-2013), it is curious that the descriptor “Foreign students” (CIC, 2012) has also changed – to “International students” (CIC, 2015a, 2015b).    2  [BCMoE], 2015d). In BC educational policy and practice affecting K-12 contexts, the category “international student” is generally taken to mean a fee-paying student (FIS; see, e.g., BCMoE, 2001b, 2004/2009, 2011/2013; Kuehn, 2002, 2007, 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2014). These are students “who have moved from outside of Canada to British Columbia and [because they] do not meet the residency requirements of Section 82 of the School Act” (BCMoE, n.d.-b, n.d.-c), are charged yearly tuition fees to attend public schools (Study in BC, 2011). In 2014-2015, 89% of the FIS in public schools in BC attended secondary schools (Grades 8-12) (BCMoE, 2015d). Education policy encouraging the recruitment of FIS students in BC has, since 2002, more than doubled FIS-based revenues – to roughly $145 million in 2012/13 (Kuehn, 2014). In Vancouver, for example, it has long been alleged that the move to recruit FIS to public schools “has coincided with provincial [i.e., government] cuts to education”, leading the director of Vancouver’s International Education Program to acknowledge that the presence of FIS is “definitely subsidizing what is going on in public school districts” (Mitchell, 2004, para. 23). More than a decade later, it seems reasonable that district and provincial educational authorities would be seeking a more thorough understanding of FIS, what their school experiences are, and how they are contributing to and influencing various areas of BC’s public education system (i.e., classrooms, schools, school districts, policy). A more thorough understanding would not only offer an important gauge of the impact of FIS presence, it could offer useful insights about how best to sustain their contributions.  Beyond questions about how FIS students influence classrooms, schools, and the public education system in BC, there are also increasing numbers of fee-paying international students in public secondary schools in the province of Ontario (e.g., Lindenberg, 2015; Qian, 2012; Zheng, 2014). Beyond BC and Ontario, the role played by FIS in “keep[ing] alive programs such as arts and music for domestic students – especially in [provinces like] Saskatchewan and Newfoundland where school populations are decreasing” (Mitchell, 2004, para. 21), suggests  3  that the presence and impact of FIS in public schools is an issue that has relevance on a national scale. Adding to this relevance are the recognized links between FIS and existing English as an additional language learning populations (e.g., BCMoE, 2004/2009, 2013a; Deschambault, 2006; Gunderson, 2007b; Minichiello, 2000, 2001; Popadiuk & Marshall, 2011; Qian, 2012; Zheng, 2014), and a highly established body of research which has demonstrated that (non-fee paying) English as an additional language learning students (ELLs)2 are characteristically marginalized in North American K-12 schools (e.g., Ashworth, 2001; Cummins, Mirza, & Stille, 2012; Duff, 2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2004, 2005; Deschambault, 2007a, 2007b; Early, 1990, 2001; Early & Hooper, 2001; Early & Marshall, 2008; Faltis & Wolfe, 1999; Gunderson, 2004, 2007a; Gunderson, D’Silva, Murphy Odo, 2012; Harklau, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 2000, 2003, 2006; Iddings, 2005; Qian, 2012; Talmy, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009a, 2009b, 2010a, 2010b, 2015; Willett, 1995). For these reasons, a more thorough understanding of issues related to how schools and (ELL) students conceptualize, manage, and treat FIS, and likewise how this treatment or FIS presence might impact the quality, content, sequence, or provision of provincially-mandated curriculum or instruction in schools, is crucial for maintaining inclusive/pluralistic conversations about the nature of ‘public’ education as it is ever more influenced by processes of migration, marketization, and membership in global educational fields.   1.1.1 Focus on BC: Neoliberalization and Marketization of BC Public Education  Developed against the backdrop of what has been referred to as a ‘neoliberal’ policy agenda (e.g., Fallon & Paquette, 2009; Fallon & Poole, 2013), in 2002 the government of BC implemented Bill-34 – The School Amendment Act (Bill 34; Bill-34, 2002). In addition to its                                                           2 The terms ESL and ELL are used interchangeably throughout the dissertation. For the most part, the term ESL is a more participant-relevant term, utilized almost unanimously in research interviews, classroom talk, and other participant-generated data. The term ELL, conversely, is a more institutionally-relevant term, found in school, district, and government produced documents relating to English language learners.    4  goals of greater “fiscal and academic accountability for public education”, substantive reduction of the provincial deficit, “establishment of school councils”, and increases in “parental and student choices to attend any schools in [BC]” (Fallon & Pancucci, 2003, p. 51), Bill 34’s market ideological approach to public education imposed upon school districts the ‘flexibility’ to find non-governmental (private) sources of revenue. In simple terms, two corollaries of being granted this ‘flexibility’ were: (1) a decrease in government responsibility to fund public education,  resulting in the veritable marketization of K-12 public education in BC; and (2) an increase in the competition between school districts for the students and funding they bring. In short, Bill 34 essentially re-specified schools as providers of marketable commodities, and students and parents as consumers of educational services and products.3  The present situation in BC.  Although under these conditions many districts “have concentrated on low risk entrepreneurial initiatives” that include “selling advertising space on school property, renting space, selling course materials for online-education, or providing educational or administrative consulting services” (Poole and Fallon, forthcoming, p. 17), the most direct and fiscally advantageous source of non-governmental revenue has been (and continues to be) the tuition monies paid by FIS (Kuehn, 2007, 2012a, 2012b, 2014).   Thus, as a result of declining enrolment and a consistently austere provincial funding situation, BC school districts have been long been exhorted to seek non-governmental sources of revenue via market-driven funding (e.g., Fallon & Pancucci, 2003; Kuehn, 2002). For at least a decade, school districts have used the ‘value’ of BC’s high school credential (called “the Dogwood Diploma”) to recruit fee-paying international students to fill empty spots in schools and offset continued provincial cuts to public education (e.g., Kuehn, 2007, 2014). A brief synopsis of the present FIS situation in BC follows:                                                           3 For fuller discussions of Bill 34 see Fallon and Pancucci (2003), as well as Fallon and Paquette (2009). For in-depth discussion of the current state of K-12 educational financing in BC see Fallon and Poole (2013), as well as Poole and Fallon (forthcoming).   5   there are over 13,000 FIS in BC K-12 public schools (BCMoE, 2015d);   FIS spend roughly $13,000 per student per year on tuition4 (e.g., Study in BC Canada, 2011; Vancouver School Board, n.d.);  over 450 teachers in BC’s K-12 public system are reported as being paid for by revenues collected from FIS tuition fees (Kuehn, 2014, p. 2);  more than 3800 new FIS were recruited to the K-12 public school system between 2010/11 and 2014/15 school years alone (BCMoE, 2015d, p. 1).  In addition to these material indices of how the FIS industry is impacting public education in BC, the provincial government has in recent years begun to treat ‘International Education’ as playing a central role in the province’s long-term economic health.5 Exemplary of this effort are three government-funded reports which include specific reference to international education at the K-12 level. The first is a report, commissioned in 2011 and updated in 2013, on the economic contributions of International Education to the province of BC (British Columbia Council for International Education [BCCIE] 2011, 2013; Kunin & Associates 2011, 2013). This report frames this impact in terms of FIS “total spending”, the sector’s “direct contributions to provincial GDP”, sector-specific “jobs created”, and “government revenue generated” (BCCIE, 2013, p. 1; also see, e.g., Kunin & Associates, 2013). The second document which foregrounds the relevance of the K-12 international education sector to BC is Canada Starts Here: The BC Jobs Plan, in which international education is presented both as a pathway for BC to recruit skilled immigrant workers and as a means for delivering quality education to ‘BC’ students                                                           4 This is inclusive neither