Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Blending multimedia and campus-based learning to enhance learning about forest floor and humus forms Hoffman, Darrell R. 2015

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
24-ubc_2015_november_hoffman_darrell.pdf [ 2.17MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 24-1.0216006.json
JSON-LD: 24-1.0216006-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 24-1.0216006-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 24-1.0216006-rdf.json
Turtle: 24-1.0216006-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 24-1.0216006-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 24-1.0216006-source.json
Full Text
24-1.0216006-fulltext.txt
Citation
24-1.0216006.ris

Full Text

BLENDING(MULTIMEDIA(AND(CAMPUS0BASED(LEARNING(TO(ENHANCE(LEARNING(ABOUT(FOREST(FLOOR(AND(HUMUS(FORMS((((((((by(((((((((Darrell(R.(Hoffman((BSc.(Environmental(Science,(Simon(Fraser(University,(2012(((((((( Master(of(Science((in((The(Faculty(of(Graduate(and(Postdoctoral(Studies((Soil(Science)(( University(of(British(Columbia((Vancouver)(( October(2015(((((©"Darrell(R.(Hoffman.(2015( ii(ABSTRACT"(Given(the(functions(of(forest(organic(soil(horizons(in(carbon(sequestration,(biodiversity(and(nutrient(cycling,(coupled(with(the(fact(that(the(forest(floor(is(often(not(described(in(soil(surveys,(it(is(important(that(forestry(professionals(learn(to(classify(organic(horizons(and(humus(forms.(The(current(generation(of(undergraduate(students(appreciate(having(access(to(multimedia(and(online(resources(in(their(learning,(and(prefer(active,(collaborative(experiences(of(the(concepts(they(are(learning(in(the(classroom.(With(technological(advances,(modernizing(curriculum(by(blending(campus0based(learning(and(multimedia(is(ever(easier(to(accomplish.(The(objectives(of(this(study(were(to:((1)(develop(blended0learning(activities,(combining(campus(based(learning(and(multimedia(web0based(resources,(to(teach(forest(floor(description(and(classification;(and((2)(conduct(exploratory(factor(analysis(of(student(survey(responses(to(assess(student(opinions(about(the(application(of(the(blended0learning(method.(The(Forest(Floor(web0based(educational(resource(and(campus0based(activities(were(developed(with(the(contributions(of(a(team(of(experts(in(soil(science,(web(and(multimedia(design,(and(science(education.(Ninety0four(percent(of(students(agreed(or(strongly(agreed(that(the(Forest(Floor(web0based(resource(was(helpful(for(learning(forest(floor(concepts,(79%(that(describing(samples(in(class(was(essential(for(understanding(the(properties(of(organic(horizons,(and(81%(that(they(were(able(to(relate(information(in(the(Forest(Floor(web0based(resource(to(their(own(samples(used(in(an(in0class(activity(indicating(that(students(appreciated(the(blended(learning(methodology.(Based(on(the(survey(responses(five(implicit(factors(were(interpreted:((1)(satisfaction(with(the(web0based(educational(resources(as(learning(enhancements;((2)(success(of(presentation(of(concepts(using(a(blended(learning(method;((3)(student(self0assessment(of(learning;((4)(student(learning(preferences(in(accessing(materials;(and((5)(website(usability.(Student(feedback(suggests(that(the(blended(learning(activities(were(appreciated(and(met(the(learning(objectives.(This(study(also(provides(an(example(for(conducting(exploratory(factor(analysis(of(blended(learning(interventions(and(provides(factors(that(may(be(verified(through(confirmatory(factor(analysis.((( iii((PREFACE"(The(Forest(Floor(website(and(videos(were(designed(by(Krzic,(M.,(Schmidt(M.,(Dyanatkar,(S.(and(myself.((Web0development(work(on(the(Forest(Floor(website(in(Chapters(2(and(3(was(done(by(Ho,(S.(and(Dyanatkar,(S.(Videos(were(filmed(and(edited(by(Scott,(T.(and(feature(Schmidt,(M.(as(the(expert.(Graphics(appearing(on(the(website(and(in(videos(were(developed(by(Karasin,(K.(and(Roan,(C.(Principal(Component(Analysis(for(the(Pilot(Study((Chapter(2)(was(done(by(Nashon,(N.,(Alder,(D.(and(I.((The(surveys(and(interviews(in(Chapters(2(and(3(were(covered(by(ethics(approval(from(the(Behavioural(Research(Ethics(Board,(under(the(project(title:(The(Forest(Floor:(bringing(humus(form(description(and(classification(online,(UBC(BREB(Number(H14002713.( iv((TABLE"OF"CONTENTS"ABSTRACT".................................................................................................................................."ii(PREFACE"...................................................................................................................................."iii(TABLE"OF"CONTENTS"............................................................................................................"iv(LIST"OF"TABLES"......................................................................................................................"vi(LIST"OF"FIGURES"...................................................................................................................."vii(ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"......................................................................................................"viii(1"General"Introduction".........................................................................................................."1(1.1.1( Decreasing(Enrollment(and(Increasing(Attention(.............................................................(6(1.1.2( Soil(Science(as(a(Unique(Discipline(and(Skillset(.................................................................(8(1.2( Soil"Classification"and"the"Forest"Floor".........................................................................."9(1.2.1( Outdated(Data(and(the(Need(to(Share(..................................................................................(11(1.2.2(The(Integral(Roles(of(the(Forest(Floor(in(Forest(Ecosystems(.........................................(12(1.2.2( Proposals(to(Include(Forest(Humus(Forms(in(World(Reference(Base(for(Soil(Resources(.........................................................................................................................................................(15(1.3( Urban"Students"and"the"Use"of"Technology"in"Education"......................................."16(1.3.1( Millenials(in(the(Age(of(Information(......................................................................................(17(1.3.2( Need(to(Adapt(Soil(Science(Curriculum(...............................................................................(19(1.4( Blended"Learning"................................................................................................................."20(1.4.1( Blended(Learning(in(Soil(Science(............................................................................................(24(1.5( Factor"Analysis"....................................................................................................................."25(1.6( Summary"................................................................................................................................."26(1.7( Study"Objectives"..................................................................................................................."28(2"Pilot"Study"of"Forest"Floor"Activities"Blending"Online"and"ClassroomUBased"Learning"..................................................................................................................................."30(2.1."Introduction"............................................................................................................................."30(2.2"Materials"and"Methods".........................................................................................................."31(2.2"Results"and"Discussion".........................................................................................................."33(( v(2.2.1(Survey(and(Interview(Feedback(..................................................................................................(33(2.2.2(Principal(Component(Analysis(.....................................................................................................(36(2.2.3(Conclusions(..........................................................................................................................................(37(3"Blending"Multimedia"and"CampusUBased"Learning"to"Enhance"Learning"About"Forest"Floor"Description"and"Humus"Form"Classification"........................."41(3.1"Introduction".............................................................................................................................."41(3.2"Materials"and"Methods".........................................................................................................."43(3.2.1(Development(of(the(Forest(Floor(Educational(Resource(..................................................(44(3.2.2(Development(of(Campus0Based(Forest(Floor(Laboratory(Activities(...........................(47(3.2.3(Development(of(Survey(...................................................................................................................(48(3.2.4(Online(Survey(......................................................................................................................................(49(3.2.5(Respondent(Focus0Group(Interviews(.......................................................................................(50(3.2.6(Psychometric(Analysis(....................................................................................................................(50(3.3"Results"and"Discussion".........................................................................................................."52(3.3.1(Survey(Feedback(................................................................................................................................(52(3.3.2(Exploratory(Factor(Analysis(of(Primary(Study(Results(.....................................................(53(3.3.3(Challenges(with(Implementation(of(Blended(Learning(Model(.......................................(66(2.4"Conclusions"................................................................................................................................"68(4"General"Conclusions"........................................................................................................."81(4.1."Summary"of"Study"Findings"................................................................................................"81(4.2"Advantages"and"Limitations"of"Blended"Learning"Approach"..................................."85(4.2.1(Advantages(...........................................................................................................................................(85(4.2.2(Limitations(...........................................................................................................................................(87(4.3"Potential"Uses"of"the"Study"in"the"Future"........................................................................"89(REFERENCES"..........................................................................................................................."94(APPENDICES"........................................................................................................................."106((( vi((LIST"OF"TABLES"Table(2.1(–(Interpretation(of(Components(Based(on(Commonalities(Between(Items(...............................................................................................................................................................(39(Table(2.2(–(Survey(Responses(for(Questions(Regarding(Learning(Objectives(..............(40(Table(3.1(–(Student(make(up(within(the(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(Course(..............(71(Table(3.2(–(Information(Presented(on(Forest(Floor(Website(by(Webpage(....................(72(Table(3.4(–(Number(of(Respondents(and(Mean(Response(by(Laboratory(Section(......(75(Table(3.5(–(Factor(One,(Satisfaction(with(the(educational(resource(as(a(learning(enhancement(...................................................................................................................................(76(Table(3.6(0(Factor(Two,(success(of(presentation(of(concepts(using(blended(learning(method(...............................................................................................................................................(77(Table(3.7(–(Factor(Three,(student(self0assessment(of(learning(...........................................(79(Table(3.8(–(Factor(Four,(student(learning(preferences(in(accessing(materials(............(79(Table(3.9(–(Factor(Five,(usability(of(the(educational(resource(............................................(80(( vii((LIST"OF"FIGURES"Figure(2.1(–(Scree(Plot(of(Principal(Components(from(Pilot(Study(Responses(............(38(Figure(3.1(–(Navigation(Outline(of(Pages(on(Forest(Floor(Website(...................................(71(Figure(3.2(–(Scree(Plot(of(Factors(from(Primary(Study(Responses(....................................(75((( ((viii((ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"(I(thank(Saeed(Dyanatkar,(Chris(Crowley,(Shirly(Ho,(Tom(Scott,(Kirk(Karasin(and(Claire(Roan(for(their(technical(and(production(work(during(the(creation(of(the(Forest(Floor(website(along(with(all(of(their(suggestions(and(organizational(help;(Maja(Krzic,(Margaret(Schmidt,(and(Paul(Sanborn(for(their(contributions(to(the(material(appearing(on(the(website;(Les(Lavkulich,(Julie(Wilson,(Jason(Lussier,(Camille(Defrenne(and(Andy(Jakoy(for(their(help(with(sampling;(Maja(Krzic(and(Julie(Wilson(for(providing(photographs;(Brandon(Heung(for(his(facilitation(and(support(of(the(pilot(study;(Samson(Nashon(for(his(insights(and(work(on(survey(design,(factor(analysis,(and(science(education(theory;(Les(Lavkulich(for(bringing(me(outside(to(see(soils(and(landscapes(and(remember(how(much(fun(science(is,(for(sharing(his(knowledge,(and(giving(me(support(and(encouragement(since(my(first(day(at(UBC;(Margaret(Schmidt(for(appearing(as(our(forest(soils(expert,(her(facilitation(of(the(pilot(study,(for(recognizing(my(interests(in(soils(and(education(and(putting(me(in(contact(with(Maja,(and(for(instilling(in(me(a(love(of(soil(through(her(teaching(and(the(experience(I(gained(with(the(SFU(soil(lab(group.(Thanks(to(my(supervisor(Maja(Krzic(for(all(of(her(suggestions(for(this(thesis,(her(organization(and(experience(that(were(vital(at(each(stage(of(this(project,(and(all(of(her(support(and(guidance.(Financial(support(for(this(study(was(provided(by(the(UBC(Flexible(Learning(Fund(and(NSERC(CREATE((through(TerreWEB).(((((((((((((((((((((( 1(1"General"Introduction" "(We(rely(on(soils(for(food(and(fiber,(energy(and(nutrient(cycling,(improving(water(and(air(quality(and(preserving(biodiversity,(all(of(which(provide(us(nutrition,(medicine(and(more((Wall(2004).(It(is(important(for(land(managers(to(gain(an(understanding(of(these(important(soil(services.(The(forest(floor,(comprised(of(the(organic(horizons(at(the(soil(surface(in(forest(ecosystems,(plays(a(particularly(important(role(in(carbon(storage,(nutrient(cycling(and(biodiversity.(The(amount(of(carbon(stored(in(the(forest(floor(of(Canadian(forests(is(comparable(to(that(in(vegetation((Goodale(et(al.(2002).(In(addition,(the(forest(floor(is(where(most(interactions(among(vegetation,(fauna(and(microorganisms(occur,(influencing(the(makeup(of(plant,(faunal,(and(microbial(communities((Ponge(2003).(((The(forest(floor(is(reflective(of(the(overall(site(quality((Klinka(et(al.(1990),(biodiversity,(soil(fertility,(and(soil(productivity((Ponge(at(al.(2002).(For(these(reasons,(humus(form(classification(is(used(in(forest(site(such(as(Biogeoclimatic(Ecosystem(Classification((BEC)(in(British(Columbia.(Though(knowledge(of(forest(floor(properties(is(important(in(determining(appropriate(forest(management(practices,(different(groups(are(involved(in(describing(the(forest(and(describing(the(soil(and(the(forest(floor(is(often(not(described(during(soil(surveys(because(changes(to(forest(floor(properties(occur(rapidly(compared(to(mineral(soil((Broll(et(al.(2006).(In(addition,(training(in(forest(floor(description(and(identification(of(organic(horizons(is(not(often(part(of(university(curriculum(where(the(number(of(soil(science(courses(( 2(is(decreasing((Collins(2008)(or(where(soil(science(is(becoming(a(required(component(of(more(generalized,(integrative(programs((Hansen(et(al.(2007).(Since(most(postsecondary(forestry(programs(still(require(at(least(an(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(course((Collins(2008),(it(is(during(these(courses(that(the(opportunity(exists(to(introduce(future(forest(and(land(management(professionals(to(the(important(roles(and(properties(of(the(forest(floor.(!Forestry,(agriculture,(climate(change(research(and(environmental(policy(have(all(relied(on(a(better(understanding(of(soils((Hartemink(and(McBratney(2008)(and(soil(scientists(will(need(to(continue(to(play(an(integral(role(in(meeting(global(environmental(challenges(including(food(security(and(mitigating(and(adapting(to(climate(change.(As(these(global(issues(are(increasingly(exerting(demands(on(soil(resources;(the(requirement(to(provide(soil(science(education(to(the(next(generation(of(land(managers(and(even(the(general(public(is(becoming(more(imminent.(The(United(Nations((UN(Millennium(Project(2005;(UN(Development(Programme(2007)(and(the(Intergovernmental(Panel(on(Climate(Change((Hartemink(2008),(among(other(international(organizations,(have(highlighted(the(increasing(necessity(of(enhancing(soil(science(education(and(providing(adequate(soil(information.(This(will(occur(within(the(context(of(our(increasingly(urban(societies(–(where(the(majority(of(people(spend(more(time(indoors(and(online,(away(from(natural(ecosystems.!(Soil(integrity(is(being(threatened(and(reduced(by(soil(degradation((Lal(2010),(including(erosion,(fertility(loss,(increasing(salinity,(acidification,(loss(of(soil(carbon(( 3(and(compaction((CEC(2006).(The(Soil(Carbon(Initiative((2011)(uses(the(term(“soil(security”(to(refer(to:(the!maintenance!or!improvement!of!the!world’s!soil!resource!so!it!can!provide!sufficient!food!and!fiber,!fresh!water,!contribute!to!energy!sustainability!and!climate!stability,!maintain!biodiversity!and!overall!environmental!protection!and!ecosystem!services.(McBratney(et(al.((2014)(have(explored(how(these(factors(of(soil(security(are(related(to(the(major(global(environmental(challenges(we(currently(face:(Food(Security,(Water(Security,(Energy(Security,(Climate(Change(Abatement,(Biodiversity(Protection(and(Ecosystem(Service(Delivery.(With(the(global(population(projected(to(reach(8.9(billion(by(2050((UN0ESA(2004),(competition(for(soil(resources(and(demands(on(those(resources(will(continue(to(grow.(“Knowing(the(soil,”(suggest(Janzen(et(al.((2011)(is(the(place(to(start(in(dealing(with(global(environmental(challenges.((!The(clear(connection(between(global(environmental(challenges(and(healthy(soil(functions(has(resulted(in(the(declaration(of(2015(as(The(International(Year(of(Soils((IYS)(by(the(68th(UN(general(assembly((2014).(The(goal(of(the(IYS(is(“raising(awareness(of(the(importance(of(soils(for(food(security(and(essential(eco0system(functions.”(Meeting(the(IYS(goals(will(require(soil(scientists(to(participate(in(interdisciplinary(research(teams(focused(on(land(management,(but(also(to(identify,(promote(and(fill(niche(roles(that(only(soil(scientists(can(occupy((Bouma(2009).(Soil(must(be(presented(as(a(“connecting(keystone”(in(a(large(proportion(of(environmental(issues((Bouma(and(McBratney(2013).(Giving(more(attention(to(ecosystem(services(could(help(raise(awareness(about(importance(of(soils(with(the(( 4(public(and(policy(makers((Robinson(et(al.(2012).(As(the(majority(of(practicing(soil(scientists(are(“mature”((Collins(2008),(there(is(a(need(to(attract(new(students(who(will(go(on(to(become(professional(scientists(with(a(strong(foundation(in(soils.(New(types(of(soil(scientists,(ready(to(adopt(new(methodologies(such(as(digital(soil(mapping,(DNA(finger(printing(in(soil(ecology(and(pedometrics,(are(necessary((Hartemink(and(McBratney(2008).(Soil(educators(face(the(challenge(of(attracting(and(training(students(with(the(abilities(to(fulfill(these(requirements.((1.2" Turning" around" Decreasing" Enrollment" in" Postsecondary" Soil" Science"Courses"and"Programs"(While(the(importance(and(utility(of(scientific(knowledge(is(commonly(recognized((Osborne(et(al.(2003),(there(is(also(distrust(of(science(and(scientists(by(many(people(in(the(developed(and(undeveloped(world(alike,(sometimes(culminating(in(anti0science(movements((UNESCO(1999).(The(passive(nature(of(teaching(and(learning(of(science(in(high(school(and(undergraduate(courses((Loynachan(2006),(accompanied(with(a(perceived(lack(of(relevance(of(science(to(the(lives(of(many(students((Raes(and(Schellens(2012)(is(resulting(in(reduced(number(of(students(pursuing(careers(in(science((Osborne(et(al.(2003).(Postsecondary(science(programs,(such(as(geology,(geography(and(chemistry(have(been(experiencing(challenges(with(recruiting(students((Lynch(2002;(Derr(2004;(Baum(2004).(This(trend(is(evident(in(soil(science(as(well.(A(survey(of(54(US(universities(found(that(between(1984(and(2003,(there(was(a(drop(in(the(number(of(BSc(degrees(awarded(in(agronomy(or(crop(science(from(764(to(523((McCallister(et(al.(2005).(Similar(trend(was(also(observed(with(the(number(of(( 5(soil(science(graduate(students(in(the(US(and(Canada(that(declined(40%(between(1992(and(2004((Baveye(et(al.(2006).(!1.2.1!Urbanization!and!the!Shift!Away!from!Agriculture!Increased(urbanization(and(fewer(people(working(in(agriculture(have(been(identified(as(some(of(the(reasons(for(decreased(enrollment(in(soil(science(undergraduate(programs(in(developed(countries((Hansen(et(al.(2007;(McKenna(and(Brann(1992;(Dalmoasso(1990).(Often,(urbanites(have(a(very(limited(perception(of(the(importance(of(soil((Jacobson(et(al.(2009),(and(in(the(absence(of(students(coming(from(rural(and(agricultural(backgrounds,(soil(science(has(not(been(seen(as(a(desirable(career(choice((Handelsman(1992).(((A(shift(to(attract(students(from(urban(settings(with(interests(in(a(broader(environmental(context(and/or(urban(agriculture(and(forestry(is(necessary(if(declining(enrollment(in(soil(science(is(to(be(reversed.(However,(it(appears(that(the(shift(is(not(occurring(fast(enough(in(North(American(postsecondary(institutions((Hartemink(et(al.(2008).(A(survey(of(US(universities(carried(out(by(Hansen(et(al.((2007),(found(that(the(majority(of(soil(science(programs(were(still(offered(by(agricultural(colleges.(Decline(in(student(enrollment(and(keeping(soil(science(programs(focused(on(agriculture(are(accompanied(with(declining(university(appointments(for(soil(scientists((Letey(1994),(closure(and/or(merger(of(soil(science(departments((Young(1991),(and(reducing(grant(funding((Mermut(and(Eswaran(1997).((As(student(tuition(fees(are(increasing(postsecondary(institutions(are(( 6(redirecting(resources(towards(programs(that(are(attracting(greater(numbers(of(students((Hansen(et(al.(2007);(further(undermining(sustainability(of(soil(science(programs.(((1.1.1 Decreasing"Enrollment"and"Increasing"Attention""(There(are(further(challenges(outside(the(post0secondary(setting(to(recruiting(students(to(soil(science(courses(or(majors.(Soil(science(is(not(part(of(high(school(curriculum(–(and(many(students(may(not(even(be(aware(of(the(discipline.(In(addition,(there(has(long(been(a(disconnect(between(the(actual(range(of(work(carried(out(by(soil(scientists,(and(the(ambiguous(public(perception(of(what(they(do((Kellog(1961).(Furthermore,(the(most(common(job(opportunities(in(US((and(Canada)(for(students(with(a(background(in(soil(science(include(environmental(science,(land(management,(soil!science,(agronomy(and(engineering((Havlin(et(al.(2010)(so(that(many(soil(science(graduates(are(not(employed(with(the(title(of(“soil(scientist,”(reducing(the(visibility(of(potential(employment(in(the(field.(Along(with(the(lack(of(well0defined(soil(science(majors(and(departments(in(most(universities,(it(is(not(surprising(that(the(discipline(of(soil(science(is(not(on(the(radar(of(many(potential(students.((Interestingly,(a(decline(in(enrollment(in(soil(science(graduate(programs(since(1990s(has(co0occurred(with(a(steady(increase(in(the(number(of(soil(science(articles(published((Baveye(et(al.(2006).(Looking(into(the(growth(rate(in(soil(science(publications,(Hartemink(and(McBratney((2008)(found(an(average(increase(of(545(( 7(publications(per(year,(the(majority(published(in(non0soil(science(journals(and(very(few(published(in(the(top(journals(such(as(Nature!and(Science.(The(increased(numbers(of(soil(science(publications(are(having(an(impact((Minasny(et(al.(2007)(substantiated(by(the(attention(soils(are(receiving(by(organizations(such(as(the(UN,(FAO,(IPCC(and(governments(in(China,(the(US(and(EU.(Moreover,(the(recognition(of(the(role(of(soils(in(providing(other(ecosystem(services,(like(clean(water(and(climate(change(mitigation,(are(increasingly(bringing(soils(into(the(fore(of(environmental(research.(((This(increasing(global(attention(to(soil(importance,(highlighted(by(the(2015(IYS,(emphasizes(the(need(to(provide(our(current(and(future(natural(resource(managers(and(policy(makers(with(a(solid(understanding(of(soil(processes(and(roles.((Without(sufficient(soil(science(course(offerings(in(postsecondary(programs,(many(natural(resource(professionals(are(left(unprepared(to(face(soil0related(issues(((Collins(2008).(Soil(science(is(often(taught(as(a(part(of(other(disciplines(–(undergraduate(degrees(in(soil(science(are(not(common((Hartemink(and(McBratney(2008).(According(to(Smiles(et(al.((2000),(in(Australia,(no(single(postsecondary(soil(science(program(is(able(to(offer(the(range(of(courses(necessary(for(students(to(develop(a(complete(skillset(in(soil(science.(In(North(America,(many(universities(do(not(offer(soil(science(majors,(and(those(that(do(most(often(offer(the(major(from(departments(with(names(other(than(soil(science((Collins(2008).(For(example,(at(the(University(of(British(Columbia,(soil(science(courses(are(taught(within(the(Applied(Biology(Program(in(the(Faculty(of(Land(and(Food(Systems.((( 8((Reduced(enrollment,(underprepared(graduate(students,(and(the(shifting(focus(of(soil(science(research(are(increasingly(catching(the(attention(of(soil(science(educators.((How(do(we(bring(attention(to(the(importance(and(unique(qualities(of(soils((and(soil(science(research)(in(the(minds(of(potential(students?(Some(universities(have(altered(soil(science(courses(or(whole(programs(to(focus(on(environmental(issues((McCallister(et(al.(2005),(or(created(interdisciplinary(soil(programs((Hansen(et(al.(2007).(Interdisciplinary(“soils(and(civilizations”(courses,(making(connections(between(people(around(the(world(and(the(soils(they(rely(on,(have(been(created(by(a(number(of(universities(and(targeted(at(a(wider(audience(beyond(strictly(natural(sciences(students((Jacobson(et(al.(2009).(At(the(2014(Canadian(Soil(Science(Society(Annual(Meeting,(a(soil(science(education(committee(was(established(with(the(goal(of(reaching(more(students(and(improving(the(educational(resources(available(to(those(students.(A(similar(committee(on(Soil(Education(and(Outreach(within(the(Soil(Science(Society(of(America(was(established(in(2013.(Time(will(tell(how(much(of(an(impact(these(strategies(will(have.((1.1.2 Soil"Science"as"a"Unique"Discipline"and"Skillset"(While(basic(knowledge(of(soil(science(is(important(for(any(land(management(position,(it(is(also(essential(to(distinguish(the(roles(that(only(well0trained(soil(scientists,(equipped(with(specific(skillsets(needed(to(fully(understand(soil(properties(and(processes,(are(able(to(fill.(“Soils(are(too(complex(and(too(heterogeneous,(and(they(encompass(too(complex(an(array(of(interacting(processes”(to(be(studied(strictly(( 9(by(experts(of(other(disciplines(such(as(environmental(chemists(or(microbiologists(operating(from(more(narrow(views(of(soil((Baveye(et(al.(2006).(Since(the(early(1990s,(undergraduate(and(graduate(majors(in(environmental(science(have(been(offered(at(many(universities(and(the(number(of(students(pursuing(environmental(sciences,(who(need(to(gain(an(understanding(of(how(soils(factor(into(a(wide(range(of(environmental(issues,(has(been(increasing((Pepper(2000).(Soil(science(courses(are(often(taken(by(students(from(a(diverse(range(of(majors(and(interests((Brevik(2009),(many(of(whom(do(not(plan(to(work(as(soil(scientists.(Introductory(soil(science(courses(are(included(in(forestry,(natural(resource,(horticultural(and(landscape(engineering(programs((outside(of(the(traditional(agronomic(focus).(These(courses(tend(to(have(high(enrollment(and(the(potential(to(establish(interest(in(soil(science(in(students(who(had(not(previously(planned(to(take(additional(soil(courses(or(major(in(soil(science((Collins(2008).(To(turn(around(on0going(declining(enrollment(will(require(educators(to(highlight(the(unique(roles(of(soil(scientists(in(global(environmental(challenges,(the(many(functions(of(soils(and(the(potential(for(careers(in(soil,(through(the(development(of(innovative(curriculum(and(course(offerings.((1.2 Soil"Classification"and"the"Forest"Floor"(“The(purpose(of(any(classification(is(to(organize(our(knowledge(so(that(the(properties(of(objects(may(be(remembered(and(their(relationships(may(be(understood(most(easily(for(a(specific(objective”((Cline(1949).(Soil(classification(aims(to(“organize(the(knowledge(of(soils(so(that(it(can(be(recalled(systematically(and(communicated,(and(that(relationships(may(be(seen(among(kinds(of(soils,(among(soil(( 10(properties(and(environmental(factors,(and(among(soil(properties(and(suitabilities(of(soils(for(various(uses”((Soil(Classification(Working(Group(1998).(Soil(classification(provides(a(“ready0made(map(legend”(for(soil(surveyors(to(make(specific(statements(to(be(made(about(mapped(units((Rossiter(2007)(and(understand(distributions(of(different(soil(resources((Dijkerman(1973).(Hierarchical(organization(allows(increasingly(detailed(sub0divisions(of(soil(types(to(be(made((Whyte(et(al.(1969)(and(soil(data(to(be(condensed(and(ordered((Dijkerman(1973).(Classification(of(soil(pedons(requires(an(understanding(of(classes(of(horizons(and(soil(properties,(such(as(texture(and(structure((Dijkerman(1973).(De(Bakker((1970)(differentiated(between(the(theoretical(and(practical(purposes(of(soil(classification.(In(the(theoretical(realm,(origins,(genesis(and(development(of(soils,(and(the(relationships(between(soils(are(studied(through(classification.(The(practical(purpose(of(soil(survey(essentially(comes(down(to(optimizing(land(use(through(better(understanding(the(soil((Kellogg(1962).(((Classification(is(important(in(furthering(knowledge(in(soil(science,(understanding(relationships(between(data(from(different(sites(and(even(providing(satisfaction(in(organizing(knowledge(into(“a(coherent(and(mutually(consistent(scheme”((Hallsworth(1965).(It(is(important(for(scientists(to(be(able(to(effectively(communicate(what(they(are(seeing(in(the(field((Avery(1965).(The(“language”(of(soil(classification(allows(comparisons(among(soils(and(the(effective(use(of(data((Harris(1960).(For(example,(understanding(management(practices(for(one(soil(of(a(particular(taxa(can(give(an(idea(of(how(to(deal(with(other(similar(soils((Kovda(1967).(While(soil(surveys(have(traditionally(targeted(agricultural(and(rural(land(resources,(( 11(there(are(increasing(numbers(of(reclaimed(sites(and(changing(uses(of(industrial(areas(requiring(assessments(of(soil(formation(and(behavior((Rossiter(2007).(Survey(data(compiled(during(the(development(of(the(Canadian(System(of(Soil(Classification(was(used(in(planning(economic(development,(producing(large(scale(agricultural(and(forest(land(capability(maps,(soil(and(water(conservation(programs,(land(use(and(land(protection(decisions,(and(accounting(of(greenhouse(gas(emissions((Anderson(and(Smith(2011).(("1.2.1 Outdated"Data"and"the"Need"to"Share"(Beginning(in(1996,(several(Canadian(soil(science(research(centers(were(closed,(administrative(changes(were(made(and(the(number(of(retirements(increased(–(hindering(nationally(coordinated(mapping(projects((Anderson(and(Smith(2011).(Meanwhile,(with(growing(resource(development,(largely(in(western(Canada,(detailed,(specific0purpose(private(sector(soil(surveys(are(becoming(increasingly(common,(most(often(they(are(contracted(from(soil(experts(by(the(private(sector(to(prove(that(regulations(are(being(followed(in(development(projects((Anderson(and(Smith(2011).(Unfortunately,(these(private(sector(surveys(do(not(tend(to(be(publicly(shared(emphasizing(the(growing(decline(in(accurate,(up0to0date,(digitally(available(soil(information(worldwide((Hartemink(and(McBratney(2008;(Bouma(and(McBratney(2013).(Recognizing(the(importance(of(soil(data(in(land0use(planning,(the(soil(survey(community(will(have(to(do(more(to(counteract(the(lack(of(coordination,(sharing(and(use(of(this(data((Bouma(2001).((( 12(1.2.2"The"Integral"Roles"of"the"Forest"Floor"in"Forest"Ecosystems"(With(the(transfer(of(soil(information(to(computers,(such(as(with(geographic(information(systems((GIS),(there(is(the(potential(for(process(modeling(of(climate(change(impacts,(greenhouse(gas((GHG)(emissions,(water(contamination(risks,(biomass(production(and(more((Anderson(and(Smith(2011).(Going(forward,(it(is(important(not(to(ignore(the(many(functions(of(the(forest(floor,(especially(in(northern(forests,(where(the(role(of(the(organic(horizons(in(carbon(storage(is(immense.(For(example,(in(boreal(forests,(the(soil(and(forest(floor(account(for(80%(of(total(carbon(storage((Dixon(et(al.(1994).(Furthermore,(the(forest(floor(is(integral(to(functional(diversity(in(terrestrial(ecosystems((Ponge(2003).(The(organic(material(contained(in(the(forest(floor(supplies(nutrients,(retains(moisture,(promotes(soil(structure((Prescott(et(al.(2000),(contains(a(concentration(of(biodiversity(and(intense(microbial(activity((Bauhaus(et(al.(1998)(and(influences(biogeochemical(cycles,(ground(flora,(forest(canopy(species,(productivity(and(litter(quality((Ponge(and(Chevalier(2006).(As(much(as(90%(of(nutrient(mineralization(in(soil(occurs(as(the(result(of(microbial(communities((Lavelle(and(Spain(2001),(a(large(majority(of(which(inhabit(the(organic(horizons.(For(these(reasons,(Jabiol(et(al.((2013)(suggest(that(the(organic(horizons(must(be(described(for(sufficiently(precise(characterizations(of(forest(soils.((In(Canada,(forest(humus(form(classification(is(mainly(based(on(the(system(developed(by(Klinka(et(al.((1981).(This(system(allows(characterizations(of(forest(soils(through(descriptions(of(the(surface(organic(horizons.(The(system,(later(updated(by(Green(et(al.((1993)(and(Green(et(al.((1997)(was(created(in(response(to(the(inconsistent(use(of(( 13(terminology(among(classification(systems(as(well(as(stagnation(in(the(development(of(forest(floor(classification(systems.(It(was(based(on(a(number(of(existing(classification(systems(from(North(America,(Great(Britain(and(Europe,(with(the(objective(of(being(internationally(comprehensive(with(a(consistent(hierarchical(structure.(The(forest(floor(includes(the(organic(horizons((LFH(and(O)(at(the(soil(surface,(while(classifications(of(forest(humus(forms(also(include(Ah(horizon,(in(which(organic(material(is(mixed(with(mineral(soil((Ponge(2013).(((Distinguishing(between(organic(horizons(is(important,(as(they(will(react(differently(to(disturbance,(or(ecological(changes,(depending(on(the(stage(and(type(of(decomposition((Prescott(et(al.(2000).(Litter((or(L)(horizons(are(composed(of(fresh,(recognizable(material(at(the(surface(of(the(forest(floor;(fermented((or(F)(horizons(are(more(decomposed(but(still(recognizable,(often(with(roots(present;(and(humic((or(H)(horizons(are(“humified”(to(fine,(unrecognizable(substances((Green(et(al.(1993).(The(organic(O(horizons(occur(where(the(water(table(is(at(or(near(the(soil(surface,(and(are(often(associated(with(wetlands((Green(et(al.(1993).(Lower(case(suffixes(are(added(to(identify(the(type(of(decomposition,(disturbance(or(non0conforming(materials.(For(example,(in(Green(et(al.((1993)(an(Fm(horizon(indicates(the(presence(of(abundant(fungal(mycelia(and(roots,(while(an(Fz(is(associated(with(faunal(casts(and(loose(consistence.((In(the(late(19th(century,(P.E.(Muller(first(identified(the(two(main(forest(humus(forms,(mull(and(mor((Muller(1889).(Humus(form(classification(systems(continue(to(use(( 14(these(as(the(major(humus(form(orders.(It(is(the(type(of(decomposition,(rather(than(necessarily(faster(decomposition(in(mull(compared(to(mor,(that(determines(the(accumulation(of(organic(matter(and(the(form(it(takes((Weetman,(1980).(Mull(humus(forms(have(organic(matter(incorporated(into(the(mineral(soil,(and(tend(to(have(more(rapid(decomposition((Klinka(et(al.(1981).(In(mull,(the(comminution(and(mixing(of(organic(material(with(mineral(soil(by(soil(fauna(is(followed(by(bacterial(decomposition((Prescott(et(al.(2000).(In(a(mor,(plant(litter(accumulates(in(a(compact(matted(structure((formed(due(to(incomplete(fungal(decomposition)(on(top(of(the(mineral(soil,(with(a(sharp(transition(between(organic(and(mineral(horizons((Brethes(et(al.(1995).(Humus(forms(with(properties(insufficient(to(meet(the(criteria(of(either(mull(or(mor(are(referred(to(as(moders.(Moders,(may(have(properties(of(both(mor(and(mull,(such(as(upper(organic(horizons(with(fungal(mycelia(and(faunal(casts,(overlying(A(horizon(of(mixed(organic(faunal(casts(and(mineral(soil((Brethes(et(al.(1995).(((Humus(forms(are(often(thought(to(be(closely(related(to(overall(site(quality((Klinka(et(al.(1990),(with(the(succession(of(mor,(moder,(and(mull(associated(with(increasing(biodiversity(in(soil(microbes,(plants(and(animals,(increasing(soil(fertility(and(improved(productivity((Ponge(et(al.(2002).(Slower,(incomplete(fungal(decomposition(in(mors(can(result(in(some(immobilization(of(nutrients,(preventing(nutrient(cycling(and(accessibility(for(plant(growth((Prescott(et(al.(2000).(Mulls(are(associated(with(more(complete(decomposition,(higher(nutrient(availability((Prescott(et(al.(2000),(more(fertile(soil(and(greater(species(richness((Ponge(2003).(Generally,(( 15(mulls(tend(to(develop(under(deciduous(stands,(mors(under(coniferous(forest.(Broadleaf(litters(decompose(more(quickly(than(coniferous(litters(under(otherwise(similar(conditions,(especially(in(the(short(term((Sorenson(et(al.(2011)(and(tend(to(attract(more(soil(fauna(and(bacteria,(while(coniferous(litters(often(favor(fungal(decomposition((Green(et(al.(1993;(Swallow(et(al.(2009).(Deciduous(litters(are,(in(general,(more(nutrient(rich(with(lower(C:N(ratios(compared(to(coniferous(litter.(Due(to(the(relationships(between(humus(forms(and(other(important(ecosystem(processes(and(properties,(along(with(greater(sensitivity(to(changes(in(the(ecosystem(compared(with(mineral(soil,(Ponge(and(Chevalier((2006)(advocate(using(humus(forms(to(assess(the(complexity(of(soil(communities(and(ecosystem(level(changes(resulting(from(management,(climate(change(or(pollution.(However,(the(utilization(of(humus(forms(as(site(indicators(requires(subjective(identification(of(forest(floor(and(soil(horizons(and(the(recognition(of(variability(within(those(horizons((Ponge(and(Chevalier(2006).(((1.2.2 Proposals"to"Include"Forest"Humus"Forms"in"World"Reference"Base"for"Soil"Resources"(Even(though(knowledge(of(forest(floor(properties(is(important(to(planning(and(management(practices,(the(forest(floor(is(often(not(described(during(soil(surveys(or(research(because(changes(in(forest(floor(properties(occur(rapidly(compared(to(mineral(soil((Broll(et(al.(2006).(Routine(practice(of(humus(form(classification(and(monitoring(will(help(to:(assess(the(impacts(of(global(warming(on(carbon(storage(in(organic(horizons((Ponge(et(al.(2011);(and(better(understand(nutrient(cycling,(( 16(biodiversity((Prescott(et(al.(2000),(soil(acidification,(hydrology(and(eutrophication((Pinto(et(al.(2007).(Jabiol(et(al.((2013)(have(proposed(the(inclusion(of(a(comprehensive(range(of(forest(humus(forms(in(the(World(Reference(Base(for(Soil(Resources.(This(occurred(as(an(update(to(a(similar(proposal,(including(a(less(exhaustive(range(of(humus(forms,(by(Broll(et(al.((2006)(that(was(not(ratified.(In(recognition(of(the(potential(benefits(of(forest(floor(classification(and(monitoring,(it(is(important(to(teach(students,(who(may(go(on(to(work(with(forest(soils,(to(recognize(and(describe(forest(floor(horizons(and(humus(forms.(To(train(these(students(in(soil(and(forest(floor(classification(within(the(changing(frameworks(of(soil(education,(soil(survey,(technology(and(global(environmental(challenges(will(require(novel(and(innovative(teaching(approaches.((1.3 Urban"Students"and"the"Use"of"Technology"in"Education"(An(increasingly(urban(population(spends(most(of(its(time(indoors,(while(life(moves(at(a(faster(pace(with(accumulating(and(changing(flows(of(information((Hill(1998).((We(make(fewer(trips(into(nature(than(past(generations((Gelter(2010)(and(within(the(city(environment,(even(if(we(go(outdoors,(soils(are(hidden(out(of(site,(below(ground.(It(is(rare(under(these(circumstances(for(urbanites(to(consider(the(important(functions(of(soils(within(cities(or(in(the(wider(environment.(Meanwhile,(most(formal(learning(occurs(in(specialized(indoor(settings,(while(the(properties(and(processes(being(studied(by(soil(scientists(are(“natural(and(outdoors.”(Students(entering(universities(spend(a(large(proportion(of(their(time(online:(learning((formal(and(( 17(informal),(socializing(and(entertainment(increasingly(take(place(with(the(use(of(Internet(resources.((1.3.1 Millenials"in"the"Age"of"Information"(Our(current(time(has(been(referred(to(as(the(age(of(information,(communication,(knowledge,(technology,(etc.(Common(labels(for(the(generation(currently(engaged(in(postsecondary(education(include(the(“Net”(generation((Tapscott(1998),(“Digital(Natives”((Prensky(2001),(the(“Gamer”(generation((Beck(and(Wade(2004)(and(“Millenials”((Oblinger(and(Oblinger(2005).(Since(the(1980s,(digital(technologies(have(become(entrenched(in(the(lives(of(students((Tapscott(2008).(“The(vast(majority(of(students(make(extensive(use(of(mobile(technologies(and(computing(facilities(for(communication(and(for(access(to(course(materials(and(resources”((Jones(et(al.(2010).(For(them,(Internet(resources(have(become(the(principal(place(to(search(for(information((Loynachan(2006).(It(has(been(thought(that(these(students(adapt(to(these(technologies(more(naturally,(having(grown(up(with(computers(and(Internet(connections,(while(older(generations(are(considered(to(be(slower(to(pick(up(skills(using(these(rapidly(changing(technologies((Jones(et(al.(2010).(This(perception(originates(from(the(idea(that(students(have(undergone(cognitive(changes(resulting(from(growing(up(with(computer(games(and(using(modern(digital(technologies((Prensky(2001).(The(current(generation(of(students(has(been(thought(to(be(more(adept(at(learning(from(visual(media(and(engaged(activity(rather(than(listening(to(lectures(or(reading(texts((Aubrey(and(Dahl(2008).((( 18((While(discourse(previously(suggested(that(learners(have(changed(as(a(result(of(the(increasing(role(of(technology(in(their(lives,(evidence(suggests(that(cognitive(changes(have(not(occurred(from(growing(up(with(computers,(Internet,(visual(media,(etc.,(but(rather(students(undergo(normal(development(and(socialization(with(technology0facilitated(learning((Schulmeister(2009).(According(to(Jones(et(al.((2010),(the(term(“Millenials”(best(describes(the(current(generation(of(postsecondary(students,(due(to(the(diversity(of(technological(skillsets(within(this(generation,(and(the(ability(of(many(outside(this(generation(to(utilize(digital(technologies(to(equal(effect(as(those(who(have(grown(up(using(them.(In(fact,(interest(in(technology0rich(learning(is(not(necessarily(dependent(on(technology(use(outside(of(the(education(context(and(more(people(from(all(age(groups(are(becoming(“tech0savvy”((Bekebrede(et(al.(2011).(Furthermore,(while(the(majority(of(students(will(have(“a(core(set(of(technology(based(skills,”(abilities(outside(this(core(are(very(diverse(within(the(population(of(students((Kennedy(et(al.(2008).(Students(may(use(a(certain(set(of(technologies(for(social(use(and(entertainment,(and(another(set(for(learning((Margaryuan(and(Littlejohn(2009).(The(common(use(of(technological(enhancement(of(curriculum(is(to(meet(the(desire(of(current(students(to(learn(in(participatory,(experiential(environments.(In(response(to(rising(student(numbers(and(often(declining(resources(within(the(postsecondary(setting,(enhancement(and(support(of(course(content(with(technologies(can(alleviate(some(pressure(on(instructors(and(institutions((Bates(2000).((( 19(1.3.2 Need"to"Adapt"Soil"Science"Curriculum"(To(improve(the(learning(experiences(of(students(in(sciences,(it(is(important(to(understand(how(students(view(and(understand(the(world((Nashon(and(Anderson(2013).(Soil(science(education(must(establish(the(role(of(soils(in(dealing(with(global(environmental(challenges,(such(as(food(and(water(security,(climate(change(mitigation(and(adaptation,(biodiversity(and(many(other(ecosystem(services.(With(fewer(students(coming(from(agricultural(and(rural(backgrounds(and(more(growing(up(in(urban(centers(where(the(functions(of(soils(are(not(always(immediately(evident,(educators(should(frame(soils(in(ways(that(align(with(the(motivations(of(students(interested(in(environmental(issues.(Students(in(interdisciplinary(environmental(science(programs(may(not(be(interested(in(agricultural(soils,(but(may(be(interested(in(the(integral(function(of(soils(in(maintaining(biodiversity(and(water(quality(or(mitigating(climate(change.(Above(all,(it(is(important(to(keep(in(mind(how(students(want(to(learn.(The(need(for(collaborative,(active,(participatory(learning(is(a(common(theme(amongst(present0day(students((Bekebrede(et(al.(2011).((Given(the(ongoing(decreasing(enrollment(in(undergraduate(soil(science(programs,(there(is(the(opportunity(to(create(innovative(courses(and(programs(within(the(interdisciplinary(departments.(Educational(theory(increasingly(promotes(active,(collaborative,(engaged(learning(experiences.(Rather(than(simply(deliver(information(in(lectures,(instructors(should(facilitate(student(learning((Raes(and(Schellens(2012)(to(allow(the(integration(of(information,(knowledge,(skills(and(values((Koppi(et(al.(1997).((( 20(!1.4 Blended"Learning"(According(to(cognitive(science,(for(learning(to(take(place(it(is(necessary(that(learning(be(meaningful(to(students((Ramasundaram(et(al.(2005).(Constructivist(learning(theory(postulates(that(students(should(search(for(information(themselves(to(discover(and(build(their(knowledge((Chumley0Jones(et(al.(2002).(Similarly,(the(theory(of(active(learning(suggests(that(we(learn(during(active(applications(of(the(ideas(and(concepts(we(are(learning((Piaget(1971).(The(wish(of(many(students(for(active,(participatory,(collaborative(learning(appears(to(support(the(application(of(these(theories,(establishing(a(role(for(teachers(to(create(learning(environments(that(allow(students(to(actively(construct(their(own(knowledge((Mutonyi(et(al.(2010).((Advances(in(technology(and(pedagogical(theory,(along(with(increased(access(to(online(resources(make(the(shift(away(from(conventional(lecture0based(teaching(towards(blended0learning(models(ever(easier.(Blended(learning(involves(integration(of(computer0mediated(learning(into(traditional,(classroom0based(learning((Owston(et(al.(2013).(Both(teaching(and(learning(practices(can(be(changed(with(the(application(of(ever(improving(online(technologies(and(nearly(ubiquitous(Internet(access((Galway(et(al.(2014).(Blended(learning(has(generally(been(considered(to(be(more(effective(than(classroom0based(or(online(learning(alone((Means(et(al.(2010),(improving(student(satisfaction((Castle(and(McGuire(2010)(and(grades((Cavanagh(2011).(While(online(learning(gives(students(spatial(and(temporal(flexibility,(improves(their(access(to(learning(resources(and(facilitates(more(autonomous(( 21(learning,(face0to0face(interaction(with(instructors(gives(students(access(to(immediate(direction(and(assistance(with(problems((Poon(2012).(Classroom0based(learning(is(also(essential(to(students’(feeling(of(community(and(engagement(with(other(students((Collopy(and(Arnold(2009).(The(blended(learning(model(allows(students(to(access(information(from(various(sources,(make(associations(between(the(knowledge(they(gain(in(and(out(of(the(class,(apply(their(learning((Collopy(and(Arnold(2009)(and(develop(communication(and(problem0solving(skills((Strivelli(et(al.(2011;(Krzic(et(al.(2013).((Traditional(classroom(experiences(do(not(provide(the(same(environment(that(the(majority(of(current(students(are(used(to,(in(which(they(are(connected(through(online(and(mobile(technology(to(their(peers(and(the(web0content(that(they(are(interested(in((Raes(and(Schellens(2012).(According(to(Mohanna((2007),(the(current(generation(of(students(are(often(interested(in(having(access(to(multimedia(resources(online.(These(online(resources(give(students(the(opportunity(to(pursue(questions(that(are(of(relevance(to(their(own(learning,(opening(up(the(bounds(of(the(classroom((Wallace(et(al.(2000).(Students(value(the(ability(to(choose(between(different(learning(mechanisms(to(best(suit(their(learning(needs,(and(appreciate(the(flexibility(in(time(and(place(allowed(with(online(learning((Mitchell(and(Forer(2010).(((The(development(of(computer0assisted(instruction(was(initially(thought(to(be(an(improvement(upon(textbooks(or(lectures(due(to(the(ability(of(learners(to(control(how(they(access(content(and(the(time(and(place(of(learning((Piemme(1998),(leading(( 22(to(improved(learning(experiences(of(students((Clayden(and(Wilson(1988).(Another(potential(benefit(of(the(incorporation(of(online(technologies(is(the(potential(for(reducing(the(costs(of(course(delivery,(while(allowing(the(quality(of(in0class(interactions(between(students(and(instructors(to(be(maximized((Vogel(2012).(The(addition(of(web(elements(to(a(traditional(classroom(incorporates(technological(advancements(that(allow(for(multimedia(enhancement((Cook(2007),(better(facilitates(updates(to(material,(provides(universal(access,(and(can(cross0reference(to(other(sources((Wallace(et(al.(2000).(It(is(important(that(online(components(in(blended(learning(do(not(simply(provide(an(online(store(for(lecture(slides,(course(syllabi,(tests(or(course(evaluations.(Rather,(the(web0based(elements(should(deliver(unique(material(and(experiences(to(students,(such(as(enrichment(with(multimedia,(that(are(not(available(in(the(classroom(or(from(textbooks((Cook(2007).(((There(are(a(number(of(potential(benefits(to(complementing(traditional,(in0class(learning(with(web0based(material(in(blended(learning.(Ubiquitous(availability(for(any(student,(or(any(interested(party(with(an(Internet(connection,(allows(students(to(interact(with(material(when(and(where(they(wish((Cook(and(Dupras(2004)(and(facilitates(sharing(of(resources(between(learning(centers,(so(that(creation(of(redundant(materials(can(be(avoided((Fall(et(al.(2005).(Flexibility(in(time(of(learning(provides(the(opportunity(for(asynchronous(communication(between(students(and(educators((Cook(2007).(Drawing(on(constructivist(learning(theory,(blended(learning(gives(students(more(control(over(what(material(they(access(and(at(what(pace(they(review(material(–(allowing(them(to(concentrate(on(material(they(find(difficult(and(( 23(move(quickly(through(material(they(understand(easily((Cook(2007).(Moreover,(multimedia(learning0resources(cater(to(students(with(a(variety(of(learning(styles,(who(can(experience(material(aurally(and(visually(through(text,(graphics(and(videos((Jain(and(Getis(2003).(Online(material(is(also(persistent;(students(may(decide(to(review(material(as(needed(after(completion(of(the(course.(For(enduring(learning,(leading(to(long0term(knowledge(and(understanding,(such(repetition(and(review,(distributed(over(time,(is(necessary((Polsani(2003,(Ericsson(2004).(((The(success(of(student(learning(experiences(with(blended(learning(is(dependent(upon(the(quality(of(the(online(resources(being(used,(requiring(the(collaboration(of(experts(both(in(the(technological(and(curricular(aspects(of(content(development((Garrison(and(Kanuka(2004).(Even(minor(problems(with(a(website(can(decrease(satisfaction,(participation((Cook(and(Dupras(2005),(and(increase(cognitive(load((Sweller(2005).(Navigation(problems,(such(as(dead(external(web(links,(can(lead(to(significant(student(dissatisfaction(with(a(web0based(tool((Oliver(and(Omari(2001).(It(is(also(important(to(take(into(account(the(amount(of(time(required(to(complete(online(assignments(or(study(so(as(to(avoid(increasing(student(workloads((Cook(2007).(With(the(instructor(no(longer(acting(as(the(primary(source(of(information,(technology0enhanced(learning(requires(greater(motivation(from(students(to(seek(knowledge(for(themselves((Jarvela(et(al.(2011).(((( 24(1.4.1 Blended"Learning"in"Soil"Science"(For(some(time(there(have(been(efforts(to(use(web0technology(to(enhance(soil(science(education.(In(1995,(Cattle(et(al.(recognized(the(possibility(of(using(computer0based(instruction,(given(the(already(wide0availability(of(computers,(to(teach(soil(science(to(high(school(and(university(students.(They(created(the(Soil(Stack,(a(series(of(computer0based(lessons(focused(on(soil(science(concepts((soil(chemistry,(physical(properties(of(soils,(soil(biology,(classification,(etc.)(and(utilizing(info(cards,(graphics(and(models.(The(goal(was(to(more(effectively(engage(students(in(the(subject((Cattle(et(al.(1995).(The(concept(of(learning(soil(science(concepts(with(the(aid(of(computers(has(developed(over(time.(For(teaching(about(soil(microorganisms,(Loynachan((2006)(noted(that(motion(graphics(and(video(are(more(effective(in(capturing(the(attention(and(interest(of(students,(while(idealized(line(drawings(can(help(in(identifying(detailed(features(and(still(images(are(important(for(seeing(actual(features(in(context.(Virtual(field(trips(constitute(another(use(of(multimedia(in(soil(science(education.(Virtual(field(trips(provide(temporal(and(spatial(flexibility,(information(accessibility(for(students,(instructor(control(over(content(and(features,(and(reusability((Hurst(1998;(Tuthill(and(Klemm(2002;(Ramasundaram(et(al.(2005).(Streaming(videos(can(be(used(as(a(type(of(“virtual(field(trip”((VFT)(when(there(is(not(sufficient(time(or(resources(to(take(students(to(actual(field(sites.(VFTs(“create(a(rich,(exploratory,(multi0modal(experience,”(using(multimedia(to(enhance(descriptions(of(those(concepts(difficult(to(describe(with(text(only((Jacobson(et(al.(2009).(((( 25(1.5 Factor"Analysis"(In(psychological(research,(constructs(are(often(not(clearly(defined(in(advance(and(investigators(are(not(always(certain(of(what(is(being(measured(in(advance((Browne(2000).(For(this(reason,(the(idea(of(latent(or(hidden(variables,(that(cannot(be(measured(directly,(has(arisen.(These(latent(variables(are(determined(by(examining(interrelationships(between(observed(variables.(Exploratory(factor(analysis((EFA)(was(initially(developed(more(than(a(century(ago((Spearman(1904).(In(psychological(research,(EFA(has(subsequently(become(among(the(most(commonly(used(procedures((Fabrigar(et(al.(1999).(Factor(analysis(is(used(to(uncover(latent(variables((factors)(that(cause(the(manifest(variables((items)(to(covary((Costello(and(Osborne(2005).(Shared(variance(is(separated(from(the(unique(variance(and(error(variance(for(each(variable(to(uncover(the(latent(constructs(of(those(variables.(Put(another(way,(the(latent(constructs(refer(to(the(structure(of(correlations(among(the(measured(variables((Fabrigar(et(al.(1999).(Often,(principal(components(analysis((PCA)(is(used(in(place(of(EFA(methods.(However,(PCA(does(not(distinguish(between(unique(and(shared(variance,(so(the(values(produced(for(variance(accounted(for(by(the(factors(can(be(overestimated((McArdle(1990).(EFA(and(PCA(can(produce(similar(results,(but(EFA(will(not(overestimate(variance(accounted(for((Costello(and(Osborne(2005).((The(methodology(for(Varimax(rotation(was(first(developed(by(Kaiser((1958).(Being(less(prone(to(generating(a(general(factor(compared(with(previous(methods,(this(technique(became(popular(and(continues(to(be(the(predominant(rotation(appearing(in(psychometric(studies((Browne(2001).(Varimax(rotation(forms(new(factor(axes(to(produce(correlation(coefficients(as(close(to(1,(0(or(01(as(possible((Zeman(et(al.(2014).(( 26(It(is(often(recommended(that(the(number(of(factors(be(determined(from(the(scree(plot.(However,(if(the(scree(plot(does(not(give(a(clear(indication,(it(is(necessary(to(compare(the(item(loading(tables(after(rotation(for(a(range(of(numbers(of(factors((Costello(and(Osborne(2005).(The(factor(structure(that(best(fits(the(data(should(have(the(fewest(crossloadings(and(have(at(least(three(items(loading(in(each(factor.(Determination(of(sample(size(is(also(an(important(consideration(in(EFA.(It(is(generally(recommended(to(have(a(case(to(item(ratio(of(5:1,(but(adequate(sample(size(is(dependent(on(the(data((McCallum(et(al.(1999).(Higher(quality(data(can(be(used(with(smaller(sample(sizes(in(accurate(analyses,(and(a(range(of(ratios((smaller(than(2:1(to(larger(than(100:1)(are(often(used((Costello(and(Osborne(2005).(((1.6 Summary"(Many(educators(in(soil(science(have(noted(the(challenges(facing(university(soil(science(programs((Loynachan(2006;(Hansen(et(al.(2007;(Collins(2008;(Hartemink(and(McBratney(2008;(Bouma(2009;(Jacobson(et(al.(2009;(Strivelli(et(al.(2011;(Bouma(and(McBratney(2013;(Krzic(et(al.(2013;(Hartemink(et(al.(2014).(There(is(increasing(demand(on(soil(resources(worldwide,(concurrent(with(an(increasingly(urban(population,(fewer(students(enrolled(in(soil(science(programs.(Some(important(soil(research(centers(have(been(terminated(in(Canada(and(fewer(students(graduate(with(degrees(in(soil(science(compared(to(several(decades(ago.(Meanwhile,(an(increasing(number(of(soil(science(articles(are(being(published,(often(by(specialists(from(non0soil(science(disciplines.(There(also(appears(to(be(greater(attention(to(soil0related(( 27(issues(from(global(environmental(and(governmental(associations,(such(as(the(United(Nations.((Expertise(in(various(areas(of(soil(science(is(concentrated(in(the(minds(of(“mature”(soil(scientists.(As(these(soil(professionals(retire,(there(is(the(risk(of(their(knowledge(being(lost.(It(is(important(to(make(efforts(to(preserve(and(share(this(knowledge(and(it(is(now(possible(to(share(information(with(anyone(possessing(an(Internet(connection.(This(is(the(case(with(knowledge(of(forest(floor(classification.(While(the(forest(floor(is(rich(in(soil(organisms,(important(plant(nutrients(and(carbon,(the(ability(to(describe(and(classify(forest(humus(forms(is(an(uncommon(skill(among(postsecondary(students(and(the(younger(generation(of(soil(science(professionals.(The(forest(floor(is(often(not(described(in(soil(surveys,(in(part(due(to(its(more(rapid(response(to(changes(in(environmental(conditions(or(disturbance(compared(with(mineral(soil.(The(sensitivity(of(the(forest(floor(to(such(changes;(however,(has(the(potential(to(provide(early(indication(of(changes(occurring(in(an(ecosystem.(Promoting(the(importance(of(the(forest(floor(to(students(and(enhancing(how(the(subject(is(taught(is(an(important(step(in(educating(future(soil(scientists(and(forest(management(specialists.((Meanwhile,(blended0learning,(combining(multimedia(and(web(technology(with(campus0based(learning(provides(the(opportunity(to(encourage(active,(collaborative(experiences(in0class(along(with(greater(student(control(over(how(they(interact(with(online(learning(materials,(available(to(them(at(any(time(and(place.(In(soil(( 28(classification,(learning(to(recognize(visual(features(of(soils(and(identify(horizons(involves(“considerable(visual(interpretation(skills,”(which(can(be(developed(through(repeated(visual(exposure(to(different(soil(profiles((Krzic(et(al.(2013).(The(flexibility(in(time(and(place(of(online(learning(provides(students(constant(access(to(expert(knowledge(and(the(opportunity(to(repeatedly(review(images,(videos(and(other(material.(However,(hands(on(activities(are(always(essential(in(learning(soil(and(forest(floor(classification,(as(they(provide(students(the(opportunity(to(apply(and(reinforce(their(learning(while(working(collaboratively(with(their(peers.(Blended(learning(provides(students(both(with(modern(learning(technologies(–(the(online(environment(that(is(increasingly(prevalent(in(their(daily(lives(–(and(the(collaborative,(active(learning(environment(that(many(students(view(as(a(priority(in(their(education((Mutonyi(et(al.(2010).((!1.7 "Study"Objectives"(To(allow(students(to(learn(about(the(importance(of(the(forest(floor(in(forest(ecosystems,(the(unique(properties(of(the(different(organic(horizons,(and(how(to(identify(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull),(we(developed(blended0learning(forest(floor(activities,(combining(hands0on,(campus0based(learning(with(a(web0based(multimedia(resource.(The(campus0based(activity(required(students(to(describe(and(classify(a(forest(floor(sample(according(to(the(horizons(present(and(an(understanding(of(the(structures(and(decomposer(communities(present(in(those(horizons.(This(project(was(guided(by(the(following(objectives.((( 29(Objective(1:(to(develop(blended0learning(activities((facilitated(by(a(web0based(multimedia(educational(resource(and(campus0based(teaching)(to(achieve(the(following(learning(objectives(to:((i)(describe(forest(floors,((ii)(classify(forest(humus(forms,(and((iii)(comprehend(the(importance(of(the(forest(floor(in(forest(ecosystems.(((Objective(2:(to(survey(and(interview(students(to(assess(their(opinions(of(the(application(of(the(blended0learning(method(in(the(forest(floor(activities(using(exploratory(factor(analysis.((The(long0term(goals(of(this(study(are(to((1)(add(to(the(body(of(knowledge(and(contribute(to(the(establishment(of(more(active(ways(of(teaching(and(learning(in(postsecondary(soil(science(education,(and((2)(develop(a(survey(instrument,(exploratory(factor(analysis(methodology(and(associated(factors(that(can(be(adapted(for(similar(studies(assessing(blended(learning(experiences.(As(demand(for(innovations(in(general(science(and(natural(science(education(increase,(studies(like(this(will(serve(as(an(example(of(how(to(effectively(develop(multimedia(and(web(enhancements(to(student(learning(experiences,(to(integrate(these(technologies(with(collaborative(and(hands0on(activities(to(maximize(student(learning(and(satisfaction,(and(to(provide(statistically(reliable(instruments(to(assess(the(factors(that(explain(students’(perceptions(of(similar(learning(interventions.( 30(2"Pilot"Study"of"Forest"Floor"Activities"Blending"Online"and"ClassroomUBased"Learning"(2.1."Introduction"(To(meet(the(need(for(professionals(in(land(management(to(gain(a(strong(foundation(in(soil(science(and(knowledge(of(forest(management,(a(multimedia(web(resource(was(developed(to(be(integrated(with(in0class(forest(floor(description(and(humus(form(classification.(Using(such(a(blended(learning(approach(can(improve(student(satisfaction((Castle(and(McGuire(2010)(and(grades((Cavanagh(2011).(It(is(considered(more(effective(than(online(learning(or(classroom0based(learning((Means(et(al.(2010).(((The(success(of(blended(learning(approaches(depends(on(the(quality(of(the(online(resources(being(used.(Problems(with(navigation(or(other(issues(can(reduce(student(satisfaction(and(participation((Cook(and(Dupras(2005)(while(increasing(their(cognitive(load((Sweller(2005).(The(objective(of(the(pilot(study(was(to(identify(and(resolve(any(issues(with(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(that(we(developed,(to(gain(initial(insights(into(the(students’(reactions(to(the(implementation(of(the(blended(learning(method,(and(to(conduct(preliminary(principal(component(analysis((PCA)(of(the(survey(instrument(to(assess(its(reliability.(((( 31(""2.2"Materials"and"Methods"(PCA(was(used(instead(of(factor(analysis(due(to(the(small(sample(size(–(as(PCA(does(not(differentiate(between(sources(of(error.(The(upper0level(Advanced(Soil(Science(course,(offered(by(the(Faculty(of(Environment(at(Simon(Fraser(University((SFU),(Burnaby,(BC(focuses(on(the(ecology(and(management(of(forest(soils,(and(is(not(a(required(course(by(any(program(or(major.(The(course(is(generally(taken(by(15025(students(majoring(in(Environmental(Science(or(Physical(Geography(who(have(already(taken(the(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(course.(In(term(2(of(201402015(academic(year,(there(were(19(students(enrolled(in(the(course(who(were(in(the(3rd(or(4th(year(of(their(studies.(The(pilot(study(was(conducted(during(February(of(2015,(beginning(with(the(forest(floor(laboratory,(followed(by(the(online(survey(and(then(focus(group(interviews.((Prior(to(the(campus0based(forest(floor(activities(in(which(students(were(introduced(to(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource,(students(took(forest(floor(samples(from(two(sites(on(the(SFU(campus(on(Burnaby(Mountain.(There(were(four(groups(of(4(or(5(students.(Each(group(of(students(took(one(sample(from(under(a(coniferous(stand(and(one(sample(from(under(a(mixed(deciduous(and(coniferous(stand.(Class(time(in(Advanced(Soil(Science(course(consisted(of(a(40hour(block(per(week,(divided(approximately(into(a(two0hour(lecture(and(a(two0hour(laboratory.(The(forest(floor(lecture(preceded(the(campus0based(activities(and(included(a(series(of(slides(created(( 32(by(the(course(instructor(and(it(also(included(all(6(of(the(Forest(Floor(videos(created(during(this(study.(The(lecture(included(detail(regarding(chemical(properties(and(relationships(between(the(forest(floor(and(forest(ecosystem.(The(lecture(also(included(an(introduction(to(the(more(specific(group(classifications(within(the(humus(form(orders.(All(19(students(used(the(skeleton(notes(provided(on(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource.(At(the(end(of(the(lecture,(students(completed(forest(floor(description(sheets((Appendix(I)(for(each(of(their(two(samples,(having(access(to(their(lab(manual(and(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(if(they(wished(to(use(it.(The(SFU(forest(floor(laboratory(assignment(was(created(by(the(course(instructor.(However,(we(did(review(the(questions(to(make(certain(the(educational(resource(presented(the(necessary(information((or(references)(to(complete(the(assignment(and(found(that(no(alterations(to(the(questions(were(necessary.(The(assignment(questions(required(short(essay(answers(and(references(to(source(material.((((After(students(had(completed(their(laboratory(assignments,(they(were(asked(to(complete(a(400question(survey(about(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(and(campus0based(activities((Appendix(IV).(They(were(informed(about(details(of(the(study(before(the(lab(and(agreed(that(their(feedback(could(be(used(for(research(purposes((Appendix(V).(Students(were(given(time(during(class(to(complete(the(survey(and(all(19(students(completed(the(survey.(In(addition,(to(the(online(survey,(we(also(conducted(one(8(minute(and(one(5(minute(in0person(interview.((PCA(analysis(was(conducted(using(SPSS(Statistical(Software.(The(number(of(( 33(components(was(determined(based(on(the(Scree(plot,(ensuring(that(at(least(3(items(loaded(in(each(component.(We(used(Varimax(rotation,(which(forms(new(factor(axes(to(achieve(correlation(coefficients(as(close(to(1,(0,(or(01(as(possible((to(maximize(or(minimize(loading(of(items(on(particular(factors)((Zeman(et(al.(2014).(Interpretation(of(the(components(was(limited(to(analyzing(any(commonalities(amongst(the(items(loading(in(each(component.(We(also(assessed(the(reliability(of(the(survey(responses.(((2.2"Results"and"Discussion"(2.2.1"Survey"and"Interview"Feedback"(Based(on(largely(positive(student(feedback,(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(and(campus0based(activities(helped(students(to(meet(the(stated(learning(objectives((Table(2.2).(During(group(interviews,(participants(commented(that(the(amount(of(information(and(its(organization(in(the(forest(floor(videos(and(website(were(adequate.(One(participant(explained,(“I(didn’t(really(have(to(go(elsewhere(for(information,(but(there(wasn’t(too(much(so(that(I(felt(overwhelmed.”(Another(said(of(the(videos,(“they(are(very(well(organized…(The(layers,(differences(and(even(some(cartoons(that(display(more(details.(Overall,(I’d(say(it(was(excellent.”(In(a(previous(study,(Strivelli(et(al.((2011)(noted(that(some(students(found(“long”(videos(problematic(when(attempting(to(find(specific(information.(For(this(reason(we(kept(videos(as(short(as(possible((between(2(minutes(24s(and(6(minutes(32s,(with(an(average(length(of(4(minutes(23s).(Downloadable(skeleton(notes(were(also(included(( 34(with(each(video,(as(recommended(by(Strivelli(et(al.((2011)(and(in(agreement(with(past(research(showing(improved(test(performance(for(students(supplied(with(outlines(rather(than(complete(notes(by(their(professor((Barnett(2003).(Survey(responses(to(information(density(and(navigation(were(generally(positive,(with(84.2%(of(respondents(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree(to(the(statement(“I(thought(too(much(information(was(presented(in(the(Forest(Floor(videos,”(and(63.2%(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree(to(the(statement(“I(think(that(the(forest(floor(videos(did(not(provide(enough(information.”((Regarding(the(website,(a(respondent(said,(“I(liked(that(there(wasn’t(too(much(information(on(the(website.(I(liked(that(it(was(well(organized.”(A(study(at(the(University(of(Tennessee(found(that(73%(of(students(preferred(reading(text(on(paper(rather(than(from(a(computer(screen((Oh(and(Lim(2005).(Strivelli(et(al.((2011)(also(received(comments(that(extensive(text,(in(similar(style(to(what(would(appear(in(a(textbook(was(not(palatable(for(reading(online.(Another(participant(pointed(out(a(glitch(on(the(website,(whereby(only(one(of(the(Humus(Form(Orders(videos(was(available(on(the(Orders(page.(The(other(videos(on(that(page(could(only(be(viewed(on(the(Virtual(Soil(Science(Learning(Resources(YouTube(channel((https://www.youtube.com/user/SoilWebUBC).(This(problem(had(to(be(fixed(prior(to(the(forest(floor(labs(in(the(UBC(introductory(course.(Despite(this(issue,(79.0%(of(respondents(selected(agree(or(strongly(agree(to(the(statement(“I(found(navigation(of(the(website(to(be(straight(forward,”(while(63.2%(selected(disagree(or(strongly(( 35(disagree(to(the(statement(“I(found(it(difficult(to(find(the(specific(information(I(was(searching(for(on(the(website.”((All(of(the(participants(mentioned(the(importance(of(having(visuals(in(learning,(some(referring(to(their(importance(to(“visual(learners”.(For(example,(one(respondent(said,(“it(was(also(helpful(to(actually(see(the(humus(form(and(see(what(it(looks(like,”(and(another(explained,(“I’m(a(visual(person,(I(remember(the(videos(more(than(I(remember(someone’s(lecture.(I(don’t(think(a(lot(of(people(learn(by(sitting(and(listening.”(Students(value(the(ability(to(choose(between(different(learning(mechanisms(to(best(suit(their(learning(needs,(and(appreciate(the(flexibility(in(time(and(place(allowed(with(online(learning((Mitchell(and(Forer(2010).(Furthermore,(some(participants(noted(how(the(videos(acted(as(a(sort(of(approximation(of(the(experience(they(would(have(in(the(field,(one(saying,(“It(looks(like(you(are(in(the(environment.(It(is(fun,(you(feel(better,(rather(than(a(person(standing(there(giving(a(lecture.(This(is(more(informative(because(you(see(the(nature(itself.”(The(videos(were(designed(to(act(as(virtual(field(trips.(Virtual(field(trips(aim(to(approximate(the(experiences(students(would(have(in(the(field(by(allowing(them(to(virtually(travel(to(a(site(through(video((Cox(and(Su(2004).(The(aim(was(to(recreate(the(experience(of(having(an(expert(in(forest(soils(describe(the(forest(floor,(the(forest(ecosystem(and(provide(other(important(context(that(students(would(receive(in(an(actual(field(trip.(Another(participant(reflected,(“it’s(an(alternative(to(being(outside,(when(being(outside(is(not(practical.”(((( 36(The(possibility(of(repetitive(viewing(of(videos(was(mentioned(several(times(in(the(interviews(and(commented(on(by(all(of(the(participants.(One(participant(first(brought(up(the(idea,(saying,(“you(go(home(and(want(to(see(them(again,(again(and(again.(You(cannot(do(that(with(regular(lectures.”(Other(participants(explained(the(utility(of(having(access(to(the(videos(outside(of(the(classroom.(One(stated,(“we(liked(that(you(could(go(home(and(pause(it(at(a(certain(spot,”(in(order(to(see(details,(and(another(even(saved(images(from(the(videos(to(use(in(their(assignment.(((Participants(identified(several(aspects(of(the(website(as(the(most(useful(to(them(as(they(worked(on(their(lab(reports.(The(humus(form(order(page(was(noted(for(having(“the(most…(facts(and(characteristics,”(“key(points”(and(“a(diagram(of(how([the(humus(form(orders](differ.”(The(reference(page(was(considered(the(most(useful(to(another(participant,(and(another(said,(“the(videos(themselves,”(were(most(important(to(their(learning.(((2.2.2"Principal"Component"Analysis"(Based(on(the(scree(plot((Figure(2.3.1),(five(components(were(selected(for(this(analysis.(PCA(does(not(differentiate(between(shared(and(unique(variance(–(whereas(factor(analysis(involves(separating(the(shared(variance(of(each(variable(from(the(unique(variance(and(error(variance,(with(only(shared(variance(appearing(in(the(solution((Costello(and(Osborne(2005).(PCA(can(therefore(overestimate(the(variance(that(the(components(are(able(to(explain((McArdle(1990).(However,(due(to(the(small(sample(size((n!=!19)(and(large(number(of(items((p!=!39),(PAF(was(not(possible(with(( 37(this(dataset.(All(five(components(had(more(than(three(items(loading.(Interpretation(of(the(components(was(limited(to(identifying(commonalities(between(items(in(each(component.(The(reliability(of(the(survey(instrument(was(0.921,(which(is(quite(high,(but(may(be(overestimated(due(to(the(fact(that(PCA(includes(both(unique(and(shared(variance((McArdle(1990).(Table(2.1(presents(themes(among(items(within(the(components.(The(full(tables(of(the(items(loading(in(each(factor(can(be(found(in(Appendix(IX.((2.2.3"Conclusions""(A(pilot(study(was(conducted(to(resolve(issues(with(the(Forest(Floor(education(resource,(to(assess(student(responses(to(the(blended(learning(approach(and(to(make(initial(assessments(of(the(reliability(of(the(survey(instrument.(One(functional(problem(with(the(website,(whereby(two(videos(could(not(be(viewed,(was(identified(and(resolved(through(conducting(the(pilot(study.(During(group(interviews(students(commented(that(the(website(was(“well(organized”(and(comprehensive(enough(that(it(wasn’t(necessary(to(“go(elsewhere(for(information,”(but(that(“there(wasn’t(too(much(information(on(the(website.”(((According(to(feedback(to(the(online(survey,(learning(goals(were(met,(with(95%(of(students(agreeing(or(strongly(agreeing(that(“The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(introduced([them](to(the(properties(of(organic(horizons((L,(F,(H,(and(O),”(89%(that(“The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(introduced([them](to(the(( 38(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull),”(and(100%(that(“[they](believe(that(what([they](learned(from(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(is(important(knowledge(for(forest(management.”(In(the(group(interviews,(students(explained(their(positive(perceptions(of(the(Forest(Floor(videos(for(the(possibility(of(repetitive(review,(appealing(to(“visual(learners,”(and(being(“more(informative(because(you(see(the(nature(itself.”(The(pilot(study(was(useful(in(ensuring(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(had(no(issues(with(usability,(that(students(were(able(to(successfully(learn(forest(floor(description(and(humus(form(classification(with(the(blended(learning(method,(and(that(the(survey(instrument(was(reliable,(with(a(Chronbach’s(Alpha(of(0.921.(((Figure"2.1"–"Scree"Plot"of"Principal"Components"from"Pilot"Study"Responses"( 39("""""Table"2.1"–"Interpretation"of"Components"Based"on"Commonalities"Between"Items"Component" Commonalities"Among"Items"1( Student(satisfaction(with(aspects(of(the(website(and(videos(2( Negatively(worded(statements(3( Respondents’(evaluations(of(the(presentation(of(concepts,(application(of(learning(and(their(confidence(in(their(knowledge(4( Respondents’(preferences(in(how(they(accessed(materials(5( Perceptions(of(the(importance(of(the(forest(floor("""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""( 40(Table"2.2"–"Survey"Responses"for"Questions"Regarding"Learning"Objectives"Question" Strongly"Agree"Agree" Neutral" Disagree" Strongly"Disagree"The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(introduced(me(to(the(properties(of(organic(horizons((L,(F,(H,(and(O)((42.1%(8( 52.6%(10( ( 5.3%(1( (After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(feel(confident(differentiating(between(the(organic(horizons((L,(F,(H(and(O).((47.4%(9( 21.1%(4( 31.6%(6( ( (The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(introduced(me(to(the(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull)((52.6%(10( 36.8%(7( 10.5%(2( ( (After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(can(tell(the(difference(between(the(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull)((31.6%(6( 57.9%(11( 5.3%(1( 5.3%(1( (The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(taught(me(the(differences(between(the(decomposer(communities(in(the(different(humus(form(orders((15.8%(3( 52.6%(10( 26.3%(5( 5.3%(1( (The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(explained(the(chemical(properties(of(different(types(of(litter(to(me((15.8%(3( 36.8%(7( 21.1%(4( 26.3%(5( (The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(communicated(the(importance(of(the(Forest(Floor(in(forest(ecosystems(and(soils((31.6%%(6( 42.1%(8( 15.8%(3( 10.5%(2( (After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(understand(the(impacts(of(the(forest(floor(on(soil(properties((26.3%(5( 52.6%(10( 15.8%(3( 5.3%(1( (I(believe(that(what(I(learned(from(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(is(important(knowledge(for(forest(management((26.3%(5( 73.7%(14( ( ( (( 41(3"Blending"Multimedia"and"CampusUBased"Learning"to"Enhance"Learning"About"Forest"Floor"Description"and"Humus"Form"Classification""3.1"Introduction"(There(is(now(widespread(recognition(that(soil(must(be(considered(when(dealing(with(global(environmental(challenges(such(as(mitigating(climate(change,(food(production(and(maintaining(clean(air(and(water.(Especially(in(northern(forests,(the(organic(horizons(at(the(soil(surface(play(key(roles(in(carbon(storage,(biodiversity(and(nutrient(cycling((Dixon(et(al.(1994;(Bauhaus(et(al.(1998;(Ponge(and(Chevalier(2006).(For(forestry(and(land(resource(professionals(to(effectively(manage(our(forests,(they(must(understand(the(functions(of(forest(soils.(This(begs(the(question(of(how(post0secondary(institutions(can(most(effectively(educate(future(land(managers(about(the(crucial(roles(of(soils(in(forest(ecosystems.((The(current(generation(of(students(has(different(learning(experiences(outside(of(the(classroom(than(their(predecessors(and(this(needs(to(be(reflected(in(the(adoption(of(emerging(technological(and(pedagogical(innovations(by(educators.(To(improve(learning(experiences(of(science(students,(it(is(necessary(to(understand(how(they(view(the(world((Nashon(and(Anderson(2013).(Digital(technologies(are(currently(at(the(forefront(of(students’(experiences(in(their(everyday(lives((Tapscott(2008).(For(many(of(them,(Internet(resources(have(become(the(primary(place(to(search(for(information((Loynachan(2006).(Current(students(have(also(expressed(the(desire(to(( 42(learn(collaboratively(with(their(peers,(through(active(experiences(of(concepts((Bekerbrede(et(al.(2011).((It(is(now(easier(to(incorporate(multimedia(and(web(technologies(into(post(secondary(education(than(ever(before.(Blended(learning(involves(integration(of(computer0mediated(learning(into(classroom0based(learning((Owston(et(al.(2013).(Blended(learning(has(generally(been(considered(to(be(more(effective(than(classroom0based(or(online(learning(alone((Means(et(al.(2010),(improving(student(satisfaction((Castle(and(McGuire(2010)(and(grades((Cavanagh(2011).(While(learning(online(gives(students(spatial(and(temporal(flexibility,(improves(their(access(to(learning(resources(and(facilitates(more(autonomy((Poon(2012),(classroom0based(learning(is(essential(to(students’(feeling(of(community(and(engagement(with(their(peers((Collopy(and(Arnold(2009).((The(forest(floor(reflects(overall(site(quality((Klinka(et(al.(1990),(but(is(often(not(described(during(soil(surveys,(partially(because(the(properties(of(organic(horizons(can(change(rapidly,(requiring(information(to(be(updated(more(frequently((Broll(et(al.(2006).(Routine(practice(of(humus(form(classification(and(monitoring(will(help(researchers(to(assess(the(impacts(of(climate(change(on(carbon(storage((Ponge(et(al.(2011)(and(better(understand(nutrient(cycling(and(biodiversity(in(forest(ecosystems((Prescott(et(al.(2000).(For(these(reasons,(Jabiol(et(al.((2013)(suggest(that(the(organic(horizons(must(be(described(for(sufficiently(precise(characterizations(of(forest(soils.(Since(most(forestry(programs(still(require(at(least(an(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(( 43(course((Collins(2008),(it(is(during(these(courses(that(the(opportunity(exists(to(introduce(future(forest(and(land(management(professionals(to(the(important(roles(and(properties(of(the(forest(floor.((The(objective(of(this(study(was(to(develop(blended(learning(activities,(facilitated(by(an(educational(website(combined(with(a(campus0based(forest(floor(laboratory,(to(teach(students(about(the(importance(of(the(forest(floor(in(forest(ecosystems,(the(unique(properties(of(the(different(organic(horizons,(and(how(to(identify(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull).(To(assess(student(opinions(of(the(application(of(the(blended0learning(method,(we(conducted(exploratory(factor(analysis(of(responses(to(an(online(survey,(interpreted(with(the(aid(of(responses(in(group(interviews(with(students.(("3.2"Materials"and"Methods"("The(Forest(Floor(educational(resource,(a(web0based(multimedia(resource,(and(the(campus0based(forest(floor(activities(were(developed(for(the(lower0level((2nd(year)(undergraduate(course(with(no(prerequisites,(Introduction(to(Soil(Science,(offered(by(the(Faculty(of(Land(and(Food(Systems,(UBC.(The(course(is(required(by(several(programs(in(the(Faculties(of(Land(and(Food(Systems(and(Forestry((Table(3.1).(The(overall(course(learning(outcome(is(to(introduce(physical,(chemical(and(biological(properties(of(soils;(soil(formation,(classification,(use(and(conservation.(During(the(term(2(of(2014/2015(academic(year,(232(students(were(enrolled(in(this(course(through(two(lecture(sections((section(001(=(119(students(and(section(002(=(113(( 44(students)(and(eight(lab(sections((approximately(29(students(per(lab(section).(The(breakdown(of(students’(years(of(study(and(majors(are(presented(in(Table(3.1.("3.2.1"Development"of"the"Forest"Floor"Educational"Resource"""Information(presented(on(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(is(based(primarily(on(Towards!a!Taxonomic!Classification!of!Humus!Forms(by(Green(et(al.((1993)(as(well(as(Taxonomic!Classification!of!Humus!Forms!in!Ecosystems!of!British!Columbia(by(Klinka(et(al.((1981).(It(is(important(to(note(that(these(systems(for(classification(of(humus(forms(were(developed(primarily(based(on(the(forest(soils(of(the(Canadian(west(coast,(though(efforts(were(made(to(represent(a(broader(range(of(humus(form(orders(and(groups,(outside(of(this(region((Green(et(al.(1993).(In(developing(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource,(we(consulted(the(following(supplementary(sources:(Bernier(1968,(Fisher(and(Binkley(2000,(Fox(and(Tarnocai(2011,(Green(et(al.(1997,(Klinka(et(al.(1984,(Muller(1889,(Ponge(2013,(Prescott(et(al.(2000,(and(the(Soil(Classification(Working(Group(1998.((Development(of(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource,(as(with(the(videos,(followed(the(recommendations(of(Polsani((2003)(to(plan(for(sufficient(time(to(conceptualize(and(execute(the(web(and(video(components(of(our(learning(intervention.(Development(of(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(involved(three(stages,(a(planning(phase,(a(development(phase(and(an(editing(and(problem(solving(phase.(The(planning(phase(involved(consultation(with(an(expert(in(web(development(to(( 45(determine(the(website(layout(and(with(three(soil(science(experts(to(verify(accuracy(and(utility(of(content.(The(website(was(developed(using(WordPress(CMS((Content(Management(System)(and(hosted(on(the(UBC(CMS.(An(outline(of(the(page(layout(is(provided(in(Figure(2.2.1.(This(stage(involved(the(continued(input(from(the(soil(science(experts(and(was(completed(by(two(website(developers.(((The(content(of(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(includes:(videos,(tutorials,(text,(definitions,(graphics,(animations,(photographs(and(references.(On(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource,(text(was(reduced(as(much(as(possible(while(still(providing(as(much(information(as(any(user(carrying(out(a(forest(floor(description(and(classification(would(need.(“Accordion”(style(menus(were(used(to(break(up(and(reduce(the(amount(of(text(that(users(were(viewing(at(one(time.(Navigation(to(all(pages(is(possible(from(any(page(on(the(website,(using(the(content(menu(running(vertically(along(the(top(of(each(page.(Also(available(to(the(right(of(the(navigation(menu(is(a(search(bar.(The(individual(pages(are(described(in(Table(3.2(During(January(and(February(2015,(editing(and(verification(of(website(functionality(were(carried(out(by(both(soil(science(and(web(development(experts.(((To(fully(conceptualize(and(execute(a(blended(learning(intervention(requires(a(significant(investment(of(time(–(as(much(as(two(years((Polsani(2003)(–(and(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(involved(approximately(1300(person(hours(to(develop.(Video(production(involved(a(planning(stage,(two(days(of(filming,(production(of(motion(graphics(and(an(editing(stage.(The(video(planning(stage(( 46(involved(taking(humus(form(samples(at(two(sites,(one(mor(sample((from(a(site(with(forest(floor(directly(overlying(bedrock)(at(the(Malcolm(Knapp(Research(Forest(in(Maple(Ridge,(BC,(and(both(mull(and(moder(samples(at(the(UBC(Farm(at(the(University(of(British(Columbia.(The(mor(sample(was(taken(from(a(120(year(old(stand(in(the(Coastal(Western(Hemlock(biogeoclimatic(zone((Meidinger(and(Pojar(1991),(from(a(sloped(site(near(Loon(Lake.(The(site(experiences(a(humid(maritime(climate(with(approximately(2200(mm(of(precipitation(per(year.(Soils(in(Malcolm(Knapp(Research(Forest(are(Buntzen,(Ferro0Humic(Podzol(and(Cannel,(Humo0Ferric(Podzol.(The(mull(sample(was(taken(from(under(a(stand(of(red(alder,(bigleaf(maple(and(black(cottonwood,(while(the(moder(sample(was(taken(from(under(a(stand(of(western(hemlock,(Douglas0fir(and(western(red(cedar.(Both(stands(were(approximately(50(to(60(years(old.(The(UBC(Farm(receives(about(1200(mm(of(precipitation(per(year(and(rests(within(the(Coastal(Douglas0fir(biogeoclimatic(zone((Meidinger(and(Pojar(1991).(The(soil(at(the(UBC(farm(is(Bose,(Humo0Ferric(Podzol.((Video(scripts(were(developed(with(the(oversight(of(a(forest(soils(expert,(an(education(expert(and(educational(multimedia(expert.(Filming(was(done(in(the(UBC(Soil(Science(teaching(laboratory(and(the(UBC(Farm.(Two(videos(were(filmed(at(each(site,(although(one(video(filmed(in(the(laboratory(was(later(split(into(three(sections.(A(videographer(and(assistant(videographer(captured(the(videos,(as(well(as(providing(direction(for(maintaining(continuity(between(shots.(Videos(featured(a(graduate(student(interviewing(forest(soils(expert(Dr.(Margaret(Schmidt((Associate(Professor(at(Simon(Fraser(University,(Burnaby,(BC)(on0site.(A(blended(learning(expert(( 47(provided(oversight(to(ensure(clarity(of(the(information(presented.(The(camera(used(was(a(Canon(XF300(and(sound(recording(was(done(with(Sennheiser(EW100(microphones.(A(graphic(artist(designed(the(graphics(using(Adobe(Illustrator((Adobe(Systems(Incorporated,(2015)(from(photographs,(drawings(and(descriptions(provided(by(the(authors.(Motion(was(added(by(another(graphic(artist(using(AfterEffects((Adobe(Systems(Incorporated,(2015).(The(voice(over(was(recorded(at(UBC(Studios.(Video(editing(was(done(by(the(videographer(using(Final(Cut(Pro((FCPX)(version(10.1.2((Final(Cut(Studio,(Apple(Inc.,(Cupertino,(CA).(Table(3.3(provides(descriptions(of(all(six(of(the(videos.(((3.2.2"Development"of"CampusUBased"Forest"Floor"Laboratory"Activities"(The(forest(floor(laboratory(of(the(Introduction(of(Soil(Science(course(consisted(of(an(introduction(to(key(forest(floor(concepts,(viewing(of(supporting(forest(floor(videos,(an(explanation(of(the(laboratory(tasks,(hands0on(descriptions(of(forest(floor(samples(and(a(laboratory(assignment(to(be(completed(with(the(assistance(of(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource.(The(learning(objectives(of(the(campus0based(forest(floor(activities(were(to(allow(students(to(differentiate(among(the(humus(form(orders,(organic(horizons(and(decomposer(communities,(as(well(as(to(understand(the(importance(of(the(forest(floor(in(forest(ecosystems.((Before(coming(to(the(lab,(students(were(encouraged(to(review(the(information(provided(in(the(laboratory(manual(and(website.(The(lab(manual(allowed(students(to(( 48(review(information(from(paper0based(text(if(that(was(their(preference.(Much(of(the(information(presented(in(the(laboratory(manual(was(adapted(from(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource,(though(shortened(to(include(only(what(was(necessary(for(completion(of(the(lab(activities.(Mor(and(moder(samples,(with(Fm(and(Fa(diagnostic(horizons,(respectively,(were(used(during(the(campus0based(laboratory(sections.(The(samples(were(taken(from(the(same(site(at(the(Malcolm(Knapp(Research(Forest(where(the(mor(sample,(used(in(the(videos,(was(obtained.((During(the(campus0based(forest(floor(activities,(students(worked(in(groups(of(3(to(5(to((i)(designate(the(F(horizon((which(was(present(in(all(samples)(as(either(Fm,(Fa,(or(Fz(based(on(its(properties(such(as(structure,(roots,(flora(and(fauna(type(and((ii)((classify(humus(form(as(mor,(moder(and(mull(based(on(the(diagnostic(horizon((Data(entry(sheet,(Appendix(II).(The(forest(floor(laboratory(assignment(was(one(of(seven(laboratory(assignments(during(the(semester.(Students(had(one(week(after(their(laboratory(activity(to(complete(the(assignment,(certain(questions(of(which(required(that(they(use(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(and(videos(in(particular.((3.2.3"Development"of"Survey""Development(of(the(survey(instrument(was(accomplished(within(a(framework(to(assess(to(what(extent(the(blended(learning(approach(used(in(this(study(met(the(following(objectives:((1)(student(ability(to(identify(organic(horizons;((2)(student(ability(to(differentiate(between(humus(form(orders;((3)(student(recognition(of(importance(of(forest(floor;((4)(student(ability(to(explain(forest(floor(influences(on(( 49(soil(properties(and(forest(ecosystems;((5)(learning(from(videos(and(graphics;((6)(students(satisfaction(with(learning(independently(using(the(Forest(Floor(learning(resource;((7)(minimization(of(potential(drawbacks(of(website(use;((8)(importance(of(inclusion(of(varied(media(such(as(video,(photos,(text(and(hands0on(components;((9)(navigability(and(attractiveness(of(the(Forest(Floor(learning(resource;(and((10)(appropriateness(of(level(of(difficulty.(It(is(important(to(note(that(the(survey(instrument(was(created(to(assess(students’(perception(of(their(learning(and(learning(experiences,(rather(than(assessing(how(much(students(learned(or(comparing(student(learning(within(our(blended(learning(approach(to(other(teaching(methods.(The(full(list(of(survey(items((Appendix(IV)(were(created(to(assess(to(what(extent(our(approach(met(the(learning(and(experiential(objectives(presented(above.(!!3.2.4"Online"Survey"(The(online(survey(was(opened(to(responses(one(week(after(the(forest(floor(lab(and(after(students(completed(their(lab(assignments(and(the(survey(remained(open(for(7(days.(Prior(to(completing(the(campus0based(forest(floor(activities,(students(were(provided(with(details(of(the(study((Appendix(VI)(and(were(asked(to(agree(that(their(feedback(could(be(used(for(research(purposes.((The(survey(instrument(used(for(the(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(course(students(consisted(of(39(questions.(.(The(survey(also(asked(participants(to(identify(their(program((major),(year(of(study,(why(they(are(taking(the(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(course((Options:(Required(Course,(( 50(Personal(Interest,(Other),(and(lab(section.(Out(of(232(students(in(the(course,(91(students(completed(the(online(survey((79(of(which(were(completed(fully).((3.2.5"Respondent"FocusUGroup"Interviews"((Seven(focus0group(interviews((each(at(about(up(to(8(minutes(in(duration)(were(conducted(with(the(students(in(the(Introduction(to(Soil(Science(course.(The(interview(groups(ranged(between(1(and(6(participants.(A(total(of(31(students(participated(in(these(interviews.(Participants(were(required(to(sign(consent(forms((Appendix(VIII).(The(interviewer(had(a(number(of(prepared(questions,(but(whenever(possible(allowed(the(participants(to(lead(the(discussion(and(interact(with(one(another(in(an(open(conversation(about(their(experiences(with(the(Forest(Floor(learning(resource(and(activities.(Comments(from(the(interviews(were(taken(to(support(interpretations(of(the(factors(arising(from(factor(analysis(and(to(help(explain(survey(responses.(!3.2.6"Psychometric"Analysis"((Analysis(of(survey(results(was(conducted(using(SPSS(Statistics(software((IBM(Corporation(2013).(Items(were(tested(first(for(correlation(and(correlations(were(tested(for(reliability(and(reliability(if(deleted.(Two(items,(“I(liked(having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment” and(“Having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment(helped(me(to(learn(about(the(forest(floor”(were(correlated(above(0.8,(suggesting(that(participants(responded(( 51(as(though(the(two(items(were(posing(questions(that(were(too(similar(to(be(differentiated.(The(first(item(was(deleted,(as(reliability(if(deleted(remained(0.903,(whereas(had(the(second(item(been(deleted,(reliability(would(have(dropped(to(0.902.((Exploratory(factor(analysis((EFA),(used(to(evaluate(the(structure(of(the(correlations(between(items(representing(measured(variables((Fabrigar(et(al.(1999),(was(chosen(over(principal(component((PCA)(analysis(or(confirmatory(factor(analysis((CFA).(When(there(is(not(sufficient(theoretical(or(empirical(foundation(to(make(assumptions(as(to(the(number(of(factors(or(what(measured(variable(the(factors(may(influence,(EFA(is(preferable(to(CFA((Fabrigar(et(al.(1999).(The(drawback(to(EFA,(compared(with(CFA,(is(that(the(statistical(significance(of(identified(factors(cannot(be(tested,(and(described(factors(can(only(be(used(as(guides(for(future(research((Zeman(et(al.(2014).(((Principal(axis(factoring((PAF)(was(used,(having(the(advantages(of(making(no(assumptions(as(to(the(distribution(of(data,(as(well(as(being(less(likely(to(generate(improper(solutions((Finch(and(West(1997).(This(method(attempts(to(understand(the(shared(variance(in(a(number(of(measured(variables(through(the(creation(of(a(smaller(number(of(latent(variables((factors).(However,(PAF(does(not(allow(for(confidence(intervals,(significance(tests(or(goodness(of(fit(indexes(to(be(evaluated((Fabrigar(et(al.(1999).(Varimax(rotation(was(used.(The(number(of(factors(was(determined(based(on(the(scree(plot(and(to(be(consistent(with(the(pilot(study(analysis,(while(also(ensuring(that(each(factor(had(at(least(3(items(loading.(( 52(3.3"Results"and"Discussion"(3.3.1"Survey"Feedback"(Of(the(79(surveys(that(were(completed,(53(respondents(identified(themselves(as(being(in(their(first(year(of(study,(22(in(their(second(year,(2(in(their(third(year(and(2(in(their(4th(year((Table(3.1).(Comparing(the(mean(response((on(the(scale(of(1(=(strongly(disagree(to(5=(strongly(agree(for(positively(worded(questions(and(vice(versa(for(negatively(worded(questions)(between(first(year(students((mean(=(3.82)(and(the(students(in(the(remaining(years((mean(=(3.90)(showed(no(significant(difference(at(p!≤(0.05((Appendix(X).(53(respondents(identified(themselves(as(attending(lecture(section(1(of(the(course((the(course(of(230(students(was(offered(through(two(simultaneous,(lecture(sections(of(115(students(each),(while(the(remaining(26(identified(themselves(as(attending(lecture(section(2(of(the(course.(Comparing(the(mean(response(of(section(1((mean(=(3.82)(with(the(mean(response(of(section(2((mean(=(3.89)(showed(no(significant(difference(at(p(≤(0.05((Appendix(X).(The(number(of(respondents(in(each(laboratory(section(along(with(the(mean(responses(are(presented(in(Table(3.4.(The(ANOVA(showed(a(statistical(difference(between(the(laboratory(sections((p(=(0.22;(Appendix(X);(however,(Tukey’s(HSD((Appendix(X)(test(showed(no(significant(difference(between(any(two(of(the(lab(groups.(Lab(section(5(had(p(=(0.80(and(p(=(0.052(for(labs(2(and(3(respectively,(which(may(have(contributed(to(the(significant(result(in(the(ANOVA.(The(lack(of(significant(differences(between(the(sub0populations(among(the(respondents(supports(the(factor(analysis(of(the(entire(group(of(respondents(together.((( 53(3.3.2"Exploratory"Factor"Analysis"of"Primary"Study"Results"((Two(questions,(“I(liked(having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment”(and(“having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment(helped(me(to(learn(about(the(forest(floor,”(were(correlated(above(0.8.(The(former(item(was(deleted(prior(to(EFA,(having(a(higher(Reliability(if(Deleted(value((0.903(vs.(0.902(for(the(latter(item).(Based(on(the(scree(plot((Figure(3.1),(we(chose(to(interpret(five(factors,(all(of(which(had(at(least(3(items(loading.(The(Kaiser0Myer0Olkin((KMO)(Test(of(Sampling(Adequacy(gave(a(value(of(0.76.(The(cases(to(items(ratio(was(low((~2:1)(and(many(studies(have(suggested(minimum(case(to(item(ratios(of(5:1((Hatcher(1994).(However,(the(sampling(adequacy(value(of(0.76(obtained(in(this(study(is(a(relatively(strong(value(for(psychometric(research.(The(Chronbach’s(Alpha(for(the(reliability(of(the(survey(instrument(was(0.903(and(all(of(the(factors(had(Chronbach’s(Alphas(above(0.6.(The(five(factors(selected(accounted(for(a(total(of(46%(of(variability.(Factors(one(to(five(are(presented(in(Tables(3.5(–(3.9.(((Factor(1(included(16(items,(and(explained(15%(of(the(variation(in(responses.(Six(items(loaded(above(0.6,(meaning(they(were(at(least(60%(correlated(with(the(factor(itself.(The(items(loading(in(this(factor(tend(to(refer(to(the(benefits(to(students(of(having(access(to(the(Forest(Floor(educational(resource(during(the(campus0based(forest(floor(activities(and(laboratory(assignment.(For(this(reason(I(have(called(this(factor(“Satisfaction(with(the(educational(resource(as(a(learning(enhancement.”(((( 54(The(statement(“Having(access(to(the(website(at(any(time(and(place(was(helpful(for(learning(forest(floor(concepts,”(had(a(loading(of(0.713,(with(84%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(A(number(of(previous(studies(have(demonstrated(how(information(technology(can(be(used(to(reinforce(learning(by(allowing(students(to(repeatedly(review(content((Hoffman(and(Ritchie,(1997;(Moore(and(Gerrard,(2002;(Polsani(2003)(and(learning(soil(classification(in(particular(requires(repetitive(review(of(material((Krzic(et(al.(2013).(For(enduring(learning,(leading(to(long0term(knowledge(and(understanding,(such(repetition(and(review,(distributed(over(time,(is(necessary((Polsani(2003,(Ericsson(2004).(One(participant(in(the(focus(group(discussions(highlighted(this,(saying,(“…if(I(did(not(understand(something,(I(can(go(back(many(times.([In(class](you(can’t(ask(to(‘say(again,(and(again,’(I(really(liked(that(part.”(The(concept(of(repeated(review(of(material(arose(in(several(of(the(interviews((once(with(the(prompting(of(the(interviewer).(Another(respondent(stated,(“I(watched(the(videos(again(while(I(was(doing(the(lab(report.(It(really(helped(seeing(it(before,(then(doing([the(sample(description],(then([seeing(it](after.”(An(ESL(participant(noted,(“it(was(good(to(watch(the(videos.(They(didn’t(have(subtitles,(but(I(could(still(repeat(so(that(I(could(understand.”(This(suggests(an(added(benefit(of(online(material(and(multimedia(over(traditional(instruction(for(students(who(have(some(difficulty(following(strictly(auditory(lectures.(It(may(be(advisable(to(include(subtitles(in(future(videos(to(ensure(that(all(students(can(understand(the(material(as(well(as(possible.(((( 55(The(statement(“I(found(having(access(to(skeleton(notes(while(reviewing(the(videos(helped(me(to(identify(important(points,”(had(a(loading(of(0.680,(with(78%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(This(is(in(agreement(with(Strivelli(et(al.((2011),(who(found(that(students(had(trouble(finding(particular(information(in(videos,(suggesting(that(future(videos(created(for(teaching(purposes(include(outline(notes(to(help(students(to(retrieve(information.(Providing(outlines(or(skeleton(notes(can(increase(student(performance((Barnett(2003).(During(group(interviews,(students(tended(to(respond(positively(to(the(amount(of(information(presented(in(the(videos,(nonetheless,(one(student(noted(that(they(found(“watching(a(whole(video(and(picking(out(information([was](hard,”(preferring(reading(text(to(watching(the(videos.(Maintaining(short(video(lengths,(identifying(key(words(with(text(labels(and(providing(skeleton(notes(all(aim(to(reduce(this(difficulty,(but(alternative(sources(of(information(are(necessary(to(ensure(that(all(students(can(approach(learning(in(the(best(possible(way(for(them.((The(statement(“Having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment(helped(me(to(learn(about(the(forest(floor,”(had(a(loading(of(0.627,(with(95%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(This(statement(had(the(strongest(agreement(of(any(item(in(the(survey.(The(success(of(student(learning(experiences(with(blended(learning(is(dependent(upon(the(quality(of(the(online(resources(being(used,(requiring(the(collaboration(of(experts(both(in(the(technological(and(curricular(aspects(of(content(development((Garrison(and(Kanuka(2004).(The(design(of(the(forest(floor(website(aimed(to(maximize(student(( 56(engagement(with(the(material.(Klemm(and(Tuthill((2003)(have(noted(how(complexity(in(the(organization(of(a(website(encourages(students(to(explore(information(independently,(leading(to(novel(idea(associations(and(greater(learning.(Variability(in(the(medium(of(information(presentation(on(each(page(and(across(the(site,(including(video,(text,(photographs,(graphics(and(tutorials,(can(help(to(maintain(student(interest(in(the(online(teaching(resources((Cox(and(Su(2004),(and(to(cater(to(a(variety(of(learning(styles((which(will(be(addressed(in(the(discussion(of(Factor(4)((Jain(and(Getis(2003).(((When(asked(if(they(found(the(website(helpful(in(doing(their(assignments,(one(respondent(replied(simply,(“Yes,(very(much,”(while(another(elaborated,(“I(think(the(website(is(good(enough(to(finish(the(assignment.(I(found(all(the(information(for(the(assignment(on(the(website.”(In(another(group(discussion(one(participant(commented,(“…this(course(is(really(intensive(for(me,(so(having(a(place(where(we(can(find(what(we(need(was(really(helpful.”(A(second(agreed,(saying(that(they(thought(“the(website(was(a(better(design(than(the(textbook.(It(was(very(good(for(me.”(((The(statement,(“I(thought(that(the(in0class(portion(of(the(lab(was(complemented(by(the(addition(of(the(forest(floor(website,”(had(a(loading(of(0.641,(with(80%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(A(similar(statement,(“Combining(multimedia(and(web0based(elements(with(in0class(learning(was(beneficial(to(my(learning,”(had(a(loading(of(0.611,(with(84%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(The(blended(learning(model(can(improve(student(satisfaction((Castle(( 57(and(McGuire(2010)(and(has(generally(been(considered(more(effective(than(classroom(or(online(learning(alone((Means(et(al.(2010).(((During(the(group(interviews,(a(participant(specified(that(“watching(the(videos”(was(most(useful(during(the(lab(for(learning(how(to(identify(the(organic(horizons(and(humus(form(orders.(In(another(response(regarding(the(use(of(videos(during(the(lab,(a(participant(said,(“I(think(it(helped(a(lot(because,(the(soil(is(too(similar,(it’s(hard(to(know(right(away(what(are(the(differences.”(In(order(to(compare(the(blended(learning(experience(with(a(more(traditional(lab,(I(asked(the(participants(in(one(group(if(they(thought(an(explanation(from(their(TA(or(Instructor,(rather(than(including(the(videos,(would(have(given(them(an(equally(good(introduction(to(the(topic.(One(participant(replied,(“I(think(that(the(video(was(able(to(give(the(topic(more(relevance(and(that(it(was(a(more(efficient(use(of(time.(It(shows(where(the(forest(is(before(looking(at(the(samples(solely.”(This(was(echoed(in(another(group,(where(a(participant(said,(“I(like(your(videos(because(they(filmed(in(the(field,(so(you(could(see(what(it(really(looks(like.”((The(statement(“I(thought(the(website(was(aesthetically(pleasing(overall,”(had(a(loading(of(0.638,(with(84%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(This(can(be(an(important(determinant(of(users’(evaluation(of(a(website,(as(impressions(are(formed(in(the(first(moments(of(exposure(to(a(site(and(these(impressions(are(maintained(over(time((Lindgaard(et(al.(2006).(Furthermore,(a(positive(initial(aesthetic(impression(instills(in(users(a(positive(expectation(of(the(website(( 58((Tractinsky(et(al.(2006).(One(student(commented(on(the(aesthetic(of(the(website,(saying,(“I(liked(that(it(was(a(pretty(website…(very(nice(designs.”((Factor(2(had(ten(items(loading,(four(of(which(loaded(above(0.5,(meaning(that(the(item(was(correlated(more(than(50%(with(the(factor.(Factor(2(accounted(for(12%(of(total(variance(explained.(The(items(loading(in(Factor(2(tend(to(refer(to(how(well(concepts(were(presented(using(the(blended(learning(model(and(the(relate0ability(of(information(presented(on(the(videos(and(website(to(the(laboratory(samples.(For(this(reason,(I(have(called(this(Factor(“Success(of(presentation(of(concepts(using(the(blended(learning(method.”(((The(statement(“Describing(the(forest(floor(samples(in(the(laboratory(was(essential(to(my(understanding(of(the(properties(of(the(different(organic(horizons,”(loaded(at(0.736,(with(79%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(While(the(success(of(active(learning(is(dependent(on(the(design(of(curriculum(and(effective(pedagogy((Andrews(et(al.(2011),(it(has(been(shown(that(active(learning(has(significant(benefits(for(learning(in(science((Udovic(et(al.(2002).(The(theory(of(active(learning(promotes(the(concept(that(we(learn(best(during(active(application(of(the(ideas(and(concepts(that(are(being(presented(to(us((Plaget(1971).(((Having(the(opportunity(to(interact(with(the(samples(while(engaging(their(senses(of(vision,(touch(and(even(hearing(gave(students(deeper(insight(into(what(they(saw(in(the(videos(and(read(in(their(lab(manuals.(This(was(supported(by(a(number(of(( 59(student(comments(in(group(interviews.(One(participant(stated,(“A(lot(of(the(time(I(find(that(when(I(look(at(a(definition,(I(have(no(idea(what(it(is,(but(then(when(I(look(at(the(hands(on,(it’s(like(‘Oh,(of(course.’”(Another(student(in(the(same(interview(agreed,(saying,(“Once(you(pull(stuff(apart(you(kind(of(realize,(‘that’s(what(the(definition(means.’”(A(third(student,(when(asked(during(another(interview(for(their(thoughts(on(the(hands0on(aspect(of(the(laboratory,(said,(“It(was(more(fun.(It(was(more(like(I’m(actually(learning(from(it.(The(sample(is(better(than(just(sort(of(memorizing.(More(hands(on(experience,(everything(hands(on(–(I(learn(better.”(The(fact(that(the(physical(aspect(of(the(lab(was(enjoyable(in(itself(came(up(again(in(another(interview(session,(with(a(respondent(saying,(“it(was(really(fun(pulling(the(samples(apart,(to(get(your(hands(dirty.”((There(exists(a(desire(among(many(students(for(collaborative,(active(learning((Bekerbrede(et(al.(2011)(that(requires(them(to(discuss(and(build(consensus(together((Laal(2013).(These(discussions(give(students(deeper(insights(into(the(concepts(they(are(learning((Udovic(1998)(as(they(are(required(to(persuade(others(in(their(groups(of(that(their(opinions(are(well(founded((Peterson(and(Jungck(1988;(Prunuske(et(al.(2012).(The(in0class(experience(of(learning(is(essential(for(students(to(have(a(sense(of(community(and(engagement(with(other(students((Collopy(and(Arnold(2009).(((Several(students(commented(on(the(advantages(of(working(collaboratively(in(their(groups.(In(one(group,(a(student(said,(“I(was(in(a(group(with(four(people.(We(often(have(differing(ideas(on(how(much(of(a(property(is(a(lot,(how(much(is(a(little,(because(( 60(we’d(never(looked(at(a(forest(floor(sample(before.(It(was(important(to(have(a(group.”(Another(student(agreed,(“I(think(it(was(good(to(work(in(a(group,(sometimes(we(would(end(up(discussing(and(have(to(review(the(definitions.(I(couldn’t(just(say,(‘this(is(what(it(is.’(I(had(to(justify(it.(In(the(group(setting(you(have(to(justify(your(views,(you(actually(have(to(use(the(vocabulary(that(you(learned(to(express(yourself.”(There(is(evidence(that(discussing(questions(in(groups(can(help(to(improve(the(answers(of(all(the(students(involved(in(the(discussion.(Posing(conceptual(questions(to(students(individually,(and(again(after(discussion(in(pairs(in(an(undergraduate(soil(science(class,(Edinger0Marshall((2014)(found(that(75%(to(94%(of(students(improved(their(answers(after(peer(consultation.(The(idea(behind(these(ConcepTests(is(that(the(students(learn(from(one0another(as(they(explain(what(they(are(thinking((Furtak(et(al.(2010).((The(statement,(“I(was(able(to(relate(the(information(in(the(videos(and(on(the(website(to(what(we(were(seeing(in(our(sample(in(the(lab,”(loaded(at(0.671,(with(81%(of(students(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(A(negatively(worded(statement(of(a(similar(nature,(“I(found(it(difficult(to(make(connections(between(the(information(presented(in(the(forest(floor(videos(and(on(the(website(with(what(we(saw(in(our(lab(samples,”(loaded(at(0.573,(with(76%(of(students(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree.(The(blended(learning(model(allows(students(to(make(associations(between(the(information(presented(with(multimedia(and(online(technologies(and(their(experiences(in0class,(where(they(apply(their(knowledge((Collopy(and(Arnold(2009)(and(develop(communication(and(problem0solving(skills((Strivelli(et(al.(2011;(Krzic(et(( 61(al.(2013).(Improved(learning(and(better(retention(of(material(results(when(students(engage(in(active(construction(of(their(knowledge((Knight(and(Wood(2005).(((The(statement,(“The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(taught(me(the(differences(between(the(decomposer(communities(in(the(different(humus(form(orders,”(loaded(at(0.627,(with(71%(of(students(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(This(agrees(with(the(positive(response(of(students(to(how(information(was(presented(and(the(benefits(of(blended(learning(in(promoting(active,(collaborative(learning.(One(student(provided(examples(of(how(they(related(information(presented(in(the(videos(to(their(laboratory(sample,(saying,(“[the(video](mentioned(that(for(a(specific(horizon(you(pull(the(roots(and(you(can(hear(them(being(pulled(apart.(Or(when(you(touch(the(H(it(will(leave(a(stain(on(your(hands.(I(think(that(helped.”(Another(said(“it(gave(a(good(visual(context(for(it.”(A(third(student(in(another(group(explained(how(the(videos(provided(an(advantage(compared(with(plain(text,(“Often(I(find(when(I(read(things,(I(have(to(read(it(at(least(a(few(times(for(me(to(be(able(to(come(up(with(a(visualization…(When(it’s(a(video,(you(can(see(that(first(hand.”(((Factor(3(had(5(items(loading,(3(of(which(loaded(above(0.5,(and(accounted(for(8%(of(variance.(The(items(loading(in(Factor(3(tend(to(reflect(students’(assessments(of(how(confident(they(were(in(their(own(learning(of(the(information(presented(by(the(forest(floor(lab.(For(this(reason,(I(have(called(this(factor,(“student(self0assessment(of(learning.”(Factors(2(and(3(demonstrate(that(students(responded(positively(to(questions(regarding(learning(objectives((Tables(3.7(and(3.8).(Students(responded(( 62(more(positively(to(questions(regarding(how(the(blended(learning(method(presented(information,(compared(with(how(they(assessed(their(own(learning(of(that(information.(((The(statement,(“After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(still(feel(unsure(about(the(differences(between(the(humus(form(orders,”(loaded(at(0.66(with(51%(of(students(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree((25%(of(students(selected(agree(or(strongly(agree).(The(statement,(“After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(feel(confident(differentiating(between(the(organic(horizons((L,(F,(H(and(O),”(had(a(loading(of(0.592,(with(73%(of(students(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(The(statement,(“After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(do(not(feel(comfortable(explaining(ways(the(forest(floor(influences(soil(properties(or(impacts(the(forest(ecosystem,”(had(a(loading(of(0.578,(with(48%(of(students(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree((17%(selected(agree(or(strongly(agree).(Drawing(on(constructivist(learning(theory,(blended(learning(gives(students(more(control(over(what(material(they(access(and(at(what(pace(they(review(material(–(allowing(them(to(concentrate(on(material(they(find(difficult(and(move(quickly(through(material(they(understand(easily((Cook(2007).(Students(value(the(ability(to(choose(between(different(learning(mechanisms(to(best(suit(their(learning(needs,(and(appreciate(the(flexibility(in(time(and(place(allowed(with(online(learning((Mitchell(and(Forer(2010).(One(student(explained,(“we(could(visualize(what(you(guys(did(on(video(and(then(apply(it(to(what(we(were(doing(so(that(it(was(easier(to(identify(the(( 63(mor,(moder(and(mull.”(Referring(to(the(different(decomposer(communities(in(relation(to(the(humus(form(order,(another(student(said,(“the(decomposer(part(is([harder](to(memorize(for(me(–(whether(you(have(fauna(or(fungi(–(I(think(it’s(very(clear(on(the(website.”(((Factor(4(had(four(items(loading,(three(of(which(loaded(above(0.5,(and(accounted(for(6%(of(variation.(The(items(loading(in(Factor(4(referred(to(student(preferences(in(which(material(they(accessed(in(order(to(learn(the(topics(presented(in(the(forest(floor(lab.(For(this(reason,(I(have(called(this(factor(“Student(learning(preferences(in(accessing(materials.”(((The(statement(“I(found(the(videos(to(be(the(most(useful(medium(for(learning(about(the(forest(floor,”(had(a(loading(of(0.634,(with(66%(of(students(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree((15%(selected(disagree).(The(statement(“While(working(on(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment,(I(preferred(learning(from(reading(text(rather(than(watching(video,”(had(a(loading(of(0.624,(with(28%(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree,(and(42%(of(students(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree.(The(statement(“I(found(videos(and(graphics(to(be(more(effective(than(plain(text(in(learning(about(the(forest(floor,”(had(a(loading(of(0.594,(with(88%(of(students(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree.(((Traditional(classroom(experiences(do(not(provide(the(same(environment(that(the(majority(of(current(students(are(used(to,(in(which(they(are(connected(through(online(( 64(and(mobile(technology(to(their(peers(and(the(web0content(that(they(are(interested(in((Raes(and(Schellens(2012).(A(variety(of(studies(have(shown(how(the(inclusion(of(varied(multimedia(into(course(content(can(improve(student(motivation(by(providing(a(variety(of(viewpoints(and(catering(to(different(learning(styles((Hoffman(and(Ritchie,(1997;(Moore(and(Gerrard,(2002;(Polsani,(2003;(Cox(and(Su,(2004).(Multimedia(learning0resources(cater(to(students(with(a(variety(of(learning(styles,(who(can(experience(material(aurally(and(visually(through(text,(graphics(and(videos((Jain(and(Getis(2003).(Even(distribution(of(visual(media(among(web(pages(can(help(to(maintain(students’(interest(as(they(explore(the(online(learning(resource((Jacobson(et(al.(2009).(Constructivist(learning(theory(encourages(students(to(search(for(information,(make(discoveries(and(build(their(knowledge((Chumley0Jones(et(al.(2002).(There(was(support(for(this(from(students(regarding(how(they(accessed(materials(–(most(identifying(both(videos(and(supporting(text(as(important,(but(having(accessed(the(materials(in(different(ways.(For(example,(one(student(said,(“you(can(get(more(in(depth(with(the(writing(part,(and(then(watch(the(video(to(see(in(general(and(understand(all(the(components.”(Another(student(took(an(opposite(approach,(saying,(“The(reading(was(more(in(depth(than(the(videos,(so(after(I(watched(the(videos,(if(that(wasn’t(enough(then(I(could(read(to(supplement(that.”(One(student(enthusiastically(acknowledged(the(tutorial(page(as(the(most(helpful(for(completing(the(assignment,(explaining,(“I(was(really(stoked(on(this(assignment.(It(helps(you(find(the(answers.(I(told(people(afterwards,(they’re(all(on(the(website.”(((( 65(Factor(5(had(three(items(loading,(one(of(which(loaded(above(0.5,(and(accounted(for(5%(of(variation.(The(items(loading(in(Factor(5(refer(to(students’(positive(response(to(the(multimedia(and(web0based(elements(and(website(navigation.(For(this(reason,(I(have(called(this(factor,(“Usability(of(the(website.”(The(statement,(“I(could(have(learned(the(material(equally(effectively(from(the(multimedia(and(web0based(elements(alone,”(had(a(loading(of(6.84,(with(41%(of(students(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree,(and(28%(of(students(selecting(disagree(or(strongly(disagree.(The(large(number(of(students(who(selected(agree(or(strongly(agree(to(this(statement(is(somewhat(surprising,(given(how(many(also(expressed(appreciation(for(the(importance(of(the(in0class,(hands0on(portion(of(the(lab.(However,(it(does(reflect(the(satisfaction(students(expressed(with(the(website(and(videos.(My(assumption(is(that(students(may(have(been(referring(to(the(usefulness(of(the(website(and(videos(for(answering(the(assignment(questions(or(preparing(for(test(questions.(Furthermore,(it(appears(that(students(tended(to(respond(with(a(positive(bias(to(the(statements,(for(example,(to(the(remaining(two(items(in(Factor(5.(While(the(statements(are(similar,(the(negatively(worded(statement(had(23%(agreement,(while(the(positively(worded(statement(had(only(9%(disagreement,(and(no(students(strongly(disagreed.((The(statements,(“I(found(it(difficult(to(find(the(specific(information(I(was(searching(for(on(the(website,”(and(“I(found(navigation(of(the(website(to(be(self0explanatory,”(had(loadings(of(0.457(and(0.373,(and(23%(and(76%(of(respondents(selecting(agree(or(strongly(agree,(respectively.(The(success(of(student(learning(experiences(with(blended(learning(is(dependent(upon(the(quality(of(the(online(resources(being(used,(( 66(requiring(the(collaboration(of(experts(both(in(the(technological(curricular(aspects(of(content(development((Garrison(and(Kanuka(2004).(Even(minor(problems(with(a(website(can(decrease(satisfaction,(participation((Cook(and(Dupras(2005),(and(increase(cognitive(load((Sweller(2005).(Navigation(problems,(such(as(non0functional(external(web(links,(can(lead(to(significant(student(dissatisfaction(with(a(web0based(learning(tool((Oliver(and(Omari(2001).(((The(majority(of(students(did(not(have(difficulty(exploring(the(website,(however,(some(students(expressed(that(they(found(it(difficult(to(find(particular(information.(For(example,(one(student(said(that,(“it(was(easy,(because(you(actually(gave(instructions(on(where(the(right(page([was](to(answer(the(questions,”(while(another(in(the(same(group(stated(that(they,(“had(a(hard(time(finding(stuff(on(the(website.”(A(number(of(studies(have(suggested(that(non0linear(website(organization(compels(students(to(explore(independently(and(thus,(improve(learning((Tuthill(and(Klemm(2002;(Jacobson(et(al.(2009).(While(we(do(not(wish(to(discourage(students(with(unnecessary(complications(during(exploration(of(the(website,(the(majority(of(students(did(not(appear(to(have(had(difficulties(and(the(potential(learning(benefits(of(student(“construction(of(knowledge”(make(a(somewhat(complex(website(design(preferential(over(a(more(simple(and(straight0forward(design.((!3.3.3"Challenges"with"Implementation"of"Blended"Learning"Model"(While(students(generally(regarded(learning(collaboratively(in(groups(as(a(positive(experience((Bekerbrede(et(al.(2011),(there(were(some(negative(comments(regarding(( 67(group(sizes,(dominance(of(particular(group(members(during(discussions(and(a(lack(of(participation(on(the(part(of(other(group(members.(During(the(forest(floor(lab,(students(were(encouraged(to(work(in(groups(of(five.(One(participant(in(the(focus(group(discussions(stated(that(their(initial(group(of(five(was(too(large,(“when(there(are(five(hands(in(one(sample(it(doesn’t(really(work.(Afterwards,(we(split(up(and(it(was(a(lot(easier.(”(Two(participants(who(had(worked(together(on(the(lab(explained(that(they(had(a(group(of(seven(students(working(on(one(sample;(however,(two(of(the(seven(had(not(participated(in(the(discussion(but(instead(“[sat](behind(us(and([copied](us.”((Other(participants(in(the(focus(group(compared(their(experiences,(describing(their(group(of(four(as(the(“perfect”(number.(Counter(to(the(copying(complaint,(a(participant(in(another(group(brought(up(the(difficulty(with(expressing(differing(opinions(in(a(group(where(certain(students(were(dominating(the(discussion.(Another(participant(agreed,(saying(“it(is(important(for(everyone(in(the(group(to(discuss(and(tell(everyone(what(they(think…it’s(not(good(if(you(don’t(feel(like(you(are(participating(in(it.”(The(participant(continued,(echoing(a(sentiment(in(other(groups,(“I(think(smaller(groups(can(be(better.”((One(negative(comment(was(received(in(the(open(ended(response(question(at(the(end(of(the(survey(as(follows:(Navigation0wise(I(didn’t(like(how(the(heading(of(each(of(the(menus(took(you(to(a(completely(separate(page(that(you(couldn’t(then(navigate(to(the(submenu(options.(This(reflects(the(fact(that,(with(the(exception(of(the(“Definitions”(page(on(the(website,(the(main(menu(items((About,(Definitions,(Classification,(Activities)(acted(as(stand0alone(pages,(rather(than(simply(introductions(and(( 68(junctions(of(navigation(to(the(subpages(available(from(the(menus(that(open(up(when(a(user(scrolls(over(the(main(menu(items.(Besides(the(student(who(commented(that(they(had(difficulty(finding(things(on(the(website,(another(student(commented(that(some(information(was(not(where(they(had(expected(it(to(be.(9%(of(students(disagreed(that(“navigation(of(the(website([was](self0explanatory,”(and(23%(agreed(or(strongly(agreed(that(“it([was](difficult(to(find(the(specific(information([they](were(searching(for(on(the(website.”(One(student(commented,(“if(I(had(watched(the(videos(the(night(before,(I(think(the(lab(would(have(been(easier.”(In(the(future(it(could(be(more(effective(to(have(students(review(the(material(in(advance(of(the(lab(and(possibly(answer(a(small(number(of(assignment(questions(or(implement(a(short(quiz(during(the(forest(floor(laboratory.((((2.4"Conclusions""There(is(an(on0going(need(for(forestry(and(land(resource(professionals(to(gain(a(solid(understanding(of(how(to(sustainably(manage(our(forests.(One(approach(for(acquiring(this(knowledge(is(to(enhance(current(educational(methods(with(innovative,(active(learning(approaches.(Blending(face0to0face(interaction(and(exchange(of(information(between(instructor(and(learners(with(online(learning(are(well(suited(to(foster(learning(outside(traditional(educational(settings.(The(Forest(Floor(web(resource(was(developed(to(help(meet(the(challenge(of(educating(the(current(“net(generation”(of(students(as(future(forestry(and(land(resource(professionals.(( ( 69(Responses(to(the(online(survey(and(during(focus(group(interviews(were(predominantly(positive(and(demonstrate(that(learning(objectives(were(met(by(using(a(blended(learning(approach.(The(EFA(gave(us(the(opportunity(to(explore(the(factors(that(influenced(students’(positive(responses(to(the(online(survey,(supported(by(pedagogical(theory(and(interviews(with(students(themselves.(The(five(factors(that(we(interpreted:(satisfaction(with(the(educational(resource(as(a(learning(enhancement,(success(of(presentation(of(concepts(using(a(blended(learning(method,(student(self0assessment(of(learning,(student(learning(preferences(in(accessing(materials(and(usability(of(the(educational(resource,(have(the(potential(to(be(verified(in(similar(learning(interventions.(The(majority(of(students(agreed(or(strongly(agreed(that(the(Forest(Floor(website(was(helpful(for(learning(forest(floor(concepts((94%),(that(describing(samples(in(class(was(essential(for(understanding(the(properties(of(organic(horizons((79%),(and(that(they(were(able(to(relate(information(in(the(videos(and(on(the(website(to(their(own(samples((81%).((Using(a(blended(learning(method(in(the(forest(floor(lab(allowed(us(to(take(advantage(of(the(active(and(collaborative(hands0on(learning(in(the(laboratory(combined(with(website(and(multimedia(elements,(which(gave(students(greater(control(over(their(learning(and(allowed(them(to(connect(what(they(saw(on(their(screen(to(their(samples(in(the(lab(and(their(assignment(questions.(Student(responses(highlighted(the(importance,(as(one(focus(group(participant(put(it,(“getting(your(hands(dirty,”(along(with(the(advantages(of(working(in(a(group,(participating(in(discussion(and(using(the(soil(science(vocabulary.(This(study(provides(initial(factors(and(a(survey(( 70(instrument(that(can(be(adapted(to(assess(students’(experiences(with(blended(learning(in(science(and(demonstrates(that(adapting(curriculum(to(suit(the(learning(preferences(of(contemporary(students(with(a(blended(learning(approach(can(successfully(teach(difficult(concepts(such(as(forest(floor(description(and(humus(form(classification.( 71(Table"3.1"–"Student"make"up"within"the"Introduction"to"Soil"Science"Course"Year"of"Study" Number"of"Students" Major" Number"of"Students"Section(1( Section(2( Section(1( Section(2(1( 104( 93( Conservation( 42( 39(2( 8( 13( Forest(Resource(Management( 50( 35(3+( 7( 7( Forest(Sciences( 15( 18(Total( 119( 113( Other( 12( 19(( ( ( Total( 119( 113(((Figure"3.1"–"Navigation"Outline"of"Pages"on"Forest"Floor"Website"Homepage(About((((Defini1ons((((((Classifica1on(((((Ac1vi1es((((Search(Team(References(((Forest(Floor(Humus(Forms(Soil(Horizons(Folisols(((Orders(Groups(Descrip1on(((Tutorials(Quest(Ac1vity(( 72(Table"3.2"–"Information"Presented"on"Forest"Floor"Website"by"Webpage"Main"Page" Subpage" Video"Featured"Information"Presented"on"Webpage"Home( ( 0( 0((statement(of(the(website(objectives(0((primary(sources(serving(as(the(basis(for(the(site((Green(et(al.(1993;(Klinka(et(al.(1981)((0(graphic(depicting(typical(mor(,(moder(and(mull(humus(forms(under(coniferous,(mixed,(and(deciduous(trees,(respectively((0(the(graphic(links(to(the(“Orders”(page.(About( ( 0( 0(describes(the(purpose(of(the(website(and(provides(details(about(how(it(was(developed(( Team( 0( 0(features(photos(and(bios(of(the(people(involved(in(development(of(the(site(( References( 0( 0(provides(a(list(of(references(to(documents(used(in(development(of(the(site(0(meant(to(give(users(access(to(a(greater(depth(of(information(Definitions( ( In(the(ecosystem( 0(a(brief(description(of(the(role(of(the(forest(floor(in(forest(ecosystems(0(links(to(forest(floor,(humus(forms,(soil(horizons(and(Folisols(pages(( Forest(Floor( In(the(ecosystem( 0(provides(a(definition(of(the(forest(floor(0(explains(how(the(forest(floor(accumulates(in(response(to(different(climates,(the(importance(of(soil(biodiversity,(nutrient(cycling,(carbon(storage(and(temperature(and(moisture(effects(( Humus(Forms( In(the(ecosystem( 0(distinguishes(between(“forest(floor”(and(“humus(forms”(0(provides(brief(descriptions(of(mor,(moder(and(mull(humus(form(orders(and(recognizes(some(different(humus(form(classification(systems(0(provides(examples(of(conditions(under(which(different(humus(forms(may(occur(( Soil(Horizons( Organic(horizons( 0(explains(criteria(for(the(differentiation(of(organic(and(mineral(horizons(0(identifies(and(describes(common(organic(horizons(under(both(well0drained(and(poorly(drained(conditions(0(lists(and(explains(lowercase(suffixes(used(to(denote(modifications(to(horizons(0(describes(Ah(horizons(( Folisols( 0( 0(features(the(interesting(case(of(an(organic(soil(occurring(on(dry(upland(sites,(often(over(bedrock,(yet(supporting(vegetation(including(large(trees(0(notes,(importantly,(that(folisols(are(not(a(humus(form(order(or(group(( 73(Table"3.2"–"Information"Presented"on"Forest"Floor"Website"by"Webpage"Main"Page" Subpage" Video"Featured"Information"Presented"on"Webpage"Classification( ( 0( 0(provides(details(of(the(humus(form(classification(system(developed(by(Green(et(al.((1993)(0(differentiates(between(humus(form(orders((more(broad)(and(groups((more(specific(sub0categories(of(orders)(and(presents(a(summary(of(the(humus(form(taxa(presented(in(Green(et(al.((1993)(( Orders( Humus(form(orders,(parts(1,(2(and(3( 0(provides(a(simplified(key(for(differentiating(between(mor,(moder(and(mull(0(provides(detailed(information(about(the(conditions(for(development(and(properties(of(mor,(moder(and(mull,(as(well(as(identifying(diagnostic(horizons(0(features(cartoon(graphics(showing(horizon(sequences(and(idealized(features(of(mor,(moder(and(mull(( Groups( 0( 0(describes(each(of(the(humus(form(groups(presented(in(Green(et(al.((1993),(which(are(more(specific(classifications(of(the(humus(form(orders(( Description( How(to(sample( 0(provides(students(with(a(link(to(download(a(sample(humus(form(profile(description(sheet(0(explains(step(by(step(how(to(carry(out(a(humus(form(description(0(explains(in(detail(how(to(describe:(horizon(depth,(moisture(status,(colour,(fabric,(structure,(consistence,(character,(roots,(non0conforming(materials,(biota,(soil(fauna,(and(soil(flora(Activities( ( ( 0(explains(the(purposes(of(the(tutorials(and(quest(activity(pages((giving(students(further(practice(and(review(of(what(they(have(learned)(( Tutorial( 0( 0(provides(questions(under(three(headings:(forest(floor,(humus(forms(and(multiple(choice(0(forest(floor(and(humus(forms(questions(require(written(answers(0(meant(both(to(help(students(navigate(the(website(and(to(review(what(they(learned(in(the(laboratory(0(answers(to(all(of(the(questions(are(also(provided,(so(users(can(verify(whether(or(not(they(answered(correctly(( Quest(Activity( 0( 0(describes(the(Forest(Humus(Forms(Quest:(a(scavenger(hunt0style(game(requiring(students(to(visit(soil(pits(at(the(UBC(farm(and,(using(the(Questogo(app,(answer(questions(about(the(forest(floor(at(the(site("( 74(Table"3.3"–"Forest"Floor"Video"Descriptions"Video"Title" Location" Description"Organic(Horizons( UBC(Soil(Science(Teaching(Lab( 0(introduction(to(the(properties(of(and(differences(between(the(L,(F(and(H(horizons(as(well(as(mineral(Ah(horizons,(using(samples(of(each,(along(with(a(mor(humus(form(sample(to(explicate(a(typical(horizon(sequence(Humus(Form(Orders(Part(1( UBC(Soil(Science(Teaching(Lab( 0(a(mor(and(mull(sample(were(presented,(with(the(expert(identifying(and(describing(the(diagnostic(horizons’((Fm(and(Ah,(respectively)(clear(structural(differences(0(differences(between(the(litters(from(which(the(samples(formed(and(identifiable(soil(organisms(present(in(the(samples((fungi(in(the(mor(and(earthworms(in(the(mull)(Humus(Form(Orders(Part(2( UBC(Soil(Science(Teaching(Lab( 0(the(difference(between(definitions(of(the(forest(floor(and(humus(forms(are(explained(0((the(samples(are(classified(as(mor(and(mull(0(the(structures(of(each(sample(are(further(explained(in(relation(to(decomposition(and(the(mixing(of(mineral(and(organic(material(in(the(mull,(compared(with(the(lack(of(mixing(in(the(mor(0(provides(visuals(of(fungal(mycelia(in(an(Fm((mycogenous)(horizon(and(faunal(castes(in(an(Fz((zoological)(horizon((which(is(not(present(in(the(mull(sample)(Humus(Form(Orders(Part(3( UBC(Soil(Science(Teaching(Lab( 0(includes(the(additional(feature(of(motion(graphics(of(mor(and(mull,(along(with(a(voice(over,(used(to(review(the(main(points(presented(in(parts(1(and(2(and(highlight(potential(differences(in(soil(pH,(nutrient(contents(and(C:N(ratios(between(mor(and(mull(humus(forms(0(also(features(a(moder(sample,(described(as(having(properties(in0between(a(mor(and(mull,(with(an(Fa((amphi)(diagnostic(horizon(featuring(elements(of(both(fungal(hyphae(and(the(impacts(of(faunal(activity(In(the(Ecosystem( UBC(Farm( 0(covers(a(fairly(wide(variety(of(topics(0(begins(in(a(deciduous(stand(at(the(UBC(farm(0(explains(the(importance(of(organic(horizons(for(nutrient(availability,(moisture(retention,(temperature(effects,(and(carbon(storage(0(explains(the(relationship(between(the(deciduous(litter(and(soil(organisms(and(the(formation(of(an(Ah(through(the(mixing(action(of(soil(fauna(0(covers(the(relationship(between(season(and(litter(accumulation(and(how(to(measure(organic(horizons,(compared(to(mineral(horizons((depth(0(being(the(top(of(the(mineral(soil)(0(a(second,(coniferous(site(is(visited,(exhibiting(a(deeper(litter(layer,(which(the(expert(explains(is(in(part(due(to(higher(lignin(content(and(C:N(ratios,(and(potentially(lower(pH(0(role(of(invasive(earthworms(in(the(thin(or(in(some(places(absent(F(horizon(is(also(explained(How(to(Sample( UBC(Farm( 0(the(methodologies(of(taking(a(20x20(cm(forest(floor(sample(for(determining(landscape(nutrient(contents(or(a(humus(form(sample(for(description(are(explained((( 75((Figure"3.2"–"Scree"Plot"of"Factors"from"Primary"Study"Responses"((Table"3.4"–"Number"of"Respondents"and"Mean"Response"by"Laboratory"Section"Laboratory"Section" Number"of"Respondents" Mean"Response"1( 16( 3.78(2( 11( 4.08(3( 15( 3.81(4( 11( 3.63(5( 7( 4.17(6( 8( 3.85(7( 5( 3.84(8( 6( 3.62(((! 76!Table&3.5&–&Factor&One,&Satisfaction&with&the&educational&resource&as&a&learning&enhancement&Statement& Loading& Strongly&Agree&Agree& Neutral& Disagree& Strongly&Disagree&Having!access!to!the!website!at!any!time!and!place!was!helpful!for!learning!forest!floor!concepts! 0.71& 38%!30! 56%!44! 4%!3! 3%!2! !I!found!having!access!to!skeleton!notes!while!reviewing!the!videos!helped!me!to!identify!important!points! 0.68& 25%!20! 53%!43! 21%!17! 4%!3! 2.5%!2!Having!access!to!the!forest!floor!website!while!working!on!the!lab!assignment!helped!me!to!learn!about!the!forest!floor! 0.67& 52%!43! 43%!35! 5%!4! 1%!1! !I!thought!that!the!inEclass!portion!of!the!lab!was!complemented!by!the!addition!of!the!forest!floor!website! 0.64& 27%!21! 53%!42! 18%!14! 3%!2! 1.3%!1!I!thought!the!website!was!aesthetically!pleasing!overall! 0.64& 30%!24! 53%!42! 14%!11! 3%!2! !Combining!multimedia!and!webEbased!elements!with!inEclass!learning!was!beneficial!to!my!learning! 0.61& 35%!28! 51%!41! 14%!11! ! !I!could!have!learned!the!material!equally!effectively!without!the!use!of!multimedia!and!webEbased!elements! 0.59! 1%!1! 15%!12! 40%!32! 39%!31! 7.5%!6!I!did!not!find!the!forest!floor!website!helpful!in!learning!about!the!forest!floor! 0.52! 3%!2! 3%!2! 9%!7! 43%!35! 45.7%!37!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!the!properties!of!different!organic!horizons!are!still!not!clear!to!me! 0.52! 7%!6! 16%!13! 21%!18! 52%!44! 7.1%!6!I!found!that!the!multimedia!elements!presented!on!the!forest!floor!website!reinforced!what!I!learned!during!the!forest!floor!lab! 0.48! 19%!15! 65%!52! 15%!12! 1%!1! !I!think!having!access!to!the!information!on!the!website!outside!of!the!classroom!allowed!me!to!effectively!reinforce!and!expand!my!learning!about!the!forest!floor! 0.48! 25%!20! 60%!48! 15%!12! ! !Percentages*represent*the*percent*of*students*that*selected*that*option;*numbers*below*percentages*represent*the*number*of*students*that*selected*that*option*!! 77!Table&3.5–&Factor&One,&satisfaction&with&website&and&videos&as&learning&enhancement&Statement& Loading& Strongly&Agree&Agree& Neutral& Disagree& Strongly&Disagree&Graphics!and!images!on!the!website!and!in!videos!helped!me!to!visualize!key!elements!of!the!forest!floor!! 0.44! 26%!21! 59%!48! 15%!12! 1%!1! !Graphics!and!images!on!the!website!and!in!videos!did!not!improve!my!understanding!of!the!forest!floor!! 0.43! 4%!3! 10%!8! 12%!10! 56%!46! 19.5%!16!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!feel!confident!differentiating!between!the!organic!horizons!(L,!F,!H!and!O)!!0.43! 17%!14! 56%!47! 24%!20! 4%!3! !I!thought!too!much!information!was!presented!in!the!forest!floor!videos!! 0.37! 4%!3! 9%!7! 21%!17! 51%!42! 15.9%!13!Using!the!website!to!learn!the!material!made!me!feel!isolated!from!other!students!and/or!my!instructor! 0.35! ! 6%!5! 6%!5! 53%!42! 32.9%!26!Percentages*represent*the*percent*of*students*that*selected*that*option;*numbers*below*percentages*represent*the*number*of*students*that*selected*that*option*!&Table&3.6&I&Factor&Two,&success&of&presentation&of&concepts&using&blended&learning&method&Statement& Loading& Strongly&Agree&Agree& Neutral& Disagree& Strongly&Disagree&Describing!the!forest!floor!samples!in!the!laboratory!was!essential!to!my!understanding!of!the!properties!of!the!different!organic!horizons! 0.74& 18%!14! 62%!48! 19%!15! 3%!2! !I!was!able!to!relate!the!information!in!the!videos!and!on!the!website!to!what!we!were!seeing!in!our!sample!in!the!lab! 0.67& 21%!16! 60%!47! 17%!13! 4%!3! !!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!taught!me!the!differences!between!the!decomposer!communities!in!the!different!humus!form!orders! 0.63& 15%!12! 57%!47! 18%!15! 6%!5! 4.8%!4!Percentages*represent*the*percent*of*students*that*selected*that*option;*numbers*below*percentages*represent*the*number*of*students*that*selected*that*option*! 78!Table&3.6&I&Factor&Two,&success&of&presentation&of&concepts&using&blended&learning&method&Statement& Loading& Strongly&Agree&Agree& Neutral& Disagree& Strongly&Disagree&I!found!it!difficult!to!make!connections!between!the!information!presented!in!the!forest!floor!videos!and!on!the!website!with!what!we!saw!in!our!lab!samples! 0.57& 3%!2! 10%!8! 12%!9! 63%!49! 12.8%!10!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!introduced!me!to!the!humus!form!orders!(mor,!moder!and!mull)! 0.49! 32%!27! 54%!45! 14%!12! 5%!4! 1.2%!1!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!understand!the!impacts!of!the!forest!floor!on!soil!properties! 0.46! 13%!11! 69%!57! 17%!14! 1%!1! !Describing!and!classifying!the!humus!form!in!the!laboratory!was!necessary!for!me!to!understand!the!properties!of!the!different!humus!forms! 0.45! 13%!10! 70%!54! 16%!13! 3%!2! !!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!explained!the!chemical!properties!of!different!types!of!litter!to!me! 0.44! 12%!10! 53%!44! 29%!24! 7%!6! !The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!communicated!the!importance!of!the!Forest!Floor!in!forest!ecosystems!and!soils! 0.43! 27%!22! 62%!51! 10%!8! 2%!2! !I!think!that!the!forest!floor!videos!did!not!provide!enough!information! 0.31! 1%!1! 11%!9! 29%!24! 54%!44! 7.3%!6!Percentages*represent*the*percent*of*students*that*selected*that*option;*numbers*below*percentages*represent*the*number*of*students*that*selected*that*option*!!!!!!!!!!! 79!Table&3.7&–&Factor&Three,&student&selfIassessment&of&learning&Statement& Loading& Strongly&Agree&Agree& Neutral& Disagree& Strongly&Disagree&After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!still!feel!unsure!about!the!differences!between!the!humus!form!orders! 0.66& 4%!3! 21%!18! 25%!21! 43%!36! 8.3%!7!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!feel!confident!differentiating!between!the!organic!horizons!(L,!F,!H!and!O)! 0.59& 17%!14! 56%!47! 24%!20! 4%!3! !!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!do!not!feel!comfortable!explaining!ways!the!forest!floor!influences!soil!properties!or!impacts!the!forest!ecosystem! 0.58& 1%!1! 16%!13! 35%!29! 40%!33! 8.4%!7!I!believe!that!what!I!learned!from!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!is!important!knowledge!for!forest!management! 0.44! 13%!10! 63%!49! 13%!10! 10%!8! 2.6%!2!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!introduced!me!to!the!properties!of!organic!horizons!(L,!F,!H,!and!O)! 0.43! 39%!30! 51%!40! 12%!9! 1%!1! !Percentages*represent*the*percent*of*students*that*selected*that*option;*numbers*below*percentages*represent*the*number*of*students*that*selected*that*option*!!Table&3.8&–&Factor&Four,&student&learning&preferences&in&accessing&materials&Statement& Loading& Strongly&Agree&Agree& Neutral& Disagree& Strongly&Disagree&I!found!the!videos!to!be!the!most!useful!medium!for!learning!about!the!forest!floor! 0.63& 24%!20! 42%!34! 21%!17! 15%!12! !While!working!on!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment,!I!preferred!learning!from!reading!text!rather!than!watching!video!clips! 0.62& 5%!4! 23%!19! 33%!27! 32%!26! 9.8%!8!I!found!videos!and!graphics!to!be!more!effective!than!plain!text!in!learning!about!the!forest!floor! 0.59& 35%!29! 43%!35! 22%!18! 4%!3! !Learning!with!the!aide!of!the!website!was!preferable!to!using!a!textbook!or!lecture!notes! 0.31! 23%!18! 47%!37! 26%!20! 4%!3! 1.3%!1!Percentages*represent*the*percent*of*students*that*selected*that*option;*numbers*below*percentages*represent*the*number*of*students*that*selected*that*option! 81!4"General"Conclusions!!4.1."Summary"of"Study"Findings"!As!soils!are!receiving!increasing!recognition!for!the!ecosystem!services!they!provide!–!food,!clean!water,!climate!change!mitigation!–!the!question!of!how!to!position!soil!science!within!the!purview!of!potential!students!arises.!Current!undergraduate!students!want!collaborative,!active!experiences!of!the!concepts!they!are!learning!(Bekerbrede!et!al.!2011)!and!access!to!multimedia!and!online!resources!(Mohanna!2007)!that!reflect!how!they!access!information!outside!of!the!classroom.!A!blended!learning!approach!provides!the!opportunity!to!combine!handsHon,!collaborative!experience!on!campus!with!online!learning!resources!that!give!students,!with!their!varied!range!of!learning!styles!and!backgrounds,!greater!control!over!how!they!access!materials.!!!A!pilot!study!was!undertaken!at!Simon!Fraser!University!(SFU)!to!identify!and!rectify!issues!with!the!Forest!Floor!website!and!videos,!to!gain!initial!insights!into!the!students’!reactions!to!the!implementation!of!the!blended!learning!method,!and!to!conduct!preliminary!principal!component!analysis!(PCA)!of!the!survey!instrument.!The!19!participants!in!the!pilot!study!were!students!in!an!upperHlevel!soil!science!course!focused!on!forest!soils.!Their!laboratory!involved!an!introduction!that!included!viewing!all!of!the!forest!floor!videos.!Five!components!were!interpreted!based!on!the!survey!responses:!satisfaction!with!website!and!videos,!negatively!worded!statements,!success!of!presentation!of!concepts!and!selfH! 82!assessment!of!learning,!preferences!in!accessing!materials,!and!perception!of!the!importance!of!the!forest!floor.!The!primary!themes!in!the!interviews!were!the!ability!to!repetitively!view!videos!and!the!ability!of!the!forest!floor!website!to!meet!the!learning!needs!of!a!variety!of!students.!!The!primary!study!included!development!and!evaluation!of!a!webHbased,!multimedia!resources!and!campusHbased!laboratory!activities.!These!blended!learning!activities!were!developed!for!a!lowerHlevel,!undergraduate!soil!science!course.!Development!of!the!website!involved!collaboration!of!a!multidisciplinary!team!of!soil,!multimedia,!web!and!education!experts.!The!content!of!the!Forest!Floor!resource!includes:!!videos,!tutorial,!text,!definitions,!graphics,!animations,!photos!and!references.!The!forest!floor!laboratory!consisted!of!an!introduction!to!key!forest!floor!concepts,!viewing!of!supporting!videos,!an!explanation!of!the!laboratory!tasks,!handsHon!descriptions!of!forest!floor!samples!and!a!laboratory!assignment!to!be!completed!with!the!assistance!of!the!forest!floor!website.!!!The!survey!instrument!used!for!the!Introduction!to!Soil!Science!course!was!created!to!assess!students’!perception!of!their!learning!and!learning!experiences,!rather!than!assessing!how!much!students!learned!or!comparing!student!learning!within!the!blended!learning!approach!to!other!teaching!methods.!Survey!items!(Appendix!IV)!were!created!to!assess!to!what!extent!our!approach!met!the!learning!and!experiential!objectives!presented!above.!!!!! 83!The!five!factors!selected!accounted!for!a!total!of!46%!of!variability.!Reliability!was!determined!using!Chronbach’s!Alpha,!which!was!found!to!be!0.903!for!the!survey!instrument!as!a!whole!and!above!0.6!for!all!five!of!the!individual!factors.!The!factors!were!interpreted!based!on!commonalities!between!the!items!that!loaded!in!each,!previous!pedagogical!research!and!participant!comments!in!interviews.!Factor!1!was!interpreted!to!reflect!respondents’!satisfaction!with!the!educational!resource!as!a!learning!enhancement.!Factor!2!was!interpreted!to!reflect!the!success!of!presentation!of!concepts!using!the!blended!learning!method.!Factor!3!was!interpreted!to!reflect!student!selfHassessment!of!learning.!Factor!4!was!interpreted!to!reflect!student!learning!preferences!in!accessing!materials.!Factor!5!was!interpreted!to!reflect!the!usability!of!the!educational!resource.!!!Student!responses!suggest!that!the!website!was!effective!and!the!students!appreciated!being!able!to!use!the!Forest!Floor!educational!resource,!with!95%!of!respondents!selecting!agree!or!strongly!agree!to!the!statement,!“having!access!to!the!Forest!Floor!website!while!working!on!the!lab!assignment!helped!me!to!learn!about!the!forest!floor.”!Some!respondents!had!difficulty!with!navigating!the!educational!resource,!as!23%!of!respondents!selected!agree!or!strongly!agree!to!the!statement,!“I!found!it!difficult!to!find!the!specific!information!I!was!searching!for!on!the!website.”!Students!also!found!the!inHclass!portion!of!the!forest!floor!activities!important!and!79%!selected!agree!or!strongly!agree!to!the!statement,!“describing!the!forest!floor!samples!in!the!laboratory!was!essential!to!my!understanding!of!the!properties!of!the!different!organic!horizons,”!and!81%!selected!agree!or!strongly!! 84!agree!to!the!statement,!“I!was!able!to!relate!the!information!in!the!videos!and!on!the!website!to!what!we!were!seeing!in!our!sample!in!the!lab.”!!According!to!the!survey!responses!the!stated!learning!objectives!of!our!study!were!met!for!the!majority!of!students,!with!90%!of!respondents!selecting!agree!or!strongly!agree!to!the!statement,!“The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!introduced!me!to!the!properties!of!organic!horizons!(L,!F,!H,!and!O),”!and!86%!of!respondents!selected!agree!or!strongly!agree!to!the!statement,!“The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!introduced!me!to!the!humus!form!orders!(mor,!moder!and!mull.”!To!the!statement,!“I!believe!that!what!I!learned!from!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!is!important!knowledge!for!forest!management,”!76%!of!respondents!selected!agree!or!strongly!agree.!!!There!was!variation!in!the!way!students!utilized!the!Forest!Floor!educational!resource.!To!the!statement,!“I!found!the!videos!to!be!the!most!useful!medium!for!learning!about!the!forest!floor,”!66%!selected!agree!or!strongly!agree,!while!28%!selected!agree!or!strongly!agree!to!the!statement,!“while!working!on!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment,!I!preferred!learning!from!reading!text!rather!than!watching!video!clips.”!""!!! 85!4.2"Advantages"and"Limitations"of"Blended"Learning"Approach"!4.2.1"Advantages!!Using!a!blended!learning!model!was!effective!in!its!provision!of!both!the!online!component,!reflecting!students!increasing!use!of!the!Internet!and!associated!technologies!(Jones!et!al.!2010),!and!a!collaborative,!handsHon!classroom!experience!that!reflects!the!learning!preferences!of!many!contemporary!students!(Bekerbrede!et!al.!2011).!Compared!to!classroomHbased!learning!or!online!learning!alone,!a!blended!learning!approach!can!improve!student!satisfaction!and!grades!(Castle!and!McGuire!2010;!Cavanagh!2011).!Participants!in!our!group!interviews!noted!how!it!was!necessary!to!use!the!forest!floor!vocabulary!and!build!consensus!through!discussion!within!their!groups!and!make!connections!between!what!they!saw!in!the!videos!and!their!own!samples!that!they!have!examined!in!the!campusHbased!activity.!Discussion!between!peers!gives!students!deeper!insights!into!the!material!they!are!learning!(Udovic!1998)!and!a!sense!of!engagement!with!one!another!(Collopy!and!Arnold!2009).!The!importance!of!the!handsHon!aspect!of!the!inHclass!activities!was!noted!by!interview!participants!in!our!study.!One!student!said,!“Once!you!pull!stuff!apart!you!kind!of!realize,!that’s!what!the!definition!means,”!and!another!explained!that!learning!handsHon!was!“more!fun.”!!!The!blended!learning!model!allows!students!to!connect!what!they!are!learning!in!and!out!of!the!classroom!as!they!apply!their!learning!(Collopy!and!Anrold!2009).!According!to!student!responses!during!the!interviews,!the!Forest!Floor!videos!were!appreciated!for!giving!students!a!more!visual!experience!compared!to!traditional!! 86!lectures,!providing!the!opportunity!for!repetitive!reviewing!of!material!and!catering!to!different!learning!styles.!Students!value!the!ability!to!choose!between!different!learning!mechanisms!to!best!suit!their!learning!needs,!and!appreciate!the!flexibility!in!time!and!place!allowed!with!online!learning!(Mitchell!and!Forer!2010).!Drawing!on!constructivist!learning!theory,!blended!learning!gives!students!more!control!over!what!material!they!access!and!at!what!pace!they!review!material!–!allowing!them!to!concentrate!on!material!they!find!difficult!and!move!quickly!through!material!they!understand!easily!(Cook!2007).!The!Forest!Floor!educational!resource!allowed!students!to!expand!upon!what!they!learned!in!the!laboratory!at!their!own!pace!and!in!their!own!way,!search!for!information,!make!discoveries!and!build!their!knowledge!(ChumleyHJones!et!al.!2002).!!!Providing!materials!online!can!help!to!reinforce!learning!by!allowing!students!to!repeatedly!review!content!(Hoffman!and!Ritchie,!1997;!Moore!and!Gerrard,!2002;!Polsani!2003),!and!learning!soil!classification!requires!such!repetitive!review!(Krzic!et!al.!2013).!This!was!supported!by!student!comments!in!group!interviews!conducted!in!our!study;!one!student!said,!“I!watched!the!videos!again!while!I!was!doing!the!lab!report.!It!really!helped!seeing!it!before,!then!doing![the!sample!description],!then![seeing!it]!after.”!Variety!in!the!presentation!of!information,!including!video,!tutorials,!text,!definitions,!graphics,!animations!photographs!and!references,!can!help!maintain!student!interest!and!cater!to!a!variety!of!learning!styles!as!students!choose!how!they!access!materials!(Hoffman!and!Ritchie,!1997;!Moore!and!Gerrard,!2002;!Polsani,!2003;!Cox!and!Su,!2004).!Most!students!utilized!! 87!some!combination!of!the!videos!and!text!on!the!Forest!Floor!educational!resource,!as!one!student!explained,!“The!reading!was!more!in!depth!than!the!videos,!so!after!I!watched!the!videos,!if!that!wasn’t!enough!then!I!could!read!to!supplement!that.”!Many!students!in!group!interviews!noted!the!advantages!of!having!videos!compared!to!plain!text.!One!student!spoke!about!the!videos!providing!more!relevance!by!relating!the!samples!back!to!the!forest!and!how!they!were!a!more!efficient!use!of!time!compared!to!traditional!lectures.!Another!described!the!importance!of!visuals!in!learning!the!topic,!“Often!I!find!when!I!read!things,!I!have!to!read!it!at!least!a!few!times!for!me!to!be!able!to!come!up!with!a!visualization…!When!it’s!a!video,!you!can!see!that!first!hand.”!A!final!advantage!of!the!blended!learning!model!is!that,!with!declining!resources!in!postsecondary!education,!supporting!course!content!with!online!technologies!has!the!potential!to!reduce!pressure!on!instructors!and!institutions!(Bates!2000)!while!providing!a!platform!to!incrementally!build!on!over!time.!!4.2.2"Limitations"!Development!of!the!Forest!Floor!educational!resource!and!campusHbased!activities!took!a!significant!investment!of!time!and!cost!$64,000!to!create,!$44,000!was!funded!through!UBC’s!Flexible!Learning!Fund!with!an!additional!$20,000!as!inHkind!contributions.!It!took!1,400!person!hours!over!18!months!to!conceptualize,!develop!and!beta!test.!!! 88!While!students!generally!regarded!learning!collaboratively!within!groups!positively,!there!were!some!negative!comments!regarding!group!sizes,!dominance!of!particular!group!members!during!discussions!and!a!lack!of!participation!on!the!part!of!other!group!members.!Students!were!encouraged!to!work!in!groups!of!five,!however,!one!participant!in!the!focus!group!discussions!stated!that!their!initial!group!of!five!was!too!large,!“when!there!are!five!hands!in!one!sample!it!doesn’t!really!work.!Afterwards,!we!split!up!and!it!was!a!lot!easier.”!Other!participants!described!their!group!of!four!as!the!“perfect”!number.!Navigation!of!the!educational!resource!was!an!issue!for!some!students.!To!the!statement,!“I!found!navigation!of!the!website!to!be!selfHexplanatory,”!9%!of!students!selected!disagree.!We!also!received!comments!that!the!menus!on!the!Forest!Floor!educational!resource!were!not!easy!to!use,!that!it!was!difficult!to!find!things!on!the!website!and!that!some!information!was!not!where!a!student!expected!it!to!be.!Although!these!complaints!are!important!to!consider,!it!has!been!shown!that!complexity!in!the!layout!of!a!website!is!important!in!encouraging!students!to!explore!and!build!their!own!knowledge!and!improves!learning!outcomes.!Furthermore,!it!has!been!shown!that!students!who!struggled!solving!problems!in!the!absence!of!direct!support!of!educators!did!better!solving!complex!problems!in!postHtests!(Kapur!and!Bielaczyz!2012).!!Another!issue!brought!up!by!students!was!our!decision!to!have!students!watch!the!Forest!Floor!videos!at!the!beginning!of!their!campusHbased!activities,!rather!than!ask!them!to!review!the!videos!prior!to!the!laboratory.!If!students!were!required!to!review!the!material!beforehand,!they!could!potentially!be!more!prepared!for!the!! 89!campusHbased!activities!as!well!as!having!more!time!to!complete!their!forest!floor!descriptions!and!classifications.!!!!4.3"Potential"Uses"of"the"Study"in"the"Future"!The!Forest!Floor!educational!resource!can!be!used!by!instructors!of!soil!science,!forestry,!or!other!natural!resource!courses!to!introduce!students!to!the!organic!horizons,!humus!forms!and!their!properties.!It!also!serves!as!an!example!for!science!instructors!wishing!to!develop!learning!materials!online!or!produce!videos.!The!ubiquity!of!the!Internet!makes!it!ever!easier!to!present!information!using!varied!media!online.!Virtual!field!trips!provide!the!opportunity,!not!only!to!connect!students!visually!to!the!entities!and!environments!they!are!learning!about,!but!to!preserve!the!knowledge!of!experts!in!the!field.!The!ease!of!updating!online!material,!the!possibility!to!adapt!websites!to!emerging!technologies,!and!the!ability!to!create!mobile!experiences!such!as!the!forest!floor!quest,!make!moving!into!the!future!with!educational!websites!possible.!!Through!exploratory!factor!analysis!(EFA),!we!interpreted!five!factors!within!students’!responses!to!our!survey!instrument.!This!constituted!a!blend!of!qualitative!and!quantitative!data!used!to!inform!the!interpretations!of!the!factors.!These!factors!have!the!potential!to!be!verified!through!confirmatory!factor!analysis!(CFA)!in!similar!studies!using!blended!learning!in!hands!on!laboratories.!Our!survey!instrument,!having!a!high!reliability,!can!serve!as!an!example!to!be!adapted!for!such!! 90!studies.!Essentially,!items!regarding!desired!learning!outcomes!could!be!changed!to!reflect!the!desired!learning!outcomes!of!other!laboratories.!The!highest!loading!items!are!most!relevant!to!that!factor!and!should!be!selected!preferentially!for!any!future!research.!Furthermore,!it!is!necessary!to!keep!in!mind!that!smaller!sample!sizes!require!fewer!items.!!!To!those!wishing!to!develop!online!and!multimedia!resources!and!implement!blended!learning!activities,!the!following!suggestions!might!be!relevant.!!• Identify!learning!outcomes!to!ensure!that!the!methodology!is!compatible!with!the!material!being!taught!and!research!contemporary!pedagogical!theory!to!understand!student!learning!preferences.!!!• Include!experts!in!the!field!of!study,!multimedia!and!web!development!and!education.!This!will!ensure!that!multimedia!and!online!components!are!of!high!quality!and!that!the!pedagogical!foundation!is!sound.!An!added!benefit!to!including!a!variety!of!people!in!the!development!process!is!that!their!different!perspectives!will!better!represent!the!varied!knowledge!and!learning!preferences!of!the!desired!audience.!!• Expect!to!invest!a!significant!amount!of!time!to!complete!the!project.!Conceptualization,!development!and!testing!multimedia!educational!resources!and!conducting!and!evaluating!blended!learning!activities!each!! 91!take!time,!involving!meeting!with!everyone!involved,!reviewing!and!editing!material,!and!troubleshooting,!etc.!!!• Keep!videos!short!and!to!the!point,!and!break!up!and!reduce!text!as!much!as!possible!to!help!to!maintain!student!interest!and!improve!ease!of!information!retrieval.!!• Ensure!student!collaboration!and!active!learning!through!small!peer!groups!and!encouraging!discussion!during!campusHbased!activities.!!!• Determine!the!best!time!for!students!to!explore!the!online!and!multimedia!components!of!the!blended!learning!activities.!Depending!on!the!topic!and!the!inHclass!activities,!consider!exposing!students!to!the!material!either!before,!during!or!after!the!activities,!or!repeatedly!to!reinforce!what!they!are!learning.!!!For!those!wishing!to!create!a!survey!instrument!to!be!used!in!factor!analysis!and!conduct!EFA!or!CFA!of!responses!to!a!blended!learning!experience,!the!following!suggestions!should!be!considered.!!• Consider!potential!factors!in!advance!and!develop!survey!items!(questions)!based!on!those!factors.!Factors!may!include!student!motivations,!meeting!learning!outcomes,!student!learning!preferences,!etc.!Alternatively,!if!! 92!performing!confirmatory!factor!analysis,!factors!should!be!based!on!those!interpreted!through!previous,!similar!research.!!!• Create!at!least!three!items!based!on!each!potential!factor,!as!an!acceptable!factor!should!have!at!least!three!items!loading.!A!strong!factor!will!have!at!least!five!items!loading.!The!number!of!factors!should!be!balanced!by!the!number!of!respondents,!with!a!suggested!ratio!often!being!5:1,!depending!on!the!data!(McCallum!et!al.!1999;!Costello!and!Osborne!2005).!!Attracting!students!to!soil!science!is!increasingly!important!in!the!face!of!global!environmental!challenges.!It!is!up!to!educators!to!make!curriculum!relevant!and!exciting,!while!creating!a!learning!environment!that!suits!today’s!students.!A!blended!learning!approach!has!the!potential!to!achieve!this.!Students!participating!in!group!interviews!in!our!study!appreciated!the!Forest!Floor!videos!as!a!window!into!the!forest!ecosystem!and!for!providing!the!opportunity!for!repetitive!review.!Regarding!the!inHclass!activities,!they!considered!that!group!discussion,!using!the!forest!floor!vocabulary!with!their!peers,!making!connections!between!the!videos!and!their!handsHon!experience!with!the!samples!were!all!beneficial!to!their!learning.!During!the!interviews!many!of!the!students!were!aware!of!their!different!learning!preferences!and!valued!having!exposure!to!the!material!in!a!variety!of!formats.!In!response!to!the!written!comments!portion!of!the!online!survey,!one!student!wrote,!“I!think!I!enjoyed!this!lab!the!most.!It!was!not!only!educational!but!fun.!It!was!also!easy!to!understand!and!straightforward.”!Hopefully,!this!student!and!any!others!sharing!similar!sentiments!will!be!encouraged!to!continue!learning!about!soil!and!! 93!look!forward!to!doing!so!with!enthusiasm.!I!hope!that!other!instructors!will!contemplate!adapting!their!curriculum!to!better!suit!the!current!learning!climate!in!which!their!students!are!living,!one!of!greater!connectivity!and!unlimited!information!through!webHbased!educational!resources,!by!embracing!teaching!methods!that!support!more!active!ways!of!learning.!I!also!encourage!those!educators!who!decide!to!blend!multimedia!into!their!teaching!methods!to!adapt!the!factors!we!have!interpreted!here,!in!order!to!assess!the!experiences!of!their!students.! 94!REFERENCES"!Anderson,!D.W.,!and!Smith,!S.!2011.!A!history!of!soil!classification!and!soil!survey!in!Canada:!personal!perspectives.!Canadian!Journal!of!Soil!Science!91,!675H694.!!Andrews,!T.!M.,!Leonard,!M.J.,!Colgrove,!C.A.,!and!Kalinowski,!S.T.!2011.!Active!learning!not!associated!with!student!learning!in!a!random!sampling!of!college!biology!courses.!CBE!Life!Science!Education!10,!394–405.!Aubrey,!C.!and!Dahl,!S.!2008.!A!review!of!the!evidence!on!the!use!of!ICT!in!the!early!years!foundation!stage.!Emerging!technologies!for!learning,!BECTA!Research!report.!Avery,!B.W.!1965.!Soil!classification!in!Britain.!Pedologie!3,!75H90.!Barnett,!J.E.!2003.!Do!instructorHprovided!online!notes!facilitate!student!learning?!Journal!of!Interactive!Online!Learning!2,!1H7.!Bates,!A.W.!2000.!Managing!technological!change.!Strategies!for!college!and!university!leaders.!JosseyHBass,!San!Francisco,!CA.!Bauhaus,!J.,!Paré,!D.,!and!Côté,!L.!1998.!Effects!of!tree!species,!stand!age!and!soil!type!on!soil!microbial!biomass!and!its!activity!in!a!Southern!Boreal!Forest.!Soil!Biology!and!Biochemistry!30,!1077–1089.!Baum,!R.!M.!2004.!Disturbing!trends.!Chemical!and!Engineering!News!82,!5.!Baveye,!P.!Jacobson,!A.R.,!Allaire,!S.E.,!Tandarich,!J.P.,!and!Bryant,!R.B.,!2006.!Whither!goes!soil!science!in!the!United!States!and!Canada?!Soil!Science,!171,!501H518.!!Beck,!J.!C.,!and!Wade,!M.!2004.!Got!game:!How!the!gamer!generation!is!reshaping!business!forever.!Harvard!Business!School!Press,!Boston,!MA.!Bekebrede,!G.,!Warmelink,!H.J.G.,!and!Mayer,!I.S.!2011.!Reviewing!the!need!for!gaming!in!education!to!accommodate!the!net!generation.!Computers!and!Education!57,!1521H1529.!Bernier,!B.!1968.!Descriptive!outline!of!forest!humus!form!classification.!In!Proceedings!7th!Meeting!of!the!National!Soil!Survey!Committee!of!Canada.!Agriculture!Canada,!Ottawa,!Ontario,!39H154.!Bouma,!J.!2001.!The!new!role!of!soil!science!in!a!network!society.!Soil!Science!166,!874–879.!Bouma,!J.!2009.!Soils!are!back!on!the!global!agenda:!Now!what?!Geoderma!150,!224H! 95!225.!Bouma,!J.!and!McBratney,!A.!2013.!Framing!soils!as!an!actor!when!dealing!with!wicked!environmental!problems.!Geoderma!200H201,!130H139.!Brêthes,!A.,!Brun,!J.J.,!Jabiol,!B.,!Ponge,!J.F.,!and!Toutain,!F.!1995.!Classification!of!forest!humus!forms:!a!French!proposal.!Annales!des!Sciences!Forestières!52,!535H546.!Brevik,!E.C.!2009.!The!teaching!of!soil!science!in!geology,!geography,!environmental!science,!and!agricultural!programs.!Soil!Survey!Horizons!50,!120–123.!!Broll,!G.,!Brauckmann,!HHJ.,!Overesch,!M.,!Junge,!B.,!Erber,!C.,!Milbert,!G.,!Baize,!and!D.,!Nachtergaele,!F.!2006.!Topsoil!characterization!–!recommendations!for!revision!and!expansion!of!the!FAOHDraft!(1998)!with!emphasis!on!humus!forms!and!biological!features.!Journal!of!Plant!Nutrition!and!Soil!Science!169,!453H461.!!!Brown,!M.W.!2000.!Psychometrics.!Journal!of!the!American!Statistical!Association!95,!661H665.!!Brown,!M.W.!2001.!An!overview!of!analytic!rotation!in!exploratory!factor!analysis.!Multivariate!Behavioral!Research!36,!111H150.!!Castle,!S.!R.,!and!McGuire,!C.!J.!2010.!An!analysis!of!student!selfHassessment!of!online,!blended,!and!faceHtoHface!learning!environments:!Implications!for!sustainable!education!delivery.!International!Education!Studies,!3,!36–40.!Cattle,!S.R.,!McBratney,!A.B.,!and!Yates,!D.B.!1995.!The!soil!stack:!an!interactive!computer!program!describing!basic!soil!science!and!soil!degradation.!Journal!of!Natural!Resource!and!Life!Science!Education,!Vol.!24,!33H36.!Cavanagh,!T.!B.!2011.!The!blended!learning!toolkit:!Improving!student!performance!and!retention.!Educause!Review,!34!(Accessed!May,!2015,!from!http://er.educause.edu/articles/2011/12/theHblendedHlearningHtoolkitHimprovingHstudentHperformanceHandHretention).!!ChumleyHJones,!H.S.,!Dobbie,!A.!and!Alford,!C.L.!2002.!WebH!based!learning:!Sound!educational!method!or!hype?!A!review!of!the!evaluation!literature.!Academic!Medicine!77,!S86–S93.!!Clayden,!G.S.,!and!Wilson,!B.!1988.!ComputerHassisted!learning!in!medical!education.!Medical!Education!22,!456–67.!!Cline,!M.!G.!1949.!Basic!principles!of!soil!classification.!Soil!Science!67,!81H91.!Collins,!M.E.!2008.!Where!have!all!the!soils!students!gone?!Journal!of!Natural!! 96!Resources!&!Life!Sciences!Education!37,!117H124.!!Commission!of!the!European!Communities!(CEC),!2006a.!Communication!from!the!Commission!to!the!Council,!the!European!Parliament,!the!European!Economic!and!Social!Committee!and!the!Committee!of!the!Regions.!Thematic!Strategy!for!Soil!Protection.COM!231!Final,!Brussels,!Belgium.!!Commission!of!the!European!Communities!(CEC),!2006b.!Proposal!for!a!Directive!of!the!European!Parliament!and!of!the!Council,!establishing!a!framework!for!the!protection!of!soil!and!amending!Directive!2004/35/EC.!COM!232!Final,!Brussels,!Belgium.!!Collopy,!R.!M.,!and!Arnold,!J.!M.!2009.!To!blend!or!not!to!blend:!Online!and!blended!learning!environments!in!undergraduate!teacher!education.!Issues!in!Teacher!Education,!18,!85–101.!Cook,!D.A.!2007.!WebHbased!learning:!pros,!cons!and!controversies.!Clinical!Medicine!7,!37H42!Cook!D.A.,!Dupras!D.M.,!Thompson!W.G.,!and!Pankratz!V.S.!2007.!WebHbased!!learning!in!resident!continuity!clinics:!a!randomized,!controlled!trial.!Academic!Medicine!80,!90–97.!Costello,!A.B.!and!Osborne,!J.W.!2005.!Best!practices!in!exploratory!factor!analysis:!Four!recommendations!for!getting!the!most!from!your!analysis.!Practical!Assessment,!Research!and!Evaluation!10,!1H9.!Cox,!S.E.!and!Su,!T.!2004.!Integrating!student!learning!with!practitioner!experiences!via!virtual!field!trips.!Journal!of!Educational!Media!29,!113H123.!!Dalmasso,!J.P.!1990.!Reversing!the!trend!of!declining!enrollments.!North!American!Colleges!and!Teachers!of!Agriculture!Journal!34,!44–46.!De!Bakker,!H.!1970.!Purposes!of!soil!classification.!Geoderma!4.!195H208.!Derr,!J.F.!2004.!The!status!of!weed!science!at!universities!and!experiment!stations!in!the!NorthH!eastern!United!States.!Weed!Technology!18,!150–1156.!!Dijkerman,!J.C.!1974.!Pedology!as!a!science:!the!role!of!data,!models!and!theories!in!the!study!of!natural!soil!systems.!Geoderma!11,!73H93.!Dixon,!R.K.,!Brown,!S.,!Houghton,!R.A.,!Solomon,!A.M.,!Trexler,!M.C.,!and!Wisniewski,!J.!2013.!Carbon!Pools!and!Flux!of!Global!Forest!Ecosystems.!Science,!New!Series!263,!185H190.!Ericsson!K.A.!2004.!Deliberate!practice!and!the!acquisition!and!maintenance!of!expert!performance!in!medicine!and!related!domains.!Academic!Medicine!79,!! 97!S70–S81.!!Fall!L.H.,!Berman!N.B.,!Smith!S.,!White,!C.B.,!Woodhead,!J.C.,!and!Olson,!A.L.!2005.!MultiHinstitutional!development!and!utilization!of!a!computerHassisted!learning!program!for!the!pediatrics!clerkship:!the!CLIPP!project.!Academic!Medicine!80,!847–855.!Fabrigar,!L.R.,!Wegener,!D.T.,!MacCallum,!R.C.,!and!Strahan,!E.J.!1999.!Evaluating!the!use!of!factor!analysis!in!psychological!research.!Psychological!Methods!4,!281H290.!FAO,!2007.!The!Challenge!of!Renewal.!Report!of!the!Independent!External!Evaluation!of!the!Food!and!Agriculture!Organization!of!the!United!Nations!(FAO).!Submitted!to!the!Council!Committee!for!the!Independent!External!Evaluation!of!FAO!(CCHIEE).!FAO,!Rome,!Italy.!!Fisher,!R.F.!and!Binkley,!D.!2000.!Ecology!and!management!of!forest!soils.!3rd!ed.!John!Wiley!&!Sons!Inc.,!New!York,!NY.!!Fox,!C.A.!and!Tarnocai,!C.!2011.!Organic!soils!of!Canada:!Part!2.!Upland!Organic!soils.!Canadian!Journal!of!Soil!Science!91,!823H842.!!Galway,!L.P.,!Corbett,!K.K.,!Takaro,!T.K.,!Tairya,!K.,!and!Frank,!E.!2014.!A!novel!integration!of!online!and!flipped!classroom!instructional!models!in!public!health!higher!education.!BMC!Medical!Education!14,!1H9.!!Garrison,!D.!R.,!and!Kanuka,!H.!2004.!Blended!learning:!Uncovering!its!transformative!potential!in!higher!education.!The!Internet!and!Higher!Education!7,!95–105.!!Gelter,!H.!2010.!Friluftsliv!as!slow!and!peak!experiences!in!the!transmodern!society.!Norwegian!Journal!of!Friluftsliv,!1H22.!!Goodale,!C.L.,!Apps,!M.J.,!Birdsey,!R.A.,!Field,!C.B.,!Heath,!L.S.,!Houghton,!R.A.,!Jenkins,!J.C.,!Kohlmaier,!G.H.,!Kurz,!W.,!Liu,!S.,!Nabuurs,!G.J.,!Nilsson,!S.,!and!Shvidenko,!A.Z.,!2002.!Forest!carbon!sinks!in!the!Northern!hemisphere.!Ecological!Applications!12,!891–899.!!Green,!R.N.,!Trowbridge,!R.L.,!and!Klinka,!K.!1993.!Towards!a!taxonomic!classification!of!humus!forms.!Forest!Science,!Monograph!29,!Volume!39.!!Green,!R.N.,!Trowbridge,!R.L.,!and!Klinka,!K.!1997.!Towards!a!taxonomic!classification!of!humus!forms:!third!approximation.!Scientia!Silvica,!Extension!Series!9.!(Accessed!December!2013,!http://www.biosoil.ru/files/00002069.!pdf)!! 98!!Hallsworth,!E.G.!1965.!The!relationship!between!experimental!pedology!and!soil!classification.!In!E.G.!Hallsworth!and!D.V.!Crawford!(Editors),!Experimental!Pedology.!Butterworths,!London,!UK.!354H374.!Handelsman,!J.!1992.!Changing!the!image!of!agriculture!through!curriculum!innovation.!In!Agriculture!and!the!Undergraduate.!National!Research!Council,!Washington,!DC,!199–203.!Hansen,!N.,!Ward,!S.,!Khosla,!R.,!Fenwick,!J.,!and!Moore,!B.!2007.!What!does!undergraduate!enrollment!in!soil!and!crop!sciences!mean!for!the!future!of!agronomy?!Agronomy!Journal!99,!1169H1174.!!Harris,!S.A.!1960.!A!new!genetic!classification!of!the!major!world!soil!groups.!Translation,!International!Congress!of!Soil!Science!Communication!V!and!VII,!Madison,!Wisconsin,!138H151.!Hartemink,!A.E.!2008.!Soils!are!back!on!the!global!agenda.!Soil!Use!and!Management!24,!327H330.!!Hartemink,!A.E.!and!McBratney,!A.,!2008.!A!soil!science!renaissance.!Geoderma!148,!123–129.!!Hartemink,!A.E.,!McBratney,!A.,!and!Minasny,!B.!2008.!Trends!in!soil!science!education:!looking!beyond!the!number!of!students.!Journal!of!Soil!and!Water!Conservation,!63,!76H83.!!Havlin,!J.,!Balster,!N.,!Chapman,!S.,!Ferris,!D.,!Thompson,!T.,!and!Smith,!T.!2010.!Trends!in!soil!science!education!and!employment.!Soil!Science!Society!of!America!Journal!74,!1429–1432.!!Hill,!M.!W.!1998.!The!Impact!of!the!Information!Society.!BowkerHSaur,!London,!UK.!!Hoffman,!B.!and!Ritchie,!D.C.!1997.!Using!multimedia!to!overcome!the!problems!with!problem!based!learning.!Instructional!Science!25,!97H115.!!Hurst,!D.S.!1998.!Use!of!virtual!field!trips!in!teaching!introductory!geology.!Computers!and!Geosciences!24,!653H658.!!Jabiol,!B.,!Zanella,!A.,!Ponge,!J.HF.,!Sartori,!G.,!Englisch,!M.,!van!Delft,!B.,!de!Wall,!R.,!and!Le!Bayon,!R.HC.!2013.!A!proposal!for!including!humus!forms!in!the!World!Reference!Base!for!Soil!Resources!(WRBHFAO).!Geoderma!192,!286H294.!!Jacobson,!A.R.,!R.!Militello,!and!P.C.!Baveye.!2009.!Development!of!computerHassisted!virtual!field!trips!to!support!multidisciplinary!learning.!Computers!and!! 99!Education!52,!571H580.!Jain,!C.,!and!Getis,!A.!2003.!The!effectiveness!of!internetHbased!instruction:!An!experiment!in!physical!geography.!Journal!of!Geography!in!Higher!Education!27,!153H167.!Järvelä,!S.,!Hurme,!T.HR.!and!Järvenoja,!H.!2011.!SelfHregulation!and!motivation!in!computer!supported!collaborative!learning!environments.!In!Ludvigsen,!S.,!Lund,!A.,!Rasmussen,!I.!&!Säljö,!R.!(Editors).!Learning!across!sites.!New!tools,!infrastructures!and!practices.!Routledge,!Oxford,!330H345.!!Jones,!C.,!Ramanau,!R.,!Cross,!S.,!and!Healing,!G.!2010.!Net!generation!or!digital!natives:!is!there!a!distinct!new!generation!entering!university?!Computers!and!Education!54,!722H732.!Kaiser,!H.F.!1958.!The!varimax!criterion!for!analytic!rotation!in!factor!analysis.!Psychometrika!23,!187H200.!!Kapur,!M.!and!Bielaczyc,!K.!2012.!Designing!for!Productive!Failure.!Journal!of!the!Learning!Sciences!21,!45H83.!!Kellogg,!C.!E.!1961.!A!challenge!to!American!soil!scientists:!On!the!occasion!of!the!25th!anniversary!of!the!Soil!Science!Society!of!America.!Soil!Science!Society!of!America!Proceedings.!25,!419–423.!!Kellogg,!C.E.!1962.!Soil!surveys!for!use.!In!G.J.!Neale!(Editor),!Transactions!of!Joint!Meeting!of!Commissions!IV!and!V,!International!Society!of!Soil!Science.!Soil!Bureau,!P.B.,!Lower!Hutt,!New!Zealand,!529H535.!Klemm,!E.B.!and!Tuthill.!G.!2003.!Virtual!field!trips:!best!practices.!International!Journal!of!Instructional!Media!30,!177H93.!Klinka,!K.,!Green,!R.N.,!Trowbridge,!R.L.,!and!Lowe,!L.E.!1981.!Taxonomic!classification!of!humus!forms!in!ecosystems!of!British!Columbia.!Land!Management!Report!Number!8.!Ministry!of!Forests,!Vancouver,!Canada.!Klinka,!K,!Green,!R.N.,!Courtin,!P.J.,!and!Nuszdorfer,!F.C.!1984.!Site!diagnosis,!tree!species!selection!and!slashburning!guidelines!for!the!Vancouver!Forest!Region.!BC!Ministry!of!Forests,!Burnaby,!Canada.!Klinka,!K.,!Wang,!Q.,!and!Carter,!R.E.!1990.!Relationships!among!humus!forms,!forest!floor!nutrient!properties!and!understory!vegetation.!Forest!Science,!36,!564H581.!!Knight,!J.!K.,!and!Wood,!W.B.!2005.!Teaching!more!by!lecturing!less.!Cell!Biology!Education!4,!298–310.!!100!Krzic,!M.,!Strivelli,!R.A.,!Holmes,!E.,!Grand,!S.,!Dyanatkar,!S.!Lavkulich,!L.M.,!and!Crowley,!C.!2013.!Virtual!soil!monoliths:!blending!traditional!and!webHbased!educational!approaches.!Natural!Sciences!Education!41,!1H8.!!Koppi,!A.J.,!Lublin,!J.R.,!and!Chaloupka,!M.J.!1997.!Effective!Teaching!and!Learning!in!a!HighHtech!Environment.!Innovations!in!Education!&!Training!International!34,!245H251.!Kovda,!V.A.,!Lobova,!Y.E.!and!Rozanov,!B.G.!1967a.!Classification!of!the!world's!soils!H!general!considerations.!Soviet!Soil!Science!4,!427H441.!Kovda,!V.A.,!Lobova,!Y.E.,!and!Rozanov,!B.G.!1967b.!Classification!of!the!world's!soils.!Soviet!Soil!Science!7,!851H863.!Lal,!R.!2010.!Managing!soils!and!ecosystems!for!mitigating!anthropogenic!carbon!emissions!and!advancing!global!food!security.!Bioscience!60,!708–712.!!Lavelle!P.!and!Spain!A.V.!2001.!Soil!Ecology.!Kluwer!Scientific!Publications,!Amsterdam,!Netherlands.!Letey,!J.!1994.!Trends!in!soil!science!teaching!programs.!In!P.!Baveye!et!al.!(Editors),!Soil!science!education:!Philosophy!and!perspectives.!SSSA,!Madison,!WI,!15–20.!Loynachan,!T.E.!2006.!Quick,!easy!method!to!show!living!soil!organisms!to!high!school!or!beginningHlevel!college!students.!Journal!of!Natural!Resources!and!Life!Sciences!35,!202H208.!!Lynch,!K.!2002.!The!future!of!geography:!The!debate!continues.!Geography!87,!155H159.!!Margaryan,!A.,!and!Littlejohn,!A.!2009.!Are!digital!natives!a!myth!or!reality?!Students’!use!of!technologies!for!learning.!(Accessed!January!2015,!http://www.academy.gcal!.ac.uk/anoush/documents/DigitalNatives!MythOrRealityHMargaryanAndLittlejohnHdraftH111208.pdf)!McBratney,!A.B.,!Field,!and!D.J.,!Koch,!A.!2014.!The!dimensions!of!soil!security.!Geoderma!213,!203–213.!!McBratney,!A.B.,!Minasny,!B.,!and!Rossel,!R.V.!2006.!Spectral!soil!analysis!and!inference!systems:!a!powerful!combination!for!solving!the!soil!data!crisis.!Geoderma!136,!272–278.!!McCallister,!D.L.,!Lee,!D.J.,!and!Mason,!S.C.!2005.!Student!numbers!in!agronomy!and!plant!science!programs!in!the!United!States:!Recent!history,!current!status!and!possible!courses!of!action.!North!American!Colleges!and!Teachers!of!Agriculture!Journal!49,!24–29.!!101!MacCallum,!R.C.,!Widaman,!K.F.,!Zhang,!S.B.,!and!Hong,!S.H.!1999.!Sample!size!in!factor!analysis.!Psychological!Methods!4,!84H99.!McArdle,!J.J.!1990.!Principles!Versus!Principals!of!Structural!FactorHAnalyses.!Multivariate!Behavioral!Research!25,!81H87.!!McKenna,!J.R.!and!Brann,!D.E.!1992.!Enhancement!of!recruiting!activities!to!attract!rural!youth!to!careers!in!agronomy.!Journal!of!Natural!Resources!and!Life!Sciences!Education!21,!84–86.!Means!B.,!Toyama!Y.,!Murphy!R.,!Bakia!M.,!and!Jones!K.!2010.!Evaluation!of!EvidenceH!Based!Practices!in!Online!Learning:!A!MetaHAnalysis!and!Review!of!Online!Learning!Studies.!U.S.!Department!of!Education,!Office!of!Planning,!Evaluation,!and!Policy!Development,!Washington,!D.C.!!Mermut,!A.R.,!and!Eswaran,!H.!1997.!Opportunities!for!soil!science!in!a!milieu!of!reduced!funds.!Canadian!Journal!of!Soil!Science!77,!1H7.!!Minasny,!B.,!Hartemink,!A.E.!and!McBratney,!A.!2007.!Soil!science!and!the!h!index.!Scientometrics!73,!257–264.!!Mitchell,!P.,!and!Forer,!P.!2010.!Blended!learning:!The!perceptions!of!firstHyear!geography!students.!Journal!of!Geography!in!Higher!Education!34,!77–89.!Mohanna,!K.!2007.!The!use!of!elearning!in!medical!education.!PostQGraduate!Medical!Journal!83,!211.!Moore,!K.E.!and!Gerrard,!J.W.!2002.!A!tour!of!the!Tors.!In!D.J.!Unwin!and!P.!Fisher!(Editors)!Virtual!Reality!in!Geography.!Taylor!and!Francis,!New!York,!190H207.!!Müller,!P.E.!1889.!Recherches!sur!les!formes!naturelles!de!l’humus!et!leur!influence!sur!la!végétation!et!le!sol.!Annales!de!la!Science!Agronomique!Française!et!Étrangère!6,!85–423.!Mutonyi,!H.,!Nashon,!S.,!and!Nielsen,!W.S.!2010.!Perceptual!influence!of!Ugandan!students’!understanding!of!HIV/AIDS.!Research!In!Science!Education!40,!573–588.!!Nashon,!S.M.,!and!Anderson,!D.!2013.!Interpreting!students’!views!of!learning!experiences!in!a!contextualized!science!discourse!in!Kenya.!Journal!of!Research!in!Science!Teaching!50,!381H407.!Oblinger,!D.G.!and!Oblinger,!J.L.!2005.!Educating!the!net!generation,!An!Educause!eHbook!publication.!Accessed!January,!2015!from!http://www.educause.edu/ir!/library/pdf/pub7101.pdf!!Oliver,!R.,!and!Omari,!A.!2001.!Exploring!student!responses!to!collaborating!and!!102!learning!in!a!webHbased!environment.!Journal!of!Computer!Assisted!Learning!17,!34–47.!Osborne,!J.,!Simon,!S.,!and!Collins,!S.!2003.!Attitudes!towards!science:!A!review!of!the!literature!and!its!implications.!International!Journal!of!Science!Education!25,!1049–1079.!Owston,!R.,!York,!D.,!and!Murtha,!S.!2013.!Student!perceptions!and!achievement!in!a!university!blended!learning!strategic!initiative.!Internet!and!Higher!Education!18,!38H46.!Pepper,!I.!L.!2000.!Environmental!Science:!A!new!opportunity!for!soil!science.!Soil!Science!165,!41–46.!Peterson!N.S.,!and!Jungck!J.!1988.!ProblemHposing,!problemHsolving,!and!persuasion!in!biology!education.!Academic!Computing!(winter–spring),!48–50.!!Piemme,!T.E.!1988.!ComputerHassisted!learning!and!evaluation!in!medicine.!Journal!of!the!American!Medical!Association!260,!367!–!372.!Piaget,!J.!1971.!Genetic!Epistemology.!W.W.!Norton!&!Co.!New!York,!NY.!Polsani,!P.R.!2003.!Use!and!abuse!of!reusable!learning!objects.!Journal!of!Digital!Information!3.!(Accessed!January!2015,!https://journals.tdl.org/jodi/index.!php/jodi/article/view/89/88)!Ponge,!J.HF.,!Chevalier,!R.,!and!Loussot,!P.!2002.!Humus!index:!an!integrated!tool!for!the!assessment!of!forest!floor!and!topsoil!properties.!Soil!Science!Society!of!America!Journal,!66,!1996H2001.!!Ponge,!J.HF.!2003.!Humus!forms!in!terrestrial!ecosystems:!a!framework!to!biodiversity.!Soil!Biology!and!Biochemistry!35,!935–945.!!Ponge,!J.HF.!2013.!Plant!–!soil!feedbacks!mediated!by!humus!forms:!A!review.!Soil!Biology!and!Biochemistry!57,!1048H1060.!Ponge,!J.HF.!and!Chevalier,!R.!2006.!Humus!Index!as!an!Indicator!of!forest!stand!and!soil!properties.!Forest!Ecology!and!Management!233,!165–175.!!Poon,!J.!2012.!Use!of!blended!learning!to!enhance!the!student!learning!experience!and!engagement!in!property!education.!Property!Management!30,!129–156.!Prensky,!M.!2001.!Digital!natives,!digital!immigrants.!On!the!horizon!9,!1H6.!Prescott,!C.E.,!Maynard,!D.G.,!Raija,!L.,!2000.!Humus!in!northern!forests:!friend!or!foe?!Forest!Ecology!and!Management!133,!23H36.!!Ramasundaram,!V.S.,!Grunwald,!A.!Mangeot,!N.B.!Comerford,!and!Bliss,!C.M.!2005.!!103!Development!of!an!environmental!virtual!field!laboratory.!Computer!Education!45,!21–34.!Raes,!A.!and!Schellens,!T.!2012.!The!impact!of!webHbased!inquiry!in!secondary!science!education!on!students’!motivation!for!science!learning.!Procedia!Q!Social!and!Behavioral!Sciences!69,!1332!–!1339.!!Robinson,!D.A.,!Hockley,!N.,!Dominati,!E.,!Lebron,!I.,!Scow,!K.M.,!Reynolds,!B.,!Emmett,!B.A.,!Keith,!A.M.,!de!Jonge,!L.W.,!Schjonning,!P.,!Moldrup,!P.,!Jones,!S.B.,!and!Tuller,!M.!2012.!Natural!Capital,!Ecosystem!Services,!and!Soil!Change:!why!soil!science!has!to!embrace!an!ecosystem!approach.!Vadose!Zone!Journal!11,!1H6.!!Rossiter,!D.G.!2007.!Classification!of!urban!and!industrial!soils!in!the!World!Reference!Base!for!Soil!Resources.!Journal!of!Soils!and!Sediments!7,!96–100.!Schulmeister,!R.!2009.!Is!there!a!net!generation!in!the!house?!Dispelling!a!mystification.!EQLearning!and!Education!5.!(Accessed!January!2015,!https://eleed.!campussource.de/archive/5/1587/)!Smiles,!D.E.,!White,!I.!and!Smith,!C.J.!2000.!Soil!science!education!and!society.!Soil!Science!165,!87–97.!Soil!Carbon!Initiative,!2011.!Soil!Carbon!Summit!Outcomes!Document.!(Accessed!December!2013,!http://ussc.edu.au/eventsHspecial/soilHcarbonHstakeholderHworkshop).!!Soil!Classification!Working!Group,!1998.!The!Canadian!system!of!soil!classification.!3rd!ed.!Agriculture!and!AgriHFood!Canada,!Ottawa,!ON.!Publ.!1646!(revised),!187.!!Soresnson,!P.T.,!Quideau,!S.A.,!MacKenzie,!M.D.,!Landhausser,!S.M.,!and!Oh,!S.W.!2011.!Forest!floor!development!and!biochemical!properties!in!reconstructed!boreal!forest!soils.!Applied!Soil!Ecology!49,!139H147.!!Spearman,!C.!1904.!General!intelligence,!objectively!determined!and!measured.!American!Journal!of!Psychology!15,!201H293.!Strivelli,!R.A.,!Krzic,!M.,!Crowley,!C.,!Dyanatkar,!S.,!Bomke,!A.A.,!Simard,!S.W.,!and!Jakoy,!A.!2011.!Integration!of!problemHbased!learning!and!webHbased!multimedia!to!enhance!a!soil!management!course.!Journal!of!Natural!Resources!and!Life!Sciences!40,!215H223.!!Sweller!J.!2005.!Implications!of!cognitive!load!theory!for!multimedia!learning.!In!Mayer!R.E.!(Editor),!The!Cambridge!handbook!of!multimedia!learning.!Cambridge!University!Press,!New!York.!!!104!Tapscott,!D.!1998.!Growing!up!digital:!The!rise!of!the!Net!generation.!McGrawHHill,!New!York,!NY.!Tapscott,!D.!2008.!Grown!up!digital:!How!the!Net!generation!is!changing!your!world.!McGrawHHill,!New!York.!Tuthill,!G.!and!Klemm,!E.B.!2002.!Virtual!field!trips:!alternatives!to!actual!field!trips.!International!Journal!of!Instructional!Media!29,!453H68.!Udovic,!D.!1998.!Confronting!student!misconceptions!in!a!large!class.!National!Institute!for!Science!Education!Collaborative!Learning.!(Accessed!August!31!2015,!http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/archive/cl1/CL/story/udovicda/TSDUA.!htm)!Udovic,!D.,!Morris,!D.,!Dickman,!A.,!Postlethwait,!J.,!and!Wetherwax,!P.!2002.!Workshop!biology:!Demonstrating!the!effectiveness!of!active!learning!in!an!introductory!biology!course.!BioScience!52,!272H281.!UN!Development!Programme.!2007.!Human!development!report!2007/2008.!United!Nations!Development!Programme,!New!York,!NY.!!UN!Department!of!Economic!and!Social!Affairs!(UNHESA)!2004.!World!Population!to!2300.!United!Nations!Department!of!Economic!and!Social!Affairs,!New!York,!NY.!!UN!Educational,!Scientific!and!Cultural!Organization!(UNESCO)!2000.!About!antiHscience,!paraHscience!and!pseudoHscience.!World!Conference!on!Science.!!UN!General!Assembly,!SixtyHeighth!Session,!2014.!World!soil!day!and!international!year!of!soils.!!UN!Millennium!Project.!2005.!Halving!hunger:!it!can!be!done.!Task!force!on!hunger.!Earthscan,!London,!UK.!!Vogel,!L.!2012.!Educators!propose!“flipping”!medical!training.!Canadian!Medical!Association!Journal!184,!E625–E626.!Wall,!D.!2004.!Sustaining!biodiversity!and!ecosystem!services!in!soils!and!sediments.!SCOPE!Series.!Island!Press,!Washington,!DC.!Wallace,!R.!M.,!Kupperman,!J.,!Krajcik,!J.,!and!Soloway,!E.!2000.!Science!on!the!web:!Students!online!in!a!sixthHgrade!classroom.!Journal!of!the!Learning!Sciences!9,!75H104.!Weetman,!G.F.!1980.!The!importance!of!raw!humus!accumulation!in!boreal!forest!management.!In:!Murray,!M.,!VanVeldhuizen,!R.M.!(Editors),!Forest!Regeneration!at!High!Latitudes.!Gen.!Tech.!Rep.!PNWH107,!US!Forest!Service,!Pacific!Northwest!Forest!and!Range!Exp.!Stn.,!Olympia,!WA.!!105!Whyte,!L.L.,Wilson,!A.G.,!and!Wilson,!D.!(Editors)!1969.!HierarchicalStructures.ProceedH!ingsof!a!Symposium.!American!Elsevier,New!York,!NY.!!Young,!A.!1991.!Soil!monitoring:!a!basic!task!for!soil!survey!organizations.!Soil!Use!and!Management!7,!126–130.!!Zeman,!T.!2014.!Factor!analysis!of!subjective!psychological!experiences!and!states!of!football!referees.!International!Journal!of!Science!Culture!and!Sport!2,!6!106!!APPENDIX(I:(Humus(Form(Description(Sheet(Pilot(Study(!!!54 w Appendix I11 Sample of the Form Used In Humus Form Description I -" t !107!!!APPENDIX(II:(Primary(Study(Data(Collection(Sheet((Horizon! Depth!(cm)! Forest!Floor!Structure! Forest!Floor!Consistence! Roots!Abundance! Size! Orientation!! ! ! ! ! ! !Flora!Observed:! Fauna!Observed:! Diagnostic!Horizon:! Humus!Form!Order:!Notes:!((!108!APPENDIX(III:(Forest(Floor(Lab(Assignment(! 1. Review!your!Data!sheet!to!answer!the!following:!a. Explain!how!you!determined!the!diagnostic!horizon!and!humus!form!order!of!your!sample.!What!do!your!findings!tell!you!about!the!type!of!decomposition!that!is!occurring!in!the!forest!floor?!(What!type(s)!of!decomposers!are!dominant?)!!!b. What!type!of!vegetation!was!the!primary!source!of!organic!matter!in!your!sample?!Identify!some!properties!of!this!litter!compared!to!other!types!of!litter!(C:N!ratio,!pH,!lignin!content!–!See!“In#the#Ecosystem”!video)!([4(points](!2. Watch!the!“How#to#Sample”!video!clip!posted!on!the!Description!page!(under!Classification)!of!the!“Forest!Floor”!website.!!a. What!soil!property!can!be!determined!by!drying!and!weighing!a!forest!floor!sample!in!an!oven?!!!b. What!can!be!estimated!about!a!landscape!by!measuring!this!property?!What!else!needs!to!be!measured!to!determine!this?! ![3(points](!3. On!the!Description!page!of!the!“Forest!Floor”!website,!you!can!also!learn!what!is!meant!by!NonDConforming(Materials.!Often!a!large!percentage!of!the!forest!floor!can!be!made!up!of!nonTconforming!materials.!What!are!some!examples!of!these?![1(point](!4. On!the!Humus!Forms!page!(under!Definitions)!“Forest!Floor”!website,!watch!“In#the#Ecosystem”!video!clip.!What!is!unusual!about!the!second!site!mentioned!in!the!video,!given!the!coniferous!trees?!What!has!likely!caused!this?![2(points](!5. Under!what!conditions!would!you!expect!to!find!the!following!horizons:!a. O!b. Fa!c. Thick!Ah!Briefly!explain!your!answers![3(points](!6. Explain!the!difference!between!the!Forest!Floor!and!a!Humus!Form.!Under!what!conditions!and!forest!types!would!you!expect!the!thickest!forest!floors!to!form?!The!thinnest?!Briefly!Explain.!!109!([3(points](!7. Identify!the!organic!horizon!according!to!the!following!descriptions:!a. Dark!colour,!few!mineral!particles!apparent,!greasy.!b. The!organic!matter!is!held!together!strongly,!roots!are!apparent!in!the!horizon,!some!yellow!fuzzy!stuff!is!visible.!c. Brownish!needles!from!a!tree.!d. Dark!colour,!mineral!grains!apparent,!granular!structure.![2(points](!(Attachment:(Data!Collection!Sheet![3(points](!Total(for(lab(6(assignment([21(points](!!BONUS:!Complete!the!Forest!Floor!Quest!at!the!UBC!Farm!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! [up(to(5(points](!2!bonus!points!for!completing!the!quest!and!getting!a!mark!between!1!and!46!!3!points!for!quest!mark!of!47T62!5!points!for!quest!mark!of!63T79!!You!may!attempt!the!quest!as!many!times!as!you!like!in!order!to!get!full!number!of!points.!!!!!!!!!(!110!APPENDIX(IV:(INITIAL(FOREST(FLOOR(SURVEY(ITEMS(The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!introduced!me!to!the!properties!of!organic!horizons!(L,!F,!H,!and!O).!!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!feel!confident!differentiating!between!the!organic!horizons!(L,!F,!H!and!O).!!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!the!properties!of!different!organic!horizons!are!still!not!clear!to!me.!!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!introduced!me!to!the!humus!form!orders!(mor,!moder!and!mull).!!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!can!tell!the!difference!between!the!humus!form!orders!(mor,!moder!and!mull).!!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!taught!me!the!differences!between!the!decomposer!communities!in!the!different!humus!form!orders.!!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!still!feel!unsure!about!the!differences!between!the!humus!form!orders.!!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!did!not!help!me!to!feel!confident!in!differentiating!between!the!humus!form!orders.!!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!communicated!the!importance!of!the!Forest!Floor!in!forest!ecosystems!and!soils.!!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!understand!the!impacts!of!the!forest!floor!on!soil!properties.!!The!forest!floor!lab!and!website!effectively!explained!the!chemical!properties!of!different!types!of!litter!to!me.!!After!completing!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!with!the!help!of!the!website,!I!do!not!feel!comfortable!explaining!ways!the!forest!floor!influences!soil!properties!or!impacts!the!forest!ecosystem.!!I!found!the!videos!to!be!the!most!useful!medium!for!learning!about!the!forest!floor.!!I!found!videos!and!graphics!to!be!more!effective!than!plain!text!in!learning!about!the!forest!floor.!!While!working!on!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment,!I!preferred!learning!from!reading!text!rather!than!watching!video!clips.!!I!liked!having!access!to!the!forest!floor!website!while!working!on!the!lab!assignment.!!Having!access!to!the!forest!floor!website!while!working!on!the!lab!assignment!helped!me!to!learn!about!the!forest!floor.!!I!did!not!find!the!forest!floor!website!helpful!in!learning!about!the!forest!floor.!!I!found!having!access!to!skeleton!notes!while!reviewing!the!videos!helped!me!to!identify!important!points.!!Graphics!and!images!on!the!website!and!in!videos!did!not!improve!my!understanding!of!the!forest!floor.!!I!thought!too!much!information!was!presented!in!the!forest!floor!videos.!!I!think!that!the!forest!floor!videos!did!not!provide!enough!information.!!Graphics!and!images!on!the!website!and!in!videos!helped!me!to!visualize!key!elements!of!the!forest!floor.!!!111!Combining!multimedia!and!webTbased!elements!with!inTclass!learning!was!beneficial!to!my!learning.!!I!could!have!learned!the!material!equally!effectively!from!the!multimedia!and!webTbased!elements!alone.!!I!could!have!learned!the!material!equally!effectively!without!the!use!of!multimedia!and!webTbased!elements.!!I!found!that!the!multimedia!elements!presented!on!the!forest!floor!website!reinforced!what!I!learned!during!the!forest!floor!lab.!!!I!think!having!access!to!the!information!on!the!website!outside!of!the!classroom!allowed!me!to!effectively!reinforce!and!expand!my!learning!about!the!forest!floor.!!I!found!navigation!of!the!website!to!be!selfTexplanatory.!!I!found!it!difficult!to!fine!the!specific!information!I!was!searching!for!on!the!website.!!I!thought!that!the!website!was!esthetically!pleasing!overall.!!Having!access!to!the!website!at!any!time!and!place!was!helpful!for!learning!forest!floor!concepts.!!Using!the!website!to!learn!the!material!made!me!feel!isolated!from!other!students!and/or!my!instructor.!!Learning!with!the!aide!of!the!website!was!preferable!to!using!a!textbook!or!lecture!notes.!!I!thought!that!the!inTclass!portion!of!the!lab!was!complemented!by!the!addition!of!the!forest!floor!website.!!Describing!the!forest!floor!samples!in!the!laboratory!was!essential!to!my!understanding!of!the!properties!of!the!different!organic!horizons.!!Describing!and!classifying!the!humus!form!in!the!laboratory!was!necessary!for!me!to!understand!the!properties!of!the!different!humus!forms.!!I!was!able!to!relate!the!information!in!the!videos!and!on!the!website!to!what!we!were!seeing!in!our!sample!in!the!lab.!!I!found!it!difficult!to!make!connections!between!the!information!presented!in!the!forest!floor!videos!and!on!the!website!to!what!we!saw!in!our!lab!samples.!!I!believe!that!what!I!learned!from!the!forest!floor!lab!and!assignment!is!important!knowledge!for!forest!management.!!!!!((((((((!112!APPENDIX(V:(Recruitment(Document(for(Pilot(Study(((Forest(Floor(Tool(Survey(and(Focus(Group(Recruitment!!!!Dear!GEOG!417!students,!!!You!are!invited!to!participate!in!an!online!survey!and!focus!groups!to!evaluate!an!educational!webTbased!tool!entitled!“Forest!Floor!Tool”.!You!are!being!invited!to!take!part!in!this!research!study!because!our!records!indicate!that!you!are!currently!registered!in!GEOG!417!for!2014/15!academic!year.!We!want!to!learn!more!about!how!to!make!engaging!educational!tools!that!immerse!students!in!systems!that!are!typically!hardTtoTsee,!such!as!the!soil!environment.!!We!are!inviting!people!like!you!who!are!taking!GEOG!417!this!term!to!help!us!improve!the!educational!elements!of!webTbased!tools.!!!!The!upcoming!forest!floor!description!and!humus!form!classification!laboratory!section!of!the!GOEG!417!–!Advanced!Soil!Science!course!is!part!of!Darrell!Hoffman’s!MSc!research!project!that!is!supervised!by!Dr.!Maja!Krzic.!We!will!greatly!appreciate!your!feedback!on!the!upcoming!Forest!Floor!Lab.!During!the!lab!we!will!ask!you!to!review!material!from!a!website!(“The!Forest!Floor!Tool”)!designed!specifically!to!help!students!in!completing!the!lab.!The!tool!provides!relevant!information!(supplementary!to!the!lab!manual)!needed!to!complete!the!lab!assignment.!!After!you!complete!the!Forest!Floor!lab!and!receive!mark!and!feedback!on!your!lab!assignment,!we!will!ask!you!to!complete!an!online!survey!about!your!experiences!with!the!“Forest!Floor!Tool”.!Your!feedback!will!be!collected!anonymously!and!will!be!used!to!evaluate!the!effectiveness!of!the!tool!in!communicating!the!learning!objectives!of!the!Forest!Floor!lab!.!Your!participation!in!the!online!survey!will!be!essential!for!Forest!Floor!lab!and!tool!improvements!and!refinements!!!You!will!be!asked!to!provide!your!consent!before!you!will!be!able!to!access!the!online!survey.!The!participation!in!the!online!survey!is!voluntary.!All!students!who!take!part!in!the!online!survey!will!be!entered!into!a!random!draw!for!a!$20!gift!card!to!Starbucks.!Each!student!will!receive!a!random!code!upon!completion!of!the!survey.!The!student!with!a!winning!code!will!receive!their!gift!card!from!their!course!instructor.!This!will!further!maintain!your!anonymity!as!a!participant!in!the!research!study.!!In!addition!to!the!online!survey,!we!will!also!carry!out!20Tminute!focus!groups!to!discuss!students!responses!to!the!online!survey!regarding!effectiveness!of!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!!113!At!the!end!of!the!online!survey!you!will!be!asked!if!you!wish!to!participate!in!a!focus!group!discussion.!You!will!be!able!to!forward!your!name!and!email!to!Darrell!Hoffman!(Note:!this!will!not!be!linked!to!your!survey!responses),!and!he!will!follow!up!with!you!to!arrange!times!for!the!focus!group!discussion!sessions.!!It!will!be!necessary!to!sign!a!consent!form!prior!to!participating!in!focus!group!discussions.!There!will!be!another!random!draw!for!a!$20!gift!card!to!Starbucks.!The!draw!will!again!occur!anonymously.!!!If!you!are!interested!in!participating!in!this!study,!please!contact!Darrell!for!more!information.!A!brief!description!of!the!study,!including!time!to!ask!questions!or!express!concerns,!will!be!provided!in!the!GEOG!417!class.!Your!decision!whether!or!not!to!participate!in!this!study!will!remain!confidential!and!have!no!effect!on!individual!assessment!or!grading.!!Thank!you!for!taking!the!time!to!participate!in!this!study.!!Best!regards,!!!Darrell!Hoffman!MSc.!Candidate!in!Soil!Science!University!of!British!Columbia!(((((((((((((((!114!APPENDIX(VI:(Recruitment(Document(for(Primary(Study(!!!Forest(Floor(Tool(Survey(and(Focus(Group(Recruitment!!!!Dear!APBI!200!students,!!!You!are!invited!to!participate!in!an!online!survey!and!focus!groups!to!evaluate!an!educational!webTbased!tool!entitled!“Forest!Floor!Tool”.!You!are!being!invited!to!take!part!in!this!research!study!because!our!records!indicate!that!you!are!currently!registered!in!APBI!200!for!2014/15!academic!year.!We!want!to!learn!more!about!how!to!make!engaging!educational!tools!that!immerse!students!in!systems!that!are!typically!hardTtoTsee,!such!as!the!soil!environment.!!We!are!inviting!people!like!you!who!are!taking!APBI!200!this!term!to!help!us!improve!the!educational!elements!of!webTbased!tools.!!!!The!upcoming!forest!floor!description!and!humus!form!classification!laboratory!section!of!the!APBI!200!–!Introduction!to!Soil!Science!course!is!part!of!Darrell!Hoffman’s!MSc!research!project!that!is!supervised!by!Dr.!Maja!Krzic.!We!will!greatly!appreciate!your!feedback!on!the!upcoming!Forest!Floor!Lab.!During!the!lab!we!will!ask!you!to!review!material!from!a!website!(“The!Forest!Floor!Tool”)!designed!specifically!to!help!students!in!completing!the!lab.!The!tool!provides!relevant!information!(supplementary!to!the!lab!manual)!needed!to!complete!the!lab!assignment.!!After!you!complete!the!Forest!Floor!lab!and!receive!mark!and!feedback!on!your!lab!assignment,!we!will!ask!you!to!complete!an!online!survey!about!your!experiences!with!the!“Forest!Floor!Tool”.!Your!feedback!will!be!collected!anonymously!and!will!be!used!to!evaluate!the!effectiveness!of!the!tool!in!communicating!the!learning!objectives!of!the!Forest!Floor!lab.!Your!participation!in!the!online!survey!will!be!essential!for!Forest!Floor!lab!and!tool!improvements!and!refinements!!!You!will!be!asked!to!provide!your!consent!before!you!will!be!able!to!access!the!online!survey.!The!participation!in!the!online!survey!is!voluntary.!All!students!who!take!part!in!the!online!survey!will!be!entered!into!a!random!draw!for!ten!$20!gift!cards!to!Starbucks.!Each!student!will!receive!a!random!code!upon!completion!of!the!survey,!10!codes!will!be!randomly!selected!and!sent!to!all!APBI!200!students!by!email.!Any!student!with!a!winning!code!will!be!able!to!pick!up!their!gift!card!from!student!services!(MCML!344).!This!will!further!maintain!your!anonymity!as!a!participant!in!the!research!study.!!115!!In!addition!to!the!online!survey,!we!will!also!carry!out!20Tminute!focus!groups!to!discuss!students!responses!to!the!online!survey!regarding!effectiveness!of!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!At!the!end!of!the!online!survey!you!will!be!asked!if!you!wish!to!participate!in!a!focus!group!discussion.!You!will!be!able!to!forward!your!name!and!email!to!Darrell!Hoffman!(Note:!this!will!not!be!linked!to!your!survey!responses),!and!he!will!follow!up!with!you!to!arrange!times!for!the!focus!group!discussion!sessions.!!It!will!be!necessary!to!sign!a!consent!form!prior!to!participating!in!focus!group!discussions.!There!will!be!another!random!draw!for!ten!$20!gift!cards!to!Starbucks.!The!draw!will!again!occur!anonymously!through!a!third!party.!!!If!you!are!interested!in!participating!in!this!study,!please!contact!Darrell!for!more!information.!A!brief!description!of!the!study,!including!time!to!ask!questions!or!express!concerns,!will!be!provided!in!the!APBI!200!class.!Your!decision!whether!or!not!to!participate!in!this!study!will!remain!confidential!and!have!no!effect!on!individual!assessment!or!grading.!!Thank!you!for!taking!the!time!to!consider!improving!education!at!UBC!by!participating!in!this!study.!!Best!regards,!!!Darrell!Hoffman!MSc.!Candidate!in!Soil!Science!University!of!British!Columbia!!(((((((((((!116!APPENDIX(VII:(Consent(Form(for(Pilot(Study!(!!Evaluation(of(the(webDbased(Forest(Floor(Tool(Consent!form!for!GEOG!417!students!(! !Dear!GEOG!417!students,!!We!are!arranging!20Tminute!focus!groups!to!discuss!your!experiences!using!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!We!will!greatly!appreciate!your!participation!in!these!discussions,!so!that!we!can!make!improvements!to!the!tool,!as!well!as!make!recommendations!for!future!projects.!!If!you!have!any!questions!about!this!research!study!before!signing!this!consent!form,!please!read!the!information!presented!below.!If!you!have!further!questions,!email!!!Objective:(To!determine!how!useful!was!the!Forest!Floor!Tool!in!helping!students!complete!a!forest!floor!description!and!humus!form!classification!and!learn!about!the!importance!of!the!forest!floor!in!forest!ecosystems.!!!Researchers:(Data!will!be!collected!by!Dr.!Maja!Krzic!and!Darrell!Hoffman,!who!will!include!the!results!in!his!Masters!thesis.!!!Purpose:!This!study!aims!to!understand!the!experiences!of!students!in!a!soil!science!using!the!Forest!Floor!online!educational!tool.!You!are!being!invited!to!participate!in!this!study!as!a!student!in!GEOG!417!in!term!2!of!2014/15!academic!year.!This!research!will!be!used!in!a!Masters!thesis!report,!as!part!of!a!graduate!degree!at!the!University!of!British!Columbia.!!The!final!thesis!report!will!be!a!public!document.!!An!abridged!version!of!the!thesis!will!be!developed!into!a!manuscript!that!will!be!submitted!to!an!academic!journal!for!publication.!!!Study(Procedures:!The!study!will!consist!of!online!survey!and!additional!focus!group!discussion.!!The!focus!groups!will!take!place!after!the!completion!of!the!lab!on!forest!floor!and!after!you!have!received!your!marks!for!that!lab’s!assignment.!The!focus!groups!will!address!the!following!topics:!!T!Expectations!for!the!forest!floor!laboratory!section!!117!T!Impressions!and!experiences!with!Forest!Floor!online!educational!tool!T!Efficacy!in!addressing!forest!floor!laboratory!section!learning!outcome.!!During!the!focus!group,!participants!may!be!asked!about!experiences!with!teaching!and!learning!methods,!soil!science,!as!well!as!evaluation.!!Statements!and!discussions!that!arise!from!these!discussions!may!be!included!in!the!coTinvestigator’s!final!thesis!report!or!related!materials!(e.g.!conference!presentations,!manuscripts).!!!!Maintaining(Anonymity:((Your!name!will!not!be!linked!to!your!responses.!The!purpose!of!the!focus!group!interviews!is!to!get!more!insight!into!your!experiences!with!the!tool;!we!will!not!be!linking!the!data!to!any!information!that!could!identify!you!as!a!participant.!Only!Darrell!Hoffman!and!Dr.!Maja!Krzic!will!have!access!to!the!data.!!Audio(Recording:(Darrell!Hoffman!will!be!recording!audio!of!focus!group!sessions!on!his!computer.!He!will!make!transcripts!of!discussions!from!the!audio!files.!All!data!will!be!contained!in!passwordTprotected!files!and!stored!in!safe!locations!accessible!only!to!the!researchers.!(Choosing(NOT(to(Participate:(You!are!free!to!choose!not!to!participate!in!a!focus!group!session!at!any!time.!Even!if!you!sign!this!consent!form,!you!are!not!compelled!to!participate.!It!is!important!to!know!that!we!can!not!remove!your!data!once!it!is!collected!as!it!will!not!be!linked!to!anything!that!can!identify!you.!!Risks:!Participation!in!this!study!process!poses!minimal!risk.!!While!none!of!the!questions!address!sensitive!subject!area,!it!is!possible!that!discussing!classroom!experiences!may!be!unpleasant!for!some!students.!!If!you!are!uncomfortable!with!any!of!the!questions,!please!let!the!researchers!know!and!keep!in!mind!that!you!do!not!have!to!answer!any!questions!if!you!do!not!want!to.!!Anonymized!student!statements!may!be!used!for!publications,!reports!or!conference!presentations.!!The!risk!associated!with!the!focus!group!will!be!similar!to!what!students!experience!in!groupTwork!throughout!the!semester!in!GEOG!417.!!Participants!who!elect!to!participate!in!the!focus!group!risk!being!exposed!to!the!opinions!of!their!peers!in!a!faceTtoTface!environment.!!Focus!group!participants!may!choose!to!refrain!from!comment!on!any!topic!they!are!uncomfortable!discussing.!!!Benefits:(Participation!in!this!study!has!the!potential!to!improve!the!quality!of!the!soil!science!curriculum!for!future!students!by!facilitating!new!knowledge!about!student!experiences!in!a!modified!learning!environment.!!The!results!of!this!study!may!also!benefit!the!greater!academic!community!for!other!science!instructors.!!In!addition,!participants!may!benefit!!118!from!the!reflective!process!involved!in!interviews.!Knowing!more!about!how!you!learn!can!be!beneficial.!Talking!about!how!you!used!the!Forest!Floor!Tool,!what!aspects!of!it!you!liked!or!did!not!like,!can!help!you!to!understand!more!about!how!you!like!to!learn.!!!Measures(to(maintain(confidentiality:!!The!identities!of!all!participants!in!this!study!will!remain!confidential.!!A!password!protected!coding!system!will!be!used!to!identify!all!participants!in!the!focus!groups.!!All!data,!including!information!connected!to!participants’!names!or!other!identifying!characteristics,!will!be!encrypted!and!password!protected!on!the!coTinvestigator’s!personal!computer!that!is!kept!in!a!locked!office!at!the!University!of!British!Columbia.!!Focus!group!participants!are!requested!to!observe!confidentiality!with!respect!to!their!group!member’s!responses;!however,!we!cannot!control!what!participants!do!with!the!information!discussed.!!!The!final!thesis!and!manuscript!may!contain!statements!obtained!during!the!course.!!Participant’s!names!will!not!be!disclosed!in!relation!to!any!statements!in!association!with!the!course!for!the!final!thesis!report,!presentations,!or!related!materials.!!!!!Contact(for(information(about(the(study:!If!you!have!any!questions!or!would!like!further!information!with!respect!to!this!study,!please!contact!Darrell!Hoffman!(coTinvestigator)!at!or!Dr.!Maja!Krzic!(principal!investigator)!at!!!!Contact(for(concerns(about(the(rights(of(research(subjects:!If!you!have!any!concerns!or!complaints!about!your!rights!as!a!research!participant!and/or!your!experiences!while!participating!in!this!study,!contact!the!Research!Participant!Complaint!Line!in!the!UBC!Office!of!Research!Ethics!at!or!if!long!distance!eTmail!or!call!toll!free.!!!((((((((((((((!119!Participant(consent(and(signature:!We!greatly!appreciate!your!help!with!this!research.!By!signing!this!consent!form,!you!are!agreeing!to!have!anything!said!during!focus!group!interviews!recorded!and!used!for!research!into!the!effectiveness!of!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!Thank!you!!!By!signing!this!consent!form,!I!__________________________________________!agree!to!have!my!responses!recorded!and!used!for!research!into!the!effectiveness!of!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!!!!!!!!!Signature:!_________________________________!!!!!!!Date:!_____________________________!! !!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!Printed!Name!of!the!Participant!signing!above!!!(((((((((((((((((((!120!APPENDIX(VIII:(Consent(Form(for(Primary(Study(!Evaluation(of(the(webDbased(Forest(Floor(Tool(Consent!form!for!APBI!200!students!(!!!Dear!APBI!200!students,!!We!are!arranging!20Tminute!focus!groups!to!discuss!your!experiences!using!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!We!will!greatly!appreciate!your!participation!in!these!discussions,!so!that!we!can!make!improvements!to!the!tool,!as!well!as!make!recommendations!for!future!projects.!!If!you!have!any!questions!about!this!research!study!before!signing!this!consent!form,!please!read!the!information!presented!below.!If!you!have!further!questions,!email.!!!Objective:(To!determine!how!useful!was!the!Forest!Floor!Tool!in!helping!students!complete!a!forest!floor!description!and!humus!form!classification!and!learn!about!the!importance!of!the!forest!floor!in!forest!ecosystems.!!!Researchers:(Data!will!be!collected!by!Dr.!Maja!Krzic!and!Darrell!Hoffman,!who!will!include!the!results!in!his!Masters!thesis.!!!Purpose:!This!study!aims!to!understand!the!experiences!of!students!in!APBI!200!course!in!using!the!Forest!Floor!online!educational!tool.!You!are!being!invited!to!participate!in!this!study!as!a!student!in!this!course!in!term!2!of!2014/15!academic!year.!This!research!will!be!used!in!a!Masters!thesis!report,!as!part!of!a!graduate!degree!at!the!University!of!British!Columbia.!!The!final!thesis!report!will!be!a!public!document.!!An!abridged!version!of!the!thesis!will!be!developed!into!a!manuscript!that!will!be!submitted!to!an!academic!journal!for!publication.!!!Study(Procedures:!The!study!will!consist!of!online!survey!and!additional!focus!group!discussion.!!The!focus!groups!will!take!place!after!the!completion!of!the!lab!on!forest!floor!and!after!you!have!received!your!marks!for!that!lab’s!assignment.!The!focus!groups!will!address!the!following!topics:!!T!Expectations!for!the!forest!floor!laboratory!section!!121!T!Impressions!and!experiences!with!Forest!Floor!online!educational!tool!T!Efficacy!in!addressing!forest!floor!laboratory!section!learning!outcome.!During!the!focus!group,!participants!may!be!asked!about!experiences!with!teaching!and!learning!methods,!soil!science,!as!well!as!evaluation.!!Statements!and!discussions!that!arise!from!these!discussions!may!be!included!in!the!coTinvestigator’s!final!thesis!report!or!related!materials!(e.g.!conference!presentations,!manuscripts).!!!!Maintaining(Anonymity:((Your!name!will!not!be!linked!to!your!responses.!The!purpose!of!the!focus!group!interviews!is!to!get!more!insight!into!your!experiences!with!the!tool;!we!will!not!be!linking!the!data!to!any!information!that!could!identify!you!as!a!participant.!Only!Darrell!Hoffman!and!Dr.!Maja!Krzic!will!have!access!to!the!data.!!Audio(Recording:(Darrell!Hoffman!will!be!recording!audio!of!focus!group!sessions!on!his!computer.!He!will!make!transcripts!of!discussions!from!the!audio!files.!All!data!will!be!contained!in!passwordTprotected!files!and!stored!in!safe!locations!accessible!only!to!the!researchers.!(Choosing(NOT(to(Participate:(You!are!free!to!choose!not!to!participate!in!a!focus!group!session!at!any!time.!Even!if!you!sign!this!consent!form,!you!are!not!compelled!to!participate.!It!is!important!to!know!that!we!can!not!remove!your!data!once!it!is!collected!as!it!will!not!be!linked!to!anything!that!can!identify!you.!!Risks:!Darrell!Hoffman,!a!Teaching!Assistant!(TA)!in!the!APBI!200!course!will!be!leading!focus!group!discussions.!Participation!in!this!study!process!poses!minimal!risk.!!While!none!of!the!questions!address!sensitive!subject!area,!it!is!possible!that!discussing!classroom!experiences!may!be!unpleasant!for!some!students.!!If!you!are!uncomfortable!with!any!of!the!questions,!please!let!the!researchers!know!and!keep!in!mind!that!you!do!not!have!to!answer!any!questions!if!you!do!not!want!to.!!Anonymized!student!statements!may!be!used!for!publications,!reports!or!conference!presentations.!!The!risk!associated!with!the!focus!group!will!be!similar!to!what!students!experience!in!group!work!throughout!the!semester!in!APBI!200.!!Participants!who!elect!to!participate!in!the!focus!group!risk!being!exposed!to!the!opinions!of!their!peers!in!a!faceTtoTface!environment.!!Focus!group!participants!may!choose!to!refrain!from!comment!on!any!topic!they!are!uncomfortable!discussing.!!Benefits:(Participation!in!this!study!has!the!potential!to!improve!the!quality!of!the!APBI!200!course!for!future!students!by!facilitating!new!knowledge!about!student!experiences!in!a!modified!learning!environment.!!The!results!of!this!study!may!also!benefit!the!greater!academic!community!for!other!science!instructors.!!In!addition,!participants!may!benefit!from!the!!122!reflective!process!involved!in!interviews.!Knowing!more!about!how!you!learn!can!be!beneficial.!Talking!about!how!you!used!the!Forest!Floor!Tool,!what!aspects!of!it!you!liked!or!did!not!like,!can!help!you!to!understand!more!about!how!you!like!to!learn.!!!Measures(to(maintain(confidentiality:!!The!identities!of!all!participants!in!this!study!will!remain!confidential.!!A!password!protected!coding!system!will!be!used!to!identify!all!participants!in!the!focus!groups.!!All!data,!including!information!connected!to!participants’!names!or!other!identifying!characteristics,!will!be!encrypted!and!password!protected!on!the!coTinvestigator’s!personal!computer!that!is!kept!in!a!locked!office!at!the!University!of!British!Columbia.!!Focus!group!participants!are!requested!to!observe!confidentiality!with!respect!to!their!group!member’s!responses;!however,!we!cannot!control!what!participants!do!with!the!information!discussed.!!!The!final!thesis!and!manuscript!may!contain!statements!obtained!during!the!course.!!Participant’s!names!will!not!be!disclosed!in!relation!to!any!statements!in!association!with!the!course!for!the!final!thesis!report,!presentations,!or!related!materials.!!!!!Contact(for(information(about(the(study:!If!you!have!any!questions!or!would!like!further!information!with!respect!to!this!study,!please!contact!Darrell!Hoffman!(coTinvestigator)!at!or!Dr.!Maja!Krzic!(principal!investigator)!at!.!!!Contact(for(concerns(about(the(rights(of(research(subjects:!If!you!have!any!concerns!or!complaints!about!your!rights!as!a!research!participant!and/or!your!experiences!while!participating!in!this!study,!contact!the!Research!Participant!Complaint!Line!in!the!UBC!Office!of!Research!Ethics!at!or!if!long!distance!eTmail!or!call!toll!free!!!(((((((((Participant(consent(and(signature:!We!greatly!appreciate!your!help!with!this!research.!By!signing!this!consent!form,!you!are!agreeing!to!have!anything!said!during!focus!group!interviews!recorded!and!used!for!research!into!the!effectiveness!of!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!Thank!you!!!!123!By!signing!this!consent!form,!I!__________________________________________!agree!to!have!my!responses!recorded!and!used!for!research!into!the!effectiveness!of!the!Forest!Floor!Tool.!!!!!!!!!Signature:!_________________________________!!!!!!!Date:!_____________________________!! !!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!Printed!Name!of!the!Participant!signing!above!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!((((((((!124!APPENDIX(IX:(Components(from(Pilot(Study(!Component(1(!Statement( Loading( Strongly(Agree((Agree( Neutral( Disagree( Strongly(Disagree(Combining(multimedia(and(web:based(elements(with(in:class(learning(was(beneficial(to(my(learning((.870(47.4%(9(31.6%(6(10.5%(2(10.5%(2((Having(access(to(the(website(at(any(time(and(place(was(helpful(for(learning(forest(floor(concepts((.853(63.2%(12(26.3%(5(( 10.5%(2((Graphics(and(images(on(the(website(and(in(videos(helped(me(to(visualize(key(elements(of(the(forest(floor((.817(52.6%(10(36.8%(7(( 10.5%(2((I(think(having(access(to(the(information(on(the(website(outside(of(the(classroom(allowed(me(to(effectively(reinforce(and(expand(my(learning(about(the(forest(floor((.798(52.6%(10(36.8%(7(5.3%(1(5.3%(1((I(found(that(the(multimedia(elements(presented(on(the(forest(floor(website(reinforced(what(I(learned(during(the(forest(floor(lab((.769(42.1%(8(42.1%(9(10.5%(2(( (Having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment(helped(me(to(learn(about(the(forest(floor((.739(52.6%(10(31.6%(6(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(introduced(me(to(the(properties(of(organic(horizons((L,(F,(H,(and(O)((.733(42.1%(8(52.6%(10(( 5.3%(1((Learning(with(the(aide(of(the(website(was(preferable(to(using(a(textbook(or(lecture(notes((.730(31.6%(6(21.1%(4(36.8%(7(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(I(liked(having(access(to(the(forest(floor(website(while(working(on(the(lab(assignment((.728(63.2%(12(15.5%(4(10.5%(2(5.3%(1((I(did(not(find(the(forest(floor(website(helpful(in(learning(about(the(forest(floor((.727(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(31.6%(6(52.6%(10(!125!I(thought(that(the(in:class(portion(of(the(lab(was(complemented(by(the(addition(of(the(forest(floor(website((.718(26.3%(5(47.4%(9(10.5%(2(15.8%(3((I(thought(that(the(website(was(esthetically(pleasing(overall((.706(36.8(7(42.1%(8(15.5%(4(( (I(could(have(learned(the(material(equally(effectively(without(the(use(of(multimedia(and(web:based(elements((:.705(5.3%(1(15.8%(3(10.5%(2(57.9%(11(10.5%(2(I(found(it(difficult(to(find(the(specific(information(I(was(searching(for(on(the(website((.697(5.3%(1(15.8%(3(15.8%(3(47.4%(9(15.8%(3(Graphics(and(images(on(the(website(and(in(videos(did(not(improve(my(understanding(of(the(forest(floor((.554(( 10.5%(2(5.3%(1(31.6%(6(52.6%(10(I(could(have(learned(the(material(equally(effectively(from(the(multimedia(and(web:based(elements(alone((.544(15.8%(3(26.3%(5(26.3%(5(21.1%(4(10.5%(2(Component(2(!Statement( Loading( Strongly(Agree((Agree( Neutral( Disagree( Strongly(Disagree(After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(still(feel(unsure(about(the(differences(between(the(humus(form(orders((.796(( 5.3%(1(15.8%(3(47.4%(9(31.6%(6(After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(the(properties(of(different(organic(horizons(are(still(not(clear(to(me((.784(( 10.5%(2(( 26.3%(5(63.2%(12(Using(the(website(to(learn(the(material(made(me(feel(isolated(from(other(students(and/or(my(instructor((.765(( ( 26.3%(5(42.1%(8(31.6%(6(Describing(the(forest(floor(samples(in(the(laboratory(was(essential(to(my(understanding(of(the(properties(of(the(different(organic(horizons((.654(42.1%(8(57.9%(11((I(believe(that(what(I(learned(from(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(is(important(knowledge(for(forest(management((.582(26.3%(5(73.7%(14(( ( (!126!I(think(that(the(forest(floor(videos(did(not(provide(enough(information((.527(( 15.8%(3(21.1%(4(52.6%(10(10.5%(2(Component(3(!Statement( Loading( Strongly(Agree((Agree( Neutral( Disagree( Strongly(Disagree(After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(feel(confident(differentiating(between(the(organic(horizons((L,(F,(H(and(O).((.751(47.4%(9(21.1%(4(31.6%(6(( ((Describing(and(classifying(the(humus(form(in(the(laboratory(was(necessary(for(me(to(understand(the(properties(of(the(different(humus(forms((.683(47.4%(9(47.4%(9(5.3%(1(( (I(thought(too(much(information(was(presented(in(the(forest(floor(videos((:.670(5.3%(1(10.5%(2(( 73.7%(14(10.5%(2(I(was(able(to(relate(the(information(in(the(videos(and(on(the(website(to(what(we(were(seeing(in(our(sample(in(the(lab((.617(26.3%(5(57.9%(11(15.8%(3(The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(explained(the(chemical(properties(of(different(types(of(litter(to(me((.615(15.8%(3(36.8%(7(21.1%(4(26.3%(5((The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(taught(me(the(differences(between(the(decomposer(communities(in(the(different(humus(form(orders((.586(15.8%(3(52.6%(10(26.3%(5(5.3%(1((After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(can(tell(the(difference(between(the(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull)((.517(31.6%(6(57.9%(11(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(((!Component(4(!Statement( Loading( Strongly(Agree((Agree( Neutral( Disagree( Strongly(Disagree(I(found(videos(and(graphics(to(be(more(effective(than(plain(text(in(learning(about(the(forest(floor((.830(47.4%(9(21.1%(4(15.8%(3(15.8%(3(((!127!I(found(the(videos(to(be(the(most(useful(medium(for(learning(about(the(forest(floor((.804(36.8%(7(21.1%(4(26.3%(5(15.8%(3((While(working(on(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment,(I(preferred(learning(from(reading(text(rather(than(watching(video(clips((:.801(5.3%(1(31.6%(6(31.6%(6(26.3%(5(5.3%(1(I(found(it(difficult(to(make(connections(between(the(information(presented(in(the(forest(floor(videos(and(on(the(website,(and(what(we(saw(in(our(lab(samples((.656(( 5.5%(1(15.8%(3(57.9%(11(21.1%(4(Component(5(((((((Statement( Loading( Strongly(Agree((Agree( Neutral( Disagree( Strongly(Disagree(After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(do(not(feel(comfortable(explaining(ways(the(forest(floor(influences(soil(properties(or(impacts(the(forest(ecosystem((.800(47.4%(9(21.1%(4(31.6%(6(( ((I(found(navigation(of(the(website(to(be(straight:forward((:.560(47.4%(9(31.6%(6(5.3%(1(15.8%(3((The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(introduced(me(to(the(humus(form(orders((mor,(moder(and(mull)((.540(55.6%(10(38.9%(7(10.5%(2((((((((After(completing(the(forest(floor(lab(and(assignment(with(the(help(of(the(website,(I(understand(the(impacts(of(the(forest(floor(on(soil(properties((.445(26.3%(5(52.6%(10(15.8%(3(5.3%(1((The(forest(floor(lab(and(website(effectively(communicated(the(importance(of(the(Forest(Floor(in(forest(ecosystems(and(soils((.430(31.6%%(6(42.1%(8(15.8%(3(10.5%(2((I(found(having(access(to(skeleton(notes(while(reviewing(the(videos(helped(me(to(identify(important(points((.419(21.1%(4(52.6%(10(15.8%(3(5.3%(1(5.3%(1(!128!APPENDIX(X:(ANOVA(and(Tukey’s(HSD(Tables((ANOVA(Comparison(of(1st(Year(and(Remaining(Year(Mean(Response(! Sum(of(Squares( df( Mean(Square( F( Sig.(Between!Groups! 0.117! 1! 0.117! 0.820! 0.368!Within!Groups! 10.963! 77! 0.142! ! !Total! 11.080! 78! ! ! !!(ANOVA(Comparing(Course(Lecture(Section(Mean(Response(! Sum(of(Squares( df( Mean(Square( F( Sig.(Between!Groups! 0.075! 1! 0.075! 0.526! 0.470!Within!Groups! 11.004! 77! 0.143! ! !Total! 11.080! 78! ! ! !!!ANOVA(Comparing(Laboratory(Section(Means(! Sum(of(Squares( df( Mean(Square( F( Sig.(Between!Groups! 2.211! 7! 0.316! 2.528! .022(Within!Groups! 8.869! 71! 0.125! ! !Total! 11.080! 78! ! ! !!!Tukey’s(HSD(Comparing(Laboratory(Sections((Against(Section(5)(Lab(Section(Mean(Difference( Std.(Error( Sig.( 95%(Confidence(Interval(Lower(Bound( Upper(Bound(1! T0.141! 0.138! 0.970! T0.573! 0.291!2! T0.443! 0.151! 0.080! T0.914! 0.028!3! T0.531! 0.171! 0.052! T1.065! 0.003!4! T0.171! 0.140! 0.924! T0.609! 0.267!6! T0.221! 0.164! 0.878! T0.734! 0.292!7! T0.215! 0.191! 0.948! T0.811! 0.380!8! 0.017! 0.179! 1.000! T0.543! 0.577!!!!!!!!!!

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.24.1-0216006/manifest

Comment

Related Items