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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ortus Ritter, Martin 2014

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Ortus   by MARTIN RITTER  B.Mus., The University of British Columbia, 2007 MMus, The University of British Columbia, 2009  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES   THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  December 2014  © Martin Ritter, 2014ii  Abstract This thesis entitled Ortus, for chamber ensemble, interactive electronics, and motion tracking, establishes a novel approach to spectral composition. It is scored for flute/alto flute, clarinet/bass clarinet, bassoon, piano, percussion, violin 1, violin 2, viola, cello, and real-time electronics. A conceptual narrative transforms the abstract spectral data into a story telling device through the inherent meaning and semantic implications of the chosen sound files. Ortus relies on the recording and analysis of a heartbeat as its foundation; the heartbeat is used as the musical material for the three tutti movements, with extracted pitch material used to create formal and conceptual cohesion between all of the movements. Additionally, two conceptually different sound file families are integrated, which form the basis for the small ensemble movements and are used for the creation of all pitch, structural, and formal materials.      iii  Preface The composition Ortus is an original work by composer Martin Ritter. The software used for generating electronic sounds and creating analysis data use some open-source plugins/audiounits and software: Michael Norris’s Soundmagic Spectral plugins http://www. michaelnorris.info/ software/soundmagic-spectral.html, Dr. Keith Hamel’s UBC Max/MSP/Jitter Toolbox from http://www.opusonemusic.net/muset/toolbox.html, and analysis software as well as sound generating software developed by the composer.     iv  Table of Contents Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii!Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii!Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... iv!List of Tables ............................................................................................................................... vii!List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. viii!Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... xii!Dedication ................................................................................................................................... xiv!Chapter  1: Composition Overview ............................................................................................. 1!1.1! Instrumentation and Formal Structure ........................................................................... 1!1.2! Aesthetic Considerations ............................................................................................... 5!1.3! Role of Electronics ......................................................................................................... 6!1.3.1! Electronic Processing ............................................................................................ 10!1.4! Motion Tracking and Hyper-Movement ...................................................................... 15!1.4.1! Computer Vision Toolbox .................................................................................... 15!1.4.2! Hyper-Movement .................................................................................................. 16!Chapter  2: Historical/Technical Background ......................................................................... 20!2.1! Computer Music Overview .......................................................................................... 20!2.1.1! Towards Real-Time Digital Electronics ............................................................... 21!2.1.2! Spectral Attitude ................................................................................................... 23!2.2! Technology Overview .................................................................................................. 25!2.2.1! Fast Fourier Transform ......................................................................................... 25!2.2.2! Computer Vision ................................................................................................... 27!v  Chapter  3: Spectral Procedures ............................................................................................... 29!3.1! (Pre-)Compositional Aspects of Spectral Data Analysis ............................................. 30!3.2! Composing with Spectral Data .................................................................................... 35!3.2.1! Use of Raw MIDI Data Sets ................................................................................. 36!3.2.2! Use of Histogram Analysis Sets ........................................................................... 37!3.2.3! Use of Occurrence Model Sets ............................................................................. 37!3.2.4! Use of Segment Analysis Sets .............................................................................. 38!3.3! Formal Considerations ................................................................................................. 39!3.3.1! Conceptual Story Telling Through Spectral Abstraction ...................................... 39!Chapter  4: Movement Overview .............................................................................................. 45!4.1! Movements I/IV/VIII - Tutti Sections ......................................................................... 45!4.1.1! General Overview ................................................................................................. 45!4.1.2! Movement I ........................................................................................................... 46!4.1.2.1! Construction ................................................................................................... 46!4.1.2.2! Notation .......................................................................................................... 46!4.1.2.3! Pitch Material ................................................................................................. 47!4.1.2.4! Pitch Extraction - Strings ............................................................................... 48!4.1.3! Movement IV ........................................................................................................ 49!4.1.4! Movement VIII ..................................................................................................... 52!4.2! Movement II. Lament .................................................................................................. 52!4.3! Movement III. Chit-Chat ............................................................................................. 54!4.4! Movement V. Prayer .................................................................................................... 56!4.5! Movement VI. Exorcism .............................................................................................. 61!vi  4.6! Movement VII. Forebode ............................................................................................. 63!4.7! Movement IX. Reach ................................................................................................... 66!Chapter  5: Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 70!Chapter  6: Score for Ortus ........................................................................................................ 71!Bibliography .............................................................................................................................. 189!Appendices ................................................................................................................................. 196!Appendix A ................................................................................................................................ 196!A.1! Waveforms of Source Sounds ............................................................................... 196!A.2! Sample Page of Transcribed Analysis Files - NaPro ............................................ 199!A.3! Occurrence-Models and Histograms ..................................................................... 206!Appendix B ................................................................................................................................ 211!B.1! Max/MSP Spectral Analysis ................................................................................. 211!B.2! CV Toolbox Documentation ................................................................................. 214!B.3! Composer Tools .................................................................................................... 217!B.4! Sample Code JavaScript ........................................................................................ 219!Appendix C ................................................................................................................................ 225!C.1! Sample Score with Max Messages ........................................................................ 225!   vii  List of Tables Table 1 Movement name descriptions ............................................................................................ 2!Table 2 Overview of Ortus ............................................................................................................. 4!Table 3 Heartbeat cycle and musical representation ..................................................................... 42!Table 4 Instrumental assignment of HB-set .................................................................................. 48!Table 5 Movement IV; Chord ratios and repetitions .................................................................... 51!Table 6 Formant regions for children ........................................................................................... 55!Table 7 Important pitches for each movement ............................................................................. 67!viii  List of Figures  Figure 1 Control Matrix of the Max/MSP patch ............................................................................. 7!Figure 2 Array of 12 bandpass filters ............................................................................................. 8!Figure 3 Bandpass Filter abstraction ............................................................................................... 9!Figure 4 Location of overhead camera and tracking the movements of the two hands in a piano performance .................................................................................................................................. 16!Figure 5 Movement IX, m.33; FMG tracking ............................................................................... 18!Figure 6 Movement IX, m.75; EMG tracking .............................................................................. 19!Figure 7 Movement IX, mm.77-78; IMG tracking ....................................................................... 19!Figure 8 Sample Frame with bin and hertz assignments .............................................................. 27!Figure 9 Raw MIDI Note Data for movement VII transcribed to NoteAbility Pro 2 ................... 31!Figure 10 Histogram Analysis of raw fft data from movement VII ............................................. 32!Figure 11 Occurrence Model of raw fft data from movement VII showing both pitch and amplitude averages ........................................................................................................................ 32!Figure 12 Segment Analysis of  the unique note data of movement VII; note threshold of 6, amplitude threshold of 0.01 .......................................................................................................... 33!Figure 13 Piano left hand pitch assignment, movement VI .......................................................... 36!Figure 14 Pitch histogram of the HB-set ...................................................................................... 37!Figure 15 OM with pitch assignments of strings in movement I .................................................. 38!Figure 16 First line of movement II with labeled note assignments ............................................. 39!Figure 17 Pitch Histogram analysis of the heartbeat with peaks (HB-set) labeled ...................... 43!Figure 18 Cell notation for movement I ....................................................................................... 47!ix  Figure 19 Cell notation for: A) cello; B) viola; C) violin2 ........................................................... 49!Figure 20 Movement VIII chord compression .............................................................................. 52!Figure 21 Assignment of the T1, T3, and T5 layers ..................................................................... 54!Figure 22 Movement III main pitch content ................................................................................. 55!Figure 23 Movement III, ending section; exact pitch mapping .................................................... 56!Figure 24 Movement III; m.48 HB pitch and formant assignment ............................................... 56!Figure 25 Static Prayer Bowl fft analysis page ............................................................................. 58!Figure 26 Harmonic chords extracted with pitch clipping ............................................................ 59!Figure 27 Octave Displacement Chart with inharmonic pitches (in red) ..................................... 60!Figure 28 OM for harmonic pitch chords ..................................................................................... 60!Figure 29 Movement V. Prayer, page 2 system 3 ......................................................................... 61!Figure 30 Pitch assignments of analysis frames to Piano texture ................................................. 62!Figure 31 Larger intervallic motion with directional changes; mm.36-38 ................................... 62!Figure 32 HB-set assignment to piano RH ................................................................................... 63!Figure 33 Movement VII instrumental chord extractions from raw data analysis ....................... 65!Figure 34 Movement VII piano chord progression 1; fixed anchor, moving ratio ....................... 66!Figure 35 Movement VII piano chord progression 2; moving anchor, fixed ratio ....................... 66!Figure 36 Movement IX, summary pitch assignments at beginning of final section ................... 68!Figure 37 Heartbeat sample waveform; mvmnts I, IV, VIII ....................................................... 196!Figure 38 Crying sample waveform; mvmnt II .......................................................................... 196!Figure 39 Speech sample waveform; mvmnt III ......................................................................... 196!Figure 40 Prayer Bowl sample waveform; mvmnt V ................................................................. 197!Figure 41 Oud sample waveform; mvmnt VI ............................................................................. 197!x  Figure 42 Brake Drum sample waveform; mvmnt VII ............................................................... 197!Figure 43 Singing sample waveform; mvmnt IX ....................................................................... 198!Figure 44 Movement I/IV/VIII Raw data (sample) .................................................................... 199!Figure 45 Movement II Raw data (sample) ................................................................................ 200!Figure 46 Movement III Raw data (sample) ............................................................................... 201!Figure 47 Movement V Raw data (sample) ................................................................................ 202!Figure 48 Movement VI Raw data, same-note (sample) ............................................................ 203!Figure 49 Movement VII Raw data; same-note (sample) ........................................................... 204!Figure 50 Movement IX Raw data (sample) ............................................................................... 205!Figure 51 Movement I/IV/VIII OM ............................................................................................ 206!Figure 52 Movement I/IV/VIII Histogram ................................................................................. 206!Figure 53 Movement II OM ........................................................................................................ 206!Figure 54 Movement II Histogram ............................................................................................. 207!Figure 55 Movement III OM ...................................................................................................... 207!Figure 56 Movement III Histogram ............................................................................................ 207!Figure 57 Movement V OM ....................................................................................................... 208!Figure 58 Movement VI OM ...................................................................................................... 208!Figure 59 Movement VI Histogram ............................................................................................ 208!Figure 60 Movement VII OM ..................................................................................................... 209!Figure 61 Movement VII Histogram .......................................................................................... 209!Figure 62 Movement IX OM ...................................................................................................... 209!Figure 63 Movement IX Histogram ............................................................................................ 210!Figure 64 Spectal playback and analysis unit ............................................................................. 211!xi  Figure 65 Spectral storage unit ................................................................................................... 211!Figure 66 Spectral Analysis ........................................................................................................ 212!Figure 67 Preview of Raw data ................................................................................................... 212!Figure 68 Segmentation window ................................................................................................ 213!Figure 69 Composer Tools: main input window ........................................................................ 217!Figure 70 Composer Tools: chord compression/expansion window .......................................... 218!Figure 71 Composer Tools: set-theory analysis window ............................................................ 218!Figure 72 JavaScript function: note data structure ..................................................................... 223!Figure 73 JavaScript function: histogram calculation ................................................................ 224!  xii  Acknowledgements  Thank you to the faculty, staff, and students of the School of Music at UBC for their support, guidance, and assistance over all these years.   In particular I would like to offer my most sincere and heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Keith Hamel for his advice, unwavering support, patience, guidance and all the extra time he has invested in my ideas and my artistic growth over the years. He has been working diligently since 2005 to help me make better artistic choices and to always strive for clearer and more effective musical results.   Many thanks to Dr. Robert Pritchard for his enthusiasm and guidance through many projects and adventures. I have undoubtedly spent many more hours in his office in deep discussion than were strictly necessary, each and every one of which was extremely enjoyable.   Thanks to Dr. Corey Hamm, Mark Takeshi McGregor, Brian Nesselroad, Ariel Barnes, and the board of Vancouver Pro Musica for helping realise portions of this thesis in concert. Components of the research that lead to the realization of this project were funded by SSHRC.  Special thanks are owed to my parents who have supported me in my choice towards a career in the arts. They put me on this path in grade one by sending me to music school and have not waivered in their support since.  xiii  My growth as an artist and human being would not have been possible without the many years of friendship and support of Karin Holm-Pederson and her family.  Finally, I would like to thank my partner Alyssa Aska for her support, vision, and uncanny ability to spot procrastination and calling me out on it. Without her this thesis would not yet be completed, nor would it be as presentable. xiv  Dedication     To VV, OT, and FS You are this piece and its inspiration 1  Chapter  1: Composition Overview 1.1 Instrumentation and Formal Structure  Ortus is a chamber orchestra piece for nine players, real-time electronic sounds, and motion tracking for the piano. The piece is entirely based on the spectral analysis of 7 source sounds, which were analyzed and manipulated with software written by the author. Ortus is Latin and may be translated as origin, or source. The word origin is appropriate because the technique of spectral music is approached in novel ways in Ortus. This new methodology of creating musical material marks the beginning, or origin, of a new phase in my development as a composer and is the source of my inspiration.   The instrumentation includes flute/alto flute, clarinet/bass clarinet, bassoon, piano, percussion, violin 1, violin 2, viola, and cello. Ortus is divided into nine movements. Six of these movements use small subsets of the ensemble, ranging from solo pieces to quartets. Cumulative over these six movements all instruments are used except for violin 2. The other three movements use the entire ensemble.   A different spectral analysis was created for each of the six small ensemble movements, while the three tutti movements use the spectral analysis of the same source sound. The samples are divided into two source sound families (SSF), each containing three sounds, while the sample for the tutti movements (heartbeat) serves as a third, overarching entity. The first SSF includes sounds that are produced by the human body (crying, speech, singing), while SSF2 are sounds produced with the human body (prayer bowl, instrumental, brake drum). The movements are arranged so the tutti movements interrupt the smaller ensemble pieces.   Each small ensemble movement is based on a different spectral analysis and is named according to an association with the source sample or reaction to/against the implications of the 2  sample. Table 1 shows all movement names with a description for why/how the name was chosen. The tutti movements were not given any specific name other than the designation “tutti”. This was to set them apart from the small ensemble pieces as well as to reinforce the idea that these three movements are connected to each other in name, ensemble, and by the sample used.  Table 1 Movement name descriptions  The heartbeat sample is of great importance to the piece. Nine major component-pitches are extracted from an analysis of the sample. These nine pitches become the heartbeat-set (HB-set). Each movement is assigned one of these pitches, which become important in the creation of the real-time electronic sounds.  Motion tracking is used only for the piano player in small ensemble movements (VI, VII, IX). The piano was chosen because the area to be tracked (the keyboard) is unchanging throughout a performance. There is also very little movements/interference from the performer’s Mvmnt Name Description I Tutti Sample of a fetal heartbeat II Lament Sample of a crying baby; the sample has a distinct melodic contour, which reminded me of the solo vocal pieces of the Seto funeral tradition; this led to the choice of a solo piece; the clarinet was chosen for its ability to be subdued and calm in the chalumeau register and piercing and harsh in the upper range III Chit-Chat Sample of a child reading; integration of formant regions due to the nature of the sample; two instruments are having an abstract conversation IV Tutti Sample of a fetal heartbeat V Prayer Sample of a prayer bowl; the sample directly influenced the formal shape and name of the piece VI Exorcism Sample of an oud; an active attempt in subverting/exorcising the musical material and techniques from mvmnt V. Prayer;  VII Forebode Sample of a brake drum; foreshadows the piano writing/texture from IX. Reach VIII Tutti Sample of a fetal heartbeat IX Reach Sample of a child singing; most obvious use of motion tracking; the pianist is reaching for (imaginary) notes and extending the instrument  3  body so that a clear picture of the hands can be obtained for analysis. Each movement that uses the tracking is asking the performer to employ a different and increasing complex method of movement. This ranges from tracking normal playing styles without specific instructions, to consciously tracking (extra-) musical gestures, and finally to tracking imaginary/non-musical gestures.  Table 2 shows a summary of the entire piece including movement names, analysis samples used, instrumentation, approximate duration and a short description of the materials and/or techniques employed. The ideas and processes introduced will be explored throughout the rest of this document.               4  Mvmnt Name Analysis Sample Instrumentation Dur in min. Description I N/A Heartbeat Tutti 3-5 Cell notation; mostly heartbeat (HB) and Occurrence Model (OM) pitches; sustained texture II Lament Crying (SSF1) Solo Clarinet 3 Open notation; long sustained notes with interruptions; Same-note structure and Segment Analysis data III Chit-Chat Speech (SSF1) Bass clarinet, Viola 4 Sparse; raw fft data; formant pitches; call and response; interlocking parts IV N/A Heartbeat Tutti 3 Precise chordal structures; metric phasing; HB-set with compression V Prayer Prayer Bowl (SSF2) Alto Flute, Percussion, Cello 5-12 Open notation; extended techniques; restricted pitch material; restricted spectral material;  VI Exorcism Instrument (SSF2) Clarinet, Piano, Violin, Cello 4 Relentless; strict notation; rigid use of spectral material; large amount of spectral data; sectional contrasts; piano motion tracking (FMG) VII Forebode Brake Drum (SSF2) Bassoon, Piano, Percussion 3 Unique-note data; intricate rhythmic layering; evolution towards HB-set; piano motion tracking (EMG) VIII N/A Heartbeat Tutti 2 Mix between I and IV; initially chordal then morphing into a sustained texture; HB-set, movement pitch, and first 4 pitches of movement IX IX Reach Singing (SSF1) Solo Piano 8 Sombre; intricate rhythmic layering; piano motion tracking (IMG) Table 2 Overview of Ortus    5  1.2 Aesthetic Considerations While a more traditional approach to spectral composition might be one of interpolation, timbral morphing, or a large number of other methodologies my personal interest in the use of these data structures is geared towards the underlying semantic meaning of the original source sound. Using the inherent meaning of the source as a starting point for pre-compositional work, and the generated data for various pitch, formal, and theoretical constructs, a different approach to spectral composition is realized.  Joshua Fineberg states that “reservoirs” of notes and relationships can be constructed using spectra:  Besides building harmony/timbers from the acoustically-based models provided by spectra, many spectral composers use these models as reservoirs. They sometimes treat these reservoirs as modes, from which lines and harmonies can be constructed: the power of this system comes from the fact that acoustic models can generate very large numbers of frequencies […] which can be combined with each other while still guaranteeing an overall coherence. (Fineberg, “Guide” 99) This “guaranteed coherence”, as Fineberg describes, in combination with the semantic underpinnings of the source sound and its relationship to the piece as a whole, or across multiple pieces, is the basis for this new approach discussed in this document. Ortus is fragmented in terms of orchestration, technique, musical material, and source sounds. However, the heartbeat is a reservoir and its data is used, in some manner, in every movement, which, as Fineberg argues, guarantees cohesion.  There are certain tendencies in my music that have developed over time. For example, in general I prefer sustained gestures (see II, V, second part of VI, VII, and IX) and music that 6  obfuscates the beat (I, II, V, VII, IX). Musical gestures/melodies are often self-contained, meaning they tend to remain in a single instrument or instrumental units and get replaced by new gestures/melodies rather than to morph or transform. Complex rhythms, both for single instruments and ensemble writing, are often constructed by superimposing multiple streams of data or rhythmic processes (IV, VI, VII, VIII, IX). These are some of the tendencies that are readily observable in some of the movements, while other movements use different techniques, contradicting or integrating different styles into one. For example, the rapid piano gestures of VI. Exorcism are on the beat and continuous, but the constant shifts in time signatures, in conjunction with accented notes obscures any real sense of metrical structure.  1.3 Role of Electronics Real-time electronic sounds play an important role in the construction and cohesion of Ortus. They are programmed in a graphical programming language called Max/MSP (Puckette) and use a combination of real-time effects and sampling of pre-recorded materials. A master patch was created that controls all the electronic requirements for each movement of Ortus. One of the main components of the patch is the “control matrix” (see Figure 1)1, which acts as a patch-bay where any input can be mapped to any output. This allows for the construction of very complex audio signal chains. This signal routing can be easily changed in real-time for each movement. This keeps the programming to a minimum and also allows for experimentation during rehearsals.                                                 1 The matrix is part of the UBC Toolbox (Hamel, “Toolbox”) and was redesigned by the author for an update of the Toolbox. 7    Figure 1 Control Matrix of the Max/MSP patch  The main task of the electronics is to create a unified sound experience for the listener. This is achieved with two simple components:  1. filtering of the incoming signal 2. consistent use of (simple) effects   The filtering is the most important function of the electronic sounds as it acts as a universal identifier throughout Ortus and connects each movement aurally. All incoming sound is routed to an array of bandpass filters (see Figure 2 and Figure 3) each of which is tuned to the HB-pitch of the current movement. The filtered sound is treated with effects to extend it and transform it into a drone-like sound. The relationship of the incoming, live material to the HB-pitch of the tuned array of filters will determine how audible the resulting drone will be. More importantly though, is the overall sound quality, which, although different instruments in different forces are used, remains fairly uniform due to the treatment with effects. The use of the 8  HB-set for each movement also means that as the piece progresses, each new pitch adds another component to the aggregate of the HB-set. This is used metaphorically as the progression of a single heartbeat, and as such, Ortus can be interpreted as one large palpitation.  Figure 2 Array of 12 bandpass filters The use of simple effect units from the UBC Max/MSP/Jitter Toolbox (Hamel, “Toolbox”) such as delay, reverb, flange, etc. are at the core of the electronic sounds along with the spectral effect units developed by Michael Norris (Norris). In most cases multiple delay units are used and are chained together to create delays of delays of delays. Reverb units are used to modify and enrich the sound, which then can be treated with delays or other effects. As such, reverb is not used in the traditional sense of creating or altering the space/place in which a sound is heard. Here it is used as a tool to modify a sound rather then trying to invoke a specific space. This distinction is important since it is difficult for a listener to distinguish between multiple, simultaneous sound events, occurring in different perceived spaces/places due to various reverberation treatments. The interactive electronics in Ortus are not treated as an instrument or ensemble member in their own right. Rather they are used to enhance sound, draw attention to elements of the harmony, melody, structure, or concept. This way of using electronic sounds evolved from a series of 9  recent pieces of mine that use only very minimal treatment of the live performers and focuses almost entirely on the transformation and/or enhancement of the material performed live on stage    Figure 3 Bandpass Filter abstraction 10  rather than introducing new musical elements. All messages to the Max/MSP program are contained in a second version of the NoteAbilityPro (Hamel “NoteAbility”) score of Ortus that is used by the computer operator (see Appendix C.1). The operator will manually align the score in NoteAbilityPro to the live performance to ensure that the embedded messages, which control all the electroacoustic processing, are sent to Max/MSP at the appropriate moments. 1.3.1 Electronic Processing   As described in the previous section, a limited number of sound processing modules are used to create the interactive sound elements for Ortus. The basic configuration entails: • 4 delay units • 4 reverb units • 1 flange unit • 1 filter array (12 filters total) • 1-2 sound file playback unit(s) • 4 spectral audio units (for filter array) • 1 piano synthesis unit  Since, at the time of this writing, the piece has not yet been performed in its entirety, the discussion will focus on some of the conceptual ideas for each movement in terms of the electroacoustic implementation. These ideas will be tested and refined during the rehearsal process as some venue- and performer-specific changes may become necessary. The way I usually structure rehearsals that include real-time electronic components involves the recording of a dry version of the piece (i.e. only instrumental sounds without any electronics), which is then used to simulate the piece in Max/MSP in the studio. This frees early rehearsals for dealing with musical, notational, organizational issues. In the studio, I rehearse the electronics by simulating the ensemble with the recording. This allows me to experiment with the electronic processes and to finalize a version in a special NoteAbilityPro score, which sends messages to 11  Max/MSP to modify the electronics in real time (see Appendix C.1). During subsequent rehearsals this performance score can be updated and changed quickly, since the groundwork was laid in the studio.  What follows is a short description of the basic electroacoustic concepts for each movement. As well, each movement makes use of the filter array as discussed in section 1.3 above. I.  This movement starts with a pre-composed segment constructed with samples of key clicks and breath sounds from the flute, clarinet, and bassoon. These sounds are treated with the same effect units described above to introduce the sound world of the piece. The pre-composed segment also forms a backdrop for the piece as it is played continually and also undergoes the filtering of the HB-pitch.   The flute, clarinet, and bassoon are transformed with reverb effects only. For the opening section this is used to amplify and smooth out the noise components of the score. Once pitched materials are introduced, the reverb amount is reduced to have a greater focus on those lines. As the movement progresses, reverb will be increased until around the 2’40” mark in score, at which point all input to all the effects units are cut and only the sounds left in the system (e.g. reverb tail, leftover feedback from delay units) are heard as they fade out.  The piano and percussion have very little treatment in this movement as they simply are delayed by a large amount (2+ seconds) with a low amount of feedback (25%) to slightly increase their presence. The strings use both delay and reverb to enhance the subtle sounds of the tapping of the string and later the col legno battuto.   12  II. Lament   The upper, sustained line of the solo clarinet is the target of the electroacoustic manipulation. By creating an effects chain, portions of this line will be captured and played back. The chain consists of a delay with relatively high feedback (75%), which is routed to a reverb effect, which is subsequently routed to a second delay with a feedback of 50%. This treatment will stretch the duration of the sound, without changing the pitch, and allows for some pitches to overlap and create areas of harmony. III. Chit-chat To keep this movement’s sparse texture intact, both instruments have limited added effects. The main electroacoustic treatment in this movement is the filtering of the HB-pitch. The input to the filter array is always open, however the output is only used while an instrument plays a HB-pitch after which the output is disabled again. The resulting filtered sound is routed to a chain of delay units to sustain it further. Later during the movement each instrument has longer musical lines, which are treated with increasing delays. During the final measures of the movement the same strategy for creating the filtered HB-pitch drone is used as in the beginning of the piece. However, no delays are added; this is intended to preserve the formally important rhythmic structure.  IV.   As in movement III. Chit-chat, movement IV has a pre-determined rhythmic structure. This means the same technique of switching the filter array on and off is used. As the movement progresses, the strict chordal texture is gradually brought out of alignment as instruments start to either anticipate or prolong chord tones. A chain of delay units exaggerates these changes; the first delay unit has a slow random, incremental adjustment of the delay time and the second unit 13  has a stable delay time. The incremental changes in delay time of the first delay unit have the effect of pitch shifting the input. As the chordal texture starts to realign by the end of the movement, the chain of delays is removed and the effects from the opening of the movement are reinstated.  V. Prayer  This movement makes extensive use of sound files that extend the textures of the piece. The sound files include recordings of bowed crotales, flute key clicks, scraped thundersheet/tam-tam, bowed marimba, cello scrape, and sul pont cello with pitch fluctuations. Several variations of each sound are created that include pitched down (several octaves) and stretched versions. Depending on the circumstances, these sound files might have to be re-recorded when different ensembles perform the piece so the timbres of the recordings match the instrumentalists. In addition to the pre-recorded, triggered materials the sounds of the metal pipes are treated with delay. Later in the movement the flute and percussion share a gesture that is synchronized. Since this is the only highly synchronized portion of the score and the percussionist is using pipes, these elements are transformed with a chained delay effect where the first unit implements a slow random, incremental adjustment of the delay time. The filter array is not enabled for output until system 13, which corresponds with the end of the attack portions of the waveform that was used to define the formal structure of the movement. Towards the end of the movement the filtered material is brought more to the foreground. In order to maintain a continuous texture of the filtered sounds, it might be necessary to either use heavy delays for the input of the filter array or alternatively mix the live input with some of the pre-recorded sound files.    14  VI. Exorcism  This is the first movement where the piano synthesis unit is used. The opening of the right hand piano outlines the HB-set. To further focus the listener’s attention to this line, the octave dyad in the right hand is duplicated with the synthesis unit and sent to a chain of delays and reverb. This is done with synthesis rather than live sound so that only the dyad is heard and treated with effects. It is important in this case that the right hand stays clean in terms of its pitch content. By using synthesis rather than microphone input this is guaranteed. For the transition from the first to the second section, the piano is uses the same chain of delays the opening synthesis unit used. The second section has many passages where the clarinet is used as a solo instrument that is out of time with the rest of the ensemble. In those instances, the clarinet uses a flange effect. The settings of the flanger (modulation frequency, intensity, wet and dry mix) are affected by tracking the pianist’s hands using computer vision modules (see Section 1.4 below). The average velocity of the hand movement is calculated to affect the intensity and wet/dry mix of the effect. VII. Forebode  This movement makes more extensive use of the computer vision tracking introduced in the previous movement. The pianist is instructed to make conscious movements within the constraints of a musical gesture. At the beginning of the movement these gestures are used to generate panning information for the electronic sounds. The last section of the movement uses the motion in conjunction with the piano synthesis unit to create pitches by interpolating spectral data between two hand positions. The main effect used for this movement is reverb with a minor delay.  15  VIII.  The musical and formal structures of movement VIII are constructed with concepts and elements from both movements IV and I. For this reason the electronic treatment of the movement uses the same ideas as the earlier movements. The opening chordal section uses the same idea of turning the filter array on and off. A chain of delays is also used as the chordal texture starts to break down throughout the second section. The sound files from movement I are reused here as the texture of the final section starts to resemble the textures of movement I.  IX. Reach  The final movement uses many of the techniques described so far to create its electronic accompaniment. In the opening the piano synthesis unit is used to single out a formally important pitch, which is then altered by a chain of delay objects. A similar chain of delay and reverb units is used to single out other important structures from the score using the live input. The motion tracking is used to generate pitch material for spectral scales, performed by the piano synthesis unit, that connect to structures in the score.  1.4 Motion Tracking and Hyper-Movement 1.4.1 Computer Vision Toolbox This project involves the tracking of the piano player’s hands by means of an overhead camera and computer vision algorithms. For this, a custom Computer Vision (CV) Toolbox for Max/MSP/Jitter was created with a special focus on musical applications2. The aim of the toolbox is to provide continuous, multidimensional, and symbiotic data flow with the ultimate                                                 2 See Appendix B.2 for a brief overview of the currently available components of the CV Toolbox.  16  goal of providing a collection of higher level, encapsulated programs/modules to aid in the rapid prototyping of movement or gesture-based projects.   Figure 4 Location of overhead camera and tracking the movements of the two hands in a piano performance  By abstracting processes from the simple to the complex, as well as providing a consistent Graphical User Interface (GUI) for all the modules, the user is able to quickly create advanced motion tracking/computer vision programs by simply connecting modules, rather than having to patch the underlying logic and support structures.  Modules can generally be subdivided into two major categories, depending on their output: 1) frame preparation and 2) frame analysis results. A third, less definable category of modules exist, which are for other tasks like video recording, camera input, movie playback, etc. By modularizing the toolbox, a rapid workflow as well as an environment of experimentation, testing, and dissemination is facilitated. 1.4.2 Hyper-Movement In Ortus, tracking the movements of the pianist’s hands is done in movements VI, VII, and IX. The piano was chosen as the tracking instrument for several practical reasons: a piano is stationary, the size and layout of the keyboard is always the same, and there is only minimal extraneous movement by the performer during any given performance. To fully explore the 17  potential of the system, three stages of tracking are introduced throughout the second half of the piece3:  1. Stage 1: track fundamental musical gesture (FMG) 2. Stage 2: track extra musical gesture/exaggerated musical gesture (EMG) 3. Stage 3: track imaginary (musical) gesture (IMG) Movement IX. Reach, the final movement, summarizes the entire piece in a variety of ways (see Section 4.7 below). It also escalates the ideas initiated by FMG and EMG, as introduced in previous movements, by using stage three of tracking, IMG. In regards to tracking the pianist and extracting meaningful data from the movements all three stages are exactly the same. How they differ is in the conceptualization of the movement and the intended musical and theatrical effects each has during the performance process. As such, FMG is the technique most similar to tracking itself. In IX. Reach, when FMG tracking is called for, there is no indication in the pianist’s score that any tracking has started. The performer simply carries on playing the score without knowing that tracking has been enabled (but potentially hearing the results of it). Figure 5 shows m.33 of the computer score for movement IX with instructions to the software4 to turn tracking on for both hands (e.g.: pnoVidOnOff 1).                                                  3 The CV tracking coincides with the use of the sound file family number two, introduced in Section 3.3.1 below. This is chosen as the beginning point of tracking because sound file family 2 contains the consciously created sounds and the movements of the pianist are consciously created movements.  4 There are always two versions of each NoteAbilityPro score: One for the performer/conductor and one for the computer operator. This enhanced version of the score has all the musical elements but has added staves for control messages that are sent to the software (Max/MSP) over a local network during the performance. The computer operator will start playback of the score and manually adjust the playback tempo so the score playing back on the computer and the performance stay aligned.  18   The second stage, EMG is notated in the performer/conductor score. Using movement IX. Reach as an example, thick, coloured lines5 indicating start and end positions are used (see Figure 6). This notation gives more control of the motion while still containing it within fundamental musical gestures. What makes the gestures in Figure 6 EMG rather than FMG are the diamond note-heads seen in the example. These indicate that the notes are not to be articulated by the performer. Rather, they represent start and endpoints for the motion. On occasion, these points will also fall beyond the physical limits of the piano keyboard, therefore further augmenting the importance of the EMG since the motion is now solely intended for tracking. This means that this movement is now extra, as there is no acoustic musical result, while there is still musical material to be performed around these structures.   Figure 5 Movement IX, m.33; FMG tracking                                                   5 The colours themselves, red and blue, are only a visual aid to quickly distinguish between the right hand and the left hand. p Œ SzŒ£˙#>œjœœ œJ œ# œ œJŒ œ 	˙pœ œŒ£œJ#œ#1.283	19     Figure 6 Movement IX, m.75; EMG tracking  Finally, IMG in this context is the total absence of any notated musical material (see Figure 7). The performer is instructed to move without touching the instrument and keep performing gestures while the computer changes the interaction criteria in such a way to make it progressively more difficult to generate sound. Finally, no amount of movement will be able to create any more sonic events and the piece ends.   Figure 7 Movement IX, mm.77-78; IMG tracking&?&?&?6·#œO O·Ob· .Oœ w‚ œb ˙·w·O‚O· . ·Ow w œ œ ˙ . ww ˙w ˙ œ œb œ w ˙ . Œ717579try and keep the electronic texture goingby moving the hands;It will become more and more difficult to sustain the texture;keep trying until it is impossible to create sounds. Pause and end the piece.&?&?&?6·#œO O·Ob· .Oœ w‚ œb ˙·w·O‚O· . ·Ow w œ œ ˙ . ww ˙w ˙ œ œb œ w ˙ . Œ717579try and keep the electronic texture goingby moving the hands;It will become more and more difficult to sustain the texture;keep trying until it is impossible to create sounds. Pause and end the piece.20  Chapter  2: Historical/Technical Background  2.1 Computer Music Overview The introduction and advancements in music technology during the twentieth century allowed composers to explore properties of sound previously unavailable to them. The creation of the tape recorder and eventually digital, real-time tools, gave composers the ability to create, store, control, analyze and perform artificially created or artificially altered recorded sounds. These advancements in music technology must be considered one of the most important legacies of the twentieth-/twenty-first-century composer (Kostka 245).   Twentieth and twenty-first century art music has seen radical changes in the use, deployment, diffusion and adoption of computer technologies. Composers at the beginning of the twenty-first century are able to manipulate and create sounds in the digital realm quickly and efficiently. Calculations that were only theoretically possible or took days to calculate with the use of supercomputers during the 1960ies and 70ies, can now be achieved in real-time by an average smart-phone device. Twenty-first-century composers interested in computer applications have a variety of tools at their disposal that enable them to compose music in completely new ways.  Composers can now create compositions using pre-recorded or pre-created materials or by using real-time calculations during performance. External hardware such as sensors and other new interfaces for musical expression6 can be integrated into live performances. The Internet also is an important factor in the distribution of sheet music and recordings enabling composers                                                 6 New Interfaces for Musical Expressions, or NIMEs are an important branch of research and one of the bigger annual international new music technology conferences is solely dedicated to this topic: http://www.nime.org  21  to distribute their own music and reach a large audience. Recent developments in data transfer rates, compression algorithms, and general affordability of bandwidth has seen the emergence of Networked Music Performance (Alexandraki). This allows composers and musicians to collaborate in (near) real-time over large geographical distances.   The term computer music holds a range of potential meanings, provoking many reactions from composers, musicians and audiences, and is used in reference to a variety of musics that are composed with the use of the computer. In some cases the actual sound production arises from the computer itself, and in other cases the computer is functioning as a control device. In terms of live performance, computer music can be split into two more general areas: 1) where the computer/electronics respond in real-time to the live performance, and 2) music generated offline (in the studio) to be reproduced at the performance via playback and diffusion.  More specifically, the former usually includes the direct and real-time manipulation of sound material (and/or extra musical material) during a live performance. This involves the use of a microphone and audio interface to translate the physical sound into digital information, which in turn can be manipulated by software.   Early electronic music was initially divided into two different schools: the French school headed by Pierre Schaeffer, and the German school which included Karlheinz Stockhausen and Herbert Eimert. Schaeffer termed his music “musique concrète”, while Stockhausen simply used the term “eletronische Musik”. These two schools were the starting point for electronic based music and are direct ancestors of the interactive, digital computer music presented in this thesis. 2.1.1 Towards Real-Time Digital Electronics The use of digital real-time electronics in concert is a relatively new technology and was only made possible by the advances in digital processing and microprocessor speed over the last 22  few decades (Lippe 21-23). The invention of the analogue tape recorder allowed composers to capture, manipulate, and arrange recorded sounds, which led to a new experience of music. Attending a live performance was no longer a requirement for listening to music. With respect to acousmatic7 music, a discontinuity was created for audiences, since the physical performance of the music was no longer part of the concert going experience and the stages remained empty. Rather, the raw materials were created in the studio and replayed with no live interaction at the concert.   With the increase in computational power, composers started to explore the possibilities of the genre. First, the stereo field was expanded to a multi-speaker setup with, what is now considered standard dimensions of 4, 8, 16, and even 32 speakers.8 This introduced the notion of diffusion of the musical material between the speakers, which gave the composer great control over the location of a sound source, its trajectory, balance, shape, etc. Next, composers combined taped pieces with live instruments, which Kostka sees as a response to the empty concert stage (256). Two seminal pieces in this fusion of taped electronic sounds and live instruments are Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Kontakte (1960), and Mario Davidovsky’s Synchronisms (1963-2006).  While the combination of pre-recorded electronic sounds with live performers closed a gap in perception for audiences (no more empty stages), the performer was always bound to the tape since the events on the tape are fixed in time. With the introduction of digital real-time electronics, this barrier could finally be broken. Programming environments such as Max/MSP                                                 7 Acousmatic music is a form of electronic music that is created specifically for performing through speakers. The work itself usually only exists on tape/in computer memory rather than in score format. 8 However, there are systems at research institutions that use 100 speakers or more: e.g. BEAST (Birmingham ElectroAcoustic Sound Theatre). 23  were extremely important in the creation and exploration of this new medium. Miller Puckette originally created Max at Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique / Musique (IRCAM), which was later expanded to Max/MSP by David Ziccarelli. Its graphical interface makes it an accessible and desirable option for musicians less familiar with procedural programming (Puckette 31-43).  Max/MSP gives users the ability to prototype complex digital signal processing (DSP) and control elements, allowing for a quick turnaround from testing and experimentation to execution and performance. Users are also able to add functionality by programming their own low-level abstractions (called externals) in various programming languages. In the composition Ortus, Max/MSP is used in a variety of ways. The DSP and control structures are used to create the interactive, real-time electronic environments for each of the movements. These environments generate, record, manipulate, output, and control the diffusion of all sounds. The computer vision (CV) components of Ortus are also programmed in Max/MSP with the extension software Jitter. Jitter allows for the manipulation of pictures and videos at the frame and pixel level. Finally, the spectral programs used to analyze, store, manipulate, and display the fast fourier transform (fft) are written using Max/MSP; Max for control and GUI elements, MSP for playback and fft analysis, and JavaScript for manipulating the fft data.  2.1.2 Spectral Attitude In this document I define spectral music as a kind of music that uses advanced sound analysis tools to create musical parameters and materials. The music itself is modeled on the acoustic properties of the sound as well as psychoacoustic theories. Composers in this genre generally dislike the use of the term spectral music and the first generation of composers in the 1970s (notably Gérard Grisey, and Tristan Murail) all but disowned the description. Julian 24  Anderson states that the term spectral is “regarded by virtually every major practitioner of the trend as inappropriate, misleadingly simplistic and extremely reductive” (7). Spectral music was born out of the reaction to extreme serialism and the perceived discontinuity between the theoretical constructs that were used to create the music and the inaudibility of these structures in the actual compositions. Murail notes that:  Sound has been confounded with its representations […]. Since these symbols are limited in number, we quickly come up against the wall. And this situation can become absurd: representations of unbelievable complexity that, in fact, no longer represent anything at all – since the music has become unperformable, or literally unhearable in the sense that there is no correspondence between the music perceived by the listener and that conceived by the composer. (“Sprites” 137 - 138)  The goal of these spectral composer was to create a music that was “designed for hearing” (Fineberg, “Sculpting Sound” 84), which meant the study of fields such as acoustics, psychoacoustics, electronic and computer music, and cognitive sciences. The knowledge gained from these fields was used to design a music that “could be heard and impressions that could be created” (Fineberg, “Sculpting Sound” 85).  Both Grisey and Murail speak about spectral music not as a compositional system but as an attitude of the composer towards music and the sound itself. Grisey notes: “What is radically different in spectral music is the attitude of the composer faced with the cluster of forces that make up sounds and faced with the time needed for their emergence. [...] It is not a closed technique but an attitude” (1-2). Murail follows by stating that spectral music is “neither about techniques nor styles but, at its core, is simply a question of attitude” (Fineberg, “Spectral Music” 3). 25   The attitude taken for this thesis is multi-faceted. At its core, the piece is about exploration. This includes the exploration of a type, or genre, of music (or attitude as mentioned above), as well as exploring different ways that a data set can be used for musical purposes and for various aspects of the compositional process outside of the spectral tradition. Finally, and perhaps most importantly on a personal level, it marks the beginnings of the pursuit of a personal style and personalized approach.  2.2 Technology Overview 2.2.1 Fast Fourier Transform  Spectral analysis relies on the Fast Fourier Transform (fft), which was named after Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830). Fourier postulated that any complex sound could be deconstructed into component sine-waves. This can be visualized as a bank of filters (an array of bandpass filters), spaced equally at integer multiples of the windowed input signal’s length across the Nyquist frequency (i.e. sampling rate / 2; also see Figure 8 below) (Roads “Microsounds” 249).  This provides a list of all frequencies contained in the analyzed sounds along with amplitude (or strength) of those frequencies.   The fundamental issue with the fft is the presence of an uncertainty principle between temporal resolution and frequency resolution. This is similar to the uncertainty principle proposed by physicist Werner Heisenberg, which states, “The knowledge of the position of the particle is complementary to the knowledge of its velocity or momentum. If we know the one with high accuracy we cannot know the other with high accuracy” (Heisenberg 18).   To create a spectrogram of a sound file, the sound file is windowed, or subdivided, and each of these windows, also referred to as frames, is analyzed separately using the fft algorithm. 26  Each frame represents the average distribution of energy across equally spaced bins9 across the Nyquist frequency (see Figure 8 below). The data sets obtained from these analyses are combined to create a seamless overview of the entire sound file as it evolves in time. These windows typically range in length from 512 – 4096 samples or a duration of 11.6 – 92.88 ms at a sampling rate of 44.1kHz. The shorter the window length, the higher the accuracy of the temporal information in the output will be because less samples are averaged during the fft calculation10. This means that the analysis can tell that there was an event (e.g. attack) at a certain point in time, but only within a very broad frequency range. If the window length is increased and the frequency resolution therefore improved, a larger number of samples have to be averaged during the calculation stage, which in turn increases the uncertainty of the temporal location of an event.                                                  9 A bin may be thought of as one of the filters from the bank of filters mentioned earlier. It represents the energy level at a specific center frequency around a frequency band.  10 For example: An analysis using a window size of 512 samples will have 512 bins spaced equally across the Nyquist frequency, which results in a frequency band of 43.066 hz per bin (filter). This analysis can tell us that an event occurred within a timeframe of 11.6 ms (the temporal resolution of the analysis; !"""!"#$%&!!"#$ ∗ !"#$%!!!"#$), but only within a frequency resolution of 43.066hz ( !"#$%&'!!"#$%#&'(!"#$%!!!"#$  ). Since frequency is perceived as logarithmic, this 43hz frequency band corresponds to an octave spread at 43-86hz and about a minor 2nd at higher frequencies. In contrast, a window size of 2048 would have a temporal resolution of 46.4ms and a frequency resolution of 10.8hz.  27   Figure 8 Sample Frame with bin and hertz assignments  2.2.2 Computer Vision  Over the past twenty years composers and technologists have developed a large number of interactive and responsive music systems for the use during live performances11. As a result, it has sometimes been necessary to create new models and paradigms for interacting with those systems. However, it is not always clear that the resulting interfaces are the best for the particular system, or that the system itself has contributed to the compositional structure and outcome in a meaningful manner.   Interactive systems often require tethered wiring, local area wireless networks, or other spatially constraining and restraining systems, and they can place significant demands on a                                                 11See: Wanderley et al. (2000);  Miranda et al. (2006). Bin 0             0 hzBin 1        43 hzBin 2          86 hzBin 3        129 hzBin 4        172 hzBin n      43*n hzBin n+1 43*n+1hzBin 510   21960 hzBin 511   22003 hzNyquist frequency28  performer in terms of training and performance. Glove interfaces12, hyperinstruments13, bodysuits14, and Bluetooth modules15 are all examples of these types of interfaces. In contrast, simpler interfaces such as foot pedals, hand switches, and playback buttons may be efficient but the gestures and equipment involved usually provide a very limited scope of interactions.  An easier approach that produces more desirable results is one in which the performer is not required to wear or operate any additional technology. Visual tracking by camera is an example of this. With visual tracking, the system is trained to respond to particular movements made by the performer. Examples of such systems are Oka et al. (2002), Ip and Chen (2004), Kiefer et al. (2009), Camurri et al. (2004), and Ritter et al. (2013). This approach also allows the performer to have free hands, feet, etc. and focus on the artistic requirements rather than on technological ones. Also, there are fewer visible hardware components on stage that might distract the performers or audiences.                                                  12 See: Waisvisz (1985); Fels, et al., “Glove-TalkII” (1998); Rodriguez (2005). 13 See: Machover, and Chung, “Hyperinstruments” (1989); Machover, “Composer’s Approach” (1992). 14 See: Goto (2006). 15 See:  Fels, et al. “Building a Portable […]” (2008). 29  Chapter  3: Spectral Procedures A number of sound file analysis and content analysis units were used in the creation of the musical material of Ortus. In order to do this, software tools were developed in Max/MSP that allow audio files to be analyzed and meaningful compositional material generated from the files to be extracted. At its core, the software system uses the Fast Fourier Transform (fft) to extract the component pitches from a complex sound. This work is the continuation of previous research conducted on sound deconstruction and resynthesis using fft in a project entitled: Real-Time Spectral Analysis and Dispersion (Ritter, “Dispersion”).  These software modules can operate in two different modes. The first mode generates raw fft analysis, where the real as well as the imaginary output is stored along with information such as amplitude, frequency, midi pitch, and phase offset. The second analysis method is based on ffts, but employs psychoacoustic principles to extract more meaningful data from the raw analysis. The theories of Ernst Terhardt are implemented in the iana~ object from IRCAM, which calculates the masking effects of both amplitude and frequency components and extracts the virtual fundamental among other parameters (Todoroff 292).   Several methods of post-fft treatment are available for reducing, focusing, and abstracting the raw analysis data; these will be discussed in detail in the sections that follow. These modules and analysis procedures are important in generating different kinds of material for the composer. However, of equal importance is the semantic meaning of the source sound files. For these reasons it is important that an artistically and aesthetically meaningful source sound is chosen. Since the source has inherent meaning, it can be used to construct a conceptual narrative within the piece. For example, the sound of a heartbeat is used throughout Ortus. The concept of the heartbeat cycle is used to create formal structures within movements but also to tie together the 30  different movements. The data sets generated from the analyzed heartbeat are also used to create large-scale structural cohesion. As each movement is played, the electronic sounds highlight a pitch that is associated to the heartbeat (the HB-set). As the last movement is played, the final pitch in this nine-note set is heard and the heartbeat cycle is completed, therefore completing one heartbeat cycle and finishing the piece as a whole.   3.1 (Pre-)Compositional Aspects of Spectral Data Analysis One of the challenges of using the analysis system I developed is the overwhelming amount of data that is produced during the analysis16. Several strategies for data set selection are examined in this section. These approaches present new ontologies for compositional use of spectrally generated data, and exemplify personal experiments with different types of data sets for different categories of pre-determined outcomes. Extended use of the system in the future will lead towards a more comprehensive ontology, which will help to further refine these techniques and streamline the system for myself and other users.   There are four main data set types that are produced by the program as a result of the fft analysis and which can be used as compositional material: 1. Raw MIDI Note Data • A one-to-one mapping of each fft bin’s frequency component to a corresponding MIDI value.                                                 16 For example, a one second long sound contains 44100 samples. A fft analysis with a window size of 1024 would yield about 43 frames of analysis data. Each frame contains 1024 bins, which gives a total of 44032 bins worth of information. After converting the complex numbers contained in each bin of the fft analysis to amplitude and frequency information, the total amount of information a simple fft analysis of a one second long sound produces 88064 pieces of data.  31   Figure 9 Raw MIDI Note Data for movement VII transcribed to NoteAbility Pro 2  2. Histogram Analysis A statistical analysis of the Raw MIDI Note Data set that visualizes the average distribution of pitches across the MIDI range. &15&15&8&8&&???8?81œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœœœ#œb œ#œ# œ#œb œ#œ# œbœ# œ#œb œb œ#œb œbœ# œ#œb œbœbœ# œ#œbœbœ# œ#œbœbœ# œ#œbœbœ#œbœbœ# œbœ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœœ#œ# œ#œb œ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ#œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœœb œb œb œb œb œb œb32   Figure 10 Histogram Analysis of raw fft data from movement VII 3. Occurrence Model • A statistical analysis of the Raw MIDI Note Data set that visualizes the average distribution of the 12 chromatic pitches (midi range in mod 12).   Figure 11 Occurrence Model of raw fft data from movement VII showing both pitch and amplitude averages  4. Segment Analysis • A threshold-sorting algorithm that uses the Raw MIDI Note Data set to search for pitches in consecutive frames that match the threshold criteria and group them into a segment structure.  33   Figure 12 Segment Analysis of  the unique note data of movement VII; note threshold of 6, amplitude threshold of 0.01   The Raw MIDI Note Data analysis involves a one-to-one mapping of the entire fft frequency range to their corresponding MIDI values. The conversion to MIDI range, rather than hertz or cents, was chosen because it allows for a simple interface with NoteAbilityPro 2, the notation program used for displaying the raw data set (see Figure 9). Once the MIDI data is parsed to NoteAbilityPro’s specifications, the data is transferred via a local network from Max/MSP to NoteAbilityPro. By default, the entire analysis file will be transferred, displaying two different levels of analysis data as well as colouring the three loudest notes in each analysis 34  frame red, orange, and yellow respectively. Notes that are extended by a solid line are elements of a same-note structure. This means that the current note is also present in the following frame. Notes without extension lines are members of the “unique” note-structure, indicating that, at a minimum, they are unique in the vicinity of +/- 1 frame of the current frame. The same-note and unique-note structure sets can be transferred separately to NoteAbilityPro for easier viewing, which can help the composer identify relationships more quickly and use them in the compositional process.  The Histogram Analysis takes the Raw MIDI Note Data set, or a user defined subsection thereof and calculates a histogram over the entire MIDI range, plotting and displaying the results (see Figure 10). This statistical analysis of the raw data set calculates the average occurrence of each MIDI pitch and is plotted on a graph. The horizontal axis shows each MIDI pitch, whereas the vertical axis shows the number of occurrences of a pitch across the entire raw data set (grey bars in Figure 10). This histogram is useful for examining the distribution of pitches across the entire analysis file. The same kind of statistical analysis is also carried out on the amplitudes for each pitch and is then visually superimposed on the pitch data described above (red graph in Figure 10).   The Occurrence Model is similar to the histogram describe above. However, rather than using the entire MIDI range for calculating and displaying analysis results, the averaging is done exclusively over the space of the 12-tone chromatic scale. This removes any octave specific information from the Histogram Analysis, effectively recasting each pitch as a pitch-class (using a mod 12 operation) and focusing on the total number of occurrences of each pitch-class over the course of the analysis file (see Figure 11). Therefore, the Occurrence Model, in contrast to the Histogram Analysis, summarizes the analysis file into a structure akin to a 12-tone row. As 35  in the Histogram Analysis algorithm, the Occurrence Model also computes and displays the average amplitude of each pitch-class.  The Segment Analysis uses the Raw MIDI Note Data set and searches for logical connections/transitions between pitches from adjacent frames according to user-defined thresholds. The user may define the maximum allowable distance (in half steps) between notes in a segment structure, as well as difference in amplitudes between the segment notes (see Figure 12). If any given note from frame n has delta values equal to or less than the interval/amplitude values of any given note of frame n+1, the two pitches are considered to be in a segment. A segment is defined as a structure that contains a minimum of two pitches, where each pitch is unique to one segment only. This analysis may be useful for visualizing the temporal development of pitches throughout the analysis file.   3.2 Composing with Spectral Data Each of the data sets described above has the potential for different compositional approaches: the Raw Note Data sets can be used to theoretically recreate a sound or extract features according to theoretical constructs (e.g. set-class theory); both histogram based analysis types can be used to summarize the pitch content contained in a sound file, or can be seen as a collection of pitches akin to the twelve-tone row with all the standard compositional philosophy associated with this school of composing; Segment Analysis can be used to create melodic fragments, or for constructing control structures (such as synthesis parameters or panning trajectories). Therefore, it is the task of the composer to explore all data types and isolate musically interesting sets.  36   For the remainder of this chapter, brief case studies will be shown for each of the different data types and how they were used throughout this project. A more detailed discussion for each of the movements will be presented in the chapters that follow.  3.2.1 Use of Raw MIDI Data Sets   There are many different ways a composer can interpret and apply the raw data to a traditionally notated score. Exact one-to-one mapping is used in this project, specifically in movement VI. Exorcism. The rapid piano gesture in the left hand uses the raw data without any pitch-class omissions. The unique notes of the raw data stream were extracted and transcribed to the piano. To ensure consistent registral and pianistic writing the raw data was used in a mod 12 system. Figure 13 below, shows the first line of the left hand piano part of VI. Exorcism where the boxes signify a single frame from the analysis file and the chord above each segment is a representation of the entire analysis bin. The bin is used exhaustively before moving on to the next:   Figure 13 Piano left hand pitch assignment, movement VI   37  3.2.2 Use of Histogram Analysis Sets  The histogram data is used extensively throughout this work. An important example of this is the use of the heartbeat analysis. Figure 14 shows the pitch histogram along with the superimposed amplitude histogram of the heartbeat. For the purposes of this project, the top nine amplitude peaks were extracted and the corresponding pitches created the foundation of the Heartbeat set (HB-set). These pitches are used as structural elements both within specific movements and on a large-scale formal level, unifying all movements under the conceptual framework of one heartbeat. Each movement and each individual instrument is associated with one of the pitches in the HB-set. This strategy unifies the entire composition as each movement contributes another pitch in the aggregate of the HB-set.   Figure 14 Pitch histogram of the HB-set 3.2.3 Use of Occurrence Model Sets The Occurrence Model (OM) was initially implemented as a tool to quickly gauge the average distribution of pitch-classes, as well as their average amplitude values over the entirety of an analysis file. With this generalized data, it is easy to see if the analysis, as a whole, is trending towards certain pitch-classes or if the distribution is mostly even as well as how the pitch-class distribution relates to the average amplitude graph. Figure 15 shows the OM of the 38  HB-set described above as used in movement I as well as instrumental assignments. In this movement the string section’s pitches are derived from the OM in combination with information extracted from the HB-set.   Figure 15 OM with pitch assignments of strings in movement I 3.2.4 Use of Segment Analysis Sets The segment analysis searches and connects pitches from the raw data set to user-defined delta thresholds of pitch interval and amplitude. For movement II. Lament, several different segment analysis files were created with differing interval thresholds (1, 3, and 5) and constant amplitude threshold of 0.5. These files were then used to initiate the rapid grace-note gestures of this movement. Figure 16 shows the first line of movement II with the corresponding segment assignments listed below. T1 refers to the analysis with a note threshold of 1 semi tone and T5 the analysis for a threshold of 5 semi-tones17.                                                  17 The roman numerals indicate the segment number (only used for longer segments in the analysis). The reason why segment II and XIII are seen at the beginning of the piece is that the T5 layer was assigned to only start if the first pitch coincides with a pitch from layer 1 (T1) and occasionally T3. See the dotted lines in Figure 16. 39   Figure 16 First line of movement II with labeled note assignments  3.3 Formal Considerations 3.3.1 Conceptual Story Telling Through Spectral Abstraction This project uses a large number of sound source files that might initially appear to be disconnected. As well, the full ensemble is broken into subgroups for a majority of the piece. These were conscious choices, informed by the intent to examine the flexibility of the proposed compositional system while maintaining unification and consistency throughout. Another important compositional consideration is the creation of a large-scale form and narrative through spectral abstraction and integration of aspects of the spectral analysis data.  The possibility of encoding semantic meaning directly into music is one of the most intriguing aspects about the compositional system. A straight forward encoding of this kind was                 		 	      40  used in several recent art song compositions by the author18. Each song was created while collaborating with a local Vancouver poet. Both the poetry as well as a recording of a reading of the work were used as inspiration and starting point for each song. Using this system it was possible to use the poet’s written words as well as to encode aspects of their physical voices into the compositions themselves.   The concept of encoding semantic structures into a piece of music is a central idea for this thesis. Encoding more than just spectral data points into the music was important as a musical device. Taking the inherent meaning, structures and associations of recorded sounds, analyzing them and using all these elements for musical expression approaches the concept of spectral compositions from a different perspective.   The size of the ensemble itself is linked to the concept of the piece, being drawn from the sound files used. Two separate, and opposing streams of sound file families were chosen. Each sound file family consists of three distinct and evolving sound objects that are responsible for the musical material for each movement respectively. These movements are arranged according to the inherent evolution of the sound objects in each family. However, 3 tutti movements interrupt the arrangement of these sections. The tutti movements all share the same analysis file and represent the initial state, the impetus, and the glue of the piece. This idea of 3 movements by 3 movements by 3 interruptions gave way to an ensemble size of nine instrumentalists: flute/alto flute, clarinet/bass clarinet, bassoon, piano, percussion, violin 1, violin 2, viola, and cello.   The two sound file families used are: 1. Consciously produced sounds by the human body                                                 18 Crescent, for piano and soprano; Going Home, for piano and baritone; Still Night Thoughts, for alto flute and baritone. 41  2. Consciously produced sounds with the human body Within these families are three subsections: 1. Consciously produced sounds by the human body 1.1. Crying 1.2. Speech 1.3. Singing 2. Consciously produced sounds with the human body 2.1. Tibetan Prayer Bowl 2.2. Instrumental 2.3. Brake Drum  These sound families have an internal evolution. For the sounds produced by the body, the evolution is from simple to complex transmission of information using the human voice. For the sound produced with the human body the trajectory is in the spectral content of the sources as well as their novelty in western concert music.   The sound of a fetal heartbeat was chosen to be the central concept and thematic link that unifies each movement on different levels and also is the main musical material for the three tutti movements. The heartbeat is an involuntarily, unconsciously produced sound by the human body and while it is not audible under normal circumstances the sound of a heartbeat is a universally recognized sound. In the case of this project, the heartbeat is used in several different ways as alluded to above (see Section 3.2.2). The tutti movements use the concept of the heartbeat cycle, as well as the actual data from the sound file analysis as the basis for their pitch materials and formal outlines. As such these three movements use the heartbeat as pitch material as well as a simplified cycle of a heartbeat as a loose formal structure (also see Table 3): 42  1. Heart is in a relaxed state, blood starts to flow 2. Ejection, massive contraction 3. Relaxation Heartbeat cycle Musical representation Heart is in a relaxed state, blood starts to flow Increasing density; morphing from noisy to pitched materials; Ejection, massive contraction Highly rhythmic, tutti/chordal writing; phasing of chordal members and realignment Relaxation Sustained textures Table 3 Heartbeat cycle and musical representation  The tutti movements are used to unify and hold together the solo and small ensemble movements that tell the story of the evolution of human-made sounds, both sounds produced by (cry, speech, singing) and with the human body (striking prayer bowl, plucking oud, hitting brake drum). The heartbeat is the underlying force that gives life and cohesion to the piece. Creating the tutti movements was only the starting point in using the heartbeat analysis. As described above, a histogram of the heartbeat’s raw data was created and the nine pitches with the highest amplitude peaks of the analysis were extracted (see Figure 17 below). Each pitch in order is assigned to each movement in turn (see Table 4 below). This pitch becomes the Movement Pitch (MP) and is important both conceptually and aurally.  Each of these pitches is used as another way to tie the movements to the idea of the cyclical heartbeat. The histogram is a statistical summary of the raw data and by extracting and using only the statistical peaks in this analysis the heartbeat can be encoded with a minimum amount of information. The HB-set is treated as a ordered pitch-class set, meaning that octave equivalence is permitted, while the order in which the pitches are used are fixed:   <A, C, D#, G, A#, D#, G, B, C#> 43   Figure 17 Pitch Histogram analysis of the heartbeat with peaks (HB-set) labeled  A Movement Pitch can be used in several different ways. However, only one technique is used consistently throughout the piece and in every movement to create aural cohesion. For each movement the interactive electronics use a number of bandpass filters, tuned to the current Movement Pitch (potentially over several octaves). The filtered version of the incoming sound is then treated with reverb, delay, and other effects to extend and stretch the sound. The resulting texture is similar to a drone or pedal point that swells and dissipates according to the pitch material currently present in the music and its relationship to the tuning of the bandpass filters. While the resultant effect is a subtle one19, it colours each movement with the appropriate HB pitch and ties the movement back into the idea of evolution and progression as each passing movement adds a new piece to create a whole.   The tutti movements are also used to differentiate between the two narrative streams and evolution of sounds described above. Each time a tutti movement is played, the stream switches.  The piece is started with the relaxed tutti, representing the early stages of the heartbeat cycle.                                                 19 The effect may be subtle, but since the filters are tuned to the HB pitch the resulting output of the filters is determined by the local use of the HB pitch in the movement as well as strong overtones that might contain said pitch.  44  Subsequently, movement II uses the crying sample as the basis for the solo clarinet piece. Movement III uses the speech sample and leads the piece back into a tutti movement. Here it switches from sounds produced by the human body to sounds produced with the human body. Movement V. Prayer starts with the sample of the prayer bowl and is followed by both the instrumental and brake drum inspired movements. The final tutti movement brings the heartbeat cycle to a close and gives way to the final movement IX. Reach. Thus, the piece progresses from the innate and instinctual to the intellectual and controlled. 45  Chapter  4: Movement Overview This chapter will discuss each movement’s construction and, specifically, how each movement uses the ontologies described above and implements them into a musically coherent structure. The three tutti movements will be described together to highlight the use of the fetal heartbeat sample as a “spectral storytelling” tool. The remaining movements will be examined in score order.   4.1 Movements I/IV/VIII - Tutti Sections 4.1.1 General Overview The tutti sections play an important role, both aurally and conceptually, within the formal structure of the piece. Each movement contains distinct texture, method of construction, primary pitch structure, and musical intent. Each serves as a point of reference and orientation between the smaller chamber ensembles and allows the listener to refocus their attention back to these smaller entities. Movement I uses open notation and simple cell notation to convey a state of relaxation and the texture is kept simple. While movement I can be seen as the relaxation state of the heartbeat cycle, the internal structure can also be interpreted as a complete heartbeat cycle itself. Movement IV represents the massive contraction and ejection of the heartbeat cycle. Here all instruments begin by playing sforzando tutti chords, which over the course of the movement get rhythmically displaced and finally return to the tutti sound of the opening. In movement VIII, the tutti chords from movement IV are continued as stages 2 and 3 of the simplified heartbeat cycle are overlapped (see Table 3). Gradually the chordal texture is replaced by a slow and sustained texture reminiscent of movement I, recreating the relaxation of the heartbeat cycle. However, here the texture is explicitly written out (rather than the cell notation from movement 46  I), and by the end of the movement the pitch material is reduced and transformed to match the opening pitch material of movement IX. Reach.   These tutti movements provide cohesion by using the heartbeat sample, as well as serving as a harmonic guidepost. The HB-set and OM (along with minimal raw data) are the main building blocks for the tutti movements. The HB-set in particular is used as the main idea and driving force for movements IV and VIII.  4.1.2 Movement I 4.1.2.1 Construction As detailed above (see Section 3.3.1), the sound of the heartbeat is an important idea for the formalization of the entire work as well as for several individual movements (I, IV, and VIII). As mentioned earlier in the document, movement I, if played through from beginning to end, is intended to resemble a single heartbeat. The first half of the palpitation is represented by gradually introducing instruments to increase the density of the texture, as well as gradually morphing the instrumental timbres from noisy to pitched sound events. The release of the second half is orchestrated by the inverse; gradually fading out instruments after some noisy components are re-introduced.  4.1.2.2 Notation This movement is different from every other movement in its use of an open notation system. The notation of this movement is based on cells. Each cell is delineated by square brackets:  47   Figure 18 Cell notation for movement I Each cell contains information regarding pitch collection (enclosed in a box), gesture/contour to be performed, timbre information, and timing indication. The timing indications are to be seen as guidelines only. They are used to determine the intended texture/denseness of a section. In performance the performers/conductor may ignore the timing information as long as the intent is still present. Two labels are used to convey timing instructions: 1) Interval: This is the approximate time, in seconds between repetitions of a cell.  2) Duration: The approximate time, in seconds the cell should last for. In Figure 18 this would mean that each gesture should last about eight seconds, followed by a rest of two seconds. 4.1.2.3 Pitch Material The connection between the formal shape of the movement and its resemblance to the palpitation of a heartbeat is explained above. Further connection to the idea of a heartbeat is created through the use of components of the heartbeat’s spectral analysis data. Specifically, the generalized data of the Occurrence Model, as well as portions of the more detailed raw data of the heartbeat analysis were used to extract the pitches for this movement. Also, the HB-set plays an important part for the opening of the movement. Each instrument is assigned a pitch from the HB-set. This pitch becomes associated with that instrument (see Table 4 below), and this connection will be of structural importance for movements IV and VIII.  œ œ œb ...œ. . . .œ. œ . 	48  HB-set Instrumental assignment A Flute C Clarinet D# Bassoon G Violin 1 A# Violin 2 D# Viola G Cello B Percussion C# Piano Table 4 Instrumental assignment of HB-set These pitches are the very first sonorities heard for each instrument, which means that by the time the entire ensemble has been introduced with pitched material, the HB-set has been stated in full. This can also be interpreted as a first, abstracted completion of a heartbeat cycle.  4.1.2.4 Pitch Extraction - Strings This section will focus on the pitch extraction procedures used for the string instruments. This process is representative of the process used to generate pitch material for the other instruments as well.   The pitch material for all the string instruments is constructed in a similar manner. For the opening section (arhythmic tapping), the strings use the OM model sorted by volume (see Figure 15 above in Section 3.2.3). Three pitches are assigned to each of the instruments, resulting in the use of all pitches in the OM as well as the formation of an aggregate20. Violin 1 has G as the assigned instrumental pitch, which is used as the starting point in the OM, after which the following two pitches are added to create a final cell of (see Figure 18 in section 4.1.2.2 above): {G, A, Ab}.                                                 20 While an OM can, and most often will form an aggregate, it by no means has to contain all twelve pitches of the chromatic scale. For examples see Appendix A.3 49  The cello is the next string instrument entering the texture. Since both violin 1 and the cello have the same instrumental pitch assignment, the cello is simply assigned the following three pitches in the OM- {D, B, C#} – with the addition of the assigned instrumental pitch for a cell of: {G, D, B, C#} - Figure 19 A. Violin 2, with an instrumental pitch of A#, is assigned the cell of {A#, C, D#} - Figure 19 B. The leftover pitches are allocated to the Viola along with its instrumental pitch D#: {D#, E, F, F#} - Figure 19 C.  With the shift in playing technique from tapping to col legno battuto, new pitch material is introduced. While the opening uses the OM for pitch material, a statistical summary of the entire analysis, the new cell starts to introduce raw analysis data. Violin 1 is using the “unique” notes from the first analysis chord, Violin 2 from the second chord, Viola from the third, and the Cello from the fourth. For the last phase of the movement, the strings use the same concept as above, but instead of using the “unique” portion of the respective chord, they only play the “same notes”.   Figure 19 Cell notation for: A) cello; B) viola; C) violin2  4.1.3 Movement IV Movement IV abandons the idea of open notation for a very strict and tightly controlled environment where the pitch materials as well as the rhythmic spacing of the chordal structures are predetermined. The tutti chords presented in the opening measures eventually start to drift out of vertical alignment as notes are foreshadowed and/or extended. However, the pitch material 50  and the starting point of each chordal structure always adhere to a strict and predetermined system.  All pitch material is directly derived from the HB-set. The opening chord is the HB-set assigned to the instruments as outlined in Table 4. This initial HB-chord is then compressed according to a ratio derived by a system. A total of nine numbers were chosen to represent the number of repetitions for each chord type. For the opening section integer numbers were used for the number of repetitions. As the movement progresses, floating point values are added to create a more varied and slightly less predictable rhythmic structure. A simple two-part algorithm determines the location of the each chord in the score according to: 1. Measure location 2. Beat location The measure location is calculated by the current index number of the Repetitions structures (see Table 5 below). The first chord in a structure will occur in the first measure (or first measure after the completion of the previous structure). The second will occur in measure 3, or the previous chord’s measure number plus the current index number (1 + 2), then in measure 6 using again the previous measure plus the current index (3 + 3). An index of 4 would yield measure 10 (previous measure 6 + current index 4). This system is used as a mod 4 system, meaning that indices larger than 4 are wrapped around.  The beat location is also determined by the index position. A chord will occur on the beat of the current index position plus an offset of 16th-notes. This offset is also the current index, meaning that chord one is offset by a single 16th-note, chord two by 2 16th-notes, chord three by three 16th-notes. Thus the first chord is heard in measure 1, on beat 1.25; chord 2 in measure 3, beat 2.5; chord 3 in measure 6, beat 3.75. Since chord 4 would technically fall on beat 5 (beat 4 51  plus an offset of 4 16th-notes) of measure 10 – so beat 1.0 of measure 11 – the decision was made to let the measure location algorithm override the beat location algorithm in cases where, according to the beat algorithm the measure number should be increased. So, for index 4 the measure number remains 10 with a beat location of 1.0.   The following discussion will focus on the creation of the pitch material. The HB chords are used unaltered with the above-described algorithms when the repetitions structures are integer values. Chord compression techniques are used when floating-point numbers are introduced (see B.3 for a brief description of the program used for these calculations). First, the ratio of the repetitions structure is divided by the base value 4 (see explanation of mod 4 system above). The difference between this number and 1.0 (representing the unaltered/original chord) is computed to obtain the total ratio difference between the original HB chord and the last chord in the repetitions structure. Lastly, a stepwise ratio is calculated by further dividing the total ratio by the maximum index to acquire the compression value for each member of the repetitions structure. E.g.: Using the repetitions structure of 3.75 the following steps are taken to compute the ratios:  • 3.75 / 4 = 0.9375 • 1.0 – 0.9375 = 0.0625 • 0.0625 / 3 = 0.02083   Table 5 Movement IV; Chord ratios and repetitions Once all the repetitions structures as outlined in Table 5 have been used, they are repeated in reverse, as a palindrome.  Repetitions Total Ratio Stepwise Ratio 4 n/a n/a 4 n/a n/a 2 n/a n/a 3.75 0.0625 0.0208333  6.25 1.5625 0.5625 ------------- 0.09375 1.5 0.375 0.375 2.75 0.6875 0.1041666 4 n/a n/a 3.75 0.0625 0.0208333 52  4.1.4 Movement VIII This movement is a combination of the techniques used in movements IV and I. The 13 tutti chords of the opening are rhythmically identical to the chords in movement IV. The first 4 chords (complete first repetitions structure) are also repeated at pitch. The remaining nine chords, while rhythmically identical to movement IV, are compressed from the original ratio 1.0 to a ratio of 0.0 (Figure 20). The process results in the emergence of a singular pitch, which in this case was chosen to be B3 and represents the Movement Pitch.   The second part of the movement uses sustained textures similar to the textures in movement I. After the HB chord is reduced to a singular pitch using the same techniques employed in movement IV, each instrument starts a slow oscillation between this pitch and its instrumental pitch. Finally, the first 4 pitches of movement IX are introduced (F, Eb, Bb, C) as the Movement Pitch B and later the instrumental pitches are removed from the texture.  Figure 20 Movement VIII chord compression  4.2 Movement II. Lament The musical material for this movement is based on the analysis of the crying sample. Two distinct data types are used in the composition of the movement:  1. Same-note Structures &?œ#œœœœbœœ#œbœb œœœœ œn œœœœ# œb œ œœœnœœ# œ# œbœœœ# œœ# œœœœœœœ œn œbœœœœ# œœnœ# œn œ# œœ œœ#œœ#œ# œœœœ œœœœ# œn œœœ# œœœœ œ# œœœ#œ#œœn œœœ# œœœ œ53  2. Segment Analysis data The highest notes of the same-note structure data set are used for the sustained notes in the high register of the clarinet. The notes are primarily used at pitch, but octave equivalency is used where necessary to keep the pitches within the range of the instrument. The number of pitches in a same-note structure are counted and this is then translated into the length of each pitch in the actual score. When a note comes to an end, the next loudest pitch in the analysis file is chosen. Once all pitches are exhausted, the same scheme is used but the pitches are extracted from the retrograde of the analysis file.   This top layer consisting of the same-note structure material is continuously interrupted by the segment analysis data. Three separate segment analysis files are used to create these interrupting gestures. The gestures gradually expand in duration and eventually start colliding as the movement progresses, with the places of expansion dictated by the three analysis files. All three files use the same, relatively large amplitude threshold of 0.5, which ensures a higher likelihood of pitches in each segment. Each of the segment analyses uses a different note threshold: analysis 1 uses a threshold of one semi-tone (T1); analysis 2 uses three semi-tones (T3); and analysis 3 uses five semi-tones (T5). The note thresholds are used to determine the amount of notes allowed of each analysis type per measure of music. The analysis consisting of T1 contains a total of 43 pitches, where one pitch is allowed per measure of music. The T3 analysis allows for three pitches per measure. However, since the total length of the movement is at 43 measures, an offset was calculated so that the T3 segments will end approximately at the same time as the T1 pitches. Therefore, the T3 pitches start in a later measure. The final segment analysis file (T5) was allowed 5 pitches per measure but could only be started if the opening 54  pitch of a T5 segment had a corresponding pitch in the T1 layer. Care was also taken to place more 5-note gestures towards the end of the score to create longer, more connected segments.  Figure 21 Assignment of the T1, T3, and T5 layers  4.3 Movement III. Chit-Chat The speech sample is the basis for this movement. More specifically, it is the sample of a child reading a passage in which a single word – “ninjas” - was extracted and analyzed. The two main notes of the fft analysis were isolated (see Figure 22). Since the source sound was based on speech, it seemed appropriate to use the basic formant regions of a child. Roads defines a formant as a peak of energy in a spectrum, which can include both harmonic and inharmonic partials as well as noise. Formant peaks are characteristic of the vowels spoken by the human voice and the tones radiated by many musical instruments. […] Formant regions serve as a kind of ‘spectral signature’. (Tutorial 296-297)   Table 6 shows the first 3 formants for various vowels along with frequency information and pitch designations (Appleton 42). Highlighted in green are the columns that are used in the piece as they correspond to the vowels in the word “ninja”. & ( )œ œb œb œb( )œRì> œ œb œb ( )œ>b œbœ œb œœœ œœ œ œ# œ œRìœRì œ#œœ œ œœ23T1 T3T1T3 T5 T1T5 T3 T555  The construction of the piece is very simple. The clarinet part plays the top staff of Figure 22, the viola the bottom. Both instruments play through this material twice. The first time some liberty is taken with the length and repetitions of the notes used; there are several injections of   Figure 22 Movement III main pitch content formant pitches, and octaves might be changed. During the second repetition of the melodies, the pitches are heard in order with diminishing time spans between each attach (see Figure 23).  Also shown in Figure 22 are formant pitches (red rectangles) and instances in which pitches from both staves are members of the HB-set (black rectangles). The green rectangles show that there are pitches present in the frame of the analysis that do not belong to either the HB-set or the formant pitches21. HB-set pitches are played sforzando in order to highlight them. Similarly, formant pitches that are found in Figure 22 are used as the starting point for the  Formant  heed head had hod haw’d who’d Children F1 370 Gb 690 F 1010 B 1030 B 680 F 430 A  F2 3200 G 2610 E 2320 D 1370 F 1060 C 1170 D  F3 3730 Bb 3570 A 3320 G# 3170 G 3180 G 3260 G#  Table 6 Formant regions for children                                                  21 The dotted blue rectangle is an instance in which the pitch is technically a formant pitch but due to an oversight was omitted from inclusion in the red rectangle. This means that at this point in the score no formant pitches are associated with that pitch.   fft&?œ# œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ# œ œ œ# œ œœ# œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ# œ œ œ#œ56  insertion of the formants found in Table 6. Figure 24 shows mm.48-49 of this mapping for the viola part. Here the first pitch is both a HB pitch and a formant pitch (both black and red rectangles). This means that a sforzando is used for this note and that the following pitches (dashed red rectangles) are derived from the formant pitches of Table 6.   Figure 23 Movement III, ending section; exact pitch mapping   Figure 24 Movement III; m.48 HB pitch and formant assignment  4.4 Movement V. Prayer This movement is based on the analysis of the Tibetan Prayer Bowl sample and both pitch material as well as overarching formal structures were extracted from the sound. This movement is mostly through-composed, but the overall structure is loosely aligned to the envelope of the sample. The envelope of the sound file has a very sharp attack (bowl is struck), a &B&BŒ ‰ . œb    Œ ‰ œ    œb ‰ Œ   œ‰ .Œ  Œ ‰ . œb  Œ ‰ œ  œ ‰ Œ  œb ‰ . Œ Œ ‰ . œ Œ ‰ œ  œ‰ Œ œb ‰ . Œ    œb ‰ Œ   Œ ‰ œ   Œ ‰ . œb   œn ‰ . Œ   œb ‰ ŒŒ ‰ œn Œ ‰ . œ œb ‰ . Œ 87959 8 7 65 4 3 2 017 6 5 4 3 21 0B Œ ‰ œn  Œ  œb ‰ 	 ‰ . œn œb‰Sz  F57  very short decay (noisy components due to the strike are removed), and a slow release (pure sound; approx. 30secs)22.  Two separate analysis files were created: one based on fft analysis; the other on iana analysis. For the generation of pitch material, several steps were taken. First, a fairly static passage in terms of pitch changes from one bin to the next was chosen from the fft analysis (see Figure 25 below). The first 4 chords were chosen to represent the harmonic pitch space. Pitches that did not fall within the range of either the alto flute or cello were removed (see Figure 26 below and the colour coded pitches in Figure 28). Next, pitches from the iana analysis file were extracted according to the octave displacement chart (ODC). The ODC shows the octave spread of each pitch from the OM across all frames of the fft analysis (see black pitches in Figure 27 below23). The ODC is then used to extract pitches from the iana analysis file, which are considered inharmonic. Each pitch of the ODC is found on the first page of the iana analysis. An arbitrary number of pitches from the iana set that occur around the ODC pitch are used (see the red pitches in Figure 27 below).  The opening section represents the attack portion of the envelope. The attack or excitation of the prayer bowl results in a large number of inharmonic pitches that mask the pitch and timbre of the instrument. The pitches emerge during the decay and release portions of the sound. To portray this musically, several strategies are employed (see Figure 29 below for an example):                                                  22 A typical ADSR envelope contains an attack, decay, sustain, and release. Here, however, sustain is absent and the release begins right after the initial decay.  23 Pitches with the same count in the OM are grouped into the same vertical structure in the ODC. 58   Figure 25 Static Prayer Bowl fft analysis page &15&15&8&8&&???8X X X X X X X X X XX# X# X# X# X# X# X#XXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXXXbXb XbXb Xb Xb Xb Xb Xb Xb Xb XbXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX#Xb X# XbXbX#Xb X# XbXbX#Xb X# XbX#Xb X# XbX#Xb X# XbX#Xb X# XbX#Xb X# XbX#Xb X# X# XbX#Xb X# X# XbX#Xb X# XbXX XXX XX XXX XXX XX XX X XXX XXXX X X X X X X X59   Figure 26 Harmonic chords extracted with pitch clipping 1. The alto flute takes on the role of the prayer bowl by playing pitches of the OM  2. The cello uses extended techniques to create high noise content, with little pitch definition 3. When pitch content is present, the cello plays notes from the “inharmonic” pitch collection associated with the ODC  4. The percussion uses a combination of the above techniques: it uses gongs, crotales, and prayer bowls for long sustained and harmonic materials, and semi-resonant metal pipes for noise components &8&8&&?X XX XX XXXb XbXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX#Xb X# XbXbX#Xb X# XbXbX#Xb X# XbX#Xb X# XbXX XXX XX XXX= 18= 10= 8= 6= 460   Figure 27 Octave Displacement Chart with inharmonic pitches (in red)  Figure 28 OM24 for harmonic pitch chords                                                 24 This OM was created with a previous version of the software when colour coding and amplitude calculations have not yet been included in the visual representations.  &8&8&&?XXXX XXXXXXbXbXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXbXb X# XbXb X# X# XbX# X# X# XbXX X61   Figure 29 Movement V. Prayer, page 2 system 3  4.5 Movement VI. Exorcism In this movement the piano is exploring the idea of reconstructing part of the spectral data with some imposed limitations. In movement V. Prayer many extended techniques were used but the pitch material was very restricted and tightly controlled. Exorcism provides a dramatic contrast to Prayer. Here, a large amount of data analysis is used, there is rigid application of the analysis data, and the musical texture contains rapid, precisely notated gestures. As well, there are no extended techniques, strong contrasts between sections, and an explicit integration of the HB-set. The construction of the piano gesture of the opening section will be discussed in detail to convey the general construction of the entire movement.   The left hand of the piano part is very simple in its construction, both in its use of pitch material and its rhythmic or formal considerations. All the pitch material comes from the unique-note analysis of the oud_fft_15_unique (see Figure 48) analysis file. Each frame of analysis is translated into an eighth-note gesture for the left hand of the pianist (see top staff of Figure 30 A.Fl.Vlc.Perc.&?œp f p œrbf‚‚ œ# œ# œ ‚‚ œb œf p Sz f(mostly inaudible) flutterpizz. arco pizz.Cymb.62  below). Each pitch of the analysis chord is present, but each note is treated as a pitch-class to  Figure 30 Pitch assignments of analysis frames to Piano texture allow for more pianistic writing as well as to keep all the pitch material in the bass part of the piano. The texture of the left hand alternates between stepwise motion, skip wise motion, and larger intervallic jumps to create a more engaging and sporadic texture. Also, each time a directional change occurs an accent is added to that pitch (see bottom staff of Figure 30 above), which results in a constantly shifting and evolving metrical timing structure. If more bins are present in a frame of analysis, the gesture in the piano is more likely to be stepwise in a single direction, whereas shorter frames produce larger interval jumps. While the accents do not necessarily align with the beginnings and/or ends of these structures, the shorter the frame, the more likely it is to have a larger interval in the texture, which in turn would require a directional change to maintain playability (see Figure 31). Once all notes in the analysis file are exhausted, the section ends and the piece transitions to the second section.    Figure 31 Larger intervallic motion with directional changes; mm.36-38 ??œ œ# œ œ# œ œ# œ œ œ œ# œ œn œ# œ œb œ œ œ# œ œ# œ œ# œ œjœ>44 œ# œ œ# œ œ# œ œ œ>68 œ# œ œ>n œ# œ œ>b58 œ œ œ># œ œ># œ œ># œ œj>Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4fœ>œ# œ># œ œ> œ# œ>58œ œ>b œœ œ>24 œ# œ>b œb63   The right hand reinforces pitches from the left hand texture in accented octaves. These dyads have a dual function at this point in the piece: 1) they create sustained notes and introduce temporary harmonic fields; 2) they are chosen to recreate the HB-set in order; The temporary harmonic field that is created between the rapid left hand passages and the sustained right hand dyads allow the listener to focus on those dyads and briefly ignore the frantic left hand gestures. At the same time, the first nine attacks of the right hand are a replication of the HB-set, in order but for one deviation (see Figure 32 below), which ties the movement back to the overall composition, as well as the concept of the heartbeat. The sixth pitch, which is the Movement Pitch D#/Eb, is omitted at its proper occurrence in the row. Rather, it is stated once the HB-set is completed at which point it is repeated several times as a marker of change in the right hand texture.  Once the HB-set has been explicitly stated, the right hand repeats the Movement Pitch (D#). The sustained notes are then rhythmically activated and eventually start introducing pitches from the same-note analysis.   Figure 32 HB-set assignment to piano RH  4.6 Movement VII. Forebode A spectral analysis of a brake drum is the source for Movement VII. Here, the piano part is examined to show the basic techniques used. The piano pitch material is mainly derived from two sources: the unique pitch-set of the brake drum raw MIDI-note analysis and the HB-set.  & 44 Œ œœ> Œ .68 Œ œœ> 58 Œ .œ#œ#> Œ . œœ>34 ‰ œ#œ#> ˙˙24 Œf œœ>34 œ> œb œ>œœœ> 24 ˙b˙b> wbwb >44m.1 m.9 m.19 m.26 m.33 m.43 m.53 m.60 m.71I II III IV V VII VIII IX VI64   A single chord was created for each instrument, which was then manipulated to create the pitch material for the movement. For this movement, a new technique for extracting pitch material from the raw data analysis was used. The unique pitch-set was visually inspected and structures identified that seemed visually connected and had a shape similar to an overtone structure25 (see Figure 33). Chord I was assigned to the piano and all subsequent pitch materials used are derived using this chord as a starting point.  The first step in the process of generating pitch material, the chord was modified using the compression/expansion technique used in movements IV and VIII (see Sections 4.1.3 and 4.1.4). Figure 34 shows the chord progression that was created from the first set of compressions/expansions. These structures were created using the same anchor but different ratio values. The pitch around which the chord was changed (the anchor pitch) was F4. This pitch was important and worked into the series because it was the ending pitch for both movement V. Prayer, and VI. Exorcism and is not a member of the HB-set, which is important for the creation of the second chord progression used in the piano. The ratios used for the compression/expansion follow an approximation of an exponential curve (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4). The resulting six chords where then octave transposed (-2, -1, -1, -1 , -1, 0) and, when necessary folded back into the piano range26 (both chord number 5 and 6 had to be folded).                                                    25 The pitches were chosen purely on a visual basis. To be considered as part of the final chordal structure a pitch could not occur in the same frame or the same staff as the previous pitch.  26 The piano has a limited range of pitches. When expanding chords by large ratios the resulting structures might exceed this range. Several strategies can be used to address this: ignore, clip, wrap, and fold are the possibilities of the program used to calculate the transformations. In this instance folding was chosen, which calculates the difference of the highest note in the chord to the highest note allowed (e.g. highest note of the piano) and reflects or folds that pitch back into the piano range by that interval.  65   Figure 33 Movement VII instrumental chord extractions from raw data analysis It was also important to incorporate the HB-set into the piece in various forms. The chord compression/expansion technique was used again to create a chord progression introducing the relationship of the HB-set to this progression. Also, during the final measures of the movement the HB-set is stated more directly and audibly. The chord progression, seen in Figure 35 was &15&15&8&8&&??œ œœb œb œ# œb œb œ#œ œ œœ# œ# œ# œ#œ œœ# œ# œ#œ œ œ œ œœ# œ# œ#66  derived from the Chord I undergoing a constant expansion factor of 2 and a moving pitch anchor, which was the HB-set in order.    Figure 34 Movement VII piano chord progression 1; fixed anchor, moving ratio   Figure 35 Movement VII piano chord progression 2; moving anchor, fixed ratio  4.7 Movement IX. Reach The last section of movement IX. Reach acts both as the closing section of the movement and of the entire composition. It incorporates all the important pitch material from all the preceding movements. It sums up the entire nine movements by utilizing the HB-set, the first peak in both the fft and iana analysis sets as well as the peak pitch of the histogram for both the &?œœœ œœ#œœ#œœœœœœœœœ#œ#œœ#œ#œœnœb œœ# œ# œœœb œœ# œœ œ œœ#					     &?œœ#œ œœ# œœ œœœ œœœœœœ#œœœœ#œœ œ#œœœœœœ#œ#œœœœ œœ#œœ#œœ œœ# œœ# œœ œœ# œœ#œœ œ#œœ#œœœ#	!"! #! #!	#! $ $ $ % 	#!67  fft and iana sets (see Table 7 for a pitch summary). The OM and HB-set are also important throughout movement IX.  Figure 36 Movement IX, summary pitch assignments at beginning of final section, is an excerpt of the final section starting in measure 63. Here all pitches have been labeled according to their origin in their respective analysis files and movement assignments. Each pitch can be found in Table 7 and is labeled as follows in the excerpt: • Roman numerals show which movement the pitch was originally found in (in case of no other designations, a single roman numeral refers to the HB pitch) • H refers to pitches from the “histogram peak” column • L refers to pitches from the “1st loud pitch” column • Arabian numeral 1 refers to the fft data in the table • Arabian numeral 2 refers to the iana data  Mvmnt HB-pitch Loudest pitch Histogram peak  I A  Eb4 (fft); F4 (iana) G6 (fft); F4 (iana) II C  F3 (fft); C5 (iana) D#6 (fft); G5 (iana) III D#  A3 (fft); Bb3 (iana) A4 (fft); A#4 (iana) IV G  Eb4 (fft); F4 (iana) G6 (fft); F4 (iana) V A# B5 (fft); C6 (iana) C6 (fft); C6 (iana) VI D# C#4 (fft);  C3 (fft); C3 (iana) VII G  Bb8 (fft); F5 (iana) F5 (fft); F#10 (iana) VIII B  Eb4 (fft); F4 (iana) G6 (fft); F4 (iana) IX C# A5 (fft 1 + iana 1); E5 (fft 2); B5 (iana 2) G#5 (fft1); A5 (iana1); F5 (fft2); C6 (iana2) Table 7 Important pitches for each movement 68  The remainder of the section to the end of the piece follows the system as described below and labeled in the excerpt. The construction of this section followed a very strict, predetermined pitch sequence. The entire sequence, once completed, encompasses the complete HB-set, the peak notes of both fft and iana files for all the movements’ analysis files, and the first occurrence of a “loudest” pitch in both the fft and iana files for all the movements’ analysis files. The goal was to incorporate major pitch elements from every movement to conclude the piece in a unified manner.  Figure 36 Movement IX, summary pitch assignments at beginning of final section  The system used for the distribution of the pitches is very simple. The pitch material is divided into two separate groups: the HB-set and the Peak-set (including both the “L” and “H” columns of Table 7). The right hand uses both groups starting from the start of the set, the left hand starts with the retrograde of both sets. Once both hands meet, the piece literally runs out of pitches and the performer has to finish the piece without playing any notes.  The HB-set pitches were given a specific length and were notated first. The duration of the right hand HB-set pitches was fixed at 13.5 quarter notes, which is the length of the total HB-set multiplied by 1.5. This number was chosen for the simple need to have long, static notes over &?w ˙ ˙ . œb˙# ˙# .˙œ ˙ .˙˙œ œw˙b .˙˙ .œ ˙# .œ ˙œ ˙˙bœObw w w œ œ œ ˙ w w ˙ . œb ˙ ‰˙ œ# ˙ . w œ ˙ . w œ œ œ ˙ w63 II L1 I L2I H1III H2II H2II H1 II L2IIIIII L2IX H2IXIX H1 IX L1VIIIIX L2II L1VIII H1VIII L1VIIVIII H2VII L169  which the player could perform motions to be tracked by the computer system, as well as the need to shift the starting point of each note to obscure the beat structure of the section (similar to the opening section but with much simpler rhythmic materials). The left hand was fixed at 8.5, or the length of the right hand pitches minus the total number of pitches to be used in the left hand (5). The timing of the left hand pitches is related to that of the right hand, but a different ratio was needed so the rhythmic structures of both hands would not interlock at any point. The HB-set pitches can be seen in Figure 36 above labeled with roman numerals only and highlighted in bold (right hand starting with I, and left hand with IX).   The construction of the Peak-set is also simple. Here the length of the pitches are not formalized in any way and are placed around the already notated HB-set structures described above. The right hand generally observes the octave designation of the pitches27  (as seen in Table 7 above), whereas the left hand is forced to use octave equivalency to shift the pitches into the bass range. The order in which the “H” and “L” pitches and their individual fft and iana parts are used is determined by the interval of the pitches. Larger intervals were desirable in this section so the computer could more easily track the larger motions.                                                  27 In Figure 36 only the C6, labeled as “II L2” is octave transposed in an effort to have the motion from the C6 to Bb3 more exaggerated as the performer is instructed to remain longer on held notes and to not prepare notes that are motion tracked.  70  Chapter  5: Conclusion Ortus can be seen as belonging to the tradition of spectral music because of its use of data derived from the spectral analysis of sound files. However, the theoretical, structural and conceptual use of this spectral data is taken in new directions. In this project, spectral analysis using fft and iana algorithms was used. This system could easily be expanded by creating new modules that either analyze a sound with different techniques (e.g. wavelet transforms, McAulay-Quatieri Analysis) or creates data by mathematical means (e.g. FM synthesis, Ring Modulation) and by connecting it to the data analysis unit, a new method of working with meaningful data is made available.   An extensive set of modules was created for spectral analysis, gesture tracking and electroacoustic performance. The modular design of this software allows the components to be used individually or as collections, which encourages experimentation on part of the composer.  Further research and development is needed to create a comprehensive ontology so this system might become accessible and useful to other composers. A real-time version of the analysis portion of the system is currently under development. It is the hope that by analyzing sound in real-time this system can be used to generate control messages directly related to the analyzed material (e.g. the analysis of the performed piece itself). These control messages could then be mapped to any number of musical parameters (e.g. diffusion, synthesis, filters) and this would further strengthen the relationships between structure and musical materials and enhance the connection between pre-determined, pre-compositional techniques and live, real-time data management.  71  Chapter  6: Score for Ortus  !!Ortus!!in!9!movements!! ! !!!For!Chamber!Ensemble,!Interactive!Electronics,!and!Motion!Tracking!!!!!!!!!!!Music!by!Martin!Ritter!2014!!!!!72Instrumentation:-!Flue/Alto!Flute,!Clarinet/Bass!Clarinet,!Bassoon,!Piano,!Percussion,!Violin!1,!Violin!2,!Viola,!Violoncello!!!!Duration:!approx.!40!minutes!!!!Program-note:--!This!piece!entitled!Ortus,!for!chamber!ensemble,!interactive!electronics,!and!gesture!tracking,!establishes!a!novel!approach!to!spectral!composition.!A!conceptual!narrative!transforms!the!abstract!spectral!data!into!a!story!telling!device!through!the!inherent!meaning!and!semantic!implications!of!the!chosen!sound!files.!Ortus!relies!on!the!recording!and!analysis!of!a!heartbeat!as!its!foundation;!the!heartbeat!is!used!as!the!musical!material!for!the!three!tutti!movements,!with!extracted!pitch!material!used!to!create!formal!and!conceptual!cohesion!between!all!of!the!movements.!Additionally,!two!conceptually!different!sound!file!families!are!integrated,!which!form!the!basis!for!the!small!ensemble!movements!and!are!used!for!the!creation!of!all!pitch,!structural,!and!formal!materials.!!!--Mvmnt- Name- Analysis-Sample-Instrumentation- Dur-in-min.-Electroacoustic- Computer-Vision-I- N/A- Heartbeat! Tutti- 3Q5- ✔! !II- Lament- Crying!! Solo!Clarinet- 3- ✔! !III- ChitQChat- Speech!! Bass!clarinet,!Viola-4- ✔! !IV- N/A- Heartbeat! Tutti- 3- ✔! !V- Prayer- Prayer!Bowl!!Alto!Flute,!Percussion,!Cello-5Q12- ✔! !VI- Exorcism- Instrument!(Oud)!Clarinet,!Piano,!Violin,!Cello-4- ✔! ✔!VII- Forebode- Brake!Drum!!Bassoon,!Piano,!Percussion-3- ✔! ✔!VIII- N/A- Heartbeat! Tutti- 2- ✔! !IX- Reach- Singing!! Solo!Piano- 8- ✔! ✔!73Legend:!!General:-! !!!!diminuendo!to!niente!!!!!!crescendo!from!niente! !!gradual!change!from!one!sound!or!one!way!of!playing!to!another!!!!!Changes!in!amount!of!vibrato!!!!Winds:-!!!Tongue!Ram;!resulting!in!a!percussive!pitch!a!major!seventh!lower.!!!!H.T.!!!!!!!!Hollow!tone;!the!resulting!timbre!should!be!almost!depleted!of!higher!partials;!!!!does!not!need!to!be!perfectly!in!tune.!!A.F.! Alternate!Fingering;!use!an!alternate!fingering!for!the!notated!pitch;!the!focus!!!!!!!!should!be!on!audible!timbre!changes;!if!several!are!asked!for!in!a!row,!multiple!or!alternating!fingerings!should!be!used!!!!!Normal!pitch!!!!Half!pitch,!half!air!!!!Air!only!!!!!Key!clicks!SzêXb>b(key clicks)o oE . X74Strings:-!N.!! normal/ordinary!!!S.P.! sul!ponticello!!S.T.!!!!! sul!tasto!!!!!!!!play!on!the!bridge;!the!resulting!sound!should!be!mostly!white!noise!!!!!!!clicking!sound;!high!bow!pressure!with!slow!strokes!produces!a!!“clicking”!sound!-!!!fingered!pitch;!no!bow----bow!on!the!wrapped!part!of!the!string!by!the!tailpiece;!produces!a!very!coarse!sound-----leftQhand!pizzicato---!!Tapping!sound;!nut!of!bow!on!string;!arhythmic!--Percussion:-!FS.P.(on bridge)( )X#Fclicking soundSzX#fê+Xb...œ. . . .œ. œ75!Large!tamQtam!Thundersheet!(optional*)!Suspended!Cymbal!Metal!Pipes!(low,!lowQmid,!mid,!high)-Prayer!Bowls/Temple!Bowls!(low,!high)!Crotales!(C5QC6,!notated)!Marimba!Vibraphone!Woodblock!!(low,!mid!low,!mid!high,!high)!Snare!Drum!--*if!no!Thundersheet!is!used,!scrape!the!tamQtam!with!the!rubber!mallet!instead!!!!scrape!the!cymbal!with!the!back!of!the!mallet!!!!!use!a!bow!on!the!indicated!note!-----------------Percussion- Movement-TamQtam! V,!VII!Thundersheet! V!Cymbal! I,!V!Pipes! V!Prayer!Bowls! V!Crotales! V!Marimba! V!!Vibraphone! IV,!VII,!VIII!Woodblock! I!Snare!Drum! VII!SzCymb.œ ‚œ œ œ œ œ œ œTam-TamPrayer Bowl HighPrayer Bowl LowPipe low-midPipe highPipe midThundersheet CymbalPipe Low Snare DrumSnarerimœ?Marimba76Piano:-The!diamond!noteQheads!are!"silent"!notes,!meaning!that!one!should!move!to!their!location!but!not!actually!play!them!(some!of!the!notes!are!also!beyond!the!range!of!the!piano).!The!performer!should!move!to!the!note!and!then!remain!stationary!for!as!long!as!possible!(within!the!beat!structure)!before!moving!on!to!the!next!event.!The!coloured!lines!show!that!the!computer!tracks!the!movement.!Red!is!used!for!the!right!hand,!blue!for!the!left!hand.!If!the!distance!to!be!tracked!could!technically!be!reached!without!moving!the!hand,!a!conscious,!big!motion!must!be!made.!!!!!-Cells-Notation-(Movement-I):!!Cells!are!structures!that!are!to!be!repeated!with!certain!timing!instructions.!Cells!also!contain!pitch,!contour,!and/or!timber!information.!!A!cell!is!always!shown!with!square!brackets:!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! Timber!information!! ! ! ! ! !! !!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!! Timing!information!!start!of!!cell!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! end!of!a!cell!!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!! gesture/contour!pitch!!information!!!!!Stemless!notes!in!a!box!are!possible!pitches!within!a!given!cell!(see!above);!the!performer!can!choose!any!of!these!notes,!in!any!order!(also!repeated);!octaves!should!be!observed!if!possible!œœœœb œf	œ œb œb&?&?&?6·#œO O·Ob· .Oœ w‚ œb ˙·w·O‚O· . ·Ow w œ œ ˙ . ww ˙w ˙ œ œb œ w ˙ . Œ717579try and keep the electronic texture goingby moving the hands;It will become more and more difficult to sustain the texture;keep trying until it is impossible to create sounds. Pause and end the piece.77use!alternate!fingerings,!changes!in!intonation,!pitch!bends,!timbral!trills,!vibrato,!etc.!for!gradual!colour!changes!!!!!!!!!random!pulses!within!the!held!notes;!grace!note!indicates!that!a!grace!note!figure!may!be!played!at!random!intervals!within!the!held!note.!!!!Timing:!!Duration:!means!the!maximum!time!(in!seconds)!the!cell!should!last.!All!timing!indications!are!to!be!seen!as!guidelines!only.!They!are!mostly!useful!for!determining!the!intended!texture/denseness!of!a!section.!Within!that!the!performer!may!ignore!the!timing!information!as!long!as!the!intent!is!still!present.!!Interval:!!means!the!maximum!time!(in!seconds)!between!repetitions!of!the!cell!(5!seconds!between!the!end!of!one!cell!and!the!start!of!the!next!in!the!example!above)!!!!Software/Hardware-Requirements:-!Ortus!involves!the!processing!of!the!live!performance!by!software!in!Max/MSP.!Separate!microphone!inputs!are!required!from!each!instrument!(possibly!2!distinct!microphones!for!the!percussion).!During!performance,!the!software!receives!and!processes!audio!signals!and!distributes!them!to!speakers!in!the!hall.!The!software!is!controlled!by!a!NoteAbilityPro!score,!which!is!controlled!by!a!computer!operator!to!assure!alignment!of!the!score!and!performance.!Ortus!may!be!used!with!a!stereo,!quadraphonic,!or!octaphonic!speaker!configuration,!although!the!processing!is!designed!for!the!octaphonic!setup.!!!The!piano!player’s!hands!are!tracked!using!an!overhead!USB!camera!during!3!of!the!movements!(VI,!VII,!IX).!The!camera!should!be!mounted!several!feet!above!the!piano!keyboard!to!ensure!the!entire!keyboard!is!captured.!!!!All!required!software!along!with!detailed!instructions!can!be!obtained!from!the!composer!at:!martin@martinQritter.com!œœpP	78Movement(I.(Tech.sheet:(!!Flute,!Clarinet,!and!Bassoon:!Reverb!throughout!!Time!point!0”!–!Prominent!reverb!time!on!all!three!instruments!Time!point!40”?50”!(Flute,!Clarinet)!–!Reduce!reverb!time!to!moderate!levels!Time!point!1’30”!(Bassoon)!–!Reduce!reverb!time!to!moderate!levels!Time!point!2’40”!–!Reverb!time!increased!to!original!setting!!!Piano!and!Percussion:!Delay!throughout!!Time!point!0”!–!Delay!time!of!2+!seconds,!feedback!amount!of!low!!!Strings:!Delay!and!Reverb!throughout!!Time!point!0”!–!Delay!time!of!1!second!with!moderate!feedback!amount;!low!reverb!levels!Time!point!45”!–!Start!to!gradually!increase!feedback!amount!to!prominent!by!time!point!1’15”!!!Performance:!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“A”!All!inputs!to!effects!(Delay!and!Reverb)!are!cut!at!time!point!2’40”!79FluteClarinetBassoonPianoPercussionViolin1Violin2ViolaCello&&?&?&&B?ffœ œ œb ...œ!. . . .œ. œ .œœœ œœ# œ œ. .!. . . . ...Each system should last at least 20 - 30 secondsScore&in&Ccalm but driven, with urgencyI. key clicks; use any two pitches that$are$loud$and$resonantadd breath/white noise to$the$k.c.$guesture;$unpitchedkey clicks; use any two pitches that$are$loud$and$resonant;Martin$RitterDuration:&4"Interval:&4"Duration:&4"Interval:&4"to Cymbaltapping sound; nut of bow on string; arhythmicInterval:&2"Duration:&8"tapping sound; nut of bow on string; arhythmicDuration:&8"Interval:&2"©Ritter 2014martin@martin-ritter.com80FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?ff "œ# œ œ# œ#!fœ œœœ! pœ#œ# œ#œœ# œ#.!. . . . . . .œ#œ# œœ œ#œ# œ#.!. . . . . . .20"key clicks; use any two pitches that are loud and resonantstart adding breath/white noise to the k.c. guesture; unpitched Duration:&4"Interval:&4"Duration:&4"Interval:&4"Interval:&6"Duration:3'4"Cymb.to WBWBoccasionally coincide with pno(but NOT synchronized)Duration:2'3"Interval:&6"tapping sound; nut of bow on string; arhythmicDuration:&8"Interval:&2"tapping sound; nut of bow on string; arhythmicDuration:&8"Interval:&2"81FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?œœ œœ Pœ# œ œœœ œb œ œb œ œpœ œbœb œb œbœbœbœbœœ p.. .>.F. .p>..œ#œ#œ# œœ# œ# œ#œœ p.. . ..>F.>. .p40"flutterDuration:10"Interval:&5"Interval:&6"Duration:8"occasional$accentstransition to col legno battutoDuration:&8"Interval:&2"transition to col legno battutooccasional accentsDuration:&8"Interval:&2"82FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?œ œ œ# œ# œ#FPfœ# œb œœ œ# œ#œ œ œœ p F.>. ..p.>... .œœ œb œ œœ œœœ œb œb p.. . .>F p..>..1'00"Interval:&10"Duration:10"Cymb.to WBtransition to col legno battutooccasional accentsDuration:&8"Interval:&2"occasional accentstransition to col legno battutoDuration:&8"Interval:&2"83FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?œœ œ# œœœ pœ œrœœ œ# pœ# Fœ#œ œ œ œ# œpœ œ œ œ# œp1'20" flutter Interval:&5"Duration:10"Interval:&10"Duration:10"(play on the bridge; white noise)(sul pont. and back)S.P.Duration:10"Interval:&4"(play on the bridge; white noise)S.P.(sul pont. and back) Interval:&4"Duration:10"84FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?œœ œb œ œœb œ Ppfœ œ# œ œpœ œ œ œ# œ#p1'40"Interval:&6"Duration:8"Cymb.to WB(play on the bridge; white noise)S.P.(sul pont. and back) Interval:&4"Duration:10"(sul pont. and back)(play on the bridge; white noise)S.P.Interval:&4"Duration:10"85FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?œœ œ# œœœ œ pP2'00"flutterInterval:&5"Duration:10"(fade out)86FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?f2'20"(fade out)Cymb.(fade out)87FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?( )œb2'40"(fade out)(fade out)(fade out)(fade out)88FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&&B?( )œbPf3'00"(fade out)(attacca)(quasi niente)Cymb.(fade out)(fade out)(attacca)89Movement(II.(Lament(Tech0sheet:(!!Clarinet!Solo:!Delay!and!Reverb!throughout!!Measure!1!–!Effects!chain!of!1st!Delay!(feedback!amount!prominent)B>!Reverb!(time!moderate)B>!2nd!Delay!(feedback!amount!moderate)!!!Performance:!!Input!to!effects!chain!only!enabled!during!high,!sustained!notes.!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“C”!!90Bb Clarinet &&&&&Øœb(   ) œ œ( )œ œœ œœ œ œ œb( )œbFœRìœRìbœRìb œ œb œn œ œ œ œ œœ œ œbœRìœ œ œ# œ œRìb œRìœb œb œb œ œn œb œ œn œbœb œœRìb œ œœ œb œ œb œ œ œRìœRìœRìb œRìb œ œ œ œ# œ œRìnœRì œœœRìbœ œb œrë œRìb œb œ œ œRìnœb œ œb591317free, hauntinglyeach measure should last approx. 4 seconds(quasi niente)poco$a$poco$cresc.II. Lament91&&&&&( )œb œ( )œ œb œb œb( )œbœb œb( )œbœRìbœœœ œœœ œb œb œ œœ œ# œœRì œ œbœ( )œRì> œ œb œb ( )œ>b œbœ œb œœœ œœ œ œ# œ œRìœRìœ# œœ œ œœœRìb œ œbœb œ œœ œ# œn œœœ œRì œbœbœn œb œ œb œn œœœœRìœ œ# œ œœ œ œœœ œb œb œnœ œ œb œb œœ œbœ# œ œRìbœœ œRìbœRì œR쮣œ œœb œb œnœb œb œRìbœ£œ œ œRìb œRì ®£œb œ œ œn œ œ œ œ œ202326293292&&&&&!Ø( )œb œn( )œ œœÏœb œbœb œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œb œb œb œ œ œœUœRì œb œb œ œ# œ œbœ# œ œRìbœRìb œ œb œœb œn œ œ œœRì œ# œœb œ œ œn œœb œœ œb œb œn œn œRìœ œb œ œn œbœb œ œ œ œ œnœb œbœRìb œœ œb œbœb œœœ œb œb œ œnœb œb œRìœRìœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œbœ# œ œb œbœb œb œn œn3537394244(attacca)93Movement(III.(Chit.chat(Tech.sheet:(!!Bass!Clarinet:!Delay!!Measure!63368!–!Delay!with!increasing!delay!time!and!feedback!amount!!!!Measure!69!–!Remove!Delay!!!Viola:!Delay!!Measure!73378!–!Delay!with!increasing!delay!time!and!feedback!amount!Measure!79!–!Remove!Delay!!!Performance:!!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“D#”!Output!of!filter!array!only!enabled!on!HB3pitches!(marked!sfz!in!score),!e.g.!Cl.!m.6,!m.8,!m.14,!etc.!!Measure!6386!–!Output!of!filter!array!is!routed!to!a!chain!of!delays!!Measure!87!–!Remove!chain!of!Delays!94Bb ClarinetViola&BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?Bw44! w w" " ?‰ .œR Szœb Œ " " " Œ ‰ .œRSzœb " " " "" Œ ‰Szœb #" " " " " " "œr œb #$œb‰" " ‰ . œb œSzœb Œ " " " " " Œ ‰fpœb œ" Œœp‰"44 w w w! wu $œbSz‰ . Œ " " " ‰ . $œb œ ‰ " " " ‰ .$œb œ ‰ "" " " " " $œb ‰ . Œ " " " Œ ‰ Szœb #" " " " " " " "61321("""""attacca"from"previous)q = 100III. Chit-chatto"Bass"ClarinetA.F. A.F.A.F.S.T.(only&hold&to&allow&moretime&for&clarinet&player&to&switch&instruments)N S.T. S.T.S.P. N95Bass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?B" Œ fœb ˙ "" " " " ‰ .fœ>b Œ "" " "Fœ Œ " " " Œ ‰pœ "" " #pœ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ . œbSz"" Œ ‰ . œ>bSz" " "F‰ œ# Œ "" " Œ ‰ . œp" " "" ‰fœ£œœ Œ " " " ‰ . pœŒ " " Œ p‰ œ#"" #œp‰ Œ " # œb F‰ Œ " " " Œ ‰Fœb """ " " pœb Œ " "Œ ‰ Szœn # Œ #$œb ‰ " ‰ .$œn œbF ‰ " " "" " " " "2936434853A.F.96Bass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BFœb ‰ . Œ ‰ . $œb Œ " " Œ ‰ œ>bF# "" #pœ ‰ Œ Œ ‰ .Szœb œ œb#œ>Œ Œ ‰Szœb œ œb ‰ œ>Œ Œ #Szœb œ œb ‰ . œ> Œ "Œ Szœ ‰ . # œbp ‰ ‰ fœ# œp œbSz Œ Œ ‰ .$œ"pœb ‰ . Œ #Pœ ‰ Œ" " Œ ‰fœ # " Œ ‰ . œf"Œ œ # œ œb$‰ Œ " ‰ .pœb Œ " Œ œbf# # œ$" "# œ œ œbf‰ œ> # " œbp ‰ . Œ " " "" " Œ œb w $w œŒ "Pœb ‰ . Œ " " " ‰fœœ Œ Œ œp ‰ . "" " ‰ .Szœ>œ œ# œœ> . #Szœ œ# œ . œ# pœœ œ œ œ . œSzŒ ‰$œ# Œ ‰ .pœ " ‰Pœ# # Œ " Œ #fœ ‰ " "5862677175A.F. A.F.A.F. A.F. A.F. A.F.A.F.S.T.97Bass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?BBass ClVla?B" ‰ œbF# Œ " " Œ ‰$œb # œbf## œbpŒ " " ‰$œb # Œ" " Œ ‰ . œbSz" "" Œ ‰pœ# " " # œbSz‰ Œ " "œp‰ . Œ " " Œ ‰ .pœb " Œ ‰Fœ#" " #Szœ ‰ Œ"Szœb ‰ . Œ Œ ‰ .!œ Œ ‰ œ# #œ ‰ Œ " " œb!‰ . Œ ""fœb ## œbpŒ " " Œpœb ##Pœb # œbF‰ Œ " "Œ ‰pœb# " " Szœb ‰ . Œ " "# œbp‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ Szœ# " Œ ‰ . pœb " " œnSz‰ . Œ" # œbSz‰ Œ Œ ‰ pœn #Œ ‰ .PœFœb ‰ . Œ " " "" " " " "8085899499A.F.98Movement(IV.(Tech/sheet:(!!Performance:!!No!electroacoustic!sounds!for!mm.159!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“G”!Measure!105end!–!Output!of!filter!array!only!enabled!on!the!beginnings!of!chord!cycles:!m.10,!m.19,!m.21,!m.28,!m.42,!m.44,!m.48,!m.58,!m.63,!m.!69,!m.79,!m.82,!m.84,!m.99,!m.105,!m.108!Chain!of!Delays!added!to!instruments!anticipating!or!prolonging!chordal!texture:!e.g.!Piano!mm.41543,!Piano!mm.88591,!Violin1!m.32,!Violin!mm.50551,!Bassoon!mm.49550,!etc.!!!!99FluteClarinetBassoonPianoPercussionViolin1Violin2ViolaCello&&?&?&?&&B?!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " " " " ‰ .Szœ#Œ!44œ#œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#œ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ#œ# Œ!44œ#œ#‰ Œ " " Œ ‰œ#œ#! " " " " ‰ .œ#œ#Œ!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ"44 " " " " "!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ# Œ!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ# Œ!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ Szœ! " " " " ‰ .SzœŒq = 120Stubborn IV.Vib.hard mallet100FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" " "SzœSzœ ‰ Œ " "" " "SzœSzœ ‰ Œ " "" " "Szœ# Szœ‰ Œ " "" " "Szœ#œ#Szœœ ‰ Œ " "" " "œ#œ# œœ‰ Œ " "" " "SzœSzœ ‰ Œ " "" " " " "" " "SzœSzœ ‰ Œ " "" " "Szœ#Szœ ‰ Œ " "" " "Szœ#Szœ ‰ Œ " "" " "Szœ Szœ‰ Œ " "7101FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ "Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ "Œ ‰Szœ#! " " " " ‰ .Szœ#Œ "Œ ‰Szœ#œ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ#œ# Œ "Œ ‰œ#œ#! " " " " ‰ .œ#œ#Œ "Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ "" " " " "Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ "Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ# Œ "Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ# Œ "Œ ‰Szœ! " " " " ‰ . SzœŒ "12102FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?4444444444444444444444" "Szœ !Szœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ ‰ ." "Szœ !Szœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ ‰ ." "Szœ#!Szœ! Œ " " "34Szœ#‰ ." "Szœ#œ# !Szœœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ#œ# ‰ ." "œ#œ#!œœ! Œ " " "34œ#œ#‰ ." "Szœ !Szœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ ‰ ." " " " "34" "Szœ !Szœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ ‰ ." "Szœ# !Szœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ# ‰ ." "Szœ# !Szœ ! Œ " " "34Szœ# ‰ ." "Szœ!Szœ! Œ " " "34 Szœ‰ .17103FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?3434343434343434343434Szœ#44 ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "Sz!44 œ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " "Szœ44 ‰ Œ " " Œ ! œSz! " " "Sz!44œn œ ! Œ " " Œ ‰Szœœ ! " " "!44œbœb‰ Œ " " Œ !œ œ! " " "Sz!44 œb ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb ! " " ""44 " " " "Sz!44 œ# ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "Szœ44 ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " "Sz!44 œ# ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "Szœ#44 ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ Szœ#! " " "22104FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?"34 ‰ .Szœ# ‰44Szœ ! Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb " ""34 ‰ .Szœ !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " ""34 ‰ .Szœ!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ! œ#Sz‰ " ""34 ‰Szœœ ! !44œSzœ ! Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# œ " ""34 ‰ .œbœb œ44 œ‰ Œ " " Œ !œ# œ#! " ""34 ‰ .Szœb !44œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " ""34 "44 " " ""34 ‰ .Szœ# ‰44Szœ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# " ""34 ‰ .Szœ !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " ""34 ‰ .Szœ# !44 œnSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " ""34 ‰ . Szœ# œ44 ‰ .SzŒ " " Œ ‰ .Szœ#" "27105FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" " ‰ .Szœn œ ‰ " " " Œ ‰Szœ" " Œ œSz‰ . " " "" " ‰SzœŒ " " "" " ‰œSzœ# œ œ ‰ " " " Œ ‰ .Szœ" " !œ# œ#!œ œ‰ " " " Œ ‰ .œ" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " " " "" " Œ Szœ# " " " Œ ‰ .Szœ" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœn Œ " " "" " ‰ Szœ#Œ " " "32106FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?4444444444444444444444œ ‰ . Œ " " " " " !54Szœ# ‰ Œ " !œSz! œSzSzœ ‰ . Œ " " " " " !54 œSz‰ Œ " ! œSz‰SzœŒ " " " " "Sz!54 œ ‰ Œ " ! œSz œœ#Sz‰ . Œ " " " " " Œ ‰ œ#œœ#54Szœœ œ œ œœ œ œ#œœ œSzœ œœ#‰ . Œ " " " " " Œ ‰ œ œ# œ#54 œ œœ! Œ Œ !œ œœ œ œ‰Szœb‰ . Œ " " " " " !54Szœn‰ Œ " !œSz‰" " " " " "54œ ‰ . Œ " " " " " !54 œbSz‰ Œ " ! œSzœSzœ#Sz‰ . Œ " " " " " !54œSz‰ Œ " !œ#Sz‰! œSz‰ Œ " " " " " !54 œbSz ‰ Œ " ! œSz‰Szœ#‰ . Œ " " " " " !54 œSz‰ Œ " ! œSz‰37107FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?3434343434343434343434œ44 Œ " 24 ‰ .Szœb Œ 44 ! œbSz‰ Œ " " " Szœ ŒSz˙44 " 24Szœ œ ‰ . 44 ! œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ .Szœ œ ‰ Œ44 ! œ#Sz‰ Œ " 24 Œ ! œSz‰ 44 ! œ#Szœ œ" " œ œ Szœ! "Szœ#œ#44 ‰ . Œ " 24pœ œn ! œSzœ ! 44 œ œSzœ œœ Œ " " Œ ‰pœJbœ œ£œ œœ œœœ#œ#44 ‰ . Œ " 24 Œ œ# !! œ 44 œ œ œ œ œ" " Œ ‰ œjbœb œ£œ œœ œœSzœ44 ‰ . Œ " 24 Œ œSz‰ . 44 ! œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb ! "44 " 24 " 44 " " "œ44 ‰ . Œ " 24 Œ œSz‰ . 44 ‰Szœ# Œ " " Œfœ£n œ œ "Szœ#44 ‰ . Œ " 24 Œ œ#Sz‰ . 44 ! œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœn ! "Szœ#44 ‰ . Œ " 24 Œ œ#Sz‰ . 44 ‰ .Szœ# Œ " " ŒSzœ ‰ "44 ‰ œSz!Œ " 24 Œ œ#Sz‰ . 44Szœ#Œ " " Œ ‰ . Szœ# œ‰ Œ43108FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?"34 ‰ .Szœ# œ44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " ""34Szœ44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " ˙"34 ‰ œ#Sz !44 œ#Sz œ ˙ . ˙" Œ ‰Szœ#! " "œœ34fŒ ‰ .Szœbœ !44œ#œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#œ# ! " "œœ34 Œ ‰ . œbœ !44 œ#œ#‰ Œ " " Œ ‰œ#œ#! " ""34 ‰ .Szœ !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " ""34 "44 " " ""34 ‰ . œSz!44 œSz‰ Œ " " ˙ œSzœ ‰ " ""34 ‰Szœ# ! !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " ""34 !Szœ ‰ !44Szœ# ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " ""34Szœ ‰ . !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ˙ w48109FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" " ‰ .Szœ œ ˙ " " "pw " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ#Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ#œ# Œ " " "" " ‰ .œ#œ#Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ# Œ " Œ œ# ˙ p "" ˙# ˙ œ œSzœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .SzœŒ " " "53110FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?4444444444444444444444Szœ œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " 34 " ‰ .Szœ#Szœ œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " 34 " ‰ .SzœSzœ# œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ .Szœ" " " "34 ‰ . SzœSzœ#œ# œnœnSz‰ Œ " " Œ !Szœœ ‰Sz" " " "34 ‰ .Szœœœ#œ# œbœb‰ Œ " " Œ ‰œœ! " " " "34 ‰ .œbœbSzœ œbSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb ! " " " "34 ‰ .Szœb" " " " " "34Szœ œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " "34 ‰ .Szœ#Szœ#Szœn ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " "34 ‰ .SzœSzœ#Szœ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " w# p "34 ‰ .Szœ#Szœ œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ .Szœ#" " " "34 ‰ . œ#Sz58111FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?3434343434343434343434Szœ#44 œSzœ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "‰44 œSz! Œ " " Œ ‰ œSz! " " "!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œSz! " " "!44œœSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œœSz! " " "œb44 œb ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œœ! " " "!44Szœb ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œbSz! " " ""44 " " " "‰44 œ#Sz! Œ " " Œ ‰ œ#Sz! " " "!44Szœ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œSz! " " "Œ44Szœ# ‰ . " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "‰ .44 Szœ#Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " " "64112FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?"34 ‰ .Szœ# !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ˙ ""34 ‰ .Szœ !44Szœ ‰ Œ " " Œ œ œ œSzœ ! " ""34 ‰ . Szœ!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " ""34 ‰ .Szœnœn !44œ#œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#œ# ! " ""34 ‰ .œbœb!44œ#œ# œœ ˙ .˙ . ˙˙" Œ ‰œ#œ#! " ""34 ‰ .Szœb !44 œnSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œSz! " ""34 "44 " " ""34 ‰ .Szœ# !44 œnSz‰ Œ " " ˙ œ œSzœ ! " ""34 ‰ .Szœn !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ˙ ˙ ""34 ‰ .Szœ# !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " ‰ œ# œ œ œSzœ ! " ""34 ‰ . Szœ#!44 œnSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! " "69113FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" ˙ œ . Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ#Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ#œ# œœ ˙˙ ˙ " "" " ‰œ#œ#Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " Œ ˙ ." " ‰ .Szœ# Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ# Œ " " "" " ‰ . SzœŒ " " "74114FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?2424242424242424242424SzœSzœb ‰ Œ " " Œ Szœ " "34 ‰ .Szœb !44 œSz‰ Œ "Szœ œSzœ œ ˙ wpœ œSzœ>! " "34 ‰ .Szœpœ44 œ œ œ£œ œ ˙fSzœ# œ#‰SzŒ " " Œ ‰ .Szœ" "34 ‰ . Szœ# !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ "Szœ#œ# œœnSzœ œ ˙ " Œ ‰Szœbœ !Sz" "34 ‰ .Szœbœ !44œ#œ#Sz‰ Œ "œ#œ# œœ!Œ " " Œ ‰ . œbœb " "34 ‰ . œbœ !44 œ#œ#‰ Œ "Szœ œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb ! " "34 ‰ .Szœ !44Szœ ‰ Œ "" " " "34 "44SzœSzœ# ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœn ! " "34 ‰ .Szœ œ44 œSz‰ Œ "Szœ# œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ Sz˙n Œ "34 ‰ .Szœ# !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ "Szœ# œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "34 ‰ .Szœ !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ "Szœ œbSzœ œ ˙ ˙" Œ ‰ Szœ# ! " "34 ‰ .SzœSzw44 f79115FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?Œ24 ‰ £œbp!44Szœ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb ! " "Œ24pœ£‰ !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "Œ24 Œ £ pœJ Sz!44 œ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " "pŒ24 œ œœ44œœ#Sz‰ Œ " " "Sz pœ# œ# œ ‰fœ ˙"pœ#24 œ# Œ !44œœ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰œ# œ#Œœ‰ " Œ ‰ .œ#Œ24 ! œSz‰ !44œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " ""24 "44 " " "Œ24 !Szœ ‰ !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " "‰24pœ# œ !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "Œ24 ‰ œ#p Szœ44 œ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " "p˙#24 œ44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " "84116FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .SzœŒ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ# œp˙" " "œjœ# ˙ œjœ œ# œ œ#! !œ œ w" "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " " " "" " ‰ .Szœ# Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "" " ‰ . Szœ#Œ " " "89117FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?5454545454545454545454Szœ ‰ . Œ " " " " "Szœ ‰ . Œ " " " " "Szœ‰ . Œ " " " " "Szœœ#p‰ Œ " " " " "‰œ# œŒ " " " " "Szœb‰ . Œ " " " " "" " " " "Szœ ‰ . Œ " " " " "w#pw " " "Szœ ‰ . Œ " " " " "Szœ#‰ . Œ " " " " "94118FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?!54Szœ# œ œ ˙ œSz‰ . !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " "‰ .54Szœ Œ " ! œSz‰ !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "!54 œSz‰ Œ " œSz œ44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! " "œ54Szœ# ‰ Œ " !œ#Szœ ! œn44œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ œ " "!54œ#œ‰ Œ " !œœ‰ !44œbœb‰ Œ " " Œ ‰œœ! " "!54Szœ‰ Œ " !œSz‰ !44 œbSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœb ! " ""54 "44 " " "!54Szœb ‰ Œ " œSz‰ . !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " "Szœ54 ‰ . Œ " !œ#Sz‰ !44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "!54 œbSz‰ Œ " ! œSz‰ !44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " "‰54Szœ! Œ Œ ‰ .Szœœ!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " "99119FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" "34 ‰ .Szœ# ‰44Szœ ! Œ " " Œ24 œSz‰ ." "34 ‰ .Szœ ‰44 œSz! Œ " " Œ24 œSz‰ ." "34 ‰ . œSz‰44Szœ#! Œ " " Œ24 œ#Sz‰ ." "34 ‰ œnœnSz!44œ#Szœ# ! Œ " " Œ24Szœ# œ ‰" "34 ‰ .œ#œ#‰44œ#œ#! Œ " " Œ24œ#œ# œ œ" "34 ‰ .Szœb ‰44Szœn ! Œ " " Œ24 œSz‰ ." "34 "44 " "24" "34 ‰ .Szœ# ‰44Szœ ! Œ " " Œ24Szœ ‰ ." "34 ‰ .Szœn ‰44Szœ# ! Œ " " Œ24 œ#Sz‰ ." "34 ‰ .Szœ# ‰44 œ#Sz! Œ " " Œ24 œ#Sz‰ ." "34 ‰ . Szœ#‰44 Szœn! Œ " " Œ24 œSz‰ .104120Movement(V.(Prayer(Tech2sheet:(!Percussion:!Delay!!Metal!Pipes!–!Delay!(delay!time!500,!feedback!amount!moderate!to!prominent)!!!Flute!and!Percussion:!Multiple!Delays!!System!11,!22B23!–!Chain!of!Delays!(slow,!random,!incremental!changes!in!delay!times)!!!Performance:!!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“A#”!Filter!Array!is!enabled!starting!in!system!13.!System!13Bend!–!Volume!of!filter!array!is!gradually!increased!until!very!prominent!by!the!end!!!!121Alto FluteCelloPercussion&?A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?œpp‚œ œ œ œSz œFœ? p &SzœœSzœFœfFFœ23Each system shouldlast a approximately 20" - 30"; slow, with purposeV. PrayerflutterS.P.Tam-tam(hard mallet)(soft mallet)(sustain sound)Marimba(hard mallet)Crot.T.T.(hard mallet)(reattack) PipesT.T.(sustain)122A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?œSz( )œ pœ Pœp f pœrf( )‚p œ# p( ) œ#‚‚ œ#œ# œ ‚‚ œb œœSzœSz FœFFœf p Sz f456flutterflutter(mostly inaudible) flutterS.P.S.P.pizz. arco pizz.PipesPipes (soft mallet)Cymb.(scrape, withmetal)123A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?pœSzfœrfFpœrf pœ# œ>œrFœr œ œ œrœ>f pœ œf pœr( )œf‚‚f‚œˆ œˆ œˆ œˆ œb ˆSzœ( )œ# f‚n(   )œ# ˆ œˆ œˆSzœ ( )œ# fœ# ˆ œˆ œˆ‚p f‚p fœSz œfœ œ œ &œfœp f œSzœ œ œSzFfœpœ œ œfpœf789flutterflutterarco (L.H. pizz)clicking sound clickingPrayer Bowl PipesCrotalesCrot.P.B.T.T PipeThunder sheet/T.T.scrape with rubber mallet124A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?SzœœR pœR œœ( )œ Sz> Sz > >œ‚œbSz Sz >œ#! Sz > Sz>Szœ‚œbf fœSzpœ œ# œ œ# œ( )œbf ( )œ( )œ pœ#( )œ# œ p œ( )œ# œ# œ· œ#œ!œ œ œ œ œ œ œœˆf œ‚# œˆ ˆSzˆSzœˆ‚n œbSzœˆ‚n œbff œˆSzSzœˆ!& œSzffSzœSzfœœœ‚# œ101112flutterflutter(key clicks) flutterclicking S.P.S.P. S.T. S.P. S.P. S.T. S.P.pizz. N.arcoS.P. pizz.Pipe (stopped note; no resonance)(with flute)(stopped notes; no resonance)Cymbal (scraped)Cymb. (hard mallet)Crot.Crot.MarimbaCrot.125A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?œbSz p SzœbpœbSz( )œbpŸ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~pœbSzSzœ# œb Ob !œbpœb œbfœb&œfœ# œ œ# œ SzœbSzœbSzœb? œbfp( )œbFœbœbPœbœbœbœb>f Szœb& pœbœ! &œbpœbPœb œb SzœbSzœb œbP œbœf&œbpœP fœœˆPœœ131415H.T. N.H.T.(fingered pitch)S.T.arcopizz. arco(fingered pitch)N.arcoN. S.T.Marimba Cymb.T.T.(soft mallet)S.P.,quasi glissT.T.(scraped)(hard mallet)Crot.Pipe126A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?( )œbpœ# .>œ# .>œ# .>fpœ#œ#f pœ# .>œ# .>œ# .>fpœ#œR# œ# œ#( )œ#UpObœbpœfœœ œO#( )œ( )O# ‚UœœfœœPˆœœˆSz& œ !œˆp fœˆ œˆSzœpœf p fU161718N.flutterwait for soundto fade outS.P.N.N.S.P.wait for soundto fade outwait for soundto fade outP.B.MarimbaCymb. P.B.Thunder sheet/T.T.scrape with rubber mallet (Cymbal carries over)Cymb.127A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?œSz pŸ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~fœ œœ œœ œSzSzSzSz œb‚>p œ œœœ œœ‚>SzSz œ‚>œœ# œpœRp œœœrFœrfSzœ‚> œ‚#>Szœœ œœœœ œf pœ œœfœœ œpœf( )œ ( )œ( )œœœfœSzœœœ œ œ œ œœœœOœ œ œœ œœ œœFœ œSz pœf&œœˆ œœˆ œœˆf"œœœœˆ"œœˆ œœœœœœˆ œœ "œœˆ œœˆ SzœSz&f"œœSzœœœfœSz œp192021flutterN.key clickkey clickssim.flutterK.C.flutter flutterK.C. N.arcopizz.Pipesarco clicking(clicking) S.T. S.P.N. S.P. S.T. pizz.(quasi gliss)Cymb.Marimbahard mallets; + stopped notes, no resonanceCrot.hard malletsPipesMarimbaCrot.Cymb. (hard mallet)T.T.(ssoft mallet)128A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?Szœ‚œˆ> Szœ‚#œˆ>œ‚œˆSz>Sz Sz fSzSzœ‚œfœ‚#œ> œ‚œSzSz>PSzSzfœ‚œˆ> Szœ‚œnˆ> Szœ‚œˆ>œ‚#œˆSz> Szœ‚œnSz>f P fSzœ‚œb> >Szœ‚œbˆ œ‚œbSzœ‚œˆ>Szœ‚#œˆ>>nSzœ‚#œ#ˆ>œ‚#œˆSz> Szœ‚#œˆ>SzSzpSzfœ‚>FœpSz œ‚>Szfœjœ œfœ œf>œfœfˆœf fœfœœfœfœf‚!Oœ œO œ ( )œf F&œœˆ>&"œœ&œœœf"œœœ ˆ& ˆœ œ œ?222324K.C.K.C.flutterclickingclickingS.P. S.T.S.P.(on bridge)PipesMarimbaPipes Cymb. Marimba Pipes Marimba(hard mallet)Crot.Pipes Marimba Pipes(soft mallet)T.T.PipesMarimba(scrape, withmetal)129A.FlVlcPerc&?A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?&f pSzœf( )œ !( )œ œ œœ œ œœœSz œP f &œSzœSz252627K.C.Cymb.flutterS.P.N. S.P.P.B.brush(hard mallet)Crot.(hard mallet)Crot.(scrape, withmetal)130A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&?&A.FlVlcPerc&&&pœœ œ œFœRfpœ!œr!œrSzœO# pœO&œ?p&œ &œpfœ œœ282930H.T.S.P.N.S.P.MarimbaT.T. Crot.T.T.(soft mallet)P.B.(hard mallet) (let fade out)131Movement(VI.(Exorcism(Tech4sheet:(!Piano:!Multiple!Delays,!Reverb,!Piano!synthesis!unit,!Motion!Tracking!!Measure!1<76!–!Right!Hand!octave!dyads!are!doubled!by!piano!synthesis!and!put!through!an!effects!chain!of!Delay<>Reverb<>Delay!(moderate!settings)!Measure!92<114!–!Effects!chain!of!Delay<>Reverb<>Delay!on!live!piano!(prominent!settings)!Measure!129<227!–!Motion!tracking!on:!there!is!no!indication!in!the!score!as!to!where!the!tracking!occurs.!Tracking!information!is!extracted!from!fundamental!musical!gestures.!!!Clarinet:!Flange!!Measure!129<227!(Solo!passages)!–!Modified!by!Flange!effect;!flange!setting!are!modified!in!real!time!by!the!motion!tracking!of!the!piano!!!Strings:!Reverb!!Measure!1<end!–!Moderate!Reverb!time!!!Performance:!!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“D#”!!132Bb ClarinetPianoViolinCello&&?&?7878787878ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?242424242444 ! 68 ! 58 ! !!78 Œ Œ . ‰fœ œ68 œ œ œ œb œ œb24 œ œ œ œb68 œb ‰ Œ .!44fŒ œœ>68 ˙ .˙ .58 œœ ‰ Œ !!78 ! !68 !24 Œ .68 Œ œœ>œ>44 œ# œ œ# œ œ# œ œ68 œ> œ# œ œ>n œ# œ58 œ>b œ œ œ>#œ œ>#œ œ># œ œj>œ>#78 œ# œ> œ œ># œ œ œ> œ œ># œ#œ# œ>œ 68 œ># œ œ œ œ#œ# œ>24 œ# œ œ œ>68 œ œ# œ œ œ!44 !68 !58 !!78 Œ Œ . ‰ œf œ68 œ œ œ œ œ œ24 œ œ œ Œ .68 Œ œ!44 !68 !58 !!78 Œ Œ . ‰ fœ# œ68 œ# œ œ œ œ œb24 œ œ œ œ68 œ œ œ œ œ5very fastVI. Exorcism Relentness, unwavering e = e133ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?2424242424ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?Œ24 œb œ œb58 œ œ œ œ œ24 œb œ œ œ78 ‰ Œ Œ œj œb24 œ œ œ œb58 œ œ œ œœ24 œ œ œ œ28 œ œ24 œ œ œ œ58 œ œ œ ‰ !24 !58 !24˙˙24 œœ58 œ .œ . !24 !78 !24 !58!24 Œ28 !24 Œ .58œ#œ#> ˙˙24œœ58œ .œ . !24œ>24 œ# œ# œn œ>#58 œ œj> œ> œ œ>24 œ# œ# œ œ>78 œ œ# œ œ œb œ œ>#24 œ œ>œn œ>58 œ# œ œb œbœ>b24 œ œ# œ œ>#28 œ !24 œ>#58 œ# œ œ#œ œ>#24 œ# œ> œn œ>58 œb œ> œ œ œ>b24 œb œ œbœ24 œ œ œ œ58 œb œb œ œ œ24 œ œ œ œ78 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ24 œ# œ œ œb58 œ ‰ Œ!24 Œ28œ24œ# œ œf Œ58 œ œb œ œb24 œ œ œ œb58 œ œ œ œ œ24 œb œ œœ24 œ œ œ œ58 œ œ œœ œ24 œ# œ œ œ78 ‰ Œ Œ œb œ Œ24 ‰ œ œ58 œ œ œ œœ24 œ œ œ œ#28 œœ24 œ# œ œ œb58 œb ‰ Œ !24 !58 !241016134ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?4444444444ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?5858585858! !58 ! ! !24 !58!44 !58 !44 !58 !34 ‰fœb! !58 !fŒ . œœ> ˙˙24 œœ58 œœ ‰!44 !58 !44 !58 ‰34 œ#œ#> ˙˙œ>b œ œ>b œ!58 œ>b œ œ># œ# œ œ> œb œb œ>n œœ>24 œ œb œ œ>58 œ œ> œ œbœ>b44 œœ> œ# œ> œb œ>b œb œ>b58 œ œ> œ œ œ>#44 œ œ>œ# œ> œ# œ>nœ# œ>58 œ œ œ># œœ>34 œ# œ> œ# œ>œ#œ œb œ œ œ58 œb œœœ œ œb œ œ œ œb œ œ œ œb œ24 œb œ œ œ58 œb œ œ œœb44 œn Œ ! !58 !44 !58 !34! !58 ! ! !24 !58!44 !58 !44 !58 !342329135ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?5858585858ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?6868686868œ58 œb œ œ œ œb34 œ œ œ œ œ ! !58 ‰24 œ#fœ# œœ#58 œ# œ œ# ‰ !34 fœ# œ# œ#58 œ# œ œ œ œ44 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ24 œ œ œœ .œ .58 œœ !34 !f!58 !24!58 !34 !58 !44 Œ24f œœ>œ>#58 œ œb œ> œ# !34 œ>œ# œ># œ œ>œ# œ>58 œ œ>b œœ œ>24 œ# œ>b œbœ>b58 œ œJ> œ œ œ>b34 œ œ> œb œ># œ#œ>58 œ œj> œ> œ# !44 œ>#24 œ# œ œ#!58 œ#34 œ œ œ œ œfœ# œ œ œ œ œ !58 !24œb58 œ œf œ œ œ34 œb œ œ œ ‰ !58 œ#44 œ œ œ œ œ œ œf!24!58 œ#34 œ œ œ œ œf œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ#58 œ œ œ œ œ24 œ# œ œœ58 œ# œ œ œ œ#34 œ Œ Œ !58 œ#44 f œ œ œ œ œ œ œ !243439136ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?2424242424ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?œ68 œ œ œ œ œ œ58 Œ Œ Œ34 œfœ# œ œ œ58 œ# œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œœ24 œ# œ œ œ78 œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ98 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ58 œ œ œ œ œ34 œ œ ‰ Œ˙ .˙ .68 œœ58 Œ Œ !34 !58 !!24 !78 !98 Œ .58f œœ œ>34 œb œ> œœœ>œ>#68 œn œ œ# œ œ# œ>58 œ# œ œ>b œb œ>34 œ œ œ# œ>œ œ>58 œ œ>b œ œ œ> œb œ œ œbœ>24 œ œ œ# œ>78 œ œb œb œn œ# œ# !98 œ58œ œ Œ !34 œ œ#!68 ‰58fœb œ œ œ œb34 œ œ œ œ œ œb58 œ œ œ ‰ !!24 œ78 œnf œ œ œ œ œ œb98 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 58 ! 34 !Œ .68 Œfœb œ58 œb œ œ œ !34 !58 !Œ24 œf œ# œ78 œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ#98 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 58 ! 34 !4449137ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?5858585858ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?4444444444‰ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ# Œ Œ Œ fœb œ œ œb Œ78 Œ ‰fœ# œ œ#44 œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ58 œ œ œ œ œ24 œ Œ !38 !68 !58˙ .˙ . ! ! !78 44 !!58 f ˙b˙b>24 œ .œ .38 œœ68 Œ Œ . !58œ> œ# œ> œ œ># œ# œ>œb œ> œ œ># œ œ>bœb œ>b œ œ> œ œ>78 œ œb œ œ œ# œ !44œ>58 œb œ œ œb œ>b24 œ œ# œ œ>38 œ œb œ>b68 œn œ œ œœ œ>58 œ œ œ>#œ! œ#fœ# œ# œ# œ œ œ œ œ# œ# œ œ Œ Œ78 Œ fœ# œ œ œ44 œ# œ œ œ œ œ œœ58 œ# œ œ œ œ#24 œ Œ !38 !68 !58Œ . fœJ# œ œœ# ‰ Œ œ# œ œ# œ Œ Œ ‰78fœ œ œ œ œ œ œ44 œ# œ œ œ œ œ œœ58 œ# œ œ œ œ#24 œ Œ !38 !68 !585459138ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?4444444444ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?6868686868!44 !58 !44 œf œ œ œ œ24 œb œb œœb44 œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œb24 œb œ œ œb68 œb ‰ Œ . !44 Œ ‰fœ# œ24 œ# œ œ!44 !58 !44 !2444 ! 24 ! 68 !f44 wbwb >24 ˙˙œ>#44 œ œ> œ œ> œ œ>b œb œ>58 œ# œ# œ œ# œ>#44 œ œ>œ# œ> œ œ>œ œ>b24 œb œ>b œb44 ! 24 ! 68 œ>b œ œb œ> œbœb 44 œ>b œ œ># œ# œ> œ œ> œ 24 œ> œ# œ># œ!44 !58 Œ44 ‰fœ# œ œ Œ ‰24 fœn œb œœ44 œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ24 œb œ œ œ68 œb ‰ Œ . !44 ‰fœ œœ# œ24 œ# œ œ!44 Œ .58 ‰fœ# œ#44 œ œn ‰ ! 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Œ œfœ ! !fœ œ Œœ128 œ œ œ œ# œ œœ œ# œ œ w#44 œ œn œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ38 œ œww#44! .98 œ œ ‰ ˙b78 œ . œ44 œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ ˙b w˙ .128 œ ! 44 ˙ ˙£˙ ˙ œ38 œ œw44˙b .98 œ . ‰˙78 œb œ œ .œ . ˙ .44 œ ˙ ˙b ˙b wwŒ œ œ ‰ œb œ˙ .128 ˙ Œ œ>#44 œ œ œ œ> œb œ> œn w œ .38 !44œb>98fœjœ œb œbœb œb œn œb78 œ>b œ œb œb œb œn w44 ˙ ! !˙ .128 ˙ Œ œ>#44 œ œ œ œ> œb œ> œn w œ .38 !44œ>b98 œœ œbfœb œb œb œn œb œ>b78 œ œb œb œjb œn w44 ˙ ! !173178(independent; but even)151ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?3838383838ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?œ24 œ Œ œ128 œœ œœ‰ ‰ œœ œœœ ˙ . ! œ54f œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ38 œ œ œ54 œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ .128 ! .fœœ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙24 ! .128 ˙b . œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ54 œb ˙ ˙œ .38 ˙ .54 ˙œ128œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ Œ˙˙24 ˙b .128 ‰˙ . œb ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ54 œbœb ˙˙ ˙˙œ .œ .38 !54 ˙ .128 œ ! !!24 œb .>128f œn œJ œ#œœ œ>b œœ w . œ54 ‰ !!38 ˙54 fœ œ œ œ œ w .128 œ ! ! .!24 œ>b128 œnf œ œ# œœ œj>b œ œ . w . œ54 ‰ !!38 œ>54 fœ œ œ œ ˙ w .128 œ ! ! .183187152ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?5454545454œ œb œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ54 œb œœ œœ œœ ˙ .128 ! . œ .38 ˙ .128 fœ œœœœœœ . œfœb œœ œ œ œ œj œb54 œ œ ˙ œ œ ! œbf œ! !38! . ˙# . ˙54 ˙ . œ128 œ œœœœ œœ œœ œ œ38 œœ ˙# .128 ˙ .˙b . ˙ . ˙54 ˙ . œb œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œb œ œ ˙ œ .38˙ . ˙ . ˙54 ˙ .˙# œ128 œ œœœœ œœ œœ œ œ38 œœ ˙ .˙#128 ˙ .˙! . Œ . Œ œ ˙54 ˙ œ Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ œb ˙b ˙˙ œ .œ .38˙ œ œ œ . œ# . œ54 œ# œ# œ œ# œœœn œ ˙ .128 ˙ . œ .38 !128˙b .>fœ . œ œJb œ54 œ œ œœ œ> œb ˙ . ˙ ˙ . ! !38œ> œ œ# œ œ# œ# œ>œ œœ œ54 œœ œ œ˙ ˙ .128 ˙ . œ .38 !128f œ>b œ œb œJœ . œ . œ œ ˙54 ˙b . ˙ . ˙ ˙ . ! !38191196153ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?5454545454ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?5454545454!54f˙ ˙78 ˙54 ˙b ˙ œjb œ œb œ .38˙b54 œ œ .‰ !64 !74 Œf˙b128 œ œj˙ . œ‰ ! . .7454 ‰ œ ˙Œ .˙ œj˙ .˙ . ˙˙78 œ .œ . œ54 œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œœœœœœœœœ œœ œ .œ .38˙# .54 ˙ ˙ .64 ˙ . ˙ .74 wœ128 œ# œœ .œœœœJœ œ74 œ# œ œ œ wœ œ œ œb œ ˙˙ .54 ˙Œ .˙ œj˙ .˙ . Œ˙ ˙78 œ œ .œ .œ . œ54 œ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ . œœœœ œœœ œ .œ .œ .38!54 ! .64 ! ‰ œ# ! .˙ .74 !w ‰ œ# œ œ128 œ# œœ .œœœœJœ œ74 œ# œ œ œ w#w#œ Œ œ œb˙b œ œ˙ .>54 fœ œ œ œ œ œ>˙ œ œ78 œ> œJ œ# ˙.54 ˙ ˙ . œ ‰ Œ !38˙# .54 fœ œ ˙64 œ œ˙ œ œ# ˙74 œ# œ œn œ œ># œ œn ˙ .128 ˙ . ˙ .74 !œ>54 fœ œ œ>œ œ œ ˙ ˙ .> ˙#78 œ œJ ˙ .54 ˙ ˙ . œ ‰ Œ !38œ>#54 œf œœœ ˙# ˙#64 œ œn ˙ œ œ># ˙ .74 wn ˙ .128 ˙ . ˙ .74 !201207(independent; but even)154ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?!54 ‰fœ# ˙ œ ˙n ˙64 Œ ! . !128 !! . !38 !44 ! p˙ ˙ ˙ ˙b ˙!54 ! 64 ‰ œ# ˙ ˙ .128 ˙ . œ# œœ œ œœœ# œœœœ œ œ# ˙ œ .38 w44 w Œ"œœœœœ œ! ! ! ! Œ"œœ œœœ œ!˙# œn œ˙# .54 ˙ ˙ ˙ . ˙ .64 ˙ . ˙ .128 ‰˙ .œ# ˙ œ œ œ œ œ˙# œ œœ#œ˙˙œ .œ .38 ww44 ww ! Œ ‰œ#œ# ww! ! ! Œ ‰œ#œ# ˙˙˙# .54 œ . œJ# ˙ œ .œ . ˙64œ ˙ œ# œ .128œ# . œ œ# œ œ# ˙ . ˙ .˙ . œ ‰ ! !38 w#44 p w w œ˙ . w w w wœ#54 œ# . œJœ . œJ ˙ ˙# .˙# .64œ œ# ˙ œ .128 œ# . ˙ . ˙ . ˙ .˙ . œ ‰ ! !38 w#44 pw œ˙ . ˙ . œ# w ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙#212217 (independent; but even)155ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?w ! ! ! ! ! !"w œ .78˙ w44wpw w w" w w w ww" w w! ! ! ! ! ! !"! ‰œœœ œ78 œœ Œ Œ !44 !! ! ! ! ! !pœ œ ˙! ! ! !ww! ! ! ! ! ! Œ ‰œœ ww!78 !44 !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !w# ˙ . œ w œ ˙# . ˙ ˙ w w w !78 w44 ww w œ ˙ . w w w w w w œ ˙b .w w œ ˙ . w w w w w !78 w44 wœ ˙ . w w w w w œ ˙b . w w w227238156ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?ClPnoVlnVlc&&?&?w w w!wb" w ˙78 œ . œ .38p w44 Œw w w"w w w w w58 œ . œ98 ˙ . œ .! ! ! ! ! ! !78 !38 !44 ! ! !! ! ! ! ! 58 ! 98 !! ! ! ! ! ! !78 !38 !44 ! ! !! ! ! ! ! 58 ! 98 !w w wb w w w ˙78 œ . !38w44w w ˙ . œw w w œ˙ . w 58 œ . œ 98 !wb w w w w w ˙78œ . !38w44w ˙ œœœ ww ˙ . œœ w w w 58 œ . œ 98 !248260c. 6"157Movement(VII.(Forebode(Tech3sheet:(!Ensemble:!Delay!and!Reverb!!Measure!14end!–!Moderate!Reverb!time,!Delay!time!and!feedback!levels!throughout!!!Piano:!Piano!synthesis,!Motion!Tracking!!Measure!14end!–!Motion!tracking!on:!tracking!is!indicated!in!the!score!Measure!1443!–!Motion!tracking!used!to!create!panning!data!Measure!444!end!–!Use!piano!synthesis!unit!in!conjunction!with!motion!tracking!to!create!scales!based!on!spectral!data!!!Performance:!!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“G”!!158BassoonPianoPercussion?&?BsnPnoPerc?&?&!44 ! ! œ#£Fœ# œ wUœ#F˙ œR "œ# ˙ œ"# œ . œfœ œ".œpœfœ œ"œR˙#ŒSzœœ>44 Œ ! ! Œpœœ>! !pw wFw#ŒwOŒ ˙# . ˙˙# ˙ .œœ>44 Œ ! ! Œœœ>! !OO˙# .˙# .œrœ"œœ˙˙œœ"œ# .œ# .œœœœœ .œ ."œœŒ˙˙œœ "œrœ˙ .˙ .œœ- wwœœœœ44SzŒ ! ! ! !$&!pœ œ# œ œr" œ# œ œfœ"# œ# . ˙ œœnpœ œ œ"œrœ5VII. Forebodelong%fermataq = 50Ped. ad lib.Tam-tam(hard mallet) to Vib.Vib.159BsnPnoPerc?&?&BsnPnoPerc?&?&œ"œb . œ". œb œ"œ . œ". œFœ"œ . œ". œ œ"œ . œ". œ œ"œ . ˙fœPœ œ"œ>œ . œ ". œ ˙fœ œ£œJ œ œJ£œ œ œ œ£œJ œ pœJ£œ œFœ# œ œ# œ ˙Fœ œœœ . œ œ œ .œ . œœœ œn ˙n˙ œ £œJ ˙ . œJ£fœ> ˙ .fwwww www ˙F˙˙b ˙˙# œ˙ . ! . Œw˙ œœœb œ œ ˙b . œ £ œj˙ .˙ . œjœ Œ !ww w ! œ˙#˙Œ !˙ œr"œ œ œ œ " œr˙ œ ". œ œ œ œ "œ . œ ˙ .>f! ! ! ‰£Fœœ œJœ £œ#œ# ˙˙ !913to Tam-tam160BsnPnoPerc?&?BsnPnoPerc?&?p˙#P!FŒœœ# œœ œ˙#f‰fœ œ# œ œ# œn œpœ Œ Œ œfœ œ œfp˙# .p PœR"fpœ ˙ œ "fpœ# . œ œ œ". œfp ˙ œ"œrfp˙ .‰œbœŒpœ ˙#˙œ .œ œ œ£ œJ œ .‰ œ# ˙ .˙ . œJ£œ œF˙ .˙ .˙ .˙ .œfœ§œœœœœœœŒwFPŒ w w wŒ-˙ w œ ˙ .- ˙˙ wwœj ˙ . œœ .˙ . ˙ ˙ ˙ . œ w˙ .F Fw˙# . ˙ .˙ .œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ£œ œp˙# £Fœ œ £˙˙# ˙ ˙# £ œ œ £ ˙ œ œ# œ œ œ# £œ œ œ˙# £ œ œ £˙Œ œ# w œw wwœœ œ œSz! . Œ ‰f& œ# œ# œ œ# œ œp! ! . ‚§‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚Sz! . %"p " " "! !1721Tam-tam(hard mallet) to Vib. to S.D. rim, snare offto Tam-tam161BsnPnoPerc?&?BsnPnoPerc?&?œ ˙ œ# œ ˙# œf˙ p˙ œ#œF˙fœ ˙ œ œ œ#pœ œ# ˙ £œn œ£˙# ˙£œ#f˙fwPwwPw w wwbw ww www ˙˙˙˙ ˙w w ww w ˙ ˙w w w ˙œ œ £œ# œ œ ˙ ˙# œ ˙n œ# œ œ#£œ# œ œ˙ £ œ# œ £˙ ˙£œ œ£˙# œ ˙ œ# œ ˙ .ww ww wwwœSzŒ ! ! ‰ ."p "‚ ."‚ ."."‚ .".". R"‚P" R " R " R " R‚FŒ ! !2529to S.D. S.D., snare offto Tam-tam162BsnPnoPerc?&?BsnPnoPerc?&?œ Œ Œ Fœn œ œ# œn œ œ ˙# œ œ œfœ# œ œ œ œ œ œœ"œ œ œ œ# œ "œ œ# œ œ w pfww#wFwww Œww œJ£œ ˙ w ˙# .!w œ £œJ œww wœ˙˙ !w ˙ œ œ œ w ˙ œ œw ˙ œ œ œ w˙˙# ˙ ˙£ œ# œ £˙# œ œ# œ# œ œ#"œ# œ# œ œœ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œw#w ww ww ww wœSzŒ ! ‰p. .. ‰ ! ! &Œ Œ3337Tam-tam S.D., snare offto Vib.163BsnPnoPerc?&?&BsnPnoPerc?&?34343434Œpœ#œ œ œf˙pŒ ! œbpœ>pœ œ œ œ œbpœ œ œfœ># œ œJ£œ# œ £ œj# œj£œ> œ œ œ œœ# œ œ œ œ# œ> .F pœn œ œ œ>F œ"œ œ# œ œp˙#£pœ œ£˙ œfœpœ?œbœœ-&FwwwŒp‰ œ># ! Œ ‰£œ># ‰ ! %œ>œb% Œ ‰œ>œ Œ!˙£œ œ£˙ ˙£œ œ£˙ œ œ œ œ> œ"œ œ œ# œœ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ£œJ œ £œ> œ œ£œ œ œ£œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ˙#P˙ w ˙ £ œb œ £ ˙˙ œ£˙bfŒ ‰p> ! Œ ‰£> ! % > . Œ ‰ > ‚ Œ4044Vib.S.D., snare off164BsnPnoPerc?&?44444444BsnPnoPerc?&?34 œ œ œœ>f˙p œb">24f pœr œ"b œ pœ œœFœ44 œ> œ œ œ œ> œ œ .34 œ> œ œ"œ œ œ# œ34 œPœ œœbœ> œœb œ œ œ œ œ œ>24 œ œ œ ŒFœb44œ> œ % Œ % œbœ>œb Œ %34 œœ œ> œ ‰ . Œ‰ .34 œ Œ ‰ . œ œ#24 œ# ‰œ œ œ œœ44 œ># œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ 34 œ# œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ‰ .34P> Œ ‰ . ‚ >24 ‚ ‰ Œ%44F> . Œ % ‚ > Œ %34 ‚ ‚ > Œ Œ4749q = 60q = 85snare on165BsnPnoPerc?&?BsnPnoPerc?&?œ>fœ œ œ œ œ> . œ œ œ># œj œ œ œ# œ œ>#fpœw f œ pœ œ#F œœ œfœ24 œ œpœ>fœ œ œ œ ‰ . œ# œ> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ> œ œ œ œ œ‰ œ œ># œ ‰ .œ# œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ>24 œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ># œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ> œ œ# Œ ‰ œ># œŒ œ# œ œ œ> œ œ œ œ‰ . œ œ># ‰ . Œ œœ> œ œ Œ % œ œ> œ Œ % œ œb œ> œ24 œb œ œb œb œ ‰f> ‰ Œ % > ‚ ‚ Œ ‰ > Œ ‰ . > Œ‰ . ‚ > ‰ Œ ‚ > . Œ ‰ > ‚ Œ ‰ . > ‚24 ‚ ‚ % ‰ ‚£‚ ‚5153q = 100q = 125snare on166BsnPnoPerc?&?BsnPnoPerc?&?9fœ# œ œ£ œ# œ œ œ£œœ#f œ œ£œ# œ œ œœ œ# œ#fœ œ œ œ œƒœ># !USzœ"#œœ#> ‰ ŒSzœœ> ‰ ŒSzœ#œ# œ#"> ‰ ŒSzœœœ> ‰ Œœbœb œb">Sz‰ ŒSzœœœ> ‰ ŒSzœœœ">‰ Œœ#œœ#>Sz‰ Œœ># œ œ œ œ œ£# œn œ#œ> œ œ œ œ œ£œn œ œ># œ œ œ œ œ£# œ# œ#œ> œ œ œ œ œ£n œ œœ># œ œ œ œ œ£# œ œ# œ> œ œ œ œ œ£œ œ œ># œ œ œ œ œ£œ œ œ> ‰ Œf‰£ f‰£ f‰§ f‰§f%§ f § f § fŒ5658as#fast#as#possibleq = 150slowly%reach%asfar%as%possible%167Movement(VIII.(Tech/sheet:(!!Ensemble:!Reverb!!Measure!10!–!Little!to!moderate!Reverb!levels!(time!and!feedback)!Measure!32?end!–!Incremental!increases!in!Reverb!time!levels!until!extreme!levels!are!reached!by!the!end!!!Piano:!Delay!!Measure!36?end!–!Delay!time!of!2+!seconds,!low!feedback!amount!!!!Performance:!!No!electroacoustic!sounds!for!mm.1?9!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“B”!Measure!10?31!–!Output!of!filter!array!only!enabled!on!the!beginnings!of!chord!cycles:!m.10,!m.19,!m.21,!m.28!Measure!10?end!–!Use!of!sound!files!(see!Movement!I)!to!extend!textures!(e.g.!strings!mm.16?21)!!168FluteClarinetBassoonPianoPercussionViolin1Violin2ViolaCello&&?&?&?&&B?!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " "!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " "!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰ œ#Sz! " " "!44Szœ#œ# ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#œ# ! " " "!44œ#œ#‰ Œ " " Œ ‰œ#œ#! " " "!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " ""44 " " " "!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " " "!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "!44 œ#Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " "!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! " " "Stubborn q = 120 VIII.Vib.hard mallet169FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "Szœ œSz‰ Œ f" ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "Szœ œSz‰ Œ "" ‰ . œ#SzŒ " " " œ#Sz œ‰SzŒ "" ‰ .Szœ#œ# Œ " " "Szœ#œ# œ#œSz‰ Œ "" ‰ .œ#œ#Œ " " "œ#œ# œœ#‰ Œ "" ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "Szœ œ#Sz‰ Œ "" " " " "" ‰ .Szœ Œ " " "Szœ œSz‰ Œ "" ‰ .Szœ# Œ " " "Szœ# œSz‰ Œ "" ‰ .Szœ# Œ " " "Szœ# œSz‰ Œ "" ‰ .SzœŒ " " "Szœ œSz‰ Œ "6170FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ" Œ ‰Szœ! " wp w" ‰ .Szœ# ŒŒ f Œ Œ ‰ œSz! " " " " ‰ . œbSzŒ" Œ ‰Szœœb ! " "F" " ‰ .Szœœb Œ" Œ ‰œœ#! " " w# ˙ œ . œn œ# Œ" Œ ‰Szœ# ! " " " " ‰ .Szœb Œ" " " " "" Œ ‰Szœb ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ" Œ ‰Szœ ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ" Œ ‰Szœn ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ" Œ ‰Szœ! " " " " ‰ .Szœ Œ11171FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?3434343434343434343434" " f" Szœ ! Szœ ! Œ " "" " "Szœb!Szœ! Œ " "" " Œ f " œSz! œSz! Œ " "" " "Szœœ# !Szœœ ! Œ " "" " " œœ ! œ# œ# ! Œ " "" " "Szœ !Szœb ! Œ " "" " " " "œp Szœb !Szœb! Œ " "p œb Szœ ! Szœn ! Œ " "" ".#w# . . . . . . . . . . .Szœ# !Szœ ! Œ " . . . . . . . .. ." " "Szœ !Szœ ! Œ " #w16S.P. (play on the bridge; white noise) (sul pont. and back)S.P. (play on the bridge; white noise) (sul pont. and back)tapping sound; nut of bow on string; arhythmic tapping sound; nut of bow on string; arhythmic172FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?"34 Szœ#‰ . œ44 Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " w#"34 Szœb‰ . !44Szœ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! " Œ ˙ ."34 œSz‰ . œ44Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ! œ .Sz˙ w"34œ# œ œ# œ#Szœœ# ‰ . !44Szœn œ ! Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ#! " ""34 œœ ‰ . !44 œ#œ# ‰ Œ " " Œ ! œ œ ! " ""34 Szœ‰ . !44 Szœ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! " ""34 "44 " " ""34 Szœ#‰ . !44Szœ# . ˙ . w œ‰Szœ#! " ""34 Szœ‰ . œ44 Sz‰ Œ Œ œF w œ‰Szœ! " ". ."34. . . . . Szœ ‰ . !44Szœ ‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "˙34Szœ# ‰ . œ44Sz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ ! " "21173FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?w ˙34 f‰ .Szœ‰44 œSz! Œ " Œ ˙ .p œ‰SzœŒ ‰ .Szœw ˙34 f‰ .Szœ!44 œ .Sz ˙ .p w P œ‰Szœ! Œ ‰ .Szœw ˙34 f‰ . œSz!44Szœ ‰ Œ " pw œ! œ ‰SzŒ ‰ . œSz" "34 ‰ œSz! !44 ! œSz! Œ " " Œ ‰Sz! œ Œ ‰ œSz!" "34 ‰ . œ œ44 œ ‰ Œ " " Œ ! œ œ ! Œ ‰ . œ" "34 ‰ .Szœ!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! Œ ‰ .Szœ" "34 "44 " "" "34 ‰ .Szœ ˙44 " " ŒS˙z‰ .Szœ" "34 ‰ .Szœ!44 œSz‰ Œ " " Œ ‰Szœ! Œ ‰ .Szœ" "34 ‰ . Szœ!44 œ .Sz ˙ .p w Pœ ‰ Szœ ! Œ ‰ . Szœ" "34 ‰ .Szœ w44 pwPœ ‰ .Szœ Œ ‰ .Szœ26174FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?œ ‰ Szœ p˙ w P ˙ . pŒ w ˙ ˙fp!Szœ‰ ‰ œSz! Œ œp w PwpŒ ˙ . œ ˙ .fp!Szœ ‰ !Szœ . p˙ w wP p fpœ Œ ˙# w! !Szœ! ‰ !Szœ ˙ w w w"œ ‰ ! œ œ ! " " " " "!Szœ‰ ‰Szœ! " " " " "" " " " "‰ œSz‰Szœ p˙ w p" " "!Szœ‰ ‰Szœ! " " " " "œ ‰ Szœ ! " " " " "Szœ ‰ . ‰ .Szœ p˙ w w ˙£F ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙31175FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?œ ‰ .Szœ ˙pw wP˙ .pœ wfp˙ p˙ w P w p fpw wPœ ‰ Szœ ˙pw wPœp f p˙ . wP pŒ ‰ œ œ œfœ ‰ Œ " " ‰fœ œ œ œ ‰ " "Œ ! œ œ ! œœ ‰ Œ " " ! œ œ ! œ œ ‰ " "Œ ‰ .Szœ Œ Œ " " Œ Œ !Szœ‰ Œ "" " " " "" p˙ wP˙ .pœ ˙ fp˙ wŒ ‰ .Szœ ˙pwP˙ ˙#fpw wŒ ‰ . Szœ p˙ w œ fp˙# . w wœ ‰ œSz p˙ w w wP œp˙ .fp36176FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?w w w wfp Pwpœ fp˙ .P˙p˙ w w fpwfpw# w ˙ f p˙ P˙ p˙# w" " Œpœ œ œ œ#Szœ w w" " ‰ œ œ ‰ Szœ#œp Œ " "" " " Œ Szœ " "" " " " "w w œfp˙ . w wfpwfpwPw w#pw˙ .fpœ w P˙ .pœ# w ˙ . œpw wfpw Pw pœ ˙ .41177FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?˙p˙ ˙ ˙bP˙ ˙ ˙ .pœb ˙ ˙Pw œp ˙ . w pw Pw ppw wP pœ ˙# . w wfpw ˙ œ œ# œSz pœ# w w "" Œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ# Szœ w w w" "Sz˙ " " "" " " " "w ˙ .pœ wP˙p˙# wpw wPw#pwpww Pw#pw œ ˙# .Pwœp˙ . w ˙ .œFw œ ˙ .46178FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?w wFwb w ˙ ˙bw w ˙ ˙P˙ ˙ wPw pw# wFw# w" œfœ# œ œ œ œœ#Sz˙ .Fw ww œ œ œ ˙Œ ˙#Sz œœ ˙ œ ‰ Œ "" " " " ‰Szœ œ ˙ "" " " " "˙p˙ w ˙ .pœ# w œF˙# .Pwpœ ˙# . w ˙p˙ wPpœf p˙. w P pœ˙# . w w#Fw p˙ F˙ w w"51179FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?w wpwb w ww p" ˙fp w w" ˙fpw w P˙p˙# wPw#p˙ .fœ ˙ ˙# œ œ œ ˙pœ œ œ> ˙ ˙ ˙" ˙ œ œ œ ˙ . œ œ w w" " " wfœ ˙ ." " " " "w w œŒ " " "˙p˙# w ˙P˙# w ˙F˙#wpwfp w P œp F˙# . w" " " " "56180FlClBsnPnoPercVln1Vln2VlaVlc&&?&?&?&&B?" " " " "Uwf" Œ œSz w" "UPw# w#P Szw# ˙" "U˙ . œ> w œ œ œ Sz˙˙ ww wwUœ ˙ .> ˙ œ œ> œ ˙ . Sz œœ ww wwU˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w œ ˙ . wU" " " " "U" " " " "Uw w " " "UœP˙# . œp˙# . œ Œ " " "U" " " " "U61181Movement(IX.(Reach(Tech1sheet:(!!Piano:!Delay,!Reverb,!Piano!synthesis!unit,!Motion!Tracking!Reverb!throughout!!Measure!1;74!–!Piano!synthesis!used!to!double!pitches!(mostly!Bb);!synthesized!notes!are!sent!to!effects!chain!of!delays.!E.g.:!m.3,!m.9,!m.13,!m.20,!etc.!Measure!3!–!Set!Delay!time!1500,!moderate!to!prominent!delay!feedback!!Measure!9!–!Increase!feedback!to!prominent!to!high!Measure!10!–!Filter!array!on!Measure!12!–!Filter!array!processed!by!spectral!plugin!(dronemaker)!Measure!13!–!Increase!delay!feedback!to!high!Measure!20!–!Reduce!delay!feedback!to!prominent!to!high!Measure!26;42!–!Delay!octaves!!Measure!30;31!–!Motion!Tracking!right!hand!ascending!movement!(spectral!scale)!Measure!33;36!–!Motion!Tracking!all!movement!Measure!45!–!Increase!volume!of!filter!array!output!to!high!Measure!62!–!Fade!out!filter!array!over!20!seconds!Measure!64;end!–!Motion!Tracking!on!!!!Performance:!!Filter!Array!tuned!to!“C#”!!!182Piano&?&?&?&?44 p˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œb œ ˙ œ ˙pœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙b œ œŒ £œj->b ˙ . ‰£œ-> ˙ . w->b Œ£œj->b ˙ .‰ œbœ!œb ˙ œ œ !œ œ ˙n -> œ!˙b ˙‰£œ œj£œ Œ £ œjb œ£‰ œ œ ‰£œ œn œb£œb œ œj£œn œ Œ £ œjœ £ ‰ ‰£œ œ £‰ œ#œ#œ# œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ˙ .œ œ œ œ œb œ œb œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ44 " ! Œ˙b˙b!˙ œ œ!œb ˙ œ œb!œ ˙ œ œ!˙ œb œœ!œb œ ˙Ffwœb!˙ œ œ œ!œ œb ˙ œ!˙ œb œ œ !œ ˙ œœ#œ#œ#F F‰ œ ˙ . œ ‰ œb ˙F˙F‰ œ œFŒ .˙ .œJ ˙ œ œ‰œ .œb ˙ .œJ ˙œ˙#‰ œ ˙˙61014q = 60Somber, with feeling but subdued; IX. ReachPed.Ped. ad lib.Sus.cresc...exaggerate each movement as if to try andescape the limited space and expressionPed. Sus.depress silently before beginning183&?&?&?˙ £p˙ ˙ ˙£˙˙œ £œ ˙ ˙ ˙ £˙b>Œ ŒŒ " Œ "œ £ œjœ£œ œ œ ˙£˙ ˙b ˙b £˙b ˙b˙ " . ‰ œœ# ˙˙Œ£œb œjœ Œ˙ Œ£œjœ" ˙b> ˙ "Œ£œj#œ#>˙ ˙Œ£œjœœ œ œ ˙ œ œ œfœ œ œ œb œ œ œSz œ œ ˙ £œ œ ˙ œ§œ ˙ ˙ œ§œ ˙ œ œ#œ§œ wn œb§œ w œ§œ# w Sz ( )œ˙ œ œœ!œ œ œ# œ œ!˙ œ# œb œ!œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ" ." Œ " Œœ œ !œ œ œ œœ !œ ˙ œ ˙!œ œ œ#˙ . ! œ œ œ!œ œ œ#œ œ !#˙b œ œ˙b ! œSz˙ œ !œ œ œ œ œ !œ ˙ œ#œ!œ#˙ œw˙ ‰ ( )œ ( )œ ˙ ˙ ‰ œ# w œ# ˙ w#Œ £œJ#œ#Œ£#œJ#œ# Œ£#œJ#œ#182328sub184&?&?&?p Œ Œ p " "p Œ"" . ŒSzw# "SzŒ£˙#>œjœ˙Œ£œj#œ# Œ£œj#œ#ŒSz‰ œ# ˙ ˙‰ œ ˙ Œ£œj#œ# œ œb ˙œ ˙# œ œ œJ œ# œ œJ œ œ œ œ# œ œb œ œ œœ ˙>œ œ œ# œ ˙ œ ˙# œ œ ˙ œ#œ œ ˙ œ œ œ# ˙ œ# œ œn œ ˙ ‰ œ>b ˙ œŒ " Œ ""P" " .FFŒ PP" Œ P "œ !p œbœb œn œ œ!˙pœ œ œ!˙p˙b œ!œb ˙n œbœ!œ œp˙bPœ !˙b ˙ ˙!˙# œ# ˙!œ ˙#p˙! ˙ œ œ!œ ˙ .>Szœ !œ œb œ œ œ!œ ˙# œw Œ£œJ#œ# Œ£œJ#œ#Œ £œJœ œ# ˙ Œ£œJ#œ#" ‰ œ œ ˙ Œ£œJ#œ# Œ£œJ#œ#323640185&?&?&?Œ$fŒ ŒF"" Œ" .Sz‰ œ ˙ Œ£œj#œ#Œ£œjœ$ O#SzŒ£œjœœœ ˙b œ œ œ# ˙ œ œ œ> ˙ . œ œ# ˙ œ œSz>˙ œœ œ œb ˙ œSzœ>b œ œJœ œJœ œ ˙ wœ œ> œb œ œ ˙ . œb œ œ ˙ œ œœb ˙ œ œ œ ˙" .P"P P fP ŒF" " . F"FŒ Œ FŒ F"f Œ ŒfŒfƒ f"f" .fƒŒf"œ!œ œ ˙ œ!˙b œ œ# œ!˙ œb œn œ!œ ˙ œ ˙!œ œ œœ!˙# œ œb œ!˙ ˙ ˙!˙ œ œ!œb œb œ œœ!˙ . œ œ!œœœ œ# ˙!œb ˙ œ!˙ œ œ ˙ .!œ œŒ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœ Œ .œJœŒ£œJœ Œ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœŒ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœƒŒ£œJbœb Œ£œJœŒ .‚JOFOŒ£œJ#œ#fŒ£œJœ Œ£œJœO444953186&?&?&?# " ."U w ˙˙$ O#Œ£œj#œ#" ." ˙œb˙ ˙# ˙# .˙œ ˙ .˙˙œœw˙b .˙˙ .œ ˙# .œ ˙œ ˙n˙bœOb˙O˙#˙˙ .pœ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙b œ œ ˙wFw w œ œœ ˙w w ˙ . œb wSz" . " # Œ"U˙!œ ˙b ˙!˙œ œ!˙b ˙ ˙b!˙bŒŒ£œJœ Œ£œJbœb‰ œ# ˙ . w œ ˙ .w œ œ œ ˙ w œ ˙b .586267slightly relaxed,legatoGrandiose,more relaxed,  almost free(F#)Ped.187&?&?&?·#œO O·Ob· .Oœ w‚ œb ˙·w·O‚O· . ·Ow w œ œ ˙ . ww ˙w ˙ œ œb œ w ˙ . Œ717579try and keep the electronic texture goingby moving the hands;It will become more and more difficult to sustain the texture;keep trying until it is impossible to create sounds. Pause and end the piece.188189  Bibliography Alexandraki, Chrisoula, and Demosthenes Akoumianakis. "Exploring New Perspectives in Network Music Performance: The DIAMOUSES Framework." Computer Music Journal 34.2 (2010): 66-83. Print.  Anderson, Julian. "A Provisional History of Spectral Music." Contemporary Music Review 19.2 (2000): 7-22. Print.  Appleton, J. H., and R. Perera. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music. Prentice-Hall, 1975. Print.  Besharse, Kari E. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music. University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign, 2011. Print.  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Web. 196  Appendices Appendix A   A.1 Waveforms of Source Sounds  Figure 37 Heartbeat sample waveform; mvmnts I, IV, VIII   Figure 38 Crying sample waveform; mvmnt II   Figure 39 Speech sample waveform; mvmnt III 197    Figure 40 Prayer Bowl sample waveform; mvmnt V   Figure 41 Oud sample waveform; mvmnt VI   Figure 42 Brake Drum sample waveform; mvmnt VII   198    Figure 43 Singing sample waveform; mvmnt IX   199  A.2 Sample Page of Transcribed Analysis Files - NaPro  Figure 44 Movement I/IV/VIII Raw data (sample) &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œ œ œœœœœ œœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœ œœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœœ œœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ# œ#œ# œ# œ#œ# œ# œ# œ#œ# œb œ# œ#œ# œ# œ# œ#œb œ# œ#œ#œb œ# œ# œ# œ# œ#œb œ# œ# œ# œ# œ#œb œ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œ#200   Figure 45 Movement II Raw data (sample) &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœœœb œb œb œb œbœ œœœ œœœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœ œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœœœ#œ# œ#œ# œ#œb œ# œ# œb œ#œb œ# œb œb œb œ# œbœb œ#œ œ œ œœ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œbœ#201   Figure 46 Movement III Raw data (sample) &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œœ œ œ œ œ œœœb œb œbœ# œ#œ#œ# œ#œœ œ œ œœb œ#œœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœbœb œ# œb œbœ# œ#œ# œ#œb œ# œ# œ# œ# œbœ#œ# œ#œbœ# œb œ#œb œ# œ#œbœb œ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œb œbœbœb œ#œ# œbœ# œb œ# œ# œbœ œ œ œœœœ œœœ œ œ œ œœœœbœb œ# œ# œ#œb œ# œ# œ#œœ œœ œ202   Figure 47 Movement V Raw data (sample) &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œ#œœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœ œœœœœbœb œbœb œb œb œb œb œb œb œb œbœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ#œb œ# œbœbœ#œb œ# œbœbœ#œb œ# œbœ#œb œ# œbœ#œb œ# œbœ#œb œ# œbœ#œb œ# œbœ#œb œ# œ# œbœ#œb œ# œ# œbœ#œb œ# œbœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœ œ œœœ œœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ203   Figure 48 Movement VI Raw data, same-note (sample) &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œ œ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœ# œ#œ# œ#œ# œ# œ#œ# œ#œ# œ#œ# œ#œ# œ#œœ œœ œœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœœ œœœ œœœœ#œb œ# œ#œb œ# œ# œ# œ#œ# œ#œ# œ# œ#œ# œ#œ# œbœ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœœb œb œbœb œb204   Figure 49 Movement VII Raw data; same-note (sample) &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœœœ#œb œ#œ# œ#œ#œb œ#œ# œbœ# œ# œ#œb œ#œb œ#œb œbœ# œ#œb œb œbœ# œ#œb œbœ# œ#œb œbœ# œ#œb œbœ#œb œbœ# œbœ œœ œœ œ œœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ#œ# œ#œb œ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ# œbœ#œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœœb œb œb œb œb œb œb œb205   Figure 50 Movement IX Raw data (sample)  &15&15&8&8&&???8?8œ œ œœ œœ œœœœ œœœœœ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œ# œ#œb œ# œ#œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœœb œb œbœ# œ#œb œ#œb œ# œ#œb œbœ# œb œ#œb œ# œb œ#œb œb œ#œb œbœœœœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœœbœ#œ# œb œ# œb œbœ# œbœ# œ#œbœ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œ#œb œ# œbœ# œ#œb œbœ# œb œbœb œbœb œbœbœ œ œ œœb œ#œb œ# œbœ œœ œ œ œœ œœ# œb206  A.3 Occurrence-Models and Histograms  Figure 51 Movement I/IV/VIII OM  Figure 52 Movement I/IV/VIII Histogram  Figure 53 Movement II OM  207   Figure 54 Movement II Histogram  Figure 55 Movement III OM  Figure 56 Movement III Histogram   208   Figure 57 Movement V OM28  Figure 58 Movement VI OM  Figure 59 Movement VI Histogram                                                 28 This OM was created with a previous version of the software when colour coding and amplitude calculations have not yet been included in the visual representations. Also, the histogram analysis is missing for the same reason. 209   Figure 60 Movement VII OM  Figure 61 Movement VII Histogram   Figure 62 Movement IX OM  210   Figure 63 Movement IX Histogram       211  Appendix B   B.1 Max/MSP Spectral Analysis  Figure 64 Spectal playback and analysis unit   Figure 65 Spectral storage unit 212   Figure 66 Spectral Analysis   Figure 67 Preview of Raw data  213  Figure 68 Segmentation window    214  B.2 CV Toolbox Documentation The full documentation and library download can be found at: http://www.martin-ritter.com/PatchesAbstractions/MRjitToolbox.zip  Below is a summary of the main modules with brief descriptions of each: MR.jit.absdiff • Compute the absolute difference of successive frames of video with optional frame smoothing. Can be done on either an argb or gray scale matrix.  MR.jit.bgSub • Perform simple background subtraction. Once the background is learned, the averaged frame of the background is subtracted from any new incoming frame. The background disappears and only what was not in the frame during the “learning” process will be visible. MR.jit.binary • Perform a simple binary-threshold conversion with optional frame smoothing. Compare each pixel of an incoming frame to a threshold and if it is equal or above the threshold, set the pixel to maximum (i.e. white) otherwise minimum (i.e. black). MR.jit.blob • Perform simple blob detection on a binary image. Each connected component is considered a blob. MR.jit.bounds • This abstraction looks for the bounding region of a specified colour.  215  MR.jit.boundsComplex • Convenience bpatcher that combines the functionalities of the MR.jit.motionComplex and MR.jit.bounds. See those objects for more detailed explanations.   MR.jit.center • Calculate the center of a given region of on pixels MR.jit.close • Apply up to 6 successive dilate operations (remove off-pixel noise) and 6 successive erode operations (restore shape to similar area). Dilate and erode operations are taking either the local maximum or local minimum of a kernel and set the kernel’s anchor point to that value. Performing both dilate and erode operations in succession is called a “close” operation and reduces noise-driven segments. The “open” operation consists of performing erode followed by dilate operations and has a tendency to separate regions. MR.jit.conv • Apply simple convolution to an image with a 3x3 customizable kernel. MR.jit.delay • Delay an incoming stream of matrices by a certain amount (in frames). MR.jit.face • This module will try and find a face in the incoming matrix. MR.jit.faceOpt • This module combines the MR.jit.face and MR.jit.trackIt modules to create a more robust and less CPU intensive face tracking solution. MR.jit.keying • Create a chromakey effect based on a reference color. 216  MR.jit.matrixSize • Report the size of an incoming matrix and sends it out prepending a string given as an argument. MR.jit.motionComplex • This is a convenience bpatcher that combines several other analysis modules to quickly analyze motion. MR.jit.subMatrix • Resize the incoming matrix to new dimensions.  MR.jit.trackIt • Analyze a region for trackable features and try to follow them. If the features get lost, the area is respawned with the last mean position of the tracking points. MR.jit.videoRec • Record video and audio into separate files. MR.jit.videoInput • Allows for playback of video files or camera input. MR.jit.bounds_trombone • Complex module for tracking a trombone player.  MR.jit.bounds_piano • Complex module for tracking the hands of a pianist.    217  B.3 Composer Tools This growing library of Max/MSP patches is a collection of tools for compositional purposes. It includes options such as chord/scale morphing as well as compression and expansion, range limiter, set-theory analysis tools, and more.   The ratio calculations for the chordal structures of movements IV and VIII were realized using this software.   Figure 69 Composer Tools: main input window  218   Figure 70 Composer Tools: chord compression/expansion window   Figure 71 Composer Tools: set-theory analysis window   219  B.4 Sample Code JavaScript The following code shows the function for the creation of a note data structure. A note data structure encodes all information that is needed by the analysis unit.  /*****************************************/ function naProFormatNotes() { /*  a notelist is a list of the following data:     pitch (0-127) - 0 is a rest   velocity (0-127)    duration (in beats)    staffNo (indexed from 0)    voiceOnStaff (0, 1 or 2)   beat position  (in beats)    ID  (any unique integer) */  frames(frameNum); //script nSliders, etc. into place...   task.cancel();  taskDelete.cancel();      naProNoteList.length     = 0;        if (whichArray == 1) {    naProNoteListFlat_fft.length   = 0;    naProNoteListND_fft.length  = 0;   }   else if (whichArray == 2) {    naProNoteListFlat_iana.length   = 0;    naProNoteListND_iana.length  = 0;   }     singleSegmentArrayFlat.length   = 0;   singleSegmentArray.length  = 0;   sprayArray.length    = 0;    var temp = [0., 0., 0];    for (var i = 0; i < fqFft.length; i++) { //how many frames 220     var tempArray  = new Array();    var tempSpray  = new Array();      amp   = 0;         if (i >= frameOffset && i <= frameOffsetMax) {  //which frame to start with          for (var j = 0; j < fqFft[i].length; j++) {         //access all elements of the fq array, i.e. bins              //fq calculated using phase difference      var fq = fqFft[i][j][3]; //access realfq component       //center fq only                  if (fq >= 1.) { //only valid fqs     /********************************************/              var ampR  = fqFft[i][j][2];                                      var vel  = ampR;                                                     if (vel < 2) vel = 2;                   else if (vel > 120) vel = 120;       else         vel = 80; //should never be called             /*********************************************/          var  note = ((69. + (1./0.057762265) * Math.log(fq/440.))) +          transposition;     //fq to midi conversion        note = (Math.round(note * 4) / 4).toFixed(2);          //round to nearest .25                 note = midiNoteBoundsChecking(note);           //fold out of bound notes back into midi range                           var noteRound = Math.round(note);              if (noteRound < 0.000025)         noteRound = 0.;       noteRound = midiNoteBoundsChecking(noteRound);          if (note >= instrumentRangeLow && note <=            instrumentRangeHigh) {                if (noteScaling) {           //send either scaled or unscaled midi pitch                     outList[0] = noteRound;        } 221          //NaPro scales to closest 8th tone internally!!        else if (!noteScaling) {         outList[0] = note;                  //[0] MIDI pitch        }         outList[1] = vel;               //[1] velocity         outList[2] = 1;                  //[2] duration         outList[3] = whichStaff(noteRound);              //[3] see below                        outList[4] = 0;                        //[4] voice on staff                        outList[5] = i - frameOffset;               //[5] start position from beginning of measure           (frameOffset subtraction = start at beginning of           score)                        outList[6] = 666;                      //[6] unique number     //------------------------------colouring notes-------------------------------------//         outList[7] = colourArray[setNoteColour(noteRound,                 i, j)][0];//[7] R         outList[8] = colourArray[setNoteColour(noteRound,                 i, j)][1];//[8] G         outList[9] = colourArray[setNoteColour(noteRound,                 i, j)][2];//[9] B     //---------------------------------colouring notes-----------------------------------//         outList[10] = 0;          //[10] if next frame is the same pitch         outList[11] = 0;           //[11] if it is end of a "same note" structure         outList[12] = fq;                   //[12] current fq                    outList[13] = ampR;                   //[13] real amplitude value (for histogram)         outList[14] = [false, noteThresh + 10, -1, -1,             ampThresh];          //[14] data structure for segment connections:          //unique connections only                 //[0] segment connected - int (true/false)           //[1] forward match     - ratio            //[2] connected to         - array location           //[3] connected to     - array location           //[4] ampThresh         outList[15] = [false, -1, -1, noteThresh + 10,  222             ampThresh];           //[15] where this note is being connected from           (previous pitch) and cRatio         outList[16] = [false, noteThresh + 10, -1, -1,             ampThresh];          //[16] data structure for segment connections:          //all connections                   //[0] segment connected - int (true/false)           //[1] forward match     - ratio            //[2] connected to         - array location           //[3] connected to     - array location      //   [4] ampThresh         outList[17] = [false, -1, -1, noteThresh + 10,             ampThresh];            //[17] where this note is being connected from           (previous pitch) and cRatio           //******************************************//         tempArray.push(outList.slice(0));               //have each frame in a seperate array...         outList.length = 0;                  temp[0] = i - frameOffset;         temp[1] = midiNoteBoundsChecking(noteRound);         temp[2] = 45;                tempSpray.push(temp.slice(0));               }       }     }     tempArray = removeDuplicates(tempArray, 0);     tempSpray = removeDuplicates(tempSpray, 1);          if (whichArray == 1) {      naProNoteListND_fft.push(tempArray.slice(0, (highOffset –            lowOffset) + 1)); //No Duplicates     }     else {      naProNoteListND_iana.push(tempArray.slice(0, (highOffset –             lowOffset) + 1));     }     sprayArray.push(tempSpray.slice(0, (highOffset - lowOffset) + 1));      tempArray.length = 0;    }   }     post("------------------------", "\n"); 223   post("START ANALYSIS....", "\n");  naProAnalysis();     analysisDone = true;     post("ANALYSIS DONE....", "\n");  post("------------------------", "\n");     counter   = 0;  counterUnique  = 0;  frameCounter = 0;  binCounter = 0;    //send array topitchHist object...  sendToPitchHist();    sendToNSliders(); } /*****************************************/ Figure 72 JavaScript function: note data structure    224  JavaScript function showing the basic histogram calculation    /**************************************/ function done() {  var maxCount   = Math.max.apply(Math, pitchHist);            // use "apply" to apply the math operator the every element of the array  var maxCountVel  = Math.max.apply(Math, pitchVel);    for (var i = 0; i < pitchHist.length; i++) {      pitchHistNorm[i] = pitchHist[i] / maxCount;      pitchVel[i]   = pitchVel[i] / maxCountVel;  }    arrayInterleave();     reorderAndNumber();  reorderSliders(setReorder);     mgraphics.redraw();  } /**************************************/ Figure 73 JavaScript function: histogram calculation      225  Appendix C   C.1 Sample Score with Max Messages The following score shows the realized electronic version of movement IX with embedded control messages that are sent to Max/MSP.    !! &?&?44 ˙p˙ ˙ œ œ œb œ ˙ œ ˙pœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙b œ œœ#œ# œ#F44 ! " Œ˙b˙b"˙ œ œ"œb ˙ œ œb"œ ˙ œ œ"˙ œb œœ#œ#œ#444460.8200.0310.0510.000-0.1711.641Somber, with feeling but subdued; q = 60(midi%70)IX. Reachexaggerate each movement as if to try andescape the limited space and expressiondepress silently before beginninginit%bang;matrixPreset%1;matrixPreset%1;midiPitch%70%65;midiPlay%2; channelpitch%+%veldelayTime%1500;delayFeedback%50;delayFeedback_2%75;midiPitch%70%65;midiPlay%6;matrixPreset%1;Sus.sfPlay%1;delayTime_2%1500;delayFeedback_2%66;setReverbPno%bang;Ped.226&?&?Œ£œj->b ˙ . ‰£œ->˙ . w->b Œ£œj->b ˙ .‰œbœ"œb ˙ œ œ"œ œ ˙n ->œ"˙b ˙‰£œ œj£œ Œ£œjb œ£‰ œ œ ‰£œ œn œb£œb œ œj£œn œ Œ£œjœ£‰ ‰£œ œ£‰ œ#œFœ œ œ œFœ ˙ œFœ œ œ œ œ œ œœFœ œ œ œ˙ .œ œ œ œ œb œ œb œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œœ"œb œ ˙Ffwœb"˙ œ œ œ"œ œb ˙ œ"˙ œb œ œ"œ ˙ œ‰ œ ˙. œ ‰ œb ˙ ˙ ‰ œ œŒ .˙ .œJ˙ œ œ‰œ .œb ˙ .œJ˙œ˙#‰ œ ˙˙10141.960 0.0000.738cresc...Ped. Sus.(sus$ped)matrixPreset%2;pnoTeqKeepOn%bang;IilterHOut%14;IilterLOut%10;matrixPreset%3;pnoTeqKeepOn%bang;IiltersKeepOn%bang;delayFeedback_2%85;midiPitch%70%85;midiPlay%1%4;%out%14/10%should%slowly%rotate227&?&?˙£p˙ ˙ ˙£˙ ˙œ£œ ˙ ˙ ˙£˙b>Œ Œœ£œjœ£œœœ ˙£˙ ˙b ˙b£˙b ˙b˙ ! . ‰ œœ# ˙˙Œ£œb œjœ Œ˙Œ£œjœœ œ œ ˙ œ œ œfœ œ œ œb œ œ œSz œ œ ˙£œ œ ˙ œ§œ ˙ ˙ œ§œ ˙ œ œ#œ"œ œ œ# œ œ"˙œ#œb œ"œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ! .œ œ"œ œ œ œœ"œ ˙ œ ˙"œ œ œ ˙ ."œ œ#œ"œ œ œ œ#œ"˙b#œ œ˙w ‰ ( )œ ( )œ ˙ ˙ ‰ œ# w œ#˙ w#Œ£œJ#œ#18232.7751.3023.4851.6840.091subdelayFeedback_2%75;midiPitch%70%45;midiPlay%%6;start%rotating%6%and%2!midiPitch%70%75;midiPlay%%6;octaveDelay%bang;%delayVolL_3%75%700;octaveDelay%bang;%pnoTeqVolL%130%10;droneHOut%10;droneLOut%14;228&?&?Œ ! Œ !pŒ Œp! !pŒ!Sz˙b> ˙!#Œ£œj#œ#>˙ ˙#Œ£œjœw# !SzŒ£˙#>œjœ˙Œ£œj#œ#Œ£œj#œ#œ§œ wn œb§œ w œ§œ#wSz( )œ ˙ œ œœ ˙# œ œ œJ œ# œ œJœ œ œ œ# œ œb œ œ œ! ! ŒŒ ! Œ !˙b"œ ˙ œ"œ œ œ œ œ"œ ˙ œ œ"œ ˙ œœ"pœb œb œnœ œ"˙pœ œ œ"˙p˙b œ"œb ˙n œbŒ£#œJ#œ# Œ£#œJ#œ#wŒ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJ#œ#28322.000 1.628 1.4321.283 1.2500.0213.3292.803 0.275midiPitch%70%85;midiPlay%%2;octaveDelay%bang;% octaveDelay%bang;%octaveDelayRandPos%bang;pnoVidOnOff%1; octaveDelay%bang;%octaveDelayRandPos%bang;pnoSpectral%1;pnoVidOnOff%6;pnoShortLong%1;pnoSustainOnOff%1;pnoTeqVolL%100%1000;matrixPreset%4;pnoTeqKeepOn%bang;IiltersKeepOn%bang;droneKeepOn%bang;pnoVidOnOff%0;octaveDelay%bang;%octaveDelayRandPos%bang;delayTimeL_3%700%750;octaveDelay%bang;%octaveDelayRandPos%bang;delayTimeL_3%750%750;229&?&?P !! . ŒŒSz‰œ# ˙ ˙‰œ ˙ Œ£œj#œ#œ œb ˙œ ˙>œ œ œ# œ ˙ œ ˙# œ œ ˙ œ#œ œ ˙ œ œ œ#˙ œ# œ œn œ ˙ ‰Szœ>b ˙œ! ! ! .Œ! Œ P !œ"œ œp˙bPœ"˙b ˙ ˙"˙# œ# ˙"œ˙#p˙"˙ œ œ"œ ˙ .>SzFœ"œPœb œ œ œ"œ ˙# œŒ£œJœ œ# ˙ Œ£œJ#œ#! ‰ œ œ ˙ Œ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJ#œ#FP36401.5332.6970.543vbapPos%6%0.5%0.5%5000;midiPitch%70%55;midiPlay%%6;pnoVidOnOff%0;octaveDelay%bang;%octaveDelayRandPos%bang;delayTimeL_3%600%750;pnoVidOnOff%0;midiPitch%70%75;midiPlay%%6;230&?&?Œ$fŒ ŒF!! ŒSz‰ œ ˙ Œ£œj#œ#Œ£œjœ$ O#œ ˙b œ œ œ# ˙ œ œ œ> ˙ . œ œ# ˙ œ œSz>˙ œœ œ œb ˙ œSzœ>b œ œJœ œJœ œ ˙ w! .P!P P fP ŒF! ! . F!FŒ Œ FŒ F!f Œ ŒfŒfœ"œ œ ˙ œ"˙b œ œ# œ"˙ œb œn œ"œ ˙ œ ˙"œ œ œœ"˙# œ œb œ"˙ ˙ ˙"˙ œ œ"œb œb œ œŒ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœ Œ .œJœŒ£œJœ Œ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœŒ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœ Œ£œJbœb Œ£œJœ44490.5530.359midiPitch%48%65;midiPlay%6;IilterHighVol%140%4000;IilterLowVol%130%4000;231&?&?! .# ! .SzŒ£œjœœ$ O#Œ£œj#œ#œ œ> œb œ œ ˙ . œbfœ œ ˙ œ œ œb ˙ œ œ œ ˙˙ .pœ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙b œ œ ˙ƒ f! ! . fƒŒf!Sz! . ! # Œœ"˙ . œ œ"œœœ œ# ˙"œb ˙ œ"˙ œ œ ˙ ."œ œ˙"œ ˙b ˙"˙œ œ"˙b ˙ ˙b"˙bŒŒ .‚JO OŒ£œJ#œ#Œ£œJœ Œ£œJœOŒ£œJœ Œ£œJbœb5358slightly relaxed,legato(F#)232&?&?!U w ˙˙! .! ˙œb˙ ˙# ˙# .˙œ ˙ .˙˙œœw˙b .˙˙ .œ ˙# .œ ˙œ ˙#˙bœOb˙O˙#˙wFw w œ œœ ˙w w ˙ . œb w!U‰ œ# ˙ . w œ ˙ .w œ œ œ ˙ w œ ˙b .62670.298 -0.0602.342-0.359 -0.058 -0.1361.898Grandiose,more relaxed,  almost freePed.IilterLowVol%0%10000;droneVolL_2%0%20000;pnoShortLong%1;pnoSpectral%1;pnoSustainOnOff%1;pnoTeqVolL%130%1000;pnoVidOnOff%%6;pnoVidOnOff%7;pnoVidOnOff%6; pnoVidOnOff%1; pnoVidOnOff%6pnoVidOnOff%1;233&?&?·#œO O·Ob· .Oœ w‚ œb ˙·w·O‚O· . ·Ow w œ œ ˙ . ww ˙w ˙ œ œb œ w ˙ . Œ71753.000 3.102 -0.2020.0000.086try and keep the electronic texture goingby moving the hands;midiPitch%70%45;midiPlay%%1%2;pnoVidOnOff%5; pnoVidOnOff%6;midiPitch%48%45%36%40;midiPlay%6;pnoShortLong%0;pnoNumRep%1;pnoVidOnOff%%1;pnoNumRep%2;234&?&?79820.000 0.000 0.0000.103It will become more and more difficult to sustain the texture;keep trying until it is impossible to create sounds. Pause and end the piece.pnoNumRep%4;micVolL%0%10000;IilterHighVol%0%5000;droneVolL_1%0%6500;pnoNumRep%5;pnoVidOnOff%2;only%1%hand%active…%LHpnoNumRep%7;pnoVidOnOff%0;235

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