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Space is a participant : strategies of activation and presence in the contemporary practice of Brian… Ryner, Denise 2014

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	  	  	  	  	  Space	  is	  a	  Participant:	  Strategies	  of	  Activation	  and	  Presence	  	  in	  the	  Contemporary	  Practice	  of	  Brian	  Jungen	  	  by	  	  Denise	  Ryner	  	  	  	  	  	  A	  thesis	  submitted	  in	  partial	  fulfillment	  of	  the	  requirements	  for	  the	  degree	  of	  	  Master	  of	  Arts	  	  in	  	  The	  Faculty	  of	  Graduate	  and	  Postdoctoral	  Studies	  	  (Art	  History)	  	  	  The	  	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  (Vancouver)	  	  	  August	  2014	  	  	  ©	  Denise	  Ryner,	  2014	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   ii	  Abstract	  	  	  	  Erasure	  and	  dislocation	  have	  proven	  to	  be	  effective	  catalysts	  for	  the	  work	  Court	  (2004)	  and	  the	  unrealized	  work	  The	  Treaty,	  both	  by	  Dane-­‐zaa/Canadian	  artist	  Brian	  Jungen.	  Jungen's	  large-­‐scale	  and	  multi-­‐sited	  installations	  collapse	  and	  map	  diverse	  sites	  onto	  each	  other	  in	  order	  to	  engage	  with	  space	  as	  an	  element	  activated	  by	  labour,	  marginality,	  exploitation,	  ritual	  and	  presence.	  	  	  The	  site	  of	  Jungen's	  2004	  installation	  Court,	  was	  a	  gallery	  in	  a	  former	  garment	  sweatshop	  in	  Harlem,	  New	  York.	  Court's	  activation	  by	  Harlem's	  spaces	  of	  leisure	  and	  labour	  such	  	  as	  the	  basketball	  surface,	  the	  factory	  floor	  and	  the	  art	  gallery,	  gave	  form	  to	  local	  narratives	  	  of	  marginalization,	  exploitation	  and	  racism,	  thereby	  complicating	  exhibition	  viewers'	  assumptions	  of	  exclusion	  from	  Jungen's	  critiques.	  	  	  	  Similarly,	  Jungen's	  proposed	  work	  in	  2006	  for	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  in	  London	  entitled	  The	  Treaty	  intended	  to	  link	  the	  artist's	  home	  near	  Fort	  St.	  John	  in	  northeastern	  British	  Columbia	  to	  England	  by	  invoking	  a	  space	  that,	  through	  an	  1899	  treaty	  known	  as	  No.	  8,	  facilitated	  the	  loss	  	  of	  sovereignty	  incurred	  by	  Jungen's	  indigenous	  ancestors	  and	  was	  shaped	  by	  the	  territorial	  claims	  committed	  in	  the	  name	  of	  the	  British	  monarchy.	  	  	  The	  production	  of	  space	  is	  often	  taken	  up	  by	  social	  art	  practices	  —such	  as	  relational	  and	  participatory	  art—	  as	  a	  means	  of	  critique	  and	  outreach.	  However,	  their	  tendency	  to	  delimit	  space	  as	  a	  secondary	  component	  disrupts	  the	  full	  realization	  of	  these	  works	  of	  art.	  	  In	  order	  to	  argue	  the	  merits	  of	  collaborating	  with	  space	  over	  its	  instrumentalization	  or	  circumscription,	  Jungen's	  work	  is	  dialectically	  juxtaposed	  with	  the	  deployment	  of	  spatial	  strategies	  of	  redress	  by	  artist	  Rebecca	  Belmore,	  the	  Situationists	  in	  1960s	  Paris.	  Furthermore,	  by	  comparing	  the	  activated	  presence	  of	  space	  in	  Jungen's	  site	  specific	  work	  with	  strategies	  of	  Indigenous	  resistance	  and	  sovereignty	  including	  active	  presence,	  transmotion,	  interanimation,	  and	  sovenance	  outlined	  in	  the	  work	  of	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  Keith	  H.	  Basso	  and	  the	  counter-­‐mapping	  of	  the	  Stó:lō	  Nation	  in	  Canada	  this	  thesis	  proposes	  that	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  can	  expand	  the	  definition	  of	  participation	  in	  art.	   	  	   	  	   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   iii	  	  Preface	  	  	  	  This	  thesis	  was	  developed	  and	  researched	  by	  Denise	  Ryner	  as	  part	  of	  the	  graduate	  Art	  History	  program	  in	  the	  Art	  History	  and	  Visual	  Art	  and	  Theory	  Department	  of	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   iv	  Table	  of	  Contents	  	  	  	  Abstract..........................................................................................................................................................ii	  Preface.......................................................................................................................................................... iii	  Table	  of	  Contents ....................................................................................................................................... iv	  List	  of	  Figures............................................................................................................................................... v	  Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................................vi	  Dedication...................................................................................................................................................vii	  1.	  Introduction:	  Space	  and	  Participation............................................................................................1	  2.	  Site,	  Space	  and	  Art:	  Brian	  Jungen's	  Court	  and	  The	  Treaty ........................................................7	  2.1	  Triple	  Candie,	  Harlem,	  New	  York	  City ....................................................................................................... 7	  2.2	  The	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada,	  Ottawa ................................................................................................ 16	  2.3	  Fort	  St.	  John,	  British	  Columbia	  -­‐	  The	  Tate	  Modern,	  London,	  England ...................................... 21	  3.	  Space	  and	  Participation	  in	  Art........................................................................................................ 26	  3.1	  Minimalism	  and	  Passive	  Space .................................................................................................................. 26	  3.2	  Participation	  and	  Active	  Space................................................................................................................... 30	  4.	  Space	  is	  an	  Actor.................................................................................................................................. 40	  4.1	  Space	  and	  Networks ...................................................................................................................................... 41	  4.2	  Space	  as	  a	  Catalyst	  for	  Place-­‐based	  Consciousness	   ........................................................................ 43	  4.3	  Space	  and	  Presence........................................................................................................................................ 45	  4.4	  Counter-­‐Mapping,	  Détournement	  and	  Subversion	  of	  the	  Spatial	  Fix....................................... 49	  5.	  Conclusion:	  Redefinitions	  of	  Space	  and	  Site .............................................................................. 64	  Works	  Cited ............................................................................................................................................... 68	  	   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   v	  List	  of	  Figures	  	  	  	  2.1	   Brian	  Jungen,	  Court,	  2004	  Installed	  at	  Triple	  Candie..........................................................................11	  2.2	  	   Brian	  Jungen,	  Court,	  2004	  Installed	  at	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada	  (Platform	  view).....20	  2.3	   Brian	  Jungen,	  Court,	  2004	  Installed	  at	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada.......................................20	  3.1	  	  	  Rebecca	  Belmore,	  The	  Named	  and	  the	  Unnamed,	  2002......................................................................37	  4.1	  	   Transformer	  Features	  in	  S’ólh	  Téméxw,	  Transformer	  Sites..............................................................55	  4.2	  	   Excerpt	  from	  Transformation	  Chart...........................................................................................................56	  4.3	  	   Intergenerational	  Ties	  and	  Movement:	  Family	  as	  a	  Basis	  of	  Nation.............................................57	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   vi	  Acknowledgements	  	  	  	  I	  am	  grateful	  for	  the	  support,	  patience	  and	  invaluable	  insight	  of	  my	  thesis	  supervisors	  Charlotte	  Townsend-­‐Gault	  and	  Dana	  Claxton.	  I	  also	  extend	  my	  appreciation	  to	  the	  faculty	  	  and	  the	  amazing	  staff	  of	  the	  AHVA	  department	  and	  the	  Visual	  Resources	  Center	  at	  UBC	  	  and	  in	  particular	  Maureen	  Ryan	  for	  her	  encouragement.	  Thanks	  also	  to	  the	  brilliant	  	  group	  of	  people	  who	  were	  my	  fellow	  students	  over	  the	  past	  two	  years.	  	  I	  would	  like	  to	  express	  my	  gratitude	  for	  the	  support	  received	  through	  the	  	  Elsie	  and	  Audrey	  Jang	  Scholarship	  in	  Cultural	  Diversity	  and	  Harmony.	  	  Thank	  you	  also	  to	  Wendy	  Chang,	  Anne	  Cottingham,	  Bob	  Rennie,	  Teresa	  Sudeyko,	  	  Tia	  Halstad	  and	  Sarah	  Willson	  for	  their	  help	  and	  assistance.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   vii	  Dedication	  	  	  	   	  	  To	  Mom,	  Dad,	  Derek	  and	  Uncle	  Louis	  	  	  	  	  	  	   1	  1.	  Introduction:	  Space	  and	  Participation	   	  	   Investigations	  into	  the	  relationship	  between	  place,	  space	  and	  sculpture	  are	  not	  new.	  This	  relationship	  is	  the	  basis	  of	  modernist	  art	  practices	  such	  as	  site-­‐specific	  sculpture,	  land	  art	  and	  minimalism	  as	  well	  as	  a	  large	  part	  of	  the	  ongoing	  discourse	  on	  institutional	  critique.	  	  	   In	  her	  1979	  essay	  "Sculpture	  in	  the	  Expanded	  Field,"	  American	  art	  historian	  Rosalind	  Krauss	  maps	  out	  the	  shifts	  in	  the	  relationship	  between	  sculpture	  and	  monuments	  to	  place.	  Her	  summary	  establishes	  a	  perspective	  on	  the	  evolution	  of	  the	  status	  of	  place	  and	  site,	  opposite	  sculpture,	  that	  Brian	  Jungen	  departs	  from	  in	  his	  contemporary	  practice.	  	  	   Prior	  to	  the	  progression	  into	  what	  she	  describes	  was	  the	  "modernist	  period	  of	  sculptural	  production"	  when	  art	  existed	  in	  a	  condition	  of	  siteless,	  placeless,	  nomadic,	  self-­‐referential	  abstractions,	  Krauss	  observed	  a	  period	  when	  sculpture	  functioned	  as	  a	  "marked	  site."1	  Krauss	  calls	  this	  the	  "logic	  of	  the	  sculpture,"	  and	  suggests	  that	  representations	  which	  are	  subject	  to	  this	  logic	  are	  indivisible	  from	  commemorative	  monuments	  to	  an	  event	  or	  place.2	  Using	  the	  example	  of	  an	  equestrian	  statue	  of	  Marcus	  Aurelius	  in	  Renaissance	  Rome,	  Krauss	  claims	  that	  the	  monument	  dominates,	  and	  even	  speaks	  for,	  its	  site	  which	  becomes	  little	  more	  than	  an	  "expanded	  field"	  for	  the	  work	  of	  the	  artist.3	  According	  to	  Krauss,	  this	  indifference	  to	  spatial	  context	  results	  in	  ability	  for	  sculpture	  to	  become	  an	  autonomous,	  mobile	  and	  self-­‐contained	  works.4	  This	  circumscription	  of	  the	  relationship	  between	  site	  and	  the	  art	  work	  located	  on	  it	  suggests	  that	  site-­‐specificity	  in	  art	  is	  a	  process	  whereby	  space	  is	  rendered	  passive	  as	  a	  frame,	  container,	  muse	  or	  studio.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  1.	  Rosalind	  Krauss,	  "Sculpture	  in	  the	  Expanded	  Field,"	  October	  8,	  (Spring	  1979):42.	  2.	  Krauss,	  "Expanded	  Field,"	  42.	  3.	  Ibid.	  4.	  Ibid.,	  30.	  	  	  	   2	  	   Can	  the	  relationship	  between	  space	  and	  a	  site-­‐specific	  work	  of	  art	  escape	  the	  generalized	  view	  represented	  in	  Krauss'	  essay?	  The	  minimalist	  and	  sculpture-­‐based	  practices	  that	  informed	  Krauss'	  decision	  to	  plot	  a	  new	  correlation	  between	  art	  object	  and	  space	  in	  1979	  are	  influential,	  but	  also	  expanded	  upon	  in	  the	  work	  Canadian	  Dane-­‐zaa	  artist	  Brian	  Jungen.	  However,	  spurred	  by	  an	  interest	  in	  artists	  who	  successfully	  activate	  socio-­‐political	  and	  personal	  narrative	  through	  sculptural	  forms	  that	  take	  their	  aesthetic	  cues	  from	  minimalism,	  Jungen	  engages	  space	  in	  the	  service	  of	  both	  localized	  and	  wider	  critiques	  that	  are	  catalyzed	  by	  his	  own	  interest	  in	  a	  prospective	  exhibition	  and	  installation	  site	  as	  an	  always	  already	  complicated	  and	  active	  space.	  	  	   Two	  works	  by	  Jungen	  develop	  from	  the	  artist's	  critical	  engagement	  with	  space,	  the	  first	  a	  2004	  installation	  Court,	  was	  a	  gallery	  in	  a	  former	  garment	  sweatshop	  in	  Harlem,	  New	  York.	  The	  inner	  city	  site-­‐specificity	  of	  Jungen's	  work	  served	  to	  activate	  his	  reddress	  of	  spatial	  division	  through	  the	  juxtaposition	  and	  blurring	  of	  sites	  associated	  with	  leisure	  and	  those	  associated	  with	  labour.	  The	  combination	  of	  art	  gallery	  and	  urban	  industrial	  site	  where	  Court	  was	  exhibited	  evoked	  social	  histories	  of	  marginalization,	  exploitation	  and	  racism,	  thereby	  complicating	  exhibition	  viewers'	  assumptions	  of	  exclusion	  from	  Jungen's	  critiques.	  	  	  	   Similarly,	  Jungen's	  proposed	  work	  in	  2006	  for	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  in	  London,	  entitled	  The	  Treaty,	  intended	  to	  link	  the	  artist's	  home	  near	  Fort	  St.	  John	  in	  northeastern	  British	  Columbia	  to	  England	  by	  invoking	  a	  political	  space	  which	  encompasses	  those	  geographical	  sites	  that,	  through	  an	  1899	  treaty	  known	  as	  No.	  8,	  facilitated	  the	  loss	  of	  sovereignty	  incurred	  by	  Jungen's	  Indigenous	  ancestors	  and	  was	  shaped	  by	  territorial	  claims	  exercised	  in	  the	  name	  of	  the	  British	  monarchy.	  	  	  	   3	  	   Jungen's	  acknowledgement	  and	  deployment	  of	  activated	  space	  throughout	  his	  practice	  demonstrates	  his	  rejection	  of	  the	  passivity	  of	  space	  as	  well	  as	  his	  consideration	  of	  the	  way	  place	  might	  activate	  his	  work	  and	  his	  critical	  positions	  through	  which	  he	  seeks	  to	  complicate	  the	  boundary	  between	  site	  and	  gallery.	  This	  suggests	  an	  engagement	  with	  the	  spatially-­‐based	  strategies	  of	  Indigenous	  concepts	  of	  land,	  social	  and	  spiritual	  totality	  towards	  resistance	  and	  sovereignty.	  	  	   Such	  strategies	  include	  active	  presence,	  transmotion,	  interanimation,	  and	  sovenance	  outlined	  in	  works	  on	  Indigenous	  and	  Native	  strategies	  of	  resistance	  in	  the	  1990s	  by	  American	  Anishinaabe	  writer	  and	  theorist	  Gerald	  Vizenor	  and	  American	  Anthropologist	  Keith	  H.	  Basso's	  Wisdom	  Sits	  in	  Places	  (1996).	  These	  authors	  both	  observe	  and	  draw	  on	  long-­‐held	  conceptions	  of	  activated	  and	  connective	  space	  in	  Indigenous	  culture	  that	  persisted	  through	  Euro-­‐centric	  systems	  of	  territorialization	  and	  abstraction.	  Conceptions	  of	  active	  space	  are	  therefore	  associated	  with	  contemporary	  Indigenous	  cultural	  identity,	  sovereignty	  and	  resistance.	  	  	  	   An	  example	  of	  this	  relationship	  to	  space	  and	  sovereignty	  is	  the	  counter-­‐mapping	  of	  the	  Stó:lō	  Nation	  in	  the	  2001	  publication	  of	  A	  Stó:lō	  Coast	  Salish	  Historical	  Atlas	  that,	  like	  Jungen's	  engagement	  with	  minimalism,	  permits	  the	  collaborative	  and	  antagonistic	  potential	  of	  space	  to	  exist	  in	  conjunction	  with	  a	  formal	  representation	  that	  is	  associated	  with	  indifference	  towards	  place-­‐based	  consciousness,	  narratives	  and	  presence.	  The	  Stó:lō	  appropriate	  the	  map	  in	  order	  to	  represent	  the	  life	  of	  space	  	  intertwined	  with	  the	  lives	  lived	  by	  the	  Stó:lō	  and	  other	  nearby	  First	  Nations	  groups.	  This	  appropriation	  of	  the	  map	  is	  compared	  to	  the	  French	  Situationist	  artist	  Raymond	  Hains'	  adaptation	  of	  political	  and	  commercial	  propaganda	  and	  advertisements	  to	  draw	  attention	  to	  the	  	  commodification	  and	  dominance	  of	  political	  suppression	  in	  urban	  streets.	  	  	  	  	   4	  	   	  Jungen's	  work	  is	  located	  in	  a	  contemporary	  art	  practice	  that	  is	  the	  legacy	  of	  modern	  and	  post-­‐modern	  re-­‐configurations	  of	  social	  space	  and	  the	  impact	  of	  space	  on	  the	  formation	  of	  subjectivity,	  therefore	  this	  paper	  also	  cuts	  a	  path	  through	  the	  development	  of	  French	  philosopher	  and	  sociologist	  Henri	  Lefebvre's	  mid-­‐twentieth	  century	  work	  on	  the	  social	  implications	  of	  the	  organization	  of	  space	  as	  well	  as	  more	  recent	  work	  on	  this	  topic	  introduced	  by	  British	  theorist	  and	  anthropologist	  David	  Harvey	  at	  the	  close	  of	  the	  twentieth	  century.	  Furthermore,	  French	  sociologist	  Bruno	  Latour's	  work	  on	  the	  relationship	  between	  social	  and	  political	  actors	  in	  space	  which	  he	  developed	  in	  the	  1980s	  and	  expanded	  upon	  in	  Reassembling	  the	  Social:	  An	  Introduction	  to	  Actor	  Network	  Theory	  (2005).	  What	  this	  paper	  takes	  from	  Lefebvre,	  Harvey	  and	  Latour	  are	  conceptions	  of	  space	  as	  fluid	  and	  pervasive	  in	  the	  defiance	  of	  binaries	  and	  fixed	  classifications	  as	  well	  as	  the	  potential	  totality	  of	  space	  in	  the	  form	  of	  a	  global	  market,	  which	  is	  defined	  by	  Lefebvre	  as	  world	  space	  and	  characterized	  by	  Latour	  within	  his	  Actor	  Network	  Theory.	  As	  well	  Harvey	  outlines	  the	  capacity	  of	  the	  relationship	  between	  activation	  on	  a	  global	  scale	  and	  interpersonal	  connectivity	  to	  recapture	  space	  as	  a	  political	  tool	  against	  capitalist	  divisions.	  	  	   In	  terms	  of	  the	  representations	  of	  capitalist	  production	  and	  interrelations	  that	  are	  mobilized	  through	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  in	  Jungen's	  work,	  this	  paper	  takes	  up	  the	  connections	  that	  David	  Harvey	  traces	  between	  the	  transformation	  of	  space	  and	  global	  capital.	  For	  Harvey,	  due	  to	  the	  widespread	  colonial	  territorialization	  over	  the	  last	  few	  centuries,	  the	  globalized	  extent	  of	  capitalism	  and	  its	  influence	  on	  space	  must	  be	  considered	  with	  respect	  to	  labour	  and	  production.	  	  He	  points	  out	  that	  this	  was	  overlooked	  in	  Marx's	  Communist	  Manifesto.5	  Harvey	  emphasizes	  the	  importance	  of	  understanding	  the	  capitalist	  organization	  of	  space	  to	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  5.	  David	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Capital:	  Towards	  a	  Critical	  Geography	  (New	  York:	  Routledge,	  2001),	  373.	  	  	   5	  recognizing	  the	  imposition	  and	  maintenance	  of	  capitalist	  systems	  and	  by	  extension,	  colonialist	  systems	  that	  re-­‐produced	  globally,	  the	  economic	  subjugation	  of	  labour	  by	  capitalists	  that	  was	  prevalent	  in	  Europe.	  With	  respect	  to	  Marx's	  work,	  Harvey	  explains:	  	   The	  document	  is	  therefore,	  Eurocentric	  rather	  than	  international.	  But	  the	  importance	  of	  the	  global	  setting	  is	  not	  ignored.	  The	  revolutionary	  changes	  that	  brought	  the	  bourgeoisie	  to	  power	  were	  connected	  to	  'the	  discovery	  of	  America,	  the	  rounding	  of	  the	  Cape'	  and	  the	  opening-­‐up	  of	  trade	  with	  the	  colonies	  and	  with	  the	  East	  Indian	  and	  Chinese	  markets.	  The	  rise	  of	  the	  bourgeoisie	  is,	  from	  the	  very	  outset	  of	  the	  argument,	  intimately	  connected	  to	  its	  geographical	  activities	  and	  strategies.6	  	  	   Encouraged	  by	  these	  diverse	  challenges	  to	  the	  relegation	  of	  space	  as	  a	  passive	  ground	  that	  is	  fixed	  according	  to	  nation-­‐	  or	  capital-­‐based	  claims	  of	  ownership	  and	  in	  consideration	  of	  space	  as	  an	  element	  that	  not	  only	  encompasses	  the	  intersecting	  narratives	  and	  socio-­‐historical	  context	  of	  a	  site,	  but	  is	  indivisible	  from	  them,	  this	  paper	  asks	  if	  the	  centrality	  of	  space	  in	  the	  practice	  of	  Brian	  Jungen	  implies	  that	  its	  capabilities	  extend	  to	  that	  of	  an	  actor	  and	  participant	  in	  the	  realization	  of	  a	  work	  of	  art.	  	  	   A	  pair	  of	  site-­‐specific	  performance	  and	  installation	  works	  relating	  to	  violence	  against	  First	  Nations	  women	  by	  Canadian	  Anishinaabe	  artist	  Rebecca	  Belmore	  are	  included	  at	  the	  end	  of	  chapter	  three	  in	  order	  to	  investigate	  the	  way	  that	  the	  spatial	  context	  of	  critical	  work	  is	  an	  important	  point	  of	  encounter	  between	  the	  viewer	  and	  the	  work	  of	  art.	  The	  recuperation	  of	  the	  viewer	  in	  art	  from	  a	  passive	  consumer	  of	  spectacle	  to	  a	  participant	  will	  also	  be	  examined	  in	  order	  to	  present	  a	  path	  for	  a	  similar	  transformation	  of	  space	  in	  art.	  This	  includes	  the	  set	  of	  criteria	  to	  gage	  participation	  that	  was	  set	  out	  by	  British	  art	  historian	  Claire	  Bishop	  in	  her	  critique	  of	  participatory	  art	  projects	  in	  Artificial	  Hells:	  Participatory	  Art	  and	  the	  Politics	  of	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  6.	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Capital,	  373.	  	  	   6	  Spectatorship	  (2012).	  Therefore	  a	  participant's	  engagement	  with	  a	  work	  of	  art	  is	  part	  of	  the	  process	  of	  their	  activation;	  that	  authorial	  control	  over	  the	  realization	  of	  a	  work	  is	  shared	  is	  not	  limited	  to	  the	  artist,	  the	  evidence	  of	  which	  is	  visible	  in	  an	  aesthetic	  that	  reflects	  risk	  and	  unpredictability;	  and	  finally	  that	  the	  work	  fulfills	  an	  ameliorative	  or	  critical	  response	  to	  a	  perceived	  crisis	  in	  a	  community	  and	  therefore	  illustrates	  collective	  responsibility.7	  	  	   Through	  this	  investigation	  of	  projects	  and	  theories	  that	  establish	  space	  beyond	  site	  this	  paper	  intends	  to	  open	  the	  encounter	  between	  space	  and	  art	  work	  to	  expand	  the	  definition	  of	  participation.	  	  	  	   	   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  7.	  Claire	  Bishop,	  "Introduction:	  Viewers	  as	  Producers,"	  in	  Participation,	  ed.	  Claire	  Bishop	  (London:	  Whitechapel,	  	   2006),	  12.	  	  	   7	  The	  projects	  in	  Harlem	  are	  hated.	  They	  are	  hated	  almost	  as	  much	  as	  policemen,	  and	  this	  is	  saying	  a	  great	  deal.	  And	  they	  are	  hated	  for	  the	  same	  reason:	  both	  reveal,	  unbearably,	  the	  real	  attitude	  of	  the	  white	  world,	  no	  matter	  how	  many	  liberal	  speeches	  are	  made,	  no	  matter	  how	  many	  lofty	  editorials	  are	  written,	  no	  matter	  how	  many	  civil-­‐rights	  commissions	  are	  set	  up.	  The	  projects	  are	  hideous,	  of	  course,	  there	  being	  a	  law,	  apparently	  respected	  throughout	  the	  world,	  that	  popular	  housing	  shall	  be	  as	  cheerless	  as	  a	  prison.	  They	  are	  lumped	  all	  over	  Harlem,	  colorless,	  bleak,	  high,	  and	  revolting...the	  unrehabilitated	  houses,	  bowed	  down,	  it	  would	  seem,	  under	  the	  great	  weight	  of	  frustration	  and	  bitterness	  they	  contain...	  	  	   	   -­‐James	  Baldwin	  "Fifth	  Avenue	  Uptown:	  A	  Letter	  From	  Harlem,"	  1961	  	  	  	  2.	  Site,	  Space	  and	  Art:	  Brian	  Jungen's	  Court	  and	  The	  Treaty	  	  	  2.1	  Triple	  Candie,	  Harlem,	  New	  York	  City	  	   The	  appearance	  and	  architecture	  of	  the	  Triple	  Candie	  Gallery	  building	  at	  461	  West	  126th	  street,	  the	  site	  of	  a	  2004	  solo	  exhibition	  by	  Canadian	  Dane-­‐zaa	  artist	  Brian	  Jungen,	  was	  intertwined	  with	  that	  of	  its	  neighbourhood,	  Harlem,	  New	  York.	  Similarly	  to	  other	  inner-­‐city	  sectors	  of	  New	  York,	  Harlem	  was	  once	  a	  post-­‐WWII	  industrial	  center,	  but	  it	  particularly	  attracted	  a	  largely	  African-­‐American	  working-­‐class	  and	  migrant	  population	  from	  the	  rural	  southern	  United	  States.	  During	  the	  1960s	  and	  70s,	  an	  era	  of	  massive	  deindustrialization	  began	  in	  New	  York	  which	  for	  Harlem,	  resulted	  in	  the	  displacement	  of	  local	  manufacturing	  jobs	  due	  to	  the	  globalization	  of	  American	  industry.	  This	  was	  accompanied	  by	  a	  local	  decline	  in	  public	  services	  due	  to	  privatization,	  poverty	  and	  stigmatization	  based	  on	  racial	  and	  economic	  segregation,	  as	  well	  as	  the	  widespread	  neglect	  and	  decline	  of	  the	  neighbourhood8	  African-­‐American	  writer	  James	  Baldwin's	  passage	  on	  Harlem	  written	  in	  1961	  —	  which	  serves	  as	  the	  epigraph	  to	  this	  chapter—	  leads	  one	  to	  believe	  that	  the	  neighbourhood	  devolved	  from	  a	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  8.	  Charlotte	  Recoquillon,	  "Neoliberalization	  and	  Spatial	  (In)Justice:	  The	  Gentrification	  of	  Harlem,"	  	  	   justice	  spatiale/spatial	  justice,	  no.	  6	  (June	  2014),	  http://www.jssj.org.	  	  	   8	  location	  to	  the	  embodiment	  of	  racism,	  desperation,	  isolation	  and	  bitterness	  for	  the	  residents	  who	  lived	  there	  and	  to	  many	  of	  the	  outsiders	  who	  avoided	  it.9	  	  	   Between	  2001	  and	  2008,	  the	  small	  not-­‐for-­‐profit	  gallery	  presented	  exhibitions	  in	  a	  5,000	  square	  foot	  converted	  industrial	  space	  in	  an	  area	  dominated	  by	  abandoned	  warehouses,	  garages,	  and	  subsidized	  apartment	  blocks.	  A	  live	  poultry	  market	  continued	  to	  operate	  across	  the	  street	  from	  where	  Triple	  Candie	  began	  its	  tenure	  in	  the	  neighbourhood	  and	  the	  gallery's	  own	  site	  was	  once	  a	  brewery	  and	  later	  a	  garment	  factory.	  Even	  the	  name	  and	  sign	  of	  the	  gallery	  were	  determined	  by	  the	  neighbourhood's	  vulnerability	  to	  economic	  shifts,	  depression	  and	  gentrification;	  Triple	  Candie	  was	  a	  local	  confectionary	  and	  sweet	  shop	  that	  went	  out	  of	  business.	  The	  co-­‐director-­‐founders	  of	  Triple	  Candie,	  Shelly	  Bancroft	  and	  Peter	  Nesbett	  divided	  their	  programming	  between	  exhibitions	  built	  around	  artists	  associated	  with	  Harlem	  which	  were	  meant	  to	  engage	  with	  the	  cultural	  life	  of	  the	  neighbourhood	  and	  shows	  that	  were	  oriented	  towards	  contemporary	  art's	  broader	  discursive	  themes	  and	  audiences,	  local	  or	  otherwise.	  	  	   Visitors	  who	  found	  the	  old	  candy	  shop	  sign	  entered	  the	  gallery	  through	  a	  garage	  door	  and	  once	  inside,	  encountered	  a	  room	  supported	  by	  cast	  iron	  columns	  and	  aged	  brick	  walls	  that	  emphasized	  the	  building's	  manufacturing	  and	  warehousing	  history.	  In	  2008,	  no	  longer	  able	  to	  withstand	  the	  rising	  rent	  and	  the	  continuous	  renovations	  that	  accompanied	  increasing	  gentrification	  in	  the	  area,	  Triple	  Candie	  closed	  its	  initial	  Harlem	  space	  then	  left	  New	  York	  altogether	  in	  2010.10	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  9.	  James	  Baldwin.	  Nobody	  Knows	  My	  Name:	  More	  Notes	  of	  A	  Native	  Son	  (New	  York:	  Dial	  Press,1961),	  63-­‐64.	  10.	  Shelly	  Bancroft	  and	  Peter	  Nesbett,"About,"Triple	  Candie,	  Triple	  Candie,	  last	  accessed	  July	  3,	  2014,	  	   http://triplecandie.org/About%20History.html.	  	  	   9	  	   In	  2004,	  Jungen	  was	  approached	  by	  the	  director-­‐curators	  of	  Triple	  Candie	  to	  conceive	  a	  project	  for	  their	  gallery.	  Jungen	  not	  only	  took	  into	  account	  the	  industrial	  history	  of	  the	  proposed	  exhibition	  site	  but	  also	  noted	  that	  the	  neighbourhood	  was	  dotted	  with	  outdoor	  basketball	  courts	  and	  he	  developed	  his	  project,	  Court,	  a	  large	  installation	  that	  resembles	  an	  indoor	  basketball	  court	  built	  out	  of	  industrial	  sewing	  machine	  tables.11	  	   Although	  the	  formal	  and	  conceptual	  catalysts	  for	  Court	  were	  partly	  the	  urban	  environment	  and	  architecture	  of	  its	  exhibition	  site,	  Jungen	  developed	  his	  installation	  for	  a	  designated	  gallery	  space.	  Furthermore,	  he	  has	  also	  described	  minimalist	  and	  conceptual	  art	  practices	  as	  the	  departure	  points	  for	  sculptural	  projects	  such	  as	  Court.12	  In	  terms	  of	  Jungen's	  own	  practice,	  Court	  continued	  his	  discursive	  interest	  in	  the	  relationship	  between	  globalized	  capitalism,	  industrial	  production	  and	  the	  assumptions	  behind	  commodified	  manifestations	  of	  Indigenous,	  but	  also	  African-­‐American	  culture,	  as	  sacred,	  authentic,	  and	  redemptive.	  	  	  	   By	  2004	  Jungen	  had	  already	  engaged	  this	  theme	  through	  his	  widely-­‐exhibited	  series	  Prototypes	  for	  New	  Understanding	  (1998-­‐2005).	  Jungen's	  Triple	  Candie	  exhibition	  can	  therefore	  be	  thought	  of	  as	  a	  work	  conceived	  primarily	  with	  a	  contemporary	  art-­‐literate	  gallery	  visitor	  in	  mind.	  Despite	  this,	  Court	  is	  an	  example	  of	  a	  work	  that	  is	  not	  only	  site-­‐specific	  as	  a	  project	  that	  responds	  to	  the	  local	  circumstances	  of	  its	  initial	  location,	  but	  also	  because	  the	  project	  is	  activated	  by	  the	  presence	  of	  the	  intersecting	  social,	  architectural,	  spiritual,	  and	  political	  trajectories	  that	  form	  its	  spatial	  site.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  11.	  Brian	  Jungen,	  "Brian	  Jungen	  talks	  about	  his	  work	  Court,"	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada,	  National	  Gallery	  of	  	   Canada,	  last	  accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  	   http://www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artwork.php?mkey=207192.	  12.	  Trevor	  Smith,	  "Collapsing	  Utopias:	  Brian	  Jungen's	  Minimalist	  Tactics,"	  in	  Brian	  Jungen,	  ed.	  Daina	  Augaitis	  	   (Vancouver,	  B.C.:	  Vancouver	  Art	  Gallery,	  2005),	  82.	  	  	   10	  	   The	  ability	  for	  the	  viewer	  to	  experience	  Court	  as	  more	  than	  a	  formal	  exercise	  is	  tightly	  wound	  with	  its	  site	  as	  a	  cipher	  for	  intersecting	  narratives	  of	  local	  history,	  American	  race	  relations,	  immigrant	  and	  worker	  exploitation,	  urban	  segregation,	  de-­‐industrialization	  and	  global	  capitalism.	  The	  relationship	  between	  Court	  and	  the	  particular	  space	  of	  its	  installation	  is	  made	  obvious	  through	  the	  transformations	  that	  Court	  undergoes	  in	  re-­‐installations	  at	  Korea's	  Gwangju	  Biennale	  and	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada	  (NGC).	  The	  mobility	  required	  of	  Court	  as	  a	  reality	  of	  contemporary	  art	  practice	  and	  exhibition-­‐making	  reveals	  that	  Court	  can	  not	  successfully	  transfer	  and	  localize	  its	  meaning	  in	  order	  to	  speak	  to	  the	  circumstances	  of	  industrialized	  labour	  in	  Korea.	  This	  is	  due	  to	  the	  role	  that	  Harlem's	  social	  history	  and	  contributions	  to	  popular	  culture	  had	  in	  informing	  Court	  and	  its	  viewer's	  perceptions	  of	  Jungen's	  work.	  In	  Korea,	  the	  juxtaposition	  of	  objects	  that	  comprise	  the	  physical	  manifestation	  of	  Court	  are	  transformed	  from	  an	  art	  object	  into	  a	  supplementary	  document	  of	  its	  original	  installation	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  that	  serve	  as	  referents	  for	  the	  myths	  and	  narratives	  of	  Harlem.	  	  	   The	  full	  realization	  of	  Jungen's	  work	  is	  not	  reliant	  on	  the	  encounter	  between	  Court	  and	  the	  viewer,	  as	  is	  the	  case	  with	  modern	  minimalist	  sculpture.	  Rather	  Court	  is	  activated	  by	  its	  encounter	  with	  the	  dynamic	  space	  of	  Harlem	  as	  its	  site.	  The	  spatial	  relationships	  that	  Jungen	  refers	  to	  in	  his	  project	  proposal	  The	  Treaty,	  which	  he	  presented	  to	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  in	  2006,	  reiterate	  the	  importance	  for	  the	  artist	  of	  collaborating	  through	  his	  sculpture,	  with	  connective	  space	  as	  active	  presence	  and	  a	  critical	  tool	  for	  unveiling	  the	  colonial	  affiliations	  between	  Fort	  St.	  John	  and	  England.	  The	  implication	  is	  that	  space	  is	  an	  indispensible	  participant.	  	  	   A	  close	  reading	  of	  the	  process	  of	  development	  and	  exhibition	  that	  Jungen	  undertakes	  when	  formulating	  his	  installation-­‐based	  work	  reveals	  the	  centrality	  of	  the	  presence	  of	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  that	  complicates	  the	  boundary	  between	  site	  and	  gallery.	  Additionally,	  the	  examples	  	  	   11	  and	  ideas	  presented	  in	  this	  paper	  seek	  to	  also	  establish	  the	  merit	  of	  collaborating	  with	  space	  in	  art	  over	  the	  tendency	  to	  instrumentalize	  and	  circumscribe	  it.	  The	  works	  considered	  therefore	  extend	  beyond	  Jungen's	  The	  Treaty	  proposal	  and	  Court	  in	  order	  to	  dialectically	  juxtapose	  Jungen's	  practice	  with	  the	  deployment	  of	  spatial	  strategies	  of	  redress	  by	  artist	  Rebecca	  Belmore	  and	  Situationist	  Raymond	  Hains	  in	  1960s	  Paris.	  	  	   Finally,	  this	  paper	  will	  locate	  Jungen's	  work	  within	  foundational	  thought	  around	  activated	  presence	  and	  space	  in	  strategies	  of	  Indigenous	  resistance	  and	  sovereignty	  including	  survivance,	  transmotion,	  interanimation,	  and	  sovenance	  as	  outlined	  in	  the	  work	  of	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  Keith	  H.	  Basso	  and	  the	  counter-­‐mapping	  of	  the	  Stó:lō	  Nation	  in	  Canada.	  Therefore	  collaboration	  with	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  can	  expand	  the	  definition	  of	  participation	  in	  art.	  	  	  Fig.	  2.1	  Brian	  Jungen,	  Court,	  2004	  Sewing	  tables,	  painted	  steel,	  paint,	  basketball	  hoops	  and	  backboards.	  	  	  2500	  x	  300	  x	  250	  cm	  installed.	  Collection	  of	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada.	  	  Gift	  of	  the	  Rennie	  Collection,	  Vancouver,	  2012.	  Image	  courtesy	  of	  the	  artist	  and	  the	  Rennie	  Collection.	  	  Brian	  Jungen's	  Court	  installed	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  in	  Harlem,	  New	  York	  in	  2004.	  	  	  	  	   12	  	   	  	   Court	  (see	  fig.	  2.1)	  is	  comprised	  of	  over	  200	  metal	  sewing	  machine	  tables	  topped	  with	  particle-­‐board	  and	  fake-­‐wooden	  floorboard	  appliqué	  work	  surfaces.	  All	  combined,	  the	  tables	  represent	  an	  accurately-­‐proportioned	  basketball	  playing	  surface.	  The	  half-­‐court	  boundary	  and	  basketball	  key,	  a	  series	  of	  intersecting	  painted	  lines	  that	  determine	  the	  free	  throw	  lane,	  or	  where	  one	  and	  two-­‐point	  shots	  may	  be	  launched	  from,	  are	  all	  accurately	  scaled	  according	  to	  professional	  basketball	  standards.	  From	  the	  viewer's	  eye-­‐level,	  the	  metal	  supports	  of	  each	  sewing	  machine	  table	  are	  visible	  and	  appear	  like	  the	  underside	  of	  a	  stage.	  The	  view	  overhead	  shows	  the	  court	  floor	  disrupted	  by	  a	  pattern	  of	  gaping	  hollows,	  like	  trap	  doors;	  some	  of	  which	  originally	  allowed	  Triple	  Candie's	  iron	  supporting	  beams	  to	  continue	  through.	  Most	  of	  the	  worktables	  were	  manufactured	  with	  variable	  openings,	  designed	  to	  nest	  sewing	  machinery	  and	  a	  couple	  of	  tables	  remain	  whole	  and	  may	  have	  served	  as	  general	  utility	  tables.	  No	  sewing	  machines	  are	  installed.	  The	  resulting	  hollows	  make	  the	  objects	  as	  a	  playing	  surface	  appear	  neglected,	  useless	  and	  even	  dangerous.	  As	  a	  sporting	  ground,	  the	  threat	  of	  failure	  is	  therefore	  inherent	  and	  is	  not	  the	  exception	  but	  the	  rule	  for	  the	  aspiring	  athlete.	  As	  a	  manufacturing	  sweatshop,	  the	  missing	  workers	  and	  machines	  affirm	  that,	  like	  the	  surrounding	  neighbourhood,	  the	  rooms	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  are	  no	  longer	  spaces	  designated	  for	  labour	  or	  commodity	  production.	  Furthermore,	  the	  factory	  warehouse	  ladders	  have	  been	  stilled	  and	  transformed	  into	  supports	  for	  the	  basketball	  backboards,	  hoops,	  and	  nets	  on	  either	  side.	  Through	  Jungen's	  work,	  the	  removal	  of	  the	  readymade	  art	  object	  from	  a	  context	  that	  supports	  its	  use-­‐value	  to	  the	  gallery	  that	  establishes	  its	  exchange-­‐value	  is	  emphasized	  as	  a	  transformation	  that	  was	  undertaken	  by	  Triple	  Candie's	  location	  itself	  when	  industrial	  manufacturing	  ceased	  and	  the	  neighbourhood	  produced	  itself	  as	  a	  cultural	  site	  for	  	  consumption.	  	  	  	   13	  	   The	  relationship	  between	  basketball,	  cultural	  commodification	  and	  consumption	  re-­‐emerged	  as	  a	  fortuitous	  theme	  for	  Jungen	  to	  explore	  in	  Harlem.	  He	  had	  developed	  his	  earlier	  body	  of	  work,	  Prototypes	  for	  New	  Understanding	  (1998-­‐2005)	  by	  transforming	  basketball	  shoes	  into	  a	  sculptural	  medium,	  turning	  rubber,	  leather	  and	  Nike	  logos	  from	  one	  culturally	  fetishized	  object	  into	  another.	  This	  focus	  on	  commodity	  production	  expanded	  into	  Court's	  critique	  of	  the	  disparity	  between	  the	  economic	  value	  attached	  to	  the	  labour	  of	  garment	  workers	  who	  manufacture	  sports	  shoes	  and	  uniforms	  for	  minimum	  wage	  or	  less,	  versus	  that	  of	  professional	  basketball	  players	  whose	  contracts	  and	  endorsements	  can	  establish	  them	  amongst	  society's	  wealthiest	  classes.	  	  	   Harlem	  is	  historically	  linked	  to	  basketball.	  One	  of	  the	  neighbourhood	  basketball	  courts	  that	  Jungen	  observed	  is	  known	  as	  Rucker	  Park	  and	  was	  the	  subject	  of	  a	  2000	  documentary,	  On	  Hallowed	  Ground:	  Streetball	  Champions	  of	  Rucker	  Park,	  that	  traced	  the	  rise	  of	  past	  and	  present	  American	  National	  Basketball	  Association	  (NBA)	  stars	  and	  culture	  back	  to	  the	  neighbourhood.	  Although	  the	  2004	  site	  of	  the	  Triple	  Candie	  gallery	  appears	  to	  be	  located	  within	  an	  area	  characterized	  by	  social	  marginalization	  and	  economic	  abandonment,	  Jungen's	  work	  reveals	  its	  site	  as	  central	  to	  the	  manufacture	  and	  universalization	  of	  the	  American	  Dream.	  	  	   The	  first	  archetype	  for	  the	  sports	  star	  who	  achieved	  equal	  or	  more	  global	  recognition	  and	  income	  through	  his	  product	  endorsements	  as	  compared	  to	  his	  athletic	  career	  is	  the	  African-­‐American	  athlete	  Michael	  Jordan.13	  In	  Prototypes,	  the	  basketball	  shoes	  that	  Jungen	  deconstructed	  and	  transformed	  were	  branded	  Nike	  Air	  Jordan	  sneakers	  and	  shoeboxes	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  13.	  Michael	  Jordan	  was	  one	  of	  the	  first	  athletes	  to	  become	  a	  global	  brand	  according	  to	  cultural	  and	  sports	  	   historian,	  David	  L.	  Andrews	  et	  al.:	  "Michael	  Jordan	  was	  anointed	  the	  All-­‐American	  commodity	  sign	  by	  	   corporations	  such	  as	  Nike,	  the	  National	  Basketball	  Association,	  McDonald's,	  and	  Gatorade	  through	  the	  	   manipulation	  of	  economic,	  cultural,	  media,	  and	  technical	  tools.	  The	  global	  marketing	  push	  that	  universalized	  	   the	  image	  of	  Michael	  Jordan	  and	  any	  product	  associated	  with	  him	  was	  groundbreaking."	  "Jordanscapes:	  A	  	   Preliminary	  Analysis	  of	  the	  Global	  Popular,"	  Sociology	  of	  Sport	  Journal	  13	  (1996):431.	  	  	   14	  featuring	  stylized	  images	  of	  the	  multi-­‐millionaire	  player.	  Jungen's	  work	  more	  than	  literally	  dismantled	  what	  was	  then	  one	  of	  the	  first	  aggressively	  marketed	  and	  prohibitively-­‐over	  priced	  sporting	  products,	  but	  also	  took	  apart	  the	  imagery	  of	  the	  sports	  idol	  that	  transformed	  sneakers	  —produced	  through	  exploitation-­‐wage	  labour	  in	  Asia—	  into	  highly-­‐visible,	  highly-­‐valued	  global	  cultural	  objects	  and	  objectives	  for	  global,	  but	  especially	  American	  youth.14	  	  	   Court	  gives	  visual	  form	  to	  the	  connective	  space	  that	  links	  economically	  exploited	  and	  anonymous	  workers	  on	  the	  factory	  floor	  to	  the	  playing	  field	  of	  the	  wealthier	  and	  highly-­‐visible	  worker-­‐recruits	  in	  the	  sports	  arenas.	  In	  the	  global	  field,	  both	  groups	  of	  workers	  service	  commodity	  culture	  by	  imbuing	  otherwise	  unremarkable	  basketball	  sneakers	  with	  value	  linked	  to	  aspirations.	  In	  describing	  Court,	  Jungen	  acknowledged	  that	  for	  the	  young	  men	  who	  were	  part	  of	  the	  majority	  African-­‐American	  residents	  of	  central	  and	  west	  Harlem,	  aspiring	  to	  a	  career	  as	  a	  professional	  basketball	  player	  was	  one	  of	  the	  few	  and	  very	  rare	  options	  available	  to	  emerge	  upwards	  and	  out	  of	  their	  marginalized	  status	  and	  neighbourhoods.15	  This	  specific	  version	  of	  the	  American	  Dream,	  drawn	  into	  the	  marketing	  of	  corporations	  like	  Nike,	  isolated	  the	  desirable	  commodities	  from	  the	  harsh	  realities	  experienced	  by	  those	  who	  produced	  them,	  and	  separated	  the	  sports	  stars	  from	  the	  places	  of	  poverty	  and	  indifference	  from	  which	  they	  fled.	  	  The	  space	  activated	  by	  Court	  is	  one	  that	  fuses	  all	  of	  these	  sites	  and	  circumstances	  together,	  while	  implicating	  the	  viewer,	  who	  through	  their	  presence	  in	  the	  gallery	  as	  spectator,	  	  participates	  in	  the	  inequality	  built	  into	  the	  economies	  of	  desire.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  14.	  Cuauhtémoc	  Medina,	  "High	  Curios"	  in	  Brian	  Jungen,	  ed.	  Daina	  Augaitis	  (Vancouver,	  B.C.:	  Vancouver	  Art	  	   Gallery,	  2005),	  30;	  Max	  Nisen,	  "How	  Nike	  Solved	  Its	  Sweatshop	  Problem,"	  Business	  Insider,	  May	  9,	  2013,	  	   http://www.businessinsider.com/how-­‐nike-­‐solved-­‐its-­‐sweatshop-­‐problem-­‐2013-­‐5.	  	  15.	  Brian	  Jungen,	  "Brian	  Jungen	  talks	  about	  his	  work	  Court,"	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada,	  National	  Gallery	  of	  	   Canada,	  last	  accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  	   http://www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artwork.php?mkey=207192.	  	  	  	   15	  	   Jungen	  creates	  meaning	  by	  framing	  an	  absence.	  He	  accomplished	  this	  in	  a	  previous	  series	  of	  sculptures	  which	  he	  exhibited	  in	  Vancouver	  in	  2010.	  At	  that	  time,	  Canadian	  art	  historian	  Charlotte	  Townsend-­‐Gault	  wrote	  that	  Jungen's	  works	  were	  built	  around	  a	  "surrogate	  body"	  that	  emerged	  out	  of	  the	  correspondence	  between	  a	  tangible	  and	  physical	  material	  object,	  in	  that	  case	  animal	  hides,	  and	  "the	  spectral,	  absent	  body	  that	  it	  protects."16	  The	  mounted	  machine	  and	  utility	  tables,	  like	  a	  suspended	  animal	  hides,	  do	  not	  await	  the	  labourers'	  arrival	  to	  begin	  work	  on	  the	  daily	  quota,	  but	  rather	  evoke	  a	  once	  struggling	  community	  of	  workers'	  continuing	  presence	  in	  the	  spaces	  of	  his	  installation	  as	  well	  as	  the	  abandoned,	  shifting	  and	  re-­‐inhabited	  spaces	  of	  Harlem.	  Similarly	  Court's	  absent	  basketball	  players	  are	  not	  necessarily	  the	  elite	  sports	  idols	  but	  rather	  the	  aspirational	  players	  for	  whom	  the	  basketball	  shoes	  are	  siren	  calls	  to	  possess	  an	  object	  related	  to	  the	  elusive	  path	  out	  of	  inner	  city	  and	  suburban	  boredom	  and	  invisibility.	  	   The	  localized	  spaces	  of	  461	  West	  126th	  street	  and	  Rucker	  Park	  at	  West	  155th	  street	  &	  8th	  avenue	  are	  therefore	  two	  nodes	  on	  an	  expanded,	  transnational,	  connective	  space,	  that	  marks	  itself	  	  across	  Jungen's	  installation.	  A	  project	  that	  is	  not	  only	  activated	  by,	  but	  defined	  by	  the	  disparate	  and	  multi-­‐layered	  spaces	  that	  were	  the	  realities	  of	  the	  professional	  basketball	  player,	  the	  garment	  factory	  worker,	  those	  on	  the	  playgrounds	  outside,	  and	  those	  connected	  to	  the	  function	  of	  the	  gallery	  including	  the	  viewers	  and	  Jungen	  himself.	  	  Court	  was	  located	  within	  a	  space	  of	  leisure,	  a	  gallery,	  that	  was	  activated	  by	  its	  association	  with	  the	  spaces	  of	  labour	  that	  still	  characterized	  its	  site	  and	  environment.	  These	  spaces	  are	  first,	  invoked	  in	  Court	  through	  the	  industrial	  sewing-­‐machine	  tables	  and	  the	  basketball	  floor	  and	  then	  the	  exclusivity	  of	  one	  set	  of	  objects	  to	  the	  other	  are	  challenged	  as	  Jungen	  offers	  an	  image	  of	  the	  break-­‐down	  of	  the	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  16.	  Charlotte	  Townsend-­‐Gault,	  Under	  the	  Skin	  of	  a	  Metaphor:	  Brian	  Jungen,	  19	  November	  2010	  -­	  15	  January	  2011	  	   (Vancouver:	  Catriona	  Jeffries	  Gallery,	  2010).	  	  	   16	  distinction	  between	  the	  space	  of	  labour	  and	  leisure.	  Triple	  Candie's	  visitors	  were	  doubtlessly	  invested	  in	  this	  distinction.	  Jungen	  therefore	  creates	  a	  sense	  of	  tension	  and	  displacement	  for	  the	  viewer.	  Their	  position	  and	  intentions	  as	  a	  leisurely	  viewer	  are	  countered	  by	  the	  multitude	  of	  spatial	  associations	  that	  speak	  through	  Jungen's	  work	  and	  connect	  to	  social	  history	  of	  the	  site	  as	  well	  as	  the	  contemporary	  activities	  taking	  place	  on	  the	  courts	  and	  in	  the	  remaining	  warehouses	  outside.	  The	  local	  manifestations	  of	  the	  transformation	  of	  labour	  are	  experienced	  by	  the	  gallery	  visitor	  who	  must,	  like	  Jungen,	  pass	  through	  and	  observe	  the	  emptying	  warehouses	  and	  busy	  playgrounds	  in	  the	  streets	  surrounding	  Triple	  Candie.	  	   	  	   By	  interweaving	  the	  spaces	  of	  non-­‐labour	  and	  prohibited	  leisure	  for	  the	  young	  athletes,	  who	  range	  from	  the	  desperate	  to	  the	  celebrated,	  as	  well	  as	  the	  disappeared	  factory	  workers	  as	  a	  former	  site	  of	  labour,	  Jungen	  also	  forces	  the	  viewers	  to	  acknowledge	  their	  position	  as	  part	  of	  the	  process	  of	  erasure	  and	  gentrification	  because	  they	  introduce	  yet	  another	  space,	  one	  of	  disinterested	  leisure	  that	  had	  become	  alien	  to	  the	  long	  marginalized	  neighbourhood	  as	  well	  as	  the	  sweatshop	  labourers	  in	  working-­‐class	  Harlem	  and	  elsewhere.	  The	  objects	  are	  made	  strange	  by	  the	  gallery	  space	  that	  reinforced	  the	  displacement	  of	  the	  original	  use-­‐value	  of	  both	  the	  'court'	  and	  the	  machine	  tables	  with	  an	  exchange	  value	  in	  Jungen's	  art	  objects	  as	  referents	  to	  sites	  of	  labour	  and	  commodity	  consumption	  that	  connect	  to	  globalized	  production	  networks.	  	  2.2	  The	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada,	  Ottawa	  	   Following	  Court's	  exhibition	  at	  Triple	  Candie,	  Jungen's	  work	  traveled	  to	  Korea	  and	  was	  presented	  in	  the	  2004	  Gwangju	  Biennale	  as	  part	  of	  a	  survey	  of	  work	  identified	  with	  participation	  and	  collaboration.	  However	  here,	  in	  the	  midst	  of	  a	  large	  art	  biennale,	  Court	  was	  	  	   17	  completely	  removed	  from	  the	  environment	  that	  it	  formerly	  shared	  with	  the	  frustrations	  and	  aspirations	  of	  a	  labouring	  and	  marginalized	  class.	  As	  an	  art	  object,	  Jungen's	  work	  was	  a	  manifestation	  of	  disinterested	  leisure,	  but	  now	  this	  was	  emphasized	  by	  Court's	  location	  outside	  the	  access	  of	  any	  context	  that	  departs	  from	  the	  extra-­‐territorial	  site	  of	  art	  spectatorship.	  The	  site-­‐specific	  signifiers	  of	  labour,	  commodity	  production,	  economic	  and	  social	  deterioration	  that	  originally	  informed	  Jungen's	  work	  are	  no	  longer	  accessible	  to	  the	  viewer	  nor	  the	  work.	  	  	   In	  an	  interview	  with	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada	  (NGC),	  Jungen	  mentioned	  that	  Court	  could	  relate	  to	  Korea	  and	  Asia	  in	  general	  as	  a	  site	  of	  probable	  sweatshop	  production	  and	  outsourced	  labour.17	  Korea	  and	  the	  rest	  of	  Asia	  are	  indeed	  part	  of	  the	  production	  chain	  and	  international	  market	  that	  contribute	  to	  the	  Air	  Jordan	  sneakers'	  status	  as	  a	  "global	  popular"	  commodity.18	  Even	  though	  Court	  trades	  on	  the	  connectivity	  of	  global	  sites	  of	  capitalist	  production	  and	  consumption	  does	  not	  mean	  that	  it	  is	  a	  site-­‐less	  work.	  Court	  was	  developed	  by	  Jungen	  in	  collaboration	  with	  the	  very	  particular	  space	  comprised	  of	  Harlem's	  working-­‐class	  history	  and	  a	  mix	  of	  African-­‐American	  economic	  marginalization	  and	  aspiration	  through	  cultural	  commodification	  and	  global	  capitalism.	  This	  illustrates	  what	  sets	  Jungen's	  2004	  Triple	  Candie	  installation	  apart	  from	  the	  later	  re-­‐constructions,	  which	  is	  the	  social	  history	  that	  informed	  the	  initial	  location	  of	  and	  development	  of	  Court.	  This	  context	  is	  a	  space	  constructed	  of	  a	  particular,	  yet	  constantly	  multiplying	  set	  of	  intersecting	  narratives	  that	  link	  among	  other	  things,	  Harlem,	  Triple	  Candie,	  basketball	  and	  labour,	  with	  the	  result	  being	  Harlem	  is	  a	  site	  that	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  17	  .Brian	  Jungen,	  "Brian	  Jungen	  talks	  about	  his	  work	  Court,"	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada,	  National	  Gallery	  of	  	   Canada,	  last	  accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  	   http://www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artwork.php?mkey=207192.	  18.	  David	  L.	  Andrews	  et	  al.,	  "Jordanscapes:	  A	  Preliminary	  Analysis	  of	  the	  Global	  Popular,"	  Sociology	  of	  	   Sport	  Journal	  13,	  (1996):	  428-­‐457.	  Global	  Popular	  is	  a	  concept	  developed	  and	  defined	  in	  a	  1996	  article	  	   entitled	  "Jordanscapes"	  and	  is	  explored	  as	  the	  form	  of	  interconnections	  and	  disjunctures	  between	  global	  	   media	  and	  local	  meaning	  in	  transnational	  sport	  culture.	  	  	   18	  possesses	  the	  agency	  to	  activate	  the	  absences	  in	  Jungen's	  work.	  Court	  is	  not	  an	  intervention	  in	  Harlem,	  however	  Harlem	  intervenes	  in	  Court.	  This	  acknowledgement	  contributes	  to	  Harlem's	  ability	  to	  act	  upon	  and	  act	  through	  Court.	  Gwangju	  and	  the	  National	  Gallery	  are	  engaged	  less	  as	  'sites'	  per	  se	  in	  Jungen's	  work	  than	  backgrounds	  or	  frames	  for	  the	  presentation	  of	  his	  work.	  	  	   The	  attempt	  to	  universalize	  Court	  beyond	  the	  initial	  site	  that	  activated	  Jungen's	  work	  and,	  in	  terms	  of	  the	  relationship	  between	  Triple	  Candie's	  iron	  support	  beams	  to	  Court,	  literally	  penetrated	  his	  sculpture	  to	  other	  spatial	  contexts	  evaporates	  rather	  than	  broadens	  the	  potency	  and	  focus	  of	  Jungen's	  critique	  on	  the	  erasure	  of	  labour	  in	  the	  arenas	  commodity	  culture.	  	   Court	  was	  donated	  by	  the	  Rennie	  Collection	  to	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada	  (NGC)	  in	  2012.	  The	  social	  narratives	  and	  architecture	  of	  Harlem	  combined	  to	  inform	  the	  experience	  of	  Court	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  whereas	  the	  NGC,	  a	  major	  public	  museum	  and	  national	  cultural	  showpiece	  overlooking	  the	  seat	  of	  Canada's	  federal	  government.	  The	  intentional	  nature	  of	  the	  Gallery	  as	  a	  space	  built	  for	  the	  viewership	  of	  art	  and	  for	  the	  visual	  reinforcement	  of	  cultural	  and	  national	  identities	  and	  narratives.	  Art	  and	  viewership	  at	  the	  NGC	  are	  not	  in	  conflict	  with	  the	  space	  of	  Jungen's	  work,	  therefore	  Court	  is	  no	  longer	  activated	  between	  the	  tensions	  of	  labour	  and	  leisure	  that	  Court	  thrived	  on	  in	  its	  original	  iteration.	  The	  presence	  of	  industrialized	  labour	  is	  invisible	  on	  the	  second	  floor	  galleries	  of	  the	  NGC	  and	  therefore	  also	  disappear	  from	  Jungen's	  work	  tables.	  	   Court's	  semi-­‐permanent	  installation	  at	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada	  (NGC)	  engenders	  an	  experience	  of	  its	  exhibition	  as	  a	  documentation	  of	  the	  original	  installation	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  and	  Harlem.	  The	  white-­‐cube	  and	  sky-­‐lighted	  room	  (see	  fig.	  2.2	  and	  2.3)	  dedicated	  to	  the	  exhibition	  of	  Court	  is	  sized	  to	  closely	  frame	  Jungen's	  work	  in	  the	  second	  floor	  contemporary	  art	  galleries	  	  	   19	  at	  the	  NGC.	  The	  highly	  prescribed	  rooms	  and	  didactic	  panels	  throughout	  the	  NGC	  lead	  viewers	  through	  a	  series	  of	  sculptural	  and	  video	  installations	  before	  arriving	  at	  Jungen's	  work	  make	  his	  juxtaposition	  of	  a	  basketball	  court	  with	  garment	  manufacturing	  tables	  appear	  to	  be	  incidental.	  The	  audio	  from	  a	  nearby	  video	  installation	  by	  South	  African	  artist	  Candice	  Breitz	  is	  inescapable	  while	  viewing	  Jungen's	  work.	  The	  room	  that	  presents	  Court	  also	  offers	  peripheral	  views	  of	  other	  permanent	  collection	  holdings	  such	  as	  a	  lightwork	  by	  Dan	  Flavin	  and	  a	  work	  from	  Frank	  Stella's	  Protractor	  Series	  as	  well	  as	  the	  nearby	  Embassy	  of	  Kuwait	  through	  the	  NGC's	  exterior	  windows.	  The	  awareness	  of	  these	  other	  objects	  emphasizes	  Court	  as	  a	  minimalist	  object	  in	  space	  rather	  than	  a	  synthesis	  of	  spatial	  site	  and	  objects.	  	   The	  NGC's	  decision	  to	  install	  a	  monitor	  that	  screens	  a	  looped	  video	  of	  Jungen	  speaking	  about	  his	  work	  and	  Harlem	  at	  the	  entrance	  to	  Court's	  installation	  emphasizes	  the	  experience	  of	  the	  work	  as	  a	  document	  of	  the	  initial	  installation	  and	  of	  Harlem	  itself.	  	  	   Jungen	  adjusted	  the	  final	  configuration	  of	  Court	  in	  order	  to	  include	  an	  additional	  space	  of	  spectatorship	  and	  presence.	  For	  the	  NGC	  installation	  in	  2012,	  Jungen	  added	  two,	  grey,	  metal	  utilitarian	  staircases	  and	  viewing	  platforms	  that	  support	  both	  of	  Court's	  nets	  and	  backboards.	  These	  platforms	  	  encourage	  viewers	  to	  climb	  up	  and	  view	  the	  factory	  cum	  sporting	  floor	  from	  above.	  	  Jungen's	  work	  therefore	  undergoes	  another	  transformation	  and	  re-­‐positions	  his	  viewers	  with	  each	  shift	  as	  well,	  as	  they	  are	  transported	  from	  a	  site	  that	  encourages	  and	  evokes	  leisurely	  spectatorship	  and	  the	  purchase	  of	  art	  objects	  and	  a	  sports	  event	  to	  the	  site	  of	  capitalist	  surveillance	  of	  a	  production	  floor,	  once	  again	  implicating	  viewers	  as	  consumer-­‐enablers	  in	  the	  exploitive	  spatial	  and	  economic	  divisions	  that	  accompany	  globalization.	  19	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  19.	  Brian	  Jungen,	  "Brian	  Jungen	  talks	  about	  his	  work	  Court,"	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada,	  National	  Gallery	  of	  	   Canada,	  last	  accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  	   http://www.gallery.ca/en/see/collections/artwork.php?mkey=207192.	  	  	   20	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  Brian	  Jungen's	  Court	  installed	  in	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada	  in	  Ottawa,	  Ontario.	  Figure	  2.2	  shows	  Court	  from	  the	  perspective	  of	  the	  viewer	  platform	  that	  Jungen	  added	  for	  the	  	  installation	  at	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada.	  Figure	  2.3	  shows	  Court	  from	  the	  entrance	  way	  of	  	  the	  gallery.	  	  	  Fig.	  2.2	  (left)	  and	  Fig.	  2.3	  (below)	  	  Brian	  Jungen,	  Court,	  2004	  	  Sewing	  tables,	  painted	  steel,	  paint,	  basketball	  hoops	  and	  backboards.	  	  2500	  x	  300	  x	  250	  cm	  installed.	  	  Collection	  of	  the	  National	  Gallery	  of	  Canada.	  	  Gift	  of	  the	  Rennie	  Collection,	  Vancouver,	  2012.	  	  Photo:	  Denise	  Ryner	  	  	  	  	  	   21	  	  AND	  WHEREAS,	  the	  said	  Indians	  have	  been	  notified	  and	  informed	  by	  Her	  Majesty's	  said	  Commission	  that	  it	  is	  Her	  desire	  to	  open	  for	  settlement,	  immigration,	  trade,	  travel,	  mining,	  lumbering	  and	  such	  other	  purposes	  as	  to	  Her	  Majesty	  may	  seem	  meet,	  a	  tract	  of	  country	  bounded	  and	  described	  as	  hereinafter	  mentioned,	  and	  to	  obtain	  the	  consent	  thereto	  of	  Her	  Indian	  subjects	  inhabiting	  the	  said	  tract,	  and	  to	  make	  a	  treaty,	  and	  arrange	  with	  them,	  so	  that	  there	  may	  be	  peace	  and	  good	  will	  between	  them	  and	  Her	  Majesty's	  other	  subjects,	  and	  that	  Her	  Indian	  people	  may	  know	  and	  be	  assured	  of	  what	  allowances	  they	  are	  to	  count	  upon	  and	  receive	  from	  Her	  Majesty's	  bounty	  and	  benevolence.	  	  	   	   -­‐Excerpt	  from	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  	  	  Our	  Dreamers	  dreamed	  in	  many	  places	  throughout	  our	  Dane-­‐zaa	  territory.	  Their	  dreams	  came	  to	  them	  as	  they	  moved	  with	  their	  families	  in	  a	  seasonal	  round.	  Like	  all	  our	  people,	  they	  travelled	  through	  our	  territory,	  hunting	  moose	  and	  other	  game,	  trapping	  fur-­‐bearing	  animals,	  and	  harvesting	  plants	  and	  berries.	  The	  songs	  and	  teachings	  of	  our	  Dreamers,	  like	  the	  stories	  of	  our	  people,	  are	  therefore	  tied	  to	  specific	  places,	  and	  to	  an	  expert	  knowledge	  of	  the	  land	  and	  its	  animal	  and	  spiritual	  resources.	  	  	   	   -­	  Doig	  River	  First	  Nation	  	  2.3	  Fort	  St.	  John,	  British	  Columbia	  -­‐	  Tate	  Modern,	  London,	  England	  	   The	  deployment	  of	  connective	  and	  evocative	  space	  to	  contest	  capitalist	  and	  economic	  divisions	  of	  space	  that	  took	  place	  in	  Court	  can	  also	  be	  applied	  to	  a	  project-­‐proposal	  developed	  by	  Jungen	  in	  2006,	  that	  although	  ultimately	  unrealized,	  	  planned	  to	  activate	  corresponding	  sites	  that	  countered	  political	  narratives	  in	  Canada	  and	  the	  United	  Kingdom	  concerning	  Indigenous	  treaty	  rights.	  Jungen	  wanted	  to	  expand	  this	  project	  to	  include	  the	  launch	  of	  a	  treaty-­‐related	  legal	  claim	  in	  a	  Canadian	  court,	  but	  out	  of	  concern	  that	  the	  extensive	  required	  research	  for	  this	  might	  not	  be	  completed	  in	  time	  Jungen	  developed	  and	  presented	  an	  alternative	  project	  for	  his	  solo	  exhibition	  at	  the	  Tate	  Modern.20	  In	  her	  recollections	  Tate	  curator	  Jessica	  Morgan	  considered	  the	  development	  of	  this	  proposal	  and	  others	  with	  Jungen	  in	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  20.	  Jessica	  Morgan,	  "Brian	  Jungen's	  Other	  Works,"	  in	  Brian	  Jungen	  eds.	  Solange	  de	  Boer,	  Zoë	  Gray,	  and	  Nicolaus	  	   Schafhausen	  (Rotterdam:	  Witte	  de	  With	  Centre	  for	  Contemporary	  Art,	  2006):43.	  	  	   22	  conversations	  that	  continued	  for	  more	  than	  a	  year	  as	  indispensible	  because	  they	  traded	  in	  concepts	  that	  eventually	  formulated	  what	  was	  presented	  at	  the	  Gallery	  as	  Jungen's	  "real"	  work.21	  	  What	  was	  realized	  for	  the	  Tate	  exhibition	  was	  entitled	  The	  People's	  Flag	  which	  was	  an	  oversized	  flag	  constructed	  of	  roughly	  patch	  worked	  clothing	  and	  other	  items	  sourced	  from	  thrift	  stores	  in	  Canada	  and	  England.	  All	  of	  the	  material	  was	  an	  identical	  shade	  of	  red	  and	  the	  manner	  in	  which	  they	  were	  stitched	  together	  was	  meant	  to	  evoke	  protest	  banners,	  such	  as	  those	  unfurled	  by	  Greenpeace	  onboard	  tankers,	  whaling	  ships	  and	  other	  sites.	  The	  colour	  was	  a	  reference	  to	  the	  worker's	  anthem	  "The	  Red	  Flag"	  which	  was	  written	  as	  a	  poem	  by	  an	  early	  20th	  century	  Irish	  political	  activist	  who	  worked	  nearby	  to	  the	  Tate	  Modern.	  Morgan	  observed	  how	  this	  final	  project	  aligned	  with	  Jungen's	  proposals,	  such	  as	  The	  Treaty,	  in	  that	  he	  linked	  the	  London	  site	  of	  his	  exhibition	  to	  the	  "resurrection	  of	  a	  political	  tradition	  and	  history	  now	  largely	  forgotten..."22	  	   In	  The	  Treaty,	  Jungen	  outlined	  an	  installation,	  in	  consultation	  with	  Morgan,	  that	  was	  intended	  to	  address	  the	  legacy	  of	  the	  wide-­‐reaching	  treaty	  agreement	  known	  as	  Treaty	  No.	  8,	  that	  administered	  the	  land	  rights	  of	  Jungen's	  relatives	  and	  ancestors	  in	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation	  near	  Fort	  St.	  John,	  British	  Columbia.	  The	  project,	  in	  reference	  to	  an	  event	  known	  as	  The	  Treaty	  would	  involve	  the	  construction	  of	  a	  pavilion	  outside	  of	  the	  Tate	  near	  the	  River	  Thames,	  followed	  by	  a	  second,	  permanent	  reconstruction	  of	  that	  same	  pavilion	  on	  land	  governed	  by	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation	  near	  to	  the	  Peace	  River.	  The	  pavilion's	  second	  site	  would	  establish	  it	  as	  a	  physical	  marker	  that	  oversees	  the	  local	  'Treaty	  Day'	  ceremonies	  that	  take	  place	  annually	  on	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  21.	  Morgan,	  "Brian	  Jungen's	  Other	  Works,"	  39.	  22.	  Ibid.,	  46.	  	  	   23	  July	  623	  including	  the	  distribution	  of	  symbolic	  treaty	  payments	  and	  commemorate	  the	  day	  in	  1899	  that	  representatives	  of	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation,	  which	  has	  a	  current	  membership	  of	  about	  300,	  signed	  over	  their	  land	  titles	  under	  Treaty	  No.	  8.	  	  The	  treaty	  payments	  which	  equal	  five	  Canadian	  dollars	  —an	  amount	  not	  tied	  to	  inflation—	  are	  handed	  over	  by	  an	  officer	  of	  the	  Royal	  Canadian	  Mounted	  Police	  to	  each	  member	  of	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation	  and	  followed	  by	  a	  handshake	  as	  a	  mutual	  gesture	  of	  "keeping	  the	  peace."24	  While	  this	  ceremony	  continues,	  the	  less	  symbolic	  commitments	  agreed	  to	  in	  the	  treaty	  that	  promised	  each	  family	  living	  off-­‐reserve	  who	  were	  members	  of	  the	  Fort	  St.	  John	  Beaver	  Band	  	  —as	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation	  was	  then	  called—	  allotments	  of	  tools,	  livestock	  and	  128	  acres	  of	  land,	  were	  for	  the	  most	  part	  not	  honoured.25,	  	   Beyond	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation,	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  was	  also	  signed	  between	  the	  Canadian	  government,	  as	  representatives	  of	  the	  British	  Crown,	  and	  Indigenous	  groups	  across	  western	  and	  northern	  Canada	  at	  the	  close	  of	  the	  nineteenth	  century.	  The	  areas	  affected	  by	  this	  particular	  treaty,	  described	  by	  the	  Government	  of	  Canada	  as,	  "the	  most	  geographically	  extensive	  treaty	  activity	  undertaken,"26	  include	  northeastern	  British	  Columbia,	  northern	  Alberta,	  northwest	  Saskatchewan	  and	  southern	  parts	  of	  the	  Northwest	  Territories.	  To	  extend	  what	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  curator	  Jessica	  Morgan,	  called	  Jungen's	  "real"	  or	  "missing"	  work	  into	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  23.	  Brian	  Jungen	  and	  Jessica	  Morgan,	  "Level	  2	  Gallery:	  Brian	  Jungen:	  Interview,"	  Tate	  Britain,	  Tate	  Britain,	  last	  	   accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-­‐on/tate-­‐modern/exhibition/	  	   level-­‐2-­‐gallery-­‐brian-­‐jungen/level-­‐2-­‐gallery-­‐brian-­‐jungen-­‐interview.	  In	  another	  interview	  with	  Jessica	  	   Morgan	  posted	  to	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  website,	  Jungen	  states	  these	  events	  take	  place	  on	  July	  17.	  Treaty	  Days	  	   happen	  throughout	  the	  summer	  as	  different	  bands	  signed	  the	  document	  on	  different	  days	  during	  the	  summer	  	   of	  1899.	  	  24.	  Terence	  Dick,	  "Brian	  Jungen	  Interviewed	  by	  Terence	  Dick,"	  C	  Magazine,	  no.	  89	  (Spring	  2006):39.	  25.	  Morgan,"Brian	  Jungen's	  Other	  Works,"42.	  The	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  land	  allotment	  is	  listed	  as	  160	  acres	  in	  Morgan's	  	   text;	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  (1899)	  (Can.),	  "Treaty	  Texts	  -­‐	  Treaty	  No.	  8,"	  Aboriginal	  Affairs	  and	  Northern	  Development	  	   Canada,	  Government	  of	  Canada,	  last	  accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  https://	  	   www.aadnc-­‐aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028813/1100100028853.	  	  	   In	  the	  text	  of	  Treaty	  No.	  8,	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation	  is	  referred	  to	  as	  the	  'Beaver	  Indian	  Band.'	  	  26.	  Aboriginal	  Affairs	  and	  Northern	  Development	  Canada,	  "Treaty	  Texts	  -­‐	  Treaty	  No.	  8,"	  	  Government	  of	  Canada,	  	   last	  accessed	  August	  8,	  2014,	  https://www.aadnc-­‐aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028813/1100100028853.	  	  	   24	  the	  gallery	  itself,	  the	  material	  goods	  and	  livestock	  promised	  to	  families	  in	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  were	  to	  be	  placed	  inside	  the	  gallery	  as	  part	  of	  the	  London	  installation.27	  Locating	  the	  withheld	  goods	  in	  London	  as	  'ready-­‐made'	  objects	  would	  have	  emphasized	  England's	  position	  as	  a	  beneficiary	  of,	  rather	  than	  a	  benefactor	  in	  terms	  of	  its	  historical	  relationship	  with	  Canada's	  First	  Nations	  and	  attempts	  to	  administer	  their	  land	  as	  its	  own	  resource	  for	  industrialized	  agriculture	  and	  mining.	  	  	   The	  proposed	  successive	  constructions	  of	  The	  Treaty	  pavilion	  in	  London	  and	  then	  Fort	  St.	  John	  are	  activated	  by	  the	  spatial	  distance	  and	  disparity	  between	  the	  two	  sites,	  making	  space	  a	  contributing	  actor	  to	  the	  production	  of	  meaning	  of	  the	  work	  in	  both	  of	  its	  planned	  sites	  in	  British	  Columbia	  and	  London.	  This	  is	  counter	  to	  the	  way	  that	  multiple	  polarized	  spaces	  work	  against	  Court.	  This	  is	  because	  Jungen	  has	  developed	  his	  work	  with	  both	  sites	  in	  mind	  so	  they	  would	  be	  fused	  to	  each	  other,	  as	  well	  as	  to	  historical	  narratives	  and	  present-­‐day	  First	  Nations'	  activism	  through	  Jungen's	  work	  as	  a	  connective	  tissue.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  27. Morgan, "Brian Jungen's Other Works," 42; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, "Treaty Texts -  Treaty No. 8,"  Government of Canada, last accessed August 8, 2014, https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca  /eng/1100100028813/1100100028853. Excerpt from Treaty No. 8 text listing items that would have ostensibly  ended up being housed in Jungen's exhibition at the Tate, had he attempted to realize it:   "FURTHER, Her Majesty agrees to supply each Chief of a Band that selects a reserve, for the use of that Band, ten  axes, five hand-saws, five augers, one grindstone, and the necessary files and whetstones. 	   FURTHER,	  Her	  Majesty	  agrees	  that	  each	  Band	  that	  elects	  to	  take	  a	  reserve	  and	  cultivate	  the	  soil,	  shall,	  as	  soon	  	   as	  convenient	  after	  such	  reserve	  is	  set	  aside	  and	  settled	  upon,	  and	  the	  Band	  has	  signified	  its	  choice	  and	  is	  	   prepared	  to	  break	  up	  the	  soil,	  receive	  two	  hoes,	  one	  spade,	  one	  scythe	  and	  two	  hay	  forks	  for	  every	  family	  so	  	   settled,	  and	  for	  every	  three	  families	  one	  plough	  and	  one	  harrow,	  and	  to	  the	  Chief,	  for	  the	  use	  of	  his	  Band,	  two	  	   horses	  or	  a	  yoke	  of	  oxen,	  and	  for	  each	  Band	  potatoes,	  barley,	  oats	  and	  wheat	  (if	  such	  seed	  be	  suited	  to	  the	  	   locality	  of	  the	  reserve),	  to	  plant	  the	  land	  actually	  broken	  up,	  and	  provisions	  for	  one	  month	  in	  the	  spring	  for	  	   several	  years	  while	  planting	  such	  seeds;	  and	  to	  every	  family	  one	  cow,	  and	  every	  Chief	  one	  bull,	  and	  one	  	   mowing-­‐machine	  and	  one	  reaper	  for	  the	  use	  of	  his	  Band	  when	  it	  is	  ready	  for	  them;	  for	  such	  families	  as	  prefer	  	   to	  raise	  stock	  instead	  of	  cultivating	  the	  soil,	  every	  family	  of	  five	  persons,	  two	  cows,	  and	  every	  Chief	  two	  bulls	  	   and	  two	  mowing-­‐machines	  when	  ready	  for	  their	  use,	  and	  a	  like	  proportion	  for	  smaller	  or	  larger	  families.	  The	  	   aforesaid	  articles,	  machines	  and	  cattle	  to	  be	  given	  once	  for	  all	  for	  the	  encouragement	  of	  agriculture	  and	  stock	  	   raising;	  and	  for	  such	  Bands	  as	  prefer	  to	  continue	  hunting	  and	  fishing,	  as	  much	  ammunition	  and	  twine	  for	  	   making	  nets	  annually	  as	  will	  amount	  in	  value	  to	  one	  dollar	  per	  head	  of	  the	  families	  so	  engaged	  in	  hunting	  and	  	   fishing."	  	  	  	   25	  	   The	  Treaty	  was	  intended	  to	  collaborate	  with	  space	  in	  order	  to	  mark	  what	  was	  once	  the	  legislated	  direction	  of	  the	  flow	  of	  the	  implementation	  of	  colonial	  power	  and	  the	  capitalist	  exploitation	  of	  land	  and	  people.	  This	  would	  also	  indicate	  how	  despite	  globalization	  and	  London's	  attempt	  to	  distance	  itself	  from	  its	  colonial	  legacy	  in	  Canada,	  historic	  systems	  and	  agreements	  based	  on	  narratives	  of	  centers	  and	  peripheries	  continue	  to	  affect	  the	  Doig	  River	  Nation	  and	  other	  Indigenous	  groups.	  Similarly	  to	  the	  spaces	  of	  labour	  and	  leisure	  that	  were	  referenced	  in	  Court,	  The	  Treaty	  proposed	  a	  connective	  space	  that	  could	  trouble	  the	  fixed	  spatial	  binaries	  that	  separate	  sites	  of	  power,	  vulnerability,	  leisure,	  labour,	  production	  and	  consumption.	  	   	  	   Jungen's	  potential	  exhibition	  visitors	  in	  London	  would	  likely	  have	  a	  different	  relationship	  to	  Fort	  St.	  John	  and	  his	  work	  as	  compared	  to	  'Treaty	  Day'	  participants	  sheltered	  by	  Jungen's	  pavilion.	  The	  spaces	  inhabited	  by	  each	  audience,	  in	  London	  and	  Fort	  St.	  John,	  relate	  to	  each	  other	  as	  referents	  to	  the	  other	  site	  through	  the	  treaty	  as	  a	  legacy	  of	  British	  colonialism.	  Jungen	  appropriates	  the	  way	  that	  national	  objects,	  monuments	  and	  images	  of	  the	  British	  monarchy	  were	  traditionally	  represented	  in	  Canada	  and	  other	  countries	  as	  a	  symbol	  of	  the	  power	  at	  the	  center	  of	  this	  colonialism	  and	  installs	  his	  'monuments'	  or	  pavilions	  as	  symbols	  of	  deceit	  on	  the	  part	  of	  the	  British	  and	  Canadian	  governments	  in	  regards	  to	  Treaty	  No.	  8.	  	  As	  mentioned,	  Jungen	  wanted	  to	  append	  a	  third	  site	  to	  The	  Treaty.	  This	  site	  would	  be	  a	  courtroom	  under	  the	  Canadian	  judicial	  system	  where	  the	  artist	  planned	  to	  present	  a	  law	  suit	  for	  the	  government's	  failure	  to	  compensate	  any	  band	  members	  in	  accordance	  with	  the	  1899	  agreement.28	  Since	  the	  Canadian	  legal	  system	  derives	  from	  English	  common	  and	  statutory	  law,	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  28.	  Morgan,	  "Brian	  Jungen's	  Other	  Works,"43.	  	  	   26	  therefore,	  its	  courtrooms	  already	  reflect	  the	  dual	  space	  of	  London	  and	  Canada	  that	  informs	  Jungen's	  work.	  	  	  	  3.	  Space	  and	  Participation	  in	  Art	  3.1	  Minimalism	  and	  Passive	  Space	  	   The	  role	  of	  space	  as	  a	  passive	  background	  for	  site-­‐specific	  work	  was	  naturalized	  through	  the	  work	  such	  as	  British	  artist	  Robert	  Long's	  walks	  and	  the	  non-­‐sites	  of	  the	  late	  American	  artist	  Robert	  Smithson.	  	   The	  juxtaposition	  of	  multiple	  sites	  and	  galleries	  in	  Jungen's	  works	  The	  Treaty	  and	  Court	  elevate	  space	  as	  an	  integral	  part	  to	  the	  realization	  of	  each	  work	  and	  borrows	  from	  both	  modern	  and	  traditional	  concepts	  of	  site-­‐specificity	  and	  autonomy	  of	  sculpture	  and	  site-­‐specific	  installation.	  Krauss	  traced	  this	  genealogy	  which	  she	  called	  the	  "logic	  of	  sculpture,"	  developed	  from	  objects	  conceived	  as	  representational	  markers	  of	  a	  place	  or	  an	  event.	  	  	   The	  emergence	  of	  modern	  sculpture	  allowed	  artists	  to	  present	  their	  work	  as	  autonomous	  objects	  that	  only	  needed	  to	  establish	  a	  spatial	  relationship	  with	  the	  viewer	  at	  the	  moment	  of	  encounter	  rather	  than	  refer	  to	  a	  particular	  spatial	  or	  temporal	  context.29	  This	  attempt	  to	  displace	  the	  importance	  of	  site	  with	  the	  importance	  of	  the	  viewer's	  relationship	  to	  the	  sculpture	  whether	  inside	  an	  art	  institution	  or	  in	  a	  public	  location	  less	  exclusive	  to	  art	  objects,	  these	  sculptures	  became	  mobile	  and	  rendered	  space	  passive.	  In	  relation	  to	  the	  institutionalization	  of	  site-­‐specific	  projects,	  both	  historical	  and	  otherwise,	  curator,	  historian	  and	  writer	  Miwon	  Kwon	  added	  to	  this	  rejection	  of	  place-­‐boundedness	  and	  observed	  the	  emergence	  of	  an	  indifference	  to	  the	  connection	  between	  unrepeatability	  and	  site-­‐specificity	  in	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  29.	  Krauss,	  "Sculpture	  in	  the	  Expanded	  Field,"	  33.	  	  	   27	  favour	  of	  museological	  and	  commercial	  interests	  in	  normalizing	  the	  mobility	  of	  such	  work.30	  As	  demonstrated	  in	  the	  outline	  of	  The	  Treaty,	  this	  works	  well	  when	  re-­‐constructions	  across	  space	  are	  built	  into	  the	  conception	  of	  a	  work	  but	  can	  result	  in	  the	  weakening	  of	  a	  work's	  associated	  critiques	  and	  relevance	  when	  it	  is	  decontextualized	  through	  a	  re-­‐location	  from	  site	  to	  gallery.	  Kwon	  points	  out	  that	  once	  site-­‐specificity,	  as	  a	  process	  of	  social	  relations	  and	  spatial	  engagement	  is	  over-­‐determined	  by	  artists,	  the	  'site'	  is	  pacified	  and	  the	  opportunity	  for	  genuine	  critique	  is	  jeopardized:	  The	  artwork	  is	  newly	  objectified	  (and	  commodified),	  and	  site	  specificity	  is	  redescribed	  as	  the	  personal	  aesthetic	  choice	  of	  an	  artist's	  stylistic	  preference	  rather	  than	  a	  structural	  reorganization	  of	  aesthetic	  experience.	  Thus,	  a	  methodological	  principle	  of	  artistic	  production	  and	  dissemination	  is	  recaptured	  as	  content;	  active	  processes	  are	  transformed	  into	  inert	  art	  objects	  once	  again.	  In	  this	  way,	  site-­‐specific	  art	  comes	  to	  represent	  criticality	  rather	  than	  performing	  it.	  The	  'here	  and	  now'	  of	  aesthetic	  experience	  is	  isolated	  as	  the	  signified,	  severed	  from	  its	  signifier.31	  	  	   This	  dis-­‐engagement	  from	  site	  allows	  the	  gallery	  and	  documents	  of	  a	  work	  to	  claim	  	  primacy	  as	  the	  site	  where	  meaning	  is	  created	  and	  experienced	  by	  the	  artist,	  but	  the	  site	  as	  a	  pre-­‐existing	  space	  is	  not	  acknowledged	  as	  having	  a	  meaning	  independent	  of	  the	  work	  or	  the	  artist.	  British	  artist	  Richard	  Long	  develops	  work	  that	  defines	  site-­‐specificity	  in	  a	  manner	  similar	  to	  Kwon's	  description.	  In	  Long's	  practice,	  the	  artist's	  decisions	  and	  gestures	  which	  are	  performed	  at,	  and	  over,	  a	  particular	  site	  comprise	  the	  catalyst	  of	  a	  project	  and	  not	  the	  site	  itself.	  	  Both	  the	  gallery	  and	  the	  source	  'landscape'	  contain	  documentation	  of	  Long's	  actions	  or	  gestures	  in	  the	  form	  of	  displaced	  items	  and	  elements	  	  at	  the	  site	  in	  question	  or	  ephemera	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  30.	  Miwon	  Kwon,	  One	  place	  after	  another	  site-­specific	  art	  and	  locational	  identity,	  (Cambridge,	  Mass:	  MIT	  Press,	  	   2002),38.	  31.	  Kwon,	  One	  place	  after,	  38.	  	  	   28	  brought	  into	  the	  gallery	  by	  the	  artist.32	  Long	  creates	  and	  presents	  photographic	  archives	  and	  text-­‐based	  works-­‐on-­‐paper	  that	  prolong	  his	  spatial	  interventions	  and	  "marking."	  Each	  work	  is	  informed	  by	  its	  spatial	  context	  and	  the	  available	  elements	  in	  each	  of	  Long's	  environments	  are	  piled	  up,	  scattered,	  lined	  up,	  smoothed	  out,	  patted	  down	  and	  are	  otherwise	  marked	  through	  an	  encounter	  with	  the	  artist.	  Similarly	  to	  the	  type	  of	  art	  practices	  that	  interest	  Jungen,	  Long's	  practice	  is	  conceptual	  and	  minimalist	  at	  the	  same	  time.	  However,	  the	  sites	  that	  comprise	  his	  work	  remain	  passive	  elements	  that	  are	  either	  mapped	  as	  architecture	  or	  as	  an	  experience.	  The	  histories	  and	  intersections	  of	  the	  space	  beyond	  its	  topographical	  reality	  and	  cursory	  relationship	  to	  the	  artist	  are	  neither	  activated	  nor	  invoked.	  The	  viewer	  does	  not	  need	  to	  position	  themselves	  in	  relation	  to	  any	  of	  the	  geological,	  social	  or	  historical	  narratives	  that	  may	  be	  wrapped	  up	  in	  the	  spaces	  that	  Long	  represents.	  In	  an	  inverted	  orientation	  towards	  modernist	  universalism	  and	  mobility,	  Long's	  practice	  makes	  use	  of	  routes	  and	  sites	  located	  within	  common	  or	  public	  land	  so	  that	  ostensibly	  any	  viewer	  may	  re-­‐enact	  his	  work.	  These	  site-­‐specific	  yet	  portable	  works	  are	  also	  associated	  with	  American	  artist	  Robert	  Smithson's	  'non-­‐sites.'	  In	  Smithson's	  work,	  like	  Long's,	  the	  importance	  of	  the	  site	  is	  diminished	  in	  relation	  to	  the	  artist's	  documentation	  of	  the	  site	  in	  the	  gallery.	  	  	   Both	  Long	  and	  Smithson	  utilize	  their	  site-­‐specific	  practices	  to	  naturalize	  space	  as	  a	  passive,	  uncomplicated	  medium	  in	  the	  development	  of	  art.	  Space	  as	  sites	  are	  objectified	  and	  flattened	  both	  literally	  and	  figuratively	  as	  illustrations	  of	  entropy	  isolated	  from	  the	  world	  but	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  32.	  William	  Malpas,	  Richard	  Long	  in	  Close	  Up	  (Kent,	  UK:	  Crescent	  Moon	  Publishing,	  2003),44.	  Richard	  Long	  made	  	   multiple	  works	  in	  Dartmoor	  in	  Devon,	  UK.	  This	  is	  a	  landscape	  that	  is	  preferred	  and	  even	  "beloved"	  by	  the	  	   artist	  and	  therefore	  appears	  repeatedly	  in	  catalogues,	  exhibition	  documentation	  and	  books	  in	  one	  form	  or	  	   another.	  One	  of	  these	  works	  is	  A	  Straight	  Northward	  Walk	  Across	  Dartmoor	  (1979)	  where	  Dartmoor	  is	  	   represented	  in	  a	  text	  work	  comprised	  of	  the	  names	  of	  that	  geographical	  area's	  animals,	  plants,	  human	  	   constructions	  and	  landscapes	  as	  encountered	  and	  remembered	  by	  Long:	  "Railway	  Line,	  A	  Pair	  of	  Buzzards,	  	   Irishman's	  Wall,	  Whitehorse	  Hill,	  Statt's	  House,	  Winney's	  Down,	  East	  Dart	  River,	  Broad	  Down,	  Sheep	  Bones,	  	   Cotton	  Grass..."	  	  	  	   29	  for	  the	  forces	  of	  nature	  and	  time	  which	  slowly	  break	  down	  the	  material	  representations	  of	  site.	  The	  site	  as	  space	  composed	  of	  intersecting	  political	  and	  social	  contexts	  that	  define	  Jungen's	  site-­‐specific	  practice	  are	  only	  incidental	  when	  associated	  with	  Long's	  or	  Smithson's	  work.	  Smithson's	  Partially	  Buried	  Woodshed	  (1970)	  was	  created	  at	  Kent	  State	  University	  and	  acquired	  controversy	  due	  to	  the	  inter-­‐departmental	  tensions	  that	  it	  caused	  at	  the	  university	  due	  to	  the	  administration's	  desire	  to	  bulldoze	  the	  work.33	  However,	  later	  that	  same	  year	  Ohio	  National	  Guardsmen	  opened	  fire	  on	  students	  protesting	  the	  US	  invasion	  of	  Cambodia	  on	  campus	  and	  Smithson's	  work	  took	  on	  a	  new	  layer	  of	  controversy.	  An	  outraged	  student	  painted	  the	  letters	  "May	  4	  Kent	  70"	  on	  the	  Woodshed	  thereby	  retroactively	  connecting	  Smithson's	  work	  to	  the	  political	  and	  historical	  site	  that	  Kent	  State	  embodied	  after	  the	  shootings.34	  	   	  	   Jungen's	  response	  in	  an	  interview	  for	  his	  2004	  exhibition	  at	  the	  Vienna	  Secession	  indicates	  that	  he	  is	  aware	  of	  the	  capacity	  for	  the	  spatial	  context	  of	  an	  art	  installation	  to	  engage	  art	  objects	  and	  viewers	  independently	  of	  a	  limited	  function	  as	  a	  passive	  and	  interchangeable	  background.	  Furthermore,	  he	  emphasized	  that	  the	  modernist	  project	  was	  a	  failure,	  but	  did	  not	  clarify	  this	  remark	  further.35	  Ostensibly	  Jungen's	  declaration	  was	  in	  reference	  to	  claims	  by	  modern	  artists	  that	  self-­‐contained	  sculpture	  is	  ultimately	  isolated	  from	  any	  spatial	  or	  socio-­‐political	  context	  and	  suited	  to	  a	  universal	  and	  empowered	  viewer.	  This	  is	  supported	  by	  Jungen's	  stated	  interest	  in	  the	  "secular	  aspect	  of	  minimalism,"	  in	  terms	  of	  the	  possibility	  to	  separate	  minimalist	  practices	  from	  modernist	  concepts	  of	  assumed	  political	  and	  contextual	  autonomy	  	  which	  he	  translates	  to	  the	  development	  of	  his	  own	  work	  as	  a	  consideration	  with	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  33	  .Dorothy	  Shinn,	  "Robert	  Smithson's	  Partially	  Buried	  Woodshed"	  in	  Robert	  Smithson's	  Partially	  Buried	  	   Woodshed	  ed.	  Fred	  T.	  Smith	  (Ohio:	  School	  of	  Art	  Galleries	  Kent	  State	  University,	  1990),	  4.	  34	  .Shinn,	  "Partially	  Buried	  Woodshed,"	  5.	  35.	  Brian	  Jungen	  and	  Matthew	  Higgs,	  Brian	  Jungen:18.9.2003-­16.11.2003,	  ed.	  Matthias	  Herrmann	  (Vienna:	  Vienna	  	   Secession,	  2004),	  10.	  	  	   30	  the	  relation	  of	  sculpture	  to	  its	  social	  and	  architectural	  space	  with	  the	  goal	  to	  "transform	  the	  gallery	  space	  into	  a	  more	  socially	  complicated	  environment."36	  This	  at	  least	  in	  part	  emerged	  from	  Jungen's	  admiration	  for	  Felix	  Gonzales-­‐Torres's	  work	  for	  the	  way	  he	  addressed	  sexual	  and	  social	  identity	  through	  minimalist	  and	  conceptualist	  aesthetics.	  	  	   Curator	  and	  art	  historian	  Scott	  Watson	  connected	  Jungen's	  work	  to	  that	  of	  Felix	  Gonzales-­‐Torres	  as	  examples	  of	  artists	  who	  utilize	  Minimalist	  sculpture	  as	  tools	  to	  forward	  critical	  narratives	  in	  response	  to	  socio-­‐political	  contexts.37	  Other	  artists	  who	  utilized	  this	  strategy	  as	  observed	  by	  Watson	  include	  Roni	  Horn,	  Gordon	  Matta-­‐Clark	  and	  Robert	  Smithson.38	  	  	   The	  utilization,	  definition	  and	  manipulation	  of	  space	  in	  art	  over	  the	  simple	  representation	  of	  illusionistic	  space	  was	  a	  major	  concern	  for	  site-­‐specific	  work.	  Artists	  confined	  their	  work	  to	  a	  single	  place	  that	  informed	  their	  physical	  or	  conceptual	  components,	  their	  political	  and	  social	  activism	  or	  critique.	  Despite	  the	  important	  role	  that	  place	  occupies	  in	  site	  specific	  projects	  and	  their	  discursive	  frames,	  the	  space	  of	  a	  site	  can	  still	  remain	  a	  passive	  and	  marginal	  element	  to	  be	  acted	  upon,	  acted	  over	  and	  generated	  by	  an	  artist	  and	  their	  collaborators	  as	  a	  medium	  or	  studio.	  	  	  3.2	  Participation	  and	  Active	  Space	  	  	   Jungen's	  projects,	  The	  Treaty	  and	  Court	  are	  realized	  and	  acted	  upon	  by	  connective	  spaces.	  They	  allow	  space,	  not	  only	  as	  a	  site,	  but	  as	  ecologies	  of	  specific	  and	  previous	  political	  and	  social	  contexts	  to	  wield	  a	  measure	  of	  authorship	  over	  his	  projects,	  a	  role	  that	  a	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  36.	  Jungen,	  Higgs,	  Brian	  Jungen,10.	  37.	  Scott	  Watson,	  "Shapeshifter,"	  In	  Brian	  Jungen:	  Contemporary	  Art	  Gallery	  July	  27	  -­	  September	  23,	  2001,	  edited	  	   by	  Contemporary	  Art	  Gallery	  (Vancouver:	  Contemporary	  Art	  Gallery,	  2002),	  23.	  	  38.	  Watson,	  "Shapeshifter,"23.	  	  	  	   31	  community-­‐based	  collaborator	  might	  perform	  in	  a	  project	  oriented	  towards	  a	  social	  or	  relational	  practice.	  	  	   Considering	  site	  and	  space	  as	  a	  participant	  and	  author	  of	  meaning	  is	  not	  so	  extreme	  when	  the	  role	  which	  space	  performs	  in	  Jungen's	  work	  is	  compared	  to	  contemporary	  debates	  on	  strategies	  and	  benchmarks	  for	  socially	  engaged	  art	  practices.	  	   In	  order	  to	  understand	  the	  limits	  and	  capabilities	  of	  collective	  participation	  as	  a	  tool	  for	  shared	  authorship	  and	  a	  critique	  of	  social	  forms,	  Claire	  Bishop	  examines	  the	  criteria	  attached	  to	  the	  authorial	  renunciation	  by	  the	  writer	  Maria	  Lind	  in	  her	  publication	  Artificial	  Hells.	  Bishop	  concludes	  that	  Lind's	  insistence	  on	  total	  consensus	  taking	  priority	  over	  the	  artists'	  creative	  decisions	  is	  repressive	  and	  feels	  that	  these	  simplistic	  dichotomies	  that	  privilege	  collaborative	  community	  expression	  above	  all	  else	  still	  leaves	  room	  for	  alternative	  models	  that	  can	  also	  be	  conducive	  to	  social	  critiques	  and	  benefit	  from	  collective	  participation.39	  In	  fact	  Bishop	  points	  out	  that	  collaborative	  projects	  which	  also	  retain	  an	  aesthetic	  reflecting	  the	  singular	  authorship	  of	  an	  artist	  can	  illustrate	  the	  intensity	  of	  social	  exchange	  through	  neighbourhood	  experiences	  more	  provocatively	  than	  projects	  that	  repress	  aesthetically	  guided	  decisions	  in	  favour	  of	  community	  expression	  and	  objectives	  for	  social	  change.40	  Bishop	  points	  out	  Ranciere's	  definition	  of	  'aesthetic'	  as	  not	  necessarily	  referring	  to	  autonomous	  works	  of	  art	  but	  rather	  the	  viewer's	  experience	  of	  the	  art	  being	  autonomous	  which	  allows	  the	  viewer	  to	  develop	  empathy	  for	  the	  artist's	  sensibilities	  and	  critiques.	  41	  Bishop	  observes	  that	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  39.	  Claire	  Bishop,	  Artificial	  Hells:	  Participatory	  Art	  and	  the	  Politics	  of	  Spectatorship	  (London:	  Verso	  Books,	  2012),	  	   21-­‐22.	  40.	  Claire	  Bishop,	  Artificial	  Hells,	  21-­‐25.	  41.	  Ibid.,	  27.	  	  	   32	  for	  this	  to	  happen,	  a	  project	  must	  activate	  or	  represent	  a	  new	  and	  ideal	  area	  of	  exchange	  and	  interrelation.42	  	  As	  taken	  up	  by	  Schiller	  —and	  Rancière—	  this	  freedom	  suggests	  the	  possibility	  of	  politics	  (understood	  here	  as	  dissensus),	  because	  the	  undecidability	  of	  aesthetic	  experience	  implies	  a	  questioning	  of	  how	  the	  world	  is	  organised,	  and	  therefore	  the	  possibility	  of	  changing	  or	  redistributing	  that	  same	  world.43	  	  	  	   Bishop	  understands	  that	  projects	  left	  aesthetically	  open	  to	  influence	  by	  participants	  will	  inevitably	  take	  the	  form	  of	  critique	  of	  the	  world	  that	  acts	  upon	  them.	  The	  space	  they	  are	  connected	  to	  then	  isn't	  an	  actual	  space	  but	  a	  potential	  space	  that	  can	  occur	  where	  the	  project	  is	  sited.	  	   The	  forms	  that	  Jungen's	  installations	  and	  sculpture	  take	  are	  heavily-­‐based	  on	  his	  research	  on	  spaces	  which	  are	  defined	  by	  a	  combination	  of	  localized	  historical	  and	  social	  narrative	  and	  the	  globalized	  flow	  of	  commodity	  objects	  as	  well	  as	  marketed	  myths	  emerging	  from	  Indigenous	  and	  popular	  culture.	  The	  reliance	  of	  Jungen's	  work	  on	  activation	  by	  space	  	  in	  turn	  allows	  his	  projects	  to	  tread	  the	  line	  that	  Bishop	  maps	  out	  between	  broad	  social	  critique,	  aesthetically	  seductive	  experiences	  and	  well-­‐defined	  political	  relevance.	  This	  is	  very	  obvious	  in	  the	  way	  curator	  Jessica	  Morgan	  explained	  Jungen's	  development	  of	  his	  2006	  proposal	  to	  the	  Tate	  for	  The	  Treaty	  which	  outlined	  the	  placement	  and	  construction	  of	  provisional,	  yet	  tangible,	  objects	  to	  be	  activated	  by	  the	  political	  space	  invoked	  by	  the	  economic	  and	  cultural	  colonial	  relationship	  between	  the	  First	  Nations	  in	  western	  Canada	  and	  England.	  In	  Court	  the	  overwhelming	  and	  minimalist	  configuration	  of	  objects	  unveiled	  the	  assumed	  spatially	  articulated	  sites	  of	  Harlem's	  industrial	  and	  social	  collapse	  as	  liminal	  spaces	  of	  labour	  and	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  42.	  Claire	  Bishop,	  Artificial	  Hells,	  27.	  43.	  Ibid.	  	  	  	   33	  leisure,	  marginalization	  and	  universalization	  and	  the	  loss	  of	  this	  balance	  in	  the	  work's	  	  re-­‐installation.	  	  	   For	  participatory	  works,	  Bishop	  prescribes	  an	  aesthetic	  derived	  from	  collective	  participation	  in	  combination	  with	  the	  artist's	  intentions	  in	  order	  to	  create	  an	  impression	  of	  "risk	  and	  unpredictability"	  and	  denote	  the	  project's	  openness	  to	  shared-­‐authorship.	  The	  vulnerability	  of	  Court	  to	  the	  changes	  in	  spatial	  context	  at	  its	  exhibition	  in	  Gwangju,	  then	  its	  reinstallation	  at	  the	  NGC	  illustrate	  that	  the	  work	  was	  unable	  to	  retain	  its	  critical	  relevance	  in	  terms	  of	  the	  divisions	  between	  exploited	  labour	  forces	  and	  commodity	  culture.	  The	  impact	  of	  space	  on	  Court	  and	  the	  importance	  of	  its	  initial	  site	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  as	  a	  participant	  and	  actor	  that	  determined	  the	  way	  Jungen's	  work	  was	  encountered	  by	  viewers	  and	  positioned	  them	  in	  relation	  to	  global	  capitalism	  and	  the	  shifting	  neighbourhood	  of	  Harlem.	  	  	   The	  dependency	  of	  The	  Treaty's	  realization	  on	  the	  interconnection	  of	  Canadian-­‐British	  political	  space	  in	  addition	  to	  the	  evolving	  circumstances	  of	  the	  relationship	  between	  First	  Nations	  groups	  and	  Canada's	  federal	  government	  in	  relation	  to	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  also	  indicates	  that	  space	  is	  a	  collaborative	  element	  in	  this	  work.	  The	  catalyst	  for	  the	  government's	  position	  of	  power	  over	  First	  Nations'	  land	  is	  recorded	  in	  treaty	  texts	  as	  the	  wish	  of	  the	  British	  sovereign.	  	  	   Jungen's	  reference	  to	  the	  narratives	  of	  dispossession	  that	  define	  both	  Harlem	  and	  Fort	  St.	  John	  addresses	  the	  final	  criterion	  outlined	  by	  Bishop	  for	  participatory	  art	  projects	  which	  is	  the	  presence	  of,	  and	  attempt	  to	  ameliorate,	  a	  perceived	  crisis	  at	  the	  site	  or	  sites	  in	  question.	  Bishop's	  requisite	  crisis,	  while	  not	  explicitly	  based	  in	  space	  can	  be	  applied	  to	  the	  erasure	  of	  the	  historical	  and	  social	  narratives	  of	  exploitation	  and	  injustice	  represented	  in	  both	  Court	  and	  The	  Treaty	  which	  provides	  an	  opportunity	  for	  Jungen's	  work	  —in	  collaboration	  with	  the	  spaces	  of	  Harlem,	  Fort	  St.	  John	  and	  London—	  to	  offer	  a	  measure	  of	  redress	  through	  the	  	  	   34	  implication	  the	  viewers	  who	  must	  relate	  Court	  or	  The	  Treaty's	  narratives	  from	  their	  position	  in	  one	  of	  these	  spaces.	  	  	   In	  2002,	  curator	  and	  writer	  Miwon	  Kwon	  addressed	  the	  lack	  of	  criticality	  and	  generalization	  around	  the	  term	  site-­‐specific	  art.	  She	  argued	  that	  site	  expanded	  to	  include	  not	  only	  the	  location	  of	  a	  work	  art	  in	  space	  but	  also	  projects	  that	  were	  sited	  within	  a	  discourse,	  in	  a	  community	  of	  participants,	  or	  within	  the	  wide	  network	  that	  governs	  the	  economy	  of	  the	  gallery	  and	  museum,	  as	  well	  as	  mobile	  work.44	  Claire	  Bishop	  established	  a	  set	  of	  bench	  marks	  for	  participation	  in	  art	  by	  people	  as	  a	  collective	  of	  actors.	  Kwon's	  expansion	  of	  space	  and	  site-­‐specificity,	  not	  only	  illustrated	  by	  the	  re-­‐location	  of	  Court,	  but	  also	  Jungen's	  desire	  to	  site	  The	  Treaty	  in	  the	  multiple	  sites	  of	  a	  gallery	  and	  a	  ritual	  exchange.	  Kwon's	  perspective	  on	  site-­‐specificity	  can	  be	  used	  to	  stretch	  Bishop's	  criteria	  to	  include	  activated	  space	  as	  a	  participant	  in	  the	  making	  of	  meaning	  and	  experienced	  form	  of	  a	  work	  thereby	  at	  once	  returning	  some	  of	  the	  political	  and	  critical	  activism	  to	  site-­‐specific	  world-­‐making,	  while	  also	  recuperating	  the	  status	  of	  space	  —from	  a	  passive	  site	  within	  the	  modernist	  definition	  of	  site-­‐specificity—	  as	  a	  collaborative	  actor.	  	   The	  capability	  for	  space	  to	  undertake	  a	  collaborative	  authorship	  with	  respect	  to	  creating	  meaning	  and	  establishing	  a	  critical	  stance	  was	  taken	  up	  as	  a	  strategy	  in	  a	  2002	  site-­‐specific	  performance	  by	  Canadian	  Anishinaabe	  artist,	  Rebecca	  Belmore.	  Belmore's	  work	  is	  helpful	  as	  a	  case	  for	  comparison	  to	  Jungen's	  Court	  since	  she	  addresses	  the	  immobility	  of	  site-­‐specific	  work	  through	  her	  2002	  performance	  Vigil	  and	  a	  related	  work	  entitled	  The	  Named	  and	  the	  Unnamed.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  44.	  Kwon,	  One	  place	  after	  another,	  38.	  	  	   35	  	   Vigil	  underscored	  how	  critical	  relevance	  is	  vulnerable	  to	  the	  participation	  of	  space	  as	  an	  actor.	  Belmore	  was	  aware	  that	  her	  work	  could	  only	  fully	  be	  articulated	  as	  a	  critique	  and	  call	  to	  action	  if	  activated	  by	  the	  very	  specific	  spatial	  context	  of	  Vancouver's	  Downtown	  Eastside	  (DTES),	  an	  area	  characterized	  by	  many	  of	  its	  residents'	  drug	  and	  alcohol	  addictions	  and	  mental	  health	  issues	  as	  well	  as	  countless	  instances	  of	  misogynist	  and	  racist	  violence	  that	  included	  the	  kidnap,	  murder	  and	  disappearance	  of	  women,	  many	  of	  whom	  were	  Aboriginal	  sex	  trade	  workers.	  The	  attacks	  on	  women	  in	  the	  DTES	  were	  able	  to	  be	  carried	  out	  for	  so	  long	  due	  to	  the	  indifference	  and	  inaction	  of	  the	  Vancouver	  Police	  Department	  in	  the	  face	  of	  evidence	  pointing	  to	  a	  serial	  murderer	  who	  targeted	  marginalized	  women.	  	   Vigil	  was	  performed	  by	  Belmore	  in	  the	  center	  of	  the	  DTES	  around	  the	  intersection	  of	  Gore	  and	  Cordova	  streets	  where	  rather	  than	  acting	  upon,	  Belmore	  interacted	  with	  the	  DTES	  as	  a	  social	  narrative	  and	  as	  architecture	  of	  marginalization	  and	  invisibility.	  Her	  durational	  performance	  included	  washing	  the	  sidewalk	  before	  turning	  it	  into	  a	  recognizable	  memorial	  site	  by	  lighting	  votive	  candles	  which	  she	  placed	  along	  the	  walkway.	  Belmore	  also	  screamed	  out	  the	  names	  of	  the	  disappeared	  women	  to	  the	  intersection	  rather	  than	  the	  gathering	  spectators.	  Each	  scream	  was	  punctuated	  by	  the	  action	  of	  	  de-­‐thorning	  a	  red	  rose,	  which	  the	  artist	  did	  by	  pulling	  its	  stem	  through	  her	  teeth.	  A	  powerful	  moment	  in	  the	  performance	  was	  a	  long,	  physical	  struggle	  endured	  by	  the	  artist	  in	  repeated	  attempts	  to	  free	  herself	  from	  a	  nearby	  utility	  pole	  after	  she	  stapled	  her	  clothing	  to	  it.	  	  Her	  clothing	  at	  this	  point	  was	  a	  long,	  red	  dress,	  an	  outfit	  with	  strong	  gender-­‐specific	  coding.	  This	  last	  action	  addresses	  the	  space	  of	  the	  DTES	  as	  hostile	  to	  First	  Nations	  women.	  This	  point	  was	  emphasized	  when	  Belmore	  concluded	  the	  performance	  by	  broadcasting	  American	  singer	  James	  Brown's	  "It's	  a	  Man's	  Man's	  Man's	  	  	   36	  World"	  from	  the	  radio	  of	  a	  pick	  up	  truck	  while	  Belmore,	  now	  dressed	  in	  the	  gender-­‐neutral	  outfit	  of	  jeans	  and	  a	  white	  tanktop,	  quietly	  leaned	  against	  her	  truck.	  	   Expanding	  on	  existing	  discourse	  around	  performance	  and	  the	  transfer	  of	  traumatic	  memory,	  Peter	  Dickinson,	  a	  Vancouver-­‐based	  researcher,	  writer	  and	  critic	  examined	  theatrical	  and	  artistic	  responses	  to	  the	  murdered	  and	  missing	  Aboriginal	  women	  in	  British	  Columbia	  and	  Mexico	  emphasized	  the	  shared	  implication	  that	  Belmore's	  marking	  and	  actions	  in	  the	  DTES	  engendered.	  As	  well,	  Belmore's	  performance	  was	  linked	  to	  other	  theatrical	  works	  that	  overlap	  and	  connect	  seemingly	  distinct	  spaces:	  	  In	  their	  reactivation	  and	  reanimation	  of	  spaces	  or	  landscapes,	  these	  artists	  also	  allow	  us	  to	  complete,	  in	  Taylor's	  terminology,	  the	  necessary	  "act	  of	  transfer"	  that	  sees	  these	  scenes	  of	  individual	  privation	  as	  part	  of	  a	  larger	  scenario	  of	  collective	  public	  memory.	  Once	  we	  are	  "placed"	  within	  the	  ethical	  frame	  of	  such	  a	  scenario,	  it	  is	  incumbent	  upon	  us	  to	  take	  note	  of	  —to	  see—	  its	  distressingly	  familiar	  structures	  and	  patterns.	  And	  within	  the	  plot	  of	  the	  Americas,	  our	  depth	  of	  field	  must	  be	  truly	  expansive.	  Only	  in	  this	  way	  will	  we	  be	  able	  to	  connect	  a	  dirty	  sidewalk	  in	  Vancouver's	  Skid	  Row	  to	  the	  skid	  marks	  left	  by	  tires	  along	  a	  highway	  in	  northern	  British	  Columbia...45	  	  	   Dickinson	  sees	  Belmore's	  and	  other	  performance	  works	  focused	  on	  Vancouver's	  DTES	  as	  working	  though	  the	  neighbourhood	  to	  connect	  to	  and	  address	  further	  histories	  of	  oversight	  and	  marginalization	  in	  the	  rest	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  North	  and	  South	  America.	  By	  memorializing	  and	  giving	  a	  form	  to	  the	  memory	  of	  murdered	  women	  in	  a	  slowly-­‐gentrifying	  area	  of	  Vancouver	  that	  was	  nonetheless	  marked	  by	  crisis	  and	  civic	  indifference,	  Belmore's	  work,	  similarly	  to	  Court	  generates	  her	  critique	  in	  collaboration	  with	  surrounding	  space	  burdened	  by	  economic	  exploitation	  and	  social	  exclusion	  rather	  than	  engaging	  these	  sites	  as	  documents	  or	  a	  medium.46	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  45.	  Peter	  Dickinson,	  "Murdered	  and	  Missing	  Women:	  Performing	  Indigenous	  Cultural	  Memory	  in	  British	  	   Columbia	  and	  Beyond,"	  Theatre	  Survey	  55,	  no.	  2	  (May	  2014),	  220.	  46.	  David	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Hope	  (Los	  Angeles:	  University	  of	  California	  Press,	  2000),	  54.	  	  	   37	  	   When	  Belmore	  was	  commissioned	  to	  reconfigure	  Vigil	  for	  exhibition	  in	  a	  gallery	  space,	  her	  redeveloped	  work	  indicated	  an	  awareness	  of	  the	  difficulty	  presented	  by	  the	  attempt	  to	  translate	  her	  site-­‐specific	  performance	  from	  the	  site	  to	  the	  gallery.	  The	  second	  work,	  re-­‐configured	  her	  original	  performance	  of	  Vigil	  as	  a	  projection	  and	  sculpture-­‐based	  installation	  (see	  fig.	  3.1)	  entitled,	  The	  Named	  and	  the	  Unnamed	  (2002).	  This	  was	  presented	  in	  the	  Morris	  and	  Helen	  Belkin	  Gallery	  at	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  in	  2011,	  a	  site	  that	  was	  not	  only	  geographically,	  but	  economically,	  socially	  and	  demographically	  removed	  from	  the	  DTES.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   Fig.	  3.1	  Rebecca	  Belmore,	  The	  Named	  and	  the	  Unnamed,	  2002.	  Video	  installation.	  Dimensions	  variable.	  Collection	  of	  the	  Morris	  and	  Helen	  Belkin	  Art	  Gallery,	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia.	  Purchased	  with	  the	  support	  of	  the	  Canada	  Council	  for	  the	  Arts	  Acquisition	  Assistance	  program	  and	  the	  Morris	  and	  Helen	  Belkin	  Foundation,	  2005.	  Image	  courtesy	  of	  the	  Morris	  and	  Helen	  Belkin	  Art	  Gallery	  Photo:	  Howard	  Ursuliak	  	  	  	   38	  	   The	  2011	  exhibition	  of	  Belmore's	  work	  on	  the	  DTES	  not	  only	  converted	  the	  original	  performance	  to	  a	  video	  projection,	  but	  the	  sculptural	  work	  that	  comprised	  the	  projection	  screen	  inhibited	  viewer	  visibility	  through	  the	  placement	  of	  small	  light	  bulbs	  across	  the	  "screen"	  surface.	  This	  made	  viewers	  aware	  of	  the	  distance	  between	  the	  space	  of	  the	  original	  performance	  and	  the	  space	  of	  their	  spectatorship.	  The	  viewer,	  unable	  to	  clearly	  see	  Belmore's	  performance	  from	  their	  position	  in	  the	  gallery	  at	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  is	  therefore	  forced	  to	  admit	  that	  they	  are	  distanced	  from	  and	  therefore	  unable	  to	  fully	  grasp	  the	  injustices	  inscribed	  into	  the	  space	  of	  the	  DTES	  and	  the	  original	  iteration	  of	  Belmore's	  work.	  	  This	  relinquishing	  of	  the	  artist's	  prerogative	  to	  fully	  author	  the	  experience	  of	  their	  work	  in	  order	  to	  acknowledge	  the	  role	  that	  a	  space	  such	  as	  the	  DTES	  contributes	  to	  the	  artist's	  ability	  to	  communicate	  their	  critical	  positions.	  In	  comparison	  to	  Jungen's	  re-­‐installation	  of	  Court	  to	  the	  NGC,	  Belmore's	  reconfiguration	  is	  much	  more	  astute	  at	  negotiating	  the	  loss	  of	  the	  phenomenological	  aspects	  of	  her	  work	  and	  the	  cogent	  emotional	  responses	  associated	  with	  placing	  viewers	  along	  with	  the	  artist	  in	  the	  initial	  space	  of	  the	  DTES,	  Belmore	  renamed	  and	  reconstructed	  her	  work	  to	  respond	  to	  the	  isolation	  of	  the	  work	  from	  its	  context.	  	  	   The	  spatial	  divisions	  that	  Belmore	  and	  Jungen	  engage	  in	  their	  work	  to	  varying	  effect	  can	  be	  explained	  by	  British	  anthropologist	  and	  theorist	  David	  Harvey's	  definition	  of	  "spatial	  fixes"47	  which	  are	  created	  because	  spatial	  construction	  has	  always	  been	  a	  political	  project	  of	  the	  naturalization	  of	  certain	  orders	  and	  hierarchies.48	  For	  Harvey,	  these	  fixed	  spatial	  abstractions	  are	  manifestations	  of	  the	  "capitalist	  production	  of	  space."49	  He	  suggests	  that	  it	  is	  critical	  to	  resist	  and	  subvert	  the	  reorganization	  of	  space	  by	  globalized	  capitalism	  through	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  47.	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Hope,	  54	  48.	  Ibid.,	  54.	  49.	  Ibid.	  	  	   39	  localizing	  life	  to	  the	  level	  of	  direct	  interpersonal	  relations	  but	  to	  also	  balance	  this	  orientation	  towards	  localization	  with	  defiance	  embedded	  in	  globalization,	  not	  counter	  to	  it.	  As	  an	  example	  of	  this,	  Harvey	  points	  out	  the	  dialectical	  relationship	  with	  globalization	  that	  the	  Zapatista	  movement	  represents.	  They	  assume	  a	  localized	  struggle	  in	  Southern	  Mexico,	  but	  use	  globalized	  networks	  and	  technology	  to	  propagate	  and	  universalize	  their	  claims	  in	  support	  of	  an	  internationalized	  Indigenous	  movement.50	  To	  again	  attempt	  to	  apply	  Harvey's	  spatial	  theories	  to	  site-­‐specific	  art	  and	  participation,	  this	  idea	  of	  combining	  a	  locally-­‐wedded	  project	  as	  a	  model	  for	  global	  discourse	  and	  critiques	  of	  ubiquitous	  paradigms	  echoes	  Bishop's	  suggestion	  that	  it	  is	  the	  direct	  aesthetic	  experience	  that	  leads	  to	  "questioning	  of	  how	  the	  world	  is	  organized,	  and	  therefore	  the	  possibility	  of	  changing	  or	  redistributing	  that	  same	  world."51	  	  	   By	  creating	  sculptural	  installations	  as	  forms	  derived	  from	  his	  aesthetic	  decisions	  as	  an	  artist	  and	  activated	  by	  connective	  and	  variable	  spaces,	  Jungen's	  work	  builds	  on	  both	  Harvey's	  and	  Bishop's	  positions	  on	  spatial	  reorganization	  to	  challenge	  existing	  abstractions	  of	  space	  that	  obscure	  narratives	  of	  colonialism,	  duplicity	  and	  presence	  that	  connect	  Fort	  St.	  John	  to	  London.	  Through	  Jungen's	  work,	  space	  overwrites	  artificial	  center-­‐peripheral	  binaries	  to	  invoke	  past	  generations	  of	  workers	  as	  a	  presence	  in	  the	  gentrified	  warehouse	  districts	  of	  Harlem	  and	  wherever	  commodity	  objects,	  such	  as	  the	  mythologized	  sports	  shoes,	  roam.	  	   The	  collaborative	  spaces	  that	  are	  given	  form	  in	  Jungen's	  work,	  as	  well	  as	  Harvey's	  imagination,	  are	  not	  a	  new	  proposition	  and	  also	  appear	  in	  First	  Nations'	  thought.	  Anishinaabe	  writer	  and	  theorist	  Gerald	  Vizenor	  calls	  for	  the	  dissemination	  of	  a	  living	  cosmos	  where	  everything	  found	  in	  space	  has	  equal	  status	  in	  terms	  of	  rights	  and	  human	  consciousness.	  These	  ideas	  are	  further	  discussed	  in	  chapter	  four	  of	  this	  paper.	  Indigenous	  theories	  of	  space	  as	  an	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  50.	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Hope,	  85.	  51.	  Claire	  Bishop,	  Artificial	  Hells,	  27.	  	  	   40	  operative	  element	  is	  put	  into	  practice	  and	  documented	  by	  the	  Coast	  Salish	  in	  northwestern	  British	  Columbia.	  Jungen's	  approach	  to	  space	  reassembles	  these	  strategies	  of	  reorganization	  and	  activation	  based	  on	  the	  totality	  of	  space	  that	  antagonizes	  colonial	  and	  capitalist	  pacification	  and	  abstraction	  of	  space.	  	  	  4.	  Space	  is	  an	  Actor	  	   Space	  as	  an	  actor	  involves	  not	  only	  the	  activation	  of	  objects	  and	  critiques	  by	  space	  but	  also	  the	  formulation	  of	  active	  space	  through	  intersecting	  narratives	  and	  presence.	  The	  examples	  in	  this	  chapter	  include	  space	  being	  explicitly	  engaged	  as	  a	  collaborator	  or	  antagonistic	  presence	  in	  contexts	  that	  range	  from	  the	  foundational	  processes	  of	  Icelandic	  culture	  to	  subversive	  political	  evocations	  of	  the	  Situationists	  and	  enrich	  comparisons	  of	  Jungen's	  projects,	  that	  imply	  a	  similarly	  dynamic	  engagement	  of	  space.	  An	  examination	  of	  Indigenous	  thought	  from	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  the	  Western	  Apache	  and	  the	  Coast	  Salish	  also	  serves	  to	  illustrate	  that	  passive	  conceptions	  of	  space	  which	  dominate	  in	  modern	  capitalist	  cultures	  should	  not	  be	  taken	  as	  axiomatic.	  	  	   Examples	  of	  spaces	  that	  activate	  a	  site	  and	  the	  objects	  within	  it	  give	  way	  to	  other	  perspectives	  from	  Indigenous	  worldviews	  that	  establish	  space	  as	  an	  active	  element	  that	  informs	  their	  interactions	  and	  perspective.	  As	  the	  Indigenous	  theorists	  and	  projects	  that	  this	  paper	  examines	  suggests,	  the	  deployment	  of	  activated	  and	  antagonistic	  space	  is	  a	  viable	  strategy	  of	  resistance,	  redress	  and	  sovereignty	  against	  the	  marginalization,	  re-­‐organization	  and	  division	  of	  space.	  By	  comparing	  the	  activated	  presence	  of	  space	  in	  Jungen's	  site	  specific	  work	  with	  these	  strategies	  of	  active	  presence,	  transmotion,	  interanimation,	  sovenance	  and	  counter-­‐mapping	  the	  case	  for	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  can	  be	  made.	  	  	   41	  4.1	  Space	  and	  Networks	  	  	   French	  sociologist	  and	  theorist	  Bruno	  Latour	  offers	  an	  illustration	  of	  an	  early	  parliamentary	  structure	  that	  functioned	  as	  a	  political	  and	  social	  extension	  of	  its	  site.	  This	  was	  a	  strategy	  for	  the	  activation	  of	  ideals	  associated	  with	  legislative	  general	  assemblies,	  governance	  and	  addressing	  conflict	  in	  the	  newly	  created	  Icelandic	  commonwealth.	  This	  governmental	  structure	  was	  called	  the	  Althing,	  which	  is	  still	  the	  name	  of	  Iceland's	  contemporary	  parliament.	  In	  his	  2005	  essay,	  "From	  Realpolitik	  to	  Dingpolitik	  or	  How	  to	  Make	  Things	  Public,"	  on	  the	  physical	  objects	  and	  structures	  that	  embody	  a	  political	  systems	  Latour	  describes	  the	  early	  Althing,	  which	  was	  located	  in	  an	  isolated,	  but	  far	  from	  neutral	  or	  passive	  site.52	  What	  interests	  Latour	  about	  the	  Althing	  is	  its	  etymological	  origins	  in	  the	  ideal	  of	  the	  Ding	  which	  was	  once	  used	  in	  Nordic	  and	  Saxon	  culture	  to	  denote	  a	  political	  sphere	  for	  interaction	  based	  on	  difference	  and	  divergent	  perspectives.	  	  	   Latour	  observed	  that	  the	  outdoor	  site	  of	  The	  Althing,	  which	  held	  open	  assemblies	  once	  a	  year,	  was	  chosen	  for	  its	  position	  which	  physically	  encompassed	  conflict	  and	  convergence:	  Of	  all	  the	  eroded	  meanings	  left	  by	  the	  slow	  crawling	  of	  political	  geology,	  none	  is	  stranger	  to	  consider	  than	  the	  Icelandic	  Althing,	  since	  the	  ancient	  "thingmen"	  —	  what	  we	  would	  call	  "congressmen"	  or	  MPs	  —	  had	  the	  amazing	  idea	  of	  meeting	  in	  a	  desolate	  and	  sublime	  site	  that	  happens	  to	  sit	  smack	  in	  the	  middle	  of	  the	  fault	  line	  that	  marks	  the	  meeting	  place	  of	  the	  Atlantic	  and	  European	  tectonic	  plates.	  Not	  only	  do	  Icelanders	  manage	  to	  remind	  us	  of	  the	  old	  sense	  of	  Ding,	  but	  they	  also	  dramatize	  to	  the	  utmost	  how	  much	  these	  political	  questions	  have	  also	  become	  questions	  of	  nature.	  53	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  52.	  Bruno	  Latour,	  "From	  Realpolitik	  to	  Dingpolitik	  or	  How	  to	  Make	  Things	  Public,"	  in	  Making	  Things	  Public:	  	   Atmospheres	  of	  Democracy,	  eds.	  Bruno	  Latour	  and	  Peter	  Weibel	  (Karlsrühe,	  Germany:	  Zentrum	  für	  Kunst	  und	  	   Medientechnologie,	  2005),	  23.	  53.	  Latour,	  "Dingpolitik,"	  23.	  	  	   42	  	   Therefore	  the	  geological	  history	  and	  potential	  of	  the	  site	  are	  invoked	  for	  the	  benefit	  of	  the	  legislative	  and	  political	  function	  of	  the	  Althing.54	  The	  importance	  that	  the	  Icelanders	  placed	  on	  site	  and	  how	  it	  might	  influence	  their	  government	  relates	  to	  Latour's	  proposition	  of	  	  the	  Actor	  Network	  Theory	  (ANT)	  which	  suggests	  that	  "local	  interaction,"	  overlapping	  interactions	  and	  interventions	  of	  non-­‐human	  as	  well	  as	  human	  actors,	  past	  or	  present,	  can	  exert	  influence	  on	  all	  probable	  events	  and	  interrelationships	  that	  take	  place	  there.55	  According	  to	  Latour,	  the	  trajectories	  of	  these	  actors	  interact	  and	  comprise	  an	  activated	  space.	  However,	  Latour's	  theory	  appears	  to	  limit	  the	  potential	  of	  space	  to	  that	  of	  an	  affective	  vessel	  or	  conduit	  that	  transmits	  influence	  rather	  than	  functioning	  as	  an	  actor:	  "someone	  else	  from	  some	  other	  place	  and	  some	  other	  time,	  is	  still	  acting	  in	  it	  through	  indirect	  but	  fully	  traceable	  connections."56	  Latour	  claims	  these	  spatial	  and	  temporal	  links	  are	  "articulators"	  or	  "localizers"	  and	  represent	  elements	  that	  are	  exclusive	  to	  the	  dichotomy	  of	  subjective	  actors	  and	  passive	  objects,	  as	  combined	  they	  create	  meaning,	  give	  form	  and	  support	  the	  function	  of	  political	  and	  social	  processes.57	  Latour	  divides	  networked	  interactions	  into	  inter-­‐subjective	  and	  inter-­‐objective	  relationships.	  In	  an	  example	  Latour	  describes	  a	  room	  that	  cannot	  be	  separated	  from	  the	  history	  of	  labourers	  and	  craftsmen	  who	  built	  the	  objects	  in	  that	  room.	  The	  handiwork	  and	  former	  presence	  of	  these	  labourers	  according	  to	  Latour,	  continue	  to	  activate	  that	  room	  long	  after	  they	  have	  dispersed	  from	  the	  site.	  	   	  	   Latour's	  examples	  of	  the	  Althing	  and	  the	  carpenters	  demonstrate	  that	  the	  role	  of	  space	  is	  not	  passive	  but	  remains	  little	  more	  than	  a	  container	  that	  retains	  and	  activates	  the	  trace	  of	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  54.	  Latour,	  "Dingpolitik,"	  9.	  55.	  Bruno	  Latour,	  Reassembling	  the	  Social:	  An	  Introduction	  to	  Actor	  Network	  Theory	  (Oxford	  University	  Press,	  	   2005),194.	  56.	  Latour,	  Reassembling,	  196.	  57.	  Ibid.,	  195.	  	  	   43	  the	  many	  mediating	  object-­‐actors	  that	  pass	  through	  it,	  intersect	  or	  exist	  within	  it.	  For	  space	  to	  be	  an	  actor	  it	  needs	  to	  be	  fully	  interactive	  and	  responsive,	  influential	  and	  impactful	  in	  relation	  to	  other	  actors.	  However	  other	  theorists	  expand	  this	  capability	  of	  space	  based	  on	  their	  observations	  about	  its	  capability	  to	  inform	  the	  subjectivity,	  mentality	  and	  memory	  of	  the	  people	  inhabiting	  it	  in	  very	  concrete	  ways	  through	  its	  integration	  into	  cultural	  narratives.	  	  4.2	  Space	  as	  a	  Catalyst	  for	  Place-­‐based	  Consciousness	  	  	   Cultural	  anthropologist	  Keith	  H.	  Basso,	  like	  Latour	  observes	  and	  writes	  about	  space	  in	  terms	  of	  its	  location	  in	  a	  network	  of	  relationships	  of	  activation.	  These	  relationships	  occur	  between	  topographic	  factors	  as	  well	  as	  the	  interaction	  between	  past	  and	  current	  presences.	  However	  the	  Western	  Apache's	  conception	  of	  space	  varies	  significantly	  from	  that	  outlined	  in	  Latour's	  ANT.	  Instead	  of	  providing	  a	  site	  for	  actors	  to	  work	  through,	  in	  Basso's	  examples,	  human-­‐actors	  are	  not	  contained	  by	  space,	  rather	  the	  Apache	  identity	  	  and	  culture	  are	  indivisible	  from	  their	  spatial	  context.	  Space	  is	  inscribed	  into	  the	  lives,	  ideas	  and	  narratives	  of	  the	  people	  who	  inhabit	  it.	  He	  observed	  this	  near	  Cibecue	  Creek,	  Arizona	  where	  the	  Western	  Apache	  demonstrated	  through	  communally	  acknowledged	  sensing	  of	  place	  that	  the	  overlapping	  of	  narrative	  with	  subjectivity	  and	  site	  occurs	  in	  a	  process	  that	  Basso	  called	  interanimation.58	  The	  ideas	  and	  ideals,	  gestures	  and	  experiences	  of	  actors	  that	  inhabit	  a	  specific	  space	  are	  inseparable	  from	  any	  conception	  of	  that	  space:	  	  	  A	  variety	  of	  experience,	  sense	  of	  place	  also	  represents	  a	  culling	  of	  experience.	  It	  is	  what	  has	  accrued	  —and	  never	  stops	  accruing—	  from	  lives	  spent	  sensing	  places.	  Vaguely	  realized	  most	  of	  the	  time,	  and	  rarely	  brought	  forth	  for	  conscious	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  58.	  Keith	  Basso,	  "Wisdom	  Sits	  in	  Places:	  Notes	  on	  a	  Western	  Apache	  Landscape,"	  in	  Senses	  of	  Place,	  ed.	  	  	   Steven	  Feld,	  ,	  and	  Keith	  H.	  Basso	  (Santa	  Fe,	  N.M.:	  School	  of	  American	  Research	  Press,	  1996),	  55-­‐57.	  	  	   44	  scrutiny,	  it	  surfaces	  in	  an	  attitude	  of	  enduring	  affinity	  with	  known	  localities	  and	  the	  ways	  of	  life	  they	  sponsor.	  59	  	  Basso	  explains	  how	  this	  manifests	  specifically	  in	  Western	  Apache	  culture:	  	   Apache	  men	  and	  women	  set	  about	  drinking	  from	  places	  —as	  they	  acquire	  knowledge	  of	  their	  natural	  surroundings,	  commit	  it	  to	  permanent	  memory,	  and	  apply	  it	  productively	  to	  the	  workings	  of	  their	  minds—	  they	  show	  by	  their	  actions	  that	  their	  surroundings	  live	  in	  them.60	  	  	   The	  examples	  that	  Basso	  records	  in	  his	  work	  Wisdom	  Sits	  in	  Places	  (1996)	  are	  taken	  from	  narratives	  which	  were	  recounted	  to	  him	  by	  an	  Apache	  horseman	  named	  Dudley	  Patterson.	  Patterson	  recounts,	  to	  Basso	  the	  story	  of	  a	  young	  girl	  who	  went	  out	  with	  her	  mother	  to	  pick	  mescal	  and	  was	  warned	  not	  get	  tired	  and	  careless.61	  	  By	  way	  of	  a	  localized	  lesson,	  	  the	  mother	  spoke	  to	  her	  daughter	  about	  a	  nearby	  site	  called,	  Túzhi	  yaahigaíyé	  (Whiteness	  Spreads	  Out	  Extending	  Down	  to	  Water)	  and	  described	  how	  another	  girl	  comparable	  to	  her	  daughter,	  once	  collected	  firewood	  but	  was	  careless	  and	  slipped	  on	  a	  rock	  injuring	  herself	  in	  the	  process.62	  	  When	  the	  girl	  in	  Patterson's	  story	  recounted	  her	  accident	  to	  her	  mother,	  she	  was	  told	  that	  the	  incident	  was	  a	  cautionary	  lesson	  in	  advance	  of	  an	  anticipated	  accident	  that	  might	  lead	  to	  the	  girl's	  harm	  if	  she	  became	  neglectful	  in	  her	  work.	  The	  mother	  in	  Patterson's	  story	  emphasizes	  the	  connection	  between	  her	  instructive	  tale,	  her	  daughter's	  development	  and	  place:	  	  "Well,	  now	  you	  know	  what	  happened	  over	  there	  at	  Whiteness	  Spreads	  Out	  Extending	  Down	  to	  Water.	  That	  careless	  girl	  almost	  lost	  her	  life.	  Each	  of	  you	  should	  try	  to	  remember	  this.	  Don't	  forget	  it.	  If	  you	  remember	  what	  happened	  over	  there,	  it	  will	  help	  make	  you	  wise."63	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  59.	  Basso,	  "Wisdom,"	  84.	  60.	  Ibid.,	  86	  61.	  Ibid.,	  69.	  62.	  Ibid.	  63.	  Ibid.	  	  	   45	  	   Patterson's	  story	  is	  repeated	  by	  Basso	  as	  an	  example	  of	  a	  narrative	  and	  a	  cautionary	  tale	  being	  inscribed	  into	  a	  physical	  site	  thereby	  imparting	  cultural	  wisdom	  to	  the	  young	  girl	  through	  place.	  The	  space,	  both	  physical	  and	  mental,	  implied	  in	  the	  narrative	  of	  "Whiteness	  Spreads	  Out	  Extending	  Down	  to	  Water"	  activates	  the	  instructions	  of	  the	  Apache	  mother	  and	  in	  so	  doing,	  also	  reinforces	  the	  identity	  of	  the	  mother	  and	  daughter	  in	  relation	  to	  local	  histories	  and	  land.	  Basso	  explains	  that:	  	  Like	  their	  ancestors	  before	  them,	  they	  display	  by	  word	  and	  deed	  that	  beyond	  the	  visible	  reality	  of	  place	  lies	  a	  moral	  reality	  which	  they	  themselves	  have	  come	  to	  embody.	  And	  whether	  or	  not	  they	  finally	  succeed	  in	  becoming	  fully	  wise,	  it	  is	  this	  interior	  landscape	  —this	  landscape	  of	  the	  moral	  imagination—that	  most	  deeply	  influences	  their	  vital	  sense	  of	  place	  and	  also,	  I	  believe,	  their	  unshakable	  sense	  of	  self...selfhood	  and	  placehood	  are	  completely	  intertwined.	  Having	  developed	  apace	  together,	  they	  are	  positive	  expressions	  of	  each	  other,	  opposite	  sides	  of	  the	  same	  rare	  coin,	  and	  their	  power	  to	  "bind	  and	  fasten	  fast"	  is	  nothing	  short	  of	  enormous.64	  	  	   Therefore	  space	  is	  a	  combination	  of	  mental	  space	  and	  physical	  site.	  It	  embodies	  a	  connective	  form,	  recognized	  by	  Basso	  as	  an	  interior	  landscape	  which	  affirms	  Western	  Apache	  culture,	  thought,	  identity	  and	  local	  activity.	  	  This	  process	  activated	  by	  space,	  emerges	  in	  other	  place-­‐based	  forms	  or	  sovereignty	  and	  identity,	  namely	  the	  Native	  cosmos	  described	  by	  Anishinaabe	  writer	  Gerald	  Vizenor.	  	  	  4.3	  Space	  and	  Presence	  	   	  In	  his	  writing	  on	  North	  American	  Indigenous	  presence	  and	  sovereignty,	  Vizenor	  advances	  a	  handful	  of	  terms	  in	  conjunction	  with	  some	  neologisms	  that	  he	  develops	  and	  adapts	  in	  order	  to	  take	  into	  account	  western	  critical	  thinking	  as	  well	  as	  native	  concepts	  of	  spatial	  and	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  64.	  Basso,	  "Wisdom,"	  86	  	  	   46	  self-­‐identification.	  These	  terms	  are	  also	  applied	  to	  theories	  of	  a	  cosmos	  where	  humans	  and	  places	  are	  both	  fully	  activated	  and	  possessed	  of	  equal	  rights	  and	  agency.	  	  	   One	  of	  the	  terms	  that	  Vizenor	  adapts	  is	  survivance	  which	  he	  explores	  through	  theorists	  like	  Jacques	  Derrida	  whose	  use	  of	  the	  term	  centers	  on	  a	  continued	  presence	  across	  temporal	  bounds.65	  	  Vizenor	  expands	  Derrida's	  term	  to	  comprise	  a	  native	  survivance	  which	  is	  described	  as:	  	   ...an	  active	  sense	  of	  presence	  over	  absence,	  deracination,	  and	  oblivion;	  survivance	  is	  the	  continuance	  of	  stories,	  not	  a	  mere	  reaction,	  however	  pertinent.	  Survivance	  is	  greater	  than	  the	  right	  of	  a	  survivable	  name.	  Survivance	  stories	  are	  renunciations	  of	  dominance,	  detractions,	  obtrusions,	  the	  unbearable	  sentiments	  of	  tragedy,	  and	  the	  legacy	  of	  victimry.66	  	  	  	   Vizenor's	  description	  permits	  space	  to	  acquire	  the	  agency	  to	  challenge	  narratives	  of	  political	  erasure,	  spatial	  division	  and	  social	  marginalization	  of	  primarily	  Indigenous	  populations	  but	  these	  processes	  could	  also	  apply	  to	  other	  colonized	  and	  oppressed	  groups.	  	  	  	   From	  his	  own	  research	  into	  Derrida's	  work	  on	  survivance,	  Vizenor	  notes	  that	  the	  suffix	  -­‐ance,	  is	  described	  as	  a	  combined	  active	  and	  passive	  middle	  voice.67	  Vizenor	  then	  transfers	  the	  flexibility	  of	  this	  word	  form	  to	  define	  survivance	  as	  an	  all	  witnessing	  ubiquity	  which	  is	  expressed	  as	  the	  voice	  in	  Anishinaabe	  stories	  or	  native	  discourse.68	  He	  elaborates	  on	  his	  observation	  of	  this	  particular	  form	  of	  witnessing	  as	  a	  fourth	  presence	  that	  is	  invoked	  beyond	  the	  third-­‐person	  reference	  in	  a	  visual	  testimony	  or	  narrative	  that	  is	  tied	  to	  the	  limited	  perception	  or	  recollections	  expressed	  by	  a	  person.	  Rather	  the	  fourth	  presence	  is	  a	  figurative	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  65.	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  Native	  Liberty:	  Natural	  Reason	  and	  Cultural	  Survivance	  (Lincoln,	  Neb.:	  University	  of	  Nebraska	  	   Press,	  2009),	  103.	  66.	  Vizenor,	  Native	  Liberty,	  85.	  67.	  Peggy	  Kamuf,	  ed.,	  A	  Derrida	  Reader:	  Between	  the	  Blinds	  (New	  York:	  Columbia	  University	  Press,	  1991),	  59.	  	   Quoted	  in	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  Native	  Liberty:	  Natural	  Reason	  and	  Cultural	  Survivance	  (Lincoln:	  University	  of	  	   Nebraska	  Press,	  2009),103.	  Vizenor	  notes	  that	  the	  author	  Peggy	  Kamuf	  pointed	  this	  out	  in	  a	  Derrida	  Reader.	  	  68.	  Vizenor,	  Native	  Liberty,	  103.	  	  	   47	  one,	  "a	  sui	  generis	  native	  discourse"69	  and	  an	  element	  that	  utilizes	  reminiscence	  by	  a	  people	  as	  a	  presence	  in	  order	  to	  embody	  resistance	  and	  survivance	  against	  colonial	  judicial	  and	  capitalist	  practices.70	  	  	   Vizenor	  explains	  that	  	  visual	  reminiscence	  is	  the	  practice	  of	  experience	  in	  the	  world	  and	  a	  practice	  of	  natural	  reason,	  whereby	  survivance	  is	  derived	  not	  from	  the	  dichotomy	  of	  'sacrifice	  to'	  versus	  'dominance	  over'	  nature,	  but	  instead	  is	  an	  active	  presence	  that	  is	  aligned	  with	  "situational	  sentiments	  of	  chance."71	  These	  sentiments	  may	  include	  the	  progression	  of	  seasons,	  the	  migration	  of	  animals,	  the	  habits	  of	  insects	  and	  the	  "favor	  of	  spirits"	  located	  in	  the	  water,	  sumac	  as	  well	  as	  the	  bear,	  the	  beaver	  and	  stone.72	  He	  also	  points	  out	  that	  this	  ignorance	  and	  erasure	  of	  geographical,	  spatial	  and	  spiritual	  presence,	  characteristics	  and	  movement	  underscores	  the	  loss	  of	  sovereignty	  to	  the	  imposition	  of	  capitalist	  space	  on	  Indigenous	  land.	  These	  imposed	  spaces	  are	  the	  Euro-­‐centric	  spatial	  divisions	  and	  territorialization	  that	  accompany	  redefinitions	  of	  land	  and	  space	  based	  on	  claims	  to	  property-­‐rights	  and	  value	  pegged	  to	  the	  potential	  for	  resource	  extraction	  and	  commodity	  production,	  land	  uses	  that	  were	  primarily	  determined	  by	  the	  predicted	  benefit	  and	  desires	  of	  distant	  populaces	  including	  European	  markets	  and	  industrialists.	  This	  spatial	  reorganization	  accelerated	  the	  erasure	  and	  absence	  of	  the	  First	  Nations	  and	  other	  inhabitants	  from	  Indigenous	  land.	  Vizenor	  outlines	  this	  early	  relationship	  between	  the	  European	  and	  Indigenous	  worlds	  as	  follows:	  	  	  	  	  Native	  hybridity,	  transmotion,	  and	  that	  sense	  of	  an	  ancient	  presence	  and	  continental	  liberty	  were	  sacrificed	  by	  colonial,	  territorial	  greed,	  and	  mercenary	  sovereignty...Native	  communities,	  the	  beaver,	  and	  other	  animals	  were	  sacrificed	  in	  the	  interactive	  fur	  trade.	  Only	  a	  change	  of	  occidental	  fashions,	  fur	  to	  silk,	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  69.	  Vizenor,	  Native	  Liberty,	  86.	  70.	  Ibid.,	  88.	  71.	  Ibid.	  72.	  Ibid.	  	  	   48	  alleviated	  the	  decimation	  of	  the	  environment.	  The	  want	  of	  bison	  hides	  created	  another	  drastic	  global	  market	  on	  the	  early	  frontier.73	  	  	  	   Vizenor's	  view	  that	  capitalist	  domination	  and	  division	  of	  space	  into	  resources	  and	  markets,	  colonized	  and	  colonizer	  was	  central	  to	  the	  erasure	  of	  Native	  presence	  is	  accurate	  if	  the	  crucial	  role	  that	  space	  plays	  in	  the	  development	  of	  Native	  identity,	  culture,	  thought	  and	  survival	  —also	  emphasized	  by	  Basso—	  is	  acknowledged.	  Space	  can	  therefore	  become	  either	  a	  productive	  collaborator	  or	  an	  antagonistic	  presence,	  that	  in	  projects	  of	  resistance	  or	  critique,	  ,	  is	  capable	  of	  underlining	  the	  spatial	  dominance	  that	  is	  the	  legacy	  of	  colonialism	  and	  global	  capitalism.	  It	  follows	  then	  that	  space	  could	  be	  recuperated	  as	  an	  active,	  unfixed	  and	  connective	  element.	  This	  conception	  of	  pervasive	  space	  describes	  that	  which	  circulates	  Latour's	  networked	  totalities	  and	  the	  combination	  of	  place,	  narrative	  and	  localized	  perception	  that	  supports	  Western	  Apache	  cultural	  survival	  as	  observed	  by	  Basso.	  However	  Vizenor	  makes	  it	  clear	  that	  the	  memory	  of,	  and	  interrelation	  of	  seasonal	  phenomena,	  place	  and	  animal	  migrations	  with	  Native	  culture	  underscores	  the	  re-­‐establishment	  of	  native	  sovereignty	  and	  it	  is	  therefore	  imperative	  to	  challenge	  the	  idea	  of	  passive	  and	  isolated	  space.	  	  	   Returning	  to	  the	  active	  space	  and	  totality	  of	  Vizenor's	  concept	  of	  the	  cosmos,	  which	  writer	  Kathryn	  Hume	  suggests	  is	  partly	  observational	  but	  also	  a	  proposal	  for	  strategic	  differentiation	  from	  Euro-­‐centric	  and	  settler	  derived	  classifications	  of	  matter	  and	  life:	  	  	  Vizenor's	  cosmos	  stands	  out,	  certainly	  from	  those	  of	  Euro-­‐American	  contemporary	  writers	  in	  one	  spectacular	  fashion:	  all	  within	  it	  is	  potentially	  alive.	  We	  are	  never	  sure	  how	  much	  this	  animation	  represents	  deeply	  held	  belief,	  how	  much	  represents	  willed	  reconstruction	  of	  Anishinaabeg	  beliefs,	  and	  how	  much	  is	  metaphor,	  fantasy,	  humor,	  or	  politically	  motivated	  ideology,	  and	  such	  labels	  would	  artificially	  separate	  what	  are	  probably	  multiple,	  mixed	  impulses.	  Whatever	  the	  sources	  of	  this	  characteristic,	  Vizenor	  attributes	  value	  to	  parts	  of	  the	  cosmos	  that	  seem	  nonliving	  or	  inferior	  for	  most	  Euro-­‐American	  writers.	  "Alive"	  for	  Vizenor	  means	  not	  only	  that	  something	  can	  come	  into	  existence	  and	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  73.	  Vizenor,	  Native	  Liberty,	  112.	  	  	   49	  die,	  but	  also	  that	  it	  is	  sentient,	  its	  consciousness	  sometimes	  equivalent	  or	  even	  superior	  to	  our	  own.	  The	  reservation	  mongrels,	  the	  bears,	  birds,	  insects—all	  have	  the	  same	  status,	  rights,	  and	  rites	  as	  humans...plants	  and	  stones	  may	  also	  be	  conscious.74	  	  	   These	  sentient	  forms	  that	  represent	  place	  but	  do	  not	  appear	  on	  maps,	  except	  in	  projects	  of	  counter-­‐mapping,	  which	  will	  be	  discussed	  later	  in	  this	  paper,	  are	  referred	  to	  by	  Vizenor	  as	  virtual	  cartography	  which	  is	  archived,	  transferred	  and	  understood	  through	  "native	  pictures"	  defined	  as	  a	  type	  of	  memory	  mapping	  which	  includes	  "natural	  reason,	  sovenance,	  totemic	  stories,"	  	  as	  well	  as	  drawing	  and	  marking	  skins,	  trees	  and	  other	  substances	  as	  witnesses,	  rather	  than	  the	  raw	  material	  for	  commodities	  which	  Vizenor	  linked	  to	  European	  imperialism	  and	  the	  global	  fur	  and	  other	  trades	  in	  17th	  to	  19th	  century	  North	  America.75	  For	  Vizenor,	  this	  is	  the	  essence	  of	  sovereignty	  and	  Native	  transmotion.76	  While	  Native	  sovenance	  according	  to	  Vizenor	  is	  presence	  confirmed	  through	  remembrance,	  	  transmotion	  is	  presence	  and	  "the	  tease"	  of	  creation,	  sense	  in	  totemic	  pictures	  connected	  to	  Anishinaabe	  memories	  and	  stories	  of	  virtual	  cartography.77	  According	  to	  Vizenor,	  it	  is	  this	  relationship	  to	  presence	  that	  separates	  totemic	  names	  and	  imagery	  as	  visionary	  from	  the	  document,	  which	  is	  possessory.78	  	  4.4	  Counter-­‐Mapping,	  Détournement	  and	  Subversion	  of	  the	  Spatial	  Fix	  	   The	  strategies	  highlighted	  by	  Vizenor	  outline	  a	  particularly	  Indigenous	  and	  Anishinaabe	  presence	  that	  intervenes	  in	  colonialist	  narratives	  and	  capitalist	  exploitation	  of	  space	  which	  threaten	  Indigenous	  sovereignty.	  Lefebvre	  and	  Harvey	  both	  suggest	  that	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  74.	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  Dead	  voices:	  natural	  agonies	  in	  the	  new	  world	  (Norman:	  University	  of	  Oklahoma	  Press,	  1992),	  	   26-­‐28)	  quoted	  in	  Kathryn	  Hume,	  "Gerald	  Vizenor's	  Metaphysics,"	  Contemporary	  Literature	  48,	  no.	  4	  	  	   (Winter	  2007):	  585.	  75.	  Gerald	  Vizenor,	  Fugitive	  Poses:	  Native	  American	  Indian	  Scenes	  of	  Absence	  and	  Presence	  (Lincoln,	  NE:	  	   University	  of	  Nebraska	  Press,	  1998),	  170.	  76.	  Vizenor,	  Fugitive	  Poses,	  170.	  77.	  Vizenor,	  Fugitive	  Poses,	  173.	  78.	  Ibid.	  	  	   50	  universally	  society	  has	  a	  stake	  in	  the	  mobilization	  of	  spatially	  activated	  strategies	  of	  resistance	  and	  sovereignty	  vis	  à	  vis	  the	  organization	  of	  space	  in	  the	  interest	  of	  capitalist	  production:	  	  Social	  bodies	  and	  their	  relations	  act,	  "express"	  themselves	  and,	  as	  we	  say,	  "reflect"	  on	  themselves	  pretty	  adequately	  in	  space.	  Occupied	  and	  produced,	  the	  urban	  fabric	  invades	  the	  entirety	  of	  space.	  This	  space	  participates	  in	  the	  production	  of	  goods,	  things,	  and	  commodities;	  it	  consumes	  productively;	  but	  at	  the	  same	  time	  it	  is	  totally	  covered	  by	  exploitation	  and	  domination.	  Having	  completely	  ceased	  to	  be	  a	  "neutral,"	  passive,	  and	  empty	  milieu,	  space	  becomes	  a	  social	  and	  political	  instrument.	  In	  whose	  service?	  To	  what	  end?	  Who	  uses	  it	  and	  why?	  This	  is	  the	  central	  question.	  The	  answer:	  it	  becomes	  as	  site	  [lieu]	  and	  a	  context	  for	  the	  reproduction	  of	  the	  (social)	  relations	  of	  production,	  and	  primarily	  for	  the	  (social)	  relations	  of	  capitalist	  production.79	  	  	  	   Harvey,	  elaborates	  on	  the	  production	  of	  space	  towards	  capitalist	  production	  implied	  by	  Lefebvre:	  	   Time	  and	  time	  again	  it	  has	  turned	  to	  geographical	  reorganization	  (both	  expansion	  and	  intensification)	  as	  a	  partial	  solution	  to	  its	  crises	  and	  impasses.	  Capitalism	  thereby	  builds	  and	  rebuilds	  a	  geography	  in	  its	  own	  image...a	  produced	  space	  of	  transport	  and	  communications,	  of	  infrastructures	  and	  territorial	  organizations,	  that	  facilitates	  capital	  accumulation..."80	  	  	  	   If	  Vizenor's	  and	  Indigenous	  conceptions	  of	  active	  space	  are	  applied	  to	  the	  concerns	  outlined	  by	  Harvey	  and	  Lefebvre,	  then	  the	  evocation	  of	  a	  deterritorialized,	  connective	  and	  collaborative	  space	  as	  a	  participant	  in	  Jungen	  and	  Belmore's	  projects	  of	  sovenance	  and	  critical	  unveiling	  can	  be	  aligned	  with	  Indigenous	  strategies	  of	  resistance	  and	  the	  production	  of	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  which	  can	  implicate	  	  the	  parties	  who	  benefit	  from	  the	  distances	  built	  into	  capitalist	  spatial	  divisions.	  	  	   The	  space	  that	  activates	  Jungen's	  and	  Belmore's	  work	  puts	  into	  practice	  Harvey	  suggestion	  that	  globalization	  and	  its	  capitalist	  fixes	  should	  be	  engaged	  rather	  than	  challenged	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  79.	  Henri	  Lefebvre,	  "The	  Worldwide	  and	  the	  Planetary,"	  State,	  space,	  world:	  selected	  essays,	  eds.	  Neil	  Brenner	  	  	   and	  Stuart	  Elden,	  	  trans.	  Gerald	  Moore	  et	  al.	  (Minnesota:	  University	  of	  Minnesota	  Press,	  2009),	  202.	  80.	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Hope,	  54.	  	  	   51	  in	  order	  to	  be	  resisted.	  This	  happens	  through	  local	  and	  direct	  social	  interaction	  but	  also	  in	  addressing	  spatial	  re-­‐organization	  in	  the	  globalized	  socio-­‐political	  sphere	  that,	  especially	  Jungen's	  Court	  and	  The	  Treaty	  do.	  The	  strategy	  of	  transmotion	  that	  Vizenor	  introduces	  from	  Anishinaabe	  culture	  proposes	  defiance	  of	  colonial	  and	  capitalist	  territorialization	  by	  activating	  presence	  and	  remembrance	  as	  aspects	  of	  the	  totality	  of	  space	  and	  spirit	  to	  Indigenous	  culture	  and	  sovereignty.	  	  	   Globalized	  relationships	  dictated	  by	  a	  world	  market	  informs	  Lefebvre's	  conception	  of	  	  world	  space	  which	  is	  perhaps	  the	  outcome	  that	  he	  implied	  in	  his	  1973	  essay,	  "The	  Worldwide	  and	  the	  Planetary."81	  One	  can	  read	  some	  of	  the	  representations	  realized	  in	  Jungen's	  Court	  through	  Lefebvre's	  observations	  of	  space	  merging	  society	  and	  capitalist	  production	  in	  a	  collapsed	  temporal	  space	  within	  a	  global	  market.	  Lefebvre	  defines	  the	  contemporary	  state	  and	  the	  relations	  between	  society	  and	  space	  as	  operating	  within	  a	  world	  market	  where	  dichotomies	  like	  local/global,	  center/periphery	  and	  the	  nation	  state	  no	  longer	  dominate	  social	  relations	  and	  production.82	  Thus	  within	  Lefebvre's	  world	  space,	  "The	  past	  has	  left	  its	  marks,	  its	  inscriptions,	  but	  space	  is	  always	  a	  present	  space,	  a	  current	  totality,	  with	  its	  links	  and	  connections	  to	  action.	  In	  fact,	  the	  production	  and	  the	  product	  are	  inseparable	  sides	  of	  one	  process."83	  	  	   It	  is	  difficult	  not	  to	  think	  of	  Lefebvre's	  world	  space	  while	  viewing	  Jungen's	  basketball	  court	  —permeated	  by	  hollows	  for	  work	  machines	  and	  their	  attendant	  labourers—	  constructed	  inside	  the	  old	  factory	  space	  of	  Triple	  Candie	  or	  to	  apply	  Lefebvre's	  term	  to	  the	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  81.	  Henri	  Lefebvre,	  "The	  Worldwide	  and	  the	  Planetary,"	  State,	  space,	  world:	  selected	  essays,	  eds.	  Neil	  Brenner	  and	  	   Stuart	  Elden	  (Minnesota:	  University	  of	  Minnesota	  Press,	  2009),	  202.	  82.	  Henri	  Lefebvre,	  "Space:	  Social	  Product	  and	  Use	  Value,"	  in	  State,	  space,	  world:	  Selected	  Essays,	  eds.	  Neil	  Brenner	  	   and	  Stuart	  Elden	  (Minnesota:	  University	  of	  Minnesota	  Press,	  2009),	  189.	  83.	  Lefebvre,	  "Social	  Product	  and	  Use	  Value,"	  186.	  	  	   52	  history	  of	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  in	  connection	  with	  the	  colonization	  of	  First	  Nations	  land	  across	  North	  and	  South	  America.	  The	  Tate	  Britain	  was	  founded	  upon	  of	  the	  art	  collection	  of	  the	  British	  sugar-­‐refining	  magnate,	  Henry	  Tate.84	  English	  industrialists,	  like	  Tate,	  owned	  sugarcane	  plantations	  throughout	  the	  southern	  regions	  of	  the	  Americas	  and	  the	  Caribbean	  as	  well	  as	  in	  Southeast	  Asia	  on	  land	  acquired	  through	  colonization.85	  Therefore	  the	  wealth	  that	  initially	  supported	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  is	  directly	  linked	  to	  the	  legacy	  of	  England's	  colonial	  spoils	  and	  Jungen's	  proposal	  to	  place	  the	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  material	  allotments	  inside	  the	  Tate	  Modern	  would	  have	  converted	  these	  objects	  into	  signifiers	  of	  	  English	  imperialism	  and	  dispossession	  of	  Indigenous	  groups	  from	  their	  land.	  	  	  	  	   	  	   However	  unlike	  Vizenor's	  and	  Harvey's	  summaries	  for	  mobilizing	  gestures	  and	  documents	  of	  presence	  or	  interrelating	  at	  both	  localized	  and	  globalized	  levels,	  Lefebvre	  offers	  no	  elucidation	  on	  deploying	  or	  adapting	  world	  space	  as	  a	  means	  of	  resistance	  to	  the	  dominance	  of	  capitalist	  productions	  of	  space.	  	   Two	  instances	  of	  Lefebvre's	  world	  space	  being	  engaged	  as	  a	  way	  to	  antagonize	  its	  dominance	  of	  social	  and	  spatial	  relations	  include	  an	  exercise	  in	  counter-­‐mapping	  initiated	  by	  the	  Stó:lō	  and	  the	  utilization	  of	  détournement	  by	  the	  Situationist	  artist	  Raymond	  Hains.	  In	  each	  case	  space	  becomes	  an	  actor	  in	  order	  to	  unveil	  and	  underline	  the	  motives	  and	  erasures	  linked	  to	  capitalist	  spatial	  division	  through	  the	  subversion	  of	  techniques	  and	  media	  that	  are	  traditionally	  connected	  with	  the	  commodification	  of	  space.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  84.	  Tate	  &	  Lyle,	  "History,"	  Tate	  &	  Lyle,	  accessed	  August	  20,	  2014,	  	   http://www.tateandlyle.com/aboutus/history/pages/henrytate.aspx	  	  85.	  British	  political	  economist	  Ben	  Richardson	  describes	  the	  link	  between	  sugar	  production	  and	  colonialism	  	   as:"The	  symbiosis	  of	  colonialism	  and	  cane	  forms	  a	  central	  theme	  as	  the	  unfolding	  of	  slavery,	  migration,	  land	  	   appropriation	  and	  even	  capitalism	  itself	  are	  all	  visible	  in	  the	  expansion	  of	  sugar	  production	  through	  the	  	   tropics."	  "Introduction,"	  in	  Sugar:Refined	  Power	  in	  a	  Global	  Regime	  (Houndmills,	  Basingstoke,	  Hampshire:	  	   Palgrave	  Macmillan,	  2009),	  6.	  	  	  	   53	  	   The	  Stó:lō	  Nation	  in	  south	  west	  British	  Columbia	  deployed	  and	  adapted	  collaborative	  and	  contemporary	  cartographic	  technology	  in	  the	  early	  2000s	  to	  counter	  the	  dominance	  of	  settler	  conceptualizations	  of	  Coast	  Salish	  land	  and	  space.	  The	  Stó:lō	  Nation’s	  Aboriginal	  Rights	  and	  Title	  Department	  published	  A	  Stó:lō	  Coast	  Salish	  Historical	  Atlas	  (2001)	  as	  a	  strategy	  of	  archiving	  and	  distributing	  their	  perspective	  on	  geography	  which	  contrasts	  with	  Euro-­‐centric	  settler-­‐derived	  conceptions	  of	  land	  as	  parcels	  of	  measured	  property	  or	  fixed	  sites	  of	  destination	  and	  occupation.	  This	  is	  emphasized	  by	  the	  omission	  of	  designations	  boundaries	  established	  by	  settler	  cultures	  on	  many	  of	  the	  Atlas'	  maps.	  	  What	  is	  represented	  and	  included	  speaks	  to	  the	  intentions	  of	  the	  project.	  	  	   The	  "mapping"	  of	  the	  Fraser	  and	  Chilliwack	  River	  systems,	  undertaken	  by	  a	  man	  known	  as	  K'hhalserten	  in	  1918,	  are	  not	  objective	  representations	  of	  the	  path	  of	  these	  waterways	  but	  rather	  visual	  depictions	  of	  the	  importance	  which	  the	  Stó:lō	  attach	  to	  each	  of	  the	  small	  tributaries	  that	  comprise	  the	  river	  system.	  The	  represented	  widths	  of	  each	  waterway	  are	  not	  scaled	  according	  to	  the	  proportions	  of	  its	  physical	  width	  but	  are	  based	  on	  how	  frequently	  each	  stream,	  river	  or	  creek	  were	  used	  by	  the	  Stó:lō	  for	  everyday	  transport	  and	  movement.	  This	  results	  in	  the	  atlas	  displaying	  some	  river	  tributaries	  appearing	  equal	  to,	  or	  larger	  than	  the	  Fraser	  and	  Chilliwack	  rivers	  and	  is	  as	  much	  a	  representation	  of	  Stó:lō	  life	  and	  their	  seasonal	  activities	  as	  a	  document	  charting	  local	  water	  flow.86	  	  	   The	  act	  of	  territorial	  mapping,	  such	  as	  that	  in	  line	  with	  capitalist	  production	  depicts	  space	  as	  a	  passive	  object.	  However	  the	  Atlas	  is	  a	  protest	  against	  the	  abstraction	  of	  land	  from	  life	  and	  its	  redefinition	  as	  property	  for	  the	  extraction	  of	  value.	  Rather	  the	  representation	  of	  spatial	  topography	  is	  inseparable	  from	  its	  relationship	  to	  the	  Stó:lō	  and	  their	  ancestors.	  The	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  86.	  Keith	  Thor	  Carlson	  et	  al.,	  ed.,	  A	  Stó:lō	  Coast	  Salish	  Historical	  Atlas	  (Seattle,	  Washington:	  Douglas	  &	  McIntyre,	  et	  	   al.,	  2001),	  126.	  	  	   54	  Stó:lō	  Atlas	  corresponds	  with	  representation	  as	  a	  form	  of	  transmotion	  defined	  by	  Vizenor.	  	  The	  shape	  of	  Coast	  Salish	  space	  is	  similar	  to	  the	  Western	  Apache's	  conception	  of	  space	  as	  a	  witness	  and	  archive	  for	  the	  transfer	  and	  sovereignty	  of	  their	  culture,	  which	  Keith	  Basso	  observed.	  	   A	  further	  strategy	  employed	  in	  the	  Coast	  Salish	  Historical	  Atlas	  is	  the	  representation	  of	  space	  as	  an	  excavator	  of	  narratives,	  presence	  and	  social	  interrelation.	  The	  Atlas	  records	  place-­‐names	  in	  a	  mix	  of	  both	  Halq'eméylem,	  the	  language	  spoken	  by	  the	  Stó:lō,	  	  and	  English	  to	  imply	  the	  ongoing	  struggle	  for	  land,	  resources	  and	  place	  between	  the	  Stó:lō	  and	  immigrant	  settlers	  in	  19th	  and	  20th	  centuries.87	  	  	  	   Beyond	  cartographic	  representations	  of	  land	  in	  a	  relation	  to	  the	  commute	  and	  daily	  use	  by	  its	  inhabitants,	  the	  Atlas	  also	  represents	  Transformer	  sites,	  places	  where	  the	  land	  bears	  witness	  to	  Stó:lō	  life	  and	  spiritual	  ancestry	  including	  the	  foundational	  transformations	  catalyzed	  by	  Xexá:ls,	  the	  beings	  that	  "fixed"	  the	  world	  and	  established	  Stó:lō	  land	  	  (see	  fig.	  4.1)	  .88	  A	  Transformation	  Site	  Chart	  and	  maps	  record	  the	  pertinent	  narrative	  and	  visual	  details	  of	  the	  Transformer	  (see	  fig.	  4.2).89	  	  	   A	  map	  entitled	  "Intergenerational	  Ties	  and	  Movement"	  (see	  fig.	  4.3)	  traces	  family	  genealogies	  as	  place	  that	  not	  only	  connected	  to	  identity	  and	  passages	  over	  time	  but	  defined	  the	  space	  of	  Canada's	  west	  coast	  by	  the	  histories,	  growth	  and	  movements	  of	  the	  First	  Nations	  families	  that	  lived	  there.90	  The	  place-­‐name,	  Aseláw	  is	  an	  example	  of	  a	  Transformation	  site	  and	  is	  categorized	  as	  a	  "settlement,	  spirited	  resource"	  thereby	  defining	  the	  active	  status	  of	  an	  area	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  87.	  Keith	  Thor	  Carlson	  et	  al.,	  ed.,	  A	  Stó:lō	  Coast	  Salish	  Historical	  Atlas	  (Seattle,	  Washington:	  Douglas	  &	  McIntyre,	  	  	   et	  al.,	  2001),	  126.	  88.	  Carlson,	  Atlas,	  6.	  89.	  Ibid.,	  141.	  90.	  Ibid.,	  32.	  	  	   55	  of	  land	  as	  a	  resource.	  Aseláw	  and	  its	  status	  are	  due	  to	  its	  association	  with	  a	  cemetery	  and	  its	  significance	  is	  described	  as	  estlouw	  which	  translates	  to	  "you	  heard	  of	  it;",	  "you	  feel	  it;"	  "you	  felt	  it;"	  "you	  experienced	  it."	  as	  well	  as,	  "talk	  to	  the	  spirit;"	  "no	  harm;"	  "good-­‐heartedly	  don't	  intend	  to	  do	  anything	  wrong."91	  Another	  example	  is	  Alhqá:yem,	  described	  as	  a	  large	  rock	  in	  a	  river	  near	  an	  island	  that	  is	  categorized	  as	  a	  "transformation"	  and	  "island"	  which	  illustrates	  the	  equal	  status	  given	  to	  the	  geographical	  and	  spiritual	  characteristics	  of	  the	  site.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  91.	  Carlson,	  Atlas,	  141.	  Fig. 4.1 Gary Fiegehen, Stó:lō Nation Archives; Doug Brown, Stó:lō Nation Archives; Jan Perrier; David M. Schaepe. Transformer Features in S’ólh Téméxw, Transformer Sites. Source: Carlson, Keith Thor, David Schaepe, Albert (Sonny) McHalsie, David Smith, and Leeanna Rhodes. eds.  A Stó:lō Coast Salish Historical Atlas. British Columbia, BC. and Seattle, WA.: Stó:lō Heritage Trust, Douglas & McIntyre, and University of Washington Press, 2001. Plate 1.This map illustrates the surviving knowledge of transformer sites, some of which are lost to development and urbanization.55Fig. 4.2 Excerpt from Transformation Chart  Source: Carlson, Keith Thor, David Schaepe, Albert (Sonny) McHalsie, David Smith, and Leeanna Rhodes. eds.  A Stó:lō Coast Salish Historical Atlas. British Columbia, BC. and Seattle, WA.: Stó:lō Heritage Trust, Douglas & McIntyre, and University of Washington Press, 2001. Plate 45D.This chart traces the names and signi�icance of Transformer sites.56Fig. 4.3 Gary Fiegehen, Stó:lō Nation Archives. Intergenerational Ties and Movement: Family as a Basis of Nation Source: Carlson, Keith Thor, David Schaepe, Albert (Sonny) McHalsie, David Smith, and Leeanna Rhodes. eds.  A Stó:lō Coast Salish Historical Atlas. British Columbia, BC. and Seattle, WA.: Stó:lō Heritage Trust, Douglas & McIntyre, and University of Washington Press, 2001. Plate 10.This map illustrates how places were associated with family networks and migration. The Stó:lō perspective on land and genealogy was in con�lict with the Indian Acts which �ixed families to reserves.   57	  	   59	  Further	  description	  recounts	  Alhqá:yem	  as	  the	  site	  where	  a	  "woman	  Indian	  doctor"	  challenged	  a	  being	  named	  Xá:ls	  who	  then	  transformed	  her	  into	  a	  serpent	  who	  then	  drew	  her	  power	  from	  this	  site	  which	  is	  also	  a	  spot	  where	  snakes	  sun	  themselves.92	  	   While	  it	  is	  important	  for	  the	  Stó:lō	  to	  represent	  and	  document	  their	  perspective	  and	  conception	  of	  geography	  in	  all	  cases,	  the	  inscription	  of	  the	  spaces	  they	  currently	  and	  have	  traditionally	  inhabited	  with	  their	  cultural,	  productive,	  biographical	  and	  familial	  relationships	  and	  beliefs	  is	  politically	  relevant	  as	  a	  tactic	  that	  supports	  their	  cultural	  presence	  and	  sovereignty.	  	   The	  Situationist	  International,	  a	  mid-­‐twentieth	  century	  Paris-­‐based	  critical	  collective	  of	  artists	  and	  writers	  elaborated	  on	  Lefebvre's	  work	  on	  the	  social	  production	  of	  space.	  In	  his	  1961	  exhibition	  at	  the	  Galerie	  J	  with	  fellow	  artist,	  Jacques	  Villeglé	  entitled	  “La	  France	  déchirée”(France	  in	  Shreds),	  the	  Situationist	  Raymond	  Hains	  presented	  a	  series	  of	  décollages.	  These	  were	  assemblages	  of	  torn	  and	  plastered	  political	  notices	  and	  advertisements	  that	  Hains	  collected	  as	  urban	  detritus	  over	  a	  period	  of	  ten	  years	  before	  presenting	  them	  as	  his	  ready-­‐mades.93	  These	  décollages	  were	  initially	  plastered	  in	  public	  streets,	  torn	  and	  altered	  by	  passer-­‐by,	  covered	  with	  new	  posters	  which	  then	  also	  underwent	  deterioration	  and	  vandalism	  over	  time.	  Hains	  claimed	  that	  aside	  from	  the	  re-­‐location	  of	  these	  posters	  from	  the	  street	  to	  the	  gallery,	  the	  décollages	  were	  strictly	  the	  products	  of	  public	  space	  and	  interaction	  as	  a	  feature	  of	  the	  streets	  of	  Paris.94	  	  	  	   The	  Stó:lō	  Nation's	  cartographic	  projects	  enacted	  Vizenor's	  strategies	  of	  active	  presence	  by	  creating	  representations	  of	  space	  that	  not	  only	  inscribed	  their	  beliefs,	  narratives	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  92.	  Carlson,	  Atlas,141.	  93	  Tom	  McDonough,	  The	  beautiful	  language	  of	  my	  century:	  reinventing	  the	  language	  of	  contestation	  in	  postwar	  	   France,	  1945-­1968	  (Cambridge,	  Mass:	  MIT	  Press,	  2007),	  53.	  94	  McDonough,	  Beautiful	  Language,	  57.	  	  	   60	  and	  generations	  of	  life	  on	  Coast	  Salish	  territory	  but	  also	  challenged	  the	  topographical	  and	  territorial	  mapping	  that	  was	  instrumental	  to	  attempts	  to	  displace	  and	  marginalize	  their	  ancestors,	  including	  damning	  important	  waterways,	  claiming	  land	  and	  imposing	  controls	  on	  their	  movements.	  This	  counter-­‐mapping	  took	  into	  account	  the	  ability	  of	  space,	  in	  the	  form	  of	  transformation	  and	  potent	  sites,	  to	  construct	  worlds	  and	  activate	  Stó:lō	  life.	  Space	  was	  established	  as	  separate	  from	  the	  passive	  conception	  of	  land	  as	  a	  resource	  for	  capitalist	  production	  that	  dominated	  after	  the	  arrival	  of	  colonialists.	  	  	   Hains	  and	  the	  Situationists	  not	  concerned	  with	  their	  own	  political	  sovereignty	  wanted	  to	  highlight	  the	  lack	  of	  critical	  political	  discourse	  in	  France	  over	  that	  country's	  policies	  concerning	  Algeria's	  struggle	  for	  independence.	  They	  connected	  this	  absence	  of	  Algeria	  in	  the	  French	  public	  consciousness	  with	  the	  increased	  commodification	  and	  political	  suppression	  of	  public	  urban	  space	  and	  so	  it	  was	  in	  Parisian	  streets	  that	  Hains	  attempted	  to	  seek	  out	  manifestations	  of	  political	  subversion	  and	  social	  interaction	  through	  the	  détournement	  of	  the	  gloss	  of	  commodity	  culture,	  but	  also,	  like	  the	  Stó:lō,	  the	  global	  capitalist	  fix	  on	  totality	  and	  world	  space.	  Détournement,	  the	  re-­‐juxtaposition	  of	  cultural	  objects	  in	  order	  to	  reframe	  it	  as	  a	  critical	  reflection	  of	  its	  normative	  context,	  was	  a	  tool	  favoured	  by	  the	  Situationists	  and	  was	  most	  effectively	  deployed	  as	  a	  critique	  of	  the	  state	  of	  the	  public	  sphere	  and	  commodified	  spectatorship.	  Hains'	  adept	  employment	  of	  détournement	  used	  the	  space	  of	  the	  street	  and	  the	  public	  to	  activate	  its	  own	  recuperation	  as	  a	  site	  of	  diverse	  and	  defiant	  expression	  as	  McDonough	  illustrates	  specifically	  about	  Hains'	  process:	  	  	   ...the	  clear	  message	  of	  the	  political	  poster—its	  propagandistic	  tone	  of	  assured	  positivity	  (“De	  Gaulle	  is	  counting	  on	  you...,”“L’Humanité	  tells	  the	  truth...”)—was	  voided	  of	  sense	  through	  the	  vandalism	  of	  anonymous	  passersby.	  The	  violence	  of	  such	  defacement,	  the	  desire	  to	  rip	  apart	  and	  shred	  the	  images	  and	  words	  of	  one’s	  opponents,	  undoubtedly	  possessed	  a	  metaphorical	  quality	  when	  	  	   61	  exhibited—it	  stood	  in	  for,	  or	  acted	  as	  a	  displaced	  form	  of,	  the	  colonial	  violence	  subtending	  the	  calm	  surface	  of	  everyday	  life	  in	  the	  métropole—but	  it	  also	  quite	  concretely	  substituted	  an	  absence	  for	  what	  had	  been	  a	  presence.	  Hains	  did	  not,	  in	  other	  words,	  attempt	  to	  produce	  a	  counterpropaganda,	  new	  messages	  to	  refute	  the	  old;	  rather,	  he	  displayed	  the	  destruction	  of	  propagandistic	  meaning,	  its	  communicative	  value,	  as	  a	  whole.95	  	  	  	   The	  legacy	  of	  France's	  colonization	  of	  Algeria	  was	  the	  resulting	  anti-­‐colonialist	  revolt	  in	  the	  late	  1950s	  and	  early	  1960s	  to	  which	  France's	  response	  was	  violence	  and	  torture	  committed	  against	  Algerians	  in	  covertly	  in	  Europe	  and	  openly	  in	  the	  North	  African	  colony.	  The	  Situationists	  noticed	  that	  middle-­‐class	  Parisians	  were	  indifferent	  to	  the	  war	  between	  Algeria	  and	  France,	  a	  situation	  that	  was	  supported	  by	  the	  French	  government's	  censoring	  of	  information	  from	  Algeria.	  	  	   Regarding	  the	  French	  government's	  censoring	  of	  the	  Algerian	  war,	  it	  is	  helpful	  to	  invoke	  Vizenor's	  fourth	  presence	  as	  an	  explanation	  for	  the	  function	  of	  Hains'	  décollages.	  The	  fourth	  presence,	  the	  figurative	  embodiment	  of	  a	  peoples'	  resistance	  and	  survivance	  as	  presence	  against	  divisive	  capitalist	  practices,	  space	  is	  made	  to	  act	  against	  absence.	  Although	  McDonough	  suspects	  that	  Hains'	  interest	  in	  the	  public	  nature	  of	  his	  décollages	  was	  more	  aesthetic	  than	  political,	  he	  recognizes	  that	  the	  strength	  of	  Hains'	  objects	  are	  their	  place	  as	  presence,	  witness	  and	  resistance	  to	  the	  silence	  and	  propaganda	  on	  Algeria.	  A	  relocation	  of	  this	  presence	  from	  the	  anonymous	  collective	  Parisian	  passer-­‐bys	  who	  tear	  away	  and	  alter	  the	  posters,	  to	  a	  presence	  derived	  from	  the	  wider	  space	  of	  the	  urban	  Paris	  street	  also	  includes	  the	  persistence	  of	  the	  Algerian	  colonial	  space	  in	  Paris	  and	  its	  street	  posters.	  	  For	  McDonough	  the	  separation	  between	  producer	  and	  the	  final	  object	  produced	  served	  to	  "create	  the	  illusion	  of	  Hains’	  distance	  from	  these	  works.	  He	  could,	  in	  other	  words,	  appear	  above	  the	  fray,	  implicated	  by	  neither	  side	  in	  these	  debates;	  he	  was	  merely	  the	  melancholic	  collector	  of	  the	  evidence	  of	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  95.	  McDonough,	  Beautiful	  Language,	  66-­‐7.	  	  	   62	  “France	  in	  Shreds,”	  documenting	  the	  violence	  done	  to	  the	  symbolic	  body	  of	  the	  Republic."96	  However	  what	  this	  also	  indicates	  is	  that	  the	  posters	  whether	  in	  the	  street	  or	  in	  the	  gallery,	  were	  activated	  and	  altered	  by	  Vizenor's	  fourth	  presence	  of	  witnessing	  and	  recollection.	  	  	   In	  his	  examination	  of	  Hains'	  work	  and	  its	  reception	  by	  Parisian	  viewers	  and	  critics,	  art	  historian	  Tom	  McDonough	  explained	  that,	  "Perhaps	  this	  was	  because	  Parisians	  at	  that	  moment	  could	  still,	  on	  the	  whole	  and	  regardless	  of	  specific	  political	  affiliation,	  enjoy	  the	  luxury	  of	  imagining	  that	  the	  Algerian	  war	  was	  removed	  from	  their	  everyday	  lives."97	  	  	   France's	  distancing	  and	  division	  of	  the	  Algerian	  war	  as	  peripheral	  to	  the	  political	  and	  social	  conduct	  in	  their	  own	  Republic	  in	  order	  to	  continue	  the	  exploitation	  of	  its	  North	  African	  colony	  argues	  for	  the	  existence	  and	  deployment	  of	  a	  connective	  space	  as	  an	  antagonistic	  actor.	  Hains'	  passive	  process	  allows	  his	  décollages	  to	  deteriorate	  in	  the	  path	  of	  the	  multiple	  trajectories	  that	  comprise	  urban	  space.	  When	  he	  eventually	  directs	  attention	  to	  what's	  left	  of	  these	  posters	  in	  his	  gallery	  exhibitions,	  the	  extended	  space	  that	  binds	  the	  contested	  streets	  of	  Algiers	  to	  those	  of	  Paris	  disrupts	  the	  meaning	  produced	  by	  the	  French	  Republic's	  government	  propaganda	  and	  commercial	  advertisments.	  The	  trajectories	  that	  crossed	  the	  apathetic	  French	  public	  with	  the	  oppressed	  but	  defiant	  Algerian	  population	  transforms	  Lefebvre's	  world	  space	  from	  an	  all	  encompassing	  global	  market	  to	  the	  suggestion	  that	  protest	  and	  independence	  movements	  can	  be	  just	  as	  broad	  and	  pervasive.	  	   The	  representation	  of	  space	  as	  indivisible	  from	  social	  histories,	  cultural	  knowledge	  and	  self-­‐identification	  in	  the	  research,	  writing	  and	  mapping	  of	  Basso,	  Vizenor	  and	  the	  Stó:lō	  respectively	  reveals	  the	  extent	  of	  space	  as	  a	  totality	  and	  an	  active	  aspect	  of	  Indigenous	  life,	  resistance	  movements	  and	  sovereignty.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  96.	  McDonough,	  Beautiful	  Language,	  71.	  97.	  Ibid.,	  82.	  	  	   63	  	   Like	  Lefebvre,	  Harvey	  recognizes	  that	  the	  production	  of	  space	  is	  a	  political	  act	  that	  fixes	  global	  orders	  and	  hierarchies.	  Belmore	  works	  with	  these	  fixes,	  which	  as	  her	  work	  acknowledges,	  consistently	  restrict	  and	  even	  endanger	  some	  groups	  to	  the	  advantage	  of	  others.	  	  Specifically	  she	  invokes	  the	  significance	  of	  spatial	  context	  in	  relation	  to	  gender,	  race	  and	  class	  to	  both	  memorialize	  and	  protest	  the	  violence	  perpetrated	  against	  First	  Nations	  women.	  	  	   Global	  trajectories	  of	  commodity	  production	  as	  well	  as	  the	  divisions	  of	  space	  according	  to	  commercial	  and	  political	  interests	  intersect	  with	  social	  histories	  to	  activate	  Jungen's	  work	  and	  produce	  hybridized	  spaces	  of	  leisure	  and	  labour	  as	  well	  as	  the	  collapse	  of	  the	  separation	  between	  peripheral	  sites	  of	  exploitation	  and	  dispossession	  into	  centralized	  and	  widely	  networked	  sites	  associated	  with	  wealth	  accumulation.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   64	  5.	  Conclusion:	  Redefinitions	  of	  space	  and	  site	  	   The	  relationship	  of	  space	  to	  art	  shifts	  between	  space	  represented	  by	  a	  work	  of	  art,	  to	  space	  as	  a	  support	  and	  medium	  for	  a	  work	  of	  art,	  to	  space	  as	  a	  collaborative	  actor	  in	  the	  realization	  of	  a	  work	  of	  art.	  This	  last	  operation	  of	  space	  is	  demonstrated	  here	  in	  the	  work	  of	  Brian	  Jungen.	  In	  an	  encounter	  with	  Jungen's	  ideas	  in	  Court	  and	  The	  Treaty,	  which	  are	  hybrid	  site-­‐specific,	  participatory,	  sculpture-­‐based	  installation	  projects,	  space	  takes	  on	  an	  integral	  role	  that	  was	  previously	  reserved	  for	  the	  viewer	  and	  community-­‐based	  actors.	  His	  works	  are	  not	  located	  in	  a	  single	  socio-­‐political	  context,	  but	  rather	  they	  layer,	  complicate	  and	  bind	  multiple	  sites	  to	  invoke	  the	  spaces	  that	  speak	  through	  his	  work	  as	  actors.	  Although	  these	  spaces	  exist	  independently	  of	  Jungen's	  work,	  their	  participation	  called	  out	  the	  absence	  of	  garment	  factory	  workers	  in	  the	  hollows	  in	  the	  table-­‐top	  to	  floor	  of	  Court	  as	  well	  as	  their	  invisibility	  in	  the	  arenas	  where	  desire	  and	  idols	  animate	  the	  commodity	  objects	  that	  they	  supply.	  Space	  in	  Jungen's	  work	  also	  provoked	  the	  viewer's	  awareness	  of	  their	  position	  at	  Triple	  Candie	  in	  relation	  to	  the	  social	  history	  of	  labour,	  migration	  and	  poverty	  in	  the	  Harlem	  construction	  of	  Court.	  	   The	  colonial	  association	  between	  London	  and	  Fort	  St.	  John	  represented	  by	  two	  sites	  and	  infinite	  narratives	  of	  dominance	  and	  resistance	  gives	  a	  global	  form	  to	  Treaty	  No.	  8	  as	  a	  connective	  space	  that,	  even	  if	  not	  realized	  as	  a	  physically	  tangible	  project,	  implicates	  the	  wealth	  and	  gains	  enjoyed	  during	  the	  peak	  of	  England's	  imperial	  power	  to	  the	  dispossession	  and	  prosperity	  that	  was	  withheld	  from	  the	  First	  Nations	  signatories	  across	  the	  northern	  and	  western	  regions	  of	  Canada.	  	  	   This	  paper	  uses	  the	  form	  that	  space	  takes	  in	  Jungen's	  work	  as	  a	  departure	  point	  to	  establish	  spatial	  context	  in	  art	  apart	  from	  fixed	  places	  and	  locations	  to	  instead	  encompass	  a	  	  	   65	  site-­‐specificity	  informed	  by	  the	  multiple	  social	  and	  political	  histories	  that	  can	  be	  traced	  from	  it	  and	  through	  it.	  	   	  	   The	  spatial	  antagonists	  of	  redress	  and	  critical	  consciousness	  that	  operated	  in	  Jungen's	  work	  were	  compared	  to	  the	  engagement	  of	  social	  and	  political	  spatial	  divisions	  that	  catalyzed	  Rebecca	  Belmore's	  work	  as	  a	  performance	  and	  a	  projection.	  These	  divisions	  made	  the	  Downtown	  Eastside	  (DTES)	  an	  impossible	  place	  for	  women	  to	  have	  the	  same	  access	  to	  safety	  and	  support	  that	  others	  might	  have	  in	  a	  different	  neighbourhood.	  While	  writer	  Peter	  Dickinson	  connected	  the	  site	  of	  Belmore's	  performance	  at	  Gore	  and	  Cordova	  streets	  to	  other	  sites	  of	  violence	  against	  women	  in	  northern	  British	  Columbia,	  the	  artist	  herself	  asserted	  that	  the	  space	  of	  the	  DTES	  is	  facilitated	  by	  a	  larger	  sphere	  that	  permits	  indifference	  to	  the	  murder	  of	  women.	  Belmore	  marked	  the	  end	  of	  her	  performance	  with	  the	  playback	  of	  a	  song	  claiming	  that	  this	  was	  a	  "Man's	  World."	  This	  connects	  her	  critique	  to	  Court,	  The	  Treaty	  and	  Harvey's	  contentions	  that	  the	  space	  encompassing	  both	  local	  exploitation	  and	  injustices	  on	  a	  global	  scale	  but	  be	  invoked	  in	  order	  to	  challenge	  the	  harm	  and	  inequality	  that	  it	  presides	  over.	  	  	   Hains'	  work,	  like	  The	  Treaty	  implied	  two	  distant	  but	  connected	  sites	  that	  activated	  his	  décollages	  with	  the	  overlapped	  spaces	  of	  Algeria,	  the	  exploited	  and	  oppressed	  colony	  with	  the	  publically	  indifferent	  but	  administratively	  authoritarian	  French	  Republic.	  This	  is	  a	  perfect	  illustration	  of	  Harvey's	  application	  of	  the	  role	  of	  space	  to	  class	  and	  worker	  struggles,	  he	  suggests	  that	  Marx	  did	  not	  go	  far	  enough	  to	  consider	  how	  the	  "geographical	  dimensions	  to	  capital	  accumulation	  and	  class	  struggle	  play	  such	  a	  fundamental	  role	  in	  the	  perpetuation	  of	  bourgeois	  power	  and	  the	  suppression	  of	  worker	  rights	  and	  aspirations	  not	  only	  in	  particular	  places	  but	  also	  globally."98	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  98.	  David	  Harvey,	  Spaces	  of	  Capital:	  Towards	  a	  Critical	  Geography	  (New	  York:	  Routledge,	  2001),	  376.	  	  	   66	  	   Apart	  from	  Harvey's,	  and	  also	  Lefebvre's,	  point	  that	  contemporary	  culture	  and	  society	  always	  has	  to	  contend	  with	  the	  presence	  of	  global	  space,	  even	  in	  local	  representations	  of	  economic	  and	  political	  relationships,	  Bishop's	  outline	  of	  participatory	  work	  is	  also	  about	  representations	  of	  ideal	  world-­‐making	  through	  localized	  exchange,	  collaboration	  and	  aesthetic	  characteristics	  emphasizing	  that	  participation	  in	  art	  engages	  simultaneously	  through	  collective	  authorship	  that	  can	  occur	  site-­‐specifically	  and	  in	  a	  gallery.99	  More	  importantly,	  her	  outline	  of	  collective	  participation	  and	  authorship	  permits	  this	  paper	  to	  put	  space	  forth	  as	  a	  participant	  in	  art.	  	   Kwon's	  observations	  that	  site-­‐specificity	  is	  has	  broadened	  as	  a	  category	  in	  contemporary	  art	  to	  expand	  beyond	  the	  term's	  	  association	  with	  projects	  derived	  and	  located	  on	  a	  single	  public,	  geographic	  site	  contributes	  to	  the	  ability	  of	  this	  paper	  to	  investigate	  the	  capacity	  of	  space	  as	  an	  actor	  comprised	  of	  multiple	  sites	  that	  overall	  operate	  with	  more	  autonomy	  than	  Latour	  grants	  to	  spatial	  elements	  opposite	  his	  networked	  actors.	  He	  does	  not	  go	  quite	  far	  enough	  with	  his	  outline	  of	  space	  as	  more	  or	  less	  containers	  to	  be	  activated	  by	  actors.	  	  	   The	  combination	  of	  space	  with	  place-­‐based	  collaborators	  towards	  the	  continuity	  of	  cultural	  identity	  and	  social	  organization	  amongst	  the	  Western	  Apache	  as	  recounted	  by	  Basso,	  	  and	  towards	  the	  assertion	  of	  presence,	  sovereignty	  and	  resistance,	  both	  observed	  and	  deployed	  by	  Vizenor	  and	  the	  Stó:lō	  challenge	  Latour's	  limitations	  to	  the	  agency	  of	  space.	  	  	  	  Spatial	  passivity	  and	  division	  allow	  for	  the	  instrumentalization	  of	  global	  space	  as	  capitalist	  space	  that	  imposes	  erasure	  and	  marginalization	  as	  one	  half	  of	  spatial	  binaries	  that	  contrast	  places	  of	  power	  and	  desire	  with	  places	  of	  dispossession	  and	  exploited	  production.	  The	  fall	  of	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  99.	  Claire	  Bishop,	  "Introduction:	  Viewers	  as	  Producers,"	  in	  Participation,	  ed.	  Claire	  Bishop	  	  	   (London:	  Whitechapel,	  2006),	  12.	  	  	   67	  the	  limitations	  on	  space	  allow	  its	  redefinition	  as	  an	  intersection	  of	  narratives,	  social	  experience,	  cultural	  history	  and	  political	  presence.	  This	  leads	  to	  the	  deployment	  of	  space	  as	  a	  participant	  in	  art	  as	  projects	  dedicated	  to	  critical	  reflection	  and	  the	  activation	  of	  world-­‐making.	  	   	   	  	  	  	  	   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   68	  Works	  Cited	  	  Andrews,	  David	  L.,	  Ben	  Carrington,	  Steven	  J.	  Jackson,	  and	  Zbigniew	  Mazur.	  "Jordanscapes:	  A	  	   Preliminary	  Analysis	  of	  the	  Global	  Popular."	  Sociology	  of	  Sport	  Journal	  13	  (1996):	  	   428-­‐457.	  	  Baldwin,	  James.	  Nobody	  Knows	  My	  Name:	  More	  Notes	  of	  A	  Native	  Son.	  New	  York:	  Dial	  Press,	  	   1961.	  	  Bancroft.	  Shelly	  and	  Peter	  Nesbett."About."Triple	  Candie.	  Triple	  Candie.	  Accessed	  July	  3,	  	  	   	   2014.	  http://triplecandie.org/About%20History.html.	  	  Basso,	  Keith.	  "Wisdom	  Sits	  in	  Places:	  Notes	  on	  a	  Western	  Apache	  Landscape."	  In	  Senses	  of	  	   Place,	  edited	  by	  Steven	  Feld	  and	  Keith	  H.	  Basso,	  53-­‐90.	  Santa	  Fe,	  N.M.:	  School	  of	  	   American	  Research	  Press,	  1996.	  	  Bishop,	  Claire.	  "Introduction:	  Viewers	  as	  Producers."	  In	  Participation,	  edited	  by	  Claire	  Bishop,	  	  	  	  	  	  	   10-­‐17.	  London:	  Whitechapel,	  2006.	  	  _______.	  Artificial	  Hells:	  Participatory	  Art	  and	  the	  Politics	  of	  Spectatorship.	  London:	  	  	   Verso	  Books,	  2012.	  	  Carlson,	  Keith	  Thor,	  David	  Schaepe,	  Albert	  (Sonny)	  McHalsie,	  David	  Smith,	  and	  Leeanna	  	   Rhodes.	  eds.	  	  A	  Stó:lō	  Coast	  Salish	  Historical	  Atlas.	  British	  Columbia,	  BC.	  and	  Seattle,	  	   WA.:	  Stó:lō	  Heritage	  Trust,	  Douglas	  &	  McIntyre,	  and	  University	  of	  Washington	  Press,	  	   2001.	  	  Dick,	  Terence.	  "Brian	  Jungen	  Interviewed	  by	  Terence	  Dick."	  C	  Magazine,	  no.	  89	  (Spring	  2006):	  	   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