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Geology and mineralization at Independence Creek : Dawson Range, West-central Yukon Territory McKenzie, Greg 2014

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GEOLOGY AND MINERALIZATION AT INDEPENDENCE CREEK: DAWSON RANGE, WEST-CENTRAL YUKON TERRITORY  by Greg McKenzie  B.Sc., The University of British Columbia, 2009  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Geological Sciences)    THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)   April 2014  ? Greg McKenzie, 2014ii  Abstract  The Independence Creek (?Boulevard?) area in the Dawson Range district in west-central Yukon has recently received new government geological mapping; however, little is known about the nature or origin of gold mineralization in this region. A regional metallogenic framework for the mineralization is proposed herein, based on geological, structural, geochronological, and fluid inclusion studies. The study area is underlain by Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane and is flanked to the north by the mid-Cretaceous Coffee Creek plutonic suite, a phase of the Dawson Range batholith to the southwest. Two separate but related mineralizing systems have been identified within the study area: the Sunset Trend, a gold exploration target, and the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence.   Gold mineralization in the Sunset Trend is hosted in a chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist along brittle northwest-trending structures. The highest gold grades are associated with fault zones, locally including vein breccia, that are dominated by iron-rich clay gouge. The main rock type at the Toni Tiger occurrence is a diopside-garnet skarn that is cross-cut by quartz-molybdenite veins which commonly trend northeast. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that mineralization in both systems formed from similar H2O-CO2-NaCl type fluids at conditions >280?C and 1100bar. 40Ar/39Ar dating of post-metamorphic hydrothermal sericite yielded an approximate age for mineralization in the Sunset Trend of 95Ma, which overlaps within error with the 95.0 ? 0.4Ma Re-Os age obtained from molybdenite at Toni Tiger. Both of these ages are significantly younger than nearby intrusions, suggesting that mineralization is not directly related to the intrusions.  The Independence Creek gold system is interpreted to have formed in zones of dilation that related to an overall dextral strike slip system that developed following the emplacement of the Coffee Creek granite at ~99Ma. Geological and geochronological evidence suggests that the Independence Creek mineralization, together with the Longline deposit located 75km to the northwest, and possibly part of the Coffee gold system located in the Coffee Creek plutonic suite, are products of a mid-Cretaceous, post-magmatic orogenic event that occurred between 96 and 92Ma, during the exhumation of the Dawson Range batholith.    iii  Preface  This study is a component of the Yukon Gold Project, a collaborative research venture between the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (UBC), a consortium of industry participants (listed in acknowledgements), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, and Natural Resources Canada. Some analytical work included in this study was conducted by other people, specifically: fluid inclusion modelling by Murray Allan of the Mineral Deposit Research Unit, U-Pb analysis by Jim Mortensen and Murray Allan of the Mineral Deposite Research Unit, 40Ar/39Ar age determinations and lead isotopic analyses by Janet Gabites at the University of British Columbia, 187Re/187Os age determinations by Rob Creaser at the University of British Columbia, and sulphur isotopic analysis by April Vuletich and Kristen Feige at Queen?s University. The geological map area in this thesis is based upon geological, geochemical and geophysical data provided by Independence Gold Corp. (Formerly Silver Quest Resources Inc.). The results of this thesis have been published in McKenzie et al. (2013).  Results and interpretations arising from this study have been published in Allan et al. (2013).            iv  Table of Contents  Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. ii Preface ...............................................................................................................................................iii Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................ iv List of Tables ...................................................................................................................................... vii List of Figures .................................................................................................................................... viii Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................x Chapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 2 1.1.1 Mapping....................................................................................................................... 2 1.1.2  Petrography ................................................................................................................. 3 1.1.3 Geochronological Studies ............................................................................................. 3 1.1.4 Isotopic Studies ............................................................................................................ 3 Chapter 2: Geological Setting of the Independence Creek Area, Dawson Range, Yukon ....................... 5 2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 5 2.2 Tectonic Evolution of Western Yukon ........................................................................................ 5 2.3 Regional Geology ....................................................................................................................... 8 2.4 Regional Magmatism ............................................................................................................... 10 2.5 Regional Structural Framework ................................................................................................ 13 2.6 U-Pb Geochronology: Methods and Analytical Results ............................................................. 17 2.6.1 Methodology .................................................................................................................... 17 2.6.2 Analytical Results .............................................................................................................. 18 2.7 Local Geology .......................................................................................................................... 32 2.7.1 Metamorphic Assemblage ................................................................................................ 33 2.7.2 Ultramafic Rocks ............................................................................................................... 38 2.7.3 Dawson Range Batholith ................................................................................................... 40 2.7.4 Coffee Creek Plutonic Suite ............................................................................................... 41 2.7.5 Volcanic Rocks .................................................................................................................. 43 2.8 Geological Mapping Methodology ........................................................................................... 43 2.8.1 Previous Mapping Work .................................................................................................... 43 2.8.2 Geophysics ....................................................................................................................... 44 2.8.3 Geochemistry ................................................................................................................... 46 v  2.8.4 Derivative Mapping........................................................................................................... 50 2.9 Property Structural Geology .................................................................................................... 55 Chapter 3: Mineralization, Alteration and Fluid Characterization ....................................................... 59 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 59 3.2 Western Yukon Regional Metallogeny ..................................................................................... 59 3.3 Regional Mineralization ........................................................................................................... 61 3.3.1 Moosehorn Range Mineralization ..................................................................................... 61 3.3.2 Coffee Mineralization ....................................................................................................... 63 3.3.3 Regional Molybdenite Mineralization................................................................................ 66 3.4 Exploration History .................................................................................................................. 67 3.5 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology: Methods and Analytical Results ....................................................... 75 3.5.1 Methodology .................................................................................................................... 75 3.5.2 Analytical Results .............................................................................................................. 77 3.6 187Re/187Os Geochronology: Methods and Analytical Results .................................................... 82 3.6.1 Methodology .................................................................................................................... 82 3.6.2 Analytical Results .............................................................................................................. 82 3.7 Sunset Trend Mineralization .................................................................................................... 83 3.7.1 Foliaform Veins (V1) .......................................................................................................... 83 3.7.2 Late Stage Deformation Veins (V2) .................................................................................... 84 3.7.3 Gold Bearing Veins (V3) ..................................................................................................... 87 3.7.4 Late Banded Veins (V4) ...................................................................................................... 90 3.7.5 Carbonate Veins (V5) ......................................................................................................... 91 3.8 Toni Tiger Mineralization ......................................................................................................... 91 3.9 Fluid Characterization .............................................................................................................. 95 3.9.1 Fluid Petrography ............................................................................................................. 95 3.9.2 Sulphur Isotopic Compositions .......................................................................................... 99 3.9.3 Lead Isotopic Compositions ............................................................................................ 101 3.10 Summary of Mineralizing Events .......................................................................................... 105 Chapter 4: Metallogenesis of the Independence Creek Area............................................................ 107 4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 107 4.2 Summary of Mineralization at Independence Creek ............................................................... 107 4.3 General Characteristics of Orogenic Gold Systems ................................................................. 109 4.4 General Characteristics of Intrusion-Related Gold Systems .................................................... 111 vi  4.5 Genetic Model for Mineralization at Independence Creek ..................................................... 115 4.5.1 Origin of Molybdenite ..................................................................................................... 118 4.5.2 Formation of the Calc-Silicate Assemblage ...................................................................... 119 4.6 Regional Significance of Independence Creek Mineralization ................................................. 120 4.7 Exploration Implications ........................................................................................................ 123 References ...................................................................................................................................... 126 Appendix A: P-V-X-T Modeling of Fluid Inclusions ............................................................................ 136 Appendix B: Exploration Geochemistry ........................................................................................... 138 Appendix C: Sample Locations and Descriptions .............................................................................. 144    vii  List of Tables  Table 1. U-Pb samples from the Independence Creek area. ................................................................... 20 Table 2. Precision or Detection Limit (D.L.) of soil sample analytical techniques .................................... 47 Table 3. Summary of principal geological events affecting the Independence Creek area. ..................... 55 Table 4. Regional metallogenic framework for west-central Yukon. ....................................................... 60 Table 5. 40Ar/39Ar  analysis of post metamorphic sericite in sample BV23-70.37 from the Sunset Trend. 80 Table 6. 40Ar/39Ar  analysis of post metamorphic sericite in a duplicate of  sample BV23-70.37 from the Sunset Trend. ........................................................................................................................................ 81 Table 7.  187Re/187Os analysis of molybdenite from the Toni Tiger occurrence. ....................................... 83 Table 8. Mineralization ages for the Independence Creek area. ............................................................. 90 Table 9. Summary of Independence Creek characteristics. .................................................................. 108 Table 10. Klondike Type orogenic gold deposits vs. Mother Lode Type orogenic gold deposits. ........... 111 Table 11. Comparing Independence Creek to orogenic gold and reduced-intrusion related gold deposits. ........................................................................................................................................................... 114 Table 12. Fluid inclusion modelling data for the Independence Creek area. ......................................... 137    viii  List of Figures  Figure 1. Terranes of the Canadian and Alaskan Cordillera. ..................................................................... 6 Figure 2. Geological map of the west-central Yukon showing numerous deposits and exploration prospects .............................................................................................................................................. 11 Figure 3. Interpreted geological map of the Independence Creek area showing the Sunset Trend, Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence and geochronological data ..................................................................... 16 Figure 4. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample I034224 ............................................ 21 Figure 5. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample I034207 ............................................ 22 Figure 6. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample GM11-9B .......................................... 23 Figure 7. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-001BV .................................... 24 Figure 8. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-005BV .................................... 25 Figure 9. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-006BV .................................... 26 Figure 10. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-004BV .................................. 27 Figure 11. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample I034239 .......................................... 28 Figure 12. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample YGR-BV-004 .................................... 29 Figure 13. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample 99M105 .......................................... 30 Figure 14. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample YGR-BV-002 .................................... 31 Figure 15. Photographs of the terrain at Independence Creek area. ...................................................... 32 Figure 16. Representative lithologies in the study area.......................................................................... 34 Figure 17. Magnetic susceptibility of various lithologies within the study area ...................................... 36 Figure 18. Total alkalis vs. silica for mafic and felsic schists in the Independence Creek area. ................ 37 Figure 19. Total alkalis vs. silica for metaplutonic rocks in the Independence Creek area. ...................... 38 Figure 20. Intrusive rocks of the Independence Creek area.................................................................... 40 Figure 21. Volcanic rocks of the Independence Creek area. ................................................................... 43 Figure 22. Total magnetic intensity map of the Independence Creek map. ............................................ 45 Figure 23. Gamma-ray spectrometry map of the Independence Creek area. ......................................... 46 Figure 24. Soil geochemistry map of the Independence Creek area ....................................................... 49 Figure 25. B-horizon soil geochemistry compared with whole rock geochemistry samples from the Independence Creek area. .................................................................................................................... 54 Figure 26. Examples ductile and brittle structures observed at Independence Creek. ............................ 57 Figure 27. Regional mineral occurrences (MINFILE) in the Independence Creek area............................. 66 Figure 28. Yukon regional silt targets identified in the west-central Yukon. ........................................... 69 Figure 29. Map of the Sunset Trend geology, mineralizing trends and the gold in soil anomaly. The number of soil samples collected is larger than what is displayed in this map view. .............................. 71 Figure 30. Map of the Sunset Trend with geology, trenches, drill intercepts (green stars) and gold values in rock samples (yellow stars)................................................................................................................ 72 Figure 31. Map of the Toni Tiger occurrence geology, mineralizing trends and the molybdenum in soil anomaly. ............................................................................................................................................... 73 Figure 32. Map of the Toni Tiger occurrence with geology, trenches, molybdenum vein orientations and molybdenum values in rock samples ..................................................................................................... 74 Figure 33. Ar-Ar normal isochron and step heating age spectrum for sample BV23-70.37 ..................... 78 ix  Figure 34. Ar-Ar normal isochron and step heating age spectrum for the duplicate of sample BV23-70.37 ............................................................................................................................................................. 79 Figure 35. Photographs of V1 to V5 veins at the Sunset Trend. ............................................................... 85 Figure 36. Cross section of the Sunset Trend at the Independence Creek area. ..................................... 86 Figure 37. Extensional structures associated with mineralization at the Sunset Trend. .......................... 88 Figure 38. Photomicrographs of gold mineralization at the Sunset Trend. ............................................. 89 Figure 39. Paragenesis of sulphides and gangue minerals from the Sunset Trend. ................................. 91 Figure 40. Cross section of the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence at the Independence Creek area. .... 92 Figure 41. Representative lithologies of the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. .................................. 94 Figure 42. Paragenesis of sulphides and gangue minerals from the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. 95 Figure 43. Fluid inclusion petrography of the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. ..... 97 Figure 44. Isochores for modelled fluid inclusion data in the Independence Creek area......................... 99 Figure 45. Sulphur isotopic compositions (?34S (?)) for metamorphic assemblage rocks. ................... 100 Figure 46. Range of ?34S values for the Independence Creek area. ...................................................... 101 Figure 47. Isotopic compositions of intrusion-related sulphides and igneous feldspar lead in west-central Yukon. ................................................................................................................................................ 103 Figure 48. Comparison between lead isotopic composition of Independence Creek (Boulevard) and sulphides and igneous feldspars of the Moosehorn orogenic gold system ........................................... 104 Figure 49. Independence Creek sulphides and igneous feldspars with Godwin and Sinclair?s (1982) shale growth curve. ..................................................................................................................................... 105 Figure 50. Terrane map of the Yukon showing numerous deposits and exploration prospects ............. 112 Figure 51. Mid-Cretaceous orogenic event with in the Dawson Range. ................................................ 121 Figure 52. Arsenic soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. ..... 138 Figure 53. Antimony soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. .. 139 Figure 54. Silver soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. ........ 140 Figure 55. Mercury soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. .... 141 Figure 56. Bismuth soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. .... 142 Figure 57. Copper soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. ...... 143    x  Acknowledgments  Many people have provided various means of intellectual and financial support for which I extend my sincere gratitude and appreciation. I would also like to thank my supervisors Murray, Jim and Craig for all their expertise and assistance as without it I never would have been able to complete this thesis. I would like to give special thanks to Murray and Jim, without whom I would still be out on the property trying to figure things out. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Independence Gold Corp. for their logistical, financial, and scientific contributions, and in particular Kendra Johnston, Randy Turner, Dave Pawliuk, and Ryan Congdon. I am indebted and very grateful to Darcy Baker and Ron Voordrouw of Equity Exploration Consultants for suggesting and assisting in the implementation of this study. I also have to thank my fellow MDRU graduate students who have helped me along the way especially Witold Ciolkiewicz, Leif Bailey, Tim Wrighton and Dave Cox.  I am indebted to having my family for being understanding and putting up with me for the past 2 years while completing this study. This study is a component of the Yukon Gold Project, a collaborative research venture between the Mineral Deposit Research Unit (UBC) and a consortium of industry participants (listed below). Many thanks to all of the industry and government participants, for without their continuous support this study would not have been possible. ? Aldrin Resource Corp. ? Barrick Gold Corp. ? Full Metal Minerals Corp. ? Gold Fields Canada Exploration ? Geological Survey of Canada ? Northern Freegold Resources Ltd. ? Kinross Gold Corp. ? Radius Gold Inc. ? Independence Gold Corp. (Formerly Silver Quest Resources Ltd.) ? Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ? Taku Gold Corp. ? Teck Resources Ltd. ? Underworld Resources Inc. ? Yukon Geological Survey  1  Chapter 1: Introduction  West-central Yukon has received renewed exploration interest in recent years following the discovery of the ~1.5Moz Golden Saddle gold deposit grading ~3 g/t gold (Underworld Resources Inc., January 19, 2010 press release), and identification of multiple gold prospects in the Coffee Creek area including an inferred resource estimate of ~3.4Moz grading 1.36 g/t gold (Chartier et al., 2013; Thomas, 2014). Historically, this region was mapped at 1:250,000 by Tempelman?Kluit, who provided the first detailed geological map in the area and included a summary of mineral occurrences (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974). However, the lack of robust geological maps and models with specific exploration targeting criteria for mineralized gold systems has hampered mineral exploration in the Dawson Range for more than one hundred years. Although the area has recently seen new geological mapping by the Geological Survey of Canada (Ryan et al., 2013b), little is known about the nature or origin of gold mineralization in this region. The Dawson Range is a topographically subdued mountain belt which extends north-westward from the city of Carmacks to the Alaskan border. This region is unglaciated and was subjected to intense surficial weathering in Tertiary time. This resulted in the development of thick regolith and limited exposure, which has impeded lode gold exploration efforts.  The Independence Creek (?Boulevard?) area is centered on the Independence Creek drainage in the Dawson Range. This area, located approximately thirty kilometres south-east of the junction of the White River and the Yukon River, has no historical production of placer gold recorded from any of the creeks. However, numerous gold bearing structures have been identified in the region for instance at the Coffee Project (Kaminak Gold Corp.)  Only limited geological studies have been completed in the Dawson Range for a variety of reasons, including its remote location, short field season and sparse bedrock exposure. Due to poor outcrop, field mapping was aided by airborne geophysical data, government and company geological maps, assessment reports and soil lithogeochemistry data. This abundance of information makes Independence Creek an ideal location for this study. Independence Creek mineralization occurs adjacent to the Coffee Project (Kaminak Gold Corp.) in the newly emerging Dawson Range district; however, the precise timing and nature of mineralization is 2  incompletely understood. Independence Gold Corp. is currently exploring the Independence Creek area. A field and laboratory based study of gold and related mineralization in the Independence Creek area was undertaken in 2010 and 2011, aimed at developing a better geological and metallogenic framework for the newly discovered Independence Creek mineralization. This understanding will provide a guide to on-going mineral exploration in this area and elsewhere in the western Yukon.  This project has three main objectives: (1) to describe and interpret the geology in an area of poor exposure; (2) to characterize the nature and timing of gold-(molybdenum) mineralization and in relation to nearby intrusive rock units; and (3) to place mineralization at Independence Creek into a regional metallogenic framework. These objectives were accomplished through field mapping, detailed petrography, and geochronologic and isotopic analysis. This information and new knowledge will provide the basis for a new geological model with exploration targeting criteria for gold deposits in the Dawson Range that can perhaps be applied to other parts of the northern Cordillera with similar tectonic and magmatic histories.  1.1 Methodology 1.1.1 Mapping   Geological mapping was conducted in the study area, which has minimal outcrop, during the summer of 2011. Two separate and possibly distinct mineralizing systems are found within the study area: the Sunset Trend, which is primarily a gold exploration target, and the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. The systems collectively are referred to as the Independence Creek system.  A 1:30,000 scale geological map was constructed, based on a combination of new geological mapping, re-interpretation of historic geological mapping, interpretation of airborne geophysical data, and geological interpretation of regolith using soil lithogeochemistry (attached to cover). Airborne magnetic and radiometric survey results and soil lithogeochemistry were subsequently ground-truthed to verify the presence of specific lithologies and inferred structures. An additional two maps at 1:5,000 scale were generated for the Toni Tiger and Sunset Trend occurrence areas (attached to cover). The focus of the mapping was to identify the main rock 3  units present in the Independence Creek area, document the relationships between the various rock units, and to collect samples for petrographic, geochronologic and isotopic analysis.   1.1.2  Petrography  Detailed petrographic studies of various mineralized and unmineralized rock units were completed. Thin sections of 91 samples were prepared from hand samples and drill core. Additionally, eleven double-polished wafers were also prepared for a reconnaissance-scale fluid inclusion analysis. Drill core observations were focused on vein paragenesis and structure. Slabs from nearby intrusions were cut and stained for potassium feldspar and used for modal analysis of the intrusive rock phases. Lithogeochemical analysis of all rock types was also conducted to compare with B-horizon soil samples for testing the accuracy of surface mapping. A reconnaissance fluid inclusion study was carried out to characterize the nature of the mineralizing fluids. The results were used to constrain the nature of both mineralizing fluids and gold paragenesis.   1.1.3 Geochronological Studies  Three different dating techniques were used to determine igneous crystallization and mineralization ages within the study area. Six samples of key intrusive and metamorphic units in the study area were dated using U-Pb zircon methods. Two molybdenite samples from the Toni Tiger occurrence were dated using Re-Os methods to establish the age of the molybdenite. One sample was dated using 40Ar/39Ar methods to establish the age of cooling, and potentially gold mineralization, in the Sunset Trend. These results were used to constrain ages of key intrusive units, hydrothermal alteration events, and molybdenite mineralization. The results also provided absolute age constraints on specific geologic events within the area.  1.1.4 Isotopic Studies   Common Pb isotope compositions were determined for five samples of igneous feldspar and fourteen sulphide samples. Sulphur isotopic compositions for eight sulphide samples from 4  the Sunset Trend and four sulphide samples from Toni Tiger were also determined.  This work was done in an attempt to identify the source(s) of metals and sulphur present within the different mineralization styles.                       5  Chapter 2: Geological Setting of the Independence Creek Area, Dawson Range, Yukon 2.1 Introduction  The Yukon-Tanana terrane in the west-central Yukon comprises polydeformed Paleozoic metamorphic rocks that have been intruded by numerous post-metamorphic igneous suites (Fig. 1). The Independence Creek area lies along the northeastern margin of the Dawson Range, a mid to Late Cretaceous arc extending from Carmacks to the Alaskan border (Fig. 2). Outcrop in the Dawson Range is limited; however, freeze-thaw action has produced felsenmeer on many ridges, as well as isolated tors of outcrop. This permits the construction of geological maps, and allows field testing of geophysical interpretations.   The objective of this chapter is to (1) present the regional tectonic and geological setting for the Independence Creek area; (2) describe the local geology and steps taken to prepare a geological map. The geological map was compiled from numerous data sources, including field mapping, as well as government and company geological, geophysical and geochemical maps and reports. Desktop geologic interpretations of airborne magnetic and radiometric surveys, as well as 2-dimensional soil grids, were also field-tested to verify interpreted lithologies and structures.   2.2 Tectonic Evolution of Western Yukon  The Independence Creek area lies within the Yukon-Tanana terrane in west-central Yukon, approximately 35km southeast of the Golden Saddle deposit (White Gold), in the newly emerging Dawson Range district (Fig. 2). The Yukon-Tanana terrane is a late Devonian to middle Mississippian continental magmatic arc which lies between the ancestral continental margin of North America and outboard accreted terranes (Colpron et al., 2006). The Yukon-Tanana terrane extends from northern British Columbia northwest into the west-central Yukon and eastern Alaska (Fig.1). East-dipping subduction under the western margin of Laurentia initiated the formation of the Finlayson magmatic arc during late Devonian time. Felsic components display a continental influence whereas mafic components display a more varied signature including tholeiite, calc-alkaline, mid-oceanic ridge basalt and oceanic island basalt. This bimodal magmatism  6   Figure 1. Terranes of the Canadian and Alaskan Cordillera. Fault abbreviations: BSF ? Big Salmon fault; CSF ? Chatham Strait fault; CSZ ? Coast shear zone; FRF ? Fraser River fault; KF ? Kechika fault; NFF ? Nixon Fork-Iditarod fault; PF ? Pinchi fault; SMRT ? southern Rocky Mountain trench; TkF ? Takla-Finlay-Ingenika fault system; YK ? Yalakom fault. Other abbreviations: AB ? Alberta; AK ? Alaska; BC ? British Columbia; NWT ? Northwest Territories; YT ? Yukon Territory. Sources: Wheeler et al. (1991); Silberling et al. (1994); Colpron (2006). Modified from Nelson and Colpron (2007). Datum: WGS 84.  occurred from 390 to 320Ma with the major magmatic peak at 360 to 350Ma (Nelson and Colpron, 2007). Ages of detrital zircon populations of Yukon-Tanana terrane are comparable to 7  the basement ages of Laurentia which were dominantly 2.0 to 1.8Ga (Gehrels et al., 1995; Gehrels and Ross, 1998; Colpron et al., 2006). The basement rocks which underlie Yukon-Tanana are not exposed, and so can only be constrained to pre-Late Devonian (Piercey and Colpron, 2009).  From the Early Mississippian to Early Permian time back arc spreading began as east-dipping subduction continued, forming the Slide Mountain Ocean. As the Slide Mountain Ocean opened, a large portion of Laurentia was rifted away from continental Laurentia and became the Yukon-Tanana terrane (Colpron et al., 2006).  Arc related assemblages continued to form on the Yukon-Tanana terrane from Early Mississippian to Early Permian time. Subduction polarity reversed in mid-Permian time and the Slide Mountain ocean floor began to subduct to the west under the Yukon-Tanana terrane, triggering formation of the Klondike magmatic arc above the Klinkit and Finlayson arcs (Mortensen, 1992; Colpron et al., 2006; Nelson and Colpron, 2007; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011; Mortensen, 2011).  The newly-formed Permian bimodal, felsic dominated Klondike magmatic arc is best developed in the northern and eastern portions of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The Yukon-Tanana terrane collided with the Laurentian margin at the end of the Permian following complete closure of the Slide Mountain Ocean (Beranek and Mortensen, 2011). The Klondike magmatic arc, along with the rest of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, was thrust over the edge of the continental margin and a foreland basin developed (Colpron et al., 2006; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011). Evidence from detrital zircon populations, suggests that the Yukon-Tanana terrane likely did not arrive at its current position until Early Triassic time (Beranek and Mortensen, 2011). In Late Triassic and Early Jurassic time a new continental magmatic arc was built on top of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as evidenced by widespread 216 to 185Ma metaluminous plutons with a strong magmatic arc signature (Tafti and Mortensen, 2004).  During Early to mid-Cretaceous time, plutons that comprise the Dawson Range batholith and the Coffee Creek plutonic suite were emplaced into metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Extrusive equivalents of the Dawson Range batholith are locally preserved as the Mt. Nansen Group.  The Dawson Range batholith represents the plutonic roots of a magmatic arc that formed during the Early to mid-Cretaceous in response to east dipping subduction of oceanic crust beneath the western edge of North America (Nelson and Colpron, 2007). 8  2.3 Regional Geology  West-central Yukon is composed dominantly of the pericratonic Yukon-Tanana terrane, which consists of strongly deformed low to medium grade meta-plutonic, meta-volcanic and meta-sedimentary rocks of middle to late Paleozoic age (Colpron et al., 2006). The terrane experienced thrust imbrication during Mesozoic time and was subsequently intruded and overlain by plutonic and volcanic suites ranging in age from the Triassic to Paleocene. The Yukon-Tanana terrane is composed of four main tectonic assemblages across west-central Yukon and northern British Columbia. These tectonic units are classified by their regional extent and significance according to the age range of their stratigraphic units and plutonic suites  (Gabrielse et al., 1991; Colpron et al., 2006). Each tectonic assemblage records a particular geodynamic setting such as a continental margin or an arc/back arc setting (Colpron et al., 2006).  The Yukon-Tanana terrane consists of the Snowcap, Finlayson, Klinkit and Klondike assemblages (Colpron et al., 2006), and was intruded by several post-tectonic plutonic suites including the Dawson Range batholith (a phase of the Whitehorse plutonic suite), the Prospector Mountain plutonic suite and numerous Late Cretaceous intrusions such as the Casino plutonic suite (Mortensen and Hart, 2010). The Snowcap assemblage forms the base of the Yukon-Tanana terrane and consists of polydeformed quartzite, calc-silicates schists, marble, pelitic schists, minor amphibolite and ultramafic rocks (Piercey and Colpron, 2009). The Snowcap assemblage is locally intruded by Late Devonian to Early Mississippian plutonic rocks. These intrusive suites are typically interleaved within the siliciclastic rocks of the Snowcap assemblage, suggesting deposition in a continental margin setting (Colpron et al., 2006). The Snowcap assemblage is interpreted to represent a displaced fragment of the North American continental margin (Piercey and Colpron, 2009).  The Finlayson assemblage (also referred to as the Fortymile River assemblage in western Yukon and eastern Alaska) comprises amphibolite, quartz-biotite schist and marble along with bodies of hornblende-biotite granodioritic gneiss (Colpron et al., 2006; Nelson and Colpron, 2007). The Finlayson assemblage is lithologically highly variable, consisting of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, marble, carbonate rich pelite and minor quartzite (Nelson and Colpron, 2007). The Finlayson assemblage contains orthogneiss bodies that give mainly Early Mississippian crystallization ages and generally have continental magmatic arc geochemical affinity (Colpron 9  et al., 2006). The Nasina assemblage, a primary component of the Finlayson assemblage, consists dominantly of siliciclastic rocks, including carbonaceous quartz-mica schist, minor quartzite and discontinuous lenses of marble. Thin felsic metavolcanic layers within the Nasina have yielded Early Mississippian U-Pb zircon ages (Mortensen, 1992). The Finlayson and Nasina assemblages have been interpreted to be  facies equivalent arc and coeval basinal metaclastic rocks, respectively (Nelson and Colpron, 2007).  The mid-Mississippian to Early Permian Klinkit assemblage is an arc composed of mafic to intermediate calc-alkaline volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks with minor limestone and conglomerate (Colpron et al., 2006). The Klinkit is best represented in the southern Yukon where it unconformably overlies the Snowcap and Finlayson assemblages (Colpron et al., 2006).   The Klondike assemblage is a Late Permian, bimodal metavolcanic assemblage with variable amounts of intercalated metaclastic rocks, and includes felsic metaintrusive phases comprising quartz-feldspar augen schist and the Sulphur Creek orthogneiss. These metaintrusive components occur locally within the Finlayson assemblage which suggests the Klondike magmatic arc formed after the Finlayson arc (Nelson and Colpron, 2007; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011).  The Slide Mountain terrane stretches from the Kootenay region in southern British Columbia into eastern Alaska. Slide Mountain is between Yukon-Tanana terrane and the North American miogeocline. The Slide Mountain assemblage occurs along thrust surfaces over the miogeocline and as thrust slices imbricated within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (Nelson and Colpron, 2007; MacKenzie et al., 2008a). The oceanic Slide Mountain assemblage occurs as a string of disconnected bodies of mostly oceanic rocks, including gabbro, greenstone and serpentinized ultramafic rocks with the local argillite, chert and limestone sequences. The Slide Mountain rocks do not contain the pervasive recrystallization fabrics related to the latest Permian Klondike orogeny (Beranek and Mortensen, 2011) that typify Paleozoic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Therefore the Slide Mountain terrane was likely imbricated with the Yukon-Tanana terrane after regional metamorphism (Nelson and Colpron, 2007).    10  2.4 Regional Magmatism   Late Triassic to Paleocene magmatism is widespread in western Yukon. Magmatism was episodic and each magmatic episode is associated with a characteristic range of mineralization styles (Colpron et al., 2006; Nelson and Colpron, 2007). Seven main late syn to post-tectonic magmatic episodes have been identified within the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Latest Permian magmatism (252 to 249Ma) was first recognized at the Jim Creek pluton in the western Klondike District and the Teacher intrusion at White Gold (Mortensen and Hart, 2010; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011).  Numerous other small bodies belonging to this intrusive suite have now been recognized in a number of other localities including JP Ross, Eureka Dome, Independence Creek (Boulevard), and the Sixtymile and Fortymile districts (Fig. 2). The Jim Creek and Teacher intrusions (White Gold) are associated with Au-Bi and Au-Pb anomalies respectively (Fig. 2).  This latest Permian magmatism comprises post-collisional, crustally derived granites related to the Klondike orogeny (Beranek and Mortensen, 2011).  Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (220 to 185Ma) oxidized metaluminous intrusions represent a younger continental arc emplaced into the Yukon-Tanana terrane (Tafti and Mortensen, 2004). This intrusive suite hosts copper mineralization at Minto and Carmacks Copper (Tafti and Mortensen, 2004). Early Cretaceous magmatism, ranging from 115 to 99Ma, occurs throughout the Dawson Range batholith, which is an oxidized continental magmatic arc (Colpron et al., 2006). The batholith is dominantly composed of a mid-Cretaceous biotite-hornblende granodiorite (Fig. 2). It intrudes middle to late Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, and is locally overlain disconformably by 70Ma Carmacks Group volcanic rocks (Colpron et al., 2006). To the northeast of the Dawson Range, magmatism occurred from ~115 to 100Ma in a back-arc setting. This magmatism was more widely dispersed, reduced and generally felsic in composition. (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974). In east-central Alaska, there are numerous felsic intrusions which were emplaced in a back-arc setting associated with mineralization (Goldfarb et al., 1998; Goldfarb et al., 2005). The Dawson Range batholith is locally intruded by felsic intrusions of the Nisling Plutonic suite located in the southwest corner of the study area     11   Figure 2. Geological map of the west-central Yukon showing numerous deposits and exploration prospects.Datum: WGS 84, Projection: UTM Zone 7.  Fault abbreviations: BSF-Big Salmon fault; DF-Denali fault; TF-Teslin fault; TTF-Tintina fault. Modified from (Gordey and Ryan, 2005; Allan et al., 2013; Ryan et al., 2013b). 12  13  Intrusive rocks of early Late Cretaceous age (79 to 72Ma) occur in a narrow, northwest trending belt.  These intrusions are oxidized and are interpreted to have formed in a continental magmatic arc (Mortensen and Hart, 2010). They are associated with porphyry mineralization such as Casino (Bower, 1995), Sonora Gulch (Bennett et al., 2010; Page, 2011), Nucleus and Revenue (Allan et al., 2013). A second pulse of magmatism occurred in the area in late Late Cretaceous time (between 72 and 68Ma), and may be associated with a lithospheric delamination event (Mortensen and Hart, 2010). This phase of magmatism is associated with a variety of intrusion related mineralization, including porphyry (Butler), skarn (Mag) and vein systems (Prospector Mountain) (Fig. 2) (Allan et al., 2013). Bimodal Paleocene magmatism is widespread, apparent as basaltic and rhyolitic dykes and dyke swarms through the Yukon-Tanana terrane. A concentration of these dykes exists in the vicinity of the Tintina fault, and the magmatism in that area is thought to relate to the early onset of dextral fault movement (Mortensen, 2011).  2.5 Regional Structural Framework  Structural studies within the Klondike District by MacKenzie et al. (2008) identified five separate deformation events (D1-D5), and subsequent work in the White Gold area by MacKenzie et al. (2010) suggests that the same general sequence and character of deformation events is present in the Dawson Range area (Fig. 2). Structural work completed on Independence Creek and elsewhere throughout western Yukon as part of the Yukon Gold Project suggests that this general sequence of deformation occurred throughout a large part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. However, some aspects of the Independence Creek structural history which do not coincide with the Klondike structural history, and so the evolution of the Independence Creek area is here assessed separately.  The D1 and D2 ductile deformation events, related to the latest Permian Klondike orogeny coincided with metamorphism at mid-greenschist to lower amphibolite facies (Beranek and Mortensen, 2011).  There are locally hints of older fabrics within middle Paleozoic units of the Yukon-Tanana terrane (Berman et al., 2007); however, for the purposes of this thesis the D1 and D2 deformation events are considered to be responsible for the early penetrative recrystallization foliation in most of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The S2 fabric is the dominant metamorphic recrystallization fabric present in metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane throughout 14  western Yukon. The fabric is flat lying to shallowly dipping, except where steepened by subsequent deformation. Fold hinges from D2 are rarely preserved but are locally observed and deform a pre-existing foliation which is transposed by the S2 fabric. Both D1 and D2 are present in the Late Permian (260Ma) Klondike Schist, providing an upper limit on the timing of this phase of deformation (Beranek and Mortensen, 2011). The D2 event must be older than 252.5Ma, based on U-Pb zircon dating of post-D2 intrusive rocks of the Jim Creek pluton in the Klondike District (MacKenzie et al., 2008b; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011).  The D3 event is mainly associated with lower greenschist facies metamorphism and is characterized by a typically northeast verging crenulation fabrics and local macroscopic folds, especially in mica-rich lithologies. The D3 deformation event is thought to have occurred in Early Jurassic time. The D3 deformation event is structurally linked to thrust imbrication and emplacement of tectonic slices of the Slide Mountain assemblage along regional scale thrust faults (MacKenzie et al., 2008a; Mackenzie and Craw, 2010). Numerous tectonic slices of serpentinite and pyroxenite have been mapped within the Klondike and White Gold areas, and are interpreted to have been emplaced during the D3 event (Mackenzie and Craw, 2010; MacKenzie and Craw, 2011). Low angle thrust faults separate all of the major lithologic units in the Klondike and in the White Gold area (MacKenzie et al., 2008a). These stacked piles of thrust sheets were imbricated in the Jurassic during the late stages of metamorphism (MacKenzie et al., 2008a).  The D4 deformation event consists of north and north-west trending structural corridors which vary from tens of metres to a hundred metres wide (MacKenzie et al., 2008a). These corridors are characterized by open folds with upright axial planes and angular hinges, and commonly contain a poorly to moderately well-developed cleavage. In some localities, high angle reverse faults with gouge development are also associated with this D4 deformation. The D4 event is interpreted to have occurred at or above the brittle-ductile transition. Gold-bearing orogenic quartz veins occur in D4 kink folds in the Klondike (MacKenzie et al., 2010).  D4 kink folds have also been recognized in the Sixtymile District (Allan et al., 2012) and the White Gold area (Allan et al., 2012; Bailey et al., 2012).   15  The Dawson Range batholith and Coffee Creek plutonic suite intruded the Yukon-Tanana terrane at approximately 100Ma. These intrusive rocks represent the plutonic roots of a magmatic arc that formed during the Cretaceous in response to east dipping subduction of oceanic crust underneath the continental margin. The process consisted of Yukon-Tanana terrane rocks with imbricated slices of Slide Mountain terrane were thrust eastwards onto rocks of ancestral North America (Colpron et al., 2006; Nelson and Colpron, 2007; Mortensen and Hart, 2010). The Dawson Range batholith is interpreted to have intruded into an active dextral shear zone known as the Big Creek fault system, and accommodated shearing during emplacement. This is suggested by observations of Johnston (1999), who noted the shape of the batholith, the association of the batholith with the Big Creek fault, the deflection of wall rock lineations and the fabric development within the intrusive rocks. The batholith contains a margin-parallel foliation, a stretching lineation and records of syn-dextral shearing. In the adjacent wall rock, north trending lineations are deflected clockwise into near parallelism with the batholith margins. The Big Creek Fault accommodated a minimum of 20km of dextral slip (Johnston, 1999). The ascent of magma through a ductile shear zone is evidenced within the diorite and granodiorite phases where the contact-parallel magmatic foliation, defined by hornblende and K-feldspar laths, indicate emplacement at mid-crustal depth (Johnston, 1999; McCausland et al., 2006). The crystallization of the quartz diorite occurred during a change from ductile to more brittle deformation, with porphyritic to pegmatitic textures, miarolitic cavities, and breccias all suggesting emplacement of the quartz diorite at shallow depths. The final transition to brittle deformation is exhibited by the development of the 0 fault (Johnston, 1999). The brittle D5 deformation event in the Klondike District comprises all of the late, high angle, northeast trending normal faults with local gouge development. D5 structures in the western Yukon are mainly, but not exclusively, northeast trending. These structures are spatially associated with Late Cretaceous porphyry dykes, and so are inferred to be mainly of Late Cretaceous age (MacKenzie et al., 2008b).       16   Figure 3. Interpreted geological map of the Independence Creek area showing the Sunset Trend, Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence and geochronological data (Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7). The white claim lines outline the Boulevard claims from Independence Gold Corp. as of June 2011. The calcareous schists cannot be observed from this scale. Sources: (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974; Gordey and Makepeace, 1999; Jilson, 2000; Allan and Hart, 2011; Anonymous, 2011; Couture and Siddorn, 2011; Chartier et al., 2013). 17   2.6 U-Pb Geochronology: Methods and Analytical Results 2.6.1 Methodology  U-Pb dating methods were utilized to constrain the crystallization history of various units in the Independence Creek area. The purpose was to highlight age differences between the Dawson Range batholith, the Coffee Creek plutonic suite and the metamorphic assemblage.  Zircon grains recovered from plutonic and metaplutonic rocks are all relatively coarse grained (up to 200?m long), and show a similar range of external morphology and internal structure. Zircons are typically clear, euhedral and colourless to pale yellow-brown. No obvious internal zoning was observed and morphologies range from stubby octahedral prisms to multi-faceted terminations. U-Pb zircon results from this study are presented in conventional U-Pb concordia plots in Figure 4 to 14. The data is summarized in Table 1. Thirteen samples from surface exposures within the Independence Creek area were dated by the U-Pb zircon method; however, three samples that were dated during the 2003 Intrusion Related Gold Project (99M-105, 99M-107, 99M-106b) are included in Table 1. This includes six samples from the Yukon-Tanana terrane metamorphic assemblage: a siliceous leucogranite containing quartz ribbons with fine grain molybdenum (sample I034207), quartz-K-feldspar augen schist (sample I034224) from the metamorphic package around Toni Tiger, a quartz-feldspar augen schist ? garnet (GM11-9B), light grey to pale yellow quartz-feldspar ? biotite schist (MA11-004BV), two samples from a quartz-feldspar augen leucogranite (MA11-005BV, MA11-006BV), one sample from a quartz-feldspar porphyry (MA11-001BV), three samples of hypidiomorphic biotite granite containing 25% alkali feldspar with less than 5% mafics from the Coffee Creek plutonic suite ( 99M-105, 99M-107, YGR-BV-002), and three samples of hypidiomorphic, phaneritic granodiorite containing 10 to 20% anhedral alkali feldspar with a moderate magmatic foliation from the Dawson Range batholith (I034239, YGR-BV-004, 99M-106-b). For sample locations see Figure 3. The methodology for laser ablation ICP-MS analysis at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) similar to that used by Tafti et al. (2009). Zircon separations were done using conventional crushing, pulverizing, and wet shaking table concentration methods, followed by heavy liquid and magnetic separation. Uranium-lead analyses were carried out using laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS methods.  Instrumentation used comprises a New Wave 18  UP-213 laser ablation system and a ThermoFinnigan Element 2 single collector, double-focusing, magnetic sector ICP-MS. Zircons were handpicked from the heavy mineral concentrate and mounted in an epoxy puck along with several grains of the Ple?ovice zircon standard (Sl?ma et al., 2007) and brought to a very high polish.  High quality portions of each grain free of alteration, inclusions, or cores were selected for analysis.  The surface of the mount was washed for 10 minutes with dilute nitric acid and rinsed in ultraclean water prior to analysis.  Line scans rather than spot analyses were employed in order to minimize elemental fractionation during the analyses.  Backgrounds were measured with the laser shutter closed for ten seconds, followed by data collection with the laser firing for approximately 29 seconds.  The time-integrated signals were analyzed using GLITTER software Griffin et al. (2008) and Van Achterbergh et al. (2001), which automatically subtracts background measurements, propagates all analytical errors, and calculates isotopic ratios and ages.  Corrections for mass and elemental fractionation were made by bracketing analyses of unknown grains with replicate analyses of the zircon standard.  A typical analytical session at the PCIGR consists of four analyses of the standard zircon, followed by four analyses of unknown zircons, two standard analyses, four unkown analyses, etc., and finally four standard analyses.  Final interpretation and plotting of the analytical results employ the ISOPLOT software (Ludwig, 2003). Interpreted ages are based on a weighted average of the individually calculated 207Pb/206Pb ages.    2.6.2 Analytical Results  Sample I034224. This sample of feldspar orthogneiss was collected 150m east of the molybdenite occurrence containing very minor magnetite, good quality zircon and minor molybdenite flakes in the least magnetic fraction. An age of 255.2 ? 0.6Ma was obtained indicating crystallization occurred during the Late Permian. Sample I034207. This sample of aplitic leucogranite was collected immediately adjacent to the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. Zircons from the aplitic leucogranite were dark brown due to metamictization. This sample contained disseminated molybdenite within the least magnetic fraction. An age of 251.3 ? 1.3Ma was obtained indicating crystallization of this unit occurred during the Late Permian. The age of the leucogranite at Toni Tiger suggests a possible correlation with the Jim Creek pluton. 19   Sample GM11-9B. This sample is located in the northern section of the study area containing mainly cloudy, bipyramidal zircons within a quartz-feldspar augen schist ? garnet. A latest Permian/earliest Triassic age of 249.6 ? 3.2Ma was obtained.  Sample MA11-004BV. This sample is a quartz-feldspar ? biotite schist located in the west-central region of the study area. It contains mainly clear zircons, but some are fractured and filled with iron oxides and yields an age of 267.2 ? 5.9Ma. Sample MA11-005BV. A quartz-feldspar metaleucrogranite located in the west-central region of the study area containing dominantly clear zircons yielding a Permian age of 259.4 ? 3.5Ma. Sample MA11-006BV. Similar and located within 100m of MA11-005BV, this sample is a quartz-biotite augen schist with clear to iron oxide stained zircons and minor metamict zones which yielded a Permian age of 257.6 ? 4.9Ma.  Sample MA11-001BV. This sample is from a roughly northwest trending a quartz-feldspar porphyry body located 1km southwest of the Sunset Trend and yielded a Paleocene age of 57.2 ? 1.0Ma. Sample I034239. This sample of biotite-hornblende granodiorite was collected from the Dawson Range batholith 2km due south of the Sunset Trend. Zircons are euhedral and clear. Abundant magnetite was also recovered indicating that the intrusion is strongly oxidized. An age of 100.2 ? 0.3Ma was obtained indicating crystallization occurred during the mid-Cretaceous.  Sample YGR-BV-004. Similar to sample I034239, a biotite-hornblende granodiorite sampled from the Independence airstrip located in the southwest corner of the study area. There are abundant clear and euhedral zircons with a small amount of magnetite and no titanite. An age of 102.0 ? 0.4Ma was obtained indicating crystallization occurred during the mid-Cretaceous.  Sample 99M-106-b. This sample is pegmatitic granodiorite from the southwest corner of the study area. This sample yields a mid-Cretaceous age of 102.5 ? 0.9Ma (Mortensen, 2003).  20  Sample YGR-BV-002. This sample is an undeformed granite along the contact of a gneissic host near the southernmost tributary of Independence Creek. This sample contained some euhedral garnets in most magnetic fractions along with a number of flakes of molybdenum in the least magnetic fraction with a modest amount of good quality zircon. An age of 99.6 ? 0.8Ma was obtained indicating crystallization occurred during the mid-Cretaceous.  Sample 99-M-105. This sample is a biotite granite sampled 1km north of the Toni Tiger occurrence. An age of 99.4 ? 0.9Ma was obtained indicating crystallization occurred during the mid-Cretaceous (Mortensen, 2003).  Sample 99M-107. A biotite-quartz monzonite was sampled from the west-central region of the study area yielding a mid-Cretaceous age of 99.0 ? 0.3Ma (Mortensen, 2003).    Table 1. U-Pb samples from the Independence Creek area.  21   Figure 4. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample I034224, an unmineralized feldspar orthogneiss. In this and subsequent plots, red boxes are age measurements that were included in the weight average calculation; blue boxes are measurements that were excluded.  22    Figure 5. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample I034207, a molybdenite bearing leucogranite. 23   Figure 6. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample GM11-9B, a quartz-feldspar augen schist ? garnet. 24   Figure 7. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-001BV, a quartz-feldspar porphyry.  25    Figure 8. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-005BV, a quartz-feldspar metaleucrogranite. The probability equals zero due to the scatter within the data which yields an imprecise age determination.  26   Figure 9. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-006BV, a quartz augen biotite schist. 27   Figure 10. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample MA11-004BV, a quartz-feldspar ? biotite schist. 28    Figure 11. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample I034239,an unmineralized granodiorite (Dawson Range batholith).  29   Figure 12. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample YGR-BV-004, an unmineralized hornblende biotite granite(Dawson Range batholith).  30   Figure 13. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample 99M105, an unmineralized biotite granite (Coffee Creek plutonic suite).  31   Figure 14. U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots for sample YGR-BV-002, an unmineralized biotite granite (Coffee Creek plutonic suite).  32  2.7 Local Geology   The study area is located in the headwaters of Independence and Coffee creeks and is approximately 30km long and 20km wide.  It is situated immediately south and west of Kaminak Gold Corp.?s active Coffee Gold project. Bedrock is generally only exposed as isolated tors along ridge crests (Fig. 15). The majority of geological mapping carried out as part of this study was conducted by mapping felsenmeer, which has been brought to the surface by surficial processes such as frost-heaving. The geology of the study area can be summarized as a 3km wide, northwest-trending belt of polydeformed schists, flanked to the south and north by large intrusive bodies. The geology of the property is divisible into three main lithological units: polydeformed metamorphic schists, Coffee Creek plutonic suite to the north and the Dawson Range batholith to the south.   Figure 15. Photographs of the terrain at Independence Creek area. Figure 3A is a view across the mineralized zones. Figure 3B is a view of the gold bearing Sunset Trend. Figure 3C displays the typical sub-alpine vegetation seen in the area. Figure 3D is a view looking east displaying the Coffee Creek contact in relation to both mineralized zones.  33  2.7.1 Metamorphic Assemblage   The dominant rock package in the study area is a heterogeneous assemblage of metamorphic schists that underlies approximately 60% of the property. The strike of the metamorphic foliation within this assemblage varies from west-northwest near the headwaters of Coffee Creek, to north-northwest near Independence and Carlisle creeks (Fig. 3).   The metamorphic assemblage is categorized into three dominant rocks packages consisting of six mappable rock units (quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist, chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist, quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist, quartz-feldspar leucogranite, calcareous schist, quartzite) each of which contains intercalated or interfolded units. The three rock packages are (A) mafic and felsic schists; (B) felsic metaintrusive rocks; and (C) calcareous schist and quartzite (Fig. 16).   A) The felsic and mafic schist package consists of two main lithologies: (1) light grey to pale yellow quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist and quartz-feldspar augen schist that locally contains quartz ribbons, and (2) dark green, variably magnetic chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist and local amphibolite (Fig. 16), containing chlorite-biotite and actinolite; with chlorite and biotite exhibiting a prominent foliation. This latter lithology locally contains quartz-feldspar augen that are visible on weathered surfaces.  B) The second package consists of two units of felsic metaintrusive rocks which possibly are a suite of related intrusions, as they have only minor compositional, mineralogical and textural differences:  (3) Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist; the first unit is a foliated quartz-feldspar augen schist which varies between biotite-quartz and quartz-feldspar schist, and minor chlorite. It contains less than 5% mafic minerals along with garnet crystals varying from 2mm to 1cm across. This unit is blocky, white-orange, resistant, garnet-bearing leucogranite with feldspar augens in areas where stretched garnet and biotite define the foliation. Small (less than 2mm wide) undeformed, anhedral to subhedral garnets occur 34  within this unit, which occurs at the confluence of Independence Creek and the Yukon River.   Figure 16. Representative lithologies in the study area. A) Chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist; B) Quartz-feldspar augen schist; C) Quartz-feldspar leucogranite; D) Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist; E) Diopside-garnet  skarn assemblage; F) Serpentinized ultramafic. (4) Quartz-feldspar leucogranite with local quartz augen; this occurs near the southern tributary of Carlisle Creek (Fig. 3). This second unit is a white, foliated quartz-feldspar-muscovite metaleucogranite with less than 5% mafic minerals. It is intercalated with blue quartz-feldspar augen-bearing muscovite schist, which likely has a porphyritic protolith (Fig. 16). ? Quartz-feldspar augen leucogranite; this subunit is a quartz-feldspar dominated aplitic leucogranite that forms a ledge adjacent to the Toni Tiger occurrence. This intrusive is foliated with stretched quartz that defines the foliation. This is very similar to the leucogranite observed at the southern tributary of Carlisle Creek and has been mapped as one unit.  (C) The third package of this metamorphic assemblage consists of (5) calcareous schist and (6) quartzite. The Toni Tiger occurrence, at the headwaters on the most western tributary of Coffee Creek, is hosted within a more calcareous end member within the 35  felsic schist (Fig. 16).  Marble has been previously mapped in this area (Baker, 2011). The Toni Tiger occurrence will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3. A northwest trending, black, foliated quartzite unit with intercalated biotite-rich layers lies against the margin of the southern Dawson Range batholith.    Six samples from the metamorphic assemblage were dated by laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS U-Pb methods on zircon: (1) a siliceous leucogranite containing quartz ribbons with fine grain molybdenum (sample I034207 (251.3 ? 1.3Ma)); (2) a quartz-K-feldspar augen schist (sample I034224, 255.2 ? 0.6Ma) from the metamorphic package around Toni Tiger; (3) a quartz-feldspar augen schist ? garnet (GM11-9B (249 ? 3.2Ma)); (4) a light grey to pale yellow quartz-feldspar ? biotite schist (MA11-004BV, 267.2 ? 5.9Ma); and (5) two samples from a quartz-feldspar augen leucogranite (MA11-005BV (259.4 ? 3.5Ma)), (MA11-006BV (257.6 ? 4.9Ma)). Sample locations are shown in Figure 3 and U-Pb concordia and weighted average plots are shown in Figure 4 to Figure 14. All of the U-Pb samples from the Independence Creek area are listed in Table 1 and detailed descriptions of samples are presented in section 2.6.2.    The total magnetic susceptibility of the metamorphic package, as determined from outcrop and hand samples, varies from 2.0 x10-6 to 40.8 x10-3 (Fig. 17). The magnetic susceptibility was determined using a hand held magnetometer which includes outcrop and analysis of hand samples from all mappable units. Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to a magnetic field.  36     Figure 17. Magnetic susceptibility of various lithologies within the study area. The central box represents the middle 50% of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and the whiskers represent the 10th and 90th percentile. The black line is the median, the top and bottom of the coloured box is the 75th and 25th percentile, the black dot is the average, and statistical outliers are open circles. The number of measurements for each is listed below the average. 37  Highly magnetic domains correspond to chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist due to the presence of abundant magnetite in that unit, whereas weakly magnetic domains typically correspond to quartz-biotite schist. The total magnetic susceptibility of the foliated felsic intrusive rocks varies between 2.0 x10-6 to 2.9 x10-4 (Fig. 17). The airborne radiometric survey results show low levels of thorium, uranium and potassium for all lithologies contained within the metamorphic assemblage, except for the metaintrusive rocks. The metaintrusive units are associated with high potassium, uranium and thorium counts, which distinguish them from the rest of the metamorphic assemblage. The chlorite-biotite ? actinolite ? magnetite mineralogy of the amphibolite suggests that the likely protolith was a volcaniclastic rock. The lithogeochemistry of the amphibolite also supports this conclusion (Fig. 18).  Figure 18. Total alkalis vs. silica for mafic and felsic schists in the Independence Creek area. Modified from (Cox et al., 1979; Wilson, 1989).  The quartz-feldspar-biotite mineralogy and the remnant porphyroclasts of quartz and feldspar in less deformed rocks suggest the protolith may have been a felsic volcanic rock. The protolith of the quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist, based on its radiometric and magnetic signature and its 38  overall quartz-feldspar-rich mineralogy, is likely a metamorphosed granite or granodiorite. The lithogeochemistry of the metaplutonic rocks is shown in Figure 19 and also supports this conclusion.  Figure 19. Total alkalis vs. silica for metaplutonic rocks in the Independence Creek area. Modified from (Cox et al., 1979; Wilson, 1989).  Incompatible elements such as uranium and thorium concentrate in felsic melts; as a result, such felsic units typically display a strong radiometric signature. However, these units contain little magnetite, and so are characterized by an intermediate magnetic signature on airborne magnetic survey maps.   2.7.2 Ultramafic Rocks  A discontinuous string of dun-coloured, massive and resistant lenses of ultramafic rock 10 to 20m wide occurs along the headwaters of Independence and Coffee Creeks (Fig. 3). This 39  distinct and separate map unit occurs along the contact between the metamorphic assemblage to the north and the Dawson Range batholith to the south. These ultramafic rocks are partially to wholly serpentinized, and form several ridge tops along the southern portion of the study area. A light to dark green, phaneritic chlorite-biotite-rich gabbro, interpreted to be part of the same mafic/ultramafic package as the serpentinized ultramafic rock, is exposed in the southwest corner of the property. Slickensides plunging 10 degrees to the east are observed along the base of the ultramafic unit. Both the gabbro and ultramafic units have a general northwest regional trend. The ultramafic unit is strongly magnetic (>37.3 x10-3), based on the hand held magnetometer, and contains low uranium, potassium and thorium contents which is based on the airborne radiometric survey results (Fig. 17).                   40  2.7.3 Dawson Range Batholith  The Dawson Range batholith is a grey, resistant and massive rock unit that is exposed as orange-grey weathering tors up to 6m high along ridge crests (Fig. 20). The batholith underlies the southern edge of the property and overlies the metamorphic assemblage to the north. The batholith varies from granodiorite, granite and pyroxenite to pegmatite and aplite along the gradational contact with the metamorphic assemblage. The dominant rock type is a hypidiomorphic, phaneritic biotite-hornblende granodiorite containing approximately 40% quartz, 30% plagioclase feldspar, 15% anhedral alkali feldspar and 15% biotite and hornblende. An equigranular biotite granite containing 15% biotite is commonly present near the margins of the batholith.   Figure 20. Intrusive rocks of the Independence Creek area. A) Tors of Coffee Creek granite; B) Coffee Creek biotite granite; C) Outcrop of Dawson Range batholith; D) Dawson Range granodiorite.   A foliation shown by aligned biotite and hornblende crystals is locally present in the granite. However, the quartz crystals are not stretched or flattened, suggesting that the biotite and 41  hornblende crystals may have been aligned as the result of magmatic flow. Along its northern margin, near the contact with the adjacent metamorphic rocks, the Dawson Range batholith exhibits a tectonic foliation defined by elongated and stretched quartz crystals. In the southwest corner of the study area, the Dawson Range batholith is locally intruded by the Hone Creek granite, a miarolitic leucrocratic member of the Nisling Range plutonic suite (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974; Lynch and Pride, 1984; Anderson R.G., 1988). Three samples of the Dawson Range batholith were dated using LA-ICP-MS U-Pb methods on zircon. These three samples of hypidiomorphic, phaneritic granodiorite from the Dawson Range batholith are samples I034239, YG-BV-004 and 99M-106-b. The results are 100.2 ? 0.3Ma, 102 ? 0.4Ma and 102.5 ? 0.9Ma respectively. Sample locations are shown in Figure 3 and U-Pb analytical results are given in section 2.6.2 above. All of the U-Pb samples from the Independence Creek area are listed in Table 1 and detailed sample descriptions are in section 2.6.2 above.   The magnetic susceptibility of the Dawson Range batholith varies considerably from 2.6 x10-4 to 4.4 x10-3, as determined using a hand held magnetometer, indicating one to four percent magnetite and that the magmas are therefore of the magnetite-series (Fig. 17) (Hart et al., 2004). The variable magnetic susceptibility within the batholith as determined by the airborne magnetic survey is likely due to one of the following reasons: (1) local variation of magnetite within the different phases of the pluton; (2) magnetite destructive alteration within the pluton especially around northwest trending fractures producing magnetic lows; or (3) the possibility the magnetic survey is detecting the magnetic signature of the underlying metamorphic assemblage due to the Dawson Range batholith being a relatively thin lying laccolith. The airborne radiometric survey indicates high counts of potassium, thorium and uranium relative to the metamorphic assemblage.  2.7.4 Coffee Creek Plutonic Suite  The Coffee Creek pluton is a northern lobe of the Dawson Range batholith (Fig. 3). The Coffee Creek pluton is 7km wide at its widest point, and is best exposed along ridge tops, where it forms 6m high, grey-orange weathering, resistant, massive tors (Fig. 15). The Coffee Creek 42  plutonic suite consists of biotite granite, quartz-feldspar-garnet porphyry, granitic pegmatite and aplite, but was mapped as a single unit during this study.  The biotite granite is a phaneritic hypidiomorphic intrusion containing roughly 40% quartz, 30% plagioclase feldspar, 25% alkali feldspar and up to 5% hornblende and biotite (Fig. 20). A quartz-feldspar-garnet porphyry phase comprises euhedral quartz phenocrysts within a finer grained quartz-feldspar groundmass. These lithologic variations, as well as pegmatites and aplites, most commonly occur near the contact of the Coffee Creek pluton with the surrounding metamorphic assemblage, that is, along the southwestern edge of the Coffee Creek pluton. No fabric was observed in much of the pluton, but north-south trending, brittle fractures are locally well developed. Near Dan Man Creek (Fig. 3), evidence suggests the Coffee Creek granite intruded parallel to metamorphic layering along a gently south dipping fault, and that the intrusive contact was later deformed (Jilson, 2000). The contact with the Coffee Creek granite and the metamorphic assemblage is sheared and foliated within about 1.5m of the contact. Quartz-ribbons and mylonitic textures occur within 0.5m of the contact. This contact gently dips to south, parallel to the foliation in the schists, suggesting that the granite may underlie the south-dipping schist-gneiss assemblage along a fault contact (Jilson, 2000).   Three samples of the Coffee Creek plutonic suite were dated using LA-ICP-MS U-Pb methods on zircon. These three samples (99M-105, 99M-107, YG-BV-002) of hypidiomorphic granite yielded dates of 99.4 ? 0.9Ma, 99.0 ? 0.3Ma, and 99.6 ? 0.8Ma. Sample locations are shown in Figure 3 and U-Pb results are given in section 2.6.2. All of the U-Pb samples from the Independence Creek area are listed in Table 1, and detailed sample descriptions are presented in section 2.6.2.  The magnetic susceptibility of the Coffee Creek plutonic suite varies considerably from 4x10-6 to 4.5x10-3, as determined using a hand held magnetometer, indicating that it is weakly to moderately oxidizing. The variable magnetic susceptibility within the pluton as determined by the airborne magnetic survey is likely due to one of the three reasons previously discussed for the Dawson Range batholith in section 2.7.3. The airborne radiometric survey indicates high counts of potassium, thorium and uranium over the Coffee Creek pluton.  This geophysical expression is identical to that of the Dawson Range batholith.   43  2.7.5 Volcanic Rocks  Unconformably overlying the Dawson Range batholith in the southern portion of the present study area is a poorly exposed, brownish-pink weathering volcanic unit (Fig. 3). This volcanic unit is a quartz-feldspar porphyry that occurs only as felsenmeer along the ridge crests, commonly containing trace pyrite, and has a very weak planar fabric (Fig. 21). The total magnetic susceptibility of the rhyodacite porphyry varies from 2.3 x10-5 to 7.0 x10-5 as determined using a hand held magnetometer. The magnetic signature of the thin, patchy volcanic unit is largely obscured by the high magnetic response of the Dawson Range batholith, and is therefore not discernible on the airborne magnetic survey maps. The radiometric signature of the volcanics is largely obscured by the high radiometric response of the Dawson Range batholith; and therefore is not useful for mapping volcanic rocks.  One sample, a quartz-feldspar porphyry (MA11-001BV), was dated using U-Pb geochronology which yielded an age of 57.2 ? 1.0Ma and is listed in Table 1.     Figure 21. Volcanic rocks of the Independence Creek area. A) Quartz-feldspar porphyry with quartz phenocrysts; B) Fine grained felsic porphyry with quartz phenocrysts.   2.8 Geological Mapping Methodology 2.8.1 Previous Mapping Work  The Geological Survey of Canada completed 1:250,000 scale mapping of the Stevenson Ridge map sheet (NTS 115; formerly Snag) between 1971 and 1974 (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974). Field work was confined to outcrops accessible from the numerous river systems with some limited helicopter-supported examinations of outcrop along ridge crests. Tempelman?Kluit?s work provided the first detailed geological map in the area, and included a summary of mineral 44  occurrences within the Stevensen Ridge, Aishihik Lake and Stewart River map-sheets.  This map is the most up-to-date geological map of the region. The mapping showed that the majority of western Yukon is underlain by metamorphosed pelitic and igneous rocks of Proterozoic and/or Paleozoic age. These metamorphic units are intruded by numerous large Mesozoic batholiths of granodiorite, quartz monzonite and pink quartz monzonite.  Major and minor structures and fabrics within the metamorphic rocks trend generally to the northwest and the folded layering is parallel to a coarse schistosity. Mineral occurrences described by Tempelman-Kluit (1974) included copper- and tungsten bearing magnetite skarns within the Aishihik Lake map area, and molybdenite-chalcopyrite skarns within the Snag map area (Tempelman-Kluit, 1971, 1972b; Tempelman-Kluit, 1972a, 1974). During the 2011 and 2012 field seasons, the Geological Survey of Canada remapped the northern Stevenson Ridge map sheet at 1:50,000 scale, with the resulting map scheduled to be released in 2013 (Ryan et al., 2013b).  2.8.2 Geophysics     During the 2011 field season a helicopter-borne magnetic and radiometric survey was conducted over the Independence Creek area by Airborne Aeroquest for Independence Gold Corp.  The main geophysical sensor was a stinger-mounted caesium vapour magnetometer and the secondary sensor was a gamma ray spectrometer.  The total survey covered 3,410 line km, flown along a heading of 35/215 degrees, with 100m spacing between the flight lines. The usefulness of these methods relies on the existence of a measurable contrast between the physical properties of the target and the surrounding medium. High resolution magnetic and radiometric maps were produced by the survey. These maps were then used to verify mapped lithologic units and identify poorly exposed fault structures. The survey results are shown in Figures 22 and 23. This contrast is evident from the airborne magnetic survey results which show that the northwest trending mafic schist is highly magnetic compared to the adjacent quartz-biotite schist. The mafic schist displays a distinct magnetic signature because it contains more magnetite than metaintrusive and metasedimentary rocks in the region. Considerable differences are seen in magnetic signature between the mafic schist, the Dawson Range batholith and the Coffee Creek pluton. The mafic schists generally have a higher magnetite content, and a corresponding higher magnetic signature, than the plutonic rocks. These trends are illustrated in Figure 22.  45   Figure 22. Total magnetic intensity map of the Independence Creek map. Pink-purple colours represent elevated magnetic susceptibility while blue colours represent low values. Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7.  The airborne radiometric survey identifies regions with strong gamma ray emissions by detecting the emissions from relatively high uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations which are common in felsic rocks such as granite. Uranium, thorium and potassium are typically lower in metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks as seen in Figure 23. The Dawson Range batholith, Coffee Creek pluton and metaintrusive suites all have positive radiometric signatures which allow the margins of these units to be accurately mapped.  However, there can be distortions in detecting gamma ray emissions in some parts of the study area, such as attenuation due to the presence of water.   46   Figure 23. Gamma-ray spectrometry map of the Independence Creek area. Blue-black colours represent elevated values of uranium, thorium and potassium and white represents low values.  Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7.  2.8.3 Geochemistry      The Independence Creek soil geochemical database consists of 11,400 B-horizon soil samples that were collected during the 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and the 2011 field programs by Equity Exploration Ltd. on behalf of Independence Gold Corp. (Silver Quest) and by others who previously held this ground. Detailed grids along the Sunset Trend and in the vicinity of the Toni Tiger occurrence were completed at 50m intervals along lines 100m apart. Eastern and western extensions of these grids were sampled using lines spaced 200 to 500m apart, with samples 47  collected at 100m intervals along the lines (Baker, 2011). The soil geochemical database includes sample descriptions, soil horizon, colour, depth, slope and vegetation information for each sample. Soil samples for the 2007 and 2008 were analyzed using a different analytical technique, which has a higher detection limit (D.L.) than that used on the 2010 and 2011 soil samples (Table 2) (Baker, 2011).   Season Arsenic D.L. Bismuth D.L. Antimony D.L. Molybdenum D.L. Pre-2010 2ppm 2ppm 2ppm 1ppm Post (incl.) 2010 0.1ppm 0.1ppm 0.5ppm 0.05ppm Table 2. Precision or Detection Limit (D.L.) of soil sample analytical techniques; pre-2010, and 2010 and later.   Soil mapping is useful as an aid to geological mapping in the west-central Yukon because this area was not glaciated during the Pleistocene. As a result, soils in the region are largely residual, and their compositions can provide clues as to the nature of the underlying lithology. Soil mapping is a relatively crude technique but is useful as a first pass for identifying major lithological differences such as distinguishing between underlying granite and metaclastic rocks. A significant compositional contrast must exist in the underlying rock types for soil mapping to be effective, because any soil present will reflect the composition of the underlying, parent rocks.   The Independence Creek area is a good area to test soil mapping for the following reasons: (i) the extensive soil sample coverage with over 11,400 B-horizon soil samples, and (ii) the elemental contrast between the granitic Coffee Creek plutonic suite and the metamorphic assemblage. During the fractional crystallization of magma, elements which are incompatible tend to remain in the melt as they do not readily substitute for major elements in minerals such as quartz, feldspar and mica due to their strong ionic charges. As a result, uranium and thorium concentrate in accessory minerals such as zircon, titanite and rutile. These minerals typically occur in igneous intrusions such as the Dawson Range batholith. It is expected that the Dawson Range batholith would yield high uranium and thorium results.   48  During mantle melting, magnesium is very compatible with minerals such as olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. This reaction occurs due to the moderate ionic radius and ionic charge which makes it ideal to occupy octahedral sites. Typical granitic melts only contain 2-4 wt% MgO, and in sedimentary and igneous carbonates magnesium commonly substitutes for calcium. As a result, magnesium occurs dominantly with mafic minerals such as those associated with chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist as seen throughout the Sunset Trend. It is expected that the chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist would yield high magnesium and chromium.   The geochemical soil database can be utilized to produce maps showing both compatible and incompatible elements. A four element ratio (U + Th)/(Cr + Mg) is used to highlight differences within the surrounding mid-Cretaceous intrusions and the metamorphic assemblage. A four element ratio is used instead of a two element ratio to account for variability within the rocks. Uranium and thorium commonly concentrate within the intrusions while magnesium and chromium commonly concentrate within the less felsic metamorphic rocks. The data for each element was normalized to the maximum value using z-scores. The maximum value for a given element is one, and the remaining concentrations fall between zero and one. Figure 24 does not show normalized z-scores for each and every element, but instead shows only a ratio of uranium plus thorium divided by chromium plus magnesium. All soil data below detection limits were replaced with half the detection limit to prevent data gaps.         49   Figure 24. Soil geochemistry map of the Independence Creek area. Geochemical map displaying a normalized (U + Th/Cr + Mg) ratio based upon B-horizon soil samples which highlights uranium and thorium rich anomalies within the study area. Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7.  50  2.8.4 Derivative Mapping  The geological map of the Independence Creek area (Fig. 3) was compiled from numerous datasets, including field mapping, government and company geological maps, assessment reports, airborne geophysical data and soil lithogeochemistry. Geochemical and geophysical anomalies were then field checked to verify the accuracy of each technique. Fifteen traverses were completed during the 2011 field season to map Independence Gold Corp.?s Boulevard claims, which is defined by the white claim lines in Figure 3. No traverses were completed within the Coffee property in the northeast part of the study area, and thus the map of the Coffee property was compiled from government maps and company reports (Fig. 3). All publically available maps and assessment reports from the region were examined and compared with recently obtained airborne magnetic and radiometric maps. The following section describes how each of the rock units was mapped and interpreted in the Independence Creek area.  The serpentinized ultramafic observed in the field is a dun coloured outcrop of large boulders of felsenmeer immediately adjacent to a quartzite unit. It can be traced on the property for at least 6km and there are outcrop locations east and west of the Independence Creek area which are along strike (Zagorevski et al., 2012). The ultramafic is highly magnetic, based on the hand held magnetometer analysis, but the magnetic signature is difficult to discern from the airborne magnetic survey data, because the adjacent amphibolite is also magnetic. The airborne radiometric survey displays low thorium, uranium and potassium counts for the ultramafic unit. The soils overlying the ultramafic rocks were not sampled, so the soil mapping does not assist in identifying their location. Tempelman-Kluit (1974) mapped one outcrop of serpentinized harzburgite 1km southeast of the western most tributary of Independence Creek and inferred the presence of a nearby, major fault. This fault is now interpreted to be a southwest dipping, northwest striking thrust fault. The evidence for this is discussed in section 2.9.  The metamorphic assemblage consists of six mappable units which are organized into three main packages, described in detail in section 2.7. The mafic schist unit has a very strong magnetic response due to its variable magnetite content and displays an obvious west-northwest to northwest striking foliation while the felsic schist unit has a very low magnetic response, but is generally found adjacent to the mafic schist. The radiometric response for both schist units is 51  relatively subdued. The soil geochemistry is not particularly effective for identifying the mafic or felsic schists, but can be used to differentiate between the schists and the plutonic rocks.  The best techniques for identifying the mafic schist are outcrop and/or felsenmeer mapping coinciding with a tightly spaced airborne magnetic survey. The airborne magnetic survey was used as a base layer and ground truthed to verify that the magnetic signature was indeed produced by the mafic schist. The historical mapping in the vicinity was limited to the regional 1: 250,000 scale mapping by Tempelman-Kluit (1974); as a result, the area was mapped as undifferentiated schist gneiss assemblage.  The felsic metaplutonic rocks have been mapped based on field mapping and airborne magnetic survey data. These rocks occur dominantly in the northern and western portions of the property, in addition to minor occurrences near the Toni Tiger showing. They have an intermediate airborne magnetic signature and a very strong radiometric signature, which is best observed in the northern part of the study area between Carlisle and Independence Creek. This unit is thought to connect to the augen gneiss previously described by Jilson (2000) in the Dan Man Creek area. This augen gneiss hosts approximately half the recently discovered Coffee deposit in the Coffee Creek area. The boundary or margin of the quartz-feldspar leucogranite in the west-central part of the study area has been mapped mainly by the airborne magnetic survey response, and has only been visited near the southwestern tributary of Carlisle Creek. No historical mapping of metaplutonic rocks on the Boulevard claims has occurred.   Calcareous schists occur throughout the metamorphic assemblage in the Independence Creek area and have typically been observed as marble except at the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. The Toni Tiger occurrence is hosted in a diopside-garnet skarn which has been explored and mapped since Archer Cathro discovered it in 1969. Quartz-molybdenite veins are exposed in three shallow trenches that have been excavated around the occurrence. Mineralization extends across a few hundred metres, in all directions. The magnetic and radiometric signatures of the calcareous rocks at Toni Tiger are low and relatively subdued. The soil geochemistry outlines a 300 by 300m molybdenum anomaly, but downslope colluvium transport has occurred on the southeastern side of the anomaly area, likely extending this part of the anomaly well beyond molybdenum mineralization in the underlying bedrock. Cox (2013) describe the soil processes which affect the dispersion of metals within the soils in the 52  Independence Creek area. Impure quartzites occur all over the study area and have been defined as containing more than 80% quartz. They have a low magnetic signature and are not observable with the radiometric survey. Soil sampling does not easily distinguish quartzites from the surrounding rocks at Independence Creek due to insufficient coverage. The only way to identify the quartzites is through field mapping.  Numerous weak magnetic lineaments interpreted as fracture sets can be observed trending west-northwest and north-northwest, particularly within the amphibolites and the calcareous schist at Toni Tiger (Allan and Hart, 2011). Subtle east-northeast trending linear features are visible within the airborne magnetics and are best observed in the southern regions of the study area, particularly near the Coffee Creek granite where these features cross-cut the intrusive contact (Allan and Hart, 2011). Toni Tiger is on trend with these magnetic features, suggesting that mineralizing fluids may have been related to an east-west structure. These east-northeast structures are not visible in outcrop and their presence is inferred on the basis of the airborne magnetic survey data (Allan and Hart, 2011).  The Dawson Range batholith and the Coffee Creek plutonic suite contacts have been mapped with a high degree of confidence. Both have an intermediate magnetic signature and a very strong radiometric signature, which provide a strong contrast with the adjacent non-magnetic metamorphic assemblage. The airborne magnetics are very effective for identifying structures at various orientations across the property. Numerous north-west trending linear features identified from the airborne magnetic survey data are interpreted to be brittle faults that crosscut the metamorphic assemblage, the Dawson Range batholith and the Coffee Creek pluton.  One such fault displaces the Dawson Range batholith and the metamorphic assemblage dextrally by approximately 1km, suggesting the feature is post 100Ma. The soil geochemistry outlines the contact for the Coffee Creek granite very well when used in conjunction with field mapping, magnetic and radiometric surveys. The northern contact between the Coffee Creek plutonic suite and the metamorphic assemblage on the Coffee property is moderately well defined using publically available magnetic and field maps. This contact was loosely defined by Tempelman-Kluit (1974).  53  There are several occurrences of rhyodacite porphyry which are found cross-cutting the Dawson Range batholith. The magnetic signature of the volcanics is largely obscured by the very high magnetic response of the Dawson Range batholith and the thin inferred thickness, and is therefore not discernible on the airborne magnetic survey maps. The radiometric signature of the volcanics can be weakly observed. The geochemical soil sampling grids did not cover any known occurrences of the volcanic rocks. These rocks were mapped in outcrop and felsenmeer.  Soil mapping is generally not an effective tool for mapping internal variability within the schists that underlie part of the Independence Creek property due to their highly variable lithological composition. However, results of soil mapping generally coincide quite well with results of outcrop mapping and geophysical surveys, and thus provide one more degree of confidence for the location of major lithological contacts such as differentiating the dominantly mafic from felsic metamorphic units (Fig. 25). Soil sampling is limited to unglaciated areas.   The final interpreted geological map of the Independence Creek property is shown in Figure 3. The map highlights the diversity within the metamorphic package and the numerous previously unrecognized, though mappable, units in this region, such as the Late Permian orthogneiss in the northern region of the study area. This technique of integrating all available data sources for geological map construction adds substantial value, especially in areas of poor exposure. This does not suggest that outcrop mapping is irrelevant; on the contrary, it implies the importance of documenting the available outcrop while not ignoring clues from other datasets. The conventional approach of mapping only bedrock must be combined with all available datasets in order to better understand the geology of this complex metamorphic terrane.  54     Figure 25. B-horizon soil geochemistry compared with whole rock geochemistry samples from the Independence Creek area. All MgO values were converted from wt % to ppm using the following formula: 1MgO wt % *(24.305Mg * 10000)/ (40.299MgO). Several whole rock samples fall off trend with the soil sample geochemistry. This likely do to the loess component of the B-horizon samples which dilutes the underlying bedrock geochemical signature. 55  2.9 Property Structural Geology  The structural geology of the Independence Creek area is based dominantly on field and drill core observations which are summarized in Table 3. Outcrop is limited within the Sunset Trend; however, many structures can be observed in outcrop within the study area. Amphibolite displays an approximate west-northwest strike (120o) and dips to the southwest (70o).   Table 3. Summary of principal geological events affecting the Independence Creek area.  Modified from MacKenzie and Craw (2011). 56  It is uncertain if deformation events recognized in the Independence Creek area can be correlated with regionally mapped tectonic events. Deformation structures and fabrics recognized at Independence Creek area are here designated by an ?I? subscript. Isoclinal folds and early boudined quartz veins are visible in outcrop and drill core; these are the only evidence of an earlier deformation event, locally named DI1. Polydeformed felsic and mafic schists (Fig. 26) within the study area have been affected by at least one penetrative deformation event, locally named DI2, which is manifest as metamorphic fabrics and likely formed during latest Permian time (MacKenzie et al., 2008b; Beranek and Mortensen, 2011). Primary bedding (SI0) has been completely transposed by the second (DI2) deformation event; only the SI2 fabric was observed in the study area.   A third deformation event (DI3) can be recognized particularly within the mica-rich metavolcanic rocks, in which closed to tight asymmetric folds related to the DI3 event deform the pre-existing fabric. An axial planar cleavage (SI3) is observed locally in outcrop and in drill core. These folds are generally west-northwest trending and parallel to the regional metamorphic fabric, with sub-vertical axial planes and sub-horizontal fold hinges (Allan and Hart, 2011). Northern fold limbs are typically steeper than the southern fold limbs, which are particularly well developed within metavolcanic schists on the western portion of the study area.  This implies a northern vergence to the DI3 structures. A west-northwest trending stretching lineation, characterized in part by elongated quartz crystals observed primarily in the amphibolite, is also commonly observed near DI3 folds. These folds are parallel to lineations observed within the Dawson Range batholith (Allan and Hart, 2011).   According to MacKenzie et al. (2008a), regionally developed F3 folds and associated S3 crenulation cleavages typically mark thrust faults which represent a localized brittle-ductile deformation. Major fault displacement is likely to have occurred where sheared, discontinuous ultramafic lenses are present. Bodies of imbricated serpentinized ultramafic rocks 10 to 20m wide have been mapped along the contact with the Dawson Range batholith, and such bodies are known to occur along thrust surfaces throughout the Yukon-Tanana terrane (MacKenzie et al., 2008a).   57   Figure 26. Examples ductile and brittle structures observed at Independence Creek. A) Chlorite-biotite-actinolite ? magnetite schist with a closed to tight asymmetric F3 fold; (B) Joint set in the Coffee Creek plutonic suite; (C) Boulders of chlorite-actinolite schist displaying asymmetric S3 crenulation cleavage with associated F3 fold; (D) Localized tectonic fabric defined by stretched quartz and feldspar within Dawson Range batholith.   These northwest trending mantle-derived ultramafic lenses likely represent fragments of the Slide Mountain assemblage that were imbricated within the Yukon-Tanana terrane during collision with ancestral North America in the latest Permian and/or during subsequent regional 58  thrust imbrication of the Yukon-Tanana terrane in the Early Jurassic (MacKenzie et al., 2008a). Strong magnetic breaks between magnetic amphibolite and non-magnetic quartz-biotite schist appear to parallel topographic contours, especially near the Sunset Trend. This suggests that the contact between these two units is sub-horizontal.   The Dawson Range batholith has a variably developed, west-northwest trending planar and linear magmatic flow fabric, which is moderately to steeply dipping and is defined by aligned 1cm long hornblende crystals. There is also a localized tectonic fabric (DI4) that is characterized by stretched quartz ribbons and almost exactly parallels the magmatic flow fabric. This tectonic fabric is only observed near the Dawson Range batholith contact. There is no tectonic fabric observed at the 99Ma Coffee Creek pluton. However, Jilson (2000) observed shear fabrics on the Coffee property which are interpreted to be related to a younger faulting event. During the emplacement of the Dawson Range batholith this deformation may have tightened the pre-existing DI3 folds. At Independence Creek, the Dawson Range batholith is interpreted to have intruded along a pre-existing northwest trending, shallowly southwest dipping fault structure, based on the following lines of evidence: 1) Slivers of ultramafic rocks occur throughout Yukon-Tanana along inferred thrust faults and were imbricated with Yukon-Tanana rock units during the collision with Laurentia (Mortensen, 1990; MacKenzie et al., 2007; MacKenzie et al., 2008b) 2) Outcrops of the Coffee Creek granite are locally sheared and foliated above a structural contact with the schist-gneiss unit, which dips gently to the south (Jilson, 2000) During the mid-Cretaceous (~95Ma), cross-cutting mineralized veins filled extensional structures as indicated by the presence of vugs, cavities and crack-seal textures in the veins. This deformation event (DI5) post-dates the Klondike D4 mineralizing event, which has yielded a range of Middle and Late Jurassic ages (Mortensen, 2012).  This event is discussed further in Chapter 3. Finally, 8 to 9km long, northeast trending faults (DI6) which cross-cut the Coffee Creek and Dawson Range batholith are observed in the regional airborne magnetic patterns, suggesting that these faults formed post 99Ma. Structural observations described here for the Independence Creek area have a shared early history (DI1 to DI2) with the Klondike area to the north described by MacKenzie et al. (2008b); however, the post DI2 history begins to differ, and is compared in Table 3. 59  Chapter 3: Mineralization, Alteration and Fluid Characterization 3.1 Introduction  Gold mineralization is centered on a poorly exposed 1.2km  by 450m wide gold-in-soil anomaly (Sunset Trend), which was identified in 2006 and staked in 2007 based on the 90th percentile of gold and arsenic concentrations (Roberts, 2008). Two separate and possibly distinct mineralizing systems are within the study area: the Sunset Trend, which is primarily a gold exploration target, and the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. The Toni Tiger occurrence is approximately a 1500m by 1500m wide molybdenum-in-soil anomaly, based on the 90th percentile molybdenum assay. The objective of this chapter is to determine the controls on gold and molybdenum mineralization, to establish possible relationships between the two, and to put mineralization in the Independence Creek area into a regional metallogenic context.   3.2 Western Yukon Regional Metallogeny  The Independence Creek area is within the Dawson Range, about 130km south of Dawson City (Figure 2). The White Gold district extends south from the Klondike placer fields near Dawson, and includes major placer mining areas such as the Indian River as well as recent bedrock gold discoveries such as White Gold (Underworld Resources Inc./Kinross Gold Corp.). Rocks within the Dawson Range host a variety of mineral deposit types, including porphyry systems (e.g., Casino, Sonora Gulch, Revenue), epithermal veins (e.g., Tinta Hill), and orogenic veins (e.g., Longline/Moosehorn). The location of these prospects is shown in Figure 2 and the metallogenic framework is summarized in Table 4. Despite recent exploration efforts, relatively few deposits of significant size have been identified to date in west-central Yukon. Possible lode sources of placer gold from creeks in the region, including Coffee and Thistle creeks, have only begun to be discovered (e.g., the White Gold deposit located 40km north of Independence Creek, in the Thistle Creek area). Important copper-gold porphyry deposits and gold deposits have been discovered within the Dawson Range. The White Gold deposit, on the White Gold property, is a significant gold deposit that is located at the junction of the White River with the Yukon River (Fig. 2). This discovery started with identification and drill-testing of gold-in-soil geochemical anomalies. It is hosted within felsic 60  gneisses where gold deposition occurred within highly fractured and reactive rocks, leading to pyritized zones containing gold and minor arsenic (MacKenzie et al., 2010; Bailey, 2013). The Golden Saddle deposit is a Late Jurassic orogenic gold system with local zones of extension and compression in an overall transpressive stress regime during mineralization (Bailey, 2013). Underworld Resources Inc. defined a resource of 9.7 million tonnes at 3.19 g/t for 1,004,570 contained ounces of gold in January 2010 (Underworld Resources Inc., January 19, 2010 press release).  Age (Ma) Style Example Reference 65-71 Porphyry, skarn, vein Butler, Mag, Prospector Mountain (Mortensen et al., 2012 unpub.; Allan et al., 2013) 72-79 Porphyry Cu(Au-Mo), epithermal Casino, Sonora Gulch, Revenue-Nucleus (Hart and Selby, 1998; Bennett et al., 2010; Mortensen et al., 2012 unpub.; Allan et al., 2013) 93-111 Epithermal, Reduced Intrusion Related Gold Deposits Mt. Nansen, Pogo (Selby and Creaser, 2001; Mortensen et al., 2003) 92 to 96 Orogenic gold Longline (Joyce, 2002) 155-164 Orogenic gold White Gold (Bailey, 2013) 179-216 Intrusion-related Cu-Au Minto/Carmacks Copper (Tafti and Mortensen, 2004) Table 4. Regional metallogenic framework for west-central Yukon.   Despite the 20 million ounces of placer gold recovered from the Klondike District from uplifted and exhumation of orogenic gold veins, only minor hard rock mining has taken place at the Lone Star mine on Eldorado Creek (Chapman et al., 2010). Orogenic quartz veins in the Klondike are massive with local carbonate and with minor sulphide mineralization in the wall rock containing gold with limonite and as free gold (Rushton et al., 1993; MacKenzie et al., 2008b).  The Casino, Sonora Gulch and Revenue-Nucleus copper-gold porphyry deposits are located within a belt to the southeast of the Independence Creek area (Fig. 2). All three of these deposits formed approximately 75Ma, during the Late Cretaceous (Allan et al., 2013). The Casino deposit is centered on a microbreccia pipe and an adjacent porphyry intrusion dated at 73.9 ? 0.1Ma containing disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and gold (Bower, 1995; Mortensen et al., 2012 unpub.). Re-Os ages for molybdenite from the Casino deposit range from 74.4 ? 0.3Ma 61  to 75.0 ? 0.3Ma (Selby and Creaser, 2001). Casino contains ore reserves of 965 million tonnes at 0.204% copper, 0.240g/t gold, .0227% molybdenum and 1.74g/t silver (Huss et al., 2013). The gold-rich Revenue deposit (Fig. 2) is centered around the 75.4Ma Revenue breccia body and associated with quartz-chalcopyrite-pyrite veins (Campbell and Sexton, 2012; Allan et al., 2013). Revenue contains an inferred resource of 1.1 million ounces of gold, 10.2 million ounces of silver, 287 million pounds of copper and 90 million pounds of molybdenum (Campbell and Sexton, 2012). The Nucleus Au-Ag-Cu deposit, adjacent to the Revenue deposit, is characterized by quartz ? chalcopyrite ? pyrite veins and gold breccia infill (Armitage and Cambell, 2011). Nucleus contains 1.7 million ounces of gold, 2.7 million ounces of silver and 129.8 million pounds of copper and is inferred to be age-equivalent to post-breccia gold mineralization at Revenue (Armitage and Cambell, 2011; Allan et al., 2013).  Numerous styles of mineralization are represented in the west-central Yukon (Table 4), including epithermal (Mt. Nansen),  orogenic gold (Moosehorn), porphyry (Sonora Gulch), and intrusion related gold systems (Carmacks Copper), which indicate a diverse metallogenic and geologic setting (Allan et al., 2013).  3.3 Regional Mineralization 3.3.1 Moosehorn Range Mineralization    The Moosehorn Range granodiorite is the western extension of the age-equivalent Dawson Range batholith (Fig. 2). The Moosehorn Range granodiorite hosts the structurally controlled Longline gold occurrence (Fig. 2).   Since the discovery of mineralization in the Moosehorn Range, numerous mapping, soil sampling and drilling programs as well as geophysical surveys have been conducted. Most recently Aldrin Resource Corp. conducted a soil sampling and drilling program in the northern Moosehorn Range in 2010. Two distinct styles of mineralization are located to the north and south, one of which comprises sporadically gold-bearing, discrete quartz veins similar to those in the southern Moosehorn Range (Longline deposit). Aldrin Resources Corporation focused on a possibly different style of mineralization which is present in the northern part of the range, and comprises zones of disseminated As-Au mineralization.  62  The Longline deposit is located in the southern Moosehorn Range, 75km northwest of Independence Creek and immediately east of the Yukon-Alaska border. The Moosehorn Range is underlain by a massive to weakly foliated biotite-hornblende granodiorite that varies in age from 104.5 to 99Ma (Mortensen and Joyce, 2002 unpublished data) and is the westernmost extension of the Dawson Range batholith. The Moosehorn Range granodiorite is comprised of several distinct intrusive phases, including granitic, aplitic, felsic and mafic dykes (Joyce, 2002). Yukon-Tanana metamorphic assemblage rock units, consisting of biotite-quartz ? feldspar ? muscovite gneiss and schist, are in contact with the Moosehorn granodiorite along its northeast margin, and the dominant structural grain in the metamorphic rocks is orientated northwest, parallel to the long axis of the Moosehorn Range. The contact between the intrusion and the adjacent metamorphic wall rocks is poorly exposed and its relationship with the surrounding country rock is unknown (Joyce, 2002).   The Longline deposit was initially explored for porphyry copper potential in 1970 by Quintana Minerals. It was not until 1975 that Great Bear Mining Ltd. and Claymore Resources Ltd. discovered multiple discontinuous veins with variable grades of gold (Grieg, 1975; Ritcey et al., 2000). Drill results were disappointing in terms of vein thickness and grade. Claymore Resources Limited discovered and began to mine rich pay streaks of placer gold in streams draining the main area of veining (Ritcey et al., 2000). Sikanni Oilfield Construction carried out placer mining between 1990 and 1996 as well as bedrock mining and extracted 3200 ounces of gold using a gravity mill (Ritcey et al., 2000). Barramundi Gold Ltd. from 1996 to 2000 carried out numerous exploration programs including a prospecting, mapping, trenching, soil sampling, a 4600m drill program, airborne and ground geophysical surveys (Ritcey et al., 2000; Joyce, 2002).   Mineralization at the Longline deposit comprises shallowly east dipping quartz veins that cut the Moosehorn Range granodiorite (Joyce, 2002). The quartz veins are coarse milky white to clear quartz containing up to 5% sulphides, sulphosalts, and other minerals, including galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, gold, scheelite and boulangerite (Ritcey et al., 2000). Tetrahedrite has also been tentatively identified.  The alteration assemblage includes muscovite, sericite, iron carbonate, pyrite, minor clay and arsenopyrite.  Lead isotopic studies indicate that the Moosehorn intrusions are not the source rocks for mineralization in the southern mineralized 63  zone (Joyce, 2002). The veins were emplaced between 93 and 92Ma along northwest striking, northeast dipping brittle fault structures as verified by 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal sericite associated with the veins. All of the gold-bearing veins post-date the intrusive host rocks by at least 5 million years and are interpreted to be orogenic in nature (Joyce, 2002).  3.3.2 Coffee Mineralization   The Coffee Gold project of Kaminak Gold Corp. lies immediately north and east of the Independence Creek study area (Fig. 3). The Coffee project contains an inferred resource estimate of 79 million tonnes grading 1.36 g/t Au for 3.4 million contained ounces of gold (Carpenter, 2012; Chartier et al., 2013; Thomas, 2014). The geology of the area consists of an augen orthogneiss to the north, the Coffee Creek plutonic suite to the south and metamorphic siliciclastic rocks which lie in between. Gold mineralization occurs in several different host rocks and is associated with fault structures at a variety of different orientations, including north-south and east-west. Mineralization is structurally controlled but not associated with extensive quartz veining; rather, the mineralization is associated with quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration and brecciation (Wainwright et al., 2011; Chartier and Couture, 2012; Wainwright et al., 2012; Chartier et al., 2013).  Three rock types host gold mineralization on the Coffee property: (1) an augen gneiss with variable quartz, biotite and muscovite (Supremo occurrence); and (2) a biotite-feldspar schist intercalated with mylonitized feldspar-quartz muscovite rock and metagabbro (Latte and Double-Double occurrences); and (3) the equigranular Coffee Creek granite (Kona occurrence) (Couture and Siddorn, 2011; Chartier and Couture, 2012; Wainwright et al., 2012). Gold bearing structures are steeply dipping and cross-cut all rock units throughout the Coffee property. The strike of these fault structures varies considerably within individual mineralized zones (Couture and Siddorn, 2011; Wainwright et al., 2011). Sanchez et al. (2013)  interprets that gold mineralization is controlled by dextral strike-slip faults and a series of dextral oblique-extensional northwest trending fault segments. Lower-order orogen-orthogonal fault arrays are interpreted to focus brecciation and gold mineralization (Sanchez et al., 2013).  At the Supremo gold occurrence, about 70% of gold mineralization is hosted in augen gneiss and 30% is hosted in biotite-feldspar schist (Couture and Siddorn, 2011; Chartier and Couture, 64  2012). The highest grade gold mineralization at Supremo (10 to 60g/t Au) occurs within hydrothermally altered breccias, but somewhat lower grades (2 and 10g/t Au) are also found in zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration consisting of sulphide and silica (Couture and Siddorn, 2011). These breccias consist of centimetre sized clasts of gneissic country rock in a matrix of very fine grained pyrite, clay and limonite (Couture and Siddorn, 2011).  The breccia contains chalcedonic quartz and limonite.  The pyrite is rarely arsenic rich in composition; however, arsenopyrite is not observed. The more pervasive style of mineralization is composed of hydrothermal sericite, illite, quartz and limonite. Gold mineralization is associated with iron oxide after primary pyrite (Couture and Siddorn, 2011; Chartier and Couture, 2012; Chartier et al., 2013). The metamorphic fabric strikes northwest and dips shallowly to the southwest at Supremo but more steeply at Latte and Double-Double. Supremo contains dominantly north-south striking gold structures cutting the augen gneiss.   The rock package at the Latte and Double-Double gold occurrences is dominated by a biotite-feldspar schist characterized by thinly laminated, alternating bands or ribbons of feldspar and quartz (Chartier and Couture, 2012; Wainwright et al., 2012). At Latte, there are two zones of mineralization: (1) a strongly oxidized zone associated with pyrite and hosted by altered biotite-feldspar-quartz schist; (2) unoxidized mineralization where breccia zones are replaced by mica, quartz and sulphide in which the pyrite exhibits arsenic rich zones, locally with chalcopyrite (Couture and Siddorn, 2011; Chartier and Couture, 2012; Chartier et al., 2013). Andesite and dacite dykes have also been found spatially associated with the same mineralizing structures but are barren (Couture and Siddorn, 2011).  However, at Double Double breccia domains are characterized by silicified fragments, strongly altered wallrock and porphyry dike clasts (Wainwright et al., 2012). At the Latte and Double-Double prospects, gold is associated with east-west trending, south dipping, regional structures which are interpreted to cross-cut the Coffee Creek intrusive suite and are associated with gold occurrences at the Kona and Americano prospects (Couture and Siddorn, 2011).   The Coffee Creek plutonic suite hosts the Kona, Espresso and Americano prospects. Mineralization at the Espresso and Americano prospects is very similar to that at the Kona prospect. At Kona, gold is associated with east-northeast trending, steeply south dipping structures characterized by hydrothermally altered clay, sericite and limonite (Chartier and 65  Couture, 2012). Pyrite typically replaces ferromagnesian minerals and occurs as veinlets or fracture fill in sulphide matrix fault breccias. Gold bearing fault structures are spatially associated with andesite to dacite dykes containing feldspar phenocrysts (Chartier and Couture, 2012; Chartier et al., 2013).   Gold bearing fault structures are characterized by brittle textures such as polymictic breccia and fracturing suggesting these structures are related to brittle shear zones. Gold bearing structures at the Coffee project have likely been reactivated several times, as evidenced by the high degree of fragmentation and abundant permeability (Wainwright et al., 2011; Wainwright et al., 2012).  There are also annealed fault breccias which suggests precursor structures were part of ground preparation prior to gold endowment (Wainwright et al., 2012). In general, gold-bearing fault structures are spatially associated with intermediate to felsic dykes. However, the mineralized zones are not significantly diluted by the post-mineral dykes, nor displaced by late faulting which suggests that the gold mineralization is a late event in the geological history of the area (Wainwright et al., 2012). The age of gold mineralization on the Coffee property is unknown.                 66  3.3.3 Regional Molybdenite Mineralization  Four molybdenite and/or skarn occurrences (excluding Toni Tiger) have been documented within a 20km radius of the Independence Creek area (not including the Coffee Gold project) in the Yukon Geological Survey MINFILE database. These are the Leo the Lion, Bid, Vina and the Boreal occurrences (Fig. 27) (Yukon MINFILE, 2005).    Figure 27. Regional mineral occurrences (MINFILE) in the Independence Creek area. Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7. Modified from Gordey and Ryan (2005).  67  At the Leo the Lion occurrence, Atlas Exploration Company identified a copper occurrence with trace molybdenite associated with skarn mineralization along the contact between the Coffee Creek pluton and adjacent metamorphic rocks. In 1969, Atlas Exploration Company identified quartz-pyrite-molybdenite veins on the Bid claim, along the margin of a Tertiary granitic stock that intrudes the Dawson Range batholith 15km southwest of Toni Tiger. The Vina, another Atlas Exploration property, consists of quartz-pyrite-molybdenite veins within unaltered granite 20km west of Toni Tiger. Mineralized quartz veins containing copper-molybdenite-silver are also found 15km southeast of Toni Tiger cross-cutting metamorphic rocks at Borealis Exploration?s Boreal occurrence.   3.4 Exploration History  Numerous phases of work have occurred within the Independence Creek area since the late 1960s, comprising soil sampling, trenching, and mapping. The Toni Tiger molybdenum anomaly, located in the southeastern headwaters of Independence Creek, was discovered by following up a regional stream silt survey in 1969 by Archer Cathro and Associates Ltd. The anomaly was attributed to disseminated molybdenite in skarn that also contains chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, scheelite and pyrite (Craig, 1970). Trenching at the prospect exposed quartz-molybdenite veins. The main conclusion from Archer Cathro?s work was that molybdenite appears to be restricted to skarn-altered rock (Craig, 1970).  No follow up work was completed at Toni Tiger until 2006.  In 1970, Atlas Explorations Ltd. identified Pb, Zn, Ag and Sb veins along major fault zones; and disseminated pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite within mafic rocks along the southern intrusive contact of the Coffee Creek plutonic suite. This occurrence, a copper-in-soil anomaly 915m in length, was named Leo the Lion. Geochemical soil anomalies in the region reflect sulphides within amphibolitic rocks and quartz sulphide veins which occur along fault zones. This occurrence was considered sub-economic (Karvinen et al., 1970).     Deltango Gold Ltd. completed work within the Coffee Creek area in 1999 following up Au, As, and Sb regional geochemical silt anomalies identified by the Geological Survey of Canada in 1986. These anomalies occur within a 25km long portion of the northern contact of the Coffee 68  Creek plutonic suite. Grassroots exploration was conducted, including geochemical silt, soil and rock sampling along with mapping. Gold anomalies were especially strong at the headwaters of the tributaries draining into Independence Creek from the east. A very high single pan sample of a gold concentrate from Carlisle Creek returned a value of 3095ppb Au, but this was not supported by other high metals in the drainage (Jilson, 2000).  Prospector International Resources conducted grassroots exploration adjacent to Deltango Gold?s claims in the headwaters of Dan Man and Halfway Creeks from 1999 to 2001 (Fig. 3). Prospector International was targeting ?Pogo-style? intrusion related gold-bearing quartz vein targets. Their targeting criteria included regional stream sediment anomalies, favourable geology (e.g., felsic host rocks) and magnetic lows, as well as northwest and northeast trending structures. Fieldwork consisted of grid soil sampling, silt sampling and an extensive trenching program. A 400m by 900m soil anomaly was identified by the 90th percentile value of 42ppb gold. This anomaly is open to the northwest (Jaworski and Vanwermeskerken, 2001).  In 2006, prospector Shawn Ryan collected 62 soil samples from the Toni Tiger occurrence and an additional 70 soil samples from the headwaters of Dan Man Creek. Soil samples from the Dan Man target reached values of 839ppb gold, 553ppm arsenic and 116ppm antimony. At Toni Tiger, only a single gold and arsenic soil sample from the 2006 samples contained anomalous molybdenum concentrations (Ryan, 2007).    Also in 2006, a regional exploration campaign was launched by Rimfire Minerals Corp. and Northgate Minerals Corp. to identify Pogo style mineralization in the west-central Yukon based on publically available descriptions of the Pogo deposit. This program consisted of an initial phase of regional silt sampling followed by reconnaissance soil sampling, prospecting and mapping (Roberts and Baker, 2007). Five target areas were selected from a compilation of existing data: the Crag Mountain target, the south Crag Mountain target, the Flume Ten Mile target, the north Dawson Range target and the Moosehorn-Longline target (Fig. 28). From the North Dawson Range target, a cluster of gold in soil anomalies up to 309ppb Au coincided with a float sample which ran 528ppb Au from a pyrite altered schist with a quartz ? pyrite vein. A cluster of low magnitude < 33ppb Au in soil anomalies was also identified and appears to be 69  associated with the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. The North Dawson target (Fig. 28) was selected for further follow up work (Roberts and Baker, 2007).  In 2007, Rimfire Minerals Corp. staked the region near the headwaters of Independence Creek which was subsequently named the Boulevard property (Independence Creek). Mapping, prospecting and a 4.0km by 2.4km soil grid survey were completed, which delineated a 1.2km long by 450m wide gold-arsenic-(antimony-tellurium-bismuth) soil anomaly that was open to the southeast (Fig. 29, Fig. 30 and Appendix B). The anomaly coincided with a break in the regional airborne magnetics. The gold-arsenic soil anomaly appeared geochemically distinct from the neighbouring molybdenum-copper-tungsten Toni Tiger skarn occurrence (Fig. 31, Fig. 32 and Appendix B) (Roberts, 2008).   Figure 28. Yukon regional silt targets identified in the west-central Yukon. Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7. 70  71   Figure 29. Map of the Sunset Trend geology, mineralizing trends and the gold in soil anomaly. The number of soil samples collected is larger than what is displayed in this map view. Sources: (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974; Gordey and Makepeace, 1999; Jilson, 2000; Allan and Hart, 2011; Anonymous, 2011; Couture and Siddorn, 2011). Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7. 72   Figure 30. Map of the Sunset Trend with geology, trenches, drill intercepts (green stars) and gold values in rock samples (yellow stars). Sources: (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974; Gordey and Makepeace, 1999; Allan and Hart, 2011; Anonymous, 2011). Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7.   73   Figure 31. Map of the Toni Tiger occurrence geology, mineralizing trends and the molybdenum in soil anomaly. The number of soil samples collected is larger than what is displayed in this map view. Sources: (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974; Gordey and Makepeace, 1999; Jilson, 2000; Allan and Hart, 2011; Anonymous, 2011; Couture and Siddorn, 2011). Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7. 74   Figure 32. Map of the Toni Tiger occurrence with geology, trenches, molybdenum vein orientations and molybdenum values in rock samples (blue stars).Sources: (Tempelman-Kluit, 1974; Gordey and Makepeace, 1999; Jilson, 2000; Allan and Hart, 2011; Anonymous, 2011). Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7.   75  Rimfire returned to the Boulevard property in 2008 to carry out auger soil sampling, excavator trenching and diamond drilling programs. IP and ground magnetic surveys were also completed during the 2008 program (Lehtinen, 2009). Trenching exposed a section of strong clay and sericite altered rock with quartz veining returning 7.04g/t Au over 6 metres. Seven shallow drill holes intersected elevated gold in veined rock below the trenches, returning 1.59g/t Au over 5.5 metres. Rimfire concluded that mineralization appeared to be related to multiple vein episodes emplaced into structurally prepared ground related to faulting (Lehtinen, 2009) Rimfire sold the Boulevard property to Silver Quest Resources Ltd. (now Independence Gold Corp.) in 2009, who then conducted a small soil program (Baker, 2011). In 2010, Silver Quest then expanded the property to the west, north and south, extended the existing soil grid coverage and carried out reconnaissance soil sampling over the rest of the property. Twenty shallow drill holes totaling 3000m were completed to test anomalous zones along the Sunset Trend (Fig. 29).  Drilling helped define a planar, southwest dipping, gold-bearing vein system hosted in a biotite-chlorite schist (Baker, 2011). Elevated gold was intercepted in bedrock beneath almost all gold-in-soil anomalies; however, no high grade mineralization was intercepted. Silver Quest continued exploration at the Boulevard property in 2011 with detailed soil grids, mapping, drilling and airborne magnetic and radiometric surveys (Baker, 2011). In 2012, New Gold Inc. acquired Silver Quest Resources Ltd. and a new precious metals-focused company was formed called Independence Gold Corp.  3.5 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology: Methods and Analytical Results 3.5.1 Methodology   40Ar/39Ar geochronology was used to determine the age of one sample of hydrothermal sericite which is interpreted to be coincident with gold mineralization. The relationship between the hydrothermal sericite and gold mineralization is discussed further in section 3.7.3. The methodology for 40Ar/39Ar data at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) is similar to that described by Mortensen et al. (2010). Sericite grains were handpicked with tweezers under a binocular microscope, wrapped in aluminum foil and stacked in an irradiation capsule 76  with similar-aged samples and neutron flux monitors (Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine (FCs); 28.03 Ma (Renne et al., 1998)). The sample was irradiated on May 4-5, 2011 at the McMaster Nuclear Reactor in Hamilton, Ontario, for 45 MWH, with a neutron flux of approximately 6x1013 neutrons/cm2/s. Analyses (n=45) of 15 neutron flux monitor positions produced errors of <0.5% in the J value. The sample was split into two separate liquids after irradiation, and the samples were analyzed during June to October 2011 at the Noble Gas Laboratory, in the PCIGR. The samples were step-heated at incrementally higher powers in the defocused beam of a 10W CO2 laser (New Wave Research MIR10) until fused. The gas evolved from each step was analyzed by a VG5400 mass spectrometer equipped with an ion-counting electron multiplier. All measurements were corrected for total system blank, mass spectrometer sensitivity, mass discrimination, radioactive decay during and subsequent to irradiation, as well as interfering Ar from atmospheric contamination and the irradiation of Ca, Cl and K (Isotope production ratios: (40Ar/39Ar)K=0.0302?0.00006, (37Ar/39Ar)Ca=1416.4?0.5, (36Ar/39Ar)Ca=0.3952?0.0004, Ca/K=1.83?0.01(37ArCa/39ArK).).  Details of the analyses, including plateau (spectrum) and inverse correlation plots, are presented in Excel spreadsheets. Initial data entry and calculations were carried out using the software ArArCalc (Anthony A.P, 2002). The plateau and correlation ages were calculated using Isoplot ver.3.09 (Ludwig, 2003).  Errors are quoted at the 2-sigma (95% confidence) level and are propagated from all sources except mass spectrometer sensitivity and age of the flux monitor. The best statistically-justified plateau and plateau age were picked based on the following criteria: 1. Three or more contiguous steps comprising more than 60% of the 39Ar; 2. Probability of fit of the weighted mean age greater than 5%; 3. Slope of the error-weighted line through the plateau ages equals zero at 5% confidence; 4. Ages of the two outermost steps on a plateau are not significantly different from the weighted-mean plateau age (at 1.8? six or more steps only); 5. Outermost two steps on either side of a plateau must not have nonzero slopes with the same sign (at 1.8? nine or more steps only)   77  3.5.2 Analytical Results   40Ar/39Ar geochronology was used to determine the age of one sample of hydrothermal sericite. This sample is from a quartz-carbonate-gold bearing vein with a strong sericite selvage along the vein margin (sample BV23-70.37). The hydrothermal sericite is interpreted to be paragenetically related to gold mineralization. The step heating age spectra (including duplicate) for the sample is given in Figure 33 and Figure 34. Sample location is given in Figure 3 and the analytical data in Table 5 and 6. Sample BV23-70.37 is located from drill hole BV10-23 at 70.37m depth. The plateau age for the hydrothermal sericite is 95.9 ? 0.1Ma as shown in Figure 33. The duplicate analysis did not settle to enough steps to yield a plateau age, but it lies within error of the initial sample.     78   Figure 33. Ar-Ar normal isochron and step heating age spectrum for sample BV23-70.37, post metamorphic sericite from the Sunset Trend. 79   Figure 34. Ar-Ar normal isochron and step heating age spectrum for the duplicate of sample BV23-70.37, post metamorphic sericite from the Sunset Trend.80     Table 5. 40Ar/39Ar  analysis of post metamorphic sericite in sample BV23-70.37 from the Sunset Trend.    81     Table 6. 40Ar/39Ar  analysis of post metamorphic sericite in a duplicate of  sample BV23-70.37 from the Sunset Trend.82  3.6 187Re/187Os Geochronology: Methods and Analytical Results 3.6.1 Methodology  Re-Os dating methods were utilized to constrain the age of mineralization of molybdenum within the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. The relationship between the molybdenite and the surrounding skarn system is discussed further in section 3.8. Two samples of molybdenite were dated using Re-Os methods at the Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory at the University of Alberta. Methods used for Re-Os dating are described in Selby and Creaser (2004) and Markey et al. (2007). The 187Re and 187Os abundances in molybdenite were determined through a variety of techniques including: isotope dilution mass spectrometry using Carius-tube, solvent extraction, anion chromatography and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. For this project, a mixed double spike containing known amounts of isotopically enriched 185Re, 190Os, and 188Os was used, and the isotopic analyses were completed using a ThermoScientific Triton mass spectrometer with a Faraday collector. Procedural blanks for Re and Os are less than <3 picograms and 2 picograms which are insignificant in comparison to Re and Os concentrations in molybdenite. A Chinese molybdenite powder Markey et al. (1998) was used as in house standard and is routinely analyzed at the University of Alberta. This standard has an average Re-Os date of 221.5 ? 0.3 Ma (1SD uncertainty, n=4) and is identical to that reported by (Markey et al., 1998) of 221.0 ? 1.0 Ma.  3.6.2 Analytical Results  Two samples of molybdenite were dated: (1) Sample I034208 is a quartz-molybdenite vein cross-cutting a metamorphosed leucocratic aplite; (2) Sample I034228 is a quartz-molybdenite vein cross-cutting a hornfelsed garnet-actinolite-diopside skarn assemblage. Both samples included coarse grained, radiating molybdenite rosettes. Sample I034208 yielded an age of mineralization of 95.0 ? 0.4Ma and sample I034228 yielded an age of 92.4 ? 0.7Ma. Sample I034228 contains high common osmium; as a result, the initial amount of osmium had to be assumed, which led to a younger calculated age. Even with the common osmium error the mineralization of molybdenum is within error and the age of mineralization is assumed to be around 95Ma. For sample locations see Figure 3 and for the analytical data see Table 7.  83     Table 7.  187Re/187Os analysis of molybdenite from the Toni Tiger occurrence.  3.7 Sunset Trend Mineralization  The Sunset Trend is hosted in a dark green, variably magnetic, chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist, which locally contains quartz and feldspar augen that are more apparent on weathered surfaces. Five vein generations, V1 to V5, have been identified within the Sunset Trend, based on field observations and examination of drill core (Fig. 35). The mineralization and structure associated with each vein generation is described below. A cross section of the Sunset Trend is shown in Figure 36.  3.7.1 Foliaform Veins (V1)  The first vein generation (V1) is composed of quartz ? pyrite; these veins are dull grey with a sugary texture, and are found within all metamorphic rock types in the study area (Fig. 35).V1 veins are 4 to 28mm wide, display a granoblastic texture, as well as radiating clusters of chlorite grains along the margins of the vein. They contain less than 1% cubic pyrite. Trace amounts of microscopic chalcopyrite is observed locally within the pyrite. V1 veins are conformable with the pervasive metamorphic fabric, and commonly occur as boudins and in rootless hinges of mesoscopic folds. Quartz grains exhibit undulose extinction, indicating a degree of deformation overprinting recrystallization of the quartz. These V1 segregation veins are early and are considered to have formed syn-deformation during the Latest Permian (Table 3). It is possible these veins formed prior to Latest Permian deformation and then subsequently deformed parallel to the foliation; however, there is no evidence to support this conclusion. 84  3.7.2 Late Stage Deformation Veins (V2)  V2 veins are dull grey, are 5 to 30mm wide, and are composed of quartz-pyrrhotite ? chalcopyrite (Fig. 35). Pyrrhotite content varies between 1 to 2% within the vein and chalcopyrite content is commonly less than 1%. No alteration selvage was observed along the irregular vein margins. Quartz is dull grey and forms anhedral to subhedral grains. V2 veins are locally discordant to the metamorphic grain of the host rocks, therefore cross-cutting the earlier V1 veins. Blebby and stringer pyrrhotite and traces of chalcopyrite are contained both within, and along the margins of, the V2 veins. Microscopic chalcopyrite can be seen within pyrrhotite and in drill core. As a result of the relative orientation of quartz-pyrrhotite ? chalcopyrite veins to the metamorphic fabric, V2 veins are interpreted as having formed sometime between the early Triassic to Early Jurassic time.    85   Figure 35. Photographs of V1 to V5 veins at the Sunset Trend. A) Quartz-pyrite V1 vein; B) Quartz-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite V2 vein; C) Quartz-pyrite-gold bearing V3 vein with sericitic alteration selvage; D) Quartz-pyrite-gold bearing V3 vein cross-cutting earlier V2 vein; E) Colloform banded quartz vein; F) Thin carbonate V5 veinlet. Photographs courtesy of Murray Allan.   86    Figure 36. Cross section of the Sunset Trend at the Independence Creek area.87  3.7.3 Gold Bearing Veins (V3)  Quartz-carbonate (V3) veins are planar, bright white, typically 2 to 20mm wide, and hosted within variably magnetic, chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist. They occur as sheeted vein sets up to 5cm wide (Fig. 35). Quartz in the veins is subhedral and angular and displays some minor undulose extinction, but the overall texture is viewed as being primary. Quartz-carbonate veins cross-cut the metamorphic fabric at a high angle to the core axes in near vertical drill holes which suggests they are shallowly dipping (~30o). However, it is not clear if the veins are orientated parallel to the northwest trending fault structures, or if they are oblique to these structures (Baker, 2011).   The northwest trending fault structures at the Sunset Trend are consistent with an overall dextral strike-slip system. Zones of dilation developed within these structures host the gold bearing quartz veins at the Sunset Trend.  Sanchez et al. (2013) interprets that gold mineralization at the Coffee Project is controlled by dextral strike-slip faults and a series of dextral oblique-extensional northwest trending fault splays. This dextral system is potentially the northwestern extension of the Big Creek fault system observed in the southeastern Dawson Range porphyry belt which includes the Casino, Nucleus and Revenue deposits (Fig. 2).    88   Figure 37. Extensional structures associated with mineralization at the Sunset Trend. A) Quartz-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite V2 vein; B) Quartz, weathered sulphides and iron oxides filling fractures (photograph courtesy of Murray Allan); C) Gold bearing V3 vein breccia; D) Crack seal texture: alternating bands of wall rock with quartz-pyrite and gold.  In addition to quartz and carbonate, V3 veins consist predominantly of pyrite with arsenopyrite and locally contain stibnite, sphalerite, galena and gold. Sulphides are concentrated in fault structures and/or zones of brecciation (Fig. 37). Sulphides vary between 7 to 10%, dominantly pyrite, which resides within 3 to 5cm wide, poor to well-developed selvages containing illite and muscovite as opposed to 2 to 3% pyrite within the vein. The only visible gold seen within this vein generation occurs in hole BV10-22 (72.80m) within a zone of visible stibnite and sphalerite where there is an average quartz-carbonate vein density of 1 vein per 10cm. Mineralization decreases down unit away from the associated fault zone. No visible arsenopyrite occurs. 89  Pyrrhotite, ilmenite and tetrahedrite are also seen microscopically within pyrite. Gold is locally visible in thin section with grains typically less than 10 micrometres in diameter.    Figure 38. Photomicrographs of gold mineralization at the Sunset Trend. A) Typical quartz-carbonate-gold vein; B) Rare example of a 50?m gold grain with pyrite-arsenopyrite assemblage; C & D) Gold associated with vein breccia and base metals.   Under the scanning electron microscope (SEM), gold is seen to be associated with two different mineral assemblages. The first is with arsenopyrite and pyrite within and along the vein margins (Fig. 38). The second is with pyrite-galena-sphalerite ? stibnite which occurs in vein breccias that formed after the gold-arsenopyrite-pyrite event (Fig. 38). In both assemblages gold occurs as short stubby crystals or as ovoid grains.   Gold correlates well with the occurrence of arsenopyrite, moderately with stibnite and is most abundant in regions where local vein micro-brecciation is overprinted by base metals. The 90  highest gold grades are associated with fault zones dominated by iron-rich clay gouge which occurs locally within vein breccia. These faults are found where abundant V3 veins are hosted by sericite-altered schist.   Two samples were analyzed using the 40Ar/39Ar technique of post-metamorphic altered sericite but only one sample yielded a plateau age (Table 8). The altered sericite selvage formed immediately adjacent to gold mineralization contained within the V3 vein. The analytical results are located in section 3.5.2.    Table 8. Mineralization ages for the Independence Creek area.  3.7.4 Late Banded Veins (V4)  The fourth vein generation is characterized by colloform banded chalcedonic quartz-carbonate veins that are commonly thin and wispy (Fig. 35). They vary between 5 to 60mm wide and are both quartz and carbonate rich, commonly displaying interstitial rhodocrosite. These V4 veins are rare but have been documented cross-cutting both the metamorphic fabric and V3 stage veins. They contain trace amounts of pyrite and microscopic chalcopyrite which occurs within the pyrite. The paragenesis of the Sunset Trend is shown in Figure 39.   91   Figure 39. Paragenesis of sulphides and gangue minerals from the Sunset Trend.  3.7.5 Carbonate Veins (V5)  Thin (1 to 5mm) ferroan carbonate veinlets (V5) cut metamorphic foliation and all pre-existing vein types (Fig. 35). This vein generation has no known association with mineralization and has only been observed in drill core.    3.8 Toni Tiger Mineralization   The Toni Tiger occurrence is located 15km due south of the mouth of Independence Creek, and 1.5km east of the Sunset Trend (Fig. 3). A cross section through Toni Tiger (B to B?) is shown in Figure 40. The main rock type at the Toni Tiger occurrence is resistant, outcrop-forming, diopside-garnet skarn with lesser biotite hornfels (Fig. 16). The second rock type is a weakly foliated, fine-grained leucocratic  92       Figure 40. Cross section of the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence at the Independence Creek area.93  metaintrusive. These host units are cross-cut by numerous quartz and quartz-molybdenite veins which trend north-northeast (Fig. 41). Disseminated pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and scheelite are present in oxidized zones within the diopside-garnet skarn and biotite hornfels (Fig. 41).  Two generations of veins occur within the metaleucogranite and skarn with lesser biotite hornfels. The first set of veins is a series of 2 to 4cm wide milky quartz veins with 1-2cm green selvages consisting of chlorite-actinolite-epidote hosted within a biotite-quartz schist host. Quartz crystals within the veins are stretched parallel to the long axis and appear subhedral with irregular subangular contacts. Baker (2011) reported that this vein set contains trace to minor amounts of molybdenite chalcopyrite ? pyrite ? pyrrhotite ? scheelite; however, this was not observed during this study. This vein set has a preferred northwest trending and steeply dipping 70-90o southwest orientation.   The second set of veins are planar, bright white quartz-molybdenite and quartz-garnet-molybdenite veins ranging from 2cm to 1m wide. They have a sugary texture with subhedral to euhedral quartz. This second generation of veins occurs in conjugate fracture sets where molybdenite-bearing veins trend northeast to north-northeast. They cut all pre-existing ductile fabrics in the host rocks and contain 3 to 4% molybdenite which occurs as radiating masses up to 2cm across. Fine grained disseminated molybdenite is also locally present in the adjacent host rock. No other sulphides are visible within the quartz-molybdenite veins; however, trace to minor chalcopyrite ? pyrite ? pyrrhotite ? scheelite is observed in the adjacent metaleucogranite and skarn with lesser biotite hornfels. Conjugate quartz-garnet veins containing euhedral garnet are locally present in late brittle fractures cutting the diopside-garnet skarn. Where either of these veins sets cross-cut the biotite hornfels they have sericite-altered and bleached envelopes (Baker, 2011). There is no observed alteration where either vein set cross-cuts the metaleucrogranite, but diopside-garnet skarn alteration exists when the quartz-molybdenite ? garnet veins cross-cut calcareous sediments (Baker, 2011).   The paragenesis of the Toni Tiger occurrence is shown in Figure 42. No local alteration is associated, excluding the local skarn alteration, with the quartz-molybdenite veins; however, widespread hornfelsing surrounds the Toni Tiger occurrence which extends 400m to the 94  northeast towards the Coffee Creek plutonic suite. A 187Re/187Os age for molybdenite was obtained and is described in section 3.6.2. The results are summarized in Table 8.    Figure 41. Representative lithologies of the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. A) Coarse molybdenite (Mo) within quartz vein; B) Disseminated molybdenite within adjacent wallrock; C) Hydrothermal garnet contained within molybdenite bearing quartz vein; D) Molybdenite vein cross- cutting diopside-garnet skarn assemblage.    95   Figure 42. Paragenesis of sulphides and gangue minerals from the Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence.   3.9 Fluid Characterization 3.9.1 Fluid Petrography  A reconnaissance fluid inclusion study was carried out to characterize the nature of mineralizing fluids. Quartz-carbonate-gold (V3) veins of the Sunset Trend and the quartz-molybdenite ? garnet veins (2nd vein set) of the Toni Tiger occurrence were examined for primary fluid inclusions (Fig. 32). Five samples were selected which met the following criteria: (1) a straightforward mineral paragenesis; (2) fluid inclusion populations with a clear petrographic relationship to the mineral paragenesis; and (3) no evidence for post-entrapment modification of fluid inclusions, such as leaking due to deformation.  Samples BV26-70.63 and BV22-93.70 were selected from the Sunset Trend and samples I034235, I034209 and I034226 were selected from the Toni Tiger occurrence. The selected samples contained quartz-hosted fluid inclusions interpreted to be of primary or pseudosecondary origin (Roedder, 1984). Fluid inclusions in the five samples vary from a few micrometres to tens of micrometres in diameter.  In general, all samples displayed fluid inclusion populations with very consistent volumetric proportions of aqueous liquid (L), CO2 liquid (C), and vapour at room temperature (V).  Approximately 90% of the inclusions observed contained all three phases, but a few vapour-rich inclusions of unknown origin were also observed.  96  Three phases are observable at room temperature (20oC): (1) an aqueous liquid, (2) a carbonic liquid, and (3) a low-density gas bubble. The volumetric phase proportions range from approximately 50 to 65% for the aqueous fluid, 20 to 35% for the carbonic fluid and 10 to 15% for the low density gas bubble (Fig. 43). Only a small number of measurements were obtained but visual inspection would expect there to be little variation in the composition of quartz-hosted fluid inclusions. Primary to pseudo-secondary, garnet hosted fluid inclusions from Toni Tiger veins dominantly contained ~65% aqueous fluid and ~35% low density gas bubble. Primary garnet-hosted inclusions, a subset, contained one or more translucent, equant solid phases that did not dissolve during heating experiments (Fig. 43).  Microthermometric analyses were carried out on a Linkham THMSG 600 heating and freezing stage with an estimated accuracy of ?0.2?C below 30?C, and ?1?C above 30?C. Phase change temperatures were recorded at heating rates of 1-2?C/min.  97   Figure 43. Fluid inclusion petrography of the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. A & B) Three phase fluid inclusions with V3 quartz-gold veins at the Sunset Trend (cross polarized light); C & D) Three phase fluid inclusions within quartz-molybdenite veins at the Toni Tiger occurrence (reflected and cross polarized light); E & F) Two phase fluid inclusions within hydrothermal garnet from the Toni Tiger occurrence (plane polarized light).  Quartz-hosted, LCV inclusions were cooled to approximately -100oC, or until complete freezing was observed; initial melting occurred between -57 to -56oC. This suggests that CO2 (triple point -56.6oC) was the dominant gas species. Clathrate melting temperatures (Tm(Cla)) ranged from 98  8.3 to 9.8?C. The melting temperature of clathrate in a pure H2O-CO2 system is 9.8oC which indicates the presence of a small amount of salt. Melting of ice was not observed. All inclusions homogenized by bubble disappearance into a dense carbonic fluid (Th(LCV?LC). These partial homogenization temperatures of the liquid and gaseous CO2 phase ranged from 22.6 to 29.4?C. Total homogenization temperatures via bubble disappearance (Th(LC?L)) ranged from 279 to 310?C. Several inclusions decrepitated near the homogenization temperature. One population of garnet hosted, LV inclusions were examined from Toni Tiger. They were cooled until complete freezing was observed (approximately -100oC). No ice melting was observed; however, clathrate melting occurred at approximately 6oC. No carbonic liquid was observed after decomposition. Final homogenization was via bubble disappearance at 349-352?C (Th(LV?L)).  This data was modelled by Murray Allan of the Mineral Deposit Research Unit using procedures as described in Appendix A. Fluids involved in both gold mineralization at Sunset and molybdenite mineralization at Toni Tiger were H2O-CO2-NaCl type, and were trapped in quartz as a single phase fluid at conditions above 280oC and 1100bar.  The modelled composition of hydrothermal fluids at the Sunset Trend contain a bulk density of 0.8 to 0.85g/cm3, 0.15 to 0.24mol% CO2 and ~2 to 3wt% NaCl. The modelled composition of quartz-hosted fluid inclusions at Toni Tiger contain a bulk density of 0.88 g/cm3, ~16 mol% CO2 and ~3wt% NaCl. The modelled composition of garnet hosted fluid inclusions contain a bulk density of 0.67g/cc, 0.05mol% CO2 and less than 0.1wt% NaCl. There is also the possibility of small amounts of CH4, N2 and H2S which could not be measured.  The model concludes a minimum pressure (1100bar) at a minimum depth of 4.5km assuming lithostatic pressures and 12km assuming hydrostatic pressures. The minimum temperature of formation ranges from 280 to 310oC for quartz-hosted inclusions. There are no independently constrained upper limits on trapping conditions. Fluids attending paragenetically early hydrothermal garnet growth at Toni Tiger were also aqueous-carbonic in composition and were trapped above 350?C and 300bar. Isochores for quartz-hosted and garnet-hosted fluid inclusions do not intersect, suggesting that garnet formed at higher temperatures than quartz (Fig. 44).  At Toni Tiger, the composition and trapping conditions of fluid inclusions are not discernible from those of V3 at the Sunset Trend. 99   Figure 44. Isochores for modelled fluid inclusion data in the Independence Creek area. The modelled isochores for the quartz hosted fluid inclusions (green and yellow for the Sunset Trend, violet for Toni Tiger) indicate a range of pressures and temperature conditions at the time of formation. The modelled isochores for the garnet hosted fluid inclusions (shown in red) possibly formed at similar pressures, but likely higher temperatures.   3.9.2 Sulphur Isotopic Compositions 3.9.2.1 Methodology   A total of 12 sulphide mineral separates from 12 separate samples were analyzed by the Facility for Isotope Research at Queen?s University in Kingston, Ontario. Eight samples from the Sunset Trend and four from the Toni Tiger occurrence were analyzed. Submitted mineral concentrates contain pyrite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite, sphalerite and stibnite. The aim of this work was to identify the source(s) of sulphur in the different styles of mineralization. Sample selection was based on detailed petrographic study.  The following methodology is based on work summarized by  Benavides et al. (2007) at the Facility for Isotope Research at Queen?s University in Kingston, Ontario. Mineral separates of 100  0.2 and 0.3 mg were converted to SO2 in a Carlo Erba element analyzer NCS 2500 using CuO as an oxidant. The sulphur isotope composition was measured with a Finnigan MAT 252 mass spectrometer. Data are reported using the ? notation in units of per mil, relative to the CDT standard (Ca??n Diablo troilite). The analytical precision for ?34S values is ? 0 .3 per mil. Using the above procedure, the ?34S values of NIST-123 and NIST-127 are 17.1 and 20.0 per mil, respectively. The BrF5 technique of Clayton and Mayeda (1963) was used to extract oxygen from purified separates carried out at 600oC. The oxygen isotope compositions reported using the ? notation in units of per mil relative to VSMOW were measured with the Finnigan MAT 252 mass spectrometer.  3.9.2.2 Analytical Results  A plot of ?34 S (vs. CDT) values against rock type indicates that the sulphur isotopic composition does not vary significantly between different styles of mineralization (Fig. 45). All different sulphides have a very small range in composition (? 34 S between 1 and 10?).  Because ?34 S (?) values for different styles of mineralization show considerable overlap, the sulphur isotopic composition alone does not help discriminate between an orogenic or intrusion-related origin for mineralization at Independence Creek (Fig. 46).  Figure 45. Sulphur isotopic compositions (?34S (?)) for metamorphic assemblage rocks. 101    Figure 46. Range of ?34S values for the Independence Creek area. Range of ?34S values for natural sulphur isotope reservoirs (marked with *) and sulphur bearing minerals in hydrothermal deposits. The range of ?34 S values from this study is marked by dotted lines for comparison (modified from Tafti and Mortensen (2004) and Rollison (1993).   3.9.3 Lead Isotopic Compositions 3.9.3.1 Methodology  The aim of this work was to identify the source(s) of metals contained in the different styles of mineralization. A total of 16 samples were analyzed for lead isotopic composition, including 5 feldspar crystals from intrusive rocks (Dawson Range batholith and Coffee Creek plutonic suite) and 11 sulphide samples from sulphide bearing veins (Sunset and Toni Tiger), including molybdenite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and sphalerite.   The following methodology is based on work summarized by Jim Mortensen and Janet Gabites at the PCIGR. Trace lead sulphide samples were prepared from 1-20mg of hand-picked pyrite, sphalerite, 102  pyrrohotite or molybdenite crystals, which was leached in dilute nitric and then hydrochloric acid to remove surface contamination before dissolution in dilute nitric acid. Feldspar samples were prepared from 10-50mg of hand-picked feldspar crystals, which were leached in dilute hydrochloric acid then dilute hydrofluoric/hydrobromic acids to remove surface contamination before dissolution in hydrofluoric acid.  Approximately 10-25ng of the lead in chloride form was loaded on a rhenium filament using a phosphoric acid-silica gel emitter, and isotopic compositions were determined on a Faroday collector in peak-switching mode using a modified VG54R thermal ionization mass spectrometer.  The measured ratios were corrected for instrumental mass fractionation of 0.12%/amu based on repeated measurements of the N.B.S. SRM 981 Standard Isotopic Reference Material and the values recommended by Thirlwall (2000). Errors were numerically propagated through to the fluid calculated isotopic ratios, and are quoted at the 2? level.  The total procedural blank on the trace lead chemistry was 64pg.  3.9.3.2 Analytical Results  On a plot of 206Pb/204Pb vs. 207Pb/204Pb (Fig. 47), the relatively limited scatter of sulphide lead compositions suggests a relatively homogeneous source for the metals. If the metals were derived from a variety of different local sources there would be greater scatter in lead compositions as in the White Deposit assuming the host rocks are isotopically heterogeneous (Bailey, 2013), such as is observed in the Klondike District (Mortensen et al., 2012 unpub.).   103   Figure 47. Isotopic compositions of intrusion-related sulphides and igneous feldspar lead in west-central Yukon.  In Figure 48 (207Pb/206Pb vs. 208Pb/206Pb), complete overlap is shown of the Moosehorn Range and Independence Creek igneous feldspar compositions, which is consistent with intrusions in these two areas being closely related. The fact that the Toni Tiger and Independence Creek sulphides also plot close to the igneous feldspars could be taken to indicate either: (1) the Toni Tiger and Sunset sulphides are both intrusion related and the metals are derived directly from the intrusions; or (2) the metals were leached from the intrusions and/or the surrounding metamorphic assemblage at ~ 95Ma. The igneous feldspars plot very close to the Godwin and Sinclair (1982) ?shale growth curve?, suggesting that the magmas were derived or heavily contaminated by upper crustal rocks (Fig. 49). As a result, the common lead isotopic compositions cannot discriminate between an intrusion-related or orogenic system as the origin of gold and molybdenite mineralization in the study area. 104    Figure 48. Comparison between lead isotopic composition of Independence Creek (Boulevard) and sulphides and igneous feldspars of the Moosehorn orogenic gold system (Joyce, 2002).   105   Figure 49. Independence Creek sulphides and igneous feldspars with Godwin and Sinclair?s (1982) shale growth curve.   3.10 Summary of Mineralizing Events  Hydrothermal fluids transported, as interpreted from the 40Ar/39Ar cooling age of hydrothermal sericite, precipitated gold along northwest trending structures in the Sunset Trend at ~95Ma. Fluid inclusion data from mineralized quartz veins at Toni Tiger and the Sunset Trend were formed from similar H2O-CO2-NaCl type fluids at minimum trapping conditions of 280?C and 1100bar. Quartz-molybdenite veins were emplaced at approximately 95Ma (ReOs model ages) at Toni Tiger within north-northeast trending fractures within the diopside-garnet skarn and metaleucogranite. Fluids attending paragenetically early hydrothermal garnet growth at Toni Tiger were also aqueous-carbonic in composition and were trapped above 350?C and 300bar. 106  There are no independently constrained upper limits on trapping conditions. At Toni Tiger, the composition and trapping conditions of fluid inclusions are not discernible from those V3 veins at the Sunset Trend. The 40Ar/39Ar analysis of post-metamorphic hydrothermal sericite yielded an approximate age for mineralization in the Sunset Trend of 95Ma which overlaps within error with the 95.0 ? 0.4Ma Re-Os age for molybdenum at Toni Tiger. Both ages post-date the Coffee Creek plutonic suite (~99Ma) and the Dawson Range batholith (~100Ma) by 4-5Ma.  The northwest trending fault structures at Independence Creek are consistent with an overall dextral strike-slip system proposed by Sanchez et al. (2013). Gold associated with quartz-carbonate-pyrite veins, is most abundant where associated with faults and fracture zones. Gold occurs in brittle structures that typically overprint earlier ductile deformation features.                107  Chapter 4: Metallogenesis of the Independence Creek Area  4.1 Introduction  The purpose of this chapter is to summarize observations made in the Independence Creek area, to outline possible genetic models for mineralization, and to place the mineralization into a conceptual framework, in the context of regional mineralizing events that include the Coffee Gold project and the Longline deposit. Exploration strategies based on this model are then discussed in the exploration implication section.  4.2 Summary of Mineralization at Independence Creek The northwest trending fault structures at Independence Creek are consistent with an overall dextral strike-slip system (Sanchez et al., 2013). Local brittle extension facilitated the precipitation of gold in permeable fault structures that cross-cut the mafic schist host rock.  A summary of the characteristics of mineralization at Independence Creek is shown in Table 9. Two spatially and temporally related mineralizing systems have been recognized within the study area: (1) gold bearing quartz-carbonate veins of the Sunset Trend hosted within chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist; and (2) quartz-molybdenite veins at Toni Tiger are hosted within diopside-garnet skarn and to a lesser extent biotite hornfels and metaleucogranite.  At the Sunset Trend, quartz-carbonate (V3) veins are planar, sheeted vein sets that contain pyrite, arsenopyrite and, less commonly, stibnite, sphalerite, galena and gold. The bulk of the sulphides reside within 3 to 5cm wide sericitic alteration selvages rather than being contained within the veins themselves. The highest gold grades are associated with fault zones dominated by iron oxides, clay gouge and vein breccia. Gold is commonly found in zones of brecciation and brittle faulting. At Toni Tiger, the rocks have subsequently been cross-cut by numerous quartz and quartz-molybdenite veins contain 3 to 4% molybdenite which cut all pre-existing ductile fabrics. Weak magnetic lineaments interpreted as fracture sets along which the mineralizing fluid flowed, cross-cut the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger at north-west, north-south and possibly east-west orientations.    108   Table 9. Summary of Independence Creek characteristics.  Fluids involved in both gold mineralization at Sunset and molybdenite mineralization at Toni Tiger were H2O-CO2-NaCl type (0.76 to 0.88 wt% H2O, 0.15 to 0.24 wt% CO2, 0.42 to 3.33 wt% NaCl), based on fluid inclusion studies, and were trapped in quartz as a single phase fluid at conditions above 280?C and 1100bar.  Igneous feldspar and sulphide lead isotopes do not discriminate between an intrusion-related or orogenic origin for the mineralization in the area due to the similarity between the Toni Tiger/Sunset sulphides and igneous feldspars from mid-Cretaceous intrusions. Many of the ?34 S (?) values for various mineralizing styles overlap; as a result, the sulphur composition could be consistent with sulphur derivation from many possible reservoirs. However, 40Ar/39Ar dating of post-metamorphic hydrothermal sericite yielded an approximate age of mineralization at 95Ma which overlaps within error with the 95.0 ? 0.4Ma Re-Os age obtained for molybdenum at Toni Tiger. Both of these ages post-date the Coffee Creek plutonic suite (~99Ma) and the Dawson Range batholith (~100Ma), suggesting that both styles of mineralization are associated with a previously unrecognized mineralizing event at around 95Ma.  109  4.3 General Characteristics of Orogenic Gold Systems  Phanerozoic orogenic gold systems are compared to Archean gold systems because the bulk of the available academic literature has been conducted on Archean gold systems. As a result Archean gold systems provide a good starting point to compare with Phanerozoic gold systems. The main characteristics of Archean and Phanerozoic orogenic gold systems include: (1) formation late in orogenic cycles; (2) metamorphic host rocks, ranging from sub-greenschist to granulite facies; (3) a close association with crustal deformation zones, particularly those hosting felsic porphyry intrusions or lamprophyre dykes; (4) strong structural control such as faults or folds; (5) no spatial or temporal association with intrusions; (6) fluids mainly metamorphic in origin; (7) a distinctive metal enrichment association of Au-Ag ? As ? Sb ? B ? Bi ? Te ? W; (8) uncertain source of metals; (9) common association with extensive placer gold deposits; and (10) low salinity-CO2 rich fluids  (Goldfarb et al., 1998; Bierlein and Crowe, 2000; Groves et al., 2003; Mortensen et al., 2011a).  From shallow to deep, orogenic systems may be further subdivided into epizonal, mesozonal and hypozonal subtypes based on specific pressure-temperature conditions for ore formation (Gebre-Mariam et al., 1995; Groves et al., 1998; Groves et al., 2003; Goldfarb et al., 2005).  Worldwide orogenic systems vary from the middle Archean to Tertiary in age with peaks occurring during the Late Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Phanerozoic. Phanerozoic orogenic systems have several characteristics which differ from PreCambrian systems: (1) they typically contain only a few percent sulphide minerals; (2) they contain gold:silver ratios greater than 1:1; (3) they are only in some cases associated with large scale faults; and (4) contained metals are commonly derived from relatively local sources (Goldfarb et al., 1998; Goldfarb et al., 2005; Mortensen et al., 2012 unpub.).  Phanerozoic orogenic gold systems are widespread within the circum-Pacific region, where they formed during two main periods of continental growth: (1) during Paleozoic accretion along the Gondwanaland margin; and (2) along the western North American margin between 170 and 50Ma (Goldfarb et al., 1998, 2005). The northern circum-Pacific region includes orogenic gold mineralization in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Sierra- Klamath region in California, the 91 to 86Ma Bridge River district in south-central British Columbia, the 150 to 135Ma Cariboo  and 110  Cassiar gold districts in central and northern British Columbia, and the 160 to 145Ma Klondike gold district (Sketchley et al., 1986; Mortensen et al., 2011a; Mortensen et al., 2011b).  The association between orogenic gold systems and greenschist facies metamorphic rocks has been recognized for decades; however, the association is not entirely clear (Keays et al., 1989; Bierlein and Crowe, 2000; Goldfarb et al., 2005).  Generally, no close spatial or temporal association exists between granitoid intrusions and orogenic gold deposits. In cases in which there are temporally associated intrusions, they may not be the source of metals and fluids, but rather both the intrusions and the orogenic vein systems may be products of the same orogenic event. Abundant intrusions located near many orogenic systems are probably a consequence of accretionary processes along convergent margins (Kerrich and Cassidy, 1994; Bierlein et al., 2001; Goldfarb et al., 2001; Groves et al., 2003). Major crustal structures are found in some orogenic gold provinces such as California?s Mother Lode Belt.  It has been recognized for many orogenic systems including Phanerozoic orogenic systems that ore fluids are consistently low salinity, near neutral PH, CO2 rich fluids which transported gold as a reduced sulphur complex (Goldfarb et al., 1998; Groves et al., 2003). The Klondike, Cariboo and Independence Creek orogenic systems do not correlate well with the current available literature on Archean gold systems; as a result, they represent a different sub-type of orogenic system which will be referred to as the ?Klondike type? orogenic gold system. New research conducted by Jim Mortensen, Murray Allan, Rob Chapman and others have produced a set of characteristics for Klondike type orogenic gold deposits which are shown in Table 10. 111   Table 10. Klondike Type orogenic gold deposits vs. Mother Lode Type orogenic gold deposits. Modified from Mortensen et al. (2011a).   4.4 General Characteristics of Intrusion-Related Gold Systems Intrusion related gold systems have a broad range of mineralization styles and positions relative to intrusive centres (Lang and Baker, 2001). These are separated into three categories: (1) Intrusion hosted deposits; (2) Proximal deposits; and (3) Distal deposits. Reduced intrusion related gold deposits (RIRGS), a type of intrusion hosted deposit, are characterized by mostly sheeted and lesser stockwork auriferous quartz veins that typically form in the brittle region at the top of  reduced  plutons (Lang and Baker, 2001; Hart, 2007). RIRGS are considered to have a direct genetic link with a cooling felsic intrusion during their formation (Hart, 2007). Sulphide assemblages are characterized by pyrrhotite and quartz veins which host water and carbon dioxide rich fluid inclusions (Lang and Baker, 2001). RIRGS have been best described in the Yukon, Alaska, and eastern Australia, and include the Fort Knox and Dublin Gulch deposits (Fig. 50) (Lang and Baker, 2001). They form bulk tonnage, low grade deposits and are typically dominated by a Au-Bi-Te-W metal association (Hart, 2007). Proximal deposits are located in the metamorphic aureole adjacent to the intrusion and generally form skarns with a W ? Cu ? Au or Cu-Bi-Au ? W assemblage (Lang and Baker, 2001). Other common proximal deposit types are sulphide replacements of calcareous rocks, tin bearing and copper rich breccias, diatremes, veins and disseminated deposits in metasedimentary host rocks (Lang and Baker, 2001). The Mactung deposit (contact skarn) and Scheelite Dome (replacement in calcareous schists) are examples of proximal deposits (Fig. 50) (Lang and Baker, 2001).  112   Figure 50. Terrane map of the Yukon showing numerous deposits and exploration prospects (red circles).Datum: NAD 83, Projection: UTM Zone 7.  Fault abbreviations: BSF-Big Salmon fault; DF-Denali fault; TF-Teslin fault; TTF-Tintina fault. Terrane abbreviations: AX-Alexander terrane; CC-Cache Creek; CT-Cassiar terrane; CH-Chugach terrane; HR-Klinkit/Harper Ranch Stikine assemblage;  NAb-North American basinal; NAm-North America miogeocline; SM-Slide Mountain terrane;  ST-Stikina; WM-Windy-McKinley;  WR-Wrangellia; YA-Yakutat; YTT-Yukon-Tanana terrane. Modified from Nelson and Colpron (2007).  Distal deposits include auriferous, mesothermal to epithermal quartz veins along steep faults and are located beyond the outer limit of the hornfels. Veining commonly displays hydrothermal breccias and base metal veins enriched in silver and gold with a typical metal signature of Au-As-Sb ? Hg (Lang and Baker, 2001). The deposits are commonly hosted in variably calcareous and carbonaceous metasedimentary rocks. Keno Hill is an example of a distal deposit with large Ag-Pb-Zn and Au-Sb-As veins (Lang and Baker, 2001). 113  Intrusion related gold systems commonly form in back-arc regions along thickened continental margins that are characterized by post-collisional extension. Magmas are typically reduced and metaluminous, leading to a preference to form ilmenite rather than magnetite (Hart, 2007). Typically intrusion related gold systems dominantly produce mineralizing fluids which are low salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluids that form at depths between 5 and 7km (Hart, 2007). Reduced intrusion-related gold systems have only been recognized as a new deposit class for the past ten years, and thus are still rapidly evolving in terms of geological characterization and genetic interpretation. A summary of intrusion-related and orogenic gold are summarized in Table 11.    114   Table 11. Comparing Independence Creek to orogenic gold and reduced-intrusion related gold deposits. Modified from Groves et al. (2003).115  4.5 Genetic Model for Mineralization at Independence Creek The Independence Creek gold system was formed in zones of dilation spatially associated with a dextral strike slip system after the emplacement of the Coffee Creek granite (~99Ma). It is not well understood how the separate vein arrays relate to the regional tectonic setting. The Independence Creek system consists of the coeval Sunset Trend and the Toni Tiger occurrence. Six main characteristics suggest that the Independence Creek may be best interpreted as an orogenic gold system: 1) No temporal association with any known intrusions; 2) Mineralization is structurally controlled; 3) Simple single stage extensional veins; 4) Au-As-Sb association (Sunset Trend); 5) Aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions; and 6) Greenschist facies metamorphic host rocks.  The Sunset Trend is hosted within variably magnetic chlorite-biotite ? actinolite schist, which is consistent with middle greenschist metamorphic facies. Toni Tiger is hosted within a pale green quartz-biotite hornfelsed schist typical of lower greenschist facies. This mineralized system lies within a 3km wide corridor between two intrusions; the Dawson Range batholith to the southwest and the Coffee Creek plutonic suite to the northeast. At present, no evidence suggests a temporal or causative relationship between either of these intrusions and the mineralized system. The age of mineralization for gold at Sunset (40Ar/39Ar) and molybdenum at Toni Tiger (187Re/187Os) is within error at 95Ma, which supports an orogenic model as these mineralization ages post-date the magmatism by approximately 4-5Ma. The mineralization age does not correlate with any known intrusions in the immediate region.  Within the Independence Creek system there are no apparent first order regional faults (e.g., on the scale of the Big Creek fault). However, Sanchez et al. (2013) identified one first order structure with several splays on the Coffee property which developed into second and third order structures that might have focussed hydrothermal fluid flow in that area. This scenario is similar to the situation found in the Cariboo, Cassiar and Klondike orogenic gold systems (Sketchley et al., 1986; MacKenzie et al., 2008b; Mortensen et al., 2011b). However, there was clearly strong structural control on mineralization at Independence Creek. Gold mineralization is located along 116  brittle northwest trending structures (~130oN) that are sub-parallel to the regional metamorphic strike and steeply southwest dipping (~75o). These northwest structures are parallel to dextral trending faults which clearly cross-cut the Dawson Range (100Ma) and Coffee Creek plutonic suite (99Ma). This suggests that mineralization at Independence Creek occurs in a shallower, brittle regime which post-dates all ductile deformation. First order structures are generally straight transcrustal structures which do not provide the geometric complexity of second order fault splays. Second order fault splays are more conductive to rapid fluctuations in pressure, episodic dilation and increased fluid flux (Hodgson, 1993; Bierlein and Crowe, 2000). The rapid fluctuations in pressure particularly in brecciated zone may play a role in the destabilization of bisulphide complexes (Wilkinson and Johnston, 1996; Bierlein and Crowe, 2000). The northwest trending structures at Independence Creek are interpreted to be second or third order structures.  Throughout the White Gold and Klondike districts, local sourcing of metals have been considered when no obvious source of metals can be identified (Allan et al., 2012). The mafic schists are pyritic and provide a potential background source of metals. Based on geochemical assays, the mafic schist in the Independence Creek area has been shown to be anomalous in copper. V2 veins are evidence for an early phase of metal remobilization during ductile deformation. V3 vein sets could be evidence for further remobilization at a later time in the brittle regime. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether Au, As and Sb in the orogenic veins were remobilized from a local host rock at Independence Creek. Lead and sulphur isotopes do not distinguish between an orogenic or intrusion-related source of mineralization.   Planar gold bearing quartz-carbonate veins containing dominantly pyrite and arsenopyrite at the Sunset Trend have poor to well-developed sericitic alteration selvages and local vein micro-brecciation overprinted by base metals. In many deposit-scale studies, gold, galena, stibnite, tellurides and carbonates are commonly introduced late in the paragenesis of the vein assemblages (Bierlein and Crowe, 2000). Orogenic gold deposits also commonly have a distinct bleaching adjacent to quartz veining indicating the sericitization of feldspars within the host rocks (Bierlein and Crowe, 2000). These vein mineralogy characteristics are common in orogenic gold systems but can also occur with intrusion-related gold systems (Goldfarb et al., 1998; Bierlein and Crowe, 2000; Mortensen et al., 2011a; Allan et al., 2012). 117  Gold-arsenic-antimony and molybdenum mineralization at Independence Creek share features in common with both orogenic and intrusion-related systems. According to Groves et al. (2003) orogenic gold systems commonly have a metal enrichment association of Au-Ag  ? As  ? Sb ? B ? Bi ? Te ? W. The Sunset Trend clearly has elevated gold, arsenic and antimony as identified by geochemical analysis. Toni Tiger contains visible disseminated scheelite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite in outcrop and in hand sample within diopside-garnet skarn and biotite hornfels host rocks.   Quartz-hosted fluid inclusions within V3 gold bearing veins at Independence Creek have a high partial density of CO2, which yields modelled trapping pressures of >1100 bar. This suggests that the formation of the orogenic system developed at depths greater than the lithostatic depth of 4.5km. Fluid inclusions from Au-As-Sb (Sunset Trend) and Mo (Toni Tiger) mineralization are very similar in terms of their CO2, salinity and pressure temperature conditions. These fluids are consistent with orogenic gold fluids worldwide, and conflict with higher salinity fluids commonly associated magmatic-hydrothermal systems (Bierlein and Crowe, 2000; Allan et al., 2012). However, these fluids are also consistent with many reduced intrusion-related gold systems (Hart, 2007).  Hydrothermal fluids moved along northwest trending structures, and probably transported gold as bisulphide complexes. These fluids lost sulphur due to the formation of sulphides which reduces the activity of sulphur within the ore forming fluid, thus destabilizing the bisulphide complexes and precipitating gold (Hayashi and Ohmoto, 1991; Loucks and Mavrogenes, 1999; Bierlein and Crowe, 2000). Weak magnetic lows interpreted as fracture sets along which the mineralizing fluid cross-cut the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger occurrence. These weak magnetic lineaments trend north-west, north-south and possibly east-west.  Independence Creek is a mid-Cretaceous gold system with characteristics in common with orogenic and intrusive-related gold models. Based on the above information, the best choice of a genetic model for the Independence Creek system is considered to be an orogenic gold system similar to the Klondike and Cariboo gold systems, even though the source of metals and source of fluids is still not known. Mineralizing processes at Independence Creek likely began developing during regional compression during the Late Permian with formation of the late to 118  post metamorphic pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite veins (V2). The pyrite-arsenopyrite-gold bearing veins (V3) were then emplaced during local extension in mid-Cretaceous time.  4.5.1 Origin of Molybdenite   The origin of molybdenite at Independence Creek requires further discussion. The similarity in fluid inclusion properties and the age correlation for molybdenite-bearing mineralization at Toni Tiger and gold mineralization in the Sunset Trend suggests that molybdenite and gold were formed from similar fluids at approximately the same time, and thus the molybdenite is considered to be part of the interpreted orogenic gold system.   Molybdenum is a small highly charged ion (hard acid, Mo2+) which primarily forms metal-ligand complexes with oxygen under acidic conditions (Pearson, 1963).  Metals typically form complexes with ligands that bond in a similar fashion. Gold is a large low-charged ion (soft acid) which binds to form complexes with sulphur and associated elements (McCuaig and Kerrich, 1998; Wood and Samson, 1998). Sulphur does not typically associate with base metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn which form complexes with chloride (McCuaig and Kerrich, 1998). We can interpret the mineralizing fluid at Independence Creek to be a H2O-CO2-NaCl type. This type of fluid is not ideal for transporting molybdenum long distances from a source. Molybdenum is best transported with O-2, OH- or Cl- under acidic conditions (Wood and Samson, 1998).  In the past, molybdenite was mostly thought to occur in intrusion-related systems such as the Brewery Creek and Dublin Gulch deposits (Hart, 2007). In Australia, cases such as Sunrise Dam and the Granny Smith deposits where molybdenite was interpreted to occur in orogenic veins, but in all cases there were intrusions that were spatially and possibly genetically associated with the mineralization, so these examples were not conclusive (Mueller et al., 2008; Baker et al., 2010). Molybdenite is observed in other orogenic gold systems in Australia. In the Victorian gold province in south Australia, Bi, W, Te and Mo are enriched in veins where they cross-cut granitic intrusions; however, it is possible that this portion of the Victorian gold field maybe intrusion related and distinct from the rest of the district (McCuaig and Kerrich, 1998; Mortensen, 2012). The Golden Saddle deposit and Independence Creek are currently the only known examples within the Canadian Cordillera where substantial evidence suggests 119  molybdenum mineralization is related to orogenic mineralizing fluids (Allan et al., 2013; Bailey, 2013).  This leaves two possible explanations for the source of molybdenite at Independence Creek. First, molybdenum may have been remobilized from a local source, such as the Permian metaleucogranites adjacent to the Toni Tiger occurrence or from pre-existing mineralization within the calc-silicate assemblage. Permian metaintrusives within the study area contain background molybdenum of 15ppm. Second, the possibility remains that Toni Tiger is underlain by an unexposed 95Ma mid-Cretaceous intrusion that may have generated molybdenum bearing fluids. At Toni Tiger, the most likely source for molybdenum are the Permian metaintrusives. Fluid inclusions from Au-As-Sb (Sunset Trend) and Mo (Toni Tiger) mineralization are very similar in terms of their CO2, salinity and pressure temperature conditions. The mechanism for transporting molybdenum within orogenic fluids is not well known and requires further research.  4.5.2 Formation of the Calc-Silicate Assemblage  At Toni Tiger, the garnet-actinolite-diopside skarn assemblage likely formed by one of three mechanisms: (1) the skarn assemblage is associated with mid-Cretaceous intrusions; (2) the skarn assemblage was formed by the 95Ma orogenic system; or (3) an unexposed 95Ma intrusion at depth is responsible for the quartz-molybdenite veins and garnet-actinolite-diopside skarn assemblage. The Permian metaintrusives adjacent to Toni Tiger contain a metamorphic fabric which the skarn assemblage does not; thus, it is not likely the skarn assemblage formed due to the emplacement of the Permian metaintrusives. As a result, the most likely interpretation is the calc-silicate assemblage formed during the mid-Cretaceous due to the heat and fluid flux related to the emplacement of the Dawson Range batholith or Coffee Creek plutonic suite, as evidenced by the regional hornfelsing and skarn alteration, which metamorphosed calcareous schist at Toni Tiger. It is also possible that there may be some local skarn alteration due to the emplacement of the molybdenite veining at 95Ma. The euhedral hydrothermal garnets formed prior to the emplacement of the quartz-molybdenite veining as evidenced by their euhedral shapes along the vein wall; however, when they were emplaced is unknown and could perhaps be related to an earlier hydrothermal magmatic event between 99 and 95Ma. 120   4.6 Regional Significance of Independence Creek Mineralization  This study presents evidence of a post-magmatic orogenic system and provides a metallogenic framework for structurally hosted gold mineralization in the Dawson Range that may be relevant to other gold prospects such as the Coffee project and gold mineralization in the Moosehorn Range (Fig. 51). Kaminak?s Gold Corp. (Coffee Project) has identified numerous structural corridors at varying orientations which cross-cut all rock types including the 99Ma Coffee Creek plutonic suite. Sanchez et al. (2013)interprets that gold mineralization at the Coffee Project is controlled by dextral strike-slip faults and a series of dextral oblique-extensional northwest trending fault splays. Lower-order orogen-orthogonal fault arrays are interpreted to focus brecciation and gold mineralization (Sanchez et al., 2013). This dextral system is potentially the northwestern extension of the Big Creek fault system observed in the southeastern Dawson Range porphyry belt which includes the Casino, Nucleus and Revenue deposits. The northwest trending fault structures at Independence Creek would be consistent with a regional structural interpretation. There is no known published age for Coffee Creek mineralization although Allan et al. (2013) hypothesize a mid-Cretaceous, epizonal orogenic affinity. (Wainwright et al., 2012). A common 95Ma age of mineralization with the Coffee mineralization would therefore be consistent with Sunset and Toni Tiger mineralization. The Longline deposit contains north-northwest trending east dipping quartz veins directly dated by 40Ar/39Ar between 93 and 92Ma which post-dates the 100Ma Moosehorn Range granodiorite (Joyce, 2002). Similar fluid properties at Longline overlap with fluid pressures and temperatures at Independence Creek. Brittle deformation and post-arc mineralization occurred during the exhumation of the Dawson Range batholith. Based on the currently available geological and geochronological data, the Independence Creek mineralization and Longline deposit, and possibly a portion of the Coffee gold system, appear to represent a mid-Cretaceous post-magmatic orogenic event between 96 and 92Ma.    121   Figure 51. Mid-Cretaceous orogenic event with in the Dawson Range.  Datum: WGS 84, Projection: UTM Zone 7. 122   123  4.7 Exploration Implications  Orogenic gold deposits occur in metamorphic terranes and account for over 25% of total historic global gold production. It is estimated that 420 million oz. (11,900 tonnes) of gold were concentrated in the circum-Pacific basin during the Phanerozoic (Groves et al., 1998; Goldfarb et al., 2005). A considerable proportion of the world?s placer deposits are also derived from the erosion of orogenic gold veins, as is the case in the Klondike gold field in Yukon (Chapman et al., 2010).  The Klondike goldfields produced an estimated 20 million oz. (567 tonnes) of placer gold that was derived from orogenic veins within the underlying Klondike Schist assemblage (Chapman et al., 2010). Within the White Gold district, the source of placer gold has not been discovered but is likely mainly related to orogenic gold veins (Chapman et al., 2012). This emphasizes the importance of developing better exploration models for the future exploration of these deposits.  Recent investigations at Independence Creek (described in this study) and elsewhere throughout the Dawson Range (Allan et al., 2013) have identified a previously unrecognized orogenic gold event.  In order to identify other orogenic gold systems similar to Independence Creek, it would be best to begin exploring the belt between Independence Creek and Longline deposit and re-evaluate previous mineral occurrences. Gold mineralization at Longline, Independence and Coffee Creek are hosted by many different lithologies, including mid-Cretaceous intrusions, metaintrusives and Paleozoic metasedimentary and meta-igneous rock units. In conjunction with lithology, numerous orientations of structures control mineralization, including northwest trending structures at Independence Creek and north-south and east-west trending structures at Coffee Creek.  As a result, identifying numerous fault orientations is critical to recognize fluid pathways that might be associated with gold mineralization. Structural complexity is more conductive to rapid fluctuations in pressure which favours gold precipitation. The identification of magnetic destructive lineaments within high resolution airborne magnetic data are particularly prospective.  Based on the observations at Independence Creek, rheology clearly plays an important role with regards to gold precipitation. However, the understanding of regional and tectonic controls on mineralization is still poorly understood. Sanchez et al. (2013) suggest that gold mineralization at the Coffee Project is controlled by dextral strike-slip faults and a series of dextral oblique-124  extensional northwest trending fault splays. Lower-order orogen-orthogonal fault arrays are interpreted to focus brecciation and gold mineralization.   Production of placer gold has not been recorded from any of the creeks within the study area. Petrography from Independence Creek and the Coffee project indicate gold is microscopic and very fine grained; as a result, it does not yield a productive placer gold deposit. However, the Longline deposit has a well-developed placer deposit having produced approximately 34,000 ounces of gold from Kenyon, Great Bear and Soya Creeks (Lebarge, 2007). Throughout the Dawson Range district orogenic gold deposits have variable placer gold deposits; thus, placer gold it is not an effective tool for identifying lode gold sources.  Constructing a geological map for exploration properties is crucial, especially considering the important role that host rocks play in the grade and tonnage of orogenic systems. Mapping and linking fold generations to deformation events is important for exploration so that specific deformation events known to be associated with gold mineralization can be identified and targeted. Geological mapping in the western Yukon is greatly hampered by the lack of exposure; however, detailed geological maps can be completed using numerous conventional and unconventional techniques such as soil mapping, felsenmeer mapping and the use of detailed magnetic and radiometric geophysics to produce a detailed composite geological map. For example, in regions of un-transported residual soils such as the west-central Yukon, the major, minor, and trace element geochemistry of soils can be utilized for geologic mapping purposes, since the B-horizon soil composition commonly mirrors the composition of underlying bedrock.  More information is stored within the soil geochemical assays than just mineralization data, thus it should be used to its maximum value, such as identifying major lithological contacts or mapping major element alteration assemblages. The integration of all available data sources prior to and during construction of a geological map and ground truthing is critical wherever possible to ensure observations and interpretations are correct.  The main implications for exploration that arise from this study are knowledge of a previously undocumented mid-Cretaceous mineralizing event dated at about 95 Ma that is present within the Dawson Range and occurs within all known rock types. This opens new ground which might 125  have been previously ignored due to a lack of outcrop and emphasizes the importance of integrating all available information to construct a detailed geological map.                        126  References Allan, M., and  Hart, C. J. R., 2011, Geology of Silver Quest?s Boulevard Property: Yukon Gold Project Report, p. 1-11. Allan, M., Hart, C. J. R., and  Mortensen, J. K. e., 2012, Yukon Gold Project Final Technical Report: Yukon Gold Project Technical Meeting # 5, Vancouver, May 2012, 2012, p. 196. 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The bulk density of LCV inclusions was derived from a visual estimate of aqueous fluid after clathrate melting, and was also calculated using Q2. Isochores for each fluid inclusion assemblage (FIA) were computed using ISOC in the package FLUIDS (Bakker, 2003a), with inputs including the final homogenization temperature Th(LC?L) and mole fractions of H2O, CO2, and NaCl (provided as outputs from Q2). Isochores were calculated in ISOC using the Equations of State of Bakker (1999a) and Bowers and Helgeson (1983).  Because ice melting was not observed for garnet-hosted LV inclusions, nor did clathrate melt via a quadruple point assemblage (i.e., LClaV?LV as opposed to LClaV ? LCV), it is impossible to constrain molar ratios in the H2O-CO2-NaCl system. However, a maximum CO2 mole fraction is provided using Q2, setting the homogenization of carbonic liquid and vapour equal to the temperature of clathrate decomposition. This limiting scenario yields a bulk composition of 91.6% H2O, 5.3% CO2, 3.0% NaCl, and a bulk density of 0.677 g/cm3. The other limiting end-member scenario is given by pure H2O with a bulk density of 0.65 g/cm3. 137    Table 12. Fluid inclusion modelling data for the Independence Creek area. Sources: (Bowers and Helgeson, 1983; Duschek et al., 1990; Diamond, 1992; Bakker, 1997a, 1999b, 2003b). Data modelled by Murray Allan of the Mineral Deposit Research Unit.138  Appendix B: Exploration Geochemistry Datum: NAD 83 Projection: UTM Zone 7  Figure 52. Arsenic soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. 139   Figure 53. Antimony soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. 140   Figure 54. Silver soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. 141   Figure 55. Mercury soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. 142   Figure 56. Bismuth soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence. 143   Figure 57. Copper soil geochemistry at the Sunset Trend and Toni Tiger molybdenite occurrence.144  Appendix C: Sample Locations and Descriptions  Sample ID Zone Sample Type Drill Hole ID Sample Depth (m) Easting Northing Collar Azimuth Collar Dip Purpose of Sample Description BV26-15.75 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 15.75 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-18.57 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 18.57 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-21.23 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 21.23 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-49.45 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 49.45 576805 6965620 45 -50 Lead isotopes Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-52.26 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 52.26 576805 6965620 45 -50 Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes, Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-51.24 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 51.24 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-53.18 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 53.18 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-54.78 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 54.78 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-55.28 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 55.28 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-56.20 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 56.20 576805 6965620 45 -50 Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-57.41 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 57.41 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-63.91 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 63.91 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein x-cutting deformed veins  145  BV26-64.34 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 64.34 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-70.63 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 70.63 576805 6965620 45 -50 Fluid Inclusions, Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-74.08 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 74.08 576805 6965620 45 -50 Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-128.89 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 128.89 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-182.64 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 182.64 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-191.0 Sunset SE Core BV10-26 191.00 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-196.63 Vegas Core BV10-26 196.63 576805 6965620 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV27-27.58 Vegas Core BV10-27 27.58 576419 6965930 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV27-59.94 Vegas Core BV10-27 59.94 576419 6965930 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV27-140.74 Sunset Core BV10-27 140.74 576419 6965930 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV27-141.27 Sunset Core BV10-27 141.27 576419 6965930 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV27-105.16 Sunset Core BV10-27 105.16 576419 6965930 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV27-105.18 Sunset Core BV10-27 105.18 576419 6965930 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV21-85.43 Sunset Core BV10-21 85.43 576285 6966236 45 -50 Petrography Thin calcite vein x-cutting schist host rock BV21-19.74 Sunset Core BV10-21 19.74 576285 6966236 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein 146  BV22-17.37 Sunset Core BV10-22 17.37 576285 6966236 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV22-73.23 Sunset Core BV10-22 73.23 576324 6966108 45 -50 Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes Deformed quartz and calcite veins BV22-74.97 Sunset Core BV10-22 74.97 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Colloform banded quartz-carbonate vein BV22-93.70 Sunset Core BV10-22 93.70 576324 6966108 45 -50 Fluid Inclusions, Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV22-70.66 Sunset Core BV10-22 70.66 576324 6966108 45 -50 Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes Quartz-carbonate vein BV22-58.44 Sunset Core BV10-22 58.44 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Colloform banded quartz-carbonate vein BV23-67.90 Sunset Core BV10-23 67.90 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-161.54 Sunset Core BV10-23 161.54 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-174.61 Sunset Core BV10-23 174.61 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-70.37 Sunset Core BV10-23 70.37 576324 6966108 45 -50 Geochronology, Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-90.25 Sunset Core BV10-23 90.25 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-84.84 Sunset Core BV10-23 84.84 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Deformed quartz and calcite veins BV23-84.20 Sunset Core BV10-23 84.20 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV25-103.48 Sunset Core BV10-25 103.48 576300 6966157 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in host schist 147  BV23-189.65  Sunset Core BV10-23 84.84 576324 6966108 45 -50 Sulphur isotopes Deformed veins in host schist BV24-189.64 Sunset Core BV10-24 189.64 576357 6966069 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in host schist BV16-88.50 Sunset Core BV10-16 88.50 575895 6966480 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in host schist BV23-198.12 Sunset Core BV10-23 84.20 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in host schist BV22-31.53 Sunset Core BV10-22 74.97 576324 6966108 45 -50 Lead isotopes Deformed veins in host schist BV22-37.09 Sunset Core BV10-22 74.97 576324 6966108 45 -50 Sulphur isotopes Deformed veins in host schist BV25-110.80 Sunset Core BV10-25 103.48 576300 6966157 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in host schist BV05-8.2 Sunset Core BV10-05 8.20 575960 6966440 30 -70 Petrography Deformed veins in host schist BV27-63.42 Sunset Core BV10-27 140.74 576419 6965930 45 -50 Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes Deformed veins in host schist BV02-10.2 Sunset Core BV-08-02 10.20 575905 6966561 210 -45 Petrography Deformed intrusive? BV03-10 Sunset Core BV-08-03 10.00 575883 6966515 30 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV03-11.4 Sunset Core BV-08-03 11.40 575883 6966515 30 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV03-14.2 Sunset Core BV-08-03 14.20 575883 6966515 30 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV03-14.7 Sunset Core BV-08-03 14.70 575883 6966515 30 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV03-21 Sunset Core BV-08-03 21.00 575883 6966515 30 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein 148  BV03-21.5 Sunset Core BV-08-03 21.50 575883 6966515 30 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV03-38.4 Sunset Core BV-08-08 38.40 575830 6966527 70 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV09-66.5 Sunset Core BV-10-09 66.50 575830 6966528 70 -85 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV11-111 Sunset Core BV-10-11 111.00 575757 6966550 70 -82 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV11-111.4 Sunset Core BV-10-11 111.40 575757 6966550 70 -82 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV11-112.5 Sunset Core BV-10-11 112.50 575757 6966550 70 -82 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV09-58.31 Sunset Core BV-10-09 58.31 575830 6966528 70 -85 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV10-57.93 Sunset Core BV-10-10 57.93 575757 6966549 70 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV15-31.20 Sunset Core BV-10-15 31.20 575869 6966492 30 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV17-28.90 Sunset Core BV-10-17 28.90 575762 6966589 30 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV21-18.33 Sunset Core BV-10-21 18.33 576285 6966236 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate and earlier deformed quartz veins BV22-67.10 Sunset Core BV-10-22 67.10 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV22-75.02 Sunset Core BV-10-22 75.02 576324 6966108 45 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-68.00 Sunset Core BV-10-23 68.00 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-79.70 Sunset Core BV-10-23 79.70 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-81.00 Sunset Core BV-10-23 81.00 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein 149  BV23-83.20 Sunset Core BV-10-23 83.20 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV23-87.70 Sunset Core BV-10-23 87.70 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV23-119.70 Sunset Core BV-10-23 119.70 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate and earlier deformed quartz veins BV26-52.38 Sunset Core BV-10-26 52.38 576805 6965620 30 -50 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein BV26-136.40 Sunset Core BV-10-26 136.40 576805 6965620 30 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-201.30 Sunset Core BV-10-26 201.30 576805 6965620 30 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV26-202.16 Sunset Core BV-10-26 202.16 576805 6965620 30 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV21-45.60 Sunset Core BV-10-21 45.60 576285 6966236 45 -50 Petrography Deformed veins in chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist BV23-75.00 Sunset Core BV-10-23 75.00 576324 6966108 45 -70 Petrography Quartz-carbonate vein I034204 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577995 6966730 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein x-cutting schist host rock I034205 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578000 6966725 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein x-cutting schist host rock I034206 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578008 6966737 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein x-cutting schist host rock I034207 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577979 6966726 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry, geochronology Quartz-feldspar leucogranite with molybdenum I034208 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577977 6966723 N/A N/A Geochronology, Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein 150  I034209 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577988 6966715 N/A N/A Fluid Inclusions, Petrography, Lead isotopes, Sulphur isotopes Quartz-molybdenum vein x-cutting  leucogranite I034210 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577987 6966713 N/A N/A Lead isotopes Quartz stockwork veining near skarn alteration I034211 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577986 6966703 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein x-cutting  leucogranite I034212 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578026 6966708 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034213 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578042 6966720 N/A N/A Petrography Deformed veins in host schist I034214 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578096 6966753 N/A N/A Petrography Deformed quartz veins x-cutting schist host rock I034215 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577980 6966729 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite I034216 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577982 6966727 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034217 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577908 6967218 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034218 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577906 6967253 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034219 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577897 6967670 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034220 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577891 6967663 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034221 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577940 6967016 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034222 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578074 6966760 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Deformed quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034223 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578074 6966758 N/A N/A Petrography Deformed quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist 151  I034224 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578139 6966731 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Deformed quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034225 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578116 6966556 N/A N/A Sulphur isotopes Quartz-molybdenum vein I034226 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578042 6966538 N/A N/A Fluid Inclusions, petrography Garnet skarn alteration I034227 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578030 6966545 N/A N/A Petrography Deformed quartz vein I034228 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578080 6966518 N/A N/A Geochronology, Petrography Oxidized skarn with disseminated sulphides I034229 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578028 6966548 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein I034230 Con. Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578014 6966553 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist I034230  Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578014 6966553 N/A N/A Petrography Skarn alteration with disseminated sulphides I034231 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578013 6966553 N/A N/A Petrography Garnet-diopside skarn alteration I034232 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577900 6967325 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist with sulphides I034233 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577728 6966470 N/A N/A Petrography Garnet-diopside skarn alteration with sulphides I034234 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577699 6966494 N/A N/A Sulphur isotopes Garnet-diopside skarn alteration with sulphides I034235 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578162 6966392 N/A N/A Fluid Inclusions, Petrography Garnet-diopside skarn alteration with sulphides I034236 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577204 6966415 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist with sulphides I034237 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577881 6967678 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist 152  I034238 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577861 6967955 N/A N/A Lead isotopes, Lithogeochemistry Biotite granite I034239 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 574610 6963807 N/A N/A Geochronology, Lead isotopes, Lithogeochemistry Biotite-hornblende granodiorite I034240 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578059 6966587 N/A N/A Petrography Skarn alteration with disseminated sulphides I034241 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577548 6966316 N/A N/A Petrography Deformed quartz vein in schist host rock I034242 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577984 6966716 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-molybdenum vein I034243 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578202 6966457 N/A N/A Petrography Skarn alteration with disseminated sulphides I034248 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577547 6966285 N/A N/A Petrography Oxidized deformed quartz vein I034249 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 578009 6966403 N/A N/A Sulphur Isotopes Oxidized deformed quartz vein I034250 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577877 6967505 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist I034251 Toni Tiger Hand sample N/A N/A 577877 6967505 N/A N/A Petrography Brecciated quartz-feldspar leucogranite YGR-BV-001 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573487 6968577 N/A N/A Petrography  YGR-BV-002 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573497 6968539 N/A N/A Lead isotopes, Geochronology Biotite granite YGR-BV-004 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566127 6967606 N/A N/A Lead isotopes, Geochronology, Lithogeochemistry Hornblende-biotite granodiorite MA11-005BV Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561996 6976060 N/A N/A Geochronology Quartz-feldspar leucogranite 153  MA11-004BV Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563229 6972572 N/A N/A Geochronology, Lithogeochemistry Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist MA11-006BV Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561398 6975930 N/A N/A Geochronology Quartz-feldspar leucogranite MA11-001BV Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574848 6964377 N/A N/A Geochronology, Lithogeochemistry Quartz-feldspar porphyry GM11-9B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572444 6980691 N/A N/A Geochronology, Petrography, Lithogeochemistry Quartz-muscovite ? garnet augen schist GM11-9A Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572339 6980979 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-muscovite ? garnet augen schist GM11-9C Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572488 6980581 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-muscovite ? garnet augen schist GM11-3-5 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574860 6964457 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-10-F Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568471 6980830 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-4-J Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568023 6970341 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist MA11-002 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 567990 6970526 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry, Geochronology Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-3-8 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574998 6964609 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-2-15 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577986 6967085 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-3-15 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 575596 6966298 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-3-7 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574896 6964596 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Serpentinized ultramafic GM11-4-B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569032 6965410 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Biotite-hornblende granodiorite 154  MA11-003 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A     N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Biotite granite GM11-4-C Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569173 6965945 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-feldspar porphyry GM11-4-Z Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569241 6966869 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-feldspar porphyry GM11-2-9 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578383 6966626 N/A N/A Lithogeochemistry Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-2-18 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577869 6967886 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-2-17 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577905 6967626 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-4-4M  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568466 6971174 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar-garnet intrusive GM11-4-4N Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568559 6971364 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-5-5F Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563205 6972290 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-6-6C  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562384 6973898 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-6-6B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562272 6973896 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-6-6D Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563011 6973795 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-7-7A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566279 6975653 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar intrusive GM11-7-7G  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 571241 6979340 N/A N/A Petrography Garnet bearing intrusive GM11-7-7I  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 570491 6980358 N/A N/A Petrography Garnet bearing intrusive GM11-8-8E  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563595 6971760 N/A N/A Petrography Metaintrusive 155  GM11-8-8G  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563649 6971673 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite granite GM11-3-1 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574808 6964331 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite-hornblende granodiorite GM11-3-2 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574800 6964282 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite-hornblende granodiorite GM11-4-4A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568925 6965714 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite-hornblende granodiorite GM11-4-4D  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569175 6966107 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite-hornblende granodiorite GM11-4-4F Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569201 6966738 N/A N/A Petrography Biotite-hornblende granodiorite GM11-4-4G Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569220 6966781 N/A N/A Petrography Pyroxene-hornblende gabbro GM11-2-2  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578079 6966741 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-5-5F(11)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561999 6976059 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-5-5I(13)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561516 6976012 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-5-5H  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561516 6976012 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-6-6K  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561484 6974884 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-6-6J  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561565 6974931 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar leucogranite GM11-2-9A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578383 6966626 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-8-8D  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573948 6981326 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-9D  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572647 6980555 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist 156  GM11-9-9E  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572790 6980518 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-9F  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572911 6980518 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-9G  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573096 6980356 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-Ha  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573096 6980356 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-Hb Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573096 6980356 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-Hc  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573096 6980356 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-9I  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573096 6980356 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-9-9J  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573096 6980356 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-feldspar ? garnet augen schist GM11-2-1B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578094 6966760 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-2-3  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578096 6966751 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-2-4  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578113 6966734 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-2-6  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578217 6966718 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-2-9B  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578383 6966626 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-2-10B  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578350 6966489 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-2-13  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578153 6966471 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist Toni Tiger-B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577983 6966712 N/A N/A Petrography Aplitic leucogranite 157  Toni Tiger-C Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577983 6966712 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-4-4K  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 567991 6970521 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-4-4L  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568246 6970893 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-5-2  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562819 6971562 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-5-5C (8)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563217 6972582 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-5-5G(12)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561935 6976018 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-6-6M  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562633 6975010 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-6-6N Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562641 6975009 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-7-7B  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566343 6975653 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-7-7C  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566570 6975703 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-7-7D  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566676 6976011 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-7-7H  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 570561 6980015 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-8-8B  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 572889 6980589 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-8-8C  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 573067 6980767 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist Creek 1B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 571000 6982500 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist Creek 4  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 567218 6982007 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist 158  GM11-10-10B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568319 6980131 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-10-10E  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568457 6980504 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-10-10G  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 567119 6977343 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-10-10H  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566742 6976218 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-muscovite ? biotite schist GM11-3-5B Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574860 6964457 N/A N/A Petrography Quartzite GM11-5-5E(10)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563822 6973063 N/A N/A Petrography Quartzite GM11-7-7E  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 566740 6976222 N/A N/A Petrography Quartzite Creek 1A Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 571000 6982500 N/A N/A Petrography Quartzite GM11-2-1A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578094 6966760 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-2-10A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578350 6966489 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-2-12  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 578169 6966378 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-2-16  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577938 6967428 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist Toni Tiger-A Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 577983 6966712 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-3-8  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574998 6964609 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-3-9 Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 575067 6964750 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-3-11  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 575090 6965190 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist 159  GM11-3-13  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 575316 6965838 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-3-16  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 575874 6966482 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-5-5A(1)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562760 6971487 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-5-4  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 562938 6971793 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-5-5B(6)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563135 6971944 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-6-6A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561794 6973665 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-6-6E  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563324 6973832 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-6-6F  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561140 6974813 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-6-6G  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 561267 6974886 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist SE 1   Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 579656 6967107 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist SE 2  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 582250 6963000 N/A N/A Petrography Chlorite-biotite ?  actinolite schist GM11-5-5D(9)  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 563383 6972695 N/A N/A Petrography Andesite GM11-10-10A  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568319 6980131 N/A N/A Petrography Hornblende diorite GM11-10-10C  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568356 6980180 N/A N/A Petrography Fine grained diorite? GM11-10-10D  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 568425 6980504 N/A N/A Petrography Quartz-plagioclase metaplutonic GM11-4-4I  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569152 6967010 N/A N/A Petrography Ultramafic/Serpentinized Harzburgite 160  GM11-3-3  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 574842 6964374 N/A N/A Petrography Volcanic/Qtz-Fspar Porphyry GM11-4-4H  Regional Hand sample N/A N/A 569239 6966865 N/A N/A Petrography Volcanic/Qtz-Fspar Porphyry   85251.3 ? 1.3249.6 ? 3.22822???????????????????????????????????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????????????????????85371391654326273661110234548212633655585203030254590749090608075491734423123716142444335427380606056637268857869667080857583529078848080 50 42705448 707250397475855778 7580777074818585809090 688195 ? 0.499.6 ? 0.857.2 ? 1.099.0 ? 0.399.4 ? 0.9102.0 ? 0.4257.6 ? 4.9260.6 ? 5.1267.2 ? 5.9100.2 ? 0.3255.2 ? 0.6102.5 ? 0.995.9 ? 0.95444102535 ????????826102812302912??????????66477871??103700340036003500330032003100300029002800270026002500240023002200210020004000390038004200190018001700160043001500140041001300450044004600480047004900500051005200530054005500560036003100340023004100330045003400290036003300320036003100500035001900350035003900410018003400310044004700260025003700350040002800380041004100420033003500340039004400320039002600250043004000460030004000400026004700400040003200440034003900470036004100400033003500470040003900380024005100270027002600430038004700300041002900400056003600330046002300430035004200310043003700320032005000370031005000220044003400290047004500390053003600450031004400420038003100400038003500440042002300370038004200470037003500290049003200340021002100390023001400270015005100330041004100420028002800430023002300500022003300350043004800350041004400460032004600330034004100300036003200380041004000180042003100190052004600470042002300320040004500220045003300440047004400330031004000370033003700310026003400370028003900430036002200380031004400320038003900310039003600380040003900320026003300270049004000310038002400380040004500340033004200430034003700330038003300430031004000490039003600200038003900530032004600210035003200530037004600310032004400380037001400410039004100290033002900320026004000320040003800380045003600330041003600480029002200350034002200430047003900370026002700510049005100470047003400470024004400460027003800330041002900380017004000290040003100420034004000410040002800260024003900430034003700460033003700340040004400210027003000320031003100360028004400290032004500230038003300400049004800380025005200230032003900380041003200330048004400330044004400330030003800360036002800250016003700260045003400360032003000400021004100330032003900250035004100480056000056000056500056500057000057000057500057500058000058000058500058500069650006965000697000069700006975000697500069800006980000139?20'0"W139?20'0"W139?25'0"W139?25'0"W139?30'0"W139?30'0"W139?35'0"W139?35'0"W139?40'0"W139?40'0"W139?45'0"W139?45'0"W139?50'0"W139?50'0"W62?55'0"N62?55'0"N62?50'0"N62?50'0"NAlaska?Independence CreekCarlisle CreekHalfway CreekCoffee CreekEspresso TrendAmericano TrendSupremoLatteSunset TrendToni TigerMayoDawsonCarmacksRoss RiverWhitehorseWatson Lake125?0'0"W130?0'0"W130?0'0"W135?0'0"W135?0'0"W140?0'0"W140?0'0"W65?0'0"N65?0'0"N64?0'0"N64?0'0"N63?0'0"N63?0'0"N62?0'0"N62?0'0"N61?0'0"N61?0'0"N60?0'0"N60?0'0"NAlaskaDouble DoubleYukon RiverCoffee TrendsAA'BB'Yukon Dawson Range batholithCoffee Creek plutonic suiteNWT1:30,000Geological Map of the IndepedenceCreek Area, YukonkmCoordinate System:NAD 83 UTM Zone 7Datum: NAD 83Mapping By: Greg McKenzie, Murray Allan, Craig HartGeological UnitsVOLCANIC ROCKSPALEOCENEHeterogeneous unit including ignimbrite, tuaceous breccia and quartz-feldspar porphyryINTRUSIVE ROCKSEARLY TERTIARYNisling Range plutonic suiteBiotite-hornblende granodiorite to granite, biotite quartz monzonite, biotite leucograniteMID-CRETACEOUSCoee Creek plutonic suiteHypidiomorphic biotite granite, monzodiorite, granodiorite, garnet leucogranite, quartz- feldspar-garnet porphyry; pegmatite and aplite associated with intrusive marginsMID-CRETACEOUSDawson Range batholithFoliated biotite-hornblende granodiorite, biotite granite, pyroxene-hornblende gabbroMETAMORPHIC ROCKSPALEOZOICYukon-Tanana terraneQuartz-K-feldspar augen schist (meta-plutonic) and biotite-quartz schistFoliated quartz-feldspar-muscovite leucogranite and quartz-feldspar augen schist(meta-plutonic); commonly contains blue quartz augenCalcareous schist; garnet-actinolite-diopside skarn within quartz-muscovite schistQuartzite with intercalated black quartz-biotite layers;Quartz-muscovite schist; locally contains small bodies of quartz-feldspar augenschist of Late Permian ageChlorite-biotite-actinolite schist (mac schist); locally contains bodies of quartz-feldspar augen schist;weakly to strongly magneticSlide Mountain terrane (?)Serpentinized ultramac; dun brown weathering, massive, resistant,  locally containschrysotileAdditional Data Sources:(1) Allan, M., and  Hart, C. J. R., 2011, Geology of Silver Quest?s Boulevard Property: YukonGold Project Report, p. 1-11.(2) Anonymous, 2011. Report on a Helicopter-Borne Magnetic and Radiometric Survey:Mississauga, Ontario, Aeroquest Airborne, p. 1-18.(3) Chartier, D., Couture, J. F., Sim, R., and Starkey, J., 2013, Mineral Resource Evaluation NI43-101, Coee Gold Project, Yukon, Canada: Vancouver, Kaminak Gold Corp., p. 217.(4) Couture, J. F., and  Siddorn, J. P., 2011, NI 43-101 Exploration Technical Report, CoeeGold Project Yukon Territory, Canada: Vancouver, SRK Consulting Inc., p. 1-162.(5) Gordey, S.P., Makepeace, A. J., (compilers), 200. Yukon Digital Geology; 2 CD-ROM set.Geological Survey of Canada, Open File D3826 or Exploration and Geological ServicesDivision (EGSD), Yukon Region, Indian and Northern Aairs Canada (DIAND) (EGSD) EGSDOpen File 1999-1(D)(6) Jilson, G., 2000, Geochemical and Geological Report on the Dan, Man and Indy Claims,Assessmen Report: Whitehorse, Yukon Geological Survey, p. 1-173.(7) Tempelman-Kluit, D.J. 1974. Reconnaissance geology of Aishihik Lake, Snag and part ofStewart River map-areas, west-central Yukon Territory. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper73-14.mineralized trendsSymbolsinferred contactsgeologic contactsinferred faults/fracturesfaultsthrust faults(June 2011 tenure(U-Pb Ages (Ma)Re-Os Ages (Ma)Ar-Ar Ages (Ma) outcrop? foliationstreamscoffee deposit??fold axismagmatic foliation?lineation?slickensidesBV08-03BV10-27BV10-26BV10-25BV10-24BV10-23BV10-22BV10-21BV10-20BV10-19BV10-18BV10-17BV10-16BV10-15BV10-14BV10-13BV10-12BV10-11BV10-09BV08-07BV08-06BV08-05BV08-04BV08-0195.9 ? 0.957.2 ? 1.099.4 ? 0.9255.2 ? 0.6251.3 ? 1.395 ? 0.44300420041004000390038003700440036003500340045004600330047004800320049005000510031003000520032003700350044004500400043004400380034004400360042003900450033005752005752005761005761005770005770005779005779005788005788006964800696480069656006965600696640069664006967200696720069680006968000139?27'0"W139?27'0"W139?27'30"W139?27'30"W139?28'0"W139?28'0"W139?28'30"W139?28'30"W139?29'0"W139?29'0"W139?29'30"W139?29'30"W139?30'0"W139?30'0"W139?30'30"W139?30'30"W139?31'0"W139?31'0"W139?31'30"W139?31'30"W139?32'0"W139?32'0"W62?50'0"N62?50'0"N62?49'30"N62?49'30"N62?49'0"N62?49'0"N62?48'30"N62?48'30"N62?48'0"N62?48'0"N?Coffee CreekToni TigerSunset TrendCoffee Project_^ _^_^^__^_^_^^__^^__^1.65 g/t Au over 10.55m 139564006450249585102220 31802620138501.12 g/t Au over 2m6.67 g/t Au over 4.2m0.48 g/t Au over 4.5m0.86 g/t Au over 18.2m2.43 g/t Au over 6.26m0.36 g/t Au over 19.2m0.64 g/t Au over 37.62m4300420041004400400039004300420043004400Sunset TrendMayoDawsonCarmacksRoss RiverWhitehorseWatson Lake125?0'0"W130?0'0"W130?0'0"W135?0'0"W135?0'0"W140?0'0"W140?0'0"W65?0'0"N65?0'0"N64?0'0"N64?0'0"N63?0'0"N63?0'0"N62?0'0"N62?0'0"N61?0'0"N61?0'0"N60?0'0"N60?0'0"NYukon NWTAlaskaIndependence Creek system0 530265m?1:6,000Geological and Sunset Trend Mineral-iza tion Map in the Indepedence CreekArea, YukonCoordinate System:NAD 83 UTM Zone 7Datum: NAD 83Mapping By: Greg McKenzie, Murray Allan, Craig HartGeological UnitsVOLCANIC ROCKSPALEOCENEHeterogeneous unit including ignimbrite, tuaceous breccia and quartz-feldspar porphyryINTRUSIVE ROCKSEARLY TERTIARYNisling Range plutonic suiteBiotite-hornblende granodiorite to granite, biotite quartz monzonite, biotite leucograniteMID-CRETACEOUSCoee Creek plutonic suiteHypidiomorphic biotite granite, monzodiorite, granodiorite, garnet leucogranite, quartz- feldspar-garnet porphyry; pegmatite and aplite associated with intrusive marginsMID-CRETACEOUSDawson Range batholithFoliated biotite-hornblende granodiorite, biotite granite, pyroxene-hornblende gabbroMETAMORPHIC ROCKSPALEOZOICYukon-Tanana terraneQuartz-K-feldspar augen schist (meta-plutonic) and biotite-quartz schistFoliated quartz-feldspar-muscovite leucogranite and quartz-feldspar augen schist(meta-plutonic); commonly contains blue quartz augenCalcareous schist; garnet-actinolite-diopside skarn within quartz-muscovite schistQuartzite with intercalated black quartz-biotite layers;Quartz-muscovite schist; locally contains small bodies of quartz-feldspar augenschist of Late Permian ageChlorite-biotite-actinolite schist (mac schist); locally contains bodies of quartz-feldspar augen schist;weakly to strongly magneticSlide Mountain terrane (?)Serpentinized ultramac; dun brown weathering, massive, resistant,  locally containschrysotileAdditional Data Sources:(1) Allan, M., and  Hart, C. J. R., 2011, Geology of Silver Quest?s Boulevard Property: Yukon GoldProject Report, p. 1-11.(2) Anonymous, 2011. Report on a Helicopter-Borne Magnetic and Radiometric Survey: Mississauga,Ontario, Aeroquest Airborne, p. 1-18.(3) Couture, J. F., and  Siddorn, J. P., 2011, NI 43-101 Exploration Technical Report, Coee Gold ProjectYukon Territory, Canada: Vancouver, SRK Consulting Inc., p. 1-162.(4) Gordey, S.P., Makepeace, A. J., (compilers), 200. Yukon Digital Geology; 2 CD-ROM set. GeologicalSurvey of Canada, Open File D3826 or Exploration and Geological Services Division (EGSD), YukonRegion, Indian and Northern Aairs Canada (DIAND) (EGSD) EGSD Open File 1999-1(D)(5) Jilson, G., 2000, Geochemical and Geological Report on the Dan, Man and Indy Claims, Assess-men Report: Whitehorse, Yukon Geological Survey, p. 1-173.(6) Tempelman-Kluit, D.J. 1974. Reconnaissance geology of Aishihik Lake, Snag and part of StewartRiver map-areas, west-central Yukon Territory. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 73-14.1:5,0000 0. 5 10. 25K mkmstreamsmineralized trendsU-Pb Ages (Ma)Re-Os Ages (Ma)Ar-ArAges (Ma)SymbolsJune 2011 tenureinferred contactsgeologic contactsinferred faults/fracturesfaultsthrust faults( (outcroptrenchesdrill collar and traceAu in Soil (ppm)_^ rocks > 500ppb Au_^ drill interceptsAu 90th percentile soilanomaly< 1.0000. 005 - 0. 0080. 008 - 0. 0100. 010 - 0. 0150. 015 - 0. 0250. 025 - 1. 120BV08-03BV10-27BV10-26BV10-25BV10-24BV10-23BV10-22BV10-21BV10-20BV10-19BV10-18BV10-17BV10-16BV10-15BV10-14BV10-13BV10-12BV10-11 BV10-09BV08-07BV08-06BV08-05BV08-04BV08-0195.9 ? 0.957.2 ? 1.099.4 ? 0.9255.2 ? 0.6251.3 ? 1.395 ? 0.443004200410040003900380037004400360035003400450046003300470048003200490050005100310030005200 32003700350044004500400043004400380034004400360042003900450033005752005752005761005761005770005770005779005779005788005788006964800696480069656006965600696640069664006967200696720069680006968000139?27'0"W139?27'0"W139?27'30"W139?27'30"W139?28'0"W139?28'0"W139?28'30"W139?28'30"W139?29'0"W139?29'0"W139?29'30"W139?29'30"W139?30'0"W139?30'0"W139?30'30"W139?30'30"W139?31'0"W139?31'0"W139?31'30"W139?31'30"W139?32'0"W139?32'0"W62?50'0"N62?50'0"N62?49'30"N62?49'30"N62?49'0"N62?49'0"N62?48'30"N62?48'30"N62?48'0"N62?48'0"N?Coffee CreekToni TigerSunset TrendCoffee Project# 95 ? 0.4251.3 ? 1.3487491419924860243234724677 13515321416.7601912188.5_^_^_^^__^^__^_^_^_^_^_^_^_^_^_^ _^657680 7785ooo oo255.2 ? 0.6!!440045004300Toni TigerMayoDawsonCarmacks Ross RiverWhitehorseWatson Lake125?0'0"W130?0'0"W130?0'0"W135?0'0"W135?0'0"W140?0'0"W140?0'0"W65?0'0"N 65?0'0"N64?0'0"N 64?0'0"N63?0'0"N 63?0'0"N62?0'0"N 62?0'0"N61?0'0"N 61?0'0"N60?0'0"N 60?0'0"NYukon NWTAlaskaIndependence Creek system0 200100 m?1:2,500Geological and Toni Tiger Mineraliza-tion Map in the Indepedence CreekArea, YukonCoordinate System:NAD 83 UTM Zone 7Datum: NAD 83Mapping By: Greg McKenzie, Murray Allan, Craig HartGeological UnitsVOLCANIC ROCKSPALEOCENEHeterogeneous unit including ignimbrite, tuffaceous breccia and quartz-feldspar porphyryINTRUSIVE ROCKSEARLY TERTIARYNisling Range plutonic suiteBiotite-hornblende granodiorite to granite, biotite quartz monzonite, biotite leucograniteMID-CRETACEOUSCoffee Creek plutonic suiteHypidiomorphic biotite granite, monzodiorite, granodiorite, garnet leucogranite, quartz- feldspar-garnet porphyry; pegmatite and aplite associated with intrusive marginsMID-CRETACEOUSDawson Range batholithFoliated biotite-hornblende granodiorite, biotite granite, pyroxene-hornblende gabbroMETAMORPHIC ROCKSPALEOZOICYukon-Tanana terraneQuartz-K-feldspar augen schist (meta-plu tonic) and biotite-quartz schistFoliated quartz-feldspar-muscovite leucogranite and quartz-feldspar augen schist(meta-plutonic); commonly contains blue quartz augenCalcareous schist; garnet-actinolite-diopside skarn within quartz-muscovite schistQuartzite with intercalated black quartz-biotite layers;Quartz-muscovite schist; locally contains small bodies of quartz-feldspar augenschist of Late Permian ageChlorite-biotite-actinolite schist (mafic schist); locally contains bodies of quartz-feldspar augen schist;weakly to strongly magneticSlide Mountain terrane (?)Serpentinized ultramafic; dun brown weathering, massive, resistant,  locally containschrysotileAdditional Data Sources:(1) Allan, M., and  Hart, C. J. R., 2011, Geology of Silver Quest?s Boulevard Property: YukonGold Project Report, p. 1-11.(2) Anonymous, 2011. Report on a Helicopter-Borne Magnetic and Radiometric Survey:Mississauga, Ontario, Aeroquest Airborne, p. 1-18.(3) Couture, J. F., and  Siddorn, J. P., 2011, NI 43-101 Exploration Technical Report, CoffeeGold Project Yukon Territory, Canada: Vancouver, SRK Consulting Inc., p. 1-162.(4) Gordey, S.P., Makepeace, A. J., (compilers), 200. Yukon Digital Geology; 2 CD-ROM set.Geological Survey of Canada, Open File D3826 or Exploration and Geological ServicesDivision (EGSD), Yukon Region, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (DIAND) (EGSD) EGSDOpen File 1999-1(D)(5) Jilson, G., 2000, Geochemical and Geological Report on the Dan, Man and Indy Claims,Assessmen Report: Whitehorse, Yukon Geological Survey, p. 1-173.(6) Tempelman-Kluit, D.J. 1974. Reconnaissance geology of Aishihik Lake, Snag and part ofStewart River map-areas, west-central Yukon Territory. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper73-14.1:5,0000 0.5 10.25 Kmkmstreams mineralized trendsU-Pb Ages (Ma)Re-Os Ages (Ma)Ar-Ar Ages (Ma)SymbolsJune 2011 tenure inferred contactsgeologic contactsinferred faults/fracturesfaultsthrust faults( ( outcroptrenchesdrill collar and traceMo inSoil (ppm)_ rocks > 10ppm Mo_^ drill interceptsMo 90th percentilesoil anomaly< 1.0001.000 - 1.9241.925 - 2.2302.230 - 3.6513.652 - 14.85114.851 - 324.000^o Mo bearing veins

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